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Full text of "Byte Magazine Volume 07 Number 09 - Computers and the Disabled (RESCAN)"

September 1982 Vol. 7, 

$2.95 in U 
$3.50 in Ganada/£1.85 in U.K. 
ill Publication 



the small systems j ounna 





Computers and the Disabled 



Powerful. 




DPI) card with error-correcting 
memory and controller cards 



68000-Powered 

Once again you get a big stride forward with Cromemco. 

This time it's our new DPU Dual Processor Unit. It gives 
enormous power to Cromemco computer systems such as 
our System One shown here. 

Compares with mainframes 

With the new DPU you get the almost unbelievably 
powerful 68000 processor and its 32-bit data-handling 
capabilities combined with its 16 Megabyte address space. 

In other words with the System One/DPU combination 
you get a small machine that's the equal of superminis and 
mainframes in some areas. 

8-Bit and 68000 software 

The dual part of the DPU refers to its on -board Z-80A 
processor. With this you have access to existing CP/M* 
software. 



for tomorrow 

But besides being compatible with this wealth of existing 
8-bit software, the System One/DPU has available a whole 
family of new 68000 system software. This includes a wide 
range of high-level software such as our 68000 Assembler, 
FORTRAN 77, Pascal, BASIC, COBOL, and C. 

Beyond all this there's a version for the 68000 of our 
widely admired CROMIXt Operating System. It's like 
UNIX J but has even more features and gives multi-tasking 
and multi-user capability. In fact, one or more users can run 
on the Z-80A processor while others are running on the 
68000. Switching between the Z-80A and 68000 is auto- 
matically controlled. 

The System One itself is a bus-oriented machine that has 
options for color graphics, for 390K or 780K of floppy 
storage, a 5 MB hard disk option, communications capabil- 
ity, and multi-processor capability using our I/O processor 
card. 






Powerful new micro 
Powerful software. 




System OneCS-IH 



3102 Terminal 



Highly expandable 

With the System One/DPU combination, you get 
tremendous expandability. Right now you can have up to 2 
MB of RAM storage. You get this with our new Memory 
Storage cards and our Memory Controller. The Controller 
fully supports the 16 MB storage space of the 68000, allow- 
ing you vast future expansion capability. 

Further, the memory has built-in error detection and 
correction, a feature normally found only in much more 
costly systems. 

Present customers can field-upgrade their Cromemco 
systems to use the DPU and still be able to run their present 
software using the Z-80A on the DPU. It's one more 



instance of Cromemco's policy of providing obsolescence 
insurance for Cromemco users. 

Low priced 

With all this performance you might not be ready for the 
low price we're talking about. With 256K of RAM and 780K 
of floppy storage, the price of the System One/DPU is only 
$5495. That's hard to beat. 

So contact your rep now. He'll fill you in on the many 
more features that this outstanding and powerful machine 
offers. 

•CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 
TCROMIX Is a trademark of Cromemco, Inc. 
tUNIX is a trademark of Bell Telephone Laboratories 



a 



TM 



Cromemco 

incorporated 

280 BERNARDO AVE., MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 • (415) 964-7400 

Tomorrow's computers today 

Circle 137 on Inquiry card. 



MULTIPROCESSING/INTELLIGENT t/0 







I/O INTERFACES 



COLOR GRAPHICS 





1 w 



Iff 



11-MBYTE 

HARD DISK 

DRIVE 



EXTENSIVE 
SOFTWARE 
SUPPORT 



What Cromemco computer card 
capability can do for you 



The above diagram shows in a func- 
tional way one of the most complete 
lines of computer cards in the industry. 

Look it over carefully. It could be well 
worth your while. 

These are all cards that plug into our 
S-100 bus microcomputers. 

You can also assemble them into a 
custom system in convenient Cromemco 
card cages. 

MULTI-PROCESSING AND 
INTELLIGENT I/O 

The range of capabilities and versatility 
you can draw upon is enormous. 

In processors, for example, you have a 
choice of CPU's including our extremely 
useful new I/O Processor. This can be 
used as a satellite processor to do off-line 
processing, multi-processing, and to form 
intelligent I/O. It opens the door to a 
whole new group of applications and 
tasks. Ask us about it. 

HIGH RESOLUTION 
COLOR GRAPHICS 

Again, you can have beautiful high- 
resolution color graphics with our color 
graphics interface. You can select from 
over 4000 colors and have a picture with 
a resolution at least equal to quality 
broadcast-TV pictures. 




Q 



You have an unprecedented selection 
of memory including our unusual 48K 
and 16K two-port RAMs which allow 
high-speed color graphics. 

LOTS OF STORAGE 

These days you often want lots of disk 
storage. So you can select from our disk 
controller card which will operate our 5" 
and 8" floppy disk drives (up to 1.2 
megabytes). Or select our WDI interface 
to operate our 11 -megabyte hard disk 
drives. 

POWERFUL SOFTWARE AND 
PERIPHERAL SUPPORT 

There's much more yet you can do 
with our cards. And, of course, there's an 
easy way to put them to work in our 8-, 
12-, and 21-slot card cages. Our PS8 
power supply makes it simple to get the 
system into operation. 

Finally, Cromemco offers you the 
strongest software support in the industry 

Cromemco' 

incorporated 

280 BERNARDO AVE., MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 • (415) 964-7400 

Tomorrow's computers today 

Circle 138 on inquiry card. 



with languages like FORTRAN, C, 
COBOL, ASSEMBLER, LISP, BASIC and 
others. There is also a wide choice from 
independent vendors. 

To top it all off, you can draw from a 
substantial array of peripherals: ter- 
minals, printers, color monitors and disk 
drives. 

There is even more capability than 
we're able to describe here. 

NOW AT HALL-MARK 
ANDKIERULFF 

For your convenience Cromemco 
products are now available at Hall-Mark 
Electronics and Kierulff Electronics. Con- 
tact these national distributors for im- 
mediate product delivery. 

CROMEMCO COMPUTER CARDS 
• PROCESSORS — 4 MHz Z-80 A CPU, single card 
computer, I/O processor • MEMORY — upto64K 
including special 48K and 1 6K two-port RAMS and 
our very well known BYTESAVERS® with PROM 
programming capability • HIGH RESOLUTION 
COLOR GRAPHICS - our SDI offers up to 754 x 
482 pixel resolution. • GENERAL PURPOSE IN- 
TERFACES— QUADART four-channel serial com- 
munications, TU-ART two-channel parallel and 
two-channel serial, 8PIO 8-po»t parallel, 4PIO 
4-port isolated parallel, D+ 7A 7-channel D/A and 
A/D converter, printer interface, floppy disk con- 
troller with RS-232 interface and system 
diagnostics, wire-wrap and extender cardsfor your 
development work. 



In The Queue 



Em 



Volume 7, Number? 



September 1 982 



Features 

24 Qulntl-Maze by Robert Tsuk / A three-dimensional game 
that may redefine for you the meaning of "lost." It placed eighth 
In the BYTE Game Contest. 

34 Three Dee Tee by John Stuart / Strategy is the key word 
in this game designed for the TRS-80 Color Computer. It's the 
seventh-place winner in the BYTE Game Contest. 

54 The Epson QX-IOA/aldocs System by Gregg 
Williams / This new machine from Epson combines a word 
processor, an appointment book, an electronic mail network, and 
more in one package— all for less than S3000. 

58 NCC Report by Chris Morgan / New products from the 
United States and Japan put the spotlight on microcomputers at 
the National Computer Conference. 

62 The Hanover Fair by Robert E. Ramsdell / The annual 
exposition is a showcase for the latest microcomputers and data- 
processing and office equipment. 

64 Build the MIcrovox Text-to-Speech Synthesizer 

by Steve Ciarcia / The 6502 microprocessor in this intelligent 
peripheral device translates plain English text into phonemes to 
control a Votrax SC- 01 A. 

1 36 Computers Can Play a Dual Role for Disabled 
Individuals by Gregg Vanderheiden / Microcomputers must be 
made to do more than help disabled individuals in specialized 
ways; they must be adapted to give the disabled access to 
standard software. 

1 66 A New Horizon for IMonvocal Communication 

Devices by Patrick Demasco and Richard Foulds / The 
Panasonic Hand-Held Computer can be used as a personal, 
portable speech prosthesis. 

186 Mlnspeak by Bruce Baker / A picture can truly be worth 
a thousand words for people using this speech synthesizer. 

204 The FDA Regulation of Computerized Medical 
Devices by Joseph Jorgens III, Carl W. Bruch, and Frank 
Houston / What you need to know before your creation hits the 
market. 

218 Talking Terminals by David Stoffel / New devices 
open the world of computing to people with visual impairments. 

250 Braille Writing In Pascal by Alfred Fant Jr. / 

A Pascal program, a strip of cellophane tape, and a rubber glove 

combine to make a line printer for braille text. 

276 Adaptive-Firmware Card for the Apple II by Paul 
Schwejda and Gregg Vanderheiden / Physically disabled 
individuals can control standard programs without permanent 
modifications to the computer. 

318 User's Column: Letters, Pascal, CB/80, and 
Cardfile by Jerry Poumelle / One man's opinion on a variety of 
subjects of interest to computer users. 

342 Logo: An Approach to Educating Disabled 
Children by Sylvia Weir, Susan Jo Russell, and Jose A. 
Valente / Creating action-oriented learning environments and 
putting pupils in charge of their own learning greatly benefits 
students with severe educational disabilities. 



398 Model III A to D Revisited by William Barden 

Jr. / Build this simple and inexpensive analog-to-digital converter. 

420 The Case of the Purloined Object Code: Can It 
Be Solved? Part 1 : The Problems by Richard H. Stern / A 
specialist in software and the legal aspects of high technology 
explains why new laws are necessary. 

440 A Comparison of Five Compilers for Apple 
BASIC by Joseph H. Taylor and Jeffrey S. Taylor / Speed isn't 
the only factor to assess when choosing a compiler. 

466 Digital Troubleshooting with Signature Analysis 

by Steven A. Piubeni / A look inside Hewlett-Packard's HP-5004A. 

476 Program Your Own Text Editor, Part 1 : Avoid 
Complex Commands by Using Instant Updating by 

Richard Fobes / A commonly used program should be easy to 
work with. 

513 A Weaving Simulator by Paul W. Heiser/ The final 
appearance of a loom pattern can be predicted with a 
microcomputer and a printer. 

520 Turn Your Apple II Into a Storage Oscilloscope 

by Larry Korba / Low-repetition transient pulses can be easy to 
capture. 

Reviews 

92 The Apple III and Its New Profile by Robin Moore 
231 The Cognivox VIO-1003: Voice Recognition and Output 
for the Apple II by Dr. William Murray 
240 The Abilityphone by William L. Rush 
362 BYTE's Arcade: Swashbuckler by Scott Spangenberg; Zero 
Gravity Pinball by Mark Friedman; Beer Run by Arthur Little; 
Advanced Star Raider Tactics and Strategies 
by C. Donald Harris Jr. 

531 Pickles & Trout CP/M for the TRS-80 Model II by Hal Smith 
537 TRS-80 Disk Editor/Assemblers by T. A. Daneliuk 

Nucleus 



6 


Editorial: Let There Be Talking People Too 


10 


Letters 


270 


Education Forum: Computers and the 




Special Education Classroom 


490 


BYTELINES 


494 


Software Received 


497 


Clubs and Newsletters 


498 


Books Received 


499 


Ask BYTE 


501 


BYTE's Bit 


502 


Event Queue 


540 


Desk-Top Wonder: Getting the Most from 




Your Tl Programmer 


543 


What's New? 


605 


Unclassified Ads 


606 


BOMB, BOMB Results 


607 


Reader Service 




Page 54 



Page 92 



Page 166 



Page 362 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 3 



m 



Editor in Chief 
Christopher P. Morgan 

Managing Editor 

Mark Haas 

Technical Editors 

Gregg Williams. Senior Editor; 

Richard S. Shuford, Curtis P. Feigel. 

George Stewart. Arthur Little. 

Stanley Wszola. Pamela Clark, Richard Malloy; 

Phillip Lemmons. West Coast Editor; Steve 

Garcia. Mark Dahmke. Consulting Editors; 

Jon Swanson, Drafting Editor 

Copy Editors 

Beverly Cronin. Chief; 

Faith Hanson. Warren Williamson. Anthony J. 

Lockwood. Hilary Selby Polk. Elizabeth Kepner, 

Nancy Hayes. Cathryn Baskin; Margaret Cook. 

Junior Copy Editor 

Assistants 

Faith Ferry. Debe Wheeler. Beverly Jackson 

Production 

David R. Anderson. Assoc. Director; 
Patrice Scribner, Jan Muller, Virginia Reardon; 
Sherry McCarthy. Chief Typographer; 
Debi Fredericks, Donna Sweeney. 
Valerie Horn 

Advertising 

Thomas Harvey, Director; 
Marion Carlson. Rob Hannings. Deborah 
Porter. Vicki Reynolds. Cathy A. R. Drew. Lisa 
Wozmak; Jacqueline Earnshaw. Reader 
Service Coordinator; Wai Chiu Li, Advertising/ 
Production Coordinator; Linda J. Sweeney 

Circulation 

Gregory Spitzfaden, Manager; 

Andrew Jackson, Asst. Manager; 

Agnes E. Perry. Barbara Varnum. 

Louise Menegus. Jennifer Price, 

Sheila A. Bamford; 

James Bingham. Dealer Sales; 

Deborah J. Cadwell. Asst; 

Linda Ryan 

Marketing 

Wilbur S. Watson. Marketing Coordinator; 

Timothy W. Taussig. Marketing Production 

Coordinator 

Controller's Office 

Daniel Rodrigues. Controller; 
Mary E. Fluhr. Acct. & DIP Mgr.; Karen 
Burgess, Jeanne Cilley. Linda Fluhr, 
Vicki Bennett, L. Bradley Browne 

Traffic 

N. Scott Gagnon. Scott Jackson, 
Kathleen Reckart 

Receptionist 

Jeanann Waters 
Publishers 

Virginia Londoner, Gordon R. Williamson; 

John E. Hayes, Associate Publisher; 

Cheryl A. Hurd, Michele P. Verville, Publisher's 

Assistants; 



Officers of McGraw-Hill Publications Com- 
pany; Paul F. McPherson, President; Executive 
Vice President: Gene W. Simpson; Senior Vice 
President-Editorial; Ralph R. Schulz; Vice 
Presidents: R. Bernard Alexander; Kemp Ander- 
son. Business Systems Development; Harry L. 
Brown, Special Markets; Robert B. Doll. Circula- 
tion; James E. Hackett. Controller; Eric B. Herr, 
Planning and Development; H. John Sweger. 
Jr., Marketing. 

Officers of the Corporation: Harold W. 
McGraw Jr., Chairman and Chief Executive 
Officer; Joseph L. Dionne. President and Chief 
Operating Officer; Robert N. Landes, Senior Vice 
President and Secretary; Ralph J. Webb. 
Treasurer. 




In This Issue 

BYTE marks its seventh anniversary with the theme Computers and the Dis- 
abled, graphically illustrated on the cover by Robert Tinney. Gregg 
Vanderheiden discusses how "Computers Can Play a Dual Role for the Dis- 
abled," and with coauthor Paul Schwejda demonstrates how to make an 
"Adaptive Firmware Card for the Apple II." David Stoffel reviews talking ter- 
minals for the blind, and William L. Rush evaluates the Abilityphone, a device 
for nonvocal communication. Patrick Demasco and Richard Foulds show how 
the Panasonic Hand-Held Computer can be used as a communication device in 
"A New Horizon for Nonvocal Communication Devices." Steve Garcia brings 
you his latest speech-synthesis system in "Build the Microvox Text-to-Speech 
Synthesizer: Part 1— The Hardware," and Dr. William Murray reviews The 
Cognivox VI-I003, a speech-recognition system. Bruce Baker discusses his 
highly original Minspeak associative memory system for portable speech syn- 
thesis, and Alfred Fant Jr. shows you how to use a line printer to produce 
braille. In case you're thinking of marketing your own computerized aid, see 
our overview of the FDA's regulations concerning medical devices. In addition 
to our regular articles and reviews, we have BYTE's Arcade, and we start the 
countdown on our game contest winners. 



BYTE is published monthly by BYTE Publications Inc. 70 Main St. Peterborough NH 03458. phone (603) 
924-928 1 . a wholly-owned subsidiary of McGraw-Hill, Inc. Office hours: Mon-Thur 8:30 AM - 4:30 PM. Friday 
8:30 AM - Noon. Eastern Time. Address subscriptions, change of address. USPS Form 3579. and fulfillment ques- 
tions to BYTE Subscriptions, POB 590. Martinsville NJ 08836. Second class postage paid at Peterborough. N.H. 
03458 and additional mailing offices. USPS Publication No. 528890 (ISSN 0360-5280). Canadian second class 
registration number 9321 . Subscriptions are S 1 9 for one year. S34 for two years, and S49 for three years in the 
USA and its possessions. In Canada and Mexico. S2! for one year. S38 for two years. S 55 for three years. S 43 for 
one year air delivery to Europe. S35 surface delivery elsewhere. Air delivery to selected areas at additional rates 
upon request. Single copy price is S2.95 in the USA and its possessions, S3. 50 in Canada and Mexico. S4.50 in 
Europe, and S5.00 elsewhere. Foreign subscriptions and sales should be remitted in United States funds drawn on 
a US bank. Printed in United States of America. 

Address all editorial correspondence to the editor at BYTE. POB 372. Hancock NH 03449. Unacceptable 
manuscripts will be returned if accompanied by sufficient first class postage. Not responsible for lost manuscripts or 
photos. Opinions expressed by the authors are not necessarily those of BYTE. Entire contents copyright © 1982 
by BYTE Publications Inc. All rights reserved. Where necessary, permission is granted by the copyright owner for 
libraries and others registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) to photocopy any article herein for the 
base fee of S 1 .00 per copy of the article or item plus 25 cents per page. Payment should be sent directly to the 
CCC. 2 1 Congress St. Salem MA 0! 970. Copying done for other than personal or internal reference use without 
the permission of McGraw-Hill is prohibited. Requests for special permission or bulk orders should be addressed to 
the publisher. 

BYTE® is available in microform from University Microfilms International. 300 N Zeeb Rd. Dept PR. Ann 
Arbor Ml 48106 USA or 18 Bedford Row. Dept PR. London WC1R 4EJ England. 

Subscription questions or problems should be addressed to: 
BYTE Subscriber Service 

P.O. Box 328 
Hancock, NH 03449 



4 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



wSSv m ^ :mmmmmm \ 



25 es 



SALES BY CATEGORY 
15 80 25 



15 15 



*i 



San Fr<an 







ADD QUALITY GRAPHIC 



■Si'JwH 


lust $711 



The OEM's best choice for graphics 
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SCION* Install MicroAngelo in your 
Multibus or S-100 host and let this 
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your screen to life with full graphics 
and text MicroAngelo features 515 
by 480 pixel graphics and 40 line by 
85 character text displays. 

Save development time and overhead with 
SCREENWARE™ SCION's hish level display firmware 
language. SCREENWARE provides point, vector, region, 
circle, flood, crosshair, light pen interface, tracking 
cross, screen load and dump, split screen, macro, and 
full terminal emulation commands. Use MicroAngelo 
both as your main console and as your application 
software's display screen. 

MicroAngelo's on-board processor frees your host pro- 
cessor and bus to perform other tasks, while on-board 
memory and firmware reduce the size of your applica- 
tion programs. With our direct, easy interface to any 
high level language, you are no more than a simple sub- 



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routine call away from MicrbAngelo's 
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Angelo for monochrome graphics 
displays. And combine two or more 
MicroAngelos to create high resolu- 
tion color graphics. 

MicroAngelo is the OEM's choice because 
it is a powerful self-contained graphics display 
computer that is easy to add to your host. A graphics 
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field installations. A graphics display computer that is so 
affordable you don't have to design your own. 

Think SCION for your graphics display needs. 
Think MicroAngelo. Call us at (703) 476-6100. 

*OEM quantity 25 price for Multibus or S-100 board. 

OD/V 

if the image is important. 

12310 PinecrestRd./Reston,VA 22091 
(703) 476-6100 TWX: 710-833-0684 

Circle 416 on inquiry card 



' 



Circle 161 on Inquiry card. 



MAINTAIN 

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WITH 

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Put your microcomputer 
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As a project manager, you know the 
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Now, thanks to MILESTONE, its easy 
to obtain and keep complete project 
control. 

M ILESTONE is an easy-to-use compu- 
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The price is $295. ($395. for the CP/M- 
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sion. Formats 8" single density IBM soft-sectored, 
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See your computer dealer for 
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Milestone is a registered trademark of Organic Software 
CP/M and CP/M-86 trademarks ot Digital Research 
UCSD Pascal trademark ol Regent of University of California 



Editorial 



Let There Be Talking 
People Too 

by Mark Dahmke, Consulting Editor 



When I was in college I met a fellow student who had great difficulties com- 
municating because of cerebral palsy. We became friends and as things turned 
out I designed a voice-synthesizer system that greatly enhanced his ability to 
communicate. Designing this device was a logical extension of my long-time 
interest in electronics, microcomputers, and voice synthesis. My friend's case 
is a good example of how artificial aids — communicative or otherwise — can 
improve the quality of life for disabled persons. 

Personal computers have done more for people with communicative dis- 
orders than any other technological development. Microcomputers are ver- 
satile machines that can be customized fairly easily to fit the individual needs 
of each person. Computers can be programmed to accept input from any kind 
of switch or device and to interpret that input in whatever way the user wants. 
As well, they can be made to respond with visual or audible output, opening 
up a new world to deaf and blind individuals. 

Nearly 500,000 Americans who are not classified as retarded are unable to 
communicate either vocally or with standard hand signs. An even more sober- 
ing thought is that perhaps 100,000 or more individuals of normal intelligence 
are in institutions and have been diagnosed as retarded simply because they do 
not have the physical means to communicate. We do not even have accurate 
statistics in this area because of the nature of the disability. Assuming that the 
number of people with communicative disorders in this country amounts to 
two tenths of 1 percent of the population, then about 10 million people are af- 
fected world-wide. 

While we now have the technology to build devices to compensate for 
almost any communicative disability, not everyone who needs a communica- 
tion aid can afford one. They can't be mass produced because (ideally) they all 
require some customization. A similar situation prevails in the case of artificial 
limbs. Each prosthesis can cost thousands of dollars because of the relatively 
small market and because each limb is handmade for the individual. What we 
need are standard devices with plug-in memory modules, plug-in keyboard 
layouts, and modular-display or audio-output options. A communication aid 
could then be put together easily from two or three standardized modules and 
would fill 90 percent of the needs of most individuals with communication 
problems. 



6 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




Introducing the PERCOM 
Alternative to ATARI Disk Storage 



Your Atari 800 is the finest home computer on 
the market. Now you can own a floppy disk 
system that measures up — an RFD mini-disk 
storage system from Percom. 

At Percom we've been making disk 
storage systems since 1 977. 

Our designs are proven, our quality is 
well known. And we back our dealers with 
service know-how. Expect more from Percom. 
You won't be disappointed. 

• Operate in either single- or double-density 
storage mode using Atari DOS 2. OS. In 
double-density you can store almost 184 
Kbytes (formatted) on one side of a 40- 
track diskette. 



Connect your Percom RFD first-drive 
system directly to your computer or connect 
into your system through your Atari 810 
Disk Drive. 

Add an RFD first-drive system with its 
versatile four-drive controller, then connect 
as many as three more low-cost RFD add- 
on drives. 

Write application programs that can query 
and set up your system to operate a differ- 
ent type drive at each cable position — that 
can even change configuration as the 
program executes. 



• Get quality and state-of-the-art capability at 
competitive prices. Percom first-drive RFD 
systems are priced from only $799, first 
add-on drive is only $459. Cables included. 
Watch for announcement of a new/, power- 
ful, easy-to-use disk-operating system for 
your Percom-equipped Atari 800 computer. 

Minimum system requirements — are an Atari 800 
computer with 24-Kbytes of RAM and compatible 
video display system; Atari's disk-operating system 
(ver 2.0S) and owner's manual; and, for add-on 
drives (if used) an optional disk drives 
interconnecting cable available from Percom. 



For the best thing next to your computer, see your Atari dealer 
about a Percom RFD floppy disk storage system. For the name 
of your nearest dealer, call Percom toll-free 1-800-527-1222. 



PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS 

SUBJECT TO CHANGE 

WITHOUT NOTICE. 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY, INC. 

1 1320 PAGEMILL RD - OALLAS. TX 75243 - (214) 340-7081 

ATARI 800 & ATARI 810 are trademarks of the Atari Corporation. 
PERCOM is a trademark of Percom Data Company, Inc. 




Yes ... I'd like to know more about Percom RFD disk 
drives for my Atari 800 Computer. Rush me free literature. 
Send to: PERCOM DATA COMPANY, Inc., DEPT. 18-B01 
11220 Pagemill Road, Dallas, Texas 75243 



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Editorial 



One highly successful device currently on the market is 
the Texas Instruments Speak & Spell, which was designed 
as a children's learning tool. It has a reasonably large 
vocabulary and costs around $50. In its current con- 
figuration, it can work as a communication aid if you ig- 
nore the spelling mode and simply type messages letter by 
letter. If, however, a few extra features had been incor- 
porated into its design it could have very easily func- 
tioned as a communication aid and still cost $50. It would 
have been the case of a mass-market product (with the 
price benefits of economies of scale and an extensive 
advertising campaign) doubling as a special-needs device. 
The integration of general-appeal consumer products 
with limited-market special-needs devices should be our 
goal. Thousands of people would benefit. 

Recently Texas Instruments announced a new product 
called Vocaid, based on its Touch & Tell product. The 
$150 device can be used by people with short-term com- 
munications problems. It also is a great communication 
aid for anyone with reasonably good coordination and 
cognitive skills. It can also accept memory modules that 
have specialized vocabularies. As such, it is a good prac- 
tical application of customizing a standard product by 
plugging in memory modules. 

Part of the problem faced by disabled individuals is the 
way they are perceived by the able-bodied members of 
society. Today we scarcely think of someone who wears 



eyeglasses as disabled, yet before the discovery of the 
principles of optics, people with vision problems surely 
would not have been able to lead normal productive 
lives. I hope that in a similar way microcomputers will be 
able to help people with physical limitations overcome 
the restrictions to activity imposed on them by their 
disabilities and become, remain, and be viewed as pro- 
ductive members of society. It is an encouraging sign to 
see the proverbial "synthesizer on a chip." And now that 
we have the technology we must accept the challenge of 
making the fruits of that technology available to the peo- 
ple who will benefit the most. 

On "Finding A Voice," a recent episode of NOVA on 
public television, John Eulenburg of Michigan State 
University said, "If there are going to be talking micro- 
wave ovens, let there be talking people too."H 



Articles Policy 

BYTE is continually seeking manuscripts of high quality written 
by individuals who are applying personal computer systems, 
designing such systems, or who have knowledge that will be 
useful to our readers. For a formal description of procedures and 
requirements, potential authors should send a legal-sized, self- 
addressed envelope with 37 cents U.S. postage affixed to BYTE 
Author's Guide, POB 372, Hancock, NH 03449. 

Each month, the authors of the two leading articles in the 
reader poll (BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box or BOMB) are presented 
with bonus checks of S 100 and $50. Unsolicited materials should 
be accompanied by full name, address, and return postage. 



The Context MBA is available now at: 



California 



ComputerLand/Almaden 408/267-2182 
ComputerLand /Belmont 415/595-4232 
ComputerLand/Burlingame 415/348-7731 
ComputerLand/Fremont 415/794-9311 
ComputerLand /Hayward 415/538-8080 
ComputerLand/Pasadena 213/449-3205 
ComputerLand/Sacramento 916/920-8981 
ComputerLand/San Diego 714/560-9912 
ComputerLand/San Diego East 714/464-5656 
ComputerLand/San Diego North 714/434-7001 
ComputerLand/San Fernando Valley 213/716-7714 
ComputerLand/San Francisco-Financial 415/546-1592 
ComputerLand/San Francisco-Market Street 

415/864-8080 
ComputerLand /San Francisco-Van Ness 415/673-6640 
ComputerLand/Sonoma 707/528-1775 
ComputerLand /South Bay 213/371-7144 
ComputerLand /Stockton 209/473-1241 
ComputerLand /Thousand Oaks 805/495-3554 
ComputerLand /Ventura 805/656-7711 
ComputerLand /West Covina 213/960-6351 
ComputerLand /West Los Angeles 213/559-3353 
Personal Computer Business Systems/Irvine 

714/540-1333 

Connecticut 

ComputerLand/Danbury 203/748-2300 
ComputerLand /Fairfield 203/255-9252 
ComputerLand/Hartford 203/561-1446 
ComputerLand/New Haven 203/288-5162 
ComputerLand/Stamford 203/964-1224 
Illinois 

ComputerLand /Arlington Heights 312/870-7500 
ComputerLand /Downers Grove 312/964-7762 
ComputerLand/Joliet 815/741-3303 
ComputerLand /Lake County 312/949-1300 
ComputerLand /Naperville 312/369-3511 
ComputerLand/Niles 312/967-1714 
ComputerLand/Northbrook 312/272-4703 
ComputerLand/Oak Lawn 312/422-8080 
ComputerLand/Schaumburg 312/843-7740 



Indiana 



The Computer Room /South Bend 219/277-1600 
Kansas 

ComputerLand /Lawrence 413/841-8611 
ComputerLand /Overland Park 913/492-8882 
ComputerLand /Topeka 913/267-6530 

Maine 

ComputerLand /Portland 207/774-1309 
Massachusetts 

Business Data Systems/Hanover 617/878-7888 

ComputerLand /Boston 617/482-6033 

Michigan 

ComputerLand /Ann Arbor 313/973-7075 
ComputerLand /Grosse Pointe 313/772-6540 
ComputerLand/Southfield 313/356-8111 
Computer Mart/Ann Arbor 313/665-4453 
Computer Mart/Flint 313/234-0161 
Computer Mart/Kalamazoo 616/329-1000 
Computer Mart/Lansing 517/351-1777 
Computer Mart/Livonia 313/540-3928 
Computer Mart/Tri-Cities 517/790-1360 
Computer Mart/Troy 313/649-0910 
The Computer Room /Grand Rapids 616/949-2802 
The Computer Room/Kalamazoo 616/343-4634 
Minnesota 

ComputerLand/Bloomington 612/884-1474 
ComputerLand/Hopkins 612/933-8822 
ComputerLand /Minneapolis 612/333-3151 
Missouri 

ComputerLand/Gladstone 816/436-3737 
ComputerLand /Independence 816/461-6502 
ComputerLand/St. Joseph 816/364-4498 

New Hampshire 

ComputerLand /Nashua 603/889-5238 

New Jar 8 ay 

ComputerLand/Morristown 201 /539-4077 
ComputerLand /Princeton 609/882-1400 



Naw York 



ComputerLand /Nassau County 516/742-2262 
ComputerLand /Suffolk County 516/499-4484 
ComputerLand/White Plains 914/328-0144 
Future Data 212/964-6666 
Morris Decision Systems/New York 212/742-9590 
Oragon 

ComputerLand/Multnomah County 503/295-1928 
ComputerLand /Salem 503/620-6170 
ComputerLand/Portland 503/620-6170 
Pennsylvania 

ComputerLand/Dresner 215/542-8835 
ComputerLand /Harrisburg 717/763-1116 
ComputerLand/Paoli 215/296-0210 
ComputerLand/Philadelphia 
Texas 

ComputerLand /Dallas 214/363-2223 
ComputerLand/Fort Worth 817/292-7114 
ComputerLand/Houston Bay Area 713/488-8153 
ComputerLand/North Dallas 214/235-1285 
ComputerLand/Southwest Houston 713/977-0909 
ComputerLand /Tyler 214/581-7000 
ComputerLand /Westwood 713/270-1200 
Virginia 

ComputerLand/Richmond 804/741-3502 
ComputerLand /Tyson's Corner 703/893-0424 
ComputerLand/Woodbridge 703/491-4151 
Washington 

ComputerLand /Bellevue 206/746-2070 
ComputerLand /Federal Way 206/838-9363 
ComputerLand /Lynnwood 206/774-6993 
ComputerLand /Renton 206/271-8585 
ComputerLand /Seattle 206/223-1075 
ComputerLand /Tacoma 206/383-4951 
ComputerLand /Vancouver 206/695-1540 

Washington. DC 

ComputerLand /Washington. DC 202/835-2200 

Wisconsin 

ComputerLand /Madison 608/273-2020 

Canada 

Computer Mart/Windsor 519/966-5757 



8 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 129 on Inquiry card. 



Screen Test: 




Only the Context MBA Totally Integrates Modeling, 

Word Processing, Database and Graphics in One Program. 

TRUE FALSE 



M E A:FOL»ER-SAIffLEi:DB!0Si, SOCNHI-TROPIFRBII, COHIEff-HODH M 135 



lTropimit Annual Sales {Millions! I 

2Pwfict '81 '82 '83 '84 J 85j 

^Pineapples $15 m $28 m m\ '■. 

5Li*es 5 18 12 28 3f -8 

6 Bananas 25 22 28 16 if 2 

7Suga* Cane 48 41 42 43 4fl 



al: $85 $91 $94 $182 $118 



Annual Sales 



r— i V*M 

Pineapples 



IpopiFpuit Sales 



i Suto Cane 



All Sales Pereonne 
V-P Sales 



Pmeap TlTo: 

.Fism: V-P Sales 

uiiws 1 .Subject: Stagnant Sugar Cane Sales 

1223 ; iPlease note the relative 

Banana .stagnation of Sugar Cane sales in 

*™ .ouf sales forecasts, I sant each 



Context 

Management Software 
for Personal Computers 



23864 Hawthorne Boulevard 
Torrance, CA 90505 
(213) 378-8277 
Telex 181149 WEST LSA 

SOURCE ID TCA 442 



The Context MBA turns second generation per- 
sonal computers like the IBM into powerful manage- 
ment tools. Information entered in any of the C-MBA's 
four contexts can be used in any other context. Build a 
model using C-MBA's sophisticated electronic spread 
sheet. Switch into database context by pressing three 
keys to quickly sort your model. When one picture is 
worth a thousand words (or numbers), a few keystrokes 
produce one of nine different graphs. Change your 

Circle 130 on inquiry card. 



numbers and your graphs automatically update as well. 

The word processing context helps you write 
clear, concise reports. And you can copy in entire tables 
of numbers from your spreadsheet in seconds. 

The Context MBA is far more than four inte- 
grated programs. It is a whole new concept in man- 
agement software. 

Personal computers are full of promise. Context 

makes them deliver. ©Copyright 1982 Context Management Systems 



BYTE September 1982 



Letters 



Response to 
Japanese Computers 

As a BMC if800 user for the past year 
and a half, I read with interest the fine ar- 
ticle "Six Personal Computers from 
Japan" by Christopher P. Kocher and 
Michael Keith (May 1982 BYTE, page 60). 
I was pleased to see that the section on the 
if800 was thorough and reasonably cor- 
rect. The authors, however, made a few in- 
accurate statements that were probably 
due to omissions in the if800 documenta- 
tion. 

One of the inaccurate statements con- 
cerns the if800's screen-dump feature. The 
authors consider it a shortcoming that 
". . . in dumping a screen image (as op- 
posed to regular character-by-character 
text printing) the scan lines are spread 
quite far apart in the printed image, mak- 
ing text or detailed graphics difficult to 
read." They fail to mention, however, 
that the if800 has two additional screen- 
dump modes— one that prints a normal 
representation of what appears on the 
screen without the above-mentioned wide 
spacing, and another that prints a com- 
pacted representation of what appears on 
the screen. The widely spaced printout 
described in the article is obtained by 
pressing the Hard Copy key. The normal- 
ly spaced printout is obtained by holding 
down the CTRL (Control) key while 
pressing the Hard Copy key. Likewise, the 
compacted printout is obtained by hold- 
ing down the Shift key while pressing the 
Hard Copy key. 

A second inaccuracy occurs in the sub- 
section titled "Minor Gripes." Here the 
reader is led to believe that the if800 
keyboard functions only in the uppercase 
mode, where the Shift key must be used to 
get lowercase characters. The if800 key- 
board does, in fact, have a typewriter 
mode in which the Shift-key function is 
reversed; that is, lowercase characters are 
typed when the Shift key is not used, and 
uppercase characters are typed when the 
Shift key is used. The typewriter mode 
may be entered by simply pressing the 
Shift and COMD (Command) keys simul- 
taneously. To return to the uppercase 
mode, press the CTRL and COMD keys 
together. 

Ken Davison, Applications Engineer 
Oki Semiconductor Inc. 
1333 Lawrence Expressway, Suite 401 
Santa Clara, CA 95051 



I would like to inform Christopher 
Kocher and Michael Keith that Canon 
CX-1 BASIC is definitely not the only 
BASIC with an XREF command. It may 
be the only BASIC running under CP/M 
with such a command, but CP/M isn't the 
only microcomputer operating system, or 
to my mind, the best. Phase One Systems 
has an excellent BASIC (running under 
the Oasis operating system) that includes 
XREF, which can be called from the inter- 
preter or included as a compiler option. I 
think this version of BASIC is about as 
good as you can get with BASIC and still 
call it BASIC. It also has a good editor, 
which may stun some BASIC program- 
mers. 

Bob Pierce 

99 Golden Hinde Blvd. 

San Rafael, CA 94903 



I'd like to clear up a common 
misconception about using multiple pro- 
cessors. In the article "Six Personal Com- 
puters from Japan," the authors repeated- 
ly state that the Fujitsu FM-8 was the 
fastest machine in their test due to its 
"division of labor." A little reflection will 
reveal this to be false. 

As stated in the article, the three micro- 
processors in the Fujitsu handle process- 
ing, video, and keyboard scanning. The 
authors did not realize that while running 
a BASIC benchmark the second and third 
processors are standing by in an idle loop. 
Because the programs that the authors 
chose do not involve graphics or extensive 
character I/O (input/output), they will 
not exercise the task-splitting features of 
the FM-8 computer. 

As the designer of my own dual-proces- 
sor upgrade for my SWTPC (Southwest 
Technical Products Corporation) com- 
puter, I've found that speed improvement 
is seldom a factor. In any program that 
does extensive computation, the I/O pro- 
cessor remains idle. In programs that do a 
lot of screen formatting, the main pro- 
cessor must wait. Only in those rare pro- 
grams where computation and I/O are 
evenly split does my computer approach a 
theoretical speed improvement of 2 to 1. 

So why do Fujitsu and I use multiple 
processors? In my case, I wanted to free 
the computation-processor memory space 
from the space required for the graphics 
storage. This use of multiple processors is 
mentioned in the BYTE article. If an 



Apple or Radio Shack computer devoted 
48K bytes of memory to graphics, there 
would be little left for the user. The FM-8 
graphics resolution of 640 by 200 by 3 bits 
per pixel adds up to a total of 48K bytes of 
video memory. It was not mentioned in 
the article that 640 by 200 pixels can be 
divided into 25 lines and 80 columns of 8- 
by 8-bit character cells. This means the 
Fujitsu can plot letters in graphics with 80 
characters per line. 

What, then, makes the Fujitsu the 
fastest machine in the group tested? I 
would say it is a combination of its 
Motorola processor and a good BASIC in- 
terpreter. I can't overstress the fact that 
almost any hardware can run faster with 
better software. My vintage SWTPC 6800 
in single-processor mode is about three 
times faster than the new Japanese ma- 
chines. This is possibly due to the fast 
floating-point BASIC interpreter supplied 
by Technical Systems Consultants. 

Leo Taylor 

18 Ridge Court West 

West Haven, CT 06516 



Another TRS-80 Hang-Up 

Glenn Tesler's article "TRS-80 BASIC 
Program Hang-ups: The Reasons and 
Some Solutions" (May 1982 BYTE, page 
318) was very well done and useful. I 
would like to extend his article with a 
practical suggestion for other program- 
mers. I have noticed that programs con- 
taining PRINTUSING statements that 
have concatenated strings as statement 
elements eventually lead to program 
hang-ups in TRS-80 BASIC. A simple 
solution is to avoid concatenating strings 
in these statements by using alternative 
methods. For example, instead of 

PRINTUSING"% (20 spaces) %"; 
"A" + ". " + B$ 

try: 

PRINTUSING"!"; "A";:PRINT". ";: 
PRINTUSING "% (17 spaces) %"; 
B$ 

You can use the addresses for "string 
work area" and "start of string data" 
pointers given in listing 2 of the article to 
verify the difference. This technique is 



10 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



NEC's new letter-quality printer 
gets personal with IBM. 



The Spinwriter M 3550 lets the IBM PC 
get down to business. 

NEC's new Spinwriter letter-quality 
printer is the only one plug-compatible 
with the IBM Personal Computer. So you 
get the business applications you've been 
wishing for. Letter-quality output for 
word and data processing. Multi-language, 
scientific, and technical printing. Simple 
forms handling. Quiet operation. And the 
reliability of the industry's most popular 
printer line. 

NEC designed the new Spinwriter espe- 
cially for the IBM PC. It comes complete 
with documentation and training materials 
to fit your PC user's handbook. Just plug 
the Spinwriter in and your PC instantly 
becomes more versatile and flexible. 

More than 8 forms handlers and 

50 print thimbles boost PC versatility. 

NEC designed the Spinwriter's 8 modular 
forms handlers to accommodate a wide 
range of paper and document sizes and 
types. The easily mounted handlers let 
your computer print out the forms you 



need for data processing, word processing, 
graphics, accounting or other business 
applications. 

The Spinwriter's 50 print thimbles 
can more than triple your PC's usefulness. 
They come in both constant pitch and 
proportional-spaced fonts, plus in foreign 
language, technical and scientific versions. 
They snap in and out in seconds, and let 
you print up to 203 columns on 16-inch 
paper. They each last for more than 30 
million impressions. 

This printer's special features make 
everything look better on paper. 

The Spinwriter's software-invoked 
features include automatic proportional 
spacing; bidirectional, bold and shadow 
printing; justification; centering; under- 
scoring; and sub/super scripting, all at 
speeds up to 350 words per minute. 

That big extra, Spinwriter reliability. 

Spinwriters have the industry's best 
mean-time-betwecn-failure rating, in ex- 
cess of 3,000 hours. In terms of average 
personal computer usage, that's more 
than five years. 



The Spinwriter 3550 is available at 
ComputerLand stores, Sears Business 
Systems Centers and IBM Product 
Centers nationwide. 



NEC Information Systems, Inc. 

5 Militia Drive, Lexington, MA 02173 

Send me more information on the 
Spinwriter 3550. 

Name 



Title 



Telephone 



Company 



Address 



City 



State 



L. 



Zip 
__BE982J 



Circle 339 on inquiry card. f\ mL \g 

NEC Information Systems, Inc. 

Spinwriter is a trademark of Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. 



Wete Made 




for Each Other 



spinwriter 




• 



The Software: 



PROGRAMS 



WordStar® 

The number one selling microcomputer 
word processing package in the world. 
8"CP/M® 

LISTPRICE: 495.00 
MH PRICE: 289.00 

5 '/>" APPLE® 

LISTPRICE: 3 75.00 
MH PRICE: 234.00 



MICROPRO 

MailMerge™ 

A multi-purpose text-data merging program. 
One of its most popular uses is producing 
personalized form letters. Requires 
WORDSTAR® 
8" CP/M® 



LISTPRICE: 
MH PRICE: 



750.00 
99.00 



5 1 /4 M APPLE® 



LIST PRICE: 
MH PRICE: 



125.00 
83.00 



MAILMERGE, DATASTAR, SPELLSTAR, CALCSTAR. 

and SUPERSORT are trademarks of MicroPro 

International, San Rafael, California USA. 

QUICKCODE, QUICKSCREEN, anddUTILare 

trademarks of Fox & Geller Associates. 

VISITREND/VISIPLOT, VISIFILE, VISISCHEDULE, 

VISIDEX, VISITERM, and DESKTOP PLAN are 

trademarks of VisiCorp. 

dBASE II is a trademark of Ashton-Tate. 

MATHSTAR is atrademark of Force Two, LTD. 

SUPERCALC is a trademark of Sorcim. 

SPELLGUARD is a trademark of Innovative Software 

Applications. 

T.I.M. is atrademark of Innovative Software, Inc. 

CROSSTALK is a trademark of MicroStuf . 

EASY WRITER and EASY SPELLER are trademarks 

of Information Unlimited Software. 

PERFECT WRITER and PERFECT SPELLER are 

trademarks of Perfect Software, Inc. 

WORDSTAR is a registered trademark of MicroPro 

International, San Rafael, California USA. 

VISICALC is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. 

APPLE is a registered trademark of Apple Computers. 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business 

Machines. 



MICROPRO 

DataStar™ 

The office-oriented system for data entry, 
retrieval, and updating. DATASTAR 
allows you to create a form, be it a price 
list, catalog, or order form. You can edit, 
update, or save this information in a file 
or simply print it out. DATASTAR 
interfaces with MAILMERGE and 
SUPERSORT. 
8" CP/M 

LISTPRICE: 350.00 
MH PRICE: 235.00 

5 '/a" APPLE® 

LISTPRICE: 295.00 
MH PRICE: 199.00 



CalcStar™ 

Financial planning and business decision- 
making made simpler, faster, and more 
accurate. CALCSTAR calculates solutions 
to complex numerical problems in 
business and finance. CALCSTAR turns 
your microcomputer's video screen into 
a 'window' on a gigantic electronic ledger 
sheet with up to 600 entries arranged 
the way you want. 
8" CP/M® 

LISTPRICE: 295.00 
MH PRICE: 199.00 

5% "APPLE® 

LISTPRICE: 195.00 
MH PRICE: 149.00 



FORCE TWO. LTD. 

MathStar™ 

MATHSTAR is a combination adding 
machine/calculator program, designed 
specifically for use with MicroPro's 
WORDSTAR®. Provides basic math 
functions, formatted results, and 
accounting notation. 
8" CP/M® 

LISTPRICE: 125.00 
MH PRICE: 99.00 

574" APPLE® 

Same as 8" CP/M' 



ASHTON-TATE 

dBASE II ™ 

THE database management system for 
the microcomputer. 
8" CP/M® 

LISTPRICE: 700.00 
MH PRICE: 489.00 

5 1 /4"APPLE® 

Same as 8" CP/M" 



FOX & GELLER 

QuickCode™ 

QUICKCODE allows dBASE II users to 
create the following programs, in a matter 
of seconds, without programming. 

□ Data entry programs 

□ Data retrieval programs 

□ Date edit/validation programs 
D Menus 

□ dBASE II files 

PLUS: 4 New Data Types: 
D Date 

□ Dollars 

□ Telephone 

□ Social Security number 

QUICKCODE includes a powerful new 
version of QUICKSCREEN, the dBASE II 
screen builder. 
8" CP/M® 

LISTPRICE: 295.00 
MH PRICE: 249.00 

5 V4" APPLE® ' 

Same as 8" CP/M' 

FOX & GELLER 

dUTIL™ 

dUTILis the BASE II utility program which 
savesvaluable computer time and work 
by: 

□ Increasing command file running time 

□ Creating standard text files to use 
within your word processor 

□ Automatically debugging dBASE II 
command files 

dUTIL does not require QUICKCODE or 

QUICKSCREEN. 

8" CP/M® 



LISTPRICE: 
MH PRICE: 



99.00 
75.00 



5 'A" APPLE® 



Same as 8" CP/M* 



Call Toll- Free: 1-800-523-9511 In Pennsylvania: 1- 215-868-8219 



12 BYTE September 1982 



The Software: 



PACKAGES 



MH-1 WORDSTAR® /MAILMERGE 

MH-2 WORDSTAR® /MAILMERGE/DATASTAR 

MH-3 WORDSTAR® /CALCSTAR 

MH-4 WORDSTAR® /MATHSTAR 

MH-5 dBASE ll/WORDSTAR® /MAILMERGE 

MH-6 dBASE ll/QUICKCODE/ 

WORDSTAR® /MAILMERGE 

MH-7 dBASE ll/QUICKCODE/dUTIL 



CPA/T 



APPLE* 



COMBINED 


MICROHOUSE 


COMBINED 


MICROHOUSE 


LIST PRICE: 


PRICE: 


LIST PRICE: 


PRICE: 


645.00 


319.00 


500.00 


259.00 


995.00 


519.00 


795.00 


399.00 


790.00 


419.00 


570.00 


299.00 


620.00 


369.00 


500.00 


319.00 


1345.00 


819.00 


1200.00 


719.00 


1640.00 


999.00 


1495.00 


899.00 


1070.00 


749.00 


1070.00 


749.00 




MICROPRO 

WordStar® 289.00 

MailMerge 99.00 

SpellStar 149.00 

DataStar 1 99.00 

SuperSort 170.00 

CalcStar 199.00 

VISICORP 

VisiCalc® 190.00 

VisiTrend/VisiPlot 228.00 

VisiFile 169.00 

VisiPlot 179.00 

VisiSchedule 249.00 

VisiDex 190.00 

VisiTerm 80.00 

Desktop Plan 1 90.00 



IUS 

Easy Writer II 299.00 

Easy Speller 1 49.00 

PERFECT 

Perfect Writer 289.00 

Perfect Speller 149.00 

SORCIM 

SuperCalc 209.00 

ISA 

SpellGuard 249.00 

ISI 

T.I.M 399.00 

MICROSTUF 

CrossTalk 11 9.00 

ASHTON-TATE 

dBASE II CALL 



Microhouse 1444 Linden Street/ P.O. Box 498 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18016 Prices and specifications subject to change without notice. All items subject to availability. 

MICROHOUSE 

The Microcomputer People. 



B YTE September 1982 13 



Circle 146 on inquiry card. 




Introductory 
Offer. . . 

COLOR RGB MONITORS 
BUY DIRECT!! 

plus $9. 50 shipping & handling. 

# 13" RGB Color. 

# 8 Colors standard. 

# 16 Colors on your IBM or 
Apple III. 

# Analog 

# Up to 80 Characters per line. 

# 360 Dots per color, 
(horizontal resolution) 

Apple III and IBM customers 
please add $29.50 for factory 
installed mod board. 

MasterCard / VISA / American 
Express / Prepaid / C.O.D. 

Call Toll Free for immediate 
shipment: 1-800-258-6370 

® Apple III is a registered 

trademark of Apple Computer. 

Monitors by 

lECO 



dotoled 

18 Bridge Street, Salem, NH 03079 
Tel. (603) 893-2047 
TWX: 710-366-0502 



Letters. 



especially helpful in programs with lots of 
menus. 

William S. Wise, M.D. 
President 
Datalab Corp. 
2652 Edgerton Rd. 
University Heights, OH 44118 



Thank you for publishing Glenn 
Tesler's article "TRS-80 BASIC Program 
Hang-ups: The Reasons and Some Solu- 
tions." If anyone wishes to get in touch 
with Glenn, his correct address is Glenn 
Tesler, Prosoft, POB 839, North Holly- 
wood, CA 91603. 

Your readers might also be interested 
to know that Glenn was barely 12 years 
old when he wrote that article. 

Although he didn't know it at the time 
the article was written, Glenn now says 
that many of the techniques presented in 
the article apply to Microsoft BASIC on 
the Apple, the IBM Personal Computer, 
and many other microcomputers. 

Debbie Tesler 

Prosoft 

POB 839 

North Hollywood, CA 91603 



Why Advertisers 
Don't Respond 

We read with interest the letter to the 
editor from H. B. Brandon regarding the 
lack of interest some advertisers showed 
concerning inquiries about their equip- 
ment or software (May 1982 BYTE, page 
19). Our firm specializes in designing and 
optimizing small computer systems for in- 
dustry and small-business use. We often 
experience the same frustration and delay 
that Mr. Brandon found. Typically, it is 
not that the manufacturers intend to be 
rude or inapproachable, but rather that 
they are simply swamped. For production 
lines, customer services, sales forces, etc. 
to be scaled up to meet the demand re- 
quires a very long lead time plus long- 
range forecasting to meet future demand. 
Personnel must be hired and trained, and 
telephone lines must be added to handle 
orders and inquiries. Sometimes the entire 
staff must be relocated to more spacious 
quarters. Then of course, letters can be 
lost. We offer this not as an excuse but as 
an explanation and ask you not to be too 



harsh in your judgment of these com- 
panies. 

Thomas M. Krischan, Chief Executive 

Officer 
Technimetrics Computer Consulting 
646 South 93rd St. 
West Allis, WI 53214 



Buffer Overflow Cure 

I enjoyed reading John Blankenship's 
"Give Your Apple a Voice: A Speech- 
Development System Using the Radio 
Shack Speech Synthesizer" (May 1982 
BYTE, page 446). However, like most ar- 
ticles on the Radio Shack Speech Syn- 
thesizer, it overlooked the fact that this 
device contains only a 32-byte buffer and 
has no control over preventing buffer 
overflow. There is a simple cure for this 
problem; it requires a small hardware 
modification to the synthesizer and the 
availability of a single input line to the 
computer. First, bring out pin 2 of IC4, as 
marked on the circuit board, to an unused 
wire of the ribbon cable. On the computer 
end of the ribbon cable connect this line to 
an input port that can be read by your 
program. The signal you have just wired 
to an input port will indicate by a low 
voltage that the synthesizer buffer is full. 
It will go to a high-voltage state when 
there is again room in the buffer. 

Ralph J. Jannelli 
101 Cottonwood Dr. 
Jamestown, NC 27282 



We congratulate Mr. Blankenship on 
his excellent article. The program listing 
he provided should be quite helpful to 
owners of the Radio Shack Speech Syn- 
thesizer. As an update to the article, 
please note that while the Radio Shack 
Speech Synthesizer was designed and 
manufactured by Votrax for Radio Shack, 
the unit uses a Votrax VST synthesizer 
module, not an SC-01A speech chip. It 
may interest your readers to know that 
the SC-01A is currently available in a 
Votrax product called Type-'N-Talk, a 
text-to-speech computer peripheral with 
unlimited vocabulary and an RS-232C in- 
terface. Type-'N-Talk utilizes a program 
similar to that developed by Mr. Blanken- 



14 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 





Proven tools for programmers. 
From Microsoft. 



Old friends. Eight years ago, Microsoft put BASIC 
on the first microcomputer. Today, there are more 
than 1,000,000 copies of Microsoft 
languages in use. BASIC interpreter. 
BASIC compiler. FORTRAN, and 
COBOL. A proven set of program- 
ming tools. All, fully supported 
by Microsoft. 

The best get better. Good 
tools work better if you keep 
them sharp. That's why we 
constantly improve the tools we 
offer. Enhancing them. Increasing 
their utility. Taking full advantage 
of the strengths of each language 
Supporting you, the user, with 
a full range of finely honed 
programming tools. 

Technical support. When you buy 
our tools, you get our number. If you 
have technical problems, call the Microsoft 
support staff for assistance. If we don't have the 
answers now, we'll find them and call you back. 

Compatible documentation. All Microsoft 
languages share a common approach to documen- 
tation. Starting with plain English. That means 
that even when you're learning a new language, 
you won't have to learn a new vocabulary. 

Linkable code. All Microsoft compilers share 
common utilities. A linker accompanies each 

Circle 541 on inquiry card. 




compiler. That means you can write programs in 
two or more languages, taking advantage of 

the specific strengths of each, then, link and 
run them as a single program. 

Leadership in micros. Nobody 
gave us leadership. We earned it 
through innovation, enhanced 
programming tools and complete 
user support. Today, Microsoft is the 
only software supplier to offer you 
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look to Microsoft to make that environment 
even more productive. 

Better tools. Ask your Microsoft dealer 
about Microsoft's family of proven tools 
for programmers: BASIC interpreter, BASIC 
compiler, FORTRAN and COBOL. Each is 
a specialized tool for a special programming problem. 
Better tools. And better tools make better programs. 

BETTER TOOLS FOR MICROCOMPUTERS 

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Microsoft is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 



Speaking graphically. . . 







it really pays to rent terminals and 
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Letters — — 

ship for the Radio Shack unit, but the 
software is self-contained within 
Type-'N-Talk and requires no additional 
programming on the part of the user. Mr. 
Blankenship's statement that "quality was 
more a function of the programmer than 
of the hardware" is all too true, but with 
the introduction of programs- such as his 
for the Radio Shack unit and Type- 
'N-Talk more and more users can now 
add voice to their computers without first 
becoming specialists in phonetic speech 
synthesis. 

Melanie J. Moyna, Manager 

Consumer Products Group 

Votrax 

Division of Federal Screw Works 

500 Stephenson Highway 

Troy, MI 48084 

The Votrax SC-01A chip is also used in 
Steve Ciarcia's project this month. See 
"Build the Microvox Text-to-Speech Syn- 
thesizer, Part 1: Hardware," on page 
64. . . . R.S.S. 



Computing Careers 

Jacqueline Johnston's article "Career 
Opportunities in Computing" (April 1982 
BYTE, p. 439) was very informative and 
useful. I enjoyed it because I am currently 
seeking a job as an entry-level program- 
mer. As a result, I have some observations 
that may interest the audience addressed 
by Ms. Johnston's article. 

There are indeed many openings out 
there for programmers and programmer- 
analysts. This fact is readily apparent 
from the classified pages of the major 
metropolitan newspapers. But very few of 
the advertised openings are for entry-level 
personnel, and many firms demand quali- 
fications that even an experienced profes- 
sional may have difficulty meeting. 

Entry-level programmers who do not 
have access to a school placement service 
or a diligent guidance counselor will prob- 
ably have to knock on a lot of doors in 
order to find entry-level positions. This 
could be an expensive proposition for 
anyone who resides, as I do, in an area 
remote from the urban centers where 
there is the greatest demand for computer 
personnel. Private employment agencies 
are of little help because, although clients 
will pay an agency to find experienced 
programmers, companies apparently 
prefer to obtain entry-level personnel 
through campus recruiting and walk-ins. 



16 September 1982 © BYTE Publications lnc 



Circle 206 on Inquiry card. 



Circle 480 on Inquiry card. 



■II ^L^ftJI^^^^^UlH^^^^u[^B^^^J[^^^^^U!^^^^^U|l^^^^u[^^^j 



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Never having to type the word 

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by pressing JUST ONE KEY! 

Features that you would expect only on larger 

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speed repeat? How about a type-ahead buffer? 

Even user-definable function keys are available 

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The Videx Enhancer ][ and Function Strip; it 

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Letters .^— _^^_-i 

Most advertised openings I have seen 
now specify two to five years' experience 
in addition to the expected knowledge of a 
specific computer language. While many 
hobbyists may meet those qualifications, 
the job seeker should also realize that 
most advertisements now demand experi- 
ence on specific types of computers and 
knowledge of specific operating and/ or 
database systems. These prerequisites 
presumably exclude those professionals 
who are familiar with the "wrong" 
machine or system. They certainly ex- 
clude those hobbyists who have had no 
opportunity to work with minicomputers 
and mainframes. 



These demands for specialization in one 
brand or line of hardware or software 
seem unrealistic. After all, much of what 
we do as programmers is medium in- 
dependent, there is a shortage of com- 
puter personnel, the differences between 
brands of hardware and software are not 
huge, and new brands or lines of hard- 
ware and software are coming into the 
market almost daily. The employers ob- 
viously want no time wasted on training 
or retraining computer personnel; perhaps 
high salaries are at fault. 

These observations are not meant to 
discourage anyone interested in a pro- 
gramming job or career. The opportu- 



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nities are out there, but finding a position 
that's right for you may not be quite as 
easy or fast as it once was or as some 
sources would indicate. 

La Vaughn H. Hayes 
2021 Biltmore Dr. 
Fayetteville, NC 28304 



Disclaimer May Not Be Valid 

I read with interest John Navas's letter 
regarding warranties and software (May 
1982 BYTE, page 18), and I'd like to in- 
form Mr. Navas that just because a dis- 
claimer is printed doesn't mean it is valid. 

Assuming Mr. Navas's software can be 
termed "goods" under the Uniform Com- 
mercial Code, Section 2-316 of that code 
applies. This section requires that for a 
disclaimer to be valid, it must be con- 
spicuous and in writing. 

Conspicuousness in this context is 
readily determined. Usually the disclaimer 
must appear in capital letters and in a 
typeface that contrasts with the surround- 
ing typefaces. If a disclaimer is indistin- 
guishable from the rest of the sales con- 
tract or agreement, it is not conspicuous. 

Furthermore, it is required that the pur- 
chaser either have or should have had ac- 
tual knowledge of the disclaimer prior to 
the sale. A warranty cannot be disclaimed 
after a sale. 

Finally, even if there is a disclaimer, the 
disclaimer will not excuse the failure to 
supply the goods forming the basis of the 
bargain. For example, if Mr. Navas 
bought a checkbook maintenance pro- 
gram, the product must function as a 
checkbook maintenance program. If the 
software or hardware delivered is so 
riddled with bugs that it will not operate, 
the seller did not deliver what was bar- 
gained for. 

L. J. Kutten 

201 South Central 

POB 16185 

St. Louis, MO 63105 



A Fix for 
the Soundex Algorithm 

The algorithm given in Jacob R. 
Jacobs's "Finding Words That Sound 
Alike: The Soundex Algorithm" (March 
1982 BYTE, page 473) can be improved 
simply by eliminating the code element 



18 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 84 on inquiry card. 



15 type styles 

for the IBM PC and Apple II 

With this program your dot matrix printer 
can output 15 large typefaces. 

Type Faces generates distinctive presentations, fancy lettering, 
invitations, easy to read output, and over 100 symbols. 
Reduced printout on a copier gives you letter quality text. , . 
an inexpensive typesetter. 

Type Faces comes with its own simple text editor and is 
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Actual dot matrix printout 

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Reduced dot matrix printout 
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Type Faces supports Epson and IDS dot matrix printers. Type Faces: $95 

Circle 19 on inquiry card. 





Letters - 



for vowels only after consecutive repeated 
elements are eliminated. With this fix, the 
routine will correctly discriminate be- 
tween words like "decision" and "thicken" 
because similarly coded consonants sepa- 
rated by vowels are preserved. The 
earliest document I know of that describes 
the Soundex method with this change is 
"Information Retrieval by Proper Name" 
by W. L. Hewes and K. H. Stow (June 
1965 Data Processing, page 18). 

John Nesbit 
9808 110th St. 
Edmonton, Alberta 
Canada 

Wanted: FORT/80 

My company has a problem: a number 
of our customers have bought and are 
using FORT/80, a FORTRAN compiler 
produced by Unified Technologies Inc. of 
Islington, Ontario. Our customers find 
the compiler an excellent product, if a lit- 
tle lacking in some advanced features. Un- 
fortunately, we believe Unified Technolo- 
gies ceased trading some time ago, and we 



cannot contact them. 

We would appreciate any information 
on the availability of the FORT/80 com- 
piler. 

D.G. Collier, Software Director 
Data Applications [UK] Ltd. 
16B Dyer St. 
Cirencester 

Gloucestershire, GL7 2PF 
United Kingdom 

MPI Disk Drives Meet IBM 

The following information may be 
useful to anyone considering purchasing 
the IBM Personal Computer. 

Recently, I decided to upgrade to a 
16-bit computer. I first purchased the IBM 
Technical Reference manual and later 
bought the IBM Personal Computer. Why 
did I buy the technical manual first? I 
wanted to know if there was any reason 
why IBM's Tandon-made disk drives 
could not be replaced with my MPI 
(Micro Peripherals Inc.) B51 drives. 

Last week, I brought home my newly 
acquired Personal Computer system with 



the DOS (disk operating system) manual, 
a disk-controller board, a color-graphics 
board, and an additional 16K bytes of 
memory. That same evening my system 
was up and running with the DOS and 
one of the B51 drives. Unfortunately, 
when I attached the second disk drive 
neither drive would work. I found that 
making the MUX (multiplex) connection 
on the MPI shunt socket for the Tandon 
drive, as described in the Technical 
Reference manual, does not work on the 
MPI drives, because the drive electronics 
are then enabled all the time. Therefore, 
the outputs of the two drives contend 
with each other. Fortunately, no damage 
can occur with open-collector drive cir- 
cuits. The solution is simple: do not make 
the MUX shunt connection. Also, the 
disk-controller board places a logic low 
voltage on pin 34, Side Select, and this 
must always be logic high for the MPI B51 
drives. 

The following information will allow 
anyone who wants to use MPI B51 drives 
to have a system up and running in no 
time with the IBM Personal Computer 
and DOS: 



^BYTE WRITER 



DAISY WHEEL PRINTER 

LETTER QUALITY PRINTER AND TYPEWRITER 

IN ONE PACKAGE 

The BYTEWR1TER is a new Olivetti Praxis 30 electronic typewriter 
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$795 

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Dealer 

Inquiries 

Invited 



FEATURES 

• Underlining • 10, 12, or 15 characters per inch switch selectable • 2nd keyboard 
with foreign grammar symbols switch selectable • Changeable type daisy wheel 

• Centronics-compatible parallel input operates with TRS-80, Apple, Osborne, IBM 
and others • Cartridge ribbon • Typewriter operation with nothing to disconnect 

• Service from any Olivetti dealer • Self test program built in. 



CBYTE WRITER 



1 25 NORTHVIEW RD., ITHACA, NY. 1 4850 
(607) 272-1 132 

Praxis :«) is a trademark of Olivetti Corp. 

TRS SO is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 

BYTEWRITER is a trademark of Williams Laboratories. 




• Each MPI drive must be set up to receive 
its Drive Select signal on pin 12 of its edge 
connector. 

• The Drive Select signal must also enable 
the Head Load line. 

• The MPI drives' Side Select lines must 
always be logic high. 

The above conditions can be achieved by 
placing two jumper connections across the 
following pins of the shunt socket on the 
MPI drives: 

1 to 14 (Head Load connecting to Drive 

Select) 
3 to 12 (Drive Select connecting with pin 

12) 

and cutting the trace on the MPI printed- 
circuit board leading to pin 34 of the edge 
connector (just above the contact), allow- 
ing this pin to stay in the high state. 

Note that the termination-resistor pack 
(150-ohm pull-up resistors) should be left 
in the A drive only; remove this pack 
from the B drive but place a single 
150-ohm resistor between pins 2 and 13 of 
this socket. This pulls the Side Select line 
up to the high state. 

Kim B. Lignell 

649 South Harvard Ave. 

Addison, IL 60101 ■ 



20 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 73 on inquiry card. 




Turn your Apple* IE into an 

Orchard 




With software from Quark™ Engineering 



Quark Engineering brings you software specially 
designed for your Apple III. Easy-to-use products 
that dramatically increase your system's capabilities. 
And your productivity. 

You start with Word juggler™, the most easy-to-use 
word processor available for the Apple III. Word 
Juggler is written in assembly language. And comes 
with special keyboard templates to label important 
functions. 

Word Juggler retails for $295. Form letter and simple 
mailing list capabilities are included free. If you want 
even more capacity, you can interface with Apple's 
Mail List Manager for an additional $35. 

Need to check your spelling? Add Lexicheck™ . 
A high-performance spelling checker with a 
25,000-word dictionary. You can add your own 
words. And get more accurate documents, without a 
lot of proofreading. The price? Less than a penny a 
word. Only $195. 



You can even send text from Word Juggler to 
computerized typesetting equipment. All you need 
is Ty peFace ™. Interface software which cuts your 
typesetting costs and eliminates re-keying errors. 
$175. 

Finally, there's Transcribe ™. A spooler designed 
especially for hard disk drives. Transcribe lets you 
use other computer functions while you're printing. 
And it's compatible with most Apple III software. 
$125. 

There's much more to tell you about Word Juggler, 
Lexicheck, TypeFace and Transcribe. See them 
at your local dealer. Or contact us 
today. We'll help you turn your 
Apple III into an orchard. And from 
then on, you'll find easy picking. 

Quark Engineering 
1433 Williams, Suite 1102 
Denver, CO 80218 
(303) 399-1096 



•Apple is a registered trademark 
of Apple Computer, Inc. 

Circle 391 on inquiry card. 



Quark 



See us at Applefest/San Francisco, Booth #529. 






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MICROBUFFER Will 
SPEED UP ANY PROGRAM 
THAT REQUIRES PRINTING. 



MICROBUFFER ALLOWS YOU 

TO PRINT AND PROCESS 

SIMULTANEOUSLY. 

Now you don't have to wait for 
the printer to finish before you 
can use your computer again. 

YOU CAN DUMP 

PRINTING DATA DIRECTLY 

TO MICROBUFFER. 

Unlike your printer, Microbuffer 
accepts data as fast as your 
computer can send it. So there's 
never a bottleneck. 

Microbuffer first stores the 
data in its own memory buffer 
and then takes control of your 
printer. This frees the computer 
for more productive functions. 

Additional output may be 
dumped to the buffer at any 
time and it will be printed in 
turn. 

THERE IS A MICROBUFFER 

FOR ANY PRINTER/COMPUTER 

COMBINATION. 

Microbuffers are available in 
Centronics-compatible parallel 
or RS-232C serial versions. 

FOR APPLE II COMPUTERS, 
Microbuffer II features on-board 



firmware for text formatting and 
advanced graphics dump 
routines. Both serial and parallel 
versions have very low power 
consumption. Special functions 
include Basic listing formatter, 
self-test, buffer zap, and 
transparent and maintain modes. 
The 16K model is priced at $259 
and the 32K, at $299. 

FOR EPSON PRINTERS, Microbuffer 
is $159 in either an 8K serial or a 
16K parallel version. The serial 
buffer supports both hardware 
handshaking and XON-XOFF 
software handshaking at baud 
rates up to 19,200. Both Epson 
interfaces are compatible with all 
Epson commands 
including GRAFTRAX-80 and 
GRAFTRAX-80 + . 

ALL OTHER PRINTER/COMPUTER 
COMBINATIONS are served by the 
in-line, stand-alone Microbuffers. 
Both serial and parallel versions 
are expandable up to 256K. The 
serial stand-alone will support 
different input and output baud 
rates and handshake protocol. 
The 32K model starts at $299, 
64K for $349. 64K add-ons for up 
to a total of 256K are just $179. 
When you think of how much 
time Microbuffer will save, 
can you afford to not have one? 



SIMPLE TO INSTALL 

Microbuffer II is slot-independent. 
It will fit directly inside the Apple 
II in any slot except zero. 

Microbuffer for your Epson 
mounts easily in the existing 
auxiliary slot directly inside the 
printer. 

The stand-alone Microbuffer is 
installed in-line between virtually 
any printer and computer. 

MICROBUFFER FROM 
PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS. 

Practical Peripherals is dedicated 
to establishing new industry 
standards for product performance. 
The un-retouched photo at left 
has been enlarged to demostrate 
Microbuffer's exact workmanship 
and precise attention to detail. 
Specifications demand that each 
board undergo 36 seperate tests 
and inspections before it can 
leave the factory. 

Ask your dealer for a demostra- 
tion of the most practical, most 
successful new product of the 
year — Microbuffer. 

PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS, INC. 
31245 LA BAYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CA 91362 
(213) 991-8200 



Circle 376 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 23 




Quinti-Maze 



Robert Tsuk 

17 Lexington Ave. 

Plattsburgh, NY 12901 



The Quinti-Maze game takes you on a three-dimen- 
sional adventure through a 5-by-5-by-5 cubic maze. The 
object of the game is to find your way through the rooms 
and out of the maze in as little time as possible. 

The program is written in Applesoft BASIC for an Ap- 
ple II with 32K bytes of memory and one disk drive. 
Although it's written in BASIC, Quinti-Maze is a fast 
game to play (see listing 1). But setting up the maze takes 
about 30 seconds (see photo 1). One room at a time ap- 
pears on the screen, showing you four possible exits — one 
in each of the three visible walls and one in either the 
floor or ceiling. 

Playing the Game 

At the start of the game, you're asked if you want to 
see the instructions. If you don't, the screen then displays 
a view of one of the rooms, in high-resolution graphics, 
located somewhere in the maze. The direction in which 
you are facing is indicated at the bottom center of the 
screen. 

You move around the maze by entering any of the 
following commands: 



U-up 


E — east 


D — down 


W — west 


N— north 


F — change facing direction 


S — south 


Q— quit 



Every time you enter a command, you move to another 
room or get a different perspective of your location in the 
room. The rooms look nearly identical, except for the 





Photo 1: View of one of the rooms in the maze. You can 
change the direction you are facing or move in any direction 
by entering one of the commands. 



varying positions of the doors and holes in the floor or 
ceiling. As you move about the maze, the computer ticks 
off the seconds, keeping track of your total time. The 
elapsed time is displayed in the lower left-hand corner of 
the screen. 

When you enter the F command, to change your direc- 
tion, the program asks that you enter the new direction. 



24 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




If you enter the Q command, to stop the game, the pro- 
gram asks if you want to save the current maze. If you 
do, the program requests a name for the maze and then 
saves it on the disk. When you next play Quinti-Maze, 
the program asks if you want to start in a new maze or 
recall an old maze from the disk. If you want to recall an 
old maze, you enter the name of the maze. The program 
returns you to the same room and with the same 
cumulative time as when you last quit the game. 

Strategy 

The strategy for Quinti-Maze is fairly simple; be 
methodical. Because all the rooms in the maze look 
similar, you could wander around forever without find- 
ing the exit. My favorite method is to travel in one direc- 
tion for as far as I can go, then I assume I'm at one of the 
outside walls and search there for an exit. 

Conclusion 

Quinti-Maze is a simple yet very playable game. Be- 
cause it is written in BASIC you can easily modify the 
program to include your own special features. A denizen 
or two would add even more excitement to Quinti- 
Maze. ■ 



The author has offered to make copies of his program 
available to BYTE readers for $5. Send a blank disk and a 
self -addressed stamped envelope to: 

Robert Tsuk 

17 Lexington Ave. 

Pittsburgh, NY 12901 



Listing 1: Quinti-Maze, written in Applesoft BASIC, requires 
an Apple II with 32K bytes of memory and one disk drive. 



1 DATA 20 J. , 84 , 208 , :!. 5 , 32 , :!. 77 , , 3 

2,243 , 230 , 1 38 ,72,32, 1 83 , , 20 
:l. „ 44 , 240 , 3 „ 76 „ 20 1 , 222,, 32 , 1 77 
,0,32, 248,, 230 

2 FOR I = 768 TO 833s READ P: POKE 

I,P; NEXT I 

3 DATA :!. 04 , 1 34 , 3 , 1 34 , 1 , 1 33 , 5 1 7 

a 1 60 , 1 ., 1 32 :, 2 ,, 1 73 , 4 8 ;i J. 92 , 1 36 
,208,4, 198 

4 DATA 1 , 240, 7 , 202 , 208 fl 246 , 1 66 fl 

, 208 , 239 , 1 65 , 3 , 1 33 , 1 , 1 <9B , 2 , 
208 .,241 ,96 

5 POKE 10 13 j, 76s POKE 1014, Os POKE 

1015,3 
.1.0 TEXT :; HOME 
90 GOSUB 2000 

1 D I M F C < 5 , 7 ) s D I M F C * < 5 ) 
105 FC*<1> « "NORTH" :FC*<2> « "SO 

U T H ' ' :; F C « < 3 ) = " E AS "I" ' ' s F C * ( 4 > --^r^ 

"WEST" 
110 FOR B = 1 TO 4 5 FOR I = 1 TO 

6;: READ FC<B s I)b NEXT s NEXT 

115 GOTO 155 

120 HPLOT 0,0 TO 279,0 i'O 279,15 
9 TO 0,159 TO 0,0 TO 69,29 TO 
209,29 TO 209,129 TO 69,129 TO 
69,29s HP L T 209,29 T 279 , 
3 HPLOT 209,129 TO 279,159s HPLOT 
69,129 TO 0,159s RETURN 

LZ:5 RETURN 

130 HPLOT 109,9 TO 169,9 TO 159, 

1 9 T 1 1 9 , 1 9 T 1 9,9s H P L T 
1 1 9 , 1 9 TO 1 1 9,9s HPLOT 1 59 , 1 
9 TO 159,, 9s RETURN 

135 HPLOT 119,139 TO 159,139 TO 
169,149 TO 109,149 TO 119,13 
9 s HP L T 1 1 9 , 1 3 9 T 1 1 9,149s 
HPLOT 159,139 TO 159,149s RETURN 

140 HPLOT 19,39 TO 49,49 TO 49,1 

39s HPLOT 19,149 TO 19. ,39s HPLOT 
19,139 TO 49,139:: HPLOT 19,4 
9 TO 49,49s RETURN 

145 HPLOT 119,59 TO 159,59 TO 15 
9,129 TO 119,129 TO 119,59 TO 
129,69 TO 149,69 TO 149,119 TO 
1 2 9 , 1 1 9 T 129,69s H P L T 1 4 9 
, 69 TO 1 59 , 59 ; HPLOT 1 49 , 1 1 9 

TO 159,129s HPLOT 129,119 TO 
119, 129 s RETURN 

150 HPLOT 229,49 TO 259,39 TO 25 
9,149s HPLOT 229,139 TO 229, 
49s HPLOT 229,49 TO 259,49;; HPLOT 
229,139 TO 259,139s RETURN 

155 DIM S$(6,6> 

160 INPUT "RESTART OLD MAZE " ;; Ytf 
5 IF LEFT* <Y$, 1) = "Y" THEN 
1360 

165 FOR A - 1 TO 5s FOR X - 1 TO 
5s FOR Y = 1 TO 5 

167 8c T10 % A -I- 10 % X + 10 * Y, 

10 

Listing 1 continued on page 26 

September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 25 



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Listing 1 continued: 



1 70 



"ISO 



1.85 
190 

195 



2UU 
205 



2 1 
215 



220 



.,:. •.:> 3 

240 



>45 



250 



26o 



?65 



IF A < > 5 AND RMD ( 1 > < . 
80 THEM S* ( X j, A ) = S* ( X ,, A ) ■<- 
"O")) GOTO ISO 

S#<X 9 A) =: S*<X,,A> -i- "X" 
IF MID* <S*<X, A - 1> , (Y -■ 1 
) * 6 + 1 j, 1) ■ "O" THEM S*<X 
,A) = 3*<X,,A> + "0"s GOTO 19 
O 

B*<X fl A) ss S* (Xj, A) "i" "X" 
IF Y -- 2 < O THEM 200 

IF MID* <B*(X ? A> j, <Y 2) * 

6 H- 4,< 1) » "0" THEN B*<X,, A) - 
S$(X,,A) -i- "O" s GOTO 205 

'S*<X,,A> « S*<X„A> ■+• "X"- 

IF Y < > 5 AND RMD <1) < . 
8 THEN S*<X,A> - 8*<X S A> + " 
0"J GOTO 215 

S*(X H A> = B$(X,,A) + "X" 
IF X < > 5 AND RMD CI.) < . 
8 THEN S*(X,A> - S*<X,, A) + " 
O"; GOTO 225 

S*<X,A> « S*<X.,A> + "X" 
IF MID* <S*<X - 1 5 A) , (Y - 1 
) * 6 + S, 1) « "O" THEN S*(X 
,A) « S*(X,,A) + "0"s GOTO 23 
5 

B*<X,,A> «« S*<X,,A) -I- "X" 
NEXT s NEXT s NEXT 

X ■ INT < RND (1) * 3) ■•!■• 2s Y 
■ INT ( RMD <1) # 3) -I- 2s A 
« INT ( RND (1) * 3) •>•• 2 

FIB « INT < RND (1) * 6) + la 
ON RD GOTO 250,255,260,265, 
270,275 

A « 5s Flip - LEFT* (S* < X „ A) ,, < 

Y. 1) * 6) : L = 29 - LEN (F 

1 * ) s F 2* = R I! G H T* < S* < X 9 A ) , L 
) ;: B* < X ,.. A ) * P :!. * ■+• "O" * P2# s 

GOTO 280 

A as 1 b P 1 * « LEFT* ( 8* ( X 5 A ) „ < 

Y - 1 ) * 6 + 1 ) b !..- « 29 - LEN 

( P 1 * ) i) P2* - R I GHT* < S* ( X 5 A ) 

j,L> sS*(X, A) = PI* + "O" +■ P2 
*s GOTO 2 BO 

Y = 5sPl* = LEFT* <S*(X, 5 A)m< 



280 



Y 



1 ) * 6 + 3 ) s L 



LEN 



( P 1 * ) a P2* = R I GHT* ( 8* ( X , A ) 
,}....) :S*<x; A) « PI* 4- "O" ••!-■ P2 
*;; GOTO 280 
Y «: 1 :: P 1 * := LEFT* < S* < X ., A ) , ( 

Y -•• 1) # 6 + 2) sL = 29 - LEN 
(. P 1 * ) s P2* s R i GHT* < S* ( X j, A ) 

, L ) s S* ( X j, A ) = F±% + "Q" -!•• P2 
*b GOTO 2B0 
X = 5s PI* = LEFT* <S-f : <X,A) , < 

Y 1 ) * 6 + 4) sL = 29 - LEN 

( P 1 * ) ;; P 2 * » R 1 3 H T * ( S* ( X j, A ) 

j, L ) s S* < X ; , A ) « P 1 * + " O " + ' ! :: '2 
*s GOTO 280 
X = laPHIi = LEFT* <S*<X, A) „ < 

Y - 1) * 6 + 5) :L = 29 - LEN 
*■ P 1 * ) s P2* - ::: F I GHT* ( S* ( X n A ) 

3 L ) s S* \ X 5 A ) « p j. & + " o " i P2 
*s GOTO 280 
SX - XsSY = YsSA - A 

Listing 1 continued on page 28 



26 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 334 on inquiry card. 




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Listing 1 continued: 

290 VTAB 23s PRINT "HIT ANY KEY 

TO START" 
300 IF PEEK ( ™ 16384) < 127 THEN 

300 
310 POKE ■- 16368,00 
1000 X = .T.MT ( RND CI.) * 5) + 1: 

Y = INT ( RND <i> * 5> •!■ Is 

A = INT < RND (1) * 5) + 1; 

FC = Is GOTO 1220 
1010 HOME : VTAB 22s HTAB 18s PRINT 



10 ',20 

1025 

1027 

3.030 
1035 
1040 
1 050 
1060 
1070 
1080 
1090 
1 1 00 
1 1 1. 
1 120 

1 1 30 
1135 
1140 

1 1 50 

1.1.60 
1170 
1 1 80 
1 1 90 
1200 
1210 
1220 



1230 



240 



1250 
1260 

1270 
1 280 



= 1 THEN PRINT X.Y.A 

VTAB 22s PR I N T ' * T I ! V !E s " ;• T s FOR 
TIME « 1 TO 80 

IF PEEK i - 16384) > 127 THEN 
1030 

NEXT sT = "! -i- Is VTAB 22s PRINT 
"TIME s " :j Ts GOTO 1020 

BET A* 

IF A$ « "*'' THEN LS * 1 

IF A* - "Q" THEN 130O 

IF A* «s "LI" THEN D - 1 

IF A* = "D" THEN D - 2 

IF A* = "N" THEN D - 3 

IF A* = "S" THEN D = 4 

IF A* ~ "E" THEN D ■ 5 

IF <"•«$ = "?" THEN 1290 

IF A* * "W" THEN D «■ 6 

IF A* ~ "F" THEN GOTO 1280 

IF D = THEN 1010 
T - T + 1 

IF MID* (S* <X,A) y (Y - 1 ) * 
6 + D, 1> < > "0" THEN PRINT 

CHR* (7) s GOTO 1010 

ON D GOTO 1 160 j, 1 170, 1 180, 1 1 
90,, 1200, 1210 
A « A -I- Is GOTO 1220 
A » A - Is GOTO J.220 

Y « Y - Is GOTO 1220 

Y - Y + Is GOTO 1220 
X a X + Is GOTO 1220 
X = X - Is GOTO 1220 

IF X > 5 OR X < 1 OR Y > 5 OR 

Y < 1 OR A > 5 OR A < 1 THEN 
PRINT "YOU WIN": ?-: T 100, 100 

s & T 1 00 ,50s & T 1 00 , 5 s & T7 
5,66s ?•: T 100, 66s & T75,66s & 
T60 ,255s GOTO 3000 

HGR s HCOLOR= 3s HPLOT 0,0s 

CALL 62454s HCOLOR= Os GOSUB 
120 

FOR I ■■= 1 TO 6s IF MID* (S 
* < X , A ) , ( Y - 1 ) * 6 + I ,, 1 ) = 
"X" THEN NEXT s GOTO 1010 
R « FC(FC, I) + 1 

HCOLOR= Os ON R GOSUB 125 5 1 
30 j, 135,, 140, 145, 150 

NEXT s GOTO 1010 

INPUT "WHAT FACING 1-M 2-S 
3-E 4~W";FC: IF FC < 1 OR FC 

> 4 THEN 1280 



1285 GOTO 1220 

1290 INVERSE s HTAB 18s PRINT SX 

s. " "sSYs" "llSAs NORMAL, s GOTO 

1220 

Listing 1 continued on page 30 



28 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 304 on Inquiry card. 



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Listing 1 continued: 

1300 PRINT "DO YOU WA*NT TO SAVE 

THIS NAZE"!! INPUT Y*s IF LEFT** 2040 

<¥'&,<:!.> < > "Y" THEN GOTO 3 

000 
1310 INPUT "WHAT DO YOU WANT TO 

CALL IT " ;;N:fi 
1320 D* = CHR$ <4> 2050 

1330 , PRINT D* 5" OPEN OL..D MAZE/" ;N 

% s PR I N ! ■ Df. ;: " WR I TE OLD NA Z E / 

" 5 N* 
1340 FOR Al = 1 TO 5: FOR XI = 1 

TO 5 ss PR I NT S* < X 1 , A 1 > a NEXT 2060 

a NEXT b PRINT X: PRINT Ys PRINT 

As PRINT Ts PRINT l-'C 
X-V50 PRINT D*; "CLOSE OLD NAZE/";; 

N*s GOTO 3000 
1360 INPUT "WHAT IS ITS NAME " ;i N 2070 

1370 D* = CHR* (4) 

1.380 PRINT D* J" OPEN OLD !1AZE/"sN 2080 

*s F :: 'RIMT D* j "READ OLD NAZE/" 

;; N* 2090 

1390 FOR Al ;:::: 1 TO 5s FOR XI = 1 
TO 5 s I NPUT S* ( X 1 „ A 1 ) B NE X T 

s NEXT s INPUT X;; INPUT Ys INPUT 

As INPUT Ts INPUT FC 
1400 PRINT D* 3 "CLOSE OLD NAZE/";; 

IM*s OOTO 1220 
2000 VTAB 12s HTAB 18s INVERSE » 

PRINT "NAZE"s NORMAL :: VTAB 2100 

22); INPUT "DO YOU WANT INBTR 

UCT I OMB " 5 Y* s I F LEFT* < Y*i 5 

1) < > "Y" THEN RETURN 3000 

2005 PR# 1 
2010 HOME :; PRINT "THE OBJECT OF 

NAZE IS TO FIND YOUR WAY"; PRINT 3010 

;; PRINT "OUT OF- A '5X'5X , 5 CUB I 

C MAZE- 'IN ONE OF THE"::' PRINT 

"ROOMS THERE IS AN EXIT OUT 3030 

OF THE MAZE. " 
2020 PRINT s PRINT "YOU MUST TRY 3040 

TO FIND IT IN AS FEW TURNS 

"s PRINT "AS POSSIBLE. THE C 9999 

OMMANDS ARE :; " 1000 

2030 PRINT s HTAB 6; INVERSE s PRINT 

" U " s s NORMAL s PR I NT " -Up " : ; 



HTAB 17s INVERSE s PRINT "S 
";: NORMAL ; PRINT "-SOUTH" 

PRINT s HTAB" 6; INVERSE s PRINT 
"D";: NORMAL s F'RINT "--DOWN" 
;s HTAB 17s INVERSE s PRINT 
"E";s NORMAL s PRINT "-EAST" 

PRINT s HTAB 6s INVERSE s PRINT 
" N " s s NORMAL : PR I NT " -NORTH 
"ss HTAB 17s INVERSE s PRINT 
"W" 3 s NORMAL s PRINT "-WEST" 

PRINT s HTAB 6; INVERSE s PRINT 
" Q " s s NORMAL s PR I NT " -QU I T " 
;s HTAB 17s INVERSE s PRINT 
"F" 5; NORMAL s PRINT " -CHANG 
E FACING" 

V TAB 2 3 s PR I NT " H IT "5s INVERSE 
;: PRINT "SPACE":;;; NORMAL 3 PRINT 
" FOR MORE" 

IF PEEK ( 16 384) < 127 THEN 

2080 

POKE 16368;, Os HOME s INVERSE 

3 PRINT "F" ss NORMAL s PRINT 
" WILL COME BACK WITH A QUES 
TION AS TO" s PRINT s PRINT " 
WHICH FACING YOU WISH, HIT ON 
LY ONE KEY" s PRINT s F'RINT " 
AND ";;s INVERSE s PRINT "RET 
URN"s NORMAL 

F'R I NT s PR I NT " PL.E ABE W A I T 
WHILE IT SETS UP THE MAZE"; PRINT 
s PRINT s RETURN 

TEXT s HOME s VTAB 5s HTAB 
1 2 ;; P R I N T ' ' C N OF; A T UL AT I ONB I 

PR I N T s P R I N T T A B ( 7)"Y OU 
H AV E F I N I SH ED "f HE MAZE I N ' ' s 

PR I NT TAB ( 7 ) T ;; " SECONDS " 

INPUT "DO YOU WANT TO PLAY 
AGAIN ? ";Y$ 

IF LEFT* <Y* 5 1) = "Y" THEN 

RUN 

NORMAL 
DATA 1 j, 2 5 4 j, j, 5 , 3- 5 1,2,0 
tt 4 5 3 «, 5 ., 1 «, 2 ? 3 , 5 ., 4 9 -, 1 ., 2 1, 5 ? 3 .- < > 
, 4 



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30 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 





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disk drive has more juice 
than Apple's, be prepared 
to cut one open. 




The problem with Apple's disk drive 
stems from the core. 

There are a lot of good reasons why 
dealers all over America aren't recommend- 
ing Apple's disk drive. And one of the main 
reasons is Rana Systems' new Elite Series 
of Apple II compatible disk drives. 

It's easy to see why Applemas been 
having some major slipped disk problems. 
Just look at their antiquated head positioner. 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 



It's plastic. Just like a toy. That's why it can 
take multiple passes to get the information 
needed. And why the 
information on your disk 
can appear obscured and 
unreadable. If Apple's 
positioner doesn't accu- 
rately center the head 

Apples primitive plastic positioner OVer yOUT UdLd UaCKS, US 
A wobble, out sloppy, way to cap- n0 barga j n at any pr j Ce 





Rana's state of the art technology lead 
screw and metal band positioners give 
vastly improved speed and accuracy. 



Rana knows the head positioner is the 
heart of the machine, so we didn't cut any 

corners. To most accu- 
rately place the head 
over the data area we 
use finely machined 
lead screws and metal 
band positioners.They 
provide you with the 
fastest and clearest 
data recognition on 
the market. With three 
to four times faster 
access, track to track. With far greater pre- 
cision than Apple's, to give you virtually 
100% data integrity. 

More juice on Apple's inferiority. 

There's another big problem Apple has 
chosen to ignore. The irritating scratching 
noise that occurs when it is searching for 
information. Rana, on the other hand, has 
built the Elite Series to be virtually noiseless. 

And more importantly, Rana has an 
advanced write protect feature which 
makes it impossible to lose your information. 
A simple touch on the front panel's mem- 
brane switch gives you failsafe control. 
Apple of course only has a notch or tab, 
which gives you only minimal protection. 

With the superior Elite controller card, 
you can control up to four floppy disks using 
only one slot. With Apple's you can only use 
two. Of course, you can still plug into 
Apple's controller card, but down the line 
you'll want to switch to Rana's and save 
yourself a slot. 

Elite also gives you more 
byte per buck. 

Even our most economical model, the 
Elite One, gives you 14% more storage than 
Apple's. 163K versus Apple's 143K. With 
our Elite Two offering 326K and our top-of- 
the-line Elite Three offering a 356% storage 
increase at 652K. That's almost comparable 
to hard disk performance, all because of 
our high density single and double sided 
disks and heads. 




Elite Three 652K+356% 



Elite Two 326K+128% 



Elite One 163K-H4% 



And the cost? Just look at the chart. 
272 Bytes per dollar for Apple, versus 
between 363 to 767 Bytes per dollar for 
ours. They're not even close. 







ft 















to 














IS 














* 








Apple Disk II Elite One Elite Two Elite Three 



The real beauty of it isn't 
the beauty of it 

There is no comparison to the lean, 
clean design of the Elite Series to Apple's 
5 year old model (which by the way has 
never been updated). It's our superior 
technology, operating economy, increased 
storage and faster step that makes us the 
best performing and hottest selling disk 
drive in America. 

So give us a call or write for more infor- 
mation. It doesn't take a lot of courage to cut 
into an Apple when you outshine them as 
brilliantly as we do. 



RanaSystems 





20620 South Leapwood Avenue. Carson. CA 90746 213-538-2353. For dealer information call 
toll tree: 1-800-421-2207. In California only call: 1-800-262-1221. Source Number: TCT-654 



Circle 405 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 33 




Three Dee Tee 



John Stuart 

6345 South 70th East Ave. 

Tulsa, OK 74133 



Three Dee Tee is a computer game 
for two players, which runs on the 
Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Com- 
puter. It is loosely based on the 
Rubik's cube game and Tic Tac Toe. 
The object of the game is to color 
three cubes in a line either vertically, 
horizontally, or diagonally. The com- 
puter keeps track of every winning 
combination and displays a box score 
for each player. 

When you start the program, the 
computer draws two cubes. One cube 
is larger than the other and represents 
the front view. The smaller cube 
shows the back view of the cube as if 
viewed in a mirror. After the pro- 
gram generates these two cubes, it 
draws 9 smaller subcubes on each 
face. There are 6 faces with 9 sub- 
cubes each for a total of 54 subcubes. 

Next, the computer colors a sub- 
cube for player A. It then starts mov- 
ing the color cursor around the cube 
in an orderly fashion. It may take you 
some time to get oriented to the pat- 
tern of movement. Observe that one, 
two, or three faces can be colored for 
each subcube, depending on its posi- 
tion. If some of the faces are on the 
back of the cube, the smaller cube 
will show the color. Thus, a subcube 
can be colored on the front view, the 
back view, or both. 

The cursor starts at the subcube 
1 corner of the cube (see figure 1). 




Photo 1 shows the view at the start of 
the game. The cursor moves along 
each row of the cube, coloring each of 
27 subcubes in turn; the center one is 
skipped, so it takes 26 moves to 
traverse the entire cube. When 



player A presses any key, the subcube 
is permanently colored, and player 
B's color then starts moving around 
the cube. If a straight line of three 
subcubes together in a player's color 
are made, then a point is recorded in 



34 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



the player's column. The winner is 
the player who has the highest box 
score when all subcubes are colored. 

Program Design 

Initially, I intended to rotate one 
cube on the screen and let the players 
move the cursor using joysticks, but 
several problems forced me to aban- 
don this approach. The mathematics 
involved in rotating the cube in order 
to give a three-dimensional effect got 
very complicated for someone who 
had managed to avoid trigonometry 
in school. Even when I developed a 
BASIC program that would crudely 
represent an object rotating in space, 
it was too slow to give the appearance 
of a smooth rotation. Therefore, I 
decided to take the approach of 
displaying the front and back of a 
cube. 

I organized the program to do the 
following major tasks: 

• draw the cube views 

• move the cursor around the sub- 
cubes for each player 

• build a win table of all winning 
combinations 

• check each player's move against 
the win table, and display the score 

The flowchart explains the logic of 
the program routines that accomplish 
these tasks (see figure 2). 




BACK 
VIEW 



SIDE 4 



Figure 1: Numbering scheme used by the program to determine the position of the 
cursor. 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 35 



0-70 



INITIALIZE 

VARIABLES 

AND 

CLEAR SCREEN 



400-420 



SET 

VARIABLES 

FOR 

FRONT VIEW 



425-440 



SET 

VARIABLES 

FOR 

BACK VIEW 



GOSUB 



GOSUB 



71-399 



DRAW CUBE 



450-498 



READ 

WIN 

TABLE 



500-599 



MOVE 
CURSOR 
ON CUBE 



~l 

IGOSUB 

T 



GOSUB 



1100-1699 



MOVE ON 
SIDE 



800-899 



RECORD 
PLAYERS 
MOVE IN 
HIT TABLE 



~l 

IGOSUB 

t 



IGOSUB 
t 



900-999 



PAINT 
SUBCUBE 



840-849 



TEST FOR 
THIS SUBCUBE 
IN WIN TABLE 



GOSUB 



850-899 



DRAW 
BOX IN 
SCORE 
COLUMN 



Figure 2: Flowchart of the Three Dee Tee 
program. 



Drawing the Cubes 

The subroutine at line 71 is used to 
draw the cubes (see listing 1). This 
subroutine is written so that it can be 
changed to draw different size cubes 
at different locations on the screen. 
The instructions at lines 400-420 set 
the size and location for the front 
view of the cube, and lines 425-440 
change the size and location for the 
back view of the cube. 

First, the subroutine at line 71 com- 
putes the variables used to draw the 
cube using the size and location set by 
the calling routine. See figure 3 and 
table 1 for an explanation of these 
variables. The instructions at lines 
100-399 then use these variables in 
Line commands to draw the different 

Text continued on page 45 
36 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Listing 1: Three Dee Tee runs on the TRS-80 Color Computer and requires 16K bytes of 
memory. 

1 REM 3DT GAME COPYRIGHT 

2 REM 1981 JOHN C STUART 
5 CLEAR 100 

10 PCLEAR 4 
20 PM0DE 3,1 

30 B=3:F=2 

31 P=l 

32 AS=180:BS=180 

33 PA=3:PB=4 

34 PN=PA 

410 COLOR F,B 
5 SCREEN 1,0 
51 PCLS B 
541 DIM WN<48,3) 

55 DIM CCC27) 

56 FOR BN=1 TO 2 7 
58 CC(BN)=1 

60 NEXT BN 
62 BN=0 

69 GOTO 400 

70 REM C0MP CUBE VARIABLES 

71 Xl=X/3 

72 X2=X*2/3 

81 LC=H-2*X 

82 MC=H 

83 RC=H+2*X 

84 V1=V-2*X 

85 V2«V-X 

86 V3=V 

87 V4=V+X 

88 V5=V+2*X 

100 REM DRAW CUBE 

110 LINE(MC,V3)-(MC,V5),PSET 

120 LINE(MC,V5)-(RC,V4),PSET 

125 LINE(RC,V4l)-(RC,V2),PSET 

130 LINE(RC,V2)-(MC,V3),PSET 

135 LINE(MC,V3)-(LC,V2),PSET 

140 LINE<LC,V2)-<LCV4),PSET 

145 LINE(LC,V4)-(MC,V5),PSET 

150 LINE(LC,V2)-(MC,V1),PSET 

155 LINECMC,V1)-CRC,V2),PSET 

200 PAINT<H-D,V),P,F 

205 PAINTCH+D, V)jPjF 

210 PAINT<H,V-D),P,F 

300 LINE(LC,7+X1)-(MC,V+2*X2)>PSET 

305 LINECLCV-X1)-<MCV + X2),PSET 

310 LINE(RC,V+X1)-(MC,V+2*X2),PSET 

315 LINE<RCV-X1)-CMC,V+X2).,PSET 

320 LINE(LC+X2,V-X2)-(LC+X2,V+X+X1 ),PSET 

325 LINE(MC-X2,V-X1 )- (MC-X2, V+X+X2) , PSET 

330 LINE(MC+X2,V-X1 )- (MC+X2,V+X+X2) ,PSET 

335 LINE(RC-X2,V-X2)-(RC-X2,V+X+X1),PSET 

340 LINE(LC+X2,V-X2)-(MC+X2,V-X-X2),PSET 

345 LINECMC-X2,V-X1)-<RC-X2,V-X-X1),PSET 
350 LINECLC+X2,V-X-X1)-(MC+X2,V-X1),PSET 

Listing 1 continued o n page 38 



And The 
Winner Is ... IBC 
four Users, 



UMlfc. 




When you are racing toward that finish line, 
beating the competition is everything. IBC is 
the choice of OEM's, system integrators and 
dealers throughout the world, because in 
benchmark after benchmark our small 
business computer systems finish first. 

We finish first because we are faster, offer 
higher quality peripherals and can expand 
our system significantly beyond our nearest 
competitors. In fact, looking at the chart 
below, you can quickly see why knowledge- 
able resellers are choosing IBC. 





IBC 






Oasis Operating System 
(Max. Users) 


9 


5 


4 


CPU Speed (MHz) 


6 


4 


4 


Disk Speed I/O (MB/Sec.) 


.81 


.65 


.54 


Seek (Milli Sec.) 


35 


50 


65 


Cache Disk Memory 


Yes 


No 


No 




Circle 225 on inquiry card. 



Join us in the winners circle with high 
performance equipment and the best dealer 
plan in the industry. Call or write: 



OUTSIDE THE USA 



WITHIN THE USA 



'Integrated Business Computers 



IOC/ distribution 



21592 Marilla Street 4185 Harrison Blvd., Suite 301 

Chatsworth, CA 91311 Ogden, UTAH 84403 

(213)882-9007 TELEX NO. 215349 (801)621-2294 



Listing 1 continued: 

355 LINE(MC-X2>V-X-X2)-(RC-X2^V-X2)^PSET 

375 LINE(H-2*ABS(X)^V+2*ABS(X))-(H+2*ABS(X)^V+2*ABS(X) ),PSET 

399 RETURN 

400 REM DRAW BOXES 

401 FH*128 

402 BH=128 

403 FV=48 

404 BV=136 

405 D=2 

406 FX=20 

407 BX=-16 

409 X=FX 

410 H=FH 
415 V=FV 

419 REM DRAW FR0NT VIEW 

420 GOSUB 71 
425 V=BV 
430 H=BH 

435 X=BX 

436 D=-2 

439 REM DRAW BACK VIEW 

440 GOSUB 71 
450 BX=BX*-1 

460 FOR WC=1 TO 48 

462 FOR CN =1 TO 3 

465 READ WN ( WC J CN ) Listing 1 continued on page 40 

Circle 469 on inquiry card. 




Bell 212 compatible— 1200 Baud 

Full duplex 

1 120 CPS over any standard phone line 

Microprocessor design has invaded the modem 
world, Our new 1200 baud modems pack Bell 212 
compatibility into 10 integrated circuits— by far 
the lowest parts count of any 212 modem 
available. The extremely low parts count 
translates directly into long life, outstanding 
reliability and low production costs— savings 
passed on to you in a lower price. 

The Micro Link 1200 features originate and 
answer capability. The Auto Link 1200 includes 
these features plus auto-answer. Both units 
are FCC certified for direct connection to the 
phone lines via a standard RJ11C phone jack 
and include RS232, Self-Test, and a one year 
limited warranty. 

Take advantage of higher technology at lower 
cost. Call for full product specifications and 
today. 

Micro Link 1200 $449* Auto Link 1200 $549* 

'Suggested list price, quantity one 



H 



U.S. ROBOTICS INC. 



First, the IBM Personal Computer, 

The Next Step 

Tecmar 




The TECMAR Expansion series is the first 
and only, complete line of expansion options 
available for the IBM Personal Computer. 

Now totaling over twenty-five separate 
options, the TECMAR series gives you the 
broadest range of expansion available for 
your IBM Personal Computer. 






SYSTEM EXPANSION with a comp- 
lete Expansion Chassis providing six 
additional system slots, a separate 
power supply and styling that com- 
plements the IBM system. 

MEMORY EXPANSION in 64K 
"128K, 192K and 256K Byte incre- 
ments of Dynamic RAM with parity. 
32K Bytes of Static RAM, 32K Bytes 
of CMOS RAM with battery backup, or 
up to 128K Bytes of Read Only 
Memory. 

PRACTICAL EXPANSION with two 

Serial ports and one Parallel port on a 
single board, or a Time of Day 
calendar with battery backup, a Voice 
Synthesizer with vocabulary in ROM 
and phoneme speech generation, 
even a BSRX 10™ device controller 
for lights and appliances. 

DISK EXPANSION through the addition of a five or ten megabyte 
Winchester disk. The disk options come enclosed in the TECMAR 
Expansion Chassis, providing additional expansion slots as well as 
Winchester disk storage. This approach assures you of unmatched 
system expandability for nearly any application. 

FUNCTIONAL EXPANSION is also available with TECMAR 
Speed Disk™ and print Spooling Software that give new 
functionality to memory options. 

UNMATCHED EXPANSION for the serious IBM Personal Computer 
user through these and the many other TECMAR Expansion products 
available through participating COMPUTERLAND stores, and other 
fine computer retailers nationwide. 







LABORATORY/INDUSTRIAL EX- 
PANSION through an IEEE 488 
interface, the Lab Tender with an 8 bit 
A/D and D/A, or the Lab Master for 
12 bit A/D and D/A, a two axis 
Stepper Motor Controller, or the Parallel 
D i g i 1 1 a I - 1 n / D i g it a I - O u t Base 
Boa rd ™, Vi deo Di gi tizati on 
with Video VanGogh™. 

DEVELOPMENT EXPANSION using 
an E+EEPROM programmer, Proto- 
zoa prototyping boards or a TECMAR 
Extender card. 

NEW PRODUCTS are currently un- 
der development with many soon to 
be announced. At present shipping 
26 unique IBM add-on products, we 
are still looking for needs to meet. If 
you have an need for a new product 
for the IBM Personal Computer, and 
would like to ask us about it, give a 
call on our Product Input Hotline at 
(216)464-8317. 




For IBM Personal Computer Expansion, TAKE THE NEXT STEP . . . 

Tecmar Inc. 



PERSONAL COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISION 
23600 Mercantile Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44122 
Telephone: (216)464-7410 Telex: 241735 



Circle 453 on inquiry card. 



Listing 1 continued: 

470 NEXT CN 

472 NEXT WC 

473 N=0 

474 REM SIDE 2 

475 DATA 1,2,3*4,5*6*7*8,9 
477 DATA 1*4*7*2*5*8*3*6*9 

479 DATA 1*5*9*3*5*7 

480 REM SIDE 1 

482 DATA 1*10*19*4*13*22*7* 16*25*1*4*7*10* 13*16*19*22*25*1*13*25*7*13*19 

484 REM SIDE 3 

486 DATA 1 *2* 3* 1 0* 1 1 * 1 2* 19*20* 2 1 * 1 * 10* 19*2* 1 1 * 20* 3* 12* 2 1 * 1 * 1 1 * 2 1 * 3* 1 1* 19 

488 REM SIDE 4 

490 DATA 7*8*9*16*17*18*25*26*27*7*16*25*8*17*26*9*18*27*7* 17*27*9*1 7*25 

492 REM SIDE 5 

494 DATA 19*20*21*22*23*24*25*26*27* 19*22*25*20*23*26*21*24*27* 19*23*2 7 

495 DATA 21*23*25 

496 REM SIDE 6 

498 DATA 3*12*21*6*15*24*9*18*27*3*6*9*12*15*18*21*24*27*3*15*2 7*9*15*21 

499 REM MOVE CURSOR 

500 FOR 1/1 = 1 TO 3 
510 FOR L2=l TO 3 

515 FOR L3=l TO 3 

516 TIMER =0 

517 BN=BN+1:IF BN=28 THEN BN= 1 

519 IF CC(BN)>1 THEN GOTO 590 

520 REM TEST FOR ACTIVE SIDE Listing 1 continued on page 42 



"The Perfect Marriage" 



ARBA Register and Accounting Plus* . 

Great hardware now with superb software. ARBA 
register, the affordable, dependable RS232 on 
line cash register. Accounting Plus* Inventory 
Control software, comprehensive, timely, 
accurate. The ARBA point of sale software 
module that brings the two together. The ability 
to integrate on line real time inventory control 
with a total business package: G/L, Payables, 
Receivables, Payroll, Purchase Order, 
Budgeting, L/Y Comparisons, Electronic Spread 
Sheet. 



mm 



ARBA Fine Business Computing Corporation 
890 E. Roosevelt Road 
Lombard, Illinois 60148 
(312)620-8566 

ARBA Register-$1295.00-Suggested Retail 
Dealer Pricing Available 




TM Software Dimensions, Inc., Citrus Heights, Ca. 
TM Digital Research, Pacific Grove, Ca. 



40 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 32 on inquiry card. 



uperBrain II 



TM 









IC 






r||jrt 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


^ " INTE3TEC DATA SYSTEMS | 



J f f 7 



I ' 1 " * - I A I - I 1 1 

v u i o p ? L 



- Y " " r 
.■jr.. 



v • 



Sum ma Cum Laude! 



Just three years ago, Intertec stunned 
the microcomputer industry when its 
SuperBrain™ desktop computer gradu- 
ated with honors . . . outperforming all 
the others by achieving the best price/ 
performance ratio in its class. Today, 
that scholastic achievement remains un- 
challenged. At least until now. . . 

Announcing SuperBrain 11™. . . our 
latest microcomputer marvel that's des- 
tined to be the "Most Likely to Succeed" 
in the Class of '82. With thousands of 
SuperBrains in use worldwide, it's no 
surprise that SuperBrain II users have 
given our new model the highest honors 
yet. Standard features include a powerful 
64K of internal memory, a CP/M* oper- 
ating system, a 24 line x 80 column 
display on a 12-inch non-glare screen, a 
full-featured ASCII keypad with operator 
convenience keys, twin Z80 processors 
and dual RS-232 communications and 
printer ports. But SuperBrain II out- 
smarts its Class of 79 counterpart by 



offering leaner pricing, more features and 
better overall system performance. New 
SuperBrain II features include a faster, 
enhanced disk operating system, a li- 
brary of new visual attributes including 
reverse video, below-the-line descen- 
ders and impressive graphics capabilities 
and Microsoft* BASIC — all included at 
absolutely no extra cost! 

SuperBrain II's internal circuitry has 
also been completely redesigned and is 
now computer tested to ensure optimum 
field reliability. Plus, there are four new 
SuperBrain II models from which to 
choose, offering disk storage capacities 
from 350K bytes to 10 megabytes! But, 
best of all, prices start as low as $2,495, 
including software! 

Of all the single-user microcomputers 
available today, our SuperBrain II is 
certainly in a class by itself. Not only 
does it outprice and outperform its com- 
petitive classmates, it's also backed by 
our comprehensive customer protection 



programs — depot maintenance, ex- 
tended warranties, a satisfaction guaran- 
tee and a factory sponsored users group. 
All in all, the SuperBrain II ™ represents 
the most incredible microcomputer value 
we've ever seen (or probably ever will 
see) in a long, long time. 

Contact your local dealer or call or 
write us at the address below for more 
information on our full line of single and 
multi-user microcomputers. Ask for our 
SuperBrain II "Buyers Guide" and find 
out why so many microcomputer buyers 
who insist on quality and value . . . insist 
on Intertec. 



3 



sinte3tec 
Cdata 

=SYSTEMS. 



•Registered trademark of Digital Research ^Microsoft is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 



2300 Broad River Rd. Columbia, SC 29210 
(803) 798-9100 TWX: 810-666-21 15 

Circle 244 o n inquiry card. 




From Aspen Software 

The Only Complete Document Proofreading System 
For CP/M®, TRS-80® and IBM-PC Word Processors 



T.M. 



PlrfSOT 



Featuring Random House® Dictionary 

• Complete Accuracy-looks up every word; 
does not use less accurate root word 
analysis, plus Random House Dictionary 

• Full Interactive Correction-standard 

• Instant Access to Dictionary 

• Compact-Random House Dictionary 
supplied in sizes to fit your system 



(50,000 words standard) 



QRAMMATlk™ 

Beyond Spelling Checking 

• Detects typos, punctuation and 
capitalization errors, misused words 
and phrases 

• Analyzes Writing Style 

• Suggests Alternative Usages 

= NO ERRORS 

" The programs together (Proofreader and 
Grammatik) offer a dynamic tool for 
comprehensive editing beyond spelling 
corrections. " 

--Dona Z. Meilach in Interface Age, 5/82 
"Grammatik is the perfect complement to a 
spelling check program." 

—Dr. Alan R. Miller in Interface Age, 5/82 
"If you use a word processor and a spelling 
checker, then you should investigate the unique 
capabilities of this program. Grammatik is a 
surprisingly fast and easy to use tool for 
analyzing writing style and punctuation. " 

--Bob Louden in InfoWorld, 12/81 
"For the user who is as tight with his dollar as I, 
Proofreader is the program of choice. " 

-Stephen Kimmel in Creative Computing, 3/82 
"Anyone involved with word processing in any 
way, whether writing manuals, letters, 
brochures, newscopy, reports, etc. is encouraged 
to get the excellent program Grammatik." 

—A. A. Wicks in Computronics, 6/82 

Grammatik and Proofreader are compatible with all 
CP/M. MS-DOS (incl. IBM-PC), and TRS-80 word 
processors. Current CP/M formats; standard 8", 
Northstar, Omikron, Osborne, Apple. Please call/or 
write fordetailsof minimum system sizes and availability 
of additional disk and operating system formats. 
Shipping costs included. Please specify your system 
configuration when ordering. Dealers inquiries 
invited. 



Proofreader Grammatik 
CP/M, MS-DOS $129.00 $150.00 

TRS-80 Model II n/a $99.00 

TRS-80 Mod. I/Ill $89.00 $59.00 



Both 
$250.00 



$139.00 



Random House is a registered trademark of Random 
House, Inc. Other registered trademarks: CP/M: Digital 
Research; TRS-80: Tandy Corp.; MS-DOS: Microsoft; 
IBM: IBM; Proofreader, Grammatik: Aspen Software Co. 



Aspen Software Co. 

P.O. Box 339-B Tijeras, NM 87059 
(505) 281-1634 




Listing 1 continued: 
523 IF L3=l 
525 IF LI = 
530 IF L2=l 
540 IF L2=3 
545IF Ll»3 



THEN GO SUB 1 100 
1 THEN GO SUB 1200 
THEN GO SUB 1300 
THEN G0SUB 1400 
THEN GO SUB 1500 
1600 



560 



550 IF L3=3 THEN G0SUB 
555 IF BN=14 THEN 590 

559 REM DELAY LOOP 

560 IF TIMER < 60 THEN 
561 K$=INKEY$ 

562 IF KS <> "" THEN 800 

REM CLEAR SUBCUBE COLOR 
FOR M=l TO N 
PAINT<SH(M),SV<M)>,P,F 
NEXT M 



569 
570 
575 
580 
585 
590 
591 
592 
599 
800 
803 
805 
809 



N=0 

NEXT 

NEXT 

NEXT 

GOTO 

REM 



L3 
L2 
LI 

500 
RECORD 



MOVE 



3 TOGETHER 
TO 3 



play "L25;a;d;a;d;" 

CC(BN)=PN 

REM FIND BN IN TABLE 
810FOR WC=1 TO 48 
812 FOR CN=1 TO 3 

IF WN<WCCN)=BN THEN G0SUB 840 

NEXT CN 

NEXT WC 

K$="" 

IF PN=PA THEN PN=PB ELSE PN=PA 

N=0 

GOTO 590 

HT=0 

REM FIND 

FOR LT=1 

TM=WNCWC,LT> 

IF CCCTM)=PN THEN HT=HT+ 1 

NEXT LT 

IF HT=3 THEN G0SUB 850 

RETURN 

IF PN=PB THEN 8 70 

REM RECORD WIN PLAYER A 

COLOR PA..F 

LINE < 192^AS)-< 20 8, AS-4), PRESET, B 

PAINT(200,AS-2),PA,F 

AS=AS-4 

play"02;l2;a m 

RETURN 

COLOR PB,F 

REM RECORD WIN PLAYER B 

LINE <220,BS)-(236,BS-4),PRESET,B 

PAINT(224,BS-2)*PB>F 

BS=BS-4 

play"04;l2;C" 

RETURN 

REM PAINT SUBCUBE 

HP=SH-LM*CL1-1)+RM*<L3-1) 

H\7=SV-LU*(L1-1)-RU*CL3-1 )+DM*(L2-l ) 

Listing 1 continued on page 44 



814 
818 
820 
830 
835 
838 
839 
840 
841 
842 
844 
846 
847 
848 
849 
850 
851 
852 
854 
855 
860 
865 
869 
870 
873 
8 75 
877 
880 
885 
890 
899 
900 
910 



42 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 





The Best Made Better 



When we unveiled our CompuStar™ 
multi-user terminal system just over a 
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Circle 245 o n inquiry card. 



Listing 1 continued: 



920 PAINT(HP,m/),PN,F 1330 

930 N=N+1 1380 

940 SH(N)=HP 1390 

950 SVCN)»HU U00 

990 RETURN 1 4 1 

1000 REM SET VARIABLES EACH SIDE 1420 

1 100 BV=2*FX/3 1430 

1110 SH=FH-.5*BV 1480 

1120 LM=BW:RM=0:RU=0:DM=BW 1490 

1130 SV=FV+.5*BW 1500 

1140 LU=.5*BW 1510 

1 150 G0SU3 900 1520 

1190 RETURN 1530 

1200 BW=2*FX/3 1540 

1210 SH=FH+.5*BW 1580 

1220 LM=0:RM=BW:LU=0:DM=BV 1590 

1230 RU=.5*BV 1600 

1243 SV=FV+.5*BV 1610 

1280 GOSUB 900 1620 

1290 RETURN 1630 

1300 BW=2*FX/3:SH=FH 1640 

1310 LM=BV:RM=BV 1680 

1320 SV=FV-.5*BW 1690 



LU=.5*BW:RU=.5*BW:DM=0 

GOSUB 900 

RETURN 

BW=2*3X/3 

SH=BH:LM=BV:RM=BV 

SV=BV+2»5*BW 

LU=.5*BW:RU=.5*BW:DM=0 

GOSUB 900 

RETURN 

BW=2*3X/3 

SH=BH-2.5*BV 

LM=0:RM=BW 

SV=BV-1 .5*BW 

LU=0:RU=.5*BW»DM=BW 

GOSUB 900 

RETURN 

BV=2*BX/3 

SH=BH+2.5*BW 

LM=BW:RM=0 

SV=BV-1 .5*BW 

LU=.5*BW:RU=0:DM=BW 

GOSUB 900 

RETURN 



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44 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 534 on inquiry card. 



Circle 500 on inquiry card. 







• V2 



V3 



T 

T *, 2 

1 1 



V4 



• V5 



Figure 3: Location of the variables used to draw the initial view of the cube. 



Variable Description 

X one-half the difference between the center of the cube and the outer limits 

of the cube in a horizontal or vertical direction 

H the horizontal coordinate of the cube center 

V the vertical coordinate of the cube center 
LC the leftmost corner of the cube 

MC the middle corner of the cube 

RC the rightmost corner of the cube 

VI the top of the cube 
V2 V1 - X 

V3 V1 - 2X 

V4 V1 - 3X 

V5 the bottom of the cube 

Table 1: Description of the variables used to draw the cube. 



Text continued from page 36: 

lines required for the cube. The Paint 
command is used to color the sub- 
cubes. 

The subroutine that draws the cube 
is written so that the back view of the 
cube is drawn in the mirror image of 
the front cube, putting the face that is 
closest to the viewer on the bottom of 
the cube instead of the top. This is 
achieved by making BX a negative 
number in line 407, which reverses all 
drawing directions. 

The preceding change in the pro- 
gram illustrates the symmetry in- 



volved in drawing a geometric figure 
with a computer. When I finished the 
program, I felt that drawing each line 
using a command was a crude way to 
program this figure. I suspect a better 
programmer would be able to reduce 
the number of statements con- 
siderably by using FOR. . .NEXT 
loops. 

Moving the Cursor 

When I started writing the pro- 
gram, I thought that moving the cur- 
sor among the subcubes would be 
simple, but it turned out to be the 
hardest task. The scheme I finally 



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September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 45 



Circle 195 on inquiry card. 



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Subcube 


Vertical Horizontal 


Vertical 


Number 


Slice Row 


Column 


N 


L1 L2 


L3 


1 


1 1 


1 


2 


1 1 


2 


3 


1 1 


3 


4 


1 2 


1 


5 


1 2 


2 


6 


1 2 


3 


7 


1 3 


1 


8 


1 3 


2 


9 


1 3 


3 


10 


2 1 


1 


11 


2 1 


2 


12 


2 1 


3 


13 


2 2 


1 


14 


2 2 


2 


15 


2 2 


3 


16 


2 3 


1 


17 


2 3 


2 


18 


2 3 


3 


19 


3 1 


1 


20 


3 1 


2 


21 


3 1 


3 


22 


3 2 


1 


23 


3 2 


2 


24 


3 2 


3 


25 


3 3 


1 


26 


3 3 


2 


27 


3 3 


3 


Table 2: Values of variables Ll, L2, and L3 used to determine the position of the 


cursor. 







settled on was to move the cursor 
using three FOR. . .NEXT loops at 
lines 500-599. The outer loop (Ll) 
represents one of three vertical slices 
of the cube, the next loop (L2 in line 
510) represents the horizontal rows 
on each slice, and the inner loop (L3 
in line 515) represents the vertical 
columns on each slice. Table 2 shows 
the contents of the three variables 
that are used to control the loops for 
each subcube, and figure 1 shows the 
subcube numbers. 

An inspection of table 2 and figure 
1 reveals that the position of the cur- 
sor on a side can be determined by the 
value of one of the variables Ll to L3. 
For example, whenever one of the top 
subcubes (side 3) is addressed, L2 is a 
1. Line 530 tests L2 for a 1 and ex- 
ecutes the subroutine that paints the 
top side of the cube. 

The subroutines at lines 1100, 
1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, and 1600 that 
handle moving the cursor on each 
side use another subroutine at line 
900 to paint the player's color. Before 
it executes a GOSUB 900, the calling 
subroutine first determines the con- 



tents of the variables that will be used 
by line 900 to determine the location 
of the subcube to paint. The variable 
HP contains the horizontal position, 
and variable H V contains the vertical 
position that the Paint command 
uses. The amount of movement is 
determined by the distance each sub- 
cube is from subcube 1 when Ll, L2, 
or L3 is 1. 

For example, when the cursor is on 
subcube 1 then Ll, L2, and L3 are all 

1, and subroutines at lines 1100, 
1200, and 1300 will be executed to 
paint subcube 1 on three sides. When 
the subcube changes to 2, L3 becomes 

2, while L2 and Ll stay at 1, and sub- 
routines at lines 1200 and 1300 are ex- 
ecuted. These two subroutines store 
values in variables RM and RV that 
equal the number of dots needed to 
move to subcube 2 from subcube 1. 
When the statements at lines 900 and 
910 are executed, variables HP and 
HV are adjusted by the values in 
variables RM and RU, and subcube 2 
is painted. This procedure is used for 
each subcube. If you work out the 
values in the subroutines using table 



46 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



When We 

Announced Sage ii, 

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Circle 412 on inquiry card. 









Side and 
















Subroutine Line N 


um 


bers 








Side 1 


Side 2 


Side 3 




Side 4 


Side 5 


Side 6 




1100 


1200 


1300 




1400 


1500 


1600 


Variable 
















Name 
















BW 


2*FX/3 


2*FX/3 


2*FX/3 




2*BX/3 


2*BX/3 


2*BX/3 


SH 


FH-.5*BW 


FH+.5*BW 


FH 




BH 


BH-2.5*BW 


BH + 2.5*BW 


LM 


BW 





BW 




BW 





BW 


RM 





BW 


BW 




BW 


BW 





SV 


FB+.5*BW 


FV + 5*BW 


FV-.5*BW 




BV + 2.5*BW 


BV-1.5*BW 


BV-1.5*BW 


LU 


.5*BW 





.5*BW 




.5*BW 





.5*BW 


RU 





.5*BW 


.5*BW 




.5*BW 


.5*BW 


o 


DM 


BW 


BW 










BW 


BW 


Table 3: 


Formulas used to 


compute the distance to move the cursor 


to 


a particular subcube from subcube 1. 





3, you will see that the table does give 
the location of the subcube on each 
side. It also shows the formulas used 
to compute these values for each side. 

Keeping Scor$ 

A player scores a point when he 
gets three subcubes together in his 
color in a horizontal, vertical, or 
diagonal direction. Each subcube can 
have as many as three faces; there- 
fore, it is possible for a subcube to be 
involved in as many as nine winning 
combinations. In fact, you can score 
as many as 9 points on three different 
faces in one move. Photo 2 shows the 
game after one player has scored 6 
points by marking subcube 1. 

The program keeps score first by 



building an array in memory for all 
the possible winning combinations 
using lines 450-499. There are 6 sides 
with 8 winning combinations on a 
side, or a total of 48 winning com- 
binations. The winning numbers are 
read from memory in groups of 3 and 
stored in array WN, which is dimen- 
sioned in line 54. 

Each time a player makes a move, 
the subroutine in line 800 is executed. 
Array CC keeps track of the player 
who has colored each subcube. Array 
WN is then searched to see if the sub- 
cube that was just colored is in a win- 
ning combination. If the subcube 
number is found, the three subcubes 
are checked to see if they are all the 
same color. If they are, then the 



player is given credit for a score in the 
subroutine in line 850. The entire 
table of winning combinations is 
searched in this way, and all winning 
combinations are identified and dis- 
played. Photo 3 shows the game after 
all subcubes have been colored. 

Future Changes 

This program was written so that it 
could be easily changed. The colors, 
location of the cubes, and sizes of the 
cubes can all be changed by changing 
variables in the beginning of the pro- 
gram. The cursor can be made to 
move faster or slower by changing 
the constant in line 560. 

This version is a straightforward 
game without much variety. I am 




Photo 2: One player has scored 6 points by coloring the 
seven subcubes on the forward- facing cube. 



Photo 3: Screen display showing all the subcubes colored. 
The scores for each player are shown in the lower-right 
corner. 



48 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 152 on inquiry card. 



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working on another version now that 
will make the game more competi- 
tive. This can be done by moving two 
cursors at once, random movements, 
changing speeds, etc. You should be 
able to design your own game version 
with some thought. 

Some Reflections 

My reasons for doing this project 
initially were to learn the Color Com- 
puter's graphics capabilities, win the 
BYTE game contest, and do some- 
thing with my idle computer. Some- 
where along the way I thought it 
might be educational to other people 
and so decided to write this article. 

I did learn a lot about the Color 
Computer graphics, and what I 
learned reinforced my opinion that 
the Color Computer is a powerful 
computer for the money. In many 
ways the graphics are as powerful as 
those for the IBM Personal Com- 
puter, which costs considerably 
more. Some of the graphics com- 
mands are limited, but you can usual- 
ly find a way to accomplish your ob- 
jectives. Doing graphics in BASIC 
will probably be too slow for many 
projects requiring fast movement of 
objects on the screen, and these pro- 
jects will have to be done with 
assembly-language programs or 
machine-language subroutines. 

All in all, I am glad I engaged in 
this effort. I hope that you can learn 
something from my efforts that will 
save you some time on a computer 
project, or perhaps you will simply 
enjoy playing Three Dee Tee. If so, 
the effort will have been 
worthwhile. ■ 



Improved Version Available 

The author will make copies of an 
improved version of his program 
available to BYTE readers. Send a 
blank cassette tape, a self-addressed 
stamped envelope, and a check or 
money order for $8 to: 

]ohn Stuart 

6345 South 70th East Ave. 

Tulsa, OK 74133 



50 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 387 on inquiry card. 



Circle 285 on inquiry card. 



H 



■ 1 1 • . 






■ 




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Our yellow pages 

make the competition 
green. 




There's no recession at 
Alpha Byte. Our 
business is booming. 

In the past year 
alone, our sales have in- 
creased ten-fold. And 
they're still on the rise. 

We believe it's 
because we offer a uni- 
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prices and outstanding 
service — a package of 
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Our satisfied cus- 
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We built a reputation, 
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your satisfaction. It's no 
wonder the competition 
is envious. 

16K RAM KITS. ...13.95 

Set of 8 NEC 4116 200 ns. Guaranteed one full 
year. 

DISKETTES 

ALPHA DISKS 21.95 

Single sided, certified Double Density 40 Tracks, 
with Hub-ring. Box of 10. Guaranteed one full 
year. 

VERBATIM DATALIFE 

MD 525-01, 10, 16 26.50 

MD 550-01, 10, 16 44.50 

MD 557-01. 10,16 45.60 

MD 577-01. 10. 16 34.80 



FD 32 or 34-9000 36.00 

FD 32 or 34-8000 45.60 

FD 34-4001 48.60 

DISKETTE STORAGE 

5 'A" PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 2.50 

8" PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 3.50 

PLASTIC STORAGE BINDER w/ Inserts. . . .9.95 
PROTECTOR 5V«" (50 Disk Capacity). .. .21.95 

PROTECTOR 8" (50 Disk Capacity) 24.95 

DISK BANK 5 V 5.95 

DISK BANK 8" 6.95 

NEC PERSONAL 
COMPUTERS 

PC-8001A CPU 899.00 

PC-8012A I/O 559.00 

PC-8033A DISK I/O .....125.00 

PC-8031A DUAL DISK 899.00 

ALTOS COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 

Call Alpha Byte for our low Altos prices. 

ATARI COMPUTERS 

ATARI 800 679.00 

ATARI 400 (16K) SCALl 

ATARI 810 DISK DRIVE 445.00 

ATARI 850 INTERFACE 169.00 

ATARI 410 PROGRAM RECORDER 75.00 

EPSON CABLE..... 35.00 

MEMORY MODULE (16K) 89.95 

JOYSTICK CONTROLLER 10.00 

PADDLE CONTROLLERS 19.95 

STAR RAIDERS .35.00 

MISSILE COMMAND 35.00 

ASTEROIDS 35.00 

PACMAN 35.00 

INTEC PERIPHERALS 
RAM MODULES 

48K FOR ATARI 400 279.00 

32K FOR ATARI 800 125.00 

ACTIVISION ATARI 
CARTRIDGES 

LAZAR BLAST 21.95 

SKIING 21.95 

DRAGSTER 21.95 

BOXING 21.95 

CHECKERS 21.95 

BRIDGE 21.95 

KABOOM 21.95 

HEWLETT PACKARD 

HP CALCULATORS 

HP-11C LCD SCIENTIFIC 115.95 



HP-12C LCD BUSINESS 128.95 

HP-37E BUSINESS 64.95 

HP-32E SCIENTIFIC w/ STATS 46.95 

HP-33C Programmable Scientific 76.95 

HP-41C Advanced Programmable 211.95 

HP-41CV Advanced Prog 2K mem 274.95 

HP-41 PERIPHERALS 

HP-82106A MEMORY MODULE 27.95 

HP-82170A Quad Memory Module 89.00 

HP-82143A PRINTER/PLOTTER 324.95 

HP-82160A IL INTERFACE 119.00 

HP-82161A DIGITAL CASSETTE. . .... .419.00 

HPMATHPAC 29.00 

HP STATISTICS PAC 29.00 

HP REAL ESTATE PAC 39.00 

HP SURVEYING PAC 29.00 

HP STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS PAC 39.00 

HP COMPUTERS 

HP-85A PERSONAL COMPUTER 2195.00 

HP SINGLE 5VDISK DRIVE 1295.00 

HP DUAL DISK DRIVE 1995.00 

HP-85A 16K MEMORY MODULE 239.00 

HP-7225B GRAPHICS PLOTTER 2195.00 

HP PLDTER MODULE 605.00 

HP HP-IB INTERFACE 329.00 

HP STD APPLICATIONS PAC 83.00 

HP GENERAL STATISTICS PAC 83.00 

HP GRAPHIC PRESENTATIONS 159.00 

HPVISICALCPLUS 159.00 

HP ROM DRAWER 39.00 

HP PRINTER/PLOTTER ROM 116.00 

HP MASS STORAGE ROM 116.00 

HP RS-232 INTERFACE 329.00 

PRINTERS 

ANADEX DP 9500 1295.00 

ANADEX DP 9501 1295.00 

C-ITOH F-10 40 CPS PARALLEL 1545.00 

C-ITDH 45 CPS PARALLEL 1770.00 

C-ITOH 40 CPS SERIAL 1295.00 

C-ITOH PROWRITER PARALLEL 549.00 

C-ITOH PROWRITER SERIAL 695.00 

EPSON MX-80 W/GRAFTRAX PLUS SCALL 

EPSON MX-80 F/T W/GRAFTRAX PLUS. SCALL 
EPSON MX-100 W/GRAPHTRAX PLUS. SCALL 

EPSON GRAFTRAX PLUS 60.00 

IDS PRISM 80 W/0 COLOR 1099.00 

IDS PRISM 80 W/COLOR 1599.00 

IDS PRISM 132 W/COLOR 1799.00 

NEC 8023A 485.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 3530 P. RO 1995.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7710 S. RO 2545.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7730 P. RO 2545.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7700 D SELLUM .... 2795.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 3500 SELLUM 2295.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 80 389.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 82A 469.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 83 : A 720.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 84 1199.00 



OKIGRAPH 82 33.95 

OKIGRAPH 83 33.95 

APPLE HARDWARE 

VERSA WRITER DIGITIZER 259.00 

ABT APPLE KEYPAD 119.00 

SOFTCARD PREMIUM SYSTEM .625.00 

MICROSOFT Z-80 SOFTCARD 299.00 

MICROSOFT RAMCARD 159.00 

VIDEX 80 x 24 VIDEO CARD 299.00 

VIDEX KEYBOARD ENHANCER II 129.00 

VIDEX ENHANCER REV 0-6 99.00 

M & R SUPERTERM 80 x 24 VIDEO BD. . . 315.00 
SSM AID BOARD (INTERFACE) A & T. . . 165.00 

SSM AIO BOARD (INTERFACE) KIT 135.00 

APPLE COOLING FAN 44.95 

T/G JOYSTICK -44.95 

T/G PADDLE 29.95 

T/G SELECT-A-PORT 54.95 

VERSA E-Z PORT 21.95 

MICRO SCI A2 W/CDNTROLLER 510.00 

MICRO SCI A2 W/0 CONTROLLER 419.00 

MICRO SCI A40 W/CONTROLLER 479.00 

MICRO SCI A40 W/D CONTROLLER. . . .409.00 

MICRO SCI A70 W/CONTROLLER 629.00 

MICRO SCI A70 W/0 CONTROLLER. . .549.00 

THE MILL-PASCAL SPEED UP 270.00 

PROMETHEUS VERSACARD 180.00 

LAZAR LOWER CASE + 59.00 

MICROBUFFER II 16K W/GRAPHICS. . . .259.00 
MICROBUFFER II 32K W/GRAPHICS. . . .299.00 



MONITORS 

NEC 12" GREEN MONITOR 179.00 

NEC 12" COLOR MONITOR .399.00 

SANYO 12" MONITOR (B & W) 249.00 

SANYO 12" MONITOR (GREEN) 269.00 

SANYO 13" COLOR MONITOR 469.00 

ZENITH 12" HI RES GREEN MONITOR. . 124.00 

AMDEK COLOR I 389.00 

AMDEK RGB COLOR II... .859.00 

AMDEK RGB INTERFACE 169.00 

COMREX 12" GREEN MONITOR 165.00 

MOUNTAIN 
HARDWARE 

CPS MULTIFUNCTION BOARD 199.00 

ROMPLUS W/ KEYBOARD FILTER 179.00 

ROMPLUS W/0 KEYBOARD FILTER. . . . 130.00 

KEYBOARD FILTER ROM 49.00 

COPYROM... 49.00 

MUSIC SYSTEM 369.00 

ROMWRITER 149.00 

APPLE CLOCK 252.00 

A/D + D/A 299.00 

EXPANSION CHASSIS.... ..625.00 

RAMPLUS 32K ..149.00 



52 BYTE September 1982 



Circle 17 on Inquiry card. 



CORVUS 

FOR S-100, APPLE OR TRS-80 
MOD I, III 

Controller. Case/P.S . Operating System, A & T. 

5 MEGABYTES. 3245.00 

10 MEGABYTES ' 4645.00 

20 MEGABYTES 5545.00 

MIRROR BACK-UP 725.00 

CALIF. COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 

S-100 BOARDS 

2200A MAINFRAME 459.00 

2065C 64K DYNAMIC RAM 539.00 

2422 FLOPPY DISK CONT. & CP/M® . . .359.00 

2710 FOUR SERIAL I/O 279.00 

2718 TWO SERIAL/TWO PARALLEL I/O. 269.00 

2720 FOUR PARALLEL I/O 199.00 

2810 Z-80 CPU... 259.00 

APPLE BOARDS 

7710A ASYNCHRONOUS S. INTERFACE. 149.00 
7712A SYNCHRONOUS S. INTERFACE. . 159.00 

7424A CALENDAR CLOCK 99.00 

7728A CENTRONICS INTERFACE 105.00 

VISTA COMPUTER CO. 

APPLE VISION 80-80 COL CARD 329.00 

APPLE 8" DISK DRIVE CONTROLLER . . 549.00 

MODEMS 

NOVATION CAT ACOUSTIC MODEM .... 135.00 
NOVATION 0-CAT DIRECT CONNECT. . .156.00 

NOVATION AUTO-CAT AUTO ANS 219.00 

NOVATION APPLE-CAT 325.00 

UDS 103 LP DIRECT CONNECT 175.00 

UDS 103 JLP AUTO ANS 209.00 

HAYES MICROMODEM II (APPLE) 289.00 

HAYES 100 MODEM (S-100) 325.00 

HAYES SMART MODEM (RS-232). ..... 227.00 

HAYES CHRONOGRAPH 199.00 

LEXICON LEX-11 MODEM 109.00 

TERMINALS 

TELEVIDEO910 639.00 

TELEVIDEO 912C 745.00 

TELEVIDED 920C 830.00 

TELEVIOEO 950C 995.00 

ADDS-VIEWPOINT 599.00 

TRS-80 MOD I 
HARDWARE 

PERCOM DATA SEPARATOR 27.00 

PERCOM DOUBLER II 159.00 

TANDON 80 TRACK DISK DRIVE 345.00 

TANDON 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE 289.00 

LNW DOUBLER W/ OOSPLUS 3.3 138.00 

MOD III DRIVE KIT 615.00 

MORROW DESIGNS 

FLOPPY DISK SYSTEMS 

Controller, P.S., Microsoft Basic, CP/M® 

A&T. 

DISCUS 2D (Single Drive - 500K). . . .1075.00 

DISCUS 20 (Dual Drive - 1 MEG) 1695.00 

DISCUS 2 + 2 (Single Drive - 1 MEG) . 1 777.00 
DISCUS 2 + 2 (Dual Drive - 2 MEG). . 2317.00 

HARD DISK SYSTEMS 

Controller, P.S., Microsolt Basic, CP/M® 
A&T. 

DISCUS M10 (10 Megabytes) 3345.00 

DISCUS M26 (26 Megabytes) 4045.00 

ISOLATORS 

ISO-1 3-SOCKET 53.95 

ISO-2 6-SOCKET 53.95 

BARE DRIVES 

TANDON 5 1 /4 INCH 

100-1 SINGLE HEAO 40 TRK 209.00 

100-2 DUAL HEAD 40 TRK 275.00 

100-3 SINGLE HEAD 80 TRK 275.00 

100-4 DUAL HEAD 80 TRK 399.00 

TANDON THINLINE 8 INCH 

848-1 SINGLE SIDE 420.00 

848-2 DUAL SIDE 515.00 



MICRO PRO 

APPLE CP/M® 

WORDSTARS 222.00 

SUPERSORT't 145.00 

MAILMERGE't 79.00 

OATASTAR'f 179.00 

SPELLSTAR'f 119.00 

CALCSTAR*f 149.00 

CP/M® 

WORDSTAR 285.00 

SUPERSORT 168.00 

MAILMERGE ....103.00 

DATASTAR 235.00 

SPELLSTAR 155.00 

CALCSTAR 199.00 

MICROSOFT 

APPLE 

FORTRAN* 150.00 

BASIC COMPILER* ...315.00 

COBOL* 550.00 

Z-80 SOFTCARD 299.00 

RAMCARD 149.00 

TYPING TUTOR 17.95 

OLYMPIC DECATHLON 24.95 

TASC APPLESOFT COMPILER 145.00 

CP/M® 

BASIC 80 299.00 

BASIC COMPILER 319.00 

FORTRAN 80 345.00 

COBOL 80 568.00 

MACRO 80 189.00 

mu MATH/mu SIMP... 215.00 

mu LISP/mu STAR 165.00 

APPLE SOFTWARE 

MAGIC WINDOW 79.00 

MAGIC SPELL 59.00 

BASIC MAILER 59.00 

DB MASTER 169.00 

DB MASTER UTILITY PACK 69.00 

DATA CAPTURE 4.0/80 59.95 

PFS: GRAPH .89.95 

PFS: (NEW) PERSONAL FILING SYSTEM .85.00 

PFS: REPORT.... ...79.00 

Z-TERM* 89.95 

Z-TERM PRO* 129.95 

ASCII EXPRESS 63.95 

EASY WRITER-PRO 199.00 

EASY MAILER-PRO 79.00 

EXPEDITER II APPLESOFT COMPILER. . . .73.95 

A-STAT COMP. STATISTICS PKG 129.00 

SUPER TEXT II... 129.00 

LISA 2.5 59.95 

CONTINENTAL SOFTWARE 

G/L 199.00 

A/R 199.00 

A/P 199.00 

PAYROLL 199.00 

PROPERTY MGMT 399.00 

THE HOME ACCOUNTANT 59.95 

VISICORP 

DESKTOP PLAN II 189.00 

VISIPLOT 158.00 

VISITREND/VISIPLOT 229.00 

VISIDEX 189.00 

VISITERM 79.00 

VISICALC 189.00 

VISIFILES 189.00 

CP/M® SOFTWARE 

THE WORD-SPELL CHECK 75.00 

d BASE II , 599.00 

SUPER CALC 209.00 

SPELLGUARD 239.00 

P&TCP/M® MOD II TRS-80 175.00 

COMMX TERMINAL PROG 82.50 

C BASIC 2 115.00 

PASCAL Z 349.00 

PASCAL MT+ 439.00 

PASCAL/M 205.00 

SYSTEMS PLUS - 

G/L, A/R. A/P. P/R 1799.00 

CONDOR 1 579.00 

CONDOR II 849.00 

DIGITAL RESEARCH 

MAC 89.00 



SID 69.00 

ZSID 97.00 

PL/ 1-80 439.00 

SUPERSOFT 

DIAGNOSTIC 1 69.00 

DIAGNOSTIC II 89.00 

'C COMPILER 179.00 

UTILITIES I 59.00 

UTILITIES II ....59.00 

RATFOR 89.00 

FORTRAN 239.00 

TRS-80 GAMES 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI 34.95 

HELLFIRE WARRIOR 34.95 

STAR WARRIOR 34.95 

RESCUE AT RIGEL 24.95 

CRUSH. CRUMBLE AND CHOMP 24.95 

INVADERS FROM SPACE 17.95 

PINBALL 17.95 

STAR TREK 3. 5 17.95 

MISSILE ATTACK 18.95 

STAR FIGHTER 24.95 

SCARFMAN 17.95 

TRS-80 SOFTWARE 

NEWDOS/80 2.0 MOD I, III 139.00 

LAZY WRITER MOO I, III... 165.00 

PROSOFT NEWSCRIPT MOD I. Ill 99.00 

SPECIAL DELIVERY MOD I, III 119.00 

X-TRA SPECIAL DELIVERY MOD I, III. . . 199.00 

TRACKCESS MOD I 24.95 

OMNITERM SMART TERM. MOD I, III . . . .89.95 
MICROSOFT BASIC COMP. FOR MOO I . . 165.00 
LDOS 5.1 MOD I, III 159.00 

APPLE GAMES 

PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

CHECKER KING 21.95 

GAMMON GAMBLER 21.95 

MONTY PLAYS MONOPOLY 29.95 

BRODERBUND 

GALAXY WARS 20.95 

ALIEN TYPHOON 20.95 

APPLE PANIC 24.95 

MIDNIGHT MAGIC. 29.95 

SPACE QUARKS..... 24.95 

AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

INVASION ORION 20.95 

STAR WARRIOR 32.95 

TUES. MORNING QUARTERBACK 25.95 

CRUSH. CRUMBLE AND CHOMP 24.95 

THE DRAGON'S EYE 20.95 

MUSE SOFTWARE 

ROBOT WARS 32.95 

THREE MILE ISLAND 32.95 

A.B.M 20.95 

GLOBAL WAR 20.95 

CASTLE WOLFENSTEIN 24.95 

ON-LINE SYSTEMS 

WIZARD AND PRINCES 29.95 

MISSILE DEFENSE 25.95 

SABOTAGE , 20.95 

SOFT PORN ADVENTURE 24.95 

THRESHOLD 31.95 

JAW BREAKER 24.95 

CROSSFIRE..... 24.95 

TIME ZONE 69.95 



H/R FOOTBALL 32,95 

H/R CRIBBAGE 20.95 

PEGASUS II... 25.95 

SIRIUS SOFTWARE 

SPACE EGGS 24.95 

GORGON 32.95 

SNEAKERS 24.95 

EPOCK 29.95 

BEER RUN 24.95 

HADRON 29.95 

PULSAR II 24.95 

EPOCK 29.95 

EDU-WARE 

PERCEPTION PKG 19.95 

COMPU-READ 24.95 

COMPU-MATH: ARITHMETIC 39.95 

COMPU-MATH: FRACTIONS 34.95 

COMPU-MATH: DECIMALS 34.95 

COMPU-SPELL (REO. DATA DISK) 24.95 

COMPU SPELL DATA DISKS 4-8, ea 17.95 

MORE GREAT APPLE 
GAMES 

COMPUTER QUARTERBACK 32.95 

TORPEDO FIRE 49.95 

THE SHATTERED ALLIANCE .49.95 

POOL 1.5 29.95 

ULTIMA 33.95 

RASTER BLASTER 24.95 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR 27.95 

INTERNATIONAL GRAND PRIX 25.95 

SARGONII 28.95 

SHUFFLE BOARD 29.95 

FIREBIRD ....24.95 

SNACK ATTACK 24.95 

THIEF 24.95 

ROACH HOTEL 29.95 

JABBERTALKY ....24.95 

THE WARP FACTOR 32.95 

COSMO MISSION 24.95 

WIZARDRY 37.95 

ZORKI 32.95 

ZORK II 32.95 

SUPPLIES 

AVERY TABULABLES 

1,000 372 x 15/16 8.49 

3,000 3V! x 15/16 14.95 

5,000 3 1 /2 x 15/16 19.95 

FAN FOLD PAPER 

(Prices F.O.B. S.P.) 

9 Vz X 1 1 181b WHITE 3.000 ct 29.00 

14 7/8x11 181b WHITE 3,000 ct 39.00 




IPUTER 
PRODUCTS 

To order or for information call 

(213)706-0333 

Modem order line: (213)883-8976 

We guarantee everything for 30 days. If anything is wrong, return the item 
and we'll make it right. And, of course, we'll pay the shipping charges. 

We accept Visa and Master Card on all orders; COD up to $300.00. 

Add $2.00 for standard UPS shipping and handling on orders under 50 lbs, 
delivered in continental U.S. Call for shipping charges over 50 lbs. Foreign, 
FPO and APO orders, add 15% for shipping. Californians add 6% sales tax. 

Prices quoted are for stock on hand and subject to change without notice. 

31245 LA BAYA DRIVE, WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CALIFORNIA 91362 



Circle 17 on Inquiry card. 



CP/M is a reg. trademark of Digital Research. 'Requires Z-80 Softcard. fReg. trademark of Micro Pro International Corp. 



Product Description 



The Epson QX-10/Valdocs System 



Gregg Williams 
Senior Editor 



These are wonderful days for people who need com- 
puters. Microcomputers that do more and more are 
becoming available — and, paradoxically, they are 
becoming less expensive. The only trouble is that, be- 
tween the time you order a unit and it is delivered, 
something better is announced (but you know it will be 
six months to a year before the new unit will be 
available). 

As the saying goes, I've got bad news and good news. 
The bad news is that, yes, another wonderful computer is 
about to come out — from Epson, the company that has 
captured about 75 percent of the printer market. The 
good news is that the unit is supposed to be available by 
this Christmas. On the basis of Epson's track record, I 
believe they'll do it. 

BYTE was one of the few companies to be given a 
private showing this past summer of the Epson QX-10, a 
computer for less than $3000 that may well be the first of 
a new breed of anybody-can-use-it 'appliance" com- 
puters. Chris Rutkowski, president of Rising Star Enter- 
prises (a consulting firm that works closely with Epson), 
showed me the QX-10, along with a preliminary version 
of an extended word processor called Valdocs and an 
enhanced keyboard design called HASCI, both designed 
by his company. As you'll be able to tell from this article, 
I found them both very interesting. 

QX-10 Hardware 

For its retail price of less than $3000, the QX-10 (see 
photo 1) gives you a great deal for your money. It con- 
tains a Z80 microprocessor running at 4 megahertz 
(MHz), 128K bytes of memory (expandable to 256K 
bytes), two direct memory access (DMA) controllers, one 



free serial port (a second one is used by the keyboard), a 
Centronics-compatible parallel port, six clock-timers, 2K 
bytes of battery-powered complementary metal-oxide 
semiconductor (CMOS) memory (to hold certain infor- 
mation even when the computer is turned off), a CMOS 
clock/calendar, and a light-pen interface. The unit also 
contains two thinline 5 V^ -inch floppy-disk drives, each 
double-sided and double-density, with 40 tracks per inch; 
each drive holds 320K bytes. The video display, based on 
the NEC 7220 graphics chip, includes a 32-MHz medium- 
persistence video monitor and 128K bytes of dedicated 
video memory (shown as the bottom board in photo 2). 
The video display will work in either a 25-line by 
80-character text mode or a 640- by 400-pixel graphics 
mode. The QX-10 comes with one of two detachable 
keyboards — standard-layout or HASCI — more on that 
later. Finally, the QX-10 has internal space for up to five 
peripheral cards like those used by the Apple, Corvus, 
and IBM microcomputers. 

QX-10 Configurations 

The QX-10 will be sold in two configurations. The first 
includes (at the time of this writing) the QX-10 as de- 
scribed above, the standard-layout keyboard, the CP/M 
operating system, Microsoft BASIC, and STOIC (a fast, 
extensible FORTH-like language). This version is a stan- 
dard CP/M-based microcomputer for those of us who are 
comfortable with microcomputers as we know them to- 
day. 

However, the QX-10 was really designed for the 
average consumer, who isn't comfortable with 
microcomputers as we know them today. With the soft- 
ware included in this package, the QX-10 becomes (as Ep- 



54 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




Photo 1: The Epson QX-10/Valdocs system. 



son puts it) a symbol processor that anyone can use. This 
configuration of the QX-10 includes the hardware as 
described above, the HASCI keyboard, the Valdocs soft- 
ware, TP/M (a CP/M equivalent with its own 
enhancements), Microsoft BASIC, and STOIC. (CP/M 
may be offered in place of TP/M, but the configuration 
will probably be very close to the one listed above.) 

The Epson Philosophy 

Although Epson will certainly sell you the CP/M ver- 
sion of the QX-10, it is far more interested in selling you 
the unit it really designed — hardware and software 
designed in conjunction with each other to offer both 
high performance and ease of use. In addition to being a 
highly integrated word-processing /computer system that 
offers as much usable processing power as almost any ex- 
isting microcomputer, the QX-10 /Valdocs system is 
designed to be used without confusion by people with 
minimal technical knowledge. We've certainly heard that 
claim before, but Epson has delivered on this promise in a 
way and to an extent that no microcomputer manufac- 
turer has done. 

The Valdocs (short for "valuable documents") system 
described here is designed to manipulate what Epson sees 
as the four types of symbols that people use: letters, 



numbers, graphics, and time. The HASCI keyboard 
(scheduled to be described next month by Chris 
Rutkowski in his article "An Introduction to the Human 
Applications Standard Computer Interface") is shown in 
photo 3. It is designed with a set of function keys that 
relate directly to the most common operations people 
perform on symbols. In addition, these keys are designed 
to be sufficient to drive any future symbol-manipulating 
software — that way, the keyboard layout won't change 
even when more sophisticated software is developed. 
Table 1 gives a brief description of the HASCI keyboard 
function keys. 

Another aspect of the Epson philosophy is its commit- 
ment to ensure that all the parts of a system work 
together. (What's amazing is that the microcomputer in- 
dustry has survived while blatantly ignoring this 
philosophy.) In the QX-10 (with or without Valdocs), the 
computer, its software, and its peripherals are meant to 
use each other's capabilities to the fullest. This goes hand 
in hand with Epson's vision of the dot-matrix printer as 
the universal standard for printing. Epson has designed a 
line of printers that act identically and are capable of 
printing both bit-mapped graphics and text in varying 
degrees of quality (draft-, correspondence-, and — with 
some future printer — letter-quality printing). 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 55 




Photo 2: Inside the Epson QX-10. The top unit is the motherboard of the QX-10; the 
rear of the unit is closest to the camera. The connectors in the upper right corner are the 
five slots for peripheral cards. The smaller board (below the motherboard) contains the 
128K bytes of video-display memory; this card fits on top of the motherboard in the 
assembled unit. 



Valdocs 

Epson wants the average person to be able to buy a 
QX-10/Valdocs system in a department store, plug it in, 
turn it on, and be able to type in a letter without having 
to read more than the unpacking instructions. Based on 



my inspection of a preliminary ver- 
sion of the Valdocs software, I believe 
that this is a realistic view of the 
system. Although I can't do a full 
review of the software based on the 
short amount of time I spent with the 
system, I do want to point out several 
unique features of the QX-10/Val- 
docs combination. 

Help is available at any time 
through the HASCI keyboard Help 
key. An extensive text file of instruc- 
tions is on the Valdocs system disk 
and can be read by pressing the Help 
key. This key gives you a menu of 
subjects that might be of interest 
(based on what you were doing when 
you pressed Help), as well as access to 
the entire Help file via user-entered 
keywords. Of course, the QX-10 re- 
turns to wherever you were before 
the Help key was pressed. 

The Valdocs symbol processor can 
manipulate any of the four types of 
symbols at any time. Text can be 
entered at any time just as you would 
in any conventional word processor. 
The Calc key turns the system into a 
basic 4-function calculator. Graphics 
can be created via the Draw key. The Sched (schedule) 
key gives you access to a computer-kept appointment 
book, a built-in clock/ timer/alarm, and an event sched- 
uler; all these can be accessed without disturbing the file 
being edited. 




*m* 



m 



EPSON 



SHEW PQRf&KJWS 




Photo 3: The HASCI keyboard for the Epson QX-10/Valdocs system. 

56 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



The operation of all keys is as intuitive as possible. For 
example, when you use any of the type-font keys (Bold, 
Italic, Size, or Style), the video text image changes to 
reflect the use of those keys. When you hit the Italic key, 
all your subsequent typing appears on the screen as italics 
until you hit the key again to turn italics off. Also, keys 
like left-arrow, right-arrow, and Delete do their respec- 
tive functions to words and lines (instead of individual 
characters) when used with the Word and Line keys. 

It is impossible to make any major destructive change 
to your file without having the change explained to you 
and being asked to confirm it. In addition, the Undo key 
allows you to recover from the last major change made to 
the file. 

The Valdocs system supports telecommunications and 
electronic mail in a way that is transparent to the user 
(through the Mail key, of course). You can be connected 
to the remote user by either a modem-telephone com- 
bination or a local network (probably the Corvus Om- 
ninet). Valdocs includes software that allows you to send 
and receive mail and access remote bulletin boards and 
databases. 

The Valdocs file system is one example of the kind of 
levelheaded philosophy that is embodied everywhere in 
the Valdocs symbol processor. When you store a file, you 
give it a name of up to eight words — for example, "Letter, 
8/13/82, to Bob Jackson; new rate schedule." When you 
hit the Index key, you can get a listing of all your files in 
one of several ways — sequentially, alphabetically, or by 
match of a given word to any keyword in any file. Using 
the last method of indexing, I could get a listing of all 
documents that are letters, all documents done on 
8/13/82, or all documents that refer to a person named 
Bob. In addition, all documents are chosen by menu 
selection (so you don't have to type in a long file name). 
The utter sanity of this in comparison to file names like 
L081382.LTR is astounding. 

One interesting technical note: to interactively create 
such a sophisticated word processor with the given time 
constraints, the Valdocs programmers used the STOIC 
language (a public-domain variant of FORTH created at 
the Biomedical Engineering Center of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology and Harvard University) to pro- 
gram the Valdocs symbol processor. It is a testament to 
the power of STOIC (and other threaded languages) that 
it was used to create a project of this scale. 

New Products 

Given the enhancements being planned, it may be that 
Valdocs is not so much a product as it is a design that Ep- 
son will always be improving. Epson plans to have ver- 
sion 2.0 of the Valdocs software available by mid-1983 
(updates will be supplied at cost to owners of the QX- 
10/Valdocs system). Plans are under way for a color in- 
terface board and an Omninet interface board (for local 
networking). Epson is also considering such enhance- 
ments as higher-resolution graphics and additional 
graphics-oriented peripherals, as well as a portable ver- 
sion of Valdocs and perhaps a 16-bit system. 



System Controls 

• Stop — pauses whatever is occurring at the moment, letting 
you either resume or abort the operation. 

• Help — lets you select and read parts of the disk-based Help 
file. 

• Copy disk — lets you make a copy of a given floppy disk. 

• Undo — undoes the last major destructive action. 

File Controls 

• Store — lets you save what you are working on to disk. 

• Retrieve — lets you retrieve a file from disk. 

• Print — lets you print a file. 

• Index — allows you to see what files are on a floppy disk. 

• Mail — allows you to send or receive a file electronically. 

Applications 

• Menu — gives you access to miscellaneous functions. 

• Calc — gives you a 4-f unction calculator. 

• Sched — gives you access to the scheduling functions of 
Valdocs. 

• Draw — lets you draw graphics on the video display. 

Typestyles 

• Bold — toggles typeface between boldface and normal type. 

• Italics — toggles typeface between italics and normal type. 

• Size — lets you change the size of the type currently being 
used. 

• Style — lets you change the typeface of the type currently 
being used. 

Table 1: A brief description of the function keys on the top 
row of the HASCI keyboard. 



One enhancement to the QX-10/Valdocs system that 
Chris Rutkowski did describe is the Valdocs FPL (Forms 
Processing Language). This is an additional software 
package that would give the user access to a spreadsheet 
package, a forms generator that would generate records 
from keyboard input, and a report generator that would 
create reports based on a database of records. As usual 
with ideas from Rising Star, the Valdocs FPL package is 
actually more than it seems — the spreadsheet and the 
form into which data is typed are actually the same thing, 
and a record of data can automatically be created from 
the spreadsheet. This is a new concept that combines 
spreadsheet forecasting, online data entry, and database 
management. It sounds exciting and I am looking for- 
ward to seeing it at work. 

Final Thoughts 

From what I have seen, Epson has created an enhanced 
personal word-processing system that can be (and is more 
likely to be) used by the person with minimal technical 
knowledge. Almost every microcomputer company 
claims that its product can be used by anybody, but 
many people (even those with technical knowledge) still 
have trouble getting started in personal computing. As 
microcomputers become more powerful, easier to use, 
and less expensive, the claim that "anyone can use it" will 
become true in a fuller and fuller sense, making previous 
claims seem naive and hollow. Still, the Epson QX- 
10/Valdocs system may become the first microcomputer 
that "really" fulfills that claim. BYTE will report to you 
again when the final unit becomes available. ■ 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 57 



IMCC Report 

by Chris Morgan 

Sensory overload. 

How else do you describe the world's biggest 
computer exposition? It was the National Com- 
puter Conference, held this June in Houston, 
Texas, and it drew a crowd of nearly 100,000. 




The new Hitachi miniature floppy-disk 
system In a version to be marketed by 
the Amdek Corp. The floppy-disk car- 
tridge, shown at right, Is slightly more 
than 3 Inches wide. Compare It to the 
standard 5V4-lnch floppy disk, shown 
at left. 



The new Syquest miniature Winches- 
ter disk drive with removable media 
cartridge. Each cartridge holds 6.38 
megabytes, unformatted. The unit Is 
expected to sell for S750 In single-user 
quantities within the year. The car- , 
trldges will sell for about $35 each. 



Photos by Gregg Williams, senior editor, 
and Richard Shuford, special projects editor. 

58 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Olivetti's new M 20 
microcomputer. 





The Commodore series B 
microcomputer. 



I've been attending the NCC for 
five years, and until this year micro- 
computers stayed in the back- 
ground, playing a secondary role to 
mainframe computers. But this year 
the microcomputers came into their 
own, reflecting Business Week's 
recent projected figures showing 
microcomputers accounting for up 
to over 40 percent of the total com- 
puter market by 1985. A case in 
point, Apple's booth was the same 
size as IBM's, and it was attracting 
just as many visitors. Microcom- 
puters have become indigenous to 



the NCC Nearly as indigenous are 
the sore feet that come from trying 
to see several football fields' worth 
of booths in four short days. 

The big question \s f were there 
many surprises? No. And of equal 
importance, were there any signs of 
the beginnings of important trends? 
Yes. 

Of surprises there were few; no 
bombshells on the order of last sum- 
mer's unveiling of the IBM Personal 
Computer. Instead, the microcom- 
puter software and hardware com- 
panies appeared to be carefully con- 



solidating their positions, 
strengthening their distributorships, 
carefully evolving their product 
lines, and paying more attention to 
the needs of their customers. It was, 
in a sense, a much needed lull in the 
furious storm of research-and- 
development work, the fruits of 
which we'll see next year and 
beyond. Still, there was plenty to 
see this year. 

Mass Storage 

Suddenly, the miniature floppy- 
disk drive \s upon us. Announce- 



Scptemberl982 © BYTE Publications Inc 59 




Cromemco's new C-10 com- 
puter system. 



Vlslcorp's new VIslcalc Ad- 
vanced Version. 



merits of new drives came from a 
trio of Japanese companies— Mat- 
sushita (Panasonic division), Hitachi, 
and Maxell— who are all pushing 
one format. As well, Canon an- 
nounced its plans for a different, 
noncompatible format. This news 
follows on the heels of Sony's mini- 
ature 3-inch drive, which \s already 
in production. Amdek Corporation, 
an American company, announced 
it \s adopting the Matsushita design 
for its new miniature floppy-disk 
drive. All three noncompatible for- 
mats have miniature cassettes to 
hold the floppy medium, and they 
have double-density unformatted 
capacities of 80K bytes for the 
Canon, 437. 5K bytes for the Sony, 
and 500K bytes for the Matsushita. 
Each standard miniature floppy disk 
calls for a cartridge 4 by 4 inches or 
smaller and less than 0.5 inch thick. 
Sinclair has also announced a 
miniature drive for its new Spectrum 
computer. 

One of the most exciting an- 
nouncements at the show was from 
Syquest. It's a 3.9-inch Winchester 
disk drive with removable media. 
Each cartridge holds 6.38 mega- 
bytes, unformatted. The surprise \s 
its selling price: about $750 in 
single-user quantities within the 
yearl This does not include the con- 
troller. Even so, inexpensive con- 
trollers are now available, making 
this a very attractive design. The en- 
tire unit fits in the space of a stan- 
dard 5 'A-inch floppy-disk drive. (It's 
actually shallower, with a vertical 
dimension of 1 .625 inches.) The car- 



tridges will sell for about $35 each. 
The secret to the low price: clever 
use of plated-media technology. 
We'll be reporting on this new tech- 
nology in an upcoming issue. 

Tandon Corporation announced 
a slim-line S'A-inch floppy-disk drive 
for $50 (for quantities in the 
thousands of course), for the 
mechanical parts only. The com- 
pany will provide customers with 
schematics and drawings to build 
their own electronics if they wish. 
It's an encouraging sign that prices 
will soon be dropping in the mass- 
storage market. 

New Processors 

Intel announced two new impor- 
tant integrated circuits: the 80186 
and the 80286. Picture an 8086 with 
faster clock speed, some new in- 
structions, and the equivalent of 20 
auxiliary chips all on one VLSI (very 
large-scale integration) package for 
a single-user price (ultimately) of 
$35, and you have the 80186. It's 
the closest thing yet to a complete 



computer on a chip. The 80286 chip 
extends the idea of the 80186 to in- 
clude built-in memory management 
and protection and a virtual address 
space of 1 gigabyte. 

Systems 

Olivetti introduced its new com- 
puter, the M 20, with a Z8001 pro- 
cessor, a 5-slot expansion bus, space 
for two 574-inch floppy-disk drives, 
and up to 128K bytes of memory. 
It's one of the more handsome units 
we saw at the conference, true to 
Olivetti's style. The operating 
system \s Olivetti's own, called 
PCOS, and the machine will support 
Microsoft BASIC 5.2. 

Commodore announced several 
new machines. The BX256 \s a 
16-bit, multiprocessor computer 
with 256K bytes of RAM (random- 
access read/write memory), extend- 
able externally to 640K bytes, two 
processors (a 6509 and an 8088 for 
CP/M-86), an 80-column black-and- 
white video monitor, and a detach- 
able keyboard. A three-voice music 



60 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



synthesizer is also included, which 
uses the new 6581 microprocessor 
chip. An optional plug-in ZBO board 
Is also available. Price Is $2995. The 
business-oriented B128 offers 
features similar to the BX256's. 

Another computer, the PI 28 A, 
has 128K bytes of RAM, a 
40-column by 25-line 16-color dis- 
play, and a high-resolution 300- by 
200-pixel display. It connects direct- 
ly to either a video monitor or a col- 
or television set and sells for $995. 
An optional ZBO board for use with 
CP/M Is also available. 

The Commodore 64 offers 64K 
bytes of RAM, color graphics, and 
music synthesis for $595. A ZBO 
board can be added to run CP/M 
programs. The screen Is 40 columns 
wide by 25 lines down, and the pro- 
cessor \s the new 6510, which is 
similar to the 6502 with additional 
I/O (input/output) lines. Commodore 
gets the prize for the wildest styling 
of any computers we saw at the 
show. 

Cromemco's new $ 1 785 C-1 is a 
complete hardware/software sys- 
tem featuring a 4-MHz (megahertz) 
ZB0A, 64K bytes of RAM, a 1 2-inch 
80-character by 25-line display, 
double-sided double-density 
574-inch floppy-disk drive, detach- 
able keyboard, CP/M-compatible 
operating system, structured BASIC, 
a word processor, and a spread- 
sheet program. 

Son of Visicalc 

Visicorp announced the long- 
awaited successor to Visica Ic. It's 
called Visicalc Advanced Version. 
For $400 you get a souped-up ver- 
sion of the most popular software 
package in the field. Many of the 
best features found in competing 
spreadsheet programs have been in- 
corporated into Visicalc Advanced 
Version. As well, it has greatly ex- 
panded help files to aid the com- 
puter novice. 

Its new features include protected 
cells to prevent accidental loss or 
change of information, hidden cells 
to protect sensitive information, a 
new tab feature to guide users from 
one space to the next, more format- 
ting flexibility, variable column 




NEC's new APC (Advanced Personal Computer) executing a color- 
based spreadsheet program. 



widths, keystroke memory to repeat 
frequently used commands, and 
more. Visicalc Advanced Version Is 
compatible with the original 
Visicalc, which will still be sold for 
those who prefer it. Dan Fylstra, 
chairman of Visicorp, said that one 
of his goals in creating Visicalc Ad- 
vanced Version was to make the 
program more of a "black box" for 
nontechnically oriented users so 
that they won't be distracted by un- 
necessary information. To that end, 
much of the instruction manual has 
been incorporated into the pro- 
gram's help files. 

Software Trends 

I saw the beginnings of two 
trends being followed by some of 
the biggest software producers— 
Visicorp, Microsoft Consumer Pro- 
ducts, and Software Arts (creator of 
Visicalc and the TK Solver equation- 
solving package mentioned in last 
month's editorial). All three com- 
panies have developed programs 
that make use of enormous disk- 
based help files. By making help 
aboutthe program available literally 
at the touch of a button, these 
manufacturers hope to make their 
programs easier to use. Another in- 
teresting move Is toward the use of 
high-level computer languages to 
develop products that are easily 
transportable among various 
machines. Visicorp and Microsoft 



Consumer Products are using the C 
language, while Software Arts has 
developed its own proprietary 
language for in-house use. All three 
companies develop software on 
mainframe computers that have 
extensive diagnostic and perfor- 
mance evaluation features, and 
then they move the finished pro- 
grams to microcomputers. 

NEC's Advanced 
Personal Computer 

NEC Information Systems Inc. 
showed its 8086-based Advanced 
Personal Computer (APC). The APC 
Is available in two configurations— 
a monochrome configuration that 
includes CP/M-86, 128K bytes of 
memory, and two 8-inch 1 -mega- 
byte drives ($3998) and a color con- 
figuration that substitutes a 1 2-inch 
RGB (red-green-blue) color monitor 
for the monochrome monitor 
($4998). The color-based unit Is im- 
pressive: over 300K bytes of 
memory are used to give an 8-color 
640- by 475-pixel display with no 
limitations on adjacent pixel colors. 
The actual graphics display Is 1024 
by 1024 pixels, and the video dis- 
play Is a movable window within 
that area. NEC has already lined up 
a comprehensive array of business 
software packages for its machine, 
something that's sure to continue as 
competition quickens and the indus- 
try matures. ■ 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 61 



The Hanover Fair 



by Robert E. Ramsdell 



With nearly 9 million square feet 
of total exhibit space, individual dis- 
plays the size of a football field, and 
close to 600,000 visitors, the 
Hanover Industrial Trade Fair and 
Exposition \s the world's largest. 
Held this year from April 21 to 28 in 
Hanover, West Germany, this fair \s 
a showcase for hundreds of manu- 
facturers of office equipment and 
computers. 

CeBIT, the world center for office 
equipment and data processing, had 
a display that covered 1 .75 million 
square feet (about 20 percent of the 
total area) and spilled over into 5 
buildings. To give you some idea of 
the scale of things in Hanover, 
CeBIT's space alone was about five 
times greater than that of America's 
largest computer show, the annual 

Pentel's new computer. 



National Computer Conference held 
this year in June in Houston, Texas. 
Some 178 U.S. companies were 
part of the CeBIT display. The United 
States Department of Commerce 
sponsored a group pavilion there. 
Among the 60 companies from the 
U.S. that joined together to exhibit 
their products in the European mar- 
ketplace were Fortune, Corvus, 
Altos, Beehive, Durango, M/A-COM 
(Ohio Scientific), Micom, Morrow, 
and Televideo. In addition, Osborne, 
Tandy, Apple, Xerox, IBM, Cen- 
tronics, Cromemco, Data General, 
Digital Equipment Corporation, 
Micropro, NCR, Burroughs, Texas In- 
struments, Prime, Shugart, Tandem, 
Teleram, Vector Graphic, Victor, and 
more had booths elsewhere in the 
show. On public display were 




anywhere from 73 to 95 different 
computer models; the count depend- 
ed on whom I asked. 

More than 30 Japanese computer 
manufacturers exhibited, and some 
of their booths were three stories 
tall. The Japanese showed many 
new (and slightly revamped) com- 
puter models, including about 20 
16-bit machines, most of which run 
Microsoft's MS-DOS. The Intel chips 
(8086/8088) seemed to dominate 
these computers, but several models 
used the Motorola 68000. 

To cope with the huge crowds at- 
tending the Hanover fair, the city of 
Hanover has established a private- 
room registry, with offices at the air- 
port, train station, and the fair itself. 
The registry guaranteed a room, 
usually in a private home, to all 
visitors and exhibitors. Many 
Americans at the fair agreed that 
staying in a private home was a 
great cultural experience as well as a 
delightful and inexpensive way to 
absorb the German atmosphere and 
the gemutllchkelt (friendliness) of 
the German people. The language 
barrier never seemed to be a prob- 
lem, either at the fair or around the 
city.H 

Robert E. Ramsdell, CPA, is a microcomputer 
consultant who lives and works in Rockport. 
Massachusetts. His company. Pansophics Ltd.. 
publishes business- and financial-modeling ap- 
plications software for use with Visicalc and 
Supercalc programs. 




Another Japanese entry, from Sanyo 



The Epson HX-20 portable computer. 



Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar 



Build the Microvox 
Text-to-Speech Synthesizer 

Part 1: Hardware 

The 6502 microprocessor in this intelligent peripheral device 

translates plain English text into phonemes 

to control a Voir ax SC-01A. 



Steve Ciarcia 

POB 582 

Glastonbury, CT 06033 



This month's project may have a 
strange ring of familiarity to those of 
you who follow my activities in the 
Circuit Cellar. Twice before, in June 
and September of last year, I have 
written about peripheral devices that 
give personal computers the ability to 
speak with an imitation of a human 
voice. 



The September article (see refer- 
ence 5) described the Sweet Talker 
speech synthesizer, which has since 
become especially popular. The orig- 
inal Sweet Talker, a parallel-inter- 
faced synthesizer module pro- 
grammed by phoneme (speech sound) 
codes, was quickly joined by a ver- 
sion that could be plugged into an 



General-Purpose Computer 

The 6502-based microcomputer that 
forms an integral part of the Microvox 
is ideal for use in many other small- 
scale applications. Only the applica- 
tion software and the interface to the 
SC-01A chip are specific to the micro- 
computer's use in the stand-alone text- 
to-speech voice synthesizer. If you are 
among the many readers who write to 
me asking for suggestions on how to 
put together a low-priced, general- 
purpose microcomputer system, you 
should consider building the computer 
part of the Microvox design. 

The computer section contains, 
among other things, a 1-MHz 8-bit 
6502 microprocessor, a serial input 
port that can run at crystal-controlled 
data rates from 75 to 19,200 bps (bits 
per second) with full handshaking, 3 



parallel input ports, provision for up 
to 4K bytes of RAM (random-access 
read/write memory) and 16K bytes of 
EPROM (erasable programmable read- 
only memory), and an on-board power 
supply. It is suitable for use as a learn- 
ing tool for computer concepts, as a 
dedicated device controller, or as the 
center of an expanded microcomputer 
system (similar to systems that have 
been built around the MOS Tech- 
nology KIM-1 or the Rockwell 
AIM-65). 

The Micromint will be supplying 
essential components of the microcom- 
puter section of the Microvox for those 
who wish to experiment with it. And 
you may expect to see the same 
6502-based control-computer design in 
future Circuit Cellar projects. 



Apple II computer and operated using 
a text-to-speech algorithm stored on a 
floppy disk. 

But I wasn't satisfied. Neither the 
Sweet Talker nor my June project (see 
reference 4), the Micromouth, was 
flexible enough to fit the variety of 
applications I had envisioned. I could 
foresee applications requiring un- 
limited vocabulary (thus ruling out 
use of the Micromouth) that also need 
a smaller, more portable voice-syn- 
thesis system than could be made out 
of an Apple II. While I was content 
with the Sweet Talker's speech quali- 
ty, I did not want to try converting 
the text-to-speech algorithm to run on 
my Z8-BASIC Microcomputer. 

I next considered using the Votrax 
Type-'N-Talk. As a stand-alone voice 
synthesizer with a built-in micropro- 
cessor and 4K-byte text-to-speech al- 
gorithm, it does quite well consider- 
ing its moderate cost (see reference 



Copyright © I 982 Steven A. Ciarcia. 
All rights reserved. 

Type-'N-Talk and Votrax are trademarks of 
Federal Screw Works. 



64 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




Photo 1: Prototype of the Microvox speech synthesizer, which can pronounce texts consisting of English words from their represen- 
tation as ASCII characters according to fixed pronunciation rules. The Microvox contains a general-purpose 6502-based microcom- 
puter programmed to control the Votrax SC-OlA-based speech-synthesis circuitry. 



12). However, its design is somewhat 
limited for commercial applications. 

Not finding any other suitable 
product on the market, I did what 
any red-blooded engineer would 
naturally do: I decided to design an 
improved text-to-speech voice syn- 
thesizer. 

You are reading the first of two ar- 
ticles on the design, construction, and 
operation of a text-to-speech voice 
synthesizer I call the Microvox. This 
new device, like the Sweet Talker, is 
based on the Votrax SC-01A speech- 
synthesis integrated circuit, but it in- 
corporates new functions (most 
notably pitch inflection) and a larger, 
more complex control program. A list 
of its features appears in table 1 on 
page 66. 

To support its various functions, 
the Microvox contains a general-pur- 
pose 6502-based microcomputer pro- 
grammed to control the speech-syn- 



thesis circuitry. Program routines 
stored in ROM (read-only memory) 
activate various control options upon 
the user's command; the most com- 
plex of the routines performs the 
crucial task of translating the Micro- 
vox's input — a stream of text repre- 
sented by ASCII (American Standard 
Code for Information Interchange) 
character codes — into the special 
phoneme codes required by the SC- 
01A chip. Incidentally, this 
6502-based microcomputer is ideal 
for use in many other small-scale ap- 
plications, as the text box explains. 

As with many Circuit Cellar pro- 
jects, the Microvox design has been 
cast in printed circuit, and I have ar- 
ranged for The Micromint to offer a 
kit of the parts needed to build it. Fur- 
thermore, an assembled, FCC- (Fed- 
eral Communications Commission) 
approved version of the unit is being 
sold by Intex Micro Systems Cor- 



poration under the trade name Intex 
Talker. Information on availability of 
both products appears at the end of 
this article. 

I cannot thoroughly cover such a 
comprehensive topic in one article, so 
this month I shall present only the 
hardware and a brief overview of the 
system commands. Next month in 
Part 2, I'll discuss the design of the 
text-to-speech algorithm and the sys- 
tem software. 

Let's begin with an explanation of 
what we are trying to accomplish and 
a brief review of the Votrax SC-01A 
chip and phonetic speech synthesis in 
general. 

Text-to-Speech Background 

Many articles in BYTE and other 
technical magazines have been de- 
voted to the topic of computer speech 
synthesis. In general, they have dealt 
more with the production of the 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Lnc 65 



1. 


Phoneme-based speech synthesis 


2. 


6502 control microprocessor 


3. 


64 crystal-controlled inflection levels 


4. 


1K-character buffer 




(optionally expandable to 3K) 


5. 


6K-byte plain-text-to-phoneme 




algorithm 


6. 


Full ASCII character-set 




recognition and echo 


7. 


Adjustable data rates (150 to 9600 




bits per second) 


8. 


RS-232C and parallel input interfaces 


9. 


Phoneme access modes 


10. 


Serial X-on/X-off software 




handshaking 


11. 


User-expandable memory 


12. 


1-watt audio amplifier with 




volume control 


13. 


On-board power supply 


14. 


Music and sound effects 


Table 1: Major characteristics of the 


Microvox text-to-speech synthesizer 


(and of its alter ego, the Intex-Talker). 



Code Function 


IK 


synchronize speech and text 


!L 


line-by-line pronunciation 


!W 


whole-text pronunciation 


IE 


each-letter pronunciation 


!C 


pronounce by direct phoneme 




input 


!T 


pronounce by text-to-speech 




algorithm 


IN 


play musical notes 


!A 


pronounce all punctuation 


!M 


pronounce most punctuation 


IS 


pronounce some punctuation 


IF 


set monotone or flat intonation 


II 


set automatically inflected 




intonation 


IPX 


set intonation base pitch 




(where x = 1 to 4) 


IRy 


set intonation clock rate 




(where y = 1 to 16) 


Table 2: An incomplete list of some of 


the control codes and sequences used 


by the Microvox, with their functions. 


Part 2 


of this article will contain more 


detail 


concerning the Microvoxs con- 


trol capabilities. 



speech interface and the technology 
of specific synthesizers than with the 
applications to which speech synthe- 
sis may be put. Such treatment is 
similar to comparing computer sys- 
tems by their processor instruction 
sets only instead of the high-level-lan- 
guage software available for them. 
Today, far more computer users are 
concerned with applications than 



with construction of computers or pe- 
ripheral devices. The Microvox is de- 
signed for easy use in a wide variety 
of applications. 

With the majority of low-cost 
speech-synthesizer interfaces, the user 
must arrange for conversion of the 
material to be spoken from textual 
characters to data that the speech 
synthesizer can work with (pho- 
nemes, linear-predictive-coding for- 
mants, word codes, etc.). The dif- 
ficulty of conversion depends largely 
on the size of the required vocabu- 
lary. For small vocabularies, a table 
of words and their corresponding 
synthesizer codes can be compiled 
with reasonable effort. When the re- 
quired vocabulary becomes very 
large, all-inclusive tables become pro- 
hibitively cumbersome, and a gener- 
alized text-to-speech algorithm is re- 
quired instead. 

A text-to-speech algorithm is em- 
bodied in a program that accepts 
ASCII characters as input and per- 
forms a synthesis-by-rule analysis of 
character strings; that is, the algo- 
rithm interprets the characters as 
words or other elements of language 
and devises a scheme for pronouncing 
them according to a fixed set of rules 
that determine which characters are 
voiced, and in what way, and which 
characters are silent. The rules are 
based on how given combinations of 
characters are pronounced most of 
the time in English (or the language in 
use). 

Text-to-speech programs vary in 
length depending upon the degree of 
exactness required in pronunciation. 
Typical algorithms use from 4K to 8K 
bytes of object code for most pro- 
cessors, but some of the more sophis- 
ticated programs need up to 80K 
bytes. (Often, half of an 80K-byte 
synthesis-by-rule routine consists of 
tables of words that are exceptions to 
the rules.) 

The primary difference you can see 
between a 6K-byte and a 20K-byte 
program is how the input text must be 
spelled to obtain acceptable pronun- 
ciation; the final sound quality may 
be the same. Certain words may be 
spelled unusually to fit the prescribed 
pronunciation rules of the smaller 
algorithm. For instance, my name, 



Ciarcia, is properly pronounced by 
most synthesizers (and by a lot of 
people, come to think of it) only 
when it is spelled "see-are-see-ah." 
The only other major differences are 
features such as pronunciation of 
punctuation or inflected speech. 
(Both of these capabilities are sup- 
ported by the Microvox.) 

Strengths of Microvox 

While there are many speech-syn- 
thesizer interfaces designed to be used 
with a variety of personal computers, 
packaging the text-to-speech algo- 
rithm with its own dedicated pro- 
cessor greatly simplifies the integra- 
tion of any system. By creating an in- 
telligent peripheral device, we don't 
have to depend on operating systems 
and application programs to support 
speech synthesis. 

The Microvox text-to-speech syn- 
thesizer is just such a smart peripheral 
device. It speaks any ASCII character 
string directed to it through either its 
serial or parallel input ports. The 
ASCII text can come from PRINT 
statements in a BASIC program or 
from a previously prepared disk file. 
Microvox connects to the computer 
in the same manner as a printer or 
modem, and virtually anything that 
can be printed or viewed on the ter- 
minal screen can be spoken. 

The Microvox is controlled by the 
host computer through that same 
connection by means of special char- 
acter sequences either transmitted 
before the text to be spoken or 
embedded in it. These control se- 
quences are in the form: 

Wetter, numeral 

The exclamation point is a signal to 
the Microvox that a control sequence 
follows. Operating modes and op- 
tions can be changed at any time by 
sending the appropriate sequences. 
Table 2 lists some of the control se- 
quences and their functions. I'll write 
about the intricacies of the Microvox 
text-to-speech algorithm and the con- 
trol capabilities next month. 

SC-01A Phoneme Synthesizer 

As I mentioned before, the Micro- 
vox is a combination of two major 



66 September 1982 © BYTE Publicabons Inc 



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into a 76K .ASM file, containing 7500 lines of source code, and 
a 33K cross reference file in under two minutes with 8" SD 
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The unique user created information files let you specify 
labels for 8 and 1 6 bit values and the location of storage areas, 
tables and ASCII strings. The disassembled code can be sent 
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Each package includes a 30 page manual, sample pro- 
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68 BYTE September 1982 




The newest generation VEDIT combines 
sophisticated program development editing 
with useful word processing features and new 
powerful 'TECO' like macros. 



User Oriented 

Fast and easy editing for program development and word processing. Includes automatic screen scrolling, a status line with the 
cursor's line and column positions, an 'Gndo' key, and recovery from full disk conditions (you can delete files or change disks). 
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Exceptional speed and true what you see is what you get' full screen editing with a convenient array of cursor movements 
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ured languages such as Pascal, 'C and PL/I. Other features for assembly language, Fortran and Cobol. 

Word Processing 

Features include word wrap, adjustable left margin, reformatting of paragraphs, word and paragraph oriented cursor move- 
ment and deleting, and printing with imbedding of printer control characters. May be used stand-alone or in conjunction 
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C RT version supports over 40 terminals, including ANSI standard and all screen sizes. Utilizes smart' terminal features for fast 
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Ten buffers can hold macro command strings. These may be executed, edited, saved and loaded from disk. Macros can 
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CompuView 

PRODUCTS, INC. 
MAINFRAME FEATURES FOR MICROCOMPUTERS 



Circle 124 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 69 



+ v C c 



/ 



D 



2-BIT 
LATCH 



SELECT- WR1TE- 



BUSY/ INTERRUPT ■*- 



vcc 

MCRC 
P0-P5 MCX 



VOTRAX 
SC-01A 



AF 

AO 
CB 



GND 



T 



m 



CLOCK 

;c 



f = 1.25/RC 
R MIN =6 -5K 
C MAX = 300pF 
SET FOR 720kHz 



AMPLIFIER 




')) 



SPEAKER 



Figure 1: The general scheme to be followed in connecting the Votrax SC-01A to a 
microcomputer system. 



PHOnE 1 
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elements: a 6502-based control micro- 
computer and a Votrax SC-01A 
speech-synthesizer chip. I explained 
the SC-01A in detail in last 
September's Circuit Cellar article (ref- 
erence 5), but for new readers I'll 
summarize the important facts. 

The SC-01A is a 22-pin integrated 
circuit which consists of a digital code 
translator and an electronic model of 
the human vocal tract. The internal 
phoneme controller translates a 6-bit 
phoneme code and 2-bit pitch code 
into a matrix of spectral parameters 
that adjust the vocal-tract model to 
synthesize speech. 

The SC-01A is manufactured using 
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide 
semiconductor) technology and oper- 
ates within a range from +7 to +14 
V. Handshaking with external control 
circuitry is accomplished through a 
strobe (STB) line and an acknowl- 
edge/request (A/R) line. A diagram 
of the generalized connection scheme 
appears as figure 1. 

The output pitch of the SC-OlA's 
voice is controlled by the frequency 
of the clock signal, which can either 
be supplied from an external source 
or set internally with a resistor/ca- 
pacitor combination. The clock fre- 
quency is nominally 720 kHz, but 
subtle variations of pitch can be in- 
duced to add inflection by varying 
this frequency. Such variations pre- 
vent the synthesized voice from 
sounding too monotonous or arti- 
ficial. Two separate pitch-control 
lines, II and 12, are available for gross 
variations in pitch so that the chip 
can seem to speak with more than one 
voice. These so-called manual-inflec- 
tion controls operate independently 
of clock-rate-induced inflection. 

The 64 SC-01A phonemes defined 
for the English language are listed in 
table 3 on page 72. Most of these cor- 
respond to speech sounds, but two 
produce silence and one causes speech 
synthesis to stop. The sound for each 
phoneme is generated when a 6-bit. 
phoneme code is placed on the con- 
trol-register input lines (P0 through 
P5) and latched by pulsing the strobe 
(STB) input. Each phoneme is inter- 
nally timed and has a duration rang- 
ing from 47 to 250 ms (milliseconds) 
depending on the phoneme selected 



70 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Hexadecimal 


Phoneme 


ASCII 


Duration 


Example Word 


Phoneme 


Symbol 


Character 


(ms) 




Code 










00 


EH3 


@ 


59 


jacket 


01 


EH2 


A 


71 


enlist 


02 


EH1 


B 


121 


heavy 


03 


PA0 


C 


47 


no sound 


04 


DT 


D 


47 


buffer 


05 


A2 


E 


71 


make 


06 


A1 


F 


103 


pa/I 


07 


ZH 


G 


90 


pleasure 


08 


AH2 


H 


71 


honest 


09 


13 


I 


55 


inhib/t 


0A 


12 


J 


80 


/nhibit 


0B 


11 


K 


121 


inn/bit 


OC 


M 


L 


103 


mat 


0D 


N 


M 


80 


sun 


0E 


B 


N 


71 


bag 


OF 


V 


O 


71 


van 


10 


CH 


P 


71 


chip 


11 


SH 


Q 


121 


shop 


12 


Z 


R 


71 


zoo 


13 


AW1 


S 


146 


lawful 


14 


NG 


T 


121 


thing 


15 


AH1 


U 


146 


father 


16 


001 


V 


103 


looking 


17 


OO 


W 


185 


book 


18 


L 


X 


103 


/and 


19 


K 


Y 


80 


trick 


1A 


J 


Z 


47 


judge 


1B 


H 


[ 


71 


he\\o 


1C 


G 


\ 


71 


get 


1D 


F 


\ 


103 


fast 


1E 


D 




55 


paid 


1F 


S 





90 


pass 


20 


A 


(space) 


185 


tame 


21 


AY 


i 


65 


jade 


22 


Y1 


" 


80 


yard 


23 


UH3 


# 


47 


miss/on 


24 


AH 


$ 


250 


mop 


25 


P 


% 


103 


past 


26 


O 


& 


185 


cold 


27 


I 


' 


185 


p/'n 


28 


U 


( 


185 


move 


29 


Y 


) 


103 


any 


2A 


T 


* 


71 


rap 


2B 


R 


+ 


90 


red 


2C 


E 


( 


185 


meet 


2D 


W 


- 


80 


win 


2E 


AE 


. 


185 


dad 


2F 


AE1 


/ 


103 


after 


30 


AW2 





90 


salty 


31 


UH2 


1 


71 


about 


32 


UH1 


2 


103 


uncle 


33 


UH 


3 


185 


cup 


34 


02 


4 


80 


bold 


35 


01 


5 


121 


aboard 


36 


IU 


6 


59 


you 


37 


U1 


7 


90 


June 


38 


THV 


8 


80 


the 


39 


TH 


9 


71 


thin 


3A 


ER 




146 


bird 


3B 


EH 


; 


185 


ready 


3C 


E1 


< 


121 


be 


3D 


AW 


= 


250 


call 


3E 


PA1 


> 


185 


no sound 


3F 


STOP 


? 


47 


no sound 


Note: T must precede CH to produce "CH" sound. 






D must precede J to produce 


"J" sound. 






Table 3: The 64 SC-01A phonemes defined for the 


English language. Most of these 


correspond to speech sounds; two 


produce silence, 


and one 


causes speech synthesis 


to stop. 











72 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




Amdek's Video-300 green phosphor monitor 
is the easy-reading choice for almost any 
system— including IBM and Apple. 



Everything about our 12" Video-300 
monitor was designed to be easy. Easy 
to read. Easy to use. And easy to match 
up with practically any computer or 
word processing system, including the 
popular Apple and IBM personal com- 
puters. So it's easy to see why you 
should choose Video-300 for your text 
display needs. 

Amdek's Video-300 monitor 
features: 

• Non-glare screen to eliminate dis- 
tracting reflections 

• P-31 green phosphor display for 
no-strain viewing 

• 80 x 24 character display 



• 18MHz band width 900 lines [center] 
resolution 

• Built-in carrying handle for porta- 
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• Light-weight, industrial-grade cabine- 
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• UL, FCC approved 

• Full one-year warranty covering 
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So ask your dealer about Video-300 
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Amdek Corporation, 2420 E. Oakton St., Suite E, Arlington Heights, 1L 60005. [312] 364-1180 • TLX: 25-4786 

Circle 22 on inquiry card. BYTE September 1982 73 



PARALLEL 
I/O INTERFACE 



POWER SUPPLY 
+ 5V, +12V, -12V 
(TO ALL SECTIONS) 



ASCII 
DATA— +{ 
INPUT 



SERIAL 

I/O INTERFACE 



6502 
MICROPROCESSOR 



150-9600BPS 



CLOCK CIRCUITRY 
DATA- RATE 
GENERATOR 



4.9152MHz 



1.22MHz 



EPROM 

(TEXT-TO-SPEECH 

ALGORITHM) 



PROGRAMMABLE 

INFLECTION 

CIRCUITRY 



RAM 

(INPUT BUFFER, 

CONVERSION TABLES, ETC.) 



SC-01A 

VOICE 

SYNTHESIZER 



AMPLIFIER 

AND 

FILTER 



o 



VOICE SYNTHESIZER SECTION 
COMPUTER SECTION 



Figure 2: Block diagram of Microvox. The Microvox hardware can be viewed as a general-purpose 6502-based computer with a 
speech synthesizer attached using a memory-mapped I/O (input /output) port. 

The computer section (shown in black) uses 14 integrated circuits for serial and parallel I/O, address decoding, memory, and other 
processing functions. Five additional chips (outlined in red) constitute the phoneme synthesizer, inflection circuitry, and audio 
amplifier. 



and the clock frequency. The A/R 
line goes from a logic 1 to a logic 
while a phoneme is sounding. 

The usual method for using the SC- 
01 A with a microprocessor sets up the 
hardware so that the computer sys- 
tem directly times the transmission of 
phoneme codes. This method sends 
phoneme codes to the synthesizer 
chip through a latched parallel output 
port and monitors the synthesizer's 
activities through the A/R line, 
which is connected to an input port or 
interrupt line. 

Microvox Hardware Overview 

Figure 2 is a basic block diagram of 
Microvox. As previously mentioned, 
the Microvox contains its own micro- 
computer that allows the unit to be 
configured to function as an intelli- 
gent peripheral device; therefore, the 
Microvox hardware can be viewed as 
a general-purpose 6502-based com- 
puter with a speech synthesizer at- 
tached using a memory-mapped I/O 
(input/ output) port. 

The computer section uses 14 inte- 



grated circuits for serial and parallel 
I/O, address decoding, memory, and 
other processing functions. Five addi- 
tional chips constitute the phoneme 
synthesizer, inflection circuitry, and 
audio amplifier (outlined in red). 



Variations In pitch 

prevent the 

synthesized voice from 

sounding too 

monotonous or 

artificial. 

The Microvox is best explained by 
dividing the circuitry into four func- 
tional subsections: processor and tim- 
ing, memory, serial and parallel I/O, 
and speech synthesizer. A complete 
schematic diagram of Microvox ap- 
pears as figure 3a on pages 76 and 77 
and figure 3b on pages 78 and 79. 

Processor and Data-Rate Clock 

The 1-MHz (megahertz) 6502 



microprocessor, the same type used 
in the Apple II and Atari 800 com- 
puters, and the data-rate generator 
(shown by itself in figure 4 on page 
80) obtain their clock signals from a 
circuit that divides down a 4.9152- 
MHz frequency from a crystal-con- 
trolled oscillator. You may find the 
rationale for using this low-cost clock 
divider interesting. 

Most data-rate-generator circuits 
are very costly because they use spe- 
cialized data-rate generator chips 
such as the COM5016, which you 
must have if you really need to cover 
134.5 and 110 bps (bits per second) as 
well as the other standard data rates 
from 75 to 19,200 bps. The former 
two data rates are the only ones that 
require oddball frequencies. If you 
can get along without them (and most 
people can nowadays), no special 
divider networks or integrated cir- 
cuits are required. By using a 
4.9152-MHz (75 X2 16 ) base frequency 
and a 12-stage binary divider (a 
CD4040, IC6 in figure 4), the nine re- 
maining rates are derived directly. 



74 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Although the Datasouth DS180 matrix printer may not exactly rate as a work of art, our customers have a very 
high opinion of its value. Over the past year, we have shipped thousands of DS180 printers to customers throughout 
the world. Many of our sales now come in the form of repeat business— a strong testimonial to the acceptance of 
a product. 

The success of the DS180 in a very competitive market did not happen by accident; rather through our sensitivity 
to the needs of the industry. This sensitivity we carry through research and development, production and quality con- 
trol and finally to after sales support and service. 

Recently we introduced new enhancements to make the DS180 printer even more versatile. Dot addressable raster 
scan graphics produces output of computer generated charts, maps and graphs at a resolution of 75 x 72 dots per 
inch. Variable horizontal pitch selection allows printing at 10, 12 
or 16.5 characters per inch plus double wide printing at 5, 6 or 
8.25 characters per inch. The expanded 2K FIFO print buffer 
handles a full CRT screen dump at up to 9600 baud without de- 
laying the host system. We also offer transparent mode for isolat- 
ing communications problems, and for APL users, the dual ASCII/ 
APL character set option. 

Check our list of features and we think you will agree that the DS 180 
offers the most complete performance package in matrix printers. 



DS180 PRINTER STANDARD FEATURES 

• Microprocessor Control • Vertical Tabs 

• 180 CPS Print Speed • Perforation Skip-Over 

• Bidirectional/Logic Seeking • Auto Line Feed 

• 1000 Character Buffer (Expandable) • 6/8 LPI 



OPTIONAL FEATURES 

• Compressed Print— 10. 12, 16.5 cpi 




. 9x7 Dot Matrix 

• Expanded Characters 

• Adjustable Printhead/1-6 Copies 
.96 ASCII Character Set 

• Cartridge Ribbon 

• 132 Column Print Width 

• TractorFeed (Front or Bottom) 

• Non-Volatile Format Retention 
•Top of Form 

• Horizontal Tabs 



• Auto End of Line Carriage Return 

• 5 IPS Paper Slew 

• Parallel and Serial Interfaces 

• 110-9600 Baud Communications 

• Terminal Status Indicators 

• Audio Alarm 
. Self-Test 

• X-on. X-off 

• Paper Out Detection 



Addressable Graphics 

• 2k Expanded Print Buffer 

• APL/ASCII Character Set 



The DS180 is available nationwide through our 
network of sales/service distributors. 



tSnZrgfKraKi-WKE 




• • 



! Now Available Nationwide ' 
Through Participating 



44) iiJl! | COMPUTERLAND Stores 




Circle 149 on inquiry card. 




mM\ 



computer corporation 

P.O. Box 240947 • Charlotte, NC 28224 • 704/523-8500 




DATA-RATE — 
CLOCK j>0 



R/W 



$2 



NOTES: 

LETTERS INSIDE CONNECTORS 
INDICATE CONNECTION TO THE 
SAME LETTER CONNECTOR IN 
FIGURE 3b. 

BPS=BITS PER SECOND 

SEE TEXT FOR EXPLANATION 
OF JUMPER AND SWITCH 
SETTINGS 



CLOCK 



IC6 
CD4040 



Q12 
Oil 
Q10 

09 
Q8 
07 
06 
05 
04 

Q3 
02 



1 



SW2 

DATA -RATE 

SELECT 

JP1 75 BPS 

-o o- 



13. 



4_ 
_5_ 

3 p^ Q 7 

JP2 



12, 

10, 

9 . 



8 G 




150 BPS 
300 BPS 
600 BPS 
1200BPS 
2400BPS 
4800BPS 
9600 BPS 
19200 BPS 



<T^b-j0.61MHz 

7 ■ o 0-J1.22MH2 



IC8 
7400 



h5V 



111 

8d 



JP3 



5V 
A 



9 

1.22 MHz 



irq nr>- 



+ 5V 



+ 5V 



Dl 
1N4148 



: — v> 



IC7 
74LS04 



C8 
10^F 



&>- 







RES 



IC1 
6502 



#0 



IRQ 



*2 
01 
DO 
Dl 
D2 
D3 
D4 
D5 
D6 
D7 

AO 

Al 

A2 

A3 

A4 

A5 

A6 

A7 

A8 

A9 

A10 

All 

A12 

A13 

A 14 

A15 



U 

8b 



{JE>^ 



m 



(Jj 



RES 



NOTE: 

ASTERISKS INDICATE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 
WHERE 0.1 /iF DECOUPLING CAPACITORS 
SHOULD BE ADDED. 



Number 


Type 


+ 5V 


GND 


-12V +12V 


IC1 


6502 


8 


1,21 




*IC2 


2016 


24 


12 




IC3 


2016 


24 


12 




IC4 


2716/32/64 


26,28 


14 




IC5 


2716/32/64 


26,28 


14 




*IC6 


CD4040 


16 


8 




IC7 


74LS04 


14 


7 




*IC8 


74LS00 


14 


7 




*IC9 


74LS139 


16 


8 




IC10 


6850 


12 


1 




*IC11 


8255 


26 


7 




IC12 


SC-01A 




18 


1 


IC13 


74LS175 


16 


8 




Id 4 


74LS174 


14 


7 




IC15 


LM386 




4 


6 


MC16 


7407 


14 


7 




IC17 


MC1488 




7 


1 14 


IC18 


MC1489 


14 


7 




*IC19 


7497 


16 


8 





Figure 3a: A section of the Microvox schematic diagram. Shown here are the 6502 microprocessor and the timing section. The 
schematic is continued in figure 3b on the next two pages. 



76 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 





It 












21 


20 






I 21 


20 








8 


WE OE 
AO 

Al IC2 
A2 2016 
A3 DO 
A4 Dl 
A5 D2 
A6 D3 
A7 D4 
A8 D5 
A9 D6 
AlO D7 
CS 


9 r 9 


WE OE 

AO 
IC3 A1 
2016 A2 
DO A3 
Dl A4 
D2 A5 
D3 A6 
D4 A7 
D5 A8 
D6 A9 
D7 AlO 

CS 


8 










7 


7 










6 


6 














5 


5 














4 


10 c 


'« 


4 














3 


11 




i n 


3 














2 


13 




13 


2 














1 


14 






14 


1 














23 


15 






15 


23 














22 


16 








' 


22 














19 


17 










17 


19 




































IC9a 
74LS139 




18 










18 
















SEL- ADDR 

- 

1 - 8 
2-1000 








Al 1 2 


ft 
3 1 

2 

IN 

3 


4 SELO 










A12 3 


5 SEL1 












6 SEL 2 r 


±> 














3-1800 
4 - 8 






A15 1 


L 

7 SEL 3 r 


5 - AO 

6 - CO 

7 - E 












*1 ( 


L 




DO 






Dl 


































































D2 


































































D3 


































_" 
































D4 


































H> " 
































D5 




































**~ 






























D6 




































-i 






























D7 


































































AO 


































































Al 


































































A2 




























































\ 






A3 


























































% 




A4 
























































t 




A5 










"^ 


r " 










































► 




A6 














w ~ i 






































► 




A7 














~ ' 




































> 




A8 
















































► 




A9 














































> 




AlO 






















A 






















\ 




All 






















H 


































A12 
























~* 












































A13 














































A14 
































A15 
































































M LS 1 3 9 






14 


A 

B l 

2 

EN 3 


12 SEL 4 r 


±> 








A13 

13 


I 

11 SEL5 r 






1 








A14 

1 

V 


10 SEL 6 








V 


9 SEL7 




















Y 








IC7 A15 
74LS04 


> 








20 










20 






2 


CS 
A12 DO 
AlO Dl 
A9 D2 
A8 D3 
A7 D4 
A6 D5 

- A5 D6 

■ A4 D7 

- A3 

- A2 

■ Al tu 

- AO VPP 

All/Vpp oi 


11 C 


11 


CS 
DO A12 
Dl AlO 
D2 A9 
D3 A8 
D4 A7 
D5 A6 
D6 A5 
D7 A4 
A3 
A2 

PP AO 
OE All/Vpp 


2 






21 


12 II 










12 


21 








24 


13 










13 


24 






25 


15 ,, 








15 


25 








3 


16 








16 


3 








4 


17 






17 


4 






c 


18 




18 


5 








6 


19 


19 


6 






7 


+ 5V +5V 
it ^ < 


7 






8 


8 






9 


9 








1 1 






















+ 5V 


IC4 IC5 
27XX 27XX 


+ 5V 






i 

All 


k 3 




2 


3 


22 




22 


23 


3 ♦ 




1 




16/32/64 16/32/64 


1 All 












-* 


1 — 

















































D5) T ° 

r: r figure 3b 



D6 
D7 

AO 
Al 



t = 2764 ONLY 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 77 



SEL4 

<3 



+ 5V 



SEL5 

nr 



NOTE: 

LETTERS INSIDE CONNECTORS 
INDICATE CONNECTION TO 
THE SAME LETTER CONNECTOR 
IN FIGURE 3 a. 



*o[b> 



PR 

D IC14b 
74LS74 



& 



RES 



® g 



RES 



PR 

D IC14a 
74LS74 

CLOCK 

CLR 



FROM 
FIGURE 3a 



AO 
Al 



DO ■ 
Dl • 



< D2 
X D3 ■ 
D4 
D5 ■ 
D6 
D7 ■ 



**\D 

SEL2(jh)> 



DATA- 

RATE | A>- 
CLOCK — 



22 



21 



20 



19 



18 



17 



16 



15 



11 



f5V 



DO Dl D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 RS 

E CSO 

inn 

CS1 



CS2 



IC10 
6850 



R/W 



RXC TXC IRQ TD RTS RD CTS DCD 



IRQ<TT- 



IC16 IC7 

7407 74LS04 



«^<j 



:r2 



+ 5V 



13 

1 



rd[d> 5 - 

^[e> ^ 



SEL3[F>- 



^ D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 Dl DO Al AO 



WR 
CS 



IC11 
82 55 



C4 AO Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 C2 C7 



13 




00 00000 

1 2 4 3 5 8 20 7 



DO 



Dl 



D2 



D3 



40 



D4 



39 



D5 



38 



D6 



37 



16 



L 



D7 



10 



ACK 



STB 



D, 



00000000000 

3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 1 21 20 



-RS-232C SERIAL PORT - 



PARALLEL INPUT PORT- 



Figure 3b: A section of the Microvox schematic diagram, featuring the serial and parallel I/O and the SC-01A speech-synthesis in- 
tegrated circuit. 



78 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 





SC-01A 


:l4 


kHz 





614.4 


1 


633.6 


2 


652.8 


3 


672.0 


4 


691.2 


5 


710.4 


6 


729.6 


7 


7 48. 8 


8 


768.0 


9 


78 7.2 


A 


806.4 


B 


825.6 


C 


844.8 


D 


864.0 


E 


8 83.2 


F 


902.4 



+ 12V 




m 



BH 

SPEAKER 



This approach does require one 
other design compromise. The 6502 
processor is specified to operate at 1 
MHz, but, using this crystal and 
divider circuit, only 611 kHz and 1.22 
MHz are available as system-clock 
signals. The computer must run at 
either 61 percent or 122 percent of its 
rated speed. 

Practically speaking, this is not a 



problem. The 1-MHz specification is 
for worst-case conditions, which you 
probably will not have. I have per- 
sonally run 1-MHz 6502s at 1.8 MHz 
with no trouble. Furthermore, in the 
Microvox application, we can note 
that the speech synthesizer requires 
data at only about 200 bps to speak 
continuously. Processor speed is just 
not significant except when receiving 



and manipulating data at 19,200 bps. 
Just to be on the conservative side, 
while the hardware can produce rates 
from 75 to 19,200 bps, I have speci- 
fied rates of 150 to 9600 bps for the 
Microvox. 

Memory Section 

The address-decoding and memory 
section of the Microvox consists of 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 79 



rh 



DATA- 
C> RATE 
CLOCK 




Figure 4: A detail from the Microvox circuit, showing the circuitry that derives the data-rate and clock frequencies. With this simple, 
low-cost arrangement, all standard data rates, except 110 bps (bits per second) and 134.5 bps, are available. Also, a trade-off must be 
made in selecting a clock rate for operating the microprocessor. 



Name 



Hexadecimal Connection and Function 
Address 

IC2 memory block (RAM) 
IC3 memory block (RAM) 
IC10 serial port 
IC1 1 parallel ports 
IC14 inflection clock rate 
IC14 phoneme latch 
IC5 memory block (EPROM) 
IC4 memory block (EPROM) 



Table 4: The 5 high-order bits on the 6502 address bus are decoded by IC9 to 
provide 8 strobe signals that control various parts of the system. 



SELO 


000 


SEU 


800 


SEL2 


1000 


SEL3 


1800 


SEL4 


8000 


SEL5 


A000 


SEL6 


cooo 


SEL7 


E000 



IC2 through IC5 and IC9. IC9 (a 
74LS139) decodes the 5 high-order 
bits on the address bus to provide 8 
strobe signals, as listed in table 4. 

In the Microvox configuration, 
memory components IC2 and IC3 are 
intended to be RAM, while IC4 and 
IC5 are meant to be ROM or EPROM 
(erasable programmable read-only 
memory). The pin designations for 
IC2 and IC3 are for 2K-by-8-bit RAM 
chips, such as the Hitachi 6116 or 



Toshiba 2016. These components are 
pin-compatible with the type-2716 
EPROM, so you could use 2716s in 
these sockets instead, if the computer 
were being used in some other appli- 
cation. 

The read/write memory (IC2 and 
IC3) is used for conversion tables and 
register stacks and as the ASCII input 
buffer. A buffer is required because 
the Microvox can receive data faster 
than it can speak it. The standard 



Microvox uses only one RAM chip 
(installed as IC2), which provides a 
lK-byte input buffer; by adding the 
second RAM chip in IC3, this can be 
optionally expanded to 3K bytes of 
text memory (for long-winded 
speeches). 

The text-to-speech conversion rou- 
tine for the standard Microvox is 
stored in 8K bytes, presently con- 
sisting of two type-2732 EPROMs in- 
serted in the sockets for IC4 and IC5. 
As production increases or EPROM 
prices drop, a single 8K-byte 2764 
EPROM (or its ROM equivalent) will 
be used. Any of the compatible 
type-2716 (2K-by-8-bit), type-2732 
(4K-by-8-bit), or type-2764 (8K-by-8- 
bit) EPROMs can be used in these IC 
positions, depending upon the jumper 
selections JP4 and JP5. 

Serial and Parallel I/O 

Microvox, unlike most other voice 
synthesizers, has both serial and 
parallel input ports to receive ASCII 
characters. The serial port uses a 
Motorola MC6850 ACIA (asynchro- 
nous communications interface 
adapter, IC10). During system in- 
itialization, the ACIA's functional 



80 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Your SOLUTIONS are supplied FREE. The CP/M operating system 
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SOLUTIONS, ASSOCIATE and FRIENDS are Trademarks of Data Technology Industries; Spellbinder is a Trademark of LEXISOFT, Inc.; Microplan is a Trademark of 
Chang Labs; CP/M is a Trademark of Digital Research; WordStar is a Trademark of MicroPro; SuperCalc is a Trademark of SORCIM; dBASE II is a Trademark of 
Ashton-Tate; MBASIC is a Trademark of Microsoft. 

Circle 145 on inquiry card. BYTE September 1982 81 



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INDUSTRIAL QUALITY BOARDS FOR THE 
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CPU 68000M 

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EPROM 

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DMEM 

• 256K dynamic RAM 

• 24-bit addressing 

• 230 ns access 



I/O GROUP 



CLK-24C 

• Real timeclock 

• LSI CMOS chip 

• Li battery backup 


w 


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• 4-portseriall/O 

I • 256 bytes of FIFO 

• DMA transfers 

• 24-bit memory addr. 



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• 4 channels 


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• 0-1 0V, ±5V, ± 1 0V 


• 1 2 -bit performance 


jumper select outputs 


• Accepts AOM-1 2 

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AIM-12 (A-to-D) 

• 32 S.E. channels 

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configuration is set up; communica- 
tion parameters such as character 
word length, clock division ratios, 
parity, and stop bits are selected by 
setting the proper bits in the ACIA's 
control register. The data rate is set 
by the system data-rate clock (from 
SW2 and IC6), and data is sent and 
received from the transmit- and re- 
ceive-data registers, respectively. 
Framing errors, parity errors, buffer 
status, and handshaking status are 
determined by reading the ACIA's 
status register. 

On the Micro vox, the serial port 
can be used with or without hardware 
handshaking, that is, with or without 
using the RS-232C Clear to Send, 
Data Carrier Detect, Ready to Send, 
and other lines. The Microvox soft- 
ware incorporates software hand- 
shaking, which is especially useful 
when communicating over a modem 
link or with terminals that do not use 
handshaking signals. 

When receiving ASCII text in the 
software-handshaking mode, the 
Microvox sends an "@" (at sign) to 
the host computer when its input buf- 
fer is almost full, signaling the host to 
stop sending data. The Microvox 
sends a "#" (number sign) when it is 
ready to receive data again. (The 
characters used for signaling can be 
changed to the X-on and X-off control 
characters if need be.) 

Obviously, this handshaking is not 
needed if the data comes from the 
host at a speed slower than the rate at 
which the buffer is emptied. The pa- 
rallel-input section uses a program- 
mable Intel 8255 PIA (peripheral in- 
terface adapter, ICll). As con- 
figured, 8 bits of the PIA are used to 
receive ASCII data in parallel format. 
By using two additional connections 
for data-available-strobe and 
acknowledge signals, the Microvox 
can be made to work with a 
Centronics-compatible parallel 
printer interface. 

Also attached to the PIA is the DIP 
(dual-inline pin) switch SWl, which 
can be used to select operating pa- 
rameters as follows. Bit selects 
hardware or software handshaking; 
bit 1 selects receipt of the ASCII input 
data through the serial or parallel 
port; bits 2 through 4 set the serial- 



82 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 171 on inquiry card. 



VISUAL presents ergonomic elegance and 
high performance in a low-cost terminal. 




FEATURE CO 


MPARISON CHAR1 




FEATURE 


VISUAL 
50 


Hazeltine 
Esprit 


ADDS 
Viewpoint 


Lear 
Siegler 
ADM-5 


Televideo 
910 


Tilt and Swivel 


YES 


NO 


NO 


NO 


NO 


Detached Keyboard 


YES 


NO 


YES 


NO 


NO 


N-Key Rollover 


YES 


NO 


YES 


NO 


NO 


Audible Key Click 


YES 


YES 


NO 


NO 


NO 


Menu Set-Up Mode 


YES 


NO 


NO 


NO 


NO 


Status Line 


YES 


NO 


NO 


NO 


NO 


Full 5 Attribute Selection 


YES 


NO 


NO 


NO 


YES 


Smooth Scroll 


YES 


NO 


NO 


NO 


NO 


Line Drawing Character Set 


YES 


NO 


NO 


NO 


NO 


Block Mode 


YES 


YES 


NO 


NO 


YES 


Insert/Delete Line 


YES 


YES 


NO 


NO 


YES 


Bi-Directional Aux Port 


YES 


YES 


NO 


YES 


NO 


Columnar Tabbing 


YES 


YES 


NO 


NO 


YES 


Independent RCV/TX Rates 


YES 


NO 


NO 


NO 


NO 


Answerback User 
Programmable 


YES 


NO 


NO 


OPT. 


NO 



The VISUAL 50 represents a new 
approach in low cost terminals. Although it 
costs drastically less, it offers the features you expect 

from the high priced units. 

For example, the VISUAL 50 enclosure is econom- 
ically designed in light weight plastic and can easily be 
swiveled and tilted for maximum operator comfort. A detached 
keyboard, smooth scroll, large 7 x 9 dot matrix characters and 
non-glare screen are a few of the many human engineering 
features normally offered only on much higher priced terminals. 

Another distinctive feature of the VISUAL 50 is its emulation 
capability. VISUAL 50 is code-for-code compatible with the 
Hazeltine Esprit,™ ADDS Viewpoint,™ Lear Siegler ADM-3A™ 
and DEC VT-52." Menu driven set-up modes in non-volatile 
memory allow easy selection of terminal parameters. 

And you're not limited to mere emulation. As the chart shows, 
the VISUAL 50 has features and versatility the older, less power- 
ful low cost terminals simply cannot match. 

The price of the VISUAL 50? Only $695 list. Call or write for 
full details on the latest in the industry's finest line of video 
terminals. 

Service available in principal cities through Sorbus Service, 
Division of Management Assistance, Inc. 






See for yourself 



Circle 502 on Inquiry card. 



Visual Technology Incorporated 

540 Main Street, Tewksbury, MA 01876 

Telephone (617) 851-5000. Telex 951-539 



RESCZ> 



SEL 




IC11/C2C2> 



Figure 5: The business end of the Microvox, the circuitry that actually produces the artificial voice. This design is similar to the Sweet 
Talker speech synthesizer; it is based also on the Votrax SC-01A integrated circuit. The main improvement is provision for 64 levels 
of pitch inflection, instead of the 4 levels available on the Sweet Talker. 



input word length, stop bits, and 
parity on the ACIA; and bits 5 
through 7 are not used. 

Speech Inflection 

The business end of the Microvox, 
the circuitry that actually produces 
the artificial voice, is shown in the 
schematic diagram of figure 5. 
Regular followers of Circuit Cellar 
projects will recognize the Votrax SC- 
01 A integrated circuit and notice that 
this design is similar to the Sweet 
Talker speech synthesizer from last 
September's article. This time, how- 
ever, I have provided for 64 levels of 
pitch inflection, instead of the 4 levels 
previously available. 

The output pitch of the phonemes 
is fundamentally controlled by the 
frequency of the clock signal pro- 
vided to the SC-01A. In general use, 



this frequency, set with a resistor/ 
capacitor combination, is nominally 
720 kHz. But as with any current- 
controlled analog circuit, the frequen- 
cy may be susceptible to change from 
temperature variation and pickup of 
external noise. 



Coarse variations in 

pitch are best used for 

simulating completely 

different speaking 

voices. 



In the Microvox, the analog clock 
circuitry is eliminated. Instead of us- 
ing the SC-OlA's internal timing cir- 
cuit, the chip is configured for input 
of an external clock signal, derived 



from the crystal-controlled system 
clock. 

While the fundamental range of the 
output pitch is a function of the clock 
frequency, the two pitch-control lines 
II and 12 (the "manual-inflection" 
lines) can act independently to cause 
four coarse variations in pitch from 
the fundamental setting. I think that 
these coarse variations are best used 
for simulating completely different 
speaking voices rather than for vocal 
inflections. The frequency shift is 
simply too great. 

The preferred way to influence the 
output pitch is by changing the exter- 
nal clock frequency fed into the SC- 
01A, although this takes more work. 
Subtle variations in output pitch can 
be obtained with reasonable effort, 
by shifting the clock frequency up or 
down by 20 or 40 kHz. And by apply- 



84 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




iJJLLMJL 



Kf in 



ii[Miiiiiiiiniinuu\\\\\\\i 



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1 MP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 



Circle 293 on inquiry card. 



ing a digital rate multiplier to the 
1.22-MHz system clock, the signal in- 
put to the SC-01A can be made pro- 
grammable to produce smaller and 
better-defined pitch inflections. 

IC19 in the Microvox is a 6-bit 
binary rate multiplier. Its output fre- 
quency obeys the function: 



(b5 through bO being the six multi- 
plier bits) and 

F IN = 1.22 MHz 



= MXF„ 



where 



M = b5 X 32 + b4 X 16 + b3 X 8 

+ b2 X 4 + M X 2 + fcO X 1 



When the SEL4 strobe is acti- 
vated, a 4-bit inflection code is 
latched into IC13 (a 74LS175 quad D 
flip-flop) and applied to the rate 
multiplier. The 4-bit combination 
(corresponding to a hexadecimal 
value of to F loaded into IC13) 
selects one of 16 clock rates that range 
from 614.4 kHz to 902.4 kHz in 
19.2-kHz increments. The frequency 



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Plug-in Convenience. Each system contains two LCM-1 00 
transceivers. Use the LCM-1 00 system to connect a terminal, proc- 
essor, or printer, to your computer via any 120V outlet. 

Aid Productivity. Staff can quickly relocate terminals where they are 
needed, reducing unprofitable waiting time, and allowing them to 
work at their desks where they are most efficient. Allows noisy 
printers to be placed in less disturbing locations. 

Reduce Overhead. Instead of dedicating fixed cables to many office 
locations, use of the LCM-1 00 can cut costs by permitting terminals 
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change of near 20 kHz creates a rela- 
tively small pitch change by itself (out 
of a 720-kHz nominal input frequen- 
cy), but, used dynamically in a sen- 
tence, it is just what the doctor 
ordered for syllable inflection. 

Remember that the 2 manual-in- 
flection bits are still available to the 
user; they are set by 2 bits on ICll 
(SEL3). I refer to the level set by these 
bits as the "base pitch" and the 16 fre- 
quencies from the rate multiplier as 
the "clock rate." The combination of 
the 2 functions results in 64 pitch 
levels or inflections. 

The pitch at which individual pho- 
nemes are pronounced may be con- 
trolled automatically by the text-to- 
speech algorithm, kept fixed, or 
altered by user command. Some peo- 
ple prefer automatic inflection, 
because of the variety it gives to the 
speech. Others think a computer 
should sound like a computer and 
prefer flat speech to artificially in- 
toned speech. Still others may wish to 
directly control the pitch to make the 
unit sing (pitch and rate codes may be 
mixed with phoneme codes to pro- 
duce singing) or to pronounce words 
with special emphasis. 

The user may control the base pitch 
setting independently of the clock 
rate by issuing a pitch-control com- 
mand: 

!Px 

where x is a digit from 1 through 4; 
x = l selects the lowest pitch with 
pitch increasing according to the 
value of x. 

The user may also control the clock 
rate with a command of the form 

!Ry 

where y can take on values from 1 to 
16; y = l selects the lowest pitch; 
y = 16 the highest. 

Musical Abilities 

One final feature of the Microvox 
is the ability to play musical notes 
and produce sound effects by using a 
program routine to toggle one bit of 
the PIA (ICll) at a predetermined 
rate. This line is connected to the out- 
put audio amplifier along with the 
output from the speech synthesizer 



86 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 97 on inquiry card. 



CHART-MASTER™ 

Business Graphics Software 

Professional-Quality Graphics 
from Personal Computers 

CHART-MASTER works with Apple® II, Apple® HI 
and IBM personal computers to create full-color 
business graphics on Hewlett-Packard plotters, 
including the new low-cost H-P 7470A. 

POWERFUL 

CHART-MASTER produces bar charts, line charts, scatter diagrams and pie 
charts, as well as text pages and signs, on paper or acetate (transparencies). 
Data can be entered manually or automatically from Visicalc® and other 
programs. Charts can be edited, stored and retrieved. 

FLEXIBLE 

CHART-MASTER allows you to select from a b£@ad range of options to etfeate 
the chart that best communicates your data, Options include producing up to 
nine charts per page, footnote and framing capabilities, leJt and right y-axes, 
a variety of hatching and line types, exploded pie segments, linear regression 
afld curve-fittings, logarithmic axes and much more. 

EASYTOUSE 

CHART-MASTER is ari, interactive, menu- 
driven program that allows users, whether 
managers or secretaries, to produce 
presentation-quality cfiarts immediately with 
little at no fining. It is easy for you to enter 
data, choose options, select a chart format . . . 
and let CHART-MASTER cto the rest 

COSfrEFFECTIVE QUALITY 

To get the same high quality that CHART-MASTER delivers, you would have 
to use expensive time-sharing services, commissioned graphic artists 
or costly dedicated graphics systems. Thus, CHART-MASTER, especially when 
teamed with the new Hewlett-Packard 7470 A plotter, represents a price/ 
performance breakthrough. Users of these more costly methods will find that a 
CH^flf-MASTEfl/Hewlett-Packard combination pays for itself in just a few 
months. And, because CHART-MASTER also offers convenience, speed, user 
control and versatility, you will find that you will increase your use of business 
graphics at no marginal cost. 

CHART-MASTER is available through your local computer dealer for $375. 
A complete graphics plotting package, consisting of CHART-MASTER, H-P 
7470A plotter and interface for your Apple or IBM personal computer, costs asss 
little as $2000. For further information and the name of your nearest dealer, 
call or write: 



DedSiOn ReSOUrCeS Professional software tools 
PO Box 309, Westport CT 06880, 203/222-1974 





Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
Visicalc is a trademark of Personal Software, Inc. 



Circle 154 an inquiry (Sard. 



chip (IC12). The results are similar to 
the sound produced by the internal 
speaker of an Apple II computer us- 
ing the same technique. 

While the Microvox is not exactly a 
virtuoso instrument, programming it 
to play a simple tune is not hard at 
all. The music mode is turned on by 
the command: 



IN 



Once the music mode has been acti- 
vated, a different set of note-specify- 
ing commands is used. 

In the music mode, notes may be 
chosen from a range of 3 octaves 
centered on middle C, indicated by 
numbers from 1 to 3. Each octave 
contains notes identified as A, B, C, 
D, E, F, or G. Sharps are indicated by 
the suffix character "+", flats by 
" — ". Time values are selected by 
reciprocal numeric arguments: the 
length of a note may vary from a 
whole note (length of 1) to a 128th 
note (length of 128). Rests are in- 
dicated by "R". When in the music 
mode, sending Microvox the charac- 
ter string "3F + 4" causes it to play a 
quarter note at a pitch of F sharp in 
the third octave. "R16" causes a 
sixteenth-note rest. 

Notes of unconventional lengths 
may be used; for instance, the soft- 
ware supports "thirty-seventh" notes. 
Tempo may set from values of 50 to 
128 beats per minute by a command 
of the type "TV with x in the proper 
range. The default tempo is 80. 

To Be Continued . . . 

I apologize if I am jumping ahead 
too quickly. It's just that I want you 
to be assured that these hardware 
features of music and programmable 
pitch are not an overcomplication; 
they are easily accommodated in the 
software. 

Obviously, there is no conclusion 
this month. I'll have a lot more to say 
next month. And keep in mind that 
while the main object of this project is 
an easy-to-use text-to-speech syn- 
thesizer, the computer section of the 
circuit has some special merit of its 
own. You may expect to see the same 
6502-based control-computer design 
in future Circuit Cellar projects. 



Next Month: 

We'll take a look at the software 
and operation of the Microvox speech 
synthesizer. ■ 



References 

1 . Anderson, James C. "An Extremely Low- 
Cost Computer Voice Response Sys- 
tem," BYTE, February 1981, page 36. 

2. Barden, William Jr. "Voice Synthesis for 
the Color Computer: Third in a Series," 
BYTE, February 1982, page 258. 

3. Blankenship, John. "Give Your Apple a 
Voice: A Speech-Development System 
Using the Radio Shack Speech Synthe- 
sizer," BYTE, May 1982, page 446. 

4. Ciarcia, Steve. "Build a Low-Cost 
Speech-Synthesizer Interface," BYTE, 
June 1981, page 46. Reprinted in Ciar- 
cia's Circuit Cellar, Volume III, Peter- 
borough, NH: BYTE Books, 1982, page 
133. 

5. Ciarcia, Steve. "Build an Unlimited- 
Vocabulary Speech Synthesizer," BYTE, 
September 1981, page 38. Reprinted in 
Ciarcia' s Circuit Cellar, Volume III, 
Peterborough, NH: BYTE Books, 1982, 
page 168. 

6. Ciarcia, Steve. "Talk to Me: Add a Voice 
to Your Computer for $35," BYTE, June 
1978, page 142. Reprinted in Ciarcia's 
Circuit Cellar, Volume I, Peterborough, 
NH: BYTE Books, 1979, page 77. 

7. Fons, Kathryn and Tim Gargagliano. 
"Articulate Automata: An Overview of 
Voice Synthesis," BYTE, February 1 981 , 
page 164. (See also "BYTE's Bugs: 
Upside-Down Static Phoneme," BYTE, 
May 1981, page 232.) 

8. Gargagliano, Tim and Kathryn Fons. "A 
Votrax Vocabulary," BYTE, June 1981, 
page 384. 

9. Gargagliano, Tim and Kathryn Fons. 
"Text Translator Builds Vocabulary for 
Speech Chip," Electronics, February 1 0, 
1981, page 118. 

10. Gargagliano, Tim and Kathryn Fons. 
"The TRS-80 Speaks: Using BASIC to 
Drive a Speech Synthesizer," BYTE, 
October 1979, page 113. 

1 1 . Lin, Kun-Shan, Gene A. Frantz, and 
Kathy Goudie. "Software Rules Give 
Personal Computer Real Word Power," 
Electronics, February 10, 1981, page 
122. 

1 2. Miastkowski, Stan. "Add a Voice to Your 
Computer: The Votrax Type-'N-Talk," 
Popular Computing, June 1982, page 81. 

1 3. Payne, Robert A. " A Voice for the Apple 
II Without Extra Hardware," BYTE, 
November 1981, page 499. 



To receive a complete list of Ciarcia's 
Circuit Cellar project kits available from the 
Micromint. circle 1 00 on the reader service 
inquiry card at the back of the magazine. 



The following are available from: 

Intex Micro Systems Corporation 

Suite 717 

755 West Big Beaver Road 

Troy, Ml 48084 

(313) 362-4280 

1. Intex-T alker , the assembled, 
tested, and FCC-approved version 
of the Microvox text-to-speech 
synthesizer. With power supply 

and documentation $295. 

OEM pricing and availability will 
be discussed on request. Michigan 
residents please include 4 percent 
sales tax. Please include $4 for 
shipping. Overseas orders add $20 
for shipping. 



The Micromint Inc. 
917 Midway 
Woodmere, NY 11598 
(516) 374-6793 

(for technical information) 
(800) 645-3479 

(for orders only) 

1. Complete kit for building the 
Microvox text-to-speech voice 
synthesizer, including the SC-01A 
and all other components, 
enclosure, power supply, and 

documentation $215. 

Overseas orders add $20 for 
shipping. 



or 



2. Votrax SC-01A voice-synthe 
sizer chip. . . .$70 each. Call fo\ 
OEM pricing and availability. 

Residents of New York please 
include 7 percent sales tax. Please 
include $4 for shipping on all 
orders. 



Editor's Note: Steve often refers to previous 
Circuit Cellar articles as reference material for 
each month's current article. Most of these past 
articles are available in reprint books from 
BYTE Books, 70 Main St., Peterborough, NH 
03458. Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, Volume I, 
covers articles that appeared in BYTE from 
September 1977 through November 1978. Ciar- 
cia's Circuit Cellar, Volume II, contains articles 
from December 1978 through June 1980. Ciar- 
cia's Circuit Cellar, Volume III, contains the ar- 
ticles that were published from July 1980 
through December 1981. 



88 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Test drive the Victor desktop 
computer designed tor systems. 



Like a high performance automobile, 
the Victor desktop business computer 
needs to be put to the test to be really 
appreciated. Here's why: 

The computer dilemma. 

Systems houses today face a basic 
dilemma when it comes to selecting a 
computer. 

The so-called "personal" computers 
on the market are like "economy" cars. 
They're relatively inexpensive but 
have limited power and capacity. 

And the larger mini computers offer 
more power and speed, like a luxury 
car, but are, of course, more expensive. 

Victor has a solution to that dilemma. 

The Victor 9000 Business Computer is 
retail piiced under $5,000. If you sell 
compu ter systems, quantity purchase 
agreements will let you be very 
aggressive. 



The Victor gives your systems the kin d 
of memory and storage capacity 
advanced applications demand. 
Much more than comparably priced 
machines. 

And the Victor display screen has dou- 
ble the resolution and capacity of its 
competitors. You can display a full 
132-column report and still be per- 
fectly readable. Is that important to 
your system ? Ask any programmer. 

Experience where it counts. 

But those are only the technical 
advantages of the Victor 9000. 
Equally important is Victor's 65 years 
of experience in solving business prob- 
lems. And Victor's 50 branch offices 
throughout the country providing fast 
service and total support. 

Software toots to keep you 
growing. 

Victor supplies CP/M-86 and MS DOS 
with every machine. Runtime support 



for Basic, Cobol, Fortran and Pascal is 
no extra cost. The Victor 9000 has the 
tools you need to do the job right. 

The Victor 9000. It's a desktop system 
computer designed to be a "cut 
above" the rest. Whether you sell com- 
plete systems, or are just looking for 
the best computer to support your 
software, call your Victor OEM spe- 
cialist today.Orget in touch with 
Victor at (800) 621-5559. In Illinois 
(800) 972-5858. We're open 24 hours a 
day, 7 days a week. 




Serving American business for 65 years. 
VICTOR' BUSINESS PRODUCTS 

Subsidiary of Kidde Inc 
KJDOE 



Great visibility - 

800x400 pixels - graph- 
ics - 80x25 characters 
(soft-loaded) green phos- 
phor - anti-glare - hit 
mapped. 

Design for comfort 

- display screen tilts 
0° -11° and swivels ±42° 
to suit the operator. 



Power under the 
hood - 8088 - SMhz-2 
RS 232 ports - 2 parallel 
ports - C0DEC4 bus 
slots. 

Ease of handling - up 

to 103 keys - capacity 
switches - sculptured - 
soft-loaded - 6 foot cord 



Circle 479 on Inquiry card. 




Fuel for thought - 

CP/M-86 - MS-DOS - 
C BASIC - Basic 86-MS- 
Pascal-CIS-COBOL MS- 
Fortran - MS- COBOL - 
Multiplan - VictorWriter 

Compact efficiency 

- 302 square inch foot 
print - all components 
separate - organize it 
yourself 

Excellent mileage - 

The Victor Business 
Computer takes your 
system further for less 
money. Test drive it and 
compare. 



BYTE September 1982 89 



Nowyou don't have to decide 

between a 
personal computer and 

aVTlOO terminal. 








Digital's introduced a per- 
sonal computing option which 
| can turn a VT100 terminal into a 
personal computer that uses the 
CP/M® operating system. 

It's called Digital's Personal Computing 
Option. You can purchase just the option, or you 
can buy the complete terminal/computing pack- 
age called the VT180. 

Either represents significant advantages over 
the choices available to you now. For now, you 
can provide access to a large computer and per- 
sonal computing at the same terminal. 

More than that, you save the 
additional cost of putting personal 
computers and terminals side by 
side on the top of a desk. 

With the CP/M operating sys- 
tem Digital's personal computing 
terminal will run the literally hun- 
dreds of programs available for it. 
Including word processing, mailing 
lists, financial modeling, statistics, 
even data base communications-in 
addition to the many more being 
specially edited for this terminal. 




And by virtue of the fact that Digital's per- 
sonal computing terminal is VTlOO-based, you get 
all the features that people buy VTlOOs for in the 
first place. Features like smooth scrolling with 
up to 132 columns display, split-screen viewing, 
double-height and width characters, and 
reverse video. 

Plus a reputation that's second to none in the 
industry. Plus Digital's service, on-site, anywhere 
in the world. 

All of this should make great sense when 
you're confronted with the choice of terminals or 
personal computers. 

Because now you can pick one and get both. 
See your Digital dealer for more infor- 
mation or write: Digital Equipment 
Corporation, Terminals Product Group, 
2 Mt. Royal Avenue, UPI-5, Marlboro, 
MA 01752. Telephone toll-free 800- 
225-9378 (outside the continental U.S. 
or in Massachusetts call 617-480-4077) 
between 8:30am and 5:00pm Eastern 
time. In Europe: 12 Av. des Morgines, 
CH-1213 Petit-Lancy /Geneva. 
In Canada: Digital Equipment of 
Canada, Ltd. 




Circle 159 on inquiry card. 
CP/M® is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 



Hardware Review 



The Apple III 
and Its New Profile 

An in-depth look at the "new" Apple III microcomputer 

and its Profile hard disk. 



Robin Moore 

Warner Hill Rd. RFD #5 

Derry, NH 03038 



r • 






i 


B 


H 


& 


t 


\ 6C3Q J"~J 

SaSRSHSffiPxE SB 







Photo 1: 

file hard- 
showing 
screen. 



A view of the Apple III, the Pro- 
disk drive, and the Monitor III 
a sample of Visicalc III on the 




Photo 2: A rear view of the Apple III and 
Profile showing the Silentype and game 
paddle ports A and B, along with the 
video, audio, RS-232C, and floppy-disk 
connectors. The peripheral card visible is 
the Profile interface card. 



In 1980 when the Apple III was first 
released, there were problems. Deliv- 
eries were delayed, and when the ma- 
chines finally arrived, they 
often didn't work. The integrated cir- 
cuits tended to wander out of their 
sockets. Little software except Visi- 
calc was available, and the much-pro- 
moted real-time clock/calendar didn't 
work well. The Apple III was, on the 
whole, unreliable. It was a bad start. 

Now, in 1982, the problems are 
gone. The sockets have been changed 
and the software bugs fixed. The 
Apple III has been rereleased with re- 
vised software, Pascal, and a brand- 
new peripheral — the Profile, a 
5-megabyte hard-disk drive. The new 
Apple III is an impressive machine 
and certainly a contender for the title 
of Best Personal Computer in the less 
than $10,000 class. 

System Overview 

Let's take a closer look. The Apple 
III is a single unit that includes the 
central processing unit, keyboard, 
memory, floppy-disk drive, and 
video output (see photos 1 and 2). It 
has been designed to meet the needs 



of the professional or small-business 
user. Instead of offering an initial 
low-cost unit requiring a number of 
additions, Apple Computer Inc. has 
included the most common system 
expansions as standard in the Apple 
III. These include an enhanced key- 
board, a 24-row by 80-column dis- 
play, an integral disk drive, 128K 
bytes of memory, a programmable 
128-character set, improved high-res- 
olution graphics, and an Apple II 
emulation program (see the At a 
Glance box for additional features 
and details). 

In addition, several peripherals are 
available for the Apple III. The most 
impressive of these is the Profile, 
Apple's new 5-megabyte hard-disk 
drive. (The Profile will be described 
in detail later in this article.) Other 
options from Apple Computer in- 



About the Author 

Robin Moore is manager of microprocessor 
development for A. B. Dick Co. and maintains 
a strong interest in FORTH, graphics, and com- 
puter music. He is also librarian for the 
Southern New Hampshire Apple Core. 



92 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



■ ' 



% 




z 



S* TbaSf THE ULTIMATE COMPUTER CONFLICT 

Attacking, evading, scanning, corn- 



between the forces of the Colonists 
and the Kryon Empire. Join an inter- 
galactic shootout with up to eight star- 
ship commanders transmitting orders 
from the keyboard cockpits of their 
craft anywhere in the U.S.A. 






municating. That's MegaWars. Easy 
to learn but difficult to master. That's 
why CompuServe will give one free 
hour to every MegaWars player enter- 
ing a game before December 31 , 1982. 



Circle 102 on inquiry card. 



Call toll free 
800-848-8990. 
You'll receive the illustrated guide to 
CompuServe, America's most compre- 
hensive Videotex service, plus the 
MegaWars Commanders Briefing. 

CompuServe 

5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
Columbus, Ohio 43220 

800-848-8990 






ERG/68000 



MINI-SYSTEMS 



D Full IEEE 696/S100 
compatibility 






HARDWARE OPTIONS 

D 8MHz or 10 MHz 68000 CPU 

D Memory Management 

D Multiple Port Intelligent I/O 

□ 64K STATIC RAM (70 nsec) 

□ 256K Dynamic RAM, with full 
parity (150 nsec) 

□ 8" D/D, D/S floppy disk drives 
D 5MB-32MB hard disk drives 
D Full DMA host adaptor 

□ 20MB tape streamer 

D 10 to 20 slot backplane 
D 30 amp power supply 

SOFTWARE OPTIONS 

D 68KFORTH 1 systems language 
with MACRO assembler and 
MET A complier 

D Fast Floating Point package 

□ Motorola's MACSBUG 

D IDRIS 2 operating system with 

C, PASCAL, FORTRAN 77, 

68K-BASIC 1 compilers 

Trademark 1 ERG, Inc. 

'Whitesmiths 

30 day delivery 
with valid Purchase Order 

OEM prices available 

For CPU, Integrated Card Sets 

or Systems. 

Empirical Research Group, Inc. 

P.O. Box 1176 

Milton, WA 98354 

206-631-4855 




At a Glance 



Name 

The Apple I 



Computer 



Manufacturer 

Apple Computer Inc. 
20525 Mariani Ave. 
Cupertino, CA 950 1 4 
(408) 996-10I0 

Components 

System Unit 

Size: width 1 7.5 inches (44.45 cmj, depth 1 8.2 inches (46.23 cmj, height 

4.8 inches (1 2. 1 9 cmj 
Weight: 26 pounds (1 1 .8 kg) 

Power Required: 1 07- 1 32 volts AC, 60 Hz, 1 00 watts maximum 
Processor: 6502B (2 MHz) with bank switching and enchanced indirect 

addressing, double stack and zero pages 
Memory: 1 28K bytes of dynamic RAM (expandable to 256K bytes), 4K bytes of 

self -test and boot-loader ROM 
Standard: keyboard for text and data entry; programmable RS-232C serial 

communications/printer interface; power-up self-check and disk 
bootstrap; both color-graphics and black-and-white/gray-scale graphics 
video outputs; two game-paddle/joystick connectors; three audio 
generators— fixed beep, I -bit programmable, and 6-bit A-D converter; 
one !40K-byte 5 'A -inch floppy-disk drive 
Video Display: Three Text Modes 

24 by 80, black and white, normal and inverse 
24 by 40, black and white, normal and inverse 
24 by 40, 1 6 color characters on 1 6 color backgrounds 
All text modes have software-definable 1 28-character sets 
Four Graphics Modes 

280 by 1 92, 16-color foreground and background with limitations 
280 by 1 92, black and white 
1 40 by 1 92, 1 6 colors with no limitations 
560 by 1 92. black and white 
Video Outputs: Both black-and-white/gray-scale and color-graphics outputs providing 
NTSC monochrome composite video, NTSC color composite video, or 
4-bit coded RGB color with a separate composite synchronization 
signal 
Keyboard: 74 keys for text and data entry; includes 1 3-key numeric pad for fast 

numeric entries, four cursor control keys with two-speed auto-repeat, 
three special-function keys, and text keys that allow entry of all 1 28 
ASCII characters; SOS software provides a 1 28-character type-ahead 
keyboard buffer; all keys automatically repeat after Vi second 
Disk Drives: System supports up to four 1 40K-byte 5 % -inch floppy-disk drives 

using Apple-format 6/8 GCR (group-coded recording) encoding 



Operating System 

Apple III SOS I . I (Sophisticated Operating System); single task, interrupt-driven, configurable 
operating system with hierarchical file structure, multiple file protection levels, and device- 
independent byte-oriented I/O 

Special Features 

An Apple \\ emulation mode that allows use of almost all existing. Apple \\ software; utilities 
that allow transfer of DOS text files, Visicalc files, and Pascal files from the Apple \\ to the 
Apple l\\ 

Software Available for the Apple III 

Visicalc III $250; Applewriter III $225; Apple III Pascal $250; Business BASIC $125; Apple 
Access III (communications software) $150; Apple III Business Graphics $175; Pascal Utility 
Library $75; Script III $125; Mail List Manager $150; all from Apple Computer Inc. 



Hardware Prices (Apple Computer Inc) 

Apple III 1 2BK-byte system 

Apple III 256K-byte system 

Additional disk drives (three maximum) 

Profile 5-megabyte Winchester hard disk-drive and interface card 

Universal parallel interface card 

Apple Monitor III (monochrome/green screen) 

Game controllers 



$3495 

$4295 

$495 

$3,499 

$225 

S320 

$29.95 



94 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




&* 



r 'l 



J JU 



v * 



"THAT'S IIP 



There's nothing like the feeling you 
get when you've got the solution. 

And nothing else will help you 
solve problems better, smarter, faster 
than the Visi™ programs for your per- 
sonal computer. 

For example, our VisiCalc® pro- 
gram: It's # 1 in the business because 
it takes the work out of working with 
business numbers. The VisiCalc 
program is the powerful "electronic 
worksheet" that speeds planning and 
budgeting. It lets you ask "what if?" 
and see the answers immediately. So 
you can analyze the impact of deci- 
sions before you make them. 

OurVisiTrend/Plot™ program 
combines graphics with forecasting 
and statistics. It automatically performs 
complex calculations and produces 
charts and graphs. So you can analyze 
the past, forecast the future and plot 
your results in an easy-to-understand 
visual form. 

© 1982 VisiCorp 



In addition, our series includes 
theVisiFile™ VisiDex™ VisiSchedule 1 
VisiPlot™ VisiTerm™ and Desktop/ 
PLAN™ programs. 

But the Visi programs are far 
more than individual problem-solvers. 
They're all inter-related, just like your 
needs and tasks, to give you a fully 
integrated solution. 

All of the Visi programs work in 
much the same way, and they auto- 
matically interchange data, too. 
So it's easy to learn and use any 
of them, work in many different 
ways with all of them. 

They're brought to you 
by VisiCorp™ The one com- 
pany whose only business 
is helping you make the 
most of the personal 
computer in your 
business. 

Ask your 
retail computer 



store salesperson for a demonstration 
of the Visi series. They'll help you and 
your computer do all the things you're 
intent on doing. 

The VisiSeries From 
VisiCorf 

PERSONAL SOFTWARE" 




Apple III (list prices) 




128K-byte system unit with integral 140K-byte 5% -inch floppy-disk 




drive, Apple SOS operating system software, both color-graphics and 




black-and-white/gray-scale video outputs, RS-232C serial interface, 




game control port, and Silentype printer interface 


$3495 


additional floppy-disk drive (three maximum) 


$495 


Apple Business BASIC software 


$125 


total 


$4115 


IBM Personal Computer (suggested retail prices) 




48K-byte system unit, disk-adapter card, one 160K-byte floppy-disk 




drive, DOS software, Disk BASIC 


$2235 


16K bytes of added memory and game adapter card 


$145 


additional floppy-disk drive (one maximum) 


$570 


serial RS-232C interface card 


$150 


additional 64K-byte memory card 


$540 


color-graphics video adapter card 


$300 


Microsoft extended BASIC software 


$40 


total 


$3980 


Table 1: Price comparison of comparable versions of the Apple HI and the IBM Per- 


sonal Computer. Both systems include 128K bytes of memory, two floppy-disk 


drives, color-graphics video output, serial RS-232C interfaces for Qume (or equiva- 


lent) letter-quality printers, and game-paddle adapters. The system chosen is one 


that might be purchased by people who wish to combine business and personal ap- 


plications. Note that in this configuration the IBM has used up all its expansion slots, 


while the Apple HI still has all four of its slots left for further expansion. 





elude the Silentype thermal printer, 
additional floppy-disk drives, the 
monochrome green-screen Monitor 
III, a universal parallel I/O (in- 
put/output) interface card, and game 
controllers. 

Many of the existing Apple II inter- 
face cards will work in an Apple III 
while in the Apple II emulation mode. 
However, use of Apple II cards in an 
Apple III will probably make it ex- 
ceed FCC (Federal Communications 
Commission) radio-frequency radia- 
tion limits and may cause interference 
on nearby television sets or radios. In 
addition, Apple II cards are not com- 
patible with Apple III software unless 
special device-driver routines are 
written, and Apple provides virtually 
no information on how to write 
them. 



Apple Computer currently pro- 
vides a variety of software packages 
for the Apple III in addition to Busi- 
ness BASIC and Apple Pascal. There 
are also various hardware and soft- 
ware products available for the Apple 
III from other vendors and the num- 
ber of these will increase as the Apple 
III user community grows. 

The only software built into the 
Apple III is a 4K-byte ROM (read- 
only memory) that holds power-up 
self -test and disk bootstrap routines. 
All other software is loaded from 
disk. Although this means that lan- 
guages use up some of the available 
RAM (random-access read/write 
memory), it also allows easy software 
upgrades and fixes that would be 
more difficult if the software were 
permanently in ROM. 



System Pricing 

The approach to Apple III pricing 
is almost directly opposed to the pric- 
ing strategy used for the Apple II and 
the IBM Personal Computer. Because 
Apple chose to include a large num- 
ber of standard features, the Apple III 
has a relatively high initial cost 
($3495); however, it can expand to 
256K bytes of memory, four floppy- 
disk drives, and a letter-quality 
Qume (or equivalent) printer without 
using any of the expansion slots. A 
fully usable system can be configured 
by adding just a video monitor and 
an inexpensive serial printer. 

Table 1 shows a price comparison 
of the Apple III and the IBM Personal 
Computer. Both systems are con- 
figured with 128K bytes of memory, 
two floppy-disk drives, a serial RS- 
232C printer interface, color-graphics 
video outputs, and game controllers. 
The IBM system costs slightly less but 
uses all of its expansion slots, while 
the Apple III still has its four slots 
available for future growth. 



The Apple HI User 

A look at the documentation and 
software supplied with the system 
will quickly reveal that the Apple III 
is targeted for professional and small- 
business users. Clear tutorials and ex- 
ample programs on disk demonstrate 
most system functions and features. 
There is even a two-disk program to 
lead you through the keyboard and 
display functions step by step. 

The Apple III is not designed for 
the home hobbyist. Much of the tech- 
nical information included with the 
Apple II is absent in the Apple III 
package. There is no discussion of 
bus structure, I/O addressing, mem- 
ory usage, or screen-memory map- 
ping. There are no listings published 
for any of the system software, either 
in the Apple III ROMs or on disk. 
Apple does not even tell you about 
the monitor program included in the 
ROMs (which is accessible by hold- 
ing the Control and Open- Apple keys 
while pressing Reset). 

All this technical information is 
unimportant to business users. They 
are more interested in using the Apple 



96 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 214 on inquiry card. 



Let's get personal 



try out the in-stock selection of Heath/ 
Zenith microcomputers, peripherals, 
accessories and software. 

Now available at your nearby Heathkit 
Electronic Center, or through the Heathkit 
mail order catalog. 

You get more with a Heath/Zenith per- 
sonal microcomputer system! We offer: 

I.Proven high-performance hardware: 

Thousands of our microcomputers prove 
themselves daily, in the field. 



2. Vast software library: Three operating 
systems (including CP/M), languages, word 
processors, an electronic spreadsheet, ver- 
satile utilities and the 500-program Heath 
Users' Group software library. 

3. Self-instruction courses: Evaluation 
and programming courses from Heathkit/ 
Zenith Educational Systems. 

4. Service support: Before and after the 
sale -consultation by phone, carry-in 
service by trained technicians. 



Test run one of our microcomputers 
at any of the more than 60 convenient 
Heathkit Electronic Centers in the U.S. 

Heathkit . 

ELECTRONIC CENTERS* ^f 

See the white pages of your telephone book rff?\ 
for store locations and telephone numbers. f 

*Units of Veritechnology Electronics Corporation in the U.S. 




Photo 3: The Apple HI with its main cover removed, The 
power supply is housed in the enclosure visible to the left, I/O 
card slots are in the center, and the disk drive is on the right. 
The entire Apple HI is built around a single thin-wall aluminum 
casting that provides both support and shielding. 



Photo 4: The Apple HI main PC board. The piggy-back- 
mounted board to the left of center is the removable main 
memory board. Using this board, the Apple II can be expanded 
to its full memory capacity without using up any of its I/O ex- 
pansion slots. 



Ill than in dissecting it, and will, in 
most cases, use commerical software. 
The Apple III is admirably designed 
to serve their needs. For hobbyists 
there are better choices, namely, the 
Apple II. 

Inside the Enclosure 

The Apple III is a fine example of a 
quality product designed for high- 
volume production. The entire unit is 
built around a single thin-wall 
aluminum casting that provides sup- 
port and shielding as well as heat 
dissipation so that no cooling fan is 
required. The expansion card guides 
are molded into the casting, and fully 
enclosed boxes are built in for both 
the main printed-circuit (PC) card 
and the switching power supply (see 
photo 3). 

All of the circuitry, except mem- 
ory, is on one main PC board (see 
photo 4). The system memory board 
mounts piggy-back style onto the 
main board and avoids taking an ex- 
pansion slot. In fact, the Apple III can 
be expanded to its full 256K-byte 
memory capacity in the same fashion, 
leaving all slots free. 

The Apple III central processing 
unit is based on a 6502B microproces- 
sor with custom external circuitry 
that provides a number of enhance- 
ments to the normal 6502 instruction 



set. These enhancements include ex- 
panded addressing range, alternate 
stack and zero pages, and improved 
indirect addressing that is supported 
by a separate pointer page. 

Although the technical information 
provided by Apple is somewhat 
vague, apparently the 6502B is run at 
2 MHz during the video blanking in- 



The Apple III can be 

configured to 256K 

bytes without using a 

single expansion slot. 



tervals and at 1 MHz while the beam 
is writing information onto your 
monitor screen. This provides an 
average speed of about 1.4 MHz, but 
the screen can be turned off tem- 
porarily during program execution to 
allow the processor to run at its full 
2-MHz speed, if desired. 

While a normal 6502B can address 
a maximum of 64K bytes of memory, 
the Apple III uses bank switching to 
expand this range to a theoretical 
maximum of 512K bytes. 

Up to fifteen 32K-byte blocks of 
memory can be switched to occupy 
the range of addresses between 2000 
and 9FFF hexadecimal. This switching 



is handled automatically by the oper- 
ating system and is totally "trans- 
parent"; that is, the switching ex- 
ecutes in the background without af- 
fecting any task you may be perform- 
ing in the visible foreground. It 
should be noted that, to date, Apple 
Computer has not announced any 
Apple III memory expansion beyond 
256K bytes. Perhaps this will be a 
future option. 

The main PC board also includes 
the disk controller, serial interface, 
video generation circuitry, and the 
expansion card slots. The expansion- 
bus connections in the Apple III are 
essentially the same as those in the 
Apple II, although DMA (direct 
memory access) is handled somwhat 
differently. The Apple III Owners 
Manual provides no information 
about the expansion bus. Hopefully, 
this type of information will be avail- 
able in the future. There are few com- 
peting systems that do not make this 
sort of information available to the 
public. 



The Keyboard 

Experienced typists should find the 
Apple III keyboard easy to use (see 
photo 5). Unlike the Apple II, this 
keyboard has a typewriter layout so 
that touch-typists should feel comf or- 



98 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



ISIC6LC WORKSPACE KEKORY 



EC«DS F?.E$£NT 



J! : 



: t 8f Hi -,?p 





EXPAND VISICALC® ON APPLE® II 



Do you need more memory 
for your VisiCalc models? 
Would you like to see them in 
80 column display? Do you 
want hard disk support? 

Then you need one of 
Saturn's VisiCalc expansion 
systems. For a fraction of the 
cost of a larger computer, 
you can create models you 
never dreamed possible on 
an Apple II. 

With Saturn board(s) and 
software, you can increase 
your workspace to as much 
as 177K. With additional 



hardware, you can get 80 col- 
umn display and lower case 
letters. You can even use the 
Nestar hard disk system, if 
you wish. 

Saturn's VC-Expand pro- 
grams allow you to use the 
entire displayed VisiCalc 
matrix, and to save your large 
models on more than one 
diskette. 

You can also use your 
Saturn boards to expand user 
programming capabilities, or 
to simulate a disk drive under 
DOS, PASCAL, or CP/M ® 



Ask your retail computer 
store salesperson about 
Saturn's memory expansion 
systems. See how much big- 
ger and better your VisiCalc 
models can become. 





VisiCalc is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research Corporation. 







P.O. Box 8050 Ann Arbor, Michigan 48107 
(313)973-8422 



Circle 41 3 on Inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 99 



The Panasonic portable computer 

We've improved the way 




The link" by Panasonic. 

It will improve the way you 
solve problems. And the 

solutions come from the 
I portable computing power 
you have at your 
fingertips. You can take it 
with you on planes, cars, 
boats, anywhere, because 
it fits into a suitcase. You can 
be more cost effective in the 
field, because you'll have 
access to more information for 
making on-the-spot decisions. 
You'll have the incredible 
advantage of being able to 
telecommunicate from anywhere 
you are. It gives you a whole 
new world of computing. 
Portable computing. 

Software Solutions — Now 

there's an exciting new software 
system for the 6502 
microprocessor that gives you more 
solutions to your problems. 
The popular language software for the portable computer includes 
Extended Basic Compiler/Interpreter, SnapFORTH and Microsoft Basic.® 
The Panasonic portable computer also has a wide range of specific 
software programs for your specific problems, such as: 

The Scientific Calculator — An incredibly powerful tool that solves mathematical problems for the 
scientist, engineer, and professional wherever they go. 

Portabudq et — It's your portable personal financial manager. It gives you up-to-the-minute personal 
control. It allows you to be your own record keeper, savings advisor, accountant, bill manager, credit 
and charge account guide, investment counselor, portfolio keeper, and tax assistant. Overall, it 
helps plan your personal financial life, portably 

Portacalc — Gives you the portability and the flexibility to automatically analyze numerical problems 
wherever and whenever they arise. You can assess "what if" alternative business problems, 
comprehend key variables in business, and dynamically analyze problems on engineering projects. 

Portawriter — It allows you to write, edit, and format information. And, you can telecommunicate the 
information from wherever you are. Whether you're in the boardroom, hotel room, or even on a golf 
course, Portawriter gives you full editing and formatting capability for notes, reports, letters, news 
copy, tables, lists, forms, orders, you name it. 

Portalo q — It is an easy, precise tool for time-billing professionals without a minute to lose. Whether 
you're on the road or in the office, you can log time, compile bills, generate billing reports, and track 
the work of your highly paid employees. Portalog gives you improved timekeeping productivity. 

Telecomputin g 2™ — It lets you telecommunicate with your data base. You can establish 
communications between headquarters and field forces. Exchange files and programs between 
remote stations. Access timesharing services and store data in a large computer's mass storage. 
You can also upload and download program data. 



with a wide range of new software, 
you solve problems. 



Portaflex — A master program that allows you to create solutions for applications, such as: 

° Inventory Control— Analysis and control of inventory while you're on the job. 

a Order Entry— A customized system for any sales order entry. It offers you productivity, and the 
advantage of faster order entry. 

° Field Service —Retrieve, diagnose, and analyze your field service data wherever you are in the field. 

a Auditing and Accounting —Custom auditing and accounting, anywhere you are in the field. 

° Estimating —Versatility for flexible bidding and estimating at your job site. 

Software Development Tools for the Customizer — Create your own custom programs and burn 
them into your EPROM so your program is recorded in nonvolatile form. 

Simply take a desk top microcomputer,* insert the software development discs, create your own 
program, de-bug that program, compile the program, then "burn-in" your problem-solving EPROM. 

* Presently ottered lor Apple II Plus. 



Hardware Specifications — 

The Panasonic portable computer offers 6502 
microprocessor (1 MHz) technology. 

□ It offers 4K or 8K internal nonvolatile RAM 

□ 48K internal ROM 

□ Built-in Ni-Cad rechargeable battery pack 

□ External AC adapter/recharger 

□ 26-character liquid crystal display 

a 65-key completely redefinable keyboard 



Introducing Peripherals for Additional Solutions — 

Modular peripherals let you customize your system. 

□ Multiple RS-232C serial interfaces 

□ Asynchronous modem with cassette interface 
(110 or 300 baud) 

□ 40-character microprinter (thermal dot matrix printing) 

□ 8K or 16K RAM memory expansion packs 

□ X-Y four-color plotter (up to 80 characters per line) 

□ TV adapter (32 characters X 16 lines with color 
and graphics) 



The Panasonic portable computer. It's improved the way you solve problems. Because we believe 
its portable modules and multiple software applications can vastly improve your productivity. And that 
can be an important solution to your profit problems. 

The portable computer from Panasonic. We've improved the way you solve problems. 

The Link: by Panasonic. It's changing the way the world uses computers. 




Please send me more information. 

Panasonic Company, Hand-Held Computers 
One Panasonic Way, Secaucus, New Jersey 07094 



Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Name (PLEASE PRINT) . 
Title & Company 



^ Type of Business. 

^ Address 

City 



.State. 



-Zip- 



Phone Number! 



Panasonic, 

just slightly ahead of our time. 



Circle 364 on inquiry card. 




Photo 5: The Apple III keyboard. Although it looks separate, it is actually part of the 
Apple III main enclosure. 



table with the key placement. The 
layout of the numeric keypad on the 
right, which resembles that of a calcu- 
lator, allows easy entry of numeric 



data. The Apple III can also generate 
all 128 ASCII (American Standard 
Code for Information Interchange) 
codes without extra hardware. 




FOR CP/M-86 



CC-86 Compiler available for both CP/M-86* 

and MP/M-86* (incl. IBM PC) 

Full Unix** V7 language compatibility 

Standard I/O library supports both buffered and 

non-buffered I/O and OS calls 

Stand-alone assembler supports relocatable code, 

local symbols and linkage to external modules 

Introductory prices: $500 for CC-86 and 
assembler/linker; $200 for assembler/linker; 
$50 for manual (incl. K & R) 



CP/M and MP/M 
are trademarks of 
Digital Research 

Unix is a trademark 
of Bell Laboratories 




(503)297-7153 

Control-C Software, Inc. 

6441 SW Canyon Court 
Portland. OR 97221 



In addition to the normal Shift, 
Control, and Caps-Lock modifier 
keys, the Apple III includes special 
Open-Apple and Close-Apple keys 
that you can define for special func- 
tions. All keys automatically repeat 
when pressed for more than Vi sec- 
ond, and the four cursor-movement 
keys each provide a 2-speed repeat — 
pressing gently repeats at 11 Hz, 
while pressing firmly repeats at 33 
Hz. 

Apple's SOS 1.1 operating system 
provides a 128-character type-ahead 
buffer so that keystrokes wont be 
lost if you continue to type while the 
system is busy. This buffer may be 
emptied, or flushed, if the program 
running needs to wait for a particular 
keystroke. 

One of the biggest complaints 
about the original Apple II concerned 
the close proximity of the Reset key 
to the rest of the keyboard. In the 
Apple III the Reset key has been posi- 
tioned at the rear edge of the key- 
board enclosure, thus avoiding the 
accidental resets encountered in early 
Apple lis. Simultaneously pressing 
Control and Reset simulates a power- 
up and reboots the system from the 
main disk drive. 

In addition to the normal keyboard 
functions, a number of special control 
features are built into the Apple III 
keyboard. Pressing the Control key 
and one of the keys on the numeric 
pad will allow you to turn the video 
on and off, flush the type-ahead buf- 
fer, suspend screen output so that the 
processor can run at maximum speed, 
display control characters, or turn off 
the screen until the program requests 
an input. 

In general, I found the keyboard 
versatile and pleasant to use. (Al- 
though the keyboard is actually part 
of the main enclosure, it is styled to 
appear as a separate unit. A conve- 
nient recess at the top can support a 
book or a pencil.) My only problem 
was that the very light touch required 
to avoid automatic key repeat some- 
times caused me to produce extra 
characters. You have to break the 
habit of letting your hands rest on the 
keyboard while thinking about what 
to type next. 



102 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 132 on inquiry card. 




*TIfc Home Computer* 
This is the one? 



A lot of computers offer a lot. Only one 
in its price range offers the most. The TI 
Home Computer. 

Better to begin with. Anyone can start 
right away with our Solid State Software ™ 
Command Cartridges. Dozens of programs 
are available in home management, educa- 
tion and entertainment. 

Easy to expand. Our Peripheral Expan- 
sion System gives you plug-in cards for 
memory expansion, P-Code capabilities, a 
disk drive controller and the RS232 Inter- 
face. You can also add a modem, speech 



synthesizer, disk drive and 80 column dot 
matrix printer. 

Programming flexibility. TI BASIC is 
built into the Home Computer. But it can 
alsohandleTI Extended BASIC, UCSD 
Pascal* Version I V.0, TI LOGO II, TMS 
9900 Assembly Language and TI PILOT'. 
Programs can be stored in the optional 
Mini Memory Command Cartridge. 

High-Tech specs. 16-bit microprocessor, 
16K bytes RAM (expandable to 52K). 
26K bytes internal ROM, upto30K bytes 
external ROM. 3 simultaneous tones from 



110 HZ to 40,000 HZ. High resolution video. 
U. & I.e. Single line overlay for 2nd function. 
Control & function keys. 16 color graphics 
with 4 modes & sprites. 

Sound impressive? Compare a TI Home 
Computer with the competition and really 
be impressed. You won't even 
need a computer to tell you this 
is the one. ^_^ 

Texas 
Instruments 




i 1982 Texas Instruments 



'UCSD Pascal is a trademark of the Regents of the University of California 



Circle 461 on inquiry card. 



Mode 



Format 



Colors 






24 by 40 


black and white 


1 


24 by 40 


16 foreground and 
16 background 
colors 


2 


24 by 80 


black and white 



Table 2: Apple III text display modes, screen formats, and color capabilities. 





Color 


ASCII 


Gray 


Color 


Value 


Character 


Level 


black 








black 


magenta 


1 


1 




dark blue 


2 


2 




lavender 


3 


3 




dark green 


4 


4 


dark gray 


gray 


5 


5 




medium blue 


6 


6 




light blue 


7 


7 




brown 


8 


8 


medium gray 


orange 


9 


9 




gray 2 


10 






pink 


11 


; 




green 


12 


< 


light gray 


yellow 


13 


= 




aqua 


14 


> 




white 


15 


? 


white 



Table 3: Table of graphics colors or gray levels produced by the GRAFIX driver 
routine. After opening the routine as an output device, colors may be selected by 
printing a CHR$(9) followed by an ASCII character. The color values shown are ex- 
tracted from the lower four bits of the ASCII code transmitted. Higher-level graphics 
functions are provided by the BGRAF invocable module. 



Display Modes 

The Apple III offers several text 
and graphics display modes. Either 
type of display is available in black 
and white or color, and both offer 
various formats and resolutions. 

The normal text display is black 
and white, with a 24-row by 80-col- 
umn format and a maximum of 1920 
displayed characters. Alternate 
modes include 24 by 40 black and 
white and 24 by 40 color. In all three 
text modes the characters are normal- 
ly displayed as a 5- by 7-dot matrix 
within a 7- by 8-dot character cell. 
However, all 128 characters are user- 
programmable and may be defined to 
be 7 dots wide by 8 dots high so that 
adjacent characters will touch in all 
directions if desired. (See table 2 for 
available text display modes.) 

In the 40-column color-text mode, 
you can display 16 colors of charac- 
ters on 16 colors of background. In 
combination with the user-definable 
character set, you can produce some 
surprisingly good color-graphics dis- 
plays. For example, Apple's well- 
known "running-horse" demonstra- 
tion program (shown in photo 6) is 
produced in color-text mode. The col- 
or values shown in table 3, although 
specified for graphics, can also be 
used for color text. 

With four graphics modes, the 
Apple Ill's capabilities are significant- 



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104 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Photo 6: The well-known "running horse" demonstration. This display was generated 
using the 24-row by 80-column color-text display mode using the Apple Ill's program- 
mable character set to produce the special shapes required. 




Photo 7: An example of the 560- by 192-pixel graphics display mode. Although this 
mode doesn 't offer color, it is ideal for displays that require fine detail. 



ly better than those of the Apple II 
(table 4 shows the available modes). 
The highest resolution offered is 560 
by 192 pixels, black and white. This 
mode is useful for scientific or tech- 
nical displays that require maximum 
resolution, as shown in photo 7. 
There is also a 280 by 192 black-and- 
white display mode. 



The highest-resolution color dis- 
play available is 280 by 192 pixels. 
Using this mode you can display up 
to 16 colors with some limitations. In 
each 7-dot-wide section of a given 
vertical coordinate, only two colors 
can be displayed. Bits that are turned 
on will display the specified fore- 
ground color, while bits that are 



turned off display the background 
color for that section. This is usually 
noticed only when lines of different 
colors cross. The limited color mode 
is useful for many applications where 
16 colors are required but where max- 
imum resolution is needed (an exam- 
ple is shown in photo 8). 

The most colorful graphics mode is 
the 140- by 192-pixel 16-color mode. 
With no limitations on color place- 
ment, it is capable of producing very 
impressive displays (see photo 9). 
One of the more interesting techniques 
in this mode mixes various colors of 
dots to produce a variety of in- 
between shades of color. Using this 
technique, it is possible to produce 
several hundred colors on an Apple 
III. 

Although the resolution is effec- 
tively reduced in the shaded areas, 
this method is typically used for fill- 
ing in areas of pictures rather than for 
outlines, which are normally drawn 
in solid color. A talented artist with a 
digitizing tablet and the appropriate 
software can produce results like 
those shown in photo 10. 

Apple SOS 

Apple's SOS (Sophisticated Oper- 
ating System) 1.1 is one of the more 
powerful operating systems available 
for an 8-bit microcomputer and offers 
features usually found only on larger 
machines. SOS supports multiple 
nested directories, handles interrupt- 
driven and DMA I/O, and manages 
the Apple III memory and hardware 
environment. 

A unique feature of SOS is that 
there is no user interface. All com- 
munications with SOS are handled by 
the resident language (BASIC or 
Pascal for now) in a fashion compati- 
ble with the language syntax. For ex- 
ample, with Business BASIC you dis- 
play a disk directory by typing 
CATALOG (or CAT), but in Pascal 
you would press F to enter the filter 
and then press E to get an extended 
directory. Rumor has it that Apple is' 
working on a separate SOS user-in- 
terface package. This would allow ac- 
cess to SOS without requiring that a 
language be loaded into the system. 

All Apple III I/O is handled by 
SOS through device drivers. Each 



106 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 297 on inquiry card. 



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(612) 338-1777 
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Graphics Mode 


Graphics 


Colors 


Memory 


Main Screen Alternate Screen 


Resolution 


Available 


Used 


4 


280hby 192v 


black and white 


8K 


1 5 


280hby 192v 


16 colors with 
limitations 


16K 


2 6 


560hby 192v 


black and white 


16K 


3 7 


140hby 192v 


16 colors, 
no limitations 


16K 


Table 4: The Apple III graphics modes, resolution, 


available colors, 


and graphics 


screen memory requirements. Each main mode allows two separate screen buffers so 


that one screen may be updated while the other screen is displayed. When the black- 


and-white gray-scale video output is 


used, the 16 colors are output as 


16 gray levels 


from black to white. 










Photo 8: An example of the Apple Ill's 280- by 192-pixel limited 16-color mode. While 
there are some limitations on the combinations of colors that can be displayed next to 
each other, this mode offers the highest color resolution and is useful in many applica- 
tions. 



device driver is a group of routines 
designed to communicate with a par- 
ticular hardware device and provide a 
uniform interface to SOS. For exam- 
ple, in a minimal Apple III system, 
you need the device driver .CON- 
SOLE to handle the keyboard and 
text display, as well as .FMTDl to 
handle the system floppy disk. Some 
of the other drivers included with 
the system are .AUDIO, .RS232, 



.PRINTER, and .GRAFIX. Even 
though the RS-232C interface and the 
graphics display hardware are in- 
cluded in the Apple III, they are con- 
sidered optional I/O devices for pro- 
gramming purposes. 

The System Configuration Pro- 
gram (SCP) provides a variety of 
tools that allow you to modify and 
reconfigure the system device drivers. 
Once the device drivers are specified, 



the SCP can regenerate a version of 
the system that meets your particular 
requirements. You can also use the 
SCP to specify whether a driver will 
be active or inactive. When the 
system is booted up, only the active 
drivers in the SOS. DRIVERS file will 
be loaded and require memory space. 
From the programmer's point of 
view, device drivers are treated as 
files and can be used from either 
BASIC or Pascal. With Business 
BASIC they may be opened, ac- 
cessed, and closed like any other file. 
(You can pass commands and data to 
an opened driver simply by using the 
PRINT# statement.) For example, the 
following Business BASIC lines 
would list the current program on the 
Silentype printer if the .SILENTYPE 
driver were installed: 

10 OPEN#l, ".SILENTYPE" 

20 OUTPUTS 

30 LIST 

40 CLOSE#l 

SOS allows the disk drives to be ac- 
cessed either by their device name 
(e.g.,.Dl) or by the volume name of 
the disk currently in the drive (e.g., 
MYDISK). Suppose that line 10 from 
the previous example were changed 
to read: 

10 OPEN#l, "MYDISK/LISTFILE" 

This would cause the program listing 
to be sent to a file called LISTFILE on 
a disk called MYDISK. 

Unlike most systems which provide 
a single disk directory, SOS treats a 
directory like any other file. You can 
create and maintain directories easily 
with the same commands (LOCK, 
UNLOCK, RENAME, DELETE, etc.) 
that are used to maintain other files. 
You can assign any type of file to a 
directory, and any given directory 
may be a file assigned to another, 
higher-level directory. 

The key to dealing with these 
nested levels of directories is the SOS 
pathname. Using device and file 
names separated by slashes, you can 
tell SOS what path to follow through 
various levels of directories. For ex- 
ample, the pathname /MYDISK/ 
RECORDS/CHECKS/JAN.81/ would 
search the system for a disk volume 



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Photo 9: Two examples of the 140- by 192-pixel full 16-color mode. 




Photo 10: A talented artist with a digitizing tablet and the appropriate software can 
produce results like this by using blended colors in the Apple Ill's 140- by 192-pixel 
color mode. 



named MYDISK, locate the directory 
RECORDS (which itself would con- 
tain the subdirectory CHECKS), and 
then locate the file JAN. 81. The path- 
name specifies the sequence of direc- 
tories to follow when accessing a 
given file. As a convenience, SOS 
provides a pathname prefix facility. 
By using PREFIX$ in the previous ex- 
ample, we could have set the path- 
name prefix to /MYDISK/RECORDS/ 
and then simply referred to 
CHECKS/JAN.81. 
File types supported by SOS in- 



clude DATA, which holds raw binary 
data; PASTXT (a Pascal text file); 
PASCODE (a machine language or 
Pascal program file); BASIC program 
files; ASCII files of unformatted text; 
PASDTA (Pascal data files); CAT or 
directory files; FONT files for the 
programmable character generator; 
and FOTO files, which store graphics 
screen images. 

Business BASIC 

Although it is fairly conventional, 
Apple's Business BASIC provides a 



combination of advanced and unique 
features that makes it an easier lan- 
guage to use than Applesoft BASIC. 
With Business BASIC you should be 
able to write shorter programs with 
fewer errors. (See tables 5a-5e for a 
summary of the language.) 

Business BASIC supports both 
TEXT and DATA files. The com- 
mands PRINT# and INPUT# are used 
to access text files while READ# and 
WRITE# allow you to store or read 
any type of data in a DATA file. All 
files may be sequential or random ac- 
cess (with the record size defined 
when the file is created). You can also 
use the word CREATE to make new 
files and directories. Directory entries 
may be examined by reading sequen- 
tial text records from a directory file. 

The language also provides for- 
matted I/O. To output data to either 
the screen or a file, you can specify 
the format with an IMAGE statement 
or within the PRINT USING state- 
ment. The Apple Ill's output formats 
are very flexible. Numbers may be 
printed in fixed-point, floating-point, 
scientific, or engineering formats. 
You can also align the right or left 
edges of the output to a particular 
column or center the output if you 
wish. 

Four main data types are available 
in Business BASIC. You can use in- 
tegers ranging from —32,768 to 
+ 32,767, real numbers with 6-digit 
precision, long-integers with 64-bit 
binary precision, or strings that can 
vary from to 255 characters. Arrays 



110 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 







. 



MORE THAN EVER, ATARI HOME COMPUTERS 
ARE SPEAKING YOUR LANGUAGE. 



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importantly, conversion procedures are simple. 

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any ATARI language before, the ATARI Macro Assembler 
also allows you to access more memory space. And it's excel- 
lent for I/O interface and manipulation of such features as: 
player/missile graphics, sound registers and peripherals. 
In addition, the macro processor and "include" file library 
features speed-up program development considerably. 

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plicity in an efficient 10K size, with characteristics of an 
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ATARI BASIC- An affordable and easy to use BASIC that 
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the spectacular ATARI graphics and sound capabilities. 



And its immediate mode error messages greatly simplify 
debugging. 

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assembler-programmer in creating, editing and debugging 
assembly programs. 

PILOT— ATARI PILOT is an exceptional learning language, 
with built-in "turtle" graphics to let you create spectacular 
designs and pictures with very short programs. Simple one 
or two-letter commands allow you to create a dialogue with 
the computer. And a single "match" command can perform 
complex text evaluation and pattern-matching instantly. 

ATARI Pascal — An excellent high-level language for 
teaching structured programming, and for developing and 
maintaining programs. In addition to offering all the features 
of the ISO Pascal standard, ATARI Pascal offers unique 
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A 



Circle 40 on inquiry card. 



Command 


Description 


CATALOG 

CHAIN 

CLEAR 


lists a disk directory 

executes a program from disk leaving variables intact 

clears program variables 


CONT 

CREATE 

DEL 


continues interrupted program 
creates a new file or directory on disk 
deletes a specified range of BASIC lines 


DELETE 

HOME 

INVERSE 


deletes a file from disk 

clears current text window and places cursor in upper left-hand corner 

sets further text output to inverse video characters 


LIST 

LOAD 

LOCK 


lists BASIC lines 
loads a BASIC program 
protects a file from alterations 


NEW 

NORMAL 

NOTRACE 


clears a program and variables from memory 
sets further text output to noninverse video 
turns off trace option 


UNLOCK 
RENAME 
RUN 


removes protection from a disk file 

changes name of file on disk 

loads and runs programs from disk or runs current program 


SAVE 

TEXT 
TRACE 


saves current program on disk 

sets screen to text mode with full-screen window 

turns on trace option 


Table 5a: 


A summary of Business BASIC commands. 



Statement 


Description 


CLOSE 

CLOSE# 

DATA 


closes all open files 
closes a particular file 
standard DATA statements 


DEFD FN 

DIM 

END 


user-defined function 
dimensions arrays 
ends program 


FOR. . .NEXT 

GET 

GOSUB 


standard FOR loop 

reads a single character from the keyboard or an EXEC text file 

executes a subroutine 


GOTO 
1 IF. . .GOTO. . .ELSE 
1 IF. . THEN. . .ELSE 


continues execution at a specified line 
modified IF statement 
standard IF statement 


IMAGE 
INPUT 
; INPUT# 


defines a PRINT USING format 

reads data from the keyboard 

reads text from a disk file or other open device 


INVOKE 
ON EOF# 
OFF EOF# 


loads an external file module of assembly-language routines 
sets up end-of-file error trap 
turns off end-of-file error trap 


ON ERR 
OFF ERR 
ON KBD 


sets up general error trapping 
turns off general error trapping 
sets up keyboard interrupt handling 


OFF KBD 
ON GOSUB 
ON GOTO 


turns off keyboard interrupt handling 
standard computed GOSUB statement 
standard computed GOTO statement 


OPEN# ...AS 

OUTPUT# 

PERFORM 


opens a file as INPUT, OUTPUT, or EXTENSION 
sends subsequent output to file 
executes a previously invoked routine 


POP 
PRINT 
PRINT USING 


removes one level of subroutine nesting 

prints to current output device or file 

prints using a given format | 


Table 5b: A summary of Business BASIC statements. 




Table 5b continued on page 114 



without dimensional limits can be 
created out of all four data types. To 
convert between the various data 
types, Business BASIC provides the 
numeric functions CONV, CONV%, 
CONV&, and CONV$, all of which 
will accept arguments of any type and 
will produce real, integer, long- 
integer, and string results, respective- 

ly. 

An interesting feature of Business 
BASIC is its use of reserved variables 
to access and control certain system 
functions (see table 5f for a 
summary). Reserved variable names 
are used to hold error codes, the file 
record numbers, or the code for the 
last key pressed. Others may be used 
to hold or control the cursor position 
on the screen, set the listing 
FOR. . .NEXT loop indent level, con- 
trol the listing line length, or set the 
SOS pathname prefix. 

One of Business BASICs most 
powerful features is its ability to use 
invocable modules. An invocable 
module is a file of external procedures 
and functions, written in assembly 
language or Pascal, that can act as an 
extension to the BASIC language 
once invoked (loaded into the 
system). The modules provide 
features that are sometimes necessary 
but were not built into the Business 
BASIC language. The modules in- 
clude VOLUMES.INV, which is used 
to show which volumes and devices 
are present in the system; READ- 
CRT. INV, which is used to read 
characters from the video display; 
DOWNLOAD.INV, which is used to 
load special text fonts into the Apple 
Ill's character generator; and RE- 
NUMBER.INV, which provides a 
variety of functions including pro- 
gram renumber, append, and merge. 
Another more significant module is 
BGRAF.UMV which provides all the 
graphics procedures and functions 
used by Business BASIC. 

Once a module has been invoked, 
the external procedures and functions 
provided in that file are accessed by 
using the BASIC commands PER- 
FORM and EXFN. For example, the 
line 

PERFORM PENCOLOR(%BLUE) 

would execute the procedure to set 



112 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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The Next Logical Step 



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Circle 457 on inquiry card. 



Table 5b continued: 




Statement 


Description 


PRINT# 


prints to a particular output device or file 


PRINT# USING 


prints to a particular file or device using a given format 


READ 


reads information from DATA statements 


READ# 


reads information from a data file 


REM 


standard remark statement 


RESTORE 


resets read pointer to start of DATA list 


RESUME 


returns from on ON ERR statement 


RETURN 


returns from a subroutine, ON KBD or ON EOF routine 


SCALE 


adjusts PRINT USING decimal-point position 


SPC 


used in PRINT statements to output numbers of blanks 


STOP 


stops program execution 


SWAP 


swaps the values of two given variables 


TAB 


used in PRINT statements to position the cursor to a particular 




column 


WINDOW 


sets the text/scroll window size and position 


WRITE# 


writes information to a data file 



Function 


Description 


ABS 
ASC 
ATAN 


absolute value 

converts ASCII character to its numeric value 

arc tangent 


BUTTON 

CHR$ 

CONV 


paddle-button state 

converts number to equivalent ASCII character 

evaluates expression — returns real number value 


CONV$ 
CONV& 
CONV% 


evaluates expression — returns string value 
evaluates expression — returns long-integer value 
evaluates expression — returns integer value 


COS 

EXFN 

EXFN% 


cosine 

executes an invoked external function that returns a real number value 

executes an invoked external function that returns an integer value 


EXP 

HEX$ 

INSTR 


exponential, base e 

returns a string that represents the hexadecimal value of the expression 

searches a string for a substring and returns location of occurrence 


INT 

LEFTS 

LEN 


largest integer less than or equal to argument 
takes substring starting with first character 
length of a string 


LOG 

MID$ 

PDL 


natural logarithm 

extracts a substring from a given string 

returns a game-paddle position 


REC 

RIGHTS 

RND 


returns current file record number 
takes substring ending with last character 
random number 


SGN 

SIN 

SQR 


sign of argument 

sine 

square root 


STR$ 
SUB$ 
TAN 


converts a number to a string 
inserts a substring into a given string 
tangent 


TEN 

TYP 
VAL 


converts last four characters of a string from a hexadecimal text image to a 

decimal value 

returns the data type of a file record 

converts a string to a numeric value 


Table 5c: 


A summary of Business BASIC functions. 



the graphic drawing color to blue, 
provided that the variable BLUE has 
previously been defined properly. 

While external procedures may 
be passed only integer values, exter- 
nal functions can return either integer 
or floating-point numbers. The re- 
served word EXFN% is used to call 
functions that return integers and 
EXFN accesses functions that return 
real values. 

BASIC Graphics 

Although you could use graphics 
from BASIC by simply opening the 
.GRAFIX driver and sending charac- 
ters directly to it, the BGRAF.INV 
module provides a much cleaner and 
more powerful interface. It essentially 
adds a number of graphics commands 
to the Business BASIC language. (A 
similar library unit is included with 
Apple III Pascal.) The .GRAFIX 
driver must still be present and 
opened because you need a controller 
for the graphics hardware, but all 
graphics operations are performed by 
the external procedures and functions 
provided by BGRAF. The following 
two lines provide all the setup re- 
quired: 

100 OPENjjfl, ".GRAFIX" 
110 INVOKE "BGRAF .IN V" 

BGRAF provides all of the stan- 
dard graphics operations. You can set 
PENCOLOR and the background 
FILLCOLOR, plot dots at absolute or 
relative positions with DOTAT and 
DOTREL, draw lines to absolute or 
relative points with LINETO and 
LINEREL, and position the graphics 
cursor with MOVETO and MOVE- 
REL. BGRAF supports a graphics 
VIEWPORT that allows you to limit 
graphics drawing to a particular area 
of the display screen. 

Text may be displayed with graph- 
ics by simply sending it to the opened 
.GRAFIX driver with a PRINT# state- 
ment. NEWFONT lets you redefine 
the graphics text font by specifying 
character form, height, and width. 
The SYSFONT command switches 
you back to the current text-mode 
display font. 

Predefined images stored in integer 
arrays may be displayed with DRAW- 
IMAGE. A given array may hold a 



114 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 338 on Inquiry card. 



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116 BYTE September 1982 



The best software for 
the IBM Personal Computer. 
Could it beyours? 



Attention, all programmers. Here's a 
chance to reach the top. 

If you've written software that's completed 
and runs on the IBM Personal Computer, we 
could be interested in publishing it. 

(We also could be interested if it runs 
on another computer. If we select your software, 
we'll ask you to adapt it to our system.) 

But be advised. 

Our expectations are great. 

Because the software we publish must be 
good enough to complement IBM Personal 
Computer hardware. In fact, the more you take 
advantage of all our hardware capabilities (see 
the box at right), the more interested in your 
software we become. 

Think about incorporating color graphics 
into your program, for example. 

Use sound. Consider the power of our 
keyboard and remember to utilize the ten 
programmable function keys. 

In all cases, we're interested in "friendly" 
software — with emphasis on quality and wide 
appeal. Programs with the greatest chance 
of being published must be easy to use, offer 
a better way to accomplish a task and provide 
something special to the user. 

What kinds of programs? All kinds. 

Education. Entertainment. Personal w 

finance. Data management. Self improvement.^* 
Games. Communications. And yes, business. 



We select programs that will make the 
IBM Personal Computer an even more useful tool 
for modern times. 



j~ IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER SPECIFICATIONS 


User Memory 


Display Screen 


Permanent Memory 


1 16K- 5 12 Kbytes* 


High-resolution* 


(ROM) 40K bytes* 


1 Microprocessor 


80 characters x 25 lines 


Color/Graphics 


16-bit, 8088* 


Upper and lowercase 


u Text mode. 


1 Auxiliary Memory 


Green phosphor screen* ]6 colors* 


1 2 optional internal 


Operating Systems 


256 characters and 


t diskette drives , 5 V\ ' 


DOS, UCSD-p System, 


symbols in ROM* 


\ 160K bytes or 320K 


CP/M-86? 


Graphics mode. 


bytes per diskette 




4-color resolution: 


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Languages 


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83 keys, 6 it. cord 


BASIC, Pascal, FORTRAN 


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j attaches to 


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text capability* 


10 function keys* 


Printer 


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Tactile feedback 


80 characters/sea >nd 


RS-232-C interface 


Diagnostics 


12 character styles, up to 


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protocol 


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Up to 9600 bits per second 


| *ADVANCED FEATURES FOR PERSONAL COMPUTERS 



So, if you think your software is the best, 
consider submitting it. If it's accepted, we'll take 
care of the publishing, the marketing and the 
distribution. All you have to do is reap the 
benefits of our new royalty terms. And you're free 
to market your program elsewhere at any time 
even if you license it to us. 

We're offering the ladder. Think about 
taking the first step. 

For information on how to submit your 
program, write: IBM Personal Computer, 
External Submissions, 
Dept. 765 PC, Armonk, 
New York 10504. ==:= =• 




The IBM Personal Computer 
A tool for modern times 



For an authorized IBM Personal Computer dealer near you (or information from IBM aboutquantity purchases) call 800-447-4700. In Illinois, 800-322-4400. In Alaska or Hawaii, 800-447-0890. 
tUCSD p-System is a trademark of the Regents of the University of California. CP/M-86 is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 



Circle 228 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 117 



Operators 


Type 


+ - * / DIV MOD 


arithmetic 


AND OR = < > 
>< <> < = 
=< >= => 


logical 


NOT 


unary logical 


+ 


string concatenation 


Table 5d: A summary of Business 
BASIC data operators. DIV and MOD 
apply only to the long-integer data 
type. 



Data Type 


Type Name 


Range 


16-bit integer 


integer 


-32768 to 32767 


64-bit integer 


long-integer 


± 9223372036854775807 ( ± 2 83 - 1 ) 


32-bit floating point 


real 


± 10 M with 6 digit precision 


character strings 


string 


- 255 characters 


arrays 


(all types) 


no dimensional limits 


Table 5e: A summary 


of Business BASIC data types and ranges. 



Variable Description 



EOF 
ERR 
FRE 

HPOS 

INDENT 

KBD 

OUTREC 
PREFIX$ 
VPOS 



holds reference number of file causing an EOF error 

holds error type code of most recent error 

holds amount of remaining bytes of memory available 



, NEXT loops in listings 



holds/controls cursor horizontal position 
holds/controls number of spaces to indent FOR . 
holds the ASCII value of the last key pressed 

holds/controls the maximum line length output by the LIST command 
holds/sets current SOS pathname prefix 
holds/controls current cursor vertical position 



Table 5i : A summary of Business BASIC reserved system variables. 



Procedure Description 

DOTAT plots a single dot at a given position 

DOTREL plots a dot relative to current position 

DRAWIMAGE draws a rectangular bit-map image at current position 

FILLCOLOR sets background color 

FILLPORT fills current VIEWPORT with FILLCOLOR 

GLOAD loads and displays a FOTO file from disk 

GRAFIXMODE specifies graphics mode and buffer choice 

GRAFIXON switches display to current graphics mode and buffer 

GSAVE saves current graphics display as a FOTO file on disk 

INITGRAFIX sets full-screen VIEWPORT, places cursor at upper left-hand corner and 

sets normal color and transfer tables 

LINEREL draws a line relative to current position 

LINETO draws a line from current to an absolute position 

MOVEREL positions cursor relative to current position 

MOVETO positions cursor at an absolute position 

NEWFONT used to specify a new graphics character font 

PENCOLOR sets current PLOT and DRAW color 

RELEASE frees highest graphics buffer memory 

SETCTAB sets a color-table entry 

SYSFONT causes normal system character set to be used as graphics character 

font 

VIEWPORT defines graphics-drawing window size and position 

XFEROPTION defines the logical operation that places dots on the screen 

XLOC returns graphics-cursor x position 

XYCOLOR returns color of dot on screen at current position 

YLOC returns graphics-cursor y position 

Table 5g: A summary of Business BASIC graphics procedures. 



number of images that can be selected 
with the DRAWIMAGE arguments. 

One of the most interesting features 
of BGRAF is its control of color. By 
using two controllable processes — the 
color table and the transfer option— 
you can modify the effects of plotting 
and filling operations. 

With 256 entries, the color table 
specifies which color results from 
plotting a dot of a given "source col- 
or" on top of a dot of a given "screen 
color." The color table is initialized to 
simply display the source color re- 
gardless of the existing color of the 
specified dot position. However, by 
altering the mapping conditions in the 
color table you can establish a color 
precedence. This precedence allows 
lines to appear to pass under or over 
existing images, or it can produce a 
number of other interesting effects. 

To alter a color-table entry, you 
use the enternal function SETCTAB. 
The form of the statement would be: 

SETCTAB (%SOURCECOLOR, 
%SCREENCOLOR, 
%RESULTCOLOR) 

The following example would alter 
the color table so that when an 
orange dot was printed onto a blue 
background, the result would be 
green: 

SETCTAB (%9, %6, %12) 

Table 3 shows a summary of the 
graphics colors and their color 
values. 

The black-and-white equivalent of 
the color table is the transfer option, 
which describes the logical operation 
used to place dots on the screen. De- 



118 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 414 on inquiry card. 




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pending upon the option specified, a 
dot (or its inverse) may replace exist- 
ing data, overlay it, invert it, or erase 
it with new data. The XFEROPTION 
procedure and an argument specify 
the transfer mode. The transfer op- 
tion may also be used with color 
data, but predicting the results is dif- 
ficult. 

Although circle drawing and turtle 
graphics are not supported, BGRAF is 
still a very nice package of routines 
that should allow you to produce a 
wide variety of color graphics. (See 
table 5g for a summary.) 

Business BASIC Performance 

Although Business BASIC is much 
more powerful than the Apple II's 
Applesoft BASIC, it is not much 
faster. Tests with the series of sixteen 
benchmark programs shown in listing 
1 indicated that while Business 
BASIC is faster than Applesoft in 
some areas, it is slower in others. The 
net result should be a slight to 
medium speed improvement, depend- 



ing upon the program being run. 

The best test in the series was prob- 
ably the Sieve of Eratosthenes prime- 
number program used by Jim Gil- 
breath (see "A High-Level Language 
Benchmark," September 1981 BYTE, 
page 180). Although this program is 
more representative of average pro- 
gram execution than any of the other 



The execution speed 

advantage of the 

6502B Is largely 

cancelled out by 

the complexity of 

Business BASIC. 

benchmarks, it uses only addition 
and subtraction and does not have a 
wide variety of BASIC statements. In 
this test, the Apple III proved to be 
slightly faster than the Apple II but 
slower than the IBM Personal Com- 
puter or the 4-MHz Z80. 



From the results of this limited set 
of benchmarks, it seems that the exe- 
cution speed advantage of the Apple 
Ill's 6502B is largely cancelled out by 
the increased complexity of Business 
BASIC. However, I suspect that in 
larger programs Business BASIC will 
turn out to be a good deal faster than 
Applesoft. The combination of its 
powerful built-in features and in- 
vocable modules will eliminate the 
code required in Applesoft to accom- 
plish the same functions. Also, if the 
benchmark programs had included 
the appropriate code to turn off the 
video screen during time-critical 
calculations, an additional 30 percent 
speed increase could have been 
gained by allowing the 6502B to run 
at 2 MHz. This would have placed the 
Apple III ahead of the IBM and Z80 
computers in many tests. 

Although benchmarks always have 
some validity, they may or may not 
be significant in a given application. 
It is best to approach the results with 
caution— the programmer frequently 




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BY 9/82 



120 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 335 on Inquiry card. 



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Circle 432 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 121 




Exciting new capabilities can blossom in your lab— when 
you automate it with the DAISI family of data acquisition 
peripherals for your Apple Computer. 
DAISI interfaces, from Interactive Structures, turn your econom- 
ical Apple into a personal electronic lab assistant. DAISI prod- 
ucts are designed to read instruments and sensors, control 
temperature and pressure . . . with reliability and precision. 
Here's a rundown on some DAISI interfaces 
AM 3, 12-Bit Analog Input System-$550 

■ 16 input channels ■ 20 microseconds conversion time. 
AI02, 8-Bit Analog Input System-$299 

■ 16 input channels ■ 70 microseconds conversion time. 
AO03, 8-Bit Analog Output System- $ 1 95- $437 

■ up to 8 independent channels ■ range and offset adjustable. 

DI09, Digital Interface with Timers— $330 

■ timing and interrupt capability ■ direct connection to BCD 
digits, switches, relays. 

Don't settle for garden variety equipment for your laboratory 
applications. Get the best— at a great price. Pick a DAISI! 



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Call us for the DAISI dealer near you. 



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All DAISI Interfaces come 
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comprehensive manual. 



Listing 1: Execution benchmark pro- 
grams. See table 6 for a summary of their 
results. 

Listing la: tests a null loop, 

60 0=2.71828 

£8 8=3.14159 

100 FOR 1=1 TO 5009 

320 NEXT I 

Listing lb: tests REM execution time. 



100 


FOR 1=1 TO 5000 


120 


REM 


140 


REM 


160 


REM 


188 


REM 


200 


REM 


210 


REM 


240 


REM 


268 


REM 


280 


REM 


300 


REM 


320 


NEXT I 



Listing lc: tests the IF. . .THEN state- 
ment. 

60 fi=2. 71828 

80 8=3.14153 

100 FOR 1=1 TO 5000 

120 IF FKB THEN 320 

320 NEXT I 



Listing Id: tests addition. 

60 R=2- 71828 

80 6=3.14158 

100 FOR 1=1 TO 5000 

120 C=H+B 

320 NEXT I 



Listing le: tests multiplication. 



KM 


H=2. 71828 




80 


8=3.14153 




100 


FOR 1=1 TO 


500£i 


120 


C=fl*B 




320 


NEXT I 




Listing If: tests division 




60 


H=2. 71328 




80 


6=3.14158 




100 


FOR 1=1 TO 


5000 


120 


C=(VB 




32W 


NEXT I 





Listing lg: tests exponentiation. 



60 fl=2. 71828 

80 8=3.14159 

100 FOR 1=1 TO 5000 

120 C=H-'-B 

320 NEXT I 



Listing 1 continued on page 124 



122 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 241 on Inquiry card. 



r// 



1." N t «■'&& 



iX 



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w$%. 



ow get a 




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of apple add-ons 

°Visb 



mam ■ computer 

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Available through your 
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MODEL GB75© 
Typewriter Interface 

Apple to IBM Electronic 50, 60, 
75 Typewriters Interface ■ 
Reads IBM keyboard in parallel 
with Apple keyboard ■ Sup- 
ports the IBM code functions 
using an escape sequence ■ 
Types at about 13 characters per 
second ■ Prints from Integer 
or Applesoft programs ■ Sup- 
ports the "Control I Number N" 
parallel line length mode se- 
quence ■ Has switch selec- 
table upper/lower case I/O 60, 
66, 78 continuous from feed 
page lengths, 40+video, 80, 95, 
132 character line lengths 

Suggested price $225.00 

TIMECARD III© 

Multi-function time utility forthe 
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Contains t he year of the century, 
the month, the date, the day of 
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second. ■ A countdown timer 
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to 999 hours, 59 minutes, 59 
seconds, 999 milliseconds ■ 
Selectable 12 or 24 hour time 
formats ■ Diagnostic error 
reporting ■ Fully compatible 
with the APPLE SOS operating 
system 

Suggested price $195.00 

Circle 4 1 8 for Dealers only Circle 4 1 9 for OEM' 




MODEL 150 TYPE 
AHEAD BUFFER 

■ Up to 40 character type ahead 
capability ■ Enter commands 
or data while your Apple is pro- 
cessing previous instructions 

■ Compatible with all Apple 
computers, keyboards and 
software ■ No cuts — no 
jumpers — no software patches 
required ■ Includes complete 
instructions for quick and easy 
installation 

Suggested price $49.95 

A800© FLOPPY DISK 
CONTROLLER 

■ High speed DMA transfer of 
data (1 micro-second/byte) ■ 
Documentation provided — in- 
cludes theory of operation, 
schematics and diskettes ■ 
Uses all standard Apple DOS 
commands (OPEN, CATALOG, 
LOCK, DELETE, LOAD, etc.) 
except for I NIT which has been 
improved and enhanced in a 
Vista format routine ■ Com- 
patible with Apple DOS 3.3, 
Pascah/land CP/M 2.2(withthe 
Z80 soft card by Microsoft)" 
2K x8 PROM contains Autoboot 
functions and all eight-inch 

s only Circle 420 for all other inquiries 



floppy driver code allowing 
complete compatibility with 
Apple DOS 3.3 

Suggested price $545.00 

PROM DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEM© 

■ Menu driven program devel- 
opment monitor ■ Programs 
2708, 2716, 2532, 2732and 48016 
EPROMS ■ Simulates PROM 
from RAM 4K ■ Data and ad- 
dress interface for operator 
location and control ■ Com- 
plete user documentation 

Suggested price $495.00 

VISION 80 

■ Full upper and lower case 
character with 3 dot descenders 

■ 9x10 dot matrix per line U.S. 
(9x11 Europe) ■ 128 ASCII 
character set ■ BASIC, FOR- 
TRAN and Pascal languages 
supported ■ Z80™ and CP/M™ 
comtible ■ Compatible with 
all standard Apple™ peripherals 

COMPUTER 
COMPANY, 
INC. 



Vista 



Circle 481 on Inquiry card. 

••Copyright 1981 Vista Computer Company. 
'"Apple Computer Company. Inc. 



Shift and lock for upper and 
lowercase ■ Source switches 
between 40x24 and 80x24 soft- 
ware and hardware ■ Rated #1 
video card by Softalk and Call 
Apple 

Suggested price $325.00 

VISION 40 

Softscreen programmable char- 
acter/generator card for the 
Apple II computer ■ Allows 
use of DOS tool kit upper/lower 
case character sets in Apple 40 
column mode ■ Permits crea- 
tion of new alpha/numeric and 
graphic characters under Am- 
inatrix ■ Ideal for non-English 
language applications ■ 
Compatible with most popular 
word processing software pack- 
ages 

Suggested price $175.00 

VISION 20 

■ Cost effective ■ Compat- 
ible with the latest Apple II ■ 
Complete easy to follow instal- 
lation guide ■ 120 day war- 
ranty ■ Immediate delivery 
Suggested price $29.95 

1317 E. Edinger 
Santa Ana, CA 92705 
(714) 953-0523 

'"Digital Research. Inc. 
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Listing 


1 continued: 




Listing lh: tests transcendental func- 


tions. 






60 


H=2. 71828 




8Q 


B=3. 14159 




100 


FOR 1=1 TO 


5000 


120 


C=SIfr-KH> 




320 


NEXT I 




Listing 


li: tests the LOG function. 


KM 


H=2. 71828 




80 


8=3.14153 




1 00 


FOR 1=1 TO 


5000 


120 


C=L06< B > 




320 


NEXT I 




Listing lj: tests the ON. 


. .GOTO state- 


ment. 






80 


M=2 




100 


FOR 1=1 TO 


5000 


120 


ON M GOTO 80*320,100 


320 


NEXT I 




Listing Ik: tests the GOSUB/RETURN 


statement. 




60 


0=2.71828 




80 


8=3.14153 




100 


FOR 1=1 TO 


5000 


120 


GuSUB 1 000 


320 


NEXT I 




1000 


RETURN 




Listing 11: tests the INT 


(integer) func- 


tion. 






80 


0=2.71828 




80 


8=3.14153 




100 


FOR 1=1 TO 


5000 


120 


C=INT<fi) 




320 


NEXT I 




Listing 


lm: tests the MID$ function. 


30 


fl*= H .3bcdef-9h 


iJklw" 


100 


FOR 1=1 TO 


5000 


120 


B*=MQ*<fi*,6,6> 


320 


NEXT I 




410 


PRINT"" 




420 


END 




Listing 


In: tests random 


number speed. 


60 


0=2.71828 




88 


8=3.14158 




100 


FOR 1=1 TO 


5000 


120 


C=RND< 1 > 




320 


NEXT I 





Listing lo: tests the CHR$ function. 

80 0$= " abc def sh i j k 1 m " 

100 FOR 1=1 TO 5000 

120 C$=CHR$(50> 

320 NEXT I 

Listing 1 continued on page 126 



124 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 317 on Inquiry card. 



• . : 1 . STRfl : 

BWm EUROPE ROBOT JTT 13Bi-i386 



• f. : 



LL J, 



*r #.. ,. 



I ■ 



1- 



How to project your company's fortune 
without spending one 



Introducing the only complete graphics system available today. 

If you think that professional quality transparencies are too expensive and 
time consuming to produce for everyday use, it's time you discovered the Strobe 
Graphics System. 

Because with the Strobe Graphics System and StrobeView™ Software Pack- 
age, you can now create superb multicolor transparencies (as well as traditional 
hardcopy graphics) directly from your computer. And you can do a lot more, in 
less time, for a lot less money than with any other system made today. 

It's a fact. The Strobe Graphics System 
contains everything you need to transform 
complex data into dynamic, colorful visuals: 
software, hardware, documentation, acces- 
sories. Transparencies that once took hours 
to produce are plotted within minutes. In- 
formation can be presented as bar charts, 
pie charts, flow charts or curves in a variety 
of colors. And all with a resolution and qual- 
ity matched only by systems costing thou- 
sands of dollars more. 

The new StrobeView composer pack- 
age is the newest addition to Strobe's already 




extensive library of easy to use, menu-driven software. StrobeView is a 
"scratch pad driven" program with a spatial memory feature for consistently 
positioning text and graphics in the same place on a page. . . use after use, edit 
after edit. 

But that's just the beginning. With StrobeView, you can create a broad vari- 
ety of linear flow charts, block diagrams and organizational charts. You can also 
choose among several preprogrammed symbols for emphasizing important fig- 
ures. The system allows you to process and edit text, and will print boldface, 
offset or regular type in a wide range of 
character sizes. And when you are finished 
with a transparency, you can alter, edit or 
save your text for future use. 

When the Strobe Graphics System is 
interfaced to your computer, a projector 
screen can speak anyone's language — visu- 
ally. Visit your local dealer and learn how to 
start projecting your fortunes today. Because 
a perspective on the present can also be 
your window to the future. 



Circle 440 on inquiry card. 



The Strobe Graphics System 




Strobe Inc. 

897-5A Independence Avenue 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
Telephone 415/969-5130 



Listing 1 continued: 

Listing lp: Jim Gilbreath's Sieve of 
Eratosthenes prime-number program. 



Listing 2: Disk-access benchmark programs. Listings 2a and 2b are write and read tests 
for the Apple III. Similar programs were used for the Apple II and the IBM Personal 
Computer. 







(2a) 


40 


HS= " 1 2:545673 1 2345678 1 2345678 1 2345678 " 


1 


SIZE=7000 




86 


B*=fi*+fl$+fi$+fl$ 


o 


DIM FLPGS<700i;> 




80 


NR=500 


"7 


PRINT "only 1 iterat-ion" 




100 


0F'EN#1, H TEST" 


5 


COUNT=0 




140 


FOR 1 = 1 TO NF: 


K 


FOR 1=1 TO SIZE 




160 


INPUT#1;B* 


i 


FLHGS<I)=1 




200 


NEXT I 


8 


next i 




220 


CLOSE* 1 


9 


FOR 1=0 TO SIZE 




240 


PR INT" DONE" 


10 


IF FLOGS* I >=0 THEM 18- 








11 


PRIME=I+I+3 


(2b) 


40 


fi$= " 1 2345678 1 2345673 1 2345678 1 2345678 " 


12 


K=I+PRIME 




b'0 


B*=fi*+fi*+fi*+fi* 


13 


IF K>SIZE THEN 17 




60 


NR=500 


14 


FLOGS< K >=0 




1 00 


0F'EN#1,"TEST U 


15 


K=K+PRIHE 




140 


FOR 1=1 TO NR 


16 


GOTO 13 




160 


PRINT#1#B* 


17 


C0UNT=C0UHT+1 




200 


NEXT I 


18 


NEXT I 




220 


CLOSE* 1 


19 


PRINT COUNT, "primes 11 i " " 




240 


PR I NT "DONE" 







Apple III 


Apple II 


IBM 


4-MHZZ80 


Listing # 


Benchmark 


Business BASIC Applesoft BASIC 


Advanced 












BASIC 


MBASIC4.51 


1a 


empty loop 


8.9 


6.7 


6.43 


5.81 


1b 


10REMs 


19.2 


19.5 


21.0 


15.8 


1c 


IF. . THEN 


22.9 


19.8 


17.6 


14.9 


1d 


addition 


19.5 


17.5 


18.2 


16.3 


1e 


multiplication 


25.0 


27.3 


19.6 


19.9 


1f 


division 


27.6 


28.8 


23.8 


24.9 


19 


exponentiation 


184.5 


249.1 


84.8 


121.1 


1h 


sine(x) 


98.0 


193.1 


73.9 


63.1 


1i 


log(x) 


87.1 


113.6 


49.4 


55.4 


1J 


ON. . .GOTO 


18.6 


17.5 


17.3 


12.9 


1k 


GOSUB/RETURN 


16.4 


13.6 


12.4 


9.4 


11 


INT(x) 


20.0 


19.3 


18.1 


15.5 


1m 


MID$ 


37.3 


32.5 


23.0 


18.6 


1n 


RND(x) 


90.5 


33.1 


18.4 


19.7 


1o 


CHR$ 


26.8 


23.5 


16.2 


13.4 


1p 


prime numbers 


222.4 


224.4 


190.0 


151.0 


Table 6: Table of execution times (in seconds) for a series of benchmark tests run on Apple III Business BASIC, Apple II Applesoft 


BASIC, IBM Personal Computer Advanced BASIC, and 


a 4-MHz Z80 computer 


running Microsoft's 


MB ASIC 4.51. The results 


shown may or may 


not be indicative < 


jf performance in 


a particular application; 


they should be interpreted with caution. The 


results for the IBM Personal Computer 


and the Z80 microcomputer were taken from Gregg Williams' 


"A Closer Look at the IBM 


Personal Computer" 


(January 1982 BYTE, page 54). See 


listing 1 for the benchmark programs used. 





makes more difference than the ma- 
chine. (The benchmark results are 
summarized in table 6.) 

Apple II Emulation 

The Apple Ill's ability to emulate 
an Apple II is an extremely useful fea- 
ture that allows access to the tremen- 
dous volume of Apple II software. 
Virtually all Apple II DOS 3.3 pro- 
grams in either Applesoft or Integer 
BASIC can be run on the Apple III 
without change — the few exceptions 
are those programs that require a 



RAM card or language system to 
operate. Also, some of the Apple II 
arcade games use their own routines 
to read the game paddles rather than 
calling the routines in the Apple II's 
monitor ROM. These programs will 
run but will not operate correctly. 

To use the Apple II emulation 
mode, you must boot a special emula- 
tion disk and select either Applesoft 
or Integer BASIC as the available lan- 
guage. Since the Language Card is not 
emulated, only one language at a time 
can be resident. The Apple III serial 



port can be configured to emulate 
either an Apple II serial card or a 
communications card. The data rates 
and carriage-return handling can also 
be specified. Once the emulation pa- 
rameters are specified or the defaults 
accepted, you can boot a normal 
Apple II DOS 3.3 disk and start run- 
ning. 

The emulation mode has a few 
minor weak points. If you have an 
Apple III Silentype printer, it will not 
be accessible in emulation mode 
unless you install an Apple II Silen- 



126 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



HAVEN'T YOU HEARD 
OF THUNDERCLOCK PLUS ? 



■ 

SEPTEMBhh 




^fWv. 



If you want to put 
your Apple® to work — around the 
clock — Thunderclock Plus is the solution. Just plug it 
in and your programs can read the month, date, day of 
week and time — down to the second — in any of Apple's 
languages. So your Apple can do any number of tasks 
for you automatically In the office, the lab or at home. 

Most good software packages for business, data base 
management, communications and time management 
are made to read Thunderclock Plus. (It's compatible 
with DB Master,* Micro- Courier** and VisiDex 1 , to 
name a few). So no matter how you use your Apple now, 
Thunderclock Plus can make it a more versatile 
and efficient tool. 

For example, with business or communi 
cations software, your Apple can auto- 
matically access a data base or send elec- 
tronic mail when the rates are lowest. 

In addition, Thunderclock Plus can 
organize your disk files. Our optional 
DOS-DATER™ software upgrades the 
regular DOS on your disks. So every 
time a program is saved or a file is modi- 
fied, the time and date, to the minute, 
are stored in the CATALOG with the file 
name. Now you can instantly know 
exactly when your files were last updated. 



=*=» 



/Y^ 



Thunderclock Plus 
can even give you a sense of 
security. Or just make your life a little easier. With our 
X-10 interface option and a BSR X-10* Home Control 
System, your Apple can turn on your lights, water your 
lawn . . .whatever you desire, according to schedules you 
create. It comes with our menu-driven SCHEDULER 
software. So it's easy to design and modify schedules 
that can run in the "background" while you have 
"hands-on" use of your Apple. 

Thunderclock Plus comes with a one-year warranty. 
Powered by on-board batteries, it runs accurately for up 
to four years without battery replacement. 
So now that you've heard of Thunderclock Plus, isn't 
it time you put your Apple to work — 
around the clock? See your dealer 
for a demonstration or contact us. 







THUNDERCLOCK PLUS 
and BASIC software 



$150 



DOS-DATER/DEMO disk $ 29 



X-10 Interface option 



$ 49 



PASCAL software disk 



$ 29 



®Applc is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 

*DB Master is a registered trademark of Stoneware, Inc. 

"Micro-Courier is a registered trademark of Microcom. 
tVisiDex is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. 
IBSR X-10 is a registered trademark ofBSR (USA) Ltd. 




Thunderware's DOS-DATER time and 
date stamps your disk files to the minute. 

THUNDERWARE, INC. 

44 Hermosa Ave., Oakland, CA 94618 (415) 652-1737 

Circle 462 on inquiry card. 



At a Glance 

Name 

Profile Winchester-technology disk drive 

Manufacturer 

Apple Computer Inc. 
20525 Mariani Ave. 
Cupertino, CA 95014 
(408) 996-1010 

Price 

S3499 

Storage Capacity 

5 megabytes (equivalent to about 35 normal Apple 5/4 -inch floppy disks) 

Size 

Height 4.39 inches (1 1.5 cm), width 17.28 inches (43.89 cm). Depth 8.81 inches (22.38 cm) 

Weight 

I 1 pounds (5 kg) 

Power Required 

1 10 volts AC (U.S.). 35 watts 

Hardware Required 

Apple III computer 

Software Required 

Apple SOS I.I 

Organization 

Four data surfaces, 1 53 tracks per surface, 1 6 sectors per track, 5 1 2 bytes per sector, 2448 
sectors per surface, 9792 sectors per drive 

Specifications 

Data transfer rate: 5 megabits per second; average seek time: 95 milliseconds; rotational 
speed: 3600 revolutions per minute; ready to operate: 60 seconds 

Interface 

Interface card occupies one Apple III expansion slot; one drive per interface card, up to four 
drives per system 

Special features 

Power-up self-test and disk scan; automatic bad-sector relocation; error checking and limited 
error correction 



type interface card, which may 
violate FCC radio-frequency radia- 
tion limits. Nor can you access the 
Profile hard-disk drive — Apple II and 
Apple III files won't mix on the same 
disk. Also, the RGB (red-green-blue) 
video outputs will not provide color 
signals while emulating Apple II 
graphics, but the composite video 
outputs will work normally. 

The Profile 

The Profile hard-disk drive is the 
newest component of the Apple III 
family and a worthy occupant of an 
expansion slot. With a 5-megabyte 
capacity, integral Z8-based con- 
troller, and built-in power supply, the 
Profile is a self-contained intelligent 
subsystem with its own self -test, error 



checking, and bad-sector relocation 
facilities. 

When powered up, the Profile's 
controller waits for the disk to come 
up to speed and does a data integrity 
check by stepping from track to track 
to verify that all disk sectors read cor- 
rectly. If a bad sector is found, either 
during this process or during normal 
activity, the Profile attempts to cor- 
rect the data errors and then relocates 
as much data as possible to an alter- 
nate good sector. 

The key component in the Profile is 
the ST-506, a SV^inch hard-disk 
drive manufactured by Seagate Tech- 
nology Inc. The ST-506 uses the 
sealed disk environment and low- 
altitude (10-microinch) flying heads 
that characterize all Winchester-tech- 



nology disk drives (see photo 11). 
Because a number of vendors produce 
drives that are plug-compatible with 
the ST-506, Apple should have no 
trouble producing Profiles even if 
Seagate's supplies get short. 

During operation the disk drive is 
relatively quiet, emitting a soft tone 
as it steps from track to track. Be- 
tween accesses you can hear the main 
drive motor, but the sound should 
not be obtrusive or even audible in 
most office environments. 

The Profile is styled to match the 
rest of the Apple III system and may 
be positioned on top of or adjacent to 
the computer. 

I found the Profile a pleasure to 
use. Its capacity is equivalent to that 
of about 35 normal Apple floppy 
disks, and its data throughput is 
about 10 times faster. Viewing its 
capacity in other terms, the Profile 
can hold over 1200 pages of typed 
text or more than 300 high-resolution 
graphics pictures occupying 16K 
bytes apiece. 

The Profile's performance is ex- 
cellent. In the disk-access benchmark 
programs shown in listing 2, the Pro- 
file effectively tripled the program 
speed when compared to an Apple or 
IBM floppy disk. Considering that a 
significant proportion of the program 
execution time is used to execute the 
BASIC program statements, the ac- 
tual increase in disk-access speed 
would seem to be even higher. (The 
results of the disk-access benchmarks 
are summarized in table 7.) 

The weakest point of the Profile 
and other similar products is data 
backup. If a hard disk fails, you can 
lose a great deal of important data. 
The only solution is to periodically 
back up the most critical files onto 
floppy disks or onto a second Profile 
hard-disk unit. (Apple Computer will 
happily allow you to connect up to 
four Profiles to your Apple III, at a 
total cost of $13,996 in addition to the 
cost of the Apple III.) However, 
chances are very slim that the entire 
Profile would be wiped out if a 
critical component failed. After 
repair, it should be possible to 
recover virtually all the original data 
in most cases. 



128 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




One company has sold more printers 
to this planet than anybody 

Epson. 



By now, that shouldn't come as a surprise. 
After all, we invented digital printers for the 
1964 Tokyo Olympics. We've built more print 
mechanisms than the rest of the manufacturers 
in the world combined. And our MX Series is 
the best selling line of printers for small 
computers ever seen. 

So is it surprising that the world's first 
Notebook Computer should come from Epson? 

Not to us. You see, 
we have some other 
notable feats in our 
past. Not only the 
world's first print- 
er, but the world's 
smallest printer, the 
world's most reliable 
printers, the world's 
first disposable print 



head, and now, the world's first portable 
computer with the power of a desktop. 

We intend to be as big in personal compu- 
ters as we are in printers. And we'll do it 
the same way. By making computers you can 
count on to perform. With the options, soft- 
ware and interfaces you need. And by deliver- 
ing what we promise, at prices people can afford. 
But some people don't think we can do in 

computers what we've 
already done in print- 
ers. And for them, 
we have this advice: 
Just watch. 




EPSON 



EPSON AMERICA, INC. 



3415 Kashiwa Street • Torrance, California 90505 • (213) 539-9140 



Circle 191 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 129 




Photo 11: The Profile with its top cover removed. The intelligent controller is shown 
on the left with the switching power supply beneath it. The HDA (hard-disk assembly) 
with its sealed internal environment is mounted on the right. 



Apple III 
Profile 


Apple III 
Floppy Disk 


Apple II 
Floppy Disk 


IBM 
Floppy Disk 


Write 13.2 
Read 10.2 


37.3 
33.2 


234 
273 


32 
22.9 


Table 7: A summary of disk-access-time benchmarks comparing the performance of 
the Apple III Profile hard-disk drive and the Apple III, the Apple II, and the IBM 
Personal Computer floppy-disk drives. The table shows the times (in seconds) taken 
to read and write 500 disk records. 



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At $3499, the Profile isn't inexpen- 
sive — none of the available hard-disk 
subsystems are — but it provides a 
truly significant extension to the 
capabilities of the Apple III system. 

Documentation 

Apple Computer's documentation 
has always been excellent, and the 
manuals provided with the Apple III 
are no exception. All the manuals are 
in the familiar 6- by 8V2-inch (12.8- 
by 21.6-cm) format, and a new flap 
has been added to the back cover so 
that the manual title is visible while 
the book is on the shelf. The manuals 
are all clearly written with numerous 
charts, tables, and screen photos to il- 
lustrate points described in the text. 

With a Business BASIC system, 
you receive four manuals: the 
Owner's Guide and Standard Device 
Drivers deal with Apple III features 
and SOS, while volumes one and two 
of Apple Business BASIC provide a 
comprehensive description of the lan- 
guage. 

The Owner's Guide explains how 
to set up the Apple III system and 
describes various aspects of SOS and 
the Apple III hardware. There are sec- 
tions about system installation and 
start-up, the operating system, the 
System Configuration Program, and 
the machine itself. Appendixes ex- 
plain error messages, describe proper 
disk care and handling, give I/O port 
specifications, and tell you how to 
use the Apple II Emulator. The infor- 
mation is presented in a clear, easy- 
to-read style and should be sufficient 
to get any novice started. 

Standard Device Drivers provides 
complete specifications and descrip- 
tions of the operation of all of the 
standard I/O device-driver routines. 
After a short section that explains 
what device drivers are, the manual 
describes the System Configuration 
Program. Separate sections describe 
each individual driver in detail. The 
appendixes contain quick references 
for all the drivers, an explanation of 
the system error messages, and a 
description of the console data for- 
mats. 

With a BASIC system, you'll get 
Business BASIC volumes 1 and 2. 
Although the manuals were not de- 



130 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Performance Breakthrough. . . 







the CYBERDRIVE for the IBM Personal Computer 

13.5 or 27 million bytes of disk capacity in a single cabinet with 
an integrated mini-cartridge tape for secure data backup. 



Setting an exciting new microcomputer standard, the 
CYBERDRIVE 1 combines a full package of features. 

It offers new, higher performance levels, with an inte- 
grated business-oriented backup device. 

As the CYBERDRIVE is made available for other systems, 
media transfer is assured regardless of the host hardware or 
Operating System. 

The CYBERDRIVE slashes the seek time dramatic- 
ally— e.g. the usual 5 Megabyte stepper-motor Winchester 
disk offers average seek time typically in the range of 100 to 
200 milliseconds (incl. head settling). 

With the CYBERDRIVE, the average seek time across 
more than five times as much data is only 33 milliseconds 
(incl. head settling). 

This basic speed, coupled with disk cache buffering and 
a peak transfer rate of 1 million bytes per second, make the 
CYBERDRIVE a performance champ! 

The integrated mini-cartridge tapes used for backup of 
data allow dumping of (for example) 10 million bytes of data 
in about 10 minutes . . . much faster than other tape or floppy 
disk backup techniques. Hardware read-after-write error 
checking is incorporated in the tape device. 



O Copyrttfit 1982 by Cytwroe tics I nc AJ I right r 

Prices and specifications subject to change without notice. 



m is^eis 



...And don't fail to ask about our superb lineup of serious 
business software (also offered in CYBERDRIVE format) 
including: 

RM/COBOL 2 compiler-the micro industry standard. 
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license. 
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Program generator for RM/COBOL to ease pro- 
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alternative to a Data Base System. 
CBASIC2 5 & CBASIC86 5 compilers ... for aficionados of a 

useful BASIC. 

The software is available on a variety of industry-standard 
Operating Systems including CP/M 5 -MP/M 5 (both -80 & -86), 
OASIS 6 , PCDOS, and UNIX 7 . Inquire for specific details and 
prices. 

i - Cybernetics, inc 2 RyarvMcFariand Catp 3 • Micro Business Software, int 
4 MinHConHHJtef Business Applications inc 5 Ogital fteaearcn. inc 6 PtUse One Syste*r>s. Inc 7 Bell Labwatones 

8041 NEWMAN AVE., SUITE 208 
IS-l^lS^ll-lS^ HUNTINGTON BEACH, CA 92647 

^ 714/848-1922 

IS- 



Circle 248 on inquiry card. 





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DRIVES ( 5 V Formats Soon) 

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132 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



signed to teach BASIC, the 335 pages 
contain all the information required 
to learn Apple's version of that 
language. Volume 1 is primarily a 
tutorial section; it gives clear explana- 
tions of all of the BASIC statements 
and provides numerous examples. 
After a short introduction and a 
description of the BASIC editor, dif- 
ferent sections describe BASIC I/O, 
control of program execution, and 
file I/O. The manual also explains in- 
vocable modules and shows you how 
to use external procedures and func- 
tions. 

Business BASIC volume 2 is 
primarily a quick reference quide that 
will be of most use to people who 
have some familiarity with the Busi- 
ness BASIC language. Within the 
BASIC reference section, each lan- 
guage statement and function is 
described and shown in an example 
along with descriptions of any error 
messages that might be produced 
when it is used. Separate appendixes 
describe error messages and their 
causes, explain variable memory 
usage, tell how to program for max- 
imum speed, and give syntactic 
definitions of the Business BASIC lan- 
guage. The Graphics invocable 
module (BGRAF.INV) is described in 
a 57-page section that gives detailed 
examples of plotting and drawing, 
saving pictures on disk, creating 
graphics text fonts, and setting up 
your own color and transfer tables. 

If you purchase Apple III Pascal, 
you'll get an additional four manuals 
that describe the Pascal system, utili- 
ty programs, and the Pascal lan- 
guage. One distinct benefit of Apple 
III Pascal is that the description of the 
Pascal assembler provides details 
about the 6502 enhanced features that 
are not found in any of the other 
manuals. Unfortunately, even though 
the BASIC invocable modules are 
written in Pascal, the manuals do not 
tell you how to write them. This may 
not be important to small-business 
users; nevertheless, the information 
should be available. 

Summary 

It is impossible to do the Apple III 
justice in one article. The machine is 



very flexible and has a mix of features 
and capabilities that are unmatched 
in any of its competitors. Some 
points, however, deserve special 
mention. 

First, SOS is a unique and powerful 
operating system; it provides a varie- 
ty of features that, as far as I know, 
are not available on any other 8-bit 
machine. 

Business BASIC is also very power- 
ful and includes options not found in 
most versions of the language. The 
use of invocable modules allows the 
user to maximize available memory 
space by adding only the capabilities 
needed. Its I/O-formatting and file- 
handling capabilities are extremely 
versatile and, for most business data- 
handling applications, will allow pro- 
grams to be shorter and easier to 
debug. 

As for hardware, although some 
people might argue that Apple should 
have chosen a more advanced micro- 
processor than the 6502B for the 
Apple III, I think the company made 
the right choice. Without the 6502B it 
would have been difficult, if not im- 
possible, to transfer files and pro- 
grams from the Apple II to the III, 
and Apple II emulation would not 
have been possible. Admittedly, it 
was a conservative choice — more 
powerful processors are avail- 
able — but actual processor perfor- 
mance is much less important than 
software availability. Apple's choice 
clearly maximizes the usability of the 
system. 

The Profile hard-disk drive is a 
significant enhancement to the Apple 
III. Its speed and high capacity will 
eliminate 99 percent of the disk swap- 
ping required when using only floppy 
disks, and the SOS nested directory 
structures will keep it well organized. 

Finally, one of the strongest points 
in favor of the Apple III is Apple 
Computer Inc. When early Apple III 
users had problems with the first ma- 
chines, Apple simply replaced the en- 
tire computer immediately — as many 
as two or three times in some cases. 
This unqualified backing of its prod- 
ucts shows a commitment to cus- 
tomer satisfaction unequaled in the 
industry. ■ 




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ASYNCHRONOUS (RS232) 
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Computers Can Play a Dual Role 
for Disabled Individuals 

Besides providing special assistance, 

microcomputers should give disabled individuals 

access to standard software. 



Gregg Vanderheiden, Director 

Trace Research and Development Center 

314 Waisman Center 

1500 Highland Ave. 

Madison, WI 53706 



The move toward more portable 
and flexible microcomputers is revo- 
lutionizing the design and develop- 
ment of electronic assistive devices 
for the disabled, ensuring the status 
of powerful, low-cost microcom- 
puters as valuable tools for disabled 
individuals and those working with 
them. 

The past few years have witnessed 
a tremendous increase in the number 
of individuals and small groups in- 
volved in the development of special 
aids for disabled persons. Microcom- 
puters have given individual de- 
signers who don't have access to ex- 
tensive laboratory and production 
facilities the capability of developing 
sophisticated electronic aids. This is 
not to say that the design of aids to 
assist disabled individuals is easy or 
can be easily developed in a few 



Gregg Vanderheiden is director of the Trace 
Research and Development Center for the 
Severely Communicatively Handicapped at the 
University of Wisconsin-Madison. 



weekends or evenings. The worth- 
while developments in this area have 
taken a lot of time and effort, not 
only in programming and interfacing, 
but also in carefully studying the real 
needs of the disabled individuals and 
the many barriers and practical con- 
siderations that are involved in the 
successful applications of technology 
to meet their needs. 

Worthwhile ~~* 
developments require 

careful study of 

disabled individuals' 

real needs. 

The influx of new people into this 
area has resulted in a wealth of new 
ideas, energy, and enthusiasm. The 
purpose of this article is to provide an 
overview of some of the many areas 
in which microcomputers can serve 
the needs of disabled individuals and 
to discuss a few major concepts im- 
portant to the development of suc- 
cessful applicable software. I hope 



this overview will stimulate new 
ideas, approaches, and applications 
for microcomputers in those inter- 
ested in getting involved in designing 
for the disabled. The basic concepts 
presented can help you learn from 
and build upon, rather than dupli- 
cate, the early work and mistakes in 
this area. 

A Dual Role for Microcomputers 

When we first think about the use 
of microcomputers by disabled in- 
dividuals, our minds usually turn to 
thoughts of text-to-braille translating 
programs, special communication 
aids, programs that can teach sign 
language, etc. These all involve the 
development of special software that 
can be run on the computer to pro- 
vide a specific function required by a 
disabled individual. 

In considering the use of computers 
by disabled individuals, however, it 
is very important to remember that 
disabled people also need to use the 
same programs and accomplish the 
same tasks as anyone else. Thus the 



136 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 377 on inquiry card. 



PGS 



Princeton 
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Designed for the IBM Personal Computer 



FEATURES 

□ 80 characters x 25 lines 

□ 690 dots horizontal resolution 

□ 16 colors 

□ .31 mm dot pitch tube 

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monitor is designed with an NEC .31 mm dot pitch CRT to give you 
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delivers 16 supercolors, 80 characters x 25 lines. It is the best 
priced performance PC direct drive monitor in the market today. Get 
the PGS HX-1 2 and discover for yourself how well it complements 
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blind individual who may be able to 
make good use of a text-to-braille 
program also needs to be able to use 
standard text editors, spreadsheet 
programs (e.g., Visicalc), and data- 
base managers, to name only a few. 
Similarly, the physically disabled in- 
dividuals who could use a game or 
writing program that requires only 
the operation of a single switch also 
need to be able to use the standard 
educational software as well as the 
accounting programs and computers 
at the companies considering them 
for jobs. This is the dual role that 



microcomputers must fill: they must 
help disabled persons perform tasks 
denied to them because of their dis- 
ability, and they must be physically 
modified to allow disabled persons to 
tap all the microcomputers' comput- 
ing and word-processing powers. 

At present, the vast majority of the 
software being developed for disabled 
individuals is limited to providing for 
a special need, rather than allowing 
the use of common general-purpose 
software. These special programs (al- 
though often quite sophisticated) are 
generally easy to implement because 



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Write or call for free catalogue 



JOHN D. OWENS Associates, Inc. 

12 Schubert Street, Staten Island, New York 10305 
212 448-6283 212 448-2913 212 448-6298 



the full capabilities of the computer 
are available to the programmer. 
They do not, however, address the 
greater need for disabled individuals 
to be able to use standard systems. 

Trying to provide access to stan- 
dard software programs for individ- 
uals who cannot see the video display 
or cannot use the keyboard is very 
difficult. In many cases, the more 
powerful standard software takes 
complete control of the computer 
when it is loaded, disabling the 
special routines or programs intended 
to provide access to disabled individ- 
uals. This is true even when the 
special routines are hidden in remote 
areas of the memory. In addition, the 
standard programs themselves are 
often "locked," and the source code is 
unavailable, making any direct modi- 
fication of the programs impossible. 

Despite the many barriers, strate- 
gies are being developed now that can 
allow extremely motor-impaired in- 
dividuals to access all standard soft- 
ware, even though the user may have 
as little controlled movement as an 
eyeblink. 

Providing Special Functions 

It would be impossible to quote an 
exhaustive list of the special functions 
microcomputers could provide for 
disabled individuals. Almost any 
aspect of human activity that has 
been impaired could potentially be 
aided to some degree through the use 
of microcomputers as processors, ma- 
nipulators, or controllers. 

Sensory enhancement/translation: 
Microcomputers can be used to pro- 
vide either a clarification of audio or 
visual information so that it can be 
more easily understood or a transla- 
tion from one medium to another. 
For example, microcomputers can be 
used to expand visual displays, pro- 
vide visual displays of auditory infor- 
mation, provide auditory output of 
visual information, translate a 
limited, spoken vocabulary into text, 
and provide tactile displays and feed- 
back to individuals both deaf and 
blind. 

Manipulator/controller: For in- 
dividuals with severe motor impair- 
ments, the use of remote actuators 
and powered artificial remote pros- 



138 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



theses (or robotics) to give them ma- 
nipulative capabilities has been pro- 
posed. One of the difficulties has been 
the large number of signals that are 
required in order to control such 
robots or manipulators. One role for 
microcomputers might be to help 
control these remote manipulators by 
developing and remembering com- 
plex movement command strings for 
specific types of activities. These 
command strings could then be called 
upon by the user, using a small num- 
ber of commands, thus allowing com- 
plex motions to be made with reason- 
able speed and ease. 

Information amplification (for 
motor impaired): The problem of 
slow information transfer is not re- 
stricted to the manipulator/control 
field. In fact, its greatest impact is 
probably in the area of communica- 
tion and writing. Here the speed with 
which one can transfer information is 
crucial, and the demand for reason- 
able speed is extremely high. A dif- 
ference in speed by a factor of 4 or 5 
(the average factor for a motor- 
impaired individual is around 10 to 
20) can make the difference between 
being able to complete a day's work 
in a day and taking a week to accom- 
plish a day's work. Similarly, it can 
be the difference between being able 
to complete one's homework each 
night and being able to do one night's 
homework every week or two. The 
microcomputer can be used in a num- 
ber of ways, however, to increase or 
amplify the amount of information 
that can be relayed with a given 
number of keystrokes or signals. 
Most of these techniques take advan- 
tage of redundancy in information 
transferred, but others are more in- 
volved. 

A simple example would be an 
abbreviation expansion routine that 
would allow an individual to abbrevi- 
ate all commonly used words and 
greatly reduce the number of key- 
strokes required to type out mes- 
sages, programs, etc. The program 
would automatically expand the 
abbreviations as the user typed them. 
The abbreviations could represent 
commonly used words, mnemonics, 
phrases, sentences, or entire blocks of 
frequently used information. 



Another technique would be to use 
a large word-base that could antici- 
pate the word being typed, thus trun- 
cating the process of spelling words 
out. This can be done based upon 
word and letter frequency. More 
elaborate schemes involve looking at 
idea-to-text or concept-to-text (or 
even concept-to-speech) translation. 

Also being explored is a semantic- 
feature-based phrase/sentence recall 
system in which three to five key- 
strokes would define an entire sen- 
tence (see "Minspeak" by Bruce 
Baker, page 186). Only about 60 keys 



are involved, but their meanings vary 
as a consequence of the order in 
which they are pressed. Although this 
approach at first seems complex, a 
system like this may be necessary in 
order to provide the information 
amplification necessary to offset the 
severe information-transfer problem 
that many motion-impaired individ- 
uals have. Advances in this field need 
not be limited to assisting disabled in- 
dividuals either. 

Special control interfaces to other 
devices: A general method for in- 
creasing the information-transfer rate 



SYSTEMS INTEGRATION 
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Without light pen $1,930. 1 

Graphics card alone . $ 975. | 

ScreenwarePakllorTEKEM . . .$ 350. 
Color systems from 4 to 256 colors. 
Basic color system (4 colors) . . . .$2,330. 



HOUSTON INSTRUMENTS 

PLOTTERS Standard & Intelligent models 
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DMP-2 ...$ 935. DMP-3 ...$1,195. 
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HiPad Digitizer $755. 



HAYES MICRO MODEM 100 $359. 

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PER SCI: Model 299B $2300. 



TEI MAINFRAMES, S-ioo 

MCS112 ...$620. MCS122 ...$745. 
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TARBELLDD Controller $435. 



COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 

Micro to terminal to micro to mainframe I 
to modem. HAWKEYE GRAFIX $500 



PMMI S-100 Modem $385. | 

Telex & Twx. On board dialer. 



TELETYPE 

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MEMORY MERCHANT 

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SEATTLE COMPUTER RAM PLUS 

64K RAM + SERIAL I/O $418. 

128K RAM + SERIAL I/O $594. 

192K RAM + SERIAL I/O $770. 

256K RAM + SERIAL I/O $942. 

64K Chip Kit $176. 

Each RAM card has an RS232 serial port \ 
which uses IBM supplied software. ; 
Boards socketed for easy upgrade. 

8080/8086 EMULATOR runs CP/M® 
on IBM PC. All I/O runs at operating 
system speed $200. 

AMDEK COLOR II MONITOR . $810. 

MICROSOFT RAMDrive Expands 
physical memory AND implements 
RAMDrive. Allows high speed access to 
files normally stored on diskette 

64K $420. 128K $590. 

192K $760. 256K $930. 

IDS PRISM COLOR132 columns $1,795. 
Enhanced 560 w/software selectable col- 
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PRISM 80 $1,615. 

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BABY BLUE: Z-80B, 64K RAM substi- 
tutes for IBM memory card in IBM PC. 
Will run Z80, CP/M® software . . .$600. 
w/Wordstar® & Mail Merge™ totally 
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CORVUS HARD DISK SYSTEMS 
6.7MB ...$3,035. 11.3MB ...$4,745. 
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We are evaluating new products for the IBM 
PC as they are announced. Please call us for 
complete, up-to-date listing. 



Overseas Callers: TWX 710 588 2844 
Phone 212 448-6298 or Cable: OWENSASSOC 



JOHN D. OWENS Associates, Inc. 

SEE OUR AD ON FACING PAGE 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 139 



uses microcomputers to provide a 
special interface between the disabled 
individuals and the device(s) that 
they are trying to control. The pur- 
pose of this special interface would be 
to obtain the best possible match be- 
tween individuals' residual capabili- 
ties and the characteristics of the sys- 
tems that they are using. 

Depending upon the severity of the 
physical handicap, these special inter- 
facing techniques can take a variety 
of forms. For severely disabled in- 
dividuals, single-switch input systems 
can be used; the microcomputer con- 
tinually presents choices to the user 
until the user responds by activating a 
switch. 

More common and effective, how- 
ever, are various special direct- 
selection or encoding input tech- 
niques. For individuals who have 
head control, screen-based optical 
headpointing schemes (similar to a 
long-range light pen) can be used. 
Other individuals may use expanded 
and/or recessed keyboards. For those 
who are able to point but unable to 



point to a large enough array of ele- 
ments to represent a full keyboard, 
smaller arrays consisting of numbers 
can be used in an encoding fashion to 
specify the letters, words, etc. Efforts 
are also currently being directed 
toward cost-effective methods of 
using the eyes, both for encoding and 

A special interface 

obtains the best match 

between individuals' 

residual capabilities 

and the characteristics 

of the system they are 

using. 

for direct selection of items from a 
display. All of these approaches can 
be adapted in size and arrangement in 
order to meet best the needs and 
capabilities of specific individuals. 

Recreation and development aids: 
Disabled individuals can, of course, 
use microcomputers to play games in 



the same manner as anyone else. For 
individuals with severe physical or 
sensory disabilities, however, micro- 
computers can play a more extensive 
role than just recreation. For exam- 
ple, manipulation of objects and ex- 
ploration of environment important 
to development in children may not 
be possible. A specially interfaced 
microcomputer may be able to offset 
some of this disability by providing 
children with a reliable means to con- 
trol, explore, and manipulate objects 
either in real space or on a video dis- 
play. It may also allow individuals to 
be able to move themselves about in 
space to gain new perspectives on 
their environments as well as to reach 
and act on the objects in it. 

Educational aids: In the educa- 
tional field, a number of specific 
problem areas can be addressed in 
part by microcomputers. One area of 
difficulty involves the slow rate of 
response of severely physically dis- 
abled individuals. This response rate 
makes any remedial drill or practice 
session extremely time-consuming 



PICK A 



SYSTEM ! 




We're offering you our SB-80 system in either 5 1/4" or 8" 
disk drives, your choice. Either way your system comes 
with a full size (12" diagonal) non-glare tiltable green 
screen with 24 lines by 80 character format. Its multi- 
character set offers blinking cursor, underlining, reverse 
video, and half and zero intensity. The movable, detach- 
able keyboard has a numeric pad with cursor control and 
function keys. 



■ Single Board Technology ■ CP/M® Operating System 
■ 4MHzZ80ACPU ■ 64K 200ns Main Memory 

■ 8-Inch Dual Density Floppy Drives 
■ 5 1/4-Inch Dual Density Floppy Drives 

■ 2-Serial Ports ■ 2-Parallel Ports 

■ 4-Counter/Timers ■ Expandable 

For further information about this limited of fercallor write: 



Nationwide on-site and depot repair service 
through the professionals at INDESERV. 



Colonial Data 

®CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 

Colonial Data Services Corp., 1 05 Sanford Street, Hamden, Conn. 0651 4 • (203) 288-2524 • Telex: 956014 




140 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 89 on inquiry card. 



In this age of runaway inflation... 



Look what $825 will buy 





The ideal input device for the small 
system user. 





■is ! *** 


g»j[^ 62S.00 s;»-; ™» 

w.v>.« 670.00 »i»-< i*« 

£i»3^ 725.00. ™*;j **£ 


s us 




m> rnt 










MJI* ') l.OWiil 




i ' : 



Available with stylus or optional cursor. 




The HIP AD™ digitizer 

Inexpensive input to your computer 

The HIPAD™ digitizer can be used for both converting graphic information into 
digital values and as a menu. Utilizing either the stylus or the optional cursor, the 
operator can input graphic data into the computer by locating individual points on 
the digitizers 11" x 11" (28cm x 28cm) active area. In the "stream mode" a contin- 
uance of placements of coordinate pairs may be input. 

Not a kit, the HIPAD™ comes complete with both RS-232-C and parallel interfaces 
and has its own built-in power source. The origin is completely relocatable so coor- 
dinates may be positive or minus for a true reference value and oversized material 
may by input by simply resetting the origin. 

Accurate positional information, free form sketches, 
even keyboard simulation 

All can be entered using the multi-faceted HIPAD™ digitizer. Its capabilities and 
low price make the UL listed HIPAD™ a natural selection over keyboard entry, inac- 
curate joysticks, or expensive approximating light pens. It's perfect for inputting 
isometric drawings, schematics, X-rays, architectural drawings, business graphs, 
and many other forms of graphic information, as well as creating your own graphics. 

Use it with Apple II™ , TRS-80 Level II ™ , PET ™ or other 
popular computers 

The HIPAD's™ built-in RS-232C and parallel 8 bit interfaces make it all 
possible. (For Apple II order DT-11 A, for TRS-80 or PET order DT-11). 
Furthermore, you get English or metric scaling, data format (Binary/BCD/ASCII), 
selectable baud rates, and resolution of either .005" or .01". 

For complete information, contact Houston, Instrument, P.O. Box 15720, Austin, Texas 78761. 
(512} 835-0900. For rush literature requests, outside Texas call toll free 1-800-531-5205. For 
technical information ask for operator #5. In Europe contact Houston Instrument, 
Rochesterlaan 6, 8240Gistel, Belgium. Phone 059/27-74-45. Telex Bausch 81399. 



Available with optional display. 
*U.S. Suggested retail price 



TM HIPAD is a trademark of Houston Instrument 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 
APPLE is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
PET is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines. Inc. 

Circle 48 for literature. 

Circle 49 to have a representative call. 



INSTRUMENTS &SVSTEMS DIVISION 

1bgetner...we'l create tomorrow 



BAUSCH S. LOMB (W 



Circle 296 on inquiry card. 



MODEM 



I 



129 



95 



No other acoustic modem 
gives you all these fea- 
tures at this low price. 




The MFJ-1232 Acoustic Modem gives you a 
combination of features, quality and performance 
that others can't match at this price. 

0-300 Baud, Bell 103 compatible. Originate/ 
Answer. Half/full duplex. RS-232, TTL, CMOS 
level compatible. Use any computer. Cassette 
tape recorder ports save data for reloading or re- 
transmission. 6 pole active filter handles weak 
signals. Carrier detect LED indicates adequate 
signal strength for data recognition. Quality 
"muffs" gives good acoustic coupling, isolates 
external noise for reliable data transfer. Crystal 
controlled. "ON" LED. Aluminum cabinet. 110 
VAC or 9 volt batteries. 9x1^x4 in. 



Apple II, II Plus: software and cable for 
modem, MFJ-1231, $39.95. Plugs into game 
port. No serial board needed. 




It's like having 
an extra port 



MFJ-1240 RS-232 TRANSFER SWITCH. Swit- 
ches computer between 2 peripherals (printer, 
terminal, modem, etc.). Like having extra port. 
Push button switches 10 lines (pins 2,3,4,5,6,8, 
11,15,17,20). Change plug or cable to substitute 
other lines. Push button reverses transmit- 
receive lines. LEDs monitor pins 2,3,4,5,6,8,20. 
PC board eliminates wiring, crosstalk, line inter- 
ference. 3 RS-232 25 pin connectors. 7x2x6 in. 

$0095 MFJ-1108 AC POWER CENTER. 

jj g Adds convenience, prevents data 
loss, head bounce, equipment damage. 
Relay latches power off during power 
transients. Multi-filters isolate equip- 
ment, eliminate interaction, noise, 
hash. Varistors suppress spikes. 3 
isolated, switched socket pairs. One un- 
switched for clock, etc. Lighted power, 
reset switch. Pop-out fuse. 3 wire, 6 ft. 
cord. 15A, 125V, 1875 watts. Aluminum 
case. Black. 18x2 3 /.x2 in. MFJ-1107, 
$79.95. Like 1108 less relay. 8 sockets, 
2 unswitched. Other models available, 
write for free specification sheet. 

Order from MFJ and try it. If not delighted, 
return within 30 days for refund (less shipping). 
One year unconditional guarantee. 
Order yours today. Call toll free 800-647-1800. 

Charge VISA, MC. Or mail check, money order. 
Add $4.00 each for shipping and handling. 



CALL TOLL FREE . . . 800-647-1800 



Call 601-323-5869 in MS, outside continental USA 

MC | ENTERPRISES, 

lYirW INCORPORATED 

921 Louisville Road, Starkville, MS 39759 



(and therefore expensive in terms of 
personnel time, etc.). Microcom- 
puters can be used to allow individ- 
uals to practice lessons independently 
and at their own speed. 

Learning that involves manipula- 
tion, such as might be found in chem- 
istry, physics, and other sciences, 
presents another problem area. Here, 
microcomputers and computer-aided 
instruction can allow an individual to 
manipulate and explore ideas, con- 
cepts, figures, etc., in structured but 
flexible ways. Such programs can 
allow severely physically disabled in- 
dividuals to handle "flasks" and 
"chemicals" on the TV screen and 
carry out experiments and manipula- 
tions that would otherwise be beyond 
their direct control. 

Another whole area for microcom- 
puters in education would be their use 
not as direct teaching aids but as aids 
in providing fundamental facilities 
necessary for a meaningful and effec- 
tive education. Examples of these aids 
for a "normal" individual might be 
eyeglasses or a pencil and paper. The 
need to see, read and write, take 
notes, and do independent work are 
of course necessary capabilities for 
receiving an education within our 
current system. The severely physi- 
cally disabled individual who has no 
ability to use a pencil and paper, to 
take notes, to write, or to do indepen- 
dent work is at an extreme disad- 
vantage. Microcomputer-based 
writing systems designed to provide 
the same flexibility as a scratch pad 
and pencil could be used to provide 
these individuals with the capabilities 
for appropriate and adequate partici- 
pation in their educational programs. 

Finally, microcomputers can be 
used to teach fundamental program- 
ming skills. Because of the many 
ways in which microcomputers can 
aid individuals with disabilities, and 
because of the direction in which 
many aspects of the employment 
world are heading, it is quite clear 
that microcomputers hold future 
vocational potential for disabled in- 
dividuals, whether their vocational 
direction is in the computer field or 
not. Computer literacy and the abili- 
ty to reconfigure or oversee the re- 
configuring of computer systems to 



meet their changing needs may be ex- 
tremely important capabilities for dis- 
abled individuals to have. 

Communication aids: Because of 
the nonportability of microcomputers 
up to now, their use has been limited 
mostly to work-station types of appli- 
cations. These applications include 
computer-aided writing and filing 
systems as well as work-station 
phone control and phone communi- 
cations using the new speech-output 
capabilities. However, the stationary 
systems have not been able to mean- 
ingfully address the conversational 
needs of individuals with severe 
speech impairments. 

The recent introduction, though, of 
portable and hand-held computers is 
opening up the potential for micro- 
computers to move out of the sta- 
tionary writing-aid category and 
begin to address the categories of por- 
table writing/note-taking aids and 
conversational communication aids. 
Because of the fine motor control re- 
quired, these portable units will find 
their greatest initial application for 
individuals having mild to moderate 
physical disabilities. When used as 
components within systems having 
other input techniques, however, 
they may also be used by individuals 
having more severe disabilities. The 
limited memory, I/O (input/output), 
and control capabilities of these sys- 
tems are currently hampering their 
application in many areas. In time, 
the memory capabilities may greatly 
expand, but the I/O and control 
capabilities are generally not empha- 
sized in a portable unit and may con- 
tinue to present problems for awhile. 

The major barrier for using micro- 
computers as communication aids, 
however, is the need for custom inter- 
facing to achieve optimum speed. 
This usually involves the develop- 
ment of special interfaces not com- 
mercially available. As I will discuss 
in more detail later, the use of custom 
hardware in conjunction with stan- 
dard computers can negate many of 
the advantages of using a microcom- 
puter in the first place. Care must be 
taken, therefore, when making a deci- 
sion between an adapted microcom- 
puter and a specially designed aid to 
solve problems in this area. 



142 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Anadex silent scribe printers. 
Quietly goincLabaut vour business. 




Standard 
Features 



SILENT/SCRIBE MODELS 
/.* J»* jT -n* 



Now and then office noise 
levels can go sky-high. But with 
Silent/Scribe - our new family of 
matrix impact printers - you can raise 
your printer expectations while signifi- 
cantly lowering your office noise level. 

How quiet is "silent"? Silent/Scribe operates at 
less than 55 dBA, which means that in the average 
office you may have to look at it to determine 

whether it's printing. 
And Silent/Scribe 
is as easy to buy as it 
is to live with. You 
can select a variety 
of printing speeds, 
fonts and I ine widths. 
Some models pro- 
vide both draft and 
enhanced quality 
copy. All models 
have superb dot- 
addressable graphics 
at no extra cost. 



/ 



Also standard are sophisticated communi- 
cations controls and protocols, flexible and 

easy-to-use operator controls, quick-change 
"continuous loop ribbon cartridge, and universal 
interfaces that work with virtually any computer 
system. 

For full details on how Silent/Scribe can fit your 
application - quietly - contact Anadex today. You'll 
find the units attractively packaged, quality en- 
gineered, modestly priced, and available now. 



A Quality Circle Member 



Printing Speed 1 10 


150 


150 


120 


120 


200 


(Char, per Sec.) [ 12 


180 


180 


— 


— 


120 


12.5 


— 


— 


150 


150 


— 


13.3 


200 


200 


— 


— 


— 


15 


— 


— 


180 


160 


150 


16.4 


— 


— 


200 


200 


164 


Enhanced I 10 


— 


— 


— 


— 


100 


Expanded Print 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


(Double Width) 












Dot Addressable 












Graphics (Dot/In., H/V) 


60/72 


60/72 


75/72 


75/72 


72/72 


Max. Line Width (In.) 


8.0 


13.2 


8.0 


13.2 


13.2 


Audible Alarm 


Opt. 


Opt. 


Opt. 


Opt. 


Yes 


Out-of-Paper Sense 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Ribbon, Continuous 












Loop Cartridge (Yds) 


30 


30 


30 


30 


30 


Interfacing: 












Parallel Cent. Comp. 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


RS-232C Serial 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 




DP-9000A 



Silent/Scribe. The Quiet Ones from Anadex. 



ANADEX, INC. • 9825 De Soto Avenue • Chatsworth, California 91311, U.S.A. • Telephone: (213) 998-8010 • TWX 910-494-2761 
U.S. Sales Offices: San Jose, CA(408) 247-3933 •Irvine, CA (71 4)557-0457* Schiller Park, IL(312)671-1717 • Wakefield, MA (617)245-9160 
Hauppauge, New York, Phone: (516) 435-0222 • Atlanta, Georgia, Phone: (404) 255-8006 • Austin, Texas, Phone: (512) 327-5250 
ANADEX, LTD. • Weaver House, Station Road • Hook, Basingstoke, Hants RG27 9JY, England • Tel: Hook (025672) 3401 • Telex: 858762 ANADEX G 



Circle 25 on Inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 143 




Rugged, simple, dependable. 

RCA Interactive Data 
Terminals as low as $236... 

Reliable, portable RCA VP 
3000 series Interactive Data Ter- 
minals feature: video and audio 
output; color-locking circuitry for 
sharp color graphics and rainbow- 
free characters; reverse video; 
tone and noise generator; 20 and 
40 character formats; resident and 
programmable character set; LSI video and microprocessor con- 
trol. All have a unitized 58-key, 1 28 character keyboard with flexi- 
ble membrane switches, plus the features of the ASCII key- 
boards below. 

VP 3501 Videotex Data Terminal. (Shown) Built-in RF mod- 
ulator and 300 baud direct-connect modem. Ideal for time sharing 
data base applications. Works with standard TV or monitor. Also 
has expansion interface and 1 6-key calculator keypad. As low 
as $265.* 

VP 3303 Interactive Data Terminal. Similar to VP 3501, 
without modem or calculator keypad. Has selectable baud rates 
and RS232C/20Ma current loop interfaces. As low as $246.* 



VP3301. 

as $236.* 



Same as VP 3303, without RF modulator. As low 




...and RCA ASCII Encoded 
Keyboards as low as $49: 

RCA VP 600 series ASCII key- 
boards feature: flexible membrane 
keys with contact-life over 10 mil- 
lion operations; unitized keyboards 
are spillproof, dustproof with finger 
positioning overlay and positive 
keypress; 2-key rollover circuitry; 
tone feedback; high noise immunity CMOS circuitry; 5V DC oper- 
ation and 58-key, 1 28-character keyboard, selectable "upper 
case only." 

__ VP 616. EIA RS232C compatible, 20 mA current loop and 
TTL outputs; six selectable baud rates. Standard keyboard plus 
1 6-key calculator. As low as $78.* 

VP 611. Similar to VP 616 with 8 bit parallel output. As low 
as $59.* 

VP 606. Same as VP 616, less calculator keypad. As low 
as $65.* 

VP 601 . (Shown) Same as VP 61 1 , less calculator keypad. 
As low as $49.* 

To order, or more information, call toll-free 800-233-0094. 
In PA, 71 7-393-0446. Or write: 
RCA Microcomputer Marketing, 
New Holland Avenue, 
Lancaster, PA 17604. 

*OEM quantity prices. 



ItC/l 



Information resource/manage- 
ment: Disabled individuals could use 
a microcomputer for information re- 
source/management in all of the same 
ways that able-bodied individuals 
can. In addition to these uses, com- 
puters can help physically or sensori- 
ly disabled individuals to access 
materials that would normally be dif- 
ficult for them to handle in a number 
of ways. Sensory or, particularly, 
physical disabilities may prevent 
these persons from making effective 
use of notebooks, filing systems, 
calendars, dictionaries, phone lists, 
etc., due to their inability to quickly 
manipulate and scan these materials. 
Microcomputer-based systems with 
interfaces designed specifically to 
work with the individual's residual 
capabilities can provide effective and 
efficient means of paralleling all of 
these functions. At present, most of 
these applications are in the area of 
user-generated information storage 
and retrieval, although in some cases, 
such as a dictionary, materials or 
databases are being developed for 
general use and dissemination. 

Security/monitoring systems: A 
major barrier to the ability of many 
disabled or aging persons to live inde- 
pendently is the lack of effective and 
economical means to ensure their 
safety and the ability to summon 
help. Some ways in which a micro- 
computer could aid in these indepen- 
dent living endeavors would be 
through the provision of mechanisms 
for physically disabled individuals to 
control the locks and windows in 
their homes, emergency-call systems 
for individuals who have difficulty in 
making a call or who are unable to 
speak, monitoring systems for per- 
sons who could fall or in some way 
render themselves unconscious and 
unable to call for help, and medica- 
tion-reminder systems. 

A monitoring system could run pe- 
riodic checks and call for help if the 
individual does not respond to the 
system's queries. Reminder systems 
can be developed both to provide 
reminders as to when medication 
should be taken and to check whether 
certain actions necessary in the taking 
of the medication (e.g., opening the 
refrigerator) have been done. Lack of 



144 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 406 on Inquiry card. 






DISK DRIVE 
IN OPERft 1I0M 





Microsoft's RAMCard with RAMDrive" 

takes the whir, click and wait 

outofthelBMPC. 



Solid State Disk. When you add the Microsoft 
RAMCard to your IBM® Personal Computer, you 
also add RAMDrive, which lets you use 
memory as you would normally use a 
disk. That gives you "disk access" 
that's typically 50X faster than 
disk. Without the whirring, 
clicking and waiting of mech 
anical data access. 




Fast and easy. You simply 
designate a portion of 
memory as "disk." RAMDrive 
takes it from there, instructing 
the program to go to RAM rather 
than disk whenever data access is 
needed. The result is faster, smoother, 
no-wait computing. 

64K to 256K. You can start small, but think big 
Start with 64K and add Microsoft RAMChips™ 
in 64K blocks. Or buy the full 256K now. Either way, 
you get both RAM and "disk" capabilities. All in a 
single slot 

A complete subsystem. The RAMCard package 
comes complete with the memory board (64K, 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 
Microsoft, RAMChips, RAMCard, and RAMDrive, are trademarks of 
Microsoft Corporation. 



128K, 192K or 256K), documenta- 
tion, a diskette which adds 

RAMDrive and, a full one year 
warranty. 

More tools for IBM. Microsoft 
wrote PC-DOS, the standard operat- 
ing system for the IBM Personal 
Computer. And Microsoft is first in 
providing a full range of languages, 
applications programs and utilities 
for the IBM PC. The addition of RAMCard 
with RAMDrive is our way of saying that 
Microsoft will continue to offer more and 
better supported tools for the IBM PC. 

See for yourself. Ask your Microsoft or 
IBM PC dealer for a demonstration of both 
main memory and disk features of the Microsoft 
RAMCard with RAMDrive. It's solid state memory 
you can also use like a disk. And it takes the whir, 
click and wait out of the IBM PC. 

BETTER TOOLS FOR MICROCOMPUTERS 

/HICRpSOfT 

^F Microsoft Corporation ^^ i 

V 10700 Northup Way ^ V 

Bellevue. WA 98004 



Circle 542 on inquiry card. 



response to these reminders could be 
used as an alerting signal to the moni- 
toring/call system, which could, in 
turn, summon aid. 

Cognitive and language-processing 
assistance: Congenital or acquired 
conditions often leave an individual 
with impaired cognitive processing. 
In some cases, it is a general process- 
ing deficit, as in mental retardation. 
In other cases, it is a specific dysfunc- 
tion of a particular process, such as 
short-term memory or the ability to 
program speech or remember names. 
The greatest obstacle to identifying 
effective applications of microcom- 
puters in these areas is the limited 
knowledge about the processes and 
remediation methods in general. The 
prospect of microcomputer-based 
cognitive prostheses is still beyond 
the current state of the art but not 
beyond the imagination. The use of 
microcomputers in remediation, 
however, may be much closer and 
more realistic, especially in areas 
where extensive drill and practice are 



associated with the remediation pro- 
cess. 

Providing Standard Functions 

As I stated previously, it is impor- 
tant for disabled individuals to be 
able to use microcomputers for the 
same purposes as everyone else does. 
These purposes include word process- 
ing, computer games, computer- 
aided instruction, control (including 
environmental control in both the 
home and job site), financial plan- 
ning, management, and general com- 
puting. In some cases, the disabled in- 
dividual may use these standard 
capabilities (e.g., word processing) to 
help offset specific disabilities (e.g., 
inability to use a pencil). More and 
more, however, individuals need to 
access the standard computer pro- 
grams because computers are an in- 
tegral part of their education or jobs. 
As our society in general incorporates 
the use of computers into every facet 
of daily living, access to them is be- 
coming more and more essential. 



Now add time- 
keeping capability to your 
RS-232C compatible 




on top of othoi 



Clock coordinates and W^ompurerCHnpammrSvit™ h— c «„™ .n^n. 

logs system activities by (Each requires a dedi- 

date and time . , , down to the second. cated RS-232C port.) 

The Chronograph is ideal for Keep your computer system up 

business or home applications. Use it date with the Hayes Stack Chronogra 

with your computer for timing everything Only $249 at computer stores every- 

from time-sharing access... to electronic where. There's no fT\|| 

mail and lights and sprinklers. better time. I f I H3V€ 



(Each requires a dedi- 
cated RS-232C port.) 

Keep your computer system up-to- 
date with the Hayes Stack Chronograph. 



Tie-sharing access... to electronic where. There's no fT\|i 

id lights and sprinklers. better time. |f J H3V68 

The Hayes StaelCChrar^ 
K time. And it^ now 




Hayes Microcomputer Products Inc. 



5835 Peachtree Corners East, Norcross, Georgia 30092 (404) 449-8791 
Hayes Stack is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 
© 1981 Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. Sold only In the U.S.A. 



In order to provide disabled in- 
dividuals with the ability to run stan- 
dard software programs, transparent 
modifications that can circumvent the 
individual's particular disabilities 
need to be developed. (The word 
transparent is used here to refer to a 
technique that is invisible to any stan- 
dard software programs — that is, 
modifications cannot be detected by 
any piece of standard software when 
this technique is used.) A completely 
transparent modification does not in- 
terfere with the standard program in 
any way. Similarly, the standard pro- 
gram cannot interfere or negate the 
modification. A few examples of 
transparent modifications may be 
useful here. 

The simplest example of a transpar- 
ent modification is a weight on a 
hinge that can be tipped to hold down 
the shift key. This mechanical modifi- 
cation can allow a one-handed or 
one-fingered (or headstick) typist to 
enter shift or control characters on 
the keyboard. There is no way for 
computers to tell in what manner the 
individuals are entering data, and any 
programs will run without modifica- 
tion. 

A somewhat more flexible modifi- 
cation may be the use of a keyboard- 
emulator module, which would be in- 
serted into the computer between the 
keyboard and the main computer 
board. Electrically, this keyboard 
emulator would look exactly like the 
standard keyboard. As a result, it 
would be impossible for the processor 
(or any software) to tell that the 
signals coming to it were not coming 
from the computer's keyboard. 

The keyboard emulator would 
have a connector on the side that 
would accept RS-232C serial, paral- 
lel, or any desired signal format and 
inject the characters received into the 
computer as if they were typed on the 
keyboard. In this manner, persons us- 
ing any one of a large number of spe- 
cial communication or control aids 
could directly control the computer 
as if they were typing on the key- 
board. 

Because the special communication 
aids can be custom fitted to the in- 
dividual, they can be selected to op- 
timize the individual's physical con- 



146 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 532 on Inquiry card. 



' i # 



A GALAXY of featu&es /rakes the LN^VSt) a 

remarkable, computer. As you explore the 
LNW80, yjou: will find the most complete, 
powerful, ready to run,' feature-packed per- 
sonal and business computer ever made into 
one compact* solid unit. 




QUALITY CONSTRUCTION - Instrumenta- 
tion quality construction sets LNW80 com- 
puters apart from all the rest Integrated into 
the sleek solid steel case of the LNW80 is a 
professional 74-key expanded keyboard that 
includes a twelve key numeric keypad. 

HIG.H RESOLUTION GRAPHICS & COLOR- 

The stunning 480 X 1 92 resolution gives you 
total .display control - in color or black and 
white. The choice of display formats is yours; 
80, 64, 40 and 32 columns by 24 or 1 6 lines in - 
any combination of eight colors. 

.PERFORMANCE- Lift-off with,a4MHz Z80A 
CPU for twice the performance. The LNW80 
outperforms all computers in its class. 



HI 



1 






MODEL I COMPATIBILITY -The LNW&0 is 

fully hardware and softwafe compatible with 
the Model I. Select from a universaof hardware 
accessories and software - from VisiCalc® to 
space games, your LNW80 will launch you 
into a new world of computing. 

FULLY LOAQED - A full payload includes Sm 
on-board single and double density disk 
controller for 5 W'vffcnd 8" single or double 
sided disk drives. RS232C communications 
port, cassette and parallel printer interfaces 
are standard features and ready to go. All 
memory is fully installed - 48K RAM,* 16K 
graphics RAM and 12K ROM complete with 
Microsoft BASIC. 




Our down to earth price won't send you into 



, ,2620 WALNUT Tustin, C 

(714)641-8850 (714)544- 



Monitor and Disk drives not included 
M Personal Software, Inc. 



Circle 268 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 147 



ITI ^ r Y x software 

>t* Quality Discount 

GUARANTEED LOWEST PRICES! We will match any 
advertised price. Just show us the ad. 



APPLE 



ArtScI Magic Window S 79 

Dos Boss 22 

Utility City 25 

Apple Panic 25 

Teacher Plus 35 

Continental CPA acctg. 

moduleea 210 

Depreciation planner 335 

Datamost Real Est. Analysis 110 

Datasoft Mlcropalnter 30 

Denver Software 

Financial partner $219 

Pascal Tutor 108 

Pascal Programmer 1 08 

Ouosoft Business Planner 265 

Edu-ware compu-matlc 32 

Ellis Computing 

Nevada Cobol S169 

Nevada Pilot 129 

Nevada Edit 99 

Application pkg. ea 22 

Hayden Software 

Datagraph S 39 

Hlstograph 25 

Applesoft Compiler 3.2 1B0 

ApplepieSeriesea 109 

Howard Software 

Real Estate Analyzer S145 

Tax preparer '82 127 

Tax preparer state: CA.NY/NJ/IL . 60 

IUS 

Datadex S125 

Easy writer 162 

Easymover B8 

Easyjack (Combo) 262 

Easymaller 162 

Microfocus 

CIs Cobol Std S775 

Forms-2 175 

MicroPro 

Wordstar S229 

Mallmerge 85 

Calcstar .145 

Spellstar 145 

Games 

Sargonll S 25 

Zorklorll 32 

Deadline 32 

Crossword Magic 18 

Misc. 

Mathemaglc $ 80 

Spellguard 267 

Edit 6502 82 

Locksmith 90 

Super Screen II 108 

A-stat 79 140 

Mailing list 48 

G.O.C. I full Acctg. system 1 ,B0D 

Stoneware DB Master 179 

Muse Software 

SuperTextll S125 

Address book 43 

Form letter 87 

Data Plot 52 



And Many More 



MicroPro 

Wordstar S235 

Mallmerge 95 

Calcstar 199 

Spellstar 160 

Supersort I 170 

Microsoft 

Basic 80 S285 

Basic Compiler 325 

Fortran 80 345 

Cobol 80 570 

Macro 80 140 

Peachtree 

General Ledger S399 

Accounts Receivables 399 

Accounts Payables 399 

Inventory 399 

Payroll 399 

Property Management 799 

CPA Client Write-up 799 

Star Computer System 

G/L, A/R, A/PorPay S350 

LegalTimes Billing 845 

Property Management 845 

Sorcim 

Supercalc S225 

Trans 86 115 

Act 155 

Supersoft 

Diagnostic I S 48 

Diagnostic II 83 

. Disk Doctor 84 

Fortran 215 

C Compiler 175 

TCS 

GL, A/R, A/P, or Pay $ 79 

All modules above 265 

Module Compiler 9B 

Inventory 95 

Ashton - Tate 

Base II S595 

Byrom Software 

BSTAM S160 

BSTMS 160 

Digital Research 

Pascal MT + 

MAC S 85 

SID (8080 Debugger) 65 

ZSI0 (ZB0 Debugger) 90 

CP/M 2.2 149 

C Basic 2 97 

PL/1-80 449 

And Many More 



IBM PC 



Wordstar S285 

Mallmerge 95 

Easlwritir II 299 

Easlspeller 149 

Crosstalk 129 

DataBase Manager 170 

Mailing List 85 

Vedlt 165 

CP/M 86 295 

Write-on 110 

Move It 125 

Spellguard 247 

East (Exec. Acctg. Sys.) 625 



Accessories/ 


1 


Hardware 




Boards 




Co Processors 88 card (Ap. II) . . 


S795 


Sottcard(ZB0CP/MAp. II) .... 


298 


CPS Muitllunctlon 


178 


Mountain A/D + 0/A 


289 


CCS 12K R0M/PR0M 


. 89 


CCS A/D Convener 


. 98 


CCS Serial Asynch 


149 


Applescope (your Apple as an 




Oscilloscope) 


595 


Vldex Enhancer I 


. 149 


K & D Enhancer 


115 


Dan Paymar Lower case 


. . 27 


ALS Smarterm 


. 379 


ALS Z-card 


269 


Percom Doubler II 


. 167 


Bit3FullVlew80 (ATB00) 


. 299 


Bit 3 32K Memory (AT400/800) 


.159 


BTAD 0S-1 (64K, ZB0, CPM 




for IBM PC) 


^99 


Oatamac 64K (IBM PC) 


. 399 


Vldex Mlcromodem Chip 


. . 25 


Xedex Baby Blue (IBM PC) 


. 550 


Quadram Deluxe Board (IBM PC) 


. 495 


Quadram 128K Ram (IBM PC) . . 


495 


MIcrofazerBK Printer Buffer . . . 


. 135 


Versacard 


?1R 




Computers 




Commodore/Atari/NEC/ 




Xerox 




Call for Price Information 



Monitors 

Amdek Video 300 S217 

Amdek RGB Color 750 

NEC12"HlresGreen 175 

Sanyo 12" Hires Green 220 

TEC0TM- 12 GX Green 147 

TEC0RGB13" 525 

Modems 

Novation Apple-Cat II $350 

Hayes Smartmodem 225 

Mlcromodem II 319 

Chronograph 199 

Printers 

Anadex 9500 Series S1.5B0 

Epson SCali 

Diablo 630 2,200 

NEC 3530 1,890 

NEC8023A 525 

Okldata Mlcrollne B2A 535 

Okldata Mlcrollne B3A 790 

Prism B0 (w/ 4 options) 1,177 

Prism 132 (w/ 4 options) 1,7B5 

Smfth-Corona TP-1 750 

Disk Drives 

Rana Elite 1 (Ap. II) $339 

Rana Controller (Ap. II) 110 

Micro SclA35(Ap. II) 399 

Micro SclA40(Ap. II) 3B5 

MlcroSclA70 540 

Micro Scl Controller (Ap. II) 90 

Tandon TM-100-1 299 

TandonTM-100-2 389 



And Many More 



One Stop Shopping at 
Guaranteed Lowest Prices 



Write for our Free Catalog 



ORDER TOLL FREE ■ Outside Wl - 1-800-826-1589 



Please: • Wisconsin residents - add 5% sales tax 

• Add $3.50 for shipping per software and small items. 
Call regarding others. 

• Foreign - add 15% handling charge. Shipping extra. 

We welcome: • Visa, Mastercharge - (Add 4%) 

• Checks (Allow 1-2 weeks for clearing) 

• COD (Add $1.50 per shipment) 

For technical information & in Wisconsin: 715-848-2322 

OryX Software • 205ScottSt., Dept. AG • P.O. Box1961 

Wausau, Wl 54401 



$ 



148 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 355 on inquiry card. 



trol and communication rate. One in- 
dividual might be using a "brow 
switch" and a special scanning dis- 
play. Another individual could be us- 
ing a light-beam headpointer. Still 
another might use Morse code or 
some other encoding system that re- 
quires the individuals simply to look 
at the characters they want on a dis- 
play. 

The outputs from these displays 
would then be fed into the keyboard 
emulator and then into the computer 
as "input from the keyboard." Such 
an arrangement would be completely 
transparent and allow these individ- 
uals to utilize any software controlled 
from the keyboard. (Game-paddle 
emulators can also be used to access 
other programs.) 

In order to allow use of the com- 
puter in its normal fashion, most key- 
board emulators also accept input 
from the keyboard and pass it along 
to the computer as well. Thus, with 
the keyboard emulator in place, the 
computer can be used in the standard 
way by disabled individuals. 

Equipping one or more computers 
in a classroom with such keyboard 
emulators would allow disabled in- 
dividuals with special communication 
aids to access and utilize the same 
educational programs and course- 
ware as the other members of their 
class or school. Similarly, if a com- 
pany had a terminal with an emulator 
installed, the terminal would be 
usable by disabled as well as able- 
bodied personnel without any modifi- 
cation to the company's systems or 
software. Because the module plugs 
in between the keyboard and the pro- 
cessor, it can also be removed at any 
time (and the keyboard plugged back 
into its normal slot) for testing or 
maintenance of the computer or ter- 
minal. Smart keyboard emulators can 
also be plugged into themselves to 
run self -diagnostics. 

Another transparent modification 
deals with output rather than input: a 
special audio screen is connected to 
the computer's bus; instead of creat- 
ing a video image, however, it has a 
special flat tablet that lies on the table 
beside the keyboard. As blind in- 
dividuals move the cursor around on 
the tablet, they can cause the tablet to 

Circle 286 on inquiry card. » 



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read out the words or letters their 
hands are "over." In this fashion, 
blind people can easily scan the 
screen and have it read off the con- 
tents in any random order they 
desire. Because they can move their 
hands around on the tablet, they can 
also get a "special feel" for the infor- 
mation. Because it is impossible for 
the main computer (or its software) to 
tell that this system is in place or in 
use, any software that uses the video 
display and pronounceable characters 
can be used by the blind individual. 
Thus, an individual would be able to 
access and use most standard soft- 
ware without modification. 

It's obvious, of course, that pro- 
grams that use a video display are 
designed for individuals who can see. 
The screen presents information to 
the user in a parallel format — that is, 
the information on the entire page is 
presented to the user at one time. 
Blind individuals using the above 
modification would be able to "see" 
the screen only a word or a character 
at a time. This would be equivalent to 
sighted persons trying to read and 
make sense out of words on a screen 
by looking at the screen through a 
soda straw (a character at a time) or a 
small tube (a word at a time). Al- 
though they could figure out what the 
screen said, the effectiveness of the 
visual display is decidedly decreased, 
and the organization and presenta- 



tion of much of the information on 
the screen may be far from optimum 
for this type of "serial" input. 

For this reason, programs written 
specifically for use by blind individ- 
uals use considerably different 
strategies for organizing and present- 
ing information. Thus, although the 
audio-screen technique just described 
does provide access to standard soft- 
ware for blind individuals, it does not 
give them equivalent access to that of 
sighted individuals; nor does it give 

The audio-screen 
technique doesn't 

give the blind 
equivalent or even 

optimum access. 

them optimum access. Unfortunately, 
the software that has been optimized 
for use by blind individuals is an ex- 
tremely small fraction of the software 
generally available. It is likely we will 
see the amount of this software in- 
crease with little improvement in 
quality. As a result, such non- 
optimum approaches as the audio 
screen will play an increasingly im- 
portant role. 

In the design of aids for the dis- 
abled, insights into the practical 
aspects of using special modifications 
(such as that gained by the tube 



analogy above) can provide program- 
mers with a much better understand- 
ing of the problems they are trying to 
solve and can lead to design of much 
more effective special modifications. 

Semitransparent Modifications 

Hardware intervention is almost 
always necessary to achieve full 
transparency. Hardware intervention 
ensures complete transparency but 
comes at a higher cost. As a result, a 
number of strategies, termed semi- 
transparent, have also been devel- 
oped to work with some but not all 
software. 

Some of these techniques take the 
form of special software routines that 
are hidden in infrequently used por- 
tions of memory. Vectors within the 
operating system are reset to cause 
the computer to access special 
pointers instead of the normal key- 
board-servicing routines. These pure 
software routines are often loaded 
from disk into the computer just prior 
to loading the standard program. In 
some cases, the routines may be auto- 
matically loaded when the computer 
is turned on. The individual can then 
use the special routine to select and 
run other programs. 

The major drawback to modifica- 
tions of this type is that they usually 
rely on pointers that may often be 
reset when more sophisticated or 
complex programs are loaded into the 



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*LOGIC 

Communications Corp. 
713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign, I L 61820 
(217)359-8482 

T*»l AY ■ 9nAQQ*t "Apple" is the registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 





■m 


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tuii • * 


m 


'¥~<r^ 




Map of the University of Illinois campus 
constructed with A2-GE1 and A2-3D2. 



150 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 441 on inquiry card. 



THE BEST GETS 

BETTER! 



Available NOW! 
ComboPlus with 
Real-Time-Clock 

as shown Model MR-128SP 




Fully field upgradeable 

64K-256K Parity Checked Memory 

Parallel Printer Port (IBM compatible) 

Real-Time-Clock (MS-DOS support standard, CPM/86 support available) 

Async Com. Port (IBM compatible) 

Other products available for IBM PC: 1) 2780/3780 Bisync Emulation package; 2) Advance Com. card - Async, Bisync, 
SDLC, HDLC; 3) Expansion parity memory - 64K-256K; 4) Disk++ (memory, Async & disk host adaptor; 5) Original Memory 
Combo; 6) Async Communication Card - (1 or 2 ports); 7) Wire Wrap Card (13.1" X 4"); 8) Extender Card. 
Ask for AST products at your local Computerland stores. 





Circle 3 on inquiry card. 



R€S€flRCH INC. 

2691 Richter Ave., Suite 104, Irvine, CA 92714 (714)540-1333 



Dealer inquiries welcome 





f 



tipple 




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Look Who 
Picked the Peach 

Did You? 



They did. 

And perhaps you did too. If you 
own an IBM Personal Computer,™ an 
Apple III,™ a Zenith Z-89™ or a 
Hewlett-Packard HP-87;* you've had 
the chance to pick Peachware.™ All 
these companies chose Peachtree 
Software ™ to get the most out of 
their machines for you. 

And with good reason. Peachtree 
Software is the recognized leader in 
business software for microcomputers, 
with a reputation for comprehensive, 
well-designed packages, easy-to-use 
documentation and Peachcare™ —our 
own array of support services un- 
matched in the industry. 

With integrated systems like the 
Peachpak™ 8 Accounting Series — 
General Ledger, Accounts Payable, 
Accounts Receivable, Sales Invoicing, 
Inventory Control and PeachPay™ 
Payroll— Peachtree offers the manager 
unprecedented control over his critical 
accounting activities. And the Peach- 
pak 9 Office Productivity Series, 
based on the PeachText™* word 



processor and including the Peach- 
Calc™ Electronic Spreadsheet, Spell- 
ing Proofreader, Mailing List Manager 
and Telecommunications, expands 
the power of Peachtree Software 
to all areas of the office. 

Those qualities made our software 
the natural choice of these big manu- 
facturers. But they're not the only 
ones who've picked a peach. So have 
tens of thousands of individual users 
of the better CP/M™ -compatible 
microcomputers. 

If you haven't picked the Peach, 
isn't it about time you did? 



Circle 367 on inquiry card. 

*We improved Magic Wand,™ and it's so good 
we put our name on it. 



Please send me information on Peachware™ by Peachtree Software. 
Name: 



Company:. 
Address:_ 
City: 



.State:. 



_Zip:_ 



I am a: □ prospective dealer □ user of software 

Peachtree Software Incorporated an MSA company 

3445 Peachtree Road, N.E./8th Floor/ Atlanta, Georgia 30326/(404) 266-0673 




IBM is a trademark of International Business 
Machines Corp. 

Apple III is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
Z-89 is a trademark of Zenith Corporation. 
HP-87 is a trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company. 
CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Inc. 
Peachware, Peachtree Software, Peachcare, 
Peachpak, PeachPay, PeachText and PeachCalc 
are trademarks of Peachtree Software Incorporated, 
an MSA Company. 

Copyright © 1982 Peachtree Software Incorporated, 
an MSA Company. 



BY 982 




Peachtree 
Software 



computer. In addition, many of the 
more advanced programs consume all 
of the available memory space, total- 
ly wiping out such special programs. 
In some cases, special programs can 
be hidden in ROM (read-only mem- 
ory), and special strategies can be in- 
corporated that allow them to con- 
tinually retake control of the com- 
puter even while more complex pro- 
grams are being run. However, this 
approach again requires the use of at 
least some special hardware. 

Examples of purely software modi- 
fications are the programs written by 
Peter Maggs at the University of Illi- 
nois, Champaign-Urbana (see refer- 
ence 1) to provide a voice output of 
video-screen contents (using a variety 
of speech synthesizers). An example 
of the ROM-based approach is the 
adaptive-firmware card developed by 
Paul Schwejda for the Apple II (see 
"Adaptive-Firmware Card for the 
Apple II" by Paul Schwejda and 
Gregg Vanderheiden, page 276; 
see also reference 2). In the case of the 



adaptive-firmware card, the modifi- 
cation is essentially transparent to 
most programs except those that have 
critical timing loops around keyboard 
input routines (the adaptive-firmware 
card "steals" the microprocessor dur- 
ing these periods). 

The SHADOW/VET voice-entry 
terminal for the Apple (by Scott In- 
struments) is another example in this 
category. The SHADOW/VET allows 
total control of the Apple using voice 
commands. Except for programs that 
involve critical timing loops around 
input routines, the SHADOW/VET 
can be used instead of the Apple key- 
board for all operations even inside 
protected programs such as Visicalc. 
(Some keyboard use is necessary dur- 
ing initial voice programming of the 
unit.) 

Multilevel Program Processing 
and Multitasking 

In addition to the transparency 
problem, designers must understand 
two other concepts that are important 



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AEGIS SYSTEMS 



P.O. Box 401 
Terms FOB Saline 



202 West Bennett Street, Saline, Michigan 48176 



1-800 521-0521 
Michigan [313] 429-2678 



to the development of many micro- 
computer-based assistive systems, 
particularly for extremely motor-im- 
paired individuals. The first concept, 
multilevel program execution, refers 
to the ability of programs to be 
stacked so that the output of one pro- 
gram serves as the input to the next 
(for example, a special one-switch in- 
put program feeding a communica- 
tion/spelling acceleration program 
feeding a standard text editor or other 
standard program). Multitasking 
refers to the ability to jump back and 
forth between different programs 
while keeping all programs active in 
memory in the computer at the same 
time (see reference 3). 

The need for multilevel program 
execution stems from practical con- 
straints in the development of pro- 
grams for disabled individuals. If you 
had unlimited funds and time, you 
could develop a single program which 
contained all of the following: 

• input routines (one-switch scan- 
ning, Morse code, optical headpoint- 
ing, etc.) 

• acceleration techniques (abbrevia- 
tion expansion, word/phrase capabil- 
ity, word prediction, etc.) 

• function programs (text editing, 
spreadsheet programs, games, educa- 
tional programs, etc.) 

Similarly, if all of the software 
were to be written by one group at 
one university (or company or reha- 
bilitation center), then the software 
could be written in compatible mod- 
ules that could simply be linked to- 
gether to form the configuration 
desired by a given individual. 
Because neither of these proposals is 
practical, especially in light of the ex- 
treme variety of programs and func- 
tions that would be required on the 
third level, some type of program 
nesting is going to be required. 

The need for multitasking can best 
be seen by first imagining an average 
person sitting at his desk, working on 
a problem, when the phone rings. He 
turns and answers the phone. The 
caller, a colleague, is asking for infor- 
mation for a project she's working 
on. While on the phone, the person 
pulls out a file, runs off some calcula- 



154 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 15 on Inquiry card. 



• 



IS THIS LEVEL OF RELIABILITY 
REALLY NECESSARY? 

ACCUTRACK 



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Why they're precision fabricated for 
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density mini disks at double-density 
levels. So you don't have to worry 
about the reliability of your media. 



Accutrackdisks. OEMs have 
specified them for years. You can 
trust them for your data. Call toll- 
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ACCUTRACK 

Dennison KYBE Corporation 

82 Calvary Street, Waltham, Mass. 02254 
Tel. (617) 899-0012; Telex 94-0179 
Outside Mass. call toll free (800) 225-6715 
Offices & representatives worldwide 

Circle 156 on inquiry card. 



K 


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Dealers: Give your customers a 
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If you want a quality line, small 
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VICTORY 
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ANDATA 

THE UPPER HAND 
IN COMPUTER 
SOFTWARE. 



tions, and makes some notes based on 
feedback from his colleague. He then 
hangs up and goes back to his writ- 
ing. 

A severely physically disabled in- 
dividual who uses an assistive micro- 
computer-based system would need a 
multitasking capability to accomplish 
this. First, he would have had to sus- 
pend what he was doing (without de- 
stroying it or waiting to update and 
store it) before answering the phone. 
While on the phone, he would need to 
access his information system, use his 
writing system to make notes, and 
use some computing capability before 
hanging up the phone and reentering 
the program he had suspended as the 
phone rang. During the process, he 
would need to enter and exit from 
several programs and routines with- 
out losing his place in any of them, 
thus requiring multitasking. 

As with the multilevel program, 
this problem would not exist if it were 
possible to write a single, all-encom- 
passing program for each individual. 
The program could then be written to 
allow suspension of activity and 
jumps from one section to another. 
This approach, however, would not 
allow the individual to take advan- 
tage of any of the standard software 
constantly being written and up- 
dated. It would also deny him access 
to the programs being used by his 
peers, as well as programs that may 
be necessary for him to access as part 
of his education or employment. 

Approaches to the Multilevel 
and Multitasking Problem 

Although current microcomputer 
operating systems do not allow multi- 
level and multitasking activities, 
more sophisticated operating systems 
are continually being developed. 
With the increasing memory and pro- 
cessor capabilities of the newer gener- 
ations of microcomputers, designers 
can begin to consider the develop- 
ment of special versions of operating 
systems specifically designed to allow 
these types of multilevel and multi- 
tasking operation. 

If the systems were configured to 
look like one of the many standard 
operating systems from the outside, 
they could in fact run standard pro- 



156 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 471 on inquiry card. 




oldlyOo 
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grams along with special-function 
programs. At present, such "super 
operating systems" do not exist. 
Moreover, it would take a fairly high- 
capacity machine to successfully im- 
plement such a system. The bulk of 
the microcomputers being secured 
and supplied for disabled individuals 
today are of the much more limited 
variety. In addition, the software that 
the disabled individuals must access 
for their education or employment is 
also implemented on computers that 
do not have multilevel and multitask- 
ing capabilities. An alternate ap- 
proach therefore is required that can 
be implemented now with the existing 
systems. 

A Dual Central Processing 
Unit Approach 

Although a true multilevel, multi- 
tasking capability is not currently 
possible on smaller computer sys- 
tems, a reasonable approximation of 
one can be achieved using dual, 
nested computers. In this configura- 
tion, one computer would be used for 
the input and information accelera- 
tion programs as well as some special- 
function routines. A cable would con- 
nect this first computer to the key- 
board (or keyboard emulator) on a 
second computer. The second com- 
puter would be used to run the stan- 
dard software programs (the func- 
tion-level programs). 

Because the first computer would 
control the second computer through 
a keyboard emulator, any standard 
software programs could be run on 
the second computer without modifi- 
cation. At first glance, using two 
computers appears to be a brute-force 
solution; it is, however, the most flex- 
ible and straightforward method for 
dealing with many of the problems — 
and, in most cases, the least expen- 
sive. 

Because the function-level pro- 
grams would run on a separate com- 
puter, they would not require modifi- 
cation and could be written in any 
fashion and in any language. Because 
the entire first computer would be 
available for these programs, they 
could be written in a high-level lan- 
guage, thus lowering the cost to de- 
velop these special programs. Modifi- 



158 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 243 on Inquiry card. 



cations of these special programs for 
specific individuals would be much 
easier, and complex input routines 
and data structures could be used to 
optimize the specific user's control 
and rate of input. This approach 
would also be much easier to modify 
and adapt over time to match the in- 
dividual's changing abilities and 
needs (see reference 4). 

If two identical computers were 
used in a dual, nested computer ap- 
proach, the user would have a built- 
in hardware backup capability. If 
either computer went down, the other 
could be put into the input-level posi- 
tion. If the input-program package in- 
cluded some basic-function capabili- 
ties, the user would have at least a 
rudimentary system that could be 
used during the repair of the faulty 
computer or component. 

It is more likely, however, that the 
two computers would not be identi- 
cal. The system is designed so that the 
two computers do not need to be the 
same make, brand, model, or size. As 
a result, the first computer could be 
implemented on an inexpensive com- 
puter selected to provide only the 
capabilities necessary for the "first- 
computer" functions. This computer 
could then drive a much more expen- 
sive computer, which would be 
selected based upon the standard soft- 
ware programs the individual wanted 
to use. 

In fact, the first computer could ac- 
tually be used to control several dif- 
ferent second computers in different 
environments (an Apple II at home, 
an IBM at work, and an Atari 400/ 
800 when playing games with 
friends). In one system being devel- 
oped at the Trace Center, University 
of Wisconsin, an Atari computer is 
being programmed to function as a 
high-speed, screen-based, optical, 
headpointing input system with 
abbreviation expansion and dic- 
tionary lookup capabilities. The sys- 
tem can then feed into a wide range of 
second computers (including IBM, 
Apple, and Radio Shack) using key- 
board-emulator modules. In one case, 
the first computer (the Atari 400) 
costs less than many of the interface 
cards or accessories for the second 
computers. No matter which com- 



puter is chosen, the software avail- 
ability for the first computer is not 
important, because it will be running 
only the special input routines. It is 
the second computer that would be 
selected to match the standard soft- 
ware packages desired by the disabled 
individual. 

Conclusion 

Microcomputers are providing 
existing rehabilitation engineering 
programs and firms with valuable 
new tools in the development of spe- 
cialized communication techniques 



and aids. They are also opening up 
the rehabilitation engineering field to 
an entirely new group of individuals 
(programmers, etc.) who previously 
were unable to directly contribute 
due to the high overhead required in 
parts and equipment. Whereas work 
on custom electronic aids usually re- 
quired that an individual be part of a 
research team at a center, practical 
solutions can now be created with 
little or no hardware components 
other than the standard microcom- 
puter system and accessories. This is 
particularly true for special-function 



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September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



159 




Learning with Logo makes Logo 
come alive at home or in school 



Learning with Logo is the ideal intro- 
duction to Logo for children and adults. 
Written for children between the ages of 
ten and fourteen, the book is also 
perfect for parents and teachers who 
want to learn Logo from the ground up 
or to use this unique language with 
children. Many of the projects and 
activities in the book were originated by 
children. 

The book starts from the absolute 
beginning with detailed information 
about the Logo system and basic com- 
mands for controlling the Logo turtle. 
Dozens of introductory turtle design 
suggestions offer each learner a way to 
create projects that are uniquely his or 
her own, while later chapters map out a 
rich universe of mathematical explora- 
tions in turtle geometry. 

The second half of Learning with 
Logo goes beyond turtle graphics to 
present a set of interactive computer 



games, quiz programs, and language ac- 
tivities that introduce the learner to 
more advanced programming concepts. 

Special sections throughout the book 
highlight the powerful ideas contained in 
each activity and warn about common 
bugs and pitfalls. For adults, "Helpers' 
Hints" explain important concepts more 
fully and offer practical teaching 
suggestions. 

The book features detailed instruc- 
tions for creating a Logo Procedures 
Disk (also available directly from the 
author) that contains sample programs 
and a number of "tool procedures" 
needed to carry out the projects in the 
book. 

Daniel Watt has been involved in education 
as a curriculum developer, elementary school 
teacher, teacher trainer, and researcher. He 
worked for five years on a series of Logo 
research and development projects as a 
member of the MIT Logo Group. At present 
he is an editor with B YTE Publications and 



contributes regularly to Popular Computing 
and BYTE magazines. 

Learning with Logo is written specifically for 
users of the version of Logo developed at MIT for 
the Apple //® and distributed by Terrapin, Inc. and 
Krell Software, Inc. It contains appendices for users 
of Apple Logo® and Tl Logo® . 



Learning with Logo 

Spiral-bound 
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LOGO: 



Language of the 80's 



Apple 



For the Apple II" 



Harold Abelson 



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Harold Abelson 




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Apple Logo and Logo for the Ap 

II introduce you to a dynamic new com- 
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power. 

Readers of this book will see that 
the designers' vision of Logo as a virtu- 
ally unlimited educational tool has now 
become a reality. Logo enables even 
young children to use the computer in 
rewarding, self-directed projects, while 
at the same time providing sophisticated 
users with a powerful and expressive 
general programming system. This book 
presents the reader with a complete 
guide to the exciting applications of this 
unique procedural language. 

The author introduces programming 
techniques through Turtle Geometry— a 
series of fascinating exercises involving 
both Logo programming and geometric 
concepts. Later chapters illustrate more 
advanced projects that utilize Logo's 
sophisticated list-processing capabili- 
ties; these include the conversational 



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program with its simulated 
psychotherapist and an INSTANT pro- 
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Get in on the ground floor of the 
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This book is published in two versions: 
Apple Logo is for users of Apple Logo™ 
software (distributed by Apple Computer 
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users of Tl Logo™. Logo for the Apple II is 
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Circle 69 on inquiry card. 



programs developed to meet specific 
needs of disabled individuals. 

The problem of providing trans- 
parent access to microcomputers (and 
thus allowing access to the vast world 
of standard software) usually requires 
some type of hardware intervention. 
With the advent of keyboard emula- 
tors and the use of dual, nested 
computers, even this activity prom- 
ises to be returned soon to the more 
readily accessed and duplicated world 
of software. As a result, the im- 
mediate future promises to be an ex- 
tremely exciting and productive 
period, which will see rapid advances 
in the development of both special- 
function programs and new strategies 
to ensure the complete access by dis- 
abled individuals to the world of 
microcomputers. 

If this access can be assured, then 
the functional disabilities currently 
experienced by these individuals 
should decrease markedly as our 
society moves more and more into 
the electronic information age. If we 



fail to ensure access to our computer 
and information-processing systems 
for disabled individuals, our progress 
into the electronic information age 
will instead only present new bar- 
riers. 

With good communication among 
the new group of individuals entering 
this field, the existing rehabilitation 
personnel, and most important, the 
disabled individuals themselves, the 
amount of truly useful software can 
be maximized and many existing bar- 
riers reduced. It may even be possible 
to effectively eliminate some disabili- 
ties in the same way that eyeglasses 
have eliminated what would other- 
wise be a visual handicap for many of 
us. A possible example of this would 
be the elimination of the writing hand- 
icap currently experienced by many 
persons with mild to moderate ma- 
nipulative difficulties (due to a 
physical disability or severe arthritis) 
through the development of very ef- 
fective and portable text-editing sys- 
tems. Although initially writing speed 



TeleVideo Users!! 



Imagine: Single key commands for 

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SECOND 



TVSet saves the custom 
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might be slower, the incorporation of 
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speed and give the added benefit of 
perfect penmanship. ■ 



References 

1. Maggs, Peter and Visek, Dianna. "The 
Apple Computer as a General Purpose 
Vocational Aid for Blind Users," Pro- 
ceedings, Fourth Annual Conference on 
Rehabilitation Engineering, Washington, 
DC, 1981. 

2. Proceedings, First Annual Computer 
Search for Handicapped Individuals, 
Johns Hopkins University, 1981. 

3. Vanderheiden, G. V. "Practical Applica- 
tion of Microcomputers to Aid the Handi- 
capped," Computer, January 1981. 

4. Proceedings, Fourth Annual Conference 
on Rehabilitation Engineering, Washing- 
ton, DC, 1981. 



Further Reading 

The Bulletin of Science and Technology for 

the Handicapped 

American Association for the 

Advancement of Science 

1515 Massachusetts Ave. 

Washington, DC 20005 

Closing The Gap 

(newspaper on computers and the 

disabled) 

Budd Hagen, Editor 

Route 2, Box 39 

Henderson, MN 56004 

Communication Outlook 
Artificial Language Laboratory 
Michigan State University 
East Lansing, Ml 48824 

COPH Bulletin 

Congress on the Physically 

Handicapped 

101 Lincoln Park Blvd. 

Rockford, IL 61102 

International Software Registry of Programs 

Written or Adapted for Handicapped 

Individuals 

Trace Research and Development Center 

314 Waisman Center 

University of Wisconsin 

Madison, Wl 53706 

Link and Go 

(includes COPH Bulletin above) 
2030 Irving Park Rd. 
Chicago, IL 60618 



162 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 343 on inquiry card. 



NEC's NEW 
ADVANCED 
PERSONAL 
COMPUTER 
GIVES CHARLIE 
THE BLUES. 



If you're a businessman shopping 
for a personal computer, take a 
look at NEC. Our APC" Advanced 
Personal Computer has better 
price/performance than any per- 
sonal computer on the market. 

It's a totally solutions-oriented 
system, supporting both CP/M-86' M 
and MS-DOS! M developed to solve 
business problems in the simplest, 
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Our business software has been 
optimized to take advantage of 
the APC's unique hardware fea- 
tures. That makes system opera- 
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Our software includes a full 
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and communications. And we're 
readying many more. 

We back our software with a 
unique unconditional guarantee. It 
will work or you get your money 
back. 

Our APC comes with more 
information storage capacity than 
any system in its price range. 

Our high-resolution color graph- 
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screen images— lines, characters, 
pictures are unprecedented in 
their clarity. 

See for yourself how much bet- 
ter we are. The solutions-oriented . 
Advanced Personal Computer 
from NEC. Return the coupon to 
NEC Information Systems, Inc., 
5 Militia Drive. Lexington, MA 
02173. 

CP/M-86 is a trademark oi Digital Research. Inc' 
MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft. Inc 
APC is a trademark of Nippon Electric Co.. Ltd 




Send me more information 

on the Advanced Personal Computer 



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Title 



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The Benchmark in World Class Computers 



Circle 340 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 163 



r*ggXeX§) 






THE BEST DEAL 
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You just can't beat an ACE. Especially the Franklin ACE 1000. 
It's the professional personal computer with all the trump cards 
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a numeric pad and VisiCalc keys, all features not found on 
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Peripherals that work with the Apple II will work with the Franklin 
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Totally Apple compatible . . . yet, so much more! 

The Franklin Ace 1000 — price, power, quality, reliability — the 
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Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
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A New Horizon for Nonvocal 
Communication Devices 

Using the Panasonic Hand-Held Computer As a Personal, 

Portable Speech Prosthesis 



Perhaps the greatest potential of 
personal computers is for people with 
severe physical disabilities. The 
power, flexibility, low cost, and 
availability of these machines make 
them natural tools for people whose 
physical limitations restrict their ac- 
tivities. 

In this article, we will describe how 
to use the new Panasonic Hand-Held 
Computer (HHC) as a personal and 
portable communication device. We 
have focused on its use by individuals 
who have expressive communication 
impairments due to physical disabili- 
ties. Expressive communication in- 
cludes all of the methods we use to 
make known our needs, concerns, 
and creative thoughts. The most ob- 



About the Authors 

Patrick Demasco is a research engineer at the 
Rehabilitation Engineering Center at 
Tufts-New England Medical Center. Richard 
Foulds is Assistant Professor of Rehabilitation 
Medicine and Director of Rehabilitation 
Engineering at Tufts-New England Medical 
Center. 



Acknowledgment 

The work in this paper has been supported at 
the Rehabilitation Engineering Center under 
Grant #G008200044 from the National Institute 
of Handicapped Research of the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Education. 



Patrick Demasco and Richard Foulds 

Tufts-New England Medical Center 

171 Harrison Ave., Box 1009 

Boston, MA 02111 

vious is the power of speech — 
something which most of us use as 
our primary means of communica- 
tion. Other expressive skills, such as 
handwriting and typing, come into 
play as well. 

Typical of those who may have 
communication impairments are 
large numbers of people with cerebral 
palsy. This form of brain damage oc- 



Single-purpose 

communication devices 

are effective 

but very costly. 



curs around the time of birth and 
results in a lifetime disability. A 
smaller group of people are com- 
munication-impaired as a result of 
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, 
commonly known as Lou Gehrig's 
disease), which is a progressive 
neurological disease. Those who have 
suffered a stroke in the brain-stem 
area may also have communication 
impairments. 

In general, these people often can- 
not produce intelligible speech or legi- 
ble handwriting. But it is important 
to note that communication im- 
pairments are not a reflection of 



cognitive abilities. Each of these peo- 
ple has normal linguistic and intellec- 
tual capabilities. 

Alternative Communication 

A great deal of work on behalf of 
people who have communication im- 
pairments has been done over the last 
decade, and several well-designed 
devices have been marketed for their 
use. Recently, the Apple II and the 
TRS-80 computers have been put to 
use as aids for the physically im- 
paired. The growing interest in com- 
munication devices is undeniable; in 
the Johns Hopkins First Annual 
Search for the Application of Per- 
sonal Computers and the Handi- 
capped, 27 of 99 entries dealt with 
communication-device concepts. 

A moderate number of dedicated, 
single-purpose communication 
devices have been built. These are 
typically microprocessor-based with 
some form of printout and display, 
and possibly a synthesized voice. 
Sizes, weights, and battery-life of the 
devices can be tailored to the needs of 
the disabled to aid in portability. 
They can be packaged to fit on a 
wheelchair and to withstand tests of 
rugged and continuous use. 

But these devices have drawbacks 
as well. Their cost is necessarily high. 
Low-volume production cannot 



166 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 444 on inquiry card. 




Which Spreadsheet lets you: 

■ Use every cell 

(never see "out of memory") 
Consolidate multiple spreadsheets 
Split the screen as often as you want 

VisiCalc . ...NO 

SuperCalc NO " 

CalcStar NO 

Scratchpad . . . YES 

The Ultimate Spreadsheet 

SCratChPad ■ Built in math functions 

features include: ■ Variable ,ormats 

I Automatic and selective rscalc 

■ Virtual Memory (never see "out of memory") . |nterface t stats . Graph graphic package 
Every cell on the spreadsheet can be used. 

Don't be misled, other spreadsheets tell you B More 

how "big" the matrix is, but you can only use For virtually all CP/M, CP/M-86, and MS 

a very small portion. With Scratchpad's virtual DOS compatible systems, including 

memory feature you can use EVERY CELL! the IBM PC. 

■ Consolidation (not just merging but also M . Available from fine dealers everywhere, or 
combining spread-sheets) This makes directly from buperbott. 

Scratchpad almost three dimensional. Requires: 44k 

■ Unlimited Screen Splitting ^P ratct ?? d , : f 2 ?5™ 
lxm _ Manual Only: $ 15.00 

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VariaDie COIUmn Wiain trademark of Sorcim. CalcStar is a registered trademark 

■ Built in financial functions of Micropro 





FIRST IN SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY P.O.Box1628 Champaign, IL61820 (217)359-2112 Telex 270365 




Photo 1: The Panasonic Hand-Held Computer (HHC) along with some of the available 
accessories. The HHC is in the lower right. Clockwise, the accessories are the I/O 
driver, the RS-232C port, the additional 8K-byte RAM module, and the video/televi- 
sion adapter. 



possibly compete with the economics 
of large-run production. Distribution 
and service present additional prob- 
lems. Products with limited use can- 
not support extensive field-service or 
local-service organizations. Repairs 
are often done at a central location 
that may be inconvenient for many 
users. 

The personal microcomputer with 
its widespread availability offers an 
interesting alternative to single- 
purpose communication devices. 
Software communication aids are 
easily distributed on floppy disks that 
run on existing hardware. Thus the 
basic hardware cost is lower because 
of the economics of scale. By using 
standard microcomputer components 
such as game paddles, digitizing 
tablets, keyboards, voice recognizers, 
and so on, input to the personal com- 
puter can be configured to accom- 
modate the existing abilities of the 
disabled person. 

The personal computer's size is one 
drawback; mounting an Apple II on a 
wheelchair is impractical. And even if 
you did, it consumes too much power 
to be battery operated. While the per- 
sonal computer is an excellent table- 
top communication device and 
teaching aid, it does not meet the 



voice replacement requirement of the 
disabled person. 

The Panasonic HHC 

An article in BYTE (G. Williams 
and R. Meyer, "The Panasonic and 
Quasar Hand-Held Computers," 
January 1981, page 34) describing the 
new HHC marketed by both 
Panasonic and Quasar stimulated our 
interest. The computer seemed to be a 
bridge between the single-purpose 
portable communicator and the flexi- 
ble, less costly personal computer. 
The HHC is portable enough to 
qualify for wheelchair mounting and 
is generally available at a reasonable 
price. 

The Panasonic HHC represents a 
significant advance in personal com- 
puters. The system consists of a main 
unit with a 6502 processor, RAM 
(random-access read/write memory), 
ROM (read-only memory) monitor, 
ROM sockets, keyboard, liquid-crys- 
tal display (LCD), and an external 
bus connector. Additionally, there 
are several peripherals including an 
RS-232C interface, RAM modules, 
video driver, cassette interface, 
printer (only recently available), and 
modem (see photo 1). 

Two or more peripherals can be at- 



tached to the main unit with the I/O 
(input/output) driver. If only one 
peripheral is used, then it can be con- 
nected directly to the main unit. You 
can create and run Microsoft BASIC 
(MB ASIC) programs. The HHC can 
also run SNAP (a derivative of 
FORTH) programs. SNAP programs, 
however, must be written and de- 
bugged on a separate development 
system. The working program is then 
loaded into a PROM (programmable 
read-only memory) and executed in 
the HHC. The HHC's operating 
system is written in SNAP. 

Our goal at the Rehabilitation 
Engineering Center at Tufts Universi- 
ty, which focuses on technology as it 
relates to expressive communication, 
was straightforward: to see how close 
we could come to reproducing the 
valuable features of the single-pur- 
pose communication devices by using 
the Panasonic HHC. 

Design Considerations 

Engineers working on solutions to 
communication problems of disabled 
people must, of course, work around 
an individual's existing physical 
abilities to generate communication. 
In many instances the disabled person 
has sufficient manual coordination to 
touch a number of keys. If 27 keys 
can be conveniently reached, the en- 
tire alphabet and space bar can be 
used to make words. If more keys can 
be reached, their functions can be ex- 
panded to include common words or 
phrases. We call this one-to-one cor- 
respondence (one key for each entry) 
a direct-selection method. It is not 
much different from typing. Typical- 
ly, in this case, a disabled person will 
use one finger or a headstick (a wand 
attached to a helmet) rather than all 
10 fingers. 

Sometimes, however, the desired 
vocabulary exceeds the number of 
keys or switches that can be easily 
pressed by the user. In extreme cases, 
only one switch may be accessible. 
For instance, the user's only con- 
trolled movement for purposes of ac- 
tivating a switch may be the kick of a 
foot. When the user has such a 
limited selection capability, an alter- 
native presentation of the alphabet 
and vocabulary must be found. 



168 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 445 on inquiry card. 



Two Great Languages! 
Two Great Compilers! 



Ada 




Required by the Department of Defense 
for all its programming, Ada is a highly 
structured, sophisticated language, well 
suited to both applications and systems 
programming. 

SuperSoft Ada is a native code, fully 
recursive, two pass compiler which gener- 
ates ".COM" files. While currently a subset, 
SuperSoft Ada supports most features of 
the standard Ada language. 

Required by the Department of Defense 
for Ada copyright protection: "This compiler 
is presently an incomplete implementation 
of the Ada programming language. It is 
intended thatthis compiler will be further 
developed to enable implementation of the 
complete Ada programming language, and 
then to be submitted to the Ada Joint Pro- 
gram Office for validation." 

Because of the DOD requirement, Ada is 
certain to become a dominant language 
soon. Begin learning and using Ada now 
with SuperSoft Ada. 

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Ada Compiler: $300.00 
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Ada and C are available for virtually all CP/M, 
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SuperSoft "C" is a professional quality 
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It has been transported for use on the 8080, 
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processors. We plan to transport our "C" 
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SuperSoft "C" supports most features of 
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producing an intermediate code, and with 
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C (Z80, 8080): $250.00 
C(8086): $500.00 

C(Z8000): $500.00 

Manual Only: $ 15.00 
Japanese Distribution: 

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3-23-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-Ku 

Tokyo 105, Japan 

Tel.(03)-437-5371 

Telex. 0242-2723 
*Ada is a trademark of the Department of Defense 
(Ada Joint Program Office) 
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research 




FIRST IN SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY P.O.Box 1628 Champaign, IL 61820 (217)359-2112 Telex 270365 




Photo 2: The Tufts Interactive Communicator, developed in 1972, was an early scan- 
ning communication device. It employed all TTL circuitry and used a dedicated 5-inch 
monitor to display 1024 characters. 



In earlier work in our laboratory, 
we used the scanning method for a 
single-switch communicator. The 
Tufts Interactive Communicator 
(TIC) was a stand-alone, single-pur- 
pose device that presented the alpha- 
bet in a sequential fashion. The user 
faced a keyboard that had a back-lit 
array of seven rows of eight entries 
(see photo 2). The TIC highlighted 
the array row by row from top to 
bottom. The user selected a row by 
hitting a single switch. The TIC 
responded by then highlighting each 
entry in the row from left to right. 
The user hit the same switch a second 
time to choose an entry as it was of- 
fered. The chosen letter was then 
shown on an accompanying video 
display (32 characters by 16 lines). 

Using the HHC 

In developing the HHC as a com- 
munication device, we used both the 
direct-selection and scanning 
methods. Additionally, we worked 
within three design constraints. We 
would use commercially available 
components. No custom-fabricated 
circuits would be considered in the 
initial work. The purchase price for 
the components would not exceed 
$2000. 



We purchased two additional 
pieces of hardware, a Votrax 
Type-'N-Talk for speech output and a 
digitizing tablet from Houston In- 
strument for use as an input device. 
All of our programs, which were 
written in BASIC, shared the follow- 
ing elements: 



The purchase price for 

our communicator 

could not exceed 

S2000. 



• User input: Each implementation 
has an input handler that recognizes 
some action of the user as a selection. 

• Message array: The user's responses 
are directed to the selection of a char- 
acter, word, or phrase. The arrange- 
ment of those units is called the 
message array. This array is generally 
a two-dimensional matrix whose 
units can be described with a row and 
a column number. 

• Control selection: In addition to 
those units that are part of the user's 
message, additional units are de- 
signed to control functions necessary 
for the device to operate. For exam- 



ple, one unit in a system with speech 
output would correspond to a com- 
mand to send the output to the voice 
synthesizer. 

• Message buffer: When the user 
selects a message unit, it is stored in 
the message buffer. Many of the con- 
trol functions (e.g., display) operate 
on this buffer. 

• Message output: The message 
selected by the user is used to com- 
municate with another person. There- 
fore, it is desirable to have a flexible 
output scheme that will closely im- 
itate normal communication (e.g., 
speech output, printed copy). 

We have developed three imple- 
mentations of the HHC as a portable 
communication device: a scanning 
communicator, a direct-selection 
communicator using a keyboard, and 
a direct-selection communicator us- 
ing a digitizing tablet. We will treat 
each of the three methods separately 
before returning to a general discus- 
sion. 

The Scanning Communicator 

Our first effort involved duplicat- 
ing the function of the TIC on the 
HHC through a software emulation. 

We needed hardware to display the 
8 by 7 array of selections and to pro- 
vide a single-switch input and a way 
to output the user's message. We used 
the LCD to display the array of selec- 
tions. The major drawback to this im- 
plementation is that only one row of 
characters can be displayed at a time. 
(This was not a severe limitation, as 
we will explain later.) We used the en- 
tire keyboard of the HHC as the 
single-switch input so the user can hit 
any key (with a few exceptions) to 
signify a selection. 

We used two output modes. For 
visual output, the LCD displays the 
user's message. The addition of a 
Votrax Type-'N-Talk provides syn- 
thesized speech of the user's message. 
The Votrax is connected to the HHC 
through the RS-232C peripheral. A 
printer would also be desirable, but 
that peripheral was not available to 
us when we wrote this article. 

We used only one noncommercial 
piece of hardware in this configura- 
tion. Because certain keys on the 



170 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 446 on inquiry card. 



Keep Your Computer Healthy... 

with the Industry Standard in System 
Maintenance Programs. 



Diagnostics II 




Diagnostics II is the finest set of system maintenance routines 
available for microcomputers. It thoroughly checks all five 
areas of your computer system, pinpointing hardware 
problems to help keep your computer in perfect working order 

The areas of your computer which are tested include: 
Memory, Printer, Terminal, Disk, and CPU 

Disk Doctor 



In addition to being extremely thorough, every test in 
Diagnostics II is also "submit"-able. The output of the tests 
can be logged to disk for later review. 

(Requires 32k CP/M) 
Diagnostics II: $125 
Manual only: $ 15 



Disk Doctor automatically recovers otherwise unrecoverable 
information from "crashed" diskettes. It also un-erases files. 

Maybe it was a lightning storm, static from the rug, or just too 
late at night to be working. Whatever the cause, when the 
diskette "crashes" or a file is accidentally erased, valuable 
data or programs can be permanently lost. 

Disk Doctor was designed to recover this "lost" information. It 
consists of five wards, each performing a specific recovery 
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Ward A: Verif iesdiskettes and locks out bad sectors. 

Ward B: Places copyable information from a "crashed" file in a good 

file. 
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Ward D: Un-erases files. 
Ward E : Displays a directory of recoverable erased files. 

Disk Doctor was not designed for use with double sided or 
hard disks. 



(Requires: 48k CP/M, two drives for complete operation) 
Disk Doctor: $100 

Manual only: $ 15 

Available from fine dealers everywhere, or directly from 
SuperSoft. 

Japanese Distribution: 

ASR Corporation International 

3-23-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-Ku 

Tokyo 105, Japan 

Tel. (03) 437-5371, Telex 0242-2723 

Diagnostics II available for virtually all CP/M, CP/M-86, 
and MS DOS compatible systems. 
Disk Doctor available for virtually all CP/M, and 
CP/M-86 compatible systems. 

CP/M and CP/M-86 are registered trademarks of Digital Research. 



i \ P* 



FIRST IN SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY P.O.Box 1628 Champaign, IL61820 (217)359-2112 Telex 270365 




Photo 3: The HHC when used as a scanning communicator (a latter-day TIC) uses the 
LCD to display rows of characters. The Votrax Type-'N-Talk and a Radio Shack 
speaker complete the communication device. A printer can also be added. (The first 
row of the TIC array is shown on the LCD.) 



HHC should not be hit as a user 
switch input (e.g., the Off key), we 
installed a Plexiglas guard on the key- 
board. This guard also prevents 
possible damage to the HHC and 
angles the computer so the user can 
see the display more easily. The 
guard is easy to build (fabrication 
plans are available from the Tufts 
Rehabilitation Engineering Center). 
The scanning communicator is dis- 
played in photo 3. 

The HHC scanner operates as a 
row-and-column scanner. Two 
switch closures or key presses are nec- 
essary to select a unit. The HHC dis- 
plays each of the eight rows in se- 
quential order. When the user sees the 
desired letter or character on the 
LCD, he presses a key that selects the 
row. The chosen row remains on the 
LCD and the individual letters are 
highlighted from left to right by the 
cursor. The user presses a key again 
to select the single desired character. 
At this point the selection process is 
complete and that letter, along with 
any previously generated part of the 
message, is displayed on the LCD. If 
the message exceeds 26 characters, 
the most recent segment of the 
message is displayed. Then, following 
a short delay,' the scanning process 
begins again at the first row. 



Scanning is, of course, an inherent- 
ly slow way of selecting messages. 
Because a sequence must be followed, 
some entries are near the beginning, 
while others fall near the end. It takes 
a great deal of time to reach those 
near the end. 

In 1973 we had addressed this 
problem on the TIC by arranging the 
letters according to their frequency of 
occurrence in the English language. 
The accepted rank order is: 

space etaonrishdlf 
cmugypwbvkxj qz 

The letter arrangement must combine 
the rank order with the procedure of 
scanning a two-dimensional array. 

Because the scanner moves from 
top to bottom and from left to right, 
the upper-left entry is closest to the 
beginning of the scan. That entry, the 
first column of the first row, will be 
displayed more frequently during 
repeated scanning. The entry next to 
it is one step less frequent because it is 
in the second column, one step far- 
ther away. In this manner, we can 
count the number of steps to each 
entry in the array. If the upper left 
has a value of 2 steps (1 row plus 1 
column), the next entry in that row 
has a value of 3 (1 row plus 2 col- 



2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 



Figure 1: The scanning process moving 
from top to bottom and left to right pro- 
vides faster access to certain locations. 
The numbers shown in this array signify 
the distance of each location from the 
start of the scan. Each time a selection is 
made, the scan starts over. 

umns) and the third has a value of 4 
(1 row plus 3 columns). The first en- 
try in the second row also has a value 
of 3 (2 rows plus 1 column), and the 
second entry in that row has a value 
of 4 (2 rows plus 2 columns). By plac- 
ing the value of each entry in an 8 by 
7 array, we can see a pattern emerg- 
ing (see figure 1). 

The entries that are equally as far 
from the beginning of the scan are 
located along diagonal lines. By tak- 
ing the rank order of letters in English 
and placing them according to the 
best location on the array, we can ob- 
tain an optimal arrangement for scan- 
ning a keyboard (see photo 4). 

When we compared our layout to 
similar 8 by 7 arrays that have been 
arranged alphabetically or in pseudo- 
typewriter fashion, we found our ar- 
rangement to be approximately 50 
percent faster for the user. 

To perform functions that are not 
part of the basic system operation, 
some of the units in the array are used 
as control selections. These are as 
follows: 

SP (Speak): sends the entire contents 

of the message buffer to the 

Type-'N-Talk. 

DS (Display): displays the contents of 

the message buffer. 

CL (Clear): clears the contents of the 

message buffer. 

< — Back (Backspace): moves the 
message cursor back one space. 

< W (Backword): moves the message 
cursor back one word. 



172 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




Alspa Computers 

PLUS 

Multiuser Hard Disk 




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ALSPA full performance, CP/M computers are the smallest 
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is no larger than most single add-on drives, and weighs only 
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plus CP/M. 

CORVUS** INTERFACE 

Standard on all ALSPA computers in a hardware interface 
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•CP/M isa trademark of DIGITAL RESEARCH, INC. CifCle 20 Oil J n q U J Ty Card. 



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TO BECOME THE LEADER 



77T : H Ml i -TVi jT5 






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SMALL BUSINESS COMPUTERS. 





In three short years, Tele Video 
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We did it by designing and build- 
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• High speed Z80A microprocessor 
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• Two R232C serial 
ports for a printer 
and modem. 




• And a high speed port for plug-in 
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• But suppose you need more stor- 
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With Tele Video, there's no obso- 
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THE SOFTWARE PACKAGE 

THAT GIVES YOU MORE. 

Instead of offering you just a business 
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, ;7r ^ offers you the 
; most popular, 
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-- word proces- 
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k and business 
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Whether you 
own a small 
business, manage a 
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or are your organization's DP manager, 
the combination of TeleVideo com- 




puters with WordStar and CalcStar 
gives you the quality text editing and 
financial planning help you'll need. 
If you do require more software, our 
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TeleSolutions. 

For details and the address of your 
local distributor call toll free 800- 
538-1780. And in California call 
415-745-7760. 

tflfeWided 



TeleVideo Systems, Inc. 
Dept. 610B 
1170 Morse Avenue 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Please send detajls on TeleVideo computers 
and TeleSolutions to: 



NAMF. 




TITLE 


COMPANY 


APHFFSS 


CITY 


STATE 
PHCNF nt 


ZIP 

) 





TeleSolutions™ is a trademark of TeleVideo Systems, Inc. 
WordStar"' and CalcStar™ are trademarks of MicroPro 
International Corporation 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research Inc 
*Pnces are suggested retail excluding applicable state 
and local taxes — Continental U.S.A., Alaska and Hawaii. 

Circle 458 on inquiry card. 



Northeast Region 6 17/369-9370. Eastern Region 212/308-0705, Southeast Region 404/447-1231, Midwest Region 312/969-01 12, 
South Central Region 214/258-6776, Northwest Region 408/745-7760. Southwest Region 714/752-9488, European Sales (Holland) 31-075-28-7461 













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Photo 4: The optimized scanning array of the TIC is arranged according to the frequen- 
cy of letters in the English language. 



SR (Scan rate): allows the user to 
alter the rate at which information is 
displayed on the LCD. In the case of a 
disabled person, this control is essen- 
tial to optimization of the user's per- 
formance. 

BP (Beep): causes the HHC to make 
an audible beep. This allows the user 
to gain someone's attention easily. 

The revised design we are now 
working on will include these im- 
provements: 

• User programmability: Including a 
user vocabulary makes a communica- 
tion aid a personal device. The 8 by 7 
matrix does not leave much room for 
user vocabulary after the basic alpha- 
bet and control commands are added. 
We have two alternatives: to make 
the array larger (e.g., 10 by 10) or to 
layer the scanner so that the user can 
switch levels. By offering a large 
number of selections, a program- 
mable user vocabulary could greatly 
enhance the potential of this imple- 
mentation. 

• External switch: The keyboard as a 
switch is not an effective input 
scheme for every individual. Connect- 
ing an external switch through the 
RS-232C port (e.g., foot switch) 
could take advantage of the bodily 



movement over which the user has 
the most control. 

• Anticipatory scanning: Rather than 
display the same 8 by 7 matrix to the 
user every time, it is possible to 
develop a scheme in which the device 
offers the user a choice based on his 
previous letter selection(s). For exam- 
ple, if the user selected "Q," the 
device would then display "U" as the 
first option. (The probability that "U" 
would follow "Q" is high). This 
scheme could significantly increase 
the efficiency of the device for the 
user. 



Direct Selection Using a Keyboard 

This configuration of the HHC is 
easy to do. Simply described, a 
direct-selection communicator uses 
the keyboard of the HHC for message 
entry. The necessary hardware is the 
HHC main unit, the RS-232C adap- 
tor, and the Votrax Type-'N-Talk. 
Output is through the LCD and the 
Type-'N-Talk. 

Because the keys on the HHC are 
much smaller and closer together 
than those on a conventional key- 
board, we had to implement a 
keyguard. We designed one to fit 
over the HHC keyboard that would 
help prevent the user from making 



false entries that could impede the 
communication rate. Initially, we at- 
tempted to use Plexiglas, but we 
found that the drilling necessary to 
make the sheet fit the square keys of 
the HHC was extremely difficult. 

Finally, we used the telecomputing 
overlay that comes with the RS-232C 
peripheral. This is a thin vinyl die-cut 
overlay that fits over the keyboard 
and changes the legend to the 
equivalent of a teletypewriter key- 
board. The overlay was originally 
designed to fit so that the keys would 
stick through and project above it. 
Our modification used y 8 -inch-thick 
double-stick tape placed between the 
rows of keys. We placed the overlay 
on the tape to elevate it to a level even 
with the top of the keys. 

The HHC now has a flat surface. 
When a finger hits between two keys, 
neither key is pushed, because the 
overlay, supported by the double- 
stick tape, cannot move. When a key 
is hit directly, the vinyl dimples down 
and allows the key to be pushed. This 
modification provides a workable 
keyguard without expensive altera- 
tion. 

To operate this device, users type a 
message at the keyboard. As they 
type, entries appear on the LCD of 
the main unit. The assignable- 
function keys serve as command units 
to enable them to output the message 
to the voice synthesizer and clear the 
message buffer. The drawback to this 
implementation is that the keyboard 
is small and many disabled in- 
dividuals might have difficulty mak- 
ing accurate selections despite the 
presence of a keyguard. 

Direct Selection Using a Tablet 

The usefulness of the direct- 
selection communicator is restricted 
by its small keyboard. To overcome 
this limitation, we decided to use a 
digitizing tablet from Houston In- 
strument as an input device. 

The digitizing tablet has an 
11.5-inch-square active area and out- 
puts the coordinates of the cursor 
through an RS-232C port. The device 
has several operating modes that in- 
clude single-point digitization and 
continuous digitization. The tablet is 
easily connected to the HHC with the 



176 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Photo 5: A Houston Instrument Digitizing Tablet is added to the HHC and 
Type-'N-Talk to allow for an expanded and flexible keyboard. 




Photo 6: Jim Viggiano, a nonvocal consumer consultant at Tufts-New England Medical 
Center, demonstrates his method of communicating using his index finger on the 
language board. The keyboard arrangement is the WR1TE-400 system of language 
clusters. 



RS-232C peripheral. Message output 
is accomplished by the LCD and the 
Votrax Type-'N-Talk. This con- 
figuration appears in photo 5. 

A 12 by 12 matrix of character and 
word selections is overlaid on the 
digitizing surface: To operate the tab- 
let, the user holds the digitizer pen 
and touches the desired unit, which 



appears on the LCD for user verifica- 
tion. A potential for greater com- 
munication rates exists because the 
user does not have to wait for the 
selection to appear as in the scanning 
system. He only has to pick it out of 
the array by touching the tablet. 
Naturally, the user of this device 
must have greater motor control. 



Q G Y Z 



U I P 

R S 



J M N SPACE E H W 



T 

C AD 



F L 

K V 

Figure 2: An optimized direct-selection ar- 
rangement for the alphabet using the 
relative frequency of letters to place them 
in concentric circles around the space. 



We decided on a 12 by 12 arrange- 
ment, but that is only one of many 
possible layouts. The digitizing tablet 
has a resolution of 100 targets to the 
inch. Under software control it is 
possible to select layouts that include 
small or large targets and even arrays 
of targets with mixed sizes and 
shapes. 

The same sort of array-optimiza- 
tion scheme that we used in the scan- 
ning method can also be used in direct 
selection. The typical disabled person 
may use only one finger or a head- 
stick, so the standard typewriter 
layout is inefficient. Because a space 
is the most commonly used "charac- 
ter," it can be located in the center of 
the keyboard. An optimized key- 
board design can be completed by ar- 
ranging the characters around the 
space in concentric circles or squares. 
The more frequently used characters 
will be placed closer to the center. 
Figure 2 provides an example of this 
implementation for an 8 by 7 array. 

The designer of any communica- 
tion system must choose the char- 
acters, words, or phrases that will ap- 
pear in the array. While this choice of 
units is dependent on many things, 
the most important factor is the size 
of the array. The scanning-com- 
municator array was not much larger 
than the size of the alphabet. In the 
direct-selection tablet communicator 
the array is 144 elements, which gives 
us much greater flexibility in our 
choice of units. Instead of an alphabet 
and word scheme, we chose the 
WRITE system, developed at the 
Rehabilitation Engineering Center by 



178 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Dr. Cheryl Goodenough-Trepagnier. 
It consists of a statistically derived list 
of the most commonly occurring 
letter clusters in the English language. 
(Photo 6 shows the language clusters 
on the digitizing tablet.) 

The rationale for this system is that 
it provides a set of language units that 
will produce all English words by 
means of the lowest possible number 
of selections. For example, in an 
alphabetic system the average num- 
ber of selections per word is 5; in a 
WRITE-400 system, the average num- 
ber of selections per word is 1.54. 

The control selections implemented 
on the direct-selection communicator 
include all that were used on the scan- 
ning communicator, with the excep- 
tion of the scan rate. 

Of the many ways to improve this 
system, user programmability is pro- 
bably the most significant enhance- 
ment that can be made. Because the 
direct-selection implementation has a 
much larger array than the scanning 
communicator, an individualized 
user vocabulary is a more desirable 
feature. In addition, programmability 
would enable the user to select the 
size of the array. The array size is 
ultimately dependent on the user's 
motor-control ability. Because in- 
dividual abilities vary significantly, 
no single configuration can optimize 
every user's communication speed. 

BASIC Implementation 

We wrote all three implementa- 
tions in the supplied MBASIC lan- 
guage using information from the 
HHC's reference manuals. (See listing 
1 for the scanning configuration pro- 
gram.) Along the way, we discovered 
it was not possible to use the INPUT 
or GET commands to look at the key- 
board because both of those com- 
mands wait for an input before pro- 
ceeding to the next command. With a 
scanning arrangement, the display 
must be changing while the device 
waits for an input. Therefore, to im- 
plement a keyboard scanner we had 
to use the keyboard buffer. The key- 
board-buffer pointer will change any 
time a key is depressed. In the pro- 
gram in listing 1, PEEK(518) rep- 
resents the value of this pointer. 

There is a major disadvantage to 



Listing 1: MBASIC program for the scanning configuration of the HHC. 



5 

10 

15 

20 

25 

30 

35 

40 

45 

50 

55 

60 

65 

70 

75 

80 

85 

90 

95 



REM DATA FOR DISPLAY ARRAY 
DATA "' "V E "," A V R "," D V U 
DATA " T V V 1 V L V G "," K 
DATA " N V S "," F V Y "," X n ,"BP 
DATA " H "," C "," P ", M J "," + V " 
DATA " M V W "," Q V' ">" l ">" 2 
DATA " B V Z "," $ "," 5 "," 6 "," 7 
DATA M CL ","<- ","<W ","SP ","DS "," * 

REM DATA FOR MESSAGE DISPLAY ARRAY 
DATA " ,, , ,, E ,, , ,, A ,, , ,, R ,, , ,, D ,, ,"U","V ,, , ,, ? n 
DATA "T", "0", "I", "L", "G", "K, " ". ", " , " 

"m" i»c" "tt " "v" "v" "11" ,! 12 ,! ,l! " 



11 11 11 


11 7 ti 


","SR ", 


j 

II i it 

• 


"," / ", 


it _ it 


"," 3 ", 


.. 4 .. 


"," 8 ", 


" 9 " 


"," ( ", 


.. ) i. 



DATA "N'V'S'V'F",' Y'V'X' 
DATA "H", "C", "P", "J", " + ", "-", "/","=" 
DATA ,, M n , n W ,, , ,, Q M , n n , ,, l ,, , ,, 2 ,, , l, 3 M , M 4 M 
DATA "B ,, , n Z ,, , ,, i} ,, , ,, 5 ,, J ,, 6 ,, , ,, 7 ,, 3 ,, 8 ,, , ,, 9 n 

DATA l, 13 l, > l, 14 l, > ,, 15 l, > l, 16 l, > l, 17 , V , * l, , l, ( l, , l, ) M 

DIM A$(8,7),Bfc(8,7) 

ATTACH 7 TO #2 
REM 

100 REM EXECUTABLE CODE 
105 GOSUB 555 
110 REM 
115 REM THE FOLLOWING CODE LOADS THE TWO ARRAYS 

12 REM A$ AND B$ WITH DATA 
125 FOR 1=1 TO 7 

130 FOR J=l TO 8 

13 5 READ A$(J,l) 
140 NEXT J, I 
145 FOR 1=1 TO 7 

15 FOR J=l TO 8 
155 READ Bfc(J,l) 
160 NEXT J, I 

16 5 REM 

17 REM THE FOLLOWING CODE WILL EXECUTE A ROW 

17 5 REM SCAN AND TESTS FOR A KEYBOARD ENTRY 
180 XLAST= PEEK(518) 

18 2 PRINT 

18 3 PRINT BUF$ 

185 FOR 1=1 TO 7 

195 FOR J=l TO 8 

200 PRINT AH(J,I); 

2 05 NEXT J 

210 PRINT 

212 IF PEEK(518)<>XLAST GOTO 240 

215 NEXT I 

2 20 GOTO 18 5 

225 REM 

230 REM THE FOLIO WING CODE EXECUTES A COLUMN 

235 REM SCAN AND TESTS FOR A KEYBOARD ENTRY 

240 YLAST=PEEK(518) 

245 PRINT 

250 FOR J=l TO 8 

255 PRINT A$(J,I); 

2 60 FOR L=l TO WAIT 

26 5 NEXT L 

270 IF PEEK(518,OY'LAST GOTO 315 

275 NEXT J 

280 PRINT Listing 1 continued on page 182 



180 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Circle 266 on inquiry card. 



developing flexible input schemes 
from a BASIC-based system: the key- 
board buffer is the only HHC device 
that can be programmed easily from 
that language. Unfortunately, the 
status of peripheral devices such as 
the RS-232C interface is hidden from 
BASIC. Because the peripheral 
devices lie in the same address range 
as the MBASIC ROM, you must 
switch banks to access those 
peripherals. This can be done only 
from a SNAP program. 

Realizing Full Potential of HHC 

We believe communication aids 
can be successfully developed on the 
HHC through the use of SNAP. In 
addition to SNAP'S greater accessibil- 
ity to the HHCs unique memory ar- 
chitecture, it offers the advantage of 
greater execution speed and smaller 
memory requirements. 

Although you will never be able to 
program directly in SNAP on the 
HHC, a SNAP-based development 
system on the market includes emula- 
tion software to run on an Apple II. 
This development system (available 
from Friends Amis Inc., 505 Beach 
St., San Francisco, CA 94133) allows 
the programmer to create and debug 
programs on the Apple II and then to 
burn PROMs that are placed inside 
the main HHC unit. Because the 
Panasonic machine does not have a 
disk storage system yet, PROMs are 
an ideal storage system. 

Using a SNAP-based system would 
also make way for the expansion of 
the HHCs usefulness to the disabled 
individual. We are now focusing on 
having the HHC operate in two 
modes. The first mode, which has 
been the topic of this article, is the 
operation of the HHC as a personal 
communication device. The second 
mode would incorporate the three in- 
put strategies (e.g., scanning) into the 
actual operation of the HHC. This 
mode would give the disabled in- 
dividual an opportunity to operate 
the HHC as a personal computer. 
This strategy clearly presents the 
greatest potential for using a personal 
computer as a rehabilitation aid and 
comes closest to our ultimate goal of 
eliminating the need for special-pur- 
pose devices. ■ 



Listing 1 continued: 

285 GOTO 245 

290 REM 

295 REM THE USER HAS MADE A SELECTION 

300 REM THE FOLLOWING CODE DETERMINES IF IT WAS 

305 REM A CHARACTER OR A COMMAND. IF IT WAS A 

310 REM CHARACTER THEN THE MESSAGE IS DISPLAYED 

315 IF LEN(BluJ,l)=2 GOTO 355 

320 BUF$=BUF$+Bij(j, I) 

3 25 N=N+1 

335 GOTO 180 

3 40 REM 

345 REM THE FOLLOWING CODE EXECUTES THE COMMAND 

35 REM SELECTIONS 

355 COM=VAL(Bfc(J,l))-10 

360 ON COM GOSUB 37 5,515,400,450,470,435,420 

363 PRINT 

3 55 GOTO 18 

3 70 REM BEEP(BP) SUBROUTINE 

375 FOR 1=1 TO 5 

380 PRINT CHR$(7) 

38 5 NEXT I 

3 90 RETURN 

3 95 REM CLEAR SUBROUTINE 
400 BUF$="" 

405 N=0 

410 RETURN 

415 REM DISPLAY SUBROUTINE 

42 5 RETURN 

4 30 REM SPEAK SUBROUTINE 

43 5 PRINT #2 ;BUF$ 
440 RETURN 

445 REM BACKSPACE SUBROUTINE 

45 BUF$=LEFTJ}(BUFJ} ,N-1) 

455 N=N-1 

460 RETURN 

465 REM BACKWORD SUBROUTINE 

470 C$=RIGHT$(BUF$,1) 

475 IF C$ = " " GOTO 505 

47 7 IF C$=' f " GOTO 505 

480 BUF$=LEFT$(BUF$,N-1) 

495 N=N-1 

500 GOTO 4 70 

50 5 RETURN 

510 REM SCAN RATE CHANGE SUBROUTINE 

515 XLAST=PEEK(518) 

517 PRINT 

520 FOR 1 = 1 TO 10 

525 PRINT I; M "; 

52 7 FOR L=l TO WAIT 

5 28 NEXT L 

5 30 IF PEEK(518;oXLAST GOTO 550 

535 NEXT I 

540 PRINT 

545 GOTO 517 

550 POKE 535,1 

55 5 WAIT=145+(PEEK(535)*200) 

560 RETURN 

565 END 



182 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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BYTE September 1982 183 



Performance, 
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Circle 101 on inquiry card. 



Minspeak 



A semantic compaction system that makes self-expression easier 
for communicatively disabled individuals. 



Minspeak is a new language pros- 
thesis designed for disabled people 
who cannot express themselves 
through speech or hand signs. It is a 
semantic interface that uses micro- 
processor technology in a radically 
new system of communication that 
reduces the time and effort required 
for self-expression. 

A person using a Minspeak board 
with fewer than 50 keys can produce 
thousands of clear, spoken sentences 
with fewer than 7 strokes. Minspeak 
users don't even have to know how to 
spell; they can produce complete 
sentences without selecting letters, 
phonemes, or words. The unique 
Minspeak process permits the user to 
translate thought into speech. 

Minspeak has a modern linguistic 



About the Author 

Bruce Baker did his undergraduate and 
graduate work in Greek and Latin at Wabash 
College, Indiana University, and the University 
of Paris and has taught widely in the United 
States and Europe. Currently, he is a doctoral 
candidate in French and Spanish at Middlebury 
College and Consulting Linguist to the Prentke 
Romich Co. in Shreve, Ohio. Last year he was 
named Contributing Editor to Communication 
Outlook, a publication of the Artificial 
Language Laboratory of Michigan State 
University. 



Bruce Baker 
840 Rolling Rock Rd. 
Pittsburgh, PA 15234 



coding system based on general ideas 
underlying human communication. 
The coding technique uses sequence 
to define context, thus exploiting the 
human mind's ability to process 
semantic information. Easy-to-under- 
stand symbols on each key represent 
ideas. The meaning of each key image 
changes according to the sequence in 
which it is hit. By combining these 
symbols, whole spoken sentences can 
be generated. The simplicity or com- 
plexity of the symbols will depend on 
the needs and abilities of the user. 

The best way to explain how 
Minspeak can do all of this is to start 
with the reasons behind its existence. 

Research and Insights 

Several years ago, as research for 
my dissertation, I set out to study the 
attitudes of able-bodied people 
toward people with obvious physical 
disabilities. To do the research, I 
needed to speak to disabled as well as 
able-bodied individuals. The most in- 
teresting and insightful group of peo- 
ple I met had cerebral palsy. Ironical- 
ly, the condition which caused them 
to have these insights also prevented 
them from being able to express those 
insights easily. Communication was 
slow and inconclusive. Unless you 
have had some personal experience 



with severe physical communication 
disabilities, you may not fully realize 
what slow and inconclusive means in 
this context. 

One man I met can communicate 
only with the aid of an IBM Selectric 
typewriter. His lack of voluntary 
muscle control, stemming from a 
birth injury, precludes not only hand 
signs and speech but also a reliable 
eye blink for Morse code. He ex- 
presses himself by pushing down on a 
board with his chin. This signal is in 
response to the presentation of letters 
on a revolving metal disk. The disk 
pauses for two seconds to position 
each letter in front of a stationary 
arrow. When he sees the letter he 
wants, he presses the board with his 
chin, and the letter is typed. This 
method is slow and tedious. Creating 
the word "can" requires two and one 
half scans of the entire alphabet, and 
a single sentence often takes 30 
minutes to complete. 

Another man uses a communica- 
tion system based on eye motion. A 
movement of the eyes upward and to 
the left indicates yes, while a move- 
ment downward and to the right 
means no. In this system, the conver- 
sational partner performs the func- 
tions of the revolving disk. As I slow- 
ly recited the alphabet, he signaled his 



186 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



A Communications Impasse 

The communicatively disabled con- 
stitute a group for whom access to 
microprocessors could mean a real rev- 
olution, and a common assumption is 
that recent technological advances 
have produced the necessary commu- 
nication aids. Unfortunately, this is 
not the case, but the problem does not 
lie in the new technology. 

Neurological damage sufficiently ex- 
tensive to hamper intelligible vocaliza- 
tion is regularly accompanied by dif- 
ficulty in control of physical move- 
ments. To use any communication aid, 
the user must be able to actuate some 
type of switch. Consequently, existing 
communication systems do not solve 
the basic human-engineering problem 
of transferring information from the 
mind of the communicator to the com- 
munication aid, because all systems for 
complete communication, voiced or 
unvoiced, have been based upon ac- 
tuating letters, words, word parts, or 
phonemes (minimal sound units). 

Magnetized or light-sensitive key- 
boards, new scanning methods, and 
eye-tracking systems can make the 
selections easier, but still cannot 
reduce the number of selections re- 
quired to communicate whole 
thoughts. 

A nonspeaking person with cerebral 
palsy faces the task of accessing be- 
tween 30 and 40 keys to produce a 
single sentence. A neurologically im- 
paired person able to make one selec- 
tion every five seconds requires many 
minutes of intense concentration and 
labor to produce a single statement. 

The normal response time in conver- 
sation is less than three seconds. If 
someone is forced to wait 10 seconds 
for a reply, anxiety results. If a person 
is forced to wait five minutes, commu- 
nication falters; conversation becomes 
impossible. 

If letters are too slow, what about 
words? Sadly, systems based on actu- 
ating words are too extensive and iron- 
ically too restrained. The more words 
there are, the longer it takes to scan 
through them. Imagine going one by 
one through 200 words. Even being 
able to jump through them five at a 
clip requires an enormous amount of 
time. And yet 200 words is really a 
small vocabulary. 

If direct selection is physically possi- 
ble for the user, imagine a board with 




Photo 1: Hale Zukas has cerebral palsy and uses a communication board and head- 
stick of his own design. A Phi Beta Kappa graduate in mathematics from the 
University of California at Berkeley, he is one of a group of highly skilled commu- 
nication-aid users whose cooperation and insights into Minspeak have been in- 
dispensable. 



400 words. The huge size of such a 
board, the smallness of the individual 
squares, and the intellectual complexi- 
ty of remembering locations of words 
present obvious difficulties. 

Coding can reduce the size of a word 
board and increase the available 
vocabulary. A three-number sequence 
can address up to 999 words, but the 
human memory requirements are stag- 
gering. "What is word 643? Is it 
'potato'? No, that's 512." The average 
person uses thousands of different 
words every day. And even if the word 
board could contain most of a user's 
vocabulary, a simple sentence like 
"Are you going to the store today?" 
would require the user to select 7 codes 
by hitting 21 keys. Research has shown 
that most people who have tried to use 
fixed-word boards return to alphabet- 
spelling boards. 

What about a hybrid system that 
mixes words, letters, and word parts? 
Photo 1 shows a person using such a 
system, which he actuates with a head- 
stick. The board has more than 100 
squares, each inscribed with a letter, 
word, or word part. (The word parts 
are morphemes, un-, -ed, -ly, or fre- 
quently used letter combinations, -th, 
-wh, -tion, -ize.) This approach is an 



improvement but, like the others, is 
still very slow. An average sentence re- 
quires in excess of 20 actuations. To 
get the number of actuations below 20, 
the board would have to have more 
than 400 keys. By combining the de- 
mand this would make on human 
memory with the considerable effort 
required to make a single key selection, 
it becomes obvious that communica- 
tion on these systems demands con- 
siderable effort from sender and 
receiver. 

A system based on letters is not the 
answer, and one based on words is 
worse. A mix of words and letters af- 
fords some relief, but not enough. 
People with communications disorders 
simply need more "bang to the punch" 
if they are going to be able to exploit 
the computer's potential for equalizing 
physical differences. 

The source of the difficulty seems to 
lie outside the realm of technology. 
The very nature of the alphabet is at 
the heart of the problem. The quantity 
of information borne by a single letter 
is quite small. Information transfers 
conducted in such small units will nec- 
essarily require many units. Biomed- 
ical engineering cannot change this. 
Perhaps a semantic approach can. 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 187 



letter choice by making the "yes" eye 
movement. Although we divided the 
letters of the alphabet into separate 
groups of vowels and consonants, 
and further divided the consonants 
into those before and after "L" for 
easier reference, this system is still 
terribly slow and very limited. 

For him to ask the simple question 
"What did you say?" requires a dozen 
scans through the alphabet and many 
questions to establish whether a word 
is ending or a new word is beginning. 
The degree of concentration that this 
system demands of the conversation- 
al partner is so great that my friend 
often lets many misunderstandings 
pass just to get the central message 
across. I often wonder if I have 
understood his message correctly or if 
my friend feels that the correction 
isn't worth the time and effort re- 
quired to make the meaning clearer. 

The inability to express oneself is 
one of the most widespread and 
catastrophic disabilities. According 
to a report from the University of 



Wisconsin's Trace Research and 
Development Center for the Severely 
Communicatively Handicapped, as 
many as 500,000 people in this coun- 
try are unable to communicate either 
vocally or with standard hand signs. 
The causes are numerous, but among 
the most common are cerebral palsy, 
strokes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 
(Lou Gehrig's disease) and vehicular 
head trauma. One family in four is at 
some time touched by a serious com- 
munication disorder. 

Because hundreds of thousands of 
these people have unimpaired cogni- 
tive abilities, the need for easy com- 
munication methods becomes all the 
more important. As the realities of 
physical communication disorders 
became apparent to me, I decided to 
focus my research on finding some 
means of facilitating nonvocal com- 
munication. 

Addressing the Need 

Minspeak began as a simple 
remedy to a single aspect of nonvocal 



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communication needs, the problem of 
feedback — called phasis in linguistics. 
Sentences that check the channel of 
communication between sender and 
receiver serve a phatic function. 

In face-to-face conversation, 
speakers need to be assured either 
through verbal or body language that 
the message is getting through. 
Because the listener is aware of this, 
he nods, makes sounds such as 
"unhuh,hmm" or says "yes, I see." If 
the message is complex or the speaker 
is anxious, the speaker may request 
additional phatic signs by saying 
"you know" or mentioning the 
receiver's name. When a person has a 
severe physical communication 
disorder, phatic problems take on a 
pressing importance for both conver- 
sational partners. 

Able-bodied speakers have a wide 
range of vocabulary and syntactical 
phatic strategies at their disposal. In 
principle they can generate an infinite 
number of different phatic sentences, 
but they do not. Instead, the same 
phatic utterances are used again and 
again. A limited number of responses 
meets the five basic phatic needs most 
people experience in conversation. 
They are: 

1. To ascertain the quality and 
quantity of the information being 
received at the other end of the 
communication channel. (Am I 
being heard? Is my meaning com- 
prehended?) 

2. To learn whether the informa- 
tion, once understood, is being 
judged correctly or erroneously. 
(Am I right, Joe?) 

3. To determine how the transmit- 
ted information is affecting the 
emotions of the receiver. (Doesn't 
he care the article is late?) 

4. To estimate how the transaction 
is affecting the receiver's opinion 
of the sender. (I won't tell her 
that; I'll sound so stupid.) 

5. To collect information about 
what's going to happen in the im- 
mediate future concerning: (a) 
the duration of the conversation, 
(b) possible topic shifts, (c) even- 
tual results of the interaction. 



188 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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I'd like to see which of your personal computers 
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D HP 9836 



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KEYBOARD 










VOICE SYNTHESIZER 












j 

1 
1 

* 










SENTENCES IN EPROM 





-<: 



Figure 1: The bulk of the Minspeak's memory is erasable programmable read-only 
memory (EPROM). The voice synthesizer used in the first prototype was the Votrax 
SC-01. 



I prepared 26 sentences to satisfy 
these phatic needs. The simplicity of 
implementation can be illustrated 
with the rotating-disk communica- 
tion system. English sentences do not 
begin with question marks, so I decid- 
ed to use them to designate the begin- 
ning of a phatic comment. Each of the 
26 sentences is written on the user's 
lap tray and marked with a single let- 
ter. He can communicate an entire 
sentence by hitting the ? key and a let- 
ter. The receiver then consults the lap 
tray to see which sentence corres- 
ponds to the letter. For example, 
when the user selects ?G, the receiver 
can look at the lap tray and read "I'm 
pleased by what is being said." 

These sentences facilitated conver- 
sations on a number of different silent 
systems and had the potential of be- 
ing even more effective if they could 
be generated on voice-synthesis 
equipment. If phatic sentences could 
be designed context free and reusable, 
so could other sentences. The success 
of the phatic experience could be ap- 
plied to the rest of the communication 
process. 

If users of communication aids had 
at their disposal a collection of 
several hundred multipurpose 
sentences, all sorts of routine but im- 
portant transactions could be made 
easier for them and for their 
associates. If users could access these 
sentences through short codes, com- 
munication could be conducted 
almost at the speed enjoyed by able- 
bodied speakers. 

Taking It One More Step 

The redundant character of daily 
speech as seen in the phatic project 



became a primary concept of a new 
system for communication. I called it 
Minspeak, a parody on the "new- 
speak" in George Orwell's 1984, with 
the Min for minimum. My first task 
involved constructing thousands of 
sentences that were reusable and ap- 
propriate for most daily situations. 

I designed short codes to access 
these sentences through a radical 
alteration in the representational in- 
formation of an alphanumeric key- 



Users can easily 

remember a large 

number of sentence 

sequences. 



board. Instead of letters, the keys 
bear images taken from daily life. 
These images stand for concepts 
rather than words. Some symbolize 
linguistic functions, some the ac- 
tivities of daily life; others denote 
styles of speech and mood. 

Most important, each key has a 
range of significance, including a 
function, several activities, a style, 
and a mood. The sense of each key is 
defined by the order in which it is 
struck. This multiplicity of meaning 
is called polysemy and is the way 
human language works. 

For example, in the sentence "They 
will play a tape of the play," no one 
would confuse the two uses of the 
word "play." Many of our words in 
English are polysemous and depend 
on their context for meaning. 

Polysemy and redundancy are the 



foundation of Minspeak. The incor- 
poration of polysemy into the design 
allows a small number of keys to 
have hundreds of referents. The 
amount of information carried by a 
letter is small; that borne by a word is 
considerably larger. The information 
in a visual image is enormous. 

Hardware Configuration 

Minspeak requires a keyboard 
coupled with a microprocessor. The 
EPROMs are used to store complete 
sentences without regard to in- 
dividual words, phonemes, or letters. 
In addition, a commercially available 
speech synthesizer such as the Votrax 
Speech PAC with an SC-01 voice- 
synthesizer chip can be used. The out- 
put of the voice synthesizer is in turn 
coupled to a loudspeaker which 
generates audible synthetic speech. 
Because the preprogramming is done 
on the basis of semantic rules, 
Minspeak will be able to achieve a 
vocal quality unobtainable with text- 
to-speech methods. (See figure 1 for a 
diagram of that configuration.) 

The keyboard design is illustrated 
in figure 2, with each circle represent- 
ing an individual key. Each key has 
an illustration of a common object or 
an action. In most Minspeak em- 
bodiments the majority of the keys 
also have identifying sequential 
numbers, a letter that corresponds to 
the number, a portion of the human 
anatomy, and a proper name. The 
keyboard design shown in figure 2 
was intended to be used by someone 
with a relatively high level of intellec- 
tual achievement. (See table 1 for a 
detailed description of the keys.) 
Simpler keyboards are designed for 
users with different intellectual levels. 

For example, with this keyboard 
design, key #10 has an illustration of 
philosopher Bertrand Russell, famous 
for his paradox, "the set of all sets, 
not sets of themselves, etc." This key 
is used to change topics. A simpler 
board would use the same key for this 
purpose but would illustrate it with a 
frog that is jumping. (See figure 3 for 
examples of other keyboard images.) 

The microprocessor is programmed 
so that hitting any one key twice des- 
ignates that key's central image as the 



192 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



How To Sell More Software 



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BYTE September 1982 193 




Figure 2: The images on Minspeak keys represent neither letters nor words, but concepts. Because a picture is, indeed, worth a thou- 
sand words, the meanings of the symbols can change according to the order in which the keys are struck. Each image is rich in asso- 
ciations. In short and obvious combinations, they represent whole thoughts. When such combinations are actuated, sentences are 
spoken by the synthesizer. (See table 1 for a description of the information on the keys. See table 2 for examples of specific 
sequences.) 



Key# Image 



Theme 



1 


apple 


eating or food 


2 


turkey 


bad or danger 


3 


cathedral 


wheelchair 


4 


tie, shirt 


dressing or clothing 


5 


directional arrow 


transport or travel 


6 


privy 


ablutions, bathing, or water 


7 


equation 


philosophy or ideas 


8 


tuxedo 


formalities, departures, or greetings 


9 


Chinese symbol, center 


personal opinions or disclosures 


10 


Bertrand Russell 


logic or modality 


20 


elephants 


tag questions 


29 


caduceus 


medical 


30 


sun 


positive expression or happiness 


50 


scales 


typing mode 


60 


electric current 


electricity or control 



Letter 


Anatomy 


Person 


A 


arm 


Ann 


B 


bone 


Bob 


C 


coccyx 


Cathy 


D 


diaphragm 


Dan 


E 


ear 


Everest 


F 


feet 


Fred 


G 


gall bladder 


God 


H 

I 


head 
eye 


Hades 

I 


J 


jugular 


Jesus 


K 


tongue 


Tom 



ovary 



Table 1: Each key may have several functions depicted. The majority of the keys have a number, a letter, a portion of human 
anatomy, a name, and an illustration. The theme of the key is the topic that is selected when the key is hit twice. The information 
in this table corresponds to the keys pictured in figure 2. 



194 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



NO COMPROMISE ON P 3 * 




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s& 




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Calif, residents add 6 1 /2% sales tax. 

U.S. Domestic Price, F.O.B. Factory. 

<c;l/0 Technology, 1982. 



POST OFFICE BOX 2119 

CANYON COUNTRY, CA 91351 

(805) 252-7666 



Circle 227 on Inquiry card. 




® 



CANYON COUNTRY 
CALIFORNIA 




Figure 3: Minspeak keyboards designed for people who can read have numbers and let- 
ters to aid in sequencing and lessen any unnecessary memorization. The letter generally 
stands for a word associated with the central concept behind the key. Key §1 prefaces 
statements dealing with numbers. The associated word ; s algebra. This key was de- 
signed for a 40-year-old man with cerebral palsy who is beginning college. Key #2 deals 
with cleaning and liquids. It's associated word is bath. Key §20 deals with transport and 
is from a keyboard for a person who does not like the traditional wheelchair symbol. 
The associated word is throne. Key #4 is from a keyboard designed for a Minspeak user 
who does not read. The associated idea is "call 4 help. " Key #6 is for commands. The 
associated word is fetch. The names in the upper left area of the keys are of family 
members and friends. 



topic (see figure 4). All keys hit there- 
after designate ideas associated with 
that topic. This continues until the 
user signifies a change of topic by hit- 
ting key #10. 

For example, when the user hits 
key #1 twice, the topic of eating is 
established. When key #2 is hit, the 
sentence "Get that food out of my 
mouth!" is read from memory and 
spoken through the voice synthesizer 
and loudspeaker. If key #3 had been 
hit after the eating topic had been 
established, the sentence "The posi- 
tion of my chair is not right for eat- 
ing" would have been generated. Us- 
ing key #4 would have produced 
"Look out; the food is getting on my 
clothes." 

The programming also recognizes a 
single keystroke after the establish- 
ment of a topic as a request for a neg- 
ative sentence or expression. This was 
done because negative sentences are 
often of an emergency nature and the 
user needs to be able to convey the 
message quickly and easily. A posi- 
tive phrasing of each of the preceding 



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2.2 Intel MDS-800 $149/25 

Northstar (Horizon) ' $149/25 



Micropolis $169/25 

TRS Model II $159/35 

CB-80 $459/35 

CBasic2 $ 98/20 

Pascal MT+ $429/30 

Compiler $316/20 

SPP $140/15 

FRIENDS 

ACCESS80I $249/50 

ACCESS 80 II $429/50 

FRONTIER SOFTWARE 
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General Subroutine $269/40 

Application Utilities $439/40 

ISA 

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SP/Law $109 

PASCAL LANGUAGE 

Pascal Z $349/30 

Pascal MT+ V5.5 $429/30 

Compiler $316/20 

SPP Only $140/15 

KEY BITS 

Wordsearch $179/50 

String 80 $ 84/20 

String 80 (Source) $279 

String Bit $ 65 

MICRO AP 

Selector IV $269/35 

SelectorV $469/50 

SBasic $269/25 

MICRO TAX 

* Level I $249 

•Level II $995 

* Level III $749 

'Combo II + III $1495 

Microsoft 5.3 49 

Run time module 

MICRO PRO® 

Wordstar $309/60 

WS Training Guide 20 

WS Custom Notes $429/na 

MailMerge $109/25 

WS-Mailmerge $419/85 

Datastar $249/60 

DS Custom Notes $429/na 

Calcstar $259/na 

Supersort I $199/40 

Spellstar $175/40 

MICROSOFT 

Basic-80 $298 

Basic Compiler $329 



Fortran-80 $349 

Cobol-80 $629 

M-Sort $124 

Macro-80 $144 

Edit-80 $ 84 

MuSimp/muMath $224 

MuLisp-80 $174 

ORGANIC SOFTWARE 

"Textwriter III $111/25 

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Onyx, Plexus $3495/NA 

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Payroll $399/40 

Inventory 399/40 

Mailing Address $399/40 

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Property Mgt $799/40 

Passive Payroll $449/40 

Series 7-Peachtree 

Sales Tracker $3049/55 

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Worksheet $177/20 

SORCIM 

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* Supercalc $269 

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*FFP $224/15 

•Recover $ 75 

•RADAR $449/25 

ISIS $224/20 



STRUCTURED SYSTEMS GROUP 

GL, AR, AP, PR, OE $849/40 

Call for others 
SUPERSOFT 

•Diagnostic II $ 84/20 

•Forth $149/30 

*SSS Fortran $219/30 

•Fortran w/RATFOR $289/35 

*C Compiler $175/20 

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•Term I $129/25 

Term II $169/25 

Z8000 Xassembler $449/35 

Others less 10% 
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C Compiler $700/40 

Pascal (incl C) $900/45 

Cross Compiler 8080/Z80 host 
Target M68000, PDP11, 11/70, VAX 

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IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER 

Wordstar3.0 $309/60 

Mailmerge $109/25 

Supercalc $269/NA 

Visicalc (256K) $229/NA 

Optimizer $200/NA 

CP/M-86 

Supersof t C $500/NA 

Pascal MT + 86 w/SPP $730/NA 

CBasic-86 $299/NA 

SuperCalc $369/NA 

SuperSoft C Compiler $450/NA 

Wordmaster $Call 

MISCELLANEOUS 

•dBASEII $575/50 

Ptan-80 $269/30 

•Fabs(B-Tree) $159/25 

Ultrasort $159/25 

•Super vyx : . . $ 89/1 5 

•Micro B + 

(Specify Language) $229/20 

•Mini Model $449/50 

•Spellbinder $349/45 

•Statpak $439/40 

*"The Word". • •$ 75 

•Lynx $199/20 

Mfg. Inventory and Control Program 
TI990, 300 Meg. storage required 
Distributed in Cobol object code 

Call for Info $20000/NA 

Write for catalog ($1.00) and other listings 



Available for Apple with Softcard 



196 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 205 on inquiry card. 



INFOWORLD 

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PERFECT WRITER! 



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All quotes are from InfoWorld's Perfect Writer 
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Copyright 1982 by CW Communlca- 
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PW10 



Circle 2 on inquiry card. 



The Influence of Language 

Language has such a pervasive in- 
fluence on perceptions and thought pro- 
cesses that so far we've been unable to 
devise a way to measure the depth or 
extent of that influence. To say an issue 
is "just semantic" is a contradiction. A 
person may as well say "just life or 
death." Americans of African descent 
are not nit-picking when they insist that 
"black" replace "colored." Non are 
women being petty when they use 
"Ms. " The way a person is described af- 
fects how he or she is treated. 

People with physical disabilities can 
be isolated by the language used to 
describe them. I recently formed a small 
company and one of my two partners 
uses a communication aid because he 
has cerebral palsy. For me to call him or 
even think of him as "afflicted" would 
be bad for business. To call someone a 
"victim" of polio or to say a person is 
"suffering from multiple sclerosis" 
leaves a negative impression. Most peo- 
ple find it hard to deal with anyone they 
view as a "suffering victim. " To say "He 
had polio" is easier and clearer. 

"Confined to a wheelchair" is an 
especially unfortunate phrase. People 
are not "confined" by wheelchairs; they 
use them for mobility. Some people are 
tortured for years by unsuccessful at- 
tempts to enable them to walk. Wheel- 
chairs can operate with grace and effi- 
ciency. It's harmful to perpetuate pre- 
judices against them. 

Adults with disabilities are often 
spoken of and hence thought of as 
children. I know a gray -haired profes- 
sional with cerebral palsy whose wife 
was recently asked who the crippled 
boy with her was. 

On the other hand, try not to let this 
list of "don'ts" make you feel anxious, 
because people with disabilities are 
often isolated by other people's fear of 
making a faux pas. Be natural. Most 
people with disabilities are skillful in 
dealing with all kinds of situations. It's 
the prejudices of the able-bodied com- 
munity that are destructive. 

When I am in a quandary about 
whether to use a certain word or not, I 
just ask myself, "Would I like my part- 
ner described that way?" 

More information is available in a 
pamphlet, "4 Letter Words in the Dic- 
tionary of the Disabled, " from United 
Cerebral Palsy, 66 East 34th St., New 
York, NY 10016. 



f START J 



SET 

'NO THEME' 



? 



FIRST KEY 
ACTUATION 
SYMBOL (A) 



SECOND KEY 
ACTUATION 
SYMBOL (B) 



DECLARE 
ERROR 




SET 
'THEME' 




THIRD KEY 
ACTUATION 




SPEAK 
SENTENCE 



GET NEXT 
SYMBOL 



Figure 4: The Minspeak algorithm. To select a topic strike the corresponding key twice. 
All sequences then deal with that topic until another topic is selected. Escapes, though 
not shown, are available for a variety of emergency situations. 



examples can be made by modifying 
the key sequence. The following se- 
quence — key #1 twice (to set the 
topic), key #30 once (to denote a 
positive response), and then key #2 or 
key #4 — would result in "It's okay; 
I'm not choking" or "It's all right if a 
little food gets on my clothes." 

For a severely disabled person to 
say these sentences on a text-to- 
speech or phonemic system would re- 
quire the user to select dozens of keys 
plus have the ability to read and spell 
very well. Minspeak requires no more 
than four key selections, and reading 
and spelling don't matter. 

Many other variations and com- 
binations of the keys are available to 
the user and will result in different 



sentences being output. For examples 
of other sequences, see table 2. For 
users with some linguistic sophistica- 
tion, a series of keys can provide a 
method for altering existing sentences 
through insertions and deletions. 

Other options include changing the 
person, number, tense, voice, and 
mood of verbs. Subjects and objects 
can be modified, eliminated, or 
reversed. A "fudge-factor" key intro- 
duces sequences to produce more 
than 100 sentences linguistically de- 
signed to correct or clarify enunciated 
sentences that inaccurately represent 
the user's thoughts. An example of 
one of these sentences could be 
"That's not what I meant." Style and 
context keys can easily alter the 



198 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 496 on Inquiry card. 



HARD DISK 
PACKAGE DEAL 



P 




SR55 



THE PACKAGE. 



XCOMP is now offering a 1 OMB 5VH'nch subsystem that OEMs will 
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With the XCOMP "Package Deal"" you get the 10MB (formatted) 
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don't have to build a thing. 
SUPER FAST CONTROLLER. 

The XCOMP Controller is a major key in this Hard Disk Subsystem. 
Speed-up features include interleave without table look-up. block- 
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MORE SOFTWARE. SAVE VALUABLE TIME. 

Available for this subsystem is software for testing, formatting, 
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YES! Im interested in your 'Package Dear Please send me more 
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IN KEY* NOT 






Introducing the 
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If you' re ever 
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The Sinclair ZX81 
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A breakthrough in personal computers. 

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■ Continuous display, including moving graphics 

Sinclair technology is also available in Timex/Sinclair computers 
under a license from Sinclair Research Ltd. 



THE $99.95 





■ Multi-dimensional 
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■ Mathematical and scien- 
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■ Randomize function 
useful for both games and serious applications 

■ 1 K of memory expandable to 16K 

■ A comprehensive programming guide and 
operating manual 

The ZX81 is also very convenient to use. It 
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recall programs by name. 



Order at no risk.** 

We'll give you 10 days to try out the ZX81 . If 
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And if you have a problem with yourZX81, 
send it to Sinclair Research within 90 days and 
we'll repair or replace it at no charge. 
Introducing the ZX81 kit. 

If you really want to save money, and you 
enjoy building electronic kits, you can order the 
ZX81 in kitform for the incredible price of just 
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The ZX81 represents the latest technology in 
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We urge you to place your order for the 
ZX81 today. 

To order. 

To order, simply call toll 
free. Or use the coupon below. 
Remember, you can try it for 
10 days at no risk.** The sooner 
you order, the sooner you can 
start enjoying your own 
computer. 
Call toll free 800-543-3000. 

Ask for operator #509. 
In Ohio call: 800-582-1364; 
in Canada call: 513-729-4300. 
Ask for operator #509. Phones 
open 24 hours a day, 7 days 
a week. Have your MasterCard 
or VISA ready. 



These numbers are for orders only. If you just 
want information, please write: Sinclair Research 
Ltd., 2 Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 03061. 

*Plus shipping and handling. Price includes connectors for TV and cassette, AC adaptor, and 

FREE manual. 

"Does not apply to ZX81 kits. 




NEW SOFTWARE: Sinclair has 
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ZX81. We're constantly coming 
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16K MEMORY MODULE: Like 
any powerful, full fledged com- 
puter, the ZX81 is expandable. 
Sinclair's 16K memory module 
plugs rightonto the back of 
yourZX81. Cost is $49.95, plus 
shipping and handling. 



inclair 



To order call toll free: 800-543-3000 



Ad Code 09BYOS 


Price* 


Qty. i 


Amount 


ZX81 


$99.95 






ZX81 Kit 


79.95 






16K Memory Module 


49.95 






Shipping and Handling 


4.95 




$4.95 






TOTAL 





MAIL TO: Sinclair Research Ltd., 
One Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 03061. 



Name- 



Ad dress- 




Topic Key Seqi 


jence Key 


Possible Meaning 


3 


1 


oil the chair 


3 


2 


bad brakes 


4 


2 


tie is choking; belt is tight 


5 


2 


chair won't move 


29 


2 


bone, joint pains 


7 


3 


philosophy of religion 


29 


3 


coccyx and seating problems 


29 


4 


breathing, diaphragm problem 


5 


1 


eating plans for a trip 


60 


6 


no water in wheelchair battery 


7 


1 


eating preferences; I'm a vegetarian. 


29 


8 


head 


29 


9 


eye problems 


— 


10 


next sentence theme will differ 


10 


— 


clear buffer; start a new topic 


20 


— 


tag questions; "He's gone, isn't he?" 


30 


— 


changes negative context to positive 


50 


— 


change to typewriter mode 


60 




electrical control; telephone dialer, TV switches 


Table 2: To generate 


a sentence, 


the user must hit a key twice to set the topic, and 


then hit one or more 


keys to select a sentence pertaining to the topic. For example, if 


the user hits key #3 


twice to set the topic and follows that by hitting key §1, a 


sentence pertaining to oiling the chair would be generated. The information in this 


table corresponds to 


the keys pictured in figure 2. 




Photo 2: The Express 3, developed by Prentke Romich Co., is a portable communica- 
tion aid powered by internal rechargeable batteries and designed for mounting on a 
wheelchair. A special Express 3 is being prepared to implement the Minspeak concept. 
The system will use a combination of power-strobed EPROM and CMOS RAM. A 
Votrax Speech PAC with an SC-01 voice synthesizer marketed by Vodex will be 
coupled to the output of the microprocessor. It will retain other features of the original 
Express 3, including a 40-character upper- and lowercase liquid-crystal display with 
corresponding thermal printer and serial ASCII output for connection to other com- 
puters and environmental-control devices. 



vocabulary and social tone of the 
stored sentences. 

Considering the Possibilities 

If you had 1000 sentences carefully 
constructed to cover most of the 
typical activities in your day, perhaps 
75 percent of your utterances would 
be included in that group. Imagine 
adding 3000 more sentences com- 
posed to express a wide range of 
statements and questions concerning 
emotion and personal goals. If you 
then added another 1000 sentences 
which included statements of courte- 
sies, greetings, thank yous, and 
you're welcomes, you would have 
enough sentences to cover most of the 
routine contingencies of life. 

If communication-aid users could 
access any of these sentences with a 
few physical responses, their expres- 
sive difficulties would be on the road 
to resolution. Actual field work has 
shown that the number of sentences 
whose sequences can be easily 
remembered and used is unexpectedly 
high, perhaps approaching the 
thousands for a large percentage of 
potential users. 

Minspeak is currently under devel- 
opment at the Prentke Romich Co. in 
Shreve, Ohio. PRC is working on the 
development of expressive com- 
munication aids for the severely 
physically disabled. A demonstration 
prototype of Minspeak will be avail- 
able from the company later this 
year. Until now, the effectiveness of 
communication aids has caused agen- 
cies to question their definition as a 
prosthesis and this has limited the 
amount of outside funding available. 
Because of the advances represented 
by Minspeak, a coordinated multi- 
state legal campaign has been 
launched to persuade private and 
public health care funding agencies to 
make funding available for purchase 
of this device. 

People who hear and cannot speak 
have an enormous potential for con- 
tributing to society through their in- 
sights into human communication. It 
is my sincerest hope that Minspeak 
will give them access to modern tech- 
nology that will enable them to make 
this contribution in an easier and 
more productive way. ■ 



202 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



MVP-FORTH 

A Public Domain Product 




ORDER TODAY!!! 



In keeping with the public domain release of FORTH by its inventor, Charles 
Moore, and the promotion of the language by the FORTH Interest Group, MVP- 
FORTH (for Mountain View Press) and the companion book, ALL ABOUT FORTH, 
are also placed in the public domain and may be used freely without restriction. 

MVP-FORTH contains a kernal for transportability, the FORTH-79 Standard 
Required Word Set, the vocabulary for the instruction book, STARTING FORTH, 
by Brodie, editor, assembler, many useful routines, and utilities. 

MVP-FORTH PRODUCTS 

□ MVP-FORTH Programmer's Kit including disk with documentation, ALL ABOUT 
FORTH, and STARTING FORTH. Assembly source listing versions. $100 

□ MVP-FORTH Disk with documentation. Assembly source listing version. $75 

□ MVP-FORTH Cross Compiler with MVP-FORTH source in FORTH. $300 

□ MVP-FORTH Programming Aids for decompiling, callfinding, and 
translating. $150 

□ MVP-FORTH Assembly Source Printed listing. $20 

□ ALL ABOUT FORTH by Havdon. $20 

• ••MVP-FORTH operates under a variety of CPU's, computers, and 
operating systems. Specify your computer ana operating system. • • • 



MORE FORTH DISKS 

fig-FORTH Model and Source, 

and Source Listing. 

□ APPLE II® ,5 1 /4 □ 

□ 8086/88, 8 □ 

$65 Each 
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Specify disk size! 

□ APPLE II/II+ by 
MicroMotion $100 

□ APPLE II by Kuntze» $90 

□ ATARI® by PNS $90 

□ CP/M® by 
MicroMotion $100 

□ CROMEMCO® by Inner 
Access $100 

□ HP-85 by Lange» $90 

□ IBM-PC® by Laboratory 
Microsystems $100 



with printed Installation Manual 

8080/Z80® , 8 
H89/Z89, 5V4 



and manual. "Source provided. 

□ PET® by FSS $90 
D TRS-80/I® by Nautilus 

Systems* $90 

□ 6800 by Talbot 
Microsystems $100 

□ 6809 by Talbot 
Microsystems $100 

□ Z80 by Laboratory 
Microsystems $50 

D 8086/88 by Laboratory 
Microsystems $100 



Enhanced FORTH with: F-Fioating Point, G-Graphics, 
T-Tutorial, S-Stand Alone, M-Math Chip Support, X-Other 
Extras, 79-FORTH-79. Specify Disk Size! 

□ APPLE II/II+ by Micro- 
Motion, F, G, &79 $140 

□ CP/M by MicroMotion, 
F & 79 $140 

□ H89/Z89 by Haydon, 
T & S $250 

□ H89/Z89 by Haydon, T$175 



D PET by FSS, F & X $150 



□ TRS-80/I or III by Miller 
Microcomputer Services, 
F, X.&79 $130 

□ 6809 by Talbot Micro- 
systems, T & X $150 

□ Z80 by Laboratory Micro- 
systems, F & M $150 

□ 8086/88 by Laboratory 
Microsystems, F & M$150 



CROSS COMPILERS Allow extending, modifying and compiling 
for speed and memory savings, can also produce ROMable 
code. -Requires FORTH disk. 



$150 



□ CP/M 


$200 


□ IBM* 


$300 


□ H89/Z89 


$200 


□ 8086* 


$300 


□ TRS-80/I 


$200 


□ Z80» 


$200 


□ Northstar® 


$200 


□ 6809 


$350 



□ fig-FORTH Programming Aids for decompiling, 
callf/nding, and translating. 



DOCUMENTS 

□ Starting FORTH by 
Brodie. Best instructional 
manual available, (soft 
cover) $16 

D Starting FORTH (hard 
cover) $20 

D METAFORTH by Cassady. 
Cross compiler with 8080 
code $30 

□ Systems Guide to fig- 
FORTH $25 

□ Caltech FORTH 
Manual $12 

□ Invitation to FORTH $20 

□ PDP-11 FORTH User's 
Manual $20 

D CP/M User's Manual, 
MicroMotion $20 

a FORTH-79 Standard $15 

D FORTH-79 Standard 
Conversion $10 

D Tiny Pascal in 

fig-FORTH $10 

Installation Manual for fig-FORTH, contains FORTH 

model, glossary, memory map and instructions $15 

Source Listings of fig-FORTH, for specific CPU's and 
computers. The Installation Manual is required for 
implementation. Each $15 

□ 1802 □ 6502 □ 6800 □ AlphaMicro 

□ 8080 □ 8086/88 □ 9900 □ APPLE II 

D PACE □ 6809 □ NOVA □ PDP-11/LSI-11 



Ordering Information: Check, Money Order (payable to MOUNTAIN VIEW 
PRESS, INC.), VISA, MasterCard or COD's accepted. No billing or unpaid 
PO's. California residents add sales tax. Shipping costs in US included in 
price. Foreign orders, pay in US funds on US bank, include forhandling and 
shipping by Air: $5 for each item under $25, $10 for each item between $25 
and $99 and $20 for each item over $100. Minimum order $10. All prices and 
products subject to change or withdrawal without notice. Single system 
and/or single user license agreement required on some products. 
DEALER & AUTHOR INQUIRIES INVITED 



FORTH MANUALS, GUIDES,& 


D FORTH Encyclopedia 


by 


Derick & Baker. A com- 


plete programmer's 




manual to fig-FORTH 


with 


FORTH-79 references 




Flow charted 


$25 


□ 1980 FORML Proc. 


$25 


□ 1981 FORML Proc. 




2 Vol. 


$40 


□ 1981 Rochester Univ. 




Proc. 


$25 


D Using FORTH 


$25 


D A FORTH Primer 


$25 


D Threaded Interpretive 




Languages 


$20 


D AIM FORTH User's 




Manual 


$12 


D APPLE User's Manual 




MicroMotion 


$20 


□ TRS-80 User's Manual, 


MMSFORTH 


$19 



THE FORTH SOURCE™ 

MOUNTAIN VIEW PRESS, INC. 



PO BOX 4656 



MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 



(415)961-4103 



Circle 330 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 203 



FDA Regulation of 
Computerized Medical Devices 

What designers of medically related hardware and software 

should know. 



Most people know that when a 
device is used for medical purposes, it 
falls under the jurisdiction of the 
Food and Drug Administration 
(FDA) of the U.S. Public Health Ser- 
vice. Now, with the advent of the 
microprocessor, many existing 
medical devices have become com- 
puterized, and new medical equip- 
ment is being designed with micro- 
processors. Consequently, many 
hardware and software producers 
may be required by law to notify the 
FDA of their medical devices. And 
those designing such devices or pro- 
ducing software for medical purposes 
should be aware of the regulations 
and the manufacturing controls that 
must be followed in order to comply 
with the Medical Device Amend- 
ments of 1976. 



The Law 

The Medical Device Amendments 
of 1976 to the Federal Food, Drug, 
and Cosmetic Act gave the FDA the 
responsibility and authority to assure 
that medical devices are safe and ef- 
fective. 

As defined by the amendments, a 



Joseph Jorgens III 

Carl W. Bruch 

Frank Houston 

Bureau of Medical Devices 

Food and Drug Administration 

8757 Georgia Ave. 

Silver Spring, MD 20910 

medical device is an "instrument, ap- 
paratus, implement, machine, con- 
trivance, implant, in vitro reagent, or 
other similar or related article, in- 
cluding any component, part or ac- 
cessory, which is intended for use in 
the diagnosis of disease or other con- 
ditions, or in the cure, mitigation, 
treatment, or prevention of disease, 



Many hardware and 

software producers 

may be required by law 

to notify the FDA of 

their medical devices. 



in man or other animals, . . . which 
does not achieve any of its principal 
intended purposes through chemical 
action within or on the body." 

Levels of Control 

The amendments provide three 
levels of controls to assure the safety 
and effectiveness of medical devices. 
They are Class I, devices requiring 
general controls; Class II, those re- 



quiring specific performance stan- 
dards; and Class III, those requiring 
premarket approval. Medical devices 
such as bedpans and surgical instru- 
ments for which general controls are 
adequate to ensure safety and effec- 
tiveness fall into the Class I category. 
General controls prohibit adultera- 
tion and misbranding of a medical 
device. Under the amendments, adul- 
teration may include failure to follow 
Good Manufacturing Practice Reg- 
ulations, comply with an FDA stan- 
dard for a device, or submit a pre- 
market approval application. Mis- 
branding may include failure to reg- 
ister production facilities, list a 
device, or properly label the medical 
device, e.g., by not providing ade- 
quate directions for use. Labeling is 
not confined to the label on the device 
itself but may include any literature 
accompanying the device, operating 
or service manuals, and advertise- 
ments for the device. 

Class II products require a specific 
performance standard, as well as the 
general controls, in order to provide 
reasonable assurances of safety and 
effectiveness. For example, devices 
such as those that make measure- 



204 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



£ 




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Circle 86 on Inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 205 



Butch Brown believed 

"logic seeking heads" 

lived in the hippie district 




Until he became an 
Orange Micro Printer Expert. 




Printers Can Be Confus- 
ing. Sometimes, even the 
informed personal com- 
puter owner is caught short 
by the mound of technical 
differences in printers. After 
one visit to Orange Micro, 
Butch learned a logic- 
seeking print head skips 
over blank spaces and 
seeks the fastest path 
to the next printable 

character— for 
quick stock record 
printouts. 
We Educate 

First. With so many different 

printers out there with as many 

different features, we feel a printer 

education is in order. We take what you already 

know about computers and explain printers in 

the same terms. Our current customers seem 

to like that because of the friends they refer. 

(Nearly 50% of our business is referral.) 

It's Easy To Be An Expert. Orange Micro 

printer specialists are there to make you feel 

comfortable with your newfound printer 

knowledge. And when you decide on the 

printer right for you, you'll know exactly why 

you picked it from all the rest With over 35 



popular models to choose 
from, and a complete selec- 
tion of cables, options and 
interface accessories, we 
have everything you need to 
get your new printer up and 
operating in minutes. 
We Have The Right 
Printer For You. Bring 
along your toughest printer 
questions. Our salespeo- 
ple will answer them 
^ honestly and practi- 
cally. In less time than 
you'd imagine possi- 
ble, you'll be a printer 
expert too! After all, printers are our 
only business, so we always do a bet- 
ter job at finding the right one for you. 
Orange Micro Printer Stores 
3150E.LaPalma,Suitel 
Anaheim, CA 92806 (714) 630-3622 

13604 Ventura Boulevard 

Sherman Oaks, CA 91423 (213) 501-3486 

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1104 Van Ness 

San Francisco, CA, 94109 (415) 673-0170 

PI 



Limited Franchise Opportunities Now Available. Call (714) 630-3620 




Circle 353 on Inquiry card. 




ments or amplify physiological sig- 
nals fall into this category. The 
amendments gave the FDA authority 
to establish mandatory performance 
standards for these products. Equip- 
ment such as electrocardiographs, 
blood-pressure meters, and medical 
thermometers are in Class II. Class II 
also contains some devices whose use 
entails some risk for the patient, such 
as defibrillators and electrical nerve 
stimulators. 

A Class III device is one that may 
pose a significant risk to health from 
its use and for which there is insuffi- 
cient information available to devel- 
op a performance standard. This 
would be the case, for instance, in 
new measurement techniques, new 
treatments, or artificial organs. Many 
implantable devices are in this class. 
In order to bring a Class III medical 
device to market, a manufacturer 
must demonstrate to the FDA that the 
device is safe and effective. The 
results from animal studies, clinical 
trials, and in vitro studies for the 
medical device are submitted in a pre- 
market approval application to the 
FDA for review. 

In the FDA, the Bureau of Medical 
Devices has the primary responsibili- 
ty for regulating medical devices as 
defined above. Several working 
groups within the Bureau are charged 
with carrying out different provisions 
of the act. Medical device manufac- 
turers usually interact with the Office 
of Compliance, the Office of Device 
Evaluation, or one of the FDA's field 
offices. 

The Office of Compliance is 
responsible for assuring good manu- 
facturing practices as well as ad- 
ministering recalls and examining any 
violations of the act. Legal actions 
such as seizures, injunctions, and 
prosecutions are also part of its ac- 
tivities. Manufacturers who bring a 
new device to market generally deal 
with the Office of Device Evaluation, 
which is divided into seven medical 
specialty groups. (For this discus- 
sion, the term manufacturers will in- 
clude producers of both software and 
hardware.) Advisory panels com- 
posed of experts from outside the 
FDA assist each division in its special- 
ty area. 

Circle 213 on Inquiry card. » 



Four times faster than any 300 

bps modem, to be precise. With Hayes 

Smartmodem 1200, any computer with 

an RS-232C connection — such as the IBM 

Personal Computet TRS-80® or Apple® III 

— can communicate over telephone lines 

with other computer terminals or printers, 
i j i i*^/*k/-% j j* ^i j.^ 



any standard telephone jack in the USA. 
Dialing can be Touch-Tone® pulse or 
both. It can even operate over multiline 
phone systems (PBX) to dial numbers, re- 
ceive and transmit data, and disconnect 
— automatically. An internal speaker lets 
you hear the call being made and monitor 
its progress. That way you'll know imme- 
diately if the line's busy or you reach a 



wrong number. And indicator lights keep 
you posted on the current operating sta- 
tus: modem ready, terminal ready, carrier 
detect, auto-answer and high speed. 



your branch offices, or exchange programs 
with other computer users. In fact, it per- 
forms just about any communication 
function you can imagine, and can be 



Smartmodem 1200 is two modems in program controlled using any language 
one. Like the original Hayes Smartmodem, Smartmodem 1200. Another produt 
it can communicate with other Bell 103 in the Hayes Stack™ series that stands 
type modems at up to 300 bps. ^^p^ f° r quality and dependability. And all 
Plus it's a 1200 bps modem for I T 1 . - you need for corn- 

communicating with the faster I A I |—|OVf|^0 municating . . . fast 
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many 1200 bps modems, Smart- ^^■^' v * computer stores 

modem 1200 lets you select full or half nationwide. For the name of your near 
duplex, for compatibility with time- est dealer write: Hayes Microcomputer 

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Microcomputer Products. Inc. Sold only in the U.S.A. TRS-S0 is a registered trademark 

of Tandy Corporation. Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. n 



lj Touch-Tone is a registered trade mark of American Telephone and Telegraph. 
/ The Source is a service mark of Source Telecomputing Corporation, a subsidiary 
The Reader's Digest Association. Inc. 






THE EPROM 

PAOMAN 

HAVE ROOM FOR 



Presenting the Intel 27128. 

The biggest EPROM in the world— able 
to take 16K bytes (or 128K bits) of software 
in a single gulp. 

But enough with the introductions. 

The fact is now it makes sense to put 
application and system software— once re- 
served for floppies— on an EPROM instead. 

Why? 

A lot of reasons. 

You can make a computer less of a com- 
puter for people using it. Operating systems, 
compilers and application software can all 
be pressed into action with one easy-to- 
remember pushbutton instead of 15 or so 



computer startup procedures. 

You can make a computer react faster. 
Compared to software stored on a floppy, 80 
times faster. Or faster than Blinky can wipe 
out your man. 

You can also make a computer more 
reliable. Since Intel EPROMs have the MTBF 
to keep going 600 times longer than floppies. 

Yet you re not locked into a program for 
life. Unlike its ROM counterparts, an EPROM 
is meant to be changed. 

And even though the 27128 EPROM 
can help shrink your system, you have all the 
room you need. So the CP/M operating 



BURP! 




THATCANEAT 
AND STILL 
SPACE INVADERS. 



system can fit in one chip. And a BASIC 
interpreter in one. 

Of course, you get all the other no- 
nonsense advantages of an Intel EPROM. 
JEDEOapproved bytewide pinouts for easy 
upgrades. The 0.1% AQL that made our 
2764 a world standard. And the immediate 
availability for non-stop production of 
your system. 

All this without blowing your systems 
costs out of the water Because as sure as an 
EPROM has 28 legs, the 27128 EPROM 
will set a new low for cost per EPROM bit 
within the next year. 

After all, the way we see it, the way to 



make software friendlier is to make it hard. 

To see how our 27128 software carrier 
can improve your game plan, contact your 
local distributor or Intel Corporation, 
3065 Bowers Avenue, Santa Clara, CA 
95051. (408) 987-8080. 



intel 



delivers 
solutions 



United States and Canadian Distributors: Alliance, Almac/Stroum, Arrow Electronics, 
Avnct Electronics, Component Specialities Inc., Hamilton/ A vnet, Hamilton Electro Sales, 
Harvey, L.A. Varah. Measurement lechnology Inc., Mesa, Pioneer, Wyle Distribution 
Group, Zentronics. In Europe and Japan, contact your local Intel sales office. 

PAC-MAN is a trademark of NAMCO-America, Inc.. Space Invaders is a trademark 
of'Iaito America Corporation. CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. Inc. 

Circle 239 on Inquiry card. 



Device evaluation is concerned 
with new products that will be placed 
in commercial distribution. Products 
that are new, those that have been 
"significantly modified/' and "me- 
too" products (copies of devices 
already on the market) from a new 
manufacturer require a premarket 
notification from the manufacturer 90 
days prior to marketing the device. 
The premarket notification is called a 
510(k) submission since it is required 
by regulation 510(k) of the Federal 
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Dur- 
ing this 90-day period, the appropri- 



ate Device Evaluation division 
reviews the premarket notification 
and determines whether or not the 
product is substantially equivalent to 
a device that was in commercial 
distribution before May 28, 1976, the 
date on which the Medical Device 
Amendments became law. If the pro- 
duct is substantially equivalent, it 
may be commercially distributed. A 
product that is not substantially 
equivalent to a pre-amendments 
device, and which has not been 
reclassified, is placed in Class III and 
requires a premarket-approval ap- 



Time up your LA36 



The DS120 Terminal Controller makes your LA36 
perform like a DECwriter® III. 

The Datasouth DS120 gives your DEC writer® II the high speed printing 
and versatile performance features of the DECwriter® III at only a frac- 
tion of the cost. The DS120 is a plug compatible replacement for your 
LA36 logic board which can be installed in minutes. Standard features 
include: 



• 165 cps bidirectional printing 

• Horizontal & Vertical Tabs 

• Page Length Selection 

• 11O4800 baud operation 

• 1000 character print buffer 

• X-on, X-off protocol 

• Self Test 



• RS232 interface 

• 20 mA Current Loop interface 

• Top of Form 

• Adjustable Margins 

• Double wide characters 

• ferity selection 

• Optional APL character set 



Over 5,000 DS120 units are now being used by customers ranging from 
the Fortune 500 to personal computing enthusiasts. In numerous instal- 
lations, entire networks of terminals have been upgraded to take advan- 
tage of today's higher speed data 
communications services. LSI 
microprocessor electronics 
and strict quality control en- 
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for years to come. When ser- 
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data§@A computer corporation 

421 6 Stuart Andrew Blvd. • Charlotte, North Carolina 28210 • 704/523-8500 




plication that is reviewed by FDA 
staff as well as by the advisory panel 
to determine whether the safety and 
effectiveness of the device have been 
demonstrated. If they have, the pro- 
duct will be allowed into commercial 
distribution. 

Computers and Medical Devices 

With the advent of micropro- 
cessors came two developments for 
medical devices. First, micro- 
processors began to replace discrete 
components, and second, totally new 
devices became possible. The first 
development augments the reliability 
of medical devices and also allows 
great flexibility without the necessity 
for major hardware design changes. 
The second development arises from 
the ability to implement very com- 
plex logical decision schemes with a 
relatively inexpensive piece of hard- 
ware. In addition, the proliferation of 
personal computers and associated 
software allows individuals to pro- 
duce small, very intelligent medical 
devices and medical software. 

Microprocessors that are com- 
ponents of medical devices or of large 
computing systems that interface 
with medical instruments are normal- 
ly considered medical devices. Soft- 
ware that is written for such systems 
may be classified as a medical device. 
By identifying the purpose of the sys- 
tem and the function of the software 
within the system, you can determine 
if your hardware and software are 
medical devices. 

Hardware 

Products that apply the latest tech- 
nology (often using microprocessors) 
to perform the functions of discrete 
component designs will not be 
regulated in a manner significantly 
different from their predecessors if 
the use of the microprocessor does 
not change the medical nature of the 
product. Consider, for instance, the 
electrocardiogram monitor, which 
has evolved from electron tubes, to 
transistors, to integrated circuits, and 
finally to microprocessors. The hard- 
ware and software of the latest 
generation of monitors are regulated 
to the same extent as the tube model 
was, as long as the two generations of 



210 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 150 on Inquiry card. 



monitors are substantially equiv- 
alent. 

If a microprocessor in the monitor 
automates a process, say, by auto- 
matically infusing a drug when a cer- 
tain electrocardiographic pattern is 
present, then the medical nature of 
the device may be considered 
changed. The monitor may be no 
longer primarily a provider of data; it 
might now be a maker of medical 
decisions, and if this device were the 
first of its kind, it might be regulated 
as a new (Class III) device. 

Software 

The subject of software is a bit 
more complex. Software gives 
medical devices flexibility and can be 
portable from one computer system 
to another. For the sake of simplifica- 
tion, consider four software 
categories: 

1. software that is permanently in- 
stalled in a specific medical device 



not intended to be altered by the 
user and required for the device to 
function 

2. software that may be temporarily 
installed in a specific medical 
device with the capacity to alter 
the function or performance of the 
device 

3. software designed for use on a 
single, general-purpose computer 
(that is, a computer not specifically 
dedicated to one particular device) 

4. software designed for use on multi- 
ple, general-purpose computers 

Category 1. In this case, the soft- 
ware is really a fixed component of 
the instrument. If the instrument is a 
medical device, so is the software. 
The level of control will be governed 
by the device function or purpose of 
the instrument. 

Category 2. This software is a 
replaceable component, somewhat 
like a phonograph record. It may 
change the performance of the instru- 



ment and make it function as a dif- 
ferent medical device. Again, if the 
instrument operates as a medical 
device, the software enabling such 
operations will also be considered a 
medical device. 

Category 3. Suppose a software 
package is developed for one mini- 
computer system that might accept 
EKGs from a 10-bed intensive care 
unit, analyze the electrocardiograms, 
and make a diagnosis of the patients' 
heart conditions. This would fall into 
Category 3. Because it accepts data 
from a patient and makes a diagnosis, 
it falls within the definition of a 
device and is subject to regulation. 

Category 4. Category 4 would 
apply to a package developed in one 
of the high-level languages such as 
FORTRAN, BASIC, or Pascal. 
Categories 3 and 4 contain gray areas 
with respect to the medical-device 
definitions. If someone takes several 
medical textbooks, develops a deci- 
sion process leading to a diagnosis, 



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September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 211 



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BYTE September 1982 213 



and automates the process, is the 
resulting program a medical device? 
No definite decision has yet been 
made. Even if this automated process 
is considered a medical device, how 
should the Bureau of Medical Devices 
analyze the 510(k) submissions? 
Perhaps the appropriate method 
would be to ask whether the 
algorithm that is used is substantially 
equivalent to the algorithm that was 
employed manually. If the algorithm 
were the same, the computerized ver- 
sion of that process would be deter- 
mined to be substantially equivalent 
to the manual version and would not 
be covered by Class III regulations. 

As you may imagine, the issue of 
software as a medical device is com- 
plex and still in a state of flux. Per- 
haps some examples of software pro- 
ducts that have already been exam- 
ined by the Bureau of Medical 
Devices will provide some clarifica- 
tion. 

One product that was reviewed by 
the Bureau of Medical Devices was a 
microprocessor-based monitor that 



measured several patient parameters 
such as blood pressure and heart rate, 
manipulated those measured 
parameters, and displayed the mea- 
surements in both a real-time fashion 
and in a trend plot. The product, in- 
cluding its software, was considered 
to be a medical device. 

Another product used hardware, 
leased or sold to a hospital, that mea- 
sured pulmonary parameters. The 
raw data was sent to a computer by 
way of phone lines. The computer 
manipulated the raw data and re- 
turned a display of the patient's pul- 
monary functions to the hospital. 
Because the data manipulator and its 
software made claims for medical 
purposes and required the leased or 
purchased front-end hardware sys- 
tem, it was considered a medical 
device rather than a service and fell 
under the Bureau of Medical Devices 
regulations. 

A new pulmonary-function 
analyzer uses an Apple II microcom- 
puter to measure a patient's breathing 
with an electronic flowmeter, analyze 



the information, and print out a 
graph of the patient's pulmonary 
function. This is considered a new 
medical device, but because it merely 
does the same analyses that were once 
done by hand, it was determined to 
be substantially equivalent to a pre- 
amendments device and was not 
placed in Class III. 

Another firm uses a computer to 
analyze X rays and patient informa- 
tion received from hospitals to deter- 
mine the patient's future growth 
statistics. Several X rays and a history 
of the patient are mailed to the com- 
pany where the future growth 
parameters are predicted by way of a 
programmed algorithm. The Bureau 
of Medical Devices considered the 
firm a service provider, and although 
the programmed algorithm is a 
medical device, it is not subject to ac- 
tive regulation except for the regula- 
tions regarding misbranding and 
adulteration. 

Products that fall into this limited 
level of regulation must meet the 
following criteria: 



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1. The product must be a computer 
software package essentially based 
on data-analysis methods appear- 
ing in the literature. 

2. Only services provided by the soft- 
ware can be sold. The software 
itself can't be sold or leased to 
users or other service providers. 

3. The data used as input by the soft- 
ware must be generated by a com- 
mercially available device. 

In this instance, if the firm were to 
market the software package that 
guides the calculations, such a 
package would be an actively 
regulated medical device. 

Conclusion 

This article has been a limited dis- 
cussion of FDA regulation of com- 
puterized medical devices and 
medical software. Many details have 
been omitted. Designers of medical 
software and hardware should obtain 
additional information by contacting 
the Office of Small Manufacturers 
Assistance, Room 1431, S757 Georgia 
Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910 (301) 
427-7184. ■ 



214 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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How to get 



You're not alone, you know. 

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With dBASE II, you'll also get an easy 
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powerful way to perform repetitive tasks 
(DO WHILE..). 

216 BYTE September 1982 




With these tools, you're ready to tackle 
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Circle 39 on Inquiry card. 



Ashton-Tate 



©1982 Ashton-Tate 

CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 



BYTE September 1982 217 



Talking Terminals 

Text-to-speech translation involves 
looking at the problem from a different "viewpoint. " 



David Stoffel 

Scion Corporation 

12310 Pinecrest Rd. 

Reston, VA 22091 



Imagine for a moment that you are 
sitting in front of a computer video 
terminal working on a program when 
suddenly the screen goes blank. The 
display tube has failed. Could you 
continue to work on the program 
even though you couldn't see the 
screen display? That's exactly the 
problem that faces many visually dis- 
abled persons when they try to use 
standard microcomputers. 

An answer to that problem is the 
"talking terminal." Simply, a talking 
terminal resembles a conventional 
computer terminal except that it 
speaks information instead of, or in 
addition to, displaying that informa- 
tion visually. This article aims to of- 
fer an understanding of the human 
factors involved in selecting a talking 
terminal and to compare current talk- 
ing-terminal products. 



About the Author 

David Stoffel has participated in the research 
and development of voice-response technology 
for six years. He has built his own talking ter- 
minal as a research tool and for his personal 
and professional use. 



In addition to conventional ter- 
minal capabilities, a talking terminal 
requires several additional features 
and capabilities. First, of course, the 
terminal must be able to talk intel- 
ligibly for you to understand its 



Speech Is an elusive 

method of 

communication; 

once those sound 

waves are heard, 

It's up to the listener 

to remember what 

was said. 



speech. So, we want to assess the in- 
telligibility and acceptability of the 
product's speech. Second, speech is 
an elusive method of communication; 
once those sound waves are heard, 
it's up to the listener to remember 
what was said. So, just as many 
video-display terminals provide local 



editing and memory, a talking ter- 
minal has to. provide a "say again" 
feature. Finally, consider, for a 
moment, how you would read this ar- 
ticle aloud to someone. Would you 
read the punctuation as pauses, or 
would you say the names of the punc- 
tuation symbols? Would you pro- 
nounce acronyms, such as ASCII, or 
would you spell them out letter by 
letter? Would you read the string of 
digits 1234 as "one thousand, two 
hundred, and thirty-four," or "one, 
two, three, four," or use some other 
method? A talking terminal should be 
able to present the information in a 
variety of ways, suited to your needs 
and preferences. 

Today's commercially available 
talking-terminal products (see table 1) 
represent two different design 
strategies. The speech-related features 
and capabilities have either been built 
into an existing conventional com- 
puter terminal, as with the Total Talk 
and the FSST-3, or are in a self-con- 
tained accessory module connected in 
series on the communication line be- 
tween the computer and the terminal, 
as with the VERT. These two design 



218 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Product: VERT (Verbal Emulation in Real Time) 

Self-contained speech unit connected 
line between computer and any terminal. 
Price: $5900 (with educational discount $4990) 
Manufacturer: Automated Functions Inc. 
Suite 813 

4545 Connecticut Ave. NW 
Washington, DC 20008 
(202) 362-6292 



Product: Total Talk (other models are available) 

Hewlett-Packard HP-2621 terminal with added speech circuitry. 
Price: $4990 
Manufacturer: Maryland Computer Services Inc. 

2010 Rock Spring Rd. 

Forrest Hill, MD 21050 

(301) 838-8888 

Product: FSST-3 (Free-Scan Speech Terminal) 

Zenith Z-19 terminal with added speech circuitry. 
Price: $4495 
Manufacturer: Triformation Systems Inc. 

3132 Southeast Jay St. 

Stuart, Fl_ 33494 

(305)283-4817 

Table 1: Manufacturers of talking terminals. 



strategies have significant ramifica- 
tions in two of the three areas of com- 
parison: speech review and speech- 
parameter control. 

Translation Algorithms 

An exhaustive comparison of the 
intelligibility and acceptability of the 
speech output — measures of listener 
comprehension and preference — re- 
quires rigorous performance mea- 
sures. Such scientific evaluation is 
beyond my resources. Nevertheless, I 
can offer some useful observations on 
the different text-to-speech algo- 
rithms used in these talking terminals. 

Though some manufacturers do 
not acknowledge the ancestry of the 
text-to-speech algorithms they use, it 
is reasonably safe to infer that both 
the VERT and Total Talk use the 
Mcllroy (Bell Laboratories) algo- 
rithm, as enhanced by NIH (National 
Institutes of Health), and that the 
FSST-3 uses the NRL (Naval Research 
Laboratory) algorithm. The Mcllroy 
enhanced algorithm uses about 1000 
rules, and the NRL uses about 600 in 
performing the letter-to-phoneme or 
word-to-phoneme translation. (A 
phoneme is the smallest sound unit of 
speech. When we speak, we string 
phonemes together to produce 
words.) 

Both algorithms are quite ade- 



quate, with translation accuracy, lin- 
guistically speaking, of about 
90 percent. In my experience, I find 
that the Mcllroy algorithm handles 
difficult words correctly more often 
than the NRL. Neither of them makes 
any particularly egregious errors in 
the text-to-speech translation. 

Choosing Synthesizers 

The only viable synthesizers to 
date are those that use phoneme syn- 
thesis, rather than synthesis by 
analysis (speech encoding), because 
the synthesizer must be able to speak 
an unrestricted vocabulary. The 
speech-encoding synthesizers, such as 
Texas Instruments' TMS5221 LPC 
(linear-predictive coding) synthesizer 
or National Semiconductor's Digi- 
talker, are still limited to fixed, pre- 
recorded vocabularies. Both the 
VERT and the Total Talk use the 
Votrax VSB single-board speech syn- 
thesizer; while the FSST-3 uses the 
older Votrax VSA. 

Both Votrax synthesizers are 
capable of independent variation in 
speech rate and pitch, under either 
manual or program control. The 
VERT takes advantage of the pro- 
grammable-speech-rate control to en- 
hance the pronunciation duration of 
very short and very long words, 
while also providing you with 



220 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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RMAC relocatable macro assembler. 
$475/335. LINK-80 and RMAC also 
available separately. 
BT-80™— Efficient B-tree key indexed 
access method for PL/l-80. Features 
key length to 63 bytes, unique or 
duplicate keys, and data records to 
4096 bytes. Datasets can be spread 
over 8 files for a total of 64 mega- 
bytes. $200/$30. 

BASIC-80 — Extremely fast interpreter 
features double precision floating 
point math, 40 character variable 
names, CHAIN/COMMON, random 
and sequential files, EDIT, CALL with 
parameters and an overlay tech- 
nique. $350/—. 

BASIC COMPILER - Compatible 
with BASIC-80. Produces extremely 
efficient, optimized 8080/Z80 
machine code. Includes macro 
assembler, linkage editor and sub- 
routine library manager. Compiled 
programs can be linked with FOR- 
TRAN-80, COBOL-80, and assembly 
language programs. $395/—. 
CBASIC™- BASIC language 
compiler/interpreter for develop- 
ment offinancial and businessappli- 
cation programs. System $120/$20. 
CBASIC-86— Implementation of 
CBASIC for CP/M-86. INT files com- 
patible with CBASIC and supports 
128K main memory. Requires 
CP/M-86 or MP/M-86. $325/$30. 



CB-80™— Native code 8080 com- 
piler of CBASIC language. Offers all 
of the features of CBASIC plus the 
speed and versatility of a compiler. 
Includes linkage editor which can 
create overlay modules. Supports 
CP/M and MP/M II. $500/$30. 
FORTRAN-80 - Includes full ANSI 
standard X3.9 except COMPLEX 
data type. $500/-, 
LYNX™ — Friendly overlay linkage 
editor for creating COM files from 
Microsoft compatible REL files. Con- 
structs programs that use all avail- 
able memory including that used 
by LYNX itself. Program size can be 
increased at least 9K without using 
the overlay feature. The overlay 
option is vital to programs larger 
than available memory. Easy to use 
with BATCH and HELP commands. 
$250/$25. 



:AL/MT+™ — Compiler produces 
8080/Z80 code. Standard REL file 
can be linked with other languages. 
Includes linker, debugger disassem- 
bler and special Speed Program- 
ming Package with editor and 
Pascal syntax checker. S475/S30. 

COBOL-80 - Complies with ANSI 
Level 1 requirements and most useful 
features of Level 2. SCREEN SECTION 
for definition of CRTs. $750/-. 
XASMxx — Family of microprocessor 
cross-assemblers. Designed to run on 
8080/Z80 based microcomputers 
under a CP/M-like operating system. 
Support for Motorola 6800, 6801, 
6803, 6805, 6809; RCA 1802; COP400; 
Intel 8048, 8051; MOS 6502. $200/$25. 
XLT86™- Translates Intel 8080 
assembly language source code 
into optimized Intel 8086 source 
code. $150/$10. 



The Westico 24-Hour Computer Hotline (203) 853-0816 
(300 baud) for detailed information and quick 
ordering. 




• Westico has more than 150 programs 
for professionals and businesses that use 
a wide variety of microcomputers includ- 
ing: TRS-80 Model II, Apple, Vector 
Graphic. Cromemco, North Star, Micro- 
polis. Ohio Scientific, Altos. Dynabyte, 
IBM. Intertec. Xerox. Zenith. Northern 
Telecom, AVL Eagle and more. We're 
working hard to be your software 



4 Ways to order 

• Write Westico. Inc.. 25 Van Zant Street. 
Norwalk, CT 06855. 

• Call (203) 853-6880. 

• Telex 643-788 

• Dial-up our 24-hour computer (300 
baud) (203) 853-0816. 

COD. MasterCard and VISA accepted. 

Prices do not include shipping and are 
subject to change. In CT add 7 1 /2% sales 
tax. All sales final. 

Manual price may be credited toward 
purchase of software. 

Dealer inquiries invited. 



WES-43 

Copyright © 1982 Westico, Inc. 



company. 



WESTICO 

The Software Express Service 

25 Van Zant Street • Norwalk, Connecticut 06855 

(203) 853-6880 • Telex 643-788 

Hlrr.lA 4Rfi nn innnirv r.arH 



Circle 486 on inquiry card. 



manual speech-rate and pitch con- 
trols. The Total Talk and the FSST-3 
offer you manual speech-rate and 
pitch controls. 

The Votrax VSA and VSB syn- 
thesizers seem quite similar with 
respect to their phoneme production, 
but the FSST-3, which uses the VSA, 
definitely sounds inferior; whether 
this is an artifact of the VSA syn- 
thesizer or poor audio amplification, 
I don't know. 

You may wonder why none of 
these products uses the new Votrax 
SC-01A integrated circuit, which is 



less expensive. The single-quantity 
cost of the VSB is about $800, while 
the SC-01A is $70. But there are two 
major reasons why the SC-01A is not 
used. The speech-rate and pitch con- 
trols are both dependent on the same 
clock signal or timing circuit, affect- 
ing the ease with which intelligible 
speech may be produced. Also some 
people are concerned about the 
acceptability of the SC-OlA's sound 
quality. Only scientific performance 
measures can determine which 
Votrax synthesizer is ultimately more 
intelligible. (For a description of an 



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Take MEMDSK and Cache BIOS, two major operating system 

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What does this mean? If you are a software developer, you'll know for sure. 

Imagine the possibility of executing your compiler work out of memory. 

How? The components of BRIDGE SPEED allow your files to reside in 

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Your imagining becomes reality by using BRIDGE'S SPEED formula. 

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Run your stream of needs in the fast lane. "B IDGE" the gap to a high perfor- 
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application using the Votrax SC-01A 
speech-synthesizer chip see Steve 
Ciarcia's article on page 64 in this 
issue.) 

Speech-Review Capabilities 

Imagine that a talking terminal is 
reading this article to you. Suddenly, 
you wonder at what you just heard — 
either a terrible pronunciation of a 
proper name (like "Ciarcia" perhaps) 
or maybe just a word that you don't 
recognize. You would like to stop the 
speech, perform some review func- 
tions to repeat the last few lines or 
words, or spell the word in question, 
and then continue the speech just 
where you stopped it. 

Stopping the speech output of a 
talking terminal requires that the 
stream of characters coming from the 
host computer to the terminal be 
halted. (Some remote computers 
make this very difficult.) Only the 
VERT attempts (when the feature is 
enabled) to tell the host computer not 
to send any more text when review- 
ing. The Total Talk loses data after 
receiving 120 characters of yet- 
untranslated text from the host com- 
puter. The FSST-3 loses data after ac- 
cumulating 1920 characters of yet- 
untranslated text. 

All three products allow you to 
review the text saved in memory. The 
VERT saves the most recent 12,000 
characters, the Total Talk saves two 
screens (48 lines of 80 characters 
each) in the HP-2621's display 
memory, and FSST-3 saves from one 
to three screens (depending upon the 
amout of memory installed) in the 
Zenith Z-19's display memory. All 
three products can repeat the text in 
its entirety or by character, word, or 
line. In addition, the VERT can repeat 
text by phrase, sentence, or 
paragraph. 

The Total Talk and the FSST-3 per- 
form their review functions as a result 
of using the standard cursor-move- 
ment and screen-print functions of 
the HP-2621 and Z-19 terminals. The 
VERT responds with its review func- 
tion to an ASCII (American Standard 
Code for Information Interchange) 
escape-code sequence from any data- 
terminal equipment. 



222 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 63 on inquiry card. 





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One picture is worth 
a thousand numbers. 

Introducing the new wide-tape Quasar® 4-Color 
Plotter, driven by the portable with the speed and 
power of a desktop computer. 

Coupled with the sophisticated Quasar Hand-Held 
Computer, this advanced, 80-character plotter turns 
dry statistics into dramatic graphics anytime, any- 
where. Makes analysis easier, presentations more 
exciting. 

The Quasar HHC is actually a desktop computer 
you can take with you. Its heart is a fast, powerful 
6502 microprocessor, with powerful programming 
languages— Microsoft BASIC, SnapBASIC and 
SnapFORTH, and high-memory capacity of up to 
8KB RAM and 16KB ROM internal, expandable with 
external Memory Modules and ROM's or EPROM's in 
capsules. Operates on rechargeable NiCad batteries 
and retains data with power off. 




u 



The Quasar mainframe has a complete range of 
intelligent peripherals including a new 40-Character 
Printer, Telephone Modem/Cassette Interface, 
RS232 Interface, Color TV Adaptor, I/O Adaptor that 
works with up to 6 peripherals. 

That means the Quasar HHC system can be your 
personal computer and database,or portable terminal 
that interacts with a large, central computer, or sup- 
plementary system to host computers for data retriev- 
al, collection and transfer. 

An expanding array of snap-in software includes 
modelling programs for "what if" alternatives, pro- 
grams for time-billing professionals, financial calcula- 
tions, and many others for scientific, engineering, 
marketing and business applications. 

For a complete information kit, write Quasar HHC 
Dept,, or use Reader Service Card. 



— »_J-PW 



Portable Computer Systems 



For HHC system tailored to your specific application contact System House/OEM: Quasar HHC Distributors; 

American Medical Instruments Cyber Diagnostic Corp. Impact Technologies Group, Inc. Systems 7, Inc. RPC Electronics InterNet 



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Chicago, IL 
312-867-9200 



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813-736-5154 



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219-422-6552 



New York, NY 
212-445-4225 



QUASAR COMPANY, Division of Matsushita Electric Corporation of America, 9401 West Grand Avenue, Franklin Park, IL 60131 (31 2) 451 -1200 

Circle 392 on inquiry card. 



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Just $19.50 

Keep the thieves and rapists out of 
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Simply slip DOOR-ALERT over the 
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the door with his hand, with a key, 
or with a tool, DOOR-ALERT will let 
out a piercing alarm and send the 
intruder on his way. And then it 
turns off automatically so that it 
won't keep alarming the neighbors. 
DOOR-ALERT has a 3-second built-in 
delay. 
This has two purposes: 

1 . So the alarm won't sound if 
someone just casually touches the 
door, and 

2. To give you time to deactivate 
the alarm. 

Keep DOOR-ALERT on the inside of your front door both 
while you are at home and while you are away. Nobody will 
be "able to enter your home. And, of course, it is something 
you should have with you on your travels. DOOR-ALERT is 
beautifully styled. It measures 4 1 /2 x 2 x 1 and takes up 
almost no room. It works on one 9-volt cell (not included). It 
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The integration of speech capabili- 
ty with an existing, popular terminal 
design — the case for both the Total 
Talk and the FSST-3 — has positive 
and negative consequences. Such 
integration negates the need to ac- 
quire a computer terminal separately 
when you shop for a talking terminal. 
On the other hand, building the 
speech circuitry into terminals has 
resulted in a performance characteris- 
tic especially annoying to pro- 
grammers: both the FSST-3 and the 
Total Talk (Z-19 and HP-2621 ter- 
minals, respectively) never speak cur- 
sor, character-attribute, or print- 
function codes. 

Anyone who buys a VERT must 
also acquire a standard computer ter- 
minal. This terminal is connected to 
one of the VERT's two ports, while 
the computer (or modem) is con- 
nected to the other. The VERT trans- 
mits all characters received from the 
host computer to the terminal, while 
translating and speaking if appropri- 
ate. The VERT can also transmit all 
characters received from the terminal 
to the host computer, though usually 
some are trapped as the VERT func- 
tion codes. This black-box filter-like 
approach to the problem of providing 
a talking terminal is modular and 
well formed. 

Speech Parameter Control 

A talking terminal should give you 
the option of setting speech-control 
parameters. It should either decide 
the most appropriate way to translate 
and speak segments of text where 
machine-based decisions are compe- 
tent or provide you with the capabili- 
ty of manually setting those decision 
parameters which cannot be success- 
fully handled by a machine. A pro- 
gram can decide whether to pro- 
nounce or spell IBM, NIH, or ASCII. 

The VERT uses truth tables for 
prefixed and suffixed letter pairs to 
determine whether to spell or pro- 
nounce alphabetic tokens. It is rather 
more difficult for a program to decide 
whether to say 370 as "three seven 
zero/' "three hundred seventy," or 
"three seventy." If the text is referring 
to an IBM 370 mainframe computer, 
the choice will be obvious to you. But 



224 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 465 on Inquiry card. 



MULTI-PURPOSE 
OSCILLOSCOPES 



THE PERFORMANCE/ 
PRICE STANDARD 



Now! A 60 MHz Tektronix scope 
built for your bench. 



Wide-range verti- 
cal sensitivity; 

Scale factors from 
100V/div(10X 
probe) to 2 mV/div 
(1X probe). Accurate 
to ±3%. Acordc 
coupling. 



Two high-sensitivity 
channels: dc to 60 

MHz bandwidth 
from10V/divto20 
mV/div; extended 
sensitivity of 2 
mV/div at > 50 
MHz. 



Sweep speeds: 

from 0.5 s to 50 ns. 
To5ns/divwithX10 

magnification. 



Delayed sweep 
measurements: 

Accurate to ±3% 
with single time- 
base 2213; to 
±1.5% with dual 
time-base 2215. 



Complete trigger 
system. Includes 
TV field, normal, 
vertical mode, and 
automatic; internal, 
external and line 
sources; variable 
holdoff. 




Probes included. 

High-performance, 
positive attachment 
10-14 pF and 60 
MHz at the probe 
tip. 

















> 
•ox 






Tektronix 2213 



In 30 years of Tektronix oscil- 
loscope leadership, no other 
scopes have recorded the 
immediate popular appeal of 
the Tek 2200 Series. The Tek 2213 
and 2215 are unapproached for the 
performance and reliability they 
offer at a surprisingly affordable 
price. 

There's no compromise with 
Tektronix quality: The low cost is the 
result of a new design concept that 
cut mechanical parts by 65%. Cut 
cabling by 90%. Virtually eliminated 
board electrical connectors. And 
obviated the usual cooling fan. 



Yet performance is written all over 
the front panels. There's the band- 
width for digital and analog circuits. 
The sensitivity for low signal mea- 
surements. The sweep speeds for 
fast logic families. And delayed 
sweep for fast, accurate timing 
measurements. 

The cost: $1100 for the 221 3*. 
$1400 for the dual time base 2215. 

You can order, or obtain more 
information, through the Tektronix 
National Marketing Center, where 
technical personnel can answer 
your questions and expedite 
delivery. Your direct order includes 



probes, operating manuals, 15- 
day return policy and full Tektronix 
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For a demonstration stop by your 
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ORDER TOLL FREE 

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Ask for Department J0333 

In the state of Washington, 
Call (206) 253-5353 collect. 



•Price FOB Beaverton. OR 



Tfektronix 

COMMITTED TO EXCELLENCE 



Copyright© 1982 Tektronix, Inc. All rights reserved. 135 



BYTE September 1982 225 



Circle 433 on inquiry card. 



CP/M DATA ENTRY 

"RADAR" 



RADAR is a high speed data entry system 
that will run on any CP/M system pro- 
viding a "3741" style key-to-disk en- 
vironment. RADAR is ideal for replacing 
KEYPUNCH machines and older, slower 
key-to-disk systems like the 374 1's and 
42's. 



Features: 

Verify Mode 

Check Digit Processor 

Auto Dup/Manual Dup 

1 6 Accumulators 

Parameter Driven (No 
Programming) 

"Virtual" File Access 

Add or Delete Records 

Record Retrieval By Number 
Or Content 

Full Editing Capability 

Operator Prompts 

Extremely Fast (Written In 
Assembly Language) 



In addition to "heavy.-duty" data entry, 
RADAR is also the ideal "front-end" for 
many applications programs, providing 
aquisition and retrieval of keyed data with 
a degree of reliability simply not possible 
with any other technique. RADAR can cut 
programming time by more than 30%, 
simply because there is no longer any 
need to write the "input" portion of a pro- 
gram, just let RADAR handle it! 



Write or call for free brochure. The 
RADAR manual is also available 
separately for $25.00. 




SOUTHERN 
COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS, 
Inc. 



P.O. Box 3373A 
Birmingham, AL 35255 
Phone: 205-933-1659 



Text-to-Speech Translation 

Several independent efforts have 
resulted in various grapheme-to- 
phoneme translation systems for 
speech synthesis. Graphemes are let- 
ters or other characters, and phonemes 
are the sounds of speech. There are 
two approaches to the problem of 
translating written language (ortho- 
graphy) to its spoken (phonetic) form. 
All current efforts to create artificial 
speech use either one or both of these 
approaches. 

The first approach searches a dic- 
tionary of words and/or word frag- 
ments (morphemes) for corresponding 
phonetic representations. Such diction- 
aries that are expected to satisfy a wide 
variety of contexts must be quite large. 
The software responsible for searching 
a dictionary must be able to account 
for various forms of a given entry. 
When dictionaries of morphemes are 
used, the software must be capable of 
separating the words to be translated 
into their constituent morphemes. 

The second approach uses 
grapheme-to-phoneme translation 
rules. Such rules attempt to describe a 
correspondence between the ortho- 
graphic and phonetic forms of the lan- 
guage. Some efforts have resulted in a 
combination of these two methods of 
translation, resorting to the second 
when the first fails to satisfy a transla- 
tion request. 



Unrestricted Text 

In order to remove all restrictions on 
the content of the text being translated, 
the translation system must be able to 
distinguish among English words, 
acronyms, mnemonics, abbreviations, 
etc. The input stream of text to be 
translated is parsed into tokens that 
contain characters of the same type. 

Tokens may be divided into types 
alphabetic, punctuation, numeric, or 
symbolic. A token is complete when a 
character in the input stream of 
another token type is encountered. 
The type of a token determines the 
classification of rules used in translat- 
ing the token. The selection of the rule 
set is dependent on the token type. 
There are currently rule sets for 
English, numerals, punctuation, and 



spelling. Spelling is the English pro- 
nunciation of a single character's 
name. You must also consider that 
alphabetic characters do not always 
represent an English word. 

Frequency tables representing the 
occurrence of letter pairs (digrams) or 
triplets (trigrams) offer significant help 
in deciding whether a group of charac- 
ters represents an English word, an 
acronym, or a mnemonic. The fre- 
quency tables currently in use were 
derived from a lexicon of about a quar- 
ter of a million words. The digram-fre- 
quency table is reduced to a binary 
table that represents the occurrence or 
nonoccurrence of letter pairs in the lex- 
icon. The use of digram or trigram 
tables could be expanded to the detec- 
tion of specific subsets of English 
vocabulary. One case where this is use- 
ful: frequency tables derived from a 
common-usage dictionary and a lex- 
icon of medical terms are significantly 
different. 

Rule-Directed Translation 

Orthographic representations of text 
are translated to phonetic representa- 
tions by means of a production system. 
The rules used in the English-to- 
phoneme translation match context- 
sensitive patterns to the word or word 
token. The rules are of the form: 

left-context {current -token] 

right-context — phonemes 

The current-token is the characters) 
that is currently being translated by a 
rule. The left-context and the right- 
context are the text in which the cur- 
rent-token must be matched. These 
left- and right-contexts may contain 
special symbols that define arbitrary 
patterns of characters. The current- 
token may not contain these special 
symbols and must match, character for 
character, the token of the word being 
translated. The right-hand part of a 
rule gives the phonetic symbols repre- 
senting the current-token. English 
phoneme rules are classified in 
subgroups of alphabetic, numeric, 
punctuation, and spelling rules. The 
phonetic replacements selected by the 
successful matching of rules are used to 
drive a speech-synthesizing device. 



226 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



a translation program has no way of 
"knowing" the correct pronunciation 
of a number or word on the basis of 
the context in which it was used. The 
Total Talk and the FSST-3 simply 
speak numbers digit by digit. The 
VERT does the same or says numbers 
as whole words depending on your 
parameter setting. 

Ironically, it's often desirable to 
make your talking terminal remain 
silent, while continuing to display 
and save text. The reasons are many, 
varied, and a matter of preference, 
but the capability is important. Total 
Talk will remain silent when you 
depress its Silence key. The VERT can 
be made to remain silent until a new 
line, speech command, or predefined 
text pattern is received. The FSST-3 
can start or stop speaking on com- 
mand. 

No matter what the accuracy and 
proficiency of a text-to-speech trans- 
lation system, there will always be 
words or symbols that you would like 



to have spoken your own way. For 
example, it is becoming popular in 
academic computer-science circles to 
use the word "bang" or "shriek" for 
the exclamation-point character (!). I 
am sticking with the conservative 
"exclamation," even though the new- 
comers are shorter and can be spoken 
more quickly. The VERT offers you 
the power to define, in English, your 
own translation preferences. You 
simply define a rule that says 
! = "bang," or whatever. 



On the Horizon 

We may see the cost of talking ter- 
minals either decrease as new speech 
synthesizers are used, or increase as 
speech capabilities are integrated with 
personal computers. Whatever the 
result, the cost of a talking terminal 
will remain a serious problem for 
visually disabled persons. Talking- 
terminal manufacturers should ex- 
pand the market for their pro- 



ducts — not limit it to the visually dis- 
abled. Increased sales will lower costs 
and benefit everyone in the long run. 

One perplexing problem remains. 
The rapid advance of video-display 
technology has promoted the ever- 
increasing use of video-dependent 
software. Users of talking terminals 
will require programmed solutions 
for describing essentially visual infor- 
mation. Unfortunately, information 
science is still far from providing ac- 
curate verbal descriptions of two- 
dimensional space, thus, for instance, 
making it impractical to run a screen- 
oriented program like Wordstar sole- 
ly from spoken output. 

Though the sound quality of avail- 
able phoneme synthesizers is defin- 
itely far from human-sounding, I've 
found that visually impaired persons 
find it intelligible and acceptable with 
use. I believe that computers with 
natural-sounding speech and more 
sophisticated algorithms for transla- 
tion will be achieved in this decade. ■ 



WHAT'S 



ECC (Error Correction Code) is a poly- 
nomial derivative which is used to detect 
and correct errors. In simpler terms, this 
means that the computer will detect and 
automatically correct data errors sometimes generated 
spuriously in the equipment. 



ECC? 



VR Data's HARD DISK III has this feature. 

If your system will abend or die during a 

data error or if you must always have the 

correct data for your functions, ECC is a 

necessity. This feature has filtered down from the larger 

computer systems and is now used by manufacturers of 

superior micro computer products. 



Imagine a 5 meg Winchester Hard Disk with the following features: 

FOR *1 899. Complete 

• ECC— onboard buffer 

• FCC approval— Heavy Duty Power Supply 

• Automatic power on with system 

• Heavy duty linear power supply 

• Gold plated contact on all connectors 

• Heavy gauge aluminum chassis 

• 115/230 VAC 60/50 HZ Standard 

• State-of-the-art controller 

• 2 pass forced air cooling system 

Interfaces to: Radio Shack TRS 80 Model I • Radio Shack TRS 80 
Model III • IBM Personal Computer • Others to be announced 




ONLY 
FROM 



MR 



data 



777 Henderson Boulevard N-6 Folcrofr, PA 19033 
(515)461-5300 1800)315-8102 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 227 




A 

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400 

16K ... $ 249 
32K . . . $ 389 
48K . . . $ 489 

410 Recorder $76.00 

810 Disc Drive $449.00 

822 Printer $269.00 

825 Printer $589.00 

830 Modem $159.00 

820 Printer $259.00 

850 Interface $1 69.00 

CX40 Joy Stick $18.00 

CX853 16K RAM $77.95 



. HOT ATARI- 
JK GAMES A< 

PAC-MAN $35.00 I 

Centipede $35.00 

Caverns of Mars S32.00 

Asteroids S29.00 

Missile Command $29.00 

Star Raiders $39.00 

Canyon Climber $25.00 

Protector S24.00 

Mouskattack $31.00 

Jawbreaker S27.00 

Ghost Hunter S24.00 



Telecommunications 

Modems 

Hayes 

Smart S239.00 

Chronograph $1 99.00 

Micromodem II $279.00 

Micromodem 100 S309.00 

Novation Auto S239.00 

D Cat S169.00 

Cat S159.00 

Anchor Modem S79.00 



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VISICALC 

Apple II + S189.00 

Atari S189.00 

Commodore S189.00 

IBM $189.00 

| Also available are: 

VISIDEX VISIPLOT 

| VISIFILE VISITERM 

| VISIPACK VISITREND 



800 

16K . . . s 649 
32K . . . $ 724 
48K . . . $ 769 

Microtek 16K RAM $74.95 

Microtek 32K RAM $119.95 

Ramdisk (128K) $429.95 

Intec 48K Board $219.95 

Intec 32K $119.95 

One year extended warranty $70.00 

481 Entertainer S69.00 

482 Educator $130.00 

483 Programmer S49.00 

484 Communicator $344.00 



KBYTE 

ROM CARTRIDGE GAMES 
FOR YOUR ATARI 

I Krazy Shoot Out $39.00 

K-razy Kritters $39.00 

K-razy Antics $39.00 

| K-star Patrol $39.00 

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s 6" jk 

ARCADE ACTION FROM YOUR IF 

ATARI JOYSTICK ^ 



AMDEK 
MONITORS 

300G $169.00 

Color I S339.00 

Color II $699.00 

Color III $429.00 

OTHERS 

Zenith 9 " (Green) S119.00 

BMC 12" Green S85.00 



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We stock manufacturer's and third patty software 
for most all computers on the market! Call today 
for a copy of our new 

CATALOG 

You'll find programs by Atari, APX, Data Soft 
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peripheral compatable with the 
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810. CALL FOR INTRODUCT- 
ORY PRICE! 




NEC 

COMPUTERS 

8001-A $749.00 

8031 S749.00 

8012 S549.00 

PRINTERS 

8023 $549.00 

7710/7730 $2399.00 

3510/3530 $1789.00 

MONITORS 

JB-1201 S179.00 

JC-1201 S349.00 

JC-1202 S899.00 



Maxell Disks 

MD I (box of 10) $36.00 

MD II (box of 10) $46.00 

MFD I (8") S44.00 

MFD II (8" Double Density) S54.00 

Syncom (box of 1 0) S29.00 

Computer Covers 

Commodore VIC-20 S6.99 

Atari 400 S6.99 Commodore 8032 S14.99 

Atari 800 $6.99 Commodore 

Atari 810 $6.99 8050/4040 S10.99 



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CALL 
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Stateline, 
NV. 89449 J 



m 



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HP-85 16K Memory Module S1 69.00 

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Hard Disk $3549.00 

"Sweet Lips" Plotter $1 199.00 

) Column Printer $649.00 






ra 



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HP41CV 

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HP 41C $189.00 

HP11C $79.00 

HP 12C $114.00 

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PRINTERS 

MX 80 w/Graftrax $449 

MX 80 FT III CALL 

MX 100 CALL 

ADA 1600 Parallel Printer to CBM $119.00 

ATC-1 Parallel Printer to Atari $29.00 

AP-80 Apple Parallel Card & Cable $69.00 

IBM-1 Parallel Printer to IBM $32.00 



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CBM 8032 

s 999 



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Word Pro 5 + $319.00 

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The Administrator $379.00 

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Power $79.00 

Televideo 
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910 $579 

912C $699 

920C $749 

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960 $939 

802 SCalt 

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Star-writer 

F10-40CPS $1439.00 

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Prowriter $499.00 

ADA 1450 Serial Printer to CBM $139.00 

ATC-2 Serial Printer to Atari $29.00 

AP-S10 Apple Serial Card & Cable $95.00 



Commodore 

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CBM 64 CALL 

4032 $969.00 

8096 Upgrade Kit $369.00 

Super Pet $1 599.00 

2031 $529.00 

8250 Doubled Sided Disk Drive $1699.00 

D9060 5 Megabyte Hard Disk $2399.00 

D9090 7.5 Megabyte Hard Disk S2699.00 

8050 $1299.00 

4040 $969.00 

8300 (Letter Quality) $1799.00 

8023 $769.00 

4022 $499.00 

Pet to IEEE Cable $37.00 

IEEE to IEEE Cable $46.00 

Tractor Feed for 8300 S240.00 

VIC 20 /° — wozo • 
$ 239 'S=^-. - -) 

VIC 1530 Commodore Datassette $69.00 

VIC 1540 Disk Drive $499.00 

VIC 1515 VIC Graphic Printer S339.00 

VIC 1210 3K Memory Expander $32.00 

VIC 11 8K Memory Expander $53.00 

16K VIC Expansion $94.00 

VIC 1011 RS232C Terminal Interface $43.00 

VIC 112 VIC IEEE-488 Interface S86.00 

VIC 1211 VIC 20 Super Expander $53.00 

VIC Mother Board $99.00 



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The RAM67 



Our RAM67 static RAM offers low power for 
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128KRAM $1495.00 

Battery back-up option $100.00 



The Lightning One 



The Lightning One is the fastest SI 00 CPU 
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provide exceptional data manipulation, nu- 
meric processing and I/O handling capability. 

The Lightning One features: 

□ 8086 or 8088 16 bit processor 

□ 4,5,8, or 10 MHz jumper selectable 
operation 

□ Optional 8087 and 8089 co-processors 

□ Onboard monitor with diagnostics 

□ 9 vectored interrupts expandable to 65 



When you need mini-computer performance 
at micro-computer prices, the Lightning One 
should be your choice. Benchmarks available. 

Prices start at $395.00 



Other LDP Products 

In addition to the RAM67 and Lightning One, 
Lomas Data Products offers the following fine 
products: 

□ HAZITALL System Support 

2 serial ports, 2 parallel ports, clock/calendar, 
9511 or 9512 math support (option), hard disk 
controller host interface A & T, $325.00 

□ LDP72 Floppy Disk Controller 

Single or double density operation, single or 
double sided disks, controls both 8" and 5 l A" 
floppy drives, digital data separator for adjust- 
ment free reliable operation 

A & T, $274.95 




For 16 bit computing on the S100 bus, 
come to the leader . . . 



LDP 



□ LDP128/256K Dynamic RAM 

An advanced dynamic RAM with static like 
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.... A & T, 128K $795.00, 256K $1395.00 

□ LDP88 8088 CPU Board 

Ideal for inexpensive systems requiring the pro- 
cessing power of a 16 bit instruction set. The 
LDP88 has up to 8K of on-board EPROM, IK 
bytes of RAM, 1 serial RS232 port, 9 vectored 
interrupts, 5 MHz operation. Useable as a single 
board 8088 processor A & T, $349.95 



Software Available 

□ CP/M-86* 

Full track buffered BIOS, memory disk support, 
double density format $300.00 

D MP/M-86* 

Full MP/M-86 implementation, hard disk and 
floppy disk support, plus memory drive. 1, 2 and 
5 user configurations. 

□ MS-DOS 44 

The IBM Personal Computer operating system, 
includes macro assembler $250.00 

□ Other software: 

BASIC86, BASCOM86, FORTRAN86, C, 
FORTH. 



*CP/M-86 & MP/M-86 trademark of Digital Research. 
**MS-DOS trademark of Microsoft. 
Lightning One trademark of Lomas Data Products, hie. 

Dealer and O.E.M. inquiries invited. 



LOMAS DATA PRODUCTS, INC. 



729 Farm Road, Marlboro, Massachusetts 01752 □ Telephone: 617-481-2822 



230 BYTE September 1982 



Circle 270 on Inquiry card. 



Hardware Review 



The Cognivox VIO-1003 

Voice recognition and output for the Apple II 



Dr. William Murray 

Computer Science Department 

Broome Community College 

Binghamton, NY 13902 



The Cognivox VIO-1003, manufactured by Voicetek of 
Goleta, California, is a speech-recognition and voice- 
output peripheral for the Apple II computer. It is difficult 
to believe that for a modest $295 for hardware and soft- 
ware, you can actually carry on a conversation with your 
computer. 

The Cognivox can be "trained" to recognize a set of up 
to 32 words or short 
phrases (e.g., one, two, 
alpha, syntax error, etc.) 
This allows you maximum 
flexibility because the Cog- 
nivox can be trained with a 
game, business, or scientific 
vocabulary. As a matter of 
fact, you can save several 
sets of vocabularies on a 
disk. During a training ses- 
sion you enter the vocab- 
ulary into the computer by 
repeating each entry three 
times into the Cognivox 
microphone and typing the 
entry once. This trains the 
machine to recognize your 
voice. Voicetek cautions that other people's pronuncia- 
tions of the same words may or may not be recognized. 

The Cognivox, working within the frequency range of 
100 to 3200 Hz (hertz), compresses essential speech infor- 
mation for one entry into a 48-bit pattern. This pattern is 
saved during the training session and will be used as a 
"mask," or model, for future comparisons. The system 
uses only 4K bytes of storage for the program and tables, 
and Voicetek claims up to a 98-percent word-recognition 
rate. 




Photo 1: The Cognivox VIO-1003 Voice Recognition and Voice 
Output System. 



The voice-output vocabulary is entered in much the 
same way as the speech-recognition vocabulary. During 
a training session your words are digitized and stored in 
memory for future use. If you want your program to 
have voice output, the word or phrase is assembled and 
"spoken" through the built-in amplifier and speaker. The 
voice output sounds just like you, the trainer. Because the 

speech-recognition and 
voice-output vocabularies 
are independent of each 
other, a wide range of 
responses is possible. 

It should be noted here 
that the Cognivox is not a 
speech synthesizer; it is a 
speech digitizer. The voice 
output is strictly limited to 
the words or phrases that 
you enter. However, 
because you can use multi- 
ple vocabularies, this is not 
a serious limiting factor. 

Steve Ciarcia's article 
"Use Voiceprints to Ana- 
lyze Speech" (March 
1982 BYTE, page 50) covers the techniques used to record 
voice prints. Steve points out that the quality of the 
speech-recognition system depends on what he calls the 
"templates" of the spoken words. The template or mask 
quality in turn depends on how much storage is available. 
His device, which produces voice patterns on an oscillo- 
scope, uses bandpass filters starting at 31 Hz and covers 
an 8-octave range up to 4000 Hz. The results presented in 
the article show that most speech falls between 1000 and 
4000 Hz, which is just about the range of the Cognivox. 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 231 



At a Glance 


• 


Name 


Capabilities 


The Cognivox VIO-1003 


Recognizes isolated speech; digitizes up to 32 words or short 




phrases per vocabulary set; allows separate recognition and 


Manufacturer 


speech vocabularies; accepts words or phrases up to three 


Voicetek 


seconds each in spoken length; typical recognition accuracy of 98 


POB 388 


percent for the voice it is trained to accept 


Goleta. CA 93 ! 1 6 




(805) 685-1854 


Hardware Required 




Apple II with 32K or 48K bytes of memory, one disk drive, and 


Price 


DOS 3.3 


S295 






Documentation 


Hardware 


26-page manual 


Includes the Cognivox V\O-]003 (housed in a 5- by 6- by 




I 'A -inch plastic case), microphone, and power supply; frequency 


Warranty 


response 1 00 to 3200 Hz; audio output 1 50 mW; power con- 


1 20 days repair or replacement 


sumption 1 50 mW during recognition and 450 mW maximum 




during voice output; power supply 9 V DC, 300 mA (unregulated. 


Audience 


wall-transformer type); microphone jacks provided on front panel. 


Those seeking to communicate by voice with their computers; 


remote amplifier jack provided on back panel 


potential uses include security functions, helping the disabled, and 




audio games 


Software 


: 


The control program VOX4 and demonstration programs 




VDUMP, VTRAP, VOTK and TONES, all on a 5 '/4 -inch floppy 




disk 





TheCognivox VIO-1003 comes completely assembled 
in an attractive 5- by 6- by lV4-inch plastic case. The 
device plugs into the game-paddle I/O (input/output) 
port of the Apple and operates from a 9-volt power sup- 
ply provided with the device. 

The Cognivox contains an internal amplifier and 
speaker but also has an audio output jack for use with a 
higher-quality amplifier system. Voicetek provides a 
120-day repair-or-replacement warranty on the Cogni- 
vox. Perhaps the best part of the system is the disk in- 
cluded in the package; it has several programs that allow 
you to save and restore vocabularies and play games. 
The Cognivox system requires the Apple II, 48K bytes of 
memory, and DOS 3.3 (16 sector). 

Getting Started 

If you're like me, the first 10 minutes after the delivery 
of a computer peripheral can be very dangerous — you're 
extremely tempted to experiment with the hardware first 
and study the instructions later. But with the Cognivox 
you've just got to take time to read the first few pages of 
the 26-page Cognivox User Manual. All installation steps 
are explained in detail, but here is a summary of what 
gets your computer up and listening: 

• First, plug the power supply into both the Cognivox 
and the wall outlet. 

• With the computer off, plug the Cognivox into the 
game I/O port of the Apple. 

• Next, plug the microphone into the Cognivox and set 
the volume control. 

• Now boot the Apple using the program disk provided 
with the system. 

• Type "RUN PROG4" and away you go. 



When the system is booted you are provided with a 
menu of the disk selections. In addition to the main pro- 
gram (PROG4) Voicetek also includes four demonstra- 
tion programs (I'll explain more about these later). 

PROG4 is a demonstration program that immediately 
allows you to digitize your voice for voice output or 
speech recongition. You can also save or recall stored 
vocabulary from the disk. Let's imagine that you want to 
record a speech-recognition vocabulary. The program 
will prompt you with the question "How many words 
are in this vocabulary?" You may enter up to 32 words. 
Digitized words must be greater than 150 milliseconds 
(ms) and less than 3 seconds in length. The silence gap 
between words is 150 ms. Voicetek warns that to achieve 
maximum speech recognition you must enunciate clearly 
and distinctly. When training is complete a playback op- 
tion for each entry is provided that allows you to check 
the clarity of your entries. You can then test the system's 
ability to detect words corresponding to its stored 
vocabulary by speaking the words you just stored. The 
program will display each word it recognizes on the 
screen. (Remember that the system is trained to one per- 
son's voice, and others pronouncing the same words 
might be rejected.) 

To test the system's ability to recognize digitized 
words, I performed two tests. One test used a vocabulary 
of 32 words that I entered; some of these entries were 
similar in sound. The second test used the same 
vocabulary, but my wife pronounced the words. The 
results are shown in table 1. Notice that the Cognivox 
recognized every word spoken by the trainer. This 
recognition rate of 100 percent is better than that claimed 
by Voicetek (98 percent). My wife was not as well re- 
ceived; the Cognivox recognized 8 words correctly, 7 in- 



232 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 16 on inquiry card. 




Gerald Cannon, Vice President of Operations, Dexter 
Lock, Division of Kysor industrial Corp.; with family 
at Chewacfa State Park, Auburn AL, home of 
Auburn University. 

Dexter Lock says a key to the extremely high pro- 
ductivity of its Auburn plant is a unique Alabama job 
training program. The state-funded program y-» 
developed a proficient work force from scratch, f 
beginning with screening. It followed with hands- i 
on training in mobile classrooms and shops f 
and continues with on-going screening, up- ' 
grading and renewal programs. Dexter Locks f 
Gerald Cannon credits the program for the I 
plant's low 2% turnover and absenteeism rates f 



Eve job training 

is second nature 

toALabama. 



and extremely high productivity. Other significant bene- 
fits Mr. Cannon has found include: • Business oriented 
___.. state government • An unequaled zero tax pro- 
I gram • A total transportation network of roads, rail, 
1 air facilities, navigable rivers and a major ocean 
I port • An abundance of engineers and techni- 
I cians • State grants for industrial site develop- 
\ ment • High technology support industries. 
t Find your key to greater productivity in 
i Alabama by writing for details. 



ALABAMA 

Cut out for business. 

For more information: Reuben Finney, Director, Alabama Development Office, State Capitol, Montgomery AL 36130, 205/832-6980 



Word 



Voice A 



Voice B 



microprocessor 


microprocessor 


microprocessor 


daisy wheel 


daisy wheel 


business 


interface 


interface 


(no response) 


graphics 


graphics 


graphics 


digital 


digital 


(no response) 


editing 


editing 


interface 


computer 


computer 


computer 


conclusions 


conclusions 


conclusions 


analog 


analog 


(no response) 


acquisition 


acquisition 


(no response) 


harmony 


harmony 


monitor 


directory 


directory 


(no response) 


byte 


byte 


free 


Apple 


Apple 


call 


encyclopedia 


encyclopedia 


(no response) 


inexpensive 


inexpensive 


(no response) 


import 


import 


(no response) 


call 


call 


call 


heart 


heart 


(no response) 


technology 


technology 


(no response) 


sales 


sales 


(no response) 


free 


free 


free 


technical 


technical 


technical 


costing 


costing 


(no response) 


cost 


cost 


heart 


matrix 


matrix 


(no response) 


mountain 


mountain 


(no response) 


monitor 


monitor 


graphics 


BASIC 


BASIC 


(no response) 


Pascal 


Pascal 


Pascal 


professional 


professional 


(no response) 


business 


business 


(no response) 



Table 1: Voice response test results. The Cognivox had been 
programmed to respond to voice A (the author). When voice 
B (the author's wife) replaced voice A, the Cognivox usually 
responded with the wrong word or gave no response. The 
first column of the table lists the words actually spoken by 
both voices; the second and third columns show how the 
Cognivox interpreted voice A and voice B, respectively. 



correctly, and failed to respond to 17. This is to be ex- 
pected, of course, because the device works with masks 
of the trainer's voice. 



Demonstration Programs 

The four demonstration programs included on the 
Cognivox program disk are VDUMP, VTRAP, VOTH, 
and TONES. 

VDUMP is a voice-output program that reads selected 
locations of the Apple's memory. You enter the vocab- 
ulary (the hexadecimal numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
alpha, bravo, charlie, delta, echo, and fox), select the 
area of memory for review, and listen as the computer 
reads its own memory in your voice. 

VTRAP is another voice-output program. This one is 



in the form of an entrapment game. You enter a vocab- 
ulary of words that will control the moves of your player 
on the video display. To move in a particular direction 
you merely speak into the microphone and the player 
responds. 

VOTH is an interactive game program that allows you 
and the computer to speak with each other. VOTH is 
actually the game of Reversi (also known as Othello). In 
this game the computer decides where it will place its 
piece and tells you the location. When you are ready for 
your turn, you tell the computer the coordinates of the 
location for your game piece. 

TONES is actually not a demonstration program by 
itself. If used in conjunction with PROG4 or your own 
program, TONES permits dialing a Touch-Tone (a regis- 
tered trademark of the Bell System) telephone with a sim- 
ple connection to the phone line. TONES contains the 
corresponding tones for each of the 12 buttons on the 
telephone. By selecting the correct sequence, any number 
can be dialed. 

Your own programs can be adapted to have voice out- 
put or speech recognition by following the steps provided 
in chapter 3 of the User Manual. Several routines are pro- 
vided in the manual that can be spliced into your main 
program. These routines assist you in training the 
Cognivox to recognize your voice, developing a 
vocabulary for response, and setting memory locations. 
The instructions are clear, but you will probably have to 
read them twice before attempting the actual installation. 

Applications 

The Cognivox could be used effectively in several ap- 
plications, including security systems, aiding disabled 
persons, and games. 

Because the Cognivox is trained to recognize voice pat- 
terns, it could be installed in security systems in place of 
key and combination locks. The device could be pro- 
grammed to select a sequence of five words at random 
from a stored vocabulary. The person wishing to gain en- 
trance to a room, safe, or computer would have to match 
the recorded patterns. (As shown in my test results, my 
wife would have a hard time getting into the family safe if 
it were protected in this fashion.) 

Because the Cognivox operates in the audio mode and 
thus permits communications with the computer without 
the necessity of a video display or keyboard, applications 
for disabled persons abound. Using just the voice-output 
mode, the Cognivox could be helpful to those with poor 
eyesight. Blind people could communicate with the com- 
puter using the keyboard for input and the Cognivox for 
output. People unable to use the computer's keyboard 
could use the speech-recognition mode to communicate 
with the computer; the computer could either speak back 
or offer a display on the video screen. Now that govern- 
ment and educational institutions are becoming more and 
more committed to helping the disabled, Cognivox could 
play a significant role in training these people in com- 
puter science and computer-related occupations. 



234 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




A 

communications 
package 
that's slightly 
easier to use 
than 

MICRO/TerminaL 




But 

a lot less 

functional. 



Circle 300 on inquiry card. 



At MICROCOM we Ve made communicating with 

all kinds of computers easier and less expensive. Now, with 

MICRO/Terminal? users of Apple IT," Apple III™ or IBM® 

Personal Computers can easily access any in-house or 

remote database. Directly, with a minimum of effort. 

With MICRO/Terminal, communications set-ups 

and log-on routines are entered only once. From then on 

they can be called up automatically. A built-in editor lets 

you change part of a program without re-doing all of it, 

and you can edit off-line. 

Plus you can access your company computer and more 

than 1,000 commercial services. The price? Under $100. 

So that by comparison with other systems, anything else 

is like talking through a tin can. 

Just ask your computer dealer for more details. 

MICROCOM 

We make little computers talkbig 

1400A Providence Highway, Norwood, MA 02062 

MICRO/Terminal is a Trademark of MICROCOM, Inc. Apple II and Apple 111 are trademarks of Apple Computer Inc. 
I BM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 

BYTE September 1982 




235 




Name Means a Great Deal 



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CALIFORNIA & INFORMATION (714) 698-8088 



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PC-8031A Dual minidisk drives ... . CALL 
PC-8012A 1,0 unit, 32K. 7 slots .. . , . 489" 
FDC I/O port ... 139" 

NEC 8023 Printer 489" 

32K Memory Addon card 169" 

PenTec 2 port RS 232 card . . 155" 

RenTec Wedge Expansion w/32K . , 489°° 

RGB to Composile Video Converter .129" 

NEC PC 8001 Software 



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FORTRANbyMicrosolt . 
General Accounting System 249°° 

Accounls Receivable System 249 00 

Inventory Control Syslem 249" 

Payroll System ... 249" 

Job Cost System 249" 

Select Word Processing w/speiler 349" 

Report Manager . ...... 149" 

Games Pack 1 Alien. Space War 29" 

Games Pack 2 UFO Galaxian. Bomber 29" 

WordStar by Micropro ...299 00 

Dalastar by Micropro 249°° 

Maiimerge lor NEC Wordstar . 109" 

Speilstar by Micropro 169°° 

Superson by Micropro . 

Basic-60 Compiler by Microsoft . .349" 

Basic BO by Microsoft 319" 

Cobol-80by Microsoft 649°' 

Racet NEC DOS 

Term II Communications Pkg 149" 

FiieFax System 149" 

Prolran (converts TRS 80 software) .. .99" 
KFS80ISAM Package 





fl- •••■."':' J]!V» 



64K memory card by microsoft . . 379" 

128K memory card by *' 499" 

192K memory card by" 659" 

256K memory card by" . .. .799" 

64Kramchip upgrade kit . . . 169" 

Serial Async Comm. card wM porl. 129" 

Serial Async. card with 2 ports 249" 

ClockCalenciarcard. . . 105" 

Combo Card by Apparat . . 235" 

IBM Joysticks 55" 

Expansion Chassis CALL 

Baby Blue Z-80 W/64K&CP/M CALL 

Percom mimlioppy drives (addon) CALL 

Tandon TM 100 minifloppy drives CALL 

IBM compatible software 

Continental Home Accounlant Plus 

TIM. II! by Innovative 

SuperCalc . . 

SuperWnler . 

Easywrileril 

Easy Speller 

Easy Filer 




Qcommodore B^SIS © 



The Alternative 



THE COMMODORE 64 COULD BE THE 
MICROCOMPUTER INDUSTRY'S OUT 
STANDING NEW PRODUCT INTRODUC- 
TION since the Birth of this in- 
dustry- 

— SheaisorvAmencan Express 

COMMODORE 64 

The Commodore 64 is a compact unit tnat 
can even hi inio a Ijnefcase Complete with 
Ihese fealuros 

• Full sue lypev;nler keyboard 
. Full ASCII charactei set 

• Upper and lower case 

■ High leSOlutron color graphics 

• 40 rjrjlumn video display 

■ 6JK RAM under memory (Sltindaidl 

• CPi'M operating syslem oplion 

■ TV modulator interface 

• Game cartridge slot 

• Music Synihisizer 

■ Smail peripherals 

PLEASE CALL US FOR MORE DETAILS 



We are a 

full-line 

Commodore 

Dealer. 

Please Call 

For More 
Information 



• Apple II Compatibility m both peripheral 
cards and software 

■ 6502 and Z-80 CPU s 

• 6.1K RAM. expandable to I28K 

■ RGB and Composite Video Oulput 
■Selectable 80 or 40 column display 

■ High Resolution Graphics. 6 colors 
280 x 192 with tour lines of texl 

• 8 bit Parallel I/O mierlace 

■ Detachable Keyboard All standard ASCII 
characlers and keyboard funcnons. 
upperlower case, and a numeric keypad 
cursor control block, and 15 
programmable special function keys 

• Buiitm hardware for mounting two 5 l * 
inch minifloppy disk drives 

Six Apple II compatible slots lor plug in 

ponpheial cards 

Please call or write tor more details. 



FRANKLIN 
ACE lOO 

TheFrankhn ACE 100 is a prolesstonal per- 
sonal compute* thai is hardware and soil- 
waie compatible with me Apple ll and in 
cludesmany features not tound on the Apple 
uml All piograms written Itir the Apple II 
will run on the ACE 100 without modifica- 
tion including Ihose using high and low 
losolution black and white graphics The 
ACE 100 is plug compatible wiih Apple AM 
peripherals that operaie in the Apple II will 
operate in the ACE 100 without modifica- 

FRANKLIN ACE 100 FEATURES 

• Apple II Compatible 

• G4K RAM User memory 

• Upper and lower case 

• Typewnier style keyboard 

• Twelve key numeric pad 

• Alpha lock shill key 

• VisiCalc friendly 
■ 50 wait power supply 

• BuiM m Fan 



S-lOO BOARDS 

CLEARANCE 
SALE 

-£357 

Z-80 4Mhz CPU Card (CB2). A&T 239 00 

VB3 80x24 S-100 Video Card. A&T . . 349" 
VB3 80x48 S-100 Video Car J. A&T 389" 

ExpandoRam 64K Dynamrc Memory Kil 199°° 



(3®DQSDDDuQ@[F 



j We Bring Prices Down to Earth 



Call or Write for Free Catalog 

Ordering Intormalion: Phone orders using VISA. MASTERCARD. AMERICAN EXPRESS. 
CARTE BLANCHE and bank fund wire transfer. Send cashiers or certilied check, money order 
oi personal check (allow ten days to clear). Unless prepaid with cash please add 5% lor shipping, 
handling & insurance (minimum S5.00I. Calilornia residents add 6% sales tax. Foreign 
customers please add 10% lor shipping & export documentation (minimum S50.00). Educa- 
tional Institutions and Corporations please send lor written quotations. All equipment is sub- 
ject lo price change and availability without notice. All equipment is new and complete with 
manufacturer's warranty (usually 90 days). We will not honor prices which aie typographical 
errors. C.O.D. orders require a 20% cash deposit in advance. If you are not completely 
satisfied, return product within 15 days for a refund (only with original container and unfilled 
warranty card — Applies to hardware items only — No returns on software). All other returns 
subject to a restocking fee. Please call lor more details. 

Send Orders to: B338 Center Drive. La Mesa. CA 92041 




VIO20 




The Friendly Computer 

$244 50 

VIC 20 Personal Computer 244" 

VIC I540 Single Disk Drive 469" 

DataselleCassette I/O unit 65" 

Joystick Controller 10" 

VIC 1515 Graphic Printer 329" 

ViCSuper Expander 54" 

3K Ram Cartridge 34" 

8K RamCartndge 49" 

16K Ram Cartridge 99" 

VIC IEEE-488 interface 79" 

VIC RS-232C Terminal Interlace . . 39" 

UMI SOFTWARE 
FOR V!C 20 

ViCalc- Viable Calculator (T) 11" 

ViCat • Visible Catalog <8K)(T) CALL 

ViCheck - Checkbook Mgt. <8K)(T) ,. 19" 

VtTerm- Dumb Terminal (T) 16" 

Basic Programmer Utility ROM 27" 

SpidersolMars(C) 

AMOK(C) 

AMOK(T) 

Meteor Run(C) 

Alien BhlZ(C) 32" 

Alien Blitz(T) is» 

Simon(T) 7" 

Kiddie Checkers (T) 7" 

3-D Maze (T) 11" 

Raceway(T) 11" 

Kosmic Kamikaze (8K/T) 20" 

Kiddie Pakt (4 Tapes) 31" 

Super Four I (4 Tapes) , . . . 39" 

TheAlienOK/T) 19" 

Renaissance-Otheito(C) 39" 

SkyMathtSKT) 12" 

LongDive(8KT) 12" 

SpaceDiv(8K/T) 12" 

Super Hangman (3K/T) 17" 

T = Tape, C = Cartridge. 8K = 3K expansion 




From Us and Save Your Green 



Toll Free-,'" 800-854-6654 

CALIFORNIA & INFORMATION (714) 698-8088 



* 15 Day No Risk Policy 



• We accept all 
major credit cards. 



• Most Orders Shipped 
Within 24 Hours 



* Serving people everywhere 
since 1977 



We will try to meet * Free Shipping 
or beat any currently (Pre-Paid 
advertised price. Cash Orders) 





16K RamBoardl 

FOR APPLE II 



$50&°t 



ASSEMBLED & TESTED $69° 



•SOFTWARE 



^ visicorp 

VisiCalc 185" 

VisiCalc Templates (New!) CALL 

VIslFlle (Data Base Manager) 185" 

VisiTrendWIslPlot 199" 

VlsiSchedute(New!) , ,239" 

VisiTerm 89" 

VisiDex 185" 

Desktop P/an II , . i85<™ 

$■' 

Tax Preparer 119" 

Real Estate Analyzer 1 1 9-' 

Creative Financing 119" 

mkroPfO 

WordStar by MicroPro .199" 

MailMerge* by MicroPro ' . 79" 

SpellStaf by MicroPro 115" 

OataStar" by MicroPro 169" 

CalcStar- by MicroPro 115" 

Supersort r by MicroPro 115" 

WordStarCustomization Notes 269" 

/MICRpSOfT 

MICROSOFT SOFTCARD PREMIUM SYSTEM 
(Includes: Saftcard, RAMCard, Videx 
Vldeoterm 80 Col.. Softswitch, Osborne 
CP/M User Guide) List . . . 755" .only 659" 
Mtcrosolt TASC Applesoft Compiler . . 149*° 

Fortran-80' 149" 

A.L.O.S 89" 

Basic Compiler' 269" 

Cobol-80- 499" 

Time Manager 129" 

Super Text tl Word Processor Muse ...119" 

PFS: Personal Filing System 79" 

PFS: Report ....79" 

DB Master 165" 

Systems Plus Accounting Software . .CALL 
Peachtree Accounting Software" . . . .CALL 

Continental Accounting Pkgs 189'° 

'Requires a Z-80 Solt-Card 



WordStar 289" 

Supersort 189" 

MailMerge 109" 

DataSlar , 239" 

SpellStar 189" 

CalcStar 235" 

/H*CnpSDfT 

BASIC 80 289" 

BASIC Compiler 309" 

Fortran 80 , 359" 

CobolSO 569" 

Macro 80 179" 

mti Malh/mu SIMP 215" 

mu LISP/mu STAR 169'° 

d BASE M 499" 

PLAN 80 . , 249" 

CBASIC 115" 

PASCAL MT+ Ver. 5,5 399" 

Spallguard 299" 

PASCAL 2 329" 

SUPERCALC 225" 



APPLE li COMPATIBLE 

Accessories 



(D Hayes 



Hayes Micromodem II 289" 

Hayes Smartmodem 245" 

Hayes Chronograph 199" 



Novation! 



ry*& 



Novation AppfeCat modem 319" 

Expansion-Mod 39" 

Handsel 29" 

BSR X-10 control interlace mod 19" 

Touch-Tone Firmware CALL 



Videx VideoTerm 80 column card 245" 

Videx Keyboard Enhancer I (orlg.) 75" 

Videx Keyboard Enhancer II 129" 

/UCNpSOfT 

Z-80 SoltCard by Microsoft 289" 

16K RamCard by Microsoft 155" 

ThunderClock/Calendar card 199" 

Smarterm 80 column card 289" 



** CORVUS SYSTEMS 

Corvus Winchesters Mb Disk 2950" 

Corvus Winchester 10 Mb Disk 4295" 

Corvus Winchester 20Mb Disk 5195" 

Mirror Back-Up 699" 

B Mountain i Computer 

CPS Multi-Function Card 169" 

Music System (16 voices) 299" 

A/D + D/A Interlace 279" 

Expansion Chassis (8 slots) .569" 

Clock/Calendar card 229" 

SuperTalker SD-200 149" 

Romplus + card 129" 

Keyboard Filter ROM for Romplus .40" 

CopyRom for Romplus 40" 

Rom Writer card 149" 

RamPlus32K ram add-on(w/16K) 149" 



VSVA 



Sorrento Valley Associates 

SVA 2 + 2 Sgl. Den. 8" Disk Cont CALL 

SVA ZVX4 Megabyter 8" Disk Cont. . . CALL 
Apple Cache 256K by SVA CALL 

Miscellaneous 

Form (Apple compatible) Drives CALL 

IEEE-488lnterfacebySSM .389" 

Vision-80 Col. card by Vista 255" 

Prom Development System by Vista . . 355" 

8" Disk Drives by Vista CALL 

Adwar Video Processor Mod CALL 

Videodisk-Apple Interface 475" 

Echo II Speech Synthesizer 219" 

Symtec Lightpen 210 < '° 

The Mill-6809 Processor 319" 

Lazer Lower Case Adapter 55" 

Houstonlnst.GraphicsPlotter CALL 

16K RAMBoard assembled & tested . . . 69" 

16K Ram Board by CCI in kit form 50" 

SYNERGY Multi-Card .CALL 

Prometheus VersaCard 219" 

ALF3Voice Music Card 179" 

ALF 9 Voice Music Card 169" 

Joysticks by Keyboard Co , 44" 

23 Key Numeric Keypad by " .115" 

Versawriter Digitizer Table 249" 

GrapplerPrlnter Interfaces 139" 

Microbuffer II 32K(specify prntr.) 289" 

Microbuffer II 16K (specify prntr.) 249" 

8K Serial Buffer Card tor Epson 149" 

t6K Parallel Buffer l/F tor Epson 149" 

Sup-R-Fan 45" 

Sup-R-Terminal 80 column card 299" 

We have more items too. . . Please Call Us. 



fJ-SO 



MICRO SCI APPLE II COMPATIBLE 
DISK DRIVES 

A2 with controller 469" 

A2 w/o cont roller 399" 

A40 with controller 479" 

A40 wilhoul controller 389" 

A70 with controller .599" 

A70 without controller 499" 



Clearance 
Sale 1 . 



PRINTERS A ATARI 



Jtf^/l California 
J^5* Computer 

Clearance 

u „t.40%OFF! 

This Offer Good White Supplies Last 
AsynchronousSerialCard(77l0A) . . .139" 

Synchronous SerialCard(7712A) 99" 

Centronics PrinterCard(7728A) 89" 

Cable for Prism/Tigers to 7728A 29" 

Parallel I/O Card (7720A) 89" 

Calendar/Clock Card (7424A) 79" 

Arithmetic Process (781 1C) 269" 

Programmable Timer Card (7440A) 60" 

3% Digit BCC A/D Converter 60" 

GPIB (IEEE-486) Card (7490A) 1 69" 

12K ROM/PROM Card (71 14A) 59" 

Extender Card (7520A) 19" 

HARDWARE from APPLE COMPUTER 



SAVE UP TO 50% 
Clearance Sale 



Parallel Printer Card .99" 

Hi-Speed Serial Card 99" 

Centronics Printer Card 119" 



APPLE II 
SPECIAL DELIVERY SOFTWARE 

CLEARANCE SPECIAL 
SAVE over 50% OFF! 



Pascal Animation Tools 37" 

PSORT Pascal disk file sort 42" 

Formulex . . 37" 

Goodspell 30" 

PianBO 92" 

Order Tracking System 25" 

VisiCalc Real Estate Templates 32" 

Hand Holding Basic 50" 

Supermap 17 00 

Pilot Animation Tools 37" 

Topographic Mapping 32" 

Bridge Tutor 20" 

Bridge Tutor Extended 30" 

Artist Designer 32" 

Galactic Wars 17" 

Utopia Graphics Tablet System 37" 

Diet Analysis 22" 

Stepwise Multiple Regression 75" 

We have more Apple Computer Inc. soltware 
at greatly reduced prices , . Please call. 



APPLE II GAMES 

SOFTWARE 
CLEARANCE 



We are reducing our inventory ol software 
at increadible savings to you. Hurry we have 
a limited supply. 

ANY GAME 
ONLY $15.00 

GalacticTrader(Broderbund) 15 00 

Galactic Revolution (Broderbund) 15" 

Galaxy Wars (Broderbund) 15" 

Tawala's Last Redoubt 15" 

Golden Mountain (Broderbund) 15" 

Space Invaders (Cosmos Mission) 15" 

Head-On 15" 

Shuflleboard 15" 

Microchess 15" 

BridgePartner 15" 

Monty Plays Scrabble , 15" 

Monty Plays Monopoly , , , 15" 

Rainbow Writer 15" 

Checkering 15" 

Gammon Gambier 15" 

Fastgammon 1 5" 

Bright Pen (Light pen) 15" 

Both Barrels 15" 



Rnadex 

DP-9501 w/2K buffer 1149" 

<3E C. Itoh 

F-10 40 CPS (parallel) 1 399" 

F-1040 CPS (serial) 1450" 

ProWriter8510 10" (parallel) 489" 

ProWriter 8510 10" (serial) 579" 

ProWriler II 1550 15" (parallel). 699" 

ProWriter II 1550 15" (serial) . 749" 

EPSON 

MX-80 T Type III w/graphics ..... ... CALL 

MX-80 F/T Type III w/graphics ... , . , CALL 

MX-82 F/TType III w/graphics CALL 

MX-lOOType III w/graphlcs . CALL 

Epson Graxtrax 60 ROM 59" 

\d- lnli-^r.il I K1I.1 S\slt'im.lw. 

Prism 80 witf lout color option 1049" 

Prism 80 with color 1 299" 

Prism 132with color 1569" 

Apple Prism color software 55" 

NEC 

8023 Impact Dot Matrix 489" 

35t033CPS serial 1749" 

3530 33 CPS Centronics parallel 1749" 

Bi-directional tractor for 3500 - s '229" 

7710 55 CPS serial 2349" 

7730 55 CPS Centronics parallel . 2349" 

Tractor for 7700 series 229" 

OKIDATA 

OkidataMicroline80(ltdquan.) 319" 

Okldata82Aw/tractor, 80 col .489" 

Okldata83Aw/tractorl32col 725" 

Okidata84A 132 col. serial 1169" 

Okidata84A 132 col. parailei 1029" 

SSB 

Smith Corona Printer Parallel 649" 



MONITORS 





y4fN/IDEEK 

Amdek Video 300 12" Hi-ResGreen . . .169" 

Amdek Video 100 12" B&W 129" 

Amdek Color 1 13" Coior w/audio 379" 

Amdek Color II Hl-Res RGB monitor. . ,769" 
Amdek Apple II DVM RGB card 169" 

NEC 

NEC9" Hi-Res Green monitor 179" 

NEC 12" Hi-Res Green monitor 169" 

NEC 12" Composite Color monitor 349" 

NEC 12" Hi-Res RGBColor monitor . . .799" 

SANYO 

Sanyo9" B&W 1 69" 

Sanyo9" Green monitor 179" 

Sanyo 12" B&W 169" 

Sanyo 12" Green (New case style!) . . . 269" 
Sanyo 13" Color Monitor 389" 

Zenith 12" Green monitor 119" 



Atarl800(16K) 

Atari 800 W/32K . . .7 

Atari400(16K) 329" 

Bit 3 80 Column Card tor 800 ..... 299" 

410 Program Recorder 79" 

810 Disk Drive 439" 

850 Interface Module 169" 

Epson cable for 850 module 34" 

AtariJoysticks(pair) 20" 

Axion Ramcram32K module 149" 

Atari 16K Module by Microtek 69" 

ATARI Software 

EDU-PAK Educational 1 4 Tape Series . 149" 

VisiCalc for Atari (D) 185" 

Word Processor (D) 119" 

Personal Finance Management (D) ... .47" 
Dow Jones Investment Evaluator(D) . , .99" 

Microsoft Basic (D) 89" 

Macro Assembler & Text Editor (D) 89" 

Conversational French (T) 49" 

Conversational German (T) 49" 

Conversational Italian (T) 49" 

Conversational Spanish (T) 49" 

Pac-Man (cartridge) 34" 

Centipede (cartridge) 34" 

Asteroids (cartridge) 34" 

Missile Command (cartridge) 34" 

Star Raiders (cartridge) 39" 

Space Invaders (cartridge) 34" 

Caverns of Mars (disk) 34" 

Assembler/Editor(cartridge) 49" 

We carry all ATARI software and hardware. 



• •• 




Control Everything In your Home 




BSR Ultrasonic Command Console . 

BSR Appliance Module 

BSR Lamp Module 

BSR Timer Module 



SUPPLIES 

Orange AC Surge Protectors 119" 

Lemon AC Line Filter 50" 

Executive Library Case 5- y<" 24" 

Cableworks Cables (all sizes) CALL 

Plexiglass cover for Apple II 24* 

5-Vi" Disk Bank Storage Box 5" 

8" Disk BankStorage Box .8" 

GENERAL RIBBON PRODUCTS 

NEC Multi-Strike Ribbon 8" 

NEC Black Fabric Ribbon B" 

Qume Multi-Strike Ribbon 4" 

Qume Black Fabric Ribbon 5" 

Diablo Multi-Strike Ribbon 6" 

Diablo Black Fabric Ribbon 6" 

AnadexOP-9500Cart. Ribbon 14" 

C. Itoh 8000 Nylon Ribbon 5" 

CBM 2020-2022 Nylon Ribbon 5" 

Paper Ttger Black Nylon Ribbon 3" 

Epson MX70/80 Cartridge Ribbon 12" 

Epson MX 100 Cartridge Ribbon 24" 

DUST COVERS 

Apple II 9" 

Disk II Only 5" 

Apple II & 2 Drives 13" 

Apple Dual Disk Cover 7" 

Apple III Computer 13" 

Epson MX-80 Cover 11" 

Sanyo 9" Monitor cover 9" 

Atari 800 9" 

Televldeo Terminal 9" 

Amdek 12" B&W 10" 

NEC 12" & NTSC Color 9" 

Diab!o630RO Printer 14" 

NEC RGB Color Monitor 9" 

Epson MX- 100 Cover 14 ,! 



^Circle 128 on Inq 



f card. 



Microline 82A 




$ 439 



88 UPS DELIVERED 



OKIGRAPH Dot-addressable ROM .... $ 44 88 

Adjustable Tractor $ 59 88 

Roll Paper Holder $ 49 88 



Okidata Printers 

MICROUNE 80 $ 339 M 

MICROUNE 83A *699 M 

ML83A OKIGRAPH ROM . . $ 44 M 

RS-232C 2K BUFFER $ 159 M 

MICROUNE 84 Parallel 

200 cps $ 1049 M 

MICROUNE 84 RS-232C 

200 cps $ 1169 M 

Anadex Printers 

DP-9500A $ 1459 M 

DP-9510A $ 1459 M 

DP-9620A $ 1554 M 

WP-6000 »2999 8a 

Brother Printers 

DAISYWRITER1500 

Parallel only $ 979 88 

DAISYWRITER 2000— With 
Parallel, RS-232C, IEEE488 
& Current Loop lnterface $ 1099 88 
TRACTOR $ 149 M 

Centronics Printers 

CENTRONICS 122 ^989" 

CENTRONICS 739 

Parallel Interface $ 559 M 

CENTRONICS 739 

RS-232C Interface $ 679 M 

739 COLOR OPTION *79 M 

IDS Printers 

PRISM 80 *999 M 

Includes Sprint Mode, Dot Plot, 
and Cut Sheet Guide 

PRISM 132 $ 1699 M 

4-Color Graphics, Sprint Mode, 
Dot Plot, and Cut Sheet Guide 

CALL FOR PRICES 

On NEC Spinwriters, QUME & 
DIABLO Daisywheels. QUANTEX, 
DATASOUTH, DIP, MPI and other 
printers available. 



TEC Printers 



/> "-WW* 



: : "\ 




DMP85 *479 88 

Generic version of NEC & Pro- 
writer printers. Features 120 cps, 
bi-directional, logic-seeking, 1.3K 
buffer. 5 fonts, 8 sizes on 9x9 
matrix, w/ proportional print, true 
descenders, & Greek/Math font 
160x144 dots/inch Hi-Res 
graphics matrix, 1/144" line feed. 
Friction & tractor standard, rear 
paper path. Parallel only. 

NEC PC-8023A-C *509 88 

CJTOH PROWRITER $ 509 M 

C.ITOH PROWRITER 

Parallel & RS-232C $ 664 M 

CJTOH PROWRITER 2 . . . . $ 739 M 
C.ITOH PROWRITER 2 

Parallel & RS-232C *799 88 

F-10/40 STARWRITER 40cps 
Parallel or RS-232C .... $ 1494 M 
F-10/55 PRINTMASTER 55 cps 
Parallel or RS-232C .... •1799 11 
F-10 TRACTOR *289 88 



Smith-Corona 


SMITH CORONA TP-1 .... 


«649 M 


Specify 1 or 1 2 cpi 




Specify Parallel or RS-232C 


Microfazers 


Stand-alone print/data buffers 


8K MICROFAZER 


$ 144 88 


8K MICROFAZER (RS-232C 




to Parallel) 


M84 88 


1 6K MICROFAZER 


*164 M 


32K MICROFAZER 


*184 M 


64K MICROFAZER 


$2 29 8a 


ADAPTER CABLE 


. M4 M 



Orders & Information: call (603)-673-8857 

Orders Only: (800)-343-0726 

No surcharge for credit cards— No charge for UPS shipping— Stock ship 
ments next day All equipment shipped factory fresh with manufacturer's 
warranty— Minimum $50 per order— Open PO's not accepted— No 
foreign orders accepted We accept CODs 



HIGH TECHNOLOGY AT AFFORDABLE PRICES 

THE BOTTOM 
I ► LINE 

Milford NH 03055-0423 



The Cognivox's potential extends to game applications 
as well. The two games included on the demonstration 
disk should only whet the appetite of game enthusiasts 
everywhere. Imagine moving game pieces by using a 
microphone instead of the keyboard. Computer graphics 
could be twice the fun if you controlled the sketching by 
yelling "up/' "down," "left/' "right," and so on. Think 
how exciting a game of vocal chess might be. 

System Limitations 

A number of limitations in the system become ap- 
parent after a few minutes of use. First, the audio quality 
of the built-in amplifier and speaker is awful. Voicetek 
recommends that the Cognivox be connected to a high- 
quality stereo system for improved performance. The on- 
ly problem with this suggestion is that my stereo system 
is on the second floor and my office is on the first floor. 
The poor quality of the audio should have the highest 
priority for the first revision of the product. 

Voicetek promotes the interface of the Cognivox to the 
Apple by declaring, "It plugs into the game I/O port in 
the Apple and does not use up the valuable peripheral 
slots." Now that's a clever advertising ploy of accentuat- 
ing the positive while downplaying the negative. Most of 
us have a peripheral slot or two to spare, but how many 
game I/O ports did you get with your Apple? If the 
Cognivox is installed, you must give up your joysticks, 
game paddles, and simple computer control of output cir- 
cuits. This is a major loss if you want to control motors 
or relays from a vocal alarm circuit. It also limits how far 
you can go in flexible game design because you must give 
up the push buttons. 

I decided to take the Cognivox apart to see what 
Voicetek had used for an audio amplifier; the two screws 
holding the unit together weren't much of a challenge. It 
looked like someone had spilled a milkshake on the inside 
of the case: all the critical parts had had their numbers 
either filed off or coated with a hard plastic material. The 
Cognivox must be the hardware counterpart of the pro- 
tected disk. If you have ever lost a chip or two because of 
static electricity, you know how convenient it is to be 
able to quickly repair your equipment by direct substitu- 
tion of components. You won't be able to do this if the 
Cognivox breaks down; you'll have to return the device 
to the factory for repair, which will cost you time and 
money. 

Conclusions 

The Cognivox VIO-1003 is what the manufacturer 
claims it to be — a state-of-the-art speech-recognition and 
voice-output peripheral for the Apple II computer. The 
Cognivox records voice masks during a training session 
and stores these on disk for future voice output or speech 
recognition. Once trained to a voice, the recognition rate 
is very high (98 to 100 percent) for a device that uses ap- 
proximately 4K bytes of storage for programs and tables. 

The Cognivox should open new vistas for security 
systems, aid to disabled persons, and computer games. ■ 



. 



Disk Storage 
Needn't Double The Cost Of 



A, ^N 



Your Apple III 



HCTM 











, ^ -£&& 





Expanding disk storage on your Appfe 
can be an expensive proposition. 

But Micro-Sci hos a better proposition tor you, 
because our disk drives tor the Apple III give you 
greater capacity and performance tor every 
dollar spent. 

And no compatibility problems. The A3 is a direct 
replacement tor Disk III drives, and the 70-track 
A73 and 140-track AI43 are supplied with a driver 
that is easily added to the SOS driver module, 
affording extra storage and tastseek rates tor all ot 

"Registered Trademark of Apple Computers. Cupertino, California. 



he programs mat run under that operating system. 

Alt three ore the same-5W size as your built-in 
drive and use the some diskettes. 

They also use your Apple Ill's controller and 
power, saving on expansion slot and no AC power 




cord. And they can be mixed in any combination 
on the daisy-chain. At 572 KBytes, the Al 43 makes 
a truly viable backup device for the ProFile Hard Disk. 

At 286 KBytes, the A73 gives you a lot more 
capacity than a Disk III drive. 

The A3 otters identical capacity — and is an 
excellent choice tor second drive compatibility in 
the Apple II emulation mode. 

So see your Micro-Sci dealer today. 

He'll show you how to up your Apple I II's 
performance the affordable way. 






//-SCI 



MICRO-SCI 



2158 SOUTH HATHAWAY STREET 



Micro-Sci is a Division of Standun Controls, Inc. 

SANTA ANA, CALIFORNIA 92705 • 714/662-2801 



TELEX: 91 0-346-6739 



Circle 311 on inquiry card. 



International Dealer Inquiries IMC International Markets Corp. Telephone: 71 4/730-0963 



Hardware Review 



The Abilityphone 



William L. Rush 
817 C St., Apt. 1 
Lincoln, NE 68502 



I had awakened in the middle of the night with 
stomach cramps. To an able-bodied person, getting up 
would have posed no particular problem. But I have 
athetoid cerebral palsy: I'm a person who is a quad- 
riplegic as well as unable to speak. As a result, an other- 
wise minor case of cramps became a cause for alarm. 

I waited and prayed for the attack to subside. When it 
didn't, I groaned, hoping I could arouse the student assis- 
tant for my dorm floor. I hated to wake him up at 2 a.m., 
but I didn't have much choice. The cramps grew stronger 
and more frequent by the minute, and sweat began run- 
ning off my body. Why hadn't I taken a class in Lamaze 
breathing? Finally, my groans alerted the student assis- 




Photo 1: The author at work. The Abilityphone appears in the 
background. 



tant, who came into my room and asked, groggily, 

"What's wrong, Bill? Are you too hot?" 

I shook my head "No." 

"Is something wrong with your electric wheelchair and 
how it's charging?" 

"Is something wrong with your voice synthesizer?" 

"Is something wrong with your door opener?" 

"Is something wrong with your physical body?" 

I nodded "Yes" to his last question. 

"If I call your attendant, would she know what to do? 
Great. What's her number? Oh, you can't tell me that, 
can you? How do I call her for you?" A mixture of frus- 
tration and fatigue was in his voice. His training hadn't 
covered situations like this. 

I looked in the direction of my new Abilityphone, 
which had my personal-service aide's number stored 
somewhere in its electronic memory. The student assis- 
tant only had to push the button marked "Help," and the 
phone would do the rest. He was trying to find the num- 
ber when he spied the Help key and asked, "If I push this 
'help' button, will the phone give me your aide's 
number?" 

I nodded "Yes." He pushed the button with a picture of 
a hand on it (so it can be spotted easily in an emergency). 

About the Author 

William L. Rush is a senior studying journalism at the University of 
Nebraska-Lincoln as well as a freelance writer. He has a personal inter- 
est in electronic aids for people with disabilities because he has cerebral 
palsy. In addition to the Abilityphone, he uses a personal computer as a 
voice synthesizer and a word processor. 



240 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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At a Glance 

Name 

Abilityphone 

Manufacturer 

Basic Telecommunications Corporation 

44 1 4 East Harmony Rd. 

Fort Collins, CO 80525 

(303] 226-4688 (Voice/TDD option] 

Price 

S2335 (suggested retail price] 

Warranty 

Two-year limited on all BTC equipment against defects in material 
and workmanship 

Shipping size 

1 3/2 by 15 by 3% inches 

Weight 

8/2 pounds 

Other physical characteristics 

32-character alphanumeric display; I '/2-hour battery backup; 
adjustable-membrane keyboard with 22 keys that responds to as 
little as 5 ounces' pressure for activation; Lexicon plastic housing; 
brushed aluminum base panel that accepts 2.5 mm external 
switch jacks, 3.5 mm audio output jacks, modular phone jack, and 
modular headset jack 

Software needed 

None 

Audience 

Anyone interested in devices that assist individuals with disabilities 
of all types; people with disabilities who have unique telecom- 
munications problems 



homes. The Abilityphone, made by Basic Telecommuni- 
cations Corporation (BTC) in Fort Collins, Colorado, is a 
prime example of what can be done with a dual-micro- 
processor-based system, persistence, and some luck. 

The luck came in when I was selected as one of ten peo- 
ple to participate in a three-month field testing of the 
phone in May 1981. My first reaction to the concept of 
the Abilityphone was that it was too good to be true. But 
it sounded interesting, and I had learned not to underesti- 
mate the potential of electronics. Besides, I was interested 
in anything that would improve my ability to communi- 
cate. 

Workshop for "Test Pilots" 

BTC invited me to a workshop designed to familiarize 
the "test pilots" with the new telecommunications device. 
We learned that the Abilityphone can answer itself auto- 
matically, dial and redial a number by itself, and function 
as an alarm clock, a four-function calculator, an en- 
vironmental controller, and a calendar. It can even re- 
mind its user to take daily doses of medication. The ter- 
minal includes more than 40 features. 

Some time after the workshop, I learned that this 
phone was the result of a six-month market-research 
study done in 1974 by BTC corporation president Tom 
Cannon, then a human-factors and product-development 
consultant. The study, designed to determine the special 
telephone needs of people with disabilities, concluded 
that there was a "significant" need for special telephone 
devices. According to Cannon, the study was not in- 
tended to result in a specific product but to identify 
specific telephone problems of people with disabilities. 



What happened next reminded me of something from a 
science-fiction movie. The 13V2- by 15-inch Lexicon plas- 
tic phone said "Help on" in a clear and computer-gen- 
erated voice to confirm that the Help function had been 
activated. Then it calmly (at least one of the three of us 
was calm) said, "I am calling for help now: calling help 
number one." 

As it spoke, a 32-character alphanumeric display 
flashed the messages so that if I had been deaf I would 
have been able to understand what it was doing. Next, I 
heard my personal-service aide's phone ringing through 
the speaker (the Abilityphone does not have a conven- 
tional receiver). When my aide, who lives in an adjoining 
dorm, picked up her phone, my phone again spoke in its 
electronic voice: "There is an emergency at 8117 
Selleck . . . forced entry is authorized." 

My aide had a Help-Answer beeper, which sent a 
message to the Abilityphone terminal that help was on 
the way. The phone, in turn, flashed a message to that ef- 
fect on its display. Had my aide failed to answer the 
phone within five rings, the Abilityphone would have 
called another help number until it heard the beeper. 

When the crisis was over, I marveled at how far the art 
of computer technology has progressed in helping people 
with disabilities to live outside institutions or nursing 



Developing the Abilityphone 

In 1974, four major obstacles stood in the way of de- 
veloping a special telecommunications product. Most im- 
portant, the technology to solve problems raised by the 
study wasn't available. Even if it had been, the people 
who could benefit most from it were the most difficult to 
reach because of social service agencies' privacy-protec- 
tion policies. Additionally, those who needed the product 
often could not pay for it, and third-party sources of 
money, such as insurance companies, were reluctant to 
assist paying for it. Finally, the product would have had 
to be sold through existing phone companies, which then 
did not have the experience to deal with the unique needs 
of people with disabilities. 

But between 1974 and 1978, many changes had taken 
place that made designing a special device for individuals 
practicable. New technologies, such as microcomputers, 
were available at a reasonable cost to provide solutions 
to many problems. New laws and regulations made equal 
opportunities for those with disabilities a reality, not just 
a dream, and people with disabilities were demanding to 
be treated as equals. In addition, government deregula- 
tion of the telephone industry opened the field for com- 
panies to sell new products to be hooked up to telephone 
lines. 



242 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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BYTE September 1982 243 




Photo 2: The Ability phone. Note that the keyboard and display 
sections can be tilted at any angle. The membrane keyboard ad- 
justs to respond to as little as five ounces of pressure. A fluores- 
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These developments encouraged Tom Cannon to 
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with various disabilities were asked to test the simulator 
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took 18 months and about 6000 man-hours to build and 
test. BTC took the suitcase simulator to rehabilitation 
and independent living centers across the country to get 
more feedback. 

The goal of the simulators' designers was to build a 
product that would serve people with all types of dis- 
abilities so that it could be mass produced and, as a 
result, more affordable. 

The Finished Product 

In March 1981, at the American Occupational Therapy 
Conference in San Antonio, Texas, BTC unveiled the 
result of more than three years and 24,000 man-hours of 
work. In the five months that followed, BTC went into 
full-scale production. During this time, the Abilityphone 
underwent a battery of tests by an independent testing 
laboratory that made sure it met a wide variety of 
governmental and other standards. 

The Abilityphone uses two microprocessors. The main 
one is an RCA 1802. The terminal contains 24K bytes of 
ROM (read-only memory) and 4K bytes of RAM (ran- 
dom-access read/write memory). In addition, all I/O 
(input/output) devices are memory-mapped. The RAM, 
ROM, and I/O all reside in the lower 32K bytes of the 
processor's address space. 

The second microprocessor is an Intel 8048 with on-chip 
RAM and ROM. It is a peripheral processor that moni- 
tors the phone line and performs the environmental con- 
trol functions (the unit will send commands to any BSR 
remote-control module). The terminal uses prioritized in- 
terrupts. The main processor and peripheral processor 
are set up in a master-slave arrangement. When the 
master sends a command to the slave, it causes an inter- 
rupt to occur on the slave. When the slave has finished its 
task, it sends a status message back to the master. 

The Abilityphone's I/O devices include a membrane- 
style keyboard (see photo 2), but it doesn't have a full 
alphanumeric or typewriter keyboard. It uses a fluores- 
cent alphanumeric display that is readable at about 20 
feet. It has a serial port and a modem. A speech synthe- 
sizer, also included, has a limited vocabulary and is not a 
true phonetic synthesizer. More memory can be added to 
increase the unit's vocabulary. Figure 1 shows a block 
diagram of the Abilityphone. 

BTC does a thorough "burn-in" on every terminal to 
check for faulty components. Testing takes from six to 
eight hours. 

Features 

The following is a selective list of some of the Ability- 
phone's features. 

Emergency dialing. The Abilityphone will dial up to six 
predetermined phone numbers in sequence when the user 
pushes the Help key. Depending on the options selected 
on the terminal, the Help message can be either spoken or 
transmitted as data. The party called can respond with a 
Help- Answer beeper. 

Monitoring. At predetermined times, the Abilityphone 
can ask, "Are you OK?" If the user doesn't respond with- 



244 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc Circle 112 On inquiry Card. 



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Figure 1: A block diagram of the Ability phone. 



in five minutes, the Abilityphone dials an emergency 
number. This assures the user that help will be sum- 
moned even if he or she can't get to the phone. 

Reminding. The Abilityphone can be set to remind the 
user at predetermined times to perform routine tasks that 
are necessary to prevent a crisis. This function is ideal for 
providing prompts to take medicine, eat special meals, or 
change position to avoid pressure sores. 

Automatic answering. After three rings, the Ability- 
phone will answer itself, allowing the user with limited 
mobility additional time to get to the phone. 

Repeat dialing. When a dialed number is busy or the 
party called fails to answer, the Abilityphone will redial 
the number until the party is reached. 

Conclusion 

You might wonder if all the time and effort that goes 
into building such equipment is worth the benefits to its 



users and to society. I can't answer the question for socie- 
ty. I can only hope society sees that through the use of 
such equipment, it will gain more productive members. 

As a user, however, I can attest to the Abilityphone as 
invaluable. Of all my electronic devices (electric wheel- 
chair, door opener, and computerized voice synthesizer), 
the Abilityphone makes me feel most secure. One of its 
40-odd features, a monitoring function, is a good exam- 
ple. I can set it so that, at predetermined times, the ter- 
minal can ask me, "Are you OK?" Then if neither I nor an 
aide presses one of its 22 keys within 5 minutes, the 
phone will call for help on its own. 

I used to panic when my morning personal-service aide 
was 15 minutes late to get me out of bed. Now when that 
happens, I wait serenely to hear the phone say, "Are 
you OK?" And if nobody answers its musical ring within 
five minutes, it announces, "I am calling for help 
now. . . . "■ 



246 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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igNRgij is « . - ms. If in slit stmkH I 

iiitf' '■ { \ 

( \ 

Hi u» hw* is ti i>4J.» |M art* h the rtrsf y*u ml 
Hftomi im prf;s i Uf: 1H syt^Mju wi II ifpur rijfcf an Ikt • 1 1 
««*» ■ Thfi i« it mr «f«r 1» tht s$»6ftyi iwu hi* tnd prtjs 
tki tl) ijjiin T<*uf dioict if iRSfrtei - usilij md i stedia . ( 

ft*, hatu* Rouse EUcb"«ic Ihtsww will ' i^rm year 


m$L 


"^^■^■^^.^.Ff.^^A^f^f^-^S^ 


?* 



When you press ESCAPE twice — or a special key 
in custom installations, the top of the screen clears 
. ,.n*h . .« to ioo synonyms. When you find a suitable 
jrsor to it and press ESCAPE again. 



ici T J H»J iWitllf ] dill* VM9 1 i 



MM 



tfF%B — Ik* t«&» " 






f ittMt,... 



i u™ »j»r it, in 

iti*»«»i .' hcm» F*en »ith lUnltfd fitppj 

, h| ffc«f1 rf |ir,<yJjOto{ 

PI I ifCM f>w lo Jo II mlt i|L'ur| turgor lo ihf ««»rd ij_ . 

— n, !fWw*t ¥<w cursor 'a (hi s^Mmji uw J ■!« «nd 

' lie* i* i»w<td -- tis»t"j Md imdiiielg. 

J Hrtlfffmt ffcmurus will iipri 
,. .hiityt IK* wky you f»tt *bout uritu 



I 



Your old word is deleted and the synonym is 
automatically inserted. Or you can press 
RETURN and return to your text without making any 
changes. You can even scroll through the listings. 



(BYTE Magazine written in braille) 



Braille Writing in Pascal 

A Pascal program, a strip of cellophane tape, and a rubber 
glove combine to make a line printer write in braille. 



Alfred Fant Jr. 

POB 26284 

Austin, TX 78755-0284 



Braille writing for the blind was de- 
veloped by the Frenchman Louis 
Braille, who was himself blinded at 
the age of three. Since the invention 
of his language in 1824, thousands of 
books, magazines, musical scores, 
and other literary works have been 
translated into braille. One of the 
most ambitious translation projects 
to date has been the braille edition of 
the World Book Encyclopedia by the 
American Printing House for the 
Blind in 1961. The largest project in 
the history of braille, it will probably 
be the last time such a large undertak- 
ing is done by hand. The final edition 
of the encyclopedia contained 136 
volumes — truly, a magnificent ac- 
complishment. 

Today, numerous publications are 
translated into this readable print for 
the blind. Still, it is not unusual for a 
book on the best-seller list to be re- 



maindered before it is finally brailled. 
This happens because there is much 
more material to braille than there is 
funding to do it. Blind people (and 
libraries serving the blind) are queried 



The software treats the 

braille characters as 

four lines of graphics 

output per line of 

braille type. 



periodically as to what publications 
they would like to see brailled next 
and to rank them by priority. The 
limited funds and computer time 
available make it mandatory to trans- 
late only those publications that 
would have the greatest readership. 



Hence, in a situation similar to 
military triage, many worthwhile 
books are never translated. 

My interest in braille translation 
began when a local Boy Scout troop 
asked for help in acquiring scouting 
materials for its new blind members. 
A survey of the literature found much 
in the way of audio-tape materials. 
Unfortunately, precious little 
material was in braille. The Scouts 
had found it difficult to use the tape 
library because they could not readily 
locate specific topics. You just cannot 
skim a tape as you can a printed 
braille book. 

I proceeded to learn braille from 
the instructions given in the Scout 
Handbook, soon progressed to a col- 
lege textbook on the subject, and 
finally purchased a braille machine to 
use with the visually disabled boys. 
After months of practice, study, and 



250 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



For serious business microcomputing, 

only one operating system 

exactly fits. 



Whether you're in business and do 
microcomputing, or in computing 
and sell to business, you'll like OASIS* 
Not a hobby or scientific system warmed- 
over for business use, ^^^^^m 
OASIS is the only operating 
system designed from the 
ground up for business. 



SERIOUS BUSINESS 
COMES IN ALL SIZES. 

Whatever your business 
need, OASIS has the oper- 
ating system to match: 
8-bit or 16-, single-user or 
the multi-user system that 
professionals tell us makes 
micros run like minis. And 
that's even truer now with 
new OASIS-16.** (OASIS 
exact business fit #7; 
choice.) 

ANY SYSTEM IS ONLY 
AS GOOD AS THE 

BUSINESS 

PROGRAMS IT RUNS. 




available, type 'HELP' and the command 
function title — OASIS displays the 
syntax and options available. 

And it's all in your language — not 
computerese. (OASIS 
exact business fit #5: 
useMriendliness.) 




OASIS 



^> j^ m 



HOBBY 



SCIENCE 



BUSINESS 



AND, AND, AND. 



Some of the best, most 
extensive documentation 
in the industry; a packed 
Application Software 
Directory; multi-level train- 
ing; direct telephone support; 
worldwide sales & service; 
options like CONTROL 
Relational Data Base 
Management System and 
MASTERPLAN Financial 
Modeling Package; OASIS 
has it all. (OASIS exact 
business fits #6 through #12.) 



The acid test for any business 
operating system is the application 
software available to run on it. There's 
plenty for OASIS — for nearly any job. 

And it's top quality, too, because our 
integrated tools are top quality — and 
there are more of them. Like a high-level 
BASIC Interpreter/Compiler/Editor/ 
Debugger; ISAM/Keyed/Direct/ 
Sequential Files; a smart Print Spooler; 
Automatic Record Locking ( OASIS 
exclusives! ); plus COBOL & 'C 
Languages. These tools are mandatory 
for high-quality business application 
program development — ask any 
developer. (OASIS exact business fit #2: 
high-quality application software.) 

PORTABILITY PROTECTS BUSINESS 
SOFTWARE INVESTMENTS. 

OASIS is custom-fitted to manufac- 
turers' hardware so application software 
developed to run on one OASIS 
equipped machine can also run on 
others — and is upwardly compatible 
from 8-bit OASIS Single-User to Multi- 
User, on up to OASIS-16. This kind of 
ap plication software portabilit y is 
exclusive with OASIS. 

Device independence allows various 
printers and terminals to be used — 
with no modification to application 



software: OASIS system software com- 
pensates for differences. (OASIS exact 
business fit #3: portability.) 

ACCURATE DATA & A SECURE 
SYSTEM REDUCE BUSINESS RISKS. 

Data integrity — a challenge for any 
multi-user system — is insured by OASIS 
File & Automatic Record Locking. With 
it, normally all users can view a record 
at the same time. BUT, if the record is 
being updated by one user, other users 
are automatically denied access until 
the update is complete. That means 
data is always accurate and up-to-date. 
And it's still another OASIS exclusive. 

For system security, there's OASIS 
Logon, Password & Privilege Level. 
User Accounting keeps track of who used 
the system, when. (OASIS exact business 
fit #4: data integrity/system security.) 

A FRIENDLY SYSTEM IS 

GOOD BUSINESS. 

For user-friendliness, OASIS sets new 
standards. Example: the EXEC Job 
Control Language is so smart it walks 
users through their applications — 
and around the operating system. 

With our 'HELP' feature, if you are 
unsure of the functions and options 



Now you know why there's 
no reason to struggle trying 
to put a square peg in a 
round hole. For serious 
business microcomputing, 
there is one operating system that 
exactly fits: OASIS. Call or write us 
today for details. 

* For Z80. 
** For 8086, 68000, Z8000, LSI-11, & others. 





■ STRICTLY BUSINESS^ 

PHASE ONE SYSTEMS, INC. 

7700 Edgewater Drive. Suite 830 

Oakland, CA 94621-3051 

Telephone 415/562-8085 TWX 910-366-7139 

I'm serious about my business — 

please send me : 

D OASIS-16 Manual, $75 

□ OASIS Manual, $60 

□ Free Application Software Directory 
and put me on your mailing list. 

(Add S3 for shipping; California residents add sales tax.) 



Name. 

St. (No Box#)_ 
City 



State Zip__ 

□ UPS C.O.D. 



□ Check enclosed 

D VISA □ Mastercharge 

Card No Exp. date 

Signature , 



BYTE September 1982 251 



NSS Offers 

An Incredible 

Advantage. 




NSS software, written specifically for Northstar's 

ADVANTAGE™, outperforms any software available for 

Northstar computer systems. Our fully integrated accounting 

package includes general ledger, accounts receivable, 

accounts payable, inventory control and payroll — 

the first Northstar payroll package. 

Why NSS software? If you're a Northstar dealer, it means 

greater ease in closing sales of Northstar's computer 

systems within vertical markets. Or, if you own a Northstar 

computer, it means greater flexibility and expanded capability 

for your Northstar as a business tool. 

Our vertical market applications, such as those we have 

developed for tire dealers, are the best on the market. 

Let the ADVANTAGE Tw talk to you with NSS' unique cassette 

training tapes, demonstration disks and sales kits. NSS also 

provides dealer seminars and a toll free support hotline. 

That's The Incredible Advantage! 



Order your Introductory 

Dealer Kit NOW 

or 

CALL TOLL FREE FOR 
MORE DETAILS 



1-800-722-3446 



ADVANTAGE and Northstar are registered 
trademarks of Northstar Computers 




NATIONAL SOFTWARE 

SYSTEMS 

P.O. Box 510911 

Salt Lake City, Utah 84151 



hand-brailling of various scouting 
materials, I felt there had to be a 
faster way to translate our literature. 
Eventually, the idea of a computer 
translation came to my mind. 

While working on a program to 
graph multifunctions on a line 
printer, I devised a software method 
to allow brailling on a standard line 
printer with no permanent modifica- 
tions. Basically, the software treats 
the braille characters as four lines of 
graphics output per line of braille 
type. I hasten to add that you have to 
add a strip of specially prepared cello- 
phane tape to the printer, but it is not 
necessary to remove the inked ribbon 
or readjust the printer's impact force. 
Indeed, regular printer output can be 
handled concurrently with the braille 
output. 

The Latex Cushion 

The devised modification for the 
line printer had to be simple, quick, 
and easily removable. The solution 
was a 9-inch strip of half -inch-wide, 
double-stick cellophane tape covering 
a similarly sized strip of thin latex 
rubber, which was cut from common 
household gloves used for dishwash- 
ing. The best results were obtained by 
using so-called flock-lined gloves. 
Place the latex side of the strip against 
the cellophane tape, leaving the flock 
lining exposed. Finally, press this as- 
sembly into place on the metal platen 
behind the computer paper. When the 
printer head strikes the paper, it will 
leave an indentation because of the 
minute additional travel afforded by 
the flock cushion. 

Please note that the double-stick 
tape must be completely covered by 
the latex strip. This is very important 
because if any part of the tape is ex- 
posed, the computer paper will drag 
on it and cause paper-feeding jams. 
Of course, if you have a printer that 
uses a rubber platen (for example, an 
IBM Selectric), you would be able to 
eliminate the latex-tape cushion alto- 
gether. 

The Software 

The accompanying program (see 
listing 1) is written in standard, trans- 
portable (we can hope) Pascal. 



252 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 336 on inquiry card. 



"My Legend memory expansion cards enhance 
my Apple and are a superb product for the Apple 
Computer.* 

I think the cards are mapped appropriately 
for extra storage. 

The software supplied makes the cards useful 
even for those who can't modify DOS on their own. 

I look forward to upcoming products from 
Legend." 

Steve Wozniak 

Co-Founder, 

Apple Computer, Inc. 



If Steve Wozniak, Co-Founder of Apple Computer, 
Inc., thinks this highly of Legend products, we're 
doing something right. 

Go to your nearest computer dealer today and find 
out for yourself about Legend products. 

The Original HI -Density RAM Products 
for APPLE II 




2220 Scott Lake Road 

Pontiac, MI 48054 

(313) 674-0953 Office 

(313)674-1340 Modem 

Europe: B.I.P. 

25 Rue DuMont-Cenis 

75018 Paris, France 

(1) 264-02-32 

'Apple II is a product of Apple Computer, Inc. 



Circle 265 on inquiry card. 



Chances are, 

you've already purchased 

two-thirds of our digital, 

programmable 

oscilloscope. 










1 









r 




. 



it n wwmimjm, m v ». m mm ._ 
'or oar a, aal <t «0 > .flriK.a^ ess mm mm mm wm mm 





Apple II, Apple II Plus, Disk II and Silentypeare trademarks of Apple Computers, Inc. Epson MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



Now for $995 you can have the rest. 



In a word, the Model 85 
aScope™ is a dual channel, DC 
to 50 MHz, fully programmable, 
digital memory oscilloscope de- 
signed to operate with any Apple 
II™ or Apple II Plus™ equipped 
with Disk II™ and display, 48K 
memory and DOS 3.3. 

But don't let aScope's re- 
markably low price deceive you. 
Because in about 80 percent of 
all design a test applications 
where this sort of instrument 
would be used, aScope will per- 
form onpar with systems in the 
$15,000+ category. (Something 
we feel comfortable saying, hav- 
ing spent a number of years 
working in research and devel- 
opment for one of the world's 
leadina suppliers of those 
$15,CO0 instruments.) 

Still we recognize it's a 
somewhat extraordinary promise. 





system. But frankly, we suspect 
you are probably as intrigued 
as you could be on the basis of 
one advertisement. 

So we'll proceed with a few 
action recommendations de- 
signed to accommodate anyone 
from the casually curious to the 
virtually convinced. 

First, you should call 800- 
547-4445. That will provide you 
with an aScope data sheet and 
an opportunity to determine 
whether you'd like to invest $1 
in our comprehensive aScope 
demonstration disk. 

Or simply yield to your initial 
impulse and order the system, 
safe in the knowledge that 
(a) you may use the system for 
fifteen days, and if not satisfied, 
return it, and b) NWIS system 
engineers stand ready to assist 
you with any questions you may 




Single keystroke calls aScope™ 
operations menu. All sub-menus 
provide complete prompting. 



A reference waveform loaded from 
disk into Channel 2 for comparison 
with active signal on Channel 1. 



Cross-cursor indicates point 
where aScope™ digital voltmeter 
(DVM) is calculating waveform 
voltage for display at bottom of 
screen. 



One example of a user-defined 
co-resident BASIC program; in 
this case designed to plot an 
amplitude responsecurve for an 
active filter. 



So, perhaps before telling you what 
aScope can do, we ought to tell you 
how it does it so inexpensively. 

Essentially what we've done is depart 
radically from the existing instrumentation 
architecture upon which all currently avail- 
able digital programmable oscilloscope 
systems are dependent. It simply doesn't 
make sense to combine a stand-alone 



Bandwidth : DC to > 50 MHz equivalent time 
digitizing (-3dB) DC to > 10 KHz resolvable 
with real-time digitizing (-3dB) 
Resolution : 8 bits (1 part in 256) 
Range ; 10ns/di vision io 20s/di vision 
Sensitivity : 5mV/division to 5V/divtsion 
Input Impedence : 1MQand20pF 



programmable oscilloscope with a con- 
troller when to a great extent the micro- 
computer circuitry and capabilities of one 
are already available in the other; So we 
didn't combine, we integrated. Making the 
aScope a peripheral part of the computer. 
Supplying only what was necessary to 
make the computer a high-performance 
instrument. An instrument capable of 
things until now assumed impossible for 

Circle 347 on inquiry card. 



anywhere near its price. 

Things like what, you wonder? 

Well naturally, since aScope is fully pro- 
grammable you may configure a setup, de- 
fine the analysis of the acauired data you 
desire and produce an end result display in 
whatever form is most productive. Many 
frequently performed routines are already 
part of aScope's software. However, be- 
cause no two engineers' needs are exactly 
the same, the system's architecture was 
designed to accommodate considerable 
user modification via co-resident BASIC or 
assembly language programs. 

In addition, aScope will average 
waveforms. Store a waveform on disk in 
binary or text form. Store instrument con- 
trol settings for future automated setup, 
Or load and display reference waveforms. 

aScope is also equipped to deliver 
waveform voltage readings utilizing a 
cursor-controlled digital voltmeter. And 
to generate hard copies via an Epson 
MX-80™ or Sileniype™ printer. 

Space permitting, we could go on about 
the menu-driven commands and other 
user-sensitive features we've built into this 



have regarding aScope capabilities and 
applications. 

The $995 Model 85 aScope. We admit 
the performance it delivers for the money 
is so remarkable, it may initially strike you 
as unbelievable. However, when you recall 
all the breakthrough products this industry 
has seen over the last decade, sounding 
unbelievable atf irst is practically a tradition. 




NORTHWEST 
INSTRUMENT 
SYSTEMS, INC. 

P.O. Box 1309 

Beaverton, Oregon 

97075 

800-547-4445 




Listing 1: BRAILLE, a Pascal program that converts standard English text into standard Form I braille. 



<* 
U 

<* 

(41 
<# 

c* 



PROGRAMMER : ALFRED F ANT , . A . E . 
PROGRAM: BRAILLE 



10/21/81 *) 

*) 
*) 
*) 

ABSTRACT: *> 

THIS PROGRAM IS DESIGNED TO PRODUCE "REVERSE" BRAILLE FOR *> 

USE WITH AN STANDARD LINE PRINTER. THE BRAILLE CHARACTER ARE *) 

REVERSED TO ENABLE TACTILE READING ON THE BACKSIDE OF THE PAPER. *> 

*> 

PROGRAM BRAILLE; 

CONST P-- '" O '" ; C Your printer mav sive better results with "0" or "@" 3- 

VAR 

CAP I TAL , NUMBER , CELL , FORM ■» I ■» J : I NTEGER ' 
CHARACTER: CHAR? 

TA-*TB,TC: PACKED ARRAY CI.. SO 3 OF CHAR; 
TEST27, TEST27C: PACKED ARRAY CI.. 30] OF CHAR; 

PROCEDURE CONVERT (VAR CHARACTER: CHAR); 



BEGIN (^CONVERT*) 
CASE CHARACTER OF 

CELLa=CELL+2 5 



•-( 
-' ) 



#■ 

*" 



•' a 1 
•- b ■ 



•• I- 



BEG1N TCCCELL+2 3:«'Pi 

BEGIN TBCCELL3:=P? TBC CELL+2 3 : =P? 

TCC CELL 3 : =P ? TCC CELL+2 3 : =P 5 
BEGIN TBCCELL]:»P5 TBC CELL+2 ]: =P 5 

TC C CELL 3 : =P ; TCC CELL+2 "J : ~P ; 
BEG I N TC C CELL+2 3 : =P 5 
BEGIN TBLCELL3:=P; TRCCELL+23S-P? 
BEGIN TBCCELL3:=P; TB C CELL+2 ]: =P 5 

TCCCELL3:=P? 
BEG IN TBC CELL 3 : =P 5 TBC CELL+2 ] : »P ? 

TCLCELL3:«P3 
BEGIN TBCCELL3:«P? 

BEG I N TC [ CELL ] : =P ? TC L CELL+2 3 : =P ; 
BEGIN TBCCELL3:=PS TCCCELL3 : =P; 
BEGIN TBCCELL3s=P? TBC CELL+2 ]: =P; 
BEGIN TBCCELL3:«P; 

TCCCELL3 : -P5 TCC CELL+2 3 : -P? 
BEGIN TBC CELL 3 2 =P; TBC CELL+2 3: = =F; 

TCCCELL3:=F'5 
BEGIN TACCELL+2 3:«P? 

BEGIN TAC CELL+2 3 : =Pi TBC CELL+2 3 = = P; 
BEG I N TA C CELL 3 : -~-P ? TAC CELL+2 3 : =P 5 
BEG I N TAL CELL 3 : =P ? TA C CELL+2 3 : =P ; 

TBCCELL3:«P? 
BEGIN TACCELL+23:=P$ TBC CELL 3 : ==P; 
BEGIN TACCELL+2 3:«P? TACCELL3:«P? 

TBCCELL+2 3:=P? 
BEGIN TACCELL3:-P? TAC CELL+2 3 : =P 5 

TBC CELL 3 : =P; TBC CELL+2 3 a =p; 
BEGIN TACCELL+-2 3:=P; 

TBLCELL+23:-P; TBLCELL3:=P? 
BEGIN TACCELL3:=P; TB C CELL+2 3 : =P; 
BEGIN TAC CELL 3: «P; 

TBCCELL3 : = P; TBCCELL+23 : «P; 



CELL:=CELL+4; END; 
CELL:«CELL+4? END; 



ELL:=*CELL->4; END; 
ELL:=CELL+4; END? 
ELL:~CELL+4 5 END; 



CELL:=CELL+4; END 5 

CELL:=CELL+4; END; 

CELL:~CELL+4; END; 

CELL:=CELL+4; END; 

CELL:^CELL+4; END; 

CELL:=CELL+4; END; 

CELL**=CELL+4 5 END; 

CELL:=CELL+4; end; 

CELL:=CELL+4? END; 

CELLS «CELL+4? END; 

CELL:--CELL+4; END; 

CELLs«CELL+45 END; 

CELL:=CELL+4; END; 

CELL:=CELL+4; END; 

CELL:«CELL+4 5 END; 

CELL:=CELL+4; END; 

CELL:=CELL+4; END; 

CELLft=CELL+4? END; 

Listing 1 continued on page 260 



256 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




The Most Versatile Integrated System Available! — Without Compromise. 



From the crystal clear monitor with a 
true typist keyboard to the high 
performance switching power supply— an 
engineered solution— the 5000 IS system 
is designed with IEEE standard S100 Bus 
architecture, giving you the flexibility and 
compatibility expected of an industrial 
grade computer. 

Now you can have 1 MByte Floppies, 
25 MByte Winchesters with ECC, 
extended RAM memory (beyond the 
basic 64K), various peripheral controllers, 
and best of all, the 5000 IS can serve as 



the host processor of a multi-user, multi- 
processing system. Up to four I/O 
processors may be resident in the 5000 
IS, each with its own Z80 Micro- 
processor, 64K of memory and two Serial 
I/O Channels. 

With this flexibility you can configure 
the highest performance, lowest cost 
multi-processing system available. 

Memory parity— of course! Two year 
warranty— naturally! 

For complete information and 
specifications on the 5000 IS plus the 



location of your nearby IMS International 
dealer, call or write today! 
(714) 978-6966 or (702) 883-7611 




2800 Lockheed Way 
Careon City, NV 89701 
lelex: 910-395-6051 



INTERNATIONAL 



We Build Computers As If Your Business 
Depended On Them. 

See us at Fall COMDEX booth 1144 for more surprises! 



IMS INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS: 



Argentina Canada France India Korea Netherlands So. Africa Sweden United Kingdom 

Australia Chile Greece Israel Malaysia New Zealand Singapore Switzerland U.SA 

Austria Ecuador Hong Kong Italy Mexico Phillipines Spain United Arab Imerates West Germany 



Circle 230 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 257 



■ 



■--*?. 







On °Q 

o n °o 



'•'*-*i 



THE COMMODORE 64. ONLY $595. 

What nobody else can give you at twice the price. 



'O, 



oo.%; 




"THE COMMODORE 64 

COULD BE THE 

MICROCOMPUTER INDUSTRY'S 

OUTSTANDING NEW PRODUCT 

MTRODUCTION SINCE 
THE BOTH OFTHB INDUSTRY." 



-SHEARSON/AMERICAN EXPRESS 



They're speaking to a group as interested 
as anyone else in the future of computers: the 
people who buy stock in the companies that 
make computers. 

If, on the other hand, you're a person 
whose livelihood depends on a personal com- 
puter— or whose leisure time revolves around 
one— what follows should impress you even 
more than it impresses investors. 

MIGHT MAKES RIGHT . 

The value of a computer is determined by 
what it can do. What it can do is largely deter- 
mined by its memory. 

The Commodore 64's basic RAM is 64K. 
This amount of power is unusual enough in a 
micro at any price. 

At $595, it is astonishing. 

Compared with the Apple II+" for in- 
stance, the Commodore 64 IM offers 33% more 
power at considerably less than 50% of the cost. 

Compared with anything else, it's even 
more impressive. 

PILE ON THE PERIPHERALS . 

Because the basic cost of the 64 is so low, 
you can afford to buy more peripherals for it. 
Like disk drives, printers, and a telephone modem 
that's priced at around $100. 

This means you can own the 64, disk 
drive, printer and modem for a little more than 
an Apple II+ computer alone. 

HARD FACTS ABOUT SOFTWARE . 

The Commodore 64 will have a broad 
range of custom software packages including 
an electronic spreadsheet; business graphics 
(including printout); a user-definable diary/ 
calendar; word processing; mailing lists, 
and more. 

With BASIC as its primary language, it is 
also PET BASIC compatible. 

The Commodore 64 will also be program- 
mable in USCD PASCAL, PILOT and LOGO. 

And, with the added CP/M® option, you 



will have access to hundreds of exciting soft- 
ware packages. 

THE FUN SIDE OF POWER . 

The Commodore 64 can become very 
playful at a moment's notice. 

You can use Commodore's plug-in game 
cartridges or invent your own diversions. All 
will be enhanced by brilliant video quality 
(320 x 200 pixels, 16 available colors, 3D 
Sprite graphics), plus outstanding sound. 

The 64's built-in music synthesizer has 
a programmable ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, 
release) envelope, 3 voices (each with a 9-octave 
range) and 4 waveforms. All of which you can 
hear through your audio system and see in full 
color as you compose or play back. 
NOW'S Y OUR CHANCE . 

If you've been waiting for the "computer 
revolution," consider it as having arrived. 

Through its 25 years of existence, 
Commodore has been committed to delivering 
better products at lower prices. 

Today, the company's vertical integration 
has resulted in the Commodore 64's price per- 
formance breakthrough heralded by Shearson/ 
American Express. 

Visit a Commodore Computer dealer and 
discover the 64 soon. 

It will expand your mind without deflating 
your wallet. 

CP/M* is a registered trademark of Digital Research. Inc 

[Commodore Business Machines/Personal Systems Division 
P.O. Box 500 Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428 

Please send me more information on the Commodore 64. 
Name 



Address. 

City 

Phone_ 



„State_ 



_Zip_ 



C= commodore 

* COMPUTER 



BY-S 



Circle 93 on Inquiry card. 



Listing 1 continued: 



•- k - i 
■" 1 - 


BEGIN 

: BEGIN 


T A I! CELL+2 ] : =P 3 TC C CELL 1-2 ] s =P 5 
TAi:CELL4 23 = =P5 TBCCELL+2 3 : =P? 


CELL: 


=CELL+4? 


END5 






TC 1." CELL+2 ]:=P 3 


CELL: 


=CELL+4 3 


END 3 


•'" m "" 


. BEGIN 


TACCELL3 : =-p; TACCELL+2 3 : =P? 












T CC CELL+2 ]:=P 3 


CELL: 


=CELL+4 3 


END 3 


■"' r i ■'' 


: BEGIN 


T A C CELL ] : =F 3 T A C CELL+2 3 : =P ' 












TCC CELL f 2] : «P; TBCCELL 3 : =P3 


CELL: 


=CELL+4S 


END 3 


"■ o "* 


: BEGIN 


TACCELL-i23:=P3 TBCCELL] : «P5 












TCC CELL+2 ]:=P 3 


CELL: 


=CELL+4 3 


END 3 


"' p ' 


s BEGIN 


TACCELL] : =P? TACCELL+2] : -P3 












TB C CELL+2 ] : =P; TC C CELL *-2 1 : =P ; 


CELL: 


=CELL+4 3 


END 3 


■" ^ •'' 


I BEGIN 


T AC CELL ] : --P ; T AC CELL+2 ] : =P 3 TB C C 


::ELL ] : 


=P3 








TBC CELL+2 3 : =P 3 TC C CELL t-2 ] : =P ; 


CELL: 


=CELL+43 


END 3 


■-- r , ■•■ 


! BEGIN 


TACCELL+2] : =P3 TBCCELL] : »P; 












TBC CELL+2] : =Ps TCC CELL+2] : =P3 


CELL: 


=CELL+4S 


END 3 


"' c. •'" 


'. BEGIN 


T A C CELL ] : =P 3 TBC CELL+2 ] : =P 3 












T CC CELL+2 ]s=P 3 


CELL : 


=CELL+43 


END 3 


•'■ t ■■■ 


: BEGIN 


T A C CELL 3 : =P 3 TBC CELL ] s ^P 3 












TB C CELL+2 ] : =P 3 TC C CELL+2 ] : =P 3 


CELL: 


"CELL+4 3 


END 3 


'" u "' • 


BEGIN 


T A C CELL+2 ] = «P 3 TC C CELL ] : «P 3 












T C C CELL+2 ]:=P 3 


CELL: 


=CELL+4 3 


END 3 


•" v " i 


BEGIN 


TACCELL+2] : =P3 TB C CELL+2 ] : =P5 












TC C CELL+2 ] : =P ' 1 C C CELL ] : =P 3 


CELL: 


=CELL+4 3 


END 3 


•-ur" i 


BEGIN 


T A C CELL ] : =P 3 TB C CELL ] : =P 3 












T B C CELL+2 ] : -P 3 TC C CELL ] : =P 3 


CELL: 


-CELL+4 3 


END 3 


"' '.:< ""' > 


BEGIN 


TACCELL]--=P- TACCELL+2] : =P 3 












TC C CELL ] : =-P 5 TCC CELL+ 2 ] : =P 3 


CELL.: 


=CELL+4 3 


END 3 




BEGIN 


T AC CELL ] s =P ? TA C CELL+2 ] : =P 3 TBC C 


:ELL ] : 


=PS 








TC C CELL ] : =*P 3 TC C CELL+2 ] : =P 3 


CELL: 


=CELL+4 3 


END? 


■" z ■" 


BEGIN 


TA C CELL ] : «P 3 TB C CELL+2 ] : =P ; 












TC t CELL ] s =P 3 TC C CELL-* 2 3 : --=P 5 


CELL: 


=CELL+4? 


end; 


OTHERWISE WRITELNC-'ERROR- UNPRINTABLE CHARACTER: 


- , CHAR AC 


:TER)3 


END', <*CASl 


■*> 










END; (sCON VI 


iRT*> 











TEST27CCI]s=- 



BEGIN <* BRAILLE*) 
RESET ( INPUT) 3 
REPEAT 

FOR l:=?l TO 28 DO BEGIN TEST27 1 1 3 s = ' 
I : :=0 3 
.J: -0; 
REPEAT 
IS =1+1 3 

READ (CHARACTER); 
TEST27CC I ] : --CHARACTERS 

IF TEST27CC I ] = - ' AMD TEST27CC I- 1 3« "' ' THEN I: = 1-1 3 
I F CHARACTER I N C " A • ' . . " Z -" ,, - ■' . . ' 9 "' 3 THEN J : = J+ 1 5 
UNTIL I+.J >- 20 OR Cl+J >= 15 AND CHARACTER-- ■' > OR EOF (INPUT) 3 



END; 



FOR I : = 1 TO 20 DO TEST27 C I 3 : =TEST27C E 2 1 - 1 3 



( -K--K--K--K--K--K--K--K--K--K-K--K--K--K--K--K--K--K- ) 

<# Reverse letter * ) 
(# order- to al 1 o»u *> 
<•* tactile reading*) 



FOR l:=l TO SO DO BEGIN 

TACI]:-- 
TBC 13:=' 
TC C I ] : = - 
END 3 



C* Intial ize Brai lie *) 
i * Print: buffer #) 



260 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Listing 1 continued: 



I :=05 
CELL = = 1 " 
REPEAT 

I: =1+1 5 

CAPITAL: =05 C Flag to indicate capitals > 

NUMBER :»05 •[ Flag to indicate numbers > 

(* Present Braille Cell *) 
CHARACTER: *TEST27CI 35 (# Position number *) 

I F CHARACTER IN [ ' A "' . - - Z ' 1 
THEN BEGIN 

CAPITAL: «1 5 

(# allows space for capital sign * ) 
CHARACTER s =CHR ( ORD < CHARACTER ) +32 ) 5 ( *G i ve s 1 owe r * ) 
END; (ttcase char. * ) 

I F CHARACTER IN C ' -' . - ' 9 "' 1 
THEN BEGIN 

NUMBER: =15 

( * allows s p a c e -T o r n u m b e r sign * ) 
IF CHARACTERS '0-' THEN CHARACTER: =•' k * 
ELSE 

CHARACTER: *CHR < ORD ( CHARACTER ) +43 ) : 
END 5 

CONVERT ( CHARACTER ) 5 

IF CAPITAL**! THEN BEGIN 

TCCCELL3:«P5 
CELLS =CELL+3? 

END; 

IF NUMBER^ i THEN BEGIN 

taccell:i:=p; 

TBCCELL'J:=P; 

TCCCELL 3 : ~P? TCCCELL* i II \ =p? 
CELLs-CELL+35 
END; 
UNTIL 1=213 

<* DEBUGGING TOOL: Used to write the English forwards and backwards *) 
<* WRITELN(TEST27Cv ' ',TEST27>3 *> 

WRITELN? ( ****************************'M-*******^***********^« ) 

WRITELN<TA)3 <* Used to write the three line Braille cells *> 

WRITELN < TB ) ; ( ^^^^^^^^^^^^s^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^-fr^^ ) 
WRITELN(TC) 5 

UNT 1 L EOF ( I NF'UT ) 
END. <*BRAILLE*> 

Special program functions have been This restriction of 20 characters is not always be exactly 20 braille cells 

avoided in the interest of dissemi- used because only about that many on each output line. The program 

nating this program as widely as braille cells will fit on the standard continues to loop back and forth be- 

possible. 80-column page. BRAILLE then calls tween the reading and the translating 

The listing consists of the main pro- CONVERT to translate each charac- until the end-of-file marker is reached 

gram BRAILLE and the procedure ter into its corresponding braille cells. on the text file. The program then ter- 

CONVERT. BRAILLE reads a text However, since capital letters and minates. A sample of the program 

file character by character until it has numbers require two braille cells for output is shown in listing 2. 

20 letters and/or blanks in its buffer, their proper interpretation, there will Although the reader obviously can- 

September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 261 



90 Percent Perspiration 

Almost every story has a "story 
behind the story, " and this article is no 
exception. Just as Thomas Edison tried 
thousands of materials for his first light 
bulb filament before finally discover- 
ing his wife's cotton thread, 1 spent 
many months trying to come up with 
the right material for the braille printer 
pad. It wasn't easy. 

1 started with a pair of latex surgical 
gloves and found them to be too thin. 
Our blind Scouts, reading transcripts 
prepared with this material, com- 
plained that the braille faded after only 
a few readings. 



1 therefore tried strips cut from 
thicker and softer gloves, but the 
printer then began to jam. No matter 
how many different materials I tried, 
nothing seemed to work quite right. 
The answer had to be there — some- 
where. 

Success finally came with my dis- 
covery that flock-lined gloves were 
available at the Safeway supermarket. 
The cotton lining of these gloves pro- 
vided just the right amount of padding 
for the computer brailling idea to 
work. Thomas Edison would have 
been proud. 



not "feel" the indentations on the 
reverse side of listing 2, this output 
has been used successfully with the 
blind Boy Scouts. The monthly troop 
newsletter is now produced in both 
braille and regular print. As a result 
of this newsletter, we have found that 
the best indentations occur on thicker 
paper. The indentations are good for 
only about 15 readings by a blind per- 



son, after which the braille becomes 
too faded to allow correct letter iden- 
tification. Even so, this method is 
ideal for short-lived publications such 
as newspapers and correspondence. 

You may have noticed that 
BRAILLE allows at most only four 
words to be printed per output line. 
Though Braille does have a hyphen to 
mark divided words, it is better to 



divide as few words as possible. From 
personal studies of computer dic- 
tionaries, I know that five-letter 
words make up the vast bulk of the 
English language. Therefore, the pro- 
gram counts characters and looks for 
a space from the fifteenth to twentieth 
character (a word break). If a space is 
found, the line is ended. Otherwise, 
the line is broken after the twentieth 
character. Four brailled words may 
occasionally fit on the line of 20 
braille characters, but it is wise to 
keep a one-word safety margin. 

This program produces what is 
known as Form I or Grade I level 
braille. In Form II braille, abbrevia- 
tions are used to increase the number 
of brailled words per page. These 
standard braille abbreviations are for 
often-used words and letter combina- 
tions in the English language. This 
program does not address this ques- 
tion because of memory require- 
ments. On a larger computer, how- 
ever, it would be easy to program a 
look-up table for these abbreviations 
and their braille counterparts. Table 1 



r 



f 




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262 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 464 on inquiry card. 



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Circle 321 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 263 




Stop talking 



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WE BUILD ACCESS TO PRODUCTIVITY 



Circle 157 on Inquiry card. 



Listing 2: Sample output from the BRAILLE program, shown in listing 1. This is the first few lines of the Boy Scout troop's newsletter 
done in braille type. For the convenience of sighted readers, the English words are printed both backward and forward above the 
braille text. The text is printed in reverse because the blind reader must turn the paper over in order to read the braille cells by touch. 
The backward English enables the programmer to check for proper letter order. To keep from confusing braille readers, the program- 
mer should "comment out" the English-written line of the final program. 

September 1981 1891 refometpeS 

Q 

m 

00 00 00 00 

EVOKE Troop poorT EKOVE 



O 

o 
23 Newsletter rette 1 swelM 32 

o 

13 

00 00 

W e ui a n t t o u« e 1 c o m e e m o clem o t t n a w e W 





O o 

back Crais Fowler reluioF giarC kcab 



n 



* Del 1 Garner, ,renraG 11 eD , 






Matthew Jackson, , noskcaJ ujehttatt 

o o o 


m o 



Bobbv Wrisht: 



, thsirW vbboB 









and their- friends sdneirf rieht dna 

o 

O 



fron TSB. Their riehT . BST morf 

o 

O 

f - j 

first fall visit tisiv 1 1 af tsrif- 

o 

o o 



i n c 1 u d e d a t o li r ■ r . u ,-, tad e d u 1 c n i 






266 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




-tf* 



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THE MULTIUSER DATA BASE 



TM 






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Circle 142 on inquiry card. 



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*CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Pacific Grove, CA. 



The braille alphabet starts by using 1 combinations of the top 4 dots. The same 1 charac- 
ters, when preceded by a special number sign, are used to express the numbers 1 to 0. 



k I m n o p q r s i 

Adding the lower left-hand dot makes the next 10 letters. Adding the lower right-hand dot 
makes the last 5 letters of the alphabet (except w) and 5 word symbols, below. 



and 



for 



of 



the with 



Omitting the lower left-hand dot forms 9 digraphs, or speech sounds, and the letter w. This 
construction continues until all possible combinations have been used. 



ch 



gn 



sh 



th 



wh 



ed 



ou ow 



Table 1: The braille alphabet and some standard braille abbreviations. (Courtesy 
World Book Encyclopedia,) 



shows some of these abbreviations 
and the complete braille alphabet. 
(See reference 1 for all the standard 
abbreviations. ) 

Conclusion 

Braille writing for the blind has 
been an important contribution of 
Western civilization. It has brought 
many blind people into the realm of 
literature and music. As a program- 
mer, you can now take part in help- 
ing the blind to read. Volunteer your 
computer and time in translating for 
the blind people in your town. ■ 

Further Reading 

1. Ashcroft, S. C. and F. Henderson. Pro- 
grammed Instruction in Braiiie. Pitts- 
burgh: Stanwix House Inc., 1963. (An ex- 
cellent textbook for the adult who has had 
no previous knowledge of braille. A "learn 
to braille in 10 lessons" type of book.) 

2. Day, Margaret R. "Tactual Mapping and 
Nonvisual Perception." Master's thesis, 
University of Texas at Austin, 1976. (A 
major work in braille mapping, it covers 
the history of such special maps and the 
efforts to make them using computers.) 




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.345 
.285 
.310 
.250 
.295 
. 105 
. 165 
.139 
. 275 
.450 
. Call 



DIGITIZER/PLOTTER 

HOUSTON INSTRUMENT 
HI PAD DIGITIZER DT-1 1 11" x 11". 

DT-1 1 A w/APPLE Interface 

DT1 14 4 controls 

HIPLOTDMP-2 8%" x 11" 



.725 
.750 
.875 
. 920 



MODEM 



PRENTICESTARRS232. . 
D.C. Hayes Smartmodem . 



.175 
.220 



CALL (212) 937-6363 
free consultation, catalogue 

Prices subject to change. American Express, Visa/ 
Mastercard add 3%. F.O.8. point of shipment. 20% 
restocking fee for returned merchandise. Personal 
checks take 3 weeks to clear. COD on certified check 
only. N.Y. residents add sales tax. Manufacturers' 
warranty only. 

Computer Channel 
21-55 44th Road 
Long Island City, NY 11 101 



268 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 104 on inquiry card. 



Super Specials on SUPERB RAIN IIS 




SUPERBRAIN® DD, $2099 

QD, $2495 

NEW D 80 % B i E J IDED SV. $2949 

INTERTEC has introduced a new model, 
the SD (super density) with dual doub- 
le sided 80 track drives— TWICE THE 
CAPACITY OF THE QD-. The SD 
SUPERBRAIN is available from Mini 
MicroMart for $2799 



SUPERBRAINS come with CP/M; 
with the addition of an appropri- 
ate printer, and the necessary 
software you can have a com- 
plete data processing and 
/or word processing sys- 
tem. 

You can take advantage of 
our MicroPro word processing 
/tfOW WE* software special. WordStar for only $269; 

We will include MailMerge with WordStar for $358 or 
for only $489 you get the full package— WordStar, MailMarge and SpellStar 



vSoftBa* 



MiniMicroMart stocks the full INTERTEC line. 



Basic 80 is FREE, and a complete 
accounting package— GL, A/R, A/P, and payroll 
are available to run in MICROSOFT BASIC for 
only $269 

You can add capacity to your SUPERBRAIN 
by adding their 1 megabyte DSS Hard Disk. We 
offer it for only $2995-. We include the adapter 
cable to the SUPERBRAIN (if requested) at no 
extra charge. 




If you need a distributed processing system, 
INTERTEC has lowered prices on their full ser- 
ies of COMPUSTARS- the VPU 10, the VPU 20 
the VPU 30 and the VPU 40. Virtually any num- 
ber of these can be daisy- chained to share one 
of their hard disks, or they can be utilized as a 

stand alone computer, just like a SUPERBRAIN. 
-CALL US FOR PRICING- 

SUPERBRAINS and COMPUSTARS come 
with two built in serial ports, so you can support 
two printers or a printer and a modem. Among 
the printers suitable for the SUPERBRAIN are: 
Centronics 730-3, the 739-3, the 704-9 the Tl 810s 
or 820s, or Okidata 82s, 83s or 84s (serial version) 
the IDS PRISM series is also suitable. If you 
choose to use an Epson, you will also have to 
buy one of their serial interface boards. If you 
want a letter quality printer there is the NEC 3510 
or 7710, the Diablo 630 or the Qume Sprint 9/45. 

All prices, F.O.B. shipping point, subject to change. All of fers subject to withdrawal without notice. Advertised prices reflect a 2% cash discount (order prepaid 
prior to shipment). C.O.D.'s and credits cards are 2% higher. 

MiniMicroMart, Inc. 

943 W. Genesee St. P.O. Box 2991 B Syracuse, N.Y. 13220 (315)422-4467 TWX 710-542-0431 



SNTTCTEC COMPUSIAR'- 
[>\TA D6KSORAS6 
ESYSTBVtS. SV3HV1 



Circle 325 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 269 



Education Forum 



Computers and the Special 
Education Classroom 



Thomas R. Sicoli 

404 Darlington Dr. 

West Chester, PA 19380 



These students enter the classroom one or two at a 
time. They are in wheelchairs, on crutches, or in bed, 
because they are patients in a children's orthopedic 
hospital. Dan, for example, was injured in a diving acci- 
dent and is now a quadriplegic, paralyzed from the chest 
down. Bob suffered brain damage in an automobile acci- 
dent; he is now without speech and cannot walk. His 
memory and concentration are very poor. Jim has been 
paralyzed since birth. He was born with spina bifida (a 
congenital defect of the spinal cord). He is normal in 
some cognitive skills but lags far behind in others. He 
gave up trying to learn his "times tables" years ago. These 
are the students for whom the question was asked, "How 
can computers be used in a special education resource 
program serving kindergarten through twelfth grade?" In 
order to answer this question, an extensive search of 
available Apple software was made (see tables 1 and 2). 

A major concern of special educators has always been 
the difficulty in getting and holding the attention of 
brain-damaged or socially and emotionally maladjusted 
students. The student's attention span is greatly im- 
proved when using computer-aided instruction. Large 
color graphics are excellent attention-getters and are also 
beneficial for those with impaired vision. Programs that 
refer to the student by name personalize the lesson and 
keep him or her stimulated. Finally, the instant feedback 
on every item in the lesson also helps to sustain the stu- 
dent's attention. 

Another need in this classroom is for new and in- 
novative instructional strategies. Many special education 
students need much more repetition of lessons than "nor- 
mal" students. This can quickly become tiring for both 
teacher and student. The computer can relieve this 
drudgery. A student and a computer can work together, 
leaving the teacher free to work with others. 



Records on each individual student can be kept by the 
computer, with the scores from drills and quizzes 
automatically recorded. Instructional lessons and cues 
can be presented automatically. New programs for 
microcomputers are even exhibiting branching instruc- 
tional design. Instead of just a drill, programming can 
contain extra help in the form of remedial lessons for 
those having trouble with a particular lesson. For exam- 
ple, a student consistently having problems with reducing 
fractions would automatically receive a remedial lesson 
or be returned to a previous lesson that covers finding the 
greatest common factor of two numbers. 

Language development is an important part of the 
special education teacher's job. Computer speech synthe- 
sizers show great promise in helping those with speech 
defects to monitor and shape their own speech effective- 
ly. Recording devices can be built into a program to help 
in this task by playing a master pronunciation and the 
student's effort back-to-back for comparison. Computers 
can also be programmed to recognize regular but unintel- 
ligible sounds made by those without effective speech and 
then to output an intelligible word or phrase that enables 
the student to communicate. For example, a particular 
sound at a certain pitch could trigger the computer to 
output the greeting "Hello!" Finally, programs are avail- 
able to turn the computer into an electronic communica- 
tor. The push of a single button can cause an entire pre- 
programmed sentence or paragraph to be printed on a 
monitor or piece of paper, or to be spoken by a voice syn- 
thesizer. 

Valuable skills can also be acquired or improved by 
using microcomputers. Many disabled people have got- 
ten started on a career in computer programming with 
courses in computer literacy and BASIC programming. 
Motor skills, such as typing and eye-hand coordination, 



270 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Best Prices Anywhere I We Beat 'em All 



COMPUTERS: 

ALTOS List Less 20% 

NorthStar 

HORIZON 2Q-64K $2685 

ADVANTAGE $2985 

TeleVideo 
Computer Systems Call 

-/VewSUPERBRAINII- 




64K Double Density Jr., $1995 

64K Quad Density $2395 

64K Super Density $2795 

DSS-10 Meg. Hard Disk $2895 

— Cromemco— 

CS-1 List, $3995 Our Price. $3195 

CS-1 H List, $6995 Our Price, $5595 

CS-2 List. $4695 Our Price. $3549 

CS-3 List, $6995 Our Price, $5595 

Z2H List, $9995 Our Price $7995 

Soft Ware &• Accessaries Call 

Ymhizh I data 

systems 

Z-89 List, $2895 
Our Price 

$2099 
Z-90,...$2299 



MONITORS: 

-AMDEK- 

100 $129 

300 $189 

Color I $345 

Color II $759 

-BMC- 

BM-12 $159 

1401 RGB 400x150 Res $345 

ZENITH ZYN-121 $120 




TERMINALS: 

—TeleVideo— 




910C $569 

912C $659 

925C $719 

950C $915 

-SOROC- 

IQ-130 $585 

IQ-135 $719 

IQ 135 w/Graphics $789 

IQ-140 $995 

-HAZELTINE- 

1420 $589 

1500 $845 

1510 $1029 

ZENITH Z-19 $689 

DISK SYSTEMS: 

-MORROW- 

Discus2D $835 

Dual Discus 2D $1385 

Discus 2 + 2 $1069 

Dual Discus 2 + 2 $1855 

M5, 5Meg Hard Disk $1949 

M10, 10 Meg. Hard Disk $2995 

M26, 26 Meg. Hard Disk $3349 

-CORVUS- 

5 Meg. Hard Disk $2555 

10 Meg. Hard Disk $3955 

20 Meg. Hard Disk $4755 

MODEMS: 

D.C.Hayes Smart Modem $219 

NOVATION DCat $149 



PRINTERS: 

-CENTRONICS- 




730-1 Parallel. . . 


$349 


739-1 Parallel. . . 


$499 


739-3 RS232. . . . 


$599 


704-11 Parallel. . 


$1569 


704-9 RS232. . . . 


$1519 



—Texas Instruments— 

TI-810 Basic $1289 

TI-810 Full $1549 

TI-820 RO Basic $1545 

TI-820 KSR Basic $1739 

-NEC- 

3510 RS232 Call 

7710 RS232. 7730 Parallel $2295 

7720 RS232 $2795 

8023 $495 

Diablo 630RO $2049 

Smith-Corona tp 1 $685 | 

QU ME Call For Prices 

— Paper Tiger- 
Prism 80 vWo color Call 

Prism 132w/ocolor Call 

Color Option (for 132) Call 

— Epson— 

MX-80 $441 

MX-80FT $548 

MX-100 $745 

-OKIDATA- 

Microline80 $329 

Microline 82A $469 

Microline 83A $739 

Microline 84 Call 

C.ITOH Call For Prices 



Prices apply to prepaid orders only, and reflect acashdiscount. 
Charge card orders are slightly higher. 

Most items are in stock for immediate deliverymfactorysealed 
cartons, with full factory warrentees. N.Y. state residents must 
add appropriate sales tax. Pricesdonotmcludeshipping.C.O.D. 
orders require 25% deposits. All prices are subject to change 
and all offers subiect to withdrawl without notice. 



COMPUTERS WHOLESALE 

P.O. Box 91 Brewerton, New York 13029 

(315) 472-3055 



Circle 119 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 271 



Could you pass 

this Red Cross 

swimming test? 



SWIM: 

1. Breaststroke-100 Yds. 

2. Sidestroke-lOOYds. 

3. Crawl stroke -100 Yds. 

4. Back crawl — 50 Yds. 

5. On back (legs only) —50 Yds. 

6. Turns (on front, back, side). 

7. Surface dive— underwater swim— 20 Ft. 

8. Disrobe— float with clothes —5 mins. 

9. Long shallow dive. 
10. Running front dive. 
11. 10-minute swim. 



Anybody who's taken a Red Cross swim course knows 
how tough it can be. There's a good reason. 

We believe drowning is a serious business. 

Last year alone, we taught 2,589,203 Americans not 
to drown— in the seven different swim courses we offer 
all across the country. (Incidentally, most of the teaching — 
as with almost everything American Red Cross does — 
is done by dedicated volunteers.) 

A good many of the youngsters not only arc learning 
to keep themselves safe. Thousands upon thousands of 
them are learning to become lif esavers. 

And the life they save — may be your own. 



Red Cross 
is counting 
on you. 




A Public Service of This Magazine & The Advertising Council 



Coukm 



Hartley Software 

3268 Coach Lane #2A 

Kentwood, Ml 49508 

Letter Recognition — Kindergarten and first grade — 

Large characters $19.95 

Word Families — Changing letters to form new words $29.95 

Skilldrills— Arithmetic & Verbal— Large characters $14.95-$79.50 
Clock-Telling Time — Clock and digital style times $39.95 

(Scorekeeping automatic with most programs) 



Educational Activities Inc. 
POB 392 

Freeport, NY 11520 

Introduction to Mathematics on the Computer — Level 1-4 

Basic Math Competency Skill Drills — Covers +, —, x r 

•*- , fractions, decimals, areas 
O'Brien Vocabulary Placement Test — Self-scoring 
Our Weird and Wacky World — Literal and critical 

reading using the Cloze technique 
English Basics — Parts of speech, synonyms, antonyms, 

homonyms 
Flash Spelling — Teachers may add their own words 
(Most are self-scoring) 



$39.95 

$203 
$19.95 

$79.90 

$269.95 
$33.50 



George Earl 

1302 South General McMullen 

San Antonio, TX 78237 

Spanish Hangman — 1600 words and 450 sentences 

French Hangman — 500 words and 1 75 sentences 

(Self-scoring) 



$29.95 
$29.95 



Grover Associates 
c/o Scholastic Inc. 
904 Sylvan Ave. 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 

The Microcommunicator Version C — For a child without speech$46 
The Microcommunicator Version A — Adult vocabulary $46 

Program Design Inc. 

11 Idar Court 

Greenwich, CT 06830 

Pre-School I.Q. Builder — Readiness activities, colors 

and shapes $19.95 

Vocabulary Builder 1— Beginner— J. H.S. $19.95 

Vocabulary Builder 2 — Advanced — S.A.T. preparation $1 9.95 

Analogies — S.A.T. preparation with instruction $19.95 

Number Series — Projecting Series — S.A.T. preparation $1 9.95 
Spelling Builder— Rules and tests $23.95 

Reading Comprehension — What's Different? 

Categorization (2-4) $1 9.95 

Story Builder — Word Master — 4th grade and up $19.95 

Step-by-Step Course — Computer programming in 

BASICwithtext $59.95 

BLS Inc. 

2503 Fairlee Rd. 

Wilmington, DE 19810 

Arithmetic Fundamentals — Tutor Course 2-5 — 29 disks $1479 
Reading Comprehension — Tutor Course 3-6 — 15 disks $714 

Fractions — A Review Course — Tutor Course 6-7 — 

15 disks (color graphics) $765 

(Programs incorporate branching instruction design for remedial 
help.) 

Edu-Ware Services Inc. 
POB 22222 
Agoura, CA 91301. 

Algebra 1 — Definitions, Sets, Evaluation Expressions $39.95 

Perception 3.0 Visual Discrimination, Shapes and Length $24.95 

Table 1: Publishers of educational software packages and 
their products. These packages have been effective in a 
special education resource room. 




TEAM PLAYERS 




Master/Slaves 



1C©Q Micro UIQITQI, WG D0MBV0 In 

Hon between computers and 
ieir operators. That' s why our new team 
S-100 master and slave processors are 

designed with your team in mind and 
teature superlative reliability and ease of 
operation. 

Our team captain is SUPER QUAD, a 
unique multi-function master processor 
combining 64K of bank selectable RAM, 
single- and double-density floppy disk 
controller, system monitor EPROM, Z80A 
CPU, two serial and two parallel 
communication ports on a single board. 

r ers consist of one or more SUPER- 
he latest addition to Advanced 
itai's line of superior multi- 

S-1 00 boards. 



Each SUPER-SLAVE is a powerful single- 
board slave processor designed for use 
with the SUPER QUAD in either network 
or stand-alone configurations, The out- 
standing features of the SUPER-SLAVE 
include; 



r more information write or call: Sales Dept. 



• A DEDICATED Z80A CPU FOR EACH 
USER 

• IEEE-696 standard conformity 

• 4 serial 2 parallel interface ports 

• 2/4K EPROM (monitor) 

• 64/128K bank switchable RAM 

• One year warranty 

• Turbo-DOS™, the state-of-the-art 
operating system with an 
advanced failure detection and 
recovery facility that makes the 
master-slave network virtually 
crash-proof. 

• Also, for the first time CP/NOS® 
operating system from Digital 
Research. Plug as many SUPER- 
SLAVES into the BUS as you need 
users. 

Your team needs the strong support of 
the SUPER QUAD/SUPER SLAVE team from 
Advanced Micro Digital Corporation. The 
Super System includes SUPER QUAD and 
CP/M operating system. The shugart SA- 
1000 or quantum Q2000 hard disks are 
also supported. 




12700-B Knott Street • Garden Grove, California 92641 * (714) 891-4004 TELEX 678401 tab irin 



■ Registered Trademark of Digital Research Corp 
" Registered "rademark of Software 2000 li 



r Copyright 1981 Advanced Micro Digital Corp 
Circle 12 on inquiry card. 



Gamco Industries Inc. 


Opportunities for Learning Inc. 


POB310P 


8950 Lurline Ave. 


Big Spring, TX 79720-0120 


Chatsworth, CA 91311 


(915)267-6327 


(213)341-2535 




Scholastic Software 


The Micro Center 


Scholastic Inc. 


POB6 


904 Sylvan Ave. 


Pleasantville, NY 10570 


Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 


(914) 769-6002 


(212) 867-7700 


Table 2: Mail-order software 


retailers specializing in educa- 


tional software. These retailers can supply most of the soft- 


ware listed in table 1. 





can be taught and evaluated with existing software. 
Mathematical problem solving, equation writing, and 
plotting on a graph are just three of the many mathe- 
matical skills being taught with the aid of computers. 
Students can sharpen skills for the S.A.T. or G.E.D. 
tests. Finally, visual perception, manual dexterity, and 
eye-hand coordination can be taught through computer- 
ized electronic games, accessed through the keyboard 
paddles or joysticks. These games can be a motivational 
reward to be earned by students for achievement in other 
areas. 

Computers are highly adaptable tools and endlessly 
patient teachers. They can give the special education stu- 
dent useful skills to cope with everyday life, a method to 
communicate his or her needs, and perhaps a brighter 
outlook on life. ■ 



For The Best In Price, Selection and Delivery, 

%PCl|| 111 O WW I %#LL rlltt PRENTICE STAR: 300 Bd..$ 124 



800-368-3404 

(In VA, Call Collect 703-237-8695) 

AMPEX»INTERTEC«TEXAS INSTRUMENTS'GENERAL DATA 

COMM. • ANDERSON JACOBSON*C.ITOH*QUME • BEEHIVE* 

DATASOUTH'DIABLO'CENTRONICS -NEC 'PRENTICE 

Sprint 9, 45RO, Lim. Pan . $1845 



ONLY $1975 
ONLY $2350 
ONLY $2750 



SUPERBRAIN MICROS 



INTERTEC: 

64K DD* 

64K QD* 

64K SD* (96TPI) 

'(includes M/Soft BASIC) 

DDS- 1 Meg 

(H ard Disk ) BgBEIE B 

rjiTTrnraw 

NEC: 

7710 $2196 

771 5 Call for Special Price 

7730 $2196 

7720 Call for Special Price 

7725 Call for Special Price 

Std. Forms Tractor $ 200 

3510 $1390 

DATASOUTH: Call 

DIABLO: 630-R102 $1995 

630-R110 $1795 

630-R153* $1745 

•(for IBM P.O. Apple II, TRS-80) 

630-K104(KSR) $2385 

620-SPI $1195 

QUME: 

Sprint 9, 35 KSR $1840 



Full Panel $1969 

Sprint 9, 55 F.P.Ex.Mem. . $2186 
Sprint9,55RO,Ltd.Ex.Mem.$2095 
Bi-Dir. Forms Tractor $ 199 



TERMINALS 



AMPEX: 

Dialogue30 $ 775 

Dialogue 80 $ 939 

BEEHIVE: (SMART DISPLAY) 

DM5 Call 

DM5A Call 

DM31 0(3101 Emulator) Call 

NOTE: IBM and Burroughs compatible ter- 
minals available. Please inquire. 

C. ITOH 

CIT 101 $1350 

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS: 

745 Standard $1390 

745 Std. (Reconditioned) . . . Call 

810 Basic $1249 

810 Package $1439 

820 Package RO Package .$1610 

820 KSR Package Call 

840 RO Basic $ 795 

840 RO Tractor Feed Pkg. . $1 059 



DISC DRIVES 



QUME: 

Data Trak 5 . 
Data Trak 8 . 



.$300 or 2 for $549 
.$525 or 2 for $999 



SOFTWARE 



BISYNC-3780 $ 769 

Wordstar $ 289 

Data Star $ 1 94 

Mail Merge $ 99 

Spell Guard $ 229 

Plan 80 $ 249 

Super Calc $ 249 

Wordstar (IBM P.C.) $ 284 

Mail Merge (IBM P.C.) . . . .$ 96 

d Base II $ 529 

CalcStar $ 1 89 

SuperSort $ 186 

Nevada Cobol $ 176 



Special! While They Last! 

SOROC TERMINALS 

IQ 1 20 

IQ 130 

IQ 140 



ONLY S625 
ONLY $525 
ONLY S989 



In addition, we can make EIA RS232 
or RS449 cables to your order, and 
supply you with ribbons, printer 
stands, print wheels, thimbles for 
all printers listed. And many, many 
more items. CALL NOW. 

All items shipped freight collect either motor freight 
or UPS unless otherwise specified. All prices already 
include 3% cash discount. Purchase with credit card 
does not include discount. Virginia residents, add 4% 
Sales Tax. For fastest delivery, send certified check, 
money order or bank-wire transfer. Sorry, no C.O.D. 
orders. All equipment is in factory cartons with manu- 
facturers' warranty (honored at ourdepot.) Prices sub- 
ject to change without notice. Most items in stock. 



m 



TERniflBLS TERRIFIC 



Terminals Terrific, Incorporated, P.O. Box 216, Merrifield, VA 22116, 800-368-3404 (In VA, Call Collect 703-237-8695). 



274 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 459 on inquiry card. 



"QUAD 



THE 
QUAD 



The QUAD is a relational data base man- 
agement system and applications devel- 
oper allowing the non-programmer to 
develop his or her own business and per- 
sonal applications around a powerful rela- 
tional data base. Some of the applications 
you can build with the QUAD are: 

BUSINESS 

• Accounts Payable 

• Agricultural Management 

• Construction Management 

• General Ledger 

■ Human Resource Management 

• Inventory Control 

• Job Costing 

• Mail List 

• Order Entry 

• Payroll 

• Personal Scheduling 

• Professional Time and Billing 

• Property Management 

• Sales Analysis 

PERSONAL 

• Appointment and Gift Register 

• Budgeting 

• Car Maintenance 

• Family Medical Data 

• Home Improvement Information 

• Income Tax Information 

• Insurance Information 

• Inventory Information 

• Investment Information 

• Recipe Information 

• Shopping Lists 

• Time Management 

• Vacation Planning » 

The QUAD is designed for YOU, the 
computer user who wants to take full 
advantage of his computer. 

EXTENSIVE REPORTING CAPABILITIES 

The QUAD enables you to create an 
unlimited number of reports in any spe- 
cific size or form you desire using data 
from the QUAD database or another data- 
base. You may process and/or print data 
during any report. 

PROCESSING DATA 

• access information in up to 10 or more 
files during a report 

• perform arithmetic calculations on any 
data from any file 



%tD 




• updateand/or create files based on 
report processing 

• easily compare date information for 
quick aging analysis 

• perform up to 5 levels of subtotal ing 
within each report 

• retrieve records in sequential or indexed 
order 

• perform processing based on compari- 
son of data such as nested IF THEN 
logic 

PRINTING DATA 

• utilize your printer's capability by 
printing on any size paper anywhere 
on the page 

• print checks using the English equivalent 
for dollar and cent values 

• specify content of page headings, 
control headings and footings, detail 
lines and total lines 

• pause between printing of forms 

SAMPLE REPORT 




POWERFUL UPDATING CAPABILITIES 
The QUAD gives you two methods to 
update data within the data base. One 
way is directly through the terminal using 
a data entry process. The other is through 
batch updating based on existing data 
within the data base. 

• update as many as 10 or more files 
simultaneously, using the batch update 
mode 

• totally user defined screens 

• full screen editing 

• record sizes up to 900 characters 

• perform calculations based on data 
entered and data residing in other files 

■ access three different help screens 
during the data entry process 

• utilize your terminal's video capabilities 
when creating your terminal update 
screens 



• restrict alt or some c 
future changes 

• edit each data field for items such as 
phone numbers, numeric data, alpha- 
numeric data, date, time, social security 
number, etc., or your own defined edits 

• IF-THEN logic available during both 
terminal and batch updating 

SAMPLE SCREEN 



06/08/82 




ADD Ordt 


Entry IriUrrnalion 


■ 


1 '5 Records 


Or 


ler £r 


IryL 


ne liem (o 


CUSTOMER 




1005 


Kbwwc Koinj 








Cuslo 


!W iPO Nun- 


ber 


«25 




Sal* 


«*** 


°"" 1 


5 Martin S 


""* 












a CB507 

NuU»n<JBoHi 


Ova 


•'-■ 


100.00 
50 












Em. 


nded 


50 00 








Pi 


ess (ESC)H to 


He, P 







OTHER FEATURES 
SORT, INDEX, and REORGANIZE data 
files quickly and easily. Also link to user- 
written programs directly from the QUAD. 
Automatically generate menus to access 
each of your applications. 
The QUAD comes complete with an 
Accounts Receivable application ready for 
your use and a Checkbook Balancing 
application for you to build. 

The suggested retail price 
for all this is only $495.00. 

Available for most CP/M compatible 
hardware. 

To order your copy of the QUAD, contact 
your computer dealer, or call QuanTeckna 
Research today. 




QuanTeckna. 

Research Corporation 

6902 220th St. S.W. MOUNTLAKE TERRACE, WA. 
98043 206/364 6940 or 206/771-2488 



CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research. Inc 

QUAD and QuanTeckna are trademarks of 
QuanTeckna Research Corporation 



Circle 524 on inquiry card. 



Adaptive-Firmware Card 
for the Apple II 

Alternative input techniques give physically disabled 
individuals immediate access to standard software. 



At the present time, interest is 
growing in the use of microcomputers 
to help solve the needs of people with 
disabling conditions. A number of 
programs allow individuals to use a 
computer even though they may be 
too severely disabled physically to 
use the keyboard directly. 

Presented here is a low-cost 
adaptive-firmware card that can be 
inserted into an Apple II microcom- 
puter to provide a variety of "trans- 
parent" input routines including scan- 
ning, Morse code, and direct selection 
techniques. (The term "transparent" 
here indicates that the routines work 
in conjunction with other programs 
without requiring that the programs 
be altered in any way.) In addition to 
providing "keyboard" input, the card 
can also simulate the use of game 
paddles and switches for people who 
cannot use the game paddles them- 
selves. 



Paul Schwejda 

Alternative Communications Project 

Child Development 

and Retardation Center 

WJ-10 University of Washington 

Seattle, WA 98195 

Gregg Vanderheiden, Director 

Trace Research and Development Center 

314 Waisman Center 

1500 Highland Ave. 

Madison, WI 53706 

A large number of programs have 
been written that allow disabled in- 
dividuals to accomplish specific func- 
tions with a microcomputer. A vari- 
ety of special single-switch scanning 
routines, expanded keyboards, and 
encoding routines have been devel- 
oped; some of these programs require 
only a slight movement of one eye to 
allow an individual to select words, 
phrases, or commands from menus 
presented on the video screen. Most 
of these programs, however, cannot 
be used in conjunction with other 
standard microcomputer software 
packages. It is not possible, for exam- 
ple, to use many of them to control 
Visicalc (a spreadsheet program) or to 
enter characters and words into Easy- 
writer (a text-editing program). As a 
result, disabled persons are able 
to tap only part of the potential of 
microcomputers and the vast world 
of software that is available. 



In order to overcome this barrier 
and allow physically disabled in- 
dividuals access to standard software, 
transparent techniques and modifica- 
tions are being developed. These 
allow the disabled user to access the 
computer in such a way that both the 
computer and any software written 
for it function normally, just as if the 
computer were not controlled 
through a special input routine. Truly 
transparent techniques allow total ac- 
cess to any software written for the 
computer. 

One strategy for providing trans- 
parent input is the use of a keyboard 
emulator driven by a separate com- 
munication aid or another computer. 
Although very powerful and very 
transparent, this approach is costly 
because it involves the expense for 
both the emulator module and the 
communication aid or second com- 
puter. 



276 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




The New Gazelle 
8086 16-Bit Compute: 



In the microcomputer jungle/ 
one beast stands alone. The new 
Gazelle 8086 from Seattle Computer. 

Like the animal for which it's 
named/ the Gazelle is one of the 
fastest micro computers you can buy. 
And the Gazelle is more than just fast. 
It's fully integrated and ready to run 
with BASIC, FORTRAN, Pascal/ 
COBOL/ spread sheet simulator/ and 
word processor available now from 
Seattle Computer. 

To show you how swift our sleek 
new Gazelle is, it includes: an 8 Mhz. 
8086 CPU set, 1 28K of RAM, three 
RS-232 serial ports and a parallel port 
two 8" double-sided double-density 
floppy disk drives with controller 
(which provide 2.5 megabytes of 
storage), MS-DOS operating system 




(fully compatible with IBM PC-DOS/ 
SB-86). 

Also provided at no extra cost is 
Microsoft's BASIC Interpreter and the 
Perfect Writer word processor. There 



is space and even a built-in power 
supply for our future Winchester hard 
disk option. All in one package. Just 
add a terminal and printer and you're 
in business. 

Here is the best news. Gazelle is 
not only built to move quickly, it's 
priced the same way. You can buy the 
fully tested Seattle Computer Gazelle 
from your local dealer for $5995. 

Call toll-free 1-800-426-8936 
for more information. Dealers who 
have been hunting for a swift and 
sleek Gazelle are encouraged to call. 




TER 



11 14 Industry Drive, Seattle, Washington 981 88 

Circle 418 on inquiry card. 



Basic Description 

The purpose of the adaptive- 
firmware card is to provide complete- 
ly transparent control of the Apple II 
to people with severe physical 
disabilities who are unable to use the 
keyboard and game paddles in their 
normal fashion. To accommodate the 
largest number of individuals, 1 of 10 
different input modes may be selected 
by using a thumbwheel switch on the 
box mounted to the side of the Apple 
II (see photo 1). With each of the 
techniques, the normal keyboard re- 
mains active and can be used at any 
time. Also, a number of options 
available with the card facilitate its 
use by offering adjustable timing 
rates. 

The complete interface consists of a 
specially designed printed-circuit card 
that is inserted in slot 7 of the Apple II 
computer and a small plastic box that 
snaps onto the side of the computer 
(this contains the input jacks and the 
mode-selection thumbwheel). The 
card has a jumper cable ending in a 
16-pin DIP (dual-inline pin) connec- 



tor; it is very similar in appearance to 
the Apple language card. The DIP 
connector replaces a decoder IC (inte- 
grated circuit) located directly in 
front of slot 7 and gives the firmware 
card control over the I/O (input/out- 
put) decoding in the Apple. 

To install the firmware card, sim- 
ply remove the 74LS138 decoder im- 
mediately in front of slot 7 and insert 
the jumper plug. Then insert the 
adaptive-firmware card into slot 7 
and snap the interface box to the side 
of the Apple II. Photo 2 shows the 
adaptive-firmware card installed. In- 
stallation (or removal) takes less than 
a minute and, unlike that of other 
keyboard emulators, does not require 
the removal of the bottom of the 
Apple, nor does it require that the 
keyboard be disconnected from the 
main circuit board; this is done elec- 
tronically during operation. 

Operation 

To use the adaptive-firmware card, 
select the desired output mode with 
the thumb switch and turn on the 



computer. The disk will not be loaded 
immediately; instead, a message will 
appear on the screen asking for the 
sampling (timing) rate desired for the 
input routine. Once the rate is 
entered, the disk will boot as during 
normal operation of the Apple II. 
From this point on, whenever input is 
required, you may use either the key- 
board or the selected special input 
method. (The selected input method 
can be changed, as can the rate, sim- 
ply by resetting the system twice.) 
Now let's examine the available input 
modes. 

With the switch set in the normal- 
keyboard position, the Apple II acts 
as if the firmware card is not installed 
in the Apple. Input is accepted from 
the keyboard in the usual manner. 

With one-switch scanning, all input 
is handled through a single switch. 
When you press the switch, an array 
of letters and symbols will appear at 
the bottom of the screen, and the cur- 
sor will automatically begin scanning 
at the rate previously set. The letters 
are arranged in groups, and the 



Now available from your computer store- 
the whole line of AJ couplers and modems. 




Starting now you can buy A J acoustic data couplers and 
modems directly from your local computer store. 

Not just selected models. Any models. Ranging from the 
0-450 bps A 242A, the world's most widely used acoustic data 
coupler, to the revolutionary AJ 1259 triple modem that 
handles 300 bps Bell 103, 1200 bps Bell 212A, and 1200 
bps VA 3400 protocols. 

Whether you need full or half duplex or both in one; 
originate or answer, auto answer; acoustic coupling, or 
direct-connect— there's a model for you in the AJ line. 

Starting now you don't have to settle for second best. 




For the location of your local 
computer store handling the AJ line, call toll-free: 

800/538-9721 

California residents call 408/263-8520, Ext. 307. 

|T1 ANDERSON 
UU JACOB5DN 



278 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 27 on inquiry card. 



YOU PICK 
IE COMPUTER, 
MICROPRO 
MAKES ITPERFORM. 




There are a lot of fine names in microcomputers. But there's 
only one name in software to remember. MicroPro. Because 
MicroPro has taken the best ideas in business software and 
put them together to make the MicroPro Software System™— 
a family of software products that work together on more 
than 100 of the most popular brands of microcomputers, 
probably including yours* 

Software makes the difference. 

The key to getting the most out of your computer is the 
software you use. And the Software System is designed to get 
the most out, faster. The Software System is our new name 
for the MicroPro family of software products, each remarkably 
powerful and versatile— and even more so when you com- 
bine them. 

The products: WordStar®(word processing), MailMerge™ 
(WordStar option— personalized form letters and other 
file-merging uses); SpellStar™ (WordStar option— spelling 
checker); DataStar™ (data entry and retrieval); CalcStar™ 
(electronic spread sheet and financial modeling); SuperSort™ 
(sorting, selecting, and merging); and WordMaster® (video 
text editing). 

More solutions, less work* 

The Software System enables you to use your micro- 
computer to its fullest with less time and effort. That's 
because, for one thing, most MicroPro products have 
similar methods of operation, so it's easier to move 
from one product to another. And they readily adapt 
to your way of doing business, instead of forcing you 
to make changes to fit a rigid software package, like 
you have to do with many other software products. 
Most important, you can combine MicroPro products' infor- 
mation and abilities. The result a lot more ways to make your 



business more productive than you'd get from just using each 
product by itself. 

The System doesn't stop* 

Count on MicroPro to keep expanding the Software 
System with new products that make it even more useful and 
powerful in your business. Coming this year, a series of 
in-depth accounting packages; InfoStar™apowerfulreport 
generator and partner to DataStar; and StarBurst™anewkind 
of software that will link our products together into an even 
friendlier and easier to use package. 

If you're shopping for a computer, we recommend you 
shop for software even more carefully. After all, there are a lot 
of good hardware systems to choose from. But there's only 
one Software System. From MicroPro. 

To get our brochure on the MicroPro Software System, 
visit any of our 1200 dealers around the world. 

Or phone toll-free 800-227-2400, ext 933 
an California 800-772-2666, ext. 933.) 




(fflkfoPfCt 



INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION 



*Ask your MicroPro dealer to let you know which microcomputers can use MicroPro software. For the IBM®Personal Computer, WordStar and MailMerge are now available-other products coming. MicroPro Apple 
software requires a CP/M®-Z-80® adaptation device. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. CP/M is a registered trademark 

of Digital Research, Inc. Z-80 is a registered trademark of Zilog, Inc. c 1982 MicroPro International Corp. 

Circle 310 on inquiry card. 




vpp 



EIGHT USERS TO GO 

Pick up an Altos 16-bit, UNIX-based 

computer system today, and get minicomputer 

networking power at a microcomputer price. 



Looking for a powerful, yet 
affordable, 8-user computer system 
that has everything your business 
needs, including communications? 

Then getyour hands on an ALTOS® 
field-proven, XENIX"/UNIX"-based 
ACS8600 microcomputer. 

Our powerful 16-bit 8086 is 
packed with an 8089 for disk/memory 
interface, an optional 8087 math 
processor and an intelligent 780" I/O, 
which share the workload for faster 
execution and response. 

A unique memory management 
and protection system subdivides up 



INTER-ALTOS 
LOCAL NETWORK 




ACS8600-12 
20 MByte 
Winchester 
1-8 USERS 
with 
ALTOS- 
NET/ 
UNET"' 




ACS8600-14 
40 MByte 
Winchester 
1-8 USERS 
with 
ALTOS - 
NET/ 
UNET 



REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS 



ACS8600-12 
20 MByte 
Winchester 
18 USERS 
with 
ALTOS-NET/ 
UNET 
2780 
3780 
3270 
SDLC 
X.25 




ACS8600-14 
40 MByte 
Winchester 

1-8 USERS 
\ with 
2780 
3780 
3270 
SDLC 
X.25 




to one megabyte of memory (500K of 
RAM is standard), automatically giv- 
ing each user the maximum available. 
Built-in Error Detection/Correction 
(ECC) maintains system integrity. And 
it's all available today on our highly 
reliable, fully socketed, proven single 
board. 

Altos has exactly what you need 
for a smooth migration into the 
office of the future. Communications 
and local networking support, includ- 
ing Ethemer and ALTOS-NET ,M for 
inter-Altos networking. Large data 
storage capacity- integrated Win- 
chester, floppy and tape back-up in a 
wide range of configurations and 
capacities, from 20 to 80 megabytes, 
starting with the ACS8600-12 with 20 
MBytes and the ACS8600-14 with 40 
MBytes. Plus support of popular 
multi-user operating systems like 
XENIX/UNIX. MP/M-86'" and OASIS-16. 

Produced in the heart of Cali- 
fornia's technologically fertile Silicon 
Valley, Altos microcomputers are the 
professional choice of Fortune 500 
companies, computer service organ- 
izations, major software developers, 
and even mainframe computer 
manufacturers. 



Founded in 1977, Altos has 
already delivered more than 25,000 
multi-user systems to major OEM 
customers. Plus Altos maintains a 
worldwide sales and service network. 

So when you want a multi-user, 
multi-tasking computer system that 
has the communications capabilities 
your business demands, and you 
want it today, pick up an Altos. For 
further information, call our toll-free 
number or write: 

Altos Computer Systems, 
2360 Bering Drive, 
San Jose, CA 95131. 
Tfelex 171562 ALTOS SNJ 
or 470642 ALTO Ul. 



Packed with 
fresh ideas 
for business 

COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

800-538-7872 

(In Calif. 800-662-6265) 

Circle 21 on inquiry card. 



ALTOS is a registered trademark and ALTOS-NET is a trademark of Altos Computer Systems. Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox Corp. MP/M-86 is a trademark of Digital Research. Inc. OASIS-16 is a product 
of Phase One Systems. Inc. XENIX is a trademark of Microsoft and is a microcomputer implementation of the UNIX operating system. UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories. Z80 is a trademark of 
Zilog, Inc. UNET is a trademark of 3Com Corp. 8086. 8087 and 8089 are products of Intel Corp. 
?' 1982 Altos Computer Systems 




Photo 1: The adaptive- firmware card. The device allows disabled users to run standard, unmodified software (such as games, 
Visicalc, Easywriter, etc.) using any of 10 input routines, some of which require use of only a single switch. (Photo by Ed Crabtree.) 




Photo 2: The adaptive-firmware card as installed on an Apple 11. The device plugs into slot 7 of the Apple; it remains hidden to the 
Apples system yet allows the disabled user complete access to the Apple and its software. (Photo by Ed Crabtree.) 



groups are scanned first. When you 
select the desired group, the cursor 
will then scan the individual letters or 
symbols within that group; they are 
arranged in such a fashion that the 
most-used letters are easiest (that is, 
fastest) to reach (see table 1). This 
routine uses the screen without alter- 
ing the contents of the screen, and can 



be used in a transparent fashion with 
any screen-display program, in- 
cluding those programs that use the 
graphics screens. 

When step scanning is selected, all 
input is controlled through a single 
switch, as in one-switch scanning. 
When you press the switch, an array 
of letters appears at the bottom of the 



screen, but the cursor does not auto- 
matically begin scanning. In step 
scanning, you hit the switch repeated- 
ly to advance the cursor group by 
group. When you reach the desired 
group, wait a moment. After a brief 
delay (the duration is user-selectable), 
the group will begin flashing. Then 
you hit the switch repeatedly to ad- 



282 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



vance, letter by letter, within the 
group. When you reach the desired 
character, wait again. After another 
brief delay, the computer will accept 
the letter as if it had been typed on the 
keyboard. (This method is useful for 
individuals who are unable to handle 
the precise timing required for the 
one-switch scanning method.) 

Inverse scanning operates in the 
same manner as one-switch scanning 
except that you hold the switch down 
to scan and release it to select a group 
or item. 

In the Morse code 1 mode, you 
press a single switch to send short or 
long signals ("dits" and "dahs") to the 
computer. International Morse code 
or any other code can be used. In ad- 
dition, all other signals available 
from the keyboard are also sup- 
ported, including Repeat and Reset 
(see table 2). 

With Morse code 2, two switches 
are used to form an automatic keyer. 
One switch sends dits, and the other 
sends dahs. If either switch is held 
down, it will send out a series of dits 
(or dahs) until released. In addition, 
the software for this mode has a 
memory buffer and will allow you to 
get ahead of the computer; thus, if 
you send "dah dit dah" and hit the dit 
switch before the first dah is finished, 
the firmware card will still accept the 
input. 

In the assist ed-keyboard mode, 
two auxiliary switches are used for 
the Shift and Control functions. If 
you hit the auxiliary Control switch 
once, the next character will be a con- 
trol character, but following key- 
strokes will be unaffected. However, 
if you hit the auxiliary Control switch 
twice, the system will lock in the 
Control mode, and all subsequent 
key presses will be sent as Control 
keys until the auxiliary Control 
switch is activated a third time. The 
auxiliary Shift switch operates in the 
same fashion. These switches allow a 
one-finger typist or someone using a 
headstick to type all shift and control 
codes. 

A special mode is also provided 
that allows the Repeat function. To 
repeat a character, first type the 
character on the keyboard. Then ac- 



Array 


Contents 


Special Meanings 


Alphabet 


R<#.+ EOHWY TIRUP ANLBK 


R 


carriage return 




SMFVQ DCX JZ G . ! ? 


< 


backspace 






# 


call numbers array 
call punctuation array 






+ 


repeats last character 


Numbers 


R<A. 1234 567 890+ *-/= 


R 


carriage return 






< 


backspace 






A 


call alphabet array 
call punctuation array 






■* 


multiplication symbol 


Punctuation 


. ,?! #"$% '( )* /~:_ 


R 


reset 




+ ; @/ -= REC 


E 


escape 






C 


control 


Table 1: Speed-oriented grouping. To maximize 


the user's speed, the letters are 


grouped so that the most-used letters take the least time to reach. Spaces can be 


generated by stopping at any space in the array. 


Numbers and special characters 


are accessed through special scanning lines called 


up from the main scan line using 


the "#" and ". ' 


' characters. 







tivate the auxiliary Shift switch, character typed will repeat. (Ac- 
followed by the auxiliary Control tivating the Control switch first 
switch. As long as you hold down the followed by the Shift switch will 
auxiliary Control switch, the last result in a shifted control character, 



DOUBLE YOUR 
DISK SPACE 
INSTANTLY! l 




I M A G I N E 
ELIMINATING 
YOUR CRAMPED 
DISK STORAGE 
PROBLEMS 
IN LESS THAN 
FIVE MINUTES 




THE G&M SYSTEMS' 
UPGRADE KIT 

WORKS ON VIRTUALLY 
EVERY BRAND OF 
SINGLE SIDED FLOPPY 
DISK PRESENTLY 
MANUFACTURED 



5.25 

Ube fore 



G6.M SYSTEMS, P.O. BOX 111 
FLOURTOWN, PA. 19031 

Please send me: 

5V Upgrade kit(s) £ $25.00 

8" Upgrade kit (s) e $28.00 

Order both and save $14.00 

Combo kit(s) 5V&8" $39.00 

Total Enclosed $ 

We pay all taxes and shipping 
D Check □ Money Order 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY 



STATE 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 283 



• '•-::' ; ; '"'■.'■.-'. r'-;:-: 



' 






IBM-PC SUPPLY CEI 


ITFR 


_ _ ^ m _^_ •>__ 


ii cn 


■Z Z^mZ b^^Zh 


PERIPHERALS 1 SOFTWARE 




FOR THE IBM PC 




PERSONAL COMPUTER 




HARDWARE: 








CORVUS, Hard Disk Systems. See Corvus section this page 




SAVE 


Microsoft, 64K RAM Card 


New! 


$395 


20% 


128K RAM Card 


New 1 


$555 


20% 


256K RAM Card 


New! 


$875 


20% 


64K RAM Chips 


New 1 


$160 


20% 


Quadraoi, Quad Board 256K, 4 function brd. New! 


$689 


31% 






$ 49 


25% 


SOFTWARE: 








Automated Sim. Temple of Apshai 




$ 29 


25% 


Cavalier, Championship Blackjack 




$ 29 


25% 






$112 


25% 


Denver. Easy (Exec. Accounting Sys. 




$545 


25% 


Infocom. Deadline 




$ 39 


25% 


Zorkl 




$ 23 


25% 


Zork II 




5 23 


25% 


Innovative. T.I.M. Ill (a DBMS) 




$369 


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ISM, Mathmagic 




$ 69 


25% 


W Insoft. Accountant 








ForeachGL.A/R. A/P or Payroll. Absolutely the best IBM-PC accounting software 


we have seen. We use it and recommend it highly. A best buy! 


$ 99 




Info. Unlimited. 








Easywrrter II 


New! 


$259 


25% 


Phone Support on Easywriter II 




Call 


Call 


Easyspeller (88K words) 


New! 


$129 


25% 


Easyfiler (a DBMS) 


New! 


$299 


25% 


Micro Pro, Wordstar 


New! 


$249 


40% 


MailMerge 


New 1 


$ 79 


40% 


SpellStar 




$149 


40% 


Sorcim. Superwnfer 




$295 


25% 


Super Calc 




$219 


25% 


Visicorp, Visicalc 




$159 


20% 


Visicalc/256K 




$199 


20^ 



^C commodore 




VIC 20 Home Computer 

DatasetteVIC 1530 

Disk DriveVIC 1540 

Super Expander VI0 1211A 3K with lots of extras 

3K Memory Expander Cartridge 

8K Memory Expander Cartridge 

16K Memory Expander Cailridge 

VIC Modem. Telephone Interface 

VIC/IEEE-488 Interface 

Joystick 

Game Paddle Pair 

Software full line in stock. Call 



$229 24% 



$ 59 
$479 
$ 56 
$ 32 
$ 48 
$ 88 
$ 96 
$ 80 
$ 8 
$ 15 



A 

ATARI 1 



800 Computer 16K 
800 Computer 32K 
800 Computer 48K 
400Computerl6K 
810 Disk Drive 
850 Interface 
410 Recorder 



Special! 



820 Printer 40 Col. Impact 
822 Printer 40 Col. Thermal 
830 Acoustic Modem 
16K RAM 
32K RAM 

Le Stick by DatasoM 
Game Paddles (pair) 
Joystick (pair) 
SOFTWARE: 

Visicalc. Disk 

Word Processing, Disk 

Pacman, Cart 

Centipede, Cart 

Caverns of Mars, Disk 

Touch Typing, tape 

Personal Financial Mgt. Disk 

Entertainer Kit, Carf 

Educator Kit. Cart 

Programmer Kit, Cart 

Communicator Kit, Cart 

Dow Jones Invest. Disk 

Temple ol Apshai by Automated, Disk 

Apple Panic by Broderbund. Disk 

Raster Blaster by Budgeco. Disk 

Bug Attack by Cavalier, Disk 

Text Wizard by Datasoft, Disk 

Compu-senes by Edu-Ware. Disk 

Deadline by Infocom, Disk 

Zork II by Infocom, Disk 

Asteroid by On-Lme. Disk 



New! 
New! 



$665 
$747 
$777 
$225 

$444 
$159 
$ 79 
$269 
$279 
$159 
$ 85 
$109 
$ 29 
$ 18 
$ 18 

$189 
$119 
$ 35 
$ 35 
$ 31 
$ 19 
$ 55 
$ 79 
$125 
$ 55 
$335 
$ 99 
$ 29 
$ 23 
$ 23 
$ 23 
$ 75 
Call 
$ 37 
$ 29 
$ 20 



20% 
SAVE 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 



SAVE 
38% 
37% 
40% 
25% 
26% 
25% 
21% 
14% 
14% 
28% 
15% 
20% 
28% 
20 
20 

25% 
23% 
22% 
22% 
23% 
23% 
22% 
33% 
29% 
22% 
26% 
24% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 



Portland, OR, Cash & Carry Outlet 

11507-D SW Pacific Hwy., Pacific Terrace Shop. Ctr., Tigard. OR. Over-the- 
counter sales only. On 99W between Rte. 217 and Interstate 5. Call 245-1020. 



f\W% /llfl BUSINESS & DEVELOPMENT 
V/r/ IVI SOFTWARE 

SAVE 

Adventure, Adventure's #1 to 812 inclusive, 8" $ 95 26% 

* Ashion-Tate, dBase II, 8" $495 30% 

Datasoft, Mychess, 8" $ 39 25% 

Fox & Geller. Quickcode for dBase II $249 13% 

Quickscreen for d8ase II $129 13% 

dUtil for dBase II $ 75 25% 

Infocom, Deadline, 8" $ 45 25% 

Zork II, 8" $ 39 25% 

Innovative. Spellguard, 8" $220 25% 

"A" Insoft. Accountant, 8", each module 

For each GL. A/R, A/P or Payroll Absolutely one of the best accounting software 

system available. We use it and recommend it highly. A best buy! $ 99 

MicroCraft. Legal Billing & Time Keeping $395 45% 

Prof. Billing & Time Keeping $395 45% 

MicroPro. Wordstar, 8" $249 40% 

Datastar. 8" $199 40% 

Mailmerge. 8" $ 79 40% 

Super Sort, 8" $150 40% 

Word Master. 8" $ 90 40% 

Spell Star. 8" $150 40% 

Calc Star. 8" $180 40% 

Microsoft, fortran-80, 8" $325 25% 

Basic Compiler, 8" $295 25% 

Cobol-80, 8" $545 25% 

Basic 80, 8" $275 25% 

Peachtree. Magic Wand, 8", Word Processor $275 30% 

GL, A/R. A/P, PR or I nventory, 8" $325 35% 



m 



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* H/P 7470A Graphics Plotter 
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H/P 41C Calculator 
H/P 41CV Calculator 2.2K 
Card Reader for HP41 
Printer/Plotter for HP41 
Optical Wand for HP41 
Software: 

Visicalc + for HP87 

Visicalc ♦ for HP125 

* Accountant by Insoft for HP125 
ForeachGL.A/R. A/P or Payroll. Absolutely the best HP125 accounting software we 
have seen. We use it and recommend it highly. A best buy! 

Full line of HP accessories and software Call Call 



$1795 
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36% 
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28% 
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• * 

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6 Meg Hard Disk $2495 20% 

1 1 Meg Hard Disk $3995 20% 

20 Meg Hard Disk $4795 20% 

Mirror built-in for easy backup $ 649 20% 

Apple Interface $ 239 20% 

Apple III Interface (SOS) $ 239 20% 

IBM PC Interlace (IBM DOS) $ 239 20% 

Xerox Interface (CP/M) $ 239 20% 

NEC Interface (CP/M) $ 239 20% 

TRS-80 Interface (call) Call 20% 

Other Interfaces. Omni-Net. Constellation. Mirror. All in Stock. 



SEC 



SAVE 

8001 32K Computer $ 739 25% 

286K Total. Dual Drive PC8031 $ 739 25% 

32K addon and 1/0 Unit PC8012 $ 485 25% 

Ren Tec "The Wedge" 32K $ 495 17% 

8023 Impact Printer F/T $ 480 25% 

Impact Printer Cable $ 49 25% 

3510 Letter Quality Daisy Wheel Printer $1995 20% 

Monitor, 12" Green $ 159 25% 

Monitor, 12" Color $ 349 25% 

Software: 

NEC CP/M DOS for NEC 8001 $ 115 25% 

NEC Report Manager $ 135 30% 

NEC General Accounting $ 239 40% 

NEC Accounts Receivable $ 239 40% 

NEC Inventory System $ 239 40% 

NEC Payroll System $ 239 40% 

NEC Game Pack I $ 24 20% 

NEC Game Pack II $ 24 20% 

NEC Word Processor $ 395 20% 

Infocom. Zork II $ 29 25% 

Deadline $ 39 25% 

Insoft, Accountant 

For each GL A/R. A/P. or Payroll. Absolutely the best NEC accounting software we 

have seen. We use it and recommend it highly. A best buy! $ 99 



fJSCl 



MICRO-SCI 



FOR THE ftPPtf 1 

DIRECT SUBSTITUTES lor 
APPLE DRIVES 



Micro-Sci A2 drives and/or controllers are direct plug compatiable substitutes foi 

Apple drives and controllers. A2 will run all Apple software. Save over $350 on an A40 

or A2 dual drive system. We use them and highly recommend the product. 

*A2, 5'/«", 143K Disk Drive $369 

Controller Card for A2 Drive $ 79 

A40, 5U", 160K Disk Drive $359 

A70, 5W", 286K Disk Drive, Double Density $479 

Controller Card for A40 or A70 Drive $ 79 

Filer, Disk Utility Software System for A2 Drives $ 15 



23% 
21% 
20% 
20% 
21% 
25% 



OVERSTOCK SPECIAL 

, ^32 : for the 

'^Tcippkz N/N+ 







SAVE 


ALS 16K AddRAM Card 


$ 59 


60% 


ALS ZCard, 280 CP/M Card 


$199 


27% 


ALS Smarterm 80 Col, Card 


$229 


34% 


ALS Synergizer Pack 


$450 


40% 


ALS Synergizer Pack with Supercalc 






by Sorcim (while they last) 


$495 


53% 



PRINTERS, Daisy Wheel 

SAVE 
* Quife. Sprint 9,45 Cps.RO SPECIAL! $1750 33% 

Sprint 5, 45 Cps. R0 SPECIAL! $1795 40% 

-frOlympia (Typewriter/Printer) ES 100 18CPS, with lull cable 

and interface to Apple II $1295 24% 



PRINTERS, 


Impact 




SAVE 


Epson See Epson section below 




See below 


IDS. Prism 132, Color w/Graphics 




$1595 


20% 


Prism 80. Color. w/Graohics 




$1495 


17% 


Pager Tiger 445IJ, w/Graphics & 2K 


Special! 


$ 595 


35% 


Pager Tiger, 560, w/Graphics 




$ 995 


30% 


Okidata, Microline 82A. 120 Cps. 80 Col. Para & Serial 


$ 495 


15% 


Microlme 84S. 200 Cps. 136 Col. Serial, 200 Cps. 


$1295 


15% 


tl OvJIM PRINTERS & ACCESSORIES 










SAVE 


MX80 w/Graffrax 




$425 


31% 


Mx80 F/T w/Graftrax ♦ 




$525 


25% 


MX100 F/T w/Graftrax + 




$695 


27% 


Apple Interface and Cable for MX80/MX100 




$ 95 


15% 


Graftrax 80 for MX80 




$ 79 


20% 


Epson/Atari Cable 




$ 30 


26% 


Epson TRS 80 Cable 




$ 30 


26% 


Grappler by Orange Micro, Specify Computer 




$129 


21% 


MONITORS 












SAVE 


NEC. 12" Green 




$159 


25% 


12" Color, Composite 




$349 


25% 


Sanyo. 








9" B&W 




$149 


25% 


"A" 9" Green, Overstock Special 


$139 


36% 


12" B&W 




$199 


20% 


12" Green 




$199 


25% 


13" Color, Composite 




$349 


25% 


Zenith, 12" Green 




$119 


30% 


Amdek. 12" Green #300 




$159 


38 


13" Color 1, Composite 




$359 


20% 


13" Color II. RGB 




$799 


20% 


Color II to Apple II Interface 




$159 


20% 


Comrex, 13" Color, Composite 




$349 


27% 


13" Color. RGB for IBM-PC 




$529 


15% 


DISKETTES 






•CDC 12 for 10 Special. L 


mited Time! 




SAVE 


CDC. 120 each, 5'4. with ring, SS, SD (Apple, IBM 


, etc.) 


$195 


57% 


12 each, 5U, wtth ring, SS. SD (Apple, IBM 


etc.) 


$ 22 


45% 


12 each, 5U, with ring, SS. DD (H/P. etc.) 




$ 28 


45% 


12 each 8", SS, SD 




$ 28 


45% 


Verbatim, 10 each 5'4, with ring, SS, SD 




$ 28 


45% 


Maxell, 10 each 5 '/., SS. SD 




$ 35 


33% 


Dysan, 10 each 5U, SS. SD 




$ 39 


30% 


10 each 5, DS. DD 




$ 49 


25% 



ORDERING INFORMATION AND TERMS: WeshipimmediatelyonCashierChecks,MoneyOrders,Fortunel000Checks,andGovernmentChecks. 
PersonalChecks and Company Checks allow 20 days to clear. Add 3% for VISA or MC. Add 3% for shipping, insuranceand handling (minimum$5). UPS ground is standard. Add 10% more 
for US Postal, APO or FPO. Include telephone no. No COD. Prices subject lo change and typographic errors, so call to verify. All goodsare new, include factory warranty, and are guaranteed 
to work. Due to our low prices all sales are final. Call before returning goods for repair or replacement. ORDER DESK HOURS: 8 to 6 PST, M-F. 10 to4 Sat.& Sun. 1 p.m. here is4 p.m. in NY. 

OUR REFER EN CEo! We have been a computer dealer since 1978 and in mail order since 1980. Banks: First Interstate Bank, (503)776-5620 and Jefferson State Bank, 
(503) 773-5333. We belong to the Chamber of Commerce, (503) 772-6293, or call Dun & Bradstreet if you are a subscriber. Computer Exchange is a division of O'Tech Group. Inc. 



fi!3 53Q 



NO SALES 
TAX 



Oregon Order Desk 
(503) 772-3803 

Ad #937 



NATIONAL TnTT rnrr 
ORDER DESK 1ULL ri\tt 

(800)547-1289 

Circle 106 on inquiry card. 



?^%^^tl 



Exclusively for 



ifll Belle- HovvgII by Kippkz computer 



LIST 
PRICE 



OUR 
PRICE 



SAVE 



B&H Apple 11 + 

64K (48K+ALS16K) 
DISK II w/3.3 Cont. 

DISK II Only 
OR: 



M725 $ 1195 $ 530 

$ 645 $ 520 M25 

$ 525 $ 450 $ 75 

SAVE OVER s 350 on a pair of drives. 
Buy a pair of Micro-Sci A2 Drives. 
See opposite page. 



cippkzn/ii+ 

supply center 



HARDWARE 



for Apple ll/IM 



$ 149 
$ 59 
$ 169 
$ 319 
$ 459 
$ 75 
$1145 

$ 229 
$ 249 



SAVE 

33% 
60% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
20% 

34% 
28% 



15% 

34% 
27% 
60% 
40% 



$ 495 53% 



MICRO-SCI. Disk Drives, Plug/software compatiable 
to Apple. See opposite page. 
RAM CARDS: 
Microsoft. 16K RAM Card 
* ALS. 16K ADDRam 
Saturn Systems, 32K 
64K 
128K 
VC Expand 40 or 8 
Axlon, 320K RAM Disk system 
80 COLUMN VIDEO CARDS: 
ALS, Smarterm 
Videx. Videoterm 

See more ALS and Videx under Miscellaneous 
Vista, Vision 80 $279 30% 

M&R. Sup R term $ 319 

MISCELLANEOUS: 

ALS, Smarterm 80 Col. Card Special $ 229 
Z Card (2 80) W/CPM Special $ 199 
16K ADDRam Special $ 59 

Synergizer Pack Special $ 450 

if Synergizer with free Sorcim 
Supercalc. (While they last) 
Apple Computer, 
Srlentype II Printer 
Graphics Tablet 
Joystick II 
Game Paddle 
Numeric Keypad 
Axlon. 320K RAM Disk System 
CCS. Serial Interface 7710A 

Other CCSCards in stock 
Dan Paymar. Lower Case Chips 
Hayes, Micromodem II 

Smartmodem 
ISC, Videostick Paddle 
Kensington, System Saver Fan 
it Keyboard Company, 
Joystick II 
Game Paddle 
Numeric Keypad 
M&R. RF Modulator 
SupRFan 
if Microsoft. Z80 Softcard 
16K RAM Card 

SoftcardPremiumPack $ 579 
Mountain. 
CPS Multifunction Card 
if Clock/Calendar 

Novation. Applecat Modem 
Orange Micro, Grappler 



$ 335 
$ 675 
$ 39 
$ 19 
$ 119 
$1145 
$ 139 
Call 
$ 34 
$ 289 
$ 229 



$ 119 
$ 25 
$ 39 
$ 269 
$ 149 



$ 209 
$ 195 
$ 329 
$ 129 



15% 
15% 
22% 
27% 
21% 
20% 
22% 
Call 
33% 
25% 
20% 
23% 
20% 

22% 
27% 
21% 
27% 
25% 
33% 
33% 
25% 

13% 
30% 
16% 
21% 



if Practical Peripherals, w/cable & Conn.) 

MBS 8K Serial (Epson) New! $ 129 

MBP 16K Para (Epson) New! $ 129 

if Microbuffer II 16K New! $ 209 

Microbutler II 32K New' $ 229 

RH Electronics. Super Fan I) $ 59 

SSM, AlOSenal/Para Interface $159 

TG Products: Game Paddles $ 29 

Joystick $ 45 

if Videx. Videoterm 80 col. $ 249 

Soft Video Switch $ 25 

Enchancer II $ 99 

Function Strip $ 59 

Enchancer (Rev 6 or 7 +) $ 99 

Full Videx Line Call up to 35% 



20% 
20% 
20% 
24% 
21% 
20% 
28% 
25% 
28% 
29% 
34% 
26% 
25% 




TEN! r $1,795 



B&H APPLE II 

64K STARTER SYSTEM 

SAVES 765 

• 48K B&H Apple 11+ 

• ALS 16K RAM Card 

• Disk II with 3.3 DOS & Controller 

• Sanyo 9" Green Monitor 
Add $60 for Apple Beige color. 
Save $832 total. Substitute a A2 Micro-Sci drive 

for the Disk II. 
Add another A 2 drive and save a total of $888. 



B&H APPLE 11 + 




64K BUSINESS 




STARTER SYSTEM 


$2,240 




SAVE $1,125 


Starter System above plus: 




• ALS ZCard, Z80 CP/M Card 




• ALS Smarterm 80 Column Card 




• Sorcim Supercalc (while they last 





SOFTWARE 



on disk for Apple 11/11 + 



BUSINESS 



Warranty: Factory warranty is by Bell and Howell (not 
by Apple) and is one year parts plus 90 day fabor. 
Warranty service available at Bell and Howell service 
centers or return to Computer Exchange. 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 



Apple Computer. Inc. 




SAVE 


Osborne/C.P. Soft.. (Disk and Book 














50% Off on Apple III Software 


Call 


50% 


if Some Common Basic Programs. 




SAVE 










The Controller (Accounting) 


$499 


20% 


75 Business. Statistics and Math 














Apple Writer 1.1 


$ 59 


20% 


programs for the Apple II 


$ 49 


50% 










Apple Pascal 


$199 


20% 


if Practical Basic Programs. 














Apple Fortran 
DOS Tool Kit 


$159 
$ 59 


20% 
20% 


40 more very valuable programs 
beyond "Some Com. Basic Prog" 


$ 49 


50% 


* Means a BEST buy. 


DOS 3.3 Upgrade Kit 


$ 59 


20% 


Peachtree, GL, AR, AP or Inv. each 


$189 


36% 










Apple Plot 


$ 59 


20% 


"W Magic Wand (Specify board) 


$250 


50% 










DJ News & Quotes 


$ 75 


20% 


Phoenix. Zoom Grafix 


$ 29 


28% 










OJ Portfolio Evaluator 


$ 45 


20% 


Sensible, Apple Speller 


$ 55 


27% 










How to! 


$ 39 


20% 


Silcon Valley. Word Handler 


$150 


40% 










Microcourier 

Micro Telegram 


$199 
$199 


20% 
20% 


Solldus/Softech 
if Stocklile 


$250 


60% 


HOME & EDUCATION 




Time Manager 


$119 


20% 


Stockseller 


$425 


40% 










Many Others 


Call 


Call 


Software Publishing, 












SAVE 


Applied Soft Tech.. Versa Form 


$289 


26% 


PFS II or III NEW version! 


$ 89 


30% 


Autom. Sim.. Crush Crumb Chomp 


$ 30 


25% 


Artsci. Magic Window 


$ 75 


25% 


PFS Report II or III 


$ 69 


30% 


Broderbund. 








Ashion-tate. dBase II (CP/M) 


$495 


30% 


Sorcim. Super Calc. (CP/M) 


$219 


25% 


Apple Panic 




$ 21 


30% 


Beagle Bros.. Utility City 


$ 22 


25% 


Southeastern, 






Arcade Machine 




$ 32 


30% 


Broderbund. Payroll 


$269 


30% 


Data Capture 4.0. specify brd. 


$ 69 


25% 


Red Alert 




$ 21 


30% 


General Ledger 


$349 


30% 


Source. The Source 


$ 75 


25% 


Space Warrior 




$ 18 


30% 


Continental. CPA fll General Ledger 


$189 


25% 


Stoneware. DB Master 


$179 


22% 


Star Blazer 


New! 


$ 24 


30% 


CPA H2 Accounts Rec. 


$189 


25% 


DB Utility lor II 


$ 75 


10% 


Many others 




Call 


Call 


CPA #3 Accounts Pay. 


$189 


25% 


VisiCorp/Personal Software. 






Budgeco. Raster Blaster 




$ 22 


27% 


CPA U Payroll 


$189 


25% 


Vis.calc 3.3 


$189 


25% 


Calif. Pacific. Ultima 




$ 30 


25% 


CPA #5 Property Mgt. 


$189 


25% 


VisiDex Special! 


$175 


30% 


Cavalier, Bug Attack 




$ 23 


23% 


Denver. Financial Partner 


$185 


25% 


VisiFile 


$199 


25% 


Continental, Home Accountant 


$ 56 


25% 


dBase II for Apple 11/11+ CP/M 


$495 


30% 


Desktop Plan II or Ifl Special! 


$175 


30% 


Home Money Minder 


$ 26 


25% 


Fox & Geller. Quickscreen for dBase II 


$129 


13% 


Visiplot 


$159 


20% 


LA Land Monoply 




$ 23 


25% 


Quickcode for dBase II 


$259 


13% 


VisiSchedule New! 


$239 


20% 


DataMost. Snack Attack 




$ 22 


25% 


Hayden. Pie Writer (Specify brd.) 


$125 


25% 


VisiTrend and VisiPlot Special! 


$210 


30% 


Thief 




$ 22 


25% 


H&H Trading. Stock Tracker 


$129 


32% 


VisiTerm 


$ 79 


20% 


Edu-Ware, Compumath 




$ 29 


25% 


Market Tracker 


$199 


33% 


Zork 


$ 33 


20% 


Hayden, Sargon II (Chess) 




$ 29 


22% 


High Tech.. Store Mgr. 


$189 


25% 








Infocom. Deadline 


New! 


$ 38 


25% 


if Job Control Sys. 


$469 


40% 


UTILITY & DEVELOPMENT 


Zork 




$ 29 


25% 


Info Master 


$119 


40% 


Beagle. Utility City 


$ 22 


25% 


Insoft, Electric Duet by Lutus 


New! 


$ 25 


20% 


Info. Unlim., Easywriter (PRO) 


$139 


25% 


DOS Boss 


$ 18 


25% 


GraFORTH by Lutus 


New' 


$ 59 


25% 


if Innovative. Spellguard (CP/M) 


$150 


50% 


Central Point Software: 






Lightning. Mastertype 




$ 29 


25% 


Insoft, Accountant (CP/M) 


$ 99 




Filer, DOS Utility 


$ 18 


25% 


Microsoft. Olympic Decathlon 




$ 24 


24% 


For each GL A/R. A/P or Payroll. Absolutely the best 


if Copy II Plus (bit copier) 


$ 35 


10% 


Typing Tutor 




$ 19 


30% 


accounting software available for the Apple 11/11*. 


Will copy most copy protected software for your 


Muse. Robot War 




$ 29 


25% 


Better than Peachtree. We use it and recommend it 


backup in 45 seconds or less! Highly recommended. 


On-Line, Pegasus II 




$ 22 


25% 


UK. Letter Perfect 


$112 


25% 


Epson. Graphics Dump 


$ 9 


35% 


Mouskattack 


New! 


$ 26 


25% 


+ Micro Craft. 

(CP/M) Legal Bilfing & timekeeper 






Insoft. 






Time Zone 


New! 


$ 75 


25% 


$250 


65% 


+ GrafFORTH by Paul Lutus New' 
ALD System II by Paul Lutus 


$ 59 


22% 


Jawbreaker 


New! 


$ 23 


25% 


Prof. Billing & timekeeping 


$250 


65% 


$ 59 


22% 


Ultima II 


New! 


$ 27 


25% 


Micro Lab, Data Factory ver 5.0 


$249 


20% 


TransFORTH II by Paul Lutus 


$ 99 


20% 


Marauder 


New! 


$ 26 


25% 


Visifactory New! 


$ 56 


25% 


ElectricJ)uet by Paul Lutus New! 


$ 25 


20% 


Threshold 




$ 30 


25% 


Invoice Factory 


$129 


35% 


Microsoft, 






Cranston Manor 




$ 26 


25% 


Tax Manager 


$ 95 


38% 


A.L.D.S. 


$110 


10% 


Mission Astroid 




$ 15 


25% 


Micro Pro. (all CP/M} 




SAVE 


8ASIC Compiler 


$299 


25% 


Mystery House 




$ 19 


25% 


if Word Star NewVersion 


$199 


47% 


Cobol 80 


$559 


25% 


Softporn (X Rated) 




$ 22 


25% 


MailMerger 


$ 69 


45% 


Fortran 80 


$149 


25% 


Ulysses and Golden Fleece 


$ 22 


25% 


SpellStar 


$119 


40% 


Olympic Decathlon 


$ 24 


24% 


Piccadilly. Falcon 




$ 23 


25% 


DataStar 


$169 


40% 


TASC Compiler 


$159 


22% 


Star Blaster 




$ 23 


25% 


CalcStar 


$169 


40% 


if Omega. Locksmith (bit copier) 


$ 75 


25% 


Sentient. Oo-TOPOS 




$ 25 


25% 


SuperSort 1 or II 


$119 


40% 


On-Line. Expediter II 


$ 75 


25% 


Sirius. Sneakers 




$ 22 


25% 


Muse, Super Text II 


$113 


25% 


Phoenix. Zoom Grafix 


$ 29 


28% 


Gorgon 




$ 29 


25% 


Super Text 40/80 New! 


$129 


25% 


Source, the Source 


$ 75 


25% 


Twerps 




$ 22 


25% 


Form Letter New! 


$ 75 


25% 


Southwestern. ASCII Express 


$ 59 


25% 


Sir-Tec. Wizardry 


New! 


$ 39 


22% 


On-Line. Expediter II 


$ 75 


25% 


Sub-Logic. Flight Simulator 


$ 28 


20% 


Strategic. Southern Commanc 




$ 30 


25% 


Screenwriter II 


$ 95 


27% 


Tymac. Super Pix 


$ 20 


20% 


OTHER BRANDS IN STOCK. CALL. 







THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER MAIL ORDER FIRM 

Computer Exchange 



A Division of 

OTECHtam 



ALL MAIL: P.O. Box 1380, Jacksonville, OR 97530 

WAREHOUSE AND OFFICES, BY APPOINTMENT AT 6791 UPPER APPLEGATE ROAD. 



Ad #937 



Circle 106 on inquiry card. 



Internationa 


1 Morse Code 


Additional Codes 


A .- 


W .-- 


space bar 


B --■■ 


X 


backspace ---- 


C 


Y 


carriage return .-.- 


D -.. 


Z 


escape (OE) — . 


E - 


1 


control (KS) -.-... 


F ■•-. 


2 


right arrow (UU) ...... 


G «■ 


3 


repeat (HM) 


H ■ ■ i ■ 


4 


! (exclamation point) 


1 .. 


5 ..... 


$ (dollar sign) ..... 


J .... 


6 


* (asterisk) ..... 


K ... 


7 - 


+ (plus sign) ..... 


L 


8 


= (equals sign) 


M « 


9 


" (quotation marks) ..... 


N -. 





( (open parenthesis) .. — . 


--- 


■ (period) .-.-.- 


) (close parenthesis) 


P 


; (semicolon) -.-.-. 


( (ampersand) ..... 


Q 


: (colon) — . . . 


# (number or pounds) — ... 


R ■-. 


, (comma) --. .-- 


% (percent) ----- 


S ... 


? (question mark) . .--. 


I (exponent) 


T - 


' (apostrophe) .----. 


@ (at) 


U ■■- 


. (hyphen) ...... 


< (less than) -.--. 


V ...- 


/ (fraction bar) 


> (more than) -.- — 


Table 2: Signals f 


or the Morse-code input 


routine. The Morse-code input routine 


uses standard International Morse code ant 


a number of additional codes to allow 


full access to the Apple II. (Adapted from 


"EMG Activated Spatial Morse Code 


General Purpose 


Communication Device" 


by Carl B. Friedlander and Morteza 


Rahimi. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Frontiers of Engineering in Health 


Care, Denver, Colorado, October 6-7, 1979; page 298.) 



where that is required.) 

When the parallel mode is selected, 
the adaptive-firmware card acts as a 
straight keyboard emulator. Any 
parallel ASCII (American Standard 
Code for Information Interchange) 
fed to the firmware card through a 



parallel port will be entered into the 
computer as if it had been typed on 
the keyboard. 

In the serial mode, the firmware 
card again acts as straight keyboard 
emulator, accepting serial ASCII 
data. Any serial ASCII fed to the 



firmware card will be entered into the 
computer as if it had been typed on 
the keyboard. The firmware card will 
support data rates of 110, 150, 300, 
600, and 1200 bps (bits per second). 
Note that, because a DB25 connector 
is used for several things, the stan- 
dard RS-232C pin assignments are 
not used. 

In the expanded-key board mode, 
the card will support any 8- by 
15-switch matrix. 

Special Options 

The options available with the 
firmware card include the slowdown 
option, which allows any program 
being executed on the computer to be 
slowed down for use by individuals 
having slower reaction times. This is 
accomplished by interrupting the pro- 
gram and inserting delay loops. 
Because these interruptions are ac- 
tually triggered by the structure of the 
program itself, the effect of the 
slowdown value (which can be from 
to 255) varies from program to pro- 
gram. Experimentation with in- 
dividual progams will determine the 
best value for the given individual 
and program. (The default value is 0.) 

The paddle option allows you to 
use a single switch instead of a paddle 
to play games that use game paddle 1. 
When selecting a paddle mode, you 
indicate a parameter that tells the 
program which of seven paddle 



Micro MidWest 
10205 West 69th Terrace 
Merriam, KS 66203 
Call: (913) 362-3462 




Micro Frame 



110 V 60 Hz CVT S-100 bus (IEEE-696) Microframes and disk enclosures. Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) instantly regulates AC power ranging from as low as 50VAC to as 
high as 140VAC (depending on the current load) to with ± 3%. TEI microframesgivesyou lotsof goodclean power.90day factory warantee. With TEI youdon't needan expen- 
sive voltage regulator; TEI isolates your boards and drives from spikes, voltage variations, noise and even brownouts. 



12 slot microframes ± 8V @ 17A, ± 16V @ 2A 
22 slot microframes ±8V @ 30A, ±16V @ 4A 



MCS-112 
MCS-122 
RM-12 
RM-22 



12 Slot Table Top Microframe 
22 Slot Table Top Microframe 
12 Slot Rack Mount Microframe 
22 Slot Rack Mount Microframe 



List 

$755 
$910 
$800 
$965 



Our Price 

$645 
785 
795 
850 



8" disk drive enclosure with CVT. Holds two 8" Shugart 801 R or 851 R, or Qume DT-8 size drive, +24V ty 1.5A, + 5V @ 1.0A, -5V @ 0.24A. Power cables included 



DFD-0 
RFD-0 



Table Top Disk Enclosure 
Rack Mount Disk Enclosure 



$565 
$725 



Combination of S-100 bus and disk enclosure. 12 slot bus plus 3 cutouts for 5 Va' 
+ 8V @ 17A, ± 16V @ 2A, + 12V @ 1.2A, Power cable included. 



floppy disk drives (or 5 'a" size hard disks) 



TF-12 
RF-12 



TableTop Combination 
Rack Mount Combination 



$745 
$855 



$500 
625 



$650 
750 



Inventory In Stock! Dealer inquiries invited: We are a TEI (Texas Electronic Instruments) Master Distributor. 

Terms: COD accepted. 2% discount on Prepaid orders. Kansas Residents add 4% sales tax. All prices subject to change. We normally use UPS. Blue Label or other fast ship- 
ment available at purchaser's choice. 



286 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 306 on inquiry card. 



Your guide to the 

world of microprocessors. 



The Micro-Professor™ -a low cost tool for 

learning, teaching and prototyping. 



Here in one attractive package 
and at a price of only $149.00 is a 
Z80* based microcomputer to 
lead you step by step to a 
thorough knowledge of the world 
of microprocessors. 

The Micro-Professor is a 
complete hardware and software 
system whose extensive teaching 
manual gives you detailed 
schematics and examples of pro- 
gram code. A superb learning 
tool for students, hobbyists and 
microprocessor enthusiasts, as 
well as an excellent teaching aid 
for instructors of electrical engi- 
neering and computer science 
courses. 

But the Micro-Professor is 
much more than a teaching 
device. With it you can do bread- 
boarding and prototyping, de- 
signing your own custom hard- 
ware and software applications 
with Z80, 8080 and 8085 compati- 
ble code. 

The standard 2K bytes of 
RAM is expandable to 4K, 
and the standard 2K bytes of 
ROM can be increased to 8K. 

All this plus a built-in 
speaker, a cassette interface, and 



sockets to accept optional 
CTC/PIO. Bus is extendable. 

As well as being an exciting 
learning tool, the Micro-Professor 
is a great low-cost board for 
OEM's. Call for details 

SSB-MPF 

Speech 

Synthesizer 

Board $129 

A 

vocabulary 

of up to 400 

words based 

on the 

TMS 5200 chip. 

EPB-MPF 

EPROM 

Programming 

Board $169 

For all +5V 

1KB/2KB/ 

4KB EPROMs 

Read /Copy /Li st/Ver if y 

Capability. 





BASIC-MPF 
Tiny Basic $19 

2KB BASIC 

interpreter with 

hardware control 

capability. 

Machine-code 



subroutine accessible. 



PRT-MPF 
Printer 

$99 





A 

thermal 

printer 

with built-in 

alphanumeric 

character patterns 

and Z80 disassembler. 

20 characters per line, 0.8 line per 

second. 



* Z80 is a trademark of Zilog Inc. 
Q 





Multitech Electronics Inc. 

30 day trial period with full refund. 
90 day warranty. 

Circle 332 on inquiry card. 



I'm ready to enter the 
world of microprocessing 



•* Check or money 
order enclosed 
□ Visa □ Mastercharge 



Call toll free to order. 

MPF-I Micro-Professor 

SSB-MPF Speech Synthesizer Board 

EPB-MPF EPROM Programming Board 

PRT-MPF Printer 

BASIC-MPF 

Shipping and Handling 



Card No. 



Expires 



Price 


o>. 


taiount 


$149.00 






$129.00 






$169.00 






$ 99.00 






$ 19.00 






$ 4.95 




4.95 


add sales tax. 




TOTAL 





Signature 



Name (Please Print) 






in U.S. and Canada mail to: 

Multitech Electronics Inc. 
195 West El Camino Real 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
California Tel. (408) 773-8400 
Elsewhere (800) 538-1542 



City 



State 



Zip 



Outside of North America mail to: 

Multitech Industrial Corporation 
977 Min Shen E Road 105 
Taipei, Taiwan, ROC 
Tel. 02-769-1225 
TWX 19162 MULTIIC. 
23756 MULTIIC 



Circle 374 on Inquiry card. 



INTEGRATED 
BUSSING 



- IEEE-488 



BUS 



with the 




o 



P&T-488 
INTERFACE 



BUS , 



Inexpensive S-100 computers 
can now communjcate with the 
IEEE-488 instrumentation bus. 
The P&T-488 meets the IEEE- 
488 1 980 standard for control- 
ler, listener, & talker. 
Interface software allows sim- 
ple communication with the 488 
busfrom Basic, Pascalandother 
high level languages. Interface 
software is available for CP/M®, 
North Star, or Cromemco. 
Special features include an 
interactive busmonitor program 
and a functional self-test 
program. 

Price for (1) P&T-488 with software 
and 18" cable, assembled and tested: 
$450 (domestic price) FOB Goleta, CA. 

PICKLES & TROUT 

P.O. BOX 1206, GOLETA, CA 931 16 
(805) 685-4641 

*CP/M is a registered trademarkof Digital Research 



Mode 

1 



User Switch 2 

moves paddle 1 
left and right 



User Switch 1 User Switch 2 User Switch 3 User Switch 4 

activates 
button 1 

activates 
button 1, 
moves paddle 1 
left and right 

activates moves paddle 1 moves paddle 1 

button 1 right only left only 

activates 
button 1, 
moves paddle 1 
left only 

activates moves paddle 1 moves paddle 2 moves paddle 2 

button 1 , left only down only up only 

moves paddle 1 
right only 

activates 
button 1 



moves paddle 1 
right only 

moves paddle 1 
right only 



moves paddles 
1 and 2 right, 
left, up, and 
down 



activates 
button 1, 
moves paddles 
1 and 2 right, 
left, up and 
down 



Table 3: Paddle modes. In addition to providing an "alternate keyboard" to the 
Apple, the firmware card also lets you control game-paddle programs using input 
switches instead of paddles (and the buttons associated with the paddles). Various 
paddle modes are available that allow you to move the cursor back and forth on 
the screen using only the input switches. The table shows how paddle movement is 
controlled by different numbers of input switches in the different modes. You select 
the mode that best matches the number of switches you wish to control and the 
paddle requirements of the game or program you will be using. 



modes should be used. (See table 3 for 
a summary of the paddle modes.) 

In modes where one switch con- 
trols movement in two directions, 
holding the switch down will cause 
the cursor to move in one direction 
until the switch is released. Ac- 
tivating the switch again will cause 
the cursor to move in the opposite 
direction. 

In modes where one switch con- 
trols movement in four directions, the 
routine scans through the instructions 
for each of the different movement 
directions until you hold down the 
switch. The routine will then carry 
out cursor movement according to 
the instruction it was on when you 



pressed the switch; movement con- 
tinues in this direction until the 
switch is released. The routine then 
returns to scanning around the four 
possible directions until you press the 
switch again. Thus you have the op- 
tion of moving the cursor up, down, 
right, or left. 

Seven other paddle modes are 
available that are exactly the same as 
modes 1 through 7, as far as the user 
is concerned, but they use a different 
software technique to simulate the 
game paddles. This allows the firm- 
ware card to be used with a greater 
variety of games, which use different 
game-paddle reading techniques. 

Other game-paddle control options 



288 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




,£sfcujator 

f *W»l«Mll(vrprobJ t . niB . 




HowtheTI'55'-IImakes 
short workof long problems* 



Whenever you can solve 
complex problems quickly and 
accurately, you're ahead of the 
game. And that's exactly what the 
TI-55-II does for you. By giving 
you 112 pre-programmed functions 
(like definite integrals), it allows 
you to take short cuts without 
losing accuracy. You'll accomplish 
a lot more in less time which 
means increased efficiency. 

With our TI-55-II you can 
tackle problems you thought could 
only be solved with higher-priced 
programmables. You're not only 
getting the standard slide rule 
functions but also statistical capa- 
bilities. This way you can work 
out linear regressions, permuta- 
tions and combinations, just to 
name a few. 

Circle 538 on inquiry card. 



The TI-55-II also gives you 
enough programmability to elimi- 
nate a lot of repetitive key punch- 
ing. Our Constant Memory™ 
keeps programs and data on tap, 
even when the calculator is turned 
off. So once you've entered a 
formula, you can simply put in the 
variables to get your solution. The 
Liquid Crystal Display shows your 




answers in standard, scientific or 
engineering notations — clearly 
and precisely. 

We also help you get the 
most out of your calculator with 
the Calculator Decision-Making 
Sourcebook. It gives you step- 
by-step examples of the best 
techniques used for solving mathe- 
matical, scientific and statistical 
problems. And we've included a 
special section on how to program 
your TI-55-II. 

So next time you're facing 
another time-consuming 
problem, cut it down to 
size with theTI-55-II. 

Texas 
Instruments 

© 1982, Texas Instruments Incorporated. 




YOU DON'T HAVE TO PAY 

AN ARM AND A LEG FOR 

DEMONSTRATION SOFTWARE! 




Get everything 
you need 

for *295°° / 

Whether you are selling 
your customer hardware 
or software, the three 
best ways to close the 
sale are: 

1) demonstration; 

2) demonstration; and 
3} demonstration. That's why 

e offer you the best softwa 
demonstration system in the 
microcomputer industry. 

The package includes al 
the software listed here, 
plus important 
promotional materials 
and our exclusive 
video sales 

presentation designed 
to help you make the 
sale. You get the 
whole package for 
just $295.00. 

We offer you the 
largest selection of 
quality business 
applications and the 
best support available 
anywhere. Everyone 
claims to be the best 
.4. but we're willing to 
demonstrate it All you 
have to do is give us a 
call, or drop us a card. 




FINANCIAL 

General Ledger • Accounts 

Payable • Accounts 

Receivable • Payroll • Cash 

Receipts/Disbursements 

• Job Costing • Mailing 

List Management 

MEDICAL/DENTAL 

Office Scheduler 

• Patient Billing 

• Accounts Receivable 

• Insurance Forms 

GOVERNMENTAL/ 

EDUCATIONAL 

Student Record Keeping 

• Student Scheduling 

• Fund Accounting 

WHOLESALE 
DISTRIBUTION 

Purchasing and Receiving 

• Inventory Control 

• Invoicing and Receivables 

• Sales Commission 

Reporting • Backorder 

Management 

MANUFACTURING 

INVENTORY 

CONTROL 

Finished Goods Inventory 

Management • Parts 

Inventory Management 

• Parts Purchasing and 

Receiving • Bill of 

Material • Production 

Scheduling 

All (MS business applications require CP/M®.- 
or MP/M® and CBASiC II© . . . registered 
lademarks of Digital Research Corp. 



INTERNATIONAL 
MICRO SYSTEMS 

6445 Metcalf • Shawnee Mission, KS 66202 
(913) 677-1137 



290 BYTE September 1982 



Circle 235 on inquiry card. 



may be developed. The ones above 
are designed to give different types of 
individuals using different numbers 
of switches maximum control of 
various programs. 

The paddle speed option lets you 
adjust the movement speed in the 
game-paddle emulation routines. The 
speed set is equal to the number that 
the paddle count will be incremented 
(or decremented) each time the pro- 
gram checks for the paddle position 
(while the user switch is closed). The 
actual rate of cursor movement for 
any given setting will vary depending 
on the software being run. (Paddle 
speed and mode should be set before 
entering a game, as access to the 
"keyboard" input routines is restrict- 
ed during game play.) 

The stop-time option prevents your 
being trapped in a game-playing 
mode, unable to get back to the key- 
board or standard input mode. Under 
this option, you set a stop-time delay 
before entering the game-playing 
mode. When you want to get out of 



the game-playing mode, simply leave 
the switches inactive for the ap- 
propriate length of time, and you will 
automatically be returned to your 
special input mode. 

Technical Description 

The goal in designing the adaptive- 
firmware card was to develop a 
relatively inexpensive interface that 
would transform the Apple II from 
just a computer with a keyboard into 
a computer with a keyboard, a scan- 
ner, a Morse-code translator, and 
more. Such a peripheral would either 
require its own microprocessor or. 
would somehow have to steal time 
from the Apple for the translation 
tasks; thus the two approaches that 
suggest themselves involve either a 
card containing a separate micropro- 
cessor or an interrupt-driven system. 

The former would have the advan- 
tage of absolute transparency. It 
would not, however, provide im- 
mediate access to the Apple II's 
memory. A separate processor could 



gain access to the Apple's RAM 
(random-access, read/write memory) 
by means of DMA (direct memory 
access). This, however, would mean 
losing the simplicity of transparency, 
which was the original attraction of 
the separate-microprocessor ap- 
proach. Either way, a number of prob- 
lems would need to be overcome in 
order to provide access to all the 
necessary portions of the Apple 
without interfering with any program 
the computer might be running. Also, 
the separate microprocessor would 
solve each of a set of problems (which 
will be discussed in the following 
paragraphs) in essentially the same 
way as the interrupt-driven version 
but would incur the additional ex- 
pense of the second microprocessor. 
Therefore, the interrupt approach 
was used. (The final design is shown 
in figure 1.) 

Apple II Interrupts 

The Apple II has two different 
types of interrupts: the IRQ (mask- 

Text continued on page 299 




In Texas Orders 

Questions & Answers 

1-713-392-0747 



INDUSTRIES, INC. 



225 11 Katy Freeway 
Katy (Houston) Texas 77450 



To Order 
1-800-231-3680 
800-231-3681 



SAVE BIG DOLLARS ON ALL TRS-80 HARDWARE & SOFTWARE 

TRS-80 BY RADIO SHACK. Brand new in cartons delivered. Save state sales tax. Texas residents add only 
5% sales tax. Open Mon.-Fri. 9-6, Sat. 9-5. We pay freight and insurance. Come by and see us. Call us for a 
reference in or near your city. Ref: Farmers State Bank, Brookshire, Texas. 



WE OFFER ON 
REQUEST 

Federal Express (Overnight Delivery) 

Houston Intercontinental 
Airport Delivery (Same Day) 

U.P.S. BLUE (Every Day) 

References from people who have 
bought computers from us probably 
in your city 

■■'- TRS-80 is a Registered Trademark of Tandy Corp 

ED McMANUS 













In stock TRS-80 Model 
II and III 

No Tax on Out of Texas Shipments! 



10% 15% 

OR MORE 

Reserve Your Model 16 Today 

Telex 77-4132 (Fleks Hou) 



WE ALWAYS 
OFFER 

NO extra charge for Master Card 
or Visa. 

We use Direct Freight Lines. No 
long waits. 

We always pay the freight and 
insurance 

Toll free order number 

Our capability to go to the giant 
TRS-80 Computer warehouse 5 
hours away, in Ft. Worth, Texas, 
to keep you in stock. 

JOE McMANUS 



Circle 283 on inquiry card. 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 291 



Number 


Type 


+ 5V 


GND 


IC6 


74LS30 


14 


7 










IC7 


MWS5114 


18 


9 


IC1 


74LS244 


20 


10 


IC8 


MWS5114 


18 


9 


IC2 


74LS374 


20 


10 


IC9 


TBP28L22N 


20 


10 


IC3 


74LS244 


20 


10 


IC10 


74LS74 


14 


7 


IC4 


74LS374 


20 


10 


IC11 


7407 


14 


7 


IC5 


2732 


24 


12 


IC12 


74LS21 


14 


7 



8 

ROW 

OUTPUT 



S< 



COLUMN ( 
INPUT 



(INPUTS 
HAVE 10KJ1 
PULLUPS 
NOT SHOWN) 



STROBE 1 | y 
STROBE 2 | ^ > 



SWITCH 

INPUTS 

SWITCHED 

TO GROUND 



O 



DO Dl D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 
CLOCK< 




IN914 



THUMBWHEEL 
SWITCH 
ENCODED 
OUTPUT 



NOTE; LETTERS INSIDE CONNECTORS 
INDICATE CONNECTION TO THE 
SAME LETTER CONNECTOR 
WITHIN THE SCHEMATIC. 



Q 



Figure 1: Schematic of the adaptive- firmware card. 













c<t>' 






1 








15 


JUMPER 

PLUG 

TO 

VACATED 

SOCKET 


1 


SEL A 

SEL B YO 

SEL C 

G2A 

G2B 

Gl 

Y7 

GND 

Y6 

Y5 

Y4 

Y3 

Y2 

Yl 





2 


2 


15 C<£ 




3 


3 






4 


A 






5 


5 






6 


6 






7 


7 






8 


8 






9 


9 


IC17 




10 


10 


74LS138 




11 


11 






12 


12 






13 


13 






14 


14 













292 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



IC13 


74LS05 


14 


7 


IC14 


74LS05 


14 


7 


IC15 


74LS138 


16 


8 


IC16 


74LS74 


14 


7 


IC17 


74LS138 


16 


8 


IC18 


CD4093 


14 


7 


IC19 


74LS08 


14 


7 



Y4 
Y2 


Gl 


Y5 




Y3 


SEL B 


Yl 


SEL C 


YO 
Y7 


SEL A 
G2A 


Y6 


G2B 



I C 15 

74LS138 



+ 5V 







IC12 
74LS21 



TTTV — 



IC12 
74LS21 12 







^i2b r 

^ 13 



IC 19 

74LS08 



17 



A5 
Q3 
Q4 

IC9 

TBP28L- 

22N 

Ql 

Q2 _ 



Gl G2 



B 



T 



& 



*©-<I<t««I<< <<<£< 



® 







E 




00 


AO 




01 


Al 




02 


AX 




03 


A3 


IC4 


04 


A4 


74LS374 


05 


Ab 




Q6 


Ab 




Q7 


A7 







CLOCK 
A 



AO 

Al 

A2 

A3 

A4 

A5 

A6 

A7 

A8 

A9 

A10 

All 



Gl G? 



IC5. 
2732 
4K BY8 
EPROM 



DO 
Dl 
D2 
D3 
D4 
D5 
D6 
D7 



AO 
Al 
A2 
A3 
A4 
A5 
A6 
A7 
A8 
A9 
R/W 



1C7 

MWS5114 
IK BY 4 
RAM 



AO 
Al 
A2 
A3 
A4 
A5 
A6 
A7 
A8 
A9 
R/W 



IC8 

MWS5114 
IK BY 4 
RAM 



B 



DO 
Dl 
D2 
D3 



D4 
D5 
D6 
D7 



B 



September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 293 




QD- 



-O 



s <S>- 

s <n>- 

S <46> 

2 <£8> 



> O 



Figure 1: Schematic of the adaptive- firmware card, continued. 



294 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 











sklk 


j}U 


1 NM 


Ik i F 1 




ffllif! 


i3j 


JTE 


Sj 


k 


1 B J hL 


■ i d '1 

iLiiJ 


i] :f if 



Memory — you never seem to have quite 
enough of it. 

But if you're one of the thousands of Apple 
owners using the SoftCard, there's an economical 
new way to expand your memory dramatically, 

16K ON A PLUG-IN CARD. 

Microsoft's new RAMCard simply « 
plugs into your Apple I lf° and adds 16k 
bytes of dependable, buffered 
read/write storage. 

Together with the SoftCard, 
the RAMCard gives you a 56k 
CP/M (|f> system that's big enough 
to take on all kinds of chores that 
would never fit before (until now, 
the only way to get this much 
memory was to have an Apple 
Language Card installed). 

GREAT SOFTWARE: 
YOURS, OURS, OR THEIRS. 

With the RAMCard and 
SoftCard, you can tackle large- 
scale business and scientific 
computing with our COBOL and 
FORTRAN languages. Or greatly 
increase the capability of CP/M 






H 



I 



1 



applications like the Peachtree Software account- 
ing systems. VisiCalc™ and other Apple software 
packages can take advantage of RAMCard too. 

And RAMCard gives you the extra capacity to 
develop advanced programs of your own, using the 
SoftCard and CP/M. Even with the RAMCard in 
place, you can still access your ROM BASIC 
and monitor routines. 

JOIN THE SOFTCARD 
FAMILY. 

The RAMCard is just the 
latest addition to the SoftCard 
family — a comprehensive sys- 
tem of hardware and software 
that can make your Apple more 
versatile and powerful than you 
ever imagined. 

Your Microsoft dealer has all 
the exciting details. Visit him 
soon, and discover a great idea 
that keeps getting better. 

Microsoft Consumer 
Products, 10700 Northup Way, 
Bellevue, WA 98004. 
(206-828-8080) 



n- 



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The only machine that runs 



The software machine. The Decision I™ is an IEEE 
696 S-100 bus computer. But that's where its 
similarity to other machines ends. No other pro- 
duction machine offers the software flexibility of 
the Decision I. The Decision I runs Micronix,™ which 
is functionally identical to the UNIX™ Operating 
System. It also runs multiple CP/M® 2.2 programs, 
Oasis,™ MP/Mf C, FORTRAN, MBASIC,™ CBASIC, 
RATFOR, PL-1, Northstar compatible BAZIC,™ Pascal 
and virtually thousands of existing applications pro- 
grams. No other microcomputer offers you that 
kind of flexibility. 

Developing programs? The Decision I's broad 
operating system base makes it a perfect software 
development system. And there's more. 

Multi-user, multi-tasking. The Decision I can be 
configured for up to 15 users running 20 
individual tasks. Memory management 
is similar to an IBM® 370's. And, a 7.2 
MHz processor on the hard disk con- 
troller supercharges the system. 

The Micronix OS. Micronix supports 
all system calls source-compatibly 
with the UNIX Operating System. 
Thus, UNIX programs will compile 
directly and UNIX documentation 
is almost totally applicable. 
Morrow's CP/M emulator has 
been configured to run under 



Micronix, communicating directly with both UNIX 
and CP/M media. 

Performance. In informal single-user benchmark 
tests against 68000-based machines running UNIX 
or UNIX-like operating systems, the Decision I won in 
every case. No 68000-based machine ran in multi- 
user mode, thus multi-user comparisons were 
impossible. But, these informal benchmarks 
would seem to prove that the combination 
of memory management and DMA I/O is 
as important as width of data path. 

Now, the price: A single- 
user Decision I includes 
two 4MHz Z80A 





UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories 

CP/M and MP/M are registered trademarks 

of Digital Research, Inc. 

Oasis is a trademark of Oasis Systems 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 

MBASIC is a trademark, and Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation 

WordStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro, Inc. 

BAZIC is a trademark of Micro Mike, Inc. 



ION I 



almost everything. 



Systems your way: Morrow Designs also manufac- 
tures a full line of hard and floppy disk systems, 
add-in memory boards, I/O boards and disk 
controllers. That means you can configure your 
computer your way... through a single supplier. 

The Decision is yours. Compare the Decision I, 
feature-for-feature with mini and microcomputers 
on the market today. Compare capabilities. 
Compare flexibility. Compare utility. Then, compare 
price. The Decision I is the only machine that runs 
almost everything. If you're developing software, or 
simply running it, that's a good thing to remember. 

LOOK TO MORROW 
FOR ANSWERS. 




processors, 
65K of static RAM, 
sophisticated memory 
management hardware, 
three serial and two parallel 
ports, a 14 slot S-100 mother- 
board, supervisor control in both 
hardware and software, cabinet and 
power supply. And of course, two 5W 
48TPI floppy disk drives (800K), with Morrow 
DMA controller. Plus CP/M 2.2, industry standard 
Microsoft® BASIC 5.2 and WordStar? Price: $3,495. 

The same system with a 5 Megabyte Winchester, 
an additional 7.2 MHz processor, and a single 
48TPI floppy costs $5,295. 

Multiple user: A three-user upgrade kit with three 
65K static RAM boards and the Micronix Operating 
System is available for $1,995, bringing the cost 
of a three-user hard disk based system to $7,290. 
The Decision I is not simply an improved computer 
system. It's a breakthrough in computing power, 
operating system flexibility and price. 



MORROW OE5IGNS 

5221 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 
(415) 524-2101 
Circle 328 on inquiry card. 




Because the more they talk, the less they listen. 
And listening is the key to sales productivity 
When your salespeople listen, they can recom- 
mend product solutions that effectively satisfy 
your customer's needs ar$ objectives.. 

Tratec/McGraw-Hill, a worldwide leader in 
training technology has developed a way to 
significantly increase your sales productivity. 
Its called Customer Oriented Selling (COS). 

In just three days, COS teaches your sales- 





Name/Title 


Company 


Address 


State 


Zip 




Phone No. 






BT-982 



people the customer's perspective. It equips 
them with skills they can use to make the most 
sensible recommendation regarding the use 
of your products and services. 

Many of the most successful sales organiza- 
tions in the world are already using COS. If 
marketing your products and services requires 
a professional approach to selling, COS can 
work for you, too. To find out how, Call Toll 
Free 800-421-4530, or write to: 

In California Call HARRY W. BLAKE 

(213) 204-3300 5 esiden ! /G ^, r j „ ager 

"/ promise VII listen 9 ' 

Tratec il 

Productivity through Training Technoli 
2999 Overland Avenue , Los Angeles, GA 90Q64 



Circle 499 on Inquiry card. 



Text continued from page 291: 

able interrupt request), and the NMI 
(nonmaskable interrupt). When one 
of these occurs, the 6502 micropro- 
cessor vectors to the address at the 
top of ROM (read-only memory)— for 
IRQ, the two bytes starting at hexa- 
decimal FFFE; for NMI, the two bytes 
starting at hexadecimal FFFA — to ob- 
tain the addresses in memory that, in 
turn, hold the address of the user 
routine that handles the interrupt. 
Programs using interrupts ordinarily 
use IRQ because this eliminates the 
danger of interrupting a disk opera- 
tion. Because we have no control 
over the software that might be run- 
ning, we can't trust that any vectors 
we set in memory will stay, or even 
that the interrupt-enable status will 
not be changed. This means that the 
NMI must be used rather than the 
IRQ and that we must gain control 
over the interrupt-service routine 
before control is transferred to the 
soft vectors. 

To accomplish the latter, we must 
have a way of substituting our own 
ROM for both the Apple's mother- 
board ROM and any language-card 
(or firmware-card) ROM that may be 
in use at the time. This is accom- 
plished by using the INH (inhibit) line 
(available on the peripheral-card bus) 
to disable the motherboard ROM and 
by placing address hexadecimal C081 
on the address bus momentarily, 
which (by convention) turns off the 
language card in slot 0. 

Swapping ROMs 

After the NMI line goes low, the 
Apple's 6502 will execute one more 
instruction before servicing the inter- 
rupt. Since this instruction may be in 
ROM, we can't substitute our ROM 
for the Apple's until the interrupt is 
actually beng serviced. 

The adaptive-firmware board waits 
until the address hexadecimal FFFA 
appears on the address bus, indicat- 
ing that the first byte of the NMI vec- 
tor is being fetched. Only at that time 
is the adaptive-firmware board ac- 
tivated and the competing ROM dis- 
abled. The RDY (ready) and DMA 
lines are used to halt the microproces- 
sor while this is happening so that the 
first byte of the NMI vector is actual- 



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Featuring up to five functions on one board, the OMNI-board provides the capabilities of an expansion 
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Game & clock . . $205 Printer, game & clock. . . .. . $295 

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• BSR-XIO™ CONTROL MODULE $95 
This integrated module plugs into the DIN cassette connector of the IBM Personal Computer and provides 
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• COLOR TO MONOCHROME INTERFACE CABLE MODULE $95 
Plugging conveniently between the IBM monochrome display and the RGB connector of the IBM color 
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features of the IBM color graphics adapter with IBM monochrome display. * (Actual photo above) 

• APPLE™ JOYSTICK INTERFACE MODULE For 2 APPLE joysticks $29 

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• PLUG-IN 5MB WINCHESTER DISK, ADAPTER & SOFTWARE $2195 

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• DISKSAVER™ PROGRAM $49 

This elegant utility program allows you to create backup copies of any software protected diskette. It offers 
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• PASCAL GRAPHICS LIBRARY $95 
This IBM PASCAL compatible library provides full access to the graphics of the IBM color graphics 
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• PASCAL SUPPORT LIBRARY Provides full peripheral control forthe IBM PC from PASCAL $49 

• DAT A VIEW 1 " $195 
This user friendly database generator allows you to custom design your database structure and define 
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Aim 



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September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 299 



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6 Slot Expansion (Card Board) 117 

RS 232 Card (Avail. Now) 59 

IEEE-488 Card (Avail. Now) 69 

Vic Super Expander 48 

Vicmon 43 

Joystick 8 

Paddles 15 

Light Pen by Symtek 119 

Vic Modem (Incl. Victerm) 95 

40/80 Colum Card (Incl. Prom) 179 

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Basic Compiler by Microsoft 335 

Fortran-80 by Microsoft 419 

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Easy by Denver Software 543 

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Mathemagic by ISM 69 

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16K (2 year warranty) 59 

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Numeric Keypad (23 Key) 119 

Signalman Modem 79 

Micro Modem \\® by Hayes 278 

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RGB Card 159 

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Chronograph® by Hayes 189 

Enhancer II by Videx 124 

Lowercase for Appl e 29 

Sup R Mod (TV Interface) 35 

Music System w/Software by Mtn 299 

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Parallel Interface Card 69 

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NEW 

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BASIS 108 



The Alternative 



• 6502 and Z80 Microprocessors 

• 64K RAM, expandable to 128K 

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• High Resolution Graphics: 6 colors, 280x193or 
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• Detached Keyboard: Alt standard keyboard 
functions, Upper/Lower case characters, 
Numeric keypad. Cursor block, and 15 Pro- 
grammable special function keys . ,.,< 

• Built-in mounting for two 5-% Inch-Floppy disk 
drives 

• Six Apple compatible slots for plug-in 
peripherals • Game paddle I/O 



APPLE SOFTWARE 
BUSINESS 

Business Packages by Continental 189 ea 

Desktop Plan by Visicorp 184 

Visi File 184 

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Word Star by Micro Pro 199 

Mail Merge by Micro Pro 84 

Spell Star 148 

Data Star 176 

Calc Star 117 

d Base 1 1 by Fox & Geller 494 

Ouick Screen for d Base II 127 

Screen Writer 1 1 by On Line 95 

Magic Window 69 

Target Planner Calc by Comshare 36 

Mathe Magic by ISM 63 

Graph Magic by ISM 62 

Wall Streeter by Micro Lab 219 

PFS: Report (New Improved) by S.P. Corp 69 

PFS: Graph by Software Pub. Corp 89 

ENTERTAINMENT 

U-Boat Command by Synergistic 24 

Robot War by Muse 27 

Firebug by Muse 18 

Castle Wolfenstein by Muse 23 

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Gorgon 35 

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TO ORDER: Phone orders invited using Visa, Master- 
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expiration date), cashiers check, money order, or persona! 
check faifow 10 business days for personal or company 
checks to clear). Please add 3% {$5.00 minimum) for UPS 
shipping, handling, and insurance. APOand FPO include 
5% ($7.00 minimum) for postage. Calif, residents add 6% 
sales tax. Please include phone number on alt orders. 



FOREIGN ORDERS include 1% handling '— shipped air 
FREIGHT COLLECT only. Credit cards not accepted on 
foreign orders. Ail equipment is in factory cartons with 
manufacturer warranty. Opened products not returnable. 
Restocking fee for returned merchandise. Equipment 
subject to -price change and availability. Retail prices 
differ from mail order prices. WE SHIP THE SAME DAY ON 
MOST ORDERS! Min. purchase $40. Deposit required on 
all COD's. 
'Excludes certain printers & monitors & foreign orders 



Circle 116 on inquiry card. 



MAIL TO: 1251 BROADWAY EL CAJON, CA. 92021 (714) 579-0330 = 



ly obtained from our ROM on the 
firmware card. (Although it sounds 
complex, the process is implemented 
quite simply in hardware with a few 
integrated circuits.) A similar ap- 
proch gives us control over the Reset 
vector. 

Note that this use of the interrupt 
makes the card potentially trans- 
parent to all other programs using in- 
terrupts. As presently implemented, 
however, the card pulls the NMI line 
low and keeps it low until after the 
interrupt-service routine is finished. 
Another peripheral using the NMI in 
the same way would be incompatible. 
This problem could be solved by trig- 
gering the NMI with a pulse instead 
of a constant level. 

Reversing the Swap 

When returning control to the main 
program after NMI service is com- 
pleted, a program must reside in 
ROM that will remain accessible after 
the card is turned off so that the ROM 
swap can be reversed. This is easily 
done by making one page of the 



ROM accessible at the addresses 
alloted to slot 7 (beginning at hexa- 
decimal C700) by the Apple II's ar- 
chitecture. 

Soft Switches 

Depending on the program running 
on the computer at the time, it may 
be necessary for the adaptive-firm- 
ware card to turn off the language 
card or to make use of the video 
display, which may involve switching 
from full-screen graphics to mixed 
text and graphics. Both of these 
operations involve the toggling of 
"soft switches" (programmable swit- 
ches) in the Apple. 

For the firmware card to remain 
transparent, it is important that 
everything be put back exactly as it 
was before the interrupt occurred. To 
do this, however, it is necessary to 
know the status of everything prior to 
interrupting the program. Unfor- 
tunately, many of the soft switches in 
the Apple cannot be read. They are 
actually hardware flip-flops set one 
way or the other by software's access- 



ing particular addresses. For example, 
if the address hexadecimal C050 is ac- 
cessed with a read or a write, the 
Apple goes into graphics mode. Con- 
versely, accessing hexadecimal ad- 
dress C051 causes the Apple to go in- 
to text mode. 

Similarly, the status of the expan- 
sion RAM card is determined by soft 
switches. In fact, pairs of address 
references may be used to establish 
the status of such a card. Thus, some 
method must be found for reading 
these unreadable switches. 

Rather than try to read the hard- 
ware outputs of the flip-flops, the 
firmware card monitors the address 
bus continually and makes a note of 
the appearance of any address that 
falls into the category of soft switch. 
One way to do this would be to 
duplicate on the board the hardware 
representing those switches, but to do 
so in such a way that the duplicates 
could be read by the firmware card. 

A better approach is to use the in- 
terrupt. Enough of each address on 
the bus is decoded to determine 



-♦♦♦ ANNOUNCING ♦♦♦ 



What's Where in the APPLE...PLUS...the All New Guide to What's Where 



William F. Luebbert's Revised 



The original What's Where in the 
APPLE? provided more information 
on the apple's memory than was 
available anywhere else. Now the 
Revised Edition: 

• Guides you — with a numerical Atlas and an 
alphabetical Gazetteer — to over 2,000 memory 
locations of PEEKs, POKEs and CALLs. 

• Gives names and locations of various Monitor, 
DOS, Integer BASIC and Applesoft routines and 
tells you what they're used for. 

• Enables you to move easily between BASIC and 
Machine Language. 

• Guides you through the inner workings and hidden 
mechanisms of the Apple. 



Edition of the famous Apple Atlas 

The Atlas and The All New Guide are 

available in one 256-page Wire-O- 
Bound book for only $24.95 

If you own the original What's Where in the 
Apple? you will want THE GUIDE to comple- 
ment your edition. This 128-page, Wire-O- 
Bound version contains all new material to be 
used with the memory map and atlas for$9.95 
Ask for it at your computer store 

Use the Coupon to Order Direct from MICRO 

or 

Call Toll Free Today 1-800-345-81 12 

(In PA 1-800-662-2444) 




AN ATLAS TO 
THE APPLE COMPUTER 

With Full Eipttn 

By Willi 



All Apple users will find this book helpful in understanding their machine, and essential for mastering it 



Please send me: 

What's Where in the APPLE... PLUS... 
the All New Guide to What's Where 



.THEGUIDE <j 

Add $2.00 surface shipping for each copy, 
Massachusetts residents add 5% sales tax. 

Total Enclosed $_ 



@ $24.95 
@ $ 9.95 



n Check n VISA H Master Card Acct # 



Expires 



Name 



Address 



City State Zip 

MICRO INK, 34 Chelmsford St., P.O. Box 6502, Chelmsford, MA 01824 



B-9-82 
83-347 



302 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 303 on inquiry card. 



PRODUCTS FOR THE 





APPLE II COMPUTER G'lVe A 


/lore Drive To Yc (j> 


MACRO-88 8088 PROCESSOR BOARD 


VC-EXPAND and VC-EXPAND 80 VISICALC 


With MS-DOS $799 CDN 


EXPANSION software by Saturn Systems available for 


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32k, 64k, and 128k memory boards - expansion of array 


* Apple can now run high-speed 16 bit software. 


size and use with 80 column boards. 


True multiprocessing capability 




* Interface to expansion memory allows up to 1 Mbyte 




of memory to be DIRECTLY addressable using 1 or 


MACROPRINT Parallel Interface 


more DISKULATORS. Contiguous memory is thus 


$175 CDN 


available for MS-DOS, UCSD PASCAL IV OR CP/M86. 


$139 US 


* Supplied with MS-DOS. 




Socket on board for 8087. 


* Parallel INPUT AND OUTPUT inter face for Apple. 


* Macro assembler for use with MS-DOS available. 


* Compatible with Apple software and hardware. 




* Inverted acknowledge and strobe for printers requiring 
them. 

* Low Res and Hi Res Graphics Dumps. 


DISKULATOR 


128k -$795 CDN 


* An all-round best parallel board at best prices. 


$599 US 


* Many many extra Commands - margin, width etc. 




* Also the most attractive looking! 


* . 64K/128K MEMORY BOARD FOR THE 




APPLE -theMACRO-MACROMEM. 




* Disk emulation software for DOS 3.3, PASCAL AND 


MACROPEATER - AUTOREPEAT BOARD 


CP/M -completedisk can be downloaded in 20 seconds! 


$35 CDN 
$29 US 


* EXPANDABLE TO 384K (PIGGY-BACK board). 


* Special circuitry for low current. 




* Inter-faces to the MACRO-88 for contiguous memory 


* Enables autorepeat on the Apple II. 


for the 8088. 


* Press a key, hold down for a second and it will be 


* Information on DISKULATOR can be accessed by the 


repeated until released. 


6502 or 8088 in 4k banks. 


Invaluable for VISICALC and word processing appli- 


* The most flexible and expandable Ram board for the 


cations. 


Apple. 


* Versions for old and new keyboards. 


* VC-EXPAND and VC-EXPAND 80 for 64k and 128k 


Simple to install - no wiring! 


boards for Visicalc expansion. 


Compatible with other hardware or software including 




keyboard enhancer. 


MACROMEM-1 




$195 CDN 


DOSTILITIES 


$139 US 


$59 CDN 


* 16k memory board fortheApple II. 


S49US 


* DOS 3.3 MACRODISK SOFTWARE included. 


* Password protection for DOS 3.3 disks. 


* PASCAL and CP/M MACRODISK options. 


* CATALOG MODS of all sorts - double catalogs, file- 




type I.D. mods etc. 




* Error instruction modification. 


MACROMEM-2 


* Printer-dump utility. 


$299 CDN 


* Editor for EXEC TEXT Fl LES. 


$239 US 


* Most valuable general utility for APPLE PROGRAM- 
MERS. 


* 32k memory board for the Apple 1 1 . 


* With software for moving DOS into one 16k bank. 




Second BASIC language can be loaded into the second 
bank. 


Dealer and distributor inquiries most welcome 


* RAMEXPAND allows overlaying of programs and 


■ ':■■■ ■i':;'il< : - 


storing of large arrays in the memoryboard - effectively 


* Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 


expanding the Apple memory for Applesoft. 
* PSEUDODISK software included. 


* CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Corporation. 

* MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft Consumer 


* VC EXPAND and VC-EXPAND 80 available. 


Products Inc. 




* U.C.S.D. is a trademark of Regents of the University of 




California. 


MACRODISK FOR 16K BOARDS 


* VC-EXPAND is a trademark of Saturn Systems LTD. 


$59 CDN 


: 


$49 US 




* MACRODISK software turns one or more memory 


MACROTECH Computer Products LTD is also a distri- 
butor for: 


boards into a disk emulator. 


* Free with all Macrotech memory boards. 


Quality Software, Prometheus Products, Continental Soft- 


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whether the current address is a soft- 
switch reference. If it is, the lower 
byte of the address is latched and 
used to generate an interrupt. The 
interrupt-service routine then ex- 
amines the latch to determine the 
identity of the soft switch and saves 
the information in memory on the 
firmware board. This approach 
allows a much greater number of soft 
switches to be monitored and at the 
same time suggests a unique way of 
generating the interrupts that relate to 
the main business of the card, as 
discussed below in Noticing Input. 

Split Addresses 

Because the 6502 always executes 
one more instruction before respond- 
ing to an interrupt, when two critical 
address references occur together it is 
possible that one of them would be 
missed. This could be solved in hard- 
ware by using a pipeline, but that 
complicates the hardware somewhat. 

In order to keep the hardware 
simple and streamline the software 
service of the interrupts, the firmware 
card checks in software for double- 
address references when this seems 
possible. Admittedly, this is not a 
foolproof approach— routines could 
be written to fool the card— however, 
the probability of such exceptions 
seems quite small. 

Noticing Input 

Given that the firmware card can 
respond reliably and transparently to 
requests for input, what is the best 
way to generate those requests? One 
method would be to have the card 
generate the interrupts whenever you 
activate a switch. Unfortunately, if 
the computer happens to be writing 
to disk when you activate the switch, 
data will be lost. 

By including the address hexa- 
decimal C000 (the keyboard data- 
input address) among the soft-switch 
addresses that produce interrupts, the 
computer itself will generate the inter- 
rupts whenever it checks for input 
from the keyboard. Then any check 
of the keyboard by the main program 
will turn on the adaptive-firmware 
board and let it check the special 
source of input, such as the user 



304 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




The Sinclair ZX81 personal computer kit 



Imagine building your own computer 
for only $79.95! 

That's exactly what you can do with 
the ZX81 kit. It comes with all the parts 
you need and complete diagrams and in- 
structions for putting it together. All you 
have to supply is soldering iron, solder, 
and a screwdriver. Plus, of course, a little 
bit of work. 

But you get a lot more than several 
hours of kit-buildiri g fun. You also get a 
surprisingly powerful personal computer. 
The ZX81 hooks up to any TV for a 32- 
character by 24-line display (we provide 
the connecting cables). You can also use a 
standard cassette recorder to store your 
programs (again, we provide the cables). 

Most important, you get a BASIC pro- 
gramming language that's powerful 
enough to challenge and interest the 
most experienced programmers. The 
ZX81 can handle multidimensional string 
and numerical arrays. It has full mathe- 
matical functions accurate to eight deci- 
mal places. Single-key entry for every 
command. Syntax error detection, de- 
bugging codes, and easy editing. Plus 
features that are ideal for creating games, 
such as 20 graphic symbols, continuous 



display, and random number generator. 

The ZX81 can be expanded too. You 
can increase the memory from IK to 16K 
with our Memory Module for $49.95. 
And you get a comprehensive manual 
that completely documents the capabili- 
ties of the ZX81, and teaches program- 
ming from the ground up. 

In short, you get all the features that 
have made the Sinclair ZX81 the fastest 
selling personal computer in the world. 
And you get the satisfaction and fun of 
building it yourself. 

A few years ago, this kind of computer 
power was simply unavailable to the 
individual. Even today, most personal 
computers are too expensive to buy for 
personal use. 

But the ZX81 kit can be yours for only 
$79.95. Take advantage of this unique 
offer today. To order, send the coupon 
along with a check or money order. Or for 
faster delivery, call our toll-free number 
and use your MasterCard or VISA. 
To order call toll free: 800-543-3000. 

Ask for operator #509. In Ohio call: 800- 
582-1364; in Canada call: 513729-4300. 
Ask for operator #509. Phones open 
24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Have your 



MasterCard or VISA ready. 

These numbers are for orders only. If 
you just want information, please write: 
Sinclair Research Ltd., 2 Sinclair Plaza, 
Nashua, NH 03061. 



l OS 



AD CODE 
09BYOK 



MAIL TO: Sinclair Research Ltd., 
One Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 03061. 

PRICE* QTY. AMOUNT 



ZX81 Kit 



16K Memory 
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$4.95 



Name 



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State 



Zip 



Sinclair technology is also available in Timex/Sinclair 
computers under a license from Sinclair Research Ltd. 



ridar 



switch. This has the net effect of in- 
serting a few lines of a special transla- 
tion program (from the firmware 
card) into the input loop used by the 
main program. 

With this arrangement, the switch 
input may be monitored in an effec- 
tively continuous fashion, or at least 
as continuously as the keyboard is 
monitored by the main program. For 
an input-loop cycle less than a milli- 
second, the difference between this 
approach and the switch-generated 
approach is not likely to be perceived 
by most users. Most important, this 
approach eliminates the need to 
worry about interrupting the pro- 
gram during disk accesses. 

Separating Work from Play 

You will sometimes want to use the 
input switches to simulate keyboard 
input (which causes the input 
algorithms to be triggered), while at 
other times you will need the switches 
for game playing. How can the firm- 
ware card know whether to treat the 



switch activation as a keystroke 
(which would activate an input 
routine) or as a game-switch activa- 
tion (which is just passed through to 
the game I/O address)? 

The solution is to add the switch- 
read addresses, such as hexadecimal 
C061, to the set of addresses which 
generate interrupts and enable the 
card. The firmware card then checks 
to see what address reference it was 
that enabled it. If it was enabled by a 
call to the game switches, the user 
switch is treated as a game input. If 
the firmware card finds it is being 
polled for input from the keyboard, it 
will activate the appropriate input 
routine for the user. Thus the card 
automatically switches back and 
forth between keyboard and game- 
playing modes as required by the pro- 
grams. 

Even programs that do not call for 
any use of the keyboard, however, 
may address the keyboard location. 
For example, the BASIC interpreter 
checks the keyboard with nearly 



every command to see if a control C 
has been pressed. 

Because the BASIC interpreter can 
access the keyboard many times bet- 
ween accesses to the game paddles 
(once for most of the instructions it 
executes) the firmware card requires 
256 consecutive accesses to the 
keyboard without an access to the 
game switch or paddle before it will 
leave the game-playing mode. If the 
computer program is checking for in- 
put from the keyboard, this occurs 
rapidly; if it is checking only for con- 
trol C, the game-mode dropout will 
rarely happen. 

If the above technique is used to 
defeat calls for control C, how would 
you ever be able to get out of a 
paddle-based program that was 
designed to use control C as its exit? 
The firmware card has an automatic 
game-mode dropout timer built in. If 
you don't hit the switch for a certain 
interval (determined by the stop-time 
option), the card automatically drops 
out of the game mode. 



DATAFACE DIM: APPLE H IN ONE 

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INTO A LETTER QUALITY PRINTER FOR THE APPLE II COMPUTER 





The Dataface ylOl^pptgTT™ Interface Card gives 
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Suggested retail price $349.50. 
Dealer Inquiries Invited. 

™Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computers, Inc. 



FOR OTHER COMPUTERS USE THE GRQ-11 

Interfaces to the Olympia ES100, ES101, ES105 and 
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Ofli FACE inc. 

2372 A WALSH AVENUE, SANTA CLARA, CA 95050 
TELEPHONE (408) 727-6704 



306 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 148 on inquiry card. 




Of course Percom diskette drives for the IBM Personal 
Computer fit right in. They fit right outside your Personal 
Computer, too. And they're fully compatible, providing the 
same full double-density storage capacity. 

But just as important, Percom diskette drives also fit the 
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At Percom we've been making disk storage systems 
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So expect more from Percom. You won't be 
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Percom disk drives for the IBM Personal Computer are 
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For the names of dealers carrying Percom products for your 
Personal Computer call toll-free 1-800-527-1222. 

PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 




PERCOM DATA COMPANY, IIMC. 

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IBM and IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER are trademarks of International Business 

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PERCOM is a trademark of Percom Data Company, Inc. 




Minimum system requirements are an IBM System 
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Adapter. Drive models supported depend on DOS 
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919-889-4577 

308 BYTE September 1982 




We sell The Finest Software 

COMPUTERS 



4167 Kivett Dr. ▼ Jamestown, NC 27282 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 



919-883-1105 

Circle 24 on inquiry card. 



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COMPUTERS 



4167KivettDr. ▼ Jamestown N.C. 27282 
®CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 



919-883-1105 

B YTE September 1982 309 



Emulating the Keyboard 

For the entire firmware card to 
work effectively, it is necessary that it 
be able to make the computer think 
that its output is actually coming 
from the keyboard itself. The most 
straightforward approach, which is 
characteristic of most other emulator 
cards, is to disconnect the keyboard 
from the main computer and plug the 
emulator card directly into the key- 
board plug on the Apple II mother- 
board. In order to allow the keyboard 
to work under this scheme, the 
keyboard would be plugged into the 
firmware card. However, this ap- 
proach requires that the bottom of 
the computer be removed to provide 
access to the connectors. Installing 
the card in this manner is a rather dif- 
ficult and time-consuming procedure. 

An alternate approach is to tap into 
the I/O decoding by removing one of 
the decoder ICs and substituting a 
jumper to the firmware card. The 
function of the missing device can 
then be performed selectively by the 
firmware card. When appropriate, a 



signal that would ordinarily enable 
some element of the I/O section of 
the Apple may be diverted to active 
memory on the firmware card. In 
particular, we can arrange to have 
location hexadecimal C000 decode an 
address in memory on the firmware 
card; that is, when the computer tries 
to read the keyboard, it in fact reads 
whatever is placed into that location 
on the firmware card. 

This offers a few advantages. First, 
this arrangement makes installation 
of the firmware card much easier 
because the bottom of the computer 
need not be removed. Second, if it is 
designed so that the rearrangement of 
the decoding occurs only when the 
card is turned off, the keyboard latch 
and strobe arrangement will be left 
intact and will function in the normal 
fashion when the card is turned on. 
(This allows the card to directly read 
the keyboard and pass any keyboard 
input through as well.) Third, this 
technique allows the firmware card to 
intercept references to the game- 
paddle ports, thus allowing the card 



PUT YOUR APPLE TO SLEEP 



Plug HIBERNATOR into your APPLE power socket - 

Plug RealClock into APPLE slot - Set ALARMCLDCK Interrupt Mode 

Power OFF - your APPLE will WAKE UP (after sleeping for 

milliseconds to months) - Boot up - Execute your program 

and if you wish, go back to sleep again - etc. 

Your APPLE consumes NO j^pwer while asleep - NO over-heating 



AUXILLARY 
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AC PO WER, 
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I - ' 



REMOTE 
TTL 



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SWITCHES 




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> AUXILIARY AC POWER OUTLETS 
* LEO STATUS INDICATORS 

► CONTROL FROM: REALCLOCK, 
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MANUAL/SOFTWARE 

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to do game-paddle emulation. 

Paddle Emulation 

If we want to allow the user control 
over the paddle input, some mechan- 
ism must be provided to simulate the 
game paddle. The most straightfor- 
ward method would be to install a 
variable resistor in the game slot that 
could be controlled by the firmware 
card, but this approach is fairly 
hardware-intensive. By carrying the 
substitution of memory for I/O one 
step further, however, it is possible to 
gain software control of the values 
obtained when the game paddles are 
read. 

The Apple's 100-kfi potentiometer 
inputs are read by means of timers. In 
normal operation, the position of the 
game paddle is read in the following 
fashion: the X register is loaded with 
the paddle number; the Y register is 
used as a counter. The process begins 
by setting register Y to 0. The NE555 
timer is then triggered by a reference 
to address hexadecimal C070. The 
processor then goes into a loop, in- 
crementing Y and checking address 
hexadecimal C063 — X (where X is the 
paddle number). When the timer runs 
out, it clears the most significant bit 
of hexadecimal address C063+X. 
When this is detected by the loop, the 
program exits the loop and uses the 
value of the Y register as the paddle 
value. 

With the firmware card, there are 
two ways to program the game- 
paddle value that is read by a pro- 
gram running on the computer. The 
first method (used by paddle modes 8 
through 15) begins by disabling the 
decoding so that each time the com- 
puter addresses hexadecimal C063+X 
it gets an address in the memory on 
the firmware card instead of checking 
the actual hardware switch. The firm- 
ware card simply increments one of 
its own counters and then passes con- 
trol back to the paddle timing loop. 

After the firmware card has been 
accessed the desired number of times 
(i.e., the value in the Y register is 
equal to the desired value), the most 
significant bit in memory location 
hexadecimal C063 + X (in the 
firmware-card memory) is set to 0, 



310 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 232 on inquiry card. 



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BYTE September 1982 311 



and control is again returned to the 
paddle timing loop. The loop detects 
the most significant bit (thinking that 
it is seeing the timer flag) and exits 
from its loop, carrying with it the 
value for Y that the firmware card 
wants it to have. This approach has 
the advantage that it will work no 
matter who writes the timing loop 
and what registers are used for 
counters. It has the disadvantage, 
however, that it can actually slow the 
program down by interjecting addi- 
tional instructions into the otherwise 
very tight timing loop. 

The second method (used by pad- 
dle modes 1 through 7) takes advan- 
tage of the fact that most of the pad- 
dle timing loops examined (both in 
software written by Apple Computer 
Inc. and in other packages) seem to 
use either the X or Y register as a 
counter. Because this is the most 
convenient method for doing paddle 
timing and allows the highest resolu- 
tion, it is reasonable to assume that 
one of the two registers will be used in 
most or all software paddle timing 



loops. 

Based on this assumption, the firm- 
ware card immediately checks the 
values of the X and Y registers when 
address hexadecimal C070 is first ac- 
cessed. It then returns control to the 
loop and allows it to complete one 
cycle. When the loop accesses address 
hexadecimal C063+X, the firmware 
card is again activated. It then checks 
registers X and Y to see which of the 
two registers has changed. The pro- 
gram assumes that this is a counter 
and then loads the desired paddle 
value into that register, sets the most 
significant bit in address hexadecimal 
C063 +X (in the memory on the firm- 
ware card), and returns control the 
Apple paddle timing loop. 

The loop immediately discovers 
that the most significant bit is set and 
breaks with the value in the register 
as the "paddle timer value." In this 
manner, the software routine can 
very quickly inject any paddle value 
into any program. If software is 
discovered that uses other registers, a 
more complicated search routine can 



be used to find the proper register to 
"stuff" (store) with the desired paddle 
timer value. The end result is that in- 
dividuals using only a single switch or 
other alternative input techniques can 
control paddle movement, through 
the firmware card, for games, draw- 
ing routines, and other software ap- 
plications. 



Where Is the Top of Memory? 

A drawback of the I/O RAM ap- 
proach is that the address hexa- 
decimal C000 becomes an element of 
RAM, which could fool an operating 
system trying to find the top of 
memory. This does not happen with 
DOS, but it does happen with Integer 
BASIC in ROM, if that language is 
started with control B. The solution 
in this case is to specify HIMEM. The 
problem doesn't arise, however, if the 
disk system is used. 



Cassettes and Interrupts 

The cassette-input address hexa- 



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312 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 126 on inquiry card. 



Welcome to the third dimension 







48K, Applesoft, DOS 3.3 
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Apple and Apple 1 1 are Trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. 



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Circle 420 on inquiry card. 



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decimal C060 is one of the addresses 
that would generate an interrupt. 
Because the cassette-input routine is a 
critical timing loop, interrupts make 
the adaptive-firmware card incom- 
patible with the use of cassettes; 
therefore, don't use the card in a 
cassette-based system. The problem 
doesn't exist with a disk system. 



Serial Processing and the Disk 

The current version of the card per- 
forms serial processing using the 6502 
and a software routine. This general- 
ly requires a direct-interrupt capabili- 
ty in order to implement the timing 
necessary to handle the serial input 
data. A direct-interrupt capability, 
however, can interfere with disk ac- 
tivity and could be catastrophic if it 
occurred during a disk-write routine. 

A flag is provided, with the serial- 
input routine, that is set to READY 
each time the card is enabled and is 
set to BUSY whenever the program 
exits from the card. As a result, input 
is only allowed to the card when the 



card is active and the disk, therefore, 
is not. This still leaves a slight 
possibility that serial-input data 
could come in immediately after the 
flag is set to READY and the card is 
shutting itself down. A direct inter- 
rupt that would reenable the card at 
this point would cause no problem 
because the card would barely have 
been deactivated, and there wouldn't 
be sufficient time to get into a disk- 
read cycle. 



Some Aids Don't Have BUSY 

Some serial-output aids do not 
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second after the card is disabled. This 
is long enough to allow any close- 
following serial input to be picked up 
and processed (by enabling reading of 



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the firmware card) but not long 
enough to allow the computer to get 
itself to the point of writing to disk. 



Conclusions 

With a little finagling, an adaptive- 
firmware card can be developed at 
low cost that can provide essentially 
transparent control of a microcom- 
puter while offering a wide range of 
input algorithms to accommodate 
disabled individuals with varying 
physical abilities. In order to achieve 
this result, however, it is necessary to 
take advantage of traits unique to the 
microcomputer. As a result very few, 
if any, of the specifics of the board for 
the Apple II would be transportable 
to other systems. The system, by its 
very nature, is also not fully trans- 
parent. 

However, for those individuals 
who have Apple II microcomputers 
and who want access to standard 
software progams, using one of the 
input techniques supported by the 
adaptive-firmware card, the card can 
provide an effective, flexible, and 
relatively low-cost solution. ■ 



For additional information on the 
adaptive-firmware card, please send a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope to: 

The Reprint Service 
Trace Research and 

Development Center 
314 Waisman Center 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, W I 53706. 

The original firmware card was 
developed in conjunction with the 
Maplewood School Computer Project, 
Edmonds, Washington. Assistance in 
the final development and dissemina- 
tion of the adaptive-firmware card has 
been provided by the Trace Center's 
Commercial Facilitation Program, 
University of Wisconsin, under funds 
provided by Cerebral Palsy Inc., of 
Green Bay, Wisconsin, and Grant 
G008200049 of the National Institute 
of Handicapped Research, U.S. 
Department of Education. 



314 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 127 on inquiry card. 



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COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



Circle 408 on inquiry card 
1100 N. TUSTIN #207, ANAHEIM, CA 92807 



) Red Baron Computer Products, 1982 



User's Column 



Letters, Pascal, CB/80, 
and Cardfile 

Jerry gives one mans opinions on a variety of subjects 
that interest computer users. 



"You're going to regret that silly 
column," my mad friend used to say. 
"People won't really read it. They'll 
sort of read it and then send you nas- 
ty letters refuting things you didn't 
say, and they'll be indignant about it, 
too." 

"Come on, you encouraged me to 
write this column!" 

"So I did." 

"So what do I do?" 

"Give me the letters. I'll help you 
answer them." 

My mad friend was right in his pre- 
diction but alas cannot help me with 
the mail. Fortunately, things aren't as 
gloomy as he predicted. Some of my 
mail is reasonable and informative, 
and a lot more is at least 
informative. . . . 

What, though, do I do with the let- 
ter that begins "I thoroughly enjoyed 
your column of xxx, but have you 
tried a Frammistan 9 running at 6.7 
MHz with the model 3853.4? I've had 
one for five months and never had a 
glitch. . . ."? 

While I'm grateful for descriptions 
of systems I haven't access to, I can 
hardly write about them; by its very 
nature this column has to concentrate 
on equipment I have and programs I 



Jerry Pournelle 

c/o BYTE Publications 

POB 372 

Hancock, NH 03449 



either use or tried and didn't like. 
Now I know in a sense this is unfair. 
In an ideal world I'd have nothing to 
do but play about with computers 
and programs and write absolutely 
unbiased accounts complete with 
benchmark times and bug reports; 
but this isn't an ideal world. 

There's a limit to the time I can 
spend bopping about with computer 



If you're wondering 
why I didn't answer 
your letter— read on. 



systems, the number of computer sys- 
tems I can own, and, indeed, the 
number I can use no matter how I get 
them. There's a limit to the number of 
programs I can review and the lan- 
guages I can learn. These aren't limits 
I like very much — left to my druthers, 
I'd spend several hours a day playing 
with computer systems — but they're 
pretty absolute. I am primarily a 
book writer, and every now and then 
I have to deliver a book. There's no 
help for it. After that, my copious 
free time is divided among a number 



of important— well / think they're im- 
portant — activities. I am, for my sins, 
an official of the Science Fiction 
Writers of America; the secretary of 
the L-5 Society (an outfit you ought 
to join; send $25 to L-5, 1620 E. Elm, 
Tucson, AZ 85719, and tell 'em I sent 
you); chairman of the Citizen's Ad- 
visory Council on National Space 
Policy; member of the Board of the 
Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society; 
and hikemaster of my local Boy Scout 
troop, and if you're wondering how 
any human being can do all that, so 
am I after listing it. 

Now I'm not looking for pats on 
the back (in truth I ought to give up 
one or another of those activities 
since I can't give all of them the time 
they deserve), nor can I really excuse 
my inability to answer all my mail. 
But as they taught us way back when, 
there's never an excuse, but there may 
be an explanation, and if you're won- 
dering why I didn't answer your let- 
ter, now you have an explanation. 

The upshot is, of course, there are 
good hardware systems I have never 
described in this column. Some I 
never heard of, and even if I had, it's 
certain I can't buy every system that 
comes out. Some I have heard of, 



318 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 




I 




with sufficient negative comments so 
that I've little interest in further inves- 
tigation — yet in fairness I can hardly 
pan something I have no personal ex- 
perience with. The bottom line is I 
don't at all mind your telling me 
about your favorite system or pro- 
gram, but do understand that I may 
never be able to write about it. That's 
not optimum, but I don't see what I 
can do. I really am dancing as fast as I 
can. 

Now for specifics. 

Drive Along Little Doggie 

Have I been too hard on 5V4-inch 
disk drives? A number of corres- 
pondents tell me I have. Some I can 
ignore, such as the reader who sent 
the letter accompanied by a catalog of 
software sold only on 5V4-inch 
disks — I don't ignore him because of 
the obvious self-interest, but because 
both the cover letter and the catalog 
are illiterate, making me wonder 
what the program documentation is 
like. But there are also sane letters. 



The most rational says, "You do need 
two disk drives with at least 250K 
bytes of memory to do much of any- 
thing, and three drives are required to 
run many programs rationally . . . 
[but] a 5V4-inch [disk] is more conve- 
nient than and just as reliable as an 
8-inch [disk]. Speed is slightly slower 
when transferring large files, but the 
difference is hardly noticeable during 
normal operator interaction. One 
8-inch drive is nice to read the 
original CP/M disks, but the only 
real requirement is to pick something 
that Lifeboat supports. A hard disk is 
where we are all going anyway, and 
the basic requirement is to get pro- 
grams in and data back out." 

Let's look at this a chunk at a time. 
First, one 8-inch drive is silly; there 
are few power-supply cabinets built 
for a single 8-inch drive, and if you're 
going to get one, you might as well 
get two and be done with it. Inciden- 
tally, I still strongly recommend the 
Qume DT-8s; double-sided and 
double-density, they store over a 




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megabyte per disk, and with a Com- 
pupro controller, they're very fast. 
My friend Bill Grieb of System Inter- 
face Consultants has had good experi- 
ence with Qume disks in the Inte- 
grand S-100 box, a package contain- 
ing a seven-slot bus and two drives in 
a box smaller than the one my 
Cromemco Z-2 occupies without 
drives. The point is, if you're getting 
one 8-inch drive, you might as well 
get two. You just don't save that 
much money or space. 

Second, my correspondent rightly 
states that you can't get along with- 
out top-of-the-line 5V4-inch disks: 
that is, disks that hold 250K bytes of 
memory and more, which is to say 
hold 40 tracks and are double den- 
sity. Unfortunately, those aren't 
cheap. They are smaller than 8 
inches, which is the only "conve- 
nience" I know of; but three of them 
take up only slightly less room than 
two DT-8s. 

Third, my experience with 5V4-inch 
reliability is not his. True, I was 
working with experimental stuff in 
the Dark Ages (two years ago); thus, 
I might be wrong. The fact remains 
that a 5V4-inch disk is nothing more 
than the inner 40 tracks of an 8-inch 
system, and the inner tracks are the 
least reliable. 

But to me the fatal flaw is the lack 
of any standard format in 5V4-inch 
disks. With 8-inch disks, CP/M is 
CP/M, and everyone can read each 
other's data files. Alas, that's not so 
with small disks. 

Now it's true my Godbout system 
cannot read double-sided double- 
density disks created by my son's 
CCS (California Computer Systems), 
even though both use Qume DT-8 
disk drives and, in general, each disk- 
controller manufacturer has his own 
double-density format that's unread- 
able by any other controller. How- 
ever, nearly all 8-inch systems I know 
of can read IBM 128 bytes/sector, 
single-sided single-density disks, 
meaning that I have access to most of 
my friends' machines and they to 
mine. There's no comparable stan- 
dard with 5V4-inch disks and thus 
communications are considerably 
hampered. 



320 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 80 on inquiry card. 



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PERSONAL 

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Altos Call for Model & Price 

Amdek Video-300 1 49.00 

Amdek Color-I Monitor 329.00 

Amdek Color-ll Hi-Resolution 13" Monitor 729.00 

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Atari 400 1 6K 319.00 

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Diablo 630 2095.00 

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Epson MX-100 FT Printer w/Graftrax Plus 695.00 

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430 PEARL STREET, STOUGHTON, MA 02072 

(617)344-6645 TOLL FREE (800) 343-0873 



322 BYTE September 1982 



Circle 351 on inquiry card. 




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(617)344-6645 TOLLFREE (800) 343-0873 



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BYTE September 1982 323 



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I agree that we're all headed for 
hard disks. The clutter here at Chaos 
Manor (I now face three sets of dual 
8-inch disk drives plus two 5V4-inch 
disk drives plus a hard-disk drive) 
tempts me sometimes to reduce the 
size of everything; but I want more 
software than Lifeboat can supply, 
and I don't know what format of 
5V4-inch disk to buy, so I'll stick with 
at least one pair of DT-8s, hard disk 
or not. 

Finally, there's the safety factor. 
You may trust your hard disk, but as 
far as I'm concerned, my text isn't 
really safe until it's written onto a 
disk and the disk is put in a nonmag- 
netic metal box on the other side of 
the room. Little disks just don't hold 
enough text, nor do I have that much 
confidence in them. 

All told, then, I'll stay with the big 
floppy disks. 



M & N s and Are You a Compiler? 

I've previously mentioned my 
Compupro M-Drive, which we've 
designated as drive "M" and 
Semidisk, which became drive "N." 
For the few who don't know, these 
are two different schemes for fooling 
your computer into thinking that a 
big block of memory is a disk drive. I 
doubt that I've sufficiently praised 
them. Both Compupro's M-Drive and 
the Semidisk system work so well 
that you don't notice them. 

The Compupro system is marginal- 
ly faster than Semidisk's, and the 
Compupro memory can be used as 
RAM (random-access read/write 
memory) for your 8088 when you use 
your 8085/88 that way; but the sys- 
tem requires a Compupro disk con- 
troller and an 8085/88 processor. 
Meanwhile, Semidisk is plenty fast 
and can be used with any CP/M 2.2 
S-100 bus system, no matter what 
controller and processor are being 
used. And having them can change 
the way you do things. 

There are times when I am willing 
to take Pascal and stuff the language 
into a culvert. There truly are times 
when I completely agree with my late 
mad friend, who thought Pascal use- 
ful for classroom exercises, par- 
ticularly in places that didn't have 



computers for the students to work 
with, but not much use for practical 
programming. Lately I've been help- 
ing my son Alex and his classmates 
work on the Workman and Associ- 
ates' Pascal Introduction Package: 
they're taking standard programs out 
of standard textbooks, such as Peter 
Grogono's Programming in Pascal 
and the Kernighan and Plauger classic 
Software Tools in Pascal, and getting 
them to run with Digital Research's 
Pascal/MT+ and Sorcim's Pascal/M 
compilers. And the job is driving me 
nuts. Alex and his friends will earn 
every nickel they make. 

Pascal really and truly expects the 
programmer to be a sort of precom- 
piler. Consider error messages like 
"Error number 6: Illegal symbol 
(possibly missing ';' on line above)" 
and "Error number 51: ': = ' 
expected." Pascal/MT+ even shows 
you precisely where these errors are 
expected, and usually the compiler is 
right about the guesses, too. 

So why don't the compilers simply 
supply the needed symbol! Especially 
when they found " = " where they ex- 
pected ": = "? Now it's true that you 
don't want to depend on compilers to 
do your thinking for you. You really 
ought to go correct the program. But 
I don't see why they can't give you 
the specific error message, plus say 
"following assumption imple- 
mented," and show you what they 
did, then continue with the compila- 
tion. That way they would catch 
nearly all the trivial errors in one 
pass, and then you could go back and 
correct them all at once rather than 
having to load the editor, add a 
semicolon, exit the editor, compile 
until the next trivial error, etc., ad 
nauseam. 

We have both M and N drives (on 
the same machine; if you type in "PIP 
M:=N:*.*", the result is blindingly 
fast), and thus the cycle isn't so long 
for us. After all, the disk-access times 
are pretty short, so we're not waiting 
for the editor or the compiler to load 
or the editor to write to disk. I think I 
would probably have given up on 
Pascal without them. 

It isn't just the trivial errors that 
make Pascal hard to use. Although 
the compiler's intolerance for trivial 



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Z-90-64K DO 


$2588 


Z-19 Terminal 


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Z-121 Monitor 12" 


$149 




ATARI COMPUTERS 




Atari 800 16K 


$649 


Atari 400 


$318 


Atari Interface Module 


$174 


Atari 810 Single Disk 


$444 


Atari 830 Modem 


$166 


Programmer 


$59 


Entertainer 


$84 


Star Raiders 


$34 


16K Mem. Exp. for Atari 


$74 


32KMem. Exp. for Atari 


$114 




NEC PRINTERS 




7710/30 SpinwriterR/O 


CALL 


7720SpinwriterKSR 


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3510/30 SpinwriterR/O 


CALL 


NEC DOT MATRIX 




PC-8023 


$474 


Call for prices on ribbons, 


etc. 




MORE PRINTERS 




Anadex 9500/9501 


$1295 


Anadex DP-9000 


$1049 


OkidataMicroline82A 


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OkidataMicroline83A 


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OkidataMicroline84 


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Tractor(OKI80 + 82 only) 


$60 


Diablo 630 


$2044 




MONITORS 




Sanyo 12" GRN Phosphor 


$266 


Sanyo 12" Black + White 


$239 


Amdek 12" 300 GRN Phosphor 


$149 


Amdek 12" Color 


$319 


Amdek Color II 


$779 


NEC 12"GRN Phosphor 


$164 


NEC 12" Color 


$344 



EPSON PRINTERS 

MX-80w/Graphics CALL 

MX-80 FT (Friction + Tractor) CALL 

MX-100 (15" Carriage) CALL 

Call for prices on 
Ribbons, Cables and Interfaces 



NEC- PC 8000 
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PC-8001 A Computer w/32K 
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(617)655-7400 
62 N. Main St.* Natick, MA 01760 



Circle 369 on inquiry card. 



BYTE September 1982 325 



mistakes seems to me a mistake, one 
assumes that study and practice will 
overcome that. Nor am I certain pre- 
cisely what is wrong; but here I'm 
watching students who've been work- 
ing with Pascal for four years take 
hours and hours to debug programs 
copied from a standard textbook 
recommended by the compiler writer. 
That's portability? 

I suppose I shouldn't complain. 
Alex expects to make a lot of money 
off his Pascal lessons. When he first 
started working on the concept, I 
wasn't sure it would be worth what 
Workman said he'd have to charge; 
but that was before I got involved in 
helping out: that is, Alex had some 
exams coming up, so I volunteered to 
type in a couple of Grogono pro- 
grams and get them running. They 
were, after all, simple programs, and 
all that was needed was to copy them 
out of a book, to spend an hour or 
two typing, and perhaps to put in an 
hour debugging. . . . 

Hah! Didn't work that way at all. 



First, even with Semidisk it took 
longer than I'd have thought to get rid 
of all the trivial errors. Then the fun 
really began. There are more obscure 
errors and faults in Pascal than you 
can dream of, even if you spend 
weeks studying a good introductory 
text like Grogono's. 

For example: "Error number 253: 
Procedure (or program body) too 
long. Reduce the size of the procedure 
and try again." 

I searched the index in Program- 
ming in Pascal, Digital Research's 
Pascal/MT + documentation, and 
Sorcim's Pascal/M document. Nary a 
word about this, or at least none I can 
find. Programs that will compile in 
Pascal/MT + give you error 253 in 
Pascal/M. You fix that by shortening 
the program, which you can do by 
taking a number of messages that are 
delivered only once and putting them 
into a procedure (although it's a bit 
silly to call a subroutine just to read 
the instruction messages). Of course, 
the procedure was (trivially) wrong 



the first couple of times. Then the 
random-number generator Grogono 
uses wouldn't work because he uses 
the integer 65536. Mike Lehman, who 
wrote Pascal/MT + , told me on the 
phone simply to change that to 
65536.0, thus changing it into a float- 
ing-point number; but that doesn't 
work either, because Pascal will not 
do implicit type conversion, and we 
needed the MOD (get the remainder, 
or modulo) function, and Pascal 
won't let you do the MOD function 
unless you're dividing by an 
integer. . . . 

So, we wrote a "get remainder" 
procedure, only that ran into con- 
flicts of variable types. 

Then we tried a different random- 
number generator and went through 
the Grogono program to document 
where and why we changed variables 
from integers to real numbers, and 
after about three times as much time 
and work as I'd expected, that pro- 
gram is done. There are a lot more 
like that in the package Alex did; and 



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853 16K MEMORY EXPANSION $79 

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ALL BRAND NAMES ARE REGISTERED TRADE MARKS 



326 September 1982 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 407 on inquiry card. 




BISON 

PRODUCTS, INC. 

A CALIFORNIA CORPORATION 




We're Bullish on Low Prices 

Bison Products, Inc. carries most every product you could want for your business o r personal computer - AND - w e give them t o you at 
prices that are LOWER than anyone elses. COMPARE our total price for the equipment you want to anyone elses total price and you'll 
agree. If the items you want are not listed i n this ad, call us for the current price. I f you find a n advertised price that i s lower than ours, call 
us and we'll try to beat it. 

Send Mail Orders To: Orders may be picked up at: For Questions or Phone Orders Call: 

P.O. Box 9078-184 16709 Roscoe Boulevard (213) 891-5702 

Van Nuys, California 91409 Sepulveda, California 91343 

Most orders shipped within 48 hours or receipt of cash or certified check. VISA and MasterCard accepted. 

All merchandise new in factory cartons with manufacturer's warrantee. 

Corporate and School District P.O.'s accepted subject to credit approval. Enclose financial statement with order. 

California residents add Sales Tax. Shipping charges added to all orders. 

For Further Information Please Circle Reader Serviced 55 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

NEC PC-8001A $725 

Commodore VIC 20 Personal Computer System . . . $239 

Products For Apple Computers 

Here are some of the products BISON carries for Apple 
Computers. If you don't see what you want here, give us a 
call. 

16K RAM Card for Apple II S 68 

Videx Videoterm w/Softswitch $ 258 

Microsoft Z-80 Softcard w/CP/M $ 253 

BISON Disk Drive w/3.3 Controller $ 459 

BISON Add-on Disk Drive S 349 

Parallel Printer Card with Cable S 72 

D. C. Hayes Micromodem II . . . .' $ 270 

Novation Apple Cat Modem $ 325 

For more Apple information, circle reader service card # 52 

Products For IBM Personal Computers 

Tandon Single-Sided Disk Drive $ 255 

Tandon Double-Sided Disk Drive w/DOS Patch . . $ 485 
Tandon Double-Sided Drive 

w/80 Tracks & DOS Patch S 595 

AST 64K RAM Card S 365 

9-piece set of 64K RAMs $ 75 

For more IBM information circle reader service card #53 

PRINTERS 

BISON carries all of the major brands of printers. If you 
need help choosing the proper printerfor your needs, call 
and talk to one of our support technicians. 

EPSON MX-80 Type III with Graftrax Plus $ 412 

EPSON MX-80 F/T Type III with Graftrax Plus $ 522 

EPSON MX-100 with Graftrax Plus S 675 

NEC PC-8023A Friction & Tractor w/Graphics $ 485 

Okidata Microline 82A with Tractor - 80 Col $ 460 

Okidata Microline 83A with Tractor - 1 00 Col $ 685 

Okidata Microline 84PS - 200 cps Par/Ser $1125 

C. Itoh Prowriter - Parallel S 485 

C. Itoh Prowriter - Parallel/Serial S 610 

C. Itoh F-10 Starwriter - Parallel - 40 cps $1395 

C. Itoh F-10 Starwriter - Serial - 40 cps $1495 

Brother Daisy Wheel Printer - Parallel S 855 

Brother Daisy Wheel Printer - Serial $ 895 

For more printer information circle readerservice card #54 

MONITORS 

BMC International 

* 12" Green monitor with P-31 phospher 

* 15 Mhz* Excellent for 80 column display 

BMC 12" Green Monitor $ 88 

* 13" Color Monitor* Audio and Video 

* 270 Line resolution 

BMC 13" Color Monitor S 273 

AMDEK Monitors 

* 12" Green Phospher 

* Non-Glare 

AMDEK Video 300 Call for Price 

* 13" Color Monitor* RGB Input 

* For IBM/NEC/Apple 

AMDEK Color II Call for Price 

AMDEK Color I Call for Price 

AMDEK Color III Call for Price 



NEC 

NEC 12" Green Monitor $ 159 

NEC 13" Color Monitor $ 325 

NEC 13" RGB Color Monitor S 815 

ZENITH 

Zenith 12" Green Monitor $115 

TeleVideo Products 

TeleVideo computer terminals and desktop computer sys- 
tems-high price features at low prices. 

TeleVideo TS-802 Computer system 

* 64K, 4 Mhz Z-80A. CP/M * Dual Floppies, 720K Total 

* Same CRT and Keyboard asTelevideo950 Terminal 

* Network Expansion Capabilities 

TeleVideo TS-802 $2665 

TeleVideo TS-802H Same as TS-802 

with one floppy and 5-MegaByte Hard Disk $4990 

TeleVideo TVI-910 Terminal S 575 

TeleVideo TVI-925 Terminal $ 725 

TeleVideo TVI-950 Terminal - TOP-OF-LINE $ 915 

SOFTWARE 

BISON carries software for all business and personal 
computer systems. Just select the software you want and 
call us for our current price. Here are some examples of 
BISON'S Low Prices: 

MicroPro Software 

WordStar - 8"CP/M S 250 

WordStar - Apple CP/M S 192 

MailMerge - 8" CP/M $ 77 

MailMerge - Aple CP/M $ 63 

SpellStar - 8" CP/M $ 127 

SpellStar - Apple CP/M S 105 

DataStar - 8" CP/M S 175 

Super Sort - 8" CP/M $ 127 

Super Sort - Apple CP/M $ 100 

SuperSort II - 8" CP/M S 105 

CalcStar - 8" CP/M S 149 

S-1 00 PRODUCTS 

Whatever you need for your S-100 system, from CPU's to 
Memory, BISON has it. Just look at our list. If you don't see 
it here, call for our current price. 

Sierra Data Sciences 

S-100 Master/Slave Single Board Computers 

Master - 4 Mhz. Z 80A $ 690 

Slave - 4 Mhz. Z 80A S 625 

Sierra Data CP/M S 160 

Sierra Data BIOS S 100 

Sierra Manual $ 25 

Sierra Data - Winchester Adaptor $ 145 

Sierra Data Turbo DOS S 750 

QT-Systems Mainframes 

S-100 Mainfame and 8" Drive Enclosures 

* S-100 Power +8V/25A +16V/5A -16V/5A 

* Drive Power +5V/2.5A -5V/.5A +24V/3A 

* Keyed Power Switch 

* Shielded Motherboard 

* Rugged Card Cage 

*9%" x 17" x21" (HxWx D) 

QT 6-Slot, Dual 8" Drives $ 705 

QT 8-Slot, Dual 8" Drives $ 730 

QT 12-Slot, Dual 8" Drives S 755 



S-100 Mainframe and 5 1 /," Drive Enclosures 

* Similar to 8" Mainframe 

* 7" x17" x20" (H xWxD) 

QT6-Slot. Dual 5 1 /," Drives S 530 

QT 8-Slot. Dual 5%" Drives S 555 

QT 12-Slot. Dual 5y 4 " Drives S 580 

STATIC MEMORY SYSTEMS 64K RAM 

* 24 Line Addressing 

* 200 NS. Low Power CMOS 

* Intermix RAM and EPROM 

* List PriceS594 Static Memory Systems 

64K RAM $ 440 

AB DIGITAL DESIGN LABS 

256K Byte - 126K Byte Words 

* 4 Mhz with Extended DMA 

* IEEE--696 

* Multi-Layer PC Board 

* 1 Year Warranty 

* List S1 295 

AB DIGITAL DESIGN LABS 265K RAM $ 825 

DISK DRIVES 

Qume#842 (Replaces Data-Trak 8) S 480 

Tandon Thin 8" Single-Side Double-Density S 382 

Tandon Double-Density $ 465 

SUPER BISON SPECIAL 

Mitsubishi 8" Double-Density Double-Sided 

Floppy Disk Drive S 399 

QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE - CALL BISON 
TRAK Dual 8" Floppy Disk Drive Cabinet 

* Verticle Mount 

* Signal Extender Cable 

* Write Protect Switches on Front 
' Power Supply, Fan 

* Highest quality construction 

Trak Dual 8" Floppy Disk Cabinet $ 325 

SEATTLE COMPUTER 
8086 SUPER MICRO 

16-bit Micro-computer system 

* 8 Mhz 8086 CPU 

' Full s-100 Compatability 

* 128K 70 NS Static RAM 

* MS-DOS (86-DOS) 

* Double-Density Disk Controller 

* 22-Slot Mainframe 

* Just add Drives and Terminal 

* List Price $4185 

Seattle Computer 8086 Computer System $3450 

Seattle Computer 8086 Board Set with DOS $ 595 

DYSAN Floppy Disks 

Dysan 104/15%" Soft Sector 

Box of 10 $ 35 

Dysan 104/1 D5V 4 " Soft Sector Double Density 

Box of 10 $ 42 

Dysan 3740/1 8" Soft Sector 

Box of 1 S 45 

Dysan 3740/2D 8" Soft-Sector Double-Density 

Box of 10 $ 63 ■ 

For more S-100 information, circle reader service card # 56 



WE DROVE THE 

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DISK DRIVES WAY 

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IS ■ ■ " ■ titv' 1 _JTJ,..k" ^Vi-mrtviU ' : 



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' n y* ^7 T - "SO tmni m $£ • 










Apparat continues to expand our- 
line of IBM PC compatible 
products. Buy a minimum IBM 
system from any dealer, then look 
to Apparat to complete and expand 
it. And save about 25% over a 
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find that we've developed some 
products you can't find from any 
other manufacturer or distributor. 



IBM compatible add-in and 
expansion drives. 

• Single and Double sided 40 
track drives. Both drives (Tan don 
or CDC available) are fully 
supported by PC DOS version 
1.1, and you can mix or match. 
Drives are easily installed in 
minutes. Single sided (160 k) - 
$225 each, Double sided (320K) 
- $315 each. 

• Double sided 80 track (650K) 
Tandon drive. Easily installed in 



minutes. Requires software 
patch - $435. 
• Expansion cabinet for 3rd and 
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matching case. Power supply 
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With 2 dual 40's internally and 2 in 
the expansion cabinet you have 
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unmodified PC DOS 1.1. 



SO YOU CAN DRIVE 

YOUR IBM PC 
CAPABILITIES WAY 

UP 




More savings on these add-ons. 

• Combo Card. Adds parallel 
printer, RS 232 asynchronous 
communications and clock 
calendar functions. Uses only 
one slot and includes RS 232 
cable - $279. 

• Clock Calendar Card. Features 
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week, date, month and year. 
Battery backup maintains time 
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• Prototype Card. 3.5 by 8 inch 
wirewrap area holds over 85-14 
pin dips - $29.95. 

• 64K Byte Hardware Print 
Spoolers. Internal spooler 
comes with parallel printer 
adapter. External version 
connects easily between 
computer and printer. Both 



buffer 32 pages of print output 

and are user programmable — 

$399. 

Add-On Memory Card. Uses 64K 

dynamic RAM chips, with parity. 

All are expandable to 256K. 64K 

- $299, 128K - $399, 192K - 
$499, 256K - $599. 
Monitors. High quality, reliable, 
12 inch green screen. P1EC, 20 
MHz BW - $195, Amdek, 18 MHz 
BW and anti glare - $180. 
Printers. A variety of the newest 
Epson, nEC and Okidata printers 
available. Call for prices. 

48K Additional Ram. 27 chips 
plug easily into master PC board 

- $75. 

RGB Color Monitors. Includes 
cable and modification to include 
16 colors — intensity control. P1EC 
(resolution 690 by 230) - $995, 
Amdek (560 by 240) - $899. 



• Prom Blaster. Programs most 4K 
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Complete with personality 
modules and read/write software 
- $149. 

• Apparat Game Diskette. 
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Apparat will continue to develop 
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IBM PC Is a trademark of IBM. 




Apparat, Inc. 



Circle 30 on inquiry card. 



yu 1 



BYTE September 1982 329 



Expand Your IBM P.C. 



MMMMBBM U HE D S :fct»ll 



Memory Expansion Board 

(PC) 2 's Expansion Board offers 4 TIMES 128K, 192K and 256K Bytes. Board can 
the amount of memory offered by IBM be easily upgraded in 64K capacities. 
P.C. Configurations can be set at 64K, Upgradability is the key! 



I ^ ■ 



' s 1895°° 

For 






■ Add-In Winchester Disk System 

(PC) 2 's Add-In Winchester Disk System is slot, reducing desktop space. Also 
housed within the IBM chassis and is available in 12 and 18 M Bytes capacity, 
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I Asynchronous Communications Controller 

1 or 2 line capability on one card. M 

Totally compatible with IBM software and diagnostics. I 



DS-Disk Software 



(PC) 2 's software program doubles 
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1