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Full text of "Byte Magazine Volume 10 Number 05: Multiprocessing"

I 



THE SMALL SYSTEMS JOURNAL 



MAY 1985 VOL. 10, NO. 5 



$3.50 IN UNITED STATES 

$4.25 (N CANADA / £2.10 IN U.K. 

A MCGRAW-HILL PUBLICATION 

0360-5280 



MULTIPROCESSING 



THE AT&T 
UNIX PC 





These are some ol 

inTheMac 



Microsoft* Word 



ForAppI ^Macintosh*. 



MICROSOFT. 




Microsoft* Word. Full 'feature word processor 

for memos, personalized form lettetx sales reports or 

am ' professional document. 



PROGRAM DISK 
APPLE MACINTOSH 



Thii\kTai\k-_ ^#v 

The First ▼* ^T 

Idea Processor 

© Copyright 1984 

Living Vtttaare*', lac. All tights nsserved 






ThinkTanlt 512. An idea processor to organize projects, 
manage details, outline ideas and support decisions. 



Dow Jones 
Straight Talk '" * 

Commimicaiions 
for the Applet 
Macintosh Computer 

CBA13742 






Dow Jones Straight Talk™ Get up-to-the-minute 

in /onnation for informed business decisions on stock. 

bonds and commodities. 



Fbachtree 
Software* 



BjcI. Ti> B.v.ics*" Accounting System 
General L«lso> 

ftoduci Code 03BCL-MAC3SD 
Copy fight © Iftj-J. Pfjfhirw.' Software, Inc. 
An MSA Company 



'Macintosh™ Version Number 1.00 

•Macintosh is >1 trademark licensed to Apple 
Computer, Inc. 



J 



Back to Basics." Manage your books with a full 
feature general ledger system for small business. 



MacProject 
■'"O '' —X 



I 



MacProject Create complex "critical path " 

flow charts for production schedules, timelines 

and managing projects. 



Microsoft File 



Data Management Program 



For AppleSMacintosh* 

MICROSOFT. 




f% K Macintosh 

/2p ; report 



iftvjHM ',Virsw.ira Pyi>i.>,'«mj Co-fwi.iSitvi 




t } FS • Report Prepaw inventory reports, price lists. 
salary and payroll analyses and sales reports. 



Microsoft,, Multiplane 



1 



3UMu*"i1MtA 



TMimiirffi 



For AppleeMacinloshm 



MICROSOFT. 






*■» 



Micwsoft* MuUipkn* Electronic spreadsheet [for budget 
forecasting, business planning and "what ij analysis. 



3i'VUE' 

iVIJE 



Information manager for the 
Macintosh'" personal computer. 



\. 




OverYl 'IV Analyze sales, track, inventor): update 
customer lists and monitor accounts receivable. 



he hardest workers 
itosh Office 



MacTerminal w 




Q 



MaeTerminaF Talk to mainframes via 3270 emulation, 
as well as information services and other computers. 




PES*: File. Store and retrieve mailing lists, client 
records, collections, schedules and inventories. 




Filevision m Vistudize market trends, organize and 
track sales and present data in pictures. 



a Z Z 



§ Lotus 




Lotufjazz. Integrated uwd processing, 

business graphics, database management, data 

communications and uvrksbeet. 




For Apple* Macintosh- 



MICROSOFT. 




Microsoft* Chart. j2 different charts and graphs for 
presentations, sales reports and transparencies. 



H=U\ 



Helix Program Disk 
for Macintosh 12SK. 512 

Li^a with Mac Work- 



* 



Odesta Helix* A relational database 

and decision support system for tracking information, 

resources and ideas. 



Theyre fast. They're dependable. 
And they seldom, if ever, complain. 

Were talking, of course, about all 
the powerful business software that works 
inThe Macintosh™Office. Our family of 
integrated office products that, we believe, 
will revolutionize the way business 
does business. 

And apparently, more than a few 
people agree 
with us. 

Leading 
software devel- 
opers have 
already written 
more than 350 
programs for 
The Macintosh 01 
Office. And 

LIlcIc die I1UI1" Just as Macintosh makes individuals 

Hrprk nf nthprc moreproductiw. The 

ui cuo ui w u ici o Macintosh Office increases productivity 

on the way. & u wk™^ °f 5 1 ° 2 > 

But more impressive than the sheer 
number of programs for The Macintosh 
Office, is the sheer ease with which 
you can use them. 

Thanks to Macintosh's windows, 
icons, pull-down menus and mouse tech- 
nology, every Macintosh program works 
the same way. Learn one, and you've 
learned them all. 

Which means you'll have a lot more 
time to do the one thing you've probably 
been too busy to do: 

Your job. 




* Available Spring W). © 1985 Apple Compute): Inc. Affile, the Apple 
logo, MaclMiject and MacTmninal are trademarks oj Apple Com 
puter. Inc. Macintosh is a trademark licensed to Apple Computer. 
Inc. For an authorized 'A/ file dealer neatest mi call (800) 
538-9696. In Canada, call (800) 268-7796 or 
(800)268-7637. 




TENTS 





96 




FEATURES 

Introduction 96 

The AT&T UNIX PC by Gregg Williams 98 

AT&T integrates computer and telephone and civilizes UNIX for under $6000. 

Ciarcias Circuit Cellar: Build the Home Run Control System. 

Part 2: The Hardware by Steve Garcia 108 

Steve gets into the nuts and bolts of his new control system. 

Set Extensions with Apple Pascal by Alfred L. Schumer 128 

Expand your set capabilities with the Supersets program. 

Build a Talking Clock Speech Synthesizer by Ernest H. Piette 143 

Have your Commodore 64. VIC-20. or TRS-80 audibly announce the time. 

Smalltalk Comes to the Microcomputer World by Bruce Webster 151 

Three articles focus on this object-oriented language. 

Methods: A Preliminary Look by Bruce Webster and Tom Yonkman 152 

Methods attempts to recreate the Smalltalk development environment 
on the IBM PC and compatibles. 

Smalltalk-PC by Christopher Made 155 

You can run Smalltalk on such systems as the Apple II and the IBM PC. 

The Smalltalk Programming Language by \im Anderson and Barry Fishman 160 

This article presents a brief introduction to object-oriented programming. 

THEMES 

Introduction 168 

Multiprocessing: An Overview by Rich Krajewski 171 

One word covers a variety of techniques for increasing computing speed. 

Extending Microprocessor Architectures^ Gary D. Beals 185 

Extended-processing units can significantly broaden instruction sets. 

Applying Data Flow in the Real World by William Gerhard Paseman 201 

This model for parallel processing is finding its way into commercial applications. 

The Transputer by Paul Walker 219 

A small computer can serve as a building block for parallel processing. 

Data-Movement Primitives by J. Eric Roskos and Ching-Dong Hsieh 239 

The authors describe a low-cost, innovative technique for sharing memory. 

REVIEWS 

Introduction 256 

Reviewers Notebook by Glenn Hartwig 259 

The Compaq Deskpro by \erry Grady 260 

Four models offer "99.9 percent" IBM PC compatibility. 

IBM PC AT by Alan Finger 270 

This PC is geared toward business applications. 

True BASIC by G. Michael Vose 279 

BASIC'S originators try to bring structure to the realm of "spaghetti code." 



BYTE (ISSN 0360-5280) ispublished monthly with one extra issue per year by McGraw-Hill Inc. Founder: lames H. McGraw (1860-19481. Executive, editorial, 
circulation, and advertising offices: 70 Main St.. Peterborough. NH 03458. phone 16031 924-9281. Office hours: Mon-Thur 8:30 AM - 4:30 PM. Friday 
8:30 AM - 1:00 PM. Eastern Time. Address subscriptions to BYTE Subscriptions. POB 590 Martinsville. N| 08836. Postmaster: send address changes. 
USPS Form 3579. undeliverable copies, and fulfillment questions to BYTE Subscriptions. POB 596. Martinsville. N| 08836. Second-class postage paid 
at Peterborough. NH 03458 and additional mailing offices. Postage paid at Winnipeg. Manitoba. Registration number 9321. Subscriptions are $2) for 
one year. S38 for two years, and S55 for three years in the USA and its possessions. In Canada and Mexico. $23 for one year. $42 for two years, S6I 
for three years. S69 for one year air delivery to Europe. 17.100 yen for one year surface delivery to lapan. S37 surface delivery elsewhere. Air delivery 
to selected areas at additional rates upon request. Single copy price is S3. 50 in the USA and its possessions. S3.95 in Canada and Mexico. S4.50 in 
Europe, and S5 elsewhere. Foreign subscriptions and sales should be remitted in United States funds drawn on a U.S. bank. Please allow six to eight 
weeks for delivery of first issue. Printed in the United States of America. 



2 BYTE- MAY 1985 



COVER BY AARON REZNY 



VOLUME 10, NUMBER 5, 1985 



The GTX-100 Modem by Mark Haas 291 

Security functions are built into this smart device. 

Review Feedback , 299 

Readers respond to previous reviews. 

KERNEL 



Introduction 305 

Computing at Chaos Manor: In Search of the Perfect Product 

by \erry Pournelle 307 

Chaos Manor awards are handed out, and Jerry discusses a new type of micro 

Chaos Manor Mail conducted by \erry Pournelle 347 

Jerry's readers write, and he replies. 

BYTE Japan: Megabits and Gigaflops by Williatn M. Raike 355 

This month Bill looks at IBM Japan's 1-megabit RAM chips and new personal 
computers from NEC and Fujitsu. 

BYTE West Coast: Homebrew Chips 

by }ohn Markoff, Phillip Robinson, and Donna Osgood 363 

Our West Coast editors describe MOS1S and much more. 

BYTE U.K.: Parallel Processing by Dick Pountain 385 

From London. Dick introduces a machine called ALICE that uses parallel 
processors and executes a higher-order applicative language called Hope 

Computers and Law: The Sale of Computer Products 

by Robert Greene Sterne and Perry J. Saidman 399 

Two attorneys look at the legal aspects of buying and selling computers. 

Mathematical Recreations: An Exercise in BASIC Bitwise Logic Operation 

by Robert T. Kurosaka 417 

The ancient game of Nim helps teach the use of logical operators. 

Circuit Cellar Feedback conducted by Steve Garcia 424 

Steve answers project-related queries from readers. 

Programming Insight: 0.8660254 = V3/2 by Dan Sandberg 429 

This program lets you easily find the fractional equivalent of a decimal. 

Programming Insight: Computing Pi by David J. Crawford 433 

Approximate the decimal value of irrational numbers. 




256 



Editorial: BYTE's Reader Poll 6 

Microbytes 9 

Letters 14 

Fixes and Updates 33 

Whats New 39. 464 

ASK BYTE . 48 

Clubs & Newsletters 58 



Book Reviews 65 

Event Queue 83 

Books Received 442 

Unclassified Ads 525 

BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box. 
BOMB Results 526 

Reader Service 527 



1 


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WtiSSsby 



305 



Address all editorial correspondence to the Editor. BYTE. POB 372. Hancock. NH 03449. Unacceptable manuscripts will be returned if accompanied 
by sufficient first-class postage. Not responsible for lost manuscripts or photos. Opinions expressed by the authors are not necessarily those of BYTE. 

Copyright © 1985 by McGraw-Hill Inc. All rights reserved. Irademark registered in the United States Patent and Irademark Office Where necessary, 
permission is granted by the copyright owner for libraries and others registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) to photocopy any article 
herein Sot ihe Ual fee of SI. 50 per copy of the article or any part thereof. Correspc 'idence and payment should be sent directly to the CCC. 29 Congress 
St.. Salem. MA 01970. Specify ISSN 0360-5280/83 SI. 50. Copying done for ot'.^r than personal or internal reference use without the permis- 
sion of McGraw-Hill Inc. is prohibited. Requests for special permission or bulk orders should be addressed to the publisher. BYTE is available 
in microfurm from Univeisity Microfilms International. 300 North Zeeb Rd.. Dept. PR. Ann Arbor. Ml 48106 or 18 Bedford Row. Dept PR. 
London WCIR 4 EI England. 
Subscription questions or problems should be addressed to: BYTE Subscriber Service. POB 328. Hancock. NH 03449 



SECTION ART BY MEL FURUKAWA 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 3 



Inquiry 207 for Dealers. 
Inquiry 208 for End-Users. 




Intercontinental Micro is shipping 
solutions today for all your S-100 
BUS 16-bit and PC network needs. 

Our products have always featured 
Direct Memory Access, Memory 
Management and Vectored Priority 
Interrupts to give you the fastest 
networks possible, bar none. 

Of course, we also offer a complete 
line of 8-bit and interface/controller 
products as well as the sophisticated 
TurboDOS™multiuser operating system. 

For complete networking solutions 
and years of experience call Inter- 
continental Micro today 

CPZ-186- 

8MHZ 80186, 2 sync or async serial 
I/O channels 20 parallel I/O lines, 
256K RAM expandable to 1 megabyte, 
onboard floppy disk controller. 
CPS-186- 

10MHZ 80186, 4 sync or async serial 
I/O channels, 20 parallel I/O lines, 
256K RAM expandable to 1 megabyte. 
CPS-16X- 

8MHZ 8086, 256K RAM expandable 
to 1 megabyte, 2 sync or async serial 
I/O channels, 20 parallel I/O lines. 
LANPC- 

Allows IBM PC/XTs™ PCs or compat- 
ibles to integrate into TurboLAN, 
ARCnet™ and S-100 BUS networks. 
LANjr™ 

Provides cost effective true multiuser 
PCjr™ networks with simple installation. 



0^ 



^^^ Intercontinental 
=^=/ftf/cro Systems 



4015 Leoverton Ct., Anaheim, Ca 92807, 
(714) 630-0964,TR£X: 821375 SUPPORT UD 

TurboDOS b a Tademark of Software 2,000 Inc. 

IBM PC, XT & PCjr are Trademaiks of International 

Business Machines. 

TurboLan is aTiademark of Intercontinental 

Micro Systems. ARCnet is a Trademark of Datapoint 

BYTE • MAY 1985 



BYTE 



editor in chief 

Philip Lemmons 
managing editor 
Gene Smarte 

CONSULTING EDITORS 

Steve Ciarcia 

lERRY POURNELLE 

SENIOR TECHNICAL EDITORS 

G. Michael Vose. Themes 
Gregg Williams 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Thomas R. Clune 

Jon R. Edwards 

Richard Grehan 

Glenn Hartwig. Reviews 

Richard Kraiewski 

Ken Sheldon 

Richard S. Shuford 

Jane Morrill Tazelaar 

Eva White 

Stanley Wszola 

Margaret Cook Gurney. Associate 

Alan Easton. Dialling 

WEST COAST EDITORS 

Ezra Shapiro, Bureau Chief. San Francisco 
John Markoff. Senior Technical Editor. Palo Alto 
Phillip Robinson, Senior Technical Editor. Palo Alto 
Donna Osgood. Associate Editor, San Francisco 
Brenda McLaughlin, Editorial Assistant. San Francisco 

NEW YORK EDITOR 

Richard Malloy. Senior Technical Editor 

MANAGING EDITOR, 

ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING AND COMMUNICATIONS 

George Bond 

USER NEWS EDITOR, EAST COAST 

Anthony 1. Lockwood. VJhais New 

USER NEWS EDITOR, WEST COAST 

Mark Welch, Microbytes 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Dennis Allison, at large 

Mark Dahmke. video, operating systems 

Mark Haas, at large 

Rik Jadrnicek. CAD. graphics, spreadsheets 

Mark Klein, communications 

Alan Miller, languages and engineering 

John C. Nash, scientific computing 

Dick Pountain. U.K. 

William M. Raike. \apan 

Perry Saidman. computers and law 

Robert Sterne, computers and law 

Bruce Webster, software 

COPY EDITORS 

Bud Sadler Chief 
Dennis Barker 
Elizabeth Cooper 
Anne L. Fischer 
Nancy Hayes 
Lynne M. Nadeau 
Paula Noonan 
Joan Vigneau Roy 
Warren Williamson 

assistants 

Peggy Dunham 
Martha Hicks 
Beverly Jackson 
Lisa lo Steiner 

ART 

ROSSLYN A. Frick. Art Director 
Nancy Rice. Assistant Art Director 



PRODUCTION 

David R. Anderson, Production Director 
Denise Chartrand 
Michael J. Lonsky 
Jan Muller 



SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT PUBLISHER 

Harry L. Brown 

PUBLISHER'S ASSISTANT 

Doris R. Gamble 



PERSONNEL 

Cheryl Hurd. Office Manager 
Patricia Burke, Personnel Coordinator 



ADVERTISING SALES (603-924-6137) 

J. Peter Huestis, Safes Manager 
Sandra Foster. Administrative Assistant 

ADVERTISING/PRODUCTION (603-924-6448) 

Lisa Wozmak, Supervisor 

Robert D. Hannings. Senior Account Manager 

Marion Carlson 

Karen Cilley 

Lyda Clark 

MlCHELE GlLMORE 

Denise Proctor 

Wai Chiu Li. Quality Control Director 

Julie Nelson. Advertising/Production Coordinator 

CIRCULATION (800-258-5485) 

Gregory Spitzfaden. Director 

Andrew Jackson, Subscriptions Manager 

Cathy A. R. Drew. Assistant Manager 

Laurie Seamans. Assistant Manager 

Susan Boyd 

Phil Dechert 

Mary Emerson 

Louise Menegus 

Agnes E. Perry 

Jennifer Price 

James Bingham. Single-Copt/ Sales Manager 

Linda Ruth, Assistant Manager 

Carol Aho 

Claudette Carswell 

Karen Desroches 

MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS 

Horace T. Howland Director (603-924-3424) 

Vicki Reynolds. Marketing Production Manager 

Priscilla Arnold. Marketing Assistant 

Stephanie Warnesky. Marketing Art Director 

Sharon Price, Assistant Art Director 

Doug Webster. Diredor of Public Relations (603-924-9027) 

Wilbur S. Watson. Operations Manager. Exhibits 

PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT 

Michele P. Verville. Manager 

Patricia Akerley, Research Manager 

Cynthia Damato Sands. Reader Service Coordinator 

Faith Kluntz. Copyrights Coordinator 

MANUFACTURING/FINANCE/SERVICES 

Daniel Rodrigues. Director 

ACCOUNTING 

Kenneth A. King. Assistant Controller 
Vicki Weston, Accounting Manager 
Linda Short. D/P Manager 
Edson Ware, Credit 
Marie Caggiani 
Marilyn Haigh 
Diane Henry 
Vern Rockwell 
JoAnn Walter 

TYPOGRAPHY 

Sherry McCarthy. Chief Typographer 
Nan Fornal 
Len Lorette 
Kathy Quist 
Donna Sweeney 

BUILDING SERVICES/TRAFFIC 

Anthony Bennett, Building Services Manager 
Brian Higgins 
Mark Monkton 

RECEPTIONISTS 

L. Ryan McCombs 
Cheryl Castro. Assistant 



Editorial and Business Office: 70 Main Street. Peterborough. New Hampshire 03458. (603) 924-9281. 
West Coast Offices: McGraw-Hill. 425 Battery St.. San Francisco, CA 94 II I. (41 5) 362-4600. 

McGraw-Hill. 1000 Elwell Court. Palo Alto. CA 94303. (4 15) 964-0624. 
New York Office: 1221 Avenue of the Americas. New York. NY 10020. (212) 512-2000. 

Officers of McGraw-Hill Information Systems Company: President: Richard B Miller. Executive Vice Presidents: Frederick P. lannott. Con- 
struction Information Group: Russell C. White. Computers and Communications Information Group: I. Thomas Ryan. Marketing and Interna- 
tional. Senior Vice Presidents: Francis A. Shinal. Controller: Robert C. Violette. Manufacturing and Technology. Senior Vice Presidents and 
Publishers: Harry L. Brown. Computers and Communications: David I. McGrath. Construction. Group Vice President: Peter B. McCuen. Com- 
munications. Vice Presidents: Fred O. (ensen. Planning and Development; Margaret L. Dagner. Human Resources. 
Officers of McGraw-Hill. Inc.: Harold W. McGraw. )r.. Chairman: Joseph L. Dionne. President and Chief Executive Officer: Robert N. Landes. Executive 
Vice President and Secretary; Ralph 1. Webb, Vice President and Treasurer: Donald L. Fruehling. Executive Vice President. Publishing Operations Group: 
Ralph R. Schulz, Senior Vice President. Editorial; Walter D. Serwatka. Senior Vice President. Manufacturing and Circulation Services. Vice Presidents: 
She! F. Asen. Manufacturing, George R. Elsinger, Circulation. 






a 



CROMEMCO COMPUTERS: 
DESIGNED TO MAKE UNIX SYSTEM V 

EVEN BETTER... 



UNIX System V, the new standard in multi- 
user microcomputer operating systems, gives you high 
performance features along with the portability and 
flexibility of a standard. 

Cromemco computers can make UNIX System 
V even better. Because our systems are designed with 
UNIX in mind. First of all, we offer UNIX System V 
with Berkeley enhancements. Then, our hardware uses 
advanced features like 64K of on-board cache memory 
and our high speed STDC controller to speed up disk 
operations -very important with UNIX. 

More capability and expandability 

We have a high-speed, 68000-based GPU that 
runs at 10 MHz, coupled with a memory manager that 
uses demand-paging and scatter loading to work with 
UNIX, not for it. 

We provide room for expanding RAM to 16 
megabytes -with error detection and correction -for 
running even the most sophisticated and advanced 
microcomputer programs. And the power to accom- 
modate up to 16 users -all with plenty of memory. 

But we give you even more. 

A complete solution 

We give you a choice in systems: the System 
100 series, expandable up to 4 megabytes of RAM, and 
the System 300 series, expandable to 16 mega- 
bytes. A high speed 50 ^^^ ma^^m^^&^^^ 
megabyte hard disk drive 
is standard on the sys- 
tems. And you can ex- 
pand the hard disk 
capacity up to 1200 
megabytes using stan- 
dard SMD drives. You 
can add floating point 
processing. High resolution 
graphics. Video digitizing and 
imaging. Communications through 




standard protocols. Mainframe interface. 

And software support is here to meet your 
needs. We offer major programming languages, data- 
base management systems, communications software, 
including SNA architecture, X25 protocol, and Ethernet; 
even a program to interface to an IBM PC if you need to. 
And, of course, access to the broad range of standard 
UNIX applications programs that is growing dramat- 
ically every day. 

Easy to use* 

We also make our systems easier to use, 
because we install the operating system before we 
ship your computer, No complicated installation pro- 
cedures. And the Berkeley enhancements give you 
the standard UNIX System V operating system, 
but with the added convenience of these widely 
acclaimed improvements. 

Cromemco's System 100 and System 300 
computers: designed to be the highest performance 
UNIX systems available anywhere. 

Just call or visit one of our UNIX System V 
Official System Centers to see for yourself. They'll 
also give you a copy of our new publication, "What 
you should know before you buy a UNIX system." 
Or contact us directly. 

We'll be glad to show you how to get a 
better UNIX system. 

Corporate Headquarters: Cromemco, Inc., 
280 Bernardo Avenue, P.O. Box 7400, Mountain 
View, CA 94039. (415) 969-4710. In Europe: 

Cromemco 
GmbH, 6236 
Eschborn 1, 
Frankfurter Str. 
33-35, P.O. 5267, 
Frankfurt Main, 
Germany. 




UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories. 

IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 



Cromemco 



Inquiry 112. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 



EDITORIAL 



BYTE'S Reader Poll 

Each month, several hundred BYTE 
readers vote in the reader poll called 
the BOMB (BYTE's Ongoing Monitor 
Box). We've done little to call atten- 
tion to the poll but wish to do so now 
to urge increased participation. We 
take the BOMB results seriously. 
Besides awarding modest prizes to 
the writers whose articles win the 
most votes, we try to interpret the 
BOMB results in a way that will help 
us develop and choose articles that 
win the applause of BYTE readers. 

Admittedly, several hundred votes 
from a circulation of 400,000 are 
neither a random sample nor a large 
one. We want to encourage you to 
vote on this month's articles to in- 
crease both the size and the signifi- 
cance of the BOMB results and to 
help us keep BYTE attuned to your 
needs. 

The great majority of you have 
never voted in the BOMB and prob- 
ably have never noticed the num- 
bered list of articles published at 
the back of the magazine 



between the Unclassified Ads and the 
Reader Service index. The numbers 
on the list identify the articles for 
voting purposes. The ballot itself is 
one page further along, on the Reader 
Service card. Beneath the area where 
you circle Reader Service numbers to 
obtain information about advertised 
products, a smaller set of numbers 
lets you circle numbers to rate this 
month's articles. The ballot asks you 
to rate each article as excellent, good, 
fair, or poor. We assign weights to all 
these ratings to identify the best-liked 
articles. 

Steve Ciarcia and Jerry Poumelle 
are, of course, frequent winners of the 
BOMB, as are articles about major 
new personal computers. We do 
sometimes have surprises. A survey 
of statistical software scored very well, 
as did two articles examining the state 
of Soviet computers and electronics- 
Ruth Heuertz's look at Soviet micro- 
processors (April 1984) and Leo 



Bores's account of the Soviet Apple 
clone. AGAT (November 1984). We 
didn't realize how broad the appeal 
of statistics would be or how power- 
ful people's curiosity about Soviet 
products, topics which lack the most 
important criterion of interest turned 
up in our reader research— emphasis 
on new technology. 

Results that surprise us might not 
surprise you. Voting in the BOMB is 
the best way to keep us abreast of 
your interests and needs. We urge you 
to take a minute each month to make 
your opinion heard. We'll be listening 
when you do. 

The Long-Awaited 
BYTE Index 

Finally. An index to the 1983 and 1984 
issues of BYTE is now available. For 
a hard copy of this 48-page document, 
please send us $1 and we'll send you 
a copy postpaid. The index will also 
be available electronically. We'll re- 
lease the details as soon as possible. 



— Phil Lemmons 
Editor in Chief 




6 BYTE • MAY 1985 



ILLUSTRATED BY MACIEK ALBRECHT 



maxell 

FLOPPY OlSK 




Maxell Gold 

The floppy disk that 
lets PC AT speed ahead, 

makes PC/XT 
Xtraordinary 

and helps IBM.PC 

capitalize 
on its powers 



For your Big Blue, only the Gold 
Standard will do. Maxell. The floppy disk 
chosen by many disk drive manufac- 
turers to test their new equipment. 
Each Gold Standard is backed by a 
lifetime warranty. And each 
is a perfect match for your IBM. 
In fact, there's a Gold Standard 
for virtually any computer made. 
Even if it's the new IBM PC AT! 



maxell 

IT'S WORTH IT 




PC AT, PC/XT and PC are trademarks of IBM Corp. 



Maxell Corporation of America, 60 Oxford Drive, Moonachie, N.J. 07074 
Inquiry 256 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 7 





A NUMERICAL CONCEPT HO OTHER 
MONITOR CAN COMPREHEND. 



As sophisticated as they are, you'd think monitor 
companies could solve a simple problem: keeping 

customers happy 




Fortunately Amdek can. With the longest 
warranty m the industry Namely two years on all 
parts and labor. And three years on the CRT 

Even simpler, our warranty applies to every 
monitor we make, from our new Color Series to our 
amazingly popular Video Series. 

And Amdek s own trained technicians make 
repairs quick and professional. 

So when you re shopping for a monitor, look 
at the quality Amdek guarantees you, years after you 
leave the store. 

According to our figures, it really adds up. 

AMDEK MONITORS 



Amdek Corp., 2201 Lively Blvd. Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 312/595-6890, Telex 280803. 



© 1985 Amdek Corp. 



8 B YTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 24 



MICROBYTES 



Staff-written highlights of late developments in the microcomputer industry. 



New Laser Printers May Outperform Canons Engine 

T\vo new printers from Konica and NEC may offer some advantages over the Canon LBP-CX 
engine used in Apple's and Hewlett-Packard's laser printers. The TMC Co., Wayne, PA, the 
U.S. distributor for Konica's LP-3010, says the newer laser printer is faster, will cost less to 
operate, and lasts longer than Canon's LBP-CX, but it is priced the same and offers the 
same 300-dot-per-inch (dpi) resolution. 

While Canon suggests that the LBP-CX be used to print up to 3000 pages per month at a 
speed of 8 pages per minute, TMC says the LP-3010 can handle 10,000 copies per month 
at 10 pages per minute. The LP-3010 uses a $200 drum/toner cartridge the company says 
will last for 15,000 pages, while the LBP-CX's $99 cartridge must be replaced after 3000 
copies. And while Canon suggests that the LBP-CX be "overhauled" at 100,000 pages, TMC 
says the LP-3010 will last for 600,000 pages. 

TMC says that several OEMs have placed orders for the LP-3010 and will announce prod- 
ucts early this summer; pricing for a low-end printer based on Konica's engine should start 
at about $3500. With more advanced capabilities, including full-page bit-mapped graphics, a 
Konica-based laser printer would be priced competitively with Apple's $6995 LaserWriter, 
TMC claims. 

NEC Information Systems plans to begin shipping its own 8-page-per-minute, 300-dpi 
laser-class printer in late summer. NEC's printer uses an LED array rather than a laser. 
Because it is not based on copier technology, NEC claims the printer will last longer and re- 
quire less service than laser printers. NEC's offering will feature three built-in fonts; two car- 
tridges can add up to eight more fonts. NEC's 55-pound printer occupies only half the foot- 
print of the heavier Canon-based printers. With a 64K-byte printer buffer and both serial 
and parallel ports, NEC's LED-array printer will sell for less than $3000. NEC is also con- 
sidering unveiling one or more laser printers in the fall or winter. 

A 300-dpi laser printer from Fujitsu is the basis of an even more advanced combination 
printer/scanner/copier that Corporate Data Sciences planned to unveil in April. Eight pages 
per minute can be digitized at 300 dpi. The image can then be stored or manipulated by a 
personal computer and printed. The unit will also work as a standard copying machine. The 
printer/scanner/copier will be priced at about $24,000; the 16-page-per-minute laser printer 
alone will sell for about $15,000. CDS says its laser-printer controller can also address 
higher-resolution laser printers, up to 1000 dpi, and it plans to offer a printer engine using 
a 480-dpi laser printer expected next year from Fujitsu. 

DEC Revamps Rainbow to Match New PC Strategy 

Stating that "stand-alone personal computing in the office is a thing of the past," Digital 
Equipment Corp. announced the Rainbow 190, designed to operate as a workstation for 
other DEC computers. With a 10-megabyte hard-disk drive, 640K bytes of memory, MS- 
DOS, and Rainbow Office Workstation software, the Rainbow 190 costs $6495. Also newly 
available for the Rainbow is the $595 WPS-PLUS word-processing program, already available 
on the VAX and ALL-IN-1 systems. DEC also announced a $295 DECnet interface for the 
Rainbow. 

Fairchild Unveils First Single-Chip 212A 1200-bps Modem 

Fairchild announced a single-chip 1200-bps modem that supports the Bell 212A standard. 
The Fairchild uA212A modem includes all signal-processing functions on a single chip, unlike 
previous applications that required several chips. To build a working modem, however, 
several other devices are required: A general-purpose microprocessor must handle dialing, 
handshaking protocols, and control functions, while other circuitry must handle RS-232C and 
telephone interfaces and ring detection. The chip should be available by June for $82.67 in 
quantities of 100. 



(continued) 
MAY 1985 -BYTE 9 



Firms Show Chinese-Language Word Processors 

1\vo companies are developing Chinese-language word processors for the 512K-byte IBM PC 
using a standard American keyboard. Chinese Computer Communications, Lansing, Ml, is 
showing PC 2001, which uses the company's own Pinxxiee input method; the company 
hasn't yet set a shipping date but hopes to price the software at about $795. 

Asiagraphics Corp., Port Jefferson, NY, expected to begin shipping its Asiagraphics System 
in April for $995. This product employs a "descriptor" input method, using one of three 
Chinese phonetic systems (pinyin, Wade-Giles, or Bopomofo). Asiagraphics also plans Korean 
and ]apanese versions and hopes to allow use of the IBM graphics adapter as well as the 
Hercules graphics card now supported. 



IBM Puts Series/ 1 on a Chip, in an IBM PC Box 

IBM has put its Series/1 computer architecture onto a single proprietary 16-bit micropro- 
cessor and announced versions of the IBM PC XT and AT that include the Series/ 1 chip and 
related circuits on two IBM PC expansion cards. The Series/1 5170 Model 495 is an IBM PC 
AT with the Series/1 expansion cards, a monochrome adapter and monitor, a 20-megabyte 
hard disk, and a 1.2-megabyte floppy-disk drive. It is priced at $9420. The Model 4950, 
based on the IBM PC XT, includes a 10-megabyte hard disk and one 320K-byte floppy-disk 
drive for $8130. IBM will stress the new system's usefulness as a file server in a network 
environment. 



Morrow Upgrades Pivot: Fully IBM-Compatible 

Morrow Designs has redesigned its Pivot portable computer to add a 25-line display and to 
make it more compatible with the IBM PC. The new Pivot, which Morrow hoped to begin 
shipping this month, will feature a backlit 25-line by 80-character liquid-crystal display, serial 
and parallel ports, two 5 '/4-inch disk drives, 256K bytes of RAM (expandable to 640K), 
rechargeable batteries, MS-DOS, and NewWord. Optional internal expansions will include an 
RGB/composite video output adapter and a 300/1200-bps modem. An optional expansion 
chassis is also planned. Morrow plans to price the two-drive machine at about $2995; it 
had already dropped the price of the 16-line Pivot to $1995 in March. 



NANOBYTES 



Optionware Inc. introduced OptionWord + , a $100 word-processing template for Lotus 
1-2-3 .... AT&T introduced its long-expected UNIX personal computer. For details, see 
page 98 ... . Intel has sued NEC, charging that NEC's V20 and V30 microprocessors violate 
Intel's copyright for the microcode used in the 8088 and 8086 .... Apple has developed a 
version of Smalltalk that runs on the Macintosh XL. Because it doesn't run on a standard 
Macintosh, Apple is selling it only on a limited basis, mostly to universities. . . . Microsoft 
has released a new version of Multiplan for the IBM PC. Multiplan 2.0 supports keyboard 
macros and has faster recalculation and a larger virtual spreadsheet (256- by 4096-cell). . . . 
For the Macintosh, Microsoft announced a run-time Microsoft BASIC interpreter, which 
software developers can distribute with programs they sell .... Microsoft also announced 
Excel, a sophisticated spreadsheet for the Macintosh (see page 44) ... . Summa Tech- 
nologies announced a site license-fee program under which buyers can make unlimited 
copies of a program for use by company employees— including personal use— for as little as 
$9800. . . . Prometheus, Fremont, CA. now offers a version of its ProModem 300/1200-bps 
modem for the Macintosh. With ProCom-M telecommunications software and a cable, it's 
$549. . . . Prometheus also planned to introduce a compact 300-bps modem for the Apple 
lie for less than $200. The modem will provide an extra serial port and uses the lie's power 
signal. . . . Manzana, lsla Vista, CA, is selling a double-sided 3'/2-inch disk drive for the IBM 
PC. The external 720K-byte drive is $625 .... Advanced Micro Devices expected to begin 
shipping samples of the 20-MHz 29PL141 microcode-programmable controller this 
month. . . . Nestar Systems Inc. announced a six-port HUB for its baseband LAN system 
that allows it to interface to a broadband network. . . . Roger Wagner Publishing, San 
Diego, CA, is developing a MacWrite-like word processor for the Apple lie and lie. 
MouseWrite takes advantage of the MouseText ROM included in the lie and newer lie 
models. . . . Intel announced OpenNET, a local-area-network (LAN) product line that 
incorporates Microsoft's Networks (MS-NET) software. 



10 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Both letter-quality and draft hard copy 



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TheTl 855 microprinter. 

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Creating useful products 
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MAY 1985 "BYTE 11 



© 1985, Apricot, Inc. 




We're aboutto ch 
business views the co 



A computer revolution of 
enormous magnitude is about to 
take place. 

Because Europe's most 
successful business computer 
company is now doing business in 
America. Introducing Apricot. A 
full line of computers specifically 
designed for business. 



Not adapted to it. 

In fact, the facts speak for 
themselves. 

Apricots are elegant and 
compact 16-bit computers. They 
employ the MS-DOS operating sys- 
tem, and a minimum of 256K 
memory. One of our models, the 
Apricot Xi, boasts an incredible 



one Megabyte of memory, and fea- 
tures a Winchester hard disk with 
20 Megabytes of storage. We also 
have models that feature speech 
recognition, full-size LCD, and 
icon driven menus. 

In addition, you also have 
a choice between 9" or 12" b/w or 
10" color monitors. All of which 



12 BYTE • MAY 1985 




ange how American 
mputer industry 



have a higher screen resolution 
than Apple. 

And as if that weren't enough, 
all of our models can be networked 
from the moment you take them 
out of the box. They're also capable 
of running thousands of business 
software programs specially writ- 
ten for Apricot on Vh inch disks. 



So, if you still think that 
Apple is a better business com- 
puter, look at it from a different 
perspective. 

It's not. 

Apricot, Inc., 3375 Scott 
Boulevard, Santa Clara, CA 
95054. Call 800-227-6703, or in 
California 800-632-7979. 




The Apricot > 
20Mb hard disk. 720K floppy diskette. MS-DOS. $4495 (excluding monitor). 



apricot 

JLWere changing how 
American business does business. 



Inquiry 37 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 13 



LETTERS 



Cryptographic 
Message Sending 

Thank you for Charles Kluepfel's article, 
"Implementing Cryptographic Algorithms 
on Microcomputers" (October 1984, page 
126). This is an area in which I have an in- 
terest and would like to see more articles 
in the future, especially on the practical 
aspects of making and using a large-scale 
(widely used) public-key cryptography 
(PKC) system. 

An assumption that some people make 
is that the telephone system is a perfect 
"channel," that is, that all information put 
into one end will reach its destination and 
come out the other end. This is not nec- 
essarily true. It is definitely not true when 
a store-and -forward system such as an 
electronic-mail or electronic bulletin-board 
system is used. Since many messages sent 
in a PKC system will be longer than the 
maximum number of digits that can be en- 
coded, the message will have to be broken 
into segments, each segment being en- 
coded and sent separately. This raises the 
possibility of a third party (with or without 
the telephone company's approval) inter- 
cepting and preventing one or more 
segments from reaching the intended reci- 
pient, while letting other segments pass 
through. Even without the ability to 
decode the intercepted segments, a third 
party could do great damage to both the 
sender and recipient due to the recipient's 
assuming that the entire message was 
received, when in fact it was not. Under 
some conditions, damage could also be 
done by rearranging the order of the seg- 
ments, if the recipient was to assume that 
they were sent in the same order as re- 
ceived. (Admittedly, such situations would 
be rare.) 

The telephone company should not be 
thought of as a "channel," but rather as 
a third party that can usually be trusted 
to deliver some of the segments of the 
message. It is up to the sender and reci- 
pient to ensure that all segments arrive 
and are put into their proper order before 
taking action on the basis of a message 
received. 

A possible method of achieving this 
would be to include in each segment a 
four- or five-character (or more) code, ran- 



domly chosen and different for each seg- 
ment within a message. These random 
characters would be inserted into the plain 
text before the segment was encoded with 
the recipient's public key Then the last 
segment sent would contain a repetition 
of all of these codes in their correct order. 
The recipient could check to make sure 
each segment had arrived and was in its 
proper order. Any segments containing 
codes not repeated in the final segment 
would be discarded. 

Briefly covered in the article was the 
topic of a sender using his own private key 
to provide a "signature" to a message. For 
ordinary messages, only the last segment 
(containing the repeated random codes 
from all the other segments) need be 
signed. However, if an electronic contract 
is desired, all segments of the message 
should be encoded with both the sender's 
private key and the recipient's public one. 
This is to prevent the recipient from alter- 
ing a segment (while keeping the same 
random code) and then claiming his copy 
to be the true contract. This means that 
in order to prove a contract, the recipient 
would have to provide a copy of each seg- 
ment exactly as it was received from the 
modem and a copy of each segment after 
it was completely decoded into plain text. 
The arbitrator of a contract dispute need 
only encode the plain-text segment with 
the recipient's public key and "decode" 
the "segment as received" with the 
sender's public key. Comparing the two 
resulting segments should show them to 
be exactly alike, thus proving that the seg- 
ment came from the sender that the reci- 
pient claims sent it. The recipient need not 
disclose his private key to the arbitrator. 

Actually the first segment of every mes- 
sage, ordinary or contract, should be en- 
coded only with the recipient's public key 
and should contain information of who 
the sender is, so that the recipient can 
apply the right key to decode any signed 
segments. Otherwise, that information 
would have to be sent in plain text (hor- 
ror!). Also, in order to prevent the recipient 
from reusing the sender's signed last seg- 
ment (containing the repeated random 
codes) to send a falsely signed message 
to someone else, the sender should in- 
clude identification of the intended recip- 



ient in the plain text of all signed 
segments. It wouldn't hurt to include the 
date and time as well. 

Paul S. Burney 
Portland, OR 

Charles Kluepfel replies: 
To protect against no n reception of seg- 
ments of the message, the scheme need 
not be as complex as Mr. Burney sug- 
gests. The sequence code that he sug- 
gests at the beginning of each segment 
can be merely 00001, 00002, etc., 
without the need for a key as the last seg- 
ment. This insertion is, as he states, 
before encryption, and the nature of this 
code prevents the presence of these or 
any known message contents from mak- 
ing the code breakable. Indeed, as the 
code used for message sending (as op- 
posed to signature forming) is public, 
anyone trying to intercept code can 
himself encode 00001, etc. It does not 
aid the interceptor and thus can be safely 
used by the legitimate parties. 

As for the portion regarding electronic 
signatures, encoding by the sender's 
private key is sufficient so that the reci- 
pient cannot alter the message. The use 
of the recipient's public key would not be 
of any further benefit. The recipient can- 
not produce a new message that is en- 
coded by the sender's private key. that 
is, one that is decodable by the sender's 
public key. What must be guarded 
against, rather, is that the sender might 
claim to have sent further segments, 
modifying the intent of the message. The 
only way to guard against any disagree- 
ment is to have the entire document 
signed by both parties. Since signing is 

[continued) 



LETTERS POLICY: To be considered for pub- 
lication, a letter must be typed double-spaced on 
one side of the paper and must include your name 
and address. Comments and ideas should be ex- 
pressed as clearly and concisely as possible. 
Listings and tables may be printed along with 
a letter if they are short and legible. 

Because BYTE receives hundreds of letters each 
month, not all of them can be published, letters 
will not be returned to author. Generally, it takes 
four months from the time BYTE receives a let- 
ter until it is published. 



14 BYTE • MAY 1985 



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16 MAY 1985 -BYTE 



Inquiry 104 



LETTERS 



encoding by the private key. each party 
must do encoding by private key of ail 
segments. It can be by each separately 
encoding the plain text, or by the plain 
text being encoded by one, and the re- 
sulting text further encoded by the reci- 
pient's private code. Of course the 
sender must then get a copy of this 
further-encoded text to later prove the 
recipient agreed to it. The sender's 
private and recipient's public encoding 
does not assure a contract, only that the 
sender sent it. 

To assure any segment came from the 
sender, it would have to be encoded in 
the sender's private key. Including the 
recipient's name in the one (or few) 
signed segment(s) in no way prevents 
forgery of unsigned segments. 

More on Binary Trees 

1 quite agree with John Snyder's remark, 
in his response to Lawrence Leinweber's 
letter ("Binary Trees Explained," 
September 1984, page 22), that there is 
no "proper solution" in software to a given 
problem. 

On the other hand, with regard to his 
"A-trees," I'm sure that he finds them sim- 
ple. After all. he wrote the article ("Index- 
ing Open-Ended Tree Structures," May 
1984, page 406). Algorithms by definition 
are simple, once you've successfully im- 
plemented them. Otherwise, you would 
never have gotten that far. 

Any given data structure is as simple as 
its presentation, which brings me to my 
next point. Mr. Leinweber's C routine for 
tree searching managed to obscure what 
ought to be an obvious data structure. It 
would have been far more effective to pre- 
sent one of D. E. Knuth's diagrams from 
section 2.3 of The Art of Computer Program- 
ming. Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms 
(Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1974). 

Frankly I'm still not sure whether Mr. 
Leinweber's routines were meant to search 
a generalized tree implemented as a 
binary tree or simply a binary tree. 1 refuse 
to spend more than five minutes decipher- 
ing a five-line text in any language that 1 
supposedly understand. 

Finally, Dr. Snyder, since when are binary 
trees sometimes called B-trees? Binary- 
tree nodes have at most two children (and 
possibly none) and by no means fulfill the 
well-defined properties of a B-tree (see the 
section on trees in Niklaus Wirths Algo- 
rithms Plus Data Structures Equals Programs: 
Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1976). 
I've always assumed that the "B" stands 

[continued] 



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MAY 1985 -BYTE 17 



RUN/C: 

The C Interpreter 

Only $ 149.95! 




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LETTERS 



for "balanced," which is what makes them 
so popular. They never degenerate into a 
linear linked list, which is what a binary 
tree is prone to do under certain input 
conditions (keys arriving in a well-ordered 
sequence). 

C is a horrible language for clarifying 
ideas. What's wrong with English or, better 
still, pictures? 

I. Caron 

Kibbutz Ga'ash 

Israel 60950 

The Macintosh Debate 
Goes On 

For years I have wanted a computer of my 
own; the type of work I do literally 
demands one. What had kept me from 
buying one had been a growing awareness 
of the fact that, while I was previously a 
slave to the thousands of bits of data I was 
entering into my file cabinet manually, 
none of the personal computers I had 
been considering would do more than put 
me hopelessly behind because l would be 
spending all of my time learning how to 
use the machine. Seven months ago I 
bought the Apple Macintosh, and my 
methods for using the information I col- 
lect in my work have changed dramatically. 
Indeed, for the past few months I have 
been imagining countless ways of using 
this data in ways I could have never hoped 
to use it if I did not have the Macintosh. 

Which brings me to the essence of this 
letter. So much has been written about the 
Macintosh in various parts of your January 
issue that I find it difficult to address just 
one of the points that have been made. 
The three letters appearing on pages 26 
to 32 seem befitting testimonials to the 
positivism most Macintosh owners ex- 
press; Bill Benzon's article on MacPaint as 
a thought-process tool is, clearly, the most 
provocative piece I have seen written on 
any computer/application; and Steve Woz- 
niak's description of his experiences at the 
University of California at Berkeley, 
coupled with the naive comments of Jerry 
Pournelle, serve to solidify my disdain for 
the conventional wisdom of the computer 
world. What is even more amusing is that 
I work for a company that perpetuates this 
conventional wisdom by choosing to ig- 
nore completely the existence of the 
technology embodied in the Macintosh 
and deciding to introduce a line of soft- 
ware only for IBM PCs. 

I am not saying here that the Macintosh 
is the perfect machine. Surely, what we 
have in it is only a promise of what could 

(continued) 



18 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 239 



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LETTERS 



be done with the computer if only all of 
those "me, too" marketers who want a 
financial ride on IBM's coattails could 
understand that the merry-go-round has 
to stop sometime. It is, futhermore, an in- 
dictment of American business at large of 
its failure to identify and satisfy its 
customers' changing needs— a phenom- 
enon that is known in marketing as 
"Harley-Davidson Syndrome." There isn't 
a month that goes by that someone some- 
where doesn't introduce another word 
processor for the IBM machine, while over 
here in the Macintosh world, Microsoft is 
about to introduce the only alternative to 
MacWrite. 

History has shown us many times what 
happens to those "madmen" who intro- 
duce new concepts. Invariably they were 
either burned at the stake as heretics or 
at least exiled to some uncivilized land 
where their unconventional wisdom could 
do no detriment. Strangely enough, their 
tenets have, somehow, managed to per- 
vade our everyday lives. In some senses 
I often wonder why we don't continue to 
think of the world as flat. 

Steven G. Baird 
Baton Rouge, LA 

Both detractors and defenders of the 
Macintosh have been surprisingly un- 
discerning regarding the performance of 
the Sony microfloppies. Clearly one 
spends considerable time listening to the 
Sony play tunes. So Jerry Pournelle con- 
cludes the drives are "painfully slow" 
(August 1984 BYTE, page 316). A guy con- 
fesses anonymously to John Dvorak [Info- 
World, November 26, 1984) that he has 
changed his mind about the Mac: "The big 
flaw is clearly the slow, small Sonys and 
the big overhead on starting and ending 
use of any serious programs." A Mac 
defender in your Letters section, Selden 
Deemer, concedes that the Mac is not 
without its faults: 'Among the worst of 
these is the perpetuation of a disk-drive 
controller that lacks direct memory ac- 
cess. . . .The drives are maddeningly 
slow" (November 1984, page 18). Indeed, 
the Mac would be fatally crippled if this 
were true. 

In fact, it ain't so. From MBASIC, the stan- 
dard BYTE disk benchmark shows the Mac 
writing the standard 641<-byte sequential 
file in 2 5.2 seconds, reading same in 23. 
In both cases this is twice as quickly as 
the IBM PC under MS-DOS. By using the 
FIELD statement to PUT and GET four 
16K-byte strings to a relative file, reduc- 
ing BASIC overhead, one gets even closer 
to the hardware potential of the Mac/ 



Sonys: 64K bytes of data are written in 6 
seconds, read in 5 seconds. That is faster 
than the IBM PC XT runs the standard 
benchmark using the fixed drive (about 8 
seconds each way). Finally, using the 
DiskCopy utility included with the Finder 
update, one reads IOOK bytes in 4 to 5 
seconds, writes IOOK bytes in 7 to 8 
seconds. That is not slow. Hasn't anyone 
noticed? 

Clearly, it is software overhead, not hard- 
ware limitations, that accounts for the long 
waits while the Mac sings. 

William Miller 
Cleveland Hts., OH 

The many arguments in the Macintosh 
debate, which has become a leitmotiv on 
your pages, seem to focus not on the nif- 
tiness of the Macintosh's special features 
but rather on their significance. Bill Ben- 
zon's article, "The Visual Mind and the 
Macintosh" (January page 113). eloquently 
related the importance of the Macintosh 
to the role of visual images in creative 
thinking and persuasive communication. 

But why should visual thinking and 
visual communication suddenly seem so 
important in the first place? Another 
perspective on the significance of the Mac 
is to see it in relation to the increasingly 
visual nature of all communication in re- 
cent history. 

A middle-class burgher in, say, 17th- 
century Amsterdam probably saw three 
or four hundred artificial images (paint- 
ings, drawings, engravings, and so on) in 
a lifetime. In this world of television, adver- 
tising, and personalized T-shirts, we pro- 
cess that many images in a day! The 
phrase 'Age of Information" usually con- 
notes the invention and spread of the 
computer since World War II. but this 
period also witnessed the emergence of 
today's huge graphics and advertising in- 
dustries. In 1971 (when Alan Kay was de- 
signing Smalltalk), there were 697,000 ar- 
tists in the U.S.. according to the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics. Ten years later, there 
were 1,055,000 artists, including 223,000 
designers and 106,000 photographers. To- 
day even the smallest company has a 
graphic logo and a "corporate identifica- 
tion" program— a practice almost unheard 
of 30 years ago. 

Articles and books whose subject is the 
"information age" often make the point 
that the ever-increasing volume of infor- 
mation generated in the world is inevit- 
able: the real issue, though, is how to give 
it useful shape and dimension. Visual 
communications does precisely that: It 
shapes information, gives it character, and 



streamlines it for faster travel to its target 
audience. Design is the art of taking a mes- 
sage and giving it impact through typo- 
graphy, composition, and both abstract as 
well as representational drawing and 
coloring. 

As the information environment be- 
comes ever fuller and noisier, the stakes 
are continually raised for those who want 
their message to carry above the din, 
which means new tools and techniques 
are needed to communicate effectively. In 
treating all information as visual informa- 
tion and greatly simplifying methods of 
combining verbal and visual information, 
the Macintosh is in harmony with the 
broad lines of evolution in human com- 
munication. (I've had mine for two weeks, 
and already my mouse finger is getting 
stronger.) 

Jim Hoekema 
Salt Lake City. UT 

Support Is 
Where You Find It 

I would like to comment on the letters con- 
cerning lack of Apple support ("No Sup- 
port from Apple," February, page 18) and 
how I dealt with this problem since pur- 
chasing a lie in June 1984. 

The Apple lie is being marketed as the 
somewhat portable version of the He with 
over 95 percent of He software running on 
the lie. Therefore, any manual covering 
Applesoft as implemented on the He 
should be about 95 percent applicable to 
the lie. This I quickly found to be true. For 
assembly-language programming, ad- 
vanced BASIC programming, and a de- 
scription of the Apple II family firmware 
(up to the He), Paul Irwin's Apple Program- 
mer's Handbook (Indianapolis, IN: Howard W 
Sams & Co., 1984) is exceptional. Major 
computer publications have described 
Apple's ProDOS, summarizing its many 
DOS 3.3 similarities and new features such 
as its UNIX-like nested hierarchical direc- 
tory structure, RAM-disk support for the 
extra 64K bytes of memory, etc. The best 
summaries (nearly 100 percent coverage 
of features and commands) have ap- 
peared in BYTE ("ProDOS" by Rob Moore. 
February 1984, page 252) and Apple 
Orchard ("Introducing ProDOS" by Morgan 
P. Caffrey. January 1984, page 12). The 
former mentions all ProDOS-related pub- 
lications by Apple. A thorough non-Apple 
description of ProDOS. combining the 
best segments of BASIC Programming with 
ProDOS and the ProDOS Technical Reference 
Manual, is given in John Campbell's Inside 
Apple's ProDOS (Reston, VA: Reston Pub- 



22 BYTE • MAY 1985 



LETTERS 



lishing Co., 1984). Although the text is in- 
formative, the book has several typo- 
graphical errors. A small paperback en- 
titled An Introduction to the Apple lie 
documents the serial-port and mouse-port 
pin outputs, among others, in its 
appendixes. 

All the substitute texts mentioned above 
served very well until late October 1984, 
when several New York dealers received 
the entire complement of Apple documen- 
tation. A one-stop source for documen- 
tation has been the McGraw-Hill Book- 
store, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New 
York, NY 10020. Here I purchased the 
Apple lie Reference Manual ProDOS Technical 
Reference Manual, and BASIC Programming with 
ProDOS. Note that the ProDOS Technical Ref- 
erence Manual is part of the "'WorkBench" 
series of documents in loose-leaf format 
that can only be purchased separately and 
whose unusual page size fits best in 
Apple's "WorkBench" binder ($8). All the 
substitute texts purchased originally con- 
tinue to be useful except Mr. Campbell's 
book, now completely redundant. 

Thus, it would seem that the availability 
of Apple documentation continues to be 
a problem, but however late, the docu- 
mentation did appear. The He Reference and 
the ProDOS Technical manuals have a few 
typographical errors that must not be con- 
sidered lightly, since the text deals most- 
ly with system software. I have pro- 
grammed in BASIC quite extensively on 
an IBM PC XT using PC-DOS 2.1 quite fre- 
quently Although IBM manuals have been 
much more available, they have been con- 
sistently difficult to read, and as a 
physician-in-training with severe time con- 
straints, I find that the clarity of Apple's 
presentation and the structure of ProDOS 
still puts Apple on top on my list. Its dif- 
ficulties have mainly been eased by the 
availability of excellent documentation by 
third parties, a condition which has always 
been part of Apple's continued success. 
Marvin E. Gozum, M.D. 
Brooklyn, NY 

After reading of some problems en- 
countered by your readers in obtaining 
Apple technical manuals, I thought my 
own experience might be of interest. 

After purchasing my lie I wanted to pur- 
chase the technical reference manual but 
was surprised to learn that it was not 
available from my dealer. I checked 
around and learned that most dealers in 
this area did not stock the manual. After 
some digging, 1 learned that the dealers 
do not stock the manuals because they 

(continued) 



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Inquiry 49 MAY 1985 -BYTE 23 



LETTERS 



are considered very low dollar items that 
are "not worth the bother." Apple under- 
standably requires dealers to purchase the 
manuals in lots of five. Evidently, the 
prevalent feeling among dealers is that the 
manuals will not be hot-selling items, and 
they do not want to deal with them. Two 
dealers told me this directly. 

Fortunately 1 was able to locate a store 
that regularly stocks all manuals but oc- 



casionally runs out due to demand. Ac- 
cording to them, they have had no prob- 
lems or unusual delays in getting the 
manuals from Apple. I now have BASIC 
Programming with ProDOS, ProDOS Users Kit, 
and the Apple We Reference Manual all sup- 
posedly rare books but obtained with very 
little effort. Right after I purchased BASIC 
Programming with ProDOS. two dealers told 
me it was not yet available from Apple, 



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and one dealer told me it was too much 
trouble to order. 

1 have found the manuals to be excel- 
lent—among the best I have seen. It may 
not be the same in all areas, but I believe 
that the problem lies more in the failure 
of dealers to provide for customer needs 
rather than insufficient support from 
Apple. 

Steve A. Muncy 
Dallas, TX 

I read with interest the three letters under 
the heading "No Support from Apple" in 
your February Letters section. Although 
I missed the letter to which they referred, 
1 felt I had to tell my experience with get- 
ting manuals. 

The manuals named in the three letters 
are all manuals that I've wanted, with the 
exception of the Apple lie Reference Manual 
because I have a He. Anyway, 1 no more 
than asked if my local dealer could get 
these for me and 1 had them. I waited one 
week for both the ProDOS Users Kit and the 
Applesoft manuals, both volumes. 1 had 
to wait three weeks for the ProDOS Technical 
Reference Manual, and it didn't bother me 
a bit. I'm sure that when the time comes 
that 1 want another manual I'll have it in 
short order. 

I have had no problem at all with get- 
ting information on the Apple. In fact, 
when I found out that there was an up- 
date for ProDOS, I asked my dealer if he 
had it. He said he didn't even know there 
was one, but two days later he called and 
said he had it. I stopped by and picked 
up a copy and was on my way in a total 
time expenditure of 10 minutes. Maybe 
I'm lucky to have this dealer, but I wanted 
your readers to know that not everyone 
has problems getting the information they 
want. 

Brad W. Hansen 
Apple Valley, MN 

A RAM Disk for the Mac 

In his letter (under the heading 'lake Back 
Your Mac," February, page 22), Don 
Slaughter pleads for RAM-disk software 
for the 512K-byte Macintosh and hopes for 
a 'reasonable price ($50 or less)." 

A public-domain RAM disk is available 
and can be downloaded from Compu- 
Serve's MAUG area (you need to be knowl- 
edgeable in the use of "BinHex.Hex" to 
download it and "Rmover" to install it). 

Assimilation Process (20833 Stevens 
Creek Blvd., Suite 101, Cupertino, CA 
95014) has been advertising the 

{continued) 



24 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 361 



If you don't have a 

Hercules Graphics Card, you could 

end up looking like this: 



" I know, because one day it hap- 
pened to me . . . 

"I was running some routine 
tests on a non-Hercules mono- 
chrome graphics card when I 
was struck by a severe case 
of low resolutionitis. Fm the 
president of Hercules and 
that's me exhibiting the 
symptoms of the disease 
in its advanced stages. Not 
a pretty sight, is it? 

"What causes low res- 
olutionitis? Experts point k 
to ordinary monochrome 
graphics cards with 
coarse, hard-to-read 
graphics. A bad case of eyestrain may 
develop if action is not taken immediately. 

"Fortunately for me, a Hercules Graphics 
Card was nearby. A quick change brought 
soothing 720 x 348 graphics. That's twice 
the resolution of ordinary 640 x 200 graph- 
ics cards. 

"Which means better graphics for 
Lotus™ 1-2-3 , u Symphony T , M Frame work T , u 
pfs:Graph® Microsoft* Chart and Word, 
SuperCalc3* AutoCad 1 ," and dozens of 
other programs. 

"Including Microsoft Flight Simulator, 
now Hercules compatible! 

"Oh, and don't forget that a parallel 
printer port is standard on the Hercules 
Graphics Card, not an extra cost option. 

"Now, if you're worried about buying 
a new product that hasn't had all the bugs 




worked out, relax. Hercules has 
sold more monochrome graphics 
cards for the IBMTC,XT™ and AT™ 
than anyone else in the world. 

"So . . . you're convinced that 
you should buy a Hercules 
Graphics Card. Now, steer 
clear of cheap imitations. 
You may save a few bucks , 
but you won't get all of 
these five essential features 
which only Hercules has: 
"1) A safety switch that 
helps prevent damage to 
your monitor, 2) the 
M ability to keep a Hercules 
Color Card in your 
system, 3) the ability to use the PC's BASIC 
to do graphics, 4) a Hercules designed chip 
that eliminates 30% of the parts that can go 
wrong, and 5) a two year warranty, because 
we think reliability is something you should 
deliver and not just talk about." 

"Call 1-800-532-0600 Ext 408 for the 
name of the Hercules dealer nearest you 
and we'll rush you our free info kit. 




Hercules. 

We're strong on graphics. 



Address: 2550 Ninth St., Berkeley, CA 94710 Ph: 540-6000 Telex: 754063 Trademark/Owners: Hercules/Hercules Computer Tech; IBM.XT.AT/IBM; Lotus 1-2-3, 
Symphony/Lotus Development; Framework/Ashton-Tate; Microsoft/Microsoft; pfs: Graph/Software Publishing; SuperCalc 3/Sorcim-IUS; AutoCad/AutoDesk. 



Inquiry 187 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 25 



LETTERS 



Mac.Memory.Disk for several months in 
both MaCNorld and A + . This product sells 
for $29. I had no trouble getting copies 
through a local dealer, and it does every- 
thing Mr. Slaughter wants and more. The 
RAM disk can be set anywhere from about 
30K to 300K, and any set of files can be 
automatically copied into it as part of the 
boot process. 

Network Consulting Inc. (110-3700 Gil- 
more Way Burnaby. BC V5G 4M1. Canada) 
has a $29.95 RAM-disk product in the 
beta-test stage that does a bit more than 
MaoMemory.Disk. 

Daniel P. B. Smith 
Norwood, MA 

Shortly after mailing my letter 1 learned 
that Assimilation Process of Cupertino, 
California, was planning to release RAM- 
disk software. 

The Mac.Memory.Disk (as it is called) 
will only open a maximum of a 3 1 5K RAM 
disk on a 512K Mac, though it will open 
a RAM disk in excess of 700K on a Lisa 
running MacWorks with I megabyte of 
memory. 



My experience in testing the speed of 
operation quickly showed that to obtain 
substantial speed gains in loading and 
exiting applications software on the Mac. 
the operating system of the Mac must be 
loaded into the RAM disk. It seems that 
most applications, on being double- 
clicked, must then do extensive accessing 
of the operating system to load. 

But if the operating system is loaded into 
the RAM disk, this effectively leaves only 
about 100K left in the RAM disk (using the 
512K Mac with 316KRAM disk) for the ap- 
plication software. MacPaint, when copied 
into such an environment, won't even 
open a disk file because there isn't enough 
room left on the disk for one. 

MacWrite will create very small data files 
in that environment. Clearly, such an en- 
vironment is adequate neither for busi- 
ness nor for software development. But 
Apple will not offer 1-megabyte caches for 
its products from now on except in the 
$4000-plus Macintosh XL (Lisa 2/10 with 
hard disk) or the $6995 laser printer. The 
evidence suggests that a relatively inex- 
pensive 1-megabyte Mac (below $3 500) 



will not be offered before January of 1 986 
(perhaps in the guise of using 1-megabit 
chips on a new main circuit board), if ever. 
My summary of these facts is that 1 am dis- 
appointed, and I think Apple has goofed. 
Don Slaughter 
Seattle, WA 

Modula-2 Revisited 

I would like to correct some readers' mis- 
understandings and possibly add some 
fuel to the fire of the Pascal versus 
Modula-2 debate. 

In my article on Modula-2 ('An Introduc- 
tion to Modula-2." August 1984. BYTE 
page 195), 1 use the following example: 

IF (oregano IN recipe[1]) 
THEN 
IF (thyme IN recipe[1]) 
THEN 
WriteString('Use oregano 
and thyme') 
END 
ELSE WriteString('No oregano'); 
END 

[continued) 



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■ 256K RAM, plus up to 64K EPROM 
m SASI port for hard disk controller 

■ Two full function RS232C serial ports 
with individually programmed 
transmission rates— 50 to 38.4K baud 

■ Software compatibility with the 8086 
and 8088. 

■ 8K of EPROM contains drivers for 
peripherals, commands for hardware 
checkout and software testing 

■ Software supports most types and 
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■ Bios supports Xebec 1410 and 
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Also available in several kit forms 

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■ 2 RS232C asychronous ports 
with baud rates to 38.4K for 
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■ 2 additional serial ports for 
asynchronous RS232C or 
synchronous communication (Zilog 
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n Real Time Clock with battery backup 

for continuous timekeeping 
» Centronics type parallel printer port 

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Available in several kit forms also 

THE SLICER PC EXPANSION BOARD 
Gives your Slloer high performance 
video capability 

■ IBM compatible monochrome video 

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Fully assembled and tested only $600 
Available in several kit forms also 

Also available: The /jSLICER 188 $700; 
8087 Math Co-Processor Bd. (call); 10 MB 
Hard Disk $700; W.D. 1002-SHD H.D.C. Bd. 
$200; Enclosures, Power Supply, and 
Support Hardware. 

Operating systems are CP/M 86 by 
Digital Research, Inc. ($85), and MS DOS 
by Microsoft Corporation ($175). 

MasterCard, Visa, Check, Money Order, 
or C.O.D. Allow four weeks for delivery. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
The SLICER Bulletin Board at 300/1200 
Baud 612/788-5909 



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2543 Marshall St. N.E, Minneapolis, MN 55418 
612/788-9481 • Telex 501357 SLICER UD 



26 BYTE- MAY 1985 



Inquiry 357 



A few smart reasons 
to buy our smart modem : 



Features 



Ven-Tel 
1200 PLUS 



Hayes 



1200 and 300 baud, auto-dial, auto-answer 

Compatible with "AT" command set 

Can be used with CROSSTALK-XVI or Smartcom II software 

Regulated DC power pack for cool, reliable operation 

Eight indicator lights to display modem status 

Speaker to monitor call progress 

Attractive, compact aluminum case 

Two built-in phone connectors 

Compatible with The Source and Dow Jones News Retrieval 

Unattended remote test capability 

Phone cable included 

Availability 

Price 




Crosstalk is a trademark of Microstuf; Hayes and Smartcom II are trademarks of Hayes Microcomputer Products. 
Inquiry 406 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 27 






PRINTOUTS TH 



Take a close look at Canon's line ot printers. The first thing you'll notice is how good they make you look. 

That's because Canon's experience in high-tech optics really shows. For instance, Canon was among 
the first to make a desktop Laser Beam Printer. At a price that's within any business's reach, the Canon Laser 
Printer can produce eight pages a minute with a quality that's more in common with a professional print shop 
than a personal computer. 

Canon also developed the ingenious Bubble- Jet Printer technology, finally making it possible for a 
printer to not only work extremely quickly but also incredibly quietly. 

Our Ink-Jet Printer can produce exceptionally sharp, high-resolution graphics in seven colors, even on 
transparencies. While the Thermal Transfer Printer has three kinds of print modes, including letter quality, 
at a very competitive price. 

And the Canon Impact Matrix Series, for regular and extra-wide column paper, makes printing 
very fast, very economical. 





















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L cvwrctlv* »«tl«*ta p 



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Visit your local computer store and judge the complete line of 
Canon printers firsthand. 

You'll find the print quality is absolutely 
crisp. The graphics are remarkably clean. And 
the reasons for buying one are perfectly clear. 

For more information, 
call 1-800-323-1717, ext. 300 (in Illinois, 
1-800-942-8881, ext. 300). Or write *~ " ^- 

Canon U.S.A., Inc., Printer ^> ^-mvW 9 Y^ - ^^ 
Division, P.O. Box CN 11250, \^Cl 1 1 %J I 
Trenton, NJ 08650. PRINTERS 






Inquiry 63 







- '■: . £* .; 




Inquiry 294 



Powerful in circuit emulation, priced 
well within your grasp. That's NICE. ™ 

NICE may be only 3" square and Vi" thick, but it hands you full spited, 
real-time emulation— over 50 emulation functions, software bre' ,L *" rtiritc * 
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LETTERS 



Edmund Ramm offers this Pascal alter- 
native in his recent letter ("Modula-2: 
Overrated?" February, page 30): 

IF (oregano IN recipe[1]) 

AND ^ 
(thyme IN recipe[1]) 
THEN 

WRITELN('Use oregano & thyme 1 ) 
ELSE 
WRITELN('Use only thyme 1 ); 

These two program fragments are not. in 
fact, equivalent; a point I was trying to 
make. The Modula-2 version is completely 
unambiguous and requires that one string 
be printed if both are included, a different 
string be printed if only thyme is included, 
and no action whatsoever if oregano is in- 
cluded but thyme is not. This three-case 
action requires a nested IF statement and 
can easily be misstated in Pascal, as I dem- 
onstrated on page 198' of my article. 1 
hope that this clears up the misunder- 
standing. 

Robert J. Paul 
Watertown, MA 

Icons Are Okay 

In her letter regarding icons and the 
Macintosh. Ann Marchant states that the 
superiority of an alphabetic system to a 
pictographic system is "readily apparent" 
("Icons Are Arcane," February, page 24), 
but she provides no evidence. We have 
recently done some experiments that bear 
on this issue (Muter and Johns. "Learning 
Logographies and Alphabetic Codes." 
Human Learning, in press) and we found 
that, under a reasonably wide range of 
conditions, pictographic writing systems 
were easier to learn to read than alpha- 
betic writing systems. 

Paul Muter 

Psychology Department 

University of Toronto 

Toronto, Ontario M5S IA1 

Canada 



An Alternative to Piracy 

In a recent issue, one anonymous letter 
to the editor was attributed to a software 
pirate ("A Pirate Confesses." February, 
page 16). The pirate admitted displeasure 
with pirating software but stated it was 
necessary to do so. 

The writer's central thesis was that soft- 
ware should be tried before it is pur- 
chased, since in no other way can the pur- 
chaser be sure that the software will per- 
form as advertised or that it will work on 

[continued) 



30 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 80 



Inquiry 369 —■ 



SAVE 50 % 




United States Q One Year $21 D 2 Years $38 D 3 Years $55 

Canada/Mexico □ One Year U.S. $23 □ 2 Years U.S. $42 □ 3 Years U.S. $61 

Europe □ $69 (air delivery), U.S. Funds enclosed 

Elsewhere □ $37 (surface mail), U.S. Funds enclosed 

□ BILL ME. If I'm not completely satisfied with my first copy, 
I'll simply write "cancel 1 ' across your invoice, mail it back, and 
my subscription will be cancelled. 

□ Check Enclosed □ Bill VISA □ Bill Mastercard 
Please allow 6-8 weeks for processing your subscription. 



Name 


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'off newsstand price of $42.00 



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United States D One Year $ 2 1 □ 2 Years $38 

Canada/Mexico □ One Year U.S. $23 D 2 Years U.S. $42 

Europe D $69 (air delivery), U.S. Funds enclosed 

Elsewhere □ $37 (surface mail), U.S. Funds enclosed 

D BILL ME. If I'm not completely satisfied with my first copy, 
I'll simply write "cancel" across your invoice, mail it back, and 
my subscription will be cancelled. 

□ Check Enclosed □ Bill VISA □ Bill Mastercard 

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□ 3 Years U.S. $61 



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BUSINESS REPLY MAIL 

FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO. 39 MARTINSVILLE, NJ 



POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 



BITE 

the small systems journal 

Subscription Dept. 

P.O. Box 597 

Martinsville, NJ 08836-9956 



NO POSTAGE 

NECESSARY 

IF MAILED 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



BUSINESS REPLY MAIL 

FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO. 39 MARTINSVILLE, NJ 



POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 



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the small systems journal 

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UNITED STATES 



HOW TO CONTROL 
THE RISE AND FALL 







SW 



Your small business compu- 
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Because even the slightest dip or surge of elec- 
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You can't afford errors, delays and other 
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But now there's a solution you can af- 
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LETTERS 



a particular hardware configuration. 

The pirate then stated that no software 
vendors offered a guarantee that allowed 
return of software simply because tlie 
customer was dissatisfied. Therefore, such 
piracy is necessary. 

We at TNT. Software sell all our software 
with a 30-day. money-back guarantee. We 
have done this for nearly two years. 
Customers can freely open our packaging, 



run our programs (not just demo versions), 
test all functions, and determine if our pro- 
grams are suitable for their intended use. 
If the customer is dissatisfied for any 
reason— even if the program performs as 
advertised— the entire package may be 
returned within 30 days for a full refund 
of the purchase price. 

Moreover, our dealers must give anyone 
who buys one of TNT. Software's pro- 




Since 1918 we've been quietly design- 
ing, manufacturing, and distributing a 
broad range of products for industry, 
business, and consumers all over the 
world. And so we've quietly grown to be 
a multi-national company with almost a 
billion in sales from the world's 
toughest markets. Markets that demand 
quality, performance, and reliability. 
Which is why Tatung terminals and 
monitors have become the choice 
of important systems designers. 



© 



Tatung monitors are compatible 
with virtually all popular computer 
systems. Each model offers superior 
resolution and CRT color imagery, 
along with controls for precise picture 
"tuning". Tatung terminals offer 
operational flexibility, compatibility 
with all popular systems, and day-in- 
day-out reliability. But, no matter which 

model you choose, no other 
terminal or monitor offers as 
much. ..for so little. 



U.C.M. COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

CANADA LIMITED 

7225 Woodbine Ave., Unit 119 

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(Canada only) 1-800-387-9678/ 

1-416-475-1209 Telex: 06-986222 



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A Quality Distributor 
Serving the 13 Western States 
Western States 1-800-544-0020 
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TATUNG COMPANY OF AMERICA, INC., 2850 El Presidio, Long Beach, California 90810. 



grams the same or a better guarantee. 
That's part of our contract for all our 
dealers and distributors. 

We find it hard to believe the pirate's 
statement that there are no other software 
companies or distributors with a policy 
equivalent to ours. 

Yes, we do get some returns. Some types 
of programs are more prone to returns 
than others. Overall, our return rate is far 
less than I percent of sales. 

We think our customers are far better 
served with our liberal return and non- 
restrictive licensing policy than by services 
such as a toll-free phone number. We 
hope that the pirate and others will buy 
our software in the future. 

Further, our prices are uncommonly low. 
Our company's success in the software 
market amply proves that copy protection, 
restrictive licensing arrangements, and 
other barbed-wire tactics are both un- 
necessary and counterproductive. We'd 
rather give the customer a break and treat 
the customer like a presumably honest 
person. Frankly, we wish other companies 
would adopt our stand, instead of wasting 
the customer's money by developing ever 
more tricky and "foolproof" protection 
schemes. 

Bruce W. Tonkin 

President 

T.N.T. Software Inc. 

Round Lake, IL 

What Makes Software 
Expensive 

I'm writing on a topic of deep interest to 
me and many of your readers: software 
prices. 

One thing we've seen in the last year is 
a tremendous explosion of good software. 
We've also seen a number of companies' 
go belly-up. Is the market so bad? No. it's 
never been better. Why are all these out- 
fits in trouble? It's easy to blame it on 
piracy, interest rates, or investor con- 
fidence. It's appropriate to blame it on 
greed, poor planning, and an inadequate 
understanding of free-market theory. 

When the first application programs for 
personal computers hit the streets, what 
were the projected sales? Five thousand? 
Ten thousand? Who would have expected 
them to be 2000 percent higher? The 
original pricing was set with development 
and promotion costs to be spread over a 
much smaller number of units than in fact 
were being sold. Did we see prices being 
slashed to account for the new economies 
of production? Or did we see them at- 
[continued on page 458) 



32 BYTE- MAY I985 



Inquiry 389 



FIXES AND UPDATES 



UPDATE! 



Busy, Busy BYTEnet Listings 



The popularity of BYTEnet Listings has ex- 
ceeded our wildest expectations. It has 
been busy virtually all day, every day, with 
calls to download listings of programs 
mentioned in BYTE. 
We have added two more telephone 



lines to BYTEnet Listings to ease the con- 
gestion. The new number to call is (617) 
861-9774. You should find it easier to get 
through to BYTEnet Listings. 

If you find that BYTEnet Listings is busy, 
please don't call us at the BYTE offices to 



find out if the line is bad or if the system 
is down. It isn't bad or down, it's just busy. 
(Incidentally BYTEnet Listings is closed to 
the public from 4 to 5 a.m. east-coast time 
every day; it is doing private network busi- 
ness and will reject your calls.) 



Sola Makes Uninterruptible Power Supplies 



In our January survey of uninterruptible 
power supplies, we inadvertently 
neglected to mention the many products 
available from Sola Electric. (See ''Uninter- 
ruptible Power Supplies" by William 
Rynone, page 183.) 
Sola Electric offers a full line of uninter- 

Modifications to Printer Buffer 



ruptible power supplies and power-con- 
ditioning equipment for microcomputers 
and minicomputers. A 20-page illustrated 
brochure details the electrical and perfor- 
mance specifications of the products. It 
describes the systems offered contrasts 
power-protection alternatives, and ex- 



plains the operation, design, and selection 
of uninterruptible power supplies. Request 
catalog number 696 from Sola Electric, 
1717 Busse Rd.. Elk Grove Village. IL 
60007, (312) 439-2800 (marketing), (312) 
228-1393 (technical services), or (312) 
228-12 50 (customer service). 



A few modifications to John Bono's 
printer-buffer project recently arrived from 
Dr. H. A. 'Iasman of Karlsruhe, West 
Germany. (See "Build a Printer Buffer." 
June 1984 BYTE, page 142.) 

In figure 3b (page 4 52), the input BUSY 
flip-flop, IClOa, is set on the leading edge 
of the input STB. but the input byte is not 
clocked into the input register until the 
trailing edge of the input STB. However, 
in line 60 of listing I (page 453), OKAY:IN 
A.(STATUS) places BUSY in bit of the A 
register and proceeds to IN A.(BYTEIN) 
if not 0. 

"This procedure may work satisfactori- 
ly," writes Iasman, "if the host computer's 
parallel-port driver always produces an 



STB pulse that is shorter than the time 
needed for the instructions AND 01 H and 
JPZ.NOCHAR. which, for a 1-MHz clock 
frequency, amounts to 17 microseconds." 
Dr. 'Iasman found this condition to be 
unsatisfactory when he tried to use the 
printer buffer with a software parallel-port 
driver on his 4-MHz Z80 computer. In par- 
ticular, he found that the STB pulse could 
surpass the clock-frequency limit when an 
interrupt occurs. If, for example, a char- 
acter is read in before the STB is ter- 
minated, the input register will still be 
holding the previous character. If the STB 
extends beyond the input ACK pulse, the 
BUSY flip-flop will not reset and the char- 
acter can be read in repeatedly 



Dr. 'Iasman suggests that you check the 
input STB before processing the character. 
Also, since the tri-state buffer, 1C14, can 
put two more lines on the data bus with 
the STATUS command, you can connect 
the input STB (IC9 pin 1 1 through 1CI0 pin 
I) to ICI4 pin 10 and hook 1C14 pin 9 to 
D3. To eliminate the STB problem, modify 
the software around line 60 to 



OKAY: IN 


A.(STATUS) 


BIT 


0,A 


JR 


Z.NOCHAR 


BIT 


3,A 


JR 


Z.OKAY 


; GET CHARACTER 


IN 


A.(BYTEIN) 



YTES BUGS 



FreeSoft Address 



Additional information about some prod- 
ucts mentioned in "Public-Domain Gems" 
by John Markoff and Ezra Shapiro has 
come to light. (See the March BYTE, page 
207.) 

In the discussion about Red Ryder 3.0, 
a communications program for the Macin- 
tosh, the name and address of the author/ 
distributor was inadvertently omitted. 
Earlier in the article, during the presenta- 
tion on the Ultra utilities, the author was 



duly credited, but the address was incor- 
rect. Both Red Ryder 3.0 and the Ultra utili- 
ty programs are available from The Free- 
Soft Co., 10828 Lacklink, St. Louis. MO 
63114. 

Also mentioned in the article was 
Newkey, a program that lets you redefine 
the IBM PC keyboard. Newkey can be ob- 
tained for $39 from FAB Software, POB 
12363. Birmingham. MI 48012. 

We regret these errors. 



A Bit Too Wide 



An editing error in the February BYTE U.K. 
resulted in our creating a dream product 
rather than describing the real McCoy. 
(See "Realizing a Dream" by Dick Poun- 
tain, page 379.) 

In the first and second columns on page 
382, we say that "... a 32K-bit processor 
is necessary to efficiently manipulate ob- 
jects ..." and that "by employing some 
tricky design techniques, including a 64K- 

[continued) 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 33 



Inquiry 278 



MidWcst 

Micro-Peripherals 



lw^^mwmmf^0^MM^^^^m 



PRICE GUARANTEE 

We at MidWest Micro quarant.ee that we can save you up to 
49% or more on your purchase of new fully warranteed 
equipment and supplies. And we will still give you friendly, 
courteous service. Call today and Save With Confidence! 



Don't spend a fortune to own the world's 
most popular printer . . . 



EPSON 




LIST S349 



lx- 80 K3 $269 

Tne new EPSON LX-80 prints smoothly and quietly a t a speed of 1 00 
cps. With the superb near letter quality mode and full graphic 
capabilities as standard, your correspondence will be letter perfect. 
The LX-80 comes complete with a parallel interface to quickly 
connect it to virtually all computers. There are 1 60 typestyles that are 
switch selectable and the LX-80 comes with EPSON'S full 1 year 
warranty. Friction feed is standard and an optional tractor feed is 
available. Let the EPSON LX>80 print your next business letter or 
report. 

Complete EPSON Line . . . List Price 
Heme writer 10 (100 cps, NLQ Mode 80 Col.). . . ,$288. . . $CALL$ 

LX-80 (100 cps. NQL Mode. 80 Col.) 349 269 

RX-100 (100 cps, 136 Col.) 895 399 

FX-80-H160 cps, 80 Col. 2k Buffer) 699 389 

FX-100+(160 cps, 136 Col, 2k Buffer) 999 589 

LQ-1500 (200 cps, NLQ Mode. 136 Col.) 1395. . . $CALL$ 




brother 



printer's give you all the 
features of a letter qu lity 
and more with . . . 

^HR.15XL $379 



ONLY 

The HR- 15 gives you Daisywheel printing and added attractions such 
as text reprinting, red printing, attachable cut sheet feeder and the 
exclusive Brother key ard attachment. 
Complete BROTHER Line . 



List 

HR-15XL (17 cps. 13.5" carnage, 3k Buffer) $599 

HR-15 & HR-15XL Keyboard Attachment 200 

HR-25 (23 cps, 16.5" carriage, 3k Buffer) 895 

HR-35 (32 cps, 16.5" carriage. 7k Buffer 1 245 

Brother 2024 (160 cps, 24 pin head. NLQ Mode) . 1 495 



Your 
Price 

. . $379 
...169 
, ... 649 
. ... 899 
...999 



Complete 1.6 Mb 
SUPER SYSTEM 

just $1399 

Includes: ^^ 

•Sanyo computer with 2-800k 

quad-density floppy disk drives 
•1.6 Megabytes ot storage 
•256k Random Access Memory 
"Green or Amber Monitor (Your Choice) 
•Fast, efficient 16 bit 8088 processor 
•Convenient, full function, detachable keyboard > 
•Centronics parallel printer port 
'High quality color graphics capabilities 
•Flexible MS-DOS Operating System 
"Flexible MW QuadDOS 4 Operating System for 
SS/OO. DS/00. DS/0D 
•Business Management Software 

Both Wordstar and Easy writer word processing software packages 

Calcstar Software for spreadsheets 

Filebase database software 

And others! 
•Completely set-up and run tested 

FREE BONUS 

6-Plug Surg* protected power strip 

2 Boxes o 110 brand name Quad-Density Diskettes 

Prices subject to change and type errors 




^S FREE CARD USE 

■Call Today! 

Information - Ordering 
1-800-423-8215 

In Ohio 1-800-321-7731 

C USTOMER SERVICE (513) 663-499 2 

CASH PRICES: Cert. Check. Money Orders, VISA or MC 
CODs (Add $5) AMEX (Add 4%) P.O.s (Add 5%) 

MidWBit Mitro-Periphsrali 

(Division of Inlolel. Inc ) 

135 South Springfield St 

St. Paris. Ohio 43072 



FIXES AND UPDATES 



bit-wide memory bus ..." We ask you to 
ignore the capital Ks as you read those 
sentences. 

Mathematics Mistake 

A pair of bugs appeared in listing I of 
Peter Rice's article "Arithmetic on Your PC." 
(See March, page 119.) The superscript 
ones (Is) in lines 13370 and 13380 on 
page 124 should have been minus signs. 
We apologize for this error. 

Caption in Error 

A photo caption appearing in Jon Ed- 
wards's review. 'Atari 800XL," misidentifies 
the screen display. (See March, page 268.) 
The photo actually shows a scene from 
Electronic Arts' Seven Cities of Gold. 



Corrections for EPROM 
Programmer 

In figure 2 (page 107) of the February Gar- 
cia Circuit Cellar, four corrections are 
necessary. (See "Build a Serial EPROM 
Programmer." page 104.) 

Make a connection between the RESET 
line (pin 4) of IC8 and the line between 
pin 1 1 of IC7 and pin 2 of 1C9. 

On the lower right-hand corner, 1CI2 is 
a 74LS04, not a 74LS02. 

The input to 1C7, inverter b, should be 
labeled pin 3, not pin 13 as it was 
presented. 

Finally. Q3 should be a 2N2905 and not 
a 2N905. 

Also, when using 24-pin EPROMs, insert 
them into the ZIF socket so that the 
socket's pins I and 2 are empty. 



BYTE'S 



Poke the He's Drive Delays 
in the Sixth Slot 



Owen Sargent from Chicago, Illinois, has 
come up with a programming solution to 
the Apple lie's drive shutoff and start-up 
delay For the drive controller in slot 6: 



POKE 49386,0 
POKE 49387.0 
POKE 48385,0 

POKE 49384,0 



assigns drive I 
assigns drive 2 
turns assigned 

motor on 
turns assigned 

motor off 



Please note that any DOS command 
that causes the motor to switch on will 

Computer Art Contest for Kids 



shut it down after execution. If you wish 
to keep your motor running, insert POKE 
49385 immediately after the DOS 
command. 

Mr. Sargent came across this solution in 
Don Worth and Pieter Lechner's Beneath 
Apple DOS (Quality Software. Chatsworth, 
CA: 1981, page 6-2) and Apple's Reference 
Manual forthe We Only (Cupertino. CA: 1982, 
page 128). 

"I have tested this in a read-print loop," 
says Sargent, "and keeping the motor on 
increases speeds by 2 5 percent." 



West Publishing seeks entries for its First 
Annual Computer Art Contest for Kids. 
The theme is "Computers and the Im- 
agination." It is hoped that children will 
use computers both as subjects and tools. 

Both computer graphics and traditional 
art forms are acceptable. Computer graph- 
ics can be programmed by a child or 
created with a graphics tablet. The con- 
test is open to students in kindergarten 
through high school. Winners will be an- 
nounced at the World Conference on 
Computers for Education, July 29 through 
August 2, in Norfolk, Virginia, Winners will 
receive prizes from $50 to $300. The 
Grand and First Prize winners' schools will 
receive prizes of $300 and $100. The first 
500 entrants and the winners will receive 
a commemorative T-shirt. 

Contest entries must be postmarked no 
later than June 1, 1985, and mailed to Ann 



Kellogg, West Publishing Co.. 4th floor. 201 
Castro St., Mountain View, CA 94041. For 
further information, complete rules, and 
an official entry blank, call (800) 532-9378; 
in California, (415) 969-1283. 

Alternative Address 

In the November 1984 Fixes and Updates, 
we mentioned the services offered by 
Video Vision Associates, makers of laser- 
disc software. (See "Laserdiscs Here To- 
day and With Us Tomorrow," page 33.) We 
supplied a Huntington Beach, California, 
address for the firm. While this address 
is correct, interested readers have had 
some difficulty reaching the office. 

If you have encountered such problems, 
try contacting Video Vision Associates at 
its home office: 7 Waverly Place. Madison, 
NJ 07940. (201) 377-0302. ■ 



34 B YTE • MAY 1985 



Give Us 3 Months, 

And We'll Change Your Company^ 

Way Of Doing Business Forever. 




Presenting a superior 
communications and 
information delivery system, 
CompuServe Interchange. 



Finally, there's a way for all those com- 
puters out there to really increase your 
company's productivity. 

The breakthrough is Interchange, 
a superior electronic communications 
and information delivery system from 
CompuServe — the premier supplier of 
business information, electronic mail 
and network services to major financial 
institutions, government agencies and 
FORTUNE 500 companies. 

Interchange lets you build and maintain 
your company's information sources and 
then disseminate this information to any 
audience: office staff, sales representatives, 
customers, distributors, suppliers, 
purchasing agents— in any combination 
that is right for your business. 

Many corporations and associations 
in a wide range of industries are already 



profiting from Interchange and our 
electronic mail system, lnf oPlex? 

Borg- Warner Chemicals has increased 
sales significantly with an Interchange sys- 
tem that (1) supplies technical information, 

(2) updates changing trade news, and 

(3) allows customers to run interactive, 
industry-oriented programs. 

Heinz U.SA. uses CompuServe's elec- 
tronic mail to communicate sales and - 
promotional information to the company's 
sales personnel. The speed and accuracy 
of lnf oPlex have resulted in improved cus- 
tomer service and effectiveness. 

CompuServe Interchange also allows 
access to a variety of useful information 
including stock quotes, the AP newswires, 
USA TODAY Update, and market 
research databases. 

You can organize and disseminate infor- 
mation, provide electronic mail and much 
more. And we can help you put it together 
quickly and efficiently. 

And in just 3 months, that can change 
your company's way of doing business 
forever. 

Inquiry 89 



For more 
information, call 
us or send this 
coupon today: 



CompuServe Interchange 



□ Please send me additional information. 

□ Please have a CompuServe representative 
call me. 

Name 

Title : 

Company : , ■ 

City ; 

State 

Business Phone _ 



Zip. 



CompuServe 



CompuServe Interchange 
P.O. 20212 

5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
Columbus, Ohio 43220 

800-848-8199 

In Ohio call 614-457-0802 



705 



An H&R Block Company 



Three 



of today's 
most 

popular 

computer 

accessories. 




Tylenol* is a registered trademark of McNElLAB, INC. Visine'and 
Ben-Gay® are registered trademarks of Lemming Division, Pfizer Inc. 



Do you ever get the feeling 
that computers are treated with 
more respect than people? 

Everyone talks about 
technology. 

But what about the people 
who have to use it? 

Quite clearly, they're having 
problems. 

Industry publications like 
PC Magazine have written about 
those problems. 

And now, more than twenty 
states are currently preparing 
special computer legislation 
to force some changes. 

You are not a machine. 

Computers are designed by 
engineers. 

They usually know a lot 
about technology but very little 
about people. 

Which is why so many com- 
puters often are technically im- 
pressive yet strangely unnatural 
to use. 



Compiiter-htduced 
problems {%) 



Eyestrain 
Back pain 
Headaches 
Shoulder 
Hand/wrist 
Neck pain 

(Source: "Ergonomic 
Principles in Office 
Automation" Pub. 
1983 by E.I.S, AB, 
Sweden.) 



55% 
43% 
30% 
25% 
18% 
15% 



The result 
has been a whole 
range of com- 
puter-induced 
problems rang- 
ing from stress 
and fatigue to 
blurred vision. 
In Sweden, 
they have an 
attitude the 
world is just catching up with. 
It's this: 

That the machine is the 
servant of man. 

Not the other way around. 
That excellent ergonomic 
design isn't a privilege. 
It's a right. 

That ergonomics isn't just a 
noble gesture. 

It's good business. 
Because computers are only as 
fast and as accurate as the people 
who operate them. 

If they suffer, so does business. 
This attitude has made Ericsson 
No. 1 in Europe twice over: 

First, as the giant of European 
telecommunications. 

Then again as Europe's biggest 
workstation company by far. 



(You couldn't ask for a 
better marriage of technology for 
the future.) 

Here is one example of how 
Ericsson got there. 

It's the first of a range of 
computers being introduced in 
the U.S.A. 

The Ericsson PC. 
It's Ergo-Intelligent™ 

Ericsson has spent $300 
million finding ways to make 
people and computers work better 
together. 

Here are some of the results. 

Ergo-Screen.™ 

Aspirin gets rid of a headache. 

Ergonomics gets rid of 
the cause. 

The Ericsson PC has a non- 
glare screen with restful amber 
characters on a specially devel- 
oped, low-fatigue background 
color. 

Even the shape of the charac- 
ters was specially developed to 
allow easier recognition of difficult 
letters like O and Q. 

On the monochrome monitor, 
the resolution is double that of 
IBM's, so clarity is remarkable. 

You can even have text and 
graphics on the same screen. 

Ergo- Arm.™ 

Thousands of 
people get neck 
back pain from 
inadequate screen height 
and angle adjustment. 
The Ericsson Ergo- 
Arm lets you 
move your 
screen exactly 
where you want it. 

Ergo-Touch.™ 

Ericsson keys are full-size, and 
the layout is economically planned 
for greater speed and accuracy. 

Yet the keyboard is 20% more 
compact and less than half the 
weight of IBM's. 

Even the cord is adjustable to 
suit left- or right-handers. 

Ergo-Color.™ 

Even the color of the case is 
economically selected to be restful 
on the eye over many hours. 





Ergo-Space.™ 

The system unit is 
one-third smaller than 
IBM's. 

It even fits under your 
| — desk in a special verti- 
cal rack. 

So your desktop is 
your own again. 

IBM Compatible. 

Many companies claim to be 
compatible. 

Some are. Some are stretching 
the truth. 

The Ericsson PC boasts the 
highest compatibility rating 
there is. 

It's operationally compatible. 

You can take advantage of 
thousands of PC-compatible pro- 
grams already available. 

In fact, with the best-selling 
software, program and data disks 
are interchangeable with those 
of the IBM PC. 

Service. Not excuses. 

Ericsson wouldn't give you 
anything less than on-site or carry- 
in service. The choice is yours. 

3 Free Offers. 

Ericsson will send you reveal- 
ing literature on ergonomics. 

Also a detailed brochure on 
the Ericsson PC. 

And arrange a hands-on test 
if you ask for it. 

Call toll-free 1-800-FOR-ERGO. 




ERICSSON 



IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 
Inquiry 159 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 37 





INfftXHJGING 

N£AR LemR QUALITY 
ANP TH9OU0HPOT SfetPS 
OTH£R R^INHHRSCANT 
COMB NEAR. 

The new C.ltoh ProWriter™ 8510S-LQ 
Near Letter Quality printer is a whole 
new field of one. 

It's priced at just $549. But it gives you 
near letter quality printing for beautifully 
sharp characters like printers costing 
hundreds of dollars more. 

And in a text and graphics 
speed test against its closest 
competition, namely the Epson® 
FX-80 and the Okidata Microline 
92, the new and faster C. Itoh 
8510S-LQ out printed them all. 
The stopwatch proved that 
the 8510S-LQ, at throughput 
speeds of 100 full lines per 
minute, printed text up to 35% faster than 
the competition. And it created bar 
graphs and pie charts up to 54% faster. 

Of course, speed in itself does not 
keep a printer in a class by itself. Reli- 
ability does. That's something no C.ltoh 
printer has ever lacked. No other printers 
are more thoroughly tested or 
proven on the job. Which is why 
C. Itoh printers continue to be the 
world's best sellers, with 1.7 
million sold last year alone. 

For more information on the 
new and faster C. Itoh 8510S-LQ 
or wider carriage 1550S-LQ Near 
Letter Quality printers just see 
your C. Itoh dealer. Or call us toll 
free at 1-800-423-0300. 

Or write C.ltoh Digital Products, 
Inc., 19750 South Vermont Avenue, 
Suite 220, Torrance, CA 90502. 

'"ProWriter is a Trademark of C.ltoh Digital Products, Inc. 
® Epson is a Registered Trademark of Epson, America, Inc. 
« 1985 C.ltoh Digital Products, Inc. 



Theirs 




C.ITOH 



Printers 



38 BYTE • MAY I985 



Inquiry 60 for Dealers. Inquiry 61 for End-Users. 



WHAT'S NEW 



Kaypro 2000 
Features Detachable 
Keyboard 

The Kaypro 2000 is an 
11 -pound battery- 
powered portable computer 
with a detachable 75-key 
keyboard. Standard are a 
single 720K-byte floppy-disk 
drive, one RS-232C serial 
port, a real-time clock/ 
calendar, an 80-character by 
2 5-line liquid-crystal display 
(LCD), bundled software, and 
2 56K bytes of memory (ex- 
pandable to 640K bytes 
using standard NMOS chips). 
Optionally, you can add an 
8087 chip on the main 
board. An internal 300/ 
1200-bps modem is also 
available. 

Kaypro says that the unit's 
batteries will last approxi- 
mately four hours in normal 
use. To conserve power, the 
unit automatically powers 
down when no activity oc- 
curs in one minute or when 
the cover is closed (without 
losing data or programs in 
RAM), and the disk drives 
are turned off when not ac- 
tually reading or writing 
data. The Kaypro 2000 uses 
Phoenix's IBM PC-compat- 
ible ROM BIOS and can run 
virtually any program for the 
IBM Personal Computer. 
Graphics images are dis- 
played with a resolution of 
640 by 200 pixels. 

The Kaypro 2000 mea- 
sures about 121/5 by 2% by 
11 inches when closed. An 
optional "base unit" for the 
Kaypro 2000 is planned. The 
base unit will allow use of 
additional floppy- and/or 
hard-disk drives, an external 
monitor, a parallel printer, 




i i i i i i i i i i i i i \ 

i i i f i i i i i i i * • ,* I\ 

l-*rf i ' ' ' ■ ' ' ' V" v\ xm 



s==============£=Hlill=l 



-V : f-H-rV\ \ •■■ 



J fie Kaypro 2000's keyboard is detachable. 



and other IBM-compatible 
peripherals. 

The Kaypro 2000 should 
be available in June for 
$1995. Contact Kaypro 
Corp.. POB N. Del Mar. CA 
92014, (619) 481-4300. 
Inquiry 600. 

Mac COBOL Has 
ANSI 74, Allows 
Access to Mac ROM 

Micro Focus's Mac 
COBOL is the first ver- 
sion of COBOL for Apple's 
Macintosh. Mac COBOL in- 
cludes an editor, a full ANSI 
74 compiler, a 68000 object- 
code generator, and access 
to 386 of the Macintosh 



ROM routines. Any COBOL 
program written for Micro 
Focus's IBM PC compiler will 
run on the Macintosh with- 
out modification, although 
programmers can add fea- 
tures to take advantage of 
the Macintosh's user 
interface. 

Micro Focus also plans to 
give Mac COBOL a debug- 
ging tool, a forms generator, 
a help facility, and access to 
all 512 of the Macintosh 
ROM routines. Buyers of 
Mac COBOL version 1.0 will 
receive an upgrade to the 
next version free of charge. 

Mac COBOL is priced at 
$2000. Contact Micro Focus 
Inc., 2465 East Bayshore 
Rd.. Palo Alto, CA 94303, 
(415) 856-4161. 
Inquiry 601. 



Graphics Software 
for HP Touchscreen 
and IBM PC 

Hewlett-Packard has an- 
nounced two families 
of software: one for its 
Touchscreen Personal Com- 
puter (formerly the HP 1 50) 
and the other for the IBM 
PC. 

A majority of the pro- 
grams for the Touchscreen 
Personal Computer are 
centered around business 
graphics and are designed 
to work with HP's line of 
plotters, and the InkJet and 
the LaserJet printers. 

The Charting Gallery 
($265) lets you make various 
charts. The Drawing Gallery 
($345) is a MacDraw-type 
drawing program that can 
use the HP Mouse ($210). 
The Executive MemoMaker 
($245) is supplied with a 
spelling checker, and it lets 
you incorporate graphics 
from the' Charting and Draw- 
ing Galleries into text 
documents. 

Most of the programs 
unveiled for the IBM PC are 
versions of programs al- 
ready available for the 
Touchscreen PC. Among the 
releases are the Memo- 
Maker word -processor 
($160) and the Personal 
Card File database ($160). 
Also offered is TextCharts 
($200), which lets you create 
presentation-quality signs 
and transparencies on HP's 
plotters and printers. 

For further information, 
contact your local Hewlett- 
Packard sales office. 
Inquiry 602. 

[continued) 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 39 



WHAT'S NEW 



Business-Pro Runs 
AT Software 

Texas Instruments' 
Business-Pro can be 
configured to run IBM PC 
AT and TI's Professional 
Computer software. This 
80286-based tool has 51 2K 
bytes of RAM expandable 
to 3.5 megabytes without 
consuming any of its eight 
full- or six half-size card 
slots or to 15 megabytes 
using card slots. Memory 
speed is 150 nanoseconds. 

Storage options are 360K- 
byte or 1.2 -megabyte floppy 
drives, a 60-megabyte tape 
backup, or 21-, 40-. or 
72-megabyte hard disks. 

The DOS is MS-DOS 3.0 
for one person or XENIX 
for up to eight users. Lan- 
guages supported are MS- 
BASIC, MS-Pascal, MS-FOR- 
TRAN, MS- and RM/COBOL. 
LISP, C and assembly 

Networking is provided by 
EtherLink hardware, sup- 
ported by NetWare/E-Tl soft- 
ware. As a workstation, it'll 
serve up to 50 micros shar- 
ing 144 megabytes of stor- 
age, a tape backup, and 
three printers. 

An 80287 coprocessor, a 
mouse, speech technology, 
and communications hard- 
ware and software are 
optional. 

With a serial/parallel inter- 
face and a 1.2 -megabyte 
floppy-disk drive, the base 
unit is $3995. A 21-mega- 
byte Winchester drive in- 
creases the price to $5795. 
Other configurations will 
range from $4440 to 
$10,785. Network servers 
will be offered. Contact 
Texas Instruments Inc., Data 
Systems Group, POB 
809063, Dallas, TX 75380- 
9063, (800) 527-3 500. 
Inquiry 603. 




The HoTMS 3000 series is a system solution for test engineers. 



Systems Solution for 
Test, Measurement, 
Analysis 

Honeywell's HOTMS 
3000 Series, a systems 
solution for the test and 
measurement environment, 
is said to be easy to 
operate, capable of a wide 
variety of measurements, 
and able to produce on-site 
test results with its high- 
performance architecture 
and powerful data-analysis 
software. With an HoTMS 
3000. a test engineer works 
with a complete data-ac- 
quisition system designed to 
manage all aspects of test- 
ing, such as the initial 
design, measurement, data 
analysis, and communica- 
tions. The price for a fully 
configured HOTMS 3000 
begins at $20,000; cost 
varies depending upon your 
application. 

HOTMS 3000 is a modular 
series built around a multi- 
processor-based microcom- 
puter. The computer has a 
distributed bus architecture 
that uses four Motorola 
MC68000 microprocessors. 
It runs under Regulus. a 
UNIX-like operating system 
with real-time extensions. 
Regulus supports BASIC, 
Pascal, FORTRAN, and C. 

The six system cards com- 



municate across a VME bus 
in a multitasking environ- 
ment. Three card slots are 
available for a communica- 
tions card or for up to 8 
megabytes of RAM. 

Each HOTMS has a so- 
called mechanical support 
structure with a rack- 
mountable, tabletop en- 
closure and a 1 7 -slot card 
cage. The card cage has a 
9-slot computer card rack 
and an 8-slot signal- 
conditioning card rack. The 
signal-conditioning front end 
can handle a continuous 
system throughput of up to 
160,000 samples per sec- 
ond. A series of analog and 
digital signal-conditioning 
cards offering a range of in- 
put and output options 
complements the data-col- 
lection bus. 

Other features of the main 
housing are a 9-inch amber 
monitor and a built-in multi- 
function keypad. Each 
comes standard with a 
5!4-inch floppy-disk drive 
and a choice of a second 
floppy drive and a 36- or 
86-megabyte hard-disk drive. 
The power for all devices in 
the main unit is supplied by 
a 640-watt power supply 



that comes in a variety of 
voltages and frequencies. An 
external VT-200-style key- 
board and a 13-inch external 
color monitor are optional. 

Major system functionality 
is provided by Operator In- 
terface Devices, which are 
supported by several user- 
interface programs. These 
programs provide a consis- 
tent set of menu interfaces 
to the system and a plug-in 
structure for software 
modules. The modules are 
offered as either integral 
parts of each HoTMS or as 
upgrade options. 

For information on hard- 
ware and software options 
and system configurations, 
contact Honeywell Inc., Test 
Instruments Division, POB 
5227, Denver, CO 80217- 
5227. 
Inquiry 604. 

GRiDCase Family 
of Portables 

GRID Systems has intro- 
duced three IBM PC- 
compatible portables: the 
GRiDCase I. II, and III. 
Members of this family are 
nearly identical, differing 
mainly in display-screen ap- 
paratus. The GRiDCase 111. 
for example, has a high- 
clarity gas-plasma display, 
while the low-end GRiDCase 
I uses an LCD. The GRiD- 
Case II features an en- 
hanced LCD screen, accord- 
ing to the manufacturer. 

GRiD claims that, unlike 
the Compass, the new GRiD- 
Case models are highly 
compatible with the IBM PC. 
The company cites the new 
line's ability to run Lotus 
1-2-3 and Microsoft's Flight 
Simulator as proof of com- 
patibility. 

Each GRiDCase comes 
with a 720K-byte floppy-disk 
drive, an interface for an 
RGB monitor, and a 
standard-size typewriter 
keyboard. Options include 

[continued) 



40 B YTE • MAY 1985 






They said it couldn't be done. 
Borland Did It.Turbo Pascal 3j0 



*%*> 



The industry standard 

With more than 250,000 users worldwide Turbo 
Pascal is the industry's de facto standard. Turbo 
Pascal is praised by more engineers, hobbyists, 
students and professional programmers than any 
other development environment in the history of 
microcomputing. And yet, Turbo Pascal is 
simple and fun to use! 



TURBO TURBO MS 
3.0 2.0 PASCAL 



COMPILATION SPEED 



EXECUTION SPEED 



CODE SIZE 



BUILT-IN INTERACTIVE EDITOR 



ONE STEP COMPILE 

(NO UNKING NECESSARY) 



COMPILER SIZE 



TURTLE GRAPHICS 



BCD OPTION 



PRICE 




Portability. 

Turbo Pascal b available today for most com- 
puters running PC DOS, MS DOS, CP/M 80 or 
CP/M 86. A XENIX version of Turbo Pascal will 
soon be announced, and before the end of the 
year, Turbo Pascal will be running on most 68000 
based microcomputers. 

An Offer You Can't Refuse. 

Until June 1st, 1985, you can get Turbo Pascal 3.0 
for only $69.95. Turbo Pascal 3.0, equipped with 
either the BCD or 8087 options, is available for an 
additional $39.95 or Turbo Pascal 3.0 with both options 
for only $124.95. As a matter of fact, if you own a 16- 
Bit computer and are serious about programming, you 
might as well get both options right away and save 
almost $25. 



Update policy. 

As always, our first commitment is to our customers. 
You built Borland and we will always honor your support. 

So, to make your upgrade to the exciting new version of 
Turbo Pascal 3.0 easy, we will accept your original Turbo 
Pascal disk (in a bend-proof container) for a trade-in credit 
of $39.95 and your Turbo87 original disk for $59.95. This 
trade-in credit may only be applied toward the purchase of 
Turbo Pascal 3.0 and its additional BCD and 8087 options 
(trade-in offer is only valid directly through Borland and until 
June 1st. 1985). 






O Benchmark run on an IBM PC using MS Pascal version 3.2 and 
the DOS linker version 2.6. The 179 line program used is the "Gauss- 
Seidel" program out of-Alan R. Miller's book: Pascal programs for 
scientists and engineers (Sybex, page 128) with a 3 dimensional 
non-singular matrix and a relaxation coefficient of 1.0. 



The best just got better: 
Introducing Turbo Pascal 3.0 

We just added a whole range of exciting new 
features to Turbo Pascal: 

• First, the world's fastest Pascal compiler just got 
faster. Turbo Pascal 3.0 (16 bit version) compiles 
twice as fast as Turbo Pascal 2.0! No kidding. 

• Then, we totally rewrote the file I/O system, and 
we also now support I/O redirection. 

• For the IBM PC versions, we've even added 
"turtle graphics" and full tree directory support. 

• For all 16 Bit versions, we now offer two addi- 
tional options: 8087 math coprocessor support 
for intensive calculations and Binary Coded 
Decimals (BCD) for business applications. 

• And much much more. 

The Critics' Choice. 

Jeff Duntemann, PC Magazine: "Language 
deal of the century . . . Turbo Pascal: It 
introduces a new programming environment and 
runs like magic" 

Owe Garland, Popular Computing: "Most 
Pascal compilers barely fit on a disk, but Turbo 
Pascal packs an editor, compiler, linker, and run- 
time library into just 39K bytes of random- 
access memory." 

Jerry Pournelle, BYTE: "What I think the 
computer industry is headed for: well 
documented, standard, plenty of good features, 



and a reasonable price." 









DORlfiftD 

INTERNATIONAL 



Softwares Newest Direction 

4585 Scotts valley Drive 
Scotts Valley CA 95066 
TELEX 172373 



Turbo. Pascal is a registered fracfcmarK of Borland International, Inc. 

PC Week i$ a trademark of Ziff-Davis Pub. Co. 

Inquiry 455 for Dealers. Inquiry 456 for End-Users. 




WHAT'S NEW 



an external VA -inch floppy- 
disk drive, an internal 
1200-bps modem, and a 
battery pack that lasts from 
one to five hours, depend- 
ing on which model is being 
used 

Prices range, from approx- 
imately $3000 for the GRiD- 
Case I to about $4500 for 
the GRiDCase III. Contact 
GRiD Systems Corp., 2 53 5 
Garcia Ave., Mountain View. 
CA 94043. (415) 961-4800. 
Inquiry 605. 

Integrated CAD 
System for IBM 

CADKey. a two- and 
three-dimensional 
design and drafting tool for 
512K-byte IBM PCs, PC XTs. 
and PC ATs. is said to be 
the only IBM PC-based sys- 
tem with true three-dimen- 
sional capabilities fully in- 
tegrated with two-dimen- 
sional drafting abilities. 

You can use CADKey to 
draw in three dimensions 
and to convert those images 
into two-dimensional draw- 
ings that conform to ANSI 
and ISO standards. Once 
you create a three-dimen- 
sional image, you can auto- 
matically view it from any 
angle. If you modify a 
design, CADKey automatical- 
ly updates all views. 

CADKey drawings appear 
as wireframe representa- 
tions. For a solid ap- 
pearance, hidden lines can 
be trimmed. All parts, 
families of parts, and draw- 
ings can be stored, auto- 
matically scaled to size, and 
retrieved from disk within 
the program. All entities 
making up an image can be 
manipulated individually or 
as a group, and any entity 
or group of entities can be 
altered at will. Entities to be 
transformed may be 




Sample screen produced by CADKey. 



selected by cursor position, 
last created, type, level, and 
windowing, and you can use 
geometric relationships be- 
tween entities for selection, 
construction, transformation, 
editing, and dimensioning. 

Any part, section of a 
part, or group of parts can 
be rotated, scaled, or 
moved along any of three 
coordinate axes by user- 
selected angle, distance, or 
factor. Both numerical and 
interactive methods are sup- 
ported, and zoom and pan 
features are provided. 

CADKey uses English-lan- 
guage menus. Commands 
can be tailored to suit your 
needs. The program sup- 
ports 640- by 420-dot reso- 
lution, 2 56 levels, and 16 
colors and accepts input 
from a digitizer, mouse, 
function keys, and keyboard. 
Among its other features are 
quick selection and repaint, 
the ability to use disk space 
as virtual memory, and the 
ability to accommodate 
parts exceeding 10,000 
entities. 

CADKey is $1895. Contact 
Micro Control Systems Inc., 
27 Hartford Turnpike, Ver- 
non, CT 06066, (203) 
647-0220. 
Inquiry 606. 



Laser Printer 
Produces Full-Page, 
High-Resolution 
Graphics 

Corporate Data Sciences' 
CDS 2300. a $5695 
laser printer, can store and 
print a full 8/2- by 11-inch 
image with a resolution of 
90.000 dots per square inch. 
It uses Canon's LBP-CX stan- 
dard laser-printer engine, 
augmented with an 8-MHz 
80186 processor, 1.28 mega- 
bytes of bit-mapped RAM 
for images, 128K bytes of 
system RAM. and 128K 
bytes of ROM. 

In addition to several CDS 
fonts provided for use in the 
bit-mapped image mode, the 
CDS 2300 can emulate a 
Diablo 630 daisy-wheel 
printer, a Tektronix 4014 
graphics terminal, and the 
ANSI X3.64 protocol. Once 
a bit-mapped image is 
loaded into the printer, 
copies can be produced at 



a rate of eight per minute. 
Both RS-232C serial and 
Centronics parallel interfaces 
are supplied. 

CDS also sells a Graphics 
Display/Processor (GD/P), an 
intelligent graphics terminal 
for the IBM PC. The GD/P 
workstation costs $4995. 

Also newly available from 
CDS is a graphics terminal 
called Whizzie (an ab- 
breviated form of "what you 
see is what you get"). This 
$1995 terminal has a 17-inch 
display and an interface 
card for the IBM PC XT or 
AT. but it does not have the 
intelligence or the advanced 
capabilities of the GD/P. Like 
the GD/P, Whizzie displays a 
1024- by 1024- pixel image 
exactly as the laser printer 
will produce it. 

Contact Corporate Data 
Sciences Inc.. Suite 102. 
2 560 Mission College Blvd.. 
Santa Clara, CA 95054, (408) 
980-9747. 
Inquiry 607. 

Cermetek Unveils 
3-line, 1200-bps 
Multiplexer 

Cermetek Microelec- 
tronics' 3X1200 Multi- 
plexer lets three users com- 
municate at 1200 bps over a 
single telephone line, reduc- 
ing phone bills by as much 
as two-thirds. This statistical 
multiplexer uses the Hayes 
AT command set and can 
serve as a single-user 
1200-bps modem. When two 
3X12 00s are connected by a 
phone line, users at any of 
the six RS-232C serial por s 
can communicate with any 
other port and share 
peripherals. 

The 3X1200 supports 
switched multiplexing: Users 
can opt to communicate 
with any port at any time in- 
stead of being tied to a 

{continued) 



42 BYTE* MAY 1985 



Borland'sSideKick 
Software Product of theYear 



SideKick is InfoWorld Software Product of the Year. It won over 

Symphony. Over Framework. Over ALL the programs advertised in 

this magazine. Including, of course, all the "fly-by-night" SideKick 

imitations. SideKick .... Simply the best. 





Here's SideKick running over Lotus 1-2-3. In the SideKick 
Notepad you'll notice data that's been imported directly from 
the Lotus screen. In the upper right you 
can see the SideKick Calculator. 




InfoWorld Report Card 1984by Popular 
Computing. Inc., a subsidiutyofCW 
Communications Inc. Mr printed from 
InfoWorld 1060 Marsh Road. 
Menh Park. CA 94025. 



All the SideKick windows stacked up over Lotus 1-2-3. From 
bottom to top: SideKick's "Menu Window", ASCII table, 
Notepad, Calculator, Appointment Scheduler/Calendar, 
and Phone Dialer. Whether you're running WordStar, Lotus, 
dBase, or any other program, SideKick puts all these desktop 
accessories instantly at your fingertips. 
■ 



Jerry Pournelle, BYTE: "If you use a 
PC, get SideKick. You'll soon become 
dependent on it." 

Garry Ray, PC Week: "SideKick deserves 

a place in every PC!' 

Charles Petzold, PC Magazine: "In a 

simple, beautiful implementation of Word- 
Star's block copy commands, SideKick 
can transport all or any part of the display 
screen (even an area overlaid by the notepad 
display) to the- notepad." 

Dan Robinson, InfoWorld: "SideKick is a 
time-saving, frustration-saving bargain 




. 



I 
1 
1 
I 



nearest you. '° 

send ^ y 



To order by 



Ca..*iS»'S** 33 



please 
SideKick 



cted 



copy ;£* 

O uanmy wTTSlo"axpercopy) 

SideKick Not COP^ t $84 g5 

Q uant,ty w75To tax per copW 
(CAreS .add$s. 

Arnounl (CA 
payment: 



i 
x 



\ 
i 



inciLJ 



de shipP 1 



These price 5 
^lOperP^' 



ngto 



All foreiQ 1 



,n orders 



■dered. 



P n C ot'co^^ erSIOn 



1 

i 

I 



n ^\m rt rtf* Software's Newest Direction 

IjWniHI nJ 4585 Scotts Valley Drive 

TT-^-r? * 7 at i Zit aT Scotts Valle y. CA 95066 

INTERNATIONAL telex 172m 



Symphony, Lotus & Lotus V2-3 are trademarks oJ Lotus Development Corp. dBase 
& Framework are trademarks of AshtonTate. WordStar is a trademark of MicroPro 
International Corp. SideKick is a trademark of Borland International. 

'Selected by tofdWorld as the most significant software product of the year. 
Inquiry 457 for Dealers. Inquiry 458 for End- Users. 



i 

B COD'; 

B On::- 




jsstsss-sr 



WHAT'S NEW 



single channel. Its system 
software provides error 
checking and retransmission 
of garbled data. System 
parameters can be reset 
remotely even though they 
are password-protected. The 
3X1200 also keeps activity 
statistics on all ports. 

The Cermetek 3X1200 is 
priced at $1395. Contact 
Cermetek Microelectronics 
Inc., 1308 Borregas Ave., 
POB 3 565, Sunnyvale, CA 
94088-3565, (408) 752-5000. 
Inquiry 608. 

Integrated Software 
for Macintosh 

Microsoft's first inte- 
grated package, Excel 
for the Macintosh, has 
spreadsheet and graphics 
capabilities, a spreadsheet- 
oriented database, and a 
macro facility for storing 
and recalling commonly 
used keystrokes. It supports 
the AppleTalk network and 
provides two-way file com- 
patibility with Multiplan and 
Chart for the Macintosh, 
Lotus 1-2-3 for the IBM PC, 
and applications that sup- 
port Microsoft's SYLK 
format. 

The Excel spreadsheet 
provides you with a 2 56- 
column by 16,384-row work 
area. You can view and 
reference multiple spread- 
sheets, consolidate work- 
sheets, enter multiple- 
variable problems or situa- 
tions, and vary the borders, 
number formats, and font 
styles and size. You can 
assign names to cell refer- 
ences, numbers, and mathe- 
matical expressions and call 
four windows into a work- 
sheet. 

You can produce instant 
"what if" graphics with 
Excel's charting abilities, 
which are functionally iden- 




Excel is Microsoft's first integrated package. 



tical to Microsoft's Chart for 
the Mac. Excel files can be 
read directly into Chart, and 
Excel can read Chart files. 
When you alter numbers in 
a spreadsheet window, 
charts in separate windows 
are instantly updated. For 
data comparisons, you can 
open more than one chart 
window for the same or dif- 
ferent data. The charting 
facility also has 42 pre- 
designed charts, the ability 
to relocate objects on 
screen, and your choice of 
font, range, scale, and 
patterns. 

The database is an an- 
cillary function of Excel's 
spreadsheet. With it, you 
can sort, extract, and display 
information in a variety of 
ways. The database lacks 
form- and report-design 
capabilities; however, Excels 
formatting capabilities let 
you create reports. It does 
let you remove data for 
analysis in a different sec- 
tion of your work area. 

Excel's suggested retail 
price is $39 5. It requires 
512K bytes of memory and 
will work with the Macintosh 
XL. Contact Microsoft, 
10700 Northrup Way 
Bellevue, WA 98009, (206) 
828-8080. 
Inquiry 609. 



Test, Measurement 
Tools 

Hewlett-Packard's PC In- 
struments are periph- 
eral devices that give you 
the ability to run test or 
measurement applications 
from the same computer 
you use to write reports. 
Modular tools that work 
with the HP Touchscreen 
and IBM's PC, PC XT and 
PC AT computers, the PC In- 
struments line consists of 
eight units, several software 
packages, and accessories. 
A typical micro can support 
up to eight modules, and 
additional modules can be 
engaged with more interface 
cards. 

Current members of the 
line are a digitizing oscillo- 
scope, a digital multimeter, a 
function generator, a univer- 
sal counter, a 16-channel 
digital I/O, a relay multi- 
plexer, a dual-voltage D/A 
converter, and a relay ac- 
tuator. Each is housed in a 
stackable plastic box with its 
own external power supply. 

Key to PC Instruments, 
says Hewlett-Packard, is its 



system software. The soft- 
ware operates with a single 
HP PCIB interface card in- 
side the computer, provides 
the user interface and instru- 
ment I/O drivers, and gives 
you control over instrument 
modules. It has data- 
conversion utilities and sup- 
ports three data-conversion 
formats (BASIC, DIE and 
stripped ASCII) that order 
acquired data for use with 
such programs as Lotus 
1-2-3 and Statpak. 

In its manual mode, the 
software displays an instru- 
ment's control panel on 
screen along with multiple 
windows. The windows let 
you monitor the status of 
several instruments, fiddle 
with instrument settings, and 
oversee the entire operation. 
The software supports the 
Touchscreen, an IBM PC 
mouse, and cursor keys. In- 
strument initialization 
parameters can be stored 
and recalled. 

The progam mode lets 
you exercise control over 
each instrument through 
calls to the BASIC subrou- 
tine library. A pair of 
generic commands, Output 
and Measure, are used to 
program all the instruments. 

Optional data-acquisition 
software lets you start log- 
ging and plotting data im- 
mediately. This menu-driven 
BASIC package has an engi- 
neering-graphics utility. Soft- 
ware libraries that permit 
the Touchscreen and IBMs 
to control up to 15 PC In- 
struments in a BASIC en- 
vironment are available. 

PC Instruments are priced 
between $650 and $1500. 
The PCIB interface and sys- 
tem software are $500. The 
optional I/O library is $300 
for the Touchscreen and 
$400 for the IBM PC. Con- 
tact your local Hewlett- 
Packard dealer. 
Inquiry 610. 

{continued on page 464) 



44 BYTE • MAY 1985 



I w- 111 I 



I, Power, Price. 



Borland's TUrbo Pascal Family. 



The industry Standard. With more than 250,000 users worldwide Turbo Pascal is the industry's de facto standard. 
Turbo Pascal is praised by more engineers, hobbyists, students and professional programmers than any other development 
environment in the history of microcomputing. And yet, Turbo Pascal is simple and fun to use! 

Jeff Duntemann, PC Magazine: "Language deal of the century . . . Turbo Pascal: It introduces a new 
programming environment and runs like magic. " 

Dave Garland, Popular Computing: "Most Pascal compilers barely fit on a disk, but Turbo Pascal packs an editor, compiler, linker, 
and run-time library into just 29K bytes of random-access memory." 

Jerry Pournelle, BYTE: "What I think the computer industry is headed for: well documented, standard, plenty of good features, 
and a reasonable price." 

Portability. Turbo Pascal is available today for most computers running PC DOS, MS DOS. CP/M 80 or CP/M 86. A XENIX verison of Turbo 
Pascal will soon be announced, and before the end of the year. Turbo Pascal will be running on most 68000 based microcomputers. 





High resolution monochrome graphics for the IBM PC and the Zenith 100 computers 

Dazzling graphics and painless Windows. The Turbo Graphix Toolbox will give even a beginning programmer 
the expert's edge. It's a complete library of Pascal procedures that include: 

Full graphics window management. 

—Tools that will allow you to draw and hatch pie charts, bar charts, circles, rectangles and a full range of geometric shapes. 
■Procedures that will save and restore graphic images to and from disk. 
—Functions that will allow you to precisely plot curves. 

—Tools that will allow you to create animation or solve those difficult curve fitting problems, 
and much, much more 

No sweat and no royalties. You may incorporate part, or all of these tools in your programs, 
and yet. we won't charge you any royalties. Best of all, these functions and procedures come complete 
with commented source code on disk ready to compile! 





m 



Searching and sorting made simple 

The perfect Complement to Turbo Pascal. It contains: Turbo-Access, a powerful implementation of the state-of-the-art B+tree ISAM 
technique; Turbo-Sort, a super efficient implementation of the fastest data sorting algorithm, "Quicksort on disk". And much more. 

Jerry Poumelle, BYTE: "The tools include a B+tree search and a sorting system; I've seen stuff like this, but not 
as well thought out, sell for hundreds of dollars." 

Get Started right away: free database! Included on every Toolbox disk is the source code to a working 
data base which demonstrates how powerful and easy to use the Turbo-Access system really is. 
Modify it to suit your individual needs or just compile it and run. 

Remember, no royalties! 





From Start to Finish in 300 pages. Turbo Tutor 

is for everyone, from novice to expert. Even if you've never 
programmed before. Turbo Tutor will get you started right away. 
If you already have some experience with Pascal or another 
programming language, Turbo Tutor will take you step by step 
through topics like data structures and pointers. If you're an expert, 
you'll lovejhe sections detailing subjects such as "how to use assem- 
bly language routines with your Turbo Pascal programs." 

A must. You'll find the source code for all 
the examples in the book on the accompanying 
disk ready to compile. Turbo Tutor might be 
the only reference on Pascal and pro- 
gramming you'll ever need. 




$34.95 



nORI DO A Software's Newest Direction 

UWnVII II* 4585 Scotis Valley Drive 

INTERNATIONAL Sm&s* 95086 

Inquiry 459 for Dealers. Inquiry 460 for End-Users. 

Turbo Pascal is a registered trademark otBorlarjd Internationa). Inc. 




Outside u ■_ 




Borland Does It Again: 
SuperKey $69.95 

Sure, ProKey™ is a nice little program. But when the people who brought you 

Turbo Pascal and SideKick get serious about keyboard enhancers, you can 

expect the impossible ... and we deliver. 



SuperKey 



ProKey 



ALL FEATURES RESIDENT IN RAM AT ALL TIMES 



RESIDENT PULL-DOWN MACRO EDITOR 



RESIDENT FILE ENCRYPTION 



PROKEY COMPATIBILITY 



DISPLAY PROTECTION 



ABILITY TO IMPORT DATA FROM SCREEN 



PULLDOWN MENU USER INTERFACE 



CONTEXT-SENSITIVE ON-LINE HELP SYSTEM 



DISPLAY-ONLY MACRO CREATION 






ENTRY AND FORMAT CONTROL IN DATA FIELDS 




COMMAND KEYS REDEFINABLE "ON THE FLY" 



Total ProKey compatibility. Every Prokey Macro file may be 
used by SuperKey without change so that you may capitalize on 
all the precious time you've invested. 

Now your PC can keep a secret! SuperKey includes a resident 
file encryption system that uses your password to encrypt and 
decrypt files, even while running other programs. Two different 
encryption modes are offered: 

1. Direct overwrite encryption (which leaves the file size un- 
changed) for complete protection. At no point is a second file 
that could be reconstructed by an intruder generated. Without 
your secret password, no one will ever be able to type out your 
confidential letters again! 

2. COM or EXE file encryption which allows you to encrypt a 
binary file into an ASCII file, transmit it through a phone line as a 
text file and turn it back again into an executable file on the 
target machine (only of course if your correspondent knows the 
secret password!). Now, you will even be able to secretly ex- 
change programs through Public Bulletin Board Systems or 
services such as CompuServe. 

Totally memory resident at all times, gives SuperKey the ability 
to create, edit, save and even recall new or existing macro files 
anytime, even while running another program. 

Pull down macro editor. Finally, a sensible way to create, edit, 
change and alter existing macro definitions. Even while using 
another application, a simple keystroke instantly opens a 
wordprocessor-like window where you're allowed to see, 
edit, delete, save and even attach names to an indi- 
vidual macro or file of macros, and 
much more. 



Hord 



PRICE 



Sony ProKey! 

Superb software at reasonable prices! 

There is much more to SuperKey. Maybe the best ] 

reason to buy SuperKey is that it is a Borland 
International Product. Each one of our products 
is the best in its category. We only believe in 
absolutely superb software at reasonable prices! 

An offer you can't refuse. 

Whether you are a ProKey user or you've never used a 
keyboard enhancer before, your boat has come in. You can 
get your copy of SuperKey at this irresistible price. 

Get your PC a SuperKey today! 

SuperKey is available now for your IBM PC, XT, AT, jr. and truly 
compatible microcomputers. 



suepL 



■s**?sz&<* 



CA 



P r dealers *#£&** 



Sup Se nd me 

copi eS 



I 
1 



BORIPHD 

INTERNATIONAL 



Softwares Newest Direction 

45B5ScottsVa eyDrivE 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
TELEX 172373 



IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machine Corporation. ProKey is a trademark 
ol RoseSoti. SuperKey and SideKick are trademarks of Borland International. Inc. CompuServe is a 
trademark o! CompuServe Corp. 

Inquiry 461 for Dealers. Inquiry 462 for End-Users. 




ASK BYTE 



Conducted by Steve Garcia 
Intelligent Disk Drive 

Dear Steve, 

How about an intelligent disk drive that 
will interface through an RS-232C port? It 
might be useful in solving format incom- 
patibilities. 

Russ Shall 
Key West, FL 

An intelligent disk drive with an 
RS-232C serial port is a good idea, and 
I will consider it for a future article. 

Such products are already on the 
market. One such device, the SEEDI 
from Mariachi Oy (Puutarhakatu 17, 
SF-20100 llirku 10, Finland), interfaces an 
RS-232C serial port with an Apple 11 disk 
drive. It allows data to be taken or trans- 
ferred without the need for the computer 
itself. The disk can then be put into an 
Apple 11 system and booted to retrieve 
the data. 

Another unit is the FDS-200 Minifile 
from Greco Systems (372 Coogan Way. 
El Cajon, CA 92020). It, too, can be in- 
terfaced to an RS-232C port and will 
store data directly on a 5 l A-inch floppy 
disk. It is an intelligent minifloppy-disk 
system that can store up to 179K bytes 
per disk.— Steve 

Computers and the 
Disabled 

Dear Steve. 

1 am a student at the University of South 
Alabama who is working on a project to 
help a quadriplegic communicate. Here is 
the nature of the problem. We are hop- 
ing to translate jaw pressures to menu- 
selection responses. The menu could con- 
sist of words that could be sent to a 
speech synthesizer. I am using an IBM PC 
clone (a Columbia) and need suggestions 
as to what interface and other peripheral 
devices to acquire for a speech syn- 
thesizer. Your help in this matter is greatly 
appreciated. 

Ron Lindquist 
Mobile, AL 

Helping the disabled is one of the most 
rewarding areas for microcomputer ex- 
perimenters. I wish you success. 



You can acquire two basic types of 
speech synthesizers for the Columbia: a 
plug-in board or one that is connected 
through a serial or parallel port. The plug- 
in type ties up a slot, so this may be a 
consideration in your choice. Tecmar 
makes a speech board for PCs, as does 
MSI. Add-on types include two models 
from Votrax. Identical units are available 
assembled from Intex and in kit form 
from Micromint. Some of these units 
have speakers built in; others would re- 
quire you to add your own. 

Although you did not mention it 
specifically in your letter, I assume that 
your input device will be interfaced 
through the game adapter port. This 
would probably be the simplest and 
cheapest way to go. Simple micro- 
switches could be used to initiate the 
selection process. 

I hope that this is of some help. A lot 
of planning beforehand is much better 
than a lot of kludges later! I have listed 
the addresses of the referenced manu- 
facturers for your convenience. 

Micromint Inc. 
561 Willow Ave. 
Cedarhurst, NY 11516 
(800) 645-3479 

Street Electronics 
1140 Mark Ave. 
Carpinteria, CA 93013 
(805) 684-4593 

Tecmar 

6225 Cochran Rd., 
Solon, OH 44139 
(216) 349-0600 

—Steve 

Stereoscopic Graphics 

Dear Steve, 

Can you refer me to a source of mathe- 
matical formulas for generating true- 
perspective proportions from elevations 
and for reducing right-eye images to left- 
eye offsets for three-dimensional imagery? 
1 have never seen a discussion of the 
mathematical relationships. 

1 can take a lead pencil and produce 
drawings that merge beautifully into three- 
dimensional images, even without a 



viewer, but 1 can't explain to my computer 
how to do- it without the mathematical 
base, and it is crucial to a project I'm work- 
ing on. Unfortunately, I'm more of an ar- 
tist than 1 am a theoretical mathematician. 

B. R. POGUE 

Thatcher, AZ 

Creative Computing magazine ran a 
two-part article, "Stereo Graphics," by 
John D. Fowler in the January and Feb- 
ruary 1 983 issues. It seems to be exactly 
what you are looking for. The article 
describes the math briefly and gives a 
program in TRS-80 Color Computer 
BASIC to produce some stereo pictures. 

Another article, which gets into the 
math of perspective drawing and rota- 
tion, is 'Three Dimensional Apple Graph- 
ics" by Mark Pelczarski, in the February 
1982 issue of Creative Computing— Steve 

Transorbs Better 

Dear Steve, 

In your article on power-line condition- 
ing (December 1983), you recommended 
the use of MOVs (metal-oxide varistors) for 
transient voltage suppression. 1 believe 1 
have located a better device for this— the 
Transorb by General Semiconductor. 

1 learned about this device while design- 
ing a burglar alarm, which my company 
sells. 1 tried zeners, then MOVs, to elimi- 
nate power glitches caused by the cycling 
of refrigerator motors, incandescent 
lamps, and the like. The zeners were use- 
less because they didn't clamp with the 
high-voltage values. The MOVs were a lit- 
tle better, but the clamping voltage for a 
I 5-V-rated device might still rise to 30 or 
40 V under actual clamping currents. 

1 tried the Transorbs, and they worked 
perfectly. 1 now use them exclusively in all 
my products. They cost about 50 cents 
apiece, so they're less expensive than 
MOVs. 

Logan Cresap 

Square Roots 

Dear Steve, 

Recently, one of your readers com- 
plained that his computer could not deter- 

[contmued) 



48 BYTE- MAY 1985 



COPYRIGHT© 1985 STEVEN A. GARCIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 




•nruv &c4**> cl+x4u j*aa*+j yf^L+t *f* el** S+X4U*4 Zw+fB' 




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Inquiry 236 



MAY 1985 




lAfl 

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ASK BYTE 



mine square roots accurately, even for 
arguments that were perfect squares. You 
solved his problem by testing each result 
to see if it was very nearly an integer: IF 
ABS(R-INT(R+0.5)) < (small value) 
THEN (something). This worked more or 
less well, depending upon (small value) 
and a particular computer. 

It seems I am spoiled because the com- 
puter 1 use most, the TI-99/4A, always takes 
the square roots of perfect squares 
perfectly Actually I stopped the test after 
I = 500000 for: IF SQR(I*I) < > I THEN (we 
are in trouble). 

Your solution was slightly bothersome 
because of the judgment required in 
selecting the small value. If it is too small, 
it rejects legitimate square roots; if it is too 
large, it accepts erroneous roots. 

Naturally, I could not test any new ideas 
on the TI-99/4A, but 1 also have a Com- 
modore 64 and other family members 
have other computers. On all of them, the 
square-root function could be made 
perfect with 

B = SQR(a) 
B = (B+A/B)/2 

The tested domain was small as compared 
to my test of the T1-99/4A (to a half 
million). 

Later, I found a way to cause the 
TI-99/4A to take poor square roots with 

B = EXP(LOG(A)/2) 

These could be made perfect with adding 

B = (B+A/B)/2 

Oddly, B = AT(I/2) gives slightly different 
results from B = EXP(LOG(A)/2) when one 
would guess them to be identical. 

I did discover a cute way to cure the 
symptom for any computer with guard 
digits. The TI-99/4A has 3 guard digits (it 
shows 10 digits out of 13 or 14), and the 
C64 has a single guard digit (it shows 9 
digits out of 10): 

B = SQR(A) 

B = VAL(STR$(B)) 

This scheme is nice because it adjusts 
itself for a particular computer and for the 
relative magnitude of A and B. 

Webb Simmons 
San Diego, CA 

AIM-65 Peripherals 

Dear Steve, 

To avoid the expense of a disk drive, I 
wish to connect a cassette recorder to my 
AIM-65 computer. Is there a BYTE article 
that shows how to accomplish this? Also, 



is there a circuit that can interface my 
AIM-65 to a video monitor? 

KWAME AjANAKU 

Grand Prairie, TX 

A simple means of modifying a stan- 
dard audio cassette recorder for direct 
digital recording appeared in the Oc- 
tober 1978 BYTE. 'A Simpler Digital 
Cassette Tape Interface," by Ralph W. 
Burhans, describes a simple circuit that 
should meet your requirements. 

The output of a basic AIM-65 cannot 
be directly interfaced to a video moni- 
tor because it doesn't have a video 
generator. This is a circuit that takes ASCII 
data from the system bus and converts 
it to a string of bits to produce the dots 
that make up the characters on the 
screen. It also produces the horizontal 
and vertical sweep sync pulses to syn- 
chronize the character bits. Rockwell sells 
a CRT controller module for the A IM-65, 
part #RM65-5102. but if you'd rather 
build one yourself, read my Circuit Cellar 
article "Build the Term- Mite ST Smart 
Terminal" in the January 1984 BYTE. This 
circuit uses the National Semiconductor 
NS455A Terminal Management Proces- 
sor, which provides all the signals 
necessary to drive a video monitor and 
produces an 80-column by 25-line dis- 
play. —Steve 

VIC-20 Bar-Code Readers 

Dear Steve, 

Do you know of any bar-code readers 
for the VIC-20? If not, do you know of any 
books or magazine articles that explain 
how to build one? 

Colin C Kelley Jr. 
Piedmont, CA 

I am not aware of any bar-code readers 
specifically designed for the VIC-20, but 
several readers on the market interface 
with an RS-232C serial port. Such a port 
can be added to the VIC-20, either 
through a commercial accessory or via 
an article in the May 1983 BYTE, "The 
Enhanced VIC-20, Part 4: Connecting 
Serial RS-232C Peripherals to the VICs 
TTL Port" by Joel Swank. 

Two bar-code readers that interface to 
an RS-232C serial port are 

The D2 Series Mini Bar Code Reader 
Skan-a-Matic Corp. 
POB S, Route 5 West 
Elbridge, NY 13060 
(315) 689-3961 

[continued) 



50 BYTE ' MAY 1985 



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SRD Corporation Model BCR-170 
SRD USA Liaison Office 
999 North Sepulveda Blvd. 
Suite 314 

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—Steve 

32-bit Computer Design 

Dear Steve. 

I want to design a 3 2 -bit computer using 
the 32032 processor. I am in need of in- 
formation on high-resolution graphics- 
board design, bit-slice and array micropro- 
cessors, interfacing 32- and 8-bit buses, 
high-resolution monitor design, and some 
good test equipment. Any information 
would be appreciated. 

R. J. Iling 

Port Coquitlam, British Columbia, 

Canada 

Data on the 32032 can be obtained 
from National Semiconductor Corpora- 
tion, POB 70818, Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 
This processor is quite new, but the com- 
pany probably has application notes that 
will help in designing your system. 

Texas Instruments Inc. (POB 401560, 
Dallas, TX 75240) features a line of bit- 
slice processois, and it also publishes the 
book Fundamentals of Microcomputer 
Design. Contact Tl at the above address 
for information on data sheets and ap- 
plication notes. 

Iwo Motorola application notes, 
AN-843: "Using the MC68000 and the 
MC6845 for a Color Graphics System" 
and AN-851: "Motorola MC6845 CRTC 
Simplifies Video Display Controllers' 
(available from Motorola Semiconductor 
Products Inc., POB 20912, Phoenix, AZ 
85036), provide design details for a 
graphics-display system. Other video- 
display-controller chips are made by 
Texas Instruments and several other 
semiconductor manufacturers. (See my 
article "High-Resolution Sprite-Oriented 
Color Graphics" in the August 1982 
BYTE.) 

Test equipment can be obtained from 
a number of advertisers in BYTE. You will 
need at least a digital multimeter, a 
digital-signal generator;, and a good os- 
cilloscope to start.— Steve 

What Means Compatible? 

Dear Steve, 

Would you please explain the term 
'IBM-compatible"? IBM clones are sprout- 

[continued] 



52 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 165 




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library (creates modules less than 3K In size), the fast 
linker for reduced development times, the ROM library, 
RMAC and M80 support, library source, support for 
DRl's SID/ZSID symbolic debugger, and more. 

AZTEC C ll/PRO $349 

AZTEC Cil/BAS $199 

C-TREE Database with source $399 

C-TREE Database In AZTEC object form $149 



AZTEC C80 

— for TRSDOS (Radio Shack Model III & 4) 

"I've had a lot of experience with different C compilers, 
but the Aztec C80 Compiler and Professional Develop- 
ment System is the best I've seen." 80-Mlcro, Decem- 
ber, 1984, John B. Harrell III 

This sytem has most of the features of AZTEC C II for 
CP/M. It Is perhaps the best software development 
system for the Radio Shack Model III and IV. 

AZTEC C80 model 3 (no floating point) $149 

AZTEC C80 model 4 (full) $199 

AZTEC C80/PRO (full for model 3 and 4) $299 

To order or for information call: 



.11 



1-221-0440 

(201) 530-7997 (NJ and outside U.S.A.). Or write: MANX 
SOFTWARE SYSTEMS, P.O. Box 55. Shrewsbury, N.J! 
07701. 



MANX 

TRS 80 RADIO SHACK TRS DOS is a trademark of TANDY. 
APPLE DOS MACINTOSH is a trademark of APPLE. 




SHIPPING INFORMATION - Standard U.S. 
shipment Is UPS ground (no fee). In the U.S. 
one day shipment is $20, two days is $10. 
Canadian shipment Is $10. Two days ship- 
ment outside the U.S. is by courier and is 
freight collect. 



For Technical Support 
(Bug Busters) call: 201-530-6557 



Inquiry 252 



MAY i 985 • BYTE 53 



Inquiry 150 




A FULL C 

COMPILER 

FOR 



$4995 



The Ecosoft Eco-C88 compiler for the 8088 and MSDOS i s going 1 set a new 
standard for price and performance. Consider the evidence: 



Compiler 


Eco-C88 


Mceil) 


mm 


Seive 


13 


: n 


■ 13 


Fib 


44 


MMmm: 


46 


Deref 


13 


mm 


: : :: : - ~ 


Matrix : ■ 


21 


29 • 


m mm 


Price 


M9.95 


*5Daoa , 


'395.00 



(1) Computer Language, Feb., 1985, pp.73-102. Reprinted by permission. 
The Eco-C88 compiler is a full K&R C compiler that supports all data types and 
operators (except bit fields). Now look at the other features we offer: 

• 8087 co-processor support using a single library. If you install an 8087 
later, the software will use it without having to recompile. 

• A robust standard library with over 150 functions, including trans- 
cendental color, and others. 

• OBJ output for linking with the MSDOS linker (LINK). 

• Error messages in English - no cryptic numbers to look up. A real plus 
especially if you're just getting started with C. 

• Easy-to-read and complete user's manual. 

• Works with all IBM and compatibles running MSDOS 2.0 (or later). 

• Plus many other features. 

For $10.00 more, we will include the source code for the C library functions 
(excluding transcendentals). For an additional $15.00, we will include our 
ISAM file handler in OBJ format (as published in the C Programmer's 
Library, Que Publishing). The discount prices for the library source and ISAM 
only apply at the time the compiler is purchased. Please add $4.00 to cover 
postage and handling. To order, call or write: 

Ecosoft Inc. 

6413 N. College Avenue 
Indianapolis, IN 46220 
(317) 255-6476 



(Ecosoft), MSDOS (Microsoft), UNIX (Bell Labi), CP/M (Oigitol Research), Z80 (Slog), 8086, 8087, 8088 (Intel). 




* WithT^, define and 
use up to 1024 characters' 
in a single document. 



With T^ complex expressions 

appear on the screen as they will be printed. 

You enter them in a simple, direct manner which 

won t inteilere with your tiain of thought. 

You can compose scientific manuscripts directly at the keyboard. 

THE SCIENTIFIC WORD PROCESSING 
SYSTEM THAT'S EASY TO USE! 



WithT 3 , format text directly 
on the scieen. with line spacing, 
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ASK BYTE 



ing up like weeds, and every manufacturer 
claims that his product is IBM-compatible. 
Some, though, qualify this statement and 
state that it does not run all the IBM soft- 
ware. Even you designed a 1 6-bit machine, 
and you also claim that it is IBM- 
compatible. 

There is a considerable price difference 
between the real IBM and the clones, and 
I am contemplating whether I should go 
IBM or compatible. 

Harry Riesbeck 
Nepean, Ontario, Canada 

IBM compatibility is indeed an often 
misused term. In a general sense, any 
computer that can run Lotus 1-2-3 and 
Microsoft's Flight Simulator is said to be 
"IBM-compatible," since these programs 
make extensive use of keyboard, mem- 
ory, and graphics features. Any machine 
capable of running MS-DOS is con- 
sidered compatible, since MS-DOS and 
PC-DOS are compatible. However, to be 
100 percent compatible, the ROM BIOS 
(read-only memory basic input/output 
system) routines must be identical. Since 
these routines, which oversee the opera- 
tion of the hardware, are copyrighted by 
IBM, the only legal way to get them is to 
license them or develop them indepen- 
dently. 

Many computers are bus-compatible 
with the IBM PC and will handle most of 
the accessory boards now on the market. 
Others have some minor quirks in the 
graphics routines, keyboard control func- 
tions, and use of interrupts. 

Some PC clones on the market are 100 
percent compatible with the IBM PC and 
they do represent a better value. Check 
product reviews in the major computer 
magazines— Steve ■ 



IN ASK BYTE, Steve Garcia answers questions 
on any area of microcomputing. The most rep- 
resentative questions received each month will be 
answered and published. Do you have a nag- 
ging problem? Send your inquiry to 

Ask BYTE 

do Steve Garcia 

POB 582 

Glastonbury. CT 06033 
Due to the high volume of inquiries, personal 
replies cannot be given. All letters and photo- 
graphs become the property of Steve Garcia and 
cannot be returned. Be sure to include "Ask 
BYTE" in the address. 

The Ask BYTE staff includes manager Harv 
Weiner and researchers Bill Curlew. Larry 
Bregoli, Dick Sawyer. Robert Stek, and lean- 
nette Dojan. 



54 BYTE* MAY 1985 



Inquiry 392 




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CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS 



• BBS FOR MEMBERS 

Uploading and downloading 
are features of the 300-bps 
BBS called ABACUS-COM, 
operating 24 hours, 7 days a 
week at (805) 871-2725. It is 
for members of A 
Bakersfield Area Com- 
modore User Society 
(ABACUS). The group meets 
on the second Wednesday 
of every month in Bakers- 
field. California. Contact 
Gene Smith. ABACUS. 2316 
Sandy Lane. Bakersfield, CA 
93306. 

• FARMER'S CHOICE 

Descriptions of agricultural 
software packages, elec- 
tronic information services, 
and university contact infor- 
mation for farmers is avail- 
able in a capsule form in 
the newsletter Agricultural 
Computing. Contact Doane 
Publishing. 11701 Borman 
Dr.. St. Louis. MO 63146. 
(314) 569-2700. 

• TECHNICAL SCHOLASTICS 

An independent newsletter 
from a nonprofit organiza- 
tion about educational com- 
puting. Academically Speak- 
ing ... is produced bi- 
monthly for the benefit of 
computerists, teachers, and 
manufacturers. Contributions 
concerning hardware and 
software developments that 
affect curriculum and ad- 
ministration in postsecond- 
ary education are welcome. 
Contact William Buchholz, 
Academically Speaking .... 
Scholastech Inc.. POB 1545. 
Cambridge. MA 02238. 

• A HUNDREDFOLD 

A newsletter for the TRS-80 
Mode/ 100, Century, contains 
hardware and software news 
and reviews, programs, and 
information that is also ap- 



plicable to the NEC and 
Olivetti computers. It is 
published eight times a 
year; a subscription is $3 5. 
Contact Century. Peregrine 
International, Suite P-22 5, 
323 South Franklin, Chicago, 
L 60606-7095. 

• ENGINEERS REVIEW 

Engineering Software Exchange 
(ESE) is a monthly newslet- 
ter that promotes high stan- 
dards in engineering-applica- 
tions software. Reviewers 
critique programs based on 
the quality of documenta- 
tion, degree of user-friendli- 
ness, interactive features, 
and the completeness of the 
software. A subscription is 
$60 annually. Contact Lidia 
LoPinto. CAE Consultants 
Inc.. 41. leavers Ave., Yonkers, 
NY 10705. 

• A. WELCOMING 
ASSEMBLY-The Milwaukee 
Area IBM Personal Com- 
puter Users Group meets at 
7 p.m. twice a month. 
Members who use IBM PC 
and compatible computers 
can benefit from product 
demonstrations, instructional 
sessions, a monthly newslet- 
ter, and access to a library 
of public-domain software. 
Contact the IBM PC Users 
Group. POB 2121, Mil- 
waukee. WI 53203-2121. 
(414) 679-9075. 

• COMPUTERS FOR 
HOOSIERS-The BBS of the 
Hoosier Users Group (HUG) 
is on line 24 hours a day at 
(317) 63 1-994 A to serve 



users of the Texas Instru- 
ments 99/4A computer. The 
monthly newsletter, which is 
exchanged with other users 
groups, supplements 
monthly meetings. The 
group sponsors classes in 
BASIC and Extended BASIC. 
Special-interest groups and 
a library of public-domain 
software meet members' 
specific needs. Contact 
HUG, POB 2222, In- 
dianapolis. IN 46206-2222. 

• TELEWORKS 

The Telecommuting Report, 
a monthly newsletter pub- 
lished by Electronic Services 
Unlimited, tracks develop- 
ments in the field of 
location-independent work. 
Because corporations are 
presently running pilot pro- 
grams and researching the 
use of computers in homes 
or at satellite offices, reports 
of their results can aid small 
businesses as well as manu- 
facturers. A subscription is 
$145. Contact Electronic Ser- 
vices Unlimited. 142 West 
24th St.. New York. NY 
10011. (212) 206-8272. 

• MAC STREET JOURNAL 

The newsmagazine of the 
New York MacUsers' Group. 
The Mac Street journal, is 
published monthly by and 
for the benefit of Mac users. 
Articles, reviews, and 
graphics are included as 
well as an order form for 
public-domain software and 
members' evaluations of 
software. Monthly meetings 
feature lectures, demonstra- 



CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS is a forum for letting BYTE readers know what 
is happening in the microcomputing community. Emphasis is given to elec- 
tronic bulletin-board services, club-sponsored classes, community-help projects, 
and other activities. We will continue to list new clubs and newsletters. Allow 
at least four months for your club's mention to appear. Send information 
to BYTE. Clubs & Newsletters, POB 372, Hancock. NH 03449. 



tions. and special-interest 
group discussions. A bulletin 
board is maintained. Annual 
dues are $32. Contact New 
York MacUsers' Group. POB 
6686. Yorkville Station, New 
York. NY 10128. 

• BUG PREMIERS 

The First Basis Users Group 
(1st BUG) meets on line and 
in New York City every 
month. Members maintain a 
BBS and produce a monthly 
newsletter and a semiannual 
directory of users of Basis 
108. a 6502/Z80-based 
microcomputer. Contact 
John Flory 1st BUG, 4 Tower 
Lane. Morristown. NI 07960. 

• FOR AGRICULTURALISTS 

Farmers and agri-business- 
people who use computers 
in their operations can share 
ideas and public-domain 
software via a monthly 
newsletter called The Com- 
puter Farmer. Contact Kelly 
Klaas. Route I, Box 4133. 
Twin Falls. ID 83 301. (208) 
733-4251. 

• INDEPENDENT 
EXPANSION-The Phoenix 
Chapter of the Independent 
Computer Consultants 
Association (ICCA) meets 
the second Tuesday of the 
month at 6 p.m. in Phoenix. 
Arizona. A newsletter is pro- 
duced monthly; annual 
subscriptions are $10. ICCA 
is a nonprofit club for com- 
puter consultants and con- 
tract programmmers. Con- 
tact Mike Diross. ICCA. 
Phoenix Chapter. POB 
32115, Phoenix. AZ 85064. 
(602) 892-3270. 

'• THE PUBLIC'S DOMAIN 
A newsletter covering public- 
domain and user-supported 
[continued) 



58 BYTE- MAY 1985 



PERSONALITY 
PROBLEM? 

UNIX™ and DOS™ At the Same Time! 




Looking at an IBM PC/AT? Happy with DOS but want 
UNIX? Happy with UNIX but want DOS? Want them 
working together? 

Get The Connector!™ 

The Connector is a revolutionary product that allows 
DOS applications to run on the IBM PC/AT or XT 
under VENIX/86 ( the first licensed AT&T UNIX 
operating system for the IBM PCs) or PC/IX. That 
means you can add one or more terminals to your AT 
which run programs using multi-user VENIX/86 to 
share the disk and printer. Switch between UNIX and 
DOS at the console with a single command. And run 
more than one task simultaneously. Like running a 
spelling check in the background while you print a 
report and run Lotus 1-2-3™ or dBasel!™ 

Get yourself an AT and load it with VENIX. Collect 
your DOS and/or UNIX applications. We'll supply The 
Connector. The right solution to your software per- 
sonality problems. 

Call for complete details . 

Unisource Software Corp., Department 4 109, 
71 Bent Street, Cambridge, MA 02141. 
Telex 92-1401/COMPUMART CAM. 

617-491-1264 



Also 

available 
on the 
PC/XT and 
compatibles. 



• 1 1NIX is a iradcmarkof AT&T Technologies. Inc. DOS is a trademark of Microsof c. Inc. PC/AT and PC/XT arc trademarks of IBM. The Connector is a trademark 
of Uniform Software Sjstfms. Inc. Vl!NlX/86 implementationby VeMurCom. Inc. 1-2-3 and LOTUS art: trademarks of Lotus Development Corp, dBasel! Is a 
trademark of Ashion-Tarr. 




Getting UNIX Software 
Down to Business 



Inquiry 403 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 59 



Inquiry 430 for Dealers. Inquiry 431 for End-Users. 



TgNiTH I data 

I systems 

THE QUALITY GOES IN BEFORE THE NAME GOES ON 

PROFIT FROM ZENITH DATA SYSTEMS Z-150 PC 
DESKTOP OR Z-160 PC PORTABLE IBM COMPATIBLES! 

OWN TOTAL PERFORMANCE 

USE ZENITH'S PERSONAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS! 



■ 4 Open Expansion Slots ■ Full Color*, 
Green*, or Amber Video ■ Clearly 
Labeled, Easy-to-Use Keyboard ■ 
Excellent Price/Performance Ratio ■ 
Zenith Total Service, Technical and 
Training Support 

♦Z-150 PC ONLY • MONITOR NOT INCLUDED 



ZENITH DATA SYSTEMS Z-150 
PC DESKTOP SYSTEM 

W/ 2 DRVS, 320K RAM, 2P, S, CCB, 

RAM-DISK & PRT SPOOLER, MS-DOS, 

MS-WORD*, MS-MULTIPLAN* S/W $1,929 

SAME AS ABOVE W/ 576K RAM $2,058 

WITH 320K, 1 FLPY, 10.6Mb H.D. $2,669 ,_, 

WITH 576K, 1 FLPY, 10.6Mb H.D. $2,798 ^^"p^RTAbIe Jy"tEM 

*WHILE SPECIAL OFFER LASTS! SAME AS Z150PC W/ 2 DRVS. 

320K RAM, S, P, MS-DOS, WORD*, 
AND MULTI-PLAN* SOFTWARE $2,239 
SAME AS ABOVE W/ 10.6Mb H.D. $2,849 
^P=9ff£ff£ *WHILE SPECIAL OFFER LASTS! 

~-~-~- SEE PAGE 5oi 

FOR OTHER PRODUCTS 





(S00) 52S-313S 




Major Brands • Low Prices 

Call ALF first 

1-800-321-4668 



If you need 50 or more top quality disks, bulk-packed (without 
expensive labels or fancy packaging), call the toll-free number 
above for the latest price on your favorite brand. ALF copies 
thousands of disks each day — so we know which disks will 
perform best with your system! Inside Colorado call 234-0871. 

ALF 



ALF Products • Denver, CO 



CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS 



software for the IBM PC is 
devoted entirely to new 
disksftheir reviews, and 
questions and answers con- 
cerning their exchange. PC- 
SIG News is produced by the 
PC Software Interest Group, 
which has also published 
Directory of Public Domain (and 
User-Supported) Software for the 
IBM Personal Computer. Con- 
tact the PC Software Interest 
Group. Suite 130, 1556 
Halford Ave., Santa Clara, 
CA 95051. 

• LOGO FOR THE 
TEACHER— Uicroquests. a 
monthly publication 
available from September 
through May for teachers of 
Logo, contains mathematical, 
scientific, and linguistic 
problems for children to 
solve. A subscription is $2 5 
a year. Contact Martin- 
Bearden Inc., POB 337, 
Grapevine, TX 76051. 

• MEDICS ON LINE 

The Atlanta Medical Forum 
is available at (404) 351- 
9757 every hour of the day 
at 300 and 1200 bps. It is a 
user-supported private BBS 
for people interested in 
areas of health care that in- 
volve computers. The Bread 
Board System software 
allows message exchange 
and file transfer. A $15 an- 
nual donation is requested. 
Contact Dr. Floyd Garrett, , 
Suite 424, 315 Boulevard 
NE, Atlanta, GA 30312. 

• LONE TEXAN EAGLE 
The East Texas Eagle Users 
meet the second Thursday 
of every month. Interested 
persons can contact R. j. 
Dodson, 1809 Bell, Long- 
view, TX 75602, (214) 
758-2994. 

• A NEW ADDITION 
The Adam Users Group 
(AUG), though independent, 
benefits from Coleco's input 
on new products in the bi- 
monthly newsletter, AUG- 
ment. The international group 
has scheduled an AUG BBS 



for telecommunications 
linkups using the Adam. A 
public-domain library is 
available to members. An- 
nual dues are $12,. Contact 
AUG. POB P. Lyhbrook. NY 
11563. 



• GROUP FOR THE 
VALLEY-The Los Angeles 
area Valley PC Users Group 
meets on the second Thurs- 
day of each month in North 
Hollywood. It is a forum for 
sharing information among 
users of IBM PCs and com- 
patible computers and pro- 
vides a public-domain soft- 
ware library. Contact Carlo 
di Giovanni, 6161 Whitsett, 
North Hollywood, CA 91606. 
(818) 762-7566. or Robin 
Kaplan. The Information 
Group. 3414 Troy Dr.. Los 
Angeles. CA 90068. (213) 
851-2480. 

• M1NDSETTERS 

The First Mindset Users 
Group welcomes members 
across the nation who share 
an interest in this MS-DOS 
micro with advanced graph- 
ics capabilities. Send an 
SASE to receive a sample 
newsletter. An annual sub- 
scription costs $15. Local 
members meet in the Bay 
Area on the second Monday 
of each month. Contact 
David Duberman. 3 55 15th 
Ave. #5, San Francisco, CA 
94118. (415) 668-8352. 

• ATTENTION CANADIANS 
RAM (Regroupement des 
Amateurs de Micro- 
ordinateurs) contains five 
user subgroups for the IBM. 
Apple, TRS-80 Color Com- 
puter, Commodore 64, and 
CP/M-based computers. 
General and subgroup 
meetings are held each 
month. A BBS is maintained, 
and a newsletter written in 
French, Organigramme. is pro- 
duced bimonthly. A public- 
domain and freeware library 
exists for each subgroup. 
Contact Ronald Leger, RAM, 
POB 21, St. lean, Quebec 
J3B 6Z1, Canada. ■ 



60 BYTE • MAY 1985 



YOUR DAYS OF 
BUYING TERMINALS 
ARE OVER! 

Now there's SmarTerm terminal 
emulation software for your IBM* 
PC, XT, AT or compatible system. 
All SmarTerm products offer com- 
prehensive and exact terminal 
emulation, powerful ASCII and 
binary file transfer facilities, and 
include TTY mode to link you to 
The Source, CompuServe, Dow 
Jones, Easylink, Tymnet or other 
popular services. We've included 
features such as multiple setup 
configurations, XMODEM and 

PDIP* protocol sup- 
port, "smart" soft- 
keys, plus European 
DOS support. 



NEW SmarTerm 220 supports 
A-to-Z and other software requiring 
DEC* VT220 terminals. It 
includes the full capabilities of 
SmarTerm 100: DEC VT102, 
VT100, and VT52 emulation. If 
you need VT125 ReGIS graphics 
support, choose SmarTerm 125. 
For Data General Dasher* D100, 
D200, or D400 emulation you 
need SmarTerm 400. 

Don't "scurry" around buying 
more obsolete terminals. Join 
the 20,000 users that have 
chosen SmarTerm. Try it 
for 30 days, with full 
refund privileges. 

Persoft, Inc. - Madison, Wl 
(608) 273-6000 - TELEX 759491 



AFTER 

SMARTERM, WHAT 
YOU DO WITH YOUR 





IDEA CREDIT: Anne Hiilebrand of Ada, Oklahoma. See your name in print! The best ideas for uses of obsolete 

terminals replaced by SmarTerm will be used in future ads. Write Persoft, Dept. GERBIL, 2740 Ski Lane, Madison, Wl 53713. 



•SMARTERM and PDIP are trademarks of Person, Inc " J8M ts a registered trademark o' 
International Business Machines Corp * DEC. VT and ReGIS arc trademarks of Digital 
Equipment Corp ' DASHER is a registered trademark o( Data General Corp 



ft Person. Inc 1985. All rights reserved. 



perso/r 



Inquiry 319 





SPEAK SOFTLY AND CARRY A BIG SCHTICK. 

To lead an audience to your conclusions, you need more than strong words. You've got to show them 
your line of reasoning, and help them follow it. 

You do that with strong, clear graphics. The kind you get from just one graphics package. 
Graphwriter. It's built to allow you to speak softly, whileyou hammer your message home. 

Point by point. 

It's got more easy-to-use, ea^y-to-customize charts than Lotus 1-2-3* or any other software on the 
market. And with Graphwriter, you can turn out your first chart in 15 minutes. 

So, before your next presentation, get your hands on Graphwriter. Speak softly to the people at 
your local computer store. Or call 617-890-8778. 



FORMATS 

text/word 
vertical column 
stacked column 
clustered column 
horizontal bar 
stacked bar 
clustered bar 
pies (1-4) 
proportional pies 




scatter plots 

bar-line combination 

Gantt 

organization 

bubble 

table 

pie-bar combination 

surface line 

stacked line 

line-table 

double stacked bars 

range 

paired bars 

3D horizontal bar 

FLEXIBILITY 

text justification 

variable font sizes 

variable font colors 

22 font styles 

adjustable bar widths 

pie rotation/placement 



unequal line lengths 
8 line types 
5 frame options 
8 fill patterns 
axes labels ($,%,x) 
log/semilog scaling 
multiple curve fits 
floating comments 
vertical page plotting 
multiple plots per page 
EASY-TO-USE 
pre-designed formats 
chartbook 
input forms 
1-2-3® D IF® access 



on-screen help messages 
chart preview 
'built-in artist" 
batch processing 
chart/template storage 
OUTPUT OPTIONS 
paper 

transparency 
35mm slides 
Polaroid Palette'" 
Matrix PCR™ 
COMPUTERS 
IBMPC.XTandAT® 



Graphwriter with the Polaroid Palette 

gives you slides in minutes. Even last minutes. 



Tandy 2000® 
HP 150® 
NECAPC® 
Burroughs ET2000® 
Fortune Systems® 
Wang Office Assistant® 




Graphwriter 

THE ART OF PERSUASION; 

Inquiry 179 






Graphic Communications Inc. 

Waltham, Massachusetts 02254 
(617)890-8778 



EVEREX 
EVER FOR EXCELLENCE 







LOTUS 1-2-3 132 COLUMNS 




SYMPHONY HIGH RESOLUTION 




PC PAINTBRUSH 720x348 





16 COLORS, 320x200 



The Edge 




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EVEREX 
THE EDGE 


m 5 

a (d 

(Q X 


Paradise 
Modular 
Graphics 


Tecmar 

Graphics 

Master 


is 

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Hercules 

Graphics 

Card 


• IBM Monochrome Compatible, 720x348, High Resolution 


\S 




>s 


S 




is 


• Runs Lotus 1-2-3™ and Symphony™ In high resolution 
monochrome: 


is 




is 






is 


— 132 columnsx25 rows 


S 






is 






— 132 columnsx44 rows 


is 






S 






■ PC Paintbrush In monochrome 


is 




S 


is 




is 


• 16 shades of green on the IBM monochrome monitor 


is 


>s 










• Runs color software on the IBM monochrome monitor, 
full screen: 


is 


is 










— FlightSimulator 


is 


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BOOK REVIEWS 



THE APPLE 
MACINTOSH BOOK 
Cary Lu 

Microsoft Press 
Bellevue. WA: 1984 
383 pages, $18.95 

FIRE IN THE VALLEY: 
THE MAKING OF THE 
PERSONAL COMPUTER 
Paul Freiberger and 
Michael Swaine 
Osborne/McGraw-Hill 
Berkeley, CA: 1984 
288 pages, $9.95 

BENEATH 
APPLE PRODOS 
Don Worth and 
Pieter Lechner 
Quality Software 
Chatsworth, CA: 1984 
295 pages, $19.95 

PRODUCTIVE SOFTWARE 
TEST MANAGEMENT 
Michael W. Evans 
lohn Wiley & Sons 
New York: 1984 
232 pages, $32.95 




THE APPLE 
MACINTOSH BOOK 
Reviewed by Scott L. Norman 

Cary Lu, in writing The Apple Macintosh Book, did not fall 
into the trap of creating an extended version of the 
Macintosh manuals. Instead, he produced a book that 
should be of broad interest to present and prospective 
owners of the Mac. To a lesser extent, it may also appeal 
to people who are generally interested in the improve- 
ment of the personal computer. Although the depth of 
coverage is occasionally shallow, the book lives up to the 
author's intention: to anticipate major questions and to 
furnish the tools for finding solutions rather than attempt- 
ing to provide up-to-the-minute information on all rele- 
vant topics. 



Because Lu's book was 
one of several commis- 
sioned by Microsoft Press 
while the Macintosh was 
still under development, it 
emphasizes the initial 
Microsoft programs: Mac- 
Write, MacPaint, Multiplan, 
and Chart. 

The book shares another, 
and more pleasing, charac- 
teristic with its competitors: 
the heavy use of graphics, 
in keeping with the com- 
puter's own style. The text 
is confined to half the width 
of a page, leaving plenty of 
room for screen printouts, 
sketches, and other margin- 
alia. These are generally 
helpful, especially to peo- 
ple with little exposure to 
the Mac. 

The Apple Macintosh Book is 
divided into four sections. 
T\vo chapters cover the 
philosophy of the visual in- 
terface, some of the strong 
points and limitations of the 
Mac, and the process of 
setting up the machine. 
Nine chapters emphasize 
basic machine operations. 
The chapter "Fundamental Operations" is where Lu in- 
troduces the Mac desktop and the use of the mouse to 
manipulate windows and icons. It's well done, with plenty 
of illustrations of screens and menus and a liberal use of 
color to distinguish instructions to the user from a run- 
ning commentary on what is happening. 

Dealing with Disks 

In the I Ith chapter, Lu describes the details of dealing with 
disks: initializing and erasing, copying, moving, renaming - 
files, and so on. Although he is careful to describe how 
to go about things with a single-drive system, Lu empha- 
sizes that two drives are almost mandatory for serious 
work. I think he's right, and prospective purchasers of the 

[continued) 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



Mac would do well to keep this in mind. 

Lu dispenses reasonable advice on how to distribute sys- 
tem files, application programs, and data files among disks. 
The goal, as all Mac users soon learn, is to maximize 
usable storage space while minimizing the amount of time 
spent preparing disks for use. The trick is in learning which 
files must go where. 

The chapter on disk handling closes with a discussion 
of how information can be moved between programs by 
means of the Mac's Clipboard and Scrapbook files. This 
discussion is pretty brief, however; at its conclusion the 
author advises interested readers to jump ahead to the 
20th chapter, "Macintosh Software Issues." This interesting 
section describes a bit of the philosophy behind the 
design of operating systems and user interfaces and then 
gets into how Mac application programs store and ex- 
change data. 

Lu also briefly discusses the use of alternative operating 
systems to alleviate the Mac software shortage— a rather 
desperate measure at the moment. It seems unlikely that 
the people for whom the book is primarily intended would 
have much interest in pursuing this topic right away. 

The ability to direct files with the mouse, Clipboard, and 
other tools is one of the Mac's most appealing features, 
and the consistency of the machine's operation certainly 
encourages users to move data from one application to 
another. Lu does a good job of describing the three forms 
in which the Clipboard and Scrapbook can store informa- 
tion: formatted data files, ASCII (American Standard Code 
for Information Interchange) text files, and picture files for 
the QuickDraw routine in ROM (read-only memory). He 
goes on to discuss some of the limitations on data shar- 
ing and editing that are likely to arise. 

Readers seeking a more general idea of what the Mac 
is all about should read the chapter on MacPaint. The 
author devotes subsequent chapters to specific types of 
software: word processors, spreadsheets, business graph- 
ics, and so on. This applications material is followed by 
14 brief chapters on how things work. This is where you 
will find the material on software issues that I have already 
described. Lu provides some details about the video dis- 
play, keyboard, mouse, and I/O (input/output) ports, and 
he offers advice about printers and modems. 

In three rather philosophical chapters, Lu speculates 
about future Mac products and the future development 
of microcomputers. He provides a comparison of the Mac 
and the IBM Personal Computer that will make few con- 
verts. This section is uneven. The chapters on the screen, 
keyboard, and mouse contain little material that most 
readers would care to refer to more than once. The chapter 
on disks and drives has more substance, and the one on 
printers contains at least a suggestion of what is needed 
to use printers other than the lmagewriter. 

The final section consists of five chapters, containing 
material that didn't fit anywhere else. They are as much 
fun to read as anything in the book; the potpourri includes 

{continued) 



66 BYTE ■ MAY 1985 



Inquiry 84 
















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BOOK REVIEWS 



thoughts on graphics, illustrations of the basic Macintosh 
fonts along with the names of their closest standard equiv- 
alents, and hints on moving specific types of files back 
and forth to popular application programs running on 
other machines. A 1 5-page glossary wraps things up. 

Cary Lu, currently an editor at High Technology magazine, 
customarily takes a critical level-headed approach to com- 
puters in his magazine writings; he maintains that ap- 
proach in this book. It must have been difficult. The Macin- 
tosh is one of those high-tech objects that inspires high 
passions in its devotees and detractors, but Lu manages 
to keep things in perspective. 

Scott L. Norman (8 Don's Rd., Framingham, MA 01701) is depart- 
ment manager of solid-state science at GTE laboratories in Waltham, 
Massachusetts. 



FIRE IN THE VALLEY: 

THE MAKING OF THE PERSONAL COMPUTER 

Reviewed by Joel Pitt 

It's easy to forget that in the not-too-distant past the con- 
cept of a personal computer seemed fantastic. Fire in 
the Valley, by Paul Freiberger and Michael Swaine, is a 
history of the brief revolutionary period during which per- 
sonal computers became a reality. 

Changes in the direction of the computer revolution and 
in the image of the computer— from remote behemoth to 
tool of humanity— have been shaped by the personalities 
and motivations of the people who first dreamed of, and 
then built, personal computers. "The newborn industry," 
the authors write, was a movement of "hobbyists fully con- 
scious that they were bringing on a social, not just a tech- 
nological, revolution." 

Freiberger and Swaine have lived in the valley south of 
San Francisco and watched the industry grow from that 
vantage point. Both men served as editors at InfdNorld: 
Freiberger is now West Coast editor of Popular Computing: 
Swaine is editor in chief of Dr. Dobb's journal They don't 
ignore the contributions of hobbyists and professionals 
from other parts of the country, however, so their picture 
of the origin and development of the industry seems 
balanced and fair. 

The chapter entitled "Tinder for the Fire" is a brief, 
general history of the computer and the transistor tech- 
nology that permitted its miniaturization. The obligatory 
recitation of the evolution of the idea of the computer, 
starting with Charles Babbage's analytical engine, includes 
much that is old hat; however, the authors also discuss 
Intel's development of the first CPU (central processing 
unit) chip, the 4004, which is less well known. A brief ac- 
count of David Ahl's failed attempt to interest Digital 
Equipment Corporation in selling computers for personal 
use underlines the conflict between the individual vision 
that drove the personal computer movement and the cor- 
porate computer world that "passed up the chance to 



68 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 413 



Inquiry 50 



BOOK REVIEWS 



bring computers into the home and onto the desk." 

The birth and development of the MITS Altair computer 
is described in "The Voyage to Altair." We learn that the 
flashy cover photo on the January 1975 issue of Popular 
Electronics, which served to announce this first successful 
hobbyist computer kit to the world, was just a "photo of 
an empty metal box masquerading as a computer." The 
frantic race to bring the Altair into reality was a cliff-hanger. 
(What has come to be known as "vaporware— products 
announced well before they're available— has an ancient 
and honorable role in the history of the microcomputer 
movement.) Fortunately, MITS was able to fill those metal 
boxes quickly enough so that the revolution was not 
brought to a halt just as it was getting off the ground. 

But "The Voyage to Altair" is not only the story of the 
Altair computer. Many of the people who worked with the 
Altair went on to play major roles in the future of the per- 
sonal computer. Freiberger and Swaine let us learn about 
them as we follow the history of MITS. 

The next four chapters focus on the people, personali- 
ties, and est-inspired vision that drove IMSAI, the second 
major microcomputer manufacturer; the hobbyists and 
visionaries who flocked to and formed the Homebrew and 
other microcomputer clubs; the software developers who 
helped to make the microcomputer a usable tool; and the 
entrepreneurs who brought microcomputers and software 
to us in retail stores, computer shows, and magazines. We 
learn about the social vision that drove some people, the 
marketing vision that drove others, and the sense of 
discovery, play, and adventure that pervaded the move- 
ment. (The book is illustrated with 32 pages of photo- 
graphs that help to put flesh on the players mentioned.) 

The penultimate chapter, "American Pie," is devoted to 
Apple Computer and its founders, Steve Wozniak and 
Steve Jobs. And though the first six chapters of Fire in the 
Valley help refute Apple's occasional claim to have invented 
the personal computer, this chapter documents Apple's 
legitimate claim to a unique and critical role in bringing 
it to the people. The last chapter of the book, "Big Com- 
panies," covers the significant, though belated, entry of 
the major computer companies (which had passed up the 
opportunity to invent the personal computer) into the 
microcomputer business. 

The story that Freiberger and Swaine have attempted 
to recount is rich with the excitement of discovery, seren- 
dipity, accidental association, businesses made and lost, 
and remarkable people. Because it is contemporary 
history, the authors were able to draw much of their in- 
formation from interviews with many of the people in- 
volved. They have relied to a lesser degree on written 
sources. In the preface there's a long list of acknowledg- 
ments of the people they interviewed, but there is no 
bibliography 

Freiberger and Swaine's reliance on oral sources helps 
give their book a personal vitality; however, because of 
their dependence on interviews, the accuracy of their 

{continued) 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



historical material may be open to question. It's not sur- 
prising to find that the intensely creative people who 
shaped the personal computer movement often had their 
own ideas about how things should be done and about 
their own rights and responsibilities. There were, of course, 
many disputes and, not surprisingly, differing accounts of 
what happened and why. It seems that the authors have 
made every attempt to be fair. It's not at all unlikely 
however, that some of the many volatile personalities in- 
volved in the making of the microcomputer will take ex- 
ception to a statement here or a date there. 

Freiberger and Swaine have pulled together consider- 
able information for Fire in the Valley and given it a sense 
of human vitality. 

\oel Pitt (28 Cedar Ridge Rd., New Paltz. NY 12561) is a senior 
consultant with Woodbury Computer Associates and writes about 
microcomputer applications. 



BENEATH APPLE PRODOS 
Reviewed by Martin Kalman 



From June 1978 to early 1984, the primary disk oper- 
ating system (DOS) for the Apple 11 family was Apple 
DOS. Although early documentation was meager, this 
operating system was used to create the large body of 
software that has been an important factor in the popu- 
larity of these computers. Early in 1984, Apple Computer 
Inc. introduced a new operating system called ProDOS 
(Professional Disk Operating System) to rectify Apple 
DOS's shortcomings. 

As with their earlier book, Beneath Apple DOS, Don Worth 
and Pieter Lechner attempt to document an operating sys- 
tem, with a particular emphasis on those topics that have 
been omitted or covered superficially in the Apple 
manuals. In the beginning, the authors state that Beneath 
Apple ProDOS is intended to serve as a companion to the 
manuals provided by Apple. They go on to enumerate the 
deficiencies of Apple DOS and point out how ProDOS has 
addressed these and made improvements. 

The technical portion of the book begins with a chapter 
describing how data is stored on a floppy disk using the 
Apple 11 drive (or equivalent). The authors point out that 
this chapter should not be considered a prerequisite for 
understanding succeeding chapters. For this reason, I think 
it may have been more appropriate to place this chapter 
at the end of the book, perhaps as an appendix. The 
material, much of which is applicable to other Apple oper- 
ating systems (DOS, Pascal, CP/M), would be of interest 
only to the advanced programmer who wants to access 
the disk at the lowest levels. 

Hierarchy 

One of the most significant improvements provided by 
ProDOS is its hierarchically organized disk volume. In ad- 

[continued] 



Inquiry 127 



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IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines, Corp. 



THE MAINFRAME 



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Sales Pros answers a call, he's ready 
at his PC. 



Micro Mart's Ten Million Dollar 
Inventory is on-line with our IBM 
Mainframe, so answers are fast 
and accurate. 



With PC to Mainframe Inven- 
tory, this Micro Mart Salesman 
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price and makes the sale. 



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yESStR! yOU WANT 85 OF THEM? 
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OME MOMENT; PLEASE... 



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IN FOR YOU? THANK Y0U % StR\ 
WOULD YOU LIKE THEM TOMORROW? 



CANON Athena PC, Color 
or Monochrome Systems. AT 
INTRODUCTORY LOW PRICES 
LEADING EDGE Complete 

systems. FROM $1495 

THE COMPUTER SPECIAL OF THE 
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Networking/ 
Protocol Conversion 

SNA & BISYNC 3780, 5251 Mod 12 & 

Mod 11, 3274, 3278 

PC TURBO 186 by ORCHID, 80186 

coprocessor board $799 

IRMA Complete line. FROM $799 

FORTEGRAPH for IRMA, upgrades 

IRMA to 3279 S3G graphics 

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PC Net ORCHID'S, new 

complete line FROM $299 

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5251 Mod 12 & 3276 Emulators and 

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PClerminad. CALL 



Printers & Plotters 

We have thousands in stock. 
THE PRINTER SPECIAL OF THE MONTH! 

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HOUSTON INSTRUMENTS Plotters & Digitizers. 

Dot Matrix 

EPSON FXBOPlus/lOOPlus 

EPSON LX80/ 100 

EPSON LQ1500.. 



Hard Discs 



EPSON JX80, color printer 

COMREX 420. 400 cps. Epson compatible. $1798 

O KID ATA 92&93, ML84, (200 cps.), w/opt. D3M 

PROMS, Pacemark 2410(350 cps.) 

OKTDATA Color printers. Complete line 

CANON Color printers. Complete line. . 



Micro Mart carries all the major brands. If you 
don't see it— ask for it. 

PEACHTREE PERIPHERALS P-10, 20, 30 <S? SO, 
internal & external. Foryour PC, XT, AT, AT&T, 

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SYSGEN 10&20Megw/streamertape. 

NEW MODELS— CALL! 

SYSGEN Image 8e Quickfile, streamer tape back-up 
foryour IBM XT&AT CALL 



ADVANTAGE 128K-3Mb, expansion for AT. _ 

QUADRAM QUADBOARD, 64-384K. 

QUAD Jr. Expansion for PCjr. . 



CALL 
_$259 



TECMAR CAPTAIN, 0-384K multifunc $199 

TECMAR CAPTAIN Jr., Multifunction f or Jr 

TALLTREE J-RAMU, 0-512K, w/sof tware. 



BERNOULLI TECHNOLOGY Hard Disc 



TOSHIBA P-1351, 1340&P-3S1. _ $1295 / $799 / CALL 

DATAPRODUCTS P. Series 8050 Color Se 8070 

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TEXASINSTRUMENTS 855, 865&850XL. 
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Subsytems. . 



.FROM $2595 



DAVONG New line of hard discs. 21 & 32Mb w/tape. 
Start @ $2495 



Chips 



Letter Quality 



NEC Spinwriters2050, 3550, 8850. . 
JUKI 100/ 300 



_$ 419/ $749 



C-ITOH Sfcarwrifcer(40 cps), 
Printmaster, (55 cps). . 



.$899/ $1299 



COMREX CRHE, CRHI& CRW. 

We carry a full range of form handling options. 
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Floppy Disk Drives 



TANDON TM 100-2, DD/DS, 360K. . 



_$149 



1 / 2 HEIGHT DISK DRIVES: SHUGART, MITSU- 
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We guarantee the lowest price for chips! ! Call us! ! 
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256K RAMCHIPS CALL FOR MARKET PRICE 

128K PIGGY-BACK Chips for your AT. 
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Multifunction Boards 

We have a complete line of multifunction boards 
compatible with the Portable, AT, XT, & Jr. 
THE BOARD SPECIAL OF THE MONTH! 

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SIX PACK 64-384K, multifunc 

MEGAPLUS 64-512K, max. 8f unc. 

MPH RAMboards, for PC &PC compatibles. _ CALL 
I / MINNIE, I/O shortboard for Portable & AT. 



TALLTREE J-RAMUX, 0-512K, w/software. _$129 
STB RIO GRANDE Se GRANDE BYTE, 

Expansion for AT, 128K FROM $259 

LEGACY Complete line of expansion products for Jr. 

Graphic Cards 

PREVIEW Monochrome graphics. Hercules look- 
alike for less. CALL 

HERCULES Mono & color graphics cards 

PLANTRONICS ColorPlus -/-HiRes color board, par. 

port w/software New low price! 

TECMAR Graphics Master, HiRes color & mono sup- 
ports Lotus. $459 

QUADRAM Quadcolor I Sell, color cards. . 



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Software 

ASK ABOUT THE SOFTWARE SPECIAL OF 
THE MONTH! 



Accounting 



SORCIM / IUS Complete line including windows . 

FROM $279 / EA. 

CYMA Complete business series. 



MICRO MART HAS OVER 20 STORE LOCATIONS. CALL FOR THE ONE NEAREST YOU. 



(404)449-8089 

Prices are subject to change without notice and are similar, but may vary at Micro Mart Retail Stores. 



Service & Repairs 

• On-Site — We have hundreds of service locations nationally. 

• Depot— Our National Service Center is one of the fastest in 
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• We Have— A wide variety of services available. Please call us. 



72 BYTE* MAY 1985 



orders only 



EVENT. 1-800-341-8149. 



As the order is processed, 
each product is thoroughly tested 
before shipping. 



Micro to Mainframe Order 
Entry and Processing is fast. . .then 
we can ship by Federal Express for 
next day delivery. 



The result? Some very satisfied 
Micro Mart Customers! 



82,83,84.85! 
LET'S SHIP IT! 



TO BUTTE AND ZEPHYR 
WLLS t „ READ/ TOGO! 1 . 





GREAT JOB 
GETTING THAT PC 
STUFF, DOCTOR! 




HASTES Smartmodem 300, 
1200, 1200B&2400.The 
best stock in the U .S. _ CALL 

PROMETHEUS Modems 

ANCHOR AUTOMATION 

S gnalman Mk XR. $259 

VEN-TEL1200BAUD 1/2 Card 

for IBM Port. & XT. 

POPCOM Popcorn, int. & ext. 
w/voice and data comm 

Miscellaneous 

DYSAN DISKETTES, PC, XT, 
& AT compatible. GUARAN- 
TEED LOWEST PRICE IN 

THE U.S. CALL! 

MOUSE SYSTEMS PC 
Mouse, optical w/ 
software 



MICROSOFT MOUSEBus 
or serial mechanical 
mouse w/mouse menu 

software. 

KEYTRONICS 5150&5151. 
PC and Jr. Keyboards. _ 



Spreadsheets & 
Integrated Packages 

Call for our unadvertised spreadsheets! ! 
ASHTON-TATE Framework 



Graphics & CAD 



MICROSOITMu/tiPian, w/templates. _ 
MDBS Knowledge Man. . 



Micro Mart carries all the major CAD packages. 
Call if you d o n ' t see it. 

Zsofl PC Paint Brush, mouse driven graphics. _ $95 
DECISIONRESOURCES ChartMaster/ 
Sign -Master pkgs. . 



KENSINGTON MICROWARE 

MasterPiece. $119 

CURTIS Accessories. Pedestals, 

cables, etc 

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protectors FROM $35 

HAYES Mach n&Mach H7 Joysticks. 

QUADRAM Microfazer. Printer buffer 

8-128K. FROM $129 



SORCIM/IUS SuperCalc3, vers. 2.0. 
NEW LOW PRICE! 

Enhancements & Utilities 

POX & OELLER Complete line of enhancements for 

dBase n, m & Rbase 4000 

NORTON Utilities3.0. $69 

$89 
.$36 
.$55 
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trol pkgs. . 



MICROPRO ChartStar. . 
MICROSOFT Chart 



Communications 



MICROSTUT CROSSTALK XVI. Latest version. _ $99 
HAYES SMARTCOMLT. 



TREPPELITE Back-up power supply. 200-1000 

watts, and ISOBARsurge protectors, 4 & 8 plug 

RUTISHAUSER Sheet feeders for all major brands. _ 
POLAROID Palette. 

Monitors and CRT's 

PQS Maxl2, Amber, 720h x 350 v. Monochrome. 

PGS SR-12 690h x 480v, w/dual scan cd. 

PQS HX-12, 690 DotRGB 



Word Processors 



QUADRAM Quadchrome, 690 DotRGB. 



ROSESOFT ProKey 3. 0. 

CENTRAL POINT SOFTWARE Copy UPC. _ 
ATI Training. . 



SIDEWAYS Inverts printout. . 
BORLAND Sidekick. 



.$45 



MULTEMATE w/Spelling checker & tutorial. _ $259 

SAMNA+ word processor. 

MICROSOFT Word. New version 

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SSI WordPerfect. New version. 



QUADRAM Amberchrome. Amber mono. 
AMDEK Color 300, 500, 600, 700, 710, 722. Com- 
plete line of color monitors , 



$429 
$159 



.$169 



LIVING VIDEO TEXT Think Tank.. 



_$125 



Compilers & Language Tools 



.$299 



LATTICE C-Compilers. 

MICROSOFT Complete line 

WORDTECH The dBase compiler. 

DIGITAL RESEARCH Complete line 

BORLAND Turbo Pascal, Turbo Toolbox and more. 
FROM $35 / E A. 



Office & Project Planning 

HARVARD Ibtal Project Manager. 

SORCIM / IUS Super Project 

MICROSOFT Project. 



.$299 



Data Base Managers 

Calif or our unadvertised Data Bases. 
MICRORTM 4000ov 6000, Report Writerte Clout 

options. New lowprice! 

WARNER SOFTWARE The desk organizer $145 

ASHTON-TATE dBase II Se m. AT compatible. 

MICROSTUT Infoscope 



AMDEK 300A/300G Composite mon. $129 / $119 

AMDEK 310 A, Amber w/2 yr. warranty. . In Stock!! 
WYSE Terminals, 100, 75, 50. Entire line in stock. _ 
TAXAN RGB Color Monitors. Complete line at 
low, low prices. CALL! 



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Technology Corporate Campus 
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IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 



Inquiry 265 



MAY I985 'BYTE 73 



o 



COMPUTERBANC 



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SYSTEMS 

IBM PC 

256K. Two 360KB Disk Drives, Color 
Graphics or Monochrome Graphics board, 
Parallel Printer Port, Monochrome Display 
(Amber/Green), DOS 2.1. 
LIST PRICE S2950.00 - ONLY S2095.00 

SUPER XT 10 Meg Upgrade 52795.00 

IBM AT 5% OFF 



IBM SOFTWARE 



LOTUS 1-2-3 



S289.00 

LOTUS Symphony 425.00 

MICROPRO Wordstar 249.00 

ASCII Express For IBM 125.00 

Wordstar Professional 359.00 

Infostar 249.00 

Multimate 269.00 

MICROSOFT Word 229.00 

PC Mouse W/Software 139.00 

Multiplan 139.00 

Project 159.00 

ASHTONTATE Friday 179.00 

dBASEII 280.00 

dBASE III 369.00 

Framework 359.00 

LIFETREE SOFTWARE Volkswriter . . . 119.00 

Volkswriter Deluxe 169.00 

FOX & GELLER Quickcode 139.00 

dUtil 59.00 

dGraph 149.00 

MICR0RIM Rbase:4000. 295.00 

PFS Write 89.00 

File.... 89.00 

Report 89.00 

Proof 79.00 

Access 79.00 

ENERGRAPHICS 269.00 

IBM HARDWARE 

AST Six Pack Plus 64K 259.00 

MegaPlus II 269.00 

PC Net 1 Starter Kit 830.00 

0UA0RAM Quadboard O-K 219.00 

Ouadcolor 1 or Microfazer 64K 205.00 

Quad for PC Jr CALL 

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10MB Winchester 679.00 

FRANKLIN TELECOM 

10 Meg Harddisk 699.00 

22 Meg Harddisk CALL 

Cartridge backup CALL 

HERCULES Mono Graphics 316.00 

Color Card 159.00 

ORCHID Turbo CALL 

PC Net Starter Kit CALL 

PLANTROMICS Colorplus 389.00 

STB Rio plus 64K 245.00 

Super Rio 255.00 

Graphix+ll NEW 245.00 

AT Hardware CALL 

TEAC55B 119.00 

55F 169.00 

TANDONTM 100-2 179.00 

IBM Floppy 1.2 Meg CALL 

TALL GRASS 12MB W/Tape 2395.00 

IRWIN Tape Drive 539.00 

MOUSE SYSTEMS Optical Mouse. . . , 169.00 
ALSO -PERSYST, ORCHID, 
TITAN AND OTHERS 

PRINTERS 

BROTHER HR-15..... 369.00 

HR-25 619.00 

HR-35 859.00 

2024LQ 915.00 

JUKI 6100 429.00 



NEC 2030 ...659.00 

2050 799.00 

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STAR MICRONICS Gemini 10X 259.00 

Gemini 15X 389.00 

EPSON RX-80F/T 329.00 

FX-80 + 389.00 

FX-100 + 595.00 

LQ1500 1299.00 

0KI0ATA92A 389.00 

93A 649.00 

PANASONIC 1091 CALL 

TOSHIBA 1350-P ., 1299.00 

MONITORS 

AM0EX300 129.00 

300A 145.00 

310A 169.00 

Color I + 269.00 

Color II 459.00 

TAXAN Composite Amber 119.00 

121/122 149.00 

420 (RGB) 439.00 

415 (RGB) 489.00 

PRINCETON GRAPHICS HX-12 469.00 

SR-12 625.00 

MAX-12 189.00 

ZENITH ZVM-122 Amber 95.00 

ZVM-123 Green 95.00 

NEC 1201 Hi Res Green 115.00 

1205 Hi Res Amber 115.00 

1260 Green... 79.00 

JC1215 Composite Color w/audio . . . 215.00 
JC1216 Color RGB 329.00 

MODEMS 

HAYES 1200 395.00 

1200B 349.00 

300 195.00 

Micromodem //e 219.00 

ANCHOR MarkX 109.00 

Mark XII 239.00 

Volksmodem 1200 199.00 

NOVATION Smart Cat Plus CALL 

Access 1-2-3 419.00 

Apple Cat II 239.00 

PROMETHEUS Promodem 1200 308.00 



APPLE PRODUCTS 

MICRO SCI A2 drives //e 179.00 

//c Drive 199.00 

TEAC drive 149.00 

APPLE Compatible drive 145.00 

WESPER Interface 69.00 

BUFFERED 16K 139.00 

SYSTEMS SAVER Fan 69.00 

MICROSOFT Premium //e 279.00 

SoftcardCP/M 229.00 

Multiplan 129.00 

MAC Multiple (Macintosh) 129.00 

Basic (Macintosh) 109.00 

APRICORN Serial Card 69.00 

TITAN Accelerator 239.00 

ASCIII Express Professional 89.00 

DISKETTE S/S or D/S Box 10 .12.00/19.00 

KOALA Touch Tablet 79.00 

HAYES Mach III Joystick 39.00 

MAC Software CALL 

APPLEMOUSEII 129.00 

VIDEX Ultraterm 179.00 

80 C0LUMN/64K Interface // e only . . 99.00 
APPLEWORKS 215.00 



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TELEX #550757 /ANSWER BACK - COMPUTERBNK UD 



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*■ :; i.:iic! is i '3V> r(tis:«.-'.n 'ii fer s'»)i; cai'i. itn 
DPS Blui LiM 1)00 .- i :•:!■! :-:i;i - S * n 



BOOK REVIEWS 



dition to the main directory on each volume, ProDOS 
allows subdirectories within the main directory. Each sub- 
directory can hold files of any type, including further sub- 
directories In this manner, a nested structure is created 
that allows easy file organization and access through in- 
dividual pathnames. The chapter that follows discusses 
how ProDOS organizes information on a disk to provide 
the directory structure just described. Although this 
discussion assumes the medium is a standard Apple 
3 5-track floppy disk, all of the information presented is 
applicable to other disk sizes and even to a hard disk. 

Worth and Lechner then embark on a detailed descrip- 
tion of how individual blocks of data (512 bytes) are 
allocated on the disk, beginning with the initial format- 
ting that creates the volume directory and volume bit-map 
blocks. They describe the internal layout of different types 
of files, complete with numerous examples and excellent 
diagrams that show data organization and storage. These 
include directory files as well as typical file types such as 
BASIC programs, binary files, and text files. 

At this point we are introduced to the ProDOS assem- 
bly-language program itself, which is loaded into RAM 
(random-access read/write memory) when the disk is 
booted. It consists of two parts: the ProDOS kernel and 
the BASIC interpreter. The kernel is made up of subrou- 
tines that can be called by any assembly-language pro- 
gram to access the disk, either block by block or file by 
file. The BASIC interpreter acts as a translator between 
a BASIC program (or a user's immediate commands) and 
the kernel. A short chapter shows the memory usage of 
these two components and explains how they are loaded 
into the computer during the booting process. 

The remaining three chapters, which occupy more than 
half the book, are intended to aid the assembly-language 
programmer who wants access to the routines within the 
ProDOS program. In contrast to Apple DOS. ProDOS pro- 
vides a set of 20 externally callable subroutines in the 
kernel. These subroutines, referred to as the machine- 
language interface (MLI), provide a simple method for ac- 
cessing the operating system's disk, time and date, and 
interrupt-handling functions. Entry points are well docu- 
mented, with detailed descriptions of all the required in- 
put parameters. A list of MLI error messages includes ex- 
planations that would be valuable when debugging. 

One of the most interesting and potentially useful 
aspects of ProDOS is the provision for adding extra user- 
written commands to the BASIC interpreter. The chapter 
entitled 'Customizing ProDOS" examines this feature. The 
authors even include a program in the appendix that in- 
stalls a "Type" command. You can use this command to 
display the contents of an input text file on the screen. 

In the final chapter of the book, Worth and Lechner 
describe the ProDOS global pages. These two pages 
always occupy a fixed position in memory and contain sys- 
tem-status and device-configuration information. Ad- 
dresses in these pages are of use to the programmer for 

[continued] 



74 BY TE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 105 





What C did for Programming 
Mark Williams has done for C Programming 

■86 in 
^J at 



The C Programming System 
from Mark Williams 



MWC86 gets your C programs run- 
ning faster and uses less memory space 
than any other compiler on the market. 
Then csd, Mark Williams' revolutionary 
C Source Debugger, helps you debug 
faster. That's The C Programming Sys- 
tem from Mark Williams Company. 

MWC86 

MWC86 is the most highly optimized 
C compiler available anywhere for the 
DOS and 8086 environment. The bench- 
marks prove it! They show MWC86 is 
unmatched in speed and code density. 

MWC86 supports large and small 
models of compilation, the 8087 math 
coprocessor and DOS 2.0 pathnames. 
The compiler features common code 
elimination, peephole optimization and 
register variables. It includes the most 
complete libraries. Unlike its competi- 
tion, MWC86 supports the full C lan- 
guage including recent extensions such 
as the Berkeley structure rules, voids, 
enumerated data types, UNIX* I/O calls 
and structure assignments. 

Quality is why Intel, DEC and Wang 
chose to distribute MWC86. These in- 
dustry leaders looked and compared 
and found Mark Williams to be best. 

User Friendly 

MWC86 is the easiest to use of all 
compilers. One command runs all 
phases from pre-processor to assembler 
and linker. MWC86 eliminates the need 
to search for error messages in the back 
of a manual. All error messages appear 
on the screen in English. 

A recent review of MWC86 in 
PC World, June, 1984, summed it up: 



'Unix is a Trademark of Bell Laboratories. 



"Of all the compilers reviewed, MWC86 
would be my first choke for product 
development. It compiles quickly, pro j 
. duces superior error messages, and^ 
generates quick, compact object code. 
The library is small and fast and close- 
ly follows the industry standart 
C libraries" 

csd C Source Debugger 

Mark Williams was not content to 
write the best C compiler on the mar- 
ket. To advance the state of the art in 
software development, Mark Williams 
wrote csd. 

csd C Source Debugger serves as a 
microscope on the program. Any C 
expression can be entered and evalu- 
ated. With csd a programmer can set 
tracepoints on variables and expressions 
with full history capability and can 
single step a program to find bugs. The 
debugger does not affect either code 
size or execution time, csd features 
online help instructions; the ability to 
walk through the stack; the debugging 
of graphics programs without disturb- 



SIEVE 

Time in Seconds 

□ Urge Model 
■ Small Model 
Size in Bytes 

□ Large Model 
B Small Model 



1.29 



Ul 



MWC86 DRI 




g the program under test: and evalu- 
ation, source, program and history 
indows. 

csd eases the most difficult part of 
^development — debugging. Because 
csd debugs in C, not assembler, a pro- 
grammer no longer has to rely on old- 
fashioned assembler tools, but can 
work as if using a C interpreter — in 
real time. 

The C Programming System 
from Mark Williams now supports 
the following libraries: 

Library Company 

Windows for C Creative Solutions 

Halo Media Cybernetics 

PHACT PHACT Associates 

The Greenleaf Functions Greenleaf Software 

Btrieve SoftCraft 

The C Programming System 
from Mark Williams 

The C Programming System from 
Mark Williams delivers not only the 
best C compiler for the 8086 but also 
the only C source level debugger. That's 
why it does for C programming what C 
did for programming. The Mark Wil- 
liams C Programming System gives the 
programmer the MWC86 C compiler 
and the csd C Source Debugger for 
only $495. Order today by calling 
1-800-MWC-1700. Major credit cards 
accepted. 

Technical support for The Mark Wil- 
liams C Programming System is pro- 
vided free of charge by the team that 
developed it. 



Mark Williams Company 

1430 W. WrightwoodAve. 
Chicago, IL 60614 




Inquiry 253 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 75 



64K S100 STATIC RAM 

*139°° 

NEW! 



KIT 



LOW POWER! 
150 NS ADD $10 



BLANK PC BOARD 
WITH DOCUMENTATION 

$49.95 




SUPPORT ICs ♦ CAPS 
$17.50 

FULL SOCKET SET 
$14.50 

FULLY SUPPORTS THE 

NEW IEEE 696 S100 

STANDARD 

(AS PROPOSED) 

FOR 56KKIT$125 



ASSEMBLED AND 
TESTED ADD $50 



FEATURES: PRICE CUT! 

* Uses new 2K x 8 (TMM 2016 or HM 6116) RAMs. 

* Fully supports IEEE 696 24 BIT Extended 
Addressing. 

* 64K draws only approximately 500 MA. 

* 200 NS RAMs are standard. (TOSHIBA makes 
TMM 2016s as fast as 100 NS. FOR YOUR HIGH 
SPEEO APPLICATIONS.) 

* SUPPORTS PHANTOM (BOTH LOWER 32K 
AND ENTIRE BOARD). 

* 2716 EPROMs may be installed inanyoftop48K. 

* Any ot the top 8K (E000 H AND ABOVE) may 
be disabled to provide windows to eliminate 
any possible conflicts with your system monitor, 
disk controller, etc. 

* Perfect for small systems since BOTH RAM and 
EPROM may co-exist on the same board. 

+ BOARD may be partially populated as 56K. 



256K S-100 SOLID STATE DISK SIMULATOR! 

WE CALL THIS BOARD THE "LIGHT-SPEED-WO" BECAUSE IT OFFERS 
AN ASTOUNDING INCREASE IN YOUR COMPUTER'S PERFORMANCE 
WHEN COMPARED TO A MECHANICAL FLOPPY DISK DRIVE. 

FEATURES: 

PRICE CUT! 



5V 64K 




BLANK PCB 

(WITH CP/M* 2.2 

PATCHES AND INSTALL 

PROGRAM ON DISKETTE) 

*69 95 

(82031 INTEL S29.95) 



256K on board, using 

DRAMS. 

Uses new Intel 8203-1 LSI Memory 

Controller. 

Requires only 4 Dip Switch 

Selectable I/O Ports. 

Runs on 8080 or Z80 S100 machines. 

Up to 8 LS-100 boards can be run 

together for 2 Meg. of On Line Solid 

State Disk Storage. 

Provisions for Battery back-up. 

Software to mate the LS-100 to your 

CP/M* 2.2 DOS is supplied. 

The LS-100 provides an increase In 

speed of up to 7 to 10 times on Disk 

Intensive Software. 

Compare our price! You could pay 

up to 3 times as much for similar 

boards. 

$1 ggoo 

#LS-100 (FULL 256K KIT) 



THE NEW ZRT-80 

CRT TERMINAL BOARD! 

A LOW COST Z-80 BASED SINGLE BOARD THAT ONLY NEEDS AN 
ASCII KEYBOARD, POWER SUPPLY, AND VIDEO MONITOR TO MAKE A 
COMPLETE CRT TERMINAL USE AS A COMPUTER CONSOLE, OR 
WITH A MODEM FOR USE WITH ANY OF THE PHONE-LINE COMPUTER 
SERVICES. 
FEATURES: 

* Uses a Z80A and 6845 CRT 
Controller for powerful video 
capabilities. 

* RS232 at 16 BAUD Rates from 75 
to 19,200. 

* 24 x 80 standard format (60 Hz). 

* Optional formats from 24 x 80 
(50 Hz) to 64 lines x 96 characters 
(60 Hz). 

* Higher density formats require up to 
3 additional 2K x 8 6116 RAMS. 

* Uses N.S. INS 8250 BAUD Rate 
Gen. and USART combo IC. 

* 3 Terminal Emulation Modes which 
are Dip Switch selectable. These 
include the LSI-ADM3A, the Heath 
H-19, and the Beehive. 

* Composite or Split Video. 

* Any polarity of video or sync. 

* Inverse Video Capability. 

* Small Size: 6.5 x 9 Inches. 

* Upper & lower case with descenders. 

* 7x9 Character Matrix. 

* Requires Par. ASCII keyboard. 




BLANK PCB WITH 2716 
CHAR. ROM, 2732 MON. ROM 



$4995 



SOURCE DISKETTE - ADD $10 



SET OF 2 CRYSTALS - ADD $7.50 



WITH 8 IN. 

SOURCE DISK! 

{CP/M COMPATIBLE) 



$ 99 



95 

# ZRT-80 



(COMPLETE KIT, 
2K VIDEO RAM) 



Digital Research Computers 

P.O. BOX 461565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75046 • (214) 225-2309 



Call or write for a free catalog on Z-80 or 6809 Single Board 
Computers, SS-50 Boards, and other S-100 products. 



TERMS: Add $3.00 postage. We pay balance. Orders under $15 add 75c handling. No 
C.O.D. We accept Visa and MasterCard. Texas Res. add 5-1/8% Tax. Foreign orders 
(except Canada) add 20% P & H. Orders over $50 add 85c for insurance. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



such tasks as calling the ML I via the BASIC interpreter or 
setting vectors to point to user-supplied command rou- 
tines. The current ProDOS code occupies more than 22 K 
bytes of memory. The authors expect that this code will 
change in the near future. Consequently they have de- 
cided to describe only the BASIC-interpreter global page 
and the ProDOS global page. A special supplement is 
available from the publisher for those readers who wish 
to obtain a complete description of every piece of code 
and data within the ProDOS components. 

Have the authors achieved their objective of improving 
upon the documentation provided by Apple? Yes, but I 
wish they had included even more information. 

Martin Kalman (POB 243, Friday Harbor, WA 98250) has an 
M.S. from MIT and works as a freelance computer programmer and 
writer. 



PRODUCTIVE SOFTWARE TEST MANAGEMENT 
Reviewed by Douglas L. Freeman 

Very little has been written about the testing of soft- 
ware. Since even the simplest program requires 
testing, clear-cut guidance is valuable to anyone who 
develops software. Michael W. Evans has missed the op- 
portunity to provide this guidance because he has writ- 
ten a very complex book that will not appeal to a wide 
audience. He attempts to reduce most concepts to charts, 
some of which are fairly complicated, and he has a tenden- 
cy to use acronyms excessively Though Productive Software 
Test Management gets bogged down in details about 
organization, testing committees, definitions, and phases, 
some of the topics it raises are worth reviewing. 

The Planning Process 

Thorough software testing is often overlooked and under- 
valued. Testing can be easily overshadowed by the other 
complexities of software development. Evans correctly 
emphasizes the importance of planning. He begins his 
book with a story about a failed project and then tells how 
the disaster could have been avoided. The author points 
out that developers have a better chance of getting the 
resources needed for adequate testing if they've planned 
well for it at the beginning of a project. 

Creating a detailed plan of how a system will be devel- 
oped is a difficult task. In the early stages of a project, 
information and technical requirements are often vague. 
Precision is difficult to attain. The prudent systems man- 
ager will work hard to produce a strong software-devel- 
opment plan. According to Evans, planning should be 
done in a hierarchical fashion by first defining the top 
levels of development requirements (what is to be done) 
and structure (management and control). The develop- 
ment plan should contain a software test and integration 
segment. This segment describes the testing structure, 

{continued) 



76 BYTE' MAY 



Inquiry 1 30 



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MOUNTAIN VIEW PRESS, INC. 



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(415)961-4103 



Inquiry 280 



MAY I985 -BYTE 77 



Inquiry 120 



CQMPUftRO USERS 

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BOOK REVIEWS 



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78 BYTE • 


MAY 1 98 






Inquiry 1 84 





phases, levels, and organization. It lays the foundation for 
the entire software-testing process. 

Test planning is the central theme throughout the first 
five chapters. Though Evans almost wears out the subject, 
he does make several good related points. He cautions 
the software manager against trading short-term project 
demands for long-term planning requirements. As a proj- 
ect proceeds, the demands on the manager increase. Time 
that was intended to be spent on planning disappears. 
The obvious result is a poorly developed software prod- 
uct and sometimes a failed project. 

The author also observes that managers often try to 
apply techniques that worked for large projects to the 
development of small projects and vice versa. He advises 
that the software-development controls must be scaled 
to the technical and administrative requirements of the 
individual project. Readers should keep this point clear 
as they try to implement concepts from this book. 

Evans devotes a chapter to the subject of motivating a 
software-test staff. This chapter is one of the best in the 
book. It gives the reader good advice about management 
direction and responsibility. The author counsels the 
software-test manager to "look and act like a leader" and 
"present a positive image to staff, customer, and manage- 
ment personnel." He also tells how to motivate three types 
of personnel : fast trackers, average performers, and poor 
performers. This advice is useful to managers of all 
disciplines. 

The Real Work of Testing 

You have to read more than half of the book before you 
come to the two chapters that cover test specification and 
testing methodology. Evans warns that "personnel easily 
bog down in the morass of technical detail." but he does 
not follow his own warning. He proceeds to describe soft- 
ware testing in a style that is dense with terminology and 
definitions. In spite of this, a dedicated reader can still 
gain an insight into proper testing methods from these 
chapters. 

A Word of Caution 

Perhaps the most worthwhile part of the book's second 
half deals with satisfying the customer requirements of 
the project. Here Evans stresses the importance of cus- 
tomer participation throughout the software development. 
He states that customers will be more willing to accept 
a system if they have participated in the testing process. 
Productive Software Test Management is not a book for every 
computer user. It would be of most interest to people in- 
volved in managing major software projects at very large 
development organizations. To other software developers 
the book would probably be fairly dull, and to casual users 
of microcomputers it would be close to useless. ■ 

Douglas L. Freeman (37819 Valley Rd., Oconomowoc, WI 53066), 
formerly a software-development consultant, is currently president of 
Color Corporation of America, Milwaukee. 




gi/m^ 






Sperry introduces Usemet. 

Because PC's that talk only to themselves 

are a luxury few businesses can afford. 



Stand alones shouldn't. Not in an 
office environment. 

Alone, PC's are simply under- 
utilized. But join them in the right 
kind of network, and their value as 
business tools increases exponen- 
tially. Your PC's can share fewer 
printers, share common data files, 
function independently or collec- 
tively. Just like people. 

The question, then, is which 
system to choose. 

Ours is not the only such system. 
But it may well be the most 
intelligently conceived. 

It will accept any IBM-compat- 
ible PC's you already own. Eagle, 
Corona, Columbia, Compaq and so 
on. Even a Sperry. 

Usernet begins with as few as 
four PC's, linked in a common bus 
with the industry-standard 

Inquiry 4 45 



"twisted pair" wiring. Simple and 
economical to install, service or 
expand. And expand you can, to as 
many as 64 PC's, merely by adding 
them on, without disrupting or 
replacing any part of the system. 

As your Usernet grows, you'll 
appreciate a security system 
Stanford University rates as the 
best in the industry. It keeps your 
business yours. 

But ultimately, any system such 
as Usernet stands or falls on speed. 
An information path, like a high- 
way, can choke on its own traffic. 
So, the faster information moves, 
the less chance of developing a 
nasty form of gridlock. 

It may surprise you to learn that 
Usernet speeds information along. 
In many cases, faster by a factor 
of 10 than our competition. Or yours. 



For a demonstration at a Sperry 
Productivity Center near you, tele- 
phone 1-800-547-8362, or write: 
Sperry Corporation, P.O. Box 500, 
Blue Bell, PA 19424-0024. 



< Sperry Corporation 1984 




MAY H85 • B Y TE 79 




.ftVft. 



minimum 



How do you get 

your PC to wear 

many different hats 

at the same time? 



E-Z-DOSIT 



Introducing E-Z-DOS-IT" 
Concurrent Processing — 
for IBM PCs and 
PC compatibles. 

Before today, your IBM PC 

(or PC compatible) could wear 

only one processing hat at a 

time. Now, with E-Z-DOS4T 

Concurrent Processing, your 

PC can be an editor, financial analyst, and 

artist all at the same time. And you can be a 

writer. Or a programmer. In fact, E-Z-DOS-IT 

is the only concurrent processing system 

that can run effectively on machines with 

256K and up. 

Switch from one program 

to another at the drop of a hat. 

With your current system, each time you need 
to access information on a different disk, you 
have to save your files, unload and load a pro- 
gram. E-Z-DOS-TT enables you to switch con- 




veniently from one applica- 
tion to another instantly. With 
this easy referencing capa- 
bility you can quickly respond 
to questions, and finish proj- 
ects significantly faster. 

E-Z to use, 
E-Z to afford* 

Youll find it takes only ten 
minutes to master E-Z-DOS-IT Concurrent 
Processing. And the suggested retail price is 
only $199.95 — improved productivity was 
never this affordable. 

Improved personal productivity at 
your f ingertips, 

E-Z-DOS-IT is the one system software 
package you cant afford to be without. For 
more information and the name of the dealer 
nearest you, call toll-free: 800/228-9602 
(in California, call 800/423-5592), ask for 
Operator 1, 



SHAMMER 



Redefining Your PC Productivity. 



E-Z-DOS-IT is a trademark of Hammer Computer Systems, Inc., 700 Larkspur Landing Circle, Suite 285, Larkspur, CA 94939 

The following registered trademarks arc acknowledged; 1PM and IBM PC. International Business Machines; Lotus !-2-^ ;ind Symphony. Lotus Development Corporation; dBase II and Framework, AshtonTate; Wordstar. MicroPro International; PFSFih 
Software Publishing; Crosstalk. Microstuff. Inc.; Multi-Plan, Microsoft Corporation. 



Inquiry 182 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 81 



°SS£*£ 



ft* 




Super Sperry 

Our new Super Sperry sysrem is made 
by Mitsubishi. Just like rhe Leading Edge PC- 
Like rhe Leodmg Edge ir runs 50% faster 
rhon rhe IBM-PC gives you 5 compatible 
slors for exponsion, dual 5Va" drives, serial 
and parallel ports. MS-DOS 2.1 1.GW BASIC 
and an auromoric dock/colendar cord. 

Unlike rhe Leading Edge our Super 
Sperry has a berrer keyboard wirh LED's on 
rhe lock keys and a racrile feedback, a 
more powerful power supply, o rock solid 
green phosphor display, and ATI ruronols 

Whar makes our Super Sperrys really 
super, however, is that rhey come wirh a 

I massive 640K of RAM. tnsralled and rested, 
as standard equipment We urge you to 

I buy the best, even if it's rhe less expensive 
Super Sperry for 



$1949 




I wenr to look or rhe MOC-550 whor I found mode me an owner rhe 
next doy' Bill Sudbnnk Byre Mogazme 



c More Free Softwore ' 



Along with all the free grear softwore you ger wirh o Sonya MOC 
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written in Sonya Color Graphics BASIC 



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We hove sold more Sonya microcomputers rhon any other dealer 
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Bur we wouldn't hove become rhe largest Sonya dealer in the 
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Our sales sroff knows rhe Sonya system because they use Sonya 
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586-40 $7249 

986-40 $8829 

| Alros Acer $2779 

PRINTERS 




EpsonFX-80f J5^r$180off 

RX-80FT SSfcTSlOOoff 

I OI<idara92 £&£2$125aff 

Okidoro 93 £>^$2l0aff 

OUidoro84 Coll 

5ror5G-10 $239 

5rar5rV15 $599 

Panasonic 1091 $298 

| Toshiba 1340 $579 

LETTER QUALITY 

I Powerrype $299 

Juki 6100 $399 

I Juki 6300 $719 

Silver Reed 400 $249 

Silver Reed 500 $299 

| Silver Reed 550 $409 

i Silver Reed 770 $724 

Diablo Call 

I NEC Call 

I Daisywrirer 2000 $824 

HOUSTON INSTRUMENTS 

DMP-29 $1795 

DMP-40 $745 

, DMP-41 $2340 

orher models Call . 




Columbia's 



If you re. looking for moximum comporibiliry 
minimum prices. or>d nationwide service, you 
should consider buying a Columbia from 
Scott sdole Systems Each system comes with o 
huge so tware bundle including M -DOS 2.1 
Bosico Perfect Wrirer Peifect Cole. Petfect 
Filer Perfect Speller. Fosr Graphs Home 
Accaunront Plus. Space Commanders. ATI 
Turonols. and TIM. IV We hove rhe lowest 
prices on all Columbio computers including 
the new 4220 desktop with 256K 2220 
portable wirh a built-in 9" monitor Your 



I choice: 



$1698 



The Silver Fox Trots 
Through Lotus Like 1 ,2,3 

The Silver Fox is nor IBM-PC DOS compatible yet if runs 
hundreds of M5-D05 programs including Lotus 1,2.0, dDASE II. 
Atfulfiplan. and even Flight Simularor. 

The Silver Fox does nor have I0M compatible expansion 
slots but you con odd printers, serial porrs. modems. 10-40 
Mb. hard disks. clocU/calendor cords RAM. joysticks, an 8087 
co-processor, and more 

Whor mokes the Silver Fox unique, however, isn r whot 
you con odd to it. but what comes with it. Each Silver Fox 
comes wirh an 8088 CPU. 256K of RAM. four video porrs. and 
a prinrer parr. Plus you get more rhon rw ce rhe storage of o 
srondord PC. 1 6 Megabytes on dual 5 1 1 A" flappvs. and the 
Fox will read and write ro srondord 160K. 320K. and 060K 
IBM-PC formars. 

Standard equipment also includes o better keyboard, 
and o 1 2" high resolution, green monochrome moniror. wirh 
a full 25x80disploy. Plus we bock each Silver Fox with o one 
year limited warronly 

If you didn't think your 

$1397 

could buy you this much computer coll our machine or 

1-800-FOPAFOX 

i leave your nome and address or rhe beep, and we II send 
you a booklet thot will tell you how it can. 



~^;^ 




mm 


■fan 




Free Si 


verwore 


MS-DOS 2.11 


WordSrar 0.0 


HAGEN-DOS 


Easy Writer 


Color BASIC 


Spell 


GW DA5IC 


Moil Trock 


OS TUTOR 


FILEBASE 


1 5 Games 


PC FILE III 


ColcSrar 


PD Disk 



Sanyo HOO's/1200's 



\ / 



Scoffsdale Systems ud.i 

617 N. Scorrsdole Road, Suite D, Scorrsdole, Arizona 85257 

~(602) 941-5856 E3 

Coll 8-5 Mon.-Fri. 

-A . 

jP^Jt We porticipot e in orbirrorion for business and customers through the Defter 
Business Dureou of Moncopo County 



SINCE 1980 



TELEMARKETING .ONLY: If you plon ro visit please coll first for on oppoint menr Prices listed 
ore for cosh and include o 3% discQunr. We sell on o Ner 00 basis to Forrune 1200 | 
componiesond universities. No COD sor APO's. P.O.'sodd2%. Visa. Mastercard odd 3%. 
Az. residents odd 6% Prices subject to change, product subject to ovailobiliiy. I 
Personal/company checks roke 3 weeks to clear. All items listed ore new wirh [ 
manufacturers worronry. 0-20%resrocking fee for returned merchandise. Shipping extra- 
products ore F.O.D. point of shipment. Softwore is nor worronried for suitobiliiy. Registered | 
trodemarks: Televideo-Televideo Systems, Inc.; Silver FoxTM. HAGEN-QOS-Scortsdate f 
I Systems, Ltd.; Commurer-Visuol Computer Incorporored." 



WYSE 



50's 
75s 



$499 
S575 




1200 BP5 Modems 

I Volksm'odem $199 

Password $249 

Promerheus $024 

l Hayes 300/1 200 $444. 



O OLYMPIA 




To LQ or IMLQ 
That is the Question 

Wherher 'tis nobler ro zip along or 1 65 
CPS in draft mode and Use on incredible 
17x17 NLQ mode for letters, or produce 
lerter perfect output - Olympic gives you a 
choice. 

Compore rhe Olympia NPro the popular 
Epson FX-80 or rhe Okidoro 92 The NP is 
slightly foster, noticeobly quieter, and 
includes push-type froctars (and friction 
feed) os srondord equipment. Out the NPs 
really big feature is its fine script mode 
which is much superior ro rhe Okidoro 92. 
and even berrer rhon on FX-60+ wirh o 
J> 199 "NLQ" option, 

To quote PC mogozine. "The (NP) prinrer 
is a sure rhing if it fatls into your price range 
•and even if ir doesn't, it may be worth 
considering . . 

If you're looking for rhe best buy in o 
true lerter-quoliiy prinrer (like rhe Silver 
Reed 550 or rhe Juki 61 00) the Olympio 
RO is for you. The RO is o 14 CPS. wide- 
corrioge. that comes with both fricrion and 
rroctor.feed. serlol and parallel porrs. and 
quality rhar has mode Olympia o world 
leader in Typewriters. 

Defore you spend S1 00-&200 too much 
for onorher brand, call us ot Scorrsdole 
Systems and ask fot odditionol inf ormorion 
on fheseexcepfional values from Olympio. 
To LQ or NLQ is up ro you. the price for 
either rhe Olympio NP or the RO wirh o 1 
shielded coble to your computer is only 



$344 



82 B YTE • MAY I985 



EVENT QUEUE 



May 1985 



• BUSINESS RESEARCH 
Applications Seminars, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. and Montreal, Quebec, 
Canada. A seminar series 
for those researching busi- 
ness topics. Contact Data 
Courier, 620 South Fifth St.. 
Louisville. KY 40202, (800) 
626-2823; in Kentucky, (502) 
582-4111; in Canada, (800) 
626-0307. May-lune 

• C STUDIED 
C-Language Workshops, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. Workshops and 
seminars on C programming 
and issues. Contact Plum 
Hall Inc., 1 Spruce Ave.. Car- 
diff. NI 08232. (609) 
927-3770. May-lune 

• CLASSES IN UNIX. C 
UNIX and C Classes. City 
University, Bellevue. WA. 
Four-hour to five-day 
courses. Fees range from 
$100 to $750, depending 
upon course length. Contact 
Karhy Howard, Specialized 
Systems Consultants, POB 7, 
Northgate Station, Seattle, 
WA 98125, (206) 367-8649. 
May-\une 

• CONFERENCES FOR 
MANUFACTURERS, USERS 
Conferences for Manufac- 
turers and Users, various 
sites throughout the U.S. 
Planned are "Document Pro- 
cessing in Tomorrow's Of- 
fice" and "Document-based 
Optical Memories." Contact 
Richard D. Murray. Institute 
for Graphic Communication 
Inc., 375 Commonwealth 
Ave., Boston. MA 02115, 
(617) 267-9425. May-lune 

• FIX-IT WORKSHOP 
Computer Repair User 
Workshops, various sites 
throughout the U.S. A one- 



day seminar on repairing 
computers. The fee ranges 
from $140 to $175, depend- 
ing upon location. Contact 
Cascio School of Computer 
Technology, Suite BI09-Q, 
2 580 San Ramon Valley 
Blvd., San Ramon. CA 
94583, (415) 829-5140. 
May-lune 

• HOME. OFFICE 
COMPUTING-New Olden 
Spring and Summer Com- 
puter Workshops, New York 
City. Introductory and ad- 
vanced workshops on per- 
sonal, executive, and 
secretarial computing. Fees 
range from $45 to $400, 
depending upon duration. 
Contact The Olden Com- 
puter Workshops. 1265 
Broadway, New York. NY 
10001. (212) 685-1234. 
May-]une 

• MICRO WORKSHOPS 
Microcomputer Workshops, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. and Canada. More than 
20 workshops for all levels 
of expertise. Contact 
Rhonda Carney Intel Corp., 
Customer Training, 27 In- 
dustrial Ave., Chelmsford, 
MA 01824-3688, (617) 

2 56-1374. May-lune 

• NETWORK PROTOCOLS 
Network Communication 
Protocols, various sites 
throughout the U.S. Major 
topic areas include elements 
of data communications, 
data-link control concepts, 
and bit-oriented protocols. 
The fee is $695, Contact 
Center for Advanced Profes- 
sional Education, Suite 110. 



1820 East Garry St.. Santa 
Ana. CA 92705. (714) 
261-0240, May-lune 

• SEMINARS AND 
SYMPOSIA-EDP Seminars 
and Symposia, various sites 
throughout the U.S. "Data- 
base Management Systems 
and Fourth Generation 
Languages for Personal 
Computers" and "Introduc- 
tion to the UNIX System" 
are among the offerings. 
Fees range from $395 to 
$895. Calendar available. 
Contact Software Institute of 
America Inc., 8 Windsor St., 
Andover. MA 01810. (617) 
470-3880. May-lune 

• SUMMER SEMINARS 
Summer Seminar Series. 
Rochester Institute of Tech- 
nology, NY. A series of one- 
week seminars. Titles include 
"Introduction to Linear Sys- 
tems and Digital Signal Pro- 
cessing," "Basic 6800/6809." 
and Advanced Digital 
Logic." For details, contact 
Yvonne Fish. School of 
Engineering Technology, 
Rochester Institute of Tech- 
nology. One Lomb Memorial 
Dr.. POB 9887. Rochester. 
NY 14623, (716) 475-2915. 
May-lune 

• AI, EXPERT SYSTEMS 
BRIEFING— Artificial In- 
telligence and Expert Sys- 
tems: What Users and Sup- 
pliers Must Know Today to 
Deploy These Technologies 
as Profitable Strategic Cor- 
porate Resources Tomorrow. 
Boston and Framingham, 
MA. A one-day executive 
briefing. The fee is $790. 



IF YOU WANT your organization's public activities listed in BYTE's Event 
Queue, we need to know about them at least four months in advance. Send 
information about computer conferences, seminars, workshops, and courses 
to BYTE. Event Queue. POB 372. Hancock. NH 03449. 



Contact Ms. Lee Burgess, 
Professional Development 
Programs, Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute. Troy 
Building. Troy. NY 12180- 
3590, (518) 266-6589. 
May-luly 

• CONSULTANT TRAINING 
Learn How to Be a Suc- 
cessful Independent Com- 
puter Consultant, various 
sites throughout the U.S. 
The risks and rewards of 
consulting, planning and 
marketing, legal considera- 
tions, and resources are 
covered. Contact Education 
Technology Center Inc., Suite 
1042. 485 Fifth Ave., New 
York. NY 10017. (212) 
505-6148. May-luly 

• DATA SWITCHING 
Distributed Data Switching 
Seminar, various sites 
throughout the U.S. A one- 
day seminar on the tech- 
nology and application of 
distributed data switching in 
telecommunications. The fee 
is $395. Contact Timeplex 
Seminars. 400 Chestnut 
Ridge Rd.. Woodcliff Lake. 
Nl 07675, (201) 930-4600. 
May-luly 

• SOFTWARE COURSES 

Software Short Courses, 
various sites through out the 
U.S. Among the courses are 
"UNIX: A Hands-on Intro- 
duction." "Programming in 
C: A Hands-on Workshop," 
and "Software Requirements. 
Specifications, and Tests." 
Contact Integrated Computer 
Systems. 6305 Arizona 
Place, POB 4 5405, Los 
Angeles, CA 90045, (800) 
421-8166; in California. (800) 
3 52-82 51 or (213) 417-8888; 
in Canada. (800) 228-6799. 
May-August 

[continued) 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 83 



Inquiry 19 



QUALITY PARTS AT DISCOUNT PRICES! 



SUB-MINIATURE 
DTYPE CONNECTOR 



SOLDER TYPE SUB MINIATURE 
CONNECTORS USED FOR 
COMPUTER HOOK UPS 
DB-15PLUG $2.75 

DB- 15 SOCKET $4.00 
DB-15H00D $1.50 

DB-25PLUG $2.75 

DB-25 SOCKET $3.50 
DB-25HOOD $1.25 

"PARALLEL" PRINTER 
CONNECTOR 

SOLDER STYLE 
36 PIN MAI E USED 
ON "PARALLEL" 
$5.50 EACH DATA CABLES 




le.d:s 

STANDARD JUMBO 
DIFFUSED 

RED 10 FOR $1.50 
GREEN 10 FOR $2.00 
YELLOW 10 FOR $2.00 A 

ft\ FLASHER LED H 

m 5 VOLT OPERATION f 
I RED JUMBO SIZE 
Tf $1.00 EACH | | 

I BIPOLAR LED 

II 2 FOR $1.70 



CRYSTAL 

'CASE STYLE HC33/U 
COLORBURSTi 
3579.545 KC I 
$3.50 EA | $1.00 EACH 



2 MHZ 



2 AMP SOLID 
STATE RELAY 

SIZE: IVz" 
X 1 -'/,(," X 

W HIGH 

CONTROL: 3.6-6 VDC 

TTL compatible 
LOAD: 120 Vac @ 2 amp 

$2.50 each 10 for $23.00 



\13VDC RELAY 

I CONTACT: S.P.N.C. 

| 10 AMP@ 120 VAC 

'ENERGIZE COIL TO 

OPEN CONTACT. 

COIL: 13 VDC 650 OHMS 

SPECIAL $1.00 EACH 




MINIATURE TOGGL 
SWITCHES 

ALL ARE HATED 5 AMPS @ 125 
S.P.D.T, VAr 



S.P.D.T 

(on-on) 

P.C. STYLE. 
NON-THREADED 
BUSHING 
7M EACH 

10 FOR S7 00 

S.P.D.T. 
(on-off-on) 1 

NON-THREADEDf] 

BUSHING. 

PC STYLE 

75C EACH 

10 FOR 17.00 



PC LUGS. 

THREADED | 
k BUSHING 
| $1.00 EACH | 

10 FOR $9.00" 
100 FOR $80.00 



STAR *SMB-06L 

6 VDC. TTL 

COMPATIBLE 

$1.00 EACH 

10 FOR $9.00 




NEON INDICATOR. 

RATED 120 V 1/3 W. 

MOUNTS IN 5/16" HOLE 

75* EACH RED LENS 

10 FOR S7 00 

100 FOR $65.00 



ill gjagofflKS corp 

| TOLL FREE ORDERS • 1 -800-826-5432 

(IN CALIFORNIA: 1-800-258-6666) 
, HI, OR IHFORMATIOH • (213) 380-8000 



AK, 



-rnjimmiiiimiiiiniini 

22/44 22/44 GOLD PLATED 

CONTACTS 

.156 CONTACT SPACING. 

$2.00 EACH 10 FOR $18.00 



SWITCHING 
POWER 
SUPPLY 




—- €$ 



INPUT: 

14 Vac- 25. 5 Vac 

OUTPUT: 

+ 12 Vdc @ 350 ma 

+ 5Vdc@ 1.2 amp 

- 5 Vdc @ 200 ma 

SIZE:4%"x 4'ATx lVi"high 

$5.00 each 



9-TRACK 1 /2 " MAINFRAME TAPE 
SUBSYSTEM FOR THE IBM 
PC/XT/AT WITH FREE BACK-UP 




EVENT QUEUE 



• DEVELOPMENT 
SEMINARS-Professional 
Development Seminars, 
various sites around Boston, 
MA. One- and two-day 
seminars on computer com- 
petence, management, sales, 
marketing, and finance. 
Contact Boston Univer- 
sity Metropolitan College, 
755 Commonwealth Ave.. 
Boston, MA 022 15, (800) 

2 55-1080; in Massachusetts, 
(617) 738-5020. 
May-September 

• SME CONFERENCES. 
EXPOS— Conferences and 
Expositions from the Society 
of Manufacturing Engineers, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. For a calendar, contact 
the Society of Manufacturing 
Engineers, Public Relations 
Department, One SME Dr., 
POB 930, Dearborn, Ml 
48121, (313) 271-0777. 
May-November 

• MEDICAL GRAPHICS 
Computer Graphics in 
Medicine and Surgery, 
Virginia Mason Medical 
Center, Seattle, WA. Contact 
Linda Orgel, Virginia Mason 
Medical Center. 1100 9th 
Ave., Seattle, WA 98111, 
(206) 223-6898, May 10 

• C CONVOCATION 

C85: The First International 
Conference on the C Pro- 
gramming Language, 
Ramada Renaissance Hotel, 
San Francisco, CA. A forum 
for programmers and devel- 
opers using or considering 
the use of the C language. 
Sessions on ANSI X3I11 
standard, portability, pro- 
gramming tools, and applica- 
tions. Contact Lifeboat 
Associates. 1651 Third Ave, 
New York. NY 10128. (800) 
847-7078; in New York, (212) 
860-0300. May 13-15 

• EDUCATION IN THE 
INFORMATION AGE 
Delivering Education in the 
Information Age, Radisson- 
St. Paul, MN. A focus on the 
planning and use of alter- 



native and information-age 
systems as an educational 
medium. Contact Conference 
Coordinator, Minnesota Cur- 
riculum Services Center, 
3 5 54 White Bear Ave.. White 
Bear Lake. MN 55110, (800) 
652-9024; in Minnesota, 
(612) 770-3943. May 13-15 

• ENGINEERING. DRAFT- 
ING GRAPHICS-Computer 
Graphics for Engineering/ 
Drafting Practice and Com- 
puter Graphics Workshop, 
University of Texas, Austin. 
Short courses stressing the 
principles of computer 
graphics and developing the 
ability to prescribe graphics 
equipment for engineering 
applications. Contact College 
of Engineering, University of 
Texas. Austin, TX 78712, 
(512) 471-3506. May 13-17 

• PROFESSIONAL 
TUTORIALS-TUtorials for 
Professional Development, 
Hyatt Hotel, Los Angeles, 
CA. A series of all-day 
seminars on software, logic 
programming, and communi- 
cations. Contact Gerry Segal, 
Association for Computing 
Machinery. 11 West 42nd St., 
New York, NY 10036. (212) 
869-7440. May 13-17 

• COMPUTERS IN 
GOLDEN STATE-California 
Computer Show. Hyatt 
Hotel. Palo Alto. CA. Com- 
puters, software, engineering 
workstations, peripherals, 
and CAD/CAM systems. Con- 
tact Norm DeNardi Enter- 
prises, Suite 204, 289 South 
San Antonio Rd., Los Altos, 
CA 94022, (415) 941-8440. 
May 14-15 

• TEST. MEASUREMENT 
EXPO-The 1985 Test & 
Measurement World Expo. 
Convention Center, San lose, 
CA. Conferences and tech- 
nology exhibits. Contact 
Meg Bowen, Test & Measure- 
ment World Expo. 215 
Brighton Ave., Boston, MA 
02134, (617) 254-1445. 

May 14-16 



84 BYTE- MAY 1985 



Inquiry 394 



EVENT QUEUE 



• INTERACTIVE 

VIDEODlSCS-lnteractive 
Videodisc-West Airport 
Hilton, Los Angeles. CA. 
Contact Raymond G. Fox. 
Society for Applied Learning 
Technology. 50 Culpeper St., 
Warrenton, VA 22186. (703) 
347-0055. May 15-17 

• MODULA-2 ENG1- 

NEERING-Software Engi- 
neering with Modula-2, 
Atlanta, GA A course em- 
phasizing methods for 
building large-scale software 
systems in Modula-2. Prereq- 
uisite: knowledge of Ada or 
Pascal. The fee is $495. 
Contact Elaine Hadden 
Nicholas, Department of 
Continuing Education, 
Georgia Institute of Tech- 
nology. Atlanta, GA 30332- 
0385, (404) 894-2547. 
May 15-17 

• SOUTHERN CAL SHOW 

The Southern California 
Computer Faire, Convention 
Center, Los Angeles. CA. 
Hardware, software, periph- 
erals, and services for the 
home, office, and develop- 
ment site. Conference pro- 
gram. Contact Computer 
Faire Inc.. 181 Wells Ave, 
Newton, MA 02159, (617) 
965-8350. May 16-18 

• OK SHOW 

The Eighth Annual Show & 
Tell Microcomputer Con- 
ference, University of 
Oklahoma, Norman. Micro- 
computer fans of all ages 
and levels of expertise come 
together to share ideas and 
to demonstrate applications 
and hardware. Contact 
Richard V. Andree, Show & 
Tell Microcomputer Con- 
ference, Mathematics 
Department, University of 
Oklahoma, 601 Elm St.. Nor- 
man, OK 73019. May 18 

• TELECOMM 

SYMPOSIUM-NTT Interna- 
tional Symposium '85, 
Tokyo, Japan. Discussions on 
worldwide telecommunica- 
tions policy, management, 



and societal and tech- 
nological changes. Contact 
Ms. Yuko lshida, Nippon 
Telegraph & Telephone, 200 
Park Ave., New York, NY 
10166, (212) 867-1511, or Ms. 
Shizu Munekata, Nippon 
Telegraph & Telephone, Suite 
230. 4962 El Camino Real, 
Los Altos, CA 94022, (415) 
940-1414. May 20-21 

• COMPUTERS AND 
MED1C1NE-AAMS1 Con- 
gress 1985. Hilton Hotel, 
San Francisco, CA. Papers, 
sessions, and demonstra- 
tions. Contact American 
Association for Medical 
Systems and Informatics. 
Suite 402, 4405 East-West 
Highway, Bethesda, MD 
20814, (301) 657-4142. 
May 20-22 

• MANAGEMENT 
CONGRESS-Update '85. 
Sheraton Hotel, Brussels, 
Belgium. A briefing covering 
technological developments 
for those in the information- 
management and micro- 
graphic industries. Contact 
Update '85, International In- 
formation Management Con- 
gress, POB 34404, Bethesda, 
MD 20817, (301) 983-0604. 
May 20-22 

• MICROS FOR 
ENGINEERS-Microcom- 
puters for Engineers, 
Washington, DC. Two 2-day 
seminars on the use of 
microcomputers in engineer- 
ing applications with a focus 
on hardware and software 
evaluation and selection. 
The fees are $42 5 (govern- 
ment) and $500 (industry). 
Contact Conference 
Manager. U.S. Professional 
Development Institute, 1620 
Elton Rd., Silver Spring, MD 
20903, (301) 445-4400. 
May 20-23 

• GRAPHICS FOR 
PRODUCT] VITY-The 1985 
TYends and Applications 
Conference, Sheraton North- 
west Washington, Silver 

[continued] 



High performance to cost ratio.. . 

Programming Chips? 



Projects develop profitably with development hardware /software from GTEK. 




MODEL 7228 - $599 

This model has all the features 
of Model 7128, plus Intelligent 
Programming Algorithims. It 
supports the newest devices 
available through 512Kbits; pro- 
grams 6x as fast as standard 
algorithims. Programs the 2764 in 
one minute! Supports Intel 2764A 
& 27128A chips. Supports 
Tektronics, Intel, Motorola and 
other formats. 



MODEL 7956 

(with RS232 option) .... $1099. 
MODEL 7956 (stand alone) $ 979. 

GTEK's outstanding Gang Pro- 
grammer with intelligent 
algorithm can copy 8 EPROMS at 
a time! This unit is used in a pro- 
duction environment when pro- 
gramming a large number of chips 
is required. It will program all 
popular chips on the market 
through the 27512 EPROMS. It 
also supports the Intel 2764 A & 
27128A chips. It will also program 
single chip processors. 

EPROM & PAL 

PROGRAMMERS 

— These features are standard from GTEK— 

Compatible with all RS232 »ria) interface parts* Auto select baud rate* With or without hand- 
shaking • Bidirectional Xon/Xoff • CTS1DTR supported • Read pin oompatibfe ROMS • Noper- 
sonaKty modulffl • Intel, Motorola, MCS86 Hex formats • Split facility for 16 bitdata paths • 
Rsd, program, formatted hstammands • Interrupt drivra — program and va-ify real time whOe 
sending data • Pftigram single byte, block, or whole EPROM • Intelligent diagnostics discern bad 
and/ or erasable EPROM • Verify assure and compare commands • Busy light* Complete with 
Textool zero insertion force socket and integral 120 VAC power (240 VAO50Hz available} • 





MODEL 7324 - $1199 
Thisunit has a built-in compiler. 
The Model 7324 programs all 
MMI. National and TI 20 and 24 
pin PALs. Has non-volatile 
memory. It operates stand alone 
or via RS232. 




MODEL 7128 -$429 
This model has the highest 
performance-to-price-ratio of any 
unit. This is GTEK's most popular 
unit! It supports the newest 
devices available through 
256Kbits. 



MODEL 7316 Pal Programmer $ 599 

Programs Series 20 PALs. Built-in PAL ASM compiler. 

DEVICES SUPPORTED 



NMOS 



by GTEK's EPROM Programmers 
NMOS CMOS EEPROM 



MPU'S 



2758 2764A 


2508 


68764 


27C16 


2716 27128 


2516 


8755 


27C16H 


2732 27128A 


2532 


5133 


27C32H 


2732A 27256 


2564 


5143 


27C64 


2764 27512 


68766 




27C256 



5213 I2816A 8748 8741H 

5213H I2817A 8748H 8744 

52B13 8749H 8751 

X2816 8741 68705 

48016 8742H 

UTILITY PACKAGES 

GTEK's PGX Utility Packages will allow you to specify a range of addresses to 
send to the programmer, verify erasure and/or set the EPROM type. The PGX Utili- 
ty Package includes GHEX, a utility used to generate an Intel HEX file. 

PALX Utility Package — for use with GTEK's Pal Programmers — allows 
transfer of PALASM® source file or ASCII HEX object code file. 

Both utility packages are available for CPM,® MSDOS,® PCDOS,® ISIS® and 
TRSDOS® operating systems. Call for pricing. 

AVOCET CROSS ASSEMBLERS 

These assemblers are available to handle the 8748, 8751, Z8. 6502, 68X and other 
microprocessors. They are available for CPM and MSDOS computers. When order- 
ing, please specify processor and computer types. 



ACCESSORIES 



Model 7128-L1. L2, L2A 

(OEM Quantity) $259. 

Model 7128-24 $329. 

Cross Assemblers $200. 

PGX Utilities Call for pricing 

PALX Call for pricing 

Qtek 



XASM (for MSDOS) $250. 

U/V Eraser DE- $ 80. 

RS2 2 Cables $ 30. 

8751 Adapter $174. 

8755 Adapter $135. 

48 Family Adapter $ 98. 

68705 Programmer $299. 



Development HardwareySoftware 
P.O. Box 289, Waveland. MS 39576 
601/467-8048 
,INC. 



GTEK, PALASM, CPM, MSDOS, PCDOS. ISIS, and TRSDOS 
are all registered trademarks. 



Inquiry 180 



MAY 1985 • BY IE 85 



Inquiry 288 




ONLY 

PUBLIC DOMAIN 

SOFTWARE 



is uncopyrighted, so no license fees to pay to anyone!. 
Thousands of useful dbase, spreadsheet, word processors, 
games, utilities and business programs you can copy yourself 
from our User Group rental libraries. Join hundreds of 
companies and users enjoying a wealth of inexpensive 
software! 

RENTAL LIBRARIES FOR CP/M 
SIG/M UG (New Jersey Area Computer Club) 

216 Disk Sides $125.00 

CP/M UG (New York Area Computer Club) 

92 Disk Sides : $45.00 

PICONET (Bay Area User Group) 

34 Disk Sides $25.00 

KUG (Charlottesville Kaypro User Group) 

25 Disk Sides $25.00 

NATIONAL EPSON UG 

32 Disk Sides $35.00 

PD DIRECTORY CATALOG DISK 

SPECIAL SALE— includes CP/M, SIG/M UG & PNET .. $5.00 pp 

RENTAL LIBRARIES FOR IBM PC DOS 

PC-BLUE (NYACC) 

82 Disk Sides $85.00 

IBM-PC SIG (Santa Clara Group, others) 

230 Disk Sides $250.00 

RENTAL LIBRARIES FOR COMMODORE 64 

28 Disk Sides $25.00 

PD DIRECTORY BOOKLET $12.00 pp 

Rental isfor7daysafterreceipt.3 moredaysgraceforreturn.Useyour 

credit card — NO DISK DEPOSIT' Most formats available —even 

Apple! Specifiy. Software also available for sale; $6.00 per disk full. 

24 hr., 3 minute info, recording 

(619)727-1015 

NATIONAL PUBLIC DOMAIN RENTAL CENTER 

■Hi l^>r\\ 1533 Avohill Dr., Vista, CA 92083 

(61 9) 941 -0925 Orders 



64K SBCs.°™$99. 



in OEM quantities 




•S ave development time and costs with 
Megatel Quark® single board computers 
• Select onl y the features you require 
•We deliver your first unit in 
two weeks or less 



• 6MHz Z80B® 

• 8088 Co-Processor 

• 64K. 128K or 256K RAM 

• Alpha/Graphics 

Video Controller 

• Floppy Disk Control 

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• Winchester Hard 

Disk Control 

• Up to 2 Full Duplex 

Serial Ports 



• Up to 128K EPROM 

• E 2 PROM Support 

■ Time of Day Clock 

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Or write us: Megatel 
1051 Clinton St., 
Buffalo, NY 14206 



CP1M is a registered trademark ol Digital Research 'Quantity one price 
Z80B is a registered trademark of Zilog Inc. 



86 B YTE • MAY 1985 



megatel 



EVENT QUEUE 



Spring, MD. Contact Trends 
and Applications "85, IEEE 
Computer Society. POB 639. 
Silver Spring. MD 2090 1. 
May 21-22 

• PARISIAN CONGRESS 
lntelligencia. Pare des Ex- 
positions, Porte de Ver- 
sailles, France. An exhibition 
and congress on expert sys- 
tems, simulation, graphics, 
courseware, and services. 
Contact Society for Com- 
puter Simulation, POB 2228, 
La jolla. CA 92038-2228, 
(619) 459-3888; in France, 
AFIAS: Association 
Francaise d'lntelligence 
Artificielle et des Systemes 
de Simulation, 211, Rue St- 
Honore, 75001, Paris, 
France; tel: (1) 260 3 5 16; 
Telex: 214 456 F. May 21-24 

• CAD TECHNOLOGY 
CAD 2001: The Countdown, 
Dallas, TX. Presentations on 
the future of computer-aided 
design. The fee is $900. 
Contact CAD Seminars Inc., 
Suite 400. 1 50 East River- 
side, Austin. TX 78704, (512) 
445-7342. May 22-24 

• SOFTWARE AND 
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 
Computer Software and 
Human Development Con- 
ference, Royal York Hotel, 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 
Held in conjunction with the 
Third Annual Software 
Panorama, this conference 
will examine the impact of 
software development on 
business, education, health, 
and agriculture. Contact 
Reuben Lando, The Software 
Developers Association, 
Suite 500, 18 5 Bloor St. E, 
Toronto, Ontario M4W 1C8, 
Canada. (416) 922-1153. 
May 22-24 

• SYSTEM INTEGRATION 
FOR USERS-Managers. 
Micros, and Mainframes: 
The 1985 NYU Symposium 
on Integrating Systems for 
End Users, New York Univer- 
sity, New York City. Contact 
Matthias Jarke, Graduate 



School of Business Adminis- 
tration, New York University, 
7th Floor Merrill, 90 Trinity 
Place, New York, NY 10006, 
(212) 285-6120. 
May 22-24 

• DISK-STORAGE EXPO 

The 1985 International 
Videodisc, Optical Disk, and 
CD-ROM Conference and 
Exhibition, London West 
Hotel London, England. 
Workshops, presentations, 
and exhibitions. Contact 
Angela Suter, Meckler Com- 
munications, 11 Ferry Lane 
W, Westport. CT 06880. 
(203) 226-6967; in England, 
Alice Taylor, Meckler Com- 
munications, c/o Eurospan, 
3 Henrietta St., London 
WC2E 8LU England; tel: 01 
240-0856. May 29-31 

• MANAGE PROGRAMS 
Configuration Management 
of Software Programs, 
Washington, DC. Methods 
for controlling the costs of 
development, maintenance, 
and operation of software. 
Contact Stod Cortelyou, 
Continuing Engineering 
Education, George Washing- 
ton University, Washington, 
DC 20052, (800) 424-9773; 
in the District of Columbia. 
(202) 676-8520. May 29-31 

• READYING FOR THE 
AUTOMATED OFFICE-De- 
veloping a Workable Plan for 
Office Automation, Washing- 
ton, DC. Methods of plan- 
ning for office automation 
and how to analyze tech- 
nological developments. The 
fee is $730. Contact Chip 
Blouin, Continuing Engineer- 
ing Education, George Wash- 
ington University, Washing- 
ton DC 20052, (800) 424- 
9773; in the District of Co- 
lumbia. (202) 676-8527. 

May 29-31 

• COMPUTER INTER- 
FACING— Personal Computer 
and STD Computer Interfac- 
ing for Scientific Instrument 
Automation, Virginia 

[continued) 



Inquiry 258 



THE PROFESSIONAL'S CHOICE 



Lotus 
1-2-3 

$299 



Lotus 
Symphony 

$419 



dBase III I FrameWork MultiMate 

$339 I $339 I $259 



WordStar 

2000+7 
$309 



Software 

Word Processing Editors 

EASYWRITERII 

SYSTEM $199 

FANCY FONT $139 

FINAL WORD $189 

MICROSOFT WORD $239 
MICROSOFT WORD 

W/MOUSE $289 

MULTIMATE $259 

PFS: WRITE $ 95 

SAMNA WORD III $289 
VOLKSWRITER DELUXE $159 
VOLKSWRITER 

SCIENTIFIC $279 
THE WORD PLUS 

(OASIS) $105 

WORD PERFECT $239 

WORDSTAR $199 

WORDSTAR 2000 $269 

WORDSTAR 2000+ $309 

WORDSTAR PRO $259 

XYWRITEII+ $229 

Spreadsheets/ 
Integrated Packages 

ELECTRIC DESK 
ENABLE 
FRAMEWORK 
LOTUS 1-2-3 
MULTIPLAN 
OPEN ACCESS 
SMART SYSTEM 
SPREADSHEET 

AUDITOR 
SUPERCALC3 
SYMPHONY 
TK! SOLVER 

Communications/ 
Productivity Toois 

CROSSTALK 

PRO KEY 

RELAY 

SMARTCOM II 

Project Management 

HARVARD PROJECT 

MANAGER $219 

HARVARD TOTAL 

PROJECT MANAGER $279 
MICROSOFT 

PROJECT $159 

SCITOR PROJECT 

5000 W GRAPHICS $289 

SUPERPROJECT-NEW $199 
TIMELINE $269 



Database Systems 

ALPHA DATA BASE 

MANAGER II 
CLIPPER 
CLOUT V 2.0 
CONDOR III 
CORNERSTONE 
DBASE II 
DBASE III 
INFOSTAR+ 
KNOWLEDGEMAN 
PFS: FILE/PFS: 

REPORT 
POWERBASE 
QUICKCODE III 
QUICKREPORT 
R BASE 4000 

Languages/Utilities 

CONCURRENT DOS 
C86 C COMPILER 
DIGITAL RESEARCH 

C COMPILER 
DR FORTRAN 77 
LATTICE C COMPILER 
MICROSOFT C 

COMPILER 
MS BASIC COMPILER 



$179 
SCail 
$139 
$299 
$329 
$269 
$339 
$319 
$269 

$169 
$219 
$169 
$169 
$259 



$189 
$299 

$219 
$219 
$299 

$309 
$249 



Graphics/Statistics 

ABSTAT 
AUTOCAD 
BPS BUSINESS 

GRAPHICS 
CHARTMASTER 
CHARTSTAR 
DR DRAW 
ENERGRAPHICSW/ 

PLOTTER 
EXECUVISION 
GRAPHWRITER 

COMBO 
MS CHART 
OVERHEAD 

EXPRESS 
PC DRAW 
PC PAINTBRUSH 
PFS: GRAPH 
SIGNMASTER 
STATPRO 
STATPAK-NWA 



Multifunction Boards 

$279 AST ADVANTAGE $399 

$1475 AST6PAKPLUS{64K) $259 

AST 6 PAK PLUS (384K) $384 

$229 ASTMEGAPLUSII(64K) $269 

$239 OUADBOARD EXP. 

$209 (OK) $229 

$199 QUADBOARD EXP. 

(384K) $384 
$279 ORCHID BLOSSOM 

$259 (64K) $289 

ORCHID PC TURBO $739 
$389 PERSYST TIME SPECTRUM 

$159 (64K) $259 

STB SUPER RIO (64K) $299 
$139 TECMAR CAPTAIN 

$259 (64K) $279 

$89 TECMAR JR CAPTAIN 

$ 95 (128K) $329 

$179 TECMAR JR WAVE (64K) $259 

$499 TECMAR WAVE (64K) $209 

$329 



$209 


MS FORTRAN 


$239 


$459 


NORTON UTILITIES 


$69 


$339 


TURBO PASCAL 


$45 


$299 
$135 


Accounting Modules 




$359 


BPI 


$329 


$559 


GREAT PLAINS 


$479 




IUSEASYBUSINESS 


$279 


$ 79 


MBA 


$369 


$199 


OPEN SYSTEMS 


$399 


$419 


PEACHTREE 


$299 


$269 


REAL WORLD 


$469 


STATE OF THE ART 


$389 




STAR ACCOUNTING 






PARTNER 


$249 


$105 


STAR ACCOUNTING 




$ 89 


PARTNER II 


$549 


$ 99 

$109 


Professional Development 




MANAGEMENT EDGE 


$159 




SALES EDGE 


$159 




THINK TANK 


$119 



Home/Personal 
Finance 

DOLLARS AND SENSE $119 
HOWARD TAX 

PREPARER 85 $195 

MICROTAX $Call 
MANAGING YOUR 

MONEY $129 



STATPAC- 




Displays 




WALONICK 


$349 


AMDEK310A 


$179 






AMDEK COLOR II * 


$459 


Desktop Environments 




PRINCETON HX-12 


$469 


DESK ORGANIZER 


$129 


PRINCETON MAX-12 


$179 


GET ORGANIZED 


$159 


PRINCETON SR-12 


$619 


SIDEKICK 


$ 45 


QUADRAM 




SPOTLIGHT 


$109 


AMBERCHROME 


$179 






TAXAN 122 AMBER 


$159 


Hardware 


* 


TAXAN 420/440 $399/599 
ZENITH 124 AMBER $145 
ZENITH 135 COLOR $Call 


Display Boards 




Modems 




EVER EX GRAPHICS 




AST REACH 1200 


$Call 


EDGE 


$359 


HAYES 1200 


$429 


HERCULES GRAPHICS 




HAYES 1200B 


$389 


CARD 


$329 


HAYES 2400 


$Call 


HERCULES COLOR 




VENTEL 1200 




CARD 


$179 


HALF CARD 


$399 


PARADISE MODULAR 








GRAPHICS 


$285 


Input Devices 




PARADISE 




KEYTRONIC 5151 


$189 


MULTIDISPLAY CARD 


$295 


KOALA 


$Catl 


PERSYST BOB 


$449 


MICROSOFT MOUSE 


$139 


PLANTRONICS 




PC MOUSE W PAINT 


$159 


COLORPLUS 


$419 






PRINCETON SCAN 




Mass Storage 




DOUBLER 


SCail 


ALLOY PC-BACKUP 




SIGMA COLOR 400 


$559 


20MB 


$1649 


STB GRAPHICS 




ALLOY PC-DISC 20MB 


$1769 


PLUS II 


$309 


IOMEGA 10+10 MB 


$2895 


TECMAR GRAPHICS 




MAYNARD WS-1 10MB 


$Call 


MASTER 


$489 


SIGMA 


$Call 


TSENG ULTRA PAK 


$429 


SYSGEN IMAGE 


$Call 


TSENG ULTRA PAK -S 


$359 


TALLGRASS 


$Call 



Printers/Plotters 
C. ITOH 

COMWRITER II/420 
DIABLO 620/630 
EPSON FX-100+ 
EPSON LQ-1500 
EPSON JX-80 
HP 7475A PLOTTER 
JUKI 6100 
NECP3 
NEC 2050 
NEC 3550 
OKIDATA 84P/93P 
PANASONIC 
QUME SPRINT 1155 
SWEET P 6 PEN 

PLOTTER 
TOSHIBA PI340 
TOSHIBA P1351 

Emulation Boards 
ASTPCOX 
AST 3780 
ASTSNA/BSC 
BLUE LYNX 
CXI 3278/9 
IRMA 
IRMALINE 
IRMAPRINT 
QUAD 3278 

Networks 

AST PC NET 
CORVUS NET 
ORCHID PC NET 
3 COM 
QUADNET IX 



$Call 
$Call 
$Call 
$Call 
$Call 
$Call 
$Call 
$419 
$899 
$769 

$1399 

$729/619 

$Call 

$1569 

$899 

$779 

$1279 



$949 
$609 
$689/529 
$Call 
$950 
$869 
$999 
$Call 
$949 



$Call 
$Call 
$Call 
$Call 
$Call 



$Call 



Accessories 

CURTIS SURGE 

PROTECTORS 
EPD SURGE 

PROTECTORS $Call 

DATASHIELD BACKUP 

POWER $Call 

GILTRONIXA/BSWITCH $Call 
MICROBUFFER INLINE 

(64K) $264 

MICROFAZER INLINE 

(64K) $219 

64K RAM SET $25 

256K RAM SET $Call 

8087 MATH CHIP $150 



'CALL FOR SHIPPING COSTS 



Samna 
Word III 

$289 


Chart-Master 

$339 



AST6Pak 

Hus :■ ' 

$259 



Tseng • 
"Ultra Pak 

$429 



Smartmodem I Smartmodem 
1S00B I 1200 




LOWEST PRICE 
GUARANTEE!! 

We will match current 

nationally advertised 

prices on most products. 

Call and compare. 



$389 



free 



$429 



Diskette 

Library 

Case 

with your order 




1-800-221-12B0 

In New York State call (718) 438-6057 



TERMS: 

Checks— allow 14 days to clear. Credit processing— add 3%. COD orders— cash, 
M.O or certified check— add $3.00. Shipping and handling UPS surface— add $3.00 
per item (UPS Blue $6.00 per item). NY State Residents— add applicable sales tax. 
All prices subject to change. 



MON.-THURS. 9:00AM-8:00PM 
SUN. & FRI. 9:00AM-4:00PM 




Softline Corporation 
P.O. Box 729, Brooklyn, 
TELEX: 421047 ATLN Ul 



11230 



MAY I985 -BYTE 87 




jXBta; 




Li* V I*. 



. 



Hard to carry 



• 




m 



Hard to read 



COMPAQ* is a registered trademark and COMPAQ PLUS™ is a trademark of COMPAQ Computer Corporation. IBM 8 is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. • 1985 COMPAQ Computer Corporation. 

88 BYTE • MAY 1985 





m 



•••■••■■:."\T\* 



Hard to expand 






Hard to beat 

Feature for feature, it's hard to beat the 
COMPAQ* Portable and COMPAQ 
PLUS™. For one simple reason. While 
others make compromises, COMPAQ 
makes portable personal computers 
that can do everything a desktop can. 
And more. 

Compared to the IBM* PC, for 
instance, COMPAQ Portables run all 
the same popular business programs, 
all the same printers, and can expand 
to more than 30 times the storage. Plus 
they have a handle. 

Compared to briefcase models, 
COMPAQ offers more again. More 
memory. More storage. A standard 
keyboard. Standard diskette drives so 
you can use industry-standard pro- 
grams—as they are, without modifica- 
tion. And a brilliant, high-resolution 
screen that displays text and graphics 
at one time. Not one you have to play 
peekaboo with. 

Compared to the Mac, COMPAQ 
lets you add a second diskette drive or 
even a 10-megabyte fixed disk drive. 
Inside, not out. Not to mention that we 
speak the Mother Tongue of Business 
Computers and Mac doesn't. 

With a rugged, full-function 
COMPAQ, you don't have to compro- 
mise capability, compatibility or read- 
ability for portability. 

comPAa 

It simply works better. 

For a free brochure or the location of your nearest Authorized COMPAQ Computer Dealer, call toll-free 1-800-231-0900 and ask for Operator 1. 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 89 



EVENT QUEUE 



Polytechnic Institute and 
State University, Blacksburg. 
A hands-on workshop with 
participants wiring and 
testing interfaces. The fee is 
$4 50. Contact Dr. Linda 
Leffel, C.E.C, Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute and 
State University, Blacksburg, 
VA 24061. (703) 961-4848. 
May 30-]une I 



\une 1985 

• ENGINEERING CON- 
FERENCES— Engineering 
Summer Conferences, 
Chrysler Center for Continu- 
ing Engineering Education, 
University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor. Conferences in such 
areas as biomedical, 
chemical, civil, computer, 
electrical, and environmental 
engineering. Contact Engi- 
neering Summer Con- 
ferences, 200 Chrysler 
Center, North Campus. Uni- 
versity of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor. MI 48109. (313) 
764-8490. \une-August 

• INFO MANAGEMENT 
SEMINARS-NYU Seminars 
on Information Manage- 
ment, various sites through- 
out the U.S. On the agenda 
are 'Legal Issues in Acquir- 
ing and Using Computers" 
and "'Networking Personal 
Computers.'" Contact School 
of Continuing Education, 
Seminar Center, New York 
University. 575 Madison 
Ave.. New York. NY 10022. 
(212) 580-5200. ]une-October 

• COMPUTER/HAMFEST 
The Fifth Annual Columbus 
Computerfest/Hamfest, Col- 
umbus. OH. A flea market 
featuring computers and 
electronic and amateur radio 
equipment highlights this 
event. Admission is $2 in 
advance or $3 at the door. 
Send a self-addressed 
stamped envelope to Bill 
Welch, W8LLU. 396 Brevoort 
Rd.. Columbus, OH 43214. 
lane 2 



• LEARN TO BUILD 

PROGRAMS-First North 
American Summer School 
on Program Construction, 
Newport. RI. Methods for 
the effective construction of 
software will be taught. Con- 
tact Teleprocessing Inc., 60 
State St.. Boston, MA 02109. 
(617) 367-6227. June 3-12 

• INTERFACES FOR 
SCHOOL LABS-lnterfacing 
for School Laboratories, 
Miami University, Oxford, 
OH. A workshop for sec- 
ondary school and college 
teachers on the construction 
and use of. interfaces for 
laboratory instrumentation. 
Contact Bill Rouse, 301 
McGuffey Hall, Miami Uni- 
versity. Oxford, OH 45056. 
(513) 529-2141. ]une 3-14 

• COMPUTER MAINTE- 
NANCE— Independent Com- 
puter Maintenance. Halloran 
House. New York. NY. Con- 
tact Carol Every, Frost & 
Sullivan Inc., 106 Fulton St., 
New York. NY 10038, (212) 
233-1080. ]une 5-6 

• OPTICAL STORAGE 

First Annual Conference on 
Optical Storage for Small 
Systems, Biltmore Hotel, Los 
Angeles. CA. Contact Tech- 
nology Opportunity Con- 
ference, POB 14817, San 
Francisco, CA 94114-0817. 
(415) 626-1133. ]me 5-7 

• COMPUTERS FOR SALE 
Computer Supermarket 
Show and Sale. San Mateo 
County Fairgrounds. San 
Mateo, CA. Retailers, manu- 
facturers, and distributors 
will be selling hardware and 
software. Admission is $7; 
children. $3. Contact Micro- 
shows, Suite 203, 1209 Don- 
nelly Ave., Burlingame, CA 
94010. (415) 340-9113. 

\une 8-9 

• COMPUTER VISION 

Computer Vision and Pat- 
tern Recognition Conference, 
Cathedral Hill Hotel, San 
Francisco, CA Submitted 



and invited technical papers. 
Contact Computer Vision 
and Pattern Recognition, 
POB 639, Silver Spring, MD 
20901. (301) 589-8142. 
]une 9-13 

• MUMPS MEETING 
The Fourteenth Annual 
Meeting of the MUMPS 
Users' Group. McCormick 
Center Hotel, Chicago, IL. 
Tutorials, workshops, site 
visits, discussions, and ex- 
hibits. Contact MUMPS 
Users' Group, Suite 510, 
4321 Hartwick Rd.. College 
Park. MD 20740. (301) 
779-6555. ]me 10-14 

• UNIX. C CONFERENCE 
USENIX Conference and 
Vendor Exhibition, Marriott 
Hotel, Portland. OR. USENIX 
is a nonprofit organization 
promoting UNIX. UNIX-like 
systems, and C-language 
programming. Contact 
USENIX Conference Office, 
POB 385. Sunset Beach. CA 
90742, (213) 592-3243. 

\me 11-14 

• NETWORK CONTROL 

AND MANAGEMENT-Net- 
work Management/Technical 
Control, Santa Clara Mar- 
riott, Santa Clara. CA. 
Diagnostic and test instru- 
ments will be displayed. 
Contact Louise Myerow. CW 
Conference Management 
Group. 375 Cochituate Rd.. 
POB 880, Framingham, MA 
01701. (800) 225-4698; in 
Massachusetts, (617) 
879-0700. \me 12-13 

• CLINICAL COMPUTING 
Computing in Clinical 
Laboratories: The Fifth Inter- 
national Conference. Stutt- 
gart, Federal Republic of 
Germany. Topics include 
databases, data presenta- 
tion, and expected 
developments. Demon- 
strations and exhibits. Con- 
tact PD Dr. Chr. Trendelen- 
burg. Katharinenhospital KG, 
Kriegsbergstrasse 60. 
D-7000 Stuttgart I. Federal 
Republic of Germany; tel: 



(07 II) 20 34-4 82. 
]une 12-14 

• COMPUTERS IN 
CLINICAL LABS-Clinical 
Laboratory Computers: Sym- 
posium 1985, The Towsley 
Center. University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor. Con- 
tact Dove Margenau, Office 
of Continuing Medical 
Education, The Towsley 
Center. Box 057. The Univer- 
sity of Michigan Medical 
School. Ann Arbor, MI 
48109-0010, (313) 763-1400. 
]une 12-14 

• FORTH CONFERENCE 

The 1985 Rochester FORTH 
Conference. University of 
Rochester. Rochester. NY. 
The focus will be on soft- 
ware engineering and man- 
agement. Contact Ms. Maria 
Gress, Institute for Applied 
FORTH Research, 70 Elm- 
wood Ave.. Rochester, NY 
14611, (716) 235-0168. 
\une 12-15 

• LOGICAL MACHINES 
The Second Annual Con- 
ference on Logic, Logic 
Machines, and Public Educa- 
tion, University of Houston- 
Clear Lake. Houston, TX. 
Formal and informal ses- 
sions, symposia, and work- 
shops. Contact the Institute 
for Logic and Cognitive 
Studies, University of 
Houston-Clear Lake, Box 
269, Houston, TX 77058. 
(713) 488-9274. \une 13-15 

• INTERNATIONAL SHOW 
The International Computer 
Show, Trade Fair Center, Col- 
ogne, West Germany. More 
than 3 50 manufacturers 
from more than 18 countries 
are expected to display their 
wares. Contact Messe- und 
Ausstellungs-Ges.m.b.H. 
Koln, Messeplatz, Postfach 
210760. D-5000 Koln 21, 
West Germany; tel: (02 21) 
821-1; Telex: 8 873 426 mua 
d. ]une 13-16 

• BIO RESEARCH 
RESOURCE— Introduction to 



90 B V T t • MAY IW5 5 



EVENT QUEUE 



B10NET: A National Com- 
puter Resource for 
Molecular Biology, Rutgers 
University. Piscataway, Nj. 
Workshops on using com- 
puters for molecular biology 
research. Contact Selma Git- 
terman, Continuing Profes- 
sional Education. Institute of 
Microbiology. Rutgers Uni- 
versity, POB 7 59, Piscataway, 
Nj 08854-0759, (201) 
932-4258. )une 17-19 

• PC IN BIG APPLE 

PC Expo, Coliseum. New 
York, NY. Seminars and 
product displays. Contact PC 
Expo. 333 Sylvan Ave., 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, 
(800) 922-0324; in New 
jersey, (201) 569-8542. 
June J7-19 

• ENGINEERING 
SOFTWARE-Engineering 
Software: Engsoft 85, The 
Fourth International Con- 
ference and Exhibition. Ken- 
sington Exhibition Centre. 
London, England, Exhibits 
and sessions. Contact Elaine 
Taylor, Computational 
Mechanics Centre, Ashurst 
Lodge, Ashurst, Southamp- 
ton S04 2AA, England; tel: 
(042 129) 3223; Telex: 47388 
Attn. COMPMECH. 

\une 18-20 

• DATA COMMUNICA- 
TIONS UPDATE-Data Com- 
munications: A Complete 
Overview and Update, 
Newport Beach, CA. The 
managerial, operational, and 
technical aspects of data 
communications and facili- 
ties are covered. Contact 
Data-Tech Institute, Lakeview 
Plaza, POB 2429, Clifton. Nj 
07015, (201) 478-5400. 

lune 19-21 

• TIPS FOR NET 
MANAGERS— Network Man- 
agement/Technical Control, 
Convention Center. San Jose. 
CA. A conference and ex- 
position. Contact CW Con- 
ference Management Group, 
37 5 Cochituate Rd. POB 
880, Framingham, MA 



01701, (800) 225-4698; in 
Massachusetts. (617) 
879-0700. lune 24-27 

• WORK WITH A 
COMPUTER-Using a Per- 
sonal Computer, Brecken- 
ridge Concourse Hotel. St. 
Louis, MO. A hands-on 
course for those who want 
to use integrated software 
packages. The fee is $965. 
Contact The Center for Pro- 
fessional Advancement. POB 
H, East Brunswick, Nj 08816, 
(201) 238-1600. lune 24-27 

• GRAPHICS IN SUNSHINE 
Computer Graphics '85 
West, Los Angeles, CA. Con- 
tact National Computer 
Graphics Association. 8401 
Arlington Blvd., Fairfax, VA 
22031, (703) 698-9600. 

\une 25-27 

• CAD TECHNOLOGY 

CAD 2001; The Countdown, 
Boston. MA. See May 22-24 
for details, lime 26-28 

• DATA COMMUNICA- 
TIONS UPDATE-Data Com- 
munications: A Complete 
Overview and Update. 
Philadelphia, PA. See June 
19-21 for details. lune 26-28 



July 1985 



• COMPUTER TRAINING 
Computer Training Pro- 
grams. Wintergreen Learning 
Institute. Wintergreen, VA. 
Hands-on training in word 
processing, information 
management, spreadsheets, 
and graphics. Contact Dr. 

M. D. Corcoran, Wintergreen 
Learning Institute, POB 7, 
Wintergreen, VA 22958, 
(804) 325-1107. 
lulu-September 

• ADVANCED 
AUTOMATION-Robot 
Manipulators, Computer Vi- 
sion, and Automated 
Assembly, Cambridge. MA. 
Contact Director of the 

{continued) 



"Switch boxes are sold by many 
suppliers, but by far the two best 
^h^^S^^ 1 ^ ^**7 Enterprises." 



MFJ RS-232 TRANSFER SWITCH 

. 31, ^ -* 4 4*%$$. 



m rn^rn • 



"The MFJRS^32^Snsfer 
Switch. Buy it before the manu- 
facturer comes to his senses!" 




port expansion. Don't keep plugging 

your computer to your high-speed printer, 

RS>232 peripheral device. MFJ's range of 

your need*; at a price you can afford. 

these prices. Compare others at 

their reviews. When they won't 




Joe Campbell, The RS232 Solution 
S)-bex Computer Bo«ks 

Now you can have reliable and affordable 
and unplugging cables. You can easily switch 
letter-quality printer, modem, terminal - a 
Traasfer Switches includes one to 
I.ook at these choices; then look at 
any price! Then ask them for 
show you, call MFJ . . . 

When you need to switch between two peripherals ... or you need to have two 
computers sharing the same peripheral . . . Model 1240/$79.95 

Never unpluga cable again. Now, with die push of a button you can go from dot matrix to letter- 
quality printing, or go from your printer 
to your modem. MFJ's Model 12-40 
Transfer Switch features a built-in 
transmit /receive switch allowing you 
two-way information flow. LFDs moni- 
tor important data lines while a built-in 
surge protector guards them. Hie 1 240 
also acts as a null modem. All this for 
just S79.9S.No wonder its MFJ's No. I seller! 

When you need l-to-4 computers to share one peripheral or l-to-4 peripherals 
to share a common computer ... Model 1 2 4 3 / $ 1 1 9 • 9 5 

The perfect office Transfer Switch. Don't buy multiple printers 

■pi or modems. Just buy MFJ's Model 124 3- Then you can connect 

JBik >^=^. 1 one or all your computers to a single 

printer or modem. Or let your one 
computer share up to four peri- 
pherals. Think of the money you'll 
save. l^EDs monitor important data lines while a built-in surge 
protector guards them. Two-way communication is allowed with 
no complicated software to learn: just push a button! 

Seven additional models to choose from. Each unit's casing 
is constructed from high-quality aluminum. Printed circuit hoards 
assure maximum reliability by eliminating crosstalk, line interference and any need for wiring. 
All MFJ switches hare IJiDs to monitor ekita lines and MOV surge protectors. Enhance the 
investment you've already made in your computer by choosing from the finest line of Transfer 
Switches on the market, including MFJ's IBM & Centronics Parallel Switches. 

You've got a lot of money tied up in your computer. Don't bUnv it! 

Your valuable computer and peripheral equipment can be damaged by electrical surges 
much smaller than you've been led to believe. Far more likely to happen is having your impor- 
tant data wiped out. These disasters, and others, can be prevented with MFJ's Power Centers. 
Relay latches power off during power dropouts (Model 1 108). Multi-filters isolate equipment, 
eliminate interaction, noise and hash. MOVs suppress spikes and surges. MFJ's Power 
Centers also have 3 isolated, switched socketpairs, with at least one unswitched socket (so 
you can add a clock, etc.), lighted pow r er switch, fast-acting fuse, 3-wire, 6-foot cords; 15A, 
125V, and 1875 watts. Although each model is attractively 
housed in a protective aluminum casing, these are 
heavy-duty commercial-quality power centers. 
Watch out for fancy names that cost twice 
much, last half as long, and have- 
half the features of MFTs Power 
Centers. 





Model 1107 8 sockets. 
2 unswitched; $79-95 
Model 1108 7 sockets, 1 unswitched; 
with dropout relay; $99-95 
1109 is like 1 107 but intelligent (switch 
vice that's plugged into the control socket 
cry thing else comes on). $129-95 

There are other RS-232 Switches, Power Centers, and Computer Peripheral Pro- 
ducts available from MFJ. Call and talk with us ab«ut all your computing needs, and when 
you do, ask for out latest catalog. Both the call and the catalog are free. 

1-800-647-1800 

For technical/repair information, or in Mississippi, or outside the Continental United States, 



please telephone 

l-(601)323-5869<.r.c„* 



53-4590 MFJSTKV 



All MFJ pnxlucts come with a tfoufo/eguarantcc we think is unmatched. Srdcr from MFJ 
and try any product for 30 days. If it doesn't satisfy your needs, just return it for a full refund, 
less shipping. If you keep it you can be assured of continued service with our One Year 
Unconditional Guarantee. 

Call toll-free 1-800-647-1800 and charge the products you need to your VISA or Master- 
Card, or send a check or money order, plus $5.00 shipping, and our shipping department will 
promptly have your computer peripheral on its way to you. 




MFJ Enterprises Inc. 
921 Louisville Road 
Starkville, MS 39759 



Inquiry 261 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 91 



Inquiry 275 




n MICROTIME 

j^ 411 111. GRANT RD, TUCSON, RZ 05705 



SANYO 

$1224 



MSDOS 2.11 12BK RAM (23360K DRIVES 

PARALLEL PORT ZENITH MONITOR 

WORDSTAR EASYWRITER CALCSTAR 

EPSON RX-BO WITH CABLE 




KITS 

E» ONE OR TWO 
™ 360K DRIVES 
„ 10 OR 20 M 
n HARD DISK 
10M TAPE 
=1 BACK-UP 

YOUR CHOICE: KIT OR ASSEMBLED 

CALL FOR PRICES 



SRNVO 




COLOR PORTABLE PORTABLE 

OPTIONAL 10 MEGABYTE HARD DISK 

CALL FOR PRICES 




320K RAM (2)360K DRIVES 

GRAPHICS CARD PARALLEL PORT 

ZENITH MONITOR THE WORD MULTIPLAN 

BROTHER HR- 15 WITH CABLE 




320K RAM 360K DRIVE GRAPHICS CARD 
PARALLEL PORT Z 1 33 COLOR MONITOR 

MS DOS 2.1 1 THE WORD MULTIPLAN 
20M BERNOULLI BROTHER 2024/CABLE 



IBM-PC 



"5 



CALL 

| BROTHER HR15JX 



256KRAM (2) 360K DRIVES 

AST SIX-PACK WITH 64K 

HERCULES CARD ZENITH Z124 MONITOR 

EPSON FX-BO+ OR BROTHER HR-15 



800-642 7684 

ST. LOUIS 773-6951 TUCSON 791-9030 




Now 

Available 

— A Complete 

Payroll Service Bureau 

In One Small Package. 

(Not A Franchise) 

I Banking Relations ■ Sales Aids 

I Customer Relations ■ Advertising Program 

I Complete Software Package for Your Equipment 

Everything you need to start your 
independent payroll service bureau. . . 
software, manuals, a complete how to 
package. For more information write 

/%/% to: pflc,F,c MVROLL SVSTCMS, INC. 

*wW*i 7 280 Newhope Street, Suite 13 
Fountain Valley, CA 92708 



a* 



ki 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



EVENT QUEUE 



Summer Session, Room 
El 9-3 56. MIT. Cambridge, 
MA 02 1 39. My 8-12 

• COMPUTATIONAL 
LINGUISTICS-The Twenty- 
Third Annual Meeting of the 
Association for Computa- 
tional Linguistics. University 
of Chicago. IL. Papers, 
demonstrations, and 
tutorials. Contact Don 
Walker (ACL), Bell Com- 
munications Research, 445 
South St., Morristown, NJ 
07960, (201) 829-4312. 

My 8-12 

• AWC CONFERENCE 

The Fourth Annual National 
Conference of the Associa- 
tion for Women in Comput- 
ing, Allerton Hotel, Chicago, 
IL. Workshops and sessions 
on technical and career- 
enhancement topics. Con- 
tact loan Wallbaum, AWCC 
'85. 407 Hillmore Dr.. Silver 
Spring. MD 20901. 
My 13-14 

• THE NCC 

The 1985 National Com- 
puter Conference— NCC '85, 
McCormick Place, Chicago, 
IL. Exhibits, technical ses- 
sions, and development 
seminars. This year's theme 
is "Technology's Expanding 
Horizons." Contact Helen 
Mugnier, AFIPS, 1899 
Preston White Dr., Reston, 
VA 22091, (703) 620-8926. 
My 15-18 

• COMPUTER 

WORKSHOPS-Personal 
Computer Workshops, 
Aspen and Colorado 
Springs, CO. Tutorials, in- 
cluding an introduction to 
personal computers, word 
processing, spreadsheets, 
and database management. 
Contact Rocky Mountain In- 
stitute of Software Engineer- 
ing, 1670 Bear Mountain 
Dr., POB 3521, Boulder, CO 
80303, (303) 499-4782. 
My 22-26 

• S1GGRAPH 

SIGGRAPH '85: The Twelfth 



Annual Conference on Com- 
puter Graphics and Interac- 
tive Techniques, Moscone 
Center, San Francisco, CA. 
Contact SIGGRAPH '85, 
Conference Services Office, 
Smith, Bucklin and Asso- 
ciates Inc., 1 1 1 East Wacker 
Dr., Chicago. IL 60601. (312) 
644-6610. ]uly 22-26 

• SIMULATION 

The 1985 Summer Com- 
puter Simulation Con- 
ference— SCSC '85, Westin 
Hotel, Chicago, IL. Contact 
Charles Pratt, Society for 
Computer Simulation, POB 
2228. La Jolla, CA 92038. 
(619) 459-3888. ]uly 22-26 

• INTELLIGENT MACHINES 

Logic Programming & Ex- 
pert Systems, The Turing In- 
stitute, Edinburgh, Scotland. 
Lectures, demonstrations, 
and sessions on program- 
ming techniques, system 
structure, and PROLOG. 
Contact The Turing Institute, 
2 Hope Park Square, Edin- 
burgh, EH8 9NW, Scotland; 
tel: 031-668-173 7. 
My 24-2 5 

• PUBLIC COMPUTING 

The Twenty-Third Annual 
Conference of the Urban 
and Regional Information 
Systems Association, Westin 
Hotel, Ottawa, Ontario, 
Canada. The conference 
theme is "Computers in 
Public Agencies, Sharing 
Solutions." Contact URISA 
Secretariat, Suite 300. 1340 
Old Chain Bridge Rd., 
McLean, VA 22101. (703) 
790-1745. My 28- August 1 

• COMPUTERS AND 
EDUCATION-The 1985 
World Conference on Com- 
puters in Education. SCOPE 
Convention Center. Norfolk, 
VA. Exhibits, papers, panel 
sessions, tutorials, and 
preconference workshops. 
Contact WCCE/85, AFIPS. 
1899 Preston White Dr.. 
Reston, VA 22091, (800) 
622-1985; in Virginia, (703) 
620-8900. ]uly 29- August 2 ■ 



92 BYTE' MAY 1985 Inquiry 311 for Dealers. Inquiry 312 for End-Users. 




80/1 32-Column Printer. 



< Because they're already built-in. The 80/132- 
column printer. The 9-inch, high-resolution 
display. There's even a built-in 3§0K disk 
drive. Which all make the Sr. Partner a com- 
* plete computer as is. x 
The Sr. Partner is IBM hardware and software 
compatible so you can run popular business pro- 
grams immediately The software bundle currently 
offered with the Sr. Partner is WordStar, VisiCalc, 
^ pfs: Graph, File, Report, MS-DOS 2. 11 
* and GW BASIC* 

And with its 256K internal memory 

expandable to 51 2K, the Sr. Partner can 

run the new integrated software. 

Built-ins also include expansion slots 

and parallel and serial I/O ports. There's even a built-in 

RGB monitor port so you can take advantage of the 

Sr. Partner's color and graphics capability. 

If you want 10 megabytes of storage, choose the new 
hard disk Sr. Partner. 

Both the Sr. Partner and the hard disk Sr. Partner come 
with an exceptional Panasonic warranty.* * 

For the dealers nearest you, call: 1-800-PIC-8086. The 
Panasonic Sr. Partner. No peripherals needed. It makes 
the competition look like Jr. Executives. 

Panasonic 

Industrial Company 

Inquiry 314 



9-Inch High-Resolution Display 



Optional 10-Megabyte Hard Disk or 
Optional Second 360K Disk Drive* 



360K Disk Drive Built-in 




eSPqv 



256KRAM 



IBM Compatibility 



^Software bundle offer subject to change or withdrawal at any time without notice and is not available with Hard Disk Sr. Partner. **One-year limited warranty, 

6 months on thermal printer head.Carry-in or mail-in service. Sr. Partner is a trademark of Matsushita Electric Industrial Company Ltd; WordStar is the trademark of 

MicroPro international Corporation; VisiCalc isthe registered trademark of VisiCorp; pfs:Graph, File, Report are the registered trademarks of Software 

Publishing Corporation; GW BASIC, MS-DOS are the trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. 



PORTHE FIRSTTIME IN 
THE HISTQRYOFTHE UNIVERSE, 
YOU CAN DEVELOPAN INTEGRATED 
APPLICATION THAT REALLYSINGS. 




HERES HOW: 



FRAMEWORK SOFTWARE 



Framework' "is the 
only integrated software 
that contains a program- 
ming language.This 
means that you can use 
the language to create 
special applications 
which use all the fea- 
tures of Framework. 

For the first time, 
you'll find it easy to de- 
sign custom programs 
which let users outline, 
write, workwith data 
and create graphs for 
their own special re- 
quirements, and use all 
Framework functions 
with a single set of easily- 
learned commands. 

Let's say your cus- 
tomer is using a sales 



analysis program you've 
written using Framework. 
He loves the ability to 
draw graphs and use all 
the other standard 
Framework features.To 
his surprise, when the 
Sales Analysis graph 
reveals the Southern 
region is leading, his PC 
starts playing "Dixie'.' 

Ifyouusethe 
Framework program- 
ming language, you'll 
discover the @BEEP 
command, which lets 
you select both fre- 
quency and duration : 
@BEEP (440,300) 
plays a pure "A" for 3 
seconds. Not quite long 
enough to tune an orches- 



tra, but it's the start of a 
melody. 

Ashton-Tate™ has cre- 
ated a whole industry of 
vertical-market applica- 
tions with its dBASE II® 
and dBASE Hint's doing 
the same with Framework. 

Climb aboard the 
bandwagon. Make your 
programs take on the 
beauty of the varied capa- 
bilities of Framework. 

For a dealer near you 
call (800) 437-4329, 
ext. 222. In Colorado 
(303)799-4900, 
ext. 222. 



Framework, dBASE III 

and Ashton-Tate 

are trademarks of Ashton-T 

dBASE II is a registered 

trademark of AshtonTate. 

©Ashton-Tate 1985. All rights reserved. 




Software from 



Inquiry 41 



/SHTON -TATE' 

Well put you in control. 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 95 













I 












BVTE 



Features 



The at&t UNIX PC THIS MONTH'S FEATURES lead off with a product description of the AT&T 

by Gregg Williams 98 UNIX PC a new machine from AT&T Information Systems. As Gregg Williams, 

Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar: senior technical editor, points out, with the UNIX PC, AT&T hopes to establish 

Build the Home Run Control System, UNIX as a standard in the business world and challenge IBM. Gregg wasn't 

Part 2: The Hardware a b] e to S p enc | a || the time he wanted with the machine, but he has some 

by Steve Garcia 108 definjte impressions of its pros and cons 

Set Extensions with Apple Pascal Steve Qarcia continues with Part 2 of his Circuit Cellar Home Run Control 

by Mfred L. Scfiumer 128 System> explaining more of the details of his home and the system and how 

Build a Talking Clock Speech j^ey come together. 

Synthesizer Next< A | gchumer discusses "Set Extensions with Apple Pascal." He describes 

y mes ' ie e sets, operators, and logical machine equivalents and presents a fast exten- 

Smalltalk Comes to the sion program to App ] e Pasca ] t h at increases the size of available sets and 

Microcomputer World jj . *.- 

by Bruce Webster 151 adds more set operations. 

While "Build a Talking Clock Speech Synthesizer" might sound like a proj- 

Methods: A Preliminary Look t . i . < , , , ^ .. *J ... ^ ..i-*. c 

by Bruce Webster and Tom Yonkman 152 ect that s been done before < this one adds the interesting capability of exper- 
imenting with unlimited-vocabulary speech processing. A couple of inexpen- 

by Christopher Made 155 sive c hips. a few components, and your Commodore 64 or VIC-20 will keep 
, time and also announce it. 

bylm TZ^ai^^^^^M Peo P le remember the Au § ust ™\ BYTE because of its Smalltalk theme. 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ They also remember that Smalltalk wasn't available for microcomputers then 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and wondered when they would get a chance to experiment with this intrigu- 
ing environment. This month we present a follow-up, what we call our Smalltalk 
trilogy. 

First, contributing editor Bruce Webster and r Ibm Yonkman evaluate Methods, 
from Digitalk Inc., a Smalltalk version for the IBM PC and those machines that 
emulate it. Christopher Macie then describes his restricted version of Smalltalk, 
Smalltalk-PC, for the Apple II and others. And, finally, for those who would 
like a refresher on Smalltalk-80, Jim Anderson and Barry Fishman of Digitalk 
give us a brief review and an application that runs under Methods. 

— Gene Srnarte, Managing Editor 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 97 



by Gregg Williams 



THE AT&T 
UNIX PC 

Editor's note: The following is a BYTE product description. 1 1 is not a review. 
We provide an advance look at this new product because we feel it is significant. 

THE UNIX OPERATING SYSTEM has been heralded as the answer 
to many of the problems that face computer users, especially 
those who need multiuser programs or who need to move a large 
software system from, say, a microcomputer to a mainframe. But, 
despite its good features, one fault of UNIX makes many people 
doubt that it can succeed in a commercial environment: UNIX 
contains many cryptic commands that must be mastered and 
remembered to make use of its power (for example, mv renames 
a file, cat prints it out, and Is gives a catalog of files in your cur- 
rent area). 

The AT&T UNIX PC is AT&T Information Systems' attempt to 
establish UNIX as a standard for the business environment and 
to challenge IBM's dominance in the office. Its extensive use of 
windows and a menu-driven "front-end" program called the Of- 
fice bring most of the power of UNIX to the unskilled user. Its 
Motorola 68010 processor gives the machine virtual memory capa- 
bilities—the system appears to software as if it has 4 megabytes 
of memory, even when it actually has as little as 512K bytes. Its 
telephone subsystem integrates the computer and the telephone, 
allowing such functions as computerized logging of phone calls, 
dialing from a customized directory, and saved, on-screen note 
taking during calls. 

The UNIX PC comes with either a 10- or a 20-megabyte inter- 
nal hard disk, can support up to two additional users (but without 
telephone services or multiple windows), and can read IBM PC- 
DOS data and source-code files. Although the machine has both 
good design features (it can be used equally well with or without 
its mouse, for example) and bad ones (windows respond slug- 
gishly to mouse-initiated moves and change-size commands), its 
base price of $5 590 for the 10-megabyte model (and $6590 for 
the 20-megabyte model) makes it a serious candidate for office 
use or UNIX program development. Buying the unit, however, 
forces you to cast your lot with the AT&T/UNIX world-AT&T says 
it has no plans to offer an add-on board that would allow the 
UNIX PC to run IBM PC programs. 

System Description 

The UNIX PC was designed to AT&T specifications by Convergent 
Technologies oLSanta Clara, Califo rnia: its c haracteristics are sum- 
marized in the In Brief section on page 100. The AT&T mouse 
(see photo l)Ha§" three buttons. TfTese mimic the Enter, Cmd, Photo 1: 
and Mark keys on the keyboard (see photo 2); you can perform 

[continued) The AT&T 
Gregg Williams is a senior technical editor at BYTE. He can be contacted 
at POB 372. Hancock, NH 03449. UNIX PC. 



98 BYTE • MAY 1985 



PHOTOGRAPHED BY AARON REZNY 




.V 



. 



x .v .#' 



PRODUCT 
ESCR1PTK 



I H H Wm 



HI 






hiiiiiijihu*'^ 



fiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiin 




IN BRIEF 



Name 

AT&T UNIX PC 

Price 

$5095 with 10-megabyte hard disk and 512K bytes of memory 
(UNIX $495 extra, for a total of $5590); $6590 with UNIX, 20-megabyte 
hard disk, and 1 megabyte of memory (includes 512K-byte expansion 
card) 

Microprocessor 

Motorola 68010, a 32-/16-bit microprocessor (32-bit internal data path 
and registers, 16-bit external data bus), 24-bit address line (maximum 
address space of 16 megabytes), support for virtual memory 

Clock Speed 

10 MHz 

Main Memory 

512K bytes of dynamic RAM with parity bit on motherboard, 
currently expandable to 2 megabytes via expansion boards; 
machine's design allows for a maximum of 4 megabytes 

Virtual Memory 

Custom memory-management hardware and the Winchester disk 
allow a virtual memory space of 4 megabytes; page size is 4K bytes 

ROM 

16K bytes of EPROM used as initialization program when power 
or reset applied 

Floppy Disk 

Double-sided 5 1 /4-inch floppy-disk drive using 48 tracks per inch; 
capable of reading IBM PC data and source-code disks; stores 320K 
bytes per disk AT&T format, 360K bytes per disk MS-DOS format 

Hard Disk 

10- or 20-megabyte Winchester disk 

Mouse 

Three-button optomechanical mouse (needs no special surface) 

Video Display 

12-inch green-on-black display; displays bit-mapped graphics 
at resolution of 348 by 720 pixels 

Keyboard 

Detachable 103-key keyboard 

Serial Port 

Standard RS-232C port configured as DTE (data terminal equipment); 
maximum transfer rate of 9600 bps (bits per second) 

Parallel Port 

Centronics-compatible 

Telephone Subsystem 

Built-in 300/1200-bps 212A-compatible modem, modular jacks 
for two incoming phone lines (one voice, one data), one outgoing 
line connects voice line to external telephone 

Miscellaneous 

Three expansion slots, battery-powered clock/calendar 

Operating System 

Custom version of UNIX System V, revision 2; extensions include 
demand-paging virtual memory, windows, shared function and source 
libraries, record locking at the character level; software provides 
for multiple users (up to three, with limitations) and multiple processes 
executing simultaneously for each user; only selected "core" functions 
provided with standard product; the rest of UNIX is available 
in optional AT&T UNIX Utilities package ($495) 

The UNIX PC Office Program 

A window- and menu-driven software environment that allows the 
non-UNIX user access to computer-assisted telephone functions, 
UNIX functions, and optional application programs 

Optional Hardware 

512K-byte expansion card, $1195 



most operations with either the mouse or the 
keyboard. The video display is a bit-mapped 
display of 348 rows of 720 dots each— or 24 
rows of 80 characters each (plus five lines of 
status information). The top line is a status line 
for the two phone lines, the time and date, and 
icons for window management and (if present) 
pending error messages and mail. The bottom 
two lines show the current functions of the 
eight function keys on the keyboard. 

The UNIX PC is shipped with all its software 
already on the hard disk. The floppy-disk 
drive's odd placement (behind the ledge in 
which the keyboard fits) reflects the designers' 
UNIX orientation: Everything you need is on 
the hard disk. Still, you will use the floppy-disk 
drive to back up the contents of the hard disk, 
to install commercial software onto the hard 
disk, to format a floppy disk for later use, or 
to read data or source code from an IBM PC 
disk for use in the UNIX environment. 

This system makes considerable use of win- 
dows but only occasional use of icons. Win- 
dows represent folders (which can contain files 
and other folders), but the UNIX PC represents 
an item inside a folder as a single line of text- 
its name, type, and optionally some other 
information. 

The Office Program 

The Office program is the mechanism through 
which most users will interact with the UNIX 
PC. It is a menu-driven "front-end" program 
that translates your selection to the proper 
UNIX commands and executes them. Once the 
Office window has been made active, you can 
execute an item by highlighting it with the cur- 
sor keys and hitting the Return key, by point- 
ing to it with the mouse cursor (which high- 
lights it) and pressing the left mouse button 
(or, equivalently, the Return key), or by typing 
enough of the item's name for the software to 
recognize it (this highlights the item) and hit- 
ting Return. When the software needs more 
information, it opens up another window that 
contains the additional choices. 

The Administration item leads, through ad- 
ditional menus, to 24 operations that must be 
performed to keep the computer and the part 
of it you control in order. This includes every- 
thing from changing your password, to con- 
figuring the parallel and serial ports, to back- 
ing up the hard disk (see table I for a full list). 
Normally, you would need considerable knowl- 
edge about UNIX and the file structure of the 
machine to perform these functions; for exam- 
ple, it takes four pages of C code to implement 
the add/change/delete user log-on menu. The 
Administration item is at the heart of AT&T's 
attempt to make UNIX palatable to the average 
user. 

The Clipboard item is rarely opened; it stores 
files and parts of files that are being trans- 



100 BYTE • MAY 1985 



ferred to a new location. 

The Filecabinet item opens to a window that 
contains all your files and folders; the File- 
cabinet window is open in photo I . The File- 
cabinet window can also contain modem data 
and RS-232C profiles. A profile contains the in- 
formation needed to set up the internal 
modem or the serial port for a given use. 

The Floppydisk item expands into a window 
that displays the contents of the disk current- 
ly in the floppy-disk drive. By copying files and 
folders into the Floppydisk window, you copy 
them onto the disk itself. 

The Preferences item expands into several 
menus that allow you to change the order and 
manner of displaying items within windows, 
change the default window size, and turn on 
or off the availability of the UNIX window and 
certain Administration items. 

The system automatically puts all material to 
be printed into a print queue and prints it as 
a background task. The Printer Queue item ex- 
pands into a window that lists all items awaiting 
printing; you can examine the list and, op- 
tionally, cancel one or more items. 

The UNIX System item expands to a window 
that acts like a standard UNIX terminal. This 
item defaults to the Bourne shell (this is a UNIX 
term that denotes the user interface between 
you and UNIX); you can access other shells 
(when they become available) by specifying a 
shell's name in the Office Preferences window. 

When files and folders are deleted, they 
move to the Wastebasket. Only when they are 
removed from this window are the files and 
folders physically deleted from the hard disk. 

Windows 

Windows in the AT&T UNIX PC behave dif- 
ferently from other windowing systems on per- 
sonal computers. Different programs control 
their windows in different ways, and windows 
often adjust their dimensions to what they 
think best. The windowing system (called the 
user agent in the AT&T literature) automatically 
positions windows so that, if possible, all win- 
dows are at least partly visible from the screen. 
When that is not the case, you can cycle 
through all the windows by using "next win- 
dow" and "previous window" function keys, or 
by opening and choosing from a window that 
lists all the windows currently open. 

A window always has four icons (the ones 
in the corners) and may have pairs of arrows 
on the right edge (for up/down scrolling) and 
the bottom edge (for left/right scrolling); these 
arrows appear only if the window cannot 
display its complete contents. The corner icons 
are, clockwise from upper left, the move- 
window, help, grow-window, and close-window 
icons. The help icon, when clicked on, always 
gives a window— sometimes several— of ex- 
planatory information. The close-window icon, 



Photo 2: 
The UNIX PC 
keyboard. 
Many of the 
dedicated keys 
allow the 
computer to be 
controlled 
without using 
the mouse. 



when clicked, causes the window to vanish; if 
it represents a program, closing it exits the 
program. 

The move-window and grow-window icons 
must be dragged— place pointer on icon, hold 
down the left button, move the mouse (which 
drags the icon with it), then release the but- 
ton. When you press the left button, a "W" in 
a box appears with a ghost outline of the win- 
dow; both follow the mouse movement until 
you release the left button. The UNIX PC dis- 
plays inferior behavior to its competitors when 
moving or resizing a window; see the "Prob- 
lems" section for details. 

System V UNIX 

The UNIX PC contains a complete implemen- 
tation of UNIX System V, revision 2. AT&T has 
added some enhancements including: 
demand-paging virtual memory, windows im- 
plemented as character devices, multiple pro- 
cesses in different windows executing simul- 
taneously, Bass-style record locking at the 
character level (needed for multiuser business 
software), shared function libraries (saves 
space by using only one copy of a routine used 
by multiple processes), and shared source 
libraries (has a similar effect on simultaneous 
compilations). AT&T will not offer the source 
code for the enhancements to the standard 
release of System V UNIX. 

To execute UNIX functions, you can either 
open a UNIX window (see photo 3) or, from 
any window, you can execute any single UNIX 
command by preceding it with the customary 
"!" sign. 

Although the basic system contains the full 
UNIX operating system, it does not contain 
many of the utilities associated with a UNIX 
software developer's workstation. Instead, 
AT&T has divided the software into the Foun- 
dation Set ($495), the UNIX Utilities package 
($495), and a UNIX Development Tools pack- 

[continued] 




MAY 1985 -BYTE 



101 



Table 1: Functions handled through the 
menu-oriented Administration window. 

• Change password 

• Set date and time 

• Run diagnostics from floppy disk 

• View system configuration 

• User log-ins (add, change, delete) 

• Disk backup and restore (full, incremental, single user, by filename) 

• Floppy-disk operations (copy disk, format, read MS-DOS disk) 

• Hardware setup (RS-232C, serial printer, parallel printer, telephone, drivers) 

• Software setup (install, remove, show installed software) 

• Mail setup (name this machine, identify other machine) 



Table 2: Software announced for the AT&T UNIX PC 
at the machine's introduction. 

SOFTWARE FROM AT&T 

• AT&T UNIX PC Word Processor 

• AT&T UNIX PC Business Graphics 

• AT&T UNIX PC Electronic Mail 

• AT&T UNIX PC BASIC Interpreter 

• AT&T UNIX PC BASIC Compiler 

• AT&T UNIX PC UNIX Utilities (includes C and assembler) 

• AT&T UNIX PC Development Tools 

• AT&T UNIX PC Business Accounting System General Ledger, 

Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, Order Entry/Inventory, 
and Payroll (five packages) 

SOFTWARE FROM THIRD-PARTY VENDORS 

• Language Processors Inc. Debugger, COBOL, Pascal, C 

• Silicon Valley Software Pascal and FORTRAN 

• SUPERcomp 20 (spreadsheet) 

• Graphic Software Systems Inc. Chart 

• CDI Sound Presentations 

• Microsoft Word, BASIC, and Multiplan 

• AshtonTate dBASE III 

• Ryan-McFarland Inc. RM/COBOL and RM/Run Time 



Figure 1: Mapping logical addresses 
to physical addresses* 



21 BITS = 

2 MEGAWORDS 

(=4 MEGABYTES) 



c 



LOGICAL 
ADDRESS 
(VA1-VA21) 



VA10-VA21: SELECTS 
ONE OF 2 10 =10 24 
VIRTUAL PAGES 




PDR (PAGE 
DESCRIPTOR 
REGISTER) 
TABLE 



PA10-PA21-. PAGE 
ADDRESS. LOOKED 
UP FROM PDR 
TABLE 



PHYSICAL 
ADDRESS 
(PA1-PA21) 



A1-A11-. ACCESS WITHIN 2 K -WORD ( = 4K -BYTE) PAGE 



age (which includes ISAM-file and sort/merge 
routines, $395). For example the Foundation 
Set contains the standard ed line editor, but 
the Utilities package contains things like the 
vi screen editor, the nroff text formatter, and 
the yacc compiler tool. 

Telephone Functions 

Though AT&T's adaptation of UNIX is more im- 
portant, the telephone functions (called tele- 
phony in the AT&T literature) most visibly 
distinguish the UNIX PC from other personal 
computers. These functions are available by 
opening the Telephone item in the Office win- 
dow, which becomes a window of names and 
phone numbers titled Call Screen. Conve- 
nience features include dialing both people 
and computers by selecting a telephone direc- 
tory entry, timing a call, redialing the last 
number, single-keystroke speed dialing, and 
putting a call on hold. 

Other telephone functions go beyond sim- 
ple convenience and will prove invaluable to 
people who use telephones a lot. The UNIX 
PC automatically maintains a log of all incom- 
ing and outgoing calls, including the time and 
duration of the call (plus name and number 
for outgoing calls). In addition, it gives you a 
chance to open a "Current Notes" window to 
take notes in; if you have taken notes during 
previous calls to the same person, the com- 
puter shows them to you (annotated with date, 
time, and number called) in a separate window. 
If you have installed the optional Electronic 
Mail program, you can also send UNIX-style 
electronic mail through either the Call Screen 
or the Electronic Mail windows. 

Inside the UNIX PC 

The UNIX PC consists of removable modules 
that can be replaced by the user. Once the 
cover is off, you can see a pan assembly (which 
houses the floppy-disk drive, the hard disk, and 
the power supply) and, under it, the mother- 
board. (The three expansion boards each slide 
underneath the motherboard from the rear of 
the machine and connect to each other 
through a narrow backplane that runs along 
the front of the machine. The slots have a 2 1-bit 
address bus and a 16-bit data bus.) 

Photo 4 shows details of the motherboard; 
photo 5 shows the pan assembly and the 
motherboard. The on-board memory area con- 
tains 512 K bytes (with parity) in 4864 64K by 
1-bit dynamic RAM (random-access read/write 
memory) chips; the chips have an access time 
of 150 nanoseconds and run with no wait 
states. These chips are pin-compatible with 
2 56K by 1-bit dynamic RAM chips; at some 
later time, AT&T will start using them to get 2 
megabytes of RAM on the motherboard. (The 
system can add up to 2 megabytes of mem- 
ory via expansion cards, for a maximum of 4 



102 BYTE • MAY 1985 



megabytes of memory. AT&T plans to use one 
slot to connect to an external expansion-card 
box, but expansion memory must be in the in- 
ternal slots.) The bit-mapped video display re- 
quires 32 K bytes of the memory. 

The system contains only 16K bytes of 
EPROM (erasable programmable read-only 
memory)— two 8K by 8-bit 2764s. These con- 
tain bootstrap and diagnostic code for power- 
up, as well as code executed on shutdown that 
ensures that the attached telephone works 
when the computer is off. 

The 10- and 20-megabyte Winchester hard 
disks are built by MiniScribe. The 10-megabyte 
drive, which comes in the basic system, has an 
85-millisecond access time and a transfer rate 
of 5 megabits per second. The UNIX PC uses 
a novel form of DMA (direct memory access) 
to move data from the hard disk to memory, 
Most computers transfer control of the ad- 
dress and data buses to specialized hardware 
that first moves data from the hard disk to a 
buffer area; the processor regains control of 
the buses and moves the data from the buffer 
to its final destination. The UNIX PC speeds 
this process by capturing the buses many 
times, each time only long enough to move a 
word of data directly to its final destination. By 
not holding the buses while the hard disk is 
forming the next word to be transferred, this 
method also decreases the time the DMA 
transfer prevents the 68010 processor from 
doing its work. 

Finally, three custom gate arrays (see photo 
4) perform complex functions in much less 
space than they would have taken using dis- 
crete logic chips. 

Memory Management 

One of the main differences between the 
68010 processor, used here, and the 68000 
processor, used in the Apple Macintosh and 
other computers, is the former's virtual-mem- 
ory capability. In a virtual machine, dedicated 
hardware looks at the memory address being 
asked for by the processor (the logical address) 
and translates it to a physical address that the pro- 
cessor can access if the data is currently in 
physical memory. If it is not (meaning that it 
is stored instead on the hard disk), the hard- 
ware generates a page fault that eventually 
causes the needed data to be swapped into 
physical memory before allowing the memory 
to be accessed. In a 68010-based computer, 
the page fault is fed to the BERR* (Bus Error) 
pin on the 68010; the 68010, in turn, suspends 
the current instruction in midexecution, runs 
a routine that swaps the needed data into 
physical memory, performs related housekeep- 
ing tasks, and completes the suspended 
instruction. 

Most computers use a dedicated integrated 
circuit called an MMU (memory-management 




Photo 3: 
A UNIX window. 
This window is 
running the 
Bourne shell 
and behaves like 
a conventional 
UNIX system. 



unit) to translate logical addresses into physical 
ones and declare page faults. Instead, the 
designers of the UNIX PC use discrete logic 
and a table of high-speed static RAM called 
the PDR (page-descriptor register) table to do 
the translation (see figure I ). The lower 1 1 bits 
of the address are left alone; this gives a page 
size of 2 K words or 4K bytes. (The 680 1 does 
not have an address line A0 as such, but it uses 
the UDS | upper data strobe] and LDS | lower 
data strobel lines to access byte-sized data.) 
The PDR table contains 1024 16-bit entries, 
one for each logical page. Six bits in each en- 
try give status information about the page (in- 
cluding whether or not the page is in memory). 
If it is. the remaining 10 bits give its physical 
page number; if not, the logic generates a page 
fault and the 68010 interrupts itself to run a 
routine that puts the page into physical 
memory and updates the PDR table. 

Software 

AT&T recognizes the need for as much applica- 
tion and system software as possible, l&ble 2 
lists the software announced (at the time that 
this article was written) as immediately 
available. Included are several languages and 
popular application programs like Microsoft 
Multiplan. BASIC, Word, and AshtonTate's 
dBASE 111. AT&T representatives said Lotus 
1-2-3 will not be available; they also denied 
reports that they were developing an expan- 
sion card that would give their machine IBM 
PC compatibility. 

Problems 

Although the machine seemed to perform ac- 
ceptably fast in the short time I had access to 
it (see "Caveats"), its behavior was definitely 
inferior to other 8086- and 68000-based win- 
dowing computers in its move-window and 
grow-window operations. In all cases, 1 mea- 
sured a delay of between I and 1 3 A seconds 

[continued) 



MAY 1985 "BYTE 103 



Telephone-on-a-chip 512K RAM 

hybrid IC T f 



2764 EPROMs 



Connector 
to backplane 



^yw9w¥wwrr)rr¥iw¥w¥w', 




TjMMMrr 



m m 



m. i 



^Aadrj&s : *|l 







ptelrray: 






affHwiwtf^^! t 






rd-disk 



i ^eri|tfchiF 



WW* 

797r 
, r y-idisk 

controller 



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1 |^^^ ^^^ ^w^ r^i j 



Telephone line 
control 



^ K 



v o isoo-te- a 



# 



: tCDs 



1 






Photo 4: 
The UNIX PC 
motherboard; 
the front 
of the board 
is at the bottom 
of this 
photograph. 

Photo 5: 
The pan 
assembly and 
motherboard. 
Here, the pan 
assembly (which 
holds, left to 
right, the floppy- 
disk drive, the 
10-megabyte 
hard disk, and 
the power 
supply) is hinged 
upward to allow 
access to the 
motherboard. 




between the time the left mouse button was pressed and the 
move or grow operation (indicated by the "W" icon) started. The 
ghost outline of the window's new dimensions begins at the win- 
dow's current outline when the "W" icon appears. If the mouse 
pointer has been dragged to a new location before the "W" ap- 
pears, the ghost outline may lag the mouse pointer's position 
by over three-quarters the length and width of the screen, thus 
limiting the amount the window can change before the pointer 
reaches the edge of the screen. (The ghost outline of a Macin- 
tosh window, in contrast, always stays with the mouse pointer.) 
Though this does not prevent the use of the UNIX PC it definite- 
ly interrupts the flow of work and mars one's perception of a 
machine that otherwise seems to be quite fast. 

Another thing that disturbs me at first impression is the 
designers' positioning of the floppy-disk drive, which, given the 
necessity of periodically using it for hard-disk backups, seems 
awkward to me. However, the final vote on that should come from 
the first people who actually use the machine for several 
months. 

Caveats 

I wrote this report after two days of conferences with AT&T engi- 
neers and officials, a few hours of demonstrations and hands-on 
experience, and considerable study of six user- and repair- 
oriented manuals. The machine I used was a preproduction model 
that used discrete logic chips to emulate the three gate arrays. 
The machine had the 10-megabyte hard disk and ran the finished 
version of the software; 1 did not see the machine supporting 
more than one user. 

Commentary 

Although I would have liked to have had more time to study the 
machine, I feel confident in describing it as "quietly impressive." 
No one feature— menu-driven UNIX, true multiprocessing in a win- 
dowed environment, telephone functions, virtual memory— really 
excites me, although each one is an important "first" in the micro- 
computer world. Its success as a UNIX software-development 
workstation is assured (although it really needs a megabyte of 
memory for this), but its fate in the business community is prom- 
ising but uncertain. Further details will be available in the full prod- 
uct review of this machine, which will appear in a future issue 
of BYTE. ■ 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 105 



COMBINE POWER AND 
ENHANCE YOUR PC-AT 



Quadram introduces the smart way to enhance your IBM PC-AT. Quadmeg-AT and 
Quadport AX Smart because Quadmeg AT and Quadport AT make the most of your AT 
system today and expand to meet your system's growing needs in the future. 



Quadmeg-AT comes socketed 
for memory expansion from 
128K to 2 Megabytes. Harness 
this power to create megabyte- 
sized RAM drives, access 

QUADMEG-AT" 



Advance to 4 Megabytes 

When you need more than 
2Mbytes, Quadmeg-AT adapts 
with two Quadmeg-AT 
Expansion Cards. Each packs 
512K or 1Mbyte extra RAM. 



Both cards filled give 
Quadmeg-AT a powerful 
4Mbyte capacity. 
Quadmeg-AT delivers 
the power you need to 
take full advantage of the 
ATs capabilities. 




Maximum Performance in 
Minimum Space 

Quadmeg-AT and Quadport- AT fit 
snugly side by side to deliver a powerful 
4Mb RAM and multiple I/O expan- 
sion in just two AT expansion slots. 



greater amounts of informa- 
tion, and process data faster 
and more efficiently than 
ever before. Plus, with 
"split memory mapping'' 
Quadmeg-AT lets you expand 
the AT s base system memory 
to 640K without buying a 
space-wasting 128K card. 



Add a Second 
Quadport 

Two Quadport- ATs give 
your AT system a total 
of 2 parallel ports and 
1 serial (ions. At 
peripheral devices or 
workstations for th 
ultimate in PC-AT J 
performance. 



tM Look for this seal. It's the 
/ jVA mark of dependability and 
* V /l* performance from the 
^ ^*° leader in microcomputer 
{Qwwndfim} enhancements. 



IBM TC-AT is a registered trademark of 
Incernational Business Machines Corporation 

106 BYTE* MAY 1985 



EXPANDABILITY TO 
THE SMART WAY 



QUADPORT-AT 

Quadport-AT combines a 
parallel printer port and a 
serial port to give your AT the 
features found on 
IBM's Serial/ 
Parallel Adapter.^ 
But at a lower 
cost and with 



built-in expandability. Connect 
printers, plotters, modems, 
and other devices for increased 
productivity. 

Advanced Port Expansion 

As your AT becomes the 
center of a high-performance 
LAN or growing multi- 
user, multi-tasking system, 
snap on the optional 
Quadport-AT Expansion 
Kit and add 4 more serial 
ports to your system. The 
Quadport-AT Expansion 
comes with software 
to access these ports, 
making it easy to add 
shared peripherals or 
workstations. 




Enhance the smart way 
with Quadram* 

For basic AT expansion, 
Quadmeg-AT and Quadport-AT 
work together to provide 128K 
memory expansion, a serial port, 
and a parallel port. 
Then, as your system 
grows, Quadmeg-AT and 
Quadport-AT give you up to 
4MB RAM, 1 parallel port, 
and up to 5 serial ports in just 
two PC AT expansion slots. 
Only Quadram combines so 
much power and expandability. 
That's PC AT enhancement 
the smart way. 



Features 


Quadmeg-AT: RAM 

expansion from 128K to 
2Mbytes. Expandable in 512K 
increments. Split memory 
mapping assigns 128K or 384K 
to base memory. 

Total RAM Capacity: 

4Mbytes. 


Expansion Cards: Two cards 
available. Each comes with 
5 12K or 1Mbyte RAM 
installed. 

QuadMaster-AT Software: 

RAM Drives and Spooling for 
extended memory. 


Quadport-AT: Port expansion 
with 1 Centronics parallel port 
and 1 RS-232C serial port. 


Quadport-AT Expansion Kit: 

(optional) 4 RS-232C serial 
ports. Software to access ports. 



For a free demonstration visit 
the Quadram dealer nearest 
you. Or, for information, write 
us at 4355 International Blvd., 
Norcross, Georgia 30093 
(404)923^6666. 



QUADRAM 

— ' An Intelligent Systems Company 



Inquiry 334 

MAY 1985 -BYTE 107 





II 



108 B YTE • MAY 1985 



PHOTOGRAPHED BY PAUL AVIS 



CIARCIA'S CIRCUIT CELLAR 

BUILD THE 
HOME RUN CONTROL 

SYSTEM 

PART 2: THE HARDWARE 

by Steve Ciarcia 



Energy management, convenience, 
and security in one package 




I live in a large house with 
irregularly shaped rooms. 
The center section of the 
house is hexagonal, with a 
sunken living room in 
front of a fireplace. The 
kitchen is also hexagonal- 
ly shaped and opens into a greenhouse. 
From the living room or the kitchen, you 
can descend to the "control center." The Cir- 
cuit Cellar is also not your standard-shaped 
room. Defining a corner as the point at 
which two walls meet, you will find 1 3 cor- 
ners in the Circuit Cellar. 

My reason for describing this is not to 
elicit sympathy but instead to outline one 
of the reasons I designed the Home Run 
Control System (HCS). Visitors often com- 
ment on how wonderful it must be to live 
in a contemporary-styled home. Of course, 
they come from traditional houses with rec- 
tangular walls and light switches near the 
doors. There is no pattern of organization 
to the lighting in this house, and more than 
one light must be turned on in the Circuit 
Cellar and adjacent storage areas just to see 
around obstacles. If you try to walk around 
in the dark through some areas in this 
house, you can find yourself somersaulting 
over shin-high railings into pits, impaled on 
glass table corners, stunned on dark-painted 
Lally columns, or entangled forever in the 
masses of wires strung between groupings 



of electronic equipment. Walking around 
this house in the dark can be hazardous to 
your health. 

Over the years I've designed control 
systems that involved automatic lighting in- 
cluding the BSR. Unfortunately, the hand- 
held controller was always some place I 
wasn't, or the command console was 
pointed in another direction (and rooms 
with 1 3 corners have lots of directions). 

While I could have bought out the local 
Radio Shack and put controllers and 
modules everywhere, the problem was one 
of greater dimension. I ultimately wanted 
a control system that followed prescribed 
security and environmental procedures 
when I wasn't there but that could redirect 
its control functions to provide simple, auto- 
matic convenient living when I was. 

Bumping into things in the dark was mere- 
ly an inconvenience. I solved it in the interim 
by just leaving lots of lights on at night. In 
the long run, however, I've been directing 
my efforts to building the true home-control 
system: one that senses presence in rooms 
and automatically turns lights on, raises the 

[continued) 
Steve Garcia (pronounced "see-ARE-see-ah") is an 
electronics engineer and computer consultant with ex- 
perience in process control, digital design, nuclear in- 
strumentation, and product development. He is the 
author of several books about electronics. You can 
write to him at POB 582, Glastonbury, CT 06033. 



COPYRIGHT © 1985 STEVEN A. CIARCIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



MAY 1985 * BYTE 109 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



heat or lowers the air conditioning, 
and follows a variety of prescribed 
control sequences (as opposed to 
one) defined by the real-time assess- 
ment of the activities of the house's 
occupants. Finally, it is a reality, and 
photos 1-3 show some aspects of the 
system installation at my home. 

The BSR by itself does not have the 
logical decision power to provide this 
capability. These functions require a 
computer and a program dedicated 
to analyzing and reacting to the en- 
vironment. Home Run is such a dedi- 
cated home-control system. It uses 
BSR X-10 (Sears Home Control. 
Leviton, and Radio Shack Plug-N- 
Power, among others) remote-con- 
trolled receivers as many commercial 
timer/controllers do, but its concept 
and capabilities greatly exceed those 
systems. The Circuit Cellar HCS is a 
video-based closed-loop control sys- 



tem. The text box on page 112 out- 
lines Home Run's basic functions. 

This month, I will continue the 
description of the HCS with an in- 
depth analysis of the hardware 
design. First, since much of the hard- 
ware function deals with the BSR 
remote controllers, I'll start by review- 
ing their function and the communica- 
tion codes they use. 

BSR X-10 System 
Components 

When I first wrote about the X-10 in 
January 1980, the system consisted of 
five modules: command controller, 
cordless controller, lamp module, ap- 
pliance module, and wall-switch 
module. The line has now been ex- 
panded to include a programmable 
timer, wall-receptacle modules, auto- 
matic setback thermostats, and a tele- 
phone auto-answer controller. The 



HCS can use and control any BSR 
receivers. 

The command controller (or any 
unit that functions as a command 
transmitter) is the central element in 
the system. It sends commands to the 
receiver modules by coded messages 
sent through the AC power lines. The 
cordless controller is a remote exten- 
sion of the command controller and 
has a matching keyboard. When 
pointed at the command controller 
from up to 30 feet away, any com- 
mand that is selected on it will be 
transmitted ultrasonically to the com- 
mand controller and carried out. 

Lamp and wall-switch modules are 
essentially the same. They are triac- 
controlled on/off switches, rated at 
300 watts (W), that include dimmers. 
The lamp module is plugged into a 
wall outlet in series with the light to 
be controlled while the wall-switch 




Photo 1: I'm getting very serious about using the HCS in my home. I installed a 3- 
by 4-foot piece of plywood next to the breaker box and started stringing wires 
everywhere for closed-loop input control The HCS board is mounted in the bottom 
center. Directly above it in the silver box is a Hayes 300-bps auto-answer modem. To 
the right of that are the rechargeable battery backup and 12-V power supply for the 
motion detectors and interface boards. Directly above the modem is a custom optoisolated 
level shifter and AC-to-DC converter interface that connects the Touch Plate, a low- 
voltage relay system, and commercially installed alarm-system sensors to the HCS. By 
the time this series of articles is finished, the rest of the board should be filled. 



Photo 2: Much of my application for 
the HCS deals with its use for security 
and automatic lighting. Shown is the 
installation of a typical passive infrared 
motion detector. Costing in the neighbor- 
hood of $140 each, these units detect the 
movement of objects (like people) that have 
a different temperature than the surround- 
ings. The units require a 12-V power 
source. Output is a contact closure: closed 
is no motion and open is motion detected. 



110 BYTE • MAY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



module replaces a conventional wall 
switch. For heavier or nonresistive 
loads, a contact-closure-output ap- 
pliance module or wall-receptacle 
module is used. These are rated at 1 5 
amperes (A) (about 1700 W). 

At the heart of a BSR command 
module, as well as of the other system 
components, are custom LSI ICs 
(large-scale-integration integrated cir- 
cuits) manufactured for BSR by 
General Instrument Corporation. Fully 
expanded, the BSR system can ac- 
commodate 2 56 independently ad- 
dressable receivers. That is accom- 
plished using 16 sets of addresses 
called house codes and 1 6 device codes for 
each house code. The separate house 
codes allow next-door neighbors to 
use X-IOs without interfering with 
each other. A thumbwheel switch on 
the bottom of the command con- 
troller and the receiver modules sets 
the 4-bit house code. 

In normal operation, the 22-button 
keypad, which is wired as a 3 by 8 
matrix, is scanned at a rate of 3.8 kHz. 
When a button is pressed, its desig- 
nated function and the house code 
(see tables 1 and 2) are combined into 
a single message. The digital message 
is directed to the transmitter section, 
where it generates 120-kHz signals 
that are used to modulate the AC line 
with pulse-width modulation. 

To synchronize the digitally en- 
coded serial output with the 60-Hz AC 
line, the circuit includes a zero- 
crossing detector. The transmitted 
message is clocked a bit at a time on 
zero crossing. A command message 
contains 9 bits of information, con- 
sisting of the 4-bit house code and the 
5-bit matrix (keyboard -function) code. 
Each message is transmitted in true 
and inverted format on successive 
half cycles of the AC waveform. This 
is illustrated in figures 1 and 2. A logic 
1 bit consists of three 1-millisecond 
(ms) bursts of 120-kHz signal com- 
mencing approximately 200 micro- 
seconds (/us) after the zero crossing 
of the AC line. A logic bit is repre- 
sented by no signal for that half cycle. 
To synchronize the receivers with the 
transmitter, a trigger code consisting 
of 3 successive logic 1 bits followed 



by a logic bit is used. The complete 
message takes 11 full AC cycles 
(183 ms) to complete. 

Actual attachment to the AC line is 
accomplished by means of a trans- 
former and capacitor coupler. That 
combination is necessary both for 
protection and economics. The effec- 
tive range of this system is generally 
all the wiring from the controller to 
the nearest power company step- 
down transformer. Usually, five or six 
houses are on each transformer; 
some coordination with respect to the 
choice of house codes may be nec- 
essary. Also, since the version of the 
X-10 sold in the U.S. is a 117-volt (V) 
unit, and because most homes derive 
their 1 1 7-V power from both sides of 
a 220-V line, problems can sometimes 
occur in obtaining consistent opera- 
tion when receiver modules are used 
on both 1 1 7-V lines and relatively few 



220-V appliances are in operation to 
act as a communication bridge. Place- 
ment of the receivers could require 
some experimentation, or a capacitor 
jumper could be added between the 
sides of the 220-V line. 

The receivers are quite sophisti- 
cated, considering that each one 
usually costs less than $17. All re- 
ceivers (lamp modules, appliance 
modules, wall-receptacle modules, 
and wall-switch modules) are essen- 
tially the same. Also incorporating a 
custom LSI IC, the receiver section 
monitors the AC line, waiting for a 
coded message corresponding to its 
unique house code (A through P) and 
unit device code (1 through 16). To 
turn on channel 10, you simply press 
10 and ON, one after the other. When 
an appliance or wall-receptacle 
module activates, it energizes a relay. 

[continued) 




Photo 3: Much of the outside lighting and some of the outlets in my home are 
already remotely controlled through the Touch Plate. An absolute rat's nest of expensive 
electrician-installed wire controls 1 2 specific circuits. The highly reliable latching relays 
are controlled at various points in the house by illuminated push buttons. Their 
operation is push-onlpush-off single-button control. When the circuit is on, the button is 
illuminated by a second low-voltage signal. Given the closed-loop nature of Touch Plate. 
I decided to connect some of the circuits to the HCS. The six relays wired in at present 
required a separate interface board to convert the low-voltage AC Touch Plate to TTL 
levels and an 1 ^-conductor cable to route the signals. The HCS can now control as well 
as ascertain the present onloff state of the outside lighting. 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 111 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



Home Run Control System: Overview 



The Home Run Control System is 
a single-board computer with the 
hardware and software needed to con- 
trol lights and appliances in a home or 
a specific production process in a small 
business. The system uses BSR home- 
control modules that are activated by 
signals superimposed on the house 
wiring. The system can also directly 
control processes through hard-wired 
outputs. The following outline itemizes 
the features of the computer. 

1. Versatility. The HCS can accom- 
modate 48 BSR modules. 16 digital in- 
puts. 8 TTL-compatible outputs, and 16 
messages. 

2. Self-containment. The HCS can use 
any terminal (or personal computer 
emulating a terminal) at 75-4800 bps. 
The HCS also incorporates an integral 
video-display generator to provide a 
24-line by 40-character display either 
directly to a composite video monitor 
or television set. A keyboard encoder 
allows connection of either an Apple 
11-compatible parallel-encoded key- 
board or an unencoded scanned- 
matrix keyboard. An additional serial 
port has been provided to which an 
auto-answer modem can be attached 
(such as the Hayes 300 or 1 200). When 
the modem answers, the HCS allows 
the remote calling terminal to access 
and control the HCS. 

3. Flexibility. The HCS can schedule to 
turn outputs on or off based on com- 
binations of the following conditions: 

a. time of the week (e.g., 'Tuesday at 

4:32) 
b.time of the month (e.g., 22nd at 

11:20) 



c. input line going high 

d. input line going low 

e. turn off after time delay (e.g., re- 
main on for 1 5 minutes) 

f. one-time action triggered by 
specific input or time 

When you want to create an event, 
various combinations of inputs and 
time can be specified. They are as 
follows: 

1 ON at specified time 
OFF at specified time 

2 ON at specified time 

OFF when specified input occurs 

3 ON when specified input occurs 
OFF at specified time 

4 ON when specified input occurs 
OFF when specified input occurs 

or 
ON while specified input occurs 

5 ON when specified input occurs 
OFF after period of time 

4. Superkeys. The HCS has 1 6 function- 
key inputs called superkeys, which 
cause a user-defined list of actions to 
be performed when the appropriate 
key is entered. This allows a complete 
sequence of events to be transmitted. 
The number of commands defined by 
a superkey is limited only by available 
RAM. 

5. Light dimming. Lights can be 
dimmed to one of 16 levels. This allows 
mood control, a night light, or power- 
conservation operation. 

6. Display messages. Text messages of 
variable size can be scheduled as an- 
nouncements or reminders. 



7. Low power. The HCS can be used 
to control energy consumption of a 
house, thus it is designed to be effi- 
cient. Power requirements are under 5 
watts. 

8. Battery backup. The processor and 
clock will continue to operate during 
a power failure; scheduled events will 
still be noted in memory. When AC 
power is restored, the HCS will restore 
all modules to the state they would be 
in if power weren't interrupted. 

9. Sunset adjustment. The on time of 
desired modules, usually lights, will 
track the sunset. This alleviates having 
to adjust the schedule many times per 
year as the sunset changes. There is a 
command to compensate sunset times 
for daylight saving. 

10. Automatic restore. The HCS can 
optionally restore the status of all 
modules every 4 minutes. This is useful 
in commercial applications where a 
module may be turned off by a tran- 
sient or non-HCS-generated command. 
Restore can also be triggered by an in- 
put line. The HCS always restores all 
modules after a power loss. 

11. Schedule bypass. Modules can be 
bypassed for a selected interval (up to 
44 days). This can be used for vaca- 
tions or holidays. 

12. Hold on input. This allows an in- 
put occurrence to lock out specified 
modules. 

1 3 . Accurate clock. The clock accuracy 
can be adjusted by software to within 
1 second per day. 

14. List events. The entire event sched- 
ule can be listed to the serial port. The 
speed of the listing can be controlled 
to allow for printing of the schedule. 



The lamp and wall-switch modules 
use a triac instead and have the capa- 
bility to brighten or dim in response 
to control commands. 

Home Run Hardware 

The Home Run Control System is a 
complete microcomputer. Functional- 
ly block-diagramed in figure 3, it con- 
tains RAM (random-access read/write 
memory) and ROM (read-only mem- 



ory), serial and parallel I/O (input/out- 
put) ports, a keyboard, and a video 
display. In its fully expanded form, it 
can communicate with an external ter- 
minal or a modem and display the 
events and status on its own display 
simultaneously. The HCS is based on 
the 6802 processor and runs entirely 
on interrupt. These interrupts update 
the real-time clock, scan the event 
tables, read the input lines, set the 



outputs, refresh the video display, 
transmit the BSR codes, and service 
the communication ports. 

Home Run was designed to work in 
a variety of home and industrial ap- 
plications. As such, it accommodates 
both encoded and unencoded key- 
boards, terminal and integral video 
display, and BSR and direct I/O. Its 
software is flexible enough to work 

[continued) 



112 B YTE • MAY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



Table I : Security house codes. 



STATE 


H8 


H4 


H2 


H1 


A 





1 


1 





B 


1 


1 


1 





C 








1 





D 


1 





1 





E 













F 


1 










G 





1 







H 


1 


1 







1 





1 


1 




J 


1 


1 


1 




K 








1 




L 


1 





1 




M 














N 


1 

















1 








P 


1 


1 









liable 2: 


AC-line matrix key codes. 






KEY 


D8 D4 D2 


D1 


D16 


1 


1 1 








2 


1 1 1 








3 


1 








4 


1 1 








5 





1 





6 


1 


1 





7 


1 


1 





8 


1 1 


1 





9 


1 1 


1 





10 


1 1 1 


1 





11 


1 


1 





12 


1 1 


1 





13 











14 


1 








15 


1 








16 


1 1 








CLEAR 










ALL 





1 




ON 


1 







OFF 


1 


1 




BR 


1 







DIM 


1 


1 





PHASE 1 




SERIAL DATA 



*f2. 778ms™ 

5.556 ms- 



-DATA- 



-DATA- 



The transmitted message is synchronous with the AC line, and 
each bit is clocked on zero crossing. Each message contains 9 
bits of information: 4 bits of security code and 5 bits of matrix 
code. Each message is transmitted in true and inverse form on 
successive half cycles of the AC-line signal. 



A 1 bit is 3 x 1-ms bursts of 120 kHz, commencing 
approximately 200 /zs after the zero crossing of each phase. A 
bit is no signal for that half cycle. To synchronize the 
receivers with the transmitter, a Start Code consisting of 3 
successive 1 bits followed by a bit is used. Thus, a complete 
message takes 1 1 full cycles of the AC line to complete. 



Figure 1: BSR transmission protocol and timing. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 113 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



-TRIG £3 GENERATED AT EACH ZERO CROSSING 



VVWWWVWWWXAA; 






Tpl 



Tp2 



C<£3 



MESSAGE REPEATED AT LEAST ONCE 



SERIAL DATA 



STATE OF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 

TRANSMISSION TIMER 

<1)(1)(1)10)(1) (1) (0) (0) (0) (1) (0) (1) (1) 
DDDDDDDD 



START HOUSE CODE OPERATION CODE 

H 4 H 3 H 2 H] 8 4 2 1 16 



Figure 2: BSR transmission protocol and timing continued. 



with any combination or all of these 
subsystem peripherals. If you don't 
have a terminal or an auto-answer 
modem, you can configure a video- 
based-only HCS and leave the serial 
components out. (Because some 
users may not initially need or be able 
to afford all the functions supported 
by the HCS, it is available as a partially 
populated board. You can add the ad- 
ditional support chips at any time.)_ 
Figure 4 is the complete schematic of 
the Home Run Control System. I will 
explain it in five sections: processor 
and memory timing, serial and paral- 
lel I/O (see photo 4), video display, 
and power supply. 

Processor and Memory 
Section 

At the center of the HCS is a Motorola 
6802, ICI (block-diagramed in figure 
5). The 6802 is an 8-bit processor that 
is software-compatible with the stan- 
dard 6800. It contains the same reg- 
isters and accumulators as the 6800 



plus an internal clock oscillator and 
driver. In addition, it has 128 bytes of 
on-chip RAM addressed at hexadeci- 
mal locations 0000 through 007F A 
4-MHz crystal is used with ICI and 
results in a 1-MHz system-clock out- 
put on pin 37. This clock is divided 
by counters in the timing section to 
provide the various interrupt clocks 
and pulse-signal sources. The pro- 
cessor is reset by pressing PB1, at- 
tached to pin 37. 

The 16-bit address bus is decoded 
through a 74LSI38 (IC5) into eight 8K- 
byte blocks designated by chip-enable 
lines Y0 through Y7. RAM occupies 
the space from 0000 to 3FFF ROM 
occupies the range from A000 
through FFFF 

The HCS has two 28-pin RAM 
sockets that can accommodate either 
6 1 1 6 (2 K by 8-bit) or 6264 (8K by 8-bit) 
3 50-nanosecond (ns) CMOS (comple- 
mentary metal-oxide semiconductor) 
RAM chips. The HCS requires a mini- 
mum of 4K bytes of RAM to function. 



A jumper that selects/deselects ad- 
dress line A 1 1 sets, whether a 2K-byte 
or 8K-byte RAM is inserted. The soft- 
ware auto-sizes and allocates avail- 
able memory on power-up (be sure to 
remove the battery backup when 
changing or adding any chips). Ikble 
3 designates the various legal RAM 
configurations. 

Three program ROM sockets are de- 
signed for 2764-type 8K by 8-bit 
EPROMs (erasable programmable 
read-only memories). The HCS pro- 
gram presently resides in 16 K bytes 
and uses ICI I and ICI2. ICI9 is an 
empty socket intended for future pro- 
gram expansion and enhancements. 
(Eventually, I hope to design an 
analog I/O expansion board for the 
HCS, and I decided that it would be 
a good idea to put in the hooks now. 
Direct temperature monitoring and 
HVAC |heating, ventilating, and air 
conditioning! motor control are a 
possible consideration.) Portions of 

(continued) 



114 BYTE • MAY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



co cr™ 
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r 



tr 

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v. w 

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Figure 3: A block diagram of the Home Run Control System. 



MAY 1985 • BYTE U5 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



PIEZOELECTRIC 
BEEPER 



ICB 
74LS04 



JF 



i. 



IC5 Gl 

74LS138 G2A 

Y7 Y6 Y5 Y4 Y3 Y2 Yl YO 



PUT ®- 



MODULATOR 



470Jft 
-AVr- 



COMPOSITE ($t- 

VIDEO 

OUTPUT 



+5V 



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CHANNEL 
SELECT 



4.7K 
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200nsec 



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CAS 



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TMS4416 

200nsec 



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RAS 
CAS 



6 


AD1 


7 


AD2 


S 


AD3 


11 


AD4 


12 


AD5 


13 


AD6 


14 


A07 



'address r T\ e 



CLOCK 1MHz 



IC8 
74LS04 






.M 






C0MV l0 
R/W 

■*AS 

c 

CAS 



jtn oCJOQOQac 



■9118 (6000) 



+ 5V 
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74LS04 




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74LS02 



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4024 



P 7 



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RST 



ICG 
4024 



T 



14 T 14 



F 



DATE 
RATE 
SELECT 
JP4 



Figure 4: Tfe schematic of the Home Run Control System. 



116 BYTE' MAY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



2K ( 



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2K ( 






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7407 



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Figure 4 continued on page 1 1 8 



MAY 1985 'BYTE 117 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



Figure 4 continued 



16-PIN DIP 
PARALLEL ENCODED 
KEYBOARD INPUT 



™ S| S <n 



ADDRESS 



IIU O <H N n * I 

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D6 ■ 
6ND ■ 



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ROM 3 (A000) 



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OPTIONAL 
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EXPANSION ROM 



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SERIAL TERMINAL DEFEAT (WHEN INSTALLED) 



118 B YTE • MAY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



the I/O are also set aside for 
expansion. 

TIMING LOGIC 

Figure 6 outlines the section of the cir- 
cuit that generates the timing signals. 
All the clocks are derived from a 
master 1-MHz clock produced by the 
processor. The I MHz is divided by 
13 through a 74LS161 (IC2) to pro- 
duce 76,923 Hz. This frequency is 
only 0.16 percent off the 76,800-Hz 
frequency normally used for commu- 
nication at 4800 bits per second (bps). 
The other data-transmission rates 
(2400, 1200, 600, 300, 150, and 7 5 
bps) are produced by further dividing 
this frequency through the binary 
counter, IC4. One of the seven output 
frequencies is jumper-selected as the 
terminal/modem communication rate 
and directed to the transmit/receive 
clock input of the serial I/O chip, IC16. 
The frequency at the final output of 
IC4 is 601 Hz. This frequency is used 
as the master interrupt clock for the 
HCS. Every 601 times the interrupt is 
called, the real-time clock is incre- 



mented 1 second. At various other in- 
crements in time, event and input 
status are checked and output set. 

The BSR transmission timing is also 
controlled through this circuit. The 
1-MHz system clock is divided by 8 
through 1C3 to produce 12 5 kHz. 
While slightly off the 121 kHz normal- 
ly specified for BSR line transmission, 
it is within tolerance of the receivers. 
The 12 5 kHz is gated on and off 
through NOR gate 1C7 by an output 
bit from 1C14. An LM3 1 1 (1C29) high- 
speed comparator functions as a 
zero-crossing detector to let the pro- 
cessor know when to gate the 12 5 
kHz onto the AC line. 

The 1-ms pulse bursts are timed by 
IC6. The elapsed time between releas- 
ing the reset line of counter 1C6, which 
is clocked at 12 5 kHz, and an output 
change of state is 976.56 ^s, or 1 ms 
in the real world. The clock period of 
the output waveform is 1 ms, but 
changes of logic state occur on the 
half period, 0.5 ms. By counting three 
of these changes of state, 1.5 ms, the 
typical time interval between 1 2 5-kHz 



pulse bursts is also derived. 

The BSR driver is functionally part 
of the power-supply section, and 
some elements will be explained later. 
Basically, it is a simple two-transistor 
power driver attached to the primary 
side of a tuned transmitter coil. NOR 
gate 1C7 drives the output in I-ms 
bursts of 12 5 kHz. The voltage swing 
is from + 1 2 V to - 1 2 V on the 
primary side through a high-voltage 
driver transistor, type NTE288 or 
equivalent (I c = 300 milliamperes 
|mA|, V ce = 300 V). The secondary 
side of the transmitter coil is coupled 
to the AC line through a 0.22-micro- 
farad (/xF) capacitor (400 V). A 
separate tuned secondary winding in- 
creases the transmission amplitude. 

Serial and Parallel I/O 

Home Run uses three 682 1 PIA (pe- 
ripheral interface adapter) chips and 
one 6850 ACIA (asynchronous com- 
munications interface adapter) chip to 
connect real-world activities to the 
processor. Each 6821 has two 8-bit, 

[continued] 




Photo 4: The Home Run Control System prototype printed-circuit board. Input and output connections are made via screw 
terminals at the bottom of the board. From bottom left to right, the connections are composite video out, RF video out, eight direct 
outputs, three ground pins, 16 direct inputs, DB-2 5S terminal connector, and DB-25P modem connector. The transformer! 
transmitter module connects to the board at center right. 



MAY 1985 'BYTE 119 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



Table 3: RAM configurations. 




Memory Size 


IC9 IC10 


(bytes) 


6116 6116 


4K 


6264 EMPTY 


8K 


6264 6116 


10K 


6264 6264 


16K 


(Note: 6116 RAMs 


are 24-pin 


devices. They are 


nserted 


into the lower 24 pins of the 


28-pin socket.) 





bit-programmable bidirectional paral- 
lel ports and four control lines, which 
serve primarily as interrupt inputs. 
IC14 is the only 682 1 that must be 



installed for the HCS to run. Through 
port A it reads the 60-Hz zero-cross- 
ing signal, the 601-Hz "heartbeat" in- 
terrupt, the I/].5-ms timers, and sets 
the beeper output and the BSR trans- 
mitter gate. Four extra future-option 
jumpers are included should I need 
them when I expand the capabilities 
of the HCS. (If the HCS is fully 
populated as shown in figure 4, no 
jumpers need to be installed. If you 
configure an HCS video version or 
don't plan on including the serial- 
modem capability afforded through 
ICI6, then install a jumper at PAO and 
leave the 6850 out. This tells the pro- 
cessor to ignore serial I/O.) 

Port B of ICI4 drives eight open- 
collector output lines that are set or 
reset by the action of driver number 



6 on the main menu. These lines are 
activated by following the same pro- 
cedures as for the BSR modules. How- 
ever, direct outputs such as these are 
immune from line transients and can- 
not be reset by errant use of a BSR 
command controller in another part 
of the house. Diagramed in figure 7. 
each output is protected against ac- 
cidental shorts to a negative-voltage 
source and excessive current drain. A 
lOOk-ohm resistor allows the outputs 
to be read with a meter during testing 
and will not interfere with normal 
operation. The 7407 drivers are rated 
for 30 mA at 30 V. 

ICI5 is entirely dedicated to input 
data acquisition. Each of the 16 inputs 
is diode-protected and current- 
limited. They will accept standard TTL 



A15 A14 A13 A12 All A10 A9 A8 
25 24 23 22 20 19 18 17 

t f t t t t t t 



OUTPUT 
BUFFERS 



NONMASKABLE INTERRUPT 
HALT 



READ/WRITE 



V CC = PIN 8.35 
V ss = PIN 1. 21 



MEMORY READY 3 ' 
E NABLE 37 
RESET 40 
6 • 



INTERRUPT REQUEST 4 

EXTAL 39 

XTAL 38 

BUS AVAILABLE 7 

VALID MEMORY ADDRESS 5 



CLOCK. 
INSTRUCTION 
DECODE AND 
CONTROL 



INSTRUCTION 
REGISTER 



A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 Al AO 
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 

t t t t tt t t 



PROGRAM 
COUNTER H 



STACK 
POINTER H 



INDEX 
REGISTER H 



DATA 

BUFFER 



TTTTTTTT 

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 Dl DO 



OUTPUT 
BUFFERS 



RAM 
CONTROL 



32 BYTES 
96 BYTES 



35 V CC STANDBY 



36 RAM ENABLE 



PROGRAM 
COUNTER 



STACK 
POINTER 



INDEX 
REGISTER L 



ACCUMULATOR 
A 



ACCUMULATOR 
B 



CONDITION- 
CODE 
REGISTER 



ALU 



Figure 5: A 6802 block diagram. 



120 BYTE • MAY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



(transistor-transistor logic)-level input 
signals or any voltage between +9 
and -9V. (The range to -9 V is a 
logic 0. The range 2 to +9 V is a logic 
I.) Contact closure should have an ex- 
ternal voltage supply and should not 
rely on an open-circuit input always 
being a logic 1. 

IC2 1 i s dedicated to keyboard input 
and future expansion. Eight bits and 
a control line of port A receive ASCII 
(American Standard Code for Infor- 
mation Interchange) input data. This 
data can come directly from an ASCII- 
encoded keyboard via a 16-pin DIP 
(dual-inline package) socket (IC27) or 
from a scanned-matrix keyboard 
through a keyboard-encoder chip in- 
stalled in ICI8. The matrix keyboard 
is plugged into a 22-pin ribbon-cable 



header adjacent to ICI8. 

One or the other keyboard option 
must be chosen and not both concur- 
rently. If a parallel keyboard is used, 
no encoder chip should be inserted 
in IC18. Similarly, if ICI8 is installed, 
a parallel keyboard should not be 
plugged in. (If you are using a terminal 
with the HCS, neither type of key- 
board need be installed and both 
IC18 and 1C21 can be removed.) The 
parallel-keyboard input socket, IC27, 
is compatible with the Apple lie. 

Port B of IC2 1 is reserved for future 
expansion. As previously mentioned, 
the HCS has an 8K-byte EPROM 
socket, four jumpers, and an 8-bit I/O 
port reserved for future expansion. 

The HCS's serial I/O is through a 
6850, IC16. The serial port is con- 



nected through separate level shifters, 
ICI7 and IC20, to two connectors. 
One connector is wired to attach to 
a modem (DCE), and the other is con- 
figured to connect to a terminal (DTE). 
The communication data rate is set by 
the data-transmission-rate selection 
jumpers at IC4. 

The HCS screen displays operate at 
different rates, depending upon 
whether the system is configured to 
use the internal video-display gen- 
erator or an external terminal. If a ter- 
minal is attached (JP1 should not be 
installed), all displays are refreshed at 
the selected communication rate. (A 
terminal and a modem should not be 
trying to communicate at the same 
time.) When using a terminal, how- 

(continued) 



l MHz £ 
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Q7 







PA 5 
U14-7 



601 Hz 



125 KHz 







RESET 



IN 



U6 

CD4024 
+ 128 



07 



976 Hz 



U7 
74LS02 



o 



_JBBUIfflL 



-C> TRANSMIT 



ZERO-CROSSING DETECTOR 



60 Hz[> 



7.5K 
- J WV~ 



A 1N4148 ▼ 

r I 




-i_n_ 



-o PA4 



Figure 6: The timing-generator circuit. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 121 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



ever, both the internal display and the 
terminal refresh at the same data- 
transmission rate, and status updates 
appear only once a minute. Physical 



control operations still occur as ser- 
viced by the interrupts, but, because 
a terminal could be communicating at 
75 bps, the status display is rewritten 





47& 

v.v 



OPEN COLLECTOR 
-O OUTPUT BIT 
30V @ 30mA 



1N4148 



m 



6821 
PIA 




220& 
— vw- 



-<U INPUT BIT 



n 



LOGIC TO -9V 
LOGIC 1 +2 TO +9V 



Figure 7: The input/output circuit. Substituting a \k-ohm resistor j 'or the 
220-ohm resistor expands the voltage range to ±15 V. 



Photo 5: The power supply for the Home Run Control System contains both 
the transformer and the high-voltage section of the BSR transmitter. The sealed 
transformer module with BSR PC board effectively isolates the user from the AG 
power line. Connection to the circuit board is through a 1-pin DIN connector. 




only once per minute. (A status up- 
date can be forced at any time on the 
terminal by entering a carriage return.) 
When using the internal video display 
(JP1 installed or a shorting wire con- 
nected between pins 7 and 8 of ]2), 
the screen refreshes at full processor 
speed (it appears to be about 9600 
bps), and the status display is updated 
upon occurrence of any programmed 
event. 

There is an effective compromise 
when using a modem, with JP1 not in- 
stalled. With an auto-answer modem 
such as the Hayes 300 or 1200 at- 
tached to the modem input, the HCS 
will automatically switch communica- 
tion rates. Using the internal video 
display and JPI removed, the HCS 
updates the screen at high speed. 
Upon sensing a CTS (clear to send) 
signal from the auto-answer modem, 
the HCS switches its screen speed to 
the modem's data rate (set on the 
data-rate selection switches at IC4) 
and communicates with the remote 
terminal or computer. After the 
modem hangs up, the screen resumes 
its normal speed. I must mention, 
however, that screen refresh rate is in 
no way related to the speed of con- 
trol operations. Real-time screen up- 
dates are necessary only if you re- 
quire notice of an event in less than 
the once-per-minute terminal refresh 
and in fact need to see every output 
event as it occurs. 

Home Run Video Display 

Besides accommodating terminal or 
modem communication, the HCS has 
its own video-display generator. The 
display is 24 lines by 40 characters 
produced with three chips: IC22, 
IC25, and IC26. 

Some of you will remember an arti- 
cle I did in the August 1982 BYTE 
about building a 10-chip E-Z Color 
graphics display. The TMS9918 video- 
display processor used in that article 
has been replaced in this design with 
a TMS9118 chip, IC22. Functionally 
the same, the 9 1 1 8 uses 5-V 64K-byte 
DRAMs (dynamic RAMs) instead of 
the older three-supply 4116 types. By 
using TMS4416 16K by 4-bit DRAMs, 

[continued) 



122 B YTE • MAY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 







Oco 



o 

rt 



+ i\ 



5>5fc 



a. 

O 

o> 

CMri 



cr uj 



H 



3f 



-, i/_ 



ne- 



* 



#-s 



ir* 



otl 



f\\ 











rlfr 






o o ^ 

HH 



s. 



DO I 

o-u. I 



Q. CO , 

<z I 




o e> 
o z 



< z 

rsj @ 
m > O 






Su.0 

< 0. _J 



Figure 8: Power supply and transformer/ transmitter assembly. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 123 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



the 16K-byte video memory requires 
only two chips. (The primary reason 
for choosing the 9118 was board 
space and single-supply operation. 
The HCS is battery-operated on 
power outages, and 41 16s would have 
been difficult to accommodate. A 
TMS9918 will not run with 4416s; 
however, it can still be used in this 
design if you replace the 4116s with 
4164s. It's expensive, but it's 5 V only.) 

I will not belabor the point describ- 
ing how the screens are entered into 
display memory or what commands 
are necessary to control the video- 
display processor. Instead, I refer you 
to the August 1982 Circuit Cellar arti- 
cle. One final note for mad program- 
mers. The video-display memory is 
16K bytes, but only about 1 500 bytes 
is currently being used for the alpha- 
numeric-mode status and menu dis- 
plays. The TMS9 118/9918 is capable 
of producing a !6-color 2 56- by 
192-pixel graphics display in three 
operating modes. Given a few more 
man-years of software, I could pos- 
sibly have provided the same pretty 
graphics as those presented on GE's 
HomeMinder, but the present em- 
phasis is on control capabilities. 
Perhaps such features will be included 
in future peripheral expansion. If you 
are interested in the graphics poten- 
tial, look at any ColecoVision or Adam 
computer. They also use the TI graph- 
ics chip. 

The output of the TMS91 18 is NTSC 
(National Television System Commit- 
tee) composite video that is buffered 
and available for direct connection to 
a video monitor. Optionally, an RF 
(radio frequency) modulator can be 
installed that will allow a standard 
television set to be used concurrent- 
ly or in place of a monitor. In my opin- 
ion, displays are much sharper on a 
video monitor than on a television 
set. 

Power Supply and BSR 
Driver 

The power-supply section of Home 
Run posed a particular problem and 
almost scuttled its development. Cir- 
cuit Cellar projects are designed to be 
built, not just read. Unfortunately, I 



cannot always count on everyone tak- 
ing the same care and precaution in 
assembly that I do. The BSR trans- 
mitter is connected directly to the AC 
line through a slug-tuned transmitter 
coil. While isolated after the trans- 
former coil, most manufacturers take 
the economical approach and mount 
this coil and associated components 
on the same PC (printed circuit) board 
with the processor. Since the AC line 
must then be brought to the board 
and a number of components, it 
presents a serious hazard. While I 
could instruct you to pot or otherwise 
insulate these areas, this was deemed 
unsatisfactory. I needed to feel that 
anyone building Home Run either 
from a kit or scratch would not get 
electrocuted. 

The solution was to combine all the 
high-voltage components into one 
sealed module and have only isolated 
low-voltage wiring exit from it (see 
photo 5 and figure 8). The hot com- 
ponents in the HCS are the AC-line 
connected sides of the power trans- 
former and the BSR transmitter coil 
and series capacitor. Using a wall- 
module transformer with an addi- 
tional circuit board containing the 
transmitter coil and components, 
these circuit elements can be isolated. 
A 7-wire cable exits from the wall 
module and ends in a 7-pin DIN 
(Deutsche Industrie Norm) connector. 
TWo wires go to the transmitter coil, 
and five wires come from the power- 
transformer secondary windings. This 
transmitter/power module is more ex- 
pensive than conventional approach- 
es, but it is much safer. 

Figure 8 shows the HCS's regulator 
circuit. It uses a rather novel approach 
to produce + 5 V, + 12 V, and - 12 V. 

The + 5-V and + 12-V outputs are 
produced from a 14-V CT (center tap) 
transformer output. The three 14-V CT 
output windings are connected to a 
full-wave bridge and capacitor filter in 
the traditional manner. Each output, 
referenced to the center tap, will be 
about 9.5 V peak. Using a 7905 
regulator connected to the negative 
filter side, - 5 V is easily produced. In 
this design, however, the output of the 
7905 is reversed and connected to the 



HCS power ground. The transformer 
center tap, now referenced to the HCS 
power ground, will read +5 V! 

A zener regulator with a series- 
blocking diode is connected to the 
positive filter output. The ground pin 
of the circuit, normally connected to 
the center tap in conventional de- 
signs, is connected to the new HCS 
power ground at the output of the 
zener. The effect is a - 5-V reference 
applied to the ground lead of the 
zener. Instead of requiring 14.5 V at its 
input to produce 12 V, it now needs 
only 9.5 V above the center tap. 

The - 12-V supply is a conventional 
half-wave rectifier configuration. Since 
it is required only by the RS-232C and 
BSR drivers, regulation does not have 
to be precise and a zener diode is 
adequate. 

1 chose this particular power-supply 
configuration to reduce power dis- 
sipation. The HCS takes about 0.9 A 
at 5 V. Conventional linear designs 
would have suggested using a 22- to 
24-V CT transformer winding, result- 
ing in about 8.5 W of power dissipa- 
tion. In a sealed enclosure, this can 
make things very warm. With this de- 
sign, dissipation is reduced to about 
4 W. The only alternative would have 
been to use expensive switching sup- 
plies. 

Battery Backup 

The last area of the power supply is 
the battery backup. It consists mere- 
ly of six C-cell nickel-cadmium bat- 
teries in series to produce 7.5 V (6 x 
1.25 V). They are connected between 
the transformer center tap and the in- 
put of the 7905 (note polarity). A 3-A 
IN 5402 diode is inserted in series so 
that the batteries supply power to the 
regulator only when none is being 
provided from the transformer. An- 
other resistor and diode supply a 
trickle charge to the battery. This 
trickle charging rate should be about 
20-30 mA. A I N 5402 blocking diode 
at the input of the positive regulator 
prevents the battery from backflow- 
ing through the transformer to other 
components. 

During a power outage, only the 
+ 5-V supply is maintained. If you 



124 B YTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 289 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



have a battery-operated monitor, it 
will continue to receive status dis- 
plays, but RS-232C modem, terminal 
and BSR functions will be suspended. 
(When the power returns, the HCS 
automatically restores all I/O to the 
proper state.) Direct outputs continue 
to occur on schedule. In my experi- 
ence, power outages are either under 
a few minutes or for many hours. Ex- 
periments show that C-cell nickel- 
cadmium batteries last for about 90 
minutes. 

Experimenters and OEM 
Users 

As always, I try to support the com- 
puter experimenter by providing 
sources for many of the components. 
The Circuit Cellar Home Run Control 
System is a single-board design suit- 
able for OEM applications as well. It 
is available in various configurations 
that are all ultimately upgradable to 
the same potential. 



If you plan on building the unit from 
scratch, good luck and take heart. 
Send me a picture of your board, and 
I'll send you a 1 6K-byte hexadecimal 
dump of the control software, pro- 
vided it is for noncommercial private 
use. If you're a bit more well-heeled. 
I'll supply the code on two 2764 
EPROMs and a manual for $32. post- 
paid in the U.S., $5 extra overseas. (No 
picture is required.) 

Circuit Cellar feedback 

This month's feedback begins on 
page 424. 

Next Month 

I'll describe how the HCS software 
works specifically, explain each of the 
menu functions listed in the first arti- 
cle, and demonstrate a simple control 
application. ■ 

Special thanks to Bill Summers and Leo Taylor 
for their software expertise. 



The following items are available from 

The Micromint Inc. 

2 5 Terrace Dr. 

Vernon, CT 06066 

(800) 635-3355 for orders 

(203) 871-6170 for information 



1. Home Run HCS— Complete assembled sys- 
tem with enclosure and parallel-encoded 
keyboard HCS01, $589 

2. Home Run HCS-Populated PC board. 
Assembled and tested PC board. No 
enclosure or keyboard HCS02, $429 

3. Home Run HCS— Video-based kit. Includes 
PC board and all components except 
enclosure, keyboard, and serial-interface 
components (ICI6, 1CI7, 1C20, and two 
DB-25 connectors) HCSV05, $329 

4. Home Run HCS-Terminal-based kit. 
Includes PC board and all components ex- 
cept video-display processor (IC22, IC2 5, 
and IC26). No keyboard, enclosure, or RF 
modulator HCST06, $289 

5. 8K-byte static-RAM upgrade. Increases 
RAM to I6K bytes HCS20, $3 5 

6. Apple Il-compatible ASCII-encoded key- 
board HCS21. $79 

7. Wall transformer/transmitter module 
(available separately) HCS22, $40 

8. IBM PC Upload/Download event-schedule- 
storage software with terminal emulator, writ- 
ten in C provided on IBM PC-DOS 2.0 disk 
HCS25, $49 



All kits and assembled units include 
operators manual, power supply with wall 
transformer/transmitter module, and 8K 
bytes of RAM. All units are supplied without 
keyboard-encoder chip (not necessary when 
using encoded keyboard, 1CI 8— optionally 
available). All item numbers that list 
enclosures also include backup battery 
holder (six C cells), less batteries. Serial-port 
and video-display-processor upgrades for 
items 3 and 4 and various other components 
are also available. 

Please include $8 for shipping and handling 
in the continental United States, $12 else- 
where. New York residents please include 8 
percent sales tax. Connecticut residents 
please include 7.5 percent sales tax. 

Editor's Note: Steve often refers to previous 
Circuit Cellar articles. Most of these past ar- 
ticles are available in book form from BYTE 
Books, McGraw-Hill Book Company, POB 
400, Hightstown, N] 082 50. 

Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, Volume I covers articles 
in BYTE from September 1977 through 
November 1978. Volume 11 covers December 
1978 through June 1980. Volume III covers July 
1980 through December 1981. Volume IV 
covers January 1982 through June 1983. 



To receive a complete list of Ciarcia's Cir- 
cuit Cellar project kits, circle 100 on the 
reader-service inquiry card at the back 
of the magazine. 




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MAY 1985 "BYTE 125 



rT ^ t Hnd the 
1 hen draw your 



Microsoft® Multiplan® and Microsoft Chart. 
They're crackerjack programs working on their 
own. But you should see this pair in action 
together on the Macintosh™ 

The one, a spreadsheet of dazzling analytical 
power and graceful simplicity. 

The other, a picture perfect charting program 
that makes rows and columns of numbers graphi- 
cally clear. 

And the beauty is, they were literally made for 
each other. And for Macintosh. 




Multiplan accepts you as you are* 

Multiplan takes full advantage of Mac's simple, 
intuitive operating style. So you can work in a 
way that will come natural to you. 

You don't have to memorize any arcane 
commands. Just point and click the mouse 
to move mountains of figures and for- 
mulas quickly and painlessly 

In addition, Multiplan gives you 
features that make hard copies gratify- 
ingly readable. For instance, the enviable | 
ability to print sideways. 

So you can't run out of column room. No matter how wide your spreadsheet gets. 

Chart makes people see what you mean* 

Microsoft Chart gives you lots of ammunition for your arguments: Pie charts, bar 
charts, line, column, area and scatter charts. Or combinations. 

& M I^^D^^sQ^^CT ^ c k t ^ ie one t ^ iat k est illustrates your point. 
I V ■■^•it^^O^/l I® Then translate your numbers into pictures and 
The High Performance Software™ have them on paper in a matter of moments. 
Using the mouse, it's a cinch to fine tune the graphs to get exactly what you want. 
Move any section. Change its size, shape, or highlight it. 

Chart can even be linked with Multiplan. So any change on your spreadsheet will 
show up automatically on the charts. 



126 BYTE • MAY 1985 



answer. , , 
own conclusions. 



We get the max out of Mac* 

It figures that we d be the ones to make Mac work 
so well with figures. We've written more Macintosh 
programs than any other software company. Includ- 
ing Microsoft Word, Microsoft File. And Microsoft 
BASIC, Mac's first language. 
That experience shows in programs which 
not only exploit all of Mac's unique features, 
but make it extraordinarily capable 
and productive. 

In addition, all of Microsoft's 
Macintosh products can exchange 
data with each other. 

And because our 
programs work alike, 
if you learn one, you're 




well on your way to learning the rest. 

To find the name of your nearest Microsoft dealer, call (800) 426-9400. 
In Washington State, Alaska, Hawaii and Canada, call (206) 828-8088. 

Then check out Multiplan and Microsoft 
Chart. And watch them perform some 
nice little numbers. 



Microsoft and Multiplan are registered trademarks and The High 

Performance Software is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 

Macintosh is a trademark licensed to Apple Computer, Inc. 




MAY 1985 'BYTE 127 





£ 




: 


1 




1 £ 


2- . m 




128 BYTE • MAY 1985 



ILLUSTRATED BY MACIEK ALBRECHT 



by Alfred L. Schumer 



Set Extensions 

with 

Apple Pascal 



Add useful set 



operations to your 



programs 



Sets offer a powerful and 
logical construction in 
Pascal. In conjunction with 
user-defined types, they 
can significantly enhance program 
design, maintenance, speed, and 
readability. Unfortunately, many pro- 
grammers shy away from using sets 
because of their high level of abstrac- 
tion and a lack of understanding of 
how to implement sets at the machine 
level. 

In order to promote a greater 
understanding of set constructions in 
Pascal, I will describe sets, their 
operators, and the logical machine 
equivalents used in relational set 
operations. Second, I will present a 
fast extension to Apple Pascal. The 
maximum set size and the number of 
set operations vary from implemen- 
tation to implementation. This 
Supersets program increases the size 
of Apple Pascal sets (from 512 to 
65.536 elements per set) and adds 
more set operations. The program is 
written in 6502 assembly language 
and is, therefore, reasonably fast. 

Pascal Sets 

To test for membership of characters 
in a set you might be tempted to use 
nested IF. . THEN .. .ELSE state- 



ments, such as IF ch = "a" THEN 
{execute code inserted here} ELSE 
IF ch = "b" THEN {execute code} 
ELSE If ch = "c" THEN {execute 
code} ELSE {insert code for ch not 
in set}. A more elegant method uses 
the set operator IN to test for 
membership. With it you can reduce 
these statements to IF ch IN 
['a'.'b'.'c'] THEN {insert code for ch 
in set} ELSE {insert code for ch not 
in set}. 

A set in Pascal is a collection of ob- 
jects of the same type (called the 
"base type" of the set). It may be any 
scalar type; it may not be a structured 
type. Size limitations on sets are de- 
fined by the particular implementa- 
tion and generally range from 64 to 
512 elements. Apple Pascal sets can 
have up to 512 elements and occupy 
memory according to the following 
formula: ((«- 1) DIV 16) + I words, 
where n equals the number of 
elements. Conversely, UCSD Pascal 
sets may have (at most) 4080 ele- 
ments and are limited in size to 25 5 
words. 

With set operators you can perform 
relational operations on sets of the 
same base type, such as testing for 
the inclusion of one set in another or 
for equality. In addition to the special 
membership operator IN, four rela- 
tional operators are typically sup- 
ported: set equality ( = ), set inequali- 
ty (<>). inclusion/contains (>=) 
and inclusion/contained in (< = ). Al- 
though these relational operators 
yield a Boolean result, you can also 
form sets logically from the union, dif- 



ference, or intersection of two sets. 
The union (A + B) results in a set that 
contains all members of A and all 
members of B. The difference (A - B) 
results in a set that contains all 
members of A that are not members 
of B. And the intersection (A*B) 
results in a set of all members of A 
that are also members of B. 

Machine-level Structure 

To illustrate the machine-level struc- 
ture of sets, I will first define a set 
(such as TYPE charset = set of char- 
acters) and define the variables 
Set_^\ and SeLB as that type. In- 
ternally, Apple Pascal allocates an ar- 
ray of 2 56 bits (16 words, each con- 
taining 16 bits) representing the 2 56 
possible ASCII (American Standard 
Code for Information Interchange) 
values for characters. Individual 
elements occupy I bit, indexed by the 
scalar value of the character into the 
set. An element is considered to be 
in the set when its bit is turned on (has 
a binary value of 1). 

lb locate the word offset into the ar- 
ray containing a particular element's 
bit, the scalar value of the element is 
divided by 16 (or divided by 8 to 
locate the byte offset). The bit posi- 

[continued) 
Alfred L. Schumer (17 Pearl St., Wakefield, 
MA 01880) is assistant vice president of 
Bank of America in Boston. He is responsi- 
ble for lending activities with newly formed 
high-technology companies in New England. 
He graduated from New York University's 
Graduate School of Business Administration 
in 1980. 



MAY 1985 'BYTE 129 



SET EXTENSIONS 



Supersets increases 
the size of Apple 
Pascal sets and adds 
more set operations. 



tion within the word is merely the 
scalar value modulo 16. or the re- 
mainder from the division. You can 
add an element to a set by indexing 
into a set's array of words and turn- 
ing the appropriate bit on. Similarly, 
to remove an element, turn the bit off. 
To test for an element's membership 
in a set. you use the same indexing 
technique to determine the state (off 
or on) of the appropriate bit. 

Logical Operators 

The logical operators on sets are 
somewhat tricky. While they don't re- 
quire indexing individual elements- 
entire sets are operands— the Boolean 
logic of unions, differences, and inter- 
sections requires some explaining. 

Testing for set equality ( = ) involves 
comparing all the words of one set 
against the other. If any two corre- 
sponding words differ (their bit pat- 
terns do not match), the sets are not 
equal. This follows from the logic that 
different bit patterns within a word in- 
dicate either Set A contains a 

character not contained in Set B. or 

Set A does not contain a particular 

character that Set B does. 

You can test for the inclusion (< = 
or > =) of. for example. Set__A in 
Set B at the word level by determin- 
ing if for each bit turned on in Set A. 

the equivalent bit (in the equivalent 

word) in Set B is also turned on. 

However, the converse might not be 

true; Set B may contain elements 

that are not in Set A. In other words. 

Set B may contain Set A while 

Set A does not contain Set B 

unless the two are equal. 

The union, difference, and intersec- 
tion set operators differ from equali- 
ty and inclusion in that they do not 
test bits but set or clear them. The 
resulting word is stored into the set 



assigned as the result. The union ( + ) 
of two sets, word for word, produces 
a new set with the bits turned on if 
either or both bits in the operand sets 
are turned on. If both bits are off. the 
resultant bit in the new set is also off. 

The intersection (*) of two sets 
resembles the union except that both 
corresponding bits must be on for the 
resultant word's bit to be turned on. 
If either bit is off. the resultant bit is 
also off. 

Taking the difference ( - ) between 
two sets is the opposite of finding 
their union. However, unlike intersec- 
tion and union, the order in which the 
sets are specified is important. 

(Set A - Set B is not the same as 

Set B - Set A unless the sets are 

equal.) An element common to both 
sets is removed— the appropriate bit 
is turned off— if the corresponding 
bits in each set are both on. However, 
if the first set's bit is on while the sec- 
ond set's bit is off, the resultant bit is 
turned on. If the opposite condition 
is true— the first set's bit is off while 
the second set's bit is on— the bit in 
the result remains off. 

If you are an assembly-language 
programmer, you have probably 
noticed by now that these logical 
operators resemble the 6 502 machine 
instructions AND. ORA. and EOR. In 
fact, the truth tables for each instruc- 
tion are nearly the same as their 
counterparts in set operators. 

For comparison, table I contains 
the truth tables for the machine in- 
structions and those for relational set 
operators. If you examine both groups 
of truth tables, you will find that union 
is equivalent to ORA. intersection to 
AND. and equality to NOT EOR. You 
can build inclusion and difference 
from a combination of AND and 
EOR. Inclusion (A> = B) may be con- 
structed as ((A EOR B) AND A), and 
difference (A - B) as ((A AND B) EOR 
B). Bear in mind that the order in 
which you specify the sets as 
operands is important. 

Setting Up Supersets 

How can you use this information to 
expand the set capabilities of the 
Apple implementation of Pascal? The 



Supersets program duplicates the 
standard Pascal set operators in 
assembly language with enhanced ad- 
dressing and provides some pro- 
cedures and functions to use the ex- 
panded set sizes. Because the tech- 
nique used for indexing into the set 
uses a 16-bit value, sets can contain 
up to 65. 53 5 elements. Before going 
into the specifics of the program, 
however, some housekeeping items 
are in order. \Editor's note: The listing for 
the Supersets program is available for down- 
loading via BYTEnet Listings. The telephone 
number is (603) 924-9820.] 

First. Apple Pascal does not permit 
the declaration of a set size greater 
than 512 elements. Therefore, you 
must use a packed array of type 
Boolean as the data type declara- 
tion—which is what it is internally. For 
example, if you wish to use a set of 
10,000 elements, the declaration must 
be PACKED ARRAY [0. .9999] OF 
BOOLEAN. Note that BOOLEAN can 
be any user-defined type with either 
a base type of Boolean or scalar that 
occupies 1 bit. An example is TYPE 
gender = (male.female). 

Second, the set operators that use 
two operands or sets in the program 
are quite powerful and. used indis- 
criminately, can cause a system failure. 
Assignments or operations on sets of 
different sizes are not picked up by 
the compiler or the run-time code and 
might overwrite other data-storage 
areas. Even worse, such actions might 
destroy integral parts of the Pascal in- 
terpreter and cause unpredictable 
results or a system crash. To avoid this, 
you can assign as a result a set larger 
than either of the operands, provid- 
ed you keep in mind that the 
elements beyond the operand set 
sizes are meaningless. 

Third, your method of using Super- 
Sets' procedures and functions is en- 
tirely up to you. If you choose to link 
the code in after compiling your host 
program, remember to declare the 
procedures and functions EXTER- 
NAL. (This option is assumed in the 
listing.) If you choose to use the 
Library .Code program that comes on 
Apple 111 to include the code as a unit 

[continued] 



130 BYTE • MAY 1985 



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Inquiry 301 



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SET EXTENSIONS 



This code should work 
on all present versions of 
Apple Pascal including 
the Apple Ill's Pascal 



in your System. Library, remember to 
declare the code at the start of your 
program by USES SUPERSETS; then 
call the procedures and functions 
normally. 

Fourth, the procedures and func- 
tions in Supersets require an un- 
signed integer to be the element type 
WORD. You should declare this as 
TYPE word = 0. .65535. However, if 
you anticipate sets less than 32.767. 
you may declare WORD as type in- 
teger. Failure to observe these re- 
quirements can cause disastrous 
results. 

Finally, this code should work on all 
present versions of Apple Pascal, in- 
cluding the Apple Ill's Pascal imple- 
mentation. Be forewarned that future 
versions of Apple Pascal might not 
support these routines. 

Procedures and Functions 

Supersets includes 1 1 procedures and 
functions that can be grouped by the 
number of sets they take as operands. 
Membership, Include, Exclude, and 
Nullify each take a single-set operand, 
while Union, Difference, Intersection, 
Equality, Inclusion, Assignment, and 
Symmetrical all take two. 

The single-set operators— with the 
exception of Nullify— share the sub- 
routine Index set which performs 

the necessary address translation for 

the elements within the set. Index 

set saves the 3 least significant bits of 
the element (modulo 8) in the X-Reg 
for indexing to the desired bit. Then 
the binary value of the element is 
divided by 8 (8 bits per byte) and the 
effective address of the byte within 
the set is formed from the set address, 
offset by the Y-Reg. 

The value in the X-Reg is used to 
index into the 8 bytes beginning at 

{continued) 



132 BYTE • MAY 1985 



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SET EXTENSIONS 



the label Bit masks, which are hexa- 
decimal equivalents for each of the 8 
bits per byte. The appropriate value 
is loaded into the accumulator to be 
used with the machine op codes OR A 
and AND, which set or clear the bit, 
respectively. 
The function Membership uses the 

value in Bit masks with the machine 

op code AND to zero out all the bits 
in the set except the one you're test- 



ing. If the bit you're testing is on, the 
result of the AND is nonzero. (Testing 
for a nonzero result either increments 
the Boolean result to 1 indicating 
true— the element is there— or leaves 
it 0— it's not there.) 

Include, rather than zeroing out all 
the bits except the one you're in- 
terested in, forces the bit on with the 
machine op code ORA, then stores 
the byte back into the set. Converse- 



Tkble 1 : Truth tables for machine instructions on the left, and their 
corresponding relational set operators on the right. 



< Union > 

A/B | | 1 | 



ORA | | 1 | 


| | 1 | 


1 I 1 I 1 I 
AND | | 1 | 


| | | 


1 | | 1 | 



EOR | | 1 | 
0| |1 | 

11 1 lo l 



i o n i 

1 1 1 n i 

< Intersection > 
A/B | | 1 | 

| | | 

1 i o n i 

< Inclusion > 

A/B | | 1 | 

| 1 | | 

1 I 1 |1 I 

< Difference > 
A/B | | 1 | 

| | | 

1 I 1 lo I 

< Equality > 
A/B | | 1 | 

| 1 | | 

1 I |1 | 



ly, Exclude forces the bit off; first, how- 
ever, it must reverse the Bit mask bit 

pattern— setting the bit you want to 
use explicitly off and all the rest on. 
Then, if you use an AND op code, you 
won't affect the other bits in the set, 
but the bit you wish to clear will be 
turned off. Again, the byte operated 
on is stored back into the set. 

Dual-set operators require a some- 
what different process, a sequential 
processing of each byte in a set, 
rather than the individual bits. The 
method used here is described in Bob 
Sander-Cederlof's article, "How to 
Move Memory" (Apple Assembly Line, 
January 1981). Basically, the number 
of bytes to be moved is broken down 
into pages of 256 bytes and a remain- 
ing partial page with a byte count less 
than 2 56. Whole pages are moved 
first, then the partial page. The 

parameter Set size contains the 

number of bytes to be moved 
(operated on) and should be passed 
to the procedures using the built-in 
Pascal function SIZEOFQ applied to 
your declared PACKED ARRAYS] OF 
BOOLEAN. 

The Union, Intersection, and Dif- 
ference procedures scan sequential 
bytes in each of two set operands, 
altering the bit patterns according to 
the truth tables in table I. Union 
essentially uses the machine op code 
ORA to set bits on if the bit is on in 
either of the sets involved. Intersec- 
tion, on the other hand, uses the 
machine op code AND to turn bits on 
only if they are on in both sets. Final- 
ly, Difference uses a combination of 
the machine op codes EOR and AND: 
it first turns off bits that are common 
to both sets (EOR), then ANDs this bit 
pattern with the original operand, 

Set A, to clear those bits not 

originally part of Set A— those 

turned on by EOR. (This becomes 
easier to understand if you try to work 
out a couple of examples by hand 
using table 1.) 

The function Inclusion ANDs the 
two sets together, yielding a bit 
pattern that contains only those bits 
common to both sets. This pattern is 
then compared to the bit pattern of 

{continued) 



134 BYTE • MAY 1985 




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SET EXTENSIONS 



the set you wish to test for inclusion 

(Set B). If the patterns match, you 

know that all bits common to both 

sets are contained in Set B. If not, 

the loop is exited to the code located 
at local label $4, which decrements 
the Boolean result to (false) and 
returns to the caller. 

The Assignment and Nullify pro- 
cedures are fairly straightforward. 
Assignment copies the bytes from 
one set to another, while Nullify 
moves 0s— all bits off, thus no ele- 
ments—to the operand set. 

What would an extension to a lan- 
guage be without some new feature 
thrown in for good measure? How 
about a set operator from Modula-2, 
Niklaus Wirth's latest language? Titled 
Symmetrical, this dual-set operator is 
expressed as A/B (versus A- B for 
difference) and forms a new set with 
elements from either set, but not 
both. For example element IN (A/B) 
is the same as NOT ((element IN A) 
AND (element IN B)). At the machine 
level, the op code used is EOR, which 
turns bits common to both sets off 
and turns on those bits not common 
to both. (Dyed-in-the-wool Pascal pro- 
grammers should have some fun with 
this one.) 

Execution Speed 

As usual, there are trade-offs between 
the size of the code and its execution 
speed. Since the single-set operators 



require one access into a set, it seems 
reasonable that they share the neces- 
sary overhead. However, because the 
dual-set operators must make several 
accesses, they should use their own 
code exclusively. If the dual-set oper- 
ators were to share a main loop for 
accessing memory, the overhead of 
both testing for the operator desired 
and JUMPing to it would slow execu- 
tion by at least a factor of two. 

How fast does this make Supersets 
compared to Apple Pascal? T&ble 2 
lists the procedures and functions of 
Supersets, their equivalent Apple 
Pascal statements, and the relative ex- 
ecution times of each. In order to get 
a meaningful comparison, I used a set 
of 51 2 elements to compare Apple 
Pascal and Supersets. The third col- 
umn gives the results for a set of 1024 
elements using Supersets only. 

As table 2 indicates, Supersets' pro- 
cedures are about twice as fast as 
their counterparts in Apple Pascal. 
Equally important, Supersets' ability 
to handle sets of an increased size- 
such as 1024 elements— does not sig- 
nificantly slow execution. One reason 
for the performance increase is that 
Apple Pascal cannot add or subtract 
single elements from sets but must 
use an entire set for each operand. 
Also, Apple Pascal compiles to p- 
code, which must then be interpreted 
at run time. 

(continued) 



Tkble 2: Supersets' procedures and functions with their equivalent Apple Pascal 


statements and the relative execution times of each. 






Supersets 


Apple Pascal 


Apple Set 


Superset 


Superset 


Procedure 


Statement 


of 512 


of 512 


of 1024 


Membership 


element IN set A 


1.000 


0.688 


0.688 


Include 


set A : = set A + [element] 


1.000 


0.274 


0.274 


Exclude 


set A : = set A - [element] 


1.000 


0.270 


0.270 


Union 


set_C : = set A + set B 


1.000 


0.265 


0.415 


Intersection 


set_C ; = set A * set_B 


1.000 


0.531 


0.810 


Difference 


set_C : = set__A - set_B 


1.000 


0.578 


0.931 


Equality 


set A = set_B 


1.000 


0.629 


0.947 


Inclusion 


set A > = set_B 


1.000 


0.640 


1.005 


Assignment 


set_B : = set_A 


1.000 


0.823 


1.240 


Nullify 


set__A : = [] 


1.000 


0.721 


1.031 


Symmetrical 


set_C : = set_A / set_B 


1.000 


0.278 


0.430 


Average Relative Execution Times 


1.000 


0.518 


0.731 



136 BYTE • MAY 1985 



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SET EXTENSIONS 



Supersets permits set sizes 
significantly larger without much 
degradation in execution speed. 

Applications 

You might keep in mind that 
Supersets operates on packed arrays 
of type Boolean. Therefore, you can 
use Supersets in Pascal applications 
that might not require abstraction at 
the set construct level— for example, 
bit-mapped graphics. 

In addition to applications requiring 
larger set sizes, you can use Supersets 
to formulate relational database 
requests that use large Boolean 
arrays, indexed by the record number, 
to construct subsets of the data. For 
example, several such subsets could 
represent an individual's gender, 
income, and whether he or she 
subscribes to a particular periodical. 

By using the Union, Difference, and 
Intersection set operators, the 
database request can return those 
records where the individual is, for 
example, male and/or has a certain 
income and/or subscribes to a 
particular periodical. You can also use 
Supersets in scientific sampling to 
operate on arrays of Boolean 
observations over time— the scalar 
index— to construct particular 
relationships among several such sets 
of observations. 

You might find the equivalent ma- 
chine op code for particular operators 
handy with graphics animation or bit- 
mapped character sets. Rather than 
redraw several sequences of an 
animation scene, you can use the 
operators to alter the bit pattern of 
the bit array and write it out to the 
graphics screen using the DrawBlock 
intrinsic provided with TUrtle Graphics. 

Conclusion 

Sets are indeed powerful constructs 
in Pascal; take advantage of their ease 
of use, speed, and logical operators. 
In addition, knowledge of how sets 
work at the machine level can open 
new avenues of applications in areas 
other than the set construct. I hope 
Supersets will expand your Pascal 
toolkit and enhance your program 
design. ■ 



138 BYTE • MAY 1985 



COLOR GRAPHICS 

On Any System. . . 
In Any Language . . . 



At Applied Data Systems, Inc., we know that everyone requires a different level of graphics capability. That's why 
we've produced a line of graphics products tailored to fit anyone from novice to expert — on any system from a personal 
computer to a large-scale mainframe. 







All products In the Vector Scan product line feature: 

5 1 2 X 480 X 4 bit Frame Buffer On board processor and firmware 

Uses no host RAM address space Color and Monochrome Map Registers 

Color and Monochrome outputs User programmable Shape Table 



For ENGINEERS AND SYSTEMS INTEGRATORS: The 

VectorScan 5 1 2 is a "black box" type peripheral that brings color graphic 
capability to any host computer or controller. The VectorScan provides: 

• Application software that is transportable between minis, mainframes, 
and micros 

• Up to 4 independent overlay planes 

• An easy to use ASCII command structure 

• An internal character generator 

• Four graphic and text overlays, selective erasure,' and graphic page 
switching 

• A language and operating system independent device 

Our approach greatly simplifies graphics integration into industrial process 
control, R&D applications and business reporting. 





For THE IBM-PC AND COMPATIBLES: The VectorScan 
PCS 12 plug-in board brings "Black Box" graphics to the small computer 
user. This approach to high resolution graphics is important to the small 
computer user since processor speed and memory address space is at a 
premium. The PC5 1 2 provides: 

• An on-board Z80B processor [6 Mhz). 

• Firmware for graphic primitive execution and video memory ad- 
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• Operations transparent to the PC processor 

• A fast, easy-to-use graphics peripheral 

• A language and operating system independent device 



VectorScan PCS 1 2 VectorScan 5 1 2/IEEE Vector Scan 5 1 2 



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interface 



Aluminum Case and 

power supply. 
RS-232 Interface 
Hardcopy output 
$975 





ppiied Data Systems, inc. 9811 Mallard Drive, Suite 213 • Laurel, Maryland 20708 • (301) 953-9326 



Inquiry 34 



Three more firsts 
from the people who 
invented the wheel. 




■ 



XEROX 



mk 



From day one, Xerox and Diablo 
have been known as the two best 
names in daisywheel printers. And 
now there are three more in the 
Xerox line to choose from. 

The Xerox Advantage D-25 
Diablo printer turns out letter qual- 
ity documents quickly and quietly. 
And it does all that for the price of 
a dot matrix printer. 
* At80 




c.p.s., the D-80IF is the fastest 
daisywheel printer ever made by 
Xerox. It has a built-in double bin 
sheet feeder. As well as 
the capacity to handle up 
to 16 computers at once. 

And the D-36 spells 
reliability. It averages 4,000 hours of 
printing between maintenance calls. 

But Xerox didn't stop there. 
Each of these new machines is 
compatible with most computers 
on the market, including the 
IBM-PC. And they're 
It all easy to use. 



> 




They're also a part of Team Xerox,* 
so they can be serviced by the 
national Xerox service force and 

authorized service loca- 
tions across the country. 

So if you're looking 
for the latest in daisy- 
wheel printing technology, go with 
the people who've been in the busi- 
ness the longest Call 1-800-833-2323, 
ext. 25, your local Xerox office, an 
authorized Diablo or Xerox dealer 
of send your business card to Xerox 
Corporation, DepL 25192, EQ 
Box 24; Rochester, NY 14692. 

For more information from Xerox, 
Circle 424 on the Reader Service card 








' ' 



XEROX&, Diablo* and the identifying numbers herein are trademarks ot XbKL 
IBM " is a registered trademark oflnternalional Business Machines Corporatior 




^HHHSBhMHbI 



WITH EASYBUSINESS 
SYSTEMS, THERE'S 
NO TELLING HOW 
MR YOUR BUSINESS 
CAN GO. 

When you add EasyBusiness™ 
Systems accounting software to 
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You'll get the information you 
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First of all, EasyBusiness Systems 
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integrated accounting system. 

One that's recommended by 
accountants from independent 
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In fact, PC Magazine's Price 
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EasyBusiness Systems " ... an ex- 
cellent set of accounting packages." 
and "... among the best on the 
market today."* 

And now with the EasyPlus™ 
windowing system, you can inte- 
grate all our accounting and pro- 
ductivity software on one screen. 

Integration that no other soft- 
ware company can offer. 

Which even includes leading 
spreadsheets like SuperCalc* 3 
Release 2 and Lotus l-2-3! M 
Databases like dBASE™ II. And 
word processing programs like 
Easy Writer™ II and WordStar!" 

So you'll be able to see, 
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EasyBusiness 
Systems is 
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for any size 
business. Yet 
surprisingly easy 
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And should you 
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To find out more about 
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SORCIM/IUS 

MICRO SOFTWARE 

A Division of Compuler As^oaaies Inter nahonal. tnc L ^. 



O 



~ m mm m mm mm mm- 

**. am- *m-.'mm *m *a» «b *m mm .*■# ,w* 



To Word Processing . . 



© Computer Associates International, Inc. EasyBusiness, Easy- 
Plus and EasyWriter are trademarks, and SuperCalc a regis- 
tered trademark of Computer Associates International, Inc. 
Lotus and 1-2-3 aretrademarksol Lotus Development Corp. 
dBASE is a trademark of AshtonTate. WordStar is a trademark 
ol MicroPro Corp. 
*PC Magazine 5/1/84. 

Inquiry 372 



To Customized Reports . 






■iT~ ' ' 






By Ernest H. Piette 



Build a Talking 
Clock Speech 
Synthesizer 



This talking clock chip 
circuit also allows 
experimentation with an 
unlimited-vocabulary 
speech processor. 



Low-cost speech synthesis is 
now available for the com- 
puter hobbyist. Radio Shack 
has two speech-synthesis 
products (each selling for $12.9.5) and 
both can be interfaced to the Com- 
modore 64, VIC-20. and the TRS-80 
computer. One product is the General 
Instrument Talking Clock chip set and 
the other is the General Instrument 
SP02 56-AL2 Allophone Speech Pro- 
cessor. I'll explain how to interface 
these chips to the above-mentioned 
computers and describe a program 
for the Commodore 64 and VIC-20 
that will keep time and give a vocal 



announcement of the time with the 
touch of a key. 

Included in the General Instrument 
Talking Clock chip set are the SP0256- 
017 Speech Processor and the 
SPR016-117 Speech ROM (read-only 
memory). A fixed vocabulary stored 
on the Speech Processor and the 
ROM contains 3 3 words and 3 melo- 

[continued) 
Ernest H. Piette is an off-site engineer in aero- 
space avionics presently working in the Republic 
of Korea for the Fair child Republic Co. His 
interests include computers, and robotics. He 
may be contacted at PSC Box 905, APO, 
San Francisco, CA 96461-0006. 



^ -Star- v y I 




ILLUSTRATED BY MACIEK ALBRECHT 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 143 



TALKING CLOCK 



dies appropriate for a talking clock. 
The speech produced is highly in- 
telligible and sounds natural. 

The General Instrument SP02 56- 
AL2 Allophone Speech Processor is 
capable of unlimited vocabulary 
speech using the allophone-synthesis 
technique. Stated simply allophones 
are the basic sound components of 
any spoken English word. Radio Shack 
includes with the chip a data booklet 
that lists the guidelines for combining 
allophones to create words. (For a fur- 
ther discussion of allophones, see the 
text box "Speech and Voice Synthe- 
sis" by Tom Clune, September 1984 
BYTE, page 340.) 

Amazingly, a single circuit can be 



used to interface either the Talking 
Clock chip set or the Allophone 
Speech Processor to your computer. 
Figure 1 shows a diagram of such a 
circuit that you can connect to a wide 
variety of microcomputers. The circuit 
is small, composed entirely of inex- 
pensive parts, and can be connected 
to the user port on the Commodore 
64 and V1C-20, the printer port on the 
TRS-80, or any computer with a Cen- 
tronics printer port. 

Circuit layout is not very critical; the 
SPO256-017 seems rather forgiving in 
this regard. However, use good con- 
struction techniques to keep AC 
(alternating current) hum and noise 
pickup to a minimum. Also, you 



should use IC (integrated circuit) 
sockets for the Speech Processor and 
ROM chips. 

You will notice that the circuit 
diagram shows the Talking Clock chip 
set in place. No physical modifications 
are necessary to switch to the Allo- 
phone Speech Processor; simply 
remove the SPO2 56-017 Speech Pro- 
cessor and the SPR016-1 17 ROM and 
plug the Allophone chip into the 
Speech Processor's socket (the ROM 
socket remains empty). Always be cer- 
tain that there is no power going to 
the circuit before doing this. 

I've written two BASIC programs 
that you can use for experimentation 

(continued) 



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Figure 1: The Talking Clock circuit for Commodore 64, VIC-20. TRS-80. or any microcomputer with a Centronics port. (The 
TRS-80 Model I requires an Expansion Interface.) The two 0.02 2 -^F capacitors should be high quality, such as Radio Shack part 
number 272-1066. for best results. Use the \Ok-ohm variable resistor for volume control. Although the manufacturer recommends a 
3.12-MHz crystal 1 found that a TV colorburst works well (Radio Shack part number 272-1310). Also, if you are using a TRS-80 
or Centronics interface, you will have to supply an external +5-V power source. 



144 BYT E • MAY 1985 







Hi 


i,,l-^ir. 


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I 

m .11 


V 

■ ■ 9i # S 1 





;j tfT 



Opening a Branch Office. . . 

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DISCOVERY is a trademark of Action Computer Enterprises, Inc. 
MAY 1985 'BYTE 145 



Inquiry 129 



TOUGH PRINTER NETWORK PROBLEM* 

"How do I get my computers to share three different printers 

and a plotter. . . without getting all tangled up in cables, 

switches, protocols and programming?" 

SIMPLE SOLUTION: PrintDirector 

PrintDirector — an automatic switch, 
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changing or switch flipping. No modifications to your 
hardware or software. No problem. For information on the 
proven PrintDirector product family — and a configurator 
to tell you which particular PrintDirector can solve your tough 
printer network problem in a computer or PC center, or local work 
cluster — call or write: 



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• 200 cps data processing mode. 

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• 35 cps letter quality mode. 

• 10 ips graphics print speed. 

• Serial and parallel interfaces. 

• 5000-byte buffer. 



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For sale, lease or rent from MTL 

The Dataproducts Model 8050 printer is one of the most economi- 
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Whether you buy, rent or lease, MTI is the one source for all com- 
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TALKING CLOCK 



with this circuit. The first, named 
TCLjOCK.BAS, creates a Talking Digital 
Clock on your Commodore 64 or 
VIC-20. (Use it with the diking Clock 
chip set in place.) Run the program, 
enter the correct time in response to 
the initial prompt, and watch the 
digital display begin ticking away. 
Press any key for a verbal announce- 
ment of the time. (Be sure to read all 
REM statements before running the 
program; they will indicate any code 
that is machine-dependent.) 

The second program uses the Allo- 
phone Speech Processor and will say 
"Hello" on the Commodore 64. This 
program is named HEL1j064.BAS. 
[Editor's note: The source-code listings for 
TCLOCK.BAS and HELIj064.BAS are 
available for downloading via BYTEnet 
Listings. The telephone number is (603) 
924-9820.] 

Although 1 haven't mentioned any 
uses for the talking clock program, I'm 
sure you have ideas that you might 
like to try. A subroutine could be in- 
cluded to input an alarm time that 
would wake you in the morning. For 
commercial applications, the circuit 
could be integrated into a work- 
station, notifying an employee of the 
time when a particular job should be 
started, etc. It could even be included 
in a punch-clock station. 

diking games, spelling programs, 
math programs, etc., are just a few ap- 
plications for the Allophone speech 
synthesizer. In any case, the SP0256 
series of speech processors offers an 
extremely low cost introduction to 
speech synthesis. 

The items to follow are available 
from Microtalk Inc., 39 Raymond St., 
Providence, Rl 02908. For $18, the 
TT-1 Partial Kit includes an etched and 
drilled PC board, assembly instruc- 
tions, and edge connector or ribbon 
cable (depending on computer: be 
sure to specify Commodore 64, 
VIC-20, or TRS-80). The SP0256-AL2 
kit comes with the Allophone pro- 
cessor chip and the Allophone syn- 
thesis user's guide for only $16. In- 
clude $2 for shipping and handling in 
the continental United States, $5 else- 
where. Residents of Rhode Island 
should include 6 percent sales tax. ■ 



146 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 281 



CONTROL 
DATA 



UULNS^UUCSJ 
Premium Series 
5.25-inch Flexible Disks 
100% Certified 



THE 




That's right. A StorageMaster® diskette is the 
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So if you won't settle for anything 

50 1 8 Copyright © 1985 Control Data Corporation. 




less than extraordinary performance 
every time, reach for the flopless one. 
Reach for a StorageMaster diskette. For 
the location of your nearest distributor, 
see your local Yellow Pages or call 
toll-free 1-800-232-6789 ext 370. 



CONTROL 
DATA 



Inquiry 109 



MAY 1985 'BYTE 147 



IBM's 

best efforts are 

now going into 

Macintosh. 



Macintosh and IBM PC 
software. Compatible at last, 
thanks to MacCharlie, a rather 
innovative coprocessing system. 

And imagine the consequences. 

Nearly 10,000 IBM PC software 
programs designed for general 
business and specific applications 
in real estate, insurance, law, 
medicine, banking, etcetera, can 
now join forces with Macintosh's 
own popular programs. 

And, the myriad of IBM PC- 
compatible software adopts 
Macintosh's many beloved 
features, including desktop 
utilities such as the clipboard and 
the calculator. 

In addition, MacCharlie allows 



IBM PC and Macintosh data files to 
be exchanged. Talk about flexibility. 

But the good news gets better. 

You see, MacCharlie delivers 
hardware compatibility, as well. 
For example, IBM letter-quality 
printers can be easily used 
with Macintosh. 

Furthermore, 
MacCharlie 



now allows Macintosh to perform 
virtually any networking an IBM 
PC can perform. Even to the extent 
of tying in with IBM mainframes. 

In other words, your 
networking capability goes beyond 
the Apple family. 








The Macintosh keyboard slides 
right into MacCharlie's keyboard. 
About as easy as slipping a letter 
in an envelope. 



Macintosh sets snugly 
beside MacCharlie, on 
a custom-fit pedestal. 



Once you plug in MacCharlie's 
power and keyboard cords, 
you're ready to enjoy a very 
happy marriage. 



How does it happen? As easily 
as slipping on penny loafers. 

In mere moments, MacCharlie 
combines the best features of the 
world's premier personal 
computers. 

And despite the fact that it 



turns one computer into two, 
MacCharlie adds but a handful of 
square inches to Macintosh's 
physique. 

In short, one of life's most 
perplexing decisions — whether to 
buy a Macintosh or an IBM PC — 



can now be made with the 
greatest of ease. 

Ask for MacCharlie at your 
local computer store. Or, for more 
information, call Operator 14 toll- 
free, 1-800-531-0600. (In Utah, 
call 801-531-0600). 



MacCharlie offers 256K RAM, with optional upgrade to 640K RAM; 360KB disk drive, and optional second disk drive. 




M^Chatiie 

THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS. 

MacCharlie is a product of Dayna Communications, 

50 S. Main, Salt Lake City, Utah 84144 

Inquiry 126 

Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Macintosh is a trademark licensed to Apple Computer, Inc. IBM 
is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 



The Dream,Knee-top PC 
with APL Prodi ictivitv 


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You have never seen a personal computer like the WS-1. This beauty 
introduces a whole new world of knee-top PC productivity. It combines 
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Battery operation 8 MHz 68000 CPU Up to 448K bytes of 
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phone function Microcassette voice/data storage 

150 BYTE • MAY 1985 



FOR DISTRt BUTORSHIP INFORMATION AND PRODUCT DETAILS. PLEASE CONTACT 



EJmpene 



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U.S. Representative Office: 

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Phone: 213-540-1553, Telex: 322800 WORK SPACE 

Inquiry 29 



SMALLTALK 



Comes to the 



Microcomputer World 







he August 1981 issue of BYTE focused on Smalltalk, a highly unusual pro- 
gramming language. The Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) designed 
Smalltalk to be a complete development environment. The language is some- 
what esoteric; it uses unfamiliar terms such as 'methods," "classes," and "ob- 
jects," instead of more conventional jargon. And, while most languages deal 
with algorithms, Smalltalk focuses on data structures (objects) and their inter- 
relationships. Smalltalk's lack of "modes" is also unconventional; it has no 
edit, compile, link, or execute mode. Instead, Smalltalk allows you to do vir- 
tually anything, anytime. The Smalltalk environment pioneered the concept 
of displaying different tasks in multiple windows on the screen, an idea that, 
at the time, represented a radical departure from punched cards and 80-col- 
umn by 24-line ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) 
CRTs (cathode-ray tubes). Using a mouse for screen interaction is another 
Smalltalk innovation. 

When BYTE introduced its readers to this fascinating language, many of them 
expectantly awaited Smalltalk's appearance on microcomputers. They waited 
. . . and waited . . . and waited. Then they began to complain. "Why," they 
asked BYTE, "did you devote an entire issue to a language we can't use? When 
are we actually going to see a version of Smalltalk?" The BYTE staff grew weary 
of the complaints, especially because they were justified. 

Therefore, it is with great interest and relief that we print this series of ar- 
ticles. First, Tom Yonkman and I evaluate Methods (page 1 52), developed by 
Digitalk Inc. of Los Angeles, California, which brings Smalltalk-80 to the IBM 
Personal Computer (PC) and compatibles. 

Then Christopher Macie discusses Smalltalk-PC a restricted Smalltalk im- 
plementation he's developing for the Apple II and other computers (page 15 5). 

Finally, for those of you who don't have the August 1981 BYTE handy, "The 
Smalltalk Programming Language" by Jim Anderson and Barry Fishman of 
Digitalk (page 160) gives a brief review of Smalltalk-80, complete with an ap- 
plication that runs under Methods. 

A review of the August 1981 issue shows how heavily the Xerox PARC Small- 
talk project has influenced modern software, most notably that for the 
Lisa/Macintosh. However, development languages like BASIC, C, FORTH, and 
Pascal remain largely unaffected. Perhaps now that some "real" Smalltalk 
implementations are reaching the microcomputer market, the object-oriented 
approach to software development will get its first true test. 



I 



—Bruce Webster 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 151 















METHODS: 
A PRELIMINARY LOOK 







IN BRIEF 

Name 

Methods, version 1.0 

Manufacturer 

Digital k Inc. 

5200 West Century Blvd. 
Los Angeles, CA 90045 
(213) 645-1082 

TVpe 



Part 1: Methods is object-oriented 

by Bruce Webster 



he influence of Smalltalk-80. particularly the Xerox PARC implementation, on the 
microcomputer world has become just about legendary. Windows, mice, and pop-up/pull- 
down menus now appear on everything from small portables with LCDs (liquid-crystal 
displays) to expensive terminals hooked up to even more expensive minicomputers and 
mainframes. Ironically, however, most of the emulation is of the appearance and not 
of the substance of Smalltalk— and with good reason. Most people have agreed that 
expensive hardware is required for an acceptable implementation of the Xerox stan- 
dard. For example, 'fektronix recently announced their 4404 Artificial Intelligence System, 
a marvelous single-user development system running Smalltalk-80. It has a Motorola 

68010 processor, I megabyte of RAM (random-access 
read/write memory), and a 20-megabyte hard disk. But 
its $15,000 cost will do little to bring Smalltalk to the 
masses. Yet; as the many articles in the August 1981 BYTE 
suggest, Smalltalk is a language from which the masses, 
from children on up, can profit. 

A few years ago, two software engineers working on 
several large projects were frustrated with their develop- 
ment tools. Specifically, Jim Anderson and George 
Bosworth wanted a development environment that would 
help, rather than hinder, in producing solutions. They read 
the BYTE Smalltalk issue and found that many of the ar- 
ticles presented ideas similar to their own: 



Object-oriented program-development system, 
based on Smalltalk-80 

Environment 

Text-based windowing system with cursor-pad "mouse" 
and pop-up menus 

Price 

$250 

Computer 

IBM PC and compatibles with two 360K-byte disk drives 
(or a hard disk), at least 512K-bytes of RAM, 
a monochrome or graphics card, and either 
MS-DOS or PC-DOS 

Documentation 

Program-development-environment reference manual, 
Smalltalk language reference manual 

Audience 

Software developers and interested programmers 



• Small personalized systems provide much more creative 
leverage for the user than large-scale standardized sys- 
tems. (They had been using an extended Pascal under 
UNIX 4.2.) 

• Complexity dilutes power. The UNIX systems certainly 
have power, but their complexities detract from their abili- 
ty to harness it. 

• A small number of concepts uniformly applied results 
in a powerful and understandable system. 

• Self-organizing systems are the goal of the future. 

Anderson and Bosworth decided that Smalltalk— or 
something like it— was their answer. 

They wanted a commercially viable product something 
that others could and would use. Initially, they approached 

Bruce Webster is a BYTE contributing editor as well as a PMS com- 
mando. He works with several programming languages and is seldom 
afraid to tackle a new one. He can be reached at 6215 Thorn St., 
San Diego, CA 92115. 



152 BYTE • MAY 1985 












• 



mit 









Xerox but decided that the hardware demands and licens- 
ing fees of Smalltalk-80 were too great. So, not knowing 
that it was "impossible" to bring up Smalltalk on the cur- 
rent generation of microcomputers, they agreed to imple- 
ment Smalltalk on an Olivetti computer, retaining the right 
to market the results for other microcomputers. They 
picked the IBM Personal Computer as their target machine, 
assuming that would give them the largest possible 
market, and they formed Digitalk Inc. with Barbara 
Noparstak and Alberto Delia Ripa. The result, two years 
later, is Methods, version 1.0. 

Methods attempts to recreate the Smalltalk development 
environment on an IBM PC (and compatibles) running 
under MS-DOS. You don't need a hard disk-two 360K- 
byte floppy disks are sufficient— but you do need 5I2K 
bytes of memory. Nonetheless, most IBM PCs and com- 
patibles now come with at least 2 56K bytes of RAM, and 
expansion cards with another 2 56K bytes are readily 
available. 

Using Methods 

Methods uses two disks. One contains SOURCES.SML, 
a 300K-byte ASCII file containing the source code for all 
methods in the system. The other has IMAGE.EXE, a RAM 
image of the Methods system, and CHANGE.LOG. an 
ASCII file containing the source code for all changed 
methods and for expressions executed with the dolt and 
printlt menu commands. 

It takes about a minute to load IMAGE.EXE, your 
development environment, into RAM. You can save new 
objects and methods to disk using one of the pop-up 
menus. Then, when you reload the image, you come up 
in the same environment you last saved, including all win- 
dows and their contents (definitions, commands, output). 

Digitalk's biggest challenge was implementing the 
Smalltalk user interface. Windows, pop-up menus, and a 
free-roaming cursor are fundamental aspects of Xerox's 
Smalltalk systems, but not all IBM PCs or compatibles have 
graphics capability, and few support a mouse. Therefore 
Digitalk used a character-based windowing system and 
what they call the "right-hand-drive mouse." 

The character-based windows, which use the IBM PC's 
extended character set and character attributes (bold, in- 
verse, etc.), work well. Windows can overlap, move around, 
and change size. They can collapse down to their title, 
which can then be set off in a corner of the screen, or 
they can be removed altogether. They can hold more text 
than they show, and they support both vertical and hori- 
zontal scrolling. Furthermore a given window can be 
divided into "panes," each with the same capabilities as 
windows. TWo functions keys select the current window 
and pane: F9 cycles through the windows on the screen, 
activating each in turn by putting it "on top" of all others; 
F10 cycles through the different panes (if any) within the 
currently active window. Alternatively placing the cursor 



in a window or pane makes it active. With a color-graphics 
card, the windows are still text-based, but you gain the 
ability to select the background and text colors for each 
window. 

Tfext-based windows have three main advantages. They 
lessen the need for a graphics card, reduce memory re- 
quirements (because text information is more compact 
than bit-map information), and increase system speed 
(because text can be manipulated more rapidly than bit 
maps). The disadvantage, of course, is that some of the 
fancier features often associated with Smalltalk— different 
text fonts, graphics images, and the like— aren't possible. 

The right-hand-drive mouse uses the cursor keypad to 
perform most of the functions of a mouse, including mov- 
ing the cursor, scrolling windows, popping up menus, and 
selecting text. The arrow keys move the cursor around; 
if you use them with the shift key, the cursor moves in 
larger increments. The Home and End keys let you scroll 
text left and right within the active window/pane; similar- 
ly, the Pg Up and Pg Dn keys let you scroll up and down. 
The Ins and Del keys pop up menus for the the active win- 
dow and pane, respectively. The + key selects a menu item 
or a location; the - key extends that selection over several 
lines. 

Some Observations 

It was easy to evaluate Methods' user interface; it was 
more difficult to assess the language itself, especially to 
compare it with Smalltalk-80. Since I had little experience 
with Smalltalk (or, for that matter, any other object- 
oriented language), I asked someone with more experi- 
ence and knowledge to perform that task. Tom Yonkman, 
who has developed object-oriented software applications 
for several years, graciously consented to write the sec- 
ond part of this article. I will share my own observations 
as a professional software engineer with a strong back- 
ground in more traditional computer languages (Pascal, 
FORTH, FORTRAN, assembly). Keep in mind, however, that 
I worked with a prerelease version with no real documen- 
tation. 

At first, I was very excited about Methods. I spent a few 
hours at the Digitalk offices watching the staff demonstrate 
the product. I was impressed with the user interface and 
amazed at how quickly they could create new applications 
and modify existing ones. I was anxious to start using it 
myself. 

My initial sessions with Methods were frustrating. What 
seemed effortless and clear at Digitalk now seemed dif- 
ficult and obscure. I had no problems with the user inter- 
face, but the language itself was challenging. In fact, I was 
probably a victim of my own training and experience, all 
geared towards "traditional" programming languages and 
techniques. 

After a few days of playing around, I began to get results. 

{continued) 



MAY 1985 "BYTE 153 






I started to define some data structures and the methods 
needed to store and retrieve their information. The more 
I worked, the more potential I saw. Indeed, some of my 
long-term projects dealing with modeling large systems 
may be better implemented in Methods/Smalltalk than in 
any other languages with which I'm familiar. 

My main difficulty with Methods was getting it to do 
something quickly. This was not an inherent problem with 
Methods; 1 had three handicaps: lack of documentation, 
lack of graphics and real numbers in my prerelease ver- 
sion (most of the examples in Smalltalk-80 books involve 
one or the other), and, of course, my own lack of familiarity 



with object-oriented languages. None of these handicaps 
should remain when Methods is commercially released 
(probably by the time you read this). 

The bottom line is that Methods is a legitimate object- 
oriented development system, running on widely available 
standard hardware. Since it is a departure from traditional 
programming environments, you will need complete, clear 
documentation to avoid frustration. How Digitalk ad- 
dresses that issue remains to be seen. A more complete 
evaluation will have to await the release of the final prod- 
uct: nonetheless, anyone with an interest in object-oriented 
languages should take a close look at Methods. 



Part 2 : . . but is it Smalltalk? 



m 



by Tom Yonkman 



.ethods is a complete software-development 
system, with an editor, compiler, executor, and debugger 
all in a multiwindow environment. Methods does not re- 
quire a linker or a loader. 

The language is similar to Smalltalk-80 (see Smalltalk-80: 
The language and Its Implementation by Adele Goldberg and 
David Robson, Addison-Wesley, 1983). The syntaxes of the 
languages are identical except for characters that don't 
exist in the IBM PC character set. On the basis of limited 
testing, the semantics of Methods (what the functions, do) 
also seem identical to those in Smalltalk-80. The user in- 
terface is similar to that of Smalltalk-80: differences owe 
to the space limitations of the 80-column by 2 5-line char- 
acter screen and to the memory limitations of the IBM PC. 

Methods provides the standard System 'franscript, Work- 
space, Class Hierarchy Browser, Class Browser, Inspector, 
and Walkback (Backtrace) windows. Multiple instances of 
each window ("views" in Methods and Smalltalk jargon) 
can appear on the screen. The Walkback window traces 
the sequence of operations that led to an error state. The 
System Transcript window displays messages for the user. 
Workspace is a general utility window for editing text and 
sending messages to objects (i.e., executing programs). 

The Browsers look at the existing hierarchy of classes, 
the message names of existing classes, and the definitions 
of existing methods. You can add or delete classes, edit 
a class's definition, protocol, or redefine its methods. The 
Browsers can access the Methods system in its entirety. 
You can see how the system developers do certain opera- 
tions, and you can copy any statements you like, paste 
them into your own methods, or modify them. The Inspec- 
tor allows you to view or change the current values of in- 
Torn Yonkman is a member of the technical staff of VERAC Inc., 
San Diego, CA. He has been developing object-oriented software ap- 
plications using Flavors for several years. He can be reached at 4182 
Camino \slay, San Diego, CA 92122. 



stance variables. Menu commands are provided so you 
can find all the senders and implementors of a specified 
method. These are very useful, given the inheritance 
mechanism. of Methods. 

You use Methods by sending messages to objects that 
perform some operation and return the result. If there is 
no class of objects with the capabilities you need, you can 
define new classes and associated protocols (message 
names and methods). Or you can edit existing methods 
or add new methods to existing classes. In any case, you 
are always interacting with the Methods system— a similari- 
ty this language shares with BASIC, LISP, and FORTH, 
among other highly interactive systems. Methods does not 
provide a System Workspace with templates for commonly 
used expressions, which would be a useful feature for 
users not yet familiar with the program. 

The process of developing capabilities will involve 
testing your new methods. You do this by creating a new 
instance of your class, sending it a message, observing 
the response, and fixing the method if the response is in- 
correct. To fix the method, you select a Class Browser win- 
dow, edit and recompile, select the Workspace where the 
message was sent, resend the message, etc. 

While I know that I used a prerelease version of 
methods, I do have a "wish list" for the language. For ex- 
ample, it would be nice if more data were kept in memory 
at one time, so that browsing back and forth didn't require 
reloading the same source code as often. The designers 
may have traded memory for speed. I would also have 
preferred easier selection among panes of a window and 
among all windows. For example, a function key could 
cycle among the two most recently selected panes/win- 
dows or among the n most recently selected. 

Despite the limitations of Methods, someone who 
becomes proficient with it should have no trouble with 
a "real" Smalltalk-80 system (like the 'Ikktronix 4404). Best 
of all, you don't need to pay $1 5,000 to use Methods. ■ 



154 BYTE • MAY 1985 






SMALLTALK-PC 

by Christopher Macie 

Objected-oriented software on the Apple II 



S 






W : - 



: 



.maltalk bridges the gap between human and computer problem-solving logic. 
Essentially, programming is the process of creating a model of an activity or 
thought process. In traditional programming languages a small change in a 
problem can require a large change in the program code (owing to the lan- 
guages' firm bases in machine representation). And many languages involve 
special, often particularistic, sets of skills. Higher-level programming languages 
are simply higher-level abstractions from machine logic. 

Smalltalk, on the other hand, starts with an object-oriented model of prob- 
lem-solving logic and deals with the machine logic internally and automatically. 
Where other languages need guiding constructs like "structured programming" 
to help control the complexity of machine representation, Smalltalk proceeds 
along more natural intuitive lines. And, as the needs of the Smalltalk user 
change, applications are easy to modify and maintain. 

When I first saw Adele Goldberg demonstrate Smalltalk-72 at Xerox PARC 
in 1976, other programming languages and environments suddenly seemed 
obsolete. Between 1976 and 1 981, I studied Smalltalk, applying its principles 
in new projects, and I decided that a full implementation would never work 
on the minicomputers then available. 

But then the Apple II came along, with extendable architecture and a 
memory-mapped screen. When BYTE published the Smalltalk issue in August 
1981, memory-extension cards were becoming available, and various game- 
paddle devices could simulate the functions of a mouse. The Apple II had 
become a candidate for Smalltalk experimentation. Smalltalk-80, the Xerox 
standard, had advanced and refined the Smalltalk concepts, but it seemed 
out of reach for the Apple II. Nonetheless, I began my own Smalltalk implemen- 
tation on the basis of reverse engineering (see references I and 2). 

Smalltalk for Low-Cost Personal Computers 

I developed Smalltalk-PC to provide users with access to object-oriented pro- 
gramming on hardware systems like the Apple II and IBM PC. The language 
is intended for system designers and applications programmers who want a 
head start in object-oriented programming and for sophisticated users and 
programmers, especially those working with highly dynamic applications in- 
volving frequent reprogramming. Although Smalltalk-PC differs in several 
respects from Smalltalk-80, the general flexibility of the Smalltalk language 
will facilitate communication between the two. 

Smalltalk-80 is written to such a deep level that it requires extraordinary 
processor power to perform adequately. Smalltalk-PC simplifies the hardware 
requirements by placing the entire system (which can be extended) in about 
60K bytes of RAM (random-access read/write memory), using mass storage 

{continued) 
Christopher Macie (1255 Post St. #62 5, Box 1 38, San Francisco, CA 94109) is a software- 
systems designer. He has a B.A. in music and humanities from Stanford University and an 
M.A. in music history from the University of California at Berkeley. His interest in Smalltalk 
evolved from his efforts with the classical pipe organ and then with electronic music. 



MAY 1985 'BYTE 155 





















VIRTUAL 


MACHINE 


n 


f 






INITIAL (MAGE 








VIRTUAL 


tM 


AGE 




USER EXTENSIONS 





Figure I : The overall 
structure of the Smalltalk- 
PC system. The virtual 
image drives the virtual 
machine. The initial image 
implements the dictionary, 
user interface, and language 
systems. 



PRIMITIVES ..: 
(VIRTUAL MACHINE) 




OBJECT -MODULES 
(OBJECTS) 



COM PILED-METHODS- 
(OBJECTS) 



METHOD TABLE 



SEND: CLASS AND SELECTOR 



Figure 2: Unified message sending to the different 
method-implementation types. Message sends are handled 
as lookup keys into the method table, which determines the 
implementation type and the path to the method code. 



for file I/O (input/output) and image storage but not for 
swapping. In Smalltalk-PC, therefore, the virtual machine 
(the lower level written in assembly code) is much larger 
than in Smalltalk-80, limiting modifiability at the lower 
systems' levels (such as object and class behavior, the 
system-level classes, including collections, and much of 
the user interface), but optimizing performance on the 
slower processors. Still, Smalltalk-PC preserves the flex- 
ibility of Smalltalk at its higher levels, those of interest to 
most personal computer and applications programmers. 
Smalltalk-PC embodies "open system" principles but also 
allows programmers to protect applications and their users 
from the pitfalls of fully open access. 

System Structures 

Figure 1 shows the overall structure of the Smalltalk-PC 
system. The hardware is interfaced by the virtual machine 
or kernel system (see figure 3), which implements the class/ 
object and message-passing machine. The virtual machine 
is in turn driven by the virtual image— the fundamental 
system classes and objects that implement the object- 
oriented modeling environment. The initial image, 
delivered with the system, implements the basic environ- 



ment, including the dictionary, user interface, and language 
systems. It also contains some toolkit extensions for ap- 
plications programming. 

Methods can be redefined in the fundamental classes, 
as illustrated by the arrow leading from the virtual machine 
back to the virtual image. Smalltalk-PC thus preserves the 
essential flexibility of Smalltalk, although its speed suf- 
fers relative to the default-machine-coded versions when 
such methods are interpreted. 

The package of modules has entry points for message 
sends (with arguments in an active context) and for 
message calls (with arguments in registers and internal 
global cells). Although the arrows in figure 3 go directly 
to modules, all message sends are in fact routed through 
the Virtual Environment (VE) module. 

As you can see in figure 2, message sends are handled 
uniformly as lookup keys into the method table, yielding 
a method-ID (identification) whose encoding determines 
the implementation type and the path to the method code. 
The state of the system— all the data stored and retrieved 
as the virtual image— is structured as in figure 4. 

The Smalltalk -PC Language 

The language system compiles Smalltalk-PC code into in- 
termediate code in compiled methods, interprets it, and 
provides support for debugging and error handling. The 
language syntax is a modified form of Smalltalk-80 syn- 
tax (see reference 3). 

There are three types of language tokens, each distin- 
guished by their typography. Those beginning with lower- 
case letters represent selectors and context-dependent 
variables. Those beginning in uppercase letters but con- 
taining at least one lowercase letter signify global variables. 
Tokens that are completely in uppercase represent re- 
served words and are used for identifiers such as NIL, 
TRUE, FALSE, the pseudovariables SELF, SUPER, etc., 
and certain control-selectors that are treated as primitives. 

The reserved-word syntax is also used to express an 
escape mechanism for encapsulating other "languages" 
in method code. This is used, for instance, for symbolic 
and hexadecimal representations of Smalltalk-PC inter- 
mediate code. Escape syntax is also used to specify a 
variety of modes affecting method compilation and ex- 
ecution. For instance, visibility layering and error handling 
are regulated by class- or method-level run-time modes. 

The Class System 

The Smalltalk-PC class system is structured in a hierarchical 
tree from the root class Object and resembles the basic 
parts of the Smalltalk-80 class tree. The metaclasses of 
Smalltalk-80, however, are not used in Smalltalk-PC, where 
class and instance behavior are both accessed through 
the class Class. 

The class Collection has subclasses for RandomCollec- 
tions (Bag, Set, Dictionary) and IndexableCollections, in- 



156 BYTE • MAY 1985 






eluding Arrays (Strings, Symbols) and Ordered- or Sorted- 
Collections. The class Matrix is a subclass of Indexable- 
Collections. There are further subclasses for ByteMatrix 
(for WYSIWYG text) and PointerMatrix. These classes allow 
for large regular structures without proliferating sub- 
objects. 

In creating IndexableCollections, there is an optional vir- 
tual dynamic-size control that uses an internally main- 
tained current end marker. The feature reduces the 
amount of allocation/deallocation of objects, which often 
change in size. 

Other fundamental classes include Undefined (NIL), 
Boolean (TRUE, FALSE) and Measure. Measure is similar 
to Magnitude in Smalltalk-80 and has subclasses for Char- 
acter, SearchKey, and Number (which includes Integers 
and Float). Floating-point numbers are implemented in 
BCD (binary-coded decimal) format, with a 7-bit signed 
exponent, sign bit, and a 6-byte mantissa (12-digit 
precision). 

The user interface contains classes representing the de- 
vices (Screen, Mouse, and Keyboard), their configurations, 
and a variety of window types and components. At the 
elemental level are WindowDimensions and Window- 
Frames and their components— TitleBars, Scroll Bars, 
MenuBars, and Corners. Panes include TextPanes, List- 
Panes, and LabelValuePanes. PopUpMenus are a vari- 
ety of ListPanes. 

Complex forms are built by combining panes and dimen- 
sions or frames. Scanners are combinations of ListPanes 
used to scan through hierarchical structures like cate- 
gorized dictionaries. Examiners are pairs of coordinated 
ListPanes used to examine or edit the state of any ob- 
ject. PropertyLists, arrays of LabelValuePanes, display 
labeled data or switches. 

Windows combine frames and panes with the Director 
function to assume the behavior of processes that can be 
independently scheduled user tasks that reside in screens 
and present data that can be transferred between win- 
dows. TextWindows contain workspaces and documents; 
they are used in combination with dictionaries (List Win- 
dows and Scanners) to build information trees or plexes. 

ClassEditor is a mo;re comglex window that combines 
LabelValuePanes, ListPanes, and TextPanes for the dis- 
play; generation, and modification of class definitions and 
methods. 

Multitasking and Multiple Processors 

Smalltalk-PC provides run-time scheduling and multitask- 
ing, allowing multiple active processes to compute simul- 
taneously. The basic system classes furnish multilevel 
scheduling, queue handling, and semaphores for syn- 
chronization. 

A variant of Smalltalk-PC called Smalltalk-Mate, will run 
on multiple-processor hardware systems, including the 
Apple II and IBM PC with added processor cards, as well 



as newer machines with multiple processors on the 
motherboard. Smalltalk-Mate furnishes an interface to sup- 
port multiple processing on a single-object memory or 
synchronization between different images and even be- 
tween Smalltalk and other language systems. This capabili- 
ty allows Smalltalk-PC to run coresident with the p-System 
and MS-DOS, among others. Users can therefore take ad- 
vantage of both preexisting software and the special 
strengths of Smalltalk. 

Running Smalltalk-PC 

The Smalltalk-PC boot disk contains the virtual-machine 
program and a prerun configuration routine that allows 

[continued) 



JFigure 3: The structure of 
the virtual machine. The 
Virtual Environment (VE) 
Module interfaces devices 
'and memory, Implements 
classes and message pass- 
ing, and: handles access to 





; 


HARDWARE 








-1 


virtual environment 






: 








^STRUCTURAL PRIMITIVES; 






















USER^IN TERRACE: 
• IVES 




LANGUAGE 
SYSTEM 






X 


v 


;-.. . ■. ■ 


MESSAGE ENTRIES 


CALL ENTRtES 






■■:< 

















objects and their fields. The 
Structural Primitives 
module contains various 
primitive methods. The 
User-Interface module 
carries out the primitive functions for screens and windows, 
while the language System module contains the compiler, 
interpreter, and debugging subsystems. 



INTERNAL GLOBALS 

•CONFIGURATIONS 
DEVICE: 'STATES 
•SYSTEM ROOTS 
INTERPRETER STATE * 



FIXED OBJECTS 

RAM-SEGMENT TABLE 
OBJECT-TABLE 
CLASS TABLE 
METHOD TABLES 



OBJECT MEMORY 




Figure 4: The Virtual Image Structure. Internal globals 
and fixed objects are stored in areas directly accessed 
by the virtual machine, although many of their elements 
are interfaced to the higher-level environment as bona fide 
objects. The state of execution is rooted in internal globals 
{used as registers) butjargely contained in the objects 
of the active context. The running systewi makes no 
distinction between the initial image and user extensions. 



MAY 1985 'BYTE 157 












the user to specify the current hardware configuration- 
mouse, screen, extended-memory types, and slots. A set 
configuration can be saved for future booting. A second 
disk loads the initial virtual image, which requires a 
minimum of 2 56K bytes of RAM. It is possible to configure 
additional RAM from within the system, but saving and 
loading extended virtual images may require multiple 
disks. 

The initial image (see photo I) displays the system 
screen, a logo, and elementary instructions. The system 
screen provides entry to the rest of the system through 
a pop-up menu that accesses a dictionary of system-task 
windows and the user-project screens. 

The User Interface 

In the default user-interface configuration, the middle 
mouse button (or the one on the right on a two-button 
mouse) invokes a pop-up menu. Moving the mouse 
through the menu with the button depressed changes en- 
tries to inverse video. Releasing the button at a dictionary 
entry schedules and runs the process associated with that 
entry. Usually a framed window then appears. Data 
elements or ranges in a window or its frame are selected 
by clicking or dragging the button on the left. Pop-up 
menus, usually in combination with a data selection, in- 
voke actions. Pop-up menus at the frame of a window of- 
fer the functions common to all windows— closing, posi- 
tioning, and growing. Pop-up menus within the frame con- 
tain functions specific to the type of the window. 



A project screen is a window that fills the whole screen, 
has no frame, and behaves much like the system screen, 
but contains a user-defined environment. 

The fundamental pane and window types include op- 
tions to configure the user interface according to personal 
preferences. For example, action selection can appear in 
PoplipMenus (as in later Xerox Smalltalks), in MenuBars 
at the top of the screen (as in the Lisa or Macintosh), or 
at the bottom (as in Visi On); TitleBars can appear at the 
top or bottom; ScrollBars can appear at the top, bottom, 
left, or right. 

The user can configure the mouse to deliver the select, 
pop-up, execute (or do-it), and help functions from any 
choice of buttons (1, 2, 3, or simultaneous combinations). 

The user can also configure key assignments for cursor 
and button control and assign up to 10 special-function 
keys as either soft interrupts that result in running pro- 
cesses or as pollable switches. 

System Features 

The task windows residing in the system screen provide 
interactive settings for dealing with system resources. One 
task window, for example, permits the reconfiguration of 
hardware and software features. 

You can use Scanner windows to look around in hierar- 
chically categorized dictionaries, and you can use an Ex- 
aminer window to investigate the state of any object. For 
example by nesting Scanner and Examiner windows, vir- 
tually anything in the system can be reached and viewed 




Photo I: The Smalltalk-PC initial screen. This picture shows a 
text window with which instructions displayed on the screen can 
be modified. The selected text [inverse) is about to be captured for 
copying by means of the edit pop-up menu. 



Photo 2: A sampling of Smalltalk-PC windows. There is a 
scanner in the upper left showing class categories (left pane) and 
their classes (right pane). There is a form of class editor in the 
lower right. \n the lower left is a text window, and in the upper 
right is a list, out of which the scanner was called. The two-line 
inverse window in top center is the pop-up menu of the screen 
(mouse button 2 is being held). 



158 BYTE • MAY 1985 



•#' 



Voolkits are used in Smalltalk-PC to implement 
word processing, database processing, and spreadsheets. 



in detail (the open-system concept). 

A special window form supports the viewing, modify- 
ing, and adding of classes. Tbgether with general-purpose 
workspaces and tracing and error windows, this special 
window form constitutes the programming environment. 
Photo 2 shows a screen full of typical windows. 

You can create a project screen, which can be filled with 
task windows usually related by some application concept. 
Project screens use the same general tools as the system 
screen, including class programming, and you can install 
tools developed in a project screen in the system screen. 

At almost any time, you can invoke a system task to save 
the current state of the virtual image on disk or to replace 
the current image by reading another. Alternatively, invok- 
ing automatic saving could periodically back up the sys- 
tem. An internal file and directory system provides file 
storage and retrieval on a special Smalltalk-PC disk for- 
mat. Smalltalk-PC supports reading and writing of files in 
other formats, like Apple DOS, CP/M, MS-DOS, and the 
p-System. 

For applications that do not need the full flexibility of 
the Smalltalk-PC environment, project screens can lock in 
specific tasks in much the same way as standard applica- 
tions packages. Moreover, a feature called "visibility layer- 
ing" can lock dictionaries at specific levels to prevent ac- 
cess beyond the scope of an application, and a special 
error-report control feature with a similarly layered struc- 
ture can inhibit error messages from advanced system 
levels. These features are provided to protect application 
models from accidental disruption, but programmers 
could also use them to offer a degree of user program- 
mability appropriate to the application, without requiring 
the user to master the full Smalltalk environment. 

Smalltalk -PC Toolkits 

'Toolkits" are generalized, modular functions that support 
a family of application-oriented tasks. They are the best 
approach to applications programming in Smalltalk. In 
principle, they are extendable to other tasks, and they are 
used in Smalltalk-PC to implement word processing, 
database processing, and spreadsheets. 

The word-processing toolkit has document windows pro- 
viding page, margin, header, and other formatting con- 
trols. The database-processing toolkit has extensions to 
interface relational database functions to hard-disk- and 
network-based information systems. 

Spreadsheet representation uses Smalltalk's object 
orientation to allow creation and maintenance of complex 
document forms whose elements are produced by ar- 
bitrarily complex processes. The capability called "Active 



Data Modeling" services documents (text, charts, tables, 
etc.) whose contents are produced by information struc- 
tures that can be viewed and manipulated at various levels 
of abstraction. 

This spreadsheet format is free-form rather than a matrix 
of cells, and the order of evaluation is determined freely 
rather than by rows or columns. Data elements repre- 
sented in the final document are not copied literally but 
remain linked to their source objects or processes. The 
data models therefore remain "active" in that they 
dynamically reflect changes from anywhere in the under- 
lying structure. 

Implementation Aspects 

Methods implemented in machine code are important for 
the development of efficient application toolkits. These 
"object modules" can be compiled from a high-level lan- 
guage (for portability) and are installed into the virtual 
image as objects. 

The coding of object modules uses table-pointed name 
strings to refer to system objects, both externally (other 
objects) and internally (the module itself and its entry 
points). An automatic installation procedure changes the 
string pointers to object identifiers of Smalltalk-PC sym- 
bols, binding the module into the virtual image. With this 
feature, interpreted Smalltalk code can be used for de- 
velopment, flexibility, and high-level control and use of 
optimized machine code at strategic points can improve 
performance. 

Smalltalk-PC does not run under a host operating sys- 
tem but drives the hardware directly from the virtual 
machine (VM), about 95 percent of which is portable 
across systems with the same microprocessor. The other 
5 percent consists of the screen, keyboard, mouse, and 
virtual-memory management tailored to each host system. 
The system image (including user extensions and applica- 
tions) is, in principle, portable across any system. 

The memory system is fully object-oriented and supports 
up to 254 classes and 30K-byte objects in up to 4 mega- 
bytes of resident RAM. (IBS in West Germany and Legend 
Industries build 1-megabyte single-slot cards for the Apple 
II.) The object-memory system is largely derived from the 
OOZE system (see reference 4) but abandons those 
aspects directed at optimizing object swapping from disk. 
Reference counting is used to manage virtual memory, 
which is treated in 64K-byte segments to make scattered 
free space compact. 

Object identifiers are used as direct indexes into a table 
containing virtual addresses and flags. Message lookup 

(continued) 
MAY 1985 'BYTE 159 






is done by hashing the class code and message selector 
into another large table. 

The VM routines are optimized and shared to conserve 
space in main memory. Both the data-structure (collection) 
primitives and many of the user-interface primitives have 
a range of types and options specially encoded in their 
object structures, providing flexibility while conserving 
resources like space and classes. 

Given the VM support for matrices as a form of collec- 
tion, another technique to conserve object identifiers and 
to facilitate exploitation of the large virtual memory is to 
encourage the use of larger objects with complex but 
regular structures. The implementation of a matrix can 
then be a single object rather than an array containing 
additional array objects for each row. Otherwise, it would 
be possible to use up the object identifiers with a large 
portion of memory unused. 

Hardware 

I am implementing the Smalltalk-PC virtual machine for 
the 6502, 8088/8086, and 68000 microprocessors. The 
first version runs on Apple II-type systems (Apple 11+ . lie, 
and compatible systems) with at least 80-column capabili- 
ty, an uppercase and lowercase keyboard, a 48K-byte 
motherboard RAM, one floppy-disk drive, and 256K bytes 
of memory on RAM card(s). (The Basis Computer BAS 
RAM, Legend Industries' S'Card, the Synetix Flashcard, 
the BAM- 128 from Mikrotek, the Saturn/Titan card, and 



the RAM cards from IBS are supported.) 

The 8088/8086 versions (IBM-class systems) require one 
floppy-disk drive and 2 56K bytes of memory. The 68000 
version is currently installed on a new system from the 
German manufacturer, Iriumph-Adler. 

Apple II graphics resolution is inadequate for 80-column 
text displays, so my first version of Smalltalk-PC used a 
memory-mapped 24-line by 80-column alphanumeric for- 
mat rather than bit-mapped graphics. The choice helps 
performance (bit-mapped graphics are known to consume 
up to 50 percent of raw processing power), and adequately 
supports windowing, menus, and mouse control. 

A medium-resolution mouse with at least two (preferably 
three) buttons is a necessity (Smalltalk-PC currently sup- 
ports DePraz, Logitech, Mouse-House, Rikei Oku-MS mice 
with parallel interfaces, and the MSC serial mouse), al- 
though the pointing function is available through the key- 
board. The minimum hardware configuration for the Apple 
11+ would include a Legend S'Card, a PIA-card for the 
mouse, and an 80-column card. ■ 

REFERENCES 

1. Goldberg, Adele, and Alan Kay. eds. Smalltalk-72 Instruction 
Manual. Xerox PARC SSL 76-6, Palo Alto. CA: Xerox PARC 1976. 

2. BYTE, August 1981. 

3. Goldberg, Adele, and David Robson, eds. Smalltalk-80: The 
language and Its Implementation. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1983. 

4. Kaehler, Ted. "Virtual Memory for an Object-Oriented Lan- 
guage." In |3|. pages 378-387. 



THE SMALLTALK 
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE 

by Jim Anderson and Barry Fishman 

An introduction to object-oriented programming 




uring the past year, we have used Smalltalk for application prototyping and 
system-software development. For us, Smalltalk simplifies programming and 
is fun. On the other hand, Smalltalk's new terminology and concepts general- 
ly complicate learning of the language, especially for experienced program- 
mers (including ourselves). In this article we have attempted to demystify 
Smalltalk by relating it to other languages and by solving a moderately dif- 
ficult problem in what we think is a straightforward and readable way. 

Most people perceive Smalltalk as a "Macintosh-like" user interface with 
windows, mice, and bit-mapped graphics, but the Smalltalk group at Xerox 
PARC actually pioneered and blended together several technologies, including 
raster graphics, integrated environments, and object-oriented programming. 



160 BYTE • MAY 1985 






The last of these is our main concern. 

Like FORTH, Smalltalk's core is small but its vocabulary 
can be extended Like LISR it has automatic memory man- 
agement and capabilities for manipulating arbitrary data 
structures. Like Modula-2 and Ada. it encapsulates abstract 
data types (in objects). 

The Smalltalk developers solved several interesting prob- 
lems in graphics, text processing, simulation, and concur- 
rency. Therefore, simply by reading Smalltalk programs, 
you may improve your programming ability in other lan- 
guages. Fred Masterson has suggested that simplicity 
power, compatibility, and cognitive richness are key at- 
tributes in a programming language (see reference 1). Ex- 
cept for Smalltalk, we don't know of a language that has 
all of these attributes while also being a practical tool for 
solving a wide range of problem types. 

Smalltalk is well suited to rapid prototyping, the con- 
struction of software models that explore both the prob- 
lem and its solution. This is especially important in interac- 
tive applications where perceptions of the problem can 
change after seeing a prototype solution (see reference 
2). (Of course, a good programming environment is a big 
help here, too.) 

A Closer Look at Objects 

The Smalltalk-80 programming language (see references 
3 and 4) is object-oriented in that all data is contained 
in record structures called objects. For translations of 
Smalltalk terminology, see table L The individually accessi- 
ble components of an object (i.e., the fields of the record) 
are called instance variables, which either contain integer 
values in the range to 2 5 5 or contain object identifiers. 
Instance variables can be both named and indexed. For 
example, 

1. An object of class Point has named instance variables 
x and y, which identify the coordinates of the point. A 
point has no indexed instance variables. 

2. An object of class Array contains only indexed instance 
variables. These are identified with the integers 1 through 
the number of instance variables in the array. 

3. An object of class Set has indexed instance variables 
and a single named instance variable tally, which totals 
the number of indexed instance variables that are not nil 
(the name for the special undefined object). 

Objects are simpler than Pascal record structures in that 
either they contain all integer values or they contain all 
identifier values. Objects with integer instance variables 
define elementary data values like numbers and strings. 
Objects with identifier instance variables consist of 
pointers to other objects. The pointers organize the 
universe of all objects into a single directed-graph struc- 
ture. Like a pointer value in Pascal, an identifier dis- 
tinguishes each object. 

Objects are "self-describing." They include information 



Table 1: Some Smalltalk terminology translations.: 



Method __ 
Message 

Protocol _ 



Object. 



a function definition 

the invocation of a method, i.e., 

a function call 

the specification of how a message 

is sent to a method, 

including the method name 

and parameters 

a record of fields 



Instance Variable _ a field of a record 



Class. 



a record type and all the -functions: 
that may be applied to the 
record type 



defining their size (number of instance variables) and the 
class to which they belong. Computing in Smalltalk in- 
volves changing the instance variables of existing objects, 
creating new objects, and destroying objects (turning them 
into "garbage") by removing them from the graph struc- 
ture. (See the text box on page 162 for a summary of 
Smalltalk statements.) The Smalltalk system automatically 
reclaims space for garbage objects. 

Classes are the program modules of Smalltalk. Like the 
"abstract data types" provided by the modules of 
Modula-2 and the packages of Ada, a class specifies the 
instance variables contained in the objects of the class 
and the methods (functions) that operate on the objects. 
The internal details of an object are not visible from 
methods outside its class; therefore you cannot directly 
access its instance variables. Instead, you send a message 
to (invoke a function on) the object requesting the desired 
information. 

Smalltalk classes are organized into a hierarchy with the 
class Object at the top. Superclasses are more generic; 
subclasses are more specialized. A class inherits the 
named instance variables and methods of its superclasses. 
Consider, for example, part of the Smalltalk hierarchy for 
class Magnitude: 

Magnitude 
Character 
Date 
Time 
Number 

Float 

Fraction 

Integer 

[continued) 

}im Anderson is president of Digitalk (5200 West Century Blvd., 
los Angeles, CA 90045), a firm specializing in high-technology soft- 
ware products and consulting. 

Barry Fishman (POB 626, Venice, CA 90291) is a software con- 
sultant specializing in the design and development of new products. 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 161 


















. 









The generic class Magnitude contains methods for com- 
puting maximums and minimums in terms of comparison 
operators. The subclasses define more specialized func- 
tions, like doing the comparisons. Inheritance is a power- 
ful abstraction technique that allows software to be 
reusable (see reference 5). 

Inheritance is supported by "run-time binding," the 
dynamic determination (based on the class of the receiver, 
the object to which the message is sent) of which method 
responds to a message. Consider the method, imple- 
mented in class Magnitude, for taking the maximum of 
two magnitudes: 

max: aMagnitude 
self < aMagnitude 
if True: [~ aMagnitude] 
if False: ["self] 

This generic method works for operands of any subclass 
of Magnitude if the subclass implements the "less-than" 



(<) method. The class of self (the receiver of less-than) 
determines the choice of which less-than method to use. 
Thus we can take the maximum of two dates or two frac- 
tions, even though the max: method is not defined in 
either the date or fraction classes. Therefore the code 
works for operands that exhibit a generic behavior (here, 
comparing less-than), regardless of the details of the cal- 
culation. 

Smalltalk Syntax and Semantics 

The syntax of Smalltalk methods has three parts: the 
message pattern, temporary variables, and statements. 
The message pattern defines the method name, method 
arguments, and the syntax for invoking the method with 
a message. Temporary variables are the method's local 
variables. Instance variables, method arguments, and 
global variables are the other variables accessible within 
a method. Global variables begin with uppercase letters. 
The others begin with lowercase letters. 



A Summary of Smalltalk Statements 



/% Smalltalk statement either assigns a value to a variable. 
X/%, exits a method and specifies the result, sends a mes- 
sage to an object, or does some combination of the three. 

The following are three examples of assigning values to a 
variable: 

a := true 
In this example, the identifier of the object true is assigned 
to the variable a. 

answer := index 

Here, the identifier contained in the variable index is assigned 
to the variable answer. 

f:= j:= 

In this expression, the identifier of the object for the integer 
is assigned to i and j. 

To exit a method, Smalltalk uses the following syntax: 

~ answer 

In this example, the object whose identifier is contained in 
answer is returned as the result of the method. 

~ 'January' 

In this expression, the identifier for String 'January' is returned 
as the result of the method. 

To send a message, there are several possibilities: 

a size 



This is the syntax for a unary message. The message size is 
sent to the object in variable a. 

count + 1 

This is a binary message. The message + is sent to count 
with argument 1 . 

a at: index 

This is a keyword message. The message at: is sent to a with 
argument index. 

a at: index put: count 

In this multiargument message, the message at: put: is sent 
to a with arguments index and count. 

There are several combinations of the above statements: 

"count + 1 

In this expression, the result of the message count + 1 is 
returned as the result of the method. 

x := a at: index 

Here, the result of the message a at: index is assigned to the 
variable x. 

"(a := b max: c + 1) 

This statement is evaluated in the following steps. First. + 
is sent to c with argument 1 . Second, max: is sent to b with 
the result of the c + 1 message as the argument, Third, the 
result of max: is assigned to a. Finally, the value assigned 
to a is returned as the result of the method. 



162 BYTE • MAY 1985 









t 



Me syntax of Smalltalk methods has three parts: 
the message pattern, temporary variables, and statements. 



A block, the part of a method enclosed in square 
brackets, is an object even though it represents execut- 
able code. Therefore, it is possible to assign a block to 
a variable or pass it as a message argument. The follow- 
ing example uses a block argument in a message to im- 
plement control structures: 

[inputStream atEnd] 
whileFalse: 
[outputStream nextPut: input Stream next] 

The message whileFalse: is sent to the first block: the sec- 
ond block is an argument that will execute repeatedly until 
the first block returns true. If inputStream is of class Read- 
Stream and outputStream is of class WriteStream all the 
characters in inputStream will be copied to outputStream. 
(See references 3 and 4 for a complete description of con- 
trol structures and blocks.) 

Smalltalk System Classes 

The Smalltalk language is a simple expandable core. The 
system is the core extended with several classes, including ' 
Collection. Stream, Magnitude, DisplayObject, Point, and 
Rectangle. (For a full discussion, see reference 4.) 

Collection classes implement arrays, sets, dictionaries, 
and linked lists using common protocols for data-structure 
access. Stream classes implement external files as a se- 
quence of randomly addressable bytes and, again with 
common protocols, streaming over arbitrary collections 
of internal objects. The Magnitude classes provide exten- 
sive facilities for date, time, and numeric calculations. The 
DisplayObject classes implement the representation and 
manipulation of graphical images (which are supported 
by classes Point and Rectangle, used respectively for rep- 
resenting graphical positions and areas). 

In our example (which follows), we use system classes 
Set, Dictionary, and FileStream. Class Collection, of which 
Set is a subclass, allows its subclasses to create new col- 
lections, to add and delete collection elements, and to 
iterate over the elements of a collection while a block ex- 
ecutes for each element. Instances of Set are efficiently 
searchable containers of unordered elements, which may 
not be duplicated. 

Dictionary, a subclass of class Set, looks up values based 
on keys. An instance of class Dictionary associates pairs 
of keys and related values. Keys in a dictionary are unique. 

The class Dictionary method at: aKey if Absent: aBlock 
returns the associated value if there is an entry in the dic- 
tionary with key equal to argument aKey. Otherwise the 
argument aBlock executes and determines the result of 
the at:if Absent: message. Consider 



employees at: employeeNumber ifAbsent: [nil] 

If employees contains a dictionary where each key is a 
number representing an employee's number and each 
value is an object representing all employee data, then 
the example message returns nil if the employee is not 
in the dictionary. Otherwise the employee object is 
returned. 

The class Dictionary method at: aKey put: aValue places 
an entry for the pair aKey, aValue into the dictionary. This 
message always returns aValue as the result. For exam- 
ple, the message 

employees at: employeeNumber put: employeeData 

adds a value employeeData for the key employeeNumber 
to the dictionary employees. 

The class Dictionary method do: aOneArgumentBlock 
iterates over the elements in the dictionary. The argument 
block is evaluated once for the value part of every key/ 
value pair in the dictionary. In the next example, 

employees do: ^employee | 
employee site = localSite 
ifTrue: [localEmployees add: employee]] 

the message do: is sent to the dictionary employees with 
the block as argument. The block is executed once for 
each employee and builds a collection of local employees. 

A Smalltalk Example- 

A Document Retrieval System 

Our Smalltalk example, which will run under Methods (see 
"Methods: A Preliminary Look" by Bruce Webster and Tom 
Yonkman, page 1 52) is a new class Wordlndex, a simple 
document-retrieval system. An instance of Wordlndex 
allows the retrieval of a list of all documents that contain 
a group of words. For example it could request a list of 
candidates whose resumes contain the words UNIX, 
68000, and C. 

Our system maintains documents as ASCII files, one file 
per document. Queries that supply a list of words get back 
the names of all the documents that contain all the words. 
An instance of class Wordlndex contains the document 
database for one application or category of documents. 
We have used classes Collection and Stream and their sub- 
classes. Class Wordlndex has instance variables docu- 
ments, words, and noiseWords. 

Instance variable documents contains a set of strings 
that identify the documents by their file pathnames. In- 
stance variable words contains a dictionary representing 
the words in all documents. Each key is a word repre- 

{continued) 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 



163 






sented as a string; the associated value is a set of all the 
documents that contain the word. Instance variable 
noiseWords contains a set of noise words, which reduce 
the size of the database. A word will not be entered in 
the words dictionary if it is included in the set of noise 
words. 

The message addDocument: adds a document to the 
database by scanning the document as an instance of class 
FileStream. The message nextWord is sent repeatedly to 
the file stream to extract the next word as a string. Each 
word is entered into the words dictionary with the asso- 
ciated document included in the set of documents for the 
word. 

The locateDocuments: message performs database 
queries with a collection of words as an argument. Each 
word is looked up in the words dictionary. The query 
returns a sorted collection of all documents appearing 
with all words. 

The complete implementation of class Wordlndex con- 
tains the following eight methods. 

The method initialize initializes an instance of Wordlndex 
by assigning empty sets to instance variables documents 
and noiseWords and an empty dictionary to instance 
variable words. 

initialize 

Initialize the instance variables 

of the Wordlndex" 
documents: = Set new. 
words : = Dictionary new. 
noiseWords : = Set new 

(Note: The symbol M : = " replaces the ,v <-", the conventional 
Smalltalk-80 notation.) 

The addDocument: aDocument method adds the words 
in aDocument to the receiver word index. The method 
first tests if aDocument, the file pathname of the docu- 
ment, is already in the set of documents. If so, remove- 
Document: deletes the old version of the document. 
Directory Disk then opens the file, and a file stream on 
the file is assigned to temporary variable wordStream. The 
document name is added to the set of documents (in- 
stance variable documents). The while loop does the 
major work of the method. The next word, obtained as 
a string from the file stream, is converted to lowercase 
and added to the dictionary with the message add- 
Word:for:. 

addDocument: aDocument 

"Add all words in aDocument to word Dictionary" 
| aWord wordStream | 
(documents includes: aDocument) 

ifTrue: [self removeDocument: aDocument]. 
wordStream : = Disk file: aDocument. 
documents add: aDocument. 
[(aWord := wordStream nextWord) ,«= nil] 



whileFalse: [ 
self addWord: aWord asUDwerCase for: aDocument]. 
wordStream close 

The addWord: aWord for: aDocument method records 
aWord if it appears in aDocument unless aWord is a noise 
word. If the word is not in the dictionary, the word and 
an empty set are entered. Finally, aDocument is added 
to the set of documents for the word. Note that we are 
able to deal simply with exceptional conditions by sup- 
plying a block of code in the at:ifAbsent: message. 

addWord: aWord for: aDocument 

'Add aWord to aDocument if it is 

not a noise word" 
(noiseWords includes: aWord) ifTrue: [~nil]. 
(words at: aWord if Absent: [words at aWord put: (Set new)]) 

add: aDocument] 

The locateDocuments: aWordList method queries the 
database. Given a collection of words in aWordList, it 
returns a sorted collection of all the documents that con- 
tain all the words. Note that aWordList can be any kind 
of collection, e.g., Array. Bag, LinkedList. The select: mes- 
sage described earlier under Sets continually removes 
documents that do not contain all words in aWordlist from 
a temporary variable, answer, which starts as the set of 
all documents. 

locateDocuments: aWordList 

'Answer a SortedCollection of all documents 
containing all words in aWordList" 
| answer | 

answer : = documents. "start with all documents" 
aWordList do: [:aWord| "iterate over words" 
answer : = answer select: [:aDoc| 
(words at: aWord asLowerCase if Absent: [#()]) 
includes: aDoc]]. 
~ answer asSortedCollection 

The string addNoiseWord: aWord method adds aWord 
to the set of noise words. 

addNoiseWord: aWord 

"Add aWord string to noise words" 
noiseWords add: aWord 

The removeNoiseWord: aWord method removes aWord 
from the set of noise words. If aWord is not a noise word, 
nothing happens. 

removeNoiseWord: aWord 

"Remove aWord string from noise words" 
noiseWords remove: aWord if Absent: [] 

The removeDocument: aDocument method scans the 
words dictionary to remove from every set all occurrences 
of aDocument. (Note that a set can have only a single oc- 
currence of a document. This code also works for bags, 



164 BYTE • MAY 1985 



which can have multiple occurrences.) Finally, the message 
removeUnusedWords is sent to the word index to remove 
dictionary words with empty document sets. 

removeDocument: aDocument 

"Remove aDocument from all words that contain it. 
If a word has no documents, remove it" 
words do: [;docs| "docs is Set or 
Bag of documents" 
(docs occurrencesOf: aDocument) 
timesRepeat: [ docs remove: aDocument]]. 
self removeUnusedWords 

The removeUnusedWords method replaces the words 
dictionary with a new dictionary containing only those en- 
tries in words that have nonempty document sets. 

removeU nusedWords 

"Remove all words that have empty document collection" 
| newWords | 

newWords : = Dictionary new. 
words associationsDo: [:anAssoc | 
anAssoc value isEmpty 
ifFalse: [newWords add: anAssoc]]. 
words := newWords 

For an example of class Word Index, we have treated the 
sections of this paper (the article itself, the table, the text 
box, and the list of references) as separate documents. 
First we make the index: 

Articlelndex ;= Wordlndex new initialize. 

Then we add the figures to it: 

#('article' table 1 textbox' /reflist 1 ) 
do: ['.section | Articlelndex addDocument: section] 

The query 

Articlelndex locateDocuments: # ('Smalltalk' 'argument 1 ) 

returns the list 

article textbox 

Smalltalk is powerful, simple, and fun. Because object- 
oriented programming may be new to you, it may not 
seem simple at first. We hope this article helps to show 
that it is. Now that Smalltalk is available for popular micro- 
computers, a lot more of us can experience the fun. ■ 

REFERENCES 

1. Masterson, Fred A. "Languages for Students." BYTE. June 1984, 
page 233. 

2 . Martin, James. Application Development Without Programmers. Engle- 
wood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1982. 

3. BYTE, August 1981. 

4. Goldberg. Adele. and David Robson. Smalltalk-SO: The language 
and Its Implementation. Reading. MA: Addison-Wesley, 1983. 

5. Wegner. Peter. "Perspectives on Capital-intensive Software 
'technology." IEEE Software. July 1984. 



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Hayes 1200B IBM 


. 379JJ0 


Hayes 1200 RS232 


459.00 


Hayes 300 RS232 


. 195.00 


Micromoden HE 


. 235.00 


HAYES 300 -for He 


.239:00 


New Hayes 2400 


. . CAN 


PRENTICE POPCOM 




1200 External 


349J30 


120 Internal 


329 DO 


CompuServe Starter Kit . 


. 28.95 


The Source Starter Kit . . 


. CALL 


Grappler Bufferd Plus 16K 




w/cable 


149.00 


LETTER QUALITY PRINTERS 


ONE TIME SPECIAL! limited quantity 


C.ITOH — Leading Edge 25 cps 


15" Daisy Wheel ...g 




C. IT0H Tractor 


. 129.00 




Peripherals by Apple 

Apple Drive He ...S289 
Apple He Mouse with 

paint $89 

Apple He Mouse with 

paint $13<t 

Apple 1200/300 Baud 

Modem $389' 

APPLEWORKS lor lie or 

He J219 

Applelle Professions! System 

• Apple He 128K Computer. 

• Apple Dual Disk Drive 
w/controller|card. 

• Apple Extended 80 column 
Display Card. 

• Apple Monitor II - 12" tilt' green 

• Pro-Dos Operating System 

Special $1439 
Apple lie with Monitor and Stand 
Mac -Mania Special $875.00 
Macintosh 512K with Imagewriter 

Special $2840 



MONITORS 




Princeton HX-12 Graphics 


.450.00 


New Amdek Color 300 .. . 


.200.00 


Amdek 310A 


. 175.00 


TAXAN 




T115 12" Green 


119D0 


T116 12" Amber 


12100 


T127 12" Green I.B.M. ... 


.14800 


T122 12" Amber I.B.M... . 


. 15800 


210 R.G.B. Color 


25IO0 



FOR MAIL 0R0ERS: Send Money Order. Certified Check. Mastercard. VISA gladly accepted. Add estimated price for 

shipping, handling and iisurartce. WE WILL SHIP ORDERS AT THE ADVERTISE!) PRICES GUARANTEED UNTL april 30. K 

Apple is a registered trademark ot Apple Computer, Inc. IIM la a registered trademark of International Business Machines.. 



jff&SE*" I (718) 252-9737 

friendly Computer Center, Inc. r 



Inquiry 172 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 165 



THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER MAIL ORDER FIRM 



f. 



( TELEX 910 380 3980 ALL MAIL: 1 2060 SW Garden Place, Portland, OR 97223) 

FOR YOUR APPLE 



COMPUTERS 



^pppkz 



FLOPPY DISK DRIVES 



MICRO-SCI, A2 Disk Drive, 143K S 345 

A2 Controller Card S 100 

Half Height Drive for lie S 269 

Half Height Drive for lie S 299 

RANA, Elite I. 163K, 40 Track S 299 

Elite II, 326K, 80 Track S 499 

Elite Controller S 145 

TEAC, T40 Half HI. Drive, 163K, Direct S 249 

Controller Card for T40 by ComX $ 79 

T80 Half Ht Drive, 326K, Double $ 399 

Controller Card for T80 by Teac $ 85 



HARD DISKS 



$ 195 

S 60 
$ 195 
$ 209 
$ 199 
$ 369 
$ 79 
S 169 
S 45 
$ 299 
$ 59 



MAGINTOSH BUSINESS SOFTWARE UTILITIES SOFTWARE 




OTHER HARDWARE 



CCS, 7711 or 771 0-A Interface, ea. S 1 

CPS/EASTSIDE, Wild Card II (copier, II +/lle) S 1 

COMX, 80 Col. + 64K RAM Card (lie) S 1 

6K RAM Card (II + ), 1 yr ltd wty $ 1 
HAYES, Mach ll/lll Joystick (ll+/lle) 
KENSINGTON, System Saver Fan $ 

KEY TRONIC, KB200 Keyboard S < 

KOALA, Muppet Keys S 

Touch Tablet w/Micro Illustrator (lle/llc) S 1 

KRAFT, Joystick (II/II+ /lie) S 

Game Paddles (II/II + /lie) S 

MICROSOFT, ZaO Premium Softcard (lie) S ! 

ORANGE MICRO, Grappler Plus (11+ /lie) S \ 

Serial Grappler S ' 

16K Buffer Board for Grappler Plus $ 

Buffered Grappler Plus, 16K $ \ 

PCPI, Applicard, 6 MHz, 14 features $ \ 

RH ELECT, Super Fan II w/surge protector $ 

TITAN, Accelerator He $ : 

128K RAM Card (11 + ) SI 

TRACKHOUSE, Numeric Key Pad (11 + /lie) S 1 

TG, Select-a-Port S 

Joystick or Game Paddles, each S 

VIDEX, UltraTerm(ll + /lle) S : 

VideoTerm 80 Col. Card (11 + /He) $ S 

PSIO Interface Card $ i 

WICO, Smartcard (spec. 11/11 + /lie) S ' 



$ 85 
5 99 

$ 99 
$ 29 
CALL 



65 
$ 188 
$ 49 
S 75 
$ 49 
$ 39 
S 275 
$ 99 
$ 79 
$ 59 
$ 159 
$ 250 
$ 59 
$ 219 
$ 189 
$ 94 
$ 26 
S 22 
$ 229 
S 175 
$ 145 
$ 159 



LIST 

ASSIMILATION PROC, Turbo Touch $ 129 

Mac to Epson Connection $ 89 

BLUECHIP, Millionaire, Barron, Tycoon, ea. $ 50 
CENTRAL POINT, Copy II Mac or MacToois, ea. S 40 
CONROY-LA POINTE, Diskettes, 10 pak S 65 

50 pak Diskettes S 325 

CONTINENTAL, Home Accountant S 100 
CREATIVE SOLUTIONS, MacForth Level I S 149 
CREIGHTON, Home Pak or Mac Office, ea. $ 39 

Mac Spell + $ 99 

DESKTOP, 1st Base $ 195 

DOW JONES, Market Manager Plus $ 249 
EXPERTELLIGENCE, ExperLogo $ 150 

FIRST BYTE, Smooth Talker $ 150 

FORETHOUGHT, Fact Finder S 150 

HAYDEN, Sargon Ml $ 50 

HUMAN EDGE, Sales or Mgmt Edge, ea S 250 

Mind Prober $ 50 

INFOCOM, Hitchhiker's Guide S 40 

INNOVATIVE, Flipn-File. 40 S 30 

KENSINGTON, Disk Case, 36 $ 30 

KOALA, Mac Vision $ 400 

LIVING VIDEOTEXT, Think Tank $ 145 

LOTUS, Jazz S 595 

MAIN STREET, Filer or Writer, each S 199 
MEGAHAUS, Megafiler ■ S 195 

Megaworks or Megamerge, each % 125 
MICROSOFT, Business Pak NEW S 595 

Multipian, Word, or File, each S 195 

MILES, Mac the Knife, v. 1 $ 39 

MONOGRAM, Dollars & Sense $ 150 

NOVATION, Smartcat Plus Modem w/Software $ 499 
ODESTA, Helix $ 395 

PENGUIN, Graphics Magician $ 50 

PROVUE, Overvue S 295 

SIMON & SCHUSTER, Typing Tutor III S 50 
SOFTW. PUBL., PFS: File or Report, ea S 125 

PFS: File & Report Combo S 195 

SOFTWARE ARTS, T/K Solver S 249 

STATE OF THE ART, Electronic Checkbook $ 80 
STONEWARE, OB Master % 195 

TELOS, File Vision $ 195 

WARNER, Desk Organizer S 149 



S 140 



S 

$ 
s 
$ 

$ 125 
$ 159 
S 80 
S 95 
S 95 
S 31 
S 159 
$ 32 
$ 25 
S 19 
$ 22 
$ 229 
$ 85 
$ 395 
S 125 
S 125 
$ 79 
$ 395 
$ 129 
$ 25 
$ 95 
$ 349 
$ 265 
S 32 
$ 185 
S 30 
S 79 
S 125 
$ 159 
$ 50 
$ 125 
$ 125 
S 99 



LIST 

ALS, Word or List Handler, ea. S 80 

Handler Pak (Word/List/Spell) S 170 

APPLIED SOFT TECH., VersaForm S 289 

ASHTON-TATE, dBase II (Reg CP/M 80) S 495 

BPI, Job Cost S 595 

AR, AP, PR or INV. each S 395 

BRODERBUND, Print Shop S 50 

Print Shop Graphics Library S 25 

Bank St. Writer or Speller, ea 

(specify ll + /lle/llc) S 70 

Bank St. Combo (Writer & Speller) S 140 

CONTINENTAL, GL, AR, AP or PR, ea. S 250 

CDEX, for Visicalc. Multipian, Apple lie, ea. S 60 

DOW JONES, Market Manager Plus S 249 

Market Analyzer or Microscope, ea. S 349 

HAYDEN, Pie Writer (v2.2) $ 150 

HOWARD SOFT, Tax Preparer for '84 taxes $ 250 

Kit for California $ 95 

HUMAN EDGE, Sales or Mgml Edge, ea. $ 250 

LIVING VIDEOTEXT, Think Tank S 145 

MECA, Managing Your Money S 200 

MEGAHAUS, Megawriter S 100 

Megaworks S 125 

MICRO PRO, WordStar $ 350 

WordStar w/ Starcard S 495 

WordStar Professional, 4 Pak S 495 

MailMerge, SpeliStar, or Starlndex, ea S 99 

InfoStar and StarCard Combo $ 595 

MICROSOFT, 

Multi-Plan (Ap DOS) S 95 

QUARK, Word JugglBr & Lexicheck (lle/llc) S 1B9 

SENSIBLE, Sensible Speller $ 125 

SIERRA/ON-LINE, Homeword $ 50 

General Manager If S 230 

Screen Writer II, 2 Pak w/Dictionary S 130 

SOFTWARE PUBL, (specify II + or He for all) 

PFS:File or Write, each $ 125 

PFS:Graph or Report, each $ 125 

STONEWARE, DB Master, v. 4 $ 350 

DB Utility Pak I or II each $ 129 



CONR0Y 
$ 36 
S 73 
S 179 
S 269 
$ 365 
$ 240 
$ 29 
S 18 

S 45 
$ 85 
S 150 
S 40 
S 159 
S 21 
$ 10< 
$ 165 
$ 63 
S 165 
S 89 
S 125 
$ 65 
$ 75 
$ 189 
S 265 
S 265 
S 54 
S 295 

$ 62 

S 129 

S 79 

$ 45 

S 155 

S 89 

S 79 
$ 79 
$ 225 



LIST C0NR0Y 
PRICE PRICE 

EINSTEIN/ALISON, Compiler S 129 S 95 

EPSON, Graphics Dump S 15 $ 7 

FUNK, Sideways S 60 S 40 

HAYES, Terminal Prog, for Smartmodem S 99 S 65 
MICROSOFT, Full Line in Stock CALL 

OMEGA, Locksmith S 100 S 70 

PENGUIN, Complete Graphics System II S BO S 49 
Graphics Magician S 60 S 40 

PHOENIX, Zoom Grafix S 40 S 34 

QUALITY, Bag of Tricks S 40 S 29 

UNITED SWI, ASCII Express-The Pro S 130 S 82 
UTILICO, Essential Data Duplicator III $ 80 S 49 



1 HOME & EDUCATIONAL 



BEAGLE BROS., Full line IN STOCK CALL 

BRODERBUND, Print Shop S 50 $ 29 

CONTINENTAL, Home Accountant S 75 S 43 

DOW JONES, Home Budget S 99 S 69 

KOALA, Full line IN STOCK CALL 

MICROSOFT, Typing Tutor II S 25 S 17 

MONOGRAM, Dollars & Sense or S.A.M.. ea S 100 S 59 

Dollars & Sense for lie S 120 S 69 

SCARBOROUGH, Mastertype S 40 S 27 

Your Personal Net Worth $ 80 S 50 

SIERRA/ON-LINE, Homeword S 50 S 45 

SIMON & SCHUSTER, Typing Tutor III S 50 $ 33 

PLUS: BARRONS, CBS, DAVIDSON, EDU-WARE, 
HARCOURT, LEARNING CO., TERRAPIN 



RECREATIONAL SOFTWARE 



UTILITIES SOFTWARE 



BEAGLE, GPLE, Alpha Plot or B.Basic, ea S 50 $ 27 

Pronto DOS, Disk Quick, Ap. Mech. or 10, Silver, ea S 30 $ 19 

Full line IN STOCK CALL 

BORLAND, Turbo Pascal S 55 $ 33 

3 Pak (Pasc, Turbo Tut. Toolbox) NEW S 105 S 59 

CENTRAL POINT Copy II Plus (bit copier) $ 40 S 23 

Filer, Utility & Apple DOS 3.3 S 20 S 15 



BLUECHIP, Millionaire, Squire, Barron, ez 


.$ 


50 $ 


32 


DATASOFT, Aztec or Zaxxon, each 


S 


40 S 


It 


ELECTRONIC ARTS, Sky Fox 


$ 


40 S 


29 


Pinball or Music Construction, ea. 


s 


40 $ 


29 


HAYDEN, Sargon lit (Chess) 


$ 


50 S 


30 


INFOCOM, Zork I, II, or III, ea 


s 


40 S 


2b 


ORIGIN, Ultima III 


s 


60 S 


37 


PENGUIN, Transylvania 


s 


35 $ 


24 


PROFESSIONAL, Trivia Fever 


s 


40 S 


25 


SIERRA/ON-LINE, Ultima fl 


$ 


60 S 


37 


SIR-TECH, Wizardry 


s 


50 S 


30 


SUB LOGIC, Flight Simulator II 


s 


50 $ 


30 



PLUS: BRODERBUND, DATAMOST, MUSE, 
SIR-TECH, SPINNAKER 



DISKETTES 



• CONROY-LAPOINTE™ DISKETTES • 

/e guarantee these tap quality products with our name. 
5 YEAR LIMITED WARRANTY. Discounts on orders wb labels. 

10 ea. SS/SD, {Apple, etc) 35 Trk, W/FLIP BOX $ 12 

100 ea. SS/SD. (Apple, etc) 35 Trk $ 99 

1000 ea. SS/SD, (Apple, etc.) 35 Trk $ 840 

10 ea. DS/DD, (IBM. H/P) 48 Trk, W/FLIP BOX S 15 

100 ea. DS/DD, (IBM, H/P) 48 Trk $ 119 

1000 ea. DS/DD, (IBM. H/P) 48 Trk S 859 

10 ea, DS/DD, 3'/2 rt (MAC, H/P), W/FLIP BOX $ 29 

50 ea. DS/DD, 3'/ 2 " (MAC, H/P) $ 140 

100 ea. DS/DD, 3V 2 "(MAC, H/P) $ 270 

• CONROY-LAPOINTE" • 

IBM PRE-FORMATTED 

10 ea, DS/DD, 46 Trk W/FLIP BOX $ 19 

100 ea, DS/DD, 48 Trk $ 149 

1000 ea. DS/DD. 48 Trk $ 959 

SINGLE-SIDED, DOUBLE DENSITY 

list C0NR0Y 

CDC, 10 ea. SS/DD, 40 Trk (Apple, etc) S 55 S 19 

100 ea. SS/DD, 40 Trk (Apple, etc) S 550 S 195 

DYSAN, 10 ea. SS/DD, (Apple, etc.) S 40 $ 27 

MAXELL, 10 ea. SS/DD, MD1 (Apple) S 55 $ 19 

VERBATIM, 10 ea, SS/DD, MD515-01, (Apple) $ 49 $ 25 

DOUBLE-SIDED, DOUBLE DENSITY 

CDC, 10 ea, DS/DD, 40 Trk (IBM, H/P) $ 75 $ 23 

100ea, DS/DD, 40 Trk (IBM, H/P) $ 750 $ 295 

DYSAN, 10 ea, DS/DD, (IBM, H/P) S 69 $ 35 

MAXELL, 10 ea, DS/DD, MD2 (IBM) $ 75 $ 26 

VERBATIM, 10 ea, DS/DD, MD34 (IBM) $ 84 $ 29 

3W MICRO DISKETTES 

CONROY-LAP01NTE, 10 ea. DS/DD (MAC, H/P) S 29 

MAXELL, 10 ea. SS/DD (MAC, H/P) $ 60 S 35 

MEMOREX, 10 ea. SS/DD (MAC, H/P) $ 60 $ 35 

VERBATIM, 10 ea, SS/DD (MAC, H/P) $ 65 $ 35 

HIGH DENSITY DISKETTES FOR IBM-AT 

MAXELL, 10 ea. DS/QD (IBM-AT) S 77 S 49 

MEMOREX, 10 ea. DS/QD (IBM-AT) S 84 $ 54 

* GENERIK DISKETTES • 

Top quality, w/jackets. no labels. Quantity discounts. 
90 day "No hassle, money back guarantee." 

1 00 ea. SS/DD. 35 Track (Apple, etc) S 80 

250 ea. SS/DD. 35 Track (Apple, etc) $ 199 

100 ea. DS/DD, 48 Track, (IBM, H/P) $ 95 

250 ea, DS/DD. 48 Track (IBM, H/P) S 229 



MODEMS 



LIST 

ANCHOR, Signalman Mark XII (IBM) S 399 

HAYES, 2400B External Modem (IBM) $ 899 
Smartmodem 1200B (IBM) S 549 

Smartcom II Software (IBM) $ 149 

Stack Chronograph (RS-232) $ 249 

Stack Smartmodem 300 (RS-232) S 289 
Smartmodem 1200 (AP or IBM) S 599 

Micromodem He w/Smartcom (AP) S 329 

KENSINGTON, Portable Modem, 300 Baud (MAC) S 140 

NOVATION, J-Cat, 300 Baud Modem $ 149 
ACCESS 1-2-3 1200B Modem+Crosstalk (IBM) $ 595 
Apple Cat II 300 Baud (AP) $ 389 

21 2 Apple Cat, 1200 Baud (AP) $ 725 

SmartCat Plus w/software (MAC) $ 499 

PROMETHEUS, 1200 Standalone Modem $ 495 
proModem 1200 w/software (MAC) $ 549 
ProModem 1200A (AP) S 449 

ProModem 1200B (IBM) S 399 

QUADRAM, Quadmodem, Internal (IBM) S 595 
Quadmodem. External, (IBM) S 695 

VENTEL, PC Hall Card (IBM) S 549 

1200 Plus, External (IBM) S 499 

PC 1200, Internal (IBM) S 499 



MONITORS 



AMDEK, Color 300 Comp/Audio S 349 

Color 500 Cornp/VCR/RGB/Audio $ 525 

Color 600 Hi Res, RGB/Audio S 599 

Color 700 Ultra Hi Res, RGB S 749 

Color 710 Ultra Hi Res, Phos S 799 

300G. 12" Green S 179 

300 A. 12" Amber $ 199 

310A, 12" Amber, (IBM) $ 230 

PRINCETON, HX-12, Hi Res, RGB $ 795 

SR-12, Hi Res. RGB $ 799 

Scan Doubler for SR-12 $ 249 

MAX-12, Amber (monochrome) $ 249 

QUADRAM, Amberchrome, 12" Amber S 250 

Quadchrome 12" RGB Color S 695 

Quadchrome II, 14" RGB Color S 650 
Quadscreen 17" 968x512 w/cable, Hi Res $1995 

ZENITH, ZVM122. 12" Amber $ 159 

ZMV123. 12" Green $ 149 

ZMV124, 12" Amber S 200 

ZMV135, 12" Color 5 599 



CONR0Y 
$ 259 
S 699 
$ 389 
$ 107 
$ 189 
$ 219 
$ 429 
$ 239 
$ 109 
$ 104 
$ 369 
$ 219 
$ 419 
$ 349 
$ 345 
$ 429 
S 349 
S 289 
$ 425 
S 495 
S 389 
$ 429 
S 379 



$ 249 
$ 385 
$ 459 
$ 549 
S 599 
$ 129 
$ 149 
$ 159 
$ 495 
$ 599 
$ 179 
$ 199 
S 165 
$ 495 
$ 450 
S1595 
$ 95 
$ 89 
$ 139 
$ 499 



PRINTERS 



DOT MATRIX: 



LIST C0NR0Y 

EPSON, RXBO-100 cps/quiet mode/128 typest $ 269 CALL 

RX80 + F/T - frict or tractor $ 369 CALL 

RX100-100 cps/136 col/pin & fr. $ 499 CALL 

FX80+ - 160 cps/80 col. $569 CALL 

FX100+ - 160 cps/136 col. S 849 CALL 

JX80-Color Printer, 160 cps. S 799 CALL 

LQ1500-200 cps DQ & 67 cps LQ $1395 CALL 

Tractor Feed (or LQ 1500 $ 70 CALL 

MANNESMANN-TALLY, 

Spirit-80 - 80 cps/80 col. $ 269 S 219 

MT160 - 160 cps/80 col. $ 798 S 568 

MT180 - 160 cps/132 col. S1098 S 778 

OKIDATA, Okimate 20-Color, Hi Res $ 268 $ 208 

82A - 120 cps/80 col/para. S 349 $ 319 

83A -120 cps/132 col/para, S 749 S 599 

84 -200 cps/136 cps/para. $ 999 $ 729 

92-160 cps/80 col/para. $ 499 $ 399 

93-160 cps/136 col/para. S 799 $ 639 

2410P - Pacemark/350 cps/para. $2995 $1975 

QUADRAM, Quadjet- Inkjet Color Printer $ 895 $ 795 

STAR MICRO, SG1 0-120 cps DQ, 30 cps NLO NEWS 299 $ 249 

SG15 - 120 cps DQ, 30 cps NLQ. 16K NEW $ 499 $ 419 

SD10 - 160 cps DQ, 40 cps NLQ NEW $ 449 $ 379 

SD15 - 160 cps DQ, 40 cps NLQ, 16K NEW $ 599 $ 509 

SR10 - 200 cps DQ, 50 cps NLQ NEW $ 649 $ 549 

SR15 - 200 cps DQ, 50 cps NLQ. 16K NEW $ 799 $ 679 

TOSHIBA, Prop, spacing & hi res graphics: 

1351-192 cps (DQ) & 100 cps (LQ) S1895 $1375 

1340-144 cps (DQ) & 54 cps (LQ) $995 S 750 

Bi-directional Tractor Feed $ 195 S 175 

LETTER-QUALITY: 

JUKI, 6300-40cps/para. $ 995 S 795 

6100-18 cps/para/3 pitch $599 $ 439 

TOSHIBA, Prop, spacing & hi-res graphics: 

1351-192 cps (DQ) &100 cps (LQ) $1895 $1375 

1340-144 cps (DQ) & 54 cps (LQ) $ 995 S 795 

TTX, 1014-13 cps, para/ser, p&fr,3p $ 499 $ 365 

1114-sameas1014w/T&F, 2c & prop. $ 599 S 439 

PLOTTERS: 

AMDEK, Amplot 11-6 pen. 10x14 $899 $ 

PRINTER SUPPLIES: 

Paper, Ribbons, Daisy Wheels C 



PRINTER INTERFACES 
AND BUFFERS 



LIST CONR0Y 

ARBO, IBM-PC to Para Printer Cable S 60 $ 30 

ASSIM PROC, Mac to Epson Conn l/F $ 89 $ 69 

EPSON, Parallel Interface for LQ1500 $ 100 S 79 

Serial Interlace Board S 130 S 105 

MPC, Apple II l/F & Cable lor Epson & Gemini $ 95 S 59 

OKID ATA, Plug'n Play, Tractors, Okigraph, ea. S 50 S 42 

ORANGE MICRO, Grappler Plus for Apple S 149 S 99 

Serial Grappler S 119 S 79 

Buffered Grappler Plus. 16K S 239 $ 159 

QUADRAM, Microfazers, full line IN STOCK CALL 

Microfazers SK, P-P, w/copy $ 189 $ 139 



CABLES 



ARBO, IBM-PC to Modem Cable $ 29 $ 

IBM-PC to Para Printer Cable S 60 $ 

ASTAR, RF Modulator for T.V. (Apple) S 35 S 

CURTIS, Monitor Extension Cable (IBM) S 50 S 

3'-9' Keyboard Extens. Cable (IBM) S 40 $ 

RCA, Monitor Cable S 15 I 



ACCESSORIES 



CURTIS, Diamond, 6 outlets, switched S 50 



Emerald , 6 outlets, 6' cord $ 

Ruby, 6 outlets. 6' cord, filter $ 

Sapphire, 3 outlets, w/filter S 

EPD, Lemon, 6 outlets/wall $ 45 

Lime, 6 outlets/cord S 70 

Orange, 6 outlets/cord $ 100 

Peach, 3 outlets/wall $ 60 

INNOVATIVE, Flip-n-File 50 (disk holder) $ 22 

KENSINGTON, Masterpiece (IBM) S 140 

System Saver Fan (Apple) S 90 

Printer Stand NEWS 30 

NETWORX, Wiretree. 4 outlet, w/filt & surge $ 70 

Wiretree Plus S 100 

PERFECT DATA, Head Cleaning Kit $ 16 

PROD TECH INTL, Uninterruptable Power Supply 

200 Watts. PC200 for IBM-PC $ 359 

300 Watts. XT300 for IBM-XT S 499 

800 Watts. AT800 for IBM-AT. 72 lbs. 



S 229 

S 379 
CALL 



CONROY- 
LAPOINTE s" 
1 CREDIT CARD ^ 

, Send me a ConroyLaPointe _ 
I credit application (orm. so I 
. can get cash discount prices 

with credit card 
I convenience $400 
i Minimum initial purchase ..... 



W STATE ZIP ■ 

T2060 SW Garden Place, Portland, OR 972231 



fl S3H P D [ M P I M Cf\ SL T P P M C * MA,L T0: 1206B sw cm *n Place, Portland, OR 97223 - Include your telephone number; 

wnL/wlillXvl HMlw OC I t. fl III w • double check your figures for Shipping, insurance and Handling (SIH). All items usually h stock. 

NO C.O.D. Cashiers checks, money orders, Fortune 1000 checks and government checks honored immediately. Personal and othercornpany checte-atlow 20 days to clear. 

Prices reflect 3% cash & Conroy-LaPoinle Credit Card discount, so ADD 3% to above prices for VfSA/MasterCard'American Express. Your cards NOT charged ti! we ship. 

Add SIH CHARGES: U.S. Mainland, 3% ($5 minimum) for standard UPS ground; UPS Blue, m ($10 min); for U.S. Poslai APO or FPO, 6% ($W min). Alaska-Postal, 
min) Foreign orders excepl Canada, 18% [$?:': uy Postal or to foreign countries, 30^ ($50 min). Ord^- 3=H charges 

' ii prices, availability and specifications subjoi ' ange without noitce, so call to verify. All goods are new, include ,', guaranteed 

; low prices and our as; . -jroducls-AlL SALES ARE FINAL. We'do not guarantee comp: 1 ' 

■ epiacoment. 0R0ER DESK HOURS -GAM to 6PM PST, Monday through Friday, Saturday 10 to 4, (6AM here is 9AM In New York.}EconoRAM' , j Fastrak", 

and Generik'" are trademarks of ComX Corporation. 



Inquiry 441 for Apple. Inquiry 442 for IBM Peripherals. Inquiry 443 for all others. 




(ORDER NOW (800)547-1289 ) 
JEOE YQUR IBM-PC, XT, AT or JR 



* l984byConroy-LaPointeJnc. Alt Rights Reserved \ -J* . (JQ 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS OTHER HARDWARE OTHER HARDWARE 




— Call for Details — 
256K I1M-PC 



360K 

Disk Drives 

by CDC 

90 0ay 

Limtled Warranty 

By Us 



COMPAQ. Pon a we, 

25GK. 2 360K Disk Drives 

% SANYO 5i 

256K. 2 320K Oisk Drives 

Z150j 
256K. 2 320K Disk Oriwes. 

MS DOS 2.1. 8088 Chip. 2 S/P 



HARD DISKS & 
TAPE BACKUP 



KAMERMAN, Internal 10 meg kit(Megaflight 100) S 895 $ 749 

External 10 meg kit $1295 $1095 

MF-10/10, H Disk, tape back, cont. power $2295 $1795 

MAYNARD, Internal 10 meg kit w/cont. (WS1) $1595 $1150 

MICRO SCIENCE, 10 meg w/controller $ 895 $ 695 

QUADRAM, Quaddisks Int. w/controller, IN STOCK 

RANA, External 1 meg w/controller $1495 $1095 

Internal 10 meg w/controller $ 995 $ 795 

TALLGRASS, 12 meg disk, 20 meg tape, inlf. $3044 $2124 

25 meg disk, 55 meg tape. Intf. $3660 $3160 



FLOPPY DISK DRIVES 



CDC, Limtled 30 day warranty; Call for quantity prices 

FULL HEIGHT, $149 

HALF HEIGHT, $129 

IBM, Disk Drive Controller Card $ 195 $ 125 

MAYNARD, Controller Card w/para port $ 300 S 185 

Controller Card w/serial port $ 310 $195 

Sandstar Cont Card (accepts 3 modules) $265 $ 205 

PERFECT DATA, Head Cleaning Kit $ 16 $ 12 



LIST 
PRICE 



S 695 

S 895 
$ 50 



$ 495 
$1090 
$ 695 



AST, 

SixPak Plus, 64K 

SixPak Plus, 256K, S/P/CC + S/W 
SixPak Plus, 384K, S/P/CC + S/W 
Game Port for SixPak 
Preview™ Graphics Card w/para, 64K $ 399 
Advantage'" Multif, Bd. for AT, 128K $ 595 
I/O Plus II, S/P/CC $ 215 

I/O Plus II, S/P/CC/G $ 265 

I/O Plus II, 2S/P/CC/G $ 315 

Port Kits - ser, para, or game, ea. $ 50 
MonoGraphPlus™ P/CC (for Lotus) 
PCNet, Starter Kit, PC002 
PCNet, Circuit Board, PC001 
MegaPIus Products IN STOCK 
COMX, NEW 

EconoRAM™ Plus, 384K to 1.5 meg. 

board, S/P/CC/G Fastrak & Spooler 

EconoRAM™, full 384K board $ 295 

CURTIS, UNI-I Monitor tilt/swivel base S 50 

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$ 175 

$ 295 

S 180 

S 45 

S 55 

S 245 

S 499 

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$ 50 



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HERCULES, Color Card w/para. 
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IBM, Disk Drive Controller Card 

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KEY TRONIC, KB5151, Std. Keyboard $ 255 
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KOALA, Speed Key System S 100 

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Koala Pad w/PC Design S 150 

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Multifunction (6) Card $ 89 

Memory Card no RAM $ 199 

Memory Card 256K $ 495 

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Memory Module, OK $ 122 

Memory Module 256K S 422 

10 meg. Hard Disk Kit & Cont Card S1595 



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$259 

$ 395 
$ 465 
$ 39 
$ 299 
$ 445 
$ 150 
$ 185 
$ 215 
$ 39 
$ 375 
$ 790 
$ 365 
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$265 

$ 195 
$ 39 
S 30 
$ 149 
S 235 
$ 138 
$ 29 
S 35 
$ 169 
$ 329 
$ 125 
$ 99 
$ 35 
$ 195 
$ 159 
$ 63 
S 139 
$ 89 

$ 79 
$ 169 
% 395 
$ 205 
$ 399 
$ 27 
$ 79 
$ 49 
$ 43 
$ 99 
$ 357 
$1150 



LIST CONROY 

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S 395 $ 275 

$ 625 $ 450 



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GL. AR. AP, OE or INV, each $ 595 

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CONROY 
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$ 119 
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$ 365 
$ 49 
$ 45 
$ 115 
$ 40 
$ 75 
$ 295 
$ 75 
$ 99 
$ 219 
$ 219 
$ 159 
$ 185 
$ 185 
$ 59 
$ 295 
$ 225 



125 

30 

195 

83 

32 

119 

159 

159 

185 

S 250 

$ 125 

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$ 59 

$1 
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$ 309 
$ 465 



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Using Symphony 

SAMNA, Word Plus 
Word III 

SATELLITE, WordPerfect (PC) $ 495 $ 335 

WordPerfect (Jr) S 69 $ 4 i 

SOFTW. ARTS, Visicalc S 179 $ 109 

' Spottight S1 50 $ 95 

TK Solver (specify DOS) S 399 $ 269 

SOFTWARE INTL, Open Access $ 695 $ 379 



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CONROY 
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PRICE 

SOFTWARE PUBL. PFSfleport $ 125 

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PFS:Proof or PFS:Access, each S 95 $ 

SORCIM, SuperCalc III S 395 $ 245 

STONEWARE, Advanced DB Master S 595 $ 375 

THORN EMI, Perfect Pak (Jr) (Write/Spell/rhesaurus) $ 139 $ 89 

VISICORP, VisiCalc 4 S 250 $ 159 

WARNER, Desk Organizer (PC or Jr) S 195 $ 125 



59 



M1CROSTUF, Crosstalk XVI (PC or Jr) $ 195 
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NORTON, Utilities (14prgms)NEWVERSI0N $ 100 
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For any PC/DOS or RAM Card. Menu Driven S 100 $ 59 

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CBASIC 86"- (CP/M-BB) S 200 $ 135 

CBASIC Compiler (CP/M-86 or PC00S,ea)S 600 $ 395| 



Concurrent CP/M-B6'" w/windows 
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MICROSOFT, Macro Assembler 
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S 350 $ 225 
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KOALA, Graphics Exhibitor (Jr) S 40 $ 25 

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BITE 



Multiprocessing: An Overview 

by Rich Krajewski 171 

Extending Microprocessor 
Architectures 

by Gary D. Seals 185 

Applying Data Flow 
in the Real World 

by William Gerhard Paseman 201 

The Transputer 

by Paul Walker 219 

Data-Movement Primitives 

by J. Eric Roskos and Ching-Dong Hsieh . . 239 



Multiprocessing 



"The machine can be brought into play so as to give several results at the same time, 
which will greatly abridge the whole amount of processes."— General Menabrea, 1842 

THESE WORDS BY NINETEENTH-CENTURY military engineer Luigi F. 
Menabrea concerning Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine may well have con- 
stituted the first recorded proposal of automated multiprocessing in history. 
Multiprocessing, the processing of more than one computer instruction or 
item of data at once, is the underpinning of much of the new development 
in computers. Without the ability to process several tasks at once, the 
usefulness of computers cannot grow for long. Most of the big, glamorous 
advances in computing, such as artificial intelligence, speech recognition, and 
image processing, will depend on the speed granted by multiprocessing. 

In this issue, we examine some of the concepts of multiprocessing, begin- 
ning with my article, "Multiprocessing: An Overview." We also examine some 
ideas that, strictly speaking, aren't part of multiprocessing but are thought 
to be by the public— for example, coprocessors. Coprocessors are specialized 
processors that perform certain tasks for the master microprocessor, such 
as floating-point operations or string comparisons. The master processor will 
wait for the result rather than continue to operate, so the arrangement is not 
strictly within our definition of multiprocessing. Gary Beals explores copro- 
cessors in "Extending Microprocessor Architectures" to nail down the dif- 
ference between multiprocessors and coprocessors. 

William Paseman's article, "Applying Data Flow in the Real World." is a look 
at one kind of true multiprocessor, the data-flow parallel processor. This is 
the area where much of the money is riding in the race to increase computer 
speed. 

The best architecture for parallel processors is still being sought, but a con- 
venient means to achieving that architecture may be the Transputer, a micro- 
processor that was designed for parallel processing. Paul Walker gives a closer 
look at this device than we have had before in these pages. 

Finally, "Data-Movement Primitives" by I. Eric Roskos and Ching-Dong Hsieh 
demonstrates a method of sharing data on a $450 three-processor system. 
This is a system that we hope will inspire some of our readers to experiment 
in this important area. 

I wish we could have published more articles about multiprocessing in this 
issue, but unfortunately we ran out of space. However, we plan to do more 
about multiprocessing in the future. Let us know what you'd like to see. 

—Rich Krajewski, Technical Editor 



MAY 1985 "BYTE 



169 




Gold HillC omputers brings the language of 
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MULTIPROCESSING 



MULTIPROCESSING: 
AN OVERVIEW 



by Rich Krajewski 

A brief look at the latest quest 
for computer speed 



MICROPROCESSORS HAVE MADE 
the development of multiprocessing 
possible by providing cheap, compact 
processing power. When electronic 
computers were first developed, 
single-processor architecture was in- 
evitable because of the enormous 
cost and unreliability of the process- 
ing unit. Even into the 1960s and early 
1970s, computers were too costly to 
easily combine on any massive scale. 
Now multiprocessors containing 
several thousand processing units are 
not unheard of. 

Multiprocessing is a frustrating word 
because it can mean several things. To 
one person it may mean two indepen- 
dent Z80 computers sharing only the 
same hard disk; to another, it may 
mean two million 68000s sharing 
everything from resources to the 
same program. This causes confusion, 
especially when inventors and manu- 
facturers use the same term to 
describe wildly different machines. To 
compound the misunderstanding, 
many of the celebrated benefits of 
multiprocessing are misstated, or at 
least not well explained. A manufac- 
turer might tell you that multipro- 
cessor x has one-tenth the power of 
a Cray-1 for one-hundredth the price, 



which is exciting, until you realize that 
the measurement applies only to a 
limited class of programs. In fact with 
programs that can't readily be written 
as parallel processes, multiprocessor 
x may perform worse than your 
average desktop computer. 

To remove some of the confusion, 
I'll try to define multiprocessing and 
classify its different forms. I'll save the 
discussion of actual multiprocessor 
computers for another time, when we 
can devote an entire article or review 
to them. 

What Is Multiprocessing? 

Multiprocessing can be broadly de- 
fined as the use of several micropro- 
cessors to perform a single task or 
several tasks, usually at the same time. 
The typical desktop computer fits into 
this definition if you call its CRT 
(cathode-ray tube) controller, disk 
controller, and peripheral interface all 
specialized processors. These spe- 
cialized processors make your com- 
puter run faster by freeing the micro- 
processor from housekeeping chores 
and giving it more time to work on 
your program. 

On the more obvious and less 
debatable side, a computer with a 



million microprocessors all working 
on the same problem is also a multi- 
processor. It's plain to see that, since 
such a wide range of machines fall 
under the category of multiprocess- 
ing, we need some method of sub- 
dividing the category. 

What It Is Not 

Before we go into the classes of multi- 
processing, we ought to decide what 
it is not. A few folks have the idea that 
all multitasking and multiuser systems 
are multiprocessing systems. But as I 
see it, the emphasis in a multiprocess- 
ing system is on the number of pro- 
cessors rather than on the number of 
processes or users. Besides, high 
numbers of processes would choke a 
single microprocessor, so we won't 
consider single-processor multiuser 
or multitasking systems. 

Classifying Multiprocessors 

There are almost too many ways to 
classify multiprocessors. Some of the 
classifications we'll consider are those 
of structure, communications, and 

[continued) 
Rich Krajewski is a BYTE technical editor. 
He can be contacted at POB 372, Hancock 
NH 03449. 



MAY 1985 'BYTE 171 



OVERVIEW 



data and instruction streams. 

The classifications of multipro- 
cessor structure are pipeline, copro- 
cessor, array processor, and parallel 
processor. 

Pipeline Processors 

Most processors, micro or otherwise, 
perform several tasks in the execution 
of an instruction. For instance, in 
multiplying decimal numbers (say 340 
and 2.6), imagine that the computer 
represents the numbers in scientific 



notation (3.4 x 10 2 and 2.6 x 10°). 
The computer then multiplies the 
mantissas (3.4 x 2.6 = 8.84) and adds 
the exponents (2 + = 2). The scien- 
tific representation of the number 
(8.84 x 10 2 ) is then "normalized" so 
that the power of 10 is removed and 
the decimal point is placed in its prop- 
er position (884.0). 

Three circuits could perform the 
three tasks— multiply mantissas, add 
exponents, and normalize the result. 
Rather than let the mantissa and ex- 



The Z80000 Pipeline 



by Robert Andrews 



The instruction cycle of the Z80000 
is divided into six stages. Each of 
these stages is subdivided into two 
minor cycles according to the follow- 
ing breakdown: 

1. Instruction Fetch: 

Cycle 1: Increment the program 
counter. 

Cycle 2: Compare cache tags and ini- 
tiate the instruction fetch. 

2. Instruction Decode: 

Cycle 1: Instruction is available (assume 

cache hit). 

Cycle 2: Generate microword. 

3. Address Calculation: 

Cycle I : Calculate effective address of 

operands. 

Cycle 2: Compare logical address with 

TLB tags for physical address. 

4. Operand Fetch: 

Cycle I: Read the physical address 
from TLB (assuming TLB hit) and com- 
pare it with cache tag for operand. 
Cycle 2: Operand is available into tem- 
porary register (assuming a cache hit). 



5. Execution (may have multiple 

cycles): 

Cycle 1 : Read from register and start 

execution. 

Cycle 2: Write to register and set flags. 



6. Oper 


and Store: 


Cycle I: 


Check the results and write to 


memory 




Cycle 2: 


Write to cache. 


Consider a sequence of instructions 


as shown below: 


LDL 


RR0,@RR2 


ADDL 


RR0,FP[lNDEXB] 


SUBL 


RR0,FP[INDEXC] 


CPL 


RR0,FP[INDEXD] 


JR 


RR0,FP[INDEXD] 


LDL 


FP[INDEXD],RR1 



Assuming instructions and operands 
are in cache, figure A shows the flow 
of instructions in several stages of the 
pipeline. 

The result is faster throughput in the 
microprocessor than if the instructions 
were executed sequentially. 



O.W. 
EXE. 

O.F. 
A.C. 
I.D. 
I.F. 









LD 


ADD 


SUB 


CP 


JR 


LD 


LD 


ADD 


SUB 


CP 


JR 


LD 




LD 


ADD 


SUB 


CP 


JR 


LD 






i LD 


ADD 


SUB 


CP 


JR 


LD 








LDl ADD 


SUB 


CP 


JR 


LD 











LD 



3 4 

Time -* 



10 11 



Figure A: Instruction flow in the Z80000 pipeline. 



ponent circuits do nothing while nor- 
malizing is going on, we can give 
those two circuits another set of 
numbers to work on. Now, twice as 
many floating-point operations are 
taking place as before. 

This is pipelining, the simultaneous 
execution of different parts of dif- 
ferent instructions in an assembly-line 
fashion. One of the first examples of 
pipelining was the look-ahead, or pre- 
fetch. In this arrangement, the pro- 
cessor begins execution of one in- 
struction while simultaneously obtain- 
ing the next instruction. The text box 
"The Z80000 Pipeline" describes a 
modern microprocessor pipeline. 

Coprocessors 

Many microcomputers have multipro- 
cessing in the form of specialized 
slave processors, or coprocessors. 
These coprocessors, such as floating- 
point processors or string com- 
parators, help speed execution time 
by handling certain complex instruc- 
tions that the central microprocessor 
can't handle or can't handle well. Most 
microcomputer coprocessors, how- 
ever, don't operate simultaneously 
with the central microprocessor, so 
calling the arrangement multiprocess- 
ing may be stretching things. Steve 
Ciarcia's Trump Card is an example of 
a processor that makes the IBM PC's 
microprocessor into a slave I/O (input/ 
output) processor (see "TYump Card, 
Part I: Hardware," May 1984 BYTE, 
page 40, and 'Irurnp Card, Part 11: 
Software," June 1984 BYTE, page 115). 

Array Processors 

Array processing takes place when a 
collection of processors performs the 
same instruction simultaneously on 
an array of data. Sometimes the pro- 
cessors themselves are arranged in an 
array, but sometimes they are pipeline 
processors. 

Parallel Processors 

Parallel processors are collections of 
independent processors that work to- 
gether. They can run different but 
related programs. There are several 
types of parallel processors (Charles 

[continued] 



172 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 117 — + 



Resource Technology — What's it all about? 



IT'S ABOUT TIME! 

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OVERVIEW 



Thoughts on Parallel Processing 

by Vipin Kumar 



Parallel processing is important for 
several reasons. There is an in- 
satiable demand for faster and cheaper 
computers. Sequential computers have 
been becoming faster due to the ad- 
vances in hardware technology, but 
there are indications that limits im- 
posed by solid-state physics may soon 
come in the way, and the only way out 
might be parallel processing. With the 
emergence of VLSI (very large scale in- 
tegration) technology, it is becoming 
easier and cheaper to construct large 
parallel-processing systems as long as 
they are made of fairly regular patterns 
of simple processing elements, and 
thus parallel processors should 
become cost-effective. Many applica- 
tions have real-time constraints, e.g., 
real-time speech understanding, warn- 
ing systems, navigation, etc. For these 
tasks, high-speed requirements should 
be met at any cost. A warning system 
would not be of much use, for exam- 
ple, if it warned of a nuclear attack after 
the missiles had exploded. 

Parallel processing may be especial- 
ly necessary for artificial intelligence 
(Al). Very little success has been 
achieved in Al in representing and 
using large bodies of knowledge and 
in dealing with recognition problems. 
The human brain can perform these 
tasks remarkably well using a large 
number of slow neurons in parallel. 
This suggests that conventional ar- 
chitectures may be ill suited for these 
tasks and some kind of parallel archi- 
tecture may be needed. You could 
argue that the conventional architec- 
tures are theoretically as powerful as 
any parallel machine (i.e.. any task that 
can be done by a parallel machine can 
also be done by a conventional ma- 
chine, although slowly). But architec- 
tures can significantly influence the 
way we program them, and perhaps if 
we had the right kind of architecture, 
programming it for perception and 
knowledge representation would be 
easy and natural. 

In the last several decades many 
parallel variations of the von Neumann 
architecture have been developed. The 
idea behind them has been to take 



several processing units and memory 
modules and connect them in some 
network configuration. One prominent 
example of such systems is C.mmp. a 
multiprocessor system developed at 
Carnegie-Mellon University. C.mmp 
consists of 16 processors connected to 
16 memory modules via a crossbar 
switch. The crossbar switch permits 
communication between any memory 
modules and any processor. The 
existence of common memory permits 
close coupling between processors 
and thus reduces communication 
costs. But the complexity of the 
crossbar switch grows quite rapidly 
with the number of processors and 
memory modules involved, making it 
difficult to build these systems for more 
than 20 or 30 processors. In some sys- 
tems each processor is allowed to have 
private memory, and these processor/ 
memory pairs are connected to each 
other via a common bus. These sys- 
tems are easy to build for hundreds of 
processors. But the processes can talk 
to each other only by sending mes- 
sages over a common bus, which 
makes interprocess communication 
very expensive. Hence, these systems 
cannot effectively exploit fine-grain 
parallelism in an application. TRAC. the 
Texas Reconfigure ble Array Computer, 
developed at the University of lexas at 
Austin, provides a middle ground. 
TRAC connects a number of pro- 
cessors to a number of memory ele- 
ments via a Banyan network, which is 
far less complex than the crossbar 
switch but provides reduced connec- 
tivity (as compared to the crossbar 
switch) between processors and mem- 
ory elements. 

The biggest problem with all these 
machines is that to exploit parallelism 
it has to be explicitly specified, some- 
thing that has turned out very hard to 
do in practice. Furthermore, parallelism 
achieved using these machines has 
been quite limited, rarely reported 
above 10. Hence it seems hopeless to 
believe that these machines could be 
used to get speedups of thousands or 
even hundreds. Due to limited success 
with these kinds of parallel processors 



and to some inherent problems with 
the traditional von Neumann model of 
computing, many researchers have 
started investigating data-driven and 
demand-driven architectures, as op- 
posed to von Neumann architectures, 
which are control-driven. 

In a data-driven (e.g.. data-flow) sys- 
tem, an instruction can be executed as 
soon as the input data it requires is 
available. After the instruction is ex- 
ecuted, its result is made available to 
the successive instructions. In a 
demand-driven (e.g.. reduction) system, 
an instruction is triggered when the 
results it produced are demanded by 
other instructions. These demands 
cause further demands for operands 
unless the operands are locally avail- 
able, in which case the instruction is ex- 
ecuted and the results are sent back. 
The advantage of a demand-driven sys- 
tem over a data-driven system is that 
only instructions whose results are 
needed are executed. The disadvan- 
tage is in those computations in which 
every instruction always contributes to 
the final result; propagating demands 
from top to bottom is a wasted effort. 

In both of these systems, as a result 
of data- or demand-activated instruc- 
tion execution, many instructions can 
become available for execution at 
once, and it is possible to exploit all 
of the parallelism in the program. Fur- 
thermore, parallelism does not have to 
be explicitly specified; it is automatical- 
ly extracted as long as the program is 
written in an applicative language (e.g., 
pure LISP). It is expected that these ar- 
chitectures can efficiently exploit con- 
currency of computation on a very 
large scale. 

A number of such systems are being 
developed around the world. Most not- 
ably, the Japanese have chosen data 
flow as the underlying architecture for 
the fifth-generation machines. Data- 
flow and reduction architectures hold 
great promise, but there are some im- 
portant problems to be solved before 
they can be used effectively to provide 
large-scale parallelism. 

The realization that the human brain 
performs many difficult cognitive tasks 



174 BYTE • MAY 1985 



OVERVIEW 



effortlessly using neurons, which are 
quite slow in comparison to today's 
microelectronic devices, has led re- 
searchers to look into massively paral- 
lel architectures. The earliest computa- 
tional models along these lines were 
inspired by neurophysiology. Most well 
known of these is "perceptron," devel- 
oped by Frank Rosenblatt in the late 
1950s. A pattern-recognition system 
that is able to learn from experience, 
perceptron's basic building block is an 
element that is intended to be a model 
of a neuron. The element accepts a 
number of inputs, takes their weighted 
sum, and produces an output of or 
1 depending on whether or not the 
sum exceeds a threshold value asso- 
ciated with the element. Inputs to the 
element are features extracted from 
the patterns to be recognized. A 
perceptron can be used to distinguish 
between two given sets of patterns, 
and its design involves adjusting the 
weights and the thresholds of its 
elements. Rosenblatt gave a procedure 
for training perceptrons, by which a 
perceptron can automatically adjust its 
weights to cause correct classification 
of patterns. Initial success of percep- 
trons started a flurry of activity in this 
area, but the excitement waned when 
the models based upon neuroscience 
were found to be too simple for most 
problems of interest. In particular, 
Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert 
proved that perceptrons have serious 
limitations and can be used to recog- 
nize only very simple kinds of patterns. 
NETL, developed by Scott Fahlman 
at Carnegie-Mellon University, repre- 
sents a different approach to building 
a massively parallel machine. NETL 
represents real-world knowledge in the 
form of a hardware semantic network. 
It consists of nodes that are used to 
represent concepts and links that are 
used to represent the relationship be- 
tween the concepts. Each node can 
store a few distinct marker bits, and a 
link can propagate these markers from 
node to node in parallel. Nodes and 
links are connected via a common bus 
to a central computer that controls the 
marker propagation. By moving 



markers from node to node in parallel, 
NETL can perform certain deductions 
and searches (e.g., property inheri- 
tance) very quickly. On a uniprocessor 
these operations can take a long time. 

The biggest problem with NETL is its 
actual hardware implementation. It is 
easy, with the current hardware tech- 
nology, to put thousands of nodes and 
links on a chip. But the problem is in 
forming connections between nodes 
and links as new knowledge is added. 
These connections must be private 
lines between nodes and links; other- 
wise, all of the parallelism will be lost. 
Fahlman has recently proposed a solu- 
tion to this using a hashnet scheme 
and has sketched a design for a million- 
element machine. 

Another problem with NETL is locali- 
ty. A concept is represented by only 
a node, and if this node is damaged, 
it will be hard to reconstruct the 
associated information. The Boltzmann 
machine being developed by Geoffrey 
Hinton (see "Learning in Parallel Net- 
works" by Geoffrey E. Hinton, April 
BYTE, page 265) and many other re- 
searchers attempts to solve this prob- 
lem. In the Boltzmann machine, a con- 
cept is represented by a pattern of ac- 
tivity in a large number of units. Each 
unit is a probabilistic processing ele- 
ment. The failure of a unit has little ef- 
fect because each piece of information 
is distributed throughout the network 
of units. Preliminary simulation results 
of the Boltzmann architecture are en- 
couraging, but there is a lot to learn 
about its limits and capabilities. 

We've*looked at only a few of the 
dozens of parallel architectures that 
various researchers have proposed. 
Many of them are being tested via 
simulation or actual implementations. 
Most of the work is primarily explora- 
tory in nature and is meant to find out 
which architectures might be suited for 
which problems. Parallelism holds 
great promise for AI not only in terms 
of cheaper and faster computers but 
also as a novel way of viewing com- 
putation. "What form will it take?" is 
a question that can be answered only 
with time. 



Babbage's contemporaries talked 
about making one in 1842 out of 
several of his Analytical Engines), but 
we'll discuss only data-flow machines. 
(See the "Thoughts on Parallel Pro- 
cessing" text box for a discussion of 
other kinds of parallel processors.) 

Traditional methods of processing 
execute a program by calling the in- 
structions one by one with a program 
counter. The instructions then call the 
data they need from memory. But 
data flow has the data calling for in- 
structions when the data needs them. 

Figure 1 is a block diagram of the 
Manchester University data-flow archi- 
tecture. The "data packet" you see in 
the diagram contains a data value and 
a control field. (The control field, or 
message, tells the computer which in- 
struction is to act upon the data.) This 
data packet is matched— by the packet 
matcher, of course— with another data 
packet that has the same control field. 
These two packets become one "data- 
data" packet (which sounds like some- 
thing from a 1950s rock-and-roll song). 
The new packet goes to the instruc- 
tion fetcher, which retrieves the in- 
struction that the packet needs by 
using the address supplied in the con- 
trol field. We now have a "data-data- 
instruction" packet. But that's not all. 
The fetcher's last duty is to check its 
data-flow graph to see to which new 
operation the result of the current 
operation should go. This address is 
added to the packet, and away it goes 
to the processing units, where the 
packet is assigned to a free processor. 
The processor produces a result 
packet, which is just a data packet. 
The new data packet goes to the 
packet matcher to start the process all 
over again. 

In this system, many processors are 
working at the same time, and many 
packets are circulating through the 
system. There is no need in this ar- 
rangement to worry about one pro- 
cessor communicating with another, 
so high task-execution speeds should 
be possible. 

Notice that there is no program 
counter here, as in a von Neumann 
computer. Instructions are not called 

(continued) 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 175 



Inquiry 78 




.< ***** 



& 



.0^ 



e»- 



&■ 






J* 



e»* 




OVERVIEW 



first and data next. lust the opposite 
happens. 

The advantage of working this way 
is that we can more easily see the 
data dependencies between pro- 
cesses, so it is easier to program 
parallel routines. Figure 2 shows a 
data-flow graph of the simple calcu- 
lations 

A = B + C-F 
D = B *C - F 
E = A-D 

In the data-flow graph, we show the 
input data (the data with no depen- 
dencies on other data) first, as many 
times as necessary, depending on 
how many different operations re- 
quire the data. Then they are com- 
bined as the calculations specify, and 
the new values, which are dependent 



on the original values, are combined 
again until all data items are 
combined. 

With this kind of system, the depen- 
dencies of one value on another are 
obvious, and the parallelisms stand 
out. Of course, the drawback here is 
that the data values have to be 
repeated several times in data-packet 
memory, each time with a different 
control field. For instance, there are 
two B data packets, but one specifies 
a multiplication operation and tjne 
other specifies an addition operation. 

Figure 3 shows how these calcula- 
tions might be first specified on an or- 
dinary computer. Here, we start sim- 
ply with the first calculation rather 
than with all the initial data. Instruc- 
tions call data rather than the other 
way around, so data need only be 




PARALLEL -PROCESSING 
UNITS 



CONTROLLER 



PACKET 
MATCHER 





PACKET 
STORE 



DATA 




DATA -DATA 
PACKET 



INSTRUCTION 
DATA -DATA 
PACKET 



INSTRUCTION 
FETCHER 



INSTRUCTION-STORE 

AND 

DATA-FLOW GRAPH 



Figure 1: The Manchester data-flow architecture. How packets are allocated to 
processors is not shown. 



176 BYTE • MAY 1985 



OVERVIEW 



listed once in memory and called as 
needed. But the data dependencies 
are not obvious, and finding ways to 
execute instructions concurrently 
becomes more difficult. It can be 
done, but perhaps not as well. 

Communication Methods 

Another classification of multipro- 
cessors is their communication 
method. This is a crucial issue in 
multiprocessors because as the 
number of processors increases, so 
does the communication problem. 

We will examine three communica- 
tion methods: bus, circuit switch, and 
packet switch. 

BUS 

Figure 4 shows a bus-connected paral- 
lel processor. In the diagram, all com- 
munications are broadcast on the bus. 
Unfortunately with a large number of 
processors, even high-speed buses 
can't handle all of the communica- 
tions traffic. 

Because all communications be- 
tween processors are handled se- 
quentially on the bus, it becomes a 
bottleneck as the number of proces- 
sors grows, since only one transfer of 
information can occur at any one 
time. The answer is to have several 
buses or another communication 
technique. 

Circuit Switch 

Circuit switching is the direct connec- 
tion of one processor to any other 
processor through a switch (see the 
"Crossbar Circuit Switch" text box on 
page 180 for a discussion of a type 
of circuit switch). Your phone com- 
pany's central office uses a circuit 
switcher to switch your calls. 

This method has problems at high 
volume and high speeds. In a parallel 
processor, with perhaps millions of 
processors, a single circuit switcher 
would be hard-pressed to keep up. 
Perhaps the answer will be to use 
several switchers. 

Packet Switch 

In a packet-switched system of parallel 
processors, the processors not only 
process their own programs but relay 



programs and data to other pro- 
cessors. Figure 5 shows a system like 
this. There are two kinds of packets 
in this system: instruction and data 
packets. A packet consists of an ad- 
dress, its contents, and a checksum or 
some other error-checking mecha- 
nism. 

The instruction packets are ad- 
dressed to specific processors if there 
is a central controller processor to 
keep track of processor usage. If the 



packet is unaddressed, it is taken up 
by the first available processor, that 
receives it. Data packets may be ad- 
dressed to specific processors or to 
the processes, depending on how 
processes are assigned to processors. 
When a process or processor receives 
a packet, it must tell the sender that 
the message was properly received. 
This requirement doubles the traffic 
that the system must handle. 

[continued) 




Figure 2: The data-flow graph. Notice the duplication of input data. 



( 


START J 







F = 

B = 
C = 








A = B + C-F 








D=B*C-F 








E = A-D 








END 







Figure 3 : An ordinary flow chart. Notice that, without the parallelism of data flow, 
the number of execution steps is greater. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 177 



OVERVIEW 



In the figure, processors are con- 
nected to their nearest neighbors in 
three dimensions, for a total of six 
connections. How much of a pro- 
cessor's time is devoted to relaying in- 
formation? It has to be enormous, 
when you realize that the processor 
is not only receiving and transmitting 
but checking the address of the 
packet to see if it should be acted on 
rather than retransmitted. And which 
direction should the processor send 
the packet if it should be sent? If the 
addresses are to a specific processor, 
then the direction can be computed. 
But if the address is to a process on 
some unknown processor, the direc- 
tion must be random. It's conceivable 
that a packet can wander forever in a 
network, looking for its process. 

Communications will of course be 
a large problem in large parallel pro- 
cessors. I believe bus technology will 
be ruled out; how is a single bus go- 



ing to carry the load of a million pro- 
cessors when the communications 
must be sequential? There will be a 
lot of idle processors in a system like 
that. And what kind of circuit switcher 
will be able to handle the millions of 
processor connections at once? 
Moreover, if processors are really in- 
dependent of processes, how will a 
packet-switched message quickly find 
its target process in a vast net of pro- 
cessors? I can imagine the packet 
playing hide-and-seek with its target 
process forever. 

Data and Instruction 
Streams 

Classes of processors arranged ac- 
cording to "streams" follow a conven- 
tion called Flynn's taxonomy, where 
a stream is a flow of either instructions 
or data. This taxonomy consists of 
SISD, SIMD, MISD, and MIMD. SISD 
stands for single-instruction, single- 



PROCESSOR 



PROCESSOR 



PROCESSOR 



BUS 



Figure 4: A bus-connected parallel processor. 





1 






















k 


1 








\ 
















\ 




\ 




















\ 














\ 



Figure 5: A section of a packet-switched parallel processor. Packets of instructions and 
data are passed from one processor to the next. 



data stream computer, which is a von 
Neumann machine. SIMD stands for 
single-instruction, multiple-data 
stream, which is an array processor. 
MISD stands for multiple-instruction, 
single-data stream, which is a pipe- 
lined processor. MIMD stands for 
multiple-instruction, multiple-data 
stream, which is a parallel processor. 
Some people prefer a convention 
called Shore's taxonomy because it 
subdivides the Flynn's array processor 
class. 

Software 

The real problem in parallel process- 
ing is not the hardware but the soft- 
ware. The problem in software, to my 
mind, will not be partitioning applica- 
tions programs into independent 
modules but scheduling those 
modules onto available processors 
and providing communication be- 
tween the modules. These tasks are 
part of the job of an operating system, 
which is responsible for managing the 
resources of the computer. 

The software problem raises a sticky 
point in the whole philosophy of 
multiprocessing. From the beginning 
in multiprocessing, the driving motiva- 
tion has been that if one processor 
can do a certain amount of work, then 
two can do twice as much, and so on. 
The situation is analogous to building 
a house. If you were to build a house 
by yourself in one year, then the job 
should take two people half a year 
and three people one-third of a year. 
And every so often you hear about a 
team of hundreds putting up a house 
in an afternoon. Multiplicity of effort 
is the idea behind some of civiliza- 
tion's great achievements. So, the 
reasoning goes, why not require com- 
puters and microprocessors to work 
in similar harmony? 

Unfortunately, as the software 
shows, there's a problem with this 
idea. First of all, more doesn't always 
mean better. Just as too much 
medicine can harm you. so can too 
many processors actually slow down 
the processing of information. Com- 
munication between processors can 
become a bottleneck, as can all of the 

[continued) 



178 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Compare the 
Hercules Color Card 

to IBMk 

Five reasons why the Hercules Color Card is better. 





1. Compatibility 



IBM Color Adapter $244 

Runs hundreds of graphics 
programs. 



2. Printer port. None. 



3. Size. 



4. Flexibility. 



5. Warranty. 



13.25 inches. Limited to long 
slots. 

Can't always work with a 
Hercules Graphics Card. 



90 days. 



Hercules Color Card $245 

Runs the same hundreds of 
graphics programs. "The 
Hercules Color Card is so nearly 
identical to the IBM Color/ 
Graphics Card that it's almost 
uncanny." PC Mag. 

Standard. Our parallel port 
allows you to hook up to any IBM 
compatible printer. 

5.25 inches. Fits in a long or short 
slot in a PC, XT, AT or Portable. 

Always works with a Hercules 
Graphics Card by means of a 
software switch. 

Two years. 



Any one of these five features is enough reason to buy a Hercules Color Card. But 
perhaps the most convincing reason of all is just how easy the Hercules Color Card is to 
use: "Right out of the box, the Hercules Color Card goes into an empty expansion slot, 
ready for you to plug in . . . and go to work — no jumpers, no software. For most 
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Call 1-800-532-0600 Ext. 421 for the name of the Hercules dealer nearest you and 
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Address: Hercules, 2550 Ninth St, Berkeley, C A 94710 P h : 415 540-6000 Telex: 754063 Trademarks /Owners: Hercules/Hercules Computer Technology; IBM/IBM. 

Inquiry 188 



OVERVIEW 



Crossbar Circuit Switch 



The interconnection problem, in 
one form or another, is a vital part 
of every parallel-processing design. It 
is not enough to postulate the 
existence of "n processors" and ex- 
plain how they will divide up the work 
on some task. The actual interconnec- 
tion scheme used must also be care- 
fully laid out. The failure of most 
parallel-processing algorithms to scale 
well up to implementations involving 
more than a few processors is usually 
attributed to a glut of communications 
overhead. That is another way of say- 
ing that the interconnection scheme 
did not work as planned. 

Spatial Solutions 
to Interconnection 

Historically, the "n by n Space Switch" 
was the first solution to the intercon- 
nection problem. This solution was 
used for decades, in many forms, in the 
telephone industry to interconnect 
callers. Because this method is close- 
ly related to the "crossbar switch," we 
will discuss them both. Neither is used 
in large data-switching installations 
because the complexity of such an im- 
plementation grows as the square of 
the number of devices interconnected. 
For instance, doubling the number of 
devices served would necessitate 
quadrupling the total hardware in- 
volved in the interconnection process, 
as we will see later. 

The basic tenet of the n by n space 
switch method is that if you could run 
a separate wire from each source to 
every destination and then somehow 
switch on only the wires corresponding 
to the connection pattern desired at a 
given point in time, the problem would 
be solved. 

Here are three equivalent forms of 
this basic idea: 

1. There is a separate wire leading 
from each source to every sink. Each 
source continuously transmits all of its 
data onto all wires leading from that 
source. At each sink, there is a large 
switch to select only the wire leading 
to the desired source. 

2. There is a separate wire leading 



by Howard W. Johnson 

from each source to every sink. At each 
data source, place a large switch, which 
will send the output of that data source 
onto one and only one of the wires 
leading from that source. At every sink, 
tie together all of the wires leading to 
that sink in a wired-OR fashion. This 
solution is the opposite of the first 
solution. 

3. Start with a regular square grid of 
n wires running horizontally and n wires 
running vertically (see figure B). At 
each juncture, place a switch that can 
either be open or closed. Start out with 
all the switches open. Next, per- 
manently connect the first source to 
the first horizontal wire, the second 
source to the second wire, and so 
forth, until all the sources have been 
connected. Then connect the sinks one 
at a time to vertical wires, starting with 
the first sink on the left-hand side and 



working to the right. This arrangement 
has traditionally been called the n by 
n space switch. Closing the switch at 
the juncture of the first column and first 
row will connect source 1 to sink I . 

All three methods accomplish virtual- 
ly the same thing. One exception worth 
noting is that in methods 1 and 3 one 
source may be broadcast to several 
sinks, while in method 2 this is impos- 
sible unless the switch is designed to 
permit multiple simultaneous closures. 
1 have seen many small computer in- 
stallations that successfully use either 
method 1 or method 2 for intercon- 
necting terminals to a limited variety 
of computers. 

In all methods, the number of switch- 
ing junctures required is proportional 
to the number of sinks times the 
number of sources. Therefore, for large 
problems it is generally not acceptable. 



S0URCE1 



J 3 j J 



S0URCE2- 



j ,^ j j 



SOURCES- 



SJ 



SJ 



J 
J 

J 



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i — i 



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J 

J 
J 



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T 



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SJ 

SJ 
SJ 



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SINK 1 



SINK 2 



SINK 3 



Figure B: Part of an n by n space switch. This architecture can connect any 
pattern of input to outputs. 



180 B YTE • MAY 1985 



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OVERVIEW 



For instance, a 200 by 200 processor 
array would require, for full flexibility. 
40.000 individual switches, or 200 
switch boxes with 200 switch settings 
each. 

The network can be pared down 
somewhat to limit its complexity, but 
at the expense of a loss in generality. 
A direct method is to assess which 
sources might ever need to be con- 
nected to which sinks and wire only 
those data paths that might ever be 
used. The problem with this approach 
is that one never knows with certainty 
how a particular network will be used, 
so it is difficult to predict which con- 
nections to eliminate. 

In the crossbar method, it is assumed 
that although there are n sources and 
n sinks, only I percentage of them will 
be active at any given moment. This is 
the same sort of traffic-limiting 
assumption used in local-area network 
design. The crossbar method uses a 
cascade of two space switches to 
achieve any interconnection pattern in- 
volving less than n * n total connec- 
tions. The first space switch connects 
the n sources onto a total o;f n % t in- 
termediate wires. The intermediate 
wires are then run into a second space 
switch, which can connect its n * t in- 
puts to arjy of the n sinks. As long as 
there is an intermediate wire available, 
the first section can switch a source Qn 
to it and the second section will for- 
ward that data on to the appropriate 
sink. The total interconnection hard- 
ware is- proportional to the sum of the 
two sections. The ficst section has n in- 
puts and n * t outputs, and the second 
has n * t inputs and n outputs, making 
a total of 2 * n * n * t switches. This 
may be compared to the ft * n switches 
required for a one-stage design. If t is 
less than Vi, then the crossbar design 
is preferable. In office telephone appli- 
cations, t js on the order of ]& so c oss- 
bar switches were used successfully for 
njiany years. Space switches may be 
used in small parallel processors, but 
as the number of processors increases, 
so must the complexity of the switch- 
ing network, until it becomes imprac- 
tical to build such a large space switch. 



other resource-allocating tasks of the 
operating system. 

Hardware Problems 

In large memory banks, the failure of 
a single bit in the memory can be 
detected easily. However, how easy 
will it be to detect a malfunctioning 
processor in a bank of a million 
parallel processors? This disadvan- 
tage of multiprocessing hasn't been 
fully addressed yet because com- 
puters of sufficient complexity haven't 
been built yet. The operating system 
of the parallel processing computer, 
if you can call many independent si- 
multaneously operating programs a 
single operating system, will have to 
be able to tell if its neighbors are act- 
ing all right. This, of course, adds 
overhead that takes away from the ap- 
plications program. 

Controversies 

How do you measure the increase in 
speed of the multiprocessor? A com- 
puter with 10 processsors may ex- 
ecute 10 times as many instructions 
as a computer with a single processor. 
But if 50 percent of those instructions 
are overhead— housekeeping and 
communications instructions— the real 
increase is less than 10 times. 

There is also controversy over how 
to justify the design of multiproces- 
sors. If, for instance, a new and faster 
design requires difficult and slower 
programming time, is the efficiency in 
execution outweighed by the higher 
cost in programming? Interested par- 
ties such as the military are willing to 
pay the cost of programming because 
the goal is worth the additional cost. 

Conclusion 

There's not much use for a million- 
processor computer in running the 
kind of programs we microcomputer 
users are most familiar with. After all, 
how many processors do you need to 
move a paragraph? But if the million 
processors edit the paragraph as well 
as move it, then what you have is not 
a faster way to do old things but a 
new way to do new things. And that 
is the promise of multiprocessing, if 
only we should live so long. ■ 





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© 1985 Sony Tape Sales Company, A division of Sony Corporation of America, Sony Drive. Park Ridge. New Jersey 07656. Sony is a registered trademark ol Sony Corporation, Vtvax is a trademark of Sony Corporation. : 

inquiry 371 MAY 1985 '".BYTE 183, 






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MULTIPROCESSING 



EXTENDING 

MICROPROCESSOR 

ARCHITECTURES 



by Gary D. Beals 



Extended-processing units can 
significantly broaden a microprocessors instruction set 



BECAUSE MOST microprocessors are 
designed to meet the widest possible 
range of applications, they use a very 
general purpose set of instructions. 
Unfortunately microprocessors are 
also limited by the size of the silicon 
wafer used to make them. Every in- 
struction takes up "silicon real estate" 
on the chip and must be justified. 
Much time and effort goes into select- 
ing the best possible instruction set 
that uses the least amount of silicon. 

Additional instructions are expen- 
sive in terms of the space used to im- 
plement them because the cost of 
building the central processing unit 
(CPU) is directly linked to the size of 
the chip. The more CPU chips on a 
single silicon wafer, the cheaper CPUs 
will be to manufacture. 

In order to avoid limiting the instruc- 
tion set and still conserve silicon, 
many of the more advanced micro- 
processor designs incorporate 
custom instructions that the user can 
modify. 

Most coprocessors were designed 
to extend the processor instruction 
set by using a separate chip, or 
extended-processing unit (EPU). The 



CPU uses its custom instructions to 
pass information to and from the EPU 
as if it existed on the same chip. This 
means that if specialized instructions 
are not implemented on the CPU but 
are required in a design, an EPU can 
be built to execute those instructions. 
A good example is floating-point 
mathematics instructions, which are 
not required by all microprocessor 
designs but are critical for some. 
Floating-point instructions also tend to 
be very costly in terms of silicon space. 

I ntelr Motorola, National Semicon- 
ductor, and Zilog have implemented 
extended-processing architectures 
(EPAs) on their more advanced CPU 
chips. The devices used to extend the 
CPU are called coprocessors, slave 
processors, and sometimes numeric 
data processors. I will refer to them 
as EPUs. 

1 will focus on four different ex- 
tended-processing architectures and 
discuss their similarities and dif- 
ferences. 

Instruction Templates 

All of the extended-processing archi- 
tectures in this article use an instruc- 



• Inquiry 286 for Dealers. Inquiry 287 for End-Users. 



tion "template" to implement custom 
instructions. This is usually a set of 
reserved op codes identified by the 
CPU as a particular bit pattern at a 
particular location. In the example in 
figure I, an F-line code, or a word thai 
begins with all Is in the most signifi- 
cant bits, is used to decode a 
template instruction. 

The CPU recognizes four Is in bits 
15 though 12 as an EPU instruction 
and allows the user to use the remain- 
ing bits for custom instructions. Of 
course, the extended-processing ar- 
chitecture for each manufacturer 
specifies how the rest of the bits 
should be structured. In some archi- 
tectures, this includes specifying an ID 
code to identify which specific EPU 
should decode the template. This 
allows for multiple EPUs. In figure I, 
the 3-bit ID field allows up to eight 
separate EPUs. 

Once a template instruction has 
been detected by the CPU, it must be 
detected and decoded by the specif- 

[continued) 
Gary D. Beals is a senior field applications 
engineer at Zilog Inc. (Suite 23, 2885 
Aurora Ave., Boulder, CO 80303). 

MAY 1985 'BYTE 185 



MICRO ARCHITECTURES 



ically identified EPU. The most 
popular method is to have the EPU 
directly connected to the address and 
data bus of the CPU and watch for the 
template itself. The EPU takes advan- 
tage of whatever status information 
and timing signals the CPU has to 
offer to allow the EPU to detect the 
template op code at the proper time. 
This tightly coupled system requires 
little or no extra decoding logic. The 
EPU performs all the decoding. 

Another method produces a par- 
ticular status code when a template 
instruction is executed and uses ex- 
ternal hardware to decode a separate 
EPU address space. This requires ad- 
ditional hardware but does not re- 
quire the EPU to do the decoding. 
Either way, the template instruction is 
decoded as an EPU instruction and 
the information is passed to or from 
the EPU. 

The actual information transfer dif- 
fers from one architecture to another, 
but it generally takes one of two 
forms. In the first, the CPU provides 
all the addressing and the EPU takes 
the data and manipulates it in an ap- 
propriate manner. In the second, the 
EPU gets an address from the CPU, 
then takes control of the CPU bus and 
directly accesses memory. 

All of the architectures support the 
first method, some better than others. 
The second method, direct memory 



access (DMA), is supported by the 
CPU itself and is not generally in- 
cluded in an extended-processing ar- 
chitecture. DMA transfers can be use- 
ful for some applications but cause 
the CPU to lose control of the bus. 
This is contrary to the architecture- 
extension idea and can cause some 
problems. 

In short, all of the CPUs mentioned 
here support DMA transfers, although 
DMA transfers may not be part of a 
particular CPU extended-processing 
architecture. 

Software Emulation 

Another requirement for an ex- 
tended-processing architecture is the 
ability to emulate the EPU in software 
if the hardware chip is not present in 
the CPU. 

The EPU trap is a bit in a CPU con- 
trol register that is set if the EPU chip 
hardware is in the system or reset if 
it is not. Any time the CPU uses an 
extended instruction when the bit is 
reset, a software trap is activated. This 
means that the CPU will jump to a 
specific address where software rou- 
tines are located that will emulate the 
EPU instructions. 

The hardware and software are in- 
terchangeable, so they can be used to 
debug each other in the initial design 
or replace each other in the final sys- 
tem, depending on the requirements. 



If there is no provision for a soft- 
ware trap, the designer must know 
before code is compiled or assem- 
bled if an EPU is not in the system. 
A jump instruction replaces each EPU 
instruction, and the software routines 
are placed at the end of the jump. If 
this is not done, the EPU instructions 
become NOPs, or no-operations, and 
do not execute. 

Concurrent Operation 

There are a couple of buzzwords 
associated with EPUs. They are non- 
concurrent, or synchronous, mode, 
and concurrent, or asynchronous, 
mode of operation in an EPU. 

Nonconcurrent mode means that 
the CPU will always wait for the EPU 
before it begins another instruction. 
This could also be called serial execu- 
tion. Concurrent mode, or parallel ex- 
ecution, means that the CPU and EPU 
can be processing simultaneously. 
This has an obvious performance ad- 
vantage over nonconcurrent mode. 
However, if the CPU modifies memory 
before the EPU has a chance to read 
it, or if the EPU modifies memory 
without informing the CPU, synchro- 
nization problems can occur. If the 
CPU is always in control of the bus. 
this does not happen. However, if the 
EPU requires DMA in order to modify 
memory, provisions must be made to 
synchronize the EPU and CPU or pre- 




Figure 1: A sample template for an EPU instruction. The CPU will recognize the pattern of four Is in the high bits as an 
indicator of an EPU instruction (called an "F-line" since a binary 1111 equals F in base 16). The ID field can be used to select 
among eight EPUs, and the remaining bits are available to the EPU designer for custom instructions. 




Figure 2: The format of an Mel 8086/8088 EPU instruction. 



186 BYTE • MAY 1985 



MICRO ARCHITECTURES 



vent one or the other from using in- 
valid data. Forcing temporary noncon- 
current operation in software is one 
way of solving the problem. 

As mentioned, by not allowing DMA 
in concurrent mode, synchronization 
problems are avoided. Another re- 
quirement for concurrent mode is a 
method of determining if the EPU has 
finished execution. This is done with 
either a hardware EPUBUSY line or a 
software register. If a register is used, 
some precautions in software must be 
followed to prevent problems. 

The following sections give more 
detailed information on each manu- 
facturer's extended-processing archi- 
tecture. They are listed in the order in 
which they were first implemented on 
a chip. 

Intel 8086 Coprocessor 
Interface 

The Intel 8086 Coprocessor Interface 
is implemented in the 8086/8088 and 
80186/80188 microprocessors, al- 
though there are slight hardware dif- 
ferences between the implementa- 
tions. The two coprocessors designed 
for this interface are the 8087 numeric 
data coprocessor and the 8089 I/O 
processor. The 80286 has its own co- 
processor interface and a numeric 
data coprocessor, the 80287, de- 
signed for it. 

In the Intel system, the EPU is tied 
directly to the address/data bus, the 
CPU status lines, and the queue status 
lines. It uses the same clock as the 
CPU and also sends busy and inter- 
rupt signals to the CPU. Because the 
8086 has an internal instruction 
queue, the EPU must use the CPU and 
queue status lines to track this queue 
internally in order to decode an EPU 
instruction. 

The 8086 has two prioritized lines, 
rq/gtO and rq/gtl, called request/grant 
lines. These allow two EPUs to request 
the CPU address/data bus. (The num- 
ber is not limited to two, but addi- 
tional hardware is needed to resolve 
EPU priority.) The 8087 and 8089 
have a daisy-chain priority scheme 
that allows them to pass bus control 
to an EPU tied to their request/grant 
(rq/gtl) line. 



Ikble I: 


An example of synchronization using 8087 instructions. 


case 1 


; Unsynchronized 

FISP I 


Synchronized 

FISTP I 




MOV AX, I 


FWAIT 

MOV AX J 


case 2 


FILD I 
MOV 1 ,5 


FILD I 
FWAIT 
MOV 1 ,5 



To execute an EPU instruction, the 
architecture uses an escape code, 
1 10I I. in the most significant bits of 
the instruction. The format for the in- 
struction is shown in figure 2. There 
are 64 memory-reference op codes 
and 51 2 nonmemory-reference op 
codes available. The 8087 uses 57 of 
the memory-reference and 406 of the 
nonmemory-reference op codes. If 
there is a requirement for both a 
custom EPU and an 8087, the de- 
signer should not use any of the 8087 
op codes for the custom device. 

The escape code identifies the 
escape (ESC) instruction, and the 
MOD and R/M bits determine the ad- 
dressing mode used by the 8086. The 
rest of the bits are available for EPU 
instructions. 

If the EPU only needs to read mem- 
ory values of 16 bits or less, the host 
CPU performs all of the necessary ad- 
dressing. The EPU simply latches the 
data value as it appears on the bus 
during the CPU-generated memory 
read cycle. 

To write to memory or read values 
of data greater than 16 bits, the EPU 
must latch the 20-bit address placed 
on the address/data bus during the Tl 
clock cycle. It then becomes bus 
master through the request/grant line 
and operates as a DMA device, ac- 
cessing the memory on its own. 

Because the CPU and EPU can 
operate concurrently when the EPU 
uses direct memory access there is a 
synchronization problem. In other 
words, the EPU can modify memory 
without informing the CPU. This 
means that, with some instructions, 
the CPU must wait to be sure that the 
EPU is finished and that the final value 
has been transferred to or from 



memory. 

The reverse is also true if the CPU 
is loading a value into the EPU that 
is larger than 16 bits. The CPU could 
modify memory before the EPU had 
a chance to read it. To prevent this, 
the WAIT instruction is used. WAIT 
causes the CPU to monitor the EPU 
Busy line and will not allow the CPU 
to continue until the EPU is finished 
processing and accessing memory. 

Intel's numeric data processor ap- 
plication note (reference 1) gives 
several examples of how to avoid syn- 
chronization problems. Synchroniza- 
tion can be done explicitly by the pro- 
grammer, or the compiler can be writ- 
ten to add necessary code automati- 
cally. In the latter case, WAIT instruc- 
tions are automatically inserted after 
every ESC instruction. 

r I&ble I is an example of synchro- 
nization using 8087 instructions. In 
the unsynchronized case I, the CPU 
might move the value of I before the 
EPU could modify it. The FWAIT in- 
struction forces the CPU to wait until 
the EPU is done with the value I. In 
case 2, the CPU could replace the 
value of I with 5 before the EPU could 
read the original value. 

One more problem in the 8086 as- 
sociated with synchronization is 
known as deadlock. This occurs when 
the CPU is executing a WAIT instruc- 
tion and the interrupt path from the 
CPU to the 8087 is broken. If the 8087 
needs to interrupt the CPU for the cur- 
rent instruction, it cannot, and both 
the CPU and the 8087 sit and wait for 
each other. Intel's application note on 
the numeric data processor details 
ways to avoid deadlock. 

There are some special control in- 

[continued) 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 187 



MICRO ARCHITECTURES 



The CPU performs 
all transfers to 
and from the EPU. 



structions in the 8087 that do not re- 
quire synchronization. The 8087 takes 
exclusive control of the memory bus 
and prevents the host CPU from inter- 
fering with the data values. These in- 
structions do not require a WAIT in- 
struction and cannot cause a dead- 
lock. 

The Intel implementation of concur- 
rent processing has some drawbacks, 
but they can generally be taken care 
of by the compiler or assembler. The 
user can either implement concur- 
rency for improved performance or 
remove it by adding a WAIT after 
every EPU instruction. Concurrency's 
major advantage is its inherent per- 
formance improvement when both 
the CPU and the EPU operate in 
parallel. 

If there is no EPU in the system, the 
host will execute an ESC instruction 
as if it were an NOR Although an ad- 
dress is output, the data returned is 
ignored. This ensures that the CPU 
will continue to execute the program 
if the EPU is not there. It also means 
that the EPU instructions will be ig- 
nored. 

Because there is no trap mechanism 
in the EPU architecture for the 8086/ 
8088 and 80186/80188, a decision 
must be made at compile or assembly 
time whether to use a hardware EPU 
or to emulate the function in software. 
Emulation software for the 8087 is 
available from Intel. The 80286 does 
implement an EPU software trap. 

Zilog Extended-Processing 
Architecture 

The Zilog extended-processing archi- 
tecture is supported on the Z8000, 
the Z800, and the Z80000 CPUs. Zilog 
has implemented an extended-pro- 
cessing architecture with templates 
for the custom instructions and a soft- 
ware trap available in case the EPU 
hardware is not in the system. The first 



Zilog EPU is the Z8070 arithmetic pro- 
cessing unit (APU). 

The Zilog architecture does not con- 
sider memory management an EPU 
function. The Z8000 implemented 
memory management is in a separate 
privileged I/O space, and the Z800 
and Z80000 have memory manage- 
ment on chip. Some of the memory- 
management provisions and excep- 
tion handling of other architectures 
are therefore not required. 

The general instruction template 
format is illustrated in figure 3. The 
first word of the instruction contains 
a code that identifies it as an EPU in- 
struction and mode information 
about the data-transfer direction. It 
also has a 2-bit field defining which 
of four EPUs will decode the instruc- 
tion. The blank areas in the template 
are available for custom EPU instruc- 
tions. The n- I value means that up 
to \6n words or bytes of data will be 
transferred. The transfers can take ad- 
vantage of the 3 2 -bit bus of the 
Z80000 by transferring two 16-bit 
words at a time. 

Templates include EPU to memory, 
memory to EPU, EPU to CPU, CPU to 
EPU, FCW (flag and control word) to 
EPU, FCW from EPU, and EPU inter- 
nal operation. 

The templates include all of the 
transfers shown above. This allows the 
designer to implement memory trans- 
fers, EPU to CPU communications, 
flag test and branch instructions, and 
internal EPU calculations. Figure 4 
shows some sample Z8070 APU in- 
structions. Note that they follow the 
templates exactly and that only the 
blank area of the template is used 
specifically for the custom instruction. 

The EPU operates by sitting on the 
address/data bus and watching the in- 
struction stream. When it sees a bit 
pattern that it recognizes as an EPU 
instruction, it will decode it and act 
accordingly. The EPU uses the CPU 
status lines in order to determine 
when to look for its instruction 
templates. 

To allow concurrent operation, the 
EPU does not do any addressing or 
data passing on its own. The CPU is 
in control of the bus and provides all 



of the address information to the 
memory and EPU. This means that 
within this extended-processing archi- 
tecture, the EPU cannot operate on its 
own. It also means that the CPU can 
respond to interrupts and bus re- 
quests and continue to execute other 
instructions while the EPU is operat- 
ing on the data. As long as the CPU 
does not request data from the EPU 
before it is ready, the CPU continues 
to operate normally. 

If the CPU tries to use an EPU that 
is busy, in most cases the EPU will re- 
spond by temporarily halting the CPU 
until it finishes its current tasks. This 
is taken care of by a line coming from 
the EPU called EPUBUSY. On the 
Z8000, the CPU STOP pin is con- 
nected to EPUBUSY, and the pro- 
cessor can continue only when the 
EPU comes free or a CPU reset oc- 
curs. The Z800 has a PAUSE pin that 
should be connected to EPUBUSY. A 
PAUSEd Z800 can continue to re- 
spond to refresh requests, bus re- 
quests, and CPU resets. 

The Z80000 CPU samples the 
EPUBUSY line, and although it cannot 
execute instructions, it can accept bus 
requests and interrupts. If an interrupt 
or bus request occurs, the CPU saves 
the address of the extended instruc- 
tion. The Z80000 also has an EPU 
Overlap Mode Bit, which can be set 
or reset by software to enable or dis- 
able concurrent operation. This is 
useful for debugging. 

Because the CPU performs all trans- 
fers to and from the EPU, all transac- 
tions are done at the maximum CPU 
memory bus speeds. The EPU can 
also take advantage of any special 
transfer modes in the CPU, such as 
"burst mode." Burst mode means that 
if a single burst memory location is 
addressed, several data transfers can 
be made from consecutive addresses. 
For example, the CPU could send one 
address to the memory, and the 
memory would transfer back several 
consecutive words of data, as op- 
posed to one word of data, for each 
address. This requires added intelli- 
gence in the memory and is taken ad- 
vantage of by the Z80000 and Z800. 

[continued) 



188 BYTE • MAY 1985 




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our CP/M print spooler, you can implement a print buffer 
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Another thing about disk emulators. Unless they're from 
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backup disk in the sky. But our Battery Backup Units keep 
SemiDisk data flying high while your computer is off, and up to 10 
hours during a complete blackout. 



So remember this: SemiDisk Systems has been building 
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Inquiry 35 5 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 189 



MICRO ARCHITECTURES 



b15 



bO 



mode 
i 








1 


1 


1 




type dependent 


mode 
i 


ID 
i 


i 

i 


blank 








*** 




i i i 

blank 
i i i 


i 

n-1 

i 


i 

i 


i i i i 

one or two words of addr 
i i i i 


i i 

9SS 

1 1 


i i i 
i i i 


i i i 

1 ! I 



Figure 3: The format of a Zilog EPU instruction. ID selects among four EPUs, n-\ specifies number of words or bytes loaded, 
and *** contains source or destination information. 





(a) 
M5 
























bO 


















1 


1 


1 


1 




R 


s 




1 


1 


i 

ID 
i 




























n- 

i 


I 
-1 

i 




b15 
























bO 









1 








1 


1 


1 


1 














1 


1 


i 
ID 






























n- 


-1 












16-bit 


addre 


ss 












i i 
i i 






b) 
M5 
























bO 


















1 


1 


1 


1 




R 


s 




1 


1 


I 

ID 
( 




1 
















Fs 


















n- 


I 
-1 

i 




b15 
























bO 









1 








1 


1 


1 


1 














1 


1 


i 

ID 
i 




1 
















Fs 


















n- 


-1 












16-bit 


i i 
address 

i i 


' 








i i 
i i 



































Figure 4: [a) A Zilog EPU-to-memory transfer instruction template for indirect register (IR) addressing mode (above) and direct 
addressing (DA) mode [below). Rs is the CPU register used in the IR addressing mode, (b) Actual Z8070 instructions using the 
templates in [a). This is a floating-point number load (FLD) instruction. Fs is the EPU register loaded: n-\ indicates the floating- 
point number's precision—single, double, or double-extended. 



The Z8070 APU will have some 
speed advantages of its own. It will 
have two simultaneous clock speeds, 
one for its bus interface and one for 
its internal operation. This means that 
the APU will operate internally at its 
maximum speed while transferring 
data at a speed that the CPU and 



memory can handle. It also will allow 
the CPU to load data while the APU 
is executing instructions. This feature 
is very handy for matrix calculations 
and speeds up the total execution 
time. 

The Z8070 also will have four 
separate interfaces, which are select- 



able by two input lines. These include 
the Z8000, Z80000, and Z800 as well 
as a universal interface. The universal 
interface makes the Z8070 look like 
a peripheral on the CPU bus. The 
Z8070 is not yet available, although 
it should be out in 1985. 

[continued] 



190 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Princeton Graphic Systems 

and Sigma Designs team up to 

give you a brighter, sharper display. 



SR-12 and Color 400. A brilliant 
combination for super-high reso 
lution graphics and a crisp 
character display. For a brighter, 
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all your IBM PC- 
compatible soft- 
ware here's a team 
that can't be beat. 
The SR-12 super- 
high resolution RGB 
monitor from 
Princeton Graphic 
Systems and Color 
400, the advanced color 
graphics adapter card from 
Sigma Designs. 

Snap in Color 400. Begin by 
snapping Color 400 in to your IBM 
PC, XT, or AT. No switches to 
set, No cables to con- 
fuse. Color 400 gives 
you a razor sharp 640 
x 400 display. It 

automatically doubles the 

number of lines on standard 200 
. line software. Watch your 
<mL im 9 ra P hics come to life. Enjoy fully 

Mm J formed, monochrome-quality 
W^KF ^fP characters in text mode. Just 
turn on your PC and tune in a whole new world 
of vibrant color. 





Turn on SR-12 for the impressive 
results. The SR-12 displays your Color 
400 image with unmatched clarity and 
brilliant color. Because the SR-12 
combines a .31mm dot 
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you get a f lickerless 
image that's as crisp 
and clean as a per- 
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can produce. 

See how impressive 
this state-of-the art image 
can be on your own PC 
system. Visit your local 
retailer today and ask 
about this new color graphics 
team. Princeton Graphic System's 
SR-12 and Sigma Designs' Color 400. 
An unmatched, brilliant combination. 



Color 400 





C^ SIGMA 
^W DESIGNS 

SK3MA DESIGNS, INC., 2023 OToote Avenue, San Jose, CA 95131 
(408)943-9480 Telex: 171240 



P RINCETON 

GRAPHIC SYSTEMS 

AIM INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS COMPANY 

Princeton Graphic Systems, 601 Ewing Street, Bldg. A, Princeton, N.J. 08540 
(609) 683-1660, Telex: 821402 PGS PRIN, (800) 221-1490 Ext. 204 



Graphic Screens courtesy Mouse Systems. Inc. and Forthright Systems. Inc. 
IBM PC, PC XT, and PC AT are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. Inc. 



Inquiry 324 



MAY 1985 "BYTE 191 



MICRO ARCHITECTURES 



The Z8000, Z800. and Z80000 all 
have this extended-processing archi- 
tecture implemented in their instruc- 
tion sets. Except as noted on the 
Z80000, they are very similar. Al- 
though the Z8070 APU for floating- 
point math will be the first EPU from 
Zilog, almost any custom chip can be 
designed to work with the EPU archi- 
tecture. 

In addition, the EPU interface can 
be used for non-EPU applications. 



The interface can be used to provide 
a separate workspace outside of 
memory or I/O space and implement 
multiple stacks, slave buffers, or a 
high-speed block-transfer mechanism. 
(See reference 14.) 

National Semiconductors 
Slave Processor Interface 

National Semiconductor has imple- 
mented an extended-processing ar- 
chitecture for the Series 32000 micro- 



processor family. It is designed to sup- 
port floating-point operations, mem- 
ory management, and custom proces- 
sors. In addition, it will allow compat- 
ibility with a later version device, 
which will integrate some or all of the 
functions on one chip when the tech- 
nology is feasible. 

National refers to its EPU as a "slave" 
processor because the host CPU per- 
forms all addressing and data trans- 

[continued) 



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Inquiry 65 



RamTape-PC. 

Because backups 

should do more 

than just 
take,take,take. 



PRESENTS 



RAMTAPE PC - FEATURES 



1. FILE OR I MACE BACKUP 

2. FAST ACCESS RAM DISK 

3. 32 DISKETTES ON TAPE 



' 







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\- [' y \ 




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Store the contents of 32 double-sided 
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4D north iitliintic 

Qantex 



Inquiry 332 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 193 



MICRO ARCHITECTURES 





b23 








b8 






i i i i . i i i i i i i i i i i 

operations word 
i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 






b7 




bO 


ID byte 


• 






i i 
format 
i i 


1 





1 


1 




















Figure 5: The format of a National Semiconductor Series 32000 microprocessor EPU instruction. 



Tkble 2: 


The National EPA protocol 


Step 


Status 


Action 


1 


1111 


CPU sends ID byte 


2 


1101 


CPU sends operation word 


3 


1101 


CPU sends required operands 


4 


— 


EPU starts execution; CPU 
prefetches 


5 


— 


EPU pulses AT/SPC low 


6 


1110 


CPU reads status word 


7 


1101 


CPU reads results, if any 



fers. The EPU sits on the address/data 
bus and watches for the ID byte that 
identifies an EPU instruction, the 
operand word format, and (in case of 
a multi-EPU system) which EPU will 
manipulate the data. The host CPU 
routes the data to the specified EPU, 
and the EPU then performs whatever 
action the instruction specified. Each 
instruction consists of 24 bits— the ID 
byte and an operation word that spec- 
ifies size and number of operands, ad- 
dressing modes, and the type of oper- 
ation (see figure 5). 

The 32032 CPU contains 3 bits in its 
configuration (CFG) register that cor- 
respond to custom (C). memory-man- 
agement (M), and floating-point (F) 
EPUs. The bits are set on initialization 
of the CPU, using the SETCFG com- 
mand. If EPU hardware is in the sys- 
tem, the appropriate bit should be set 
and the EPU instructions will execute. 
If the bit is reset, an EPU instruction 
will trap to a software routine. 

In order to maintain software com- 
patibility with a future device, which 
could integrate memory-management 
and floating-point math functions on 
a single chip, National has specified 
both floating-point and memory-man- 
agement operation codes in its in- 



struction set. These instructions each 
have separate ID byte codes. 

National also specifies a set of 
custom EPU instructions, including 
those to calculate, move, compare, 
convert, and load and store status 
registers. Three privileged instructions 
can be executed only in supervisor 
mode: test, and custom register load 
and store. The designer can specify 
the op codes and data types for these 
instructions in the operand word. 
Operand transfers can use any of the 
addressing modes. 

The actual EPA protocol uses the 
host CPU status lines and a line called 
slave processor control (AT/SPC). Four 
status codes are used for the 
protocol: 

Send ID IlII 

Xf er operand 1 1 1 

Read status 1 1 1 

Waiting for EPU 00 1 1 

The AT/SPC line is bidirectional and 
pulsed low for transactions. 

The EPA protocol shown in table 2 
is documented in reference 8. In step 
I , the CPU starts to execute an EPU 
instruction and outputs the ID byte on 
the address/data bus and status 1 1 1 1 
on the status lines. The EPUs decode 



the ID, and only the appropriate EPU 
continues to talk to the CPU. In step 
2, the CPU outputs the operand word, 
with HOI on the status lines. 

At this point, both the CPU and the 
EPU have decoded the operand word, 
and the CPU transfers as many 
operands as were specified, with 1101 
on the status lines. Once all the 
operands are transferred, the EPU 
begins execution, signaling this by 
pulsing the AT/SPC line. 

The CPU can continue to fetch in- 
structions into the 8-byte prefetch 
until it is filled. At that point, the CPU 
waits for the EPU to finish and places 
001 1 (waiting for EPU) on the status 
lines. The CPU and EPU do not ex- 
ecute concurrently. 

When the EPU is finished or wants 
to communicate with the CPU, it will 
pulse the AT/SPC line and the CPU will 
read a status word in the EPU by plac- 
ing 1 1 10 on the status lines. The status 
word contains a number of flags set 
depending on the results of the EPU's 
operations, including a Q flag that in- 
dicates an error detected by the EPU. 

In the last step of the protocol, the 
CPU transfers any results from the 
EPU to their destinations and places 
1101 on the status lines. There are two 
exceptions to this protocol: the load- 
memory-management-register (LMR) 
and the load-custom-register (LCR) in- 
structions. These are direct transfer in- 
structions and do not require any 
acknowledgment or status informa- 
tion from the EPU. 

Motorola Coprocessor 
Interface 

The Motorola Coprocessor Interface 
is implemented in the recently re- 

[continued] 



194 BYTE • MAY 1985 



NOW THAT THE PC FAD IS OVER, 
IT'S TIME TO GET DOWN TO BUSINESS. 



Like hordes of locusts, the PC swept 
the business community. Corpora- 
tions bought them like electronic 
calculators by the thousands to improve 
the productivity of their executives. 
Portables were carried home from the of- 
fice every evening and on trips. Com- 
puterization was even affordable to the 
small business for the first time. Pro- 
grammers put their unique genius to 
work to develop some of the best soft- 
ware ever written. Productivity tools like 
word processing, electronic spread 
sheets, data base management and ac- 
counting was placed into the hands of 
new computer users. Productivity im- 
proved for everyone. From the 
CEO . . . tohis staff. . . to the salesman 
... to his secretary. Forecasts for con- 
tinued PC growth were nothing but 
highly optimistic. One at every desk. 
One in every home. What happened? 

"Networking won't solve the 
multiuser problem either economi- 
cally or functionally" 

Like the first crust of any 
marketplace it saturated quickly. Those 
that are the first to buy almost anything 
new and promising, bought. There are 
no more computer hackers and hobbyists 
to sell to. They all have one. Applications 
for the home that made any sense didn't 
develop. Corporations found that they 
needed PCs to "talk" to each other. That 
solution is distant because networking 
won't solve the problem either 
economically or functionally. Most 
available networking does nothing more 
than messenger floppies around. The 
small business found that as soon as its 
first PC was operational and productive, 
a second one was needed to satisfy de- 
mand usage. The PC, with all its pro- 
mises, turned out to be a dead end for the 
business environment. The PC and 
clones just haven't been the godsend for 
business that was predicted. Why? 

The PC is a personal computer. Just 
that. Not a business computer. That's 
because PCs are single user computers 
with single user software. Good for one 
person but not good enough for a whole 
company. Even if the company is two 
people. 

Every computerized business has 
someone entering information while 
someone else is looking up information. 



That's two users. And every business has 
more than two users who need access to 
the computer. That's a multiuser com- 
puter environment. 

"The small business needs a 
second PC as soon as the first one 
is working!' 

It's now hard to justify PCs in a 
business environment. A multiuser com- 
puter capable of supporting up to five 
users is available for the price of a single 
IBM PC XT. It has more storage and a 
business oriented operating system. 
Supermicros are available that have the 
power of minicomputers without the ac- 
companying price tag. Ten unconnected 
PCs, sitting around worth about 
$50,000, doesn't make sense when for 
much less you can get a lot more com- 
puting power in a supermicro that ac- 
commodates 20 or more users. But don't 
let even that price tag scare you. On a per 
user basis, multiuser computers cost 
about $1500 less than a PC. New users 
can be added for less than $600 with a 
dumb terminal. And they're upgradable. 



"A six port multiuser computer is 
now available for the price of a 
single IBM PC XT . . . micro- 
computer systems cost $1500 less 
per user than multiple PCs! } 

Multiuser computers communicate 
with each other. They share the same 
database, software and peripherals. They 
have sophisticated business features such 
as record locking, user accounting priv- 
ilege levels and system security. They are 
business oriented and priced well within 
the reach of the first time computer user. 

But what about all the PCs already 
in place? Don't ask the PC manufacturer 
for a solution. They're concentrating on 
selling more single user systems. The real 
solution is to get started with a true 
multiuser computer in the first place. 
With multiuser business computers now 
in the same price range as a PC, it doesn't 
cost any more to make the first step the 
right step. 

The PC has seeded the next wave. 
It's here now. Supermicro multiuser 
computers that can support up to 32 



users. If you don't believe it just look at 
the new product introductions from 
IBM, DEC and AT&T, let alone the 
smaller companies like Altos, Plexus and 
IBC. Big system features for every end 
user. Software for every conceivable 
specialized business application. That's 
not the end of it. New challenges are 
there for everyone. Opportunities 
abound. Software companies are already 
applying their talents to multiuser 
operating systems, disk conversion and 
even more powerful and productive soft- 
ware. Companies are shifting their em- 
phasis to provide multiuser system 
enhancements as they did for the PC. 
Value added resellers and specialist 
dealers will give the end user the support 
that's been terribly lacking from depart- 
ment store retailers. It's a great day for 
someone who needs a multiuser com- 
puter. And everyone does. 

"Multiuser computers share every- 
thing . . . they have business 
features such as record locking, 
user accounting, privilege levels 
and system security!' 

Thanks PC! You've whetted the 
appetite of a large new business environ- 
ment for computerization. One that is 
bigger, more demanding, and more so- 
phisticated than we've ever seen before. 
There's no turning back now. You were 
a fad, but now it's time to get down to 
business . . . multiuser business. 



Randy L. Rogers 
President and CEO 
IBC/Integrated Business Computers 
Manufacturer of Multiuser Computers 
Chatsworth, California. 



Inquiry 194 for Dealers. Inquiry 195 for End-Users. 



MAY 1985 'BYTE 195 



MICRO ARCHITECTURES 





b15 












bO 






1 


1 


1 


1 


i i 
ID 

i i 


i i 

type 
i i 


i i i i i 

type dependent 
i i i i i 






v 




















F-line 







Figure 6: The format of a Motorola EPU instruction for the 68020 microprocessor. "Type' and "type dependent" are defined for 
each specific instruction. 



Table 3: The II 


registers in the Motorola EPU architecture register space. 


Register 


Description 


Response 


16-bit, used by the EPU to request action 


Control 


16-bit, used to acknowledge or abort an EPU instruction 


Save 


16-bit, used to initiate save operation 


Restore 


16-bit, used to initiate restore operation 


Operation 


16-bit, saves EPU operation word 


Command 


16-bit, used for general instructions 


Condition 


16-bit, used for branch and conditional instructions 


Operand 


32-bit, passes data operands 


Register 


optional, used for register primitives 


Instruction 


optional, instruction address 


Operand Address 


optional, operand address 



leased 68020 32-bit microprocessor. 
It is not implemented in the 68010, 
68012, 68000, or 68008, but a soft- 
ware trap is available in those pro- 
cessors to allow software emulation 
of the coprocessor instructions. 

In the Motorola system, the EPU is 
a peripheral on the bus but operates 
in the CPU address space. An EPU in- 
struction will automatically access this 
address space by producing the 
status code 111 on the processor 
status lines. Decoding logic is re- 
quired to recognize the status 1 1 1 and 
differentiate among up to eight EPUs. 
r IVo of the eight EPU identity codes 
are reserved for user-definition; one 
specifies the 68851 Paged Memory- 
Management Unit, and one is for the 
68881 Floating Point Coprocessor. 
The remaining four are reserved by 
Motorola. The EPU must also decode 
address lines A4 through A0 to 
specify the register set. 

Externally, the 32 bits of address are 
as follows: 

A31-A20 xxx Don't care 
AI9-AI6 0010 EPU operation 
A15-A13 ID EPU identity 



A12-A5 0..0 Operation as an 

EPU 
A4-A0 R EPU register 

In addition to the status lines in- 
dicating a CPU space access, address 
bits A19-A16 define an EPU opera- 
tion. Bits Al 5-AI3 define which EPU, 
and A4 through A0 tell which register 
(specified in the EPU architecture). 
The first 16 bits of each instruction are 
shown in figure 6. 

The CPU recognizes an EPU instruc- 
tion in the microcode and will go to 
supervisor, or privileged, mode. The 
68020 will then produce the status 
code 1 1 1 and expect to receive a data 
transfer and size acknowledge signal 
(DSACKx) if there is an EPU resident 
in the system. If no acknowledgment 
is received, a bus error occurs. The 
CPU then generates a software trap 
and jumps to a specific address where 
the EPU function can be emulated in 
software. This trap is completely auto- 
matic and does not require any 
system-initialization software. 

The EPU instruction set is defined 
by the "type" code in the EPU instruc- 
tion. This 3-bit code defines eight dif- 



ferent instruction formats, including 
the following: 

• general instructions that are used 
for passing EPU specific commands 
in a template format 

• conditional and branch instructions, 
including word and long word branch- 
es, set conditional and decrement- 
and-branch conditional, and trap con- 
ditional instructions 

• save and restore instructions to save 
and restore the internal state frame of 
the EPU, a variable size block of 
status, or other information in the 
EPU on demand (see reference 9 for 
further information) 

The EPU architecture specifies 1 1 
registers in the register space, 8 of 
which are required by the EPU in- 
structions. r teble 3 lists the 1 1 registers. 

There are also 18 EPU primitives, or 
responses and commands, passed 
from the EPU to the CPU. These in- 
clude exception handling, synchroni- 
zation, instruction stream manipula- 
tion, and operand and register trans- 
fer. These primitives use the response 
register to talk to the CPU. 

The transfer of operands to and 
from memory and between the CPU 
and EPU is made using the operand 
register. CPU and EPU transfers sim- 
ply read and write to the operand 
register. Memory and EPU transfers 
require that the operand pass through 
a temporary register in the CPU and 
use the CPU to EPU transfer. If the 
EPU has DMA capability, it can trans- 
fer data directly to and from memory 
after first taking control of the mem- 
ory bus. 

In addition, the instruction stream 
manipulation primitive allows a kind 
of block move; up to 2 56 bytes can 
be transferred to and from memory 

[continued) 



196 BYTE • MAY 1985 




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In 



9 



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Inquiry 247 



MICRO ARCHITECTURES 



with a single instruction. 

The architecture is designed to sup- 
port nonconcurrent operation and 
does not address the synchronization 
problems of a concurrent system. 
However, some concurrent extensions 
are provided. For example, although 
there is no hardware "busy" line from 
the EPU, the CPU can monitor the 
response register to determine if the 
EPU has finished executing. Of course, 
this requires some provisions in soft- 
ware for full implementation. 

The architecture also covers excep- 
tion handling of protocol violations, 
illegal instructions, bus errors, reset, 
and trace instruction execution on the 
main processor. These are generally 
handled by using the DSACKx signals 
and the trap mechanism of the 68020. 

Conclusion 

It is only fair to note that the architec- 
ture that has the most problems was 
also the first implementation. The 
Intel 8086/8088 architecture is the 
most primitive and the least general 
purpose. It does support some con- 
current operation, but not easily. 
However, some of the problems have 
been addressed on the 80286, includ- 
ing a software-trap provision. 

The Zilog architecture is general 
purpose enough for custom applica- 
tions but also tightly coupled to allow 
high performance. Placing the EPU on 
the address/data bus with its own 
decoding capability allows a very 
transparent operation, with a mini- 
mum of external hardware. This does 



require that any custom EPUs have 
some intelligence. In addition, it is the 
only architecture that supports true 
concurrent processing transparently. 

The National implementation was 
designed to allow later integration of 
its EPUs on the same chip with the 
CPU without requiring software modi- 
fication. It specifies three separate 
sets of EPU instructions, including 
floating-point, memory-management, 
and custom. The design, which is also 
tightly coupled with the CPU bus, re- 
quires fairly intelligent EPUs. The ar- 
chitecture does not support concur- 
rent operation. 

Motorola has the most elaborate set 
of instructions, including compare and 
branch instructions and a general- 
purpose instruction. It is probably 
also the most general purpose of the 
four architectures, because it uses a 
separate address space and does not 
place many requirements on the EPU. 
It is not as tightly coupled with the 
CPU and lacks hardware definitions. 
Introduced on the 68020, it is not im- 
plemented on any other CPU. al- 
though Motorola notes that it can be 
emulated in software. It does not 
directly support concurrent opera- 
tion. 

Extended-processing architectures, 
in their various forms, serve to extend 
a general-purpose processor instruc- 
tion set for specialized applications. 
Many newer EPAs offer both trans- 
parency and concurrency; strong 
trends toward these features can be 
expected in future development. ■ 



REFERENCES 

1. Intel Microsystem Components Handbook, Vol. 

1. Santa Clara, CA: Intel Corporation, 1984. 

2. Intel iAPX 86/88, 186/188 User's Manual, 
programmer's reference. Santa Clara, CA: 
Intel Corporation, 1983. 

3. Zilog 1983/84 Components Data Book. 
Campbell, CA: Zilog Inc., 1983. 

4. Zilog Z8000 CPU Technical Manual. Camp- 
bell, CA: Zilog Inc., January 1983. 

5. Zilog Z80.000 CPU Preliminary Technical 
Manual. Campbell, CA: Zilog Inc., 
September 1984. 

6. Zilog Z8070 Z8000 Floating-Point Emula- 
tion Package, user's manual. Campbell, CA: 
Zilog Inc., March 1983. 

7. NS 16000 Databook. Santa Clara, CA: Na- 
tional Semiconductor Corporation, 1983. 

8. NS32032-6, NS32032-10 High-Performance 
Microprocessors, preliminary product 
specification. Santa Clara, CA: National 
Semiconductor Corporation, February 
1984. 

9. Motorola MC68020 3 2 -bit Microprocessor 
User's Manual. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 
Prentice-Hall, 1984. 

10. Groepler, Paul R, and James Kennedy. 
"The MC68020 32-bit Microprocessor." 
BYTE, November 1984. page 159. 

11. Simington, R. B. "The Intel 8087 
Numerics Processor Extension." BYTE, 
April 1983. page 154. 

12. MacGregor, Doug, Dave Mothersole, 
and Bill Moyer. "The Motorola MC68020:' 
IEEE Micro. Volume 4. No. 4, August 1984, 
page 101. 

13. Huntsman, Clayton, and Duane 
Cawthron. "The MC68881 Floating-Point 
Coprocessor." IEEE Micro. Volume 3, No. 
6, December 1983, page 44. 

14. McMahon, Steve. "Extended Process- 
ing Units Expand Microprocessor Com- 
puting Power." EDN. Volume 24, Issue 24, 
November 29. 1984, page 139. 



THE 



$2395 DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 



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Up to 128K bytes of EMULATION ROM 
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The powerful BUS STATE ANALYZER 
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198 BYTE • MAY 1985 



PROM PROGRAMMER also doubles 
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Inquiry 303 



INTRODUCING ANTHROCART. 

WORKSPACE FOR THE HUMAN RACE. 

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IE IT AIL TOGETHER 

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MATRIX PRINTER ^^^^^^ PLOTTER 
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PRINTER PERSONAL COMPUTER 



LASER PRINTER 



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Connect ports together. Broad- 
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200 BYTE- MAY 1985 



Inquiry 418 



MULTIPROCESSING 



APPLYING DATA 
FLOW IN THE 
REAL WORLD 



by William Gerhard Paseman 



This model for parallel processing is finding its way 
into commercial applications 



VON NEUMANN MACHINES support 
a paradigm, a way of thought, that has 
been used successfully for 3 5 years. 
(See the text box entitled "The Von 
Neumann Paradigm" on page 214.) In 
a world in which thousands of PCs are 
sold in a month, the von Neumann 
computational model is not going to 
be replaced by an alternate model 
any time soon. However, valid reasons 
exist for using architectures based on 
alternatives to the von Neumann 
model of computation. 

One reason is that many algorithms 
perform better and more inexpensive- 
ly on other architectures than on von 
Neumann machines. It is not simply 
raw horsepower that produces this 
performance increase; it is horse- 
power that is tailored to the opera- 
tions that the algorithm uses. Algo- 
rithms that can be expressed easily 
and coherently using the set of opera- 
tions that the architecture provides 
usually perform better than those that 
cannot. 

When algorithms and architectures 
mesh well together, we say that the 
architecture supports the algorithm. 
When an architecture makes imple- 



mentation of the algorithm feasible, 
but not convenient, we say that the ar- 
chitecture weakly supports the algo- 
rithm. The better the mesh between 
the two, the better the price/perfor- 
mance ratio of the combination will 
be. 

The von Neumann paradigm sup- 
ports many algorithms well and weak- 
ly supports others. In this article, we 
will briefly review the relationship be- 
tween several non-von Neumann par- 
adigms then examine one non-von 
Neumann paradigm, data flow, in 
detail. Finally, we will look at some 
commercial architectures that support 
this model. 

Why We Should Care 
About Parallelism 

There are many ways to decrease the 
time an algorithm takes to complete 
on a given processor. If the processor 
is a general-purpose computer, one 
good way is to put the part of the 
algorithm that takes the most time 
into hardware. This is called functional 
specialization. An example of this is the 
Z80 1X.1Y register instruction set. The 
instructions in this group were added 



to support procedure parameter pass- 
ing. 

Another method of speeding things 
up is to break the algorithm into parts 
and devote a separate processor to 
each part. This type of parallelism is 
called functional decomposition. It works 
well only if the processors have the 
work divided evenly among them. If 
the work is not divided evenly, one 
processor will become a bottleneck. 

Finally, you can break the algo- 
rithm's input data into parts and have 
a set of identical processors handle 
each part. This type of parallelism will 
not work on all algorithms. 

Of course, all these methods poten- 
tially can be used at the same time. 
Functional specialization usually pro- 
vides the greatest speedup; however, 
that speedup usually is very special- 
ized. Parallelism provides less speed- 
up, but it is applicable to a broader 
range of problems. 

Computer architectures that effec- 

{continued) 
William Gerhard Paseman is a software 
manager at Daisy Systems. He can be reached 
at 330 Sierra Vista, Apt. #3, Mountain 
View, CA 94043. 

MAY 1985 -BYTE 201 



APPLYING DATA FLOW 



tively use processor parallelism 
possess linear price/performance 
curves over a wide performance 
range. For example, if a given algo- 
rithm takes 4 minutes to complete 
with $1000 worth of fifth-generation 
hardware, then it should take 2 
minutes to complete with $2000 
worth of hardware and I minute to 
complete with $4000 worth of hard- 
ware. (See the text box entitled 
"Linear Price/Performance and In- 
cremental Performance," page 212). 
Conventional (von Neumann) com- 
puter architectures do not have linear 
price/performance curves over a wide 
performance range. In order to make 
a conventional computer perform 
general algorithms faster, you don't 
simply add more components. In- 
stead, you make its individual com- 
ponents faster. (There are some 
special cases in which you can im- 
prove performance by adding com- 
ponents; for example, adding more 
memory to a demand-paging environ- 
ment.) Another way of saying this is 
that von Neumann architectures are 



not designed to be scaled over a wide 
range with respect to performance. 

The price/performance relationship 
between the two approaches is illus- 
trated in figure I . The graph indicates 
that von Neumann computer architec- 
tures will experience a performance 
cutoff at some point. This point will 
occur when all the components reach 
the theoretical performance limit of 
the technology upon which they are 
based. 

Parallel architectures will also ex- 
perience a performace cutoff at some 
point. This point will occur when the 
cost of coordinating two pieces of 
work between two components ex- 
ceeds the cost of having one compo- 
nent do both pieces of work. In the 
general case, this point must eventual- 
ly occur regardless of the size or 
speed of the components, regardless 
of the speed of communication, and 
regardless of the complexity of the 
work that the components must do. 

Until they reach the von Neumann 
cutoff, von Neumann machines prob- 
ably will perform better than their 



MIPS 



«• — 5th- GENERATION CUTOFF 
(ADD MIPS BY ADDING HARDWARE ) 



SHADED AREA SHOWS ADVANTAGE 
OF PARALLEL ARCHITECTURES 



+ + 

+ 



(ADD MIPS BY SPEEDING UP HARDWARE ) 

«• — VON NEUMANN CUTOFF * + 



:Sm 



+ - PARALLEL (5th -GENERATION ) MACHINES 
• - SERIAL (VON NEUMANN) MACHINES 



SHADED AREA SHOWS PENALTY 
DUE TO COMMUNICATION OVERHEAD 



PRICE 



DOLLARS 



Figure I: A comparison of the price/performance aspects of serial and parallel 
computing architectures. 



parallel counterparts. This is because 
parallel architectures usually have a 
communication overhead that von 
Neumann architectures lack. 

Models of Computation 
That Support Parallelism 

There are several paradigms for which 
it is currently popular to design paral- 
lel machines. The oldest is the control- 
flow paradigm. 

The control-flow paradigm assumes 
that two or more processors share 
common memory. A control-flow ar- 
chitect usually views algorithmic 
parallelization and processor syn- 
chronization as being the program- 
mer's problem. The architect supports 
the programmer by providing ma- 
chine instructions that allow the pro- 
grammer to do explicit processor syn- 
chronization in his code. Due to the 
wide interface between processes (i.e., 
the common memory), it is easy to 
write poor code that uses the inter- 
face in an undisciplined way. As a 
result, such systems have gotten bad 
press from many in the research 
community. 

Most of the other paradigms are 
based around a weaker, more theo- 
retically tractable concept in which, 
conceptually, memory sharing is not 
required. This concept is called 
message passing. Message-passing 
architectures allow programmers to 
structure their programs into islands 
of computation. These islands pro- 
cess asynchronously and communi- 
cate by passing messages to one 
another. 

The data-flow paradigm is a mes- 
sage-passing model in which each 
island of computation is very small 
and usually performs the same opera- 
tion repetitively on streams of values. 
Data-flow computation is data-driven, 
which means that each island starts 
processing whenever all data neces- 
sary to its computation is available. 

The reduction paradigm is similar to 
the data-flow paradigm, except that a 
strong separation is made between 
the spawning of a computation and 
the computation itself. Here, com- 
putation is demand-driven, which 

[continued) 



202 BYTE * MAY 1985 



MICRO CAP and MICRO LOGIC 
put your engineers on line... 

not in line. Mmim^ 



/vt'xr/ 




How many long unproductive hours 
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MICROCAP: 

Your Analog Solution 

MICROCAP is an interactive analog 
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Opamps, transformers, diodes, and much 
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MICROCAP II lets you be even more 
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MICROLOGIC: 
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MICROLOGIC provides you with a 
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'Typical MICROLOGIC D iagram " 

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MICROCAP and MICROLOGIC are 
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Now, to get on line, call or write today! 

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1021 S. Wolfe Road, Dept. B 
Sunnyvale, CA 94087 
(408)738-4387 

Inquiry 374 



APPLYING DATA FLOW 



means that the requirement for a 
result triggers the island that will 
generate it. 

The Data-flow Paradigm 

The basic concepts of data flow were 
originally developed in the 1960s by 
compiler writers. Compiler writers 
used data-flow graphs to do perfor- 
mance optimization on standard 
serial programs. A data-flow graph is 
a directed graph in which the nodes 
represent primitive functions such as 
addition and subtraction, and the arcs 
represent data dependencies be- 
tween functions. It was realized in the 
early 1970s that if data-flow graphs 
were executed directly, the architec- 
tures that executed them could be 



massively parallel. 

A picture of a data-flow graph for 
the function 3 * [y + F{x) ) is shown 
in figure 2. In this model, nodes are 
viewed as stations in an assembly line. 
The stations are connected by con- 
veyor belts (called arcs). The conveyor 
belts carry containers (tokens) that 
hold contents (values). At each node 
is a person (processor) who operates 
the station's function. When the first 
token hits the F node, the processor 
takes its value, operates on it, and 
passes a new token with the result to 
the + node. As F was processing the 
first value, + could do nothing, since 
it required two tokens in order to 
operate and had only one available. 
Now, however, + has two values: 1 



"y" 




"x" 




THESE ARE "TOKENS"-* o " x3" 
/ , 
o M x2' 


TOKENS LIE ON "ARCS" -» 

"y3 


" o 


hflj «*— NODES PROCESS "VALUES" 


TOKENS HAVE "VALUES"—* 


V 'r\ / 
yi ° v / 






fj -*- ARCS ENTER "NODES" 






1 +- ARCS EXIT "NODES" 

'3" 






\ 1 

(*J <•- NODES CONTAIN "FUNCTIONS" 

1 

ii z n 



Figure 2: A simple data-flow graph of the function z = 3 * (y + F[x)). 




b 



-ASSIGN 
PROCESSOR I 
HERE 
INITIALLY 



ASSIGN 

PROCESSOR II 
HERE 
INITIALLY 

ASSIGN THE 
FIRST FREE 
PROCESSOR 
HERE 



Figure 3: A data-flow graph of the function z = 3 * (y + F(x)) illustrating 
static processor allocation: processors are assigned to nodes at compile time. 



from F and 9 from y, so it adds them 
together and passes a token with the 
result to *. As + was operating on its 
first set of tokens, F was operating on 
its second token. Thus, parallel opera- 
tion is achieved by pipelining values 
through nodes that execute fixed 
functions. 

Data-flow Execution Models 

Normally, a data-flow graph has many 
more nodes than processors. There- 
fore, an execution model, a method 
of allocationg nodes to processors, is 
needed. We will briefly describe two 
models, the static and dynamic 
models of execution. 

Figure 3 depicts the static model, in 
which the processors run to the 
nodes, where all input tokens are 
present and no tokens are on the out- 
put arcs. 

However, this method leads to 
situations like that mentioned above, 
where the + node was bottlenecked 
by the F operation. In order to rec- 
tify this problem, the dynamic model 
was invented. In the dynamic model, 
instead of waiting idle, the processor 
at the + node would help the F pro- 
cessor by processing its second token 
for it. Figure 4 depicts the dynamic 
model. 

Data-flow Architecture 

It is still unclear exactly how to con- 
struct expandable hardware to sup- 
port any of the above execution 
models. 

One common data-flow architecture 
is shown in figure 5. Here, the data- 
flow machine consists of three 
stages— a matching unit, a fetch/up- 
date unit, and a processing unit 
(perhaps more than one). Let's see 
how these parts interact on the 
previous example. Let's refer to the 
nodes by symbolic name. We will call 
the + node PLUS and the * node 
MUL. At some point in the calcula- 
tion, the matching unit has two tokens 
passed to it by the processing units. 
The first token indicates that the left 
(L) arc of the PLUS node has been set 
to 1 (a). Later, it receives a token in- 
dicating that the right (R) arc of the 

[continued) 



204 BYTE* MAY 1985 




COMPUTERS 



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1 KXPHESS. H 

L© 1 




BB 




r 



Inquiry 175 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 205 



APPLYING DATA FLOW 



PLUS node has been set to 7 (b). The 
match unit knows that PLUS has only 
two inputs, so at this point it sends 
a token set to the fetch/update unit 
for processing (c). The fetch/update 
unit knows that PLUS performs the + 
function and that it fans out to MUL's 
arc L, so it sends this information to 
an arbitrary processing unit (d). The 



processing unit performs the addition 
and sends the result to the match unit 
(e). 

If the system allows more than one 
instantiation of an instruction to be 
active at a time (this would occur if 
the machine were executing the same 
instruction for the i and i+ 1 instantia- 
tions of a loop simultaneously), then 



V 


ASSIGN 


"x" 

o "x3" 
/ 




PROCESSOR 
HERE, 


i / 




/ 


7 


"y3" 


\ 1 


■© Q 


o 


"y 


;,\ / 


/ /| 


i 




D 


ASSIGN 




PROCESSOR II 




"3" 1 


HERE 




\ ' 






o 

" z" 





Figure 4: A data-flow graph of the function z = 3 * {y + F(x)) illustrating 
dynamic processor allocation: processors are assigned to nodes at run time. 



(DATA TOKENS ) 



(a) NODE ARC VALUE 





PROC. 
UNITS 
Pl-Pn 












MATCH 










UNIT 




> 
















FETCH 

UPDATE 

UNIT 














(EXECUTABLE INSTRUCTIONS) 








( SET OF TOKENS ) 








MEMORY 
UNIT 





(b) 



(c) 



PLUS 


L 


10 










PLUS 


R 


7 




NODE 


L R 




PLUS 


10 


7 





FUNC 


L 


R 


FANOUT 


(J ) 


" + '' 


10 


7 


MUL 


L 


(e) 


NODE ARC VALU 


E 




MUL 


L 


17 





Figure 5: An example of data-flow architecture, with packet communication and 
token matching. 



the descriptors must also be tagged 
with a process ID. This is done in a 
dynamic data-flow system. 

Properties of the 
Data-Flow Paradigm 

The data-flow model makes many 
assumptions about the nature of the 
algorithms it runs. Some are: 

• All information needed to execute 
the algorithm must be contained in its 
data-flow graph. That is, the paradigm 
does not use any structures other 
than the data-flow graph in order to 
execute the algorithm that the graph 
represents. The graph is the data-flow 
machine's "machine language" for 
the algorithm. The machine takes ad- 
vantage of the graphical nature of the 
program in order to produce the 
speedup. 

• The algorithm should not have a 
single locus of control. That is, the 
data-flow graph should allow more 
than one node on the graph to be ex- 
ecuted at a time. If the algorithm has 
a single locus of control, it will run 
slower on a data-flow machine than 
on a von Neumann machine (due to 
the communications overhead). 

• The data-flow graph must have a 
high degree of granularity. In other 
words, the graph nodes must contain 
things like + primitives and not "sort" 
primitives. One reason this is impor- 
tant is that graphs with granular 
primitives contain the potential for 
more parallelism. Note that this im- 
plies that the time for a "context 
switch," which is the time for a pro- 
cessor to switch from processing one 
node to processing another, must be 
small. 

• The data-flow graph must have 
locality of effect. This means that the 
nodes do not' fan out to a large 
number of other nodes. This is impor- 
tant, since nonlocality would stress 
the communication network of the 
data-flow machine. 

These assumptions can be used to 
judge whether or not an algorithm 
matches well with the data-flow 
paradigm. If the algorithm to be ex- 
ecuted does not have the above 

[continued) 



206 BYTE • MAY 1985 



A 



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PRODUCT DESIGN DATA 
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BANK FILES 
CREDIT INFORMATION 

Clearly, it's you vs. them. And the time to 
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The Federal Government has spelled out 
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DATA ENCRYPTION SYSTEM 




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Considering how well computer crime 
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Formore information on computer crime 
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rom mmPRACTICAL 
^PERIPHERALS 

31245 La Baya Drive, Westlake Village, CA 91362 • (818) 991-8200 • TWX 910-336-5431 



Inquiry 323 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 207 



Give us your staine 
your filthy dirty 





Aunt Molly's jam 



Regular coffee, two lumps 



Clouds of smoke 





The big chill 



Hot dog mustard 



Tacky white tape 




Potted plant-no pot 





9 
a 



i 



-fti^^Ln. 



Fizzy orange soda 



Cracker crumbs 




One scoop of ice cream 

208 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Sudsy soap bubbles 





Maria's liquid cover 




Lunchcounter ketchup 



~T—r ^ ^-i 



i 



Is* 



I 



Dust (cough-cough) 




Chocolate fingerprints 



d your dog-eared, 
your 










Dry martini, one olive 



Boss's cigar ashes 



Spilled milk 



Dog-eared jacket 






Sunny side up 



Waterbased ink spots 



English breakfast tea 



* Eraser bits 



If it's a Polaroid 
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"Perfect Data"™ of Perfect Data Corp. 

Inquiry 447 



Polaroid 



PerfectData 



THE PROFESSIONAL QUALITY DISKETTE IN THE GRAY BOX. 



©1985 Polaroid Corp. 

MAY 1985 -BYTE 209 



TRiDk 

^±M t C R 




One Board... 
One Family 



At the heart of every Stride 400 Series micro- 
computer, from the floppy-based 420 to the 
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CBASIC 

Modula-2 

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p-System 



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t A? / C & O 

Formerly Sage Computer 

For more information on Stride or 
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Corporate Offices: 
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Regional Offices: 
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Dallas: (214) 392-7070 



APPLYING DATA FLOW 



properties, then the data-flow model 
is not the one to use to execute it. 

Commercial Possibilities 
of Data Flow- 
Texas Instruments 

Texas Instruments was one of the first 
companies to investigate the viability 
of data flow all the way to the hard- 
ware prototype stage. Tl's research 
was done between 1975 and 1980. 
The company's architecture consisted 
of four "simple processors" and a 
host, connected in a ring architecture. 
Tl has not yet released a commercial 
product based on this research. 

Tl's hardware/software effort was 
called a Data Flow Testbed. The test- 
bed could accept a program written 
in a conventional programming lan- 
guage, compile it, link it, and automat- 
ically partition it to run on any 
number of processors. The people at 
Tl did this in a relatively straightfor- 
ward way. They took an existing com- 
mercial compiler/linker that generated 
data-flow graphs in its optimization 
phase. If the resulting graph com- 
pletely described the algorithm, they 
could automatically partition the 
graph onto a number of processors 
and run it. 

Tl recognized that it is currently 
very difficult (i.e., commercially im- 
practical) to generate data-depen- 
dence graphs for most real programs 
written in standard languages. The 
company knew this meant that "pure" 
data-flow processors cannot run stan- 
dard software. Therefore, Tl's system 
used a mixture of data-flow and clas- 
sical control-flow techniques. That is, 
the computer was not a "pure" data- 
flow machine but rather used data- 
flow constructs where appropriate. 

Tl's primary interest was the applica- 
tion of data-flow concepts to large- 
scale machines running standard (un- 
modified) high-level language pro- 
grams. The company investigated 
whether compilers could extract 
enough of the latent parallelism in 
standard programs to produce signifi- 
cant speedup in a data-flow architec- 
ture. One of Tl's most interesting 
results was that the average amount 

[continued] 



210 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 377 



"... innovation, not compatibility is what 
we think microcomputers are all about' 



IT ills is one of a series of design philosophy 
discussions will) Rod Coleman. President 
oj SUide Micro {formerly Sage Cotnpulcr\\ 



RC: When the 68000 micro- 
processor was first introduced, 
many saw it as a minicomputer 
replacement. They rolled up 



a disk drive unit, plugged in a 
bunch of terminals and ported 
a mainframe operating system 
like UNIX™ At Stride, we had a 
completely different perspec- 
tive. We saw the 68000 at the cen- 
ter of a dream MICROcomputer; 
we envisioned (pardon the 
expression) a turbocharged 
Apple™ 

Q: What's the real difference 
between the two approaches? 

RC: It's reflected in both our 
product mix and our design. To 
begin with, price has always 
been a key point. The pioneers 
in the micro world were simply 
not ready to jump from a $2,000 
machine to a $25,000 system 
overnight, leaving behind every- 
thing they'd come to admire 
about micros. That's why the 
price/performance ratio plays 
such a major role in every design 
decision we make. 




Q: Such as? 

RC: When we evaluated local 
area networks for the new Stride 
400 Series we looked at every- 
thing available. From reading the 
press clips, Ethernet™ and 
ARCNET™ looked like the sure 
bets. Upon closer examination, 
we found that OMNI NET™ was 
at least comparable, and some- 
times superior in actual per- 
formance. But when we figured 
in the factor of cost, it was 
suddenly no contest. OMNINET 
uses twisted pair cabling instead 
of expensive coax, and the per 
node cost was so low that we 
could offer the transport hard- 
ware on every system as a 
standard feature. With other LANs, 
this runs $700 to $3000 per 
station! So when you talk price/ 
performance. OMNINET clearly 
emerges as a better solution for 
microcomputer folks. 

Q: Does the same philosophy 
apply to software? 

RC: You bet. I mentioned UNIX 
above as a standard multiuser 
solution for 68000-based sys- 
tems. We agree that UNIX will 
certainly beoneoftheprominent 
multiuser applications, but not 
for everyone. UNIX was designed 
on systems with fast disks and 
slow processors; that's the oppo- 
site of what micros are all 
about. Our approach to multi- 
user is somewhat unique. We 
sought a way to use the tra- 
ditional single user microcom- 
puter operating systems in a 
multiuser mode. Our solution 
was to create a MU.BIOS (multi- 
user basic input/output system) 
that resides below the operating 
system Thus the user continues 
to use familiar software, but can 
also take advantage of the 
multiuser benefits of hardware 
cost-efficiency and software 
features such as shared data. 

Q: Can you give me an example? 

RC Sure. Advanced DB Master™ 
from Stoneware is a leading 
single user DBMS package that 



is popular on a number of sys- 
tems including the IBM™ PC On 
the Sage and Stride 400 Series 
machines, this database is also 
a true multiuser solution with 
complete file and record locking. 
Better yet, the MU.BIOS even 
allows you to combine these 




". . . we sought a way to 

use the traditional 

single user 

microcomputer 

operating systems in a 

multiuser mode!' 

users on a single terminal. That 
means you could have differ- 
ent users residing in foreground/ 
background, accessing each 
with a keystroke. The effect is 
concurrent multitasking. This 
even works with different operat- 
ing systems in residence at 
the same time. For example, 
you could have your favorite 
CP/M-68K editor in the fore- 
ground, while a p-System com- 
piler is cranking away at low 
priority in the background. The 
same holds true in the office 
environment where you can 
switch from a standard word 
processor to a spreadsheet 
instantaneously. The user has the 



ability to set priorities, time 
slicing, access, etc. 

Q: So why are traditional multi- 
user operating systems like 
RM/COS™and UNIX and Idris™ 
on your price list? 

RC: Actually that's another 
of the key ingredients in being 
a leader in microcomputers: 
flexibility. There's no doubt that 
UNIX, or the UNIX-like Idris, 
will be right for many users. And 
RM/COS, for instance, is an 
excellent solution for serious 
business and COBOL customers. 
We actively support these and 10 
other operating systems, adding 
some of our advantages of per- 
formance and price to each one. 
But we're also convinced that 
the ultimate operating system is 
still years in the future, and 
that's why we continue to encour- 
age research and development 
in new environments such as 
Modula-2. LISP and APL Innova- 
tion, not compatibility is what 
we think microcomputers are all 
about. That's why when we 
switched our name from Sage to 
Stride, we made sure there was 
no doubt as to our m 
roots: Sage Computer 
became Stride Micro. 




Formerly Sage Computer 

For more information on Stride or 
the location of the nearest Stride 
Dealer call or write us today. Well 
also send you a free copy of our 
32 page product catalog. 
Corporate Offices: 
4905 Energy Way 
Reno. NV 89502 
(702)322-6868 
Regional Offices: 
Boston: (617)229-6868 
Dallas: (214) 392-7070 



Inquiry 378 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 211 



Inquiry 45 



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APPLYING DATA FLOW 



NEC's chip is 



oriented toward 
image processing. 



of parallelism available in standard 
FORTRAN programs was between 5 
and 20. This meant that the maximum 
theoretical speedup TI could achieve 
(using "off the shelf" hardware) in 
these cases was 5 to 20 times. (Data 
flow can take advantage of parallelism 
only where it exists. If the program- 
mer writes an algorithm so that no 
parallelism can be extracted from it, 
then a data-flow version of the algo- 
rithm will run no faster than a von 
Neumann version of the algorithm.) 
Currently, using high-performance 
hardware in a von Neumann machine 
affords a much greater speedup. 

Nippon Electric Corporation 

Of the three companies discussed 
here, NEC's approach comes closest 
to the pure data-flow paradigm. The 
company's approach is based on a 
single chip that can contain up to 64 



nodes and 12 8 arcs. Systems can in- 
corporate up to 14 of these chips by 
connecting them into a ring in a very 
straightforward way. (It is possible to 
extend the limit beyond 14 chips, but 
the arrangement is much more com- 
plex.) A complete standard system, 
then, could run up to 896 two-input 
nodes distributed across 14 pro- 
cessors. 

NEC's chip is oriented toward image 
processing. In the company's own 
words, "Because the majority of ap- 
plication programs for image process- 
ing execute iterative operations for 
large volumes of data, image-process- 
ing programs are relatively small com- 
pared to general data-processing pro- 
grams." Although NEC's machine has 
a relatively small number of arcs and 
nodes in its system, each node can ex- 
ecute a high-performance operation. 

NEC's initial focus is not on running 
existing high-level language programs 
but rather on running small, easy-to- 
rewrite programs that require high 
performance. That is not to say that 
NEC does not address these issues; 
rather, that the company is first enter- 
ing the market where data flow's 

[continued] 



Linear 

Price/Performance and 

Incremental Performance 



Suppose a salesman sells you a 
processor for $1000 and tells you 
that it will run your favorite program 
in just eight hours. He then tells you 
that due to the marvels of fifth- 
generation computing technology, you 
can bolt in another processor for 
another $1000 and your program will 
run twice as fast. It will now take only 
four hours to complete. You happily 
buy two processors. Still, four hours is 
a long time, so you call your salesman 
and tell him that you want to halve the 
time to two hours. The salesman now 
sells you not one but two more pro- 
cessors in order to do this. You realize 



that for each processor you buy, you 
incrementally increase performance by 
(P+l)/R For one processor, this is 
(1 + 1)/1 = 2x, or a 100 percent speed- 
up. For two processors, this is 
(l+2)/2 = 1.5x,ora 50 percent speed- 
up. For three processors, this is 
(l+3)/3 = 1.33x. or a 33 percent 
speedup. 

This is an extremely attractive situa- 
tion for the salesman, of course, since 
he gets an order of magnitude increase 
in commissions every time you want to 
get an order of magnitude increase in 
performance. It is, of course, not a very 
good situation for you. 



212 BYTE • MAY 1985 




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APPLYING DATA FLOW 



benefits are the strongest. In fact, NEC 
is now working on an integrated sys- 
tem in which to embed its chips. How 
the company approaches system-level 
problems (language definition, trans- 
lation, and debugging) remains to be 
seen. 

In summary, NEC was able to use 
the data-flow model by applying it to 
a domain in which 

• The algorithms are easily expressed 
in terms of a data-flow graph. 

• The algorithms contain a great deal 
of inherent parallelism. 

• The architecture can run small easy- 
to-program algorithms. 

• There is a great need for fast execu- 
tion. (Image processing is computer- 
bound.) 

Daisy Systems Corporation 

Daisy Systems started selling a com- 
mercial data-flow architecture in the 
first quarter of 1984. The company's 
approach is based on a set of board- 
level processors connected in a ring. 
The basic configuration consists of 
three or four processing units plus a 
host processor. The units are capable 
of processing 65.000 to 1,000.000 
nodes, depending on the level of 
modeling. Each node can have up to 
2 56 inputs. 



Daisy Systems' data-flow architec- 
ture is the first to respond to the 
customer's need for high-speed 
discrete logic simulation. In essence, 
a discrete logic simulator runs an 
algorithmic description of a piece of 
hardware. By their very nature, these 
algorithms are expressed in terms of 
graphs in which each node is a sim- 
ple operation. 

The hardware designer of these al- 
gorithms consciously works to make 
his design exhibit a high degree of 
parallelism. Therefore, Daisy did not 
have to worry about the algorithm 
"running out of parallelism" of which 
to take advantage. Even better, the 
parallelism is very great at the 
machine-instruction level. 

Like TI, Daisy recognized that the 
"pure" data-flow paradigm did not 
completely address all of simulation's 
problems satisfactorily For example, 
the "pure" data-flow model has no 
way of handling stored state (side ef- 
fects). Daisy addressed this and other 
similar problems by extending the 
paradigm. 

At the programming level, Daisy 
recognized that the programming task 
in advanced architectures is difficult 
and error-prone. In many approaches, 
the user must adapt to a paradigm 
that is unfamiliar, unintuitive, and dif- 



Daisy Systems 



TVie Von Neumann 
Paradigm 






Mathematicians have been pro- 
posing computational para- 
digms, or "models of computation," 
since the time of Charles Babbage 
(witness 'Hiring machines. Makov pro- 
ductions, and Church's Lambda 
calculus). However, the most well 
known paradigm was pioneered by 
John von Neumann. Von Neumann's 
model is based on the concept of a 
single central processing unit that ac- 
cesses a linear array of fixed-size 
memory cells. These cells can contain 
either instructions or data. Instructions 
are relatively low-level. They perform 
simple operations on elementary 



operands. In the von Neumann model, 
program control is sequential and cen- 
tralized. It is upon this paradigm that 
most commercial computer architec- 
tures are based. 

Strictly speaking, a non-von 
Neumann paradigm is one that departs 
from any of these concepts. For exam- 
ple, a machine that keeps its data and 
memory in two separate banks is not 
a von Neumann machine. Recently, 
however, "non-von Neumann" has 
come to mean a paradigm that differs 
primarily in the last of the above prop- 
erties, that of sequential, centralized 
program control. 



data-flow architecture 
is the first to respond 
to the customer's need 
for high-speed discrete 
logic simulation. 



ficult to use. Daisy overcame this 
problem by allowing users to commu- 
nicate in the languages that they have 
always used: graphics, Boolean ex- 
pressions, and a standard behavioral 
language. Daisy was able to do this 
well because the primitives that the 
designer uses map easily to the 
primitives that Daisy's architecture 
supports. The mapping process (com- 
pilation, linking, and code generation) 
is totally automatic. 

Daisy was able to use data flow by 
applying it to a domain in which 

• The algorithms are naturally ex- 
pressed in terms of a data-flow-like 
graph. 

• The algorithms contain a great deal 
of inherent instruction-level paral- 
lelism. 

• There is a great need for fast execu- 
tion. (Logic simulators implemented 
on von Neumann machines may take 
days to run big simulations.) Daisy's 
machine runs approximately 100 
times faster than most software 
simulators. 

Summary 

NEC and Daisy have successfully used 
data flow to solve two different com- 
mercial problems in an appropriate 
manner. Both problems are easily ex- 
pressed using data-flow graphs, have 
a great deal of instruction-level paral- 
lelism, and require scalable execution 
and high performance. 

As more companies discover prob- 
lems for which data flow is the best 
solution, the repertoire of practical 
parallel algorithms using the data-flow 
model will grow. ■ 



214 BYTE • MAY 1985 




II 



"JilfllJjfr 



■-0 














e year 2000, the world 
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Presenting the computer 
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To make your computer even more 
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our Electronic Mall. Easy enough for 
beginners, it's open 24 hours a day, 
7 days a week. And it offers a wide range 
of goods and services from nationally 
known stores and businesses including 
Bloomingdale's, Waldenbooks, American 
Express and Commodore. 

CompuServe's Electronic Mall™ lets 
you shop at your convenience in all 
these departments: 

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Mart, Newsstand, On-line Connection, Per- 
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Specialty Boutique and Travel Agency. 



Take the CompuServe Electronic 
Mall 15-Minute Comparison Test 

WTiatyou can do in 15 minutes 
shopping the Electronic Mall way. 

• Access descriptions of the latest in 
computer printers, for instance. 

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places to stay on your next vacation. 

• Pick several and request travel 
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toys... anything! : \ 

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What you can do in 15 minutes shop- 
ping the old way 

• Round up the family and get in 
the car. 



The Electronic Mall — A Valuable 
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CompuServe Information Services 
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You can access CompuServe with 
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To buy a CompuServe Subscription 
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The Electronic Mall'" is a service of CompuServe Inc. and L M. Berry & Company. 
Inquiry 90 



An H & R Block Company 

MAY 1985 



BYTE 215 



HUhI i, w^rF 1 

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Step beyond the limits of personal computing, and into the action on Wall Street. 

Or right through the doors of the world's finest stores. Browse, buy, sell or trade. Stocks, 

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With an Avatex" modem, your personal computer can take you wherever you want 
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So with Avatex the possibilities are astronomical, ^ 

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call 800-4-AVATEX. 



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Inquiry 145 




MAY !985 * BYTE 217 



Speeds Up Everything... Especially 1-2-31 



The MicroWay NUMBER SMASHER triples the speed of all 
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MULTIPROCESSING 



THE 

TRANSPUTER 



by Paul Walker 

A building block 
for parallel processing 



THE TRANSPUTER is a small but 
complete computer that can be used 
as a building block with other Trans- 
puters to construct extremely high 
performance computing networks. A 
BYTE article by Dick Pountain (see ref- 
erence 1) introduced the idea of the 
Transputer and its programming lan- 
guage, Occam. (Occam is a trademark 
of the 1NMOS group of companies.) 
In this article we'll take a look at Trans- 
puters and how they can meet the 
computing requirements of the future. 

A rough yardstick of performance is 
given by the more recent personal 
computers, which run at around a 
million instructions per second 
(MIPS). By contrast, supercomputers 
offer the equivalent of around a thou- 
sand MIPS. Tomorrow's applications, 
such as the Japanese Fifth Generation 
Project, require up to a million MIPS. 
The needs of home and personal 
computers are more modest. But as 
the performance requirements in low- 
end systems evolve, the price/perfor- 
mance benefits of small clusters of 
Transputers will begin to attract small- 
system designers. 

Advances in semiconductor tech- 
nology are improving performance. 
But it takes 10 years for technology 



to improve the processing power of 
current architectures by an order of 
magnitude. At that rate, it will be well 
into the 21st century before the cur- 
rent architectures provide the perfor- 
mance required. But the applications 
need the performance now. A dif- 
ferent architecture is needed to pro- 
vide „the performance with today's 
technology. 

The Evolution 

of Computer Architectures 

and Languages 

One of the first architectures of a 
general-purpose computer was the 
von Neumann architecture, in which 
a single central processor is con- 
nected by a single data bus to mem- 
ory. This has been adapted in various 
ways over the years, but even today 
almost all computers conform to the 
basic von Neumann architecture; they 
have merely added processing power 
and memory. As the processing 
power and memory of the computer 
are increased, however, the bus 
becomes a bottleneck. And when 
processing power is further increased 
by the utilization of multiple pro- 
cessors and DMA (direct memory ac- 
cess) controllers sharing the bus, the 



effect of the bottleneck is even more 
pronounced. 

Along with the evolution of com- 
puter architectures, computer pro- 
gramming languages have evolved to 
make programming more reliable and 
cost-effective. The languages, how- 
ever, have been constrained by the 
computer architecture. Computers 
obey instructions in sequence and 
can do only one job at once, and this 
is reflected in the languages. The real 
world, however, has many activities, or 
"processes," happening concurrently, 
and programming languages should 
be capable of modeling the behavior 
of these concurrent processes. 

The Transputer 
Architecture and Occam 

Although the von Neumann architec- 
ture is limited by its bus, it is an ex- 
cellent architecture for a small, single- 
processor computer. A Transputer is 
a small but complete von Neumann 
computer (figure la). The difference 
between a Transputer and an ordinary 

[continued) 
Paul Walker is a member of the Transputer 
development team at 1NMOS Limited 
(Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BSI 2NP. 
England). 



„ — Inquiry 276 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 219 



THE TRANSPUTER 



An Occam process 
is a black box 
that works with 
its own local 
information. 



microcomputer is that Transputers 
can readily be built into networks and 
arrays (figure lb). Each Transputer 
works on its own job, using its own 
local memory A system with many 
Transputers has as many buses as it 
has Transputers, so the bus through- 
put is multiplied by the number of 
Transputers in the system. Another 
gain in bus throughput is achieved by 
putting the processor and memory on 
the same chip. 

The Transputers in a system need to 
communicate with each other so that 
they can cooperate. Transputer chips 
therefore have four link interfaces, 
each with an input signal and an out- 
put signal. The output signal of a link 
interface on one Transputer is con- 
nected to the input signal of a link in- 
terface on another Transputer, and 
vice versa. The two-wire, point-to- 
point connections between two Trans- 
puters (figure 2) are described as 
'links." 



The programming language Occam 
(see reference 2) is designed to han- 
dle the mixed sequential and concur- 
rent nature of real-world processes. 
Such processes are modeled as Oc- 
cam processes, each of which can be 
regarded as a black box that works 
with its own local information. A pro- 
cess cooperates with other processes 
using point-to-point communication 
channels. A collection of Occam pro- 
cesses is itself a process, so a hier- 
archy of processes can be built up to 
reflect the structure of the real-world 
process. 

The Occam model is suitable for 
mapping onto an array of computers, 
each of which has its own local mem- 
ory and communicates with other 
computers via point-to-point links. It 
is particularly appropriate, therefore, 
for a network of Transputers. 

The Transputer Chip 

The Transputer, then, is a single-chip 
computer with a processor, local 
memory link interfaces for linking to 
other Transputers, and all the neces- 
sary system services such as reset and 
clock. 

When Transputers are programmed 
in Occam, each Transputer imple- 
ments an Occam process and each 
link implements an Occam channel in 
each direction between two Trans- 
puters. 

Particular examples of Transputers 
are the IMS T424 (see reference 3) 



(a) 






(b) 


t 




1 




t 




41 


1 1 




i i 


1 1 




Tl 






r^ 




rh 


■m » 


rh 






- 


PROCESSOR 


a 




" 


\ 




i i 


■* — +■ 


H 


i i 


— 


1 


MEMORY 


t 




(i 


1 1 
■' 








tl 








1 , 1 


I , i 






• 


rh 




^h 




r^i 








t 




I 


t 





and the IMS T22 2. which are 32-bit 
and 16-bit Transputers, respectively. 
Both devices have four links and 4K 
bytes of on-chip RAM (random-access 
read/write memory). In addition, they 
have interfaces to external memory 
for applications in which 4K bytes are 
not enough; T424 addresses up to 4 
gigabytes. T222 up to 64 K bytes. Both 
have high-performance processors, 
achieving 5 to 10 MIPS. 

To fit a processor, link interfaces, 
and RAM onto a single chip, the pro- 
cessor must be small. The Transputer 
processor (see reference 4) is indeed 
small, occupying about a quarter of 
the chip. Being small, in some ways 
like a reduced instruction set com- 
puter (RISC), it is fast. Unlike some of 
the RISCs, however, the Transputer 
processor has short. 8-bit instructions 
and uses an evaluation stack of three 
registers rather than a register file. 
Both of these improve performance. 
The short instruction format efficiently 
encodes the most frequently ac- 
cessed instructions and data. Infre- 
quent instructions, large constants, 
and nonlocal variables are accessed 
by short sequences of 8-bit instruc- 
tions. The use of an evaluation stack 
means that instructions do not have 
to specify the registers for operands; 
the instructions always work on the 
top of the stack. 

The performance of the processor 
is shown by the Occam assignment 

[continued] 















TRANSPUTER 




TRANSPUTER 



















Figure 1: (a) A Transputer is a von Neumann computer with link interfaces, 
(b) Transputers can be readily built into networks and arrays. 



Figure 2: A link consists of two wires, 
one in each direction, between two 
Transputers. 



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MAY 1985 "BYTE 221 



THE TRANSPUTER 



A hardware kernel 
implements Occam 
processes and 
communication. 



x : = y + 10. This compiles into the 
instructions 

load local y 

load constant 10 

add 

store local x 

Each of these instructions is a single 
byte, and all the instructions except 
load local are executed in a single 
processor cycle. The load local in- 
struction takes two processor cycles, 
one to calculate the address and the 
other to access the data. The instruc- 
tion fetch is overlapped with those 
processor cycles that do not access 
memory. The above assignment state- 
ment takes a total of five processor 
cycles. The T424-20, with a 20-MHz 
processor cycling in 50 nanoseconds 
(ns), takes 2 50 ns for the statement. 
Executing four instructions in 2 50 ns 
is equivalent to 16 MIPS. The quoted 
figure of 10 MIPS allows for larger 
constants, nonlocal accesses, and 
more complex instructions. The lan- 
guage used for the assignment state- 
ment in this example is Occam, but 
similar statements can be written in 
many other languages. The high per- 
formance, therefore, is not limited to 



Occam but is available to languages 
such as C Pascal, and FORTRAN as 
well. 

The processor includes a small 
hardware kernel to implement Occam 
processes and communication be- 
tween them. Communication is 
handled directly by instructions, which 
pass the messages and schedule or 
deschedule the processes as appro- 
priate. The kernel includes two levels 
of priority, the higher of which pro- 
vides minimal latency for response to 
external events or for routing mes- 
sages between Transputers that are 
not linked directly. A timer imple- 
ments the Occam handling of time. 

Use of multiple processes, commu- 
nication, scheduling, and the handling 
of time is shown by the Occam pro- 
gram in listing 1. It describes two 
processes— one outputs a thousand 
messages and the other inputs a thou- 
sand messages. The timer records 
how long it takes to transfer the thou- 
sand messages. 

Using on-chip RAM, the program in 
listing 1 performs approximately 
1 2 5,000 message passes per second 
on a T424-10 with a 100-ns processor 
cycle and 250,000 message passes 
per second on a T424-20 with a 50-ns 
processor cycle. 

The links are also fast, with a data 
rate of 10 megabits/second. Commu- 
nication can occur at this speed 
simultaneously on all links and in both 
directions. With the four link inter- 
faces on T424 and T222, this results 
in a throughput on each Transputer 
equal to eight full-speed Ethernets. 



Listing 1: A simple input/output program in Occam. 

Message passes per second 

CHAN c: 

VAR MPPS, StartTime, EndTime, ElapsedTime: 
SEQ 
TIME ? StartTime 
PAR 
SEQ i = [0 FOR 1000] c ! 
VAR x: 

SEQ i = [0 FOR 1000] c ? x 
TIME ? EndTime 

ElapsedTime : - EndTime - StartTime 
MPPS := (1000000/ElapsedTime) * 1000 



The link interfaces are autonomous. 
When a process in one Transputer has 
output to a link and a process on an- 
other Transputer has input from the 
same link, the link interfaces of the 
two Transputers transfer data across 
the link. The data is accessed from 
each Transputer's memory by a DMA 
controller within each link interface. 
While the transfer is taking place, the 
two communicating processes are de- 
scheduled, allowing the processor to 
execute other processes that are not 
waiting for communication. When the 
transfer is completed, the processes 
are scheduled, without the processor 
having to poll for transfer completion. 
If either process has high priority, it 
is run as soon as the transfer com- 
pletes. A low-priority process takes its 
turn with other processes that are 
ready and able to run. 

Communication between processes 
on a single Transputer is programmed 
in exactly the same way as communi- 
cation through links. The only dif- 
ference is that the channel associated 
with the link is allocated to a par- 
ticular link interface. The same instruc- 
tions are used for internal communi- 
cation as for external communication, 
the only difference being the address 
of the channel. 

Both the processor and the link in- 
terfaces use very high frequency 
clocks— up to 80 MHz. It is difficult to 
supply such a clock to one chip; to 
distribute high-frequency clocks 
around a large system is next to im- 
possible. Therefore, the Transputer 
uses a low-frequency (5 -MHz) exter- 
nal clock and generates all the high 
frequencies internally. Even with a 
low-frequency clock, it is impossible 
to ensure that all Transputers "see" a 
clock edge at the same time. The 
Transputer, therefore, has been de- 
signed so that the only important 
parameter of the input clock is its fre- 
quency, which can be tightly con- 
trolled by a crystal. 

Similarly, it is difficult to synchronize 
the clock with the data on the links. 
So the data reception of the links is 
asynchronous, as is the case with 
RS-232C. But unlike RS-232C connec- 

[continued) 



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THE TRANSPUTER 



tions. the links are fast. They also have 
a protocol that matches the Occam 
model of communication between 
processes. 

The on-chip RAM provides local 
memory that cycles at the same 
speed as the processor. External 



memory cycles more slowly: The 
T222's memory interface cycles in two 
processor cycles, the T424's in a 
minimum of three processor cycles. 
T424 uses a multiplexed 32-bit ad- 
dress/data bus and is optimized for 
accessing dynamic RAM. A simple 



configuration is shown in figure 3. 
Here the T424 is connected to four 8 K 
by 8-bit (such as the IMS 2630) or 32K 
by 8-bit dynamic RAMs with no inter- 
facing "glue" logic. The T424 
generates all the required refresh ad- 
dresses and cycles. It also generates 



Ray Tracing 
with an Array of Transputers 



The ray-tracing algorithm that generated the pictures in 
photos A and B takes a long time to draw them. For ex- 
ample, the Sage IV takes three hours to draw the 500 by 500 
pixels in photo B. The algorithm calculates each pixel in- 
dependently, so it is eminently suitable for parallel process- 
ing by sharing the pixels among a number of Transputers. 

We first developed the program as a number of concur- 
rent processes running on a single computer. The Sage, 
simulating concurrency, takes five hours to draw the picture 
when the pixels are shared among 64 processes. Photo A 
shows the picture when it is half complete. 

The debugged program can then be mapped on to a net- 
work of Transputers. Figure A can be regarded as a block 
diagram of either the processes or the Transputer network. 
A Transputer implementing the ray-tracing process can even 
be regarded as a hardware ray-tracing machine. 

The network of 64 (plus one screen driver) Transputers 
shown in figure A will draw the picture in about half a minute. 

As well as calculating their own share of pixels, each of the 
64 Transputers routes pixels along the pipeline toward the 
screen driver Transputer. A diagram of the processes and 



channels on each Transputer is shown in figure B. An Occam 
program to describe these processes is 

CHAN LocalChannel: 

PRI PAR 
. . . Routing process 
. . . Pixel calculator 

The routing process expands to: 

SEQ k = [0 FOR (NumberOfPixelsRoutedByThisProcess)] 
VAR Pixel: 
ALT 
Linkln ? Pixel 

LinkOut ! Pixel 
LocalChannel ? Pixel 
LinkOut ! Pixel 

The expression (NumberOfPixelsRoutedByThisProcess) 
depends on where the Transputer is in the pipeline. The pro- 
cesses assume that the pixel sent through the pipeline of 
Transputers includes both the value of the pixel and an iden- 




Photo A: The ray tracing is half done. 



Photo B: The completed ray-tracing output. 



224 BYTE' MAY 1985 



THE TRANSPUTER 



a number of configurable strobes, 
which can be used to generate the 
control signals for dynamic RAMs. 

TRANSPUTER SYSTEMS 

A system can be built with a single 
Transputer; some ROM (read-only 



memory) and perhaps some periph- 
erals can be put on the memory in- 
terface—the Transputer then behaves 
as a high-performance micropro- 
cessor. This single Transputer system 
can be enhanced by adding another 
Transputer, programmed to do a spe- 



cialized job, and linked to the first 
Transputer as a coprocessor. The text 
box shows a number of Transputers 
connected in pipelines. Figure lb 
shows a number of Transputers linked 
together in an array. 

[continued] 



tifier to enable the screen driver Transputer to determine 
which pixel it is receiving. 

Sixteen Transputers are programmed as a pipeline with this 
program: 

CHAN PixelPipeline [0 FOR TransputersDeep + 1]: 
PAR i = [0 FOR TransputersDeep] 
. . . Pixel calculating and routing Transputer 

Four of these pipelines hooked up to the screen-driver 
Transputer are described by the program 

DEF PixelsWide = 512: 

DEF PixelsDeep = 512: 

DEF TransputersDeep = 16: 

DEF TransputersWide = 4: 

CHAN PixelPipeline [(TransputersDeep + 1)*TransputersWide]: 

PAR 

. . . Screen Driver Transputer 

PAR j = [0 FOR TransputersWide] 
PAR i = [0 FOR TransputersDeep] 
. . . Pixel calculating and routing Transputer 



V 7 



Figure A: Arrangement of 64 Transputers (plus one screen 
driver) for ray tracing. 



This program corresponds directly to figure A. 

In this example, extensive use has been made of the ". . ." 
comment facility used by the Occam programming system 
to hide unwanted detail and help structure the program. The 
technique, known as "folding." allows quick and efficient 
navigation through a large program. 

It is interesting to consider the communication overhead 
of the pipeline in this application. Each Transputer linked 
directly to the screen driver passes along data for 64.000 
pixels. The routing process takes about 10 microseconds per 
pixel, which makes for an overhead of 0.64 second out of 
30 seconds— about 2 percent. Grouping the pixels together 
and sending them in. blocks of 32 pixels would reduce this 
to less than 0.1 percent overhead. The remaining 99.9 per- 
cent of each Transputer's processing power can be used for 
calculating pixels. 

The number of Transputers used is defined as a set of con- 
stants at the start of the program. Reconfiguring for a different 
number of Transputers requires no more than changing these 
definitions. Writing the program this way makes it particular- 
ly easy to choose a number of Transputers to provide the 
appropriate cost/performance for the application. 



LINKIN 



PIXEL 

CALCULATOR 

PROCESS 



LOCALCHANNEL 



\/_ 



ROUTING PROCESS 



LINKOUT 



Figure B: Processes in each of the 64 Transputers shown in 
figure A. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 225 



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THE TRANSPUTER 



There is no limit 
to the size, 
function, or shape 
of a network 
of Transputers. 



Other networks can be built. A func- 
tionally distributed network might 
have random interconnections be- 
tween Transputers (figure 4). An array 
could have its ends connected 
toroidally (figure 5) to simulate an in- 
finite network in a similar way to the 
Bagel developed by Shapiro (refer- 
ence 5). Systolic arrays developed by 
H. I Kung (reference 6) and wavefront 
processors developed by S. Y. Kung 
(reference 7) map naturally onto net- 
works of Transputers. (Incidentally, the 
systolic and wavefront architectures 
are easy to model in Occam, even if 
the final implementation is intended 
to be special-purpose hardware, as 
shown by Fujitsu in reference 8.) 

There is no design limit to the size, 
function, or shape of a network of 
Transputers. Further, provided the net- 
work of Transputers is programmed 
so that they cooperate— rather than 
one Transputer waiting for another 
that waits for another, and so on— the 
performance of a network is directly 
proportional to the size of the net- 
work. For example, the ray tracing de- 
scribed in the text box shows a 
negligible 0.1 percent overhead of 
communication between Transputers. 

Building Blocks 

Because Transputers can be built into 
systems of arbitrary size, function, or 
shape, they can be thought of as 
building blocks. Making a link be- 
tween two Transputers is as simple as 
joining together the lug and hole on 
two Lego bricks; both are standard- 
ized connections. 

Another respect in which the 
analogy holds is that a network of 

[continued) 

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w23SS 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 227 



ELECTRONICS 




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SN7407N I 

SN740BN 1 

SN7409N 1 

SN7410N I 

SN7411N 1 

SN7412N I 

SN7413N 1 

SN7414N 1 

SN7416N 1 

SN7417N l 

SN742W l 

SN7421N 1 

SN7422N 1 

SN7423M 1 

SN7425N 1 

SN742EN I 

SN7427N 1 

SN7428N ) 

SN7430N 1 

SN7432N 1 

SN7433N 1 

SN7437N 1 

SN7438N 1 

SN7439N 1 

SN7440N 1 

SN7441N 1 

SN7442N 1 

SN7443N I 

SN7444N I 

SN7445N I 

SN7446N ! 

SN7447N I 

SN7448N I 

SN7454N I 

SN7459N 1 

SN7480N I 

SN7470N I 

SN7472N I 

SN7473N I 



74LS0O 
74LS01 
74LS02 
74L&03 
74L504 
74LS05 
74LS08 
74LS09 
74LS10 
74LS11 
74LSI4 
74LS15 
74LS20 
74LS21 
74LS26 
74LS27 
74LS28 
74LS30 
74LS32 
74LS37 
74LS38 
74LS42 
74LS47 
74LS51 
74LS73 
74LS74 
74LS75 
74LS76 
74LS85 
74LS86 
74LS90 
74LS92 
74LS93 
74LS96 
74LS107 
74LS109 
74LS112 
74LS1I4 
74LS122 
74LSI23 
74LS125 
74LSI26 



74SOO 
74S02 
74S03 
74S04 
74S0S 
74S08 
74S09 
74SI0 
74S11 
74S15 
74S20 
74S22 
74S30 
74S32 
74S37 
74S38 
74S5I 
74S64 
74S65 
74S74 
74S85 
74S86 
74S112 
74S113 



14 



CA301QH 
CA3039H 

CA3046N 14 

CA3059N 14 

CA3060N IE 

CA3065E 14 

CA3080E J 



C0400I 
CD40O2 
C04006 
CO4007 
C040O3 
CD40O9 
CD4010 
CD401T 
CD4012 
CD4013 
CD4014 
CD4015 
CD4016 
CD4017 



14 



CD4019 16 

CD4O20 IB 

C04021 IE 

CD4022 IB 

CEWQ23 14 

CD4024 |4 

CD4Q25 14 

CD4026 IE 

CO4027 IS 

CO4028 IS 

CO4029 IG 

CO4030 14 

CD4034 Z4 

C04035 IB 

CD4D4D IS 
V^ (Mora in Ciurat) 



PirtHo. Pins Prtca 

SN7474N 14 .39 

SN7475N IS .45 

SN7476N IG .39 

SN7479N 14 4.95 

SN7480N 14 .89 

SN7482N 14 1.49 

SN74B3N IG .55 

SN7485N IG .59 

SN7486N 14 .39 

SN7489N IG 2.25 

SN7490N 14 .49 

SN7491N 14 .79 

SN7492N 14 .45 

SN7493N 14 .45 

SN7494N 14 .89 

SN7495N 14 .49 

SN7496N 16 49 

SN7497N 16 3.25 

SN7410ON Z4 1.95 

SN74105N 14 1.19 

SN74I07N 14 .29 

SN74109N IG .39 

SN74116N 24 1.49 

SN74I21N 14 .45 

SN74I22N 14 69 

SN74I23N IG .55 

SN74125N 14 .49 

SN74126N 14 .49 

SN74128N 14 .79 

SN74132N 14 .59 

SN74136N 14 .69 

SN74141N 16 89 

SN74142N 16 3.95 

SN74143N 24 3.95 

SN74144N 24 3.95 

SN74145N 16 .65 

SN74147N 16 1.29 

SN74148N 16 89 

SN74I50N 24 1.49 

SN7415IN IE .49 

SN74I52N 14 .49 

SN74153N 16 .99 

SN74154N 24 149 

SN74I55N 16 .49 

SN74156N 16 .59 

SN74157N 16 .49 



74LSI32 14 .6! 

74LSI33 16 .51 

74LSI36 14 .3! 

74LSI38 16 .5! 

74LSI39 16 .5! 

74LS145 16 1.1! 

74LS147 16 1.9! 

74LS14B 16 1.7! 

74LS151 16 5! 

74LS153 16 .5! 

74LS154 24 1.4! 

74LSI55 16 .6! 

74LSI56 16 .6' 

74LS157 16 .6' 

74IS158 16 .5' 

74LS160 16 6 1 

74LSI61 16 .6' 

74LS162 16 .6' 

74LSI63 16 .6' 

74LS164 14 8' 

74LSI65 16 .8' 

74LS168 16 1.1! 

74LS169 16 1.4! 

74LS170 16 1.4! 

74LS173 16 6! 

74LS174 16 .6! 

74LS175 16 .6! 

74LSI81 24 2.4! 

74LS190 16 .7' 

74LS191 16 .8! 

74LSI92 16 .7' 

74LS193 16 .8! 

74LS194 16 .6! 

74LS195 16 .5' 

74LS196 14 .8' 

74LS197 14 .8! 

74LS221 IG 1.0! 

74LS240 20 1.0! 

74LS241 20 .9 

74LS243 14 1.0! 



Part No. 

SN74159N 

SN74160N 

SN74161N 

SN74162N 

SM74163N 

-.(,-' -ilf '. < 

SN74165N 

SM74166N 

SN74167N 

SN74170N 

SN74172N 

SN74173N 

SN74174N 

SN74175N 

SN74176N 

SN74177N 

SN74179N 

SN7418QN 

SN741B1N 

W4182N 

SN74184N 

SN74185N 

SN74190N 

SN74191N 

SN74192N 

SN74193N 

SN74194N 

SN74195N 

SN74196N 

SN74197N 

SN74198N 

SN74199N 

SN74221N 

SN74251N 

SN74273N 

SN74276N 

SN74279N 

SN74283N 

SN74284N 

SN74285N 

SN74365N 

SN74366N 

SN74367N 

SN74368N 

SN74390N 

SN74393N 



74LS244 
74LS245 
74LS251 
74LS253 
74LS257 
74LS258 
74LS260 
74LS266 
74LS273 
74LS279 
74LS280 
74LS299 
74LS322 
74LS323 
74LS347 
74LS353 
74LS364 
74LS365 
74LS366 
74LS367 
74LS368 
74LS373 
74LS374 
74LS375 
74LS386 
74LS393 
74LS399 
74LS490 
74LS533 
74LS534 
74LS540 
74LS541 
74LS640 
74LS641 
74LS644 
74LS645 
74LS670 
74LS688 
81LS95 
81LS96 
81LS97 
8ILS98 



74S114 14 .55 

74S124 16 2.75 

745132 14 1.85 

745133 16 .45 

745135 16 .8? 

745136 14 1.3? 

745138 16 .8$ 

745139 16 8? 

745140 14 .6! 
74S151 IG .9? 
74S153 16 .9? 

745157 16 .95 

745158 16 .9! 
74S160 16 225 
74SI69 16 4.2! 

745174 16 1.0! 

745175 IG 1.0! 
74S188" 16 1.7! 

745194 16 1.4! 

745195 16 1.4! 

745196 14 1.4! 
74S240 20 1.9! 

EmEE 

CA3081N IG 1.1! 

CA3082N IB 1.1! 

CA3D83N Ifi 1.1! 

CA3086N M .8! 

CA3089W 16 1.9! 

CA3096N IE 1.7! 



74S241 
74S242 
74S243 
74S244 
74S251 
74S253 
74S257 
74S258 
74S260 
74S273 
74S280 
74S287- 
74S288" 
74S299 
74S373 
74S374 
74S387" 
74S471" 
74S472* 
74S473" 
74S570' 
74S571* 
74S572' 
74S573* 



CA3130E 
CA3140E 
CA3160H 
CA316GE 
CA3161E 
CA3162E 
CA3189E 
CA3401N 



It 



t 

CD4041 
CO4042 
CD4043 
CD4044 
CD4046 
CD4047 
CD404S 
CD4049 
CD4050 
CD40S1 
CO4052 
CO4053 
CQ4056 
C04059 



CD40G9 
CO407O 
CD4071 
CO4072 
CD4073 
CD4077 
CD4078 
CD4081 
CD4093 
CD4094 
CD4098 
C04D99 



CD4503 IB 

CD4506 16 

CD45Q7 14 

CD4508 24 

C0451D 16 

C04S11 IE 

CD4512 IB 

CD4514 24 

CD4515 Z4 

CD4516 IE 

CD4518 IE 

C04519 15 

C04520 IB 

C04526 IB 

C04528 IS 

C04529 IS 

CD4531 IS 

C04538 IE 

C04541 14 

C04543 16 

C04562 14 

CQ4566 16 

C04583 IS 

CD4584 14 

CD4723 IE 

CD4724 IS 

MC14410 IE 

MCI 44 11 24 

MC14412 IE 

MC14433 24 

MCI 4572 IE 



74ALS00 



74FO0 

7<"H.j 

?.!«)!! 

74F10 

7^32 

. : Ffl 

74F86 

74F109 

74F138 

"(l. 

''; • 

74F193 

74F240 

74F244 

l\V> : {i 

:.■:.":■:, 
74F374 



14 Quad 2-lnpul NATO Gale 69 

14 Ouad 2-lnput NOR Gale .75 

14 Hex Inverter B9 

14 Quad 2-lnput AND Gate 75 

14 Triple 3-lnput NAM) Gale 75 

14 Quad 2-lnput OR Gate 79 

14 Dual Flip-flop 85 

14 Quad Exclusive OR Gale. 1.15 

15 Oual JK Ftoitive Edge Flip-Flop 95 

16 Expandable 3/8 Decoder 1.69 

16 Ouad 2-lnput Multiplexer 1.E9 

IE Ouad 2 Inja | 1.69 

IE 4-Dit Up/Down Binary Counter 5.29 

20 Tri-Stale Octal Line Driver (Inverting). .... 3.75 

20 Tri State Octal Line Driver. 3.49 

1 1 ' tale Octal Latch 4.89 

Tii-State Octal D Flip-FIOD 4,59 



74ALS00 14 Quad 2-lnpul HMiO Gate 59 

74ALS02 14 Ouad 2-lnput NOR Gate 59 

74ALS04 14 Hex Inverter 59 

74ALS08 14 Ouad 2-lnput AND Gate 59 

74ALS10 14 Triple 3-lnput NAND Gate 59 

74AL530 14 8-lnpul NAND Gate 59 

74ALS32 14 Ouad 2-lnput OR Gale 65 

74ALS74 14 Oual D Flip-Flop 79 

74ALS109 IB Oca! JK Ftos. Edrje Flip-Flop .79 

74ALS138 IB Expandable 3/B Decoder. 1.25 

74ALS240 20 Tn-Stale Octal Line Driver (Inverting) 2.25 

74ALS244 20 Tri-State Octal Line Driver a25 

74ALS245 20 Octal Bus TranscCfWf (Non-lnv) . 259 

74ALS373 20 Tn-State Octal Latch 2.59 

74ALS374 20 Tri-State Octal D Rip-Ftop. 



DISK CONTROLLERS 



INS1771-1 40 Single Densily 1695 

FD1791 40 Single/Dual Density (Inv) 24.95 

F01793 40 Single/Double Densily (True) 26.95 

FD1795 40 Dual Density/Side Select (Inv). 26.95 ■ 

F01797 40 Dual Density/Side Selecl (True). 29.95 

WD2791 40 Smgle'Dcub 1 '? Dsnsity (Inv) 39,95 

WD2793 40 Smq'e P i ,V,- 5 

WD2797 40 Oual Density/Side Select iTnie) . 39.95 



DT1050-* 



Digitalker 



IM:Wd:M>l^Wt ];W>] t Mrft]JlJghai 



pjund 



- MICROPROCESSOR CHIPS" 

fini Fimrton 



D765AC 40 Floppy Disk Controller. 16.55 -f*9§- 

D3242 28 Add:. Multiplexer 8 Refresh Counter 7,95 

TMS5501 40 Synchronous Data Interface (SIRC) 14 95 

Z80. Z80A. ZBOB. Z8000 SERIES 

Z80 40 CPU(MK3880NI(78OC)25MHi 2.75*95- 

Z80CTC 28 Counter Timer Crcuil 3.49 

40 Oual AsynchronousRec/Trans 8 95 

40 Direct Memory Access Circuit . . 12.49 

40 Parallel l/D Interlace Controller 2.95 *49 

40 Serral I/O (TxCB and RxCB Bonded! 1 1 49 

40 Serial I/O (Lacks DTRB) 11,49 

40 Serial I/O (Lacks SYNCBI 1 1.49 

40 Serial I/O. 11.49 

40 CrU|MK3860N-4)(780C-1) 4MH*. . . , 2.85 S4» 

28 Counter Timer Circurt 3.95 +49- 

40 Du I AsyocfiionousRec /Trans 9 95 

40 Direct Memory Access Circuil 12.95 

40 Parallel 1/OlnleMace Conlroller. 3.95 

40 Serial l/0(lxCB and RxCB Bondedl. . . . 11.95 

40 Seriall/0 (Lacks DTRB) 11.95 

40 Serial I/O (Lacks SYNCB) 1 1.95 

40 Serial I/O n 95 

40 CPU IMK3880N-6) 6MH; 8.95 

28 Counter TimerCircull 11,95 

40 DualAsynchronousRec/lrans 19.95 

40 Parallel I/O Interlace Conlroller 10.95 

48 CPl) Segmented (10MHz) 7995 

40 CPU Non-Segmenled (10MHz) 5995 

-6500/6800/68000 SERIES 

40 MPU with Clock (1MHz) 4,95 

40 MPU with Clock (2MHz) 6.49 

40 MPUwilh Clock (3MHj) 8.95 

40 PeripherallnletAdaoler 395 

4S Versatile inlecAdapter 5 49 

28 Async Comm.lnlerlaceAdapl 6.95 4W6- 



Z80-DA T 

Z800MA 

Z80P10 

Z60-S10/0 

280-S10/1 

2B0-S10/2 

Z80SI0/9 

Z80A 

Z80A-CTC 

Z80A-DART 

Z80A-DMA 

Z80A-P10 

Z80A-S10/0 

Z80A-S10/1 

Z80AS10/2 

Z80A-S10/9 



Z60B-DART 
Z80B-P10 
ZB001B 



40 MP1J , 



295 



MPU with Cfockand RAM, 5.95 *9S- 

6809 40 CPU - 8-Bit (On-ChipOscillalor) 8.95 

6609E 40 CPU - 8-Bil (Exlernal Clocking) 9.95 

68B09E 40 CPU - 8-Bit (Ex! Clocking) 2MHz 14.95 

66BI0 24 128x8S1aticaftM (2MHz) . 595 

6621 40 Peripheral InlerAdapl (MC6820). . . . 2.75 *95- 

68B21 40 Penpheralfntefface Adapter (2MHj) 5.95 

6845 40 CRTContiOller(CRTC) 9.95 +446 

68B45 40 CRT Conlroller(CRTC) 2MH* 14.95 -»*95- 

6650 24 Asynchronous Comm. Adapler 3,95 

6860 24 0-600bpsOit|ita1MOOEM . 795 

6B0OOL8 64 MPU 16-Bit (8MHz) 39.95 

6648BP 40 General Purpose Int. Adapter . 9,95 

8000/80000 SERIES 

8031 40 ConlrotOnentedCPUw/RAM«l/0 12.95 H35 

8035 40 MPU - 8 Bit 4.95 406- 

8039 40 CPU-Sgl.Chip8-Bil(t28bts.RAM) 4.95 *9S- 

8040N-6 40 CPUI256 bytes RAM) 9.95 

8060 40 CPU- 8 BitNMOS 12.95 J+95 

8073N 40 CPUw/BasicMicro Interpieter 2995 

6080A 40 CPU 3.95 

8085A 40 CPU 4.95 

8085A-2 40 CPU-8-Bit N-Channel|5MHz) 10.95 4+*f 

8086-2 40 CPU t6-bit8MHz 1995 34r9S- 

8087 40 Anttimenc Processor 169.95 m&> 

8088 40 CPU 8/16-BH 14.95 »W6 

8155 40 HMOS RAM I/O Port-Timer 4.9 S *%■ 

8156 40 RAM with I/O Port and Timer 6.95 fr95 

8205 16 Hi Speed 1 ou I o 1 8 Binary Decoder 3 95 

8212 24 8-Bitlnpul/Oulpul (74S412) 295 

8224 16 ClockGenerator/Dnver 2.95 

8228 28 Sys ConUBus Driver (74S428) 3.95 •+» 

8237-5 40 High Perl Prog. DMA Cont. (5MHz) 14.95 4W6- 

8238 28 System Controller (74S438) 4 95 

8243 24 I/O Expander for 48 Series 3.95 -43S- 

6250N 40 Async. Comm, Elemenl 10.95 

8251 28 Prog Comm I/O (USART) 4.49 +95- 

8251A 28 Prog. Comm. Interface (USART) 4.95 -MB 

8253 24 Prog Inter I Timer. 5.95 -64S 

8255 40 Prog Peripheral I/O (PPI) 4.49 495 

8255A-5 40 Prog. Peripheral I/O (PPI) 5MH2 4.95 -W6 

8259 28 Piog, Interrupt Conlrol 5,95 

8272 40 Sgle/Oble Density Floppy OiskConi.16.95 t*95 

8274 40 MultiProlocolSenal Conl (7201) 14.95 29-95 

8279 40 Prog Key rjoarrJ/Displa y I nleriace 695 

8282 20 Octal Lalcti 6.49 6:95- 

8284 18 Clock Gerieralor/Orivtr 5.49 6*5- 

8285 20 Octal Bus Transceiver. 6.49 *95- 

8287 20 Octal Bus. Transceiver (Inverted), . . . 6.49 «S- 

8288 20 BusConliOller 14.95 tft9& 

8303 20 8-Bit Tii-State Bi-Direclional Trans 3,49 

8304 20 6-Bn Bi-Oueclional Receiver 3.49 

8310 20 Octal Laic ed Peripheral Driver. 3 95 

8741 40 8-Bil Univ. Peripheral Interlace. . . . 19.95-8935 

8748 40 HMOS EPROM MPU 19.95 -3&6S 

8749 40 MPU8-BH (EPROMVersion o(8049) 24.95 3*95- 

16K EPROM with I/O 39.95 

High Inlegralion 16-BilMPU 99,95 

Highlntegra. 16-Bil MPU(B-BitDataBus) 89.95 

SPECIAL FUNCTION 

Oual MOS Clock Driver |5MHz) 1.95 

Communication Chip 7.95 

Floppy Disk Read Amp System 4.95 

IS TV Camera Sync. Generator 9.95 

Asynchronous Transmitter/Receiver, ..... 5.95 

Microprocessor Real Time Clock 6.95 

Micro. Compatible Time Clock 8.95 

Prmj. Oscillator/Divider (QOHzl 1.79 

Pruo Oscillator/Divider [ 1O0Hzl 1.95 



80186-6 


63 


801B8 


68 


OS0026CN 


, 


INS2651 


I'd 


MC3470P 


is 


MM5321N 


is 


MM54240N 


H 


MM58167AN 


24 


MM58I74AN 


Ifi 


"•.-', 


ft 


MM5369EST 


ft 



Low Profile [Tin) Sockets 


Pari Hd. 


1-9 


IB 99 


lt»i> 


SpiriLP 


16 


.14 


,13 


14 pinLP 


1/ 


IS 


.14 


1 6 p 1 n LP 


.19 


17 


16 


ISpinLP 


26 


24 


23 


20pinLP 


■M) 


?! 


25 


22pinLP 


31 


28 


,26 


24 pinLP 


33 


30 


,2B 


28pinLP 


40 


,37 


35 


40 pinLP 


49 


.46 


.43 



Soldeitiii (Gold) Standard 

1-9 10-99 IDO-up 



8 pinSG 

14 pinSG 49 .45 

16 pinSG .55 .49 

18 pinSG 65 59 

20pinSG .75 .65 

22pmSG .79 .69 

24pinSG .79 .69 

28pinSG .95 .85 

36miSG 1.25 1.15 

40oinSG 1.39 1.25 



Price 



1103 
4027 

j | ! 

I1t\! ■ 

•iiifcN-25 
, i i 

■ m- .;;;-- ,- 

MM5251 

MK5262 

:i:i527il 

M.ivmi 

."M r ' 

-iijse-iso 

48128 



2101 



1024x1 |300ns) 99 

4096x1 (250mJ 1.49 

16.384x1 150ns) 1.39-8/10.95 

16,384x1 (2O0ns) .79-8/6.29 U6 B/8 .0 S 
16,384x1 (250ns) .M-tlSAi 8 8/6 .0 6 

, ,, n ii , jii. i j. . , 

65,536x1 {200ns) 3.T5-S/29.35 4 Qs B aftg i 

1024x1 (3DOns) 35-B/I.95 

Z048»l (365ni) 35-8/1.95 

4096x1 (250ns) MK4096 4.95 

4096x1 (200ns) 2107 3.95 

8192x1 |2O0ns) 59 

262.144x1 (150ns) 15.95 34-9§ 

262.144x1 |2O0ns| 13.55 4*35 

131.072x1 (250ns) 24.95 

— STATIC RAMS 



16 1024x1 .'I 1.49 

18 256x4 (450ns) Bill 2.49 

IG 256x4 (450ns) MOS 2.49 

1! 1024x4 (450ns) 1 29 - B/9.95 

IB 1024x4 (450nsl LP, .... 1.65 - H'12,95 

II 1024*4 1200ns) 1.39-8/10.95 

18 1024x4 (2O0ns) LP. . . 1 69 - 8/13.49 

18 4096x1 (70ns) 4.49 

IB 1024x4 (70ns) 4.95 

■* 1024x4 (450ns) 3.95 

1024x4 (450ns) 1.95 

256x4 (450ns) CMOS 3.95 

4096x1 (450ns| ~UAl -\% 

2048x8 1 120ns) CMOS 7.95 

2048x8 (120nsl LP CMOS 8.95 

2048x8 (150ns) CMOS 3.95 -4r86- 

2048x8 (1 50ns) LP CMOS. . . . 4.95 *49 

2048x8 (200ns) CMOS 3.J5-W5 

2048x8 (200ns) LP. CMOS 4.75 -5*9 

8192xB 1 120ns) CMOS 19.95 &M 

8192x8 (120ns) LP CMOS 21.95 39% 

8192x6 (150ns) CMOS 16.95 9+95 

B192xB (I50ns| L.P CMOS 17.95 3W6 

.. 256x1 (80ns) LP 3.95 

7489 IB 16x4 (50ns) 3101 2.25 

74C921 18 256x4 (2D0ns) CMOS 5.95 

74C930 18 1024x1 (250ns) CMOS (6518). . . 595 

74S189 IE 16x4 (35ns) 93405 2.95 

74S289 16 16x4 (35ns) 3101 . . 295 

82S10 IE 1024x1 (50ns) O.C (934151 3.95 

82S25 IS 16x4 (50ns) O.C. (74S289) 2.25 

PnOMS/EPROMS 

1702A 24 256x8 



2147HN 

■ 

TMS4045 

TMS40L47-45 

5101 

MM5257 

HM6116P-2 

HM6116LP-2 

HM6116LP-3 
HM6116P-4 

HM6264P-12 
HM6264LP-I2 
HM6264P-15 
HM6264LP-15 
27LSO0 



TMS2716 
2716 

.If-' 
27160-5 
2732 
2732A-20 

; ■ 

??G2 

27C32A-30 

2764-20 

2764-25 

2764-45 

27C64 

MCM68764 

■ >•?.■; 

74S188 

74S287 
74S288 
74S387 

74S472 

74S475 
74S476 
74S478 
74S570 
74S571 

82S23 

• : 
/-:,!'! 

i; :g 

?2SI£5 
B2S191 

'. ■ ,\ 
OM87S184N 

DM87S191N 



(450n: . 

2048x6 (450ns) 2716 4 95 

4096x8 (450ns) NMC2532 5.49 

6192x8 (450ns) 10 95 

2048x8 (450ns) 3 voltage 7.95 

2048xB (450ns) 3.95 

2048*8 CMOS 12.95 1+95- 

2048x8 (350ns). 5,49 

2048x8 |5S0ns) 3.75 

4096x8 (450ns) 4.95 

4096x8 (200ns) 21 V 11.49 

4096xB (250ns) 21V 7.19 

4096x8 (450ns) 21V 4.95 6-49- 

4096x8 CMOS, , , 14.95 4*05- 

4096x8 (300ns) 21V (CMOS) 22.95 

8192x8 (200ns) 21 V 9.95 444S 

8192x8 (250ns) 21V 7,19 

8192x8 (450ns) 21V 6.49 

8192x8 CMOS 21V 14.95 -3S-9& 

8192x8 (450ns) 2 IV 14.95-34% 

16.384x8 (250ns) 128K 21V 12.95 •£+% 
32.768xB (250ns) 256K (14V) 49.95 -9*96- 

32x8 PROM O.C. (6330-1) 1.75 

-" ■ PROM IS. (6301-1) 1.79 

PROM IS. (6331-1) 1.79 

PROMOC IE300-1) 1.95 

PROM TS. (6309-1) 4.95 

PROMTS. (6349-1) 4.95 

PROM O.C. (6348) 4.95 

. J7S296NI 4.95 
PROM O.C. (6340). 



256x4 

256x8 
512x8 
512x8 

512x8 

5! 2s? 



18 1024x4 PROM TS 6.95 



m m . 



9.95 



IB 1024x4 PROMOC (6352) 



^" ; r 



256x4 
.. , 
512x4 
2048x4 
2048x8 
1024x8 



DCIO 

'< . ■ i 
ADC0803 

.>'!,!• 

ADC0B08 
'"i ,n 

M.i'', 

DAC0806 

DAC0807 
DAC03D8 
i-ACGf."! 
> i • i 
DAC1000 

t .'■. I-.... 
i ' 10 
P*.Ci22? 
ill; 
DAC1231 

*r-s-ioi3> 



M TS. (62S137). 
PROMOC (27S18) .. . 2.95 
i ' 
-- 

PROM O.C. (27S20) 2.95 

PROMTS (27S21) 2.95 

PROM O.C (27S12) 3.95 

PROM TS (TBP24S81) 995 

(80ns) 14.95 

PROMTS. (82S1B1 1 9.95 

PROM O.C. (B2S184) 9.95 

i tWKM PROM TS. (82S185) 9.95 

I 2048x8 PROM TS. (B2S191) 14.95 

-DATA ACQUISITION 

Mosiek DC/DC Convener +5V lo -9V 2.95 

20 8-Bil A/D Converter (1/4LSB) 14.95 

ft) 8-Bil A/D Converter ( • 1/2LSB) 4.95 

tO 8 Bn A/0 Com-r: . 

fB 8-Bil A/D Conv w/8-Channel Analog 9 .95 

?B 8-Bil A/D Converter (B-Ch. Multi.) 4.49 

10 S-Bit A/D Conv. w/ 1 6-Channel Analog 1 4.95 

10 8-Bit A/0 Converter (16-Cb. Mulli.). . , . 9.49 

IE 8-Bit D'A Converter (0.78% Lin.) 1,95 

15 8-Bil D/A Converter (MC1408-7) 1.49 

IE 8-Bit D/A Converter (MCI 408-8) 225 

m 8-Sil Up D/A Conv, (.05% Lin.) 5.95 

20 8-Bit Up D/A Conv (.10% Lin,) 4,49 

f4 tO-Brt D/A Conv Micro. Comp. (0,05%) 7.95 

IQ 10-Bil D/A Conv. Micro. Comp, (0 20% 6.95 

IE 10-Bit D/A Conv, (0 05% Lin.) 7.95 

16 10-flil D/A Conv (0.20^ tin.) 5.95 

IB 12-Bit D/A Conv (02091 Lin.) 6.95 

JO 12-Bit Up D/A Conv (.05% Lin) 14.95 

t(l 12-Bit Up D/A Conv (.10% Lin.) 13.95 

10 30K B*vd UABT (TBI6021 3.95 



Wire Wrap 
Sockets ' 
(Gold) Level #3 

Ptrl Ha. 19 111- 



8 pin WW .55 .4! 

10 pin WW ,69 .6: 

14 pin WW .75 ,6! 

16 pin WW .79 .72 

18 pin WW .95 .8! 

20 pin WW 1.19 1.0 { . 

22 pin WW 1,29 LIS 

24 pm WW 135 |.1( 

28 pin WW 1. 69 1.5f 

36 pm WW 1.89 I.7S 

40pinWW2.29 I.SS 



Header Plugs (Geld) 

1D-99 IflO-up 



14 [ 


n HP 


65 


59 


55 


|«| 


nHP 


V> 


fiS 


'22 


24 , 


riHP 


1 15 


<J l .l 


SB 



14 pm HC 
16 pin HC 

24 pin HC 



S1 Minimum Order - US. Funds Only CA fleatdBnta: Add 6V>% Sates Tax Spec Sheets - 3(W each 

Shipping: Add 5% plus $1 .50 Insurance Send SI Postage for FREE 19SS Jameca Catalog Prices Subject to Change 

Send stamped, setl-addrcssed envelope to rocofm a Monthly Sates Flyer - FREE! 



ameco 

EESi333ia 

1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
5/85 PHONE ORDERS WELCOME - (415) 592-8097 - Telex: 176043 





:!iiiig Ml ir/pfunm. clocks, hi 
lintugt InwUtiBra. tic. The DTI 050 is a standard DIGITALKER M encotJed with 137 separate 
and useful wrds, 2 tones, and 5 difterenl silence durations. The words and iDnes have been 
assigned discrete addresses, making it possible to output single words of words concatenated 
Into phrases or even sentences. The "voice" output ol the 01*1050 is a highly intelligible male 
voice The DTtOSfl cnnsltls gl i Spsech Pntcesur Oiip, MK54104 140-pin] ird !w (Z) Speech AOMs 
MM5ZI64SSH1 ind MM52164SSR2 (24-piri) along with ■ NUsttr Word list ind i rtuguDended uhontta 
dujnm w the application she si. 

DT1 050 Digitalker™ $34.95 ea. 

MM 54 104 Processor Chip $14.95 ea. 

DT1 057-Eipinds the DTIOSO miiiiiq (mm 137 to mm Z60 twrdi. Inct. 2 ROMs ind speci. 

Part No. DT1057 $24.95 ea. 



INTERSIL 



7045IPI IZ CMOS Precision Timer 14.95 

7045EWKit tS Stopwatch Ctiip, XTL(EvalualionKit) 19 95 

7106Ca 40 3ii OigitA/D ILCO Oris*) 1049 

FE0202D 40 4 Oigit LCDDisplay lor 72111PI & 721 1MIPL. . . . 1495 

FE0203D 40 3': Digit LCD Display lor 7106 4 7116 U95 

7106EWKil 40 IC, Circuit Board. Display (Evaluation Kil) 4695 

7107CK 40 3^? DigilA/D (LED Dm*) 1095 

7107EWKII 40 IC, Circuil Board. Display (Evaluation Krl) 46 95 

71 16CPL 40 3<s Dlgil A/D LCDDis. HLO 10.95 

7201IUS LowBatteryVolt Indicator 2.25 

7205IPG 24 CMOSLED Stopwalch/limer 14 95 

22. ■ v • : Chip. XTL (Evaluation Kit) 16.95 

7206CJPE 16 Tone Generator 4 95 

7206CEV'Kil 16 Tone Generalot Chip. XTL IE luatioii Kit} 7.95 

7207AIPO 14 Oscllator Controller 595 

7207AEWKII 14 Freq. Counter Chip. XTL (Evaluation Kit) 8.49 

721 1IPL 40 4 Digil LCO Display Decoder/Driver (TTL compatible) 795 

7211MIPL 40 4 Digil LCD OisplayDecodeuOnver (Microproc. cornpat.). . 895 

7215IPG 24 4 Func.CMOS StopwalcliCKT 1695 

7215EV/Kit 24 4 Func. Stopwalch Chip. XTL (EvalualionKil) 19 49 

7216AUI 28 8 Digil Unr\'.CounterCA 3149 

7216DIPI 28 8 Digit Freq. Counter CC 21.49 

7217UI 28 4 Digit LEO UpiOowti Counter CA 1095 

7217AIPI 28 4 DigillEO Uptown CounlerC.C 9.95 

7224IPL 40 LCD 4^ Digit Up Counter DRI 1095 

7226AEWKH 40 5 Function Counter Chip. XTL (Evaluation Kit) . . 9995 

1 30009 1983 INTERSIL Data Book <i356p.) .... $9.95 I 



74HC High Speed CMOS 



74HCO0 14 

74HC02 14 

74HC03 14 

74HC04 14 

74HCU04 14 

74HC08 14 

74HC10 14 

74HCI1 14 

74HC14 14 

74HC20 14 

74HC27 14 

74IIC30 14 

74HC32 14 

74HC42 16 

74HC51 14 

74HC5B 14 

74HC73 14 

74HC74 14 

74HC75 16 

74HC76 16 

74HC85 16 

74HC86 14 

74HC107 14 

74HC109 16 

74HC112 IG 

74HC123 16 

74HC125 14 

74HC132 14 

74HC137 16 

74HC13E 16 



74HC139 16 

74HC147 16 

74HC151 16 

74HC153 16 

74HC154 24 

74HC157 16 

74HCI58 16 

74HC160 16 

74HC161 16 

74HC162 16 

74HC163 16 

74HC164 14 

74HC165 16 

74HC166 16 

74HC173 16 

74HCI74 16 

74HC175 16 

74HC190 16 

74HCI91 16 

74HC192 16 

74HC193 16 

74HC194 IG 

74HC195 16 

74HC221 IG 

74HC237 16 

74HC240 20 

74HC241 20 

74HC242 14 

74HC243 14 

74HC244 20 



74HC245 20 

74HC251 16 

74HC253 16 

74HC257 16 

74HC259 16 

74HC266 14 

74HC273 20 

74HC280 14 

74HC299 20 

74HC366 16 

74HC367 IG 

74HC373 20 

74HC374 20 

74HC390 16 

74HC393 14 

74HC533 20 

74HC534 20 

74HC595 16 

74HC688 20 

74HC4024 14 

74HC4040 16 

74HC4060 IG 

74HC4075 14 

74HC4078 14 

74HC4511 16 

74HC4514 24 

74HC4538 16 

74HC4543 16 



74C0O 
74C02 
74C04 
74C08 
74C10 
74C14 
74C20 
74C30 
74C32 
74C42 
74C48 
74C73 
74C74 
74C85 
74C86 
74C89 
74C90 
74C93 
74C95 



14 



■MMMMiKd 



74C107 
74C151 
74C154 
74C157 
74C160 
74C161 
74C162 
74C163 
74C164 
74C165 
74C173 
74C174 
74C175 
74C192 
74C193 
74C195 
74C221 



74C240 
74C244 
74C373 
74C374 
74C901 
74C902 
74C903 
74C906 
74C907 
74C911 
74C912 
74C915 
74C917 
74C922 
741,923 
74C925 
74C926 
8X95 
B0C97 



TL071CP 6 
TL072CP 8 
TL074CN 14 
TL081CP 8 
TL082CP 8 
TL0B4CN 14 
LMI09K 
LM301CN 8 
LM302H 
LM304H 
LM305H 
LM307CN B 
LM308CN 8 
LM309K 
LM310CN 8 
LM311CN 8 
LM312H 
LM3I7T 
LM317K 
LM31BCN 8 
LM319N 14 
LM320K5 

LM320K15 

LM320K-24 

LM320T-5 

LM320T-12 

LM320T15 

LM320T-24 

LM322N 14 

LM323K 

LM324N 14 

LM329DZ 

LM331N B 

LM334Z 

LM335Z 

LM336Z 

LM337MP 

LM337T 

LM338K 

LM339N 14 

LM340K-5 

LW340M2 

LM340K15 

LM340K24 

LM340T-5 

LM340T-12 

LM340T-15 

LM340T-24 

LF347N 14 

LM348N 14 

LM350K 

LF351N 8 

LF353N B 



LF355N 8 

LF356N 8 

LM358N 8 

LM359N 14 

LM370N 14 

LM373N ' 14 

LM377N 14 

LM3B0CN 8 

LM380N 14 

LM381N 14 

LM382N 14 

LM384N 14 

LM386N-3 8 

IM387N 8 

LM389N IB 
LM39IN-80 16 

LM392N 8 

LM393N 8 

LF398N 8 
LM399H 

LF412CN 8 

TL494CN IB 

TL496CP 8 

NE531V B 

NE544N 14 

NE550A 14 

NE555V 8 

XR-L555 8 

IM556N 14 

NE558N 16 

NE564N 16 

LM565N 14 

LM566CN 8 

LM567V 8 

NE57QN 16 

NE571N 16 

NE592N U 

LM703CN 8 

LM710N 14 

LM711N 14 

LM723N 14 

LM733N 14 

LM739N 14 

LM741CN 8 



LM747N 14 

LM748N 8 
UA760HC 

LM1456V 8 

LM1458CN B 

LM148BN 14 

LM1489N 14 

LM1496N 14 
LM1605CK 

IM1800N 16 

LM1871N 18 

LM1872N 16 
LM1877N-9 14 

LM1889N IG 

IM1896N 14 
LM20O2T 

ULN2003A 16 

XR2206 IG 

XR2207 14 

XR2208 16 

XR2211 14 
LM2877P 
LM2678P 

LM2901N 14 

LM2902N 14 

LM2907N 14 

LM2917N 8 

LM3900N 14 

LM3905CN 8 

LM3909N 8 

LM3914N 18 

LM3915N IB 

LM3916N 16 

RC4I36N 14 

RC4151NB 8 
RC4195TK 

LM4250CH 8 

IM458GA 16 

NE5532 8 

NE5534 8 
79M05AH 

IC1.6038 14 



::: 3 



8 



LM1360ON IS 1 

76477 28 3.1 

MORE AVAILABLE 



30003 1 982 Nat. Linear Data Book (1952 pgs) .$11.95 



228 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 21 7 



Commodore® Accessories ProModem 1200 and Options Apple® Accessories 




RS232 Adapter 
for VIC-20 and 
Commodore 64 



The JE232CM allows connection of standard serial RS232 
printers, modems, etc. to your VIC-20 and C-64. A 4-pole 
switch allows the inversion of the 4 control lines. Com- 
plete installation and operation instructions included. 

• Plugs into User Port ■ Provides Standard RS232 signal 
levels • Uses 6 signals (Transmit, Receive, Clear to Send, 
Request to Send, Data Terminal Ready, Data Set Ready). 

JE232CM $39.95 



VOICE SYNTHESIZER 
FOR APPLE AND COMMODORE 

-i-in 



tfilH 



JE520CM 




JE520AP 



• Over 250 word vocabulary-affixes allow the formation of more 
than 500 words • Built-in amplifier, speaker, volume control, and 
audio jack • Recreates a clear, natural male voice* Plug-In user 
ready with documentation and sample software • Case size: 
7V«"L x 3'/<"W x 1-3/8"H 

APPLICATIONS: • Security Warning • Telecommunication 

• Teaching • Handicap Aid 

• Instrumentation • Games 

Part No. Description Price 

JE520CM For Commodore 64 & VIC-20 $114.95 

JE520AP For Apple II, II+, and lie $149.95 



Computer Memory 
Expansion Kits 



IBM PC, PC XT and Compatibles 

Most ol the popular Memory Boards (e.g. Quadram'" Expansion Boards) 
allow you to add an additional 64K, 128K, 1 92K or 256K.The IBM64K Kit will 
populate these boards in 64K byte Increments. The Kit is simple lo install- 
just insert the 9 - 64K RAM chips In the provided sockets and set the 2 groups 
ol switches Complete conversion documentation Included. 

IBM64K (Nine 200ns 64K RAMs) $33.49 

IBM PC AT 

Each kit comes complete with nine 1 28Kdynamic RAMsand documentation 
for conversion 

IBM128K (Nine 250ns 128K RAMs) $199.95 

APPLE He 

Extended 80-Columui64KRAM Card. Expands memory by64K to give 1 28K 
when used with programs like VisiCalc™. Fully assembled and tested. 

JE864 $99.95 

TRS-80 MODEL I, III 

EachKitcomescompletewitheightMM5290(UPO416/4116) 16K Dynamic 
RAMs and documentation for conversion. Model 1: 16K equipped with Ex- 
pansion Interface can be expanded to 48K with 2 Kits. Model III: Can be 
expanded from 16KI0 48K using 2 Kits. Each Kit will expand computer by 
16K increments. 

TRS-16K3 200ns (Model 111) $6.29 

TRS-16K4 250ns (Model 1) $5.49 

TRS-80 MODEL IV & 4P 

Easy lo install Kit comes complete with 8 ea. 4 1 64N-20 (200ns) 64K Dynamic 
RAMs and conversion documentation. Converts TRS-80 Model IV computers 
from 16K to 64K. Also expands Model 4P from 64K to 128K. 

TRS-64K-2 $29.95 

(Converts the Model IV from 16Kto64K or will expand the Model 4Pfrom 
64K to 128K) 

TRS-64K2PAL (Model IV only) $49.95 

(8- 4164's with PAL Chip to expand from 64K to 128K) 

TRS-80 COLOR AND COLOR II 

Easy to irtstattKil comes complete with 8 each 4164N-20 (200ns) 64K 
Dynamic RAMs and documentation lor conversion. Converts TRS-80 Color 
Computers with D. E, ET, F and NC circuit boards to 32K. Also converts 
TRS-80 Color Computer II to 64K. Rex DOS or OS-9 required to utilize 
fuii 64K RAM on all computers. 

TRS-64K-2 $29.95 




& **&L 



Si RicS 



PROTECT YOURSELF.. 

DATASHIELD 
Surge Protector 

EliminalesvoltagespikesandEM RFI noisebeforeit 
candamageyourequipmentorcausedataloss.6-mo. 
warranly. Power dissipation {100 microseconds): 
2.000.000 watts 



DESCRIPTION 



MODEL 75 


4 Sockets, On/Off Switch 


. $49.95 


MODEL 85 


6 Sock.. Super Filters, On/Off Switch. . 


. $59.95 


MODEL 100 


6 Sock., Super Filters, Low Volt. Alarm. 


. S69.95 


MODEL 110AMS 


6 Sockets, Super Piters, 






Auto, Master Switch , , . , 


. $99.95 




DATASHIELD 
Back-Up Power Source 

Protect your computer from black-outs, orowii-outs, power 
surges and line noise. PTl's PC200 Is designed lor PCs 
with floppy disk memory, the XT300 forharddiak memoiy 
andthe ATSOQ'or multi-user systems. A typicalcompatible 
PC for each of these slandbys will be supported tor 15 to 
25 minutes after power Is lost. Weight (PC200: 24 lbs.) - 
(XT30Q: 37.5 lbs.) - (AT5Q0: 83 IDs..) - (AT800; 83 lbs.) 

PC200 (200 Watt Rating) $299.95 

XT300 (300 Watt Rating) $399.95 

AT500 ( 500 Watt Rating) $699.95 

AT800 (800 Watt Rating) $799.95 




Intelligent 300/1200 Baud 
PRl aethei Telephone Modem with 

Real Time Clock/Calendar 

A 
0,! The ProModem"' isa Beil 212 A (300/1200 baud) Intelli- 
gent stand-alone modem • Full featured expandable 
modem • Standard features include Auto Answer and 
Auto Dial, Help Commands, Programmable Intelligent 
Dialing, Touch Tone™ and Pulse Dialing & More • Hayes 
command set compatible plus an additional extended 
command set* Shown w/ialphanumeric display option. 
Part No. Description Price 

PM1200 RS-232 Stand Alone Unit $349.95 

PM1200A Apple II, II+ and lie Internal Unit $369.95 

PM1200B IBM PC and Compatible Internal Unit $269.95 

PM1200BS IBM PC & Comp. Int. Unit w/ProCom Software $319.95 

MAC PAC Macintosh Package $399.95 

(Includes PM1200, Cable, & ProCom Software) 

OPTIONS FOR ProModem 1200 

PM-COM (ProCom Communication Software) $79.95 

Please specify Operating System. 

PM-OP (Options Processor) $79.95 

PMO-16K (Options Processor Memory - 16K) $10.95 

PMO-32K {Options Processor Memory - 32K) $20.95 

PMO-64K (Options Processor Memory - 64K) $39.95 

PM-ALP (Alphanumeric Display) $79.95 

PM-Special (Includes Options Processor, 64K Memory 
■ w 'wN-» ^ «»»w' and Alphanumeric Display) $1 89.95 



KEYBOARDS 



■MUp 



13VLx4l4"WxWH 



New! 




<*& 



SPECIAL 

functions: 

Description 



Mitsumi 54-Key Unencoded 
Ail-Purpose Keyboard 

■ SPST keyswitches ■ 20 pin ribbon cable connec- 
tion ■ Low profile keys • Features: cursor controls, 
control, caps (lock), (unction, enter and shift keys 

■ Color (keycaps): grey • WV: 1 lb. • Pinout Included 

KB54 $14.95 



5V4" APPLE™ 

Direct Plug-In 

Compatible Disk Drive 

and Controller Card 

The ADD-514 Disk Drive uses 
Shugart SA390 mechanics-143K 
formatted storage • 35 tracks 
• Compatible with Apple Control- 
ler & ACC-1 Controller • The drive 
comes complete with connector and cable - just plug 
into your disk controller card • Size: 6"L x 3'/2"W x 
8-9/16"D • Weight: 4Vj lbs. 

ADD-514 (Disk Drive) $169.95 

ACC-1 (Controller Card) $ 49.95 

More Apple Compatible Add-Ons... 

APF-1 (Cooling Fan with surge protection). . . . $39.95 

KHP4007 (Switching Power Supply) $59.95 

JE614 (Numeric/ Aux. Keypad for//e) $59.95 

KB-A68 (Keyboard w/Keypad forll & II+) $79.95 

MON-12G (12" Green Monitor w/swivel stand). . . . $99.95 

JE864 (80 Col. +64K RAM for He) $99.95 

ADD-12 (5V«" Half-Height Disk Drive) $179.95 

JflffflL ADDITIONAL APPLE ,? 
pjf fQ t ADD-ONS AVAILABLE 

ARC-1 6K(16K RAM Card for Apple II & II+) $39.95 

AEB-2 (EPROM Burner for Apple II. II+ & We) . .$69.95 

Allows copy of standard EPROMS 

2708,2716,2732,2764 
ASSC-P (SuperSerialCardfor Apple II. II+ & lie) . .$99.95 
ADD-IIC (5ft" Half-Ht. Disk Drive for Apple /fcl $1 89.95 



DISK DRIVES 



82-Key ASCII Cherry Keyboard 

• 7-bit parallel ASCII • 11 -key numeric keypad 

• Cursor keypad • SPST mechanical keyswitches 

• 4 illuminated keys • 26-pin header connector 
Color: white • Size: 18"L x 6V<"W x IV H ■ Spec 
included 



KB8201 . 



. (1700avail.). 



. $29.95 



Apple Keyboard and Case 
for Apple II and II+ 

Keyboard: • 68 keys • 15-key keypad • Direct con- 
nection with 16-pin ribbon connector ■ 26 special 
functions • Size: 1WL x 5Vi"W x 1Vfe"H 
Case: Accommodates KB-A68 • Pop-up lid for easy 
access ■ Fits power supply and motherboard too 
• Size: 1 5 VW x 1 8"D x 4 V'H price 




SSL - 

Docu/nenfaf/on^^Tl A*?^ 

Included ^%^^^ e "W 

MPI51S (MPI5'/4"SSfull-ht.) $ 89.95 

RFD480 (Remex 5Va" DS full-ht.) $109.95 

TM100-2 (Tandon 5 1 /4" DS full-ht.) $159.95 

FD55B (Teac 5 1 /4" DS half-ht.) $149.95 

SA455 (Shugart 5 1 /4 " DS half-ht.). . . . $159.95 

FDD1 00-8 (Siemens 8" SS full-ht.) $11 9.95 

PCK-5 (5'A" Power Cable Kit) $2.95 

PCK-8 (8" Power Cable Kit) $3.95 



UV-EPROM Eraser 



KB-EA1 Apple Keyboard and Case (pictured above) $134.95 

KB-A68 68-Key Apple Keyboard only $ 79.95 

EAEC-1 Expanded Apple Enclosure Case only $ 59.95 



POWER SUPPLIES 



SW 






Power/Mate Corp. REGULATED POWER SUPPLY 

■ Input: 105-1 25/210-250 VAC at 47-63 Hz ■ Line regulation: ±0.05% • Three 
mounting surfaces • Overvoltage orotection • UL recognized • CSA certified 
Part No. Output Site Weight Price 



EMA5/6B 
EMA5/6C 



5V@3A/6V@2.5A 4 7 V*Lx 4'Wx2'*"H 2 lbs. 
5V@6A/6V@5A 5%"L x 4%"W x 2%"H 4 lbs. 



$29.95 
$39.95 



KEPCO/TDK4-OUTPUT SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY 

• Ideal for disk drive needs of CRT terminals, microcomputers and 
Videogames • Input: 1 15/230VAC, 50/60Hz ■ Output: +5V @ 5 Amp, +1 2V@ 
1.8 Amp, +12V @ 2 Amp, -12V @ 0.5 Amp • UL recognized • CSA ceitified 

• Size: 7%"L x 6-3/16' W x 1 WH • Weight: 2 lbs. $59.95 each Qr 

MRM 174KF 2 for $99.95 



Switching Power Supply for APPLE II, II+ & lie™ 

• Can drive four floppy disk drives and up to eight expansion cards 

• Short circuit and overload protection • Fits inside Apple computer 

• Fully regulated +5V @ 5A, +12V @ 1 5A, -5V @ .5A. -12V @ .5A . 

• Direct plug-in power cord included • Size: 9%"L x 3 1 £"W x 2V4"H 

• Weight: 2 lbs. 

KHP4007 (SPS-109) $59.95 



4-CHANNEL SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY 

• Microprocessor, mini-computer, terminal, medical equipment and process 
control applications • Input: 90-130VAC, 47-440Hz • Output: +5VDC @ 5A, 
-5VDC® 1 A; + 12VDC® 1A.-12VDC® 1A- Line regulations: £0.2% ■ Ripple: 
30mV p-p • Load regulation: ±1% • Overcurrent protection • Adj: 5V main 
output ±10% • Size: 6%"Lx 1%"W x 4-15/1 6"H -Weight: Vk lbs. 

FCS-604A $69.95 



IBM PCXT EQUIVALENT 130 WATT POWER SUPPLY 

UPGRADE YOUR PCI 

* Input: 100V-130V/200V-260V selectable @ 47 to 63Hz • Output: 
+5VDC @ 15A, -5VDC @ 0.5A, +12VDC @ 4.2A, -12VDC @ 0.5A 
■ Plug compatible connectors * Fits into IBM PC • Weight: 6 lbs. 

IBM-PS $169.95 



| 8 Chips - 21 Minutes | *- ^* 

] 1 Chip -15 Minutes | 

Erases all EPROMs. Erases up to 8 chips within 21 minutes (1 chip 
in 1 5 minutes). Maintains constant exposure distance of one inch. 
Special conductive foam liner eliminates static build-up. Built-in 
safety lock to prevent UV exposure. Compact - only 9.00"L x 
3.70'W x 2.60"H. Complete with holding tray for 8 chips. 

DE-4 UV-EPROM Eraser. ..... $74.95 

UV S-11EL Replacement Bulb $16.95 

See Our New IBM Communications Program! 

24 & 28 PIN 

\fn\ v«n\ ....«.* \ PACKAGES 

8K to 64K 
EPROMs 



REQUIRES NO ADDrTIONAL SYSTEMS FOR OPERATION 

Programs and validates EPROMs -Checks tor properly erased EPROMs 
■ Emulates PROMs or EPROMs ■ Loads data in RAM by keyboard • Changes 
data in RAM by keyboard • Loads RAM Irom an EPROM • 664 RAMs can be 
used for exlernal microprocessor development -Compares EPROMs for 
content diflerences • Copies EPROMs- Input: 1 15VAC@60Hz ■ Assembled 
and tested- Size: 15VLx8*4"Dx3VH • Wt: 5^ lbs • 2716Moduleii - 




$10 Minimum Order - US. Funds Only CA Residents: Add 814% Sales Tax Spec Sheets - 30< each 

Shipping: Add 5% plus $1.50 Insurance Send S1 Postage for FREE 1985 Jameco Catalog Prices Subject to Change 

Send stamped, sett-addressed envelope to receh-e a Monthly Sales Flyer - FREEI 



(MasterCard) 



j 



W I I.B W JW r M fH 



a 



ameco 



VISA" 



1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
5/85 PHONE ORDERS WELCOME -(415) 592-8097 - Telex: 1 76043 



JE664-A EPROM Programmer $995.00 

JE665-RS232C INTERFACE OPTION - this option implements computer 
access to the JE664's RAM. allowing computer to manipulate, store, and trans- 
fer EPROM data to and from the JE664. Sample program listing Is supplied in 
MBASIC for CP/M computers • Documentation proviided to adapt the software 
to other computers with an RS232 port ■ Specs: 9600 Baud, 8-bil word, odd 
parity with 2 stop bits • Assembled and tested • 2716 Module included 

EPROM Programmer 
JE664-ARS w/JE6 65 Option $1195.00 



JE664-ARS COMMUNICATION PROGRAM 
For IBM-PC or XT and Compatibles 



• Fast compiled BASIC program ■ Easy to use, menu-driven ■ Print hard- 
copies of EPROM data • View data in HEX and ASCII NEW! 

The JE664-ARS Communication Program was written lor quick interlacing 
between the JE664-ARS EPROM Programmer and the IBM-PC computer and 
compatibles. Menu-driven program allows user to Load and Savo EPROM 
dala to and Irom the computer or floppy disk. Data eniered by the computer 
can be viewed in Hex & ASCII formats Printed hard-copies are also displayed 
in both formats Program is ideal lor keeping archives of master EPROMs on 
disk. The program is compatible tor all EPROMs listed wilh the JE664. 
Computer requirements: IBM-PC, XT (or eq .) with at least 1 28K RAM and one 
serial port. Optional: One parallel port tor printer. 

JE664-ARS-CP $49.95 

JE664-ARS Communications Program (5V." Disk and User's Instructions) 

JE664-CP CABLE. $29.95 

Cable for IBM-PC to JE664-ARS Program (5 1 Shielded Cable Assembly) 



JUMPER (Personality) MODULES - Jumper (Personality) Modules lor 8K. 
16K. 32K, and 64K EPROMs 'Please specify EPROM and mar 
JUMPER (Personality) MODULE * 



manufacturer. J 
. $14.95 ead^ 



Inquiry 217 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 229 



Inquiry 30 



Little Board™ $349" 





•UNDERS200IN 
OEM QUANTITIES 



• 4-MHz Z80A CPU, 64K RAM, Z80A CTC, and 
2732 Boot ROM 

• Mini /Micro Floppy controller ( 1 -4 Drives, 
Single/Double Density, 1-2 sided, 40/80 track) 

• Only 5.75 x 7.75 inches, mounts directly to a 
5 1 1 A" floppy drive 

• IWo RS232C Serial Ports (75-9600 baud 

and 75-38,400 baud), 1 Centronics Printer Port 

• Power Requirements: +5VDC at 0.75A; +12VDC 
at 0.05A/On-board - 1 2V Converter 

• CP/M2.2BDOS • ZCPR3CCP 

• Enhanced AMPRO BIOS 

• AMPRO Utilities included: 

• Read/write to more than two dozen other 
formats (Kaypro, Televideo, IBM CP/M86...) 

• Format disks for more than a dozen other 
computers 

• Menu-based system customization 

• BIOS and Utilities Source Code available 

BOOKSHELF™ *■** *» 

AS LOW AS $635 IN OEM QTY 

MODEL QTY 1 PRICE I 

121 1 400K DSDD Drive $ 895.00 

122 2 400K DSDD Drives 995.00 | 
142 2 800KDSQD Drives 1,095.00 

• Little Board CPU 

• Runs thousands of CP/M programs 

• Enhanced Operating System including ZCPR3 
CCP and FRIENDLY^ Integrated Operating 
Environment 

• Word Processing, Electronic Spreadsheet, 
Database Management, Spelling Checker all 
included (complete T/maker Pkg.) 

• 10 MB hard disk version available 

• 6'A"high, 7'/4"wide, lOWdeep, 12V? lbs. 

SCSI/PLUS™ Adapter 

Compatible with most Z80 Systems 
(send $10 forcomplete specifications) 

• Mounts directly to Little Board 

• Multi-Master high-speed parallel bus $99 

• SASI-SCSI compatible QTY 1 

• General purpose I/O expansion bus 

• Supports up to 64 bus devices 

• Allows multi-Little Board Systems and resource 
sharing 

• Little Board hard disk software/source $79 QTY 1 



DISTRIBUTORS 

Argentina-Factorial, S.A 1-41-0018 

Australia-ASP Microcomputers .... 61 3-500-0628 
Belgium-Centre Electronique Lempereur . . 041 -23-45-41 
Canada-Electronic Sales Assoc . . . (604) 986-5447 

Denmark-Danbit 03-66 2a 20 

England-Quant Systems 01-534-3158 

Finland-Symmetric OY 358-0-585-322 

France-EGAL+ 1-502-1 800 

Israel- Alpha Terminals 03-491695 

Spain-Xenios Informatica 3-593-0822 

Sweden-AB AKTA 08-54-20-20 

USA: CALL AMPRO 

Z80A is a registered trademark of Zilog, Inc. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. 



COMPUTERS. INCORPORATED 

67 East Evelyn Ave. • Mountain View, CA 94041 
(41 5) 962-0230 • TELEX 4940302 



THE TRANSPUTER 



Transputers has the same interface as 
a single Transputer in much the same 
way as an assembly of Lego bricks has 
the same interface (lugs and holes) as 
a single brick. A big Transputer can 
be built out of four Transputers, as 
shown in figure 6a. This Transputer 
can in turn be used as a building 
block to make a bigger Transputer 
(figure 6b), and so on. These big and 
bigger Transputers present the user 
with exactly the same four link inter- 
faces as did the original Transputer. 
A further analogy with L^ego bricks 
is that they come in different shapes 
and sizes and with different numbers 
of lugs and holes. Transputers will 



have different word lengths, different 
processor speeds, and different 
memory interfaces, but they will all 
use the same links, run off the stan- 
dard 5-MHz input clock, and be pro- 
grammable in Occam. 

The analogy holds just as well with 
Occam processes as it does with 
Transputers. 

One respect in which the analogy 
with Lego bricks does not hold is that 
Lego bricks are constrained to con- 
nect to their immediate neighbors. In 
many Transputer networks, most of 
the connections will also be between 
adjacent Transputers, but the links do 

[continued) 



IMS 
T424 



-notWbyte3- 

-notWbyte2- 

notWbytel- 

-notWbyteO- 
~notG = /OE- 



u 



-/WE- 



vec- 



r 



cs 

RFSH- 



-notS0=/CE- 







8K X 8 
OR 

32K X 8 
DYNAMIC 
RAM 



7^: 

:*J <w> U 






Figure 3: Four byte-wide RAMs connected to a T424. 






n 


r 




C s " 


- - 


¥> 


5? 


9( 


9 




v y 



Figure 4: A random, possibly 
functionally distributed, network. 



Figure 5: A toroidally connected array. 



230 BYTE • MAY 1985 



The right network isn't 
a matter of choice. It's a 



matter of fact 



Fact: You carit buy smarter 
than an OMNINET™ Network. 

Whether you have 2 microcompu- 
ters or 200, you bought them to 
handle information. If each micro 
has to handle it separately both your 
equipment and your people are 
working inefficiently. 

Because they could network with 
OMNINET. Sharing information — 
as well as the printing and data \ 
storage equipment that really 
puts information to work. 

Add CORVUS' SNA Gateway, and 
you can link your entire network 
directly to your mainframe. 





The price? At under $500 per 
hookup, OMNINET is the most cost 
effective network you 
can install. Or expand. 



Fact: This network 
was designed for 
microcomputers. 

Micros get moved. 
Businesses expand. 

Your network should 
be able to grow and 
change just as fast as 
your business does. 



That's why an 
OMNINET Net- 
work uses simple, 
telephone-type 
line. Even relocating 
the system to a whole 
new building is just 
a move. Instead of a 
construction project. 

Fact: OMNINET 
Networks offer 
unmatched 
compatibility. 

From Apples to Zeniths, 
OMNINET handles more 
varieties of computers 
than any other network. 
So keep the DECs in Data Pro- 
cessing and the PC's in Purchasing. 
OMNINET will keep them all on 
speaking terms. 





Zenith 
Cormts OMNINET Netwvrk 



Printer 



Fact: The experts network 
with OMNINET. 

Over 30 of the major computer com- 
panies have licensed OMNINET for 
networking their micros. So you don't 
have to worry about support tomor- 
row for the system you pick today. 

And OMNINET already has the most 
software options around— over 500 
programs to choose from, according 
to your peoples needs. Not their 
network s limitations. 

Fact: The facts have made us #1. 

CORVUS pioneered local area net- 
working for microcomputers, and 
we've never stopped working on ways 
to improve it. 

Just give us a ring 
at800-4-CORVUS 
to find out more. 

Because while 
calling ourselves the 
best is a matter of opinion, telling you 
that 3 out of every 5 locally networked 
micros work on a CORVUS network 
is something else* 

It's a matter of fact. 

Gorvus 

The Networking Company 




• 59% of all locally-networked micros operate in a corvus network, according to fnfoCotp corvus.the networking company, omninet, OMNiDRiVEand corvus bank are trademarks of corvijs SY5TEMS.INC 
ibm pc is a trademark of International Business Machines, apple is a trademark of appi.e computer inc. dec is a trademark of digitalequipmentcorporation Zenith is a trademark of Zenith Corporatioa 



Inquiry 111 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 231 



Inquiry 91 



f fiUARENQV/) 
/ MY C ONTR.PL/ 
IT 



f r^ml [ sw %rj 




ADAPTA PRINT 

SOFTWARE 

FAST AND EASY FINGERTIP 
CONTROL OF YOUR PRINTER 

• Adapta-Print's pop-up menu lets you use 
your printer to its fullest capability-without 
having to exit whatever program you're 
working on. That includes full control of 
form layout, type style, and general printer 
functions. 

• For non-IBM compatible printers, a 
built-in translator makes your printer 
compatible with the IBM printer, allowing it 
to generate pictures using Lotus 1-2-3* 
and most other software. 

• There's an option available called TURN 
that gives Adapta-Print the capability to 
print sideways. 

• A built-in spooler allows your printer to 
print one job while you work on another. 

• Available for many brands of dot matrix 
printers, including Epson, Okidata, 
Hewlett-Packard, NEC, Toshiba, 
Mannesmann, Tally, C. Itoh, Datasouth, 
and most other dot matrix printers. 

PURCHASE ADAFm-PRWr FOR ONLY $65. 

(Plus $2 shipping and handling). 

(TURN option is $24 additional) . 

Call 615-966-1399 with your Visa or MasterCard 
number, Operators are on duty weekdays until 9:00 
EST Or send your check or money order to the 
address below. 




Computational Systems Incorporated 

Dept. BY 

One Energy Center 

Pellissippi Parkway 

Knoxville, Tennessee 37922 

'Lotus and 1-2-3 are trademark* of Lotus 
Development Corporation. 



THE TRANSPUTER 



not force this constraint, as the 
toroidal network in figure 5 shows. 

Using Transputers 

For the small computer, a simple base 
product might contain one to four 
Transputers, probably in a functionally 
distributed network with one Trans- 
puter handling file I/O (input/output) 
and another handling the screen. 
More performance could be achieved 
with add-on boards; it would be pos- 
sible to add Transputers and memory 
in much the same way that memory 
add-on boards are used now. 

If the add-on board has four Trans- 
puters, each with four 32 K by 8-bit 



RAMs, as in figure 3, the board would 
have a processing power of 20 to 40 
MIPS and a memory of Vi megabyte. 
Four boards would produce 80 to 1 60 
MIPS and 2 megabytes. An alter- 
native, densely packed add-on board 
might have two Transputers, each with 
thirty-two 2 56K by l-bit dynamic 
RAMs. Four of these boards would 
produce 40 to 80 MIPS and 8 mega- 
bytes. Four of either add-on board 
produces a machine that could fairly 
be described as a "personal super- 
computer." 

Transputer-based add-on boards 
could alternatively be used with an 

[continued] 











(a) 

i 1 1 


(b) 


1 TSlj 




i TJ~H i 1 










1 ZJq 


P i 




















"-(? 


fel 


i — - 
i 

1 JU 

1 \1 


b 


















3 


a 


f 


r j 
















r _J 


l_ 1 


i | J 




jxypuj 




















t^r 



Figure 6: (a) A big Transputer built from four Transputers, (b) A bigger Transputer 
built from four big Transputers. 



(a) 



(b) 



106 
10 5 
10* 
103 
102 
10 1 
10° 



n 



FIFTH- 
GENERATION 
TARGETS 



KJ 




10 6 
105 
10« 
103 
102 
10 1 



1960 1970 



1980 



10° 



MIPS, ALSO 
BUS THROUGHPUT, 
LINK THROUGHPUT, 
AND MEMORY 






NUMBER OF TRANSPUTERS 
IN SYSTEM 



10° 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 



Figure 7: (a) Conventional system throughput (in MIPS) by year (very approximate), 
(b) Transputer system throughput as a function of the number of Transputers in 
the system. 



232 BYTE • MAY 1985 




"It's easy to spot the difference between our 
IBM PC-based frame grabber and the others? 



High performance and affordable cost, just $1495 for 
a single plug-in board. 

Unlike other video I/O sys- 
tems, the newDT2803 provides 
real-time image capture capabil- 
ities, digitizing a 6-bit video field 
every 1/30 second. An on-board, 
memory-mapped, dual-ported 
frame store memory (256 x 
256 x 8) makes it ideal for 
the IBM PC's 64K buffer size. 
And for real number crunching, 




SPECIFICATIONS: DT2803 



A/D Input RS-170 (CCIRR), 6-bits at 5MHz 

Frame Grab 1/30 (1/25) second per field 

LUT's 8, 64 x 8 input; 4, 256 x 12 output 

D/A Output 64 colors x 64 intensities, R-G-B; 64 grey levels, monochrome 

Frame Memory 256 x 256 x 8 (2-bits for graphic overlays) 



the DT2803's external 
ports interface to high speed 
co-processors. 

With our software 
package, VIDEOLAB,™ the 
DT2803 is easy to use for 
image operations like aver- 
ages, histograms, and convo- 
lutions. 

So, if your application is 
manufacturing/automatic inspec- 
tion, robotics, or medical research, 
our new high per- 
formance video I/O 
board will really open your eyes - at 
an unbeatable price. 

Call (617) 481-3700 




Call for our new 
576 pg. catalog/ 
handbook or see it 
in Gold Book 1985. 



DATATRANSLATION 



World Headquarters: Data Translation, Inc., 100 Locke Dr., Marlboro, MA 01752 (617) 481-3700 Tlx 951 646. 

European Headquarters: Data Translation, Ltd., 13 The Business Centre, Molly Millars Lane, Wokingham Berks, RG112QZ, England Tlx: 851849862 ( #D) 

In Canada: (416) 625-1907. IBM PC is a registered trademark of IBM. VIDEOLAB is a registered trademark of Data Translation, Inc. 



Inquiry 123 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 233 




2400 bps modems: 
Do you Really need 
another speed? 




• Is the shift from 300 to 1 200 bps goingto repeat itself 
at 2400 bps? The answer is both yes and no. There 
certainly are applications for 2400 bps asynch dial-up 
modems, but we shouldn't expect 1 200 bps to die 
overnight. 

• 2400 bps modems can improve throughput, thereby 
getting tasks done quicker and more economically. 
However, 1200 bps has become the virtual standard for 
professional dial-up communications, and most users 
are satisfied with it. So why consider a 2400 bps modem 
at all? 

• One reason is flexibility. If the modem you select 
operates at all three speeds (300, 1200 & 2400) in 
accordance with accepted industry standards, it will 
serve virtually all dial-up applications now and in the 
foreseeable future. 

• The modem you select should be the 
MultiModem224. It is Bell 21 2A and 103 compatible at 
1200 and 300 bps, and CCITT V.22bis compatible at 
2400. It is also 100% compatible with the Hayes 
command set, meaning that it will work with virtually all 
communications software packages, at all three speeds. 
Other features include both synchronous and 
asynchronous operation, full intelligence and a phone 
number memory. 

• The MultiModem224 is available in both desktop and 
IBM PC™ internal card versions. (There is also a rack- 
mounted version for central sites.) And as a bonus, we 
provide free offers from ten of the most popular on-line 
information services, including CompuServe™ Dow 
Jones™ and The Source.™ 

• A 2400 / 1 200/300 bps modem is just a plain good 
investment. Why not let the MultiModem224 provide your 
communications for both today and tomorrow? 



Inquiry 282 



MultiTech # 

Systems ^^ 



The right answer every time. 

82 Second Ave. S.E., New Brighton, MN 55112 (612) 631-3550, TWX: 910-563-3610 



MultiTe h{S) 

Systems ^0f 



MultiModem224 

2400/1200/300 BPS Intelligent Modem 



/^\ /^N /£\ /T\ /^\ 



THE TRANSPUTER 



Performance is 



a function of the 
number of Transputers. 



existing computer, similar to Steve 
Ciarcia's 'frump Card (reference 9). 

The linear increase in performance 
with the number of 'Transputers used 
makes the lapanese Fifth Generation 
targets achievable as a function of the 
number of Transputers rather than as 
a function of years (figure 7). ■ 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
I would like to acknowledge the help of 
colleagues in Bristol, England, and Col- 
orado Springs, Colorado, in the prepara- 
tion of this article. Particular thanks to Phil 
Atkin and Owen Ransen, who developed 
the ray-tracing program used in the panel. 

REFERENCES 

1. Pountain, Dick. "Microprocessor 
Design." BYTE, August 1984, page 361. 

2. 1NMOS Limited. Occam Programming 
Manual. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice/Hall, 
1984. 

3. INMOS Limited. IMS T424 Transputer 
Reference Manual 1984. 

4. May, David, and Roger Shepherd. "The 
Transputer Implementation of Occam." 
Proceedings of the International Conference on Fifth 
Generation Computer Systems 1984. November 
6-9, Tokyo, page 533. Published by ICOT 

5. Shapiro, Ehud. "Systolic Programming: 
A Paradigm for Parallel Processing." Pro- 
ceedings of the International Conference on Fifth 
Generation Computer Systems 1984, November 
6-9, Tokyo, page 458. Published by ICOT 

6. Kung, H.T "Why Systolic Architec- 
tures?" IEEE Computer. 15(1), page 37, 
1982. 

7. Kung, S. Y, et al. "Wavefront Array Pro- 
cessor: Language, Architecture and Appli- 
cations." IEEE Transactions on Computers 
(Special issue on parallel and distributed 
computers), C-31 (11) November 1982, 
page 1054. 

8. Maruyama, Fumihiro, et al. "Prolog- 
Based Expert System for Logic Design." 
Proceedings of the International Conference on Fifth 
Generation Computer Systems 1984. November 
6-9, Tokyo, page 563. Published by ICOT 

9. Ciarcia, Steve. "Trump Card." BYTE, May 
1984, page 40. 

10. INMOS Limited. "Occam Programming 
Manual." (Japanese edition) KEI GAKU 
Publishing Co. Ltd., Japan, 1984. 



The Brand NEW 

printed this ad on an Epson FX printer 
Letter Quality 

Say goodbye to correspondence quality and hello to fycvnou, tyeynfra 
high-resolution, proportionally spaced , letter quality. Fonts are available 
in sizes from 6 to 72 points; styles include Roman, Bold, Italic. Script. Old 
English, and more. All this on low-cost dot-matrix printers. 3*ancu, 3wd 
is an easy-to-use software package, developed by SoftCraft, Inc., for IBM 
PC compatible systems and CP/M systems; no special hardware or 
installation is required. 

New Features Now Available in Version 2 

The latest version of ffancu, 3*&rU takes advantage of the phenomenal 
resolution of the Epson FX and RX printers to achieve laser printer 
quality. High resolution versions for the Toshiba 1350, 1351, 1340 and the 
Epson LQ-1500 will soon be available. 

This version boasts a greatly expanded set of formatting commands, 
including word-wrap. Special typesetting features such as kerning and 
automatic ligature formation are provided by an optional utility. 

As part of our library of fonts and utilities we have packages that make 
9*cvncu, 3*<ynt directly compatible with Microsoft Word, Wordstar and 
Valdocs; if you know how to use any of these word processors then you 
already know how to use sanou, 3*<s>rd. Alternatively, you can still use 
almost any word processor to create a text file to be printed with fyamvu, 
3*&rU. 



Numerous Applications 

tycvrvou, tfcyni customers are constantly 

• Business and personal letters 

• Mailing labels from databases 

• Custom forms, invoices, signs 

• Foreign Languages 

• Mathematical Notation, Greek 

• Super- and Sub-scripts 

• View Graphs 



discovering new applications. 

• Custom Letterheads 

• Name tags, badges 

• Articles for publication 

• Newsletters, brochures 

• Complete manuals 

• Advertisements 

• Resumes, invitations 



Create Your Own Characters 

Hundreds of fonts are available in our font library, and furthermore, you 
can create any new characters or logos you like, up to 1 inch by 1 inch. A 
database of over 1500 characters is included that makes it possible to print 
foreign languages and mathematical notations. 



Font Style Samples 



J Ha, aucduu, ol fvrvnt t& 

V4aI<W. P*t MeK«afw, Infowork) S/2/M 



Bold Italic 
Sans Serif y<ynifd ©IbtEngltslj 

Trademark!: Fancy Font (SoftCraft), Woidrtv (Mkropro), CP/M (D!fK*l Rawuarh), Vaidoc* (RWnf Star), Mknaoft, IBM 



Order NOW 



-0500 



MSDOS and CP/M versions are 
available for the following 
printers: Epson MX FX RX, 
IBM Graphics, Star Gemini 10X 
Radix Delta, TI 850 855, 
Inforunner. MSDOS versions 

only are available or will soon be 
available for: Toshiba 1350 1S51 
1340, Epson LQ-1600, C.Itoh 
Prowriter, NEC 8023. Specify 
printer when ordering. 



ISoftCraft, Inc., 222 State St. #400, Madison, WI 63703 orders: (800) 851-0600 
| (We've moved from California) from Wise: (608)267-8800 

|Faney Font System 1180 

(Fancy Font Demo Disk 110 

ICalif. and Wise, residents add sales tax 6.596 or 596 

jOutside US add 1 10 postage (only 12 for demo) 1 10 or 12 

(Diskette Format: (IBM PC, Epson QX10, Osborne DD, 

| Kaypro, 8» CP/M, Apple CP/M, Victor) 

(Printer (Epson FX, Epson MX, etc.; see box at left) 

(S7.50 of demo cost is applicable towards Fancy Font purchase. 

JCP/M requires 64K, MSDOS 128K memory. 

{Fully transparent 8-bit printer interface required on Apple and CP/M. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 235 



Super assemblers 

plus the world's 

largest selection of 

cross assemblers! 



All 2500 AD 
Assemblers and 
Cross Assemblers 
support the following 
features: 

POWERFUL LINKER 

— Links up to 128 files 

— Allows files to be used just for 

external reference resolution 
— Separate code and data space 
— Unlimited global and external 

symbols 
— 1 significant characters per 

symbol, no limit to length 
— Submit or batch mode as well as 

command invocation, for easier 

linking of a large number of files 

ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES 

Storage Control: 

►ORG, ORIGIN 

•END 

'DB, DEFB, BYTE, STRING 

•DW, DEFW.WORD 

■LWORD.LONGW 

•ASCII 

■DS, DEFS, BLKB 

■BLKW 

Definition Control: 

EQU, EQUAL 

VAR. DEFL 

MACRO 

ENDM, MACEND 

MACEXIT 

EXTERN, EXTERNAL 

GLOBAL, PUBLIC 

ASK 

Assembly Mode: 

RADIX 

DATA 

CODE 

MOD32 0N&OFF 

COMMENT 

INCLUDE 

DRIVES 



Conditional Assembly: 

IFZ, IFNZ, COND 
IFTRUE, IFFALSE 
IFDEF, IFNDEF 
IFSAME, IFDIFF 
IFEXT, IFNEXT 
IFABS, IFREL 
IFMA, IFNMA 
ELSE 

ENDC, ENDIFT 
IFCLEAR 

Listing Control: 

LIST ON/OFF 
MACLIST ON/OFF 
CONDLIST ON/OFF 
PASS1 ON/OFF 
PAGE, EJECT 
TITLE, HEADING 
SUBTITLE 
PW 
PL 
TOP 

Additional Motorola Directives: 
FCC 

SET,SETDP 
PAG 
NAM 
STTL 
XDEF 
XREF 

FCB, FDB, RMB 
LONG 

Run time commands (invoked 
while assembly is in progress): 

~S — Alternately start and stop 

assembly 
"C — Terminate assembly 
T — Display output at terminal 
T — Display output at printer 
~D — Send output to disk 
~B — Both terminal and printer 

or disk 
~N — Turn off output display 

1 Year of free support and 
updates now included! 

You will receive a special support 
phone number on all products 
purchased after 3/1/85 allowing free 
updates and a full 12 months of 



support, included in the purchase 
price. 

Features unique to 
these 2500 AD 
products: 

6800 FAMILY— "S"-record output 
option, special directives for dealing 
with page zero, absolute or 
relocatable modes. 

68000— 'S' : record output option, 
S-19, S-28andS-37. 

65XX FAMILY— Special directives 
for dealing with page zero. 
Z-8 — Register naming supported, 
TEK HEX output format. 

8748 — Register naming 
supported, INTEL HEX output. 
8051/44 — Register naming 
supported, INTEL HEX output. 

8096 — Register naming 
supported, INTEL HEX output, 
works for the 8097 as well. 
"Generic" calls and jumps allow 
assembler to determine long or 
short jumps. 

Z-8000— Includes 8080/Z-80 to 
Z-8000 source code translator, 
uses the 2500AD syntax, not 
source compatible with Zilog. 
Includes powerful segmented linker. 

Z-80— Includes an Intel 8080 to 
Zilog Z-80 source code converter. 
Includes the 2500AD linker, not 
compatible with Microsoft at the 
link level. 

8086/88 & 80186— Includes an 
8080/Z-80 to 8086 source code 
translator that will convert 8080/ 
Z-80 source code to 8086/88 

source code. Includes linker, not 
link compatible with Microsoft. 
Code, Data, Stack, and Extra 
segments supported. 



236 BYTE • MAY I985 







ZILOG 






OLIVETTI 




Z80 SYSTEM 8000 IBM PC 


IBM PC 


M-20 




CP/M® 


UNIX 


MSDOS 


CP/M 86 


PCOS 


! Z8000™ 


$299.50 


$750.00 


$299.50 


$299.50 


$299.50 


J Z80 


99.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


! Z8 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


i 8086/88 


199.50 


750.00 


99.50 


99.50 


199.50 


! 80186 


199.50 


750.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


! 8748 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


| 8400/84C00 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


J 83C351 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


i 8044/51 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


i 8080 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


! 8085 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


,' 8096 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


! 68020 


399.50 


750.00 


399.50 


399.50 


399.50 | 


' 68000,08,10 


299.50 


750.00 


299.50 


299.50 


299.50 


i 6800,02,08 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


! 6801,03 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


! 6804 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


| 6805 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


| 6809 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


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| 68C11 new 


199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


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i 32000 


399.50 


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J 6301 


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500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


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199.50 


500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


i 6501/11 


199.50 


500.00 


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199.50 


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500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


199.50 


', 65C02 


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500.00 


199.50 


199.50 


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399.50 


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Inquiry 437 



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238 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 211 



MULTIPROCESSING 



DATA-MOVEMENT 
PRIMITIVES 

by J. Eric Roskos and Ching-Dong Hsieh 



A low-cost implementation of an innovative technique 

for sharing memory 



THE MOST COMMON digital-com- 
puter architectures use primary mem- 
ory having two access primitives. 
These primitives are the lowest-level 
operations in the system. 'lypically the 
read operation nondestructively 
copies a value stored in a memory 
location to a location in the central 
processing unit (CPU) known as a 
register. The write operation writes over 
an existing value in primary memory 
with a value from the processor's 
registers. 

In single-process systems, and in 
multiprocess systems that do not use 
shared memory, these operations are 
generally sufficient for the manipula- 
tion of data. Although a time lapse 
occurs between the reading and re- 
writing of data, no problems will 
result since only one process is ac- 
cessing the data. 

In multiprocess systems accessing 
shared data, this is not the case. TWo 
processes that execute a statement 
on a common variable in overlapping 
time will both read the same value, in- 
crement it, and rewrite it: the second 
process writes over the value pro- 
duced by the first process without tak- 
ing that value into account. 

Other problems exist in multipro- 



cess data sharing. In producer! consumer 
process pairs, for example, one pro- 
cess produces a data stream that the 
other process consumes. Problems in- 
clude preventing the consumer from 
accessing memory locations that have 
not been filled by the producer and 
the producer from writing over data 
in the shared buffer before the con- 
sumer has acquired the previously 
written data. 

To solve these problems, we have 
defined data-movement primitives, which 
are concerned with the movement of 
data between the central processor(s) 
and main memory. These primitives 
actually remove data from a location 
upon reading it. Thereafter, if a sec- 
ond process tries to read at that loca- 
tion, an interrupt is generated— the 
process has to wait until data is pres- 
ent to continue. Similarly, if a location 
already has data and a second pro- 
cess attempts to write over it, an in- 
terrupt is generated. We have defined 
the data-movement primitives as get 
and put. 

To demonstrate the feasibility of 
constructing a multiprocessor system 
using data-movement primitives, our 
research team built a three-CPU multi- 
processor based on the Motorola 



6800 microprocessor. On September 
27. 1984. this system successfully 
executed its first concurrent program, 
an implementation of Per Brinch 
Hansen's "incorrect" program (see ref- 
erence 1). Such a system is not only 
feasible, it is inexpensive; the cost of 
the entire multiprocessor system was 
around $450. The project also dem- 
onstrated the effectiveness of the 
data-movement primitives by success- 
fully executing a program that would 
not have functioned correctly on a 
conventional machine. 

Selection of Hardware 

Planning for a multiprocessor system 
began in late summer of 1983. We ex- 
amined several implementation meth- 
ods. The first of these involved the use 
of 6502-based Apple II CPU boards. 
These had two significant advantages: 
a "set overflow" (SO) pin could be 
used to set a condition code indicat- 

[continued] 
I. Eric Roskos (2486 Sand lake Rd., Orlan- 
do. FL 32809) is a senior member of the tech- 
nical staff of Perkin-Elmer Corporations 
Southern Development Center. Ching-Dong 
Hsieh is a graduate student at Vanderbilt 
University (Computer Science DepL Box 
1679. Station B. Nashville, TN 37235). 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 239 



PRIMITIVES 



ing the no-data-present condition, 
and no debugging of the CPU hard- 
ware itself would be necessary. The 
boards were also available at low cost. 
We discarded this option, however, 
because no test equipment for 6502s 
was available to us. 

We next examined the use of an 
IBM CS9000 system, which is based 



on the Motorola 68000. with addi- 
tional 68000s for the added CPUs. Un- 
fortunately, time constraints and other 
difficulties made this implementation 
impossible. 

We decided finally on the use of 
Motorola 6800s. Such a design had 
several disadvantages. The 6800 is an 
old-technology microprocessor. You 




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cannot stop the instruction-execution 
sequence for more than a few milli- 
seconds once an instruction has 
begun execution; thus we could not 
implement the primitive wait at the 
hardware level as we could have with 
the 68000 processor. Also, the 6800 
does not have an SO pin as the 6502 
does. Thus, interrupts would have to 
be used to signal the exception con- 
dition, with software simulating the 
wait primitive. The 6800 also has no 
support for multiprocessor operation; 
it has no test-and-set instruction. This 
meant that we would not be able to 
obtain empirical results comparing 
the traditional synchronization primi- 
tives with the data-movement primi- 
tives, without the use of indirect 
simulation methods. 

On the other hand, we had con- 
siderable resources in the form of test 
equipment lent to us by Vanderbilt's 
electrical engineering department, 
which uses the 6800 in its micropro- 
cessor course. Furthermore, we could 
implement the machine easily and at 
low cost, thanks to the low price of 
6800s and our prior experience with 
6800 system design. The graduate 
school was also willing to provide 
funding for such a project. 

We selected an IBM Personal Com- 
puter, based on the Intel 8088. to 
serve as the host processor for the 
system. Again, this choice was large- 
ly practical in nature; an IBM PC was 
available, and Eric Roskos had very 
extensive experience with the ma- 
chine, having previously constructed 
peripheral control interfaces for it and 
written a 6800 cross-assembler for 
use with it. 

System Design 

We designed the system with three 
6800 microprocessors, each with its 
own private memory, and a memory 
shared by all three CPUs, supporting 
the data-movement primitives. The 
IBM PC would serve as a host ma- 
chine, on which we could quickly edit, 
assemble, and download programs to 
the multiprocessor. 

Each CPU's private memory was 
shared with the IBM PC and would be 

{continued) 



240 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 245 




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PRIMITIVES 



accessible to the IBM PC only when 
its CPU was halted; we made this 
design decision to simplify design of 
the interface for the private memories. 
We designed the multiprocessor 
with no read-only memory (ROM) 
whatsoever. While most people con- 
sidered this a somewhat radical 
design decision, it was a carefully 



planned one. No real justification 
exists for putting ROM on a system of 
this sort. The ROM is needed to start 
execution of one CPU in the system, 
but this role was already filled by the 
ROM in the IBM PC. On the other 
hand, the use of ROM would have 
caused considerable time delays in 
loading test programs and debugging 




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software (which requires erasing old 
ROMs and reprogramming new ones) 
and would have placed physical 
stresses on the CPU boards due to 
repeated removal and insertion of 
ROMs. Also, the use of ROM requires 
an unnecessary design trade-off: 
Code in ROM is immediately available 
at power-up, but you cannot modify 
it without physically replacing the 
ROM. We expected that we would 
need the ability to modify a test sys- 
tem such as this, and we were right. 
Instead of ROM, we used the 2K- 
byte private memories to contain pro- 
grams. We also incorporated a "halt 
register" and a "reset register." which 
are simple latches and with which we 
could individually halt or reset each 
of the three CPUs. When initially 
powered up. the halt register halted 
the multiprocessor's CPUs, the IBM 
PC loaded the program (including the 
RESET vector used at start-up) via the 
private memories, and the reset 
register then started the CPUs. To 
simplify implementation, we did not 
include a register to indicate whether 
a CPU had halted via the pro- 
grammed halt instruction— although 
this would have been beneficial. This 
information is available on the pro- 
cessor's "bus available" (BA) pin. 

Implementation Details 

The implementation for the multipro- 
cessor system is shown in figure 1. 
The IBM PC is interfaced to the halt 
and reset registers via the PC's I/O 
(input/output) instructions, and the ad- 
dresses of the registers are in the I/O 
address space of the PC at addresses 
300 and 301 (hexadecimal). The IBM 
PC also interfaces to 3 three-state con- 
trollers. These controllers connect the 
private memories to the PC's bus— 
during reads or writes to their respec- 
tive addresses— only if the corre- 
sponding CPU is halted via the halt 
register. The private memories start at 
the PC's memory addresses C0000, 
C0800, and CI 000 for Processor 0, 
Processor I. and Processor 2, respec- 
tively. Each memory is a 2K-byte 
Hitachi 6116 static RAM (random- 
access read/write memory), which is 

[continued] 



242 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 427 



HOW TO BUY SOFTWARE 

WHEN ALL THE ADS 

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D Copyright 1985, tiOQ-Software. Inc. 
Inquiry 3 



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TELEX #751743 800 SOFTWARE UD. 

MAY 1985 -BYTE 243 



PRIMITIVES 



pin-compatible with 4116 EPROMs 
(erasable programmable read-only 
memories). 

Each processor is interfaced directly 
to its respective private memory. 
Since the 6800's bus interface is in the 
high-impedance state whenever it is 
halted, and since the IBM PC inter- 
face's three-state controllers are only 



enabled when the corresponding CPU 
is halted, this guarantees mutually ex- 
clusive access to the private memory. 
The IBM PC can. in the worst case, at- 
tempt to access the private memory 
when the attached CPU is running; 
but since the three-state controller will 
be disabled, data written will not be 
passed through to the private mem- 




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ory, and reads will return meaningless 
data since nothing will be driving the 
bus during the read— no damage to 
the system will occur. 

The interface between the CPUs and 
the shared memory is considerably 
more complex. Each CPU is inter- 
faced through a three-state controller 
that switches both address and data 
lines onto the shared-memory bus. 
When a CPU outputs an address in 
the address space occupied by 
shared memory (which starts at ad- 
dress 3000 |hexadecimal| for all three 
processors), the address is immediate- 
ly decoded by the address-decode 
logic (which appears to the right of 
each CPU in figure I) and asserts re- 
quest line Rn. where n is the number 
of the CPU making the request. This 
line transmits the request to the ar- 
bitration logic, described in detail 
below, which asserts grant line Gn if 
and only if Processor n is currently 
allowed to access shared memory. If 
a request line is asserted but the ar- 
bitrator does not assert the corre- 
sponding grant line, the processor's 
clock is immediately halted suspend- 
ing instruction execution until the grant 
line is asserted. (This is not shown on 
the diagram in figure I . which does not 
include the processor clock logic. The 
clock-halting function is controlled by 
a Motorola 6875 clock generator, 
which has a Memory Ready control 
pin designed for this purpose. We spe- 
cifically chose the 6875 clock 
generator for this feature.) The three- 
state controller assures that a CPU that 
has not been granted access to the 
shared memory will not output data 
onto the shared-memory bus. 

Entering Arbitration 

The arbitrator guarantees all CPUs 
equal access to the shared memory 
We designed and implemented our 
memory arbitrator using a National 
Semiconductor PAL (Programmable 
Array Logic), a trademarked PLA (pro- 
grammable logic array) having only 
one programmable-gate p\ane. The 
other plane normally found in PLAs 
is replaced by a fixed set of gates, 
with different PALs available for dif- 

[conimued) 



244 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 53 



PRIMITIVES 



* 



4K 

SHARED 

MEMORY 



SI SO 



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ARBITRATION 



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t t t 



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DECODER 



IBM PC BUS- 



Figure 1: A block diagram of the multiprocessor, built around three MC6800 microprocessors and controlled by an IBM PC 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 245 



Inquiry 262 




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PRIMITIVES 



ferent gate configurations. 

Our arbitrator implements the finite- 
state machine whose transition table 
is shown in table I. Such finite-state 
machines are quite common in the 
control logic of CPUs, and this design, 
the Mealy Finite-State Transducer, was 
suggested by Mead and Conway's In- 



troduction to VLSI Systems (reference 2). 
whose chapter "Data and Control 
Flow in Systematic Structures" pro- 
vides a very thorough discussion of 
the principles used here. 

The arbitrator's current state (de- 
noted by Sl So) reflects which CPU 

{continued) 



Table 1: The memory-arbitration state table for the multiprocessor, based upon 
the Mealy Finite-State Transducer. Depending on the current state (which CPU 
was last granted access to the shared memory) and which CPUs are now 
requesting access to memory (R to R 2 ), the arbitrator grants access to shared 
memory, via output lines G to G v 



Input 




Output 




Currrent State 


Access Requests 


Access Granted 


Next State 


Si So 


Ro Ri R2 


Go Gi G 2 


Oj Oo 





1 









1 





1 





1 



1 



1 



1 








1 



1 
1 
1 
1 




1 








1 




1 





Note: 



1. SlSo — 

2. Ro — 
Ri — 
R 2 — 



don't care condition 



— state 

— request from Processor 

— request from Processor 1 

— request from Processor 2 



Equation 

Go = Ro Si S + Ro Ri R2 + S Ro R2 

Gi = R2 Ri Ro + So Ri + Si R t Ro 

G 2 = Si R2 + S R2 Ri + R2 Ri Ro 

So = S Ro Ri + S Ri R2 + S! S Ro Ri + Si*R *Ri*R2 

+ Si Ro Ri R2 ■+■ S t Ro Ri R2 

Si = So Ro Ri + So Ri R2 + S t R t R2 4- Si Ro Ri R2 + 

Si So R2 Ri Ro + Si Rq R2 



246 BYTE • MAY 1985 



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PRIMITIVES 



was last granted access to shared 
memory. The arbitrator's input in- 
dicates the shared-memory requests 
currently outstanding (R to R 2 ). and 
its output on each transition (G toG 2 ) 
indicates which CPU is allowed to pro- 
ceed with the memory access. 

An arbitrator of this complexity was 
made necessary for two reasons: first, 
simple fairness: second, and more 
seriously, the 6800 processor can 
only be halted for a few milliseconds 
via the 687 5's Memory Ready pin, 
after which the contents of the pro- 
cessor's internal registers disappear. 
The processor's registers are imple- 
mented via simple MOS circulating- 
data registers, which require con- 
tinuous clocking to keep the data cir- 
culating and refreshing the registers. 
When the clock is stopped, refreshing 
stops, and the charge representing 
the data in the registers leaks off over 
a period of several milliseconds, until 
the data values are no longer detect- 
able when the clock is restarted. Thus, 
the arbitrator has to guarantee that a 
CPU will never be halted for more 
than the allowed period: the arbitrator 
does this by not allowing any CPU to 
have two consecutive accesses until 
all other CPUs simultaneously re- 
questing access have been granted 
their turns. 

The 4K-byte shared memory to 
which the arbitrator controls access 
includes 8 bits of data for each ad- 
dress and a "present" bit indicating 
whether a data object is present or 
absent at each address. The present 
bit is gated with the memory read/ 
write line to produce an interrupt 
when a CPU attempts to read data at 
an address with no data object pres- 
ent or write data when a data object 
is already present. The present bit is 
also updated to indicate "no data 
present" following a successful read, 
or to indicate "data present" follow- 
ing a successful write. Because of the 
way the 6800 microprocessor oper- 
ates, the interrupt occurs following 
completion of the read or write opera- 
tion. In either case, no access to 
shared memory actually occurs when 
an' interrupt is generated: With data 

[continued) 



248 BYTE • MAY 1985 



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PRIMITIVES 



already present, the CPU attempting 
to write data will discard that data; 
with no data present, the CPU at- 
tempting to read data gets back 
meaningless data. 

Implementation Results 

Implementation of the multiprocessor 
was successful; we demonstrated this 
by executing a test program based on 
Hansen's "incorrect" program (listing 
I). | Editor's note: A complete listing of the 
test program is available for downloading via 
BYTEnet Listings. The number is (603) 
924-9820.1 

The test program consists of three 
concurrent parts, each running on a 
distinct CPU. The first, simulating the 
input device, simply produces a se- 
quence of data objects in the form of 
consecutive integers, which it writes 
into location 3000 (hexadecimal) of the 
shared memory. Once the first object 
is written, the next write will not suc- 



Listing I ; A high-level outline of the 
test program described in the article. 

program pbh: 
shared 

t,s: integer; 
var 

eof: boolean; 
f,g: file of integer; 
begin 

while not eof do 
cobegin 
t := s; 
output(g.t); 
input(f,s,eof); 
coend; 
end. 



ceed until the first object has been re- 
moved. The removal is accomplished 
by the second concurrent part (run- 
ning on the second CPU), which reads 
from location 3000 and writes the ob- 
ject it read into location 3001. Here, 
the read will not succeed until a data 



object has been written into location 
3000, and the subsequent write will 
not succeed until the previous data 
object has been removed from loca- 
tion 3001. Finally, the third concurrent 
part, running on the third CPU and 
simulating the output device, reads 
the object from location 3001 and 
writes it into a circular buffer in its 
private memory. Once again, the read 
from location 3001 will not proceed 
until a data object is present there. To 
ensure that the other two CPUs will 
have to wait, the third CPU executes 
a delay loop between each access to 
shared memory to slow it down. 

We verified successful operation of 
the multiprocessor by first checking 
that the circular buffer of the third 
CPU contained data other than con- 
secutive integers, starting the program 
for a time, then stopping it and veri- 
fying that the circular buffer did then 

[continued) 



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MAY I985 -BYTE 251 



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PRIMITIVES 



contain consecutive integers. 

Each CPU's program part contains 
an identical interrupt procedure to 
simulate the primitive wait. This inter- 
rupt procedure simply decrements 
the interrupt return address on the 
stack to retry the unsuccessful read or 
write and then returns from the inter- 
rupt. This causes the CPU to repeat- 
edly execute the memory access until 
it succeeds. 

The multiprocessor successfully 
executed the test program on 
September 27, 1984, after several 
months of debugging. Almost all of 
this debugging time involved debug- 
ging the memory arbitrator and syn- 
chronization of shared memory ac- 
cess with the arbitration logic and not 
debugging the data-movement primi- 
tives. The implementation of the data- 
movement primitives is quite elegant; 
this elegance is reflected in the fact 
that, although many PAI^s were used 
to reduce the parts count of the multi- 
processor (which otherwise would 
have been very large), no PALs were 
needed for the portion of the circuit 
implementing the data-movement 
primitives. 

Conclusions 

This project successfully demon- 
strated the feasibility of implementing 
a multiprocessor system with data- 
movement primitives using off-the- 
shelf hardware. We have demon- 
strated the success of the data-move- 
ment primitives by using them to cor- 
rectly execute a concurrent program, 
without using the software-synchro- 
nization primitives that would be re- 
quired otherwise. Furthermore, the 
cost of implementing this machine 
($4 50) shows that such an implemen- 
tation is affordable; the large portion 
of this cost was for the CPUs, interface 
hardware, and conventional memory 
components. ■ 



REFERENCES 

1. Hansen, Per Brinch. "Structured Multi- 
programming." Communications of the ACM, 
15(7), 1972. page 574. 

2. Mead, C. and L. Conway. Introduction to 
VLSI Systems. Reading, MA: Addison- 
Wesley. 1980. 



252 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 222 



Obsolete technology — 
it's not just a hardware problem! 



MSsmaich! 



\ 



^^mtm^ms^^^-^ 





You wouldn't dream of wiring your state-of-the-art modem to 
turn-of-the-century technology. Why strangle your computer with 
an antique communications program? 



NightOwl Software believes your modem should open a win- 
dow on the world — but without slamming a door on the 
power of your IBM-PC or compatible. That's why we designed 
our MEX-PC communications package to allow you complete 
access to your operating system, utilities and software while 
connected to a remote system. 

Other communications programs limit your on-line options to a 
small set of built-in commands. Not MEX-PC. Our SHELL fea- 
ture lets you run your spreadsheet, word processor, database 
management system, or any other program, from within MEX- 
PC while you're on-line — and without loss of text or data. 

That's a claim no other communications software can make — 
and it's just one of many reasons MEX-PC is setting new stand- 
ards for power, flexibility and performance in the world of tele- 
computing. 



Consider the features: 

• A powerful command processor allows fully automated 
dialing, log-ons, uploads, downloads and log-offs. 

• A built-in HELP program explains all aspects of the software, 
on-line or off. A complete status screen immediately lists all 
current settings. 

• Command driven. No need to wade through level after level 
of menus in a time-consuming search for the commands you 
want to enter or the features you need to change. 

• Fully documented. Includes a typeset, ring-bound, 180-page 
user's manual and complete tutorial, fully indexed. 

• Wide range of protocols, including Christensen XMODEM 
with both CRC and Checksum error correction. 



$59.95* 

Why spend more for a lot less power? 

Write or call to request our free brochure. 
Credit card orders welcome. 

Give us a toll-free call at 1 -800-NITEOWL (In Wisconsin, call 1 -41 4-563-4013) 

* Plus $5 shipping. Wisconsin raaderrts afcl 5 pacent s^es tax NightOwl Software, Route 1, Box 7, Fort Alkinson.WI 53538 ""^ftware.inc: 

Inquiry 295 MAY I985 -BYTE 253 





NightOwl 



We don't have all the answers you need, 
but we'll do all we can to find them! 



IBM/PC 
SOFTWARE 



Alpha Software 

Data BaseMgr II $179 

Electric Desk (Jr) 199 

Anderson Beff 

Abstat $289 

Arrays, Inc. 

HomeAcct. + $ 90 

Home Acct. w/ 
TaxAdvntg $139 



PC 

PROGRAMMERS 

CORNER 

Borland 

Turbo Pascal ....$ 37 

CompuView 

Vedit $130 

Vedit+ 179 

Digital Research 

Access Mgr $229 

C Basic Camp 

(CB-86) 339 

CP/M-86 45 

Concurrent CP/M 

w/ Windows ....... 119 

Concurrent DOS.... 179 

Display Mgr 279 

DR Assem& Tools .. 129 

DR Graph 119 

Fortran 77-DOS 

or CP/M. 279 

Pascal MT+ 339 

Personal Basic 99 

Emerging Technology 

Edix (editor) $139 

Heritage 

Smartkey 11+.........$ 75 

Microsoft 

C Compiler $319 

Pascal Camp........ 199 

Basic Camp 249 

Morgan Computing 

Prof Basic ....$ 79 

Trace 86 99 

Peter Norton 

Norton Util 3.0......$ 69 

Supersoft 

Fortran $299 

Lifeboat 

Lattice C ...$419 

Lattice Windows. ... 249 

Run-C 99 

Dr Halo (Graphics). 79 
PMate 189 



Ashton-Tate 

dBase II Call 

dBase III (v. 1.1) Call 

Framework (v. 1.1) Call 

Friday Call 

Central Point 

Copy II PC $ 34 

CompuView 

V-Print $ 99 

V-Spell 99 

Connecticut Software 
Printer Boss w/ 

Letter Boss & Sideline $11 9 
Dow Jones 

Market Analyzer $229 

Market Manager 1 89 

Spreadsheet Link 1 79 

Ecosoft, Inc. 

Microstat $239 

Enertronics 

Energraphics $219 

w/ Plotter Option 279 

Fastware Thor $245 

Financier, Inc. 

Financier II $119 

Tax Series 105 

Fox & Geller 

Grafox $159 

dGraph 159 

Quickcode (III or II).... 159 

Quick Report 159 

dUtil (III or II) 58 

FYI 

Superfile $139 

FYI 3000 259 

Sort Facility 99 

Harvard Software 

Project Manager $249 

Lifetree 

Volkswriter Deluxe $155 

Volkswriter Scientific . . 359 

Living Videotext 

Think Tank (256K) $119 

MDBS 

Knowledge Man $275 

Menlo Corp. 

In Search $279 

Micropro 

Wordstar ProPak $255 

Wordstar 2000 289 

ProPak Plus (WS, 
CS, MM, SI, TM) $369 

Microrim 

R-base4000 $265 

R-base Clout (V2.0)... 139 

R-Writer 95 

Prog Interface 259 

Microsoft 

Flight Simulator II $ 39 

Project 1.01 169 

Word 1.15 229 

MuMath/MuSimp 179 



Microstuf 

Crosstalk $ 99 

Multimate (V 3.3) $289 

Northwest Analytical 

Statpak $365 

Open Systems 
Acct'g Programs .. ea $399 
Buy 3 or more ....ea 379 
Peter Norton Computing 
Norton Utilities (3.0)... $ 69 
Peachtree 
Series 8 Account- 
ing Modules $359 

Samna Corp. 

Samna Word III 349 

Satellite Software 
Word Perfect w/Sp... $255 
Sensible Designs 

d Programmer $199 

Software Arts 

Spotlight $109 

Software Publishing 
(PC Jr. Compatible) 
PFS: File, Graph 

Write, Plan ea $ 89 

PFS: Report 79 

PFS: Access, Proof . ea 59 
Sorcim 

Supercalclll $249 

Star Software Systems 

Acct'g Partner $219 

Acct'g Partner 1 1 599 

Warner Software 
(PC Jr. Compatible) 

Desk Organizer $129 

Westminster Software 

Pertmaster Call 

. ..and many more! 



APPLE 
SOFTWARE 

Alpha Software 

Apple-IBM 

Connection $169 

Typefaces 69 

Arrays, Inc. 

HomeAcct $ 59 

FCM 79 

Ashton-Tate Call 

BPI Call 

Broderbund 

Bank Street Writer.... $ 45 

Bank Street Speller.... 45 

Cdex 

All Trng Prog's ea $ 49 

Dow Jones 

Market Analyzer $229 

Market Manager 1 89 

Spreadsheet Link 1 79 



Eduware Call 

Living Videotext 

Think Tank $ 99 

Micropro 

ProPak $349 

Microsoft Call 

Peachtree 

Back to Basics $149 

PeachPak 

Series 40 or 80 $229 

Penguin Software... Call 
Software Publishing 
PFS: File, Graph, 

Report ea$ 79 

Spinnaker Call 

Xerox Education 

Sticky Bear Series.. ea $ 35 



CP/M 
SOFTWARE 

All prices below are for 

8" standard. 

ATI 

All Trng Prog's ea $ 52 

Ashton-Tate 

dBase Call 

CompuView Call 

Digital Research 

DR Assem& Tools 86. $119 

C Basic Camp (CB-80) 289 

SPP(86) 149 

Display Mgr 80 239 

Display Mgr 86 279 

Pascal MT+ 80 199 

Pascal MT+ 86 349 

PL/186 399 

Access Mgr 86 239 

Fortran 77 86 199 

Infocom 

All Games Call 

Micro Pro 

WordStar $250 

InfoStar 265 

Pro-Pak (WS, 

MM, SI, SS) $359 

All Others Call 

Microsoft Call 

Microstuf 

Crosstalk $ 99 

Northwest Analytical 

Statpak $365 

Oasis 

Word Plus $110 

Punctuation & Style.... 99 

Supersoft 

Disk Doctor $ 74 



MACINTOSH 
CORNER 

SOFTWARE 
ATI 

MacCoach $ 50 

Arrays, Inc. 

HomeAcct.... $ 69 

Creative Solutions 

MacForth $ 99 

MacForthll 169 

Hayden Software 

Sargonlll ........$ 39 

daVinci: Bldgs,Land- 
scapes, Interiors, ea 39 
Human Edge Software 
Sales,Mgmt Edge ea $ 1 59 

Commun. Edge 139 

Infocom Call 

Living Videotext 

Think Tank $ 89 

Microsoft 

Basic Interp $ 99 

Chart 79 

File..... 139 

Multiplan 139 

Word 139 

Main Street Software 

Main St. Filer $ 99 

Monogram 

Dollars & Sense $ 99 

Penguin Software 
Pensate, Transyl- 
vania, Quest... ea $ 32 
Scarborough Systems 

Mastertype $ 37 

Simon/Schuster 

Typing Tutor III $ 45 

Sierra On-Line 

Frogger $ 32 

Software Publishing 
PFS: File & 

Report Combo $119 

Telos Software 

Filevision $109 

T/Malcer 

Click Art $ 39 

HARDWARE 
Davong 

Disk Drives Call 

Intermatrix 
MacPhone.... ....... .$149 

Kensington Microware 

Surge Supressor $ 45 

Modem $399 

Memorex 

3V 2 " Diskettes $ 49 

Quadram ......... .. Call 

Tec mar 

Disk Drives Call 




APPLE/ 



BOARDS 

ALS 

CP/MCard $269 

Smarterm II 119 

Z-Engine 139 

CCS 

7711 Asynch Serial $ 99 

Microsoft 

Softcard+ $449 

Prem Softcord (HE) 295 

Microtek 

Printer l/F $ 75 

Dumpling-16K 169 

Dumpling-GX 89 

Orange Micro 

Grappler + w/ buffer. $1 75 

Prometheus 

Versacard $159 

Videx 

Videoterm VT-602 $249 

Ultroterm 249 



IBM/PC 



AST Research 

Six Pak + 64K 
(exp 384K, S/P, Cllc) .. $265 

MegaPlus 64K, (Cl/Cal, 
S Port, 512K cap 
w/Megapak) $269 

Megapak 256K up- 
grade for Megaplus. Call 

BYAD, Inc. Call 

Maynard Electronics 

Floppy Drive Cntrlr.... $119 

w/PorPort 169 

w/SerPort 179 

Sondstar Call 

Memory Chips Call 

Orange Micro 

Mr. Chips Call 

Orchid Technology 

"Orchid Blossom" Call 

Quadram 

Quodboard 64K, (exp 

384K, Clk/Cal, S&P 

Ports, Software) $269 

Microfazer Stack Printer 
-P/P8K(exp512K)....$139 

-S/P 8K (exp 64K) 149 

-S/S 8K (exp 64K) 149 



Quadram (continued) 
Quadlink 64K Mem... 469 
Other Products Call 

Tecmar 

Captain's Bd w/64K ... $299 

1st Mate 259 

2nd Mate 250 

3rd Mate 379 

Xedex/Microlog 

Baby Blue $325 

Baby Blue II 525 



DISPLAY CARDS 


Fredericks/Plan- 
tronics Color plus. 


.$399 


Hercules 

Graphics Board... 
Color Board 


. $339 
. 199 


MA Systems 

PC Peacock 
Color Board 


.$249 


Paradise 

Display Card 
(clr/monochrome 
Modular/Display.. 
Quadram 
Quadcolor 1 


.$349 
..309 

.$199 

. . v 389 


Quadcolor.il....... 


Tecmar 

Graphics Moster.. 


..$479 



MODEMS 

Hayes 

Smartmodem 300 $1 95 

Smartmodem 1200.... 429 
Smartmodem 1200B... 369 
Prometheus 

Promodem $399 

Quadram 

Quadmodem $529 

US Robotics 

Auto-Dial 300/1200... $459 

S-100 Modem 349 

Password 325 

Zoom Telephonies 
Networker w/o SW ... $1 09 



C. Itoh Electronics, Inc. 

Starwriter 

F10-40P (40cps) $999 

A10-20S (20cps) 529 

Diablo 

630 ECS Call 

Epson Call 

NEC Call 

Okidata 82-93 Call 

Quadram 

Quadjet Call 

Star Micronics Call 

TeletexT1014 $399 

. . .and much more. 



DISKETTES 

3M, Maxell, Verbatim 
Ultra Magnetics Call 



PCJr 



Amdek 

300A Amber $149 

310A 199 

300 Clr 265 

500 Clr RGB 385 

600 Clr HR 455 

700 Clr Ultra HR 535 

NEC 

JB1260- 12" Green ....$119 

JC1216RGB 429 

PGS 

HX12 RGB Clr $489 

MAX 12 189 

SR12 (690x480 Res)... 639 

DoublerCard 175 

Quadram 

Quadchrome $489 

Quadchrome II 429 

Amberchrome 1 75 

Quadscreen HiRes 1449 

Sanyo 

8112 12" HR Green.... $169 

Taxon 

440 $679 

420L 499 

425 w/ video 499 

Zenith 

135 (RGB orcomp)....$499 

136 669 

Others Call 



KeyTronic 

KB 5150 Jr $159 

KB 5151 Jr 175 

KB 5149 Numeric 

Keypad) 89 

Legacy 

Legacy I $289 

Legacy ti. 599 

MA Systems 

Jr Expander $109 

Dateline 159 

Quadram 
Quad Jr 

Exp Chassis Call 

Quad Jr Exp Mem 

(for Chassis) Call 

Quadmem Jr 128K. Call 

Tecmar 

Jr. Captain 

(128K,C,P) $329 

Jr Wave (64K exp). 259 
Jr 2nd Mate 

(NoMem,C,P) 129 

Jr Cadet (64K exp 

for Jr Captain) 169 



CDC 1800 Call 

Corvus Hd Call 

Davong Hd Call 

l-Omega 

Bernoulli Box Call 

Maynard Electronics 

Maynstream: Port- 
able back-up for HD 

System 27 (incl 
1 cntrlr cd) ...$1495 

System 60 (incl 
1 cntrlr cd)........ $1695 

Mountain, Inc. 

FileSafe Combo 

Disk/Tape Pack for 

the IBM PC or XT 

For more info Call 

Tall Grass 

for Wiscom/n customer Call 

Tondon TM-100-2 Call 



PLOTTERS 

Amdek 

DXY-100 $599 

Amplot II 899 

Enter 

Sweet P Six Shooter... Call 
Houston Instruments Call 
Panasonic 

VP6801P Plotter $1375 



MISC. 

Alpha-Delta ' MACC 8 
Surge Protector $ 69 

Computer Accessories 

Power Directors 

P2MtrBase... $109 

P12IBMPC... 145 

P22 Stand Alone.. 75 

Electronic 
Protection Devices 

Lemon /EC I $ 38 

Lime /EC II 55 

Orange /EC IV 75 

Hauppage 

8087 w/o software ....$149 

8087 w/ software 255 

80287 AT Chip w/o.... 289 

Other Products Call 

Kensington 

Masterpiece $109 

Keytronic 

KB 5150 $169 

KB 5151 175 

KB 5151 Dvorak 175 

Mouse Systems 

PC Mouse $159 

Touchtone Technology 

Touchtone II 

(PC Keypad) $169 

Versa Computing 

VersaWriter. $239 

WICO 

Joysticks (Ap) $ 39 

For assistance in 
determining your needs 
use our technicol line? 
We will be happy to 
provide full support. 



POLICY! 

► Wisconsin residents add 5% for sales tox. 

► Minimum $4.00 for shipping, handling and insurance 
for orders to $200. 

► For orders over $200, add 2VS% for shipping, handling 
and insurance. 

► For cash prepayment of orders $200 or more, add 
ONLY 2% for shipping, handling ond insurance. 

► Foreign — either add 15% handling & shipping 
(Int'l money order) or inquire. 

► Prices are subject to morket fluctuations. 

► All items subject to availability. 




WE WELCOME! 

► Visa, MasterCharge and American Express. (No charge for credit cards.) 

► Corporate, government or educational volume purchases, please ask for special accounts 
desk for additional discount. (1-715-848-1374) 

► COD (Add $2.00 per box/parcel. Cash or certified check required.) 

► Checks. (Allow 1-2 weeks for clearing.) 

WORKING HOURS: 

Monday- Friday 8:30-6:00 • Saturday 10:00-2:00 (Ordering Lines only) • Central Time 
For tech. support, order status and customer service, call (715) 848-1374 (M-F, 8 am to 5 pm) 
BYAD 0585 
Inquiry 304 for Hardware. Inquiry 305 for Software. Inquiry 306 for May Specials. 

ORYX SYSTEMS, INC. 

CRAFTSMEN OF THE NEW TECHNOLOGY 



1 800 826-1589 



WITHIN 
WISCONSIN 



1 800 472-3535 



425 First Street • PO. Box 1961 

Wausau, Wisconsin 54401 

INT'L TELEX: 260181 ORYX SYS WAU 



BYTE 



Reviews 



Reviewer s Notebook 

by Glenn Hartwig 259 

The Compaq Deskpro 

by \erry Grady 260 

IBM PC AT 

by Alan Finger 270 

True BASIC 

by G. Michael Vose 279 

The GTX-100 Modem 

by Mark Haas 291 

Review Feedback 299 



THE DESKPRO LINE of computers (there are four models) from Compaq Com- 
puter Corporation. Houston. Texas, all come with an extra boost in the form 
of a dual-speed processor. Starting from this common base, each successive 
model builds on its predecessor with more memory, bigger power supplies, 
additional drives, and a hard disk. The culminating unit the Model 4. has every- 
thing that's built into the other three units plus a I Omega byte tape-cartridge 
drive for hard-disk backup. It also carries a $7195 price tag. In our first review. 
Jerry Grady takes a close look at the Model 4 and presents his findings. There's 
much to like about the Model 4. in Mr. Grady's view, and the breadth of the 
product line helps a lot if you like the basic technology but can't spring for, 
or don't need, all the bells and whistles. 

Next, Alan Finger takes us through the IBM PC AT. Here, the ability to ex- 
pand is limited to a basic unit and an enhanced unit. The major benefits of 
the enhanced unit are a 20-megabyte hard-disk drive. 2 56K bytes of addi- 
tional memory, and a serial/parallel interface adapter. While it doesn't give 
you the option of two clock speeds like the Compaq, its Intel 80286 is quite 
fast enough for most applications, all by itself. The too-often-politely-ignored 
point about the IBM PC AT, however, is the fact that it's IBM's top-of-the-line 
personal computer. Is it worth all the hoo-ha it has inspired? Is it really fair 
to use the initials AT to signify Advanced Technology? Mr Finger's analysis 
is just what you need if you're trying to figure out what's going on. 

The BASIC programming language has more idiosyncratic versions than just 
about any other. Each version attempts to be just a little better (and just a 
little different) than all of the others for either technical or conmercial reasons. 
The result, of course, is a Babel-like situation. With so many "dialects" run- 
ning around it's hard to know which features are applicable across product 
lines and. in the end, which are really BASIC and which are just using the 
name. BASIC'S creators. John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz, set out to rectify 
this confused situation. With associates, they set up their own company called 
TVue BASIC Inc. and brought out a version of BASIC for microcomputers that 
conforms to the standard proposed by the American National Standards In- 
stitute's subcommittee X3J2. Called lYue BASIC, this version is a major depar- 
ture from previous microcomputer BASICS. Michael Vose. a BYTE senior tech- 
nical editor, shows you exactly how, where, and why to look for a fresh ap- 
proach from True BASIC. 

Finally, Mark Haas reviews the GTX-100 from Lockheed-GETEX. It's an in- 
telligent dual-speed modem that includes four levels of protection for your 
computer. Some of the interesting features of this modem have more to do 
with its intelligence than its security-providing aspects. For example, Mr. Haas 
points out that the modem's software lets you select the data rate, dial the 
phone automatically, dial the phone manually, re-dial the last number, and 
select the desired level of security. This modem has quite a large number of 
special features— with just one of these being the ways it lets you control ac- 
cess to your computer. 

— Glenn Hartwig, Technical Editor, Reviews 



MAY 1985 'BYTE 257 




ji&*^i$Pp^8MIlF .,,.,,,,,:.:.;,,;,; 



Sometimes the best way to get ahead is to go sideways. 






The problem with spreadsheets is they 
get printed the wrong way. 

— You still have a lot of stapling, gluing, 

or taping to look forward to before your 
printout is readable. 

To really get ahead, go Sideways r . M 

Sideways is the clever software program that prints 
your spreadsheets— you guessed it— sideways. So your 
spreadsheet columns need never fall off the edge of 
your printer paper again. 



With Sideways on your side, no spreadsheet you invent 
with Lotus 1 -2-3® Symphony,™ VisiCalc® Multiplan® or 
SuperCalc™ is too wide! And it's just as powerful an 
ally when you're creating far-into-the -future schedules 
and pert charts. So for a presentable printout, get rid 
of that glue stick and scotch tape— put your best foot 
forward and go Sideways. 

You can go Sideways today with an IBM® PC or an 
Apple® II, and over a dozen different printers, including 
Epsonf Okidata, IBM® Applef C. Itoh and Mannes- 
mann Tally. Ask for Sideways at your local Computer- 
Land® Entre, or other computer store. Or mail a $60 
check to Funk Software, P.O. Box 1 290, Cambridge, 
MA 02238. Or call 61 7-497-6339. MC/ Visa accepted. 

SDEWWS 

SIDEWAYS PRINTS SPREADSHEETS SIDEWAYS. 



258 BYTE • MAY 1985 



Inquiry 173 



REVIEWER'S NOTEBOOK 



Two portable computers, both 
previously described in BYTE, 
have now come back for full scrutiny 
in the Review department. In different 
ways each has aroused a good deal 
of speculation. First, the Hewlett- 
Packard Integral is just so different 
from a laptop computer that it 
deserves attention. A UNIX-based sys- 
tem with an electroluminescent 
screen, built-in printer, 3!/2-inch disks, 
a mouse, and a silhouette more like 
a sewing machine than a briefcase, it 
gives the definite impression that it is 
self-consciously incompatible with 
anything IBM would ever dream of 
producing. 

All well and good. You really do get 
points for independence of spirit— but 
it still has to work. 

So far, trying to use the Integral has 
resulted in a curious blend of appre- 
ciation and irritation. It doesn't come 
with much in the way of bundled soft- 
ware for things like word processing 
or communications. On the other 
hand, it hadn't been here a week 
before we got a copy of Multiplan de- 
signed especially for it. Hewlett- 
Packard apparently intends to sup- 
port the Integral with its own con- 
siderable resources. Watching this one 
develop ought to be interesting. A full 
review is in the works and will prob- 
ably be printed here in the near 
future. 

Going almost entirely the other way 
from the Hewlett-Packard Integral is 
the Data General/One. first featured in 
BYTE as a product description last 
November (see page 102). In case you 
missed it, this one arrived amid great 
expectations. It's touted as having a 
high degree of compatibility with 
IBM's Personal Computer (PC), espe- 
cially when used with the 5 14-inch ex- 
ternal disk drives. And people I know 
have been very impressed with its 
capabilities. 




The main source of discontent, both 
in the BYTE preview and elsewhere, 
has been the poor quality of the 
screen design. LCD (liquid-crystal dis- 
play) screens suffer from lack of 
definition to begin with. When one is 
also saddled with a fixed viewing 
angle, the problem of seeing what 
you're writing goes beyond a reason- 
able level. Attempting to respond to 
criticism, Data General brought out 
what it hopes will be a better screen 
and is said to be retrofitting (for $3 50) 
all those sold. Our review unit is 
equipped with one of these newly de- 
signed screens; the upcoming review 
ought to show how well the company 
has succeeded in answering its critics. 

Aside from that, the DG/One. as I 
said, generally has been met with 
warm words for its high degree of 
compatibility with most IBM PC- 
oriented software. Whether this is 
enough to endear it to a reviewer re- 
mains to be seen. 

Perhaps more intriguing than what 
our reviewers think of these machines 
is the question of which one is more 
representative of what the user ex- 
pects from a true portable computer. 
Is the portable's major function that 
of a drone for a desktop unit— and 
thus useful only if compatibility is very 
high? Or is the user of a small por- 
table looking for something different 
enough from a desktop unit that 
questions of compatibility are irrele- 
vant? These questions really go 
beyond the scope of reviews, but they 
do set the stage on which these ma- 
chines will be more broadly judged. 



Another subject for upcoming 
review is a very curious printer/ 
plotter/typewriter combination from 
Panasonic. Instead of a dot-matrix or 
daisy-wheel-type print head, this unit 
comes equipped with four colored 
pens. By moving the print head/pen- 
holder back and forth while the platen 
moves the paper up and down, the 
unit draws each character— a type- 
writer that actually writes. Besides 
writing text, it draws an assortment of 
graphs and connects serially to a 
computer. It has direct, line-by-line, 
and block printing modes; a full-line 
preview window to show your text 
before you commit it to paper; a 4K- 
byte memory; word-search capability; 
two switch-selectable keyboards plus 
an extended character set; and the 
ability to print wide characters, tall 
characters, italics, underlining, and 
top-to-bottom or bottom-to-top ver- 
tical lines. At about five pounds and 
about $3 50. this one made a lot of 
friends right out of the box. 

An editor's note about an IBM PC- 
compatible operating-system 
patch for the NEC APC III appeared 
with John Unger's review in March 
(see page 338) and has generated a 
lot of interest. Just to keep you up- 
dated, we're still running tests and 
have found that it works in some 
cases— and in some it doesn't. 

We'll be running the code as part of 
a feature article in an upcoming issue. 
You'll undoubtedly run across pro- 
grams that we either don't have or 
haven't yet had the time to test. Either 
way, when the time comes, let us 
know how you make out. This ap- 
proach may also work with other 
close-but-no-cigar compatibles. We'd 
like to hear about any experiments 
you make with those as well. 

—Glevrn Hartwig, Technical Editor, Reviews 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 259 




SYSTEM REVIEW 



The Compaq Deskpro 



A faster 



processor 



optional tape 

backup 

system 

by Jerry Grady 



How is Compaq Computer Corpora- 
tion of Houston, Texas, establish- 
ing itself as more than just another 
IBM PC-clone company? By introducing a 
and an desktop that is yet another IBM PC work- 
alike, plus a little extra. 

The new desktop is called the Deskpro 
(see photo 1), and it comes in four new ver- 
sions that are labeled models I, 2, 3, and 
4. The little extra is an Intel 8086 processor 
with dual clock speeds on all models and 
a tape-cartridge backup system on the 
Model 4. A status light to the left of the disk 
drives indicates the operating speed: red if 
you are in PC-compatible common mode 
(4.77 MHz) and green if the processor is in 
"fast" mode (7.14 MHz). The switchable 
clock speed lets the Deskpro maintain what 
Compaq calls 99.9 percent IBM PC com- 
patibility while providing the option of bet- 
ter performance. The availability of a Io- 
mega byte tape cartridge to back up the 
hard disk fills the need for a fast, economi- 
cal, hard-disk backup system. 



Hardware 

All models in the Deskpro line are con- 
figured from the same basic unit, the Model 
I. This is an important point for users who 
want to build their systems gradually. 

Compaq considers the Deskpro Model I 
its smallest business system. The machine 
has 128K bytes of RAM (random-access 
read/write memory), one half-height 5 l A- 
inch disk drive (360K-byte capacity), a 
parallel printer interface, the Compaq dual- 
mode monochrome-text/color-graphics dis- 
play adapter board, and six IBM PC-com- 
patible expansion slots. It has a current list 
price— without a monitor— of about $2240. 
The monitor sells for $2 55. 

The Deskpro Model 2 is the system that 
Compaq expects to be most popular. This 
computer is similar to the Model I except 
that it has 256 K bytes of memory and two 
floppy-disk drives. Weighing in at a little 
over 30 pounds, the Model 2 system unit 
is heavier than the IBM PC. This might be 



\erry Grady ( 1 09 1 1 East Mercer 

lane. Scottsdale. AZ 85259) is the 

president and owner of The Grady 

Works, a company that specializes in 

microcomputer systems consulting 
and services. He has a B.S. in com- 
puter science from Northern Arizona 
University and an M.S. in the same 
field from the University of Arizona. 



due to its steel casing and heftier power 
supply. With a monitor, it lists for $2995. 

The Model 3 is the IBM PC XT work-alike 
with its 10-megabyte hard-disk drive. The 
Model 3 also has 2 56K bytes of RAM, one 
floppy-disk drive, an on-board parallel 
printer interface, a hard-disk controller cap- 
able of supporting the tape cartridge, a half- 
size card with a serial port and clock, and 
four IBM PC- or XT-compatible expansion 
slots. With a monitor, it costs $4995. 

Finally, the top-of-the-line Model 4 in- 
cludes everything the Model 3 has plus a 
10-megabyte tape-cartridge drive for hard- 
disk backup and the maximum of 640K 
bytes of RAM on the motherboard. It sells 
for $7195 with a monitor. See 'The Deskpro 
Model 4" text box on page 264. 

As options, Compaq offers a 12 -inch, high- 
resolution, amber- or green-phosphor moni- 
tor; a tilt/swivel mount for the monitor ($50); 
an option labeled the Desk-Saver, a small 
platform that raises the base unit off the 
work surface for enough clearance to store 
the keyboard; 128K-byte and 512K-byte 
memory upgrades; and a second disk drive 
for Models 1,3, and 4. 

MS-DOS 2.11 for the Compaq is not in- 
cluded with any model; it costs an addi- 
tional $60. This customized version of MS- 
DOS recognizes the Deskpro's dual pro- 
cessor speed and battery-operated clock (if 
present) at boot time. BYTE's standard con- 
figuration of a monitor, two floppy-disk 
drives, 2 56K bytes, serial port, parallel port. 
MS-DOS. and BASIC costs $3205. 

Monitor 

If you purchase the optional Compaq 
monitor, you can choose a green or amber 
display. The monitor is a 12 -inch version of 
the Compaq Portable Computer's 9-inch 
display. The character display is sharp and 
the display contrast is good due to the 
monitor's etched screen. A single knob on 
the left adjusts brightness and contrast. 

The monitor's case is angled at 10 
degrees, so the display is at a comfortable 



260 BYTE • MAY 1985 



viewing angle if it is resting on the system 
unit. The casing is plastic and about the 
same size as the IBM monochrome monitor. 

TWo cables connect the display to the sys- 
tem unit. The power cable uses an unusual 
three-pin DIN circular connector, not the 
usual three-prong AC-style connector. 
Perhaps this is to ensure that you will not 
plug a Compaq monitor into your IBM PC. 
The second cable is a nine-pin connector 
that plugs into the RGB (red-green-blue) 
connector of the system unit's display card. 
Like the Compaq Portable and unlike the 
IBM PC the Deskpro display adapter can 
display shades of green or amber on a 
monochrome display as well as colors on 
an RGB display (see photo 2). 

Another good feature taken from the 
Compaq Portable is the Deskpro's two dis- 
play modes. The monochrome-text mode 
is very similar to the IBM monochrome 
monitor. It can display high-resolution text 
and graphics characters, but not colors or 
bit-mapped graphics. You can display this 
mode only on the Compaq monochrome 
monitor. You can display the color-graphics 
mode on any IBM PC-compatible RGB 
monitor, as well as on the Compaq mono- 
chrome monitor. This mode displays up to 
1 6 colors or shades of green or amber and 
bit-mapped graphics. 

Both modes use character sets almost the 
same as the IBM's equivalent character sets, 
including the graphics characters (see photo 
3). The high-resolution monochrome char- 
acter set occupies a 9- by 14-dot matrix. 
Most characters occupy an 8- by 12 -dot area 
inside this matrix; the exceptions are special 
and graphics characters. 

The color-graphics character set is much 
coarser but matches the IBM PC color- 
graphics set. Each character occupies a 7- 
by 7-dot area inside an 8- by 8-dot matrix. 

It is easy to switch modes on the Desk- 
pro. As with the Compaq Portable, you can 
toggle the display mode to color-graphics 
mode from the keyboard by pressing the 
Ctrl, Alt, and < keys simultaneously. To 



return to the monochrome mode, press 
Ctrl- Alt- > . In color-graphics mode, you can 
use high-resolution graphics (640 by 200 
pixels by two colors) or medium-resolution 
graphics (320 by 200 pixels by four colors), 
just as you can with the IBM PC. 

In addition, the display-adapter card has 
an output for a composite monitor and an 
RF (radio frequency) modulator to attach to 
your color television. I connected a short 
stereo patch cord from the RCA jack on the 
display adapter to my television and was 
rewarded with color graphics, though the 
actual display left something to be desired. 

Keyboard 

The keyboard, which is enclosed in plastic, 
is extremely light: Vh pounds. This is nice 

(continued) 




Photo I : The Compaq Deskpro Model 4 with 1 0-megabyte hard-disk drive, 
\0-megabyte tape-cartridge system, optional second floppy-disk drive, and optional 
\2-inch green monitor. Note the clock-speed indicator light and keyboard plug to 
the left of the disk drives. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 261 



REVIEW: DESKPRO 



if you like to position the keyboard in 
your lap. especially since the key- 
board's six-foot coiled cord plugs into 
the unit's front. But for those who 
prefer a more solid feel to the key- 



board, this lightweight device can be 
disconcerting. Also, the Deskpro key- 
board lacks crispness. I find it mushy 
and hard to use. It seems I must press 
harder to make the keys register. 




Photo 2 : A display of the graphics capability of the color-graphics mode on the 
Compaq Deskpro. Shown is the display from Microsoft's Flight Simulator. 



The CaHf teskpro 



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Photo 3: A display of the high-resolution, monochrome-text-mode character set on the 
Compaq Deskpro. 



The Deskpro system speaker emits 
a small click when you press a key. 
You control the volume of this click by 
pressing the Ctrl, Alt, and gray minus 
key to lower the volume and the Ctrl. 
Alt. and gray plus key to raise it. 

The keyboard has a 16-character 
buffer that causes a beeping from the 
speaker when it is full. Unlike the 
other clear sounds that issue from the 
speaker, this beep sounds as though 
the speaker is cracked. This is caused 
by the keyboard click competing with 
the buffer overflow warning, each at 
different frequencies. 

This keyboard, manufactured by Ad- 
vanced Input Devices, complies with 
the IBM PCs nonstandard standard 
keyboard layout (see photo 4). The 10 
function keys to the left, the numeric 
keypad to the right, and the undersize 
Enter and Shift keys all say clone. 
About the only noticeable visual dif- 
ference is the LED (light-emitting 
diode) indicators on the Num Lock 
and Caps Lock keys. Unfortunately, 
these indicators do not always reflect 
the state of the computer. Occasional- 
ly I noticed that the Caps Lock LED 
was lit to indicate uppercase mode, 
but the input was in lowercase. After 
some investigation. I discovered that 
if you press the Shift and Caps Lock 
keys simultaneously this reverses the 
current state of the indicator light. 

Processor and Memory 

At the heart of the Deskpro is the Intel 
8086 microprocessor. The processor 
has a top clock speed of 7.14 MHz, 
but to maintain compatibility with its 
portable systems and the IBM PC, 
Compaq built a switchable clock 
speed into this system. Pressing the 
Ctrl, Alt. and \ keys toggles the Desk- 
pro between common mode (4.77 
MHz) and fast mode (7.14 MHz). 

To emulate the IBM PC 8088 micro- 
processor, the 8086 must be slowed 
down to the IBM's 4.77-MHz clock 
speed. Not only is the 8088 clock 
speed slower, but its internal instruc- 
tion cache is smaller. This instruction 
cache is a series of internal registers 
on the 8088 and 8086 processor 
chips that hold a queue of instruc- 
tions retrieved from memory. On the 



262 B YTE • MAY 1985 



REVIEW: DESKPRO 



8088, the length of this queue is four 
instructions; the 8086 can hold six in- 
structions, lb make the 8086 match 
the performance of the 8088, Com- 
paq had to slow the clock rate and 
buffer the instructions so the 8086 did 
not exceed the four-instruction cache. 

The 8086 is a true 16-bit processor 
with 16 address lines and 16 data 
lines (as compared to the 8088's 8 
data lines). This means that data is 
retrieved from memory 2 bytes at a 
time and that memory upgrades must 
be performed in 16-bit-wide banks. 
With 64K-bit chips, this means you 
must add 12 8 K bytes or 5 12 K bytes 
(with 2 56K-bit chips) at a time on the 
motherboard. 

The Deskpro Model 1 has a stan- 
dard 128K bytes of RAM in two rows 
of nine chips soldered on the mother- 
board (in each row, eight of the chips 
hold the data and the ninth chip is for 
parity check). Models 2 and 3 add 18 
more 64K-bit chips into sockets to 
give 2 56K bytes as standard. The 
Deskpro Model 4 comes standard 
with 640K bytes of memory on the 
motherboard. To accomplish this, 
Compaq fills the two rows of sockets 
(18 sockets) with 2 56K-bit chips. All 
the models can be upgraded to 640K 
bytes on the motherboard. On the 
Model I, this means installing the 18 
2 56K-bit chips i n the open sockets. On 
Models 2 and 3, you must remove 
128K bytes of 64K-bit chips, then in- 
stall 5 1 2 K bytes of the 2 56K-bit chips. 
This arrangement means you can 
have only 128K, 2 56K, or 640K bytes 
of RAM on the motherboard— nothing 
in between. 

As an option, you can install a 
7.14-MHz 8087 math coprocessor in 
the socket on the motherboard. This 
chip is more expensive than its 4.77- 
MHz counterpart. Since this chip was 
not available at the time of this review, 
I could not test whether the switch- 
able clock rate also works with the 
8087. 

Power Supply and 
Expansion Slots 

The Deskpro offers a large 200-watt 
power supply. This is probably suffi- 
cient to handle about any expansion 



board (or combination thereof) added 
to the computer. The fan is quiet, 
more so than that on the IBM PC or 
Compaq Portable. 

The Deskpro has eight expansion 
slots on the motherboard, although 
either two or four of them might 
already be occupied. Compaq has 
engineered the data bus to let you 
add third-party memory-expansion 
boards but warns that these might 
decrease the Deskpro's performance 
by slowing the memory accesses. 
Memory accesses on the mother- 
board are done 16 bits at a time, but 
to ensure that all optional expansion 
boards compatible with the IBM PC 
(and the Compaq Portable) will work, 
access to the expansion slots is done 
8 bits at a time. 

On all four models, a floppy-disk 
controller card occupies slot 7. This 
controller also provides the elec- 
tronics for the parallel printer inter- 
face. Slot 5 is occupied by the mono- 
chrome-text/color-graphics video-dis- 
play board. 

On Models 3 and 4, the hard-disk 
controller board occupies slot 6. This 
controller also supports Compaq's 
tape cartridge. Slot 8 holds the short 
board that contains the serial port 
and clock. This board contains a bat- 
tery to power the clock when main 
power is off; the battery recharges 
when the power is on. This is a nice 
convenience for anyone who has ever 
had to change the battery on a clock 
board. 



The half-height floppy-disk drives in 
the base unit are manufactured by 
Mitsubishi. These are double-sided 
double-density drives capable of han- 
dling both single-sided and double- 
sided disks. Formatted capacities of 
disks are 160K, 3 2 OK, or 360 K bytes. 
The operation of the drives is smooth 
and quiet. In fact, except for the rasp- 
ing of the disk in its plastic jacket, 
there is no noise at all. Each floppy- 
disk drive occupies one of four iden- 
tical half-height compartments in the 
chassis, so you can reposition the 
drives to fit your personal preference. 

Software 

Compaq offers the MS-DOS 2.11 
operating system, but it is not in- 
cluded in the unit's cost. Compaq has 
matched IBM's PC-DOS with all the 
Microsoft utilities or lack thereof. The 
major command processor (COM- 
MAND.COM) has been modified to 
recognize some of the special Desk- 
pro hardware. The dual-speed pro- 
cessor is recognized upon booting 
and the clock rate is set to fast mode. 
If the Compaq asynchronous commu- 
nications/clock board (or any other 
clock using the National Semiconduc- 
tor MM58167A chip) is present, the 
time and date are automatically read 
and the clock is set. Setting the time 
or date with the TIME and DATE MS- 
DOS commands resets the stored 
time or date value for use the next 
time you boot the Deskpro. 

[continued) 




Photo 4: The Compaq Deskpro keyboard. Note the LED indicators on the Caps lock 
and Num lock keys. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 263 



REVIEW: DESKPRO 



T>iE Deskpro Model 4 



by Rich Malloy 



The Compaq Deskpro Model 2, 
with its two floppy-disk drives, fast 
processor, and dual-mode display, rep- 
resents an impressive value in desktop 
systems. But the real power of the 
Deskpro series is embodied in the top- 
of-the-line Model 4. with its 10-mega- 
byte hard-disk drive, 10-megabyte tape- 
cartridge backup system, and 640K 
bytes of memory At BYTE 1 had a 
chance to use one of these systems. In 
fact it even had an optional second 
floppy-disk drive, which gave me a 
large array of storage options. 

The Model 4's most noteworthy fea- 
ture is its tape-cartridge backup sys- 
tem. As of this writing, Compaq is still 
the only major microcomputer manu- 
facturer that 1 know of to offer such a 
device. Admittedly, a tape backup sys- 
tem is not high on everyone's shopping 
list. But after a hard disk suddenly 
loses about nine months of data (an 
event that is not highly unlikely), the ex- 
tra $1000 for a tape backup system 



seems less of an extravagance. 

The Model 4 works quite well. Table 
A compares the Deskpro hard-disk 
drive with that of the IBM PC XT. The 
tape seems slow by disk standards, but 
usable. It took about 7 minutes to back 
up the 4.6 megabytes of data we had 
on our hard disk. A full 10 megabytes 
should take about 20 minutes. 

Unfortunately, you cannot use the 
tape drive as an extra disk drive. Nor 
can you back up selected individual 
files. (These features are advertised by 
some third-party tape-drive manufac- 
turers.) 

Another nice feature of the Deskpro 
Model 4 is its ability to accommodate 
a second floppy-disk drive. This makes 
it easy to copy floppies and to run 
copy-protected programs. 

Although somewhat expensive, the 
Model 4 is a good alternative to the 
IBM PC XT and AT. It might be even 
better with its recently announced 
30-megabyte hard-disk drive ($2995). 



Table A: A comparison of the hard-disk drive perfomance of the Compaq 
Deskpro Model 4 with that of the IBM PC XT. The Deskpro s 8086 
processor was tested in both fast (7.14 MHz) and common mode (4.77 
MHz). The Deskpro used MS-DOS 2.11; the IBM PC XX PC-DOS 
2.0. 



Hard-Disk 
Benchmark Test 


Times (seconds) 
Compaq Deskpro IBM PC XT 
7.14 MHz 4.77 MHz 


BASIC 
Hard-Disk Write 
Hard-Disk Read 


19.0 
16.4 


33.8 
29.4 


43 
28 


System Utilities 
40K File Copy 


2.4 


2.6 


2.8 


Spreadsheet 
Load 


2.1 


3.5 


3.8 



With the purchase of Deskpro, Com- 
paq supplies a hardware diagnostics 
test disk with a single program, 
TEST.EXE. This set of diagnostics is 
complete, testing everything from the 
keyboard through memory and mass- 
storage devices. The diagnostics will 



even test a light pen and other third- 
party options. Unfortunately, you can- 
not run the diagnostics without pur- 
chasing MS-DOS. 

Other than the demonstration pro- 
grams, the only difference in the MS- 
DOS software is the BASICA inter- 



preter. Unlike IBM, Compaq puts all 
the BASICA code in RAM. This inter- 
preter lacks no IBM BASICA features 
and actually gives you about 1000 
bytes of extra memory space for your 
programs. I have seen Compaq's 
BASICA interpreter used on other 
manufacturers' PC-compatibles when 
their own interpreters didn't live up to 
the required PC compatibility. 

DOCUMENTATION 

The Deskpro comes with a thick, 
spiral-bound operations guide and a 
pocket-size quick-reference guide. The 
contents of the operations guide are 
organized and clear. The information 
covers installing and setting up, install- 
ing options, running diagnostics, and 
programming in BASIC. 

The only typographical error I no- 
ticed in the operations guide is the 
diagram for the switch settings foi 
memory size on the motherboard. 
TWo of the three displayed settings for 
switches 3 and 4 do not correspond 
to the table on the previous page. 

The operations guide indicates that 
a flat-bladed screwdriver or Phillips 
screwdriver will be the only tools re- 
quired for installing internal options. 
This is not true because Compaq uses 
Torx head screws. These require a 
special screwdriver with a star-shaped 
end. 

In addition to the operations guide, 
each piece of hardware has its own in- 
stallation guide. The installation 
guides are a nice touch but are awk- 
ward because you cannot insert them 
into the operations guide's binder. 

The MS-DOS and BASIC manuals 
are definitely for reference and not in- 
tended to teach you how to use MS- 
DOS or how to program in BASIC. 
Though fairly complete, the MS-DOS 
reference manual is missing the ap- 
pendix on DOS function calls. 

Compatibility 

The name of the game for Compaq 
is IBM PC compatibility With the 
Deskpro, Compaq has maintained the 
high level of compatibility demon- 
strated with its Portable Computer. 
The Deskpro will read and write all 

(continued) 



264 B YTE • MAY 1985 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

Compaq Deskpro, Models 1, 
2,3, and 4 

Manufacturer 

Compaq Computer Corp. 
12330 Perry Rd. 
Houston, TX 77070 
(713) 370-7040 

Size 

System unit: 5 by 19 by 16 
inches; 40 pounds for a 
Model 4 

Components 

Processor: 8086, 4.77 MHz or 
7.14 MHz (switchable) 
Memory: 128K, 256K, or 
640K bytes 

Display: Dual-mode display 
adapter, monochrome-text/ 
graphics (switchable); IBM 
PC-compatible in both modes 
Keyboard: IBM PC-compatible 
83-key layout, two LED 
indicators 

Mass storage: Model 1: One 
or two 360K-byte t double- 
sided, half-height, 5 1 /4-inch, 
floppy-disk drives 
Interfaces: Parallel printer 
Expansion: Four to six IBM 
PC-compatible expansion 
slots 

Optional Hardware 

128K bytes RAM $170 

512K bytes RAM $1295 

Monochrome display $255 

8087 coprocessor $375 

Floppy-disk drive $430 
10-megabyte hard-disk 

drive $2280 
10-megabyte tape-cartridge 

backup $1075 
30-megabyte hard-disk 

drive $2995 

Serial port/clock board $150 

Optional Software 

MS-DOS 2.11/BASIC 2 $60 

Documentation 

Operations guide 

Price (standard configu- 
ration with monitor) 

Model 1 $2495 

Model 2 $2995 

Model 3 $4995 

Model 4 $7195 




MEMORY SIZE (K BYTES) 

200 400 600 



DISK STORAGE (K BYTES) 
1000 400 800 1200 



1600 2000 













: :: : : : ;.; : : : ;.: : : : t ; ; : :. : .::: 








II 












^ 



BUNDLED SOFTWARE PACKAGES 

2 4 6 



PRICE {$ 1000) 
10 2 4 




1 









DESKPRO 1^1 IBM PC 



APPLE EE 



The Memory Size graph shows the standard 
and optional memory available for the com- 
puters under comparison. The Disk Storage 
graph shows the highest capacity of one and 
two floppy-disk drives for each system. The 
Deskpro can also support a 10- or 30-mega- 
byte hard-disk drive. The Bundled Software 
Packages graph shows the number of software 



packages included with each system. The Price 
graph shows the list price of a system with two 
disk drives, a monochrome monitor; a printer 
port and a serial port, 256K bytes of memory 
(64K bytes for 8-bit systems), the standard 
operating systems for the computers under 
comparison, and the standard BASIC inter- 
preter for each system. 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 265 







~^H* ItSZ^^v^^ 




si 




ill 




i .11 i 


—4] 






Compaq Deskpro with the serial/clock card in slot 1 , the floppy- 
disk-controller/parallel-printer interface in slot 2, and the dual- 
mode display adapter in slot 4. 



DISK ACCESS IN BASIC (SEC) 
250 



200 



150 



100 



50 



57 56 




Inside the Compaq Deskpro Model 4 with 640K bytes of RAM 
installed. 



BASIC PERFORMANCE (SEC) 
250 



200 



150 




WRITE 



SYSTEM UTILITIES (SEC) 
50 



CALCULATIONS 




SPREADSHEET (SEC) 
25 



40K FORMAT/ DISK COPY 40K FILE COPY 

| DESKPRO (7.14MHz) ||||'|| DESKPRO (4.77MHz) 




LOAD RECALCULATE 

IBM PC V//A APPLE HE 



The graphs for Disk Access i n BASIC show how long it takes to write 
and to read a 64K-byte sequential text file to a blank formatted flop- 
py disk. (For the program listings, see "The Chameleon Plus" by 
Rich Krajewski, June 1984 BYTE, page 327, and October 1984, page 
33.) The Sieve columns in the BASIC Performance graph show how 
long it takes to run one iteration of the Sieve of Eratosthenes prime- 
number benchmark. The Calculations column shows how long it 
takes to do 10,000 multiplication and 10,000 division operations us- 
ing single-precision numbers. The System Utilities graph shows how 



long i t takes t o format a n d t o copy a d i s k (adjusted time for 4 K bytes 
of disk data) and to copy a 40K-byte file using the system utility pro- 
grams. The Spreadsheet graph shows how long it takes to load and 
recalculate a 25- by 25-cell spreadsheet where each cell equals 1.001 
times the cell to its left. Microsoft Multiplan was the spreadsheet used. 
The tests for the Deskpro used MS-DOS 2.11 and BASIC 2.10. Tests 
for the Apple He were done with the ProDOS operating system ex- 
cept for the spreadsheet test, which was done with DOS 3.3. The 
IBM PC was tested running under PC-DOS 2.0. 



266 BYTE • MAY 1985 



REVIEW: DESKPRO 



levels of IBM PC disks, except the new 
AT 1200K-byte disks. The hardware 
options I tried, including memory- 
expansion and multifunction boards, 
all work properly in common mode. 
Almost all of them work in fast mode. 
The Iomega Bernoulli Box (1 Omega- 
byte disk-cartridge system) works well 
in common mode, but it will generate 
occasional read or write errors in fast 
mode. This is due to the use of soft- 
ware loops in the device handler. The 
problem has been corrected in the 
latest version of Iomega's device 
handler. 

Software compatibility is equally 
high. None of the software packages 
I tested show any operational defi- 
ciencies. Tlirbo Pascal WordStar, 
dBASE II and III, Microsoft's Flight 
Simulator, and Microsoft's compilers 
for C and Pascal all work without 
modification. WordStar and TUrbo 
Pascal perform much better in the fast 
mode because of the faster screen 
refresh and memory access. dBASE II 
and III show marginal improvement 
due to the disk-intensive nature of 
their operation. 

Comparing the Deskpro's bench- 
mark results with the IBM PC shows 
a somewhat better performance by 
the Deskpro (see the "At a Glance" 
box). Hard-disk input and output for 
the Deskpro is appreciably faster, 
while the floppy disk is usually slight- 
ly slower. For pure calculation speed, 
the Deskpro is faster than the IBM PC 
in common mode as well as in high- 
speed mode due to the 16-bit mem- 
ory accesses that the Deskpro per- 
forms. When combined with other 
processing (memory access, instruc- 
tion fetching), the Deskpro is not quite 
twice as fast as the IBM PC. 

In WordStar (see table I ) or Multi- 
plan, the display screen repaints 
about twice as fast in the high-speed 
mode. Overall the Deskpro common 
mode is compatible with the IBM PC, 
while fast mode averages an improve- 
ment of about 90 percent. 

Limitations 

The Deskpro's limitations are few and 
relatively minor in comparison to its 
features. Aside from those already 



Tkble I: A comparison of the Compaq Deskpro with the IBM PC and the 
Apple We using WordStar and dBASE II. The word-processing tests involved a 
4000-word document (2 IK bytes). The load and Save tests measure how long it 
takes to load and then save the document. The Search and Scroll tests measure, 
respectively, how long it takes to find the last word in the document and to scroll 
through the document line by line as fast as possible. The database tests measure 
how long it takes to sort a 2000-record data file (200K bytes) and to retrieve 
the last record using a nonindexed data field. These tests used an IBM PC with 
PC-DOS 2.0, 512K bytes of memory, a monochrome display, WordStar 3.3, 
dBASE II, and an Apple We with Microsoft's Softcard and WordStar 3.3. The 
Deskpro tests used a Deskpro Model 2 with MS-DOS 2.11 and WordStar 3.3. 



Apple lie 



10.3 

32.3 

6.6 

46.4 

N/A 
N/A 



Test 


Compaq Deskpro 


IBM 




7.14 MHz 


4.77 MHz 




Word Processing 








Document Load 


5.8 


6.7 


9.9 


Document Save 


17.9 


18.7 


24.2 


Search 


6.9 


8.8 


10.5 


Scroll 


7.7 


10.6 


41.2 


Database 








Sort 


702 


798 


765 


Record Access 


44.2 


44.2 


43 



mentioned, the only problem I found 
is with a chassis brace on the inside 
of the Deskpro chassis. This brace is 
directly above slot I and interferes 
with insertion or removal of any op- 
tion board. 

The Deskpro is also priced some- 
what high in comparison to its com- 
petitors. The Deskpro Model 2 with 
two disk drives and 256K bytes of 
memory can cost several hundred 
dollars more than a comparably 
equipped IBM PC. Although the Desk- 
pro is being sold by over 500 retail 
outlets, it is just becoming available 
through discount houses, so it is often 
costly in comparison to discounted 
compatibles. 

Although the 8086's faster process- 
ing in high-speed mode is nice, it only 
slightly improves the performance of 
any system limited by floppy-disk 
accesses. 

One reason for the IBM PCs suc- 
cess (and the birth of the Compaq 
Portable) was the availability of the 
IBM PCs technical reference manual. 
Compaq does not produce a compar- 
able document for the general public. 
Because of the internal differences 
between the Deskpro and the IBM PC, 



Compaq should make its own tech- 
nical reference manual available. 

Summary 

Service for the Deskpro is provided 
by the retail outlets where you pur- 
chase the computer or by any autho- 
rized Compaq dealer. The Compaq 
service program is similar to the IBM 
program for training technicians of 
the authorized dealers. Compaq does 
not use a third-party maintenance 
organization for service. 

Anyone who heavily uses spread- 
sheets, word processors, or mono- 
chrome graphics should buy the 
Deskpro. The improved performance 
of the 8086 in fast mode can increase 
your productivity if you use a spread- 
sheet for numerous calculations. It 
also improves the throughput of word 
processors and other applications 
that display a lot of text. Compaq's 
dual-mode display adapter lets you 
use applications requiring graphics 
without additional hardware or cost. 

Would I buy the Compaq Deskpro? 
Yes, I would and did. And l recom- 
mend the Deskpro to others. It is a 
well-engineered and well-manufac- 
tured product. ■ 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 267 





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The Citizens are very sleek, very quiet, and 
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Citizen and die Citizen logo are trademarks of Citizen America Corpomtion. IRM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines 
Corporation. Epson is a registered trademark of F,|ison Coqxxmon. 




Inquiry 74 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 269 




SYSTEM REVIEW 



IBM PC AT 



The PC gets 
down to 



by Alan Finger 



The IBM PC AT comes in two basic 
configurations. The basic model 
($3995) comes with 2 56K bytes of 
RAM (random-access read/write memory), 
DUSineSS one °f IBM's new high-capacity I.2-mega- 
byte disk drives, and a combination floppy- 
disk/hard-disk controller card. Available for 
an additional $1800, the enhanced model 
adds 2 56K bytes of memory, a 20-megabyte 
hard-disk drive, and a serial/parallel inter- 
face adapter (see photo 1). Both systems are 
based on Intel's 80286 processor and have 
eight I/O (input/output) expansion slots and 
a battery-backed clock/calendar. 

The AT comes with IBM's usual volumi- 
nous documentation. It includes a setup 
guide, an operations guide, and a BASIC 
manual, all in IBM's standard boxed loose- 
leaf format. An unwelcome addition is a 
variety of small pamphlets packed in each 
box. While these are intended to be helpful 
quick guides, they are easy to misplace and 
might confuse as much as inform. 

By the way. the BASIC manual is now com- 
plete. You don't have to send in a coupon 
and replace pages to get up-to-date docu- 
mentation. 



Power Supply and Keyboard 

The power supply is 190 watts, as opposed 
to the 63 watts in the PC and 1 30 watts in 
the XT. This much power is needed. The PC 
is underpowered, causing many users to 
have hard-to-trace problems when adding 
to their systems. The XT's supply is much 
better but would be inadequate for the AT's 
two hard-disk drives. Since what goes in as 
electricity always comes out as heat, IBM 
has incorporated an innovative variable- 
speed fan that runs faster (and louder) 
as the internal temperature rises. Since 
my system was lightly loaded, the noise 
level never became obtrusive. A notable ad- 
dition to the AT is a line-voltage select 
switch that lets it run on European 220-volt 
power. 

The AT's keyboard and interface are more 
sophisticated than those on the PC and they 



Alan Finger is a vice president o\ 

Comprehensive Computer 

Consultants (270 Littleton Rd., 

Building 14, Westford. MA 

01886). 



are not compatible. You cannot use an AT 
keyboard on a PC. A single-chip microcom- 
puter on the system board manages the 
keyboard and related functions. Any PC 
software that goes directly to the keyboard 
interface hardware, some key-translation 
programs, and many games will not work 
on the AT 

The keyboard layout is similar to that used 
on an IBM Selectric typewriter (see photo 
2). The Shift, Control, Enter, and backspace 
keys have all been enlarged. Some of the 
less frequently used keys, such as backslash, 
grave accent, Print Screen, and Escape, 
have been moved to peripheral portions of 
the keyboard. 

Three status lights have been added to 
the Caps Lock, Scroll Lock, and Num Lock 
keys— this is a welcome feature. The only 
new key, Sys Req, causes the keyboard- 
handling software that's in ROM (read-only 
memory) to generate a software interrupt 
whenever the key is pressed or released. 
This lets the user signal the operating 
system for attention. PC-DOS currently ig- 
nores Sys Req. 

To go with its international power supply, 
IBM provides six different versions of the 
AT's keyboard for foreign languages. The 
layout and internal scan codes are all iden- 
tical, but some of the key legends are dif- 
ferent to permit use of symbols peculiar to 
specific languages. The standard display 
adapters can display these characters, and 
DOS 3.0 has a set of utilities to adapt itself 
to the specific keyboard type. 

On the output side, the AT uses the stan- 
dard PC display cards and so is completely 
compatible. Graphics generation is much 
faster than it is on the PC. 

Much has been said about the inclusion 
of a key switch that disables the keyboard 
and locks the cover in place. It seems to me 
that this feature is of limited usefulness. You 
would have to secure the entire system and 
external wiring to prevent someone with 
malicious intent from interfering with a run- 
ning program. A program can test the state 



270 BYTE • MAY 1985 



of the keylock and override its function to 
selectively get input from the keyboard. 

The System Board 

The system board itself is a completely new 
design. Instead of the 8088 processor 
found in the PC Intel's high-performance 

80286 provides the horsepower. An empty 
socket is provided for the companion 

80287 numeric coprocessor. The board 
contains a number of familiar components 
and many new ones. 

At start-up, the 80286 is operating in what 
is referred to as the "real address mode" 
and has an architecture identical to that of 
the 8088 used in the PC and XT, Like the 
8088, it uses a segmented addressing 
scheme to access up to 1 megabyte of 
memory. It has the same instruction set with 
a few extensions and incompatibilities (see 
BYTE's product description 'The IBM PC 
AT" October 1984. page 108). 

The most important difference is that the 
80286 runs faster; it uses a faster clock (6 
MHz versus 4.77 MHz) and has a 16-bit data 
bus instead of an 8-bit data bus. The bulk 
of the speed increase, however, comes from 
internal improvements that let it execute 
most instructions in about half the number 
of clock cycles that the 8088 requires. The 
net effect is a two to three times increase 
in speed over a PC or XT when running 
computation-intensive programs. 

Things get more interesting when the 
80286 enters its "protected address mode." 
Although it still executes the same basic in- 
struction set. its operation more closely 
resembles that of a large minicomputer or 
mainframe and is specifically geared toward 
multitasking and multiuser applications. (For 
an introduction to 80286 operation in the 
protected mode, see "The 80286 Micro- 
processor" by Paul Wells. November 1984 
BYTE, page 231.) 

While the 80286 packs quite a wallop in 
its 68-pin package, it is not the ultimate pro- 
cessor. It is very good at performing cer- 
tain types of functions, such as cost- 



effective virtual memory and fast task 
switching for real-time applications, but it 
does have disadvantages. Like the 8088, the 
80286's major problem centers around the 
use of segmentation. Since a segment has 
a size limit of 64K bytes, dealing with large 
arrays such as those found in graphics and 
signal processing becomes cumbersome. 
For these applications, a processor with a 
large linear address space, such as 
Motorola's 68000. is generally more 
efficient. 

Software compatibility is another prob- 
lem. Programs written for real mode will not 
usually run in protected mode and vice 
versa. For applications programs the 
changes required are small (generally just 

[continued] 




Photo 1: The IBM PC AT with a 20-megabyte hard-disk drive, 1 2-megabyte 
floppy-disk drive, and 360K-byte floppy-disk drive. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 271 



REVIEW: IBM PC AT 



a recompilation), but you cannot plug 
your existing software into a pro- 
tected mode 802 86 and expect it to 
work. System software is more tight- 
ly tied to the processor architecture. 
PC-DOS works only in real mode. 
Even IBM's own ROM BIOS (basic in- 
put/output system) becomes unusable 
once you enter the protected mode. 
Microsoft's XENIX is the only an- 
nounced operating system that claims 
to use the power of protected-mode 
operation, but it was not available for 
the AT at the time of this review. 

The AT supports the 80287 numeric 
coprocessor as a $375 option. While 
the changes required are not espe- 
cially great the 80287 is not totally 
software-compatible with the 8087 
used in the PC so programs written 
to use the 8087 might not work in the 
AT. As with the 8087, the actual in- 
crease in performance you can expect 
depends on the application. 

The system board has room for 
512K bytes of parity-checked RAM. 
The basic AT has 2 56K bytes, while 
the enhanced model has 512K bytes. 
You can get 128K-byte modules that 
consist of two special 64K-byte RAM 
packages soldered together in piggy- 
back fashion; they have Mostek part 
number MK4128N-1 5. IBM has never 
been the least expensive source for 
PC memory, and expanding the basic 
model to 512 K bytes with IBM RAMs 



costs $495. I called the Mostek local 
sales office to find out if these parts 
were available from its distributors. 
The answer I got was 'They used to 
be, but not anymore." 

On the system board are eight full- 
length I/O slots; these give you more 
expansion capability than the XT's six 
full and two short slots. Also, the 
floppy- and hard-disk functions are 
combined on one card to free up an 
additional connector. 

Each slot is equipped with the usual 
62-pin connector. These connectors 
carry the same signals as those on a 
PC although the timing is not iden- 
tical. Six of these slots have an addi- 
tional 36-pin connector intended for 
AT-specific cards and contain the ex- 
tended address lines (A20-A23) to let 
you place up to 16 megabytes of 
memory in the system. The upper 8 
bits of the data bus are here, too. To 
accommodate existing 8-bit I/O cards, 
hardware on the system board auto- 
matically converts each processor-ini- 
tiated 16-bit data or I/O transfer to two 
8-bit transfers. Any card that can sup- 
port 16-bit transfers can send a signal 
back through this connector to dis- 
able the translation. 

An interesting signal, Master, lets a 
processor on an I/O card temporarily 
take control of the system and access 
any memory or peripheral device. 
This capability opens up new possi- 







r 


h 




■ /:=.-:..' ■;■■ 


E='D 










13 
31 

mm 
as 

mm- 


iiiiiiiiiiiiii ai a &mm 
aiitiiiiii hi ■hnram 
aiiiiiiiiiiii afll a a a m 

earn iiieii nil sbbI a.a a s 

g3! fl MHMBI^HM B i3lM S 














Photo 2: Close-up of the IBM PC AT keyboard shows the repositioning of the 
grave accent, Print Screen, Escape, and backslash keys. 



bilities for intelligent peripherals and 
coprocessor cards. 

Compatibility with PC I/O cards is 
good, but not 100 percent. The higher 
clock rate and timing differences 
render many cards inoperative in the 
AT. None of the PC memory-expan- 
sion and multifunction boards are like- 
ly to work. On the other hand, the 
AT's added memory and clock fea- 
tures make the boards somewhat 
superfluous, and new memory boards 
for expansion above 1 megabyte are 
available from IBM and other vendors. 
'Ikble I lists which expansion options 
IBM supports. 

A few cards, such as IBM's color- 
graphics adapter, won't fit in the 
double-connector slots because they 
extend below the connector top. 
These cards must be placed in one of 
the two available single-connector 
slots. Since the chassis is higher than 
the PC's, cards designed for the AT 
can be about an inch taller. 

Mass Storage 

The AT is the first major personal 
computer to use the new generation 
of high-capacity floppy-disk drives. 
These drives are capable of placing 
1.2 megabytes on a special 5^-inch 
disk. The data is stored on 160 tracks 
(80 per side) with fifteen 512K-byte 
sectors on each track. At 500K bps. 
the data-transfer rate is twice as great 
as for a standard disk. Rotation speed 
is greater too: 360 instead of 300 
revolutions per minute. 

To get this kind of density, you have 
to use special "high-coercivity" disks. 
Because the bits are crammed so 
closely together, as much as 10,000 
per inch, the magnetic field used to 
write the data tends to spill over onto 
adjacent bits. The high-coercivity 
recording media requires a more in- 
tense magnetic field to set or "coerce" 
a bit. It ignores the less intense stray 
fields and is only affected by the 
strong field directly under the record- 
ing head. 

To handle these drives. IBM devel- 
oped a new disk-adapter card. They 
also threw in the standard floppy- and 
hard-disk controller. Unlike the old 

[continued] 



272 B YTE • MAY 1985 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

IBM Personal Computer AT 

Manufacturer 

IBM Corporation 
Entry Systems Division 
POB 1328 
Boca Raton, FL 33432 

Processor 

Intel 80286 

Memory 

256K bytes (basic); 512K 
bytes (enhanced) 
Up to 16 megabytes 
supported by hardware 

Display 

Uses standard IBM PC 
display adapters 

Keyboard 

84 keys, Selectric layout, 
10 function keys 

Disk Storage 

Floppy: standard 360K bytes; 
high-capacity 1.2 megabytes 
Hard disk: 20 megabytes 
(enhanced system) 

Expansion 

Eight I/O slots 

Software 

BASIC in ROM, diagnostic 
disk, tutorial 

Price 

Basic system $3995 

Enhanced system $5795 

Software Options 

PC-DOS 3.0 operating 
system $65 

XENIX operating system $395 
XENIX software-develop* 
ment system $455 

XENIX text-formatting 
system $145 

Documentation 

Guide to operations included 
Installation and setup included 
Technical reference 
manual $30 

PC-DOS technical 
reference $40 

Maintenance and service 
manual $295 

Audience 

Business and scientific users 





Wm<,\>,w 




11 " ' — 



~*~i 



MEMORY SIZE (K BYTES) 

200 400 600 



DISK STORAGE {K BYTES) 
800 1000 400 800 1200 



1600 2000 





BUNDLED SOFTWARE PACKAGES 
2 4 6 



PRICE ($ 1000) 
10 2 4 



8 10 




IBM PC AT III! IBM PC 



APPLE HE 



The Memory Size graph shows the standard 
and optional memory available for the com- 
puters under comparison. The Disk Storage 
graph shows the highest capacity for one and 
two floppy-disk drives. The Bundled Software 
Packages graph shows the number of software 
packages included with each system. The Price 



graph shows the list price of a system with two 
disk drives, a monochrome monitor, a color- 
display adapter; a printer port and a serial port, 
256K bytes of memory (64K bytes for 8-bit sys- 
tems), the standard operating system for the 
computers under comparison, and the stan- 
dard BASIC interpreter. 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 273 




A rear view of the IBM PC AT. 



Inside the IBM PC AT. The expansion bus is at the right, hard- 
disk drive is top center, and power supply is bottom left. 



DISK ACCESS IN BASIC (SEC) 
250 



200 



150 



100 



50 



WRITE 

SYSTEM UTILITIES (SEC) 
50 




BASIC PERFORMANCE (SEC) 
250 



200 




READ 



SIEVE 



CALCULATIONS 



40 



10 



SPREADSHEET (SEC) 
25 



N/A 




.3.9_f 



40K FORMAT/ DISK COPY 




40K FILE COPY 
j |] IBM PC AT 



The graph for Disk Access in BASIC shows how long it takes to write 
and read a 64K-byte sequential text file to a blank formatted floppy 
disk. (For the program listings, see "The Chameleon Plus" by Rich 
Krajewski, June 1984 BYTE, page 327, and October BYTE, page 
33.) The Sieve column in the BASIC Performance graph shows how 
long it takes to run one iteration of the Sieve of Eratosthenes prime- 
number benchmark. The Calculations column shows how long it 
takes to do 10,000 multiplication and 10,000 division operations using 
single-precision numbers. The System Utilities' Format/Disk Copy 
graph shows how long it takes to format and copy a standard text 
file to disk (adjusted time for 40K bytes of disk data). The File Copy 



column shows how long it takes to copy a 40K-byte file using the 
system utility programs. The File Copy test on the AT copied from 
the hard-disk drive to the floppy-disk drive. The Systems Utilities graph 
does not include format/disk copy on the IBM PC AT because the 
review unit had one hard- and only one floppy-disk drive. The Spread- 
sheet graph shows how long it takes to load and recalculate a 25- 
by 25-cell Microsoft Multiplan spreadsheet where each cell equals 
1.001 times the cell to its left. The IBM PC AT used PC-DOS 3.0 and 
BASICA. The Apple lie used ProDOS, except for the spreadsheet 
test, which was done with DOS 3.3. The IBM PC used BASICA 
running under PC-DOS 2.0. 



274 BYTE • MAY 1985 



REVIEW: IBM PC AT 



disk adapter, this new card can han- 
dle only two floppy-disk drives. How- 
ever, you can use two controllers if 
you can find operating software and 
a place to put the drives. 

Since no software is currently avail- 
able in the high-capacity format, the 
high-capacity drive and controller can 
read standard disks. You can also 
write on them, but you probably 
won't be able to read that disk on a 
standard drive due to the much nar- 
rower track that is recorded. This 
means that the AT owner who needs 
to transfer data to PCs will be forced 
to either sacrifice a high-capacity 
drive for a standard drive or use a 
serial-communication hookup. 

In my experience with the high- 
capacity drive, I never saw any data 
errors or even retries using the special 
IBM disks that came with the system. 

The ROM BIOS automatically deter- 
mines the drive/format combination 
after a drive reset; this makes the ac- 
tual controller mechanics transparent 
to a program. It also makes many 
copy-protection schemes incompati- 
ble. One exasperating attribute of the 
disk system is the one-eighth-second 
minimum motor-start delay that the 
BIOS imposes. It makes each initial 
disk access take longer than it would 
on a PC. I realize that the half-height 
drives take longer to start, but I still 
wish this parameter had remained 
variable. 

If you need hard disks, the en- 
hanced AT comes with a 2 Omega- 
byte. full-height, hard-disk drive 
tucked inside the cabinet (for bench- 
mark times comparing three hard-disk 
systems, see table 2). You can add a 
second drive in the spot where a sec- 
ond floppy would go. 

THE ROM BIOS 

The ROM contains a cassette-BASIC 
interpreter (the AT does not have a 
cassette interface), a power-up self- 
test (POST) program, and the BIOS 
functions in four 16K by 8-bit devices. 
If you moved a jumper, a pair of 3 2 K 
by 8-bit ROMs could do the same job 
and leave two sockets open for expan- 
sion. As with the PC, expansion ROMs 
can be recognized by the ROM BIOS 



and incorporated into its functions. 

The AT has a new version of the 
BIOS that provides a number of new 
features. The most notable is the ad- 
dition of support for multitasking 
operating systems. Quite a few PC 
operating systems currently available 
can run more than one program at a 
time. Digital Research's Concurrent 
DOS and the multitude of UNIX- 
based packages are the best known. 
In all cases, these operating systems 
must supply their own BIOS because 
the one in the PC is single-threaded. 
Once you call it to initiate an opera- 
tion (accessing the disk, for example), 
you cannot do anything else until the 
BIOS is finished— even if the pro- 
cessor is going to spend most of its 
time waiting. This is why your key- 
board input seems to come to a 
grinding halt periodically while the 
PC-DOS print spooler is in operation 
and a disk access is necessary. 

However, the AT BIOS functions can 
return to the caller with a flag that 
says "This will take a while." The 
operating system then runs another 
program while the hardware does the 
work. When the operation is done, the 



BIOS sets another flag saying "I'm 
ready to finish up" and the software 
can go back to the original program. 

While this feature is helpful, it (and 
the ROM BIOS in general) is only avail- 
able in real-memory mode. With the 
possible exception of the multitasking 
facility built into IBM's TopView, new 
multitasking or multiuser systems are 
likely to operate in virtual mode and 
include their own BIOS. 

Other new features are designed to 
isolate programs from the hardware 
for back and future compatibility. 
These include joystick support and a 
short-interval (microseconds) timer. 

One potentially useful new function 
has some hidden problems. Since PC- 
DOS supports only the first 640K 
bytes of memory, IBM built a function 
into the BIOS to allow block transfers 
between standard and extended 
memory including a device driver to 
use this memory as a virtual disk. 

The way the BIOS Move Block func- 
tion operates is simple: You put the 
processor into protected mode, make 
the transfer, and go back to real mode 
again. The one problem is that the 

{continued) 



Table I: IBM PC hardware compatibility with the AT. 


Supported 


Not Supported 


IBM monochrome display adapter 


IBM asynchronous communications 


IBM color display adapter 


adapter 


IBM SDLC communications adapter 


IBM printer adapter 


IBM binary synchronous 


IBM expansion unit 


communications adapter 


IBM compact printer 


IBM cluster network adapter 


Other memory-expansion options 


IBM PC network adapter 


Other keyboards 


IBM graphics printer 


Other disk and fixed-disk drives 


IBM color printer 





T&ble 2: Some benchmark times in 


seconds for the AT with 


a hard-disk drive. 


Test 


IBM PC AT 


IBM PC XT 


Apple lie (Profile) 


BASIC 
Hard-disk Write 
Hard-disk Read 


17 
12 


43 
28 




22 
13 


System Utilities 
40K File Copy 


12 


2.8 




20 


Spreadsheet 
Load 


1.7 


3.8 




N/A 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 275 



REVIEW: IBM PC AT 



only way to get back to real mode 
from protected is to literally reset the 
processor. But first a flag is set in the 
battery-backed configuration RAM 
signaling that the reset is for this par- 
ticular reason. Near the beginning of 
the initialization routine, the flag is 
detected and the program returns to 
Move Block again for cleanup. 

There are two key failings to this 
method. First, the entire operation, 
taking as much as 4 or 5 milliseconds, 
must be done with all interrupts shut 
off. This can delay interrupt-intensive 
operations to the point where critical 
events might be missed. You could 
lose characters coming in on a 
9600-bps serial port, for example. The 
second problem is even more serious. 
If the power or the system fails in the 
small time-window during which the 
flag is set, each time the system is 
powered up or reset it will think it is 
coming back from a Move Block and 



lose control. The only way to get the 
system working again is to open it up 
and disconnect the battery for a mo- 
ment to kill the flag. You will also have 
to reset the clock and rerun the con- 
figuration program. You are better off 
to stick to the hard disk for fast 
storage. It's less expensive and more 
reliable. 

A NEW PC-DOS? 

A new version of PC-DOS accom- 
panies the AT. The release of DOS 3 .0 
serves two purposes. First, it provides 
the internal changes necessary to run 
on the AT. It also serves as an interim 
release to let programmers begin to 
interface their software with the file- 
sharing facilities required to operate 
in the local-area-network environment 
that IBM announced with the AT 

File sharing is required in multiuser 
or networked systems to ensure that 
only one user can change a file or 



record at a time. Otherwise, a change 
or update might not be recorded 
properly. Although local-area net- 
works for the PC have been around 
for some time, they each had different 
sharing mechanisms. Software devel- 
opers tended to ignore the issue 
rather than build separate versions for 
each brand of network. Although the 
actual network software will not be 
available until DOS 3.1 appears, DOS 
3.0 standardizes the software inter- 
face for developers. 

DOS 3.0 fixes a few minor bugs in 
DOS 2.1 and also adds some new 
commands. The ones I am particular- 
ly pleased to see fixed are the ability 
to use a pathname before a command 
and correction of the FOR batch com- 
mand that previously could not deal 
with sets longer than 64 characters. 
Functions of the new commands in- 
clude supporting foreign-language 
keyboards, making files read-only, and 



Last year the experts tested 

thetop-of-the-line 

Toshiba 3-in-One printer. 

Here's what they said. 

■■When Toshiba America called to see 
if there were problems testing their printers, 
I responded, You bet — I can't get the P1351 
off Bill Machrone's desk long enough to get 
its picture taken!' It's that good. J M 



(BillMachroneisthe 
editor of PC Magazine.) 



PC Magazine 
November 27, 1984 



■■ It 6 setting new standards for quality and 
performance in the dot matrix arena.M 



276 BYTE • MAY I985 



Computers & Electronics Magazine 
November 1984 



REVIEW: IBM PC AT 



changing the volume label on a disk. 

A major internal change lets PC- 
DOS handle up to 65.526 allocation 
blocks on disk, up from 4086. This 
allows much more efficient use of disk 
space on larger hard-disk drives. 

BASICA has also been enhanced, 
but the changes are really to the 
documentation. A number of key- 
words that were reserved but un- 
defined such as SHELL ENVIRONS, 
and IOCTL. have finally been included 
in the manual as commands and func- 
tions. Most of these existed in previ- 
ous versions, albeit with some bugs. 
This release simply acknowledges 
them. 

Minor changes to some of the sys- 
tem calls can cause problems for pro- 
grams that don't play by the rules. 
One such change is the use of all 8 
bits in filename characters to support 
the foreign character sets. This made 
my version of Digital Research's GSX 



liable 3: IBM PC/PC AT software 


compatibility. 




Compatible 


Not Compatible 


PMATE Editor 


Flight Simulator 


Ci-C86 C compiler 


J-Bird 


Lotus 1-2-3 


Frogger 


WordStar 


Burgertime 


MultiMate 


PC-Man 


XyWrite 


CP/M-86 


Multiplan 


Concurrent CP/M 


SuperCalc2 


DR's GSX 


PeachText 




ASCOM 




dBASE II 





graphics extension unusable on the 
AT and the PC. I understand that DR's 
latest release fixes the problem. 

Summary 

All the programs I tried, except the 



games, stand-alone programs, and 
GSX, ran perfectly. Ikble 3 lists what 
worked and what didn't. IBM supplies 
a pamphlet with the AT telling you 
which programs the company knows 
won't run and mentioning any special 
considerations for supported soft- 
ware. Mostly this consists of instruc- 
tions on how to copy a program to a 
high-density disk. 

IBM states that a number of pro- 
grams won't run on these disks 
because of copy-protection tech- 
niques or assumptions the program 
makes about disk layout. You have to 
run these on a standard drive. 

To sum this all up, the IBM PC AT 
is a powerful machine that you can 
use in place of a PC or XT system for 
a two or three times increase in per- 
formance and storage. As a small, 
cost-effective, multiuser business 
system? I'll just have to wait and see 
what XENIX looks like. ■ 



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278 BYTE • MAY I985 



Inquiry 221 




SOFTWARE REVIEW 



Bringing 



structure 



to the realm 

of "spaghetti 

code" 



by G. Michael Vose 



True BASIC 



G. Michael Vose is a BYTE senior 

technical editor. He can be reached 

at POB 372. Hancock, NH 

03449. 



Eighteen months ago, BASIC'S origi- 
nators, John Kemeny and Thomas 
Kurtz, informed the world they 
planned to port their creation to microcom- 
puters. The intention of Kemeny, Kurtz, and 
associates Chris Walker, Brig Elliot, and 
Dave Pearson at True BASIC Inc. focused on 
cleaning up "Street BASIC" their name for 
the widespread but limited versions of 
BASIC that dominated the microcomputer 
world. These men view Street BASIC as a 
weak sister to the substantially evolved 
Dartmouth BASIC. Calling Street BASIC "a 
horrible dialect of a beautiful language" 
they bemoan its hardware specificity and 
lack of modern structure. 

Secondarily, they were keen to create a 
BASIC that conformed to a standard. They 
wanted it to be widely disseminated and. 
therefore, wanted it to be uniform for text- 
books and other educational materials that 
need program listings. The standard to 
emulate, in their estimation, was the embat- 
tled American National Standards Institute 
(ANSI) X3J2 subcommittee's proposed stan- 
dard (see the text box 'ANSI Standard 
BASIC" on page 288). Kurtz had served as 
chairman of the subcommittee for 10 years. 

The result is TVue BASIC, a compiled ANSI 
standard BASIC distributed by textbook 
publisher Addison-Wesley of Reading, Mas- 
sachusetts. In this review. I look at the first 
implementation of TVue BASIC, the IBM Per- 
sonal Computer (PC) version. It requires MS- 
DOS 1.1, 2.0. 2.1. or 3.0 and 128K bytes of 
memory, plus a disk drive. The PC version's 
price is $149.90. 

A version for the Apple Macintosh is 
slated for late spring, and a PCjr version 
reportedly will be ready by the time you 
read this. All versions of TVue BASIC are in- 
tended to be identical at the source-code 
level, but the Macintosh version proposes 
to exploit the machine's icorv/mouse- 
oriented user interface at the command 
level. 

The unique features of True BASIC, and 
those that will be closely examined here, in- 



clude its user interface, use of external sub- 
routines and libraries, floating-point math 
package, graphics and sound capability, 
debugging tools, and availability of access 
to the machine, (Tkble 1 offers a comparison 
of TVue BASIC, PC-BASIC. BetterBASIC. and 
TUrbo Pascal.) 

A major departure from previous micro- 
computer BASICS, TVue BASIC is compiled 
instead of interpreted. The compiler pro- 
duces an intermediate code. A pseudo- 
microprocessor interprets this code at run 
time and uses the resulting interpretation 
to generate machine code for the IBM PC's 
8088 CPU (central processing unit). This 
compilation technique enhances program- 
execution speed and permits execution of 
programs from within the TVue BASIC editor, 
using the familiar BASIC command RUN. 
All activity in TVue BASIC happens within 
the numerous windows of the system's 
editor. 

Users view the TVue BASIC world through 
the editor's three windows— the source win- 
dow, the command (or history) window, and 
the graphics window. The TVue BASIC editor 
functions as a screen editor within a win- 
dow; movement is controlled by the cursor 
keys. The first two windows dominate the 
screen display during a programming 
session. 

The source and command windows share 
the screen and can be adjusted by the user. 
On the IBM PC. you move between windows 
using function keys FI and F2. You use the 
Home. End, PgUp, and PgDn keys to move 
through a file within a window. 

The source window is for entering and 
modifying source code. The PC's Insert and 
Delete keys function within this window to 
aid the editing process. 

The command window lets you issue 
commands (like RUN and SAVE), and it dis- 
plays all nongraphic program output. In ad- 
dition, the command window preserves all 
the command-line activity during a pro- 
gramming session. With the cursor keys, you 

{continued) 



MAY 1985 -BYTE 279 



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REVIEW: TRUE BASIC 



can move back through all corrimand- 
window activity to look at any se- 
quence of actions. Within this window, 
the PC function key F9 enters the 



RUN command, and the F7 key 
recalls the last line entered. The F10 
key is the help key. 
Since you both enter and execute 



Table l : A comparison of features and capabilities. 








True BASIC 


PC-BASIC 


BetterBASIC Turbo Pascal 


Hexadecimal numbers 


no 


yes 


yes 


yes 


8087 support 


yes 


no 


yes 


yes 


Maximum string length (bytes) 


32K 


255 


32K 


256 


Binary-coded-decimal math 


no 


no 


yes 


no 


Byte 


no 


no 


yes 


yes 


Windows 


yes 


no 


yes 


yes 


DOS call 


no 


no 


yes 


yes 


DOS 2.0 files 


yes 


no 


yes 


no 


Chaining 


yes 


yes 


yes 


yes 


Overlays 


yes 


yes 


no 


yes 


Libraries (modules) 


yes 


no 


yes 


yes 


Procedures 


yes 


no 


yes 


yes 


Functions 


yes 


yes 


yes 


yes 


DO loops 


yes 


no 


yes 


yes 


ELSEIF/ENDIF 


yes 


no 


no 


no 


CASE 


yes 


no 


no 


yes 


Scoped variables 


yes 


no 


yes 


yes 


Recursion 


yes 


no 


yes 


yes 


PEEK/POKE 


yes 


yes 


yes 


no 


Number of open files 


10 


2 


5 


15 


Array dimensions 


10 


255 


unlimited 


255 


Option base 


declarable 


or 1 


or 1 


declarable 




(default =1) 


(default = 0) 


(default = 0) 





Table 2: The largest number for which the respective languages can calculate 
the factorial followed by the factorial. 


Factorial Calculations 


Largest Number 


Factorial Computed 


True BASIC 170 
BetterBASIC 145 
PC-BASIC 33 
Turbo Pascal 33 


725742E + 306 
8.0479272E + 251 
8.6833176187E+36 
8.683317E + 36 



Listing 1 : The factorial program coded in True BASIC. 

10 ! Program to Calculate and Print Factorials 

20 ! Requires the Input of a Base Number 

30 PRINT "Type a Number :"; 

35 INPUT number 

40 LET dummy = number 

50 IF number<2 then LET fact = 1 

60 LET dummy = dummy -1 

70 LET number = number*dummy 

80 IF dummy< >1 then GOTO 60 

90 PRINT "The Factorial is ";number 

95 GOTO 30 

100 END 



280 BYTE • MAY I985 



REVIEW: TRUE BASIC 



programs from within the editor, 'frue 
BASIC spots and reports errors as it 
encounters them during the compila- 
tion of the source program. The RUN 
command initiates the compiler, and 
there is a noticeable delay from when 
you enter the RUN command until 
TYue BASIC successfully completes 
the compile cycle. Errors make the 
compiler stop, display an error mes- 
sage in the command window, and 
move the cursor to the beginning of 
the line containing the error in the 
source window. Often, the cursor 
moves to an improperly placed key- 
word or punctuation character. 

Another interesting component of 
the Thie BASIC user interface is that 
it lets you execute DO files. A DO file 
is a filter program or utility. For exam- 
ple, the TYue BASIC program disk con- 
tains a DO file called FORMAT that 
produces a formatted ("prettyprint") 
listing of the program file in the 
source window. Renumbering TCue 
BASIC'S optional line numbers is ac- 
complished with another DO file 
called RENUM. 

DO files written in TKie BASIC are 
coded as external subroutines and 
compiled to object files using the 
command COMPILE. The resulting 
object file can then be saved on disk, 
where it resides until called by the DO 
filename command. 

The final component of the user in- 
terface is the on-screen help facility. 
Engaged by pressing F10 or typing 
HELP, the on-screen assistance is not 
context-sensitive, lb get help on a 
specific topic, like saving source files, 
you must enter HELP SAVE. 

External Subroutines 
and Libraries 

Most BASIC programmers use sub- 
routines, sections of code within a 
program that perform often-repeated 
functions. Thie BASIC similarly pro- 
vides for subroutines, although you 
call them by name and they permit 
parameter passing. But the language 
also includes a mechanism for calling 
routines that reside outside a pro- 
gram—external subroutines and 
libraries. 
A library is merely a collection of 



external subroutines grouped within 
a file. External subroutines allow 
parameter passing and look identical 
to internal subroutines, except that 
they stand alone or occur after a pro- 
gram END statement. The keyword 
EXTERNAL identifies a subroutine or 
group of subroutines and functions as 
a LIBRARY. External subroutines can 
reside independently on disk. To call 
a library, use a LIBRARY filename 
header at the beginning of the source 
program that calls the external sub- 
routines. 

Variables within Thie BASIC'S exter- 
nal subroutines are local to that pro- 
gram unit; they are unknown to other 
external subroutines or to programs. 
But within any subroutine or program, 
all variables are global in scope. 
Subroutines, internal or external, may 
have any number of arguments, but 
the arguments passed must match the 
data type (string or numeric) of the 
arguments as originally declared. 

Functions in Thie BASIC can also be 
external, in which case they use local 
variables. 

'Lrue BASIC has several libraries on 
its program disk. A graphics library 
provides routines to draw an n-sided 
polygon, a f illed-in circle, or six other 
shapes. The four mathematical librar- 
ies offer hyperbolic functions, trigo- 
nometric functions in either radians or 
degrees, and such functions as n fac- 
torial or binomial coefficients. A menu 
library contains five subroutines that 
let you use menus within programs. 
By invoking them you can open a win- 
dow for a menu, display the menu, get 
a reply, clear the menu, and return to 
the working program window. 

Floating-Point Math 

To test the dynamic range of Thie 
BASIC, I ran the short factorial pro- 
gram shown in listing I . Tkble 2 shows 
the largest number for which this al- 
gorithm can calculate the factorial for 
a variety of languages on an IBM PC. 
The dynamic range claimed for the PC 
version of r Itue BASIC is 1.11 254 E- 
308 to 3.59539E + 308, a claim 
verified by this test. Thie BASIC Inc. 
says that the minimum dynamic range 

[continued) 




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MAY 1985 -BYTE 281 



REVIEW: TRUE BASIC 



for lYue BASIC, regardless of the com- 
puter, is I.OE-99 to 1.0E + 99. 

The numeric precision of TVue 
BASIC is 1 4 digits of accuracy on the 
PC. except for the built-in tran- 
scendental, where the accuracy is 10 
digits. The external format for TVue 
BASIC numbers conforms to the IEEE 
7 54 floating-point standard. The lan- 



guage's implementors sacrificed some 
of the standard's precision to obtain 
greater speed and produced a math 
package with better speed and preci- 
sion than most languages offer (see 
the "Benchmarks" section). In accor- 
dance with the ANSI standard, only 
6 digits of a number are displayed 
unless you invoke special format corn- 



Listing 2: The BYTE calculations benchmark coded in True BASIC. Note that 
line numbers are optional. 



LET startime = time 
LET nr = 5000 
LET a = 2.71828 
LET b = 3.14159 
LET c- 1 
FOR i = 1 to nr 

LET c = c*a 

LETc = c*b 

LET c= c/a 

LETc=c/b 
NEXTi 

PRINT "Done" 
LET finishtime = time 
PRINT "Error = ";c-1 
PRINT finishtime-startime;" seconds" 
END 



Listing 3: The standard BYTE calculations benchmark. 

5 REM: THE CALCULATIONS BENCHMARK 

10 NR = 5000 

20 DEFSNG A-Z 

30 A = 2.71828 

40 B = 3.14159 

50 C= 1 

60 FOR 1 = 1 TO NR 

70 C = C*A 

80 C = C*B 

90 C = C/A 

100 C = C/B 

110 NEXT I 

120 PRINT "done" 

130 PRINT "error = ";C-1 



mands. like PRINT USING. (Other 
lYue BASIC limits include a maximum 
string length of 32,767 and a maxi- 
mum of 255 array dimensions.) 

The traditional BYTE calculations 
benchmark, rewritten in TVue BASIC 
and shown in listing 2 (the standard 
BYTE calculations benchmark is 
shown in listing 3 for comparison), 
reveals that TVue BASIC'S round-off er- 
ror is substantially lower than that of 
the PC-BASIC interpreter (see table 3 
and the graphs on the "At a Glance" 
page). TVue BASIC also automatically 
senses, and uses, the Intel 8087 co- 
processor when installed. The 8087 
further enhances the speed and ac- 
curacy of floating-point math, fully 
conforming to the IEEE 754 standard. 

Graphics and Sound 

TVue BASIC places a substantial em- 
phasis on graphics. Most of the sam- 
ple programs on the distribution disk 
generate graphics output. The design 
goals of the graphics command set 
were portability and elimination of 
pixel calculations. 

To eliminate pixel math, lYue BASIC 
performs x, y coordinate graphics 
using statements like PLOT. BOX, and 
DRAW. You can plot lines, points, or 
areas to create simple shapes. The 
only concern is the character of the 
graphic, such as the length of the 
sides of a triangle, and not pixel posi- 
tioning on the screen. The graphics 
statements make all the pixel calcula- 
tions. BOX statements let you draw 
and redraw graphics fast enough to 
create animated displays. 

The PICTURE construct allows 
more sophisticated graphics. PIC- 
TURES are special graphics subrou- 
tines called with the DRAW state- 

(continued) 



Table 3 : The BYTE benchmarks for several languages. Times are in seconds. 




True BASIC PC-BASIC BetterBASIC 


Turbo Pascal 


Sieve 21.2 190.7 31.4 


15.4 


Calculations 19.7 69.2 91.3 


82.6 


(Error) - 4.5830006457E-13 - 1 .7881 39E-07 (uses binary-coded-decimal 


- 1.33841 24031 E-08 


notation) 





282 BYTE- MAY 1985 



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Microsoft is a registered trademark and MS is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation 




AT A GLANCE 



Name 

True BASIC 

Manufacturer 

True BASIC Inc. 
39 South Main St. 
Hanover; NH 03755 

Distributor 

Addison-Wesley 
Publishing Co. 
Reading, MA 01867 
(617) 944-3700 

Price 

$149.90 

Computer 

IBM PC with 128K RAM and 
a disk drive 

Features 

An ANSI standard BASIC 
language compiler with a 
window-oriented user 
interface, characterized 
primarily by its outstanding 
math package 

Documentation 

A reference manual and a 
user's guide plus on-screen 
help 



SIEVE OF ERATOSTHENES (SEC) 
100 



80 



60 



40 



191 



21 



IE 



31 



15 



w 



CALCULATIONS (SEC) 
100 




[__ | TRUE BASIC 



PC-BASIC \,[,.[[.\ BETTERBASIC V///\ TURBO PASCAL 



The benchmark for the Sieve of Eratosthenes 
measures (in seconds) how long it takes for each 
of the tested languages to run one iteration of 
a program that determines all of the prime 
numbers up to 7000. The Calculations graph 
shows how long it takes to do 10,000 multiplica- 



tion and 10,000 division operations using single- 
precision num biers. Listings 2, 3, 4, and 5 show 
the standard BYTE benchmarks for calculations 
and the Sieve— as well as how they were modi- 
fied to accommodate True BASIC'S slightly dif- 
ferent syntax. 



ment. Since a PICTURE emulates a 
regular True BASIC subroutine, it can 
be called with parameters. For exam- 
ple, a PICTURE that draws a square 
can be called with an argument that 
determines the length of the square's 
side. 

Sophistication in picture graphics is 
made possible by what True BASIC 
calls transformations. These transfor- 
mations include the ability to rotate 
a picture, shift a picture right or left 
on the screen, change the size of a 
picture, or even shear the picture (tilt 
all its vertical lines forward by a 
specific number of radians or 
degrees). 

Like regular TVue BASIC subroutines 
and functions, PICTURES can be 
either internal to the program or ex- 
ternal. They may even reside with 
other PICTURES in a library. 

The graphics functions of True 
BASIC also include the ability to com- 
bine text and graphics (using the 



PLOT TEXT statement) and the use of 
adjustable windows. To enhance out- 
put within the system graphics win- 
dow, you can open separate windows 
of any size and divide the output 
among them any way you like. The 
windows in Thue BASIC do not 
overlap. 

To create music or sound in the lan- 
guage, you use common keywords 
like PLAY. SOUND, and PAUSE. On 
the IBM PC, you can play music in 
either foreground or background 
mode so your programs can provide 
music along with other activity. Back- 
ground music is limited to a string of 
32 notes or pauses, played repeated- 
ly until the program's end. 

Chaining and Debugging 

The CHAIN statement in lYue BASIC 
functions like a subroutine call. Pro- 
gram flow can pass to another pro- 
gram and then return to the original 
program when the second program 



completes execution. CHAINed pro- 
grams can even accept arguments. 

You can write and call assembly-lan- 
guage subroutines from within TYue 
BASIC programs, and you can per- 
form traditional BASIC memory ex- 
amination and assignment operations 
using PEEK and POKE. On the IBM 
PC, Thje BASIC'S memory addresses 
do not use the Intel 8086 conventions 
of segment and offset. Instead, they 
use a simple decimal address. Pro- 
grammers will have to calculate this 
address, using the formula segment* 1 6 
+ offset = address, before performing 
PEEKs and POKEs. 

This version of BASIC treats assem- 
bly-language routines the same way 
it treats libraries. Therefore, assem- 
bly-language subroutines need 
preface bytes identical to those in a 
library file. Assembly-language rou- 
tines can accept arguments. Once 
created, assembled, linked, and 

{continued) 



284 BYTE* MAY 1985 



^ 



A 



<& 



#. 



&> 



s 



Mighty Macro 
Assembler* 



The new Microsoft® Macro 
Assembler package. A complete devel- 
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A common calling convention lets 
you easily call assembly language 
routines from any high level Microsoft 
language to add an extra burst of 
blinding speed. 

Better Debugging, 

The new Symbolic Debug Utility 
lets you stay close to the source. Now 
you can step through your assembled 
or compiled code by name rather than 
by address. Source level display for 
Microsoft Pascal, FORTRAN, and C 
allows you to view both your original 
source and the resulting code. 

And we stuffed our package with a 
full set of the most useful utilities 
around. So that you can link, maintain 
and organize your programs like 
never before. 

Who else but Microsoft could build 
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For the name of your nearest Micro- 
soft dealer call (800) 426-9400. In 



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♦ Controlled testing environment for debugging. 

♦ Source line display of Microsoft FORTRAN, Pascal and 
C Programs. 

♦ Set breakpoints on line numbers and symbols. 
♦Single step to follow program execution. 

♦ Disassemble object code. 

♦ Display values. 

♦ Make minor changes without reassembling. 
New Program Maintenance Utility 

♦ Rebuilds your applications after your source files have 
been changed. 

♦ Similar to UNIX™ Make utility. 
Library Manager 

♦Create, organize and maintain your object module 
libraries created with Microsoft Languages. 

♦ Set page size (default of 16 bytes). 
Object Code Linker 

♦ Simple overlaying linker combines relocatable object 
modules created using Microsoft Languages into a single 
program. 

♦ Load Map generation. 

♦ Specify from 1 to 1024 segments. 

Cross Reference Utility for the Macro Assembler 

♦ Creates a cross-reference listing of the definitions and 
locations of all symbols used in an assembly language 
program. 




Microsoft is a registered trademark and The High 

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REVIEW: TRUE BASIC 



filtered by EXE2BIN, an assembly-lan- 
guage subroutine is treated just like 
any True BASIC library routine. 

Bit manipulation is not provided in 
True BASIC, other than that allowable 
by PEEK and POKE routines and the 
bit-packing routines, PACKB and UN- 
PACKB. The logical operators AND, 
OR, and NOT are relational, not 
Boolean. You can use them on expres- 
sions but not on variables, meaning 
that you can't use them to mask all 



but certain bits of a byte. PACKB and 
UN PACKB place integers into strings 
and retrieve integers from strings, re- 
spectively. This allows storing 
numbers between and 2 55 more 
economically. 

True BASIC provides no special de- 
bugging aids. The manual suggests 
using BREAK to set breakpoints and 
CONTINUE to resume program ex- 
ecution after a breakpoint-defined 
halt. The editor provides a global 



Listing 4: BYTE's Sieve benchmark in True BASIC. 

10 let startime = time 

20 let size =7001 

30 dim flags(7002) 

40 print "Start One Iteration" 

50 let count = 

60 for i = 1 to size 

70 let flags(i) = 1 

80 next i 

90 for i = 1 to size 

100 if f lags(i) = then goto 180 

110 let prime = i + i + 3 

120 let k = i + prime 

130 if k>size then goto 170 

140 let flags(k) = 

150 let k = k + prime 

160 goto 130 

170 let count = count + 1 

180 next i 

190 print "Done: ";count;" Primes Found" 

200 let finishtime= time 

210 print finishtime-startime; " seconds" 

220 end 



Listing 5 : The standard BYTE Sieve benchmark. 

5 REM: THE SIEVE BENCHMARK 

10 SIZE = 7000 

20 DIM FLAGS(7001) 

30 PRINT "start one iteration" 

40 COUNT = 

50 FOR l = TO SIZE 

60 FLAGS(I)=1 

70 NEXT I 

80 FOR l = TO SIZE 

90 IF FLAGS(l) = THEN 170 

100 PRIME =l + l + 3 

110 K = I + PRIME 

120 IF K > SIZE THEN 160 

130 FLAGS(K) = 

140 K = K + PRIME 

150 GOTO 120 

160 COUNT = COUNT+1 

170 NEXT I 

180 PRINT "done: ";COUNl;" primes found" 



search-and-replace command called 
CHANGE. 

Benchmarks 

Tkble 3 and the graphs on the "At a 
Glance" page show benchmark results 
for several languages on the IBM PC. 
The benchmarks indicate that IHie 
BASIC is an average of 6.4 times faster 
than interpreted PC-BASIC, 3 times 
faster than BetterBASIC and twice as 
fast as TUrbo Pascal. True BASIC per- 
forms particularly well on the calcula- 
tions benchmark. Listing 4 shows the 
Sieve benchmark program coded in 
True BASIC. Compare this with the 
standard BYTE benchmark for the 
Sieve in listing 5. 

Conclusions 

The True BASIC compiler conforms 
closely to the ANSI standard for 
BASIC but is not identical to the stan- 
dard. It is likely, due to hardware 
anomalies, that there will never be a 
compiler that is 1 00 percent compati- 
ble. Even compilers for C held up to 
the world as the most portable of lan- 
guages, show variation from compiler 
to compiler; even C compilers from 
the same vendor can differ on dif- 
ferent machines. 

The principal advantage of ANSI 
compatibility is portability. In educa- 
tional institutions, where there are as 
many different hardware brands as 
there are pencils, portability is crucial 
to BASIC'S continued usage. Secon- 
darily, ANSI BASIC conforms more 
closely to the structured program- 
ming precepts that computer scien- 
tists see as essential to learning effec- 
tive programming. 

The disadvantage of ANSI compati- 
bility is its nonconformity to the 
massive existing BASIC software base. 
Laborious recoding will be necessary 
to port existing programs to new 
BASICS like mie BASIC. 

Another, more subtle, disadvantage 
is aesthetics. I do not like the use of 
LET statements, for example, to 
assign values to variables. Though 
aesthetic considerations may seem ar- 
bitrary, they are important to a prod- 
uct's acceptance. People resist learn- 

[continued] 



286 BYTE • MAY I985 



Ferocious 
FORTRAN. 



Microsoft® FORTRAN crunches 
numbers with a vengeance! 

It combines fast and efficient 
native code compilation with 
built-in 8087 coprocessor support. 
The result? Mini and mainframe 
performance from your MS™ DOS 
micro. 

Based on the 77 standard, 
Microsoft FORTRAN supports 
extensive statements and data 
types— including complex num- 
bers and IEEE single and double- 
precision floating point accuracy. 

Support for large arrays (greater 
than 64K bytes), separate module 

MICROSOFT. «™P ilat i° n . 

The High Performance Software and OVerlayS, 

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with access to more than 65 
thousand records in a file as large 
as four gigabytes. 

How do programmers feel 
about Microsoft FORTRAN? 

"The first FORTRAN compiler 



that takes advantage of the full 

addressing capability of the 8088 

and the power of the 8087'.' 
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Call 800-426-9400 to order 
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*Price exclusive of handling and Washington State sales tax. 
Microsoft is a registered trademark and MS is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation 




REVIEW: TRUE BASIC 



ing new syntax that they find in- 
elegant. Since the ANSI standard re- 
quires only that a conforming lan- 
guage correctly process LET statements. 
True BASIC should make them 
optional. 

Minor syntax variations can also 
cause headaches. For example, Irue 
BASIC uses semicolons to separate 
multiple statements on a line, in a 
manner similar to Pascal. Microsoft 
BASIC and C use semicolons for com- 
pletely different functions (for screen 
formatting and ending lines, respec- 
tively); these subtle differences will 
probably frustrate first-time users of 
TVue BASIC 

In keeping with the goal of aiming 
TVue BASIC at education, the refer- 



The company reportedly 
has a run-time 



development that 



ence manual and user's guide are 
written for the learner. But they do not 
condescend or oversimplify, presum- 
ably because they will be used in con- 
junction with a textbook or a class in 
programming. The documentation packaCie Under 

will be suitable for use outside of 1 _ 

schools as well. The manuals are 

above average in content, style, and 

presentation. They avoid cute graph- ~ ~~ ~ JT~ 

ics and convey a sense of academic Will eventually 

authority without being dull. 

Surprisingly True BASIC stacks up Dermlt the 

well as a software-development tool. i_ 

Its structure allows the writing of eas- 
ily maintainable programs, and its 
modularity— with external subrou- ~ 
tines, libraries, and chaining capa- eXCCUtdvle prOQramS. 
bility— makes it suitable in team- 



distribution of 



ANSI 
Standard BASIC 



Expected to be formally adopted 
this year, the ANSI standard for 
BASIC calls for a broad and powerful 
set of control and command structures 
(see references 1.2, and 3). In addition 
to a language core, the standards docu- 
ment specifies extensions for graphics, 
sophisticated file structures, real-time 
control, fixed decimal arithmetic, and 
editing. Unfortunately, conformity to 
the ANSI standard produces head- 
aches for people using an existing 
BASIC, since its syntax almost certain- 
ly won't conform to the standard. 
Transporting existing programs to the 
new ANSI environment necessitates 
substantial rewriting of code. For ex- 
ample, all assignment statements, such 
as a = 1 , must process the word LET 
(for example. LET a = 1 ) in ANSI BASIC. 

The thrust of the proposed standard 
is to add structure to microcomputer 
BASIC, which has long been criticized 
as the language of "spaghetti code" 
with multiple conditional and uncon- 
ditional branches, plus no satisfactory 
method of naming and labeling func- 
tioning blocks of code. The de facto in- 
dustry standard. Microsoft BASIC, also 
suffers from limited variable names 
and a bewildering variety of keywords 
from machine to machine. 

ANSI BASIC provides a full comple- 



ment of advanced control structures, 
named subroutines, long variable 
names, and array-manipulation state- 
ments. Array manipulation statements 
use the keyword suffix MAT, an ab- 
breviation for matrix. With the MAT 
suffix, you can read data into arrays, 
put data into arrays, add or subtract or 
multiply arrays, and print arrays. In 
most microcomputer BASICS, these 
operations require looping, using the 
loop index as the array subscript. 

Because ANSI BASIC attempts to 
make the GOTO and GOSUB state- 
ments unnecessary (although it does 
include them), it replaces the 
ON . . .GOTO/GOSUB construct with 
the SELECT/CASE structure. Similar to 
Pascal's CASE statement. ANSI BASIC'S 
SELECT/CASE allows multiple path 
branches according to evaluated ex- 
pressions. Irue BASIC even allows 
ranges within the CASE evaluation, as 
in CASE TO 9. 

Control structures in ANSI BASIC in- 
clude DO loops, using both WHILE 
and UNTIL modifiers at either the be- 
ginning or the end of the loop block, 
as well as the common FOR/NEXT 
loop. In addition to older IF/THEN 
decision structures. ANSI BASIC adds 
multiway decision coding using the 
ELSEIF/ENDIF construct. 



programming situations. The pro- 
grams execute a speeds that are com- 
parable to those of other compiled 
BASICs. The company reportedly has 
a run-time package under develop- 
ment that will eventually permit the 
distribution of executable If ue BASIC 
programs. 

The lack of a screen display during 
the compile process is a substantial 
error. Many people will get nervous 
during long program compilations, 
which could be several minutes, when 
the machine appears to be hung, do- 
ing nothing. A simple PROGRAM 
NOW COMPILING message might 
alleviate this tension. 

The ultimate conclusion I draw 
about Irue BASIC is that it is superior 
to Microsoft BASIC as a programming 
language. Its strengths are its modu- 
larity, portability, graphics, and high- 
quality math package. Its weakness is 
its lack of compatibility with existing 
BASICS. ■ 

REFERENCES 

1. Kurtz. Thomas E. "On the Way to Stan- 
dard BASIC." BYTE, June 1982, page 182. 

2. Anderson, Ronald. The Proposed ANSI 
BASIC Standard." BYTE. February 1983. 
page 194. 

3. ANSI X3J2. "Draft Proposed-ANS for 
BASIC" X3J2 Report 84-10. 1984. 

4. Stewart. George. "IVue BASIC." Popular 
Computing. November 1984, page 95. 

5. Wadlow, Tbrn. "TUrbo Pascal." BYTE, July 
1984. page 267. 



288 BYTE • MAY 1985 



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* 



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Source notes: *Yankee Group, The Technical Office, Vol.111 1983 
♦♦WharlonSchool Study. September 1981 

Inquiry 155 for Dealers. 
Inquiry 156 for End-Users. 




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290 BYTE- MAY 1985 






HARDWARE REVIEW 



The GTX-100 Modem 



An intelligent 
device with 



functions 



by Mark Haas 



The GTX-100 is an intelligent 300/ 
1200-bps (bits per second) modem 
that claims to provide four levels of 
security for the computer to which it is at- 
DUilt^in tached. Until recently, Lockheed-GETEX, 

r~ makers of the GTX-100, called it the Data 

SeCUrity Sentry and advertised it as "so secure even 
Mata Hari couldn't hack it." 

The GTX-100 contains a Z80 microproces- 
sor that controls all of the modem's func- 
tions. CMOS (complementary metal-oxide 
semiconductor) memory with battery back- 
up stores the data the security functions are 
based on. The unit measures 8/2 inches 
wide, 10 inches deep, and 2 inches high; it's 
constructed of good-quality plastic. 

The GTX-100's front panel contains eight 
LEDs (light-emitting diodes) that indicate 
the modem's status (off hook, carrier detect, 
etc.). Also on the front panel are three 
rocker switches. The first is an Answer/ 
Originate switch that you use to set these 
protocols when connecting without dialing, 
as when using a leased line. The center 
position of this switch permits voice opera- 
tion with a telephone connected to one of 
the jacks on the rear panel. The Tfest switch 
puts the modem into an analog loop so that 
what the connected terminal sends is 
echoed back. After a while this function 
automatically times out and puts the 
modem back into normal operation. The 
Remote/Local switch controls an optional 
power-on device and does not control the 
modem's remote and local modes. 

The rear panel contains two RJ1 IC jacks 
for connection to the phone line and the 
telephone; a DB-2 5 connector; a four-posi- 
tion miniature switch that sets the data for- 
mat, parity, carrier-detect/data-terminal- 
ready signal activation, and mode of opera- 
tion (English responses or single-character 
codes); and a voltage regulator mounted on 
a heatsink. 

Connecting the modem to my office com- 
puter was fairly straightforward, and the 
manual provided good directions. An 
RS-232C cable (not supplied) connects the 



Mark Waas is technical director for 

OsbornelMcGraw-Hill (2600 Tenth 

St.. Berkeley, CA 94710). 



rear-panel jack to the computer's RS-232C 
port, lapping a few keys on the keyboard 
while my communications software was in 
Terminal mode confirmed proper opera- 
tion. 

Modem Smarts 

When you first turn the GTX-100 on, it runs 
a diagnostic on itself and then awaits a car- 
riage return from the terminal (or computer) 
connected to it. This allows the modem to 
determine the proper data rate (300 or 
1200 bps) automatically. 

You are then ready to enter commands. 
The GTX-100 contains what could be called 
its own minicommunications package. From 
its Help menu, the modem's software lets 
you select the data rate, dial the phone 
automatically (speed dialing), dial the 
phone manually by entering a number, dial 
again the number last dialed, and go to the 
Security menu. 

Speed dialing lets you store up to ten 
62-character telephone numbers, including 
special dialing characters that direct the 
GTX-100 to pause 5 seconds, wait for a dial 
tone, or use tone or pulse dialing. Another 
character lets you link multiple numbers as 
one entry, causing the modem to dial each 
number in turn until it detects a carrier. An 
F in front of a number (or linked list of 
numbers) tells the modem to dial the 
number "forever," and the pause between 
repeated dialings can be set for 20 to 180 
seconds. You can also enter remarks to help 
identify phone numbers or use the special 
characters just mentioned while dialing 
manually. Entering, changing, and erasing 
numbers is easy. 

The GTX-100 can detect several line 
conditions— dial tone, busy signal, ringing, 
dead line, and excessive noise— and report 
these conditions to the operator in English 
or single-letter codes, as determined by a 
switch on the rear panel. The modem con- 
tains no speaker, but indicators make up for 
this. 

(continued) 



MAY 1985 • BYTE 291 



Inquiry 93 



DeSmet 
C 

8086/8088 

Development $1(1(1 

Package I US 



FULL DEVELOPMENT PACKAGE 

■ Full K&R C Compiler 

■ Assembler, Linker & Librarian 

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Automatic DOS 1.X/2.X SUPPORT 

BOTH 8087 AND S/W FLOATING POINT 

OVERLAYS 

OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE 

■ First and Second in AUG '83 BYTE 
benchmarks 



SYMBOLIC DEBUGGER 



>50 



Examine & change variables by 

name using C expressions 

Flip between debug and display 

screen 

Display C source during execution 

Set multiple breakpoints by function 

or line number 



DOS LINK SUPPORT 



$ 35 



Uses DOS .OBJ Format 

LINKS with DOS ASM 

Uses Lattice® naming conventions 



Check: 



SHIP TD: 



□ Dev. Pkg (1 09) 

□ Debugger (50) 

□ DOS Link Supt (35) 



c 



WARE 

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REVIEW: GTX-100 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

GTX-100 

Manufacturer 

Lockheed-GETEX 
1100 Circle 75 Parkway 
Atlanta, GA 30339 
(404) 951-0878 

Type 

Intelligent modem with security features 

Size 

8V2 by 10 by 2 inches 

Equipment Needed 

Terminal, or computer with simple 
communications software and an RS-232C 
port 

Features 

300/1200-bps operation, automatic 
detection of data-transmission rate, 
automatic dialing and answering, battery 
backup of memory (protects all menus and 
tables), force answer/originate mode for 
leased-line operation, analog loop test with 
automatic time-out, pulse or tone dialing 

Options 

Remote-ON power regulation to turn 
computer on or off remotely 

Documentation 

48-page manual 

Price 

$795 

Warranty 

1 year, limited 



The Modem menu lets you set a 
variety of modem functions. You can 
set the modem's hang-up command 
code, dialing speed (slow or fast only), 
and local echo, and you can set the 
modem to answer on a specific ring. 
You can suppress the status reports 
from the modem to avoid interference 
with some communications packages, 
and you can suppress hang-up upon 
loss of carrier, thus allowing a mix of 
voice and data during the same call. 
The commands the GTX-100 accepts 
are not compatible with the Hayes 
Smartmodem. 

Note that you can enter commands 
only from the host terminal. This 
means no one can "bump" the 
modem into command mode from a 
remote terminal and access your files. 

Security 

What sets this modem apart from 
other intelligent modems (such as the 
Hayes Smartmodem) is its built-in 
security measures! The GTX-100 has 
four levels of security: call back from 
list, call back any number, password 
without call back, and modem only. 

In modem-only mode there is no 
added security and the GTX-100 acts 
like any other modem. The three re- 
maining levels of security all involve 
the use of passwords. You can store 
up to sixteen 2 0-character passwords 
in the modem. Entering any one of 
the passwords is sufficient to gain ac- 
cess to the system. The modem also 
keeps a log of the last 16 numbers 
called back and the last 16 passwords 
entered (whether valid or not). These 
logs are useful in tracking potential 
breaches of security 

The highest level of security is the 
call-back-from-list mode. In this mode, 
the remote caller dials the modem's 
number. Upon connection, the 
modem requests from the caller a 
phone number it can call back. The 
modem checks the number entered 
against a table of authorized call-back 
numbers. Assuming the number 
checks out okay, the modem hangs up 
and then proceeds to dial the call- 
back number. Once connection is re- 
established, the modem asks for a 

[continued) 



292 BYTE- MAY 1985 



Sord Computer 
Sales Info Hotline 



Professional Word 

Processor/Electronic 

Mail Portable 

Computer System 

IS-11C 



Large 80 x 25 character LCD display 

80K RAM memory (max. 80KB) 

Notebook size 

Weight 7 lbs. 

Electronic notebook/desk organizer software for 

busy executives 

Built-in RS232C interface and modem 

Calendar/clock, calculator functions 

Optional Microsoft-compatible BASIC cartridge 

for software development 

IBM PC data transferability 

Built-in microcassette tape drive 

Optional 3.5 inch floppy disk drive, bar code 

reader, portable printer, ten-key data-entry pad, 

64K CMOS RAM pack with backup battery, 

spread sheet program 



Advanced Word Processing Power 

The IS- 1 1 C features one of the best word proc- 
essors available in its class. Full-sized display 
screen of 80 x 25 lines, multi- windows, storage 
capacity of over 600 lines of text. Expand, 
underline, and center text functions. 

Sophisticated Electronic Mail System 

Link the various offices of your company with 
the IS-1 lC's electronic mail capability. Edit text 
with the word processor, then use the built-in 
modem and communications software to speed 
data to its destination thousands of miles away. 
Connects to any of the popular electronic mail 
or data base services such as Inf onet, Com- 
puServe, OAG, Dow Jones, and the Source. 

Software Development Made Easy 

Software can be developed for the IS- 1 1 C using 
Microsoft-upwards-compatible BASIC (with 
multi- windows and communications) or assem- 
bler. Plug-in ROM cartridges can be created for 
instant access to custom application packages. 



Phone SORD toll-free on 1-800-223-1796 for: 

• Special price for evaluation units 

• Special price for journalists 

• Student group prices 

• Other special discounts to meet your needs 
(specify quantity, purpose, location to be used) 




Mail This Coupon for More Information 

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