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Full text of "Byte Magazine Volume 10 Number 07: Computers and Space"

EUE 

THE SMALL SYSTEMS JOURNAL 



WNO.7 



50 IN UNITED STATES 
IN CANADA / £2.10 IN U.K. 
A McGRAW-HILL PUBLICATION 
0360-5280? 










*Arailahle Spring 1985. © 1985 Affile Computer, Inc. Apple, the- Apple logo \kich w r-\ il on ; \ppleTatk are trademarks oj'Ap r Inc Macintas!) is a trademark licensed to Apple Computer, 

Inc. IBM is a registered trader* r national Business Machines Corporation, DEC \ TIOO and 1752 are trademarks of 'Dij> & d Equipment Corporation. Lotus and jazz are trademarks 

of Lot us Development Corporation. Microsoft and Multiplan are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. 



IBM is finally 
talking to us. 




And were finally talking to them 

Thanks to The Macintosh™ Office. 

Using our AppleLine protocol converter and 
MacTerminal™ software, Macintosh can speak 
IBM® 3270 like a native. Not to mention DEC* 
VnoorVTSrandTTC 

In English, that means you can find almost 
anything that's stored in your company's main- 
frame. Just the same as if your Macintosh was 
an IBM terminal. 

Say, for instance, you want to know how 
sales are going as of yesterday. Where your 
inventor) 7 stands. Or if receivables are staying 
ahead of payables. 

With a Macintosh on your desk, all that 
information is right at your fingertip. Even if 
your mainframes on the other side of the build- 
ing. Or the other side of the world. 

Now if you think that's impressive, you 
haven't read anything yet. 

Once you've located the data you want, you 
can 'cut" it out of the mainframe and "paste" 
it directly into a spreadsheet program like Lotus 4 
Jazz™*Or Microsoft® Multiplaif Then turn the 
numbers into a chart with a business graphics 
program. Such as Microsoft Chart. And last, but 
certainly not least, print out a publication- 
quality report, memo or presentation with our 
LaserWriter printer. 

Total elapsed time: about 20 minutes. 



And if you need to know something that's 
not in your mainframe— like up-to-the-minute 
stock quotes— you can use MacTerminal and 
an Apple Modem to tap into a number of 
commercial information services. Including 
Dow Jones 
News/Retrieval® 
NEXISf LEXIS? 
And The Official 
Airline Guide? 
So you can use 
Macintosh 
for everything 
from scanning 
The Wall Street 
Journal to 
making airline 
reservations. 

All of 
which means 




/// Tlw Macintosh Office, iwrkgroups 
of 5 to 25 people will talk to each other 
over our AjtfneTatir Personal Netuwk. 



you should finally be talking to us. 

Call 800-446-3000, and well tell you more 
about how well The Macintosh Office will it 
into the one you're in now. 

Even if there's a big blue box in one coiner. 

The Macintosh Office 




Dow Jones News/ Retrieval is a registered trademark of Dow Jones & Cotn/wny, Inc. NEX1S and IJLX/Sa?v registered trademarks of Mead Data Central. Vx Official Airline Guide is a registered 
trademark of Official Airline Guides, inc. For an authorized A/iple dealer nearest ymi call (800) 538-9696. In Canada, call (800) 268-7796 or (800) 268-763 7. ' 



CONTENTS 





FEATURES 

■SBnHHMMMBHMSS 

Introduction 104 

Programming Project: New Perspectives on Nearby Stars 

by Bruce Webster 106 

This program, develooed on a Macintosh using MacAdvantage: UCSD Pascal, takes a list 
of stars and shows you where they are in respect to one another. 

Liquid-Crystal Displays for Portables by Glenn J. Adler 119 

The author presents an in-depth look into the workings of LCDs. 

Product Description: The GRiDCase by Rich Ualloy 129 

One member of this family of portables has a gas-plasma display. 

Ciarcias Circuit Cellar: Living in a Sensible Environment 

by Steve Garcia 141 

Steve looks into his junk box for items to use with the Home Run Control System. 

Programming Insight Travesty Revisited by Murray Lesser 163 

Travesty is rewritten in compiled BASIC 

Programming Insight: Real-Number Formatting Your Apple 

by Brent Daviduck 171 

Specify the decimal length of any real number. 

THEMES 



Introduction 176 

Updating the Oldest Science by Russell M. Genet 179 

Observers around the globe are using microcomputers in a variety of astronomical 
applications. 

Microcomputers in NASA's SIR-B by Richard Wilton 192 

The Shuttle Imaging Radar experiment employs a network of personal computers 
for data acquisition and analysis. 

Comet Lines in FORTRAN by David S. Dixon 203 

The program described calculates the positions of asteroids and comets. 

Tracking Earth Satellites by E. H. Weiss 215 

The Stumpff program can help you calculate earth-orbiting satellite positions 
with high precision. 

Automating a Telescope by Louis J. Boyd 227 

A codirector of the Fairborn Observatory describes ways of computerizing 
the repetitious tasks in variable-star photometry. 

Astronomical Computing with Micros 

by Richard Bochonko and William T. Peters 239 

Small systems increase the amateur astronomer's reach. 

Astronomy Sources 244 

An Astronomy Glossary 245 

REVIEWS 



Introduction 248 

Reviewer's NorEBOOK by Glenn Hartwig 251 

Texas Instruments 1 Pro-Lite Professional Computer 

by Richard Grehan and Eva White 252 

A briefcase-size machine that runs MS-DOS. 

BYTE IISSN 0360-5280} is published monthly with one extra issue per year by McGraw-Hill Inc. Founder: lames H. McCraw (I860 1948). Executive, editorial, 
circulation, and advertising offices: 70 Main St,. Peterborough. NH 03458. phone 16031 924-9281. Office hours: Mon-Thur 8:30 AM - 4:30 PM. Friday 
8:30 AM - 1:00 PM. Eastern Time. Address subscriptions to BYTE Subscriptions. POB 590. Martinsville. NJ 08836. Postmaster: send address changes. 
USPS Form 3579. undeliverable copies, and fulfillment questions to BYTE Subscriptions. POB 596. Martinsville. N) 08836. Second-class postage paid 
at Peterborough. NH 03458 and additional mailing offices. Postage paid at Winnipeg. Manitoba. Registration number 9321. Subscriptions are S21 for 
one year. S38 for two years, and S55 for three years in the USA and its possessions. In Canada and Mexico. $23 for one year. S42 for two years. $61 
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to selected areas at additional rates upon request. Single copy price is S3. 50 in the USA and its possessions. $3.95 in Canada and Mexico. S4.50 in 
Europe, and $5 elsewhere Foreign subscriptions and sales should be remitted in United States funds drawn on a U.S. bank. Please allow six to eight 
weeks for delivery of fiist issue. Printed in the United States of America 



2 BYTE • JULY 1985 



COVER ILLUSTRATION BY ROBERT T1NNEY 



NCR Personal Computer Model 4 by Elaine Holden 258 

An IBM PC-compatible with a RAM-disk utility. 

Monitoring Hallevs Comet by ]ohn E. Nlosley 265 

Three programs for tracking the return of the celestial visitor. 

Space-Flight Simulators by Benjamin Bernar 269 

Link up with a space station or travel to Saturn. 

MaxThink by William Hershey 279 

An outline processor for the IBM PC. 

The Anchor Automation Signalman Mark XII Modem 

by George V. Kinal 287 

It's similar to the Hayes Smartmodem but not fully compatible. 

Review Feedback 295 

Readers respond to previous reviews. 

KERNEL 



Introduction 306 

Computing at Chaos Manor: Come to the Faire by }erry Poumelle 309 

Trips to shows and a visit with Niklaus Wirth highlight Jerry's month. 

Chaos Manor Mail conducted by \erry Poumelle 338 

Jerry's readers write, and he replies. 

BYTE West Coast SNOBOL and Icon by Ezra Shapiro 341 

Our West Coast staff interviewed one of SNOBOL4's authors. Ralph E. Griswold. who has 
gone on to create a new language called Icon. 

BYTE U.K.: Starlit Spectrum by Dick Pountain 353 

Dick reports on an astronomical application for the Sinclair Spectrum. 

BYTE Japan. Peripherals, Chips, and New Computers 

by William M. Raike 363 

Bill looks at the Silver-Reed EB50. Fujitsu's new optical-disc coating material, and more. 

According to Webster: Startup by Bruce Webster 367 

The debut of this column covers an assortment of Macintosh products. 

Mathematical Recreations: Parsing and Solving Linear Equations 

by Robert T. Kurosaka 385 

Set up and solve simultaneous linear equations. 

Circuit Cellar Feedback conducted by Steve Garcia 391 

Steve answers project-related queries from readers. 

BYTELINES conducted by Sol Libes 393 

News and speculation about personal computers. 



Editorial: 
Equal Access to Computers: 

Scruples or Rubles? 6 

Microbytes 9 

Letters 14 

Fixes and Updates 33 

What s New 39, 406 

Ask BYTE 48 



Clubs & Newsletters 

Book Reviews 

Event Queue 

Books Received 



58 

65 

85 

395 

Unclassified Ads 461 

BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box. 
BOMB Results 462 

Reader Service 463 



Address all editorial correspondence to the Editor. BYTE. POB 372. Hancock. NH 03449. Unacceptable manuscripts will be returned if accompanied 
by sufficient first-class postage. Not responsible for lost manuscripts or photos Opinions expressed by the authors are not necessarily those of BYTE 

Copyright© 1985 by McGraw-Hill Inc. All rights reserved. Irademark registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Where necessary, 
permission is granted by the copyright owner for libraries and others registered with the Copyright Clearance Center ICCC) to photocopy any article 
herein for the flat fee of SI. 50 per copy of the article or any part thereof. Correspondence and payment should be sent directly to the CCC. 29 Congress 
St.. Salem MA 01970. Specify ISSN 0360-5280/83. SI 50. Copying done for other than personal or internal reference use without the permis- 
sion of McGraw-Hill Inc. is prohibited. Requests for special permission or bulk orders should be addressed to the publisher. BYTE is available 
in microform from University Microfilms International. 300 North Zeeb Rd.. Dept. PR. Ann Arbor. Ml 48106 or 18 Bedford Row. Dept. PR, 
London WCIR 4 El England. 
Subscription questions or problems should be addressed to: BYTE Subscriber Service. POB 328. Hancock. NH 03449 




VOLUME 10, NUMBER 7, 1985 




248 




306 



SECTION ART BY STEVEN GUARNACCIA 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 3 




Can You Name a 
Dual-Drive Color PC 
That Runs Lotus 1,1,3 
and Costs Under $1500? 

Hints 

• It comes with a 14" RGB monitor 
much like the 14" monitor that comes 
with the $2495 Leading Edge PC. 

• It has dual 800K disk drives much 
like the $2495 Tandy 2000, but it also 
has the ability to read and write to 
popular 160K, 320K, and 360K IBM-PC 
formats. 

• It's an 8088, MS-DOS system with 
256Kof RAM, but it comes with abetter 
free software bundle than the 8-bit Kaypro 
including MS-DOS 2.1 l,HAGEN-DOS 
DOS-TUTOR, WordStar 3.3, Easy Writer 
Spell, Mail Track, PC File III, FILE 
BASE, CalcStar, games, graphics, utili- 
ties, and two BASIC languages. 

• Although it's not PC-DOS compatible 
it will run hundreds of the same pro- 
grams as the IBM including dBASE II, 
Multiplan, the PFS series, Lotus 1,2,3 
and even Flight Simulator. 

• During the dog days of summer 
computer sales, we've lowered the prices 
ofbothourcolor and monochrome systems. 
You can receive a free booklet on these 
systems by calling our machine at 
1-800-FOR A FOX, and leaving your 
name and address at the beep. 

Your time is up the answer is 

ColorFox $1497 

also 
Fox Jr. ... $899 Silver Fox . . $1297 

# 
Scorrsdale Systems, w . 

617 N. Scortsdole Rd. #D, Scortsdole, Az 85257 

(602)941-5856 



The Silver Fox is sold exclusively by Scottsdale Systems 
Ltd., 617 N. Scottsdale Road «B, Scottsdale. AZ 85257. 
Trademarks: Silver Fox. HAGEN DOS. and Datemate. 
Scottsdale Systems Ltd.; WordStar and CalcStar. 
Micropro International; MS-DOS, and Multiplan, Micro- 
soft Corporation; FILEBASE. EWDP Software, Inc.; 
dBASE II. AshtonTate; IBM-PC, and IBM-PC DOS; 
International Business Machines Corporation. Ordering: 
Telemarketing only, Silver Fox price is for cash, 
F.O.B. Scottsdale. prices subject to change, product 
subject to limited supply. We accept purchase orders from 
Fortune 1000 companies and major universities with 
good credit - add 2% Visa, Mastercard add 3%, AZ 
residents add 6%. Returned merchandise subject to a 20 ( Ki 
restocking fee. Personal or company checks take up to 3 
weeks to clear. No COD's or APO's. 



EVTE 



editor in chief 

Philip Lemmons 
managing editor 
Gene Smarte 
consulting editors 

Steve Ciarcia 

lERRY POURNELLE 

Bruce Webster 

senior technical editors 

G. Michael Vose. Themes 
Gregg Williams 
technical editors 

Thomas R. Clune 

Ion R. Edwards 

Richard Grehan 

Glenn Hartwig. Reviews 

Ken Sheldon 

Richard S. Shuford 

Iane Morrill Tazelaar 

Eva White 

Stanley Wszola 

Margaret Cook Gurney. Associate 

Alan Easton. Drafting 

WEST COAST EDITORS 

Ezra Shapiro, Bureau Chief. San Francisco 
Iohn Markoff. Senior Technical Editor. Palo Alto 
Phillip Robinson. Senior Technical Editor. Palo Alto 
Donna Osgood. Associate Editor. San Francisco 
Brenda McLaughlin. Editorial Assistant. San Francisco 

NEW YORK EDITOR 

Richard Malloy. Senior Technical Editor 

managing editor. 

electronic publishing and communications 

George Bond 

user news editor. east coast 

Anthony I. Lockwood. What's New 

USER NEWS EDITOR, WEST COAST 

Mark Welch. Microbytes 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Ionathan Amsterdam, programming projects 

Mark Dahmke. video, operating systems 

Mark Haas, at large 

Rik Iadrnicek, CAD. graphics, spreadsheets 

Mark Klein, communications 

Alastair I. W. Mayer, software 

Alan Miller, languages and engineering 

John C. Nash, scientific computing 

Dick Pountain. U.K. 

William M. Raike. \apan 

Perry Saidman. computers and law 

Robert Sterne, computers and law 



COPY EDITORS 

Bud Sadler. Chief 
Dennis Barker 
Elizabeth Cooper 
Anne L Fischer 
Nancy Hayes 
Lynne M. Nadeau 
Paula Noonan 

lOAN VlGNEAU ROY 

Warren Williamson 



ASSISTANTS 

Peggy Dunham 
Martha Hicks 
Beverly Jackson 
Lisa lo Steiner 



ART 

Rosslyn A. Frick. Art Director 
Nancy Rice. Assistant Art Director 



PRODUCTION 

David R. Anderson. Production Director 
Denise Chartrand 
Michael I. Lonsky 
Ian Muller 



SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER 

Harry L. Brown 

PUBLISHERS ASSISTANT 

Doris R. Gamble 

PERSONNEL 

Cheryl Hurd. 0//ice Manager 
Patricia Burke. Personnel Coordinator 



ADVERTISING SALES (603-924-6 137) 

I. Peter Huestis. Sales Manager 
Sandra Foster. Administrative Assistant 

ADVERTISING/PRODUCTION (603-924-64481 

Lisa Wozmak. Supervisor 

Robert D Hannings. Senior Account Manager 

Marion Carlson 

Karen Cilley 

Lyda Clark 

MlCHELE GlLMORE 

Denise Proctor 

Wai Chiu Li. Quality Control Director 

Julie Nelson. Advertising/Production Coordinator 

CIRCULATION (800-258-5485) 

Gregory Spitzfaden. Director 

Andrew Jackson. Subscriptions Manager 

Cathy A. Rutherford. Assistant Manager 

Laurie Seamans. Assistant Manager 

Susan Boyd 

Phil Dechert 

Mary Emerson 

Louise Menegus 

Agnes E. Perry 

Jennifer Price 

Iames Bingham. Sin^e-Copy Sales Manager 

Linda Ruth, Assistant Manager 

Carol Aho 

Claudette Carswell 

Karen Desroches 

MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS 

Horace T. Howland. Director (603-924-3424) 

Vicki Reynolds. Marketing Production Manager 

Priscilla Arnold. Marketing Assistant 

Stephanie Warnesky Marketing Art Director 

Sharon Price. Assistant Art Director 

Doug Webster. Director of Public Relations (603-924-9027) 

Wilbur S Watson. Operations Manager. Exhibits 

PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT 

Michele P. Verville. Manager 

Patricia Akerley Research Manager 

Cynthia Damato Sands. Reader Service Coordinator 

Faith Kluntz. Copyrights Coordinator 

MANUFACTURING! FINANCE/SERVICES 

Daniel Rodrigues. Director 

ACCOUNTING 

Kenneth A. King. Assistant Controller 

Vicki Weston. Accounting Manager 

Linda Short, D/P Manner 

Edson Ware. Credit 

Marie Caggiani 

Marilyn Haigh 

Diane Henry 

Vern Rockwell 

IoAnn Walter 

typography 

Sherry McCarthy. Cnief 'typographer 

Nan Fornal 

Len Lorette 

Kathy Ouist 

Donna Sweeney 

BUILDING SERVICES/TRAFFIC 

Anthony Bennett. Building Services Manager 
Brian Higgins 
Mark Monkton 

RECEPTIONISTS 

L. Ryan McCombs 
Cheryl Castro. Assistant 



Editorial and Business Office: 70 Main Street. Peterborough. New Hampshire 034 58 (603) 924-9281 
West Coast Offices: McGraw-Hill. 425 Battery St. San Francisco. CA 94! ) |. (4151 362-4600. 

McGraw-Hill. 1000 Elwell Court. Palo Alto. CA 94303. 14 15) 964-0624 
New York Office: 1221 Avenue of the Americas. New York. NY 10020. (2121 512-2000 

Officers of McGraw-Hill Information Systems Company President Richard B, Miller Executive Vice Presidents; Frederick P lannott. Con- 
struction Information Group; Russell C White. Computers and Communications Information Group; I. Thomas Ryan, Marketing and Interna- 
tional. Senior Vice Presidents: Francis A Shinal. Controller; Robert C. Violette. Manufacturing and Technology. Senior Vice Presidents and 
Publishers; Harry L. Brown. Computers and Communications: David I. McGrath. Construction. Group Vice President. Peter B. McCuen. Com- 
munications. Vice Presidents: Fred O. lensen. Planning and Development: Margaret L. Dagner. Human Resources. 

Officers of McGraw-Hill. Inc.: Harold W. McGraw. Jr.. Chairman: Joseph L. Dionne. President and Chief Executive Officer; Robert N. Landes. Executive 
Vice President and Secretary: Ralph I. Webb. Vice President and Treasurer: Donald L. Fruehling. Executive Vice President. Publishing Operations Group 
Ralph R, Schulz. Senior Vice President. Editorial: Walter D. Serwatka. Senior Vice President. Manufacturing and Circulation Services. Vice Presidents 
Shel F Asen. Manufacturing: George R Elsinger. Circulation. 



BB 



BYTE • JULY 1985 



Great Giffsuggestion 
forunder $9,000: 




It's the MC-186/EL™ Gifford's four-user 
entry level system— just $8,995. 

It's a complete multiuser system with a 23 megabyte hard 
disk. Just add terminals, turn it on, and start using over 100 Gifford 
productivity tools and utilities. You even get word processing, 
electronic mail, and telecommunications. 

You can also run thousands of CP/M® programs (single and 
multiuser, 8- and 16-bit), and use it as a building block in a fast 
local area network with IBM PCs, compatibles, and other MC-186 
family members. 

Call 415/895-0798 for your nearest dealer. Or write to us at 
2446 Verna Court, San Leandro, CA 94577 

The features make it a Giff. The price makes it a present. 



C$ GIFFORD 

^^ COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

A subsidiary of Zitel Corporation 

THE MULTIUSER COMPANY' 



Inquiry 160 



2446 Verna Court, San Leandro, CA 94577 415/8950798 Telex 704521 2050 North Loop West, Suite 116 Houston, TX 77018 713/680-1944 

In Europe: London (01)878-9111 Telex 28106 (UK) 

MC-186 and MC-186/EL are trademarks of Gifford Computer Systems. IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines, Inc. 

CIVM is a registered trademark of Digital Research. Inc. 

JULY 1985 -BYTE 



EDITORIAL 



equal access to computers: 
Scruples or Rubles? 

Computer inequity emerges as a gen- 
uine problem when you consider how 
hard it would be for a child without 
a word-processing program to com- 
pete with a student who does have a 
word processor. The student with the 
word processor can revise and polish 
far more than the student without. All 
other things being equal, a once- 
revised essay handwritten on note- 
book paper can't compete with a 
tenth-draft essay neatly printed by 
machine. Of course, word processing 
is only one of the many ways in which 
computers can make schoolchildren 
more productive and therefore give 
some children a competitive advan- 
tage in school and in life. 

Is there, in fact, inequity in access 
to computers? The answer is "yes," 
and the inequity is a function of both 
income and race. The 12.000 most 
affluent schools are four times more 
likely to have personal computers 
than the 12,000 poorest schools 
(Quality Education Data report, 1983, 
quoted in Electronic Learning, February 
1985). Predominantly white schools 
have twice as many computers as do 
schools whose students come pri- 
marily from ethnic minorities (Johns 
Hopkins study. 1983, also quoted in 
Electronic learning, February 1985). 

Soon after taking power, Soviet 
Communist party chief Mikhail Gor- 
bachev called for the introduction of 
small computers throughout the 
Soviet school system. Clearly the new 
Soviet leader believes that the Soviet 
Union will be unable to compete with 
the West unless Soviet students have 
equal access to computers. The Soviet 
electronics industry is far from ready 
to meet the needs of Soviet students. 
The Soviet Apple clone known as 
AG AT (see the November 1984 BYTE, 




page 134), an inferior copy of a 
10-year-old computer, is reportedly 
being manufactured in very small 
volume and with significant reliabili- 
ty problems, and it is said to sell for 
the equivalent of $17,000. But some 
news reports have indicated that 
Apple and IBM may be negotiating 
large sales of personal computers to 
the Soviet Union. 

If the American electronics industry 
is to solve the problem of computer 
inequity for the Soviet Union, why not 
for the disadvantaged of the West as 
well? DEC, Apple, IBM, Zenith, Ikndy. 
and other companies have already 
made significant and commendable 
contributions to the American educa- 
tional system. But many of these 
donations and subsidies have gone to 
organizations such as the Apple Uni- 
versity consortium, made up mostly 
of expensive universities attended by 
the children of the affluent. IBM's joint 
projects with MIT and Carnegie- 
Mellon face the same criticism. 

Playing to Win 

At the opposite extreme from indus- 
try-sponsored programs in prominent 
universities is an organization called 



Playing to Win (106 East 85th St., New 
York, NY 10028). Playing to Win is a 
nonprofit organization dedicated to 
"promoting educational computer 
use among socially economically, and 
geographically disadvantaged peo- 
ple." Antonia Stone, the director of 
Playing to Win, believes that there 
should be public access to computers 
just as there is public access to books 
and magazines in libraries. Playing to 
Win operates a community computer 
center in East Harlem. 

We urge companies in the computer 
industry to support organizations 
such as Playing to Win. Supporting 
equal access will benefit the industry 
as well as the disadvantaged. Ms. 
Stone points out that providing public 
access to computers not only pro- 
motes equal opportunity, but also 
builds a larger long-term market for 
computer products. 

Furthermore, overcoming computer 
inequity in the West makes much 
more sense in the long term than 
bringing the Soviet Union up to speed 
in computer technology. This is clearly 
a case in which scruples should 
outweigh rubles. 

—Phil Yxmmons, Editor in Ckie\ 



6 B YTE • JULY 1985 



maxell 

FLOPPY DISK 




Gold 



The floppy disk that 

packs more facts 

into Compaq, 

sets HP free, 

and takes IBM 

Portable where it's 

never gone before. 

It's great to have a portable computer. 
Especially when your data stays put. 
For error-free performance at home or 
abroad, trust Maxell. The Gold Standard 
in floppy disks. There's a Maxell disk 
for virtually every computer made. v 
Each is backed by a lifetime warranty. 
Maxell. Accepted everywhere, 
without reservation. 

maxell I 

IT'S WORTH IT 

Maxell Corporation of America, 60 Oxford Drive, Moonachie, N.J. 07074 Inquiry 225 




YOUR DAYS OF 
BUYING TERMINALS 
ARE OVER! 

Now there's SmarTerm terminal 
emulation software for your IBM* 
PC, XT, AT or compatible system. 
All SmarTerm products offer com- 
prehensive and exact terminal 
emulation, powerful ASCII and 
binary file transfer facilities, and 
include TTY mode to link you to 
The Source, CompuServe, Dow 
Jones, Easylink, Tymnet or other 
popular services. We've included 
features such as multiple setup 
configurations, XMODEM and PDF* 
protocol support, 
"smart" softkeys, 
plus European 
DOS support. 



NEW! SmarTerm 220 supports 
A-to-Z and other software which 
requires DEC* VT220 terminals. 
It includes the full capabilities of 
SmarTerm 100: DECVT102, 
VT100, and VT52 emulation. If 
you need VT125 ReGIS graphics 
support, choose SmarTerm 125. 
For Data General Dasher* D400, 
D200 or D100 emulation you need 
SmarTerm 400. 
SmarTerm 100 now available for: 

• DATA GENERAL/One • IBM PCjr 

• TANDY 2000 • Tl Professional 
More than 25,000 users are 
already "hooked" on SmarTerm. 
Try it for 30 days with full refund 
privileges, and you will be too. 

Persoft, Inc. - Madison, Wl 
(608) 273-6000 - TELEX 759491 



smarm 

41. 



sfnsrt^ 




AFTER 
SMARTERM, WHAT 

YOU DO WITH YOUR 
OBSOLETE TERMINAL? 



II 




ORIGINAL FISH AD: Back by popular demand! See your name in print! The best ideas for uses of obsolete terminals replaced by 
SmarTerm will be used in future ads. Write Persoft, Dept. FISH II, 2740 Ski Lane, Madison, Wl 53713. 



'SMARTERM is a regfstered trademark of Persoft. Inc. "POIP is a trademark ol Persoft. 
Inc. "IBM is a registered trademark ol International Business Machines Corp. "DEC, VT 
and ReGIS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corp. "DASHER ts a registered trademark 
of Data General Corp "DATA GENERAL/One is a trademark of Data General Corp. "Tl is 
a trademark of Texas Instruments Inc. "TANDY is a trademark ol Tandy CorpVRadio Shack 



perso/r 



Inquiry 280 



MICROBYTES 



Staff-written highlights of late developments in the microcomputer industry. 



New Multiuser UNIX Systems 

Symmetric Computer Systems, San Jose, CA, is selling a 20-pound computer with a 32016 
16-732-bit processor, one parallel port, four serial ports for up to four terminals, a 
50-megabyte hard disk, a 1-megabyte floppy disk, and 2 megabytes of RAM. Included in 
the Model 375's price of $9950 are compilers or interpreters for C, Pascal, FORTRAN, 
BASIC, LISP, Prolog, Crystal, and APL It also includes SPICE, Ingres, and a number of 
UNIX/GEN IX utilities. Although the machine is now available with National Semiconductor's 
GEN1X implementation of Berkeley 4.1 or 4.2 UNIX, Symmetric plans to offer UNIX System 
V and Berkeley 4.3 versions later this year. 

Cadmus Computer Systems, Lowell, MA, announced CadMac, a 68010-based workstation 
with a 17-inch 1024- by 1024-pixel display, a 65-megabyte hard disk, tape backup, a mega- 
byte of RAM, and a Macintosh-compatible UNIX environment for $23,300. 

Digital Equipment Corp. introduced its expected MicroVAX 11, which reportedly outper- 
forms DEC'S low-end VAX products. Prices for the MicroVAX 11, while much lower than com- 
parable VAX computers, still start at about $20,000. 

AT&T Offers 32-bit Processor to Other Companies 

AT&T announced that its WE32100 32-bit microprocessor, floating-point chips, memory-man- 
agement chips, and other peripheral chips are now available to other companies. AT&T will 
also sell board-level evaluation systems based on the chips. 

The WE32100 is an enhanced version of the WE32000 chip used in AT&T's 3B2/300 com- 
puter; the chip family was originally called Bellmac-32 when developed by AT&T's Bell Labs 
subsidiary before divestiture. The 132-pin WE32100 chip features a 64-word on-chip cache, a 
4-gigabyte address space, 15 interrupt levels, 16 32-bit registers, and a full 32-bit bus. All of 
the new chips are available in 10- and 14-MHz versions. AT&T's chip is not related to 
National Semiconductor's 32000-series processors. 

New 80286 Systems Flood COMDEX 

Late spring saw the introduction of many new IBM PC AT-compatible computers. By mid- 
May, new 80286-based systems had been announced by Kaypro, ITT, Compaq, TeleVideo, 
Corona, Texas Instruments, Zenith, NCR, Tomcat, and Basic Time. Another multiuser AT- 
compatible computer, available from MAD Computer in both floor and desktop models, will 
be sold only to other manufacturers. Wang also disclosed that it is developing an AT- 
compatible system. 

lntertec, West Columbia, SC, has redesigned its HeadStart computer, replacing its 8086 
processor with an 80286 and eliminating its 3 '/2-inch disk drive. The HeadStart ATS's stan- 
dard 256K bytes of RAM can be expanded to 3 megabytes; the computer also includes 
serial, parallel, and network interfaces. The basic HeadStart ATS is priced at $1895 without 
disk drives. A dual 5 '/4-inch disk-drive add-on unit is $495 extra. lntertec also announced 
several 80186-based file servers for its MultiLAN proprietary polling network; a $695 inter- 
face card also allows IBM PCs to be attached to the network. 

Network Products Announced 

IBM PCs and Macintoshes can communicate using two new networking products. 3Com an- 
nounced EtherMac, which allows Macintoshes and IBM PCs to link 3Com's 3Server Ethernet 
network file server to AppleTalk networks. Another product, lBMacBridge from Tangent, is a 
$595 expansion card with software linking the IBM PC to the AppleTalk network and Apple's 
LaserWriter printer. 

Separately. Vianetics announced ViaNet, which links MS-DOS- and UNIX-based computers. 
Rather than requiring a central file server, ViaNet simply treats each node on the network 
as a separate disk subdirectory, addressable using standard MS-DOS or UNIX path names. 
ViaNet will be available only to other manufacturers; Tandy, Wang, and several other firms 
have already licensed the software. 



[continued] 
JULY 1985 'BYTE 9 



Add-on Makers Support Expanded-Memory Specification 

Many of the companies that make expansion cards for the IBM PC have announced 
memory cards that meet the expanded-memory-interface specification announced by Lotus 
and Intel in late April. Maynard Electronics, STB, Quadram, Tecmar, Mega-Omega Systems, 
Emulex/Persyst, and AST Research all announced boards supporting the specification, which 
uses bank switching to allow application programs to directly address up to 4 megabytes of 
RAM. Most cards will be available in midsummer. They will be priced from $349 to $399 
with the first bank'of memory installed and can be expanded to 2 megabytes each. 

Mosaic Unveils 1-2-3 7\vin 



Mosaic Software, Cambridge, MA, unveiled a $14 5 spreadsheet it says is compatible with 
Lotus 1-2-3. Mosaic's Twin has a user interface and features similar to those in the Lotus 
product, but initial versions of the product will not be able to read and write 1-2-3 spread- 
sheet files. Rather than offering graphics identical to Lotus 1-2-3, Twin's graphics module is 
derived from earlier products the company developed. 

Two other companies— Borland International and Paperback Software— are reportedly 
developing low-cost spreadsheet programs compatible with 1-2-3, but neither company has 
formally announced or set availability dates for those products. 

NANOBYTES 



Congress has repealed a law requiring home computer owners to keep a complete daily log 
of computer use in order to claim business-use tax deductions. The law still requires some 
record keeping of computer use to support business-use claims. . . . Novix Corp., Cupertino, 
CA, has unveiled the NC4000, an 8-MHz 16-bit microprocessor that executes FORTH words 
as its machine language. . . . MicroPro plans to introduce a new word processor in mid- 
summer, priced at less than $200. The company says the new program will have a user in- 
terface unlike those of WordStar and WordStar 2000. . . . Acuity Computer, Austin, TX, an- 
nounced The Shell, a $100 program that can either replace or enhance the Finder. . . . 
Franz Inc., Berkeley, CA, planned to begin shipping Franz LISP for AT&T's UNIX PC this 
month. Franz also expects to provide a complete Common LISP for the UNIX PC by late 
August. . . . Prometheus unveiled a 512K-byte buffer plug-in card for its ProModem, which 
can be used to buffer incoming and outgoing electronic mail or as a printer buffer; the buf- 
fer also provides password and callback security features. The buffer card without memory 
is $149 and can use 16K-, 64K-, or 256K-bit chips. . . . Intel is now providing samples of 10- 
and 12-MHz versions of the 80286 processor. . . . Brother unveiled the TwinWriter, a $1300 
printer with both daisy-wheel and dot-matrix print elements. . . . ITT and NEC both in- 
troduced new speech-recognition products for the IBM PC and compatible computers. lTT's 
$1350 Voice Communications System can recognize up to 200 different words and also 
features voice playback and phone features. NEC's SAR-10 Voice Plus supports a 250-word 
vocabulary for $1495 ... . Apple announced in April that it would stop production of the 
Macintosh XL, originally introduced as the Lisa in January 1983 .... Canon announced the 
A-200, a $2995 20-pound IBM-compatible transportable computer with an 80-character by 
25-line LCD. Standard features include a built-in 300/1200-bps modem, composite video out- 
put, two 5'/4-inch disk drives, parallel and serial ports, and 256K bytes of RAM. . . . 
Linguistic Products, The Woodlands, TX, announced two language-translation programs for 
the IBM PC. English/Spanish and Spanish/English programs are $490 each or $790 
together. . . . Kyocera, which manufactures computer products for several other companies, 
announced its first retail product: a 1200-bps modem. The $665 KM1200S will include a 
copy of Microsoft's Access communications program. Kyocera also announced a 10-page- 
per-minute, 300-dot-per-inch laser printer that it will sell to other manufacturers. . . . Per- 
sonal Touch, San lose, CA, announced a touchscreen that can be added to Apple lis and 
IBM PCs through a standard joystick port. The Touch Window will cost $200 for the Apple 
11 and $225 for the IBM PC when it is shipped later this year. . . . Datran Corp., Los 
Angeles, CA, announced the Modem Accelerator, a $795 card that encodes English words 
into tokens. Files encoded with the IBM PC expansion card are reduced to about one-third 
the original size. . . . Micro Focus has announced a Japanese-language version of its COBOL 
compiler for the IBM PC 5550 and PC AT. In Japan, the. compiler is priced at about 
$500. . . . Edsun Laboratories, Wayland, MA, offers a signal-converter VLSI chip that con- 
verts the Intel 80286's signals to work with less expensive 8088 peripherals. The CMOS 
EL286-88 allows the 80286 to operate at 8 MHz while interacting with 4.77-MHz IBM PC 
chips. In quantity, the chip costs $44. 



10 BYTE • JULY 1985 



cotnPUTtRswtms 








If you buy aTI 855 printer now, 
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Don't tack just any printer on your 
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investment. 

You see, our OMNI 800™ 
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OMNI 800 is a trademark of Texas Instruments, Incorporated. 



monitor images in the finest detail. 

Of course, these advantages are 
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What's more, since our printers 
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You even have a choice of over 30 
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three of which can be printed on the 
same page without ever stopping the 
printer! Just touch the control panel 
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28227 
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As for reliability, TI printers are 
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So don't downgrade your PCs 
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It's easy. Just call 1-800-527-3500, 
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Creating useful products 
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JULY 1985 • BYTE 11 




If you own an Apple Ik, 
you'd have to add three more Apple Ik's, 

an Extra Keypad, 

30 Block Graphic Sets, 

Color Sprites, 

two more voices, 

four instruments, 

a Cartridge Port, a Joystick Port, 

and a Commodore 64... 















12 BYTE • JULY 1985 






















_ m a m mm m. m m m m m m m m 
m m, m a a mam o uvi m . 
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D Commodore 1985 



Inquiry 85 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 13 



LETTERS 



An Infrared Pyrometer 

In the process of completing a master's 
degree in engineering at the University of 
lennessee at Chattanooga, we sought an 
interesting project for a thesis topic. The 
answer to this search was the Micro D- 
Cam that Steve Ciarcia presented in his 
Circuit Cellar column ("Build the Micro 
D-Cam Solid-State Camera"; Part I. 
September 1983. page 20; Part 2 . October 
1983. page 67). We decided to use the 
Micro D-Cam as the basis for an optional 
infrared pyrometer. The results of our in- 
vestigation were interesting, and we 
thought we would share them with you 
and your readers. 

We used an Apple lie and an infrared 
filter that was opaque to visible light with 
the Micro D-Cam. A heating .element 
served as an infrared source. Thermo- 
couples with a digital thermocouple meter 
measured the temperature of the heating 
element. The only real modification to the 
Micro D-Cam hardware was the optical 
filter that we attached to the lens that was 
supplied with the kit. 

When we obtained the hardware we 
conducted a few experiments that showed 
that focusing the Micro D-Cam's lens with 
the optical filter on a hot object produced 
an infrared image. The exposure time was 
shortened as the object's temperature in- 
creased. The lowest temperature from 
which an infrared image could be pro- 
duced was about 650° Fahrenheit. 

After we tested the hardware, we modi- 
fied the software that was supplied with 
the Micro D-Cam to display the percent 
of pixels that are on versus the total 
number of pixels (light-level percent) in an 
area of 56 by 64 pixels located in the 
center of the image. This area of the image 
was that where a temperature measure- 
ment of the object would be made. We 
then used the software to develop a 
calibration curve to relate temperature to 
light-level percent and exposure time. This 
calibration curve showed a nonlinear rela- 
tionship between temperature and ex- 
posure time. For these measurements the 
light-level percent was kept between 45 
and 5 5 percent. Once the calibration curve 
was obtained, an equation was developed 
using polynomial regression that would 
produce a temperature output based on 



an exposure-time input. 

When the calibration work had been 
completed, we modified the software for 
the Micro D-Cam so that on a real-time 
command the program would go to a 
pyrometer subroutine and loop, adjusting 
the exposure times until the light-level per- 
cent for the 56- by 64-pixel array area was 
between 45 and 55 percent. Once the 
light-level percent fell within the range 
established, the calculated temperature 
was displayed on the screen and the con- 
trol of the Micro D-Cam was returned to 
the basic operating program. 

The results of the exercise showed that 
the Micro D-Cam could be used as an op- 
tical infrared pyrometer when used in con- 
junction with an infrared filter. Due to the 
limitations of the laboratory equipment 
available, the calibration was for a tem- 
perature range of 750° to 900° F and the 
resulting equation was as follows; tem- 
perature of object F = 9.12 x 1CT 7 x ET 2 
- (.0281 5 x ET) + 966.89. where ET is the 
exposure time in milliseconds. Later 
testing of the accuracy of the system 
yielded results within 6° of the actual 
temperature. 

For anyone wishing to try this type of 
experiment a few items should be noted, 
based on our experiences. The develop- 
ment of the calibration curve is dependent 
on keeping the aperture and the distance 
between the lens and the object constant. 
The second item is that great care must 
be exercised in measurement of the ob- 
ject's temperature when developing the 
calibration curve. Due to the relatively 
long exposure time required for the in- 
frared system, the temperature of the ob- 
ject tends to vary a few degrees; therefore 
the object needs to be thermally stable 
before the exposure is made. 

Conclusions from our work indicate that 
the optic RAM encased in the lens assem- 
bly is capable of being used as an infrared 
detector, and when used with the Micro 
D-Cam it can serve as an optical infrared 
pyrometer. It is obvious from looking at 
other types of infrared pyrometers that 
there are other pyrometers available that 
are already calibrated and cost about the 
same as the Micro D-Cam. The Micro D- 
Cam. however, offers the hobbyist or ex- 
perimenter a vision system that can, with 



the use of an infrared filter, be turned into 
an infrared pyrometer. 

Virgil Thomason 

Gerald A/Caudill 

Univ. of Tennessee at Chattanooga 

Macintosh BASIC Available? 

The April 1984 BYTE carried an article by 
Scot Kamins about Macintosh BASIC 
(page 318) that excited me, so I called an 
Apple dealer and asked him when the 
product would be released. He informed 
me that it was scheduled for release in 
June 1984. This sounded reasonable, so 
I purchased a Macintosh. In the meantime, 
I've waited, and waited, and waited. Still 
no Macintosh BASIC. 

Dealers do not seem to be able to get 
any information about Macintosh BASIC 
from Apple Computer. I've even pur- 
chased a nice book titled Introduction to 
Macintosh BASIC by Scot Kamins (Rochelle 
Park, NJ: Hayden Book Co.). which in- 
cludes the following statement; 'Apple 
believes that good books are important 
to successful computing. The Apple Press 
imprint is your assurance that this book 
has been published with the support and 
encouragement of Apple Computer Inc., 
and is the type of book we would be 
proud to publish ourselves." 

The unavailability of Macintosh BASIC 
leaves me puzzled. Could Apple have pur- 
posefully delayed the introduction of its 
BASIC in order to allow Microsoft a 
chance to get wide distribution of its 
BASIC? Microsoft BASIC allows you about 
1 5,000 bytes of space for a program, and 
the company has no compiler for it. The 
multiply/divide operates in double preci- 
sion, which is too slow for my use. So, you 

[continued) 



LETTERS POLICY: To be considered for publica- 
tion, a letter must be typed double-spaced on one 
side of the paper and must include your name and 
address. Comments and ideas should be expressed as 
clearly and concisely as possible. Listings and tables 
may be printed along with a letter if they are short 
and legible. 

Because BYTE receives hundreds of letters each 
month, not all of them can be published, letters will 
not be returned to authors. Generally, it takes four 
months from the time BYTE receives a letter until 
it is published. 



14 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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Inquiry 136 




A FULL C 

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FOR 



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The Ecosof t Eco-C88 compiler for the 8088 and MSDOS i s going 1 set a new 
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(1) Computer Language, Feb., 1985, pp.73-102. Reprinted by permission. 

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LETTERS 



can see I'm still waiting. Could you ask 
Apple if it would pay me interest on the 
money? 

Frank Hardison 
Memphis, TN 

Public-Key Patent 

As part of his article titled "Implementing 
Cryptographic Algorithms on Microcom- 
puters" (October 1 984, page 1 2 6), Charles 
Kluepfel described an implementation of 
the RSA Public Key algorithm and the 
BASIC code required. Unfortunately, he 
did not reference that this RSA Public Key 
Cryptosystem was patented by the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of 'technology in 1983 
(U.S. Patent 4,405,829). The worldwide ex- 
clusive license to this patent was then pur- 
chased from MIT by RSA Security Inc.. a 
company founded by the inventors of the 
RSA algorithm to develop this technology. 

Because the RSA algorithm has been 
published in academic journals, most peo- 
ple assume that it is in the public domain, 
similar to the DES algorithm. Unfortunate- 
ly, some people have developed software 
and other products based upon the RSA 
algorithm without researching this point. 
Nevertheless, the patent exists and, in the 
opinion of our corporate attorneys, will be 
easily defended. As RSA Security Inc. paid 
a great deal of money for the exclusive pa- 
tent rights, we plan to actively police the 
commercial use of the RSA algorithm. 

The purpose of this letter is not to 
criticize either Mr. Kluepfel or BYTE for his 
article. Rather, the purpose is to make you 
aware of our patent position and ask for 
your help in educating your readership as 
to its existence. Based on Mr. Kluepfel's 
article, more people are going to start ex- 
pending money and effort developing 
RSA-based software for commercial pur- 
poses. Regrettably, their effort will be 
wasted unless they obtain a sublicense 
from us. Therefore, we suggest you publish 
a reference to our patent in a future issue 
of BYTE to protect your readers from this 
lack of knowledge. 

Ralph Bennett 

President 

RSA Security Inc. 

Sunnyvale, CA 94087 

Fourier Ripple 

The article "Fourier Smoothing Without 
the Fast Fourier Transform" by Eric E. 
Aubanel and Keith B. Oldham (February, 
page 207) recalled my own experience 
with Fourier transforms as a graduate stu- 
dent in chemistry. In particular, the iden- 
tification of the high-frequency terms as 

[continued) 



16 BYTE • IULY 1985 



Inquiry 207 



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Inquiry 165 



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LETTERS 



noise (I note that this is qualified with the 
word "usually") is not justified in the case 
of crystal x-ray scattering. 

The noise in the examples Aubanel and 
Oldham discuss is typical Fourier ripple, 
which roughly centers around the function 
measured. Although this noise is a factor 
in x-ray structures, the more important 
noise is termination error caused by sig- 
nificant unmeasured high-frequency 
terms. Such noise does not generally in- 
terfere with obtaining atomic coordinates 
but can cause many spurious effects in an 
electron-density map. The high-frequency 
terms, in fact, primarily represent the 
innermost electrons; when they are miss- 
ing, the unpresented electron density can, 
in principle, appear (i.e., be randomly 
smeared) anywhere in space, either under 
real atomic peaks or between atoms. Iron- 
ically, these innermost electrons are the 
least interesting, but the absence of the 
terms that represent them interferes with 
a good representation of the outer 
electrons. 

The more general point, however, is that 
when using Fourier transforms, it is impor- 
tant to develop a "feel" for how they work. 
The integral of a function is entirely con- 
tained in the zero-order term. All the other 
Fourier terms add and subtract precisely 
equal quantities (because they are sine 
and cosine functions) of area or volume 
"under the function," thus "shifting" peaks 
and troughs. If the function has high nar- 
row peaks or discontinuities, such as those 
in a molecular electron-density dis- 
tribution, high-frequency terms will be 
necessary to adequately represent it. If the 
function is relatively smooth, such as 
those in your examples, low-frequency 
terms will represent it and high-frequency 
terms can, with some confidence, be at- 
tributed to noise. A caveat, however, is 
that there ought also to be noise, in prin- 
ciple, in the low-frequency terms. This 
noise will be expressed not as ripple 
around the function but in shifts of the 
peaks, either in height or position. Thus 
"smooth" functions may misrepresent the 
reality they describe, albeit hopefully by 
statistically small degrees of error. 

Steve Goldfield 
San Francisco, CA 

Conversion Correction 

l have received a number of letters regard- 
ing my article "A Unit-Conversion Algo- 
rithm" (March, page 1 5 1). There were two 
problems with the published listing, and 
there is one point that l should clarify. 
Line 3 10 of the listing on page I 54 reads. 

{continued) 



18 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 324 for End-Users. Inquiry 325 for DEALERS ONLY 



4 Out Of 5 PC-AT Expansion Board 
Buyers Own Advantage!" 



The overwhelming choice of IBM® 
PC-AT users, Advantage! from AST 
sets the standard in high-powered 
multifunction enhancement. 
Advantage! was the first multifunc- 
tion board for the PC-AL And it 
remains the leader by providing mil- 
lions of characters of memory capac- 
ity, two serial ports, a parallel port 
and a game port. All in a single expan- 
sion slot. 

First In Memory. All it takes is 
Advantage! There's no need to add 
other cards or hard-to-find chips 
on your system board. Whether you 
have an 256K, 512K or 640K AT, our 
unique memory addressing tech- 
nique lets you add up to 3 Megabytes 
of parity checked user memory 
efficiently and economically. For 
flexibility, Advantage! can use either 
64K or 256K memory chips. And 
of course, it supports your AT's high 
performance 16-bit bus and faster 
program processing speed. 

Now you can have the extra 
memory to run integrated business 
software such as Symphony™ and 



Framework™ To make full use of new 
concept windowing software such 
as DESQ™To utilize multitasking pro- 
grams such as IBM's TopView™ or 
multiuser operating systems such 
as XENIX™ To handle larger amounts 
of data, faster. Or for RAM disks. 

First In I/O. Here's all the I/O capa- 
bility you need now, even if you're 
starting with a base model AT. Every 
Advantage! card includes an AT 
compatible serial port and a parallel 
port so you can connect printers, 
plotters, mice and modems. Or with 
the appropriate software, you can 
connect other terminals to create 
multiuser environments. 

With our optional second serial 
port you can attach even more peri- 
pherals, while our optional game 
port lets you plug in joysticks and 
other cursor-control devices for 
business or just for fun. 

First In Quality. AST's reputation 
is built on quality products, qual- 
ity support and quality service. Our 
complete documentation means 
Advantage! is exceptionally easy 



to install and use, but if it's not 
enough we're always here to help. 

Four out of five buyers agree, the 
choice is Advantage! -only from AST. 
Ask your dealer, or call our Customer 
Information Center (714) 863-1333 
for more information. AST Research, 
Inc., 2121 Alton Avenue, Irvine, CA 
92714 TWX: 753699ASTR UR 



FEATURES 


Memory Expansion 


I/O Expansion 


• 128Kb to 3.0Mb in 


• Up to 2 Serial 


a single slot 


Ports (1 optional) 


• User Upgradeable with 


• Parallel Printer 


either 64K or 256K 


Port 


memory chips 


• Optional Game 


• Split Memory Address- 


Port 


ing rounds out AT's 


Advantage! 


system memory to 640K 


Supports AT's Full 


and continues memory 


Program Process- 


expansion at 1Mb 


ing Speed 



Advantage! trademark of AST Research, Inc. IBM PC-AT and 
TopView trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. 
Framework trademark of Ashton-Tate. Symphony trademark 
of Lotus Development Corp. DESQ trademark of Quarterdeck 
Office Systems. XENIX trademark of Microsoft Corp. 




nescnRCH inc. 

Inquiry 9 for End-Users. 
Inquiry 10 for DEALERS ONLY, 





WE INTERRUPT 
PRODUCT 




THIS MAJOR 
INTRODUCTION TO 
YOU SOMETHING 
REALLY 
IMPORTANT. 






iilUi""||||||| 






THE BIG NEWS IN DISK/TAPE IS PC/T, A 
SENSIBLE NEW APPROACH TO ARCHIVAL 
STORAGE. 

We've tamed tape. And made it docile. 
By making it DOS-like. 

So, while this started as an ad for our 
five new HardFile™ subsystems, which 
deliver 25 to 80 megabytes of hard disk 
storage and 60 megabytes of tape backup, 
instead we want to introduce you to PC/T™ 

PC/T is a new format that makes 
tape a more sensible storage solution for 
personal computers. It puts tape on line, 
in real time, for instant access. And frees 
your hard disk for your most current data. 

You already know how to use PC/T. 
Because it responds to standard DOS 
commands. 

Here's the big news: just like any 
DOS-controlled hard or floppy disk, PC/T 
enables you to create directories and files 
on tape. Then you can call up the exact file 
you need, and change a portion of the tape 
without having to erase and overwrite the 
entire cartridge. 





Without PC/T, you have 
to rewrite the entire 60 MB 
cartridge each time you 
make a single change. 



With PC/T, you create and 
directly access files on 
tape, just like with floppy 
or hard disk. 



PC/T formats each new tape cartridge, 
just like you format any hard or floppy 
disk, locking out bad blocks to assure that 
every bit of data you write to tape is 
recorded with utter accuracy. 

What's more, PC/T gives tape true 
error correction capability. 50% redundancy 
during write operations ensures 100% 
reconstruction of data lost because of oper- 
ator error, dust and dirt, or everyday wear 
and tear. 

There is a catch. You can get your 
hands on PC/T just one way: Buy one of our 
powerful new HardFile subsystems. With 
disk plus tape. Or tape alone. Which brings 
us back to where we started. And gives 
you a place to start. Just call 1-800-228- 
DISK for the Tallgrass dealer nearest you. 

TALLGRASS SELLS MORE HARD DISK 
STORAGE WITH CARTRIDGE TAPE 
BACKUP THAN ANYONE IN THE 
WORLD. 



TALLGRASS 6 
TECHNOLOGIES 

COMMITTED TO MEMORY 

Inquiry 348 



HardFile^and Tallgrass^are trademarks 
of Tallgrass Technologies Corporation 
& 1985 Tallgrass Technologies 




Speeds Up Everything... Especially 1-2-31 



The MicroWay NUMBER SMASHER triples the speed of ail 
cpu bound software while doubling the speed of 80 87 bound 
software. When combined with MicroWay's FASTBREAK" it 
results in an increase in the speed of .1 -2-3™ of up to 80 to 1 ! 
if you're tired of WAITing, the SMASHER is the card for you! 

The heart of the NUMBER SMASHER is a 9.54 mhz 
8086 working with a matched high speed 8087. The card 
comes standard with 51 2K of 1 6 bit RAM and can be ex- 
panded to 64GK. It triples the throughput of your original 
8088 by doubling the system clock speed and quadrupling 
the data bus bandwidth. 

Software compatibility is guaranteed by the nature of 
our card. It does not augment the 8088, but replaces it with 
a special 8086 that runs as a true 16-bit processor in the 
first 640K of ram and as an 8-bit processor everywhere else. 



Micro 



Examples of software which show dramatic speed-ups 
include AUTOCAD, 1-2-3 ,M worksheets which depend heavily 
on financial or transcendental functions, and multi-user oper- 
ating systems. Any program written with an MS-DOS compiler 
that supports the 8087, such as MS-FORTRAN or 87BASIC, 
will run on the NUMBER SMASHER at least a factor of 2.5 
times faster! Software that comes with the card also in- 
creases the throughput of I/O bound programs and includes 
a disk cache routine, ram disk and print spooler. 

The NUMBER SMASHER is an upgrade product for 
8088 based PCs and compatibles. It works on the IBM- 
PC and XT, the COMPAQ and compatibles manufactured 
to the IBM-PC hardware standard. Contact MicroWay or 
your local MicroWay Installation Center for technical speci- 
fications and supporting benchmarks. 



The World Leader in 8087 Support 



P.O. Box 79, Kingston, Mass. 02364 USA (617) 746-7341 



NUMBEH 



3EAK are trademarks of MicroWay, Inc. LOTUS and 1 -2-3 are trademarks of Lotus Development Corp. 

Inquiry 248 



LETTERS 



in part. OR X + LEN(I$). This should be 
OR X > LEN(I$). The program will not 
work at all without this correction. Most 
of the letters I received indicated this 
error. 

The PRINT CHR$(12) that occurs in lines 
10. 130. and 4000 deserves some clarifi- 
cation. First of all. in most versions of 
BASIC the CLS statement is preferable. 
Unfortunately, the version of the BASIC 
compiler that I was using did not accept 
the CLS statement. The PRINT CHR$(12) 
worked with both interpreter and com- 
piler. As I prefer to have only one active 
version of the program, and I don't like 
distributing what I don't run, the PRINT 
statement was submitted to BYTE. Also, 
line 130 is unnecessary in the MS-DOS 
version. The TRS-80 version prints some 
material between lines 10 and 130 that is 
not needed with MS-DOS. I left the line 
in to minimize the differences between the 
two versions. 

1 hope these comments are useful to 
you. 

David L. Kahn 
Newton Highlands. MA 

Terse, Terse, Terse 

Permit me to comment on Robert Kong 
Win Chang's one-page article "Build a 
Serial Card" (March, page 129) on building 
a serial card for the Sanyo MBC 5 50 
computer. 

Yes. BYTE, you did not title the article 
"Adding a Serial Card (to the Sanyo)." You 
verily said only "Build" a serial card. How 
we are supposed to actually add this to 
our Sanyos is obfuscated but may hope- 
fully become the subject of a multipage 
article in a future BYTE. 

How does the author expect us to get 
+ 1 2 volts. - 1 2 volts, and + 5 volts? From 
where? Do we simply plug the CNI con- 
nector into the Sanyo and automatically 
get these voltages? Do we have to solder 
wires to the Sanyo? If so. where? (I am 
somewhat reluctant to attack my Sanyo 
with a soldering iron, with such an inade- 
quate set of instructions from Mr. Chang!) 
How about sockets for the chips? Where 
does the perf board mount? How about 
a photograph? (Didn't Confucius say some 
time ago that a picture is worth a thou- 
sand words?) What kind of decoupling 
capacitors are used? (An electronic-sup- 
ply catalog 1 have in my hand lists tan- 
talum, polyester, metallized film, 
aluminum electrolytic, axial lead, radial 
lead, resin-dipped solid tantalum, high- 
frequency aluminum electrolytic, metal- 
lized polyester, stacked metallized film. 

(continued) 



Data 
communication 

problem? 



Solve it with a 

BayTech 

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■ Adapt your micro to industrial control and data 
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system. 

■ Allow your computer to 
share or select printers. 

■ Enable your computers 
to use the same data 
communication lines by 
multiplexing. 

■ Simplify your network 
with any-device-to-any-device communication. 
These intelligent multiports feature many 
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5, 9, 12 and 18-port sizes, $279 to $1,795. 

Call or write for complete details. 




•{► 



BAY TECHNICAL ASSOCIATES, INC 

DATA COMMLTnHCATIONS PRODUCTS 
800/523-2702 or 601/467-8231 



Highway 603, P.O. Box 387, Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi 39520 
Telex: 910-333-1618 EasyLink: 6277-1271 



Inquiry 48 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 23 



LETTERS 






and disc capacitors, all in a bewildering 
array of voltages, tolerances, and prices!) 
Additionally. 1 find literally dozens of dif- 
ferent types of DB-2 5 connectors offered 
by as many manufacturers. 

How is an ordinary reader— and you 
have hundreds of thousands of readers 
who are not experts— expected to follow 
such extremely abbreviated instructions 
(a total of only 84 words!)? 



I am not being picky. It is just that as 
shown and as printed, your article leaves 
a lot to the imagination and leaves an un- 
sophisticated reader up the proverbial 
estuary without a utensil for propulsion! 

The article is bound to attract many 
readers. Obviously Sanyo (using typical 
contemporary marketing strategy) did not 
include a serial port as standard equip- 
ment so as to advertise a low come-on 






Swap diskettes with 
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a CP/M computer "look-alike" with UniForm-PC. 



Imagine a software breakthrough that 
gives your IBM PC, PC-XT, PC-ATor 
compatible the ability to directly read, 
write and format diskettes from most 
popular CP/M computers— 8 or 1 6 
bit! Remarkable UniForm-PC actually 
reconfigures your floppy drive to 
emulate the selected CP/M format, 
allowing your applications programs 
and utilities to directly access data 
files that were previously out of reach. 

Menu-driven UniForm-PC is 
easy-to-use and inexpensive. Simply 
load, select the proper diskette format 
and go! DOS procedures are un- 
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machine at home without the need for 
additional hardware or modifications! 
Atjust $69.95, CP/M compatibility 
never cost so little! 

UniForm-PC is available now 
from your local computer dealer 
or Micro Solutions. , 



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For CP/M computer 
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It's also just $69.95. 



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price to attract buyers. And since the 
Sanyo 5 5X series computers have such a 
good price/performance ratio anyway, they 
will probably sell by the millions. 

However, having a serial interface to 
enable connection of a modem is becom- 
ing more and more indispensable in com- 
puting. The Sanyo RS-232C board, even 
at discounters, is still around $7 5. So, a 
probable high percentage of Sanyo 
owners, who bought a Sanyo in the first 
place because it did offer a lot for a low 
price, will want to add serial capability, and 
at a cost lower than Sanyo's $75 to $100. 

Do your readers a favor, though, and 
make it easier and simpler to construct 
this good-idea serial card! 

Bernard A. McIlhany 
Marble Hill, GA 

Robert Kong Win Chang replies: 
I would like to make a number of com- 
ments. First, there is absolutely no need 
to attack or otherwise mistreat the Sanyo 
with a soldering iron; once the board has 
been built (preferably some distance 
from the Sanyo to avoid eventual solder 
splashes!), follow the instructions de- 
tailed in the Sanyo Operator's Guide. 
chapter 6; page 6-3 describes how to 
remove the cabinet cover, whereas pages 
6-15 to 6-18 show how to install the 
RS-232C board and how to program the 
correct data rate. Instead of the "blue 
line" mentioned in the manual, read 
"wire I," i.e.. the wire connecting pin 8 
of ICI to pin I of the CNI connector. 

As can be seen from the schematic of 
figure I in my article, all the pin assign- 
ments of the CNI connector on the 
motherboard are listed; in particular, 
they show that all voltages and signals re- 
quired for the correct operation of the 
serial card are provided through this con- 
nector by the Sanyo— all that is required 
for installing the serial card in the Sanyo 
is to screw the card to the rear panel of 
the machine and then to plug the ribbon 
header socket onto the CNI connector 
on the motherboad as described in the 
manual. It is as simple as that! 

As far as the actual building of the card 
is concerned. I am afraid that I assumed 
wrongly that all readers interested 
enough to build the card would have the 
required background to do so. However, 
I tend to believe that Mr. McIlhany is 
somewhat too harsh in his criticism about 
the lack of details for nontechnical 
readers; no recent article in BYTE de- 
scribing a hardware project has given the 
low-level details that he seems to require. 

{continued) 



24 BYTE* JULY 1985 



Inquiry 237 




>$&* 



^ 



&KS 



J%P 



o<^> 




*p* 






rk of AT&T Bell Laboratories . Laserlink and The Skeduler are trademarks of Unisource Software Corp. VENDC/86 is a trademark and an implcmentatii 
of VenturCom, Inc. UNIFY is a trademark of Unify Corporation . The Connector is a trademark of Uniforum Software Systems, Inc. 



LETTERS 



Nevertheless, I do sympathize with him, 
and I wish I could refer him to a good 
manual or article. As a service to BYTE 
readers. I am prepared to mail to inter- 
ested hobbyists an assembled serial card 
upon receipt of a check for $25 (write to 
me at the computer science department 
of Brandeis University, Ford Hall. 
Waltham, MA 02254). The extra $10 
should enable me to cover shipping ex- 
penses and to pay a computer science 
student to build and test the interface. 

Sockets for the integrated circuits were 
not mentioned, though I did socket mine; 
the reason is that opinions differ on the 
usefulness/inconvenience of sockets and 
I preferred to leave the decision to the 
reader. I personally would recommend 
using sockets for all ICs so as to minimize 
the chances of damaging them by over- 
heating during soldering. Besides, 
troubleshooting is made easier should 
any problem arise later on. 

Almost any small low-voltage capacitors 
may be used in this project; I used small 
ceramic disc capacitors rated at 0.01 /uF/ 
16 V—l bought 100 of these for $6 as 



these are commonly used components 
in digital circuits. 

The choice of the DB-25 connector is 
not critical; however, the most convenient 
connector to use is a female one. of the 
'right angle PC solder" type. JDR Micro- 
devices sells them under the reference 
DB25SR. JDR also sell the 20-pin ribbon 
header socket under the reference 
IDS20. 

One thing I did forget to mention was 
the location of pin I of the CNI connec- 
tor on the motherboard to enable plug- 
ging the socket the right way. The orien- 
tation is the same as for all ICs on the 
motherboard, namely that, looking from 
the top and from the front of the Sanyo, 
pin I is the last one on the left row of 
pins. 

MS-DOS 1.25 and 2.11 for the Sanyo 
do not provide adequate support for 
interrupt-d riven serial input/output. 
Unless the user writes his/her own soft- 
ware to handle interrupts coming from 
the serial card, interrupt requests from 
the card should be disabled; the most 
convenient way to do this would be to 



leave out the 74LS32 quad 2-input OR 
gate. Failure to disable interrupts (par- 
ticularly from IxRDY) would cause the 
Sanyo to 'hang up" when a modem is 
connected to the interface. 

Finally, I would like to say that I agree 
with Mr. Mel I ha ny that a picture is worth 
a thousand words; this is why the article 
contained a minimum number of words 
(only 84. as he pointed out) and con- 
veyed (tersely, I must admit) most of its 
technical information in figure I. Note 
that about 20 of the 84 words that make 
up the article convey a lot of implied in- 
formation; The card plugs into the 
Sanyo's serial-interface connector on the 
motherboard and works exactly like 
Sanyo's version." 

RightWriter Rebuke 

In the March Reviewer's Notebook column 
(page 24 5). Glenn Hartwig dismissed 
RightWriter because it did not like Hamlet 
or the Gettysburg Address. He missed the 
point. RightWriter is a tool to help make 
business writing strong, concise, and to 

(continued) 



SLICER-THE 
SYSTEM THAT 
GROWS TO FIT 
YOUR NEEDS 




THE SLICER 

Real 16 Bit Power on a Single Board — 

Featuring the Intel 80186 

m Complete 8 MHz 16-bit micro- 
processor on a 6" * 12" board 
8 256K RAM, plus up to 64K EPROM 

■ SASI port for hard disk controller 

■ Two full function RS232C serial ports 
with individually programmed 
transmission rates— 50 to 38.4K baud 

m Software compatibility with the 8086 
and 8088. 

a 8K of EPROM contains drivers for 
peripherals, commands for hardware 
checkout and software testing 

■ Software supports most types and 
sizes of disk drives 

a Source for monitor included on disk 
» Bios supports Xebec 1410 and 

Western Digital WD 1002 SHD 

controller for hard disks 
Fully assembled and tested only $995 

Also available in several kit forms 

THE SLICER SYSTEM 

EXPANSION BOARD 

For expanded memory, additional ports, 

and real time clock 

a Up to 256K additional dynamic RAM 
a 2 RS232C asychronous ports 

with baud rates to 38.4K for 

serial communication 



a 2 additional serial ports for 

asynchronous RS232C or 

synchronous communication (Zilog 

8530 SCC) 
a Real Time Clock with battery backup 

for continuous timekeeping 
m Centronics type parallel printer port 

Fully assembled and tested only $750 
Available in several kit forms also 

THE SLICER PC EXPANSION BOARD 
Gives your Sheer high performance 
video capability 

m IBM compatible monochrome video 
m Video memory provides 8 pages of 

text or special graphics capability 
a 2 IBM type card slots for color video, 

I/O expansion, etc. 
a IBM type keyboard port 
Fully assembled and tested only $600 

Available in several kit forms also 

Also available: The ^SLICER 188 $700; 
8087 Math Co-Processor Bd. (call); 10 MB 
Hard Disk $700; W.D. 1002-SHD H.D.C. Bd. 
$200; Enclosures, Power Supply, and 
Support Hardware. 

Operating systems are CP/M 86 by 
Digital Research, Inc. ($85), and MS DOS 
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MasterCard, Visa, Check, Money Order, 
or C.O.D. Allow four weeks for delivery. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
The SLICER Bulletin Board at 300/1200 
Baud 612/788-5909 



see 



«2£Sf' 



SLICER Slicer Computers, Inc. 

2543 Marshall St. N.E., Minneapolis, MN 55418 
612/788-9481 • Telex 501357 SLICER UD 



26 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 319 



Ven-TePs Half Card" modem 
is in all the best computers. 

Here's why. .^ 



Ven-Tel gives you lots of reasons to buy our Half Card 11 
modem for your IBM PC or compatible. The Half Card 1 
is a complete system that lets you communicate with 
other PCs, mainframes, and databases effortlessly. 
It includes Crosstalk-XVI® software. It's reliable 
It's got all of the features you want. And it's 
a good value. 

Do You Own One off These 
Computers? 

Chances are you do. And if you're 
thinking of buying a modem, consider 
the Half Card™. Because of its small size, 
the Half Card™ fits in more computers, 
including all of the models we've listed 
here. The Half Card™ is small, so it fits in 
short slots or long. That means you can 
save your long slots for other expan- 
sion uses. 

Effortless Communication 
Each Half Card™comes with Crosstalk-XVI® 
communications software, by Microstuf. It's 
the easiest to use, whether you're a beginner 
or an old hand, and the most powerful. A full 
on-line help menu makes using Crosstalk® for 
the first time a snap. It can turn your PC into a 
terminal on a mainframe computer with its power 
ful terminal emulation feature. It will even oper- 
ate your PC when you're not there. You can call 
into an information service such asThe Source or Dow Jones News 
Retrieval, or transfer files and electronic mail, all at the touch of 
a button. The Half Card™ connects your computer to the world. 
Effortlessly. 

More Modem for Your Money 

When you buy the Half Card™ you don't need anything else. The 
Half Card™ is a complete communications package that includes 
a full-featured modem and the best known software on the market. 
Complete easy-to-understand instructions with full technical support 
on installation and use. And a very competitive price. The Half 
Card™ with Crosstalk-XVI® software, retails for only $549. 




Features 

. 1200/300 baud auto-dial, auto-answer. 
. Uses the industry standard "AT" 

command set. 
. Runs with virtually all communications 

software, including Smartcom II and PC 

Talk III and integrated packages such 

as Symphony and Framework. 
. Includes Crosstalk-XVI® software. 
. On-board speaker and extra phone jack 

for easy switching from voice 

to data mode. 
• Selective tone or pulse dialing; 

full or half duplex. 
. Automatic answer on any ring. 
. True ring or busy signal detection. 




Reliability 

Ven-Tel has been making 

modems for 10 years. Our 

experience shows. Ven-Tel's 

Half Card™ only has about 70 parts, compared 

to almost 300 on other modems. We reduced the parts 

by building the first LSI modem chip using advanced 

switched capacitor technology. What that means to you is 

greater reliability and lower power consumption, so you can 

load up your PC with expansion boards and not worry about 

heat or power problems. And we back the Half Card™ with a full 

two-year warranty on parts and labor. 

You Can Buy the Half Card™ 
Anywhere 

You can get the Half Card™ at Computer- 
Land, Businessland, the Genra Group, 
Entr§ Computer Centers, Macy's Computer 
Stores and other fine dealers nationwide. 
Also from Ven-Tel: the 1200 Plus™ an 
external modem and the PC Modem 
1200™ an IBM internal with V22 inter- 
national capability. 

Effortless Communication 



Ven-Tel Inc. 



2342 Walsh Avenue 
Santa Clara, CA 95051 
(408) 727-5721 



Crosstalk is a registered trademark of Microstuf, Inc. Smartcom II is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products. Symphony is a trademark of Lotus Development. Framework is a trademark of AshtonTate. 
Inquiry 365 JULY 1985 • BYTE 27 




For everyone who ever tried 
doing five things at once 



The perfect computer program 
for someone as busy as you. 
It lets you keep several other 
programs working at once. 

Do you ever go in so many directions 
so fast not even a computer can keep up 
with you? 

Well, now an IBM Personal Comput- 
er can— thanks to IBM TopView. 



TopView is a new kind of software 
that lets you switch between other pro- 
grams as quickly as you can change your 
mind, even run several programs at the 
same time. 

Once you load TopView into your 
computer, you load the other programs 
you use most— as many as your com- 
puter's memory will permit. 

After that, the greatest distance 
between two programs is just a couple of 



keystrokes, or (optional) mouse moves. 

There's no waiting and a lot less 
diskette swapping. 

But when you're redly busy is when 
TopView really shines, letting you do 
many jobs simultaneously. 

For example, you can print a letter, 
while you search a file, while you analyze 
a spreadsheet, while your clock/calen- 
dar reminds you that your automatic 
dialer is about to place a call for you. 



Little Tramp character licensed by Bubbles Inc.. s.a. 



28 BYTE • JULY 1985 




. . .IBM presents TopView. 



And you can see everything through 
on-screen "windows" and control it all 
with easy-to-use pop-up menus. 

You can even make unrelated pro- 
grams work together; say a "Brand Y" 
spreadsheet with a "Brand Z" word pro- 
cessor 

But simplest of all is a certain 
"Brand IBM", namely the IBM Assistant 
Series— for filing, writing, planning, 
reporting and graphing. 



Many other popular programs also 
work with TopView, and the number is 
growing. 

Naturally, the more computer 
memory you have, the more TopView can 
help you. At least 512K is recommended. 

And the price is only $149 * 

Beyond that, all you need is to be the 
kind of person who never does a single 
thing all day, but who wants to do every- 
thing, at once. 



To learn more, call an IBM market- 
ing representative, or visit an IBM Prod- 
uct Center or Authorized IBM PC or 
Software Dealer. 

For the store nearest you, and a free 
brochure, call 800-447-4700. (In Alaska 
and Hawaii, 800-447-0890.) 



Personal Computer Software 



♦IBM Product Center price. 
Inquiry 176 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 29 



Inquiry 254 




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LETTERS 



the point. It will help produce better 
manuals, reports, and business corre- 
spondence. It is not meant for poetry or 
great works of literature. Would you want 
to see a user manual written in iambic 
pentameter? Would you write a report say- 
ing fourscore and seven more employees 
are needed for a project? 

How about a real review on an impor- 
tant new product? 1 think your readers 
deserve it. 

Robert W. DePree 
Longboat Key, FL 

Glenn Hartwig replies: 
Mr. DePree accuses us of missing the 
point of his product. In fact, we stated 
that the program could be used to ad- 
vantage in "ordinary correspondence 
and reports." 

Want My Business? 

The vast array of computer hardware and 
software now being marketed is so over- 
whelming that anyone venturing out to 
buy a computer system is soon overcome 
by a feeling of helplessness. The biggest 
and most frustrating problem encountered 
by the prospective buyer is the failure of 
companies in the computer field to provide 
any kind of information on their products. 
A case in point: I have written to more 
than two dozen computer hardware and 
software companies for general and 
specific information, and only four saw fit 
to send me some literature. The rest did 
not even bother to acknowledge receipt 
of my inquiry. Apparently it doesn't mat- 
ter that I am willing to spend up to $13,000 
for a CAD system. Hardly anyone seems 
to want my business. Why? 

Manfred F. Kirchner 
Redmond, WA 

Elegant Logic 

In spite of many very bad experiences in 
responding to articles I have read in April 
issues of magazines. I am compelled to 
write in comment to Marvin Minsky's ar- 
ticle "Communication with Alien Intelli- 
gence" (April, page 126). 

I don't believe in the existence of in- 
telligent civilizations other than ours in the 
universe; I have never seen any evidence 
or heard any argument in favor of them 
that I find embraceable; but Mr. Minsky's 
article is a delightful, optimistic viewpoint 
that makes me hopeful that we may. at 
least, yet find and be able to communi- 
cate with intelligent life here on earth. Mr. 
Minsky's article, though couched in the 

[continued] 



30 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 30 



Inquiry 331 — ► 



HOW TO CONTROL 
THE RISE AND FALL 



Your small business compu- 
ter can give you the power to 
raise your productivity. But 
first you have to control the power you give it. 
Because even the slightest dip or surge of elec- 
tricity can result in a shocking surprise. An instant 
loss of important data or misinformation. Even 
worse, a total power line failure can create 
department devastation ... a total system crash. 
You can't afford errors, delays and other 
problems. After all, you've invested in a 
computer to increase efficiency. 
But now there's a solution you can af- 
ford The Sola SPS. This economical, 
UL listed Standby Power System 
is designed to protect personal, 
micro and mini computers 
from AC line disturb- 



OWER. 



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your power line experiences irregular voltage. Line 

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SPS filters power to eliminate electrical noise. 

And when the AC line fails, the SPS goes into full 

action, providing precise AC power to the load from 

its internal battery. So the only noise you'll hear 

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LETTERS 



complex, esoteric rhetoric required of 
academic communication, makes its case 
with the same sparse, incredibly simple 
logic that is the core of its very argument: 
The simplest thing will always happen first. 
After reading Mr. Minsky's arguments, I 
am reminded of another bit of elegant 
logic which, strangely, now seems to be 
very wise: Anything that can happen will 
happen. 



Mr. Minsky's article is typical of the kind 
of interesting, thought-inspiring, entertain- 
ing (though sometimes difficult) reading 
by which BYTE transcends the label "com- 
puter mag" and through which BYTE's 
readers can aspire to transcend the 
epithet "hacker." 

There is. of course, also a very practical 
side to Mr. Minsky's article. If. some day. 
I turn to speak to an intelligent alien. I will 



I h\ Ll ^ > 



k 



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be able to do so from the reference point 
of similarity, rather than polarity. There is 
a world of difference. 

Zack T. Hinckley 
Rockledge. FL 

Honest Interpreter 

The development and impact of computer 
hardware and software is so dazzling that 
one hardly knows which way to turn. 

During calm moments I convince myself 
that if I had to select one and only one 
software utility (beyond the operating sys- 
tem). I would opt for an honest, easy-to- 
interact-with BASIC interpreter, one that 
would never take a single-precision value 
for V2. tack eight arbitrary numbers onto 
it. and fob it off as a double-precision 
number in a double-precision calculation. 

Hal Falk 
New York, NY 

Magic Squares 

l read with interest Robert T. Kurosaka's 
Mathematical Recreations column ("Magic 
Squares," March, page 383) regarding 
magic squares and his computer program 
for generating odd-sided magic squares. 
Although his technique is powerful with 
respect to generating such squares for 
consecutive number entries, it is not able 
to generate squares for any desired magic 
number. 

A number of years ago I was intrigued 
with the question as to whether a general 
solution exists for a magic square of order 
n. With the help of a college text on linear 
algebra— Elementary Linear Algebra by J. R. 
Munkres (Reading. MA: Addison-Wesley. 
1964) — l was able to find the general solu- 
tion of a magic square of order 3. 

The general solution for a magic number 
equal to -a is 

X\ Xi x 3 
X4 Xt, x& 

X7 Xg Xg 



~Xg 



2a 

3 
la 



x 2 = -x 8 - 



x 3 = x 8 + x 9 + -=- 



x 4 = x 8 + 2x 9 + 

#6 = ~Xg ~ 2X 9 



2a 



4a 



x 7 = -x 8 - x 9 - a 



[continued on page 401) 



32 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 350 for End-Users. 
Inquiry 35! for DEALERS ONLY. 




COMPAQ doesn't m 
:ompranises. Thaft why wete 
still making hi ' 



PHHHB 



mmm 







Presenting the most capable 



No other computer company has ever 
grown as fast as COMPAQ, because 
no computer company makes computers 
as powerful, as complete and as useful 
as COMPAQ. That's why the original 
COMPAQ Portable, COMPAQ 
PLUS,™ and COMPAQ DESKPRO™ 
became worldwide best sellers overnight. 
Now COMPAQ is introducing two new 
computers that advance the state of the 
art even further. While the original 
COMPAQ products remain cost-efficient 
cornerstones of business and professional 
use, especially for first-time buyers, the 
new products represent the utmost in 
performance for second-time buyers, or 
anyone who needs exceptional power 
and speed. 

Triumphs of advanced technology 

The new COMPAQ PORTABLE 286™ 
and COMPAQ DESKPRO 286.™ 
Advanced technology puts them in a 
class all their own. With power, per- 
formance, speed, and expandability 
that exceed even the IBM® Personal 
Computer- AT.™ They represent a 
new standard that makes others look 




The new 80286 "chip" in COMPAQ 286 
Computers processes data faster. 

like what they are — the products 
of compromise. In fact, the new 
COMPAQ 286 Personal Computers 
can be considered the most useful in 
the world. 

Power with a bonus — portability 

The COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 
redefines portable computers. We 
gave it power to match IBM's most 
powerful desktop computer, the IBM 
PC- AT. Then we designed it to run all 
the popular programs and hardware 
designed for the IBM PC- AT. But we 
didn't stop there. COMPAQ pushed 
the technology further. 
The COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 



runs 30% faster. It can give you up to 
20 Megabytes of internal fixed disk 
drive storage. And can come with 
features to make it even more useful. 
Like our internal fixed disk drive 
back-up system that protects 10 
Megabytes of information on a single, 
pocket-sized tape cartridge. 

But the most amazing thing about 
the COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 is 
that all these features come attached 
to a handle. 

Our most advanced 
desktop computer 

Like the COMPAQ PORTABLE 
286, the new COMPAQ DESKPRO 
286 runs all the popular programs 
designed for the IBM PC- AT, 30% 
faster. And it can also come with 
our convenient internal fixed disk 
drive back-up system for added 
data protection. 

But we didn't stop there. We 
weren't content to compromise. We 
wanted to make the new COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 286 a more powerful, 
more efficient stand-alone personal 




OOMRAQ 

DESKPRO 

286 



_^,__ r _ T _ T _ JT , T . f r ... rT - r - f .. f . t -- f . r p pv-pEl g 

M./1- ,.;■:./■■■■//■ 




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computer, as well as a faster, more 
powerful, more useful file server. So 
we gave the COMPAQ DESKPRO 
286 far more memory and storage 
capacity — over 8 Megabytes of 
RAM and 70 Megabytes of high- 
performance fixed disk storage. 

The legends continue 

Not everyone will need the extra per- 
formance of the newest COMPAQ 
Computers. That's why we built our 
original line to last a long time. 

These workhorses — the COMPAQ 
Portable, COMPAQ PLUS and 
COMPAQ DESKPRO Computers — 
are essential to many professional and 
business users. They run thousands 
of industry-standard programs devel- 
oped for the IBM PC and PC/XT.™ 
They're indispensable tools in use on 
all seven continents (yes, even the 
South Pole!). 

Above all, no compromises 

The unprecedented success of 
COMPAQ came as no accident. While 



others built limited computers, 
COMPAQ built expandable computers. 

While others took two screens to 
display high-resolution text and 
graphics, COMPAQ was the first to 
do it on one. 

While others were looking for ways 
to cut corners, COMPAQ looked 
for ways to eliminate downtime 
by building the most rugged, reliable 
computers in the world. 

The COMPAQ commitment to a 
philosophy of "no compromise" made 
the COMPAQ Portable and COMPAQ 
PLUS the world's best-selling 16-bit 
portable personal computers. In 1983 
COMPAQ sold $111 million worth of 
computers to achieve the most suc- 
cessful first-year sales of any company 
in American business history. 

In 1984, we introduced the COMPAQ 
DESKPRO. In only four months, it 
became the second-best-selling 16-bit 
desktop business system in U . S . retail 
computer stores. And as a result, 
we've concluded the most successful 
second year of any computer com- 
pany, with sales of $329 million. 

The reason for this success is simple. 



COMPAQ computers have been recog- 
nized worldwide. Awards include: 

• COMPAQ PLUS selected and 
voted Europe's 1984 Computer of 
the Year in the portable category. 

• COMPAQ PL US voted by readers 
of PC WORLD as their favorite 
product in its category in the "1984 
World Class PC Contest" 

• COMPAQ PLUS selected as the 
first-place winner in its category in 
the Creative Computing Top 12 
Computers of 1984 Awards. 

• COMPAQ Portable rated best 
personal business computer in over- 
all user satisfaction by the Yankee 
Group market research firm 
opinion poll. 

• COMPAQ DESKPRO named by 
PC Week magazine as one of the 
top ten products of 1984. 



We offer people personal computers 
that simply work better. And make 
no compromises doing so. 





mmm 



' ' ■ ■ ■ ••;■ MT\Tft H S 1 1 V ■;■■■■: ; '- ; ' "■ '"■ ■■ :■•:■:,■■ \T.\Tt\ ! 'W HI 




^SM'fK=^^ ! 




Anyone can make a portable computer. 
But to make one that runs all the popular 
programs designed for the IBM PC- AT, 
30% faster — in a package almost half 
the size — was no small challenge. But 
one COMPAQ welcomed. 

Go faster, go further 

The COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 is 
paced by the advanced technology of 
the 8-MHz, Intel 80286 micropro- 
cessor. This advanced technology has 
numerous advantages. One advantage 
is the flexibility to work with several 
different operating systems so you're 
not forced to choose a personal 
computer solely on that basis. 

The advanced capabilities of this 
microprocessor become even more 



apparent when you run complex pro- 
grams. You can operate as part of 
a network. Or you can operate more 
than one program at the same time 
using multi-tasking software like IBM 
TopView™ And you can handle the 
most difficult problems with breath- 
taking speed. 

For many scientific and engineer- 
ing programs you have the ability 
to add an 80287 coprocessor, which 
offers even more speed. 

Both offer dramatic speed increases 
over earlier microprocessors. The 
faster response time means less 
waiting, and more productivity. 

Power in a package 

The COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 has 
the power of the IBM PC- AT. But the 
IBM PC-AT doesn't have a handle. 
Ours does. So it goes where you go. 
Works where you work. Whenever 
and wherever necessary. And it's easy 
to share with co-workers. 

That's full-function portability, 
pure and simple. 




A COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 can leave the 
office whenyou do. Take your work wherever you go. 



Expandability without getting bigger 

All the devices that increase the capa- 
bilities of the COMPAQ PORTABLE 
286 go on the inside — not the outside 
— of the computer. 
You can get it with one or two half- 









.. Uur lastest, most powertul portable 
do more- ar^here. 



height 1.2-Megabyte diskette drives. 
Although they can "read" diskettes 
formatted for 360- K byte diskette 
drives, they cannot "write" to them. 
Therefore, as an option, COMPAQ 
offers a 360-K byte diskette drive to 
let you exchange data with other 
industry-standard personal computers. 

There's an additional slot for a 
20-Megabyte fixed disk drive. All 
COMPAQ Portable Computers offer 
fixed disk drive systems that fit inside 
the computer. 

Another of our options: An inter- 
nal fixed disk drive back-up system 
keeps a safety copy of your work, 
reducing the chance of losing your 
data. COMPAQ pioneered the system 
first in desktop computers, and now 
in portables. 

The COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 
even comes with a security lock feature 
that locks "on" to prevent interruption 
of a file transfer, or "off to deny ac- 
cess to confidential information. 

Because it's a portable, self- 
contained unit, the computer can 
be easily stored away after use. 




Two data protection features from COMPAQ: 
an internal fixed disk back-up system that stores 
data on tape cartridges, and a security lock for 
locking keyboard access to your system on or off. 



Who can use it? 

If you're an experienced user, you may 
be ready to upgrade your current equip- 
ment. The COMPAQ PORTABLE 
286 gives you the latest technology. 

For some, power is all-important: 
Speed, performance, and the ability 
to handle the most powerful soft- 
ware. All are leading qualities of the 
COMPAQ PORTABLE 286. 

Starting a business? The COMPAQ 
PORTABLE 286 has tremendous data 
base capabilities to help you keep track 
of your inventory, your customers, 
your employees, your finances. Its 
exceptional storage capabilities make 
it ideal for the complexities of ac- 
counting. Its exceptional speed means 
greater networking ability. Its tre- 
mendous power enables you to get the 
edge on the competition. 

In addition, large corporations can 
place several of these computers with 
field representatives to provide clients 
immediate information on current 
prices, product availability, even 
shipping dates and routing. So deliv- 
ery shortages can be anticipated 
and avoided. 

The COMPAQ PORTABLE 
286 can also travel within the com- 
pany. From office to office. Desk to 
desk. From accounting, to marketing, 
to research. 

It's powerful and versatile enough 
to do almost any job. Light enough to 
carry. And tough enough to survive 
lots of users. 



Established reliability 

Despite its newness, the COMPAQ 
PORTABLE 286 is in many respects 
a proven product. It's based on the 
rugged, reliable design of the original 
COMPAQ Portable and COMPAQ 
PLUS. Many of the construction 
techniques like cross-bracing compo- 
nents and shock-mounting disk drives 
are identical. All of which goes to 
prove our point: No other portable 
computer can measure up to the 
advanced power and potential of 
the uncompromising COMPAQ 
PORTABLE 286. 



The COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 
Specifications 

Processor: 16-bit 80286; 6 or 8 MHz clock 
speed. Software: Fully compatible with all 
major software applications written for the IBM 
PC-AT. Expansion Slots: 3availableslotsin 
base configuration. Memory: 256-K bytes RAM, 
expandable to 2.6 Megabytes. Storage Devices: 
360-K byte or 1.2-Megabyte diskettedrives, 
20-Megabyte fixed disk drive, fixed disk drive 
back-up (10 Megabytes per tape). Interfaces: 
RGB color monitor, RF modulator, composite 
video, parallel printer, and asynchronous com- 
munications interfaces. Keyboard: Standard 
IBM PC-AT layout (84-key). Display: 9-inch 
diagonal green monochrome dual-mode monitor, 
high-resolution text characters, high-resolution 
graphics. Security: Locks in operating and non- 
operating mode to prevent unauthorized key- 
board access. Physical Specifi cations: 20"W x 
$V2"H x 16"D. Options: Technical reference 
guide, MS-DOS 1M /BASIC Version 3, 512/2048-K 
byte memory board. 






The capabilities of the new COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 286 represent a personal 
desktop computer as practical as it is 
technically advanced. Plus, it maintains 
compatibility with the IBM PC- AT. 

Utmost expandability 

That's no exaggeration. The COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 286 can expand to give 
you massive storage and memory. 

Without clutter. Expansion is 
internal. 

It comes with a single, half-height, 
1.2-Megabyte diskette drive. You 



can add a second drive of the same 
capacity, or a 360-K byte diskette 
drive so you can exchange information 
with other personal computers. 

For fixed disk storage, an internal * 
20-Megabyte system is available. 
You can also choose a 30- or 70-Mega- 
byte high-performance internal fixed 
disk drive sytem. The storage capac- 
ity of each is equivalent to 10,240, 
15,360, or 35,840 pages of double- 
spaced data. 

One expansion board works with 
all the fixed disk drives. When you up- 
grade to a larger fixed disk storage 
system, a new board is not required. 



To back up data, use the COMPAQ 
internal fixed disk drive back-up system. 
It's also a safe and convenient way to 
store information for record keeping. 

Hardworking, networking 

Alone, the COMPAQ DESKPRO 
286 is a tremendously useful computer. 
It doesn't limit you to using software 
under any one operating system. It 
runs all the popular programs designed 
for the IBM PC- AT. It can be con- 
figured for advanced color graphics 
display using a color monitor and the 
IBM Enhanced Graphics Adapter. 











more speed and more flexibility 




? ? r T B T T v. V V 



An enhanced keyboard layout, with shift keys in easy reach for touch typists, is standard on the 
COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 and COMPAQ DESKPRO 286. 




The modular design of the computer 
also lets you configure RAM and 
storage to the exact needs of any indi- 
vidual. So you never have to buy 
more computer than you need. Or 
worry about obsoleting your invest- 
ment because you bought less com- 
puter than you need. 

The COMPAQ DESKPRO 286 
also makes the ideal hub of a local area 
network. Using networking packages, 
your computers (and your people) can 
share information and software, and 
can communicate with one another. 
With 70 Megabytes, the COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 286 becomes a powerful, 
high-performance file server. You 




A fixed disk can store enough programs and data 
to handle all the accounting for most businesses. 



can store lots of data, as well as store 
several programs you can run simul- 
taneously when using software 
programs like IBM Top View. Your 
computer will perform at lightning 
speeds. And other configurations 
can make economical "nodes" of 
the network. 

Where to start 

The flexibility of the COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 286 allows you to begin 
at any level of computing power and 
reach beyond the IBM PC-AT. 

You can use your computer for 
writing extensive documents, pre- 
paring professional graphics for 
presentations, and for doing compli- 
cated financial studies. Chances are, 
however, you'll not want to stop 
there. You'll discover new ways for 
streamlining your work. You'll want 
to do customer lists, accounting tasks 
and business taxes, product inven- 
tory, annual sales projections on 
spreadsheets. You have the option of 
adding a second diskette drive, a fixed 
disk drive, more memory, even a 



fixed disk drive back-up system. All 
are available and can be added to the 
inside of your COMPAQ DESKPRO 
286 — easily, affordably, without 
losing your initial investment in hard- 
ware, software, or training. 

A proven heritage 

The COMPAQ DESKPRO 286 is 
of tested lineage. It has many of the 
reliable construction and design qual- 
ities of the COMPAQ DESKPRO. 
It has further conveniences like a 
dual-function security lock to prevent 
unauthorized access. As well as greater 
performance, power, and speed. The 
COMPAQ DESKPRO 286 stretches 
the limits of personal computing — 
with no compromises. 



The COMPAQ DESKPRO 286 
Specifications 

Processor: 16-bit 80286;6 or 8 MHz clock 
speed. Software: Fully compatible with all 
major software applications written for the IBM 
PC-AT. Expansion Slots: 5 slots available in 
base configuration. Memory: 256-K bytes 
RAM, expandable to 8.2 Megabytes. Storage 
Devices: 360-K byte or 1.2-Megabyte diskette 
drives; 20-(half-height), 30-, or 70-Megabyte 
fixed disk drives; fixed disk drive back-up 
(10 Megabytes per tape). Interfaces: RGB color 
monitor, RF modulator , composite video, paral- 
lel printer, and asynchronous communications 
interfaces. Keyboard: Standard IBM PC-AT lay- 
out (84-key). Display: 12-inch diagonal green or 
amber dual-mode monitor, high-resolution text 
characters, high-resolution graphics. Security: 
Locks in operating and non-operating mode to 
prevent unauthorized access; cover lock to pro- 
tect internal components. Physical Specifica- 
tions: System unit— 19.8"Wx 6.4"H x 16.5"D, 
Keyboard unit— 18.0"W x 1.5"H x7.0"D, Dis- 
play unit— 14.75"W x 10.25"H x 13.75"D, 
Weight — 57-64 lbs . , depending on configura- 
tion. Options: MS-DOS/BASIC Version 3, Tilt 
& Swivel Monitor Stand, Desk-Saver, Technical 
Reference Guide, 512/2048-K byte memory board 





If you're anxious to put a computer 
to work for you, but don't need the extra 
power and added performance of our 
most advanced portable computer, we 
have the answer. 

Lots of software, lots of uses 

The COMPAQ Portable and 
COMPAQ PLUS are based on the 
8088 microprocessor, one of the most 
popular computer technologies, so 
software is abundant. Integrated busi- 
ness programs, personal productivity, 
learning tools, even educational 
thoughtware to sharpen your business 
skills. Literally thousands of programs, 
compatible with the IBM PC and IBM 
PC/XT, will run on the COMPAQ 
Portable and COMPAQ PLUS. 

Many businesses put the COMPAQ 
Portable or COMPAQ PLUS to work 
as a full-time computer for part-time 
users. Carry it from desk to desk. 
Office to office. Let several people use 
it for one or more hours a day. Or one 
person use it a few days a week. 




Many companies use a COMPAQ Portable as 
a full-time computer for part-time users. 




For heavy users, a COMPAQ 
Portable or COMPAQ PLUS can 
become a "second computer" for com- 
puting power away from the office. 

With their rugged, uncompromising 
construction, they're built tough 
enough to pass around — something 
that's impractical to do with desktop 
computers. And because you stretch 
its use, you stretch your budget as well. 

If you need more, 
it does more 

How can one computer be so versatile? 

One reason is the ability of the 
COMPAQ Portable to become a 
COMPAQ PLUS with the addition of 
a 10-Megabyte fixed disk drive. This 
expands storage capacity to the equiv- 
alent of 5,120 double-spaced pages of 
information. 




There are other ways to improve on 
your COMPAQ. Hundreds of 
industry-standard expansion boards 
are available. They fit neatly inside 
your COMPAQ. So you can run more 
advanced programs. Communicate 
over telephone lines. Network with 
other computers. 

It's this kind of versatility and ease 
of use that makes COMPAQ Personal 
Computers second to none. 



SPECIFICATIONS 

The COMPAQ Portable 

Processor: 16-bit 8088, 4.77 MHz clock speed. 
Software: Fully compatible with all major soft- 
ware applications written for the IBM PC/XT. 
Storage Devices: One or two 320-K byte diskette 
drives. Expansion Slots: 3 available slots. 
Memory: 128-K bytes RAM expandable to 
640-K bytes. Display: 9-inch green diagonal 
monochrome dual-mode monitor, high- 
resolution text characters, high-resolution 
graphics. Interfaces: RGB color monitor, RF 
modulator, composite video, and parallel printer. 
Keyboard: Standard IBM PC layout (83-key). 
Physical Specifications: 20" W x SWH x 16"D. 

The COMPAQ PLUS 

Specifications the same with the exception of: 
One 360-K byte diskette drive, one 10-Megabyte 
fixed disk drive, 2 available expansion slots, and 
full compatibility with all major software appli- 
cations written for the IBM PC and VClXT. 



Expansion boards let you add memory and extra 
functions inside, not out. 






If you don't need all the extra perform- 
ance of the COMPAQ DESKPRO 
286, you can buy the popularly priced 
COMPAQ DESKPRO and still get 
many advanced features. 

A command performance 
at every level 

The COMPAQ DESKPRO Series 
allows you to buy as much computer 
as you need — not more computer than 
you need. 

It's a polished performer, from 
entry level to advanced computing, in 
one totally expandable unit. Its plug- 
in, modular design accepts up to four 
separate storage devices. You select 
almost any combination of diskette 
or fixed disk drives you desire. And 
there's the practical, internal fixed 
disk drive back-up system to protect 
and store your data. So as your needs 
grow, the DESKPRO grows. 

In fact it will grow from an IBM PC 
to far beyond the IBM PC/XT level 
of functionality. The COMPAQ 





DESKPRO will run all the popular 
programs written for both the IBM PC 
and PC/XT , two to three times faster, 
without sacrificing compatibility. 

Power? It's got what it takes. 

The COMPAQ DESKPRO can 
be easily configured for scientific, 
engineering, and advanced business 
applications. 

A high-performance, 30-Megabyte 
fixed disk drive provides added stor- 
age capacity. 

The ability to add a high-speed 
8087-2 coprocessor lets you deal with 
complex scientific calculations and 
economic models. 



SPECIFICATIONS 

The COMPAQ DESKPRO 

Processor: 16-bit 8086; 4.77 or 7.14 MHz 
clock speed. Software: Fullycompatible with all 
major software applications written for the IBM 
PC and PC/AT. Expansion Slots: 6 slots avail- 
able in base configuration. Memory: 128-K 
bytes RAM, expandable to 640-K bytes. Storage 
Devices: One or two 360-K byte diskette drives, 
lO-(half-height) or 30-Megabyte fixed disk drives, 
fixed disk drive back-up (10 Megabytes per tape). 
Interfaces: RGB color monitor, RF modulator, 
composite video, parallel printer, and asynchro- 
nous communications interfaces. Keyboard: 
Standard IBM PC layout (83-key). Display: 
12-inch diagonal green or amber dual-mode 
monitor, high-resolution text characters, high- 
resolution graphics. Physical Specifications: 
System unit— 19.8"W x 5.8"H x 16.5"D, 
Keyboard unit— 18.0"W x 1 .5"H x 7.0"D. 



Internal expandability saves desk space. 



Features common to COMKQ 

in most other 



Ifs been easy for COMPAQ to recog- 
nize the compromises other personal com- 
puter makers have been making. 

Ifs been just as easy to avoid them. 

Thafs why performance, expand- 
ability, compatibility, durability, and 
versatility are features you'll find in the 
entire COMPAQ family of computers. 

How advanced technology affects 
the choice you make 

There's an ever-growing library of 
fast, powerful programs designed for 
the IBM PC- AT and compatible with 
the COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 and 
COMPAQ DESKPRO 286. These 
programs will utilize the full potential 
of the computer "nerve center" — the 
Intel 80286 microprocessor. 

If you own a COMPAQ Portable, 
COMPAQ PLUS, or COMPAQ 
DESKPRO, you may discover that 



these newer programs are simply too 
big to run on your computer. 

Therefore you have a choice: the 
extra power and speed of the 80286 or 
the popular COMPAQ Personal 
Computers that use the 8088 and 8086 
microprocessors. Remember that the 
COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 and 
COMPAQ DESKPRO 286 offer 
more power, speed and performance 
than any other personal computer. If 
your needs don't require the advanced 
technology, or you need a second 
computer to complement the one you 
have now, consider the COMPAQ 
Portable, COMPAQ PLUS, or 
COMPAQ DESKPRO. All three are 
hardware and software compatible 
with the IBM PC and PC/XT. Our 
intention is to give you a choice with- 
out forcing you to invest in more, or 
less, computing power than you think 
you need. 

Of course, COMPAQ Personal 
Computers maintain compatibility 
with the add-on devices and expansion 
boards available for industry-standard 
personal computers, without any 
alteration or modification. 

Increased power without 
increased size 

All COMPAQ Personal Computers 
can take on more memory and storage 
without taking up more space. The 
COMPAQ Portable becomes a 





Internal add-on devices add greatly to the 
capabilities of a COMPAQ Computer. 

COMPAQ PLUS when you add a 
10-Megabyte fixed disk drive. The 
COMPAQ PORTABLE 286 can 
accept a 20-Megabyte fixed disk drive. 
The fixed disk drive fits neatly beside 
the diskette drive inside the unit. 

With the COMPAQ DESKPRO 
and COMPAQ DESKPRO 286, 
you can install almost any available 
combination of diskette or fixed disk 
drives you desire to achieve the level 
of performance you need. The 
COMPAQ DESKPRO and COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 286, along with the 
COMPAQ PORTABLE 286, can 
accept the fixed disk drive back-up 
system as one of the internal stor- 
age devices. 

There are slots inside each 
COMPAQ Computer for optional 
expansion boards. These boards greatly 
enhance the functionality and versatil- 
ity of your computer. Literally hun- 
dreds are available to plug right in. 
Each lets you do something different. 
Like expanding the amount of memory 
in your computer. Or communicating 
with other personal computers. Or 



even communicating with mainframe 
computers. 

Built tough to take it 

COMPAQ Portable Computers are 
expected to take some hard knocks. A 
specially designed shock isolation sys- 
tem protects the diskette drives from 
jolts and vibration. 

Their inner components are sur- 
rounded by a cross-braced aluminum 
frame. Those equipped with fixed 
disk drives are protected by a triple 
shock mount system. Plus, the outer 
case is molded from high-impact 
plastic, the same kind used to make 
bulletproof windows and space helmet 
faceplates. COMPAQ Portable Com- 
puters are tough, protecting your data 
from every angle. 




COMPAQ DESKPRO Computers 
are no pushovers, either. They're sur- 
rounded by a protective steel shell. 

They're the only desktop computers 
made with protective shock mounts, 
isolating the disk drive compartments 
from those unexpected but inevitable 
bumps and knocks that can cause 
downtime. 

Even our monitors do more 

COMPAQ Computers display data 
on high-quality monitors. All models 
can display high-resolution text and 
graphics on the same screen. The dual- 
mode display saves you the cost and 
clutter of a second monitor. COMPAQ 
DESKPRO Computers give you a 




I -[]■ ■'■■■■■■' 1 I I i » v v 



High-resolution text and graphics on one screen 
eliminates the need for a second monitor. 

choice of an amber or green display. 

From pinstripe suits to 
flight jumpsuits 

The structure and design of COMPAQ 
Computers best characterize their 
widespread usefulness and respected 
capabilities. COMPAQ attentiveness 
to construction details and concern 
for functionality under stressful con- 
ditions are why these computers have 
received worldwide acceptance. 

That's why you'll find a COMPAQ 
Computer on the bench of a major 
league baseball team tracking player 
performance. 



At the South Pole monitoring 
weather conditions for the research 
team of a major university. 

On tour with famous rock stars to 
help plan concerts, keep up with the 
finances, and receive electronic mail. 

On motion picture sound stages 
scheduling production and maintain- 
ing equipment inventory. 

On military surveillance planes 
logging information five miles 
aboveground. 

In the halls of the Supreme Court 
answering complex questions on 
environmental issues. 

Computers people believe in 

It didn't take long for the public to 
recognize COMPAQ Computer qual- 
ity. No one builds them the way we 
do. Which is why no other computer 
company has grown the way we have. 

As personal computers become 
more and more commonplace, more 
and more people have come to appre- 
ciate that quality. Our commitment to 
providing a product that's beyond 
compromise assures a product beyond 
compare. We like to think of it in a 
simple phrase that bears repeating: It 
simply works better. 




COMPAQ Portable Computers have the ruggedness and durability for almost any work environment. 



The Authorized COMPAQ Computer Dealer Network. 
For sales and service, there are over 2,200 worldwide. 




Authorized COMPAQ Computer 
Dealers are carefully selected by a 
special review process. We make sure 
they are established business profes- 
sionals with the expertise to provide 
technical service for every COMPAQ 
Computer they sell. Dealer technicians 



receive rigorous training by COMPAQ 
engineers. 

No matter whether you're a profes- 
sional on the move, or an international 
corporation with branch offices in 
dozens of states and countries, you'll 
find help readily available. 



When you purchase your COMPAQ 
Computer, you'll be buying from the 
best in the business. Authorized 
COMPAQ Computer Dealers work 
hard to earn your respect. Because they 
had to work even harder to earn ours. 







Authorized COMPAQ Computer Dealers, U.S. and Canada 




A-Com-Plus 


Chester Inc. 


Computer Source Inc. 


Entrc Computer Centers 


Light Computer Centre 


PAX Computer Center 


A-V1DD Electronics Company 


Cincinnati Computer Store 


The Computer Slort- 


First National Computer Center 


Logic Tree Computer 


Personal BusincssComputcrs 


ABACUS ComputcrCentcr 


Clancy-Paul. Inc. 


Computer Superstores 


Forsythc Computers 


The Logical Choice 


Personal Computer Centre 


Agriplcx Computer 


Command Performance Computers 


Computer Systems Resources 


Future Information Systems 


Lyceum Computers 


PcrsonalComputcr Institute 


All Things Computers 


Compco Computer Centers 


Computer Systems Specialists 


Future Systems 


M.C.W. Computers 


1'hoto & Sound Company 


Allied Computer Centers 


CompuGroup 


Computer Techniques 


Future Visions Computer Store 


MakcnCompuicr Services 


Pittsburgh Computer Store 


Amcrisource 


Compu Net Computer Solutions 


Computer Town 


Garland Mcars Irrigation 


The Math Box 


Prodigy Computer Center 


The AMS CompuicrStorc 


Compuccntrc 


Computer Trends International 


GatcwayC^omputcr 


MBI Business Center 


Professional Computer Centre 


The Answer 


Compumark 


(Computer Utility 


GcncralMicrocomputcr.Inc. 


Micro Center 


Professional Computer Systems 


Applied Data Systems 


Compumat Micro Center 


Computer Ware 


Hamilton Computer BusincssCcntrc 


Micro Marl 


Quantum Computer Store 


Arcnds& Sons Inc. 


CompuShop Inc. 


Computer Works 


Hamilton Rentals 


MicroAge Computer Stores 


RACComputcrs 


ASAPComputcr Products 


Computer Applications Business Center ComputciCraf t 


H LA Computers 


Microcomputer Solutions 


Rainbow Computing Inc. 


Bamberger's 


Computer Center of Boca Raton 


COMPUTERcasc 


ICA Business Center 


MicronicCompuicrCcntrc Ltd. 


Scars Business Systems Centers 


Bandstra Computer Center 


Computer Center/Palm Beaches 


ComputerLand 


Ideal Computer Systems 


Microsource/ Financial 


Sherman Howe Computer Centers 


BasicComputcr Shop 


The Computer Centre 


Computers Unlimited 


Idcx Business Computer Center 


MidaCorporation 


Silver Creek Computers 


Bell & Howell 


Computer Concepts 


Computcrwarc 


lllini Microcomputers Inc. 


Midwest Computer Center 


SnyderComputerCentcr 


Blumberg Photo & Sound 


Computer Depot 


Computer* orks 


Illinois Valley Computers 


Miss-Lou Computer Center 


Societe Parmic Limilec 


Blumcnihal'sComputers 


The Computer Edge 


Compuiiquc 


Inacomp Computer Centers 


Moore Business Centers 


Solutions Inc. 


Businessland.Inc. 


The Computer Factory 


CompUtopia 


InacompComputcr City 


Morn s Decision Systems 


Southwest Automation 


Byte Shop 


Computer Gallery 


Comuni-Centcr South 


Infomax Computers 


Mr. Micro 


Spectrum Computers 


C.C.C. ComputcrCentcr 


Computer House 


Connolly Data Systems Inc. 


Information Connection 


MSC Computer Store 


Star BusincssComputcrs 


C.T.I. BusincssProductsCentcr 


Computer Innovations 


Contact Office Automation Centers 


Intcrdynamics Data Systems 


Nahih'slnc. 


Sun Computers 


Calculator and ComputcrCentcr 


The Computer Learning Tree 


Custom Computing Systems 


International Computer Systems 


NcccoofNccdham 


Taskforcc Business Centres 


Carolina Computer Store 


Computer Nook 


DataFilc.Thc 


J. W. Kerns, Inc. 


Nonhbrook Computers, Inc. 


Universal Computers 


Castcrlinc Computer Center 


Computer Pla/.a 


DATAGO 


Jonathan's Computer Center 


Office Management Systems Inc. 


Valcom Computer Center 


CBM Computer Center 


Computer Pro 


Data Systemsof New Jersey 


Khalix 


Olscn Computing 


Varsity Computing 


CentralComputcrs 


The Computer Room 


Data Terminal Marl 


Lc Magasin Xerox 


Omni Computer Center 


Wabash Computer Systems 


Central Valley Computer Center 


The Computer Shoppe 


DR A Computer Center 


Legacy Computer Systems 


Omnifax Computer Stores 


WaldecComputcr Center 


Century Microccnters 


Computer Solutions 


Endata Business ProductsCnlr. 


Lexington Computer Store 


OnlincComputcrs Plus 


ThcXeroxStore 


Champlain Computer Systems 













comma 



COMPAQ* is a registered trademark; COMPAQ PLU S ' " , COMPAQ DESKPRO n ' , COMPAQ PORTABLE 286™ , and COMPAQ DESKPRO 286™ are trademarks 
of COMPAQ Computer Corporation. IBM* is a registered trademark; IBM Personal Computer-AT™, IBM TopView™ and IBM Personal Computer XT'" are trademark, 
of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS ™ is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. © 1985 COMPAQ Computer Corporation. Printed in the U.S.A. 
All rights reserved. 



FIXES AND UPDATES 



ROMDISK Pricing Lowered 



BYTE'S BU 



We provided some out-of-date prices in 
an article in the May What's New section. 
(See "ROMDISK PC Accessory Card." page 
468.) The new prices are lower than those 
we quoted. 

Curtis Inc.. manufacturer of the ROM- 
DISK line of disk emulator boards for 
Apple and IBM computers, reports that it 
recently received new quotations for the 



EPROMS and other semiconductors used 
in its products. A company spokesperson 
stated that its price reductions, especial- 
ly for its PC-2 board, are due to the avail- 
ability of 27C2 56 EPROMs. Previously, 
Curtis had to rely on 27128 EPROMs and 
a piggybacked board to achieve large 
storage capacities. 
The suggested retail price for the ROM- 



DISK A for the Apple lie is now $349. The 
ROMDISK PC-1. which is equivalent to a 
180K-byte single-sided disk, is $495. 
Both are $100 lower than before. Provid- 
ing 360K bytes of storage, the PC-2 is 
$595. which is $400 less than reported in 
May. 

Curtis Inc. is located at 22 Red Fox Rd., 
St. Paul, MN 55110, (612) 484-5064. 



Statement Amplified 



A discussion in the June Fixes and Up- 
dates requires some explanation. (See 
page 33.) 

In the item "Upgrade to Lowercase 
Descenders." the first sentence in the sec- 
ond paragraph could be interpreted as 
saying that the Gorilla Banana printer is 



manufactured by DAK Industries, which it 
is not. 

The Gorilla Banana Printer was pro- 
duced by Leading Edge Products Inc., 22 5 
Ibrnpike St.. Canton, MA 02021. (617) 
828-8150. The printer, however, is no 
longer manufactured. 



DAK Industries Inc. sells electronic parts 
and instrumentation. One of the products 
sold by DAK Industries is the Gorilla 
Banana Printer. DAK Industries is located 
at 8200 Remmet Ave.. Canoga Park. CA 
91304. 

We apologize for the confusion. 



Some Fixes for Sunfix 



An error crept into the references that ac- 
companied Frederic N. Rounds's Sunfix 
navigation article, which appeared in the 
March BYTE. (See "Navigation: Putting the 
Microcomputer to Work at Sea," page 141.) 
The first reference should read as 
follows: 

Maloney. Elbert S.. ed. Dutton's Navigation 
and Piloting. Naval Institute Printing, 1978. 



Mr. Rounds also would like to emphasize 
that the Sunfix program takes the place 
of almanacs and reduction tables by com- 
puting the position of the sun for any time 
and date. The only data inputs it requires 
are your sextant's readings and the 
measurements used to make sextant cor- 
rections. Details, such as RA and SHA, are 
transparent to users of the Sunfix 
program. 



It's also advisable to keep in mind the 
fact that microcomputers can aid sailors, 
but. like ham radios and other electronic 
navigation equipment, they are suscepti- 
ble to the sea's environment. 

For those who are interested, Mr. 
Rounds will supply a printout of the Sun- 
fix program for $5. You can write Mr. 
Rounds at 894 Persimmon Ave.. Sunny- 
vale. CA 94087. 



Bugs in Frequency Analyzer 



A trio of bugs in Vince Banes's article 
'Audio-Frequency Analyzer" have been 
reported. (See page 22 3 of the January 
BYTE.) Two of the bugs are in the accom- 
panying diagrams, and the third bug is in 
a program listing. 
In figure 3 on page 227, the labels of 



the two ports are switched. 

On page 230, you'll find a mix-up in the 
pin numbers in figure 4b. Pin 2 5 of the 
82 55 integrated circuit should be con- 
nected to pin 13 of IC8. 

In the program that determines the end- 
points of the VC0 ranges (listing 5. page 



236). change line 40 to read: 

OUT 1921 ,CC 

Our thanks to David R. Butler of 
Cameron, West Virginia, and Mark Pinker- 
ton of Salem, Wisconsin, for reporting 
these errors to us. 



Name Corrected 



Servo Listing Misserves a Line 



In "Factfinder" by John Markoff (March, 
page 113). the name of a database service 
was incorrectly presented. NEXIS is a full- 
text database of general and business 
news produced by Mead Data Central Inc., 
a wholly owned subsidiary of The Mead 
Corporation. 



John del^aubenfels, a BYTE reader in 
Duluth, Georgia, found a bug in the 
program listing that accompanied Don 
Stauffer's article "Simulate a Servo 
System." (See page 147 of the February 
BYTE.) 
In the TRS-80 Level II BASIC program on 



page 150 (listing 1), line 2040. EM = ER 
is not correct. It should read 

EM = EM + ER*DT 

Our thanks to Mr. del^aubenfels for 
sending this correction. 

[continued) 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 33 



Inquiry 2 51 



Mid West 



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(Replaces the Gemini 10X) 

Hie S6-10 gives you enough versatility for home or office use. It 
operates bi-directionally at 120 cps and includes many special 
features such as near letter quality printing, easy access format 
switches lor a wide range of character modes, friction feed for single 
sheets and tractor feed For fanfold paper, and even hex dump Another 
special feature is the IBM character sets available at the flip of a 
switch. You get all of this plus a 2k memory buffer and Star's full 1 
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HR-10 (12CPS) $399 . $CALL$ 

HR-15XL (17 cps. 13.5" carriage. 3k Buffer) 599. . SCALLS 

HR-15 & HR-15XL Keyboard Attachment 200. .$CALL$ 

HR-25 (23 cps, 16.5" carriage. 3k Buffer) 895 , .$CALL$ 

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The LX-80 comes complete with a parallel interface to quickly 
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Complete EPSON Line . . . List Price 

LX-80 (100 cps, NOL Mode, 80 Col.) 349, . SCALLS 

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FIXES & UPDATES 



Knowledge Index Numbers Change 



In the December 1984 BYTE article 'The 
On-Line Search" by Suzana Lisanti (page 
2 15), the telephone numbers for the 
Knowledge Index database service were 
incorrect. 



The correct numbers are (800) 227-1927 
and (415) 858-3785. Knowledge Index is 
a service of Dialog Information Services 
Inc., 3460 Hillview Ave.. Palo Alto, CA 
94303. 



BYTE'S BIT 



BYTE Index Produced 



A comprehensive index of* all the articles 
that appeared in BYTE from January 1983 
through December 1984 is available. The 
BYTE '83-84 Index is 48 pages long and 
cross-references articles alphabetically by 
subject. 

Author's Guide Available 



For your copy, write to BYTE '83-84 Index. 
BYTE Publications, POB 372. Hancock. NH 
03449. Please enclose $1 to cover ship- 
ping and handling, as well as a piece of 
paper with your name and address clearly 
legible. 



The latest edition of the BYTE author's 
guide has just been produced. 

Writing for BYTE describes how to sub- 
mit an article to BYTE, the types of articles 
we seek, where to go and whom to turn 
to when writing a BYTE article, and other 

Public-Domain Software Offering 



information. 

For your copy, send a self-addressed 
stamped business envelope to Writing for 
BYTE. BYTE Publications, POB 372. 
Hancock. NH 03449. Please note that we 
cannot honor telephone requests. 



lohn Morse has written and introduced in- 
to the public domain a number of pro- 
grams. Mr. Morse developed these 
BASICA programs on the IBM PC XT 
under PC-DOS. 

The programs include a graphics editor, 
a utility that displays every character of 
any file with its hexadecimal and ASCII 
code as well as its position in a record, 
a drawing-pattern generator, three ver- 
sions of the game Mastermind, and a char- 



acter analyzer in which particular charac- 
ters in a file can be omitted, highlighted, 
or changed. 

You are free to distribute the programs, 
with the stipulation that you include Mr. 
Morse's name in each program. The pro- 
grams are available from Mr. Morse for 
$10. which includes the disk and instruc- 
tions within the program. For more infor- 
mation, write to John W. Morse, 274 State 
St.. Albany, NY 12210. 



FEEDBACK 
Serial Version of Printer Buffer 



Keith Alexander, a BYTE reader "since the 
dark ages of 1976." recently wrote us to 
say how intrigued he had been with Ion 
Bono's printer buffer and with Richard 
Carlsen's comments on the project. (See 
"Build a Printer Buffer" in the June 1984 
BYTE, page 142. and "Printer Buffer 
Messaged" on page 33 of the April 1985 
BYTE.) 

Mr. Alexander reports that he, too, built 
the buffer and that he had to make a 
number of hardware and software modi- 
fications to suit his system, a Southwest 
Technology's 6809-based unit. 



The main problem, according to Mr. 
Alexander, was connecting his serial 
printer to a single RTS (request to send) 
line. After corresponding with Mr. Bono 
and learning a lot about UARTs. Mr. 
Alexander got the circuit to work. His 
SwTPc 6809 now sends data to the buffer 
at 38.400 bps and the buffer, in turn, 
drives his Heath H-l 4 printer at 4800 bps. 

Mr. Alexander has graciously offered to 
correspond with BYTE readers interested 
in his serial version of Ion Bono's printer 
buffer. You can write to Mr. Alexander at 
20426 Lichfield. Detroit. Ml 48221. ■ 



34 BYTE • JULY 1985 



mm. mm 

■M m i&, m 




Draw Your Way to the Top 

PC-Draw Will Increase Your Office Productivity. 
And Upward Mobility. 



10 DAY 

TRIAL 

PERIOD 



I 



Imagine. You now have the capability to graphically 
depict your best ideas, plans, designs and proposals. In 
color or black & white. Accurately. Completely. Dramati- 
cally. Concepts presented so forcefully — yet so simply — 
that you leave that critical meeting 
with upper management. . . totally 
confident of success. 

And you win. Your secret 
weapon? PC-Draw. A powerful in- 
teractive graphics program for the 
IBM PC or XT®— unlike anything 
else on the market. Using PC-Draw 
you create virtually anything that can 
be drawn with pencil and paper. Quick- 
ly. Easily. With far greater detail. 

PC-Draw is ideal for presentation graphics, proposals, 



systems design, forms, diagrams . . . and an endless variety 
of charts, graphs and illustrations. PC-Draw allows you to 
produce drawings up to 99 pages long. Several templates 
come with PC-Draw including Flowcharting, Electrical 
Design, Office Layout, and Alternate Text. In addition 
you create and store your own unlimited supply of user 
defined symbols. 

PC-Draw includes an easy-to-follow interactive tuto- 
rial. Requires IBM PC or XT® or compatible, graphics 
adapter and graphics monitor. Version for PCjr available. 
Graphic boards, plotters at competitive prices. 

Shhh! Don't tell your office competition about PC-Draw. 
They'll catch on soon enough. For free brochure or to 
order call 800/2PC-DRAW. In Texas or for customer 
service call 214/234-1769. Micrografx, Inc., 1701 N. 
Greenville Ave. , Suite 305, Richardson, Texas 75081 . 



(Most popular plotters and printers supported.) 



MICROGRAFX 

The Picture of Success. 



Inquiry 240 



Discover what 50,000 




9UBIE' delivers the finest peripheral 
available in terms of features, reli- 
/ and price /performance. That's why 
corporations like IBM, GM and Exxon buy 
peripheral equipment from Qubie', and 
have for years. Check some of your old 
back issues of PC — we've been satisfying 
PC owners since 1982. 

Select products at low prices, with service and support un- 
paralleled in the microcomputer industry. Our 30 day No Risk 
Guarantee and 48 Hour Repair Service during the 12 month 
warranty period is proof our products are first rate. We stand 
behind everything we sell. No "call the manufacturer" re- 
sponses when you have a question. We also offer our exclusive 
Preferred Customer Plan* l with 24 hour repairs and 24 months 
of coverage. 

Our low, money-saving prices are the total prices. No small 
print telling you to add up for credit card charges or shipping 
and handling. Our prices include surface UPS charges and 
insurance. In a hurry? 2-day air UPS service is available.* 2 



*■->'.«% 
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At Qubie', customer satisfaction 
is one of the cornerstones of our 
philosophy. Ask your friends, 
business associates and colleagues 
about Qubie'. Chances are they 
are one of our fifty thousand satis- 
fied customers. 



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INTERNAL MODEM 

PC212A/ 1200 $249 

Auto-dial, Auto-Answer • 300/ 
1200 Baud Operation • Runs 
Hayes Compatible Software 
Like Crosstalk, Smartcom II, 
and Sidekick • Two Phone 
lacks Allow You To Hook Up 
Desk Phone • Includes PC- 




TALK III Software (Complete 
Communications Package), 
Modular Phone Cord, User's 
Manual / Installation Instruc- 
tions • Optional Serial Port 
($30) Allows You To Use Port 
For Other Peripherals When 
Modem Is Not Being Used. 



STANDBY POWER 
SUPPLY 

SB200 $329 
XT300 $429 
AT800 $779 





Noise Filtering /Surge Suppres- 
sion • Powers Your Computer 
For Up To 30 Minutes In The 
Event Of A Blackout Or Brown- 
out • SB200 (200 Watt) For 
Floppy-Based Systems, XT300 
(300 Watt) For Hard Disk Based 
Systems, AT800 (800 Watt) For 
Multi-User Systems 

HIGH RESOLUTION 

MONOCHROME 

MONITORS 

HR39S149 
HR 134 $159 

Plugs Into The IBM Mono- 
chrome or Compatible Adapter 
Card • 720 x 350 Resolution • 
12" Diagonal Screen • Super 
I Crisp Text Capability • High 
I Resolution TTL • Includes 
\ Tilt/Swivel Base and Inter- 
face Cable • HR 134 (Amber) 
I HR 39 (Green) 

MULTIFUNCTION CARD 

BT6Plus(0K)$195 
BT6Plus (384K) $299 

Memory Sockets For Adding 
Up To 384K • Parallel Printer 
Port • Asynchronous Serial 
Communications Port • Battery- 
powered Clock / Calendar • 
BTPak Software - BTDrive 



(Electronic Disk 
Emulation) and BTSpool 
(Print Spooling Software) • 




36 BYTE • JULY 1985 



PC owners now know. 



Optional Game Port — Chips, 
Dual Mounting Bracket and 
Cable ($20) • 64K Memory - 
Installed and Tested ($25) • j 
Includes Cable, Single Slot *J§ 
Mounting Bracket, Instal- 
lation Instructions / User's 1| 
Manual 

INTERNAL HARD DISK 
SUBSYSTEMS 

PC 10 $649 
PC20S699 

Boot From The Hard Disk — No 
Software Patches or Drivers To 
Install • Runs All The Popular 
Software • 




Low Power Consumption • 
High Reliability And Durabil- 
ity — Specially Plated Drives • 
Faster Access Time Than XT • 
Includes ldir "Visual Shell" 
Software, Cables, Mounting 
Hardware, Installation Instruc- 
tions/User's Manual, Full- 
Height Bezel — Optional 
Half-Height Bezel ($15) • Aux- 
iliary Power Supply And 
External Models Are Also 
Available. 




1- I I II LI i- I- I lEEDEl Q 



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KEYBOARD 

115151 $159 

Solid State Capacitive Key 
Switches • 3-Position Height 



Adjustment • Keys In Standard 
Typewriter Positions • Sepa- 
rate Cursor Control and 
Numeric Keypads • Easy-To- 
Read Key Legends • LED 
Indicators On All Lock Keys • 
Extra-Wide Left-Hand Control 
Key Adjacent To "A" • Control/ 
Reset Replaces Awkward 
Contol/Alt/Delete • Plugs Into 
IBM PC, PC/XT and Compaq 
Deskpro 




EXTERNAL MODEM 

212A/1200ES299 

Auto-dial, Auto-Answer • 300/ 
1200 Baud Operation • Runs 
Hayes Compatible Software 
Like Crosstalk, Smartcom II, 
And Sidekick • Two Phone 
Jacks Allow You To Hook Up 
Desk Phone • RS-232C Com- 
— patible • Includes 8' Shield- 
ed Cable (Specify Male Or 
Female) • Eight Status Indica- 
tor Lamps • External Volume 
Control Knob 



HIGH RESOLUTION 
COLOR MONITOR 

HR3 1200 $439 

14" Diagonal Screen • 
Black Matrix Picture 
Tube • Dot Pitch ,31mm • 
Plugs Into IBM Color/ 
Graphics Or Compatible 
Adapter Card • 640 x 200 
Resolution • Includes Inter- 
face Cable And Tilt / Swivel 
Base 



*I *2 

PREFERRED UPS 

CUSTOMER BLUE 

PLAN LABEL 

PC10 and PC20 .... $150.00 $12.00 

Modems 50.00 5.00 

ff5151 35.00 7.50 

BT6Plus 50.00 5.00 

HR 39 and HR 1 34 . . . . 50.00 NA 

HR31200 95.00 NA 

No Risk Guarantee 

If you are not completely satisfied 
with your purchase, you may return 
it within 30 days for a full refund, in- 
cluding the cost to send it back. 

The Acid Test 

If you can get any dealer or competi- 
tor to give you the same No Risk 
Guarantee, buy both products and 
return the one you don't like. 

For fastest delivery, send cashier's 
check, money order, or order by 
Mastercard/Visa. Personal checks, 
allow 18 days to clear. Company 
purchase orders accepted, call for 
prior authorization. California resi- 
dents, add 6% sales tax. 



Hours: M-F 8 am-5 pm PTZ 
Sat 9 am- 1 pmPTZ 

London (01) 223-4569 
Paris (01)321-5316 
Sydney (02) 579-3322 



VISA 



mtsMncharge 



Outside California 



1-800-821-4479 



Inside California 



1-805-987-9741 

4809 Calle Alto 
Camarillo, California 93010 

QUBIE 

Order Today, 
Shipped Tomorrow! 1 



Inquiry 297 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 37 




R?R fleoPLE WHO 

THOUGHT Trim? 

NEVER MEET Trie 

PERFECT IO 

We've got one to knock your socks 
off. The StarWriter™ F10 from Qltoh. 

What sets this daisy wheel apart is 
its fabulous figure of 58 letter perfect 
characters per second, at a price of 
up to $1,000 less than other leading 
printers in its class. 

It's compatible with most of the 
popular PCs and offers a full line of 
accessories, including a cut sheet 
feeder and tractor feed. 

And like the rest of C.ltoh's printers, 
the F10 acts without acting up. 

It has been thoroughly tested and 
proven on the job to assure reliability. 
Plus, you get a full year's warranty, 
backed by over 350 authorized ser- 
vice centers coast to coast. 

The F10 is one hot printer for the 
money. But that's not surprising when 
you consider that C. Itoh 's been pro- 
ducing superior printers for over a 
decade, thanks to the strong backing 
of our 126-year-old parent company 
with over $60 billion in sales annually 

Little wonder C.ltoh printers are the 
best selling printers in the world. 

To meet your Perfect 10, just see your 
local C.ltoh dealer. Or for more infor- 
mation, call toll free 1-800-423-0300. 

Or write C.ltoh Digital Products, Inc., 
19750 South Vermont Avenue, Suite 
220, Torrance, CA 90502. 

'" StarWriter is a Trademark of C.ltoh Digital Products. Inc. 
© 1985 C.ltoh Digital Products. Inc. 



© 1984 News Group Chicago, Inc. 



,l jtmmmwt t mummnwA mammm* 




C.ITPH 

Printers 



38 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 65 for End-Users. Inquiry 66 for DEALERS ONLY. 



WHAT'S NEW 



Xerox Products 

Xerox recently an- 
nounced the 6085 
microcomputer, a line of 
personal microcomputers, 
and a laser printer. 

The Xerox 6085 is offered 
in models for network, 
remote, and stand-alone 
operation. The networked 
and remote models can 
share resources linked by 
Ethernet. 

The 6085 is founded upon 
Xerox's Mesa processor, an 
8-MHz device. The Mesa 
processor has 2 56 auxiliary 
registers and executes 48- 
bit-wide instructions. The 
6085 also uses an 80186 
chip as an auxiliary 
processor. 

The basic 6085 comes 
with 1.1 megabytes of 
memory, a 10-megabyte 
hard-disk drive, two serial 
ports, and a 1 5-inch high- 
resolution (880- by 697- 
pixel) monochrome display. 
You can expand it to include 
3.7 megabytes of memory 
and up to 80 megabytes of 
hard-disk storage. 

Xerox offers hard-disk 
drives with 20. 40. or 80 
megabytes of storage, and a 
360K-byte floppy-disk drive 
is also available. An optional 
board gives the 6085 the 
ability to run software 
prepared for IBM PC-DOS. 

System software includes 
the Viewpoint windowing 
package, which uses icons 
and is controlled with an 
optical mouse. Viewpoint is 
$125. A variety of applica- 
tions software, including a 
software-development 
package, is planned. 

The 6085 begins at $4995. 




The Xerox 6085. 




The Xerox 4045 laser CR 



The Xerox 6060 family of 
PCs comprises four com- 
puters: a pair of IBM PC 
work-alikes. the Xerox 6064 
and 6065. and two dedi- 
cated word-processing 
systems, the Xerox 6067 and 



6068. The 6067 and 6068 
keyboards have been modi- 
fied for word processing. 
Both systems come bundled 
with Xerox's word-pro- 



cessing software and can 
run MS-DOS applications 
software. 

Each Xerox 6060 comes 
with ScreenMate. a menu- 
based shell program for in- 
teracting with MS-DOS. 

The general-purpose 6064. 
with two 360K-byte floppy- 
disk drives and 256K bytes 
of memory, retails for 
$2885. The hard-disk-based 
6065 lists for $4485. 

At $2985. the 6067 in- 
cludes dual floppy-disk 
drives and 384K bytes of 
RAM. The 6068, which is 
equipped with a 10-mega- 
byte hard disk and 51 2K 
bytes of memory, costs 
$5150. Both the 6067 and 
the 6068 use a 640- by 
400-pixel monochrome 
display. 

Xerox rates its 4045 Laser 
CP "lasographic" printer at 
10 pages per minute and 
5000 pages a month. It 
comes with 128K bytes of 
memory, two fonts, and your 
choice of Centronics or 
Dataproducts parallel ports 
or an RS-232C asynchronous 
connection. Additional 
cartridge-based fonts are 
offered. 

If you choose to expand 
the 4045 Laser CP to its full 
512K bytes of memory, you 
can reproduce a 5- by 
7-inch image in a 300- by 
300-dot-per-inch format. 
You can reproduce a full- 
page graphic at 150 by 150 
dots per inch. The 4045 
Laser CP has a 2 50-sheet 
paper cassette, and cas- 
settes for European paper 
are available. It's compatible 
with the Diablo 630 daisy- 
wheel printer. 

A copier option lets the 
404 5 Laser CP function as a 
standard photocopier. Other 
{continued) 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 39 



WHAT'S NEW 



options include an envelope 
cassette, an interface that 
permits four PCs to share its 
resources, and a network in- 
terface for linking the 4045 
Laser CP to IBM 3274/3276 
networks and Systems 
34/36/38 environments. The 
suggested list price for the 
404 5 Laser CP is $4995. 

Contact Xerox Corp.. 
Xerox Square 006. 
Rochester. NY 14644. (716) 
423-5078. 
Inquiry 600. 



IBM PC XT, 

PC AT-Compatible 

Computers 

NCR's PC8 and PC6 are 
compatible with IBM 
PC AT and IBM PC XT com- 
puters, respectively. 

The PC8 can serve as a 
stand-alone computer, as a 
16-member multiuser sys- 
tem, or as a network server 
for up to 63 nodes. In its 
single-user configuration, the 
PC8 runs under NCR-DOS 
3.1. The multiuser operating 
system is XENIX. 

Featuring Intel's 6-MHz 
80286 microprocessor, the 
PC8 is reportedly able to 
run virtually any software 
designed for the IBM PC AT 
without modification. It can 
also use AI-compatible 
hardware. 

Standard are 2 56K bytes 
of RAM. a 1.2-megabyte 
floppy-disk drive, six expan- 
sion slots for devices with 
8-/1 6-bit data paths, two ex- 
pansion slots for devices 
with 8-bit data paths, and a 
battery-backed system clock. 
The keyboard has LED in- 
dicators and 30 program- 
mable function keys. 

Optional are a mono- 
chrome monitor with a non- 
glare 80-character by 2 5-line 
display and 640- by 
400-pixel resolution and a 




The NCR PC8. 



14-inch color monitor with 
16-color capabilities. GW- 
BASIC is available, and inter- 
nal memory is expandable 
up to 4 megabytes. 

The basic PC8 begins at 
$3795. A configuration with 
51 2 K bytes of RAM. a 
floppy-disk drive, and a 
20-megabyte hard-disk unit 
is $5505. 

The PC6 is supplied with 
Intel's dual-speed (i.e.. 4.77/ 
8-MHz) 8088-2 micropro- 
cessor, 2 56K bytes of RAM. 
twin 360K-byte floppy-disk 
drives. RS-232C and parallel 
interfaces, and eight expan- 
sion slots. It comes with 
NCR-DOS, which provides 
compatibility with the IBM 
PC XT. An on-line help pro- 
gram. GW-BASIC. and a pair 
of tutorial software packages 
are also standard. 

A number of mass-storage 
configurations are offered, 
including 20 megabytes of 
hard-disk storage and 10 
megabytes of streaming-tape 
backup. 

Options include mono- 
chrome and color monitors. 
PC6 pricing begins at $2583. 



Contact NCR Corp.. Dayton, 
OH 45479. (513) 445-2075. 
Inquiry 601. 

Visual Environment 
for C Programmers 

Living C— Personal is a 
visual programming en- 
vironment for C-language 
programmers. It facilitates 
the design, development, 
maintenance, and debugging 
of C programs by showing 
you exactly what happens at 
each step of a program's 
execution. 

You can use Living C— 
Personal to animate your 
source code during execu- 
tion. You can do this state- 
ment by statement within 
user-specified breakpoints or 
through the entire program. 
When a bug is found during 
compilation. Living C— 
Personal does not force you 



to abandon the environment 
because its full-screen editor 
is still available. 

With Living C— Personal, 
your program's output is 
separated from the debug- 
ging information by on- 
screen windows. You can 
use the window facility to 
continuously display a vari- 
able's value or to examine 
and alter the variable. 

Living C— Personal pro- 
vides help facilities and ex- 
plicit error diagnostics, and 
it conforms to the Kernighan 
& Ritchie C standard. It runs 
under PC-DOS and is priced 
at $99. Contact Living Soft- 
ware. London House. 243- 
2 53 Lower Mortlake Rd.. 
Richmond. Surry. England; 
tel: 44 1 948 5166; Telex; 
946 240 cweasy. 
Inquiry 602. 

IBM Jetprinter and 
Proprinter 

IBM has announced a 
color ink-jet printer and a 
replacement for its dot- 
matrix Graphics Printer. 

The ink-jet Color jetprinter 
can produce hard copy in 
seven colors. Its dot resolu- 
tion is 100 by 96 pixels per 
inch. The Color Jetprinter 
sells for $745. 

The dot-matrix printer, 
called the Proprinter. is 
compatible with the Graph- 
ics Printer but is faster, with 
an advertised speed of 200 
cps in draft mode and 40 
cps in near-letter-quality 
mode. It has a maximum 
horizontal resolution of 240 
pixels per inch. The 
Graphics Printer, which 
Epson manufactured, is be- 
ing discontinued. The Pro- 
printer is made by IBM and 
sells for $549. 

Contact IBM Corp.. Infor- 
mation Systems Group, 900 
King St.. Rye Brook. NY 
10573. 
Inquiry 603. 

{continued) 



40 BYTE • JULY 1985 






*§* 



They said it couldn't be done. 
Borland Did It.Turbo Pascal 3j0 



The industry standard 

With more than 250,000 users worldwide Turbo 
Pascal is the industry's de facto standard. Turbo 
Pascal is praised by more engineers, hobbyists, 
students and professional programmers than any 
other development environment in the history of 
microcomputing. And yet, Turbo Pascal is 
simple and fun to use! 



TURBO 
3.0 



TURBO 
2.0 



MS 
PASCAL 



COMPILATION SPEED 



EXECUTION SPEED 



CODE SIZE 



BUILT-IN INTERACTIVE EDITOR 



ONE STEP COMPILE 

(NO LINKING NECESSARY) 



COMPILER SIZE 



TURTLE GRAPHICS 



BCD OPTION 



PRICE 




Portability. 

Turbo Pascal is available today for most com- 
puters running PC DOS, MS DOS, CP/M 80 or 
CP/M 86. A XENIX version of Turbo Pascal will 
soon be announced, and before the end of the 
year, Turbo Pascal will be running on most 68000 
based microcomputers. 

An Offer You Can't Refuse. 

Until June 1st, 1985, you can get Turbo Pascal 3.0 
for only $69.95. Turbo Pascal 3.0, equipped with 
eitherdhe BCD or 8087 options, is available for an 
additional $39.95 or Turbo Pascal 3.0 with both options 
for only $124.95. As a matteiioffact, if; you own a 16- 
Bit computer and are serious about programming, you 
might as well get both options right away and save 
almost $25. 



Update policy 

As always, our first commitment is to our customers. 
You built Boriand and we wi/l always honor your support. 

So, to make your upgrade to the exciting new version of 
Turbo Pascal 3.0 easy, we will accept your original Turbo 
Pascal disk (in a bend-proof container) for a trade-in credit 
of $39.95 and your Turbo87 original disk for $59.95. This 
trade-in credit may only be applied toward the purchase of 
Turbo Pascal 3.0 and its additional BCD and 8087 options 
(trade-in offer is only valid directly through Borland and until 
June 1st. 1985). 



O Benchmark run on an IBM PC using MS Pascal version 3.2 and 
the DOS linker version 2.6. The 179 line program used is the "Gauss 
Seidel" program out of Alan R Miller's book: Pascal programs fa- 
scientists and engineers (Sybex, page 128) with a 3 dimensional 
non-singular matrix and a relaxation coefficient of 1.0. 



The best Just got better: 
Introducing Turbo Pascal 3.0 

We just added a whole range of exciting new 
features to Turbo Pascal: 

• First, the world's fastest Pascal compiler just got 
faster. Turbo Pascal 3.0 (16 bit version) compiles 
twice as fast as Turbo Pascal 2.0! No kidding. 

• Then, we totally rewrote the file I/O system, and 
we also now support I/O redirection. 

• For the IBM PC versions, we've even added 
"turtle graphics" and full tree directory support. 

• For all 16 Bit versions, we now offer two addi- 
tional options: 8087 math coprocessor support 
for intensive calculations and Binary Coded 
Decimals (BCD) for business applications. 

• And much much more. 

The Critics' Choice. 

Jeff Duntemann, PC Magazine: "Language 
deal of the century . . . Turbo Pascal: It 
introduces a new programming environment and 
runs like magic." 

Dave Garland, Popular Computing: "Most 
Pascal compilers barely fit on a disk, but Turbo 
Pascal packs an editor, compiler, linker, and run- 
time library into just 39K bytes of random- 
access memory" 

Jerry Poumelle, BYTE: "What I think the 
computer industry is headed for: well 
documented, standard, plenty of good features, 
and a reasonable price." 



t 



BORIAOD 

INTERNATIONAL 



Softwares Newest Direction 

4585 Scotts Valley Drive 
Scotts Valley, GA 95066 
TELEX 172373 



Turbo Pascal Is a registered trademark of Borland International. Inc. 

PC Week is a trademark of Ziff-Davis Pub. Co. 

Inquiry 55 for End-Users. Inquiry 56 for DEALERS ONLY. 




WHAT'S NEW 



siiiiiiiiiimimimiiiniiiMm[#l v iRWwmwmi 



P/aster286. ah 80286 add-in board for the IBM. 



80286 Add-in Board 
for IBM PC and 
PC XT 

Phoenix Computer Prod- 
ucts' Pfaster286 is an 
8-MHz 80286-based add-in 
board that gives the IBM PC 
and PC XT the ability to 
process data at a faster rate 
than the IBM PC AT. It does 
not impair the functionality 
of the PC's or PC XT's resi- 
dent 8088 microprocessor: 
rather Pfaster286 reassigns 
the 8088's intelligence to I/O 
management. 

Pfaster286 can run MS- 
DOS 2.0. 2.1, and 3.1 pro- 
grams, and applications 
designed for the IBM PC 
and PC AT will operate with 
it. Pfaster286 has software 
switches that let you jump 
back and forth into the 
native 8088 mode for those 
applications requiring that 
chip's performance charac- 
teristics. 

The basic Pfaster286 is 
supplied with I megabyte of 
RAM, expandable to 2 
megabytes, and an empty 
socket for an 80287 floating- 
point processor. Your oper- 
ating system and applica- 
tions software can use ap- 
proximately 704K bytes of 
this board's RAM. Some of 
its miscellaneous features 
are disk caching, diag- 
nostics, four DMA channels, 



eight levels of priority inter- 
rupts, and 16K bytes of 
EPROM expandable to 256K 
bytes. 

Pfaster286 is $2395. which 
includes an 8088 service 
program to call up the 
board and to load Pfaster- 
286's AT ROM BIOS- 
emulation software. The 
80287 mathematics co- 
processor is $3 50, and 
512K-byte RAM increments 
are $400. Contact Phoenix 
Computer Products Corp., 
Suite 115, 1420 Providence 
Highway. Norwood, MA 
02062. (800) 344-7200; in 
Massachusetts, (617) 
762-5030. 
Inquiry 604. 



High-Speed Modem 

An asynchronous 9600- 
bps modem, the UPTA 
96. comes in an internal, 
piggyback version for the 
IBM Personal Computer and 
in a stand-alone configura- 
tion with an RS-232C con- 
nector for a variety of com- 
puters. The suggested retail 
price for the add-in card is 
$795, and the stand-alone 
UPTA 96 is $895. 

This intelligent half-duplex 
modem operates over stan- 
dard dial-up telephone lines 
or through computer-to- 
computer links. It's data-rate 
selectable for 4800-, 7200-. 
and 9600-bps transmission 
speeds, with automatic fall- 
back to 72.00 or 4800 bps 
when noisy lines are en- 
countered during 9600-bps 
communications. Standard 



are automatic adaptive 
equalization to ensure data 
integrity, auto-dial, auto- 
answer, full-duplex emula- 
tion, and compatibility with 
the Hayes command set. 

The UPTA 96 comes with 
proprietary error-detec- 
tion/correction circuitry firm- 
ware known as EDI (Ensured 
Data Integrity). EDI orga- 
nizes data into numerically 
sequenced packets, with 
each byte subject to a 
cyclic-redundancy check and 
packet-check generation dur- 



ing transmission. The pro- 
tocol also offers selective 
automatic request for trans- 
mission (ARQ). 

The UPTA 96 supports 
asynchronous 3270 and 
VT100 emulation software. 
It's FCC-certified for direct 
connection to the public- 
switched telephone network 
by means of a USOC RJII 
jack. Contact Electronic 
Vaults Inc., Suite 714, 8350 
Greensboro Dr., McLean, VA 
22102, (703) 883-0331. 
Inquiry 605. 




The Zenith Z-200 is compatible with IBM's PC AT 



Zenith's Zr200 
Advanced PC 

Zenith Data Systems' 
Z-200 Advanced PC, an 
IBM PC AT-compatible com- 
puter, uses Intel's 6-MHz 
80286 microprocessor and 
no-wait-state technology for 
increased processing speed. 
The standard model comes 
with 51 2K bytes of dynamic 
RAM, a single 1.2-megabyte 
floppy-disk drive, six expan- 
sion slots that can accom- 
modate AT hardware, and 
MS-DOS 3.1. It costs $3999. 
RS-232C, Centronics paral- 
lel, and video interface ports 
are provided on this com- 
puter. A choice of video 
cards is offered. The Z-200 
Advanced PC also comes 
with a combination Win- 
chester/floppy-disk controller 



board that can handle two 
floppy- and three hard-disk 
drives. 

The Z-200 Advanced PC's 
keyboard features enlarged 
backspace, delete/insert, 
caps lock, scroll lock, and 
system request keys. Impres- 
sion marks on the home-row 
keys have been included. 

The Z-200 Advanced PC's 
dynamic RAM can be ex- 
panded to 16 .megabytes in 
I.5-megabyte increments. 
XENIX is available for 
multiuser, multitasking en- 
vironments. The Z-200 Ad- 
vanced PC can be obtained 
with a 20-megabyte hard 
disk for $5599. 

Contact Zenith Data Sys- 
tems Corp., 1000 Milwaukee 
Ave., Glen view, IL 6002 5. 
(800) 842-9000. ext. I; in 
Illinois. (312) 391-8949. 
Inquiry 606. 

[continued) 



42 BYTE • IULY 1985 



INFOWORLD'S SOFTWARE PRODUCT OF THE YEAR 



Borland's SideKick Will Clear 

Your Desk In 30 Minutes And 

Increase Your Productivity By 50% 

SideKick is a combination of seven desktop accessories, which makes SideKick the 
single most effective business tool. Just a keystroke suspends your application 
program, giving you a window into : SideKick. Another keystroke brings 

you back to where you were . Instantly It's that easy. 



A FULL-SCREEN W0R0STAR™- 
UKE E0IT0R 

You may jot down notes and 
edit files up to 25 pages long. 

AN ASCII TABLE 

for easy reference! 

AN AUTODIALER 

for all your phone calls? 
It will look up and dial 
telephone numbers for you) 
(A modem is required to use 
this function.) 

A PHONE DIRECTORY 

for your names, 
addresses and 
telephone numbers. 
Finding a name or a 
number becomes 
a snap. 




A MONTHLY CALENDAR 

functional from year 
1901 through year 2099- 

A DATEB00K 

to remind you of 

important meetings 

and appointments. 

A FULL-FEATURED 
CALCULATOR 

ideal for business use. 
It also performs decimal 
to hexadecimal to 
binary conversions. 

COPY-PROTECTED 

$54.95 

NOT COPY-PROTECTED 
$84.95 






» BORlflflD 

B INTERNATIONAL 



4585 Scotts Valley Drive 
Scotts Valley. CA 95066 
(408)438-8400 Telex: 172373 

THE CRITICS' CHOICE 

"In a simple, beautiful implementation of 
WordStar'.?* block copy commands, SIDEKICK 
can transport all or any part of the display screen 
(even an area overlaid by tJje notepad display) to 
tbe notepad. " Charles Petzoid. PC MAGAZINE 

"SIDEKICK desertJes a place in every PC. " 
GanyRay.PCWEEK 

"SIDEKICK is by for the best we've seen. It is also 
the least expensive. " Ron Mansfield, ENTREPRENEUR 

"If you use a PC, get SIDEKICK You '11 soon 
become dependent on it. " Jerry Pournelle, BYTE 

Copyright 1985 Borland International BI-1008 

SideKick is a trademark of Borland International, inc. 

IBM and PC-DOS are registered trademarks of International 

Business Machines Coip. 

lnfoworld is a trademark of Popular Computing, Inc. a subsidiary 

of CW Communications, Inc. 

WordStar is a registered trademark of Micropro International Corp. 

Inquiry 57 for End-Users. Inquiry 58 for DEALERS ONLY. 



1 
1 
1 



V* '-» *.V ' /L^S^^-f^l!- " T^rfofthe dealer 



Please send me w 

copy - p ; d s3 c 3 e o^ 9 -^ j 

(C Ares.add$3.J ^ ^^ 
Quantity: . 

fCA res.add^- lu ^ $Q4 g 5 
Quantity'' — 






software for your 




WHAT'S NEW 




The Tiger-32 accommodates 2 megabytes of no-w ait-state RAM. 



NS32032 Add-in 
Board for IBM 

The Tiger-32 is a 32-bit 
add-in board for IBM 
PC. PC XT. and PC AT com- 
puters. It has a 6- or 
10-MHz National Semicon- 
ductor NS32032 or NS- 
32016 central processor, an 
NS32082 demand-paged 
virtual-memory manager, 
and from 512K bytes to 2 
megabytes of no- wait-state 
RAM. Tiger-32 comes with 
Microsoft-Logica's XENIX-32 
version 3.0. a two-user 
operating system. 

The Tiger-32 can execute 
large programs, but it does 
not execute IBM PC code 



directly. It can function as 
expansion memory or as a 
disk emulator. Among its 
hardware specifications are 
two RAM ports, parity error 
checking, and 150-nano- 
second access time. 

The board has both linear 
and window modes. In its 
linear mode, the Tiger-32 
acts as an expansion mem- 
ory. The window mode lets 
your PC access the 
Tiger- 3 2 "s RAM through any 
one of sixteen 128K-byte 
windows. 

With XENIX-32. this board 
uses PC-DOS 2.0 or higher 
as an input/output pro- 
cessor. The Tiger-32 comes 
with a visual shell interface. 



software-development 
utilities with C and assembly 
language, and communica- 
tions, text-processing, in- 
stallation, interfacing, and 
test software. 

Up to 2 megabytes of 
RAM and a 32-bit floating- 
point mathematics unit are 
optional. Software options 
include remote user capa- 
bility. BASIC. COBOL. FOR- 
TRAN, and Pascal. 

The Tiger-32 with 51 2 K 
bytes of RAM. a 6-MHz 
NS32016. and XENIX-32 is 
$2495. With the NS32032. 
it's $2795. The mathematics 
unit is $42 5 at 10 MHz and 
$275 at 6 MHz. Contact 
DFE Electronic Data Sys- 
tems, Suite 115. 5820 
Stoneridge Mall Rd.. 
Pleasanton. CA 94566. (415) 
847-2024. 
Inquiry 607. 

Macintosh 
Spreadsheet 

Crunch for the 512K-byte. 
single-drive Macintosh is 
an integrated spreadsheet 



* File Edit 




Format Font 

MM 



Directory Graph Database Special 



□d rzm ++ 

C R v 



EHMfflHHBSHH 



Coffee Projections 



B 



5181 


5182 


5183 


5184 


5185 


5186 


5187 


5188 


5189 


5190 


5191 


5192 


5193 



5194 



Light Coffee 

Colombian 
Kenye 
Kone 
Tet*I 

Roast Coffee 

French Roast 

Vienna 
House Blend 

Tetal 




QTR1 QTR2 QTR3 QTR4 QTR5 QTR6 QTR7 



4,362 4,319 

2,319 2,376 

2,114 2,127 

8,795 8,822 



1,973 1,996 2,0 

1,645 1,680 1,7 

1,524 1,593 1,6 

5,142 5,269 5,3 



program with graphics, data- 
management, and notekeep- 
ing capabilities. The sug- 
gested retail price is $295. 

Crunch's spreadsheet gives 
you a 2 50-column by 9999- 
row work area, and it can 
be linked with other work- 
sheets. Depending upon the 
font used, you can display 
up to 3 1 rows on the 
screen. Wide spreadsheets 
can be printed out sideways. 

Seventy-four mathematics, 
trigonometric, statistics, 
logic, financial, table, and 
date functions are built into 
Crunch. In addition, it has 
three special functions and 
gives you the ability to de- 
fine up to 1000 functions. 

Crunch can perform both 
natural-order and row-wise 
calculations. You can hide or 
password-protect cells con- 
taining sensitive data. Other 
features include audit trails, 
variable-width columns, ad- 
justable cell alignment, and 
the ability to assign names 
to cells, ranges, formulas, 
and constants. 

You can link graphs to 
worksheets, and four graphs 
can be displayed simulta- 
neously. Crunch produces 
pie. line. bar. and area 
graphs. 

Crunch's data manager 
organizes worksheet rows 
into database records any- 
where within the worksheet. 
You can use it to perform 
calculations on records, and 
you can sort records. 
Crunch's notepad can be 
used for merging informa- 
tion with other programs 
and to keep VA pages of 
worksheet documentation. 

Crunch uses icons, win- 
dows, and a consistent set 
of commands. It works with 
the Apple Numeric Keypad 
and supports the LaserWriter 
and the Imagewriter. Contact 
Paladin Software Corp.. 2895 
Zanker Rd.. San Jose. CA 
95134. (408) 946-9000. 
Inquiry 608. 

(continued) 



Sample multiwindow display produced by Crunch. 



44 BYTE • 1ULY 1985 



ATTENTION SIDEKICK USERS: SUPERKEY IS 
SIDEKICK'S BEST COMPANION. GET SUPERKEY TODAY! 



Borland's SuperKey 

lets one powerful keystroke do 

the work of hundreds and helps 

keep your confidential files . . . 

confidential! 



SUPERKEY TURNS 1000 INTO 1! Yes, SuperKey can 
record lengthy keystroke sequences and play them 
back at the touch of a single key. Instantly. Like 
Magic. Say, for example, you want to add a column 
of figures in 1-2-3. Without SuperKey you'd have 
to type seven keystrokes just to get started. 
[' shift^-s^-m-shiftO 1 ]. With SuperKey you 
can turn those 7 keystrokes into 1. 

SUPERKEY HELPS PROTECT YOUR 
CAPITAL INVESTMENT. SuperKey, at 
your convenience, will make 
your screen go blank after a 
predetermined time of 
screen/keyboard inactivity 
You've paid hard-earned 
money for your PC. SuperKey 
will protect your monitor's 
precious phosphor . . . and 
your investment. This feature 
alone justifies your SuperKey 
purchase! 




SUPERKEY KEEPS YOUR 'CONFIDENTIAL' FILES . . . 
CONFIDENTIAL! Time after time you've experi- 
enced it: anyone can walk up to your PC, and read 
your confidential files (tax returns, business 
plans, customer lists, personal letters . . .). With 
SuperKey you can encrypt any file, even while 
running another program. As long as you keep 
the password secret, only YOU can decode 
your file. SuperKey implements the 
^> US. government Data Encryption 
Standard (DES). 

SUPERKEY PROTECTS YOUR 
WORK FROM INTRUDERS 
WHILE YOU TAKE A BREAK. 

Now you can lock your 
keyboard at any time. Prevent 
anyone from changing hours 
of work Type in your secret 
password and everything comes 
v \ y y back to life . . . just as you left it. 



BORlPflD 

INTERNATIONAL 



Machine 



4585 Scotts Valley Drive 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
(408) 438-8400 Telex: 172373 

inquiry 59 for End-Users. Inquiry 60 for DEALERS ONLY. 

THECmimCHME 

'While most people onfy talk about low-cost 
personal computer software, Borland has been 
doing something about it. And Borland provides 
good technical support as part of the price. " 
John Markoh& Paul Frel forger, syndicated columnists 

"What I think the computer industry is headed 
for: well-documented, standard, plenty of good 
features, and a reasonable price. " 
Jsrry Pournslle, BYTE 



Copyright 1985 Borland International BI-1009 

SuperKey is a trademark of Borland Jmemarional, Inc. 
1-2-3 is a trademark of Lotus Development Corp. 
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business 
Machines Corp. 



GeW our 



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PC 



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*69 95 I. 

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SuperKey tome. 
Send me 
copi es - 



1 
1 




WHAT'S NEW 



Spectravideo 
Product Line 

Spectravideo recently in- 
troduced four com- 
puters: two IBM PC-com- 
patibles, a laptop, and a 
dedicated word processor. 
In a related announcement. 
Spectravideo said that it will 
begin delivering its MSX Ex- 
press (Model SVI-738) com- 
puter in September. This 
computer has a 3 /2-inch 
floppy-disk drive, a 73-key 
keyboard. 64K bytes of 
RAM. and an 80-column- 
display capability The MSX 
Express will sell for $595. 

Spectravideo's Bondwell 
34 and 36 are 16-bit desk- 
top computers that are com- 
patible with the IBM Per- 
sonal Computer. The 2 56K- 
byte Spectravideo Bondwell 
34 comes with dual 5!4-inch 
double-sided double-density 
floppy-disk drives, an 80- 
column monochrome-moni- 
tor interface, and a 
Centronics-type parallel in- 
terface. GW-BASIC and MS- 
DOS are bundled with this 
system. The planned release 
date is in October, and the 
suggested retail price will be 
$1795. 

The Spectravideo Bondwell 
36 carries most of the fea- 
tures of the Bondwell 34, 
except that its storage sys- 
tem comprises a 10-mega- 
byte hard-disk drive and a 
single floppy-disk unit. It, 
too. is scheduled for an Oc- 
tober release. The Spectra- 
video Bondwell 36 will retail 
for $2995. 

An 11 -pound, battery- 
rechargeable device, the 
Spectravideo Bondwell 2 
laptop computer runs under 
CP/M 2.2. It's built around 
the Z80L microprocessor 
and offers an integral 3/2- 
inch single-sided double- 
density floppy-disk drive and 




frv v,v,v,v 



The BT/AT is hardware- and software-compatible with the AT. 



an 80-column by 25-line 
LCD screen. The screen 
resolution is 640 by 200 
pixels, and the formatted 
floppy-disk storage capacity 
is 360 K bytes. 

Six MicroPro software 
packages come with this 
computer: WordStar. Report- 
Star. CalcStar. MailMerge. 
DataStar, and Scheduler 
Plus. Options include an ex- 
ternal 3 '/2-inch disk drive 
and a carrying case. The 
Spectravideo Bondwell 2 
should retail for less than 
$1000 when it's released in 
September. 

The Spectravideo Bondwell 
22 is a 16-bit. 8088-based 
word-processing system with 
dual monitors for text and 
menu displays. Its 97-key 
keyboard has 31 software- 
programmable function keys 
and a trackball cursor con- 
troller. The Spectravideo 
Bondwell 22 comes with a 
pair of floppy-disk drives, a 
hard-disk interface, a real- 
time clock, two RS-232C 
ports, a Centronics-type 
parallel interface, and a 
daisy-wheel printer. 

This system's word-pro- 
cessing software offers 
document merge and forms 
generation, as well as a con- 



version program for access- 
ing WordStar files from 
other computers. A clock 
program with an alarm, 
calendar, and reminder func- 
tions is provided. Shipments 
are to begin in January 
1986. Pricing had not been 
determined at press time. 

Contact Spectravideo Inc.. 
3300 Seldon Court #10. Fre- 
mont, CA 94539. (415) 
490-4300. 
Inquiry 609. 

BT/AT Computer 
Is Compatible 
with PC AT 

The BT/AT from Basic 
Time is compatible with 
hardware and software de- 
signed for the IBM PC AT 
computer. 

Based on Intel's 16-bit 
80286 microprocessor, 
which runs at 6 MHz. the 
BT/AT comes with 640K 
bytes of RAM, eight expan- 
sion slots, and two serial 
and two parallel ports. Its 
monochrome graphics 
adapter card is compatible 
with the Hercules card, and 



the display resolution is 720 
by 348 pixels. The BT/AT's 
12-inch green monitor is 
mounted on a tilt-and-swivel 
base. 

Mass storage is provided 
by a 44-megabyte hard-disk 
drive and a 1.2 -mega byte 
floppy-disk drive that can 
read and write 360K-byte 
floppy disks. The average ac- 
cess time for the hard disk 
is 30 milliseconds. 

The BT/AT comes with MS- 
DOS 3.1 and GW-BASIC. and 
it has an open socket for an 
80287 mathematics co- 
processor. Options include a 
multifunction board, a high- 
resolution monitor, and a 
color graphics adapter. A 
70-megabyte hard-disk drive 
and a 60-megabyte stream- 
ing-tape backup are also 
available. 

The suggested retail price 
for the BT/AT is $4495. Con- 
tact Basic Time. Building 52. 
3350 Scott Blvd.. Santa 
Clara. CA 95054. (408) 
727-0877. 
Inquiry 610. 

Programmable 
Logic Chips 

Altera's EP310 is an eras- 
able programmable- 
logic chip that uses Intel's 
CHMOS technology for low 
power consumption. You can 
program this chip to have 
the equivalent of 300 logic 
gates. 

The EP310 is a 20-pin DIP 
device that can be pro- 
grammed using Altera's 
PLDS2 (Programmable Logic 
Development System), a 
$2 500 software/hardware 
combination that attaches to 
an IBM PC. You can erase 
the EP310 with an ultraviolet 
eraser. 

The EP310 chips cost 
$11.79 in 100-unit quantities. 
Contact Altera Corp.. 3 52 5 
Monroe St.. Santa Clara. CA 
95051, (408) 984-2800. 
Inquiry 611. 

[continued on page 406) 



46 B YTE • JULY 1985 




, Power, Price. 
Borland's Tlirbo Pascal Family. 



The industry Standard. With more than 250,000 users worldwide Turbo Pascal is the industry's de facto standard. 
Turbo Pascal is praised by more engineers, hobbyists, students and professional programmers than any other development 
environment in the history of microcomputing. And yet, Turbo Pascal is simple and fun to use! 

Jeff Duntemann, PC Magazine: "Language deal of the centuiy . . . Turbo Pascal: It introduces a new 
programming environment and runs like magic" 

Oave Garland, Popular Computing: "Most Pascal compilers barely fit on a disk, but Turbo Pascal packs an editor, compiler, linker, 
and run-time library into just 29K bytes of random-access memory" 

Jerry Pournelle, BYTE: 'What I think the computer industry is headed for: well documented, standard, plenty of good features, 
and a reasonable price." 

Portability. Turbo Pascal is available today for most computers running PC DOS. MS DOS. CP/M 80 or CP/M 86. A XENIX verison of Turbo 
Pascal will soon be announced, and before the end of the year, Turbo Pascal will be running on most 68000 based microcomputers. 





High resolution monochrome graphics for the IBM PC and the Zenith 100 computers 

Dazzling graphics and painless WindCWS. The Turbo Graphix Toolbox will give even a beginning programmer 
the expert's edge. It's a complete library of Pascal procedures that include: 

Full graphics window management. 

—Tools that will allow you to draw and hatch pie charts, bar charts, circles, rectangles and a full range of geometric shapes. 
Procedures that will save and restore graphic images to and from disk. 
-Functions that will allow you to precisely plot curves. 

—Tools that will allow you to create animation or solve those difficult curve fitting problems, 
and much, much more 

NO Sweat and no royalties. You may incorporate part, or all of these tools in your programs, 
and yet, we won't charge you any royalties. Best of all, these functions and procedures come complete 
with commented source code on disk ready to compile! 








KgP r 






& 



Searching and sorting made simple 

The perfect Complement tO TurbO Pascal. It contains: Turbo-Access, a powerful implementation of the state-of-the-art B+tree ISAM 
technique; Turbo-Sort, a super efficient implementation of the fastest data sorting algorithm, "Quicksort on disk". And much more. 

Jeriy Pournelle, BYTE: "The tools include a B+tree search and a sorting system; I've seen stuff like this, but not 
as well thought out, sell for hundreds of dollars." 

Get Started right away: free database! Included on every Toolbox disk is the source code to a working 
data base which demonstrates how powerful and easy to use the Turbo-Access system really is. 
Modify it to suit your individual needs or just compile it and run. 

Remember, no royalties! 





From Start to Finish in 300 pages. Turbo Tutor 

is for everyone, from novice to expert. Even if you've never 
programmed before, Turbo Tutor will get you started right away. 
If you already have some experience with Pascal or another 
programming language, Turbo Tutor will take you step by step 
through topics like data structures and pointers. If you're an expert, 
you'll love the sections detailing subjects such as "how to use assem- 
bly language routines with your Turbo Pascal programs." 

A must. You'll find the source code for all 
the examples in the book on the accompanying 
disk ready to compile. Turbo Tutor might be 
the only reference on Pascal and pro- 
gramming you'll ever need. 




$34.95 



B 



RORlPflD 

INTERNATIONAL 






Software's Newest Direction 

4585 Scotts Valley Drive 
Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
TELEX 172373 



Inquiry 6! for End-Users. Inquiry 62 for DEALERS ONLY. 



Turbo Pascal is a registered tradematV of Borland Irrternafiona), !nc 




ASK BYTE 



Conducted by Steve Garcia 



Biblical Speech Synthesizer 

Dear Steve. 

Being interested in the teaching of 
English as a foreign language, I would like 
to take from a disk, as input, a previously 
computerized text like the Bible and out- 
put it through a speech synthesizer, mean- 
while delaying the video-screen readout 
to appear following the speech output, 
phrase by phrase or sentence by sentence. 

Among your many circuits, is there one 
that could be used or adapted for this 
purpose? 

G. Kaye 
Paxton, IL 

The Microvox text-to-speech synthe- 
sizer will serve your purpose with some 
additional software. The controlling com- 
puter needs a small program to read a 
line or phrase from the disk, send it to 
the Microvox, wait for the designated 
time while the phrase is spoken, and then 
print it to the screen. This is a simple job 
for the computer, and the Microvox will 
speak the line as it is received. 

The problem with this concept is that 
the text-to-speech algorithm does not 
handle all pronunciations adequately. 
This could be handled with a little extra 
work by editing the text to correct the 
improper pronunciations, using the 
methods described in my October 1 982 
Circuit Cellar article. 

A more sophisticated system was de- 
scribed in the article "Three Tiered Soft- 
ware and VLSI Aid Developmental Sys- 
tem to Read Text Aloud" by Edward 
Bruckert, Martin Mi now, and Walter 
Tetschner in the April 21, 1983, issue of 
Electronics magazine. This system uses 
basically the same conversion algorithm 
as the Microvox. but it has more memory, 
a faster processor (MC68000), and tests 
against more rules. Write to Digital Equip- 
ment Corp. (HL2-I/EI0, 77 Reed Rd., 
Hudson. MA 01749) for information on 
availability and price— Steve 

How About the Sanyo? 

Dear Steve. 

I want to buy an IBM PC-compatible sys- 
tem, and the Sanyo MBC 555 looks very 
promising. I am having great problems 
finding out the extent of the compatibili- 



ty. Scottsdale Systems states that the MBC 
55 5 will run many programs written for the 
IBM PC. while National Computer Prod- 
ucts says the MBC will run all software cur- 
rently available for the PC. What is the 
truth? 

Second, does the Sanyo have IBM PC- 
compatible slots? 

Signor Shark 
Yonkers, NY 

The Sanyo MBC 555 will run a lot of 
IBM PC software. The May 1984 issue of 
Microcomputing magazine lists 29 pro- 
grams written for the IBM PC that will run 
on the Sanyo. Most of these are business 
and word-processing packages, including 
dBASE II, Bottom Line Strategist, and 
Financial Planner from Ashton-Tate; 
Volkswriter from Lifetree; Type Faces 
from Alpha Software; and Perfect Filer 
and Calc from Perfect Software. Three of 
the programs listed in the magazine re- 
quire double-sided drives, which are not 
yet available. 

Generally, any IBM PC program that 
uses only MS-DOS functions can be ex- 
pected to run on the Sanyo, but pro- 
grams that use IBM PC hardware-specific 
functions or interrupts defined in the IBM 
PC ROM BIOS probably won't. Unfortu- 
nately there isn't any way to tell which 
programs will run except to try them. 

An example of the incompatibility is 
that the versions of the Information 
Unlimited Software Easy-series programs 
bundled with the machine won't run on 
the IBM PC. even though the same pro- 
grams are available in IBM PC and MS- 
DOS versions. 

The Sanyo BASIC is somewhat different 
from both the IBM and generic versions 
of Microsoft BASIC IBM BASIC programs 
will run when none of the IBM hardware- 
specific BASIC instructions are used. 

Lastly the Sanyo does not have IBM 
PC-compatible expansion slots, but 
double-sided disk drives commonly used 
in IBMs, like the TEAC 55B half-height 
drives, apparently will work.— Steve 

Victor Software 

Dear Steve. 

Thank you again for your reply to my let- 
ter about Ukrainian word processing. I 



have taken your advice and purchased the 
Victor 9000. I am quite pleased with the 
machine. I only regret that the company 
has gone bankrupt. Now I am using Multi- 
Mate word processing. I also ordered the 
Programmer's Toolkit to be able to create 
my Ukrainian character set, but I am still 
waiting for delivery. Perhaps Victor will still 
be able to come through. 

Victor has come out with a special con- 
troller board that permits the use of IBM 
software, but it costs about $900. If I had 
that much to spend. I would save up a lit- 
tle more and simply get another com- 
puter. 

Do you know if it would be possible to 
connect another drive to the Victor 9000 
so I would be able to use either IBM or 
Apple software? Perhaps the expense 
would not be worth the trouble. In any 
event, I would appreciate your advice. 
Maxim M. Kobasuk 
Glen Cove, NY 

Victor did file for bankruptcy, but the 
company is still in business. You may still 
be able to get the Programmer's Toolkit 
from them. If it turns out that they can- 
not deliver, you may be able to obtain 
the program from United Software Co. of 
Tlilsa, Oklahoma, a company that spe- 
cializes in software for the Victor 9000 
and other IBM PC clones. There are more 
than 100,000 Victor 9000 computers out 
there, so there are still interested soft- 
ware producers and distributors. It was 
recently reported in InfoWorld that the 
Victor dealers have a catalog of WOO or 
so software packages currently available 
in the U.S. and about 1 500 overseas. 

Changing disk drives won't help you 
run Apple or IBM software. The drives 
on the Victor are mechanically able to 
read these disks, but the machine has a 
completely different architecture from 
the Apple II series and would require 
either an emulation program or special 
hardware similar to the QuadLink board 
available for the IBM PC— Steve 

Cheap Long Distance 

Dear Steve, 

In search for a reliable high-speed link 
for microcomputers. I read "Communica- 

[continued] 



48 BYTE • JULY 1985 



COPYRIGHT © 1985 STEVEN A. C1ARC1A. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



Imagine 
dBASEIir 

running up 
to 20 times 
fasten 







Clipper introduces you to the time of your life. 



Developing a com- 
piler for dBASE III was 
just a matter of time. 



Time is your most a time, every time you Developing a com 

valuable commodity. run a program. With piler for dBASE III wa 

Because how you Clipper, once you've just a matter of time. 

spend your time, is how debugged your source Call your dealer or ou 

you live your life. code, it's compiled into toll free 800 number 

At Nantucket, we more efficient machine and ask for Clipper. 

believe you should live code. Your program 

life to the fullest. runs without the time- 
Clipper, the first true consuming overhead of 

compiler for dBASE redundant translation. 

Ill™ is a timely exam- Clipper compiles all 

pie. Now, dBASE com- your existing and future 

piled by Clipper runs 2 dBASE III programs. 



to 20 times faster than 
dBASE with its stan- 
dard interpreter. 
A dBASE interpreter 
painstakingly checks 
and executes your 
source code one line at 



Then go make th 
most of your life tim 



Nantucket 



20456 Pacific Coast Hwy., Malibu, Ca. 90265 (800)' 556-1234 ext. 225. In California (800) 441-2345 exL 225 
inquiry 256 for End-Users, inquiry 257 for dealers only. dBASE III is a registered trademark of AshtonTate 



Inquiry 262 




m 
m 






PC & COMPAT. 

IBM PC w/drive, monitor Call 

IBM PC w/256k (2) 360 drives, 
keyboard, monitor & monitor 

adptr Call 

IBM PC w/(l} 360k floppy & 

20Mb disc drive 2295 

IBM PC as above w/RGB color 

monitor Call 

IBM PC-XT w/256k Call 

IBM AT Enhanced Call 

CANON Athena Call 

COMPAQ PORTABLE w/256k, (2) 
360 disc drives, DOS & 

basic 2099 

COMPAQ PLUS Call 

COMPAQ Desk Pros Call 

LEAOIHG EDGE PC wfl28k (2) 
360 disc drives, monitor & 

adapter, basic DOS 2.11 1499 

LEADING EDGE PC w/256k as 

above but RGB color .,..1995 

LEADING EDGE 10Mb hard disc 

system ..2395 

SANYO MBC 6502 699 

SANYO MBC 555-2 ....979 

ZENITH 2150 w/(2) 360k disc 
drives. 128k RAM, IBM compati 
ble, wffree Microsoft Word & free 
Microsoft Multiplan & Color 

graphics card 1599 

ZENITH ZW 151-52 as above but 
wfcolor monitor & 10Mb hard disc 

system 3495 

ZENITH 3 COM Local Area 

Network Call 

LAP COMUTERS 
HP 110 w*272k RAM. Lotus 121 

60 col display, 95lbs 2295 

MORROW w/(2) 360k, disc 
drives, 13lbs.. 256k. IBM 
compatible 1995 



BOARDS^ 

mo inn* 7 



• oppkz 

A°PLE He w/dnve £^S&49 

APPLE He 899 

APPLE Macintosh 1699 

APPLE lie professional system m 
128k. (2) duo disc drives & 80 col 

card 1429 

APPLE Image Writer 499 



PRINTERS 
& PLOTTERS 

EPSON: 

RX-BO 229 LQ1500, 

JUKI: 

6100 .374 6300 779 

HP: Laser Printer 2795 

HP: Plotter Call 

Sweet Pea Plotter Call 

NEC: 3550 1099 

OKI DATA: NEW' 182 ..239 

NEW 192..349 84 579 

NEW' 193..569 2410 Call 

OLYMPIA: RO 319 

SILVER REED: 

400 249 500 289 

550 449 ?70 769 

TOSHIBA: 

134Q 598 351 .1239 





/MONITORS 



r AMDEK310A 179' 

LEADING EDGE RGB Color. .399 
TTL Green .139 TTL Amber 149 
PRINCETON GRAPHICS: 
HX-12.......4B9 Max-12E...174 

Sfi-12 w/Scan Doubler 899 

TAXAN 410 IBM RGB 349 

TAXAN 420 Hi Res RGB t/iBM419 
XTRON 1000 Lines Hi Res Amber 

(/IBM TTL 149 

ZENITH: 

ZVM-124 IBM Compatible 139 



FOR IBM 

AST 6 Pak Plus wft4k 244 

HERCULES color card 169 

HERCULES graphic card lor TTL 

mono monitor 289 

KOLA game controller 44 

PARADISE MODULAR GRAPHICS 

CARD 269 

TECHMAR CAPTAIN 169 



/HARD 
1 DISKS 

Tall Glass Call Ampec Call 

Bernoulli Box 20Mb 2499 

Mini Scrlba Internal IOMb.,349 



MODEMS 

HAYES: 

300 159 1200 389 

1200B w/Smartcom II ....359 

SMARTCOM II 99 

2400 Call 

Micro Modem He 249 

NOVATION SMARTCAT 

Internal 348 Exln 348 

US ROBOTICS: Passworfl 1200 ..32° 



/ SOFTWARE m 
I f/IBM w W 



Nutshell 89 dBase in ....359 

PFSRB 84 RBase 4000 ..251 

Wordstar Professional 249 

Wordstar 2000 249 

X Y Write Plus II 229 

Word Perfect 40 239 

Vol tawnier Deluxe wfATI 169 

SamnaPlus 349 

Samnalll 299 

Multimale 244 

Leading Edge Word w/Spell....189 

Smart System Call 

Framewort.,349 Enable Call 

Sidekick...... 29 Norton 30 ....53 

Managing Mm Money 104 

Dollar & Sense 109 

Think Tank 108 

Pro Key ver 20, 

Right Simulator 39 

Sargon IB 34 PFS Write 89 

Muttiplan...124 Run*C" 119 



Microsoft X* —;-P* 



DISKETTES 

SS/DD 
Verbatim Data Lite (10)21 

FUJI (10) 18 

MAXELL (10) 19 

BASF (10) 17 

IBM (10) 22 

FAMOUS MAKE ....13 
SPECIAL I TDK 
Quantities ol 100/ea 135 



DSJDD 
29 
24 
28 
23 
29 
19 



s 



=T 




TYPEWRITERS 

CANON Typestar 5 148 

CANON typestar 6 .........196 

BROTHER CE 56 458 

OLYMPIA Compact II 384 

SMITH CORONA 350M *310 

"M« Mms/jdurtfi HtbXt 



CANON & 
COPIERS 



I PC 10 469 PC 20. 665 

|PC25 884 Sland 99 1 



IBM PC , *-k 

Wf64k (1) 360 Disc Drf»355a3 
& Keyboard l£9» 

IBM PC W/256k (2) 360 Disc 
Drives, Graphics Monitor Card, 
Won . Keybd & Software Kit...Call 
IBM PC AT Call 



leading mm 

EDGE PC WM. 

Wfl2Bk, Leading ,j 'mmS» 
Edge Monitor. ( "£!!*£ 
Keyboard, Monitor j. AA 
& Printer Adapter \h\S\} 



SANYO 550-2 

Now Runs Lotus 123 1 

IBM PC Compatible. 

360k Disc Drive. 

128k RAM, Word Slar. 

Calc Star & Easy Writer 

RGB VIDEO CARD 149 



699 



OLYMPIA RO 

Daisy Wheel ., 

Letter Quality. 
14 Cps w/Parallel & 
Serial Ports w/Built In 
Tractor Feed 44A 

3 PtehflNLY! 01 3 



ea 



ZENITH z 150 

W/(2) 360k Drives, 

Microsoft Word, i— ^ _...» u 

Multiplan, Keyboard M O 3 3 =$ Basic Keyboard.. 

as aoove except I COMPAQ 

wflOmb Hard Disk oon c Plus W/Hard Disc .la Stock 




ASK BYTE 



tion Without Wires" in the June 1984 Ask 
BYTE. The system you suggest there may 
be inexpensive, but it does not satisfy my 
requirement of a long-distance, reliable, 
and inexpensive link for my IBM PC. 1 
believe my best bet would be a high-speed 
modem to be used with normal long- 
distance calls. However, a 1200-bps 
modem would yield only about 120 words 
per minute, which makes this system very 
expensive when one has to pay $1.50 for 
those 120 words. 

Do you have knowledge of a truly fast, 
reliable modem not so expensively 
priced? Or perhaps an idea of another 
system for a reliable long-distance link for 
micros? 

Thank you very much for whatever ideas 
you can give me. 

Al Villacres 
Quito, Ecuador 

There essentially aren't any long- 
distance data-communication links meet- 
ing all your requirements. Cost is the 
problem. Amateur radio is an inexpen- 
sive method, but bandwidth restrictions 
limit speed, and, of course, you can send 
only to other hams. 

There is hope in the form of a new ser- 
vice expected to be introduced in 1985 
by AT&T. This service, based on pulse- 
coded modulation, will allow full-duplex 
communication at up to 56,000 bps over 
regular phone lines. See "AT&T Breaks 
the Speed Barrier" in the September 
1984 Computers and Electronics 
magazine. No word on cost, but it may 
be some time before inexpensive equip- 
ment is available— Steve 

File Transfers 

Dear Steve. 

My problem is trying to swap data files 
(mostly but not entirely WordStar) from 
8-inch double-density disks on an Altos 
8002 to either the hard disk or 5!4-inch 
disks on a Tl Professional Computer. 

I do not have a modem on either com- 
puter. 1 plan to add one to the Tl even- 
tually but don't see much need for one 



Table 1 

PIN 
2 


: Null-modem connections. 


PIN 
3 
2 
5 
4 

20 
6 


3 




4 




5 




6 




20 









at present, 
running. 



still have the Altos up and 

John W. Juechter 
East Greenwich, Rl 



If you have RS-232C serial ports i n both 
computers and they are located in close 
proximity to each other (20 feet or so), 
you don't need modems to set up a com- 
munication link. Make or buy a cable con- 
figured as a null modem, as shown in 
table I. You may also need a program to 
facilitate data transmission in one or both 
computers. 

If you are running MS-DOS on your Tl, 
you can use the COPY command to copy 
directly from the communication port to 
a disk file. Simply set up the communica- 
tion protocol using the DOS MODE com- 
mand, e.g., MODE COM1:96,n,8,1 to set 
for data transfer at 9600 bps, no parity 
check, 8-bit words, and I stop bit. See 
your DOS manual for other options. 
Follow this with the command COPY 
COM1: d:filename.ext (you may have to 
say AUX instead of COM1J. The com- 
puter will wait for data to come in. 

I assume you are using CP/M on your 
Altos. Some implementations of CP/M in- 
clude a similar function in the PIP com- 
mand. If yours doesn't, you will need a 
program to read your files and transmit 
the data. An inexpensive one for 8-bit 
CP/M systems is MODEM 7, which can be 
obtained from CP/M Users Group, 1651 
Third Ave., New York, NY 10028 -Steve 

MX-80 Superscripts 

Dear Steve. 

1 teach a course in word processing 
using the Apple 11+ and Apple Writer. We 
have an Epson MX-80 printer. 

Can you please explain to me how to get 
superscript numbers for footnotes using 
this equipment? 

1 have called both the Apple people and 
the Epson people, and both told me to 
contact the other. Help! 

Bettye Jo Martin 
Atlanta, GA 

Certain special characters must first be 
sent to an Epson MX-80 to enable it to 
print superscripts. These consist of the 
ESC(ape) and Control-N characters. They 
are simply commands that tell the printer 
to change to the superscript print mode. 
When using Apple Writer, these charac- 
ters should be placed immediately 
before the text you wish to be super- 
scripted. Of course, you will eventually 
wish to turn off the superscript mode. 

1 [continued) 



50 BYTE • JULY 1985 



DECLARE YOUR 



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MODERN OFFICE DATA STORAGE. 

Free yourself software and data bases on individual 



tations of 

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dynamic and expanding business data 
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The Bernoulli Box,™ with its totally inter- 
changeable 5- and 10-megabyte car- 
tridges, lets you manage data the way you 
manage your business-directly, efficiently, 
by job function 
and applica- 
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update, store, 
and back up 



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BE 



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infinitely, by adding more cartridges, not 
more disk drives. You enjoy the conven- 
ience of taking or mailing cartridges 
anywhere-and the security of putting 
them under lock and key. 

The Bernoulli Box works with the IBM 
PC, XT, AT, most compatibles, and the 
Macintosh.™ For your nearest dealer, call 
1-800-556-1234 ext 215. In California, call 
__-,-:. 1-800-441-2345 exL 215. 



OMEGA 

IOMEGA Corporation 
1821 West 4000 South 
Roy, Utah 84067 




See us at NCC Booth #1732. 



Inquiry 194 



Inquiry 3 77 



Forecasting and Statistical 
Analysis for Professionals 



StatPac 



the proven statistical analysis package 

StatPac is convenient. Comprehensive. Inexpensive. Tested in the field for 
more than five years, StatPac has been updated, debugged and enhanced. 
So it's well established and easy to use. StatPac is the answer for researchers, 
statisticians, scientists, and educators. Handles 5,000 cases and 253 
variables on a standard IBM PC. 



T*A#*A/*9c4 *Pftftfe™ a forecasting tool 
JL\Ji ISWCLd 1 JL iUd for the non-statistician 

A combination of data management, exploratory graphics, and over a dozen 
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read a picture, you can use Forecast Plus! 



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INSTANT FINANCIAL PICTURE! 

Corporate Financial Simulation Model on your IBM PC, XT or AT 
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"1 



ASK BYTE 




This is done by placing the characters 
ESC and ControlO at the end of the text 
to be superscripted. 

To enter the special characters men- 
tioned above, you must use the Apple 
Writer Control-V command. This will 
cause ESC or any control characters that 
you now type to be inserted directly into 
the text at the location of the cursor, in- 
stead of being interpreted as a possible 
command. Control-V must be used since 
ESC. Control-N, and Control-D are all 
commands to the Apple Writer program 
itself. Press Control-V again to exit this 
special insertion mode. 

The characters that must be sent to the 
printer to control its various printing 
styles can be found in the manual that 
came with the printer. The same tech- 
nique described in the above paragraph 
may be utilized to print in elite, empha- 
sized, boldface, or other styles. Simply 
insert the correct characters into the text 
using the Control-V command—Steve 

OSMOSIS ON THE OSBORNE 1 

Dear Steve. 

1 have installed an Osmosis double- 
density modification in my Osborne 1. 
Even after making the circuit-board 
changes they recommend. 1 still do not get 
reliable double-density operation. Can 
you supply a reference that goes into 
detail about the difference between single 
and double density? 

Robert E. Falkoski 
Richland, WA 

A principal difficulty encountered with 
storing data on floppy disks is the 
phenomenon of bit shifting, which refers 
to the physical movement of the location 
of a recorded bit due to the influence of 
neighboring bits. If left uncorrected, this 
shifting could cause unreliable retrieval 
of recorded information. While these bit- 
shifting influences exist on single-density 
disks, the effects are small enough to 
ignore. 

On double-density disks, the effects are 
magnified, and the techniques to record 
and decipher information must become 
more sophisticated. One technique uses 
write precompensation logic to adjust 
the spacing of the bits as they are writ- 
ten to disk, so that they will be evenly 
spaced during subsequent read opera- 
tions. Such logic is usually handled by the 
disk-controller circuitry 

An excellent, and very readable, discus- 
sion of these techniques, as well as a 
source of some practical circuit examples. 

[continued] 



B YTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 181 for End-Users. Inquiry 182 for DEALERS ONLY. 




>ktec The Most Powerful C 



for the IBM AT • MACINTOSH • MS DOS • CP/M-80 • ROM APPLICATIONS 
IBM PC/XT • APPLE // • CP/M-86 • TRSDOS • CROSS DEVELOPMENT 



Why Professionals Choose Aztec C 

AZTEC C compilers generate fast, compact 
code. AZTEC C is a sophisticated development 
system with assemblers, debuggers, linkers, 
editors, utilities and extensive run time libraries. 
AZTEC C Is documented in detail. AZTEC C Is 
the most accurate and portable implementation 
of C for microcomputers. AZTEC C supports 
specialized professional needs such as cross 
development and ROM code development. 
MANX provides qualified technical support. 

AZTEC C86/PRO 
— for the IBM AT and PC/XT 

AZTEC C86/PRO provides the power, portabili- 
ty, and professional features you need to 
develop sophisticated software for PC DOS, MS 
DOS AND CP/M-86 based microsystems. The 
system also supports the generation of ROM 
based software for 8088/8086, 80186, and 80286 
processors. Options exist to cross develop ROM 
code for 65xx, 8080, 8085, and Z80 processors. 
Cross development systems are also available 
that target most micro computers. Call for infor- 
mation on AZTEC C86/PRO support for XENIX 
and TOPVIEW. 



POWERFUL - AZTEC C86/PRO 3.2 outper- 
forms Lattice 2.1 on the DHRYSTONE 
benchmark 2 to 1 for speed (17.8 sees vs 37.1) 
while using 65% less memory (5.8k vs 14k). The 
AZTEC C86/PRO system also compiles in 10% 
to60% less timeand supports fast, high volume 
I/O. 



PORTABLE — MANX Software Systems pro- 
vides real portability with a family of compatible 
AZTEC C software development systems for PC 
DOS, MS DOS, CP/M-86, Macintosh, CP/M-80, 
APPLE // + , //e, and lie (NIBBLE - 4 apple rating), 
TRSDOS (80-MICRO - 5 star rating), and Commo- 
dore C64 (the C64 system is only available as a 
cross compiler - call for details). AZTEC 
C86/PRO Is compatible with UNIX and XENIX. 



PROFESSIONAL — For professional features 
AZTEC C86/PRO is unparalleled. 

• Full C Compiler (8088/8086 - 80186 - 80286) 

• Macro Assembler for 8088/8086/80186/80286 

• Linkage Editor with ROM support and overlays 

• Run Time Libraries - object libraries + source 
DOS 1.x; DOS 2.x; DOS 3.x; screen I/O; Graphics; 
UNIX I/O; STRING; simulated float; 8087 support; 
MATH; ROM; CP/M-86 

• Selection of 8088/8086, 80186, or 80286 code genera- 
tion to guarantee best choice for performance and 
compatibility 



• Utility to convert AZTEC object code or libraries to 
Microsoft format. (Assembly + conversion takes 
less than half the time as Microsoft's MASM to pro- 
duce MS object) 

• Large memory models and sophisticated memory 
management 

• Support products for graphics, DB, Screen, & ... 

• ROMablecode + ROM support + separate code and 
data + INTEL Hex Converter 

• Symbolic Debugger & Other Utilities 

• Full Screen Editor (like VI) 

• CROSS Compilers are available to APPLE //, Macin- 
tosh, CP/M-80, TRSDOS, COMMODORE C64, and 
ROM based 65xx, and 8080/8085/Z80 

• Detailed Documentation 

AZTEC C86/PRO-AT $500 

(configured for IBM AT - options for 8088/8086) 

AZTEC C86/PRO-PC/XT $500 

(configured for IBM PC/XT - options for 80186/80286) 

AZTEC C86/BAS includes C compiler (small model only), 
8086 MACRO assembler, overlay linker, UNiX, MATH, 
SCREEN, and GRAPHICS libraries, debugger, and 
editor. 

AZTEC C86/BAS $199 

AZTEC C86/BAS (CP/M-86) $199 

AZTEC C86/BAS (DOS + CP/M-86) $299 

UPGRADE to AZTEC C86/PRO $310 

C-TREE Database with source $399 

C-TREE Database (object) $149 

CROSS COMPILERS 
CrossCompilers for ROM, MS DOS, PC DOS, orCP/M-86 
applications. 

VAX • > 8086/80xxx cross $5000 

PDP-11 ->8086/80xxx cross $2000 

Cross Compilers with PC DOS or CP/M-86 hosts are $750 
for the first target and $500 for each additional target. 
Targets: 65xx; CP/M-80; C64; 8080/8085/Z80; Macintosh; 
TRSDOS; 8086/8088/80186/80286; APPLE //. 



AZTEC C68K 
— for the Macintosh 

For power, portability, and professional features 
AZTEC C68K-C is the finest C software development 
system available for the Macintosh. 

The AZTEC C68K-C system Includes a 68000 macro 
assembler, a linkage editor, a source editor, a mouse 
based editor, a SHELL development environment, a 
library of UNIX I/O and utility routines, full access and 
support of the Macintosh TOOLBOX routines, debug- 
ging aides, utilities, make, dlf f, grep.TTY simulator with 
upload & download (source supplied), a RAM disk (for 
512K Mac), a resource maker, and a no royalty license 
agreement. Programming examples are included. (Over 
600 pages of documentation). 

AZTEC C68K-C requires a 128K Macintosh, 
and two disk drives (frugal developers can make 
do with one drive). AZTEC C68K supports the 
512K Macintosh and hard disks. 

AZTEC C68K-C (commercial system) $500 

AZTEC C68K-p (personal system) $199 

AZTEC C68K-p to AZTEC C68K-C upgrade $310 



MacC-treedatabase $149 

Mac C-tree database with source $399 

Lisa Kit (Pascal to AZTEC C68k object converter) . .$ 99 



AZTEC C65 

-forthe APPLE// 

"...The AZTEC C-system is one of the finest software 
packages I have seen... " NIBBLE review, July 1984. 

The only commercial C development system available 
that runs native on the APPLE II + , lie, and lie, the 
AZTEC C65 development system includes a full floating 
point C compiler compatible with UNIX C and other 
MANX AZTEC C compilers, a 6502 relocating assem- 
bler, a linkage editor, a library utility, a SHELL develop- 
ment environment, a full screen editor, UNIX I/O and 
utility subroutines, simple graphics, and screen func- 
tions. 

AZTEC C65 (Apple DOS 3.3) $199 

AZTEC C65/PRO (Apple DOS + ProDos) $350 

(call for availability) 



AZTEC C ll/PRO 

- for CP/M-80 

The first member of the AZTEC C family was the 
CP/M-80 AZTEC C compiler. It is "the standard" com- 
piler for development on CP/M-80. The system includes 
theAZTECC II C compiler, an 8080 assembler, a linkage 
editor, an object librarian, a full library of UNIX I/O and 
utility routines, CP/M-80 run time routines, the SMALL 
library (creates modules less than 3K in size), the fast 
linker for reduced development times, the ROM library, 
RMAC and M80 support, library source, support for 
DRI's SID/ZSID symbolic debugger, and more. 

AZTEC C ll/PRO $349 

AZTEC CII/BAS $199 

C-TREE Database with source $399 

C-TREE Database in AZTEC object form $149 



AZTEC C80 

— for TRSDOS (Radio Shack Model III & 4) 

"I've had a lot of experience with different C compilers, 
but the Aztec CB0 Compiler and Professional Develop- 
ment System is the best I've seen." 80-Micro, Decem- 
ber, 1984, John B. Harrell III 

This sytem has most of the features of AZTEC C II for 
CP/M. It is perhaps the best software development 
system for the Radio Shack Model III and IV. 

AZTECC80 model 3 (no floating point) $149 

AZTEC C80 model 4 (full) $199 

AZTEC C80/PRO (full for model 3 and 4) $299 

To order or for information call: 



.11 



1-221-0440 

(201) 530-7997 (NJ and outside U.S.A.). Or write: MANX 
SOFTWARE SYSTEMS, P.O. Box 55, Shrewsbury, N.J. 
07701. 



MANX 

TRS 80 RADIO SHACK TRS DOS is a trademark of TANDY 
APPLE DOS MACINTOSH is a trademark of APPLE. 




SHIPPING INFORMATION - Standard U.S. 
shipment is UPS ground (no fee). In the U.S. 
one day shipment is $20, two days is $10. 
Canadian shipment is $10. Two days ship- 
ment outside the U.S. is by courier and is 
freight collect. 



For Technical Support 
(Bug Busters) call: 201-530-6557 



Inquiry 219 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 53 



Inquiry 366 for End-Users. Inquiry 367 for DEALERS ONLY. 



IBM AT THE OFFICE 
APPLE AT HOME 

NO PROBLEM! 



A "Wireless file transfer" package for the IBM PC® to Apple II 
and back. APPLE TURNOVER™ is a firmware board which 
fits into any slot in the IBM PC and some compatibles. NO 
modems, NO serial links, NO hassles, NO problems. APPLE 
TURNOVER™ will format Apple CP/M® and Apple DOS 3.3 
disks. Leave your IBM and Apple computers where they are. 
Simply bring your Apple disk to work and transfer your file to 
a PC-DOS disk. Allows for modifications to text and data 
files. It'sasimple, inexpensive, high performance alternative 
to complicated serial links and modems. 

"NEW!" APPLE TURNOVER™ version 2.0 will read, write 
and format PRO-DOS and Apple P-System Too. 



vertex 

3f systems inc. 



See your dealer or call 
for information: 

(213) 938-0857 



Innovation in microcomputer products 6022 W. Pico Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90035 



f VTA WEST 
DATA SWITCHES 

M AKE ANY PC SYSTEM 
MORE PRODUCTIVE. 



With a touch of a button, these data trans- 
parent switches let you switch from dot 
matrix to letter-quality printing. Or, two 
computers can share modems, printers, 
plotters, networks, terminals, etc. Serial or 
parallel models available. Saves time and 
frustration of plugging and unplugging 
cables. No power required. Just plug into 
your system. You'll wonder how you ever 




got along without them. And the price is 
right. Write or call for factory-direct 
shipment. 

We also stock a complete line of cables and 
connector adapters. 



DSS S42 00 * RS232 Applications XSS S55 00 * RS232 Applications 



G3-t<^ 



ED- 



MODEM 

PRINTER 

PLOTTER 

TERMINAL 

NETWORK 

CRT 



DSP $4900* Centronics Compatible XSP $69°°* 



Parallel Applications 



EHC| 



I II 






PRINTER 
PLOTTER 


I cpu r 


< > 

X 
■/ \ 

c. \ 










I rpn L 




PRINTER 
PLOTTER 


| CPU t- 







*Shipped freight-collect. Add $4.00 per product 
for postpaid delivery Checks. Visa and MasterCard 



accepted. Quantity discount available. AZ resi- 
dents add 7%. Dealer inquiries invited. 



Wfl WEST, Inc. 

"The Interface Company" 



534 North Stone Ave.. Tucson, Arizona 85705 

To order by phone, call 

(602| 623-5717 



ASK BYTE 



can be found in Microcomputer Interfac- 
ing by Harold S. Stone (Addison-Wesley, 
1982). Another reference that discusses 
aspects of the disk-recording process and 
that may help you is "IBM Compatible 
Disk Drives" by Jefferson H. Harman. 
which appeared on page 100 of the Oc- 
tober 1979 BYTE. 

Manufacturers' service manuals for disk 
drives often discuss the theory of opera- 
tion and outline the necessary timing 
considerations for the disk drive and 
computer These manuals can usually be 
obtained from the drive manufacturer's 
field offices.— Steve 

VIC-20-CONTROLLED ROBOT 

Dear Steve, 

I tried to interface a simple robot I made 
to my VIC-20 via the communications 
port. The robot is run by small DC motors. 
Where can I find information about the 
software needed to control pulses from 
the port (what to poke and where) and the 
hardware needed to convert these pulses 
to a current and voltage to drive the 
motors? Thanks for any help that you can 
provide. 

Michael Levin 
Swampscott. MA 

An excellent series of articles by Joel 
Swank on interfacing to the VIC-20 ("The 
Enhanced VIC-20") appeared in the 
February through May 1983 issues of 
BYTE. This series should give you the 
necessary information about the VIC-20 
and how to interface to it. You should 
also read my article on page 105 of the 
December 1984 BYTE. "Build the Power 
I/O System" for information on how to 
connect real-world peripherals to a 
system. This article will give you a good 
understanding of optoisolators, which 
should be used in computer real-world 
applications— Steve ■ 



IN ASK BYTE. Steve Garcia answers questions on 
any area of microcomputing. The most representative 
questions received each month will be answered and 
published. Do you have a nagging problem? Send 
your inquiry to 

Ask BYTE 

do Steve Garcia 

POB 582 

Glastonbury, CT 06033 
Due to the high volume of inquiries, personal replies 
cannot be given. All letters and photographs become 
the property of Steve Garcia and cannot be returned. 
Be sure to include "Ask BYTE' 1 in the address. 

The Ask BYTE staff includes manager Harv 
Weiner and researchers Bill Curlew. Larry Bregoli. 
Dick Sawyer. Robert Stek. and \eannette Dojan. 



54 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 372 



ting the first IBM T 




atible Kit! 



Building your own AT 
is as easy as it looks. 

Now, it's easy to have the IBM AT that you want by 
building your own from ADTEK's SERIES 286XT M com- 
patible, board-level kit. Choose from a complete kit 
(chassis, motherboard, cables, disk controller, keyboard 
and enhancement boards) and add your own moni- 
tor and disk drives. Or buy just the parts you need for 
your project. Either way, all series 286AT products are 
hardware and software AT compatible. 

But you won't be on your own. The ADTEK SERIES 
286AT comes with illustrated, step by step instructions 
that even a beginner can follow (Some basic knowl- 
edge of electronics will be helpful.) With just a few 
simple household tools you can put your new compu- 
ter together in a Saturday afternoon. And you'll feel 
confident about your SERIES 286AT because every 
ADTEK product is protected by a full, one year factory 
warranty. 

And amazingly frugal. 




If you're ready for AT power and speed, 
but don't want to pay IBM's premium 
price, r : esJt easy. A complete ADTEK 
SERIES 286AT'kit is priced significantly 
less chanra comparably assembled IBM 
AT. That's engineering excellence at a 
real bargain! Call or write today for a 
detailed brochure and price li§£ 
on the SERIES 286AT and other fine 
ADTEK products. 



AT compatible keyboard. LED on 
cap, num and scroll lock keys. 



radable to 8MHz. 



Fully AT compatible ch 
optional lock. 
floppy and fi: 





User supplied disk drives. Kit 
supplied with list of compatible 
drive suppliers. 


I/O expansion and user 



User supplied monitor. Ki. 
listofrecom 



IBM is a registered trademark ot International Business Machines Corporation and SERIES 286AT is a registered trademark of ADTEK Corporation. 



COMBINE POWER AND 
ENHANCE YOUR POAT 



Quadram introduces the smart way to enhance your IBM PC- AT. Quadmeg- AT and 
Quadport- AT. Smart because Quadmeg-AT and Quadport-AT make the most of your AT 
system today and expand to meet your system's growing needs in the future. 



Quadmeg- AT comes socketed 
for memory expansion from 
128K to 2 Megabytes. Harness 
this power to create megabyte- 
sized RAM drives, access 

QUADMEG-AT" 



Advance to 4 Megabytes 

When you need more than 
2Mbytes, Quadmeg AX adapts 
with two QuadmegAT 
Expansion Cards. Each packs 
512K or 1Mbyte extra RAM. 



Both cards filled give 
Quadmeg- AT a powerful 
4Mbyte capacity. 
Quadmeg-AT delivers 
the power you need to 
take full advantage of the 
ATs capabilities. 




Maximum Performance in 
Minimum Space 

Quadmeg-AT and Quadport-AT fit 
snugly side by side to deliver a powerful 
4Mb RAM and multiple I/O expan- 
sion in just two AT expansion slots. 



greater amounts of informa- 
tion, and process data faster 
and more efficiently than 
ever before. Plus, with 
"split memory mapping 1 / 
Quadmeg-AT lets you expand 
the AT s base system memory 
to 640K without buying a 
space-wasting 128K card. 



Add a Second 
Quadport 

Tu'O Quadport-ATs give 
your AT system a total 
of 2 parallel ports and 
1 serial ports. Add 
peripheral devices or 
workstations for the 
ultimate in PC-AT, 
performance. 



W 



• — t M Look for this seal. It's the 
,•'; > \| mark of dependability and 
^ ^> s^» performance from the 
vJS^w* -- ^ eac ^ er m microcomputer 
^QW3Bwqwr?j enhancements. 



IBM PC-AT is a registered trademark of 
International Business Machines Corporation. 

56 BYTE • JULY 1985 




EXPANDABILITY TO 
THE SMART WAY 



QUADPOKT-AT 

Quadport-AT combines a 
parallel printer port and a 
serial port to give your AT the 
features found on 
IBM's Serial/ 
Parallel Adapter.^ 
But at a lower 
cost and with 





built-in expandability. Connect 
printers, plotters, modems, 
and other devices for increased 
productivity. 

Advanced Port Expansion 

As your AT becomes the 
center of a high-performance 
LAN or growing multi- 
user, multi-tasking system, 
snap on the optional 
Quadport- AT Expansion 
Kit and add 4 more serial 
ports to your system. The 
Quadport- AT Expansion 
comes with software 
to access these ports, 
making it easy to add 
shared peripherals or 
workstations. 



Enhance the smart way 
with Quadram, 

For basic AT expansion, 
Quadmeg-AT and Quadport-AT 
work together to provide 128K 
memory expansion, a serial port, 
and a parallel port. 
Then, as your system 
grows, Quadmeg-AT and 
Quadport-AT give you up to 
4MB RAM, 1 parallel port, 
and up to 5 serial ports in just 
two PC AT expansion slots. 
Only Quadram combines so 
much power and expandability. 
That's PC AT enhancement 
the smart way. 



Features 


Quadmeg-AT: RAM 


Expansion Cards: Two cards 


expansion from 128K to 


available. Each comes with 


2Mbytes. Expandable in 512 K 


512K or 1Mbyte RAM 


increments. Split memory 


installed. 


mapping assigns 128K or 384K 




to base memory. 


QuadMaster-AT Software: 


Total RAM Capacity: 


RAM Drives and Spooling for 


4Mbytes. 


extended memory. 


Quadport' AT: Port expansion 


Quadport' AT Expansion Kit: 


with 1 Centronics parallel port 


(optional) 4 RS-232C serial 


and 1 RS-232C serial port. 


ports. Software to access ports. 




For a free demonstration visit 
the Quadram dealer nearest 
you. Or, for information, write 
us at 4355 International Blvd., 
Norcross, Georgia 30093 
(404)923^6666. 



QUADRAM 

J An Intelligent ^sterns Company 

Inquiry 293 



1ULY 1985 -BYTE 57 




CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS 



• THE SILENT SPEAK 

A quarterly newsletter about 
electronic aids for the handi- 
capped. Current Expressions, 
contains letters written with 
the aid of special computers 
from victims of otherwise 
disabling diseases. Profiles, 
a calendar of events, new 
products, and advertise- 
ments all relate to easing 
communication for the dis- 
abled. Article submissions 
are welcome. Contact 
Susanne Shealey. Current Ex- 
pressions, Prentke Romich Co.. 
1022 Heyl Rd. Wooster. OH 
44691. (216) 262-1984. 

• DRBBS FREE FOR ALL 
The DRBBS Technical 
Bulletin Board System at 
(402) 896-3 537 is free to all 
personal computer users 24 
hours a day at 300 or 1200 
bps. General messages, elec- 
tronic mail, on-line informa- 
tion, public-domain file 
transfer, and special-interest 
sections are featured. Call 
the BBS or contact J. 
Winslade. DRBBS Technical 
Bulletin Board System. 

1472 5 Emiline St.. Omaha. 
NE 68138. (402) 895-1379. 

• SEPARATE BUT EQUAL 

The Federation of Computer 
Users in Medicine (FOCUS- 
MD) and the Federation of 
Computer Users in Dentistry 
(FOCUS-DDS) are two sepa- 
rate organizations staffed by 
qualified volunteers and run 
by the same nonprofit in- 
stitution. Each group wel- 
comes prospective health 
professionals who use com- 
puters. The annual member- 
ship fee of $100 for each 
group includes a newsletter.- 
Each group maintains a con- 
sultant registry for which ap- 
plicants must pay an addi- 
tional fee to cover the cost 



of testing. Separate seminars 
are scheduled the first Sun- 
day of each month across 
the country; nonmembers 
pay $10 to attend. For loca- 
tions and membership ser- 
vices, contact Specific 
Technology Center. POB 
15579. San Francisco, CA 
94115. (415) 626-4600. 

• ACTR1X IN ACTION 
Actrix Users Southeast sup- 
ports users of the Actrix 
computer and its built-in 
software. A newsletter is 
available, as are purchase 
discounts and updates. Con- 
tact Irv Koch. 19 54 Stanton 
Rd., EastPoint, GA 30344. 
(404) 767-7360. 

• FRIENDS IN THE SE 
People on the Southeast 
AMIS bulletin-board service 
are on line 24 hours a day 
to answer questions about 
Atari. Macintosh, and Radio 
Shack computers. The BBS 
at (704) 541-3306 carries 
Newsoft news net. and plans 
include a national user- 
group listing. Contact 
Southeast AMIS. POB 1041. 
Matthews, NC 28106. 

• TWO SYSTEMS GROUP 

The benefits of joining the 
Micropolis/Vector Graphic 
Users Group (MUG) include 
a monthly newsletter, library 
disks of public-domain CP/M 
and MS-DOS software, and 
directions for obtaining 
parts, service, and commer- 
cial software for Micropolis 
drives and Vector Graphic 
systems. The annual mem- 



bership is $18. Contact Buzz 
or Lynn Rudow, Micropolis/ 
Vector Graphic Users Group, 
604 Springwood Circle, 
Huntsville. AL 3 5803. (205) 
881-1697. 

• SIG FOR CP/M 

The Wayne County CP/M 
Support Group (WCCPMSG) 
of Williamson. New York, 
sponsors training programs 
in CP/M applications soft- 
ware. Members' interests in- 
clude BASIC programming, 
databases, and word pro- 
cessing at all levels. 
Computer-literacy lectures 
are open to the community. 
Club members meet at 7 
p.m. on the second Wednes- 
day of each month at the 
Williamson Public Library. 
Contact the WCCPMSG, POB 
34. Williamson. NY 14589. 

• COMMODORE IN NW PA 
The main chapter of the 
North Coast Commodore 
Users Group (NCCUG) of 
Erie, Pennsylvania, meets on 
the third Tuesday of every 
month. The Edinboro 
chapter meets the first 
Thursday of every month. 
Both chapters enjoy the 
privileges of a public- 
domain library, a monthly 
newsletter, discounted blank 
disks, and special-interest 
groups. An annual member- 
ship is $20; a subscription 
to the newsletter is an addi- 
tional $6. Contact the 
NCCUG. POB 6117. Erie. PA 
16512. (814) 866-1625 for 
the Erie chapter or 398-8146 
for the Edinboro chapter. 



CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS is a forum for letting BYTE readers know what 
is happening in the microcomputing community. Emphasis is given to elec- 
tronic bulletin-board services, club-sponsored classes, community-help projects, 
field trips, and other activities. We will continue to list new clubs and newslet- 
ters. Allow at least four months for your club's mention to appear. Send in- 
formation to BYTE. Clubs & Newsletters. P03 372, Hancock. NH 03449. 



• SCAN THE MBC 

The Sanyo Canadian Users 
Group, devoted to the Sanyo 
MBC 5 50/555 computer, 
welcomes American par- 
ticipation. Members main- 
tain a network for resource 
sharing, a public-domain 
software exchange library, 
and a newsletter, SCAN lines. 
A BBS is planned. Contact 
Eric Lillius, Sanyo Canadian 
Users Group, Box 210 Moun- 
tain St.. Haliburton, Ontario 
K0M ISO. Canada, (705) 
457-2774. 

• COMPUTER FILE 

BLUEGRASS STYLE-The 
Central Kentucky Computer 
Society produces a monthly 
newsletter. Computer File, con- 
taining ads and articles, a 
calendar, and membership 
information. Membership is 
$20 annually. Contact the 
Central Kentucky Computer 
Society Inc.. Suite 100. 
Security Trust Building. Lex- 
ington. KY 40507. 

• AN INDUSTRY FIRST 
The International MIDI 
Association (IMA) is a non- 
profit organization dedicated 
to promoting musical-instru- 
ment digital interface (MIDI) 
and music/computing inter- 
facing. An electronic library 
a database, and a newslet- 
ter, The IMA Bulletin, contain- 
ing MIDI-related product 
and news announcements 
are included with IMA mem- 
bership. Contact the Interna- 
tional MIDI Association, 
4128 Wilkinson Ave.. Studio 
City, CA 91604. (818) 
505-8964. 

• BIRD IN HAND 

The Robin. Owners' Group is 
for users of the DEC VT-180. 
A software library is main- 

{contlnued) 



58 BYTE • ]ULY 1985 



Circuit-Board-Artwork Software 
for the Design Engineer 

in a Hurry H^^ll 








A31j,c 



For only $895, smARTWORK® lets 
the design engineer create and 
revise printed-circuit-board art- 
work on the IBM Personal Com- 
puter. You keep complete control 
over your circuit-board artwork — 
from start to finish. 

Forget the tedium of taping it 
yourself or waiting for a tech- 
nician, draftsman, or the CAD 
department to get to your project. 

smARTWORK* is the only low- 
cost printed-circuit-board artwork 
editor with all these advantages: 

□ Complete interactive control 
over placement and routing 

□ Quick correction and revision 

□ Production-quality 2X artwork 
from a pen-and-ink plotter 

□ Prototype-quality 2X artwork 
from a dot-matrix printer 



□ Easy to learn and operate, yet 
capable of sophisticated 
layouts 

□ Single-sided and double-sided 
printed circuit boards up to 

10 x 16 inches 

□ Multicolor or black-and-white 
display 

System Requirements: 

□ IBM Personal Computer, XT, or 
AT with 256K RAM, 2 disk drives, 
and DOS Version 2.0 or later 

□ IBM Color/Graphics Adapter 
with RGB color or black-and- 
white monitor 

□ IBM Graphics Printer or Epson 
FX/MX/RX series dot-matrix 
printer 

□ Houston Instrument DMP-41 
pen-and-ink plotter 

□ Optional Microsoft Mouse 



The Smart Buy 

At $895, smARTWORK® is proven, 
convenient, fast, and a sound 
value. Call us today. And put it to 
work for yourself next week. 



UAV^W^W 



ij.i 



Wintek Corporation inquiry 380 

1801 South Street 
Lafayette, IN 47904-2993 
Telephone: (317) 742-8428 
Telex: 70-9079 WINTEK CORP UD 

In Europe contact: RIVA Terminals Limited, 
Woking, Surrey GU21 5JY ENGLAND, 
Telephone: 04862-71001, Telex: 859502 

"smARTWORK!' "Wintek" and the Wintek logo are 
registered trademarks of Wintek Corporation. 










For the same reason that 
many Computerlands, On- 
Line Computer Centers 
and Entre' Computer 
stores have become 
dealers for Advanced 
logic Research's 
Challenger! 

Advanced Logic Research Offers: 

• $375 for the standard Challenger! 

• Quality and Reliable Products 

• Friendly Responsive Technical Support 
Maximum Price/Performance Ratio 
Product Features: 

4 Mega bytes memory (128K standard) 
4 Serial Ports (1 standard) 
1 Printer Port Standard 
1 Game Port (Optional) 
VSpool Standard 






$225.00 less than AST's similar product 



Advanced Logic Research, Inc. 

15455 Red Hill Ave., Suite B, Tustin, CA 92680 
(714)832-7808 




basic time and Qubie' are registered trademarks of Basic 

Time, Inc., AST is a registered trademark of AST Research, Inc. 

VSpool copyright of Rimos Systems. 






CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS 



tained, and a newsletter con- 
tains members' contribu- 
tions, product reviews, and 
programming ideas. Contact 
Jim O'Connor, Robin 
Owners' Group, POB 492, 
Rollinsford, NH 03869-0492. 

• NEW FIG FORMS 

Members of the Central 
Arkansas FORTH Interest 
Group (CAFIG) meet twice 
monthly at the National 
Education Center at the 
Arkansas College of Tech- 
nology in Little Rock. For 
more information, contact 
Gary Smith, POB 7668, Little 
Rock, AR 72217, (501) 
227-7817. 

• FOR THE PEOPLE 

Users of the Kaypro 16 can 
join a special-interest group, 
SIG-16. sponsored by the 
National Kaypro Users 
Group (NATKUG). The 
NATKUG 4 Bits x 4 National 
Newsletter is produced for 
users of the IBM-compatible 
Kaypro. Membership in 
SIG-16 is $15 a year; mem- 
bership in People's Com- 
puter (NATKUG) is $12 an- 
nually. Contact Steven 
Bender, People's Computer 
(NATKUG). POB 28360. 
Queens Village, NY 11428. 
(212) 776-2909. 

• PAIR AND REPAIR 

Users and owners of the 
Otrona Attache computer 
can find a listing of repair 
centers and users groups 
from the Boston Computer 
Society (BCS). A $24 annual 
membership entitles you to 
receive both the Otrona 
monthly newsletter and one 
other BCS newsletter. Con- 
tact the Boston Otrona User 
Group, 1 Center Plaza, 
Boston, MA 02108. 

• MEET FOR FREE 

Participants of the North 
Jersey TRS-80 Users' Group 
discuss TRS-80 computers, 
programming techniques, 
and programs. The group 
meets at 7:30 p.m. on the 
second Friday of the month 



60 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 19 for End-Users. 
Inquiry 20 for DEALERS ONLY. 



at Fairleigh Dickinson 
University in Teaneck, New 
Jersey. Dues are not col- 
lected. Contact Dr. Howard 
Silver. Electrical Engineering 
Department. Fairleigh Dickin- 
son University. Teaneck. NI 
07666. 

• SINGLE USERS 

The Sytek Network Users 
Group (SNUG) encourages 
communication between 
owners and users of Sytek's 
LocalNet products. Funded 
by membership dues, the 
club meets informally once 
every nine months. Contact 
Greg Scott, lektronix Inc.. 
POB 500, MS 50-454, 
Beaverton, OR 97077, (503) 
627-5007. 

• FRENCH FIDONET 

A Fidonet BBS in Paris, 
France, is available at 300 
full CCITT on 18764.5.6.7. 
The team of ARTS, a non- 
profit organization, is com- 
posed of people involved in 
radio, video, videotex, and 
teleservices. Contact *ARTS, 
POB 100, 94123 Fontenay 
Sous Bois, Paris. France. 

• MINNESOTA MEETINGS 

The Central Minnesota Users 
Group convenes in St. 
Cloud. The general meetings 
are not limited to a specific 
brand of computer but are 
followed by special-interest- 
group meetings. Information 
on public-domain software is 
available. Contact Lee 
Larkey, Central Minnesota 
Users Group, Rt. 1, Box 106, 
Avon, MN 56310, (612) 
356-7402. 

• A WORD EVERY 
QUARTER— A word-process- 
ing newsletter, The Quarterly 
Report, is devoted to the 
latest in word processors, 
issues for businesses con- 
cerning word processing, 
and research information. 
The introductory subscrip- 
tion rate is $30 a year. Con- 
tact The Quarterly Report, POB 
1060, Mercer Island, WA 
98040. ■ 

Inquiry 14 — •• 



IBM PC/XT Compatibility 
AT Performance 
OEM Price 



W 





Ifirlf 1 


W 



High Speed 

4.7 or 8 MHZ 

8088-2 Processor 
With 8087-2 Option 

Highly Compatible 

IBM PC/XT Form, Fit & Function 

Highly Integrated 

Built-in Disk Controllers 
• Up To 4 Floppies 
• SASI Hard Disk Interface 

1 Megabyte On-Board Memory 

ips standard, raising 

Parallel Port 



in our entry level 
5K« This makes 
ur expansion up 
<abyte. 

s£ that memory 

sarder, we're uv 

.AM Disk software 

i memory addressing 



2 Serial Ports 

Time of Day Clock 

54K User Definable ROM 



1ZE CONTROL OF YOUR HARDWARE DESTIN 



The switchable 4.7 or 8 
iZ speed of the ACS-1000 
>erComputer coupled with 
optional 8087*2 number 
ncher provides AT-Mke per- 
manee without sacrificing 
XT compatibility ♦ ., or 
e! 

If your company is using 
rd level microcomputers as a 
of your own product, you 
increase profits and improve 
ability by using the 
S-1000 single board 
perComputer. 
The ACS- 1000 is compati- 
ble with both software and 
•^'dware designed for the IBM 
/XT, It even has the same 
unting holes and the same 
ver supply connections. The 
ference is that the ACS- 1000 
ers a much higher level of 
~gration and — c~" 
in OEM quai 



Disk controllers, I/_ 
and extensive memory are a 
ready built-in, simplifying pro- 
duction and freeing the 6 
expansion slots to take on the 
specialized work of your pre""' 
control, CAD/CAM or of fit 
automation applications* 
There's even a special port 1 
low cost piggyback modem. 

A 256K evaluation boj 
is available to qualified OEN 
for $595. Power supplies, p 
aging, keyboards and other j 
tern support available on 
request. To order, call or wi 

ACS International, Inc 
2105 Luna Road, Suite 
Carrollton, Texas 7500 

214*247*5151 



In Canada: 
Soltech Industries 
9274 194th St. 
Surrey, B.C. V2T4W2 

4-888*2606 



ADVANCED COMPUTER^OLUTIONS 
INTERNATIONAL, INC. 



IRS. I f^^"T .V A^S- • riu 



r°*rfW? ,rU ..* m\ 



In the 92 seconds it 
find any file you need 




//////// //////////////////f////ll II If IIIIIIUII\\\\\\\\\\\\\\V\\\\\\\\\\\\ 



Ampex 20 MB hard disk with 25 MB tape backup. 



\ 

\\\ 




T "PC Megastore is a trademark of Ampex Corporation. 'IBM-PC is trademark of International Business Machines. tApple II and lie are trademarks of Apple Computer. 
62 BYTE • JULY 1985 



takes to read this ad, 
on our backup streamer. 



O In the 1 hour, 4 minutes other streamers take, you could 
call your broker. Linger over coffee. Wade through the Wall Street 
Journal © And read this PC Megastore™ ad too. © So take the time. 
You'll more than make it up with a PC Megastore hard disk and tape 
hooked to your IBM-PC* or compatible, Apple II or IleJ because all the files 
you need -both current and archive -will always be right where you need them. 
© Just a keystroke away. © The secret? Only Ampex backs up a 20 MB hard disk 
with another 25 megabytes* of addressable storage -a unique, bootable streamer with 
cache memory. That not only means you can address a file in 92 seconds, you can 
backup files offline just by touching a couple of buttons. © Without tying up your 
computer. Q Your time. © Or a small fortune in floppies. (In fact, our 45 megabytes of 
available storage cost about half the price per MB of other hard disks.) So consider 
your time, money and convenience. ©And our quality. The PC Megastore system is 
backed by a full year warranty from Ampex, a company known for manufacturing 
quality computer peripherals for over 20 years. © Take a moment Contact: Ampex Com- 
puter Products Division, Marketing Communications, 10435 N.Tantau Ave., Cupertino, CA 
95014. 800 421-6863, 213 640-0150 in CA. We'll give you a dealer's name so you can buy a 
PC Megastore system. ©Then in no time at all, you'll Jf\ l\ Jl ^3^S^^ 
make up for the 92 seconds you spent reading this ad. ^^1™ W^ mJr^ 



Ampex Corporation • One of The Signal Companies 



'PC Megastore is upgradeable and comes in four models: 20 MB with 25 MB tape, 10 or 20 MB disk, or 25 MB tape. 

Inquiry 31 JULY 1985 • BYTE 63 




THE AT&T PC 

THE COMPUTER WITH 

THE FUTURE BUILT IH. 




Before you buy a personal com- 
puter for your business you should 
ask yourself two essential questions. 
One: What do you need today? Two: 
What will you need tomorrow? 

The AT&T PC 6300 is the answer 
to both. Tbday, you'll get a high per- 
formance computer that's competi- 
tively priced. A computer that not 
only runs the broadest selection of 
software available, but has the power 
and speed to make the most of it. A 
computer with superb graphics in 
monochrome or color. And a high reso- 
lution screen that's easy on the eyes. 

For tomorrow, you'll get a com- 
puter with the future built in. With its 
modular architecture and seven expan- 



That's a commitment from AT&T. 
And the AT&T PC, the computer with 
the future built in. 

For more information, call your 
AT&T Account Executive, visit an 
authorized AT&T dealer, or call 
1-800-247-1212. 



sion slots, it's ready now to work with 
future technology, and meet your 
future needs. From additional power 
to multi-tasking capabilities, even to 
features yet to come, it can be easily 
enhanced as time goes by. 



AT&T 

The right choice. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



PERSONAL COMPUTERS 

AND SPECIAL NEEDS 

Frank G. Bowe 

Sybex 

Berkeley, CA: 1984 

171 pages. $9.95 

DIGITAL IMAGE 

PROCESSING: 

A PRACTICAL PRIMER 

Gregory A. Baxes 

Prentice-Hall 

Englewood Cliffs. NJ: 1984 

192 pages, $14.95 

PASCAL APPLICATIONS 
FOR THE SCIENCES 
Richard E. Crandall 
John Wiley & Sons 
New York: 1984 
2 56 pages, $16.95 



PERSONAL COMPUTERS 
AND SPECIAL NEEDS 
Reviewed by John Wilke 

In 1977, a group of ac- 
tivists with a variety of 
disabilities staged a sym- 
bolic sit-in at the Department of Health. Education, and 
Welfare to demonstrate support for a bill frequently called 
"the civil rights act for the disabled." 

Since that legislation became law, engineers and city 
planners must design public buildings that are accessible 
to all people. The young man who led the HEW demon- 
stration and lobbied successfully for the new law has 
turned his attention to overcoming another set of barriers: 
software, computers, and communications equipment 
that, by design, shut out the disabled. 

Frank G. Bowe is quick to point out in Personal Computers 
and Special Needs that just as new technology is beginning 
to make it possible for disabled individuals to not only 
communicate more effectively but also pursue meaning- 
ful employment in the information industry, there is a lack 




ASSEMBLY COOKBOOK 
FOR THE APPLE II/IIe 
Don Lancaster 
Howard W. Sams & Co. 
Indianapolis, IN: 1984 
368 pages, $21.95 

1985 PROGRAMMER'S 

MARKET 

Brad M. McGehee, editor 

Writer's Digest Books 

Cincinnati, OH: 1984 

343 pages. $16.95 



of physically compatible 
and affordable computer 
interfaces. This paradox is 
an underlying theme in 
Bowe's book, a survey of 
personal computer periph- 
erals and communications 
prostheses available to people whose hearing or vision 
is impaired or who are unable to manage normal move- 
ment. 

Bowe takes what might have been little more than a 
listing of the latest in speech synthesizers and keyboard 
emulators and peoples it with firsthand accounts of how 
the devices are making life more productive for disabled 
people. Unifying this effort is his concern that with the 
transition to an increasingly information-based economy— 
with its obvious promise of fuller participation for the 
disabled— the danger remains that a new set of barriers 
will prevent them from participating. 

The book, then, addresses both how-to and why. It was 
written first for the nearly 30 million Americans who might 

[continued) 



ILLUSTRATED BY JAMES ENDICOTT 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 65 



BOOK REVIEWS 



benefit from the use of microcomputers for writing, 
"reading," and "hearing" or handling the everyday tasks 
that can be daunting for even the most determined dis- 
abled person. Bowe offers handicapped people and their 
families, teachers, and friends a practical guide contain- 
ing prices, sources, and descriptions of scores of spe- 
cialized interfaces designed to close the gap between 
disabled people and their computers. These details weave 
through the text and are then gathered together in an ap- 
pendix for quick reference. 

The products Bowe surveys range from speech- 
recognition units and speech synthesizers to optical text 
readers and software such as Logo (used increasingly by 
educators for their dyslexic and developmentally disabled 
students). The Information Through Speech Unit (from 
Maryland Computer Services Inc., Forest Hill, Maryland), 
for example, allows the blind aural access to the popular 
NEXIS and LEXIS databases. Bowe explores the state of 
the art in optical character recognition: an extraordinary 
unit that can scan almost any printed text and read it aloud 
in synthesized voice. The $29,000 machine (from Kurzweil 
Computer Products, Cambridge, Massachusetts) is clear- 
ly beyond the fiscal reach of most people, but Bowe 
reports that engineering advances will bring prices down 
dramatically on similar units. 

Beyond just describing various adaptive products, Bowe 
visits with people using these interfaces every day, letting 
them describe in their own words the frustrations and joys 
the new technologies bring. 

The Role of Companies 

Despite such adaptations, much of the promise of the new 
technology remains to be realized, Bowe points out. This 
is true in part because companies working on devices to 
help the disabled must overcome discouraging dis- 
economies of scale, producing their wares for just a small 
slice of the market. Indeed, he laments, many of the most 
significant technological advances come not from research 
meant to make computers more accessible to handi- 
capped people but from industry efforts to develop talk- 
ing vending machines, say, or devices allowing a business- 
person to dictate letters without a secretary. 

Another problem, Bowe writes, is that use of the adap- 
tive systems now available is often hampered by incom- 
patibility with popular applications software. Most of the 
software designed for disabled people is limited to ad- 
dressing a specific need, such as keyboard emulation for 
people with severely limited mobility. But this software 
frequently does not then work with widely used software 
such as spreadsheets and word processors, which are 
often "locked" to prevent modification. For example, the 
popular Echo II speech synthesizer (from Street Elec- 
tronics, Carpinteria, California) does not yet work with such 
protected programs as MicroPro's WordStar. Hardware, 
too, must often be altered to function with special devices 
for the disabled. 

Bowe is optimistic that at least some computer makers 



will respond to these concerns. Toward this goal of mak- 
ing manufacturers more aware of the difficulties of the dis- 
abled, last year the author conceived and carried out a 
conference on computer accessibility, under the auspices 
of the White House Office of Private Sector Initiatives. The 
conference, which Bowe describes briefly, brought 
together experts on the needs of the disabled with 
representatives from AT&T Bell Laboratories, International 
Business Machines, " Apple Computer, l&ndy, and 
Honeywell. Approaches to enhancing accessibility in- 
volved relatively simple accommodations, including the 
introduction of standard ports for adaptive interfaces. 
Some companies expressed concern that the computer 
market is too fast paced and competitive to meet the 
needs of such a small market segment. Bowe answers with 
convincing demographic data suggesting potential market 
opportunities for firms willing to respond to the special- 
needs buyer. 

Bowe's excitement when he considers what microcom- 
puters might mean for the disabled in the not-too-distant 
future illuminates his book. Within a decade, Bowe 
believes, affordable computers will be able to "hear" 
speech in real time and print out what is being said. "As 
someone who has not heard a word in three decades," 
he explains, "this prospect fills me with a wonderful sense 
of anticipation." 

)ohn Wxlke covers technology and telecommunications for Business 
Week (Suite 1200, 1 1 20 Vermont Ave.. Washington, DC 20005). 



DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING: A PRACTICAL PRIMER 
Reviewed by Richard ). Cass 

In the preface to Digital Image Processing: A Practical Primer, 
Gregory A. Baxes states his intention to provide "an 
elementary overview of digital image processing at a prac- 
tical level." On a technical level, he succeeds admirably. 
The book is a sound and detailed introduction to the con- 
cepts and practices of processing images using digital 
computers. An entire section on the hardware considera- 
tions related to image processing would be helpful for 
those who are interested in designing and configuring 
systems for digital image processing. A practical advan- 
tage of this book is a section that contains entries for each 
of the most commonly used digital image processing oper- 
ations; a catalog format makes this section most useful 
as a reference for the beginner and the experienced 
reader alike. 

In part I, the author defines image processing in general 
and discusses methods of image processing other than 
digital, such as optical and analog. He also details the 
historical development of digital image processing, from 
the early 1960s and the space program's attempts to 
gather pictures of the moon's surface to the later work 
done by NASA in the Mariner and Pioneer projects. Baxes 

[continued) 



66 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



moves on to an overview of some of the more recent 
business applications that have been made possible by 
image processing, including factory automation and com- 
puter graphics. 

The Image 

Part II covers the characteristics of the digital image— how 
it is formed how brightness and resolution affect the way 
the image looks— and explains such terms as digitizing, 
pixel, frequency, and frame rate. One chapter concentrates 
on the image histogram, a tool used to measure and 
assess digital images. The histogram provides a graphic 
representation of the contrast qualities of the digital image 
by plotting the number of elements in an image against 
their brightness levels. Manipulating an image's histogram 
can affect the image, as the author demonstrates. 

Baxes discusses the concept of "point processing," 
where each element of an image can be modified by a 
mathematical or logical process to create a new image. 
He also discusses operations such as contrast enhance- 
ment, corrections for photometric and geometric distor- 
tions, and applications for these techniques in graphic arts, 
as well as the fundamentals of processing picture elements 
in group relationships. 

The chapter on image data handling describes, in great 
technical detail, the major functions that a hardware sys- 
tem must accomplish. Baxes provides examples of hard- 
ware specifications from several manufacturers to illustrate 
the types of hardware used to perform these functions. 
Digitization, storage, display of images, and the internal 
interface between where the memory is stored and the 
hardware image processor, as well as the system's inter- 
face to the host computer, are covered. The author goes 
into the mechanics of the hardware device that actually 
processes the digital image data, with block diagrams and 
product-specification sheets. He discusses the charac- 
teristics of single- and dual-pixel point processors, group 
processors, and frame processors. 

Image Processes 

The catalog of 19 digital image-processing operations con- 
cisely explained in part IV is extremely useful. It provides 
a detailed explanation, with images from before and after 
processing, of the most commonly used image-processing 
operations. The section includes more specific examples 
of histogram manipulation, as well as discussions of con- 
trast enhancement, filtering, and edge enhancement. Each 
entry in this section contains a description of the purpose 
of the operation, possible applications for it, and prac- 
tical hints on how to implement the process. The image 
that accompanies each piece reinforces the reader's 
understanding of the associated operation. 

Comments 

With a few exceptions, the book is well structured. The 
author introduces terms and concepts only as necessary, 

[continued) 



68 BYTE • IULY 1985 



Inquiry 355 



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ae 



NEVADA Please send me these NEVADA Software packages: 

□ COBOL □ FORTRAN DEDIT □ PASCAL □ BASIC □ PILOT DBIGPRINT 
(Extra manuals-$14.95 each; diskettes alone-$19.95 each. Specify number & formats 

of manuals and/or diskettes required.) 

Please specify the diskette format you want: 

□ 8" SSSD (Standard CP/M IBM 3740) 

□ 5VV Diskette for: q Access/ Actrix; D Apple CPM; □ DEC VT 180, or 

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Send your order to: 

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3917 Noriega Street, San Francisco, CA 94122 

Phone (415) 753-0186 
SINCE 1977 




TOTAL . 



Send me software packages: 

Other: extra manuals, extra diskettes, 
Nevada COBOL application Book 1, BIGPRINT: TOTAL . 

California residents add sales tax (6% or 6V2%) 

Handling/shipping: add $5 for first package or manual, $2 each 

additional. OVERSEAS: add $15 for first package or manual, 

$5 each additional. 
D Check D MasterCard DVISA 

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DC.O.D. (add $4) 

Enclosed: TOTAL . 



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SHIP TO NAME. 
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CITY/STATE/ZIP 

CP/M is a Digital Research TM: MS isa Microsoft Corp. TM; Apple II is an Apple Computer. Inc. TM; 
Osborne is an Osborne Computer Corp TM; Xerox 820is aXerox Corp TM: Kaypro is a Non -linear 
Sys. TM; Heath/Zenith is a Heath Corp. TM; IBM is an International Business Machines. Corp. TM: 
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puting TMs. 'Cj 1985 Ellis Computin g. Inc. 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 69 



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70 B YTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 323 



BOOK REVIEWS 



and each discussion of technical material builds logically 
upon the information and terms already explained. Defini- 
tions and explanations of the intricacies of image process- 
ing are lucid enough to instruct the beginner without 
insulting a more knowledgeable reader. The book is, as 
promised, a practical introduction to digital image 
processing. 

I have only one serious misgiving about the book: All 
the technical information is presented in clear, coherent 
prose, but the rest of the writing could have used better 
editing. 

Richard J. Cass (29 High St., Peterborough. NH 03458) is a 
technical writer for Apollo Computer in Chelmsford, Massachusetts. 



PASCAL APPLICATIONS FOR THE SCIENCES 
Reviewed by Steven H. Rogers 

In Pascal Applications for the Sciences, Richard E. Crandall 
tackles the problem of teaching scientific programming 
in a minimal amount of time. The book is intended to be 
used largely in a self-paced manner; to get the most out 
of it you should have ready access to a computer running 
Pascal. It is organized with short blocks of text followed 
by exercises illustrating the important points just covered. 
I found this technique effective in keeping my interest. 
The first five chapters provide the basic tools for writing 
scientific programs in Pascal. Crandall then presents more 
advanced examples of scientific applications. The balance 
of the book consists of five appendixes containing libraries 
of functions and procedures for scientific programming. 

Scientific Programming 

Crandall begins with an intentionally brief review of the 
fundamentals of Pascal programming. Those readers with 
a background in Pascal can skip the review without miss- 
ing anything; readers new to the language will need a stan- 
dard Pascal text as a supplement. Exercises relate to scien- 
tific applications. 

Next, the reader is introduced to mathematical program- 
ming. The author demonstrates numerical methods for ap- 
proximating the derivatives and integrals of a function, 
proceeds to coverage of differential equations, and then 
moves on to the use of matrices to solve systems of si- 
multaneous linear equations. One example and several 
exercises that I found quite enjoyable involved modeling 
a satellite orbiting the earth. 

Crandall's coverage of probability presents a concise ex- 
planation of the problems involved with modeling prob- 
abilistic phenomena on computers, which are by nature 
deterministic. This means a given input will always yield 
the same output, though some people maintain that their 
computers don't fit this description. Examples range from 
population biology to card games. An introduction to the 
statistical analysis of data concludes this chapter. 

[continued) 



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Inquiry 12 3 



IULY 1985 -BYTE 71 



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72 BYTE • JULY 1985 



NATIONAL REFERRAL 
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Floppy Disk Drives 

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mouse. 

KEYTRONICS 5150 & 5151. Keyboards for PC and Jr. 
KENSINGTON MICROWARE Master Piece. _ $1 1 9 

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FROM $129 

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and ISOBAR surge protectors, 4 & 8 plug. 

POLAROID Palette. $1345 

Monitors and CRTs 

PGS Max12 (E), Amber, Monochrome thatalso runs 

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PGS HX-12 & SR-12, Color RG B's. 

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QUADRAM Quadchrome, 690 Dot RGB. $429 

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IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 



Inquiry 235 



IULY 1985 'BYTE 73 



o 

COMPUTERBANC 




10UJCST PRICCS nNVUJH€R€! flNYTIMC! flNVPMCC! 

THOUSRNDS OF RVRILRBL6 IT6MS. CRLL FOR COMPl€T€ PRICING. 



IBM PC 

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2 drives. 256K. 

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IBM PC/AT 
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20 Meg Hard 

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Color Cord 159.00 

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MOUSC SVSTCMS Optical Mouse .169.00 

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Pc Net Starter Kit CALL 

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AMDCX300 129.00 

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©Copyright 1985 COMPUT€RBRNC. All Rights Reserved 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Graphics programming in Pascal is covered in sufficient 
detail for most scientific and engineering applications. 
Crandall provides a graphics library of two- and three- 
dimensional graphics procedures for the Tektronix 4012 
graphics terminal and the Hewlett-Packard HP 7 4 70 A plot- 
ter. These procedures would have to be modified for use 
with other systems. 1 found this to be fairly straightforward 
for Ttirbo Pascal version 2.0 running on my Hyperion. 

Advanced Techniques 

The last four chapters are devoted to more advanced 
applications in mathematics, chemistry physics, and 
biology. Most readers will want to be selective about the 
exercises they do from these chapters. Many of them are 
exploratory in nature and take on the character of a major 
project. Because the methods illustrated in a particular 
application area can be used in other fields, 1 advise 
against completely skipping a chapter that may fall out- 
side your specialty. Advanced examples from mathematics 
include fast Fourier transforms for signal analysis and a 
method for doing arithmetic of arbitrary precision. 

Chemistry applications include modeling chemical reac- 
tions and graphical modeling of molecular structure. Ex- 
amples from quantum mechanics appear as both 
chemistry and physics applications. An interesting illustra- 
tion of computer graphics in physics models the pertur- 
bation of Saturn's rings by the gravitational field of one 
of its moons. Biological applications vary from ecology 
to biological signal processing. 

In addition to the graphics library, this book furnishes 
functions and procedures for matrix manipulation, 
statistics, special functions (Bessel functions and the like), 
and dynamic models. Many people would find these li- 
braries alone sufficient justification to buy this book. 

Developed in parallel with a course for undergraduate 
science students, Pascal Applications for the Sciences also meets 
the needs of graduate students, practicing scientists, and 
technically oriented hobbyists. Richard Crandall does a 
generally good job of presenting the material clearly and 
concisely. This book has something of the flavor of a travel 
guide, especially in the advanced section. It gives you the 
information that you need to go exploring on your own. 

Steven H. Rogers (108 Brook lane, Midwest City, OK 73130) flies 
F-4s for the USAF Reserves when not occupied as a graduate student 
in industrial engineering. 



ASSEMBLY COOKBOOK 
FOR THE APPLE II/IIe 
Reviewed by Roger Ccx 



Most programmers find a need for doing at least 
some assembly-language programming. For Apple 
users this usually means venturing beyond Applesoft's 
PEEKs and POKEs to acquire the knowledge needed to 

[continued) 



74 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 103 








>,ttfM&**?'- 



Does your 

VOUT 



U 



lerun 



■>■%% *'W- 





Mark Williams knows that 
programmers are like everyone 
else: you tend to put your pants 
on one leg at a time. 

But you still have to get your 
programs up and running as fast 
as possible. With all the buttons 
buttoned and all the zippers 
zipped. 

That's why we developed the 
C Programming System. So you 
don't get caught with your pants 
down. 

To err is human-to debug, 
superhuman. 

Normally, nothing is more frus- 
trating for a programmer than 
the debugging process. You've 
spent months just getting the 
code written, but you know it's 
going to take at least that much 
more time to get the program 
running right. 

That's where our C Source 
Debugger (cscf)can be a big help. 

csd lets you debug like a 
human being— in C, not assem- 
bler-looking right at your code 
through the csd window, an 
exclusive Mark Williams feature. 
You can set trace-points to stop 
program execution at particular 
program lines, trace and display 
the value of any C expression or 
variable, and much more. 



With csd you can run the 
target program a line at a time, 
continue to the next tracepoint, 
or even restart the whole pro- 
gram right in the middle of 
debugging. Meanwhile, you're 
squashing bugs as you find 
them. And your program will 
run without modification. 
Get a leg up on the 
competition. 

Every company says its compiler 
produces the fastest, densest 
code. But Mark Williams actually 
proves it. Take a look at the 
benchmark tests below and see 
if you don't agree. 

Now imagine just how much 
more competitive this kind of 
performance could make your 
products. 



EXECUTION TIME (SECONDS) 



The C Programming System 
supports the complete C lan- 
guage as defined by Kernighan & 
Ritchie. But it also goes on to 
include void and enumerated 
data types, register variables, 
structure assignments, Berkeley 
structure rules, and the biggest C 
library available. With support 
for a wide variety of third-party C 
libraries and utilities. 

You also get MS-DOS compat- 
ibility, large and small memory 
models, 8087 in-line support, and 
one-step compiling. A full range 
of options increases your flexibil- 
ity, letting you compile without 
linking, link without compiling, 
and more. 

With all these advantages, it's 
no wonder Intel, DEC, Wang, and 



PROGRAM SIZE (BYTES) 




MWC L M DRI CI MWC L M DRI CI 



many others have made MWC86 
their compiler of choice. (After 
all, they're only human.) 
A human interest story with 
a happy ending. 

All right, you're interested-which 
proves you're not only human, 
but smart. So what do you 
do now? 

Easy. Just call 1-800-MWC- 
1700. You'll talk to another 
human being who'll answer any 
questions you have. And if you 
want to order, we'll send you the 
complete system, including 
MWC86 compiler, csd debugger, 
complete library of functions, 
and more. All for just $495. 

The sooner you call, the 
sooner you can be winning the 
race to get your products out the 
door. Which is, after all, a very 
human race. 

■-Small Memory Model 
■-Large Memory Model 

NOTE: Sort program as in Byte , August 
1983, p. 91. Register declaration added. 
Further information on these benchmarks 
available from Mark Williams Company 
upon request. 



Mark 

Williams 

Company 



1430 West Wrightwood Avenue 
Chicago, Illinois 60614 



Call 1-800-MWC-1700 To order. 

IN ILLINOIS CALL 312-472-6659. VISA/MC ACCEPTED 



Inquiry 220 



JULY 1985 'BYTE 75 



Three more firsts 
from the people who 
invented the wheel. 





XEROX 



L 



From day one, Xerox and Diablo 
have been known as the two best 
names in daisy wheel printers. And 
now there are three more in the 
Xerox line to ehoose from. 

The Xerox Advantage D-25 
Diablo printer turns out letter qual- 
ity documents quickly and quietly. 
And it does all that for the price of 
~ a dot matrix printer. 
to At 80 



c.p.s., the D-80IF is the fastest 
daisy wheel printer ever made by 
Xerox. It has a built-in double bin 
sheet feeder. As well as 
the capacity to handle up 
to 16 computers at once. 

And the D-36 spells 
reliability. It averages 4,000 hours of 
printing between maintenance calls. 

But Xerox didn't stop there. 
Each of these new machines is 
compatible with most computers 
on the market, including the 
IBM-PC. And they're 
■** all easy to use. 





They're also a part of Team Xerox,* 
so they can be serviced by the 
national Xerox service force and 

authorized service loca- 
tions across the country. 

So if you're looking 
for the latest in daisy- 
wheel printing technology, go with 
the people who've been in the busi- 
ness the longest. Call 1-800-833-2323, 
ext. 25, your local Xerox office, an 
authorized Diablo or Xerox dealer 
or send your business card to Xerox 
Corporation, Dept 25192, EQ 
Box 24; Rochester, NY 14692. 

For more information from Xerox, 
Circle 382 on the Reader Service card. 



ig#» 



ns$&* 



XEROX®, Diablo* and the identifying numbers herein are trademarks of XEROX CORPORATION. 
IBM" is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 



Inquiry 158 for End-Users. Inquiry 159 for DEALERS ONLY. 




KEYPATCH™ -10 - A full travel mini-keyboard. 
Plugs between keyboard connector and CPU. 
Automatically activates NUM-LOCK placing your 
IBM™ keyboard into the number pad mode while 
KEYPATCH™ -1 provides separate cursor and 
screen control functions without the use of the 
NUM-LOCK key. Saves time — eliminates errors. 
KEYPATCH™ -10 requires no software. A must 
for spread sheets; word processing; graphics; etc. 



For Immediate Shipment 
Genest Technologies, Inc. 



IBM PC/XT $84- 98 

Compatibles* $89- 98 



1^1 C PHinnor Awp "Zenith - ITT - Columbia - NCR 

103*31 t. tdingerHVe. Leading Edge - Sperry - Desk Pro 

Santa Ana, Cal if. 92705 - please specify system- 

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(714) 547-OooU Visa, Master Card, Check. Money Order 

'"Patents Pending Plus $2 M Shipping 

KEYPATCH'" is a trademark of Genest Technologies. Inc. 
IBM'" is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 



What IBM™ 
left out . . . 

The Enhancer offers: 

• BIOS Enhancer reduces eye-strain with flicker-free scroll*, adjust- 
able rate of display, touch a key to see text that has scrolled away* (or 
other display pages*), optionally pause at screen full, choose an 
attribute (color) for input, switch to non-blinking reverse-video block 
cursor, more 

• Keyboard Device expands keyboard buffer (variable up to thousands 
of keystrokes), open KBD device to read, write, and flush the buffer; 
supply input to interactive programs from batch files 

• Status Line reserves bottom line of screen for status information: 
displays keyboard buffer and allows simple editing, displays Caps- 
Lock, NumLock, and Hold (ctrl-NumLock) states; avoids conflict 
with full-screenapplications,can expand display and usea26th line* 

• Resident Clock time display at the touch of a key or on status line, 
optionally chimes on the hour and half-hour, reminds you of 
important events with alarm and message 

• Character Menu eases entry of special/graphics characters 

• with Color Graphics Adapter 

$50 

For IBM PC and PC/XT with DOS 2.0 or later. 
Not copy protected. Make check/MO payable to: 

GENERAL SOFTWARE 

Dept.47 P.O. Box 3272 
Boulder, CO 80307-3272 



BOOK REVIEWS 



write efficient assembly-language code. Assembly Cookbook 
for the Apple \ll\\e is written for people who want to learn 
assembly-language skills and some of the tricks specific 
to the Apple itself. 

As "cookbook" implies. Don Lancaster approaches his 
subject matter from a practical point of view. The book 
serves two audiences— Apple programmers looking for 
education and challenge and people interested in writing 
profitable commercial software. The 'Tun and profit" 
theme begins in the introductory chapter and continues 
throughout the book. 

The two obvious advantages of assembly-language pro- 
grams are high execution speed and small size. Yet another 
primary reason for programming in machine language, ac- 
cording to the author, is economics. He makes the rather 
convincing argument that nearly all commercial programs 
sold for the Apple today consist at least partially of 
machine-language code to achieve the high performance 
standards of the software marketplace. A would-be 
developer of commercial software, Lancaster contends, 
must learn assembly-language skills to be competitive. 

Getting Started 

This book begins with a brief explanation of how 
assemblers work and contrasts the types of assemblers 
available: miniassemblers, macroassemblers, disassem- 
blers, cross-assemblers, and assemblers that generate 
relocatable code. After this introduction. Lancaster empha- 
sizes how to get started; he provides lists of recommended 
hardware, software tools, reference books, and other pro- 
gramming aids. Since assembly-language programming is 
so machine-dependent, the author also introduces the 
newcomer to the broader resources of the Apple com- 
munity. An appendix in the book lists magazines specializ- 
ing in Apple machine-language programming, article 
reprints, users groups, newsletters, and bulletin boards. 

Chapter 2 explores the anatomy of an assembler source- 
code line: line number, label, operation or pseudo op- 
code, operand, and comment fields. Lancaster uses 
Apple's EDASM assembler (from Apple's DOS Tool Kit 
package) in all examples, but most assemblers are similar 
enough that the owner of any software package should 
benefit from most of the discussion. While the author 
assumes that the reader is already familiar with the 6502's 
operation codes, he does offer a clear, concise review of 
the chip's addressing modes along with suggestions to 
help eliminate confusion when specifying a particular ad- 
dress mode. The book was released just before the an- 
nouncement of the Apple He and, unfortunately, does not 
include the additional operation codes and address 
modes of the He's 65C02 processor. 

In chapter 3, Lancaster encourages the assembly-lan- 
guage programmer to structure source code to improve 
readability and maintainability. He suggests how to 
organize equate and constant statements and the various 
subroutines into a large program. He then explores the 

[continued) 



78 BYTE • 1ULY 1985 



Inquiry 156 




Power, Performance, and Price 
Zorro is where it's AT 



Our new Zorro AT systems give you: on 80266 CPU operating or o quick 6 Mz„ eight 
expansion slots, o clock/calendar with battery backup, a 1 .2 Megabyte 5 1/4" floppy disk drive, 
ond IDM-AT campotlblllry. 

Zarro AT's alio come with a 060K drive for PC/XT media compatibility and 51 2K of RAM, 
features that would cost you hundreds of dollars from big blue. 

Zarro AT-20's feature a 20Mb. Winchester drive from NEC, and you still hove room to odd o I 
fourth drive or tope backup. 

To be quite f rank, we believe our Zarro AT's are built better, ond we bock each system with o 
limited warranty foro full year. Our quality and features Invite comparison, our prices speak for 
themselves. 

Zorro AT $2695 

i Zorro AT-20 $3895 j 




The Silver Fox Trots 
Through Lotus Like 1,2,3 

The Silver Fox Is not IBM-PC compatible yet It runs hundreds of MS-DOS programs Including 
Lotus 1,2,3, dDASE II, Mulfiplon, and even Flight Simulator. 

TheSllverFoxdoes not hove IBM compatible expansion slots but you con economically odd 
printers, serial ports, modems, 10-40 Mb. hard disks, clock/calendar cords, RAM. joysticks, on 
6067 co-processor, ond more. 

What mokes the Sliver Fox unique, however, isn't what you con odd to if. but what comes 
with It. Each Silver Fox comes with on 6066 CPU, 256K of RAM. four video ports, and o printer 
port. Plus you get more than twice the storage of o standard PC, 1.6Megabytes on dual 5 1/4" 
ftoppys. and the Fox will read and write to standard 1 60K. 320K. and 360K IDM-PC formats. 

Standard equipment also includes a better keyboard, a 1 2" high resolution monitor with o 
full 25x60 display, and we back each Sliver Fox with o one year limited warranty. 

Were this not enough each Sliver Fox comes with the best free software bundle in the 
business Including: MS-DOS 2.1 1/HAGEN-DOS 2.1 1. DOSTuror. Wordstar 3.3. Easy Wrirer. Spell. 
Moll Track. PC File III, FILEDASE, ColcSfor. gomes, graphics, utilities, and two BASIC languages. 

Decouse computer sales usually slow down during the summer we've given you on extra 
incentive to buy a Fox by lowering our prices. If you wont to get the most for your computer 
dollor. coll our machine ot 1-800-FORAFQX. leave your nome ond address ot the beep, ond 
we'll send you a Silver Fox booklet that will tell you how It con. 

Silver Fox $1 297 

Color Fox $1 497 




Altos ^i,,,.,,, 

High-performance, Xenix-based, mulrl-user systems from 
lAlfos-worid leaden In multi-user systems and applications 
| software. 

As part of TRWs marketing support group we con have your 
I Altos system installed on your site (additional charge). 

Altos systems are easy to expand and with shared printers 
land hard disks are cost competitive with multiple single user 
■ systems. Coll for oddltionol pricing and availability. 

1486-20 $4539 

1586-40 $7249 

1966-40 $6829 

Ofos Acc'r $2779 

PRINTERS 




I The Bernoulli Box: 

i Hard disk capacity ond performance 
| ■ Removable cartridge economy 
i Cartridge convenience ■ Flexible disk economy I 
■ Winchester capacity ■Unporolleled reliability I 

J 10 Mb $18391 

1 20 MB $2529 1 

15 Mb./Moc $13791 



Fox Jr' 



8088*Dual 360K Drives 
1 28K«Keyboard«Soffware 




|StarSG-10 $236 

SfarSR-15 $599 

EpsonFX-60*- >9T$141 off 

LX-80 J»«60 off 

Okldoto 182 Z... $225 

Okfdafa 192 $374 

Olymplo NP $329 

Panasonic 1091 $269 

Citizen MSP-10 $295 

Toshiba 1340 $579 

l Toshiba 351 $1198 

LETTER QUALITY 

| Olympia RO $329 

Juki 6100 $399 

Juki 6300 $719 

Silver Reed 500 $299 

Silver Reed 550 $409 

Silver Reed 770 $724 

Diablo Coll 

| NEC Coll 

Doisywriter 2000 $824 

HOUSTON INSTRUMENTS 

DMP-29 $1795 

DMP-40 $745 

DMP-41 $2340 

other models Coll 



Columbia 4220 or 2220 




$1698 



CLOSED M/ EEK 
0F JULY 4th 



Scottsdale Systems ud. 

1 617 N. Scorrsdale Road, Suite B, Scottsdale, Arizona 85257 

S(602) 941-5856 



.^\ Call 8-5MorvFri. 

\ m/^m. We participate In arbitration for business and customers through the Defter 
s . Business Bureau of Maricopa County. 



SINCE 1980 



TELEMARKE ING ONLY: If you plan to stop by please phone ahead. Pricesllsted are far 
cash. P.O.'s from Fortune 1200 companies and universities with good credit add 2% / 
Mastercard and Visa add 3% / Arizona residents add 6% sales rax / Shipping extra / All 
Items are new with manufacturers warranty / Returned merchandise subject to 20% 
restocking fee / Personal or company checks toke up to 3 weeks to clear / No COD's or 
APO's. Trademarks: Sliver Fox. HAGEN-DOS. and ZarTO AT. Scottsdale Systems. Ltd.: 
Wordstar and CalcStar.MIcropro International: MS-DOS. and Mulriplan. Microsoft Corporation: 
FILEB'ASE-. EWDP Software. Inc.: dDASE II. Ashton-Tate; IBM-PC, IBM-PC DOS. and IBM-AT, 
International Business J^acjSines. 



TERMINALS 



Qume 

V7101 $298 I 

Wyse 50 $449 | 

ADDS View- 
point 60 $479 f 



1200 BPS Modems 



i Volksmodem 12 $199 

| Password Coll 

Prometheus $315 

Hayes 300/1200 5429 



$899 



ft OLYMPIA 




ISITSICKTO 
LOVE A PRINTER? 

If you love your Okidoto 92 or Epson FX80 
don't read any further because the new 
Olympia NP Is rated as faster, Is noticeably 
quieter and has a near letter qualify mode 
fhot Is much superior to anything in Its price 
doss. 

Plus, unlike the Okldoto or the Epson 
the Olympia comes with adjustable tractor 
feed (as well as friction feed) as standard 
equpmenr. The tractor feed is the "punch- 
type" and the NP has a tear bar so thot If 
woiks great with continuous forms. 

The NP uses standard Epson type 
ribbons, comes with the quality that has 
mode Olympia woild leader in typewriters 
and is backed by nationwide service. 

To quote PC magazine. "The (NC) 
prlnferls o sure thing If it falls info your price 
range and even if if doesn't if may be 
worth considering . . 

If you're considering the purchase of on 
Okldoto. on Epson, or even a Toshiba, give 
us o call and let us send you on actual print 
sample from the CHumpIo NP and odditlonol 
Information. 

Because if you were to buy on Epson 
FX-80 or on Okidoto 92 with tractors and o 
cable for the lowest odvertlsed prices, you 
would pay about $50 more for an inferior 

Rrtnter. Scottsdale Systems sells the Olympia 
P with a 10' shielded coble foro mere: 



$344 



JULY I985 -BYTE 79 



WHO MAKES 

THE HIGHEST 

QUALITY 

15" DISK? 

ASK SONY. 

WE 
INVENTED IT. 



Long before there was a market for 3.5" disks, in fact, four years before, there was Sony. 

And while every single 3.5" disk manufacturer has duplicated the Sony design, 
there's one thing they haven't been able to duplicate. Sony quality. 

Such error-suppressing materials as VIVAX™ magnetic particles (the very core of 
the disk itself) have been developed by Sony. As is the case for our manufacturing pro- 
cess. It includes a burnishing technique that eliminates projections as small as 1/1 ,000,000 
of a millimeter from the disk's surface. 

The result? Every time you use a Sony 3.5" disk you're assured you're using the 
best magnetic medium you can buy. 

With somebody else's, you can only guess. 



© 1985 Sony Tape Sales Company, A division o| Sony Corporation of America, Sony Drive, Park Ridge, New Jersey07656. Sony is a registered trademark of Sony Corporation. Vivax is a trademark of Sony Corporation. 

Inquiry 335 JULY 1985 -BYTE 81 



Inquiry 162 



ATTENTION 
BERNOULL BOXERS 

Give your IOMEGA a Boot! 



FiXT/B PLUS for 
IBM AT, XT, PC and compatibles 



FiXT/B PLUS gives you the utility of a bootable 

hard disk while preserving the performance of 

your Bernoulli Box. 

You can have it all 

with FiXT/fi PLUS! 



Golden Bow Systems 



$95-$H0 

Add $3 for shipping/ 

handling 

California residents add 

6% sales tax 




3368 Second Ave., Suite F 
San Diego, CA 92103 
(619) 298-9349 



IBM COPY 
PROTECTION 



MultiGuard provides maximum protection for your PC soft- 
ware at a reasonable price. Ten disks or thousands — formatted 
or fully duplicated. Call today for complete information. 

DISK 
COPYING 

Whether you need 50 disks or thousands, we have years 
of experience in creating the highest quality copies. Reasonable 
prices — fast turnaround. Call today for our free booklet on 
software duplication and packaging. 



Call ALF first 

1-800-321-4668 

in Colorado (303) 234-0871 

J^L,F ALF products • i)enver ' < 



BOOK REVIEWS 



questions of programming technique and style His discus- 
sion of speed-optimization techniques covers straight-line 
code, shared loops, table-lookup methods, and minimal 
use of subroutines, in time-critical sections. 

With the Apple (as with any other computer), the abil- 
ity to create the smallest possible program is often im- 
portant. Lancaster discusses several techniques for doing 
this, such as custom interpreters, memory overlays, com- 
pressed text and picture files, and options for building 
relocatable code modules; he illustrates many of these 
concepts with examples from commercial programs. 

Lancaster devotes two chapters to the mechanics of edit- 
ing assembler source-code files. He deals with the use of 
the line-oriented editor supplied in the EDASM package 
and extols the advantages of the screen-oriented Apple 
Writer word processor for source-code editing. 1 found this 
discussion repetitive and wordy. Lancaster belabors the 
differences between the two approaches; one short 
chapter would have been sufficient. 

The eight assembly-language modules presented in the 
remainder of the text amply demonstrate efficient pro- 
gramming techniques. The reader is treated to Lancaster's 
humorous style as his analysis of these routines reveals 
the secrets of writing quick and compact Apple programs. 
Each programming example highlights several specific 
techniques, many of which are further illustrated through 
examples of similar methods used in actual commercial 
programs. Lancaster has obviously spent many hours dig- 
ging into the innards of several popular software packages. 

The actual code examples Lancaster presents include 
subroutines for generating random numbers, sound 
effects, and music; handling message strings; and select- 
ing program options using a table-driven subroutine. Lan- 
caster includes complete source listings and flowcharts for 
all the routines. He also includes an additional module, 
called an "empty shell," that lists about 200 label names 
equated to base-page locations, entry points to DOS and 
Applesoft routines, soft switches, and other hardware- 
specific memory locations. 

Assembly Cookbook for the Apple WlWe is written with a free- 
wheeling, irreverent style. If you approach personal com- 
puter programming from an academic perspective and are 
looking for a computer science textbook, you will be 
disappointed. Lancaster writes using both slang and 
humor, and many of the commercial programming exam- 
ples are from games rather than business applications. 
If you are new to the Apple culture, the anecdotes and 
examples make the learning process more interesting and 
concrete. Besides developing the fundamentals of assem- 
bly-language programming, the book provides good in- 
sight into many of the practical issues that must be ad- 
dressed when writing commercial software. 

Assembly Cookbook succeeds in addressing the needs of 
programmers new to assembly language as well as those 
considering writing commercial software for the Apple. 
The two groups obviously have different needs, but Lan- 
caster emphasizes techniques of interest to both. 



82 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 22 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Roger Cox (POB 45, Pitkin. CO 81241) is a consulting engineer 
specializing in computer technology and signal processing. 



1985 PROGRAMMER'S MARKET 
Reviewed by E. Francis Avila 

Writer's Digest Books has for many years produced 
popular guides for writers and artists in many 
fields. Like the annual Writer's Market, the 1985 Programmer's 
Market is a gold mine of information. Freelance program- 
mers and technical writers could benefit from the data and 
advice on selling software creations in the competitive 
microcomputer marketplace. 

Edited by Brad M. McGehee, author of The Complete Guide 
to Writing Software User Manuals (Cincinnati, OH: Writer's 
Digest Books, 1984), this book is patterned after the other 
publications in the "market" series. 

Under one cover you will find a comprehensive listing 
of more than 700 software publishers from across the 
country that are looking to buy commercially marketable 
programs. McGehee includes with each publisher's entry: 
a name to contact (very important); hardware specifics and 
operating systems: the publisher's software needs: pro- 
cedures for submitting your software idea; payment 
schedules; types of contract work; examples of the com- 
pany's published programs; need for technical writers; and 
tips on how to break into the market. 

Good News and Bad News 

The 1985 Programmer's Market reads like a "Who's Who" in 
the software industry. It purports to list those microcom- 
puter software publishers (from the famous to the obscure) 
that claim to be actively seeking freelance software and 
technical writing expertise. That's the good news. 

Here's the bad news. 1 sent query letters to four well- 
known software houses and four I'd never heard of. In 
choosing these companies. 1 tried to match my expertise 
with their needs (as described in Programmer's Market). I 
included stamped self-addressed envelopes. Well, more 
than six months has passed and I've heard not a word. 
I'm not encouraged. 

Obviously, polling 8 out of 700-plus entries cannot be 
considered a representative sampling of software pub- 
lishers. Certainly 1 recognize the possibility that my 
qualifications did not interest those that 1 queried. At 
minimum, 1 expected to get back my stamped envelopes. 

In the 1985 Programmer's Market, McGehee paints an op- 
timistic, albeit cautious, picture of the current state of free- 
lance programming and technical writing. Given his en- 
couragement, to say that 1 was disappointed in the 
response to my query letters is an understatement. Never- 
theless, experience in the world of publishing tells me to 
give it another try. ■ 

E. Francis Avila (POB 4401, Auburn, CA 95604) is a freelance 
writer! programmer working on a degree in mathematics. 



SuperSoft 
Diagnostics 

When Reliability 
Counts 



Protect yourself from time-robbing system failure. 
Pinpoint costly hardware problems before they 
cause serious trouble. Diagnostics 11 from Super- 
Soft can help you eliminate hardware problems, 
service calls, and data loss due to system failure. 

End Users 

Diagnostics 11 is the finest set of system diag- 
nostics available for microcomputers. It thoroughly 
checks memory, CPU, terminal, printer, and disk 
drives - isolating many problems to the chip 
level. It checks both standard and non-standard 
components, including non-IBM add-ons. The 
memory test is particularly powerful; incorpo- 
rating a quick test, walking bit test, bum-in test, 
and speed test to make sure every bit of memory 
is completely reliable. 

Manufacturers 

Hardware manufacturers, systems houses, and 
service organizations - we can tailor our diag- 
nostics software to your specific needs. We have 
developed custom diagnostics for companies 
such as NCR, XEROX, MORROW DESIGNS, and 
SONY From easy to operate user level diagnostics 
to exhaustive service level tests, we can provide 
the expertise you need. 

So whether you're an end user, service technician, 
or system manufacturer, get SuperSofts Diag- 
nostics 11 for yourself and keep your system 
in great shape. 

Diagnostics II 

(for all PC DOS, MS DOS, CP/M-86, and 

CP/M-80 systems): $125 

Call for pricing on customized versions. 

TO ORDER CALL 
800-762-6629 

(in Illinois call 217-359-21 12) 

or SEND YOUR CHECK OR CREDIT CARD 
INFORMATION TO THE ADDRESS BELOW. 
Add $3 shipping U.S., $6 Canada, $20 all other 
areas. Please specify your computer and operating 
system. (C.O.D. orders also accepted) 

SuperS ft 

SuperSoft, Inc. P.O. Box 1628, 
Champaign, 1L 61820 
Telex: 270365 SCJP AC1 CHM 



Inquiry 346 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 83 



THE FORTH SOURCE 1 



MVP-FORTH 

Stable - Transportable - Public Domain - Tools 

You need two primary features in a software development package ... a stable operating 
system and the ability to move programs easily and quickly to a variety of computers. 
MVP-FORTH gives you both these features and many extras. This public domain product 
includes an editor, FORTH assembler, tools, utilities and the vocabulary for the best selling 
book "Starting FORTH". The Programmer's Kit provides a complete FORTH for a variety of 
computers. Other MVP-FORTH products will simplify the development of your applications. 

MVP Books A Series 

□ Vol. 1, All about FORTH by Haydon. MVP-FORTH glossary with cross references 



to fig-FORTH. Starting FORTH, and FORTH-79 Standard. 2nd Ed. 

□ Vol. 2, MVP-FORTH Assembly Source Code. Includes IBM-PC®. 
CP/M© , and APPLE© listing for kernel 

□ Vol. 3, Floating Point Glossary by Springer 

□ Vol. 4, Expert System with source code by Park 

□ Vol. 5, File Management System with interrupt security by Moreton. 

□ Vol. 6, Expert Tutorial for Volume 4 by M & L Denck 



.$25 

S20 
S10 
S15 
S25 
S15 
S20 



FORTH DISKS 

□ APPLE by MM $100 

□ APPLE by MM.F, & G $180 

□ ATARI® valFORTH $60 

□ ATARI by PNS, F.G, & X S90 

□ C64 by HES Commodore 

64 cartridge $40 

^D C64 with EXPERT-2 by PS. 

MVP.G.F & X $99 

□ CP/M by MM $100 

□ CP/M by MM, F $140 

□ HP-75 by Cassady $150 

□ HP-85 by Lange $90 

□ IBM-PC by LM $100 
^D IBM-PC by MM $125 

□ Macintosh by MM $125 



□ ^Vol. 7, FORTH GUIDE, to MVP-FORTH by Haydon 

MVP-FORTH Software A Transportable FORTH 

□ MVP-FORTH Programmer's Kit including disk, documentation, Volumes 1, 2 & 7 
of MVP Series, and Starting FORTH. DCP/M, DCP/M 86. DZ100, DApple, 
DSTM PC. DIBM PC/XT/AT & compatibles, DPC/MS-DOS, DOsborne, 

□ Kaypro. DMicroDecisions. DDEC Rainbow, DNEC 8201. DTRS-80/100 
DHP150 ^ MACINTOSH MVP-FORTH $175 

^ □ MVP-FORTH Enhancement Package for IBM-PC/XT/AT Programmers Kit. 
Includes full screen editor, MS-DOS file interface, disk, display and 
assembler operators. $110 

□ MVP-FORTH Floating Point and Matrix Math for IBM PC/XT/AT with 
8087 or Apple with Applesoft $85 

□ MVP-FORTH Graphics Extension for IBM PC/XT/AT or Apple $65 

□ MVP-FORTH Programming Aids for CP/M, IBM or APPLE Programmer's 
Kit. Extremely useful tool for decompiling, callfinding, translating, and 
debugging. $200 

□ MVP-FORTH Cross Compiler for CP/M Programmer's Kit. Generates 
headerless code for ROM or target CPU. $300 

□ MVP-FORTH Meta Compiler for CP/M Programmer's kit. Use for 
applications on CP/M based computer. 

Includes public domain source. $150 

□ MVP-FORTH PADS (Professional Application Development System) for IBM 
PC/XT/AT or PCjr or Apple II, I IB or He. An integrated system for customizing 
your FORTH programs and applications. The editor includes a bi-directional string 
search and is a word processor specially designed for fast development. PADS 
has almost triple the compile speed of most FORTH's and provides fast debugging 
techniques. Minimum size target systems are easy with or without heads. Virtual 
overlays can be compiled in object code. PADS is a true professional development 
system. Specify Computer, $500 

□ MVP-FORTH MS-DOS file interface for IBM PC PADS $80 

□ MVP-FORTH Floating Point & Matrix Math see above $85 

□ MVP-FORTH Graphics Extension see above $65 

□ MVP-FORTH EXPERT-2 System for learning and developing knowledge based 
programs. Both IF-THEN procedures and analytical subroutines are available. 
Source code is provided. Specify DApple, DIBM, or DCP/M. Includes MVP 
Books, Vol. 4 & 6. $100 

D ^ FORTH-Writer, A Word Processor for the IBM PC/XT/AT with 256K. MVP- FORTH 
<^ compatible kernel with Files. Edit and Print systems. Includes Disk and Calculator 
systems and ability to compile additional FORTH words. 



Key to Vendors: 

HW Hawg Wild Software 
LM Laboratory Microsystems 
MM MicroMotion 
PNS Pink Noise Studio 
PS ParSec 



D Timexby HW. cassette 

D T/S 1000/ZX-81 $25 

D 2068 $30 

D Z80 by LM $100 

D 8086/88 by LM $100 

D 68000 by LM $250 
D VIC FORTH by HES, VIC20 

Cartridge $40 
D Extensions for LM Specify IBM, Z80. or 
8086 

□ Software Floating Point $100 
D 8087 Support (IBM-PC or 8086) $100 

D 951 1 Support (Z80 or 8086) $100 

D Color Graphics (Z80 or 8086} $100 

D Data Base Management $200 



Codes: 

F - Floating Point 
G - Graphics 
T - Tutorial 
X - Other Extras 



FORTH MANUALS, GUIDES & DOCUMENTS 

D Thinking FORTH by Leo Brodie, author 

of best selling "Starting FORTH" 
D ALL ABOUT FORTH by Haydon. 

MVP Glossary 
D FORTH Encyclopedia 

by Derick & Baker 
^D FYS FORTH from the Netherlands 

* D User Manual 
D Source Listing 

^jiD FORTH Tools and Applic. 
by Feierbach 
D The Complete FORTH by Winfield 
^>jlD Learning FORTH by Armstrong 
D Understanding FORTH by Reymann 
^D FORTH, An Applications Approach 

* by Toppen 
^Q FORTH Applications by Weber 

D Mastering FORTH 

by Anderson & 

Tracy 
D Beginning FORTH by Chirlian 
D FORTH Encycl. Pocket Guide 
D And So FORTH by Huang. 

A college level text. 
D FORTH Programming by Scanlon 
D STARTING FORTH by Brodie. Best 

instructional manual available. 

(soft cover) 



or 


D 68000 fig-Forth with assemble 


$25 


$16 


D F0RML Proceedings 

D 1980 D1981 Vol 1 




$25 


D 1981 Vol 2 D1982 






tf&n 1983 D1984 


each $25 


$25 


D 1981 Rochester Proceedings 

D 1981 D1982 D1983 




$25 


D 1984 


each $25 


$25 


D Bibliography of FORTH 
D The Journal of FORTH 


$17 


$19 


Application & Research 




S16 


D Vol 1/1 DVol 1/2 




$17 


D Vol 2/1 DVol 2/2 




$3 


^SJHD Vol 2/3 


each $15 




D METAF0RTH by Cassady 


$30 


$20 


D Threaded Interpretive Languages $25 


$13 


D Systems Guide to fig-FORTH 






by Ting 


$25 


$18* 


jjflD Inside F83 Manual by Ting 


$25 


D FORTH Notebook by Ting 


$25 


b1/ 


D Invitation to FORTH 


$20 


$/ 


D PDP-11 User Man. 
D 6502 User's Manual by 


$20 


Wb 


Rockwell Intl. 


$10 


81/ 


D FORTH-83 Standard 
D F0RTH-79 Standard 


$15 
$15 



$20 



D Installation Manual for fig-FORTH 

D Source Listings of fig-FORTH, Specify CPU or Computer 



$15 
$15 



Ordering Information: Check. Money Order (payable to MOUNTAIN VIEW PRESS, INC.}. 
VISA. MasterCard, American Express. COD's $5 extra. Minimum order $15. No billing or 
unpaid PO's. California residents add safes tax. Shipping costs in US included in price. 
Foreign orders, pay in US funds on US bank, include for handling and shipping by Air S5 



for each item under $25, $10 for each item between $25 and $99 and $20 for each item 
over $100. All prices and products subject to change or withdrawal without notice. Single 
system and/or single user license agreement required on some products. 



MOUNTAIN VIEW PRESS, INC. 



PO BOX 4656 



MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 



(415)961-4103 



84 B YTE • IULY 1985 



Inquiry 253 



EVENT QUEUE 



July 1985 



• GOVERNMENTAL 
COMPUTING-Managing 
Microcomputers in Govern- 
ment, various sites through- 
out the U.S. Two seminars. 
"Managing Microcomputer 
Usage in Government" and 
"Using Micros for Govern- 
ment Management." are of- 
fered. Fees range from $415 
to $795. depending upon 
duration and governmental 
or nongovernmental affilia- 
tion. Contact U.S. Profes- 
sional Development Institute. 
1620 Elton Rd.. Silver Spring. 
MD 20903, (301) 445-4400. 
\u\y 

• PBX SEMINAR 

New Generation PBX: The 
Path to Voice/Data Integra- 
tion, various sites 
throughout the U.S. This 
three-day seminar covers 
computer to PBX interfaces, 
signaling, new products, PBX 
selection and economics, 
and a comparison of 
selected vendors. The full 
registration fee is $745. Con- 
tact Data-Tech Institute. 
Lakeview Plaza, POB 2429, 
Clifton. Nl 07015. (201) 
478-5400. )uly 

• LOTUS, SYMPHONY 
SEMINAR— Seminars on 
Lotus 1-2-3 and Symphony, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. A focus on the con- 
cepts and features of these 
programs. Contact Data-Tech 
Institute, Lakeview Plaza. 
POB 2429, Clifton, NJ 07015. 
(201) 478-5400. )uly 

• CAD COURSE 

Computer-Aided Design. Col- 
orado State University. Fort 
Collins. Three-week courses 
with participants using a 
high-performance dynamic 
graphics machine. The fee is 
$800. Contact Professor 



Gearold Johnson. Center for 
Computer Assisted Engineer- 
ing, Colorado State Universi- 
ty. Fort Collins. CO 80523. 
(303) 491-5 543. )uly-August 

• ENGINEERING 
CONFERENCES-Engineer- 
ing Summer Conferences, 
Chrysler Center for Con- 
tinuing Engineering Educa- 
tion. University of Michigan. 
Ann Arbor. Conferences in 
such areas as biomedical, 
chemical, civil, computer, 
electrical, and environmental 
engineering. Contact 
Engineering Summer Con- 
ferences. 200 Chrysler 
Center, North Campus, Uni- 
versity of Michigan, Ann Ar- 
bor. Ml 48109. (313) 
764-8490. July-August 

• COMPUTER SHORT 
COURSES-The Fifteenth 
Annual Institute in Computer 
Science, University of 
California, Santa Cruz. 
Among the offerings are 
"Relational Database Man- 
agement," "Data Storage," 
and "Computer-Aided Geo- 
metric Design." Contact Sally 
Thomas. University of 
California Extension, Santa 
Cruz. CA 95064. (408) 
429-4534. ]uly-August 

• SOFTWARE COURSES 
Software Short Courses, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. Among the courses are 
"UNIX: A Hands-on Intro- 
duction." "Programming in 
C: A Hands-on Workshop," 
and "Software Requirements. 
Specifications, and Tests." 
Contact Integrated Computer 
Systems. 6305 Arizona 



Place. POB 45405, Los 
Angeles. CA 90045. (800) 
421-8166; in California. (800) 
352-8251 or (2*13) 417-8888: 
in Canada. (800) 228-6799. 
July-August 

• COMPUTER TRAINING 
Computer Training Programs, 
Wintergreen Learning In- 
stitute, Wintergreen. VA. 
Hands-on training in word 
processing, information 
management, spreadsheets, 
and graphics. Contact Dr. 

M. D Corcoran. Wintergreen 
Learning Institute. POB 7. 
Wintergreen, VA 22958, 
(804) 325-1107. 
\uly-September 

• DEVELOPMENT 
SEMINARS-Professional 
Development Seminars, 
various sites around Boston. 
MA. A brochure describing 
one- and two-day seminars 
on computer competence, 
management, sales, and 
finance is available. Contact 
Boston University Metro- 
politan College. 755 
Commonwealth Ave., Boston, 
MA 02215. (800) 255-1080; 
in Massachusetts, (617) 
738-5020. 

July-September 

• SME CONFERENCES, 
EXPOS— Conferences and 
Expositions from the Society 
of Manufacturing Engineers, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. For a calendar, contact 
the Society of Manufacturing 
Engineers. Public Relations 
Department. One SME Dr.. 
POB 930. Dearborn. Ml 
48121. (313) 271-0777. 
July-November 



IF YOU WANT your organization's public activities listed in BYTE's Event 
Queue, we need to know about them at least four months 'in advance. Send 
information about computer conferences, seminars, workshops, and courses 
to BYTE. Event Queue. POB 372. Hancock. NH 03449. 



• SNA SEMINAR 

IBM's Systems Network Ar- 
chitecture (SNA) Seminar, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. Covers such topics as 
local-area networks. SNA 
distribution services, and 
personal computer connec- 
tions. Contact Communica- 
tions Solutions Inc., 992 
South Saratoga-Sunnyvale 
Rd.. San Jose. CA 95129, 
(408) 72 5-1568. 
]uly-December 

• PICK EDUCATION 
Pick System Educational 
Series, various sites through- 
out the U.S. and Europe. 
Seminars and workshops on 
the Pick operating system. 
Contact JES & Associates 
Inc.. POB 19274. Irvine. CA 
92713. (714) 786-2211. 
July-December 

• PERSONAL COMPUTER 
COMMUNICATIONS-Data 
Communications and Net- 
working for the IBM PC and 
Other Personal Computers, 
Atlanta. GA. Topics to be 
addressed include asyn- 
chronous connections, syn- 
chronous mainframe connec- 
tions, data integrity, and per- 
sonal computer networking. 
The fee is $695. Group dis- 
counts are offered. Contact 
Software Institute of 
America Inc.. 8 Windsor St., 
Andover. MA 01810. (617) 
470-3880. )uly 8-9 

• ADVANCED 
AUTOMATION-Robot 
Manipulators. Computer Vi- 
sion, and Automated 
Assembly. Cambridge, MA. 
Contact Director of the Sum- 
mer Session, Room El 9-3 56, 
Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Cambridge, MA 
02139. )uly 8-12 

[continued] 



IULY 1985 'BYTE 85 



Inquiry 306 



DISK DRIV€ SUBSYSTEMS 

\\l PC-INSIDCR OR PC-OUTSIDCR \\\ 
III HRRD DISK S€RI€S FOR IBM III 

1 TO 1 1 6 Mb FORMATTED Ul/ Controller 

And All Necessary Cables, Hardware And 
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TRP€ DRIVC OPTION For IBM-PC $1^525 

"" 26Mb CiPHCR'sTD 'hts V/rCMTRDM"" 

DRIVC UJ/ Cabinet,_Cables_& Software $775 

"^du'roRbcRiVR'mbToR - ^"' 

OURNITV PRICING ON HRRD DISKS: 
Amcody ne Me&Qor Microscience OUflfiTUin 

MITSUBISHI MICROPflLISRODIME landan 
' "" Q^l/v/^e/n" 27"."l 26Mb"5V4"" 
GCTCRNRl SUBSYSTCMS from $1,525 

""nMPlWV^biSKT/6"BV"lOTIM€S" " 

Over The Fastest 5 1/4" Drives Ullth The 

50Mb RMCODVNC SUBSVSTCM 

Available For COMPUPRO CONCURRENT 

DOS 8-1 6JURBODOS, find MS-DOS 

Ul/ 25Mb Removable Cartridge For 5 Min. Back-Up, 

Ultimate Data Securlty/flrchlval And A Very 

efficient Networking Solution From $4,795 

£?=*£*£* (800) SEE PAGE 431 
mm—mmSwS*. 528-3138 FOR OTHER MDSE 



The 



Data Switch 



\W!£ : ifflSSS- 








A 


B 


^WPlk 


• 


• 


■ '^lk5 w ° 0et * fl " 25 







DATA SPEC presents the affordable data switch. At $59.95* you 
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with the following quality features: 



Full metal construction 

Completeshielding (Exceeds FCC. 

requirements) 

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Anti-skid feet 



• All 25 pins switched 

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• Safe "break before make" 
operation 

• One year warranty 



Isn't it about time you benefit from high performance at affordable 
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mutism* 



FROM ALLIANCE RESEARCH CORPORATION 

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'Manufacturer's suggested retail price for model AB-25. A/B switch. A/B/C (25 or 36 pin 
configurations) and cross matrix data switches are also available. 

©Copyright 1985 Alliance Research Corporation 

Inquiry 395 for End-Users. 
Inquiry 396 for DEALERS ONLY 



EVENT QUEUE 



• COMPUTATIONAL 
LINGUISTICS-The Twenty- 
Third Annual Meeting of the 
Association for Computa- 
tional Linguistics, University 
of Chicago, IL. Papers, dem- 
onstrations, and tutorials. 
Contact Don Walker (ACL). 
Bell Communications Re- 
search, 44 5 South St.. Mor- 
ristown, NJ 07960, (201) 
829-4312. July 8-12 

• SYMPHONY TIPS 
Advanced Symphony, 
Georgia Institute of Tech- 
nology. Atlanta. Areas 
covered include auto-dialing 
to remote computers and 
"smart" spreadsheets using 
artificial-intelligence con- 
cepts to preanalyze numeric 
outputs. The fee is $390. 
Contact 'Irish Stolton. De- 
partment of Continuing 
Education. Georgia Institute 
of Technology, Atlanta, GA 
30332. (404) 894-2547. 

luly 9-10 

• CONSULTANT TRAINING 
Learn How to Be a Suc- 
cessful Independent Com- 
puter Consultant. Honolulu, 
HI. The risks and rewards of 
consulting, planning and 
marketing, legal considera- 
tions, and resources are 
covered. Contact Education 
Technology Center Inc.. Suite 
1042. 485 Fifth Ave.. New 
York. NY 10017, (212) 
505-6148. July 13 

• AWC CONFERENCE 

The Fourth Annual National 
Conference of the Associa- 
tion for Women in Comput- 
ing. Allerton Hotel. Chicago. 
IL. Workshops and sessions 
on technical and career- 
enhancement topics. For 
more information, contact 
loan Wallbaum. AWCC '85. 
407 Hillmore Dr.. Silver 
Spring, MD 20901. 
]uly 13-14 

• THE NCC 

The 1985 National Com- 
puter Conference: NCC '85. 
McCormick Place, Chicago, 
IL. Exhibits, technical ses- 



sions, and development 
seminars. This year's theme 
is "Technology's Expanding 
Horizons." Contact Helen 
Mugnier. AFIPS. 1899 
Preston White Dr.. Reston. 
VA 22091. (703) 620-8926. 
luly 15-18 

• iRMX USERS MEET 

The iRUG Annual Interna- 
tional Conference. Palmer 
House. Chicago. IL. The 
theme is "The Future Direc- 
tion of Real-Time Software 
Applications." iRUG is a non- 
profit organization made up 
of Intel iRMX operating sys- 
tem users. Contact Catherine 
Moon, MS/HF2-57, Intel 
Corp.. 5200 Northeast Elam 
Young Parkway, Hillsboro. 
OR 97123. (503) 640-7038. 
luly 17 

• DATA SWITCHING 
Distributed Data Switching 
Seminar. Washington. DC. A 
one-day seminar on the 
technology and application 
of distributed data switching 
in telecommunications. The 
fee is $395. Contact Time- 
plex Seminars. 400 Chestnut 
Ridge Rd.. Woodcliff Lake. 

Nj 07675. (201) 930-4600. 
luly 18 

• PERSONAL COMPUTER 
COMMUNICATIONS-Data 
Communications and Net- 
working for the IBM PC and 
Other Personal Computers. 
New York. NY. See July 8-9 
for details, lulu 22-23 

• SIMULATION 

The 1985 Summer Computer 
Simulation Conference: 
SCSC '85. Westin Hotel. 
Chicago. IL. Contact Charles 
Pratt. Society for Computer 
Simulation, POB 2228. La 
jolla. CA 92038. (619) 
4 59-3888. luly 22-26 

• COMPUTER 
WORKSHOPS-Personal 
Computer Workshops. Aspen 
and Colorado Springs, CO. 
Tutorials, including an intro- 
duction to personal com- 

{continued) 



86 BYTE • IULY 1985 



THE PROFESSIONAL'S CHOICE 



Lotus 
1-2-3 

Call 



Lotus 
Symphony 

Call 



dBase III I FrameWork MultiMate 

$349 *349 *849 



Word 
Perfect 

*809 



Software 



Word Processing Editors 

FANCY FONT $139 

FINAL WORD $189 

MICROSOFT WORD $229 

MULTIMATE $249 
OFFICE WRITER/ 

SPELLER $279 

PFS: WRITE $ 95 

SAMNA WORD III $279 
VOLKSWRITER 

DELUXE $159 
VOLKSWRITER 

SCIENTIFIC $279 
THE WORD PLUS 

(OASIS) $105 

WORD PERFECT $209 

WORDSTAR $199 

WORDSTAR 2000 $269 

WORDSTAR 20004 $309 

WORDSTAR PRO $259 

XYWRITE II+ $199 



Spreadsheets/ 

Integrated Packages 

ELECTRIC DESK $209 

ENABLE $359 

FRAMEWORK $349 

LOTUS 1-2-3 SCaii 

MULTIPLAN $135 

OPEN ACCESS $359 

SAMNA PLUS $379 

SMART SYSTEM $559 
SPREADSHEET 

AUDITOR $ 79 

SUPERCALC 3 $179 

SYMPHONY $Ca)l 

TK! SOLVER $269 

Languages/Utilities 

CONCURRENTDOS $189 

C86C COMPILER $299 
DIGITAL RESEARCH 

C COMPILER $219 

DR FORTRAN 77 $219 

LATTICE C COMPILER $299 
MICROSOFT C 

COMPILER $249 

MS BASIC COMPILER $249 

MS FORTRAN $239 

NORTON UTILITIES $ 69 

TURBO PASCAL $ 59 



Database Systems 

ALPHA DATA BASE 

MANAGER II $179 

CLIPPER $CaJI 

CLOUT V 2.0 $139 

CONDOR III $299 

CORNERSTONE $329 

DBASE II $299 

DBASE III $349 

INFOSTAR+ $319 

KNOWLEDGEMAN $269 
PFS: FILE/PFS: 

REPORT $169 

POWERBASE $319 

QUICKCODE III $169 

QUICKREPORT $169 

R BASE 4000 $249 

Project Management 
HARVARD PROJECT 

MANAGER $209 
HARVARD TOTAL 

PROJECT MANAGER $269 
MICROSOFT 

PROJECT $159 

PERTMASTER $549 
SCITOR PROJECT 

5000W/GRAPHICS $259 

SUPERPROJECT $199 

TIME LINE $259 

Desktop Environments 

DESK ORGANIZER $129 

SIDEKICK $ 45 

SPOTLIGHT $109 

Accounting 

BPI $329 

GREAT PLAINS $479 

IUS EASYBUSINESS $279 

ONE WRITE PLUS $199 

OPEN SYSTEMS $379 

PEACHTREE $299 

REAL WORLD $469 

STATE OF THE ART $389 
STAR ACCOUNTING 

PARTNER $249 
STAR ACCOUNTING 

PARTNER II $549 

Personal Finance 
DOLLARS AND 

SENSE $119 
HOWARD TAX 

PREPARER 85 $195 
MANAGING YOUR 

MONEY $129 



Graphics/Statistics 
ABSTAT 
AUTOCAD 
BPS BUSINESS 

GRAPHICS 
CHARTMASTER 
CHARTSTAR 
DR DRAW 
ENERGRAPHICS W/ 

PLOTTER 
EXECUVISION 
GRAPHWRITER 

COMBO 
MS CHART 
OVERHEAD 

EXPRESS 
PC DRAW 
PC PAINTBRUSH 
PFSrGRAPH 
SIGNMASTER 
STATPAK-NWA 
STATPAC- 

WALONICK 
SYSTAT 



$279 
$1475 

$229 
$239 
$209 
$199 

$279 
$259 

$359 
$159 

$139 
$259 
$ 89 
$ 95 
$179 
$329 

$349 
$419 



Professional Development 


EXPERTEASE 


$CaH 


MANAGEMENT EDGE 


$159 


SALES EDGE 


$159 


THINK TANK 


$119 


Communications/ 




Productivity Tools 




CROSSTALK 


$105 


PROKEY 


$ 89 


RELAY 


$ 99 


SMARTCOM II 


$109 



Display Boards 
EVEREX GRAPHICS 

EDGE $329 

HERCULES GRAPHICS 

CARD $299 

HERCULES COLOR 

CARD $169 

PARADISE MODULAR 

GRAPHICS $275 

PARADISE 

MULTIDISRLAY CARD $295 
PERSYST BOB $449 

PRINCETON SCAN 

DOUBLER $Call 

SIGMA COLOR 400 $559 

STB GRAPHICS 

PLUS II $309 

TECMAR GRAPHICS 

MASTER $479 

TSENG ULTRA PAK $399 

TSENG ULTRA PAK-S $349 



Networks 

AST PC NET $Call 

CORVUS NET $Cail 

ORCHID PC NET $Call 

3 COM $Call 



Mass Storage/Backup 
IOMEGA BERNOULLI 

BOX $2695 

MT25 TAPE BACKUP $885 

TALLGARSSTG5025 $2945 

SYSGEN IMAGE $850 

SYSGEN QICFILE $Cail 



Input Devices 

KEYTRONIC 5151 $179 

KOALA SCall 

MICROSOFT MOUSE $139 

PC MOUSE W PAINT $159 



Hardware 4 



Displays 
AMDEK310A 
PRINCETON HX-12 
PRINCETON MAX-12 
PRINCETON SR-12 
QUADRAM 

AMBERCHROME 
TAXAN 122 AMBER 
TAXAN 420/440 
ZENITH 124 AMBER 
ZENITH 135 COLOR 



$169 
$459 
$179 
$599 

$179 
$159 
$399/599 
$145 
$Call 



Printers/Plotters 
C. ITOH 

DIABLO 620/630 
EPSON FX-80+ 
EPSON FX-100+ 
EPSON LQ-1500 
HP 7475A PLOTTER 
JUKI 6100 
NEC P3 COLOR 
NECP3 
NEC 2050 
NEC 3550 
OKIDATA 84P/93P 
PANASONIC 
QUME SPRINT 1155 
STAR SG/SR/SD 
TOSHIBA PI340 
TOSHIBA P351 



$Cail 
$Call 
$349 
$499 
$999 
$Call 
$419 

$1099 
$799 
$769 

$1139 

$729/619 

$Call 

$1569 
$Call 
$779 

$1279 



Emulation Boards 




AST 


$Calt 


CXI 3278/9 


$950 


IRMA 


$799 
$999 


IRMALINE 


IRMAPRINT 


$Call 


QUAD 3278 


$949 


Modems 




AST REACH 1200 


$Call 


HAYES 1200 


$389 


HAYES 1200B 


$385 


HAYES 2400 


$609 


VENTEL1200 




HALF CARD 


$379 



Multifunction Boards 

AST ADVANTAGE $375 

AST 6 PAK PLUS (64K) $259 

AST 6 PAK PLUS (384K) $339 
ORCHID BLOSSOM 

(64K) 4289 

ORCHID PC TURBO $739 
PERSYST TIME SPECTRUM 

(64K) $259 

QUADBOARD (OK) $229 

QUADBOARD (384K) $329 
TECMAR CAPTAIN 

(64K) 
TECMAR JR CAPTAIN 

(128K) 

TECMAR JR WAVE (64K) $249 

TECMAR MAESTRO $429 

TECMAR WAVE (64K) $209 

Accessories 
CURTIS SURGE 

PROTECTORS $Call 

DATASHIELD BACKUP 

POWER $CaJJ 

GILTRONIX A/B SWITCH $Call 
MICROBUFFER INLINE 

(64K) $264 

MICROFAZER INLINE 

(64K) $219 

64K RAM SET $25 



$Cafl 
$329 



I SET 
256KRAMSET 
8087 MATH CHIP 



$ 79 
$150 



'CALL FOR SHIPPING COSTS 




Smartmodem I Smartmodem 
1200B 2400 




LOWEST PRICE 
GUARANTEE!! 

We will match current 

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Call and compare. 



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free' 

Diskette 
Library 
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$609 




1-S00-221-1260 



TERMS: 

Checks— allow 14 days to clear. Credit processing— add 3%. COD orders—cash, 
M.O or certified check— add $3.00. Shipping and handling UPS surface— add $3.00 
per item {UPS Blue $6.00 per item). NY State Residents— add applicable sales tax. 
All prices subject to change. 



In New York State call (718) 438-6057 






pssM 



MON.-THURS. 9:00AM-8:00PM 
SUN. & FRI. 9:00AM-4:00PM 





Softline Corporation 
P.O. Box 729, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11230 
TELEX: 421 047 ATLN Ul 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 87 




Finally A Video Board That Leaves The Confusion Behind. 



On an IBM™ monochrome monitor 
(or equivalent), STB's Chauffeur 
displays color/graphics software in 
full-screen format and no software 
modifications are necessary. 
Of course, we built the Chauffeur . 
to work with the family of IBM PCs 
and compatibles. Our new video 
board is software compatible 
with the IBM Color/Graphics 
Adapter, as well as hardware and 
software compatible with the IBM 
Monochrome/Printer Adapter. 

No More Confusion 

No more mixing and matching 
hardware with software. The 



Chauffeur converts graphics 
display into a format compatible 
with the IBM monochrome monitor. 
For you, that means no more 
worries about preboot software. 
Best of all, you don't have to deal 
with those drivers anymore. 

Follow The Leader 

STB's Chauffeur is clearly the 
leader in video boards. It converts 
colors to a 16 level grey scale, and 
gives you a graphics display that 
fills a monochrome screen. 
For graphics, the Chauffeur 
supports the same resolutions as 
the IBM Color/Graphics Adapter. 



For text, our board produces 
a high quality monochrome 
character set. 

STB's Chauffeur includes a 
parallel port, an optional clock/ 
calendar and our exclusive PC 
Accelerator™, for print spooling 
and high speed disk emulation. 
You also get our one year warranty 
and an illustrated manual with 
thorough instructions. 

Relax And Enjoy The View 

Buy the Chauffeur now. Put it in 
your system and enjoy watching 
graphics on your monochrome 
monitor. 




STB Systems, Inc. 



© 1985 STB Systems, Inc: 



IBM registered trademark of International Business 
Machines Corp. PC Accelerator trademark of ResiCorp. 
Flight Simulator trademark of Microsoft. PC Paintbrush 
trademark of Z-Soft. The Chauffeur trademark of STB 
Systems, Inc. 









Avoid The Crazy Drivers 
In The Graphics Jam 
With STB's Chauffeur 




Flight Simulator™ 



Finally you can buy the most popular IBM color/graphics 
software with no worries about hardware compatibility. 
STB's Chauffeur video board produces monochrome display 
without preboot software or those crazy drivers. 




PC Paintbrush 1 



Write For A Free Info Pack Today. i nquiry 34 , 

STB Systems, Inc., 601 North Glenville, Richardson, Texas 75081 



STB Systems, Inc. 






Now Showing 
In Black And White 



If you own an IBM-PC 
or PC work-alike, 
Roland's new MB-142 
monitor lets you show off 
your text and graphics in 
today's hottest colors- 
black and white. That's 
right! The MB-142 gives 
you black characters on a 
paper-white background- 
just like people have been 
reading for centuries. You 
can also have white char- 
acters on a black back- 
ground with just the touch 
of a button. 

Both of these black and 
white display formats are 
easier on the eyes and 
less fatiguing than the green 
or amber phosphor used in 
standard monochrome 
monitors. The MB-142's 
large 14-inch screen, com- 
bined with its ultra-high 
720 x 350 resolution, 
can display characters 
that are larger and 
more legible than what 
you can get with ordi- 
nary monochrome 
monitors. Another 
great plus is that the 
MB-142 plugs directly 
into the monochrome 
board of your IBM or com- 
patible—just like your pres- 
ent monochrome monitor, 
with nothing more to buy. 

Because of the MB-142's 
advanced electronic cir- 
cuitry, you even have the 
ability to mix graphics and 
text on the same display 
when using graphics and text 
boards from leading manu- 
facturers such as Persyst, 
STB, Paradise, Hercules, AST 
and many others. What makes 
it all possible? The same 
sophisticated technology 
used in color monitors. 




the MB-142 
supports 
all the 
winning 
cards 



1 usha 
button for 
instant reverse 
screen 





for business, 
black and 
white makes 
more sense 
than green 
and black 



the big difference is 
1 that the MB-142 
monitor does the job for 
significantly less money. 
The MB-142 is designed 
to interface economically, 
too. Imagine seeing your 
favorite business graphics 
or CAD/CAM packages, 
such as Lotus 1-2-3, Ener- 
graphics, Chart-Master, 
AutoCAD, CADDraft and 
VersaCAD, in ultra-high 
resolution black and 
white. Also, take full 
advantage of your pro- 
gram's windowing 
capability using the large 
14-inch screen. 
Thke a good look at the 
differences that set the 
MB-142 apart from the rest. 
No other monochrome 
monitor gives you the 
fatigue-free black and 
white viewing, text and 
graphics capabilities 
and easy interface. 
Naturally enough, 
the MB-142 is from 
Roland DG-the 
new computer 
peripherals company 
that's pointing the way 
to the future. Look for 
this and other Roland 
products at fine com- 
puter dealers 
everywhere. 
For more information, 
contact: Roland DG, 
7200 Dominion Circle, Los 
Angeles, CA 90040. 
(213) 685-5141. 



The softwareprograms listed are trademarks 
of the following companies: AutoCAD, 
AUTODESK, Inc.; CADDraft, Personal CAD 
Systems, Inc.; Chart-Master, Decision 
Resources, Inc.; Energraphics, Enertronic 
Research, Inc.; Lotus 1-2-3, Lotus Develop- 
ment Corp.; VersaCAD, T&W Systems, Inc. 



Roland DG 



90 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 305 



EVENT QUEUE 



puters, word processing, 
spreadsheets, and database 
management. Contact Rocky 
Mountain Institute of Soft- 
ware Engineering, 1670 Bear 
Mountain Dr., POB 3521. 
Boulder, CO 80303. (303) 
499-4782. ]uly 22-26 

• S1GGRAPH 

SIGGRAPH '85: The Twelfth 
Annual Conference on Com- 
puter Graphics and Inter- 
active Techniques, Moscone 
Center, San Francisco, CA. 
Contact SIGGRAPH '85, 
Conference Services Office, 
Smith, Bucklin and Asso- 
ciates Inc., 1 1 1 East Wacker 
Dr., Chicago, IL 60601, (312) 
644-6610. \u\y 22-26 

• AIRBORNE COMPUTING 
SAFETY-Meeting of the 
Radio Technical Commission 
for Aeronautics, Washington, 
DC. Special Committee 1 56 
convenes at 9:30 a.m. to 
discuss the possible hazards 
posed by the use of lap-top 
computers in airplanes. Con- 
tact Radio Technical Com- 
mission for Aeronautics, 
Suite 500, 1425 K St.. 
Washington, DC 20005. (202) 
682-0266. ]uly 23-24 

• INTELLIGENT MACHINES 
Logic Programming & Expert 
Systems, The TUring Institute, 
Edinburgh. Scotland. Lec- 
tures, demonstrations, and 
sessions on programming 
techniques, system structure, 
and Prolog. Contact The Hir- 
ing Institute. 2 Hope Park 
Square. Edinburgh EH8 
9NW, Scotland: tel: 
031-668-1737. }uly 24-25 

• TECH CONFERENCE 

Semi-Official Get-together: 
SOG IV. Central Oregon 
Community College, Bend, 
OR. Sponsored by Micro 
Cornucopia, this conference 
features forums on commu- 
nications and single-board 
systems design. Admission is 
free. Contact Micro 
Cornucopia Inc.. POB 223, 
Bend. OR 97709. (503) 
382-8048. ]uly 25-28 



• CHEMICAL 
ENGINEERING-The 
Seventh C.C.C.E. National 
Computer Workshops-East. 
Clarkson University. 
Potsdam. NY. Sponsored by 
the American Chemical 
Society Division of Chemical 
Education's Committee on 
Computers in Chemical 
Education and Project 
SERAPHIM. Advanced regis- 
tration is $100. Contact Dr. 
Donald Rosenthal. Depart- 
ment of Chemistry. Clarkson 
University, Potsdam. NY 
13676. (315) 268-6647. 

]uly 28-August I 

• PUBLIC COMPUTING 
The Twenty-Third Annual 
Conference of the Urban 
and Regional Information 
Systems Association. Westin 
Hotel. Ottawa. Ontario. 
Canada. The conference 
theme is "Computers in 
Public Agencies, Sharing 
Solutions." Contact URISA 
Secretariat, Suite 300, 1340 
Old Chain Bridge Rd., 
McLean. VA 22101. (703) 
790-174 5. )uly 28-August I 

• AI. EXPERT SYSTEMS 
BRIEFING-Artificial In- 
telligence and Expert Sys- 
tems: What Users and Sup- 
pliers Must Know Today to 
Deploy These Technologies 
as Profitable Strategic Cor- 
porate Resources Tomorrow, 
Park Plaza. Boston, MA. A 
one-day executive briefing. 
The fee is $790. Contact Ms 
Lee Burgess, Professional 
Development Programs, 
Rensselaer Polytechnic In- 
stitute, TVoy Building, Troy, 
NY 12180-3590. (518) 
266-6589. ]uly 29 

• COMPUTERS AND 
EDUCATION-The 1985 
World Conference on Com- 
puters in Education, SCOPE 
Convention Center, Norfolk, 
VA. Exhibits, papers, panel 
sessions, tutorials, and 
preconference workshops. 
Contact WCCE/85. AFIPS. 
1899 Preston White Dr.. 

[continued) 



"i 



Switch boxes are sold by many 
suppliers, but by far the two best 
value s are from MFJ Enterprises." 




a* 



The MFJ RS-232 Transfer 
Switch. Buy it before the manu- 
facturer conies to his senses!" 




p«rt expansion. Don't keep plugging 

your computer to your high -speed printer, 

RS-232 peripheral device. MFJ's range of 

your needs at a price you can afford. 

these prices. Compare others at 

their reviews. When they won't 




J ( x: Campbell, The RS-232 Solution 
Syfoex Computer Books 

Now you can have reliable and affordable 
and unplugging cables. You can easily switc 
letter-quality printer, modem, terminal - any 
Transfer Switches includes one to fit 
Look at these choices; then look at 
any price! Then ask them for 
show you, call MFJ . . . 

When you need to switch between two peripherals ... or you need to have two 
computers sharing the same peripheral . . . Model 1240/$79.95 

Never unplug a cable again. Now, with the push of a button you can go from dot matrix to letter- 
quality printing, or go from your printer 
to your modem. MFJ's Model 1240 ^ 

Transfer Switch features a built-in 
transmit/receive switch allowing you 
two-way information flow LEDs moni- 
tor important data lineswhile a built-in 
surge protector guards them. The 1240 
also acts as a null modem. All this for 
just l79.95.No wonder its MFJ's No. I seller! 

When you need l-to-4 computers to share one peripheral or l-to-4 peripherals 
to share a common computer . . . Model 1243/ $ 1 19.95 

l"he perfect office Transfer Switch. Don't buy multiple printers 
or modems. Just buy MFJ's Model 1243. Then you can connect 
one or all your computers to a single 
printer or modem. Or let your one 
computer share up to four peri- 
pherals. Think of the money you'll 
save. LEDs monitor important data lines while a built-in surge 
protector guards them. Two-way communication is allowed with 
no complicated software to learn: just push a button! 

Seven additional models to choose from. Each unit's casing 
is constructed from high-quality aluminum. Printed circuit boards 
assure maximum reliability by eliminating crosstalk, line interference and any need for wiring. 
All MFJ switches have LEDs to monitor data lines anct MOV surge protectors. Enhance the 
investment you've already made in your computer by choosing from the finest line of Transfer 
Switches on the market, including MFJ's IBM & Centmnics Parallel Sivitches. 

You've got a lot of money tied up in your computer. Don*t blow it! 

Your valuable computer and peripheral equipment can be damaged by electrical surges 
much smaller than you've been led to believe. Far more likely to happen is having your impor- 
tant data wiped out These disasters, and others, can be prevented with MFJ** Power Centers 
Relay latches power off during power dropouts (Model 1 108). Multi-filters isolate equipment, 
eliminate interaction, noise and hash. MOVs suppress spikes and surges. MFJ's Power 
Centers a 1st) have 3 isolated, switched socketpairs, with at least one unswitched socket (so 
you can add a clock, etc.), lighted power switch, fast-acting fuse, 3- wire, 6-foot cords; 15A, 
125V, and 1875 watts. Although each model is attractively 
housed in a protective aluminum casing, these are 
heavy-duty, commercial-quality power centers. 
Watch out for fancy names that cost twice 
^j^j^v^ ^^^k. ^^tf*^fc^\ as mucn i ' ast na lf as long, and have 

half the features of MFJ's 
Centers. 





Model 1107 8 sockets, 
2 unswitched; $79-95 
Model 1108 7 sockets, I unswitched; 
with dropout relay; $99.95 
Model 1109 is like 1 107 but intelligent (switch 
on the device that's plugged into the control socket 
and every thing else comes on). $129.95 

There are other RS-232 Switches, Power Centers, and Computer Peripheral Pro- 
ducts available from MFJ. Call and talk with us about all your computing needs, and when 
you do, ask for out latest catalog. Both the call and the catalog are free. 

1 -800-647-1800 

For technical/repair information, or in Mississippi, or outside the Continental United States, 



please telephone 

l-(601)323-5869 



or telex 



53-4590 MFJSTKV 



All MFJ products come with a double guarantee we think is unmatched. Order from MFJ 
and try any product for 30 da>'s. If it doesn't satisfy your needs, just return it for a Jull refund, 
less shipping. If you keep it you can be assured of continued service with our One Year 
Unconditional Guarantee. 

Call toll-free 1-800-647-1800 and charge the products you need to your VISA or Master- 
Card, or send a check or money order, plus $5.00 shipping, and our shipping department will 
promptly have your computer peripheral on its way to you. 

MFJ Enterprises Inc. 
92 1 Louisville Road 
Starkville, MS 39759 




Inquiry 231 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 91 



High performance to cost ratio... 

Programming Chips? 



Projects develop profitably with development hardware /software from GTEK. 




MODEL 7228 - $599 
This model has all the features 
of Model 7128, plus Intelligent 
Programming Algorithims. It 
supports the newest devices 
available through 512Kbits; pro- 
grams 6x as fast as standard 
algorithims.. Programs the 2764 in 
one minute! Supports Intel 2764A 
& 27128A chips. Supports 
Tektronics, Intel, Motorola and 
other formats. 



MODEL 7956 

(with RS232 option) .... $1099. 
MODEL 7956 (stand alone) $ 979. 

GTEK's outstanding Gang Pro- 
grammer with intelligent 
algorithm can copy 8 EPROMSat 
a time! This unit is used in a pro- 
duction environment when pro- 
gramming a large number of chips 
is required. It will program all 
popular chips on the market 
through the 27512 EPROMS. It 
also supports the Intel 2764A & 
27128A chips. It will also program 
single chip processors. 

EPROM & PAL 

PROGRAMMERS 

— These features are standard from GTEK— 
Conpatible with all RS232 saial interfere pcrta • Auto select baud rate • With or without hand- 
shaking • Bidirectional XoiVXoff • CISOTR supported • Read pin oouipatihfe ROMS • Noper- 
sanatity moduks • Intel Motorola, MCS86 Hex formats • Split faribty for 16 bit data paths • 
Read, program, formatted list annmands • Interrupt drivoi — program and verify real time while 
smdingdata • Program single byte, block, or whole EPROM • Intelligent diagnostics discHn bad 
and/or erasable EPROM • Vaify assure and compare cummands • Busy light • Complete with 
Textool zero insation force socket and integral 120 VAC power (240 VAC/50Hz available) • 





MODEL 7324 - $1499 

This unit has a built-in compiler. 
The Model 7324 programs all MMI, 
National and TI 20 and 24 pin PALs. 
Has non-volatile memory. It operates 
stand alone or via RS232. Model 7322 
PAL Programmer $1249 

MODEL 7316 Pal Programmer $ 749 

Programs Series 20 PALs. Built-in PALASM compiler. 




MODEL 7128 - $429 
This model has the highest 
performance-to-price-ratio of any 
unit. This is GTEK's most popular 
unit! It supports the newest 
devices available through 
256Kbits. 



DEVICES SUPPORTED 

by GTEK's EPROM Programmers 



NMOS 


NM 


OS 


CMOS 

27C16 


EEPROM 

5213 I2816A 


MPU'S 


2758 2764A 


2508 


68764 


8748 8.7 41 H 


2716 27128 


2516 


8755 


27C16H 


5213H I2817A 


8748H 8744 


2732 27128A 


2532 


5133 


27C32H 


52B13 


8749H 8751 


2732A 27256 


2564 


5143 


27C64 


X2816 


8741 68705 


2764 27512 


68766 




27C256 


48016 


8742H 



UTILITY PACKAGES 

GTEK's PGX Utility Packages will allow you to specify a range of addresses to 
send to the programmer, verify erasure and/or set the EPROM type. The PGX Utili- 
ty Package includes GHEX, a utility used to generate an Intel HEX file. 

PALX Utility Package — for use with GTEK's Pal Programmers — allows 
transfer of PALASM® source file or ASCII HEX object code file. 

Both utility packages are available for CPM,® MSDOS,® PCDOS,® ISIS 5 and 
TRSDOS® operating systems. Call for pricing. 

CROSS ASSEMBLERS 

These assemblers are available to handle the 8748, 8751, Z8, 6502, 68X and other 
microprocessors. They are available for CPM and MSDOS computers. When order- 
ing, please specify processor and computer types. 

ACCESSORIES 



Model 7128-L1, L2, L2A 

(OEM Quantity) $259. 

Model 7128-24 $329. 

Cross Assemblers $200. 

PGX Utilities Call for pricing 

PALX Call for pricing 

Qtek 



XASM (for MSDOS) $250. 

U/V Eraser DE-4 $ 80. 

RS232 Cables $ 30. 

8751 Adapter $174. 

8755 Adapter $135. 

48 Family Adapter $ 98. 

68705 Programmer $299. 

Development Hardware/Software 
P.O. Box 289, Waveland, MS 39576 
601/467-8048 
,INC. 



GTEK. PALASM. CPM, MSDOS, PCDOS, ISIS, and TRSDOS 
are all registered trademarks. 



EVENT QUEUE 



Reston, VA 22091. (800) 
522-1985; in Virginia. (703) 
620-8900. ]uly 29-August 2 



August 1985 



• PROFESSIONAL EDUCA- 
TION SEMINARS-Advanced 
Professional Education 
Seminars, various sites 
throughout the U.S. and 
Canada. Among the titles on 
the agenda are 'UNIX/ 
XENIX: 'The IBM Persona] 
Computer," "Networking the 
IBM Personal Computer," 
and "SNA and Telecon- 
cepts." Contact the Center 
for Advanced Professional 
Education, Suite 110, 1820 
East Garry St., Santa Ana, 
CA 92705. (714) 261-0240. 
August 

• IBM PC SEMINAR 
IBM PC Seminar, various 
sites throughput the U.S. A 
three-day seminar covering 
PC hardware, PC-DOS. IBM 
PC work-alikes, and software 
selection. Contact Data-Tech 
Institute, Lakeview Plaza. 
POB 2429. Clifton. NJ 07015. 
(201) 478-5400. August 

• ENGINEERING CON- 
FERENCE, EXPO-The 1985 
ASME International Com- 
puters in Engineering Con- 
ference and Exhibition. 
Sheraton Boston Hotel, 
Boston, MA. The theme is 
"Expert Systems: A New 
Dimension in Computer 
Engineering." Contact The 
American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, 345 
East 47th St.. New York, NY 
10017. (212) 705-7100. 
August 4-8 

• COMPUTERS IN 
BIOLOGY-Computers in 
Biology, University of Notre 
Dame. Notre Dame, IN. Con- 
current, one-week courses 
on computers in bioeduca- 
tion, the classroom and 
laboratory, research, and 
biological modeling and 
simulation. Tuition is $595 



($495 for educators). Con- 
tact Professor Theodore I. 
Crovello. Biocomputing 
Short Courses. Department 
of Biology. University of 
Notre Dame, Notre Dame. 
IN 46556. (219) 239-7031. 
August 4-9 

• PREPARE FOR FACTORY 

automation-how to Plan 

for Factory Automation. 
Center for Continuing 
Engineering Education. 
University of Wisconsin- 
Extension, Milwaukee. The 
strategy, technology, 
systems, and control implica- 
tions are explored. A work- 
ing knowledge of computer 
systems, group technology. 
CAD/CAM. and manufactur- 
ing management is recom- 
mended. The fee is $890. 
Contact Center for Continu- 
ing Engineering Education, 
University of Wisconsin- 
Extension, Civic Center 
Campus, 929 North Sixth 
St.. Milwaukee, WI 53203. 
(414) 224-4191. August 5-9 

• MACROS AND 
SYMPHONY-Advanced Ap- 
plication Techniques: Using 
Symphony Macros, Dallas, 
TX. A workshop emphasiz- 
ing a building-block ap- 
proach to learning the se- 
quence of macro instruc- 
tions and how they can be 
used to solve everyday ap- 
plication needs. Contact 
Data-Tech Institute, Lakeview 
Plaza. POB 2429, Clifton. NJ 
07015. (201) 478-5400. 
August 7-8 

• EVENT FOR TRAINERS 

COMTRED '85: The National 
Computer Training and 
Education Conference and 
Exhibition, Civic Center, 
Philadelphia, PA. Seminars 
and conferences for edu- 
cators, computer trainers, 
retailers, and distributors. 
More than 50 exhibits. Pre- 
conference workshops on 
August 6. Contact National 
Computer Education Exposi- 
tions Inc.. Suite 200. 1411 

[continued) 



92 BYTE • IULY 1985 



Inquiry 163 




NEW 

A powerful multifile 
database with a 
programming language 
for only 



1 f ersaform's new XL database isn't just promises— it's here now! 
If And it offers- YES, FOR ONLY $99— all the features you'd expect in 
V a database costing 4 times as much. 
Accounting applications are XL's strength. Invoicing, purchasing, receiv- 
ables, and shipping almost create themselves as you design the forms— 
and XL transfers data between them. There's an Invoicing, A/R and Inven- 
tory application— source code included— in the package that shows how 
it's done. The power's there. And unlike packaged accounting programs, 
you can do them YOUR way. 





VersaFormXL dBASE 111* 


R-BASE4000' 


PRICE 


99 


695 


495 


STRUCTURED 








LANGUAGE 


Y 


Y " 


Y 


MULTI-FILE 


Y 


Y 


Y 


COLUMNS WITHIN 




P 


8 


DATA RECORD 


Y 


N 


N 


DATA ENTRY CHECKING 


BUILT-IN 


MUST WRITE PROGRAM 


BUILT-IN 


ONSCREEN CALC 


BUILT-IN 


MUST WRITE PROGRAM MUST WRITE PROGRAM 


FORMS OUTPUT 


BUILT-IN 


MUST WRITE PROGRAM MUST WRITE PROGRAM 


DATE ARITHMETIC 


Y 


Y 


N 


DATATYPES 


DYNAMIC 


FIXED 


FIXED 


COLUMN TOTAL OPERATOR Y 


N 


N 


QUERY BY EXAMPLE 


Y 


N <r 


EXTRA 


MAX FILE SIZE 


4MB 


OPEN 


OPEN 


MAX RECORD SIZE 


4000 


4000 


1530 


*dBASE III is a registered trademark of AshtonTate. RrBASE 4000 is a trademark of Microrim, Inc. 



XL's structured language can access multiple files. 48 built-in 
functions give control of file access, printing, and user dialogues. You'll 
develop transaction-based applications with an ease you've never 
experienced before. And all at this unheard-of low price. 
VersaForm XL's unique form-oriented data structures let you easily set 
up forms and ledgers— even those with columns! Application develop- 
ment is FAST, FAST, FAST. And since forms are the way that businesses 
already store their data, the transition is smooth. That's why VersaForm 
XL is so easy to operate even for high-turnover clerical people— it starts 
from where they are now. 

• Automatic data entry checking and on-screen calculation make trans- 
actions error-free. Stored print formats make output formatting a 
snap— you can quickly match existing paper forms. VersaForm XL's 
report generator is clear and intuitive. Designers can pre-install reports, 

Inquiry 37 



users can set up their own. 
• Query-by-forms (at no extra cost) lets users go right to the data they 
need. No query language to learn— forms are the natural language of 
business. 

Ironclad Money-Back Guarantee 

Try VersaForm XL for 30 days. If you're not fully satisfied, return it. We'll 

gladly refund your money. 

Order now, and have the pleasure of using the right tool at the right price. 

You can't lose! 

VersaForm XL runs on IBM PC, XT, AT and compatibles. Requires 192K, 

two 360KB drives, DOS 2.0 or later. Hard disk recommended. 

Standard VersaForm (single file, no language) available for 64K, 2-drive 

Apple II or 128K IBM PC. $69. 



VersaForm al 

Applied Software Technology, Dept 785, 1350 Dell Ave., Suite 206, Campbell, CA 95008 
(408) 370-2662 

Yes! Rush me Versaform XL for the IBM PC ($99) 

Standard Versaform (Single file, no language) for the IBM PC ($69) 

Apple ll(+,E,C) ($69) 

Credit card members can order by phone. 23 Sffi 

Toll-Free: 1-800-824-8145 

In California 

Toll-Free: 1-800-854-4448 

Enclose check or money order with coupon. Include $4.50 for U.S. Shipping and 
handling. $7.00 for C.O.D. California residents add 6.5% tax. 

My check or money order is enclosed Send C.O.D. 

Charge my MasterCard Visa 

Account No Expires 



PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY 

Name 

Address 

City 

Phone 



785 



_State_ 



-Zip- 



Signature. 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 93 



LOTUS USES 
FRAMEWORK 



John Spiech, President 
Lotus Performance Cars, L.P. 






Ill 

I 





Q 
Z 
< 

K 

a 

iii 



OVERNIGHT 
DELIVERY! 



•tt.^1 



Uo x- 



Purolator 
courier 



w, 



■'//, 



%, 



'(-,/ ; 



Any Price Si 
By... 



Orders Totalling 
ir 5100... Ship pad 



THAT'S BIGHT! OUR LOWEST PRICE GUARANTE. I IS « ST.U MT1VE. 

Tell us the advertiser and price ol an ^°»»«'« e ?* licatlon and we'll beat 
Z e pre ,, b\ n ^0^;Me:V O 7s P n°orrPW^o P |,en 1 s P unde, S,00 * where ,r,e 
price is not lower than Logicsott s 



DATA BASE MANAGEMENT 
KNOWLEDGEMAN $259 

Clout 2 145 

Tim IV 279 

265 



^.lai'»7.1 g |=lfflaH>'JsI»l. 



R:Base4000 

RrBate 5000 

DB Master 

dBASEIH 

Quickode III 

d Base II (New Release) 

Condor III 



Lowest Price 

475 

365 

159 

269 

349 

Data Base Mgr. II (alpha) 175 

Extended Report Writer 119 

Friday 169 

pts: file &pfs: report 165 

REVELATION 745 

Powerbase 309 

Easyfiler 235 

FINANCIAL 

DOLLARS AND SENSE $115 

Market Mgr. Plus (0ow Jones) 179 

MANAGING YOUR MONEY 119 

GRAPHICS 
CHARTMASTER $275 



GRAPHICS (com.) 
BPS Graphics. 
SIGNMASTER 

pts: graph 

Graphwriter _ 



Graphwriter Extension _ 
Graphwriter Combo Pak 

Microsoft Chart 

ENERGRAPHICS 



$289 
_195 
_85 
_319 
_319 



_485 
_175 
_259 

Energraphics (w/plotter opt.) 325 

PC Draw 295 

LANGUAGES/UTILITIES 
CONCURRENT PC DOS ,«,„«$ 175 

Pascal MT + (PC DOS) 349 

PU1 -(DR) 489 

_359 
_269 
_305 
_119 
_479 
_245 
C Compiler (MS) (New Release* 305 

Microsoft Sort 159 

Cobol Compiler (MS) 479 



LANGUAGES/UTILITIES (com.) 

Business Basic (MS) $299 

FORTRAN COMPILER (MS) _229 
C86 C Compiler 

(Computer Innovations) 329 

INThURATED/SPREADSHEETS 
LOTUS 1-2-3 $305 



Display Manager-(DR) 
Access Manager-(DR) 
LATTICE C COMPILER 
C-Food Smorgasbord 

CIS Cobol 86 (DR) 

Pascal Compiler (MS) 



Enable 

Smart Series 
FRAMEWORK 
Open Access 
Electric Desk 
SYMPHONY __ 
Supercalc 3_ 
Multiplan _ 



_305 
_579 
_355 
_395 
_229 
_429 
_175 
_129 
_279 
_85 



WORD PROCESSING (com.) 

Wordstar Pro Pac $265 

Wordstar Pro Plus 345 

WORDPERFECT (New Release,_245 

Microsoft Word 245 

MULTIMATE 249 

Volkswriter Deluxe 165 

Peachtext 5000 199 

Easywriter ll/Speller/Mailer 199 



TK! Solver 

pfs: plan 

PROJECT SCHEDULERS 
MICROSOFT PROJECT $165 

SuperProject(IUS) 245 

HARVARD TOTAL PROJECT MGR. 285 

WORD PROCESSING 

Wordstar 2000 $259 

WORDSTAR 2000 PLUS 309 



Edix & Wordix. 

Finalword 

Samna III 

Xy Write II Plus 
Think Tank _ 
pfs: write 



_255 
_225 
_325 
_255 
_125 
_85 



MISCELLANEOUS UTILITIES 
PROKEY 3.0 $89 

Norton Utilities (New Release) 65 

SIDEKICK (unprotected) 65 



CrOSStalk XVI (New Release;. 

Sideways 

Copy II PC 



DESK ORGANIZER 



_115 
_45 
_39 
_129 



m 3E 




SEE REV 
TOSHS 
RAL HA 


-• _ 


TTtaS 








CA 

m 

t/I 


t ik 


ij 



HARDWARE for IBM PC 



GRAPHICS BOARDS 
AST 

Preview 
EVEREX 



Graphics Edge 
HERCULES 

Graphics Card 
Color Card 



GRAPHICS BOARDS (com.) 
PARADISE SYSTEMS 

.Loweit Price Multi-Display Card $279 

Modular Graphics Card 289 



PLANTRONICS/FREDERICK 

Colorplus 

STB 

Graphics Plus II 

TECMAR 

Graphics Master. 



_Loweit Price Options A&B Loweit Price 

MODEMS (INTERNAL) 

$325 PROMETHEUS 

169 Pro-modem 1 200B $319 

QUADRAM 

_$385 Asher $395 

HAYES 
_$315 Smartmodem 1 200B l .a.,., KO m.)$3B5 



TSENG LABORATORIES 

Ultra Pak 



NOVATION 
_$459 Smart-Cat Plus _ 

RACALVAWC 
_$545 Maxwell 1200PC 



MODEMS (INTERNAL) (com.) 
VEN-TEL 

PC Modem Half Card $439 

COMMUNICATIONS BOARDS 
AST 

AST 5251-11 or 12 $629 

AST-3780 749 

I/O Plus II 135 

DCA 

IRMA Board 
QUADRAM 
Quadlink 



MULTI-FUNCTION BOARDS (com" 
AST RESEARCH (cont.) 

Advantage (1 28k) $429 

QUADRAM 

Quadboard (64k) $259 

STB 

Rio-Plus II (64k; $259 

Rio Grande Lowest Price 



_$949 
_$449 



Grande Byte 
TECMAR 

Captain . 



.Lowest Price 



_$355 
_$395 



MULTI-FUNCTION BOARDS 
AST RESEARCH 

Six Pak Plus (64k) $259 

Mega Plus II (64k) 275 



KEYBOARDS 

KEYTRONIC 

5150 

5151 (Deluxe) 

51 52 B or L Low 



_$235 



_$159 
179 



Prices subject to change without notice. 



NO SURCHARGE for VISA or MasterCard * No Sal 

■Jclcomed from Qualified InstrtutJons NO SURCHAR 

mq and insurance lint I otders add I I * Payment M 



Immediate Replacement on any Defective Product. 



side N Y State * Purchase Orders 
nee verification! * Please add 1\ 

urtcan Eip COO Mp'iey Order or Check 



National Sales \ _finn_fi/lR_^/lf|1 

Hot Line 1 UUU UTriJ wIJI the logical choice / 



CUStOmer SerViCe 1-800-431-9037 HO Bi -County Blvd.. Farmingdale, IS 

New York State„516-249-8440 Canada 416-283-2354 Domestic/International Telex. ,286905 Soft UR 



THE LOGICAL CHOICE /_ 

A Member of The Logic Group ■ *• 

110 Bi-County Blvd.. Farmingdale, N.Y. 11735 



/ NEW! Expanded Special Order Depf. ^ 

U We know there are many products that simply cannot be found ^ 
%? through mail order. We've solved that problem...just ask for our Jj 



'we Ml BERT 
ANY PRICE BY 

$10 

See Other Side lor Details 

/^/ UiNK^^^^MfsOFTWARE for Macintosh 



SPECIAL ORDER department...We've got the suppliers...still at 
low mail order prices! 



DATABASE 

DB Master $125 

Filevision 105 

1st Base 105 

Habadex 115 

Bala 249 



"GHIFfficT 



.mfivfWr&M 

WEE. 



Davinci Commercial Int. . 
Davinci Building Blocks 
McPic 



Mainstreet Filer. 

Megafiler 

Microsoft File _ 

Qmnis 2 

Omnis 3 , 

Overview 



pfs: File & Report . 

MacLion 

Factfinder 



GRAPHICS 

Animation Tool Kit 

Davinci Series 

(Buildings, Interiors, Landscapes) 



_155 
_135 
J40 
_169 
_275 
J79 
_105 
_245 
_95 



_$39 



Microsoft Chart 

Click Art Series 

(Pers. Graphics, Pub's, Letters) 

LANGUAGES/UTILITIES 

Basic Interpreter (MS) 

Mac Forth (Level 1) 

MacForth (Level 2) 

Smoothtalker 

Softmakerll 

Sottworks "C" 

PCtoMac&Back 

Hippo C (Level 1) . 



MANAGEMENT/FINANCE 

_149 Home Accountant Plus $89 

45 MacManager 35 

_35 MacProject Lowest Price 

125 

.Lowest Price 
119 



MANAGEMENT/FINANCE 

General Financial Analysis $70 



Real Estate Dev. (Comm. or Res.)_ 



_70 



_85 Management Edge_ 
Market Analyzer . 



.100 Market Manager (Dow Jones) 

Peachtree Back To 

.$95 Basics Accounting Lowest Price 

_95 Sales Edge 165 

.149 Straight Talk 369 

.115 Financial Planning (Apropos) 60 

.119 Investment Planning (Apropos) 80 



SPREADSHEETS/INTEGRATED 

Jazz Lowest Price 

Multiplan $125 



Microplanner 

TK! Solver 

Ensemble _ 



.Lowest Price 

169 

_185 



MANAGEMENT/FINANCE 

Dollars & Sense 

Front Desk 



.275 Communications Edge 

.85 Negotiation Edge 

.115 Tax Manager (Microlab) _ 
Forecast 



$79 Electric Checkbook _ 
.85 MacCalendar 



_110 

175 

_110 

45 

50 

_50 



WORD PROCESSING 

Bank S t . Writer Lowest Price 

Microsoft Word $149 

Think Tank (128k) 85 

Mac«Spell«Right 55 

MacSpell + 60 

Hayden: Speller 45 



Think Tank (51 2k)_ 
TECH (Linquist) _ 
Megafonn 



_135 
70 



ASSIMILATION PROCESS 

Mac Daisywheel Connection $75 

Mac Turbo Touch 85 

CURTIS SURGE PROTECTOR 

Diamond $39 

Emerald 49 

Sapphire 59 

.Ruby 69 



-HTST 



ORE for Macintosh 

mCRfJEBffi 



OPTIMUM 



Smartmodem 300 
Smai1modem1200_ 



_$195 
_$425 



INTERMATRIX 

Macphone $159 

KENSINGTON 

300 Baud Modem $95 

Surge Supressor 39 



MICRON TECHNOLOGY 

Micron Eye $325 



_$450 MacTote 



MICROSOFT 
NOVATION 



PROMETHIUS 

Promodem 1 200 _ 



_$65 



Cat_ 



_$170 



_$375 



DISKS 

Maxell 3 1 /2" (Box of 10) 

Memorex 3V2" (Box of 1 0) _ 
3M3W(Boxof10) 



_$375 
_$35 



_39 
-39, 



GENERAL HARDWARE 



PRINTERS* 



DIABLO 

36** 

D25** 

630-API 

630-ECS** 

EPSON 

LQ1500 

Parallel Interface 

JX-80 

RX-80 

LX-80** 

RX-100 

FX-80** 

FX-100** 

C. IT0H 

Prowriter 8510 BPI _ 

Starwriter A1 OP 

StarwriterF10-40P _ 
Printmaster F10-55P 
JUKI 

6100 

6300 



_$1229 

619 

1529 

1799 



$1199 

.Lowest Price 

599 

239 

265 

399 

379 

599 



PRINTERS* (cent.) 
SILVER REED (Cant.) 

550 $449 

770 795 

TOSHIBA 
1351 Tractor . 

P351 

1340 

CITIZEN 



_$159 
_1375 
779 



Lowest Price 

PRINTER/ PLOTTERS* 

HEWLETT PACKARD 

HP-7470A $945 

HP-7475 1595 

HOUSTON INSTRUMENT 

PC Plotter 



MONITORS* 



_$475 



_$375 
529 



_969 



_$439 



_799 



MANNESMANN TALLY 

Spirit 

160 

180 

NEC 

2030** 

8027** 

2050** 

3530 

3550 

8850** 

PinwriterP2** 

Pinwriter P3-" 

0KIDATA 

182 IBM 

84IBM 

192 IBM 

93 IBM 

2410P 

QUA0RAM 

Quadjet 

QUME 

Sprint 11/40** 

Sprint 11/55"* 

Sprint 11/90** 

SILVER REED 

400 

^500 



_$279 
_579 
_849 



_$719 

349 

695 

_1329 
_1395 
_1785 
_675 
_895 



AM0EK 

Color 300 

Color 500 

Color 600 

Color 710 

12" Green 300G . 
12" Amber 300A . 
12"Amber310A_ 
NEC 

JB1201 

JB1205 

JC1215 

JC 1216 



_$255 



_389 
_479 
_579 
_135 
_145 



_159 



_$159 

149 

239 

_399 



VIDEO TERMINALS 1 " 

ALTOS 

Smart II 

QUME 

QVT102-Green 

QVT102-Amber 

Q VT 1 03-Green 

QVT103-Amber 

QVT 1 08-Green 

QVT108-Amber 

TELEVIOE0 

800 

800A 

910 

910 + 

921 

922 

924 

925 

925E 

WYSE 

50 

75 

ZENITH 

Z-22 

Z-29 

Z-49 



(coin.) 



_$695 

_$395 

415 

810 

845 

_445 
515 



_$1220 

975 

420 

555 



_445 



_750 
_635 



_695 
_595 



MODEMS (External) 

PROMETHEUS 

Pro-modem 1200 

QUADRAM 

Quadmodem 1 1 00 

HAYES 

Smartmodem 300 

Smartmodem 1 200 

Smartmodem 2400 

NOVATION 

Access 1-2-3 

Professional 2400 

PRENTICE 

Popcorn X100 

Popcorn C1 00 

RACAL-VADK 

Maxwell 1 200 V 

2400 PC 

VEN-TEL 

PC Modem 1 200 

1200 Plus. 



A 



$395 



.$555 



.$205 
_445 



_719 



.$475 
_635 



_$379 
_355 



_$439 



_635 



_$399 



_399 



_$485 



_$465 



_595 
.Lowest Price 



PRINCETON 6RAPHICS 

RGB HX-1 2 

RGBSR-12 



_$489 



_$239 

799 

409 

_639 
_2295 



_$789 



_$1299 

1595 

2295 



Scan Doubler Board (for SR-12) . 

Amber Max 1 2 

QUADRAM 

Quadchrome 1 2" 

Quadscreen 1 7" 

Quadchrome I1 14" 

Amberchrome 1 2" 

TAXAN 

100G 

105A 

121 

122 

210 

420 

440 . 



_599 
_185 
_185 



MULTI-FUNCTION BOARDS 

AST RESEARCH 

Mega Pak (256k) $369 

IDEA 

IDEAmax 384 (64k) _ 
ORCHID 

Blossom (Ok) 

STB 



_$259 
_$235 



_$465 Super Rio (64k) 



_$329 



_1595 
_465 
_165 



VIDEO TERMINALS* 



_$125 

135 

149 

_149 

259 

409 

699 



COMMUNICATIONS BOARDS 

AST 

ASTSNA $899 

AST BSC 899 

GRAPHICS BOARDS 

AST 

Monograph plus 

MA SYSTEMS 



_$279 
^349 



ADDS 

A-2 Green 
A-3 



_$465 
_$465 



Peacock Color Board 
PERSYST 

Monochrome Card _ 
QUADRAM 

Quadcolor I 

Quadcolorll 



_$425 
_$245 



BACK-UP DEVICES 

ALLOY 

Tape Backup Lowest Price 

SYS6EN 

Tape Backup Lowest Price 

MOUSE INPUT DEVICES 

MOUSE SYSTEMS 

PC Mouse w/paint $139 

MICROSOFT 

Microsoft Mouse (Serial) 149 

Microsoft Mouse (Buss) 149 

SURGE PROTECTORS 

KENSINGTON MCR0WARE 

Masterpiece $115 

CURTIS 

Diamond $39 

Emerald 49 

Sapphire 59 

Ruby 69 

MEMORY CHIPS 

(200ns) 64k $35 



_$199 



_$195 
465 



DISKETTES 

LOBICTRAK 5%" 
100% Burantted, 
Double side, double density 
10 per box 

20 + boxes 

10-1 9 boxes 

2-9 boxes 

1box 



_per disk $2.35 
_per disk $2.50 
_per disk $2.99 
_par disk $3.99, 



*Due to weight restrictions, Printers and Monitors are shipped UPS., 



* NO SURCHARGE for VISA or MasterCard * No Sales Tax on Orders Outside N Y State * Purchase Orders 
Welcomed From Qualified Institutions NO SURCHARGE! (Please call tor price verification) * Please add 2% 
(or handling and insurance (Int'l orders adrj'i I * Payment MasterCard. VISA American Exp .COD 



"Parallel interface req...Ask sales agent 



Hot Line I "iJUlJ"D4u"u43 I the logical choice J 



CllStOmer SerViCe 1-800-431-9037 HO Bi-County Blvd., Farmingdale. r 

New York State„51 6-249-8440 Canada_.„41 6-283-2354 Domestic/International Telex .286905 Soft UR 



THE LOGICAL CHOICE 7 

A Member of The Logic Group ^^^^— ^v 

110 Bi-County Blvd., Farmingdale, N.Y. 11735 



HERE'S HOW: 



Lotus® travels in the fast lane.They 
can't settle for second best in business 
software. That's exactly why they went out 
and bought Framework™ software. 

Framework's a winner. In their "Over- 
all Evaluation"category, Software Digest, 
December, 1984, rated Framework the 
best integrated package. And when 10 
teams of Wharton MBA candidates 
squared off against each other with dif- 
ferent business software, the Framework 
team won hands down. Lotus likes a 
winner. 

The future of Lotus is mapped out on 
Framework where a powerful spread- 



sheet works with a critically-acclaimed 
word processor. It's a combination that 
only Framework has. The Framework out- 
line function— built in, not added on— 
lets Lotus see what's up the road ahead. 
And a data management function helps 
Lotus keep track of their fast- moving 
products. 

Lotus came to two conclusions after 
looking for software. One: a symphony is 
something you listen to on the highway 
with the radio turned up loud. And two : 
Framework may well be all the business 
software a fast-moving company needs. 

For a dealer near you call (800) 
437-4329, ext. 222. In Colorado 
(303)799-4900, 
ext 222. 



KJKJ) 




Software from 



ASHTON -WE 

Well put you in control. 



Inquiry 41 



Inquiry 88 



COMPETITIVE EDGE 

P.O. Box 556 — Plymouth, Ml 48170 — 313^151-0665 
Compupro®, LOMAS, EARTH, TELETEK, Macrotech 

S-100 CIRCUIT BOARDS 



CompuPro286CPlT 
CompuProSPUZ"8MHZ 
CompuPro 8085/88'" 
CompuPro Disk 1 A"* 
CompuPro Disk 3'" 
CompuPro Ram 22 ,M 
CompuPro Ram 23 rM 
CompuPro Ram23 1 28 
CompuProCPU Z'" 
CompuPro CCP/M®816® 
System Support One™ 
TeletekHD/ 
Teletek Systemaster* 



$750. Lomas286 $821. 

261. Lomas8086 420. 

245. LomasOctaport'" BSerial 320. 

347. Lomas LDP" 72 206. 

417. Lomas256KDram 556. 

850. Lomas512KDram 821. 

277. Lomas Ram 67'" 725. 

487. LomasHazitair 244. 

189. Thunder 18 6'" 1095. 

250. LomasCCP/M®86 T,< 280. 

245. CompuPro I/04 245, 

375. TeletekSBCl 525. 

557. Systemaster II® 899. 
Lomas 2 Megabyte Ram-(2048K) just 



Macrotech 286/Z80H 
Lomas 1 0MHz8086 
• Lomas 4 serial 
Macrotech 256KDram 
Macrotech 512K Dram 
Macrotech 51 2 K static 
Macrotech 256Kstatic 
LomasColorMagic'" 16K 
LomasMSDOS™2.11 



$795. 

520. 

200. 

499. 

799. 
1595. 

795. 

476. 

200. 



CompuPro MDriveH»512K 495. 



CompuPro I/O 3 8 port 
TeletekSBC 1 6MHz 128 
Turbodos»f or Teletek 
$1595. 



459. 
699. 
650. 



Earth Computer TURBO SLAVE 1 8MHz 1 28K$395. 

Turbo Slave I runs with Teletek, North Star Horizon. Advanced Digital and Others under Turbodos™ 

SYSTEMS 



CompuPro 85/88.256K.CDOS, SS1.I/0 4.2-96TPI DRS. 10 Slot 
CompuPro 85/88.256K.CDOS, SS1.I/0 4,1-96TPI,20MB, 10 Slot 
286/Z80H.1024K Static, CDOS, SS1.I/0 4,1-96TPI,40MB, 10 Slot 
286. 1024K, 20MB. AutoCad 2 System — Ready to Run 
Lomas 286.1 024K.20MB HD.I-S-.CDOS, 6 SERIAL, 2 Par, 10 Slot 
Lomas Thunder 186, 256K. 20 MB HD. 1 -5". CDOS. 4 Slot 
Teletek 8MHz Master. 4-8MHz 128K SLVS, 1-5". 20 MB HD. TDOS 



UPGRADE YOUR IBM® PC™!! 



MONITORS 

Amdex3lOA 
Taxan Color 440 
Princeton Color HR-12 
PrincetonColorSH-12 



$159 
$549 
$459 
$649 



GRAPHIC BOARDS 

Hercules Monochrome 
Hercules Color Card 
TecmarGraphicsMasler 
Paradise Graphics 
STBGraphix.,.11 



$299 
$159 
$449 
$279 
S279 



MULTI-FUNCTION BOARDS 

AST6Pak64K 

Quad am Expanded Quadboard OK 

TecmarCaptain64K 



HARD DRIVE KITS 

PC10MBPC 
PC21MBPC 
AT21MBAT 
AT36MBAT 
AT70MBAT 
AT80MBAT 
AT119MBAT 



$3095 
$4295 
$7495 
$8395. 
$4995 
$2895 
$4495 



$695 
$395 
$795 
$1295 
$2295 
$3295 
$3595 



FLOPPY DRIVES 

$245 TEAC1/2HTFD55B $119 

$219 Mitsubishi 96TPI $125 

$199 5"DSDD Color Diskettes $ 21 

ALL PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND STOCK ON HAND 

CompuPro is a Registered Trademark of Viasyn, CPU 2, Disk 1A, Disk 3. Interfacer 3, Interlacer 4.. CPU 286, CPU 6085/88, 
System Support 1. MDRIVE-H. Ram 22, Ram 23 are trademarks or registered trademarks ol Viasyn. CP/M 2.2, CCP/M, are 
registered trademarks ol Digital Research Inc. MSDOS is a registered trademark ol Microsoft, Systemaster & Systemaster II are 
registered trademarks of Teletek Enterprises. Turbodos is registered trademark ol Software 2000. IBM is a registered trademark 
of International Business Machines. AutoCad 2 is a registered trademark of AutoDesk, Inc. 



The Ultimate Cable A ssembly/ 

':" ~~™~ ■..■"■■■ " " " ■.;:■:■■'■.: I if 




Inside and Out 



You've never seen a cable that looks or works quite like this. The 
result of extensive research into functional design, the DATA SPEC 
cable assembly not only visually enhances your computer equip- 
ment, but provides superior quality with the following features: 



Full shielding (Exceeds F.C.C. 
EMI/RFI emission requirements] 
Positive strain relief 
Large convenient thumbscrews 



Gold plated pins 
Exclusive P.D.T. underhood 
for maximum integrity 
Lifetime warranty 



DATA SPEC makes cable assemblies for all your interface needs: 
printers, modems, disk drives and monitors. For your IBM, Apple, 
AT&T and other popular PC's. Ask for DATA SPEC cables at your 
nearest authorized DATA SPEC dealer. 

FROM ALLIANCE RESEARCH CORPORATION 

20120 Plummer Street • Chatsworth, CA 91311 



18 M. Apple and AT&T are regis t, 

Patent PND. 



96 B YTE • JULY 1985 



1-818-993-1202 

alional Business Machines Corp. Apple Computer Inc. and ATS. T Information Systems. 

©Copyright 1985 Alliance Research Corporation 

Inquiry 397 for End-Users. 
Inquiry 398 for DEALERS ONLY 



EVENT QUEUE 



Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA 
19102, (2.15) 972-8792. 
August 7-9 

• COMPUTER, ELEC- 
TRONIC EVENT-Computer- 
fest '85, Building 7, Sinclair 
Community College, Dayton. 
OH. Seminars, flea-market 
areas, speakers, users-group 
meetings, and club booths 
and displays are some of 
the highlights. Admission 

is $1.50. Contact Mark 
Hanslip, Computerfest '85, 
143 Schloss Lane, Dayton. 
OH 45418-2931, (513) 
268-7225. 
August 10-11 

• TOMORROW'S 
COMPUTERS-International 
Symposium on New Direc- 
tions in Computing. 
Norwegian Institute of 
Technology, Ttondheim. Nor- 
way. Contact New Directions 
in Computing, IEEE Com- 
puter Society. POB 639, 
Silver Spring, MD 20901. 
August 12-14 

• GRAPHICS 
Ausgraph '85, Brisbane, 
Queensland, Australia. 
Australia's first international 
conference and exhibition 
on computer graphics. Con- 
tact Conference Secretariat, 
Ausgraph '85, POB 29, 
Parkville, Victoria 3052, 
Australia; tel: (03) 387 9955; 
Telex: AA 33761. 

August 12-16 

• MACROS AND 
SYMPHONY-Advanced Ap- 
plication Techniques: Using 
Symphony Macros, Chicago. 
IL. See August 7-8 for 
details. August 14-15 

• COMPUTER SWAP 

Northwest Computer Swap 
Number 9. Fiesta Exhibit 
Hall, San Mateo County Fair- 
grounds. San Mateo. CA. 
Admission is $5. Contact 
Northwest Computer Swap, 
4883 Tonino Dr., San Jose, 
CA 95136, or call Robert 
Kushner, (408) 978-7927. 
August 17 



• Al INVESTIGATED 
IJCAI-85: The International 
Joint Conferences on Arti- 
ficial Intelligence. University 
of California, Los Angeles. 
Topics include AI architec- 
tures and languages, intel- 
ligent CAI, automated rea- 
soning, and expert systems. 
Tutorials. Contact IJCAI-85. 
American Association for 
Artificial Intelligence, 44 5 
Burgess Dr., Menlo Park, CA 
94025. (415) 321-1118. 
August 18-24 

• FOR EDUCATORS 

Innovative Applications of 
Microcomputer Technology 
in Vocational Education. 
University of Wisconsin. 
Madison. The emphasis will 
be on interactive video, net- 
working, hard-disk systems 
and storage backup devices, 
and telecommunications for 
agriculture, education, and 
health applications. Contact 
Dr. Judith Rodenstein, Voca- 
tional Studies Center, 964 
Educational Sciences 
Building. University of 
Wisconsin-Madison. 102 5 
' West Johnson St.. Madison. 
WI 53706. (608) 263-4367. 
August 19-21 

• MACROS AND 
SYMPHONY-Advanced Ap- 
plication 'lechniques; Using 
Symphony Macros, Philadel- 
phia, PA. See August 7-8 for 
details. August 21-22 

• INTERFACING 
WORKSHOP-Personal Com- 
puter and STD Computer 
Interfacing for Scientific In- 
strument Automation, 
Washington. DC, area. A 
hands-on workshop with 
participants wiring and 
testing interfaces. The fee is 
$450. Contact Dr. Linda 
Leffel, C.E.C., Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute and 
State University, Blacksburg, 
VA 24061. (703) 961-4848. 
August 22-24 

• EUROPEAN MEDICAL 
INFORMATTCS-The Sixth 
International Congress of 



EVENT QUEUE 



the European Federation for 
Medical Informatics, Hel- 
sinki, Finland. Topics include 
medical-record management 
and classification problems, 
expert systems, medical and 
clinical research and evalua- 
tion, and personal com- 
puters. Contact M1E-85 
Secretary General. Raija 
Trevo-Pellikka. The Finnish 
Hospital League. Toinen Lin- 
ja 14, SF-00530 Helsinki. 
Finland; tel: 358-0-7712640. 
August 25-29 

• INFORMATION TECH- 
NOLOGY CONFERENCE- 
The Integrated Information 
Technology Conference and 
Exposition: INTECH '85. 
Moscone Center, San Fran- 
cisco. CA. Topics to be ad- 
dressed include integrating 
personal computers, net- 
works, information security, 
integrated voice and data, 
and managing information 
technology. An Applications 
Center will provide at- 
tendees the opportunity to 
observe applications in ac- 
tion. Contact INTECH '85. 
National Trade Productions 
Inc.. Suite 400, 2111 Eisen- 
hower Ave.. Alexandria. VA 
22314, (800) 638-8510; in 
the metropolitan Washing- 
ton, DC, area, call (703) 
683-8500. August 26-29 

• VIDEODISC 
CONFERENCE-The Fifth 
Annual Nebraska Videodisc 
Symposium, University of 
Nebraska, Lincoln. The 
theme is "Videodisc— The In- 
dustry Comes of Age." Panel 
discussions, presentations, 
and exhibits. Registration is 
$375. Contact Videodisc 
Design/Production Group, 
KUON-TV/University of 
Nebraska-Lincoln, POB 
83111. Lincoln. NE 68501. 
(402) 472-3611. 

August 27-30 

• NEW ZEALAND ERS 
CONVENE-The Ninth New 
Zealand National Computer 
Conference, Sheraton. 
Auckland, New Zealand. 



Speakers, panel sessions, 
and exhibits. For details, 
contact Conference Com- 
mittee, POB 3839. Auckland, 
New Zealand. August 27-31 



September 1984 

• TRADE CONFERENCE 
SERIES-The Fifteenth 
United States Invitational 
Computer Conference, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. A series of one-day, 
regional conferences de- 
signed to bring original 
equipment manufacturers 
together with systems in- 
tegrators and quantity end- 
users. Exhibits and technical 
seminars. Fees begin at 
$1600 each for one to four 
conferences. Contact B. I. 
Johnson & Associates Inc., 
3151 Airway Ave. #C-2, 
Costa Mesa. CA 92626. (714) 
957-0171. September-^ ovember 

• INFO MANAGEMENT 
SEM1NARS-NYU Seminars 
on Information Manage- 
ment, various sites through- 
out the U.S. On the agenda 
are "Legal Issues in Acquir- 
ing and Using Computers" 
and "Networking Personal 
Computers." Contact School 
of Continuing Education. 
Seminar Center. New York 
University. 575 Madison 
Ave., New York. NY 10022, 
(212) 580-5200. 
September-November 

• COMMUNICATIONS 
WORKSHOPS-Data Com- 
munications Workshops, vari- 
ous sites throughout the U.S. 
and Canada. For a catalog, 
contact Rhonda Carney. Intel 
Corp., Westford Corporate 
Center. Three Carlisle Rd.. 
Westford, MA 01880, (617) 
256-1374. September-December 

• IBM SHOW 

IBM System User Show. 
Olympia 2, London. 
England. A series of ses- 
sions focusing on all aspects 
(continued) 



. 



Inquiry 386 for End-Users. 
Inquiry 387 for DEALERS ONLY. 



Il'hiil 



$995 



MAX. IBM® AT/PC 
COMPATIBILITY pc-2001* 

Made In USA COMPLETE SYSTEM 

*OEM BASIC System $555 (Minimum Order 10 Units) 

♦PC-2001 Complete System $995 (Dealers at Quantity 2) 

*XT-2001 10 MB Complete System $1695 (Dealers at Quantity 2) 
*AT-7000 Call For Evaluation Unit $ (Approx. $2000 Off IBM Pricing) 

PC-2001 Partial Features: (Dealers Please Call For Details) 

• Mother Board • RAM Memory Upgradable to 640K • K-8400 or K-9600 
Keyboard • TEAC Drive & Controller • Parallel Port • Runs Lotus 1-2-3, 
Symphony, Flight Simulator and thousands more 

*DEALER INQUIRIES 
INVITED 

PLEASE CALL FOR 
DEALERS NEAREST 
YOU 




IBM is a 



!S \ ^HP£ J. CORPORATION (™) 5 ^-° 680 - HWK91 
imark of lelw Corporation vynrwnru.iw je^EX 753197 



COVER STORY 




Touchdown'" Key Overlays provide new or additional PC keyboard commands for compati- 
bility with your soltware programs. Made ol heavy, non-glare malerial similar to Ihe original 
keytops, with commands printed on the underside tor durability . . . Jhese are not ordinary 
stick-on labels! Hooleon also makes custom overlays to your exact specs, including toreign 
language and special symbols. Touchdown"' Keylop Expanders enlarge small keys (Return, 
Shift, etc.) on the IBM PC and mosl look-alikes. They tasten securely over exisling keys with 
a special adhesive provided, yet are easily removed without damage to the keyboard. 

P. 0. Box 201, Dept. B, Cornville, AZ 86325 

CUSTOM KEY OVERLAYS can be made to your exact specs, at a much lower cost than engraving (he keys 



□ Blk. 



Qty 



Price' 



Qty. 

IBM PC, PC/XT, PC Port. (12 keys) 

IBM 5291 Display Stalion (13 keys) 

Compaq. Columbia (10 keys) 


Price* 

$21.95 

21.95 

21.95 


Corona, Eagle Spirit, Qubie, 

Keytronic (10 keys) 

IBM 3270 PC '•Enter" (1 keytop) 

Individual Expanders (blank) 


$21.95 
3.95 
2.75 


KEY OVERLAYS 

5250/5251 (48 keytops/fronls) 

5520(101 keytops) 

3270 (32 key fronts) 

DisplayWrite 2 (36 keytops) 

DisplayWrile 3 (38 keytops) 

Dvorak (43 keytops) 

Wordstar (29 keylops) 

□ Visa □ MasterCard Exp. Date 


$21.95 
29.95 
21.95 
21.95 
21.95 
26.95 
26.95 


Conlrol Key English (5 keytops) 6.95 

Blank Overlays (99 keytops) 21.95 

Do-it-yoursell Kit (200 + pieces) 29.95 

MultiMate (44 keytops) 29.95 

EasyWriler II (29 kytp/tronts/ Handy Card) 29.95 

Lotus 1-2-3 (24 keylops/Handy Card) 29.95 

WordPerlect (32 keylops/Handy Card) 29.95 

TOTAL (Min. order $10.00) $ 


Card # 

Visa or MC orders phone 602-634-75) 


7 

for inform 


All prices include first class postage. 
(All orders shipped within 24 hours.) 
Arizona residents add 5% tax 




Custom Overlay, Other Software Kits. Write 


ation. T0TAI FNCI 0SFD $ 





Inquiry I72 for End-Users. 
Inquiry 17 3 for DEALERS ONLY. 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 97 



Inquiry 327 




UNLOCK THE SECRETS 
OF MACHINE LANGUAGE. 

Our Visible Computer teaching systems do more than tell 
you about machine language, they show you -by turning 
your computer into an animated simulation of its micro- 
processor chip. You'll actually see the registers change as 
the processor executes instructions; you'll see how 
instructions are executed, not just the result. 

The extensive manual may just be the clearest tutorial on 
machine language ever written. You'll work "hands-on- 
keyboard," at your own pace, as you progress through 30 
demonstration programs stored on disk. 

Apple II version: $49.95. Commodore 64 version: $39.95. a Cm 

NEW! The Visible Computer: 8088 (IBM PC): $69.95. At jjQll HJ Ql*^? 

better software dealers or direct from Software Masters, 3330 _ _ * 

Hillcroft, Suite BB, Houston, Texas 77057. (713) 266-5771. Jfw£M €■/>!*€ ™ 

MC/Visa accepted. Mail orders enclose $3.00 shipping. A *••"* ■" w* •» 



Mr 



w ■ - - - 

Seventh Annual Conference on ! % ! ji 

'Interactive!) 
videodisc 

In Education and Training 

August 21-23, 1985 
J. W.Marriott Hotel 
Washington, D. C. 



Presentations Cover 

• Current Applications 

• Emerging Technology 

• Methodology Implementation 

Pre-conference tutorials are scheduled for August 1 9 and 20. 

Included among exhibitors are: 

3M U.S. Video 

DEC GWF Associates 

NCR OnLine Computer Systems 

WICAT MetaMedia Systems, Inc. 

Sony Digital Controls, Inc. 

JVC Applied Science Associates 

Pioneer 



L 



# 



For further information contact: 

Society for Applied Learning Technology 

50 Culpeper St. Dept. B 

Warrenton, VA 22186 (703) 347-0055 



EVENT QUEUE 



of the IBM computer 
market. Exhibits. Contact 
Julian Taylor, Peter Walker 
Associates. 32 Fitzroy 
Square. London WIP 5HH. 
England; tel: 01-388-9871. 
September 3-5 

• EUROMICRO 
Euromicro '85. Brussels. 
Belgium. Addresses, 
tutorials, and exhibitions. An 
electronic mouse race and a 
robot ping-pong tournament 
will be held. Contact 
Euromicro Office, p/a TH 
Twente. Dept. Inf., Room A 
306. POB 217. 7500 AE 
Enschede. The Netherlands. 
Attn: Mrs. C. Snippe-Marlisa. 
September 3-6 

• OFFICE AUTOMATION 
Third Annual Conference of 
the Office Automation 
Society International. 
Radisson South Hotel, 
Bloomington. MN. The 
theme is "The Integrated 
Office— How Soon?" Contact 
Office Automation Society 
International. 2108 C 
Gallows Rd„ Vienna, VA 
22180. (703) 790-0490. 
September 3-6 

• PERSONAL COMPUTER 
FAIRE— The Third Personal 
Computer Faire. Civic Audi- 
torium and Brooks Hall, San 
Francisco. CA. Conference 
program and exhibitions of 
hardware, software, and 
microcomputer services. 
Contact Computer Faire Inc.. 
181 Wells Ave.. Newton. MA 
02159, (617) 965-8350. 
September 5-7 

• ROBOTICS CONGRESS 

The Second International 
Personal Robot Congress 
and Exposition (IPRC). 
Moscone Center, San Fran- 
cisco. CA. Seminars on per- 
sonal robot software, hard- 
ware, human services, robots 
in space, education, and 
business. Exhibits and dis- 
plays. Contact Robotic In- 
dustries Association, POB 
1366. Dearborn, Ml 48121. 
(313) 271-7800. September 6-8 



• COMPUTER-AIDED 
TECHNOLOGIES-COMP1NT 
'85: The First International 
Conference on Computer- 
Aided Technologies. Palais 
de Congres. Montreal. 
Quebec, Canada. The 
theory, design, and imple- 
mentation of com- 
puter-aided technologies. 
Contact Stephen G. Leahey, 
POB 577. Desjardins Postal 
Station. Montreal. Quebec 
H5B 1B7. Canada. (514) 
870-3526. September 9-12 

• AUTOFACT EUROPE 
AUTOFACT Europe '85. 
Swiss Industries Fair. Basel. 
Switzerland. Workshops on 
computer-integrated manu- 
facturing and factory auto- 
mation. Held in conjunction 
with SwissData '85/Ineltec 
'85 Exhibits. Contact Susan 
Gretchko, AUTOFACT Europe 
'85 Administrator, Society of 
Manufacturing Engineers, 
One SME Dr., POB 930. 
Dearborn. Ml 48121. (313) 
271-1500. ext. 373. 
September 10-13 

• DOCUMENTATION 
CONFERENCE-The 43rd 
Conference and Congress of 
the International Federa- 
tion for Documentation, 
Montreal, Quebec. Canada. 
The theme is "Information. 
Communications, and Tech- 
nology Transfer." Contact Mr. 
E. V. Smith, Canada Institute 
for Scientific and Technical 
Information, National 
Research Council of Canada, 
Ottawa, Ontario KIA 0S2. 
Canada. September 14-18 

• C SEMINAR/WORKSHOP 
C Language Seminar and 
Workshop. Sheraton-Com- 
mander Hotel. Cambridge, 
MA. The fee is $695. Con- 
tact Beatrice Blatteis. CL 
Publications. 131 Townsend 
St.. San Francisco. CA 
94107, (415) 957-9353. 
Sept ember 16- 18 

• DATA STORAGE 

The Fourth Annual DataStor- 
[continued) 



98 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 320 



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Inquiry 282 



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Data-storage issues and ap- 
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ecutive focus. Contact 
Cartlidge & Associates Inc.. 
Suite M-2 59. 1 101 South 
Winchester Blvd.. San lose. 
CA 95128. (408) 554-6644. 
September 16-18 

• SOFTWARE CONGRESS 

The Sixteenth Convention 
Informatique. Palais des 
Congres. Paris. France. Said 
to be the largest European 
software congress. The 
theme is "Data Processing: 
Opportunities and Draw- 
backs." Contact Convention 
Informatique. 4 Place de 
Valois, 75001 Paris, France; 
tel: (I) 261 52 42; lelex: 212 
597 F. September 16-20 

• SOFTWARE EXPO 

The Sixth Annual Soft- 
ware/Expo. Infomart. Dallas. 
TX. A trade show for 
MIS/DP managers and cor- 
porate executives. Contact 
Professional Exposition 
Management Co. Inc.. Suite 
205. 2400 East Devon Ave., 
Des Plaines. IL 60018. (800) 
323-5155; in Illinois. (312) 
299-3131. September 17-19 

• UNIX EXPO 

UNIX Expo: The UNIX 
Operating System Exposition 
and Conference. New York 
Hilton and Sheraton Centre 
Hotels. New York City. More 
than 400 exhibitors comple- 
ment the conference. Con- 
tact Robert Birkfeld. Na- 
tional Expositions Co. Inc., 
14 West 40th St.. New York. 
NY 10018. (212) 391-9111. 
September 18-20 

• MANUFACTURING EXPO 

Eastern Computer Manufac- 
turing Expo, Charlotte, NC. 
Contact Great Southern 
Shows. POB 655. Jackson- 
ville. FL 32201. (904) 
743-8000. September 19-21 

• INTERFACING WORK- 
SHOP— Personal Computer 
and STD Computer Interfac- 



ing for Scientific Instrument 
Automation. Greensboro. 
NC. A hands-on workshop 
with participants wiring and 
testing interfaces. The fee is 
$450. Contact Dr. Linda Lef- 
fel. C.E.C.. Virginia Polytech- 
nic Institute and State Uni- 
versity. Blacksburg, VA 
24061. (703) 961-4848. 
September 19-21 

• TIDEWATER FAIR 

The Tidewater 'Ienth Annual 
Computer Fair. Radio 
Amateur Hamfest— Electronic 
Flea Market. Virginia Beach 
Pavilion. VA. Displays, 
forums, and flea market. Ad- 
vance tickets are $5 for both 
days or $6 at the door. Con- 
tact lim Harrison. Tidewater 
Radio Conventions Inc.. 1234 
Little Bay Ave.. Norfolk. VA 
23503. (804) 587-1695. 
September 21-22 

• NEW FRONTIER 
Space lech '85 Conference 
and Exposition. Disneyland 
Hotel. Anaheim. CA. A focus 
on engineering solutions re- 
quired to make the use of 
outer space practical and 
economical. Contact Society 
of Manufacturing Engineers. 
One SME Dr.. POB 930. 
Dearborn. MI 48121. (313) 
271-1500. September 23-25 

• AI, FIFTH GENERATION 

The Artificial Intelligence 
and Fifth Generation Com- 
puter Technology Con- 
ference and Exhibition: 
Al/Europa,- Rhein-Main-Halle. 
Wiesbaden, West Germany. 
Contact lim Hay. Tower Con- 
ference Management Co.. 
331 West Wesley St., 
Wheaton, IL 60187. (312) 
668-8100. September 24-26 

• BOSTON COMPUTING 

The Eighth Northeast Com- 
puter Faire. Bayside Exposi- 
tion Center. Boston. MA. 
Product displays and con- 
ference program. Contact 
Computer Faire Inc.. 181 
Wells Ave. Newton, MA 
02159. (617) 965-8350. 
September 26-29 ■ 



100 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 359 




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Inquiry 373 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 



101 



IBM's 

best efforts aie 

now going into 

Macintosh. 



Macintosh and IBM PC 
software. Compatible at last, 
thanks to MacCharlie, a rather 
innovative coprocessing system. 

And imagine the consequences. 

Nearly 10,000 IBM PC software 
programs designed for general 
business and specific applications 
in real estate, insurance, law, 
medicine, banking, etcetera, can 
now join forces with Macintosh's 
own popular programs. 

And, the myriad of IBM PC- 
compatible software adopts 
Macintosh's many beloved 
features, including desktop 
utilities such as the clipboard and 
the calculator. 

In addition, MacCharlie allows 



IBM PC and Macintosh data files to 
be exchanged. Talk about flexibility. 

But the good news gets better. 

You see, MacCharlie delivers 
hardware compatibility, as well. 
For example, IBM letter-quality 
printers can be easily used 
with Macintosh. 

Furthermore, 
MacCharlie 



now allows Macintosh to perform 
virtually any networking an IBM 
PC can perform. Even to the extent 
of tying in with IBM mainframes. 

In other words, your 
networking capability goes beyond 
the Apple family. 





The Macintosh keyboard slides 
right into MacCharlie's keyboard. 
About as easy as slipping a letter 
in an envelope. 



Macintosh sets snugly 
beside MacCharlie, on 
a custom-fit pedestal. 



Once you plug in MacCharlie's 
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you're ready to enjoy a very 
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How does it happen? As easily 
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In mere moments, MacCharlie 
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world's premier personal 
computers. 

And despite the fact that it 
turns one computer into two, 



MacCharlie adds but a handful of 
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In short, one of life's most 
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BUTE 



Features 



Programming Project: IN THIS MONTH'S Features section BYTE presents the first Programming Proj- 

New Perspectives on Nearby Stars e ct, a new monthly column that will be written by various software experts. 

by Bruce Webster 106 Bruce Webster designed the first project in keeping with the Computers and 

Liquid-Crystal Displays Space theme. He describes StarMap, a Pascal program for the Macintosh, 

for Portables which takes a list of stars with Cartesian or astronomical coordinates and shows 

by Glenn ). Adler 119 yQU where they afe jn re i atjon tQ one anot h er . 

Product Descripi-ion: "Liquid-Crystal Displays for Portables" by Glenn Adler takes a look at the 

£> H R' ft m // ASE 129 tec hnology behind twisted-nematic liquid-crystal displays, which enable com- 

" " puters to be battery-operated, lightweight, and affordable. 

Oarcia's Circuit Cellar: Rich Ma ]] oy present s a product description of the GRiDCase family of por- 

Living in a Sensible Environment .. <■ ^ J;^ ^ - ^ -mi ^r..^^ ■ ^..^^ 

by Steve Garcia 141 ta ' D ' e computers from GRiD Systems Corporation. The GRiDCase is IBM PC- 

„ . compatible and offers a range of display options; one version even has a high- 

Programming Insight. ^ i i. i 

Travesty Revisited contrast gas-plasma display. 

by Murray lesser 163 This month's Circuit Cellar presents a number of devices that can be used 

Programming Insight. w ^ the Home Run Control System. Steve has included interrupted-beam 

Real-Number Formatting detectors, various environmental sensors, and alarm signaling devices— all from 

on Your Apple his junk box.' 

by Brent Daviduck 171 As a follow-up to "A TYavesty Generator for Micros" by Hugh Kenner and 

^^^^^^^^_^^^^^^^^_ Joseph O'Rourke in last November's BYTE, 'TYavesty Revisited" by Murray 

Lesser redoes this lexical processor in compiled BASIC. The author believes 
this language is a better choice for handling a task consisting mostly of string 
manipulation. 

In "Real-Number Formatting on Your Apple," Brent Daviduck has written 
a program that lets you specify the decimal length of any real number. This 
machine-language subroutine uses only a small amount of memory- 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 105 




106 BYTE • JULY 1985 



ILLUSTRATED BY FRANK BOZZO 



PROGRAMMING PROJECT 



New Perspectives 
on Nearby Stars 



by Bruce Webster 



A Macintosh programming 
project in Pascal 




To use an already over- 
used cliche, a picture is 
worth a thousand words 
__ (at least). This is especial- 
I ly true when the words 
BB S I are being employed to 
«HHBw_^HB describe the real world. 
Let's say you wanted to describe the 
physical layout of Europe. You could talk 
about figures and angles, explaining the size 
and shape of each country and where each 
country is in relation to all the others. Or 
you could use a map. Which one would 
convey that information more quickly and 
clearly? The map, of course. We perceive 
the universe primarily through our eyes, and 
we are comfortable processing information 
visually. In fact, if you tried to describe 
Europe using the figures-and-words ap- 
proach, your listener would probably try to 
mentally "draw" a map to understand your 
description. 

This problem— the difficulty of compre- 
hending alphanumeric data— is common in 
scientific work. For example, look at table 
1 . This is a list of the 75 stars nearest the 
earth, along with their right ascension, 
declination, parallax, and stellar (star) 
classification (see 'An Astronomy Glossary" 
on page 245 for definitions of these and 
other terms). TYy to picture all those stars 
hanging in space, each in its correct posi- 
tion relative to all the others. In many 



respects, this is more difficult than the "map 
of Europe" problem because the coor- 
dinate system is not an easy one to 
decipher and because you have to deal with 
three dimensions, not just two. 

Now look at figure 1 . It presents a subset 
of the information in table 1 in a graphical 
form. The arrow is pointing at our own sun, 
Sol. Around it hang the nearby stars, each 
in its proper position, each shaded accord- 
ing to its stellar classification. Multistar 
systems are indicated by lines dividing the 
circles into two or three sections, each sec- 
tion representing a star. Figure 2 relates this 
cluster of stars to its approximate position 
in our galaxy. 

Even though you don't know the names 
of those stars, their classes, or even their 
distances from Sol, you now have a much 
better idea of how this region of space 
looks than you got from reading table 1 . 
And that's from two static figures. Now, 
what if you could rotate the angle of view, 
change the scale of the display, or make any 
star the center? What if you could filter out 
stars of a certain class, or distance from Sol, 
or number? What if you could point at any 
star and get more information about it? 

In this article, I'll describe StarMap, a pro- 
gram for the Macintosh that lets you do just 

{continued) 
Bruce Webster (6215 Thorn St., San Diego, CA 
921 15) is a contributing editor for BYTE. 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 107 



PERSPECTIVES ON STARS 



that. StarMap takes a list of stars, with 
either Cartesian (x.y.z) or astronomical 
(RA, Dec Par) coordinates and shows 
you where they are with respect to 
one another. You can perform all the 
manipulations described above: 
limited rotation, scaling, and transla- 
tion, as well as filtering. I'll first look 
at the basic concepts behind the Star- 
Map program and then at some of the 
specific techniques it uses. I'll discuss 
the program itself and finish by talk- 
ing about possible applications and 
improvements. 

StarMap was developed on a Mac- 
intosh using MacAdvantage:UCSD 
Pascal, a Pascal development system 
that runs under the Finder and gives 
you access to most of the Toolbox 
routines (see the text box entitled 
"Development Using MacAdvantage: 
UCSD Pascal" on page 1 14). Informa- 
tion on how to obtain the source code 
for StarMap appears at the end of this 
article. 

Basic Concepts 

StarMap reads in and displays a. list 
of stars; you view them as if from a 
point beyond any of them. The stars 
then appear to form a cluster. Each 
star is shown as a circle filled with a 
pattern that indicates its stellar 
classification (O.BAF'.G.K.M). Since 
the computer's display is only two- 
dimensional, the circle's diameter in- 
dicates the third dimension (depth): 
the smaller the circle, the farther away 
the star is; the larger the circle, the 
closer it is. StarMap displays multistar 
systems by subdividing the circle into 
two (binary) or three (ternary) sec- 
tions. Each section contains the pat- 
tern corresponding to that compo- 
nent's stellar classification. You can 
select any star (by pointing and click- 
ing with a mouse) and get a pop-up 
window with the star's name, its 
distance from Sol (or the current 
origin), and the class of each of its 
components. 

You can manipulate this display by 
rotating it, translating the coordinates, 
and scaling it up. You can rotate it by 
choosing to look along any of the 
three axes (x, y, or z), either from the 
positive end or the negative end. 



(Figure 3 depicts these axes relative 
to the Macintosh screen.) Admitted- 
ly, this is limited rotation; I chose this 
method because of its speed and 
simplicity, especially since it makes 
the detection of a click on a star easy. 
You can choose any star on the dis- 
play as the origin (translation): Fur- 
thermore, you can then add an offset 
(plus or minus) to any one (but only 
one) of the three axes. Scaling lets you 
decide how much of the display is on 
the screen; it's as if you were sitting 
somewhere out in space with a high- 



powered telescope and you cranked 
up the magnification. Stars get bigger; 
the screen covers a smaller area, so 
fewer stars show up. 

You can also filter out stars so that 
not all of them appear. For example, 
you can set which classes of stars will 
(or won't) be shown. I often choose 
to get rid of all the M-class stars 
because they tend to clutter the dis- 
play. You can even eliminate all 
classes but one, restricting your view 
to, say, all G-class stars, which includes 
Sol. Finally, you can screen stars 



T^ble 1: The 75 stars closest to the earth. As the text file RawStars, this list is 




converted by the program ReadStar into a binary file that 


can be used by 






StarMap. (This list is 


taken from, among other 


sources, Astrophysical 






Quantities, 3rd ed.. 


by C. W. Allen, 


\mdon: 


TheAthlone Press. 1973.) 




Name of System 




Right 


Declination 


Parallax 


Stellar 






Ascension 






Class(es) 




hours 


minutes 


degrees 


minutes 


microseconds 






Sol 

















G2 




Proxima Centauri 


14 


26 


-62 


28 


762 


M5 




Alpha Centauri 


14 


36 


-60 


38 


745 


G2 


K5 


Barnard's Star 


17 


55 


4 


33 


552 


M5 




Wolf 359 


10 


54 


7 


19 , 


429 


M8 




Lalande 21185 


11 


1 


36 


18 


401 


M2 




Sirius 


6 


43 


-16 


39 


377 


A1 


dA5 


UV Ceti 


1 


36 


-18 


13 


367 


M5 


M6 


Ross 154 


18 


47 


-23 


53 


345 


M4 




Ross 248 


23 


39 


43 


55 


317 


M6 




L789-6 


22 


36 


-15 


36 


303 


M7 




Epsilon Eridani 


3 


31 


-9 


38 


303 


K2 




Ross 1 28 


11 


45 


1 


6 


301 


M5 




61 Cygni 


21 


5 


38 


30 


294 


K5 


K7 


Epsilon Indi 


22 





-47 





291 


K5 




Procyon 


7 


37 


5 


21 


286 


F5 


dFO 


7 2398 


18 


42 


59 


33 


283 


M4 


M5 


Groombridge 34 





15 


43 


44 


282 


M1 


M6 


Lacaille 9352 


23 


3 


-36 


8 


279 


M2 




Tau Ceti 


1 


41 


-16 


12 


276 


G8 




BD +5° 1668 


7 


25 


5 


23 


268 


M5 




Cordoba 29191 


21 


14 


-39 


4 


260 


M0 




Kapteyn's Star 


5 


10 


-45 





256 


M0 




Kruger 60 


22 


26 


57 


27 


253 


M3 


M4 


Ross 614 


6 


27 


-2 


46 


250 


M7 


M0 


BD -12° 4523 


16 


28 


-12 


32 


249 


M5 




van Maanen's Star 





46 


5 


9 


236 


dG5 




Wolf 424 


12 


31 


9 


18 


230 


M6 


M7 


BD -37° 





2 


-37 


36 


225 


M4 




BD +50° 


10 


8 


49 


42 


219 


K7 




CD -46° 11540 


17 


25 


-46 


51 


216 


M4 




CD -49° 


21 


30 


-49 


13 


214 


M1 




CD -44° 11909 


17 


33 


-44 


17 


213 


M5 




AD Leonis 


1 


57 


12 


50 


212 


M8 




BD +68° 


17 


37 


68 


28 


209 


M4 




Ross 780 


22 


51 


-14 


31 


207 


M5 




CC658 


11 


43 


-64 


33 


206 


dA5 





108 BYTE • JULY 1985 



PERSPECTIVES ON STARS 



based on the number of components 
in a system (one, two. or three). If you 
just want to see single-star systems or 
if you just want to see binary systems, 
etc.. you can do so. 

Coordinate Conversion 

A number of minor hurdles have to 
be overcome to get StarMap working. 
First, most star catalogs give stellar 
coordinates as right ascension, de- 
clination, and parallax. This is just a 
disguised polar-coordinate system. 
Right ascension is equivalent to theta, 



the equatorial or longitudinal angle. 
It starts in the constellation Aries and 
runs eastward through the 1 2 signs of 
the zodiac. Right ascension is usually 
expressed as hours, minutes, and sec- 
onds (rather than degrees), ranging 
from 00 h OCT. 00 to 23 h 59 m .59. 

Declination is equivalent to phi, the 
latitudinal angle; it's simply the angle 
up or down from the equator, going 
from 90 degrees (the north pole), 
through (the equator), and down to 
-90 degrees (the south pole). 

Parallax is an indirect measure of 





Name of System 




Right 


Declination 


Parallax 




Stellar 






Ascension 










Class(es) 






hours 


minutes 


degrees 


minutes 


microseconds 






Lalande 25372 


13 


43 


15 


10 


205 


M4 






Keid 


4 


13 


-7 


44 


205 


K1 


dAO M4 




BD +20° 


10 


17 


20 


7 


203 


M4 






Altair 


19 


48 


8 


44 


197 


A7 






70 Ophiuchi 


18 


3 


2 


31 


195 


K0 


K5 




AC +79° 


11 


45 


78 


58 


195 


M4 






EV Lacertae 


22 


45 


44 


5 


194 


M4 






AC +58° 


4 


26 


58 


53 


192 


M4 


M4 




WX Ursae Major is 


11 


3 


43 


47 


186 


M2 


M8 




36 Ophiuchi 


17 


12 


-26 


32 


184 


K1 


K1 K5 




CD -20° 4125/4123 


14 


55 


-21 


12 


180 


K5 


M2 




CD -36° 


20 


8 


-36 


14 


177 


K3 


M5 




Sigma Draconis 


19 


32 


69 


35 


176 


K0 






Lalande 46650 


23 


47 


2 


8 


175 


M2 






Delta Pavonis 


20 


4 


-66 


19 


175 


G6 






L374-14 


19 


17 


-45 


37 


175 


M7 






CD -21° 


6 


8 


-21 


51 


174 


M1 






BD +4° 4048 


19 


14 


5 


6 


173 


M4 


M5 




Luyten 97-12 


7 


53 


-67 


38 


173 


dM5 






Luyten 674-15 


8 


10 


-21 


24 


171 


M5 






UC48 


17 


42 


-57 


17 


170 


M5 






CD -3° 


5 


29 


-3 


41 


170 


M1 






Eta Cassiopeiae 





46 


57 


33 


170 


GO 


M0 




CD -40° 9712 


15 


29 


-41 


6 


169 


M4 






Ross 986 


7 


7 


38 


38 


169 


M5 






Wolf 294 


6 


52 


33 


20 


168 


M4 






Ross 47 


5 


39 


12 


29 


168 


M6 






BD +53° 1320/1321 


9 


11 


52 


54 


166 


M0 


M0 




LP 658-2 


5 


53 


-4 


8 


166 


dK5 






Ross 882 


7 


42 


3 


41 


165 


M4 






CD -45° 


20 


10 


-45 


19 


164 


M0 






Wolf 629/630 


16 


53 


-8 


15 


161 


M4 


M4 M5 




82 Eridani 


3 


17 


-43 


16 


161 


G5 






CD -11° 


14 


32 


-12 


19 


160 


M4 






Beta Hydri 





23 


-11 


32 


159 


G1 






BD +19° 


23 


20 


19 


40 


155 


M4 


M6 




BD +45° 2505 


17 


11 


45 


45 


155 


M3 





distance; it's the apparent shift (in 
fractions of a second) of a star's posi- 
tion as the earth travels around the 
sun. If you divide l by the parallax, 
you get the distance of the star in 
parsecs (where l parsec equals 
3.26161 light-years). Note that in table 
I, the parallax value 762 represents 
0.762 second. 

For display purposes, I chose to 
convert the stars' coordinates to the 
rectangular (or Cartesian) coordinates 
x, y, and z. lb allow separation of close 
systems (such as Alpha Centauri and 
Proxima Centauri), I used 0.1 light-year 
as the grid-unit size. Thus, a star at 
(10,0.0) would be exactly 1 light-year 
(10 x 0.1) away from Sol. The positive 
x-axis goes out through a right ascen- 
sion of 00 h 00 m 00; the positive y- 
axis, through 06 h 00 m .00. The 
positive z-axis goes up through a 
declination of 90 degrees. I used a 
two-step conversion process— from 
astronomical to true polar, then from 
polar to rectangular. Figure 4 illus- 
trates the relationship between the 
different coordinate systems. 

For both right ascension and dec- 
lination, we have two values: hours 
and minutes, and degrees and 
minutes. Our very first step is to con- 
vert both into real values, for exam- 
ple, converting 05 h 30 m 00 to 5.5 
hours. Assuming that the two values 
are read in as integers, the function 
shown in listing I will do theconver- 
sion. Note that the sign must be prop- 
agated to the minutes, because in 
table 1 only the degrees have nega- 
tive signs. 

Having done this, you then need to 
multiply the right ascension by 1 5. to 
convert it from hours (0 to 23) to 
degrees (0 to 359). Furthermore, since 
the Pascal used for this program ex- 
pects radians (as do most Pascal im- 
plementations), you must convert 
from degrees to radians by multiply- 
ing both by the value (2xpi)/360.0, 
which is equal to 0.01745329. You 
have now converted right ascension 
and declination to theta and phi. To 
convert parallax to distance, you need 
to divide the value into 1000 (remem- 
ber that the table values are in 

(continued) 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 109 



PERSPECTIVES ON STARS 



File Origin finis Scale flange Class Type 



Star Map — Copyright © 1985 by Bruce F, Webster 




Figure I : The stars closest to the earth, as presented by StarMap. 











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W^^/'Ul'-^^M 








SHEK&£r * : i *'*'<^^Si 








Hnpi^^fll 








^^^^X^&'Oiafc^^CTW 
















V'^i3 *.^3^>n«wMOjjB 






* 
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e 


• 






m 






o 






9 


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© 


® ® 






® 


o 


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• 

















Figure 2: Tfe approximate location of the star cluster from figure 1 in the galaxy. 



thousandths of a second), then multi- 
ply it by 3.261 6 1 (ParToLY, the number 
of light-years in a parsec). Assuming 
that the right-ascension values are 
RAH (right-ascension hours) and RAM 
(right-ascension minutes), the declina- 
tion values are DecD (declination 
degrees) and DecM (declination 
minutes), Par is the parallax, and the 
constant DegToRad equals 
O.OI745329, then the statements in 
listing 2 complete the conversion to 
polar coordinates, with the unit 
distance being 0.1 light-year. Note that 
if we change ParToLY to 32616.1, you 
can rewrite the third statement as 

Dist : = ParToLY/Par: 

The more drawn-out version is just for 
clarity's sake. 

Conversion from polar to rec- 
tangular coordinates is well defined. 
Assuming the integer variables x, y, 
and z, the statements in listing 3 con- 
vert from polar to rectangular form, 
where the function Round takes a real 
value and rounds it to the nearest in- 
teger. This lets you do your calcula- 
tions with real numbers and convert 
at the end, maximizing precision. 

Stellar Data Structure 

The conversion from astronomical to 
rectangular coordinates just described 
is performed by a program called 
ReadStar. ReadStar also converts the 
data file RawStars (containing the list 
of stars) from a text file to a binary file 
called Stars. That way, StarMap can 
read in the data faster, avoiding any 
sort of text-to-numbers conversion. 
The data types used by StarMap and 
ReadStar are given in listing 4. 

Note that StarClass is an enumer- 
ated data type (EDT), not a character 
data type. Each star system can have 
up to three components, or three dif- 
ferent stars. For example, the star 
system Keid actually contains three 
stars, with stellar classes KI, dAO, and 
M4. Keid's data structure would then 
have the values shown in figure 5. 

Note that the record type Compo- 
nent is declared as being "packed." 
This is to make it as small as possible. 
Since each of the three fields— Dwarf, 
Class, and SubClass— have very small 



110 BYTE • )ULY 1985 



PERSPECTIVES ON STARS 



ranges of values, the MacAdvantage 
compiler can pack all three into just 
2 bytes, the smallest possible size of 
a UCSD Pascal record. This keeps the 
size of the Stars record down to 38 
bytes. If the program didn't declare 
Component to be packed, it would 
use 2 bytes for each field, for a total 
size of 6 bytes, and the array Comp 
would go from 6 to 18 bytes, kicking 
Stars up to 50 bytes per record. In a 
list of 200 stars, that's a difference of 
more than 2K bytes. 

Organizing the Stars 

After you've created the data file with 
ReadStar, you can now run StarMap 
to display and manipulate it. A few. 
subtly related questions arise. First, in 
what data structure will the stars be 
stored? The program could just read 
them into an array[1 . . n] of Stars, but 
n has to be fixed when the program 
is compiled. This limits the number of 
stars that can be read in and also 
forces the program to use more 
memory than it might otherwise need. 

Second, having read in the stars, in 
what order should you have the pro- 
gram draw them? Since stars will over- 
lap on the display, this becomes an 
important question. The program 
should draw from the farthest star to 
the nearest, so that those closer to 
your viewpoint will cover up (when 
necessary) those farther away. One 
solution, of course, is to sort the ar- 
ray (if that's what you're using) along 
the axis being viewed. But that means 
the program would have to sort the 
list again every time you change the 
viewing axis, which would add a fair 
amount of time and overhead. 

Third, if you point at a star and click 
the mouse, the program must detect 
the closest star and not any that are 
hidden behind it. This is similar to the 
second problem; again, a sorted list 
of stars will solve the problem. The 
challenge is to avoid constantly 
resorting. 

Many solutions are possible; each 
has good and bad points. The ap- 
proach I've chosen provides a large 
degree of flexibility while reducing the 
storage of redundant information. 

{continued) 



Z- 




X- 





x+ 



Figure 3 : The x~, y-. and i-axes for StarMap, as related to the Macintosh screen. 




9 



THETA= RIGHT ASCENSION 
PHI = DECLINATION 
DIST= 1/PARALLAX 
TDIST= r *cos(<J>) 



s * cos(0) 
s *sin(0) 
r * sin((t>) 






Figure 4: The relationship between the three coordinate systems discussed in 
the article: stellar (right ascension, declination, and parallax), polar (theta and 
phi), and Cartesian (x. y. and z). 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 111 



PERSPECTIVES ON STARS 



Listing I : The code for converting hours, degrees, and minutes into real values. 

function MinTcfrac(Degrees, Minutes : Integer) : Real; 

{ 
purpose converts dd mm to dd.xx 

} 

var 

Sign : Real; 

begin 
if Degrees 0.0 
then Sign := -1.0 
else Sign := 1.0; 
MinToFrac:= Degrees + Sign*(Minutes/60.0) 
end; { of tunc MinToFrac } 



Listing 2: The code for converting right ascension, declination, and parallax 
into polar coordinates. 

Theta := DegToRad * MinToFrac(RAH,RAM) * 15.0; 
Phi := DegToRad * MinToFrac(DecD,DecM); 
Dist := ParToLY * (1000.0/Par) * 10.0; 



Listing 

Z : = 

TDist : = 
Y : = 
X : = 


3: The code for converting polar 

Round(Dist * Sin(Phi)); 
= TDist * Cos(Phi); 
Round(TDist * Sin(Theta)); 
Round(TDist * Cos(Theta)); 


coordinates into Cartesian coordinates. 



Each star occupies a location in a 
large three-dimensional grid, speci- 
fied by its coordinates (x.y.z). Since 
you want to sort the stars along each 
axis, start by linking together all stars 
with the same x-coordinate, the same 
^-coordinate, and the same z- 
coordinate. To do this, define the data 
types as shown in listing 5. 

Each star that is read in will have its 
own node; that is, the data will go into 
the field Star. The three pointers— 
Node[AX], NodefAY], and Node[AZ]- 
will each point at the next star shar- 
ing the same x-, y~, or z-coordinate, re- 
spectively. Of course, if there are no 
more stars with the same given coor- 
dinate, the respective pointer will con- 
tain the null pointer value, nil. 

With this method, the program can 
read in as many stars as there is mem- 
ory for; likewise, you allocate only as 
much memory as is needed. There is 
an additional overhead of 6 bytes per 
node (for the three pointers), which 
brings the size of each node up to 44 
bytes, but we've gained a lot of flex- 
ibility with those pointers. 

Now that all these stars are linked 
together, how do you get to the first 
star of each list? Use a header list. The 
data structures for the headers are 
shown in listing 6. 

The array Next points to lists of stars 
sharing the same x- y-, or z-coor- 
dinate. AVal tells what that coordinate 



Listing 4: The data types used by StarMap and ReadStar. 


StarClass 


= (O.B.A.F.G.K.M); 


SubRange 


= 0..9; 


Component 


= 


packed record 


Dwarf 


: Boolean; 


Class 


: StarClass; 


SubClass 


: SubRange 


end; 




Stars 


= 


record 




Name 


: string[23]; 


X.Y.Z 


: Integer; 


NumComp 


: 0. .3; 


Comp 


: array[1 . .3] of Component 


end; 




- 





Name 


Keid 


X 


71 


Y 


141 


Z 


-21 


NumComp 


3 


Comp[1] 




Dwarf 


False 


Class 


K 


SubClass 


1 


Comp[2] 




Dwarf 


True 


Class 


A 


SubClass 





Comp[3] 




Dwarf 


False 


Class 


M 


SubClass 


4 



Figure 5 : The data structure for the star 
system Keid, which consists of three stars. 



112 BYTE • IULY 1985 



PERSPECTIVES ON STARS 



is. Note that there is one header for 
a given value along all three axes. For 
example, if AVal were 71. then 
Next[AX] would point to all stars with 
an x-coordinate of 71. Next[AY] would 
point to those with a ^-coordinate of 
71. and Next[AZ], to those with a z- 
coordinate of 71. 

As I mentioned, you want the stars 
sorted along each axis. You can ac- 
complish this by simply maintaining 
a sorted linked list of headers. The 
pointer Link[Front] points to the 
header with the next highest AVal; 
Link[Back] points to the next lowest 
header. Both ends of the list point to 
a special header called Head (and 
vice versa). To traverse the list, the 
program starts at one end and follows 
Link until it runs into Head. The pro- 
cedure in listing 7. when given an axis 
and a direction, traverses the entire 
list of stars in the order you requested 
and writes out the name of each star. 
You won't find this procedure in Star- 
Map, but the routines to draw the 
map and to find which star has been 
selected use code that is similar to 
StarMap's. 

HPtr moves through the list of 
headers until it runs into Head. TPtr 
checks all the stars at each header for 
the given axis. For example, if 
HPtr.Aval = 15andAxis = AY, then 
TPtr will point at all the stars (if any) 
with a ^-coordinate of 15. 

Transforming the Display 

StarMap lets you transform the dis- 
play by rotating it. translating the 
coordinates, and scaling it up. Rota- 
tion is limited to your fixing the posi- 
tion of the axis (x,y, or z) you're look- 
ing along and choosing to look from 
the positive or negative end. The pro- 
gram simply changes the values of 
Axis and Direction (global variables 
with the same data types shown in list- 
ing 7, WriteNames). The list of stars is 
now automatically "sorted" along that 
axis, while Direction fixes the direction. 
Translation takes a couple of forms. 
First, you can change the map's origin 
to any star; it doesn't have to be Sol. 
This is done by clicking the star and 
then pulling down the Origin menu. 
The name of that star will appear in 



the menu; just select it to move. Sol 
always appears in the menu, so you 
can easily recenter the display. You 
also can add an offset of plus or 
minus 15 light-years to the origin 
along any axis. The name of the cur- 



rent origin always appears at the top 
so that you can remove the offset. It 
also reminds you what the current 
origin is. One more effect: When you 
click a star to get information, the 

[continued) 



Listing 5: Definition of the data types for linking together stars with the same 
x-. y-, or coordinates. 



AxisType 


= (AX.AY.AZ); 


NodePtr 


= 'Node; 


NodeList 


= array[AxisType] of NodePtr; 


Node 


= 


record 




Next 


: NodeList; 


Star 


: Stars 


end; 





Listing 6: 


Data sructures for the header list. 


DirecType 


= (Front.Back); 


HeadPtr 


= 'Header; 


Header 


= 


record 




AVal 


: Integer; 


Link 


: array[DirecType] of HeadPtr; 


Next 


: NodeList 


end; 





Listing 7: The procedure that traverses the entire list of stars in the order 
requested and writes out the name of each star. 



AxisType; Direction : DirecType); 



procedure WriteNames(Axis 

{ 
purpose traverses all stars 
last update 09 Mar 85 

} 

var 
TPtr : NodePtr; 

HPtr ; HeadPtr; 

begin 
HPtr:= Head\Link[Direction]; 
while HPtr< >Head do begin 
TPtr := HPtr".Next[Axis]; { check specific axis } 
while TPtr< >nil do begin { look at all stars } 
WriteLn(TPtr .Star. Name); { at that coordinate } 
TPtr := TPtr\Next[Axis] 
end; 

HPtr := HPtr.Link[Direction] 
end 
end; { of proc WriteNames } 



{ start at one end } 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 113 



PERSPECTIVES ON STARS 



distance given is always with respect 
to the current origin. If you select 
Groombridge 34 as your origin, then 
look at Beta Hydri; the distance 
shown is that from Groombridge 34. 
Scaling is basically a zoom function. 
You are not moving "into" the cluster; 
you are just increasing the magnifica- 
tion of your mythical telescope. Each 



level of scaling represents a twofold 
increase over the previous level. 

Filtering Stars 

You have three filtering functions at 
your disposal. First you can screen 
stars according to their stellar class 
(O.B.A.F.G.K.M). The program main- 
tains a set (DisplaySet) containing the 



currently allowed classes. For multiple 
stars, if any component is in Display- 
Set, then all components are dis- 
played. 

The second filter is distance. Note 
that this is the distance from the current 
origin. If you set Groombridge 34 to be 
the origin, then limit the range to 8 
light-years, you will see all stars within 



Development Using 
MacAdvantage:UCSD Pascal 



MacAdvantage:UCSD Pascal rep- 
resents something of a first for 
Sof'fech Microsystems Inc.; it's a UCSD 
Pascal compiler running under some- 
thing other than the UCSD p-System 
operating system. Ifue, SofTech had 
released an MS-DOS hosted version of 
the p-System. but that isn't quite the 
same as this. 

MacAdvantage is simply a UCSD 
Pascal compiler (and assorted tools) 
running under the Macintosh Finder. 
The editor is a standard Macintosh- 
style editor, developed by Bill Duvall 
at Consulair and found in other soft- 
ware-development packages (MDS. 
MacModula-2, Megamax C etc.). The 
resource maker is Apple's standard 
resource compiler, again found in 
many of the other systems. The com- 
piler produces applications that you 
can start by double-clicking an icon. 
However, those applications don't 
stand alone: you have to have the Mac- 
Advantage P-machine and run-time 
files somewhere on the disk. The ap- 
plication loads these in before 
executing. 

Program development under MacAd- 
vantage is a pleasure. The package 
comes with a little executive program 
that takes you out of the Finder and 
gives you a Macintosh-like menu bar 
across the top. The menu bar contains 
selections to let you compile, run the 
resource maker, edit a file, run the 
library or set-options utilities, or exit to 
the Finder. When you go from the 
editor or the compiler into the ex- 
ecutive program, it only takes a second 
or two to bring the display up. a great 



improvement over the 15 to 2 5 sec- 
onds it can take to return to the Macin- 
tosh Finder. And the Set menu lets you 
define where (and what) the different 
utility files are. 

Since UCSD Pascal is basically a 
16-bit language and the Macintosh is 
a 32-bit environment, SofTech had to 
make a number of changes and en- 
hancements to fit the two together. 
MacAdvantage has a 3 2 -bit integer 
data type (lnteger2), which is heavily 
used in the Toolbox units, usually to 
represent 3 2 -bit addresses. A new 
function. Locate, returns the 32-bit ad- 
dress of a given variable or procedure. 
Other functions help conversion be- 
tween the 16-bit p-code pointers and 
the Macintosh's 32-bit addresses. 
Other bridges include functions to con- 
vert between the two Macintosh 
Boolean types and the UCSD Pascal 
Boolean type. 

The Toolbox implementation is fair- 
ly complete. One library (with a large 
number of units) lets you use just the 
routines and definitions that you want. 
Most are identical or almost identical 
to those defined in \nside Macintosh 
(Cupertino, CA: Apple Computer Inc.. 
1985). although, again, some modifica- 
tions have been made to bridge the dif- 
ferent environments. 

If MacAdvantage has one major 
drawback, it is its lack of speed. Like 
MacModula-2 and the Mac p-System, 
MacAdvantage uses pseudo-machine 
code running on a p-code interpreter. 
This makes it anywhere from 20 to 40 
times slower than assembly language, 
although heavy use of Toolbox rou- 



tines can significantly close that gap. 
A minor drawback is that it is neces- 
sary to copy both the application and 
the support files (P-machine. run-time 
file) in order for the application to run. 

With the recent announcements of 
Sof'fech. MacAdvantage now has some 
strong points to balance against prob- 
lems. First and foremost is price: at 
$119. MacAdvantage is a real bargain. 
On top of that, of course, is word that 
Sof'fech has completely dropped all 
licensing fees for MacAdvantage. This 
means that programmers can freely 
give away or sell any products devel- 
oped with MacAdvantage. including 
the two support files needed to run 
them. 

Even if developers don't want to 
release a final product in MacAdvan- 
tage form, they can still make use of 
the package. MacAdvantage and Lisa 
Pascal are similar enough that conver- 
sion from one to the other is fairly 
straightforward. This means that pro- 
grammers could experiment and devel- 
op new programs on the Macintosh 
(using MacAdvantage). then produce a 
final version using Lisa Pascal. 

Finally, MacAdvantage represents the 
next step after MacPascal (from Apple). 
MacPascal has a nice environment for 
beginning programs, but its speed 
(over 1 5 times slower than MacAdvan- 
tage). its copy protection, and its lack 
of full, direct Toolbox support severe- 
ly limit it as a serious development 
tool. Educational institutions in par- 
ticular might be interested in switching 
to MacAdvantage after a semester of 
MacPascal. 



114 BYTE • JULY 1985 



PERSPECTIVES ON STARS 



The obvious 



application of 



8 light-years of Groombridge 34. 

The third filter is number of components: 
one, two, or three stars, or any com- 
bination of these. As with the stellar 
class filter, the program uses a set . 

(CountSet) to keep track of the StflfNiCtp IS 
allowed values. 

All three filters are cumulative. If 
you only want to see all binary K-class 
stars within 8 light-years of Groom- 
bridge 34, you can. As it turns out. 
there is one such system: 61 Cygni j 
(6.9 light-years away; components are Wlm OS WCll 
K5 and K7). - 



educational although 
it can be fun to play 



Selecting Stars 

To get more information about a star, 
you point at it with the mouse and 
click. The program must then deter- 
mine which (if any) star you selected. 
Remember that StarMap draws the 
stars from the farthest away to the 
closest. StarMap detects stars in the 
opposite direction, so that you select 
what you see and not some star hid- 
den behind it. For each star that 
meets your selection criteria (i.e.. 
passes through all your filters), Star- 
Map generates its enclosing rectangle, 
then checks to see if the mouse was 
clicked within that area. If it was. the 
rectangle is momentarily inverted to 
indicate which star was selected, and 
then the information window is up- 
dated. The information window, which 
gives the name, distance from current 
origin, and class of components, is 
shown in figure I. If another star is 
selected, the information window is 
changed accordingly. 

Applications and 
Enhancements 

The obvious application of StarMap 
is educational, although it can be fun 
to play with as well. Most important, 
it displays the data in a more interest- 
ing and memorable manner than 
table 1 . This program is sure to liven 
up any astronomy (or general science) 
class. 

Numerous changes and enhance- 
ments are obvious. Since you can 
substitute your own star list, you can 
create a larger star map. For example, 
proper motion information could be 
added to the star list (in table 1) as 



well as to the Stars data structure (in 
listing 4). A time menu could then be 
used to track the stars in relation to 
one another. Other information, such 
as the absolute magnitude of the 
components, could be added and dis- 
played. My own plans include a "uni- 
verse construction set." which will let 
me create planets in each of those 
systems. 

You can obtain the StarMap listings 
from BYTEnet Listings at (617) 
861-9774. You will also need BinHex, 
a public-domain program available on 
BYTEnet Listings, which changes the 
binary files into executable applica- 
tions. The listings are STARMAP.HQX, 
the actual program; STARS.HQX, the 
data file of stars; READSTAR.HQX, 
only necessary if you want to create 
a new data file; and PRUNTIME.HQX 
and PMACHINE.HQX, the run-time 
files needed to run the program. If you 
have the MacAdvantage development 
system and want to make adaptations 
to the program, the necessary files 
are STARMAP.PAS, SMAP.R, RAW- 
STARS.DOC, and READSTAR.PAS. ■ 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
A number of people went to some trou- 
ble to help me locate a decent star list. 
Among those are Linda Hume at San 
Diego State University; Dr. Barbara Jones, 
UCSD; Mike Caplinger, Rice University; 
David Gehrt, NASA/Ames; Michael Hart- 
sough. USG Edward Olson. JPL; Josh 
Knight, IBM Watson Research Labs; Dick 
Munro. High Altitude Observatory; Ted 
Anderson, moderator of the Info-Space 
discussion on ARPANET/uucp; and the 
rest of the Info-Space contributors. My 
thanks to all. 



Which Master 

Would 

Your Slaves 

Recommend? 




OurNewCPZ-186 
Has It All 

Intercontinental Microsystems, 
the leader in the 8-bit single board 
computer world, has done it again. 
The CPZ-186, based on the 80186 
CPU with integrated 2 channel Direct 
Memory Access Controller, has a 
4-drive tloppy controller, 2 serial I/O 
ports, 2K> parallel I/O ports, Mem- 
ory Management Unit, Interrupt Con- 
troller, up to 1 Megabyte of Dynamic 
RAM, and up to 8K EPROM, all on a 
single IEEE S-l 00 Bus Board. 

Talk about speed and flexibility. 
The CPZ-186 runs at 8 MHz and can 
be used for single user systems or 
in powerful multi-user applications. 
As a Network Master (File Server), 
the CPZ-186 can network 8-bit and 
1 6-bit S-100 Bus Slaves as well as 
PC's using Intercontinental^ com- 
plete line of hardware and software 
networking products. 

Find out what support really is. 
Everyone talks about support, but at 
Intercontinental you deal directly 
with our hardware and software 
design team. Who else could know 
more about solving your problems? 

Best ot all, we're delivering now, 
and our price allows building cost 
effective systems and networks. 

Circle the bingo number below or 
contact us directly, and ask about 
our complete line of S-100 Bus and 
Local Area Networking Boards. 



Intercontinental 
Micro Systems 



4015 Leaverfon CLAnaheim, Ca 92807, 
(714) 630-0964JEL£X: 821375 SUPPORT UD 

Inquiry 189 for End-Users. 
Inquiry 190 for DEALERS ONLY. 

JULY 1985 • BYTE 



115 



THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER MAIL ORDER FIRM 



#B2I 






TELEX 970 380 3980 



MACINTOSH 




( ALL MAIL: 12060 SW Garden Place, Portland, OR 97223 ) 

foITtoob apple 



COMPUTERS 



flpppta 



BUSINESS SOFTWARE UTILITIES SOFTWARE 



lie. lie. Mac, Mac XL 



IN STOCK, CALL 



list CONROY 
ASSIMILATION, Turbo Touch $ 129 $ 

BLUECHIP, Millionaire, Barron, Tycoon, ea. $ 60 $ 37 
CENTRAL POINT, Copy II Mac or MxToote, ea. $ 40 $ 24 
CONROY-LA POINTE, Diskettes, 

10 pak, SS/DD, w/Flip-Pak $ 60 $ 25 

CONTINENTAL, Home Accountant $ 100 $ 65 
CREATIVE SOLUTIONS, Macf orth Level I $ 149 $ 95 
CREIGHTON, HomePakor Mac Office, ea. $ 39$ 26 

Mac Spell + $ 99 $ 60 

CSD, MacLion $ 379 $ 239 

DOW JONES, Market Manager Plus $ 249 S 159 
EXPERTELLIGENCE, ExperLogo $ 150 $ 95 
FIRST BYTE, Smooth Talker $ 150 $ 95 

FORETHOUGHT, Fact Finder $ 150 $ 95 

HABA, DS/DD Ext. Disk Drive, 800K $ 550 $ 479 
HAYDEN, Sargon III $ 50 $ 31 

HUMAN EDGE, Mind Prober $50$ 29 

INFOCOM, Hitchhiker's Guide $ 40 $ 25 

INNOVATIVE, Flip-n-File, 40 $ 30 $ 19 

KOALA, Mac Vision $ 400 $ 229 

LIVING VIDEOTEXT, Think Tank $ 145 $ 83 
LOTUS, Jazz $ 595 $ 395 

MEGAHAUS, Megafiler $ 195 $ 125 

Megamerge $ 125 $ B0 

MICROSOFT, Business Pak $ 595 $ 395 

Multiplan, Word, or File, each $ 195 $ 125 

MILES, Macthe Knife, v. 1 $ 39 $ 25 

MONOGRAM, Dollars & Sense $ 150 $ B9 

NOVATION, Smartcat Plus Modem w/Software $ 499 $ 349 
ODESTA, Helix $ 395 $ 259 

PENGUIN, Graphics Magician $ 50 $ 32 

PROVUE, Overvue $ 295 $ 185 

SIMON & SCHUSTER, Typing Tutor III $ 60 $ 37 
SOFTW.PUBL.PFS: File & Report Combo $ 175 $ 105 
SOFTWARE ARTS, T/K Solver $ 249 $ 159 

STATE OFTHE ART, Electronic Checkbook $ 8 $ 50 
STONEWARE, DB Master $ 195 $ 125 

TELOS, File Vision $ 195 $ 115 

WARNER, Desk Organizer $ 149 $ 99 



FLOPPY DISK DRIVES 



LIST CONROY 

MICRO-SCI, A2 Disk Drive, 143K $ 345 $ 169 

A2 Controller Card $ 100 $ 60 

Half Height Drive for lie $ 269 $ 169 

Half Height Drive for lie $ 299 $ 189 

RANA, Elite I, 163K, 40 Track $ 299 $ 189 

Elite Controller $ 145 $ 79 

TEAC, T40 Half Ht, 163K, Direct $ 249 $ 169 

Controller Card for T40 by ComX $ 79 $ 45 



HARD DISKS 



QUARK, QC10 for llc/lle/lll/MAC 



OTHER HARDWARE 



115 $ 85 

140 $ 79 

119 $ 29 

CALL 

90 $ 65 

298 $ 179 

80 $ 44 

130 $ 75 

50 $ 35 

199 $ 89 
395 $ 275 
209 $ 159 

99 $ 59 

375 $ 250 

89 $ 59 

319 $ 219 

269 $ 189 

100 $ 50 

40 $ 26 

150 $ 99 

200 $ 139 
250 $ 169 
379 $ 229 
279 $ 175 
199 $ 159 



ALS, Word or List Handler, ea. $ 

Handler Pak (Word/List/Speil) $ 

APPLE, Appleworks $ 

ASHTON-TATE, dBase II (Req CP/M 80) $ 

BPI, AR, AP, PR or INV, each $ 

BRODERBUND, Print Shop $ 

Print Shop Graphics Library S 

Bank St. Writer or Speller, ea $ 

Bank St. Combo (Writer & Speller) $ 

DOW JONES, Market Manager $ 

Market Analyzer or Microscope, ea. $ 

HOWARD SOFT, Tax Preparer '85 $ 

HUMAN EDGE, Sales or Mgmt Edge, ea. $ 



CCS, 7711 or 7710-A Interface, ea. $ 
CPS/EASTSIDE, Wild Card II (copier, +/e) $ 
COMX, 16KRAMCard(ll+),1yr ltd wty $ 
HAYES, Mach II, III Joysticks (ll+/lle) 
KENSINGTON, System Saver Fan $ 
KEY TRONIC, KB200 Keyboard ( + ) $ 
KOALA, Muppet Keys $ 

Touch Tablet w/Micro lllustrator(+/e) $ 
KRAFT, Joystick (ll/ll + /lle) $ 

MICRO-SCI, 80 Col. Card + 64K RAM Card (lie) $ 
MICROSOFT, Premium Softcard (He) $ 
ORANGE MICRO, Buffered Grader Plus, 16K $ 

16K Buffer Board for Grappler Plus $ 
PCPI, Applicard, 6 MHz, 14 features $ 
RH ELECT., Super Fan II w/surge protector $ 
TITAN, Accelerator He $ 

128KRAMCard(ll + ) $ 

TRACKHOUSE, Numeric Key Pad (lie) $ 
TG, Select-a-Port $ 

VIDEO 7, V Color 7 RGB Card $ 

V Color lie $ 

V Color lie $ 
VIDEX, UltraTerm(ll + /lle) $ 

Video Term 80 Col. Card (ll+/lle) $ 
WICO, Smaricard (spec. Il/ll + /lie) $ 



80 $ 36 

170 $ 73 

250 $ 215 

495 $ 289 

395 $ 240 

50 $ 29 

25 $ 18 

70 $ 45 

140 $ 85 

249 $ 159 

349 $ 219 

250 $ 165 
250 $ 165 
145 $ 89 
199 $ 125 
125 $ 80 

350 $ 189 
495 $ 265 
495 $ 265 

99 $ 54 

595 $ 295 

95 $ 62 



PRICE 

EPSON, Graphics Dump $ 15 

FUNK, Sideways $ 60 

HAYES, Terminal Prog, for Smartmodem $ 99 
MICROSOFT, Full Line in Stock 

OMEGA, Locksmith $ 100 

PENGUIN, Complete Graphics System II $ 80 

Graphics Magician $ 60 

QUALITY, Bag of Tricks $ 40 

UNITED SWI, ASCII Express-The Pro $ 130 

UTILICO, Essential Data Duplicator III $ 80 



CUNHUT 

PRICE 
$ 7 
$ 37 
$ 65 
CALL 



LIVING VIDEOTEXT, Think Tank $ 

MECA, Managing Your Money $ 

MEGAHAUS, Megaworks $ 

MICRO PRO, WordStar $ 

WordStar w/ Starcard $ 

WordStar Professional, 4 Pak $ 

MaiiMerge, SpellStar, or Starlndex, ea $ 

InfoStar and StarCard Combo $ 

MICROSOFT, Multi-Plan (Ap DOS) $ 

QUARK, Word Juggler & Lexicheck (lle/llc) $ 189 $ 1 29 

SENSIBLE, Sensible Speller $ 125 $ 79 

SIERRA/ON-LINE, Screen Writer II $ 130 $ 79 

SOFTWARE PUBL, PFS:File or Write, each $ 125 $ 79 

PFSiGraph or Report, each $ 125 $ 79 

SPRINGBOARD, Newsroom $ 50 $ 32 

STONEWARE, DB Master, v. 4+ $ 350 $ 225 



UTILITIES SOFTWARE 



BEAGLE, GPLE or Alpha Plot, ea $ 50 $ 27 

Pronto DOS, Disk Quick, Ap.Mech. or 1.0. Silver, ea $ 30$ 19 
Full line IN STOCK CALL 

BORLAND, Turbo Pascal $ 55 $ 33 

3 Pak (Pasc, Turbo Tut, Toolbox) NEW $ 105 $ 59 

CENTRAL POINT Copy II Plus (bit copier) $ 40 $ 23 



HOME & EDUCATIONAL 



BEAGLE BROS., Full line IN STOCK CALL 

BRODERBUND, Print Shop $ 50 $ 29 

CONTINENTAL, Home Accountant $ 75 $ 43 

KOALA, Full line IN STOCK CALL 

MICROSOFT, Typing Tutor II $25$ 17 

MONOGRAM, Dollars & Sense (lie) $ 100 $ 59 

Dollars & Sense (He) $ 120 $ 69 

Forecast $ 60 $ 38 

SCARBOROUGH, Mastertype $ 40 $ 25 

Build-A-Book $ 40 $ 25 

Your Personal Net Worth $ 80 $ 50 

SIERRA/ON-LINE, Homeword $ 70 $ 45 

SIMON & SCHUSTER, Typing Tutor III $ 60 $ 37 

PLUS: BARRONS, CBS, DAVIDSON, EDU-WARE, 

HARCOURT, LEARNING CO., TERRAPIN 



RECREATIONAL SOFTWARE 



BLUECHIP, Millionaire or Barron, ea. $ 50 $ 32 

DATASOFT, Aztec or Zaxxon, each $ 40 $ 27 

ELECTRON. ARTS, Sky Fox & others, ea. $ 40 $ 29 

HAYDEN, Sargon III (Chess) $ 50 $ 30 

INFOCOM, Zork I, II, or III, ea $ 40 $ 25 

ORIGIN, Ultima 111 $ 60 $ 37 

PENGUIN, Transylvania $ 35 $ 24 

SPECTRUM HOLOBYTE, Gato $ 40 $ 25 
SPINNAKER, FULL LINE IN STOCK CALL 

SUB LOGIC, Flight Simulator II $ 50 $ 30 
PLUS: BRODERBUND, DATAMOST, MUSE, 
SIR-TECH 



DISKETTES 



• CONROY-LAPOINTE™ DISKETTES • 

We guarantee these top quality products with our name. 
5 YEAR LIMITED WARRANTY. 

10 ea.SS/SD, (Apple, etc) 35Trk,W/FUP BOX $ 12 

1 00 ea. SS/SD, (Apple, etc) 3 5 Trk $ 99 

1000 ea. SS/SD, (Apple, etc.) 35 Trk $ 840 

10ea.DS/DD,(IBM,H/P)48Trk,W/FLIPBOX $ 15 

100 ea. DS/OD, (IBM, H/P) 48 Trk $ 119 

1000 ea. DS/DD, (IBM, H/P) 48 Trk $ 859 

10 ea. SS/DD, 3W (MAC, H/P), W/FLIP BOX $ 25 

50 ea. SS/DD, 3W (MAC. H/P) $ 115 

100 ea. SS/DD, 3W (MAC, H/P) $ 229 

CONROY-LAPOINTE" IBM PRE-FORMATTED 

10 ea, DS/DD, 48 Trk W/FUP BOX $ 19 

100 ea, DS/DD, 48 Trk $ 149 

1000 ea. DS/DD, 48 Trk $ 959 

SINGLE-SIDED, DOUBLE DENSITY 

LIST CONROY 
CDC, 1 ea, SS/DD, 40 Trk (Apple, etc) $ 45 $ 19 
DYSAN, 10 ea, SS/DD, (Apple, etc.) $ 40 $ 27 
MAXELL, 10 ea, SS/DD, MD1 (Apple) $ 47 $ 19 
VERBATIM, 1 ea, SS/DD, MD51M1, (Apple) $ 4 9 $ 19 

DOUBLE-SIDED, DOUBLE DENSITY 
CDC, 1 0ea, DS/DD, 40 Trk (IBM, H/P) $ 59$ 23 
DYSAN, 10 ea, DS/DD, (IBM, H/P) $ 69 $ 35 
MAXELL, 10 ea, DS/DD, MD2 (IBM) $ 71 $ 26 
VERBATIM, 10 ea, DS/DD, MD34 (IBM) $ 75 $ 24 

ZW MICRO DISKETTES 
CONROY-LAPOINTE, 10 ea, DS/DD, w/Flip Box $ 29 

MAXELL, 10 ea. SS/DD (MAC, H/P) $ 60 $ 35 
MEMOREX, 10 ea. SS/DD (MAC, H/P) $ 60 $ 33 
VERBATIM, 10 ea, SS/DD (MAC, H/P) $ 65 $ 32 
HIGH DENSITY DISKETTES FOR IBM-AT 
MAXELL, 10 ea. DS/QD (IBM-AT) $ 77 $ 49 
MEMOREX, 10 ea. DS/QD (IBM-AT) $ 77 $ 49 
• GENERIK DISKETTES • 

Top quality, w/jackets no labels. Quantity discounts. 
90 day "No hassle, money back guarantee." 

100 ea. SS/SD, 35 Track (Apple, etc) $ 60 

100 ea. DS/DD, 48 Track, (IBM, H/P) $ 95 



MODEMS 



LIST 

$399 
$ 899 
$ 549 
$ 149 
$ 599 
$ 329 



ANCHOR, Signalman Mark XII 

HAYES, 2400B External Modem 
Smartmodem 1200B (IBM) 
Smartcom II Software (IBM/MAC) 
Smartmodem 1200 (External) 
Micromodem lie w/Smartcom (AP) 

NOVATION, Apple Cat II 300 Baud (AP) $ 389 
212 Apple Cat, 1200 Baud (AP) $ 595 
SmartCat P I u s w/sof tware (MAC) $ 4 9 9 
ACCESS 1-2-3 1200B Modem+ Crosstalk (IBM) $ 595 

PROMETHEUS, 1200 Standalone Modem $ 495 
ProModem 1200 w/software (MAC) $ 549 
ProModem 1200A (AP) $ 449 

ProModem 1200B (IBM) $ 399 

QUADRAM, Quadmodem, Internal (IBM) $ 595 
Quadmodem, External, (IBM) $ 695 



$ 259 
$ 699 
$ 379 
$ 107 
$ 419 
$ 239 
$ 219 
$ 419 
$ 349 
$ 369 
$ 345 
$ 429 
$ 349 
$ 289 
$ 425 
$ 495 



MONITORS 



AMDEK, Color 300 - Comp/Audio 

Color 500 - CompA/CR/RGB/Audio 

Color 600 - Hi Res/RGB/ Audio 

300A - 12" Amber 

300G, 12" Green 

310 A, 12" Amber/Comp (IBM) 
PRINCETON, HX-12 - Hi Res/RGB 

SR-12 - Hi Res/RGB 

MAX-12 - Amber (IBM) 
QUADRAM, Amberchrome, 12" 
ZENITH, ZVM122 - 12" Amber 

ZVM123 - 12" Green 

ZVM124&ZVM 135 



CABLES 



ARBO, IBM-PC to Modem Cable $ 
ASTAR, RF Modulator for T.V. (Apple) $ 
COMPUCABLE, Mac/Hayes Smartmodem Cable $ 
CURTIS, Monitor Extension Cable (IBM) $ 
3'-9' Keyboard Extens. Cable (IBM) $ 
RCA, Monitor Cable $ 



$ 349 $ 249 
$ 525 $ 375 
$ 599 $ 399 
$ 199 $ 135 
$ 179 $ 119 
$ 230 $ 159 
$ 795 $ 469 
$ 799 $ 599 
$ 249 $ 179 
$ 250 $ 159 
$ 159 $ 95 
$ 149 $ 69 
20-30% OFF 



31 $ 
35 $ 

32 $ 
50 $ 
40 $ 
15 $ 



PRINTERS 



DOT MATRIX: 

LIST CONROY 

APPLE, Imagewriter CALL 

LaserWriter $6995 $6500 

EPSON, RX / FX Series - In Stock CALL 

LX80 - 100 cps DQ/16 cps NLQ $ 299 CALL 
JX80 - Color Printer, 160 cps. $ 699 CALL 
LQ1500 - 200 cps DQ/67 cps LQ $1295 CALL 

OKIDATA, Okimate 20 - Color, Hi Res $ 268 $ 208 
182 - 120 cps/80 col $ 299 $ 239 

92 - 160 cps/80 col/para. $ 499 $ 399 

93-160 cps/136 col/para. $ 799 $ 639 

2410 Pacemark - 350 cps/para. $2995 $1975 

PANASONIC, P1090 - 80 cps/tO" $ 349 $ 249 
Pt092 - 180 cps/10" $ 599 $ 459 

QUADRAM, Quadjet- Inkjet Color $ 895 $ 395 

STAR MICRO, SG10 - 120 cps DQ/30 cps NIQ $ 299 $ 249 
SG15 - 120 cps DQ, 30 cps NLQ, 16K $ 499 $ 419 
SD10 - 160 cps DQ, 40 cps NLQ $ 449 $ 379 
SD15 - 160 cps DQ, 40 cps NLQ, 16K $ 599 $ 509 
SR10 - 200 cps DQ, 50 cps NLQ $ 649 $ 549 
SR15 - 200 cps DQ, 50 cps NLQ, 16K $ 799 $ 679 

TOSHIBA, 351 - 288 cps $1895 $1369 

LETTER-QUALITY: 

JUKI, 6300 - 40cps/para. $ 995 $ 795 

6100 - 18 cps/para/3 pitch $ 599 $ 439 

Sheet Feeder for 6300 (single) $ 275 $ 225 
PANASONIC, P3151 - 22 cps/151/2" $ 699 $ 539 
TOSHIBA, Prop, spacing & hi-res graphics: 
1351 - 192 cps DQ & 100 cps LQ $1895 $1369 
1340 - 144 cps DQ & 54 cps LQ $ 799 $ 619 
Bi-direction Tractor Feed $ 195 $ 175 

PLOTTERS: 

EPSON, 4 Pen Plotter $ 599 CALL 

PRINTER SUPPLIES: 

PAPER: White, Colored, Laser Cut, etc. 
RIBBONS, DAISYWHEELS CALL 



PRINTER INTERFACES 
AND BUFFERS 



ARBO, IBM-PC to Para Printer Cable $ 60 $ 30 
ASSIMILATION, Mac to Epson Conn l/F $ 89 $ 69 

Daisywheel Connection % 99 $ 79 

EPSON, Parallel Interface for LQ1500 $ 100 $ 79 

Serial Interface Board $ 130 $ 110 

MPC, Apple II l/F & Cable for Epson & Gemini $ 90 $ 49 
OKIDATA Plug 'n Play, Tractors, Okkjtaph, ea CALL 

ORANGE MICRO, Grappler Plus for Apple $ 1 45 $ 99 

Serial Grappler $ 119 $ 79 

Buffered Grappler Plus, 16K $ 209 $ 159 

QUADRAM, Microfazers, full line IN STOCK CALL 

Microfazers 8K, P-P, w/copy $ 189 $ 139 

STAR MICRO, Serial l/F & Cable $ 144 $ 119 

Mac/Star Interface $ 100 $ 89 



ACCESSORIES 



CURTIS, Diamond, 6 outlets, switched $ 



Emerald , 6 outlets, 6' cord $ 

Ruby, 6 outlets, 6' cord, filter $ 

Sapphire, 3 outlets, w/filter $ 

EPD, Lemon, 6 outlets/wall $ 

Lime, 6 outlets/cord $ 

Orange, 6 outlets/cord $ 

Peach, 3 outlets/wall $ 

INNOVATIVE, Flip-n-File 50(disk holder) $ 

KENSINGTON, Printer Stand $ 

NETWORX, Wiretree, 4 outlet, w/filt & surge $ 

Wiretree Plus $ 100 $ 

PROD TECH INTL, Uninterruptable Power Supply 
200 Watts, PC200 for IBM-PC $ 359 $ 229 

300 Watts, XT300 for IBM-XT $ 499 $ 379 

BOO Watts, ATBOO for IBM-AT, 72 lbs. CALL 



50 S 
SO $ 
90 $ 
80 $ 
45 $ 
70 $ 
100 $ 
60 $ 
22 $ 
30 $ 
70$ 



CONROY- 
LAPOINTE 
CREDIT CARD w 

I Send me a Conroy-LaPomte 5! 

I credit application form, so I 
can get cash discount prices 
wilh ci edit card 
L convenience. 5400 
Minimum initial purchase 



CITY STATE ZIP 

MAIL TO: 12060 SW Garden Place. Portland. OR 97223 



HDnCDIMP I MCA O TCDMC- MAIL TO: 12060 SW Garden Place, Portland, OR 97223 -Include telephone number. Check 
VjnUQrillNVJIIINrvJOC I U niVIO. your figures for Shipping. Insurance and Handling (SIH) All items usually in stock. NO C.O.D. 
Cashiers checks, money orders, Foitune 1000 checks and government checks honored immediately. Personal and other company checks-allow 20 days to clear. Prices reflect 
3% cash & Conroy-UPointe Credit Card discount, so ADD 3% to above prices for VlSA/MasterCard/American Express. Your cards NOT cftarged til we ship. Add SIH CHARGES: 
U.S. Mainland, 3% ($5 minimum) for standard UPS ground; UPS Blue, 6% ($10 min); for U.S. Postal APO or FPO or Alaska, 6% ($10 min). Canada, 12% ($15 min). Foreign 
orders except Canada, 18% {$25 min). Monitors by Postal or to foreign countries, 30% ($50 min). Orders received with insufficient SIH will be refunded. All prices, availability 
and specifications subject to errors or change without notice, so call to verify. All goods are new, include warranty and are guaranteed to work. Due to our low prices and 
our assurance that you will get new, unused products -ALL SALES ARE FINAL. We do not guarantee compatibility. Call before returning goods for repair or replacement. 
ORDER DESK HOURS -SAM to 6PM PST, Monday through Friday, Saturday 10 to 4. EconoRAM™, Fastrak", and Generik" are trademarks of ComX Corporation. 



Inquiry 106 for Apple. Inquiry 107 for IBM Peripherals. Inquiry 108 for all others. 




* 1 984 by Cor»roy> LaPolntaJ nc: All Rights Reserved 

LOW PRICES TO PROFESSIONALS WHO >KNOW WHAT THEY WANT AND KNOW HOW TO USE IT! 

(TO ORDER, CALL (800) 547-1289) 



FOR YOUR IIM -PC, XT, AT or JR 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS OTHER HARDWARE OTHER HARDWARE 



— Call for Details — 

256K 
[BM-PC 

360K 

Disk Drives 
by CDC 

90 Day 

Limited Warranty 

By Us 




maamay p ft 



COMPAQ. Portable, 

256K, 2 360K Disk Drives 

^' Z150, 

256K. 2 320K Disk Drives. 

MSD0S2.1.8088Chip,2S/P 



HARD DISKS & 
TAPE BACKUP 



CDC, Internal 20 meg for AT 

KAMERMAN, Internal 10 meg kit $ 895 
External 10 meg kit w/power $1295 

MF-10/10, H Disk, tape back, cont, power $2690 

MICRO SCIENCE, 10 meg w/controller $ 795 

RANA, External 10 meg w/controller $1495 
Internal 10 meg w/controller $ 995 

TALLGRASS, 25 meg disk, 55 meg tape, inti. $3660 



LIST CONflOY 
PRICE PRICE 

$259 

$ 695 $ 295 
$ 895 $ 329 
$ 399 $ 299 
$ 595 $ 445 
$ 215 $ 199 
$ 265 $ 185 
$ 315 $ 215 
$ 50 $ 35 
$ 495 $ 345 



C0NR0Y 
CALL 
$ 729 
$1049 
$2090 
$ 625 
$1095 
$ 689 
$3160 



FLOPPY DISK DRIVES 



CDC, Limited 30 day warranty; Call for quantity prices 



^ v 



<!> 




Full Height \lEs3P^$109 
Half Height ^(^^ $ 89 



AST, 

SixPak Plus, 64K 

SixPak Plus, 256K, S/P/CC+ S/W 
SixPak Plus, 384K, S/P/CC + S/W 
Preview" Graphics Card w/para, 64K 
Advantage™ Multif. Bd. for AT, 128K 
I/O Plus II, S/P/CC 
I/O Plus II, S/P/CC/G 
I/O Plus II, 2S/P/CC/G 
Port Kits - ser, para, or game, ea. 
MonoGraphPlus" P/CC (for Lotus) 

COMX, NEW 

EconoRAM™ Plus, 384k 

board, S/P/CC/G Fastrak & Spooler $265 

EconoRAM", full 384K board $ 295 $ 195 

HAUPPAGE (HCW), 8087 Chip $ 175 $ 125 

8087 Math Pak (Chip & softw.) $ 295 $ 235 

HAYES, Mach II Joystick $ 45 $ 29 

Mach III (PC or Jr.) $ 55 $ 35 

HERCULES, Color Card w/para. $ 245 $ 159 

Mono Graphics Card $ 499 $ 305 

KENSINGTON, Masterpiece" $ 140 $ 99 

KEY TRONIC, KB5151, Std. Keyboard $ 255 $ 195 

KOALA, Speed Key System $ 100 $ 63 

Speed Key Tablet w/software $ 200 $ 115 

Koala Pad w/PC Design $ 150 $ 85 

MAYNARD, SAND STAR SERIES 

Multifunction (6) Card $ 89 $ 79 

Memory Card no RAM $ 122 $ 89 

Memory Card 256K $ 495 $ 309 

Floppy Cont. Card (accepts 3 modules) $ 265 $ 195 

Hard Disk l/F Module $ 499 $ 359 

Hard Disk Cable $ 30 $ 27 

Serial Port Module $ 95 $ 79 

Para or Clock Cal. Module, ea. $ 59 $ 49 

Game Adapter Module $ 49 $ 39 

Memory Module, OK $ 122 $ 99 

Memory Module 256K $ 422 $ 357 



LIST CONROY 
PRICE PRICE 

MICROSOFT, Mouse (for PC) $ 195 $ 135 

Serial Mouse $ 195 $ 135 

MOUSE SYSTEMS, PC Mouse & Paint $ 220 $ 140 

PARADISE, Modular Graphics Card $ 395 $ 285 
Parallel or Serial Port, ea. $ 95 $ 65 

PERSYST, NEW 
PC/Mono Board, w/para port $ 250 $ 195 

PC/Color Graphics Bd w/light pen & l/F $ 244 $ 176 

QUADRAM, 

Quadboard 64K, to 384K, s/p/cc/g $239 

Quadboard, no RAM, expand to 384K $ 295 $ 225 
Quadboard 256K, to 384K, S/P/CC $ 675 $ 269 
Quadboard, 384K (full), S/P/CC/G $ 795 $ 295 
Quadboard II, no RAM, to 256K $ 295 $ 215 
Quadboard II, 64K, to 256K, 2S/CC $ 395 $ 265 
Quadboard II, 256K, 2S/CC $ 595 $ 395 

Quad 512 + 64K w/serial port $ 325 $ 245 
Quadcolor I, board, 4 colors $ 295 $ 195 

Upgrade Quadcolor I to II kit $ 275 $ 199 

Quadvue, board, Mono, S/P/CC $ 345 $ 269 
Quad 3278 $1195 $1050 

Quadnet VI $1995 $1545 

Quadnet IX $2295 $1745 

Quadlink $ 495 $ 385 

Quadsprint $ 645 $ 495 



TG PRODUCTS, Joystick 
WICO, Smartboard Keyboard 



$ 30 $ 22 
$ 400 $ 279 



• 256K • 
CHIP KIT 

$67 

9 each, 4256 chips 
150 ns 



* 64K * 
CHIP KIT 

$10 

9 each, 4164 chips 
90 Day Warranty by us 



* 128K * 
CHIP KIT 

$79 

9 each, 4128 chips 
Piggyback for AT 




CALL FOR 

QUANTITY 

PRICES 



* * FOR YOUR PC- JR* * 



HAYES, Mach III Joystick $ 55 $ 35 

KEY TRONIC, KB5151 Jr. Keyboard $ 255 $ 195 

Numeric Keypad $ 100 $ 77 

KOALA, Touch Tablet for Jr. $ 125 $ 75 

MICROSOFT, Booster 128K w/Mouse $ 495 $ 329 
MOUSE SYSTEMS, Mouse w/software $ 195 $ 125 
QUADRAM, Expansion Chassis $ 695 $ 540 

Memory Expansion Board 128K $ 275 $ 215 
RACORE, Expansion Chassis $ 695 $ 449 

128K Expansion Board $ 275 $ 189 

TECMAR, Jr. Captain $ 395 $ 295 



* ComX * 
EconoRAM Plus™ 

$265 

384K Multifunction RAM Board 

Works like AST SlxPakPius™ with game port 

Fastrak™ RAM Disk and Spooler Software 

(Fastrak for up to 384K). 

EconoRAM™ 384K 
Single Fuctlon Board 

$195 

With Fastrak™ and Spooler 
Fully Compatible, 1 Year Limited Warranty. 

Works on DOS 1.1, 2.0 or 2.1 
Prices and availability subject to change. Call. 



SOFTWARE FOR YOUR IBM-PC, XT, AT or JR 



BUSINESS 



BUSINESS 



BUSINESS 



LIST CONROY 
PRICE PRICE 

ASHTON-TATE, Framework $ 695 $ 359 

dBase III $ 695 $ 359 

dBase II, (req. PC-DOS & 128K) $ 495 $ 279 

ATI, Training Programs- Large Inventory $ 75 $ 48 

BPI, General Acctg.AR, AP, orPR.ea. $ 595 $ 365 

BRODERBUND,BankSt.Writer(PCofJr.)$ 80$ 49 

CDEX, Training Programs-Large Inventory $ 70 $ 45 

CONTINENTAL, Ultrafile $ 195 $ 115 

Tax Advantage $ 70 $ 40 

Property Management $ 495 $ 295 

DATA TRANS., Fontrix $ 125 $ 79 

DOW JONES, Investment Evaluator $ 149 $ 97 

Market Manager Plus $ 249 $ 159 

Market Analyzer or Market Microscope $ 349 $ 219 

Spread Sheet Link $ 249 $ 159 

FOX & GELLER, Quickcode III $ 295 $ 185 

HARVARD, Total Project Manager $ 495 $ 295 

HOWARDSOFT, Tax Preparer '85 $ 295 $ 195 

HUMAN EDGE, Mind Prober (PC or Jr.) $ 50$ 29 

SalesEdgeorManagementEdge.ea. $ 250 $ 159 

Negotiation Edge $ 295 $ 185 

INFOCOM, Cornerstone $ 495 $ 319 

KENSINGTON, Easy Link Mail Manager $ 95 $ 59 

LIFETREE, Volkswriter Deluxe $ 295 $ 159 

LIVING VIDEOTEXT, Think Tank $195$ 95 

LOTUS, 1-2-3 $ 495 $ 309 

Symphony $ 695 $ 449 

MDBS, Knowledgeman $ 500 $ 275 

MECA, Managing Your Money (PC) $ 199 $ 125 

Managing Your Money Cartridge (Jr)$ 199 $ 179 



MICROPRO, WordStar (PC) 

WordStar (Jr) 

WordStar 2000 (cop i able) 

WordStar 2000 Plus (copiable) 

WordStar Professional Plus 

WordStar Professional, 4 Pak 

Mail Merge, SpellStar or Start ndex, ea. 

Info Star Plus ( + Starburst) 

Correct Star 
MICRORIM, R:Base Series 5000 NEW 

Upgrade 4000 to 5000 NEW 

R:Base 4000 

R:Base Clout 

Extended Report Writer 
MICROSOFT, Spell 

Multiplan (PC or Jr) 

Chart or Project, each 

Word 
MULTIMATE, Multimate Ver. 3.3 
PEACHTREE, Back to Basics 

Peach Pak (GL/AR/AP) 
QUE, Using 1-2-3 

1-2-3 for Business 

Using Symphony 
SAMNA, Word Plus 

Word III 
SATELLITE, WordPerfect (PC) 

WordPerfect (Jr) 
SOFTW. ARTS, Spotlight 

T/K Solver (specify DOS) 
SOFTWARE GROUP, Enable 



LIST CONROY 
PRICE PRICE 

$ 350 $ 189 
$ 195 $ 109 
$ 495 $ 265 
$ 595 $ 295 
$ 695 $ 395 
$ 495 $ 265 
$ 99 $ 54 
$ 595 $ 315 
$ 145 $ 77 
$ 695 % 395 
$ 245 $ 145 
$ 495 $ 255 
$ 249 $ 129 
$ 150 $ 85 
$ 50 $ 32 
$ 195 $ 125 
$ 250 $ 159 
$ 375 $ 235 
$ 495 $ 245 
$ 395 $ 239 
$ 395 $ 219 
$ 18 $ 14 
$ 17 $ 13 
$ 20 $ 15 
$ 695 $ 439 
$ 550 $ 279 
$ 495 $ 209 
$ 69 $ 39 
% 150 $ 95 
$ 399 $ 269 
$ 695 $ 459 



LIST 
PRICE 

SOFTWARE PUBL. PFS:Report $ 125 

PFS:Write, File or Graph, each $ 140 

PFS:Plan or Access, each $ 140 

PFS:Proof $ 95 

SORCIM, SuperCalc III $ 395 

STONEWARE, Advanced DB Master $ 595 

THORN EMI, Perfect Pak (Jr) (Writarepefl/Thesaurus) $ 139 

UNISON, Print Master $ 60 

WARNER, Desk Organizer (PC or Jr) $ 195 

XANARO, Ability $ 495 



CONROY 
PRICE 



$ 245 
$ 375 
$ 89 
$ 35 
$ 125 
$ 309 



UTILITIES 



BORLAND, Sidekick or Toolbox, ea. $ 55 

Sidekick Copiable (PC or Jr) $ 85 

Super Keys or Turbo Pascal, ea, $ 70 

Turbo Pascal w/8087 Support $110 

3 Pak (Pascal, Toolbox, Turbo Tutor) $ 105 

CENTRAL POINT, Copy II PC $ 40 

COMX, Fastrak", RAM/Disk emul & spooler. $ 100 

DIGITAL RES., Gem Draw NEW $ 150 

CP/M-86" (PC/XT) $ 100 

DR LOGO-86 (CP/M-86) $ 150 

FUNK SOFTWARE, Sideways $ 60 

LIFEBOAT, Lattice C $ 500 

Dr. Halo $ 100 

MICROSOFT, Macro Assembler $ 150 

BASIC Compiler or C Compiler, ea $ 395 

Business BASIC Compiler $ 450 

COBOL Compiler $ 700 

FORTRAN Compiler $ 350 

PASCAL Compiler $ 300 



UTILITIES 



LIST CONROY 
PRICE PRICE 

MICROSTUF, Crosstalk XVI (PC or Jr) $ 195 $ 109 

MOUSE SYSTEMS, PC Paint $ 99 $ 69 

NORTON, Utilities (14 prgms) v 3.0 $ 100 $ 59 

ROSESOFT, Prokey $ 130 $ 79 

WESTERN UNION, Easy Link Mail Mngr $ 95 $ 59 



HOME & EDUCATIONAL 



$ 279 
$ 50 
$ 99 
$ 259 
$ 295 
$ 459 
$ 229 
$ 199 



BPI, Personal Accounting $ 99 $ 

CONTINENTAL, Home Accountant (Jr) $ 75 $ 

Home Accountant Plus (PC) $ 150 $ 

DOW JONES, Home Budget $ 139 $ 

ELECTRONIC ARTS, Get Organized $ 95 $ 

MONOGRAM, Dollars & Sense w/forecast $ 180 $ 

SCARBOROUGH, MasterType (PC or Jr) $ 40 $ 

Your Personal Net Worth $ 100 $ 

SIMON & SCHUSTER, Typing Tutor III $ 50 $ 



RECREATIONAL 



BLUECHIP, Millionaire, Barron, Tycoon, ea. $ 60 $ 39 

BRODERBUND, Large Inventory In Stock CALL 

ELECTRONIC ARTS, Large Inventory In Slock CALL 

HAYDEN, Sargon III (Chess) $ 50 $ 34 

INFOCOM, Large Inventory In Stock CALL 

Hitchhiker's, Zork I, II, or III, each $ 40 $ 25 

MICROSOFT, Right Simulator (PC or Jr)$ 50 $ 33 

ORIGIN, Ultima 111 (PC or Jr) $ 60 $ 39 

SIERRA/ON-LINE, Ultima II (PC or Jr.) $ 60 $ 40 

SPECTRUM HOLOBYTE, Gato $ 40 $ 25 
SPINNAKER, President's Choice, Amazon 

Fahrenheit, Rendezvous, Dragon, each $ 40 $ 25 



CASH-n-CARRY COMPUTER STORES, INC. 

Retail Sales only. Store prices may vary. 
SAN FRANCISCO . — 550 Washington Street (at Mont- 
gomery, opposite the Pyramid). Interstate 80, to Highway 
480; take Washington Street Exit. CALL (415) 982-6212. 
PORTLAND, OREGON — At Park 217, Tigard at intersec- 
tion of Highways 217 and 99W. CALL (503) 620-5595. 
SEATTLE, WASH. — 3540 128th Ave. SE, Bellevue 98006. 
In Loehmann's Plaza near Factoria Square, SE of Highway 
405 & 90 and at SE 36th and Richards. CALL 641-4736. 



Ml 



OUR REFERENCES: 

We have been in computers and electronics 
since 1958, a computer dealer since 1978 and in 
computer mail order since 1980. Banks: 1st Inter- 
state Bank, (503) 643-4678. We belong to the 
Chamber of Commerce (503) 228-9411, and Direct 
Marketing Association; call Dun and Bradstreet 
if you are a subscriber. Recipient of OREGON 
BUSINESS MAGAZINE'S 1984 Enterprise Award. 



(MotlofCord J V7S4 



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ORDER DESK HOURS 

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Saturday 10am to 4pm (PST) 

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will be secure and unchanged tomorrow. Key to this extraordinary 
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a totally new set of criteria against which all other 
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You can count on BASF Flexy Disks because the Qualimetric 
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* Contact BASF for warranty details. 

Inquiry 47 




*% 



ENTER TOMORROW ON BASF TODAY 



1983 BASF Syster 



: Cnrn Re 



ford, MA 



by Glenn J. Adler 



Inside the display 
technology that 
has made portable 
computers portable 



Several months ago I got in- 
to a discussion with a com- 
puter enthusiast about 
which portable computer 
to buy. I quickly whipped out my por- 
table and began preaching its merits 
and demonstrating how powerful it is. 
I could see the display perfectly but 
the fellow standing next to me was 
having difficulty reading what I had 
typed. Poor display quality is a com- 
mon limitation in portable computers. 
Most portables (not to be confused 
with transportables) have twisted- 
nematic liquid-crystal displays (TN- 
LCDs), with restricted viewing angles 
and limited contrast. They must be 
operated under proper ambient light- 
ing conditions. 

In mid-1982, there were only a few 
low-profile displays on the market. Of 
the available technologies. TN-LCD 
was the only one that had acceptable 
power requirements for battery oper- 
ation. A typical 16-line LCD module 
dissipates approximately ^ watt (W). 
Other available flat-panel technolo- 

[continued) 
Glenn Adler has a B.S. in electrical engineer- 
ing and does VLSI design work for Hewlett- 
Packard's portable computer division. He can 
be contacted do Hewlett-Packard, 1000 
Northeast Circle Blvd., Corvallis, OR 
97330. 



Liquid-Crystal 
Displays 
for Portables 




ILLUSTRATED BY ELLEN HARRIS 



JULY 1985 'BYTE 119 



LCDS FOR PORTABLES 



gies use too much power for battery 
operation (see "TVo Flat-Display Tfech- 
nologies"by Richard Shuford. March 
BYTE, page 130). Electroluminescent 
(EL), gas-plasma (GP), and flat-panel 
CRT (cathode-ray tube) displays with 
25 lines dissipate 30 to 200 times the 
power of LCDs. 

Portable computers must be light- 
weight, compact, and battery-oper- 
ated. This necessitates a flat-panel dis- 
play that uses low power. Since these 
microcomputers compete directly 
with desktops, they need to handle 
applications that run on the leading 
personal computers. Their screens 
must have features equivalent to stan- 
dard monochrome displays: 80-char- 
acter, multiple-line alphanumeric dis- 
plays with full graphics capability. 

Limited contrast, brightness, and 
viewing angle are the drawbacks as- 
sociated with multiple-line TN-LCDs. 
These disadvantages are attributable 
to the fundamental electro-optical 
characteristics of these panels. The 



use of TN-LCDs requires different cir- 
cuit architecture than a standard 
video interface and requires some 
unique mechanical designs to over- 
come their physical limitations. 

Visual Perception 

Your eyes and visual cortex are 
stimulated to a great extent by the 
edges of objects. Edge detection oc- 
curs where there is a step difference 
in brightness (also termed luminance 
in the case of a monochrome image) 
between adjacent objects in the visual 
field. For the purpose' of measure- 
ment, you can define contrast ratio 
(CR) as the quotient of luminance of 
a light picture element (pixel) to a 
dark pixel's luminance. (Luminance is 
measured in foot-lamberts.) 

CR = Li /L 2 

L| = luminance of light pixel 

L 2 = luminance of dark pixel 

Contrast ratios of 2 to 1 form what 
you can easily detect as an edge. This 



(la) 



<v 



y 



y 
4^ 



PLANE 
POLARIZED 
LIGHT 
TRANSMITTED 



(lb) 



y 
4^ 



<V' 



y 




LIGHT 
ABSORBED 



Figure 1: This figure depicts the effects of two polarizers on noncoherent light, 
(a) Light passing through the first polarizer is polarized in the Y and X plane. 
Since the polarizer's passing axes are aligned, the light continues through the 
second polarizer, (b) Here, the polarizer's passing axes are oriented orthogonally, 
and the plane polarized light that has passed through the first polarizer is 
absorbed by the second. 



CR is about the minimum acceptable 
for easy reading of LCDs. Typical CRT 
displays have CRs ranging up to 20 to 
I. but once the ratio approaches 10 
to 1 your eye saturates and can no 
longer differentiate changes in relative 
brightness. 

Your eye samples the visual field at 
roughly 30 Hz and your brain inte- 
grates the information to form a con- 
tinuous picture. The perception of 
flicker in a display is a function of this 
phenomenon, the persistence of the 
display material, and the rate at which 
information is refreshed. Aside from 
this temporal integration of informa- 
tion, your eye also performs a spatial 
integration. You can see an example 
of this by looking closely at the char- 
acters displayed on a CRT screen. The 
characters are made up of discrete- 
pixels, but seen from a distance they 
appear to form a continuous item. 
Your brain fills in the gaps, but the 
perceived object has lower brightness 
overall than each individual dot. 
Furthermore, if the separation be- 
tween dots increases beyond the eye's 
limit of resolution at a typical viewing 
distance (1 Vi to 2 feet), your brain will 
interpret adjacent dots as belonging 
to separate objects. This constraint 
physically limits the useful pixel- 
separation distance for displays such 
as LCDs. 

Twisted-Nematic LCDs 

Today's LCDs use the properties of 
plane polarizers and ordered nematic 
liquid crystals to modulate light. Polar- 
izers are light filters that selectively 
allow incident light through their 
"passing axis." Light oriented in any 
other direction is absorbed (see figure 

1). 

Some organic compounds exist in 
a phase called the mesophase, which 
is stable at temperatures between the 
liquid and solid phases. Liquid 
crystals (LCs) exhibit three such 
phases: smectic, nematic, and choles- 
teric. In the nematic phase, the long 
axes of the LC molecules align in 
parallel orientation. The alignment of 
LCs in this phase is sensitive to several 
stimuli, including temperature, surface 

[continued] 



120 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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Inquiry 69 

GET SERIOUS! 

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Print Shop APPLE 34.95 

Bankstreet Writer IBM/APPLE 49.95 

Managing Your Money IBM/APPLE 115.95 

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PFS Write/File/Report 85.95 

Sideways IBM/APPLE 39.95 

Multimate IBM 269.95 

Crosstalk IBM 104.95 

Microsoft Word IBM/MAC 249.95/119.95 

* HARDWARE * 

AST Six Pack Plus 64K $259.95 

STB Rio Plus II 64K 249.95 

PARADISE 5-Pack 64K 179.95 

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* MODEMS * 

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HAYES Micromodem lie 169.95 

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80 COLUMN Card II* Only 58.95 

VIDEX Ultraterm 178.95 

ASCII Express 79.95 

Z-80 Card 49.95 

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THOUSANDS OF ITEMS AVAILABLE. 
CALL FOR COMPLETE PRICING. 

mm 714/840-2406 mm 

i^^B Se Habla Eipanol I^^HJ 

CALIFORNIA 
MICRO HOUSE 

16835 Algonquin St., Huntington Beach, CA 92649 

Corporate account* welcomed, purchase orders eccepled with net 30 day 
terms, subject lo credit approval. All prices represent cash prices. All Hems 
■hipped next day In factory sealed packages. We guarantee all Hems tor 30 
days. Gelllomla residents please add 6% sales Isi. Prices subject to change 
without notice. 



LCDS FOR PORTABLES 



tension, pressure, and electric and 
magnetic fields. These stimuli also af- 
fect the optical properties of the 
material. 

The optical properties of twisted- 
nematic LCs were first demonstrated 
by Schadt and Helfrich in 1970. (See 
Voltage Dependent Optical Activity of a 
listed Nematic Crystal by S. M. Schadt 
and W. Helfrich. Applied Physics Let- 
ters, number 18. 1971, page 127.) By 
now, several firms have developed an 
efficient process for fabricating 
displays. The key in producing this 
display is to create a twisted nematic 
by sandwiching an LC material be- 
tween two plates whose surfaces are 
grooved, the top plate in one direc- 
tion and the bottom in a perpen- 
dicular orientation. Layers of LC ad- 
jacent to each surface align in parallel 
with the texturing. Layers between 
form a helix that twists the plane 
polarized light. A twisted nematic can 
be visualized as a polarizer with a 
90-degree rotation. Next, this sand- 
wich is placed between two polar- 



izers, each with its passing axis in 
parallel with the grooves on the adja- 
cent glass (see figure 2). Thus, a light 
valve can be created by applying a 
voltage across the LC. With voltage 
applied, the nematic LC molecules no 
longer twist the incident light but 
rather pass it parallel to their long 
axis. The planerized light entering 
through the top polarizer is absorbed 
by the lower, thus making the pixel 
appear dark. In the inactive state the 
LC is relaxed and light is passed 
through the helix. The panel can be 
used in transmissive mode (similar to 
a transparency) by adding a backlight 
source. Or the manufacturer can cre- 
ate a low-power, nonemissive (having 
no light source) LCD by adding a re- 
flective layer. 

The conductors deposited on the 
LCD glass are usually composed of 
indium-tin-oxide (1TO). Since the index 
of refraction of 1TO is different from 
that of glass, this would ordinarily re- 
sult in an aberrant image. Therefore 

[continued] 



^'OFF" PIXEL 
ON" PIXEL 




REFLECTOR 



TWISTED NEMAfcLC 
STRUCTURE OF LIQUID 
CRYSTAL FOR AN "OFF" 
PIXEL 



ALIGNMENT OF LIQUID 
CRYSTAL MOLECULES 
OF AN "ON" PIXEL 



Figure 2: A cross section of a reflective liquid-crystal panel is shown. 

\n the "off" state the LC molecules form a helix. \n the "on" state (potential applied) 

the molecules align in the direction of the electric field. 



122 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Introducing the Most Powerful 
Business Software Ever! 

TRS-80 T " (Model I, II, III, or 16) • APPLE™ • IBM™ • OSBORNE™ • CP/M™ • XEROX 1 " 










The VersaBusiness" Series 

Each VERSABUSINESS module can be purchased and used independently, 
or can be linked in any combination to form a complete, coordinated business system. 



VERSARECEIVABLES™ $99,95 

Versa RECEIVABLES"' is a complete menu-driven accounts receivable, invoicing, and 
monthly statement-generating system. It keeps track of all information related to who 
owes you or your company money, and can provide automatic billing for past due ac- 
counts. VERSARECEJVABLES™ prints all necessary statements, invoices, and summary 
reports and can be linked with VERSALEDGER 11™ and VERSA INVENTORY 1 ". 

VERSAPAYABLES™ $99.95 

VERSAPAYABLES™ is designed to keep track of current and aged payables, keeping you 
in touch with all information regarding how much money your company owes, and to 
whom. VERSA PAYABLES™ maintains a complete record on each vendor, prints checks, 
check registers, vouchers, transaction reports, aged payables reports, vendor reports, 
and more. With VERSAPAYABLES™ you can even let your computer automatically select 
which vouchers are to be paid. 

VERSAPAYROLL™ $99.95 

VersaPayroLL™ is a powerful and sophisticated, but easy to use payroll system that 
keeps track of all government-required payroll information. Complete employee records 
are maintained, and all necessary payroll calculations are performed automatically, with 
totals displayed on screen for operator approval. A payroll can be run totally, automati- 
cally, or the operator can intervene to prevent a check from being printed, or to alter 
information on it. If desired, totals may be posted to the VERSALEDGER IT" system. 

VERSAlNVENTORY™ $99.95 

VersaNventorY'" is a complete inventory control system that gives you instant access 
to data on any item. VERSA INVENTORY™ keeps track of all information related to what 
items are in stock, out of stock, on backorder, etc., stores sales and pricing data, alerts 
you when an item falls below a preset reorder point, and allows you to enter and print 
invoices directly or to link with the Versa RECEIVABLES™ system. VersaInventory™ prints 
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50 N. PASCACK ROAD, SPRING VALLEY, N.Y. 10977 



VERSALEDGER II™ $149.95 

VersaLedger II™ is a complete accounting system that grows as your business 
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• VersaLedger 11™ gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

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SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! 



Every VERSABUSINESS™ module is guaranteed to outperform all other competitive systems, 
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To Order: 

Write or call Toll-f ree (800) 43 1-28 18 

(N.Y.S. residents call 914-425-1535) 

* add $3 for shipping in UPS areas * add $5 to CANADA or MEXICO 

* add $4 for C.O.D. or non-UPS areas * add proper postage elsewhere 
Inquiry 164 jg^ 
DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 
All prices and specifications subject to change / Delivery subject to availability. 



♦ HiRS'tSOSs a* trademark of the RadibShack Division of Tandy Corp. - *APPUE is a trademark of- Apple Corp. - *IBM is a trademark of IBM Corp. 

*C_p7M is a trademark of Digital Research - *XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp. 



♦OSBORNE is a trademark of ©sbome Corp. 



LCDS FOR PORTABLES 



a passivation layer (coating) is de- 
posited after the conductor to match 
the indices of refraction. For dot- 
matrix LCDs, isolated rows of conduc- 
tor are formed on one glass surface, 
and orthogonal columns are pro- 
duced on the other by selectively 
etching ITO. The row and column con- 
ductors form the plates of a capacitor 
whose dielectric is the LC media. 
These capacitive elements are the 
discrete pixels. 

When the reflective LCD panel is in 
the "off" state, pixels that appear 
bright consist of light that is polarized 
in one plane, although it passes 
through both filters twice. The inten- 
sity of light reflected off the screen is 
reduced by approximately 60 percent 
from incident light (50 percent due to 
the filtering effect, 10 percent due to 
losses in the remainder of the system). 
This makes the "off" pixels appear 
gray rather than white. 

INDIVIDUAL PIXEL 
CONSIDERATIONS 

As TN-LCDs get larger, several con- 
siderations come into play regarding 
the quality of the image. To examine 
these, you need to understand the ef- 
fects of applying potential to in- 
dividual picture elements. 

Each pixel can be modeled as a 
capacitor (C p ) with a parasitic 
resistance (R p ) in parallel (see figure 
3). The row and column lines have 
sheet resistances R sr and R SCI respec- 
tively. In order to ensure consistent 
contrast throughout the screen, it is 
necessary that all pixels see nearly 
the same voltages. The voltage 
needed to turn a pixel on to an ac- 
ceptable contrast level is a function of 
the electrical properties of the par- 
ticular LC used and the distance be- 
tween glass plates. The typical cell 
gap (plate separation distance) is be- 
tween 5 and 10 microns. Variances in 
the glass cause variance in the LC 
thicknesses, which results in "rainbow- 
ing." Larger cell gaps require higher 
threshold potentials and reduce the 
viewing angle of the LC media. 

The magnitude of local voltage a 
pixel sees is highly dependent on 
voltage drops due to sheet resistance. 




Figure 3: C p and R p represent the 
capacitance and resistance, respectively, of 
a pixel, typical values are 2nFlcm 2 for C p 
and 1 2 Mohmlcm 2 for R p . R sc and R 3r 
are sheet resistances of the row and 
column conductors. For indium-tin-oxide 
their value lies between 10 and 300 
ohms per square. 



o 

UJ 
CD 
(£ 
O 

tn 

CD 

< 


i 

100 
90 


i 












i 

i 


X 
_J 


50 


/ 1 


i 
i 
i 
i 




# 


10 


y * 


i 
i 






V TH V c 


V SAT 






V RMS 







Figure 4: Ihe threshold voltage is the 
rms voltage at which 1 percent 
absorption of incident light occurs. V c is 
the voltage at which "on" pixels reach 
acceptable contrast (usually 2:1) to "off" 
pixels (those at V th ) occurs. V sat 
(saturation voltage) is the potential at 
which 90 percent of the light is absorbed. 

The value of this resistance depends 
on the physical distance of the pixel 
from the drive circuit and the prop- 
erties of conductor deposition. 
Because of the tight gap requirement 
between the plates and sheet re- 
sistance effects, it is essential that 
LCDs use glass that is very flat. 
Presently there are only a few sup- 
pliers producing glass acceptable for 
large display applications. 

A typical response curve for an LC 
is shown in figure 4. LCDs with fewer 
pixels (specifically fewer dot rows) can 



use materials that exhibit shallow 
slope in their response curves and 
have threshold voltages (V th ) near 1.2 
volts (V) rms (root mean square). The 
use of multiplexing (described later) 
in the larger LCDs used today requires 
less voltage margin between con- 
trasting pixels. Materials currently 
used do have steeply sloped re- 
sponse curves but consequently have 
higher threshold potential due to their 
chemical properties. 

MULTIPLEXING AND BIAS 

For a multiple-line LCD, turning dots 
on and off is not simply a matter of 
applying a constant potential to each 
pixel. An 80-character by 16-line dis- 
play (480 by 128 dots) would require 
more than 61,000 separate conduc- 
tors to form a static drive scheme in 
which each dot is electrically isolated. 
The current photolithographic tech- 
nique used to reliably etch ITO is 
limited to a minimum conductor spac- 
ing of 50 microns for good produc- 
tion yields. The actual conductor 
width itself is limited by the resistance 
per square of ITO. Ignoring the con- 
ductors altogether, the spacing con- 
straint alone would necessitate a 
panel perimeter of greater than 3 
meters to bring in all the connections. 
Also, producing some 61,000 minute 
connections reliably is no trivial prob- 
lem. LCDs that use narrow conductors 
and spacings are under investigation. 
Presently the application of this tech- 
nology to large pieces of glass in 
volume production is impractical be- 
cause of processing defect problems 
and sheet resistance effects. 

lb overcome the interconnect prob- 
lem, large TN-LCDs use a multiplex- 
ing scheme that is similar to a key- 
board scan. In a multiplexed panel 
with n rows (duty panel), each "on" 
pixel only experiences peak voltage, 
V p , for 1/nth of the time. Along with 
duty cycle, the other electrical param- 
eter that affects contrast is bias (B). 
The number of bias levels is the 
amount of discrete, uniform steps of 
voltage into which the LCD's supply 
is divided. B is usually expressed as 
the reciprocal of this number of levels. 

[continued) 



124 BYTE • JULY 1985 




Why people choose an IBM PC in the first place 
is why people want IBM service... in the first place. 



After all, who knows your IBM Personal 
Computer better than we do? 

That's why we offer an IBM maintenance 
agreement for every member of the Personal 
Computer family. It's just another example 
of blue chip service from IBM. 

An IBM maintenance agreement for your 
PC components comes with the choice of service 
plan that's best for you— at the price that's 
best for you. 

Many customers enjoy the convenience and 
low cost of our carry -in service. That's where 
we exchange a PC display, for example, at any 
of our Service/ Exchange Centers. 



And for those customers who prefer it, we 
offer IBM on-site service, where a service repre- 
sentative comes when you call. 

No matter which you choose for your PC, 
an IBM maintenance agreement offers you fast, 
effective service. 

Quality. Speed. Commitment. That's why 
an IBM maintenance agreement means blue 
chip service. To find out more about the 
specif ic service of ferings available for your PC, 
call 1 800 IBM-2468, Ext. 104 
and ask for PC Maintenance. _^_ _ _ B 



Inquiry 175 



Blue chip service from 



LCDS FOR PORTABLES 



ELDS OF VIEW 
1 CONTRAST 




TWISTED NEMAT1C LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY 



Figure 5: Multiplexing as it relates to contrast and viewing angle for a transmission 
mode LCD. Concentric rings represent measured contrast ratio (CR) of "off" to 
"on" pixels. Tfieta, 6. is the displacement of viewing angle from the normal 
direction, N. The response of a liquid-crystal medium for three different 
levels of multiplexing, N, is shown. 



SERIAL BIT STREAM - 



-DOT 
CLOCK 



SHIFT REGISTER 



/n 



N-BIT LATCH 



ROW 
CLOCK 



BIAS 
VOLTAGES 



>'« 



COL. DRIVERS 



BIAS TOGGLE 



n ROWS 



/ n COLUMN LINES 



LCD 



FRAME 
CLOCK" 



Figure 6: Circuit schematic for an LCD quadrant. Dots are shifted on the fall 
of dot clock. Values are moved from the serial shifter to the n-bit latch and a 
new row is selected by the fall of row clock. Frame clock resets the row sequencer 
and initiates the next frame. The bias toggle along with the dot value determines 
the voltages driven on the row and column lines. 



(For example, if the peak voltage de- 
livered to the panel is 18 V and it is 
divided into 2-V steps for use by the 
drive circuitry, then 5=1/9.) 

The time-averaged DC voltage ap- 
plied to each dot is resolved by cal- 
culating the rms voltage applied to it 
over the course of a single refresh 
period. This value reflects the energy 
delivered to each capacitive pixel by 
the applied AC waveform. 

For simplicity let's assume you turn 
on a pixel in the first dot row of an 
n row display to V p . During the next 
n rows of refresh, this dot experiences 
the "off" voltage (= B*V P ). The rms 
voltage seen by a selected pixel (VJ 
is given by 

V s = (V p ) (((1) ^ +(h-1)(BP)/") 1/2 

On the other hand, nonselected pixels 
experience "off" voltage constantly 
throughout the refresh period. The 
voltage they experience is 



V m 



B*V D 



By plugging through the mathe- 
matics you will find that, given a fixed 
value of B, the ratio of V 5 IV ns , which 
is related to CR (see figure 4), de- 
creases as n, the number of rows, in- 
creases. Contrast gets worse as more 
rows are multiplexed. Conversely, as 
the number of bias levels increases 
(up to a theoretical limit) for a fixed 
number of rows, the CR improves for 
a fixed viewing angle. 

In the case of muliplexed LCDs, the 
best number of bias levels is given by 
B= l/(w) 1/2 + 1. This rule optimizes the 
contrast for a given value of n. For a 
64-dot row display, the bias value 
chosen would be 1/9. In practical ap- 
plications this number is not always 
used, but a convenient bias value is 
chosen. 

The Effects 

of Viewing Angle 

Application of an electric field to LC 
media causes alignment of the long 
axis of the molecules in the direction 
of the field lines. When a pixel is acti- 
vated in a multiplexed display, the rms 
value of selected voltage is of lesser 
magnitude than the saturation value 
(V 5at ) (see figure 4) for the material. 



126 BYTE • JULY 1985 



LCDS FOR PORTABLES 



The closer the value of V s is to the 
V sat , the greater the rotation the LC 
dipoles in the direction of applied 
field. (Perpendicular to the surface of 
the glass.) Maximum contrast is 
achieved when the viewing direction 
is coincident with the alignment of the 
long axis of the molecules. Thus, as 
duty cycle decreases (V s decreases) 
the optimal viewing angle moves away 
from the normal. 

An increase in multiplexing also im- 
plies a lower voltage margin between 
selected and nonselected pixels. With 
a small voltage margin the orientation 
of molecules in an "on" pixel relative 
to an "off" pixel is only slightly dif- 
ferent angularly. Thus, acceptable con- 
trast is only perceivable over a narrow 
field of view for LCD panels with mul- 
tiple lines (see figure 5). 

As Displays Get Larger 

In early 1982 the practical limit for 
multiplexing was 32 rows, and now, 
because of improvements in LC ma- 
terials, this number has been raised 
to 128. 

Due to the matrix design used in 
TN-LCDs (shared rows and columns), 
crosstalk between selected and non- 
selected pixels can occur. The visual 
implications of crosstalk are reduced 
contrast and dark streaking called 
"shadowing." To minimize shadowing, 
a design using three different biases 
is implemented. For a 64-row display, 
dots on rows that are not undergoing 
refresh experience a potential of 
\I9(V P ). During a given row's refresh, 
the "on" and "off" dots are driven to 
V p and 1I9(V P ), respectively. Calculat- 
ing Vrms for these conditions using a 
value of V p = 18V yields V s = 3V and 
V„, = 2.65V. (This is a simplified ex- 
ample. Actual biases chosen depend 
on the ease of design.) Although the 
voltage margin in this biasing scheme 
is smaller than the voltages resolved 
using the equations that were previ- 
ously explained, crosstalk effects are 
reduced by decreasing potential dif- 
ferences between neighboring pixels. 

The rms voltage experienced by an 
"on" pixel (for a fixed multiplexing 
value) is directly affected by the 
magnitude of peak voltage applied to 



it. Presently the CMOS (complemen- 
tary metal-oxide semiconductor) cir- 
cuitry used to drive the row and col- 
umn lines is only capable of 18 to 20 
volt swings. Low-power drivers are be- 
ing developed that are capable of 
tolerating up to 30 V. These drivers 
will improve the optical qualities of 
the panels and allow for a greater 
number of dot rows. 

Mechanical Designs 

To compensate for the viewing angle 
restrictions and the glare of overhead 
lighting, the display assembly of most 
portables offers variable tilt. Pressure 
sensitivity of the LCD and ruggedness 
requirements make it necessary for 
the panel to have a protective cover. 
By texturing the plastic, glare can be 
minimized but some image sharpness 
is lost. 

Portables must endure harsh treat- 
ment: being carried to and from work, 
dropped on the floor, and often mis- 
taken for outlets of aggression; their 
fragile displays must be protected 
when not in use. Many portables use 
a display assembly that pivots into a 
closed position above the keyboard. 
This design, along with proper mount- 
ing and cushioning, protects the panel 
from direct contact with the environ- 
ment when being transported and 
forms a compact portable package. 

Limitations of TN-LCDs 

No matter how adjustable the display 
assembly is, in low lighting situations 
reflective TN-LCDs become illegible. 
Adding a backlight source to these 
normally nonemissive displays is cost- 
ly in terms of power (an additional 1 
to 2 W is needed), but the range of 
acceptable lighting for readability is 
improved. 

LCDs also limit the temperature 
range in which a portable can be 
used. Below 0° and above 50° Cel- 
sius, typical l£ media undergo phase 
changes and the displays become un- 
usable (although they are not perma- 
nently damaged). The LC's response 
time and threshold characteristics 
also vary with temperature. Some por- 
tables use a compensation circuit that 
adjusts bias voltages according to 



operating temperature. In purchasing 
TN-LCDs for portable systems it is 
necessary to specify the interreaction 
of viewing angle and temperature be- 
fore they affect contrast and. there- 
fore, readability. 

Circuit Architecture 

To overcome limitations of the multi- 
plexed technology, some manufac- 
turers play tricks in the fabrication of 
LCD modules. For character fonts that 
are 8 pixels tall the existent 64-dot 
row limit originally allowed for only 8 
lines of alphanumeric display. To over- 
come this and produce a 16-line 
panel, two 64-way multiplexed sys- 
tems are adjoined. Separate column 
lines enter the glass from both the top 
and bottom. The need for 80 charac- 
ters per line causes further complica- 
tions in designing LCD panels. Early 
in the the development of LCDs, 
CMOS shifters with limited clock 
speeds were used. Their low fre- 
quency led to flicker problems in wide 
displays. To alleviate this, the top and 
bottom halves were again divided, 
forming a total of four quadrants, each 
requiring its own serial bit stream. 

Time multiplexing is handled by the 
digital circuitry incorporated in the 
drive circuits. An approach is to save 
a series of digital pixel states that rep- 
resents the pattern for a given row. 
Once the potentials corresponding to 
these states are set up at the column 
lines, the row line is scanned by alter- 
ing its drive voltage. During the selec- 
tion of one row, the upcoming row's 
values are being shifted and saved for 
its refresh cycle. The analog voltages 
used to bias the display are derived 
by dividing the voltage supplied to 
the module through a resistor ladder. 
By periodically toggling a control line 
that ties to both the row and column 
drivers, the polarity of signals applied 
across the pixels is reversed, elimi- 
nating any net DC bias. The applica- 
tion of a net DC bias to the LC media 
will cause long-term damage to the 
display. A schematic representation of 
the digital circuitry is depicted in 
figure 6. 

Portability dictates the need for a 

{continued) 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 127 



LCDS FOR PORTABLES 



Without TN-LCDs, 
powerful affordable, 
portable computers 
would not be 
available today. 



low-power and highly integrated cir- 
cuit to interface the LCD with a micro- 
processor bus. For example, the cus- 
tom controller that handles both re- 
fresh and update in the HP 110 was 
designed for lack of an industry stan- 
dard part. To avoid wiring the system 
bus to the display assembly, the con- 
troller integrated circuit (IC) and 
display RAM (random-access read/ 
write memory) are positioned inside 
the main case and the LCD interface 



signals (four data lines, dot clock, row 
clock, frame clock, and bias toggle |M- 
clock|) and power lines are connected 
to the controller via a cable hidden 
in the display arm. 

The magnitude of the supply sent 
to the panel can be regulated under 
software control. Changing this volt- 
age affects the magnitude of each 
bias level and thus regulates display 
contrast. 

The Future 

Although twisted nematics currently 
offer the only practical, low-power 
solution for portable displays, several 
new technologies are on the forefront. 
Guest-host displays that use a liquid 
crystal doped with a dye offer brilliant 
contrast and do not require the use 
of polarizers. These panels have been 
demonstrated but are not yet pro- 
duced with high multiplexing. Active 
matrix technologies have also been 



demonstrated, but due to cost and 
yield considerations their use for large 
panels is several years in the future. 

With improvement in LC materials 
and the CMOS drivers used to run 
multiplexed displays, the visual 
aspects of large TN-LCDs will un- 
doubtedly improve. Now that the age 
of the backlit LCD is upon us, the work 
environment in which a portable will 
be useful will be greatly expanded. 
Another advance being made is in the 
use of plastic rather than glass for the 
panel's plates. Using plastic makes the 
display lightweight, rugged, and thin- 
ner than what is currently available, 
although controlling the cell gap is dif- 
ficult because of plastic's flexibility 

Even though TN-LCDs may be dif- 
ficult for your neighbor to read, they 
offer a perfectly adequate solution for 
a single user. Without them, power- 
ful, affordable, portable computers 
would not be available today. ■ 



STEAL AN 

INDUSTRIAL 

SECRET. 



American companies trust their most important computer 
information to special premium grade unbranded "industrial 
quality" diskettes. These diskettes, manufactured by select 
American and Japanese firms, must meet or surpass stringent 
specifications. 

You can now purchase these 5V^ f diskettes from Holmes & 
Company. Even better, you can buy them at the low price paid by the big 
corporations ... as low as $.80 each (SS/DD, with reinforced hub ring, 
TYVEC sleeve, write protects, labels). Each diskette has been tested prior to 
shipment and carries a lifetime replacement warranty. 

To order today, call toll-free 1-800-4-HOLMES (In California 408-241- 
1505). Ask about quantity discounts and special prices on hardware and supplies. 
Holmes <& Co., 900 Lafayette Street, Suite 605, Santa Clara, California 95050 
Quanl. 



Description Price Total 
SS/DD $1.00 
DS/DD $1.30 

Subtotal: 

CA Res. Add 7% Tax: 

Handling Charge: $2.50 
Total: 



Nairn; 

Address _ 
Citv 



Phone ( 

Signature 

MC VISA 




.Card # 



128 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 171 



Introducing 

the new 
and improved 

IBM PC 



Introducing 




H 



GEM 




Congratulations. 

You just found the perfect way to get 
a brand new and improved IBM® PC 
without buying one. 

Get GEM™* software from Digital 
Research instead. 

And voila, your IBM PC, PC/XT AT 
or compatible will become something 
it's never been before. 

Easy to use. 

Now instead of getting lost in PC 
DOS, you can actually use your PC to 
get something done. (An astonishing 
idea, if ever there was one.) 

Just slip a GEM diskette into your 
disk drive. And the rigmarole of PC 
DOS is replaced by a way of working 
that's easy, effortless and altogether 
personable. 

You see, GEM lets you work with a 
simple descriptive header menu, icons, 
drop-down menus, windows and a 
pointer. 

Which means you can now use your 
computer to write, figure, draw and 
even think the way you used to. Before 
less-than-friendly computers made you 
change your way of thinking. 

In other words, your tool for modern 
times has finally become a tool for 
modern times. 

lll 




To see how easy 

it is to use GEM, 

take this simple 

screen test. 



Odir a: A* 

Uolune in drive A has no label 
Directory of A A 



COHHAHB COM ANSI 
ATTRIB EXE HORE 



SYS SORT 



EXE SHARE EXE FIHD 



con assign con print con 



SELECT COn 



CHXDSX COn FORHAT COH UDISK S¥S BASIC C0H BASICA COn 

fdisk con conp con tree con backup con restore con 

LABEL COn BISKCOPY C0H DISKCOHP COH KEYBSP CON KEVBIT CON 

KEVBGR CO« KEYBUX COH KEYBFB COrt HODE COH SELECT COH 

GRAPHICS COH RECOVER COH EBLIN COH GRAFTABL COH 
34 File(s) 163424 bytes free 

Opath Mevell;Mevel2Alevel3; 

Oren ny prog 1. con M9prog3.coM 

Ocopy \nyprog2.con Mevell\nyprog2.con 
1 File(s) copied 

Onode conl:l2jiij8iljp_ 










OK. Take a close look at these two 
screens. 

One is an IBM PC with PC DOS. 
The other is an IBM PC with GEM. 

You get to figure out which is which. 

The PC DOS screen is the one that 
seems to be designed for an engineer. Or 
someone with a photographic memory. 

It requires you to type and memorize 
nonsensical terminology like ocopy\ 
myprog2.com\level Wmyprog2.com. All 
just to copy a file. 

But most people think in ideas. 
Words. And pictures. 

Which brings us to the GEM screen. 

It's the one with pictures of the things 
you use in your office. Like file folders. 



Diskettes. And a wastebasket. 

Plus words describing the kinds of 
things you do in your office. Like 
OPEN FOLDER. SAVE FOLDER. 
And QUIT. 

Copying a file is as easy as pointing 
with a mouse (or cursor key -if mice 
make you uneasy) to the file you want 
to copy. Then you just slide the file 
across the screen to the diskette you 
want to put it on. 

Well, by now we've probably given 
it away. 

If you guessed that GEM is on the 
right-hand screen, you're absolutely 
right. And if you think GEM looks easy 
to use, you're right again. 






i 





/ 



Now, given 

a few pointers, 
anyone can use 

an IBM PC. 



/ 




Have you ever noticed how people 
in your company get up from their PCs 
looking rather dazed? 

That's called PC DOS anxiety. 

And it goes away when GEM enters 
the picture. 

Because with GEM everybody 
already knows everything they need to 
know to run a PC. 



Like how to point. 

Click. 

Read a menu. 

Open a file folder. 

Or pitch a bad idea in the wastebasket. 

Who knows, GEM software could 
even turn people with deep-rooted PC- 
phobia into absolute PC-enthusiasts. 




With GEM software you 
don't have to switch gears to 
switch drives. You can just point 
and click your way from drive to 
drive. No matter how many 
drives or diskettes you're using. 




GEM file folders hold 
whatever you put on a diskette. 
From entire software programs 
to reports, pictures and presen- 
tations. 

In fact, GEM file folders 
can even hold other file folders. 
And so on. 




GEM software even 
includes "generic" file folders, 
places to hold random ideas, 
memos, numbers and the like 
until you're ready to file them 
in a GEM folder. Or in the 
wastebasket. 




Part of getting organized is 
knowing when to let go of out- 
datedfiles. 

GEM can't tell you which 
files to get rid of. But it can help 
get rid of them. 

And should you toss a file 
before its time, you even get a 
chance to change your mind. 




If you're clever enough to 
read these words, you've no 
doubt jigured out what the 
GEM clock is for. Staying on 
schedule, for instance. Keeping 
track of the time it takes to do 
specific projects. Or getting to 
your airplane on time. 









Calculator 


' 




. .; 


1 al 




BEE0 




EHES0 




KBSSH 




GElEIIIiaH 




ESQHS 


i ; ;:;; 






GEM even includes a cal- 
culator, so you can tally up all 
kinds of important things. 

hike the time and keystrokes 
you save by working with 
GEM software. 



GEM already 

works with most 

of the software you 

already have. 






We know what you're wondering. 

If GEM software is going to change 
the way you work with your IBM PC, 
will you still be able to work with your 
existing software? 

Of course. 

GEM works with most important 
programs that work with the IBM PC. 

Like Lotus l-2-3I M Symphony 1 " 



MultiplanMBASE III.™ Framework? 1 
And thousands more. 

Technically you see, GEM software 
doesn't actually change PC DOS. It just 
hides it. 

So your software works just the way 
it always has. But without the long and 
cryptic PC DOS start-up procedures. 



MICROSOFT 
MULTIPLAN. 




MultiMate 

Professional Word Processor 
designed for the IBM PC 









jjfsifih 




But the best 
software for GEM 
is GEM software. 



])e& file Ed it /Font Page Graphics | ^ JJ 

GEM tirite Key Coruianrfs, . 
Short Cuts , . . 

■fifflHffifH 




THE 
COLLECT I0H 



The GEM COLLECTION provides painting and graphic uord processing 
for the IBh PC ouner. The BEM COLLECTION includes the GEH DESKTOP . 
GEM PfllHT . and GEH WRITE 1. 

Uith GEH POINT, you can easily sketch out your idea?, in full 
color, and incorporate then into docunents you have created ulth 
GEH if RITE 1 . OEM WRITE is a powerful word processor, based on 
lifetree Software's popular Volkswitm* Jteluxa. Mhether you 
prefer to Mrite doun your ideas or sketch then out, the GEM 
COLLECTION lets you express then quickly &vt easily. 



I.MTT-7 



4 t 




The GEM COLLECTION 

Now yon can work with words and pictures together. 



The GEM COLLECTION™ is a 
bundle of three programs, GEM DESK- 
TOP,™ GEM WRITEr and GEM 
PAINT™ 

A part of all GEM software, GEM 
DESKTOP* is the mask that hides PC 
DOS. It includes the GEM pointer, 
menu headings, icons and drop-down 
menus. 

So you can point and click your way 
through anything you'll ever want to 
use a computer for. 

GEM WRITE, by Lifetree Software, 
Inc., is a word processing program featur- 
ing fast, clear and comprehensive editing. 
It lets you cut and paste, make multiple 
block moves or even create columns. All 
without memorizing a single command. 

And when words alone won't express 
what you have to say, GEM PAINT 
gives you the tools to turn your ideas 
into pictures. Up to sixteen colors. Paint- 
brushes, pencils and a straightedge. Plus 
dozens of shapes and patterns. 

Best of all, GEM WRITE and GEM 
PAINT work together. So you can work 



*GEM DESKTOP is also available as a stand-alone product. 




GEM DRAW 

A perfect illustration of the power of GEM software, 




GEM WORDCHART 

Present it with style. 




GEM GRAPH 

Let's look at the numbers. 



with words and pictures on the same 
page. 

You can also create anything from 
fine art to line art, whether you can 
draw or not. 

Just put your hand on your mouse 
and point. 

GEM DRAW™ gives you all the tools 
you need. 

Like pencils, geometric patterns, a 
full palette of colors and an extensive 
gallery of art to use as you like. 

And once you've created a GEM 
DRAW image, you can stretch it. 
Shrink it. Duplicate it. Or add text to 
explain it. 

GEM WORDCHART™ is the 
perfect way to make your point in a 
big way. 

With a choice of several type styles 
and sizes, plus up to sixteen colors, you 
can build charts that can be read from 
across your desk or from the far end 
of the conference room. 

And to really drive your point home, 
your words can be combined with 
pictures from GEM DRAW. 

The business of creating business 
graphics just got a whole lot easier. 

GEM GRAPH lets you turn 
numbers into something more tangible. 
Like pie charts. Bar graphs. Line plots. 
Even maps. All through the use of 
simple, well-designed templates. 

Where do you get the numbers? 

Directly from the business programs 
you're already using, like Lotus 1-2-3, 
Symphony, dBASE III or what have you. 



Where to find 
aGEM. 



W-^ GEIV^-^'^^ 54 "*^ 




In the months ahead you'll be seeing 
GEM software on a lot of familiar faces. 
And not just IBM PCs or compatibles. 

Several leading computer manufac- 
turers are building GEM software right 
into their hardware. 

And with so many systems working 
with GEM, you'll soon see important 
GEM programs coming from a host of 
other major software houses. 

GEM. From Digital Research. 

It's not just software. It's a movement. 

And it's as easy to find as it is to use. 
Just call our GEMLINE. (800) 443-4200. 
Ask for our GEM brochure. The name 



of your GEM software dealer. Or simply 
place an order. 

Because with GEM, the best new com- 
puter on the market isn't a computer at all. 



GEM PRICE LIST 



GEM DESKTOP $ 49.95 Available April 

GEM DRAW 149.00* Available April 

GEM COLLECTION 199.00 Available June 

(includes GEM DESKTOP, GEM PAINT, GEM WRITE) 

GEM WORDCHART 149.00 Available August 

GEM GRAPH 199.00 Available August 

Also available: 

HERCULES GRAPHICS CARD™ $499.00 

PC MOUSE™BY MOUSE SYSTEMS™ $195.00 

Sales oruse tax where applicable will be added. 

Suggested retail prices subject to change without notice. 'Introductory price. 



^CEM 



FROM DIGITAL RESEARCH 



*GEM requires that your computer have appropriate graphics capability and that the pointing device be compatible. Call for exact requirements. GEM, 
GEM COLLECTION, GEMDESKTOP, GEM WRITE, GEM PAINT, GEM DRAW, GEM GRAPH and GEM WORDCHART are 
trademarks and Digital Research is a registered trademark of Digital Research Inc. Other computer and software names are tradenames and/or trade- 
marks of their respective manufacturers. Copyright 1985, Digital Research Inc. All rights reserved. 



by Rich Malloy 



PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 

The GRiDCase 



These new portables 
are IBM PC-compatible 
and one version has 
a gas-plasma display 



Editor's note: The following is a BYTE prod- 
uct description. \t is not a review. We pro- 
vide an advance look at this new product 
because we feel it is significant. A complete 
review will follow in a subsequent issue. 

Recently, GRiD Systems 
Corporation brought its 
portable systems into the 
mainstream of microcom- 
puters. The new GRiDCase computers 
are about the same size (briefcase- 
size) and feature the same magne- 
sium case as GRiD's Compass com- 
puter, but they forgo the Compass's 
expensive and power-hungry elec- 
troluminescent display and bubble 
memory. Instead, the GRiDCase com- 
puters offer a range of display op- 
tions. The GRiDCase I features a utili- 
tarian and affordable liquid-crystal dis- 
play (LCD). The GRiDCase II has an 
"enhanced" LCD. And, in keeping with 
GRiD's emphasis on what its repre- 
sentatives call "portable displays that 
more than one person can read," the 
GRiDCase III offers a high-contrast 
gas-plasma display (see photo I). For 
users who like the more traditional 
cathode-ray tube displays, GRiD has 
provided an optional interface to con- 
nect an IBM Personal Computer (PQ- 
compatible RGB (red-green-blue) 
monitor (see photo 2) to the GRiD- 



Case computers. 

Other evidence of the GRiDCase 
family's new mainstream character in- 
clude its compatibility with IBM PC 
software and its price. Although the 
GRiDCase III with the gas-plasma dis- 
play sells for a hefty $43 50, the LCD- 
based GRiDCase I has a list price of 
$2975, which is fairly competitive with 
that of the Data General/One. The 
GRiDCase II sells for $3 1 50. 

The Display 

All three GRiDCases are almost iden- 
tical except for their displays. Despite 
its high cost, GRiD Systems is most 
proud of the gas-plasma display. The 
company had investigated using an 



electroluminescent display as it had 
in the Compass, but all such displays 
were designed using a 512- by 2 56- 
pixel matrix, which would make com- 
patibility with the 640- by 200-pixel 
screen of the IBM PC's graphics 
adapter impossible. GRiD therefore 
decided in favor of the gas-plasma 
display. The GRiDCase Ill's display 
presents a stable, sharp, high-contrast 
image. GRiD expects that many peo- 
ple will prefer it over a high-contrast 
cathode-ray tube screen. The display 

[continued] 
Rich Malloy is the New York editor for BYTE. 
He can be reached at BYTE, 43rd floor, 
1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, 
NY 10020. 




Photo I: The GRiDCase III with the gas-plasma display. GRiDPlot, GRiD's 
proprietary graphics package, is shown on the screen. 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 129 



THE GRIDCASE 



IN BRIEF 



Computer 

GRiDCase I 



and 



Manufacturer 

GRiD Systems Corp. 
2535 Garcia Ave. 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
(415) 961-4800 

Physical Characteristics 

2V4 by 11 1 /2 by 15 inches; weighs under 12 
pounds 

Microprocessor 

80C86, 16-bit at 4.77 MHz; optional 8087 
80-bit arithmetic coprocessor 

Features 

Options for 128K-byte, 256K-byte, and 
512K-byte CMOS RAM; up to 512K bytes of 
user-installable ROM sockets; 3 1 /2-inch 
720K-byte floppy-disk drive; built-in speaker 

Display 

LCD or gas-plasma; 80 characters by 25 
lines; 640- by 200-pixel bit-mapped display 
(IBM PC-compatible) 

Keyboard 

57-key IBM PCjr-compatible with tactile 
feedback 

Interfaces 

RS-232C serial port; Centronics-type 
parallel port; 50-pin external expansion bus; 
RGB video-out option; 5-pin DIN plug for 
external IBM PC keyboard; RJ11 phone 
jack 

Options 

Internal Hayes Smartmodem-compatible 
1200-bps modem 

Power Source 

External AC supply; optional internal 
rechargeable battery pack 



Software 

MS-DOS v. 2.11, 



GW-BASIC 



Compatibility 

Runs all tested popular IBM PC software 

Price 

GRiDCase I with LCD $2975 

GRiDCase II with enhanced LCD $3150 
GRiDCase III with gas-plasma 
display $4350 



is also fairly fast. I did not do any 
scroll tests on it, but it seemed to run 
Microsoft's Flight Simulator as fast as 
I've seen it run on any other system. 
Of course, the screen cannot display 
colors or shades of gray. It displays 
gray as a texture of vertical lines. 

The gas-plasma screen eats up a 
large amount of power. The battery 
module can power the GRiDCase III 
for only about one hour. Nonetheless, 
for certain applications this screen 
may well be worth the extra cost. 

For users who can forgo the extra 
clarity of the gas-plasma display and 
who may spend appreciable amounts 
of time away from electrical power 
outlets, the GRiDCase l's LCD screen 
could be a reasonable alternative. Al- 
though this screen does not have the 
speed or contrast of the gas-plasma 
display, it is readable. Based on my 
brief experience with it. I would judge 
it to have slightly better contrast than 
the LCD screen on the original Data 
General/One. And when you are not 
traveling, you can connect the GRiD- 
Case I to an IBM PC-compatible RGB 
monitor. The GRiDCase II is said to 
have an enhanced LCD, but I did not 
get a chance to test it. The GRiDCase 
computers do not have a jack for a 
composite monitor, but GRiD repre- 



sentatives said they were investigating 
the possibility of producing an op- 
tional RGB/composite adapter that 
would allow you to connect a com- 
posite monitor to the RGB port. 

Keyboard 

The GRiDCase computers have the 
dubious distinction of being among 
the first computers to be compatible 
with the IBM PCjr keyboard. The main 
reason for this is the small size of the 
GRiDCase. Because some keys were 
going to have to double as function 
keys, GRiD decided to follow the ex- 
ample IBM set with its small home 
computer. The result is acceptable but 
confusing for those whose are used 
to the large IBM PC keyboard. Some 
users may take exception to the loca- 
tion of the backspace key (in the lower 
right-hand corner). Of course, key- 
board replacement programs like Pro- 
Key and SmartKey may let you re- 
arrange the keyboard as you like. The 
keyboard felt reasonably good. The 
typewriter keys were in their standard 
places, and key action seemed accept- 
able. Tactile feedback was provided by 
a key click similar to that on the IBM 
PC. IBM PC owners may appreciate 
the fact that they are not tied in to the 

[continued) 




Photo 2: The GRiDCase III with the video-out option hooked up to an IBM color 
monitor. AshtonTate's Framework package is displayed on the screens. PC MasterlSlave 
software allows easy cable connection from the GRiDCase to the IBM PC. 



130 BYTE • JULY 1985 




H|: ; 



1 ^affi» 1 




WAITING FORT 



**§.&> 



OUTPUT BINS 





SYSTATON YOUR MICRO NOW OUTPERFORMS 
THE MAINFRAME STATISTICS PACKAGES. 



SYSTAT computes regressions more accu- 
rately than SAS! M It tabulates faster than SPSS™ 
It has more statistical routines than BMDP™ And 
SYSTAT includes a full-screen spreadsheet data 
editor, online help and simple commands. 

Compared to other micro statistics packages, 
SYSTAT's scope is unrivaled. In every published 
review, SYSTAT has been at the top of the list. 

IBM-PC/XT/ AT IM APPLE MACINTOSH™ MS-DOS™ 

Inquiry 347 



Need proof? If you don't believe a micro 
statistics package can solve your mainframe prob- 
lems, call or write us today. 

Or wait in line. ^^^H^ran 
SYSTAT™ Inc, 
603 Main Street 
Evanston, IL60202 
(312)864-5670 

CP/M™ UNIX™ 



SYSTAT 



THE SYSTEM FOR STATISTICS 

JULY 1985 -BYTE 131 



THE GRIDCASE 




Photo 3: The GRiDCase back panel (left to right): the DIN connector for the 
IBM PC keyboard or \0-key keypad, the built-in 300/1 200-bps modem (Hayes 
Smartmodem-compatible), RS-232C serial interface, external bus connector for external 
GRiD peripherals and access to the IBM PC expansion chassis, Centronics parallel 
interface, color (RGB) video-out for external monitors, built-in rechargeable/exchangeable 
battery pack. 




Photo 4: The GRiDCase stackable portable peripherals (from top to bottom): 
VA-inch floppy-disk drive, 5 ] A-inch floppy-disk drive, \0-megabyte hard-disk system, 
base station battery charger/power source. 



GRiD keyboard if they don't want to 
be. Each GRiDCase lets you plug in an 
IBM PC keyboard and use that 
instead. 

Power 

All GRiDCase models have two power 
modules available— a rechargeable 
battery pack and an AC (alternating 
current) transformer. Both are the 
same size (about the size of a box of 
ten 5!4-inch floppy disks cut in half), 
and both fit in the large socket on the 
rear panel of the machine. When 
traveling, you can carry several bat- 
tery packs and insert them as you 
need to. Each battery pack lasts four 
to five hours for the LCD models, and 
one hour with the plasma model. The 
batteries can be recharged in about 
eight hours. For now, the batteries will 
sell for about $60. GRiD claims that 
it went to considerable trouble to en- 
sure that its power supply could work 
with two displays having vastly dif- 
ferent power-consumption rates. 

Silicon 

The GRiDCase family of computers 
uses a low-power version of the 8086 
microprocessor with a clock speed 
of 4.77 MHz. As in many portables, 
GRiD achieved the low-power capa- 
bility by using CMOS (complementary 
metal-oxide semiconductor) tech- 
nology. An 8087 numeric processor 
option is also available. A standard 
GRiDCase system comes with 128K 
bytes of CMOS memory chips. Mem- 
ory configurations of 2 56K bytes and 
512K bytes are also available for ap- 
proximately $600 and $1200, respec- 
tively 

The GRiDCase computers also 
come with eight sockets for ROM 
(read-only memory), although only 
four of these sockets can be accessed 
by the user. GRiD will offer programs 
such as MS-DOS 2.11, GW-BAS1C, and 
Lotus's 1-2-3 on ROM chips. 

Interfaces 

Each GRiDCase computer comes with 
a serial RS-232C port with a standard 
DB-2 5 connector and a Centronics- 
type parallel printer port (see photo 

[continued) 



132 BYTE • JULY 1985 



MICRO CAP and MICRO LOGIC 
put your engineers on line- 
not in line. ^ ie 



J^ 



~Ljl ' *'• L - < inTwrtm 



^ 



sail 



~mmim 



[AyOhir* WORKSTATION 




How many long unproductive hours 
have you spent "in line" for your simula- 
tion? Well, no more. MICROCAP and 
MICROLOGIC can put you on line by 
turning your PC into a productive and 
cost-effecti ve engineering workstation. 

Both of these sophisticated engineering 
tools provide you with quick and efficient 
solutions to your simulation problems. 
And here's how. 

MICROCAP: 

Your Analog Solution 

MICROCAP is an interactive analog 
circuit drawing and simulation system. 
It allows you to sketch a circuit diagram 
right on the CRT screen, then run an AC, 
DC, or Transient analysis. While pro- 
viding you with libraries for defined 
models of bipolar and MOS devices, 
Opamps, transformers, diodes, and much 
more, MICROCAP also includes features 
not even found in SPICE. 

MICROCAP II lets you be even more 
productive. As an advanced version, it 
employs sparse matrix techniques for 
faster simulation speed and larger net- 




"Typical MICROCAP Transient Analysis" 

works. In addition, you get even more 
advanced device models, worst case capa- 
bilities, temperature stepping, Fourier 
analysis, and macro capability. 



MICROLOGIC: 
Your Digital Solution 

MICROLOGIC provides you with a 
similar interactive drawing and analysis 
environment for digital work. Using 
standard PC hardware, you can create 
logic diagrams of up to 9 pages with each 
containing up to 200 gates. The system 
automatically creates the netlist required 
for a timing simulation and will handle 
networks of up to 1800 gates. It provides 
you with libraries for 36 user-defined 
basic gate types, 36 data channels of 256 
bits each, 10 user-defined clock wave- 
forms, and up to 50 macros in each net- 
work. MICROLOGIC produces 
high-resolution timing diagrams showing 
selected waveforms and associated 
delays, glitches, and spikes — just like the 
real thing. 






d 



/VfcfXT/ 



r 



h 



\(& 



\A 



c^ 




"Typical MICROLOGIC Diagram 



Reviewers Love 
These Solutions 

Regarding MICROCAP ... "A highly 
recommended analog design program" 
(PC Tech Journal 3/84). "A valuable tool 
for circuit designers" (Personal Software 
Magazine 11/83). 

Regarding MICROLOGIC . . . "An effi- 
cient design system that does what it is 
supposed to do at a reasonable price" 
(Byte 4/84). 

MICROCAP and MICROLOGIC are 
available for the Apple II (64k), IBM PC 
(128k), and HP-150 computers and priced 
at S475 and S450 respectively. Demo 
versions are available for S75. 

MICROCAP II is available for the 
Macintosh, IBM PC (256k), and HP-150 
systems and is priced at S895. Demo 
versions are available for S100. 

Demo prices are credited to the 
purchase price of the actual system. 

Now, to get on line, call or write today! 

Spectrum Software 

1021 S. Wolfe Road, Dept. B 
Sunnyvale, CA 94087 
(408) 738-4387 

Inquiry 33 7 



THE GRIDCASE 



3). An optional 1200-bps (bits per sec- 
ond) modem is also available for 
$795. GRiD claims that it purposely 
avoided using low-power CMOS chips 
in the serial por and modem because 
these chips were not 100 percent 
compatible with the IBM PC. Also, the 
need for CMOS chips did not seem 
a high priority because most phone 



lines and serial devices are near elec- 
trical outlets. 

The Disk Drive 

The GRiDCase comes with one Sony- 
type 3 /2-inch floppy-disk drive. Each 
disk can hold 720K bytes of data, or 
about the same amount as a two- 
drive IBM PC. GRiD claims that the 



ZeroDisk 
ZeroDisk 

Run 

Protected 
Software 
from a 
Hard Disk. 

ZeroDisk lets you run dozens 
of popular business software 
packages without floppies. 
Call us for the latest list of 
software it handles. ZeroDisk 
needs an IBM PC or XT or AT 
or compatible, running under 
DOS version 2.0 or higher. It 



memory. ZeroDisk is not 
copy-protected. 

ZeroDisk is revised monthly. 
You may get revisions for an 
$18 US trade-in fee. 

To order ZeroDisk, send a 
check for $75 US, or call us 
with your credit card. We 
will ship the software within 
a day. 




Quaid Software Limited 

45 Charles Street East 

Third Floor 

Toronto, Ontario M4Y 1S2 

(416)961-8243 



disks use Microsoft's standard 
3 '/2-inch MS-DOS format, but they 
would not confirm that the GRiDCase 
could read disks used by the Data 
General/One. GRiD representatives 
claim that most major software pub- 
lishers will soon begin distributing 
3 /2-inch versions of their top-selling 
software products. 

lust in case, however, GRiD will be 
offering an external 5 !4-inch drive for 
$895. The drive can be set up as the 
primary drive, allowing you to run 
copy-protected software like the 
5!4-inch version of Lotus's 1-2-3 and 
Microsoft's Flight Simulator. The unit 
is about the size of a box of ten 8-inch 
disks, and it is connected to the main 
unit by a short thick cable that at- 
taches to the machine's expansion 
port. f IWo connectors are available on 
the drive, allowing you to "daisy- 
chain" the computer to yet another 
drive or another expansion periph- 
eral. 

f IWo other peripherals are available. 
One is a base station battery charger/ 
power source ($450), which can hold 
certain GRiD expansion cards, keep 
the portable unit powered, and, ac- 
cording to GRiD, recharge the por- 
table's batteries in about four hours. 
GRiD is also making available a 
10-megabyte hard-disk drive (for 
$22 50) that is approximately the 
same size as the 5J4-inch floppy-disk 
drive (see photo 4). 

GRiD representatives say that they 
plan to supply a second 3 /2-inch drive 
and a cable and adapter card that will 
let you connect a GRiDCase to IBM's 
expansion chassis for the IBM PC. The 
card apparently would let you con- 
nect a GRiDCase to any IBM expan- 
sion board. As yet there is no price 
information available for this option. 

Since the plasma and LCD models 
are practically identical, owners of the 
LCD model have the option of up- 
grading their units to a plasma model 
by sending the unit back to GRiD to 
have the display replaced. 

Software 

Like the Compass, a GRiDCase has 
the option of running two operating 

[continued) 
Inquiry 39 — ► 



~— THE ARK 24KT--2 
h IS THE FIRST UNIVERSAL 
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THE ARK 24K HAS IT ALL! 



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■ MNP is a proprietary product of MICROCOM. Inc t Offer expires July 31 1985 



MULTIPLE MODEMS IN ONE 



Inquiry 259 




IEEE-488 Interfaces and 
Bus Extenders For: 

IBM PC, PCjr 
& COMPATIBLES 

DEC UNIBUS, Q-BUS 
& RAINBOW 100 

MULTIBUS, VMEbus 
STD & S-100 

Full IEEE-488 functionality, with the most com- 
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available from more than 500 different manufac- 
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P 



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1-800-531-5088 512/250-9119 
Telex: 758737 NAT INSTAUS 



IBM and PCjr are trademarks of International Business Machines, MULTI- 
BUS is a trademark' of totel, DEC. UNIBUS, 0-BUS, and Rainbow 100 are 
trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation 



THE GRIDCASE 



THE GRiD Server 



When GRiD first came out with 
the Compass, it instituted a 
novel but controversial software- 
distribution scheme. All software 
would be sent out over the phone lines 
from GRiD Central, the company's cen- 
tral computer, which GRiD has now 
made available to customers. These 
systems, called GRiD Servers, are 
based around two 80186 processor 
chips and can directly connect up to 
48 computers in the office and access 
up to 320 megabytes of hard-disk 
space. It can also support up to 10 
modems and a number of printers. A 
small system with about 40 megabytes 
of disk space and the ability to connect 
to about 8 computers and 2 modems 
costs about $16,500. 

In the office, the GRiD Server func- 
tions as a regular local-area network 
(LAN) using twisted-pair cables with a 
data-transfer rate of 2 50K bits per sec- 
ond. Each GRiD computer has a util- 
ity program that allows it to connect 
to the central server and use the hard 
disk as if it were its own. Programs and 
adapter cards are also available for the 
IBM PC that will allow it to connect with 
this network. 



When you take your portable out into 
the field, the GRiD Server becomes 
what GRiD calls a RAN. a remote- 
access network. All you have to do is 
connect your modem-equipped system 
to a phone line. Then, just as in the of- 
fice, your machine can directly access 
the central server's hard-drive disk. 
Whenever you access the hard drive, 
your system automatically calls up the 
central computer and begins commu- 
nicating with it. The system includes its 
own error-checking protocol to protect 
against telephone-line noise. Text files 
and machine-language programs sup- 
posedly can be transmitted very easi- 
ly. The problem is speed. The phone- 
line limit of 1 200 bps (bits per second) 
is much slower than the usual disk- 
access time. 

One advantage of this system is that 
application programs such as spread- 
sheets running on the remote systems 
can directly use data files on the 
central hard disk. This seems to be an 
ideal way to ensure that everyone in 
a small, scattered work force is using 
the same data, but the transfer times 
for large data files may be uncomfort- 
ably slow. 



systems. One is MS-DOS. which has 
been made highly IBM PC-compati- 
ble. The other is a proprietary system 
called GRiD-OS, which GRiD claims is 
multitasking. They have developed a 
number of business-productivity soft- 
ware packages for this system. 

The GRiDCase comes bundled with 
only MS-DOS version 2.11 and GW- 
BASIC As of this writing, it is unclear 
whether this software will be provided 
on disk or on ROM chips. GRiD's ver- 
sion of MS-DOS includes a special 
utility that lets you connect easily to 
one of GRiD's RANs (remote-access 
networks) (see the text box 'The GRiD 
Server" on this page). 

Service 

GRiD is apparently taking advantage 
of the GRiDCase computers' small 
size by instituting a novel service ar- 
rangement. For an additional fee. be- 
tween $540 and $720, depending on 



your configuration, you can arrange 
to have next-day replacement service. 
Under this policy, if your machine 
breaks down, GRiD claims that it will 
send you a new machine by Federal 
Express to keep until the company 
repairs your machine. 

Summary 

The GRiDCase computer seems to be 
a potent competitor in the briefcase 
computer market. I only had a brief 
chance to look at the machines, but 
I was impressed. Some questions re- 
main, however: Do the machines 
really run all IBM PC software? How 
comfortable is the LCD screen after 
long hours of use? Are the serial and 
printer ports compatible with most 
peripherals? BYTE will try to answer 
these questions in a full system review 
in a later issue. For now, I look forward 
to seeing gas-plasma displays on 
more machines. ■ 



136 BYTE • JULY 1985 





THE FORTIS DH45, THE START OF A NEW BUSINESS GENERATION 

DAISY OR DOTS . . . Have it your way. Don't settle for one or the other.. . get both. 

The revolutionary FORTIS DH45 dual head printer combines the speed and bit 
image graphics of a dot matrix with a high quality daisy wheel for crisp letters. All 
this in one compact unit that saves desk space and at a price that is less than you 
would pay for one printer. It is also compatible with IBM* PC and most other 
personal computers. 

Imagine the advantage of having two heads in one printer. Need graphics or 
condensed print spreadsheets or a rough draft of a long letter, just touch the 
control panel. Ho w about important correspondence to impress a potential client, 
again, just touch the control panel to switch to the letter quality daisy wheel. 

Indeed, 

the old saying TWO HEADS ARE BETTER THAN ONE, really holds true in the DH45. 

"IBM is a registered trademark of IBM Corp. 




with its two heads, produces crisp let 
graphics with a dot matrix print head 



ng /Laundry 



n 



FDRTIS 




.FORTIS 



m 



Dynax,lnc. 



DYNAX, INC. OFFICES w 

■ HEADQUARTERS 6070 Rickenbacker Rd., Commerce, C A 90040 • (213) 727-1227 

■ NEW JERSEY One Madison St., East Rutherford, NJ 07073 • (201) 471-0100 ■ 

■ TEXAS 6012 Campus Circle, Suite 250, Irving, TX 75062 • (214) 257-1700 I 

■ ILLINOIS 533 West Golf Rd., Arlington Heights, IL 60005 • (312) 228-0707 

■ MASSACHUSETTS 400 W. Cummings Park, Suite 5300, Woburn, MA 01801 • (617) 933-8162 I 

■ N. CALIFORNIA 1255 Oak mead Parkway, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 • (408) 730-1712 

Inquiry I35 



YESI Please send me more information on the FORTIS DH45 Dual Head Printer 
Name Title 



Company 



City 



Zip 



I 



Mail to: DYNAX, INC. Customer Se vice / FORTIS DH45 

6070 Rickenbacker Road, Commerce, CA 90040 



<$* 



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e e 





Avocet turns an ordinary PC 
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And saves you $20,000 
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Inquiry 43 



to use. We provide you with 
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Price $299. 

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At last, an affordable in-circuit 
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AVPROM programmer 
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tems Inc., PO. Box 490 B, Rockport, 
Maine 04856, (207) 236-9055. 
Telex: 467210 AVOCET CI. 

AVOCET yT^ 
SYSTEMS INC* 

JULY 1985 -BYTE 139 




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140 BYTE • IULY 1985 Inquiry \31 



CIARCIA'S CIRCUIT CELLAR 



Living in a 
Sensible Environment 



by Steve Ciarcia 



A collection of alarm and 
environmental monitoring circuits 




Generally speaking, I try 
to present projects that 
are commercial-quality 
designs. Occasionally, 
they get a bit grandiose 
when the former aero- 
space engineering men- 
tality in me says, "Damn the expense" and 
"Who cares about chip count?" 

For the most part. I work on the basis of 
cost-effectiveness rather than absolute ex- 
pense. Since I was on a very tight schedule 
and the Home Run Control System (HCS) 
of the past three months itself was the main 
emphasis of my efforts, I neglected user- 
constructed sensors and opted entirely for 
commercially available units (motion detec- 
tors, contact switches, etc.). Testing the HCS 
was hard enough without debugging 
perimeter sensors and motion sensors and 
wasting a lot of time by stringing wire. I 
bought off-the-shelf detectors and had them 
professionally installed. This raised overall 
design cost but reduced the installation and 
checkout time considerably. 

While this technique was expedient, it 
neglected a very important contingent of 
the BYTE readership. The hundreds of let- 
ters and pictures I receive each month in- 
dicate that many readers roll their own. 
even on complicated projects like the HCS. 
Deep down, behind the aerospace engi- 
neer, I am a computer hacker at heart and 



empathize with experimenters who want to 
know how to build the environmental sen- 
sors, alarm horns, and signaling devices for 
use with the HCS. 

As an addendum to the previous articles 
on building the HCS, this month I've dug 
through the junk box for a bunch of circuits 
that sense, immobilize, and anesthetize a 
perpetrator. The same sensors can be used 
to provide convenience features like auto- 
matic lighting and environmental control if 
you are less paranoid. Among the circuits 
I've included are infrared and ultrasonic 
interrupted-beam detectors; water, tem- 
perature, voltage, and light sensors; and a 
variety of alarm signaling devices. 

These circuits are presented for experi- 
menters who revel in the pleasure and 
agony of homebrew projects. If you don't 
want to spend the time building these cir- 
cuits, order the necessary components from 
the local alarm installer instead. 

A Contact-Closure World 

The HCS and alarm systems in general are 
designed to perform designated control 

(continued) 

Steve Ciarcia (pronounced "see-ARE-see-ah") is an 
electronics engineer and computer consultant with ex- 
perience in process control, digital design, nuclear in- 
strumentation, and product development. He is the 
author of several books about electronics. You can 
write to him at POB 582. Glastonbury, CT 06033. 



COPYRIGHT © 1985 STEVEN A. CIARCIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 141 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



+ 12V 



+ 12V 



►1.5K 



10K 

VDC 1<y ° 

o <wv- 



IN 



10K 

1% 



ffi 7^;o.i m f 



n 



IK 




I " 

<1.5K 



€ 



2N2907 



m 



N.O. 



/77 



/?7 

Zl 1N962B TEMPERATURE 
COMPENSATED 
1N753 GENERAL USE 

RANGE SET BY R x 2Kft / VOLT -10K& 
0-10 VOLTS = 10K 



ft? 



10K 

TRIGGER 

SET 



>| RELAY 
1N4002 \\ 200ft 



m 










CONTACT 
CLOSURE TO 

COMPUTER 



Figure 1: An overvoltage sensor. Undervoltage can be detected by reversing the connections of IC1 pins 2 and 3. 



functions as the result of specific in- 
put activities. They rely upon contact 
closures to communicate these ac- 
tivities. Rather than monitor the 
physical surroundings in absolute 
terms, contact-closure-type alarm and 
control systems respond by sensing 
"limits." 

A limit sensor is just that. If an event 
is to occur when the temperature in 
a room exceeds 85° (perhaps turning 
on the air conditioner), we could 
employ a temperature limit switch set 
at 85°. Knowing that it is presently 
71.4 5° in the room is unnecessary in- 
formation. Only when the tempera- 
ture is at or above 85° will it indicate 
that the set-point limit has been 
reached. This simple limit switch is 
called a thermostat and functions 
much like the one you probably have 
on your wall. Below 85° it is open, 
and above 85° it is closed (neglecting 
hysteresis). In situations involving a 
temperature span, two devices are 
employed, one sensing high limit and 
the other sensing low limit. The 

[continued) 



+ 15V 

A 



4.7 K 
-Wr- 



50K 
Vhigh 



m 



SET POINT 



0V TO 12V 



1 



10K 
-wv- 



O.l^F 



+ 15V 
t 
< cLnu 



4.7K 

-Wr 



50K 
Vlow 
/^SET POINT 



+ 15V 




+ 15V 




-15V 



1N914 



2,2K 
* — vw— 



1N914 





Vhigh* v in >v low 

2N2222 



Figure 2: A window-comparator voltage monitor. 



142 BYTE • IULY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



+ 12V 
IOjuF £ 



+ 12V 






N/C- 



O 



°" 5V ;£).01 

INPUT 



"1 



/qxO.ui^i 



1.2K 



3.9K | 



m 



___1J 



+ 5V 






V+ 

MODE 

SIG IN 

LM3914 

RH1 
REF 0UT 

REFadj 

GND 
RLO 



18 



r 

-| #1 OPTOISOLATOR |— OOUT #1 
I n— J +12V 

1 2\ " 



#3 



16 



15 



-w— #4 

m # 5 



inO 



14 



13 



12 



11 



£ *' 

® * 8 
IB *9 I 



+ 5V 
A 



4.7K 



-c 



i 

i 
-i i 



TIL111 



I 



+ 12V 
A 



O 
OUT 



T_ 



I 



LED ON TO 

TTL- LEVEL "* 

INTERFACE 



_1 



10 



#10 OPTOISOLATOR j—O OUT #10 

TTL OUTPUT TO 
I I COMPUTER OR HCS 

rh 



Figure 3: A dot! bar-graph generator used as a multiple window comparator for analog inputs. 



O 



115 VAC 



<o 



BLOWN-FUSE 
DETECTOR 



FUSE 
-Aa- 



FUSE 



20^F 
200VDC 



■3h 



2.5 K 

5W 

— vw- 



COMPUTER 
POWER SUPPLY 



ALARM SYSTEM 
POWER SUPPLY 



AUXILIARY SYSTEMS 
POWER SUPPLY 



1N4004 (3) 



"TRANSFORMER PRIMARIES 



24V RELAY 



In.o. 



■o 



CONTACT CLOSURE 
TO COMPUTER 






Figure 4: A blown- fuse detector. 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 143 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



operating range is the area between 
the two sensor trip points. 

Thermostats are bimetallic contacts 
that open or close depending upon 
temperature. The key word is contacts. 
Virtually all alarm sensors are contact- 
closure output. The magnetic reed 
switches on your doorways or the mo- 
tion detectors in the hall all utilize 
open- or closed-contact connection to 
the alarm system to indicate logic 1 
or levels. When the monitoring sen- 
sor's output contacts are wired be- 
tween an HCS input pin and ground, 
the HCS "sees" open contacts as logic 
1 inputs. A pull-up resistor at the in- 
put provides sufficient current so that 
inputs don't float but are connected 



to a voltage source that makes it a 
logic 1. When the external contacts 
are closed, the current supplied 
through the pull-up resistor is shunted 
to ground, and the input "sees" a 
logic 0. 

Contact-closure-type sensors are 
frequently confused with discrete- 
level output sensors. The former 
designate physical contacts that make 
or break (close or open) at the limit 
set point, while the latter have 
discrete voltage-level changes (-12 
volts |V| for off and + 12 V for on, for 
example) to indicate the two logic 
states. The confusion comes about 
because both types have discrete 
logic-level changes as outputs and 



most control systems accept either 
type. By using actual relay contacts, 
however, the sensor is electrically 
isolated from the control system. 
Hazardous conditions that may be 
present in the environment are thus 
not passed back to the control 
system. , 

Application is the primary dif- 
ference between discrete-level/ 
contact-closure output sensors (like 
thermostatic switches) and con- 
tinuously variable-analog or multi bit- 
digital sensing systems. A varistor is 
a continuously variable temperature 
sensor that can be used in a circuit 
to produce an output voltage that is 
proportional to temperature (perhaps 



110V/AC 



LINE 3 



R SHUNT 

o.oni 



LINE 2 



"<SHUNT 

o.om 



LINE 1 
















r-^ DC OUT 
~L— ? LINE 2 



J— ^ DC OUT 
"L-"^ LINE 1 



Figure 5: An isolated current monitor for a high-current load. The circuit as shown monitors 220 V AC from 25 
to 1 00 amperes. Us output is DC 



144 BYTE • JULY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



0-21.2 V to indicate 0-212°). If, by 
using a voltage comparator, we com- 
pare and switch logic states when the 
varistor-circuit output is equal to or 
exceeds 8.5 V, we have produced an 
85° limit switch. The control system 
knows only that it is above or below 
this limit but not how much. If the 
control system's action is also a sim- 
ple contact-closure output (light 
on/off, fan on/off, alarm dialer and 
horn on/off, etc.), perhaps how much 
is unimportant. 

When the application dictates that 
we continuously modify the control 
decision as a function of how much, 
we must use something other than the 
discrete limit sensor. If the air- 
conditioning fans can be run slowly 
at 80° and increasingly faster at 
higher temperatures, a proportional 
control loop using a high-resolution 
analog-to-digital (A/D) converter could 
be used to monitor the thermistor's 
absolute value and control the fans. 

Resolution is the bottom line. 
Contact-closure output devices are 
single-bit low-resolution items. 
Reading the thermistor through an 
A/D converter merely designates 
more discrete points of knowledge 
where control actions may be trig- 
gered. If you are making simple con- 
trol decisions based on a few set 
points that are not continuously 
changing, however, it hardly makes 



sense to read a thermistor through a 
12-bit A/D converter and compare the 
readings to a few limit values. It makes 
sense to compare an analog output 
value with an analog set-point level in 
the hardware of the monitoring 
device. In an age of computer overkill, 
not everything needs to be digitized. 

WINDOW COMPARATORS 

The majority of the circuits I've in- 
cluded in this article are of this type. 
Some are designed to continuously 



monitor conditions in the environ- 
ment (heat, light, moisture, etc.) and 
close or open contacts at presettable 
limits. A number of the sensing cir- 
cuits are simply analog monitors that 
have output voltages proportional to 
the input stimulus. To acquire these 
signals with a discrete input-level con- 
troller like the HCS, they are con- 
nected to a separate voltage com- 
parator, which compares the output 
with a preset limit. 

[continued] 



+ 12V 



?10K 



LIGHT 



A1N4002 



CdS 



RELAY 
200& 



HZ> CONTACT 

CLOSURE TO 
.COMPUTER 



/K\2N2222 



^SENSITIVITY 
ADJUST 



I 



Figure 6: A light sensor. 






+ 12V 



+ 12V 






f 200K 
LEVEL 
ADJUST 



U2V 



►10K 



J_ T 

jfclN4002 i 



LIGHT- 



LENS 




CdS 



+ 5V 



N.O. f __^ 

~^— > CONTACT 
— °— | CLOSURE TO 

I 1 | — ^ COMPUTER 

RELAY 
200& 



►10K 



ft? 




Figure 7: A high-sensitivity light detector. 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 145 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



H2V 
A 



m 



LAMP 



g| 



+ 12V 



<*100K 
^ SENSITP 




CONTACT 
CLOSURE TO 
COMPUTER 



-BEAM- 



TIVITY 
ADJUST 2N2222 



IN) 



(_ ] ^-J 2N2222 



RELAY 
200.fi, 



CdS 



\— [ FISISFS-/ 



^ 



Figure 8: A simple light-beam alarm for doorways. 



+ 12V 
A 



+ 12V 



470& 



LIGHT 




ilN4002 1 



N.O. 

* ° O CONTACT 

-J— H °— | CLOSURE TO 

I L__T-\ COMPUTER 



RELAY 
200ft 



r 




Figure 9: A day/night sensor. 



The least complicated comparator 
is shown in figure I . Configured as an 
overvoltage detector (or undervoltage 
if you reverse a few wires), the circuit 
closes the output contacts when the 
input exceeds the trigger set point. 
The next more sophisticated com- 
parator is the window comparator. 
Shown in figure 2, the window com- 
parator has both an upper and lower 
limit. An input voltage between these 
limits activates the output LED (light- 
emitting diode). A relay or opto- 
isolator can be substituted in place of 
the LED to provide a contact-closure 



or discrete-level-shifted input to the 
control system. 

If more than one window is required 
(perhaps different things occur at 50°, 
85°, and 120°). additional com- 
parators are needed. A conveniently 
packaged source of 10 linearly spaced 
comparators is an LM3914 dot/bar- 
graph generator. Shown in figure 3, 
the LM3914 is configured as a 0- to 
5-V 10-stage window comparator. 
Each LED represents a 0.5-V increase 
in input. If the desired set-point limit 
is 3. 5 V from a temperature monitor 
(shown later in figure 18), the HCS 



would be connected to LED #7, which 
comes on at 3.5 V (an optoisolator in 
series with the indicating LED level 
shifts the output so that it is compati- 
ble with the HCS). 

Whatever the source of the analog 
signal in the remaining circuits, you 
now have the means to convert it to 
a contact-closure or discrete-level in- 
put required by the HCS and other 
alarm/control systems. 

POWER MONITORING 

An important consideration in 
industrial-control applications is 
power monitoring. At the very mini- 
mum, it is often necessary to know 
whether a piece of equipment is out 
of service due to a blown fuse or if 
power demand exceeds a desirable 
limit. A blown-fuse detector can notify 
an operator, while limit switches trig- 
gered by AC line current can be used 
for load shedding. 

Figure 4 is a blown-fuse detector 
that can be built into a power strip for 
convenience. If any fuse opens, the 
relay contacts close. Figure 5 is an 
isolated AC monitor. The output of 
the 2 84) will be an AC voltage propor- 
tional to the current flowing through 
the shunt resistor. The circuitry at- 
tached to the 284J's output is an AC- 
to-DC converter, which allows this cir- 
cuit to be connected to one of the 

[continued] 



146 BYTE • IULY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



+ 3V 






RESISTORS: 1/2W. 5% 



ztsx 



330K 
| — vw *■ 



100& 

2N2905 



TTL 
OUTPUT 



0.47 M F 
25V 



€> 



+ 5V 



4f 



10ft 



. , 2N2219 



_500/xF 
10V 



INFRARED 

LED 

GE-TYPE 

LED 56 



4.7K 
-AAA + 



■o 



2N2222 




GENERAL 
ELECTRIC 
L14F2 




0.33/xF 



FOCUSING 
LENS 



>2.2K 



47K 
-VW- 



/77 



rh 



Figure 10: An infrared intrusion alarm. The system can be used over a range of 10 to 50 feet. 






9V 
4 



' . 



22K 



ULTRASONIC 
TRANSMITTER 



W> 






IK 
-wv- 



;i80pF 



0.01 M F 



|47K 



;330pF 




2N2222 



100ft 



10/iF 

; iov 



Tl AND T2 
ADJUSTABLE 1-3 mH 



NOTE: THE ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER 
USED IN THE TRANSMITTER AND 
RECEIVER MUST HAVE IDENTICAL f 



m 



SWITCH CLOSURE 
TO ALARM 



+9 TO 12V 

6 



6 



J2.2K 



0.001 pF 



220K 



ULTRASONIC 
RECEIVER 

f =40kHz 




2.2K 




2N3906 
OR 

2N4917 



0.0047 M F 

-)l 



2N3904 



2.7K 5 



10K 
' CENTER 
FREQUENCY 
ADJUST 



RELAY 



> 330ft 



LED 



IN +V OUT 

I NE567 

TONE DECODER 

R1.C1 GND C2 



-*- 10 M F 
^ 10V 



R1.C1 GND C2 C3_ 

-4 ^pO.i^F i- 



^U.uua/ M i- sj^ 



2.7K 



;0.02^F 



;0.01/xF 



10VDC 



Figure 1 1 : An ultrasonic transmitter and receiver. 



JULY 1985 • B YTE 147 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



three DC-input window comparators 
already discussed. 

Interrupted-Beam Detectors 

Whether they are used for alarm 
monitoring or convenience control 
interrupted-beam detectors are the 
most reliable sensors for perceiving 
objects or people moving through a 
specific line of sight. These devices 
consist of two components: a trans- 
mitter and a receiver. The transmitter 
and receiver are located within line of 
sight of each other on opposite sides 
of the protected area. An infrared or 



ultrasonic beam is then directed from 
the transmitter to the receiver. Pro- 
vided that the receiver always 
receives this beam, its alarm output 
remains unenergized. If the beam is 
interrupted by something or someone 
passing between the transmitter and 
receiver, the output contacts close 
and a control action may be 
generated. 

Interrupted-beam detectors are 
most often infrared or ultrasonic (mo- 
tion detectors, which 1 am not ad- 
dressing, use infrared, ultrasonic, and 
microwave technologies). The applica- 



tion generally dictates which type of 
sensor is used, with ambient-light 
levels, acoustic pollution, and cost the 
determining factors. A low-cost in- 
frared unit can be mounted across a 
doorway, for example, but would be 
saturated by sunlight if used across a 
driveway to sense incoming cars. 
Depending upon the distance be- 
tween the transmitter and receiver 
and the ambient-light levels, you can 
choose from items like simple re- 
sistive photo cells, phototransistors, 
photodiodes, lenses, and LED or in- 

[continued) 



a ) TRANSMITTER 



Rl 
820K 



PB1 



"1" 



PE> 



IC1 
CD4011 



R2 
390K 



PB2 



"2" 



R3 
200K 



PB3 



"4" 




R12 

10K 

FREQUENCY 

ADJUST 



Dl 
1N4148 



-*y/(— 



+ 9V 
R7 A 
100K 
HA/W- 



C4 

O.lyuF 



1 



RST 

IC2 
NE555 



TRG 
THR 



vcc 

OUT 
CTLV 



DIS GND 



R8 
8.2K 



■C7 

k 0.0022 M F 
MYLAR 



/77 



-)h 



C5 
0.01/iF 



m 



JPl -INTERNAL CODE 
JP2 -EXTERNAL DATA 



+ 9V C3 
4 0.1 /iF 

-31 




1 



14 



7 IC1 

CD4011 



R9 
IK 



+ 9V 
A 



C6 
33 0>xF 






2 



TIL39 

/ 

\LED 3 
^J T1L220 

LED 2 
TIL39 



RIO ^Rll 

47tt S 220ft 

1/2W j 



T 












*NOTE:THESE INFRARED TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER CIRCUITS WERE DESCRIBED IN THE APRIL 1982 CIRCUIT CELLAR. 
THEY ARE REFERED TO AS THE IR01 INFRARED TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER KIT. 



Figure 12: The 1R01 \nfrared TYansrnitter/Receiver. 



148 BYTE • IULY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



b) RECEIVER* 



+v 



EXTERNAL 
OUTPUT 
+v ENABLE 



CI 
10^F 



X 



-)hr 



k«. 



lR3 
?4.7K 



9 



Dl 

TIL413 

PHOTODIODE 



11 



R5 
10K 



CENTER 

FREQUENCY 

ADJUST 

;R2 
' 4.7K 



+V 



>R4 
I 22K 



10 



C12 
10 M F 



"^1 



16 



ASD VCOt 



OE 



IC1 
SN76832 



Vcc 



DATA OUT 



Al IN 

A10 Al OUT A2 IN A2D A2D 



•C2 
'lOOpF 



13 



C4 



12 



WH 



. ( 0.047 M F 



■ C3 
'lO^F 



•C5 
'0.01/xF 



VCO TC 



LOOP FILTER 
LOCK 
Fl LTER 



-C6 
"0.1 /t F 



-C7 
V 0.047^F 



ft? 



■C8 
v 470pF 



R7 
10K 



■C9 
k 0.1 M F 



[R9 IR11 

>220& >4.7& 



LED 1 

TIL 2 20 



*■ Ql ^^r 

2N2222(2) 



Q2 



TTL OUT TO 
COMPUTER 
OR HCS 

t — O 




Zl 

1N4733 



TlO, t F 

-irCio |r6 

k 0.033^F T IK 



SEE NOTE ON FIGURE 12a 






c) ALTERNATE 
TRANSMITTER 
CIRCUIT 




10K 

FREQUENCY +j 

ADJUST ' 


1 


2N2907 

f\ TIL39 
t) TIL39 
;47ft 






< 
n 






4 


8 


tL 

^rslO/iF 
3 180ft /p^ 


r 7 


RST V cc 
DIS 

OUT 
NE555 
(SET FOR 
40 kHz) 
TRG 

THR 

6ND CTLV 


1.8K 
, 2 




j 6 




^0.0022 M F 
7 


n 


5 
^0.0 

7 


tj*F j 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 149 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 




+ 5V 



r ___L ( 

..I 






•0- 



^>s 



I 



D>Hn 



ICl 
74LS14 



IC2 ICl 

74LS00 74LS14 JC2 

1. v IS. 74LS00 



O^ 



+ 5V 



-;p- J 



IC2 
b | 74LS00 



+ 5V 



t 



100 pF 



+ 5V 
>2.2K 



10 



11 



Vcc Cext B E xt/Cext 

IC4 Q 

74121 

Al A 2 GND 



V CC CLR 
K Q 

r IC3 
% 7473 



CND 



X 



13 




TTL LOGIC-LEVEL 
OUTPUTS TO 
CONTROL SYSTEM 






Figure 13: A direction indicator. QI and Q2 are mounted a distance from each other along a hallway. The LEDs are mounted 
on the opposite wall. 



candescent modulated or unmodu- 
lated transmitters. 

An entire book could be written ex- 
plaining the design rules and the ex- 
ceptions to the rules. The circuits I've 
included are general in nature. In- 
candescent sources with cadmium- 
sulfide light-sensing units (see figures 
6, 7, 8. and 9) are short-distance low- 
ambient-light devices (which need 
shielding of the transmitter and 
receiver in opaque tubes) intended 
for doorways. Improved performance 
is obtained by switching to LEDs and 
phototransistors (figure 10). 

Long distances (10 to 50 feet) can 
be accommodated only by modulat- 
ing the transmitted beam so that it is 



distinctly different from the surround- 
ing noise. Figures 1 1 and 1 2 demon- 
strate two modulated-beam systems. 
The infrared unit in figure 12 is the 
IR01 Infrared Transmitter/Receiver 
from the April 1982 Circuit Cellar. 
While designed primarily for remote 
control and 300-bps (bits per second) 
wireless data transmission, simply in- 
serting JP2 and leaving the external 
data input open causes it to transmit 
continuously. The output of the 
receiver can then be connected to the 
control system's input. 

One variation on a theme for the 
doorway sensor is the circuit in figure 
13. In this application, two phototran- 
sistors (with separate light sources 



across from them) are mounted in the 
doorway. As someone passes through 
the doorway, one beam is always in- 
terrupted before the other. The addi- 
tional circuitry determines the order 
of interruption and indicates the 
direction a person was passing 
through the doorway. Treating this 
output as two different discrete-level 
inputs, the control system could ini- 
tiate different actions depending 
upon the direction of travel. 

We can determine whether the ob- 
ject passing through the doorway was 
a dog, a child, or an adult if we modify 
another previous Circuit Cellar proj- 
ect. In October 1984 I presented the 

[continued) 



150 BYTE • JULY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



2.2K 
-a/W — 



IC1 
74LS02 



:^H> 



"1 



cO 



j «10H2 
^f 



I 1 

-fc 



20 M F 



50kHz 
POLAROID 
ULTRASONIC 
TRANSDUCER 







470/^F 



Tl 

SONAR -RANGING 

MODULE 



7 



1 



* TRANSDUCER AND RANGING MODULE 
WERE EXPLAINED IN THE OCTOBER 
1984 CIRCUIT CELLAR. THESE TWO 
PIECES ARE REFERRED TO AS THE 
TI01 ULTRASONIC RANGER KIT. 



25K 

SHORT- 
DISTANCE 
10,,F SET 

14 



+ 5V 



I 



IC2a 
74LS123 



10^F 



n 



25K +5V 

LONG- * 
DISTANCE T 

set y\ 




10 5 



CLEAR 

B 

A 



IC2b 
74LS123 



+ 5V 



CLEAR 
ID 



10 



I C3 
74LS175 



2Q 



3Q 



3Q 



&6.8K 



1 



OUTPUTS TO 
COMPUTER OR HCS 

DIST<SHORT LIMIT 

E> 



-#- 



220^, 



LONG >DIST>SHORT 

O 



-®-^ 



10 



DIST>L0NG 

o 



m 



220& 



;o.i m f 



GREEN = DISTANCE < SHORT 
YELLOW = LONG > DISTANCE > SHORT 
RED = DISTANCE >LONG 



Figure 14a: The T101 Ultrasonic Ranger. 




Photo la: The Ultrasonic Ranger project with added components Photo lb: The circuit in photo \a enclosed in a box over a 
in figure 14 is configured as a discrete-level distance detector. doorway to detect people or small animals walking through it. 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 151 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



Using the Ultrasonic 
Ranger with some 
timing windows added, 
we can ascertain 
specific distances 
from 1.5 to 35 feet. 



TIOI Ultrasonic Ranger, which is based 
on a Ifexas Instruments sonar-ranging 
module. Using these basic com- 
ponents and adding timing windows 
to sense limit points, we can ascertain 
and indicate specific distances (the 
ranging module can detect distances 
from 1.5 to 35 feet). 

Shown in figure 14a, the circuit is 
relatively uncomplicated. A IO-hertz 
oscillator (ICI) initializes the ultrasonic 
transmission and triggers the two one- 
shots. IC2a has its period set to the 
short-distance limit, and IC2b is set to 
the long-distance limit (1.8 millisec- 
onds per foot). When the echo is 
received, its leading edge clocks the 
outputs of the one-shots into register 
IC3. If the distance out and back to 
the object is farther than the period 
of the one-shots, they time out and in- 
dicate a zero. This timing is shown in 
figure 14b. The three resulting outputs 
are distance < short limit, distance > 
long limit, and long limit > distance 
> short limit. 

If the circuit is mounted in the top 
of a 7-foot doorway, with the short 
limit set for 2 feet (5 feet from the 
floor) and the long limit set for 4!/2 feet 
(2 Vi feet from the floor), we can ob- 
tain significant information about the 
movement through the doorway (see 
photos la and lb). If a person taller 
than 5 feet passes through the sen- 
sor, we will get an indication of 
distance < short limit since the per- 
son's head will be less than 2 feet 
from the 7-foot-high sensor. If a 4-foot 
child walks through the doorway, the 
long limit > distance > short limit 

{continued) 



SHORT 

MIDDLE 

LONG 

"GREEN" 

"YELLOW" 

"RED" 


INIT 

IC2Q 

ICI 

IC2b 

ECHO 

IC3 

IC3 

IC3 


Q 
10 
Q 

1Q 
2Q 
30 








_l 


i i 


i 




1 1 


i i 




m 




1 1 








1 


i i 


i 








r 


i i 


i 














i 


i i 


i 















Figure 14b: Highllow-limit ranging-sensor timing diagram. 



+ 12V 
A 



+ 12V 
A 



& 



10K 




Tr 

THERMISTOR 

10K NOMINAL 

25°C 



10K 



A1N4002 \ 



N.O. p ^ 

*~~° L- > CONTACT 

CLOSURE TO 
COMPUTER 



+ 5V 



RELAY 

COIL 

200& 




2N2222 



Figure 15: An over-temperature detector. 



+ 12V 



+ 12V 
A 



;10K 



10K 

SET POINT 

ADJUST 



+ 5V 




+ 12V 
A 



1.8K 



1.8K 



© 



2N2907 



N.O. 
1» * (Z> CONTACT 

CLOSURE TO 
COMPUTER 



(THERMISTOR $ 10K 
10K NOMINAL 
I 25°C 

m 




m 



Figure 16: An under-temperature alarm. 



152 BYTE • JULY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 







. 






2N2907 



^ 1N4148 

DIODE JUNCTION 
TEMPERATURE 
DETECTORS (2) 



J3.3K 




O CONTACT 

CLOSURE TO 
COMPUTER 



Figure 17: A differential-input temperature detector. 



+ 15V 



;ik 



3.3K- 




100K 
-^wv — 



20K 
LINEARITY 



-*pt- 



551K 



2K 



k 



25K 



51K 



>75K 



>51K 




Ov 



OUT 

0-5V 

FOR 

0-100°C 



1N825 
■ 6.2V 
REFERENCE ZENER 
T c = 0.002% /°C 



SENSITIVITY 



ft? 



Figure 1 8: A so\\dstate temperature sensor. 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 153 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



will go high since the child's height of 
4 feet is greater than the short- 
distance limit yet less than the long- 
distance limit. When a 2-foot dog 
walks through (indicated by the inter- 



rupted-beam sensors at the 2 -foot 
level), the output will indicate distance 
> long limit. 

While this is a cute application for 
the ranging sensor, I anticipate that 



this limit-switch modification would 
find greater application as a level in- 
dicator in grain storage bins or oil 
tanks. Few people are motivated to in- 

[continued) 



115VAC 

99 



TO COMPUTER 
NORMALLY CLOSED 
ALARM INPUT 



HONEYWELL-TYPE 
TC49A SMOKE 
DETECTOR 



WHT 



00 



BLUE 



YELLOW 



+ *: 35 VOLTS 




IJ 




, NORMALLY CLOSED 

NORMALLY OPEN 
(SHOWN IN ENER- 
GIZED STATE) 



RELAY 48VDC 2500ft 

TYPE-. ALLIED CONTROLS 
T154-C-C 
OR EQUIVALENT 



180° 

NORMALLY OPEN 
TEMPERATURE 
SENSOR 



140° 

NORMALLY OPEN 

TEMPERATURE 

SENSOR 



Figure 19: A srnoke-and-heat detector. Additional sensors can be added in parallel 



< SENSITIVITY 
• — vw- 



5.6K 



PROBES 









H-,0 




""C> CONTACT 

CLOSURE TO 
COMPUTER 



Figure 20: A water-activated sensor. 



154 BYTE • JULY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



+9 TO 12V 






-J-O.OOViF 

T i 



COM 



2K 



: ■ 470 



LM1830 

FLUID DETECTOR 



13 



-)h 



0.05/xF 



U_ 20^F 

"~ 15V 






| v/////////////////xffl . 



s 



§^^^^^^^ I 






12 



N.O. 



^Z>. 



TO ALARM 

INPUT 



1N9H 



CLOSED CONTACTS 
INDICATE WATER 
PRESENCE 



n 

10 m 




1H111Z 



WATER SENSOR 
l/16in. 



k 



D, 



■■ ^\\\\\\\\\\y\\\^^ fc 



V/. 



ra _ — _J 



| V//////////////////M 



1 ^\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\^ 



Figure 21: Tfc fluid-level sensor uses an LM1830 fluid-level detector chip. The detector grid can be cut from a sheet of copper. 



IK 

10W 



40/*F 
250V 



-)\t 



■ 115VAC 



1N4004 

— W- 



I 



BOOK 
FLASH RATE 



. 40 M F 
'250V 



FT-1 
XENON 
FLASH 

LAMP 



Jk 



TRIGGER 
TRANSFORMER 



I56K 



(J) NE2 A^ 

N^ G / 200PI 



-1 M F 
MOOV 



'SECONDARY 
■ 4KV 



"srJ 



2A 



Figure 22: A 115-V AC xenon strobe light. 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 155 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



+ 12V 



t 



1N4002 



2N2222 



> 470ft 








TTL INPUT 



LOGIC = OFF 
LOGIC 1 =ON 



SW1 

MANUAL 

ON 



3A 
FUSE 



J 



3K 
5W 



150ft SK3004 

1/2 W 



SK3016{4) 




Aj 



W 



120VAC 



680 
1W 



2.2K 
1/2W 



-50 M F 
k 35V 




-50/xF 
"150V 



NE83 

r@- 



4.7K 

1/2W 

— wv — 



47K 

1/2W 

-vw — 



150-300W 
FLOOD LAMP 



KD2100 



22K 

1/2W 

-WV — 



10K 
2W 



-yA- 



LINEAR POT 
FLASH-RATE 
ADJUST 



Figure 23: A 115-V AC incandescent lamp flasher. 



470K 



ALARM r— s. 
ENABLE UP* 



JjJT> 



LOGIC 1 =ON 
LOGIC = OFF 



I 



> 470K 



1C1 
CD4011 



0.001 M F 



3t \ O.OOJ 

-gE)4-» 



I 



1M 



+ 5V 



tu 



IC2 

CD4016 
INPUT OUTPUT 

CONTROL 



^J 



+V BATTERY (6-12V) 



iQ 8ft 



4.7K 



€1 



SPEAKER 




MJE1103 
DARLINGTON 




470K 



0.4 7 h F 



-31- 






Figure 24: A highllow-frequency beeper. 



156 BYTE • JULY 1985 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



100K 









<;^ 






FROM 
COMPUTER °~ 

GROUND = ON 
OPEN=OFF 










► 22K 



820K 
<» vw — 



-3h 




M2V 
A 



jr~i 

\ \ u | WARBLf 

d ^O • » OUTPUT 
/ ^ I AMPLIF 



TO 
IER 






1^1 



Figure 25: A warble tone generator. 



I WATT 



+ 12V 






10 WATT 






20 WATT 



12V 



2N2222 



<**€) 



m 



+ 12V 
A 



1N4002 



^o 



W8& 
SPE 



_ r /1100^ 
~j| SPEA 
^-\|<1W 



100ft 
SPEAKER 



?100ft 



rh 



SPEAKER 



2N2907 



nn 



o-SMf) 



-Li SPE 



22.fi, 




TIP31 V S / 

OR 

2N3054 



TIP31 

OR 

2N3054 




SPEAKER 



: o 



2N3055 



i 






C1K 



*HEATSINK REQUIRED 



/77 



Figure 26: Power output stages /or tfie design in figure 2 5. 



)ULY 1985 -BYTE 157 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



stall automatic control systems for 
their dogs. 

Temperature Measurement 

An important ingredient in any en- 
vironmental control system is tem- 
perature monitoring. While you can 
always use bimetallic thermostats, 
they are gross-measurement devices 
that exhibit a lot of hysteresis. An 
alternative to bimetallic switches is a 
thermistor that triggers a relay closure 
when a temperature is above or 
below a precisely selected limit (see 
figures 15. 16, and 17). 

Thermistors and bimetallic junctions 
are not the only materials that exhibit 
predictable effects due to tempera- 
ture. Diode and transistor junction 
voltages (typically 0.7 V) vary with 
temperature. Using two diodes (figure 
17), we can create a differential- 
temperature switch. When the tem- 
perature applied to one diode 
becomes greater (by the amount 
determined in the balance adjust- 
ment) than the other, the output relay 
closes. A typical application is a win- 
dow fan that automatically turns on 
when the temperature inside be- 
comes greater than that outside. 

This technique can be expanded 
even more to produce an accurate 
solid-state measuring instrument. As 



shown in figure 18, the circuit pro- 
duces a 0-5-V output for 0-100° 
Celsius. Connecting this circuit to the 
window detector in figure 3 allows the 
control system to take a variety of 
control actions depending upon the 
temperature. 

While on the subject of temperature 
measurement, we shouldn't forget 
fires, since they produce high tem- 
peratures and are definitely cause for 
a control system to take action. Figure 

19 illustrates a combined smoke-and- 
heat detector. 

Water Detectors 

If you live in New England, springtime 
is synonymous with water. While a 
worst-case water-sensing technique is 
to step into it, one variation is a water- 
detector circuit. 
The simple circuit shown in figure 

20 senses lowered resistance between 
the probes when immersed in water. 
A better circuit, figure 21, uses a 
special LM1830 fluid-level detector 
chip. 

Bells and Whistles 

If you are using your HCS primarily as 
an alarm system, getting the proper 
attention when it triggers is a neces- 
sity. After triggering the silent alarm, 
you may decide not to be so silent. 



12V 

A 






>10K 



100 M F 
,15V 



56K 



-i-100 M F 
^15V 



;0.033/iF 






68-100mH 



m 



- J -0.22/^F 



>180K 



€ 



2N2222 



8.0. SPEAKER 
6 WATTS 



__ 2N3055 



M70& 



m 



* HEATS1NK REQUIRED 



Figures 22 through 27 will definitely 
liven up the neighborhood. 

In Conclusion 

Thank you for helping me clean out 
my junk box. Now you have the 
means to bend, fold, spindle, and 
mutilate anything exceeding 5 ] /2 feet 
high and 98.6° passing from east to 
west through a doorway. Alternative- 
ly anything shorter than 2 feet at 101 ° 
should trigger the automatic dog- 
biscuit dispenser. I say this somewhat 
tongue in cheek, but you don't get the 
mail I get. 

Circuit Cellar Feedback 

This month's feedback is on page 391. 

Next Month 

I'll show you how to construct the Cir- 
cuit Cellar BASIC-52 computer/con- 
troller board. ■ 

The following items are available from 

The Micromint Inc. 
561 Willow Ave. 
Cedarhurst. NY 11516 
(800) 645-3479 for orders 
(516) 374-6793 for information 

1. infrared remote-control transmitter/re- 
ceiver kit IR01. $49 

2. Ultrasonic-ranging system experimenter's 
kit, including SN28827 ranging module, 
50-kHz Polaroid electrostatic transducer, and 
data manual .T101. $60 

3. A 40-kHz ultrasonic transducer 

XDR0I. $6 each 

All the above items are shipped postpaid in 
the continental United States. Add $6 for 
overseas. New York residents please include 
8 percent sales tax. Connecticut residents 
please include 7.5 percent sales tax. 

Editor's Note: Steve often refers to previous 
Circuit Cellar articles. Most of these past ar- 
ticles are available in book form from BYTE 
Books, McGraw-Hill Book Company, POB 
400, Hightstown, Nj 082 50. 

Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, Volume I covers articles 
in BYTE from September 1977 through 
November 1978. Volume II covers December 
1978 through June 1980. Volume III covers July 
1980 through December 1981. Volume IV 
covers January 1982 through June 1983. 



Figure 27: A siren. 



To receive a complete list of Ciarcia's Cir- 
cuit Cellar project kits, circle 100 on the 
reader-service inquiry card at the back of 
the magazine. 



158 BYTE • IULY 1985 



AMAZING D\LSY 



NOW! FULL SIZE, FULL FEATURE, LETTER QUALITY AT ONLY $353 



If you have been searching for a letter 
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We found the printer which has all the 
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FEATURES GALORE 

This printer has it all. To start with, it 
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Proportional Spacing. There is a Select 
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In this manner, each page can have iden- 
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Daisy 1120 is 



printing. The built in 2K buffer frees up 
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At 15 CPI you can print 165 
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The Daisy 1120 uses the Diablo 
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Not only is the hardware completely 
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The printer has a set of rear switches 
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What's a database syste 

doing with a 




1. Relational capabilities. 



2. Variable-length fields. 



3. Multi- valued fields. 





4. Subrecords. 



5. Interactive report writer. 



6. Calculations. 





7. Sophisticated data features. 8. Options key. 



9. File conversion. 





Cornerstone is a trademark of Infocom, Inc. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 1-2-3 is a registered 
trademark of Lotus Development Corporation. Tandy is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation. dBASE II is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate. 
Micro/Answer is a trademark of Informatics General Corporation. PFS is a registered trademark of Software Publishing Company. 

160 BYTE • ]ULY 1985 



m for non-programmers 
U this power? 



Cornerstone makes it easy 

to build sophisticated 

applications. 

Whether you program or not, you 
expect your personal computer to 
handle a wide variety of complex 
jobs. Simply and easily. That's why 
we designed Cornerstone™ to deliver 
all the power of a high-end relational 
CO database system into the hands of 
professionals who don't want to 
spend needless time programming. 

The key is flexibility. 

To begin with, Cornerstone will grow 
with you as your needs change. 
Which means you don't have to plan 
every last detail of your database in 
advance. Instead, you can quickly 
and easily make changes anywhere 
and at any time— even with data 
already in the database. You can add 
a file, field or index, change a report 
or relationship, or do countless other 
things. 

And Cornerstone's remarkable 
flexibility also applies to data han- 
dling. For instance, variable-length 
fields (2) let you add notes of any 
length anywhere in the database— 
without determining the length of the 
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makes room as you need it. Which 
means efficient storage, too. 

In addition, any Cornerstone field 
can be multi- valued (3). So you can 
type in distinct, multiple entries in 
the same field. Whether five different 
phone numbers or 200 different 
notes. You can even have repeating 
groups of information, like line items 
in an order form (4). 

The flexibility extends to reporting, 
too. There's no limit to the number 
or kind of reports you can create with 
Cornerstone's interactive report 



writer (5) . You can design complex 
reports with titles, headers, subto- 
tals and totals, and instantly 
see what your report will 
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ports can be saved for every 
file and modified at any time. 

And Cornerstone has no 
artificial constraints. You can 
sort on any field, search on any field. 

The calculating power 
is built in. 

Cornerstone has impressive calculat- 
ing power (6). Mathematical, scien- 
tific, statistical, financial, date, time 
and string functions are built right 
in. And because it's a full-featured 
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multiple files. Cornerstone can also 
perform sophisticated data valida- 
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Easy access for all 

Cornerstone's power is designed to 
be easily accessible. On-line support, 
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What's more, Cornerstone's 
exclusive Options key (8) 
always shows you what 
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data value from a related 
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You can also use Cor- 
nerstone with other 
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Inquiry 233 




PROGRAMMING INSIGHT 



TRAVESTY 
REVISITED 



by Murray Lesser 



The Travesty generator is recast 
in compiled BASIC 



ASA WRITER, I was intrigued by the 
possibilities in Hugh Kenner and 
Joseph O'Rourke's lexical processor 
(described in 'A Itavesty Generator 
for Micros," November 1984 BYTE, 
page 1 29). While the procedure can't 
quite produce an adequate first draft 
of a new manuscript, it is a small step 
on the way to the complete automa- 
tion of the writer's craft. 

Unfortunately, Kenner and O'Rourke 
picked the wrong programming lan- 
guage to illustrate their point. Pascal 



just isn't the proper tool for handling 
a task consisting mostly of string 
manipulation. One of the Microsoft 
16-bit BASIC compilers is a much bet- 
ter choice. They permit strings of 
more than 30,000 bytes (if you have 
enough string space) and allow all the 
usual Microsoft string operations to 
be performed on long string variables. 
Listing I shows Itavesty rewritten 
for the IBM PC version of the BASIC 
compiler. | Editor's note: The source code for 
this program, TRAVPCI.BAS, is available 



Twas in that bird, and thought head, and hand: 
Long 

back! 
He while in his joy. 

"And the boy! 

frabe. 

Twas brillig, and withy the Jabberwock, my son! 

The Jabberwock? 

Come that bite, the frumious day!" 

He claws the son! 

The sough 

The stood awhiffling 

time raths outgrabe: 
All mimsy went snicker-snatch! 
Beware 



Figure 1: Ah order- A verse scan of the poem "]abberwocky" 



for downloading via BY.TEnet Listings. The 
telephone number is (617) 861-9774. | I 
have followed the structure of the 
original TYavesty (leaving out those 
parts made unnecessary by BASIC'S 
string-handling capabilities). Since no 
programmer likes to leave well 
enough alone, I have added a couple 
of extra goodies. The result is a fast 
program that is slightly more user- 
friendly than the original, requiring 
only about half the number of lines 
of code. 

I added the line numbers followed 
by colons to the listing for discussion 
purposes, and they are not part of the 
source code. 

The compiler /N switch (line 9) 
serves two purposes: It tells the com- 
piler not to check for monotonic in- 
creasing line numbers and allows the 
underscore to be used as a logical-line 
continuation symbol. (Incidentally, 
programs containing unnecessary line 
numbers run slower due to a lower 
level of compiler optimization.) The 
compiler /E switch is necessary 

[continued] 
Murray \£sser received his B.S. degree in 
engineering from Caltech in 1942. He can 
be reached at 2474 Hunter Brook Rd., 
Yorktown Heights, NY 10598. 



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Inquiry 1 1 



Inquiry 12 



TRAVESTY REVISITED 



Listing 1: 'Travesty written for the IBM PC version of the BASIC compiler. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7; 

8: 

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10 
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TRAVPC1.BAS 



1 Based on the article and Pascal program Travesty by Hugh Kenner 
' and Joseph O'Rourke, in BYTE for November 1984. 

Written by M. L. Lesser; November 26, 1984 
Compiled with IBM PC BASIC Compiler, v 1.00, switches /N/E/O 
(patches to May 1984 have been installed) 

TRAVESTY scans a standard ASCII text file and generates an n-order 
simulation of its letter combinations. For order n, the relation of 
output to input is: "Any pattern n characters long in the output has 
occurred somewhere in the input and at about the same frequency." 
If the verse flag is set, line-end symbols will be replaced by "|" t 
which will generate line ends when they occur in the output text. 
' Otherwise, output lines will average 50 characters in length. 
The output will be displayed during operation and will be filed in 
' the standard ASCII file TRAVESTY.DOC. 



DEFINT F.l-N 



DEFSTRO-Z 

DIM LETTER(124) 

ON ERROR GOTO 5000 



Default values: 
LET MAX. IN = 
LET MAX.PAT 



30000 
= 9 



'FLAG.B, FLAG.E, FLAGV, I, K, L, 

'LETTER0, MAX.IN, MAX.OUi; MAX.PAT; 

'N.OUT, N.PAT 

'PASS, PATTERN, SOURCE, STRING, 

'OUTCHAR 



'Maximum input-string length 
'Maximum scan-order length 



1 User input data: 

RANDOMIZE 

INPUT "Number of characters to be output 
0100 PRINT "Scan order ( 2 - " MAX.PAT ")"; 
INPUT N.PAT 

IF N.PAT < 2 OR N.PAT > 9 THEN GOTO 100 



'Get randomizing seed 
MAX.OUT 
'Simulated repeat 



'until 



LET N.PAT = N.PAT -1 
0200 INPUT "Name of input file"; SOURCE 
OPEN SOURCE FOR INPUT AS #1 
INPUT "Prose or verse"; PASS 
IF LEFT$(PASS,1) = "V" OR LEFTS(PASS,1) 
THEN LET FLAG.V = -1 
' Scan input text, deleting unwanted symbols: 
' (NOTE: If in verse mode, <SP>'s following line end will be deleted) 
PRINT 
WHILE NOT EOF(1) 

LET PASS = INPUT$(1,#1) 
IF PASS < > CHR$(13)_ 

THEN PRINT PASS; 
IF PASS = CHR$(13)_ 

THEN LET PASS = " " 
IF PASS = CHR$(10)_ 

THEN LET PASS = " ":_ 
IF FLAG.V_ 

THEN LET PASS = "|" 
IF PASS = CHR$(9)_ 
THEN LET PASS = " " 



'Convenience correction 
'Error RESUME point 
'Trap if no file 



'Set verse flag 



Read input file one 
1 character at a time 
'Bug trap while 
1 displaying input 
'Change any <CR> 
' to <NUL> 
'Change any <LF> 
' to <SP> 
' or (if verse) 
' to special line end 
'Change any <HT> 
' to <SP> 



[continued) 



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Inquiry 232 




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TRAVESTY REVISITED 



61: 


IF PASS <> " " AND PASS < > " "_ 


'Unless <SP> or <NUL> 


62: 


THEN LET FLAG.B = 


' reset blank flag 


63: 


IF NOT FLAG.B_ 


If "blank" flag clear 


64: 


THEN LET STRING = STRING + PASS * add to string 


65: 


IF (FLAG.V AND PASS = "|")_ 


'Set blank flag to 


66: 


OR (PASS = " ")_ 


' delete following 


67: 


THEN LET FLAG.B = -1 


' <SP> characters 


68: 


IF LEN(STRING) >= MAX.IN_ 


'If full string: 


69: 


THEN GOTO 300 


' break out of loop 


70: 


WEND 


'End of input loop 


71: 


0300 LET STRING = STRING + LEFTS(STRING, 


M.PAT) 'End around 


72: 


' Report string space usage and force garbage collection: 


73: 


PRINT: PRINT 




74: 


PRINT "Input string contains" LEN(STRING) 


"bytes" 


75: 


PRINT "There are" FRE(" ") "bytes remaining 


in string space" 


76: 


CLOSE #1 




77: 


PRINT: PRINT 




78: 


' Open output file: 




79: 


OPEN "TRAVESTY.DOC" FOR OUTPUT AS #2 


80: 


' Initial pattern: 




81: 


LET PATTERN = LEFTS(STRING.N.PAT) 




82: 


PRINT PATTERN; 




83: 


PRINT #2, PATTERN; 




84: 


LET N.OUT = N.PAT 




85: 


0400 'Start of 


major "repeat until" loop 


86: 


' Clear letter array (this compiler doesn't have ERASE): 


87: 


FOR K = TO 124 




88: 


LET LETTER(K) = 




89: 


NEXTK 




90: 


' Match current pattern: 




91: 


LET I = INSTR(STRING.PATTERN) 




92: 


WHILE I > AND I < = LEN(STRING) - N.PAT 'Don't run off end 


93: 


LET PASS = MID$(STRING,I + N.PAT,1) 


'Next character 


94: 


LET LETTER(O) = LETTER(O) + 1 


'Update total count 


95: 


LET K = ASC(PASS) 




96: 


LET LETTER(K) = LETTER(K) + 1 


'Update character count 


97: 


LET I = INSTR(I + 1,STRING,PATTERN) 


'For next match 


98: 


WEND 


And around again 


99: 


' Choose next output letter based on use frequency: 


100: 


LET L = INT(1 + LETTER(O) * RND) 


'Random-choice index 


101: 


FOR K = 32 TO 124 


'Scan the letter array 


102: 


LET L = L - LETTER(K) 




103: 


IF L < = 


'This is it 


104: 


THEN LET OUT.CHAR = CHR$(K):_ 


105: 


GOTO 500 


'Break out of loop 


106: 


NEXTK 




107: 


0500 'Housekeeping for output character: 




108: 


LET N.OUT = N.OUT + 1 


'Increment count 


109: 


IF N.OUT MOD 50 = 0_ 


'If average line length 


110: 


THEN LET FLAG. E = -1 


' set "line-end" flag 


111: 


' Establish next pattern: 




112: 


LET PATTERN = MID$(PATTERN,2) + 


OUT.CHAR 


113: 


' Display and store character found: 




114: 


IF NOT (FLAG.V AND OUT.CHAR = "|' 


)- 


115: 


THEN PRINT OUTCHAR;:_ 




116: 


PRINT #2, OUT.CHAR; 




117: 


' Check for line break: 




118: 


IF (FLAG.V AND OUT.CHAR = "|")_ 


Verse line end 


119: 


OR (FLAG.E AND OUT.CHAR = " ")_ 


'Force line end 


120: 


THEN PRINT:_ 


' Display <EOL> 


121: 


PRINT #2,:_ 


• File <EOL> 


122: 


LET FLAG.E = 0:_ 


'Reset forced-end flag 

[continued) 



166 BYTE • IULY 1985 





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MOTOROLA 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 167 



TRAVESTY REVISITED 



123: 


IF FLAG.V AND OUT.CHAR = " "_ 'Forced verse break 


124: 


THEN PRINT SPACE$(5);:_ ' indents next line 


125: 


PRINT #2, SPACE$(5); 


126: 


IF INKEY$ = CHR$(3) THEN END 'Emergency exit 


127: 


' Check for end of output: 


128: 


IF N.OUT < MAX.OUT OR OUT.CHAR < > " "_ 


129: 


THEN GOTO 400 'End of major loop 


130: 


END 


131: 




132: 


5000 'Error trap (on "File not found" or "Bad filename"): 


133: 


IF ERR = 53 OR ERR = 64_ 


134: 


THEN PRINT CHR$(34) SOURCE CHR$(34) " does not exist. ";:_ 


135: 


PRINT "Try again":_ 


136: 


RESUME 200 


137: 


ON ERROR GOTO 


138: 


' End of source code 



because I included error trapping, 
and the /O switch causes linking to the 
stand-alone support library— resulting 
in a smaller run-time program with 
more string space. 

If you select the verse option (lines 
44-45), the input parsing routine 



(lines 46-71) will substitute the verti- 
cal-line separator for the DOS (disk 
operating system) ASCII (American 
Standard Code for Information Inter- 
change) text EOL (end of line) symbol, 
|CRLF|. Consequently, you can run 
either a verse or prose travesty from 



the same input file. 

Each character of the input file is 
displayed as it is scanned. Then, if it 
is valid, it is concatenated to the end 
of STRING, the string variable. A two- 
line subterfuge in lines 51-52 is in- 
cluded to get around a bug in the IBM 
PC BASIC that treats either CHR$(13) 
or CHR$(10) as an EOL symbol when 
printing. Without it, the program 
would display an extra blank row after 
the end of every input line. 

I have somewhat arbitrarily set the 
maximum input-string length (after 
compression) at 30,000 bytes. Both 
the string length and the remaining 
string space are displayed as part of 
the run (lines 74-75), so you can ad- 
just MAX. IN for your system size. 
Because of the way STRING is built, 
the total string space must be slight- 
ly greater than twice the length of 
STRING. If you have enough memory, 
the full 64K-byte data segment will 



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168 BYTE • JULY 1985 



TRAVESTY REVISITED 



allow about 62,000 bytes of string 
space. Since the code segment is just 
under 18 K bytes, you will have a full 
data segment if you have at least 82 K 
bytes of available memory. 

Output is quite fast, almost as fast 
as input. The scan loop (lines 92-98) 
uses BASIC'S built-in INSTRQ function 
to find all the occurrences of the 
desired pattern in the input STRING. 
Each "next character" is both dis- 
played and written to the file TRAVES- 
TY. DOC on the disk in the default 
drive. 

While playing with my program, I 
found that an order-4 scan was the 
most interesting to use. Shorter pat- 
terns produced mostly nonsense; 
longer patterns repeated large chunks 
of the original input. 

The whole mood of a piece can be 
modified by changing the randomizer 
seed. For example, the heroic joy of 
Lewis Carroll's "Jabberwocky" can be 



' Initial line-end at a time 
INPUT 

") 'Rand arountil" long input of loop 

END And 

one 
LET PASS, PASS = " " "_ 
THEN PRINT STRINT PASS.1) 

'Next patterse break output character next major 

"Bad index 
FOR (PAT, 
'OUT.CHAR;:_ 
GOTO 124 
LET 

N.OUTPUT AS ********** 
' or <NUL> 
IF L = " 

'LET 



Figure 2: An order-4 verse scan of the programs own source code. 

converted to tragedy (see figure 1). the computer. Figure 2 shows a traves- 
As one might expect, Itavesty is at ty (in verse form) of its own source 
its best when dealing with the soul of code. ■ 



ft 



w 



Imagine what they will say 
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JULY 1985 -BYTE 169 



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PROGRAMMING INSIGHT 



REAL-NUMBER 

FORMATTING ON 

YOUR APPLE 



by Brent Daviduck 



This subroutine lets you specify the decimal 
length of any real number 



IF YOU HAVE EVER written a BASIC 
program to format real numbers, you 
probably know your program can 
become cumbersome and its run time 
intolerably slow. (A real number may 
include a fractional portion, such as 
3.14.) The machine-language subrou- 
tine described here uses only 116 
bytes of memory and allows you to 
specify the decimal length of any real 
number. 

If you have worked with FORTRAN, 
you may have used a statement that 
looked something like 100 FOR- 
MAT(F5.2). This statement formats a 
real number with a total length of five 
characters: two digits before the 
decimal, the decimal point, and two 
digits following the decimal. The 
BASIC program in listing I uses a 
similar syntax in line 90. The total 
length of the number is in the variable 
L; the number of decimal places is in 
the variable D. These parameters are 
then passed to the Format subroutine, 
listing 3, by line 10 of listing 1. (Note: 
The POKE statements must be pres- 
ent if you intend to use the amper- 
sand, "&".) 

To begin, you must determine the 

Inquiry 389 for End-Users. 
'•—Inquiry 390 for DEALERS ONLY. 



maximum length of any number that 
the program will handle. Let's say the 
subroutine must handle numbers as 
large as 9999.99. You will want L to 
equal 7 and D to equal 2. As an ex- 
ample, the number to be formatted 
(A/) will be 123.8765. Once the param- 
eters have been passed to the subrou- 
tine, here's what takes place. | Editor's 
note: Unless otherwise specified, all addresses 
are in hexadecimal] 

1 . The number in N is converted to an 
ASCII (American Standard Code for 
Information Interchange) string: 31 32 
33 2E 38 37 36 35 00. 

2. The number of digits before and 
after the decimal point are counted, 
including the decimal place, and they 
are subtracted from the number's 
total allowable length. The result is the 
number of leading spaces to be left 
blank preceding the number. 

3. For the above example, a single 
space is followed by the numbers 
before the decimal point, the decimal 
point, and the number of places after 
the decimal point, giving the number 
1 23.87. If in this example you want to 
produce rounded results, add a 



rounding constant to the number you 
are passing: L.D.N + 0.005. 

Since Applesoft BASIC cannot print 
a number with a length greater than 
1 5, the subroutine in listing 1 will give 
you an 7ILLEGAL QUANTITY ER- 
ROR if you pass a length greater than 
this. The same error message is given 
if the number of places following the 
decimal point is less than I or greater 
than 8. Also, trying to print a number 
that contains a length greater than the 
length parameter passed will cause an 
7ILLEGAL QUANTITY ERROR. 

Other Notes 

l^ble 1 lists all the ROM (read-only 
memory) routines used in the pro- 
gram and their function. You can 
either use the monitor to enter the 
machine-language routine at location 
300 from the dump of the Format 
subroutine in listing 2 or assemble 
and load the assembly-language rou- 

[continued) 
Brent Daviduck (311 Silver thorn Way NW. 
Calgary. Alberta T3B 4E8, Canada) is a 
student at the Southern Alberta Institute of 
Technology. 

JULY 1985 • BYTE 171 



Inquiry 404 




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FORMATTING 



Listing I: This BASIC program will let you test the Format subroutine. You 
must specify the length of your number and the number of decimal places to be 
used. 

10 HOME : POKE 1014,0 : POKE 1015,3 
20 INPUT "Number of loops: ";E 
30 INPUT "Format length: ";L 
40 INPUT "Decimal places: "D 
50 PRINTPRINT 

60 PRINT "Unformatted: "; TAB(25); "Formatted:" 
70 FOR X = 1 TOE 
80 N = RND(1) * (RND(1)*500) 
90 PRINT N; TAB(24);: & LAN : PRINT 
100 NEXT 



Table I: A list of the ROM routines used in the Format subroutine. 

SDD67— Converts an expression to a floating-point number stored in locations 9D to 
A3. This routine lets you pass a variable, variable expression, or simple number to 
your machine-language subroutine: & 7,2,123.8765. 

SE6FD— Converts the number stored in locations 9D to A3 to a single-byte number 
in the X register. If the number is less than or greater than 2 55. an 7ILLEGAL 
QUANTITY ERROR is printed. The routine will then return to the Applesoft BASIC 
prompt. 

SDEBE-Checks for a comma. If one is not found. 7SYNTAX ERROR is printed, 
followed by a return to the Applesoft BASIC prompt. 

SED34— Converts the number stored in locations 9D to A3 to an ASCII string that is 
stored starting at location 0100 on, 

SE199— This routine will print 7ILLEGAL QUANTITY ERROR and return to the 
Applesoft BASIC prompt. 

$F94a— Prints the number of spaces in the X register. 

$DB5C— Prints the character in the A register. 



Listing 2 


A dump o 


f the Format subroutine will let you 


check the values you 


have storeo 


in 


memory 












]CALL 


-151 


















'300.373 


















0300- 


20 


67 


DD20 


FB 


E6 


E0 


10 




0308- 


90 


03 


20 


99 


E1 


86 


06 


20 




0310- 


BE 


DE 20 


67 


DD20 


FB 


E6 




0318- 


E0 


09 


B0 


EE 


E0 


00 


F0 


EA 




0320- 


86 


07 


20 


BE 


DE 20 


67 


DD 




0328- 


20 


34 


ED A2 


FF 


E8 


BD 00 




0330- 


01 


F0 


04 


C9 


2E 


DO 


F6 


86 




0338- 


08 


A5 06 


38 


E5 


07 


E5 


08 




0340- 


AA CA F0 


05 


30 


C4 


20 


4A 




0348- 


F9 


A4 07 


A2 00 


BD 00 


01 




0350- 


F0 


0A C9 2E 


F0 


11 


20 


5C 




0358- 


DB E8 


DO 


F1 


A9 


2E 


20 


5C 




0360- 


DB A9 


30 


88 


10 


F8 


60 


20 




0368- 


5C 


DB 


E8 


BD 00 


01 


F0 


F1 




0370- 

* 


88 


10 


F4 


60 













172 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 32 



FORMATTING 



Listing 3: The Format subroutine rounds any real number to a specified decimal 


place. All you have to do is supply the parameters. 


ORG $300 




JSR $DD67 


Get the format length 


JSR $E6FB 


Convert format length to single byte in X register 


CPX #$10 


Is the length greater than or equal to 16? 


BCC $030D 


No... continue on 


JSR $E199 


Print 7ILLEGAL QUANTITY ERROR, go to Applesoft 


STX $06 


Store the format length 


JSR $DEBE 


Check for a comma (,) 


JSR $DD67 


Get the number of places following the decimal 


JSR $E6FB 


Convert to a single byte in the X register 


CPX #$09 


Is the number of decimal places greater than 8? 


BCS $030A 


Yes... go print error 


CPX #$00 


Is the number of decimal places equal to 0? 


BEQ $030A 


Yes... go print error 


STX $07 


Store number of decimal places 


JSR $DEBE 


Check for comma (,) 


JSR $DD67 


Get the number to be formatted, store at $9D to $A3 


JSR $ED34 


Convert number to an ASCII string starting at $0100 


LDX #$FF 


Initialize X as index 


INX 


Increment index 


LDA $0100,X 


Get an ASCII character 


BEQ $0337 


End of string? Yes... go calculate leading spaces 


CMP #$2E 


Found a decimal point? 


BNE $032D 


No... continue counting 


STX $08 


Store number of characters before decimal point 


LDA $06 


Get the format length 


SEC 


Subtract from the length, the number of 


SBC $07 


places after the decimal and the number of 


SBC $08 


characters in front of the decimal 


TAX 


Store the result in X and decrement to 


DEX 


allow for the decimal point 


BEQ $0349 


If equal to continue on... 


BMI $030 A 


If less than go print error 


JSR $F94A 


Print number of spaces in the X register 


LDY $07 


Get back number of decimal places in the Y register 


LDX #$00 


Initialize X as index 


LDA $0100,X 


Get an ASCII character 


BEQ $035C 


If end of string go print the decimal point 


CMP #$2E 


Is character a decimal point? 


BEQ $0367 


Yes... go print number of places after decimal 


JSR $DB5C 


Print the character in the A register 


INX 


Increment index to point to next ASCII character 


BNE $034D 


Go get next character 


LDA #$2E 


Load A register with ASCII value for decimal point 


JSR $DB5C 


Print the decimal point 


LDA #$30 


Load A register with ASCII value for a zero (0) 


DEY 


Decrement number of decimal places to be printed 


BPL $035E 


Continue printing decimal places until done 


RTS 


Return to calling routine 


JSR $DB5C 


Print the decimal point 


INX 


Increment index to point to next ASCII character 


LDA $0100,X 


Get an ASCII character 


BEQ $0361 


If end of string go finish printing 


DEY 


Decrement number of decimal places to be printed 


BPL $0367 


Continue printing decimal places until done 


RTS 


Return to calling routine 



tine of listing 3. If you don't feel like 
typing them in, the assembly-lan- 
guage routine and the BASIC program 



can be downloaded from BYTEnet 
Listings at (617) 861-9774 as For- 
mat.bas and Format.asm. ■ 



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IULY 1985 'BYTE 173 



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174 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 177 




personal computer IBM has ever made. 




Little Tramp character licensed by Bubbles Inc.. s.a. 

XENIX'" is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 

UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. PC/IX is based on UNIX System III. which is 

licensed to IBM by AT&T Technologies, Inc. Developed for IBM by INTERACTIVE Systems Corp. 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 175 



ObARNACXlA 85 



1/ 



BOTE 



Computers 
and Space 



Updating the Oldest Science 

by Russell M. Genet 179 

Microcomputers in NASA's SIR-B 

by Richard Wilton 192 

Comet Lines in FORTRAN 

by David S. Dixon 203 

Tracking Earth Satellites 

by E. H. Weiss 215 

Automating a Telescope 

by Louis J. Boyd 227 

Astronomical Computing with Micros 

by Richard Bochonko and Wham T Peters . 239 

Astronomy Sources 244 

An Astronomy Glossary 245 



ASTRONOMY IS UNIQUE among the physical sciences in that it continues 
to benefit from the discoveries and observations of serious amateurs. The 
cost of instrumentation necessary to participate in astronomy is still relative- 
ly modest, so you don't need the support of a major research institute to 
come aboard. Of course, huge reflector telescopes and phased-array radio 
telescopes are beyond the reach of individuals. But a lot of scientifically signifi- 
cant original research can be performed on equipment that is within the price 
range of serious amateurs. And the microcomputer revolution is expanding 
the reach of this low-end equipment. 

In this issue, we take a look at some of the ways that microcomputers are 
used in astronomy and space exploration. We begin with a "Who's who" of 
astronomy by Russell Genet, codirector of the Fairborn Observatory. He seems 
to know everyone involved in astronomy and was instrumental in putting this 
issue together. He mentions a number of professional astronomers who are 
looking for assistance in their research. For example, Fred Franklin of the Har- 
vard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics is seeking amateur astronomers from 
all over the world to aid in his study of Jupiter's moons. If you are looking 
for ways to use your telescope to advance the science, this article is a very 
good place to start your search. 

In part, we decided to do an astronomy issue because of the impending 
return of Halley's comet. So. of course, we have articles on tracking the comet. 
David Dixon's article discusses the Encke method of calculating ephemerides. 
He includes a FORTRAN program that can be used for comets, including 
Halley's (for which he gives the necessary orbital elements), and for asteroids. 
E. H. Weiss discusses refinements to the Encke method that improve the level 
of precision substantially. His sample BASIC program tracks space vehicles 
in earth orbit, but his discussion of the methodology will allow you to switch 
coordinate systems to solar orbits if you are so inclined. 

We couldn't have an issue on astronomy without including a FORTH article. 
Richard Wilton, from Laboratory Microsystems Inc. (the PC/FORTH people), 
discusses his company's work designing a local-area network for the let Pro- 
pulsion Laboratory. The LAN was used for real-time analysis of imaging radar 
data from the space shuttle. Be sure to read the captions to the imaging radar 
pictures; they'll give you a good idea of the uses of such technology. 

Louis Boyd is the other codirector of Fairborn Observatory. He writes about 
automating an observatory, from telescope control to opening the observatory 
at night and selecting what to observe. He also reports on some of the original 
research performed at the Fairborn Observatory with its automated telescope. 

Astronomy covers a lot of territory. T\vo things that will come in handy when 
you're exploring the universe are a portable computer and a good library- 
An article by Richard Bochonko and William Peters suggests some of the bet- 
ter books available in astronomy. You'll find three articles elsewhere in the 
issue that discuss subjects related to portable computers— a review of the TI 
Pro-Lite, a preview of the GRiDCase, and a feature on LCD technology- 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 177 




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COMPUTERS AND SPACE 



UPDATING THE 
OLDEST SCIENCE 



by Russell M. Genet 



Astronomers are using microcomputers 
in a variety of applications 



IN THE PAST FIVE YEARS, microcom- 
puters have had a revolutionary im- 
pact on astronomy, the oldest of the 
sciences. The revolution has, perhaps, 
been most visible in the area of op- 
tical astronomy at smaller observator- 
ies. This is not surprising, since it is 
the young hackers at small colleges 
and amateur observatories who have 
most quickly embraced microcom- 
puters with the greatest effect. We 
begin with that most traditional task 
in astronomy, computations. 

Astronomical Computations 

At the very beginnings of civilization, 
astronomical calculations were made 
to predict the lunar cycles and 
seasons and— somewhat crudely— 
eclipses of the sun. The positions of 
the planets, appropriately called "the 
wanderers" by the Greeks, were some- 
what more difficult to predict, al- 
though Claudius Ptolemaeus 
(Ptolemy), a Greek living in Alexan- 
dria, had by A.D. 140 devised a rather 
complex but fairly accurate method 
of mathematical prediction. Nicolaus 
Copernicus (1473-1543) devised a 
sun-centered model that, while no 
more accurate, was conceptually 
more appealing. Based on unusually 



accurate observations of Mars made 
by the Danish nobleman T/cho Brahe 
(1546-1601). lohannes Kepler (1571- 
1630) was able to establish, after 
years of laborious hand calculations, 
that the orbit of Mars was an ellipse 
with the sun at one of the foci. It did 
not take Isaac Newton (1642-1727) 
long to generalize this to the motion 
of all objects great and small, and 
astronomical calculations came into 
their own. 

As the major astronomical obser- 
vatories were established, each ini- 
tiated its own computer division. The 
computer division was often housed 
in a single large room filled with work 
tables and the computers— the people 
who made the mathematical calcula- 
tions. An astronomer or mathemati- 
cian was in charge. When logarithms 
were devised, one of their first ap- 
plications, via detailed tables, was 
astronomical calculations, and when 
the mechanical Friden calculators 
became available, they too were ap- 
plied to astronomical calculations by 
the roomful. Mainframe digital com- 
puters were applied to this natural 
arena, and when microcomputers ap- 
peared, they too were quickly put to 
use by astronomers. While some 



older astronomers miss the smoothly 
clicking Fridens, digital computers— 
especially microcomputers— have 
made astronomical computations af- 
fordable to all observatories. The 
tiniest college or amateur observatory 
can, with an IBM PC an Apple II. or 
even a Commodore VIC-20, make 
more calculations in an hour than a 
roomful of people and Friden calcu- 
lators could in a week, or Johannes 
Kepler or Isaac Newton in an entire 
lifetime. And just what is this new- 
found power at smaller observatories 
being applied to? 

Some microcomputer-based com- 
putations are the traditional astrono- 
mical tasks, such as conversion from 
Gregorian to Julian calendar date, 
conversion from civil to sidereal time, 
and determining times for the rising 
and setting of the sun and moon. 
Thanks to formulas in the Almanac for 
Computers, quite precise predictions of 
planetary positions can be easily 
made by microcomputers in a flash. 
(For a list of books and periodicals 
mentioned in this and other articles, 

[continued) 

Russell M. Genet (629 North 30th St., 
Phoenix, AZ 85008) is corrector of the Fair- 
born Observatory. 

JULY 1985 • BYTE 179 



UPDATING ASTRONOMY 



see the "Astronomy Sources" text box 
on page 244.) Certainly lean Meeus, 
Vereniging voor Sterrenkunde, 
Belgium, is widely recognized as an 
expert in various positional calcula- 
tions. Determining the orbital equa- 
tions for asteroids and comets from 
just a few observations has always 
been tricky business. Carl Friedrich 



Gauss (1777-1855) put such deter- 
minations on a sound mathematical 
footing when he invented the "least 
squares" method to make such 
astronomical calculations more ac- 
curate. Today's expert is Brian G. 
Marsdea an astronomer at the Har- 
vard Smithsonian Center for Astro- 
physics, and it is to him that observa- 



Further Contacts 


Thomas Borlik 


Brian G. Marsden 


7239 North Butler Ave. 


Harvard Smithsonian Center 


Indianapolis. IN 462 50 


for Astrophysics 




60 Garden St. 


David Dunham 


Cambridge, MA 02138 


Computer Science Corp. 




8728 Colesville Rd. 


R. Edward Nather 


Silver Spring. MD 20910 


Department of Astronomy 




University of Texas 


David S. Evans 


Austin. TX 78712 


Department of Astronomy 




University of TtXAS 


Tim Persinger 


Austin. TX 78712 


Department of Astronomy 




Vanderbilt University 


Fred A. Franklin 


Nashville. TN 37235 


Harvard Smithsonian Center 




for Astrophysics 


Manfred Stoll 


60 Garden St. 


Institute for Astronomy 


Cambridge. MA 02138 


University of Vienna 




Vienna. Austria 


Robert E. Fried 




Braeside Observatory 


Mark Trueblood, Director 


POB 906 


Winer Mobile Observatory 


Flagstaff. AZ 86002 


10912 Broad Green Terrace 




Potomac. MD 20854 


Douglas S Hall 




Dyer Observatory 


Wayne H. Warren Jr. 


Vanderbilt University 


Astronomical Data Center 


Nashville. TN 372 3 5 


NASA-Goddard Space Flight 




Center 


William Herbst 


Code 601 


Van Vleck Observatory 


Greenbelt. MD 20771 


Wesley an University 




Middletown. CT 06457 


Nathaniel M. White 




Lowell Observatory 


R. Kent Honeycutt 


POB 1269 


Astronomy Department 


Flagstaff. AZ 86002 


Indiana University 




Swain Hall West 


Michael Zeilik 11 


Bloomington. IN 47401 


Department of Physics and 




Astronomy 


Mercedes jaschek 


University of New Mexico 


Centre de Donnees Stellaires 


Albuquerque. NM 87131 


1 1 rue de Universite 




F-67000 




Strasbourg. France 





tions on newly discovered comets (or 
newly reappearing ones such as 
Hal ley's) are reported. (See the "Fur- 
ther Contacts" text box for the ad- 
dresses of many of the astronomers 
mentioned in this article.) 

Microcomputers are now heavily 
used by astronomers for the reduc- 
tion and analysis of scientific obser- 
vations. At smaller observatories, 
such observations are predominant- 
ly photometric— determining the 
brightness and color of astronomical 
objects. Stars that vary their bright- 
ness over time are particular research 
favorites because we can learn much 
from such observations about the in- 
herent nature of many types of stars. 
Douglas S. Hall an astronomer at 
Dyer Observatory, has long coor- 
dinated photoelectric observations of 
spotted binary stars from smaller ob- 
servatories around the world. He is 
always glad to hear from interested 
observers. The American Association 
of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) 
also assists new observers (see the 
"Helpful Organizations" text box on 
page 181). Reduction software pro- 
grams take the raw observational data 
and use it to account for the dimming 
of the light by the earth's atmosphere, 
the background light from nearby 
cities or the moon, and nonstandard 
color sensitivity of some particular 
photometer. Various microcomputer 
programs have been devised to 
calculate the exact instant of 
minimum light, given a series of 
brightness measurements. An eclips- 
ing binary star will change its time of 
minimum light because, as mass is 
transferred between the two stars, the 
change in momentum changes the 
rotational period. Small backyard tele- 
scopes equipped with photometers 
can easily make such observations, 
and even the smallest microcom- 
puters can accomplish the reductions 
and analysis. 

Some astronomical problems are 
too complex, even with microcom- 
puters, to solve directly, but simula- 
tions are possible. A famous case is 
the "w-body gravitational problem" 
where n is 3 or greater. Given initial 
positions and velocities, the future 



180 BYTE • JULY 1985 



UPDATING ASTRONOMY 



courses over time of a number of 
gravitationally interacting bodies, such 
as planets, stars, or galaxies, can be 
simulated by a microcomputer. An in- 
teresting microcomputer simulation 
(with an Apple II) was devised by Clint 
Poe, while a graduate student at 
Vanderbilt University, to determine 
the effects of large starspots on the 
light intensity versus time (light 
curves) of binary stars as viewed from 
the earth. As the spots rotate in and 
out of the line of sight from earth, the 
brightness goes up and down, but in 
a very complex way that depends on 
the number, sizes, and positions of 
the spots. You can change the micro- 
computer simulation parameters until 
the simulated light curve matches the 
actually observed light curve, thus 
deriving information about the sizes 
and locations of the starspots and 
their changes over time. Some simula- 
tions, such as the nuclear evolution of 
stars, can be difficult for microcom- 
puters, but microcomputers have now 
been applied to even these and other 
difficult astrophysical simulations. 

Catalogs and Atlases 

Man early on noted that, except for 
the sun, moon, "wandering" planets, 
and an occasional comet, the stars 
pretty much stayed put on the 
celestial sphere. Soon the brighter 
stars were broken into natural groups 
in the sky (constellations), and the 
brighter stars in each constellation 
were assigned Greek letters. lohn 
Flamsteed (1646-1719), the first 
astronomer royal at England's Royal 
Greenwich Observatory, determined 
the position and brightness of 3000 
stars. Edmond Halley (of comet fame, 
1656-1742) and Isaac Newton rushed 
Flamsteed's catalog into publication 
in 1712 while it still contained some 
errors. An angry Flamsteed managed 
to locate and burn the 300 published 
copies, and he eventually published 
his own version. Friedrich Argelander 
(1799-1875) made observations of 
the position and brightness of more 
than 300,000 stars, which he pub- 
lished as the Bonner Durcfimusterung. 

Catalogs available in computerized 
form are of special interest. The Yale 



Bright Star Catalog by Dorrit Hoffleit 
contains all the stars visible by the 
naked eye, with a margin for even the 
darkest skies and keenest eyes. The 
Henry Draper Catalog contains spectral 
types and other useful information on 
over 200,000 stars, while the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) 



Catalog contains detailed information 
on over 300,000 stars. And there are 
many specialized catalogs such as the 
General Catalog of Variable Stars, and 
others on such specific classes of ob- 
jects as binary stars, planetary 
nebulae, galaxies, etc. The repository 

[continued) 



Helpful Organizations 



American Association of Variable 
Star Observers (AAVSO). 
Photoelectric Photometry Committee. 
Contact Howard J. Landis. 50 Price 
Rd West. Locust Grove. G A 30248. 
Organized program for photoelectric 
photometry at amateur obser- 
vatories. Inquiries on getting started 
in photometry are welcome. Nice 
newsletter. 

American Astronomical Society 
(A AS), Special Interest Group for 
Microcomputer Use in Astronomy 
(SIGMUA). Contact Daniel B. Caton, 
Department of Physics and 
Astronomy, Appalachian State 
University. Boone, NC 28608. The 
AAS is a society of professional 
astronomers. SIGMUA helps to ex- 
change ideas on microcomputer use 
in astronomy. Newsletter and semi- 
annual meetings. 

Astromedia Corp., 62 5 East St. Paul 
Ave. Milwaukee. WI 53202. Publishes 
Astronomy magazine and Telescope Mak- 
ing, both of which occasionally have 
articles on the use of microcom- 
puters in astronomy. Also has helpful 
books. 

Astronomical League. Contact 
Donald Archer. Executive Secretary, 
POB 12821. TUcson, AZ 85732. Na- 
tional (U.S.) Organization of 
Astronomy. Annual national meeting, 
quarterly journal. Microcomputer 
users group. 

Astronomical Society of the 
Pacific Contact Andrew G. Fraknoi. 
1240 24th Ave. San Francisco. CA 
94122. Society of professional and 
amateur astronomers. Annual 
meeting. Monthly scientific journal, 
quarterly general-interest journal 
[Mercury). 

Automatic Photoelectric Telescope 
Service, Fairborn Observatory, 



629 North 30th St.. Phoenix. AZ 
85008. Provides automatic telescope 
systems and their operation and 
maintenance at a first-class Arizona 
site as a service for universities and 
research organizations. 

British Astronomical Association 
(BAA). Contact Andrew J. Hollis, Or- 
mada Observatory, 85 Forest Rd.. 
Cuddington. Northwich. Cheshire 
CW8 2 ED. England. Focal point for 
British and European small obser- 
vatory photometrists. Occasional 
European meetings. 

International Amateur Profes- 
sional Photoelectric Photometry 
(IAPPP) Association. Contact Robert 
C. Reisenweber. Rolling Ridge Obser- 
vatory, 3621 Ridge Parkway, Erie. PA 
16510. International organization of 
amateur and professional astrono- 
mers interested in photometry. 
Several meetings in various countries 
each year. Quarterly journal devoted 
to photometry, including microcom- 
puter use. 

International Occultation timing 
Association (IOTA), POB 596, Tinley 
Park. IL 60477. International 
organization devoted to visual and 
photoelectric timing of asteroid and 
lunar occultations. Occasional 
meetings. Nice newsletter. 

Sky Publishing Corp., 49 Bay State 
Rd.. Cambridge. MA 02238. 
Publishes Sky & Telescope magazine, 
which has a monthly feature on 
microcomputer use in astronomy. 
Source for catalogs and atlases, as 
well as books. Free catalog. 

Willmann-Bell Inc., POB 312 5, Rich- 
mond. VA 2 3 2 3 5. Source for catalogs 
and atlases. Also source for books in 
mathematical astronomy and optical 
design. Request their lists in these 
areas. Catalog available. 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 181 



UPDATING ASTRONOMY 



for such computerized catalogs in the 
United States is the Astronomical 
Data Center, directed by Wayne H. 
Warren Jr. The worldwide center is 
directed by Mercedes Jaschek at the 
Centre de Donnees Stellaires in 
Strasbourg, France. 

Atlases are essentially "maps" of 
the stars. They are generated from 



catalog data by plotting stars and 
other objects on large pieces of 
paper. Some of the nicest atlases have 
been made in Czechoslovakia by 
Antoni Becvar. The Borealis. Eclipticalis. 
and Australis atlases cover the entire 
sky with brightness depicted by the 
size of each star, while the spectral 
type (temperature) is indicated by the 



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printed color. Somewhat less detailed 
but popular atlases are Will Tiron's 
Sky Atlas 2000 and the Sky Catalog 
2000 by Alan Hirshfeld and Roger 
Sinnott. Just as you use a map to 
guide your car to a specific house in 
a particular city you use a sky atlas 
to direct your telescope to a specific 
star or other object in a particular 
constellation. Often, for convenience, 
observers make a small sketch on a 
larger scale of just a small part of the 
atlas to help locate a specific star 
while at the telescope eyepiece. Try- 
ing to hold up a big atlas with fine 
print while looking through a tele- 
scope in the dark is tough! These 
sketches are very helpful and are 
called "finder charts." 

The early microcomputers (and 
even many of the modern ones) were 
not well suited for working with 
catalogs and atlases. Catalogs require 
the storage of very large amounts of 
information with quick access to it. 
Atlases require significant graphics 
capabilities to be effective. However, 
with 16- and 3 2 -bit processors, hard- 
disk storage, and high-resolution bit- 
mapped graphics, some modern 
microcomputers have the needed 
capabilities. While most of the com- 
puterized catalogs are on 9-track 
tapes, versions are becoming increas- 
ingly available on disks of various 
formats. 

There are a number of advantages 
to microcomputer-based catalogs. 
You can search entire catalogs for 
specific objects or classes of objects. 
This is very helpful in formulating 
observing programs and in conduct- 
ing various statistical studies. One 
class of objects easily extracted from 
a catalog are all objects in a certain 
small area that have more than a 
given brightness. You can then plot 
those selected on the screen to form 
an instant custom finder chart. A 
small computer monitor near the tele- 
scope is much easier to see than an 
atlas, and you can display only the in- 
formation you need, avoiding confu- 
sion. Printed atlases only look at the 
stars from one fixed vantage point- 
that of earth. With a catalog contain- 

[continued) 



182 BYTE • IULY 1985 



Inquiry 184 





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UPDATING ASTRONOMY 



Photometric 



data-logging systems 
have been developed 
for many types 
of microcomputers 
in many countries. 



ing three-dimensional coordinates 
and a microcomputer with some com- 
putational and graphics capabilities, 
you can calculate and display a van- 
tage point from anywhere in space. 

Data Logging 

While casual visual observers may not 
record what they see, the serious 
researcher is always writing down in- 
strument readings. Although the 
popular literature gives the impres- 
sion that telescopes are used either 
to take pretty pictures or for visual 
observing by research astronomers, 
both of these activities are rarities in 
real research. Telescopes are light 
buckets for the researcher's instru- 



ments—mainly photometers and 
spectrometers. Because photometers 
are especially appropriate instru- 
ments for smaller telescopes, let's 
consider how microcomputers are 
taking over photometric data-logging 
tasks. 

In the days before microcomputers, 
photometry was often a two-person 
operation. One person would operate 
the telescope and the photometer 
while the other recorded the results. 
In variable-star photometry, for in- 
stance, the sequence of observations 
is rigidly fixed so that the data can be 
reduced in a standard manner. While 
the task is relaxing and peaceful, I 
must admit that I find making photo- 
metric observations and manually 
recording them a bit on the boring 
side. In 1979, 1 bought a Radio Shack 
TRS-80 Model I to reduce and analyze 
variable-star photometric data (see 
photo 1). It seemed wasteful to 
manually record the data and then re- 
record it into the TRS-80. To avoid 
this, I fed the photometer output 
through a voltage-to-frequency con- 
verter to a programmable counter 
tied to the TRS-80's bus (see photo 2 ) . 
A clock/calendar chip for recording 
the date and time and a remote hexa- 
decimal keypad for control were also 




Photo 1: laboratory testing of an early (1979) data-logging system for photoelectric 
astronomy. Developed by the author {right), this system used an early Radio Shack 
TRS-80 Model I microcomputer with 16K bytes of RAM. Programs and data were 
stored on cassette tape. The four electronic boxes on the right contained the computer 
interface, photometer DC amplifier, and high- and low-voltage power supplies. 



tied to the bus. Prompts on a monitor 
in the observatory suggested what to 
do next (very handy at 3 a.m.), and 
the data was displayed in neat rows 
and columns as it was gathered. (This 
made it easy to compare the latest 
data point with all the previous similar 
ones and correct any mistakes.) After 
observations on a given star were 
completed, reduction, display, and 
printout of the results took only 
seconds. 

In photometric data logging, the 
amounts of data handled are very 
modest, allowing the use of high-level 
languages and microcomputers with 
small memories. Yet the improvement 
in the observational environment and 
the reduction in errors is outstanding. 
With photometry as the main scien- 
tific concern at smaller observatories, 
it is not surprising that photometric 
data-logging systems have been devel- 
oped for many types of microcom- 
puters in many countries. An English 
amateur astronomer, Andrew Hollis, 
has done a particularly capable job 
on a low-cost Sinclair ZX81. 

Thomas Borlik has developed a 
straightforward data-logging system 
based on the Commodore VIC-20. 
However, the Apple is the favorite of 
many data loggers with nice systems, 
such as Tim Persinger of Vanderbilt 
University, Michael Zeilik II of the 
University of New Mexico, and Robert 
E. Fried of Braeside Observatory. 
Some of the fancier photometric data- 
logging systems are LSI- 11 -based, 
such as those by William Herbst of 
Van Vleck Observatory and Nathaniel 
M. White of Lowell Observatory. 

In some types of astronomical 
photometry, the event of interest hap- 
pens so fast that a human can't record 
the results. However, a microcom- 
puter can easily record brightness 
readings every millisecond. An oc- 
cupation of a star by the dark limb of 
the moon occurs when the moon 
(which, compared to the stars in the 
sky, travels east) catches up with and 
passes over or "occults" a star. The 
star winks out in a few hundredths of 
a second. Not only is the exact tim- 
ing of the "wink out" useful in estab- 

[continued] 



184 BYTE • JULY 1985 
























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IULY 1985 -BYTE 185 









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186 BYTE • JULY 1985 



UPDATING ASTRONOMY 



lishing the exact position of the moon 
and the occulted star, but if the star 
is binary, the light has an intermediate 
brightness value for a fraction of a 
second as one star is occulted but the 
other isn't yet. 

For bright stars with large diameters, 
a fringe pattern is created when the 
moon, acting like a giant "knife edge." 
sweeps across the star in a fraction of 
a second. A microcomputer high- 
speed recording of the brightness 
fringes enables us to determine the 
diameter of the star. David S. Evans 
and R. Edward Nather at the Univer- 
sity of Texas have long been recog- 
nized as experts in such high-speed 
photometry. 

Asteroids occasionally pass in front 
of stars, casting "asteroid shadows" 
along narrow paths on the earth's sur- 
face. Exact, high-speed photometric 
measurements of the time at the be- 
ginning and end of the shadow enable 
us to determine the size of the 
asteroid. David Dunham, an 
astronomer at Computer Science Cor- 
poration, is an expert in knowing 
where these shadows will fall. He runs 
about the world to record them and 
is always looking for some help. 
Dunham heads up the International 
Occultation Timing Association 
(IOTA). 

During 1985 and 1986. Jupiter's sys- 
tem of moons will be edge-on as 
viewed from earth, resulting in many 
mutual occupations and eclipses of 
these moons. High-speed photometry 
made from amateurs' backyards will 
contribute to much more precise 
determinations of their orbits. Fred A. 
Franklin, another astronomer at the 
Harvard Smithsonian Center for 
Astrophysics, has predictions of when 
the lupiter events will take place and 
is anxious for data. He welcomes in- 
quiries. These photometric observa- 
tions of Jupiter's moons can be easily 
made with a Meade Instruments 
(1675 Toronto Way, Costa Mesa, CA 
92626) 8-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain 
telescope that costs about $1000, an 
Optec Inc. (199 Smith, Lowell, MI 
49331) SSP-3 solid-state photometer 
that costs about $800, and a micro- 
computer such as the Commodore 



VIC-20. Optec sells a cable to connect 
the SSP-3 photometer to the VIC-20 
together with the subroutine software 
to make the basic measurement for 
$2 5. Interfacing to other microcom- 
puters is readily accomplished. Heath- 
kit makes a very accurate clock that 



can be interrogated by a microcom- 
puter via an RS-232C interface. 

Telescope Control 

Telescopes are actually a lot of fun to 
operate manually. Moving a telescope 

{continued) 




Photo 2: The early data-logging system as installed at the Fair born Observatory 
(East) in 1979. The photometer, mid-left, was attached to the telescope, upper left. 
Photometer electronics are on the lower left. The video monitor on the right was tied to 
the Radio Shack TRS-80 located some distance away in a warm room. We 
communicated with the computer via a hand-held hexidecimal keypad. The system was 
used for several years to make observations of spotted RS Canum Wenaticorum binary 
stars for Douglas Hall at Vanderbilt University. \t has been superseded by a fully 
automatic system that was recently moved from Ohio to Arizona, the location of the 
Fairborn Observatory (West). 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 187 



UPDATING ASTRONOMY 



quickly and efficiently to a specific 
star in the sky is a traditional skill of 
which many observational astron- 
omers are rightly proud. However, by 
about 3 a.m. on only the second night 
of a two-month observing run. even 
the hardiest astronomers start think- 
ing about supervising computerized 
telescope control from a warm room, 
with their feet propped up and soft 
music running in the background. 
While minicomputers control some of 
the larger telescopes, modern micro- 
computers are fully capable of tele- 
scope control and are increasingly be- 
ing so used. 

Microcomputer-controlled stepper 
motors can move smaller telescopes 
about, controlling two orthogonal 
axes. One axis is usually aligned 
parallel to the earth's axis to provide 
the ability to compensate for the 
earth's rotation by rotating just this 
single axis. If you start the telescope 



out at a low speed and continually in- 
crease this speed (a process called 
"ramping"), you can bring the tele- 
scope to a relatively high speed for 
long movements across the sky and 
then "ramp" it back down to a gentle 
stop just where you want it. Given the 
angular distance to be traveled be- 
tween an object just observed and the 
next to be observed, you can calcu- 
late exactly how many steps the step- 
per should take, just how to execute 
the ramp up and down, and how to 
actually generate the steps them- 
selves. (This last is a machine-lan- 
guage task as the steps must be made 
quickly, typically several thousand per 
second at top speed.) 

Larger telescopes generally take 
more muscle to move about than 
steppers can generate and often use 
large DC motors in a servo-loop ar- 
rangement. Such systems must sense 
the position of the telescope on each 




p«v 






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axis; incremental optical shaft-angle 
encoders are often used for this. 
While reading the encoders and clos- 
ing the servo loop complicates the 
control task somewhat, it still remains 
within the grasp of the more capable 
microcomputers. Because computer 
control tended to be applied first to 
the larger telescopes, most of the ini- 
tial applications used DC motors and 
angle encoders in servo configura- 
tions. Only recently, as control has 
moved to smaller telescopes, has the 
simpler stepper system become 
popular. 

One of the first microcomputer- 
controlled telescopes was the 36-inch 
telescope at Indiana University. R. 
Kent Honeycutt used an Intel 8080- 
based microcomputer, DC motors, 
and optical encoders in a classical 
servo control system. Another early 
system was the 24-inch telescope at 
the Institute for Astronomy at the 
University of Vienna in Austria, where 
Manfred Stoll used a Motorola 
6800-based microprocessor in the 
control system. The 6502, another 
early microprocessor, was used by 
Lloyd Robinson, Robert Kibrick, and 
others for telescope control at Lick 
Observatory. 

The 16-inch system from DFM Engi- 
neering (1035 Delaware Ave., Unit D, 
Longmont. CO 80501) is a good ex- 
ample of a recent stepper-controlled 
smaller telescope. It uses zero-back- 
lash friction drives in each axis and 
an Apple II-based "open-loop" con- 
trol system. DFM Engineering 
welcomes inquiries about this system. 

Designing a microcomputer-based 
telescope-control system combines 
positional astronomy computation 
with real-time control. Mark True- 
blood and I recently completed a 
book called Microcomputer Control of 
Telescopes that includes descriptions of 
all the needed parts (motors, angle 
encoders, etc.), astronomical and 
control-system formulas, and descrip- 
tions of actual systems. Mark lYue- 
blood is the director of the Winer 
Mobile Observatory and is working 
on a 30-inch trailer-mounted tele- 
scope controlled by an LSI-I I micro- 

[continued) 



188 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 112 



Star demonstrates 

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Inquiry 339 



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JULY 1985 • BYTE 



189 



PC Paintbrush 
outpaints 
PC Paint 



The names may sound alike. 

Yet, when it comes to enhancing 
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Paint runs on just 3. 

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With PC Paintbrush, you have a choice 
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With PC Paintbrush, you have a choice 
of 9 different input devices (4 mice, joy- 
stick, touchscreen, and 3 tablets). With 
PC Paint you can use one mouse 
—period. PC Paintbrush supports 30 
printers and plotters. With PC Paint 
you're limited to 3. 



PC PAINTBRUSH PC PAINT 


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16 


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5 


Font Sizes 


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190 BYTE • IULY 1985 



UPDATING ASTRONOMY 



computer. The intent of this book is 
to encourage hackers with an astro- 
nomical bent to design their own 
telescope-control systems. 

Automatic Astronomy 

Of course the microcomputer piece 
de resistance has been saved for last. 
It combines (1) a microcomputer- 
based catalog of stars, (2) microcom- 
puter selection of the stars to be 
observed, (3) microcomputer control 
of the telescope to move it to the 
vicinity of the desired star, (4) a micro- 
computer-controlled photometer to 
actually find, center, and measure the 
stars. (5) a microcomputer-based 
photometric data-logging system, and, 
of course. (6) microcomputer data 
reduction and analysis. And these are 
not separate microcomputers. One 
single-board microcomputer does it 
all! 

The first completely automatic sys- 
tem was built by Arthur D. Code and 
his associates at the Washburn Obser- 
vatory in the mid-1960s. It used a DEC 
PDP-8. While technically a minicom- 
puter with only 4K bytes of RAM 
(random-access read/write memory), 
the PDP-8 today would not be con- 
sidered even a modestly capable 
microcomputer. It was built around a 
Titan missile-alignment system found 
in a junkyard and an 8-inch optical 
system built for a space telescope. It 
used optica] angle encoders for posi- 
tion sensing and a permanently 
mounted photometer to sense the 
stars and make the measurements. 



The fixed-sequence observing pro- 
gram was stored on punched paper 
tape. When the sky became dark, the 
system started itself up, opened its 
roof, and went looking for the first 
star. This process continued all night 
until the last star was observed or the 
sky became cloudy. 

While a number of semiautomatic 
or remotely controlled telescopes 
have been built over the years, the 
coming of capable and low-cost 
microcomputers and a persistent elec- 
trical engineer, Louis J. Boyd, put 
microcomputer-based "automatic 
astronomy" on a truly sound pro- 
duction-line basis. He began develop- 
ment of his Motorola 6809-based 
system in 1979; I was visiting him in 
Phoenix in November 1983 when it 
first ran by itself all night long. The 
system found, centered, and mea- 
sured hundreds of stars without mak- 
ing a single mistake. 

It is interesting to speculate about 
the future of microcomputer-based 
automatic astronomy. Since an expe- 
rienced engineer can keep many auto- 
matic telescopes operating, it seems 
likely that a number of such systems 
owned by various institutions will be 
placed at a single top site where 
clouds are a rarity. A list of objects to 
be observed will be sent via phone 
or disk by an astronomer; after all the 
requested observations are made 
automatically, the results will be sent 
back to the requesting astronomer in 
a similar fashion. In fact, such an 
'Automatic Photoelectric Telescope 



The first completely 
automatic system 
was built at the 
Washburn Observatory 
in the mid-1960s. 



Service" has been established in 
Arizona with Louis Boyd as the engi- 
neer minding the automatic systems. 
For some types of observation, the 
best vantage point would be from 
space, where there are no atmo- 
spheric problems to contend with. In 
fact, the space station might make a 
good platform for a contingent of fully 
automatic, microcomputer-controlled 
telescopes. 

Getting Started 

While it is only recent, the published 
literature on the use of microcom- 
puters in astronomy is growing rapid- 
ly. There are a number of books that 
will be useful for further research in 
the 'Astronomy Sources" text box on 
page 244. And, in the "Helpful 
Organizations" text box on page 181, 
I have suggested a number of 
organizations worth contacting. You, 
like many others, may have fun explor- 
ing and creating connections between 
the oldest science and the newest 
machines. ■ 



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JULY 1985 'BYTE 191 



r 







COMPUTERS AND SPACE 



MICROCOMPUTERS 
IN NASAS SIR-B 



by Richard Wilton 

A network of personal 
computers in the space program 



SINCE 1978, SCIENTISTS at the Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have 
been producing remarkable images of 
the earth's surface using orbiting 
radar systems (photos 1-3). The 
images generated by orbiting synthe- 
tic-aperture radars are of high resolu- 

Photo I : This image of Hawaii was 
acquired on October II, 1984, by the 
Shuttle \maging Radar-B (SIR-B) during 
space shuttle mission 4I-G. Artificial 
colors were used to enhance differences in 
surface characteristics in this computer- 
processed image. Red areas represent areas 
of smooth ash cover, dark green is smooth 
pahoehoe lava, light green is rough aa (eg) 
lava, and blue represents vegetation cover. 
The resolution of this image is about 30 
meters (100 feet). The area covered is 
about 26 kilometers wide and 110 
kilometers long (about 16 by 70 miles). 
The image was acquired by SIR-B at a 
rate of about 7.5 kilometers per second 
(4.6 miles per second) at an angle of 
2 7. 5 degrees. The radar was part of a 
package of experiments flown on the 
shuttle for NASA's Office of Space 
Science and Applications (OSSA). SIR-B 
was developed by JPL for NASA. Photo 
courtesy of ]PL. 



tion and are unaffected by cloud 
cover. They are of particular interest 
to geologists, oceanographers, and 
other students of the earth's surface. 

The shuttle imaging radar experi- 
ment, called SIR-B. was the third 
synthetic-aperture radar developed at 
JPL to be placed in earth orbit. It flew 
aboard the space shuttle Challenger 
from October 4 to 12, 1984. The SIR- 
B team at JPL is still analyzing many 
of the results of the experiment. 

Of course, a great deal of engineer- 
ing and computing effort went into 
the design of the radar hardware and 
into generating visual images from the 
raw radar data. However, this article 
focuses on two other essential 
aspects of the SIR-B experiment: plan- 
ning where and when the radar would 
be used and monitoring the status of 
the radar during the mission itself. 

Hardware 

The SIR-B mission-planning team at 
JPL put a great deal of thought and 
discussion into choosing the right 
computers for the complex task of 
planning the mission. The team made 
the decision to use several microcom- 
puters, rather than a single mainframe 



or mini, as far back as 1 982. The team 
felt that microcomputers provided the 
most cost-effective and flexible com- 
putational base for fulfilling the SIR- 
B mission-design requirements. 

The overriding considerations were 
for microcomputers that met the 
following criteria: 

• availability of hardware and soft- 
ware support 

• flexibility in hardware options (in- 
cluding memory expansion, commu- 
nications interfacing, and networking) 

• floating-point arithmetic capability 

Considering the diversity of software 
and the large quantity of numeric 
data to be processed, it was clear that 
no existing 8-bit processor would 
have been sufficient. Although a 
68000-based microcomputer might 
have been faster or able to address 
more RAM, the availability of the Intel 
8087 arithmetic coprocessor— and of 
programming languages that took ad- 
vantage of its speed and flexibility— 

[continued) 
Richard Wilton is a software consultant with 
Laboratory Microsystems Inc., 3007 
Washington Blvd., Marina del Rey, CA 
90292. 

JULY 1985 • BYTE 193 



SIR-B 



was a big advantage of an 8086- or 
8088-based system. The ease with 
which additional memory, communi- 
cations hardware, and a local network 
could be installed on IBM PCs finally 
led to their use during the SIR-B 
experiment. 

All of the IBM PCs and Compaqs 
that were used for SIR-B mission plan- 
ning were equipped with Intel 8087 
floating-point coprocessors, video 
graphics displays, dot-matrix printers, 
and lots of RAM— 51 2K bytes was 
considered a minimum workable 
amount of memory. 

Software 

A lot of new software was required 
from the outset of the planning phase 
of the SIR-B mission. Mission-planning 
software included a great deal of 
arithmetic computation as well as a 
fair amount of hardware-dependent 
programming for graphics and net- 
working. Real-time communications 
and data-management software was 
critically hardware-dependent. It inte- 
grated machine-level code, such as 
port-addressed I/O and interrupt 
handlers, with fairly sophisticated file- 
management routines. 

Both the SIR-B mission-planning 
software and the real-time communi- 
cations software were written primari- 
ly in FORTH. The off-the-shelf FORTH 
implementation (PC/FORTH by Lab- 
oratory Microsystems) included fast 
display graphics for the IBM PC, a 
standard PC-DOS file interface, and 
high-level support for the 8087 co- 
processor. Again, speed, adaptability, 
and readily available support were 
major considerations in choosing the 
programming language. 

Planning the SIR-B 
Experiment 

By mid- 198 3, most of the planning 
software had been written, including 
an orbit propagator and world-map 
display graphics. The calculated or- 
bital path of the space shuttle and the 
part of the earth at which the imag- 
ing radar might be aimed could be 
rapidly drawn on either a plotter or 
a video display (photo 4). 




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In order that the radar beam could 
be directed toward a specific location 
on the earth's surface, the calculations 
included the orbiter's attitude (roll, 
pitch, and yaw) and constraints on the 
way the radar antenna could be 
aimed at the earth (the width of the 
radar beam, the angle at which the 
radar antenna was tilted, etc.) 

SIR-B mission planners could then 
display, print, or plot arbitrary por- 
tions of the orbital track of the space- 
craft. Many complex orbit and atti- 
tude calculations were translated in- 
teractively into accurate graphical rep- 
resentations on the video display and 
on printers and plotters. Prior to the 
SIR-B experiment, these problems in 
orbital mechanics and spherical 
geometry had been accurately solved 
only on mainframe computers. 

Plans for the SIR-B experiment were 
encapsulated in a detailed database 
of control commands. During the ac- 

Photo 2: The Ganges floodplain in 
Bangladesh. SIR-B observations in this 
area are being used to study the ability of 
imaging radar to detect standing water in 
a tropical environment to aid in locating 
and eradicating habitats of malaria- 
carrying mosquitoes. Artificial colors in 
this computer-processed image enhance 
differences in vegetation and terrain. Pink 
and yellow represent forested areas, seen 
most vividly in the coastal forest preserve 
of Sundarban on the Indian Ocean at the 
bottom. The textured green and pink area 
in the center shows cultivated fields 
connected by extensive irrigation and 
drainage channels. The more uniform rose- 
hued area at the top is an area of the 
Ganges floodplain subject to flooding and 
major rework during the monsoon season. 
The city of \halakat on the Bishkhali 
River is the yellow spot in the center, and 
Barisal is at the upper left center. The 
area covered in this image is 
approximately 2 3 kilometers wide and 
155 kilometers long (about 15 by 95 
miles). The image has a resolution of 20 
meters (65 feet) and was acquired by 
SIR-B at a rate of about 7.5 kilometers 
per second (4.6 miles per second) at an 
angle of 45.6 degrees. Photo courtesy o\ 
JPL. 



194 BYTE* )ULY 1985 



SIR-B 



tual mission, sequences of these com- 
mands were transmitted from the 
ground to the SIR-B radar apparatus 
located in the shuttle's payload bay 
(photo 5). Each command sequence 
initiated a specific function, such as 
aiming the radar antenna, adjusting its 
power, or turning the radar trans- 
mitter on and off. 

Communications Software 

Monitoring the status of the SIR-B 
radar equipment during the mission 
produced a large amount of telemetry 
data that had to be processed in real 
time. Data from two separate tele- 
metry streams (serial-bit streams) was 
archived. Information concerning the 
status of the radar equipment (volt- 
ages, temperatures, and so on) as well 
as the position, velocity, and attitude 
of the spacecraft itself was recorded. 
Changes in the status of the radar 
were "logged" in print and on disk for 
reference during the mission and 
afterward. 

Programming for the telemetry 
communications interface began in 
lune 1984. The use of FORTH greatly 
accelerated the development of reli- 
able hardware interfaces. Assembly- 
language code was easy to incor- 
porate into high-level FORTH pro- 
grams. Because of the interpretive 
nature of the FORTH language, the 
communications software was easily 
tested and debugged on the hard- 
ware. 

During the Mission 

For the duration of the actual mission, 
four IBM PCs and two Compaqs were 
combined on an Ethernet local-area 
network (figure 1). The equipment was 
assembled in a user-support room at 
the Mission Control Center in 
Houston. 

The data pertinent to the SIR-B ex- 
periment was extracted from the shut- 
tle's telemetry streams by mainframe 
computers at the Mission Control 
Center. The radar telemetry data was 
formatted in blocks. Each block of 
data contained a date and time code, 
the attitude and orbital position of the 
spacecraft, and a sequence of engi- 




0mM 

affin- 



al.' 



foi 



neering telemetry values. 

A 68000-based computer, designed 
and built by SIR-B engineers, con- 
verted the raw telemetry data into 
several formats for further processing. 
This custom-built machine was pro- 
grammed in C and cross-compiled to 
ROM from a VAX. The output from 
this machine included a 4800-bps 
(bits per second) asynchronous data 
stream. 

A separate telemetry stream was 
processed by another mainframe 
computer at Mission Control. This 
data was provided as a 4560-bps 
binary synchronous bit stream. 

These two serial telemetry streams, 
one asynchronous and one binary 
synchronous, were received on a 
single Compaq. The data was refor- 
matted on the Compaq and trans- 
ferred across the network to the net- 
work server, an IBM PC XT with a 
IO-megabyte hard disk. All of the 
machines on the network, including a 
60-megabyte cassette tape drive, had 
access to the telemetry data as soon 
as it was saved on the server. Three 
color graphics displays, two dot- 

{continued) 

Photo 3: This image of northeastern 
Florida will be used to assess coniferous 
timber stands and management practices 
in conjunction with extensive ground 
measurements at experimental forests and 
test sites in the area. Artificial colors in 
this computer-processed image enhance 
differences in vegetation and terrain. 
Yellowish-green areas are generally stands 
of cypress drenched in early morning dew 
(the image was taken at 3:59 a.m. local 
time). Three prominent bodies of water 
(from left to right) are Ocean Pond, 
Palestine Lake, and Swift Creek Pond. At 
the bottom is the Gulf of Mexico. Dark 
green and purple areas are agricultural 
fields, and bright orange regions denote 
drainage channels. The image was 
acquired at an angle of 28.4 degrees at a 
rate of about 7. 5 kilometers per second 
(4.6 miles per second). The area covered 
is approximately 29 kilometers wide and 
174 kilometers long (about 18 by 106 
miles). The resolution of the image is 28 
meters (90 feet). Photo courtesy of JPL. 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 195 



SIR-B 




Photo 4: The path of five orbits of the space shuttle is superimposed on a map of the 
world. Photo by Su Kim. 




Photo 5: The SIR-B radar antenna in the pay/load bay of the spacecraft during the 
mission. The antenna, at the left, was built in three rectangular segments that were 
folded together when not in use. This was the case when this photo was taken. You can 
see most of the antenna's triangular support base, one of the hinges on which the 
segments of the antenna unfold, and, at the far left, a clasp that locked the antenna 
closed. The entire apparatus is covered with a white thermal fabric. Photo 
courtesy of NASA. 



All the commercially 
available hardware 
was used "as is"; 
no special hardware 
modifications were 
needed for the system. 



matrix printers, and a line printer were 
used as output devices. 

All of this commercially available 
hardware was used "as is"; that is, no 
special hardware modifications were 
needed to configure the system. 
Throughout the mission, the net- 
worked system performed reliably 24 
hours a day. 

When a KU-band communications 
antenna failure aboard the spacecraft 
compromised one of the essential 
telemetry links, a great deal of con- 
tingency planning was required. 
Because the SIR-B mission-planning 
software was easily accessible on the 
microcomputer network, the SIR-B 
planning team was able to work 
around some of the problems created 
by the loss of the communications 
antenna. 

Also, because it was possible to 
"replay" events from the telemetry 
stream over the network shortly after 
they occurred, the SIR-B engineers 
were able to keep a close eye on the 
performance of the radar and its 
subsystems. 

Conclusions 

All in all, the networked microcom- 
puter system that was created for SIR- 
B planning and data archiving per- 
formed remarkably well. The advan- 
tages of using networked micros in 
this real-time engineering application 
were clear: hardware redundancy, dis- 
tributed processing, and reliability 
and ease of use of off-the-shelf com- 
ponents. 

[continued) 



196 B YTE • IULY 1985 



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The experience gained from SIR-B 
(as well as the hardware and software) 
will be used in upcoming imaging 
radar missions. The SIR-B experiment 
itself will be repeated on a space shut- 
tle flight in early 1987. A more sophis- 
ticated experiment called SIR-C is cur- 
rently planned for the late 1980s, 

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Elachi, Charles. "Radar Images of the 
Earth from Space." Scientific American. 
December 1982. 

Ford, J. P. "Space Shuttle Columbia Views 
the World with Imaging Radar: The S1R- 
A Experiment." jet Propulsion Labora- 
tory publication 82-95. January 1983. 

Harris, Henry. "SMDOS: SIR-B Mission 
Design and Operations Software." jet 
Propulsion Laboratory document 
D-1081. 1984. 

"The SIR-B Science Investigation Plan." let 
Propulsion Laboratory publication 84-3, 
July 1984. 

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We offer both types of hard 
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200 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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COMPUTERS AND SPACE 



COMET LINES 
IN FORTRAN 



by David S. Dixon 



The program described calculates 
the positions of asteroids and comets 



THE PROGRAM DISCUSSED in this 
article is intended to allow amateur 
astronomers to calculate the positions 
of asteroids or comets with greater ac- 
curacy than the programs previously 
published in general literature. Writ- 
ten in FORTRAN IV, the program 
should be translatable to any BASIC 
that supports double-precision calcu- 
lation. But be advised that this is a 
number-crunching program; it may 
run for hours if rewritten in inter- 
preted BASIC. 

Asteroids are a very challenging 
target for the observer: they appear 
as points of light just like the stars. 
Depending on the asteroid's position 
relative to earth, it may or may not 
demonstrate detectable motion 
against the background stars. Fre- 
quently, several nights of observation 
are required to see displacement and 
identify the asteroid. Successfully 
hunting a particular asteroid usually 
means having a good idea of the 
asteroid's position at the intended 
time of observation and having a 
good set of star charts. 

The problem is that accurate tables 
of locations for asteroids, known as 
ephemerides, are not easy to come 
by. The United States Naval Obser- 



vatory publishes ephemerides for the 
four major asteroids in The Astronomical 
Almanac each year, but there are thou- 
sands of named asteroids. (For a list 
of books and periodicals mentioned 
in this and other articles, see the 
'Astronomy Sources" text box on 
page 244.) The Soviet Union's Institute 
of Theoretical Astronomy publishes 
the Ephemerides of Minor Planets, which 
gives ephemerides for thousands of 
asteroids, but only for a few weeks at 
opposition, and it is a difficult publica- 
tion to obtain. Both the Russian and 
the Naval Observatory publications, 
however, also give the orbital ele- 
ments for a large number of asteroids, 
and with the elements it is possible 
to calculate the ephemerides of an 
asteroid yourself. 

Many of the books and magazine 
articles that address calculating the 
position of a planet solve the problem 
by the model devised by Johannes 
Kepler in 1609. The method models 
the motion of a body in the solar sys- 
tem as involving only the sun and the 
body in question. This means that to 
find the relative positions of Earth and 
Mars in a common coordinate system 
you solve the two-body sun-Mars 
problem, solve the two-body sun- 



Earth problem, and, using spherical 
trigonometry, combine the two results 
to solve the Earth-Mars problem. The 
method can produce results satisfac- 
tory for use in finding planets, but the 
accuracy for use on asteroids is fre- 
quently inadequate. Kepler's model is 
a remarkable achievement since he 
derived it by geometry as an em- 
pirical solution based on position 
measurements made by lycho Brahe. 
Kepler's model is summarized in his 
first two laws: 

First Law: The orbit of each planet is 
an ellipse, with the sun at one of the 
two foci. 

Second Law: The line joining the planet 
to the sun sweeps over equal areas of 
the ellipse in equal intervals of time. 

It was not until more than 50 years 
after Kepler's work was published that 
the work of Sir Isaac Newton ex- 
plained the process that Kepler's 
model described and how the model 
was incomplete. Newton's law of gravi- 

[continued) 
David S. Dixon is a quality engineer at a 
NASA test facility. His hobbies include micro- 
computing and amateur astronomy. He can 
be reached at 3208 \upiter Rd.. Las Cruces, 
NM 88001. 



JULY 1985 'BYTE 203 



COMET LINES 



ty showed that the orbit of a body in 
the solar system is not just a function 
of the sun and the body but involves 
every mass in the system, i.e.. not a 
two-body problem but an H-body 
problem. And Newton's three laws of 
motion allowed mathematical deriva- 
tion of what Kepler had deduced from 
empirical data and geometry. An n- 
body celestial mechanics problem is 
not trivial. It involves evaluating the 
mutually perturbing effects of the 
planets, asteroids, satellites of planets, 
and the sun. In practice one usually 
restricts the calculations to the sun 
and the planets. 

The two main classes of perturba- 
tion techniques used to attack the n- 
body problem are referred to as 
either general perturbations (absolute 
solutions) or special perturbations 
(solutions using iterative numerical 
techniques). Special perturbation 
techniques fall into two categories, 
Cowell's model and Encke's model, 
with numerous variations of each. 
Both use similar numeric integration 
methods, but because of the dif- 
ferences in the models, one model or 
the other may have an advantage in 
solving a particular type of problem. 
Cowell's model can be derived by 
direct application of Newton's laws. 

In Cowell's model, which was devel- 
oped in the early 1900s, all gravita- 
tional attractions by all n bodies are 
summed and integrated to give the 
motion of the body in question. 
Encke's model was developed in 1857 
(before Cowell's) and is a very straight- 
forward result of combining Kepler's 
first two laws and Newton's laws of 
motion and gravity. Starting at a given 
point in time, Encke's model describes 
the motion of a body as the combina- 
tion of a Keplerian two-body orbit be- 
tween the body and the primary (the 
sun) and the integration of all the 
other perturbing accelerations. In 
figure 1, p is the radius vector of the 
Keplerian orbit, r is the radius vector 
of the true orbit, and e is the dif- 
ference between the Keplerian and 
true orbits due to perturbation. 

Encke's model is therefore a little 
more complex than Cowell's, but I 
chose it for rriy program because, 





e. 


\ 


\TRUE PATH 


p // 

/ft 




\ 


\\ 






keplerian\\ 

ORBIT \\ 


SUN 
(BARYCENTER) 


f 


h 



Figure 1 : \llustration of Encke's model 
for calculating orbits around the sun: 
p is the radius vector of the Keplerian 
orbit r is the radius vector of the true 
orbit, and e is the perturbation [the 
difference between p and r). 

when used on problems dealing with 
elliptic motion, it usually allows larger 
integration steps and controls the 
growth of truncation errors somewhat 
better than Cowell's model. 

What Encke's model provides is an 
expression for the second order dif- 
ferential equation of e. 1 don't know 
of any closed-form solutions to 
Encke's model or any of the other 
special perturbation models of the n- 
body problem. In other words, there 
is no equation or formula that is the 
solution of the problem. Since there 
is no closed-form solution, an iterative 
numerical integration technique is 
used. The program uses a Runge- 
Kutta numerical integration method 
that, while not the fastest calculating 
method, is easy to program, is easy 
to change step size, and provides 
good stability and accuracy. The ac- 
curacy I was trying to obtain was 
about 0.1 right-ascension minute (6 
RA seconds), and 1 minute in declina- 
tion. The program will generally 
satisfy this accuracy for periods of 
calculation of two years or more if the 
initial osculating orbital elements are 
accurate. For comets and for asteroids 
with extremely eccentric orbits, I 
would not expect accuracy this good, 
but fortunately the images for comets 
are generally different than the back- 
ground stars. The program employs 



several simplifications that restrict the 
time over which the perturbations can 
be integrated and accuracy can be 
maintained. 

During my research for writing this 
program, I had the opportunity to ex- 
amine several perturbation programs 
used by professional astronomers. 
These programs were substantially 
longer and used either tabular data 
and interpolation for the positions of 
the planets or a program that calcu- 
lates perturbed motion for the planets 
as well' as the asteroid. The former re- 
quires large amounts of data entry or 
access to data in machine-readable 
form. The latter increases the amount 
of calculation further still. This pro- 
gram uses a series of polynomials 
that are calculated and gives the or- 
bital elements of each of the planets 
considered to be perturbation 
sources. The planetary positions 
derived from these orbital elements 
are not as accurate as the other 
methods. This error, and several 
others, leads to restrictions on the 
period of time over which the pertur- 
bations can be integrated by this pro- 
gram to about 800 days before the 
error exceeds the desired accuracy. 

One perturbing acceleration has 
been left out of the program. This is 
the acceleration resulting from the 
displacement of the body from the 
Keplerian path about the primary. The 
Keplerian path is a force-balanced 
path only so long as the body is on 
the path. When the asteroid is per- 
turbed off the path, an additional ac- 
celeration due to the primary comes 
into effect. Equation 1 is the expres- 
sion for the acceleration, and as long 
as e is small then this term is very 
small. The program forces a recom- 
puting of the osculating elements of 
the asteroid whenever e reaches a 
predetermined small value. For the 
desired accuracy, this perturbation 
term can be ignored. This is the major 
mathematical departure of the pro- 
gram from Encke's model. Encke's 
model includes this acceleration and 
still requires a routine to compute 
new osculating elements, but it allows 
e to grow to much greater size before 

[continued) 



204 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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COMET LINES 



rectifying the orbit. 
a = rn*\pl\p\ 3 - r/|r| 3 | 



(1) 



The differential equation on which the 
program is based is given in equation 
2. .If equation I and equation 2 are 
added you have the differential equa- 
tion of Encke's model. 

d 2 eldt 2 = 
^-m k *\(s a -s k )l\s a -s k \^(sJ\s k H(2) 

Subscripts a and ,k in equation 2 
refer to the asteroid and perturbing 
body; N is the number of perturbing 
bodies; s is the position vector of the 
body corresponding to the subscript 
relative to the solar system bary- 
center; m is the gravitational param- 
eter of body k. 

The program consists of the main 
code and four subroutines. The main 
program handles initial parameter in- 
put for the asteroid number, dates 
and increment for the ephemeris, and 



an initial integration step size. As writ- 
ten, the program expects to find a file 
of asteroid osculating orbital elements 
on disk. The short program DSKPRP 
is an example of a program used to 
initialize this file. The main program 
integrates the perturbations from the 
beginning epoch of the asteroid or- 
bital elements to the first date of the 
ephemeris. When the integration has 
reached the first date in the ephem- 
eris, the main program continues the 
integration at whatever time interval 
was specified for the ephemeris and 
calculates the coordinate transforma- 
tion from heliocentric ecliptic coor- 
dinates to equatorial coordinates and 
prints the ephemeris. Subroutine 
KEPLER solves Kepler's equation for 
the asteroid, Earth, and the other 
planets. This calculation is done in 
polar coordinates and then trans- 
formed to heliocentric rectangular 
coordinates. Subroutine NEWTON ac- 
cepts the rectangular coordinates of 
the ^steroid and a perturbing body 



Table I: Osculating orbital elements for asteroid 90 for epoch 27.0, December 
1980, in the order they would be entered in the program. 



Julian date_ 
Inclination (/)_ 



2444600.5 



Longitude of the ascending node- 
Argument of perihelion (w) 

Mean radius (a) 

Daily motion (n) 

Eccentricity (e) 

Mean anomaly {M) 

Brightness 8(1 ,0) 



_ 2.23553 Deg. 
_ 70.62207 Deg. 
234.84993 Deg. 
_ 3.1477109 AU. 
_ 0.17648663 Deg. 
_ 0.1659135 
. 212.56103 Deg. 
_ 9.3 



Table 2: 


The ephemeris calculated by the program for 


asteroid 90 




in the period 1 3.3 5, Septembet 


I983 to 1 3.45, 


September 


1983. 




Asteroid Number 90 


















Astrometric 1950.0 


















D 


M 


Y 


JD 


Right Ascension 


Declination 


Mag. 


Distance 


13.35 


8 


1983 


2445559.85 


23 


8 


24.1 


-9 


16 


31 


12.6 


1.734 


13.36 


8 


1983 


2445559.86 


23 


8 


24.1 


-9 


16 


31 


12.6 


1.734 


13.37 


8 


1983 


2445559.87 


23 


8 


23.8 


-9 


16 


33 


12.6 


1.734 


13.38 


8 


1983 


2445559.88 


23 


8 


23.4 


-9 


16 


35 


12.6 


1.734 


13.39 


8 


1983 


2445559.89 


23 


8 


23.1 


-9 


16 


38 


12.6 


1.734 


13.40 


8 


1983 


2445559.90 


23 


8 


22.8 


-9 


16 


40 


12.6 


1.734 


13.41 


8 


1983 


2445559.91 


23 


8 


22.5 


-9 


16 


43 


12.6 


1.734 


13.42 


8 


1983 


2445559.92 


23 


8 


22.1 


-9 


16 


45 


12.6 


1.734 


13.43 


8 


1983 


2445559.93 


23 


8 


21.8 


-9 


16 


48 


12.6 


1.734 


13.44 


8 


1983 


2445559.94 


23 


8 


21.5 


-9 


16 


50 


12.6 


1.734 


13.45 


8 


1983 


2445559.95 


23 


8 


21.2 


-9 


16 


53 


12.6 


1.734 



and calculates the perturbing ac- 
celeration due to the body. Subrou- 
tine ENCKE calculates a new set of 
osculating orbital elements for the 
asteroid from the old set and the per- 
turbations that have occurred to the 
asteroid. The last subroutine in the 
program, subroutine ORBIT, calcu- 
lates the orbital elements of the Earth 
and other perturbing planets by a set 
of polynomials and the Julian date. 

Using the program is not difficult. 
The program first prompts for the 
date on which you want the ephem- 
eris table to start, the interval of the 
table, and the length of time to be 
covered in the ephemeris. The unit of 
time is in days, i.e., 0.01 day or 10 
days. The time scale is universal time, 
which for the purposes of the pro- 
gram can be considered coordinated 
universal time, which is broadcast by 
WWV and other time stations. The 
program then prompts for an integra- 
tion step size. This generally should 
be between 5 and 40 days, with a 
maximum of about 2 percent of the 
orbital period and a minimum of 
about 0.1 percent of the orbital 
period. The closer the epoch of the 
orbital elements is to the first date in 
the ephemeris, the longer the inte- 
gration step may be. The objective in 
selecting the integration step size is 
to pick an interval small enough to 
make the truncation errors in the in- 
tegration small and have an interval 
large enough to keep round-off 
buildup minimized. The program then 
prompts for the asteroid number and 
fetches the asteroid's orbital elements 
stored on disk. The asteroid's orbital 
elements from the file are displayed. 
If more recent elements are available, 
the elements are entered and the file 
updated. The program then calculates 
an ephemeris for the dates and time 
interval entered. 

Ikble I contains the osculating or- 
bital elements from the 1980 Ephem- 
erides of Minor Planets for asteroid 
number 90, named Antiope. Ikble 2 
is the ephemeris calculated by the 
program for a 0.1 -day period on 
August 13, 1983. This period was 
chosen because it coincides with the 

{continued) 



206 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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♦ Make minor changes without reassembling. 
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♦ Similar to UNIX™ Make utility. 
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♦ Create, organize and maintain your object module 
libraries created with Microsoft Languages. 

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COMET LINES 



period in which the Lowell Obser- 
vatory made photographic plates of 
the asteroid and the resulting posi- 
tional measurements were published 
in Minor Planet Circular #8193 (October 
21. 1983) of the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory. The positions 
for asteroid 90 are as follows: 

Date 13.39167 Aug. 1983 

R.A. 23 hr 8 min 17.70 sec 

Dec. -9 deg 17 min 18.8 sec 



Date 13.42951 
R.A. 23 hr 
Dec. -9 deg 



Aug. 1983 

8 min 16.40 sec 

17 min 28.6 sec 



As you can see, the program satisfies 
the accuracy required. For a further 
comparison, table 3 is an ephemeris 
calculated by a program that uses 
only Keplerian motion and does not 
calculate the perturbations due to the 
major planets. 

The program was originally written 
to calculate ephemerides of asteroids 



but can also be used to calculate 
ephemerides of comets. When the 
program is used for comets it is 
necessary to do some minor calcula- 
tion to translate the orbital elements 
from the conventional form for 
comets to elements usable by the pro- 
gram. Also; comets are named by 
several different methods: year and 
order of discovery, name of dis- 
coverer and subsequent redis- 
covered, season of the year, or place- 
ment in the sky. Comet names just do 
not seem usable with the simple form 
of random-access file used for the 
numbered asteroids. I maintain 
separate ASTRO.DAT disks for comets 
and asteroids and keep a manual in- 
dex of what comet is in each record, 
l&ble 4 is a set of orbital elements for 
Halley's comet from Minor Planet Cir- 
cular #9214 (November 8. 1984). For 
this set of elements the mean 
anomaly (M) is not provided. Instead, 
the time of perihelion (T) is given. This 



Ikble 3: 


The ephemeris as in 


table 2, 


but calculated 


ising 








only Keplerian motion. 


















Asteroid N 


umber 90 


















Keplerian Motion Ephemeris Astrometric 1950.0 












D 


M 


Y 


JD 


Right Ascension 


Declination 


Mag. 


Radius 


13.35 


8 


1983 


2445559.85 


23 


12 


27.9 


-8 


50 


53 


12.6 


1.732 


13.36 


8 


1983 


2445559.86 


23 


12 


26.7 


-8 


51 


1 


12.6 


1.732 


13.37 


8 


1983 


2445559.87 


23 


12 


26.4 


-8 


51 


4 


12.6 


1.732 


13.38 


8 


1983 


2445559.88 


23 


12 


26.1 


-8 


51 


6 


12.6 


1.732 


13.39 


8 


1983 


2445559.89 


23 


12 


25.8 


-8 


51 


8 


12.6 


1.732 


13.40 


8 


1983 


2445559.90 


23 


12 


25.4 


-8 


51 


11 


12.6 


1.732 


13.41 


8 


1983 


2445559.91 


23 


12 


25.1 


-8 


51 


13 


12.6 


1.732 


13.42 


8 


1983 


2445559.92 


23 


12 


24.8 


-8 


51 


16 


12.6 


1.732 


13.43 


8 


1983 


2445559.93 


23 


12 


24.5 


-8 


51 


18 


12.6 


1.732 


13.44 


8 


1983 


2445559.94 


23 


12 


24.2 


-8 


51 


21 


12.6 


1.732 


13.45 


8 


1983 


2445559.95 


23 


12 


23.9 


-8 


51 


23 


12.6 


1.732 



T^ble 4: A set of orbital elements for Halley's comet. 



Julian date_ 



. 2446480.5 



Time of perihelion passage (7)_ 
Inclination (/) 



9.43867 Feb. 1986 



Longitude of the ascending node_ 

Argument of perihelion (w) 

Mean radius (a) 

Daily motion (n) 

Eccentricity (e) 



162.23932 Deg. 
_ 58.14397 Deg. 
_ 111. 84658 Deg. 
_ 17.9390115 AU. 
_ 0.01297198 Deg. 
_ 0.9672725 



Calculated from equation 3. 
Mean anomaly (M) 



0.1240284 Deg. 



is typical of the convention for report- 
ing comet orbital elements. The cal- 
culation of M is not complicated. M 
equals the daily motion times the dif- 
ference between the epoch of the ele- 
ments and T. Equation 3 is the 
mathematical expression for the cal- 
culation of M: 



M = n* (Epoch of elements - T) 



(3) 



The comet orbital elements general- 
ly do not include the mean anomaly 
(M). the mean radius (a), or the daily 
motion. Usually the time of perihelion 
(T) and the perihelion distance (q) are 
given instead. Like M, missing 
parameters can usually be calculated 
from what is given. For example, to 
calculate the mean radius from the 
perihelion distance q and the eccen- 
tricity, use equation 4: 

a = q I (1 - e) (4) 

If the daily motion (n) is not provided, 
you only need to have the mean 
radius and from equation 5 you can 
calculate n: 



n = 0.985609 / (a) 3 ' 2 



(5) 



These relationships should be suffi- 
cient to allow calculation of any or- 
bital element parameters that are not 
provided. The brightness coefficient 
£(1.0) is not applicable to comets. I 
have written the program to use this 
coefficient as a flag to prompt for the 
name of the comet and to change the 
output format slightly. A £(1,0) greater 
than 1000 flags the program that the 
ephemeris is of a comet. Sources 
of comet orbital elements are 
numerous. Occasionally a periodical 
on astronomy will include orbital ele- 
ments as part of an article. I expect 
to see this more frequently as 
amateur astronomers acquire and use 
personal computers to calculate 
ephemerides and indicate a desire to 
publishers to see orbital elements in- 
cluded in articles. 

Because comets are made of mate- 
rials that vaporize, they undergo some 
mass loss each time they form a coma. 
or tail. This mass loss also introduces 
a source of perturbation not found in 
asteroids. The program does not in- 

{continued) 



208 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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Inquiry 174 



4P019 



COMET LINES 



Table 5: 


A set of test calculations for 


Halley's comet. 










Comet Halley 






■ 












Astrometric 1950.0 


















D MY 


JD 


Right Ascension 


Declination 


Distance 


26.97 1 


1 1984 


2446031.47 


6 


21 


49.1 


11 


57 


4 


4.739 


26.98 1 


1 1984 


2446031.48 


6 


21 


50.0 


11 


57 


5 


4.740 


26.99 1 


1 1984 


2446031.49 


6 


21 


49.5 


11 


57 


4 


4.740 


27.00 1 


1 1984 


2446031 .50 


6 


21 


49.0 


11 


57 


4 


4.739 


27.01 1 


1 1984 


2446031.51 


6 


21 


48.5 


11 


57 


4 


4.739 


27.02 1 


1 1984 


2446031.52 


6 


21 


48.0 


11 


57 


4 


4.739 


27.03 1 


1 1984 


2446031.53 


6 


21 


47.4 


11 


57 


3 


4.739 


27.04 1 


1 1984 


2446031.54 


6 


21 


46.9 


11 


57 


3 


4.739 


27.05 1 


1 1984 


2446031.55 


6 


21 


46.4 


11 


57 


3 


4.739 


27.06 1 


1 1984 


2446031.56 


6 


21 


45.9 


11 


57 


3 


4.738 


27.07 1 


1 1984 


2446031 .57 


6 


21 


45.4 


11 


57 


2 


4.738 


27.08 1 


1 1984 


2446031.58 


6 


21 


44.9 


11 


57 


2 


4.738 


27.09 1 


1 1984 


2446031.59 


6 


21 


44.3 


11 


57 


2 


4.738 


27.10 1 


1 1984 


2446031.60 


6 


21 


43.8 


11 


57 


2 


4.738 


27.11 1 


1 1984 


2446031.61 


6 


21 


43.3 


11 


57 


1 


4.737 


27.12 1 


1 1984 


2446031.62 


6 


21 


42.8 


11 


57 


1 


4.737 



elude these nongravitational pertur- 
bations in the calculation. The ac- 
curacy of the results is acceptable for 
most purposes. Tkble 5 is an ephem- 
eris calculated by the program using 
the orbital elements for Halley's com- 
et in table 4. From Minor Planet Circular 
#9316 are measured positions for 
Halley's comet in the same period: 



Date 26.973 
R.A. 6 hr 

Dec. 11 deg 

Date 27.109 
R.A. 6 hr 

Dec. 1 1 deg 



Nov. 1984 

21 min 48.88 sec 
56 min 58.3 sec 

Nov. 1984 

21 min 41.80 sec 
56 min 5 5.6 sec 



T&ble 6: The epfiemeris for Halley 


's comet 


for )uly and August 1985 


as calculated by the 


program. 
















Comet 


Halley 


















Astrometric 1950.0 


















D 


M 


Y 


JD 


Right Ascension 


Declination 


Distance 


1.00 


7 


1985 


2446247.50 


5 


32 


2.0 


18 


13 


56 


4.424 


3.00 


7 


1985 


2446249.50 


5 


33 


19.5 


18 


16 


54 


4.392 


5.00 


7 


1985 


2446251.50 


5 


34 


38.3 


18 


19 


51 


4.358 


7.00 


7 


1985 


2446253.50 


5 


35 


57.2 


18 


22 


44 


4.324 


9.00 


7 


1985 


2446255.50 


5 


37 


16.1 


18 


25 


32 


4.288 


11.00 


7 


1985 


2446257.50 


5 


38 


35.1 


18 


28 


15 


4.251 


13.00 


7 


1985 


2446259.50 


5 


39 


54.0 


18 


30 


55 


4.214 


15.00 


7 


1985 


2446261.50 


5 


41 


12.9 


18 


33 


30 


4.175 


17.00 


7 


1985 


2446263.50 


5 


42 


31.5 


18 


36 


1 


4.135 


19.00 


7 


1985 


2446265.50 


5 


43 


49.9 


18 


38 


29 


4.095 


21.00 


7 


1985 


2446267.50 


5 


45 


7.9 


18 


40 


52 


4.053 


23.00 


7 


1985 


2446269.50 


5 


46 


25.5 


18 


43 


11 


4.010 


25.00 


7 


1985 


2446271.50 


5 


47 


42.7 


18 


45 


27 


3.967 


27.00 


7 


1985 


2446273.50 


5 


48 


59.2 


18 


47 


39 


3.922 


29.00 


7 


1985 


2446275.50 


5 


50 


15.2 


18 


49 


48 


3.876 


31.00 


7 


1985 


2446277.50 


5 


51 


30.4 


18 


51 


54 


3.830 


2.00 


8 


1985 


2446279.50 


5 


52 


44.8 


18 


53 


57 


3.783 


4.00 


8 


1985 


2446281.50 


5 


53 


58.3 


18 


55 


56 


3.735 


6.00 


8 


1985 


2446283.50 


5 


55 


10.9 


18 


57 


53 


3.686 


8.00 


8 


1985 


2446285.50 


5 


56 


22.5 


18 


59 


48 


3.636 


10.00 


8 


1985 


2446287.50 


5 


57 


32.8 


19 


1 


40 


3.585 


12.00 


8 


1985 


2446289.50 


5 


58 


41.9 


19 


3 


31 


3.533 


14,00 


8 


1985 


2446291.50 


5 


59 


49.6 


19 


5 


19 


3.481 


16.00 


8 


1985 


2446293.50 


6 





55.8 


19 


7 


6 


3.428 


18.00 


8 


1985 


2446295.50 


6 


2 


.3 


19 


8 


53 


3.374 


20.00 


8 


1985 


2446297.50 


6 


3 


2.9 


19 


10 


38 


3.319 


22.00 


8 


1985 


2446299.50 


6 


4 


3.6 


19 


12 


23 


3.264 


24.00 


8 


1985 


2446301.50 


6 


5 


2.2 


19 


14 


8 


3.207 


26.00 


8 


1985 


2446303.50 


6 


5 


58.6 


19 


15 


53 


3.151 


28.00 


8 


1985 


2446305.50 


6 


6 


52.5 


19 


17 


39 


3.093 


30.00 


8 


1985 


2446307.50 


6 


7 


43.7 


19 


19 


27 


3.035 



The accuracy for the comet ephem- 
eris is well within the tolerance estab- 
lished for use in locating asteroids 
and should be equally satisfactory for 
locating comets. 'Ikble 6 is an 
ephemeris for Halley's comet for July 
and August 1985. In July the comet 
will be rising in the early morning in 
the eastern horizon about an hour 
before the sun. 

1 need to give a word of warning to 
users about a future complication in 
the process of using this program. 
Astronomical positions are almost in- 
variably referenced to the Earth's 
equinox and ecliptic at some date. 
The problem is that with respect to 
the star field, this is a continually 
rotating set of coordinates. So, when 
you find osculating orbital elements 
or ephemerides for planets, asteroids, 
or comets, they are noted as mean 
ecliptic of 1950.0, or ecliptic of date, 
or mean ecliptic of 2000.0. The pro- 
gram is set up to calculate positions 
referenced to the equinox and eclip- 
tic of 19 50.0 and to use osculating 
elements referenced to this set of 
coordinates. The astronomical con- 
vention for comet and asteroid orbital 
elements and ephemerides is that the 
reference equinox and ecliptic will be 
at the century and half-century 
dates- 1900, 1950, 2000. We are near- 
ing a change point. Some reference 
sources are now using the ecliptic of 
2000 as the coordinate base, while 
many others retain the ecliptic of 1950 
as the base. If the source of orbital 

[continued) 



210 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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y 216 JULY 1985 'BYTE 



COMET LINES 



The convention for 
comet and asteroid 
orbital elements 
and ephemerides 
is that the reference 
equinox and ecliptic 
will be at the century 
and half-century dates. 



elements you use is referenced to the 
ecliptic of 2000, you will need to 
change the parameters for planetary 
position that are used in subroutine 
ORBIT the value for the obliquity of 
the ecliptic (EPSLN) in the main pro- 
gram, and the heading message for 
the printout in the main program. 
Values for the changes to be made 
can be found in Astronomical Formulae 
for Calculators. 

The program was originally written 
on a Digital Equipment Corporation 
PDP-11 in DEC FORTRAN IV. Later I 
translated the program to Digital 



Research FORTRAN-77 for the IBM 
PC and that is the version available 
on BYTEnet Listings ( (617) 861-9774). 
As I mentioned at the beginning of 
the article, the program is a number 
cruncher. The Digital Research FOR- 
TRAN has the option at link time of 
producing code for the 8087 copro- 
cessor or linking 8087 simulation 
routines. 

I have timed the program on a varie- 
ty of PC-DOS and MS-DOS systems. 
If the 8087 coprocessor is not used, 
a single integration loop of the pro- 
gram will take from 60 to 130 sec- 
onds, depending on the machine. 
With the 8087 coprocessor the time 
drops to about 1 second per loop. 
The program in its present form is in- 
tended to be as readable as possible. 
At least one change to speed up ex- 
ecution is possible. You can reduce 
the number of times you call subrou- 
tine KEPLER by almost one-third by 
modifying the program to assign the 
previous values of POS(I,I,3) to 
POS(I.J.l) at the beginning of any in- 
tegration loop in which the preceding 
loop did not call subroutine ENCKE 
and then began the loop calculating 
POS(IJ,2). I do not know how much 
this would improve execution time, 
but if your system does not have an 
8087, it is a modification that may be 



worth making. If you use the program 
extensively, the execution time im- 
provement of the 8087 may be the 
justification for adding one to your 
system. 

The program is written so that even 
if you don't have a mainframe com- 
puter and a degree in astrophysics, 
you can convert the program to your 
microcomputer's BASIC or FORTRAN 
and, I hope, not get lost in the pro- 
cess. Comments have been added to 
the program listings to reference the 
source of many of the values used for 
the calculations, so I am not going to 
discuss them further in text. 1 recom- 
mend that you obtain a copy of Astro- 
nomical Formulae for Calculators since 1 am 
confident that you will eventually 
need to refer to it for changes in the 
reference ecliptic. If you have a back- 
ground in calculus and are interested 
in the derivation and physics behind 
the program, I recommend Fundamen- 
tals of Astrodynamics as a very readable 
reference on the topic. ■ 

Editor's note: \f you are unable to obtain the 
source-code listings from BYTEnet Listings, 
Mr. Dixon will provide an IBM PC- 
compatible disk containing source code and 
compiled code for $18. Write to David S. 
Dixon. 3208 Jupiter Rd. t las Cruces, NM 
88001. 



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212 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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Inquiry 133 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 213 




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COMPUTERS AND SPACE 



TRACKING EARTH 
SATELLITES 



by E. H. Weiss 



The Stumpff program can help you calculate earth-orbiting 
satellite positions with high precision 



THE PURPOSE OF the program 
Stumpff is to compute the orbit or tra- 
jectory of a body of negligible mass 
(spacecraft or minor planet) in the 
gravitational field of three massive 
bodies. In the point-mass problem, 
each body behaves as if its entire 
mass is concentrated at a single point. 
In that case the Stumpff program con- 
verges to the exact solution. Another 
use of Stumpff is to obtain fast ap- 
proximations, especially to orbits 
within our solar system. In that case 
an accuracy on the order of one part 
in a thousand is usually maintained, 
even for lengthy and stressing cases. 

The program is named in honor of 
professor Karl Stumpff (1895-1970), 
who developed the theory upon 
which the program is based. 

The method described here has two 
major advantages over traditional 
methods. First, it is 10 to 15 times 
faster. Second, there is no need to 
store the positions of the massive 
bodies, called ephemerides, on disks 
or tapes. This point is crucial; without 
it a personal computer could not per- 
form the computations. 

Stumpff is written for a minimum- 
configuration IBM PC. An 80-column 
display console and a printer are re- 



quired. A listing of the BASIC source 
code and a compiled version for the 
IBM PC are available for downloading 
from BYTEnet Listings at (617) 
861-9774. 

Historical and Technical 
Background 

The two-body problem (motion of a 
planet around the sun) was solved by 
lohannes Kepler (1571-1630). Kepler's 
solution to the two-body problem 
enabled him to compute the position 
of a planet at any value of time by a 
series of formulas. Isaac Newton 
(1642-1727) tested his law of univer- 
sal gravitation by rederiving Kepler's 
laws with his own invention, the cal- 
culus. Newton found that the solu- 
tions are not only ellipses, as stated 
by Kepler, but also parabolas and 
hyperbolas (if the velocity of the less 
massive body is sufficient to escape 
the gravitational field of the more 
massive body). 

The search for the solution of the 
three-body problem occupied math- 
ematicians and astronomers until Karl 
G. I. lacobi (1804-1851) proved that a 
closed-form (general) solution is im- 
possible if a body is gravitationally at- 
tracted by two or more other bodies. 



It is, however, possible to obtain the 
solution by numerical techniques. 

Numerical Techniques 

The motion of a small body is de- 
scribed by a set of differential equa- 
tions and is traditionally computed by 
numerical integration. In order to per- 
form a numerical integration, you 
must first know the values of all mo- 
tion parameters at t . the start time. 
Then look up the coordinates of the 
massive bodies in a table of 
ephemerides. Next, numerically inte- 
grate the position of the small body 
to time t\. This is possible provided 
that the time step h = t\ - t is suffi- 
ciently small. Then, using the known 
values of the small body at time t\. 
compute the values at t 2 - The values 
of the motion parameters of the 
massive bodies are again obtained 
from tabulated ephemerides. Similar- 

{continued) 
E. H. Weiss, an advisory analyst for IBM, 
has more than 3 5 years of experience in 
government and private industry as a pro- 
grammer, instructor, analyst, and manager. 
His Stumpff program is his alone—it was not 
developed by or for IBM. He can be reached 
at 7568 Remington Rd., Manassas. VA 
22110. 



)ULY 1985 -BYTE 215 



TRACKING SATELLITES 



ly, "march" from time t 2 to t 3 , then to 
U. t 5 . etc., until the values of the mo- 
tion parameters at the desired end 
time are obtained. 

What has been said so far about nu- 
merical integration is quite general. It 
is equally valid for the numerical in- 
tegration of the equations of motion 
of a spacecraft and for any other dif- 
ferential equation. Is there a better ap- 
proach for astronomical or spacecraft 
problems? lohann Franz Encke (1791- 
1865) thought so. His clever method 
is useful if the major contribution to 
the motion of the small body is 
caused by the gravitational attraction 
of just one body. (This is frequently 
satisfied in our solar system.) In that 
case, a two-body method is used to 
compute the spacecraft motion due 
to that one massive body; this is 
called the reference orbit. The con- 
tribution of all other effects, called the 
perturbation, is obtained by numeri- 
cal integration, lb obtain the space- 
craft motion, you add the values of 
the reference orbit and the perturba- 
tion. Since the quantity to be inte- 
grated—the perturbation— is small 
relative to the reference orbit, a com- 
paratively large time step can be 
used. Thus, even though the calcula- 
tion time spent on one Encke time 
step is greater than for straightforward 
integration, the Encke method 
generally performs the entire com- 
putation in less time. 

Connection Between the 
Encke and Stumpff Methods 

The Stumpff method is an extension 
of the Encke method. The Stumpff 
reference orbit includes the gravita- 
tional attraction of all massive bodies 
and thus accounts for all point-mass 
effects. Furthermore— and this is 
crucial— the deviation between the 
reference and the actual orbits re- 
mains small even over protracted time 
intervals. Therefore, the time step for 
the Stumpff method can be larger 
than that for the Encke method, which 
in turn is larger than that for straight- 
forward integration. The bottom line 
is that the Stumpff technique is about 
10 to 1 5 times faster, even though the 
computing time per time step is 



slower than for other methods. 

The Stumpff method was first de- 
scribed in 1942 in reference 1. The ar- 
ticle explains and proves the method 
and illustrates it by computing the 
orbit of a minor planet. References 2 
and 3 provide a new and shorter 
proof and also include applications to 
artificial satellites. Reference 2 in- 
cludes four FORTRAN listings of the 
Stumpff technique for mainframe 
computers. 

A Sample Case 

Stumpff can compute the orbit of any 
body of negligible mass in the gravita- 
tional field of any three massive 
bodies. The program is set up to com- 
pute a sample case; other cases re- 
quire input changes, to be discussed 
shortly. The sample case computes 
the orbit of Explorer 33, which was 
launched on July 1, 1966. Explorer 33 
describes more than 10 highly eccen- 
tric orbits around the earth and moon 
in 180 days. There are several close 
approaches to the earth and the 
moon. 

Notation 

Stumpff computes the trajectory of a 
spacecraft in the gravitational field of 
three massive bodies. The mass of q , 
the spacecraft, must be negligibly 
small. The sample case is set up with 
<\\ as the earth, q 2 as the moon, and 
43 as the sun. The masses of the four 
bodies are denoted by m 0l m [l m 2 . and 
m 3 . 

Any coordinate system can be used, 
provided that the origin is at the 
center of body q x . The sample case 
uses the standard 1950.0 coordinate 
system. The x-axis points to the first 
point of Aries (also called the vernal 
equinox), the z-axis points north, and 
the y-axis completes a right-handed 
orthogonal coordinate system. All in- 
put and output is in kilometers (km) 
for position, kilometers per second 
(km/sec) for velocity, and days for 
elapsed time. 

The vector from q\ to q is denoted 
by pio. That is, p l0 is the position vec- 
tor of body q relative to (or as 
measured from) q { . The three coor- 
dinates of pio along the x-, y- t and z- 



axes are denoted respectively by 
Viod). Vio(2). and V I0 (3). More general- 
ly, let i = 0. 1. 2, or 3; j = 0, 1. 2, or 
3. Then p if is the position vector of qj 
relative to q it and its components 
along the coordinate axes are V, ;; (l), 
Y u [2). and 7^(3). The time derivative 
of p u is a velocity vector; it is denoted 
by v ( j and its components by y (4), 
^(5). and y, y (6). 

Input 

The Stumpff program always prompts 
for four data entries. It prints the 
default parameters for the sample 
case, then asks "DO YOU WISH TO 
MODIFY ANY OF THE ABOVE CON- 
DITIONS? Y OR N." If you respond 
with "N" or "n," the program im- 
mediately continues with the next of 
the three remaining prompts. 

In response to the prompt 
"RESULTS WILL BE PRINTED EVERY 
NTH DAY," type the desired frequen- 
cy (e.g., 10 to obtain printouts every 
tenth day). In response to the prompt 
"LARGEST VALUE OF TIME TO BE 
PRINTED, IN DAYS." type 180 if the 
length of the mission is 180 days, and 
so on. The last prompt is "TIME-STEP 
CONTROL CRITERION. IE -5 OR 
IE- 6 RECOMMENDED." Respond 
with an appropriate number, remem- 
bering that smaller values yield 
greater accuracy, but the calculations 
require more computer tirrte. 

If you respond to the first prompt, 
"DO YOU WISH TO MODIFY ANY OF 
THE ABOVE CONDITIONS? Y OR N." 
with "Y" or "y," the program prints all 
initial conditions, one at a time. If no 
change is required, merely press 
Enter; to change a value, type a new 
value, then press Enter. The initial 
conditions are displayed in the follow- 
ing order: 

Y10(l) . . . Y10(6) 

Y12(l) . . . Y12(6) 

Y13(l) . . . Y13(6) 

The canonical unit of length 

The canonical unit of time 

The starting time, in days 

ml. m2. m3 

Program lines 320 to 360 and the sub- 
routine on lines 1930 to 2790, 

{continued) 



216 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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Inquiry, 2 

\ \ 



TRACKING SATELLITES 



Table I : Printer output of Stumpff using the default sample data for Explorer 


33 and IE- 5 as the time-step control criterion. 




Position in km and velocity in km/sec. Origin at Q1 . 




Lines 1 & 2 Y10; lines 3 & 4 Y12; lines 


5&6 Y13. 




Line 1 ends with time in days. Line 7 gives spacecraft distance from Q1 and Q2. 


+ 1. 8352641 E + 05 ' 


-2.4094338E + 05 


-3.6452766E + 04 


+ 0.0000000E + 00 


+ 1.0044146E + 00 


-3.2081303E-01 


- 1. 51 68001 E- 01 




+ 2.1384734E + 05 


- 2.961 9053E + 05 


+ 1.6430464E + 05 




+ 8.4600699E-01 


+ 4.7626001 E- 01 


+ 1.7218044E-01 




- 9.38561 36E + 07 


+ 1.0949798E + 08 


+ 4.74861 28E + 07 




- 2.2920521 E + 01 


-1.6789843E + 01 


+ 7.281 7683E + 00 




R10.R20 


+ 3.0506469E + 05 


+ 1 .4254020E + 05 




Canonical units of length and time are: 






+ 6.3781650E + 03 


+ 8.0681 366E + 02 






Masses of bodies 1 , 


2, and 3 are: 






+ 1 .0000000E + 00 


+ 1.2299896E-02 


+ 3.3295128E + 05 




Start time, Date 


08:32:41 07-01- 


1984 


Time-step criterion 


+ 1.0000000D-05 




+ 4.0406591 E + 05 


+ 5.7658706E + 03 


-9.9387773E + 04 


+ 1.0000000E + 01 


-4.8275355E-01 


+ 5.1666003E-01 


+ 8.1928223E-02 




+ 1.7381369E + 05 


+ 3.1362872E + 05 


+ 1. 43801 52E + 05 




-9.3196988E-01 


+ 3.2447833E-01 


+ 2.3401 709E- 01 




-1.1224846E+08 


+ 9.3514536E + 07 


+ 4.0555028E + 07 




-1.9551346E + 01 


-2.0131100E + 01 


+ 8.7292433E + 00 




R10,R20 


+ 4.1614953E + 05 


+ 4.5490291 E + 05 




+ 3.7403688E + 05 


-2.5159747E + 05 


+ 7.2772000E + 04 


+ 2.0000000E + 01 


+ 5.6283206E-01 


+ 1.9169375E-01 


- 1.509281 1E- 01 




- 3.23971 41 E + 05 


+ 1.6550636E + 05 


-5.8775484E + 04 




+ 4.5049697E-01 


- 8.4750861 E- 01 


- 4.599551 3E- 01 




-1.2746285E + 08 


+ 7.4866512E + 07 


+ 3.2467906E + 07 




-1.5571598E + 01 


-2.2928595E + 01 


- 9.9447031 E + 00 




R10.R20 


+ 4.5661869E + 05 


+ 7.0343669E + 05 




+ 3.01 8871 9E + 05 


+ 1.0132476E + 05 


-7.8300773E + 04 


+ 3.0000000E + 01 


-9.3400902E-01 


+ 3.8737997E-01 


+ 1.9829461 E- 01 




+ 3.6786394E + 05 


- 1. 4087461 E + 05 


- 9.821 0367E + 04 




+ 4.1416159E-01 


+ 7.9788619E-01 


+ 3.7135252E-01 




-1.3902795E + 08 


+ 5.4090352E + 07 


+ 2.34571 96E + 07 




-1.1139797E + 01 


-2.5052975E + 01 


-1.0864564E + 01 




R10.R20 


+ 3.2792316E + 05 


+ 2.5181314E + 05 




+ 4.5098631 E + 05 


-1.9036528E + 05 


- 9.655041 4E + 04 


+ 4.0000000E + 01 


+ 3.2330784E-01 


+ 3.2467601 E- 01 


-1.0042379E-01 




- 5.631 8953E + 04 


+ 3.2954591 E + 05 


+ 1.7090238E + 05 




-1.0172640E + 00 


-2.3190196E-01 


-4.1716743E-02 




-1.4661626E + 08 


+ 3.1767970E + 07 


+ 1. 3777301 E + 07 




-6.3732409E + 00 


- 2.6502871 E + 01 


+ 1.1492944E + 01 




R10.R20 


+ 4.9894850E + 05 


+ 7.7407838E + 05 




+ 1.0722097E + 05 


+ 1.3195153E + 05 


-3.3376625E + 04 


+ 5.0000000E + 01 


- 1. 719931 5E + 00 


-2.0821010E-01 


+ 4.3421 927E- 01 




-1.5787850E + 05 


-3.1072731E + 05 


-1.4608538E + 05 




+ 9.0786868E-01 


-4.1719040E-01 


- 2.791 2253E- 01 




- 1 .4996200E + 08 


+ 8.5147130E + 06 


+ 3.6924375E + 06 




-1.3445547E + 00 


-2.7184437E + 01 


-1.1790426E + 01 




R10,R20 


+ 1.7326725E + 05 


+ 5.281 5294E + 05 


[continued) 



available on BYTEnet, deal with input 
to Stumpff. 

Output 

Seven lines are printed every n days, 
where n is an input parameter: 

Line 1: Y10(l), YI0(2), YI0(3). 

elapsed time 
Line 2: YI0(4), YI0(5). YI0(6) 
Line 3: YI2(1). YI2(2). Y12(3) 
Line 4: YI2(4). YI2(5). YI2(6) 
Line 5: Y13(l). YI3(2). YI3(3) 
Line 6: Y13(4). YI3(5). YI3(6) 
Line 7: "RIO, R20", R10, R20 
(where RIO is the distance be- 
tween q\ and qO and R20 is the 
distance between ql and qO). 

Lines 1260 to 1570 of Stumpff deal 
with computer output. 

Ikble I shows the sample case in- 
tegrated for 90 days. The time-step 
control criterion is IE- 5. 

Canonical Units 

The equations of motion include the 
Gaussian constant of gravitation, 
which involves the units of length, 
time, and mass and therefore as- 
sumes different numerical values for 
different basic units. But the constant 
appears in the equations of motion 
only as a multiplicative factor. There- 
fore, it need not be coded if it 
assumes the value of unity. 

Canonical units are a set of consis- 
tent units for which the Gaussian con- 
stant equals unity. Canonical units are 
used in all internal computations of 
Stumpff. The definition of canonical 
units is as follows: Let d be the 
distance between point-mass bodies 
a and b. Let body b describe one com- 
plete revolution around body a due 
to the gravitational attraction of a. and 
denote the period of one complete 
revolution by PER. The units of mass, 
length, time, and the constant of uni- 
versal gravitation are considered to be 
canonical if 

• the mass of body a is the unit of 
mass 

• the distance d is the unit of 
length 

• the period PER, divided by (2 * 

[continued) 



218 BYTE • JULY 1985 




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Inquiry 99 



TRACKING SATELLITES 



+ 4.2073403E + 05 


-8.1687375E + 04 


-1.3920300E+05 


+ 6.0000000E + 01 


-1.6991589E-01 


+ 5.4551 083E- 01 


- 4.07841 50E- 02 




+ 4.0053797E + 05 


+ 6.0884805E + 04 


+ 1.5494327E + 03 




-1.4566940E-01 


+ 8.5460287E-01 


+ 4.4591239E-01 




-1.4892976E + 08 


- 1. 497361 6E + 07 


-6.4940470E + 06 




+ 3.7287424E + 00 


-2.7058577E + 01 


-1.1733729E + 01 




R10,R20 


+ 4.5063006E + 05 


+ 2.0136027E + 05 




+ 2.2461516E + 05 


- 2.8893991 E + 05 


-3.9640344E + 04 


+ 7.0000000E + 01 


+ 8.1509495E-01 


-6.4160638E-02 


-2.9409379E-01 




-2.6377850E + 05 


+ 2.1918655E + 05 


+ 1.3143569E + 05 




-7.0102608E-01 


-7.3732376E-01 


- 3.24221 94E- 01 




-1.4353605E + 08 


-3.8023476E + 07 


- 1. 6489461 E + 07 




+ 8.741 3425E + 00 


-2.6167715E + 01 


-1.1348359E + 01 




R10,R20 


+ 3.6811628E + 05 


+ 7.2525019E + 05 




+ 3.4287069E + 05 


+ 6.1140590E + 04 


-1.2910519E + 05 


+ 8.0000000E + 01 


-6.4364934E-01 


+ 5.7552481 E- 01 


+ 1.6853730E-01 




+ 6.8223969E + 04 


-3.3873609E + 05 


+ 1. 78291 13E + 05 




+ 9.9896520E-01 


+ 1.2927669E-01 


-8.4648142E-03 




-1.3387658E + 08 


-5.9954040E + 07 


- 2.6001 038E + 07 




+ 1.3563957E + 01 


-2.4460604E + 01 


-1.0608757E + 01 




R10,R20 


+ 3.7143862E + 05 


+ 4.8759766E + 05 




+ 3.2928400E + 05 


-2.8257238E + 05 


-9.0272820E + 04 


+ 9.0000000E + 01 


+ 5.4575258E-01 


+ 2.4833123E-01 


-2.2335909E-01 




+ 3.0065381E + 05 


+ 2.4090578E + 05 


+ 1.0086758E + 05 




-6.7142922E-01 


+ 6.2881 094E- 01 


+ 3.7202370E-01 




-1.2021711E + 08 


-8.0078016E + 07 


-3.4727984E + 07 




+ 1. 79791 09E + 01 


- 2.2009541 E +01 


-9.5437965E + 00 




R10,R20 


+ 4.431 9781 E + 05 


+ 5.5801 769E + 05 




End time 


38:39:14 







3.14159), is the unit of time 
• the universal constant of gravita- 
tion equals unity 

The following canonical units are 
frequently used in astronomy. The 
unit of mass is the mass of the sun, 
the mean distance from the sun to the 
earth is the unit of length, and the unit 
of time equals one sidereal year 
divided by (2*3.14159), or 58.132 
days. 

The sample case in the program 
uses the mass of the earth as the unit 
of mass and the equatorial earth 
radius (6378.165 km) as the unit of 
length. The computation of the 
canonical unit of time can be left to 
the astronomers, who have stated that 
its value is 806.813645 seconds. 

Lines 260 to 300 of the listing ini- 
tialize the canonical values for the 
sample case. In the program, variable 
CML holds the canonical unit of 



length and CMT is the canonical unit 
of time. 

Mathematical Statement 
of the Problem 

There are four bodies, denoted by q . 
c\\, q 2 , and q 3 . with masses m , m ]t m 2 , 
and m 3 . The mass of body q is negligi- 
ble. The position vector of body ir- 
relative to cji is denoted by p { j(t n ). 
where i and / may assume numerical 
values 0, 1. 2, or 3; also, n is any in- 
teger, t is the abbreviation for time, 
and therefore t n denotes a specific 
value of time. The time derivative of 
Pij(t n ) is the velocity vector v (t„). 

The mathematical statement for the 
problem of this article is as follows. 
At the outset the values of the six vec- 
tors p, (t ). Pnlto). PnM, Vio(to). v 12 (to). 
and v, 3 (to) are known; they are called 
the initial conditions. The objective is 
to determine the value of p ]0 (t f ), where 
t f is the specified final time. This is ac- 



complished by first computing the 
values of the six vectors at time t\. 
Then, using the just-obtained values 
as new initial conditions, compute the 
vector values at t 2 . Continue "march- 
ing" to t 3 , U etc., until the values for 
t f are determined. 

It is mentioned in passing that any 
vector Pij can be computed from the 
three vectors p\ 0l p ]2 , and p 13 . To see 
this, remember the obvious vector 
relations 

Pu = -Pm 

Pu + Pjk = Pik (k = 0. 1.2, or 3) 

Pu = 

Thus, for example, p 2 o = Pi\ + Pio = 
-P\i + Pio. 

Two-Body Motion 

Suppose there are only two bodies, 
say q and q\. As before, Pio(fo) an d 
vio(to) denote the position and veloci- 
ty vectors of q relative to q\ at time 
to- The corresponding values at time 
ti are denoted by |pio(ti)| and |vio(ti)|. 
where the square brackets show that 
the values are the result of two-body 
motion. Over 100 useful procedures 
exist for solving two-body problems. 
In the days of paper-and-pencil com- 
putation, the human computer could 
easily switch procedures— for exam- 
ple, from an efficient procedure for 
elliptic motion to another procedure 
as the motion approached parabolic 
characteristics. Programmers for elec- 
tronic computers prefer one universal 
method for all types of two-body mo- 
tion. Stumpff uses a universal method 
called "subr See lines 1680 to 1910 
of the program. Stumpff spends the 
bulk of its time in this subroutine. 

Stumpff Reference Orbit 

This section presents the equation for 
P u . the Stumpff reference orbit for 
position, and V, v , the reference orbit 
for velocity, lb simplify the equations, 
the following conventions are used: P u 
and Vtj refer to time h; the two-body 
values, enclosed in square brackets, 
also refer to time tu all other terms 
refer to time to: fi = t\ - t \s the time 
step. 
It is easier to state the equations for 

[continued) 



220 BYTE • JULY 1985 



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Inquiry 63 



JULY 1985 'BYTE 221 



TRACKING SATELLITES 



four massive bodies; therefore, the 
condition that m = is temporarily 
removed. The equations are: 



Pio = Ipiol 

+ m 2 /(mi+m2) 

+ m 2 /(m2+mo) 

+ m3/(mi + m3) 

+ rniHrn-i+rno) 



V 



= \V\o\ 

+ m 2 /(mi+m2) 

+ m 2 /(m2+mo) 

+ m3/(m3+mo) 



(\V\7\-Vn-h*vn) 

(|P2o]-P20-^*V2o) 
(|Pl3|-Pl3-ft*V l3 ) 
(IP30|-P30-ft*V30) 

(|Vl2|-Vl2) 
(JV20)— V 2 o) 

(|Vl3|-V, 3 ) 
( V30I-V30) 



These equations exhibit remarkable 
symmetry. By interchanging the roles 
of subscripts and 2, for example, P\ 2 
and V12 are obtained. By similar inter- 
changes, one can obtain any Stumpff 
reference orbit, though the program 
requires only P\ Q , P n . and P\ 3 , as well 
as V10. Vn. and V^. Of course, the 
program saves time by using the con- 
dition that m = 0. 

Pij[t\) and V u (t\) are excellent ap- 
proximations to the true orbital pa- 
rameters, even for a relatively large 
time step. Therefore, Stumpff equates 
p u [U) and v -(t,) with P u lU) and V u [t\). 

The reference orbits are computed 
on lines 760 to 1330. The two-body 
subroutine, "subl," which starts on 
line 1680, is invoked six times. Note 



that the subroutine would be invoked 
five times to compute just one refer- 
ence orbit yet is called only six times 
for all reference orbits. 

Time Step 

The time step h is defined by ft - ti 
- t . (The program, however, uses TAU 
instead of h). Considerable effort was 
spent in finding a good criterion for 
the magnitude of the time step. It 
should be large to reduce the com- 
puting time, yet small to prevent the 
truncation error from building Up to 
an intolerable level. The criterion that 
was eventually chosen is based on an 
overestimate of the error. There exist 
better time-step criteria for the sam- 
ple case, but the chosen criterion has 
the virtue of working well for all cases 
that were investigated. 

The time step is calculated on lines 
620 to 740. It equals the fourth root 
of (q/ERRERR); q is computed on line 
1400 and involves the overestimate of 
the error; ERRERR is the user type-in 
following the prompt TIME-STEP 
CONTROL CRITERION. IE- 5 OR 
IE- 6 RECOMMENDED. A safeguard 
prevents the time step from becom- 
ing larger than 100 canonical units. 
Moreover, the time step is adjusted so 
that results are printed for the days 
that the user has specified. 



Mathematical Theory 
of Errors 

Functions encountered in the physical 
sciences can usually be represented 
as Ikylor series. If a procedure agrees 
with the Taylor series up. to and in- 
cluding terms of order n but not terms 
of order n+\, then the procedure 
is said to be of order n and the error 
of order w+h Higher-order pro- 
cedures provide a better approxima- 
tion than lower-order ones. Therefore, 
in general, equivalent accuracy is 
maintained by high-order procedures 
with large time steps and low-order 
procedures with small time steps. 

The reason the Stumpff method is 
so attractive can now be stated suc- 
cinctly: For point-mass bodies, the 
error of the Encke reference orbit is 
of order two, while that of the Stumpff 
reference orbit is of order four. ■ 

REFERENCES 

1. Stumpff, K. "Untersuchungenueberdas 
Problem der speziellenStoerungen in den 
rechtwinkligen Koordinaten." Astrono 
mische Nachrichten, vol. 273, 1942. 

2. Stumpff, K., and E. H. Weiss. "A Fast 
Method of Orbit Computation." NASA 
Technical Note TN D-4470, April 1968. 

3. Stumpff, K., and E. H. Weiss. 'Applica- 
tions of an N-body Reference Orbit" in 
Astronautical Sciences, vol. 15, number 5, 
September 1968. 



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Inquiry 255 



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Inquiry 122 



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COMPUTERS AND SPACE 



AUTOMATING 
A TELESCOPE 



by Louis J. Boyd 



Computerizing the repetitious tasks 
in variable-star photometry 



RECENTLY AT FAIRBORN Obser- 
vatory West, we completed automat- 
ing a telescope (photo I) for a con- 
siderable portion of the research pro- 
cess of photometry of variable stars 
requiring long-term observation. This 
article will explain the entire process 
from one end to the other, with em- 
phasis on what was automated, how 
it was automated, and what was pur- 
posely left to be done manually. 

Selecting the Stars 

Much of the success of this project 
has been due to our making obser- 
vations on the particular class of stars 
most suited for automation. As it is 
easier and less expensive to automate 
a small telescope than it is a large 
one, it was important that the type of 
observations being made were 
suitable for small telescopes. 

The main difference between large 
and small telescopes is the number 
of photons they can collect from a 
given star. Wide-bandwidth photom- 
etry (brightness measurement) makes 
the most use of the meager photons 
available to smaller telescopes. 
Photometry, as compared to spec- 
troscopy or direct imaging, also has 
the advantages of having a very 



repetitive measurement sequence 
and a low data-output rate, easing 
automation. 

Further, automation is ideally suited 
to the kind of research that requires 
observations each night for months or 
years on end. . 

Finally, it is helpful if the observed 
class of stars has many bright mem- 
bers to match the capabilities of a 
small automatic telescope, that there 
be strong current scientific interest in 
the results, and that there be an ex- 
pert on the class of stars willing to 
work with an automatic system. 

The RS Canum Venaticorum bina- 
ries and Dr. Douglas S. Hall fit the 
criteria in all respects. The RS Canum 
Venaticorum (or RS CVn) binaries are 
an exciting new class of stars that have 
highly active atmospheres, often with 
large groups of starspots that move 
about and change their sizes over 
time. These stars are similar to our 
own sun, but in a greatly exaggerated 
form. Tb learn how their starspots 
evolve and change over time, you 
must observe a significant number of 
the stars almost nightly for years. 
Besides the 40 or so known RS CVn 
binaries observable by a small tele- 
scope from the northern hemisphere, 



there are a number of stars suspected 
of being starspotted RS CVn binaries. 
Until recently, the photometry needed 
to detect any intensity variations as 
the spot groups rotate in and out of 
the line of sight from earth had not 
been done. There simply is not 
enough telescope time or. enough 
astronomers for such long-term ob- 
servations. However, the automatic 
system described in this article has 
discovered 1 5 such new variables dur- 
ing 1984 alone. One of these newly 
discovered RS CVn binaries can serve 
as an example to illustrate the ap- 
proach we took to automation. (See 
the text box "A New Variable Star" on 
page 230). Douglas Hall compiled the 
list of known and suspected RS CVn 
binaries from available data on the 
stars and, with the help of Russell 
Genet, screened the list to eliminate 
stars not suited to the automatic sys- 
tem (e.g., stars that are too dim, too 
far north or south, or too near other 
stars). For each variable (or suspected 

[continued) 
Louis J. Boyd has a B.S. in electrical engineer- 
ing and is codirector of the Fairborn Obser- 
vatory (629 North 30th St., Phoenix. AZ 
85008). He designed the automated photo- 
electric telescope described in this article. 

IULY 1985 • BYTE 227 



TELESCOPE 



The system must first 
determine if the sky 
is dark enough 
to begin observing. 



variable). Hall and Genet selected two 
additional stars to use in comparing 
the brightness differentially and to 
assist in locating and identifying the 
variable by the three stars' relative 
positions. Information about all of 
these stars was obtained from appro- 
priate catalogs and entered into a 
data file. The data included the coor- 
dinates of each star, the expected 
brightness of each star, periodic data 
on the variable star, if known, and 
coordinates of a nearby place in the 
sky containing no detectable star. 

This group data, together with 
similar data on all of the other groups 
of stars to be observed by the system, 
constitutes the astronomical input to 
the observational process. The pro- 
cess of deciding what variable or 
suspected variable stars to observe is. 



of course, a case of scientific intuition, 
and no attempt has been made to 
automate it. The selection of com- 
parison and check stars could be 
based on a set of rules relating 
brightness, separation from the vari- 
able star, and spectral class. The se- 
lection could be automated by allow- 
ing the computer to search star cata- 
logs, but, as it is a one-time task for 
each variable star, there is little incen- 
tive to do so. 

Observing the Stars 

Almost all of the observing process 
has been automated (figure I). The 
part that hasn't is the simple (for a 
human) process of looking at the sky 
in the afternoon, deciding if the 
weather is acceptable for observing, 
and opening the observatory roof. 
This manual process takes at most 
two minutes per day and has been a 
low-priority item to automate. Be- 
cause this task is repetitive, it will 
eventually be automated. We have 
made progress in that direction, but 
the difficulty is to reliably detect all 
forms of inclement weather including 
rain, hail, blowing dust, high wind, and 
heavy clouds that are likely to pro- 




Photo 1 : The automatic photoelectric telescope used to gather the measurements 
discussed in the article. The small box at the top of the telescope is the photometer. 



duce rain. We are currently testing an 
infrared clear-sky detector. After 
opening the observatory, we power 
up the system and compare the com- 
puter's real-time clock against the Na- 
tional Bureau of Standards' WWV 
time signals. From this point on. oper- 
ation is automatic. 

The system must first determine if 
the sky is dark enough to begin ob- 
serving. A human would do this by 
simply looking up and making a deci- 
sion. Not so for the computer. The 
program starts by repeatedly deter- 
mining the position of the sun by cal- 
culating the orbit of the earth and its 
rotation, given the date and time from 
the clock and knowing the location of 
the observatory. This function could 
have been handled with a lookup 
table for each week of the year. When 
the sun is 10 degrees below the 
horizon, the telescope is initialized to 
the southeast limits of its allowable 
travel range and the related position 
in the sky is calculated based on the 
time. At that instant, a frequency 
generator is turned on that steps the 
right-ascension motor of the tele- 
scope at a rate that very accurately 
compensates for the rotation of the 
earth. Thus, the software does not 
have to constantly take the earth's 
rotation into account. Most manually 
operated astronomical telescopes 
also have a motor that compensates 
for the earth's rotation, even though 
the stars are located by an operator. 

The system then decides which 
group it will observe first. The logic 
used is about the same as a human 
would use. Because viewing stars at 
low angles introduces errors due to 
all the air the starlight must penetrate, 
the maximum distance the star is 
from the zenith when it is observed 
is restricted to a 4 5-degree cone over- 
head. The program calculates the 
time that each group will rise and set 
within the defined observing cone 
and selects the group that will be the 
first to move out of the cone. The pro- 
gram determines whether the se- 
lected group is within 10 degrees of 
the moon. If it is, that group is 
skipped. Again, a human would sim- 
ply judge the angle by looking at the 



228 BYTE • JULY 1985 



TELESCOPE 



moon and the selected group, but the 
computer must calculate the position 
of the moon and compare it to the 
position of the group. 

The telescope must now be moved 
to the check star of the group being 
observed. A human observer would 
push the appropriate slew buttons to 
move the telescope to the position or 
release clutches and move the 
telescope by hand. The star is found 
by a combination of the use of set- 
ting circles, comparing the observed 
star field to "finder charts," and by 
simply recognizing the pattern of 
stars. The equivalent process for the 
computer is complex. First, the com- 
puter must calculate the angular 
distance the telescope needs to be 
moved to go from its present position 
to the sky position for the group. All 
star positions are corrected for 
precession of the earth's axis. The 
angles are passed to a module that 
breaks them into two separate moves, 
one with both right-ascension and 
declination motors being stepped 
together, and a second move with 
only one motor running. The exact 
number of steps required for each 
move is calculated and the direction 
and number of steps is passed to a 
stepper-motor driver routine. This is 
the only assembly-language routine 
used in the entire operation. It must 
calculate which windings of each 
motor need to be turned on for each 
step that the motors make. In addi- 
tion, it must provide smooth accelera- 
tion at the beginning of each move 
and smooth deceleration at the end 
of each move. The maximum stepping 
rate is on the order of 4000 steps per 
second, which could not be done in 
a high-level language. The next task 
is to take several measurements of the 
sky brightness in positions near the 
sky position to set a threshold to use 
while searching for the stars. The tele- 
scope is then moved to the position 
where it expects to find the star. A 
square spiral search is then started 
taking J/io-second readings of the sky 
brightness and comparing this to a 
value calculated from the expected 
brightness of the star. If the reading 
exceeds about one-half the difference 



f START j 



SELECT 
PROGRAM STARS 



SELECT 

COMPARISON a 
CHECK STARS 




OPEN 
OBSERVATORY 



INITIALIZE 
PHOTOMETER a 
TELESCOPE 



SELECT GROUP 
TO BE 
OBSERVED 



MOVE TO STAR 
AND MAKE 
SPIRAL SEARCH 




CENTER STAR a 
TAKE READINGS 
THRU 3 FILTERS 




STORE 

READINGS ON 
FLOPPY DISK 




CHECK IF GROUP 
SHOULD BE 
REOBSERVED 




YES 



CLOSE 
OBSERVATORY 




REDUCE AND 

SORT DATA 



PRELIMINARY 
ANALYSIS 
OF DATA 




PUBLICATION 
OF FINDINGS 



Figure I : A diagram of the operation of the automatic photoelectric telescope described 
in the article. The shaded boxes were left as manual processes, while all other activities 
were automated. Boxes marked with an asterisk are candidates for future automation. 



of the sky background and the ex- 
pected value, it is assumed that the 
star has been found. By using an ad- 
justable threshold, there is little 
chance of the system locking onto the 
wrong star. 

The next step of the process is to 
center the star. A human would look 
through the eyepiece and make sure 



that the star's image was centered, 
carefully adjusting the telescope's 
fine-motion controls. The automated 
system uses an iterative procedure, in 
which the telescope is offset to each 
of four positions by a little less than 
the radius of the diaphragm, and a 
reading is taken in each position. 

{continued) 



JULY 1985 'BYTE 229 



TELESCOPE 



There are 16 possible combinations 
that dictate which direction and how 
far the telescope must be moved to 
center it. This process is repeated 
until the star is detected in all four 



positions, where it is close enough to 
the center to take measurements. 

Measurements of 10 seconds each 
are made in three color passbands, 
changing the position of a wheel with 



colored glass filters between <;ach 
measurement. The elescop >ti 
moves to the sk; pc ition replacing 
the measurements, then to the com- 
parison, variable, etc. When all of the 



A New Variable Star 



liable A: 


Program parameters. 








NAME: HR 4430 DIAPHRAGM = 60" 








NAME 


RIGHT ASCEN. 


DECLIN. 


V-MAG. 


CHECK 


HD 102224 


11 46 3.0 


+ 47 46 46 


3.71 


SKY 




11 34 29.0 


+ 46 45 44 


.00 


COMP 


HD 101133 


11 38 33.0 


+ 46 50 3 


6.10 


VARI 


HD 99967 


11 30 25.0 


+ 46 39 27 


6.35 



liable B: 


Sample data. 
















GROUP=HR 4430 
















HELIOCENTRIC CORRECTION = .0045 












TYPE 


NAME 


ULTRA 


BLUE 


VISUAL 


SECZ 


HH 


MM 


SS 


CHECK 


HD 102224 


308.72 


2533.51 


4371.71 


1.05 


7 


56 


47 


SKY 




9.11 


21.69 


24.65 


1.04 


7 


57 


21 


COMP 


HD 101133 


176.54 


619.36 


515.79 


1.04 


7 


57 


58 


VARIABLE 


HD 99967 


35.02 


233.10 


410.78 


1.03 


7 


58 


53 


COMP 


HD 101133 


174.15 


619.39 


515.04 


1.04 


7 


59 


32 


VARIABLE 


HD 99967 


34.47 


218.37 


389.12 


1.03 


8 





21 


COMP 


HD 101133 


173.12 


601.62 


509.49 


1.04 


8 


1 


1 


VARIABLE 


HD 99967 


35.21 


227.78 


406.96 


1.03 


8 


1 


51 


COMP 


HD 101133 


173.98 


615.16 


511.58 


1.04 


8 


2 


38 


SKY 




8.85 


21.68 


25.34 


1.03 


8 


3 


11 


CHECK 


HD 102224 


313.27 


2577.48 


4426.84 


1.04 


8 


3 


54 



.10 












I I l 


I I I 


I 


1 1 








• 








.20 




•A.. 

• 

• •- 

• ■ 
• 

• 


• • 

1 


•v • • • - 

m 




.30 


• 
_ • 

i i i 


t 

1 1 1 


1 1 




.( 


) .1 .2 .3 


.4 .5 .6 


.7 


.8 .9 1 







HR 4430 







HR4430isthe numberofa star 
in the Yale Bright Star Catalog. 
It is also known as HD 99967. It was 
found to be photometrically vari- 
able by the automatic photoelectric 
telescope and process described in 
this article. Shown in table A is all 
the input information needed by 
the system to observe this sus- 
pected variable star, as well as com- 
parison and check stars and a sky 
position. Given are the positions 
(right ascension and declination) 
and the magnitude (brightness) of 
each star in the V (visual) band of 
the UBV photometric system. 

Table B shows actual photometric 
measurements as recorded direct- 
ly by the system. The check star, HD 
102224, was measured in the ultra- 
violet, blue, and visual bands, and 
this was recorded along with the 
amount of air through which the 
star was observed (straight up is 
1.00 air masses), which is the secant 
of the zenith angle (SECZ). The 
universal time in hours, minutes, 
and seconds was also recorded. 
Note that after moving to the check 
star, 10 additional moves to other 
stars or the sky are required to com- 
plete the sequence of 33 separate 
measurements. When reduced, all 
these measurements give but a 
single brightness point in each 
color band on a light curve. 

The final product of the entire 
process is a light curve that shows 
the variations in brightness of the 
star, confirming its variability (figure 
A). As mentioned in the text, this 
was published in the Information 
Bulletin of Variable Stars. 



Figure A: Light curve for HR 4430. 



230 BYTE • JULY 1985 



TELESCOPE 



measurements have been completed, 
which takes about six minutes includ- 
ing all of the searching and centering, 
the measured data is stored on floppy 
disk. The data that is saved includes 
the measured star brightness, the 
angle of the group from the zenith, 
the time, and a correction to apply as 
if the star had been observed from 
the position of the sun rather than 
from earth. One set of actual data 
taken one night on our example 
group, HR 4430. is shown in the text 
box. 

The next group to be observed is 
then selected. It is again the group 
that will set first and has not yet been 
observed. If every group in the 4 5- 
degree cone above the telescope has 
already been observed once, the sys- 
tem will start observing them a sec- 
ond time. Of course, as the earth 
turns, new groups keep coming into 
the observing cone from the east. If 
the observing program has the op- 
timum number of groups in it and the 
groups are not too highly clustered 
together, the system will not miss 
groups that come within the observ- 
ing cone, but it will not observe many 
for a second time. Although the 
searching and centering appears com- 
plex, it is done considerably more 
quickly by the automatic system than 
can be done manually. (Human ob- 
servers usually skip the reobserving 
portion of the program and go have 
a cup of coffee.) 

Between each group the program 
calculates the position of the sun; if 
it is less than 10 degress below the 
horizon, the system moves the tele- 
scope to its rest position and shuts 
down. If. during the course of the 
night, the system cannot locate a star, 
it reinitializes its position and moves 
to the next group. If this occurs four 
times in succession, either it is hope- 
lessly cloudy or there is a mechani- 
cal malfunction, in which case it also 
shuts the system down. 

Data Reduction, Analysis, 
and Publication 

Reduction is a highly repetitious pro- 
cess involving a great deal of mathe- 
matical computation. It calculates the 



differences in brightness between the 
variable and comparison stars and be- 
tween the check and comparison 
stars. The difference between the 
check and comparison star should be 
constant and provides a way to detect 
comparison stars that are variable. 
Corrections are applied to account for 
the background glow of the sky. atmo- 
spheric attenuation, nonlinearities in 
the detector, and deviations in the 
color response of the system from 
that of the standard system. Repeated 
observations within a group are 
averaged together. If no measurement 
errors have occurred and the com- 
parison star is stable, the reduced 
values of the variable star minus the 
comparison star represent the true 
changes in the brightness of the vari- 
able star. 

Currently, we allow the data to ac- 
cumulate for three months and then 
reduce it all at one time. After a 
week's data is gathered from the tele- 
scope, it is transferred to a high- 
density disk that can store about one 
month's raw data. Other than the 
changing of disks, the data-reduction 
process has been completely auto- 
mated. 

The primary output of the data- 
reduction program is a tabulated list 
of the brightness differences along 
with the time of the measurement and 
the mean error in the measurement. 
Measurements that have excessive in- 
ternal inconsistencies are automatical- 
ly thrown out. 

"Quick look" plots of brightness 
changes versus time are produced by 
the system, and it is on such plots that 
a human first knows that a suspected 
variable star is really variable. While 
useful in analyses, such plots made on 
a printer are not of sufficiently high 
quality to publish in most journals, 
and human graphic art must still take 
the final step. At the operator's re- 
quest, a particular program can plot 
the data by phase rather than date if 
the period of a star's variation is 
known, and another program can de- 
tect periodic variations in the data. 

For our example star, the final 
"product" was a paper coauthored by 
Boyd, Genet, and Hall in the July 6. 



Measurements with 
excessive internal 
inconsistencies 
are thrown out 



1984. issue of the Information Bulletin of 
Variable Stars (IBVS). an international 
publication received by all variable 
star researchers. The light curve of the 
new variable has been reproduced 
with the permission of the IBVS 
editor. Dr. Bela Szidel of Konkoly Ob- 
servatory, Budapest, Hungary. 

Software and Hardware 
Implementation 

Microware's OS-9 operating system 
and the BASIC-09 high-level language 
are used in this system. BASIC-09 is 
a structured language with most of 
the good points of both BASIC and 
Pascal. Of the many good features of 
OS-9 and BASIC-09, one that was par- 
ticularly important to this project was 
the use of position-independent code, 
which allows executable modules to 
be loaded anywhere in memory with- 
out recompiling. Also. BASIC-09 
allows passing of parameters between 
modules and to assembly-language 
modules using pointers. This feature 
made the use of completely software- 
driven stepper motors practical. Fur- 
ther, BASIC-09 allows programs to be 
edited, traced, and debugged prior to 
compilation, easing the job of op- 
timizing hardware performance. 

The program is broken into tasks 
and subtasks. each with its own posi- 
tion-independent code module. Each 
module performs a specific task. For 
example, one module calculates the 
coordinates of the sun, given the date, 
time, and observer's location. Another 
calculates the number of steps re- 
quired to move between specific 
coordinates. Modules call other 
modules as required, and modules 
may be released from memory if they 
are no longer needed, freeing mem- 
ory space for other modules. The pro- 

[continued) 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 231 



TELESCOPE 



The highly productive 
automated observatory 
still requires 
human attention. 

gram to operate the telescope and 
gather data uses approximately 40 
modules. 

A Peripheral Technology PT-69 
single-board computer forms the 
heart of the telescope control system. 
This computer features a 6809E pro- 
cessor, 56K bytes of RAM (random 
access read/write memory), a clock/ 
calendar, two serial ports, two 8-bit 
parallel ports, and a 2797 floppy-disk 
controller. The computer is used 
"stock" except for replacing the PIA 
(peripheral interface adapter) chip 



with an address decoder and bidirec- 
tional buffer on a DIP (dual in-line 
package) header to provide direct ac- 
cess to several memory locations. 

The rest of the control system elec- 
tronics is contained on a small wire- 
wrapped board that consists of a 
counter-timer chip to count the pulses 
from the photometer, output latches 
for the stepper motors, input buffers 
for the limit switches, weather detec- 
tors, and manual controls used dur- 
ing alignment. The power-handling cir- 
cuits for the stepper motors use a 
switching constant-current source and 
allow up to a five-times overvoltage 
to the motor during high-speed 
operation. 

The hardware just described is ac- 
tually a third-generation design being 
assembled as part of a joint Vander- 
bilt University-Fairborn Observatory 
program under the auspices of the 
National Science Foundation. An 



Optec photometer is being used 
because its solid-state photodiode 
detector, which is sensitive in the 
visual, red, and near-infrared portions 
of the spectrum, is well suited to 
observations of the relatively cool RS 
Canum Venaticorum stars. A small 
stepping motor changes the filters 
through a rack-and-pinion mecha- 
nism. The telescope being used is a 
16-inch diameter DFM Engineering 
unit employing very rigid aluminum 
castings and a stiff, backlash-free fric- 
tion-drive system, which is ideal for 
computer control. 

Keeping It Going Right 

While this automated observatory is 
highly productive, easily outproduc- 
ing most manually operated observa- 
tories, it does require human atten- 
tion. There are, of course, the normal 
housekeeping functions, such as 

[continued) 



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232 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 188 




HELP Menu 



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Set Register— Shc^ws you what the set regis- < 

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Inquiry 33 for End-Users. Inquiry 34 for DEALERS ONLY;- 



TELESCOPE 



cleaning the telescope's mirrors. 
Because the telescope spends so 
much time in operation exposed to 
the sky. cleaning and lubrication need 
to be done somewhat more often 
than would otherwise be the case. 

While the system has been highly 
reliable, finding tens of thousands of 
stars with no known errors, it has had 
a few interesting problems and 
failures. On February 29, 1984, it re- 
fused to find any groups although the 
sky was clear and everything ap- 
peared to be working properly. It was 
finally determined that the clock/ 
calendar (in the first-generation 
system) had not been set for leap 
year, throwing the system off 1/365 of 
a circle, or almost an entire degree. 
And there have been a few more sub- 
tle problems that were only caught on 
close examination by the astronomer 
(Douglas Hall), such as a half-day error 
in the initial reduction of data The 



software was corrected and the data 
reduced again. 

It has been vital that the end user 
of the data take an active part in 
assuring that the system is doing what 
it is supposed to do. In spite of the 
fact that the system immediately 
started producing large amounts of 
very usable data, it has seemed pru- 
dent to develop self -checks of increas- 
ing sophistication. While from a 
superficial viewpoint the software and 
hardware seem simple for an essen- 
tially fully automatic system, the 
number of things that the astronomer 
using this system must do correctly is 
large, and thus the appearance of 
simplicity is perhaps deceptive. Much 
of what the user must learn for proper 
operation is learned by personal ex- 
perience, and it appears that a close 
and continuing association between 
the system, its engineer, and the 
astronomical end user is required. 



While much of the process has been 
automated, the need for human par- 
ticipation has in no way been elimi- 
nated. What, then, has been gained? 
What has been gained, of course, is 
greatly increased productivity. Not 
only can an automatic system greatly 
outproduce nonautomatic systems, 
but a single experienced engineer can 
easily take care of a number of sys- 
tems at one location with time to 
develop new systems and techniques. 
And everybody gets to sleep at 
night! ■ 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
My thanks to Russell M. Genet, who 
helped think through many of the fine 
points of this process and this article, to 
Richard and Helen Lines, who provided 
the original catalyst for the project, and 
to the Vanderbilt University astronomer 
Douglas S. Hall, whose astronomical 
research has primarily occupied this auto- 
matic system. 



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234 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 392 



Introducing the MIX Editor 

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COMPUTERS AND SPACE 



ASTRONOMICAL 
COMPUTING WITH 

MICROS 

by Richard Bochonko and William T. Peters 

Increasing the 
amateur astronomer's reach 



ASTRONOMERS LIVE AND DIE by 
computation. All aspects of astron- 
omy deal with numbers and compu- 
tations of varying degrees of com- 
plexity. Among the many problems 
that require a lot of computational 
power are the creation of models of 
the structure and evolution of stars, 
black holes, and galaxies; the syn- 
thesis of the spectra of stars; the 
determination of orbits of binary 
stars; and the determination of the 
positions of the sun, moon, and 
planets in the past, present, and 
future. 

As astronomers, we use microcom- 
puters by themselves and as terminals 
to mainframes. We use them to graph- 
ically analyze data and to prepare 
graphics for presentations and publi- 
cation. By themselves, micros are 
becoming standard equipment at the 
telescope for equipment control, data 
acquisition, and initial data reduction. 
At our desks, we use micros for com- 
puting problems of moderate com- 
plexity, to establish and maintain 
databases, for teaching, and for word 
processing. 



In addition to assisting the profes- 
sional astronomer, the microcom- 
puter has been valuable to the 
amateur. Until now, amateurs could 
not afford the powerful calculating 
tools that are so important to profes- 
sionals. The availability of inexpensive 
micros with outstanding software has 
led to their use by amateurs at the 
telescope as well as at home. 

If you have a micro that speaks 
BASIC, a good way to develop some 
useful programs— and to learn intro- 
ductory astronomy— is with Celestial 
BASIC by Eric Burgess. (For a list of 
books and periodicals mentioned in 
this and other articles, see the 
"Astronomy Sources" text box on 
page 244.) Burgess devotes each of 
his 23 chapters to a brief description 
of an astronomical principle or phe- 
nomenon and then follows the 
description with a program that helps 
you predict or learn about the 
phenomenon. 

Celestial BASIC is divided into four 
main sections: 'Time," "The Moon," 
"The Planets," and "General and 
Tutorial." The author has chosen ex- 



cellent programs, so after you have 
typed them in or purchased the disk 
with all the programs from the book's 
publisher, you're left with a set of 
utilities that replaces many of the 
tables in standard references like The 
Observer's Handbook and The Astronomical 
Calendar. 

The "Time" section offers a perpetu- 
al calendar, a date-of-Easter program, 
a variety of time and date conver- 
sions, and two programs of special in- 
terest to amateur observers: Epoch, 
which updates star coordinates for 
precession (the slow change in the 
direction that the earth's axis points 
among the stars); and Pstar, which 
helps determine the precise position 
of Polaris with respect to the true 
North Celestial Pole. Polaris is nearly 

[continued) 
Richard Bochonko and William T. Peters are 
astronomers living in Winnipeg. Contact them 
as follows: Dr. Richard Bochonko. Department 
of Mathematics and Astronomy. University 
of Manitoba. Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 
2M8. Canada: William T. Peters. Manitoba 
Planetarium. 190 Rupert Ave.. Winnipeg. 
Manitoba R3B ON 2, Canada. 

JULY 1985 -BYTE 239 



ASTRONOMICAL COMPUTING 



Astronomical Software Resources 



Here are some of the software 
resources we have discovered. 
Keep checking the ads in astronomy 
magazines for new announcements, or 
contact the Griffith Observatory as 
listed for periodically compiled 
updates. 



Bear Creek Survey Service, 1991 Bear 
Creek Rd.. Kerrville. TX 78028. (512) 
367-4390. Astro: Yields altitude and 
azimuth of sun and 57 bright stars. 
(HP 4 lev) 

Celestial Software. POB 95, Dell 
Rapids. SD 57022. Utilities covering 
telescope properties, observing condi- 
tions, time, coordinates, and stellar 
properties. 

Celestron International, POB 3578, 
283 5 Columbia St.. Torrance. CA 
90503, (213) 328-9560. Computer- 
controlled pointing for the Celestron 
line of quartz stepper-motor-controlled 
telescopes. 

Chesnutt Programming, Rt. 5, Box 
348. Fayetteville. NC 28301, (919) 
588-4511. SIDCIjOCK: TUrns a Com- 
modore 64 into an accurate sidereal 
clock that also displays civil and univer- 
sal time. ($15 U.S.. $18 foreign) Catalog 
of other astronomy programs available. 
(Commodore 64) 

Commodore Business Machines Inc., 
1200 Wilson Dr., West Chester, PA 
19380. Sky Travel: Fully utilizes the 
Commodore 64's high-resolution graph- 
ics to display the constellations and 
solar system objects from any location 
on earth over a 20.000-year range. 
Available from Commodore dealers. 
(C-64 and disk drive) 

Computer Assist Services, 1122 13th 
St.. Golden; CO 80401. The_Sky: Plots 
a graphic representation of sun, moon, 
planets, stars, and Messier objects given 
a location, time, and date. Numerous 
utilities included. ($60 U.S.) (IBM PC 
128K DOS 1.1 or higher; will support 
8087) 



Cosmic Computer Works, 243 White 
St.. Belmont. MA 02178. Myoptics: Op- 
tical design program generates spot 
diagrams for telescopes and other op- 
tical systems. Planets: Yields the 
celestial and horizon coordinates of 
the sun. moon, and planets, along with 
apparent diameter, brightness, and 
percentage of illumination. Ephemeris: 
Converts orbital elements for a newly 
discovered comet or asteroid to 
celestial coordinates. Almanac: Rising 
and setting information for sun and 
moon. Also beginning and end of 
twilight. IMoons and SMoons: Graphic 
presentations showing the positions of 
the moons of Jupiter and Saturn visi- 
ble in small telescopes. (Apple, North 
Star, TRS-80. some others; disks or 
cassettes) 

Design Studio Software, 6209 South 
Joshua Lane, Lantana, FL 33462. Solar 
System Ephemeris: Celestial coor- 
dinates of solar system objects to very 
high accuracy. (Apple) 

Griffith Observatory, 2800 East 
Observatory Rd., Los Angeles. CA 
90027. Send a legal-size, self- 
addressed envelope with two first-class 
stamps for a directory of astronomical 
programs for microcomputers when 
this list has gone stale. 

Hopkins Phoenix Observatory, 7812 
West Clayton Dr., Phoenix, AZ 85033. 
Computerized stellar photometers and 
data-reduction software. (Most home 
computers) 

Charles Kluepfel, 11 George St.. 
Bloomfield. NJ 07003. Planets: Precise 
coordinates for the sun. moon, and 
planets. New Orrery: A view of the 
solar system looking down from the 
"top" for any date. Shows all nine 
planets. Planetarium: Screen plots a 
star map to a magnitude of 3.5 or 
deeper for any date and location on 
earth. World Map: Screen plot of world 
map shows areas experiencing 
daylight, darkness, moonlight. Eclipse 
Map: Accurate data for solar-eclipse 
paths and graphical plots of paths on 



earth map. Calendar Conversions: Con- 
verts among Julian, Gregorian, and 
Jewish calendars, giving Julian Day 
numbers and moon phases. (Apple 
only) 

K & W ASTRONOMICS. POB 2275. 
Orange. CA 92669. Programs to calcu- 
late coordinates of solar system objects 
and Messier objects. (Apple. VIC-20, 
Timex Sinclair, others) 

MlCROTECHNIC SOLUTIONS. POB 2940, 

New Haven. CT 0651 5. (203) 389-8383. 
Astro Positions: Provides solar, lunar, 
planetary, and stellar positions in 
geocentric, heliocentric, or topocentric 
coordinates. (Disk $49.95 U.S.) (Com- 
modore 64) 

Robert Moler, 5999 Secor Rd.. 
Traverse City, Ml 49684. Programs 
simulating travel at relativistic speeds, 
rotation of spiral galaxies, comets, and 
other solar system coordinates. (Timex 
Sinclair) 

Prentice-Hall Inc., Rte. 9W. 
Englewood Cliffs. NJ 07632. The 
Astronomy Disk: Sheridan Simon pro- 
vides 16 programs for simulating space 
travel, solar system and stellar 
phenomena. Thirty-eight-page hand- 
book. (Apple II only) 

Public Domain Software. POB 640. 
Stanley, NC 28164. Yale Catalog of 
Bright Stars: 9200 stars down to a 
magnitude of 6.5 with spectral, photo- 
metric, parallax, and proper-motions 
data. (Eight 8-inch CP/M single-sided 
single-density floppy disks) 

Saturn Software, R.R. 1. Box 673. Pat- 
terson. NY 12 563. Galilean Moons: 
High-resolution simulation of Jupiter's 
moons. (Atari, TRS-80) 

Schaf Software Systems Inc. Suite 
1068. 211 1-M 30th St.. Boulder. CO 
80301. (303) 666-5353. TellStar II: Solar- 
system object position and time conver- 
sions for amateur astronomers. Plots 
sun, moon, and planets on star maps. 
Maps include Messier objects. (Apple. 
IBM) 



240 BYTE • JULY 1985 



ASTRONOMICAL COMPUTING 



Brad Schaper, 7266 Volclay Dr., San 
Diego. CA 92119. Public-domain astron- 
omy disk. Lots of good stuff in every 
category. Good educational item. Worth 
study by programmers new to astron- 
omy. (Apple only) 

Scientific Computing. POB 5091. Lit- 
tleton. CO 80123. Astronomical Soft- 
ware 1: A menu-driven program pro- 
viding date. time, and coordinate con- 
versions. ($19.95 U.S.) (Timex Sinclair 
1000. 64K) 

StarSoft. POB 2 524. San Anselmo. CA 
94960. Halley's Comet: Coordinates for 
Halley's comet plus graphic views of the 
comet in sky and in solar system. (IBM 
only) 

S & T Software. 13361 Frati Lane. 
Sebastopol. CA 95472. Celestial BASIC 
programs as listed in the book by Eric 
Burgess. (Apple. Sorcerer, Timex 
Sinclair) 

Synergistic Software, 5221 120th 
Ave. S.E., Bellevue. WA 98006. The Star 
Gazers Guide: Crude sky and constel- 
lation charts with some tests about 
each constellation. The Planetary 
Guide: Rough planet positions plus 
"pictures" plotted on the high-resolu- 
tion screen and text information. 
(Apple II only) 

Universal Micro Products, POB 8067. 
Rolling Meadows. IL 60008-8067. 
Eclipse prediction, telescope mirror 
analysis, ray tracing, comet and minor- 
planet ephemerides. etc. (Commodore 
64 and VlC-20) 

Zephyr Services, 306 S. Homewood 
Ave.. Pittsburgh. PA 15208. (412) 
247-5915. Astrocalc: Time, calendar, and 
coordinate conversions along with coor- 
dinates for solar-system objects. Astro- 
Aid: Forty-four data conversions and 
utilities including Kepler's/Newton's laws, 
relativity telescope design, solar-system 
data, and characteristics of nearest and 
brightest stars. Astrobase: Database of 
300 deep-sky objects. 



a degree away from the true pole, far 
enough to cause problems in aligning 
a telescope mount if not com- 
pensated. 

The "Moon" section programs yield 
lunar positions, phases, and eclipse 
dates. The "Planets" programs yield 
positional data, distances, angular 
diameters, and. where applicable, 
phases and elongations of the 
planets. Rising and setting times of 
the sun. moon, and planets are gen- 
erated with special attention to data 
that will help observers find Mercury 
and Venus in the morning and even- 
ing twilight. Skyset and Skyplt are a 
particularly impressive pair of pro- 
grams that use high-resolution graph- 
ics to produce horizon star maps 
showing the visible planets, sun. 
moon, and stars for a specific date, 
time, and location on the earth. Since 
this program set is highly machine- 
dependent, it is given in two versions 
(Apple and Sorcerer). Also provided 
is a program called Plantf. which 
locates the sun. moon, and planets 
among the zodiacal constellations 
using plots composed of ASCII 
(American Standard Code for Infor- 
mation Interchange) characters on the 
text screen. 

Among the "General and Tutorial" 
programs, the ones providing infor- 
mation on annual meteor showers 
and photo-exposure information for 
the planets are particularly useful. 
There is also a pair of programs to 
help beginners learn the constella- 
tions. 

The programs in Celestial BASIC are 
written in Applesoft, Apple's variant 
of Microsoft BASIC. Burgess has taken 
some pains to avoid using the Apple's 
unique features in most programs, so 
it isn't too hard to get them running 
on other machines. We know of 
amateur astronomers who have had 
good results from some of the Celestial 
BASIC programs on TRS-80s. Commo- 
dore 64s. and Ataris, although they 
had to make some effort to translate 
Applesoft's way of doing things to 
their machine's BASIC. Burgess orig- 
inally wrote these programs on an 
Exidy Sorcerer. In an appendix. 
Burgess gives three of the more in- 



teresting graphics-based programs in 
their Sorcerer versions. Since there is 
now a paucity of Sorcerer software, 
this book should be of special interest 
to Sorcerer owners interested in 
astronomy. TimexISinclair 1000: Astron- 
omy is a new book from the same 
publisher as Celestial BASIC and uses 
similar programs that have been 
adapted to the T/S 1000. 

The biggest advantage of Celestial 
BASIC is the open code. Burgess sug- 
gests ways to combine and modify the 
programs, and there is no better way 
to learn about something than to 
wade into its innards and modify it to 
your own purposes. In this respect, 
the Celestial BASIC programs are much 
better learning tools than most of the 
prepackaged software on the market. 

While Burgess's programs are fine 
learning tools and information utilities 
for amateur astronomers, he doesn't 
discuss the source and quality of the 
algorithms in enough detail to satisfy 
a professional. Additionally, if you 
want similar programs in a language 
other than BASIC, trying to decipher 
the algorithms woven into Burgess's 
BASIC code can be tough going. 

Astronomy Fundamentals 

Until recently there was no collected 
source for the fundamental algo- 
rithms related to time, the calendar, 
and the positions and properties of 
solar system objects. Jean Meeus has 
done both amateur and professional 
astronomers a great service by look- 
ing through a wide variety of ancient 
and obscure sources and bringing the 
best of the material together in his 
Astronomical Formulae for Calculators. Since 
Celestial BASIC was written around the 
same time as Astronomical Formulae, 
Burgess didn't have access to Meeus's 
fine algorithms. Instead. Burgess often 
used algorithms of lower quality and 
more limited range. 

Regrettably. Meeus seldom gives his 
source for the algorithms. However, 
he provides a clear and definitive 
discussion of the formulae with imple- 
mentation hints and sample runs for 
Hewlett-Packard calculators. Meeus 
provides the formulae and general 

{continued) 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 241 



ASTRONOMICAL COMPUTING 



computational methods, rather than 
Hewlett-Packard listings, so these 
algorithms are equally accessible to 
everyone who can program. This 
book really opens the way for 
amateur astronomers to proceed into 
computational astronomy and is 
equally useful to the professional who 
needs to compute temporal, calen- 
dric. or solar system phenomena. 

Many of the algorithms in Astronom- 
ical Formulae can be implemented in a 
few lines of code. However, those that 
yield good positions for the sun, 
moon, and planets can grow into 
complex monstrosities. Roger Sinnott, 
proprietor of Cosmic Computer 
Works, an astronomical software 
house in Belmont. Massachusetts, has 
implemented these algorithms in a 
very elegant program called Planets. 
At $2 5 (last time we checked) the pro- 
gram is a bargain, and its open code 



is well worth a careful examination. 
Sinnott supplies Planets and a 
number of other superb programs in 
BASIC on disks or cassettes for Apple, 
TRS-80, and North Star computers. 

Planets yields the celestial position 
and apparent size, brightness, and 
phase (if applicable) of the sun, moon, 
and planets. When the user supplies 
the latitude and longitude, the pro- 
gram provides altitudes and 
azimuths— a handy feature, since 
astronomers are frequently called 
upon to provide solar altitudes and 
azimuths for other professionals. We 
have used Planets to provide this kind 
of data to architects building solar- 
collection features into houses, 
satellite-dish installers, weather scien- 
tists, and lawyers. 

In addition to very well organized 
and structured code, Sinnott has 
taken great care to avoid the pitfalls 



References 
for Computation 



Compact Numerical Methods for Computers 
by John C. Nash. Adam Hilger Ltd., 
Techno House. Redcliffe Way. Bristol. 
England BSI 6NX. A good section on 
machine and number characteristics 
precedes a concise discussion of prob- 
lems in linear algebra, matrixes, non- 
linear equations, and other topics. 
Helps to select methods appropriate 
for micros. 

Computer Approximations by John F. Hart. 
E. W. Cheney. Charles L. Lawson. Hans 
J. Maehly, Charles K. Mesztenyi, John 
Rice. Henry G. Thatcher Jr., and 
Christopher Witzgall. John Wiley & Sons 
Inc., 605 Third Ave.. New York, NY 
10158. A lot of authors, but they all 
deserve credit for providing the fun- 
damental source of polynomial ap- 
proximations for the standard trigo- 
nometric and mathematical functions. 

Floating-Point Computation by Pat H. 
Sterbenz. Prentice-Hall Inc., Rte. 9W. 
Englewood Cliffs. NJ 07632. Good func- 
tions require a good underlying system 
of arithmetic. A must for language 
writers teaching machines to add. sub- 
tract, multiply, and divide. 



"Improved 'Ifigonometric Functions for 
CBASIC-80" by Robert Lurie. Microsys- 
tems, vol. 4. no. 12. December 1983, 
pages 130-132. Uses algorithms from 
Computer Approximations to fix 
CBASIC-80's very poor trigonometric 
functions. 

Pascal User Manual and Report by Kathleen 
Jensen and Niklaus Wirth. Springer- 
Verlag New York Inc., 175 Fifth Ave., 
New York, NY 10010. The fundamen- 
tal source for Pascal users. 

Software Manual for the Elementary Functions 
by William J. Cody and William Waite. 
Prentice-Hall Inc.. Rte. 9W. Englewood 
Cliffs. NJ 07632. Implementation notes 
for Computer Approximations with FOR- 
TRAN test programs and comments on 
the quality of the algorithms. 

'"Ifanscendental Functions" by Hal 
Hardenbergh. DTACK Grounded no. 16, 
January 1983. and no. 18. April 1983. 
Digital Acoustics, 1475 E. McFadden 
Street. Suite F, Santa Ana, CA 92705. 
Uses the algorithms in Computer Approx- 
imations to implement the standard 
functions to 14 digits of precision on a 
68000 microprocessor. 



presented by the limited-precision 
binary floating-point numbers com- 
mon to most BASICS. For example, he 
splits Julian Day numbers into their in- 
teger and fraction parts to effectively 
provide double precision. In addition, 
he traces the fundamental constants 
given in the Meeus algorithms to their 
sources and compares the results of 
the program with the standard main- 
frame-generated tables to verify their 
validity over a range exceeding 3000 
years. This is one of the few really 
well documented astronomy pro- 
grams available. 

Star Authority 

In Canada, Great Britain, and the 
United States, the official source of 
astronomical data is the Astronomical 
Almanac. The compilers of the Almanac 
provide two publications that are a 
gold mine for advanced program- 
mers. The Explanatory Supplement dis- 
cusses in great detail, with a complete 
list of sources, the methods used to 
generate the book's superbly accurate 
tables. The Almanac for Computers is 
designed to help users of small com- 
puters generate positions for the sun, 
moon, and planets with accuracy 
comparable to the tables in the 
Astronomical Almanac. There is a penal- 
ty for this extreme accuracy. The 
equations have limited range, typically 
a month for the planets and five days 
for the moon. A different set of coef- 
ficients must be provided for the 
equations for each period, so pro- 
grams using these equations must 
store quite a bit of data. Like the 
Astronomical Almanac, the Almanac for 
Computers is published yearly, and each 
year the data it provides for each ob- 
ject must be updated in the programs. 
However, this is the way to go if you 
require Astronomical Almanac accuracy 
and you don't want to flip through all 
the pages. In addition, the Almanac for 
Computers offers the best discussion 
and method for calculating sunrise 
and sunset that we've seen. 

In the microcomputing world, a 
directory like the one we provide (see 
the "Astronomical Software Re- 
sources" text box on page 240) can 
go out of date rapidly. Fortunately, 



242 BYTE • JULY 1985 



John Mosly of the Griffith Observa- 
tory (2800 East Observatory R<±, Los 
Angeles, CA 90027) maintains a cur- 
rent list of astronomical programs. To 
obtain the Griffith list send him a 
legal-size, self-addressed envelope 
with two first-class stamps. He has 
reviewed a number of these programs 
in an article entitled 'The Universe on 
a Microcomputer," published in the 
October 1984 issue of Griffith Observer 
(vol. 48, no. 10, available from the 
observatory for 75 cents plus post- 
age). The article is illustrated with 
graphics and screen dumps from 
several of the programs along with a 
good discussion of their features. 

The best way to stay in touch with 
the world of astronomy is through Sky 
& Telescope magazine. The BYTE of the 
astronomical community, it serves 
both professionals and amateurs. Sky 
& Telescope advertisements list new soft- 
ware, and Roger Sinnott conducts a 
fine monthly section called 'Astro- 
nomical Computing." He frequently 
provides short utility programs in 
BASIC that are very carefully crafted 
and discussed, and he takes care to 
use a version of BASIC that can be 
adapted to a wide variety of 
machines. Frequently, the "Gleanings 
for ATMs" (amateur telescope makers) 
section of the magazine, also under 
the direction of Sinnott, has good 
hardware articles about applications 
like the microprocessor control of 
telescopes or image processing. 

Astronomy is another good magazine, 
directed more to an amateur and 
beginning astronomer audience than 
Sky & Telescope. Astronomy is a fine place 
to look for software ads, and it fre- 
quently publishes useful BASIC pro- 
grams that have been very carefully 
crafted to be friendly to newcomers 
to both astronomy and computing. 

Whether they're used to control a 
telescope, output a graph, or chart 
the position of a celestial object, 
microcomputers are changing the way 
amateurs and professionals alike are 
approaching the study of the sky. The 
accompanying text boxes will give 
you ample information to start with. 

Welcome to astronomical comput- 
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JULY 1985 'BYTE 243 



Astronomy Sources 



BYTE would like to thank the 
following authors for their contri- 
butions to this listing: Richard 
Bochonko. David S. Dixon, Russell M. 
Genet, and William T Peters. 

Astronomy magazine. Milwaukee. WI: 

AstroMedia Corporation. 
Superb artwork and illustrations. Easy 
reading for students and beginners 
yet satisfying to old hands. Astro- 
Media offers a wide selection of 
books via mail order. 

Ball. John A. Algorithms for RPN Calcu- 
lators. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 
1978. 

An astronomer's collection of 
general-science and astronomical 
methods arranged for the HP-4 5 and 
other HP calculators. 

Bate. Roger R.. et al. Fundamentals of 
Astrodynamics. New York: Dover Publica- 
tions. 1971. 

Burgess. Eric. Celestial BASIC. Berkeley. 

CA: Sybex Inc.. 1982. 
A fine selection of BASIC programs. 
Especially good for those new to 
astronomy and computing. Disk with 
programs listed in the book is avail- 
able from S & T Software (13361 Frati 
Lane. Sebastopol. CA 95472). 

Burgess. Eric, and Howard I. Burgess. 

TimexlSinclair 1000: Astronomy. Berkeley. 

CA: Sybex Inc.. 1984. 
BASIC programs for the Timex 
Sinclair microcomputer. Adapts 
material similar to that in Celestial 
BASIC to the Timex Sinclair. 

Crawford. D. Instrumentation in Astronomy. 

vols. I. II. Ill, IV. and V. Bellingham. WA: 

SPIE. 
Extensive series on instrumentation 
instruction including the use of mini- 
and microcomputers. 

Dickinson. Terence. Hightwatch. Scar- 
borough. Ontario. Canada: Firefly 
Books. 1983. 
Not a computing book, but an ex- 
cellent guide to the night sky and the 
world of astronomy if you need a 
place to start. 

Duffett-Smith, Peter. Practical Astronomy 
with Your Calculator. 2nd ed. London. 
England: Cambridge University Press. 
1981. 



t&>. 




A good selection of simple algo- 
rithms that are useful when you want 
quick, limited-precision results. 

Genet. Russell M.. and Mark TVueblood. 
Microcomputer Control of Telescopes. Rich- 
mond. VA: Willmann-Bell Inc.. 1985. 

Genet. Russell M.. ed. Microcomputers in 
Astronomy, vols. I and II. Fairborn. OH: 
Fairborn Observatory. 1983 and 1984. 
Telescope control, instrument con- 
trol, data logging, and other applica- 
tions. A collection of papers devoted 
to automatic telescope control and 
photometric data collection. 

Genet.. Russell M. RealTime Control with 

the TRS-80. Indianapolis. IN: Howard W 

Sams & Co.. 1982. 

Data logging, instrument control, and 

analysis for the Radio Shack TRS-80. 

Ghedini. Silvano. Software for Photometric 
Astronomy. Richmond. VA: Willmann- 
Bell Inc.. 1982. 
Reduction and analysis programs in 
HP BASIC. Just the thing if you want 
to seek meaning in the slowly vary- 
ing light of pulsating or eclipsing 
variable stars. The HP BASIC may be 
a bit tough, however, to convert to 
other machines. Good explanations. 

Hall. D.. and R. Genet. Photoelectric 
Photometry of Variable Stars. Fairborn. OH: 
Fairborn Observatory. 1982. 
Small observatory guide to photom- 
etry with some data logging and in- 
strument control. 

Henden. Arne A., and R. Kaitchuck. 
Astronomical Photometry. New York: Van 
Nostrand Reinhold. 1982. 
Well-rounded book on photometry 



including some software and inter- 
facing. 

Institute of Theoretical Astronomy. 
Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Moscow. 
USSR: USSR Academy of Sciences 
through Mezhdunarodnaja kniga. 
1980. 1982. 1984. 

lames. M. L. ( et al. Applied Numerical 
Methods for Digital Computation with Fortran 
and CSMP, 2nd ed. New York: Harper 
& Row. 1977. 

Jones. Aubrey. Mathematical Astronomy 
with a Pocket Calculator. New York: Halsted 
Press. 1979. 
Keystroke sequences in both alge- 
braic and RPN notation for problems 
related to time precession, proper 
motion, positions of solar system ob- 
jects, and orbits of binary stars. Good 
appendix with sophisticated HP-25 
and HP-67 programs mainly contri- 
buted by Jean Meeus. Methods are 
readily adaptable to other machines 
since formulae and sample problems 
are presented. 

Klein. Fred. Pocket Computer Programs for 
Astronomers. Los Altos. CA: Klein Publi- 
cations. 1983. 
Handy programs for use right at the 
telescope. Methods for finding ob- 
jects using setting circles on Dobson- 
ian and other altazimuth-mounted 
telescopes. The next best thing to an 
automated telescope. 

Marsden. Brian G. Catalog of Cometary Or- 
bits. Hillside. NJ: Enslow Publishers. 
1983. 

Meeus. Jean. Astronomical Formulae for 
Calculators. 2nd ed. Richmond. VA: 
Willmann-Bell Inc.. 1982. 
Classic reference on the topic. There 
are many others, but Meeus is 
authoritative. The best single com- 
pendium of algorithms. Available 
from Astronomy magazine. Sky & Tele- 
scope magazine, and Willmann-Bell Inc. 

Minor Planet Center. Minor Planet Cir- 
culars. Cambridge. MA: Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory. 

The Observer's Handbook. Toronto. Ontario. 
Canada: The Royal Astronomical Soci- 
ety of Canada (RASC). Issued annually. 
The standard set of tables for 
amateur stargazers. Many programs 



244 BYTE • JULY 1985 



ILLUSTRATED BY MICHAEL BARTALOS 



seek to replace the table or offer the 
same type of information in a more 
versatile way. However, the Handbook 
is much easier to stuff into a jacket 
pocket than an Apple II. And its "ink- 
on-paper display" does not disap- 
pear at -40°C as does a liquid- 
crystal display. 

Ottwell. Guy. The Astronomical Calendar. 

Greenville, SC: Department of Physics, 

Furman University. 198 3. Issued 

annually. 
The same basic type of information 
as the RASC Observer's Handbook con- 
veyed with Ottwell's own deep sense 
of appreciation for all things cosmic 
and their connections to our ter- 
restrial realm. Superb hand-drawn il- 
lustrations by the author. A children's 
version called The View from Earth is 
also available. 

Sky & Telescope magazine. Cambridge. 
MA: Sky Publishing. 

A source for many of the books listed 

here. 



lattersf ield, D. Orbits for Amateurs with a 
Microcomputer. Somerset. NJ: John Wiley 
& Sons (distributor), Halsted Press 
(publisher), 1984. 
BASIC programs for orbital computa- 
tions with supplemental explana- 
tions. 

United States Naval Observatory, 
Nautical Almanac Office. The Almanac 
for Computers. Washington, DC: U.S. 
Government Printing Office. Available 
annually. 
High-precision polynomial approxi- 
mations for the positions of major 
solar system objects. Helpful intro- 
duction and discussion, though no 
programming examples are given. 
Excellent source for precise formulae 
for basic astronomical calculations. 

United States Naval Observatory. The 
Astronomical Almanac. Washington, DC: 
U.S. Government Printing Office, and 
London. England: Her Majesty's Sta- 
tionery Office. Available annually from 
1981 to 1984. 



Includes the standard tables refer- 
enced by astronomers and others in 
need of precise-time and celestial- 
position data. Some explanations, 
but refer to The Explanatory Supplement 
for all details. 

United States Naval Observatory. The 
Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical 
Almanac. Washington, DC: U.S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, and London. 
England: Her Majesty's Stationery 
Office. 
Explanations of how the official 
tables are made. A gold mine, but not 
all of the methods are adaptable to 
a microcomputer, and some of the 
explanations are hard to understand 
even for a professional. A scholarly 
work with detailed references. 

Wolpert. Robert C. and Russell M. 
Genet. Advances in Photoelectric Photometry, 
vols. I and 2. Fairborn, OH: Fairbom 
Observatory. 1983 and 1984. 

Data logging, instrument control, and 

some analysis. 



An Astronomy Glossary 



Celestial Sphere: Astronomy uses a 
coordinate system for the sky that is 
directly analogous to the earth's system 
of latitude and longitude. The celestial 
equator is coplanar with the earth's 
equator. The declination (latitude) 
ranges from +90 degrees (north pole) 
to -90 degrees (south pole). The 
celestial equator crosses the ecliptic 
(q.v.) at the two equinoxes. The vernal 
equinox serves as the prime meridian 
(0-hour or 24-hour) for the right ascen- 
sion (longitude) of the system. 

Ecliptic: The plane containing the 
earth's orbit around the sun, defined 
with respect to the first point of Aris 
(the vernal equinox). The ecliptic 
changes each year. 

Ephemerides: A table of position coor- 
dinates versus time for a celestial body: 

Obliquity of the Ecliptic: The angle 
between the plane containing the 
earth's equator and the ecliptic. The 
obliquity is a cyclically changing value 
centered on approximately 23 degrees, 
27 minutes. 

Orrery: A mechanical model of the 
solar system that shows the relative 
positions and motions of the various 
bodies. 



Osculating Orbital Elements: The 
Keplerian values for the theoretical or- 
bit of a body; that is. the two-body 
path of an orbit. In any case where 
there are more than two bodies in- 
teracting, in a system (such as in the 
solar system), the osculating orbital 
elements are only an approximation of 
the true orbital path. 

Parallax: The difference in the ap- 
parent position of a celestial body due 
to the earth's orbiting around the sun. 
The major scientific argument against 
the Copernican model of the solar sys- 
tem was that there was no such observ- 
able difference in the apparent posi- 
tions of stars during the year. It was not 
until the development of photography 
in the nineteenth century that the ef- 
fect was measurable. 

Parsec: Parsec, which stands for 
parallax second, is a unit of astronom- 
ical distance. It is defined as the 
distance that a celestial body would 
have to be from the sun in order for 
an earthly observer to see a one arc- 
second change in its apparent position 
(parallax) between the vernal equinox 
and the autumnal equinox (or any two 
orbital antipodes). The value is approx- 
imately 3.26 light-years. 



Right Ascension and Declination: 

See "Celestial Sphere." 

Setting Circles: Calibrated disks that 
attach to the axes of a telescope. Set- 
ting circles are an easy way to locate 
stars quickly. The right-ascension (see 
"Celestial Sphere") circle is marked in 
hours and minutes: the declination cir- 
cle is marked in degrees. To locate a 
star, look up its coordinates in right 
ascension and declination and rotate 
the telescope axes to the star's in- 
dicated position. 

Sidereal Time: Sometimes called star 
time, sidereal time is based on the time 
of the earth's rotation compared to any 
star other than our sun. A sidereal day 
is divided into 24 hours, but each day 
is about 4 minutes shorter than a solar 
day. Sidereal and solar time coincide 
only at the instant that the sun crosses 
the equator at the autumnal equinox. 

Star Classification: Stars are com- 
monly classified by spectral class as O, 
B, A. F, G, K, or M in order of decreas- 
ing temperature. The star's spectrum is 
compared to spectra in the Yerkes Atlas 
of Stellar Spectra to determine its class. 

Universal time: Another name for 
Greenwich Mean Time. 



JULY 1985 'BYTE 245 




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2 Drives I Color Monitor I256K 
Texas Instruments Professional 



$ 280.00* (6 05) 



CALL 



DISK DRIVES & CONTROLLERS 

lOmega Bernoulli Box Dual 10MG Drives $2,275.00* (49 1 4) 
• PC Network 10MB INTERNAL V2 Height 459.00' (9 92) 
Autoboot Drive Newlower price 
Drives by Shuoart or Tandon 
PC Network 10MB Internal Tape Backup 475.00* (10.26) 

Same Unit used in Compaq's DeskPro! 



Maynard WS-2 same as WS-1 but with 


930.00* 


(20.30) 


Sandstar Floppy Controller (uses 1 slot) 






Panasonic Hall Height DSDD Drive Pair 


145.00* 


13 10) 


PC Network Hall Height Drives Our Volume 


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Lets us import These Brand Name Dnves 






Tando n TM 1 00-2 Full Height DSDD Drive 


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Tallgrass 25MB External/Hard Disk 


2,375.00* 


(51.30) 


with 60MB Tape Backup 
Teac FO 55-8 Hall Height DSDDDrives 
Teac 1.2MBHatlHeighlDiskDrive lor AT 






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MEMORY CHIPS 






Allchips quaranteed tor hie 






64 K M emory Upg rada K Its ( 9 chips) S 
64K Dynamic Ram Chips (Each) 


8.55* 


(1001 


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1 28K AT Mother Board Chips (Each) 


5.00- 


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7.50* 


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MODEMS 






Anchor Mark XII $ 


230.00* 


(5.00) 


Hayes Smartmodem 300 


125.00* 


(5 00) 


Hayes Smartmodem 2400 


568.00* 


(5.00) 


LATEST IN COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY! 




Hayes Smartmodem 1200B with new 
Smartcom II VT 100 Emulator 


320.00* 


(2 50) 






Hayes Smartmodem 1200 


361.25' 


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Prometheus Promodem 1200 


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160CPS80COUFtic+Trac 

► Citizen MSP- 1 5 NE W 

160CPSl132COUFnc +Trac 

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C. Itoh F10/40 Slarwriler 40 CPS LO 
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Comrex CR420 420 CPS DPiLO Printer 

From the Epson Organization 

► Epson LX-80 I00CPS 80 COL LO Mode 

—New Model" 

► Epson FX-BO 

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Epson L0 1500 
Epson IBM-to-EPSON Parallel Cable 

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► NEC 353033CPSLO Par allei 

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LO' Mode- IBM Graontcs' + More (Requires imertace) 



875.00* 


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285.00* 


(6 16) 


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205.00* 


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303.00" 


I65.U 


434.00* 


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(18.90) 


21.00* 


(100) 


605.00* 


(13 00) 


605.00* 


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960.00* 


(20 74] 


960.00* 


(20 74) 


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(28 73) 



200.00* (4 34) 



(2 35: 



69.00* (1 50) 



620.00* (13.40) 
550.00' (1188) 



1,640.00* 

1,155.00* 

CALL 



525.00* (5 00) 



External 100% Haves Compatible 

- U.S. Robotics Password 

LOWEST PRICE I200BPS Modem < 

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MONITORS 

Amdek Video 300G Composite Green J 
Amdek Video 300A Composite Amber 
Amdek Video 31 0A IBM Type Amber 
Amdek Color 300 (NEW!) Composite 
Amdek Color 600 (NEW!) High Res RGB 
Amdek Color 700(NEW!) Ultra High Res 
Amdek Color 71 Of NEW!) 700wlNon 

Glare/Long Phosphor 
Frln ceton HX-12 RGB Monitor 
Princeton MAX-12E RGB/MONO 
Princeton SR- 12 Ultra High Res RGB 
<• Quadram Ouadchrome II NEW' 

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Black Phosphor Mask IBM Case 
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A great lookingperlor/mricj monochrome 



Texen 420 S uper High Res RG B Monitor 380.00 * 

Texan 440 Highest Res RGB (720x400) 525.00* 

Currently Available Works With PersyslBob Card 
Zenith ZVM-123 G reen High Res 76.00' 

(Consumer Reports Rated Best Buy!) 



00) 
(24 00) 



(100) 
(648) 



679.00* (14 70) 
530.00* (1145) 



110.00* 
120.00* 
130.00* 
215.00* 
395.00* 
455.00* 
485.00* 

CALL 
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370.00* 



(3.00) 
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244.00* 
365.00* 



(320) 
(2 50) 
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Okldata NEW! IBM Inter face for Okimale 

color 20 
OkldataML84P 200CPS 132 Col 
OkldataML93P 160 CPS WidePlaten 
Okldata 24 10P Pacemark350CPS 
Qume Sprint 1 1140 40CPS Letter Quality 
Qume Sprint 1 1190 90CPS Letter Quality 

New! Fastest Daisy wheel Out! 
Qume IBM Cable and Interlace (required) 
StarMlcronicsPower'ype 18CPSLQ 

► Texas Instruments 855 DPiLO w/Ti actor 
Toshiba P-1340 80 Col Version of P-1351 

VIDEO CARDS 
Hercules Color Card wIParallel Port 

► Hercules Monochrome Graphics Cards 
Paradise New Modular Mullidisplay Card 
Persy st Bob Card Ultra High Res Color 

Card with Mono Quality Text in Color 
*■■ STB Graphix Plus II NEW! 

(simultaneous Mono Graphics & Color) 

ACCESSORIES AND SUPPLIES 

► Brand Name DSDD Diskettes S 14.00" 

Guaranleed lor Life!! Not Generic 
Curtiss PC Pedestal II 32.50* 

► PC Network Replacement 130 Watt IBM-PC 90.00* 

Power Supply— Gives your PC (Old or New) the same 
capacity as an XT Good lor add in tape drives (without need 
for a piggyback unit) and large capacity disk drives 

SM A PC Documaie: Keyboard Templates lor 9.99' (100) 
LotusiDBASEIMultimale andothers (Each) 

WP Printer Paper 2600 Sheets 17.00* (10.00) 

Microline Perls (invisible when torn) 

•PC NETWORK Members pay just 8% above the wholesale 
price, plus shipping. All prices reflect a 3% cash discount. 
Minimum shipping $2.50 per order International orders call lor 
shipping & handling charges. Personal checks please allow 
10 working days to clear 



235.00* (5 00) 



(100) 



(2.50) 
(2.70) 



tRENT BEFORE YOU BUY— Members are eligible to join The NETWORK'S Business and Game Software 
Rental Libraries and evaluate products for a full 14 (Regular) or 30 (VIP) days to see if it meets your needs. 
And The NETWORK'S rental charc.es are far less than other software rental services— JUST 20% OF THE 
MEMBER WHOLESALE PRICE. We feature over 1,000 available titles in IBM/Apple/MAC and CP M 
Formats. Hardware prices highnted by ^ reflect recent major price reductions 



COMPLETE IBM™ PC SYSTEMS 



IBM PC BASE SYSTEM 

IBMPCW/256K 

Floppy Drive Controller 

2 Double Sided Double Density 320/ 
Your lowest cost starting point for the s 1 
monitors, video cards, multifunction ca 
The NETWORK can't be beat. 

IBM PC PROFESSIONAL 
HARD DISK SYSTEM 

IBM PC W/256K 

Floppy Drive Controller 
1 Double Sided Double Density 3201 
w Half Height Disk Subsystem. 




NETWORK 



$1 ,495.02* p 



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Increase produ< 



imbersome floppy disk changes, simpli 



iXT performance at a f 



s or professional situation. The 1 0MB hard disk 
changes, simplifies operations and dramatically 
3 NETWORK'S buying power provides you with bette 
r than you'd expect to pay for a standard PC. 



*PC Network Members pay just 8% above this wholesale price plus shipping. 
These prices have been prepared in May, 1985 and may have been changed 
with new product announcements. Call for latest prices. 



HARD DISK SYSTEMS 



PORTABLE HARD DISK SYSTEM 

W/256K/1 Floppy/1 0MB Hard Disk 

DESKPRO/TAPE BACKUP SYSTEM 

W/640K/1 Floppy/1 0MB Hard Disk/ 
1 0MB Tape Drive/Monitor 



$2,285.0(T 



$3,018.14 



FEATURED PRODUCTS! 

64K MEMORY EXPANSION KITS $ 8.55* 

Set of 9 chips Guaranteed for Life. Quantity Discounts Available. 
INTERNAL PC 1 0MB HARD DISK 459.00* 



We use our clout with Brand Name suppliers like COGITO/MMI/Tandon/ 
Fujitsu Miniscribe Shugart and others to bring you the best products at the 
Lowest Price in the Business! Call on the brand of your choice. 

- 1 0MB PC/COMPAQ TAPE BACKUP 475.00 

The same unit as used on COMPAQ'S DeskPro! Configured for internal mounting. 

LOTUS 1-2-3 265.00* 

1 /2 HEIGHT DS/DD DISK DRIVES 77.50* 

Just like our hard disks featured above. The Network buy's direct and makes 
fantastic deals with manufacturers like MPI/Tandon/CDC/Shugart/Qume/ 
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your PC/AT/XT or Jr/or Compatible. 

EPSON PRINTERS Unbelievable Low Prices!!! 

LX-80 80COL/100CPS 205.00* 

FX-80 80COL/160CPS 303.00* 

FX-100 132COL/160CPS 434.00* 

AST SIX-PACK PLUS w 64K 222.00* 

EVEREX MAGIC CARD64K 1 60.00 

Full six Pack Features— Game Port included Extra Software Fantastic Price!!! 

HAYES 1200B 320.00 

with new Smartcom ItiVTWO Emulator 

TALLGRASS TG-5025 2,375.00* 

25MG HARD DISK with 60 MG Tape Backup 

BRAND NAME DISKETTES 14.00* 

DS/DD Box of 10 Guaranteed for Life Not Generic 

TANDON TM100-2 FULL HEIGHT DRIVE 93.00* 

AMDEK V31 OA IBM TTL AMBER 1 30.00* 



'NETWORK members pay just 8% above these wholesale prices plus shipping 



CALL TOLL FREE 1 -800-621 -S-A-V-E (~ 

In Illinois call (31 2) 280-0002 validation code B375 

Inquiry 275 TM— Registered trademark of IBM and COMPAQ 



memberships 



...WITH THESE 15 
UNIQUE BENEFITS 

1COST + 8% PRICING — The NETWORK purchases mil- 
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2 OUR 600 PAGE WHOLESALE CATALOG— Members re- 
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QUARTERLY! 

3 IN-STOCK INSURED FAST HOME DELIVERY— The 
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NIGHT SERVICE IS AVAILABLE ON REQUEST. 

410 DAY RETURN POLICY— If you are not satisfied, for 
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The NETWORK within 10 days of receipt, we will refund your 
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5 MEMBERSHIP SATISFACTION GUARANTEE— If for 
any reason you are not satisfied with your membership within 
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6 EXPERIENCED CONSULTANTS— The NETWORK hires 
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Our consulting staff possesses in excess of 1 50 man years of per- 
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MENDED BY OUR CONSULTING STAFF FAILS TO PERFORM 
AS PROMISED— WE WILL TAKE IT BACK AT OUR EXPENSE 
FOR A 100% REFUND. 

7 FREE TECHNICAL SUPPORT— The NETWORK supports 
every product it sells. Our qualified TECH-SUPPORT staff will 
help you assemble your system, interpret vendor documentation 
and get your software and hardware to work. WE WILL GIVE YOU 
ALL THE HELP YOU NEED, WHEN YOU NEED IT— FREE! 

+ Q OPTIONAL BUSINESS RENTAL LIBRARY— All mem- 
O bers can join our BUSINESS RENTAL LIBRARY featuring 
over 1000 available titles for just $25 PER YEAR above the base 
membership fee. This entitles you to rent business software AT 
JUST 20% of the DISCOUNT PRICE FOR A 14 DAY PERIOD. If 
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ducted from the purchase price. VIP MEMBERS GET A FULL 
30 DAYS for just $30 above the V.I. P. base fee. This also in- 
cludes the game library privileges for a $5 combination 
savings. 

tQ OPTIONAL GAME SOFTWARE RENTAL LIBRARY— 

w The Game Rental library is available to members for just $1 
PER YEAR and permits evaluation (or just enjoyment) of any 
game or educational software product as above. 

Ifl SPECIAL SAVINGS BULLETINS— THE PRINTOUT 
\J — Issued Quarterly at no charge to Network members only! 
The Printout contains all the New Product listings and price 
changes you need to keep your Catalog up to date. ai SOi we buy 
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we turn around and make available to our members at fantastic 
savings via THE PRINTOUT. 

1-4 DISCOUNT BOOK LIBRARY— Working with numerous 
I publishers and distributors, The NETWORK has assembled 
a library of over 1000 computer related books and manuals at sav- 
ings of up to 75% from the normal store price. 

1Q MEMBERSHIP REFERRAL BONUS— Our most valu- 
£* able source of new members is you! To date almost 40% of 
our members have been referred by word of mouth from other sat- 
isfied members. For those of you who refer new members, The 
NETWORK will credit a cash bonus to youraccountapplicableto 
any future purchase. 

1Q CORPORATE ACCOUNT PROGRAM— Almost 50% of 
O The NETWORK'S members are corporate buyers and users 
(see opposite page left). The NETWORK can establish open 
account status and assign designated accountmanagers to ex- 
pedite orders, and coordinate multiple location shipments. 

1A QUANTITY DISCOUNTS— For large corporations, clubs, 
H" and repeat or quantity buyers The NETWORK can extend 
additional single order discounts, when available to us from our 
manufacturers and distributors. 

1C PRICE PROTECTION— The PC Industry is crazy!! Prices 
vl change not yearly or monthly or even weekly but often day 
by day! These changes are sometimes up but are mostly down!!! 
THE NETWORK GUARANTEES THAT IN THE EVENT OF A 
PRODUCT PRICE REDUCTION, BETWEEN THE TIME YOU 
PLACE YOUR ORDER AND THE TIME THE PRODUCT SHIPS 
YOU WILL ONLY PAY THE LOWER AMOUNT!! 

JULY 1985 'BYTE 247 




\>- 




HALf PRICE 

Introductory Subscription Offer 

your cost right in half. At 50% 

BVTE 



If you're a technically-inclined micro user, subscribe to BYTE and cut your cost right in half. At 50% 
of the newsstand price, every BYTE issue will bring you stimulating, 
timely articles on new technology, innovative pc- applications, pre- 
views, reviews, and appraisals of major new hardware and software 
products. If your first trial issue of BYTE isn't everything you 
expected, just write "cancel" on the invoice and return it. Your 

first issue is FREE to keep with our thanks for trying the small systems journal 



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BUTE 



Reviews 



Reviewers Notebook 

by Glenn Hartwig 251 

Texas Instruments 1 Pro-Lite 
Professional Computer 

by Richard Grehan and Eva White 252 

NCR Personal Computer Model 4 

by Elaine Holden 258 

Monitoring Halleys Comet 

by ]ohn E. Mosley 265 

Space-Flight Simulators 

by Benjamin Bernar 269 

MaxThink 

by William Hershey 279 

The Anchor Automation Signalman 
Mark XII Modem 

by George V. Kinal 287 

Review Feedback 295 



ONE OF THE NEWER MEMBERS of 'fexas Instruments' Professional Computer 
line is a portable called the Pro-Lite. This briefcase-size machine uses an 80C88 
processor and MS-DOS. It also features good communications capability and 
a number of expansion options available from TI. Richard Grehan and Eva 
White, two of BYTE's technical editors, team up to show you what the Pro- 
Lite can and cannot do. 

Our other system review this month studies the NCR Personal Computer 
Model 4, an IBM PC-compatible that is not portable. You can buy the NCR 
in one of six configurations, choosing the one that best suits your needs. It 
comes bundled with several tutorial programs and features the enhanced 
speed of a RAM disk. Author Elaine Holden concludes that this rugged 
machine is a good value. 

In keeping with our "Computers and Space" theme and in time for the return 
of Halley's comet, John E. Mosley has evaluated three comet-tracking pro- 
grams. The first two packages, Starsoft's Halley and S & T Software Service's 
Halley's Comet, include information specific to the most famous of comets. 
The third program, Cosmic Computer Works' Ephemeris, is more general and 
very accurate. Any of these programs will give you the opportunity to prac- 
tice for tracking Halley's comet this winter. 

If you prefer to imagine yourself actually in space, you'll be interested in 
Benjamin Bernar's review of two space-flight simulation programs. Your goal 
in both Rendezvous and Saturn Navigator is to meet with a space station 
already in orbit. The decisions you have to make in these simulations mirror 
the complexities of space travel. 

William Hershey follows up his June overview of idea processors with a review 
of MaxThink, an outline processor for the IBM PC. MaxThink's Thought Pro- 
cessing Language (TPL) is a powerful feature that lets you create programs 
to use as you develop a writing project. 

In the communications area, our review of Anchor Automation's Signalman 
Mark XII indicates that this modem is not entirely Hayes Smartmodem- 
compatible. Although it surpasses the Smartmodem by accepting commands 
in upper- and lowercase and recognizing telephone signals, the Mark XII has 
fewer LEDs than the Hayes, no DIP switches, and only 6 of the Hayes's 17 
software-loadable registers. Author George V. Kinal gives you the details. 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 249 



WordPerfect 40. 
Our highest marks yet. 



J\ perfect report card. It 
wasn't necessarily our goal when 
we added the most recent enhance- 
ments to WordPerfect. We were 
more interested in responding to 
the suggestions of our users and 
dealers. 

But a perfect report card is 
like icing on the cake. And it 
makes us more confidentthan ever 
that WordPerfect 4.0 is the most 
perfect WordPerfect yet. 

Easier. 

Most WordPerfect 4.0 functions 
require only one keystroke, a 
simple press of a finger. And new 
comprehensive documentation 
makes learning a 

Faster. -<S3^E 




information, see your dealer. 
Or call or write: 



matter how 
fast you type, 
WordPerfect 
won't slow you 
down. 

Better. 



InfoWorld 



Document ori- 
entation means h 
WordPerfect 4.0 never makes you 




WordPerfect 4.0 includes several 
features not found on many word 
processors. Like a 100,000-word 
phonetic dictionary; multi-page 
footnoting capability; table of 
contents and index generation; 
automatic outlining and para- 
graph numbering; 
and a 4.0 net- 
work version 
Get the word 
processor that 
lives up to 
its name (and 
its report card): 
WordPerfect 4.0. For more 



InfoWorld 



SSI Software 

288 West Center Street 

Orem, Utah 84057 

Information: (801) 227-4020 

Order Desk: 1-800-321-4566, 

Toll-free 




SSlboftware 

Reaching for perfection. 



250 BYTE • JULY 1985 



Inquiry 314 



REVIEWER'S NOTEBOOK 



When optical character recogni- 
tion (OCR) equipment first came 
out, it was the kind of item everybody 
wanted to take seriously. It just 
seemed the next logical step. No typ- 
ing, no manual input of any kind. All 
you had to do was pass a document 
over the right kind of camera and 
words were read from paper into 
memory. After that, document manip- 
ulation and output would proceed 
with normal electronic ease. The 
major problem has been the very high 
price of most OCR hardware/software 
systems. That, along with reports of 
poor reliability and limited capabili- 
ties for recognizing type fonts, kept 
relegating OCR to the wish list. 

With a little luck, we may be seeing 
a change in the availability of lower- 
cost, more functional OCRs. Datacopy 
Corporation of Mountain View, Cali- 
fornia, showed us its new flatbed- 
scanner-based Model 700 Word 
Image Processing System (WIPS). The 
$4000 unit has, as a $695 adjunct, 
OCR— or CIR (character image recog- 
nition)— capabilities. 

Whole pages from letters, books, or 
magazines (including pictures) can be 
entered as images into the computer 
in much the same way as making ordi- 
nary photocopies. You can then "edit" 
them in a variety of painting-program 
ways. This is fine if what you want to 
do is capture and store relatively 
static information. Anything that 
needs true editing requires an inter- 
face to a word processor; in the Data- 
copy product, this is where the CIR 
option comes in. It converts text por- 
tions of scanned documents to stan- 
dard ASCII that you can then manipu- 
late with word-processing software. 
The WIPS/CIR software handles pages 
that contain both images and text by 
creating windows for the text and let- 
ting you convert just the contents of 
the windows to ASCII. Initially, the 



$695 CIR package comes prepro- 
grammed to recognize only the 
Courier 10 and Prestige Elite 12 type- 
faces. The company says that about 
1 additional typeface-recognition 
modules for the software can be 
bought for $195 each. The company 
also says that another option will be 
available later this year. This one, 
called CIR-2, will be preprogrammed 
for the same two fonts but is sched- 
uled to have font-learning capabilities 
that will let you train it to recognize 
additional typefaces. 

So, with the $4000 cost of the hard- 
ware/software WIPS, the $695 mini- 
mum investment in CIR software, 



either a laser printer or an Epson 
printer (FX/RX series or LQ-I 500), and 
the required IBM PC XT or AT or 
equivalent, Hercules Graphics Card, 
and Mouse Systems PC Mouse, this 
is not something you'll be buying just 
to try it out. On the other hand, at a 
scanning rate of 30 seconds per page, 
the capability to use your own word- 
processing software, and a relatively 
good resolution of 200 dots per inch, 
it could win a good deal of support. 
A lot will depend on whether it works 
as well as it did in a demonstration the 
company gave us. 

—Glenn Hartwig, Technical Editor, Reviews 



Software Avalanche 
Forces New Policy 



Much as we love new software, 
we have finally reached our 
limit for handling unsolicited soft- 
ware packages. We try as many 
packages as we can, but that is a 
small percentage of what we 
receive. We receive so many unso- 
licited packages, in fact, that we 
can no longer be responsible for 
returning them unless they are 
accompanied by a prepaid return 
envelope. We regret the need for 
this change in policy, but the 
demands on our clerical time have 
become burdensome, and the 
shipping costs are high. 

We will continue to welcome 
press releases and other descrip- 
tive materials about new software. 
We will give serious attention to 
any literature sent. If the written 
information convinces us that the 
software described would appeal 
to BYTE's readership, we will send 
a formal written request for a 



review copy of the software. 

We will continue to return at our 
own expense all the software pack- 
ages we solicit. If we are unable to 
review a piece of solicited software, 
we will return it as soon as we ar- 
rive at that decision. If we review 
the package, we will return it as 
soon as the review is ready for 
publication. 

When packages arrive unsolic- 
ited and unaccompanied by pre- 
paid return envelopes, we will ac- 
knowledge receipt of them but will 
not return them. We will do our 
best to find time to use them but 
can make no guarantees. If we do 
not review unsolicited packages, 
we will store them for approxi- 
mately one year and then destroy 
them. If at any time we receive a 
prepaid return envelope for an 
unsolicited software package in 
storage, we will return the software 
as soon as possible. 



IULY 1985 -BYTE 251 




SYSTEM REVIEW 



Texas Instruments' Pro-Lite 
Professional Computer 

A briefcase- 



size computer 

compatible 

with the TI 

Professional 



by Richard Grehan 
and Eva White 



Richard Grehan and Eva White 

are technical editors for BYTE. They 

can be contacted at POB 372, 

Hancock. NH 03449. 



Texas Instruments has a new addi- 
tion to its TI Professional family, a 
briefcase-size computer called the 
Pro-Lite (see photo 1). Designed as a com- 
pact MS-DOS computer, it comes with an 
80-column by 2 5-line LCD (liquid-crystal 
display) screen, 256K bytes of RAM 
(random-access read/write memory), an in- 
ternal 3!/2-inch floppy-disk drive, a keyboard, 
and a parallel printer interface. This stan- 
dard unit costs $2995. The Pro-Lite's pro- 
cessor is an 80C88, which is a CMOS (com- 
plementary metal-oxide semiconductor) 
version of the 8088 for low power consump- 
tion, running at 5 MHz. It also boasts a wide 
variety of expansion options and some re- 
markable communication abilities. 

Closed up, the Pro-Lite is a gray molded- 
plastic box measuring 2 3 A by II/2 by 13 
inches and weighing IO/2 pounds. Some of 
the Pro-Lite's options add considerably to 
its dimensions and weight. The LCD also 
acts as the keyboard cover. r I\vo slide latches 
on either side toward the case's front 
release the display, and you swing it up on 
a large hinge. This hinge was stiff on our 
machine, and opening and closing the dis- 
play flexed the unit. The entire keyboard is 
mounted on a spring-loaded platform that 
tilts up when you open the unit so the keys 
are at a comfortable typing angle. 

The power switch is near the front of the 
machine on the right. You slide it up to turn 
on the Pro-Lite. If you forget to turn the 
machine off when you close the top, a tab 
on the display's frame slips through a notch 
and forces the switch to the off position. 

The Pro-Lite's AC/DC (alternating current/ 
direct current) adapter lets you run the unit 
from an ordinary wall outlet, but it consists 
of an ungainly transformer box that is posi- 
tioned along the length of the power cord 
in such a way that you have to make room 
for it on your desk. 

The Display 

The LCD screen working area is 9 l A by 4 
inches and the text is fairly readable, al- 



though, as with every other LCD screen 
we've seen, glare and reflection almost 
always overwhelm it. A contrast-control 
slider to the screen's right lets you adjust 
the intensity. Unfortunately half of the 
slider's range produces a display that is too 
light to read. 

Screen resolution is 640 horizontal by 200 
vertical pixels, and an optional LCD graph- 
ics board enables bit-mapped graphics on 
the screen. The Pro-Lite's characters are 7 
by 7 pixels right-justified in an 8- by 8-pixel 
grid. Thank's to the rectangular shape of the 
pixels (twice as tall as they are wide) the 
characters appear as they would on a CRT 
(cathode-ray tube) display. The character set 
comprises all the graphics (box-drawing), 
select Greek alphabet, and miscellaneous 
characters of the IBM PC's character set- 
including the normal and reverse-video 
smiling faces. Since the character definitions 
are downloaded into RAM from ROM (read- 
only memory) at boot-up time, you can de- 
fine your own if you don't like the set 
provided. 

Keyboard 

Texas Instruments has packed many fea- 
tures into the Pro-Lite's 79-key keyboard 
(see photo 2). The top row includes 12 pro- 
grammable function keys and some keys 
useful for text editing. On the right side of 
the keyboard, 18 keys double as an em- 
bedded numeric keypad that you enable by 
holding down the Shift and Num Caps keys; 
you disable it by pressing this combination 
again. An LED (light-emitting diode) on the 
Num Caps key glows green when the em- 
bedded keypad is enabled, glows red when 
the capitals are locked on, and is unlit 
(white) when the keyboard is in lowercase. 
Some compromises have been made on 
the keyboard's arrangement. The space bar 
has been shortened to accommodate a row 
of cursor-control keys to its. right and the 
single open-quotation mark (') and back- 
slash ( \ ) keys to its left. Also, Line Feed is 
on the top row with the function keys. 



252 BYTE • JULY J985 



The keyboard has a snappy and re- 
sponsive feel. We found it comfortable to 
work with, although the Tkb key is no larger 
than any other and we occasionally had to 
search for it. We were happy to find that the 
J and F keytops have tactile ridges for locat- 
ing the home position. 

A slot that runs the length of the keyboard 
platform just above the function keys will 
hold overlay strips as they become avail- 
able. This slot is narrow, hardly Vi inch tall, 
and since each function key could be pro- 
grammed to do three things (Shift-function, 
Alt-function, and Ctrl-function) it is hard to 
imagine an overlay that wouldn't be hope- 
lessly cluttered. In an apparent attempt to 
alleviate this problem, the Shift, Alt, and Ctrl 
keys have been color-coded. 

Behind Door Number 1 . . . 

A plastic door on the machine's right side 
toward the back unsnaps and swings down 
to reveal the disk drive and parallel printer 
connector (see photo 3). The drive is a 
3!/2-inch double-sided mechanism capable 
of storing up to 720K bytes per disk. The 
format is compatible with the proposed 
standard used by Microsoft for 314-inch disk 
MS-DOS systems. We were able to read and 
write files on a disk created on a Data 
General/One. 

The parallel printer connector is a 2 5-pin 
female D-type plug located directly below 
the disk drivo, It will drive any printer with 
a standard Centronics interface. If you own 
a Tl Portable Printer, a connector beside the 
parallel port lets you power your printer 
directly from the Pro-Lite. 

Options 

The Pro-Lite comes with a wide variety of 
options, most of which were unavailable at 
the time of this writing. They are divided 
into three groups determined by how they 
attach to the basic unit. 

Identical to the floppy-disk cover door, 
but on the opposite side of the machine, 
is the option-module door (see photo 4). It 



opens to a chamber of two option-module 
slots, and each slot can hold either a 
300-bps (bits per second) modem, an , 
RS-232C communications interface, an ex- 
ternal monitor interface, or a Solid State 
Software drawer. 

The modem is equipped with a standard 
RJ1 1 telephone-line jack as well as a built- 
in connector for an acoustic coupler. It has 
auto-dial and auto-answer capabilities. The 
RS-232C interface module lets the Pro-Lite 
use a serial printer or an external modem. 

The external monitor interface adds the 
video circuitry and extra RAM necessary for 
attaching an RGB (red-green-blue) color 
monitor to the Pro-Lite. Resolution on the 
external monitor is 720 by 300 pixels in 
eight colors. 

[continued) 




Photo 1 : The Texas Instruments Pro-Lite Professional Computer. 



JULY 1985 'BYTE 253 



REVIEW: TI PRO-LITE 



Solid State Software drawer is an- 
other name for a ROM cartridge. In 
this case, a drawer can hold up to 
2 56K bytes of ROM software. 

Yet another door in the back of the 
Pro-Lite leads to the rear bus connec- 
tor. Here you can attach a battery 
pack, a second 3 14-inch floppy-disk 
drive, or a combination disk and bat- 
tery. The second drive adds 3 more 



pounds to the system's weight and 5/2 
more inches to its depth. The battery 
pack provides up to eight hours of 
operation away from an AC outlet, 
depending on the options you are 
using. It adds 3 inches to the depth 
of the machine and 5 X A pounds to its 
weight. You bolt these options to the 
main unit with two long flathead 
screws. 




Photo 2: The Pro-Lite keyboard. Note the embedded numeric keypad, the 12 
programmable function keys, and the overlay slot for labeling the function keys. 




Photo 3: Behind the door on the Pro- 
Lite's right side is the VA-inch disk drive, 
parallel printer interface, and power 
connector for a TI Portable Printer. 



Photo 4: Behind the door on the Pro- 
Lite's left are the two slots for plugging in 
options: an RS-232C interface. 300-bps 
modem, external color monitor interface, or 
Solid State Software drawer. 



Be warned: You can attach only one 
option to the rear bus connector. If 
you want to use the battery and extra 
floppy simultaneously, you must get 
the combination disk/battery module 
(8'/2 pounds). The battery is packaged 
inside the disk-drive case. 

System options attach directly to 
the motherboard inside the Pro-Lite's 
casing, and they must be installed at 
the factory or by an authorized TI 
dealer. System options include up to 
three RAM expansion boards of 64K 
or 2 56K bytes each, an LCD graphics 
board, and an 8087 numeric copro- 
cessor chip. 

The standard unit comes with 2 56K 
bytes of RAM: I28K bytes on the 
motherboard and two 64K-byte ex- 
pansion boards. If you want the Pro- 
Lite with all the RAM it can hold 
(768K bytes), get it that way initially. 
A 768K-byte Pro-Lite has three 2 56K- 
byte expansion boards (the mother- 
board RAM is disabled) and expand- 
ing up to it would leave you with two 
homeless 64K-byte expansion boards. 

The LCD graphics board provides 
bit-mapped graphics on the screen 
with a virtual resolution of 720 by 300 
pixels. In other words, although the 
LCD screen can only display 640 by 
200 pixels at a time, the graphics op- 
tion makes the screen a window into 
an imaginary graphics display of 720 
by 300 dots. Holding down the Alt 
and Shift keys and striking the arrow 
keys scrolls this window around on 
the virtual display. 

Compatibility 

TI should get high marks for its efforts 
to keep the Pro-Lite compatible with 
the Professional Computer. (See 'The 
Texas Instruments Professional Com- 
puter" by Mark Haas, December 1983 
BYTE, page 286.) 

The TI Professional uses three-plane 
bit-mapped graphics: one plane each 
for red, green, and blue. When you in- 
stall the LCD graphics board option 
in the Pro-Lite, you are buying the 
equivalent of the blue video-memory 
plane. You can run graphics software 
on the Pro-Lite that was originally 
written for the Professional, with the 

[continued) 



254 BYTE • JULY 1985 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

Texas Instruments Pro-Lite 
Professional Computer 

Manufacturer 

Texas Instruments Inc. 
Data Systems Group 
POB 809063 
Dallas, TX 75380-9063 
(800) 527-3500 

Size 

2 3 A by 11 1 /2 by 13 inches 

Components 

Processor: 80C88, 5-MHz 

clock 

Memory: 256K bytes 

Mass storage: One 3 1 /2-inch 

double-sided disk drive, 720K- 

byte capacity 

Display: 80 columns by 25 

lines 

Keyboard: 79 keys including 

12 programmable function 

keys and an embedded 

numeric keypad, LED 

indicator for locked capitals 

Expansion: Two option slots 

Software 

MS-DOS 2.13 

Options 

Add-on floppy-disk drive (with 
or without battery), battery 
pack, 300-bps modem, 
RS-232C interface, PC 
interface cable, 8087 
coprocessor, 64K-/256K-byte 
RAM expansion boards, 
external color monitor 
interface, Solid State Software 
drawer 



Price (suggested retail) 




Pro-Lite standard 


$2995 


configuration 




Second disk drive 


$595 


300-bps modem 


$300 


External color monitor 


$499 


interface 




RS-232C interface 


$225 


Battery pack 


$149 


PC interface cable 


$79 


LCD graphics option 


$150 


64K-byte memory 




upgrade 


$125 


256K-byte memory 




upgrade 


$595 




MEMORY SIZE (K BYTES) 
200 400 600 



800 



1000 



DISK STORAGE (K BYTES) 
400 800 1200 



1600 2000 



1 


; 










• 




II 









! 




















11 





BUNDLED SOFTWARE PACKAGES 
2 4 6 8 



10 



PRICE ($1000) 
2 4 



10 























1^ 





rn PRO-LITE |m IBM PC (n§§] APPLE EE 



The Memory Size graph shows the standard 
and optional memory available for the com- 
puters under comparison. The Disk Storage 
graph shows the highest capacity of a single 
and dual floppy-disk drive for each system. The 
Bundled Software Packages graph shows the 
number of software packages included with 
each system. The Price graph shows the list 



price of a system with two high-capacity floppy- 
disk drives, a monochrome monitor (an LCD 
screen for the Pro-Lite), graphics and color 
display capability, a printer port and a serial 
port, 256K bytes of memory (64K bytes for 8-bit 
systems), and the standard operating system 
and standard BASIC interpreter for each 
system. 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 255 




The rear panel of the Pro-Lite. Note the connector in the lovyer left A top view inside the Pro-Lite, 
corner for the AC/DC power adapter and the silver door that leads 
to the rear bus connector. 



DISK ACCESS IN BASIC (SEC) 
250 



200 



150 



100 



50 



56 



34 




37" 



_46 _ 



w 



33 iilr 



36 



BASIC PERFORMANCE (SEC) 
250 



200 




WRITE 

SYSTEM UTILITIES (SEC) 
50 



READ 



SIEVE 



CALCULATIONS 




SPREADSHEET (SEC) 
25 



40K FORMAT/ DISK COPY 40K FILE COPY 

PRO-LITE gi| IBM PC 




The graph for Disk Access in BASIC shows how long it takes to read 
this file. (For the program listings, see June 1984 BYTE, page 327, 
and October 1984, page 33.) The BASIC Performance graph shows 
how long it takes to run one iteration of the Sieve of Eratosthenes 
prime-number benchmark. In the same graph, the Calculations 
results show how long it takes to do 10,000 multiplication and 10,000 
division operations using single-precision numbers. In the System 



Utilities graph, the Format/Disk Copy was not performed on the Pro- 
Lite since this requires a dual-floppy system. The File Copy results 
show how long it takes to transfer a 40K-byte file using the system 
utilities. The Spreadsheet graph shows how long the computers take 
to load and recalculate a 25- by 25-cell spreadsheet where each 
cell equals 1.001 times the cell to its left. The spreadsheet bench- 
mark program is Multiplan. DOS 3.3 was used with the Apple II. 



256 BYTE • JULY I985 



REVIEW: TI PROLITE 



constraint that only the blue plane will 
be displayed on the LCD screen. (TI 
has modified the Pro-Lite's version of 
MS-BASIC so that anything drawn in 
a nonblack color will be displayed.) 

Also, another price has to be paid 
for the Pro-Lite's compactness. Since 
a character cell on the Pro-Lite is 8 
pixels wide, while a cell on the Pro- 
fessional is 9 pixels wide, a display 
generated on the Professional that 
contains mixed text and graphics will 
appear with the graphics out of place 
on the Pro-Lite. 

Purchasing the external color moni- 
tor option gives the Pro-Lite full video 
compatibility with the Professional. 
This option includes all the memory 
necessary for the three video planes, 
as well as circuitry for displaying full 
Professional-size characters. 

Additionally every key on the TI 
Professional's keyboard has a coun- 
terpart on the Pro-Lite's keyboard. 
This is possible in spite of the Pro- 
Lite's space limitations thanks to its 
embedded numeric keypad. 

Drive-Access Link 

Getting information from one com- 
puter to another is always a problem, 
and you'd expect this to be especial- 
ly true for the Pro-Lite with its 3 /2-inch 
drives in a 514-inch world. Normally 
you would be faced with purchasing 
either the 300-bps internal modem 
option or the RS-232C interface op- 
tion and transferring your files serial- 
ly, probably over the phone lines. 
However, TI has taken care of this with 
a clever interface called the PC inter- 
face cable. 

One end of the PC interface cable 
plugs into the rear bus connector. The 
other end plugs into the external drive 
connector found in the back of the TI 
Professional, the IBM PC, and some 
PC-compatibles. (The IBM PC's tech- 
nical reference manual refers to this 
connector as the 5!4-inch disk-drive 
adapter external interface.) This drive- 
access link, as TI calls it, lets another 
PC control the Pro-Lite's floppy as if 
it were external drive C:. 

When you use the drive-access link, 
the Pro-Lite's keyboard is disabled— 
you have what amounts to a very ex- 



Ikble I : The benchmark results for a 


word-processing 


test run on the Pro- 


Lite using WordStar. All times are in 


seconds. 




WordStar Test 


Pro-Lite IBM PC 


Document load 


6.6 9.9 


Document save 


21.3 24.2 


Search 


10.3 10.5 


Scroll 


9.6 41.2 



pensive 3 /2-inch floppy disk. However, 
the ease with which you can transfer 
files in this fashion beats a serial 
transfer any day; you simply use the 
standard MS-DOS Copy command. 
We used the drive-access link suc- 
cessfully with a TI Professional as well 
as an IBM PC. 

The Pro-Lite's MS-DOS 2. 1 3 normal- 
ly formats its disks to 80 tracks per 
side. This is no problem for the TI Pro- 
fessional since its MS-DOS 2. 1 3 is 
shipped along with the PC interface 
cable and can read this format. How- 
ever, since the IBM PC expects the ex- 
ternal drive to be formatted to 40 
tracks per side, you should format the 
disk from the IBM PC. (The MS-DOS 
provided with the Pro-Lite can read 
disks of either capacity.) Of course, 
disks formatted with 40 tracks per 
side will hold only half the normal 
amount of data. 

Also, a bank of DIP (dual in-line 
package) switches on the IBM PCs 
motherboard determines how many 
disk drives the system will recognize. 
Most PCs will have these switches set 
for only two drives so the IBM will not 
"see" an external drive. Before you 
use the drive-access link to connect 
the Pro-Lite to your IBM PC, you 
should refer to the PCs technical 
manual and make sure these switches 
are set appropriately. 

Software and Documentation 

The only operating system currently 
available for the Pro-Lite is MS-DOS 
2.13, which comes bundled with the 
system. Third-party application soft- 
ware packages available include 
WordStar, Volkswriter, dBASE III, 



Framework, Multiplan, and many 
others. Generally, you can expect any 
packages available for the Profes- 
sional to be available for the Pro-Lite. 

We were even able to transfer some 
of the software for the Professional 
through the PC interface cable to the 
Pro-Lite and have it run successfully. 
You should check your software li- 
cense agreement before doing this. 

The benchmark results for the Pro- 
Lite (see the "At a Glance" box) show 
a significant improvement over the 
IBM PC for everything except system 
utilities. The word-processing bench- 
marks (see table 1) also show an im- 
provement over the PC. 

An Operating Instructions guide 
and two MS-DOS manuals are pro- 
vided with the Pro-Lite. These 
manuals come in three-ring binders (8 
by 9 by 2 inches) with a box to put 
them in. The operating guide seems 
geared for new users; it has clear ex- 
planations, diagrams of the com- 
puter's parts, and not too much detail 
to confuse a beginner. I found only 
one typographical error in the guide: 
On page 2-2 the screen, keyboard, 
and option-module slots' labels were 
interchanged. 

Conclusion 

The Pro-Lite performs as advertised. 
We found that it concealed no unplea- 
sant surprises, and TI should be ap- 
plauded for the variety of expansion 
options available. If you add the op- 
tions that suit your needs, the Pro-Lite 
can be as powerful as most desktops, 
with the added advantage of portabili- 
ty. It is, however, priced noticeably 
higher than nonportables of compar- 
able capabilities, and some people 
might find the cost of portability too 
high. Also, the Pro-Lite is a little 
awkward as a portable, especially if 
you add the floppy/battery option- 
no one wants to carry a 19-pound 
computer in his or her briefcase. 

Systems like the Pro-Lite point in the 
direction of compact portable com- 
puters that are easy to use, have con- 
siderable power, and support as many 
options and peripherals as larger non- 
portables. The technology is getting 
there, but it hasn't arrived yet. ■ 



IULY 1985 -BYTE 257 




SYSTEM REVIEW 

NCR Personal Computer 
Model 4 



A sturdy 



by Elaine Holden 



The NCR Personal Computer Model 
4 is definitely not a portable— it 
^w weighs 50 pounds and measures 18 

—j — inches wide and almost 15 inches high (see 

COmpStiblG photo 1). But you couldn't find a more 
rugged computer. And NCR dealers provide 
dependable service. (Each dealer has a 
technician trained to handle any repairs. If 
you're not near a dealer, you can use NCR's 
mail-in service.) 

The NCR computer comes in six varia- 
tions. Choices include monochrome or 
color screen, one or two double-sided 
double-density floppy-disk drives, or a half- 
height 10-megabyte Winchester drive in 
place of the second drive. 

It is a pleasure to find the on/off switch 
and the volume and brightness controls 
located on the front of the unit. The quali- 
ty of sound is excellent. 



Software 

Like all other IBM Personal Computer (PC) 
clones, the NCR Personal Computer cannot 
have BASIC in ROM (read-only memory) as 
it is in the IBM PC. In order not to violate 
copyright restrictions, an IBM PC-com- 
patible BASIC must be on a floppy disk. The 
NCR version of GW-BASIC is easy to use, 
and the documentation provides excellent 
support. But the need to have BASIC on a 
disk almost necessitates the use of two 
drives; constantly switching disks can be 
annoying. 

I was impressed by the exceptional com- 
patibility of the NCR with the IBM PC. I was 
able to run Lotus 1-2-3, the Leading Edge 
word processor, and other packages for the 
IBM without any problems. 

The software that comes with the NCR 
computer includes self-teaching programs: 
NCR TUtor, NCR Pal, and an on-disk help 
facility, NCR Help. I found these programs 
to be well designed. The disks provide ex- 
amples of spreadsheets, word processing, 
games such as blackjack (I'm into the ma- 
chine for five grand), program-development 
software (editors, compilers, etc.), and 



Elaine Holden (22 Elm St., 

Peterborough. NH 03458). formerly 

an assistant professor of computer 

science, is doing advanced graduate 

work at the University of Lowell 



system software (operating systems, run- 
time interpreters, and utilities). NCR-DOS 
2. 1 1 , part of the same package, boots easi- 
ly and is operationally compatible with MS- 
DOS and PC-DOS systems found on other 
personal computers. A good feature for 
novice users is the control placed on the 
master disk. NCR has designed it to be 
copied only and not ever used. Once you 
make the copy, you store the original master 
and use the copy. This is excellent insurance 
against accidental loss of the master disk 
and also gets the user comfortable with 
making backup copies. 

RAM Disk 

Another interesting piece of software pro- 
vided by NCR is the RAM (random-access 
read/write memory) disk utility. While not 
to be confused with a plug-in card with lots 
of memory and the software to use the 
memory as a disk, this program' is* an at- 
tempt to use internal memory for the same 
function. Basically, the RAM-disk utility lets 
you partition the RAM and use part of it for 
information or programs normally stored 
on the floppy disk. The information or the 
program is kept completely in internal 
memory and can thus speed the function- 
ing of the computer because it has to ref- 
erence only the information held in RAM 
rather than go to the external floppy. It is 
like having a third, very fast, disk drive. 

Other microcomputers have lacked this 
convenience, and it does increase the speed 
considerably. And when using a word pro- 
cessor, the machine processes directly 
through the RAM disk and saves time by 
not referring constantly to the floppy disk 
for program instructions. The only drawback 
I see is the need for a large amount of 
memory to begin with. In order to fully 
utilize this feature, you would need almost 
all the memory NCR has to offer. 

If you have less than maximum memory 
in your Model 4, you will have to take my 
or the company's word for the feature since 
the RAM Disk Demo does not perform well 



258 BYTE • JULY 1985 



with less memory. The example included 
with the documentation clocks the time it 
takes to run a multiplication table with and 
without the RAM disk. Nice benchmark 
test— only they both took the same amount 
of time (II seconds): no difference noted 
with only the 128K bytes or up to 2 56K 
bytes of memory. 

Display 

I found the monochrome display to have ex- 
cellent resolution, competitive with any on 
the market. The green-phosphor screen has 
an 80-character by 2 5-line display. All char- 
acters are clear and easily read. I was equal- 
ly impressed with the clarity of the color 
display. This 16-color screen also has a dis- 
play of 80 by 25 and 640 by 200 pixels. 

Keyboard 

Weighing in at AVi pounds, the keyboard 
tilts forward or lies flat (see photo 2). NCR 
sells the keyboard separately It's plug-com- 
patible with the IBM PC and the Compaq 
Deskpro. The keyboard connection is easi- 
ly accessible at the back of the unit. Layout 
is compatible with the IBM PC but NCR de- 
signers have added a separate cursor- 
control pad as well as separate Control. 
Page Up, Page Down, Delete, End, and In- 
sert keys to the numeric keypad. I found this 
convenient because I could control func- 
tions in word processing while the numeric 
keypad was still on. Business users will find 
this a most important feature when jump- 
ing from one application to another. 

LED (light-emitting diode) indicators on 
the Caps Lock and Num Lock keys are also 
an improvement over the standard IBM key- 
board. They are not distracting but serve as 
gentle reminders. 

Processor Board 

The NCR Model 4 is controlled by an Intel 
8088 microprocessor. This unit functioned 
well through all the benchmarks. 

Standard for the NCR is 128K bytes of 
RAM, expandable to 640K bytes. Expan- 



sion from 128K bytes to 2 56K bytes is ac- 
complished by adding extra chips to the 
main board in increments of 64K bytes. This 
board is located behind the adapter boards. 
lb add memory you remove the back of the 
machine and all of the boards and insert 
the chips one at a time. If your fingers have 
been genetically programmed to resemble 
needle-nose pliers, you won't have any 
problem. However, I suspect the workspace 
may be cramped for the larger-handed 
members of our species. 

Another step in the process calls for the 
resetting of toggle switches located at the 
very top of the main board. 1 did not have 
a problem with this task, but I suspect that 
a novice user might, especially since the 
documentation is insufficient here. NCR 
should provide a clearer explanation and 
a set of diagrams. 

[continued) 




Photo I: The NCR Model 4 with two vertical disk drives. 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 259 



Computers 

For The 

Blind 

Talking computers give 
blind and visually impaired 
people access to electronic 
information. The question 
is how and how much? 

The answers can be found 
in "The Second Beginner's 
Guide to Personal Com- 
puters for the Blind and 
Visually Impaired" pub- 
lished by the National 
Braille Press. This compre- 
hensive book contains a 
Buyer's Guide to talking 
microcomputers and large 
print display processors. 
More importantly it in- 
cludes reviews, written by 
blind users, of software 
that works with speech. 

This invaluable resource 
book offers details on 
training programs in com- 
puter applications for the 
blind, and other useful 
information on how to buy 
and use special equipment. 

Send orders to: 

National Braille Press Inc. 
88 St. Stephen Street 
Boston, MA 02115 
(617) 266-6160 

$12.95 for braille or cassette, 
$14.95 for print. ($3 extra for 
UPS shipping) 



NBP is a nonprofit braille printing and 
publishing house. 



REVIEW: NCR PC 



You can further expand the system 
to the full 640K bytes of RAM by in- 
serting a 384K-byte memory board. 
But if you want extra memory by 
using the memory board, the 12 8 K- 
byte expansion chips must first be in 
place. Once again you have to reset 
the toggle switches and then replace 
the boards. 

This unit has five third-party-com- 
patible expansion slots and three 
ports: keyboard, integrated RS-232C 
asynchronous interface, and a Cen- 
tronics parallel interface for the 
printer. 

Disk Drives 

The NCR Personal Computer is avail- 
able with one or two 360K-byte 
double-sided double-density floppy- 
disk drives. An optional 10-megabyte 
Winchester drive can also be added 
in place of one of the floppy-disk 
drives, an obvious advantage for busi- 
ness users who demand extensive ex- 
ternal storage. The 5'/4-inch TEAC 
drives are positioned vertically to the 
right of the screen. This makes disk 
exchange very convenient. Initially, 
though, these drives seemed noisier 
than those on any of my other com- 
puters. 

Maybe the positioning of the drives 
is to blame, though vertical position- 
ing should not be a factor in more 
noise or vibration. Engineering of 



either horizontal or vertical disk drives 
provides for proper bearing place- 
ment and counterbalancing of the 
read/write head, which would pre- 
clude any extra noise. 

Rather than condemn vertical drives 
in general, I would rather say these 
particular drives are noisier. This may 
be related to the choice of manufac- 
turer; some companies do make 
noisier drives, particularly if they use 
metal drive bands. When I dismantled 
the computer I noted that the drives' 
magnetic-head carriage is moved 
along the guide shafts by a motor 
controlled by a steel belt. The drives 
are secured to a metal housing by 
three screws (two on the top and one 
on the bottom), and they rest on a 
metal plate that may act inadvertent- 
ly as a sound board. Future engineer- 
ing changes should deal with the 
source of the extra vibration and 
perhaps eliminate the sound board or 
cushion the assembly with a gasket to 
absorb more of the vibration en- 
countered by the drive movement. 

Documentation 

The documentation for the Model 4 
is, for the most part, excellent. Since 
setup is not complicated, a first-time 
user will feel at once comfortable and 
in control. The manuals are accurate, 
and they provide material ranging 

[continued) 




LLMauiuau-iuoia 



rfmi 




7 8 9 - 



Photo 2: The keyboard, sold separately by NCR, is plug-compatible with the IBM 
PC and the Compaq Deskpro. 



260 BYTE • JULY J985 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

NCR Personal Computer 

Manufacturer 

NCR Corporation 
1700 South Patterson Blvd. 
Dayton, OH 45479 
(513) 445-5000 

Size 

14.8 by 14.6 by 18 inches; 
50 pounds 

Components 

Processor: Intel 8088, 
4.77 MHz 

Memory: 128K system 
memory, expandable to 256K; 
board expansion to 640K 
Mass storage: One or two 
360K double-sided double- 
density 5 1 /4-inch TEAC floppy- 
disk drives; optional half- 
height 10-megabyte 
Winchester hard-disk drive or 
dual 8-inch flexible-disk drives 
Display: 80 characters by 25 
lines, monochrome green 
(optional color), 640 by 200 
pixels 

Keyboard: IBM PC- 
compatible, plus separate 
cursor-control pad 
Expansion: Three IBM PC- 
compatible slots available in 
dual-disk system 
I/O interfaces: RS-232C port, 
parallel printer port 

Software 

GW-BASIC, NCR-DOS 2.11, 
NCR Tutor, NCR Pal, NCR 
Help, diagnostics 

Documentation 

Owner's manual, GW-BASIC 
manual, NCR-DOS manual 

Price 

Monochrome screen, one 
drive, and 128K RAM, $2400; 
second drive, $425; 
64K RAM, $90; 
128K RAM, $180; 
parallel or serial 
printer cable, $45; 
10-megabyte hard disk, $2195 








anssBai ma 



MEMORY SIZE (K BYTES) 

200 400 600 



DISK STORAGE (K BYTES) 
800 1000 400 800 1200 1600 2000 

























II 










BUNDLED SOFTWARE PACKAGES 
2 4 6 



PRICE ($1000) 
10 2 4 



8 10 




NCR PC 



IBM PC 1^>] APPLE HE 



The Memory Size graph shows the standard 
and optional memory for the computers under 
comparison. The Disk Storage graph shows the 
highest capacity of one and two floppy-disk 
drives for each system. The Bundled Software 
Packages graph shows the number of pack- 
ages included with each system. The Price 



graph shows the list price of a system with two 
high-capacity floppy-disk drives, a mono- 
chrome monitor, graphics and color-display 
capability, a printer port and a serial port, 256K 
bytes of memory (64K for 8-bit systems), the 
standard operating system for the computers, 
and their standard BASIC interpreters. 



D 
si 





IULY 1985 • BYTE 261 




The rear of the NCR PC Model 4. The power supply is at left, the Inside the Model 4. The main CPU board is visible behind the ex- 
RS-232C and parallel ports are at right. pansion slots. 



DISK ACCESS IN BASIC (SEC) 
250 



200 



150 



100 



50 



57 56 




BASIC PERFORMANCE (SEC) 
250 



200 



150 




100 



WRITE 



SYSTEM UTILITIES (SEC) 
50 



READ 



SIEVE 



CALCULATIONS 




SPREADSHEET (SEC) 
25 



40K FORMAT/DISK COPY 40K FILE COPY 

1 NCR PC 




In the Disk Access in BASIC graph, a 64K-byte sequential text file 
was written to a blank floppy disk and then read. (For the program 
listings, see June 1984 BYTE, page 327, and October 1984, page 
33.) In the BASIC Performance graph, the Sieve column shows how 
long it takes to run one iteration of the Sieve of Eratosthenes. The 
Calculations column shows how long it takes to do 10,000 multipli- 
cation and 10,000 division operations using single-precision numbers. 
The System Utilities graph shows how long it takes to format and 



copy a disk (adjusted time for 40K bytes of disk data) and to transfer 
a 40K-byte file using the system utilities. The Spreadsheet graph 
shows how long the computers take to load and recalculate a 25- 
by 25-cell spreadsheet where each cell equals 1.001 times the cell 
to its left. The spreadsheet program used was Microsoft Multiplan. 
The tests for the Apple He were done with the ProDOS operating 
system (except for the spreadsheet test, which was done with DOS 
3.3). The IBM PC was tested with PC-DOS 2.0. 



262 BYTE • JULY 1985 



REVIEW: NCR PC 



The technical manual 
is impressive with 
its detail The only 
section that could use 
revision is the one 
on installtion of 
additional memory. 



from a history of computers to the 
sort of technical information appreci- 
ated by long-time computer users. 
The technical manual is impressive 
with its detail. Again, the only area 
that could use revision is the section 
that describes installation of addi- 
tional memory. 

Support from the company is also 
notable. All dealers are trained to pro- 
vide technical assistance and trouble- 
shoot. The manuals, tutorials, and in- 
tegrated help package should get you 
through most crises. The manuals 
make frequent mention of contacting 
the local dealer if problems arise. 

Conclusion 

Although the NCR Personal Computer 
is not very portable and has the few 
imperfections I mentioned, it is still a 
good value. Ease of setup, documen- 
tation, tutorials, company backing, 
and solid engineering make this 
machine worthwhile. Other features 
include the choice between two ex- 
cellent displays, terrific graphics, a 
RAM-disk utility that runs programs 
faster than most IBM PC-compatibles, 
and moderately easy memory expan- 
sion. 

Having taught computer science to 
college students, I know the punish- 
ment that hardware must withstand. 
After giving the Model 4 the same 
type of rough treatment, I can say it 
is built like a tank. For heavy com- 
puter use and business purposes, this 
durability is a very important con- 
sideration. ■ 



How to go 

from 

UNIX to DOS 

without 

compromising 

your 

standards. 



It's easy. Just get an industry standard file access 
method that works on both. 

C-ISAM™fromRDS. 

It's been the UNIX™ standard for years (used in 
more UNIX languages and programs than any other 
access method), and it's fast becoming the standard 
for DOS. Why? 

Because of the way it works Its B+ Tree index- 
ing structure offers unlimited indexes. There's also 
automatic or manual record locking and optional 
transaction audit trails. Plus index compression to 
save disk space and cut access times. 

How can we be so sure C-ISAM works so well? 

We use it ourselves. It's a part of INFORMIX? 
INFORMIX-SQL and File-it!? our best selling data- 
base management programs. 

For an information packet, call (415) 424-1300. 
Or write RDS, 2471 East Bayshore Road, Palo Alto, 
CA 94303. 

You'll see why anything less than C-ISAM is just 
a compromise. 




RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEMS, INC 

© 1985, Relational Database Systems, Inc. UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. INFORMIX is 
a registered trademark and RDS, C-ISAM and File-It! are trademarks of Relational Database Systems, Inc. 



Inquiry 303 



IULY 1985 • BYTE 263 




FILET-MICNON PRINTERS 
AT A BURGER 




Leave it to JUKI® to serve up a hearty selection of letter-quality 
printers at a "fast-food" price that has sent the competition back to its 
recipes. 

For home or office use, the JUKI 6100. Fast, letter-quality 
printing for under $600! Prints 18 cps, performs all the word processing 
functions you need most, and has a 2K buffer memory (expandable to 
8K). Even handles your graphics! No wonder it's becoming an industry 
standard. 

For business use, you can't do better than the JUKI 6300. 
This one is even wide enough to handle your spreadsheets — along 
with graphics and all the requisite word-processing functions, at a 
zippy speed of 40 cps. Cost? Under $995! You also get a 3K 
buffer memory (expandable to 15K) in a high-tech machine 
that's built for many years of reliable printing. And like the 
6100, it fits almost any p.c. 

Mrnm. Delicious! 





■JUKI 

The workers. 

JUKI OFFICE MACHINE CORP. 



D 1985 JUKI OFFICE MACHINE CORP. 
264 BYTE • JULY 1985 



EAST COAST: 

299 Market St. , Saddle Brook, N J 07662 
(800)932-0590 

WEST COAST: 

23844 Hawthorne Blvd. , Suite 101, Torrance, CA 90505 
(800) 325-6134 • (800) 435-6315 (California) 

Inquiry 201 




Three 



programs 

for tracking 

the celestial 

visitor 



BY JOHN E. MOSLEY 



SOFTWARE REVIEW 

Monitoring 
Halley's Comet 



\ohn E. Mosley works at the 

Griffith Observatory (2800 East 

Observatory Rd., Los Angeles. CA 

90027), where he produces the 

planetarium show and is in charge 

of educational activities. 



In 1910 Halley's comet swept past the 
earth. People everywhere marveled at 
this heavenly visitor. The comet will be 
back this winter, and of course we'll all want 
to see it. Some of us will view it from our 
yards only; some of us will lug a telescope 
or newly purchased "comet hunter" binoc- 
ulars to the dark countryside; and some of 
us will pay a month's wages to take a cruise 
to the "land down under" to see the comet 
high and bright in the southern sky. Some 
of us are already watching it on little green 
monitors. 

It's fun to keep track of what is happen- 
ing in the sky and be able to anticipate 
celestial events. The motions of objects in 
the solar system, Halley's comet included, 
are generally too slow to perceive except 
by looking at them night after night. How- 
ever, with a computer you can control what 
you see; you can speed up time and peer 
into the future (or past), you can see 
celestial motions graphically and from dif- 
ferent perspectives, and you can find rela- 
tionships that printed tables do not show. 
Of course, the important thing is to see 
Halley's comet with your own eyes— nothing 
else counts— and with a microcomputer and 
some clever programs, you can be an in- 
formed participant as well as an enthusiastic 
observer. 

Although you could create microcom- 
puter programs that would tell you how and 
where to observe the comet, people have 
already done the work for you and made 
their programs commercially available. 
Some are surprisingly sophisticated, and 
we're fortunate that such software exists— 
just in time for Halley's return visit. 

Of the three good comet programs avail- 
able, two are tailored specifically to dem- 
onstrate a variety of aspects of Halley's 
coming appearance. There's also a new 
book on how to calculate comet orbits. 

Halley 

The most sophisticated of the three pro- 
grams is named after the English 



astronomer, Halley. It's distributed by Star- 
soft and is available on disk for the IBM Per- 
sonal Computer (PC). The program has four 
main parts. The first part plots the comet 
as it moves through the solar system from 
an imaginary vantage point high above the 
circling planets. It displays the sun and up 
to all nine planets at a scale you select. This 
allows you to see how the comet moves 
relative to the earth and other planets and 
how it accelerates as it approaches the sun 
and passes the inner planets. 

The second part of the program plots 
' Halley's comet on a standard rectangular 
star chart and shows how it moves through 
the constellations. These two parts of the 
program show not only the comet but the 
length and orientation of its tail— a fairly 
tricky feat. 

The third part is numerical rather than 
graphical and calculates Halley's celestial 
coordinates and distances from the earth 
and the sun on a given date or series of 
dates, allowing you to plot it accurately on 
a star chart and find it with a telescope even 
while it is still relatively faint. The accuracy 
is surprising: positions are to within 1 
minute of arc (one-thirtieth the diameter of 
the moon). The final part of Halley lets you 
change the orbital parameters and sub- 
stitute values for any other comet (or any 
object that orbits the sun) and plot the mo- 
tions of new comets as they are discovered. 
You can use the disk beyond 1986, which 
is especially valuable because several 
comets are discovered each year. 

The first three parts in Halley can show 
the comet during the coming months as 
well as any appearances back to ancient 
times, although with decreasing accuracy as 
you travel backward. Using the program, 
you can see why the comet's appearance 
in A.D. 732 was so spectacular (on this oc- 
casion, it came to within 4 million miles of 
the earth), how it appeared on the eve of 
the Norman conquest of England in 1066 
(when it inspired terror in the English 

[continued) 



JULY 1985 -BYTE 265 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 


H alley 


Halley's Comet 


Ephemeris 


Type 


Astronomy program 


Astronomy program 


Astronomy program 


Distributor 


Starsoft 

POB 2524 

San Anselmo, CA 94960 

(415) 453-1372 


S & T Software Service 
13361 Frati Lane 
Sebastopol, CA 95472 
(707) 874-2352 


Cosmic Computer Works 
243 White St. 
Belmont, MA 02178 


Computer 


IBM PC 


Apple, Commodore 64, 
Tl Professional 


Apple, TRS-80 


Format 


5 1 /4-inch floppy disk 


5 1 /4-inch floppy disk 


5 1 /4-inch floppy disk 


Price 


$34.95 


$49.95 


$25 



defenders), and how it will look when 
it returns in 2061. 

Halley's Comet 

Eric Burgess, author of Celestial BASIC 
(both the popular book and the disk), 
has created a new comet-tracking pro- 
gram called Halley's Comet. The 
package, distributed by S & T Soft- 
ware Service, is for Apple, Commo- 
dore 64, and Tfexas Instruments Pro- 
fessional computers. 

Like Starsoft's Halley, Burgess's 
package is an ambitious integrated 
suite of short and simple programs 
that attempts to cover its subject tho- 
roughly. It offers more text and op- 
tions than Halley, but it's less accurate. 

The first three programs in the pack- 
age provide a limited amount of back- 
ground, much of it historical, and in- 
clude a reference list of previous ap- 
pearances. Only in the fourth pro- 
gram, Orbit Plots, does the computer 
begin to make calculations. It also 
shows a solar system display similar 
to the first program in Starsoft's 
Halley, with the comet, Venus, Earth, 
and Mars as they looked at the time 
of any appearance since the year 
1000. You can select a year and let the 
orrery run or select a specific date 
and see a static display for that date 
while the comet's coordinates and 
distances from the earth and the sun 
are provided numerically. 

The fifth program shows the path of 
the comet through the constellations 
during its 1985-86 visit and provides 
a tabular printout of its positions. The 
entire sky is shown as it would look 
on a standard star chart; however, 



with only about 200 stars plotted, the 
constellations are difficult to identify. 

The last program offers observation 
information for a specific location on 
the earth's surface. You enter 
longitude, latitude, time, and date and 
are told the comet's altitude and 
azimuth and twilight times; you are 
then shown a display of the comet, 
complete with tail, in the appropriate 
part of the sky. The computer selects 
the proper direction to face, outlines 
the constellations in sufficient detail 
for the major constellations to be 
recognized immediately, and even in- 
cludes the moon and planets. 

Although the accuracy of Halley's 
Comet is limited and the displays 
rudimentary, it has enough clever fea- 
tures and options to keep a person 
busy for several nights. Another 
strength is that you can get inside the 
five programs and customize them to 
your liking. The program is ambitious, 
educational, and certainly worth the 
money. 

Ephemeris 

A third good comet program is 
Ephemeris by Roger Sinnott. It's avail- 
able for Apples and TRS-80s. This re- 
latively short (one-tenth of a disk) and 
inexpensive program was written 
several years ago, when Halley's 
comet was still distant. Apparently 
Sinnott didn't think to capitalize then 
on the comet's return. 

Ephemeris is a simple but surpris- 
ingly accurate program that requires 
you to enter the orbital elements of 
the object you are interested in— there 
are no default values. It then gives 



you, for the dates you specify be- 
tween A.D. 1 800 and 2 100, a printout 
of that object's celestial coordinates, 
distances, angular distance from the 
sun, and magnitude. The program has 
no graphical displays or other options, 
but it is straightforward and solid. 

Do It Yourself 

People who like to write their own 
programs will be interested in a new 
book, Orbits for Amateurs with a Micro- 
computer by D. T&ttersfield. This book 
tells you in a no-nonsense manner all 
you need to know to calculate a 
comet's ephemeris from the orbital 
elements, the elements from three 
observations of the orbit, and how to 
take into account perturbations and 
make differential corrections. It is 
clearly organized and includes all 
necessary formulas and tables, but it 
is not for the casual observer of the 
skies. 

Conclusion 

When Halley's comet last visited in 
1910. household electricity was a 
novelty and science fiction authors 
dreamed about futuristic airships. 
Buck Rogers was still a generation 
away. Few people who saw Halley's 
comet then would have guessed that 
the next time it returned, people 
around the world would use un- 
dreamed-of computing power to 
follow its progress on little green 
monitors. ■ 

For a list of books and periodicals on 
astronomy, see the "Astronomy Sources' text 
box on page 244. 



266 BYTE • JULY J985 




POPART 



QWhat would you call a desktop software package that 
• can Pop-Up Anything— spreadsheets, databases, or 
even DOS-over another application? What if it also offers 
a Pop-Up Standard Calculator and Financial/Statistical 
Calculator, Alarm Clock, Notepad, Clipboard, Calendar, plus 
PopDOS and Pop-Up Voice to dial your phone automatically? 
What would you call a single package that does all this, is 
non-copy protected and sells for $69.95? 

f\. Beautiful! New Pop-Up DeskSet from Bellsoft. 

CRITICS AGREE: 

"Bellsoft has taken the Sidekick idea a step further." 
Infoworld, 1/14/85 

USERS AGREE: 

"Much better than competition (know anyone who wants to 
buy a 'Sidekick?')" Ivan Myers, Cummins Engine Co. 

"This is an Excellent Package. (Thanks /'James Bondurant, 
ComputerLand Corporate 

New Pop-Up DeskSet includes Standard and Financial 
Calculators, Pop-Up Anything, PopDOS, Clipboard, Notepad, 
Calendar, Alarm Clock and Pop-Up Voice; $69.95. 

New Pop-Up DeskSet Plus includes all the above plus 
Pop-Up TeleComm, a telecommunications program;$129.95. 

Inquiry 51 

System requirements: IBM PC, XT, AT, 3270 PC, PCjr, or compatible. Phone dialer and 
telecommunications require a PC or XT and a Hayes compatible modem. 

Pop-Up, Pop-Ups, DeskSetare trademarks of Bellsoft, Inc. Sidekick is a trademark of 
Borland International. 



ONLY DESKSET OFFERS ALL THESE FEATURES: 




POP-UP™ 


DESKSET™ 


SIDEKICK™ 


"Pops-Up" any kind of application 






while running another 


YES 


No 


Entirely RAM-resident 


YES 


No 


Cut-and- paste capability 


YES 


No 


Gets DOS commands while running 






another program 


YES 


No 


Calculator with printable on-screen 






tape display 


YES 


No 



r^ 



DESKSET 

Available at leading software dealers. Or for 
a limited time you may order direct by 
mail or phone. Call 1-800-44-POP-UP 

(1-800-447-6787). Or mail this coupon to 
Bellsoft, Inc., 2820 Northup Way, 
Bellevue.WA 98004. 

Please send the following: 

□ DeskSet; $69.95 □ DeskSet Plus; $129.95 

+ $5 shipping 

Name: 




Company Name:. 
Mailing Address:. 
City: 



_ State:. 



_Zip:_ 



Phone: 

□ My check is enclosed □ Visa; D American Express; □ MasterCard 

Name on card: 

Card #: Exp. date:^_Z 



L J 



Signature: 

OELLSOaT (206) 828-7282 



J 



OEM & OWN BRAND 

COMPOSITE & TTL COMPATIBLE 
COLOR & MONO MONITOR 

TERMINAL 




SAMSUNG 

Electron Devices 



SEOUL OFFICE 



6~8TH FL, THE JOONG-ANG DAILY 
NEWS BLDG. f 7 SOONHWA-DONG, 
CHUNG-KU, SEOUL, KOREA 
TEL: 7516-955/7, 7516-959/961 
TLX: STARNEC K 22596 
CABLE: ''STARNEC" SEOUL 
TEL 

268 BYTE • JULY I985 



LONDON OFFICE 



6TH FLOOR, VICTORIA HOUSE 
SOUTHAMPTON ROW W.C. 
1 LONDON, ENGLAND 
TEL: (01) 831-6951/5 
TLX: 264606 STARS LG 
FAX: (01) 430-0096 



SANTA CLARA OFFICE 



3003 BUNKER HILL LANE, 
SUITE 201 SANTA CLARA, 
CAL. 95050, U.S.A. 
TEL: (408) 096-8441/3 
TLX: 171685 SAMSUNG SNTA 



TOKYO OFFICE 



GASUMIGASEKI BLDG., 2522 
GASUMIGASEKI 3-2-5 CHIYOTA-KU, 
TOKYO, JAPAN 

TEL: (03) 581-5804, (03) 581-9521~4 
TLX: 228009 SANSEI 



Inquiry 313 




SOFTWARE REVIEW 



Rendezvous 



with a 


space station 


or travel 


to Saturn 



by Benjamin Bernar 



Benjamin Bernar received a B.S. in 

geology from Ohio University in 

1976. His work with computers has 

led from uranium exploration in 

Wyoming to his current involvement 

with the space shuttle at Lockheed 

Space Operations. He can be 

reached at 201 South U St., #59, 

bompoc, CA 93436. 



Space-Flight Simulators 



Computer simulations of space flight 
have until recently been done only 
on mainframes and minicomputers. 
In this review, I'll discuss two programs that 
simulate space flight on a microcomputer. 

Rendezvous 

Rendezvous is a collection of simulations 
written by Wes Huntress, who, according to 
the program packaging, is a Ph.D. in 
chemical physics currently working for the 
California Institute of Technology's Jet Pro- 
pulsion Laboratory. The goal of these 
simulations is to rendezvous with a space 
station in a 1990-mile circular earth orbit. 
The mission is divided into four flight 
phases, each of which you can run indepen- 
dently and in any order. Animated color 
graphics is used to display the progress of 
the flight, which you control with the 
keyboard or joystick. 

Booting the Rendezvous disk brings up 
the mission menu and its options: earth lift- 
off, orbital rendezvous, approach, and align- 
ment and docking. 

The documentation describes the require- 
ments for completing each of these flight 
phases as well as the space-shuttle-type 
vehicle you use for this simulation. 

Like NASA's space shuttle, the Rendez- 
vous vehicle has two solid rocket boosters 
(SRBs). A big difference is in their burn time 
of 90 seconds as opposed to 132 seconds 
for the real thing. The main engines of the 
space shuttle are part of the orbiter and 
typically burn for about 510 seconds. They 
augment the thrust of the SRBs during the 
lift-off. The main engines of the Rendezvous 
vehicle are attached to the external tank in- 
stead of the orbiter and are jettisoned with 
it. The main engines are also turned on with 
the SRBs and only burn for an additional 
200 seconds. Like in the space shuttle, the 
engines of the orbital maneuvering system 
(OMS) in the orbiter usually provide for the 
final orbit-injection velocity. Unlike the OMS 
engines in the shuttle, they have enough ad- 
ditional fuel to reach an orbit almost three 



times higher than the shuttle can reach. 

Control of the Rendezvous vehicle during 
the launch phase is limited to attitude con- 
trol in the pitch axis and to on/off opera- 
tion of the OMS engines. The orbiter OMS 
engines are available after the external tank 
is jettisoned. You cannot control the throt- 
tle on any engine or the launch azimuth or 
orbit inclination. If an orbit is successfully 
achieved, it will be a polar orbit. 

The earth lift-off option presents in the 
right half of the display an outside view of 
the launch vehicle on the pad. The lower 
left displays a profile of the flight path. The 
bottom of the screen presents flight data 
and a prompt for ignition to initiate the 
launch. The upper left is unused. 

Huntress has made some simplifying 
design decisions in the launch simulation. 
Since the final orbit is polar, you don't have 
to worry about the launch azimuth or the 
effect of the earth's rotation on final vehi- 
cle velocity. One thing that does have to be 
determined for flight planning is the orbital 
altitude. 

The documentation suggests a minimum 
altitude of 119 miles. An orbit below this 
altitude could decay within one or two 
revolutions. In fact, the launch simulation 
won't permit orbit injections below 119 
miles; a low-altitude warning is displayed, 
and either you get the vehicle up by turn- 
ing the OMS engines on or you lose altitude 
and are destroyed by aerodynamic forces. 

An upper limit on orbital altitude is 
related to vehicle performance and mission 
requirements. In Rendezvous, this value is 
somewhere in the neighborhood of the 
location of the space station (1990 miles). 
Higher altitudes are possible, but you have 
to use more energy to get into them. Since 
the goal of these flight simulations is to 
rendezvous with another spacecraft, you 
need to get into the same orbit as the space 
station and time it so that the station is 
nearby when you match orbits. In principle, 
you could meet these requirements with a 

[continued) 



JULY 1985 'BYTE 269 



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(408)426-7638 



Inquiry 42 



REVIEW: SPACE FLIGHT 



direct injection into the station orbit 
from a ground launch; in practice, 
however, such an approach is not 
used. The launch could not tolerate 
any error in the flight profile, and con- 
straints on the time of launch, the so- 
called launch window, would be 
extremely tight. 

The usual procedure is to get into 
a parking orbit above or below the 
target and maneuver from there. The 
extra energy used to reach a higher 
orbit has to be dumped anyway, so 
parking altitudes below the target are 
typically chosen for efficiency. 

The documentation states a value of 
17,5 50 miles per hour (mph) as the 
minimum horizontal velocity (VELH) 
required for orbit injection. This cor- 
responds to a local circular velocity 
altitude of 65 miles. The 17,550-mph 
value seems to be a limit in the launch 
program since you aren't permitted to 
do an injection at speeds below this, 
regardless of your altitude. When you 
reach the altitude of the space station, 
your VELH value is 14,533 mph. 

Having selected the orbit, you are 
ready to plan a flight profile and get 
off the pad. The two forces to over- 
come are gravity and atmospheric 
drag. Of the two, gravity is by far the 
more important, so you want a flight 
path that curves as quickly from ver- 
tical as possible, becoming horizon- 
tal at the orbit-injection point. You 
must maintain a vertical or near- 
vertical attitude (as well as moderate 
velocities) in the lower, denser portion 
of the atmosphere. There is a region 
in the flight profile where aero- 
dynamic loads on the structure of the 
vehicle are largest. If the vehicle is 
manned, you need to keep accelera- 
tions below 8-10 G (a unit of accelera- 
tion equal to the standard accelera- 
tion of gravity, 9.80665 meters per 
second per second) by throttling the 
engines down in the terminal portion 
of the flight when vehicle weight is 
just a fraction of the launch weight. 

In the transition from vertical to hor- 
izontal vehicle attitude, you should 
avoid having a zero angle between the 
thrust vector and the horizon at any 
time other than orbit injection. If your 
ship is horizontal, all propulsion 



energy is used to increase VELH, and 
none is used to oppose gravity. In 
other words, you're falling, and the 
only time you're supposed to be fall- 
ing is in orbit. 

In a typical space-shuttle flight, the 
vehicle goes into a roll shortly after 
clearing the launch tower and pitches 
down slightly so that the crew is fly- 
ing heads-down over the Atlantic. The 
vehicle reaches Mach I (about 708 
mph) about 50 seconds into the flight; 
at SRB separation 82 seconds later, 
the vehicle is at an altitude of 28 miles 
and traveling at about Mach 4.5. Dur- 
ing this part of the ascent, the main 
engines are throttled down to as low 
as 60 percent of their rated thrust to 
limit aerodynamic loads and to keep 
accelerations below 3 G. The main 
engines are turned off at an altitude 
of about 70 miles. The OMS engines 
take you the rest of the way to the first 
orbit-injection point, about 12.5 
minutes from lift-off. 

The Rendezvous vehicle can't be 
rolled, so when you pitch away from 
vertical you are flying heads-up. The 
pitching of the vehicle is allowed only 
in one direction and to a maximum 
of -90 degrees (pointing straight 
down). SRB separation occurs at an 
altitude of about 2 5.8 miles and a 
speed of about Mach 4.8, which is 
similar to the space shuttle. The 
Rendezvous shuttle can handle the 
aerodynamic loads of a reasonable 
flight profile without throttling the 
main engines. The effect of the at- 
mosphere has been realistically 
modeled in the launch phase, varying 
as a function of velocity, attitude, and 
altitude. Fly too fast and too low and 
you'll lose the ship. Since you can't 
throttle the main engines, you can't 
control the G-forces on the crew. 

Hitting some kind of an orbit is not 
difficult with the Rendezvous launch 
simulation. After playing with various 
flight profiles for a while, it becomes 
rather easy. Hitting a parking orbit 
suitable for a transfer to the space sta- 
tion is something else, though. 

Earth Orbits 

If you select the option of orbital ren- 
dezvous from the main menu, you are 



270 BYTE • JULY 1985 



prompted for a starting orbital 
altitude and a position relative to the 
space station. If you've successfully 
achieved some sort of an orbit in the 
launch phase, Rendezvous automat- 
ically switches to this option. In either 
case, the simulation presents a view 
of a nonrotating earth along the 
equatorial plane showing the western 
hemisphere. The orbital paths of both 
the Rendezvous vehicle and the space 
station are plotted, and both revolve 
around the planet in a counterclock- 
wise direction. The bottom of the 
screen presents data about the cur- 
rent and projected vehicle orbits, such 
as energy remaining in the OMS 
engines and apogeefcerigee altitudes. 
All flight-parameter input is through 
the keyboard. 

Entering the orbital-rendezvous 
option through the mission menu 
puts you in a circular orbit at whatever 
altitude you choose. Selecting low- 
altitude orbits leaves the largest OMS 
fuel reserves for maneuvering. The 
maximum you can start with corre- 
sponds to changes in vehicle veloc- 
ity of up to 2000 meters per second 
(m/s). At this point, one of the reasons 
for choosing such a high space-station 
altitude becomes apparent. A circle 
representing the earth is 7972 miles 
in diameter, and a low earth orbit of 
2 50 miles produces a circle of 8222 
miles in diameter. The high-resolution 
graphics mode is just barely able to 
differentiate the two circles. 

Having 2000 m/s to play with and 
starting from a circular orbit, it's pretty 
easy to rendezvous with the space 
station. More interesting is trying it 
from the weird elliptical orbit you may 
have gotten into from the ground after 
burning most of your fuel. Many 
times, a partial orbit is achieved that 
intersects the atmosphere. These or- 
bits have to be circularized or trans- 
ferred from before you hit the at- 
mosphere. Elliptical orbits can be cir- 
cularized manually, but this is difficult. 
It's easier to set this up for the com- 
puter and let it do the worrying. Or- 
bital maneuvering by the space shut- 
tle is done exclusively through the on- 
board computers; manual control by 
the crew occurs only during approach 











Saturn Navigator 




AT A GLANCE 






Name 


Rendezvous 






Type 


Space-flight simulator 


Space-flight simulator 




Publisher 


Edu-Ware Services Inc. 
POB 22222 
Agoura, CA 91301 
(213) 706-0661 


sub-Logic Communications Corp. 
713 Edgebrook Dr. 
Champaign, IL 61820 
(217) 359-8482 




Computer 


Apple II + with 48K or Atari 
home computer with 48K and 
Atari BASIC; joystick optional 


Apple II + with 48K 




Documentation 


20-page operations manual 


19-page user's guide 




Price 


$39.95 


$34.95 



and docking, with the rendezvous 
target visible. 

Retrograde burns are available for 
orbit transfers from altitudes higher 
than the space station and for deorbit. 
At 2 50 miles, the space shuttle per- 
forms a deorbit burn that changes or- 
bital velocity by 90 m/s (about 200 
mph). Compare this to the 17,263- 
mph orbital velocity and you'll see 
that it doesn't take much to bring one 
of these things back down. The 
Rendezvous vehicle at this altitude 
will deorbit with 65 m/s or more, but 
the simulation doesn't provide for 
landings, so Huntress destroys you in 
the atmosphere. 

You can rendezvous with the space 
station in many ways. But, as in the 
launch phase, you have to do it with 
enough fuel remaining for the ap- 
proach and docking phases. A suc- 
cessful orbital rendezvous brings up 
the approach option automatically, or 
you can select it from the menu. 

The display is a star field with a 
cross representing the Rendezvous 
vehicle. The data display presents 
velocity and range data relative to the 
space station and remaining man- 
euvering energy. You control the flight 
through the keyboard or joystick. 

In an approach, you're in an almost 
identical orbit with the space station, 
either ahead of or behind it. There 
may also be some residual velocity 
along the approach vehicle's own in- 
ternal x- and y-axes that needs to be 
reduced to some minimal value. Since 
you're still in an orbit around the 



earth, firing an engine along the or- 
bital path to approach the station 
from behind increases your altitude 
and actually slows you down. In the 
early 1960s, this effect caused some 
difficulty for the Gemini program and 
the Soviet space program when 
rendezvous techniques were being 
perfected. The solution is to suc- 
cessively raise apogee in a series of 
translational burns, each time coming 
closer to the target. Since Rendezvous 
does not model this situation, it uses 
a direct approach for the simulation. 

For a successful approach, you have 
to get within 1.2 miles of the space 
station and reduce velocities along 
the three spatial axes to 20 m/s or less 
(with respect to the station). Ac- 
complishing this takes you to the last 
part of the Rendezvous simulation: 
alignment and docking. 

In the alignment and docking phase, 
the screen presents an animated, 
three-dimensional representation of 
the space station. Flight data available 
to you includes a graphical presenta- 
tion of your vehicle position and the 
station position in case you lose sight 
of it on the screen; other data in- 
cludes range, velocity, and vehicle 
rotation rates. In this part of the 
simulation you have control over rota- 
tion around the three vehicle axes: 
yaw, pitch, and roll. You manipulate 
this, along with translational motion, 
with the keyboard or joystick. 

Itanslational and rotational man- 
euvering is required to position your- 

[continued) 



IULY 1985 -BYTE 271 



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Inquiry 284 



REVIEW: SPACE FLIGHT 



The documentation 
does not describe 
the ship, but it 
probably has some 
kind of nuclear-fission 
propulsion system 
like the Discovery 
in 2001 and 2010. 



self in front of the space-station dock- 
ing port. Arriving inside the port with- 
out hitting anything ends the 
simulation. 

Saturn Navigator 

Saturn Navigator, also written by Wes 
Huntress, was originally sold as an 
add-on program requiring subLogic's 
A2-301 graphics package to run. It is 
now available as a stand-alone pro- 
gram running under Apple DOS. 
Saturn Navigator is a collection of 
simulations. The goal is to rendezvous 
with a space station in orbit around 
Saturn. The mission is divided into 
four flight phases: interplanetary 
transfer orbit, Saturn approach and 
orbit injection, orbital maneuvering, 
and rendezvous with the Saturn space 
station. 

The program uses animated color 
graphics to display the flight; par- 
ticularly effective is a three- 
dimensional wire model of Saturn and 
its rings during mid-course correc- 
tions and approach and orbit injec- 
tion. You interact with the simulation 
through the keyboard. 

Each flight phase is run in order; 
unlike Rendezvous, there is no provi- 
sion for independent use of the indi- 
vidual programs. The documentation 
describes the options in the com- 
mand menu for each flight phase as 
well as the general requirements for 
completing each part of the mission. 
Starting the simulation brings up a 



nice graphic of Saturn and one of its 
moons. Next on the screen comes 
some explanatory text and a prompt 
for the velocity of the Saturn transfer 
orbit. 

The documentation for Saturn 
Navigator does not describe the ship, 
but considering its performance 
capabilities, it probably has some 
kind of nuclear-fission propulsion 
system like the Discovery in 2001 and 
2010. In setting up a transfer orbit to 
Saturn, you are presented with a plan 
view of the sun, Earth and its orbit, 
and Saturn and its orbit. 

When you input a transfer velocity 
the program calculates and plots a 
trajectory that intersects Saturn's orbit 
at that planet's location on the orbital 
path. It then provides the length of 
the flight in days, and you can request 
a view of the planet on approach for 
this trajectory or select a new transfer 
velocity. 

Saturn Navigator lets you play with 
the relationship between travel time 
and fuel. The most economical way to 
go is the Hohmann transfer orbit, but 
this is also the slowest. (A Hohmann 
transfer orbit is an elliptical, helio- 
centric orbit that tangentially inter- 
sects the orbits of two planets. In 
terms of energy, it is the cheapest way 
to travel from one orbit to another.) 
Inputting the Hohmann transfer 
velocity to the program produces the 
correct transfer orbit, one that just in- 
tersects the orbits of Earth and 
Saturn; however, the calculated travel 
time is a bit off. A ship on a Hohmann 
transfer to Saturn would require 6 
years for the flight; Saturn Navigator 
comes up with 5.8 years. The fastest 
transfer orbit you can select will get 
you there in 1.7 years, but you'll be 
left with precious little fuel for orbit 
injection and maneuvering. 

Once you've committed the ship to 
a trajectory, another text screen 
comes up suggesting that you consult 
the documentation for a review of 
mid-course maneuvering. The screen 
also displays a countdown, which 
delays the start of the flight until Earth 
and Saturn are properly aligned for 
the transfer. I suppose this adds to the 

{continued) 



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REVIEW: SPACE FLIGHT 



realism, but 1 found it annoyingly long 
after the first few flights. 

An animated display of the sun, 
Earth, Saturn, and the ship is pre- 
sented after the transfer-orbit injec- 
tion burn. Time into the mission in 
days and a plot of the ship's current 
position along the flight path are also 
displayed. At several points during 
the flight, you can make mid-course 
corrections of the flight path. 

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planet's gravity acts to "draw" you 
into a hyperbolic path around the 
planet. There is a point on this hyper- 
bola where an appropriate engine 
burn causes the spacecraft to enter a 
closed orbit around the planet, a pro- 
grade orbit that doesn't hit the planet 
or the rings and leaves enough fuel 
for the orbital maneuvering required 
to rendezvous with the space station 
in an equatorial orbit around Saturn. 
You use mid-course maneuvering to 
target your approach so that you hit 
this point. 

At each mid-course opportunity, 
Saturn Navigator puts up a three- 
dimensional view of the planet on ap- 
proach along with a plot of the 
targeting point. Data about this point, 
such as the resulting orbital inclina- 
tion and periapsis (of the trajectory), 
is also presented. You use this infor- 
mation to move the targeting point as 
required for the desired final ap- 
proach. Once you've found and com- 
mitted to a suitable target point, the 
computer initiates a burn to adjust the 
flight path to the new target point. The 



display returns to a plot of spacecraft 
and planetary positions. Final ap- 
proach occurs two days out from the 
planet and automatically moves you 
into the approach and orbit-injection 
routines in the simulation. 

Using Saturn's gravity to help cap- 
ture your spacecraft expends far less 
energy than would be needed to cir- 
cularize an orbit at Saturn's "altitude" 
from the sun. On approach and orbit 
injection, the screen displays the ef- 
fect of gravity on the flight path and 
an overhead or polar view of the 
planet and ring system. This part of 
the simulation also allows views from 
the equatorial plane and changes in 
approach velocity or the initiation of 
the orbit-injection maneuver. Once 
you commit to an orbit insertion, a 
nice animated view of the approach 
appears on the screen. This is par- 
ticularly effective in high-inclination 
approaches. 

When you reach the point of closest 
approach, the computer does the 
orbit-injection burn. You can either 
manually initiate orbital maneuvering 
or complete half of the orbit for auto- 
matic transition. Maneuver sequences 
are loaded to the computer to change 
the orbit shape and size for imme- 
diate execution from circular orbits or 
delayed execution from elliptical 
orbits. This delay is to time the engine 
burn for either apoapsis or periapsis 
in a Hohmann-type fuel-efficient orbit 
transfer. You can also change orbit 
inclination. 

As soon as you have maneuvered 



Personal computers can 
provide a feel for ike 
problems of space flight 



into some kind of an orbit inside the 
inner ring and have an inclination of 
degrees, you are allowed to man- 
ually move into the final part of the 
simulation— the rendezvous with the 
Saturnian space station, which is in a 
circular orbit of 412 5-mile altitude. 
The rest of the simulation is almost 
identical to Rendezvous except that 
you aren't required to handle ap- 
proach and docking and you don't get 
a look at the station. 

Conclusion 

Personal computers and simulations 
can provide a feel for the problems 
and techniques involved in space 
flight that is obtainable in no other 
way save direct experience (an option 
not yet open to most of us). Books 
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mechanics and rocket flight are very 
important, but they just can't provide 
the interaction necessary for an in- 
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spend an awful lot of time with 
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Inquiry 266 



JULY 1985 • BYTE 275 



RED-HOT RAM & EPROM PRICES 



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49 


SN7439N 


14 


79 


SN7440N 


14 


.19 


SN7441N 


It 


89 


SN7442N 


16 


45 


SN7443N 


IB 


125 


SN7444N 


16 


1.25 


SN7445N 


16 


69 


SN7446N 


16 


75 


SN7447N 


16 


75 


SN7448N 


16 


75 


SN74SWJ 


14 


19 


SN7459N 


14 


35 


SN7460N 


14 


39 


SN7470N 


14 


39 


SN7472N 


14 


39 


SN7473N 


14 


39 


74LS0O 


14 


29 1 


74LS01 


14 


29 


74LS02 


14 


.35 


74LS03 


14 


.29 


74LS04 




.39 


74LS05 


14 


35 


74LS08 


14 


35 


74LS09 


14 


.35 


74LS10 


14 


35 


74LSI1 




35 


74LS14 




59 


74LSI5 


14 


35 


741S20 


14 


29 


74LS21 


14 


35 


74LS26 




29 


74LS27 


14 


.35 


74LS28 


14 


39 


741S30 


14 


39 


74LS32 


14 


31 


74LS37 


14 


35 


74LS38 


14 


.39 


74LS42 


16 


.49 


74LS47 


16 


89 


74LS51 




29 


74LS73 


14 


39 


74LS74 


14 


49 


74LS75 


16 


45 


74LS76 


lb 


39 


74LS85 


16 


89 


74LS88 


14 


39 


74LS90 


14 


.55 


74LS92 


14 


55 


74LS93 




.59 


74LS96 


lb 


89 


74LS107 


14 


.39 


74LS109 


lb 


.39 


74LS112 


lb 


45 


74LSI14 


14 


39 


74LSI22 




49 


74LS123 


lb 


79 


74LS125 


14 


.59 


74LS126 


14 


59 


74SOO 


14 


35 1 


74SD2 


14 


35 1 


74S03 


14 


35 


74S04 


14 


45 


74S05 


H 


.45 


74S0fl 


14 


45 


74S09 


14 


39 


74S10 


14 


35 


74S11 


14 


35 


74S15 


11 


35 


74S20 


U 


35 


74S22 


11 


35 


74S30 


11 


35 


74S32 


11 


.45 


74S37 


14 


.99 


74S38 


14 


89 


74S51 


11 


.35 


74S64 


14 


39 


74S65 


11 


39 


74S74 


14 


.55 


74S85 


16 


1.99 


74S86 


11 


55 


74S112 


IB 


55 


74S1I3 


14 


55 


CA3046N 


H 


99 | 


CA3054N 


14 


109 


CA30S9N 


14 


2.95 


CA3060N 


15 


2.95 


CA306SE 


14 


1.49 


CA3060E 


8 


99 


CA3081N 


16 


1 15 


C04000 


14 


29 1 


CD4001 


14 


.29 


CO4D02 


14 


.29 


CD4006 


14 


.89 


CO40O7 


14 


.29 


CD40O8 


16 


89 


C04009 


16 


59 


C04010 


16 


.49 


C040I1 


14 


29 


CD4012 


14 


29 


CD4013 


14 


.39 


CD4014 


16 


.89 


CD4015 


16 


.39 


C04016 


14 


.49 


CO4017 


16 


79 


CD4018 


16 


.79 


C04019 


16 


49 


CD4020 


16 


.75 


C04021 


16 


.75 


CD4022 


16 


75 


CD4023 


14 


29 


CD4024 


14 


69 


CD4025 


M 


.29 


CD4026 


16 


1.59 


CD4027 


IG 


45 


CD4028 


16 


69 


CD4029 


tl 


79 


CD4030 


14 


.39 


CD4034 


24 


1.79 


CD4035 


16 


79 


CO4040 


16 


75 



SN7474IJ 
SN7475N 
SN7476N 
SN7479N 
SN7480N 
SN7482N 
SN7483U 
SN7485N 
SN7486N 
SN7489N 
SN7490N 
SN7491N 
SN7492N 
SN7493N 
SN7494N 
SN7495N 
SN7496N 
SN7497N 
SH74100N 
SN74I05N 
SN74107N 
SN74109N 
SN74U6N 
SN74I2IN 
SN74122N 
SN74I23N 
SN7.I125N 
SN74126N 
SN74128N 
SN74132M 
SN74136N 
SN74141N 
SN74142N 
SN74143N 
SN74144N 
SN74145N 
SN74147N 
SN74148N 
SN74I50N 
SN74151N 
SN74I52N 
SN74153N 
SM74154N 
SN74155N 
SN74156N 
SN74157H 



Pari No. Pirw Price 

SN74159N 24 195 

SN74160N 16 59 

SN74101JJ 16 59 

SH74162N 16 59 

SN74163H 16 59 

SN74164N 14 69 

SN74165N 16 69 

SN7416GN 16 69 

SN74I67H 16 295 

SN74170N 16 I 59 

SN74172H 24 4 95 

SN74173N 16 85 

SN74174N 16 59 

SH74175N 16 59 

SN74176N 14 79 

J74177N 14 79 

SN74179N 16 149 

SN74180N 14 69 

SN74181N 24 195 

SN74I82N 16 105 

SN74I8-W IE 2 29 

SN74I85N 16 229 

SPJ74190N 16 69 

SN74191N 16 .63 

SN74192N 16 69 

SN7-1193N 16 .69 

SN74194N 16 69 

SN74195N 16 49 

SN74196N 14 75 

SN74197N 14 75 

SN74I98N 24 119 

SN74199N 24 1 19 

J74221N 16 119 

SN7425IN 16 .79 

SN74273N 20 1 95 

SN74276N 20 2 49 

SN74279N IG 79 

SN74283N 16 139 

SN74284N 16 295 

SN74285N 16 295 

SN74365N 16 55 

SH743WN IG 55 

SN74367N IG .55 

SH74368N IG 55 

SN74390N IG 1 49 

SN7439.TH 14 1 49 



74LSI32 
74LS133 
74LSI36 
74LSI3B 
74LSI39 
74LS145 
74LS147 
74LS148 
74LS151 
74LS153 
74LSI54 
74LS155 
74LSI56 
74LSI57 
74LSI58 
74LS160 
74LS161 
74LS162 
74LS163 
74LS164 
'■JI.SKiS 
74LS168 
74I.SI69 
74LS170 
741S173 
74LS174 
74LS175 
74LS181 
74LS190 
74LSI9I 
74LS192 
74LS193 
74LS194 
74LS195 
74LS19Q 
74LS197 
74LS221 
74LS240 



74S114 14 55 

74S124 16 275 

745132 14 189 

745133 16 45 

745135 16 89 

745136 14 139 

745138 16 89 

745139 16 89 

745140 14 69 
74S151 16 .99 
74S153 16 .99 

745157 16 99 

745158 16 99 
74S160 16 2.29 
74S169 16 4.29 

745174 16 1.09 

745175 16 109 
74S188' 16 175 

745194 16 1.49 

745195 16 149 

745196 14 149 
74S240 20 195 

■JMnrara 

CA3082N IG 1 15 

CA3083N 16 1 15 

CA30S6N 14 85 

CA30B9N IE 1 95 

CA3096N 16 1 75 

CA3I27E IG 195 



74LS244 
74LS245 
74LS251 

74LS257 
74LS258 
74LS260 
74LS266 
74LS273 
74LS279 
74LS280 
74LS299 
741S322 
74LS323 
74LS347 
74LS353 
74LS364 
74LS365 
74LS366 
74LS367 
74LS368 
74LS373 
7JLS374 
74LS375 
74LS386 
74LS393 
74LS399 
74LS490 
74LS533 
74LS534 
74LS540 
74LS541 
74LS640 
74LS641 
74LS64.1 
74LS645 
74LS670 
74LS688 
81LS95 
81LS96 
8ILS97 
81LS98 



74S241 
74S242 
74S243 
74S244 
74S251 
74S253 
74S257 
74S258 
74S260 
74S273 
74S280 
74S287- 
74S288' 
74S299 
74S373 
74S374 
74S387- 
74S471- 
74S472' 
74S473" 
74S570' 
74S571' 
74S572- 
74S573- 



CA3I30E 
CA3140E 
CA3160H 
CA3160E 
CA316IE 

CA31B9E 
CA3401N 



14 



CD4041 
CD4042 
CO4043 
CO4044 
CO4046 
C04047 
CD4048 
CO4049 
C04050 
CD4051 
CO4052 
CD4053 
CO4056 
CD4D59 
CD4060 
CO4066 



CO4070 
CD4071 
CD4072 
CO4073 
CO4075 
CD4076 
CD4077 
CD4078 
CD4Q81 
CD4093 
CU4094 
CD4098 
CO4099 



CD4503 IG 

CO4506 IG 

CO4507 14 

CO4506 24 

CO4510 IS 

C04511 IG 

C045I2 IG 

C045I4 24 

C04515 24 

C04516 16 

C04518 16 

C04519 16 

C04520 16 

C04526 16 

C04528 16 

C04529 16 

CD4531 16 

CD4538 16 

CD4541 14 

C04543 16 

C04566 16 

C04583 16 

CD4584 14 

CD4585 16 

CD4723 16 

C04724 16 

MCI4410 16 

MCI 44 II 24 

MCM412 16 

MC14433 24 

MCI-I4W 16 

_ MCI 4572 16 



Price Part No. 



21C14 

27C16 
4164N-200 
6116P-4 
6116LP-4 



(200ns) CMOS SRAM .99 

CMOS USES LESS POWER 

(450ns) CMOS EPROM 9.95 

(Oram. 2.25-9/19.95 

I200HS1 SHAM 3.49 

l200ns> L P. SHAM 3.69 



Description 



6264P-15 

6264LP-15 

27128-25 

41256-200 

68764 

EWC-1 



1150ns) SRAM 
1 150ns) LP. SRAM 
(250nsl EPROM 
(200nsl DRAM 
(450ns) 21 V EPROM 
EPROM Window Covcis 



12.49 

12.95 

9.95 

8.95 

12.95 

10/.69 



El 



HrlHo 



-MIC80PR0CESS0R CHIPS- 

Pini Fundus 






D765AC 40 Floppy Oisk Comioiler 1695 

D3242 28 Aili.li Mulliple.er & Relief Counter 7 95 

IMS5501 40 SyrichiiiniuM, l!,il.i IrilwUe iSIHCl 1495 

Z80. Z80A. Z8DB. Z8D00 SERIES 

Z80 40 CPUIMK3880NII78OCI2 5MIH 2.75 

ZI0-C1C 28 Courilcr Hriier Circ.nl . . 349 

Z8Q-DART 40 Ilunl Asynclitism «oc MOTS 8 95 

Z80-OMA 40 Diiecl Memory Access Cucuil 1249 

Z80P10 40 Parallel l/Olnlorl.iccCfwIroller 295 

Z60S10/0 40 Serial I/O lUCfl .md RxCG BonUwll 1149 

Z80-S10.') 40 Senall/O (Ucks OIllll.i 1149 

Z80S10/2 40 Ser«ll'OIL.icksSVNCI!l 1149 

Z80S10'9 40 Seaill/O 1149 

Z8DA 40 CPUIMK3880N4II780C-II4MM; 295 

Z80A-CTC 28 Counlor Timer Chcuii 3 95 

Z80A-OART 40 Oual Asynchronous flxc 'Trans 995 

Z80AO\«A 40 Oireci Memory AaessCircuii 1295 

Z80API0 40 rtirallul I'Olnlerlace Comroller 395 

ZSOA-SIO'O 40 Senal I/O (T»Clt .mil IHCU BanrJcO) 1195 

Z80AS10/1 40 Serial I'D (LicVs DIHUI 1195 

Z80A-S10;2 40 Senal I/O lLacksSYNCBl 1195 

Z80A-SH9 40 Serial I/O 1195 

Z80B 40 CPU IMK3880N-6I 6MM; 895 

Z80B-CIC 28 Counlei limer Cucuil 1 1 95 

Z803-DART 40 Dual Asynclironous Rec/Ttans 1995 

Z80BP10 40 Parallel I/O InlcrlaceConlroller 1095 



— 6500/6800/68000 SERIES - 



695 



65023 40 MPU with Clock (3MH/) 

6520 40 ftirnhcml Intel Adaplcr 

6522 40 Vcr5aine Inter AdaWet, 

6551 28 Async Coutm Iriterl.iceAilapt 

6800 40 MPU 

6802 40 MI'Uwilli Clock and HAM 

6809 40 CPU - 8-liil (On Chip Oscdbloi) 
6809E 40 CPU - a 
68B09E 40 CPU - 8 Oil (Ext Clocking! 2MH; 

6810 24 128x8 Sialic RAM 
68B10 24 128x8 SlaticHAM i2MH:1 
6821 40 Peripheral InieiAdapl IMC6820I 
68B21 40 Peripheral Irllerl.Tce Adajiler (2MH/I 
6345 40 CRI ConliollenCRTC) 
68345 40 CRI Comrotlei ICflIC)2MH: 
6850 24 Asynchronous Comin Atlafller 
6360 24 OOOODpsDig.lal MODEM 
680001 8 E4 MPU 16 fill <8MHi> 
68488P 40 General Purposelnl Adapter 
68661 28 Enhanced Prtnj Comm Inlcrtal2661) 895 

B000/80000 SERIES 



34 95 



40 Conti 
40 MPU- 



)B,I 



«;HAM& I/O 



8085A 

80S5A-2 

8086-2 



8224 

8228 

8237-5 

823S 

8243 

8250?; 

8251 

8251A 

82535 

8255 

8255A-5 

8257-5 

8259 

8259-5 

8272 

8274 

8275 

8279 

8279-5 

8282 

8284 

8286 



8748 
8749 
8755 
801866 



CPtJ-S0lCiiip8-B.|ll2Bt)lsflAMl 

40 CPUI256 bylcs RAM) 

40 CPU- 8 Oil NMOS 

40 CPUw/Basic Micro Interpreter 

40 CPU 

40 CPU 

40 CPU-8-Hil N-ClianncH5MHjrl 

4Q CPU 16-l>it8Mlfc 

40 Anlhmelir: P/ocessor 15MHz). 

40 Anihinrjtic Piocessoi (8MH« 

40 CPU 8/16 -llil . 

40 HMOS RAM 1/0 toil-Timer 

40 RAM Wilh I/O Porl anil limel 

16 Hi Speed 1 ou 1 01 8 llinaiy Decoder 

24 8-Bil Inpul/Oulpul I74S412I 

16 CiockGeneratoi/Orivei 

28 Sy? Con1/BusOm«r I74S428) 

40 High Peif Prog DMA Cool <5Mlb| 

28 Sysrem Conirotler |74S438| 

24 10 Expander lor 48 Series . 

40 Async Comm Element 

28 Proq Comm I/O [USAHTl 

28 Prog Comm Inleitace IUSAHT) 

24 Proq Interval Tuner 

40 Prog Pcnohetall/OlPPlI 

40 Prog ftiiipheral I/O (PPII 5MHz 

40 Prog OMA Controller 

28 Ploy Inlerrupl Corlliol 

28 Prog Interrupt Controller 

40 Sn/e/Dule Oeosiiy Floppy Disk Com 

40 MulliPiOloColSctMlConl (7201) 

40 Prog CHT Corilrollcr . . . 

40 Pmg KeylmaidfDrsplav Inledace 

40 Pio(i Keyljoard/Drsplay inlcrlace 

20 Ocial Lalch 

16 Clock Generaior/Onwr .... 

20 OcialiJus Transceiver. 

20 Oclal Hus Transceiver l Inverled). 

20 Bus Controller 

20 BusAioiler 

40 8 Bit Univ Peripheral Interlace . 

40 HMOS EPIIOM MPU 

40 MPU 8-8d IEPROM Vtetsoi ol 80191 



2495 
1995 



40 I6K 



19 95 

2495 

3995 

MPU 4995 

J(8-BnOaia Bus) 4995 



V:347r= 
VM532!f. 

■VMvrl ?-..:■, 

■.".■