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Full text of "Byte Magazine Volume 09 Number 06: Computers and Education"

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M $3.50 

JUNE 1984 VOL. 9, NO. 6 




$4.95 IN CANADA/E2.10 IN U.K. 
^^ A McGRAW-HILL PUBLICATION 
■• 0360-5280 

i , 


1 THE SMALL SYSTEMS JOURNAL 



I COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION 
On every desk, in lab and field 





Introducing Macintosh. 
What makes it tick. And talk. 



Well, to begin with, 110 volts of 
alternating current. 

Secondly some of the hottest hard- 
ware to come down the pike in the last 
3 years. 



The garden variety 
16 -bit 8088 
miavprocessor. 




Macintosh's 32 bit MC68000 miavprocessor. 



1 -MAPS 
■ MC6B00CU 
™ J CCJ8140 





bring a Macintosh to the problem. (It 
weighs 9 pounds less than the most 
popular "portable.") 

Another miracle of miniaturization 
is Macintosh's built-in 3V2" drive. Its disks 
store 400K— more than conventional % " 
floppies. So while they're big enough to 
hold a desk full of work, they're small 
enough to fit in a shirt pocket. And, 
they're totally encased in a rigid plastic 
so they're totally protected. 

And talk about programming. 

Some hard facts may be in order at There are already plenty of programs to 
this point: keep a Macintosh busy Like MacPaint,™ 

Macintosh's brain is the same blind- 
ingly-fast 32-bit microprocessor we gave 
our other brainchild, the Lisa™Personal 
Computer Far more powerful than the 
16-bit 8088 found in current generation 
computers. 

Its heart is the same Lisa Technology 
of windows, pull-down menus, mouse 
commands and icons. All of which make 
that 32-bit power far more useful by 
making the Macintosh™Personal 
Computer far easier to use 
than current generation 




iy 

rmn»rmiT ^ 



computers. In fact, if you can point with- 
out hurting yourself, you can use it. 

Now for some small talk. 

Thanks to its size, if you can't bring the 



a program that, for the first time, lets a 
personal computer produce virtually any 
image the human hand can create. There's 
more software on the way from developers 
like MicrosoftrLotus' M and Software 



And with Macintosh BASIC, Mac- 
intosh Pascal and our Macintosh Tbolbox 
for writing your own mouse-driven pro- 
grams, you, too, could make big bucks 
in your spare time. 

You can even program Macintosh 
to talk in other languages, like Yiddish 
or Serbo-Croation, because it has a built- 
in polyphonic sound generator „ 
capable of producing , 
high quality speed)/"' Th> Mome itself 

or mi Kir / Replaces typed-in 

vi 1 1 iuoil. computer commands u itb a 

fmn of communication j w 
already understand — 
pointing. 



Some mice Ixwe two 
buttons. Macintosh Ixis 
one So its extremely 
difficult to push the 
uwng button. 




problem to a Macintosh, you can always Publishing Corp., to mention a few 




Macintosh automatically makes room MacPaint produces virtually any image Micrmofs Multiplan for Macintosh, 
for your illustrations in tlye text. the human Ixmd can create. 



Tlje inside 
story —a 
* rotating ball 
and optical senson 
translate movements 
o/'t/je mouse to Macintosh s sawn pointer 
with pin-point accuracy. 

All the right connections. 

On the back of the machine, you'll find 
built-in RS232 and RS422 AppleBus serial 
communication ports. Which means you 
can connect printers, modems and other 
peripherals without adding $150 cards. 
It also means that Macintosh is ready to 
hook in to a local area network. (With 
AppleBus, you will be able to interconnect 
up to 16 different Apple computers and 
peripherals.) 

Should you wish to double Mac- 
intosh's storage with an external disk 



9 H high resolution 
512x342 pixel 
hit-mapped dispky. 



Ultra compact, swilclmg-type 
power supply and high resolution 
video circuity. 



Batt&y for Macintosh's 
built-in clock calendar 



Built-in kindle for 
getting earned away. 



Madntosl) tea trademark licensed to /1f file Computer. Inc. fyple, fix Affile 
logo, MacPaint and Lisa are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Microsoft 
is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corjxrration. Lotus is a trademark of 
bohis Development Corporation. For an autljorized Apple dealer near you 
call (800) 538-9696. In Canada, call (800) 2687796 or 
(800)2687637. 



Tlxinks to clever venting, 
Macintosh requires no 
internal/an. 



RS232, RSi22Af)pleBus serial 
communications ports for 
printers, modems and ot/xr 
peripherals. 

Mouse connector. 

External disk drive connector 

Polyphonic sound port. 




Brightness 
control. 



128K bytes RAM. 



Built-in W 
disk drive. 



Keyboard connector — 
a telephone-type jack you 
already know Jjow to use. 



drive, you can do so without paying for 
a disk controller card— that connector's 
built-in, too. 

There's also a built-in connector 
for Macintosh's mouse, a feature that 
costs up to $300 on computers that can't 
even run mouse-controlled software. 

One last pointer. 

Now that you've seen some of the logic, 
the technology, the engineering genius 
and the software wizardry that separates 



32 bit Motorola 
MC68000 microprocessor. 



Macintosh from conventional computers, 
we'd like to point you in the direction of 
your nearest authorized Apple dealer. 
Over 1500 of them are eagerly 
waiting to put a mouse in your hand. 
As one point-and-click makes perfectly 
clear, the real genius of Macintosh isn't 



.Macintosh 's digital board — 
t/je processing power of an 
entire 32-bit digital graphics 
computer in 80 square inc/xs. 



its 32-bit Lisa Technology or its 3V2" 
floppy disks, or its serial ports, or its soft- 
ware, or its polyphonic sound generator. 

The real genius is that you don't 
have to be a genius to use a Macintosh. 

You just have to be smart enough 
to buy one. 



Soon there'll be just two kinds of people. 
Those who use computers. And 

those who use Apples. VI. 









CONTENTS 




























• 






162 




FEATURES 

Introduction 109 

The HP 1 10 by Ezra Shapiro Ill 

This new battery-powered machine has 752 K bytes of RAM and ROM 
and has built-in software including Lotus 1-2-3. 

Trump Card, Part 2: Software by Steve Garcia 115 

The BASIC and C compilers for this Z8000 card boost the performance 
of the IBM PC 

Faster FORTH by Ronald L. Greene 127 

Substituting a macro for the executable part of a word reduces overhead in 
subroutine-threaded languages. 

An Ada Language Primer. Part 1 by Sabina H. Saib 131 

An introduction to the language endorsed by the Department of Defense. 

Macintosh Pascal by G. Michael Vose 136 

With the introduction of this version, Pascal becomes an interpreted language. 

Build a Printer Buffer by ]ohn Bono 142 

While waiting for your printer to finish your latest enormous listing, you can 
build a buffer that eliminates the wait. 

Apple FAX: Weather Maps on a Video Screen 

by Keith H. Sueker 146 

This project lets your Apple display real-time weather maps on a high- 
resolution screen. 

Spreadsheet in BASIC by Rodolfo Cerati 154 

This program permits more cells than some commercial spreadsheets and is 
written in Microsoft BASIC. 

THEME: EDUCATION 

Introduction 161 

A Computer on Every Desk by Donna Osgood 162 

More and more universities in America are using personal computers as tools 
for education and communication. 

Programming by Rehearsal by William Finzer and Laura Gould. . . 187 
Using the theatrical stage as a metaphor, this development environment makes 
it easier to write educational software. 

Game Sets and Builders by Ann Piestrup 215 

Two types of graphics-based educational software go beyond computer-aided 
instruction. 

Cautions on Computers in Education by Stephen L. Chorover. . . .223 
A psychologist ponders the relationship between computer-based systems 
and human social systems. 

Languages for Students by Fred A. Master son 233 

Above all. languages must show simplicity, power, compatibility, 
and cognitive richness. 

Microcomputers in the Field by Robert P. Case 243 

An anthropologist describes the selection and "hardening" of a portable 
computer for use in field research. 

Kermit A File-Transfer Protocol for Universities, 
Part I: Design Considerations and Specifications 

by Frank da Cruz and Bill Catchings 255 

Personal computers need to talk to minicomputers and mainframes 
in universities, and this protocol lets them do so. 

San Francisco's Exploratorium by \ohn Markoff 279 

A hands-on. interactive museum uses personal computers to teach science 
through experience 



VOLUME 9. NUMBER 6. 1984 




Designing a Simulated Laboratory by Nils Peterson . 287 
A persona) computer simulates a classic experiment and teaches 
the concepts of cardiac function. 

REVIEWS 

Reviewer's Notebook 301 t! CDiJli i i i 

Another Look at CP/M-80 C Compilers QQ fljfiV i i i 

by Christopher Kern 303 

Whitesmiths. Q/C. and Supersoft Cs get a close examination. 

Archon by Gregg Williams 321 

This game requires a sense of strategy and dexterity. 

The Chameleon Plus by Rich Krajewski 327 

Compatible with the IBM PC the Chameleon Plus merits serious 
consideration but does have some drawbacks. 

The Texas Instruments Speech Command System 

by Mark Haas .. 341 

This voice input and output system for the Tl Professional comes 
under the scrutiny of an experienced user. 

Volition Systems 1 Modula-2 by Eric Eldred 353 

The author compares this version of Modula-2 for the Apple with familiar 
Apple Pascal. 

Infoscope by George Bond 367 

A RAM-based data-management system that exploits the IBM PCs color 
monitor wins the praise of an old hand at databases. 

Review Feedback 374 

Readers react to previous reviews. 

KERNEL 



Introduction 385 

Computing at Chaos Manor: A Superbusy Month 

by )erry Pournelle 387 

jerry celebrates a new hard disk, examines the Apple-Franklin decision, and 
romps through an assortment of new hardware and software. 

Chaos Manor Mail 400 

Jerry's readers write, and he replies. 

BYTE West Coast: Lessons Learned by Ezra Shapiro 405 

SoftOffce's gestation was difficult, but this package provides icon-based 
integrated software at low overhead. 

Editorial: BYTE's New Look 6 

MICROBYTES 9 

Letters 14 

Update 38 

Whats New 50, 468 

Ask BYTE 60 

Book Reviews 79 

Clubs and Newsletters 91 

Event Queue 94 

Books Received 463 

Unclassified Ads 525 

BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box. BOMB Results 526 

Reader Service 527 



327 




142 




469 



COVER PAINTING BY ROBERT T1NNEY/SECTION ART BY IVAN CHERMAYEFF 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 3 



Circle 345 on inquiry card. 




idex 



ULTRATERM? 

JUST ASK THE 
PROFESSIONALS! 

With the wide variety of 
peripherals available, it's dif- 
ficult to evaluate the quality 
of accessories for your Ap- 
ple. Listen to what the pro- 
fessionals say about Ultra- 
Term. 



BYTE- FEB. '84 

"Overall, the UltraTerm 
display card is one of the 
best peripheral devices I 
have seen to enhance the 
display capabilities of the 
Apple."— P. Callamaras 

SOFTALK-SEPT. '83 

"The UltraTerm shines 
brightest in use with spread- 
sheets and word 
processors." 

COMPUTER RETAILING 
-FEB. '84 

"The UltraTerm is a high 
quality investment for 
anyone who has an Apple 
product and wants to add to 
it." 

PEELINGS ll-VOL 4. 
NO. 8 '83 

"The UltraTerm will be the 
new industry standard for 
Apple video display cards. 
The availability of the extra 
modes will enhance almost 
any software product that 
uses the text screen." 

PERSONAL COMPUTING 
-MAY '83 

"Perhaps the most im- 
pressive achievement of the 
UltraTerm expansion board 
is that the character set it 
produces is so sharp that its 
difficult to see the dots that 
make up each character." 

The experts agree— the 
UltraTerm is one of the 
best display devices for 
Apple computers. 

Videx Inc. 

1105 NE Circle Blvd. 

Corvallis, OR 97330 

(503) 758-0521 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 

Philip Lemmons 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Gene Smarte 
consulting editors 

Steve Ciarcia 

lERRY POURNELLE 

SENIOR TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Richard Malloy, Reviews 
G. Michael Vose. Features 
Gregg Williams 
technical editors 
Glenn Hartwig 
Richard Kraiewski 
Arthur A. Little 
Bruce Roberts 
Ken Sheldon 
Richard A. Shuford 
Jane Morrill Tazelaar 
Stanley Wszola 
Alan Easton. Drafting 

WEST COAST EDITORS 

Ezra Shapiro, Bureau Chief, San Francisco 
John Markoff Senior Technical Editor. Palo Alto 
Donna Osgood. Associate Editor, San Francisco 

MANAGING EDITOR. USER NEWS 

George Bond 
user News editors 

Anthony J. Lockwood. What's New 
Mark Welch, Microbytes 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Dennis Allison, at large 

Mark Dahmke. video, operating systems 

Michael Ecker, mathematical recreations 

Rik Jadrnicek. CAD. graphics, spreadsheets 

Mark Klein, communications 

Alan Miller, languages and engineering 

William Raike. \apan 

Perry Saidman. computers and law 

Robert Sterne, computers and law 

Bruce Webster, software 

Richard Willis, at large 

COPY EDITORS 

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Dennis Barker 
Margaret Cook 
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Paula Noonan 
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Bud Sadler 
Warren Williamson 



assistants 

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art director 

rosslyn a. frick 



PUBLISHER 

Gene W. Simpson 

associate publisher/production director 

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PUBLISHER S ASSISTANT 

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adverhsing sales 

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advertising 

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marketing communications 

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ACCOUNTING 

Daniel Rodrigues. Business Manager/Controller 

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Mary E. Fluhr. Accounting & D/P Manager 

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Lyda Clark 

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PRODUCTION TRAFFIC 

David R. Anderson. Associate Director N. Scott Gagnon, Manager 

Virginia Reardon. Production Manager Anthony Bennett 

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Editorial and Business Office: 70 Main Street, Peterborough, New Hampshire 03458. (603) 924-9281 
West Coast Offices: McGraw-Hill, 42 5 Battery St.. San Francisco, CA 94111. (415) 362-4600. 

McGraw-Hill, 1000 Elwell Court. Palo Alto. CA 94303, (415) 964-0624 
_ . r — Officers of McGraw-Hill Publications Company: President: lohn G. Wrede. Executive Vice Presidents: Paul R McPherson. Operations. Walter 
-J ^Mj D. Serwatka, Finance & Services. Senior Vice President-Editorial: Ralph R. Schulz. Senior Vice President Publishers: Hairy L. Brown, David 
B ml '' McGrath. lames R. Pierce, Gene W Simpson, lohn E. Slater. Vice President Publishers: Charlton H. Calhoun HI. Richard H. Larsen. John W. 
■ ■ 1MB p atten vice Presidents: Kemp Anderson, Business Systems Development: Shel F Asen. Manufacturing: lohn A. Bunyan. Electronic Information 
Services: George R, Elsinger, Circulation: Michael K Hehir, Controller: Eric B. Herr, Planning and Development: H. lohn Sweger. |r„ Marketing, Virginia 
L Williamson, Business Development. 

Officers of the Corporation: Harold W. McGraw. Jr.. Chairman: Joseph L. Dionne. President and Chief Executive Officer: Robert N. Landes. Senior Vice 
President and Secretary: Ralph I Webb. Treasurer 

BYTE is published monthly by McGraw-Hill Inc. Founder: lames H. McGraw (1860-1948). Executive, editorial, circulation, and advertising offices: 70 
Main St.. Peterborough, NH 03458, phone (603) 924-9281, Office hours: Mon-Thur 8:30 AM - 4:30 PM. Friday 8:30 AM - 1.00 PM. Eastern Time. Address 
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offices. USPS Publication No. 528890 (ISSN 0360-5280]. Postage paid at Winnipeg, Manitoba. Registration number 9321. Subscriptions are S21 for one 
year. S38 for two years, and S55 for three years in the USA and its possessions. In Canada and Mexico, S23 for one year. S42 for two years. S61 for 
three years. S69 for one year air delivery to Europe. 17.100 yen for one year surface delivery to Japan. S37 surface delivery elsewhere. Air delivery to 
selected areas at additional rates upon request. Single copy price is S3. 50 in the USA and its possessions. S4.25 in Canada and Mexico, S4.50 in Europe, 
and S5 elsewhere. Foreign subscriptions and sales should be remitted in United States funds drawn on a U.S. bank. Please allow six to eight weeks for 
delivery of first issue. Printed in the United States of America. 

Address all editorial correspondence to the Editor. BYTE. POB 372, Hancock. NH 03449. Unacceptable manuscripts will be returned if accompanied 
by sufficient first-class postage. Not responsible for lost manuscripts or photos. Opinions expressed by the authors are not necessarily those of BYTE. 

Copyright © 1984 by McGraw-Hill Inc. All rights reserved. Trademark registered in the United States Patent and Irademark Office. Where necessary, 
permission is granted by the copyright owner for libraries and others registered with the Copyright Clearance Center iCCC) to photocopy any article 
herein for the flat fee of SI. 50 per copy of the article or any part thereof. Correspondence and payment should be sent directly to the CCC 29 Congress 
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of McGraw-Hill Inc. is prohibited. Requests for special permission or bulk orders should be addressed to the publisher. BYTE is available 
in microform from University Microfilms International. 300 North Zeeb Rd.. Dept. PR. Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 or 18 Bedford Row. Dept. PR. 
London WCIR 4EI England. 
Subscription questions or problems should be addressed to: BYTE Subscriber Service, POB 328, Hancock, NH 03449 



4 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



68000-basedsystems. 
Just tell u 



aiF/» 



68000-based systems 
to fit your 



Right from the pages of our 
catalog, we can deliver 68000-based 
supermicro systems to match virtu- 
ally any application. 

Including yours. 

Here's how. 

Built on the IEEE-696 (S-100) 
bus, Cromemco systems offer up to 
21 board slots. And a family of 35 
boards — CPU, memory and special- 
ized I/O— to fill the slots any way 
you choose. 

At the heart of each system is our 
68000/Z-80dual processor. Backed by 
as much as 16 Mb of error- correcting 
RAM. Full multi-tasking capability. 
I/O to handle up to 16 terminals. 



aiia 




And that's just the beginning. 

You can select single or dual 
floppies, 5J4" or 8." A 21 Mb 5W 
Winchester hard disk. And a nine- 
track tape drive. 

We can accommodate your taste 
for the exotic, too. With boards like 
our SMD interface that supports up 
to 1200 Mb of disk storage. An NTSC 
standard color graphics interface. A 
TV camera digitizer. A/D and D/A 
converters. An IEEE-488 bus inter- 
face. Communications. And more. 



Then, if you're designing a dis- 
tributed processing system, you'll 
want to take a look at our C-10 per- 
sonal computer. The Z-80- based C-10 
can serve our 68000-based systems 



as a powerful intelligent workstation 
in a distributed processing mode. Or 
as an independent personal computer 
with its own floppy storage. 





That brings us to software. It 
starts with CROMIX?our UNIXMike 
operating system that you're free to 
tailor to your application. 

CROMIX can execute both 
68000- and Z-80-based programs. So 
right along with your 68000-based 
packages, your system will accommo- 
date a wide selection of CP/M* soft- 
ware written for thfe Z-80. 

And our high-level language 
support is second to none. From a 
68000 Macro Assembler. To 68000 
FORTRAN 77, PASCAL, GSA-certi- 
fied high-level COBOL, C and BASIC. 




You see, when we "say, "Just tell 
us what you need!' we're not kidding. 

You won't find another family of 
68000-based microcomputers that 
can fit your needs as exactly as ours. 

So if you're in the business of 
providing specialized computing solu- 
tions, you really should be doing 
business with Cromemco. 

For a copy of our Systems 
Catalog, contact: Cromemco, Inc., 
280 Bernardo Avenue, P.O. Box 7400, 
Mountain View, C A 94039. 
(415)964-7400. 

In Europe: Cromemco/ GmbH, 
6236 Eschborne 1, Frankfurter Str. 33-35, 

P.O. 5267, Frankfurt Main, Germany 
or Cromemco Ltd., 
The Cambridge House, 

178-182 Upper Richmond Rd., 
Putney, London SW15 England. 



Cromemcd 



•Cromemco and C ROM IX are registered trademarks of Cromemco, 
Inc. ™ UNIX is a trademark of Bell I Laboratories. *C!VM is a registered 
trademark of Digital Research. ©1983, Cromemco, Inc. 

Circle 92 on inquiry card. 



EDITORIAL 



BYTE's New Look 



The redesign of a magazine always re- 
quires some adjustment by the reader, 
and so we pondered the matter before 
proceeding to change BYTE's ap- 
pearance. In the end. we went ahead for 
several reasons. We want to make BYTE 
easier to read without making it less 
technical. We want to include more in- 
put and feedback from readers, to make 
reviews easy to distinguish from feature 
articles, to make review findings clearer 
by using graphics, and to give some of 
BYTE's most popular articles the best 
possible setting. 

Note that we have made no changes 
for change's sake. There is much con- 
tinuity. Robert Tinney. whom time only 
improves, remains our cover artist. Our 
new typeface. Novarese. has a classic 
feeling, like that of our old Palacio. but 
is more chiseled. Steve Ciarcia and Jerry 
Pournelle still appear prominently in 
major sections. The redesign, devel- 
oped by McGraw-Hill's Joe Davis and 
refined and implemented by Rosslyn 
Frick, our new art director, keeps BYTE 
clean and simple. We think the judicious 
use of art and white space makes BYTE 
more pleasing to the eye and not garish 
or splashy. 

The front of the magazine now in- 
cludes an "Update" section where we 
can bring important matters to your at- 
tention. "'Update" will contain, among 
other things, corrections of errors in 
previously published articles. Another 
addition to the front is a few pages of 
the most important items from "What's 
New." You will also find up front "Ask 
BYTE." "Book Reviews," "Clubs and 
Newsletters." and "Event Queue" 

We have included more reader input 
and feedback by setting letters to the 
editor in smaller type, by introducing 
"Review Feedback" at the end of the 
Review section, by introducing "Up- 
date," by expanding the space for 
responses to Jerry Pournell's popular 
column (more on this below), and by 






enlarging Steve Ciarcia's "Ask BYTE." 

The four main sections of BYTE are 
the' Feature section, the Theme section, 
the Review section, and the Kernel. The 
distinguished artist Ivan Chermayeff has 
done graphics to introduce the first 
three of these sections. The Feature sec- 
tion now comes first. This section pro- 
vides a variety of previews and descrip- 
tions of major new products and in- 
depth articles on topics of interest to 
sophisticated personal computer users. 
This month we provide a close look at 
the HP 1 10 portable, the second half of 
Steve Ciarcia's blockbuster article on 
building a Z8000 board for the IBM PC, 
part I of an Ada primer, and other ar- 
ticles including a preview of the in- 
novative Macintosh Pascal and a clever 
way of making FORTH work faster. We 
have moved "Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar" to 
the Feature section because Steve really 
writes a major feature article each 
month rather than a traditional column. 
Next comes the Theme section, which 
explores in depth a different subject 
each month. This month's theme articles 
discuss computers in education, with an 
emphasis on their use at the university 
level. Thanks to DEC, IBM. Apple. 
Zenith, and other companies, personal 
computers are now reaching campuses 
in volume. Associate Editor Donna 
Osgood's introduction to the Theme 
section shows the variety of uses for 
personal computers in universities, 
schools, and outside the formal educa- 
tional system. 

The Review section follows the Theme 
section. Reviews carry a slug on each 
page identifying them as reviews. The 
graphics in reviews of the Chameleon 
Plus, Infoscope. and C compilers give an 
indication of what to expect in BYTE's 
future reviews. Note how the graphs in 
the Chameleon review compare that 
machine's features and performance 
with two de facto standards— the IBM 
PC and the Apple He. From now on. you 
will see similar graphs for every system 
[text continued on page 8) 



6 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Wordstar WordprocessingandSuperCalc 3 Spreadsheet with Graphics Free Through June, 1984 




h 



1 



SEEQUA BELIEUES 
PAYING IBM PRICES 
FOR A PERSONAL COMPUTER 
COULD MARE ATRAMP 
OUT OF ANYONE. 



PRESENTING THE CHAMELEON BY SEEQUA FOR JUST $ I995. 



The Chameleon by Seequa lets 
you run popular IBM software like 
Lotus® 1-2-3™ and dBase II.® It gives 
you a keyboard just like the IBM. A 
disk drive like the IBM. And a bright 
80x25 character screen just like you 
know who. And it all comes complete 
at a price that isn't at all like an IBM. 

But the Chameleon's $1995 price 
tag isn't its only advantage over its 
famous competitor. The Chameleon 
also has an 8 bit microprocessor that 
lets you run any of the thousands of 
CP/M-80® programs available. It 
comes complete with two of the best 



Circle 294 on inquiry card. 



programs around, Perfect Writer™ 
and Perfect Calc.™ It's portable. And 
you can plug it in and begin com- 
puting the moment you unwrap it. 

So before you spend all your 
money on an IBM, consider the IBM 
compatible Chameleon by Seequa. 

It's a tool for modern times 
that won't set you back a 
fortune. 

The Chameleon by 

SEEQ UA 

COMPUTER 

CORPORATION 

8305 Telegraph Road 
Odenton. MD 21113 

Chameleon shown with optional second disk drive. 

To learn more about Seequa or for the location of the Seequa dealer 

nearest you, call (800) 638-6066 or (301) 672-3600. 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 





EDITORIAL 



[text continued from page 6) 
we review, making general month-to- 
month comparisons much easier than 
before. 

After the Review section comes the 
Kernel, a major new section that starts 
with lerry Pournelle's popular column, 
includes "BYTE West Coast," and will 
soon include "BYTE Japan" by William 
Raike and a rotation of other columns 
on important topics such as artificial in- 
telligence and telecommunications. You 
will find Bill Raike's name on the 
masthead with those of other new con- 
tributing editors who will help make the 
Kernel a mainstay. lerry Pournelle's fans 
will have no trouble recognizing his col- 
umn under its new title. "Computing at 
Chaos Manor." What makes Jerry's 
writing so popular is his unique way of 
looking at things from Chaos Manor's 
techno-cluttered halls. His writing was 
originally entitled "The User's Column" 
not because Jerry is a typical user, but 



because in earlier days, Jerry was vir- 
tually BYTE's only writer who was a 
mere user— he didn't create compilers 
and computers, he just used them. We 
have renamed Jerry's column in recog- 
nition of his individuality. Feedback to 
Jerry's column now comes immediately 
afterward in "Chaos Manor Mail." 

"Programming Insights" (formerly 
"Quickies"). "Technical Forums." "Ap- 
plication Notes," "What's New," "Books 
Received." and "Unclassified Ads" 
round out the magazine (although we 
may not have material in every category 
every month). 

To make it easier for readers to learn 
something about our authors, we've 
moved "about the author" information 
to the front of each article. Look for it 
near the bottom of the first or second 
page of each piece. 

The AIM Inquiry System 

This month, BYTE inaugurates the first 



Writing For BYTE 



BYTE continues to solicit and publish articles and reviews that keep you informed about what's new 
and important in microprocessor-based technology, and many of our articles are still written by you, 
the people directly involved with the field we report on. Details on querying us about article product- 
review, and book-review ideas are listed below. We also welcome submissions (typed and double-spaced, 
please} to our Letters to the Editor column. Please contact us. via the appropriate department 
at: BYTE 

POB 372 Hancock. NH 03449 

(603) 924-9281 

You may also want to call or write us (send a stamped, self-addressed business envelope} for our cur- 
rent author guidelines. 

Articles 

Because our editorial needs are very specific and subject to change, we prefer receiving query letters 
instead of completed articles. A query letter should contain one or two pages explaining the subject 
to be covered, its importance to the BYTE reader, and the focus of the proposed article: it should 
also contain a one- or two-page outline and a tentative first two pages of the proposed article. Ouery 
letters should be addressed to the features editor. 

If you send us a completed article, we need double-spaced printed versions of the main text (up 
to 2 5 numbered pages! and all listings, figures, and tables; please label all items and place all captions 
on a separate page. Photos should be 35 mm (or larger! transparencies or 5- by 7-inch (or larger) 
prints. If possible, we would also like to receive magnetic copies of the text, listings, and tables on 
Apple DOS. IBM PC. Kaypro. or 8-inch CP/M disks; we will pay an additional $20 for this. The files 
should be standard ASCII text files and should not contain any nonprintable characters; we prefer 
files that use carriage returns only at the end of each paragraph. You should also include a stamped, self- 
addressed return envelope of the appropriate size Address these to the features editor. 

Product Reviews 

We frequently need good product reviewers and sometimes accept unsolicited reviews. BYTE product 
reviews must be fair, accurate, and comprehensive. Reviewers must have considerable experience in 
the microcomputer field. Writing experience is preferred but not required, and reviewers must have 
no financial connection to the company whose products are being reviewed. If you are interested in 
becoming a BYTE reviewer, send a letter to our product-review editor stating what computer products 
you own. what products you are interested in. and what writing experience you have. 

Book Reviews 

BYTE is always looking for qualified book reviewers. Submit queries and proposals accompanied by 
a resume writing samples, or a list of computer-related interests and expertise to the book-review 
editor. Unsolicited book reviews also will be considered. 

We pay competitive rates for articles and reviews and offer you the chance to share your expertise 
with hundreds of thousands of BYTE readers. Your comments and submissions are always welcome. 



electronic reader service processing 
system for readers and advertisers of 
computer magazines. Just as BYTE's 
new design is intended to refine the 
magazine and make it easier to read, 
the new electronic inquiry system is in- 
tended to modernize our reader inquiry 
service and make it easier for you to get 
information about products seen in 
BYTE. This automated inquiry manage- 
ment (AIM) system allows subscribers to 
request information from advertisers by 
using any Touch-Tone telephone. The 
AIM system will trim the typical six-week 
response time of the current reply-card 
system to as few as seven days. Here's 
how it works. 

During the next three months, every 
BYTE subscriber will receive by mail a 
Subscriber identification Card and ID 
number. Using your unique number, 
you can call the BYTE Reader Service 
Computer and then key in your sub- 
scriber number and the reader service 
numbers from the ads in BYTE you'd like 
more information about. When you're 
finished, close the session with a special 
ending code, and then watch your mail- 
box 'for replies from the manufacturers 
of products you've expressed an in- 
terest in. 

Complete instructions appear in your 
copy of BYTE (if you've received your 
identification number) on the page fac- 
ing the traditional reader service card. 
In this location you'll also find a form 
to help you organize your AIM system 
call before you make it. 

If you did not receive your subscriber 
identification number this month, yours 
will be arriving in the next two months. 
The AIM system is being brought to a 
new one-third of our subscribers each 
month for the lune-Iuly-August period. 

For those who live in an area without 
TouchTone service, who are not sub- 
scribers, or who prefer the traditional 
reply method, we'll continue to provide 
reader service reply cards. 

—Phil Lemmons, Editor in Chief 



The second BYTE Computer Show takes 
place lune 14-17 in the Los Angeles 
Convention Center. Subscribers are 
especially welcome and receive a full- 
day pass to exhibits and conferences for 
$7.50. See you at the show. . . . P. L. 



8 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



MICROBYTES 



Staff-written highlights of late developments in the microcomputer industry 

Franklin Unveils CX Series Computers 

Franklin Computer Corp. has introduced a line of transportable computers. All are said to 
be Apple II compatible; MS-DOS or CP/M options are available. The CX-1, with a 6502 pro- 
cessor, 64K bytes of RAM, serial and parallel ports, a 7-inch display, and one disk drive, 
costs $1425. The $1730 CX-2 adds a second disk drive. The $2049 CX-3 also adds a card 
with a Z80 processor and 64K bytes of additional RAM, while the $2395 CX-4 adds an 
8086 and 128K bytes of RAM. 

The CX computers use a 12K-byte write-once memory (WOM) to store the operating 
system, which is loaded from floppy disk after power-up; after this, the memory cannot be 
written to until the machine is turned off and on again. 

Hayes Enters New Field: Data-Management Software 

Hayes Microcomputer Products Inc., best known as a maker of modems, has moved into 
the software arena with its data-management system called Please. Not surprisingly, a 
modem-communications link is part of the program. Please has extensive help screens to 
ease learning and is written in assembly language for speed of execution. The menu-driven 
program allows up to 999 characters per field and 99 fields (2000 characters total) per 
record; the number of records per file is hardware limited. Hayes also sells application 
templates for the program, including mailing list, membership, household records, and ap- 
pointments. Please retails for $349; application templates are $29.95 each. 

Videotex Capabilities Added to Micros 

Several manufacturers have recently announced videotex capability for microcomputers. 
Vvkng introduced the PC Viewdata Decoder, a $250 program for its Professional Computer. 
Digital Equipment Corp. unveiled Pro/NAPLPS, a $195 program for its Professional 350 com- 
puter. Sony showed a NAPLPS/ASCII terminal, the VDX-1000, as well as a videotex frame- 
creation system. Avcor, in Toronto, announced a $100 cartridge enabling the Commodore 64 
to act as a NAPLPS/ASCII terminal. 

IBM announced PC/Videotex, software enabling the IBM PC, PC XT, or PCjr to act as a 
videotex terminal. PC/Videotex will be available in October for $220 to $2 50. Network 
Videotex Systems Inc. of Toronto is selling Quick-Pel, a $625 expansion card allowing the 
IBM PC to function as a NAPLPS videotex terminal. TVOntario, also of Toronto, offers a 
NAPLPS page/frame-creation system for the IBM PC for $1450. 

Texas Instruments has developed a single-chip video-display processor that supports the 
NAPLPS standard used for American videotex. TI's Advanced Video Display Processor is 
software compatible with TI's popular 9918 video processor. 

Wilcom Announces Telecommunications Device for IBM PC 

Wilcom Inc., Roswell, GA, has introduced Asher, a telecommunications device for the IBM 
Personal Computer. Asher includes an expansion card with a 300-bps modem, a telephone 
handset, and MS-DOS software for memory partitioning, appointment scheduling, and card 
file/speed dial functions. While several applications can be in memory simultaneously, they 
do not execute concurrently. The Asher software uses 128K bytes in addition to the mem- 
ory needed for other programs, so a minimum of 256K bytes is needed. Asher will be avail- 
able this month for $795. 

TeleVideo Personal Mini Uses IBM PCs as Workstations 

TeleVideo Systems has introduced the Personal Mini, a 16-user computer that uses IBM- 
compatible computers as intelligent workstations. The Personal Mini includes a 40-megabyte 
hard disk and 80186 and Z80 processors. Microcomputers can be linked to the system using 
a $99 interface card and cable; special 'diskless workstations" are also available. TeleVideo 
says users can run any PC-DOS or MS-DOS software on the workstations or can use any of 
50 available multiuser software packages. The Personal Mini should be available this month 
for less than $10,000. 

[text continued on page 10) 

JUNE 1984 -BYTE 9 



MICROBYTES 



[text continued from page 9) 

Fourteen Firms Back Network Standard 

Fourteen computer makers, communications firms, and manufacturers announced their sup- 
port of a network based on the IEEE 802.4 broadband token bus standard. General Motors 
and Boeing Computer Services signed an agreement pledging support of the standard and 
promising to demonstrate a working network at the National Computer Conference next 
month. Also participating in the demonstration will be IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equip- 
ment Corp., Honeywell, NCR, Charles River Data Systems, Intel, Motorola, and others. While 
the demonstration will be of a factory-floor network, 802.4 could also be used to network 
personal computers. General Motors showed the network earlier this year at its technical 
center in Warren, Michigan. 

Epson and Commodore Show New Computers 

Epson showed the PX-8, a new notebook computer, at the recent Hannover Fair in West 
Germany. The computer includes 64K bytes of RAM, an 8-line by 80-column LCD, a micro- 
cassette tape drive, a Z80-compatible processor, and the CP/M 2.2 operating system in 
ROM. MicroPro announced that ROM-based versions of its application software programs, 
including Portable WordStar, Portable Calc, and Portable Scheduler, are bundled with the 
PX-8, which is not yet available in the U.S. 

Although Commodore showed prototypes of several computers, it didn't announce details, 
pricing, or availability dates for any of the products. The most talked-about machine was an 
8088-based MS-DOS computer, reportedly based on Bytec's Hyperion. Commodore also 
displayed a Z8000-based computer with dual floppy-disk drives, 256K bytes of RAM, and 
the UNIX-like Coherent operating system. Commodore also showed the Commodore 16, a 
scaled-down version of its 64. 

Microrim Offers Conversational Query Language 

Microrim Inc. has introduced a conversational query language for its R:base series of 
database-management programs. The language, called CLOUT, allows a user to get database 
information by using commands that resemble English-language questions. CLOUT requires 
an IBM PC with at least 256K bytes of RAM and two double-density double-sided disk 
drives; a hard disk is recommended. The $195 program works with PC-DOS, MS-DOS, BIOS, 
and UNIX, using R:base, which costs $495. 

Microrim also announced two new versions of R:base— the Model 6000 for multiuser sys- 
tems and the Model 2000 for the IBM PCjr and other small systems. 

NANOBYTES 



IBM has developed an experimental 1-megabit dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) 
chip using existing manufacturing facilities. The chip uses a silicon and aluminum metal 
oxide semiconductor (SAMOS) technology. . . . Phoenix Software, Norwood, MA, is offering 
its custom-written IBM-compatible ROM BIOS for MS-DOS to computer makers. Phoenix 
says the code was written without any knowledge of IBM's BIOS and thus companies using 
it should be free from lawsuits. . . . Holmes Engineering, Murray, UT„ is offering the Portable 
Micro Drive, a wafer tape drive for the Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100 notebook computer. 
The $370 unit can store up to 64K bytes on a tape cartridge and includes a rechargeable 
battery. . . . Fujitsu America, San lose, CA, announced a 67 1 -megabyte 1 4-inch Winchester 
disk drive with a price of $7045 in quantities of 100. .. . Digital Equipment Corp. is now 
offering an eight-user Micro/PDP-11 for about $20,000, including two terminals and a 
printer. . . . Seequa Computer Corp., Odenton, MD, will use Tabor's 3 '/4-inch disk drive in its 
Seequa 325, an enhanced version of its Chameleon. Seequa is the first computer maker to 
use the drive. 

From Nikkei BYTE, Tokyo: Epson appears ready to unveil two hand-held computers, the 
HC-80 and HC-88, with built-in Japanese-language processing functions. The high-resolution 
LCD will show either 90 kanji (Chinese) or 640 English characters at a time. . . . Mitsubishi 
and B-Con Systems are selling a kanji version of Microrim's R:base 4000 database software 
for Japanese MS-DOS computers. 



10 BYTE • JUNE 1984 




Now, translate your integrated soft- 
ware into integrated hard copy, with 
the TI OMNI 800™ Model 855 
printer. So versatile, it combines let- 
ter-quality print, draft-quality print 
and graphics as no other printer can. 
It prints letter-quality twice as fast 
as comparably priced daisy wheel 
printers, yet gives you characters just 
as sharp, just as clear. 
It prints rough drafts ten times faster 
than daisy wheel printers . . . faster 
than most any other dot matrix printer. 
Only the TI 855 has snap-in font 
modules. Just touch a button; change 
your typestyle. The 855 gives you 
more typestyles to choose from than 
ordinary dot matrix printers. It 
makes them quicker, cleaner, easier 



to access than any other dot matrix 

or daisy wheel printer. 

The 855's pie charts are rounder. . . 

all its graphics are sharper than on 
other dot matrix printers, because the 
TI 855 prints more dots per inch. As 
for daisy wheel printers. . .no graphics. 

TheTI 855 
Printer 

The printer for all major PC's 




For under $1,000 you get twice the 
performance of typical dot matrix 
printers. Or all the performance of a 
daisy wheel printer, and then some, 
for half the price. 
So get the best of all printers, and 
get optimum results from your inte- 
grated software. With the TI 855. 
See it at your nearest authorized 
TI dealer. Or call toll-free: 
1-800-527-3500. Or write Texas 
Instruments Incorporated, P.O. 
Box 402430, Dept. DPF-182BY, 
Dallas, Texas 75240. ■ . 

Texas ^ 
instruments 

Creating useful products 
and services for you. 

OMNI 800 is a trademark of Texas Instruments Incorporated 
Copyright © 1984 Texas Instalments Incorporated. 2763-36 



a 



Dare to 






Tl makes the best software 
perform even better* 

When choosing a computer, there are 
two important things to look for. Who 
runs the best software— and who runs 
the software bestl That's why we're staging 
a dramatic country-wide side-by-side 
comparison against IBM™ called "Dare 
to Compare " 

Come to a participating dealer and 
take the "Dare to Compare" challenge. 
You'll see first-hand how... 

TI makes software 
faster to use* 

Take a closer look. See how we give you 
more information on-screen than the 
IBM PC? That way you'll spend less time 
looking for data, and more time using it. 
We also give you 12 function keys, while 
they give you 10. Unlike IBM, we give 
you a separate numeric keypad and cur- 
sor controls. And that saves you both 
keystrokes and time. We also isolated 
the edit/delete keys to reduce 
chance of making mistakes. 

TI makes software 
easier to use* 

TI gives you up to 8 colors 
on-screen simultaneously, 
which makes separating 
the data a lot easier. IBM 
displays only 4. Our graphics 
are also sharper. And easier 
on the eyes. 




mn\ 



IBM Personal Computer 



Compare" 




And TI makes it easier to get your data 
on-screen. Our keyboard is simpler — it's 
more like the familiar IBM Selectric™ 
typewriter than the IBM PC keyboard is. 

TI lets you see for yourself. 

Right now, you can "Dare to Compare" 
for yourself at participating TI dealers all 
over the country. Stop in, present your 
business card, put both machines through 
their paces using the same software 
titles, and see the difference for yourself. 
We'll give you a TI solar powered calcu- 
lator, free, just for taking our challenge*. 
For the name of a participating dealer 
near you, please call TI toll-free at 
1-800-527-3500, or write: Texas Instru- 
ments Incorporated, P.O. Box 402430, 
Dept. DCA232BY, 
Dallas, Texas 75240. *. 

Texas 
Instruments 

Creating useful products and services for you. 




* This offer available only to persons age 21 
or over, while supplies last. 
This offer expires July 31, 1984. 
BPS Business Graphics™ shown. 
BPS is a trademark of Business 

&. Professional Software Incorporated. 
IBM and Selectric are trademarks of 

International Business Machines, Inc. 

Copyright © 1984 Texas Instruments 



X 



y I * * ». V 



Texas Instruments Professional Computer 



DTC 2763-69 



LETTERS 



Controller Correction 

I recently ran into a problem with my Apple II 
disk drive I couldn't find a controller card that 
wouldn't stop every two seconds while reading 
in a text file longer than two sectors. This pause 
was annoying because the disk drive sounded 
like it was dying and it took me twice as long 
to read the file. 

I don't know how many companies and how 
many of their controller cards have this prob- 
lem, but I have experienced it twice. I asked 
some people at the Hughes Apple Byter's Club, 
with which I'm affiliated, about this problem, 
but nobody really knew what caused it. It has 
been suggested to me that there may be a 
POKE command that keeps the motor running, 
but I have yet to find out if this is true. 

My roommate noticed that while using an 
Apple controller, the drive continued to run ap- 
proximately Wi seconds after control had 
returned to the user. I solved this problem by 
increasing the size of the tantalum capacitor on 
the threshold of the timer chip by about 10 
microfarads. The capacitor controls the amount 
of time the output line stays enabled on the 
motor control. This allows the drive motor to 
stay on a few milliseconds longer than before, 
so DOS has a chance to finish transferring the 
contents of the file buffers and return for more 
data before the motor stops spinning. Other- 
wise it would have to restart the drive motor 
before it could resume reading. This is what 
added the extra time it took to read in the f ile(s). 

I hope this information will save your readers 
some unnecessary frustration. 

Chris A. Nielsen 

Nielsen Engineering 

2910 Seventh St. 

Santa Monica, CA 90405 



American as Apple Pie 

The introduction of the Apple Macintosh com- 
puter has been eagerly awaited by many home 
and business computerists. The complete 
description in the February BYTE ('The Apple 
Macintosh Computer" by Gregg Williams, Feb- 
ruary, page 30) is certainly impressive and I can 
see many applications for the Macintosh. I 
would consider the Macintosh for those ap- 
plications were it not for one negative factor. 
The Apple computer has been, since its intro- 
".duction. one of the most popular computers, 
regarded as American as apple pie. Now comes 
the Macintosh computer and. lo and behold. 
it uses a Sony storage medium. It seems to me 
that if the United States is going to lead the 
world in computer technology, it has to be in- 
novative and responsible enough to develop 



those leading technological products that make 
it the world leader. 

When I go look at television sets, video- 
cassette recorders, cameras, etc.. I find an 
almost total predominance from the Japanese 
manufacturers. This is appalling. What has hap- 
pened to U.S. technology in these fields? It has 
appeared that our technical excellence has 
returned in the areas of computers and certainly 
the world has looked to the U.S. for computers 
in the past several years. If the American-as- 
apple-pie computer suddenly incorporates 
Japanese-supplied hardware, what is the next 
step? 

I. for one. have given up considering the Mac- 
intosh computer for any application I have. I 
will not contribute in any way to the furthering 
of Japanese technology into the American com- 
puter industry, and I think Apple Computer Inc. 
deserves a failing grade for contributing to an 
already substantial balance of payments deficit 
with its Macintosh design. I hope the rest of the 
computer-buying public will recognize this un- 
American approach and express their reaction 
at the computer store purchase counter. 

David A. Nibbelin. RE. 

President, Variable Acoustics Corp. 

2222 West Vickery Blvd. 

Fort Worth. TX 76102 



In the Rainbow Corner 

I would like to comment on recent criticisms 
of the DEC Rainbow that appeared in two 
March articles ("The User Goes to COMDEX. 
1983." by Jerry Pournelle. page 3 52. and 
"Reviewer's Notebook," by Rich Malloy. page 
213) and in a letter to the editor by Carter 
Scholz (page 20) in the same issue. It was just 
last month (February 1984) that the (then) editor 
in chief of BYTE. Lawrence I. Curran. editor- 
ialized on the drive to be compatible with IBM 
equipment. Mr. Curran's point was that the com- 
patibility craze might be stifling innovation that 
usually arises from smaller companies. Now in 
March. Messrs. Pournelle and Malloy criticize 
the DEC Rainbow for not running IBM software 
and for not having the IBM disk format, and 
because it is not being cloned. Possibly they 
should read the March editorial, because they 
too seem to be caught up in the compatibility 
craze. 

Mr. Pournelle's article correctly grasps the ob- 
vious, that the DEC Rainbow was never in- 
tended to mimic the IBM. therefore it will not 
run IBM software. Many initial purchasers of the 
Rainbow (and I can assure Mr. Pournelle that 
there are many Rainbow owners) were in- 
dividuals who were already familiar with DEC 
minicomputers. These people wanted a home 



computer compatible with other DEC equip- 
ment that also ran the popular commercial soft- 
ware packages (the Rainbow emulates the 
VT100 terminal, an industry standard that is 
often cloned). In providing for the needs of the 
initial market. DEC created a product superior 
to the IBM. The screen resolution is better, there 
are built-in communications and printer ports, 
and space is provided for a second set of half- 
height floppy-disk drives or a hard-disk drive. 
I disagree with Mr. Pournelle about the key- 
board, and I feel that it is superior to that of 
the IBM and may be the best in microcom- 
puters today. 

Mr. Malloy makes some remarks about the 
DEC that I feel are incorrect. He implies that 
the Rainbow 100 Plus is required to format MS- 
DOS disks. Rather, it is the version of MS-DOS 
that determines whether the Rainbow will for- 
mat MS-DOS disks. My regular Rainbow using 
version 2.05 of MS-DOS formats disks perfect- 
ly. The version 2.05 MS-DOS was a no-cost op- 
tion with my computer, and it is supplied by 
default with the 100 Plus computer. Mr. Malloy 
also slighted the Rainbow because the Rainbow 
100 Plus looks like the 100 except for a plastic 
sticker. This is a cheap shot: DEC'S Plus option 
to the Rainbow is merely an addition of the 
hard-disk drive, hardly requiring a change in the 
processor enclosure. I recall Mr. Pournelle 
discovering that he had the IBM PC XT mother- 
board only after he had removed the cover and 
inserted his own memory chips ("Chaos Manor 
Gets Its Long-Awaited IBM PC," February, page 
113). 

The Digital Classified Software (DCS) needs 
some clarification. The DCS program ensures 
that the software is adapted to the Rainbow 
hardware and special-function keys. The DCS 
program also requires DEC to provide software 
support. I can't imagine calling IBM in San Jose 
to ask about Lotus 1-2-3. yet this is the service 
DEC provides. DEC is providing hardware and 
software support from one source, a trend I find 
comforting. Also, third-party software is now 
available; in fact, I saw a DEC booklet (at the 
local computer store) listing hundreds of in- 
dependent (nonauthorized) vendors providing 
programs on Rainbow-compatible disks. Even- 
tually software will provide translation links be- 
tween disk formats that all manufacturers (IBM, 
DEC, Tandy, etc.) fail to provide. 

Finally. I would like to state that the Rainbow 
is a capable home and business computer that 
has sufficient and improving software. (Don't be 
fooled, all the biggies provide software for the 
Rainbow.) The Rainbow was never intended to 
be a hacker's machine and Mr. Scholz should 
never have purchased one. The Rainbow has 
sufficient slots for extra memory, a superb 
(text continued on page 1 6) 



14 B YTE • JUNE 1984 






Get A HeadStart 
OnTheOtherGuys. 




HeadStart Features: 

Size: 15" wide. 1 l'deep. lO^" high. 
Ufeight: 25 lbs. 

Processors: Z80A (8 bit) and 8086 ( 16 bit). 

Memory: 128Kto IMBdependingon model. All models 
are expandable. 

Disk Storage: 500K to 1MB (unformatted) on a [W 
Micro-Disk. 

Display: 12" (diagonal) FM phosphor, non-glare screen. 
25 lines x 80 or 132 columns. 

Keyboard: Detachable with 105 total keys. An 
optional g»rtable version snaps onto the front screen 
area for easy transportability. 

Disk Operating Software: 'CP M 80 for8 biL 

"MS DOS for 16 biL IAN' DOS for multi-user 8 or 16 

bit operation. 

Networking: Up to 255 IteadStart V'PUs may be con- 
nected via coaxial interface into one of 2 optional data 
storage systems. 

Interfaces: One RS449/RS232 compatible serial port 
One Centronics compatible parallel printer port. External 
data bus. Coaxial communications interface. External 
disk I/O interface. 

Optional Data Storage Systems: 2 models available. A 
10MB. 5ST system is expandable to 20MB. A 50MB. 8" 
system (25MB fixed. 25MB removable) is expandable 
to 200MB. 

*CP M isa registered trademark of Digital Research. 
"MS tX)S is a registered trademark of Microsoft. 



Intertecs HeadStart is the 
smallest, smartest fastest, most power- 
ful business computer money can buy. 

And the most expandable (it's 
networkable up to 255 user stations). 

Great Ideas Come In 
Small Packages. 

Instead of three bulky compo- 
nents, HeadStart needs only two— the 
keyboard and CRT. There's no need 
for a cumbersome disk and processor 
cabinet With HeadStart it's all in the 
CRT enclosure. 

HeadStart's small but powerful 
3^" disk drive offers as much storage 
as larger 5 W disks. Its 8 and 16 bit 
processors make software availability 
no problem. 

And HeadStart's small size per- 
mits easy transportability with no 
sacrifice in performance. Each Video 
Processing Unit (VPU) comes with its 



own easy-carrying handle. A portable 
keyboard option is also available. 

How Fast Is Fast? 

HeadStart's RAM Disk an elec- 
tronic emulation of the typical 
second drive, responds up to fifty 1 
times faster than conventional 
microcomputers. 

Depress a key and you get a 
response within a split second. Liter- 
ally before your finger leaves the key. 

. And HeadStart is incredibly power- 
ful, too. Up to one megabyte of internal 
memory can tackle even the most 
sophisticated applications. 

Some Ideas 
Are Bigger Than Others. 

Because HeadStart is designed to 
be both a single and multi-user com- 
puter, you buy only as much computer 
as you need today. 

But as your business grows, it 
grows with you. 

Each HeadStart Video Processing 
Unit comes with its own memory, 
processors, disk and multi-user 
interfaces. 

Just add a 10 or 50 megabyte 
Data Storage System and up to 255 
users can snare a common data base 
in an incredibly powerful, multi- 
user network 

HeadStart is available in three 
different models. All offer full perfor- 
mance, transportability, and are easily 
expandable. 

Unlike conventional, single-user- 
only computers, HeadStart is here 
today with the designed-in technology 
to be here tomorrow. 

So get a HeadStart on the other 
guys. For more information, call (803) 
798-9100 or write: Intertec 2300 
Broad River Road, Columbia,SC 29210. 



intertec. 



Circle 170 on inquiry card. 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 15 



WAREHOUSE 



SOFTWARE 



TECHNICAL INFORMATION (602) 266-2222 

Call for programs not listed. We will try to meet or 
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LETTERS 



[text continued from page 14) 

graphics board and a second storage medium 

(floppy or hard disk). Recall that the I/O ports 

are already installed and not sold as extras. The 

Rainbow has filled the needs of this nonhacker 

with good installation and software 

documentation. 

Cameron T. Murray 

Department of Polymer Science 

and Engineering 

University of Massachusetts 

Amherst. MA 01003 

As far as reviews are concerned. BYTE has no 
bias either for or against DEC or any other com- 
pany. We are concerned with how well a prod- 
uct works, how much software is available for 
that product, how readily available that software 
is. and how easy it is to turn that product into 
an even better product. IBM PC compatibility 
is desirable only because it provides a tremen- 
dous amount of readily available software and 
hardware peripherals. For a long time. Rainbow 
software was not available in local computer 
stores. And there are still few readily available 
third-party hardware peripherals for it. If. in a 
year's time, you can buy third-party hardware 
for the Rainbow at your local computer store, 
then the Rainbow will be a much stronger 
machine. 

—Richard m alloy 

Senior Technical Editor 

BYTE Magazine 

Having just received the March issue of BYTE 
and, obviously not having seen the April issue 
for which you have scheduled a review of the 
DEC Rainbow. I would like immediately to com- 
ment on the letter from Carter Scholz. lest other 
readers get a misleading impression of this 
machine. 

Mr. Scholz admits to 50 hours of intensive use. 
Having obtained my machine in February 1983, 
I have over 1650 hours of experience with it 
in connection with my consultancy business— 
a figure I feel sure must exceed even that of 
most reviewers of any one machine. To that ex- 
tent. I suggest that my comments may have 
more than ordinary validity. 

The observation that the documentation is 
"wretched" is. at the least, an overstatement. 
It is true that screen formatting and the use of 
function keys are not covered, which certainly 
is regrettable. With one exception— the manual 
for the LA50 printer, which. I readily admit, is 
appalling— the documentation is perfectly 
sound and helpful. 

Mr. Scholz may not have wished to make an 
outlay for the technical manuals: but I had 
nothing but the most courteous cooperation 
and help from DEC'S Canadian Customer Sup- 
port Center when, at an early stage, I too had 
to raise screen-formatting and function-key 
questions. 

DEC has not claimed that "thousands" of 
CP/M and CP/M-86 disks can be run on the Rain- 
bow. As their Guide to Personal Computing points 
out. the machine can run a "very wide selec- 
tion" of the "thousands" of software programs 
available on CP/M. CP/M-86, and MS-DOS. At 
the beginning there was a shortage of available 



programs because of the then-new disk format; 
today there are several hundreds of software 
packages available, the great majority of which 
are from third-party vendors and are not part 
of the "DEC-approved" program. Even the 
problem of nonavailability of DEC'S distinctive 
disks— except from DEC— is no longer a prob- 
lem, and most of the major disk manufacturers 
have added the Digital RX50 format to their 
lines at reasonable prices. 

As one who can claim extensive experience 
with the Rainbow. I cannot speak too highly of 
a machine that is a real joy to use. and 1 would 
hate to have readers draw unfavorable conclu- 
sions on the basis of Mr. Scholz's inaccurate 
letter. I might add that the only hardware prob- 
lem I have had was with the LA 50 printer which, 
due to a faulty chip, packed up after about three 
months. Under warranty, it was replaced in 
about four hours. (Incidentally this printer, bear- 
ing the Digital logo, is considerably more ver- 
satile than the look-alike model produced by 
the same manufacturer.) 

Tom Walker 

Fortsask Infodata Ltd. 

Box 3026 

Fort Saskatchewan 

Alberta T8L 2TI 

Canada 

As a DEC Rainbow user for over a year. I've 
learned to ignore most of what I read in the 
computer trade press about the product. Rarely 
are the facts in order. If other products were 
comparably reported, the computer trade press 
would have earned a reputation comparable to 
that of the computer salesperson. 

Of course, after a year, I'm happy to see the 
product mentioned at all. Please accept my 
sincere gratitude for printing the words "DEC 
Rainbow—and for promising (as you always 
have) to review it. 

But your March issue was somewhat mis- 
guided, and I'd like to set the record straight. 

Although Chaos Manor is one of my favorite 
haunts. Jerry Pournelle's reaction (from afar) to 
the DEC keyboard was hardly responsible jour- 
nalism (and his disclaimer at the beginning of 
the article doesn't justify that). |See "The User 
Goes to COMDEX. 1983." March, page 3 52 | 

The test of a keyboard is daily use. Seven 
people have used the Rainbow keyboard at our 
weekly magazine for a year. They universally 
acknowledge it as a work of art. Sure it's 
unconventional— so is a Ferrari. The point of 
doing ergonomic research, as DEC did for its 
personal computers, is to find out how things 
ought to be designed, not how they have been 
designed. Despite its unique design, it is easy 
to learn the keyboard. Within one session, 
almost all of us had accustomed ourselves to 
its enhancements. 

Specifically. I found Mr. Pournelle's complaint 
about the Shift and Return keys ridiculous. The 
Shift key measures the same travel as a Selec- 
tric Shift key (I regularly use both without 
trouble adapting), and the Return key is large 
and easily located. The Compose Character key 
is a very handy user-defined key in many word- 
processing programs, and it is easily learned 
[text continued on page 18) 



16 B YTE • JUNE 1984 




"We bought an 

IBC Middi Cadet 
because no other 
system could do 

the job. 1 



Sue Kardas 

Director of Career Train ing 

Burlington Area Vocational-Technical Center 



"When the Burlington Area Vocational- 
Technical Center needed a multi-user system 
for student training, we considered many 
multi-user systems, but in demo after demo 
there was too much of a user delay. 

Then IBC contacted us, and offered to 
demonstrate the Middi Cadet's multi-user 
capabilities-we were skeptical, but we gave 
it a try. 

First, the Middi Cadet ran 9 users doing word 
processing without any delays. As a second 
test, we had the Middi operating 3 terminals 
each on word processing, accounting and 
BASIC programming. Again, no user delay. 
This was the multi-user, multi-tasking system 
we had been looking for. 

With the Middi Cadet, we got a higher speed 
Z80B processor, a very fast hard disk drive 
and enough memory to do the job [51 2K 
Bytes]. 

On top of that, we felt that we got a very 
good price from an excellent vendor. Our 
system was delivered and installed two 
weeks later. Since then we've been so pleas- 
ed with the Middi that we're planning to buy 
another. With two systems providing 18 sta- 
tions we will be equipped to offer training in 
all aspects of information processing." 




The Middi Cadet is a 10 user system that in- 
cludes a 6MH Z , Z80B CPU; 256 to 512K Bytes 
of RAM memory; a 20 MB, 5 1 /4 ,/ hard disk 
drive and a one megabyte 5W' floppy disk 
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LETTERS 



[text continued from page 16) 
by a touch-typist. Obviously Mr. Pournelle didn't 
look closely enough to notice the dip in the F 
and J keys— a more subtle and successful "hom- 
ing" device than some other keyboards that 
distinguish the home row. 

Carter Scholz's letter in the same issue raised 
more serious points. First of all. "wretched" is 
an irresponsible description of the documen- 
tation, hardly earned by a missing bottle of 
screen cleaner (which was supplied with the first 
monitors). I frankly don't, find the errors he 
seems to have run across. 

Second, my prejudice may be that I can't take 
BASIC seriously, but we have formatted the 
screen very easily in dBASE II, lurbo Pascal, and 
assembly language. 

Third, he fails to distinguish between disk for- 
mats and software The machine can read sev- 
eral disk formats (Robin. VTI80. Rainbow. IBM 
8 and 9 sector) and hundreds of programs off 
the shelf (not counting RCP/M software), and 
with additional software can read many more 
disk formats. 

Mr. Scholz intimates a use for the machine 
quite different from that for which it was de- 
signed. And his representation of DEC'S 
software-classification program (which we think 
of as insurance against uninstallable or im- 
mature products) and disk format (400K is an 
enhancement over 320K in my book, not "per- 
verse") is libelous. 

Let me explain what this "collage of impres- 
sive features with limited utility" did for my 
company in the last year: 

• It typeset 45 magazine pages of insur- 
ance-company statistics using Multiplan and 
transmitted them to our typesetter using 
nothing more than the communications 
parameters in ROM and the operating- 
system commands. 

• It stepped in to typeset our stories when 
our typesetter went down. 

• It scheduled and billed our advertising, 
then it took over the scheduling, billing, and 
circulation maintenance of our directory 

• It estimated and billed all our commer- 
cial printing. 

• This year it replaced our ledger, no mean 
achievement for an "immature product" 
with little utility 

DEC understands us. We want an appliance 
that gets specific jobs done and doesn't break 
down. If we have a question (even about pro- 
gramming function keys), we want a number to 
call with a prompt and courteous answer at the 
other end. DEC delivers that at a very low cost. 

In fact, any intelligent cost analysis of their 
formatted quad-density disk offering proves it 
is competitively priced. Again and again we find 
(with rare exception) DEC on'our side. 

Finally. Mr. Scholz appears as naive about the 
stock market as he is about the business world. 
As all Rainbow users have come to know, the 
wheels of justice grind slowly but they grind 
exceeding small. 

Well. I'm still looking forward to your review 
[text continued on page 22) 



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IUNE 1984 -BYTE 21 



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101 BY 



LETTERS 



{text continued from page 18) 

of the Rainbow. I hope it will be as professional 

as the machine itself. 

Mike Pasini 

Underwriters' Report 

667 Mission Street 

San Francisco, CA 94105 

I read with interest Carter Scholz's letter on the 
DEC Rainbow 100 PC. We purchased five Rain- 
bow PCs and I am sorry now that we did not 
return them as did Mr. Scholz. Although I agree 
in part with Mr. Scholz's criticisms (particular- 
ly in regard to the documentation) and I have 
additional complaints about the Rainbow and 
DEC in general, all of Mr. Scholz's criticisms are 
not correct at least in my experience: 

1. In an attempt to modify MODEM7 for the 
Rainbow I needed the communication-port 
status and data addresses. This is not in the 
documentation supplied by DEC (unless 
one purchases the extended documents 
referred to in Scholz's letter— we are still 
waiting for ours). However, a phone call to 
Customer Support not only produced the 
information over the phone but also a copy 
of the appropriate section of the extended 
document in the mail. As it turned out, the 
MODEM7 cannot be configured for the 
Rainbow. Once again however, Customer 
Support came to my aid and supplied me 
with an article (actually the whole magazine) 
giving the address for obtaining public- 
domain software equivalent to MODEM7. 

2. DEC has an "authorization" program for 
Rainbow software but that does not mean 
that third-party software is not available We 
purchased Spellbinder (which to my knowl- 
edge is not "authorized" by DEC), after find- 
ing that the so-called "authorized" word- 
processing software was either so slow that 
the secretaries were frustrated or so com- 
plex that it was not usable. 

R. S. Newman 

Faculty of Medicine 

Memorial University 

St. John's 

Newfoundland A1B 3V6 

Canada 

I have been a Rainbow owner since April 1983. 
Although I have had some problems, I feel Mr. 
Scholz's conclusions are incorrect. I offer the 
following replies to his objections. 

I. Documentation for the Rainbow is pro- 
fessionally produced. I would be surprised 
if there weren't contradictions. This would 
be consistent with other machines and soft- 
ware, particularly a new machine. In use 
however, the machine and the software per- 
form as advertised. The escape sequences 
of all function keys are listed on pages 32 
and 34 of the Rainbow 100 User's Guide. Uti- 
lizing them in user-written programs is the 
simple matter of interpreting the sequences 
they generate. Screen formatting is more dif- 
ficult. DEC published a set of basic sub- 
routines in Prospective in the summer of 1983. 
You could also obtain a copy of a VT100 



manual, which explains all the attributes of 
the Rainbow screen that it emulates. 

2. Lack of high-level language support is 
found only in Microsoft BASIC or perhaps 
languages that are not screen intensive such 
as COBOL. I have the new Turbo Pascal from 
Borland International and both function keys 
and screen attributes are supported. Many 
other machines or software vendors have 
failed to initially support some of the fea- 
tures of their environments, some because 
they felt other features were more impor- 
tant and deserved more initial support. 

3. The contention that the Rainbow cannot 
run "thousands" of CP/M-80 and CP/M-86 
programs is totally false. I purchased Con- 
dor 111 directly from Condor in Rainbow for- 
mat, Reportmaker from Krepec. and TURBO 
Pascal from Borland. I think that Mr. Scholz 
has failed to look beyond the magazine 
advertisements. Most advertise IBM and 
IBM compatibles because that's the largest 
segment of the market. MS-DOS is also 
available for the Rainbow. Any authorized 
software dealer can obtain numerous soft- 
ware-applications packages in Rainbow for- 
mat. Many of us do not consider the fact 
that this format allows about 400K bytes per 
disk to be a drawback. 

I think that there is a difference in philosophy 
in the design and marketing of DEC microcom- 
puters. Their philosophy seems to be that their 
primary market is the plug-in-and-go non- 
programmer. This is supported by the fact that 
there are only a few expansion ports and a 
private bus structure. That does not inherently 
produce a bad machine, just one that may not 
fit a "hacker's" needs. 

DEC supports its hardware and authorized 
software. This support includes a toll-free line 
for help (try that at IBM), factory service, and 
extended warranties. Few other manufacturers 
offer this commitment to their purchasers. I cite 
Mr. Scholz's own statement that he was able 
to return the machine for a refund. That is the 
true test of factory support if there ever was 
one. 

Rainbows are relatively new on the market 
and market support has been slow. Part of this 
could be the big push to get IBM software out 
first due to its market share. There are. however, 
two DEC micro-oriented magazines now avail- 
able— Digital Review and Personal and Professional. 
There also have been changes in DEC opera- 
tions that should enhance users' options. How- 
ever, based on hardware and ease of use the 
Rainbow is still one of the better machines on 
the market. 

Gerald Artman 

828 East Third St. 

Royal Oak. Ml 48067 



Vive la Difference 

I greatly appreciated the December 1983 BYTE 
article on the Tl personal computer ("The Texas 
Instruments Professional Computer," page 286). 
The unbiased evaluations and the well-chosen 
{text continued on page 24) 



22 BYTE • JUNE 1984 




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JUNE I984 -BYTE 23 



Circle 370 on inquiry card. 

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24 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



LETTERS 



[text continued from page 22) 
industry-wide comparisons were a welcome 
change from the maudlin treatment given the 
IBM machine in November 1983. Your intro to 
the IBM articles left me perplexed. How could 
such phrases as "transformed the computer in- 
dustry" or "legitimized personal computers" or 
"single-handedly enabled microcomputers to 
assume a greater percentage of the world's 
computational tasks" be used with a straight 
face? All conscience aside, the IBM PC is widely 
accepted and is making a lot of money for a 
lot of people, I could wish, however, that as an 
industry we were more self-critical. 

)AMES A. BARNETT 

4 719 Williston St. 
Baltimore, MD 212299 



SIMSCRIPT 11.5 

Although a good general overview, the article 
"Computer Simulation: What It Is and How It's 
Done" by Richard Bronson (March, page 95) 
was incomplete and somewhat inaccurate in its 
treatment of SIMSCRIPT 11.5 

Despite being lumped with GASP. SIMSCRIPT 
does not require that "a complete coded model 
(consists) essentially of calls to subroutines and 
assignment statements. . , ." For example, the 
essence of the barbershop problem given in 
the article could be represented by 

Process GENERATOR 

For N = I to 100. 

Do 
Activate a CUSTOMER now 
Wait Exponential.f(2 5..2) minutes 

Loop 
End 
Process CUSTOMER 

Request 1 BARBER 

Wait Normal.f(20..5.,l) minutes 

Relinquish $ BARBER 
End 

In the example, the number 1 is specified 
before BARBER to give the number of units of 
the resource needed. Units other than I are used, 
for example, when modeling computer 
resources, where a 42K-byte allocation of 2 56K- 
byte main memory is sought. The final 
parameter in the two SIMSCRlPT-defined ran- 
dom distribution functions is a stream number 
that allows isolation of the inherent side effects 
of taking successive samples from a pseudo- 
random generator. 

Contrary to the article and as suggested in 
the example. SIMSCRIPT 11.5 is a process- 
oriented simulation language. At the same time. 
it retains the event-based capabilities of the 
Rand Corporation's original SIMSCRIPr 1. 

Finally, a word about language preprocessors 
such as GASP and SLAM. Although they can 
be valuable tools for developing simulation 
models, they are not true programming lan- 
guages. For medium- and large-scale applica- 
tions (1000 to 100.000 lines) a user is usually 
forced to revert to the underlying programming 
language— FORTRAN— thus losing the prepro- 
cessor "language." A preprocessor is a good 



short-term solution, but no substitute for a com- 
plete compiler and support library, which is why 
SIMSCRIPT abandoned its FORTRAN translator 
with the introduction of SIMSCRIPT 1.5 in 1965. 
Ioel W. West III 
CAC1 Inc. 
3344 North Torrey Pines Court 
La loll a. CA 92037 

What Is a Typical 
Computer Professional? 

Yesterday 1 took the kids to see WarGames. Ap- 
parently the movie has entrenched the latter- 
day meaning of the word "hacker" (synonymous 
with database intruder). 1 recall when the word 
was simply the computer equivalent of the 
radio "ham." 

What really upset me was the way the movie 
portrayed the (typical?) computer professional. 
The two main characters, certainly escapees 
from the loony bin. apparently were able to 
think only in binary, and they obviously were 
unfit for human company. Is this the image com- 
puter people and computer magazines such as 
BYTE want to project to the general public^ 

Back in the dark ages, before the 
microprocessor. 1 used to read Computers and 
Automation, edited by Edmund C. Berkeley. The 
magazine strove to place computers and com- 
puter people in a meaningful relationship with 
the community. 1 don't know what became of 
Computers and Automation. Perhaps this is 
something to consider? "If you prick us. do we 
not bleed?" 

Opinions please! 

Tore Rambol 

Grant ivei en 37 

N-3440 Royken 

Norway 

Standardization 
Encourages Innovation 

While 1 am one who always looks forward to 
advances and innovation in the computer field, 
1 fail to find the flaws in the home-computer 
market you claim exist in your February editorial 
("The Compatibility Craze." by Lawrence |. 
Curran. page 4). The fact that IBM has become 
the de facto standard in microcomputers has 
led. 1 believe, to more, not less innovation. While 
the rate of change of new and radically different 
hardware pieces may have slowed down, both 
the quality and quantity of software have in- 
creased tremendously. The fact that one stan- 
dard is dominating the hardware market means 
it's possible and profitable for larger and/or 
more unique software packages to be pro- 
duced. One need only look at the success of 
a piece of software like Lotus 1-2-3. Would such 
a product have come to market had there not 
been standardization through the large sales 
of IBM PCs and PC-compatibles? Probably not. 
The cost of writing sophisticated software is 
high, both in terms of time and money. It has 
become less risky for software firms to in- 
troduce a new product because their initial ver- 
[text continued on page 26) 



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LETTERS 



[text continued from page 24) 
sion (assuming it's written for the IBM and its 
compatibles) has the potential to reach a larger 
audience. No longer do software houses and 
individuals have to create a myriad of different 
versions to capture just a small share of the 
market. The success of Lotus 1-2-3 is largely 
based on this one standard. Other firms and 
individuals who can't afford, in terms of time 
or money, to write software for all of the dif- 
ferent machines in existence have the oppor- 



tunity to write software with a better chance for 
returns. If this means that other. lesser "stan- 
dards" such as CP/M-80 fall by the wayside, so 
be it. Consumers have already benefited sig- 
nificantly from the software that might not 
otherwise have been introduced. 

Second. 1 do not see a decline even in the 
introduction of new. innovative hardware. Just 
because much of what's being introduced isn't 
as radically different as some might like does 
not mean that innovation has ceased. 1 like to 




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think of this time as a period of refinement, ver- 
sus the last period of a hodgepodge of prod- 
ucts, many with dubious quality. 1 think the area 
of printers is a fine example Over the past five 
years the price of the letter-quality machines 
has declined markedly while quality and dura- 
bility have increased. And what of disk drive?, 
modems, and other peripherals? One finds the 
same situation as with printers. 

Over the past three years we have seen the 
introduction of new and innovative machines. 
Look at Osborne. Kaypro. the Epson QX-10. the 
NEC and landy "lap" computers. Grid. etc. 
Surely, these machines qualify as new and 
innovative. 

1 believe that the de facto standard that IBM 
has established in the home-computer market 
is a good thing. Further, I do not believe that 
this has led to a decrease in innovation. If any- 
thing is responsible for any perceived slowdown 
in innovation. 1 would place the blame with the 
nature of the new technology itself. Gone are 
the days of computers made in garages. The 
technology of late is complex. Smaller firms 
cannot compete with many of the larger ones 
because of this complexity. One need only read 
the series of articles on the latest Apple, the 
Macintosh, in your February issue. If Jobs and 
Wozniak were starting now and had to compete 
with the likes of an Apple or an IBM in the 
home-computer market, their chances for suc- 
cess would be slim. 

1 remember a few short years ago when every- 
one was hollering for standardization. The 
market has done much in achieving this end. 
The fact that the composition of the businesses 
in the market is changing does not mean that 
innovation has died. If one is convinced that 
innovation is dead with respect to the manufac- 
ture of computers proper, look to the periph- 
erals market, as here you will find an abundance 
of diverse firms producing a multitude of in- 
novative products. The market is a mechanism 
that works. Entrepreneurial spirit is anything but 
dead in the computer industry. To "urge" funds 
to be spent differently, as you do in the afore- 
mentioned editorial, is a form of coercion no 
different from the urging done by Luddites (see 
your January editorial), albeit to different ends. 
The market has taken us this far already. As con- 
sumers, let us sit back and enjoy. We are the 
dictators of the market, not editors of 
magazines. 

Raymond Frigo 

64 Hamilton Park West 

London N5 

England 

1 just received the February BYTE and I see that 
your magazine, along with several other com- 
puter magazines this month, is objecting to the 
IBM PC "compatibility craze" because it hinders 
innovation, stifles creativity, etc. I would like to 
point out that computer makers have compel- 
ling reasons for this behavior that seem to be 
ignored in all the editorials on this subject. 

First, the phenomenal success of the IBM PC 

shows that it is exactly what a large number of 

computer buyers want. The market ultimately 

provides what the consumer demands. When 

{text continued on page 30) 



26 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



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LETTERS 



{text continued from page 26) 

innovation is required (by the user) it will be 

forthcoming. 

Second, today's "innovation" is tomorrow's 
"for sale" item when the newness has worn off 
and something more advanced comes along, 
A de facto standard like the IBM PC provides 
stability in the marketplace and allows the com- 
puter purchased today to retain its value— both 
monetarily and functionally— for a longer time. 

Third, a new computer, no matter how ad- 
vanced, cannot succeed if there is no software 
to run on it. What software manufacturer (ex- 
cept the very largest) can afford to modify its 
products every time a new innovation comes 
along? Small companies could not possible af- 
ford to provide versions for every kind of com- 
puter. A proliferation of incompatible hardware 
clearly would inhibit the innovative small soft- 
ware manufacturer. 

Herbert R. Sorock 

224} Thornwood Ave. 

Wilmette. IL 60091 



Thanks Again 



Please express my appreciation to E. Hart 
Rasmussen on the quality of his article entitled 
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I teach a class called "Port and Harbor Facil- 
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movements are discussed. Accordingly. I have 
called Mr. Rasmussen's article to the attention 
of students and staff interested in queuing 
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Thanks again for a most informative article 
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queuing. 

Larry S. Slotta. Ph.D.. P.E. 

Slotta Engineering Associates, Inc. 

570 Northwest Van Bur en St. 

POB 1376 

Corvaiiis, OR 97339 



A Reviewer Replies 

I just read the letter from David Colver (March, 
page 1 5) regarding my review of what HP now 
calls the HP9000 Series 200 Model 16. I feel 
compelled to reply to some of his statements. 

Mr. Colver complains that my review of HP 
BASIC was inadequate, feeling that a game pro- 
gram is trivial as an example. He also said that 
I ignored file I/O and the subroutine and func- 
tion features. 

1 stated in the review that I was not a fan of 
BASIC, making my prejudice clear. This was 
stated more strongly in my original manuscript, 
but it was made less prominent in the editing 
process. (This is not a complaint— my rant 
against BASIC was a bit excessive for a review 
of this nature.) My main purpose in using the 
game program was to illustrate the use of the 
knob, the user-programmable softkeys. and the 
graphics. The program in fact has four 
subroutines. I plead guilty to ignoring file I/O. 
1 tried it. it worked, and I didn't feel the need 
[text continued on page 33) 



30 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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If you need it, there's always "help." 
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32 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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Circle 1 53 on inquiry card. 



LETTERS 



[text continued from page 30) 

to test it further because there was so much 

other stuff to test. 

Mr. Colver also complains about my treat- 
ment of HP Pascal saying that I ignored the 
elegant features of modules borrowed from 
Modula-2 in favor of picking on the bleeper. The 
point of the bleeper raillery was to illustrate the 
rigmarole needed to access the simplest hard- 
ware functions and the lack of attention to detail 
I found in the Pascal package. Yes the module 
feature is neat and elegant, but it renders pro- 
grams that use it incompatible with either the 
ISO Pascal standard or Modula-2. Further, this 
feature was not borrowed from Modula-2 at all, 
but from MODCAL, HP's proprietary version of 
a hybrid (that's the nice word) between Pascal 
and Modula-2. (MODCAL was the implemen- 
tation language of the Pascal system). 

I still liked the machine. I think my impressions 
were summed up well in the March editorial 
("Where BYTE Is Going." page 4), but a further 
problem I found was the alleged compatiblity 
with the other members of the Series 200 fami- 
ly. Almost compatible is often more frustrating than 
incompatible. 

Berry Kercheval 

Zehntel Inc. 

2625 Shadelands Dr. 

Walnut Creek, CA 94598 



Mac Flak 

Although 1 can understand your enthusiasm for 
the technical "bells and whistles" on the Macin- 
tosh ('The Apple Macintosh Computer" by 
Gregg Williams, February, page 30), I must say 
that as a practical productivity tool for business, 
it is abysmal. It is slow going from one func- 
tion to another, text editing with the mouse is 
inefficient and cumbersome (try deleting or 
adding a single character— it's difficult to know 
exactly where the pointer is pointing), and its 
one strong point— the graphics free-form capa- 
bility and creative fonts— is of limited value in 
a serious business environment. In short, it's 
a delightful, expensive, toy computer for those 
who have been afraid of trying computers. It 
is not a productivity aid. 

Susan Gold 

POB 6095 

Santa Fe NM 87502 



Fighting City Hall 



Your editorial comment "that IBM's burgeon- 
ing influence in the PC community is stifling in- 
novation because so many other companies are 
simply mimicking Big Blue" ("The Compatibili- 
ty Craze," February, page 4) is too little too late. 
How can a company dare to introduce a better 
machine when Microsoft's Word runs only on 
IBM PC hardware (no graphics/keyboard device 
drivers or overlays). (Perhaps for a sizable fee, 
Microsoft will create a special version for MS- 
DOS.) And what about the glitches with INT 14 
for servicing the RS-232C or the hardware prob- 
lems in the 8 1 50 UART? Very few software pack- 
ages go through MS-DOS or PC-DOS ROMs 



because they are either slow or incorrect. 

Unless magazines such as BYTE encourage 
software vendors such as Lotus and Microsoft 
to centralize their software screen and keyboard 
handlers to go through overlay or device driver 
files (if done correctly, only one subroutine call 
overhead in performance), only clones will suc- 
ceed. BYTE also could encourage reviewers not 
to grade machines solely on IBM compatibili- 
ty. Some machines have implemented the com- 
munications interrupts correctly, it's just that 
nobody uses them and the software authors 
have made no provisions for supporting MS- 
DOS. If it's true that operating system com- 
patibility is dead, then hardware is where it's 
at. And if that's true, we have taken a giant step 
backward and some of the responsibility lies 
with magazines such as BYTE. 

AVRAM TETEWSKY 

555 Tech Sq. MS 92 

Cambridge. MA 02139 

Simple Innovations 

Your editorial call for innovation in the February 
issue ("The Compatibility Craze" by Lawrence 
J. Curran, page 4) was well placed. Three articles 
in the same issue deal with useful, fairly sim- 
ple enhancements that vendors could add to 
new or even existing microcomputer designs: 

• "A Low-Cost, Low-Write Voltage EEPROM" 
by loe D. Blagg. page 343. explained how 
to add circuitry to allow the in-memory 
reprogramming of EEPROMS. 

• "Foot "Control" by Dennis M. Pfister 
(page 346) shows how to add sockets to the 
keyboard to allow the attachment of foot 
switches to activate the Control key, Escape 
key. etc. The user could even activate both 
keys, using two such switches, one for each 
foot. This would eliminate most double key- 
stroke operations, and give microcomputers 
most of the convenience of dedicated word 
processors. Hopefully, some computer 
stores will offer to retrofit keyboards with 
such sockets and sell foot switches to go 
with them. 

• More ambitiously vendors might offer a 
built-in, software-selectable 132-column by 
48-line display option (as described in "The 
Videx Ultraterm" by Peter V. Callamaras. 
page 310). Such a display truly expands the 
user's horizons. 

Roger Knights 

5446 45 Ave. SW 

Seattle, WA 98136 

Comparing Compilers 

1 found Kaare Christian's "Inside a Compiler: 
Notes on Optimization and Code Generation" 
(February, page 349) most intriguing, and 1 
rushed to my IBM PC to see what kind of op- 
timized code Microsoft's 3.13 Pascal compiler 
produces for the Sieve of Eratosthenes. |For 
more information see "Eratosthenes Revisited: 
Once More through the Sieve" by Jim Gilbreath 
{text continued on page 34) 

JUNE 1984 -BYTE 33 



LETTERS 



[text continued from page 33) 
and Gary Gilbreath, January 1983, page 283. | 
Eagerly comparing my .COD listing to the DRI 
and Intel listings, I saw a close correlation be- 
tween Microsoft's and Intel's optimization 
strategies. 

My summary: Where Intel dedicates CX and 
AX to somewhat specific functions, Microsoft 
seems to use AX generally. This results in five 
instructions (that the Intel code did not require) 
to load AX with the desired values. In one case, 
Microsoft saves an instruction, adding directly 
to the count in memory whereas Intel adds to 
and then stores AX. The bottom line is that Intel 
produces a tighter, faster Sieve, but not by 
much. 

Because I use MS-DOS and do not have ac- 
cess to iRMX/86, 1 was pleased to see how well 
Microsoft Pascal optimizes. Although some may 
be bothered by the fact that the Microsoft .COD 
file is just a memo listing and not an assembly- 
language sourcethat can be modified, this suits 
me just fine. Code that is not tinkered with is 
one less picket in the fence to come loose— or 
one less to be hammered up in the first place. 
The fact that the compiler does such a good 
job of optimizing is key to my happiness. 

As Christian points out, the use of COD lists 
is most helpful in analyzing alternative coding 
tactics. In one case, a piece of my Pascal source 



code looked redundant because a variable ex- 
pression was explicitly stated in two consecutive 
lines. When I compiled this alongside an alter- 
native that precomputed the expression, I dis- 
covered that the compiler carried the results 
of the expression evaluation to the second line, 
doing automatically, and in less code, what I 
attempted to achieve in my alternative. 

As a final note. Christian's discussion of ways 
to beat the FOR loop control was most instruc- 
tive. Microsoft, by the way. exhibits the same 
weakness that Intel does. 

CHET FIjOYD 

664 18th St. 
Manhattan Beach. CA 90266 



Still More on the Model 16 

I have read with interest the correspondence 
regarding the performance of the TRS-80 Model 
16 under XENIX (Letters. October 1983, page 
20; December 1983, page 20; and February 
1 984, page 24). In one sense Radio Shack is not 
to blame for the slow response under M BASIC 
or Multiplan because the use of floating-point 
arithmetic in both these products appears to 
substantially downgrade the potential. 
We have been using the Model 16 for almost 



a year with both MBASIC and Multiplan and 
have found it surprising that with these products 
the performance was not impressive but that 
the system commands (written in C) suggest that 
the machine had all the power we wanted. 

More recently we benchmarked the system 
in C For a simple processing loop we found 
that even with floating-point arithmetic, C will 
perform the operation around 1 5 times faster 
than interpretive MBASIC. but if integer arith- 
metic is used, the speedup becomes a factor 
of around 90 times. 

The message is clear. Floating-point arithmetic 
on the Model 16 is the main cause of poor 
performance, 

Given the speedup provided by software writ- 
ten in C. there seems little doubt that, in terms 
of processing, the Model 16 is more than ade- 
quate to deal with the number of users that 
Radio Shack says can be supported. I would be 
interested to learn from your readers whether 
there are any hardware solutions I could use 
to overcome the floating-point arithmetic 
problem. 

D. O. Rowe 

109 King Charles Rd. 

Surbiton. 

Surrey. 

England ■ 





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Circle 299 on inquiry card. 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 35 



HOW 

TO RUN 

THE 
WORLD 









Without software you're nowhere. 

That's why the Corona PC runs virtually everything. Word Star. 1 dBASE II. 2 
Lotus 1-2-3 3 ? Thousands of packages in all. But we didn't stop there. 

We give you 60% better graphics than IBM® (640x325 pixels). So your pie 
charts look tastier. We doubled the memory: 128K memory expandable to 512K 
on the main board. For power that won't quit. And we bundle software. For instant 
productivity right out of the box. All at a price about 20% less than IBM's. 

The Corona PC. Once you can run the world, running your business looks easy. In North 
America, call 1-800-621-6746 for the Authorized Corona Dealer near you. 
In Holland, call 020-03240-18111. There are over 1600 dealers worldwide. 
And their job is to help. Service by Xerox. 

THE CORONA PC 

©Corona Data Systems 1984. 1.TM Miaopro Corp. 2.TM AshtonTate. 3. T M Lotus Development Corp. *HTS driver needed for graphics only. 

Circle 89 on inquiry card. 



corona 

data systems, inc. 



UPDATE 



Developments 



More on the Tbndy 
TRS-80 Model 2000 

In our Product Description of the Tandy Model 
2000 (March, page 306) Rich Malloy mentioned 
that a numeric coprocessor chip may be offered 
as an option at some future date. The chip he 
suggested was the Intel 80187. We have since 
learned that the motherboard for the landy 
2000 does not have a socket for a numeric co- 
processor chip and that such an option will 
most likely be offered as part of an add-on 
board for one of the expansion slots. 

We have also learned that Intel has decided 
not to market an 80187 coprocessor chip to 
work with the 80186 microprocessor. According 
to Rick Schue. a Regional Applications Special- 
ist at Intel's Dayton. Ohio, sales office. Intel in- 
stead will make available an integrated bus- 
controller chip called the 82188. This chip will 
allow the 80186 processor to work with the 
8087 numeric coprocessor, which is readily 
available. The new bus controller will also per- 
mit the 8086 family of processors to work with 
two other coprocessors: the 82586, a local-area- 
network coprocessor, and the 82730, a text co- 
processor that will simplify such things as pro- 
portional spacing and superscripts. 

Sweet Talker II 

If you're interested in buying the SSI263 speech- 
synthesizer chip described in the March Circuit 
Cellar project, "Build a Third-Generation 
Phonetic Speech Synthesizer" (page 28), it's 
available from CCI, Box 428. Iblland, CT 06084, 
(203) 875-5795, for $65 plus $2 shipping (in- 
cludes the Apple algorithm and data sheets). 

You also can buy the assembled and tested 
Sweet lalker il speech-synthesizer board. This 
board comes with the SSI263, demonstration 
software, a user's manual, and a text-to-speech 
algorithm on a DOS 3.3-formatted floppy disk. 
It costs $100 plus shipping, from The Micromint 
Inc.. 561 Willow Ave., Cedarhurst. NY 1 1516; to 
order toll-free, call (800) 645-3479. For infor- 
mation only, call (516) 374-6793. 

If you decide to build the board yourself, be 
aware of an error in figure 2 (page 32). ICI pin 
22 should connect with the Apple Bus pin 38. 

Product News 

Santa Clara Systems recently announced that 
increased outlays for components have forced 
the company to raise the price of its PCterminal 
to $1595. The PCterminal is an IBM PC-compat- 
ible computer with a built-in local-area network. 
It can function as an intelligent terminal in a 
PCNet network. The original price was $1295. 



• The Word Processor— Professional Version 
has undergone a number of changes according 
to its Fresno-based publisher, Mirage Concepts. 
Primarily, its price has dropped to $89.95 from 
$99.95. Also, a spelling checker has been 
added, and its print and loading capabilities 
have been streamlined. 

• 3Com Corporation has reduced the cost of 
its Etherlink interface and software to $795. a 
16 percent reduction. In addition, EtherShare 
software now supports a single IBM PC as both 
a network server and workstation; previously, 
a dedicated server was required. A new chip, 
called EtherStart. which allows the IBM PC to 
function on the network without local drives or 
controllers, was also announced by the Moun- 
tain View, California, communications company. 

• From Solana Beach. California, we learn that 
Kaypro Corporation has dropped the price of 
the Kaypro 2 to $1295. The company hopes this 
move will encourage more people to try its 
popular computer. 

• Novation has announced across-the-board 
price reductions of its Apple-Cat II communica- 
tions line. Cutbacks range from $40 off the 
Apple-Cat II 1200-bps modem upgrade (now 
$349) to a $130 price cut for the 300/1200-bps 
212 modem, which now lists for $595. Nova- 
tion, headquartered in Chatsworth. California, 
is also trying to induce consumers by offering 
a free CompuServe demonstration pack with 
their purchase. 

• Staff Technology Corporation, Del Mar. Cali- 
fornia, has lowered the price of the serial ver- 
sion of The Key to $210 (1 to 99 units). The Key 
is a hardware module that protects software 
from unauthorized use. 

• Lotus will no longer market a version of 1-2-3 
for the Victor 9000 computer. lim Manzi. vice- 
president of sales and marketing for the Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, software developer, 
cited Victor 'Technologies' recent financial woes 
as reason for the decision. Lotus will continue 
to support all Victor users who have purchased 
1-2-3. 



Info Interchange Standards 

The American National Standards Institute 
(ANSI) has been working on a set of standards 
and formats to facilitate the electronic inter- 
change of business information. When fully im- 
plemented, the new procedures should elimi- 
nate such paper exchanges as purchase orders 
and invoices for companies desiring the greater 
speed and efficiency of electronic communica- 
tions. 

A free report discussing these standards is 
now available. Single copies can be obtained 
from X12 Secretariat. TDCC, 1101 17th St. NW. 
Washington, DC 20036. (202) 293-5514. 



Feedback 



Benchmarks and Age 

Mike Forman. employed with Hewlett-Packard's 
Systems Division in Fort Collins. Colorado, wrote 
us in defense of the HP 984 5 A computer, which 
he felt was slighted in Jeffrey Star's article 
"Favorite Benchmarks" (February, page 436). 
While running his CBASIC benchmarks, Mr. Star 
noticed that the $30,000 HP computer was "not 
suited for plain number-crunching because of 
its BASIC-in-ROM interpreter" and that it was 
"faster than the $5000 IMS5000's pseudo- 
interpretive CBASIC (version 2) but slower when 
compared with compiler Microsoft 
FORTRAN-80." 

Mr. Star attributed the slow response to the 
fact that CBASIC and CB-80 use double-preci- 
sion real mathematics. Mr. Forman points out 
that the HP 984 5 employed quad-precision 
mathematics. 

"The crux of the matter," says Forman, "is that 
comparing an older product against current 
competition will always give a false indication 
of the price/performance ratio. Newer products 
cost less for a given performance level." 

He then ran Mr. Star's benchmark on an HP 
9000 Model 216, which costs approximately 
$5000 with BASIC. The benchmark was run in 
interpretive, interactive BASIC, using quad- 
precision (i.e.. 64-bit numbers); integers were not 
used for loop counters, Table I on page 40 
shows the results. 

In summary, Mr. Forman reminds us that 
benchmarks can be misleading. "One must be 
aware of the intended application before selec- 
ting a benchmark. Just because a language is 
interpreted doesn't mean that the machine is 
slow. Conversely, a compiled language doesn't 
assure speed." 

Technical Point Clarified 

Katherine Hammer. Texas Instruments' section 
manager/natural-language branch, dropped us 
a line to express her satisfaction with Mark 
Haas's article on Tl's NaturalLink to the Dow 
Jones News/Retrieval service (January, page 324) 
and to clarify a technical misunderstanding that 
cropped up in the article. 

The point in question was Mr. Haas's sugges- 
tion that Natural Link's "Build Questions" option 
is table-driven. "Such a deduction." explains Ms. 
Hammer, "is understandable since the syntac- 
tic simplicity of the command language for Dow 
Jones News/Retrieval would lend itself to such 
an approach. Nevertheless, the actual software 
underlying |NaturalLink's| component ... is a 
general-purpose parser/translator capable of 
handling a large portion of the structures that 
{text continued on page 40) 



38 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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CP/M BIOS or 
TurboDOS. 



4600 Pell Drive Sacramento, CA 95838 (916)920-4600 Telex #49918*4 Answer back -Teletek 



TELETEK 






UPDATE 



[text continued from page 38) 



Table I: The results obtained by Mr. Forrnan after a 40-run loop of the benchmark 
program described in "Favorite Benchmarks'.' All the results, except for those listed for 
the HP 216, appeared in Jeffrey Star's February article. 









IMS 5000 






HP Model 216 


HP9845 


CBASIC FORTRAN-80 


CB-80 


Time (seconds) 


16 


74 


443 44 


285 



occur in natural language. Consequently, this 
' software can be used to provide a similar kind 
of interface to any number of underlying 
systems." 

Our thanks to Ms. Hammer for clearing up this 
issue. 



Miscellanea 



Library Templates Sought 

Microcomputer Libraries would like to hear 
from librarians willing to share general-purpose 
software templates that they might have devel- 
oped. Any librarians desiring to use the 
templates or contribute to the group's collec- 
tion are encouraged to write Microcomputer 
Libraries. 145 Marcia Dr.. Freeport. 1L 61032. 



Computer Science 
Programs to Share 

The ECN. an educational forum promoting the 
interchange of ideas and applications, has a 
number of computer-science programs to share 
with educators. In all. 1 5 programs can be ob- 
tained for the price of the disk and postage. The 
programs are designed for the Apple 11+ and 
lie and include BASIC machine-language, and 
DOS tutorials. For information, send a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to Educational 
Computing Network. POB 8236-CS, Riverside. 
CA 92515. 

Address Update 

LDH Computing, publisher of the Tutor-PC/ 
Graphics program, which was recently men- 



tioned in BYTE, has moved. The new address 
is 1496 North Morningside Dr. NE, Atlanta, GA 
30306, (404) 885-973 5; Source account: 
TCD2 57; CompuServe account: 70270.140. 

Music for Your Ears 

PC Musician, a free musical-composition pro- 
gram for the IBM PC, lets you create and edit 
music on screen as well as store, retrieve, and 
play back your creations. PC Musician requires 
64K bytes of memory, a single disk drive, PC- 
DOS, and a monochrome or color-graphics 
adapter. A donation is requested if you find the 
program useful or enjoyable. Send a formatted 
disk and a postage-paid mailer to Christopher 
Wiley. POB 111, VAMC. Prescott. AZ 86313. 

$10,000 Scholarship to be 
Awarded for Best Program 

Software City has announced that it will award 
a $10,000 college scholarship to the student 
who produces the most marketable computer 
program. In addition, four runner-ups will 
receive $1000 scholarships. Eligible programs 
must be formatted to run on Adam. Apple 11/lle, 
Atari. Commodore 64. or IBM Personal Com- 
puters. Other formats may be announced, and 
[text continued on page 44) 



ALF COPY SERVICE 

1 315F Nelson Street Denver, CO 80215 (303) 234-0871 

FAST • RELIABLE • LOW COST 

If you produce software, ALF's disk copying service is the quick, 
convenient answer to your duplication needs. Most orders are shipped in 
less than a week. Every disk we copy is verified bit by bit and guaranteed 
100% flawless. 

We can copy virtually any soft-sectored mini format. Standard 
formats: Apple II (including nibble-copy proof, double-boot, and fast load), 
Apple III, Atari, IBM PC, Kaypro, NEC PC8000, Osborne, TRS-80 I and III, 
Zenith Z-90 and Z-100, and more. Copy protection is available for most 
formats. f ■ 11 

Our "no frills" pricing means you don't have to buy extras you don't 
need— set-up charges start at $10, and copying charges are 30<p to 40<p per 
side. (See blank disk prices at right. Minimum; 50 copies.) Quantity dis- 
counts available for large orders. wP^r 

Of course, we have the frills too: label application, 3-hole vinyl pages, 
printing of labels and sleeves, shrink packaging, heat sealing, and much 
more. We can put your product in a customized package— vinyl folder or 
IBM-style binder/slip case— for a low price in small or large quantities. 

ALF is one of the oldest and most trusted names in the duplication 
business. ALF designs and manufactures copying machines that other 
copying services and software publishers around the world rely on every 
day. Our complete understanding of duplication technology assures- you 
of the finest reproduction available. 

We're eager to solve your duplication and packaging problems— 
whether you want one service or a total package. Give us a call 
today! 

■ i mi iii II- i 1 1 : nf\ ' ' ' ■' f\ } -"■', 



BLANK DISKS 

ALF buys large quantities of disks 
for our disk copying service — and we 
can pass our savings on to you. If 
you're buying hundreds of disks, ALF 
is your ideal source for top quality 
disks at a reasonable price. We buy 
our disks in bulk packages, avoiding 
the expense of fancy printing and 
labeling. 

The disks listed below are 5 1/4", 

soft sector, double density, unlabeled, 

with hub reinforcement ring. Other 

disks are available, call for details. 

SINGLE SIDED 

MEMOREX $160 per 100 
NASHUA $160 per 100 
VERBATIM $160 per 100 

DOUBLE SIDED 

MEMOREX $185 per 100 
VERBATIM $195 per 100 

OTHER BRANDS AVAILABLE. 

Without sleeves: add $2.50 
shipping per 100. 

With tyvek sleeves: add $7 plus 
$2.50 shipping per 100. 

Packed in boxes of 10 with tyvek 
sleeves: add $15 plus $3.00 
shipping per 100. 



40 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



from us 
could solve 



service 




We've noticed that some words cause 
PC owners extreme anxiety. Words like 
"The disk drive blew. . ." "The data won't 
come up on the screen . . ." and "The 
printer won't print." 

Well, the 
next time 
words like 
that are 
echoing in 
your ears, 
just ask 

for Americare service from Xerox. 
Unlike a lot of manufacturers and deal- 

XEROX® and Americare 1 " are trademarks of XEROX CORPORATION. 

IBM PO and the IBM logo are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. 

Quadiam* is a registered trademark of Quadram Corporation. 





ers, we don't restrict our repair service to 
one select brand. Instead, we ser- 
vice 22 of them, including 82 
different models. From IBM 
PCs to Quadram boards. 
And from Amdek monitors 
to Okidata printers. 
Our technicians undergo intensive 
training on the equipment we service. 
In fact, they probably know as much 
about servicing it as the people who 
made it. 

And they work fast, so in most cases 
they can have your PC up and running 



Kepairs in 

4a hours or less. 



42 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



XEROX 




TM 



again in 48 hours or less. 

Of course, you can't get it back fast if 
the parts aren't available. Which is why 
we're downright obsessive about keeping 
our parts department well stocked. 

Americare has Xerox Service Centers 
that provide you with a nationwide support 

system. And to 
make service even 





In addition, 
we offer a 

support system. "~ CllOlCe 01 On~ 

site, depot or pick-up and delivery service. 
\ear-long service contracts or time and 
materials service agreements are available. 
So call 800-238-2300 for the Americare 
dealer nearest you. 



^easier, you can 
reach us 
through our 
network of 
over 3,000 authorized computer dealers. 




Well stocked 
parts departments. 



It's the first thing to do when you're 
looking for the last word in service. 



Circle 362 on inquiry card. 



IUNE 1984 -BYTE 43 



UPDATE 



[text continued from page 40) 
applications for other computers will be con- 
sidered on a case-by-case basis. Applications 
will be judged in one of five categories: busi- 
ness, home, recreation, and system software. 
Applicants must have graduated high school 
after January I, 1984. 

All entries must b e received by December 31, 
1984. For complete information and scholarship 
application, contact Software City Corporate 
Headquarters, 1415 Queen Anne RcL 'Ieaneck, 
NJ 07666, Attn: Scholarship Director. Software 
City, which specializes in software and acces- 
sories, had more than 60 franchises in opera- 
tion at the end of 1983. 

Free Update for 
Macintosh Multiplan 

Microsoft Corp. was to begin shipping free up- 
dates of Macintosh Multiplan version 1.00 in 
mid-April. Registered owners should receive the 
update. Multiplan version 1.01, automatically 
The 70 percent of owners who have not 
registered their purchase should send the war- 
ranty card to receive the update. If the warran- 
ty card is lost, a sales receipt as proof of pur- 
chase can be sent to Microsoft Corp.. Customer 
Service. 10700 Northup Way. Box 97200. 
Bellevue. WA 98009. 



Art Curricula 
Available from Museum 

The Capital Children's Museum has made avail- 
able two courses for classroom teachers: "'leach- 
ing Art Through Computers" and 'Teaching Com- 
puters Through Art." Both curricula come with 
complete lesson plans and suggestions for sup- 
plementary materials. Designed for students ages 
II to 15. they are based on the use of the Atari 
800 and a graphics program called Paint. Com- 
puter use is a part of each lesson. 

Either curriculum can be obtained for the 
price of copying and shipping by teachers who 
will test the programs and provide the museum 
with suggestions for improvements. The cost is 
$5. Additional information is available from 
Computer Curricula, Capital Children's Museum, 
800 Third St. NE. Washington. DC 20002. 

Educational 
Conference Proceedings 

Arizona State University has announced the 
availability of the 1983 Microcomputers in Educa- 
tion Conference Proceedings. The proceedings cost 
$20. The 1982 conference proceedings are still 
available for $15. Purchase-order transactions 
cost $5 more. Contact Arizona State University. 
College of Education. Payne Hall B203. Tempe. 
AZ 85287. Attention: Tina Hite. 



BYTE'S Bugs 



Confusion's Cause: 
Omitted Symbols 

The greater-than and less-than symbols were in- 
advertently omitted from Richard Willis's IBM 
PCjr benchmark programs, which accompanied 
G. Michael Vose and Richard S. Shuford's arti- 
cle "A Closer Look at the IBM PCjr" (March, 
page 320). Make the following corrections to 
listing 1: 

820 IF A(1)<=A(I+1)THEN 870 
1220 IF ASC(C$(1))<65 THEN 1250 
1230 IF ASC(C$(1))>90THEN 12 50 

Gremlins in Utility Program 

Gremlins bit into listing I in James Folts's "A 
Cross-Reference Utility for IBM PC BASIC Pro- 
grams." (August 1983, page 378). In line 610. 
the conditional statement checks for REM or 
data codes. If true, the remainder of the line 
is skipped. The 2-byte code for the FRE func- 
tion is 2 55 14 3, and the code for SGN is 2 55 
132. Byte 1 4 3 will b e interpreted as a REM and 
byte 132 as a data code, which causes the rest 
of the line to be discarded, 
lb correct this, make the following changes: 
(text continued on page 46) 




/T SANYO SUPER SYSTEMS \\ 



$1195 



SYSTEM #1 
SANYO MBC-550 

• SANYO GREEN MONITOR 

• GEMINI 10 X • SOFTWARE • 

Sanyo MBC-550 Single Drive Computer • Sonyo 
CRT-36 Monitor • Star Micronics Gemini 10X • 
Cabling • WordStar • CalcStar • Easywriter • 
MS-DOS • Sanyo Basic • 



$1525 



PRINTERS 

C. 1TOH 

A10-20 . . . $505 
Prowriter8510 $335 

8510 SP $460 

*J^ 8510 SCP S 30 

V 8510 BPI $420 

F-10 Seriol or Parallel $940 

COMREX 

Cr-2 $450 

Keyboard $150 

DIABLO 

620 RO $860 

630 RO $1715 

630 ECS/IBM $2090 

S-11 $560 

P-ll $560 

EPSON 

All models $AVE 

INFORUNNER 

Ritemon $250 

JUKI 

6100 $480 

NEC 

2010 $780 

2050 $905 

3510 $1370 

3550 $1715 

8023A $385 

8025 $675 



OKI DATA 

All models $AVE 

PANASONIC 

1090 $AVE 

1091 SAVE 

1092. SAVE 

QUME 

1 1/40 w/lnterfoce $1 370 

1 1/55 w/lnterfoce $1 570 

LetterPro20P $609 

Letter Pro 20S $609 

SILVER REED 

EXP400 $AVE 

EXP500P $390 

EXP500S $425 

EXP550P $485 

EXP550S $500 

STAR MICRONICS 

Gemini 10X & 15X $AVE 

Delta 10 $AVE 

TALLY 

MT 160L w/troctors $AVE 

MT 180L w/troctors $AVE 

Spirit $299 

Spirit 80 $AVE 

TOSHIBA 

1340 $AVE 

1350 Serial or Parallel $1450 

1351 Serial or Parallel $1 550 

TRANSTAR 

130P $675 

120P $450 

T315 $450 



TERMINALS 

TELEVIDEO 

910+ 

914 

924 

925 

950 

970 



$555 

$540 

$670 

$705 

$905 

$980 

Personal Terminol $AVE 

ZENITH 

Z-29 $649 

COMPUTERS 

NEC 

PC-8201A $590 

PC-8201ACPU $589 

PC-8206A 32K Rom $289 

PC-8281A Recorder $89 

PC-8201 A-90 Bottery Pack $ 1 5 

SANYO 



SYSTEM #2 
SANYOMBC-555 

• SANYO GREEN MONITOR 

• GEMINI 10X • SOFTWARE • 

Sanyo MBC-555 Dual Drive Computer • Sanyo 
CRT-36 Monitor • Star Micronics Gemini 10X • 
Cabling • WordStar • CalcStar • SpellStor • InfoStar 

• Mail Merge • Easywriter • MS-DOS • Sanyo Basic • 

MODEMS ~ ~ 

HAYES 

$490 



MBC-550 System . 
MBC-555 System . 

TELEVIDEO 

803 

ZENITH 

Z-100 Low Profile . 
Z-100 Alt-In-One . 



$1195 
$1525 



$1799 



1200 

1200B... ...$435 

300 $205 

Micromodem lie $240 

DISK DRIVES 

RANA 

Elite 1 $215 

Elite 2 $345 

Elite 3 $410 

1000 w/DOS(for Atari) $305 

MONITORS 

TAXAN 

12" Amber $125 

ZENITH 

12" Green $95 

12" Amber .$120 

Prices reflect 3% to 5% cash discount, 

Product shipped in factory cartons C3^ 

with manufacturer's worranty. C^^ ^^ 

Free shipping is on UPS ground - C^^^*"iv Qv 



& 



*V 



$2635 
$2815 






only. Prices & availability 
subject to change with 
out notice. Send cash- 
ier'scheck or money 
order. .all other ^.^^ 

checks will <k^-* 

delay ship- 
ping two 
weeks. 



iSfr 






£IcTsP 



,<$»■ 



«? 



A*?' 



&v 



44 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



fc^ 






E 




*IS18 SHOWN 



ISOO 



10 Mega-Byte Winchester 
Hard Disk Controller 



UPGRADES FOR YOUR IBM PC /PC COMPATIBLES 






10 Mega-byte Winchester 
Modular hard disk controller 

$1095.00 
10 Mega-byte Winchester 
Floppy/Hard disk controller $1295.00 

Half-high tape drive 

XT-Power Supply $ 995.00 

Half-high tape drive 

Half-high floppy drive 

XT-Power Supply $1265.00 

Half-high tape drive 

Half-high 10 Mega-byte Winchester 

Hard disk controller 

XT-Power Supply $2095.00 

20 Mega-byte Winchester 

Hard disk controller $1595.00 

Half-high tape drive 

Half-high 20 Mega-byte Winchester 

Hard disk controller 

XT-Power Supply $2495.00 

40 Mega-byte Winchester 

Hard disk controller 

XT-Power supply $2895.00 



alf-high tape drive 

a If -high floppy drive 
40 Mega-byte Winchester 
Hard disk controller 
XT-Power Supply $3795.00 

ISPS • XT-Power Supply $ 290.00 

TAPE FOR YOUR IBM' XT 

XT01 • Half-high tape drive 

• Half-high floppy drive $ 995.00 



Micro Design International Inc. has been 
serving the computer industry for over 772 
years, call us today for our complete 
catalog or to place your order. 

TO ORDER CALL COLLECT 
(305) 677-8333 

Master Card/Visa/Check/ or Money Order 

MICRO DESIGN 
INTERNATIONAL INC. 

"Vbur internal solution" 

6586 University Blvd. Suite 7 

Winter Park, Florida 32792 



Circle 2I4 on inquiry ( 



UPDATE 



[text continued from page 44) 

610 IF (C= 143 OR C= 132) AND COLD 
<> 255 THEN WHILE C 
<>0 . .. . 
7050 COLD = C : C=ASC(C$(PrR)) 

The variable COLD contains the value of the 
previous byte. Line 610 will now check the new 
byte as well as the previous one. 

Many thanks to I. A. Griffioen for this correc- 
tion. 

Typo Mars Listing 

Sharp-eyed Ken Dawson of Louisville. Kentucky, 
found a typo in Kaare Christian's article "Inside 
a Compiler: Notes on Optimization and Code 
Generation" (February, page 349). Under the 
PascaI-86 code in listing 3 on page 3 58, change 
the second line in P7 to read 

INC AX 

Our thanks to Ken Dawson. 

Bugs Blemish Character Editor 

P. E. Burcher of Alexandria, Virginia, has re- 
ported a number of minor errors in Raymond 
A. Diedrichs's 'A Character Editor for the IBM 
PC" (November 1983, page 467). For listing I, 
Burcher recommends that you change 



FFREPEAT in line 1320 to FREPEAT and that 
you delete the word REM in line 3 1 40. lb avoid 
an unwanted scroll when the last line of the ex- 
periment page is displayed, change line 3160 
to read 

3160 IF KEXPROW THEN PRINT 

Also, correct the number 1024 to read 1023 in 
line 8065. This allows the BASIC interpreter and 
the Font Editor to read user-defined symbols 
correctly. 

Like most programmers, Burcher couldn't re- 
sist the urge to tamper with a program. Listing 
1 (presented here) is Burcher's prescribed patch 
for a more graceful exit to the BASIC command 
mode. 

Raymond Diedrichs wrote us with an update 
of the Font Editor's initialization of the inter- 
rupt vector for newer PCs. (It's correct for older 
versions.) Change line 8070 to 

8070 DEF SEG= 0: POKE 124,0: 

POKE 125, (TABLEADDR/2 56) 

and add line 8071 

8071 POKE 126,0: POKE 127.0 

An improved copy of the Font Editor program 
is available to any interested readers who send 
Mr. Diedrichs a formatted disk and return post- 
age. 



Listing 1: RE. Burcher prescribes 
this patch for a more graceful exit to 
the BASIC command mode from 
Raymond Diedrichs's character-editor 
program for the IBM PC 



1055 CLOSE: GOTO 9100 



STOP 



9100 'RESTORE SOFTKEYS AND END 
GRACEFULLY 

9105 KEY 1, •LIST": KEY 2, 

■'RUN" + CHR$(13): KEY 3. "'LOAD' 
KEY 4, "SAVE"+CHR$(34):KEY 5, 
••CONT*' + CHR$(13) 

9110 KEY 6, ,, ," + CHR$(34) + "LPTl: ,, + 
CHR$4(34)+ CHR$(13): KEY 7. 
■TRON'-t- CHR$(13): KEY 8, 
"TROFF"+ CHR$(13): KEY 9, 
""KEY": KEY 10, "'SCREEN 0. 0, 0. 
•■•fCHRS(13) 

9115 KEY ON: SCREEN 0, 0, 0: CLS 

9120 END 



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diagnostics discern bad and erasable 
EPROM * Verify erasure and compare 
commands * Busy light * Complete 
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and integral 120 VAC power (240 
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$879 stand alone 
MODEL 7956 



Model 7128-LI .L2.L2A . $239 .00 

Model 7128-24 $329.00 

DR8 or DR5 $ 30.00 

DR8PGXor DR5PGX . $ 75.00 

Cross Assemblers $200.00 

XASM (for MSDOS) . . .$250.00 

U/V Eraser DE-4 $ 78.00 

RS232 Cables $ 30.00 

8751 adapter $174.00 

8755 adapter 5135.00 

48 Family adapter S 98.00 



$549 
MODEL 

7228 



MODEL 7956 
GANG PROGRAMMER 

Intelligent algorithm. Stand alone 
copies eight EPROMS 
With RS-232 option $1099. 



DR Utility Package allows communica- 
tion with 71 2&. 7228, and 7956 
programmers from the CP/M com- 
mand line. Source Code is provided. 
PGX utility package allows the same 
thing, but will also allow you to specify 
a range of addresses to send to the 
programmer. Verify, set the Eprom 

type. 

MODEL 7316 PAL PROGRAMMER 

Programs all series 20 PALS. Software 
included for compiling PAL source 
codes. 

Software Available for CPM. ISIS. 



1. TM of Digital Research Corp. 

2. TM of Intel Corp. 

3. TM of Tandy Corp. 

4. TM of Microsoft. 

Post Of nee Box 289 

Waveland, Mississippi 39576 

[601]-467-8048 




Avocet Cross Assemblers are 
available to handle 8748. 8751. 
Z8, 6502. 680X. etc. 
Available for CP/M and 
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processor type and specify 
kind of computer. 

Model DE-4 U/V Products 
hold 8. 28 pin parts. High 
quality professional construc- 
tion. 



MODEL 7324 PAL PROGRAMMER 

Programs all series 20 & 24 PALS. 
Operates stand alone or via RS232. 



46 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 149 on inquiry card. 



BASF QUALIMETRIC™FLEXYDISKS @ 

BUILT FOR ETERNITY-WARRANTED FOR A LIFETIME. 



BASF Qualimetric FlexyDisks® offer 
you more... an extraordinary new 
lifetime warranty* The BASF Quali- 
metric standard is a dramatic new 
international standard of quality in 
magnetic media. ..insurance that 
your most vital information will be 
secure for tomorrow when you enter 
it on BASF FlexyDisks today. 

We can offer this warranty with 
complete confidence because the 
Qualimetric standard reflects a con- 
tinuing BASF commitment to perfec- 
tion..^ process which begins with 
materials selection and inspection, 
and continues through coating, pol- 
ishing, lubricating, testing, and 
100% error-free certification. Built 
into our FlexyDisk jacket is a unique 
two-piece liner. This BASF feature 
traps damaging debris away from 
the media surface, and creates extra 
space in the head access area, insur- 
ing optimum media-to-head align- 
ment. The result is a lifetime of 
outstanding performance. 

When your information must 
be secure for the future, look for 
the distinctive BASF package with 
the Qualimetric seal. Call 800-343- 
4600 for the name of your nearest 
supplier. 

Circle 4 1 on Inquiry card. 












■i ■ 




ENTER TOMORROW ON BASF TODAY 



* Con t a c t BASF for war ran ty de tails, © 7 982, BA SF Sys terns Corpora tion, Bedford, MA 



^bur System Deserves 
The Best! 

Kev Tronic Keyboards. 




To enhance the performance of your personal computer or 
computer terminal, ask your dealer for a plug-compatible Key Tronic 
keyboard. 

Key Tronic Corporation is the world's largest independent 
manufacturer of computer keyboards. 

Key Tronic keyboards are engineered for performance and 
reliability, and are backed by a 14-year tradition of manufacturing 
excellence. All Key Tronic plug-compatible keyboards feature: 

• Familiar typewriter key locations and legends 

• Low-profile design 

• Solid-state capacitive switches 

• Positive tactile feedback 
Each production element, from printed 

circuit boards to keytops is generated in- 
house to insure high quality. 

So ask your computer dealer for a 
hands-on demonstration of a Key Tronic 
keyboard. 

Call Toll Free 1-800-262-6006 for the 
retailer closest to you. (7 am-3 pm Pacific 
Time). Warranty information may be 
obtained by writing to the address below. 




:« 



f n> 



ill] 




KB 5151 and 5151jr — The Professional Series 

KB 5151 is plug-compatible with the IBM* PC and XT. 

KB 5151jr is plug-compatible with the IBM PCjr*. Both 

are available in DVORAK and foreign layouts, and special 

models are made for the handicapped. 

Suggested Retail Price: $255.00 



Ikeytronic I 

/V'fi. -yiiciuii Series \ 





- 


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1 £ 


i # $ 

3 4 


7. A i 
5 6 


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9 


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3D 



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4 5 6* 

I 2 3 




keytronic 



"THE RESPONSIVE KEYBOARD COMPANY" 



Department E • P.O. Box 14687 • Spokane, WA 99214 (U.S.A.) • (509) 928-8000 
Circle 182 on inquiry card. 




«*£$&# 









KB 5150 and 5150 jr — The Pnfcssmd Sens 
KB 5150 is plug-compatible with the IBM* PC 
and XT. KB 5150 jr. is plug-compatible 
with the IBM PC jr.* Both are available in 
DVORAK and foreign layouts, and a special 
model is made for the handicapped. 
Suggested Retail Price: $209.00 

*1BM and PC jr. are registered trademarks of IBM Corporation. 
* Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
'DEC VT-100 is a registered trademark of Digital 
Equipment Corporation. 



*Televideo-925 is a registered trademark of Televideo 

Systems, Inc. 
'Radio Shack is a registered trademark of Tandy 

Corporation. 






WHAT'S NEW 



Plug-in Bubble-Memory Boards Boost PC Storage 



Hicomp Corporation's MBM-550 
Bubble Drive family gives you 
either 256Kor 512K bytes of 
nonvolatile high-speed mass 
storage on a single card that 
plugs into any IBM PC's I/O slot. 
The MBM-5 50 is compatible 
with PC-DOS 1.1 and 2.0 and 
appears to the user. DOS. and 
applications software as an 
additional floppy disk. The 
MBM-550 can be used as a 
stand-alone unit or in 
conjunction with floppy and 
hard disks. With a Bubble Drive, 
you can store applications 
programs, programs that are 
disk intensive, or critical data. 
Inasmuch as the MBM-550 is 
nonmechanical. it is practically 
maintenance free and many 
times more reliable than a 
floppy-disk drive. Nonvolatile 
bubble memory retains data 
without battery backup and is 
immune to dust, dirt, extreme 
temperatures, humidity, shock, 
and vibrations. These charac- 

Rainbow 100B 




teristics also make the 
MBM-5 50 bubble drives suitable 
for storing the DOS or pro- 
grams and data files when the 
operating environment pre- 
cludes the use of mechanical 
disk drives. 

Write-protect and boot-enable 
switches are standard features 
of the Bubble Drives. The write- 
protect feature prevents stored 
files from being erased or 
written over, while the boot- 
enable lets you boot your PC 
from the drive. 

Other features include a self- 
installation feature that 
automatically installs the Bubble 



Drive software after power-up. 
The 2 56K-byte MBM Bubble 
Drive offers an average access 
time of 45 milliseconds and an 
average transfer rate of 17K 
bytes per second. The 512K- 
byte version has a 45-millisec- 
ond access time and a 34K- 
byte-per-second transfer rate. 
They list for $995 and $1495, 
repectively. An optional 
RS-232C port increases the 
price $50. Contact Hicomp 
Computer Corp., 5016 148th 
Ave. NE. Redmond, WA 98052. 
(206) 881-6030. 

Circle 700 on inquiry card. 



HP Laser Printer 



Hewlett-Packard's LaserJet prints 
either text or graphics at a 
speed of eight pages per min- 
ute, or about 32 5 cps. This 
high-speed laser printer has an 
RS-232C interface so that it can 
be used with many personal 
computers, including the HP-1 50 
and IBM PC. While graphics can 
be printed with a resolution of 
300 by 300 dots per square 
inch, configuration software will 
be needed for most graphics 
programs. Although the printer 
is a version of Canon's LBP-CX, 
it adds a special intelligent in- 
terface card. 

Priced at $3500. the LaserJet 
will compete with high-speed 
daisy-wheel printers, 'iype-font car- 
tridges cost $200 each. The ink, 
toner, and drum come in a $99 
cartridge, which has an estimated 
life of about 3000 pages. Contact 
your local Hewlett-Packard sales 
office, or call (800) 547-3400; in 
Oregon. (503) 758-1010. 
Circle 701 on inquiry card. 



Stand- Alone Videotex for the Pro 350 



The Rainbow 100B is an 
enhanced version of DEC'S dual- 
processor personal computer. 
The I00B includes 12 8 K bytes 
of RAM (now expandable to 
768K bytes), two 514-inch 400K- 
byte floppy-disk drives, dual 
Z80 and 8088 processors, and 
three expansion slots. An 
optional hard-disk drive can be 
added more easily than in the 
earlier Rainbow. 

Bundled with the DEC 
Rainbow 100B are the CP/M-80, 
CP/M-86 version 2.0. and MS- 
DOS version 2.05 operating 
systems. Concurrent CP/M-86 is 
also available as an option for 
$150. 

The DEC Rainbow 100B is 
priced at $2750 without key- 
board or monitor. For more 
information, contact Digital 
Equipment Corp.. 200 Baker St.. 
Concord. MA 01742. (800) 
344-482 5. 
Circle 702 on inquiry card. 



Pro/Videotex allows a Digital 
Equipment Corporation Pro- 
fessional 3 50 computer to be 
used as a stand-alone single- 
user videotex system. Screens 



of videotex graphics and text 
are stored on the system's 
10-megabyte hard disk and can 
be recalled through menus, by 
keyword, or by page number. 




Graphics and text are displayed 
using the NAPLPS protocol with 
a resolution of 768 by 240 
pixels on a monochrome or 
color monitor. 

The videotex database can 
be modified either by loading 
new information via floppy disk 
or by calling a remote 
mainframe computer. Pro/ 
Videotex costs $895. It requires 
a Professional 3 50 computer 
with Pro/Communications 
software, the P/OS version 1.7 
operating system, the extended 
bit-map graphics option, and a 
10-megabyte hard disk. Contact 
Digital Equipment Corp.. 200 
Baker St., Concord. MA 01742 
(800) 344-482 5. 
Circle 703 on inquiry card. 

A UAPLPS-coded image is displayed 
on the DEC Professional 350 
computer's color display using 
Pro/Videotex. 

{text continued on page 52) 



50 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 339 on inquiry card. — ► 



UUP1 
UN'T H 


0$2S 
AYES! 



You can bank on it. Your outlay will be less than 
if you settle for our major competitor, but not 
your output! A Password™ modem sends and 
receives up to 120 words a minute. Provides 
both 1200 and 300 baud capacity. Offers total 
interchangeability that lets you transmit in- 
formation from any make microcomputer to 
any other make. And your investment is 
protected by a 2-year warranty. 

Unlike our major competitor, Password ™ 
delivers operating simplicity, plus the 
convenience of uncommon portability. 
Thanks to lighter weight, it goes almost 
anywhere. And because of the ingenuity 
of Velcro™ strips, it attaches wherever 
you need it, from the side of a desk to 
the side of a computer! 



This means that Password™ doesn't tie you 

down, and its price won't hold you up. It features 

auto-dial, auto-answer, and even knows when 

to disconnect. If you're cost conscious, 

but refuse to sacrifice high-speed 

capability and performance, hook up 

with the right modem — Password? 

The smart decision. 



by U.S. Robotics, Inc. 



■w 





m 



11 23 W.Washington 
Chicago, IL 60607 
Phone:(312)733-0497 




'Based on suggested retail price 
comparisons of U.S. Robotics, Inc. 
and Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 



WHAT'S NEW 



Eagle TUrbo Reportedly Twice as Fast as IBM PC 



The Eagle Turbo XL has 
network file-server capabilities 
and is said to be twice as fast 
as the standard IBM PC- 
compatible. Operating at 8 
MHz, the TUrbo XL is designed 
with the 16-bit Intel 8086 
microprocessor and with a 
minimum of wait states. A 256K- 
byte computer, the TUrbo XL 
comes with a 10-megabyte hard- 
disk drive and a 360K-byte IBM- 
format double-sided, double- 
density 5!4-inch floppy-disk 
drive The processing speed is 
switch-selectable from 4.77 MHz 
to 8 MHz to accommodate a 
variety of programs. 

A detached 84-key Selectric- 
format keyboard is augmented 
with 10 function keys, a numeric 
pad, and LED indicators on all 
lock keys. Five IBM PC-com- 
patible slots and a parallel port 



comprise the TUrbo XLs expan- 
sion capabilities. Up to 512K 
bytes of RAM can be installed 
on the main circuit board. 

A 12-inch, P39 green- 
phosphor monitor and a 13-inch 
RGB monitor are available. Both 
provide high-resolution displays 
(i.e., 720 by 352 pixels mono- 
chrome or 640 by 200 color) 
and 80 by 2 5 formats. 

Additional options such as 
EagleNet I local-area 
networking software, mono- 
chrome adapter board, a 
color/graphics board, and 
interface ports are 
offered. 

The Eagle TUrbo XL costs 
$4995. Contact Eagle Computer 
Inc., 983 University Ave, Los 
Gatos, CA 95030, (408) 
399-4200. 
Circle 704 on inquiry card. 





Voice I/O with 
Telephone Management 
on Single IBM PC Board 



Votan's VPC 2000 Voice Card is 
a single plug-in card that pro- 
vides the IBM PC with voice 
recognition, speech generation, 
and telephone-management 
functions. With its accompany- 
ing software, you can use the 
Voice Card for speech 
command and control of your 
existing IBM PC programs. 

For each applications 
program, you can define and 
incorporate up to 64 voice 
utterances that are linked to a 
sequence of applica- 
tions-specific keystrokes. Each 
keystroke can contain as many 
as 30 characters. Thus, you can 
replace cumbersome keystroke 
combinations used to activate a 
word processor or spreadsheet 
with the voice input of your 
choosing. 

The Voice Card features 
Votan's continuous speaker- 
dependent recognition (CSDR), 
which lets you speak to your 
computer in a normal conversa- 
tional flow, without pause 
between words. A word-spotting 
capability homes in on target 
words located anywhere within 
a stream of conversation. Rather 
than using fragmented grammar, 



a series of commands or data 
input can be issued using 
normal sentence structure. 

Votan asserts that its tech- 
nology is the only commercially 
available speech recognition 
that operates over telephone 
lines. These abilities let you talk 
to your IBM PC from remote 
locations and have it respond 
to your commands verbally. The 
Voice Card's telephone-inter- 
facing capabilities include auto- 
answer, auto-dial, and Ibuch- 
Tone encoding and decoding. A 
supplied program gives you 
immediate access to these fea- 
tures. In addition, these abilities 
give you a voice-controlled 
telephone dialer and an auto- 
matic answering/voice mail 
system. 

The VPC 2000 Voice Card is 
contained on a single printed- 
circuit board that plugs into 
any of the IBM PCs long 
auxiliary system bus slots. A 
microphone, speaker, software, 
and documentation are included 
in its $24 50 list price. Contact 
Votan, 4487 Technology Dr., 
Fremont, CA 94538, (415) 
490-7600. 
Circle 705 on inquiry card. 



Briefcase Computer's Integrated Software Has Windows 



The IS- 11 briefcase computer by 
Sord Computer of America 
comes with an integrated soft- 
ware package with multiwindow 
screens. Data handling, calcula- 
tion, word processing, and com- 
munications capabilities are 
standard. The IS-ll's six function 
keys provide access to these ap- 
plications and to a Help key. 
Optional applications software, 
including financial, communica- 
tions, and advanced word-pro- 
cessing programs, comes in 
60K-byte ROM packs. 



The IS-ll's hardware features 
are 32 K bytes of nonvolatile 
RAM, 64K bytes of ROM, and 
an 8-line by 40-character LCD 
display with an angle adjust- 
ment. A high-speed recorder 
provides mass storage; each 
tape can accommodate more 
than 128 K bytes of data. The 
1S-11, built with CMOS tech- 
nology, operates on recharge- 
able NiCad batteries. One 
charge is good for eight hours 
of operation. An AC adapter/ 
battery charger is supplied. The 



unit weighs 4 pounds 6 ounces 
and measures 11% by 8 7 /[ 6 by 
l 7 / 6 inches. 

A thermal printer, a numeric 
keypad with 16 additional 
function keys, and a micro- 
floppy-disk drive are options. 
The base price is $995. A 
version with a built-in 
modem will cost 
$1095. Contact Sord 
Computer of America 
Inc., 645 Fifth Ave., New 
York. NY 10022. (212) 759-0140, 
Circle 706 on inquiry card. 




(text continued on page 54) 



52 BYTE ' JUNE 1984 



Circle 342 on inquiry card. — ► 




This Wmci ^ 

Load** 1 • ' * 




gojuuare. 




s right, partner. Now is 
e time to upgrade your PC 
with the Sundowtf" disk. 
Includes controller. Tnatallg right 
inside your PC in less than 10 minutes. 
Backed by our foil one-year warrranty. 

But that's only half the story . . . 

The Sundown comes loaded with VenturCom 

Venbc/86. This highly-acclaimed operating system 

is a licensed implementation of AT&T's UNIX and is 

the only MULTI-USER, MULTI-TASKING UNIX environment 

available on the IBM PC. Plus you can store and run your 

MS/DOS programs and files as well! 

We offer immediate delivery . And our price ... 

now that will blow your boots off! Need we say more? 

Reach for your phone and dial: 

617-491-1264 

Unisource Software Corp., Department 4109 
71 Bent Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 






*UMX is a trade 
of Bell Laboratories* 



WHAT'S NEW 



$399 Modem Emulates 
Smartmodem Command Structure 



DisplayWrite Software 

For IBM's Personal Computers 



The Signalman Mark XII modem 
emulates the Hayes Smart- 
modem's command structure. 
You can manually manipulate 
this answer/originate modem 
from your computer's keyboard 
or set it for automatic 
operation. 

For Bell 103 compatibility 
Mark XII can send or receive 
calls at 300 bps. while its 
1200-bps data rate provides Bell 
212A compatibility. The Mark 
XII detects dial tone and busy 

Color Display for PCjr 



signals, automatically displaying 
the status. 

An on-board CMOS micropro- 
cessor, an RS-232C serial 
interface with built-in cable, and 
dual telephone jacks are 
provided. 

The Signalman Mark Xll is 
$399. Further information is 
available from Anchor Auto- 
mation Inc., 6913 Valjean Ave, 
Van Nuys, CA 91406, (213) 
997-6493. 
Circle 707 on inquiry card. 




IBM recently introduced a color 
display monitor for its PCjr. In 
its 80-character mode, this di- 



rect-drive display is said to pro- 
vide better character definition 
than a color composite-video 
monitor. Features include a 
13-inch (diagonal) screen, 40- by 
2 5-character mode, 320 by 200 
lines, 16 colors, nonglare face, 
internal speaker, earphone con- 
nector, and front-panel controls. 
The display, which can tilt 10 
degrees, can be placed on top 
of the PCjr system unit. 

The IBM PCjr Color Display is 
$429. Contact IBM Corp., Entry 
Systems Division. POB 2989, 
Delray Beach, FL 33444. 
Circle 708 on inquiry card. 



In a move intended to tie the 
IBM PC. PC XT. and PCjr more 
closely to the world of the 
company's larger computer 
systems, IBM has announced 
software for its personal com- 
puters that emulates many of 
the features employed by its 
minicomputer and mainframe 
computer word-processing 
systems and that can share files 
with those machines. 

Both DisplayWrite 1 and Dis- 
playWrite 2 have user interfaces 
that resemble those used by 
the Display Writer. 

DisplayWrite 1 is a general- 
purpose menu-driven word pro- 
cessor for the full range of IBM 
personal computers. It requires 
DOS 2.1 and 128K bytes of 
RAM. 

DisplayWrite 2 extends the 
features of DisplayWrite 1 by 
adding a spelling checker, 
automatic hyphenation and 
pagination, and merge func- 
tions. However, because it re- 
quires 192K bytes of RAM, it 
will not run on the PCjr. An op- 
tional legal dictionary is avail- 
able for DisplayWrite 2. 

Both programs can generate 
ASCII files; DisplayWrite 2 can 
produce output that is directly 



compatible with that of the 
DisplayWriter. 

PCWriter for the PC. PC XT, 
and Portable PC is designed to 
look like and replicate most of 
the functions of word process- 
ing on the IBM 5 520 Adminis- 
trative System and the IBM 
System/23 Datamaster. 

IBM will also market software 
called DisplayComm BSC for 
personal computers equipped 
with the IBM Personal Com- 
puter Binary Synchronous Com- 
munications Adapter, a 
minimum of 2 56K bytes of 
RAM, and an appropriate 
modem. 

DisplayComm BSC provides 
emulation of IBM 2770/3780 
and 2780 terminals and can be 
used to transmit DisplayWrite 2 
files to the DisplayWriter as well 
as a selection of larger IBM 
systems. 

DisplayWrite 1 will sell for 
$95, DisplayWrite 2 for $299, 
DisplayWrite Legal Support (op- 
tional legal dictionary) for $165, 
PCWriter for $199, and Display- 
Comm BSC for $375. Contact 
IBM Corp., Information Systems 
Group, 900 King St.. Rye Brook. 
NY 10573. 
Circle 709 on inquiry card. 



MicroPro Spelling Checker Features Phonetic Analysis 



MicroPro International has 
unveiled a successor to Spell- 
Star, the spelling checker sold 
as a complement to the com- 
pany's WordStar word-process- 
ing package. The new program, 
named CorrectStar, is based on 
Houghton Mifflin's American 
Heritage Dictionary. Predictably, 
CorrectStar is fully interactive 
with WordStar— when it replaces 
a misspelled word in a Word- 
Star file with a correction of a 
different length, the paragraph 
containing the error is reformed 
automatically and soft hyphens 
are inserted into text where ap- 
propriate. Corrections can be 
made one by one or replaced 
globally. 

The program is a full-word 
checker; i.e.. it uses no algo- 
rithms for attaching prefixes 
and suffixes to a list of roots, 
and hence is relatively fool- 
proof. CorrectStar uses three 



dictionaries: a 9000-word basic 
vocabulary that it reads into 
memory, a main dictionary of 
65.000 words kept on disk, and 
a user-generated 1 5 00- word per- 
sonal dictionary. Personal die- 



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tionaries for specific subjects 
can be maintained and used for 
different documents, and all dic- 
tionaries can be edited as if 
they were WordStar text files. 
The major advance in spelling 






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checker design, however, is 
CorrectStar's ability to suggest 
corrections based on phonetic 
similarities. For every word it 
can't locate in one of its dic- 
tionaries, CorrectStar recom- 
mends an alternative, and the 
program's algorithms enable it 
to "sound out" improbable 
spellings and achieve a high 
rate of success in determining 
replacements. 

CorrectStar is available for the 
IBM PC. generic MS-DOS 
machines, the Tl Professional, 
the DEC Rainbow, and the 
landy 2000. The memory re- 
quirement is 192K bytes of 
RAM. Suggested price is $195. 
and SpellStar owners will be 
able to purchase upgrades for 
$85. Contact MicroPro Interna- 
tional Corp.. 33 San Pablo Ave. 
San Rafael, CA 94903, (415) 
499-1200. 
Circle 710 on inquiry card. 

(text continued on page 56) 



54 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Free and Easy 



Using a Business 
Plotter is difficult 
and expensive, 
right? Wrong! That's the way 
things used to be. Roland DG's 
new hardware/software 
package not only makes 
plotting easy, it also makes 
part of the deal free! 

During the 
months of 
April, May and 
June with the 
purchase of a 
Roland DG 
DXY-800 8-Pen X-Y 
Plotter, you get the 
KeyChart Presentation 
Graphics Software to run the 
plotter— Absolutely Free! A 
savings of $375.00. 

At the heart of the package is 
the Roland DG DXY-800 X-Y 
Plotter, (the lowest priced 8-pen 
plotter on the market). The 
DXY-800 is an 8-pen intelligent 
plotter offering an 11" x 17" plot 
bed, Centronics parallel and 
RS-232 serial interfaces, and 
can also be used in either a 
horizontal or vertical (60 
degree inclined) position, to 
conserve your 
desk-top space. 
Use regular paper 
or even acetate 
to produce 
overhead 
projection 
graphics. 

Next add 
KeyChart, prob- 
ably the quickest, 
and easiest software 
program for generating 
presentation-quality 
business graphics. You don't 
have to be a programmer to use 
KeyChart. It is completely 
menu-driven and can provide 
automatic default values for 
every characteristic. Load in 
your data from the keyboard, or 
from almost any electronic 
spreadsheet, including Lotus 
1-2-3. 



• 



M. 




keyChart 
graphics 
software 
is high-quality, 
quick, and easy. 




Why not 
take the 
work- 
out of your 
next business 
presentation? 



thanks to 
Roland DG, 
KeyChart 
can come to 
you for free. 




oland DG's 
DXY-800 
KeyChart 
package is available 
for most popular personal 
computers. Just plug it in, and 
within minutes you'll be 
creating the kind 
of graphics you 
thought 
might take 
days of pro- 
gramming. 
All of this 
comes to 
you for the 
DXY-800's 
normal low retail 
price of $995.00. 
KeyChart, normally 
priced at $375.00 is 
included at no additional 
cost. For those who don't 
need multi-pens, Roland DG 
also makes a single pen 
plotter (the DXY-101), also 
bundled with KeyChart for 
only $750.00 
Why not let the Roland DG 
graphics 
system 
improve 
the 
quality 
of your 
business 
presenta- 
tions? 
But 
you'd 
better 
hurry, this kind of free and 
easy dealing isn't going to last 
forever, just until June 30th. 
For a dealer near you contact: 
Roland DG, 7200 Dominion 
Circle, Los Angeles, CA 
90040,(213)685-5141. 



KeyChart is a 
trademark of SoftKey 
Software Products Inc. 
Lotus and 1-2-3 
are trademarks of 
Lotus Development Corp. 




Roland DG 



Circle 288 on inquiry card. 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 55 



WHAT'S NEW 



Create Graphics with Tablet, Software 



Adult Power for PCjr 



Suncom's Animation Station 
touch-sensitive graphics tablet 
and DataSoft's UltraGraphics 
software let you create graphics 
for presentations, animate 
screen displays, reposition 
words and symbols, store 
images, and draw pictures for 
the fun of it. With a touch of a 
finger or stylus, you can stretch, 
reshape, copy, and erase 
images. 
The Animation Station has 



side-mounted dual left- or 
right-hand function buttons, 
and its surface area com- 
plements a home television's 
proportions. Printouts can be 
generated. 

A line of software for educa- 
tion, entertainment, interior 
design, and word processing is 
in development. 

Animation Station with Ultra- 
Graphics software is available 
for the Apple lie, the Com- 



modore 64, the IBM PCjr, and 
Atari computers. The Apple lie 
version is $104.95. For the PCjr, 
it's priced at $124.95. The Atari 
and Commodore packages are 
$79.95. A Coleco Adam pack- 
age will be offered. For more 
information, contact Suncom 
Inc., Suite E. 650 Anthony Trail. 
Northbrook. 1L 60062, (800) 
323-8341; in Illinois, (312) 
291-9780. 
Circle 711 on inquiry card. 



Multipurpose Software from Ashton-T&te 



Framework is a fully integrated 
software package that combines 
word processing, database 
management, financial model- 
ing, business graphics, and 
outline processing in a flexible 
windowing environment. Users 
can create multiple windows, or 
"frames," each of which con- 
tains up to 32,000 characters of 
data organized into one of four 
formats: text, spreadsheet, 
database report, or graphics. 
Data can be copied or moved 
from one frame to another, or 
linked between frames; as an 
example, it's possible to build a 
series of spreadsheets (in 
manageable units for output) 
that share common data and 
that recalculate themselves 
automatically when linked cells 
are modified. Though an in- 
dividual frame can be treated 
as a complete file, the program 
is designed to allow frames of 
differing formats to be chained 
together into larger documents. 
The heart of the program (and 
what gives Framework its great 



flexibility) is the underlying 
structure provided by the way it 
organizes frames into hier- 
archies. Single frames may be 
created as independent units of 
equal status, or they may be 
opened "within" or "above" 
other frames. The program con- 
structs an outline of frame titles 
as you work, and the resulting 
outline can be rearranged or 
modified as if it were a text file. 
By changing a frame's position 
within the outline, you change 
its location in the hierarchy. At 
any time, you can move from a 
screenful of frames to a view of 
the overall structure (the 
outline) with a couple of 
keystrokes. By moving the cur- 
sor to a new point within the 
outline and reversing the pro- 
cess, you can shift rapidly to 
working in a frame that's far 
removed from your starting 
point. It's also possible to 
organize your work flow by first 
writing an outline and then 
creating the related frames one 
at a time, in any order you 






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decide to arrange them. 

The user interface of Frame- 
work is smooth and well- 
designed. At no time are you 
more than two keystrokes away 
from an assortment of drop- 
down menus, and on-line help 
can be had with the push of a 
single function key. The bottom 
few lines of the screen report 
status (position within a frame 
or hierarchy, etc.) and show the 
nature of the current operation, 
e.g., cell formulas in a spread- 
sheet. All elements of the pro- 
gram are as powerful as many 
competing single-function prod- 
ucts: the word processor sup- 
ports complex formatting and 
handles sophisticated search- 
and-replace operations: the 
spreadsheet accepts intricate 
formulas and macro functions, 
either built-in or user-defined; 
the database manager is a 
table-oriented relational system 
that can also be used to 
generate views of existing 
dBASE (I files; graphics can be 
derived from either spreadsheet 
or database information. 

Finally, Framework includes its 
own extensive programming 
language; complicated 
manipulations can be 
developed and reused by any 
user or programmer. 

Framework runs on the IBM 
PC and compatibles and re- 
quires only a two-floppy 
(double-sided) system with a 
minimum of 2 56K bytes of 
RAM. The program will be 
available in early July, at an 
announced price of $695. For 
further information, contact 
Ashton-late, 10150 West 
Jefferson Blvd., Culver City, CA 
902 30. (213) 204-5570. 
Circle 712 on inquiry card. 




The "jr extender" from Falcon 
Technology gives the IBM PCjr 
the capability of running "real" 
IBM PC software— all in a com- 
pact add-on box styled to 
match the PCjr's exterior. The 
"jr extender" contains a second 
double-sided, double-density 
360K-byte disk drive; sockets for 
memory expansion up to an 
additional 2 56K bytes of ran- 
dom access memory; a power 
supply; two switched outlets for 
the PCjr and a display monitor. 
A single switch turns on or off 
the PCjr, monitor, and "jr 
extender." 

The unit plugs into the PCjr's 
expansion port and attaches 
to the right side of the PCjr 
with four thumbwheel screws. 
The extender comes with a ver- 
sion of DOS 2.1 enhanced to 
accommodate the modifica- 
tions. 

As an option, you can 
purchase a lithium-powered 
clock and mouse port combina- 
tion; you can attach either 
the two-button Microsoft mouse 
or a licensed version of the 
same product from Falcon. The 
clock board has an automatic 
timer function that allows you 
to preset the system to per- 
form a task at a specific 
time. 

The "jr extender" will retail 
for $995. No fixed prices were 
available for the options at 
press time, but a company 
spokesperson estimated that 
the clock/mouse port would 
sell for around $100, and the 
mouse for approximately $175. 
Contact Falcon Technology Inc., 
Suite 1-101, 6644 South 196th 
St.. Kent. WA 98032, (800) 722- 
2 510: in Washington, (206) 
251-8282. 
Circle 713 on Inquiry card. 

[text continued on page 468) 



56 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



QUARK COMBINES I 

WORD JUGGLER™ 
AND 

lexicheck! 




L 



FOR HALF THE PRICE. 




v 



L 



Now you can have the power of Quark's Word Juggler word 
processor. And the convenience of the Lexicheck spelling checker, 
with its 50,000 word dictionary and special Word Guess Plus ™ 
feature. All in one package. For virtually half the price. 

The new suggested retail for Word Juggler He is only $189. 
Word Juggler for the Apple III and III Plus is only $229*. 

Ask for a demonstration today. For the name of the Quark 
dealer nearest you, call 1 (800) 543-771 1. And be sure you look into 
Quark's other popular office automation tools for the Apple He, 
Apple III and Apple III Plus. Especially the Catalyst™ program 
selector. 




♦Previous list prices: Word Juggler He, $239; Lexicheek lie, $129; Word Juggler 
for the Apple III, $295; Lexicheck for the Apple III, $149. All prices suggested 
U.S. retail. 



Quark, Word Juggler, Lexicheck, Word Guess Plus and Catalyst are 

trademarks of Quark Incorporated. Apple is a registered trademark 

of Apple Computer, Inc. 

Circle 278 on inquiry card. 



Quark 

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ASK BYTE 



RS-232C for the Apple He 

Dear Steve. 

I would like to build an RS-232C card for my 
Apple He to use with your modem described 
in the March 1983 BYTE ("Build the ECM-103. 
an Originate/Answer Modem," page 26). Just 
what would be involved? Could you recom- 
mend a good reference? Thanks. 

Tony Simon 
St Paul, MN 

An article in a back issue of the Amateur 
Computer Croup of New Jersey (POB 31 9. South 
Bound Brook. NJ 08880) newsletter should 
answer your need for an RS-232C serial inter- 
face for your Apple lie computer. "An Apple 
II Serial Interface" by Jeff Calinat, while writ- 
ten for an Apple II. will work equally well on 
your He. The circuit need not be copied exact- 
ly, and sufficient information is provided if you 
wish to customize it. The MCI 44 II bit-rate 
generator chip, which is rather expensive, can 
be replaced with one of the less expensive ver- 
sions on the market— -Steve 

Stalking the MCL1 303 

Dear Steve, 

1 recently decided to build your breakout box 
("Build an RS-232C Breakout Box." April 1983 
BYTE, page 28), but I'm having trouble locating 
a source for the MCL1303 diodes. Can you 
help? Thank you. 

Gary Glasscock 
Renton, WA 

The MCL1303 diode is a field-effect current- 
limiting diode manufactured by Motorola. It is 
designed for applications requiring a current 
reference or a constant current over a specified 
voltage range. It can be obtained from any 
Motorola distributor— Steve 

More on Line Filters 

Dear Steve, 

In your December 1983 Circuit Cellar project 
("Keep Power-Line Pollution Out of Your Com- 
puter," page 36), you show how to modify a 
four-outlet power strip for better protection. 
How can I modify a six-outlet power strip? 
Miles Rinehart 
Hoffman Estates. IL 

Because all four outlets are in parallel, it does 
not matter where the MOVs (metal-oxide 
varistors) are placed. While figure 1 on page 
43 shows the MOVs ahead of the sockets, each 
is protecting an entire side of the line and can 



be installed in any convenient manner. For a 
six-outlet power strip, any three positions will 
be adequate. The important thing is to connect 
an MOV to each side of the line and across the 
line.— Steve 

LCD Sources 

Dear Steve, 

I'd like to build or buy an LCD (liquid-crystal 
display) that shows a 16-character message 
whose content depends on the presence/ab- 
sence of voltage on 10 input lines. Can you pro- 
vide some information? Thank you. 

Kevin Dwan 
Nevada City. CA 

My article on page 54 in the February 1983 
BYTE. "Build a Handheld LCD Terminal" fea- 
tured a 16<haracter LCD that should suit your 
applications. Two sources for such a display are 
AND Inc.. 770 Airport Blvd.. Burlingame. CA 
94010. (415) 347-9916 (for its Model 1811) and 
Epson America Inc.. LCD Division. 23155 
Kashiwa Court Tbr ranee. CA 90505. (213) 534- 
0360 (for its Model MA-B955B). 

Interfacing and scrolling can be simplified by 
using the CY300 LCD controller chip from 
Cybernetic Micro Systems. POB 3000. San 
Cregorio. CA 94074. (415) 7 26-3000. -Steve 

Home-Security Resources 

Dear Steve. 

My home recently fell prey to burglars, and 
my fairly expensive computer is gone. I'd like 
to use my old computer to guard my house 
while I'm away. Can you recommend any good 
publications to help me computerize a home- 
alarm system? Any help would be appreciated. 
Marc Weigel 
Delta. British Columbia, Canada 

Home security is a high-technology field. The 
abundance of low-cost microprocessors has 
produced a plethora of devices to protect any 
given area. Reasonably priced sensors are 
available to detect motion, heat, smoke, noise, 
and vibration, as well as the simple opening or 
closing of a door or window. Before a com- 
puterized alarm system can be designed or in- 
stalled, you must first decide on the level of pro- 
tection that you need and the price that pro- 
tection costs. I wrote a series of articles in the 
January-March 1979 issues of BYTE that de- 
scribes a security system built and installed in 
my home. In it I discuss the philosophy of pro- 
tection, typical sensors and where to mount 
them, circuit diagrams, flowcharts, and a com- 
puter program to control the system. This series 



of articles has been reprinted in Ciarcia's Cir- 
cuit Cellar, Volume II. 

An excellent source for security devices is 
Mountain West. Its catalog features a complete 
line of burglar-alarm controls, switches, sensors, 
wiring aids, and advice. Write for a copy to 
Mountain West. 4215 North 16th St.. POB 10780. 
Phoenix. AZ 85064 -Steve 

Two Questions 

Dear Steve, 

I have a Zenith Z^90 with two disk drives and 
three serial ports. My printer is on the blink, 
and 1 have gone to a backup system (a Royal 
typewriter). Most of the printers here are the 
Centronics parallel type, and my Zenith has only 
serial ports. 1 was wondering if I could construct 
a serial-to-parallel converter like the one in your 
September 1981 article on the Votrax phoneme 
synthesizer. Will that logic drive a printer as 
well? Would it be easier to make a whole new 
port? I am worried about having to change the 
BIOS. Commercial converters run around $100. 
Would I be saving any money? 

I have noticed that some equipment will run 
on either 1 10-2 40V. 50- or 60-Hz current. That 
was the reason 1 bought the Z-90— it has a switch 
for that. What happens to other power supplies 
if they are not rated at other frequencies? Volt- 
age differences are usually amenable to trans- 
formers, but what happens to my disk drive 
when I run it at 1 10 V, 50 Hz? The drive itself 
takes only DC, so the only problem should be 
the power supply. I've been told that it can be 
damaged. 

I once had an old Hammarlund Super Pro 
receiver with a monstrous power supply that 
would go to 2 5 Hz. Was its size related to those 
capabilities? Thank you. 

Jonathan Yuen 
Taiwan. Republic of China 



The circuit shown on page 48 of the 
September 1981 BYTE can be used to convert 
the serial output from your computer to a 
parallel input for a Centronics-type printer. The 
conversion is accomplished completely with 
hardware; no software is required. 

In a transformer-type power supply, the fre- 
quency rating is a function of the amount of 
iron in the transformer core. Transformers rated 
at 60 Hz will run hot at 50 Hz— and could 
possibly burn up. If the unit is rated at 50 Hz. 
it will operate safely at 60 Hz. That 25-Hz power 
supply of yours was monstrous due to the size 
of the iron core of its power transformer. Units 
rated for 110-220 V have a dual primary wind- 
[text continued on page 62) 



60 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



WAIT REDUCTION MADE EASY. 



You know how hard it is to 
wait for the printer to finish 
before using the computer 
again. It's wasteful! Counter 
productive! 

The solution: simply install 
Microbuffer™ printer buffer into 
the system, in seconds. And you 
can print and process 
simultaneously. 

With one swift command, all 
printing data is dumped to the 
Microbuffer— it handles the 
printer and frees the computer 
for other functions. 

Presto! Instant wait reduction. 

Microbuffer II and 11+ for the 
Apple II, 11+ , and He computers. 

Microbuffer II comes in either 
a serial or a parallel version 
with 16K or 32K of RAM. 
Microbuffer 11+ , available with 
16K, 32K or 64K, has both 
serial and parallel capabilities, so 
you can control two different 
printers at once. The Microbuf- 
fer 11+ has on board high 
resolution graphics routines for 
37 popular printers, and all 
include expanded graphics 
capabilities and text formatting 
in addition to the inherent 
benefit of letting you use your 
computer while your printer is 
working. 





Microbuffer In-line for virtually 
any computer/printer 
combination. 

These are stand-alone units that 
install In-line between virtually 
any computer and printer. 

Besides printer buffering, the 
In-line serial interface (MBIS) 
can be used to efficiently 
transmit data from the computer 
to almost any device using a 
serial RS-232C interface. The 
parallel Microbuffer In-line 
(MBIP) is built exclusively for 
parallel interfacing, and works 
exceptionally well in virtually 
any parallel computer and any 
parallel printer. 

Each of the stand-alone 
models have controls for making 
multiple copies (up to 255). 
With the pause control, printing 
may be halted at any point and 
continued later— it will pick up 
right where it left off. Even 
while you are printing copies of 
a document, additional files can 
be sent to the buffer and they 
will be processed in turn. Both 




come with either 32K or 64K of 
RAM, and are easily upgradable 
up to 256K for processing 
greater amounts of data. 

Microbuffer/E for Epson printers. 

Fully compatible with Epson 
MX, FX, RX, and IBM-PC 
series printers, these easy-to- 
install boards simply plug inside 
the printer. 

For parallel interfaces, the 
Microbuffer models MBP-16K 
and MBP-64K are available. 

For serial interfacing, 
Microbuffer models MBS-8K and 
MBS-32/64K are available. The 
MBS-8K supports both hardware 
and software (X-ON/X-OFF) 
handshaking; the MBS-32/64K 
supports three handshaking con- 
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X-ON/X-OFF and ETX/ACK). 

SO WHAT ARE YOU WAITING FOR? 




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Circle 260 on inquiry card. 



JUNE I984 -BYTE 61 



Circle 2 on inquiry card. 



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PRINTERS 



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QUME 1140+ $1275 

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CITOH 

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F10-40CPS .$970 F1055 . . . .$1299 
DIABLO 

620 $860 630 $1 689 

NEC 

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7710 . . . .$1655 2030 $659 



TERMINALS - MONITORS 



ALTOS II $875 

QUME 102G $529 

TELEVIDEO 914 $540 

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TELEVIDEO 950 $905 

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AMDEK 300G $129 

AMDEK 300A $145 

AMDEK COLOR l+ $275 

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B.M.C. GREEN $89 

B:M.C. COLOR $245 

PRINSTON HX12 $489 



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INDUS APPLE $259 

MICRO SCI A2 $229 

ATARI 1050 $365 

INDUS ATARI . . . . $345 

RANA 1000 $310 

PROMODEN $359 

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¥i_ 



(text continued from page 60) 

ing in the transformer with a selector switch for 

the proper voltage. 

The voltage ratio is not substantially affected 
by small changes in frequency. Running a 50Hz 
supply on 60 Hz will yield the same output 
voltages, so equipment operation is not af- 
fected. Your computer and disk drives run off 
of the rectified voltage from the transformer 
secondary and will not notice any change.— 
Steve 

More on the Carrier- 
Current Modem 

Dear Steve 

In regard to your article "Build a Power-Line 
Carrier-Current Modem" in the August 1983 
BYTE (page 36), I have some questions. What 
is the minimum separation required for mark 
and space frequencies? Do you have any kits 
or circuit boards available? Thanks for your 
help. 

Brent Lowensohn 
Woodland Hills, CA 

EXAR Application Note AN '-01 gives several 
guidelines for designing with its XR-2206 
modulator and XR-2 211 demodulator. One of 
these relates to minimum bandwidth: Tor any 
given pair of mark and space frequencies, there 
is a limit to the baud rate that can be achieved. 
When maximum spacing between the mark and 
space frequencies is used (where the ratio is 
close to 2:1) the relationship mark-space fre- 
quency difference (Hz) ;> 83 percent (maximum 
data rate in baud). For narrower spacing, the 
minimum ratio should be about 6 7 percent." 

Thus, the minimum spacing for 300 baud 
would be 0.67 x 300 = 200 Hz. and this is the 
separation used in the 103-type modem format. 
Because, in the carrier-current modem, ade- 
quate bandwidth was available and a higher 
center frequency was used, the 5-kHz separa- 
tion was a convenient choice. 

The power-line carrier-current modem is not 
available as a kit. and no circuit boards have 
been configured.-~S\.ewe 

More on Scoping Your Data 

Dear Steve. 

I just read the December 1983 "Ask BYTE." 
and on page 560 you seem to give some bad 
advice to Mr. Chuck Gollnick of Pullman, Wash- 
ington, regarding the use of an oscilloscope to 
determine the data rate, parity'; and stop-bit 
characteristics of data coming from an RS-232C 
port. 

Specifically, you recommend the use of a 
character with lots of consecutive Is to deter- 
mine the data rate. This would work great if RZ 
signaling was used. But RS-232C uses NRZ-L sig- 
naling; what is thus needed is a character with 
alternating Is and 0s to make it possible to see 
distinct opposite-polarity pulses. For example, 
the character 01010101 = U would be useful. 

I have successfully determined the stop-bit 
characteristics of Baudot signals from a radio- 
teletype interface using an oscilloscope by 



watching the display for extra-length bits. If you 
see a bit 1.5 times longer than the shortest one 
seen, you know it is 1.5 stop bits. By slowing 
the sweep so that one or two characters are 
seen on the display, you may also be able to 
come up with the stop-bit characteristics. 

Robert French 
District Heights, MD 

You are correct. The transmission of alter- 
nating Is and 0s will simplify the measurement 
of data rate using an oscilloscope. A series of 
Us is a good choice. Your method of determin- 
ing stop-bit characteristics is sound and should 
work on an ASCII signal (7 data bits) as well as 
the Baudot (5 data bits). Thank you for your cor- 
rection and clarification— Steve 

Cleaning Disk Drives 

Dear Steve, 

1 recently noticed the large number of ads for 
disk-drive cleaners. This sparked two questions 
I'd like to have answered. How much attention 
do disk drives require, and what type of cleaner 
is best for them? Thank you for your help. 

Brian Gragg 
Claremont. CA 

The iron-oxide coatings used on most disks 
are somewhat abrasive. The in-out motion of 
the read/write head of the disk drive against this 
rotating medium produces a self-cleaning ac- 
tion and minimizes the buildup of oxide and 
dirt. Unless a poor-quality medium is used, 
head cleaning is not required often and can be 
accomplished with a cotton swab and some 
isopropyl alcohol, as well as the many head- 
cleaning disks available. Some head-cleaning 
disks are quite abrasive and should be used on 
an as-needed basis rather than at regular in- 
tervals— -Steve 

E-Z Color In Kuwait 

Dear Steve. 

I plan to buy the E-Z Color Graphics Interface 
for my TRS-80 Model 1. 1 am not certain, how- 
ever, whether it can be used with a TV set here 
in Kuwait because the TV system here is based 
on the PAL color system and not the NTSC, as 
in the United States. Can the composite-video 
output from the TMS9918A chip be fed to a 
UHF modulator and the modulated RF to a 
256-line PAL color TV set? 

If the TMS9918 A is not suitable to drive a PAL 
system, is there a similar chip that could be 
substituted in your E-Z Color Graphics Interface 
project in the August 1982 BYTE, "High-Reso- 
lution Sprite-Oriented Graphics." page 57? 

Thank you for your time and assistance. 

M. I. Saleem 
Safat, Kuwait 

The Texas Instruments TMS9918A Video Dis- 
play Processor used in the E-Z Color Graphics 
Interface is designed for a composite-video out- 
put to the A/7SC format and is not compatible 
with a PAL TV system. A similar chip, the 
{text continued on page 64) 



62 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



s* 







OKIDATA 



■t-W* 



THE PERSONAL PRINTER BUILT 
LIKE A SHERMAN TANK 



PERFORMS LIKE A CONCERT GRAND. 



Why We Get Encores. Okidata 
takes center stage with a cast of print- 
ers that can't be outperformed. All 
eight dot matrix printers offer you 
more features for your money than 
you can find anywhere else. Pick your 
tempo: data processing at speeds 
from 80 to an exceptional 350 cps; to 
stress a point, enhanced and empha- 
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standing letter quality printing at 
speeds three times faster than most 
daisy wheels — up to 8 5 cps. Add a full 
range of graphics capabilities, down- 
line loadable character sets for 
creating personalized typefaces and 
symbols, and your print repertoire is 
virtually unlimited. 

We Play On and On. Our virtuosos 
feature rugged steel frames, laser- 

Circle 243 on inquiry card. 



welded parts, and our long-life, non- 
ballistic print head warranted for up 
to one full year. With this tank-tough- 
ness you' d expect Okidata to have the 
lowest warranty claim rate in the in- 
dustry And we do: less than Vi%, 

In Tune with All Major Computers. 
We've designed each of these finely 
tuned instruments to be harmonious 
with all the major names in personal 
computers. And to give you more 
than you'd get from the major com- 
puter name printers. After all, we 
specialize in printers. The computer 
folks specialize in computers. (That's 
why MOST buy their printers from 
somebody else). 

Larger Selection. Smaller Prices. 
Because we make more printers than 
anybody else, we can give you just the 



right one to fit your specific needs. Not 
to mention your budget. Suggested 
retail prices range from $299 to 
$2995. Call 1-800-OKIDATA (in NJ. 
609- 235-2 600) for the dealer nearest 
you. Both you and your computer will 
enjoy the performance. Or write 
OKIDATA, Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054. 



*5 



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OKIDATA 

^L an OKI AMERICA company 



company 
JUNE 1984 -BYTE 63 



■. 






ASK BYTE 



(text continued from page 62) 
TMS9929A, is pin compatible except for four 
pins and outputs luminance and color- 
difference signals that can be combined 
through a video encoder (such as the National 
Semiconductor LM1889) to produce a 625-line 
PAL composite-video signal. This signal can be 
fed through a modulator to your color TV or 
additional circuitry added to use the modulator 
feature of the LM1889. 
The video-encoder circuit requires modifica- 



tion of the E-Z Color Card and the addition of 
extra components.— Sieve 

Hardware Training Program 

Dear Steve, 

I would appreciate your comments on the 
value of hardware training programs, Over the 
last few years I have done some work with soft- 
ware, but I would now like to investigate hard- 




Ihe Ring King™ Data 
Defenders. A rugged defense 
against grit, sharp objects, 
bending and all other enemies 
of magnetic media. 

New Dray. The Ring King 
070 Tray has an attached, 
hinged lid that locks. Built-in 
handles for easy moving. Inside 
are seven rigid dividers and 
room for 70 mini diskettes. 

Flip File. Closed, it's a vinyl 
binder that protects 20 mini 
diskettes. Open, the cover flips 
up and out of the way to pre- 



sent diskettes for fingertip 
selection. 

These Data Defenders can 
organize and protect your data. 
Visit your Ring King dealer or 
write for our Diskette and Data 
Filing Systems Catalog. Ring 
King Visibles, Inc., 2210 Second 
Ave., Muscatine, Iowa 52761 
(800) 553-9647, 
in Iowa (319)263-8144. 

LEADERS IN 
COMPUTER SUPPORT 




ware design. Any information you have would 
be appreciated. 

Michael R. Forry 
Newport Beach, CA 

The Heathkit hardware training courses are 
an excellent means of learning electronic hard- 
ware operation and design. Heath's documen- 
tation is famous for being clear and thorough, 
and the hardware breadboard trainers give you 
the "lab" work so necessary to support the 
theory. You can proceed at your own pace and 
tailor your studies to your particular interests. 

In addition to the Heathkit courses, other 
schools offer at-home training in electronics. 
TWo of them are NRI Schools. McGraw-Hill Con- 
tinuing Education Center, 3939 Wisconsin Ave, 
Washington. DC 20016 and National technical 
Schools, 4000 South Figueroa St., Los Angeles. 
CA 90037. Write them for further information— 
Steve 

Basic Video 

Dear Steve. 

I'd like to ask a couple of questions on every- 
body's favorite topic— video monitors. What do 
references to column widths mean in ads for 
monitors? Some just list monitors, but others 
advertise 40-, 60-. or 80-column monitors, as 
if they're talking about printers. I'm thinking of 
adding a monitor driver to my Radio Shack 
Color Computer, connecting it to a mono- 
chrome monitor, and using it with the 'Ielewriter 
word-processing program. Because Telewriter's 
highest resolution provides an 85<haracter line, 
do I need an 85-column monitor (I've never 
seen one advertised), or do I need to worry 
about such things at all, considering that the 
program uses the high-resolution-graphics 
mode to draw the letters on the screen? 

I've seen three green-screen monitors in the 
$100 price range. Can you comment on and/or 
recommend any of these, or are all $100 
monitors pretty much equal? 

With monitors available in the $100 price 
range, is it worthwhile considering converting 
a TV into a monitor by bypassing the tuner and 
other circuits, or is that more trouble than it's 
worth? 

Duff Kennedy 
Santa Barbara, CA 

With all the letters pertaining to video moni- 
tors that I've recently received, it must be 
everybody's favorite subject. 

Column width is a simplified means of relating 
the video bandwidth of monitors. Many com- 
puters are designed to be used with a TV set 
and display only about 40 characters per line. 
This occurs because a TV set's bandwidth is 
restricted (TV channels are only 6 MHz apart, 
and the video bandwidth is about 3.5 MHz) and 
cannot clearly display more than this number. 
Monitors advertising 40<olumn width are com- 
parable to a TV set. 

Word processing requires an 80<olumn line 

to completely fill a standard sheet of 8ti- by 

II -inch paper, and monitors that can display this 

[text continued on page 66) 



64 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 284 on inquiry card. 



Circle 321 on inquiry card. — ► 




In the Hard Disk Jungle 

Tallgrass Clears 

A Path 



• 



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DISKETTES 



SCOTCH 3M SSDD $23 

MAXELL MD2 DSDD 39 



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OKIDATA Microline 92 160 cps 445 

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BMC BX-80 Printer 259 

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GEMINI 15X 120 cps 425 

NEC 3550 35 cps L/Q SAVE 

JUKI 6100 L/Q 18 cps 445 

PRINTER Pal 24 



MODEMS 



HAYES Smartmodem 1200 $489 

HAYES Smartmodem 1200B 425 

HAYES Mlcromodem lie 249 

ANCHOR A. Mark I 300 Baud 81 

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AMDEK 300G 12" Green 135 

AMDEK 300A 12" Amber 145 

AMDEK Color I 13" 305 

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ASK BYTE 



(text continued from page 64) 
many characters need increased bandwidth. 
Whether they are advertised as 80- or 85-char- 
acter displays is not important; the ad is tell- 
ing you that they have the bandwidth to display 
a full line. 

Rather than comment on the $100 monitors 
I refer you to the October 1983 Consumer 
Reports. Pages 53 7-540 feature an article on 
choosing a monitor and include comparisons 
of several monitors in the $100 price range. 

Finally, it is more trouble than it is worth to 
convert a TV into a monitor, especially if proper 
grounding and isolation techniques are not 
used. The risk of electric shock or an unwanted 
ground loop fed back into your computer can 
more than offset the cost of a good monitor— 
Steve 



Multiprocessing Help 

Dear Steve 

I want to build a multiuser, multiprocessor, 
CP/M-oriented computer in which each user has 
a microprocessor and 64K bytes of RAM. I 
know enough about CP/M to write the BIOS 
(basic input/output system), and that once a 
bootstrap loader is written to load CP/M from 
disk to memory and to transfer execution to 
CP/M, I am home free. But because 1 have never 
used a multiprocessor computer, the concept 
is unclear to me as to what is going to happen 
when two users try to access the same disk or 
file simultaneously. 

Once I physically configure the system, 
however, how can I use it to write the CP/M and 
bootstrap loader and save it on a floppy disk 
starting on sector 0, track I? Also, can I be sure 
that the automatic power-up sequence in the 
floppy-disk controller will load the bootstrap 
loader in at location 80 hexadecimal and 
transfer execution there? 

My main problem is that in this part of the 
world I can't get any book I need or pop into 
the local computer store for questions. I would 
really appreciate your help on this. 

Tariqul Hasan 
Dhaka-2, Bangladesh 

In a multiuser CP/M system, each user is 
assigned a user code number from Oto 15. The 
user numbers are assigned using the built-in 
CP/M function called USER. Once a user 
number is assigned, the user can access only 
files on the disks with that user number. It is 
not necessary to set aside disk space for each 
user because the user number is assigned to 
the file when it is put on the disk. When a cold 
start is performed, each user is assigned to user 
and can access only programs in that user 
area until a different user number is assigned 
with the USER command. 

When a system operates with CP/M. the in- 
structions for initiating the system usually come 
with the microprocessor hardware or with the 
CP/M software you receive with the micropro- 
cessor. If these instructions do not come with 
the system you purchase, it would be a good 
[text continued on page 68) 



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[text continued from page 66) 
idea to purchase a reference guide that shows 
you how to write a bootstrap loader. A good 
manual on the subject is The Programmer's 
CP/M Handbook by Andy Johnson-Laird. For in- 
formation on translations and book distributors 
outside the U.S.. write to Osborne' McGraw-Hill. 
2600 lenth St, Berkeley. CA 94710. 

In general, the bootstrap loader for a system 
resides in a PROM or an EPROM that is bank- 
switched into the memory address space start- 
ing at address 0000 hexadecimal. When a hard- 
ware reset is performed, the microprocessor 
looks at this address for its first instruction. If 
the bootstrap were not in firmware, a boot pro- 
gram would have to be written each time the 
system was reset. The program must load the 
CCP (command control processor). BDOS (basic 
disk operating system), and BIOS from disk and 
then transfer control to the cold-boot entry 
point in the BIOS. Hardware manufacturers 
usually offer this firmware with the CP/M system 
they are selling. 

For further information on this subject, you 
should purchase the manuals for the particu- 
lar system that you intend to buy— Steve 



Communication Without 
Wires 

Dear Steve. 

You are no doubt extremely familiar with most 
input and output devices. My project involves 
the transmission of data from one computer to 
another (I am using two VIC-20s). The catch is 
that I will try to achieve this without using wires, 
i.e.. transmitting data without having the two 
machines connected. 

I realize that connecting computers and 
peripherals by infrared light has already been 
accomplished, therefore I am considering using 
the radio spectrum as a means of transmission. 

My best bet would probably be to utilize the 
RS-232C interface for my actual transmission 
and reception. The concept would involve (from 
what I understand) converting the parallel signal 
to a serial, and then to an analog, which could 
be transmitted over a carrier wave to the receiv- 
ing unit. 

This is purely an idea. I have no working 
knowledge in the area and can only guess. I 
would value greatly your reflections on the sub- 
ject. Thank you very much. 

Dallas Kachan 
Blind River. Ontario. Canada 

Your idea of transmitting computer data via 
the radio spectrum is a form of radioteletype. 
which has been in use for years with a 5-bit 
code known as Baudot. Early devices were 
mechanical in nature and connected by wires 
Radio transmission was achieved by connecting 
these mechanical units to a modulator for trans- 
mitting and a demodulator for receiving. Re- 
cently, the U.S. Federal Communications Com- 
mission approved the transmission of ASCII 
over the airwaves, which stimulated the applica- 
tion of computers to this form of communica- 
tions. 



The concept of radioteletype is analogous to 
Morse code, except that marks and spaces 
replace the dots and dashes. Where Morse 
code uses timing to distinguish dots from 
dashes, radioteletype uses frequencies to 
distinguish marks from spaces. Data is con- 
verted into a serial stream, modulated into 
audio tones, and then transmitted. On the re- 
ceiving end. these tones are demodulated and 
decoded into data. 

This system operates much as a modem con- 
nects two computers via a telephone line. In the 
February 1981 BYTE, I wrote an article on con- 
trolling a Big Trak computerized toy tank (page 
44). I used a pair of inexpensive citizens band 
walkie-talkies to send data via the airwaves 
using a modem. A small, inexpensive modem, 
described on page 26 in the March 1983 Cir- 
cuit Cellar article "Build the EC M- 10 3. an 
Originate/Answer Modem." simplifies the proj- 
ect by reducing the number of components in- 
volved—Steve 



Advanced Video 

Dear Steve, 

In an "Ask BYTE" letter from D. K. Broberg 
("Calculating Bandwidth Revisited." November 
1983. page 602). the argument was made that 
the video bandwidth required of a video pixel 
stream can be obtained not as the inverse of 
the pixel rate but as the inverse of half the pixel 
rate. The reasoning was that driving alternating 
pixels fully on and fully off represents the worst- 
case demand for bandwidth, so the inverse of 
the two-pixel period yields the frequency of 
interest. 

This argument is not correct. If the video- 
stream pixels could be accurately represented 
by sine waves or contiguous half-cycles of sine 
waves. Broberg would be quite right. However, 
a harmonic structure is associated with any kind 
of waveform other than sines, and a pixel 
stream requires a better representation than 
sines in order to preserve edge definition in the 
image. Ideally, the pixel stream would show in- 
stantaneous jumps from the amplitude level for 
one pixel to the amplitude for the next. At 
worst, this would result in a square-wave period 
equal to two pixel times. However, the band- 
width is not l/(two pixel times). Fourier analysis 
shows that a square wave contains all odd har- 
monics. To get an acceptable picture, it is nec- 
essary for the video amplifiers to pass the third 
harmonic, which is at 3 /(two pixel times). For 
a pixel time of 100 nanoseconds, this requires 
a video bandwidth not of 5 MHz. but of 15 
MHz. 

Robert P. Colwell 
Pittsburgh, PA 

Thank you very much for your response to 
D. K. Broberg' s letter. The harmonic content of 
square waves is often overlooked in digital 
analysis when only levels are of concern. As you 
correctly point out. however, third-harmonic 
distortion should be kept low, and a video- 
amplifier bandwidth sufficient to pass these fre- 
[text continued on page 70) 



68 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



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(text continued from page 68) 
quencies should be used. A general rule would 
be to use as high a bandwidth as possible but 
settle for any monitor that you visually judge 
to have a satisfactory display.— Steve 

Shugart SA~400s for Apples 



Dear Steve, 

I have an Apple II with one 5!^-inch Apple 
disk drive. I'd like to use my Apple with a 



Shugart SA-400 drive I know these components 
are incompatible, but can you show me how 
to create a proper interface? Thank you. 

Claudio Pugliese 
Buenos Aires, Argentina 

A printed<ircuit board and complete instruc- 
tions for modifying a Shugart SA-400 disk drive 
for use with your Apple II can be obtained for 
$29.95 from R&D Electronics, 100 East Orange- 
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Several traces on the SA-400 printed-circuit 
board must be cut and several jumper wires in- 
stalled in addition to the interface-circuit board 
that connects between the Apple 11 cable and 
the 34-pin edge connector on the SA-400. 

It is important to note that the SA-400 and 
this modification draw about 450 milliamperes 
from the Apple II's + 5-V supply. If your system 
has many expansion cards, you may want to 
consider a separate power supply— -Steve 

Replacing 4116s with 4164s 

Dear Steve. 

I have an Atari 400 with the 16K-byte memory 
board. I would like to know if it is possible to 
change the 4116 memory chips to 4164 chips, 
add some jumpers, and have a 64K-byte board. 
Thank you for your help. 

Randy B. Bumgarner 
TaylorsvWe, NC 

In theory, upgrading from the4116tothe4164 
isas simple as adding a few jumpers if the mem- 
ory system was originally designed to do this. 
In most cases, it is more complicated. 

The 4116 used a three-voltage power-supply 
system that was changed to a single + 5-V sup- 
ply for the 4164. This left two extra pins that 
could be used for addressing. On the 4164. only 
one of these pins was needed to upgrade the 
chip to a 64K-byte part. The following chart 
shows the reassignment of the pins: 



Pin 


4116 


4164 


! 


-5 V 


N.C. 


8 


+ 12 V 


+ 5 V 


9 


+ 5 V 


A7 



Pin 1 can be handled easily by cutting the - 5-V 
trace on your board that goes to your mem- 
ory array. Pin 8 can be reassigned by cutting 
the + 5-V and +I2-V traces to your memory ar- 
ray and jumpering the trace from pin 8 to the 
+ 5-V supply. The trace from pin 9 now will be 
your new address line, and all decoupling 
capacitors on this line in your memory array 
must be removed. 

That was the easy part. Now the memory ad- 
dress multiplexing portion of your board must 
be modified to bring in the new address line 
A 7. Because I am not familiar with the address- 
ing used on the Atari board. I can only suggest 
that you look over that portion of the circuit 
carefully before making any changes. An error 
here will be disastrous. You also must be careful 
that your new 64K-byte memory does not con- 
flict with any other memory already assigned 
in the system, for example, any ROM or mem- 
ory-mapped I/O devices— Steve 

Real-Time Clock Thoughts 

Dear Steve. 

I'd like to suggest a project for your Circuit 
Cellar. 

I lust after a real-time clock for my IBM PC. 

but all my expansion slots are full of other 

(text continued on page 74) 



70 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



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ASK BYTE 



(text continued from page 70) 
things. I suspect that some type of clock/calen- 
dar would be easy to put together, the only con- 
sideration being how to interface it without tak- 
ing up an expansion slot. Two possibilities oc- 
cur to me: use the ROM socket(s) "reserved" 
for future use by IBM or interface to the cas- 
sette-recorder input port. Of the two, the 
cassette idea strikes me as the most promising 
because it might apply to Apples and other 
computers. The only drawbacks might be that 
the cassette interface is not available on the PC 
XT and that the clock must "broadcast" the time 
and date serially. 

The project would be especially neat if you 
could use a cheap digital clock or watch move- 
ment that would display and be set external to 
the system. 

If you can put something like this together, 

I think a lot of PC owners would be overjoyed. 

Thomas G. Cassidy 

Bloomington, MN 

A battery-powered clock is indeed a useful 
addition to the IBM PC or any other computer 
that has date and time functions available. And 
a unit such as you suggest could be made to 
work through the cassette port. However. I 
believe this would have rather limited appeal 
for two reasons. First, because the first expan- 
sion board purchased by many IBM PC owners 
is one of the popular "six-function" boards that 
provides clock, printer port, serial port, and 
sockets for memory expansion all on one 
board; and second, because cassette data- 
transfer rates and protocols vary between dif- 
ferent makes of computers so that the unit 
wouldn't be as universal as one would like. 

Another approach, which I described in 
"Everyone Can Know The Real Time" in the May 
1982 BYTE (page 34). is to interface the clock 
circuit through the RS-232C port. This has the 
advantage that the protocol is well established, 
and ICs are available to simplify design and con- 
struction of the necessary interface circuits. 

Because the IBM PC has a software real-time 
clock written into its operating system, all that 
is needed to make use of an external hardware 
clock (once it has been set to the correct time) 
is to write a program to read the time from the 
serial port and output it to the PCs clock port 
whenever the computer is started up or reset. 
This can be written in BASIC and run auto- 
matically by calling it with an Autoexec pro- 
gram.— Steve 

PC-Operated Cash Drawer 

Dear Steve. 

I am attempting to use my computer as a cash 
register in my business. My problem is inter- 
facing an electronic stand-alone cash drawer 
with my IBM PC I need to make a digital-to- 
analog (D/A) converter. Ideally. I would like to 
output a byte to the serial port of my computer 
and have that digital signal converted to a 
voltage that would, in turn, trip a relay to unlock 
the cash drawer. 

Can you supply me with any information 
about how I can build or purchase such a 



device? I know where I can get an electrically 
operated cash drawer; the problem is the in- 
terfacing. 1 would greatly appreciate any advice 
or information, 

Jason E. Gapco 
White Plains, NY 

Probably the easiest way to interface your 
IBM PC to your cash register is by using the 
cassette port, which provides a 6-V DC power 
source rated at I ampere for driving a tape- 
cassette motor. Connect your relay to pins 3 and 
I of the cassette interface connector (the 5-pin 
DIN connector next to the keyboard connec- 
tor on the rear panel). Pin 3 is +6 V DC, and 
pin I is common. 

If your cash-register program is written in 
BASIC, the relay can be activated by adding the 
lines shown in listing I to your program in the 
appropriate place. This will set up your program 
so that function key 10 will open the cash 
register any time it is pressed. You can. of 
course, choose any other function key if you 
want, and you can provide more restricted ac- 
cess by using the KEY (10) ON and KEY(IO) OFF 
statements as needed throughout your pro- 
gram. You also may need to play around with 
the timing loop to get the correct delay. 

If your program is in assembly language or 
a compiled language, you can still use this port 
by out putting a I to bit 3 of port 61 (hexadeci- 
mal) and holding it for the required time. This 
can be done by modifying your program or by 
redirecting the INT 16 (hexadecimal) keyboard 
interrupt to a custom program that performs 
the output if the key just pressed is FIO or 
transfers to the normal keyboard if it isn't. A 
method for doing this is suggested in the book 
8088 Assembler Language Programming: The 
IBM PC by David C Wilien and Jeffrey I. Krantz 
(Howard W. Sams & CoJ.-Steve 



Listing I : Additional lines to activate the relay. 
I ON KEY(IO) GOSUB 10000: KEY(IO) ON 



10000 OON= I 
10010 OFFF = 
10020 MOTOR OON 
10030 FOR T= I TO 10: 

10040 MOTOR OFFF 
10050 RETURN 



Activate relay. 
NEXT "Wait for drawer 
to open. 
"IUrn relay off. 



A Senior Project 



Dear Steve, 

I am a senior in electrical engineering at 
Howard University. My idea for a senior proj- 
ect is to design and construct a system that will 
continuously monitor (in the home) a person's 
body temperature, blood pressure, respiration, 
etc.. and transmit this data via radio through- 
out the household to a remote radio receiver 
that is interfaced with a personal computer. The 
[text continued on page 76) 



74 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Answer: 
Smith-Corona 



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with suggested retail pricing of $395 to $795? 

Question: What printer company offers print quality that challenges 
printers costing hundreds of dollars more? 

Question: What printer company offers dual interfaces for all five 
of its printer models? 

Question: What printer company offers removable and adjustable 
tractor feeds as standard equipment on all of its dot 
matrix models? 

Question: What printer company has a toll-free telephone number 
to call if you ever have a problem? And an 
extensive service system, too? ¥* 



D-300 (TM) dot matrix printer. 





Ultrasonic III Messenger (TMJ 

portable typewriter with optional Messenger Module. 



□ Please send me more information about Smith-Corona 
printers; I am interested in in-home use. 

□ Please send me more information about Smith-Corona 
printers for office use. 

Name 

Company Name 

Business Address 

City 



.State. 



-Zip_ 



D-100 (TM) 

dot matrix printer. 



Type of Business- 



Send to: Jerry Diener, VP Sales, Smith-Corona 
65 Locust Avenue 
New Canaan, Connecticut 06840 

SMITH-CORONA 



B6 



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[text continued from page 74) 
personal computer will then process and store 
this data for subsequent retransmission via tele- 
phone lines to a family physician. The telemetry 
link is an important part of this system because 
the person being monitored would be able to 
move about the house unencumbered by wires. 
I find a project like this very interesting but quite 
challenging. Therefore. I would appreciate your 
.answers to the following questions: 

1. What type of transducers are available to 
monitor body temperature blood pressure, 
respiration, etc.? Who manufactures such 
devices? 

2. What ICs are available for conditioning the 
transducer outputs? Other than amplification 
and buffering, what signal conditioning is 
necessary to modulate an RF (radio frequen- 
cy) carrier? 

3. Once the analog signals from the transducers 
are properly '"conditioned," should they be 
converted to digital signals and then trans- 
mitted via RF or transmitted in their analog 
form and then converted to digital signals 
on the receiver/computer end? 

4. What form of carrier modulation should I 
use? AM. FM, pulse-width modulation? And 
what carrier frequency do you suggest (in the 
home environment)? 

5. With a view toward making the trans- 
ducer/signal conditioner/transmitter unit as 
small as possible and battery operated, are 
there any low-power ICs that contain a com- 
plete transmitter and receiver on a chip? Na- 
tional Semiconductor's LM1871 Radio Con- 
trol Encoder/lYansmitter and LM1872 Radio 
Control Receiver/Decoder seem likely can- 
didates, but they are generally used for con- 
trol of hobby servos. 

I hope you can share your insights and shed 
some light. Thank you. 

Robyn L. King 
Washington, DC 

The project you selected is, as you say very 
interesting and challenging. The questions you 
asked also are very challenging and could take 
many pages to answer. Instead of answering 
them directly, I will try to give you a selection 
of reference materials where you can find the 
answers yourself (after all. it is your project). 

Several sources can be reviewed to find the 
type of transducers you need. EDN (Electronic 
Design News) and Electronics magazines often 
carry articles on medical electronics. A review 
of these magazines should yield all the infor- 
mation you need. For example.. an article in a 
September 1980 EDN discusses the Hughes 
HLSS0533 heart-rate monitor chip that employs 
the photoplethysmographic monitoring tech- 
nique. The March 20. 1980 EDN, page 122, had 
a special report on sensors and transducers, 
and an April 1977 Electronics had an article on 
a silicon transducer to measure blood pressure. 
Electronic Products as another good source of 
reference material. An article in the November 
1982 issue (page 49) discusses advances in 
signal conditioning. 



Transmitting and receiving these signals can 
become a project in itself. I have taken the ap- 
proach of "not reinventing the wheel" several 
times and used commercially built devices like 
walkie-talkies to do the job You can find discus- 
sions of these techniques in two of my articles: 
"Handheld Remote Control for Your Com- 
puterized Home!' July 1980 BYTE (page 22) and 
'A Computer-Controlled Tank." February 1981 
BYTE (page 44). 

I hope these references will be helpful in your 
senior project— Steve 

A Kaypro 10/S-lOO Combo 

Dear Steve. 

As an author's portable word processor, the 
Kaypro 10 with an Epson FX-80 printer seems 
to be a good choice. For everything else, an 
8086 with several IBM-compatible slots is 
advisable. 

The Kaypro 10 has a parallel printer output, 
two R&232C ports, and one light-pen input jack. 

If 1 want to use the Kaypro screen, keyboard, 
and large disk, but also want to use a Semidisk 
or RAM Disk and an 8086 for the bulk of inter- 
nal processing, what sort of hookup makes 
sense? 

Sam Timac 
Ft Vermilion, Alberta, Canada 

As I read your letter, I get the impression that 
even though you say "IBM-compatible slots" 
you are really thinking in terms of an S-100 bus 
system with an 8086 microprocessor rather than 
an IBM PC. The S-100 bus offers a wide selec- 
tion of boards to run with the 8086. including 
several Semidisk, or RAM Disk, boards, but is 
in no way compatible with IBM hardware. 

The Kaypro 10 does look good as a portable 
word processor, and if you like the relatively 
small screen (compared to a full-sized terminal), 
it might be used as a terminal for an S-100 
system. Because S-100 systems are designed to 
be run with remote terminals rather than built- 
in displays, you should have no trouble at that 
end. and the Kaypro can easily function as a 
terminal with the proper software. Your dealer 
should be able to recommend a communica- 
tions program that will configure the computer 
as a suitable terminal. The physical connection 
between the two computers will be through the 
RS-232C ports-Steve ■ 



IN "ASK BYTE." Steve Garcia answers ques- 
tions on any area of microcomputing. The most 
representative questions received each month will 
be answered and published. Do you have a nag- 
ging problem? Send your inquiry to: 

Ask BYTE 

do Steve Garcia 

POB 582 

Glastonbury. CT 06033 
Due to the high volume of inquiries, personal 
replies cannot be given. All letters and 
photographs become the property of Steve Gar- 
cia and cannot be returned. Be sure to include 
"Ask BYTE" in the address. 



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78 BYTE • |UNE 1984 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



LEARNING WITH LOGO 

Dan Watt 

BYTE Books/McGraw-Hill 

New York: 1983 

208 pages, $22.95 

THE TOLL FREE 
MICROCOMPUTER INDEX 
Richard ]. Volz and 
Gene E. Thompson 
Spokane Technical Press 
Spokane. WA: 1983 
360 pages. $14.95 

Learning with Logo 
Reviewed by Tim Barclay 

When teachers ask 
what they should be 
doing with microcomputers 
at the elementary school 
level, we say Logo, and the 

: second thing we say is. get 

I Dan Watt's book, learning 
with Logo. As a part of the 
MIT Logo Project. Watt was 

i responsible for the pilot 

; study in Brookline. Massa- 

■ chusetts. schools. Before 

i working on Logo, he was an 

! elementary school teacher 
at the middle school level, and prior to 
that he was a curriculum developer with 
the Elementary Science Study a federal- 
ly supported curriculum-development 
project of the late 1 960s. It is this depth 
of teaching experience combined with 
his thorough understanding of Logo 
that he brings to his book, and it shines 
through. The book is a successful com- 
bination of Logo programming. Logo 
philosophy, and teaching strategies. 
Although there are other books that 
deal with one or another of these 
aspects of Logo, none that 1 know of en- 
compasses all three, not to mention 
with such success. 

The book is written for an Apple using 
the Terrapin/Krell versions of Logo but 
includes appendixes that list necessary 
modifications for Apple Logo and Tl 




i i 

Ijogo users. A separate edition of the 
book, learning with Apple logo, is also 
available; editions for Logo on Atari, 
Commodore, and Texas Instruments are 
in preparation. 

A Learning Adventure 

learning with logo is challenging and re- 
warding for children and adults alike. 
The initial chapters of the three-part 
book are written with 10- to 13-year-olds 
in mind, but in no way does this intro- 
duction insult the intelligence of the 
novice adult embarked on a new adven- 
ture. The ideas are also accessible to 
younger children with the help of a 
teacher; in fact, the author includes 
several teaching hints within each 
chapter for this purpose. 
The basic graphics commands for 



drawing on the screen are 
all introduced in this first 
section as well as the nec- 
essary commands for sav- 
ing procedures and pic- 
tures on disk and for going 
to the editor to define your 
own new procedures. Any- 
one who completes the first 
portion of this spiral- 
bound, easy-to-use book 
befriends the Logo turtle 
and learns how to draw de- 

i signs and pictures on the 

jm screen. 

The second section of the 
book introduces more so- 
phisticated programming 
concepts that use graphics, 
words, and lists. The uses of 
variables and conditionals 
are also included. These 
abstract concepts, which 
can be so mystifying when 
first encountered in. alge- 
bra, come as simple solu- 
tions to real needs that 
every Logo learner encoun- 
ters while writing graphics 
V programs. It is an example 

of what Seymour Papert. the head of 
the MIT Logo Project, is talking about 
when he refers to setting up natural 
learning environments. That means pro- 
viding a context in which students can 
explore, try new ideas, and find their 
own solutions as problems arise. 

Watt shows the reader examples of 
some of the complex designs that can 
be drawn using recursion, such as' 
rotating polygons, growing squares, and 
spirals. He explains the procedures that 
he used to create these shapes and sug- 
gests further investigations. 

In addition to these more advanced 
graphics programming ideas, the author 
introduces the use of words and lists, 
explaining how to write interactive pro- 
grams in a chapter called "Conversa- 
[text continued on page 80) 



IUNE 1984 -BYTE 79 



BOOK REVIEWS 



(text continued from page 79) 
tions with the Computer: Activities with 
Numbers. Words and Lists." As is true 
throughout the book, in his presenta- 
tion of new commands and concepts 
Watt braids several modes of presenta- 
tion together. They include: 

• examples for the reader to try on the 
microcomputer that use commands 
needed to work with lists 

• explanations of what the examples 
are doing 

• cartoon sequences that graphically 
present the ideas 

• "explorations— suggested problems 
to try on your own 

• "helper's hints— more detailed ex- 
planations and teaching suggestions 

By the end of this chapter, the reader 
is able to write procedures for conver- 
sations with the computer and quiz pro- 
grams that are carefully designed using 
multiple subprocedures. For the person 
willing to work through these steps. 



understanding and fluency can develop. 
The third section of the book builds 
upon the skills that have been devel- 
oped in the first two sections. Each of 
the four chapters in this section takes 
a single programming project and de- 
velops the many procedures that make 
up the final program. The first project 
is an interactive computer game called 
Shoot, in which the player tries to hit a 
target with the turtle. Next is Quickdraw. 
which is described as a "TUrtle Drawing 
Activity for Young Children." A chapter 
on animating the turtle follows, accom- 
panied by a project called Racetrack, 
and last is a chapter on writing poetry 
called Poet. These later sections are ap- 
propriate for both older readers work- 
ing independently or for younger users 
with assistance nearby. 

Teachers Also Benefit 

Earning with logo is designed to be used 
with a preprogrammed disk of proce- 
dures ($15.95) that includes the afore- 



mentioned Shoot. Quickdraw. Race- 
track, and Poet. Watt intends his au- 
dience to learn these procedures 
gradually, initially by just using and see- 
ing them in action, later by studying and 
changing them. The disk also enables 
beginning learners to experience Logo 
in a more exciting way than they other- 
wise could. As an alternative to buying 
the disk, you can get a copy by typing 
the procedures listed in the appendix 
of the book. 

A motto of Logo is "no threshold, no 
ceiling." This means that the language 
is easily accessible to young children yet 
is still a powerful and sophisticated lan- 
guage. For instance, many 4-year-olds 
are using Logo, as are students at MIT 
The low-threshold part lies in the turtle 
graphics. If you have used Logo at all 
you have undoubtedly experienced the 
delight of drawing designs or solving 
geometric problems. But a question 
teachers often ask is. what next? Right- 
{text continued on page 82) 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



(text continued from page 80) 
fully so. for there is more beyond the 
turtle world, such as using words and 
lists, writing interactive programs, and 
getting into embedded recursion. Be- 
ginners tend to expect that this part of 
Logo will also be as easily accessible, 
and it is not. Watt tackles this teaching 
problem by leading the reader careful- 
ly through material with the use of ex- 
amples, explanations, and teaching sug- 
gestions, all to be tried hands-on. After 
reading and working through this part 
of the book, teachers have told us that, 
for the first time, they understand words 
and lists. 

Minor Criticism 

One potential pitfall when writing a 
book on Logo is how to sequence con- 
cepts and activities. Because there are 
any number of approaches, every Logo 
teacher will develop a favorite way. The 
author acknowledges this phenomenon 
by admitting "Here is what worked for 




Figure I: Repeating a random shape creates a design. 



me. you should do what works best for 
you." And one section in his book where 
Watt's sequencing did not work for me 
was in Chapter 3 on Quickdraw. 

Quickdraw is a program that lets you 
perform turtle graphics with single-key 
entries. For instance, instead of typing 
FD space 20 Return (a total of six keys). 



you just type F. With F. B. R. and L as 
single keys for FORWARD 20. BACK 20. 
RIGHT 30. and LEFT 30. respectively, 
you can move and turn the turtle by pre- 
determined increments to make graph- 
ics designs. Quickdraw has some other 
useful procedures for saving and re- 
[text continued on page 84) 



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^f without notice Offerexpires December 31. 1984. 



Circle 240 on inquiry card. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



[text continued from page 82) 
drawing a set of commands, but it does 
not include any other graphics com- 
mands. 

One very practical use for Quickdraw 
is for young children whb cannot type 
the longer command words. Another 
use is to speed up graphics drawing. 
What I find inappropriate, however, is 
the series of suggested drawing activi- 
ties using Quickdraw. These drawings 
(see figure 1) really beg for the REPEAT 
command. Without the REPEAT com- 
mand, you have to enter the sequence 
of commands for the random shape 
(FFLLFLLLLFFFLLLLLFF) and then type 
them in repeatedly twelve more times. 
There is something to be said for 
motivating the learning of a new com- 
mand by creating a "need for it. but that 
does not seem to be part of the author's 
scheme here. This example seems to 
highlight the challenge of trying to 
balance easy access against interesting 
output. 



Just as Logo uses turtle graphics as an 
entry into understanding programming, 
so also the author has included graphics 
in this book to clarify language and 
computer concepts. For this he has 
used a series of cartoon characters who 
act out the processes being carried on 
inside the computer. But the cartoons 
of a Logo elf, robot primitives, mailbags, 
mailboxes, and trash cans do not seem 
to help. Rather than being worth a thou- 
sand words, the cartoons require all the 
intense study that a page of print can 
demand if you are to understand the 
concepts being presented. They are 
easily skipped over, however, so you 
can ignore them and concentrate on 
just the words. This is a minor criticism 
about an otherwise marvelous book. 

Anybody planning to teach Logo 
should have his or her own copy avail- 
able in the classroom for quick 
reference. The more you refer to Dan 
Watt's book, the more enamored with 
it and with Logo you will become. 



The Toll Free Microcomputer Index 
Reviewed by Maria V. Peeler 



One problem with promising too 
much is that it's hard to live up to 
it. In this case, the product is slightly less 
than the promise. 

That's the core of the discrepancy 
with The Toll Free Microcomputer Index. The 
authors use so much space in the first 
14 pages glorifying the book's virtues- 
how it will save money, time, and head- 
aches; how it will save the cost of a pro- 
fessional research service or consultant, 
the cost of microcomputer-magazine 
subscriptions, the cost of training the 
neophyte computer enthusiast— that the 
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Take A Look 

Neophytes don't become wise com- 
[text continued on page 86) 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



[text continued from page 84) 
puter buyers by calling 1-800-numbers; 
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three. They aren't there. According to 
the authors, funding ran out and they 
hope to include those indexes in the 
next edition. 

Oversights 

A few oversights exist. For example, it 
has a list for Morrow Inc., but it de- 
scribes it only under Morrow Micro 
Decision Computer Systems and makes 



no mention or cross-reference to Mor- 
row's hard-disk manufacturing. 

Despite the exclusion of three in- 
dexes, the oversights, and the overprais- 
ing in the stiff, textbook prose of the 
first 14 pages, the book looks profes- 
sional. The cross-references, although 
not exhaustive, are at least accurate and 
adequate for its limited database. It is 
well printed on good quality paper, has 
a pleasant cover, and has few errors or 
typos. The book is available to user 
groups or clubs at a discount. ■ 

Tim Barclay, director of the Computer Resource 
Center at Technical Education Research Centers, 
8 Eliot St.. Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, 
writes frequently for its newsletter, Hands On. 
He also conducts teacher workshops on using 
microcomputers in education. 

Maria V. Peeler (7002 37th SE, lacey. WA 
98503) is a technical writer and a public- 
information officer at the Washington State 
Utilities and Transportation Commission. 



Modula-2. 

Simply 

Better. 



More and 
more software de- 
velopers are finding a 
new language simply better 
C or Pascal. They're finding 
Modula-2, by Niklaus Wirth, the creator of 
For professional programmers, it's simply 
a better language. 

Modula-2. Simple like Pascal (if you know Pascal, 
you can be writing Modula programs in hours) but with 
much more power and flexibility. Power to handle any 
professional application, so there's no need for extensions. 

Modula-2. Better than C because it gives you 
strong typing and superior separate compilation 
facilities. That means you write cleaner 
programs, faster. 

Only LOGITECH'S Modula-2/86 system translates 
directly into high-speed native code for PC-DOS™, 
MS-DOS™ and CP/M-86™. 



PC-ODS is a TM of IBM, MS-DDS is a TM of Microsoft, CP/M-86 is a TM of 
Digital Research. VAX/VMS is a TM of Digital Equipment Corp. 




No other system speeds your Modula programs 
along faster than our native code compiler. And our 
high-level, symbolic debugger ensures your programs 
arrive in flawless running condition. 

Multi-level overlays, 8087 support, ROMable 
code, and a full library of standard modules make 
Modula-2/86 the perfect system for every professional 
application. 

We also offer the only VAX/VMS" resident and 
cross compiler for the 8086. 

For VAX mainframes to PCs, look to LOGITECH'S 
Modula-2 software development systems. For 
professional programmers, it's simply a better choice. 

ffl LOGITECH 

805 Veterans Blvd., Redwood City, CA 94063 

415-365-9852 

LOGITECH SA (in Europe), CH-1143 Apples, Switzerland 

LOGITECH Sri., Corso Nigra 60, 10015 IVREA TO, Italy 



86 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 195 on inquiry card. 



ns Technology, Inc. 



A disk of a different color. 




rade name for Cenna Technology. 
Circle 392 on inquiry card. 



CenTecIVs Premium ColorDisk™ 
Diskettes for Rapid Coding 
and Filing Ease. 

Every diskette individually tested and 
certified 100% error free — beyond 
65% clipping level. 

• Advanced microfinishing of media 
surface. 

• Quality and reliability backed by 
CenTech's exclusive Timeless 
Warranty™ 

CenTech* ... the diskette you'll wish 
you had started with. 

Call 801/255-3999 or Telex 499-6093 




General Ledger 

OPtN 5YSUMS 




Go ahead. Slip into something com- 
fortable. Ware the most comfortable, 
most sophisticated microcomputer 
accounting software in the world. 
Open Systems. Accounting software 
so rich in features, it can handle the 
complex problems of today's small 
business with unprecedented ease. 
Software so flexible, it runs on all 
popular microcomputers. And can 
grow right along with your busi- 
ness needs. 

With Open Systems, you can start 
with one product then add others as 



your business prospers. No other 
accounting line is so complete. With a 
choice of General Ledger, Accounts 
Receivable, Accounts Payable, Inven- 
tory, Payroll, Job Cost, Sales Order, 
Purchase Order and Fixed Assets as 
well as a Report Writer that links your 
accounting data to popular spread- 
sheets, word processors and graphics 
software. Assuring you the luxury of 
a perfect software fit. Today, tomor- 
row and for years to come. 

The fact is, Open Systems meets 
the needs of today's small business 




so completely, it's become one of 
the best selling lines of accounting 
software on the market. More than 
300,000 accounting products are pro- 
viding comprehensive accounting 
solutions for businesses throughout 
the world. Now that's comforting. 

Call Open Systems right now. And 
get your mind off the books. For the 
dealer nearest you call 

1-800-328-2276 



OPEN SYSTEMS 

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dris. 



The brightest star 

in the 
micro UNIXverse. 







iriiths, the company who 
brought you the C compiler in 1979 and 
Idris, the micro UNIX, in 1980, now 
announces ldris as an application under 
MS-DOS. 

Available to run on the IBM PC, 
Data General, DEC Rainbow and other 
PC/MS'DOSJbased systems, Idris as 0* 
an application: 




runs better on the micro 
has twice as many users as UNIX 
runs more tasks simultaneously 
will be complying with the UNIX f 
/usr/group standards 

■ provides application portability 

■ contains all the most important UNIX 
mttt tn utilities in a 1*5 megabyte disk 

\ ■ all at a new, low price. 



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742,(617) $69*8499, Telex 750246 SOFTWARE CNCM 



UNIX, UNIX-6, UNIX-7, UNIX III, U: 
MS-DOS, Xenix are trademarks of Microsoft Corp.; PC- DOS i 



of Whitesmiths, Ltd. 



s Corp.; Rainbow is ;i ir, 



of Venturecotn; 

irk of f )i}*ii.il Equipment Corporation; 






CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS 



• CHICAGO BBS ON ART 
AND TECHNOLOGY. The Center 
for Advanced Studies in Art 
and Technology (CASAT) at the 
School of the Art Institute of 
Chicago has set up a bulletin- 
board system (BBS) for artists 
and scientists to exchange infor- 
mation and ideas concerning 
the uses of technology in the 
arts. Research projects under 
way include sound synthesis 
and image processing. You can 
up- or download Apple 
high-resolution images to the 
system. CASAT's bulletin board 
is (312) 443-3744. 

• 50 FIGS ON TREE 

The FORTH Interest Group (FIG) 
announces the formation of the 
50th chapter in Berkeley. Califor- 
nia. FIG, a nonprofit organiza- 
tion, serves more than 4000 
users of the FORTH computer 
language. It also sponsors the 
FIG-Tree. an on-line FORTH 
database (a 300-bit-per-second 
BBS) at (415) 538-3 580. 
Membership is $15 a year ($27 
foreign) and includes a subscrip- 
tion to FORTH Dimensions, a bi- 
monthly newsletter. Contact the 
FORTH Interest Group, POB 
1105. San Carlos. CA 94070. 
(415) 962-8653. 

• ARTISTIC GRASS ROOrS 

Art. Computers and Education (ACE) 
is a grass-roots group of artists, 
teachers, technicians, software 
developers, and art educators 
that meets to discuss issues in 
the arts and in art education in- 
volving the use of computers. 
Its newsletter contains inter- 
views, software reviews, and 
reviews of arts peripherals. A $5 
membership fee per school 
year entitles you to receive the 
ACE newsletter. For details, 
write to ACE. 3155 Avalon 
Court. Palo Alto. CA 94306. 

• HUG IN CONN 

The Connecticut Heath Users 
Group (CONNHUG) meets at 7 
p.m. on the first Wednesday of 
each month at the Heathkit 
Electronic Center in Avon, Con- 
necticut. The club maintains a 
bulletin board at (203) 



674-8915. By providing a forum 
for information exchange.. 
CONNHUG aims to educate in 
the area of computer science, 
particularly Heath/Zenith com- 
puters. For further details, con- 
tact CONNHUG. 395 West Main 
St.. Avon. CT 06001. (203) 
678-032 3. 

• GET INSIDE IRIS 

The IRIS Users Group (indepen- 
dent of Point 4 Data Corpora- 
tion, which owns the IRIS 
license) produces a quarterly 
newsletter. Inside IRIS, that con- 
tains educational and infor- 
mative articles for more than 
20,000 users. A BBS using the 
IRIS (interactive real-time infor- 
mation system) operating system 
is on line at (303) 44X-CLUB. A 
membership fee is $35 a year 
and includes the newsletter. For 
further information, call Doc 
Gordon at (303) 449-7637. 
Chauncey laylor at (303) 
663-1400. or write the IRIS 
Users Group. 15 31 North Lin- 
coln Ave, Loveland, CO 80537. 

• ASK THE ORACLE 
Oracle Network Headquarters' 
Silicon Valley Interchange 
RCP/M (remote CP/M) bulletin- 
board system is a nonprofit 
public-domain system operating 
24 hours a day. Running on a 
CompuPro 816 with a 40-mega- 
byte hard-disk drive, Oracle can 
accommodate more than 2 500 
on-line files of news releases, 
communications, utilities, data 
on 16-bit computers, and items 
of interest to users of Apple, 
Osborne, IBM PC, and Compu- 
Pro. The 300- or 1200-bps 
system's number is (408) 
732-9190. Registration is re- 
quired. Send a six-digit 
password and a $2 5 annual 
membership fee to Oracle Net- 
work Headquarters. Silicon 



Valley Interchange RCP/M, Attn: 
Registration. POB 532. Cuper- 
tino. CA 95015. 

• "WORKSTEADER'S" FACT 
SOURCE. The National Associa- 
tion for the Cottage Industry is 

a nonprofit association that pro- 
vides the home-based business- 
person with access to informa- 
tion supporting "worksteading" 
as a financially viable alter- 
native. It sponsors quarterly 
regional conferences and peri- 
odic seminars. A related news- 
letter, Mind Your Own Business At 
Home, is available. Contact the 
National Association for the 
Cottage Industry. POB 14460. 
Chicago, 1L 60614. (312) 
472-8116. 

• HAWKEYE AREA ATARI 
USERS GROUP. Eastern Iowa 
Atari owners have banded 
together to form Hawkatari. a 
users group that meets monthly 
and produces a newsletter. A 
library of public-domain soft- 
ware is maintained and 
members are encouraged to 
submit their programs. New 
members are welcome to join 
for $6 a year. Contact J.K. 
Wiese. Hawkatari. 2 565 22nd 
Ave, Marion, 1A 52302. 

• ACES MEET IN THE SUN- 
SHINE STATE, The Jacksonville 
Atari Computer Enthusiasts 
(]ACE) is an independent users 
group that meets regularly and 
produces a newsletter that con- 
tains reviews, program listings, 
classified ads, and news. A $10 
membership fee entitles Atari 
owners to become members. 
Sample newsletters are $1 each. 
Contact JACE. 1187 Dunbar 
Court, Orange Park. FL 32073. 

• HOW TO EXPORT SOFT- 
WARE. World Software Markets 



CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS is a forum for letting BYTE readers know what is hap- 
pening in the microcomputing community. Emphasis will be given to electronic bulletin- 
board services, club-sponsored classes, community-help projects, field trips, and other 
activities outside of routine meetings. Of course, we will continue to list new clubs, their 
addresses and contact persons, and other information of interest. To list events on schedule, 
we must receive your information at least four months in advance. Send information 
to BYTE, Clubs & Newsletters, POB 372. Hancock, NH 03449. 



(WSM) are covered in The WSM 
Newsletter, a monthly publication 
from World Education Markets 
Inc. It provides readers with in- 
formation about overseas ex- 
port and licensing opportunities 
of software. This includes trends 
and developments in home, 
business, and school microcom- 
puter markets. For details, con- 
tact WSM, Garrett Park. MD 
20896-02 5 5. 

• A SOURCE FOR COM- 
PARATIVE PRICING. Computer 
Price Alert is billed as a national 
survey of computer and soft- 
ware prices. Each issue reports 
the three lowest prices on cer- 
tain materials as the result of a 
scan of several hundred dis- 
count and mail-order firms. It in- 
cludes a listing of vendors who 
don't advertise elsewhere, thus 
keeping overhead expenses 
down. A one-year subscription 
(20 issues) is $48; a trial 
subscription (12 issues) is $36. 
Club discounts are available. For 
details, contact Computer Price 
Alert. POB 574. Cambridge. MA 
02238. (617) 354-8116. 

• BRIEFS FOR COMPUTER 
BUFFS. Owners of any brand of 
computer who live in the 
District of Columbia will benefit 
from the resources outlined in a 
monthly newsletter entitled 
Home Computer Briefs. It features 
articles on training, repairs, and 
other services; a word-process- 
ing column; a calendar of 
events; reviews of microcom- 
puter books; and a column for 
readers to share experiences. 
The information selected for the 
contents of the newsletter is 
designed to help disgruntled 
users tap the full potential of 
their equipment. A one-year 
subscription is $18. Contact 
Home Computer Briefs. Suite 1739. 
3421 M St. NW. Washington. DC 
20007. (202) 965-4428. 

• NORTH COUNTRY 
EDUCATORS UNITE. North Coun- 
try Micro is produced five times 
a year and brings together 
almost 1 500 educators in the 

{continued on page 92) 



«— Circle 354 on inquiry card. 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 91 



INTRODUCING THE: 




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In Texas Call Collect: (713) 681-3074 

Major Credit Cards Accepted 

or Mail Check to: Crestmont Sales, 

3612 Mangum, #204, Houston, TX 77092 



CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS 



[continued from page 91) 
Franklin/Essex/Hamilton area of 
northern New York state. They 
work on common problems and 
keep up on modern classroom 
technology via editorials, ap- 
plications of existing software to 
education, reviews of hardware 
and software, and updates on 
what other school systems are 
doing regarding computer 
education. North Country Micro 
contains bibliographies for fur- 
ther study; subscriptions are 
free. To inquire, contact Kirk 
Peterson, Paul Smith's College 
of Arts and Sciences, Paul 
Smiths. NY 12970. 

• CALIFORNIAN COM- 
MODORIANS. The Orange 
County 20-64 Users Club meets 
at I p.m. on the fourth Saturday 
of each month to discuss news 
items and see presentations. 
Separate libraries for the VIC-20 
and the C-64 are maintained for 
the members. A $24 annual 
membership includes a sub- 
scription to the computerized 
newsletter. For details, contact 
Burt Bonem, 11212 Barclay Dr., 
Garden Grove CA 92641. (714) 
539-5909. 

• THE USERS GROUP FOR PCjr 
The User's Group offers IBM 
PCjr owners up-to-date informa- 
tion, new products, and support 
via a newsletter and program 
exchange. The User's Group will 
publish a list of approved prod- 
ucts based on its testing stan- 
dards of reliability, ease of use, 
and pricing. The membership 
fee is $15 annually, For details, 
contact Brian Gratz, The User's 
Group, 4620 50th St. A-9. Lub- 
bock. TX 79414, (806) 799-0327. 

• MACINTOSH USERS UNITE 
National Apple Pie is a clearing- 
house for information and soft- 
ware exchange for users of the 
Apple Macintosh and Lisa com- 
puters. The bimonthly newslet- 
ter, Macitflbuch is free for 
members seeking information 
on seminars, meetings, work- 
shops, new products, develop- 
ments, and hands-on assistance. 
Annual membership is $19. For 
details, contact National Apple 
Pie, Wayland Square, POB 3198. 
Providence, Rl 02906. 

• RURAL RUCUS 
Computer users who are 
farmers and ranchers living in 
remote areas can now ask high- 
tech vendors questions about 



computers, thanks to a newslet- 
ter produced by the Rural Com- 
puter Users Society (RUCUS). 
Articles range from improving 
gross revenue and methods of 
scheduling to programs for the 
school-age reader. The focus of 
the newsletter is to help novices 
figure out how to best use their 
computers for business pur- 
poses. Send for information 
from RUCUS, POB 233, 
Hamilton, VA 22068. 

• INVEST WISELY 

The American Association of 
Microcomputer Investors (AAMI) 
is an independent nonprofit 
organization that provides infor- 
mation to investors on how to 
use their microcomputers for 
profit in the stock, options, and 
commodities markets, bonds, 
real estate, and other invest- 
ment opportunities. The AAMI 
journal is produced bimonthly 
and contains reviews of invest- 
ment software and on-line 
stock-market databases. A 
quarterly directory updates in- 
vestment software. Computer 
programs, software discounts, 
and study guides are also avail- 
able to members. For further in- 
formation, contact AAMI, POB 
1384. Princeton. NJ 06542. (609) 
921-6494. 

• WHEN OPPORTUNITY 
KNOCKS. New member* of the 
Commodore Club receive a 
copy of a booklet entitled. Cash 
from Your Computer] Members ex- 
change software, programming 
tips, and information. The 
bimonthly newsletter, I/O. con- 
tains technical columns, com- 
puter applications, and other 
topics related to the Com- 
modore. Annuai dues are $15 
and include a newsletter 
subscription. Send a self- 
addressed, stamped envelope 
to Joe Kamenar, 225J Dunbar 
Lane, Horsham, PA 19044. 

• SOFTWARE IS AN ISSUE 
Software \ssues is an independent 
quarterly newsletter for people 
involved in the design, develop- 
ment, purchase, maintenance, or 
use of computer software. It ad- 
dresses the development of 
quality computer programs, 
design and documentation 
methods, user interfacing, 
testing techniques, computer 
literacy, and more. An annual 
subscription is $12. Contact 
GDW Associates. POB 14258, 
Clearwater, FL 34279. ■ 



92 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 285 on inquiry card. 



Computer's 
Choice. 





Primage I 



Sooner or later, you'll probably want to use your 
business computer for word processing or data 
communications applications. And if you let your 
computer choose the best printer to provide 
letter quality printing at high production speeds, 
its first choice would be Primage I. 

That's because when all the facts are entered, 
the Primage I with PageMate I sheet feeder, 
gives you more for your money than any other 
daisy system— 45 cps, heavy duty, letter quality 
printing, with automatic sheet feeder, for hun- 
dreds of dollars less than its closest competitor. 

The lower cost and higher performance are 
all made possible by a totally new control tech- 
nology that allows simple, inherently more 
reliable stepping motors to run at much higher 
speeds. The design eliminates lots of parts that 



you find in other serial printers. Parts you don't 
have to pay for and, just as important, parts you 
don't have to maintain. Primage I features 
simplified controls, easy paper feeding and a 
wide choice of fonts. It also comes with a 
unique 100-spoke daisy wheel that provides 
switch selectable multiple languages, and an 
easy access, easy set-up interface that connects 
to popular PC's without special cable fittings. 

When you compare Primage I with top quality 
daisy printers and sheet feeders that cost up to 
50% more, we're confident you'll make the 
same choice your computer would. So come 
into your computer dealer today for a first hand 
demonstration. Or contact us for detailed 
product literature. Primages Inc., 620 Johnson 
Ave., Bohemia, NY 11716 (516) 567-8200. 



PRIMAGES 
INC. 



Circle 265 on inquiry card. 



JUNE 1984 • BYTE 93 



EVENT QUEUE 



)une 1984 



• SOFTWARE ONLY 
Info/Software, McCormick Place, 
Chicago. IL. Mainframe and 
mini- and microcomputer soft- 
ware will be featured. Contact 
Clapp & Poliak. 708 Third Ave. 
New York, NY 10017. (212) 
370-1100 and 661-8410. June 
12-14 

• MEDICINE AND COMPUTERS 
Clinical Laboratory Computers 
Symposium 1984, Tbwsley 
Center. University of Michigan 
Medical School, Ann Arbor. 
Contact the Office of Continuing 
Medical Education. Tbwsley 
Center Box 057. University of 
Michigan Medical School. Ann 
Arbor. Ml 48109. (313) 763- 
1400. June 13-15 

• NECC NUMBER SIX 

The Sixth Annual National Edu- 
cational Computing Confer- 
ence— NECC '84, University of 
Dayton. OH. Papers, workshops, 
and exhibits to improve 
computer-based classroom in- 
struction. Contact Lawrence A. 
lehn. Computer Science Depart- 
ment. University of Dayton, 
Dayton. OH 45469. (513) 
229-3831. June 13-15 

• PC IN SPOTLIGHT 
PC-World Exposition. McCor- 
mick Place West. Chicago. IL. 
Contact Mitch Hall Associates. 
POB 860. Westwood. MA 
02090. (617) 329-8090. 

June 13-15 

• BYTE HOSTS COMPUTER 
SHOW. BYTE Computer Show. 
Convention Center. Los Angeles, 
CA. Seminars, product displays, 
and technical conference ses- 
sions are some of the highlights 
of this show sponsored by 
BYTE and Popular Computing 
magazines. Contact the Interface 
Group, 300 First Ave.. Needham, 
MA 02194. (800) 32 5-3330: in 
Massachusetts, (617) 449-6600. 
June 14-17 

• COMPUTING GERMAN 
STYLE. International Computer 
Show, Cologne, West Germany. 
Seminars, workshops, and hard- 
ware and software exhibits. Con- 



tact Messe- und Ausstellungs- 
Ges.m.b.H Koln. Messeplatz. 
Postfach 210760. D-5000 Co- 
logne 21, West Germany; tel: 
(0221) 821-1; Telex: 8873 426 a 
mua d. June 14-17 

• VOICE/DATA ISSUES, 
ANSWERS, Voice/Data Integra- 
tion: Issues and Answers, 
Newport Beach Marriott, CA. 
Contact Bernie llson. 65 West 
5 5th St.. New York, NY 10019. 
(800) 638-6590; in New York. 
(212) 245-7950. June 15 

• MIDWEST COMPUTER FAIR 
The Ninth Annual Midwest Af- 
filiation of Computer Clubs' 
Computerfest '84, Convention 
Center. Dayton. OH. Commercial 
exhibits, computer and elec- 
tronics fleamarket. seminars, 
and mini-courses highlight this 
event. Tickets are $6. Contact 
Computerfest '84, POB 24505. 
Dayton. OH 45424. June 15-17 

• TECHNICAL WRITING 
Writing for the Computer Indus- 
try. Plymouth State College. 
Plymouth. NH. Topics: how to 
write computer-related text for 
an international audience, elec- 
tronic documentation, training 
and linguistic style, and how to 
integrate text and graphics. Con- 
tact Dr. Sally Boland. 5 Reed 
House. Plymouth State College. 
Plymouth. NH 03264. (603) 536- 
15 50. June 16 

• ACADEMIC COMPUTING 
The Seventeenth Annual Associ- 
ation for Small Computer Users 
in Education Conference. 
Western Kentucky University, 
Bowling Green. Contact Dr. 
Dudley Bryant. Western Ken- 
tucky University. Bowling Green, 
KY 42101. (502) 745-0111. 

June 17-20 

• INTRO TO FORTH PROGRAM- 
MING. People. Computers, and 
FORTH Programming. Humboldt 



State University. Areata. CA. A 
hands-on, introductory course 
providing an understanding of 
the internal workings of FORTH 
and enough knowledge to write 
applications programs. Prior ex- 
perience with a computer lan- 
guage is advised. The fee is 
$125 or $175 with three quarter 
hours academic credit. Contact 
Claire Duffey, Office of Continu- 
ing Education, Humboldt State 
University, Areata. CA 95521. or 
call (707) 826-3731. June 18-21 

• COMPUTERS AND BIOLOGY 
The Fourth Annual Notre Dame 
Short Course Series: Computers 
in Biology, University of Nevada- 
Reno. Three concurrent short 
courses: "Computers in Bioedu- 
cation," "Microcomputers in 
Classroom and Laboratory." and 
"Computerized Data Analysis in 
Biological Research." Technical 
expertise is not required. Tuition 
is $450. Contact Theodore j. 
Crovello. Biocomputing Short 
Course Coordinator. Department 
of Biology. University of Notre 
Dame. Notre Dame. IN 46556. 
(219) 239-7496. June 18-22 

• ELECTRONIC OFFICE 
CONCEPTS. Office Information 
System Software. Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. Cam- 
bridge. The concepts behind the 
design of multifunction office 
workstations, including technolo- 
gies, human factors, software, 
and applications generators, will 
be studied. Contact the Director 
of the Summer Session, Room 
El 9-3 56. MIT. Cambridge. MA 
02139. June 18-22 

• DIGITAL MUSIC 
TECHNIQUES. Experimental 
Music Studio, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology. Cam- 
bridge. Two complementary ses- 
sions: "Techniques of Digital 
Audio Processing" and "Work- 
shop in Computer Music Com- 
position." The former, which 



IF YOU WANT your organization's public activities listed in BYTE's Event Queue, 
we need to know about them at least four months in advance. Send information about 
computer conferences, seminars, workshops, and courses to BYTE, Event Queue. POB 
372. Hancock. NH 03449. 



runs from June 18-29. provides 
a technical background and ex- 
perience in digital sound- 
synthesis methods. The latter, 
which begins July 2. gives com- 
posers the opportunity to ex- 
periment with the computer as 
a musical instrument. No special 
technical knowledge is required. 
Contact the Director of the 
Summer Session. Room E19- 
3 56. MIT. Cambridge. MA 
02139. June 18-Ju!u 27 

• THE OFFICE OF THE 
FUTURE. Computerized Office 
Equipment Expo/Office Informa- 
tion Systems Conference— 
COEE/OIS. O'Hare Exposition 
Center, Rosemont, IL. Contact 
COEE/OIS Program Coordinator. 
Cahners Exposition Group, 
Cahners Plaza, 1350 East Tbuhy 
Ave. POB 5060. Des Plaines. IL 
60018. (312) 299-9311. 

June 19-21 

• DOCUMENTATION METHODS 
How to Document a Computer 
System. Sheraton Commander 
Hotel. Cambridge. MA. A series 
of documentation procedures 
will be presented. The fee is 
$155 prepaid. Contact Technical 
Communications Associates, 
Suite 210. 1250 Oakmead 
Parkway. Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 
(800) 227-3800. ext. 977; in Cali- 
fornia. (408) 737-2665. June 20 

• TECHNICAL PROGRAM IN 
PRC. The First International Con- 
ference on Computers and Ap- 
plications, Fragrant Hill Hotel, 
Peking. People's Republic of 
China. More than 100 technical 
papers wiU be delivered. Con- 
tact IEEE Computer Society. 
POB 639. Silver Spring, MD 
20901. (301) 589-8142. June 
20-22 

• COMPUTING IN NE FLORIDA 
The Great Southern Computer 
Show. Veterans Memorial Col- 
iseum, Jacksonville. FL. Hard- 
ware, software, peripherals, ac- 
cessories, and word- and data- 
processing exhibits comple- 
mented by workshops and semi- 
nars. Contact Great Southern 

{continued on page 96) 



94 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



ANNOUNCING 
VERSION 2.0 



EXTENDED PASCAL FOR YOUR 
IBM PC, PC jr., APPLE CP/M, 
MSDOS, CP/M 86, CCP/M, 
OR CP/M 80 




"What I think the computer industry is headed for: well 
documented, standard, plenty of good features, and a 
reasonable price." 

Jerry Pournelle, 

Byte, February 1984 

"The Perfect Pascal" 
Alan R. Miller, 

Interface Age, January 1984 



If you already own Turbo 
Pascal version 1.0, you can 
upgrade to 2.0 for $29.95. Just 
send in your old master with 
your check. (Manual update 
included of course). 



now . . . 

WITH 
WINDOWING 

$49.95 



NEW FEATURES 

WINDOWING! 

. . . This is a real shocker. On the IBM PC or PC jr. you'll now 

have a procedure to program windows Any part of the 

screen can be selected as a window and all output will 
automatically go to this part of the screen only. As many 
windows as you please can be used from the same 
program. 

AUTOMATIC OVERLAYS! 

. . . No addresses or memory spaceto calculate, you simply 
specify OVERLAY and TURBO PASCAL will do the rest. 

GRAPHICS, SOUND AND COLOR SUPPORT 

. . . For your IBM PC or JR! 

FULL HEAP MANAGEMENT! 

. . . via dispose procedure. 

OPTIONAL 8087 SUPPORT! 

. . . Available for an additional charge. 

If you have a 16 bit computer with the 8087 math 
chip— your number crunching programs will execute up 
to 1 0X faster! 



ORDER YOUR COPY OF TURBO PASCAL VERSION 2.0 TODAY 

For VISA and MasterCard orders call toll free: 1-800-227-2400 x968 

In CA: 1 -800-772-2666 x968 

(lines open 24 hrs, 7 days a week) 

Dealer & Distributor Inquiries welcome 

408-438-8400 



CHOOSE ONE (please add 
$5.00 for shipping and handling 
for U.S. orders) 

Turbo Pascal 2.0 $49.95 

Turbo Pascal 2.0 with 

8087 support $89.95 

Update (1.0 to 2.0) Must 

be accompanied by the 
original master $29.95 

Update(1.0to8087)Must 

be accompanied by the 
original master $69.95 



Check 

VISA 

Card#: _ 
Exp. date: 



Money Order 
MasterCard _ 



Shipped UPS 



m BORiflno 

H» INTERNATIONAL 

Borland International 
4113 Scotts Valley Drive 
Scotts Valley, California 95066 
TELEX: 172373 



My system is: 8 bit . 



16 bit. 



Operating System: CP/M 80 

CP/M 86 MSDOS PC DOS. 



Computer: 



Disk Format: 



Please be sure model number & formatare correct. 

NAME: 

ADDRESS: 

CITY/STATE/ZIP: 

TELEPHONE: 



California residents add 6% sales tax. Outside U.S.A. add $1 5.00. (If outside 
of U.S.A. payment must be by bank draft payable in the U.S. and in U.S. 
dollars.) Sorry, no COD. or Purchase Orders. B15 



i 



Circle 1 30 on inquiry card. 



THE 



tfOTTo 



STOP 



EVENT QUEUE 



1 1421 Cc.rlisle.filb, NM 

87110 
(505) 255-3360 



t© illlf 

I^J^lLlL 1 "800-222-1 494 

ORDER DESK HOURS B A.M. to 5 P.M. MST Monday through Friday and 10 to 4 Saturd 



COMPUTERS 



MONITORS 




ZF101-21 $2,199 

ZFA 121-22. . . .$2,799 

ZF 121-22 $2,899 

F 1 11-32 $4,100 

ZF 121-32 $4,379 

FREE 
MS-DOS & Lotus 1, 2, 3 
included with each M 

computer * 



PRINTERS 

INFOSCRIBE 

500 $940.00 

700 $1345.00 

1000 $1130.00 

1100 ....... . $1230.00 

1200 $1395.00 

MPI 

MPI-99. $ 599.00 

MPI-150 $ 995.00 

BLUE CHIP 
BDC 40/15. . . $1,899.00 
BDC 20/15. . . $ 899.00 
Manufactured by CGK, a wholly 
owned subsidiary of Seimans 




ZVM 1 23-2 

swivel base. . 
ZVM 123 (C). . 
ZVM 122 (A). . 
ZVM 1 24 (A) . . 
ZVM 1 31 

med. res. co. . 
ZVM 435 
.high res. co. . , 


. .$ 15.00 
. .$115.00 
. .$115.00 
. .$169.00 

. .$299.00 

. . $475. 00 




r TERMINALS J 


JfctiiTH 


m 


m 


ZT-10 


. . $379.00 


ZT-11 


$449 


,Z-29 


.... $649, 



SOFTWARE ALSO AVAILABLE. 
PLEASE CALL FOR QUOTES. 



CALL FOR QUOTES 

NEC TELEVIDEO AMDEK 
ANADEX SEIKO QUME 



ORDERING INFORMATION AND TERMS: ai items usually m stock cashiers checks, 

Money Orders, Fortune 1 000 Checks and Government Checks, we immediately honor. Personal or other Company I 
Checks allow 20 days to clear. No C.O.D. Prices reflect 3% cash discount so ADD 3% to above prices for VISA or 
MC. For U.S. Mainland, add 3% for shipping, insurance and handling (SI&H) by UPS with $5 minimum for SI&H. UPS 
ground is standard so add 3% more for UPS Blue with $1 minimum for SI&H. Add 1 2% total for SI&H for US Postal, 

i APO or FPO with $1 5 minimum for SI&H. For Hawaii, Alaska and Canada, UPS is in some areas only, all others are 
Postal so call, write or specify Postal. Foreign orders except Canada for SI&H add 1 8% or $25 minimum for SI&H ex- 

Lcept for monitors add 30% or $50 minimum for Sl&H. Prices subject to chame and tvpo errors, so call to verify. 



[continued from page 94) 
Computer Shows. POB 65 5, 
Jacksonville. FL 32201. (904) 
356-1044. June 21-23 

• COMPUTERS IN MEDICAL 
PRACTICE-MEDCOM 84. The 
First National Conference on 
Computers in Medical Practices, 
Masonic Memorial Temple. Nob 
Hill, San Francisco, CA. Twenty 
educational sessions plus ex- 
hibits and an investment- 
planning seminar. Contact MED- 
COM 84, 1803 Golden Cate, 
San Francisco. CA 94115. (800) 
468-2211; in California. (800) 
445-2121 or (415) 931-0910. 

]une 23-2 5 

• GRAPHICS STANDARD 
COURSE, Introduction to GKS. 
Hyatt Regency Hotel. Austin. 
TX. A course on the Graphical 
Kernel System (GKS) standard. 
The fee is $495. Contact Nova 
Graphics International Corp., 
1015 Bee Cave Woods. Austin, 
TX 78746, (512) 327-9300. ]une 
25-26 

• COMPUTATIONAL 
METHODOLOGY. Conference on 
the Forefronts of Large-scale 
Computational Problems. Na- 
tional Bureau of Standards. 
Gaithersburg. MD. The inter- 
disciplinary application of large- 
scale computing technology will 
be addressed. The focus is on 
complex problems that test the 
limits of traditional experimental 
and computational methodolo- 
gies. Registration is $275. Con- 
tact Wm. L. Schrader. FF '84, 
Newman Laboratory, Cornell 
University. Ithaca. NY 14853. 
(607) 256-3455. June 25-27 

• MICROS IN EDUCATION 
Stanford Institute on Microcom- 
puters in Education, Stanford 
University. Stanford. CA. An in- 
tensive session that provides 
the background necessary to 
serve as a school or district 
resource person. Hands-on pro- 
gramming, word processing, and 
administrative computing. Con- 
tact Stanford Institute on 
Microcomputers in Education, 
POB K. Stanford. CA 94305. 
(415) 322-4640. June 25-]uly 27 

• COMPUTERS IN DENTAL 
PRACTICE-DENTCOM 84. The 
First National Conference on 
Computers in Dental Practices, 
Masonic Memorial Temple, Nob 
Hill. San Francisco. CA. Twenty 
educational sessions plus ex- 



hibits and an investment- 
planning seminar. Contact 
DENTCOM 84. 1803 Golden 
Gate. San Francisco. CA 94115. 
(800) 468-2211; in California. 
(800) 445-2121 or (415) 931- 
0910. ]une 26-28 

• SOFTWARE, SYSTEMS. 
STRATEGIES. The 1984 Cor- 
onado Invitational Conference 
on Software. Systems, and 
Strategies: The Next Five Years, 
Hotel del Coronado. San Diego. 
CA. Contact Gnostic Concepts 
Inc.. Suite 300. 951 Mariner's 
Island Blvd.. San Mateo. CA 
94404, (415) 345-7400. 

]une 26-28 

• PC IN BIG APPLE 
PCExpo, Coliseum. New York 
City. IBM Personal Computer 
hardware, software, and vendor 
exhibits. Daily seminars. Contact 
PCExpo. 333 Sylvan Ave. Engle- 
wood Cliffs. Nl 07632, (201) 
569-8542. June 26-28 

• FEDERAL COMPUTING EXPO 
Government Computer Expo— 
GCE84. Sheraton Washington 
Hotel. Washington. DC. Work- 
shops, exhibits, and technical 
programs focusing on end-user 
computing and applications. 
Contact U.S. Professional 
Development Institute. 1620 
Elton Rd.. Silver Spring. MD 
20903. (301) 445-4405. 

]une 26-29 

• LOGO CONVOCATION 

Logo '84 Conference. Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 
Cambridge. Four main themes, 
Logo Learning, Learning En- 
vironments, Technical Forecasts, 
and Images of Future Work. 
Product exhibits. Contact the 
Special Events Office, Room 
7-111. MIT. Cambridge. MA 
02139. }une 26-29 

• FORTH PROGRAMMING TIPS 
Using FORTH Effectively, Hum- 
boldt State University, Areata. 
CA. A hands-on, advanced 
course on the generation and 
internal operations of a FORTH 
system. A mastery of an in- 
troductory FORTH course or a 
minimum of six months using 
FORTH and a knowledge of as- 
sembly language and operating- 
system principles are pre- 
requisites. The fee is $ 1 50 or 
$200 with three quarter hours 
academic credit. Contact Claire 
Duffey, Office of Continuing 

[continued on page 101) 



From Apple to Zilog, 
Leave the Care and Feeding 



of your Computer to Inmac. 




Unique roll-top 
file protects 
120 floppies! 

Our new file protects more 
floppies than other files 
that cost more. 

The cover slides back and 
"disappears" for instant access. 
11 dividers keep disks vertical. 

Order now for easy access to 
over a hundred floppies. 

Roll-Top Floppy File. 
No. 2537-PT4 $39.95 



Inmac PC turntable: lots of tilt & turn , 
little $$$! 

Inmac's compact PC monitor 
turntable rotates and tilts your 
monitor so you can work in glare- 
free comfort. 

It costs less than most, yet has 
greater flexibility and looks terrific! 

Rubber pads keep your monitor 
secure. It fits most popular equipment. Let our 
monitor tilt and swivel so you don't have to. 
Call by noon, we'll ship it today! 
PC Adjustable Turntable. No. 4850-PT4 $39.95 




Covers protect IBM keyboard and drive. 

These handsome covers preserve the sleek silhouette of your IBM PC 
while shielding vulnerable areas from harmful dust and dirt. 
The keyboard cover is made of durable smoke-tinted acrylic. The 

drive cover blends with 
the IBM's styling and has 
a cushioned edge that 
forms a dust-proof seal. 

Order today and 
protect your PC from 
contamination. 

Keyboard and Disk 
Drive Cover Set. 
No. 2976-PT4 $19.95 



Clean your 
floppy drive 
heads in 
30 seconds . . . 

Before oxide build-up shuts 
your system down! 

With a 60 cleaning capacity, at 
less than a dollar each, our kit, 
saves you as much as 62% 
over other kits. 

Order today and get over 
a year of weekly cleanings. 

Economy Size Clean 
Cycle Kit for S X A" drives. 
No. 7159-PT4 $45 




Unique rack keeps Apple 
manuals handy. 

Our manual rack keeps your spiral bound software and computer 
documentation at your fingertips where it's easy to find and use. 
Clear acrylic rods slide through the spiral bindings of up to 8 books 
as tall as 9V-i'. You can easily add or remove manuals at any time. 

The rack is angled for comfortable reading and quick flipping from 
book to book. Holds all Apple and spiral bound manuals. 

Order yours now. Once you try it, you'll wish we'd invented it 
sooner! 

Spiral Bound Manual Rack. No. 3720-PT4 $49.95 





Call toll-free 1-800-547-5444* 

Ordering is easy as A-B-C. Fill out the postage-paid card opposite or call 
toll-free. Verbal P. O.'s welcome. Visa, MasterCard. No minimum order. 
Our friendly staff and technical experts will be glad to assist you. 
Fast delivery. Call us by noon, we'll ship your order the same day. By 
UPS or USPS. Overnight delivery available. 

Double Protection Guarantee. If you're not completely satisfied, return 
any product within 45 days for a full refund. All products shown here 
have one year replacement guarantees. 
*in California, call 1-800-547-5447. 



FREE INMAC 
CATALOG. 

For 2500 more great ways to feed and 
care for your mini, micro or wp, call 
today and we'll rush you the latest 
edition. With paper, ribbons, cable, 
media, j 

modems, 
and more. 




TheTeleVideo IBM PC 
The best hard wane for 




TeleVideo versus IBM. Make a few 
simple comparisons and you'll find 
there is no comparison. 

RUNS IBM SOFTWARE. 

With the TeleVideo" IBM Compatible 
line— PC, XT and portable com- 
puters— you'll get the most out of all 
the most popular software written 
for the IBM" PC- more than 3,000 
programs. 

Because every TeleVideo Personal 
Computer offers the highest level of 
IBM compatibility on the market 



THE BEST HARDWARE FOR THE BEST PRICE 




Features Tele-PC 


IBM PC 


Tele-XT 


IBM XT 


Monitor YES 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


OPTIONAL 


Screen Size 14" 


12" 


14" 


12" 


Tilt Screen YES 


NO 


YES 


NO 


Quiet Operation YES (NO FAN) 


NO 


YES 


NO 


Memory 128K 


128K OPTION 


256K 


256K OPTION 


Graphics Display V rr 
(640x200 resolution) 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


OPTIONAL 


Printer Port YES 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


OPTIONAL 


Communication Port YES 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


YES 


MS™-DOS/BASIC YES 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


OPTIONAL 


System Expansion Slot YES 


YES 


YES 


YES 


RGB and Video Port YES 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


OPTIONAL 


Typical System Price $2995 


$3843 


$4995 


$5754 



compatibles, 
the best software. 



and has the standard — not optional 
—features you need to take full 
advantage of every job your software 
can do. 

Study the chart at the left. It 
proves that TeleVideo— not IBM- 
offers the best hardware for the 
best price. 

Note thatTeleVideo's ergonomic 
superiority over IBM extends from 
fully sculpted keys and a comfort- 
able palm rest to a 14-inch, no glare 
screen that tilts at a touch. 

THE BEST MICROCHIPS. 

What is perhaps most impressive 
about the TeleVideo IBM PC Com- 
patible can be found deep within 
its circuitry. We use the same 8088 
central processing unit that runs an 
IBM PC. Butwe also employ new 
VLSI (Very Large Scale' Integration) 
microchips that are designed and 
built exclusively for TeleVideo. 
These interface more 
efficiently with the 
powerful 8088 and yield 
numerous benefits. 




THE BEST PORTABLE FOR THE BEST PRICE. 




Features 


TPCII 


COMPAQ 


High Capacity Storage 


YES 


NO 


2nd Disk Drive 


YES 


OPTIONAL 


Quiet Operation (No Fan) 


YES 


NO 


Ergonomic Display 


YES 


NO 


Communication Port 


YES 


OPTIONAL 


International Power Supply 


YES 


NO 


MS™-DOS 2.11 


YES 


NO 


Graphics Display 


YES 


YES 


Typical System Price 


$2995 


$3710 



For example, our tiny 
custom chips do the 
workof manyof the larger, 
"more expensive circuit boards in 
an IBM PC. So we can offer a com- 
puter system that comes in one 
attractive, integrated case, is ready 
to run and occupies less desk space. 
Acomputerthatedgesout IBM's 
added-cost component system for 
reliability, ease of service and 
purchase simplicity. 

Fewer circuit boards to cool also 
allowed us to eliminate the noisy, 
irritating fan IBM and most other 
PCs force you to put up with. And 
TeleVideo compatibles accept 



any IBM hardware options without 
modification. 

THE BEST LINE. 

ButtheTele-PC is only one element 
of the TeleVideo IBM PC Compatible 
line. 

The TeleVideo XT is the best hard- 
ware for users of popular IBM XT 
software who would appreciate an 
extra 10 megabytes of storage 
capacity along with the advantages 
listed on the preceding chart. 

As the chart above demonstrates, our 
portable IBM compatible computer, 
theTPC 1 1, is far and away better hard- 
ware than COMPAQ™ Better hard- 
ware—standard—at a better price. 




THE BEST MANUFACTURER. 

TheTeleVideo IBM PC Compatible 
line is made by the world leader 
in multi-user computer systems 
and the number one independent 
manufacturer of terminals. 

Our compatibles are available 
at participating ComputerLand and 
Entre (call 800-HI-ENTRE) dealers 
or you may cal I 800-538-8725 for the 
dealer nearest you. In California, 
call 800-345-8008. 

Before you invest, make a few 
simple comparisons. You'll find that 
TeleVideo— not IBM or COMPAQ 
— has the best hardware for the best 
software. At the best price. 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. 
MS is a trademark of MicroSoft Corporation. CW Basic is a registered 

trademark of MicroSoft Corporation. COMPAQ is a trademark of 
COMPAQ Computer Corporation. 



TeleVideo 

Personal Computers 

^TeleVideo Systems, Inc. 



Circle 3 29 on inquiry card. 



BUY A BANK FOR $1&.95 




The DiskBank Media Mate. 




Media Mate 3 for new micro diskettes. 
Media Mate 5 for 5%" diskettes. 




Convenient easy-carry handle. 



Introducing Media Mate... another 
affordable solution in diskette filing 
technologyfrom DiskBank. 

Media Mate combines an attractive 
desktop appearance with superior 
protection, organization and storing 
capability for 50 diskettes. All at 
a cost your budget will appreciate. 

Available in sizes to accommodate 
both 5J4"and 3y 2 " diskettes, Media 
Mate includes a fortress of features: 

■ Sturdy, high impact styrene 
construction 

■ Attractive smoke see-thru 
cover 



■ Convenient adjustable tab 
dividers 

■ Self-locking cover with easy- 
carry handle 

■ Case on case stackability 

For protecting, organizing and 
storing your valuable diskettes, make 
the little investment that pays off big. 
Buy a Bank. Buy DiskBank. 

DiskBank 

AMARAY CORPORATION 

2251 Grant Road, Los Altos, CA 94022 
(415] 968-2840, Telex 171627 Amaray-Ltos 



100 B VTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 23 on inquiry card. 



Circle 357 on inquiry card. 



EVENT QUEUE 



(continued from page 96) 
Education. Humboldt State 
University, Areata. CA 95521, 
(707) 826-3731. June 26-29 

• MEDICINE AND COMPUTERS 
Annual American Society of 
^Computers in Medicine and 
Dentistry Conference, Lodge at 
Vail, CO. An introduction to 
computers for doctors and den- 
tists and a forum for expanding 
the use of computers. Contact 
Arlene Rogers. ASCMD. POB 
21483. Upper Arlington. OH 
43221. (614) 421-8487. ]une 28-30 



July 1984 



• WORKSHOPS FOR 
EDUCATORS. Compuworkshops 
Computer Seminars for Educa- 
tors, various locations in Califor- 
nia. Among the seminars of- 
fered are 'Authoring Tools and 
Word Processing for Educators." 
"BASIC Programming for Edu- 
cators," and "Designing Edu- 
cational Courseware" Each 
course is $50. Contact Compu- 
kids of Seal Beach, Rossmoor 
Shopping Center. 12385 Seal 
Beach Blvd.. Seal Beach. CA 
90740. (213) 430-7226; in West 
Los Angeles. (213) 473-8002; in 
Tarzana, (213) 343-4008; and in 
Rancho Bernardo/San Diego. 
(619) 4 51-1742. July- August 

• SME CONFERENCES & 
EXPOS, Conferences and Ex- 
positions from the Society of 
Manufacturing Engineers, vari- 
ous sites in the U.S. and around 
the world. A calendar is avail- 
able. Contact the Public Rela- 
tions Department, Society of 
Manufacturing Engineers. One 
SME Dr., POB 930, Dearborn, 
Ml 48121. (313) 271-0777. 
luly-August 

• C. UNIX COURSES 
Courses in C Language and 
UNIX. Concord, MA, Somers 
Point, N|. and College Park, MD. 
Three five-day courses are of- 
fered: "C Programming Work- 
shop," "Advanced C Topics 
Seminar," and "UNIX Work- 
shop." Contact loan Hall. Plum 
Hall Inc., I Spruce Ave, Cardiff. 
N| 08232. (609) 927-3770. 
July-August 

• DBM SEMINARS 

Digital Consulting Associates' 
Classes and Seminars, various 
sites in the U.S. Seminars and 
classes on dBASE 11, Lotus 



1-2-3. database administration, 
and other microcomputer 
topics. Contact Digital Con- 
sulting Associates Inc., 339 
Salem St.. Wakefield. MA 01880. 
(617) 246-4850. July-August 

• DATABASE SEMINARS 
SoftwareBanc Seminars, various 
sites in the U.S. and Canada. 
Such seminars as "Problem 
Solving with 1-2-3." "dBASE II." 
and "Exploring UNIX" are 
planned. Contact SoftwareBanc 
Inc.. 661 Massachusetts Ave, Ar- 
lington. MA 02174. (800) 451- 

2 502; in Massachusetts. (617) 
641-1241. \u\y-August 

• EFFICIENT COMPUTING 
TECHNIQUES, Microcomputers: 
Techniques for Improving Your 
Computer Efficiency, Valley Inn 
and lavern. Waterville Valley, 
NH. Four intensive two-day 
seminars: "Microcomputers: Pro- 
gramming in BASIC" "Introduc- 
tion to VisiCalc," "Micro 
Database Applications," and 
"Engineering and Management 
Applications." TUition is $495. or 
$679 with meals and lodging. 
Contact New Hampshire Col- 
lege. Resource Center. 2500 
North River Rd.. Manchester. 
NH 03104, (603) 668-2211, ext. 
17 5. ]uly-September 

• MANAGERIAL SEMINARS 
Computer Competence Semi- 
nars. Boston University Metro- 
politan College, Boston, MA. A 
series of hands-on presentations 
tailored for managers who know 
little or nothing about com- 
puters and for those who wish 
to sharpen their computing 
skills. On the docket are "PCs 
for Improving Financial Analysis 
and Decision Support" and 
"Personal Computers for Sales 
and Marketing Professionals." 
Fees range from $22 5 to $595. 
In-house programs can be or- 
ganized. Contact Joan Merrick, 
University Seminar Center. Suite 
415. 850 Boylston St., Chestnut 
Hill. MA 02167. (617) 738-5020. 
July-September 

• RAINBOW SEMINARS 
All-Hands-On. Boston, MA, 
Chicago. IL. New York City, and 
San Francisco. CA. A series of 
applications seminars featuring 
the DEC Rainbow 100. Contact 
Carol Ericson. BUO/E50. Educa- 
tional Services, Digital Equip- 
ment Corp., 12 Crosby Dr., Bed- 

[continued on page 102) 



MOVE-IT. 

makes 

communication 

simple 







FOR PC DOS, CP/W-86 and CPM Systems. 

• SIMPLE TO INSTALL. MOVE-IT can be installed in 
under 5 minutes by answering simple questions at the 
console. Included is the set-up Information for over 100 
micros and 10 I/O boards. 

• SIMPLE TO USE PROGRAM. MOVE-ITS 20 
commands allow you to auto-dial and access remote 
information utilities, and bulletin boards, including 
upload and download. Transfer files error free between 
PC and other micros when both run MOVE-IT. Display 
both local and remote directories . . . and a whole list 
of other features. 

• SIMPLE TO UNDERSTAND MANUAL. Complete 80 
page manual is included. Over 8000 programs now in 
use. "One of the few packages that actually works as 
advertised," says Interface Age. 

MOVE-IT program and manual suggested retail $150. 
For CPM systems $125. Specify disk format and 
operating sysem when ordering. 

WOOLF SOFTWARE SYSTEMS INC. 

6754 ETON AVE. CANOGA PK., CA 91303 (213) 703-8112 



w 




SH "DISK CONTROLLER 



KEY FEATURES 

©Full sector buffering 

• Logical sector addressing 

Multiple sector, cylinder operation 

• 11 bit burst ECC 



• Self-diagnostic capability 

• Automatic sector alternation 
for the diffective sectors 

o Automatic Error Retry 

• Industry Standurd SASI l/F 



National Computer Ltd. 



UASON OFFICE IN CALIFORNIA 
PH0NE:{408)734-1006 FAX:|408)744-0709 



AKEBONO BLDG. 2-6-12 IWAMOTCMXO 
CHIYODA-KU, TOKYO, JAPAN 
PHONE:(03)863-6705 TLX:J27542 
FAX:(03)864-4581 



Circle 235 on inquiry card. 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 101 



Circle 67 on inquiry card. 



COMPETITIVE EDGE 

P.O. BOX 556 ORDERS 800-336-1410 

PLYMOUTH, Ml 48170 INFO 313-451-0665 

40 MEGABYTE HARD DISK SUB-SYSTEM AT 20MB PRICE $2595 
DISK 3™ CONTROLLER, 40 MB HARD DISK, CP/M® 80 & 86, CAB & PS 

READY TO RUN WITH ALL CompuPro® OPERATING SYSTEMS 
COMPETITIVE EDGE S-100 BC™ & S-100 SC™ 
BUSINESS COMPUTER & SCIENTIFIC COMPUTER 
TYPE 

RAM/HARD DISK 
S-100-BC 286 5" 
S-100-BC 186 5" 
S-100-BCZ8" 
S-100-BC 85/88 
S-100-BC68K 8" 



TYPE 

S-100-SC 286/287 5" 
S-100-SC 86/87 5" 



SINGLE USER 4 USER 

256K 512K10MB 
$3495 $5495 
$1995 $4295 
$2295 64K $4595 320K 
$2895 64K $7595 40MB 
$6699 40MB 256K STATIC 

FLOPPY BASED 

$4795 256K STATIC 
$3895 256K STATIC 



6 USER 

768K 20MB 
$6995 
$5795 

$5995 448K 
$8750 40MB 



8 USER + 

1024K40MB 
$8195 
$6995 
$7595 576K 
$9895 40MB 



40 MB HARD DISK BASED 

$6995 256K STATIC 
$6095 256K STATIC 



COMPONENTS FROM CompuPro®, Lomas, Teletek 



Disk 1A™ 

RAM 22™ 

SS1 

CP/M® 68K™ 

CPU 85/88 

SS1 CSC 

ACTTERM 

LIGHTNING 1 
LIGHTN, 286 
256K DRAM 
0CTAP0RT 8 
SYSTEM ASTER® 
HD/CTC 
40MB HD 



$459 
1155 
297 
242 
327 
363 
55 
420 
1116 
636 
316 



Disk 1 ' 



TM 

Ram 21™ 
I/D3 

RAM22CSC 
CPU Z™ 
I/O 4 CSC 
20 SLOT MB 

10MHz L1 

286/287 

CC/PM 86 

GRAPHICS 
557 SBC-1 4MHZ 
499 6-128 SBC1 
1595 53MB HD 



$327 
657 
459 

1287 
215 
363 
195 
520 

1595 
280 
396 



Disk 3™ w/ CP/M® 80 & 86 

$329 Ram 16™ 

297 CCP/M® 86 

561 CPU68 CSC 

393 85/88 CSC 

599 ENCLOSR 

129 CPU68K™ 



Ram 1 7™ 

I/D4 

CPU86™CSC 

DISK1CSC 

ENCLOS2 

12SLTMB 

HAZITALL 

RAM 67 

MCCP/M86 



275 
725 
360 



THUNDER 186 256K, 
525 6MHZSBC1 



733 
1795 



13MB HD 



LDP 72 

128KDRAM 

MSDOS™ 211 

CCP/M 
695 SBC 2 
795 27MB HD 



$525 
$359 
242 
561 
393 
639 
459 

220 
396 
225 

1195 
995 

1195 



HD/CTC, 53MB HD, CAB & PS 2495 



TERMINALS, PRINTERS, SOFTWARE, MODEMS 



WYSE50 $550 WYSE 75 $650 QUME102GR $539 QUME102AM $549 

ZENITH Z29 675 TV 925 749 TV 970 1095 VISUAL 55 795 

EPSON FX80 499 IDS P 80 969 P 132 COLOR 1495 C. ITOH 8510 549 

F1040 1095 F10 55 1395 C. I 1550 675 1550 SERIAL 725 

DRIC 225 C.I.C 295 SPELLBINDER™ 295 S-100 MODEM 315 

ALL PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND SUBJECT TO STOCK ON HAND - CP/M, CC/M 86. MP(M are either registered 
trademarks or trademarks of Digital Research. CompuPro* Is a Godboul Companv. Disk 1. Disk la. Disk 3. MP/M 616, CP/M 6 16. 
CCPJM 8-16. CPU Z. CPU 85/68, CPU 68K. CPU 88. RAM 22. RAM 21. RAM 17. RAM 16 are trademarks ol CompuPro' 
Sys1emas1ei* Is a registered trademark ot Teletek Enlerprlses Inc MSDOS Is a trademark of Microsoft Spellbinder Is a 
trademark ol Lexlsolt Inc. 



\£ 






EVEN LOWER PRICES 

for SERVICE, 

SAVINGS, and SATISFACTION 

Call for June Specials !! 






PRINTERS 

Dynax 15X 439 

Epson FX-100 679 

FX-80 499 

RX-80 FT 389 

Gemini 10X 259 

15X 389 

NEC3550 1829 

2030 Call 

Okidata92P 439 

93P 747 

Prowriter 349 

HP InkJet 499 



MONITORS 

Amdek 31 OA 159 

300 135 

Princeton HX 12 479 

Sakata SC100 Color 259 

TaxanAmber 119 

Vision 3 449 

Zenith 123 12" Green 95 

122 12 Amber.... 95 
135 13 Color. ...459 



MODEMS 

Hayes 1200 479 

1200B 399 

MM lie 249 

300 baud 199 

Novation Apple Cat 2 259 

Promodem1200 SCALL 

Signalman Mark I 81 

MarkX 210 

XII 279 

VolksModem300baud ...59 



m 

apple 

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MACINTOSH. ..Call 



MONTH'S SPECIALS 

JuKi 6100 S449 

Gemini 10X SCALL 

Gemini 15X $389 

Word w/ Mouse . ..$269 
Slim Line Drive 

Apple/IBM $189 



PC 64K 

2-Drives, Controller 

Color* Monochrome, 

Parallel Port 

$2455 

IBM XT $4295 

Call for Special Deals ! 



APPLE PRODUCTS 

Micro Sci A2 Drives 1 99 

Rana Elite I 219 

Teac Drive 210 

Chinon Drive 189 

Videx 80 col w/softswitch.1 89 

Ultraterm 289 

Grappler+ 119 

WesperFull Graphics 79 

Buffered 16K.... 139 

16K Ram 67 

System Saver Fan 69 

Microsoft Prem lie 289 

SoftcardCPM..229 

Multiplan 179 

MAC Multiplan 139 

Basic 109 

Apricorn Serial Card 69 

Koala Graphic Tablet 79 

Z-80Card 59 



IBM PRODUCTS 

TandonTM 100-2 219 

Panasonic 320K 179 

Teac 55B 320K 189 

STBGraphix Plus 259 

RIO+ 259 

Super RIO 279 

Microsoft Multiplan 179 

64KRam 149 

Flight Sim 39 

Lotus 1-2-3 289 

AST 6 Pak 269 

Mega+ 269 

Quadboard EK 219 



WE SUPPORT THESE FINE SYSTEMS: 
Altos, Apple, Columbia, Compaq, 
Corona, DEC, Epson, IBM, KayPro, 
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b/84 



Computer Price 

Club 
714 841-6160 

14783 Beach Blvd. 
Huntington Beach, CF) 92447 



EVENT QUEUE 



[continued from page 101) 

ford, MA 01730. (617) 276-4572. 

\uly-September 

• DEC SEMINARS 
Technical and Management 
Seminars for Professionals, vari- 
ous sites in the U.S. Subject 
areas: system-performance man- 
agement, networking, personal 
computing, applications design 
and programming, real-time ap- 
plications design, and manage- 
ment development. On-site 
seminars can be arranged. Con- 
tact Educational Services. Digital 
Equipment Corp., Seminar Pro- 
grams BUO/E58. 12 Crosby Dr.. 
Bedford. MA 01730. (617) 276- 
4949. \uly-September 

• HIGH-TECH TUTORIALS 
Tutorial Short Courses from 
Hellman Associates, various 
sites in the U.S. Among the 
courses offered are "VLSI 
Design," "Digital Control." and 
"Error Correction." Fees are 
generally $895. Contact Hellman 
Associates Inc., Suite 300. 299 
California Ave, Palo Alto, CA 
94306, (415) 328-4091. 
July-October 

• PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION 
Seminars from the Institute for 
Professional Education, various 
sites in the U.S. Programs in 
statistics, management, simula- 
tion and modeling, personal 
computers, and computer 
science. Contact the Institute for 
Professional Education. POB 
756. Arlington. VA 22216, (703) 
527-8700. \uly-December 



• COMMODORE DISSECTED 
Commodore College '84. Bran- 
don University. Manitoba, Can- 
ada. Workshops on graphics, 
sound, file handling, disk tech- 
niques, and 6502 machine lan- 
guage. Contact Faculty of Edu- 
cation. Brandon University. Bran- 
don, Manitoba R7A 6A9. 
Canada. (204) 728-9520. ]uly 1-6 

• PC SHOW IN IJONDON 
The 1984 PC User Show. 
Novotel, London. England. 
Devoted to the IBM Personal 
Computer. More than 100 ex- 
hibits. Contact Geoff Dickinson. 
EMAP International Exhibitions 
Ltd.. 8 Herbal Hill. London 
ECIB I PA. England; tel: 01 837 
3699. ]uly 3-5 

• WOMEN AND COMPUTING 
The Third Annual National Con- 



ference of the Association for 
Women in Computing Confer- 
ence, Holiday Inn Center Strip, 
Las Vegas. NV The conference 
theme is "Choice or Chance in 
Computing Careers." Contact 
Patricia Timpanaro, AWCC '84 
Registration. 40 Main St. 
Number 206. Stoneham. MA 
02180. July 8 

• NCC 

The 1984 National Computer 
Conference— NCC. Convention 
Center, Las Vegas, NV. Profes- 
sional-development seminars, 
more than 650 exhibits, and 
nearly 100 technical sessions. 
Contact the American Federa- 
tion of Information Processing 
Societies Inc., 1899 Preston 
White Dr., Reston, VA 22091. 
(703) 620-8926. ]uly 9-12 

• FIBER-OPTIC METHODS 
Fiber and Integrated Optics, San 
Diego. CA. Course topics: 
single- and multimode fiber 
cabling, photo detectors, re- 
ceiver and repeater technology, 
and optical-fiber sensors. The 
fee is $875. Contact Continuing 
Engineering Education. George 
Washington University, Washing- 
ton. DC 20052, (800) 424-9773;' 
in the District of Columbia. 
(202) 676-6106. }uly 9-13 

• SPECIAL EDUCATION 
INSTITUTE, Microcomputers in 
Special Education: Today's Chal- 
lenge, Lesley College. Cam- 
bridge. MA. Subjects: Logo, 
software evaluation, administra- 
tive applications, and model 
programs. Technical expertise 
not required. Contact loy Nikkei. 
Lesley College. 29 Everett St.. 
Cambridge. MA 02238. (617) 
868-9600. )uly 16-20 

• SIMULATION CONFERENCE 
Summer Computer Simulation 
Conference-SCSC '84. Copley 
Plaza Hotel. Boston. MA. Tech- 
nical sessions, papers, panel 
discussions, exhibits, and 
tutorials. Contact Charles Pratt. 
Simulation Councils Inc.. POB 
2228, La Jolla, CA 92038. (619) 
459-3888. July 23-25 

• SIGGRAPH 

ACM SIGGRAPH "84. Minne- 
apolis. MN. Technical papers, 
panel discussions, a design 
show, film and video presenta- 
tions, and nearly 30 courses. 
Contact SIGGRAPH '84 Confer- 
ence Office, 1 1 1 East Wacker 

(continued on page 104) 



102 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



Circle 79 on inquiry card. 













*&£*"■ 

«*»*. 



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Cort'^ctea^eO* 



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Circle 207 on inquiry card. 
'IBM is a trademark of the International Business Machines Corporation. 
"COMPAQ is a trademark of the COMPAQ Computer Corporation. 




LMC's 
32-Bit Virtual] 
Memory MegaMicro 
Is The-State-Of-The-Art 
UNIX Microcomputer 



LMC's 32-bit MegaMicro provides mainframe 
or super-minicomputer performance at prices com- 
petitive with today's far less powerful 8- and 16-bit 
microcomputers. This is made possible by use of 
the next generation of logic chips-the National 
Semiconductor 16000-series. LMC MegaMicros 
incorporate: the NS16032 central processing unit 
which has true 32 -bit internal logic and internal data 
path configured on the IEEE 796 multibus; 
demand-paged virtual memory implemented in 
hardware; and hardware 64-bit double-precision 
floating-point arithmetic. 

The LMC MegaMicro is supplied with HCR's 
UNITY* which is a full implementation of UNIX** 
and includes the Berkeley 4.1 enhancements to 
take advantage of demand-paged virtual memory. 
Also included are C and FORTRAN. Typical multi- 
user systems with 33 megs, of fast (30 ms. average 
access time) Winchester disk storage, a half meg. 
of RAM, virtual memory, hardware floating-point 
arithmetic, UNIX, C, and FORTRAN 77 are avail- 
able for $20,000 (and even less with quantity or 
OEM discounts). 

* UNITY i s a Trademark of Human Computing Resources. 
"UNIX is a IVademark of Bell Laboratories. 

LMC MegaMicros The Logical Alternative™ 



EVENT QUEUE 



uvc 



The Logical Microcomputer Company 

4200 W. Diversey, Chicago, IL 60639 (312) 282.9667 

R II. A member of The Marmon Group of companies 



[continued from page 102) 

Dr., Chicago, IL 60601. (312) 

644-6610. }uly 23-27 

• INTERFACING TIPS FOR 
TEACHERS. Microcomputer- 
based Instrumentation for 
Schools. Middletown. OH. An 
introductory, hands-on workshop 
for college and secondary 
teachers. Contact Bill Rouse, 301 
McGuffey Hall. Miami University, 
Oxford. OH 4 5056. (513) 529- 
2141. July 23-August 2 

• MICROS IN EDUCATION 
Stanford Institute on Microcom- 
puters in Education, Stanford 
University, Stanford. CA. See 
lune 2 5— July 27. ]uly 3Q~August 31 

August 1984 

• SCHOOL COMPUTER 
COORDINATORS. The Comput- 
er: Extension of the Human 
Mind. Center for Advanced 
Technology in Education. Uni- 
versity of Oregon. Eugene. For 
individuals responsible for the 
use of computers and emerging 
technologies at the school and 
district levels. Pre- and post- ' 
conference workshops. Registra- 
tion is $95. Contact Summer 
Conference Office. College of 
Education. University of Ore- 
gon. Eugene. OR 97403. 
August 1-3. 

• SHOW FOR TARHEELS 
Great Southern Computer Show. 
Civic Center. Charlotte. NC. 
Hardware, software, peripherals, 
and accessories for the home 
and office. Seminars and work- 
shops. Contact Great Southern 
Computer Shows. POB 655, 
Jacksonville. FL 32201. (904) 
356-1044, August 2-4 

• HOME AND OFFICE 
The First Annual Tampa Bay 
Computer Show & Office Equip- 
ment Exposition. Curtis Hixon 
Convention Center, Tampa. FL. 
Hardware, software, accessories, 
and peripherals for industry and 
home. Contact CompuShows 
Inc.. POB 3315. Annapolis. MD 
21403. (800) 368-2066; in An- 
napolis. (301) 263-8044; in 
Baltimore. 269- 7694; in the 
District of Columbia. 261-1047. 
August 2-5 

• Al INVESTIGATED 

The National Conference on Ar- 
tificial Intelligence. Performing 



Arts Center. University of Texas. 
Austin. Seminars, exhibits, and 
panel discussions. Registration 
for American Association for 
Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 
members is $100; nonmembers 
pay $140. Contact Claudia C. 
Mazzetti. AAAI. 445 Burgess 
Dr.. Menlo Park. CA 9402 5. 
(415) 328-3123. August 6-10 

• COMPUTERS IN ENGINEER- 
ING. The 1984 ASME Interna- 
tional Computers in Engineering 
Conference and Exhibit. Hilton 
Hotel. Las Vegas. NV; More than 
60 panel discussions and paper 
sessions. Product exhibits. Con- 
tact American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers. 34 5 East 
47th St.. New York. NY 10017, 
(212) 705-7100. August 12-16 

• MICROS & VOC ED 
Microcomputers and High 'Iech- 
nology in Vocational Education 
Conference, Vocational Studies 
Center. University of Wisconsin. 
Madison. Concurrent sessions, 
formal classes, presentations, 
speeches, and videotaped pro- 
grams. Preregistration fee is 
$55. or $65 at the door. Con- 
tact Dr. Judith Rodenstein. 964 
Educational Sciences Building. 
University of Wisconsin. 102 5 
West Johnson St.. Madison, WI 
53706, (608) 263-4367. 

August 13-16 

• COMPUTERS AND BIOIjOGY. 
The Fourth Annual Notre Dame 
Short Course Series: Computers 
in Biology. University of Notre 
Dame. Notre Dame. IN. See 
June 18-22. August 13-17 

• GRAPHICS & CONSTRUC- 
TION. The Third International 
Conference and Exposition on 
Computers/Graphics in the 
Building Process. BP '84, Embar- 
cadero Center, Hyatt Regency. 
San Francisco. CA. Tutorials, 
plenaries. and technical sessions 
will focus on the theme "The 
Building Process in Transition." 
Contact Conference Director. BP 
'84, Suite 333. 2033 M St. NW. 
Washington. DC 20036. (202) 
775-9556. August 19-23 

• PCB TECHNICAL SEMINAR 
The 1984 Printed Circuit Fabri- 
cation Technical Seminar. Bos- 
ton. MA. Contact Donna 
Esposito, PMS Industries. 62 5 
Sims Industrial Blvd.. Alpharetta. 
GA 30201. (404) 475-1818. 
August 27-29 ■ 



104 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 194 on inquiry card. 



Introducing the Most Powerful 
Business Software Ever! 

TRS-80 T " (Model I, II, III, or 16) • APPLE™ • IBM™ • OSBORNE™ • CP/M™ • XEROX™ 








The VersaBusiness" Series 

Each VERSABUSINESS module can be purchased and used independently, 
or can be linked in any combination to form a complete, coordinated business system. 



VERSAReCEIVABLES™ $99.95 

VERSaRecEIVAB ES t " is a complete menu-driven accounts receivable, invoicing, and 
monthly statement-generating system. It keeps track of all information related to who 
owes you or your company money, and can provide automatic billing for past due ac- 
counts. VERSARECEIVABLES™ prints all necessary statements, invoices, and summary 
reports and can be linked with VERSALEDGER II th and VERSA INVENTORY'". 

VERSAPAYABLES™ $99.95 

VERSAPAYABLES™ is designed to keep track of current and aged payables, keeping you 
in touch with all information regarding how much money your company owes, and to 
whom. VERSAPAYABLES™ maintains a complete record on each vendor, prints checks, 
check registers, vouchers, transaction reports, aged payables reports, vendor reports, 
and more. With VERSAPAYABLES™, you can even let your computer automatically select 
which vouchers are to be paid. 

VERSAPAYROLL™ $99.95 

VersaPaVROH.™ is a powerful and sophisticated, but easy to use payroll system that 
keeps track of all government-required payroll information. Complete employee records 
are maintained, and all necessary payroll calculations are performed automatically, with 
totals displayed on screen for operator approval. A payroll ean be run totally, automati- 
cally, or the operator qan intervene to prevent a check (torn being printed, or to alter 
info mation on it. If desired, totals may be posted to the VERSALEDGER IT" system. 

VERSAlNVENTORY™ $99.95 

VERSAlNVENTORY" is a complete inventory control system that gives you instant access 
to data on any item. VERSAlNVENTORY'" keeps track of all information related to what 
items are in stock, out of stock, on backorder, etc., stores sales and pricing data, alerts 
you when an item falls below a preset reorder point, and allows you to enter and print 
invoices directly or to link with the VERSA RECEIVABLES™ system. VERSAlNVENTORY™ prints 
all needed inventory listings, reports of items below reorder point, inventory value re- 
ports, period and year-to-date sales reports, price lists, inventory checklists, etc. 

ICQKIRJTHQWllSi 

50 N. PASCACK ROAD, SPRING VALLEY, N.Y. 10977 



VERSALEDGER II™ $149.95 

VersaI-EDGER II™ is a complete accounting system that grows as your business 
grows. VersaI-EDGER II™ can be used as a simple personal checkbook register, 
expanded to a small business bookkeeping system or developed into a large 
corporate general ledger system without any additional software. 

• VERSA I-EDGER II™ gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

(300 to 10,000 entries per month, depending on the system), 

• stores all check and general ledger information forever, 

• prints tractor-feed checks, 

• handles multiple checkbooks and general ledgers, 

• prints 17 customized accounting reports including check registers, 
balance sheets, income statements, transaction reports, account 
listings, etc. 

VersaI-EDGER II™ comes with a professionally-written 160 page manual de- 
signed for first-time users. The VERSALEDGER II™ manual will help you become 
quickly familiar with VersaI-EDGER 11™, using complete sample data files 
supplied on diskette and more than 50 pages of sample printouts. 



SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! 



Every VERSABUSINESS™ module is guaranteed to outperform all other competitive systems, 
and at a fraction of their cost. If you are not satisfied with any VERSABUSINESS'" module, you 
may return it within 30 days for a refund. Manuals for any VERSA BUSINESS'" module may be 
purchased for $25 each, credited toward a later purchase of that module. 



To Order: 

Write or call Toll-free (800) 43 1-28 18 

(N.Y.S. residents call 9 14-425- 1535) 

* add $3 for shipping in UPS areas * add $5 to CANADA or MEXICO 

* add $4 for COD. or non-UPS areas * add proper postage elsewhere 



DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 

All prices and specifications subject to change / Delivery subject to availability. 



* TRS-80 is a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp. • *APPLE is a trademark of Apple Corp. ■ *IBM is a trademark of IBM Corp. ■ *OSBORNE is a trademark of Osborne Corp. 

*CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research - *XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp. 



THE ESSENTIALS 

CompuPro Disk Subsystems 

When it comes to answering your data storage needs, CompuPro has the essential 
components. Like our Floppy and Hard Disk Subsystems with Disk 3™ and Disk 1A™ 
controllers- They're the IEEE 696/S-100 products that will keep you and your system on 
the cutting edge of computing for years to come. Each reflects the most advanced 
technology available. And that's what you've come to expect from CompuPro. Because 
we've built our reputation on quality components like these for more than a decade. 



^^|^|X ^ ££!** ° ur h 'gh-P er fo rmance floppy disk controller handles any combination of up to 
L^l JIV I #\ ■ four 8" or 5 ] A" drives. The Disk 1A is perfectly suited for the highest level single 
or multi-user microcomputer system. It features state-of-the-art LSI architecture, high-speed DMA interface, 
and complete compatibility with CP/M-80™, CP/M-86? CP/M-68K™, CP/M'8-16™, MP/M™8-16™, and 
Concurrent CP/M™8-16™ operating systems. 

^^■Q|X y ■ Our hard disk controller, which supports as many as four 5 ] A" Winchester drives, 

L/I^IX «3 ■ achieves new levels of performance for multi-tasking systems. The Disk 3's 

many features include transfer of each disk sector using high speed "burst mode" DMA, 

and a channel processor for independent seeking, reading and writing, as well as 

the capability to transfer large blocks of data between disk and memory 

w/'th a single command. Compatible with the same operating 

systems as Disk 1A. 





*M 



\**\\>S 



mm* 



OF DATA STORAGE 



FLOPPY/ 

HARD DISK 

SUBSYSTEMS: 




Here's the essential peripheral for your micro- 
computer. Choose from a wide range of models 
to obtain the perfect disk subsystem for your ap- 
plication. We offer combinations of 20, 40 or 80Mb 
hard disks, with either a single 8" floppy drive or two 
5 ] A" floppy drives to give you maximum flexibility in a 
single unit. Or you can have a unit containing two hard 
disks or two floppy drives. It's all up to you. Hard disks are 
manufactured by Quantum, and double-sided, double-density 
floppy drives by Qume and Mitsubishi ... all are assembled in our 
famous disk enclosure. These packages can also be purchased with- 
out controllers and software for those upgrading their current system. 

You can learn even more about making the most of 

your microcomputer by sending for our free catalog. In 

it, you'll find components and systems that can improve 

the way you work. And why CompuPro is essential to you. 



The Essential Computer 



See us at NCC booth #H854. 



CompuPro. 



A GODBOUT COMPANY 

3506 Breakwater Court, Hayward, CA 94545 

(415) 786-0909 

Circle 70 on inquiry card. 

CP/M and CP/M-86 are registered trademarks and;CP/M-80 and CP/M-68K are trademarks of Digital Research Inc. CP/M 8-I6. MP/M 8-I6 and Concurrent CP/M 8-16 are compound trademarks 
of Digital Research Inc. and CompuPro. Disk 1A, Disk 3 and The Essential Computer are trademarks of CompuPro. Specifications subject to change without notice. ©1984 CompuPro 



BITE 



Features 



The HP 110 

by Ezra Shapiro Ill 

Trump Card, Part 2 : Software 

by Steve Garcia 115 

Faster FORTH 

by Ronald L. Greene 12 7 

An Ada Language Primer 

by Sabina H. Saib 131 

Macintosh Pascal 

by G. Michael Vose 1 36 

Build a Printer Buffer 

by )ohn Bono 142 

Apple FAX: Weather Maps on a 
Video Screen 

by Keith H. Sueker 146 

Spreadsheet in BASIC 

by Rodolfo Cerati 154 



ALTHOUGH BYTE'S LOOK and organization change this month, the Feature section will 
continue to offer a range of topics: previews of innovative machines and software, tech- 
niques for using hardware and software, and in-depth explanations of how important 
technologies work. We welcome Steve Ciarcia to the Feature section effective this issue. 
The originality and diversity of Steve's popular construction projects rival those of some 
large manufacturing companies. 

West Coast editor Ezra Shapiro opens the Feature section this month with a preview of 
the impressive Hewlett-Packard battery-powered portable computer, the HP 110. Small and 
light, the HP 110 packs powerful software into its ROM, including Lotus 1-2-3 and a text 
editor. The HP 1 10 accelerates the trend toward self-contained, truly personal (carry it with 
you everywhere) productivity tools. 

Next, Steve Ciarcia completes his tale about turning the IBM PC into a personal minicom- 
puter. "I know BASIC." Steve recently said, "and I don't want to learn any other high-level 
language." But Steve didn't resign himself to plodding through life at interpreter speeds 
The Z8000 'Ihimp Card lets Steve run BASIC and other software on the IBM PC at lightning 
speeds. This second and final part of the 'IVump Card article describes its software. 

Ronald L. Greene follows with a lucid article that explains how macro substitution for 
the executable portions of words can make subroutine-threaded compilers produce faster 
code. Greene's article addresses reducing overhead in threaded interpreted languages and 
shows how to make FORTH run faster. 

The monolith called the Department of Defense has given us Agent Orange and the F - - 111 
bomber in recent years. As of January 1 , 1984, it insists that Ada is the new computer language 
of the military-industrial complex. Whether this is bad or good, we offer this month the 
first installment of a two-part Ada primer written by Sabina H. Saib. 

An interpreted version of Pascal will soon debut as Macintosh Pascal. Our product preview 
reveals that a company called Think Technologies produced this full implementation of 
the language combining BASIC'S interactiveness and Pascal's structure to provide a power- 
ful teaching language 

We've put John Bono to work on the hardware front, designing a low-cost printer buffer 
that you can build over a weekend. The result of John's effort is an article that'll help you 
build a device that frees your computer from periods of servitude to your printer. 

In what may develop into a technique we'll all use some day, Keith H. Sueker explains 
how he receives radio-transmitted weather maps and displays the resulting data on a video 
monitor using his Apple computer. His article, called 'Apple FAX: Weather Maps on a Video 
Screen." includes a screen photograph proving that the technique is a workable one. The 
hardware needed is inexpensive and the software relatively simple. 

After last month's look at structured, incrementally-compiled BASIC, this month Rodolfo 
Cerati shows you how to write a spreadsheet in old-fashioned BASIC, in an article that reveals 
some interesting programming techniques. 

— G. Michael Vose, Senior Technical Editor, Features 



JUNE 1984 'BYTE 109 



I 



h 

.1 m 





m 



newLETT 

PACKARD 






PREVIEW 





A light and powerful portable 



IN THE BATTLE for dominance in the 
growing market for lightweight, 
battery-powered, briefcase-size port- 
able computers. Hewlett-Packard has 
unveiled its new model, the HP 1 10. 
The unit is outwardly similar to many 
of its competitors— it's about the size 
of a metropolitan phone directory 
and has a flip-up LCD (liquid-crystal 
display) screen that lifts to uncover a 
typewriter-style keyboard. But two 
aspects of the design philosophy 
behind the 1 10 help set it apart from 
the crowd. 

First, the 110's combination of 
abundant internal memory and sili- 
con-based software makes it an ex- 
tremely satisfactory traveling com- 
puter, freeing you from a large part 
of the dependence on disks and 
other cumbersome storage media. 
Second, the HP 1 10 was seen from 
the very first as the hub of an inte- 
grated system of components, an 



ideal that has been realized with the 
concurrent announcement of related 
products from Hewlett-Packard (see 
photo I). 

The guts of the computer are built 
around the Harris 80C86, a CMOS 
(complementary metal-oxide semi- 
conductor) version of the popular 
8086 microprocessor chip, running at 
5.33 MHz (megahertz). Available 
memory consists of 272 K bytes of 
CMOS RAM (random-access read/ 
write memory), which you can divide 
between system RAM and electronic 
disk emulation, and a whopping 
384K bytes of CMOS ROM (read-only 
memory). System RAM can range 
from a minimum of 96K bytes to a 
ilext continued on page 112) 

Ezra Shapiro is a technical editor at BYTE's 
West Coast bureau. He can be reached at 
McGraw-Hill, 425 Battery St., San Fran- 
cisco, CA 94111. 



by Ezra Shapiro 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

HP 110 

Type 

Portable computer with built-in 300-bps 
modem 

Manufacturer 

Hewlett-Packard Corporation 
11000 Wolfe Rd. 
Cupertino. CA 95014 
(800) 367-4772 

Processor 

Harris CMOS 80C86 

Memory 

272K bytes CMOS RAM. user-definable as 
RAM or solid-state disk; 384K bytes CMOS 
ROM 

Data Storage 

RAM-based disk emulator; no internal 
drives 

Size 

13 by 10 by 3 inches; 9 pounds 

Display 

LCD, 16 lines by 80 characters; graphics 
resolution. 480 by 128 pixels 

Power Supply 

Rechargeable lead-acid batteries, rated 20 
hours 

Software Provided 

MS-DOS 2.01. Personal Applications 
Manager. Lotus 1-2-3. Memomaker (word 
processor), terminal and communications 
packages 

Price 

$2995 

Options 

Thinkjet (HP 222 5B) ink-jet printer. HP 9114 
single 3!4-inch disk drive. IBM PC/HPIL 
interface card with HPLINK software, 
various Hewlett-Packard interface converters 



[text continued from page 111) 
maximum of 256K bytes. Onboard 
ROM contains an assortment of soft- 
ware, including HP's Personal Applica- 
tions Manager (a shell-style user inter- 
face). MS-DOS version 2.01 (the oper- 
ating system itself plus a collection of 
utilities for file management, directory 
maintenance, disk formatting, etc.), 
Lotus 1-2-3. Memomaker (a simple 
word-processing program), and a timer/ 
alarm program. Also contained in ROM 
is the communications software to drive 
the computer's three output ports: an 
RS-232C serial interface, a proprietary 
HP1L (Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop) 
interface, and a built-in 300-bps (bits per 
second) modem that accepts a standard 
phone plug (see photo 2). There is no 
internal disk storage, but the battery- 
powered CMOS chips are essentially 
nonvolatile; that is, you can turn off the 
display and come back to the computer 
a week later and pick up exactly where 
you left off. 

Hewlett-Packard manufactures its own 
CMOS ROM and RAM chips at Corval- 
lis. Oregon, home of the division that 
has been producing hand-held com- 
puters and calculators for several years. 
Designers of the 110 took advantage of 
this facility to engineer two other CMOS 
chips for this project: an LCD controller 
with 8K bytes of display ROM, software 
fonts for the character generator, and 
bit-mapping for graphics; and another 
81<-byte ROM chip, known as "the kitch- 
en sink," that includes the timer, inter- 
rupts, serial port, and keyboard inter- 
face. These efforts resulted in a main 
printed-circuit board and an I/O (input/ 
output) board with lower chip counts 
than you might expect. The final boards 
are not tightly packed; descendants of 
the 110 will have room for more in- 
teresting goodies. 

The display is an 80-character by 
16-line LCD. though the large expanse 
of plastic bezel around the screen sug- 
gests the possibility of a bigger display 
in the indeterminate future. In fact, HP 
engineers commented that they had 
looked at 24-line screens but had de- 
cided that product reliability and image 
quality were still too uncertain to make 
them acceptable at this time. You can 
select two character fonts: Hewlett- 
Packard's and an alternate set compat- 
ible with that of the IBM Personal Com- 
puter (PC). You can program the display 
in graphics mode as a grid of 480 by 
128 pixels (picture elements). This is 
relatively high resolution, particularly 
for an LCD. and is suitable for most 
types of business graphics. Brightness 
(actually, darkness in this case) can be 



controlled with a single key on the right 
side of the keyboard. Characters and 
graphics are sharp, and screen updates 
are quite rapid. 

The 1 10's keyboard is laid out in the 
standard Selectric format (i.e., the Return 
and Shift keys are in the old familiar 
locations) and has a full complement of 
computer keys: Control, Break/Stop. 
Escape/Delete. Caps Lock, and Print/ 
Enter. A key labeled "Extend char" gen- 
erates a non-ASCII (American National 
Standard Code for Information Inter- 
change) character and is equivalent to 
the Alt key of the IBM PC. An additional 
row of keys along the top of the key- 
board includes eight soft (determined 
by individual programs) function keys, 
two menu keys that generate or remove 
a map of the function keys from the bot- 
tom three lines of the screen, a Select 
key that chooses a highlighted option 
within a program, and four cursor- 
movement keys. There is no separate 
numeric keypad. 

The rechargeable lead-acid batteries 
that power the 110 are rated at 20 hours 
of continuous use. In actual practice, the 
1 10 can go for a week or more of 
sporadic use before the batteries 
become dangerously weak. The system 
is designed to preserve memory at all 
costs. The display is the major power 
drain, and the computer shuts it off at 
a preset interval of inactivity; you can 
choose an interval of anywhere from 30 
seconds to 30 minutes. When the bat- 
teries reach 5 percent of capacity, the 
1 10 refuses to turn on the display until 
they've been recharged. If the 1 10 is not 
used at all, you can expect a couple of 
months on a single charge. 

The unit is a compact device with a 
high-impact molded plastic shell, mea- 
suring 13 by 10 by 3 inches (closed); its 
color is the typical nondescript off- 
white. It weighs in at 9 pounds. The 
basic package includes a plug-in re- 
charger (similar to those used for other 
portable products) and a black vinyl car- 
rying case with a handle and a wide, ad- 
justable shoulder strap. 

The HP 1 10 is tested to rather severe 
standards. However, the Hewlett- 
Packard quality-control staff stresses 
that these are goals rather than ab- 
solute guarantees for each machine: 
to 50 degrees Celsius for operation. 
-25 to 5 5 degrees for storage, and 95 
percent humidity for five days at 40 
degrees. The units are also put through 
condensation, moisture absorption, and 
rapid temperature cycling tests. HP 1 10s 
have withstood altitudes of 50.000 feet 
and forces of 100 G on all axes. The fact 
that there are no sensitive internal 



12 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



drives— no moving parts at all. with the 
exception of the keys and the lid hinges 
and latches— makes the 1 10 an extreme- 
ly rugged computer. All units must pass 
FCC Class B limits on electromagnetic 
interference; Hewlett-Packard is working 
with the FAA to end the controversy 
over computer use on commercial air- 
liners and to establish hard, published 
standards for portable computer 
radiation. 

The Software 

When you first open the HP 110. the 
screen is blank; pressing any key activ- 
ates the display. The first time you use 
the computer, you will see Hewlett- 
Packard's Personal Applications Man- 
ager (RAM), modified somewhat from 
the original version distributed with the 
HP 1 50 touchscreen personal computer 
(see photo 3). Subsequently, turning on 
the display returns you to where you 
were the last time you used the com- 
puter. RAM is an operating-system shell; 
most file manipulation and system con- 
figuration is accomplished through 
RAM's main or subsidiary menus. 

The initial PAM screen shows a num- 
ber of important status items: date. time, 
remaining battery life, and space avail- 
able on the electronic disk drive (called 
the A: drive). Most of the display is used 
to show the applications you can run. 
At the outset, these applications are 
those programs resident in ROM (called 
the B: drive); if at some point you load 
programs into the RAM disk, those pro- 
grams are also displayed on the screen. 
Moving the cursor to a program and 
pressing either the first function key 
(Start Applic) or the Select key loads 
and runs the program. Data files are not 
listed. 

The second function key (File Man- 
ager) leads to a secondary shell. The 
File Manager displays all the files in the 
default directory and a list of alternate 
directories. On this screen, the function 
keys enable you to print or delete a file 
or a directory, create a new directory 
(following MS-DOS path rules), choose 
a new directory to display, copy a file, 
rename a file, or format a new disk 
(more on this later in the section on 
peripherals). The File Manager serves as 
the shell for most of the MS-DOS main- 
tenance commands. 

The third function key (Clock Config) 
provides access to the clock configura- 
tion commands, letting you reset the 
time and the date. The fourth key 
(Reread Discs) rescans the directories 
and updates the PAM screen. The fifth 
function key (Datacom Config) leads to 
a menu for setting the parameters (com- 



munications rate, word length, stop bits, 
parity, protocol) for the HP1L interface 
and either the modem or the RS-232C 
serial port (you can't run these two out- 
puts simultaneously). 

The sixth function key brings up the 
system configuration menu (see photo 
4). Here, you can allocate system mem- 
ory and RAM-disk space, indicate the 
number of external disk drives plugged 
into the computer, select a read-after- 
write verification of disk action, set the 
display time-out interval, choose be- 
tween a block or an underscore cursor, 
select the character set. determine the 
length of the warning beep, and con- 
figure the printer interface. 

Pressing the seventh key. either from 
the main PAM menu or from any of the 
secondary menus, produces a menu for 
a series of detailed Help screens on all 
operations of the HP 110 (see photo 5). 
The eighth key returns you to the main 
menu from a secondary menu; if ac- 



tivated from the main menu, the key 
shuts off the display. 

The four applications programs listed 
by PAM include Memomaker, Lotus 
1-2-3. Terminal, and DOS Commands. 
Memomaker is a rudimentary word pro- 
cessor developed by Hewlett-Packard 
for quick notes, brief business corres- 
pondence, and ASCII program script 
files (such as the scripts PAM uses to 
trigger the alarm or run a program at 
a specific date and time). If you're ac- 
customed to working with a full-fledged 
word-processing program, you might 
find Memomaker severely lacking in so- 
phistication, particularly when it comes 
to formatted output. 

Lotus 1-2-3. on the other hand, is a 
delight to use (see photo 6). Maximum 
system memory enables use of a 
spreadsheet with 2048 by 5 1 2 cells, cer- 
tainly more than adequate for most 
modeling problems. Because everything 
[text continued on page 414) 




Photo 1: The HP 110 links to two optional battery-powered peripherals, the HP 222 5 B 
ink-jet dot-matrix printer and, the HP 9114 single Vh-inch disk drive. 




Photo 2: The back view of the HP 110. Shown from left to right are the two connections 
for the HP1L serial interface, the socket for the plug-in recharger, a nine-pin RS-232C port, 
and a modular phone jack for the internal modem. The removable panel in the center 
provides access to the lead-acid batteries. 



IUNE 1984 -BYTE 



With Microfazer, you 
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Microfazer there's no more But Microfazer remembere 

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Compute while you print buffer. Features that includi 
Microfazer stores data from your memory expansion to 512K 
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speed. Because Microfazer 
remembers exactly what 






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CIARCIA'S 
CIRCUIT CELLAR 

Trump Card 
Part 2: Software 



TBASIC and 

C compilers 

and an 



by Steve Garcia 



Last month, we looked at the hardware 
of the lYump Card, a coprocessor 
board for use with the IBM Personal 
Computer (PC) or compatible computers. The 
presentation centered mainly on the Zilog 
Z8000's processor architecture, the support 
aSSembler c i rcuitr y. an d *he interface between the Z8000 
and the Intel 8088. But the power of the 
lYump Card can be unleashed only by the 
right software. This month. I'll describe the col- 
lection of software I've assembled for the 
TYump Card from several sources— most of it 
designed to support further program devel- 
opment. Let's first quickly review the features 
of the TYump Card. 

What is the Trump Card? 

The TYump Card (see photo I) is a printed- 
circuit board that plugs into any I/O (input/out- 
put) expansion slot of an IBM PC, an IBM PC 
XT, or any computer compatible with them. 
It contains a Zilog Z8001 16-/16-bit micropro- 
cessor (the memory-segmented version of the 
Z8000) running at 10 MHz and up to 512K 
bytes of RAM (random-access read/write 
memory). The TYump Card communicates with 
the PC's built-in 8088 processor through a 
256-byte FIFO (first-in/first-out) buffer. 

A variety of software is available for the 
TYump Card. The most important, from my 
point of view, is the language system for its 
special version of BASIC. As you would 
expect, the TYump Card's TBASIC compiler 
excels at making user programs run fast, but 
it's also so easy to use that it makes some 
interpreted versions of BASIC look clumsy. 
The source language accepted by the TBASIC 
compiler is nearly identical with that of the 
IBM PCs Advanced BASIC interpreter 
(BASICA) and includes a few enhancements, 
such as compilation of programs larger than 
64K bytes. 

Other software included with the TYump 
Card follows: 

• CP/M-80 emulator. The TYump Card can 
run programs designed to run under 
Digital Research's CP/M-80 DOS (disk 
operating system) by emulating the 8-bit 
Z80 instruction set and DOS calls. No 



special file headers or instruc- 
tion-translation programs are required. 

• C compiler. The source language ac- 
cepted by this compiler follows that of Ker- 
nighan and Ritchie with a few minor dif- 
ferences (see reference 6). 

• Screen editor. Incorporating many of the 
features normally found only in word-pro- 
cessing packages, the screen editor, called 
EE. enables you to write or examine ASCII 
(American National Standard Code for In- 
formation Interchange) text files for use 
either with the TYump Card or in the nor- 
mal IBM PC environment. 

• Y multilevel-language compiler. The 
unusual Y language system is essentially 
a structured assembler that enables 
Pascal-like control constructs and data 
types, arithmetic expressions with 
automatic or specified allocations of 
registers, and procedure calls with 
parameter passing. 

• Debugger. With the debugger, you can 
examine and replace the contents of 
memory and registers, set breakpoints, or 
single-step through programs. Intended to 
aid in program development, the debug- 
ger is an integral part of Y. 

• Semiconductor disk emulator. Under 
versions of PC-DOS equal to or higher 
than 2.0, TVump Card can allocate 128Kto 
387 K bytes of its on-board RAM to func- 
tion as a RAM disk or disk emulator. This 
memory is separate from the memory 
already existing on the PC's motherboard 
or other expansion boards and resides in 
the Z8000's separate address space. The 
Trump Card can run another function con- 
currently with the disk emulator. 

[text continued on page 1 1 6) 

Copyright (c) 1984 Steven A. Ciarcia. All rights 
reserved. 

Steve Ciarcia [pronounced "see-ARE-see-ah") is an elec- 
tronics engineer and computer consultant with experience 
in process control, digital design, nuclear instrumenta- 
tion, and product development. In addition to writing 
for BYTE, fie has published several books. He can be 
contacted at POB 582, Glastonbury, CT 06033. 



IUNE 1984 • BYTE 115 



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^:fTV 



TBASIC is a new 
version of the 
BASIC language bringing the trump card up 



Photo I : The soldered prototype pr'mted-circuit version of Trump Card. RAM sockets are at 
left, EPROMs are top center, and the Z800 1 and support chips fill the remainder of the 
board. 



[text continued from page 115) 



that looks like an 

interpreter and 

executes like 

a compiler. 



To initialize the Trump Card run a pro- 
gram called LDZSYS.COM from PC-DOS. 
When it has completed setting up the 
TYump Card and installing the device 
driver needed by PC-DOS to communi- 
cate with it. LDZSYS returns control to 
PC-DOS and the host 8088 processor, 
with the Z8000 awaiting further instruc- 
tions. Example I in the text box on page 
1 18 contains examples of this and other 
typical user commands (in italics) and 
the system's response (in roman type). 
The operation of the TYump Card is 
transparent to programs running on the 
host 8088. (If you think that you will 
always want the Trump Card's capabili- 
ties available, you can add a line con- 
taining LDZSYS to your PC-DOS AUTO- 
EXEC.BAT file,) 

To begin using the TYump Card, ex- 
ecute the "go" program, G.COM (G). 
When the Z8000 has control of the sys- 
tem, it returns with a colon prompt, as 
the fourth line of example I shows, in- 
dicating that the Z8000 is ready to ac- 
cept commands. The text box also 
shows the command format for editing 
and compiling files and programs, which 
may be stored on the same disk used 
to boot PC-DOS. 

Interpreters versus Compilers 

As I said last month, a chief cause for 
my building the TYump Card was a feel- 
ing of frustration with the slowness of 
BASIC interpreters. I had, of course, con- 
sidered using an off-the-shelf BASIC 
compiler to speed up my programs, but 
I did not relish all the overhead opera- 
tions required by the compilers I had 
seen, such as Microsoft's BASIC 
compiler. 



The typical compiler requires three 
separate operations to run a BASIC pro- 
gram. First, the program source code 
must be written using an editor pro- 
gram. Next, the ASCII program text 
from the editor is compiled into object 
code and stored in a disk file, which 
often takes several minutes. Finally, the 
special BASIC run-time processor is 
loaded from the disk to supervise ex- 
ecution of the object program. At last, 
the program does its thing. 

Interpreters, for all their inefficiency 
of execution, do have one important 
benefit: you quickly can add a line to 
your program and type RUN to see its 
effect. But if you want to change a line 
in a compiled program, it's back to the 
editor and all the way through the pro- 
cess again. So when you finally have 
your debugged, compiled program, it 
may indeed execute 100 times faster 
than under an interpreted one. but it 
may have taken you 10 times as long to 
get it running right. I think this is one 
reason BASIC compilers are not in wider 
use. 

To counter this criticism, compiler 
manufacturers suggest developing code 
on an interpreted BASIC first and then 
compiling it. Such a suggestion, while 
valid, ignores the reason for a compiler 
in the first place. If a hundredfold in- 
crease in speed is necessary to achieve 
a program's objective, it hardly makes 
sense that to write and test the original 
program you must wait 1 00 times longer 
each time you must run it. 

The answer seemed relatively trivial 
to me— simply write a version of BASIC 
that looks like an interpreter and ex- 
ecutes like a compiler. The result is 
TBASIC. 

The TYump Card's TBASIC language 
system is a BASIC compiler that offers 



116 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



significantly faster execution of BASIC 
programs than does a BASIC inter- 
preter, while furnishing an operating en- 
vironment much like that of an inter- 
preter. TBASIC bridges the gap between 
traditional BASIC interpreters, which 
have built-in editors and are known for 
ease of use, and typical BASIC com- 
pilers, which produce rather efficient 
object code but can be difficult to work 
with. TBASIC's extremely fast compila- 
tion times and its capability for 
immediate-mode execution make work- 
ing with it as easy as working with a 
friendly but slow interpreted BASIC, but 
the resulting programs run with the 
speed of a compiler. Unlike other com- 
pilers, the object code is not written in- 
to a disk file before execution (unless 
you request it). Therefore, no long 
delays are needed. When you load the 
file into the TYump Card. TBASIC com- 
piles the program in a few tenths of a 
second. 

Most programs that will run under the 
IBM PC's BASIC A interpreter can be fed 
into TBASIC for compilation. You can 
use either the IVump Card's EE screen 
editor or the BASICA editor to write the 
programs. But if you then run the same 
program under both BASICA and 
TBASIC, depending upon the instruc- 
tions you use, you will notice an in- 
crease in program performance by a 
factor of anywhere from 7 to 100. A 
listing of TBASIC's keywords is shown in 
table 1 . TBASIC also supports most of 
BASICA's color and graphics commands 
(see photo 2). 

Line numbers aren't required in the 
source code of programs written for 
TBASIC except where a line is to be 
referenced elsewhere in the program; 
for example, the destination of a GOTO 
or GOSUB statement would need a line 
number. Although not requiring them, 
TBASIC certainly allows line numbers on 
every line, so existing BASICA source 
code will run under TBASIC, to the ex- 
tent that the program is compatible with 
TBASIC's syntax. Such programs can im- 
mediately benefit from the increase in 
performance provided by TBASIC. 

The development of a program using 
a BASIC interpreter occurs in two 
modes: editing the program and run- 
ning it. Developing a program with 
TBASIC involves three modes: editing, 
compiling, and running. Obviously, the 
only difference is compilation, which is 
invoked on the IVump Card by the DO 
command; once the program has been 
compiled, the familiar RUN command 
executes it. 

Example 2 on page 118 shows some 
examples of the kind of interaction that 



occurs when you use TBASIC: how to 
enter a program using the EE editor, 
compile it. and run the compiled pro- 
gram. In the text box, input by the user 
is shown in italic type while the system's 
prompts and output are shown in 
roman characters. 

During compilation of a program, 
error messages are issued each time an 
error is encountered. The line of the 
source file in which the error was 
detected is displayed; in some cases, an 
error message is also displayed. After 
an error is found and displayed, com- 
pilation continues and any other errors 
found also will be displayed. When the 
compilation has been completed, a list 
of any undefined symbols also may be 
output, in which case the program 
should not be run. 

TBASIC Programs 

Three methods can be used for enter- 
ing program statements into the system 
for compilation under TBASIC. The first 
is to use the TYump Card's built-in EE 
screen editor, as mentioned previously 
(see photo 3). A second method is to 
enter the statements using TBASIC's 
direct-entry mode. The third choice is 
to enter and test the program using the 
computer's regular BASICA interpreter 
and then run it for effect using TBASIC. 



The three methods may be used inter- 
changeably. 

Example 3 shows an example of these 
functions with a minimally modified ver- 
sion of the Sieve of Eratosthenes pro- 
gram often used as a system benchmark 
(see references 4 and 5). A program 
called SIEVE.S was previously written in 
BASICA and stored as an ASCII file on 
the disk in drive B. 

Suppose you want to run the program 
under both BASICA and TBASIC while 
recording how long it takes to be ex- 
ecuted. You could use a stopwatch, but 
it's easier to add a few more program 
lines that record the starting and end- 
ing times automatically by calling the 
TIMES function. It's possible to invoke 
the editor directly from TBASIC, as 
shown in example 3, to add two lines. 
And you can see that TBASIC took 
about 2 seconds to run the modified 
program as measured by the internal 
clock. 

The program changes quickly were 
added and executed, and, when you left 
the editor with a QU command, the file 
SIEVE.S on drive B was updated to con- 
tain the TIMES-function statements. 
After running the slightly revised pro- 
gram under BASICA, you see that it 
takes 202 seconds, around 100 times as 
(text continued on page 118) 




Photo 2: Color (2a) and graphics (2b) tests demonstrate TBASIC's support of 
color! graphics commands normally associated with BASICA. 




Photo 3: Programs in BASICA (3a) and in C (3b) can be written for Trump Card or 
the PC by using Trump Card's built-in EE editor. 



IUNE 1984 • BYTE 117 



[text continued from page 1 1 7) 

long. Now consider the aggravation of 
making changes in programs that take 
this long to run and waiting for the 
results each time. Perhaps you now 
understand why I built the Trump Card. 
If you're interested in how fast some 



TBASIC speeds up 
development and 
debugging as well 
as execution. 



other computers and BASIC systems ex- 
ecuted essentially the same program, 
see table 2. Another program that dem- 
onstrates how TBASIC speeds things up 
is the simple looping benchmark shown 
in listing I. The results are shown in 
table 3. 

Not all programs run a hundred times 
faster in TBASIC. The Sieve program 
purposely uses integer arithmetic and 
avoids difficult floating-point calcula- 
tions. But we can get an idea of floating- 
point performance from the simple 
benchmark routine of listing 2. In this 
program, TBASIC takes 3.2 seconds 
while BASICA takes 24.2. This bench- 
mark shows the wide variation in per- 
formance you can expect from a dif- 
ferent mix of statements. 

Of course, most other BASIC com- 
pilers for the IBM PC also can demon- 
strate dramatic speed increases over in- 
terpretive BASICA. But I believe that 
TBASIC is different because it speeds 
up development and debugging as well 
as execution. 

(You might be wondering if the instal- 
lation of an Intel 8087 Numeric Pro- 
cessor Extension in the IBM PC would 
help speed up execution of BASIC pro- 
grams. Under BASICA, it would have no 
effect whatsoever because BASICA is 
not written to use it. I did a quick infor- 
mal test using Morgan Professional 
BASIC, which uses the 8087. Morgan 
BASIC took 12.8 seconds to execute 
listing 2.) 

TBASICs Ease of Use 

TBASIC has many of the same conve- 
nience features for running programs 
that an interpreter has. You can use the 
commands RUN. RUN< line number > , 
GOTO < line number >, and GOSUB< Jin* 
number > just as in BASICA. To stop a 
program from the console, you just hit 



EXAMPLE 1 




Computer Interaction 


Comments 


A >LDZSYS 


Initialize Trump Card from PC-DOS. 


A> 


Control is returned to PC-DOS. 


A>G 


Turn control over to Trump Card. 






(Trump Card's command prompt.) 




EE< filename > 


Edit a file. 




Z80EM< filename > 


Emulate Z80 and run CP/M-80 programs. 




C< filename > 


Compile and run a C program. 




Y< filename > 


Compile and run Z8000 structured assembly language. 




BASIC< filename > 


Compile and run TBASIC programs. 




II 


Exit from Z8000 command interpreter. 


A> 


Control returns to PC-DOS. 




EXAMPLE 2 






Computer Interaction 


Comments 


A > B: (Return) 


Set the PC-DOS default drive to B. TBASIC will also use 




this drive as its default drive. 


B>G (Return) 


Type G to "go to" the Z8000. 




The colon (:) is the Z8000 system command prompt. 




equivalent to the A> or B> prompt of PC-DOS. 


BASIC (Return) 


Invoke TBASIC. 


- 


The hyphen {-) is the command prompt used by TBASIC; 




you may now invoke any TBASIC command. 


-EDIT TESTFILE (Return) 


Edit a new file using the EE editor. 


T 


You are now in the EE editor 


EOF 


in command mode. 


E 


Type "E" to enter text. 


FOR 1=1 TO 5 (Return) 


Type in your BASIC program. 


PRINT "Demo program" (Return) 


5 


NEXT 1 (Return) 




(Escape) 


Hit the Escape key to leave the Enter mode. 


OU (Return) 


Quit and save program on default disk B. 


- 


The "-" prompt shows that you are now back in TBASIC. 


-DO (Return) 


Compile the program by using the DO command (takes 




about 0.1 second). 




Your program is now compiled. 


-RUN (Return) 


Type RUN to execute the compiled program. 


Demo program 


Compiled program output. 


Demo program 




Demo program 




Demo program 




Demo program 




7/ (Return) 


The // command exits TBASIC. (The SYSTEM command 




could be used instead.) 


DIR (Return) 


Call for a disk directory from the command interpreter. 


DIRECTORY OF DRIVE B: 




TESTFILE 


There's the source file you created with the EE editor. 


:// (Return) 


The // command exits the Z8000's B> command mode 




and returns control to PC-DOS. 




EXAMPLE 3 






Computer Interaction 


Comments 


B > C (Return) 


Go to the Z8000 operating system. 


: BASIC SIEVES (Return) 


Get SIEVE. S from disk and compile it in about 0.2 




second. 


- RUN (Return) 


Execute program in TBASIC. 


1 ITERATION 




1899 PRIMES 


The program produces output and ends. 


- 


Awaiting next command. 


-ED/7 (Return) 


Call the editor from TBASIC prompt. 


T 


T indicates display from top of file; the complete Sieve 




file is displayed, ready to edit. 


5 DEFINT ACZ 




10 SIZE = 8190 




20 DIM FLAGSI819I) 




30 PRINT "Only 1 iteration" 




50 COUNT = 





118 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



60 FOR 1 = TO SIZE 




70 FLAGS(I) = 1 




80 NEXT 1 




90 FOR I = TO SIZE 




100 IF FLAGS(I) = THEN 180 




MO PRIME = 1 + 1 +3 




120 K = 1 + PRIME 




*I30 IF K > SIZE. THEN 170 




140 FLAGS(K) = 




150 K = K + PRIME 




160 GOTO 130 




170 COUNT = COUNT + 1 




180 NEXT 1 




190 PRINT COUNT.'* PRIMES" 




E (RETURN) 


Enter mode, allows text entry. 


2 }$ = TIMES 


Two lines are added to print the time. 


200 PRINT }$. TIMES 




{Escape, Return) 


Type Escape key to exit Enter mode. 


QU (Return) 


Finished changes. Leave editor and return to TBASIC. 


- DO (Return) 


The file is recompiled with the DO command, taking 




about 0.2 second. 


- RUN (Return) 


The program is run again with changes. 


1 ITERATION 


The program produces output. 


1899 PRIMES 




01:01:25 01:01:27 




- 


The prompt returns after execution ends. 


-// (Return) 


Exit TBASIC. 


:// (Return) 


Exit the Trump Card system. 


B> BASIC A (Return) 


Get BASICA and run SIEVES. 


LOAD SIEVES- 


(SIEVE.S was stored in ASCII format.) 


RUN 




1 ITERATION 


The program produces output. 


1899 PRIMES 




01:05:35 01:09:01 




EXAMPLE 4 




Computer Interaction 


Comments 


B>C (Return) 


Activate the Trump Card. 


: BASIC (Return) 


Enter TBASIC. 


- IDIAG (Return) 


Invoke subroutine-diagnostic mode. 


- PRINT 2 + 3 (Return) 


Directly add and print 2 + 3. 


CExit;CImmxlnit;Ki00000000: 


The listing shows the compiler 


CPrtlnit; KJ00000002 : Ki00000003 : 


subroutines that are executed to 


b + :CPrtl;CPrtCR.R: 5 


perform the function. CExit (call exit) jumps out of the 




console-input mode; Clmmxlnit calls for immediate ex- 




ecution with a flag integer-constant value of set as 




KiOOOOOOOO. 




CPrtlnit (call printer) directs printing to the console; the 




two integer values are expressed as Ki00000002 and 




Ki00000003. respectively; b+ calls a binary add routine; 




CPrtl prints the integer. 




CPrtCR finishes by sending a carriage return to the 




printer or console while R designates a return to the 




system. The computed value, 5. appears at the end. 


- PRINT2. 027 ' +3.094 (Return) 


Floating-point values produce a slightly different result. 


CExif,Clmmxlnit;Ki00000000: 


This time the constants are stored 


CPrtlnit:KfOIBA5E82;Kf46041982; 


as floating-point numbers, and 


CFItAdd:CPrtF;CPrtCR;R; 5.121 


floating-point add and print routines are called instead. 


EXAMPLE 5 






Back in command interpreter. 


:C (Return) 


Call C compiler, the "-" is 


- 


the C compiler prompt. 


-/DO BASICIO.C (Return) 


Compile I/O routines. 


-/DO CDEMO.C (Return) 


Compile CDEMO.C program (listing 3). 


-/IMAGE CDEMO E = MAIN (Return) 


Save memory image of compiled program in a disk file 




called CDEMO. 


-// (Return) 


Get out of C compiler. 




Back in command interpreter. 


\CDEMO (Return) 


Run compiled program. 


C language 




C language 


The program produces output. 


C language 




C language 




C language 






Back in command interpreter. 


:// (Return) 


Get out of interpreter. 


B> . 


Back to IBM PC-DOS command prompt. 



Control-C. If possible, TBASIC will 
display the statement label nearest the 
point in the program where the stop oc- 
curred. Programs may contain STOP 
statements and may be restarted by a 
CONT command. 

TBASIC also can execute statements 
and commands in immediate mode. 
You simply type the program line with- 
out a line number. (If you precede a 
statement with a line number, it will be 
compiled into the existing program.) 
You can get results like 

-PRINT SQR(2) 
1.414214 



-PRINT 2*3 
6 

You can print out variables or run 
specific program lines that contain line- 
identifier labels. Immediate-mode state- 
ments and commands also may be in- 
cluded in program files. 

TBASIC also has some commands 
useful in debugging and problem diag- 
nosis that you probably have not seen 
before. You can examine the actual 
compiled machine-language object 
code with commands like /DIAG. If you 
give the /DIAG command before a pro- 
gram is compiled, a complete list of 
compiler subroutine calls will be pro- 
duced. This can be demonstrated in the 
direct-execution immediate mode, as 
shown in example 4 for both integer 
and floating-point values. 

C Compiler 

For more ambitious program develop- 
ment, the Trump Card also supports a 
compiler for programs in the C lan- 
guage, as described by Kernighan and 
Ritchie (see reference 6). Programs need 

The Trump Card 
also supports a 
compiler for 
programs written 
in the C language. 



only slight modifications for compila- 
tion. Developing and running a C pro- 
gram is a three-step operation similar 
to the process used in TBASIC: editing, 
compiling, and running. 

[text continued on page 120) 



JUNE 1984 • BYTE 



119 



(text continued from page 119) 

C compilers expect to find input and 
output routines in a subroutine library 
separate from the compiler. Kernighan 
and Ritchie describe a file called 
"stdio.h" that contains the. I/O facilities. 
The Trump Card's G compiler uses a file 
of I/O routines called "basicio.c", which 
includes the following routines: "get- 
char", "putchar", "open", "close", "read", 
"write", "printf", "scanf", "lseek" and 
"creat". 

The implementation of "scanf" and 
"printf" in the Trump Card's version of 
C differs slightly from that of Kernighan 
and Ritchie. In their implementation, the 
conversion characters "d" and "x" may 
each be preceded by an "I" to indicate 
a pointer to a "long" value rather than 
a pointer to an "int" value appears in 
the argument list. In this implementa- 
tion, the uppercase conversion charac- 
ters "D" and "X" are used for the same 
purpose. The conversion character "f" 
is used for floating point. The "scanf" 
routine assumes that the input values 
are separated by Space or l£b charac- 
ters and that a Return character ends an 
input sequence. 

The Trump Card's C compiler was de- 
signed with a user interface similar to 
that of TBASIC and it's just as easy to 
use. Listing 3 shows a C program that 
is entered into the system using the EE 
editor in a manner such as that used for 
TBASIC. Example 5 shows how the pro- 
gram is compiled and run. Should you 
care to try the Sieve program in C, it is 
shown in listing 4 set up for 10 itera- 
tions. It runs in 3.2 seconds on the 
Trump Card, which compares quite 
favorably with versions of C running on 
8-MHz MC68000 processors and with 
assembly-language versions on the 
IBM's 4.77-MHz 8088. 

Y Multilevel Language 

The Y language system compiles a 
multilevel language that can be best de- 
scribed as structured assembler code. 
It allows you to write programs using a 
mixture of Z8000 assembly language (in 
Zilog mnemonics), Pascal-like control 
structures, data types, arithmetic ex- 
pressions with automatic or specified 
allocation of registers, procedure calls 
with parameter passing, and a descrip- 
tive compiler language. The different 
levels of constructs may for the most 
part, be freely mixed. 

The Y compiler generates code direct- 
ly into memory with one pass and sup- 
ports immediate execution of state- 
ments, conditional compilation, user- 
defined extensions to the language, and 
symbolic debugging. Most of the Z8000 



Table I: Keywords for 


Function 


Statement 


Command 


Variable 


statements and 


ABS 


BEEP 


ALLOCATE* 


CSRLIN 


functions available in 
the TBASIC compiler 


ASC 
ATN 
CALLINTS* 


CALL 

CLOSE 
CIRCLE 


BLOAD 
BSAVE 
CONT 


DATESS 

ERR 

INKEYS 


for the Trump Card. 


CDBL 


CLS 


DIAG* , 


TIMES 


An asterisk indicates a 


CHR$ 


COLOR 


DISP* 




new feature. 


CINT 


DATA , 


DO* 




COS 


DATES 


EDIT 






CSNG 


DEF FN 


KILL 






CVI 


DEF SEG 


LIST 






CVS 


DEFtype 


MAP* 






CVD 


DIM 


NAME 






EOF 


END 


NEW 






EXP 


FIELD 


REGldNS* 






FIX 


FOR.. .NEXT 


REGS* 






HEX$ 


GET 


RESET 






INP 


GOSUB 


RUN 






INPUTS 


GOTO 


SAVE 






INSTR 


IF 


SYSTEM 






INT 


INPUT 








LEFTS 


INPUT# 








LEN 


LSET 








LOC 


LET 








LOF 


LINE 








LOG 


LINE INPUT 








LPOS 


LINE INPUT# 








MIDS 


LOCATE 








MKIS 


LPRINT 








MKSS 


LPRINT USING 








MKDS 


ON ERROR 








OCTS 


ON GOSUB 








PEEK 


ON GOTO 








POINT 


OPEN 








POS 


OUT 








RIGHTS 


PAINT 








RND 


POKE 








SCREEN 


PRINT 








SGN 


PRINT USING 








SIN 


PRINT# 








SPACE 


PRINT# USING 








SPC 


PSET 








SQR 


PUT 








STRS 


PRESET 








STRINGS 


RANDOMIZE 








TAB 


READ 








TAN 


REM 








VAL 


RESTORE 

RESUME 

RETURN 

RSET 

SCREEN 

SEEK* 

SOUND 

STOP 

TIMES 

WAIT 

WHILE...WEND 

WIDTH 

WRITE 

WRITE# 







Table 2 


: Comparison of Sieve benchmark results [one iteration) 


on other computers 


running 


Microsoft-derived BASIC 


interpreters (times measured in 


seconds). 


Apple II 


Apple III 


TRS-80 


IBM PC 


IBM PC 






Model II 


(BASICA) 


(TBASIC with 
Trump Card) 


224 


222 


189 


206 


2.4 



120 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Table 3: Execution time in 
interpreters. 


seconds for the looping program of listing 


on several 


Apple II 


IBM PC 
(CBASIC-861 


IBM PC 
(BASICA) 


IBM PC 
(TBASIC with 
Trump Card) 




101 


2 75 


80 


0.9 





Table 4: A listing of the standard CP/M-80 2.2 functions. Those marked with an 
asterisk are supported by the Trump Card Z80 emulator. 



Function 



Supported? 



System Reset 
Console Input 
Console Output 
Reader Input 
Punch Output 
List Output 
Dir Console I/O 
Get I/O Byte 

8 Set I/O Byte 

9 Print String 

10 Read Con Buffer 

1 1 Console Status 

12 Version Number 

13 Reset Disk Sys 

14 Select Disk 

15 Open File 

16 Close File 

17 Search For 1st 

18 Search For Next 

19 Delete File 

20 Read Sequential 

21 Write Sequential 

22 Make File 

23 Rename File 

24 Login Vector 
2 5 Current Disk 

26 Set DMA Address 

27 Get Alloc Addr 

28 Write Protect 

29 Get R/O Vector 

30 File Attributes 

31 Disk Params Addr 

32 User Codes 

33 Read Random 

34 Write Random 

35 Comp File Size 

36 Set Random Rec 



mnemonics are implemented; those 
that are not can be used via the WORD 
pseudo-operation, as in the following: 
LDCTL REFRESH, R3 = WORD 07D3B. 
The TBASIC and C compilers are writ- 
ten in Y. Each of the compiler subrou- 
tines is a Y file that has been compiled 
into assembly-language code. A full ex- 
planation of Y is beyond the scope of 
this article, but listing 5 shows some Y 
code for your inspection. Y is an ad- 
vanced tool for the experienced 
programmer. 

CP/M-80 Emulator 

The Trump Card supports a software 
emulator for CP/M-80 version 2.2, which 
allows the TVump Card to execute as- 
sembly-language programs for the 8-bit 
Z80 microprocessor. 

The Z80 program must be transferred 
to a PC-DOS (or MS-DOS) floppy disk. 
(This can be done by linking a Z80- 
based computer and an IBM PC 
through a serial RS-232C connection, 
either through a direct cable or through 
a modem.) Once the Z80 program is on 
the IBM-format disk, its filename exten- 
sion must be changed from "COM" to 
XMD", which is consistent with the 
CP/M-86 convention and avoids the 
problem of trying to run a Z80 program 
under IBM PC-DOS. 

The emulator normally resides on a 
disk in drive B and is used in a manner 
very much like that of the other Trump 
Card software we've looked at. Nearly 
all the normal CP/M-80 system calls are 
supported by the emulator, with a few 
exceptions as shown in table 4. The 
standard CP/M-80 BIOS (basic input/out- 
put system) calls dealing with the disk, 
punch, and reader devices are not sup- 
ported by the Z80 emulator; the remain- 
ing BIOS calls are supported. 

In Conclusion 

The Trump Card is a board-level hard- 
ware approach to upgrading the perfor- 
mance of your IBM PC (or a compatible 
system). Aside from its function as a 
[text continued on page 122) 



Listing I: A simple? OR... NEXT 
loop benchmark program in BASIC. 



100 FOR A= 1 TO 10 

115 FOR ]=l TO 10 

I20FORT = OTO 200 

i30GOSUB 200 

J40 B= 1 

150 NEXTT 

155 NEXT | 

160 NEXT A 

170 PRINT ,, DONE"' 

200 RETURN 



Listing 2: A simple BASIC 
benchmark program for floating-point 
division. 

60 A = 2. 71828 

80 B = 3. 14159 

100 FOR 1=1 TO 5000 

120 C = A/B 

320 NEXT I 



Listing 3: A demonstration program 
for the C compiler. 



{ 



int countstep: 

count= 1; 

step= 1; 

while (count < = 5) 

{ 

printfC C Ianguage\n" 

count= count + step: 

1 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 



(text continued from page 121) 
Z8000 development system, it provides 
many popular system enhancements in 
a single package: add-on memory, ex- 
ecution of Z80 programs, a separate 
editor, and language compilers. It was 
designed to solve my specific personal 
problem— I wanted a better BASIC that 
wasn't slow or cumbersome— and to 
support the PC in other ways: as a 
language and RAM-disk peripheral. If 
you're like me, these characteristics will 
be the most important ones to you. 

In the process of building the Trump 
Card, however, I've found that it has 
potential 1 never imagined. Besides the 
software I've described, I expect that 
object-code translators for Z80-to-Z8000 
and 8088-toZ8000 conversions will 
soon be available, along with other util- 
ities such as a print spooler. You also 
eventually will see Bell Laboratories' 
UNIX operating system for the Trump 
Card. 

Next month 

Whimsy.is in vogue, as Steve designs a 
musical telephone bell. ■ 

Z8000 and Z80 are trademarks of Zilog Corpora- 
tion, a subsidiary of Exxon. CP/M-80 is a trademark 
of Digital Research. 



To receive a complete list of Ciarcia's Circuit 
Cellar project kits available, circle 100 on the 
reader-service inquiry card at the back of the 
magazine. 



Listing 4: The Sieve of Eratosthenes 
benchmark in C. 

#define true I 
#define false 
#define size 8190 
#define sizepl 8191 

char flagslsizepll; 
main(){ 

register int i,prime,k.count,iter; 
printfC'IO iterations\n"); 
for (iter = Liter <= 10;iter + + ){ 
count = 0; 
f or(i = 0;i < = size;i + + ) 

flagsh'I = true; 
for(i = 0;i < = size;i + + ){ 
if(flags[i|){ 

prime = i + i + 3; 
k = i + prime; 

whilelk < = size){ 
flags[k| = false: 
k += prime; 

} 

count = count + I; 



} 
printf("\n%d primes'.count); 



Listing 5: TBASIC subroutines written on 


the Y multilevel-language compiler. 


|5a| 


SETGRAPHBG(R3) 


if SWITCH =0 or CNT> 100 then begin 


end 


SWITCH:=I; GODOIT(2, VAL&0F) 


restore R6.R7 


end 


RET 


else begin 


SOUND: PROC ...passed duration 


R3: = "ABC; R5: = @R9|2|: RI: = CNT/2 


(in 1/18.2 sees) and frequency 


LDIR @R3,@R5,RI 


...make sound 


end 


POPL RR4,@RRI2 ...duration 




POPL RR2,@RRI2 ...frequency 


|5bl 


EXB RL3.RH3; EXB RL5.RH5 


COLOR: PROC ...passed flag, then other params 


R3:->BX; R5:->CX 


depending on flag 


AH: = 4 ...sound 


...if flag bit 2=1, then set border color (if text 


EXTCALL(SPSCRINT) 


mode) 


RET 


...if bit 1 = 1, set background color (text) or 




palette (graphics) 




...if bit 0=1, set foreground color (text) or 




background color (graphics) 




save R6.R7 




POPL RR6,@RRI2 




if BIT R7,2 not zero then begin 




POPL RR2,@RRI2 




if SCRMODE< = 1 then SETBORDER(R3) 




end 




if BIT R7,l not zero then begin 




POPL RR2,@RRI2 




if R0: = SCRMODE< = 1 then SETBG(R3) else 




if R0=2 then 




SETPALET(R3) 




end 




if BIT R7,0 not zero then begin 




POPL RR2.@RRI2 




if R0: = SCRMODE< = 1 then SETFG(R3) else 




if R0 = 2 then 





REFERENCES 

1. Brown. Peter J. Writing Interactive Compilers 
and Interpreters. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 
1979. 

2. Ciarcia. Steve. "TYump Card, Part 1: Hard- 
ware." BYTE. May 1984, page 40. 

3. George, Donald P. "Professional BASIC." 
BYTE. April 1984, page 334. 

4. Gilbreath, Jim. "A High-Level Language 
Benchmark." BYTE. September 1981, page 
180. 

5. Gilbreath, Jim. and Gary Gilbreath. 
"Eratosthenes Revisited: Once More through 
the Sieve" BYTE. January 1983, page 283. 

6. Kernighan, Brian W., and Dennis M. Rit- 
chie. The C Programming language. New York: 
Prentice-Hall, 1978. 

7. Lee, J. A. N. The Anatomy of a Compiler, 2nd 
ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1974, 

8. Mello-Grand. Sergio. "The Docutel/Olivetti 
M20: A Sleek Import." BYTE, lune 1983, page 



The following items are available from 

Sweet Micro Systems Inc. 
50 Freeway Dr. 
Cranston, -Rl 02910 
(800) 341-8001 for orders 
(401) 461-0530 for information 

1. TYump Card, including IC sockets, assem- 
bled and tested with 2 56K bytes of the 512K- 
byte RAM space populated. Includes TBASIC 
compiler. C compiler, Z8000 Y assembler, 
CP/M-80 emulator. RAM-disk driver, and 
documentation. Software supplied on a PC- 
DOS 2.0 disk unless otherwise specified. 

2 56TCB $995 

2. Tiump Card, printed-circuit board com- 
pletely socketed, assembled, and tested with 
512K bytes of RAM, support software 
described above, and documentation. Soft- 
ware supplied on a PC-DOS 2.0 floppy disk 
unless otherwise specified. 

512TCC $1325 

3. TVurnp Card partial kit, completely 
socketed and wave-soldered with all passive 
components, less ICs but including bootstrap 
loader EPROMs. 10-MHz Z8001. and Z8581. 
Includes support software described above 
on PC-DOS 2.0 floppy disk (unless otherwise 
specified) and documentation. 

0KTCA .' $525 

Please add $10 for shipping and insurance 
in continental United States, $20 elsewhere. 
Rhode Island residents please include 6 per- 
cent sales tax. 

Editor's Note: Steve often refers to 
previous Circuit Cellar articles. Most of 
these are available in reprint books from 
BYTE Books, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
POB 400, Hightstown, Nj 082 50. 

Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar. Volume I covers articles 
that appeared in BYT£ from September 1977 
through November 1978. Garcia s Circuit Cellar, 
Volume II contains articles from December 
1978 through lune 1980. Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar. 
Volume III contains articles from July 1980 
through December 1981. Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar. 
Volume IV contains articles from January 1982 
through June 1983. 



122 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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FASTER 
FORTH 



Reducing overhead in threaded 
interpretive languages 




by Ronald L. Greene 

hreaded interpretive languages 
(TILs), of which FORTH is the most 
well known, possess a number of 
characteristics that make them nearly 
ideal microcomputer languages. One 
useful feature of a TIL is that, like 
BASIC, it can be used in an inter- 
pretive mode in which the computer 
immediately acts on commands. This 
is a major advantage when you're 
debugging programs. But a TIL can 
have many more immediately execut- 
able commands available to it than 
BASIC does, and you can create ad- 
ditional commands, thus adding to 
the power of the language. 

A second desirable trait of a TIL is 
that it can be used in a compile 
mode. As with other compiled 
languages, such as Pascal or 
FORTRAN, programs written in the 
source code of the TIL can be com- 
piled into machine code once and 
for all rather than retranslated each 

(text continued on page 128) 

Ronald L. Greene is an associate professor of 
physics at the University of New Orleans (New 
Orleans. LA 70148). His research specialty is 
semiconductor physics. 

IUNE 1984 -BYTE 127 



Lrevu 



reviouslu 
debugged words need 
not be recompiled 
when errors are 
found in subsequent 
source code. 



[text continued from page 1 2 7) 
time they are run. But unlike the more 
common compiled languages, the com- 
piler used in a TIL is incremental; that 
is, it compiles portions of code at a time 
under the interactive control of the pro- 
grammer. In practice this means that 
you can name, compile, test, and debug 
small, logically related blocks of code 
(called "words" in TIL jargon) before you 
proceed to the next block. Previously 
debugged words need not be recom- 
piled when errors are found in subse- 
quent source code. Because of this, a 
TIL can produce programs that execute 
faster than most interpretive languages. 

Other languages can be programmed 
using this modular technique to some 
extent through the use of functions, sub- 
routines, and procedures. However, to 
debug one of these subprograms, you 
must write a main program to call it, and 
typically both must be compiled, linked, 
and executed repeatedly. A new TIL 
word, by contrast, can be compiled and 
then executed immediately using the in- 
terpretive mode; there is no need to 
write a main program to call it. In addi- 
tion, the compilation step is almost 
trivial compared to other compiled lan- 
guages because each new word is com- 
posed of previously defined (i.e.. com- 
piled and debugged) words. 

Finally, a TIL can be extended. As 
mentioned above, new commands 
(words) can be constructed from pre- 
viously defined words. These new 
words have the same power as the 
older ones; that is, they can be executed 
interpretively or used in the compile 
mode to define still other words. In fact, 
typical TIL programs consist of short, 
progressively defined new words. You 
enter the final word or words of the pro- 
gram to perform the required task. 

These characteristics result in a lan- 
guage that is well suited to program de- 
velopment. In addition, if a TIL is im- 
plemented with care at the machine 
level, it can produce very efficient code. 

The next section of this article will ex- 



amine two approaches to implementing 
FORTH, the most common TIL. The 
usual method is very efficient in its use 
of memory and at the same time pro- 
duces quite respectable execution 
times. The other technique is less mem- 
ory efficient (though still superior to 
most common compiler languages) but 
can result in significantly shorter execu- 
tion times. 

Implementing Threaded Code 

Several years ago in BYTE, Terry Ritter 
and Gregory Walker discussed four ap- 
proaches to the implementation of 
threaded interpretive languages (see 
reference 5). I group three of the 
methods— direct-threaded, indirect- 
threaded, and token-threaded— under 
the generic name of "pointer-threaded" 
code. Pointer-threaded code is the most 
common method for implementing a 
TIL. The technique is also discussed in 
detail by R. G. Loeliger (see reference 3). 

Most of this article is devoted to a 
form of subroutine-threaded code, 
which is the fourth approach Ritter and 
Walker cover. It allows the programmer 
to specify whether a given operation of 
the language is used as a subroutine or 
as a macro. I'll examine the advantages 
and disadvantages of the macro/sub- 
routine approach in relation to the 
pointer-threaded technique. I use the 
syntax of FORTH for my high-level ex- 
amples, but the techniques can be ap- 
plied to any TIL. My low-level examples 
use 8086/8088 assembly code, but. 
again, they can be adapted toother pro- 
cessors. 

All TILs have at their roots a set of ex- 
ecutable, machine-language primitive 
operations called words. Examples from 
FORTH are such arithmetic operations 
as +, -, and * and such stack manipula- 
tion operations as DUP, DROP, and ROT 
Additional (secondary) words are de- 
fined using these primitives or previous- 
ly defined secondary words. All words, 
whether primitive or secondary, are kept 
in memory in a "dictionary." Each dic- 
tionary entry consists of a header (made 
up of the number of characters in the 
name), ASCII code for the characters of 
the name or part of the name (often the 
first three characters), and a link address 
for getting to the previous (or the next, 
depending on the implementation) dic- 
tionary entry. After the header comes 
the body of the word. The body of a 
primitive word consists of executable 
machine code that performs the opera- 
tion. The body of a secondary word 
varies according to the type of thread- 
ing used. 

In pointer-threaded code the second- 



ary word consists of a sequence of ad- 
dresses, each of which is a pointer 
(direct or indirect) to either a primitive 
or another secondary word (see figure 
I). Thus, it is necessary to provide a sim- 
ple, "inner" interpreter that gets the 
pointer, jumps to the proper address, 
and then either executes the machine 
code if the routine is a primitive or con- 
tinues the process of interpretation if 
the routine is another secondary word. 
Usually there can be as many levels of 
secondary routines as you like, but the 
interpreter must eventually get to the 
machine code of a primitive before it 
can start back down the ladder of inter- 
pretation. The execution speed of such 
an arrangement is critically dependent 
on the efficiency of this inner inter- 
preter, which not only has to get the ad- 
dress of the next word to be executed 
but has to save the current address in 
order to continue with the flow of the 
program after execution of that routine. 

If you are familiar with assembly lan- 
guage but not with the structure of a 
TIL. you may wonder. "Why write a 
special interpreter to save return 
addresses and jump to new routines 
when the processor contains the in- 
structions to do just that in hardware, 
through subroutine calls and returns?" 
The answer is that a pointer-threaded 
compiler/interpreter has a smaller over- 
all memory requirement than one that 
uses subroutine threading. I will return 
to this point shortly. 

Figure 2 illustrates the organization of 
subroutine-threaded code. The form for 
the primitives is basically the same as 
in pointer threading, except that they 
end with a return from subroutine in- 
struction (RET in 8086/8088 mnemon- 
ics). Pointer-threaded primitives, in con- 
trast, end with more involved code that 
gets the interpreter to the pointer of the 
next word to be executed. The major 
difference lies in the secondary words. 
Subroutine-threaded secondary words 
are made up of executable subroutine 
calls to the starting addresses of primi- 
tives or other secondary words. Since 
these primitives or lower-level second- 
ary words are terminated by a return in- 
struction, the processor hardware or 
microcode itself controls the flow, 
without the need for the inner inter- 
preter. The result is smaller overhead 
and faster execution. 

A modification of the above scheme 
allows the execution overhead to be re- 
duced even further. Very short words, 
consisting of a few bytes of code, need 
not be treated as subroutines at all. In- 
stead, the subroutine call can be re- 
placed by a macro substitution of the 



128 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



entire executable portion of the word, 
thus eliminating the overhead of the 
subroutine call and return completely. 
We'll look at how to implement this plan 
next. 

Threading Code with 
Subroutines or Macros 

In order to add the possibility of macro 
substitution to the subroutine-threaded 
compiler/interpreter, you must include 
additional information within the 
header of each word. First, there must 
be a way for the compiler to determine 
whether the word is to be used as a sub- 
routine or a macro. One simple way to 
do this is to use the high-order bit of 
the character-count byte as a flag. The 
bit is checked during compilation of the 
word. If, for example, it is a 0. the com- 
piler writes code for a subroutine call 
to the address of the first executable 
statement of the word. On the other 
hand, if it is a I. the compiler copies the 
executable code byte by byte (except 
for the RET). In order to reliably copy 
the required code, the number of bytes 
in the executable portion of the word 
being referenced must be stored. This 
is done by devoting an additional byte 
to the header. If you like, you could use 
the high-order bit of this byte (rather 
than the character-count byte) as the 
subroutine/macro flag. 

Even if a given word is to be used as 
a macro in the compile mode, its execut- 
able code should be terminated by a 
RET statement. This is because pure 
subroutine threading is the best way of 
handling the interpretive mode of the 
TIL. Also, note that any word to be used 
as a macro should be written to contain 
only one RET statement— at the end. 

With this scheme, you control whether 
a given word is to be used as a subrou- 
tine or as a macro. All you need do is 
define two additional primitives for the 
language— perhaps SUBROUTINE and 
MACRO— which clear or set the flag bit. 

Comparison of Threading 
Techniques 

To get a concrete understanding of the 
tradeoff between memory and execu- 
tion speed, let's look at some specific 
examples of primitives and secondary 
words as used in the two threading 
schemes discussed above. In Chapter 3 
of Threaded Interpretive languages. Loeliger 
calculates the overhead for a primitive 
and a secondary word in terms of pro- 
cessor cycles. Folllowing his lead. I have 
translated his (indirect-threaded) inner 
interpreter for a "generic computer" 
into one applicable to an 8086/8088 
microprocessor; the routines are shown 



in listing 1. For ease of comparison, the 
labels in the listing are the same as 
those used by Loeliger. The correspond- 
ence between his generic registers and 
my choice of 8086/8088 registers is 
given within the listing. Because most 
of the new personal computers using In- 
tel microprocessors use the 8088 rather 
than the 8086. I have calculated the 
total number of 8088 clock periods for 
execution of the routines in listing I. 
where the results are also given. Each 
execution of a primitive in this pointer- 
threaded language performs a call to 
the routines NEXT. RUN. and RETURN; 
thus, the number of 8088 machine 
cycles required is: 

primitive cycles = NEXT + RUN + body 
+ RETURN 
= 82 + body 

(pointer-threaded) 

For simple primitives such as DROP or 



+ (addition), which require four cycles 
each, the amount of overhead is enor- 
mous— 20 times what is required for the 
operation itself. The machine code of 
other primitives, of course, takes longer 
than four cycles; however, most will be 
significantly shorter than 82 cycles. 

The overhead for a secondary word 
depends on the number and kind of 
words in the definition of the secondary. 
As Loeliger notes, each call to the sec- 
ondary word requires a NEXT-RUN- 
COLON combination on entrance and 
a NEXT-RUN-SEMI combination on exit. 
Lower-level secondary words in the 
definition will need these calls as well. 
In addition, any primitives within the 
definition use 82 cycles in overhead. 
The secondary word with the least 
amount of overhead is one that is made 
up of primary words. For example, the 
word 2DUP defined as a secondary 
word requires: 

{text continued on page 418) 



Primitive 



Secondary 



Character Count 


First Character 


Second Character 


Third Character 


Link Address 


Executable 

Machine 

Code 


Code to get to next routine 



Character Count 



Second Character Third Character 



First Character 



Link Address 



Address of First Word 



Address of Second Word 



Address of Lost Word 



Address of Return 



Figure I: Organization of primitive and secondary words of a pointer-threaded interpretive 
language. 





Primitive 




Secondary 




Character Count 


First Character 




Character Count 


First Character 


Second Character 


Third Character 


Second Character 


Third Character 


Link Address 


Link Address 


Executable 

Machine 

Code 


CALL First Word 


CALL Second Word 


RET 


* 










CALL Last Word 


RET 













Figure 2: Organization of primitive and secondary words of a subroutine-threaded inter- 
pretive language. 



JUNE 1984 • BYTE 129 









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PART 1 of this two-part article presents a brief overview of 
the Ada language and its history, as well as small examples 
of programs that demonstrate Ada's features. I have assumed 
that BYTE readers are familiar with programming languages, 
so I have not defined such 
concepts as variables, loops, 
functions, and arguments. 

The following examples are 
intended to help you explore 
Ada's features. Each program 
focuses on a specific feature 
of the Ada language. The 
only drawback to this ap- 
proach is that it sometimes 
sacrifices utility for exposi- 
tion. The examples and the 
format of this article are a 
direct steal from lames 
Joyce's two-part article, 'A C 
Language Primer" (August 
and September 1983 BYTE). 
You can compare this article 
with his to compare the two 
languages. 

To reinforce what you 
learn, 1 recommend that you 
enter each program into a 
computer, assuming, of 
course, that you have access 
to an Ada compiler. After a 
program runs successfully, 
experiment with omitting or 
changing parts of it. Introduc- 
ing deliberate errors can pro- 
vide a controlled exposure to 
Ada's sometimes cryptic 
error messages and can give 
you valuable experience in 
interpreting compiler diag- 
nostics. Such messages are 
not the fault of the Ada lan- 
guage but of the compiler 
designs available today. As is 
the case with many language 
compilers, errors can have a 
cascading effect: many errors 
are actually the result of one 
original error. 

This article does not pre- 
tend to explain everything 
you will want to know about 
Ada. My goal is to get you 
started with some key con- 
structs and conventions in 
Ada. 

Ada was designed by lean 
Ichbiah at CII Honeywell Bull 
in France in 1978. Ichbiah im- 
proved the language in a second version, which was pre- 
sented in 1 980. It was based on Pascal with many features 
borrowed from more modern, but experimental, languages. 
Ada became an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) 
standard language in 1983 and is expected to remain un- 
changed until 1988. It is also a military standard and, as of 
this year, is used in many military applications. 

Ada has many goals. Its primary reason for existence is to 




replace the use of assembly language in small computers 
dedicated to specialized applications such as signal process- 
ing, process control, and communications. Furthermore. Ada 
is intended to make programs much more portable, readable, 

maintainable, and reliable 
than programs written in 
other languages. 

Someday Ada and its sup- 
port tools will be available on 
many computers. Currently, 
there are only three true Ada 
compilers available: the New 
York University (NYU) Ada/Ed 
for the Digital Equipment 
Corporation (DEC) VAX; Rolm 
Ada and Ada Environment 
for the Data General Eclipse 
and the Rolm 3200; and 
Western Digital Ada for the 
Western Digital Microengine. 
There are also numerous par- 
tial compilers for Intel 
808678088-based computers, 
for Zilog Z80-based com- 
puters, and for Motorola 
68000-based computers. A 
true Ada compiler has passed 
more than 2000 tests pro- 
vided by the Ada Joint Pro- 
gram Office. After passing the 
tests, the compiler is issued a 
certificate of validation good 
for one year. 

No dates have been estab- 
lished for validation of the 
microcomputer-based com- 
pilers, nor for validation of 
compilers based on larger 
computers. I expect that 
several more validated com- 
pilers will be available in 
1984, and that at least one 
will be a microcom- 
puter-based Ada compiler. 
As with any language, good 
programming style is impor- 
tant. Ada provides facilities 
to help "readability," but it is 
up to the programmer to use 
these features. Indentation 
and naming conventions can 
help to make a program 
more readable, and their use 
should be encouraged. On 
the other hand, nesting can 
be avoided, and unstruc- 
tured constructs can be 
forbidden. 
Ada has more protection against common programming 
errors than most other languages. Often, when you get a pro- 

(text continued on page 132) 

Sabina H. Saib (1500 Holiday Hill. Goleta. CA 93117) is a member of 
the Aeronautical Operations Group at General Research Corp. Dr. Saib 
is the author of an Ada textbook to be published by Holt, Rinehart & Winston 
and co-author of a tutorial published by the IEEE Computer Society. 



PHOrO COURTESY OF CULVER PICTURES 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 131 



[text continued from page 131) 

gram to compile, it runs the first time, which should help pro- 
grammer productivity immensely. Like Pascal. Ada has many 
checks that it performs during execution. If a program is not 
time-critical, these checks should be left in. If the checks are 
burdensome, or if you are running benchmarks, they can (and 
should) be turned off. 

Ada Program Structure 

This is the smallest possible complete Ada program: 

-- tinytada -- 

■■ The smallest Ada program 

procedure smallest is 

begin 

null; -- a comment 
end smallest; 

Comments in Ada begin with two hyphens (--) and end at 
the end of each line. No special character is needed for the 
end of a comment as in Pascal or C. This program has three 
comments: the ones in the first and second lines, which take 
up whole lines, and the one after the null statement, which 
takes up the rest of the line after the semicolon. This pro- 
gram is named smallest and does nothing. Any executable 
code would have been placed between the begin and end for 
the procedure. 

To compile and execute this program on the NYU Ada/Ed 
system, the command is $adatiny1. 

Normally Ada programs are in a file whose name ends in 
.ada . If the compilation is successful, the system presents a 
series of messages listing the time spent in compilation, bind- 
ing, and execution. After finishing, the $ prompt is displayed. 

It is possible to compile a program without executing it and 
to create a library of programs for later binding. 

Because Ada is a free-format language, we could have writ- 
ten this program in a more compact form, such as 

- tiny2.ada The smallest Ada 
-- program rewritten 
procedure smallest is begin null; 
end smallest; 

In fact, if we left out the comments, the smallest program could 
be written on a single line as 

procedure smallest is begin null; end smallest; 

However, this is poor style and is not recommended. 

Packages 

Ada programs consist of packages of subprograms and a main 
program. You should structure a large program as a number 
of packages that contain related small subprograms. 

In the following example, the program small calls a sub- 
program, do nothing, that doesn't do anything. 

■■ SmalH.ada 

- Smallest Ada program with 

- a subprogram in a package 

package example is 

-- subprogram specification 

procedure do nothing; 

end example; 

package body example is 
procedure do nothing is 

- subprogram implementation 
begin 



null; 

end do nothing; 

end example; 

with example; 

use example; 

-- main program uses subprograms 

-- in package example 

-- main program 

procedue small is 

begin 

do nothing; 

end small; 

The package named example has one subprogram named 

do nothing. A package in Ada has two parts, each of which 

can be compiled separately. (The main program also can be 
compiled separately.) The first part of the package is called 
the package specification. It merely lists the names and 
parameters, if any. of the subprograms in the package. Data 
items and data types can also be placed in the package speci- 
fication. The second part of the package is called the package 
body, which contains the complete Ada code for the sub- 
programs listed in the specification of the package. Our ex- 
ample has just one subprogram that does not do anything. 

A main program that uses a package normally names the 
package in with and use statements just before the first state- 
ment of the program. To call a subprogram in a package, the 
program just states the name of the program. Any arguments 
are placed within parentheses after the name. A semicolon 
follows every statement and serves as a statement terminator 
rather than as a statement separator (as in Pascal). 

This main program calls the subprogram do nothing in the 

package example. The subprogram does nothing and returns 
control to the main program, which does more nothing before 
finishing execution. 

You could nest the subprogram do nothing, instead of put- 
ting it in a package, as in the following example. 

-- Small2.ada 
-- Smallest Ada program 
■- with a nested subprogram 
procedure small is 

-- nested subprogram 

procedure do nothing is 

begin 
null; 

end do nothing; 

begin 

do nothing; 

end small; 

The text of the subprogram is placed in the declaration part 
(before the begin) of the main program. This has an advan- 
tage in that the program text is smaller for our do-nothing 
example. However, this approach has serious disadvantages 
over using the package form. When nesting is used, the main 
program is no longer small. It usually takes longer to com- 
pile than when programs are placed in a separate package. 
Other users of subprograms placed in nested programs must 
include the text of the subprogram in their program, so there 
is much less sharing of software. Nesting also usually results 
in large data spaces accessible by all parts of the program. 
This is the usual Pascal approach to programming. 

As demonstrated in the following example. Ada has a 
method of separate compilation that avoids long compila- 
tion time and long main-program text. 

(text continued on page 134) 



132 B YTE • JUNE 1984 



Ada for Microcomputers 



A number of companies have de- 
veloped, or are preparing, com- 
pilers for Ada or for subsets of 
Ada. As of January 1984. only three com- 
pilers had been approved by the Depart- 
ment of Defense, which holds the trade- 
mark to the name 'Ada." A New York 
University implementation runs on the 
DEC VAX 11/780; a Rolm/Data General 
version runs on Rolm and Data General 
minicomputers: and GenSoft. formerly a 
Western Digital subsidiary, has developed 
a validated compiler and development 
system for Western Digital's WD-1600. 

Of the three validated compilers, only 
GenSoft's version runs on a microcom- 
puter. Although developed for the 
WD-1600, which is no longer produced, 
the compiler can be used on Digicomp 
Research's Delphi-100, which uses the 
same processor chip set. The Delphi-100 
with a complete Ada development sys- 
tem would cost about $15,000 to 
$20,000. GenSoft is currently deciding 
whether to port the compiler to other 
processors or develop an entirely new 
version of the compiler. 

Other vendors have announced either 
compilers that will be submitted for 
validation soon or subsets of Ada that 
will later be expanded to include the full 
language. Several of these run on micro- 
computers (see table 1). Many are cross- 
compilers that take advantage of the 
speed and memory of mainframes to 
produce code that can be run on micro- 
processors in dedicated systems— mostly 
for the military. 

Alsys is developing compilers for the 
8086 and 68000 processors, which the 
company hopes to submit for validation 
by the end of this year. The compilers 
need at least 1 megabyte of memory and 
a 10-megabyte hard disk. 

Irvine Computer Sciences Corporation 
(ICSC) has developed Ada compilers for 
the 68000 and the Z8000. The 68000 
compiler runs under Unisoft's implemen- 
tation of UNIX and is available from Uni- 
soft for $3 500. The Z8000 version is avail- 
able from Zilog for its System 8000. 

RR Software is selling lanus, a subset 
of Ada. The vendor says the product will 
be expanded to the full Ada language by 
the end of the year. Available for com- 
puters using MS-DOS. CP/M. CP/M-86. or 
Concurrent CP/M-86. lanus costs from 
$300 to $1100. depending on develop- 
ment tools included. 

RR Software has also introduced 
PASTRAN. a Pascako-Ada translator to 
increase the speed of program transla- 
tion. It costs $100 for CP/M. CP/M-86. and 
MS-DOS. Nontranslatable features of 



by Mark J. Welch 

Pascal are flagged. 

Sof'lech is retargeting its Ada Language 
System for the 8086 under a contract with 
the U.S. Air Force Systems Command. 
Sof'lech also sells an Ada-to-Pascal trans- 
lator. The company hasn't discussed any 
commercial plans for the product. 

SuperSoft announced an Ada subset in 
early 1982 and had planned to have a full 
version late that year. However, it has 
decided not to expand its compiler. 
SuperSoft is selling a $300 CP/M-80 ver- 
sion, called SuperSoft-A, which it says in- 
cludes about 65 percent of Ada's fea- 



tures. 

Telesoft has a $3030 Ada Development 
Kit for the IBM Personal Computer (PC). 
The kit produces interpreted p-code. lele- 
soft submitted its $4435 compiler for the • 
Motorola 68000 for validation in 
February. 

Intellimac Inc. released an Ada shell 
that enables eight people to use lelesoft- 
Ada on Intellimac's 68000-based IN/7000 
compiler family. 

Mark I. Welch is a BYTE staff writer. He can 
be contacted at POB 372, Hancock. NH 03449. 



Producer 



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JUNE 1984 -BYTE 133 



ANNOUNCING 



EMACS 



UniPress 
Product 
UPDATE 



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[text continued from page 1 3 3) 

•■ Small3.ada 

- Smallest Ada program with a 

-■ separately compiled subprogram 
procedure small is 

- nested subprogram 

-- separately compiled 

procedure do nothing is separate; 

begin 

do nothing; 

end small; 

separate (small) 

-• subprogram implementation 

procedure do nothing is 

begin 
null; 
end do nothing; 

Although this approach avoids the problem of a long main 
program, it still has the data space problem and the sharing 
problem common to nesting. Therefore. I believe that almost 
all Ada subprograms should be placed in packages instead 
of using nesting or separate compilation and nesting. 

Displaying a Message 

Ada has several packages common to all compilers. Two of 

these are the standard package and the text io package. The 

text io package contains subprograms to display a message 

on the standard output device, which is usually your terminal. 

-- hellolada 

- Greet the world 

-■ Introduce output in Ada 
with text io; 

- use of text io package 

use text io; 

procedure hello is 
begin 

put ("Hello, world!"); 
new_Jine; 
end hello; 

The message displayed by this example is the statement 
Hello, world! It is written as a character string within paren- 
theses in the call to the put subprogram, which is in the text io 

package. After the put subprogram, there is a call to the 
new line subprogram, which positions the cursor at the begin- 
ning of the next line. 

When using the put subprogram without a new_line call, the 
next output request puts the subsequent output on the same 
line on the display. Thus, we could write the message as 
follows: 

-- hello2.ada 
■■ Greet the world 

- in another version 
with text io; 

- use of text io package 

use text io; 

procedure hello is 

begin 

"Hello"); 



put 
put 
put 
put 
put 



a ay 
"world") 

:■ ! "); 



(text continued on page 428) 



134 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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PREVIEW 



byG. Michael Vose 



MACINTOSH 

PASCAL 




■ascal's evolution has mirrored the 
growth of the microcomputer 
industry— both seek to bring usable, 
leamable computer power to a genera- 
tion of inquisitive, educated people 
looking toward the next century. Niklaus 
Wirth created Pascal to make learning 
computer programming an easy but still 
rigorous task. Even before Carl Helmers 
called six years ago in this journal for 
the widespread adoption of Pascal, col- 
leges and universities worldwide were 
beginning to embrace the language as 
a primary tool for teaching program- 
ming. 

Apple Pascal was released in 1979 
and was one of the first microcomputer 
implementations. Pascal became the 
primary programming language within 
Apple Computer Inc. for the develop- 
ment of new products. With this strong 
tie to Pascal, there was a good chance 
that Apple would be instrumental in the 
adoption of significant new Pascal prod- 
ucts. The first of these new products is 
the recently announced version for the 
Macintosh. 

The version of Pascal that Apple Com- 
puter offers for its new Macintosh is 
called Macintosh Pascal. Although it will 
be marketed by Apple. Macintosh 

Editors Note: This article is a BYTE Product 
Preview. \t is not a review. We think this new 
product is significant and therefore offer this ad- 
vance look at a prerelease version. An indepen- 
dent in-depth review, with appropriate bench- 
marks, will appear in a subsequent issue. 

136 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Ah interactive interpreter transforms 
Pascal into a language as easy to 
learn as it is expeditious to use . 



Pascal was created at Think Technolo- 
gies Inc. (420 Bedford St.. Lexington. 
MA 02 1 73) by Melvin Conway, who con- 
ceived the project and wrote trie pro- 
totype interpreter; Andrew Singer and 
John Hueras. who designed the product 
for the Macintosh; and Peter Maruhnic 
and 'ferry Lucas, who wrote the Macin- 
tosh version. Running initially on the 
Macintosh only. Macintosh Pascal will 
be available for Apple's Lisa running 
under the MacWorks operating system. 
Think Ifcchnologies promises separate 
versions of the language for all major 
educational microcomputers in the next 
18 months. Macintosh Pascal will retail 
for $125. 

A New Breed 

An interactive interpreter is the most in- 
novative feature of Macintosh Pascal. 
Programmers can write source code in 
Macintosh Pascal and run it immediate- 
ly without going through a separate 
compilation step. Students can run in- 
dividual commands to understand their 
functions. Using the Macintosh user in- 
terface—with its multiple windows, 
mouse, and data integration— makes 
Macintosh Pascal programming easy 
and efficient. New programmers can 
leam the language more quickly and ef- 
fectively when they can interact with a 
program at the source-code level. 
Macintosh Pascal's program-develop- 
ment tools, including single-step execu- 
tion, use of breakpoints, and an 
Observe window to track the alteration 



of variables, further enhance this pro- 
cess (see "Macintosh Pascal's Develop- 
ment Ibols" later in the text). 

Macintosh Pascal is a full implemen- 
tation, not a subset, of Pascal, and it 
emulates as closely as possible both the 
ANSI (American National Standards In- 
stitute) standard Pascal and LisaPascal. 
The following paragraphs describe the 
major differences between Macintosh 
Pascal and LisaPascal and Macintosh 
Pascal and ANSI Pascal. 

Macintosh Pascal varies slightly from 
LisaPascal. particularly in the way the 
latter uses extensions to the language 
definition. Also, the scope anomalies of 
LisaPascal are errors in Macintosh 
Pascal. The Macintosh version differs in 
other significant ways, including: 

• use of up to 255 significant iden- 
tifier characters 

• no support of compiler commands 
or nested comments 

• simpler rules for integer and longint 
arithmetic 

• additional real data types: longreal. 
extended, and computational 

• requirement of the otherwise state- 
ment within a CASE construct 

• no support of the external directive 

• no support of user-defined units or 
segmentation 

• no support of the functions 

exit halt heapresult 

mark release memavail 

pwroften moveleft moveright 

scaneq scanne fillchar 



• support of the pack and unpack 
procedures 

The Macintosh Pascal manual lists other 
minor differences between the two. 

Macintosh Pascal conforms most 
closely to the ANSI standard for Pascal 
and is closer to that standard than is 
LisaPascal. Macintosh Pascal's major 
departures from the ANSI/IEEE 
770X3.97-1983 standard include: 

• the special symbol @ is an opera- 
tor and never treated as a ~ 

• only the standard file variables IN- 
PUT and OUTPUT can be used as 
program parameters 

• all quoted character strings are 
STRING data types, but Macintosh 
Pascal's compatibility rules are 
nonetheless compatible with the 
standard's 



• support of the word symbols other- 
wise, string, and uses 

• support of the underscore charac- 
ter within an identifier 

• all integer and real data type 
operands are converted to extended 
before real arithmetic is performed; 
the result is always extended 

• support of predefined libraries 

• support of a set of string proce- 
dures and functions 

• support of the pointer and sizeof 
functions for LisaPascal compatibility 

The Macintosh Pascal manual lists other 
minor differences from the ANSI stan- 
dard including errors not automatical- 
ly detected and reported, in an 
appendix. 

Macintosh Pascal also supports the 
graphics functions of the Macintosh 
QuickDraw program. Macintosh Pascal 



can take advantage of QuickDraw's 
functions by including the QuickDraw 
libraries. This is done with the uses 
clause: for example, uses QUICKDRAW I. 
QUICKDRAW2. 

Macintosh Pascal also supports IEEE 
numerics conventions using the Pascal 
library SANE (Standard Apple Numeric 
Environment). The SANE package is the 
first implementation of IEEE numerics 
on a microcomputer. 

Programming 

in Macintosh Pascal 

Because the language is interpreted. 

programming in Macintosh Pascal is 

very similar to using interpreted BASIC 

{text continued on page 138) 

G. Michael Vose is a BYTE senior technical 
editor. He can be contacted at POB 372. 
Hancock. NH 03449. 



« File Edit Search 



& 



Windows 



flutoSket 



shape := Random mo 

PenSizeCpsizx, psizi 

case shape of 

0: 

begin 

writelnC'Hollow 

FrameOvaKyl, x 

end: 



Check 
Reset 



1 



Go 36G 

Go-Go 



Step-Step 



Stops Out 



begin 

writelnC'Filled Oval); 

PaintOvaKyl, x1,y2, x2) 
end; 
2: 
begin 

writelnC'Hollow Rectangle); 

FrameRectCyl, xl, y2, x2) 
end; 



Tent 



Line 
Line 
Line 
Filled Oval 



Draining 




5 



Figure I: The Macintosh Pascal 
AutoSketch program. The Run menu 
appears in the upper center of the screen. 
At the right are the Text and Drawing 
windows. The listing window, on the left, 
shows breakpoints indicated by stop signs; 
the finger points to the next instruction to 
be executed in single-step mode. 



6 File Edit Search Run Windows 




Figure 2: The Oscillation program. The 
Observe window in the upper right shows 
the value of variables or expressions. The 
Instant window enables execution of code 
fragments and the changing of variables 
during program execution. 



IUNE 1984 'BYTE 137 



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{text continued from page 1 37) 
You type in or load from disk the code 
you plan to run and then run it. Because 
Macintosh Pascal program lines are 
precompiled with the entry of a carriage 
return, errors are detected and reported 
immediately Macintosh Pascal is thus 
even friendlier than traditional inter- 
preted BASIC in detecting errors. 

Where BASIC uses the RUN command 
to start program execution. Macintosh 
Pascal uses GO or 3£ -G. Apple's Clover- 
leaf command key followed by G in the 
manner of the Control-X keystroke se- 
quence. Macintosh Pascal also enables 
execution of a program with break- 
points (called Stops) placed within the 
code (GO-GO), or single-step execution 
of the code with (STEP-STEP) or without 
(STEP or Cloverleaf-S) breakpoints. The 
GO-GO and STEP-STEP commands run 
a program with breakpoints, pause 
briefly at each Stop, and then continue, 
updating variables or expressions in the 
Observe window (see "Macintosh 
Pascal's Development Ibols"). 

Figure l is a Macintosh screen with 
the Macintosh Pascal program. Auto- 
Sketch, being executed in single-step 
mode. The Run menu appears at the up- 
per center of the display. Breakpoints 
have been inserted into the code and 
are shown in the listing window as 
miniature stop signs within the left scroll 
bar. The miniature hand with pointing 
finger shows the command that will be 
executed next. The Tfcxt and Drawing 
windows show the program's output. 

Macintosh Pascal program fragments 
cannot be run alone using the com- 
mands in the Run menu. There is an In- 
stant window that provides this capabil- 
ity, however. Within this window, you 
can enter, edit, and execute any Macin- 
tosh Pascal statement. The Instant win- 
dow has great potential as an educa- 
tional aid but has additional capabilities 
as well that make it one of the lan- 
guage's development tools. 

Macintosh Pascals 
Development Tools 

Interestingly. Macintosh Pascal's pro- 
gram-development tools double as 
learning aids and can make the process 
of writing programs more efficient. The 
Instant window is a good example. 

Students can use the Instant window 
to see how a specific command or pro- 
gram segment works. More experienced 
programmers can use this window to 
help create desired operations because 
it also can be used to change the value 
of a variable in a running program. 
Using the Instant window, you can play 
"what if" games with variables in a 



program while it is running. 

This intraprogram interactivity is the 
guiding philosophy behind the lan- 
guage's program-development tools. 
Besides the Instant window, you can use 
an Observe window to watch the value 
of variables and expressions change as 
a program executes; the Tfext and Draw- 
ing windows to see the text and graph- 
ics output, respectively, of the current 
running program; or the Clipboard win- 
dow, which provides access to the Clip- 
board system utility, used to move text 
or graphics from one window or pro- 
gram to any other program or window 

Figure 2 shows a Macintosh Pascal 
program called Oscillation in a display 
that includes the Instant and Observe 
windows. The Observe window, in the 
upper right comer, shows that the value 
of the Accel >0 expression is false, while 
the value of the variable Vtf is 0.272. The 
Instant window enables the execution 
of a single for loop, with its result shown 
in the Drawing window. 

You can access Macintosh Pascal's 
other development tools through the 
File, Edit, and Search menus, and a 
special Pause menu that appears only 
while a program is executing. The func- 
tions available for file manipulation in- 
clude opening, closing, saving, restoring 
after editing (Revert), and program print- 
ing. With the edit functions, you can cut. 
paste, copy, and clear (delete). Search 
functions are Find. Replace, and Every- 
where (search and replace). The special 
Pause menu provides the single HALT 
command that stops program execution. 

Using Macintosh Pascal 

Although the Macintosh makes full and 
extensive use of the mouse. Macintosh 
Pascal enables you to select many of its 
functions from the keyboard by using 
the Cloverleaf key as a control key. File 
and window functions cannot be in- 
voked from the keyboard, but most edit, 
search, and run functions can be. 
Because these functions are the ones 
most often used during program devel- 
opment, this "mousetrap" ensures that 
programmers are not hindered much by 
the ubiquitous rodent. 

Macintosh Pascal consumes approxi- 
mately 50K bytes of the Macintosh's 
memory, leaving more than 35K bytes 
for programs. Program disks provide 
approximately 100K bytes of space for 
program storage. 

Through Think Technologies. Apple 
plans to offer a system programmer's 
toolkit for the development of applica- 
tions software. The toolkit will be re- 
leased four to six months after Macin- 
tosh Pascal's debut. ■ 



138 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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DISK DRIVES 

Tandon 100-2 219 

CDC lor IBM (320 K) .^r.7.-~.-.-^ 229 

SPECIAL NOTE -TO OUR CUSTOMERS: 
Because Hard Disk Drive companies are re- 
thinking their prices downward, please call for 
latest prices for: QUADRAM, TECMAR, DA- 
l/OA/G. CORVUS, PEGASUS AND OTHERS. 




SOFTV 

FOR PC & XT 

Easywriter I 189 

Lotus 1-2-3 ... 319 

Lotus Symphony call 

R:Base 4000 349 

I DesQ 339 

: MultiMate call 

Volkswriter DeLux .... 199 

Wordstar on sale! 

Home Accountant Plus . 99 
Concurrent CP/M 86 , . . 239 

; CP/M 86 . . CALL 

r-TXM 329 

' QBase 139 

Verse Form 279 

Ask Micro (ea package) .389 

; Smartcom II 99 

; Inview 219 

Micro Terminal ........ 69 

MAC 

' Friday 199 

■ dBase n 499 

, Micro Soft Basic 119 

MultiPlan 139 

Chart 99 

Call for our frt e price list 
of software 



FOR JR. 

Home Acct. Jr 54 

Tax Advantage Jr 54 

Personal Development 67 

Filewriter 2 1 19 

Rescue at Rigel . . ... 24 

Easywriter I Sys 189 

Kids on Keys Jr 24 

Creative Calc 34 

Creative Filer 34 

Creative Writer 34 

Pipes 24 

ave New York 24 



APPLE 

Fridav 7 ;i r 65| 

C Dex (each 36 

Quick Code >...,.. 179 
Micro Pro ..... on sale! 

PFS: File 83 

PFS: Report 83 

PFS: Graph 83 

Visicalc 3.3 169 

Visicalc Enhanced . . 179 
Letter Perfect w/Mail 99 

dBase II ...call 

Tax Prepare '84 .... 179 
Magic Window II ... 97 



MONITORS 
AND TERMINALS 



Princeton Hx-12 464 

Princeton SR-12 '. . .on sale! 
Princeton Max- 12 .... 179 

Taxan 420 467 

Taxan Amber 119 

Taxan Kx- 122 159 

Quadram Quadchrome 499 
Quadram Color D 449 



Zenith 131 319 

Zenith 135 7. . 487 

Zenith 122 109 

Amdek310A ...;.. 159 
Amdek Color II ....429 
Amdek Color IV ...799 
NEC 1216 419 



TERMINALS 

WYSE300 989 Televideo 914 .. .. 539 

WYSE 100 689 Televideo 924 . . 7. 687 

QUME 102A . , 534 Televideo 910+ . . 549 

QUME 103A . ... . . . CALL Televideo 950 895 

SERVICE 

EXTENDED WARRANTIES AND 
FAST REPAIR BY QUALIFIED 
TECHNICIANS FOR OUR ENTIRE 
LINE. CALL 
FOR MORE 
INFO. 



CO 





TER 



SAN DIEGO, CA 92104 
TO ORDER (619) 291-1442 



"SE HABLA ESPANOL" 

$50 to $200 rebate on system purchases 

CALL FOR MORE INFORMATION. 

* On All Pre-paid Cash Orders In Cont. U. 



VISA* 



P.O.'S ACCEPTED 
ON APPROVAL 

JUNE 1984 -BYTE 139 



s~\ 


IP 

wrrr 


HI 


WF 


Tl 


|- 


Number of Pins ol each I.e. 


f 

Part No. * 


•Pins 


Price 


Mm 

Part No. * 


£1 

Pins 




lor easy Socket purchase 


Price 


Part No. * 


'Pins 


Price 


SN74D0N 


14 


25 


SN7472N 


14 


29 


SN74156H 


Ifi 


.59 


SN7401N 


14 


25 


SN7473N 


14 


.35 


SN74157N 


16 


.59 


SN7402N 


14 


.25 


SN7474N 


14 


.35 


SN74160N 


16 


69 


SN7403N 


14 


25 


SN7475N 


16 


>15 


SN74161N 


1fi 


.69 


SN7404N 


14 


25 


SN7476N 


16 


35 


SN74162N 


IS 


69 


SN7405N 


14 


25 


SN7479N 


14 


4 95 


SN74163N 


16 


69 


SN7406N 


14 


45 


SN7480N 


14 


89 


SN74164N 


14 


69 


SN7407N 


14 


.29 


SN7482N 


14 


1.49 


SN74165N 


ifi 


.69 


SN7408N 


14 


.25 


SN7483N 


16 


.59 


SN74166N 


IS 


89 


SN7409N 


14 


25 


SN7485N 


16 


59 


SN74167N 


Ifi 


2.95 


SN7410N 


14 


25 


SN7486N 


14 


35 


SN74170N 


IB 


129 


SN7411N 


14 


25 


SM7489N 


16 


2 25 


SN74172M 


H 


4.95 


SN7412N 


14 


49 


SN7490N 


14 


39 


SN74173N 


16 


69 


SN7413N 


14 


39 


SN7491N 


14 


79 


SN74174N 


IB 


69 


SN7414N 


14 


49 


SN7492M 


14 


39 


SN74175N 


1G 


69 


SN7416N 


14 


25 


SN7493N 


14 


39 


SN74176M 


14 


.69 


SN7417N 


14 


.25 


SN7494N 


14 


89 


SN74177M 


14 


69 


SIW20M 


14 


19 


SN7495N 


14 


49 


SN74179N 


1b 


149 


SN7421N 


14 


.49 


SN7496M 


16 


49 


SN74180N 


14 


69 


SN7422N 


14 


49 


SN7497N 


16 


3.25 


SN74181N 


24 


1.95 


SN7423N 


16 


59 


SN74100r 


24 


1.95 


SN74182N 


16 


1.19 


SN7425N 


14 


29 


SN74104r 


14 


1.19 


SN74184N 


16 


2.49 


SN7426N 


14 


29 


SN74105r- 


14 


1.19 


SN74185N 


16 


249 


SN7427N 


14 


25 


SN74107N 


14 


.29 


SN74190N 


16 


.69 


SN7428N 


14 


59 


SN74109N 


16 


.39 


SN74191N 


16 


.69 


SN7430N 


14 


.25 


SN74116f> 


24 


149 


SN74192N 


16 


69 


SN7432N 


14 


.29 


SN74121N 


14 


39 


SN74193M 


16 


69 


SN7437N 


14 


.25 


SN74l22r> 


14 


69 


SM74194N 


16 


69 


SN7438N 


14 


29 


SN74123r< 


16 


49 


SN74195N 


16 


69 


SN7439N 


14 


59 


SN74125f> 


14 


45 


SN74196N 


14 


89 


SN7440N 


14 


19 


SM74126N 


14 


45 


SN74197N 


14 


.89 


SU744TN 


16 


89 


SN74132f> 


14 


49 


SN74198N 


74 


1.19 


SN7442N 


16 


45 


SN74136J- 


14 


69 


SN74199N 


74 


1.19 


SM7443N 


16 


1.25 


SN7414U 


16 


89 


SN74221N 


16 


1.19 


SN7444N 


16 


1 25 


SN74142N 


16 


3.95 


SN742S1N 


16 


79 


SN7445N 


16 


69 


SN74143r\ 


24 


395 


SN74276N 


20 


2.49 


SN7446N 


16 


69 


SN74144N 


24 


3 95 


SN74279M 


16 


79 


SN7447N 


16 


69 


SN74145N 


16 


59 


SN74283M 


16 


1 49 


SN7448N 


16 


69 


SN74147N 


16 


149 


SN74284N 


16 


2.95 


SN7450N 


14 


19 


SN74148N 


16 


1 19 


SN7428SN 


1b 


2 95 


SN7451N 


14 


19 


SN74150N 


24 


1,19 


SN74365N 


16 


.55 


SN7453N 


14 


19 


SN74151N 


16 


59 


SN74366N 


16 


55 


SN7454N 


14 


19 


SN741S2N 


14 


59 


SN74367N 


16 


55 


SN7459N 


14 


25 


SN74153N 


16 


59 


SN74368N 


16 


55 


SN7460N 


14 


39 


SN74154N 


24 


125 


SN74390N 


16 


1.49 


SN7470N 


14 


29 


SN74155N 


16 


59 


SN74393N 


14 


1 49 


74LS00 


14 


25 


iiiV7 






74LS192 


1b 


79 


74LS01 


14 


25 








74LS193 


1b 


79 


74LS02 


14 


29 


74LS92 


14 


55 


74LS194 


Ifi 


69 


74LS03 


14 


25 


74LS93 


14 


55 


74LS195 


16 


69 


74LS04 


14 


35 


74LS95 


14 


79 


74LS197 


14 


79 


74LS05 


14 


29 


74LS96 


16 




74LS221 


1b 


89 


74LS08 


14 


29 


74LS107 


14 


39 


74LS240 


711 


1.09 


74LS09 


14 


.29 


74LS109 


16 


39 


74LS241 


7n 


1.09 


74LS10 


14 


29 


74LS112 


16 


39 


74LS242 




1.09 


74LS11 


14 


35 


74LS113 




39 


74LS243 




1 09 


74LS12 


14 


.35 


74LS114 


14 


39 


74LS244 


70 


149 


74LS13 


14 


39 


74LS122 


14 


49 


74LS245 


70 


1.49 


74LS14 


14 


59 


74LS123 


16 


89 


74LS247 


16 


1.09 


74LS15 


14 


35 


74LS125 


14 


59 


74LS248 


1b 


1 09 


74LS20 


14 


.29 


74LS126 




49 


74LS249 


16 


109 


74LS21 


14 


.29 


74LS132 


14 


59 


74LS251 


1fi 


.59 


74LS22 


14 


.29 


74LS133 


16 


59 


74LS253 


16 


.59 


74LS26 




.29 


74LS136 


14 


39 


74LS257 


16 


59 


74LS27 


14 


m 


74LS138 


16 


89 


74LS258 


1b 


59 


74LS28 


14 


35 


74LS139 


1H 


.79 


74LS260 


14 


59 


74LS30 


14 


-29 


74LS151 


16 


59 


74LS266 


14 


69 


74LS32 


14 


39 


74LS153 


16 


59 


74LS273 


70 


149 


74LS33 


14 


.55 


74LS154 


24 


1 29 


74LS279 


16 


49 


74LS37 


14 


35 


74LS155 


16 


69 


74LS283 


16 


69 


74LS38 


14 


.35 


74LS156 


16 


69 


74LS290 


14 


89 


74LS4D 


14 


.29 


74LS157 


16 


69 


74LS293 


14 


79 


74LS42 


16 


bi 


74LS158 


16 


59 


74LS298 


1b 


89 


74LS47 


lb 


.75 


74LS160 


16 




74LS352 


Ifi 


1.29 


74LS48 


1b 


75 


74LS161 


16 


69 


74LS353 


16 


1.29 


74LS49 


14 


.75 


74LS162 


16 


69 


74LS365 


1b 


49 


74LS51 


14 


.25 


74LS163 


16 


69 


74LS366 


1b 


49 


74LS54 


14 


.25 


74LS164 


14 


69 


74LS367 


1b 


49 


74LS55 


14 


.29 


74LS165 


16 


1 19 


74LS358 


1b 


49 


74LS73 


14 


.39 


74LS168 


16 


1.19 


74LS373 


?n 


149 


74LS74 


14 


49 


74LS169 


16 


1 19 


74LS374 


70 


149 


74LS75 


1fi 


.39 


74LS170 


16 


1.49 


74LS375 


Ifi 


.69 


74LS76 


16 


33 


74LS173 


16 


69 


74LS386 


14 


.45 


74LS78 


14 


.39 


74LS174 


16 


69 


74LS393 


14 


1.19 


74LS83 


16 


65 


74LSI75 


16 


69 


74LS399 


1b 


1 49 


74LS85 


1b 


.89 


74LS181 


24 


2 95 


74LS670 


1b 


1.49 


74LS86 


14 


.39 


74LS190 


16 


89 


81LS95 


70 


1 49 


74LS90 


14 


.55 


74LS191 


16 


89 


81LS97 


20 


1 49 


74S00 


14 


■ 35 


WlWt 


iFT 


T3 


74S243 


14 


2 49 


74S02 


14 


.35 






■ifl 


74S244 


20 


2.49 


74S03 


14 


35 


74S114 


14 


55 


74S251 


1b 


1 19 


74S04 


14 


45 


74S133 


16 


45 


74S253 


16 


1 19 


74S05 


14 


.45 


74S134 


16 


50 


74S257 


1b 


1.19 


74S08 


14 


39 


74S135 


16 


69 


74S258 


1b 


1 19 


74S09 


14 


39 


74SI36 


14 


139 


74S260 


14 


1.19 


74S10 


14 


.35 


74S138 


16 


89 


74S280 


14 


1.95 


74S11 


14 


35 


74S139 


16 


89 


74S287" 


16 


1 95 


74S15 


14 


.35 


74S140 


14 


55 


74S288" 


16 


1 95 


74S20 


14 


35 


74S151 


16 


99 


74S373 


70 


2.49 


74S22 


14 


.35 


74S153 


16 


99 


74S374 


20 


249 


74S30 


14 


35 


74S157 


16 


99 


74S387- 


16 


1.95 


74S32 


14 


45 


74S158 


16 


99 


74S47T 


20 


595 


74S38 


14 


89 


74S160 


16 


2 49 


74S472* 


20 


4.95 


74S4D 


14 


39 


74S174 


16 


1 19 


74S473" 


70 


495 


74S51 


14 


35 


74S175 


16 


1.19 


74S474- 


?4 


495 


74S64 


14 


39 


74S188" 


16 


1.49 


74S475* 


24 


4.95 


74S65 


14 


39 


74S194 


16 


149 


74S570' 


1b 


295 


74S74 
74S85 


14 

16 


.55 
2.49 


74S195 
74S196 


16 
14 


1.49 
149 


74S571- 
74S572" 


1b 

18 


2.95 
4.95 


74S86 


14 


.55 


74S240 


20 


2 25 


74S573* 


18 


4.95 


74SI12 


16 


55 


74S241 


20 


2 25 


74S940 


20 


2.49 


74S113 


14 


55 


74S242 


14 2 49 

LUliliM 


74S941 


20 


2 49 


CA3O10H 




1 35 


US! 


CA3130E 


a 


89 


CA3039H 




1.35 


CA3081N 


IS 


.99 


CA3140E 


8 


79 


CA3Q46N 


14 


1.35 


CA3082N 


16 


1 19 


CA3160H 




1 95 


CA3059N 


14 


2.95 


CA3083M 


16 


149 


CA3161E 


18 


2.95 


CA3O60N 


16 


2.95 


CA3086N 


14 


.69 


CA3162E 


16 


6.95 


CA3065E 


14 


1.49 


CA3089N 


1fi 


1.69 


CA3189E 


16 


159 


CA3080E 


8 


.89 


CA3096N 


16 


149 


CA3401N 


14 


.59 


CD4000 
C04001 
CD4002 
CD4006 
CD4007 


14 
14 
14 
14 
14 


29 
.29 

29 
1 .19 

29 
.59 


MIS 

CD4040 


32 

16 


m 

1 19 


CD4098 
CD4506 
CD4507 


16 
16 

14 


1.95 

1 19 
1 19 


CD4041 
CO4042 
C04043 


14 
16 
16 


1 19 
89 
79 


CD4508 
CD4510 
CD4511 


24 
16 
16 


3.95 
1.29 
1 19 


CD4010 
CD4011 
CD4012 
CO4013 
CO4014 
CO4015 
CO4016 
C04017 
CD4018 
CD4019 
CD4020 
CD4021 
CD4022 
CD4023 
CD4024 
CO4025 
CD4026 
CD4027 
CD4028 
CD4D29 
C04O30 
CD4034 
I CD4035 
V^ (Mora 


16 


59 
29 
29 
39 

1 19 
.39 
49 

1.19 
.99 
59 


CD4044 
CD4046 


1b 
16 


79 
1.19 


CD4512 
CDJ514 


1b 

74 


1.19 
2 49 


14 
14 
16 
16 
14 
16 


CD4047 
CD404A 
CD4049 
CD405D 


14 
16 
16 
16 


1.29 
59 

.39 
39 


C04515 
CD4516 
CD45I8 
C04519 


24 
16 
16 
1b 


2 49 

1 19 

1 19 

59 


C04051 


16 


99 


C04520 


1b 


1 19 


C04052 
CD4053 


16 

16 


.99 
99 


C04526 
CD4528 


1b 
1b 


1.49 
1 49 


16 
16 
16 
16 


CD4056 


16 


295 


CD4529 


1b 


1.69 


CD4059 


24 


7 95 


CD4543 


1b 


1 95 


1.19 

1 19 
29 
69 
23 

2 49 
.45 

69 
129 

39 
249 
1.49 
09) 


CD4060 


16 


1.49 


C04562 


14 


6 95 


CD4066 


14 


.59 


C04566 


1fi 


1.39 


CD4068 


14 


.39 


C04583 


1b 


249 


14 
16 
16 
16 

16 


CD4069 
CD4070 
CO4071 
CD4072 


14 

14 
14 


29 
.39 
29 
29 


C04584 
C04723 
CD4724 
MC14409 


14 

1b 
1b 
1b 


69 
1.19 
1 19 
13 95 


CD4073 


14 


29 


MC14410 


16 


13.95 


C04075 
CD4076 


14 
16 


29 
1.19 


MC14411 
MC14412 


24 
16 


11 95 
13.95 


24 
16 
n Cata 


CO4078 


14 


49 


MC14419 


16 


7.95 


C04081 
C04082 
CD4093 


14 

14 
14 


.29 
29 
49 


MC14433 
MC14538 
MC14541 


24 
16 
14 


13.95 
1.19 
1 19 



MICROPROCESSOR COMPONENTS 



Digitalker 



MICROPROCESSOR Cmro- 

Part Ho. "P ins Function Wca 

CDP1S02 40 CPU . 12.95 

2C50 40 MPU (2MHz) 995 

MCS6502 40 MPUw/Clock 5.95 

MCS5502B 40 MPU w/Clock at 3MHz 9.95 

6809 40 CPU-8-bit (Internal Clock) 1MHz 14.95 

68096 4D CPU— 8-bil (External Clock) 1MHz. . . 14.95 

INS8035N-6 40 MPU-B bit(6MHz} 5.95 

INS8039N 40 CPU-Sgl chip8-bit(128bls.Ram) . 5.95 

INS8040N-G 40 CPU (256 byles RAMI 9.95 

INS8070N 40 CPU (64 bytes RAM) 29.95 

INS8073N 40 CPU w/BasiC Micro Interpreter 29 95 

P8085A 40 CPU 4 95 

8086 40 CPU 16-bit 5MHz . . 24 95 

8088 40 CPUB/16-ott 29 95 

8155 40 HMOS RAM I/O Port-Timer 6 95 
8748 40 HMOS EPROM MPU 24 95 

Z80. 280A, Z80B. Z8000 SERIES 

280 40 CPU (MK3880N)(780C) 2Mnz S3 95 

ZBO-CTC 28 Counter Timer Circuit 3 95 

780DART 40 Dual Asynchronous Rec / Trans 10 95 

780-DMA 40 Direct Memory Access Circuit 9 95 

Z80-P10 40 Parallel I/O interface Controller . 3.95 

Z8Q-S10/G 40 Serial l/0(TxCB and RxCB Bonded) 12 95 

Z8Q-S10/I 40 Serial I/O (Lacks DTRB) ... 12.95 

780-SI0/2 40 Serial I/O (Lacks SYNCH) 12.95 

Z80-S1G/9 40 Serial I/O 12.95 

Z80A 40 CPU(MK3880N-4)(78OC-1(4MHz .4 49 

Z80A-CTC 28 Counter Timer Circuit 4.95 

Z8QA-DART 40 Dual Asynchronous Rec /Trans 9,95 

ZBOADMA 40 Direcl Memory Access Circuit 12 95 

ZB0AP10 40 Parallel I/O Interface Controller . 3,95 

Z80A-S10/0 40 Serial I/O (TxCB and RxCB bonded). 12,95 

Z80A-S10/I 40 Serial I/O (Lacks DTRB) 12.95 

Z80A-S10/2 40 Serial I/O (Lacks SYNCB) 12 95 

Z80A-S10/9 40 Serai I/O ... 12 95 

Z80B 40 CPU(MK388QN-6)6MHz 9.95 

ZBOB-CTC 28 Counter Timer Orcuil 12 95 

Z80B-DART 40 Dual Asynch Receiver/ Transmitter 19 95 

Z80B-P10 40 Parallel I/O Interlace Controller 12.95 

Z8O01 48 CPU Segmented 44 95 

7.8002 40 CPU Non-Segmented 34 95 

Z8030 40 Serial Comm. Coniroller 44 95 

Z8035 40 Counter/Timer & Parallel I/O Unit . 29.95 

6500/6800/68000 SERIES 

MU15U2A 40 MPU Wl I IH: !!:■::.-, ,ir,r1 HAM (2MH/I fi V, 

MC6520 40 Peripheral inter. Adapter . , 4.95 

MC6800 40 MPU 2.95 

MC6802CP 40 MPU with clock and RAM 7.95 

MC6809E 40 CPU (1MHz) External (Locking) 14 95 

MC6821 40 Peripheral Inier Adapt (MC6820) 2 95 

MC6828 24 Priority I --■ ! ^ r 

MC6B30L8 24 1024x8bil ROM (MC68A30-8) 9 95 

MC6B50 24 Asynchronous Comm Adapter 3.95 

MC6852 24 Synchronous Serial Dala Adapter 5 75 

MC6860 24 0-600bps Digilal MODEM 7.95 

MC68000L8 64 MPU 16-Bit (8MHz) 49 95 

MC6S488P 40 Genera! Purpose inl Adapter 9 95 

MC68652P2 40 Mulli. Protocol Comm Coniroller 24 95 

MC68661PB 28 Enhanced Prog Comm Int 9 95 

MCM68764 24 64 k EPROM (450ns) 24 95 

SY6522 40 Peripheral inter Adapier 7 95 

B080A SERIES 

TMS5501 40 Synchronous Data Interlace (SIRC) 14 95 

INS8080A 40 CPU 2 95 

INS8154 40 128 Byte RAM 16Bit I/O 13 95 

8156 40 RAM wffi I/O Ron and Timer 6,95 

INS82C06 20 Octal D Flip Flop Tn-Statc(74C374) 2.49 

OP8212 24 8-bil Input/Output (74S412) ,. , 2,25 

DP8214 24 Priority Interrupt Conlrol 2,95 

OP8216 16 Bi-Direclional Bus Driver 1.95 

0P8224 16 Clock General or/ Driver , 2.25 

DP8225 16 Bus Driver . 2 25 

DP8228 28 System Com. /Bus Driver (74S428) 3 49 

DP8238 28 System Controller (74S4 38) 4 49 

IHS8243 24 I/O Expander lor 48 Series 3.95 

INS8245 18 16-Key Keyboard Encoder (74C922) 4.49 

INS8246 20 20-Key Keyboard Encoder (74C923) 4 95 

1NS8247 28 Display Conlrrj!:er(74C911) 8.95 

INS824B 28 Display Coniroller (74C9 12) 8 95 

INSS25GN 40 Asyn. Comm. Element 10 95 

DP8251 28 Prog. Comm l/0(USART) 4 49 

0P8253 24 Prog. Interval Timer 6 95 

OP8255 40 Prog. Penpheral I/O (PPI) 4.49 

DP8257 40 Prog DMA Control 5.95 

DP8259 28 Prog Interropl Conlrol .6 95 

DP8275 40 Prog CRT Controller 29 95 

DP8279 40 Prog, Keyboaid/Display Interface . 8 95 

DP8303 20 8-Bil Tri-State Bi-Orcclional Trans. .3.95 

DP8304 20 8-bil Bi-Oirectional Receiver , . , 2.95 

DP8307 20 a-bit Bj-Directiona! Receiver 2.95 

DP8308 20 B-bitBi Directioi 

DP8310 20 Octal Latched Penpheral Driver 4,g5 

8741 40 8-M Univ. Peripheral Interface 29 95 

8755 40 I6KEPRCM with I/O . 24.95 

DISK CONTROLLERS 

INS1771-1 40 Single Density . 16.95 

F01791 40 Single/Dual Density (Inv.) 29.95 

F01793 40 Single/Double Density (Truel 29 95 

FD1795 40 Dual Density/Side Select (Inv) 29 95 

FD1797 40 Dual Density/Side Select True 29 95 

SPECIAL FUNCTION 

DSD025CN 8 DuaiMOSClock Linver(5MZ) 2 49 

DS0026CN 8 Oual MOSClock Orrver (5MZ) . 1.95 

1NS2651 20 Communication Chip . . . .8 95 

MC3470P 18 floppy Disk Read Amp System 4.95 

MM58167AN 24 Microprocessor RealTimeClock . . 8 95 

MM58174AN 16 Micro. Compatible TimeClock 7 95 

COP402N 40 Microconlrollerw/64-digitRAM 595 

and Oirecl LED Drive 

C0P402MN 40 Microprocessor w/64-digit RAM 5 95 

& Direct LEO Drive w/N Buss Int. 

COP470N 20 32-segVAC Fluor. Drvr. (20-pinpkg > . 3 25 

MM5369AA/N 8 Prog.Oscaialoi/Divrder 160Hz) ... . . .1.79 

MM5369EST 8 Prog Oscillator/ DivKJer ( 100Hz) 1.95 



p«t No. "Pins DYNAMIC RAMS 



1103 
4027 
4116N-2 

■iiiiiN :i 

4116N-4 

4164N-150 

4164N-200 

MM5261 

MM5262 

IM.V :■>,-[) 

MM52B0 
M\V-;"lCj ■> 
MM 5290- 3 
MM5290-4 
M 1,15298-3 



2111 
2112 

? 1 1 ,1 

211-11. 

2114-2 

2114L-2 

2147 

2148 

TMS4045 



16 16,381x1 (150ns) 

16 16.384x1 1200ns) 

16 16.384x1 (250ns) 

16 65,536x1 (150ns) 

16 65.536x1 (200ns) 

18 1024x1 300ns) 

22 2048x1 (365ns) 

18 4096x1 |250ns)MK4096 

22 4096x1 (200ns) 210/ 

16 16.384x1 (150ns) 

16 16.384x1 (200ns) 

16 16,384x1 (250ns) 

16 8192x1 (200ns) 

STATIC RAMS 

16 256x1 1650ns) 

22 256x4 (450nsi8101 

16 1024x1 (350ns) 

16 1024x1 (450ns) LP 

IB 256x4 (450ns)8111 

16 256x4 (450ns) MOS 

18 1024x4 (450ns) 

18 1024x4 (450ns) LP 

10 1024x4 (200ns) 

IB 1024x4 (200ns) L P 

IB 4096x1 (70ns) 

IB 1024x4 (7Dns) 

" 1024x4 (450ns) 



/14.95 
1.69-8/12.95 
I 49-8/10.95 
6 95-8/49 95 
595-8/44.95 
49-8/1 95 
10 



1 89-8/14 95 
1 69-B/12 95 
1 49-8/10 95 



1 75-8/11.95 



IMS40L47-45 20 1024x4 (450ns) 



5101 
MM5257 

h.'.'.mim'-;; 

HM6116P-4 

HM6116LP-4 

HM6264P-15 

27LS00 

7489 

74C920 

mci:m 

74C929 
MUCIO 
74S189 
74S200 

74S289 
82S10 
82S25 



1 702A 

2708 

2708-5 

TMS2516 

T MS? 532 

IMSi'liivt 

lMS:'71n 

2716 

2716 1 

27160-5 

2732 

2732A-3 

.'/3PA-.1 

273204 

27580-A 

27C4-4 

2764-3 

U'.llvTIlU 

27128 
74SI88 

/•i:,:-'a/ 
74S288 

74S4 71 
74S472 
74S4 73 
74S4 74 
74S4 75 
(■IS-:/!, 
/■■.SJ/d 
74S570 
74S571 

74S573 
h;'S; ! :i 

8?fil1!i 
82S123 
82S126 
B2S129 
B2S130 

82S190 

Hl'Siill 



22 256x4 (450ns) CMOS 
18 4096x1 (450ns) 4044 
24 2048x8 (150ns)CMOS 
24 2048x8 (200ns) CMOS 
24 2048xB (200ns) L P CMOS 
2B 8192x8 (150ns) CMOS 
16 256x1 (80ns) LP 
(50ns) 3101 
(250ns) 
(250ns) CMOS 
h'ijDrir.i CMOS (6501) 
i i'Mnsi CMOS (65161 
(35ns) 93405 
(80ns) 93410 
(60ns) 934 II 
(35ns)3101 
(50ns) O.C (93415) 
(50ns)O.C.(74S289), 

— PROMS /EPROMS 

24 256x6 (lus). 



22 256x4 

1B 256x4 

16 1024x 

IB 1024x 



1024x1 



4 95 



5 c i:> 



14 95 



24 1024x8 (450ns) 

24 1024x8 (550ns) SM00246 

24 2048x8 (450ns) 2716 

24 4096x8 (450ns) NMC2532 

2B 8192x8 (450ns) 

24 2048x8 (450ns) 3 voltage 

24 2048x8 1 4 50ns) 

24 2048x8 |350ns) 

24 2048x8 | 550ns) 

24 4096x8 (450ns ) 

24 4096x8 j 300ns) 

24 4096x8 (450ns)21V 

24 4096x8 (550ns) 

24 1024x8 (450n5) 

28 8192x8 (450ns) 

28 8192x8 (300ns) 

24 512xS(1us) . 

24 8192x6 (450ns) .24.95 

;>G \-. :.■.:..■■ . :■• ...-■.-, 

16 32x8 PROMO C. (1)330-1). .1.49 

16 256x1 PROMTS (6301-1) .1.95 

16 32x8 PROMT S (6331-1) 1 95 

16 256x4 PROMOC (6300-11 1 95 

20 256x8 PROMTS (6309-1) 5 95 

20 512x8 PROMT S (6349-11 4 95 

20 512x8 PROMOC (6348) 4.95 

24 512x8 PROM T S (DM87S296N) 4.95 

24 512x8 PROMO C (6340) 4 95 

IB 1024x4 PROMTS 6 95 

24 1024x8 PROMTS B 95 

16 512x4 PROMOC (6305) 2 95 

PROMTS (6306) .2 95 

PROMOC (63521 

PROMT S (82S137) 

PROMO C (27S18) 

PROMTS . I27S15) 

PROMT S (27S19) 

PROMOC (27S20) 

PROMT S (27S21) 

PROMOC (27S12) 

PROMT S fTBI 

(80ns) 

(80ns) . 

I'iiOMO C (II2S1B0) 

PROMT S (82S181) 

PROMOC (82SI84) 

PROMT S (82S185) 



16 512x4 

18 1024x4 

IB 1024x4 

16 32>8 

24 512xB 

16 32x8 

16 256x4 

16 256x4 

16 512x4 

18 2048x4 

24 2048x8 

24 2048x8 

OMB7S160N 24 1024x8 

DMB7S1B1N 24 1024x8 

0M87S184N IB 2048x4 

DM87S185N IB 2048x4 

DM87S190N 24 2048*4 PROM C (B2S190) 

DM87S191N 24 2048x8 PROM T.S. (825191) 

DATA ACQUISITION 

DC10 Moslek DC/DC Convert +5V10-9V 



4 95 



14.95 



14 95 
14 95 



.2 95 



MC3470P 18 Floppy ■ ft ■ ; --MP System 

MC140BL7 16 7-MD/A Convener (DAC0807LCN) 1.49 

MC14Q8L8 IB B-bil D/A Converter (DAC0808LCN) 2.25 

ADC0B03LCN 20 8-bilA/D Convener (± 1/2LSB) 4 95 

ADC0804 20 8-bilA/D Convener (ILSB) .3,49 

DAC0806 16 8-bil D/A Convener (0 78% Lin, ) 1.95 

ADC08O9 28 B-bil A/D Convener (8-Ch. Mulli.) . . 4.49 

ADC0B17 40 B-bil A/D Convener (16-Ch Mtilti.) 9.95 

DAC1000 24 10-bil D/A Conv Micro Comp (0 05%) 7 95 

OAC1008 20 10-bil D/A Conv Micro Comp (0 20%) 6.95 

DAC1O20 16 10-bil D/A Conv (0 05% Lm ) 7 95 

DACI022 16 10-bH D/A Conv (0.20% Lin ) 5 95 

DAC1222 1812-WtD/ACtmv, (0.20% Lin ) 6 95 

LM334Z Consianl Current Source 1.19 

LM335Z Temperalure Transducer 140 

LM399H Temp Comp Prec Rel ( 5ppm/C) 5.00 

AY-5-1013A 40 30K Baud Uart (T81602) . 3.95 



LOW PROFILE 
(TIN) SOCKETS 

1-9 10-99 100-up 



8 pin LP 
14 pin LP 
16 pinLP 
18 pin LP 
20 pin LP 
22 PinLP 
24pln LP 
28 pin LP 
36 pin LP 



40 p 



LP 



SOLDERTAIL (GOLD) 
STANDARD 

1-9 10-99 100-up 



8 pinSG 
14 pin SG 
16 pin SG 
18 pin SG 
24pinSG 
2BplnSG 
36 pin SG 
40 pin SG 



1.03 



.97 
1.08 



WW 



SOLDERTAIL 
STANDARD (TIN) 



WIRE WRAP SOCKETS 
(GOLD) LEVEL #3 

1_^ 10-99 100-up 



22 pin VJ 
24 pin VJ 
28 pin VJ 



1.75 



$10.00 Minimum Order — U.S. Funds Only 
California Residents Add 6Vj% Sales Tax 
Shipping — Add 5% plus $1.50 Insurance 
Send S.A.S.E. for Monthly Sales Flyer! 



Spec Sheets — 30« each 
Send $1.00 Postage for your 
FREE1984JAMECO CATALOG 
Prices Subject to Change 




1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
6/84 PHONE ORDERS WELCOME — (415) 592-8097 Telex: 176043 



KwmmK 



DT1050 — Applications: Teaching aids, 
appliances, clocks, automotive, telecommunica- 
tions, language translations, etc. 

The DT1050 Is a standard DIGITALKER kit encoded with 137 separate 
and useful words, 2 tones, and 5 different silence durations. The 
words and tones have been assigned discrete addresses, making it 
possible lo output single words or words concatenated into phrases 
or even sentences. The "voice" output of the OT1050 is a highly in- 
telligible male voice. Female and children's voices can be synthesiz- 
ed. The vocabulary is chosen so that it is applicable to many pro- 
ducts and markets. 

The DT1O50 consists of a Speech Processor Chip, MM54104 (40-pin) 
and two (2) Speech ROMs MM52164SSR1 and MM52164SSR2 (24-pin) 
along with a Master Word list and a recommended schematic 
diagram on the application sheet. 

DTI 050 Digitalker™ $34.95 ea. 

MM54104 Processor Chip $14.95ea . 

DTI 057 -Expands the DT1050 vocabulary from 137 to over 260 

words. Includes I ROMs and specs. 

PartNo. DT1057 .$24.95 6 

*Eira/oation 
Kits 

Part Ho. "Fins Function Wca 

7045IPI 28 CMDSPrecisionTimer 14 95 

7045Ev7Kir 28 Stopwatch C hip. XTL 19 95 

7106CPL 40 3Vi Digit A/D(LCD0nve) 9 95 

FE0203D 3"/r Digit LCD Display for 7106 & 7116 19.95 

7106EV/Kif 40 IC.Circuil Board, Display 34 95 

7107CPL 40 3V>OigilA/D(LEDOnve) . . 1195 

7107EV/Krt" 40 IC. Circuit Board. Display 2995 

7116CPL 40 3^ Digit A/0 LCD Dis HLD . 16.95 

72011US Low Baitery Volt Indicator 2 25 

7205IPG 24 CMOSLEDSlopwalch/Timer 12 95 

7205EV/Kir 24 StopwalchChip. XTL 14 95 

72D6CJPE 16 Tone Generator 4 95 

7206CEV/KH* 16 ToneGenerator Chip. XTL 7.95 

7207AIPD 14 OscillatorConlrollOr 5 95 

7207AEV/Kif 14 Freq Counler Chip, XTL 7 95 

7215IPG 24 4Func CMDSSlopwatChCKT 1395 

7215EV/Kif 24 4 Func SlopwalCflChip. XTL ... 14 95 

7216AIJI 28 8 Oigil Un.v Counter C A 2995 

7216DIPI 28 80igi1Freq Counter CC 1995 

7217UI 28 4Digi1LEDUp/DownCounlerCA, 10 95 

7217AIPI 28 4DigilLE0Up/D0ivnCoLnterCC 1195 

72241PL . 40 LCD4 s /i Oigil Up CounlerORt 10 95 

7226AEV/Kir 40 5 Funclion Counter Chip. XTL 74 95 

130009 19B3 INTERSIL Data Book(i3S6o.i . . . .$9.951 



SSSct, 74HC High Speed CMOS 



74HC00 
74HC00 
74HC02 
/4HC03 
74HC04 

74HC08 

7-1HC10 
Aih;;r 

74HC14 
-. 
74HC27 
74HC30 
74HC32 
7\-C12 
7»ii5l 

r-;i:i:;; 

7JHC73 

74HC75 
74HC76 

74HCS5 

7-11 iCl '-7 

/■■;nci'j5 

/.!rCM2 

74HC113 
74HC132 
74HC137 
74HC138 



Mhi;i:i'i 
74HCI47 
74HC151 
74HC1S3 
74HC1M 
/■IIICIV 
741 IC 158 
/:ih;ii>!j 
/■mnibi 
7-;m:if,:' 
/:m:i':) 

74HC1M 
74HC165 

7.!tti:i/i 
,mh(;i/.i 
74HC175 

■■--i."i ■:• 

74HC193 
74HC194 

74HC19fi 
74HC237 
/4HC74I1 

/.uin.'.n 

74HC743 

7-iiii;,m'. 
;.;•(■ : 
74HC25I 
74HC253 
74HCU04 



15 



. 



14 



16 



74HC257 

74HC259 
74HC266 
74HC273 
/4HC280 
74HC299 
74HC366 
74HC367 
74HC3/;i 
74HC374 
74HC390 
74HC393 
74HC533 
74HC534 
74HC595 
74HC688 
74HC4002 
74HC4017 
74HC4020 
74MC4S24 
74HC404D 
7JHC4060 
7-:Hf;4lJ7;i 

7-:Mt:-:i-J7fi 

74HC45U 
74HC4514 
74HC4538 
74HC4543 



; unbullered All olheis are hultererl 



74C0O 
74C32 
7-: CO-: 
74C03 
7-:CiC 
74C14 
74C20 
7-1C33 

■ ' 
7-:C4: 
-■:C~S 
;-:C7: 
7-:rj74 

: .■ 
74C86 

I ;. 

7-.C3: 

74C93 



^io» 


ivm 


74C95 


M 


1 39 


74C107 


14 


.89 


74C151 


M 


249 


74C154 


H 


3 49 


74C1-J7 


lb 


2 25 


74C1GO 


lb 


1 19 


74C1G1 


II 


1 19 


74C16? 


ifi 


1 19 


74C163 


tc 


1 19 


74C164 


14 


1 49 


74C173 


ie 


1.19 


74C174 


if; 


1.19 


74 CW". 


ifi 


1 19 


7-1C192 


is 


1.49 


/MCI'JJ 


16 


1.69 


74C195 


IB 


1 39 



74C221 

74C240 
7JC244 
74C373 

74C901 
74G903 
74C906 
74C911 
74C912 
74C915 
74C917 

'-■.::•:, 

74C923 
74C925 
74C926 
80C95 
80C97 



-1 V;, 
!j 9Ij 
•j fi'; 



TL071CP 
TL072CP 
IL074CN 
TL0S1CP 
TL032CP 
TL084CN 
LU301CN 
LM302H 
LM304H 
LM305H 
LM307CN 
L , ,i5:ec'; 

LM309K 

LM309H 

LM310CN 

LM311CN 

LM312H 

LM317T 

LM317K 

LM31BCN 

LM319N 

LM320K-5 

LM320K-12 

LM320K-I5 

LM320K-24 

LM320T-5 

LM320T-12 

LM320T-15 

L'.!32L'i-:4 

LM322N 

1 V^iK 

LM324N 

LM329DZ 

LM331N 

LTO342 

LM335Z 

LM336Z 

LM337MP 

LM337T 

LM338K 

LM339N 

LM340K-5 

LM340K-12 

LM340K-15 

LM340K-24 

LP/340T-5 

LM340T-12 

LM340T-15 

LM340T-24 

LM341P-5 

LM341P-12 



LM34IP-I5 

LM342P-5 

LM342P-12 

LM342P-15 

LF347N 

LW348N 

LM350K 

LF351N 

LF353N 

LF355N 

IF3S6N 

LM358N 

LM359N 

LM370N 

LH373N 

LM377N 

LM380CN 

LU380H 

LM381N 

LM382N 

LM384N 

LM386N-3 

LM387N 

LM389N 

LM391N-80 

LM392M 

LM39BN 

LM399H 

TL494CN 

UW.P 

NE531V 

NE544N 

NE550A 

NE355V 

XH-L555 

LM556N 

NE564N 

LM5S5N 

LM566CN 

LM567V 

NE570N 

IJE571N 

LM703CN 

LM709N 

LM710N 

LM71IN 



LM739fJ 14 I 

LM741CN 8 

LM747^ 14 J 

LM74BN I 

LM1310H 14 I. 

MC1330AI 8 1 

MC1349 1 1 

MC1350 8 1. 

MC1358 14 1 

LM1456V 8 1 

LM1458CN 8 

LM1488N 14 

LMI4B9N 14 

LM1496N 14 1 

LH1605CK 9 

LMI800N IE 2. 

LM1871N 18 2 

immn ig 3 

LM1877N-9 14 2, 

U^1889N IB 2 

LM1B96N M 2. 

LM20O21 1 

ULN2003A 16 

XR2205 IS 3 

XH2207 14 2 

XR2208 16 2 

XR221! 14 3. 

LM2877P I: 

LM287BP 2.' 

LM2901N 14 

UM2902N 14 J 

LM2907N 11 2 

LM3189N IE 1 

LM3900H 14 

LM3905QJ B I 

LM3909N 8 

LM3914N IB 2 

LM3915N IB 2 

LM3916N 18 2. 

HC4136N 14 I. 

RC4151NB 3 1 

RC4194TK 4 

LM4250CN 8 I 

LU4500A 16 1 

NE5532 8 2.- 

NE5534 B 1 

IO.8038B H 3 

LM13060N 8 1 

LM13500N 16 1 

76477 28 3 
MORE AVAILABLE 



30003 1 982 Nat. Linear Data Book now ogs i .511.95 



140 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 1 75 on inquiry card. 



HOME COMPUTER ACCESSORIES 



RS232 ADAPTER FOR 
VIC-20 AND COMMODORE 64 



Q 



The JE232CM allows connection of standard RS232 
printers, modems, etc. to your VIC-20 and C-64. A 4-pole 
switch allows the inversion of the 4 control lines. Com- 
plete installation and operation instructions included. 
• Plugs into User Port • Provides Standard RS232 signal 
levels - Uses 6 signals (Transmit, Receive, Clear to Send, 
Request to Send, Data Terminal Ready, Data Set Ready). 

JE232CM $39.95 




VOICE SYNTHESIZER 
FOR APPLE AND COMMODORE 




JE520AP 



JE520CM 

• Over 250 word vocabulary -affixes allow the formation of more 
than 500 words • Built-in amplifier, speaker, volume control, and 
audio [ack • Recreates a clear, natural male voice • Plug-in user 
ready with documentation and sample software • Case size: 
7V«"L x 3%"W x 1-3/8"H 



APPLICATIONS 



• Security Warning 

• Teaching 

• Instrumentation 



• Telecommunication 
■ Handicap Aid 

• Games 



The JE520 VOICE SYNTHESIZER will plug right into your 
computer and allow you to enhance almost any applica- 
tion. Utilizing National Semiconductor's DIGITALKER"* 
Speech Processor IC (with four custom memory chips), 
the JE520 compresses natural speech into digital mem- 
ory, including theoriginal inflections andemphases.The 
result i s an extrem ely clear, natural vocalization. 

IPart No. Description Price 

JE520CM For Commodore 64 & VIC-20 $114.95 

JE520AP for Apple II, II+. and //e $149.95 




JE664 EPROM PROGRAMMER 

8K to 64K EPROMS - 24 & 28 Pin Packages 

Completely Serf-Contained - Requires No Additional Systems for Operation 

• Programs and validates EPROMs • Checks for properly erased EPROMs 

• EmutatesPROMsor EPROMs • RS232C Computer Interlace lor editing and 
program loading • Loads data into RAM by keyboard • Changes data in RAM 
by keyboard • Loads RAM from an EPROM • Compares EPROMs for content 
differences ■ Copies EPROMs ■ Power Input: 1 1 5VAC. 60Hz, less than 10W 
power consumption • Enclosure: Color-coordinated, light tan panels with 
motded end pieces in mocha brown ■ Size: 15VLx 8%"D x 3>S"H • Weight: 
5* lbs. 

The JE6W EPflOM Programmer emulatesand programs various 8-Bit Word EPROMs from 8Kto 
64K Bitmemof y capacity Datacan be entered intothe JE664"s internal 8K x 8-BitRAM in three 
ways: (1) Irom a ROM or EPliOM; (2) from an external computer via the optional JE665 RS232C 
BUS; (3) from its panel keyboard. Tlie JE664's RAMs may be accessed for emulation purposes 
horn the panel's test socket to an exiemal microprocessor. In programming and emulation, the 
JE664 allows lor examination, change and validation of program content. The JE664's RAMs 
can be programmed quickly to all" t~s (or arryva)ue),allowing unused addresses intheEPROM 
to be programmed later without necessity ol "UV" erasing, "the JE664 displays OATA and 
ADDRESS in convenient hexadecimal (alphanumeric) formal A "DISPLAY EPROM DATA" 
button changes the DATA readout trom RAM word to EPROM word and is displayed in both 
hexadecimal and binary code, Thelrtmtpanelleaturesaconvenient opeiatingguide. TheJE664 
Programme* includes one JMI6A Jumper Module(as listed below). 

JE664-A EPROM Programmer. $995.00 

Assembled & Tested (Includes JM16A Module) 

JE665 - RS232C IN1EHFACE OPTION - The RS232C Interlace Option implements 
computer access to the JE6M's RAM This allows the computer to manipulate, store and 
transfer EPflOM data toand trom the €664. A sample program listing is suppliedin MBASIC tor 
CP/U cwnpotei Ocaunentabon is provided to adapt the software toother computers with an 
RS23? port 9600 Baud, fl-bn word, odd panty and 2 stop bis. 



JE664-ARS EPROM Prog. W/JE665 Option $1195.00 

Assembled & Tested (Includes JM16A Module) 



EPROM JUMPER MODULES - TheJE664s JUMPER MODULE (PeisonalityModule) is a 
plug-in Module that pre-setsthe JE664tor the proper programming pulsesto the EPROMand 
configures theEPROM socket connections foithat particular EPROM. 


JEW crm 


inm 


PrtpMiii 


tnauuxwKwm 


MICE 


JUOBA 


2706 


2SV 


AMD. Motorola. Nzl, Intel. U . 


. SUM 


JM16A 


2716. TMS2S16 (Tl| 


25V 


Inul, WXwod Nat , NEC V. 
AMD. Hiachi. Mosiek 


. . . SUM 


JMI68 


TMsmewvsi 


-5V.+SV.+12V 


Motorola. Tl 


. . S14 95 


JM32A 


TMS2S3S 


2SV 


Motorola, Tl, HiMtfii, OKI 


. . S14.9S 


JM3JB 


?ra 


25V 


AMD, Fujitsu, NEC, H.IKhi, Intel, 
toisubtshi. National. 


. . . SUM 


JU3K 


i73JA 


21V 


FuiHSU. Intel 


. . , SW95 


JMMA 


MCMM7M. 
MCM68UM 


21V 


MfflBOll 


SUM 


k JM643 


2754 


21V 


Intel. FairctiiW, OKI 


. . SUM 



JMWC JM52MM! 



KEYBOARDS 




HI-TEK 14-KEY NUMERIC KEYPAD 

■ Greal keypad (or many home and business computer applications 

■ SPST switching ■ Mounted on PC. board - Size 5" L x 3" W x 1 ft" H 

■ Color: Grey ■ Weight: 1 lb. • Spec available 

K-14 $9.95 





13141 x4fc"Wx%"H 




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MICRO SWITCH 

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switching • Some have parallel interfaces • Some 

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minimum of 68 keys • Some with numeric keypad 

capabilities, cursor controls, or both « Styles may 

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KB-MISC $9.95 



Mitsumi 54-Key Unencoded 
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• SPST keyswitches • 20 pin ribbon cable connec- 
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KB54 $14.95 



71 -Key ASCII Cherry Keyboard 

• 7 bit parallel ASCII with strobe • 1 1 key numeric 
keypad • SPST mechanical keyswitches • 1 5/30 
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cursor controls, plus 10 add'l. special function keys 

• Color: white • Weight: 2 lbs. • Spec, included 

KB1801 $29.95 



87-KEY ASCII Cherry Keyboard 

• 12-key numeric keypad • Cursor keypad • SPST 
mechanical keyswitches • 40-pin header connector 
■ Colors: main and numeric keypad-orange; Cursor 
keypad-yellow • Weight: 2 lbs. • Spec included 

KB8600 .$34.95 



106-KEY 8-BIT SERIAL ASCII 
KEYBOARD 

■ The terminals were designed to be daisy chained 
around a central host computer and used as indi- 
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and cursor keypad • 10 user definable keys • 50" 
interface cable with 9-pin sub-miniature connector 

• 7 LED function displays • Security lock • N-key roll- 
over ■ Automatic key repeat function • Color: (case): 
white w/black panel-(key caps): grey and blue 

• Weight: 6ft lbs. • Data included. 

KB139 $59.95 




POWER SUPPLIES 



TRANSACTION TECHNOLOGY, INC. 
5VDC @ 1 AMP Regulated Power Supply 

• Output: +5VDC @ 1 .0 amp (also +30VDC regulated) • Input: 1 1 5VAC, 60 Hz 

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plew! 







V 



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Part No. Output Sire Weight Price 



EMA5/6B 
EMA5/6C 



5V@3A/6V@2.5A 4WL ; 
5V@6A/6V@5A 5VL ; 



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4ft"W x 2ft"H 



2 lbs. 
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S29.95 
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ASTEC SWITCHING REGULATED POWER SUPPLY 

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applications ■ Input: 1 15VAC, 50-60 Hz@ 3.0 amps • Output: +5VDC® 1.0 amp, 
+12VDC @ 1.0 amp, -12VDC @ LOamp, +24VDC @ 2.5amp, -24VDC @ 2.5amp 

• Size: 15" L x 3V W x 2V H • Weight: 2ft lbs. 

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POWER SUPPLY +5VDC @ 7.6 AMR 12 VDC@ 1.5 AMP SWITCHING 

• Input: 1 15VAC. 50-60Hz @ 3 amp/230VAC, 50Hz @ 1.6 amp. • Fan vott./power supply 
select switches ( 1 15/230VAQ • OuliHJt: 5VDC @ 7.6 amp. 12VDC® 1.5 amp • 8 foot black 
power cord • Size: 1 1V?"L x 13V 4 'W x 3K"H • Weight: 6 lbs, 

PS94VOS. $39.95 



KEPCO/TDK 4-OUTPUT SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY 

• Ideal for disk driveneeds of CRT terminals, microcompuiers and 
videogames- Input: 115/230VAC,50/60Hz- Output: +5V@ 5 Amp, + 12 V@ 
1.8 Amp, +12V @ 2 Amp, -12V @0.5Amp'UL recognized -CSA certified 
■ Size: 7VL x 6-3/16' W x 1 VH ■ Weight: 2 lbs. 

MRM 174KF $59.95 



4-CHANNEL SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY 

• Microprocessor, mini-computer, terminal, medical equipment and process 
control applications • Input: 90-130VAC, 47-440Hz ■ Output: +5VDC @ 5A, 
-5VDC 1 A; + 1 2VDC @ 1 A , - 1 2VDC @ 1A • Line regulations: ±0.2% • Ripple: 
30mV p-p • Load regulation: ±1% • Overcurrent protection • Adj: 5V main 
output ±10% ■ Size: 6VL x 1 VW x 4-15/16"H • Weight: m lbs. 

FCS-604A $69.95 each 



Switching Power Supply for APPLE il, 11+ & //e™ 

• Can drive four floppy disk drives and up to eight expansion cards 
■ Short circuit and overload protection • Fits inside Apple computer 

• Fully regulated +5V @ 5A, +12 V @ 1 .5A, -5V @ .5A. -12V @ .5A 

• Direct plug-in power cord included ■ Size: 9%"L x 3WW x 2%"H 

• Weight: 2 lbs. 

KHP4007 $79.95 



$10.00 Minimum Order — U.S. Funds Only 
California Residents Add 6 'A % Sales Tax 
Shipping — Add 5% plus $1.50 Insurance 
Send S.A.S.E. for Monthly Sales Flyer! 

m 



Spec Sheets — 30c each 
Send $1.00 Postage for your 
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1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
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4-Digit Fluorescent Alarm Clock Kit 




• AMJPM indicator 

• Automatic 
display dimmer 

• Bright 4-diglt 0.5" high display • 10 minuie snooze alarm 



The JE750 Clock Kit is a versatile 12-hour digital clock 
with 24-hour alarm. The clock has a bright 0.5" high 
blue-green fluorescent display. The display will automat- 
ically dim with changing light conditions. The 24-hour 
alarm allows the user to disable the alarm and immediat- 
ely re-enable the alarm to activate 24 hours later. The kit 
includes all documentation, components, case and wall 
transformer. Size: 6WL x 3'A-W x WD. 

JE750 Alarm Clock Kit $29.95 



DISK DRIVES AND SUPPLIES 




5 1 /4" APPLE™ 

Direct Plug-In 

Compatible Disk Drive 

• Uses Shugart SA390 mechanics • 143K 
formatted storage • 35 tracks — compatible 
with Apple controller • Complete with connec- 
ter and cable — jus) ptuglnto your diskeon- 
troller card ■ Si«: 6"L x 3'/i"W x 
8-9/16-0 • Weight: «% lbs. 

ADD-514...$195.95 



+5VDC @ 6 Amps 
+12VDC@4Amps 
-12VDC® 0.5 Amps 



Microcomputer 
Power Inc. 
Regulated 

Power Supply 

- Perfect for computer or disk 
drive systems • Supply has AMP 
connectors for direct connec- 
tion to two 5V disk drives 
• Cooling fan • Input: 100/1 15/ 
200/230VAC, 47-63HZ - Output 
(above) • Weight: 9 lbs. 

CP167 $59.95 




*»*HIH — 



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ED i^x>i..sj/5i£5 Protect Yourself... 
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1 *•* ^ ,. tion (100 microseconds): 1,000,000 watts "6 

1 ,.~ ™ "*• sockets ■ 6 foot Power cord • NormaMineuOlt- 

1 '*" 00 age indicator light • Brown out/black out reset 

\ switch • Weight: 2 lbs. 

Model 100 $69.95 



Protect 
Yourself... 



DATASHIELD® 

Back-Up 
Power Source 



; v Provides up to 30 minutes of continuous 120 

hMk j '." \ VAC 60Hz power to your computer system 

\ .a {load dependent) when you have a black out 

\ Or voltage sag • Output rating: 200 watts • Six 

^ month warranty • Weight: 19 lbs. 

Model 200 (PC200) $349.95 



IBM MEMORY EXPANSION KIT 
COMPAQ COMPATIBILITY 



SAVE HUNDREDS OF $$$ BY UPGRADING 
MEMORY BOARDS YOURSELF! 

Most of the popula. memory boards allow you to add an additional 
64K, 126K, 192K, or 256K. The IBM64K Kit will populate these boards 
In 64K byte Increments. The kit Is simple to install — just Insertthe 
nine 64K RAM chips In the provided sockets and set the two groups 
of switches. Directions are included. 

IBM64K (Nine 200ns 64K RAMs) $49.95 



TRS-80 MEMORY EXPANSION KIT 



TRS-80to16K, 32K, or 48K 

"Model 1 = From 4K to 16K Requires (1) One Kit 
Model 3 = From 4K to 48K Requires (3) Three Kits 
Color = From 4K to 16K Requires (1) One Kit 

"Modal 1 equipped wilh Expansion Board up to 48KTwo Kits Required 
- One Kit Required tor each 16Kol Expansion — 

TRS-16K3 *200ns for Color & Model III $12.95 

TRS-16K4 *250ns for Model I S10.95 



TRS-80 Co or 32K or 64K Convers on Kit 



Easy to install kits comes complete with 8 ea. 4 1 64-2 (200ns) 64K 
dynamic RAMs and conversion documentation. Converts TRS-80 
color computers with D, E, ET, F and NC circuit boards to 32K. 
Also converts TRS-80 color computer II to 64K. Flex DOS or OS-9 
required to utilize full 64K RAM on all computers. 
TRS-64K2 S44.95 



UV-EPROM Eraser 



6 Chips — 51 Minutes 




1 Chip — 37 Minutes 



Erases 2708, 2716, 2732. 2764, 2516, 2532, 2564. Erases up to 6 chips 
within 51 minutes (1 chip In 37 minutes). Maintains constant exposure 
distance of one Inch. Special conductive foam liner eliminates static 
buildup. Built-in salety lock to prevent UV exposure. Compact — only 
9.00" x 3.70" x 2.60". Complete with holding tray lore chips. 



DE-4 



UV-EPROM Eraser 



s 79.95 



UVS-11EL Replacement Bulb ..$16.95 



Circle 1 75 on inquiry card. 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 141 



BUILD A PRINTER BUFFER 



An inexpensive project for the parallel port 

by John Bono 

Personal computers have eliminated many of life's minor frustrations. Unfor- 
tunately, they also have created a unique set of new frustrations. For instance, 
have you ever debugged a program with a listing so old that even your hand- 
written modifications are modified? If you're like me, you don't want to stop debug- 
ging to wait for a new printout. Have you ever been connected to a computer via 
a phone line and wished you could get hard copy but your printer was too slow 
to keep up with the data transmissions? Perhaps you have a program that produces 
so much printed output that you wait until lunch to run it? Tying up your computer 
to print data is a waste of time and resources. If these situations sound familiar, 
a printer buffer may be the solution. 

A printer buffer holds characters to be printed out until the printer is ready to 
accept them. It allows the computer sending the characters to dump the characters 
and go back to other tasks. In the meantime, the printer prints the characters at 
its relatively slow pace. 

Software printer buffers do exist, but they have these drawbacks: they are highly 
hardware dependent, limited in buffer space, incompatible with some programs, and 



still slow down the computer somewhat. 

The best solution is a hardware printer 
buffer external to your computer. These 
devices exist commercially, but they are 
relatively expensive. For that reason you 
should consider building one. as I did. 

Photo I shows the completed printer 
buffer. It consists of only 24 chips, con- 
nectors, and a power supply. The entire 
unit cost less than $150 to build. The 
parts list for this project is specified in 
table 1. 

How It Works 

Figure 1 shows the flow of data from the 
host computer through the printer buf- 
fer and out to the printer. The computer 
sends a byte to the printer buffer inter- 
face. The -microprocessor inside the 
printer buffer reads the byte and stores 
it in RAM (random-access read/write 
memory). This process continues until 
there are no more characters sent or un- 
til the buffer fills up. The buffer uses 64K 
bytes of RAM. which means that over 



65.000 characters can be stored in the 
printer buffer. This translates to about 
35 pages of printed material. 

Output from the printer buffer takes 
place independent of input. The char- 
acters are taken from RAM in the same 
order as they are input. The micropro- 
cessor then sends the characters one by 
one to the printer interface. To the user, 
these two processes appear to take 
place simultaneously so that data can 
leave the computer and be printed as 
quickly as possible. 

Figure 2 shows the block diagram for 
the printer buffer. The heart of the sys- 
tem is a Z80 microprocessor running 
with a 1-MHz clock. It executes instruc- 
tions stored in an EPROM (erasable pro- 
grammable read-only memory). The 
characters are input from the host com- 
puter into an 8-bit latch and are output 
to the printer through another 8-bit 
latch. The printer buffer includes 64K 
bytes of dynamic RAM. The RAM has 
a multiplexed address input and refresh- 



ing requirements, so additional support 
logic is required for its operation. 

Getting Down to 
the Nitty Gritty 

Figures 3a and 3b (pages 4 50 and 452) 
show the schematic diagram for the 
printer buffer. The 1-MHz clock is 
generated by IC1. an MC4024. Exercise 
special caution when buying this part 
because it is not CMOS (complemen- 
tary metal-oxide semiconductor) as its 
4000 series number might lead you to 
believe. Order only a MC4024. not just 
a 4024. and you won't have a problem. 
The 0.001 /aF (microfarad) capacitor 
across pins 3 and 4 sets the frequency, 
and the connections to pin 2 adjust the 
frequency somewhat. In this applica- 
tion, the clock frequency is not at all 
critical— any clock rate between 0. 5 and 
2 MHz is acceptable. 

IC2 is the Z80 microprocessor that 
runs the whole printer buffer. Pin 26 
resets the processor when the 68-^iF 



142 BYTE • JUNE 1984 




capacitor charges through the 10.000- 
ohm (12) resistor. This system is quite 
simple, therefore, all the interrupt and 
direct-memory handshaking inputs are 
strapped to their inactive state. One 
thing I have found is that the Z80 has 
an annoying feature of letting its high- 
address bus float at certain times, which 
causes random chip selects and could 
destroy the contents of the RAM. To 
avoid this problem. IC5. a 74LS373. 
latches the upper-address byte and 
keeps it valid during the entire instruc- 
tion cycle. 

The EPROM memory resides at ad- 
dress locations through 2047 (al- 
though 2 56 bytes is more than enough 
memory). The EPROM chip select is 
generated by ICII. This 74LS138 
decoder is used as a 5-input OR gate 
determining whether the EPROM or the 
RAM will be selected during a given 
memory cycle. If the output of ICII is 
low. the EPROM will be selected; if it is 
high, then the RAM will be selected. 



memory consists 
of eight 4164 chips. All 
of the chip's pins are connected in 
parallel except for the data input and 
output pins (2 and 14). The interface 
from the Z80 to the RAM chips was the 
most challenging part of the design. The 
dynamic RAM works like this: a row ad- 
dress is provided, the row-address 
strobe (RAS) goes low. a column ad- 
dress is provided, the column-address 
strobe (CAS) goes low. and then data 
goes either in or out. The level of the 
READ/WRITE pin at the time of CAS 
determines the data direction. IC7 and 
IC8 are the address multiplexers for the 
RAM. When their S input is high, the 
low byte of the Z80 address is provided 
to the RAM-address input. When their 
S input is low. the high byte of the Z80 
address goes to the RAM-address 
inputs. 

The memory-access sequence starts 
with the Z80 putting out an address. 



The low-address byte goes to the 
RAM. The MEMORY REQUEST signal 
and either the READ or WRITE signal 
then occurs. These signals, with a RAM 
SELECT signal from ICII. are combined 
by IC4 to generate the RAS. Now. the 
RAM has the low-address byte. The RAS 
signal is delayed slightly by the buffers 
of ICI4 and IC6 to allow for RAM- 
address hold time. Then the delayed 
RAS switches the address multiplexers 
IC7 and IC8 to provide the high-address 
byte to the RAM. The RAS is further 
delayed to allow for multiplexer settling 
time and then is fed to the RAM to pro- 
vide CAS. When CAS goes low. the RAM 
either accepts or outputs the data byte 
depending on whether the Z80 is do- 
ing a READ or WRITE. 

[text continued on page 446) 

\ofin Bono (23624 \37 th Ave. SE. Kent. WA. 
98031) is an electrical engineer with Boeing 
Aerospace Company's Electrical Technology 
Organization in Kent. Washington. 



ILLUSTRATION BY KIMBLE PENDLETON MEAD 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 143 



Only one company can show you so many 
And it isn't IBM. 




Monochrome text. Color graphics. 

Even a new super display adapter that provides 

the Best of Both, on one board. 



Connect your PC to peripherals like a 

modem or printer, with the added 

efficiency of print spooling. 



IBM today sets the standard in 
personal computers. 

But what happens when you want 
to expand your PC's capability to 
something beyond standard? 

That's when you have to look 
beyond IBM. To the one company 
that offers the widest range of prod- 
ucts to make your PC work more 
powerfully, more efficiently. 

Persyst. 

Display adapters. Persyst 
introduces a significant 
technical advance. 

Now Persyst redefines the basic 
utility of display adapters for IBM 
personal computers. 

Our BoB™ super display adapter 
provides the sharpest text resolution 
ever as well as brilliant color graph- 



ics—the Best of Both— on one 
board. Plus a unique option that lets 
you design and download custom 
programmable character sets. 

Meanwhile, for great basic 
performance, we also offer 
PC/Monochrome™ and PC/Color 
Graphics™ display adapters en- 
gineered to deliver the same quality 
as IBM's own standard adapters. 

Only Persyst offers you so much 
choice. 

Memory and multifunction boards. 
Persyst has the most flexible 
ways to expand your PC. 

Here again, Persyst offers a 
unique array of products to expand 
your PC beyond the IBM standard. 



Want the most capable one-slot 
multifunction packages available? 

Choose either Time Spectrum™ 
with up to 512K, or Time Spectrum™ 
SB384 with up to 384K RAM. Other 
functions include a bidirectional par- 
allel port and async serial ports to 
link your PC with printers, modems 
and instrumentation. Calendar 
clock. Game port. Plus, Wait-Less 
Printing™ print spooling and 
Insta-Drive™ RAM disk software. 

Want to expand function without 
adding memory? 

Our Timeport™ gives you a calen- 
dar clock, bidirectional parallel port 
and two async serial ports, as well 
as capability for ROM and static 



PC/MONOCHROME 
DISPLAY ADAPTER 



PC/ COLOR GRAPHICS 
DISPLAY ADAPTER 



BoB SUPER 
DISPLAY ADAPTER 



TIME SPECTRUM 
WfTH RAMPAK™ 



T1ME SPECTRUM SB384 



ways to expand the power of your IBM PC. 



17664 
568 
133 
4 
273 
631 




«l INI Ow 

2-82-84 
1-81-88 
2-16-84 
2-16-84 
2-16-84 
2-22-84 
2-24-84 
2-24-84 
3-81-84 
3-82-84 



Memory expansion to let your PC utilize 
the most sophisticated software. 



172 
615 
563 



Productivity features like a calendar 

clock to date and time stamp your files 

automatically. 



12:8Bp 
7:22p 

12:88a 
i:34 P 
3:49a 
3:56a 

11 :24a 
5:46p 
5:58? 
2:25p 
9:86a 



■ 



GRAPHICS DISPLAY 

I 



RAM. Uniport™ offers a calendar 
clock and bidirectional parallel port. 
And our Async Card™ provides two 
async serial ports. 

You can even add synchronous 
communications to your PC with our 
Multiple Protocol Communications™ 
(MPC) controller. 



ASYNC CARD 



Quality and documentation. 
Persyst support is built into 
every product. 

All Persyst expansion products 
include one important extra bene- 
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Each board is fully burned in. 
Completely system tested. And 
backed by a limited one-year 
warranty? 

What's more, award-winning 
Persyst documentation makes using 
any Persyst product simple. 

Expand all the way from an IBM 
desktop PC to an IBM intelligent 
workstation. You can only do it 
with Persyst. 

Persyst is the only resource that 
offers display adapters. Multi- 

TIME SPECTRUM 
FOR THE Tl PC 



function and memory boards. And 
micro to mainframe communications. 

The most complete selection of 
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needs today. And tomorrow. 

Persyst dealers are ready to serve 
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Persyst Products, Personal 
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Telephone: (714) 660-1010. 
Telex: 467864. 



"You can only do it with Persyst? 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business 
Machines Corporation. Rainbow and DEC are registered 
trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Tl is a 
registered trademark of Texas Instruments Corporation. 
• Limited warranty details available with each product 
or on request. 

Circle 373 on inquiry card. 



WAIT-LESS PRINTING. 

INSTA-DRIVE. 
PC/EDIT'" SOFTWARE 



DEC RAINBOW 
MEMORY MODULE 



APPLE FAX: 

Weather 

Maps on a 
Video Screen 

With a simple converter circuit, 

you can use your Apple to display 

facsimile weather maps 



by Keith H. Sueker 



Photo I : Polar weather from 
the Alaskan Peninsula at 
extreme left center to Scotland 
at extreme upper right. Baffin 
Island is at upper center. This 
composite photo is made from 
five sequential screen displays. 



Behind the scenes, at 
television and radio sta- 
tions and in hundreds of 
airports around the 
world, meteorologists 
ponder dozens of surface and upper-air 
weather maps several times each day. 
These maps display information about 
pressure, winds, temperature, and many 
other factors that forecasters use to 
predict the weather. 

In this article I will describe a way to 
display real-time, radio-facsimile 
weather maps on the Apple II high-res- 
olution video screen. With a short-wave 
receiver, a simple converter, and a short 
machine-language program, you can 
have a new window on the world. 

Weather maps come in many forms 
and formats. Station NSS in Washington. 
DC. transmits a schedule of daily maps 
at 0O00Z and 1200Z (7:00 a.m. and 7:00 
p.m. EST). Some maps have a Mercator 
projection, some a polar projection. 
Some of the more interesting maps 
cover the northern hemisphere from 
Alaska to Gibraltar and include latitude 
and longitude lines as well as political 
and geographical boundaries. Many 
maps cover the North American conti- 
nent from Mexico to the polar regions. 
State and provincial boundaries can be 
seen, along with major geographical 
features such as the Great Lakes and 
Hudson Bay. A sample display is shown 
in photo I. 

Other maps show a radar summary of 
precipitation over the U.S. mainland 
while still others show satellite-recorded 
cloud cover over large areas. Although 
the satellite maps are computer- 
enhanced to include geographical lines, 
this fine detail is lost when displayed on 
a video screen. 




146 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



The content of these maps is not 
always obvious, and their complete in- 
terpretation is beyond my ability. Suf- 
fice to say that many maps show 
altitude contours for selected upper- 
atmosphere pressures, and that highl- 
and low-pressure centers are often 
clearly shown. 

FAX AND WX 

Facsimile transmission (FAX) is widely 
used commercially for sending drawings 
over the common-carrier telephone 
lines. It is also used for transmitting 
weather maps (WX) to ships at sea on 
high-frequency radio circuits. 

For mariners, weather is more than a 
matter of casual concern. It is vital for 
them to have as much forecast informa- 
tion as possible on wind velocity, wave 
heights, air and water temperatures, and 
other marine conditions. Sea-based air- 
craft pilots need forecasts of winds, 
cloud cover, temperatures, and other 
variables for marine operations. 
Weather information in the U.S. is col- 
lected by land and radio teletype cir- 
cuits from a worldwide network of 
ground stations and ships at sea. Near- 
ly every country in the world cooper- 
ates in this effort. Orbiting satellites pro- 
vide additional inputs from specialized 
sensors. The resulting mass of data is 
assembled by the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 
and fed into computers. NOAAs output 
is a daily stream of synoptic and fore- 
cast maps for almost anything you 
could want to know about the weather. 
The maps are transmitted nationally 
over FAX wire circuits and selected 
maps are also transmitted simultane- 
ously on a number of high-frequency 
radio circuits through the facilities of the 



U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Service. Many 
other nations also transmit FAX maps, 
and their transmissions can often be 
received in this country. 

FAX can be visualized as transmission 
of a television picture at a snail's pace. 
The original copy is scanned in a series 
of lines, just as in television. Instead of 
the 15.7 50-kHz horizontal-scan rate of 
television, however, a typical FAX scan 
rate is 2 Hz or 120 scans per minute. 
The luminance information of FAX 
transmissions requires only a kilohertz 
or so of bandwidth to resolve fine detail 
because the scan rate is so slow. The 
video of television is audio in FAX. the 
result of adapting picture transmission 
to the frequency and bandwidth limita- 
tions of telephone lines and long- 
distance radio circuits. Because a full 
FAX picture may require five minutes or 
more to transmit. FAX is not a winner 
for live action— except possibly for 
chess. But it has real utility for handling 
still pictures. 

Receiving FAX 

My personal involvement with FAX 
reception began several years ago when 
I acquired a surplus Western Union 
Deskfax machine for the princely sum 
of $15. This little machine uses a 
rotating drum covered with electro- 
sensitive paper and forms an image by 
sparking a fine wire that advances slow- 
ly along the axis of the drum. To make 
Deskfax functional on radio weather 
FAX frequencies I had to convert it from 
180 scans per minute to the standard 
120 scans by building a precision 40-Hz 
power supply to drive the synchronous 
motors. Synchronizing pulses are sent 
at the start of each weather map, but 
FAX machines run "open loop"; i.e.. they 



rely on a precise speed match between 
the transmitting and receiving scanners. 
Crystal-controlled motor drives .provide 
the required accuracy. 

The Deskfax machine also requires a 
receiving converter because the trans- 
mitted FAX signal is a continuous-wave 
carrier frequency shifted by the "video" 
information. Commercial FAX receivers 
employ automatic gain control (AGC) 
circuits with limiters and discriminators 
to recover the modulation and convert 
it to synchronizing pulses and a signal 
voltage that varies with pixel brightness 
in the original material. The signal 
voltage then drives whatever circuitry 
and mechanism is used to produce the 
received picture. For this project, I 
designed a much less elegant, but still 
functional, receiving adapter. 

The Deskfax machine was a lot of fun 
to operate, but paper supply was a 
problem and the short drum could ac- 
commodate only enough paper for a 
small portion of each map. When I final- 
ly entered the computer age with the 
acquisition of an Apple II, it seemed 
logical to see if I could put FAX pictures 
up on the video screen. 

Apple Hi-Res Video 

The high-resolution graphics (HGR) dis- 
play of the Apple II is arranged as 192 
lines of 280 horizontal pixels per line. 
[text continued on page 148) 

Keith Sueker[\\0 Garlow Dr.. Pittsburgh. PA 
15235) is a radio amateur (W3VF) who 
worked for 20 years at Westinghouse before 
becoming Power Systems engineering manager 
at Robicon Corp. in Pittsburgh. Sueker has a 
B.S.E.E. from the University of Minnesota and 
an M.S.E.E. from the Illinois Institute of 
Technology. 




JUNE 1984 -BYTE 147 



An attempt to 

display the entire 

picture width on the 

video screen produces 

a vertically 

elongated picture. 



[text continued from page 147) 
Each line is organized as 40 bytes of 7 
pixel bits per byte. The page is stored 
in RAM from hexadecimal 2000 to 3FFF 
(8192 to 16.375 decimal). The lines are 
not in a simple sequential order but 
jump around, presumably to make 
things easier for the character genera- 
tor and the low-resolution graphics dis- 
plays. This design feature makes screen 
addressing somewhat complicated. 

An individual pixel may be displayed 
by setting high the corresponding bit of 
the byte in which the pixel resides. Bits 
through 6 are displayed from left to 
right with bit (the least significant bit) 
on the left. The highest bit of each byte 
must be a common value to assure pro- 
per display positioning. The procedure 
in generating the FAX display is to 
sample the received radio signal from 
the signal converter (see figure 1) 280 
times for each half-second scan line, 
and to set each pixel bit high or low ac- 
cording to the signal level at that mo- 
ment. This arrangement only distin- 
guishes between black and white. 

The transmitted picture resolution is 
better than 500 pixels per line, but this 
resolution is degraded by transmission 
conditions, sampling errors introduced 
by digitizing (accomplished at the game 
port on the Apple II). and the limitations 
of the simple receiving converter. In the 
vertical direction (successive scan lines), 
line spacing on the screen is such that 
lines are much farther apart than their 
spacing on mechanical FAX machines 
like my Deskfax. An attempt to display 
the entire picture width on the video 
screen produces a vertically elongated 



Figure I : A schematic diagram of the FAX Converter. 






Tl 



RECEIVER 
AUDIO 
OUTPUT 
3 



UD, ° 2 2si : : 

UTPUT 3Z " v 

-8fl m J 



Dl 

-w- 



zoocn 

CT 



-w- 



Rl /P\ Q1 



-°1 ( + 5V) 



-« 2 (PB1) 



APPLE H 
GAME 

CONTROLLER 
SOCKET 



-o 8 (GND) 



Tl Transistor-output transformer. 2000S2CT/3.2S2 

D1.D2 Germanium diodes. I N34 or equivalent 

CI. C2 0.1 ^F 

Rl 22.000 Ohms 

R2 470 Ohms 

Ql 2N4401. 2N3904. or similar type 






picture. For this reason, only about 20 
percent of a scan line is displayed to 
preserve the proper aspect ratio. 

Hardware 

The receiver signal converter shown 
schematically in figure I is used for FAX 
reception with the Apple II. Audio out- 
put from the radio receiver is isolated 
and boosted in voltage by the input 
transformer. Tl. an output transformer 
connected backwards. The impedance 
ratio is not critical. Diodes Dl and D2 
rectify the signal and charge C\ to the 
peak voltage of the signal. Germanium 
diodes should be used for these rec- 
tifiers. Silicon diodes such as the 
1N4148 can also be used, but they will 
require a considerably higher audio 
level from the receiver. Transistor Ql 
acts as a level detector and its collector 
provides the computer with input using 
the game-controller socket. Nearly any 
type of NPN signal transistor will be 
satisfactory for Ql. The circuit is insen- 
sitive to layout and can be built on a 
breadboard, a printed-circuit board, or 
simply plugged into a prototype board. 
Audio leads to the receiver do not have 
to be shielded. The Apple's game port 
circuitry converts the analog signal from 
the radio receiver signal converter to 
the digital information used to display 
the map video image. 

Software 

Listings I and 2 show the machine-lan- 
guage program for FAX picture recep- 
tion and the few lines of the BASIC driv- 
ing program that call it. The BASIC pro- 
gram simply sets the Apple II to full- 
page high-resolution graphics mode 
that clears the screen and calls the 
binary program. I chose to locate this 
program in the secondary high-resolu- 
tion graphics page (HGR2) because it is 
not needed for the FAX display. The 
program can be relocated to run in any 
convenient location, however. 

Let's examine screen addressing for a 
moment. The high-resolution screen has 
three symmetrical address divisions that 
I call "groups." These are each 64 lines 
long and have starting addresses of 
hexadecimal 2000. 2028. and 2050. 
Within each group there are eight "sets" 
of eight "rows" (or lines) each. Row ad- 
dresses increment by hexadecimal 400 
within each set. and set addresses in- 
crement by hexadecimal 80 within each 
group. This is the scheme the program 
follows in computing each new row ad- 
dress as the picture is drawn on the 
screen. There are probably more 
elegant ways of writing the program, so 
[text continued on page 1 50) 



148 BYTE • JUNE 1984 




THIS MONTH'S 

SPECIALS 



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BROTHER/DYNAX HR-25 $749 

EPSON FX-100 $699 

STAR MICRONICS Delta-10 (160 CPS) . . $419 
STAR MICRONICS Radix-10 (200 CPS) . $599 
U.S. ROBOTICS Password Modem 

(1200 Baud) $349 

PGS Max-12 (12" Amber, For IBM) .... $189 
ROLAND MB-122A (12" Amber, IBM) . . . $175 
TANOON TM 100-2 (OSOO, For IBM) ... $219 

TEAC 55B (Thinline OSOO, IBM) $195 

FOURTH DIMENSION Super Drive (Apple)$219 
GREAT LAKES 10 MB IBM Internal .... $1075 

QCS 10 MB External $1975 

TALLGRASS TECHNOLOGIES 

12 MB Hard Disk $Call 

20 MB Hard Disk $Call 

RANA ELITE I (Apple Compatible, 163K) . $245 

RANA 1000 (For Atari) $309 

HERCULES Graphics Board For IBM-PC . $349 

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ORCHID PC Network Kit $Call 

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TECMAR 
1st Mate Board For IBM (No RAM) . . $229 

Graphics Master $519 

ORANGE MICRO 
Buffered Grappler+ 16K/64K. . . $169/$215 
Grappler CO (Commodore) $105 



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■y. T - r ^,,M*. I I ■■Hi 

[AMERICAN Tj 
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1600-VP (Portable) SCall 




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ACE OMS (2 Drives) SCall 

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MD2 (64K, 2 SSDO Drives, WordStar, 

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MD11 (128K, 1 11 MB Hard Disk & 1 DSDO 
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NEC PC-8201A (w/ 16K RAM) SCall 

SANYO 

MBC 550 (IBM-Compatible, 8088, 128K, 
1 SSDO Drive, WordStar, CalcStar, 

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MBC 555 (550 Plus 1 Add. Drive, 
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Co-Power-88 Board For Kaypro II & IV 
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TAVA IBM Look-Alike (12BK, 2 Drives) SCall 

TELEVIDEO 

1605 (IBM Compatible, 8088, 128K, 2 Drives, 

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TPC-II (Portable Version of Above) . . SCall 
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AST RESEARCH INC. 

MEGA PLUS II (64K. Ser & Clk) $269 

MEGAPAK 256K Module $309 

SIX PACK PLUS (64K, Ser/Par, Clk) . $279 

COMBO PLUS (64K, Ser/Par, Clk) . . . $279 

I/O PLUS II (Serial Port, Clock/Cal). . $125 

"OPTIONS** 

Each 64K Increment Is $60. 

Serial Port. . . $45 Parallel Port. . $45 

Game Port. . . $45 

OUADRAM 

EXPANDED QUADBOARO (S, P, Clock, Game) 

64K $279 384K $529 

QUAD 512+ (Serial Port, Maximum 512K) 
128K $289 256K $389 

QUAOCOLOR I (Video Board) $209 

QUAOLINK (6502 w/ 64K) $489 

MICROFAZER 

Parallel/Parallel 

16K. . $139 64K . $185 128K. $239 

Serial/Serial, Serial/Parl, Parl/Serial 

8K . . $145 16K . $155 64K . $209 

AMDEK MAI Board $479 

CCS Supervision (132 Column) .... $599 

KEYTRONIC IBM Keyboard (5150) . . $199 
MA SYSTEMS PC Peacock (RGB & 

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FOR APPLE ll/lle, Franklin Ace 



ALS CP/M Card $289 

Smarterm II (80 Column Card) .... $135 

Printer Mate (Printer Card) $75 

EPD Surge Protectors SCall 

FOURTH DIMENSION 16K RAM Card . . $49 
80 Column Card w/ 64K (lie Only) . . $159 
INTERACT. STRU. PKASO Universal . $125 

Shuffle Buffer (32K) $225 

KOALA TECH. Koala Pad $89 

MICROSOFT Premium Softcard (He) . $289 

MICROTEK Oumpling-16 $149 

ORANGE MICRO Grappler+ $119 

PROMETHEUS Graphitti $85 



HARD DISK 




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6 MB ... $1649 10MB. . . $1695 

11 MB SCall 15MB. . . $2175 

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CT1 11 MB Internal Hard Disk w/ 192K For 
DEC Rainbow $1995 

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10 MB Internal For IBM . $1059 

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QCS 10 MB External w/ 5 MB Cartridge 

Back-Up $2995 

TECMAR Removable Cartridge Winchester 
in PC (5 MB) $1449 

CALL FOR PRICES ON FOURTH 
DIMENSION, FRANKLIN, CORONA, QCS, 
QUADRAM, TALLGRASS & XCOMP 



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ANAOEX DP9625B (60 CPS NLQ). . 

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MT160L. . . $599 MT180L. . 
Spirit-80. , . $319 1602 

OKIDATA 

ML 92. . , 
ML 84(P) . 



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SCall Pacemark . 



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Delta 10. . . $419 
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Delta 15. 
Radix 15 . 



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TOSHIBA P1340/1350 $809/$1579 

TRANSTAR T315 Color Printer $469 



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0X-15 (13 CPS, Diablo Compat.) .... SCall 

HR-25 (23 CPS, 3K Buffer) $749 

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2000 EXP (25 CPS, 48K Buffer) $999 

DIABLO 630 ECS/IBM SCall 

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NEC 

2030 $829 2050 $949 

3515 $1475 3530. . . , $1575 



QUME Sprint 1140/1155 $1345/$Call 

LetterPro 20P SCall 

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Apple Cat II (300 Baud) $249 

212 Apple Cat II (1200 Baud) $549 

103 Smart Cat (300 Baud) $169 

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TRANSEND (Formerly SSM) 

Modemcard w/ Source (For Apple) $239 

PC Modem Card 300 (For IBM) $289 

U.S. ROBOTICS 

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Fl'lll'WiH 



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PS WordPlus-PC w/ BOSS $349 

SOFTWORD SYSTEMS Multimate .. $319 

SORCIM SuperCalc 3 $269 



Circle I44 on inquiry card. 



[text continued from page 148) 

I offer this code simply as something 

that does the job. 

In operation, the program sets start- 
ing addresses, waits one line, and then 
begins at "READ" by sampling the in- 
put flag on PBI. This appears as the 
highest bit of location hexadecimal 

The high-res screen 
has three symmetrical 
address divisions 
called groups. 

C061. The bit is rotated left into the 
carry flag and then right into buffer loca- 
tion hexadecimal 4F05. The bit delay, 
hexadecimal 08. between samples 
determines the percentage of each line 
that is displayed, choosing the proper 
aspect ratio as described earlier. This 
process continues until 7 bits have been 
rotated into the buffer. At this point, the 
carry bit is set and rotated into the buf- 
fer to complete the byte. Finally, the 
byte is written into the next computed 
screen location and displayed im- 
mediately. Note that the screen refresh 
circuitry is continually reading the en- 
tire block of memory that comprises the 
high-resolution graphics page, although 
this action is transparent to the user. 

When all 40 (hexadecimal 28) bytes 
have been written, the row is complete. 
The program then waits before starting 
the next row. The wait time is critical to 
insure precise synchronism with the 
transmitted line rate. At the end of each 
group, the program examines the key- 
board flag at hexadecimal C000 to see 
if a key has been pressed. If so. the 
display is halted. This feature allows the 
picture to be restarted from the begin- 
ning by pressing another key, or to be 
held until a second key is pressed. If the 
first key is pressed during the last group 
formation (at the bottom one-third of 
the screen), the full picture will be held. 
It can be stored on tape or disk by exit- 
ing the program and entering "BSAVE 
(filename if disk), AS2000. LSIFFF." 

The video display shows about 20 
percent of a map's width, and the 20 
percent displayed comes up at random 
each time the program is initiated. The 
restart feature is useful in moving to the 
more interesting parts of the map. After 
the display is complete, the program im- 
mediately begins a new display by over- 
writing the old one from the top. The 
screen is not cleared because it is useful 
to visually "tack" the new section onto 
the old one for continuity. 



Listing 1: The Facsimile driver program, written in 6502 assembly language. 



SOURCE FILE 


: FAXT 








4F00: 






1 


BITS 


EQU 


S4F00 : 


4F05: 






2 


BUFF 


EQU 


S4F05 : 


C061: 






3 


FLAG 


EQU 


SC061 : 


FCA8: 






4 


WAIT 


EQU 


SFCA8 ; 


4F10: 






5 


ROW 


EQU 


S4F10 : 


4F11: 






6 


SET 


EQU 


S4F11 : 


4F12: 






7 


GRP 


EQU 


S4F12 : 


4F13: 






8 


SADL 


EQU 


S4F13 ; 


4F14: 






9 


SADH 


EQU 


S4F14 ; 


4F15: 






10 


GADL 


EQU 


S4F15 


4F16: 






11 


GADH 


EQU 


S4F16 : 


C000: 






12 


KBD 


EQU 


SC000 : 


CO 10: 






13 


KBDSTRB 


EQU 


SC010 : 


NEXT OBJECT FILE NAME IS FAXT.OBJ0 


4000: 






14 




ORG 


$4000 


4000:A9 


08 




15 


START 


LDA 


#$08 ; 


4002:8D 


10 


4F 


16 




STA 


ROW 


4005:8D 


11 


4F 


17 




STA 


SET ; 


4008.A9 


03 




18 




LDA 


#$03 ; 


400A:8D 


12 


4F 


19 




STA 


GRP ; 


400D:A9 


00 




20 




LDA 


#$00 


400F:8D 


13 


4F 


21 




STA 


SADL : 


4012:8D 


15 


4F 


22 




STA 


GADL 


4015:8D 


5D 


40 


23 




STA 


ADDL 


4018:A9 


20 




24 




LDA 


#$20 


401A:8D 


14 


4F 


25 




STA 


SADH 


401D:8D 


16 


4F 


26 




STA 


GADH 


4020:8D 


5E 


40 


27 




STA 


ADDH 


4023:A9 


00 




28 


INIT 


LDA 


#$00 : 


4025:AA 






29 




TAX 




4026:A9 


29 




30 




LDA 


#$29 


4028:20 


A8 


FC 


31 




JSR 


WAIT 


402B:A9 AA 




32 




LDA 


#$AA 


402D:20 


A8 


FC 


33 




)SR 


WAIT 


4030:A9 


FF 




34 




LDA 


#$FF 


4032:20 


A8 


FC 


35 




JSR 


WAIT 


4035:A9 


FF 




36 




LDA 


#$FF 


4037:20 


A8 


FC 


37 




JSR 


WAIT 


403A:A9 


08 




38 


CHAR 


LDA 


#$08 


403C8D 


00 


4F 


39 




STA 


BITS 


403F:A9 


00 




40 




LDA 


#$00 


404 1 :8D 


05 


4F 


41 




STA 


BUFF 


4044:AD 


61 


CO 


42 


READ 


LDA 


FLAG 


4047:2A 






43 




ROL 


A 


4048:6E 


05 


4F 


44 




ROR 


BUFF 


404B:A9 


08 




45 




LDA 


#$08 


404D:20 


A8 


FC 


46 




JSR 


WAIT 


4050:CE 


00 


4F 


47 




DEC 


BITS 


4053:DO 


EF 




48 




BNE 


READ 


4055:38 






49 




SEC 




4056:6E 


05 


4F 


50 




ROR 


BUFF 


4059:AD 


05 


4F 


51 




LDA 


BUFF 


405C9D 






52 




DFB 


$9D 


405D.OO 






53 


ADDL 


DFB 


$00 


405E:20 






54 


ADDH 


DFB 


$20 


405F:E8 






55 




1NX 




4060:8A 






56 




TXA 




4061:18 






57 




CLC 




4062:E9 


27 




58 




SBC 


#$27 


4064:D0 


D4 




59 




BNE 


CHAR 


4066:CE 


10 


4F 


60 




DEC 


ROW 


4069:F0 


OC 




61 




BEQ 


SETCHK 


406B:AD 5E 


40 


62 




LDA 


ADDH 


406E: 1 8 






63 




CLC 




406F:69 


04 




64 




ADC 


#$04 


4071:8D 


5E 


40 


65 




STA 


ADDH 


4074:4C 


23 


40 


66 




JMP 


1N1T 


4077:CE 


11 


4F 


67 


SETCHK 


DEC 


SET 


407A:F0 


22 




68 




BEQ 


GRPCHK 


407CAD 


13 


4F 


69 




LDA 


SADL 


407F:18 






70 




CLC 




4080:69 


80 




71 




ADC 


#$80 


4082:8D 


5D 


40 


72 




STA 


ADDL 


4085:8D 


13 


4F 


73 




STA 


SADL 



BITS PER BYTE COUNTER. 

BUFFER TO FORM DISPLAY BYTE. 

INTERFACE INPUT ON PBI. 

MONITOR SR WAIT. 

;ROW COUNTER. 

SET COUNTER. 

GROUP COUNTER. 

STARTING ADDRESS 

;OF CURRENT SET. 

STARTING ADDRESS 

OF CURRENT GROUP. 

MONITOR SR KBD. 

MONITOR SR KBDSTRB. 



START NEW PICTURE. 
;8 ROWS PER SET, 
8 SETS PER GROUP, 
3 GROUPS PER PAGE 
FOR THE DISPLAY. 

SET LOW BYTE STARTING 
ADDRESS FOR FIRST SET, 
GROUP AND ROW. 

SET HIGH BYTE STARTING 
ADDRESS FOR EACH SET. 
GROUP AND ROW. 
START A NEW LINE AFTER DELAY. 

;(THIS COMBINATION OF WAIT 
;T1MES KEEPS DISPLAY ROWS 
.SYNCHRONIZED WITH SCAN 
:RATE OF FAX TRANSMISSIONS. 
;DELAYS CAN BE CHANGED TO 
;MATCH A PARTICULAR APPLE 
CRYSTAL IF NECESSARY.) 
:DONE. READY FOR NEW ROW. 
SET BIT COUNTER FOR 
;SEVEN BITS PER BYTE. 
:CLEAR BUFFER FOR NEW 
:BYTE STORAGE. 
:READ INTERFACE INPUT AND 
: ROTATE INTO CARRY FLAG. 
:THEN INTO BUFFER. 
:WA1T BEFORE SAMPLING 
INTERFACE AGAIN. 
:BYTE COMPLETE? IF NOT. 
;TAKE ANOTHER SAMPLE. 
IF DONE, SET HIGH BIT 
:IN BUFFER. THEN 
;READ BYTE INTO A. 
STORE BYTE FOR DISPLAY AT 
CURRENT SCREEN LOCATION WHICH 
:W1LL BE UPDATED LATER. 

:COUNT OFF BYTE AND 

:CHECK TO SEE IF 

;D1SPLAY IS AT 
END OF ROW? IF NOT. 
CONTINUE. 

ONE MORE ROW DONE. 
SEE IF AT END OF SET. 

IF NOT. ADD $400 FOR NEXT 

;ROW STARTING ADDRESS 
:W1TH1N SET AND PREPARE 
;FOR NEXT ROW. 
;HERE WE GO - NEXT ROW. 
;END OF SET? IF SO, CHECK 
;FOR END OF GROUP. 
;1F NOT. FORM NEW ROW LOW 

STARTING ADDRESS BY 
:ADDING $80. 
STORE FOR OUTPUT AND 
;UPDATE SET ADDRESS. 



150 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



4088: AD 14 


4F 


74 




LDA 


SADH 


DO SAME FOR HIGH BYTE. 


408B:90 03 




75 




BCC 


NEWSAD 


DONT FORGET TO BRING IN 


408D: 1 8 




76 




CLC 




;A POSSIBLE CARRY 


408E:69 01 




77 




ADC 


#$01 


FROM LOW BYTE ADDITION. 


4090:8D 14 


4F 


78 


NEWSAD STA 


SADH 


STORE BASE AND CURRENT 


4093:8D 5E 


40 


79 




STA 


ADDH 


SET ADDRESS HIGH BYTE. 


4096:A9 08 




80 




LDA 


#$08 


RESET ROW COUNTER 


4098:8D 10 


4F 


81 




STA 


ROW 


AND 


409B:4C 23 


40 


82 




JMP 


INIT 


HERE WE GO - NEXT SET. 


409E:CE 12 


4F 


83 


GRPCHK DEC 


GRP 


END OF PICTURE? IF NOT, 


40A1:D0 16 




84 




BNE 


ZERO 


GO DO RESETS. 


40A3:AD 00 


CO 


85 




LDA 


KBD 


DID THE BOSS PRESS A KEY? 


40A6:30 03 




86 




BMI 


HOLD 


YES. HOLD THE PHONE. 


40A8:4C 00 


40 


87 




IMP 


START 


NO. START ANOTHER GROUP. 


40AB:AD 10 


CO 


88 


HOLD 


LDA 


KBDSTRB 


NOW WAIT FOR HIM TO 


40AE:AD 00 


CO 


89 


LOOP 


LDA 


KBD 


PUSH ANOTHER KEY. 


40B1:10 FB 




90 




BPL 


LOOP 


NOT YET. 


40B3:AD 10 


CO 


91 




LDA 


KBDSTRB 


OK. WERE OFF AGAIN TO 


40B6:4C 00 


40 


92 




IMP 


START 


START A NEW PICTURE. 


40B9:AD 15 


4F 


93 


ZERO 


LDA 


GADL 


FORM NEW LOW BYTE GROUP 


40BC18 




94 




CLC 




STARTING ADDRESS BY 


40BD:69 28 




95 




ADC 


#$28 


ADDING $28. 


40BF:8D 15 


4F 


96 




STA 


GADL 


STORE FOR BASE GROUP. 


40C2:8D 13 


4F 


97 




STA 


SADL 


SET AND 


40C5:8D 5D 


40 


98 




STA 


ADDL 


ROW ADDRESS. 


40C8:AD 16 


4F 


99 




LDA 


GADH 


DO SAME FOR HIGH BYTE. 


40CB:90 03 




100 




BCC 


NEWGAD 


REMEMBERING TO BRING IN 


40CD:18 




101 




CLC 




;A POSSIBLE CARRY FROM 


40CE:69 01 




102 




ADC 


#$01 


LOW BYTE ADDITION. 


40D0:8D 16 


4F 


103 


NEWGAD STA 


GADH 


STORE ALL THE HIGH BYTE 


40D3:8D 14 


4F 


104 




STA 


SADH 


STARTING ADDRESSES 


40D6:8D 5E 


40 


105 




STA 


ADDH 


AS ABOVE. 


40D9:A9 08 




106 




LDA 


#$08 




40DB:8D 10 


4F 


107 




STA 


ROW 


RESET ROW AND 


40DE:8D II 


4F 


108 




STA 


SET 


SET COUNTERS. 


40E1:AD 00 


CO 


109 




LDA 


KBD 


ARE WE ON HOLD? 


40E4:30 C5 




110 




BMI 


HOLD 


YES. HOLD THE PHONE. 


40E6:4C 23 


40 


111 




JMP 


INIT 


NO. START A NEW GROUP. 


40E9:00 




112 




BRK 






••• SUCCESSFUL ASSEMBLY 


NO ERRORS 




405E ADDH 






405D 


ADDL 


4F00 B 


ITS 4F05 BUFF 


403A CHAR 






C061 


FLAG 


4F16 G 


ADH 4F15 GADL 


409E GRPCHK 




4F12 


GRP 


40AB H 


OLD 4023 INIT 


C000 KBD 






C0I0 


KBDSTRB 


40AE L 


OOP 40D0 NEWGAD 


4090 NEWSAD 




4044 


READ 


4F10 R 


OW 4F14 SADH 


4F13 SADL 






4077 


SETCHK 


4F11 S 


ET 4000 START 


FCA8 WAIT 






40B9 


ZERO 


4000 S 


TART 4023 INIT 


403A CHAR 






4044 


READ 






405D ADDL 






405E 


ADDH 


4077 S 


ETCHK 4090 NEWSAD 


409E GRPCHK 




40AB 


HOLD 


40AE L 


OOP 40B9 ZERO 


40D0 NEWGAD 




4F00 


BITS 


4F05 B 


UFF 4F10 ROW 


4FI 1 SET 






4F12 


GRP 


4F13 S 


ADL 4FI4 SADH 


4F15 GADL 






4F16 


GADH 


C000 K 


BD CO 10 KBDSTRB 


C061 FLAG 






FCA8 


WAIT 







Listing 2: A BASIC 


program 


to load the Facsimile machine driver. 


100 


D$ = CHR$(4) 






110 


PRINT DS.'BLOAD FAXT.OBJO" 


120 


HGR 






130 


POKE 49234.0 






140 


CALL 16384 




* 



This program resulted in part from a 
desire to learn more about the Apple 
video display and to produce some- 
thing useful in the process. 

Reception 

FAX weather maps are transmitted on 
numerous frequencies from many dif- 
ferent locations worldwide. Among 

Signals can arrive 
from different paths 
and may augment 
or interfere with 
each other. 

these are Washington. DC; Honolulu. HI; 
Bracknell. England; Guam; Tokyo. Japan; 
Canberra. Australia; Halifax. Canada; 
and Moscow. USSR. At my location 
transmissions from Washington are the 
most reliable (on frequencies of 3356 
kHz. 4975 kHz. 8080 kHz. and 10.865 
kHz). Many other frequencies and loca- 
tions are available, however. A commu- 
nications-type receiver with a beat- 
frequency oscillator (BFO) is required 
for reception. While a picture is being 
transmitted, the signal will sound like a 
short tone burst followed by a "skritch" 
sound. This is repeated twice each sec- 
ond. The tone burst should be tuned to 
zero beat so only the "skritch" is heard 
A single sideband receiver is preferred 
but not essential. 

The Fickle Ionosphere 

Reception quality can be highly vari- 
able. Long-range radio reception de- 
pends on signal reflection from the 
ionosphere, and the density and height 
of the ionized layers can change rapid- 
ly. Signals can arrive from several dif- 
ferent paths and may augment or inter- 
fere with each other. Multipath recep- 
tion is often accompanied by differen- 
tial time delays in transmission. The 
result is a smearing of horizontal details 
or the appearance of echo lines. Atmo- 
spheric or man-made electrical distur- 
bances can also degrade picture quali- 
ty. I mention these effects not to dis- 
courage the reader but. rather, to sug- 
gest that an element of uncertainty can 
add spice to the otherwise orderly 
world of digital computing. ■ 



References 

1. Grove. Robert R Confidential Frequency list. Park 
Ridge. NJ: Gilfer Associates Inc.. pages 68-71. 

2. Luebbert. William F. WhaVs Wherein the Apple? 
Chelmsford. MA: Micro Ink Inc.. pages 12-14. 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 151 



\\ /ON 



ismm 




'he Presentation Graphics Program 
from Prentice-Hall, Inc. 




<* 



How you present your message is just 
as important as what you present in 
today's competitive environment. That's 
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ers to architects are relying more and 
more on visual presentations to convey 
their complex ideas and information. 

Now there is an incredibly advanced 
software program that will allow you to 
create professional quality graphic pre- 
sentations right on your IBM PC or IBM 
XT. VCN ExecuVision, from the Busi- 
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tice-Hall, brings the power of a com- 
plete graphic arts department to your 
computer. In minutes, you can create 
exciting presentations that previously 
would have taken days, or weeks, for an 
art department to complete. Presenta- 
tions that you can run directly on your 
computer monitor or with an overhead 
projection screen... or convert to hard 
copy or slides. 

VCN ExecuVision is the ideal tool for 
meetings, new business proposals, con- 
sulting symposia, educational/training 
programs, marketing plans, manage- 
ment reports, or virtually any other pro- 
fessional presentation. 

Automatically plotted charts and 
graphs are just the beginning. You'll 
have access to hundreds of pre-drawn 
images and clip art from special add-on 
graphics libraries created specifically to 
add visual impact 

• Graphically frame your most impor- 
tant ideas and information with art- 
work from the The Border Collection. 

• Use The Initials & Decorative 
Design Collection to emphasize key 
words or phrases in your text 

• From production lines to executive 
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enhance your report or proposal 
data in The Industry & 




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• Add the human touch to present 
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people from Professions: The 
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• Images from all over the world are at 
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tive and impact with images from 
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Each library contains both full screen 
images and partial screens (pixes). You 
can use the entire image, or, with the 
electronic CUT AND PASTE program 
function, use just a detail from the full 
screen. You can modify or enhance the 
images, mix and match them, choose 
from 64 possible color combinations, 
you can even set the images in motion 
across the screen using VCN ExecuVi- 
sion's animation functions. 

With the program's sketching capabi- 
lities, you can create your own visual 
images! For your text, choose from 10 
different type styles, from bold to italic, 
plain to fancy. 

Best of all, you don't have to be an 
artist to use VCN ExecuVision success- 
fully. Every function is offered in a series 
of easy to follow menus. VCN ExecuVi- 
sion also comes with a tutorial disk and 
an extremely easy-to-follow full-color 
manual that will take you step by step 
through the program. 

VCN ExecuVision can immediately be 
put to use making all of your informa- 
tion and ideas— and you!— look 
sharper, more prepared, and more pro- 
fessional. 

For a demonstration of VCN ExecuVi- 
sion, visit your nearest computer soft- 
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toll-free 800-624-0023 (NJ residents 
call 800-624-0024), or return the cou- 
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z> 



SPREADSHEET 

IN BASIC 



Ah architect's 

cost-estimation 

program 

BY RODOLFO CERATI 



I am an architect, and as such I 
often need to estimate building 
costs. One good way to do this 
is with a spreadsheet The trou- 
ble is. cost estimates often re- 
quire several hundred spreadsheet cells, 
but my CalcStar spreadsheet only 
allows 295. lb eliminate this limitation 
I wrote my own cost-estimation pro- 
gram. ESTIMATE.BAS. but I wrote it so 
that it would look like and be as easy 
to use as CalcStar. Specifically, it uses 
the same cursor-control codes, instantly 
recalculates values, saves and recalls 
spreadsheet values on disk, and inter- 
faces with a database. 

I wrote the program in Microsoft 
BASIC-80. so it should be easily ported 
to other CP/M-80 computers. I also 
grouped the screen-handling functions 
in a series of subroutines so you can 
easily change them to match your 
screen's requirements. Finally I included 
the ability to interface with a database 
program that I've written. 

lb run the program, you'll need: a 
microcomputer with a Z80 micropro- 
cessor and at least 56K bytes of mem- 
ory, the CP/M 2.2 operating system. 
Microsoft's BASIC-80 interpreter, and a 
terminal with a directly addressable cur- 
sor, a clear-screen command, a back- 
space-and-character-delete command, 
and an erase-to-end-of-line command. 
A reduced intensity character display 
comes in handy .too. 

Using ESTIMATE.BAS 

Once you've typed the program in. save 
it and type RUN. You'll see a menu that 
looks like this: 
B= build up a new estimate 
E=edit an existing estimate 



S=save values on disk 

R=read values from disk 

L=load another program 

ESC=exit 

Let's suppose that you type E to edit 
an existing estimate. You would then see 
a spreadsheet something like the one 
in figure I. lb move from cell to cell in 
this spreadsheet, you use the same con- 
trol codes that you would use for cur- 
sor movement in WordStar. The current 
cell is indicated by angle brackets 
(><). Unlike other spreadsheets, 
though, my spreadsheet will not let you 
place just any kind of information in the 
cells. Instead, you are limited to enter- 
ing the type of information called for in 
the column headings. For instance, you 
may only enter names under "Job type" 
and numbers under "Unit cost": you 
may not enter formulas in any of the 
cells. Whenever you enter new numbers 
under "Unit cost" and "Quantity" and 
type the proper command, the program 
recalculates the percentages in the last 
column and the total value in the "Ibtal 
value" row. If you want to add or delete 
rows, jump to a different page of the 
spreadsheet, or print the spreadsheet, 
type a semicolon and capital H (:H) for 
a list of the proper commands. 

The other items in the menu are self- 
explanatory. 

Program Notes 

I've included many remark statements 
in my program (see listing 1). but a few 
more words will help. I'm sure. The pro- 
gram is built around a two-dimensional 
array— ARR$— that contains the contente 
of each cell The array is dimensioned 
for 100 rows by 7 columns. Four one-di- 
mensional arrays— TP%. L%. PO%. and 



154 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



MSK%— hold the screen-display and for- 
matting parameters. Array TP% tells ' 
whether the cell is alphabetic or 
numeric, array L% tells the length of 
each column, array PO% tells the screen 
position of each cell in the spreadsheet, 
and array MSK% contains the strings 
used by the PRINT USING statements 
for formatting purposes. 

The variables VMIN%. P%. VMAX%. 
PS%, SCR%. HZ%, and VP% contain the 
absolute position of the current cell in 
the main array and its relative position 
on the screen. 

The program is sectioned into many 
subroutines to simplify programming 
and debugging. The most often used 
subroutines are at the start of the pro- 
gram to minimize the time the BASIC in- 
terpreter has to spend looking for them. 
The initialization and main menu sub- 
routines are at the end. 

The program occupies 15K bytes of 
disk space in compressed form and 18K 
bytes in ASCII (American National Stan- 
dard Code for Information Interchange) 
form. If you want to save space, you can 
delete all of the remark statements, 
which are indicated with an apostrophe. 

To adapt the program to other com- 
puter terminals, you only need to 
change the CRT (cathode-ray tube) rou- 
tines in lines 60000 and 60020. If your 
terminal doesn't support reduced inten- 
sity, you can use reverse video instead. 
Or just place a null string (" ") in 
variables W$(2) and W$(3). 

Tb change the total number of cells in 
the main array, change MAX% in line 
60060. To change the number of rows 
that are displayed, change the variables 
in line 60100. Finally, to change the 
screen-formatting parameters, change 
the DATA statements beginning in line 
60220. 

By now you have probably noticed 
that my program is not as flexible as 
CalcStar. It is. in fact, very specialized, 
but it has the same ease of data entry 
and display that commercial spread- 
sheets have. I've eliminated the flexibil- 
ity of commercial programs in favor of 
a larger data capacity and a more com- 
pact program. I'm sure that you could 
adapt this program to your own pur- 
poses, especially if your applications are 
too large for conventional spreadsheets. 

I can provide a copy of the program 
on disk in North Star double-density for- 
mat for a nominal fee. Please write to 
me for details. ■ 



Rodolfo Cerati \Piazza Europa 26, 12100 
Cuneo. \ta\y] is part owner of S & R Cerati 
Architects. 



# 


Code 

1 


lob type u.m. 

i 


Unit cost 

i „ i 


Quantity 


Amount 


0/ 
A3 

1 


1- 


1 
A/01 


1 

Excavations m3 


T 1 

1.50 


1.950.00 




2.925.00 


1 

1.3 


2- 


B/01 


Found, concrete m3 


14.50 


130.00 


1.885.00 


0.8 


3- 


F/02 


Steel bars Kg 


0.40 


40,800.00 


16.320.00 


7.2 


4- 


S/03 


R.concr. slabs m2 


25.50 


2,780.00 


70.890.00 


31.5 


5- 


H/12 


Exterior masonry m2 


28.50 


1,3 50.00 


38.475.00 


17.1 


6- 


H/04 


Int. walls (1) m2 


4.50 


2,050.00 


9.225.00 


4.1 


7- 


H/02 


Int. walls (2) m2 


6.75 


385.00 


2.498.75 


1.2 


8- 


G/10 


Plaster m2 


5.25 


7,450.00 


39.112.50 


17.4 


9- 


L/01 


Ext. finish m2 


6.50 


1,850.00 


12,02 5.00 


5.3 


10- 


L/02 >Int. finish <m2 


2.50 


6,200.00 


15,500.00 


4.5 


II- 


M/01 


Marble floors m2 


52.50 


195.00 


10,237.50 


4.5 


12- 
13- 
14- 


M/03 


Synt. floors m2 


28.25 


215.00 


6,073.00 


2.7 


Total value - 








225,267.50 




— > > > 




type : text order : 


L-R Col.: 2 Row : 10 






contents : Int. finish 












e< 


i\t : 













Figure I : An example of a fictitious estimate spreadsheet. The cursor is at column 2 and 
row 10. The unit abbreviations are cubic meters (m3). kilograms (Kg), and square meters 
(ml). 



Listing I: ESTIMATE. BAS. a construction-costs estimate program with a spreadsheet-like 
data entry and display. 



############ 

ESTIMATE.BAS 

Construction costs estimating program 
© 1 983 - Rodolfo Cerati. Architect 
Piazza Europa 26, 12100 Cuneo, Italy 
Version 2.0 — date : June 1 3th, 1983 



-Jump to initialization routine 
Often used subroutines (lines 100-950) 



10 GOTO 60000:' 

85 

86 

87 

88 

96 

97 ' Print formatted value on screen 

100 IF TP%(J%) THEN T = VAL(ARR$(1%,J%)):PR1NT FNC$(PO%(|%),PS%)USlNG MSK$(|%);T: 

ELSE PRINT FNC$(PO%(J%),PS%)USlNG MSK$(|%):ARR$(1%,J%); 
120 RETURN 

248 ' 

249 ' Clear partial screen 

250 FORT%=l TO GAP%:PR1NT FNC$(O.T% + OFS%- I )W$(1):NEXT T%:RETURN 

298 ' 

299 ' Calculate absolute row value in array (P%) 

300 P% = VP%-(OFS%-I) + SCR%*GAP%:lF P%>MAX% THEN P% = MAX%:RETURN ELSE 
RETURN 

318 ' 

319" Calculate position on screen 

320 PS% = P% + OFS% - 1 - SCR% * G AP%:RETURN 

348 ' 

349 ' Calculate bottom limit for screen display 

350 VMAX% = VM1N% + GAP%-1:1F VMAX%>MAX% THEN VMAX% = MAX% 
360 RETURN 

396 ' 

397 ' Backspace one character 

400 IF LEN(D$)=0 THEN RETURN ELSE PRINT CHR$(8)" "CHR$(8); 

420 IF LEN(D$)=1 THEN D$ = " ":RETURN ELSE D$ = LEFr$(D$,LEN(D$)- 1):RETURN 

697 ' 

698 ' Get line 

(listing continued on page 156) 



IUNE 1984 • BYTE 155 



Circle 123 on inquiry card. 



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156 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



SPREADSHEET 



[listing continued from page 155) 

700 LINE INPUT;" ";C$:PRINT CHR$(13);:RETURN 

709 ' get single character and echo it on screen 

710 GOSUB 730:1FT%=13 or T%>31 THEN PRINT C$;CHR$(1 3);:RETURN ELSE PRINT""" 
+ CHR$(T% +64)CHR$( 1 3);:RETURN 

729 ' as above, but no echo 

730 C$ = 1NPUT$( 1 ):T% = ASC(C$):RETURN 

747 ■ 

748 ' Waiting message 

750 GOSUB 950:PRlNT"Wait "W$(3);:RETURN 

897 ' 

898 ' delete status line 

900 PRINT FNC$(0,0)W$(l);:RETURN 

947 ' 

948 ' Display program prompt 

950 GOSUB 900:PRINT FNC$(0,0)" "W${2);:RETURN 

995 ' 

996 ' ########## 

997 ' Print array 

998 ' ########## 

999 ' 

1000 GOSUB 350:FOR 1% = VM1N% TO VMAX%:PS% = l% + (OFS%- 1)-SCR%'GAP%: 
PRINT FNC$(PO%(l).PS%)USlNG MSK$(1):VAL(ARR$(1%,1)); 

1020 IF ARR$(1%.2)< >" "THEN FOR J%=1 TO NN%:GOSUB 100:NEXT:PR1NT 
1040 NEXT:RETURN 

1295 ' 

1296 ' ########## 

1297 ' Print single item & recalculate total 

1298 ' ########## 

1299 ' 

1300 GOSUB 300:GOSUB 320:1F HZ% >4 THEN T# = VAL(ARR$(P%.NN%)) 

1320 ARR$(P%,HZ%) = D$:l% = P%:|% = HZ%:GOSUB 100:1F HZ%<5 THEN RETURN ELSE IF 

HZ%=7THEN 1360 
1340 T1#=VAL(ARR$(P%.NN%-2))WAL(ARR$(P%.NN%-1)):ARR$(P%.NN%) = R1GHT$(STR$ 

(T1#).LEN(STR$(TI#))- l):)% = NN%:GOSUB 100 
1360 TOT# = TOT#+VAL(ARR$(P%,NN%))-T#:GOSUB 1600:RETURN 
1395 
1396 
1397 
1398 
1399 

1400 PRINT FNC$(0,1)TI$ FNC$(0,2)T2$:RETURN 
1495 
1496 
1497 
1498 
1499 
1500 PRINT FNC$(0,17)STRlNG$(79.45)FNC$(0.18)"Total- 

1600:RETURN 
1595 
1596 
1597 
1598 
1599 
1600 
1795 
1796 
1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 PRINT FNC$(0.19)STRlNG$(78.45)FNC$(0.20)W$(l)FNC$(15.20)"type 

FNC$(ll,2l)"contents :"FNC$(0,22)W$(1)FNC$(1 5,22)"edit :'* 
1820 PRINT FNC$(35.20)W$(2)"order : ";:IF RD% THEN PR1NT"T=B" ELSE PR1NT"L = R" 
1840 PRINT FNC$(50,20)"Col. :"FNC$(65.20)"Row :"W$(3):RETURN 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 



Print top title 



Print title for total 



->>>"W$(l)::GOSUB 



Print total value 

########## 

PRINT FNC$(PO%(7).18)USlNG MSK$(7);TOT#:RETURN 



Print informations at bottom of CRT screen 
using Micropro's Calcstar conventions 



"FNC$(0.21)W$(D 



2nd cursor routines 
display 2nd cursor, i.e. brackets 



[listing continued on page 457) 



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JUNE 1984 -BYTE 157 



Nowyou can instantly make 35mm slides 



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Since the Palette links di- 
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Palette can virtually double 
the resolution of your 
monitor. The result is pre- 
sentation quality slides. 



158 BYTE • JUNE 1984 




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JUNE 1984 -BYTE 159 



BYTE 



A Computer on Every Desk 

by Donna Osgood 162 

Programming by Rehearsal 

by William Finzer and Laura Gould 187 

Game Sets and Builders 

by Ann Piestrup 215 

Cautions on Computers in Education 

by Stephan L, Chorover 223 

Languages for Students 

by Fred A. Masterson 233 

Microcomputers in the Field 

by Robert P. Case 243 

Kermit: A File-Transfer Protocol 
for Universities, Part I: Design 
Considerations and Specifications 

by Frank da Cruz and Bill Catchings 255 

San Franciscos Exploratorium 

by }ohn Markoff 279 

Designing a Simulated Laboratory 

by Nils Peterson 287 



Education 



"BY THE YEAR 1984, there will be millions of general-purpose microcomputers in 
schools. . ."-'Ibm Dwyer, August 1980 BYTE. 

Well, it's 1984 and there are about a million general-purpose microcomputers in schools, 
but many of them are still used as computerized page-turners and drill-and-practice sergeants. 
In 1980, when BYTE published its first education theme issue, the emphasis was on com- 
puter literacy and CA1 (computer-aided instruction). lbday. as computers reach students 
in all disciplines, the focus is moving from the computer as an object of study to the com- 
puter as a versatile learning tool. 

Until recently, computers in education have been mainframes and minicomputers, ad- 
ministered and controlled by institutions and dispensed to users. As microcomputers get 
cheaper, more powerful, and easier to use, though, they are showing up on students' and 
teachers' desks. Computing power is being redistributed to the educational grassroots. 

Software designed for education is still largely based on traditional learning materials, 
using the computer as a convenient delivery system that can give immediate feedback. 
A few innovative researchers and educators, however, are beginning to explore the com- 
puter's real power, not only for computation, but for graphics, communications, and word 
processing. 

Microcomputers are flooding American college campuses in record numbers. "A Com- 
puter on Every Desk" is a survey of schools that are trying to channel the tide to fit their 
educational goals. 

Educational software suffers in the design loop: educators know what they want from 
software, but they can't write programs; programmers are not always versed in educational 
theory. The Rehearsal World, a programming environment developed at Xerox Palo Alto 
Research Center, is a first step toward a solution. In "Programming by Rehearsal." William 
Finzer and Laura Gould describe how a nonprogrammer can design and implement 
sophisticated software while the Rehearsal World writes Smalltalk code. 

Learning software is only beginning to take advantage of the full power of computer 
graphics. Ann Piestrup of The Learning Company describes the design considerations behind 
TLC's powerful but playful interactive learning programs in "Game Sets and Builders." 

Now more than ever, educators must be aware of the impact of computers on students 
and on the process of learning. How can computers best be introduced so that they will 
supplement, not supplant teachers? In this issue. Stephan L. Chorover ("Cautions on Com- 
puters in Education") and Joseph Weizenbaum (in the accompanying sidebar "Another View 
from MIT") offer warnings and suggestions to forestall the overzealous automation of learning. 

An article by John Markoff on San Francisco's Exploratorium (with a text box on 'Ielelearn- 
ing's Electronic University), describes examples of alternate forms of off-campus educa- 
tion through the use of microcomputers. 

Fred A. Masterson of the University of Delaware believes that programming languages 
can be useful pedagogic tools as well as programming tools. His "Languages for Students" 
describes the strengths and weaknesses of several popular, and some relatively unknown, 
languages for education. 

There is now a great variety of microcomputers, minicomputers, and mainframes on many 
campuses. Naturally all these machines need to communicate. One way is to use the Kermit 
protocol described by Frank da Cruz and Bill Catchings. 

The possibilities for microcomputer applications in science and technology learning are 
endless. Examples in this issue include Nils Peterson's "Designing a Simulated Laboratory" 
and Robert P. Case's "Microcomputers in the Field." 

Microcomputers are changing education— fast. Computing professionals and educators 
must work closely together to ensure that these changes are for the better. 



— Donna Osgood. Associate Editor 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 161 



THEME 



A COMPUTER 
ON EVERY DESK 



by Donna Osgood 



A survey of personal computers 
in American universities 



ACROSS THE COUNTRY colleges and 
universities are taking a serious look at 
the microcomputer as an essential part 
of the educational experience. A few 
dozen schools are already putting com- 
puters on students' desks, and hundreds 
more are exploring the possibilities. In 
several colleges, a personal computer 
is already as much a part of the cost of 
an education as tuition. 

Why the move to micros? Plenty of 
reasons. Timesharing systems are over- 
crowded and expensive to upgrade. Stu- 
dents with an eye on the job market are 
beginning to demand "computer liter- 
acy" from their educations. And major 
computer manufacturers— most notably 
Apple. Digital Equipment Corporation 
(DEC). IBM. and Zenith-are wheeling 
and dealing to make their computers 
attractive. 

The availability of personal computers 
is an obvious advantage. "Twenty-four 
hour access to a computer makes a tre- 
mendous difference in the way students 
view computing," says David Bray, dean 
of educational computing at Clarkson 
University. "Before, with our minicom- 
puters and mainframes, students had to 
walk to the computer center and some- 
times wait for hours to get to the com- 
puter. Some people are soured on com- 
puters that way." 

Money is another powerful motivation 
for many schools. Faced with overbur- 



dened timesharing systems and rapid- 
ly increasing demands for computing, 
administrators look to micros to absorb 
and distribute some of the cost. In most 
cases, the student buys the hardware, 
often at a sizable discount from the 
manufacturer, and pays for it over 
several semesters or as part of tuition. 
This shifts some of the financial re- 
sponsibility for computing to the stu- 
dents, though the cost of implementing 
a campuswide computer program is still 
considerable for the institution. 

Clearly, hardware manufacturers see 
long-term advantages to having their 
machines in students' hands. Schools 
such as MIT. Carnegie-Mellon. Stevens 
Institute, and Brown have entered joint- 
research agreements with manufac- 
turers and are doing extensive develop- 
ment in hardware, software, and net- 
work design. In some cases, the manu- 
facturer gets proprietary rights to the 
products developed this way. Other ad- 
vantages to the computer companies 
are not so immediate or tangible, but 
may well be important: students who 
use a particular machine in college may 
be loyal to the manufacturer later, as 
consumers and professionals. 

Donna Osgood is an associate editor at BYTE's 
West Coast bureau. She can be reached at 
McGraw-Hill, 425 Battery St., San Francisco. 
CA 94111. 



Students, faculty, and administrators 
are beginning to view the computer less 
as a computing machine and more as 
a broadly applicable tool for education 
and communication. "Our business is 
education, and we shouldn't lose sight 
of that," says Robert Golden of Roches- 
ter Institute. "Planning for computer use 
on campus has got to be curriculum 
driven, not just an afterthought to the 
selection of some hardware." 

Most colleges either have plans to 
network microcomputers on campus or 
already have networks in place. Many 
schools will link the micros to larger 
computers for file storage or for ter- 
minal emulation. Networks can deliver 
electronic mail, student bulletin board 
and information services, and electronic 
library catalogs as well as communica- 
tion among faculty, students, and staff. 

Sociologists and psychologists are be- 
ginning to study the effects of wide- 
spread computer use on students. So 
far. the stereotype of the computer ad- 
dict glued to a monitor screen and 
isolated from human contact just 
doesn't hold true. On the contrary, on 
many campuses the computer has 
brought together students who wouldn't 
otherwise have anything in common. 

Private colleges and universities, with 
their greater financial and administrative 
flexibility, have been faster off the mark 
than their public counterparts. Even so, 



162 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



EDUCATION SURVEY 



only a handful of schools actually have 
large numbers of micros in student 
hands today, though several programs 
will start this September. No doubt 
some school administrators are holding 
back to watch and learn from the 
pioneers' mistakes. The 1 5 colleges and 
universities in the survey that follows are 
at the forefront of the movement. 




MASSACHUSETTS 
INSTITUTE OF 
TECHNOLOGY 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

"Coherence" is the watchword for MIT's 
Project Athena, a $70 million joint re- 
search and development project with 
IBM and DEC. One of Athena's goals is 
to make hardware obstacles transparent 
to the user, so that a program produced 
on one part of the system is available 
to all other users. The entire university 
will rely on a single operating system 
and a comprehensive network. 

IBM and DEC are supplying $50 
million in equipment, staff, and main- 
tenance to the project. DEC equipment 
and support will be centered in the 
School of Engineering, while the rest of 
the institute will use IBM machines. By 
dealing with two vendors, and possibly 
more later, MIT can preserve flexibility 
and transportability for future develop- 
ments without being locked in to one 
vendor's product line. 

In the first phase of the project, equip- 
ment on the DEC side will be 63 net- 
worked VAX minicomputers with four to 
six terminals each. IBM equipment in 
Phase I will be a distributed system of 
500 PC XT$ with 32-bit coprocessors, 
high-resolution bit-mapped displays, 
and local-area network interface cards. 
The PC X1S will be organized into sev- 
eral local-area networks, each sup- 
ported by a file server (an IBM 4341) 
and a laser printer. 

In Phase 2. beginning in 1985, the ad- 
vanced workstations from both vendors 



(now under development) will be in- 
stalled across campus. The workstations 
will have 3 2 -bit processors, high-resolu- 
tion bit-mapped displays, and network- 
ing capabilities. All Phase I software 
and curricular material should be trans- 
ferable to the more advanced equip- 
ment. 

Initially. Athena software will be based 
on Berkeley UNIX, version 4.2, with an 
editor, printing formatter, numerical 
analysis and graphics packages, a mail/ 
file transfer program, and languages (C, 
FORTRAN. LISP, and Pascal). The system 
will evolve to accommodate new pe- 
ripherals and software as well as im- 
provements in the user interface. 

The emphasis on coherence, which 
allows the transfer of information unim- 
peded by software and hardware con- 
siderations, brings its own restrictions. 
A set of rules is imposed on software 
design, limiting programming flexibility. 
Any group using the Athena network 
must agree to observe Athena's rules in 
its own programs. 

MIT is investing $20 million over five 
years to support Project Athena. More 
than half of that money will fund faculty 
software-development efforts. "The 
educational value of Athena rests more 
in the software than the hardware." says 
Steven Lerman, the project's director. 
"We envision an environment where 
faculty prepare curriculum materials 
linked to the Athena system. What we 
hope will come out of this is an entire 
new generation of educational software 
for the technical curriculum." 

Lerman anticipates applications in 
laboratory data acquisition and simula- 
tions, computation, and visualization. 
"The traditional means which we have 
to illustrate things in three dimensions 
are very limited— you can't control them, 
you can't rotate them and look at them 
from different directions at will. What 
we hope to do is create graphic environ- 
ments in which students can explore the 
three-dimensional space and really get 
an intuitive gut feel for what's going on. 
Some students don't need this, interest- 
ingly enough, and some students des- 
perately need it. Those that don't ac- 
quire it are seriously handicapped. The 
notion of a good architect or engineer 
who doesn't have that three-dimen- 
sional instinct is very hard to imagine." 

Right now, says Lerman, "Educational 
institutions tend to provide a narrow 



band of ways to acquire information, 
principally the classroom and home- 
work. Certain students seem to do well 
in one environment and not in another. 
I'm hoping that by creating a variety of 
software environments, we can extend 
the ways in which people can learn." 




CARNEGIEMELLON 
UNIVERSITY 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

By 1986. if everything goes as planned, 
all freshmen at Carnegie-Mellon Univer- 
sity will be required to buy a very 
powerful personal computer that will 
become an integral part of their educa- 
tion. That computer will probably be 
the product of Carnegie-Mellon's joint 
research and development project with 
IBM. though the school is not under 
contract to buy the machines from IBM. 
Over the next few years, CMU will make 
the transition from what is now prima- 
rily a timesharing system to distributed 
personal computers. 

According to James Morris, Director 
of the Information Technology Center 
at CMU. "Computers that are currently 
available at a price students can afford 
(about $3000) are not adequate to 
really make a difference to a student's 
education." 

Specifications for CMU's machine are 
ambitious: it must have a bit-mapped 
display of a million pixels, a million in- 
structions per second of processing 
power, a megabyte of real memory, and 
a virtual-address architecture with 32-bit 
address spaces. It must be connected 
to a local-area network as well. 

Can they cram all that into a $3000 
computer? "That is a very close call," 
says Morris. "Looking at what is current- 
ly available on the market, if you as- 
sume that the price will be cut in half 
over the next three years, it's plausible. 
The price will depend on the market de- 
veloping, the competition developing, 
[text continued on page 164) 



IUNE 1984 -BYTE 163 



EDUCATION SURVEY 



(text continued from page 163) 
and a nontrivial discount from manufac- 
turers. I would estimate." A prototype 
machine, an IBM PC with a National 
Semiconductor 16032 processor, will be 
available soon. 

The computers will be networked in 
what Morris calls a "timesharing file sys- 
tem." It will encompass direct point-to- 
point communications and electronic 
mail but also will enable the user to 
browse through all the databases on 
campus. "It's the traditional kind of file 
sharing you find on timesharing sys- 
tems." he says. Instead of hundreds of 
users, however, the system will handle 
thousands. "We're going to do that with 
large numbers of machines and local- 
area networks. The user doesn't have to 
worry about which machine is storing 
the file. Multiple copies of files will be 
kept on different machines, and there 
will be all sorts of computer system 
tricks to increase reliability and perfor- 
mance, but it will behave as one giant 
file system." 

How will this tool change the way stu- 
dents work? "I can only speculate based 
on my experience at Xerox PARC [Palo 
Alto Research Center| over the last 10 
years. If you provide people with a high- 
powered workstation and get them all 
connected into a common network and 
provide high-quality printing facilities, 
you drastically improve their ability to 
communicate with each other. People 
have seen fancy computers before. 
What they haven't seen before is a com- 
munity of 5000 or 8000 people all wired 
together with this new communication 
medium." 




CLARKSON 
UNIVERSITY 

Potsdam, New York 

In the fall of 1983, Clarkson University 
issued Zenith Z-I00 microcomputers to 
all incoming freshmen. Each student 
pays $200 additional tuition a semester 



and a one-time maintenance deposit of 
$200. On graduation, the student sur- 
renders the deposit and owns the 
computer. 

David Bray, Clarkson's dean of educa- 
tional computing, believes that if 
students are not computer literate when 
they leave the school, "then we are 
shortchanging them." When these stu- 
dents graduate in 1987. he says, nearly 
every professional in their fields will be 
expected to use a computer. Bray wants 
to be certain that Clarkson graduates 
will be prepared. 

The computers have 192K bytes of 
memory, both 8-bit and 16-bit proces- 
sors, and one disk drive. Clarkson has 
promised the incoming class a com- 
plete network by the time they are 
seniors and is working on the network 
design. 

It's the logistics of learning that are 
changing at Clarkson, not the curriculum 
content. Laboratory and class demon- 
strations can use computer graphics to 
illustrate principles that cannot be clear- 
ly explained in a lecture. Some faculty 
members have established office hours 
when students can bring in their disks 
and discuss their work. 

To Bray, word-processing capabilities 
are one of the most significant advan- 
tages the computer will confer. Already, 
he says, students are becoming more 
critical of what they write, and for the 
first time professors feel free to demand 
rewrites. 

Bray believes that accessible micros 
are the key to getting the faculty in- 
volved in computing. Nearly all the 
Clarkson faculty have computers. Pro- 
fessors who would not use the timeshar- 
ing facilities at the computer center will 
use desktop computers. Faculty mem- 
bers got Z-lOOs six months before the 
students did. and many attended 
classes and seminars to help them in- 
tegrate the machines into their teaching. 

Professors must be involved in devel- 
oping computer software to integrate 
the computer into their classes. A 
faculty member who has programming 
questions, needs someone to write 
small routines, or needs computer help 
in a research project will latch onto a 
student for help. These one-on-one rela- 
tionships between students and facul- 
ty members are emerging as a fringe 
benefit of the micro program. 

The administrators' fear that students 



with micros would lock themselves into 
closets and become hackers was un- 
founded. In fact, according to Steve 
Newkofsky acting dean of student life 
at Clarkson. the computer program has 
helped break down barriers between 
students in different fields by providing 
a common ground. 

Five years from now. says Bray. "We 
will still be teaching chemistry, engineer- 
ing, and so on. I don't think the educa- 
tional process itself is going to change. 
Instead we will be providing students 
with powerful tools and an effective 
educational assistant in the computer." 




STEVENS INSTITUTE 
OF TECHNOLOGY 

Hoboken, New ]ersey 

The Computers in Education program 
at Stevens has its roots in a decision 
made in 1978 to put new emphasis on 
computing and computers in the cur- 
riculum. By the fall of 1982. a pilot pro- 
gram was underway: all freshmen in the 
science and systems planning/manage- 
ment curricula were required to buy an 
Atari 800, at a 40 percent discount from 
the retail price. The computers were well 
received, and in the fall of 1983 the pro- 
program was expanded to include all in- 
coming freshmen. 

The new group, however, is getting a 
lot more computer for its money. The 
school contracted with DEC to buy 
16-bit DEC 32 5s with 512K bytes of 
RAM and dual disk drives, which would 
have cost students about $1800. 
Through Stevens's special negotiations 
with DEC, however, students are getting 
an even sweeter deal: a Pro3 50 with 
dual floppy disks and a 10-megabyte 
Winchester disk, with, software, for 
$1950. This 80 percent discount from 
the list price is based on an educational 
discount from DEC and contributions 
from Stevens. 

Joseph Moeller, dean of educational 
development, emphasizes that 



164 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



EDUCATION SURVEY 



Stevens's approach to integrating the 
computer into courses is "curriculum 
driven." Computer use in early courses 
is designed to develop general com- 
puter skills that will be useful later. 
Moeller says. "The development of such 
a 'computer thread' throughout the cur- 
ricula allows for a comprehensive ap- 
proach to the effective integration of 
computer methods into the course 
structure." 

A local-area network will eventually in- 
corporate students' 350s. The net is 
already in place to link all the academic 
departments. VAXes, and the mainframe, 
and the next major expansion will bring 
in the students' computers. Dormitories 
are being refurbished to accommodate 
the computers, and a conduit is being 
installed for the network in the process. 

Stevens has not yet finalized a total 
networking strategy because of the lack 
of standardization in networking tech- 
nology. A research project under way 
with DEC will lead to development of 
a comprehensive local-area network 
solution for the entire campus. 

Microcomputers are used across the 
curriculum. For example, interactive cal- 
culus programs help students through 
mathematical analysis classes. Chem- 
istry courses include graphic simula- 
tions and drill and practice in chemical 
principles. In an introductory engineer- 
ing graphics course, the computer is be- 
ing used as an electronic drawing board 
and to integrate computer graphics ca- 
pabilities into engineering graphics con- 
cepts. In the lab. computers will be used 
to collect data, interface with equip- 
ment, control procedures, and simulate 
experiments that might be impractical, 
expensive, or dangerous. 

Applications in the liberal arts include 
a program in political science that 
analyzes voting systems and word-pro- 
cessing programs that students use to 
prepare their papers. Stevens is investi- 

Stevens is investigating 
the possibility of a 
joint project with 
AT&T to get Writer's 
Workbench running on 
the 350s. 



gating the possibility of a joint project 
with AT&T to get Writer's Workbench, an 
editing program, running on the 3 50s. 

"One of the most important benefits 
expected from this approach to com- 
puters." says Moeller. "is an increase in 
student involvement in project work- 
both independently and as part of 
teams. This was evident during the sum- 
mer 1983 term, when approximately 30 
faculty members and 20 undergraduate 
and graduate students formed software- 
development teams to prepare per- 
sonal computer course materials for the 
fall semester. Many of the undergradu- 
ates were among those required to pur- 
chase Atari computers in 1982. Such ac- 
tivities have continued during the 1983- 
1984 academic year and are certain to 
increase, including both academic and 
research projects in the future." 

Moeller believes the computers en- 
courage better planning and less dupli- 
cation from one course to another. 
Faculty involvement, central to the coor- 
dination effort, has led to an increase 
in interdisciplinary efforts by faculty 
members, he says. 

Seventy-five percent of the full-time 
faculty is actively involved in the per- 
sonal computer project. The institute 
supports an incentive program to en- 
courage faculty members to buy and 
use computers. They can purchase the 
same DEC 350 system, with additional 
language capability, for $1500— paid 
over a period of three years— and will 
use computers in research and writing 
in addition to curricular activities. 

"Within five years," says Moeller, "we'll 
see every student, every faculty mem- 
ber, and most of the staff with a desk- 
top computer. This computer will have 
the capability of what is now a minicom- 
puter with substantial stand-alone com- 
puting capacity hooked into a network 
to facilitate communications and profes- 
sional activities. We are not going to 
stop having classes in classrooms with 
direct interaction between students and 
faculty. There will be a shift in the way 
faculty and students interact, and per- 
haps an increase in the kinds of learn- 
ing that can take place. I expect that 
students will approach problems in 
ways which take full advantage of the 
computer resource at their fingertips 
and will be able to address more com- 
plex problems in more depth than ever 
before." 




ROCHESTER 
INSTITUTE OF 
TECHNOLOGY 

Rochester, New York 

Rochester Institute is a larger and more 
diverse school than either Stevens or 
Clarkson. Computers from several 
manufacturers will be available to stu- 
dents through the bookstore at a dis- 
count, and the school will provide main- 
tenance and training, but students are 
not required to buy personal com- 
puters. 

Robert Golden, director of RIT's 
microcomputer task force, believes that 
fewer than a quarter of the 16.000 stu- 
dents will buy micros. He points out that 
no one machine would meet the needs 
of all the students, who major in such 
diverse fields as the fine and perform- 
ing arts, hotel management and tourism 
studies, and engineering and sciences. 

The computers getting the most em- 
phasis at Rochester right now are DECs. 
The whole range of DEC micros is avail- 
able through the bookstore at discounts 
of from 30 percent to roughly 60 per- 
cent on some special packages, with 
training and maintenance facilities 
already available. RIT is using some of 
its resouces to offer even larger dis- 
counts (as much as 82 percent) on some 
DEC packages for up to 200 faculty and 
staff members. 

The school is developing an array of 
microcomputer uses in the classroom, 
from increased use of computer graph- 
ics in fine arts courses to a Survey of 
Computer Science course that uses 
computers as the primary mode of in- 
struction. "We are just beginning the in- 
tegration of computers into the class- 
room." says Golden, "but we see an in- 
credible number of possible applica- 
tions in the programs we offer here." 

RIT has extensive timesharing facilities 

that are not yet overcrowded but could 

[text continued on page 166) 



JUNE 1984 • BYTE 165 



EDUCATION SURVEY 



Every building on 
campus, including 
student housing, is 
wired to a digital PBX 
network. 

{text continued from page 165) 
be in the foreseeable future. Golden 
sees the school moving toward expand- 
ing the availability of micros on campus 
to meet the increasing demand for com- 
puting. He adds. "The path into the 
future is students having micros that can 
access larger computers or other micros 
through a network." 

Although RIT is working with DEC on 
a limited Ethernet microcomputer net- 
work; the question of what networking 
scheme it will use for the entire campus 
is still open. Golden says. "There are 
technological issues that haven't been 
resolved .... There still doesn't seem 
to be the degree of compatibility be- 
tween brands of micros that we need. 
The more you want to do. the more dif- 
ficult it is. I've heard it said that the 
smart thing to do in computer networks 
is to wait . . . there's no great advantage 
in being the first." 




RENSSELAER 

POLYTECHNIC 

INSTITUTE 

Troy, New York 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, though 
similar in size and curriculum to Clark- 
son and Stevens, is not yet prepared to 
require students to buy computers, 
though they will be strongly encour- 
aged. So far, few faculty members have 
instructional uses for personal com- 
puters, and the micros on campus are 
being used as intelligent terminals to 
the mainframe, for word processing, a 
little personal research, and games. 



Rensselaer traditionally has offered 
easily accessible and plentiful timeshar- 
ing to students, but administrators feel 
that distributed processing will be the 
direction of the future. 

Jim Moss, director of computer ser- 
vices at RPI. estimates that, of a total 
campus population of 6000. one thou- 
sand students already have personal 
computers. But until computers are an 
integral part of the instructional pro- 
gram, he says, and until a network is in 
place, Rensselaer will not require 
students to buy them. For now. there 
are two public microcomputer sites on 
campus to which students have free ac- 
cess. Every building on campus, includ- 
ing student housing, is wired to a digital 
PBX network, so that students with 
micros can access the campus main- 
frames or minis and eventually will be 
able to communicate micro to micro. 

Moss stresses that an electronic infor- 
mation environment, not just a comput- 
ing environment, will be important in 
the next decade. In the past, he says, 
the bulk of computing was geared to 
problem solving and calculations. Now 
the electronic movement and control of 
information is central, in the form of 
electronic mail, word processing, on-line 
libraries, and communication among 
faculty and students. 

For several years, RPI has provided a 
unique scholarship program: 20 stu- 
dents a year are awarded a microcom- 
puter in addition to their stipend. In a 
two-year study, psychologist Linnda 
Caporael has compared these students 
to a group who brought their own 
micros to college and to students with 
similar academic talents but without 
computers. 

"There is this idea that computers are 
going to turn people into hackers or 
social isolates," Caporael says. "I was 
hardly prepared for the extent to which 
computer use was a social activity. Half 
of the students in our study reported 
that having a computer helped them to 
make friends. Most of the information 
students get about computers comes 
from people— nobody likes to read 
manuals, so they get information from 
each other. At RPI we have a microcom- 
puter facility in a dormitory, which is 
damned inconvenient for faculty and 
staff, but great for students. I know stu- 
dents who own computers that go down 
there, because they've got a burning 



question and they know they can find 
somebody there to answer it." 

So far. according to Caporael. stu- 
dents are using computers to replace 
typewriters and calculators. "There's not 
so much of what we call emergent use.' 
things the computer makes possible 
that wouldn't be happening otherwise. 
I think that will change over time. The 
niche for computing in education is 
there, but the software and applications 
just aren't there yet." 




CASE WESTERN 
RESERVE 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Case Western Reserve studied and re- 
jected the idea of a computer for every 
student, at least for the present. Instead, 
DEC Pro 3 50s in a computer laboratory 
and in clusters around campus serve 
many of the students' computing needs. 
Case's mainframe had been overbur- 
dened and due for expansion until the 
microcomputers distributed some of 
the load. 

Freshman and sophomore computing 
students are the computer lab's primary 
users. Upperclassmen tend to outgrow 
the microcomputers and move on to 
the mainframe, according to Case vice- 
president Don Schuele. That, he says, is 
the trouble with requiring students to 
buy microcomputers. Schuele believes 
that the school should provide the facil- 
ities necessary for an education, but if 
a student w ants the comfort and privi- 
lege of a personal machine, the school 
will make it easy to get one. 

Case has found the computer lab to 
be cost-effective. Within two and a half 
years, the savings in time bought from 
the mainframe will cover the entire cost 
of the lab. "Three years down the road, 
if it turns out that the 3 50s are not right 
for us, we can sell them and buy new 
machines. It won't have cost us a penny," 
says Schuele. 

{text continued on page 1 70) 



166 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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JUNE 1984 -BYTE 167 



MAM 






INCOMPLETE WORKS 
OF INFOCOM, INC. 



Incomplete, yes. But it's not just 
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EDUCATION SURVEY 



[tat continued from page 166) 




STANFORD 
UNIVERSITY 

Palo Alto, California 

Stanford University may well provide a 
model for microcomputer programs in 
the heterogeneous environments of 
large universities. No single microcom- 
puter could meet the needs of all Stan- 
ford faculty, staff, and students, and no 
program to impose a single standard 
across the campus could ever be suc- 
cessful. Yet. if the proliferation of per- 
sonal computers on campus were ig- 
nored, the result would be chaos. Stan- 
ford's approach is a kind of guided 
evolution, using the university's re- 
sources to encourage ordered develop- 
ment. 

"Standardization and control aren't 
the style of the institution," says Michael 
Carter, director of instruction and re- 
search information systems (IRIS). "Our 
solution to the problem is to be flexi- 
ble and adaptable in getting all of those 



devices to be useful in the same 
environment." 

The idea is to focus attention on a few 
microcomputer systems by providing 
discounts, training, maintenance sup- 
port, and software development. "We 
want to focus the rather diffused en- 
thusiasm on the campus for a wide 
range of products. What we're trying to 
do is select vendors and products that 
we think would be particularly useful in 
our academic and administrative com- 
puting environment, and then make 
them available to people," says Carter. 

Through a program called Microdisk, 
Stanford will sell, service, and maintain 
microcomputers for faculty, staff, and 
students. So far. Microdisk has a con- 
tract with Apple and is negotiating with 
DEC, Hewlett-Packard, and IBM for 
equipment at academic discounts. 
Microdisk will offer a lab where pro- 
spective buyers can try hardware and 
software as well as consultants who will 
assure that they make informed pur- 
chases. 

Carter intends to let the needs of the 
Stanford community guide the develop- 
ment of the microcomputer program. 
Questions that users ask through Micro- 
disk are one source of information. 
"Our strategy is to learn as much as we 
can about where people want to go with 
their computing by providing support 
to questions." he explains. Experiments 
that get microcomputers to students 



and faculty, such as instructional and 
demonstration labs or the Tiro project 
(in which 150 humanities professors 
received IBM PCs) are a comparatively 
inexpensive way to find out what works 
and what doesn't. 

All Stanford students will have access 
to microcomputers whether they 
choose to buy them through Microdisk 
or not. Clusters of the more popular 
computers will be distributed around 
campus for public use. Stanford plans 
a combination of broadband and base- 
band networking for voice, video, and 
digital links to all academic buildings, in- 
cluding student residences. 

Faculty members will be encouraged 
to develop instructional software for the 
approved machines. IRIS will provide 
development hardware, professional 
and student programmers, and consult- 
ing to faculty software developers- 
provided they write software for ma- 
chines widely available to students, 
through Microdisk or in the public 
clusters. 

"What we're trying to do is enhance 
academic achievement by applying 
computer technology. Our best bet is to 
try to focus it a little here, nudge it a 
little there, lead a little bit over here. 
With so many really smart faculty mem- 
bers out there. I want to give them 
enough devices so that they know ex- 
actly what they want to do. and then fol- 
[text continued on page 172) 




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Circle 128 on inquiry card. 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 171 



EDUCATION SURVEY 



[text continued from page 170) 
low them, rather than control the way 
they use computers. The trick really is 
to remove the obstacles so that those 
people can lead the way." 




UNIVERSITY OF 
MICHIGAN 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

"We are putting tools in students' hands 
that before were available only to 
teachers and scholars." says Karl Zinn of 
the University of Michigan. "With 
modeling or simulation tools, students 
can do more thorough research than 
scholars used to be able to do with 
graduate assistants cranking things out 
by hand. Students now have the re- 
sources to do more original and 
creative work." 

The first segment of the University of 
Michigan to implement an extensive 
microcomputer program is the College 
of Engineering, with its Computer-Aided 
Engineering Network (CAEN). Associate 
dean Daniel Atkins says, "We are build- 
ing what we see as the absolutely essen- 
tial computing environment, highly dis- 
tributed, with networks connecting 
everything." Apple Lisas and Macin- 
toshes, IBM PC XTS. and Apollo Engi- 



neering Workstations are distributed in 
"open computing clusters" across cam- 
pus. Engineering students pay a usage 
fee of $100 per term. 

"We are on a schedule that will essen- 
tially equip all our faculty, staff, and 
students with the appropriate worksta- 
tion within a couple of years," says 
Atkins. There will be computers in re- 
search labs and in every faculty mem- 
ber's office, as well as a computer on 
every desk in some classrooms. CAEN 
is working with housing administrators 
to get computer clusters into 
dormitories. 

So far, there is no plan to issue com- 
puters to individual students, though 
that may happen later. Students are free 
to buy personal computers, of course, 
and as a member of Apple's University 
Consortium, the school provides Macin- 
tosh computers at about half the retail 
price. "We're not sure how many of our 
students will buy Macintoshes." says 
Atkins. "Macintosh is still not a power- 
ful enough machine for all the needs 
that engineering students have, but it is 
beginning to get very interesting." 

Microcomputer clusters will be con- 
nected to the university network, 
UMnet. to allow access to a variety of 
mainframes and to permit file transfer 
for storage on mainframes. Eventually, 
UMnet will have connections in every 
dormitory room for personal com- 
puters, adequate dial-up capabilities for 
off-campus users, and archival storage 
for the entire network. 

How will easy access to computing 
change the way students learn? "We are 
saturating the environment with com- 
puters," says Atkins, "and seeing what 



the students do with them. One of our 
criteria is that the machines support 
highly interactive graphics. This is a 
"what if environment for engineers, 
where they can have experience with 
many design iterations using a power- 
ful industrial tool." When students in the 
technical communications course used 
Lisas to produce their papers, instruc- 
tors noticed an enormous increase in 
the use of figures and graphics. 

The key to the success of the pro- 
gram. Atkins says, is in convincing the 
faculty to make routine use of the com- 
puters. CAEN has provided each facul- 
ty member with an office workstation, 
and most professors are also buying 
computers to use at home. The college 
provides release time from teaching 
and student assistants to help an in- 
structor develop applications. There is 
another motivation, according to Atkins: 
"The fact that the students have this en- 
vironment readily available is creating 
pressure on the faculty from below. That 
was quite deliberate." 

The College of Engineering is the test- 
ing ground for microcomputers for the 
rest of the university, and it is sharing 
information with deans of other col- 
leges, the campus computing center, 
and the university's Center for Research 
on Learning and Teaching (CRLT). Atkins 
believes it will not be long before all 
University of Michigan students have 
ready access to personal computers. 

Karl Zinn is heading a program within 
CRLT to introduce students to micro- 
computers, and he is enthusiastic about 
the Macintosh. Humanists react well to 
a screen that looks like a piece of paper. 
(text continued on page 174) 



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JUNE 1984 -BYTE 173 



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EDUCATION SURVEY 



[text continued from page 172) 
he says. A small, transportable machine 
like Macintosh makes an unthreatening 
demonstration possible: you can bring 
the machine to the person, rather than 
bring the person into a special com- 
puter room filled with unfamiliar equip- 
ment. 

Zinn stresses the importance of activ- 
ities that shift the user's focus from the 
machine itself to the process of commu- 
nicating with other people through the 
computer. For several years CRLT has 
helped students and faculty use its com- 
puter-based conferencing software, first 
on the UM timesharing systems, and 
now on microcomputers. Convenient 
access to microcomputers, Zinn says, 
expands personal and academic com- 
munication possibilities. 

"Computer centers are more and 
more going to become information 
centers," says Atkins. "If we end up go- 
ing in the direction of lots of isolated, 
noncommunicating computers, that's 
going to be a step backward. We have 
to build a network that allows access to 
databases, to the technical library, to na- 
tional networks, to electronic communi- 
ties of people doing research together. 
The challenge is not really that of ac- 
quiring lots of personal computers. The 
challenge is integrating them in a dis- 
tributed environment." 



Drexel . 
University 



174 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 2 56 on inquiry card. 



DREXEL UNIVERSITY 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

"Our approach to microcomputing has 
been to enhance undergraduate educa- 
tion. We picked a machine that we felt 
would support that aim. We are not try- 
ing to serve every possible goal that 
computers could serve on an academic 
campus." Brian Hawkins, assistant vice- 
president for academic affairs, feels that 
Macintosh is an ideal tool for Drexel 
students. Half of the university's 
students commute to campus, and 
[text continued on page 176) 

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EDUCATION SURVEY 



[text continued from page 174) 
every term a third of them work in busi- 
ness and industry as part of Drexel's 
cooperative education program. 
Hawkins believes the Macintosh is 
powerful flexible, and portable enough 
to meet their needs. 

As of this spring, all freshmen are re- 
quired to have access to a Macintosh. 
Although most Apple University Con- 
sortium schools will not have large num- 
bers of Macintoshes until fall of this 
year, Drexel received a large shipment 
of them in February. According to Apple 
sources, this commitment was based on 
Drexel's aggressive and well-publicized 
plan to get computers to all students. 

Students can buy the computer from 
the university for $1000, with financing 
from the school if necessary, or they can 
work out independent arrangements. 
Disks and some peripherals will be avail- 
able from the university bookstore at a 
discount. 

A student advisory committee and a 
student-run users' group were in place 
before the computers were distributed 
on campus, running demonstrations 
and tutorials and raising student com- 
plaints and concerns. "We have been 
impressed with Drexel's planning," says 
Steven Weintraut of the Student Micro- 
computers Advisory Committee. "Every 
time we come up with a question, they 
have an answer." 



Drexel freshmen are 
required to have access 
to a microcomputer. 



There are no immediate plans to net- 
work the Macintoshes, partly because 
the student population is so mobile. 
Many will use the computer at home or 
at the job. "I can't hardwire that world," 
says Hawkins. "Certainly we have long- 
term plans for networks to support our 
academic program. Our approach for 
the first two years is based on the stand- 
alone capability of the machine. After 
that, we will network as needed." 

Faculty training has run for more than 
a year to prepare for the onslaught of 
microcomputers. Applications and dem- 
onstrations, some of them designed on 
other computers, will be available im- 
mediately and a software review center 
in the library will enable instructors to 
see what is already available in par- 
ticular fields. 

A fringe benefit of the microcomputer 
program, according to Hawkins, is the 
faculty's renewed interest in teaching 
methods. "Because of the change in 
technology, there seems to be a greater 
willingness to look at the educational 
technology as well as at how to best 
present concepts and ideas." 

Drexel administrators share a concern 
voiced by educators at other schools: 
how will the computer change students' 
lives? Sociology professor Joan McCord 
is beginning a five-year study to mea- 
sure changes in values, attitudes, stress, 
and time use among students and facul- 
ty. "You don't have to have an attitude 
toward the telephone, but you use it 
and it changes the way you approach 
problems. lust as the wide use of tele- 
phones changed lives, habits, and atti- 
tudes, so could the widespread use of 
computers." 




BROWN UNIVERSITY 

Providence, Rhode Island 

Brown University is involved in a $50 
million research and development proj- 
ect with IBM. In a few years, students 
and faculty may be using graphics- 
based, fully networked IBM "scholars' 
workstations" designed at Brown. In the 
meantime, a lab full of Apollo com- 
puters is changing the way students 
learn, and the Macintosh will probably 
be a hit on campus. 

Microcomputers are just beginning 
their incursion into students' lives at 
Brown. There is no overall plan to get 
a computer to every student, but 
Brown's participation in the Apple Uni- 
versity Consortium means that the Mac- 
intosh will be readily available. Bill 
Shipp, director of Brown's Institute for 
Research in Information and Scholar- 
ship, says, "The fact that a student or 
faculty member can have an affordable 
machine makes all the difference in the 
world. The average student will think of 
refrigerators and computers in the same 
thought." 

English professor George Landow be- 
lieves that easy access to computing 
can give liberal arts students some of 
{text continued on page 178) 



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EDUCATION SURVEY 



(text continued from page 176) 
the same research advantages that 
scientists have enjoyed. "With a 
scholar's workstation that could tie in to 
the university, or perhaps someday the 
Library of Congress catalog on line, 
someone doing research at a very so- 
phisticated level could have a great 
many facts immediately available. One 
could teach students in the humanities 
to do the same kind of hands-on re- 
search that has been done for a long 
time in science courses." 

Students in computer science courses 
at Brown are involved in a new sort of 
learning experience, one that may even- 
tually be applied in other disciplines. In 
a lab equipped with 60 Apollo com- 
puters, students can watch dynamic 
graphic simulations of algorithms in 
operation. A typical lecture in this class 
includes a 20-minute "movie" illustrat- 
ing an algorithm. 

According to Bob Sedgwick, who 
teaches the class, more students learn 



advanced material faster with the simu- 
lations. Enrollment in the course is twice 
what it was last year. He found, however, 
that there was a limit to the information 
people could absorb in the visual form. 
"Every once in a while the entire class 
would say 'Stop!' and we'd have to 
freeze everything for about 15 minutes 
to explain what was going on. Eventual- 
ly the students in the class got to accept 
it, though someone coming in from out- 
side would be bewildered." Sedgwick 
looks forward to next year, when he'll 
work with students who already have 
experience with the medium. 

The simulation system may be 
adapted for other computers, including 
the IBM workstation and possibly the 
Macintosh. "There is a question of per- 
formance," Sedgwick says. "I think we 
can do a lot on the Mac, but we can't 
do everything." What's important, says 
Bill Shipp, is to get people in different 
disciplines to think about the ways they 
work and the kinds of tools they use. 




DARTMOUTH COLLEGE 

Hanover, New Hampshire 

Dartmouth has a long tradition of stu- 
dent computing. In the sixties, when the 
school developed its timesharing sys- 
tem, students were the principle users, 
and computing was a service provided 
freely to all. Even before the advent of 
personal computers, 95 percent of stu- 
dents used computers while at Dart- 
mouth. The move toward personal com- 
puters will draw from and build upon 
the timesharing system already in place. 
(text continued on page 181) 



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EDUCATION SURVEY 



{text continued from page 178) 

Entering freshmen will be required to 
buy Macintoshes this September. "A 
personal computer will be one of the 
tools of the trade that every student has. 
like a textbook," says William Arms, vice- 
provost for computing and planning. 
Students can pay for their computers 
over time, as with any student cost, and 
financial aid will take the cost of the 
computers into account. 

Macintoshes will be used both as free- 
standing computers and as terminals to 
the timesharing system. Arms says. 
Word and graphics processing, selected 
applications, and BASIC are the first 
priorities for the Macintosh as a stand- 
alone computer. For electronic mail, lib- 
rary access, and large programs, the 
Mac will serve as a terminal to the 
school's larger computers. 

Although BASIC was developed at 
Dartmouth. Arms says that the com- 
paratively crude versions of the lan- 
guage currently available are an embar- 
rassment to the school. BASIC'S original 
authors, ]ohn Kemeny and Tom Kurtz. 
have promised that a modern version 
will be available for the Macintosh by 
fall. 

The high-speed communications net- 
work already in place at Dartmouth will 
be extended to all student dormitory 
rooms by September. Outlets in dorm 
rooms will link students' Macintoshes to 
each other, to computers in depart- 
ments and administrative offices, and to 
the mainframes in the Kiewit Computa- 
tion Center. 

"The key to all of this is the faculty," 
says Arms. Many faculty members are 
already involved in software develop- 
ment, funded by a grant from the Sloan 
Foundation. When the Dean of Arts and 
Sciences surveyed the Dartmouth 
faculty, he found that a third had plans 
to use the computers in their courses 
within a year. The interested faculty 
were evenly distributed among the 
humanities, sciences, and social 
sciences divisions. 

Many of the initial proposals for soft- 
ware development are based on 
materials already available on the time- 
sharing system. Conversion projects in 
mathematics, writing, philosophy, art. 
social science, literature, psychology, 
music, and physical sciences are well 
under way. Every faculty member who 
{text continued on page 182) 



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181 



EDUCATION SURVEY 



{text continued from page 181) 
expects to do curriculum work will have 
a Macintosh or a Lisa, some of which 
have been donated by Apple. Software 
developed at Dartmouth will be shared 
with other universities through the 
Apple University Consortium and the 
Sloan Foundation. 

"We have a very simple ambition," 
Arms says, 'and that is to be an out- 
standingly good liberal arts university. 
I would hate to see computing seen as 
something special, rather than simply as 
a good tool." 




REED COLLEGE 

Portland, Oregon 

Reed is the smallest member of Apple's 
University Consortium. A college with a 
reputation for rigid academic standards, 
it may serve as a proving ground for the 
impact of large numbers of microcom- 
puters on a student population. 

Reed will provide Macintoshes to the 
academic community without cost to 
students. This is to be accomplished 
through donations from friends of the 
college and corporations. No one, how- 
ever, will be required to use the com- 
puter. Richard Crandall, chairman of the 
Technical Resource Committee, says, "If 



a student finds a personal computer 
conducive to thinking, then it is wel- 
come. If the personal computer is 
forced, it may not be welcome. If a 
liberal arts education is going to mean 
anything, it has to be supported with ac- 
cess, but not requirement." 

In August of 1983. Reed published a 
five-year master plan for computing re- 
sources, covering the microcomputers, 
new mainframe and mid-sized com- 
puters, development of the Computer 
Center, and establishment of an Infor- 
mation Resource Center. The Informa- 
tion Resource Center will be a central 
location for printing facilities and graph- 
ics terminals. It will also be a place 
where people can meet to discuss their 
computer problems and techniques. 
"This should reduce some of the isola- 
tion that might be caused by many in- 
dependent terminals." says Crandall. 

The first Macintoshes that arrive at 
Reed will go to the Information Re- 
source Center. After that, faculty mem- 
bers will get computers, then depart- 
ment and division support staff. Library 
workstations are the next priority and 
individual allocations for students are 
last on the list. 

Reed plans an icon-oriented network, 
which will link all the campus com- 
puters, from the mainframe to the inte- 
grated system level, to the Macintoshes. 
According to Crandall, "The Macintosh 
is ideal for this kind of network, because 
it's possible for an individual to visualize 
the entire Reed campus, academically 
and geographically." He adds. "Macin- 
tosh has many of the features we would 
have designed in if we had specified an 
academic computer." 




DALLAS BAPTIST 
COLLEGE 

Dallas, Texas 

Dallas Baptist College is a small school, 
with only 1300 students. Dallas Baptist's 
microcomputer is small, too: in the fall 
of 1983 incoming freshmen were re- 
quired to buy Radio Shack Model 100 
portable computers. 

The scope of the project at Dallas 
Baptist is certainly not small, however. 
The computers are used throughout the 
curriculum; in any freshman class, at 
least three assignments per term must 
make use of the computer. 

Word processing is a primary concern 
at Dallas Baptist, according to Bill Moos, 
assistant professor of computer science. 
Students will have the opportunity to 
write more and will therefore learn to 
communicate better, he says. The word 
processor bundled with the Model 100. 
supplemented with third-party and in- 
house software, is adequate for 
students' needs, Moos says. 

Computer literacy classes have been 
required at Dallas Baptist since 1982. 
Now that students have portable com- 
puters, introductory computer literacy 
is a hands-on course. Everyone learns 
{text continued on page 184) 




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EDUCATION SURVEY 



{text continued from page 182) 
at least the rudiments of BASIC pro- 
gramming, and the more advanced 
BASIC course, though not required, is 
well attended. 

The goal of the microcomputer pro- 
gram is to produce students who will 
have a competitive advantage in busi- 
ness and industry, both because they 
will be familiar with computers and 
because they will be more experienced 
communicators. "We wanted a general 
support tool so that students can in- 
crease their overall productivity," said 
Moos. "This is not just something more 
to learn. We feel our students will have 
a head start in business." 




DREW COLLEGE OF 
LIBERAL ARTS 

Madison, New ]ersey 

The head of Drew's computer initiative, 
Richard Detweiler, is a psychology pro- 
fessor. Why a psychologist? "We are not 
doing something for computer scien- 
tists, or even for people who are inter- 
ested in computers," Detweiler says. "We 
are doing something which is important 
for people in today's world." 

Detweiler sees two purposes for intro- 
ducing the computer: to enhance edu- 
cation in the short term and to prepare 
students for the computer-driven world 
they will face when they graduate. "If 
students are to function successfully 
and make a contribution to the society 
in which they live, the ability to use the 
microcomputer or computers in general 
as tools, as problem solvers in an every- 
day way, is absolutely crucial. The only 
way to accomplish that is through a per- 

Drew will issue 
Epson QXAOs to 
freshmen matriculating 
this fall. 



The Apple University Consortium 



By the end of 1984, twenty-three Ameri- 
can universities will have bought 50,000 
Macintosh computers for faculty, 
students, and staff. As members of the 
Apple University Consortium, these 
schools will get a big price break on the 
machines— students will pay about $1000 
(plus tax) for a Macintosh at most Con- 
sortium schools. 

One of the program's goals, according 
to Steve Jobs, chairman of the board of 
Apple, is to "help Apple discover new ap- 
plications for its products." Software will 
be shared among Consortium members. 
"There will be a consortial spirit." says 
Drexel's Brian Hawkins. Consortium mem- 
bers, however, are not bound by contract 
to license to Apple the software they 
develop. In fact, some universities are 
planning to market their proprietary soft- 
ware and are beginning to consider in- 
house and third-party development 
schemes. 

Most schools will have a full compli- 
ment of Macintoshes by September. For 
now, many colleges have enough ma- 
chines for demonstrations and software 
development, but not enough to pass out 
to students. The exception is Drexel 
University (see page 174). where students 
received their computers in February and 
began using them for classwork with the 
spring term. 

Apple's retail dealers in university towns 



have mixed reactions to the plan. They 
cannot match the Consortium's discount, 
and many feel they are losing business 
to the schools. Some retailers, however, 
see the program as a way to open pre- 
viously untapped markets. In Provo. Utah. 
Brigham Young University has taken steps 
to protect the local dealers. Each student 
who buys a Mac signs over to the univer- 
sity the right to buy the computer if the 
student sells it within five years. "We are 
a small community, and we must be sen- 
sitive to dealers' needs," says BYU's Lynn 
McClurg. 

No doubt a black market in Macin- 
toshes will flourish for a time in many 
university towns. Already, ads are show- 
ing up in local papers, offering students 
a quick profit on the machines. Some will 
regret selling the computer, though. No 
school will sell more than one to a stu- 
dent, and. according to Hawkins. "A stu- 
dent who sells his or her Macintosh is 
committing academic suicide." 

Apple University Consortium members are Boston 
College, Brigham Young. Brown. Carnegie- 
Mellon. City University of New York. Columbia. 
Cornell, Dartmouth. Drexel. Harvard. North- 
western. Princeton. Reed. Rice. Stanford. Univer- 
sity of Chicago, University of Michigan. Univer- 
sity of Notre Dame, University of Pennsylvania. 
University of Rochester. University of Utah. 
University of "Washington, and Yale. 



sonal ownership kind of approach." 

Drew will issue an Epson QX-10 with 
a 16-bit 8088 coprocessor to each fresh- 
man matriculating this fall. Rather than 
charge students directly for the equip- 
ment, however. Drew will allocate funds 
from tuition to the project over the next 
several years. Students will take the ma- 
chines with them when they graduate. 
Any faculty member who wants a 
computer can have one, and much of 
the administrative staff will be using the 
Epson. Current students can buy an Ep- 
son at a Drew-supported discount or 
use the computers that will be scattered 
across campus in public clusters. 

Drew settled on the Epson QX-10 after 
considering many other machines, in- 
cluding the Macintosh. "We decided 
against the Macintosh because of its 
proprietary operating system and the 
fact that it would lock us in to Macin- 
tosh and Macintosh descendants. We 
did not want to be tied to a specific ma- 



chine for the future," says Detweiler, He 
believes that the large body of pub- 
lic-domain software available for MS- 
DOS and CP/M will be an advantage to 
students. 

By September, when freshmen begin 
using their computers, software will be 
in place for introductory courses 
throughout the academic disciplines. 
Word processing will be a built-in part 
of freshman writing courses, so faculty 
can demand refinements and rewriting 
wherever necessary. Detweiler believes 
that students can absorb the routine 
parts of learning, such as names and 
dates in history or vocabulary in foreign 
languages, through computer drills out- 
side of class, freeing class time for 
higher-level learning. 

"We are a liberal arts institution," says 
Detweiler. "and we believe that for 
people to be liberally educated they 
need to know how to use the computer 
as a tool." ■ 



184 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



See Software. 

Dick is a programmer. Dick is bored. Harried. Dick strug- 
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documentation. Hidden bugs. So Dick is four months 
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THEME 



PROGRAMMING 
BY REHEARSAL 

by William Finzer and Laura Gould 



An environment for developing 
educational software 



PROGRAMMING BY REHEARSAL is a 
visual programming environment that 
nonprogrammers can use to create 
educational software. It combines many 
of the qualities of computer-based 
design environments with the full power 
of a programming language. The em- 
phasis in this graphical environment is 
on programming visually; only things 
that can be seen can be manipulated. 
The design and programming process 
consists of moving "performers" around 
on "stages" and teaching them how to 
interact by sending "cues" to one 
another. The system relies almost com- 
pletely on interactive graphics and 
allows designers to react immediately 
to their emerging products by showing 
them, at all stages of development, ex- 
actly what their potential users will see. 

The process is quick, easy, and enjoy- 
able; a simple program may be con- 
structed in less than half an hour. The 
beginning set of 18 primitive per- 
formers, each of which responds to 
about 70 cues, can be extended as the 
designers create new composite per- 
formers and teach them new cues. 

We were motivated to undertake this 
project by our desire to give program- 
ming power to those who understand 
how people learn; we wanted to elimi- 
nate the need for programmers in the 
design of educational software. Pro- 
gramming by Rehearsal is implemented 



in the Smalltalk-80 programming en- 
vironment and runs on a large, fast, per- 
sonal machine: the Xerox 1132 Scienti- 
fic Information Processor (the Dorado). 

Computers and Intuition 

In the spring of 1980 our attention was 
focused on a topic we called Computers 
and Intuition. It seemed to us that newly 
available, high-resolution computer im- 
ages, combined with interactive control 
over these images, constituted a new 
medium for the presentation of informa- 
tion and concepts. We were particular- 
ly concerned with the implications that 
this interactive computer graphics 
medium might have for education. 

We were also thinking about how par- 
adoxical it was that the computer was 
often viewed as an engine for improv- 
ing cognitive and analytical skills, while 
it might turn out that because of its 

William Finzer is a consultant with the System 
Concepts laboratory at the Xerox Palo Alto 
Research Center and an instructor and cur- 
riculum developer in the mathematics department 
at San Francisco State University (1600 
Holloway, San Francisco, CA 94132). 

Laura Gould has been a member of the Small- 
talk group at the Xerox Palo Alto Research 
Center for the past seven years. She is now Na- 
tional Secretary of Computer Professionals for 
Social Responsibility (POB 717. Palo Alto. CA 
94301). 



superlative dynamic graphics, its main 
new contribution to education might be 
in the enhancement of nonanalytical, in- 
tuitive thought. 

Such ideas were certainly not new. 
Even 1 5 years ago. a few farseeing peo- 
ple proposed that computer graphics 
would have a profound effect on human 
learning. As Brown and Lewis wrote in 
1 968. "In the same way that books sup- 
port man's linear and verbal thinking, 
machines will support his graphic and 
intuitive thought processes." (See refer- 
ence 1.) Similarly, in 1 969 Tbny Oettinger 
wrote "Computers are capable of pro- 
foundly affecting science by stretching 
human reason and intuition, much as 
telescopes or microscopes extend 
human vision." (See reference 2.) It 
seemed that now we had both the soft- 
ware and hardware to realize these 
visions. 

From these ruminations grew the de- 
sign and implementation of a system 
called TRIP, which attempted to give 
students an intuitive understanding of 
algebra word problems through the ma- 
nipulation of high-resolution pictures. 
(See reference 3.) TRIP, implemented in 
the Smalltalk-76 system (see reference 
4) on research hardware, a Xerox Alto, 
took about two months to design and 
four months to implement. It was struc- 
tured in the form of a kit so that 
(text continued on page 188) 



JUNE 1984 'BYTE 187 



REHEARSAL 



\n the Rehearsal 
World, only things 
that can be seen 
can be manipulated 



[text continued from page 187) 
teachers could add new time-rate-dis- 
tance proble m s fairly easily; it included 
a diagram checker, an animation pack- 
age, an expression evaluator, and an ex- 
tensive help system. Members of the 
computing profession were impressed 
that we were able to bring to life such 
a complex, general, graphical, yet 
robust and helpful system in such a 
short time. Educators, however, were 
usually aghast that so much time and 
effort were needed to produce a single 
system and that the result was. in their 
view, so limited. 

After we had pilot-tested TRIP and 
were thinking about what project to take 
on next, we realized that our interest 
had shifted up one level, from the ac- 
tual design of educational software to 
the design of a "design environment" 
for educators. As our colleagues were 
busy building .the Smalltalk-80 environ- 
ment (see references 5, 6, 7, and 8). we 
undertook the task of extending and 
reifying that environment to allow cur- 
riculum designers who did not program 
to implement their own creative ideas. 

Designer Control 

The work described here is based on 
the belief that it should be possible to 
place the control of interactive com- 
puter graphics in the hands of creative 
curriculum designers, those with an 
understanding of the power of such sys- 
tems but not necessarily with the abil- 
ity or willingness to write the complex 
programs that are necessary to control 
the systems. 

Design and implementation constitute 
two phases of a feedback loop. In most 
design situations, in which program- 
ming is a separate and specialized skill, 
the designer must somehow convey em- 
bryonic ideas to a programmer, perhaps 
by sketching on paper or talking. Then 
the programmer goes away to write a 
program so that something shows on 
the screen to which the designer can 
respond. This process introduces inter- 



ruption, distortion, and delay of creative 
design. 

In the creation of educational soft- 
ware it is particularly important that the 
design decisions be made by someone 
who understands how students learn 
and what they enjoy rather than by 
someone whose expertise is in how 
computers work. Too much of the edu- 
cational software we see today has a lot 
of fancy graphics but little real learning 
content. We hope that if educators have 
more direct control of the computer, 
they will create high-quality software. 

In the environment we describe here, 
the designer begins by sketching the 
description, not in words or on paper, 
but directly on the computer screen. 
This sketching is not free-form but is 
done with the aid of specially provided 
graphical entities. If the designer's ideas 
are rather vague, the process of sketch- 
ing may help to define them; if the ideas 
are well defined, they can be quickly ac- 
cepted, rejected, or improved. In either 
case, nothing is lost in the translation 
process, as the only intermediary be- 
tween the designer and the product is 
a helpful, graphical computer system 
that gives immediate response. Since 
there is no waiting, the designer is in- 
volved in a collaborative, creative pro- 
cess in which there is minimal invest- 
ment in the current production; thus a 
poor production can be rejected quickly 
and easily, and a good one pursued and 
improved. 

The Rehearsal Metaphor 

A large, supportive design environment 
needs a potent metaphor in which the 
unfamiliar concepts of programming will 
have familiar, real-world referents. Our 
goal was that the metaphor would serve 
as a guide to the designers without get- 
ting in their way. 

Smalltalk is an object-oriented lan- 
guage. This means that all the basic ele- 
ments of programming— strings, num- 
bers, complex data structures, control 
structures, and procedures them- 
selves—are treated as objects. Objects 
interact with other objects by sending 
messages. Logo is an example of a pro- 
gramming language with one object, a 
llirtle. which can be sent a limited num- 
ber of messages such as FORWARD 20. 
Smalltalk has many kinds of objects that 
respond to a wide variety of messages. 

Our immersion in Smalltalk led us to 



extend the object-message metaphor to 
a theater metaphor in which the basic 
components of a production are per- 
formers; these performers interact with 
one another on a stage by sending cues. 
We call the design environment the 
Rehearsal World and the process of 
creating a production Programming by 
Rehearsal'. 

Everything in the Rehearsal World is 
visible; there are no abstractions and 
only things that can be seen can be ma- 
nipulated. Almost all of the designer's 
interactions with the Rehearsal World 
are through the selection (with a mouse) 
of some performer or of some cue to 
a performer. Assuming that a designer 
has the germ of an idea, the creation 
of a Rehearsal World production 
involves: 

• Auditioning the available per- 
formers by selecting their cues and 
observing their responses to deter- 
mine which are appropriate for the 
planned production. If a production 
involves getting the student to write 
stories using pictures, the designer 
might choose a text performer and 
a picture performer because the 
former responds to the cues setText: 
and readFrornKeyboard and the latter 
responds to growBy: and folloytThe- 
Mouse. 

• Copying the chosen performers 
and placing them on a stage. 

• Blocking the production by resiz- 
ing and moving the performers until 
they are the desired size and in the 
desired place. 

• Rehearsing the production by 
showing each performer what ac- 
tions it should take in response 
either to student (user) input or to 
cues sent by other performers. 

• Storing the production away for 
later retrieval. 

A SCENARIO 

Static words and pictures on paper are 
a poor substitute for direct experience 
with a dynamic, interactive, computer 
design environment. Nevertheless, we 
shall try to give the flavor of what it is 
like to use the Rehearsal World through 
a simple scenario involving two novice 
designers. Laura and Bill. Suppose that 
these designers are interested in lan- 
guage curriculum and would like to 
[text continued on page 1 90) 



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REHEARSAL 



STAGES 



Whenever you want information about anything on the screen, please point at it and press 
the middle mouse button (this is called the NAME button). The name of that entity will then 
appeal and will follow your mouse until you press any mouse button. If you drop the name 
on either this prompter's box or on the HELP button below, the entity will describe itself. 



HELP 



. 



RESHOW 



CLEAR 



PRINT 



,-.:., ,,■:;., . . ■..':.;/:;.::;; . , . , '. 



QUIT 



Figure I: The control panel and the prompter's box. showing an initial help message. The icon in the corner is an eraser. 



(text continued from page 1 88) 
make some sort of word game. We'll fol- 
low their efforts, skimming over many 
of the details of their interactions with 
the Rehearsal World, with an eye to 
understanding some of the design deci- 
sions of Programming by Rehearsal 
itself. Although one person can manage 
both mouse and keyboard quite well, 
we'll assume that Laura is in charge of 
the mouse and Bill is typing on the key- 
board. In what follows, the paragraphs 
describing the action of the designers 
have been italicized. 

Bill and Laura know from their brief 
introduction to the Rehearsal World that 
all of the performers are clustered 
together in troupes waiting to be audi- 
tioned for parts in a production. They 
know also that the Rehearsal World in- 
cludes a help facility that gives 
assistance and descriptive information 
about how to proceed. 

Laura starts by selecting the HELP 
button from the control panel at the 
bottom of the screen (see figure J). 
Selection of the HELP button causes the 
"prompter's box" to fill immediately 
with "procedural help" suggesting 
something that the designers might 
want to do next. When they select HELP 
initially, the procedural help message 
that appears explains that they can 
always obtain "descriptive help" about 
anything that they can see on the 
screen. 

The fact that everything that can be 
seen is capable of self-description is an 
important component of the Rehearsal 
World and one that makes it accessible 
to nonprogrammers. 

When they ask for descriptive help 
about the STAGES button, they learn 
that if they select the STAGES button, 
they will get a menu of troupes and pro- 
ductions. Laura selects the STAGES but- 
ton which presents her with a menu of 
troupes and productions (see figure 2). 



She finds a Text performer in the Basic 
Troupe that she wants to audition to 
learn what it can do. Laura starts by ask- 
ing it to describe itself and is told by the 
help system that if she selects the Tbxt 
performer, she can edit the text that it 
displays. This editing is the default ac- 
tion of the T^xt performer. Laura and Bill 
spend a minute becoming familiar with 
the simple editor that the T£xt per- 
former provides. 

The Rehearsal World uses a three- 
button mouse for pointing at things on 
the screen. The SELECT mouse button 
causes a performer to execute its de- 
fault action. The NAME button always 
causes the name of the entity to appear 
at the cursor point; if this name is 



dropped in the prompter's box. a de- 
scription of the entity appears. Finally, 
the MENU button raises a pop-up menu 
for the performer, enabling the designer 
to send cues to it. In interacting with a 
finished production, only the SELECT 
button is used; that is. the NAME and 
MENU buttons are not needed by the 
student user. 

Laura uses the MENU mouse button 
to see the category menu for the Text 
performer (see figure 3). Certain com- 
monly used cues are at the top of this 
menu in lowercase, while others are 
grouped under categories in upper- 
case. Most of the cues and categories 
are shared by all performers. Only the 
[text continued on page 192) 



* 
* 



PROGRAMMING BY REHEARSAL 





^lojCJ- 


Ar.En.ny~-i.il t e 


B«K Troup* 


C-or.tfdTioup* 


De til; Troup* 


CSrsphLC; Troupe 


Tu«*T«U|» 


'."ak!lLa!..ir 


.3totw 


•ioldf.Uif. 


KlWjf&i. 


JoySuiu,-/ 


MoonEunny 


Kawuxl, 


ThWifcj 



EL 



hello 

\ i oooooo 



=^) , 



rr= 



1 I 10 I r,u,..yl,. 

start : stop | 

1 

'J I 
index 



1 
step 



true 



'■ 



TJggTroupeM 



tea 



"H ' I 



9 :45 

twenty -five past eleven 



Q 



17 ; 46 ; 21 

! 



STAGES 



The BukTk.uk Ojiii-Jiu; Hie Hire* p«rli>r.»er/ ihai arc mo-i imiueiiUy i.erdeJ. The m;i is r 
Te^t perform*! wlin.li ti u:*J «> *l,ow jiiJ inAiii|iulaic iuiii.j, it's useful for IteaJLiik- a well 
u Va msfcut] »<i bureau on ihe Kreeri thai the user on pre:-. There a d:& » Number 
performer which cmi .<>'• ariiluueric, sitd a Cocm'tr performer which en be formatted wi'h 

IrjuJlI.i ;rrutrj Mi J CM i lilSJitpn I j!t Ujiei frCiiii 1 K< It. 



HELP 



RESHOW 



CLEAR 



PRINT 



QUIT 



* * 



* 
* 
* 

* 

* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 



Figure 2: The entire Rehearsal World theater, showing the STAGES menu at the left, all 
the available Troupes, and a descriptive help message about the BasicTroupe. 



190 BYTE • IUNE 1984 








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REHEARSAL 




move 


! 


resize 


i 


copy 




erase 


) 


cleanup 


: 
i 


MAME&TITLE 


FONTS 




FORMAT 




DISPLAY 




SIDES 




POINTS 




TEST 




LIST 




ACTION 




BOTTOM 




SET 




ADD 


■"■ : 1 


REMOVE 


i 


REPLACE 


j 


ACCESS 


I 


CHARACTERS 




EVALUATE 




DICTIONARY 






" ] 



Figure 3: A Basiflroupe, containing a 
Text, a Number and a Counter, and a 
category menu for the Text performer. 

(text continued from page 1 90) 

categories at the bottom of the menu 
(in bold) are particular to the Tbxt 
performer. 

In its current prototype form, the 
Rehearsal World contains 18 primitive 
performers, each of which responds to 
a standard set of 53 cues and an 
average of 1 5 cues particular to that 
performer. Tb understand what this 
means, imagine a BASIC with a thou- 
sand reserved words. This complexity 
would be intolerable without a hierar- 
chical organization and a simple way for 
the designer to browse that organiza- 
tion. The Smalltalk-80 system provides 
a window, called a Browser (see figure 
4). whose visual structure reflects the 
hierarchical organization of the objects 
and methods in the system. In the Re- 
hearsal World, functionality is organized 
around performers grouped together 
into troupes; the cues that each per- 
former understands are grouped into 
categories. The result is that designers 
never have to scan too much informa- 
tion at a time, and. because each level 
in the hierarchy has a different screen 
appearance, they never lose track of 
where they are in that hierarchy. 

Our novice designers proceed to re- 
hearse the T£xt performer by sending 
it various cues. Laura tries move and resize 
and gets a pleasant surprise when the 
fonts change so that the text always fits 
within the performer's borders. She sel- 
ects the SET category and gets a cue 
sheet showing the list of cues that have 



to do with setting text (see figure 5). 
Some cues, likesetText:, take parameters 
that are indicated by parameter lines 
next to the cue. They use the help sys- 
tem to discover that they can type any 
string as a parameter to the setTexf. cue. 
Bill types 'goodbye' on the parameter 
line. When Laura selects the cue, ''good- 
bye" appears in the T^xt performer. 

They discover through rehearsal that 
the setjumbled cue produces a random 
permutation of the characters in the 
text. They enjoy looking at the different 
bizarre configurations that jumbling a 
word can produce and decide to ex- 
plore no more, but to make a jumble 
game as their first design exercise. As 
often happens, interaction with the de- 
sign environment itself leads to a 
creative idea. 

One would not expect jumbling of text 
to be a basic capability of a program- 
ming language. A programmer who en- 
countered a need for such a function 
would expect to write a simple routine. 
In a design environment, however, we 
expect to find a great deal of high-level 
functionality, chosen with care by the 
implementors of the environment, so 
that the designer's attention is not 
diverted from the design task itself. 

Laura and Bill's initial idea for their 
simple production is to use two Itext 
performers, one to be placed above the 



other on the stage. The top Ttext is to 
contain the word to be jumbled and the 
bottom one is to act as a soft button (a 
button on the screen which, when the 
student selects it with the mouse, 
causes something to occur). In this case 
its action will be to cause the jumbling 
of the top Itextfsee figure 6). Laura uses 
the copy cue to put a Tsxt performer on 
an empty stage. 

Any existing performer can be copied. 
Thus each performer acts as a pro- 
totype from which other performers can 
be generated; each new copy will have 
exactly the same characteristics as its 
prototype. 

Laura and Bill use the resize cue to 
make the Tbxt performer fill most of the 
top half of the stage, and then they copy 
it to make a second T£xt performer 
(exactly the same size as the first) in the 
bottom half of the stage. Bill types the 
word JUMBLE into it as this is what they 
want the user to see. With the blocking 
thus completed, they decide to give 
each of their performers a mnemonic 
name that describes its purpose; they 
call the performers JumbledWord and 
JumbleButton. Now they are ready to 
define the action of the bottom Tbxt, 
which they want to act as a button. 

Any performer can become a button. 

By turning a performer into a button. 

[text continued on page 194) 




Rehearsal -Help 
Rehearsal -Controllers 
Rehearsal -Buttons 
Rehearsal -Clocks 

Rehearsal -Control 

Rehearsal-Kernel 

Rehearsal-Troupes 

Rehearsal-Stages 

PerforrnerWorkshop 

Kernel-Objects 



Circle Vie w 
Picture 

PictureBoxView 
PictureController 

Position 
Position View 
RectangleView 



BlilliM 



cla 



initialize & release & u] 

displaying 

transformation 

■accessing 

points 

copying 

Clearing 

GET & STORE 

AL'WvK 



MOVE 



magnifyX:andY: 
reflectOnAxis: 



rotate By: 



reverse 



realForm reverse. 
displayForm reverse, 
self displayNewPicture, 
self changed 




Figure 4: A Smalltalk browser showing the Rehearsal-Graphics category, the Picture- 
View class, its ALTER category, the message named reverse from that category, and the 
method associated with that message. 



192 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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I 






-Text- SET 



* .setText:- w 'goodbye', 



* setTextFromKeyboaid 
w setReverse 

* setJumbled 
etEmpty 



Figure 5 : A cue sfteet for the SET category of a Text performer. The string x goodbye' has 
been typed on the parameter line of its first cue. 



i^-2Z 



- Ju rn b 1 e B u tto n - B TJ T T Q I-T 
# b e c o jtl e A B u tto n 

codeFor Button Action : w [ ] 
® performButtonAction 



Figure 7: The cue sheet for the BUTTON category of the performer named 
JumbleButton. The square brackets on the parameter line indicate that the designer should 
write some code between them. 






,1. 1. 1 I I . . . 1 1 . . I I I I I . . . i I I , 1 .1 I I . .. , 1 I I I . . . I .j. j . l . l I I .. ,,H..H,.,M ,, , , , » H H I T , ■ I ! .. ) I I ! !■■!, 1.1,1 . 1 I N . . .{.I j.j. j .l 1 ,1, 1 . 1 I 1 ,1 1 , 11 ,1,1,1, 



Figure 8: The code, written by watching, which indicates what the JumbleButton should 
do whenever it is selected by the user. 



(text continued from page 192) 
the designers get to decide what will 
happen when the user selects that per- 
former. One of the categories on every 
category menu is BUTTON; its cue sheet 
contains the cue becomeAButton (see 
figure 7). 

After Laura sends the becomeAButton is 
cue to the JumbleButton, it no longer 
responds j to selection by providing an 
editor; instead, it simply flashes. It is 
now a soft button on the screen, but it 
has no action. They must show it what 
to do. 

They do this by using the cue codeFor- 



ButtonAction:\\ to which every performer 
responds. Bill and Laura understand 
that they are expected to provide a 
block of code between the square 
brackets to describe the action that 
should occur when the user selects the 
JumbleButton. The action they want is 
very simple; they just want the Jumbled- 
Word to receive the set]umbled cue. Bill 
knows that he does not have to type the 
code; instead the Rehearsal World will 
"watch" while they show it what to do. 
To the left of each parameter line is 
a tiny icon representing a closed eye. 
When Laura selects it, the eye opens to 



Figure 6: A stage containing two Text 
performers, the top one showing a jumbled 
word and the bottom one acting as a button 
which the user can select to cause the 
jumbling to occur. 

indicate that the system is indeed watch- 
ing. Then Laura sends the set)umbled cue 
to the JumbledWord by selecting it. The 
code JumbledWord setJumbled ap- 
pears within the square brackets of the 
codeForButtonAction:\\ cue of the Jumble- 
Button, and the eye closes again (see 
figure 8). 

Two significant obstacles to learning 
a programming language are mastering 
the language's syntax and learning the 
vocabulary. In the Rehearsal World, the 
designers rarely have to know either the 
syntax or the vocabulary as most writ- 
ing of cod e is done by watching. While 
the eye is open, the designers rehearse 
a performer and the system makes a 
record of this rehearsal. The Rehearsal 
World's ability to watch, in combination 
with a mouse-driven interface, means 
that the designers do remarkably little 
typing. The designers know whether or 
not the code is correct not so much by 
reading it but by observing whether the 
effect produced on the stage is the 
desired one. 

immediately after Laura sends the 
codeForButtonAction:\\ cue, she can select 
the newly defined button to see if it 
behaves as expected. Each time she sel- 
ects the JumbleButton, it flashes and 
the JumbledWord jumbles its text. 

In a traditional programming environ- 
ment, the programmer moves back and 
forth between programming mode, in 
[text continued on page 196) 



194 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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money order.. .all other checks will delay shipping two weeks. 



REHEARSAL 



nun i 



i -.*■*> *>n... ■ i.-ni in i 



JumbledWord. j ^ 

I ajiL a Text performer, I can be used to make headings, show instructions, or act as a labelled 
button, Try the cues in my SET caeg;ory to experiment with different ways of setting my text- 



accept 



cancel 



. i .UmW. ' .W. i .U.'.MWm^^^ ^ ^ 



WJ.W.W. i mW.W.^ ^ ^ 



I .W.W. ' .M.UJ. ' . ' .W.W 



(9a) 



iiiiYiriiiiViiiiViiMiiiiiiiiiYiriiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiii.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiVi- 



JumbledWord 

I am a word whose letters die. to be jumbled. 

Every time the user selects the JumbleButton which is below me on the stage, 

my text will be rejumbleti. 



% 



i ,y 



;:cept 



| cancel 



*^ rtnr * n ~ rr r r ~ l tr*r^^T~*T^ 



(9b) 

Figure 9: The default comment associated with every Text performer (9a) and the edited comment to be associated only with the performer 
named Jumbled Word (9b). 



[text continued from page 194) 
which typing code is the dominant ac- 
tivity, and running mode, in which test- 
ing takes place. In Programming by Re- 
hearsal, the designer does not feel any 



■ 


-jumble 1- 


move 


" J] resize 


reshow 




erase 




destroy 


BE 


cleanup 




wings 


::'": : . :; 


NAIvIE&TITLE 




FORMAT 




DISPLAY 




SIDES 




POINTS 


:■'■':';:■: 


LIST 




ACTION 




BUTTON 


'^M 


STORE 




PROTECT 




ACCESS 




LAYOUT 


SM 


GRIDDING 


M 


INITIALIZE 


: ;■'••■;•;: 


CONVERT 




CUES 


m:. 


DEBUG 




m^^-^^mm^^ 



wKPt 



gybeodo 



JUMBLE 




Figure 10: A stage named Jumblel; it's a category menu and cue sheet 
for its STORE category. 



shift from one mode to another. JumbledWord and JumbleButtton. They 

Even though their production is very use the help system to get the default 

simple, Laura and Bill decide to docu- comment for the JumbledWord and edit 

mentit. They have already given the two it to be more specific (see figure 9). 

Text performers appropriate names: As a designer creates new produc- 
tions and new performers, the Rehear- 
sal World becomes more complex. The 
default descriptive help messages can 
be changed by the designer by simply 
editing what appears in the prompter's 
box and selecting the ACCEPT button. 
This provides a quick and pleasant 
method for providing descriptive com- 
ments for productions, performers, and 
cues. 

It takes our two designers less time to 
produce their first jumble game than it 
takes to read about it. Although they 
have some ideas about how to make the 
game more interesting and educational- 
ly worthwhile, they decide to store what 
they have implemented so far. It is the 
stage itself that must be instructed to 
do the storing. The stage has its own 
category menu and one of its categories 
is STORE. They store their efforts under 
the name Jumblel (see figure 10). 

No fixed set of functions provided in 
a design environment will ever be satis- 
factory; the designers will always run up 
against the limits of that set and wish 
for more capabilities. The fact that 
stages understand cues suggests one of 
the mechanisms for extensibility in the 
Rehearsal World: every stage can be 
[text continued on page 1 98) 




196 B YTE • JUNE 1984 





FEEL AT HOME WITH 

lainendish 



The first programming 
language that talks 
like you do! 



&U**A{U<^ 



1D REM » — ACREC01D 

20 REM # CUSTOMER NAME AND ADDRESS LOAD PROGRAM 

60 DIM BS(15)/0IM CS(2D)/0IM 0$(20)/A6$(1.8) = "ZZ 

70 J=0/0PEN#0. CUSTMST.2" 

80 GOSUB 400 

90 J = G 

100 GOSUB 400 

110N = 

120 '"LAST CUST * ENTEREO WAS ".F." '.AS. ' \BS 

130 ! 

140? TO END PROGRAM ENTER 9999 AT CUST »" 

150 J=JJ1 

160 TENTER FOLLOWING " 

170 GOSUB 520 

180 INPUT CU7# F 

190 IF F = 9999 THEN 490 

200 IF F =N THEN 220 

210 N = F/G0T0 240 

220 ! SEQUENCE ERROR-RETYPE 

230 GOTO 160 

240 INPUT -1ST NAME ", A$(V8| 

250 IF AS= A6$ THEN 380 

260 INPUT 1ST NAME . BS(I.IS) 

270 IF BS(V2)=A6S(1.2) THEN 380 

280 INPUT • AORS UNI ".C$(1.20) 

290 IF C$(1.2)=A6S|1.2) THEN 380 

300 INPUT AORS LIN2 DS(1 20: 

310 IF DSd.2>'AB$(1.2) THEN 3B0 

320 INPUT TEL* .ESI1.8) 

330IFES(1.2}=A6S|1.2)THEN380 

340 INPUT MO PMT AMT \G 

350 IF G=999 THEN 380 

360 GOSUB 420 

370 GOTO 150 

380N = N-1 

390 GOTO 170 

400 READ MS96M.A.F.AS.BS.CS.ES.G 

410 RETURN 

420 WRITE #0'/.96#J A f AS.BS.CS.DS.ES.G 

430K=0/G=J 

440 WRITE MK96M.A F AS.BS.CS.DS.ES.G NOENDMARK 

-150 RETURN 

460 J = 

470 GOSUB 420 

480 GOTO 140 

490 REM # — CLOSE ROUTINE 

500 CLOSE M 

510 END 

520CS(120I= /REM 20 B 

530 OS = CS/AS=CS/BS=CS/ES=CS 

540 RETURN 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE is a tile 

1 Uses CUSTOMER NUMBER 

2 and CUSTOMER NAME 

3 and ADDRESS 

4 and CITY STATE ZIP 

5 and TELEPHONE NUMBER 

5 and MONTHLY PAYMENT AMOUNT 



ADO TO CUSTOMER FILE is a verb 

1 Does MESSAGE 

2 and INPUT 

3 and MESSAGE 

4 and INPUT 

5 and MESSAGE 

6 and INPUT 

7 and MESSAGE 
6 and INPUT 

9 and MESSAGE 

10 and INPUT 

It and MESSAGE 
INPUT 



SAVE by CUSTOMER NUMBER 
REPEAT 



What is the customer number 7 
CUSTOMER NUMBER 

What is the cuslomei s name? 
CUSTOMER NAME 

What is Ihe street address' 
ADDRESS 

What isthe Ciity Stale and Zip Code? 
CITY STATE ZIP 

What is the customer s phone number 7 
TELEPHONE NUMBER 

What wrll the customer pay monthly' 
MONTHLY PAYMENT AMOUNT 

Itle ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 



Basic 



plain english 



STOP RUN 




PICXI4) 
PIC X)20l 
PIC X 1401 
PIC X140I 
PlCXllOl 
PIC 9(51 



IDENTIFICATION DIVISION 
PROGRAM-ID 

TEST 
ENVIRONMENT DIVISION 
CONFIGURATION SECTION 
SOURCE-COMPUTER RMC 
OBJECT-COMPUTER RMC 
INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION 
FILE-CONTROL. 

SELECT AR-MASTER ASSIGN TO RANDOM /u/Mles/arrr 
ORGANIZATION IS INOEXED 
ACCESS MODE IS DYNAMIC 
RECORD KEY IS CUSTOMER-NUMBER 
DATA DIVISION 
FILE SECTION 

FO AR-MASTER LABEL RECORDS ARE STANOARO 
01 AR-REC 

05 CUSTOMER-NUMBER 
05 CUSTOMER-NAME 
05CUST0MER-A00RESS 
05 CUSTOMER-CITY -STATE-ZIP 
05 CUSTOMER -PHONE 
05 CUSTOMER-PAYMENT-AMDUNT 
WORKING-STORAGE SECTION 
PROCEDURE DIVISION 
RESIOENT SECTION 1 
STAR-UP 

OPEN OUTPUT AR-MASTER 
LOOP 

DISPLAY ENTER CUSTOMER NUMBER OR TO EXIT 

ACCEPT CUSTOMER-NUMBER PROMPT 

IF CUSTOMER-NUMBER = GO TO END-OF-JOB 

DISPLAY ENTER CUSTOMER NAME 

ACCEPT CUSTOMER-NAME PROMPT 

DISPLAY ENTER CUSTOMER ADDRESS 

ACCEPT CUSTOMER-ADDRESS PROMPT 

DISPIJ^Y ENTER CUSTOMER CITY STATE ZIP 

ACCEPT CUSTOMER-CITY-STATE-ZIP PROMPT 

DISPLAY ENTER TELEPHONE NUMBER 

ACCEPT CUSTOMER-PHONE PROMPT 

DISPLAY ENTER CUSTOMER PAYMENT AMOUNT 

ACCEPT CUSTOMER-PAYMENT-AMOUNT PROMPT 

WRITE AR-REC INVALID KEY GO TO BAD-AOD 

DISPLAY CUSTOMER RECORO SAVED 

GO TO LOOP 
BAO-AOO 

OISPLAY INVALID CUSTOMER 

GO TO LOOP 
END-OF-JOB 

CLOSE AR-MASTER 



Cobol 



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Circle 64 on inquiry card. 



IUNE 1984 -BYTE 197 



REHEARSAL 



Jumble.jfw 

■•■••■■••■■■•■■•■•■■■■• ■■•■■■ 




utmasdr 



Select to get. new jumble 



1 



Type answer in here 

Welcome to 
Jumbles 



1 New 
I Word 



WW^W^W!«W!TO 



i Mmmm. i . i .m i . i . 



''' .". ' ■ ? . ' . ' . ' J ". ' . ' .V ' .V." ". I . 1 . ' . ' 1 . ' . ' . ' . ' .". ' . ' . ' .". ' . ' . ' 



Figure II: Am improved game named Jumble5, which evolved from Jumblel. 



[text continued from page 196) 
converted into a new performer and 
every stage can be taught new cues. A 
designer who needs a new kind of per- 
former can construct one by aggregat- 
ing existing performers on a stage, 
teaching that stage some appropriate 
new cues, and converting the result into 
a new performer. 

There are many circumstances in 
which the designers may wish to aggre- 
gate performers: several performers 
belong together as a logical and spatial 
unit: a group of performers are to be 
used repeatedly within a production or 
in several different productions; a pro- 
duction is very complex, and creating 
a new performer allows a factorization 
of the entire problem into smaller ones. 

Bill and Laura's jumble game goes 
through four revisions until it finally 
becomes the one shown in figure II. 
This improved game contains four Text 
performers and a Number performer . 
The large T£xt at the bottom is used 
simply to give feedback to the student. 



The T£xt labeled "New Word" has been 
turned into a button; its button action 
is to cause a new secret word to be 
chosen from a List and presented in 
jumbled form in the top T£xt performer. 
This performer has also been turned 
into a button; its button action is to re- 
jumble itself. The number of rejum- 
blings is shown by the Number per- 
former next to it. The Text performer in 
the center of the stage is to be edited 
by the student who will type the answer 
there. Every time that Text is changed, 
it will cause the answer to be checked 
against the secret word and suitable 
feedback to be provided. It does this by 
means of its change action. 

When a performer changes in some 
fundamental way, as when a Number 
performer changes its value or a Text 
performer changes its text, it executes 
its change action. The default change 
action of a performer is to do nothing, 
but the designer can define this action 
for any performer. Certain other per- 
formers have additional possible ac- 



tions: the Repeater performer has a 
repeat action, the List performer has a 
selection action, and the Traveler per- 
former has a move action. 

In the Iumble5 game, Laura and Bill 
use a List performer to keep a list of 
secret words. Since they don't want the 
user to see the List, they place it in the 
wings (see figure 12). 

While everything should be visible to 
the designers, not everything should be 
visible to the user of the production. 
Wings can hold performers waiting to 
appear on stage, data structures like the 
List of secret words, or temporary vari- 
ables used in computations. 

A very simple game grew and pros- 
pered as our designers implemented it. 
changing in response to their new 
understanding of what they were doing, 
and to the needs and interests of users 
and other designers who experimented 
with it. It became something real that 
people wish to play with and from 
which they can get some increased in- 
tuitive understanding of the rules under- 
lying English orthography. 

Beneath the Rehearsal World 
- Through the Trapdoor 

The Rehearsal World in some ways may 
be thought of as a visible Smalltalk. Al- 
though our original intention was to re- 
move the need for programming at the 
Smalltalk level, it is paradoxically true 
that the Rehearsal World provides an 
excellent entry point for an incipient 
Smalltalk programmer. Designers may 
drop through the trapdoor of the Re- 
hearsal World: beneath they will find all 
the tools of the Smalltalk-80 program- 
ming environment. A Rehearsal World 
tool found there is called the Performer 
Workshop. It looks like a simplified 
Smalltalk browser and provides a mid- 
level mechanism for creating new 
primitive performers and defining new 
cues. 

For each kind of performer there is a 
corresponding Smalltalk class that is a 
subclass of class Performer. The in- 
heritance mechanism of Smalltalk 
allows the subclass to inherit the mes- 
sage interface of class Performer. Each 
production corresponds to a subclass 
of class Stage. When designers store a 
production, the Rehearsal World defines 
a new subclass of class Stage. Interest- 
[text continued on page 200) 



198 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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REHEARSAL 



{text continued from page 198) 
ingly a stage is so much like a performer 
that class Stage is actually a subclass 
of class Performer. 

When designers create new per- 
formers, the Rehearsal World defines a 
new subclass of Performer and writes 
the code for the appropriate additional 
methods that the class will need for lay- 
out and for cues. Because the code writ- 
ten by the Rehearsal World is indistin- 
guishable from code written by a pro- 
grammer, one can inspect it and modify 
it in either a Performer Workshop or a 
Smalltalk browser (see figure 4). 

There are two important features of 
Smalltalk that are not present in the Re- 
hearsal World. The first is the ability to 
create a hierarchy of objects. In Small- 
talk, when one constructs a new kind of 
object— that is. a class— one usually con- 



Jumble 5 Wings || 



: ;vn ,„,;-, ;,,-,,,„, 



t JLU11J.U 

f yacht 5 

ftnck/ 
ft limber 
fhelpfuT 



i- :■..■ 



QfS 



r pencil' 
ftyptst' 
f study' 
fprogranf 

frembte" 
pionor 
^mustatxr,' 
fsaimbn 5 



utmasdr 

secret word 



Figure 12: The wings of the Jumble 5 
game, showing a List performer in which the 
current secret word is selected. 



structs it by defining a subclass of the 
existing class that is most like the new 
class. In that way the new class can in- 
herit a great deal of the desired be- 
havior. In the Rehearsal World, there is 
no concept of class. A designer who 
wants a new production that is similar 
to an existing one can modify the exist- 
ing production and store it under a dif- 
ferent name. A major weakness of this 
method is that modifications made to 
the first production will not be auto- 
matically reflected in the modified one. 
In contrast, a modification made to a 
Smalltalk class will be automatically 
reflected in its subclasses. 

The second difference between Small- 
talk and the Rehearsal World is that in 
Smalltalk there is a distinction between 
a class and an instance of that class. The 
class is the abstraction; an object is 
always an instance of some class. A 
class may have any number of in- 
stances. Any changes to the class will 
be immediately reflected in all its in- 
stances. In the Rehearsal World, there 
are no abstractions, thus no classes. 
Everything is visible. Any performer can 
serve as a prototype and one gets new 
performers through copying. What is 
lost is the ability to have changes made 
to the original reflected automatically in 
the copies. * 

Debugging 

Ordinarily, the sooner a program gives 
evidence that something is wrong, the 
easier it is for the programmer to diag- 
nose the problem. Designers in the Re- 
hearsal World find that bugs manifest 
themselves very quickly because near- 
ly all state information is visible and 
because the flow of control from per- 
former to performer is fairly obvious to 
the eye. Even so. a situation will occa- 
sionally arise in which the designer can- 
not easily account for some behavior on 
a stage. 

It seems appropriate in Programming 
by Rehearsal that help should come in 
the form of another performer, the De- 
bugger performer (see figure 1 3). A De- 
bugger, when placed on a stage, inter- 
cepts all the actions that performers ex- 
ecute, shows their code, and waits for 
the designer to tell it to go on. While 
the actions of the production are thus 
halted, the designers can investigate the 
cause of a problem using any of the nor- 
mal Rehearsal World activities such as 



opening up cue sheets and sending 
cues. Additional actions that may be ini- 
tiated are placed in the Debugger's 
queue for later execution. 

Animation and 
Multiple Processes 

An intuitively pleasing, though incor- 
rect, model for the Rehearsal World 
would be that each performer goes 
about its business independently of the 
others except when it needs another 
performer to answer a question or do 
something. Performers would be like 
people in the real world, capable of in- 
dependent action but interacting 
through requests. Animation, you might 
think, would be easy because each per- 
former would have its own rules for 
moving around on the screen. In this 
model, which we call the one-process- 
per-performer model, each performer 
would essentially have its own proces- 
sor for its private use. Trouble comes 
when performers have to share re- 
sources and coordinate that sharing. 
Several schemes for dealing with these 
problems have been developed over 
the years. 

Our own solution to the problems in- 
troduced by having one process per 
performer was to allow each user action 
to initiate a single independent process 
that either runs to completion or, as 
with animation, continues in an infinite 
loop. A single production can, at any 
given time, have any number of different 
processes running in it. (Beyond that, 
there can be several stages on the 
screen at a time, each running its own 
processes.) This one-process-per-user- 
action model has so far proven to be 
both intuitive and powerful, though we 
see it as an area where further research 
is necessary. 

Designers at Work 

Since the Rehearsal World is a proto- 
type system, very few designers have 
had a chance to experiment with it. The 
first one to actually use the system was 
loan Ross, a curriculum designer from 
the University of Michigan. loan created 
many interesting productions using the 
Picture and Turtle performers. She 
helped us to debug the system and to 
understand how to improve it on all 
levels as we prepared for a pilot study. 
We spent a month responding to the 
[text continued on page 202) 



200 BYTE • IUNE 1984 




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Circle 224 on inquiry card. JUNE 1984 



BYTE 201 



REHEARSAL 



(text continued from page 200) 
issues that loan raised as a result of her 
experiences and then invited Dan 
Fendel and Diane Resek, curriculum de- 
signers and faculty members of the 
Mathematics Department at San Fran- 
cisco State University, to visit for three 
days to see what they could create in 
the Rehearsal World. They are very ex- 



perienced designers, familiar w ith the 
power of interactive computer graphics, 
but they are not programmers. 

We gave them a tour of the system 
and within 45 minutes Dan and Diane 
had taken over and were using the Re- 
hearsal World themselves. They started 
by investigating a simple production we 
had made about probability and soon 




Figure 13: A stage on which a Debugger performer has been placed temporarily so that 
the designer mau observe the code for each successive action. 



suggested and implemented some im- 
provements. They found out how it 
worked by looking at the button actions 
and change actions of the performers, 
both on stage and in the wings. By the 
end of the first afternoon, they had 
turned it into a game that bore only a 
slight resemblance to our original ex- 
ploratory activity. In the process, they 
had auditioned Texts, Numbers, Lists, 
and Repeaters to discover their capa- 
bilities, dealt some with the blocking of 
the stage, written a fair amount of code 
by watching, and understood about but- 
ton actions, change actions, and repeat 
actions. 

Dan and Diane spent an hour the next 
morning away from the machine, de- 
signing with words and a pencil. In the 
course of this design session, they re- 
fined their embryonic ideas for a frac- 
tion game through discussion of both 
the pedagogical issues and the fantasy 
through which they should be trans- 
mitted. They also considered which Re- 
hearsal World performers they would 
need in their proposed game. The fan- 
tasy involved a cave filled with gold 
dust. They envisioned the ceiling of the 
cave as an irregular set of stalactites; 
they saw the floor as tiled. The student's 
problem would be to sweep a vertical 
broom through this cave, one floor tile 
at a time, trying to collect as much gold 
dust as possible without ever allowing 
the broom to touch the ceiling. The 
broom would stretch or shrink by a cer- 
tain fractional amount which the student 
would specify before each move. For ex- 
ample, if the student edited the fraction 
to read 2/1. the broom would become 
twice as tall when it moved. 

They had other design criteria as well. 
They wanted the game to configure it- 
self differently every time the START 
button was selected, and they also 
wanted to make it easy for a designer 
to specify an easy cave, with broad floor 
tiles and very little variation in the ceil- 
ing, or a hard one. They wanted to have 
a score that was expressed as a percent- 
age of the available gold dust; they 
wanted some sort of disaster to occur 
if the student made the fraction too 
large and the broom touched the ceil- 
ing. They decided to call their produc- 
tion GoldRush (see figure 14). 

We found this description quite over- 
whelming for an initial project, as we 
[text continued on page 204) 



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REHEARSAL 



Floor 

Director 



floorwidth 



10 



Ceiling 
Director 



Rect 
Maker 



checker 



1 25 

start ; stop' 

1 25 

step I index 



TTievMiBr. 



32 



etlins Height 



2824.0 



4498.06 



Room Area 



Lecljna* Po;itioj 



0.3 



Panel Height 



20.0806 



Floor Top 



Rectangiel 
Rectangle2 
Rectangles 
Rectangle* 
Rectangles 
Rectangle6 
Rectangle? 



Rect List 



Rect Width 



26.7741 



New Er Ht 



13.3871 



Md Br Ht 



Disaster 

Director 



.broom ±c 



END 




3r.rer.ch 

'n 
3 h ri ti I: 


1 


1 



MOVE 



PARTS 



GO FOR THE GOLD! 







SCORE 



Figure 14: The GoldRusfi game and its complicated wings, showing more performers backstage than are on stage. 



[text continued from page 202) 
had expected them to embark on some- 
thing at the level of the Jumble Game 
described earlier. Rather than starting 
with a toy example for practice, they 
were embarking on a real-world task 
after only one day's experience. We wor- 
ried that they had chosen something 
too difficult for them to accomplish in 
the remaining two days. 

By lunch time they had figured out 
how to use the TUrtle to draw the floor. 
They said, "We need a Floor Director to 
be in charge of drawing the floor," and 
placed a button in the wings labeled 
FloorDirector for that purpose. They 
used this same strategy to make a Ceil- 
ingDirector, a Checker to test whether 
or not the broom was touching the ceil- 
ing, and a DisasterDirector in charge of 
what should happen when it did. Cer- 
tain performers had become, if you will, 
visible procedures. They invented this 
strategy on their own, led to it by the 
Rehearsal World's emphasis on buttons. 

Next to these directors in the wings, 



they placed the performers that would 
be needed by the directors to accom- 
plish their tasks. These performers fulfil 
the role of variables; since everything 
in the Rehearsal World must be visible, 
all variables must be represented by 
performers. By grouping their per- 
formers in a logical manner, they could 
debug their program easily by selecting 
a button, like the CeilingDirector. and 
simply watching what happened, both 
on stage and in the wings. 

Their next task was to implement the 
broom (for which they used a Rec- 
tangle), the START button, and the 
MOVE button. The action of the START 
button was simply to cause the Floor- 
Director and the CeilingDirector to per- 
form their button actions. The action of 
the MOVE button was first to move the 
broom and then to ask the Checker to 
determine whether or not the broom 
was touching the ceiling. If it was. it 
asked the DisasterDirector to perform 
its action; if it wasn't, the Checker com- 
puted the score. That they had not yet 



even designed the disaster didn't mat- 
ter; they were using top-down program- 
ming techniques, realizing that they 
could return later and replace the 
empty code block of the Disaster- 
Director with whatever they wanted. 

By the end of the day. the Floor- 
Director and the CeilingDirector were 
both working properly and they could 
move the broom through the cave. They 
started to plan the randomness that 
they wanted to build into the button ac- 
tion of the START button. 

The next day they made a fraction to 
be edited by the user, creating it from 
two Numbers and two Rectangles, one 
to act as the line between the Numbers, 
the other to act as a frame. This looked 
and worked fine, but they soon dis- 
covered that it was a great disadvantage 
to be dealing with four independent 
performers instead of a single unified 
one: whenever they decided that their 
fraction was the wrong size or in the 
wrong place, they had to resize or move 
[text continued on page 206) 



204 BYTE • JUNE 1984 




u-^ 



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IUNE 1984 -BYTE 205 



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REHEARSAL 



[text continued from page 204) 

four performers commensurately. 

Consequently they felt the need to 
create a new Fraction performer, which 
they did by placing two Numbers and 
a Rectangle for the central line on an 
otherwise empty stage. Since other per- 
formers would need to use the values 
of the numerator and denominator of 
this Fraction performer, they taught this 
stage the new cues getNumerator, get- 
Denominator, and getWalue. Then they told 
it to convert itself into a new performer 
named Fraction and promptly used it in 
their production. 

By the end of the third day, they had 
a game that worked, that they could re- 
spond to, that they liked, and that still 
needed improvement. 

An extra day of work was devoted to 
adding new features. A Number per- 
former called Parts was added that 
could be edited by the user; its change 
action was to show the broom divided 
into the number of parts indicated. This 
additional piece of design arose from 
their interaction with the production; 
had they been working entirely from, a 
paper sketch, this improvement might 
not have occurred to them. 

They then invited others in our re- 
search center to play. Although it had 
been designed for third-graders, our 
colleagues found the game interesting 
and fun to play. They were impressed 
with the quality of the game and espe- 
cially with the fact that the designers 
were nonprogrammers, yet had im- 
plemented something so complicated 
in only a few days. 

Eventually we found some children of 
an appropriate age to be students; they 
also enjoyed playing the game and 
spent many hours trying to make a per- 
fect score. Diane now plans to reimple- 
ment GoldRush at San Francisco State 
using the Rehearsal World design as a 
prototype but changing it to run on dif- 
ferent hardware, which might include 
color and have a different pointing 
mechanism. 

Research Questions 

Our experiences with designers have 
given us confidence that our general 
ideas about how to make the power of 
computers accessible to nonprogram- 
mers are correct. We believe that inter- 
active, graphical programs could and 
{text continued on page 208) 



206 BYTE • JUNE I984 



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REHEARSAL 



(text continued from page 206) 
should be built inside an interactive, 
graphical programming environment. 
We believe that for such programs, 
some sort of visual, spatial program- 
ming will eventually supplant the cur- 
rent process of writing lines of textual 
code. Nevertheless, we have many un- 
answered questions about the nature of 
visual programming. 

An important aspect of the Rehearsal 
World is that everything is made visible; 
only things that can be seen can be 
manipulated. Thus, rather than thinking 
abstractly, as is necessary in most pro- 
gramming environments, a designer is 
always thinking concretely, selecting a 
particular performer, then a particular 
cue. then observing the cue's instant ef- 
fect. We know that much of the initial 
accessibility of the system is due to this 
concrete, visual, object-oriented ap- 
proach. What we don't know are its 
shortcomings. 

As designers create increasingly large 
and sophisticated productions, they 
may find it a nuisance to have to instan- 
tiate everything (even temporary vari- 
ables) in the form of a performer. There 
are problems with space on the screen 
and with visual complexity. Some of 
these problems are addressed by the 
ability to collapse a large set of per- 
formers into a single new one, which can 
be made very small while still retaining 
its original functionality. This helps not 
only with space but with factoring the 
production into significant pieces. 

While beginning designers benefit 
from the concreteness. more experi- 
enced ones will benefit from being able 
to think in more general and abstract 
terms. They are led to think in general 
terms by the fact that all performers re- 
spond to a large set of common cues; 
they are led to think in abstract terms 
through the manipulation of Lists and 
Repeaters. Still, it may be difficult to 
build productions, for example, that 
need to access large amounts of data. 
At some point, the concreteness may 
become a barrier rather than an advan- 
tage. 

We know that the "watching" facility 
is very important to beginners and 
makes it possible for them to "write" 
code without learning a language. But 
it's really very simple and is in no way 
"programming by example"; it employs 
[text continued on page 210) 



208 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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REHEARSAL 



[text continued from page 208) 
no generalizations but merely makes a 
textual record of a performer being sent 
a cue. perhaps with parameters. Again, 
advanced designers might be led to 
think abstractly rather than specifically 
if the Rehearsal World provided a more 
powerful watching facility that was cap- 
able of some form of generalization. 

In the Rehearsal World, button action 
and change action are the major mech- 
anisms for expressing the interactions 
of all performers; a few performers, like 
the Repeater, the List, and the TYaveler, 
have other special actions as well. De- 
signers find these actions very natural 
and so far have had no difficulty 
describing their needs in these terms. 
However, the Rehearsal World does not 
provide designers with the facility to 
create new types of actions for new per- 
formers, and this may become a prob- 
lem in the future. 

The Rehearsal World supports mul- 
tiple processes in such a natural way 



that our designers are not surprised by 
the existence of this facility as they in- 
terrupt whatever they're doing to do 
something else. However, we have little 
experience with designers using mul- 
tiple processes in some production and 
expect a variety of conceptual and 
mechanical difficulties to arise. 

Designers express actions in a pro- 
cedural fashion, instructing a performer 
to send a cue under certain conditions. 



We are curious about how designers 
would deal with a constraint-based 
Rehearsal World in which the relation- 
ships between performers were ex- 
pressed in terms of conditions that 
should always hold true (for example, 
that the value of a Number should 
always be twice that of another 
Number). We hope that researchers 
working on similar design environments 
will explore these questions. ■ 



REFERENCES 

1. Brown, Dean, and Joan Lewis. "The Pro- 
cess of Conceptualization." Educational 
Policy Center Research Note EPRC-6747-9. 
SRI Project 6747. December, 1968. 

2. Oettinger, Anthony, with Sema Marks. 
Run. Computer. Run. Cambridge, MA: Harvard 
University Press. 1969, 

3. Gould, Laura, and William Finzer. "A 
Study of TRIP: A Computer System for 
Animating Time-Rate-Distance Problems." \n- 
ternational journal of Man-Machine Studies (1982) 
17. 109-126. 

4. Ingalls. Daniel H. H. 'The Smalltalk-76 Pro- 



gramming System: Design and Implementa- 
tion." Conference Record of the Fifth Annual ACM 
Symposium on Principles of Programming languages. 
Tucson. AZ: 1978. 

5. BYTE. August 1981. 

6. Goldberg. Adele. Smalltalk-80: The Interactive 
Programming Environment. Reading, MA: 
Addison-Wesley. 1984. 

7. Goldberg, Adele, and David Robson. 
Smalltalk-SO: The language and its Implementation. 
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 1983. 

8. Krasner, Glenn, ed. Smalltalk-SO., Ms of 
History. Words of Advice. Reading, MA: Addison- 
Wesley, 1983. 



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MAXELL 10 each, MD1. SS/DD 
10 each, MD£ DS/DD 
VERBATIM, IDea MD525 01. SS/DD 
lOea MD34, DS/DD 



LIST 

PRICE 

$550 
$ 55 
$750 
$ 75 
$ 69 
$ 89 
$ 55 
$ 75 
$ 49 
$ 84 



OUR 
PRICE 

$239 
$ 26 
$295 



GENERIK™ DISKETTES -AS LOW AS $1 

W/ Jackets, no labels, top quality. 90 day limited warranty by us. 

IDea SS/SD, 35Track (Apple, Atari) $ 42 $ 17 

1 00 eaSS/SD, 35 Track (Apple, Atari) $415 $130 

1000 ea SS/SD, 35 Track (Apple.Atari) $4150 $ 995 

10 ea DS/DD, 48fPI (IBM, H/P) $ 63 $ 25 

1 00 ea DS/DD, 48rPI (IBM, H/T) $ 626 $ 170 

lOOOea DS/DD, 48TPI (IBM, H/P) $6260 $1400 



( YOU MY ) 

GENERIK™ 
DISKETTES 

Each at lOOO quantity. 

SS/SD $1.00 Each 
DS/DD$1.40Each 



<£>1983by 
ComX Corp. 




A 



for the ATARI 

RANA 1000 Drive. 320K $ 449 $ 369 
KOALA. Pad w/Micro lllus. $ 100 $ 75 



MODEMS ACCESSORIES 



LIST 
PRICE 



OUR 
PRICE 



ANCHOR, Signalman MKMRS232) $ 99 $ 75 

Signalman Mark XII $399 $269 

HAYES, IBM-PC Smartmodem 1200B $599 $439 

IBM PC Smartcom II Software $ 149 $ 109 

Stack Chronograph (RS-232) $249 $189 

Stack SmartnxxJeni 300IRS-232) $289 $225 



Smartmodem 1200 (RS-232) 
Miaomodem 100 (Si 00 bus) 
Micromodem He w/Smartcom 
IBM-PC to Modem Cable 
NOVATION, IBM-PC Access 1-2-3 Pack. $595 $445 

Apple Cat II Modem, 300 BAUD 

212 Apple Cat 1200BAUD 

Cat 

J-Cat 

212AutoCat 

Smart Cat 103/212 
TRANSEND/SSM, 

Transend 1 for Apple II $ 89 $ 69 

ModemCard forthe Apple II $299 $259 

Transmodem 1200 $ 695 $ 559 

SOrTWARE-SEEAPPLE OR IBM UTILITY SOFTWARE SECTIONS 



$535 
$399 $275 
$329 $239 
$ 39 $ 29 



$389 $269 

$725 $559 

$189 $139 

$149 $104 

$695 $579 

$595 $415 



MONITORS W**»*» 



i ACCESSORIES 

* AMDEK, 12" Green, #3Q0G $200 

* 12" Amber, #30QA $210 

* 12 "Amber, #31Qft for IBM-PC $230 

* 13" Color I, Composite $379 

* 13" Color II, RGB, Hi Res $ 529 
DVM, Color II or III to Apple II l/F $199 
13". Color IV. RGB, 720Hx4OOV 

NEC, 12" Green, Model 1260MA $ 150 

12"Green, Model 1201MA $ 199 

12" Amber. Model 1205MA $210 

12"Color,RGB,1216FA(IBM&NEC-PC) $ 599 

12" Color, Composite^ 1215A(Apple) $ 399 

* PRINCETON, RGB Hi Res, HX-12 $ 795 

* RGB Hi Res. SR- 12 $799 

* Amber, MAX-12fMono Brd ) $ 249 
QUADRAM, Quadchrome 12"RGBColor $ 695 

Quadscreen 17" 968x512 $1995 

ZENITH, 12" Green. Mdl. ZVM123 $ 200 



$135 
$149 
$169 
$289 
$439 
$175 
Call 
$109 
$149 
$159 
$449 
$299 
$499 
CaH 
Call 
$495 
$1595 
$ 99 



PRINTERS ACCESSORIES 

DOT MATRIX: 

EPSON, RX80, 100 cps 
FX80,l60cps 
FX100. 16Dcps 



UST 
PRICE 



OUR 
PRICE 



$ 399 $ 299 



MX100F/r,80cps,w/Graftrax+ $ 995 

Apple II Graphics Dump $ 15 

MANNESMANN 1601,80 col. 16Ccps $798 

TALLY, 180U32MI. I60cps $1098 

* Spirit, 80 col 80cps $ 399 
NEC, PC8023A, FT, 120cps, 80col, para 

PC-8025, 120cps, 136co), para 

Cable, 8023/8025to IBM-PC 
OKIDATA.82A, 80cot.. 120 cps, para. 

83ft. 132 co)„ 120 cps, para. 

92 80col„ 160 cps, para. 

9a 136 col., 160 cps, para. 

2350P.Pacemark.350cps.para 

2410P.PacemarK 350cps,para. 
ORANGE M(CRO,Grappler+, for Apple 
PRACTICAL Mcrobuff In-Line 64K.Para 
Mcrobu«lnLine64K.Sef. 
QUADRAM, Quadjet Jet Color Printer 

* STAR MIC., Gemini 1Q"X 120cps,2.3K $ 

Gemini 15"X,120cps,2.3K $ 

LETTER QUALITY: 

NEC, 15LQ, 14cps, Para,w/TF, lOlcol $ 

* TTX 1014. 13cps, Para.&Ser., Pin&Ffic. $ 



599 

895 

50 

349 

749 

599 

999 

$2695 

$2995 

$ 165 



$ 495 

$ 689 

$ 495 

$ 9 

$ 568 

$ 778 

$ 299 

$ 439 

$ 775 

$ 40 

Call 

Call 

Call 

Call 

Call 

Call 

$ 119 



$ 349 $ 259 

$ 349 $ 259 

Cal 

$ 499 $ 289 
$ 549 $ 439 



649 



$ 525 
$ 459 



PRINTER INTERFACES and BUFFERS: 

IBM-PC to Epson or Star Micro. Cable $ 60 $ 3! 
Apple l/F & Cable for Epson or Gemini $ 95 $ 5 
QUADRAM, 

Microfazer, w/Copy, PP, 8K,#MP8w/PS $ 189 $ 139 
Microfazer, w/Copy, PP. 64K. #MP64w/PS $ 319 $ 239 
Microfazer, w/Copy, PP, 128K. w/PS $465 $345 

Microfazer, Snap-on, 8K. PP. Epson w/PS $ 179 $ 145 
Microfazer, Snap-on, 64K PP. Epson w/PS $ 319 $ 235 
All Mcrofazersare expandable (M/copy to 512K) (Snapon to 64K) 
SUPPLIES: Tractor Feed Paper, Ribbons, Daisy Wheels. 



[VI 



41CX. Calculator NEW! $ 325 $ 275 
41C. Calculator $ 195 $ 149 

41CV, Calculator w/22K $275 $219 



HYPERION, Portable Computer $3690 $2990 



ADHCDiiir iftJcnDUATinftJ nun tcduc M * ,lT0: 12060SWG»d»nPlict, Portlmd. 0R97223— +iduo*til«phonirH»mb*MddouNectwc* your liiurw lor SlfcM) 

UKUtKINu INrUKMA I lUN AMU I tKMo! All rtems usually m stock. Cashiers Checks, Money Orders, Fortune 1000 Checks and Government Checks, we immediately honor Personal or other Company 
Checks allow 20days to clear. No C O.D Prices reflect a 3%cash discount so ADD 3%to above prices for VISA or MC. For US Mainland, add 2\ ($5 minimum) lor shipping, insurance and handling (SI&H) by UPS. UPSground 
is standard so add 3% ($10 minimum) more for UPS Blue lor SI&H Add 12%totai ($15 minimum) lor SI&H for US Postal. APO or FPO. For Hawaii. Alaska and Canada. UPS is in some areas only, all others are Postal so call, write, 
or speedy Postal. Foreign orders except Canada for SI&H add 18% ($25 minimum) lor SI&H except lor monitors add 30% ($50 minimum) lor SI&H. All prices, availability and specifications subject to errors or change wrlhout 
notice so call to verity. All goods are new, include warranty and ate guaranteed to work. Due to out low prices and our assurance lhal you will get new unused products. ALL SALES ARE FINAL Call before returning goods lor 
repair or replacement Orders received with insufficient Sl&H charges will be refunded. ORDER DESK HOURS 6A.M. to 6 P M PST. Monday through Friday and lOto 4Sahirday. 6A.M. here is 9A.M. in New York 

OUR REFERENCES! We have been in computers and electronics since 1958. a computer dealer since 1978and in computer mail order since 1980. Banks 1st Interstate Bank. (503) 6434678, We belong to the 
Chamber of Commerce (503) 644 0123, and Direct Marketing Association, or call Dunn and Bradstreet it you are a subscriber. EconoRAM", Fasdak'", and Genenk'"are trademarks of ComX Corporation. 



CASH & CARRY OUTLETS: 

Over-the-counter sales only. Open Monday through Friday, 10:00 
until 6:00. Saturday, 10:00 until 6:00 

PORTLAND, OREGON-NEW LOCATION! At Park 217. Tigard at 
intersection of 217 and 99rV. Coming from Portland on 99rV, take 
immediate left after 217 overpass; and Texaco Station. Call 620-5595. 
SEATTLE. WASH.-3540 128th Ave. St Bettevue, WA 98006 Tel: 
641-4736, in Loehmann's Plaza near Factoria Square, SE of Hwy 
405 & 90 and at SE 38th & Richards. 



212 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



Formerly COflTlpUter EXChSJI^C 

LOWPRICES TO PROFESSIONALS WHO KNOW WHAT THEY WANT AND KNOW HOW TO USE IT! 



r DEALERS^ 

WE BUY 

EXCESS 

.INVENTORIES J 



256KIBM : PCorXT 

320/360K Disk Drives by CDC 

90 Day Warranty By Us 

Call for Details 




Coming soon products for the PCjr. 

3> 1 984, Service Mark of Conroy-LaPointe, Inc. 



DRIVES 




CONTRPL 
DATA OR 



landon 



320K/360K DS/OD DISK DRIVES 

With Detailed Installation Instructions 
30 Day Warranty by Factory Authorized Distributor 

Sameasnow #01 A 
installed by IBM ^^1^7 *229forOne. 

HALF $199 HEIGHT 

LIST OUR 

PRICE PRICE 

ComX "Y" Disk Drive Power Cable $ 8 $ 6 

>4moek 

Amdisk V. '^height internal. 320/360K $329 $249 
Amdisk III. Dual 3" Micro Floppy. 320/360K $599 $529 
Cable. Amdisk III to IBM-PC interface Call 

MAYNARD 

Floppy Drive Control Brd.-up t o 4 dr, ves $215$ 189 

same with Parallel Port $ 300 $ 239 

Internal lOmeg Hard Disk $1395 $ 1195 



8" CP/M-80 SOFTWARE 



MUCH MORE IN STOCK LIST OUR 

PRICE PRICE 

ASHTONTATE, dBase II $700 $385 

INFOCOM, Starcross, Zork I. II or III, each $ 50 $ 34 

Deadline or Ranetf all. each $ 60 $ 40 

MICROPRO, Wordstar® $495 $285 

MailMerge'" $250 $145 

WordStar Prof, 4Pak(Call) $895 $429 



OUR AD 
#B5 



VISA 



m m 



NO SALES TAX 



SUPPLY CENTER for IBM-PC or XT 



• 1 984 by Conroy-LaPointe. Inc. 
II Rights Reserved 



A MnPk MAI 4 in 1 Multiple Board.Color 
MIVIUCr\ Graphics, Mono, 128K $ 



LIST OUR 
PRICE PRICE 



ComboPlus, 64K. S/P/C 
fomboP1us.256K. S/P/C 
MegaPlus II, 64K, 2S/P/C 
MegaHus II. 256K, 2&/P/Z 
256K MegaPlus II Expander 
SxPakPlus, 64K, S/P/C +S/W 
SxPakPlus.256K.S/P/C+S/W 
SxPakPlus. 384K.S/P/C+S/W 
For SixPakw/ Game Pod add 
1/0 Plus II. S/P/CC 
1/0 Hus II, S/P/TX/G 
1/0 Hus II. 2 S/P/CC A3 



599 $519 

$395 $279 

$695 $495 

$495 $375 

$795 $595 

$395 $295 

$395 $295 

$695 $495 

$895 $595 

$ 50 $ 39 

$215 $150 

$265 $185 

$315 $215 

$799 $599 

$875 $695 



PPC Supervision. 132 cd , mono, board 
"IsO ZPIus 64. fast Z803.64K para port 

Chalkboard, Power Pad. Req. Kit $100 $ 73 

* ComV towRAM" 259X RAM Card w/Fastrak" RAM dK* 

emulator and spooler software. $495 $325 

nilRTl^ UNM. Monitor bit Sswivel base $ 50 $ 39 

wniw 3to 9 foot keyboard cable $ 40 $ 30 

Vertical CPU "System Stand" $ 25 $ 19 

Monochrome Ext Cable Pair | 50 $ 35 

HERCULES Graphics Card, Mono $499 $349 

Key Tronic kbsisq std.keytoard $ 209 $ 159 

KB5151.Std. keyboard NEW $255 $209 



Kri-al-a Koala Pad'" w/PC Design 

I lUdld ProBrammer's Guide 



$150 $109 
$ 15 $ 12 



OAUnCTAD Memory Card no RAM $230 
bANUblAH Memory Card 256K $499 

Modules for Sandstar in stock 



$ 79 

$169 

$395 

Cal 

Internal lOmeg Hard Disk $1395 $1195 



MIPTH"*$OPTRAMCard256K $ 550 $ 385 

MlOrtWa^r ■ SystemCard 256K $ 625 $ 469 

SystemCard 64K $ 395 $ 295 

Mouse $ 195 $ 145 

MOUSESYSTEM^ PC Mouse w/toftwae $ 295 $ 195 

ORPHIH PCnet" Starter Kit LAN $1490 $1090 
vnV/niU ' rcnet'-Circuil Board Kit $ 695 $ 495 

PLANTRONICS 

Color Board &Coferma0c 1 6 color. w /Par a $ 559 $ 395 
Color Boards Draftsman, 16cotor, w/Para $ 559 $ 395 

QC14DRAM 

* Quadlink NEWEST VERSION 
Quadboard, no RAM, expand to 384K 
Quadboard 64K. expand to 384K 
Quadboard 256K. expand to 384K 

* Quadboard, 384K 
Quadboard II. no RAM, expand to 256K 
Quadboard II. 64K. expand to 256K 
Quadboard II, 256K. 6 function 
Quad 512 * 64K plus serial port 
Quad 512 * 25GK plus serial port 
Quad 512 * 512K plus serial port 
Quadcolor I, board. 16 colors 

* Quadcolor II, board, use with Quadcolor I 

* Quadchrome. 12" RGB Monrlor 
Quadscreen, 17" 968x 512 Monitor 

T^m^r 151 MATE, S4K S/P/CC 
I CV-I I lar ist ma^ 256K. S/P/CC 

Captain. 64K.S/P/CC 

Captain,384K.S/P/CC 

Wave, 256K (short brd.) 

Bosun. S/PAX(s!xHt brd.) 

Graphics Mastef 



$ 680 
$ 295 
$ 395 
$ 675 
$ 795 
Call 
$ 395 
$ 595 
$ 325 
$ 550 
$ 895 
$ 295 
$ 275 
$ 795 
$1995 



485 
215 
279 
525 
625 
Call 
285 
395 
265 
420 
625 
225 
209 
499 




$1595 



TitBn Accelerator PC (B086 + 128K) $ 995 $ 750 

TG PRODUCTS J*** $ eo $ « 



W»CO. IBM-PC Mouse 



$ 100 $ 



Prices and availability subject to change. Call. 

$55 

* 9 Each, 64K. 200 ns, MEMORY CHIP KIT 

90 Day Warranty by us 

^Ofc 3 $295Two or mora. 

• ComX 256K RAM BOARD 

Fully CcmpatiUe 1 Year limited Wmanty by ComX 

Wth Fastrak RAM Disk Emulator and fyxta Software 

Works on DOS 1.1. 2.0or 2.1 



-A- MEANS A BEST BUY 



SOFTWARE for IBM-PC or XT 



BUSINESS 



ALPHA, Database Manager II 
ASHTONTATE 
* dBase II, (req. PC-DOS & 128K) 

dBase II User's Guide (Book) 

Everyman's DB Primer (Book) 

The Financial Planner 

Friday 
APPLIED SOFT. TECH., Versaform 
ASK MICRO, GLAR.AP.INVor PR, each $495 



LIST 
PRICE 
$295 

$700 
$ 30 
$ 15 
$700 
$295 
$389 



BRDDERBUNO, Bank Street Writer $ 

BPI,Gen'IAcctg,AR,APorPR,each $595 

CHANG LABS. Micro Plan $495 

* CONTINENTAL, Home Accountant $ 1 50 

Tax Advantage $ 70 

FCM (Filing, Cataloging, Mailing) $ 125 

Property Management $ 495 

DOW JONES, Market Analyzer $ 350 

Market Manager $ 300 

Market Microscope j 700 

FOX&GELLER. 

Quickcode, dGraph, Grafox or Or. each $ 295 

dUtil (MSDOS or CP/M86. each) $ 99 

HA YDEN, IBM Pie Writer $200 

Pie Speller or Sargon lll.each $ 50 

HOWARDSOFT, 

Tax Preparer, 1984 for 1983 year $ 295 

HUMAN EDGE. Management or Sate, ea $ 250 

IUS. EasyWriter II System $ 350 

EasySpelter II $ 225 

Business System: GL+AR+AP $1495 

GLAR.AP,0EorlNV,each $595 

* INSOFT. Data Design(easy to use DBMS) $250 

GraFORTH (animated 3D graphics) $ 125 

LIFETREE. Volkswriter $ 285 

* LOTUS, 1-2-3 $ 495 
QUE, Using 1-2-3 (Book) $ 15 
MICRO LAB, Tax Manager for 1983 $ 250 
MICROPRO, WordStar* $495 

MailMerge" $ 250 

SpellStar™ $ 250 

* WordStar Professional, 4 Pak $ 695 
Options Pak. SS/MM/SI $ 295 
Starlndex'" $ 195 
InfoStar™ $ 495 

* MICRORIM, R:base, Series 4000 $ 495 
MICROSOFT, Multiplan J 250 

Word $ 375 

Word with Mouse $ 475 

MICROSOFT, Financial Statement $ 100 

Budget $ 150 



OUR 
PRICE 
$185 

$385 
$ 20 
$ 12 
$395 
$199 
$265 
$295 
$ 56 
$395 
$335 
$ 89 
$ 45 
$ 89 
$329 
$279 
$239 
$525 

$195 
$ 59 
$135 
$ 34 

$220 
$185 
$259 
$149 
$995 
$395 
$189 
$ 95 
$195 
$329 
$ 12 
$169 
$239 
$129 
$129 
$395 
$175 
$109 
$259 
$335 
$169 
$259 
$325 
$ 69 
$ 99 



BUSINESS 



LIST OUR 
PRICE PRICE 



$110 
$429 



MONOGRAM, Dollars & Sense $ 165 

OPEN SYS, GLAR.AP.PR.INV or P0,each $ 695 

* 0S80RNE/C0MX. (Book & Business, Statistics 

& Math Programs on DS/DD Disks) 

Some Common Basic Programs (70ea.) $ 100 $ 69 

Practical Basic Programs (40each) $ 100 $ 69 

PBL, Personal Investor LI $145 $ 99 

PEACHTREE, Peach Pak (GLAR&AP) $395 $239 

Peach Text 5000 $395 $239 

PEARLSOFT, Personal Peari 

(DBMS & MIS) $295 $195 

• PERFECT, Perfect Writer" $349 $219 

Writer & Speller, 2 Pak $399 $249 

Perfect Filer^or Peffect Catc. each $249 $149 

Perfect Writer. Speller. Frier. Calc (4) $699 $499 

SATELLITE, Word Perfect $495 $255 

SOFTWARE ARTS, TK! Solver $399 $299 

SOFTWARE PUBUSHINCPFSRIe $140 $ 94 

PFSReport $125 $ 84 

PFS:Write $140 $ 95 

PFSCraph $140 $ 95 

SOFTWORD SYSTEM, Mulfjmate $495 $395 

SORCIM,SuperCalc2 $295 $195 

SuperCalc3 $395 $265 

SSI/SATELUTE,WordPeifect $495 $375 

Personal WordPerfect $195 $149 

STC/SOFTEC, The Creator $300 $195 

STONEWARE, Advanced D.B. Master $595 $395 

SYNAPSE. File Manager $100 $ 67 

SYNERGISTIC, Data Reporter $250 $169 

T/MAKER,T/Makerlll $275 $169 

VISICORP.VisiCalcIV $250 $179 

VisiFile or VisiSchedule $300 $219 

Desktop Plan I $300 $219 

VisiWord with VisiSpell (128K) $375 $269 



UTILITY & SYSTEM 



1983 CL SOFTWARE AWARD: 

"Copy II PC by Central Point Software is still one of the best 
software buys of available. It will copy more copy protected 
software and faster than any other backup system. Unlike 
other copiers it makes an exact duplicate of your original and 
it does 100% verification of copy. Documentation is excellent" 

* CENTRAL POINT, Copy II PC. Backup $ 40 $ 30 

* COMX. Fastrak™, RAM/Disk emulator 
and printer spooler program. Works on any 

PC/DOS version or RAMCard. Menu Driven $ 100 $ 59 



§ UTILITY & SYSTEM | 


DIGITAL RESEARCH, 


Concurrent CP/M-86™ 


$350 $225 


Concurrent CP/M-BS^ti/ windows 


Call 


cp/M-se™ 


$ 60 $ 40 


CBASIC 86™ 


$200 $135 


C8ASICComp^r(CP/M86orMSDOS.ea) $600 $365 


Pascal^T* (CP/M-86) 


$400 $269 


Pascal/MT+ (MSDOS) 


$600 $399 


PL/1 (MSDOSor CP/M-86, each) 


$750 $499 


Access Mngr. (MSDOS or CP/M-8aeach) $400 $269 


Display Mngr(MSD0S or CP/M-86.each) $500 $339 


Speed Prog. Pkg. (CP/M-86) 


$200 $135 


CISC0B0L-86 


$850 $525 


OR LOGO 86 


$100 $ 69 


HAYES, Smartcom II (Data Com.) 


$119 $ 89 


INSOFT, GraFDRTH(animated 3D graph) $125 $ 95 


MICROSTUF, Crosstalk XVtpataCom.) 


$195 $129 


MICROSOFT, muMath/muSimp 


$300 $199 


Business BASIC Comp. 


$600 $399 


Pascal Compiler 


$350 $250 


C Compiler 


$500 $339 


BASIC Compiler 


$395 $269 


FORTRAN Compiler 


$350 $250 


COBOL Compiler 


$750 $495 


NORTON, Utilities 20 14 programs 


$ 80 $ 65 


ROSESOFT.Prokey 


$ 75 $ 50 


1 HOME & EDUCATIONAL 


ATARL Centipede, PacMan or Donkey .each $ 35 $ 28 


EPYX/Auto. Sim.. Temple of Apshai 


$ 40 $ 29 


* ARMONK, Executive Suite 


$ 40 $ 27 


BLUE CHIP, Millionaire or Tycoon.each $ 60 $ 39 


BPI SYSTEMS, Personal Accounting 


$195 $139 


* BRODERBUND, Apple Panic (Color) 


$ 30 $ 19 


Lode Runner or Serpentine, each 


$ 35 $ 2A 


COMPREHEN., PCTutord.lor 2Qea 


) $ 60 $ 40 


CONTINENTAL, Home Accountant Hus $150 $ 89 


DAVIDSON, The Speed Reader II 


$ 75 $ 49 


INFOCOM. Deadline or Suspended, each $ 50 $ 33 


Zork lor Zork II or Zork III. each 


$ 40 $ 27 


* INSOFT, Myst»ix.Wordtnx or Quotnx.each $ 35 $ 23 


MICRO LAB, Miner 2049 


$ 40 $ 26 


MICROSOFT, Flight Simulator 


$ 50 $ 33 


MONOGRAM, Dollars & Sense 


$165 $110 


ORIGIN, Ultima III 


$ 60 $ 40 


PBL CORP., Personal Investor 


$145 $ 99 


SCARBOROUGH/LIGHTNING. 




MasterType 


$ 50 $ 34 


SOFT WORD SYSTEMS Murti mate 


$495 $295 
$ 45 $ 35 


SPINNAKER. Snooper Troops 11 or 2 


Story Machine or Face Maker 


$ 35 $ 24 


STRATEGIC, The Warp Factor 


$ 40 $ 30 


SUBLOGIC, Night Mission Pinball 


$ 40 $ 27 



ORDEROESK TOLL FREE 

(800)547-1289 

Order Desk Hours: 6AM to 6PM PST 



Oregon TOLL FREE 

(800)451-5151 
Portland 620-9877 



HOILineForinformatiOn 
On Your Order 

1503| 620-9878 



FREE GIFT 

Use of our order forms qualifies you for a free 

gift with your order. Geton our mailinghst NAME 

now for order forms, and our new newsletter 

and sales specials announcement Our 

customers are already on our list 

COUPON 



MAIL TO: 12060 SW Garden Place, Portland, OR 97223 



ADDRESS 
CITY 



STATE ZIP I 



Circle 85 for IBM Peripherals. Circle 86 for Apple. Circle 87 for all others. 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 213 




PC-DocuMates 

• 1993, SMA, Ail Rights R*t»rvtKl 

The $14.95 Peripheral 

That Puts Your Computer's Commands Where They Belong 
And Your Manuals On The Shelf. 




Now, you can command new computer 

productivity. Discover how much easier your 

personal computer is to use when the commands are 

at your fingertips. PC-DocuMate keyboard templates can 

save you time and frustration. You can recall needed 

commands, options and formats. Quickly . 

Professionally designed and comprehensive. Each 

PC-DocuMate template has been designed by a software 

expert. Commands are logically and functionally organized 

so you can get the most from your software. And our templates 

are comprehensive reference aids which use both sides to 

document a product or a system. Completely. 



Durable and guaranteed. PC-DocuMate 
templates are silk-screened onto durable, non-glare 
plastic to our exacting specifications. Each template 
is printed on both sides and color-coordinated 
to complement your PC. And your satisfaction 
is guaranteed. Fully Or your money back. 

Save time and enjoy greater productivity. Order your 
PC-DocuMate without delay. 

Lower prices for better design. With PC-DocuMates, you 
gettwo-sided templates for less than a single-sided template 
from other manufacturers. And you get a better designed 
template. Order direct or ask your local dealer. 



PC-DocuMates now available... 
IBM PC/XT & COMPAQ — $14.95 

• DOS/BASIC2.0&2.1 • DOS/BASIC 1.1 • Lotus 1-2-3 • WordStar • dBASE II • MultiMate3.20 • VisiCalc 
• Multiplan 1.00 or 1.06 • Volkswriter • SuperCalc* • PeachText5000 • EasyWriter II • Do-lt-Yourself 

COMMODORE 64 — $12.95 

• BASIC & more • Calc Result • EasyScript • Quick Brown Fox • Do-lt-Yourself 
(CBM 64 templates are printed on one side only.) 

IBM PCjr. — $12.95 

• DOS/BASIC 2.1 • MultiMate • dBASE II • Do-lt-Yourself 

APPLE He — $14.95 

• WordStar • VisiCalc • dBASE II • Apple Writer II • Quickfile • Do-lt-Yourself 
If your favorite software package is not shown here, you can order our "Do-lt-Yourself" template (which includes a special pen and eraser) 

and develop your own custom keyboard template. 
Our Guarantee. Use your template for 20 days. If you are not completely satisfied return it to us (undamaged) for a full refund. 



HOW TO OR DER: Send persona! check, money order or MasterCard/VISAcreditcard information. Please add $1 .50f or shipping and handling per order; foreign 
orders must add $5.00 per unit (except Canada). US funds only. Sorry, but no COD's. NC residents add 4% sales tax. Corporate quantity discounts available. Dealer 
inquiries invited. And for faster service on credit card orders... 

Call Toll Free 
1-800-762-7874 

(In North Carolina) 919-787-7703 

SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATES 

3700 Computer Drive, Dept. Y-1 

Raleigh, North Carolina 27609 circle 319 on inquiry card 



■k^& y tef ';j:V:. : ly-s W^ 



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Handic Software, ab: Calc Result; Commodore Business Machines, Inc.: EasyScript; VisiCorp: VisiCalc; Apple Computer, Inc.: Apple He, AppleWriter II, Quickfile. 



THEME 



GAME SETS 
AND BUILDERS 



by Ann Piestrup 

Graphics-based 
learning software 



ONLY RECENTLY ARE computer scien- 
tists and educators beginning to col- 
laborate to create learning software that 
can fulfill the promise of the personal 
computer to transform education. A few 
educators have begun to think like com- 
puter scientists, and some programmers 
are beginning to understand children's 
learning needs. 

Schools lag far behind business, 
science, medicine, and law in respond- 
ing to changes in the culture. Children, 
for the most part, are getting a token ex- 
posure to the power of computing in 
schools, and only minimal exposure to 
the computer as a graphic, playful, in- 
teractive medium with which to learn 
concepts and skills. 

Early educational software used in 
computer-aided instruction (CA1) has 
been primarily text-based. While useful 
for factual drill and effective at teaching 
what standardized tests measure, too 
often there is little in such software to 
engage the learner's imagination. 

Much of the graphics-based "enter- 
taining education" software now dis- 
tributed for the home is like a slow 
video game, with a thin veneer of 
educational content and merely 
decorative graphics. The purpose of 
such programs is to teach a limited set 
of facts, such as math problems or spell- 
ing words. Many of these programs re- 
quire only that a child press a single key 



then passively watch while the com- 
puter does tricks— the computer has all 
the fun. Once the child learns the 
minimal content and exhausts the 
limited bag of graphic tricks, interest in 
the program is gone. 

In contrast, powerful learning software 
programs, such as learning game sets 
and builders, use graphics to convey 
meaning, not to decorate the screen. 
They teach learning strategies and fun- 
damental, generalized skills upon which 
others can be built. 

Powerful Learning 

Powerful learning is carefully se- 
quenced, with content that offers real 
value to the child. It is playful, with 
features of a game and characteristics 
of literature (themes, characters, 
elements of surprise), and it has a 
simple, clear user interface. 

In effective learning games, play can 
begin in a very few minutes. To achieve 
this, commands for getting in and out of 
programs and for reaching instructions 
and the menu should be straightforward 
and consistent. A simple user interface 
frees the user from the details of man- 

Ann Piestrup is chairman and founder of The 
learning Company {Suite 170, 545 Middle- 
field Road, Uenlo Park, CA 94025). She holds 
a PhD. in educational psychology from the 
University of California at Berkeley. 



aging the game and allows the child to 
focus on playing, and therefore learning. 

Designers of learning software must 
be constantly aware of the cognitive 
"load" the mind can absorb and must 
present a carefully measured amount of 
new information with a proportional 
amount of familiar information. 

Powerful learning software can offer 
several approaches to the same 
material and thereby encourage the 
learner to think flexibly. This flexible 
thinking can carry over outside the con- 
text of the game. There are no single 
correct answers; there are patterns to 
find and alternatives to consider. 

Fascination with concepts ca^ be an 
intrinsic motivation, leaving the child 
free to operate at his or her learning 
edge. The best learning software offers 
options, such as editors that enable 
children to create their own games or 
to create original graphics or text. 
Games need to have a smooth flow, with 
no barriers between steps. Children 
should be able to choose their own 
pathways through a set of games and 
to play any game as many times as it 
poses a challenge. 

MOTIVATION 

With a whimsical story line, humor, and 

a warm, nonjudgmental tone, learning 

games can be endearing and delightful 

[text continued on page 216) 

JUNE 1984 'BYTE 215 



GAME SETS 



Photo la: 

The first game in 

the Bumble set. 

Find Your 

Number, presents 

the concepts of 

numerals, number 

lines, and greater 

than and less 

than. 



Photo lb: 

Find the Bumble 

combines these 

elements in a 4 

by 4 array. 

Columns and rows 

are highlighted as 

numbers and 

letters are plotted. 

Concepts are 

represented both 

in words and 

symbols. 



Photo Ic: 

Butterfly Hunt 

offers a larger grid 

and removes arrow 

clues, leaving only 

text explanations. 

The horizontal 

axis is plotted 

first, then the 

vertical axis. 




[text continued from page 215) 
to younger children. A theme character 
can tie programs together in a fantasy- 
evoking way. The best games are ele- 
gantly simple, so that a small input has 
a dramatic output. 

Exciting games may offer an element 
of chance, or competition with an op- 
ponent or against the clock; there is a 
sense of risk and the unexpected. With- 
in a game, children can be encouraged 
to play cooperatively to seek joint solu- 
tions to a problem. 

Learning games, like other software, 
books, and movies, convey values. De- 
signers must be sensitive to the values 
that schools and parents want to teach. 
Good learning software interests both 
sexes and avoids gratuitous violence. 

Learning Game Sets 

A learning game set is a series of pro- 
grams structured so that concepts and 
skills learned in earlier games form a 
foundation for later games. Learning 
game sets focus attention narrowly and 
offer manageable bits of new informa- 
tion, and they guide the learner with 
prompts throughout the learning ex- 
perience. While working through the 
game set, children can learn complex 
skills and advanced concepts. In addi- 
tion, they can learn strategies for ap- 
proaching visual information. 

All games in a set should have a uni- 
fying theme, which could include a char- 
acter, story, and cohesive metaphor. 

Bumble Games and Bumble Plots from 
The Learning Company (Menlo Park, 
California) are examples of learning 
game sets. These programs present a 
focused set of information and skills, 
such as using numerals, number lines, ar- 
rays, and grids (photos la through If). A 
fantasy character named Bumble from 
the planet Furrin guides the learning. 

In these games, each time a child 
presses a key, some action is shown on 
the screen. The child can press another 
key within three seconds to make some- 
thing else happen. The player sets the 
pace of the game and therefore has a 
sense of control over the medium. 

Children playing games in the Bumble 
set work through fundamental concepts 
such as counting, greater than and less 
than, positive and negative numbers, 
columns and rows. When they can enter 
x,y coordinates fluently in a four- 
quadrant grid, they catch robbers in 



216 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



GAME SETS 



moving cars, name coordinates for a 
sonar detector, and plot tic-tac-toe posi- 
tions. Then they can plot their own 
graphics with a simple editor that is 
presented like a game. 

These games encourage play because 
there is no way to lose. Children can 
cooperate or compete in guessing 
numbers and often transcend the issue 
of winning or losing by assuring that 
each child has a turn to play at alternate 
times when it is obvious that the next 
entry will win. 

Children maintain interest in a pro- 
gram like Bumble Games for many 
months or even years. The concepts are 
very basic— how space relates to 
number. The concepts of row and col- 
umn lay the foundation for beginning 
to use spreadsheets and to plot com- 
puter graphics. The programs also en- 
courage children to build spatial 
awareness, to formulate strategies, and 
to experience success in learning. 

Children can transfer skills learned in 
these games to new situations, such as 
finding points on a map from grid ref- 
erences. Thus young children can learn 
the skills that many of us struggled with 
in junior high school. Kindergarten 
children who can fluently plot graphics 
on a computer may present a challenge 
to the schools, but they show that com- 
puter learning games can teach impor- 
tant concepts in a playful, powerful way. 

Builders 

A builder is a program with real-time, 
animated graphics, with which a user 
can put parts together to make some- 
thing new. Nothing in text could 
simulate a builder program, with its 
functional graphics. Its purpose is to en- 
courage learning by doing in an ex- 
ploratory environment. A builder could 
teach a specific content, such as elec- 
tronics, chemistry, biology, or music. Ex- 
amples are Pinball Construction Set 
from Electronic Arts and our own 
Rocky's Boots. 

Builders provide a metaphor to the 
real universe, with a defined and inter- 
nally consistent geography, elements 
(often icons) such as building parts and 
connectors, and rules. For example, in 
Pinball Construction Set, the player uses 
icons to create a simulated pinball 
machine. The machine is a game board 
with movable bumpers and flippers, 
(text continued on page 2 18) 










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HOG-RAY ! 

t 1 



GAT'S GWE 



Photo Id: 
Visit from Space 
substitutes a grid 
for the array. For 
the first time in 
the set, numbers 
label both axes. 



Photo le: 
\n Tic Tac Toe, 
children must 
enter numbers in 
x,y format. 
Columns and rows 
are no longer 
highlighted as 
points are plotted. 
Children must 
plot many 
coordinates on the 
same grid, using 
a game strategy. 



Photo If: 
\n Bumble Dots, 
children use 
standard pair 
notation to plot 
original graphics 
on a 10 by 10 
grid. These 
graphics become 
the basis of a 
game. 



^OU UIN, GARQ'U 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 217 



GAME SETS 



Photo 2a: 

Players using 

Rocky's Boots can 

design machines 

using AND, OR, 

and NOT gates. 



Photo 2b: 

\n the game room 

in Rocky's Boots. 

players build 

logical kicking 

machines to solve 

problems. 



Photo 2c: 

Rocky's Boots has 

a graphics editor 

that players use 

to create new 

' games. 




[text continued from page 217) 
which can act according to the rules of 
real pinball machines or according to 
rules modified by the player. 

The internal geography of Rocky's 
Boots is represented as a set of rooms 
with doors and walls (photos 2a through 
2c). The player uses elements such as 
wires, logic gates, and sensors to build 
simulated electronic devices according 
to the internal rules of Rocky's world 
and the broader rules of combinatorial 
and sequential logic. 

Within the parameters set by a 
builder, players can recombine ele- 
ments according to structuring rules. 
They can create games, generate novel 
solutions to puzzles, edit and rework 
their creations, and in doing so explore 
fully the properties of the elements and 
rules. The program designer creates 
tools that are open to the player's ex- 
ploration. At the same time, the limits 
of the program's universe (of the 
physical space, its elements, and rules) 
help structure learning. This permits 
both freedom and focus within the 
same environment. 

The exploratory character of a builder 
encourages invention and divergent 
thinking. An ordinary computer-aided 
instruction program, in contrast, 
requires single, predetermined correct 
answers from a passive user. The 
builder says, "Use your mind. Here are 
some examples— now go make your 
own." A child experiencing a builder 
environment can develop persistence, 
self-confidence, a sense of mastery, and 
the ability to make choices. 

Successful builder programs must not 
be punitive or judgmental, as some CA1 
programs are. Rather than operating in 
a binary, right-wrong mode, they present 
an environment in which any action 
has a natural consequence. A badly 
planned or clumsy action will produce 
unsatisfying results— an inelegantly de- 
signed machine doesn't do much— but 
it is up to the player to judge the out- 
come. The player can redesign the 
machine, seek new solutions, and im- 
prove upon the design until he or she 
is satisfied. Thus, the learner deals not 
only with information but with knowl- 
edge and insight. 

The player can gain insight by trying 
many approaches to the same problem. 
The program designer presents an 
abstract concept in a builder whose 



218 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 185 on inquiry card. 



GAME SETS 



elements make the concepts concrete. 
The player gains direct experience with 
the concepts, has time to think, to 
formulate and test hypotheses, ap- 
proaching the building environment 
from many angles. The parameters of 
the builder focus attention on a small 
set of realities and allow the player to 
manipulate concrete objects in order to 
achieve a "felt" awareness of broader 
concepts. These new concepts are not 
empty words or mere labels but the 
beginnings of insight. 

For example, the designer of Rocky's 
Boots wanted to convey logical 
concepts inherent in AND, OR, and NOT 
gates. He represented these as Tinker- 
toy-like parts with symbols used by 
electrical engineers. He added color 
and animation to model electric current 
flow. The player begins by working 
through structured tutorials, then 
combines and recombines elements, 
directly experiencing the abstract 
concepts of AND, OR, and NOT. After 
completing a series of puzzles, the 
player can create original games. Some 
people apply what they have learned in 
the context of the game to new 
situations in real life. These players have 
gained insight into very important 
concepts in electronics and logic. 

Builders are simulations that can defy 
the laws of the physical universe. By 
suspending disbelief, the player can 
enter a special reality, then stand out- 
side it to gain insight into the modeling 
process itself. For example, in Rocky's 
Boots, the presence of electric current 
in a wire or gate is represented in red, 
absence of current in white. Players use 
this color coding to understand the cur- 
rent flow in complex circuits, then some 
make the conceptual leap: this is a 
model, and like any model, it has limita- 
tions and is not a complete represen- 
tation of reality. Children who can make 
this connection have learned an impor- 
tant principle in science: we are bound 
by our models. 

A New Generation of 

Learning Software 

Learning game sets and builders are 
new genres of educational software. 
Children using these programs explore 
powerful visual environments. Through 
their play with these tools, children can 
acquire not only skills and knowledge, 
but insights at a new level. ■ 



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JUNE 1984 • BYTE 219 



Lucille Le Sueur made a name for herself. 



She called herself Joan Crawford. 
Because a star needs a star's name. 
One that commands attention. 
And gets it. 

MultiMate International is that 
kind of a name. Replacing* Software! 
Systems. A good name too, but one 
that no longer suits the company 
weVe become. 

Today, MultiMate International 
spans four continents. MultiMate, 
the word processor that redefined 
the IBM PC, has been translated 
into five languages. Its similarity to 
Wang has resulted in phenomenal 
growth, both in acceptance and 
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phenomenal growth as a company. 

MultiMate International. It's the 
name we deserve. Because it's the 
name we've earned. 

MultiMate 

international We ve made a name lor ourselves. 

Circle 406 on inquiry card. 




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Professional 

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Here's what you can do! 



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222 BYTE • IUNE 1984 



Circle 116 on inquiry card. 



THEME 



CAUTIONS ON 

COMPUTERS 

IN EDUCATION 

BY Stephan L. Chorover 

Effects on the 
student-teacher relationship 



"TO PROPHESY IS extremely difficult." 
says an old Chinese proverb, "especially 
with respect to the future." Nevertheless, 
the proliferation of personal computers 
in the educational environment seems 
certain to have a profound and far- 
reaching effect upon teachers, students, 
and the educational enterprise as a 
whole. 

As a student of "psychotechnology," 
I am interested in the material and con- 
ceptual impact of sociotechnological 
change upon both the thought process 
and behavior of individuals, and the 
organization and development of 
human groups. What is the relationship 
between computer-based systems and 
the human social systems within which 
they develop or into which they are in- 
troduced? As an educator and psychol- 
ogist, I am interested mainly in the 
human side of this question, as we make 
the transition to computer-based sys- 
tems of instruction. 
' Only experience and time will tell 
whether or not the computerization of 
education will actually revolutionize the 
ways in which we teach and learn, but 
it will undoubtedly have many more or 
less profound effects upon how stu- 



dents and teachers relate to one 
another. 

Among the questions that I would like 
to see addressed are these: How will 
the evolution of computer systems af- 
fect the fundamental form and content 
of the educational enterprise? What ef- 
fects will it have on the personal and 
professional lives of students and 
teachers? How will it affect relations be- 
tween, and patterns of interactions 
among, individuals and groups? 

Carnegie-Mellon University is devel- 
oping an integrated computer network. 
CMU President Richard Cyert wrote in 
Science (November 1 1 , 1982) that: "An en- 
vironment that is densely populated 
with computers represents a new type 
of world. We need to know the impact 
of such an environment on social inter- 

Stephan L. Chorover [Department of Psy- 
chology, MIT. Cambridge, MA 02139) is a 
neuropsychologist and professor of psychology at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He 
is the author of From Genesis to Genocide: 
The Meaning of Human Nature and the 
Power of Behavior Control (MIT Press, 
1979) and a frequent commentator on devel- 
opments in the field of "psychotechnology." 



actions. We also must study the effects 
of decisions made by the process of 
communicating over a network, as op- 
posed to face-to-face meetings. There 
are, in fact, a large number of issues that 
require study at the inception of the 
radical change we are making." 

At Carnegie-Mellon, he reports, the 
task of studying these questions has 
been assigned to a committee of social 
and computer scientists. 

Schools as Factories 

Ostensible experts, including many of 
this year's political candidates, are in- 
clined to issue alarms about the declin- 
ing "efficiency and productivity" of 
American commerce and industry, 
especially as compared to that of the 
Japanese. Equally expert analyses of the 
present state of our educational system 
tend to reflect and reinforce this per- 
spective. I have been unable to find a 
single example of a recent, officially 
authorized review of American public 
school education that is not predicated 
upon the view that we are falling woe- 
fully behind our principal competitors 
in the international race for industrial 
[text continued on page 224) 



JUNE 1984 'BYTE 223 



COMPUTER CAUTIONS 



[text continued from page 223) 
and commercial supremacy in the 
world. Once that premise is accepted it 
is easy to offer the conjecture that one 
reason for this sorry state of affairs is 
the failure of our educational institu- 
tions to provide a proper grounding in 
the skills required for national success 
and international leadership. 

In the context of this conception of 
education, we should examine what the 
experts are telling us about the role of 
computers in education. In a recent 
paper entitled "Productivity and Tech- 
nology in Education." Dr. Arthur S. 
Melmed, an official of the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Education, tells us that the 
problem of "how to improve productiv- 
ity in education" will be "perhaps the 
central problem for education and edu- 
cational research for the remainder of 
this decade." Failure to deal successfully 
with this problem, he continues, will 
have profound and far-reaching delete- 
rious effects on our national economy. 
What is to be done? Here is his answer: 
"The key to productivity improvement 
in every other economic sector has 
been through technological innovation. 
Applications of modern information 
and communication technologies that 
are properly developed and appropri- 
ately used may soon offer education 
policy makers ... a unique opportun- 
ity for productivity management." 

Though some readers may think it 
strange to speak of education in such 
crassly materialistic terms, there is 
nothing new in the idea of the school 
as a kind of "factory." As early as 1916, 
Professor Ellwood Cubberly, Dean of 
Stanford's School of Education, proud- 
ly proclaimed our schools to be "fac- 
tories in which the raw materials are to 
be shaped and fashioned into finished 
products" in accordance with "specifica- 
tions for manufacturing (derived from) 
the demands of twentieth-century 
civilization." 

Richard Cyert, in a Carnegie-Mellon 
press release of October 20, 1982, ex- 
pressed his belief that the network of 
personal computers developed at 
Carnegie-Mellon "will have the same 
role in student learning that the devel- 
opment of the assembly line in the 
1920s had for the production of auto- 
mobiles. The assembly line enabled 
large-scale manufacturing to develop. 
Likewise, the network personal com- 



puter system will enable students to in- 
crease significantly the amount of learn- 
ing they do in the university." 

Displacement, Deskilling, and 
Alienation 

My father would have said: "There is no 
free lunch." The improvement in produc- 
tivity achieved in other economic sec- 
tors through the development and de- 
ployment of technological innovations 
always has effects upon the people 
whose productive activities are direct- 
ly affected. Not all of the effects are 
reducible to measure and number. For 
the vast majority of men and women 
whose work lives have been signifi- 

Though some may 
think it strange to 
speak in such terms, 
there is nothing new in 
the idea of the school 
as a kind of factory. 

cantly affected by automation— the prin- 
cipal mode of industrial innovation— the 
response has not been entirely salutary. 
All too often automation has led to 
worker displacement, deskilling, and 
alienation. What reasons do we have to 
believe that technological innovation 
(computerization) will follow a different 
course and lead to a different outcome 
in the field of education? 

Let us imagine ourselves to be edu- 
cational policy makers involved in try- 
ing to decide which way to turn in the 
helter-skelter transition toward com- 
puter-based systems of instruction. Let 
us assume that ours is an underfinanced 
public school system in an American 
city and that our teachers feel they are 
underpaid and overworked. 

Let's assume that we are responsible 
for determining whether (and if so, how) 
to introduce computers into the 
elementary school and high school cur- 
ricula. Let us suppose further that we 
are concerned with "improving our pro- 
ductivity" and that we are already keep- 
ing track of our system's "inputs and 
outputs" through the use of standard- 
ized academic achievement tests. 



Into this situation comes a well-trained 
and well-meaning team of computer ex- 
perts and cognitive scientists. Perhaps 
they have come from a major scientific/ 
technological university or computer- 
development corporation nearby. In any 
event, they bear what appears to be a 
carefully crafted proposal; one that they 
and others have been working on for 
some time in the laboratory. They 
believe it is time for a field test. 

Precisely what have they been work- 
ing on? "Improved educational produc- 
tivity," says one. "Computer-aided in- 
struction," says another. "Computer- 
based learning," claims a third. 

They explain that the tutorial mode of 
teaching, using individualized instruc- 
tion, is much more efficient than the 
classroom mode. They have designed 
a courseware package of both hardware 
and software, with which a student who 
has no prior computer experience can 
work in a self-paced manner. Subject 
matter is broken down into codable 
units and presented to the student at 
the appropriate time. Any information 
a student needs can be encapsulated 
in a computer program. 

After an initial investment in the hard- 
ware and software, they point out, the 
system will be extremely cost-effective. 
Instead of teachers who are subject-area 
specialists, the school can hire relatively 
unskilled people to be "resource man- 
agers" and "system monitors." more 
commonly known as stockroom atten- 
dants and security guards. The univer- 
sity (or company) will provide all the ex- 
pert assistance the school will need, in- 
cluding curricular material, lesson plans, 
and examinations. The school will be 
able to say "goodbye teacher," and 
good riddance to that skyrocketing pro- 
fessional payroll. 

To the objections now arising, let me 
hasten to insist that what 1 have 
presented is more than a caricature. 
"Goodbye teacher" was, in fact, the title 
of an article written almost two decades 
ago by Professor Fred S. Keller, a be- 
havioristically inclined psychologist who 
was one of the leading developers of an 
earlier system of automated instruction 
inspired by the work of B. F. Skinner. The 
so-called "Keller Plan" is one of the old 
theories that has died along with many 
other well-intended measures for in- 
creasing educational productivity 
through automation. 



224 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



COMPUTER CAUTIONS 



"Computer tutor" systems have the 
same form, content, and intended ap- 
plications as that just described and are 
presently under development in many 
academic and corporate contexts. My 
scenario is based, in part, on a lecture 
presented recently at MIT by a visiting 
professor of cognitive science. The in- 
terpretation of the foreseeable effects 
of the computer tutor upon the quality 
of work life in the classroom (especial- 
ly as it touches on the deskilling of the 



teacher's role) is taken directly from a 
conversation with him. 

A Crisis in Education 

What is to be done? I do not presume 
to say what researchers and systems de- 
velopers in this field should do. or how 
educational policy makers ought to re- 
spond when confronted with proposals 
of this kind. Nevertheless. I am con- 
vinced that developments in the rapid- 
ly evolving field of computers in educa- 



tion are bound to have an effect on all 
of us who are part of the American 
educational system. 

I hope that the problem of automa- 
tion in education will give us a reason 
to stop, think, and reconsider the prob- 
lem of sociotechnological transition in 
deeper and more humane ways. Mean- 
while, let me suggest that the experi- 
ence gained in many places thus far 
provides a provisional basis for saying 
(text continued on page 226) 






Another View from MIT 

BY JOSEPH WEIZENBAUM 

— ♦ — 

]oseph Weizenbaum. Ph.D., a Professor of computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology, made the following comments in a telephone interview conducted by Donna 

Osgood, a BYTE associate editor, on the effectiveness of computers as learning tools. 



We in the United States are in 
the grip of a mass delusion 
with respect to the education 
of kids with computers. The belief that 
it is very urgent that we put computers 
in primary and secondary schools is 
based on a number of premises, of which 
only one is true. The true premise is that 
the whole world is becoming increasingly 
pervaded by computers. But then peo- 
ple infer that in a world pervaded by 
computers, everybody must be "com- 
puter literate" in order to be able to cope 
with the world at all. A second inference 
is that a high degree of computer literacy 
assures one a good job, while computer 
illiteracy condemns one to life on the 
margin of the coming information society. 

I think most people imagine computer 
literacy to consist largely of the ability to 
communicate with computers, to operate 
them and to be able to correctly inter- 
pret their output. Hence, computer 
literacy is generally interpreted to mean 
knowing a computer language or two, 
and probably involves facility with the 
computer's keyboard. 

Another illusion is that computer-lan- 
guage learning is like other kinds of learn- 
ing. That, of course, is best done very 
early in life, indeed, the earlier the bet- 
ter. This provides a lot of fuel for the 
pressure on the schools to begin com- 
puter training very early and to make it 
part of the school curriculum from 
kindergarten to grade 12. 

Again, all of this is based upon the true 
assumption that the computer is begin- 
ning to pervade and will continue to per- 
vade our society. I would like to draw an 



analogy to something else that is ubi- 
quitous in our society— the electric motor. 
There are undoubtedly many more elec- 
tric motors in the United States than there 
are people, and almost everybody owns 
a lot of electric motors without thinking 
about it. They are everywhere, in auto- 
mobiles, food mixers, vacuum cleaners, 
even watches and pencil sharpeners. Yet, 
it doesn't require any sort of electric- 
motor literacy to get on with the world, 
or, importantly, to be able to use these 
gadgets. 

Another important point about electric 
motors is that they're invisible. If you 
question someone using a vacuum 
cleaner, of course they know that there 
is an electric motor inside. But nobody 
says "Well, I think I'll use an electric motor 
programmed to be a vacuum cleaner to 
vacuum the floor." 

The computer will also become large- 
ly invisible, as it already is to a large ex- 
tent in the consumer market. I believe 
that the more pervasive the computer 
becomes, the more invisible it will 
become. We talk about it a lot now 
because it is new, but as we get used to 
the computer, it will retreat into the 
background. How much hands-on com- 
puter experience will students need? The 
answer, of course, is not very much. The 
student and the practicing professional 
will operate special-purpose instruments 
that happen to have computers as com- 
ponents. 

The emphasis on learning computer 
languages early is misplaced. It is clear 
to me that computer languages are not 
like natural languages. I think they are 



more like mathematical languages or 
physics. They require a certain intellec- 
tual maturity, and when you have that in- 
tellectual or mathematical maturity, you 
can learn them relatively quickly. It isn't 
worth spending a lot of time on at an 
early age. 

The counterargument that we should 
begin with baby steps early, like teaching 
BASIC to eight-year-olds, is going in ex- 
actly the wrong direction. BASIC is, from 
a pedagogic point of view, an intellectual 
monstrosity that we should start to eradi- 
cate and not attempt to use as a basis 
for anything. 

I'm trying to argue that the introduc- 
tion of computers into primary and sec- 
ondary schools is basically a mistake 
based on very false assumptions. Our 
schools are already in desperate trouble, 
and the introduction of the computer at 
this time is, at very best, a diversion— 
possibly a dangerous diversion. 

Ibo often, the computer is used in the 
schools, as it is used in other social estab- 
lishments, as a quick technological fix. It 
is used to paper over fundamental prob- 
lems to create the illusion that they are 
being attacked. 

If Johnny can't read and somebody 
writes computer software that will im- 
prove Johnny's reading score a little bit 
for the present, then the easiest thing to 
do is to bring in the computer and sit 
Johnny down at it. This makes it unnec- 
essary to ask why Johnny can't read. In 
other words, it makes it unnecessary to 
reform the school system, or for that mat- 
ter the society that tolerates the break- 
down of its schools. 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 225 



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COMPUTER CAUTIONS 



[text continued from page 22 5) 
what should not be done. Computer- 
based systems should not be intro- 
duced from the top down. 

Too many schools still follow a well- 
established recipe for disaster: first, 
policy makers choose the hardware, 
then decide on the software. They then 
teach teachers and other staff how to 
use the system, and finally, everybody 
tries to figure out what the goals of 
system utilization are to be and whether 
the system already in place can help 
meet those goals. 

Instead, teachers and students should 
be involved at all stages of the process, 
including the initial and difficult (often 



Too many schools still 
follow an established 
recipe for disaster: 
first, policy makers 
choose the hardware, 
then decide on the 
software. 



neglected) one of defining the educa- 
tional values and goals that any such 
system is intended to serve. 

It would be a very serious error to 
look only at the technical aspects of 
computers in education and to think 
only in terms of quantifiable productive 
efficiency. It is only in the context of a 
supportive educational community— a 
human environment conducive to learn- 
ing—that the hazards of automation can 
be avoided. 

What then needs to be done in the 
design of educational systems that will 
include the use of computers? Without 
attempting to give a comprehensive 
answer, as the details will vary from case 
to case. I would suggest that we must 
take it as our goal to draw people into 
an intimate and creative human context. 
The people who are on the receiving 
end of the innovations have to be in- 
volved in the transition. We are at a turn- 
ing point, if you will, a kind of crisis. The 
Chinese character for "crisis" is made 
up of two other characters: "danger" 
and "opportunity." ■ 



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THEME 



LANGUAGES FOR 
STUDENTS 

by Fred A. Masterson 

Evaluating programming languages 
for use in education 



ONE OF THE MOST enlightened forms 
of computer-aided instruction (CA1) en- 
courages students to use a program- 
ming language to explore problem do- 
mains, classes of related problems. In 
addition to enhancing computer 
literacy, such exploration helps students 
acquire strategies for learning about 
new problem domains. But all program- 
ming languages are not created equal; 
some are more. appropriate for this ap- 
plication than others. 

I have four requirements for a CA1 
programming language: simplicity, 
power, compatibility, and cognitive rich- 
ness. "Simplicity" refers to the ease with 
which students can learn a program- 
ming language, at least to the degree 
that they can use it to solve simple 
problems. "Power" is a measure of the 
ease with which a programming lan- 
guage can be applied to complicated 
problems. Simplicity and power are 
relatively independent. Some program- 
ming languages are difficult to learn but 
provide relatively easy solutions to 
complex problems, while some simple 
languages do not. 

The third requirement for a CA1 pro- 
gramming language is that it be com- 
patible with other computing applica- 
tions. A programming language en- 
countered in a CA1 context may be the 
first computing experience for many 
students. There should be a positive 



transfer between a CA1 programming 
language and such common computing 
applications as word processing, 
statistics packages, and other popular 
programming languages. 

"Cognitive richness" measures the 
extent to which the programming lan- 
guage facilitates thinking about various 
problems. Cognitively rich languages 
provide easy ways to represent and test 
hypotheses about the rules governing 
problem domains. In contrast, cog- 
nitively poor languages may actually 
block reasoning about a problem do- 
main by producing an antagonism be- 
tween natural ways of thinking and the 
representations allowed by the lan- 
guage. This requirement is closely 
related to those of simplicity and power. 
Indeed, ease of learning and ease of ap- 
plication necessitate a rich notation for 
representing problems. 

Mainstream Languages: 
Neither Simple 
Nor Powerful 

Such mainstream programming lan- 
guages as FORTRAN. ALGOL, and 
Pascal are widely distributed and widely 
used in academia and industry. The 
same languages tend to be popular in 

Fred A. Masterson is a professor of cognitive 
sciences and psychology at the University of 
Delaware (Newark. DE 19711). 



both settings, since industry hires the 
graduates of academia. and curriculum 
planners are sensitive to the needs of 
industry. 

FORTRAN (Formula Translation), 
because it was the first high-level lan- 
guage, established a dominance that 
still prevails in physical science and 
engineering, though most versions of it 
lack overall coherence and well- 
designed flow-of-control commands. 
FORTRAN programs make heavy use of 
conditional branching statements that 
send control to different parts of a pro- 
gram, so that programs for all but the 
simplest tasks must be read in a zigzag 
fashion, instead of in a smooth flow 
from top to bottom. (However. RATFOR. 
a UNIX version of FORTRAN, and FOR- 
TRAN 77 incorporate ALGOLrlike flow- 
of-control commands.) 

ALGOL (Algorithmic Language) shows 
a higher degree of internal consistency 
and sophisticated control structures. As 
a result, it became a universal language 
for communicating algorithms in com- 
puter science. ALGOL control structures 
such as BEGIN . . . END. IF. . .THEN . . . 
ELSE. FOR. . .DO. and WHILE. . .DO 
set a precedent for future solutions to 
flow of control in programming lan- 
guages. However. ALGOL lacks a stan- 
dard set of commands for reading and 
writing data. 

(text continued on page 234) 

JUNE 1984 -BYTE 233 



STUDENT LANGUAGES 



[text continued from page 233) 

Pascal, a descendant of ALGOL, is do- 
ing well in academia. Pascal is trim 
enough to run in the 48K- to 64K-byte 
memory limit that characterizes many 
of the personal computers commonly 
used in educational settings. It is small 
enough to be easily implemented, and 
its trimness makes its syntax and 
semantics easy to specify and relative- 
ly easy to grasp. 

A major drawback to FORTRAN, 
ALGOL, and Pascal as programming 
languages for student use is that they 
are not interactive. In order to try 
even the simplest commands, a student 
must enter them in a source-code file, 
run a compiler to produce an object- 
code file, and then run a linker to make 
an executable program file. Con- 
sequently, experiments with one or a 
few commands consume dispropor- 
tionately large amounts of time and 
effort. A much better environment 
would be an interactive one in which 
small sets of statements could be tested 
immediately 

A second major flaw in these pro- 
gramming languages is that all complex 
procedures must be broken down into 
steps that manipulate the contents of 
single memory locations in the com- 
puter. Although the computer is forced 
by its architecture to deal with memory 
locations one at a time, a programming 
language suitable for student use 
should disguise this limitation, making 
it seem that entire arrays or lists of 
numbers or characters can be manipu- 
lated by single commands. 

The "one thing at a time" limitation is 
often built into programming languages 
as a limitation on the values of user- 
defined functions, which must be the 
contents of a single location in memory. 
Thus, functions cannot return arrays or 
lists as values— only single numbers or 
items. Subroutines in FORTRAN or 
procedures in ALGOL or Pascal must be 
used to compute more complicated 
data structures. As a result, procedure 
or subroutine calls are used much more 
frequently than functions. This is 
unfortunate, because a sequence of 
function applications can convey a 
clearer picture of a computation than 
an equivalent sequence of procedure or 
subroutine calls. For example, consider 
the problem of squaring each element 
of a matrix named MATRIX1 and then 



transposing the result. If SQUARE and 
TRANSPOSE could be coded as 
functions, a solution would be 

MATRIX2 := TRANSPOSE (SQUARE 

(MATRIX1)) 

Since this is not possible in any of the 

aforementioned languages, the solution 

would have to look something like this: 

SQUARE (MATRIXI, 
TEMPORARYMATRIX) 

TRANSPOSE (TEMPORARYMATRIX, 
MATRIX2) 
where the first argument of each pro- 
cedure is the matrix to be operated 
upon and the second argument is the 
result of the operation. (In FORTRAN, 
"CALL:' would precede "SQUARE" and 
"TRANSPOSE".) By comparison, the 
functional notation is considerably 
clearer. 

BASIC: 

Simple But Not Powerful 

A high degree of interactiveness is 
essential to the potential simplicity of 
a programming language. One of the 
best-known interactive programming 
languages is BASIC (Beginner's All- 
Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). 
Successive lines of a BASIC program are 
typed directly to the BASIC system, and 
a program can be run immediately, with- 
out the delays interpolated by compil- 
ing and linking. In addition, most BASIC 
systems can execute single lines of com- 
mands outside of formal program def- 
initions. 

BASIC became the programming lan- 
guage for microcomputers during the 
middle to late 1970s because it was 
small enough to fit in the limited mem- 
ories of early microcomputers. The 
price of this compactness was reduced 
performance. 

Like FORTRAN, BASIC lacks adequate 
control structures. Many versions 
restrict variable names to no more than 
two characters, making the use of 
mnemonic names nearly impossible. 
However, BASIC'S most egregious flaw 
is the absence of procedures or subrou- 
tines. Many manuals erroneously de- 
scribe BASIC'S "GOSUB" command as 
a subroutine facility In fact, it is no more 
than an unconditioned branch from one 
to another block of code, with the abil- 
ity to later return to the original block. 

Fortunately, standards for an im- 
proved version have been drafted by 
the BASIC Committee of the American 



National Standards Institute (ANSI). The 
proposed standard allows multicharac- 
ter names for variables and ALGOL-like 
flow-of-control commands. The new 
standard also supports true subroutines 
with calling parameters and local 
variables. 

APL and LISP: 
Powerful But Not Simple 

All the languages we've looked at so far 
have only moderate power because 
they suffer from the "one thing at a 
time" limitation mentioned earlier. 
Restricting our search to readily avail- 
able programming languages, two avoid 
this limitation— APL and LISP. Imple- 
mentations of APL (A Programming 
Language) and LISP (List Processing lan- 
guage) are available for many main- 
frame and minicomputer systems and 
for some microcomputers. APL and 
LISP are highly interactive and extreme- 
ly powerful, but their unusual notations 
have daunted many would-be users. 

In some ways, APL and LISP are two 
of the best-kept secrets in computer 
software. While both have devoted 
users, neither has gained widespread 
acceptance, probably because of the 
notational problems mentioned above. 
Yet beneath those quirky notations lie 
programming systems that can be de- 
scribed as "futuristic" when compared 
to ALGOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, and 
Pascal. 

APL and LISP let users think in terms 
of data structures. The data structures 
favored by APL are arrays (scalars, vec- 
tors, matrices, and arrays with more 
than two dimensions). In LISP, the data 
structures are lists (and the elements of 
a list may themselves be lists). Both APL 
and LISP enable the user to define func- 
tions that return entire data structures. 
Thus, embedded function applications 
can be used to clarify the hierarchical 
structure of a computation. Here is the 
APL command for the earlier example, 
squaring each element of a matrix and 
transposing the result: 

MATRIX2 <- TRANSPOSE SQUARE 
MATRIXI 

APL and LISP are also highly interac- 
tive. A function can be executed as soon 
as its definition has been entered. In ad- 
dition, you can execute commands in 
"immediate execution mode" without 
embedding them in a function defini- 
[text continued on page 236) 



234 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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STUDENT LANGUAGES 



[text continued from page 234) 
tion. Thus, it is very easy to try out 
various commands to see how they 
work. This is especially valuable in 
powerful languages such as APL and 
LISP, where the effects of one-line com- 
mands can be relatively far-reaching. 

Both APL and LISP encourage a 
modular programming style in which 
problems are broken down into several 
short function definitions. Since each 
function can be tested separately, logic 
errors are relatively easy to detect and 
rectify, lb further aid debugging, both 
languages enable the user to set "trace 
points" and "break points" in functions. 
TVace points enable the user to follow 
the flow of control from function to 
function or from line to line in the same 
function. Break points suspend execu- 
tion at preselected locations in func- 
tions so that the user can check the 
state of the computation at those 
locations. 

APL and LISP let the user store large 
numbers of function definitions and 
data objects in the user's core image, 
thus greatly reducing the need for disk 
file save and retrieve commands. The 
user's core memory image is allocated 
dynamically, expanding when additional 
functions or structures are created and 
contracting when functions or structures 
are reduced or eliminated. Memory al- 
location is completely transparent to 
the user, so that "dimension state- 
ments" are not required to warn the 
system of future memory requirements. 
At any time, the entire memory image 
can be saved as a single disk file and 
retrieved later. Thus, the user can load 
an entire core image from disk, modify, 
delete, or add functions and data struc- 
tures to that image, then save the en- 
tire core image back to disk. 

APL and LISP are self-contained pro- 
gramming-language environments. They 
have coordinated facilities for memory 
management, error recovery, and 1/Q 
formatting defaults that enable users to 
customize the environment to fit special 
requirements. 

Although both APL and LISP are in- 
teractive and powerful, they use offbeat 
notations and eccentric built-in editors. 
APL uses unusual characters and re- 
quires special terminals outfitted with 
APL keyboards. LISP has standard char- 
acters but uses reverse Polish notation 
and uses parentheses often to delineate 



the structure of a computation. 

Neither APL nor LISP has structured 
commands for controlling iterations. 
Fortunately both languages encourage 
programming styles that reduce the 
need for iteration, because both pro- 
vide many commands that process en- 
tire data structures at once. Indeed, 
many of the applications of iteration in 
other languages involve the one-at-a- 
time processing of sequential elements 
of a list, vector, or array— processing 
that can be done in a single APL or LISP 
command. The use of recursive pro- 
gramming techniques further reduces 
the need for iteration in APL and LISP. 

ampl and logo: 
Simple and Powerful 

Fortunately, programming-language sys- 
tems without notational difficulties can 
be based on APL and LISP. AMPL (A 
Modified Programming Language), de- 
veloped at the University of Delaware, 
is a dialect of APL that avoids the spe- 
cial APL character set. |For a list of 
publications on AMPL, see the 
bibliography on page 2 38.| Logo, 
though inspired by LISP, does not rely 
as heavily on parentheses and allows 
the use of standard notation (in addition 
to reverse Polish) for arithmetic opera- 
tors. 

Despite notational simplification, 
AMPL and Logo retain many of the ad- 
vanced features of their parent lan- 
guages. In particular, both AMPL and 
Logo have the following features: 

1. interactive, interpreted code 

2. powerful primitives for creating 
and altering whole data structures 

3 . functional notation that often em- 
phasizes the hierarchical structure of 
a computation 

4. dynamic memory allocation 

5. stored workspaces containing 
variables and function definitions 

6. user access to system variables 

The Logo programming language is a 
simple yet powerful tool that children 
can use to explore the worlds of geo- 
metry, mathematics, and physics. How- 
ever, far from being just for children. 
Logo has many sophisticated features 
that will sustain the interest of advanced 
programmers. 

We have used AMPL as part of an in- 
troductory college-level course in 
statistical data analysis. Our goals are 



twofold. First, and most important, we 
want to provide our students with a 
simple yet powerful tool for exploring 
mathematical and statistical relation- 
ships in sets of experimental data. Our 
second goal is to further the cause of 
computer literacy. This is the first ex- 
posure of most of our students to com- 
puters. Thus, it is extremely important 
that the experience be interesting and 
that it transfer to other computer ac- 
tivities. Perhaps the strongest motive 
behind the design of AMPL was to rid 
APL of its major eccentricities and thus 
increase its commonality with other 
computing notations and systems. 

AMPL enables students to experi- 
ment with the grammar of algebra. 
There is a close correspondence be- 
tween the structure of AMPL expres- 
sions and the equivalent algebraic ex- 
pressions. Thus, each time a student in- 
teractively tries an AMPL expression, he 
or she learns a little more about the 
rules governing the evaluation of 
algebraic expressions. The end result of 
such learning can be dramatic. Students 
with poor math backgrounds, who 
otherwise would have difficulty grasp- 
ing algebraic evaluation rules, learn the 
rules relatively easily by interacting with 
AMPL. 

In addition to computing the values 
of statistics, students use AMPL to do 
sampling experiments. The experiments 
simulate coin tossing, sampling from 
continuous distributions, sampling cor- 
relation scatter plots, and so on. Such 
experiments give students a dynamic 
understanding of sampling variability 
and illustrate the basic logic of statistical 
inference. 

Cognitive Richness: 
Languages to Think with 

Cognitively rich languages let users 
think in terms of complete structures. 
APL and AMPL let users think in terms 
of whole arrays, and LISP and Logo let 
users think in terms of hierarchical list 
structures. While other languages sup- 
port these types of data, they distract 
the programmer's attention to element- 
by-element processing details. Due to 
the built-in "one thing at a time" limita- 
tion, the net effect is to pull the pro- 
grammer's perspective away from the 
whole structure. 
The numerical array representations 

(text continued on page 238) 



236 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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STUDENT LANGUAGES 



(text continued from page 236) 
of APL and AMPL make these lan- 
guages ideal for representing problems 
in linear algebra and statistics. Arrays 
can be used in these languages to rep- 
resent string data as well. For example, 
a book is easily represented as a three- 
dimensional array in which each two- 
dimensional slice represents a page of 
text. Simple commands can be used to 
access and rearrange pages, lines, 
columns, and individual characters. 

The hierarchical list structures of LISP 
and Logo facilitate the representation 
of algebraic formulas and propositions 
in symbolic logic. List structures are also 
useful in natural-language programs, 
where they represent the grammatical 
parsing diagram of a sentence or, at a 
deeper level of processing, a proposi- 
tional representation of the meaning of 
the sentence. 

The ability to think in terms of whole 
structures comes as a delightful surprise 
to students who are used to "one thing 
at a time" languages. Data structures ac- 
quire an almost physical palpability as 
the user breaks them apart and re- 
assembles them into new structures by 
means of simple commands. 

Another contribution to cognitive 
power is the freedom these languages 
provide from disk file bookkeeping. All 
required procedures and data struc- 
tures reside in a core workspace and are 
instantly accessible by name. In many 
other languages a source program may 
reside in one file, library procedures in 
another, and data in yet another. As a 
result, the user must move about from 
file to file to edit procedures and data. 
This is just one more'source of distrac- 



tion from the cognitive goals of a 
programmer. 

Another conceptually powerful fea- 
ture of APL, AMPL. LISP, and Logo is 
the ability to write recursive procedures; 
that is, procedures that call themselves. 
For example, a recursive procedure to 
determine the length of a list would 
apply itself to the list with one element 
removed and then add I to the answer. 
This recursive procedure is shorter and 
conceptually more satisfying than an 
iterative one that steps through the list 
counting each element in turn. 

wanted: responsive, 
Customizable Languages 

The result of my survey of widely avail- 
able programming languages is distress- 
ing. One might well ask why so few pro- 
gramming languages are suitable for 
CAI. And since CA1 suitability should be 
synonymous with "human efficiency," 
why are there so few human-oriented 
programming languages? 

We are at a new frontier of program- 
ming-language design. The old, inflex- 
ible, noninteractive programming lan- 
guages have catered to the large-scale 
computing needs of science, business, 
and government. What we need now 
are flexible, interactive, powerful pro- 
gramming languages for the student 
and the personal computer user. 

The requirements of large-scale com- 
puting could hardly be farther from 
those of most students and individuals. 
Cost-effective programming languages, 
in the context of economies of scale, de- 
mand machine efficiency at the expense 
of human efficiency. Machine-efficient 
programming languages tend to be in- 



flexible and picayune, requiring several 
lines of code to accomplish even the 
simplest tasks. Programming becomes 
a tedious task prone to mistakes. 

An analogy can be made to ground 
transportation. Businesses use large 
trucks to transport goods as cheaply as 
possible. Who would claim that in- 
dividuals should use the same vehicles 
to go to work or go shopping? FOR- 
TRAN, ALGOL, BASIC and Pascal seem 
like trucks. We need more "auto- 
mobiles" and "bicycles": responsive, 
customizable programming languages 
for CAI and personal computing. ■ 

AMPL, a modification of APL designed at 
the University of Delaware, allows standard 
ASCII characters, mnemonic command 
names, and a simple editor. It runs on the 
DECsystem-10 mainframe. A VAX 780 ver- 
sion is due for release this summer, and an 
IBM PC version is projected for 1985. 

The author thanks Ken Cowan. Elizabeth Rust 
Kahl, Suzanne McBride, and 'Ibny Stavely for 
their helpful comments on earlier versions 
of this article. 

Bibliography 

Masterson. F. A. "Bringing APL Down to 
Earth on the DECsystem-lQ Standard 
Characters and a Standard Editor." Behavior 
Research Methods and Instrumentation. 1981. 
Volume 13, pages 374-376. 
Masterson. F. A. DEC-10 AMPL Installation 
Guide. Newark, Delaware: Software 
Psychology Project, Department of 
Psychology. University of Delaware, 'technical 
Memorandum No. 3, August 15. 1981. 
Masterson. F. A. AMPL: A Modified Program- 
ming language. Newark, Delaware: Software 
Psychology Project. Department of 
Psychology, University of Delaware. Technical 
Memorandum No. 4. August 15, 1981. 




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THEME 



MICROCOMPUTERS 
IN THE FIELD 



by Robert P. Case 

Practical 
considerations 



PORTABLE COMPUTERS ARE perfect- 
ly suited for use in anthropological and 
zoological in-the-field data-processing 
applications. Portables were designed, 
however, for use in friendly environ- 
ments. "Ming a portable into potential- 
ly hostile environments requires more 
than the usual planning for system 
organization. Introduction of unfriend- 
ly elements like extremes of tempera- 
ture and humidity, contamination by 
dust and other foreign matter, and 
general abuse in the field, can quickly 
reduce a computer to electronic junk. 
This article describes the special selec- 
tion and the "hardening" of a portable 
computer system for use in a research 
project in Central America. 

Throughout this discussion I have 
taken a cookbook-like approach based 
on the presumption that field scientists 
interested in this application will have 
modest exposure to computers. A step- 
by-step presentation should be the 
most useful for the reader. 

Why Use a System 
in the Field? 

Field scientists in anthropology, environ- 
mental sciences, and zoology conduct 
research primarily through funding pro- 
vided by a variety of public or private 
agencies. Research funds are traditional- 
ly in short supply and the competition 
is always strenuous. A proposed project 



must promise much in the way of re- 
search, and once funded, it must deliver, 
especially if it is to receive future 
assistance. Most granting agencies 
monitor the research closely and re- 
quire that the researcher provide 
preliminary reports on the progress 
made. Some of the advantages of an 
onsite computer should be readily ap- 
parent, given these conditions. I will 
draw upon experiences from my current 
project to illustrate various points. 

The project is a three-year research 
program designed to investigate the 
pre-Columbian Mayan civilization of 
southern Mexico and northern Central 
America. My role is to direct laboratory 
and data-processing operations. A mul- 
tiplicity of competing theories have 
been offered about the rise and fall of 
Mayan social, economic, and political 
organization, but very little has been 
done in the way of empirical testing. 
The primary objective of the project, 
then, is to collect and analyze sufficient 
data from our research area so that we 
can validate, modify, or reject some of 
these alternative theories. 

We recognized from the beginning 
that it would be extremely slow and dif- 
ficult to manually process such a wide 

Robert P. Case (7664 Madison Ave., lemon 
Grove. CA 9204 5) is a lecturer in anthropology 
at San Diego State University. 



variety of data; yet we wanted to be 
capable of doing some preliminary 
hypothesis testing in the field. So the 
decision was made to computerize data 
processing. 

System Analysis and Design 

After deciding to use a portable com- 
puter, the next step was to identify the 
specific tasks that the computer would 
perform. Software and. ultimately, hard- 
ware selection must be tailored to the 
user's needs. 

In our case (and probably in the case 
of all research projects), the most critical 
need was for a database management 
system that could store, manipulate, and 
retrieve data. Second, we required the 
means to mathematically analyze our 
data. A third, but not essential, function 
included word-processing and hard- 
copy documentation capabilities. 

The first consideration at this stage is 
whether it will be necessary to transfer 
data to a mainframe computer after re- 
turning from the field. We talked to the 
director of our university's mainframe 
facility to get some guidelines on the 
compatibility of different systems. 
Usually compatibility problems can be 
resolved by using special software. But 
this requires additional processing steps 
and should be avoided whenever pos- 
sible. Also, many large data-processing 
[text continued on page 244) 

JUNE 1984 -BYTE 243 



FIELD MICROS 



[text continued from page 243) 
facilities have mainframe computers by 
more than one manufacturer, so there 
may still be a wide range of compatible 
microcomputers and software to 
choose from. 

This brings us to the second step, 
selecting the software that will perform 
the specified tasks. A multitude of pro- 
grams may exist for any given task, each 
with different strengths and weak- 
nesses. Furthermore these programs 
are designed to run on particular oper- 
ating systems such as CP/M or MS-DOS. 
In effect, this stage of the system 
analysis involves simultaneously eval- 
uating competing software/hardware 
configurations. That is, program X, 
which runs only on class X computers, 
must be compared to a similar program, 
Y, which runs only on class Y computers. 
If at all possible, get a demonstration 
of the different candidates. When eval- 
uating similar programs, keep the 
following questions in mind: How well 
will it perform the tasks I need? How 
easy is it to learn and use? Has it been 
extensively tested and is it reliable? 
And, of course, how much does it cost? 
Based on this analysis, you should pin- 
point the programs you require and be 
able to narrow down the selection of 
suitable hardware. 

Your choice of a microcomputer is 
limited to the operating system your 
software will run on, but there will usual- 
ly still be a number of portable com- 
puters to choose from (see "How to 
Choose a Portable," September 1983 
BYTE, page 34). Important considera- 
tions include: the size, feel, and arrange- 
ment of the keyboard; the size and 
quality of the video monitor; the size 
of the memory; and the disk-storage 
capacity. The keyboard and monitor 
characteristics are a significant concern; 
a poor design in either can reduce in- 
put speed and accuracy. Another im- 
portant factor is the amount of random- 
access read/write memory (RAM) and 
disk storage, which can place limits on 
data storage and processing. Naturally, 
mechanical reliability and cost are also 
important concerns. 

Using these guidelines for our project 
we first examined database-manage- 
ment programs. On the basis of com- 
parisons, dBASE II was chosen for its 
greater power and flexibility. We 
searched next for a suitable statistics 



package to fill our second requirement. 
At the time of the analysis (May 1982) 
there were only a handful of such pack- 
ages. Our choice, Statpak, was designed 
to be interfaced with dBASE II and other 
popular database-management sys- 
tems. Statpak requires MBASIC and so 
this was added to our list. One other 
criterion added to our list was a 
minimum of 64K bytes of RAM for 
dBASE II; this is less important today 
since most suitcase-size and many brief- 
case-size portable microcomputers 
match or exceed 64K bytes of RAM. 

We were concurrently studying the 
portable systems then on the market. 
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our third general requirement). Finally, 
the close proximity of the Kaypro plant 
to our base at San Diego State Univer- 
sity was an additional advantage. Subse- 
quently, the peripheral devices were 
evaluated, with the Prowriter 8510 
printer (C.Itoh Electronics) and the 
500-watt Grizzly Uninterruptible Power 
System (Electronic Protection Devices 
Inc.) being selected. 

Upon completion of the system 
analysis and design we would normal- 
ly have gone out and bought the speci- 
fied equipment and software. In our 
case, however, an unexpected reduction 
in our National Science Foundation 
award made this impossible. We were 
not willing to give up easily, so we con- 
tacted each manufacturer, first by tele- 
phone, followed by a written proposal 
in which we solicited their sponsorship. 
Each one graciously accepted and we 
owe them much gratitude. 

Field Conditions and 
Microcomputers 

In spite of their portability, microcom- 
puters imitate mainframes in requiring 
a relatively clean, climate-controlled 
room at home or in the office. Obvious- 
ly, field scientists will not usually have 
such luxurious accommodations. It is 



imperative that you identify the poten- 
tial environmental perils that await and 
take the necessary preventive measures. 
A system failure in a remote location is 
extremely difficult, if not impossible, to 
recover from. 

The most serious climate-related 
problems for the computer are ex- 
cessive heat and extreme humidity or 
aridity. Equally serious is the problem 
of the equipment being infiltrated by 
dust or insects. Finally, the source and 
quality of electricity used to power the 
system has to be considered; a black- 
out, brownout, or power surge can ruin 
your whole day, not to mention your 
project. These, in fact, constitute the en- 
vironmental problems that we antici- 
pated adversely affecting our anthro- 
pology project in Central America. We 
wrote in our proposal to Kaypro that we 
expected daily temperatures to reach 
the mid-90s with humidity exceeding 90 
percent. We also noted that dust and in- 
sects would be a problem, as would an 
inconsistent power supply. Kaypro 
recognized that there were significant 
risks to the operation of a computer and 
that modifications were called for. One 
of their engineers, Ron Morgan, took on 
the task of constructing a climate- 
resistant Kaypro 10. 

Morgan's objective was to have a 
completely sealed cabinet in order to 
prevent dust and moisture from affect- 
ing components. This created additional 
problems, such as cooling and the need 
for data backup. The solution to the 
cooling problem was to build a special 
heat sink mounted to the top of the 
cabinet. Whisper fans mounted over 
holes in the cabinet circulate air through 
the components, out through the heat 
sink, and back into the cabinet again. 
This closed cooling system is designed 
to maintain the interior of the computer 
at a normal room temperature. 

Second, sealing the cabinet required 
that all vents and the floppy-disk port 
be closed. Both the hard-disk and 
floppy-disk drives were removed 
together with the standard fan. TWo of 
the new, thinner, 10-megabyte hard-disk 
drives and a Toshiba floppy-disk drive 
were installed, with the Toshiba in line 
with, but backset from, the floppy-disk 
port. The port was then sealed by 
screwing a piece of plexiglass over it. 
It was Morgan's intention to use the sec- 

[text continued on page 246) 



244 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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FIELD MICROS 



(text continued from page 244) 

ond hard disk to back up the first so 
status lights for each drive were at- 
tached to the clear plexiglass, lb moni- 
tor internal conditions a small ther- 
mometer and humidity indicator were 
placed so that they would be visible 
through this port window. 

The addition of a second hard-disk 
drive created problems. First, the power 
supply had to be modified. It was de- 
cided that the backup unit would nor- 
mally be inactive. For files to be copied, 
a three-way switch mounted on the back 
panel would be used to power up the 
second drive. Beyond that, special firm- 
ware had to be created to allow com- 
munication between the hard-disk units, 
with one designated as primary and the 
other secondary. As an added pre- 
caution, provision was made for switch- 
ing these designations in the event of 
primary-drive failure. 

With these modifications, it was ap- 
parent that all data would be resident 
on the hard disks. This was viewed as 
an example of the "all your eggs in one 
basket" syndrome, an intolerable situa- 
tion. Since we would probably have use 
of a climate-controlled building near the 
project site, we decided that we should 
also take along a Kaypro 4 computer. 
We realized that if this unit could be 
kept operational, there would be several 
important benefits, not the least of 
which was a backup for the Kaypro 10. 
Furthermore, by using the serial ports, 
the Kaypro 4 and 10 could be linked for 
uploading and downloading. This would 
provide an extra level of security since 
all data could then be backed up on 
floppy disks. Finally, the Kaypro 4 would 
give us a second data-entry station. 
Since this is the slowest aspect of any 
data-processing operation, a second 
workstation would prove quite valuable. 
One other emergency provision was 
made, that of the Toshiba floppy-disk 
drive sealed inside the Kaypro 10. If the 
Kaypro 4 were inoperable and the 10's 
performance degrading, we could 
remove the plexiglass window, power 
up the Tbshiba disk drive, and download 
the data from hard disks to floppies. 

From our perspective we had covered 
every reasonable contingency affecting 
the operational qualities of the com- 
puters. What remained was the worst 
possibility: a system failure. Ron Morgan 
assessed the various components with- 



in the Kaypros on two criteria: (1) high 
or low risk of failure, and (2) repairabili- 
ty or nonrepairability. Spare com- 
ponents of a high-risk but repairable 
nature were assembled and packaged 
for shipment. Repairing a computer in 
the field may seem like an impossible 
mission to anyone who has never 
looked inside a microcomputer. The 
Kaypros' modular design, however, 
makes replacing damaged boards 
eminently practical. Our parts kit con- 
sisted of a power-supply board, disk- 
controller board for both hard and flop- 
py disks, LSI (large-scale integration) 
chips, fuses, and whisper fans. Natural- 
ly, an appropriate tool kit was assem- 
bled and I was given some training as 
well. 

Having covered every conceivable 
angle concerning the computers, we 
next evaluated the environmental risks 
to the peripheral devices. The Prowriter 
8510 is listed in the Cltoh manual as be- 
ing operational within a temperature 
range of 5° to 40°C (41 ° to 104°F) with 
relative humidity between 10 and 85 
percent. This was judged to be ade- 
quate, so no modifications were 
needed. Of greater concern, actually, 
was the probability of the printer paper 
absorbing moisture from the air, which 
could potentially harm the printer as the 
paper passed through. This problem 
should be alleviated by keeping paper 
supplied in special storage except when 
the printer is used. 

The second device, the Grizzly Un- 
interruptible Power System, was also 
deemed to be fieldworthy without 
modification. This essential tool 
"purifies" the electrical current and in- 
stantaneously provides up to 15 
minutes of battery power to gracefully 
shut down in the event of a blackout. 
The only extra effort here was to make 
a dust cover to place over it when not 
in use, something we provided for all 
hardware. 

Operational Procedures 

Beyond mechanical modifications, 
adverse environmental conditions can 
be mitigated by thoughtful operational 
procedures. In fact, a well-designed, 
well-regulated operation is equally or 
more important than the hardware and 
software and can contribute much to 
the success or failure of any project. In 
essence, operational procedures should 



answer the questions of who, what, 
when, why, where, and how. 

Who has access to the equipment and 
what their responsibilities are might not 
be applicable to a small project with a 
one-man data-processing operation. But 
if more than one person will be work- 
ing with the equipment then it is always 
best to establish the lines of authority 
and to explicitly identify each person's 
role and duties. 

When and where data-processing 
operations take place are two important 
considerations in softening harsh en- 
vironmental conditions. Careful selec- 
tion of the physical facility where the 
operation will be established can go a 
long way toward minimizing subsequent 
problems. Similarly, by scheduling our 
operational time for the early morning 
and late afternoon or evening, we will 
avoid the high-risk peaks in heat and 
humidity and, hopefully avoid damag- 
ing the equipment. 

The most elaborate planning should 
be accorded to how the work will flow 
through the system; this should be done 
in a step-by-step fashion so that nothing 
is overlooked, lb begin with, the field 
forms on which the data is recorded 
should be designed so that they are 
easy to key into the computer. The 
cleaner the input document, the more 
accurate the data entry will be. 

Inevitably, errors will be entered, 
either because the source document 
was wrong or the key entry person 
erred. Data validation techniques must 
be developed to catch as many errors 
as feasible. Some kinds of error-trapping 
methods are built into various programs 
while others, like range and plausibility 
tests, can be specifically created to meet 
the user's needs. Ultimately, verification 
of data accuracy is best accomplished 
by spot-checking records against the 
original documents. It is advisable to 
spot-check a higher percentage of 
records in the early stages; subsequent- 
ly, verification can be reduced and 
focused toward the most critical data, 
assuming, of course, that the overall 
error rate is not excessive. 

Once the data is stored to the disk it 
should be backed up immediately. Prob- 
ably one master and two working 
copies of each program or data disk is 
the optimum level of protection. If a 
printer is available, then hard-copy 

[text continued on page 248) 



246 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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JUNE 1984 -BYTE 247 



I 
I 
I 




FIELD MICROS 



{text continued from page 246) 
documentation of raw and processed 
data files is highly recommended. This 
is especially true in multistage process- 
ing where the intermediate results will 
be modified by the final processing 
step. 

It follows from this that some basic 
housekeeping rules are required if the 
data-processing operation is to run 
smoothly and efficiently. A transaction 
log containing a running narrative of the 
daily activities is vital. This log should 
record the names of newly created files, 
what files were used in processing, what 
processing steps were used, and what 
was the disposition of the results. Fur- 
thermore, all disks and printouts should 
be unambiguously labeled and stored 
in a safe and logical manner when not 
in use. Never assume you will remember 
a filename or the location of a printout; 
this is the fastest way to sink the entire 
operation into chaos. Disks should be 
kept in a dustproof file with the various 



generations of copies separated to 
minimize catastrophic loss. Likewise, 
printouts will be more useful if they are 
organized in labeled folders or binders, 
and they will last longer as well. 

System Testing and 
Debugging 

The entire system should be assembled 
at the earliest possible moment; this will 
allow you to become familiar with its 
operating characteristics prior to enter- 
ing the field. Sufficient lead time is an 
extremely valuable asset. With it, you 
can develop applications programs, run 
test data, and uncover any bugs that 
may exist, all while you have technical 
support available. Without adequate 
lead time, there is a strong possibility 
that you will spend an inordinate 
amount of time on system basics, all to 
the detriment of the data-processing 
goals of the project. 

Frequently, over-the-counter software 
is more than adequate for research pro- 



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grams and has the added advantage of 
being thoroughly tested. The specific 
procedures required can be tested with 
data similar to what you expect to col- 
lect. This can be accomplished either by 
creating artificial test data or, as we did. 
by extracting similar data from pub- 
lished reports within our discipline. In 
either event, tests should be made for 
any errors that appear to be likely or 
that would be disastrous. Tests using 
abundant normal data and some high 
and low values are recommended. Test- 
ing for a zero value in unexpected 
places may also uncover significant 
problems. Finally, checking for empty 
files or for errors in processing the first 
and last record should reveal any re- 
maining difficulties. 

Maintenance in the Field 

Maintenance requirements will vary 
with the kind of equipment selected, 
and the kind of environmental condi- 
tions that will be encountered is espe- 
cially important. However, under every 
circumstance you will at least want to 
have dustcovers for all equipment, a 
head-cleaning kit (with refills) for the 
floppy-disk drives, and a very light (low- 
viscosity) oil for lubricating the printer. 
The only real variable is the mainte- 
nance scheduling for the floppy-disk 
drives. In our case, we have anticipated 
a severe and pervasive dust problem 
and so we have decided that the drive 
heads will be cleaned once each week. 
There is no hard and fast rule here; you 
must rely on your own judgment. 

Transportation 

Despite their portability, microcom- 
puters cannot withstand prolonged 
episodes of bumping and jostling 
about. Although more stable than mini- 
computers or mainframes, they are still 
relatively delicate. If they must be 
shipped, use sufficient packing to pre- 
vent damage. Probably the best as- 
surance of your portable computer ar- 
riving safely is to hand-carry it onto jet- 
liners. When traveling by air, have the 
computer hand-inspected at the airport 
rather than passed through electronic 
screening devices. The latter could 
potentially damage disks or, worse yet, 
the read-only memory (ROM) in the cen- 
tral processing unit. Also, while most 
portable computers are designed to fit 
(text continued on page 250) 



248 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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Circle 261 on inquiry card. 



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For Apple II owners, the 
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By the way, if you buy PRINTER- 
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FIELD MICROS 



[text continued from page 248) 
under airline seats, some computers 
may be slightly oversize. To prevent un- 
fortunate encounters, check with the 
airline you wil be traveling with before 
arriving at the airport. Even if your com- 
puter is slightly oversize, many airlines 
will allow it to be carried on and stored 
in one of the storage compartments in 



the passenger area. 

Finally, if the project destination lies 
outside of the United States, special 
documentation is required. Two sepa- 
rate documents are needed: a General 
Temporary Export license and a Ship- 
per's Export Declaration, both obtain- 
able from the U.S. Department of Com- 
merce. The General Temporary Export 



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license (GTE) is necessary for exiting the 
United States, while the Shipper's Ex- 
port Declaration demonstrates that the 
equipment was acquired in the United 
States and can thus re-enter without an 
import duty being imposed. Without a 
valid GTE in hand, a user going overseas 
may have his equipment confiscated at 
the point of embarkation. 

Pitfalls and Prospects 

Throughout this article I have pointed 
out numerous dangers that await the 
field scientist who would be bold 
enough to take a computer into the 
field. While the dangers are real, they 
are not insurmountable, and with suffi- 
cient planning they can be overcome. 
The importance of lead time cannot be 
stressed enough. Basically the field 
scientist will be faced with two enemies. 
The first is system incompatibility, which 
can be either hardware that is incom- 
patible with the software or the failure 
of the system to perform the user's tasks 
adequately. Careful system analysis and 
design will prevent this from occurring. 
The second enemy is a hostile environ- 
ment; here the mitigating measures will 
depend on the anticipated field condi- 
tions. Again, thorough planning, com- 
bined with system testing under simul- 
ated conditions, should be sufficient to 
overcome this obstacle. 

The benefits to be derived from a 
computer in the field are greater than 
the hazards faced. The turnaround time 
for data analysis is dramatically de- 
creased. Multistaged research designs 
can be executed in a single season 
rather than over several seasons. As a 
planning tool, the computer permits the 
project staff and resources to be utilized 
to maximum potential. Preliminary 
reports can be started earlier, com- 
pleted faster, and contain more substan- 
tive information than was possible ever 
before. We can hope that these pro- 
spects will encourage computer 
manufacturers to promote further 
development of fieldworthy portable 
microcomputers. ■ 



This material is based upon work supported by the 
National Science Foundation under grant number 
BNS83-10677. Any opinions offered are those of 
the author and do not necessarily reflect the views 
of the National Science Foundation. Additional sup- 
port has been provided by San Diego State Univer- 
sity and the Explorers Club. 



250 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 167 for Dealer inquiries. Circle 168 for End-User inquiries. 



Circle 80 on inquiry card. — ► 



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you, in September. Why so many BYTE 
Shows? So that our subscribers don't 
have to travel too far! 

The BYTE Shows are "selling" 
shows— where you can buy, not just 
look, BYTE subscribers enjoy special 
reduced admission prices to all BYTE 
shows, and conference seminars. These 
seminars are targeted to the interests of 
BYTE subscribers, and led by such 
BYTE favorites as Jerry Pournelle. 

The BYTE Shows are professionally 
produced by The Interface Group— the 
same pros who bring you the Comdex 
Shows. Their show "know-how", 
combined with BYTE's editorial 
expertise, make the BYTE Shows ideal 
information centers and shopping marts 
for BYTE subscribers. 

Further information on BYTE 
subscribers' exclusive benefits will be 
coming to you by mail. So, plan now to 
be in Los Angeles on June 14-17, or, at 
the BYTE Show nearest you! 



i 




1 1 




1-2-3 from Lotus. 

For everyone whoworft 

buy a best seller without 

reading the reviews. 



AY 



Ever since we introduced 1-2-3 
last year, it's received some pretty 
incredible press. 

But that's only natural. 

Because when you've got the 
number one selling PC 
business software in the 
world, you get a lot of 
critical attention. Here are 
a few significant examples: 

"The first integrated 
package is a super spread- 
sheet with speed, power and 
graphing and data- 
management functions. 
Deservedly king of the hill." 
InfoWorld 
April 16, 1984 

"For power and ease-of- 
use, 1-2-3's spreadsheet is 
hard to beat. Other programs 
do some things that 1-2-3 can't, 
but none seems to have been 
designed with comparable 
attention to detail and care 
for the user." 

PC Magazine 
April 17, 1984 

"Sit down behind 1-2-3 
from Lotus Development and 
you'll never again ask why this 
$495 business program tops the 
best seller list month after month 
it's fast, efficient, easy- 
sometimes, even fun." 
Computer Buyer's Guide and 
Handbook May, 1984 



^''iM®,,,, 






w 



Hi 



BBS? 08 "* 



i-*i-£H 



". . .two thirds of all United 
States companies buying 
business microcomputers 
last year chose 1-2-3 for 
making complex financial 
projections and displaying 
the results instantly in com- 
puter generated pie charts, 
bar charts and other 
graphic displays." 

New York Times 
February 13, 1984 
"1-2-3 is still in a 
class by itself." 

PC World 
March, 1984 
"Product of the 
Year 1983" 

Fortune 
December 12, 1983 
What the critics have 
been saying recently 
about 1-2-3, our users 
have known all along. 
It's the most powerful 
productivity software 
available today. 

To find out what 1-2-3 
from Lotus™ can do for 
you just visit your local 
computer store, 
or call 1-800-343- 
!l 5414 (in Massa- 
chusetts call 
617-492-7870). 



1-2-3 and Lotus are 
trademarks of Lotus 
Development Corporation. 



Lotus 

The hardest working software in the world. 



Circle 197 on inquiry card. 



THEME 



KERMIT: 

A FILE-TRANSFER 

PROTOCOL 
FOR UNIVERSITIES 

PART 1: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 
AND SPECIFICATIONS 



by Frank da Cruz and Bill Catchings 



RECENTLY, A GREAT deal of attention 
has been focused on developments in 
computer networking— the IEEE 802 
committee, IBM's System Network Ar- 
chitecture (SNA), the latest Ethernet in- 
terfaces, fiber optics, satellite commu- 
nications, and broadband versus base- 
band transmissions. But little attention 
has been given to the single working 
mechanism that may be the most wide- 
ly used in the real world for direct in- 
terprocessor communication: the so- 
called asynchronous protocol, which is 
found in some form at most institutions 
that have a need to transfer files be- 
tween microcomputers and central 
computers. 

Columbia University has large time- 
sharing computers at a central site com- 
plemented by smaller systems scattered 
throughout laboratories, departments, 
homes, and dormitory rooms. As soon 
as these small machines began to ap- 
pear, users asked for ways to exchange 
files with the central and departmental 
systems. 

At the same time, student use of our 
central systems was growing at an 
astonishing rate. Because we could no 
longer afford to provide students with 



perpetual on-line disk storage, we began 
to issue identification codes valid only 
for a course and term. The decreased 
longevity of the IDs caused a need for 
students to economically archive their 
files. Given a reliable way to transfer 
files to microcomputers from the cen- 
tral mainframes and back, microcom- 
puters with floppy disks could provide 
inexpensive removable media ideal for 
this purpose. 

The situation called for a file-transfer 
mechanism that could work among all 
our computers, large and small. Some 
such mechanisms were intended for use 
between microcomputers, others be- 
tween large computers, but none 
specifically addressed our need for 
communication between microcom- 
puters and IBM and DEC mainframes. 

Frank da Cruz is the manager of systems in- 
tegration at the Columbia University Center for 
Computing Activities (612 West 1 1 5th St., New 
York. NY 1002 5) and is also planning the 
university's move toward personal computing in 
the coming years. Bill Catchings was the chief 
systems programmer of the file-transfer protocol 
and its principal designer. He is currently a 
systems analyst at Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb. 



Most commercial packages served a 
limited set of systems, and their cost 
would have been prohibitive when 
multiplied .by the large number of 
machines involved. 

We thus embarked on our own proj- 
ect. Part I of this two-part article 
discusses some of the issues and trade- 
offs that arose and illustrates them in 
terms of our result, the Kermit protocol 
for point-to-point file transfer over tele- 
communication lines. Because commer- 
cial local-area-networking products are 
expensive, not yet widely available, and 
unsuitable for one-shot or long-haul ap- 
plications, humble asynchronous pro- 
tocols such as Kermit are likely to be 
with us for a long time. 

The Communication Medium 

The only communication medium com- 
mon to all computers is the asynchro- 
nous serial telecommunication line, 
used for connecting terminals to com- 
puters. Standards for this medium are 
almost universally followed— con- 
nectors, voltages, and signals (EIA 
RS-232C); character encoding (ASCII, 
ANSI X3. 4-1977); and bit-transmission 
[text continued on page 2 56) 



JUNE 1984 -BYTE 255 



KERMIT 



A communication 
protocol is a set of 
rules for handling 
packets of information. 



{text continued from page 25 5) 
sequence (ANSI X3. 15-1976). Serial con- 
nections can be made in many ways: 
dedicated local cables ("null modem" 
cables), leased telephone circuits, and 
dial-up connections. Dial-up connec- 
tions can be initiated manually from the 
home or office using an inexpensive 
acoustic coupler or automatically from 
one computer to another using a pro- 
grammable dial-out mechanism. The 
asynchronous serial line offers the or- 
dinary user a high degree of conve- 
nience and control in establishing inter- 
system connections— at relatively low 
cost. 

Once two computers are connected 
with a serial line, information can be 
transferred from one machine to the 
other, provided one side can be in- 
structed to send the information and 
the other to receive it. Right away, 
however, several important factors 
come into play: 

1. Noise— It is rarely safe to assume that 
there will be no electrical interference 
on a line; any long or switched data- 
communication line will have occa- 
sional interference, or noise, that 
typically results in garbled or extra 
characters. Noise corrupts data, 
perhaps in subtle ways not noticed un- 
til it's too late. 

2. Synchronization— Data must not come 
in faster than the receiving machine 
can handle it. Although line speeds at 
the two ends of the connection may 
match, the receiving machine might 
not be able to process a steady 
stream of input at that speed. Its cen- 
tral processor may be too slow or too 
heavily loaded or its buffers too full 
or too small. The typical symptom of 
a synchronization problem is lost 
data; most operating systems will 
simply discard incoming data they are 
not prepared to receive. 

3. Line Outages— A line may stop work- 
ing for short periods because of a 
faulty connector, loss of power, or 



similar reason. On dial-up or switched 
connections, such intermittent failures 
will cause the carrier signal to be 
dropped and the connection to be 
closed, but for any connection in 
which the carrier signal is not used, 
the symptom will be lost data. 

Other communication media, such as 
the parallel data bus, have safeguards 
built in to prevent or minimize these ef- 
fects. For instance, distances may be 
strictly limited, the environment con- 
trolled, special signals may be available 
for synchronization, and so forth. The 
serial telecommunication line provides 
no such safeguards, and we must there- 
fore regard it as an intrinsically 
unreliable medium. 

Reliable Communications 

To determine whether data has been 
transmitted between two machines cor- 
rectly and completely, the machines can 
compare the data before and after 
transmission. A scheme commonly 
used for file transfer employs cooper- 
ating programs running simultaneously 
on each machine, communicating in a 
well-defined, concise language. The 
sending program divides outbound 
data into discrete pieces, adding special 
information to each piece describing 
the data for the receiving program. The 
result is called a packet. The receiver 
separates the description from the data 
and determines whether they still 
match. If so, the packet is acknowledged 
and the transfer proceeds. If not, the 
packet is negatively acknowledged and 
the sender retransmits it; this procedure 
repeats for each packet until it is re- 
ceived correctly. 

The process is called a communica- 
tion protocol— a set of rules for forming 
and transmitting packets, carried out by 
programs that embody those rules. Pro- 
tocols vary in complexity; our prefer- 
ence was for a simple approach that 
could be realized in almost any lan- 
guage on almost any computer by a 
programmer of moderate skill, allowing 
the protocol to be easily adapted to 
new systems. 

accommodating diverse 
Systems 

Most systems agree on how to commu- 
nicate at the lowest levels— the EIA 
(Electronic Industries Association) 



RS-232C asynchronous communication 
line and the ASCII (American National 
Standard Code for Information Inter- 
change) character set— but agreement 
rarely extends beyond that. To avoid a 
design that might lock out some kinds 
of systems, we must consider certain im- 
portant ways in which systems can 
differ. 

Mainframes versus Microcomputers— A 
distinction must first be made between 
microcomputers and mainframes. These 
terms are not used pejoratively: a 
microcomputer could be a powerful 
workstation, and a mainframe could be 
a small minicomputer. For our pur- 
poses, a microcomputer is any single- 
user system in which the serial- 
communication port is strictly an exter- 
nal device. A mainframe is any system 
that is host to multiple, simultaneous 
users at terminals, who log into jobs, 
and where a user's terminal is the job's 
controlling terminal. Some mainframe 
systems allow users to assign another 
terminal line on the same machine as 
an external I/O (input/output) device. 

Mainframe operating-system terminal 
drivers usually treat a job's controlling 
terminal specially. Full-duplex systems 
echo incoming characters on the con-, 
trolling terminal but not on an assigned 
line. System command interpreters or 
user processes might take special action 
on certain characters on the controlling 
line but not on an assigned line (for in- 
stance, Control-C under CP/M or most 
DEC operating systems). Messages sent 
to a job's controlling terminal from other 
jobs could interfere with transmission 
of data. The ability of a system to test 
for the availability of input on a serial 
line might depend on whether the line 
is the job's controlling terminal or an 
assigned device; CP/M and IBM VM/370 
are examples of such systems. CP/M can 
test for data only at the console; VM 
can test anywhere but the console. 

Output to a job's controlling terminal 
may be reformatted by the operating 
system: control characters may be 
translated to printable equivalents, 
lowercase letters specially flagged or 
translated to uppercase (or vice versa), 
or tabs expanded to spaces. In addition, 
based on the terminal's declared width 
and length, long lines might be wrapped 
around or truncated, formfeeds 
translated to a series of linefeeds, and 
[text continued on page 259) 



256 BYTE • JUNE 1984 




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It lets you do almost everything 
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What's more, Statpro has 
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Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
ntiunal Business Midlines, Corp. 





JUNE 1984 -BYTE 257 



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IH&JX&I 

Helix Laboratories, inc., 8123 Remmet Ave., 
canoga Park, ca 91304 

(818) 710-0300— outside California, 800-468-0004 
Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



© 1984, Helix Laboratories, Inc. 



Circle 374 for Dealer Inquiries. Circle 375 for End-User Inquiries. 



KERMIT 



(text continued from page 2 56) 
the system may pause at the end of 
each screen full of output. Input from 
a job's controlling terminal may also be 
handled specially; lowercase letters may 
be converted to uppercase, a linefeed 
may be supplied when a carriage return 
is typed, or control characters may in- 
voke special functions, such as line 
editing or program interruption. The 
DECSYSTEM-20 is an example of a 
computer where any of these might 
happen. 

The moral here is that care must be 
taken to disable special handling of a 
mainframe job's controlling terminal 
when it is to be a vehicle for inter- 
processor communication. But some 
systems simply do not allow certain of 
these features to be disabled, so file- 
transfer protocols must be designed 
around them. 

Line Access— Line access is either full or 
half duplex. If full duplex, transmission 
can occur in both directions at once. If 
half duplex, the two sides must take 
turns sending, each signaling the other 
when the line is free; data sent out of 
turn is discarded, or it can cause a break 
in synchronization. On mainframes, the 
host echoes characters typed at the ter- 
minal in full duplex but not in half 
duplex. Naturally, echoing is undesir- 
able during file transfer. Full-duplex 
systems can usually accommodate half- 
duplex communication but not vice ver- 
sa. IBM mainframes are the most prev- 
alent half-duplex systems. 

Buffering and Flow Control— Some sys- 
tems cannot handle sustained bursts of 
input on a telecommunication line; the 
input buffer can fill up faster than it can 
be emptied, especially at high line 
speeds. Some systems attempt to buf- 
fer typeahead (unrequested input); others 
discard it. Those that buffer typeahead 
may or may not provide a mechanism 
to test or clear the buffer. 

Systems may try to regulate how fast 
characters come in using a flow-control 
mechanism, either in the data stream 
(XON/XOFF) or parallel to it (modem 
control signals), but no two systems can 
be assumed to honor the same conven- 
tions for flow control— or to do it at all. 
Even when flow control is being done, 
the control signals themselves are sub- 
ject to noise corruption. 

Our experiments with several host 
[text continued on page 260) 



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JUNE 1984 -BYTE 259 



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KERMIT 



[text continued from page 259) 
computers revealed that a burst of more 
than a line's worth of characters (60 to 
100) into a terminal port at moderate 
speed could result in loss of data— or 
worse— on some hosts. For instance, the 
communications front end of the DEC- 
system-2060 is designed on the 
statistical assumption that all terminal 
input comes from human fingers, and 
it cannot allocate buffers fast enough 
when this assumption is violated by 

Kermit is not written in 
any particular 
computer language as 
it is not a portable 
program but a portable 
protocol 



sending continuous data simulta- 
neously from several microcomputers 
attached to terminal ports. 

Character Interpretation— Systems differ in 
how they interpret characters that arrive 
at the terminal port. A host can accept 
some characters as sent, ignore others, 
translate others, and take special action 
on others. Communications front ends 
or multiplexers might swallow certain 
characters (typically, DC1, DC3) for flow 
control, padding (NUL or DEL), or trans- 
fer of control (escape). The characters 
that typically trigger special behavior 
are the ASCII control characters, in- 
cluding the delete character. For in- 
stance, of these 33 control characters, 
1 7 invoke special functions of our DEC- 
SYSTEM-20 command processor. How- 
ever, all hosts and communication pro- 
cessors we've encountered allow any 
printable character to reach an applica- 
tion program, even though the charac- 
ter may be translated to a different en- 
coding, like EBCDIC (extended binary- 
coded-decimal interchange code), for 
internal use. 

Some operating systems allow an ap- 
plication to input a character at a time; 
others delay passing the characters to 
the program until a logical record has 
been detected, usually a sequence of 
characters terminated by a carriage 
return or linefeed. Some record- 



oriented systems, like the IBM VM/370, 
discard the terminator; others keep it. 
And different ways of keeping it are 
used— UNIX translates a carriage return 
into a linefeed; most DEC operating sys- 
tems keep the carriage return but also 
add a linefeed. 

Timing Out— Hosts may or may not 
have the ability to time out. When ex- 
changing messages with another com- 
puter, it is desirable to be able to issue 
an input request without waiting forever 
should the incoming data be lost. A lost 
message could result in a protocol 
deadlock in which one system is waiting 
forever for the message while the other 
waits for a response. Some systems can 
set timer interrupts to allow escape 
from potential blocking operations; 
others, including many microcomputers, 
cannot do so. When time-outs are not 
possible, they may be simulated by 
sleep-and-test or loop-and-test opera- 
tions or deadlocked systems may be 
awakened by manual intervention. 

File Organization— Some computers 
store all files in a uniform way, such as 
the linear stream of bytes that is a UNIX 
file. Other computers have more com- 
plicated or diverse file organizations 
and access methods— record-oriented 
storage with its many variations, ex- 
emplified in IBM OS/360 or DEC RMS. 
Even simple microcomputers can pre- 
sent complications when files are 
treated as uniform data to be trans- 
ferred; for instance, under CP/M, the 
ends of binary and text files are deter- 
mined differently. A major question in 
any operating system is whether a file 
is specified sufficiently by its contents 
and its name or if additional external in- 
formation is required to make the file 
valid. A simple, generalized file-transfer 
facility can be expected to transmit a 
file's name and contents but not every 
conceivable attribute a file might 
possess. 

Designers of expensive networks have 
gone to great lengths to pass file at- 
tributes along when transferring files be- 
tween unlike systems. For instance, the 
DECnet Data Access Protocol supports 
42 generic-system capabilities (such as 
whether files can be preallocated, ap- 
pended to, accessed randomly etc.), 8 
data types (ASCII, EBCDIC, executable, 
etc.), 4 organizations (sequential 
relative, indexed, hashed), 5 record for- 
[text continued on page 262) 



260 BYTE • OJNE 



* • • * EXTRA * * * * 



FOX&GELLER 
SHIPS OZ! 



ADVERTISEMENT 



OZ DOES FOR MANAGERS 
WHAT SPREADSHEETS CAN'T 



Elmwood Park, N.J. — Fox & Geller 
today announced the shipping of 
OZ, their new stand-alone financial 
management software. 

OZ is designed to do what managers 
have been trying to do with spread- 
sheets all alona. 

OZ can work with spreadsheet files 
or its own data files to perform 
managerial functions like: Organiza- 
tional consolidation, Profit & Loss 
analysis, 3-dimensional financial anal- 
ysis, built-in financial reports plus com- 
plete color graphics capability. Most 
of these functions are performed with 
a single keystroke. 

Fox & Geller boast of a unique 
Budget Variance Analysis feature in 
OZ. Everytime you change a number 
OZ will allow you to give a reason for 
making the change. This makes it easy 
to spot and explain any variance in 
your company's key financial in- 



dicators. You could never do this with 
spreadsheets. In fact, many of the 
features in OZ have never before been 
available on microcomputers. 

OZ is written in plain English with an 
instructive, step-by-step manual and 
requires no programming or previous 
computer experience. 

Big corporations are seen as a major 
market for OZ as are current users of 
popular spreadsheet like Lotus 
1 -2-3™ Multiplan™ and VisiCalc™ 



DEALERS EAGER 
FOR OZ! 

Dealers today are spreading the news 
concerning OZ, the latest introduction 
from Fox & Geller, the creators of 
QUICKCODE. 

OZ is a stand-alone financial man- 
agement program specially tailored for 
managers. OZ enables the user 10 per- 
form specific managerial tasks using 
data from OZ files or from existing 
spreadsheet data files. 

Industry analysts predict the Fox & 
Geller name will guarantee OZ immedi- 
ate success. 'They are well respected", 
an industry spokesman said recently. "A 
lot of people are using their dBASE II 
enhancement packages", he said refer 
ring to QUICKCODE and dGRAPH by 
Fox& Geller. 

OZ offers managers the ability to 
have complete control over their 
financials. OZ is the first and only 
software that can actually be used to 
(continued on page 44) 








These ads for OZ have appeared in major computer 
magazines including Infoworld, Byte, PC Magazine, PC 
Week, Computer Retail News, Computer Merchandis- 
ing, and Micro Market World. 






ASK FOX&GELLER 

Q:WhatisOZ? 

A: OZ is a corporate financial 
management program that you can use 
by itself or as a companion to your 
existing spreadsheet. OZ is programed 
to give you control over budgets, 
actuals and forecasts with a variety of 
easy to use functions. 

Q: Why do I need OZ? 

A: By controlling the financials of an 
organization you control the organiza- 
tion. OZ gives you this ability. You will 
know why sales are down, why costs 
went up, what effect it will have on next 
year or the rest of this year and what 
can be done to control it in the future. 
Imagine, having this much information 
at your desk. 

Q: How is OZ different than a 
spreadsheet? 

A: As good as spreadsheets are, they 
are very general in their application. 
OZ was made for managers and is spe- 
cifically tailored to perform functions 
managers need on a daily basis. 

OZ does what managers have been 
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and actuals, 3-dimensional financial 
analysis, built-in reports of key financial 
indicators and complete color graphic 
capability to name a few. 

Q: Do I have to be a Fortune 500 
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A: No. OZ is as useful for managers in 
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Q: Where do I get OZ? 

A: OZ is available at most local compu- 
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1 800-221-0156 

Circle 14 1 on inquiry card. 

* Lotus 1 -2-3 is a trademark of Lotus Corporation 
'Multiplan is a trademark of Microsoft 
*VisiCalc is a trademark of VisiCorp 



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1224 Mariposa, San Francisco, CA 94107 
415-861-2223 




KERMIT 



[text continued from page 260) 
mats (fixed, variable, etc.), 8 record at- 
tributes (for format control), 14 file- 
allocation attributes (byte size, record 
size, block size, etc.), 28 access options 
(supersede, update, append, rewind, 
etc.). 26 device characteristics (terminal, 
directory structured, shared, spooled, 
etc.), and various access options (new. 
old, rename, password, etc.), in addition 
to the better-known file attributes like 
name, creation date, protection code, 
and so on. All this was deemed neces- 
sary even when the designers had only 
a small number of machines from one 
vendor to worry about. 

The ARPA (Advanced Research Proj- 
ects Agency of the Department of 
Defense) network, which attempts to 
provide services for many more ma- 
chines from many vendors, makes some 
simplifying assumptions and sets some 
restrictions in its File transfer Protocol 
(FTP). All files are forced into certain 
categories with respect to encoding 
(ASCII, EBCDIC, image), record-format 
control, byte size, and file structure 
(record or stream), and it is generally left 
to the host FTP implementation to do 
the necessary transformations. No par- 
ticular provision is made, or can be 
made, to ensure that such transforma- 
tions are invertible. Invertibility involves 
sending a copy of a file to another sys- 
tem, receiving a copy of that file back 
from the other system, and having all 
the attributes of this second copy of the 
file match the original file's character- 
istics. 

DECnet is able to provide invertibil- 
ity for operating systems like VMS or 
RSX. which can store the necessary file 
attributes along with the file. But simpler 
file systems, like those of TOPS-I0 or 
TOPS-20, can lose vital information 
about incoming files. For instance, if 
VMS requires some type of file to have 
a specific block size, while TOPS-20 has 
no concept of block size, the block size 
will be lost upon transfer from VMS to 
TOPS-20 and cannot be restored auto- 
matically when the file is sent back, 
leaving the result potentially unusable. 

Invertibility is a major problem with 
no simple solution. Fortunately file 
transfer between unlike systems usual- 
ly involves only textual information- 
data, documents, program source— 
which is sequential in organization, and 
for which any required transformations 



(e.g., blocked to stream, EBCDIC to 
ASCII) are simple and not dependent on 
any special file attributes. 

In fact, invertibility can be achieved if 
that is the primary goal of a file-transfer 
protocol. All the external attributes of 
a file can be encoded and included with 
the contents of the file to be stored on 
the remote system. For unlike systems, 
this can render the file less than useful 
on the target system but allows it to be 
restored correctly upon return. How- 
ever, it is more commonly desired that 
textual files remain intelligible when 
transferred to a foreign system, even if 
transformations must be made. To allow 
the necessary transformations to take 
place on textual files between unlike 
systems, there must be a standard way 
of representing these files during trans- 
mission. 

Binary Files versus Parity— Each ASCII 
character is represented by a string of 
7 bits. Printable ASCII files can be trans- 
mitted in a straightforward fashion 
because ASCII transmission is designed 
for them: a serial stream of 8-bit char- 
acters, 7 bits for data and I bit for pari- 
ty, framed by start and stop bits for the 
benefit of the hardware. The parity bit 
is added as a check on the integrity of 
a character. Some systems always trans- 
mit parity, some insist on parity for in- 
coming characters, some ignore the 
parity bit for communication purposes 
and pass it along to the software, and 
some discard it altogether. In addition, 
communications front ends or common 
carriers might usurp the parity bit, re- 
gardless of what the system itself may 
do. 

Computer file systems generally store 
an ASCII text file as a sequence of either 
7-bit or 8-bit bytes. Eight-bit bytes are 
more common, in which the eighth bit 
of each byte is generally superfluous. 
Besides files composed of ASCII char- 
acters, however, computers also have 
binary files, in which every bit is mean- 
ingful; examples include executable 
core images of programs, numbers 
stored in internal format, and databases 
with embedded pointers. Such binary 
data must be mapped to ASCII charac- 
ters for transmission over serial lines. 
When two systems allow the user-level 
software to control the parity bit. the 
ANSI (American National Standards In- 
stitute) standards may be stretched to 
[text continued on page 264) 



262 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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KERMIT 



[text continued from page 262) 
permit the transmission of 8 data bits 
per character, which corresponds to the 
byte size of most machines. But since 
not all computers allow this flexibility, 
the ability to transfer binary data in this 
fashion cannot be assumed. 

Software— Finally, systems differ in their 
application software. In particular, no 
system can be assumed to have a par- 
ticular programming language. Even 
widespread languages such as FOR- 
TRAN and BASIC may be lacking from 
some computers, either because they 
have not been implemented or because 
they are proprietary and have not been 
purchased. Even when two different sys- 
tems support the same language, it is 
unrealistic to expect the two implemen- 
tations to be totally compatible. A 
general-purpose file-transfer protocol 
should not be written in or geared 
toward the features of any particular 
computer language. 

The Kermit Protocol 

Kermit addresses the problems outlined 
above by setting certain minimal stan- 
dards for transmission and providing a 
mapping among disk-storage organiza- 
tion, machine word and byte size, and 
the transmission medium. Kermit has 
the following characteristics: 

• Communication takes place over or- 
dinary terminal connections. 

• Communication is half duplex. This 
allows both full- and half-duplex sys- 
tems to participate, and it eliminates 
the echoing that would otherwise oc- 
cur for characters arriving at a host 
job's controlling terminal. 

• The packet length is variable, but the 
maximum is 96 characters so that 
most hosts can take packets in without 
buffering problems. 

•' Packets are sent in alternate direc- 
tions; a reply is required for each 
packet. This allows half-duplex systems 
to participate and prevents buffer 
overruns that would occur on some 
systems if packets were sent back to 
back. 

• A time-out facility, when available, 
allows transmission to resume after a 
packet is lost. 

• All transmission is in ASCII. Any 
non-ASCII hosts are responsible for 
conversion. ASCII control characters 
are prefixed with a special character 



and then converted to printable char- 
acters during transmission to ensure 
that they arrive as sent. A single ASCII 
control character (normally SOH [start 
of header|) is used to mark the begin- 
ning of a packet. 

• Binary files can be transmitted by a 
similar prefix scheme or by use of the 
parity bit when both sides have con- 
trol of it. 

• Logical records (lines) in textual files 
are terminated during transmission 
with prefixed carriage return/linefeed 
sequences, which are transparent to 
the protocol and may appear any- 
where in a packet. Systems that delimit 
records in other ways are responsible 
for conversion, if they desire the 
distinction between records to be pre- 
served across unlike systems. 

• Only a file's name and contents are 
transmitted— no attributes. It is the 
user's responsibility to see that the file 
is stored correctly on the target sys- 
tem. Within this framework, invertible 
transfer of text files can be assured, 
but invertible transfer of nontext files 
depends on the capabilities of the par- 
ticular implementations of Kermit and 
the host operating systems. 

• Kermit has no special knowledge of 
the host on the other side. No attempt 
is made to integrate the two sides. 
Rather, Kermit is designed to work 
more or less uniformly on all systems. 

• Kermit need not be written in any 
particular language. It is not a portable 
program but a portable protocol. 

Thus, Kermit accommodates itself to 
many systems by conforming to a com- 
mon subset of their features. But the 
resulting simplicity and generality allow 
Kermit on any machine to communicate 
with Kermit on any other machine: 
microcomputer-to-mainframe, micro- 
computer-to-microcomputer, main- 
frame-to-mainframe. The back-and-forth 
exchange of packets keeps the two sides 
synchronized; the protocol can be 
called asynchronous only because the 
communication hardware itself operates 
asynchronously. 

As far as the user is concerned, Ker- 
mit is a do-it-yourself operation. For in- 
stance, to transfer files between your 
microcomputer and a mainframe, you 
would run Kermit on your microcom- 
puter, put Kermit into the terminal- 
emulation mode to let you "connect" to 



the mainframe, log in and run Kermit on 
the mainframe, and then escape back 
to the microcomputer and issue com- 
mands to the microcomputer's Kermit 
to send or fetch the desired files. Any 
inconvenience implicit in this procedure 
is a consequence of the power it gives 
the ordinary user to establish reliable 
connections between computers that 
could not otherwise be connected. 

Packets 

Kermit packets need to contain the data 
that is being transferred, plus minimum 
information to ensure that the expected 
data arrives completely and correctly. 
Several issues arise when designing the 
packet layout: how to represent data, 
how to delimit fields within the packet, 
how to delimit the packet itself, and how 
to arrange the fields within the packet. 
Since the transmission medium itself is 
character oriented, it is not feasible to 
transmit bit strings of arbitrary length, 
as do the bit-oriented protocols like 
HDLC (high-level data-link control) and 
SDLC (synchronous data-link control). 
Therefore, the smallest unit of informa- 
tion in a packet must be the ASCII char- 
acter. As we will see. this precludes 
some techniques used with other com- 
munication media. 

Control Fields— Most popular protocol 
definitions view the packet as layers of 
information that pass through a hier- 
archy of protocol levels, each level add- 
ing its own information at the ends of 
an outbound packet or stripping its in- 
formation from the ends of an incom- 
ing packet, and then passing the result 
along to the next level in the hierarchy. 
The fields for each layer must be ar- 
ranged so that they can be found, iden- 
tified, and interpreted correctly at the 
appropriate level. 

Since Kermit packets are short, it is im- 
portant to minimize the amount of con- 
trol information per packet. It would be 
convenient to limit the control fields to 
one character each. Because we have 
95 printable characters to work with 
(128 ASCII characters, less the delete 
character [DEL| and the 32 control char- 
acters), we can represent values from 
to 94 with a single character: 

• The packet sequence number is used to 

detect missing or duplicate packets. It 

is unlikely that a large number of 

[text continued on page 268) 



264 B YTE • JUNE 1984 



THE PRINTER TO PICK 
WHEN THE PACE QUICKENS. 



It's happening all over the PC and 
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You're getting liit with a ton of increased 
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i 

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SuperS ft 

Language Library 

For PC DOS, MS DOS, 
CP/M-86, and others 




A programmer's most important 
software tool is the language compiler 
or interpreter he uses. He has to 
depend on it to work and work well. 

At SuperSoft, we believe it. That's 
why we offer three fine compilers: 
SuperSoft FORTRAN, SuperSoft 
BASIC, and SuperSoft C, that answer 
the programmer's need for rock solid, 
dependable performance on 16 bit 
systems. 




BASIC 

COMPILER 



Compatible 
with Microsoft BASIC 

The SuperSoft BASIC compiler, available 
under CP/M-86 and MS DOS, is compatible with 
Microsoft* BASIC and follows the ANSI standard. 

Greater accuracy with BCD 
math routines 

If you have used other languages without 
BCD math, you know how disconcerting decimal 
round off errors can be. For example: 



With IBM PC* 


With SuperSoft 


BASIC 


BASIC with 




BCD math 


10A=.99 


10A=.99 


20 PRINT A 


20 PRINT A 


30 END 


30 END 


Output: .9899999 


Output: .99 



As you can see, SuperSoft BASIC with BCD 
provides greater assurance in applications 
where accuracy is critical. 

SuperSoft's BASIC is a true native code 
compiler, not an intermediate code interpreter. 
It is a superset of standard BASIC, supporting 
numerous extensions to the language. Important 
features include: 

■ Four variable types: Integer, String, and Single 
and Double Precision Floating Point (13 digit) 

■ Full PRINT USING for formatted output 

■ Long variable names 

■ Error trapping 

■ Matrices with up to 32 dimensions 

■ Boolean operators OR, AND, NOT, XOR, 
EQV, IMP 

■ Supports random and sequential disk files with 
a complete set of file manipulation statements 

■ IEEE floating point available soon as an option 

■ No run time license fee 

Requires: 128K memory 

BASIC compiler: $300.00 

For CP/M-86: MS DOS, and 
PC DOS 

*SuperSoft BASIC is compatible with 
Microsoft BASIC interpreter and IBM PC BASIC. 
Due to version differences and inherent 
differences in compilers and interpreters some 
minor variations may be found. Machine 
dependent commands may not be supported. 
The vast majority of programs will run with 
no changes. 



FORTRAN 



SuperSoft FORTRAN is the answer to the 
growing need for a high quality FORTRAN 
compiler running under CP/M-86 and IBM PC 
DOS. It has major advantages over other 
FORTRAN compilers for the 8086. For example, 
consider the benchmark program used to test 
the IBM FORTRAN in InfoWorld, p. 44, Oct. 25, 
1982. (While the differential listed will not be 
the same for all benchmark programs, we feel it 
is a good indication of the quality of our compiler.) 
Results are as follows: 



IBM FORTRAN: 
SuperSoft FORTRAN 



38.0 Seconds 
2.8 Seconds 



In its first release SuperSoft FORTRAN 
offers the following outstanding features: 

1. Full ANSI 66 standard FORTRAN with 
important extensions 

2. Standard data types, double precision, varying 
string length, complex numbers 

3. Free format input and free format string output 

4. Compact object code and run time support 

5. Special functions include string functions, 
dynamic allocation, time/date, and video access 

6. Debug support: subscript checking, good 
runtime messages 

7. Full IEEE floating point 

8. Full 8087 support available as option ($50.00). 

9. Ratfor preprocessor available as option 
($100.00). 



Program developers: 



SuperSofts family of FORTRAN 
compilers means you can write your 
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CP/M-80, CP/M-86, and MS DOS. This 
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fast no matter what the environment. 



SuperSoft FORTRAN: 

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Requires: 

FORTRAN: 
8087 Support: 
Ratfor: 



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32K with CP/M-80 

$425.00 (in each environment) 

$ 50.00 

$100.00 

For CP/M-86: MS DOS, IBM 
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In conjunction with SuperSoft, SuperSoft FORTRAN 

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Tel 0892-45433 Telex 95441 Micro-G 



C Compiler 



In 1982 SuperSoft helped C programmers 
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Today there are several C compilers on the 
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Professional Quality 

SuperSoft started working on C over three 
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SuperSoft C has been tested with hundred 
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Portable 

SuperSoft C is now available in most 
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And as new operating systems become popular, 
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Packed with Library 
Functions 

SuperSoft now has the most complete set of 
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source code. 

Thorough User Manual 

The new user manual is extensive— jammed 
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SuperSoft C: $350.00 




FIRST IN SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY 

P.O. Box1628 Champaign, IL61820 
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Microsoft is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation 
IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation 
CP/M and CP/M-86 are registered trademarks of Digital Research 
UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories 

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KERMIT 



{text continued from page 26 A) 
packets could be lost, especially since 
packet n is acknowledged before 
packet m+ I is sent. The sequence 
number can thus be a small quantity, 
which wraps around to its minimum 
value when it exceeds a specified 
maximum value. 

• To prevent long packets, a small 
maximum length can be enforced by 
specifying the packet length with a single 
character; since 95 printable ASCII 
characters can be transmitted, this 
would be the maximum length, de- 
pending on how we count the control 
fields. 

• The checksum can be of fixed length. 
The actual length depends on the 
desired balance between efficiency 
and error detection. 

The packet length and checksum act 
together to detect corrupted, missing, 
or extra characters. These are the essen- 
tial fields for promoting error-free trans- 
mission. So far, however, we've con- 
sidered only packets that carry actual 
file data; we will also require special 
packets composed only of control infor- 
mation, for instance, to tell the remote 
host the name of the file that is about 
to come or to tell it that the transmis- 
sion is complete. This can be accom- 
plished with a packet type field. The 
number of functions we need to specify 
in this field is small, so a single character 
can also suffice here. 

Packet Framing— We chose to mark the 
beginning of a package with a distin- 
guishing start character. SOH (Control- 
A). This character cannot appear any- 
where else within the packet. SOH was 
chosen because, unlike most other con- 
trol characters, it is generally accepted 
upon input at a job's controlling ter- 
minal as a data character rather than as 
an interrupt or break character on most 
mainframes. This is probably no acci- 
dent, since it was originally intended for 
this use by the designers of the ASCII 
alphabet. Should a system be incapable 
of sending or receiving SOH, it is pos- 
sible to redefine the start-of-packet char- 
acter to be any other control character; 
the two sides need not use the same 
one. 

Three principal options for recogniz- 
ing the end of a packet are available: 
fixed length, distinguishing packet-end 
[text continued on page 270) 



268 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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KERMIT 



[text continued from page 268) 
character, and length field. Arguments 
are made for and against each involv- 
ing what happens when characters, par- 
ticularly a length or terminator, are lost 
or garbled. These will be mentioned 
later. Kermit uses a length field. 

To take in a packet. Kermit gets char- 
acters from the line until it encounters 
the SOH. The next character is the 
length; Kermit reads and decodes the 
length and then reads that many subse- 
quent characters to complete the 
packet. If another SOH is encountered 
before the count is exhausted, the cur- 
rent packet is forgotten and a new one 
started automatically. This strategy 
allows arbitrary amounts of noise to be 
generated spontaneously between 
packets without interfering with the 
protocol. 

Encoding- -When transmitting textual 
data. Kermit terminates logical records 
with carriage return/linefeed combina- 
tions (CR/LFs). On record-oriented sys- 



tems, trailing blanks or length fields are 
removed and a CR/LF appended to out- 
bound records, with the inverse opera- 
tion performed on incoming records. 
On stream-oriented systems, incoming 
CR/LFs may be translated to some other 
terminator. Files, of course, need not 
have logical records, in which case 
record processing can be skipped al- 
together, and the file can be treated as 
a long string of bytes. This is known as 
image transfer, and it can also be used 
between like systems where no transfor- 
mations are necessary. 

In order to make each character in the 
packet printable, Kermit prefixes, or 
quotes, any unprintable character by 
transforming it to a printable one and 
precedes it with a special prefix char- 
acter, normally #. The transformation is 
done by complementing the seventh bit 
(adding or subtracting 64 modulo 64). 
Thus. Control-A becomes #A and 
Control-Z becomes #Z. The prefix char- 
acter is also used to prefix itself: ##. 



Upon input, the reverse transformation 
is performed. Printable characters are 
not transformed. The assumption is that 
most files to be transferred are print- 
able, and printable text files contain 
relatively few control characters; when 
this is true, the character stream is not 
significantly lengthened by quoting. For 
binary files, the average quoting over- 
head will be 26.6 percent more charac- 
ters if all bit patterns are equally likely, 
since the characters that must be pre- 
fixed (the control characters, plus DEL 
and # itself) comprise 26.6 percent of 
the ASCII alphabet. 

Kermit also provides a scheme for in- 
dicating the status of the eighth bit 
when transferring binary files between 
systems that must use the eighth bit for 
parity. A byte whose eighth bit is set is 
preceded by another special prefix 
character, &. If the low-order 7 bits coin- 
cide with an ASCII control character, a 
control-character prefix is also added. 
(text continued on page 272) 



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270 B YTE • JUNE 1984 



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LIBERTY 



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TelrVideo 910 is a trademark of TeleVidro Systems, Inc. Uegrnt 
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KERMIT 



{text continued from page 270) 
For instance, the byte 1 0000001 2 would 
be transmitted as &#A. The & charac- 
ter itself can be included as data by pre- 
fixing it (#&), and the control-prefix 
character may have its eighth bit set 
(&##). Eighth-bit prefixing is done only 
when necessary; if both sides can con- 
trol the parity bit, its value is preserved 
during transmission. If the eighth bit is 
set randomly on binary files, eighth-bit 
prefixing will add 50 percent character 
overhead. For some kinds of binary 
data it could be less; for instance, 
positive binary numbers in two's- 
complement notation do not have their 
high-order bits set, in which case at least 
one byte per word will not be prefixed. 

A third kind of prefix implements rudi- 
mentary data compression. At low 
speeds, the bottleneck in file transmis- 
sion is likely to be the line itself, so any 
measure that can cut down on use of 
the line would be welcome. The special 
prefix character ~ indicates that the 
next character is a repeat count (a single 
character, encoded printably) and that 
the character after that (which may also 
have control or eighth-bit prefixes) is 
repeated so many times. For instance, 
~}A indicates a series of 93 letter As; 
~H&#B indicates a series of 40 Control- 
Bs with the parity bit set. The repeat 
count prefix itself can be included as 
text by prefixing it with #. 

To keep the protocol simple, no other 
transformations are done. At this point, 
however, it might be worth mentioning 
some things we did not do to the data: 

• Fancy data compression. If the data is 
known to be (or resemble) English 
text, a Huffman encoding based on 
the frequency of characters in 
English text could be used. A Huff- 
man code resembles Morse code, 
which has variable-length characters 
whose boundaries can always be 
distinguished.. The more frequent the 
character, the shorter the bit string 
to represent it. Of course, this 
scheme can backfire if the character 
distribution of the data is very dif- 
ferent from the one assumed. In any 
case, variable-length characters and 
ASCII transmission don't mix well. 

• Error-correcting codes, 'techniques such 
as Hamming codes exist for detect- 
ing and correcting errors on a 

[text continued on page 274) 



272 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



Circle 390 on inquiry card. 




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Circle 88 on inquiry card. 



use of a 




CONTRPL 
DATA 



KERMIT 



Kermit is a simple, 
generalized file-transfer 
facility that transmits a 
file's name and contents 
but not every attribute 
a file might possess. 



[text continued from page 272) 
per-character basis. These are expen- 
sive in resources and complex to 
program. Kermit uses per-packet 
block-check techniques (explained 
below). 

• Nybble encoding. To circumvent prob- 
lems with control and 8-bit charac- 
ters, it would have been possible to 
divide every character into two 4-bit 
nybbles, sending each as a printable 
character (e.g., a hexadecimal digit). 
The character overhead caused by 
this scheme would always be 100 
percent. But it would be an easy way 
to transfer binary files. 

Error Detection— Character parity and 
Hamming codes are forms of vertical 
redundancy checks (VRCs), formed by 
combining all the bits of a character. 
The other kind of check that can be 
used is the longitudinal redundancy 
check (LRC), which produces a block- 
check character formed by some com- 
bination of each character within a se- 
quence. The sending side computes the 
LRC and sends it with the packet; the 
receiving side recomputes it for com- 
parison. Various forms of LRCs exist. 
One form produces a column-parity 
character, or logical sum, whose bits are 
the exclusive-ORs of the corresponding 
bits of the data characters. Another is 
the checksum, which is the arithmetic 
sum of all the characters in the se- 
quence, interpreted numerically. An- 
other is the cyclic redundancy check 
(CRC). which passes the characters 
through what amounts to a shift register 
with embedded feedback loops, pro- 
ducing a block check in which each bit 
is affected in many ways by the 
preceding characters. 

All these techniques will catch single- 
bit errors. They do vary in their ability 
to detect other kinds of errors. For in- 
stance, a double-bit column error will 



always go undetected with column pari- 
ty, since the result of exclusive-ORing 
any 2 bits together is the same as 
exclusive-ORing their complements, 
whereas half the possible double-bit 
errors can be caught by addition 
because of the carry into the next bit 
position. The CRC does even better by 
rippling the effect of a data-bit multiply 
through the block-check character, but 
the method is complex, and a software 
implementation of a CRC can be inscrut- 
able. 

Standard, base-level Kermit employs 
a single-character arithmetic checksum, 
which is simple to program, low in over- 
head, and has proven quite adequate 
in practice. The sum is formed by add- 
ing together the ASCII values of each 
character in the packet except the SOH 
and the checksum itself and including 
any prefixing characters. Even non-ASCII 
hosts must do this calculation in ASCII. 
The result can approach 12,000 in the 
worst case. The binary representation of 
this number is 101 1 101 1 100000 2 , which 
is 14 bits long. This is much more than 
one character's worth of bits, but we can 
make the observation that every char- 
acter included in the sum has con- 
tributed to the low-order 7 bits, so we 
can discard some high-order bits and 
still have a viable validity check. 

The Kermit protocol also allows other 
block-check options, including a two- 
character checksum and a three-charac- 
ter 1 6-bit CRC. The two-character check- 
sum is simply the low-order 1 2 bits of 
the arithmetic sum broken into two 
printable characters. The CRC sequence 
is formed from the 16-bit quantity 
generated by the CCITT-recommended 
polynomial X l6 + X [2 + X 5 + I, which is 
also used in some form with other 
popular transmission techniques, such 
as International Organization for Stan- 
dardization (ISO) HDLC and IBM SDLC. 
The high-order 4 bits of the CRC go in- 
to the first character, the middle 6 into 
the second, and the low-order 6 into the 
third. 

Some care must be taken in the for- 
mation of the single-character block 
check. Since it must be expressed as a 
single printable character, values of the 
high-order data bits may be lost, which 
could result in undetected errors, espe- 
cially when transferring binary files. 
Therefore, we extract the seventh and 
eighth bits of the sum and add them 



back to the low-order bits; if the arith- 
metic sum of all the characters is S, the 
value of the single-character Kermit 
checksum is given by 

(S + [[S AND 300)/100)) AND 77 

(The numbers are in octal notation.) This 
ensures that the checksum, terse 
though it is, reflects every bit from every 
character in the packet. 

The probability that an error will not 
be caught by a correctly transmitted 
arithmetic checksum is the ratio of the 
number of possible errors that cancel 
each other out to the total number of 
possible errors, which works out to 
1/2", where n is the number of bits in 
the checksum, assuming all errors are 
equally likely. This is 1/64 for the single- 
character checksum and 1/4096 for the 
two-character checksum. But the prob- 
ability that errors will go undetected by 
this method under real conditions cannot be 
easily derived, because all kinds of 
errors are not equally likely. A 16-bit 
CRC will detect all single- and double- 
bit errors, all messages with an odd 
number of bits in error, all error bursts 
shorter than 16 bits, and more than 
99.99 percent of longer bursts. These 
probabilities all assume, of course, that 
the block check has been identified cor- 
rectly, i.e., that the length field points to 
it and that no intervening characters 
have been lost or spuriously added. 

A final note on parity— a parity bit on 
each character combined with a logical 
sum of all the characters (VRC and LRC) 
would allow detection and correction of 
single-bit errors without retransmission 
by pinpointing the row and column of 
the bad bit. But control of the parity bit 
cannot be achieved on every system, so 
we use the parity bit for binary data 
when we can or surrender it to the com- 
munication hardware if we must. If we 
have use of the eighth bit for data, it is 
figured into the block check; if we do 
not. it must be omitted from the block 
check in case it has been changed by 
agents beyond the knowledge or con- 
trol of Kermit. 

Packet Layout— Kermit packets have the 
format, shown in figure I, where all 
fields consist of ASCII characters, and 
the char function converts a number in 
the range O.to 94 to a printable ASCII 
character by adding 32. 

In terms of the seven-layer ISO net- 
{text continued on page 276) 



274 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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KERMIT 



{text continued from page 21 A) 
work reference model, 8-bit bytes are 
presented to Kermit by the hardware 
and operating-system software compris- 
ing the physical-link layer. Correct 
transmission is ensured by the packet- 
level routines that implement the data- 
link layer using the outer "skin" of the 
packet-the MARK, LEN, and CHECK 
fields. The network and transport layers 
are moot, since Kermit is a point-to- 
point affair in which the user personal- 
ly makes all the required connections. 
The session layer is responsible for re- 
questing retransmission of missing 
packets or ignoring redundant ones, 
based on the SEQ field; the presen- 
tation layer is responsible for any data 
conversions (EBCDIC/ASCII, insertion or 
stripping of CR/LFs, etc.). Finally, the 
TYPE and DATA fields are the province 
of the application layer; our application, 
of course, is file transfer. In any par- 
ticular implementation, however, the 
organization of the program may not 
strictly follow this model. For instance, 
since transmission is always in an ASCII 
stream, IBM mainframe implementa- 
tions must convert from EBCDIC and in- 
sert CR/LFs before checksum 
computation. 

The six fields of a Kermit information 
packet are listed in table I. The packet 
may be followed by any line terminator 
required by the host, a carriage return 
by default. Line terminators are not 
part of the packet and are not included 
in the count or checksum. Terminators 
are not necessary to the protocol and 
are invisible to it, as are any characters 
that may appear between packets. If a 
host cannot do single-character input 
from a terminal, a terminator will be re- 



quired for that host. 

Some sample Kermit data packets are 
shown in listing I. The "A represents 
the unprintable SOH (or Control- A) char- 
acter. In the last packet shown, E is the 
length. The ASCII value of the E char- 
acter is 69, less 32 (the unchar transfor- 
mation, which is the opposite of char) 
gives a length of 37. The next charac- 
ter, &, tells the packet sequence number, 
in this case 6. The next is the packet 
type D for Data. The next characters. 
"of#M#Jconstructing a theory conta". 
form the data; note the prefixed car- 
riage return and linefeed. The final char- 
acter, 5, is the checksum, which repre- 
sents the number 21. 

Effects of Packet Corruption— What are the 
consequences of transmission errors in 
the various fields? If the SOH is garbled, 
the packet will be treated as interpacket 
garbage and ignored. If any other char- 
acter within the packet is garbled into 
SOH, the current packet will be dis- 
carded and a new (spurious) packet 
detected. If the length is garbled into a 
smaller number, a character from the 
data field will be misinterpreted as the 
checksum; if larger, the program will 
probably become stuck trying to input 
characters that will not be sent until one 
side or the other times out and retrans- 
mits. If the sequence number, type, any 
of the data characters, or the checksum 
itself is garbled, the checksum should 
be wrong. If characters are lost, there 
will most likely be a time-out. If noise 
characters are spontaneously gener- 
ated, they will be ignored if they are be- 
tween packets or will cause the wrong 
character to be interpreted as the 
checksum if they come during packet 
transmission. 



Most kinds of errors are caught by the 
checksum comparison and are handled 
by immediate retransmission. Time-outs 
are more costly because the line sits 
idle for the time-out period. The packet 
design minimizes the necessity for time- 
outs due to packet corruption: the only 
fields that can be corrupted to cause a 
time-out are the SOH and the packet 
length, and the latter only half the time. 
Lost characters, however, can produce 
the same effect (as they would with a 
fixed-length block protocol). Had a dis- 
tinguishing end-of-packet character 
been used rather than a length field, 
there would be a time-out every time it 
was corrupted. It is always better to re- 
transmit immediately than to time out. 

Summary 

We've covered the factors that should 
be considered in designing a simple, 
reliable, inexpensive, and yet compre- 
hensive file-transfer protocol— Kermit. 
The asynchronous serial communica- 
tions used by the Kermit protocol can 
accommodate a variety of diverse com- 
puter systems and their different ways 
of handling information and files.'Ker- 
mit sets minimum transmission stan- 
dards by providing a common subset of 
the machines' features. These features 
include transfer of the filename and 
contents for both textual and binary 
files, different error-detection methods, 
and time-out facilities if either end of 
the communication link experiences 
delays or difficulties. The encoding of 
the information in the packets, the error- 
detection checksums/ and the layout of 
the fields in the packets were also pre- 
sented. 

{text continued on page 278) 



MARK 


char(LEN) 


char(SEQ) 


TYPE 


DATA 


CHECK 



Application 



■Session 



Data Link 



Figure I : The format for a packet of information according to the Kermit protocol 



276 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



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1UNE 1984 -BYTE 277 




KERMIT 



(text continued from page 276) 

In part 2, we'll look at how the Kermit 
protocol works and its uses: the dif- 
ferent modes each side can be in when 
sending and receiving files, how initial 
connections take place and the ex- 
change of initial packets of information 
that specify each side's setup re- 
quirements, the heuristics to improve ef- 
ficiency and error recovery, examples of 
packets and a session using Kermit. per- 
formance figures, the user interface, and 
future directions for Kermit as a work- 
ing network with file servers. ■ 



Listing I : Some sample packets of in- 
formation in the Kermit protocol. The 
~ A represents the unprintable ASCII 
start-of-header character. 

~AE"D No celestial body has required ] 
~AE#Das much labor for the study of its# 
~AESD#M#Jmotion as the moon. Since ClaA 
~AE%Dirault (1747). who indicated a way7 
" AE&D of#M#Jconstructing a theory conta5 



(Kermit is not an acronym. It was named after 
Kermit the Frog, star of the television series, The 
Muppet Show. Used by permission of Hen- 
son Associates Inc.) 



I&ble I : The six fields in a packet of information in the Kermit protocol. 

MARK Start-of-packet character, normally SOH (Control-A). 



LEN 



SEQ 



TYPE 



DATA 



CHECK 



The number of ASCII characters, including prefixing characters and the checksum, 
in the rest of the packet that follows this field: in other words, the packet length 
minus two. Since this number is expressed as a single character via the char func- 
tion, packet character counts of to 94 are permitted, and 96 is the maximum 
total packet length, including the MARK and LEN fields. 

The packet sequence number, between and 63. The sequence number wraps 
around to after each group of 64 packets. 

The packet type, a single printable ASCII character, is one of the following: 

Data 

Acknowledge (ACK) 

Negative Acknowledge (NAK) 

Send Initiate (Send-lnit) 

Receive Initiate 

Break Transmission (EOT) 

File Header 

End of File (EOF) 

Error 

Generic command. A single character in the data field, possibly followed by 
operands, requests host-independent remote execution of the specified 
command: 



Log out. bye 

Finish, but don't log out 

Directory query (followed by optional file specification) 

Disk-usage query 

Erase (followed by file specification) 

Type (followed by file specification) 

Query server status 



L 

F 

D 
U 
E 
T 
Q 
and others. 



C Host command. The data field contains a string to be executed as a system- 
dependent (literal) command by the host. 

X Text display header. To indicate the arrival of text to be displayed on the 
screen, for instance, as the result of a generic or host command executed at 
the other end. Operation is exactly like a file transfer. 

The contents of the packet, if any contents are required in the given type of 
packet, interpreted according to the packet type. Nonprintable ASCII characters 
are prefixed with special characters and then converted to printable characters by 
complementing the seventh bit. Characters with the eighth bit set may also be 
prefixed, and a repeated character can be prefixed by a count. A prefixed 
sequence of characters may not be broken across packets. 

The block-check sequence, based on all the characters in the packet between, but 
not including, the mark and the check itself, can be one. two, or three characters 
in length as described previously, each character transformed by the char 
function. Normally, the single-character checksum is used. 



278 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



THEME 



SAN 

FRANCISCO'S 

EXPLORATORIUM 



by John Markoff 



A hands-on, interactive museum 



AS A VISITOR to San Fran- 
cisco's Exploratorium, you 
will be struck by what seems 
at first to be utter chaos. 
Entering the dim, cavernous 
space the Exploratorium oc- 
cupies, you will see children 
darting to and fro. hear ran- 
dom sounds from strange 
devices that echo into the 
distance, and observe spec- 
tral lights that seem to shine 
in every corner. 

Soon the confusion clears 
and you realize that you 
haven't entered some high- 
tech asylum. You have found your way 
into a wonderfully diverse free-form 
science museum. 

The Exploratorium represents science 
for the general public. There is no right 
or wrong way to conduct an experiment 
and the exhibits here are intended to 
be used in ways their designers never 
imagined. 

Each year more than 450,000 visitors, 
almost as many adults as children, make 
the trek to this unique learning center. 
They play with— and learn from— more 
than 500 interactive scientific exhibits 

PHOTOS BY MARGARET MOULTON 




ranging from gravity wells to echo 
chambers to more esoteric computer- 
ized simulations. 

The Exploratorium was founded in 
1969 by physicist Frank Oppenheimer 
and has since gained an international 
reputation as a hands-on science 
museum. It has been called "the best 
science museum in the world" by the 
editor of Scientific American. 

]ohn Markoff is a BYTE senior technical editor. 
He can be reached at 1000 Elwell CL Palo 
Alto, CA 94303. 



As might be expected, a 
museum that intentionally 
disregards many of the 
established conventions of 
scientific good manners uses 
personal computers in an 
unorthodox fashion as well. 
In exhibits scattered around 
the Exploratorium floor, it's 
possible to find microcom- 
puters ranging from simple 
John Bell Engineering con- 
trollers to full-blown Intel 
8086 development systems. 
The difference is that at the 
Exploratorium there are no 
personal computer exhibits per se. 
Computers are used to illustrate basic 
scientific concepts or to alter the 
perception of Exploratorium visitors 
about things around them that they 
haven't noticed before. Visitors may 
never realize that any particular exhibit 
is being guided by a personal computer. 
Unlike other computer-literacy pro- 
jects, teaching programming is not a first 
priority at the Exploratorium. Instead, 
the goal is to convey the idea that com- 
puters are just tools and that they can 
(text continued on page 281) 

JUNE 1984 -BYTE 279 




The Exploratorium has received 

financial support and donations 

of equipment from a number of 

semiconductor and computer 

corporations. Intel Corporation 

has donated computer hardware 

and has permitted several of its 

engineers to spend three-month 

sabbaticals designing simulation 

exhibits based on Mel 

equipment. The children at this 

exhibit are controlling a 

simulated satellite in orbit 

around a planetary object. The 

simulation system is based on 

an \ntel 8086 development 

computer with an 8087 math 

coprocessor. 



280 BYTE • JUNE 1984 



EXPLORATORIUM 




II 




{text continued from page 279) 

be used like any other tool. 

"We try to show people that you 
typically do not break computers by 
touching them. There's nothing you can 
do that is wrong," says Ron Hipschman, 
a San Francisco physicist who serves as 
the Exploratorium's resident computer 
wizard. "Our science museum is based 
on that concept, too. You can't do 
anything wrong with our exhibits. You 
may not do what we intended, but if you 
do something different, so what?" 

Hipschman began teaching computer 
courses at the Exploratorium years ago 
with borrowed IMSAI and North Star 
computers. More recently, donations of 
computers from Texas Instruments and 
Atari have made it possible to hold 
regular introductory classes in both 
BASIC and Logo. 

Logo fits in well with the philosophy 
of the Exploratorium, as it has always 
been perceived as an exploratory and 
experimental language. 

"The Exploratorium is designed to 
give people the ability to explore and 
play," he says, "so our classes are much 
less structured than school. You can't 

Several computer-based Exploratorium exhibits 
have been designed by artists. Recollections, 
by Ed Tannenbaum, employs an Apple II 
computer that controls a frame buffer hooked 
to a video camera. Like all Exploratorium 
exhibits, this one is participatory. Visitors 
walk into a three-sided room. On one side 
the video camera tracks their movements, 
which are then transformed by the Apple II 
and the frame buffer and projected on a 
screen in front of the observer. 



force-feed the kids in school and you 
can't force-feed them on the computer 
either." 

Another thing that the children bring 
away from their introduction to com- 
puters at the Exploratorium is that if 
something goes wrong, it's usually their 
own fault, not the computer's. 
Hipschman strives to show the children 
that because the computer is a tool that 
doesn't often make mistakes, it's actually 
very reliable. 

At the Exploratorium, the computer 
is viewed as a valuable instructional aid 
in demonstrating a system of scientific 
reasoning. 

"It's a very logical process in finding 
your mistakes and it spills over into 
everyday life," remarks Hipschman. "You 
say. 'OK, something's not working here, 
what's going on?' You start at the begin- 
ning without any assumptions. It (the 
computer) has a logical sequence of 
events and it works everywhere." 

In the future, the Exploratorium plans 
to use computers to simulate events 
that can't take place directly within the 
confines of the museum. Already the In- 
tel 8086 development systems are be- 
ing used to simulate simple orbital 
mechanics and the backscattering of 
light. Another simulation running on an 
Apple II computer illustrates how dif- 
ferent growth rates of competing 
populations can interact. 

What kinds of simulations are pos- 
sible? 

Recently Hipschman and Explora- 
torium co-worker Joe Ansel tried to en- 
vision a perfect computer simulation for 
{text continued on page 282) 

JUNE 1984 • BYTE 281 



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