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Full text of "Water resources of California : a report to the legislature of 1923"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

DAVIS 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 

DIVISION OF ENGINEEKING A'ND IRRIGATION 



BULLETIN No. 4 



rc?2^ 



az 



no. 



■^ 



WATER RESOURCES OF 
CALIFORNIA 



A REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE OF 1923 




CALn'ORNIA STATE PRINTING OFFICE 

FRANK J. SMITH, Superintendent 

SACRAMENTO, 1923 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL l 5 

LETTER FROM THE CONSULTING BOARD TO THE MEMBERS OF 
THE LEGISLATURE 7 

.\CKNO\ML,BDGMENT 8 

FOREWORD • 9 

ORGA^^ZATION 11 

CHAPTER 889 OF THE STATUTES OF 1921 13 

LIST OF TABLES 15 

LIST OF PLATES 15 

Chapteb I. 
Recommendatious: to the Legislature of 1923 17 

Chapter II. 
California 19 

Chapter III. 
Climate 24 

Chapter IV. 
The State's Waters' 27 

Chapter V. 

Utilization of the State's Waters 34 

Chapter VI. 
Comprehensive Plan for Achieving the Maximum Service from the Waters 
of the State 39 

Chapter VII. 

Settlement 52 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



January 1, 1923. 
To tke Members of the Legislature, 
State of California, 
Session of 1923. 

The report on the "Water Resources of California," prepared by 
the Division of Engineering and Irrigation of this Department, is 
transmitted herewith. This report compiles the results of the state- 
wide investigation authorized by Chapter 889 of the Statutes of 1921. 
In placing this in your hands, I desire to mention the helpful services 
of the Consulting Board appointed pursuant to the provisions of the 
act and of the members of the civil engineering profession who have 
served on advisory committees and reviewed much of the work in pre- 
paring this report. The}- have freely given to the state valuable advice 
and assistance that have greatly aided these endeavors. 

Respectfully submitted. i 




Director of Public Works, 



2 — 25712 



LETTER FROM THE CONSULTING BOARD TO THE 
MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE. 



To the Honorable Members of the Legislature, 
State of California, 
Session of 1923. 

The Consulting 'Board appointed under the provisions of chapter 
889 of the Statutes of 1921, approves the report of the Division of 
Engineering and Irrigation of the State Department of Public Works, 
herewith submitted. 

It is the judgment of the Board that the Division of Engineering 
and Irrigation should continue this work and that the required appro- 
priation therefor should be made. 



Respectful!}' submitted. 




Chalrniaji 






c^^t/Mfm^-^^^.^^..^ 




Members of Consulting Board. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT. 



Much data have been contributed to this report by public and private 
offices without which the Department would have been wholly unable 
to produce this volume. The Department desires to publicly express its 
sincere appreciation to the parties who, through the furnishing of these 
data, have made it possible to increase the service to the public several- 
fold, in publishing this report. 



FOREWORD. 



The legislature of 1921 appropriated $200,000 for an investigation 
of California's Avater resources by the State Department of Public 
Works, Division of Engineering and Irrigation. Accordingly, an 
engineering investigation has been completed and a report transmitted 
to the legislature on January 1, 1923. The great mass of data collected 
and the complex analyses thereof made it advisable to present much of 
the information in separate volumes. Four of these are in print, 
entitled : 

Appendix ''A" "Flow in California Streams." Bulletin No. 5, 
State Department of Public Works. 

Appendix "B" "Irrigation Requirements of California Lands." 
Bulletin . No, 6, State Department of Public 
Works. 

Appendix "C" "Utilization of the Water Resources of Cali- 
fornia." Bulletin No. 7, State Department of 
Public Works. 

Appendix "D" "Relation of Settlement to Irrigation Develop- 
ment." Bulletin No. 8, State Department of 
Public Works. 

Chapter 889 of the 1921 Statutes, which authorized this investiga- 
tion, provided for the appointment by the Governor, of a Consulting 
Board to advise with the Department in their endeavors. The follow- 
ing were appointed by Governor Stephens: 

J. C. FoRKNER, Chairman 
Peter Cook 
Jonathan S. Dodge 

B. A. Etcheverry 
Harry Haw^good 
H. A. Kluegel 
Robert B. Marshall 
H. D. McGlashan 
0. B. Tout 

U. S. Webb 

Additional advice on the technical features of Appendix "A" to 
this report has been sought by the Department from : 

C. E. Grunsky 
Louis C. Hill 
Charles D. Marx 
H. D. McGlashan 



10 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

Also, further advice was sought on the technical features of Appendix 
''B" from: 

A. N. BuRCH 

B. A. Etcheverry 
Samuel Fortier 
A. L. Sonderegger 

• The Department sought added advice on the technical features of 
Appendix "C" from: 

A. J. Cleary 
G. A. Elliott 
F. C. Herrmann 
W. L. Huber 
A. Kempkey 
William JMulholland 

Appendix "D" was prepared by Br. Elwood Mead, Professor of 
Rural Institutions of the University of "California, and Chief of Divi- 
sion of Land Settlement of the State Department of Public Works, 
under cooperative arrangements with the University of California. 



WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 



11 



ORGANIZATION. 



A. B. FLETCHER, Director of Public Works 
W. F. McCLURE, Chief of Division of Engineering and IrrigaUon 



The investigation of the water resources of the 
state and the preparation of the report thereon, 
was planned, directed and brought to completion by 

Paul Bailey 



Fred C. Scobey 



Chief Assistants 
Robert L. Jones 



William S. Post 



Senior Office Engineers 



H. A. Armstrong 
J. J. Jessup 
Clarence F. Johnson 
C. B. Meyer 
S. B. Nevius 



J. H. Peaslee 
W. A. Perkins 
Walter Ruppel 
S. H. Searancke 
Edward G. Sheibley 



Junior Office Engineers 



P. S. Barker 
J. G. Bastow 
L. N. Clinton 
G. D. Clyde 
H. L. Davis 
Herbert E. Doolittle 
P. K. Duncan - 
Arthur C. Dunlop 
0. B. Field 
Frank P. Foote 
George B. Gleason 
S. S. Gorman 
William H. Gorman 

F. B. HiLBY 

E. R. Hoffman 
Irvin Ingerson 
H. E. IviE 
J. R. Jahn 

BiSCOE A. KiBBEY 

Thomas Lewis 
J. A. Lindsay 
P. H. Lovering 
W. J. Manetta 
T. C. Mead 
J. W. Merideth 



S. C. Metcalp 
R. I. Meyerholz 
E. H. Moore 
M. F. Moore 

W. B. MULLIN 

T. R. Neiswander 
T. Neuman 
C. M. Newton 
Harry Olsen 
Noel Pike 
Norman C. Raab 

B. A. Reber 
Glenn Rood 

E. N. Sawtelle 
N. E. Spicklemire 
R. C. Stevenson 
h. n. sulliger 
Otto Von Seggern 
E. G. Waters 

V. W. WiLLITS 

Robert L. Wing 
Charles J. Worden 
A. A. Wren 

C. L. Young 



12 



WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 

Field Engineers 



R. L. Allin 
E. W. Case 
S. A. Hart 
Chester Marliave 



John A. Rice 



F. W. Bush, Jr. 
Ed. W. Case 
CD. Divelbiss 
Ward Eisan 
A. Fankhouser 

F. L. FiREBAUGH 

Gerald Fitzgerald 



H. L. McCready 
G. H. Russell 
Burton Smith 
H. S. Williams 



Geologists 



Alfred R. Whitman 



Topographers 



Redick H. McKee 
L. 0. Newsome 

F. Rider 

Earl D. Stafford 
J, E. Stafford 

G. H. Walters 
A. V. Wilson 



A. F. McCoNNELL, Editor of Report 
J. J. Haley, Jr., Office Manager 



WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 13 



CHAPTER 889 OF STATUTES OF 1921. 

An act to provide for the investigation hy the State of California of the possibili- 
ties of the storage, control and diversion of water for publie use and public 
protection in the State of California, and making an appropriation for said 
purpose. 

(Approved June 3, 1921.) 

The people of the State of California do enact as follows : 

Section 1. It is hereby declared that the people of the State of California 
have a paramount interest in the use of all the Avaters of the State and the State 
of California shall determine what waters of the state, surface and underground, 
can be converted to public use, or controlled for public protection. 

Sec. 2. The state engineering department is hereby authorized and instructed to 
make the investigation in this act provided for and for the purposes herein specified. 

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of the state engineering department to deternsine 
the maximum amount of water which can be delivered to the maximum area of 
land, the maximum control of flood waters, the maximum storage of waters, the 
effects of deforestation and all possibile and practicable uses for such waters in the 
State of California. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the state engineering department to determine 
a comprehensive plan for the accomplishment of the maximum conservation, con- 
trol, storage, distribution and application of all the waters of the state, and to 
estimate the cost of constructing dams, canals, reservoirs or other works necessary 
in carrying out this plan, and to report the result of such investigations with 
recommendations not later than the legislative session of 1923. 

Sec. 5. In carrying out the provisions of this act the state engineering depart- 
ment is hereby authorized to examine any and all data, estimates and proposals 
in furtherance of the above purpose, according to its judgment of their engineer- 
ing worth, and to cooperate with any department, bureau, office, service, or division 
of the United States, or of the state or counties, or with any municipality, irri- 
gation, reclamation, conservation, drainage, flood control, levee, or other district 
agency for irrigation, reclamation, drainage, or flood control purposes, or for the 
development of hydro-electric power ; or with any interested association, com- 
pany or individual ; provided, further, that the eng-ineering department is hereby 
expressly authorized to accept, receive and use any funds or rooneys contributed to 
it by any person, irrigation district, reclamation district, water and conservation 
district or any political subdivision of the State of California for the purpose of 
cooperating in the work aforesaid and carrying out the pui'poses of this act. 

Sec. 6. With the approval of the governor, the state engineering department 
is hereby authorized to employ such assistance as in its judgment it may require 
and to incur such expense as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this act. 
The governor is further authorized to appoint a consulting board, composed of 
citizens of special and technical qualifications, to serve in an advisory capacity, 
and without pay, in making the above investigation. 

Sec. 7. There is hereby appropriated out of any money in the state treasury, 
not otherwise appropriated, the sum of two hundred thousand dollars, and made 
immediately available for any of the purposes of this act. 

Sec. 8. This act shall not in any way be construed so as to deprive persons, 
corporations, or districts of vested rights. 

Sec. 9. Any section or portion of a section of any act, statute or law of the 
State of California in conflict with the provisions of this act is hereby repealed. 



3—25712 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA, 15 



LIST OF TABLES. 



PAGE 

1. Water Resources of California (facing) 32 

2. Agricultural Areas and Net Duty of Water in the Sixteen Sections of 

California 37 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PAGE 

I. Illustrative Climatology on Agricultural Lands (facing) 24 

II. Characteristics of Run-off from California Mountains (facing) 30 

III. Map of Agricultural Areas and Duty of Water Sections (facing) 36 

IV. Preliminary Comprehensive Plan for Maximum Development of Cali- 

fornia's Water Resources (facing) 46 



WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 17 

CHAPTER I. 



RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE LEGISLATURE OF 1923. 

One-third of the aggregate value of all of California's products are 
those raised on the farm, and one-fourth of all its manufactories are 
concerned in milling, canning or preserving, cleaning, or otherwise 
preparing food stuffs for the market. In a state whose wealth is taken 
from the soil in such large portions, agriculture and the problems 
attendant to its expansion, press for consideration. The accelerated 
expansion of agricultural production in California has been attained 
through the more intensive cultivation of its fertile soils. Irrigating 
about one-third of all the lands farmed, this state now yields an average 
crop value that is almost three times larger for each acre cultivated, ^^' 
than the average production on an acre of tilled land in any of the 
three stat&s that exceed California in total annual production on their 
farmed lands. The abundant soil-moisture obtained through the sup- 
plementary supplies, has enabled the responsive soils of California to 
produce many fold under irrigation and is placing this state in a fore- 
most position among the states of a nation of farms. 

Even more than in the past, will the future be concerned in the*^ 
extension of irrigation to additional areas and the perfection of the 
supply for those lands now watered, because the agricultural lands of 
this state are now yielding to capacity under the conditions of dry 
farming. It is therefore essential that state activities should be guided 
by thoughts for the orderly and economical development of its water 
resources, so that all the needs of civilization for water may be supplied 
while the predominant use for agriculture may expand to the full limit 
of its wealth-producing powers. In this report, the Department of 
Public Works and its consultants have endeavored to compile and 
present information on the water resources of California that will 
enable your honorable bodj' to guide the state 's destiny with confidence 
and wisdom. 

The data amassed, the comparisons, the computations and the deduc- 
tions involved in preparing this report, are so voluminous that they are 
printed in four separate volumes. Appendix "A," ''Flow in California 
Streams," in seventy-six pages of text, two hundred and forty-four 
pages of tables, and in one hundred and eighty-five maps and 
diagrams, describes the location, the volume, the source, and the vari- 
ability of occurrence of the state's waters, and the capacities of storage 
works required for their utilization. Appendix "B," "Irrigation 
Requirements of California Lands," in seventy-six pages of text, one 
hundred and fifteen pages of tables and seven maps and diagrams, 
gives a digest of all information obtainable on the past use of water 
for irrigation, and presents an analysis of the future requirements of all 

"'The California State Department of Agriculture estimates the average value of 
farm products per acre for the four ranking states in 1922, was, in order of their 
total production: Texas, $27.50; Iowa, |21 ; Illinois, ?20 ; and California, $59.50. 



]8 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

of California's arable lands. Appendix ',' C, ' ' "Utilization of the Water 
Resources of California," presents a general preliminary plan for 
obtaining the maximum use from the state's waters and the control 
of floods. Appendix "D," "Relation of Settlement to Irrigation 
Development," discusses colonization problems of irrigation projects. 
All this information, basic for a full conception of the potential value 
of the state's water resources, its greatest possession, is briefly sum- 
marized in the chapters of this report. 

A general preliminarj^ plan for achieving the greatest service from 
these waters, is presented as requested by the legislative enactment pro- 
viding for these investigations. This plan outlines a scheme of coor- 
dinated development whereby a maximum accomplishment may ulti- 
mately be obtained whose physical works for storing water would cost 
but slightly more than half as much as similar attainment under an 
uncoordinated plan. The canals for transporting this water to the 
regions of use are, many of them, very long and obtain water from 
several sources, pass through numerous communities, and could be made 
possible only through organization of large sections of the state. With- 
out such canals much of the state's waters will go unused. Only then, 
through united endeavors, almost statewide in extent, can the maximum 
service be obtained from the state's waters. 

The reservoirs involved in the maximum development of the state's 
waters are some 260 in number. These and twice as many more were 
examined by field parties in these investigations, and a selection made 
of a third of all the possible sites reported on. Time did not alloAv, 
neither did the preliminary investigation warrant, a detailed examina- 
tion of dam sites. Before it is finally known that the selected sites are 
feasible, borings and exploration trenches must be made. The canals 
outlined on the map of the comprehensive plan, largely pass through 
territory of which adequate maps do not exist. Many surveys must 
be made before it may be ascertained that these canaLs are feasible and 
that they are in the most economical location. It is therefore recom- 
mended to your honorahle body that fu7ids he- appropriated to pursue 
the study of the compu'eliensive plan in greater detail than has been 
possible for this report. 

It is also desired to call to your attention the value of records of the 
waters flowing in California streams. Because of the sporadic way in 
which the waters pass down the stream channels, reliable estimates of 
future expectancies can only be made from uninterrupted records of 
many years' duration. The inventory of the state's waters presented 
in this report has been based on an estimated fiftj'-year mean flow. 
This was accomplished \)y expanding records of measured run-off 
through comparison with precipitation records and, on many streams, 
the entire estimate of run-off was obtained by comparison. It is urgent 
that provision be made for the continuance of stream gaging records at 
least as extensive as in the past, and some increase be made in appro- 
priations for this work if possible. The construction of all the great 
hydraulic works on which the future wealth of this state depends, 
must be designed in accord with these records of stream flow. It is 
important that they be continuous and on all the streams. 

Lastly, the desirability of stimulating the rate of rural settlement 
in California has been pointed out in this report. This subject is 
placed before you as one worthy of your attention. 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 19 



CHAPTER II. 



CALIFORNIA. 

Califoruia, second in area, but first among the states of the Union in 
value of natural resources, lies between the Great Basin of the North 
American continent and the Pacific Ocean. Confined on the north by 
Oregon and on the south by Mexico, it constitutes three-fifths of the 
western boundary of the United States. The six hundred and fifty 
miles of its meridional length extends to over nine hundred miles of 
seashore as the coast line pursues a diagonal and more tortuous course 
in delineating the headlands and coastal indentations of the Pacific 
littoral. 

Within the two hundred miles of California's average width, there 
are 23,000,000 acres of agricultural lands disposed in parcels of various 
sizes and separated by mountains that occupy much of the intervening 
space. These agricultural areas are the flat and rolling lands of the 
state that have soils, disposed in appreciable areas of regular surface 
conformation, suitable for the production of harvestable crops. The 
grains, fruits, berries, grapes, vegetables and other farm produce for 
which California is famed, are grown on these lands. They are located 
on the valley floors, in the foothills and on the plateaus of the state. 
Included in the agricultural areas, are lands at present deficient in 
natural moisture, but more or less conveniently situated for the ultimate 
acquisition of an accessory water supply. Slightly over one-half of 
these agricultural areas were farmed in 1920. 

The non-agricultural regions of California, the mountains, are, for 
the most part, precipitous, rocky or soilless. Occupying three-fifths 
the area of the state, these upland regions are spacious collectors of 
precipitation that fill the stream channels with water, without which 
much of the state's arable lands could never reveal their powers of 
production because of deficient soil-moisture. Although they are 
mostly non-tillable, nevertheless the mountainous regions have supplied 
the alluvial earth through glacial action, weathering or erosion, that 
their streams have conveyed to lower levels and deposited there to be- 
come the fertile, productive soils of the agricultural areas. 

California's mountains are so disposed that their greater part is 
comprised within two ranges. These diverge in their southerly course 
at Mount Shasta within forty miles of the Oregon line, and leave be- 
tween their bases, the long flat valley that averages a quarter the 
breadth of the state and half its length. Girdling this valley in their 
southward course, these two mountain chains proceed in long sweeping 
curves to a convergence at Tehachapi Pass, three-quarters the way down 
the state from the north boundary. The encircling line of crests of 
these two ranges enclose within a rock Avail, two-thirds of California's 
agricultural lands. This wall is cleft to valley-floor level in but one 



20 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 




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WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 21 

place. Through this cutting, the interior drainage issues, flowing 
westwardly to mingle with the waters of the Pacific Ocean. 

The mountains to the east of this Great Central Valley, the Sierra 
Nevada Range, extend for two-thirds the length of the state between 
Mount Shasta on the north and Tehachapi Pass on the south and their 
crests are the highest of California's mountains. Serrated and pre- 
cipitous, their altitudes increase from north to south and culminate in 
Mount Whitney, 14,500 feet high, the highest peak in the United States 
excluding Alaska. Between the two extremities of this range, many 
peaks rise to heights greater than SOOO feet above the sea and eleven 
peaks pierce the clouds to more than 14,000 feet. In the northerly 
c|uarter of this range is Lassen, the culminating peak of its vicinity, 
10,580 feet high and North America's only active volcano. 

The westerly of the two mountain chains encircling the Great Central 
Valley, the Coast Eange, after separating at Mount Shasta from the 
mass of mountains in the northern part of the state, parallels the 
margin of the Pacific Ocean and takes a somewhat narrower path in its 
southerly course, than does the Sierra Nevada Range. The Coast jMoun- 
tains do not attain the elevations of the Sierra Nevadas, neither are 
they so diverse of surface or massive in structure. Their highest peaks 
are less than 9000 feet in elevation and those above 5000 feet are but 
few in number. 

Southward from the convergence of these two ranges at Tehachapi 
Pass and on to the Mexican Border, California's mountains continue 
as a single chain. Their crests are less continuous and their main axis 
is less easily discernible than from the Pass nortliAvard. A few 
dominating peaks rise to heights of more than 10,000 feet, but their 
general altitude is intermediate in elevation between those of the Coast 
Range and Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

This mountain range divides two very diverse regions. To the west, 
the Pacific slope, the agricultural lands of which extend from the ocean's 
margin well up to the mountain flanks, is an intensively developed and 
highly productive area of moderate climate fluctuation; while to the 
east lies an undeveloped expanse, almost rainless, with climatic 
extremes, and largely unproductive through lack of an accessory water 
supply. However, there are extensive productive areas in Imperial, 
Palo Verde and Coachella valley's which have acquired irrigation sup- 
plies and are realizing on the great fertility of their arid soils. In 
this expanse of flat lands and mountains is Salton Sink, an inland sea, 
the surface of which is more than 250 feet below ocean level. 

On the Pacific slope of this dividing range in the southern quarter 
of the state, in its broad valleys and adjacent to the seashore, is spread • 
the bulk of California's agricultural lands that lie west of the state's 
mountains, in all, one-sixth of their total area. These lands are located 
mostly along the streams near their ocean outlets. Northward from 
Santa Barbara Channel they are scattered rather meagerly along the 
Pacific margin, for their continuity is interrupted by extensive stretches 
of precipitous shore line that rises abruptly from the water's edge. 

To the east of Southern California's dividing range south of the 
Tehachapi Pass, one-tenth of the state's arable lands lie between their 
crests and the state's eastern border. Northerly from these lands and 
along the eastern border of the state, another tenth of the agricultural 

4 — :i5712 



22 



WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 




WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 23 

lands are located in scattered parcels in the elevated valleys and pla- 
teaus east of the crests of California's mountains. These are mostly 
situated at elevations of from 4000 to 5000 feet or more above sea 
level. 

The extreme range in altitude of California's variegated surface is 
from two hundred and seventy-five feet below sea level in Death Val- 
ley, to fourteen thousand five hundred feet above, attaining this eleva- 
tion at Mount Whitney, but seventy-five miles distant from the lowest 
depression. The greater part of the fiat lands, or about one-fifth of 
the total area of the state, lies between the elevation of the ocean's 
edge and five hundred feet above. These flat lands comprise the gently 
sloping ocean littoral, an extensive mountain-girdled valley known as 
the Sacramento-San Joaquin, and the almost rainless area in the south- 
eastern corner of the state. These regions, 33,000 square miles in 
extent, include the bulk of California's agricultural area. 

Higher in elevation than these flat lands, are the slopes lying between 
the plain-like areas and the base of the mountains. These are the 
rolling foothills and the more elevated valleys, lands that are transi- 
tional between the plains and the highland regions. Located between 
500 and 2500 feet above sea level, they comprise about one-third the 
area of the state. One-quarter of all the agricultural land lies in 
this transitional region, and only the scattered parcels in high moun- 
tain valleys and that on the plateau in northeastern California, lie 
above it. 

Higher than 2500 feet in elevation lie the mountains proper. For 
a large part they are a rugged and precipitous region of steep accliv- 
ities, of rocky extrusions and serrated ridges, and of deep canyons 
and rock-walled gorges, that comprise nearly half the area of the 
state, but interspersed at intervals throughout this highland region are 
mountain valleys and meadows, attractive in their richness and scenic 
beauty. The mountain and foothill regions, together, are over triple 
the area of the agricultural lands. In receiving greater precipitation, 
the mountain regions shed large volumes of water into the streams 
and rivers and are the source of nearly all of the state's waters. 



24 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 



CHAPTER III. 



CLIMATE. 



The California year is distinctive from that in most other states of the 
Union, in having but two well-defined seasons, summer and winter. 
This occurs because the transitional periods, spring and autumn, 
are brief and devoid of special features other than that they are inter- 
mediate between the more clearly defined seasons of summer and win- 
ter. The summer, or growing period, is long, warm and without heavy 
rains; the winter is the dormant period, or interval of retarded growth 
in the annual cycle of plant life, and normally is short, cool, and at 
times stormy. The greater portion of the waters precipitated upon the 
lands of California fall during this season of winter. 

The covert of encircling mountains and the proximity of an ocean 
that borders the state with nine hundred miles of coast line, so modifies 
California's climate that only moderate seasonal fluctuations of tem- 
perature occur over most of its area. Any great extremes of heat and 
cold that do transpire are confined principally to the high mountain 
or arid areas. On the low lands generally, the mean monthly temper- 
atures show departures from the average for the entire year, markedly 
less than similarly compared heat measurements for the adjoining 
states or those located eastward and included in the same latitude. 

California is exempt from hurricanes and tornadoes, and though 
the mountainous regions experience days of intense cold, blizzards 
are unknown over the valley areas. Favored of nature through 
immunity from devastating tempest, rigorous cold, and enervating 
heat, California's climate is heralded the world over. 

The outstanding features of the state's climatic regime are the rains 
of winter and the sunshine of summer. During the winter months, 
the state is swept by moisture-laden winds that traverse large areas in 
their journey from one locality to another ; while in the summer or dry 
season, similar winds may blow, but they are rainless and serve only to 
modify the mounting temperatures that ensue from continuous sun- 
shine. This distinct division of the year into a short season of inter- 
mittent drenching rains and a longer season of warmth and sunshine, 
determines that, more and more, in the years to come, this peculiarity 
of climate will influence the activities of man in this state. As greater 
numbers of people elect to live within its borders, water will be needed 
in increasing amounts for every activity, and all of California's waters 
originate in the precipitation concentrated in a few months of the year. 

Of greatest economic importance therefore, among the climatic phe- 
nomena, are the moisture-carrying winds that visit the state at annually 
recurrent intervals. In blowing over the land areas, these winds pre- 
cipitate varying amounts of water along the way as they are cooled, 
and deflected or diverted by local topography. The shelter of knolls, 
of hills or mountains, or of ridges or spurs, may lessen the amounts 
reaching leeward areas, while increased quantities may fall on more 



Plate I 




Plate I 




25712 Facing p, 24. 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA, 25 

exposed locations. The greater cooling of the air upon moving up 
slopes and arriving at higher elevations, usually inceases the precipita- 
tion in the mountainous regions over that on lower lands. 

The annual quantity of moisture released from the atmosphere to fall 
upon the several parts of the state, is as variant as the rugged topog- 
raphy. ^^^ In general, precipitation increases in depth from south to 
north, being least in the southeastern corner of California where it is 
nearly zero, and greatest in the North Pacific region contiguous to the 
Oregon line where the mean annual rainfall attains a depth of one 
hundred inches or more. The mountains generally receive more than 
the valleys between them. The greater portion of the flat lands have a 
mean depth of precipitation of less than twenty inches annually and 
one-third of their area has less than ten inches. Depths of more than 
twenty inches are mostly confined to the mountainous regions which on 
their more elevated portions receive from thirty-five to one hundred 
inches, or more. In the highest mountain regions, precipitation occurs 
largely as snow ; on those of lesser altitude both snow and rain fall, but 
the mantle of snow on the earth is of short duration; while the areas 
lying closer to the ocean's level, seldom experience a fall of snow but 
receive all precipitation as rain. The mild climate of this lower portion 
of the state extends, therefore, to nearly all its flat-lands, to the gently 
sloping ocean littoral, to the extensive mountain-girdled valley con- 
taining three-fifths of all the agricultural lands, and to the rolling 
foothills and detrital-filled valleys transitional to the highland regions — - 
in all about one-half the area of the state. 

To depict the features of rain, temperature and frost in California's 
agricultural areas, Plate I has been prepared, "Illustrative Climatology 
on Agricultural Lands." For convenience, the tillable lands of the 
state have been segregated into sixteen divisions or sections, the bound- 
aries of which are shown on Plate III, "Map of Agricultural Areas and 
Duty of Water Sections." A station of the United States Weather 
Bureau has been selected in each one of these sections to illustrate its 
climatic features, and the mean precipitation and temperature for each 
month of the year, together with the frost-free periods for each one of 
these stations is graphically delineated on Plate I. 

The top section of this plate shows, by means of colored columns 
drawn upwardly from a common base line, the mean monthly precipita- 
tion that has occurred at the Weather Bureau Station that is named at 
the foot of the bar. At the extremity of each equally-spaced cross-line 
on the sheet, at the left margin, are numerals which express values of 
mean monthly precipitation in inches of depth. The colored columns in 
intercepting these cross-drawn lines, indicate by their height, the 
amount of mean monthly precipitation. 

On the middle sectioja of the Plate I, the mean temperatures that 
have prevailed during each month of the year at the stations named 
above them, are represented by similarly colored columns that also 
project upward from a common base line. These show the values of 
mean monthly temperatures by their intercepts on cross-drawn lines 
that are numbered with temperature values at the left margin. 

"'See Isohyetose Map of California contained in Api>endix "B" to this report, for 
complete delineation of precipitation over tlie state. 



WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 25 

exposed locations. The greater cooling of the air upon moving up 
slopes and arriving at higher elevations, usually inceases the precipita- 
tion in the mountainous regions over that on lower lands. 

The annual quantity of moisture released from the atmosphere to fall 
upon the several parts of the state, is as variant as the rugged topog- 
raphy. ^^^ In general, precipitation increases in depth from south to 
north, being least in the southeastern corner of California where it is 
nearly zero, and greatest in the North Pacific region contiguous to the 
Oregon line where the mean annual rainfall attains a depth of one 
hundred inches or more. The mountains generally receive more than 
the valleys between them. The greater portion of the flat lands have a 
mean depth of precipitation of less than twenty inches annually and 
one-third of their area has less than ten inches. Depths of more than 
twenty inches are mostly confined to the mountainous regions which on 
their more elevated portions receive from thirty-five to one hundred 
inches, or more. In the highest mountain regions, precipitation occurs 
largely as snow ; on those of lesser altitude both snow and rain fall, but 
the mantle of snow on the earth is of short duration; while the areas 
lying closer to the ocean's level, seldom experience a fall of snow but 
receive all precipitation as rain. The mild climate of this lower portion 
of the state extends, therefore, to nearly all its flat-lands, to the gently 
sloping ocean littoral, to the extensive mountain-girdled valley con- 
taining three-fifths of all the agricultural lands, and to the rolling 
foothills and detrital-filled valleys transitional to the highland regions — 
in all about one-half the area of the state. 

To depict the features of rain, temperature and frost in California's 
agricultural areas, Plate I has been prepared, ' ' Illustrative Climatology 
on Agricultural Lands." For convenience, the tillable lands of the 
state have been segregated into sixteen divisions or sections, the bound- 
aries of which are shown on Plate III, ' ' Map of Agricultural Areas and 
Duty of Water Sections." A station of the United States Weather 
Bureau has been selected in each one of these sections to illustrate its 
climatic features, and the mean precipitation and temperature for each 
month of the year, together with the frost-free periods for each one of 
these stations is graphically delineated on Plate I. 

The top section of this plate shows, by means of colored columns 
drawn upwardly from a common base line, the mean monthly precipita- 
tion that has occurred at the Weather Bureau Station that is named at 
the foot of the bar. At the extremity of each equally-spaced cross-line 
on the sheet, at the left margin, are numerals which express values of 
mean monthly precipitation in inches of depth. The colored columns in 
intercepting these cross-drawn lines, indicate by their height, the 
amount of mean monthly precipitation. 

On the middle sectioja of the Plate I, the mean temperatures that 
have prevailed during each month of the year at the stations named 
above them, are represented by similarly colored columns that also 
project upward from a common base line. These show the values of 
mean monthly temperatures by their intercepts on cross-drawn lines 
that are numbered with temperature values at the left margin. 

"'See Isohyetose Map of California contained In Appendix "B" to this report, for 
complete delineation of precipitation over the state. 



26 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

The lower section of the plate, designated "Frost Free Period," has 
transverse bars which progress partially across the paper. In so doing, 
their length exemplifies time. The space between the left and right hand 
margins represents the full twelve months of the year. Vertical 
lines divide this space into equal units of time and the monthly 
intervals are accentuated by heavier drawn lines. Spreading across the 
sheet and crossing these vertical lines, the sections of the bars in solid 
color show the duration of the period at each of the sixteen Weather 
Bureau stations, within which frost has never occurred. Extensions 
of the bars, hatched with colored shading lines, show by the distance 
between their extreme ends, the average duration of the frost-free period 
for the years of record. The bars are similarly colored to the columns 
of temperature and precipitation and are named at the left margin 
opposite their ends. 

Plate I illustrates in a pictorial way, the climatic characteristics that 
prevail over California's agricultural lands. The precipitation section 
of this graph shows that almost without exception, the rainfall in 
amounts to be of much value to agriculture, is confined to the months 
of November, December, January, February and March; while the 
temperature section shows that the period favorable to the growth of 
plants and vegetation, is from March to November, inclusive. Except 
for March and November, the rains in California occur during the 
time of the year in which most plants are dormant and for seven warm 
months of the long growing season, the rains on the agricultural lands 
are light. Thus for a period during each twelve months, California is 
favored with precipitation-releasing winds, and once a year at coincid- 
ing times, the mountain ranges are clothed in snow, foothill eminences 
and slopes are drenched with rain, and valleys and plains are wetted by 
the same spacious storms; while through the remainder of the annual 
cycle, sunshine and warmth are dominant and precipitation is small 
in amount. 



WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 27 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE STATE'S WATERS. 

The moisture-bearing winds that traverse California during the 
winter season precipitate three hundred billion tons of water annually 
upon the surface of the state. Most of this falls as rain or snow upon 
the mountain areas. This precipitation: as rain, strikes the surface of 
their slopes, oft* which portions run toward lower elevations; as snow, 
it mantles the earth's surface or collects in wind-blown drifts to await 
warmer temperature for conversion to liquid water, that may likewise 
pursue a downhill course toward the ocean. 

These moving waters, ever .journeying to lower elevations, concen- 
trate in the ravines and gullies toward which the surfaces slope. They 
follow the steepest gradients and the most deeply cut depressions and, 
continually enhanced in volume by like accumulations, restlessly pursue 
their downward course until finallj^ they become engulfed in the earth's 
vast raservoir of waters — the ocean. Falling on the drainage areas as 
precipitation, concentrating on the land surface as run-off, coursing 
down the water-channels as stream flow, these waters reach the ocean 
as drainage; and so by returning to the storehouse of waters from 
which they were first vaporized and carried to the mountainous area 
by the moisture-bearing winds, they complete a circuit of travel. 

The same storms that drench the uplands or clothe them in snow, 
precipitate lesser amounts on the lower flat lands, and this almost 
entirely as rain. Lacking the surface inclination to put the water in 
motion, the earth coverings of these lowland areas largely absorb the 
rains falling upon them or, detained in pools or puddles or in the 
saturated top soil, they are later evaporated back to the atmosphere. 
Only during extremelj^ heavy downpours of infrequent occurrence do 
the flat lands contribute run-off to the stream channels. 

California's Avater-produeing area is the mountains. Influenced by 
the topography, elevation, and exposure of the divers localities, the 
storms traversing the state deposit varying quantities of water on their 
diverse surfaces. In each area, however, only a portion of the waters 
cast from the clouds ever reach the stream channels ; the rest is dissi- 
pated through evaporation. This division of the waters starts imme- 
diately with their precipitation from the rain clouds and continues 
throughout the entire water movement. Moisture is evaporated from 
the falling particles of rain or snow, from the gathering waters on 
their catchment areas, from the snow fields, from wetted soil areas, 
and from the flowing streams. Water is also vaporized from the vege- 
tation that grows on the mountain slopes. Much of the moisture that 
Avets the earth's surface is absorbed by the root systems of vegetation, 
so that where trees, bushes and undergrowth are dense, large volumes 
of water are vaporized through transpiration from plant-surfaces. So 
evaporation is persistently in progress, and, effectively and without 
respite, reduces the volumes of water precipitated upon the earth's sur- 



28 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 




A STREAM IN THE SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS. 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 29 

face. The fraction of these waters finally becoming stream flow in each 
season may be less than one-fourth or more than three-fourths of the 
total precipitation, according to the amounts falling, the contingencies 
of the season's weather, and the circumstances of topography and 
geology on the catchment areas. 

Except as it falls upon frozen or nonabsorbent surfaces, precipita- 
tion upon striking the earth must first moisten its top-covering, and it 
is only after thi^ has become saturated that waters gather on the sur- 
face to journey down the slopes of the catchment areas. While col- 
lecting in puddles and pools or moving down the slopes in streamlets, 
some of this run-off trickles into seams and cracks of the mountain's 
rocky structure, while other ciuantities are absorbed by pervious soil- 
coverings. This moisture advances by the attractions of gravity and 
capillarity and. filling the pores and interstices of the earth's crust, 
penetrates to great depths. Although usually only a small portion of 
the total, these percolating waters are especially valuable to man in 
their reappearance at lower elevations as perennial springs to moisten 
meadow lands or to increase the waning summer flow of brooks and 
streams. These tardy waters, in penetrating the subsurface regions and 
pursuing a dilatory underground course, wet the beds of the stream 
channels the year round and furnish nearly all of the dry season 
stream flow, and are the principal waters available Avhen the great 
volume of winter run-off has subsided. Their total amount, however, 
is small, for three-fourths of the run-off from California's mountains 
concentrates in the stream channels, hurries down the water courses 
and passes by the low-lying agricultural lauds \^"ithin forty-five days 
after its precipitation upon the earth's surface. 

Follo^wing precipitation so closely, the state's waters appear in the 
stream channels in fluctuating flows having a striking similarity to the 
periodic occurrence of precipitation. Plate II. "Characteristics of 
Run-off from California ^lountains, " presents the hydrographs of five 
streams, each typical of a separate section of the state. These hydro- 
graphs show the run-off, month by month, for the greatest year and 
for the least, as well as the mean monthly flow of all the years of 
record. For convenience of comparison, the monthly run-off is plotted 
in per cent of the annual mean. These hydroeraphs show how the bulk 
of California's waters run off their mountain catchment areas during 
the winter months, and how only meager quantities flow in the streams 
during the middle and late sunmier. The great variation between the 
rim-off of the maximum and minimum years shows the wide limits 
between which seasonal run-oft" fluctuates, and how, in the smallest 
season, the usual scanty summer flow is much reduced and this much 
earlier in the season than in other years. 

This investigation has studied the features of flow in all the streams 
of the state, ^^' the amounts of their waters, and their variability of 
production. All discoverable data have been assembled and analyzed 
and, although actual measurements of flow are available but for a 
limited number of years on the major streams, through comparison 
of these data, quantities have been ascertained for eveiy stream. For 
these purposes the minor streams were arranged in groups and these 
groups, together with the major streams, total one hundred and forty 
in number. The location of each one of these streams or groups of 

'•'See Appendix "A," "Flow in California Streams." 



30 WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 

minor streams is shown on the map of California, Plate IV, "Prelimi- 
nary Comprehensive Plan for Maximum Development of California's 
Water Resources." Each basin bears a number on this map which 
refers to a table at the top of the sheet. This table gives the name of 
the stream draining the basin or the main stream in the group of small 
basins. 

An audit of all these waters is presented in Table I, "Water 
Resources of California," in which is a complete inventory of the state's 
waters. In listing the flow at the head of the main body of agricultural 
land on each stream, the waters in this table are practically all that are 
available, both surface and underground, for use on the flat lands of the 
state for the subterranean waters of the flat lands largely receive their 
supply by percolation from the stream channels crossing them or from 
percolation of diverted waters poured out upon their land surfaces. 

The first two columns of Table I contain the names of the streams 
or groups of minor streams and their reference numbers. Through 
these reference numbers, information that is too voluminous to incorpo- 
rate in this summary tabulation may be conveniently traced in the 
diagrams and tablas of Appendix "A" to this report. Spread out in 
forty columns to the right of these first two panels are values which 
characterize the amounts of water in each stream and its variability 
of flow. 

Of these columns, the third contains the areas of the drainage basins, 
while in the fourth to the twelfth are values of their run-oft' expressed 
in a variety of units. Included among these entries are the quantities 
of wator running off their collecting areas in an average season, and 
in the seasons of greatest and least run-off. These quantities affixed to 
each stream definitely locate all the state's waters. The mean seasonal 
quantities express the average amounts in which they may be expected 
to appear and constitute a statement of practically all existing waters, 
while the values for the extreme seasons show the limits between which 
the flow of successive seasons may varj^ 

While the average annual water production of all these streams is 
72,500,000 acre-feet, this invoice of California's waters shows that the 
combined maximum yield is two and three-quarters times this amount. 
and that the combination of all streams for the least seasons is but three- 
eighths as much as the average annual amount. The total run-off in 
successive seasons, then, fluctuates between limits, one seven times the 
other, and the value of any one season lies at random between them. 

In addition to changing from year to year, all the streams of the 
state have a fluctuating daily flow. Inclusions have been made in 
columns 13 to 18, and 35 to 42, of Table I, to define the extremes 
between which the daily flows are accustomed to range. Columns 13 
to 18 give values to the run-off during the months of July and August. 
These two midsummer months are times of the year of nearly the least 
flow, and in which water is of much value agriculturally. The quan- 
tities include the entire month's run-off expressed in acre-feet, and 
when divided by sixty afford approximate values of the average daily 
flow during the low water periods in cubic feet per second. Con- 
trasting them, are the values of flood flows in columns 35 to 42. These 
entries are of special import in not only indicating the upper limits 
of variability in stream flow, but also in indicating the maximum 



Plate II 



110 
100- 

90- 
80- 
70 







30- 



o 
5 20 



SACRAMENTO RIVER 



1904 
VEAP OF MAXIMUM RUNOFF 




MEAN RUNOFF 



lllhi.,-,ii 



1898 

YEAR OF MINIMUM RUNOFF 



u. 2 < 2 



< to O Z Q 



State Department of Public Works 

DIVISION OF ENGINEERING AND IRRIGATION 

California Water Resources Investigation 

chapter 889.. I9il STATUTES 

25712 Facing p. 30. 



110- 
100- 
90- 
80- 
70- 

60- 

u. 
u. 
O 

_l 
< 

< 

< 30- 

Li. 

z 

S 10- 

z 

Li. 

t n 


PUTAH CREEK 
1909 

VEAR OF MAXIMUM RUNOFF 

L- 1 


z 
a 
i30- 

Z 



s 20- 

lOJ 
0^ 


k 


MEAN RUNOFF 


20- 
10- 


1912 
YEAR OF MINIMUM RUNOFF 


aiaj™Q™33 30U0 aj 



D50- 



S40- 



o 



J 30 



o 
2 20- 



10- 

0- 
20- 

10- 



TUOLUMNE RIVER 



1907 

YEAR OF MAXIMUM RUNOFF 




MEAN RUNOFF 




1898 

YEAROF MINIMUM RUNOFF 




5 < 5 



< U) O Z Q 



110- 






100- 






90- 


SANTA YNEZ RIVER 




80- 


1914 






YEAROF MAXIMUM RUNOFF 




70- 






.60- 
u. 
O - 

z 

^50- 






< 

ho- 

hi 






5 30- 

s 


1 




u. 


K20- 


1 




u - 

Sio- 


li 




z 
li. 

|o-l 

2: - 


BBBw»— — 


- 


^30- 

1- 
Z 


^20- H 


1 


MEAN RUNOFF 




1 


1 


, 




20- 


1912 
YEAROF MINIMUM RUNOFF 




10- 


-ll.- 




"ii;2<2^^<cooz 


u 

V 

Q 




CHARACTERISTICS OF RUNOFF 

FROM 

CALIFORNIA MOUNTAINS 



WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 31 

volumes of water which flood protection works may have to withstand. 
Comparisons of these flood values with the low water flows of July and 
August disclose a surprisingly great range in the rate of flow in 
California's streams. 

As an average over the whole state, the greatest daily flow exceeds 
five hundred times the least. In taking values between these wide 
limits on every day of the successive years, the greater flows exceed 
the lesser ones in all degrees of magnitude, but the very large ones are 
the most infrequent in occurrence. To give perspective to the occur- 
ring frequency of exceedingly great flows, the values that may be 
surpassed within intervals of twenty-five, fifty, seventy-five, and one 
hundred years, are tabulated in columns 35 to 42. These greatest 
values of mean daily flow constitute the floods of California's streams. 
It is to be observed in general, that once in twenty-five years, the extraor- 
dinary values of daily flow swell at least forty fold the average 
volume in their channels ; and that once in a hundred years, even these 
may be exceeded by flows that are one-quarter larger. 

So large are the volumes of water that pass down the state's water- 
ways during these great floods that the rate, which is only exceeded on 
an average of four times a century, would send a plethora of waters 
into the ocean within four days, whose aggregate is equivalent to 
the entire production of every drainage basin in the state for their 
seasons of least flow. During but one of these days, the total flow 
would be ample to supply an urban population of seventy millions of 
people with domestic water for a year, or to irrigate four million acres 
of agricultural land through an entire season, or, still, to generate 
one hundred thousand horsepower continuously for twelve months 
when dropping through a height of one hundred feet. Nevertheless, 
these volumes of water are largely useless to man because of their 
extremely infrequent appearance in the stream channels. The waters 
of lesser floods, however, may be caught by storage works constructed 
in the mountainous regions and be detained for later release to supple- 
ment the weaning natural flow in the streams. By such detention of 
the flood waters for subsequent use, the erratic run-off may be equalized 
and made available to man at times convenient to his special purposes. 

The greatest fractions of the mean seasonal flow which may be con- 
strained to man's service through retention in storage reservoirs, are 
set forth for all the streams, in column 20 of Table I, and in column 
21 are found the storage capacities required to do this. The yields 
from lesser amounts of storage are given in columns 23 to 34. The 
maximum yield possible from the entire water-producing area of the 
state is 58,300,000 acre-feet annually, or 80 per cent of the mean 
seasonal run-off. To secure this maximum yield would require a total 
capacity in storage works of 184,900,000 acre-feet. This volume is 
slightly greater than three times the annual equalized yield. Such 
large proportional amounts of storage are not needed if smaller frac- 
tions only of the mean seasonal flow are equalized. Capacity for stor- 
age of twice the net annual yield, will develop 70 per cent of the 
mean annual run-off from the state's drainage areas, and when this 
capacity is .just equal to the annual yield in volume, it will develop 
40 per cent of the mean seasonal run-off. 



WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 31 

volumes of water which flood protection works may have to withstand. 
Comparisons of these flood values with the low water flows of July and 
August disclose a surprisingly great range in the rate of flow in 
California's streams. 

As an average over the whole state, the greatest daily flow exceeds 
five hundred times the least. In taking values between these wide 
limits on every day of the successive years, the greater flows exceed 
the lesser ones in all degrees of magnitude, but the very large ones are 
the most infrequent in occurrence. To give perspective to the occur- 
ring frequency of exceedingly great flows, the values that may be 
surpassed within intervals of twenty-flve, fifty, seventy-five, and one 
hundred years, are tabulated in columns 35 to 42. These greatest 
values of mean daily flow constitute the floods of California's streams. 
It is to be observed in general, that once in twenty-five years, the extraor- 
dinary values of daily flow swell at least forty fold the average 
volume in their channels ; and that once in a hundred years, even these 
may be exceeded by flows that are one-quarter larger. 

So large are the volumes of water that pass down the state's water- 
ways during these great floods that the rate, which is only exceeded on 
an average of four times a century, would send a plethora of waters 
into the ocean within four days, whose aggregate is equivalent to 
the entire production of every drainage basin in the state for their 
seasons of least flow. During but one of these days, the total flow 
would be ample to supply an urban population of seventy millions of 
people with domestic water for a year, or to irrigate four million acres 
of agricultural land through an entire season, or, still, to generate 
one hundred thousand horsepower continuously for twelve months 
when dropping through a height of one hundred feet. Nevertheless, 
these volumes of water are largely useless to man because of their 
extremely infrequent appearance in the stream channels. The waters 
of lesser floods, however, may be caught by storage works constructed 
in the mountainous regions and be detained for later release to supple- 
ment the waning natural flow in the streams. By such detention of 
the flood waters for subsequent use, the erratic run-off may be equalized 
and made available to man at times convenient to his special purposes. 

The greatest fractions of the mean seasonal flow which may be con- 
strained to man's service through retention in storage reservoirs, are 
set forth for all the streams, in column 20 of Table I, and in column 
21 are found the storage capacities required to do this. The yields 
from lesser amounts of storage are given in columns 23 to 34. The 
maximum yield possible from the entire water-producing area of the 
state is 58,300,000 acre-feet annually, or 80 per cent of the mean 
seasonal run-off. To secure this maximum yield would require a total 
capacity in storage works of 184,900,000 acre-feet. This volume is 
slightly greater than three times the annual equalized yield. Such 
large proportional amounts of storage are not needed if smaller frac- 
tions only of the mean seasonal flow are equalized. Capacity for stor- 
age of twice the net annual yield, will develop 70 per cent of the 
mean annual run-off from the state's drainage areas, and when this 
capacity is just equal to the annual yield in volume, it will develop 
40 per cent of the mean seasonal run-off. 



32 WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 

All these hydrographic quantities of Table 1, while having charac- 
teristics which qualify the state's waters as a whole, vary considerably 
for the separate drainage basins. Nevertheless, adjacent basins are suf- 
ficiently alike to render distinction to whole regions by reason of their 
special values. These regional values, in departing from the ones for 
the entire state, are still only indicative of the predominating charac- 
teristics of large areas. Individual basins within the regions may have 
features widely different from those predominating over them. 

The six large topographic divisions of the state have such predom- 
inant regional characteristics. Of these, the Sacramento Drainage 
Basin is the largest. It comprises not only all the area lying between 
the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada Mountains as far south as Suisun 
Bay, but also the drainage area of Pit River, to the east of the moun- 
tains and in the northeastern corner of the state. This large basin 
contains one-fourth of tjie state's water-producing area, and, with the 
exception of the North Pacific Coast region, it produces more than 
any other of the six divisions and one-third of all California's waters. 

The San Joaquin Drainage Basin is second largest of the six topo- 
graphical divisions, but produces only one-sixth of the waters. This 
basin comprises the entire area between the Coast Range and Sierra 
Nevada IMountains, southerly from Suisun Bay to Tehachapi Pass. 

The third largest division is the North Pacific Coast region, which 
includes all the streams draining in the Pacific Ocean northward from 
San Francisco Bay. It contains only one-fifth of the water-producing 
area, but its streams contain over one-third of all the waters of the 
state. This is a greater yield than in any other of the divisions. For 
equal area it produces one-third more water than the Sacramento Basin 
and over twice that of the San Joaquin. This region contains the most 
productive drainage basin in the state, the Smith River. Although 
its collecting area is only 627 square miles in extent, the mean annual 
run-off is nearly three and one-half million acre-feet. 

The region that drains into the Pacific Ocean, southward from San 
Francisco Bay, is called the South Pacific Basin, and for its size is the 
region of smallest water yield. Although containing one-sixth of the 
drainage area, but one-twentieth of the state's waters run off its slopes. 

Next in size is the region of the Great Basin, which comprises the 
areas easterly from California's principal mountain system, and whose 
waters do not reach the ocean. One-tenth of the water-producing area 
of the state is in this region but it yields only one-twentieth of the 
waters: its increment in total is about equal to that of the South 
Pacific region. 

The smallest of the six topographic divisions is the area adjacent to 
San Francisco Bay, exclusive of the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
rivers. This locality contributes only 1 per cent of the total waters 
of the state. 

There is a great difference between these six regions in the manner 
in which their waters run off the collecting areas. Generally the regions 
of least productivity have the greatest variability in run-off and 
demand the largest capacities in storage works to equalize their vari- 
able stream flow. The South Pacific, the least productive of the six 
_ state regions, requires almost three times the storage capacity necessary 
to obtain the same relative effects in equalized stream flow, as the North 
Pacific region, the most productive of the six state regions. 



TABLE 1. WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 



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I.DU.TOa 

iKi.m 


J.1S0 

2,rw 
3;tos 

3,809 


ssu.8da 

1.807,100 

22.700.000 

3.810,000 

83»W0 


3JW 

2.ST7 


13.090,000 
812.000 
*.170aW 
117 JOO 
1,117.000 


3,U) 

ill 

4,287 



209,000 
1.818,000 

1J3B,000 



iS.100 
iljoo 

4ii.iMa 



lO.UQ 
2U.81U 
14,100 



J7,!»00 
2!t,70O 

aajmu 



1,I81,UOO 

»n.ooo 

1.412.000 



118,100 
I2.>W 

ui,aiw 
H7Da 

21V,I00 



Mpg.900 
1,2X1,100 
Z,IH.iOO 






4,700 
1,1»I,«>0 



4V.UM 

T.SO0 

3H.O00 



470,000 



4,100 



KO.OOO 

£81.000 



82)00 

too 

2V.400 

179.000 

U 

ice.0D0 



iSf. 



10,200 

}gT.ioo 

40>n 

8,800 



fi2.10U 

zso 

S,t70 



84.700 
17,000 



17,900 

u,toa 

Ki.lXO 



&g7,9oa 

2tl) 
3,370 



,SL^ 



Hun-olI durinc Auiuit. 



J37.800 
USOO 
6.000 


771,800 
ll>00 


2I,SD0 
100 
2,475 


I29,7C« 


19,100 
8,000 


24,600 
370 
1.070 
3;7B0 


01,800 

s'ooo 

11,400 











tAW 




urn 





42,toa 
2iM,Doa 



WiU'r-yidd for irrigitlan 



sliird Bow Id itrcama. 



MiumuiD Dit yiM pc«ibli>. 



l,37S,KO 
H.US.UOO 
1.3U.»0 



7»,aso 

34S.S80 
1tf.710 



2.175.130 
37.770 
328,830 



7.350 
fi,4Hl 
H,490 



1,015,830 
1,470 

49,880 
3.430 
4S,740 



48,180 

12,380 
12.100 
18,500 



15,760 
3,4«) 
63.670 



2,798,770 
201,3(10 
427,300 



3.7IS.750 
7.358.080 
2.7M.0OO 
115,500 
9,630,8911 



10,587.000 
493,500 
8,039,940 
194.250 
t.ll3,7M 

38,860 

s,uui.oin 

319.000 
8II.I00 
1.470.760 

I30.S0n 
1,172.000 

1.383.400 



33.1,000 
1.74B,(MD 
141,900 



4,113800 

lOtitOO 
30.800 
121.860 

31.630 
30,730 



43.9O0 
833.900 
1,317,150 

233,000 
1,103,800 



3M.7W 
lt2,4W 
606,tWO 
310,000 
200,400 



70,000 
11,960 
383,300 
70.400 



NeljicWor4Dp.rc. 



SlonlF capBFily miuiml 



117,940 

165,320 
3,071.600 

<62:»da 

143.100 


X860:S10 
370,370 
143,350 


3,113,400 

70,760 
1.001,040 


1,840.230 
105,680 

1,007,090 
Z2,S«U 
K»:350 


13,&I0 

l,m,780 
20,300 

322,000 


32,!iSO 
1,113,670 
M,010 
108,500 
321,900 


38,880 
23i40a 

168,730 


46.100 
ITS,S00 
368,970 



41,320 

10,810 
5,000 
3,900 

38,210 

18,000 



37,020 
8,^0 



32,010 
8,800 
37,400 



549.030 
882.070 
334.150 

73.900 
301,850 



37,320 
2.O80 
37.080 


33,520 
3,800 
40,630 


3,330 
5,120 
IhOOO 


1 8.300 


0,760 


29,iS0 


453. 00 
823. 20 

a, 40 

630, 00 
. 3, 90 


430,730 

473,800 

0,740 

"S 


8,720 
136,600 


13,870 
300,640 



IJ 24,050 
1J8I,18D 

45,530 
H0.70U 
176,030 



4,064.500 
578.700 
179.300 

2,641,780 
99,700 

U3e,3ao 

34,aS0 
300,360 



277,500 

48,100 
391,000 
310,900 



53,400 
13,650 
8.250 
»,S80 
47,300 


17 ,740 
44,720 
23,500 
1 ,870 

303,540 


23,500 
380,200 
33,850 


1B9.000 
342.180 
60,070 



34.150 
3,800 
33.850 



449,050 
48,600 
»1,000 



17,800 
57,600 
39.350 
34,000 



2.800 
40.050 
11.000 
34JS0 



787,740 
1,303.430 
493,270 



143,070 
253,080 
45.680 
in.MO 



I.4S8.030 

34,390 
305.350 



54,7,«l 
170.400 
499,500 



12,040 
14,720 
3,780 



73.790 
30,970 
126,720 
4g.K3a 



24.870 
33,310 
30,880 
189.080 



NdlyicMofBOrerwDlof 
Kuoaiu mo-oR, 



176,940 
547,980 
6,967,400 
694.440 
318,010 

3,170,100 



30,460 

1,009,140 

43,800 



56,320 
351,600 
363,030 



5.3ID 

335.600 

4.800 



77.550 
101,930 
425,380 

471,8(0 

1,598,330 
G,I66,9S0 
868,050 
329,730 



74,470 
I8.6«0 



37,890 
633,000 
583,770 
151,920 
693.900 



38,330 
35.010 
61.500 



1,043.720 


1941530 






145.6(0 










741,230 



TTOwM 



Kton^ capacity requind 



1,943,310 

i,ii3,»(a 

54,170 



U0,3I0 

6.950,300 
310,160 
350,830 

3.698.4U 
139,580 

1. 856 ,8a) 
34.790 
238,750 



531,230 
- 14,480 



1,430.830 
47^310 



5,334,310 

3,13T.4«0 
1B9.3»I 



141,000 
370,430 
809,250 



5,070,360 
403,770 

2,917.860 
78,530 
635,150 



1,084,560 

u.iio 



oldmnacT 



Hom fur 24 boui 
in maioiludf er 
tlian Ubulalol v 



ElpWlod OCC UTfTBC* o( ODM 

I Tit 24 boun Diua) 



100.500 
31.KW 
9,300 






fvrtlDU 

HUAfVIEUll 

oldmufi 



50,400 
48LI0O 
50.400 



13.000 
64,100 
180.000 



146,500 
0,010 
11.T00 



110.000 

"19.600 



11.100 
4.170 



1).4IH 

'"suoo 



5,«60 

2,640 
3,H0 



8iwt for 34 boun equal 
in ciuf ailudt or cmlct 
tbu IkbuUlcd niat. 



17M0 
43,200 

5.070 
11.300 



305.000 
i63,6o6 



11,000 

'iiao' 



I4.ID0 

19,900 



12.010 
10,660 



la 160 -nan of timt" 
flovi F» 24 boun ciual 
in macmtaile or paUr 
than labuUtal TtTuc. 



125.400 
45.000 

10,300 



160,000 

9.no 

33.800 



1.450 

43.100 
1.460 

13,100 

io',3io 



IIJOO 

19.400 



SACRAMENTO BASIN, 
pjmjlecitt Rim (Uppn) abon Pll Ritw. 



•flMkbooe Cratk Gt™p 

ChwOnek 

Canmaood Owk , 
laHnnKDla Rinr t| Bid Glue 



'ntdBukCndtareop,'. 
SuBfOmk. 

OiikQHk 

PtHakOwk . 



SAN JOAQUIN aASIN. 
"Ornliata Creek Oroop 



•YokDli]Cciid.Gto»B 

Kambllirw . "^ 

'UadiibCrwkCicoijD,., . 

KwRlnr 

DtrOutk 

SMjOMuinlljmllJppir) ,. 

CoUaaaood Oeck 

rrWDO Riiv 

•Oaulton Cmk Group 

Ctomhilb RiTCT 

'Dulrliniin OwtGnjup ., 

•Qxrn r„.,l,' 

U«u rrrr k 

■Ourn* Ctt»k Group 

MtMmt Rit»r . ,. 

rgolumng Hinr . . . 

'Wildcit Cmk Croup 

StaniilBW Itiw 

UUtjohB Cr«t 

•MirWliOraikClOTp.... ., ,, 

CiU.c™.Rim 

MnkEluBuic (titer . , 

*% I Id Oak Group 

OvuDms HiTtr 

Tot4li and emm Tdc SU Jctq^ B^ 
S»N FRANCISCO BAY BASINS. 



■Ml tjiaUnCrftckOroup 

aw l-tiio ftt-k 

naa Lnndio Crt«k ... 

*ChniDonl Crack Group. 

ak» Loreua Cnek 

Alamnla Cmk 

•MiarioB Crwk Group 

PouleiciA Ct«ek 

UvDlaRJRf 

0»il»Jup» lUnr, 

*Lw Galia Owk Group , , 

9aa »ueaaiuU 0«k 

"Sui ^t^tfo Crwk Group 

TuUU *flj imia tor Su Ffucwo Bay 

NORTH PACinC BASINS. 
Sniilh Kiirr 
Kkmilti Hiirr 
»bttti lUtci 
Scull R,ni 
Stbooa Kint 



_ _'»bIo Ciwt 
Su IfBodni Crrrt 

Sid Li»i(uoCn:«i 
AIudbIi CikI; 

iiiBC™lGfuuj 



Sui FriKi»]iuIo Cwk 



NOFTTH PACIFIC BASINS, 



- Ri.tr 



•Giolili Hirer Gtouv 

*Siaj™ Cr«t CJroup 
•BoTmu Ciwi Orwijr 



« KorU f^&c &*Bat 



auU Vcibil Cmt 
a»n LuB Rtj Itiiw 
" ta Ma/^nts River 
It iiciula itivtt Tnhulvia 

ita AiB Rim Tribuuria 

1 Cabntl RiTw Tntrulvia . 

■La Ar«Els Itinr TnbuUrici . . 

■KUibu Ri™ OroMp 

■&sl> Clan River tribuLuis . . 

•Jika Oiwii Urwp. . 
&DU Ym Rintr . 



*Sbn Lud Obtf^ Crrrl Grcnip 
■StlitiM Rov Tribvtana . ... 

•fuwo niv« Tribuluia 

■Snqud Owk Group 

'I^aadcniCniikGroap. 



ToUbudn 



u(iirSDalbi>H)SaSMiH 



GREAT BUI 
Tulc Itlu Ctnuy 
■Go* IaIu Uruup . . 

•Coabcttd Ukr> Buln 

•Surpmt Villry Orogp . . 
■Middint FbiuOrvup 

-Sciwh! Cmli Group . 
■E^fle UU Gruip 
'HoACT L*if Gf^Tup 
'Uk( Tibw Bsu 
TiMckH Rivet 



MdolK Modon Group 



wGralBuiB . 
MurorSuU . 



»^6 



».«oo 

UODD 

S.OTJ 

K).i<n 
n.ooo 



70,»W) 

iis.soa 



18,900 
II.IW 

1S,7S0 

a,<BO 

«,670 



i,(ie.«xi 

lll.WO 

ia.«oo 



S9(i.eoo 

I^.IDO 



3J«7,S(I0 

201,700 
SSLMO 



3,K9 
3,173 

I,3U 



i7S.no 

110.400 
272.300 



S,2M 
1,470 
3,4tl0 



ias,5oa 

1M.600 
41.400 



ie.5Da 

11,440 
3,470 

7,390 
13,9W 



144,700 
13,300 
8.000 



l.i:iI,5W 
339,760 
730,740 

I.UW,7»U 



13.400 
SJ,00O 

01,400 



121.100 
69.200 
KSMO 

ntao 

207,100 

121.700 
Ml MO 
!7a.Sil0 
270 MO 
l»),10U 



720,S0O 
5S3,40O 

307,000 

T&i!wo 

£99.001} 

J.0O7>0(l 
139.400 



3.U0 

700 

10,600 

99,WI 



I2J2O0 

2,900 
9,500 



7.700 
1,700 
2.90U 



3.300 
41200 



271,100 
32,200 
&,40U 
M,MW 



392,700 

i».3oa 
HMO' 

1.117,00 
1.119.100 
I.U9,IOO 

276.000 

H8.no 

1.070,000 



510.600 
711 OCO 
231.300 
407,7<XI 



33/WO 
13,6'Xi 



32.IS0 
48,140 

ioi.ua 



241.930 
340.H0 
l!tS,tKI 



U.;60.100 



S.SIS.MO 
7.SO3.S10 
791.100 
I.IM.MO 



1,253,110 
2.2M,I00 
6.Sie,39D 



141.900 
132.O0O 
213.910 
140.360 



l,3a].4S0 
1,391.190 
07.010 
10S.44a 
902:660 


U24,0S0 
IJU.2S0 

48.520 
110,700 
ITfl.020 


1,770.080 

473!oau 

1,416.000 

00,800 


1,167,740 
101.490 
113.860 

1,(79.400 
TB.4MI 


4:11.210 
5U.1» 
IH.WO 
330.980 
H6.U0 


103,030 
191,280 

t90!89a 
1,1:13,280 


M,C80 
49.860 
14,910 


41,030 
91,290 
10,400 



110,080 
12.8.S0 
1.190 
33.090 
t4.UQ 



39,400 
132,310 
101,400 



113,000 
lSA.filO 
111,910 



111,340 

139,900 
33,440 

30,280 



14,190 

12,700 
10,440 


70.800 

!S 

)p,i<8a 

r7,iM 


101,390 
90,01U 
18.400 

11, sw 

S8,W0 


i>i.s3a 
asisoo 

113.600 
18.160 

317.600 


IBJOO 
(3.200 
0,010 
K),9iO 


:8.120 

a:ffi 

73.150 
tl.160 


69,080 
384.790 
111,920 


31,570 
1,1)9, teo 

sa,800 



va.48a 
ao,i2o 
»,ooo 



i7,480 
18,810 

&7,4iO 



34.000 

8,600 
9,450 
12,300 



13,800 
3,900 
40,050 
11,000 



118,700 
591,250 
3,020,000 



105,800 
124,850 
708,300 



139,10) 
130,050 
01.060 



169.080 
35,760 



803,580 
579.130 
3,603.200 



231.060 
526.910 
1.728,250 

SS.870 
76.310 

20.950 



334,050 

1.635,230 
395,900 
268,700 



iiaa 

41,450 
58,300 


im 

06,110 
116,130 


18,800 
4S.500 
195,400 
180.500 
1U.O0O 


430,040 
313,100 
359:260 


87,600 

(ilioo 

50.000 
66.150 
07.830 


16,600 
173,<H0 

119,240 
7i:830 
93,010 


lolioo 


19,690 
23,010 
25 080 
157:120 


USJW 

6:™ 


67,720 
371800 



3110 

48,090 
13,200 



9,013.710 

J,04a,€10 
145,560 

311,990 



133,920 

577,110 
197,280 
197,940 
113,580 



827,750 
6,013.100 
138,470 

039,390 
1.174,770 

331.860 



3,310 

as 


10.630 
112:100 


31,180 


150.400 


169,900 
303,900 


401.550 
4*5.760 


90,110 
85:400 
88.180 
87,380 
10,300 


10,320 
211.020 
104,560 
134.020 

79,700 


166,860 
68;»20 


4 1,720 

98.300 

u:^ 

155,320 



17.050 

14,100 
25,070 



,2.381,810 
3.SB7.4M 
160.S2O 
391,770 
870,480 



7I1,4») 

013,710 
271. ira 
5M.7eO 
901,910 

92,110 

70,730 
25,920 



354,200 
iO,MO 



1.143,310 

1.802.170 



90.530 
121,940 
68^550 



35,500 

9,300 
27,300 



40,300 
91,470 
100,810 
11,010 



15.600 
16.750 

13.130 
1S,U»0 



93,300 
110,900 
13,210 



(7.1B0 

o.wa 
H,6ia 



1.771 

11,500 
3.03) 



131, AM 

42.500 
M,I20 



18.370 
77,090 



*Mt DitbiD cnok Qraii^ ::;::;; . 

San PaUa Cmk . . 
Su UudtQ Cratk 

*Clu«iual Owk Gruup 
Sui Lornuo Crri>k 
Aluncdi Cnil 

'MiODDii Onli r,t..i,i, 

PauUacin Cn<k 

Carols River 

Gnulklupc Ritrr 

■Lm G»l« Cmk Group 

9iii Fr»nciigL.,io Or— k ... 
•Sp Milfo Ovk Grmip .... 
f "•-!- md naua tor S»a F>uicaoo Bi 



NORTH PACinC BASINS. 

Riiw. 

KkEOalh itirtr 

Silmoa Rjnr 

TKnilr Kiiu 
Hed«oodCTOk 
Mid Kiw. 
Edltinr .. 
■" Cretk. 



10.470 
15,730 

16,370 



UoiptUiCmlE 
ISiliiiotiCmkr.rciip,.. 
"BoUnM Onk Graup, . . 

TolakudtM 



■ rocMorthricifieBi 

SOUTH PACinC BASINS. 

SMKp|[oIti.ef.... 

SMtik YmIh] Cmk 

Eu Luii Ki^y Riw 
&a)aMinonUHin»:'" 



*StDJu> 



Riiw TribaU 



nuo 

lB,i66 



^l> \Ba Hirer Tnlutvia 
"Su Gibrict Oinr TnbuUnM 

Iff ,?'«''" f*"™ Ttibgl»r«l 

•.*Wibul{)»erOroop ... 
'SuuClMRim'njbiittriM 

Voaliui Hirer 

•Jilinn Cnik Qroup 

SmU Ynci Riis. . , , . , 

SuAnlonioCwdi 

tMU Muia Rinr. 

*Sm tub (itun Crttk Croap . . . 

*Sdiiai Rira tVibuUiu* 

•Puijo Hirer TWbiiUrita . 

•Siiutl Owk Group 

•P«aJua CWk Gronp 

ToUb tnJ nuooi loc Soutb PfHt Bi 

GREAT BASIN. 
•Tile UXe Group 
■GwvUke Group 



'B»Dif Uka Group. .... 

*Uka1Ua(B«M 

Tr*ckMitint... 

Wat Fork OtnooRiow.. 
Rati Fork CknaaRJiir,.. 
WalVFtlkuRlra 

Eut Wiiker llinr. . . .. 
■Urao Uka Grovp .... 

■AioU Madova Group. . . 
*OnaRiirs(Droa) ... 

'Ubop Onk Omop 

•OnM lAk> Qn«]> 

MojinItil« 

■Alldops Villoy Group . . . 
Wlitcnltf RiTW. . 



•OTaEAMS GBOUPED IN ONE ENTRY IM TABLE. 



re mileikddilionL EMT*bla49, 



17. Cbvra Cnck. Stillnltr Cnck. 

30. Ajb Cntk Bar Crak. 

U. BackboDt Cr«k, Rmk Cntk. Olur Cnck. 

17 MiQ Cnck. D«r Cittk. Anltlopc Cnik. Bit CUro Cr«k. Litllt CtiHo Cieck. S)-aaon HoSow, Sbnp 
HoUn, Griub BoDo*. Mud Cmk. Hock Cnck, Pioe Crack, Ziaimnbed Crack Cwntl Ctetk, RilUoukt Croak. 9li«ct 
Oaak. Bniah Creek. Rio do U* BrmaioL 

4a Bulla Cnck. Utllo Dnr Cmk. Char Crnk. Gold Rua Crnk. Cbimlrn Rjiine, C«l Ouyon. 

60, North Hoocut Crttk. South Hoocul Crak ffjTDUO Cnek, WysnduUr Cmk, Dry Creek. 
51. CoDD Cmk Antdoic Crnk. Auburn R*%-iat. 

M, RanliCr(*k,Niinb Fork Red BiDk Cnck. Sstrtli Fork Red Bank Creit 
57, Elder CVerk. Tbotna* Crock. Ria Cmk. 

50. BwEbrizht Cmk WUIo* CnA. Ldcu Crak Buelcn Cmk, Funti Crnk. Stout Corral Crack. &i>d Crirk. 
Frtabnlo Cndc Salt Cnck. epnnt Cratk. C«nin. Cratk. 

61. LiUlaPuiiiclic Cnck. iMQiaSaB.'lrllvliC Cmk, LaaBaoinCrtKk,i^iiLuBCretk.aoDaro Crock Q<iinlo 
Clwk, MuaUu C^ack. Gaiua Crrrk. Crow Croct Uroiliinba Crwk. Ullle iWadi Creek, SdaJa Crwk. Puerlo Crtrk. 
lD(rvB Cmk. HoapiUl Crak. Duron Airs Crack. Mouolaio Uouic Oreik. Builo Crock, Kallou Cruk. Mtnb Cmk. 
Looc Tree Crock. Eoiid Crork, Dry Creek. Dm Creek. 

64. Domeopu CneL Mirliaa Creek, Gall Creek Canliu Crick, Antyo HdiiId. Amno Cinrvo. 

66 Wtltlaai Cmt JnaliUa Creek. Japaiu Creak. Blltemter Creek. Danl nirr (>Kk. Modia Agu, Cbico 
Manioea Cratk. Sail Cnck. BiUrr Cnck. &nlia(o Cmk. Livec^ Cieek. Ika Eimtdio Crack. Pinto Cretk. Tecuia 
Cncfc. Qnpenae Creak, Pailoha Creek. Tuna Crack, EJ hio Cnck, Tajon Cn< SmD\ca Creak. Cwou CrcEk. Guu 



CrackjATona) Creek. CaUoowood Caojrst. Fruidaeu Cratk. Pukwood Creak. Bu«u VUta Cnck. Billemlcf Creek, 

90. Wlitafiinr. P<»o Cmk. R»4 Gulch. 

72. YokoU Creek. Learii CnxbHoiac Crisk. 

T4. Ucnekila deck. RtltlMnake Creek. Stoke* Creek. Sud Creek. Wvtvke Credc Groty Cre«k. 

80. Dry Creek. DaullOD Cmk. 

82. DuUbmiu Creek. Dadmani Croak. 

84, OweuB Cieck, Milca Cnxk. 

M. Bunii Cnek, Black Raeol Creak, Fahraoa Creek. 

89, WildalCraek. Dry Cmk. 

02, Mulclla Cmk, Bar Creek, Rock Creels Bii Sprint Creek, PcuhyaCrtck. 

OS Dr, Creek. n^lowCmtBotlcrCreet *•>-"**■ -^ 

97. Konfo Creak. GbUIrm Creek. Sao Anlonio Creek. Adobe Cmk. Lyneb Cmk. Htuio Creek. Toliy Crwk. 

OS U'oill Vallry, Acua Calicata, Qookn Crc«k. attnit Cmk, .Sunt Canyon Creek. Sonoma Cmck. donama 

W). Conn Crmk Rector Canyon, Soda Creek .Millikao Oeek. Earco Creek. Tulway Cnek. Suaool Creek, [ako 
Cliabat S)ilrin. N«lh Bnncb Napa Cmk, South Braneb Nipa Creek. Dry Cmk, Sulpliur Snrinn. 

100, &1U110 Creek, Uallii Cmk, L<xlte-i>od Creek. Gmn Valley Crock. Sulphur Spriup Crcii 

101. Kirker Creek Ml, Diablo Creek, Walnut Creek. Redao Occk. Fioolc Creek. 



107. hruaion Cnek, A[ui CUIcoLo Cnck, Ami Pri* Cree^ Torogu Cmk. Scott Cmk. Oalcnt Cnict .inoyo 
do loa Coebei, Berryeau Creek. Dry CrecL Silni Cmk. 

111. lAaUatiB Cmk. San ToinuCre«k; Campbell Cmk. Calaboioi Cmk. Steniu Creek. IVmuDente Cmk, 
113. IiUi Crock. SiD BruQD Creek. San Malw Creek, loutl Creek. BeUasDl Cmk, Tu'cu Creek, CordiUmi 

125. Uul Cmk. Wade Creek, Ten Mils Cmk, Noyo Ririr. Bit Rinr, Albion Creek. 

127, DoDshDe Creek. Elk Creek, Alder Creek, Bnub Creel, Ouoia River. Gualila River, 

130, WBlkcr Creek. San ADlonJa Creek, ^luion Creek. 

131. Bolioaa Creek. InteruD* Cieek, Olcma CrecL 
136. Ebn Jacinto Hirer, Indian Creek. Foppelt Creek, PoUro Creek, Bsutiato Oeek. Cului Valley Cmk. 

" ~ ' "' Mill Crock. Sand Cmk, Cil/ Creek Plunio Crock, Stnwbcrry Croak. Walsrman Canyon, 
" Creek. Lylle Cioek. in A - - - 

jTCmitljii Chilton "cinyon. 

13V, Pacoinu Cnck. Tuiuofk Cmk. Arroyo fno. LllUe Tujunci Canyon. 

110. Dumo Crock. Ramgra Creek. Solallee Creek, CaUcClai Creek. Sycimoro CroJc, Arroyo Soquil. Trani 
Caoyaa, Miilibu River. Topanfa Crirk, Ruilio Crock). 

141. Sanig, Paulo Creek Bspo Creek, Pini Creek, (^talc Creek. Hin FronoUauita Cmk. Douiiuut Creek. 

141 Hincon Creek. San Antonio Cmk. Jolama Cmk. Qxida CmL 

147. Uranda Creek, &d Luii Oblini Cmk. DiaUo Creek. CeOD Creek. lalay Crack, ftn UtmordD Cmk, Mu 
Cnck, Torn C^etk. VlQa Creek, Sasla Itcia Craek. Su Simeon Creak. Arrays if U Crui, Btt 8ur Creak, Ultle : 



Creek. C^naiJ Itiior, San Canajo River, Corral de Rolr* Creek, Bnuiolan Creek, Sterner Craek, PenoinclonOek, Son 
Lukito, Davi) Canyon, Wild Chrrry Caiiyoa, Oitbls Crayon. Uvtard Canvoa, Cioir Bar tWon. Pecho Creek. Willow 
Creek, Old Cmk. CuyaMB Creek. Pico Creek. Ultla P^eo Cmk. Biem Creek. Arroyo Boodo, Amyo de loa Chioi* 
Joabui Creek, Salmon Crt.fc Viili Cnet Alder Crwt WUlow Creek, PrertUtt Cmt, Wild CalUe Creek. Mill Cnck, 
Polo Colorado Ca^vn, Doud Creek, Wild Cat CrMk Oianite CooyoD, Milpaio Creek. Sobcnnea Cnek. 

118. Toro Creek. Pine Canyon. Limcfciln Craek. Alial Craek, Quail Creek, fman't Crock. Johnafln anyoD. 
Arroyo Stco, Relli Cnek, Shirttad Cmk. Ckalono Creek. &n Culoa Canyon, Aqua Gnnde Cinyoa, Monroe ^Oyoo. 
ThomiHon Canyon. Branaletter Canyon. Pino CanyoB, Cherry Canyon, Kant Canyon, Seven Well Oonyon. Folia ^wod, 
EepinoiB Canyon, Uroadbunt Canyon, Barrel Can)vn, Sao Loreoio Creek. Snetwatei Canyon, Wild Hoih Oknyuo, 
Uanilton Canyon, Iaiii Valley Oeck. Pins Valley Creek, Redwood Canyon, Lyneb Canyon. SariODl Canyon, ^linii 
River, &n AdIouId Cnck. Nacimiuilo Rinf, Son Uarooa Cmk. Hucrhuero Creek. EilroUa Creek, Vineyanl CaoyOO, 
Stone l^!aoyon. 

liortteadero Cmk. U BnB Cmk, Oodfiik Creek. Little Arthur Creek. Vni Creek. Llaeu Cmk. Pacheeo 
Cmk. Arroyo de loa Yllnnii, .Irroyo doi Flchaea. Saalt Ana Crock, Tm Finis Creek. Sao Benito Cmk. Binj Creek. 
Sin Juan Creek. 

160. San Vieeole CroV, Liddell Crmk. Rapid Cnek. Lofuna Creek. Coja Creak. Baldwin Creek. Mcder Cmk. 
Arroyo de lea Friiotm.Wli.le II suae Cmk. CucodaCmk. Omn Oab Cmk. Aao Nuovo Cmt Finny Croak, Qaio* 
Crest WadJcIl Crrek, Soult Creek. S»n Loranio Cmk, a-iuol Cmk..Apto> Creek. 

151. rilaroiOB Cmk. Pu;iniiu Creek. Trinilai Crock. Son Gre«oria Croclc Fompoaio Cn«k. FeMadaro Clock, 
Lobltea Greet Freuebman'a CreeL Deniditoo Creek. Sen Yicanla Creek. San Pedro Creek. 

151 Bulla Crack, Aulelepo Creek, ColLonwDod Cmk. Loel Binr. 



Dry Cmk. Coltoawood Qvk, Osl Cmk Raider Creek, Eadt OrMk. Bam Cmk. 
ISO. Hed R ' " ."..-- " . - . _ -^ ,. 

117. Smoke , 

158. Pine Creek. 

160, Suaan River. Baiter Crtok. Lonj Valioy Cmk. „ , „ .^ . , , ~,. 

160, Mtiff Creek. Ward Cmk. Blackwood Creek. Madden Creek. MsKlDDoy Cnek. Gcoeril Creak. Lonely Gnteh, 



Umw Truckoe Hirer, Taylor Cmk. 

166. Mill Creek. '"liL-l* C.rj.yon. Leevi. 

167. Chvdaipi (■-,■.■ ' ••-*■--..- r- 
Piute Creek, Sirot. < 

191 Uwem H ■ 

190 Pino Cro 
Fmnun Cntk. SL.-. 
Creek. Hod MouoUt, ■ 
■ ■ ■ cCrett Pl 



ic Cnek, P»rta» Crtck. Ruib Cmk. Walker Csoyoo. 

-'■•• Marble Cmt, Cold«ler Canyon. Lone Tm Creek ifUner Creek. 

-luu-nLo Canyon. .UeUea Canjiin. Black Oayoo. 

■■ n Crwk. ^^eC;« C»oyon. Birth Creek. B»b« Cmk. Rawaon Oek 
!■.; Pine Cmk. Liiil. Mn* Cmk. Binh Creek, War Cmk Tiaemaha 
. ..Jilg Cmk. Dit-inon Cnck. Sawmill Cmk. TbbaulCrecl. Oak CVeck. 

'Ho^^clij CrljA&a.rii'cmk'u^ Creek. Hofhack Crect Lone Pine Creek. Tnlll. Ctwk. DleU Crwk. 
Rlchor Crrek. Carrol Creek. Cutlonmxd Cmk. Alb Creek. Braley Cmk. CorthaCD Creek. Ulaooba Creek. Walktf 
Creek. Summit Cmk, Hajne Creek, Hotbaek Cmk. 

173 Amartaa Creek. LilUi Reek deck. BiK Rock Cmk. 



ISTi: Fki-liiB V. XI. 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 33 

Of the basins of intermediate water productivity, the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin are about equal in relative storage requirements. 
Although the streams of the San Joaquin drainage have a much greater 
range in variation of annual run-off than those of the Sacramento, the 
bulk of the San Joaquin waters run off later in the season than those 
of the Sacramento, and so, in general, storage works are about equally 
effective in each basin. These two basins require slightly less storage 
capacity for equal relative results to that required by the North Pacific 
region, for the North Pacific region has the smaller summer flow in its 
streams. However, the relative storage requirements in these three 
regions are nearly alike. 

The San Francisco Bay region, because of its smaller fluctuation 
in annual run-off than the South Pacific, and greater than the Sacra- 
mento or San Joaquin, falls intermediate in effectiveness of storage 
on its streams, between the South Pacific region and the three great- 
est water producing basins of the state, in which storage capacity, on 
the whole, is nearly equally effective. Almost twice as much capacity 
in storage works is necessary in the San Francisco Bay region to gain 
equal relative results in equalizing its stream flow as in either of the 
Sacramento or San Joaquin basins. 

The relative amounts of storage required to equalize stream flow, 
largely pertain to the range in variation between years of maximum 
and minimum run-off and to the apportionment of the annual run- 
off between the winter and summer months. The North Pacific region 
has the smallest variation in annual run-off, and there the maximum' 
is only five times that of the minimum season. The maximum year in 
the Sacramento Basin is six times the least, while in all the other 
regions the variation is much larger than in these two. In the San 
Joaciuin it is fifteen times the least, in the San Francisco Bay region 
it is seventy times the least, and in the South Pacific the year of max- 
imum run-off is one hundred times the least year. 

While the San Francisco Bay region has the smallest portion of 
its waters wetting the stream channels during the summer months, the 
Great Basin drainage, east of the Sierras and southern California moun- 
tains, is distinguished by having the largest apportionment of summer 
flow of any of the six regions. The streams of the San Joaquin Basin 
are next in order and those of the Sacramento not far behind. The 
North Pacific region has an intermediate apportionment in the sum- 
mer months between that of the San Joaquin and that of the South 
Pacific region. 

Similar comparisons may be made between any of the individual 
drainage basins in the state by referring to Table I in the proper 
columns. The flow in all streams during the largest, the smallest, 
and the average season, as well as during the midsummer months, is 
there. Also the storage capacity required to equalize their variant 
flows and the size of extreme floods are enumerated. So, comprised 
within Table I, is a complete inventorj^ of all the waters of the state, 
which includes their locations, their quantities and their variabilities. 
The valuer entered in the table are averages for the past half century 
and should be indicative of future expectancies, so that this table pre- 
sents in full the water resources of the State of California with their 
characterizations. 



34 WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 



CHAPTER V. 



UTILIZATION OF THE STATE'S WATERS. 

Only one-half of the wide expanse of California contributes much to 
the waters of its streams. The other half, lower in altitude and more 
even of surface, is favorably disposed for occupancy by man, and its 
populated sections need water in order that their industrial expansion 
may continue and their communal civilization progress steadily onward. 
The production of food, the generation of power, and the supply of 
water for domestic use, in the drier half of the state, are largely depend- 
ent upon the waters of the streams which have their source in the more 
elevated regions. The farmer relies upon the streams during the 
warm, dry summers for supplementary moisture to mature his crops 
and upon their hydro-electric energy to pump his irrigation waters. 
The electric energy, generated by the waters of the streams as they 
descend the mountains' slopes, furnishes power and illumination to the 
industrial centers, and light and heat and means of operating many 
conveniences, to the entire social state. But most of all, the cities, 
towns, and villages, the pleasures and comforts of their congregated 
peoples, require these waters in abundance for drinking and household 
purposes. The expansion of all these benefits to include larger popula- 
tions, demands increased supplies of water for the future with uninter- 
rupted service in purity and plenty, at all times of the year, and in all 
successive years alike. 

The vital importance of water in the economic development of Cali- 
fornia is succinctly shown in the history of the state 's production. By 
1920, with but three per cent of all the people in the entire United 
States residing wdthin California's borders, this state, eighteenth in the 
area of land farmed, was fifth in position among the states of the Union 
in value of farm crops; and while in the eighth position in value of 
manufactures, was second in the installed capacity of water wheels for 
the hydro-generation of electric current. Since 1920, this state has 
advanced from fifth to fourth^ ^* among the states of the Union in 
value of agricultural products. 

The advance to so favorable a comparison in agricultural output with 
the other forty-seven states of the Union, has been made without any 
increase in the total area in improved farms. In fact, thirty-five years 
have elapsed since the aggregate area in improved farms in California 
has increased. Although there are twenty-three million acres of land 
susceptible of agriculture within the state's borders, the enlargement 
of the area tilled ceased when but half of the total had been brought 
under cultivation. As a result of the unprofitable farming conditions 
obtaining on the remaining millions of acres, the area under cultivation 
did not further enlarge ; the experience of the practical farmer limited 
the total area cultivated to but half the agricultural lands. Some 



"'Statistics of California State Department of Agriculture shoW that this state was 
exceeded in value of agricultural products by Texas, Iowa and Illinois. 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA, 35 

additional areas having inadequate natural moisture have since been 
added to the total area of improved farms by developing accessory 
water supplies, but the abandonment of other areas previously farmed 
has compensated in their summation so that the total acreage in im- 
proved farms has remained practically unchanged for thirty-five years. 

This limit to the area in improved farms was reached in the year 
1885, Prior to this year, the tilled area had expanded in leaps and 
bounds from the great impetus to farming enterprises that followed 
the world wide movement to this state after the discovery of gold at the 
midway point of the last century. This enlargement of the farmed 
area continued at a rapid rate for a third of a century, then slacken- 
ing, it ceased about 1885, 

With less than 12,000,000 acres cultivated, all of the state's agricul- 
tural area with sufficient natural moisture to mature a profitable crop 
had been brought into use. Since 1885, the state has had no additional 
area that could be profitably utilized for agriculture in its natural con- 
dition, so that in response to the continuing favorable market for agri- 
cultural products, a more intensive farming of the land already under 
cultivation has been in progress. All through these thirty-five years, 
the demand for products of California's agriculturists has never 
ceased to increase at an accelerated rate, California, favorably sit- 
uated, its fertile agricultural soils producing to capacity under condi- 
tions of dry farming, required only that additional water be applied 
to these lands to multipl.v their yield. The practical farmer, answer- 
ing to the ever-enlarging market for his products, increased the yield 
of many acres by supplementing the soil's natural moisture with water 
applied through irrigation. In this way the state has continued, 
through the last thirty-five years, to respond to the constantly increas- 
ing demand for its farm products, and in this way the potent possibil- 
ities of California's farm lands are being invoked to a yield greater in 
value than in any other state of the Union. 

The utility of the state's waters in augmenting the yield of its agri- 
cultural lands and the demands of the future, may best be ascertained 
through an investigation of the use of water in the past. The quan- 
tity of accessory water needed for gro\^^ng crops to an harvestable 
maturity, may best be derived from the results of experience and prac- 
tice. California's lands, .deficient in natural moisture during the grow- 
ing season of agricultural plants, have received varying quantities of 
water. The amounts applied on the sundry tracts in the divers locali- 
ties, differ widely with all the circumstances and conditions affecting 
the use of water. The application to different fields has varied greatly 
even for like crops, for not only do the quantities of water used vary 
with the incentive for their economic application, but the amounts that 
are dissipated in the process of irrigation change greatly with contin- 
gent circumstances, and even the actual quantity necessary for absorp- 
tion by the root systems of the plants, is conditional. 

These circumstances and conditions neces.sitating the application of 
more or less accessory water, are so vast in number, changing with 
every variation in soil, crop, and preparation for spreading water, that 
on small tracts of land, the effect of one may predominate, but on 
greater areas they tend to neutralize in effect. For this reason the 
average use of water on very large areas approaches like figures, while 
the use on small tracts within these large areas, may take wide numer- 



36 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

ical departure from the general average. The larger the areas com- 
pared, usually the closer is the agreement of numerical values in the 
records of use. From the average use of water on large areas, suffic- 
iently great to suppress the predominance of effects peculiar to small 
parcels, natural divisions of the state, sixteen in number, have been 
evolved, and called duty of water sections. These sections comprise 
within their boundaries, lands of approximately like geographic posi- 
tion, similar surface conformation, of analogous economic environment, 
aud equal climate, and so form convenient segregations for the dis- 
closure of the irrigation requirements of California's agricultural lands. 

Delineated on Plate III, "Map of Agriculture Areas and Duty of 
Water Sections," the boundaries of these sections show as red lines 
following natural dividing conformations of the land surface. The 
agricultural lands show as light green areas within the delimiting red 
lines. Letters within circles, interspersed throughout the green areas, 
indicate the location of individual irrigation systems or of divers 
tracts of land for which data on the actual use of water or on proposed 
uses, have been collected by these investigations. A searching inquiry 
of the use of water has been made and water measurements have been 
assembled appljnng to an area that equals more than half the lands 
irrigated in the entire state during 1919. These records are the sum- 
mation of the labors of a great many engineers and hydrographers 
that cover the major portion of the last two decades. These extensive 
data are included with pertinent material in Appendix "B" to this 
report and the letters within the circles on the map, are attached to 
the data on the plates and in the tables of this appendix, so that the 
approximate geographic situation of the lands to which the data apply 
may be traced. 

That the water requirements for each of the several sections of the 
state might be derived from this great assemblage of information, an 
examination of the circumstances and a close scrutiny of the condi- 
tions were made, surrounding the use of water in each section. All 
information on the types and fertility of soils, the crops grown, the 
climate, the water supply, the surface conformation of the land, and 
all other subjects related to irrigation requirements, was reviewed 
and compared with the measured and proposed uses of water. Prac- 
tical working quantities required of accessory water supplies in each 
section, were so evolved and recorded in "Table 2, "Agricultural Area 
and Net Duty of Water in the Sixteen Sections of California." The 
total area of agricultural land in each section is also recorded in this 
table and numbers. are given to each section that show their location on 
the map, Plate III. 

These practical working quantities in Table 2 that set forth the 
general water needs of the agricultural areas in each section, are 
expressed as the amount of water required on a unit area of cropped 
land and are named the "Duty of Water." Originally an expression 
for the area of land that a measure of water would irrigate when 
flowing continuously through the irrigation season, custom has inverted 
the first meaning and more conveniently utilizes the term "Duty of 
Water" to name the quantity of irrigation water required to furnish 
throughout one season, an adequate supplementary supply to the soil 
moisture on a unit area of land. This quantity is usually expressed 
as feet-depth on the land, meaning the depth that the total amount of 
water required each year for one acre, would cover its surface if it 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 



37 



TABLE 2. AGRICULTURAL AREAS AND NET DUTY OF 

WATER 

in sixteen sections of California, shown on Plate III 



Section 
number. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 



Description of section. 



Los Angeles area, Ventura to Redlands 

San Diego area. Mexican boundary to San Jacinto and Yucaipa 

Imperial, Coaohella an4 Palo Verde valleys 

Antelope Valley and Mojave River areas 

Inyo-Kern, Owens and Mono valleys 

Sierra foothills and rolling plains east and south of San Joaquin Valley floor 

San Joaquin Valley floor 

Western slope of southern San Joaquin Valley 

Santa Barbara, Santa Maria and San Luis Obispo areas 

Salinas and contiguous valleys 

Santa Clara and adjacent valley areas 

Delta lands of San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys 

Sacramento Valley floor 

Sierra foothills, and rolling plains east and west of Sacramento Valley floor. 

North coast area 

Northeastern mountain-valley and plateau areas 

Total 



Agricultural 
area. 


Net duty 
of water. 


Acres. 


Feet depth 
on land. 


1,310,000 


1.75 


84.000 


1.25 


1,299,000 


3.00 


1,107,000 


2.00 


657,000 


2.50 ' 


1,800,000 


1.75 


5,468,000 


2.00 


971,000 


1.75 


410,000 


1.50 


296,000 


1.75 


530,000 


1.50 


453,000 


1.50 


2,694,000 


2.25 


2,305,000 


1.50 


624,000 


1.25 


1,598,000 


1.75 


22.506.000 





WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 



37 



TABLE 2. AGRICULTURAL AREAS AND NET DUTY OF 

WATER 

in sixteen sections of California, shown on Plate III 



Section 
number. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

It 

15 

16 



Description of section. 



Los Angeles area, Ventura to Redlands 

San Diego area. Mexican boundary to San Jacinto and Yucaipa 

Imperial, Coachella an(j Palo Verde valleys 

Antelope Valley and Mojave River areas 

Inyo-Kern, Owens and Mono valleys 

Sierra foothills and rolling plains east and south of San Joaquin Valley floor 

San Joaquin Valley floor 

Western slope of southern San Joaquin Valley 

Santa Barbara, Santa Maria and San Luis Obispo areas 

Salinas and contiguous valleys 

Santa Clara and adjacent valley areas 

Delta lands of San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys 

Sacramento Valley floor 

Sierra foothills, and rolling plains east and west of Sacramento Valley floor . 

North coast area 

Northeastern mountain-valley and plateau areas 

Total 



Agricultural 
area. 


Net duty 
of water. 


Acres. 


Feet depth 
on land. 


1,310,000 


1.75 


84.000 


1.25 


1,299,000 


3.00 


1,107,000 


2.00 


657,000 


2.50 ' 


1,800,000 


1.75 


5,468,000 


2.00 


971,000 


1.75 


410,000 


1.50 


296,000 


1.75 


530,000 


1.50 


453,000 


1,50 


2,694,000 


2.25 


2,305,000 


1.50 


624,000 


1.25 


1,598,000 


1.75 


22.506.000 





38 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

were all accumulated and confined above that acre. Conventional 
use, however, has resulted in dropping the unit of area, the acre; 
and of time, the year; and although not expressed, these are now 
implicitly contained in the phrase "Duty of Water." 

Qualifying terms are in common use, such as "Net" and "Gross." 
"Net Duty" is the quantity of water measured at the point nearest 
to its entry and spreading out upon the cropped land. It thus con- 
tains the water required for plant growth, together with the spreading 
or application losses and the losses contingent to storage in the soils 
prior to absorption by the roots of plants.' The "Gross Duty" is this 
same quantity of water in lake or flowing stream, reservoir or place of 
storage, together with the conveyance losses and waste over spillways 
incident to its flow through canals or conduits from the first point of 
diversion at its natural source, to its point of entry on to the cropped 
soil. "Net Duty" of water is best adapted to considerations of the 
requirements of accessory water supplies and in comparing the needs 
of different localities. "Gross Duty" is a subject for consideration 
in canal and conduit design and in initial diversion quantities. 

The application of waters to large areas in the quantities tabu- 
lated at "Net Duty of Water" in Table 2, provide adequate moisture 
for their intensive cultivation ; but in estimating the total water 
requirements in any locality, portions of the entire area will not need 
Avater. Contingent to an intensively developing agricultural com- 
munity, the rural and urban dwellings, routes of communication and 
transportation, industries, and improvements, occupy an increasingly 
large portion of the total area. As the small farm holdings become 
greater in number, the land is more vigorously cultivated and the 
production per acre is enhanced ; the farm buildings needed for this 
great activity occupy a larger proportion of the cultivatable area. The 
total value of improvements, the wealth created and the income derived 
from agriculture vastly increases, but the farmed area would tend to 
diminish except for the cultivation of new areas previously unprofitable 
to farm. The inclusion of new areas among the tilled lands, however, is 
limited, for after the entire area is l>rought into use, no additions can 
be made without destroying improvements which themselves are essen- 
tial for the tilling of the soil, and also, there are always some lands 
naturally unfit for cultivation, such as rocky and alkali spots, high 
knolls and stream beds. These will never be irrigated. Further, in 
each season a portion of the total area will remain fallow, other por- 
tions Avill be planted but not watered and irrigation water will not be 
required for either. So, in closely settled irrigated communities, the 
sum total of the unirrigated lands may be a considerable part of the 
total area. The studies made in these investigations, indicate that 
the part of the gross area ultimately requiring agricultural water, is 
from sixty to ninety per cent iii the various sections of the state. 

Of all the waters in use for the various purposes of civilization, that 
employed in agriculture is predominant. In the year 1920, with three 
and one-half millions of people in California and one-quarter of its 
arable lands under irrigation, about one-fourth of all waters that can 
ultimately be made available through storage within the borders of the 
state, were in use for domestic and industrial supply, irrigation, power 
generation and mining. The domestic and industrial use was about four 
per cent of the total, while much of the Avaters used for generating 
electric power and in mining, being on elevated lands, was employed a 
second time at lower levels in irrigating the state's dry soils. 



WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 39 



CHAPTER VI. 



COMPREHENSIVE PLAN FOR ACHIEVING THE MAXIMinVE 
SERVICE FROM THE WATERS OF THE STATE. 

Plans for converting the waters of California to their greatest service 
in this generation and for all posterity, must give precedence among the 
many uses for water, to those purposes which are indispensable to man's 
continued existence. "Water for drinking and household use takes 
priority over that for growing food-stuffs, while water for growing 
food-stuffs is primary to that for industrial purposes. "Were there 
abundant water for all needs, cognizance of its relative importance in 
domestic, agricultural and industrial service, could be disregarded. In 
California, however, where the waters in the streams are replenished by 
rains that largely occur in a few months of the year, and seasons of 
meager or bountiful rainfall succeed each other in all variations of 
sequence, there would be deficiencies of water for present needs during 
every season, were it not for impounding M'orks already constructed. 
Only through the construction of still greater and more elaborate works 
to equalize the erratic stream tlow and to transport waters to localities 
of urgent need, can California continue to enhance its wealth and 
increase the numbers of its people at the prevailing rate which for the 
past decade has exceeded that of all other states of the Union but two.^^' 
The combined increase of population in these two states, however, was 
only one-third that in California. 

A comprehensive plan must primarily insure a full supply of water 
for drinking and household purposes. But since the present needs for 
domestic and industrial water supplies are only a twenty-fifth the 
amount required for irrigation of the agricultural lands now using 
water, the principle constructive features of a plan for obtaining maxi- 
mum use of the state's waters, must revolve about its distribution for 
the greatly preponderant use in agriculture. Further, the magnified 
urban communities of the future must largely encroach upon lands 
now classed as agricultural, for these farm areas comprise all the lands 
that are suitable for residence, except those about the state's seaports. 
Because of their harbors, commerce and strategic locations, the seaports 
will expand over adjacent lands now excluded from the agricultural 
areas on account of being scatteringly settled fringes to population 
centers or on account of being too rough of surface or steep of slope. 
But metropolitan areas in all other parts of the state will undoubtedly 
arise upon the flatter lands classed in this report as agricultural. As 
these are relinquished for city development, the total consumption of 
water in any district for both domestic and irrigation supplies will not 
increase very much, since cities of fairly mature growth use water about 

"'U. S. Census — 1920. Population of Arizona increased 63.5 per cent, Montana 46 
per cent, while California increased its numbers 44 per cent during the preceding 
d' cade. 



40 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

equal to that required for irrigating crops on the same area. Conse- 
quently any comprehensive plan for supplying water to all parts of the 
state in amounts suited to its future needs for urhan and agricultural 
development, will have accomplished both purposes when all the present 
lands, classed as agricultural, are provided with an adequate- allotment 
of water to irrigate their surface, and additional allowances are made 
for the dense urban development that will occur about the state's 
seaports. 

Of other uses for water, though subservient to the primary demands 
of the household and for growing food-stuffs, that of generating hydro- 
electric power to light and heat the homes in rural and urban communi- 
ties, to operate factories, railroads and car lines, to illuminate the 
streets of cities and to"RTis. as well as to pump and deliver water for the 
domestic and agricultural use, undoubtedly ranks close to the employ- 
ment for agricultural purposes. It is through these agencies that 
accessories to raising food-stuffs are supplied, that farm produces are 
prepared for consumption, and the necessities and conveniences of 
civilization are conveyed to all alike, so that a comprehensive plan to 
obtain the maximum use of the state's waters must dispose of these 
waters in such a way that a full measure of hydro-electric energy may 
also be generated. 

The agricultural lands of the state, situated on the lower levels, are 
favorably located to receive the flowing waters of the streams after they 
have exhausted their inherent energy in tumbling down the steep moun- 
tain slopes. Three-fifths of the agricultural area of the state is less than 
five hundred feet in elevation, and seven-eighths of it is less than 
twenty-five hundred feet in elevation, while the mountainous water- 
producing region ascends to heights as great as ten thousand feet above 
the twenty-five hundred foot level. This spacious region, a steep and 
rugged country that spreads over half the state, yields practically all of 
California's waters. These drain into the stream channels and flow 
past the bulk of the lower-situated agricultural lands in their descent 
toward the ocean. Thus, the region that abounds in the sheer declivities 
and swift flowing streams, most essential for the generation of hydro- 
electric energy, lies above seven-eighths of California's agricultural 
lands and above those areas that will be mostly occupied by urban 
development. If the diversions of domestic and agricultural waters 
from the streams are generally confined to points below the twenty -five 
hundred foot contour, the areas most favorable for power development 
one-half the total surface of the state, with its waters nearly all of the 
state's suppl}^, remain intact for the unimpaired generation of electric 
energy and these waters may then be re-used on the lower levels for 
domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Therefore a compre- 
hensive plan to serve the maximum area of agricultural land with irriga- 
tion water, that makes its diversions of water below the twenty-five 
hundred foot elevation and that provides additional waters for the 
growing urban communities about the seaports that are not spreading 
over agricultural lands, is the constructive measure that will enable 
the greatest use to be made of California's water resources, and such a 
plan would give the greatest service to the primary needs of man and 
provide domestic and irrigation waters in their largest amounts, without 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 41 

particularly abridging the use of waters for the industries and the 
generation of electric power. 

While the entire amount of California's waters for an average year 
would submerge the twenty-three million acres of tillable land in this 
state to a depth of three and a quarter feet if evenly spread over and 
confined above them and the necessary application to the soil is but 
two feet in depth annually as a statewide average, still the disparity 
in location of these agricultural lands with respect to the sources of 
abundant water supply, presents insurmountable obstacles to the utiliza- 
tion of a considerable part of these w^aters on the lands that need them 
most urgently. 

In northwestern California lies the area most productive in water 
of all regions in the state, the North Pacific Coast region. From the 
evergreen slopes of its timbered mountains, more than one-third of 
all the state's waters drain off into the ocean, passing on their couree, 
only two per cent of the agricultural lands of the state. This immense 
volume of water, enough to cover the arable lands of the entire state 
to an average depth of one foot ever}^ year, joins the ocean deep without 
opportunity of infusing harvest-maturing moisture into those portions 
of California's soils that are too dry for maximum production without 
accessory supplies. The oceanward slopes of the Coast Range are 
separated by more than one hundred miles from the nearest large body 
of farming land that is deficient in local waters. In attaining heights 
in an unbroken barrier of from four to nine thousand feet, the Coast 
Range IMountains effectively block the transportation of the waters 
from their western slopes to the extensive area of agricultural lands 
lying to the east and south. Only in projects of great magnitude can 
portions of these waters be captured and delivered for use on the lands 
that need them. 

Diagonally across the state from this great waterproducing basin 
of the North Pacific Coast, lies a region in the southeastern corner of 
California, one-fifth the entire area of the state, mountainous for a 
large part, but containing at least four million acres of flat lands of 
which the geography is only partly recorded because of the extreme 
aridity and uninviting aspect of its parched expanse. Some of the flat 
lands that skirt the edges of this moistureless solitude, have been 
fortunate in securing waters for their dry soils. These have responded 
to irrigation, and their great fertility has brought forth bountiful 
harvests to repay the pioneer. There were 546,000 acres of this region 
so irrigated in 1920. However, an area of 2,400,000 acres of the flat 
lands have been listed as agricultural, for water may ultimately be 
obtained for considerable areas in this region. Thus in one comer of 
California, one-third of its water resources are dissipated into the 
ocean with but small possibility of use, while in the opposite comer of 
the state, over six hundred miles distant, considerable areas of poten- 
tially fertile soils await the import of plant-nurturing waters to awaken 
their powers of production. 

Intermediate in geographic position between these extreme regions, 
lies the Great Central Valley containing three-fifths of all the agricul- 
tural lands of the state. The northerly part of this area, the Sacra- 
mento Valley, contains five and one-half million acres of agricultural 
lands and enough water courses through the streams traversing it, to 



42 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

submerge these lands on an average four and one-half feet in annual 
depth ; while its southerly part, the San Joaquin Valley, contains eight 
and one-quarter million acres of arable land, but only enough water 
flows in its stream to cover them a foot and a third in average depth 
if spread evenly over them each year. To the west and south of these 
lands and disposed along the coast from San Francisco to the Mexican 
boundary, is the South Pacific Coast region, which contains a tillable 
area of over three million acres, but its streams on an average, yield 
only water enough to cover these lands a little more than one foot in 
depth annually. Other agricultural lands, about a half million acres in 
the San Francisco Bay Region and four and one-half million acres 
easterly from the Sierra Nevada and the mountain range extending 
southerly from Tehachapi Pass, have water in adjacent streams that 
will cover them annually to less than an average depth of one and a 
quarter feet, excepting those areas that can receive water from the 
Colorado River. Areas that are irrigable from the Colorado River 
may obtain amounts more than double this. To evolve tvorks hy which 
ivatcrs may he transported to overcome this wieven geographic distribu- 
tion of California's ivaters, so that, as 7iearly as possible, all these 
diversely situated bodies of agricultural lands may be served with their 
needed ivaters at the least expense, is the mai^i problem to be solved in 
unfolding the comprehensive plan. 

However, other most important coiLsiderations intervene in pre- 
paring plans. In addition to the seventy-three milljon acre-feet of 
California's waters being located in geographic positions adverse for 
use on much of the agricultural lands, these waters course down their 
stream channels in capriciously erratic rates of flow and three-fourths 
of them reach the lower levels at a season of the year during which 
they are of little use for irrigation, because the same storms that pre- 
cipitate the run-off on the mountain collecting areas, usually wet the 
lower agricultural lands as well. Thus works must be provided to 
detain large volumes of flood waters on their catchment areas and hold 
them in reserve for supplementing the diminishing summer flow of the 
streams at the time needed for irrigation. In holding waters in storage 
for later use, evaporation is continually active on their surfaces and the 
stored vohunes are constantly depleted through loss to the atmosphere. 
It is revealed by these investigations that, even with unlimited storage 
capacity available on every stream, not more than eighty per cent of 
the state's waters can be brought into use as uniform floAv; that, with 
maximum equalization of stream flow, one-fifth of all the waters would 
be lost by evaporation while being detained in reservoirs until the 
time arrives for their use. Thus the four great basins deficient in 
waters for their agricultural lands, the San Joaquin Valley, the South 
Pacific Coast Basin, and the regions of San Francisco Bay and of the 
Great Basin drainage, within w^hose confines lie two-thirds of all the 
agricultural lands of the state, would have their already inadequate 
waters, if developed in their entirety, reduced one-fifth in volume by 
losses of evaporation. 

To further complicate the problem, the waters of some streams, in 
their flow being less erratic, can be more easily equalized to uniform 
discharge than in others. To minimize the cost of the works, those 
streams must be most heavily drawn upon for water that require the 
least storage capacity to equalize their flow and upon whose drainage 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 43 

areas cheap reservoir sites may l)e found. Tlie capacities of storage 
re(iiiired to yield the maximuin amount of uniform flow for irrigation 
use varies widely on the different streams. On the streams of least 
requirements, the maximum development may be obtained with a 
storage capacity whose volume is less than the annual yield of uniform 
flow, while on the streams of greatest requirements, a storage capacity 
fifteen times as large as the annual equalized flow is necessary to obtain 
the maximum yield. In general, the greatest storage requirements are 
on streams in the regions of least water production, so that the most 
effective use of the state's Avaters may be accomplished only through 
a superlatively scientific plan. 

That the highest attainments of science could be introduced in the 
preparation of a comprehensive plan, the investigations have assembled 
masses of data and completed intricate analyses concerning the location, 
the quantities and the variability of occurrence of the waters of the 
state. This digest of information has been all-inclusive, and is pre- 
sented in full in Appendix "A" to this report. It is summarized in 
Table 1, "Water Resources of California." This audit of California's 
waters results in the first complete inventory of the waters of an entire 
state that has ever been assembled. 

In addition, data on twelve hundred and seventy reservoir sites have 
been examined and preliminary estimates of the reservoir capacity and 
of the water yield were made on nearly eight hundred of these. The 
field parties of the department made reconnoissance surveys of one 
hundred and seA^enty-six reservoir sites and searched three thousand 
five hundred miles of stream bed for other possible locations. Further, 
that the amounts of water needed for irrigated agriculture might be 
ascertained, data were gathered on the quantities of water used on over 
two million acres of irrigated lands in the state, or more than half the 
total area irrigated in 1920. These records of water use extend over 
an average of four years. They are presented in Appendix "B" to 
this report. 

An analysis of all this data discloses that four-fiftlis of all the agri- 
cultural lands of the state may be watered. Additional investigation 
would probabh' result in finding means of irrigating still larger areas, 
but the water would be very costly. The 18,000,000 acres which it is 
found possible to water is an expanse greater than the entire area in 
all the western states irrigated in 1919. and three times as large as the 
area under water in California in the same year. 

To accomplish the irrigation of this large area will require the con- 
struction of reservoirs having an aggregate capacity of 50,000,000 acre 
feet, and many miles of large canals to transport water from its source 
to the regions of need for it. Because of the inclusion of the maximum 
area in the estimates of cost, the average price per acre for accomplish- 
ing the irrigation of the 18,000,000 acres is greater than most projects 
that are now under construction, but additional areas to those watered 
at the present time can only be irrigated at greater costs, for they are 
the residual lands as the more favorable areas for constructive enter- 
prises are selected. 

Quoting from the 1919 report to the Smithsonian Institution on irri- 
gation in the western states, "The great bulk of the land west of the 
hundredth meridian which is not too high, cold, or rocky for agricul- 
ture, is arid. Of this arid portion, over 15,000,000 acres have been 



44 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

placed under irrigation by private or public enterprise, and in carry- 
ing out this work, of course, the most favorable opportunities for such 
irrigation have been developed. It will still be possible to add many 
million acres to the irrigated area and perhaps to double the area now 
irrigated, but this must generally be done at a high cost, as the cheap 
opportunities have been long since exhausted. There are remaining, 
however, many areas which can be irrigated within feasible costs aad 
will develop values far in excess of the necessary expenditures." These 
investigations show that it is possible to complete the irrigation of 
18,000,000 acres in California alone. This would add 12,000,000 acres 
to the area under water in the western United States. 

In preparing a general plan for this attainment, the complexly 
involved rights and claims to I'iglits for the use of water in this state 
were not considered, but rather a i)lan was devised which comprehends 
the state as a virgin territory with its waters and soils unsegregated 
in private ownership. However, inclusion was made of all constructed 
works, so that the plan does not coutain proposals for discarding monu- 
ments of attainment of this or preceding generations. The plan would 
use all existant reservoirs, main canals and distribution ditches. Waters 
from new sources would be turned into the systems now in use on their 
arrival in that locality. 

In the estimates of cost, entries were included for expenditures made 
in building all existing works except distribution canals, so that the 
total cost estimated is for a complete, system of storage works and main 
canals giving uniform service to all lands irrespective of their present 
stage of development. It was found to be impossible in a general layout 
to separate the service and costs between areas now under water and 
those yet to be irrigated, because large areas, now classed as irrigated 
lands, have supplies that are deficient during the latter part of summer 
and many projects are short of water during the entire season in 
years of subnormal stream flow. To make this segregation would require 
a detail design of the plan in each locality, a work of great magnitude 
for so large an area as 18,000,000 acras. Therefore the cost estimates 
here given are the average cost per acre to develop a first-class water 
supply for all irrigable lands, whether they are now watered or not. 
They include all costs of construction and of rights of way, for storing 
waters and transporting them into the regions of use, but do not include 
the cost of constructing distributing canals or of operating the works, 
or the costs of acquiring water-rights, of litigation over claims to water- 
rights, or of damage suits. Neither have credit allowances for power 
that might be developed at or in the vicinity of the many dams for 
storing water been deducted in the cost estimates. 

The average cost of storage worlcs necessary to develop a full supply 
for the entire 18,000,000 acres, through all seasons without shortage, 
is twenty-five dollars per acre-foot of water developed, while the cost 
to the laud for adequate amounts would be forty-five dollars per acre. 
The cost of canals with appurtenant structures to transport this water 
to the regions of use would average thirty-five dollars per acre. The 
total average cost per acre to deliver a first-class supply to the region 
of use is, therefore, eighty dollars. These costs vary greatly in the 
different localities. 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 45 

To effect the watering of so large an area at these costs, it is neces- 
sary over the bulk of California's lands to adopt a coordinated scheme 
of development and distribution of water, that comprise very large 
areas in interrelated works. To store the waters at the cheapest loca- 
tions of abundant supply and transport them long distances to the 
localities of use requires inter-service works of great dimensions. Areas 
greater than are now under irrigation may be watered without coordi- 
nated development and distribution, but a limit is being approached 
whereby united endeavors almost statewide in extent will be necessary 
to secure greater service from the state's waters at reasonable costs. 

The plan herein set forth requires complete coordination of the dis- 
tribution of water over large areas, as well as in the construction of the 
works. This is necessary in order to utilize the inexpensive storage 
sites to the greatest advantage. Dam sites of low cost often have lim- 
ited catchment areas draining into their reservoirs that do not yield 
enough water to warrant the construction of high dams when the 
draft on them is uniform. But under the coordinated scheme of oper- 
ation of the comprehensive plan, these dams may be erected to their 
full height and the cheap storage capacity thus created, utilized to the 
same advantages as the capacities behind other more expensive dams. 

To secure this advantage requires that the draft on all reservoirs be 
pooled so that in apportioning the total draft between the reservoirs 
in each season, the largest amounts may be taken from the reservoirs 
that are filling the quickest. In this way, the draft may be appor- 
tioned to small reservoirs situated on large drainage areas so as to 
empty them more than once a season and thus use excess water that 
otherwise would flow over their spillways; similarly, reservoirs with 
watersheds of small yield may be left to fill with accumulating waters 
during the seasons of plenteous run-off and ma}' be drawn on only dur- 
ing the drier seasons. 

In so apportioning the draft, exactly the same results are attained 
in irrigating the land as by the customs in present use whereby the 
waters from each reservoir become attached to a particular tract of land 
and the reservoir is drawn on regularly each year at its maximum rate 
of yield. Under this prevailing system of individual reservoir-draft it 
would be useless to build dams to greater heights than is required to 
equalize the flow of their tributary drainage area for a uniform draft, 
because no greater yield would be obtained with the higher dams. 
But when their waters are utilized for over year storage only, for hold- 
ing over the surplus of wet seasons to dispense it for use in the dry 
ones that may come several years later, these cheap reservoirs answer 
just as well as the more expensive ones with larger drainage areas. In 
either case the same amount of water must be held in storage some- 
where for the same length of time, but a great advantage in cost is 
gained over the customary system of individual reservoir-draft, by 
the selection of the cheapest sites for storing this water under the sys- 
tem of pooled draft. The scheme of pooled draft of the comprehensive 
plan, allots the total draft to the various reservoirs so that the greatest 
efficiency is attained in operating the works. To obtain equal yield 
to that of the customary system of individual draft on reservoirs, the 
coordinated scheme of pooling the draft contained in the comprehensive 
plan, would result in an average construction cost of storage works only 
slight!}' more than half that of the individual reservoir-draft system. 



46 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

The preliminary comprehensive plan outlined in this report will 
accomplish the irrigation of the maximum area of the state's agricul- 
tural lands at the least cost, as well as provide waters for the primary 
use of domestic supply and leave the great mountainous area above the 
twenty-five hundred foot contour free for the generation of hydro-elec- 
tric energy, except for the irrigation of the beautiful mountain valleys, 
that dot these regions and the table lands in northeastern California. 
Their total area, however, is only one-eighth of all the tillable soil. On 
the other hand, much power can be generated below the twent^'-five 
hundred foot level and above the irrigation diversions, especially at the 
high dams of many of the storage reservoirs. This plan, then, outlines 
a scheme that will obtain the maximum service from the waters of the 
state and provide for all users in order of their importance to man's 
continued existence. 

In this plan the source of supply has been selected as close to the 
needy land as possible, the least expensive storage sites have been 
selected, and the canals have been routed over the least obstructed paths 
and a scherae of coordinated use of reservoirs has been included that 
makes it possible to attain the most efficient service in their operation. 
The main features of the plan are delineated on the map of California 
Plate IV, "Preliminary Comprehensive Plan for Maximum Develop- 
ment of California's Water Resources." 

Because of the physical limits which the mountain ranges and great 
distances in California place on the transportation of water, bounds 
are placed on the areas that naturally group together to their mutual 
advantage quite like the bounds of the great drainage basins of the 
state. The plan will therefore be described by ma.jor drainage groups. 

SAN FRANCISCO BAY DRAINAGE. 

Half the waters of the state in their natural course drain into San 
Francisco Bay. From the Pit River, which rises in the extreme north- 
east corner of the state, to the Kern, three-fourths the length of the 
state towards its southern extremity, these waters gather into the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin rivers to join with smaller streams that empty 
directly into San Francisco Bay, in issuing through the Golden Gate 
into the Pacific Ocean. Within these drainage basins are 14,800,000 
acres of lands suitable for agriculture. The comprehensive plan pro- 
vides for irrigating all but two and one-half per cent of this entire area. 
Only 4,260,000 acres are now irrigated in these regions. 

Ninety-five per cent of the 14,800.000 arable acres in these basins lies 
in one large continuous body of land on the floor and skirting the edges 
of the Great Central Valley. Sloping from elevations of five hundred 
feet above sea-level at the extreme northerly and southerly ends, these 
lands are barely higher than the sea in the central parts. With an 
extreme length of five hundred miles, the economic conveyance of the 
surplus waters of the north half of this valley to the southerly areas 
that are lacking in water, demands that the plan be adapted to the nat- 
ural topographic and hydrographic features of the area. 

Since seven-eighths of all the waters of these regions drain off the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains, there is ample for spreading on the easterly 
side of the valley. In the Sacramento Valley, the east side lands would 
be served almost entirely by gravity diversions from adjacent streams 



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WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. -47 

and the main canals would be short, but southerly from the American 
River, a series of five long canals would be necessary in order to com- 
pletely irrigate the areas eastward from the valley trough. These 
canals generally would be on the valley floor and serve to transfer 
Avaters southerly as they cross the distributing canals now in use. Byni 
this means all of the east side of the San Joaquin Valley may be servedj 
by gravit3^ 

The westerly side of the Great Central Valley is deficient in local 
waters, particularly in the San Joaquin where their average annual 
amount is only 250,000 acre-feet. Their full amount, however, would 
be distributed by gravity to the higher lands on the edge of the valley 
floor. In the Sacramento A'alley, three canals, each some sixty miles in 
length, would divert from the main channel of the Sacramento River 
and spread water to the south and west, but a very considerable area 
would be served by pumping diversions with comparatively short main 
canals leading to adjacent lands. jMany of these are already con- 
structed. Some areas to the w^est of the gravity canals would also be 
served by pumping from these mains. The pumping lifts would gen- 
erally be less than fifty feet. 

The west side of the San Joaquin Valley would be served by one 
grand canal two hundred miles long. This would follow the flat lands 
of smooth surface and have nine pumping plants at intervals along 
its course to raise the water against the natural grade of the valley 
floor. The greatest lift of the water flowing in this canal to its extreme 
southern end, would be 400 feet. There would be 650,000 acres served 
out of the grand canal by gravity, but the other 1,380,000 acres that 
could take their supply from this canal, require that the water be lifted 
by pumping for distribution over the land surface. The total pump- 
ing lift would be high for most of these lands. About 600,000 acres 
only would have a total pumping lift of less than three hundred feet, 
1,100,000 acres between three and six hundred feet, and 350,000 acres 
a lift of more than six hundred feet if they are to be watered. 

As great as these pumping lifts would be, this plan of distributing 
the water is much less costly than one of gravity conveyance. To 
import water to this area by gravity, would require a canal of large 
dimensions, tortuously following a grade contour on steep mountain 
hillsides and winding in and out around every rocky spur and into each 
receding ravine. The total length attained in its devious route would 
double or treble the air line distance of five hundred miles between the 
source of supply in the Sacramento River and the extreme southerly 
lands to be watered. The cost of constructing crossings for a gravity 
canal at the innumerable drainage channels that it would intercept, 
alone would probabl,y exceed the total cost of all the works of the com- 
prehensive plan. 

In the comprehensive plan, the excess waters of the Sacramento 
drainage basin would be collected in the main river channels and, by 
means of a dam across Carquinez Straits below the mouth of both 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, this water would be diverted 
into the lower San Joaquin River from which the grand canal would 
take its water. Thus the cost of conduit would be obviated for the full 
length of the Sacramento Valley. The grand canal would follow the 
smooth valley floor and its excavation would be the cheapest type of 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. -47 

and the main canals would be short, but southerly from the American 
River, a series of five long canals would be necessary in order to com- 
pletely irrigate the areas eastward from the valley trough. These 
canals generally would be on the valley floor and serve to transfer 
waters southerly as the}" cross the distributing canals now in use. By]! 
this means all of the east side of the San Joaquin Valley may be servedj 
by gravity. 

The westerly side of the Great Central Valley is deficient in local 
waters, particularly in the San Joaquin where their average annual 
amount is only 250,000 acre-feet. Their full amount, however, would 
be distributed by gravity to the higher lands on the edge of the valley 
floor. In the Sacramento Valley, three canals, each some sixty miles in 
length, would divert from the main channel of the Sacramento River 
and spread water to the south and west, but a very considerable area 
would be served by pumping diversions with comparatively short main 
canals leading to adjacent lands. Many of these are already con- 
structed. Some areas to the west of the gravity canals would also be 
served by pumping from these mains. The pumping lifts would gen- 
erally be less than fifty feet. 

The west side of the San Joaquin Valley would be served by one 
grand canal two hundred miles long. This would follow the flat lands 
of smooth surface and have nine pumping plants at intervals along 
its course to raise the water against the natural grade of the valley 
floor. The greatest lift of the water flowing in this canal to its extreme 
southern end, would be 400 feet. There would be 650,000 acres served 
out of the grand canal by gravity, but the other 1,380,000 acres that 
could take their supply from this canal, require that the water be lifted 
by pumping for distribution over the land surface. The total pump- 
ing lift would be high for most of these lands. About 600,000 acres 
only would have a total pumping lift of less than three hundred feet, 
1,100,000 acres between three and six hundred feet, and 350,000 acres 
a lift of more than six hundred feet if they are to be watered. 

As great as these pumping lifts would be, this plan of distributing 
the water is much less costly than one of gravity conveyance. To 
•' import water to this area by gravity, would recjuire a canal of large 
dimensions, tortuously following a grade contour on steep mountain 
hillsides and winding in and out around every rocky spur and into each 
receding ravine. The total length attained in its devious route would 
double or treble the air line distance of five hundred miles between the 
source of supply in the Sacramento River and the extreme southerly 
lands to be watered. The cost of constructing crossings for a gravity 
canal at the innumerable drainage channels that it would intercept, 
alone would probabl}' exceed the total cost of all the works of the com- 
prehensive plan. 

In the comprehensive plan, the excess waters of the Sacramento 
drainage basin would be collected in the main river channels and, by 
means of a dam across Carquinez Straits below the mouth of both 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, this water would be diverted 
into the lower San Joaquin River from which the grand canal would 
take its water. Thus the cost of conduit would be obviated for the full 
length of the Sacramento Valley. The grand canal would follow the 
smooth vallej' floor and its excavation would be the cheapest type of 



48 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

earth work. It is so designed that by utilizing the storage capacity of 
Tulare Lake, the pumping plants along its course may operate eleven 
months in the year, resulting in a considerable reduction in size of 
canal and of pumps. The waters pumped during the winter months 
would be stored in Tulare Lake for use the following summer. No 
flood menace would be involved in filling the Lake during the winter 
with the comprehensive plan in operation, for the complete develop- 
ment of both the Kings and Kern rivers would absorb in their reser- 
voirs, the flood flows that occasionally fill this lake. 

In general, there is opportunity to generate ample electricity for 
the pumping required in the comprehensive plan, at the dams of 
storage reservoirs distant less than one hundred miles from the pump- 
ing stations. The total cost of these generating works would be very 
much less than the difference in cost between the canals and pumping 
plants of the comprehensive plan, and any gravity system that might 
be devised. 

The dam across Carquinez Straits would have many other advantages 
in addition to diverting the Sacramento waters into the lower San 
Joaquin River. During seasons of small stream flow, there is a ten- 
dency for the salt water of San Francisco Bay to work up into the 
network of channels that divide the rich delta lands at the mouth of the 
two rivers, into many islands. The dam below the mouth of these two 
rivers would prevent any damage to these fertile soils that might result 
from such occurences. Further, this dam would maintain Suisun Bay 
in fresh water and make it possible to profitably reclaim all the tidal 
flats along its margin, and bring unlimited quantities of fresh water to 
the manufacturing centers arising along the bay shore from Benicia 
and Port Costa easterly to Antioch. It would provide a low level 
crossing for railroads and highways whose traffic now crosses Carquinez 
Straits on ferries. By constructing locks of adequate dimensions, this 
barrier would offer no obstruction to navigation. It can be designed 
to afford ample water way for floods of the Sacramento and San Joa- 
quin rivers so that flood heights on the lower river will not be increased 
over those of the past. 

The practicability of locating and constructing such a dam below 
the mouth of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, has been investi- 
gated as far as could be without exploration borings at the various 
possible sites for its location. It was concluded that a dam in this 
vicinity is feasible but that extended studies of all possible sites should 
be pursued before a selection is made. 

This dam would be of added value in creating a large fresh water 
reservoir in Suisun Bay and the delta regions that would have a stor- 
age capacity of 500,000 acre feet between the present levels of high and 
low tide. Supplies of fresh water might be pumped from here for 
consumption, after filtration, in the metropolitan areas of San Fran- 
cisco Bay, as well as for agricultural use to supplement the local sup- 
plies of the bay region. Thus water might be brought close into the 
bay region without cost of conduit from the distant sources. These 
investigations show that waters of the Trinity River and the three 
forks of the Eel River in the North Pacific Coast region, might be 
diverted into the Sacramento River drainage through tunnels under 
the Coast Range Mountains, not prohibitive in expense if their waters 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 49 

are developed in large quantities. With these diversions effected, 
there would be plenty of water, in the Great Central A^alley drainage 
area, to supply all its future needs as well as the requirements for all 
purposes about the San Francisco Bay region. 

The diversion for agricultural use from Suisun Bay would be by a 
canal leading southward through Tgnacio Valley. The water would 
be elevated in successive lifts into the Livermore Valley. A pumping 
head of slightly more than four hundred feet would be necessary to 
lift the water into Livermore Valley and additional pumping would 
be required to distribute the water over all of its arable lands. A 
tunnel through the hills separating Livermore Valley from San Fran- 
cisco Bay would take this water into the Santa Clara Valley at an eleva- 
tion sufficiently high to permit gravity distribution to practically all 
lands of this valley not irrigable from the waters of local streams. 

The agricultural areas of the bay region to the north, would be 
irrigated from diversions from the Eel and Russian rivers. "Water 
would be carried in a gravity canal almost one hundred miles in 
length into the Sonoma and Napa valleys to supplement their local 
supplies. 

Several hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands within the 
Sacramento drainage area, are isolated from the main body of its 
lands by the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The Pit River, in the north- 
eastern corner of the state, drains part of a great plateau region to the 
east of the Sierra Nevadas on the edge of the Great Basin of North 
America, and cuts through these mountains for a distance of sixty 
miles in a deep rock gorge to .ioin the waters of the Sacramento River 
before they emerge into the Great Central Valley. The agricultural 
areas of the Pit River lie in several parcels along its upper reaches 
and vary in elevation from 3000 to 5000 feet above sea-level. The 
comprehensive plan provides for irrigating 263,300 acres of these 
areas by gravity diversions from the Pit River or its tributaries. 
Seventeen reser%'oirs of varying capacity will be required to equalize 
the stream flow for these diversions. 

PACIFIC COAST DRAINAGE BASINS— SAN FRANCISCO TO SANTA 

BARBARA CHANNEL. 

Comprised within five larger valleys and several smaller ones, 890,000 
acres of tillable lands lie along the Pacific Coast between San Francisco 
Bay and Santa Barbara Channel. Of these 135,000 acres are under 
irrigation at the present time. The water supply in the streams tra- 
versing these valleys is enough to cover their agricultural lands to a 
depth of two feet in an averace year, but the flow is so flashy that with 
unlimited storage, only two-thirds of their waters could be suitably 
equalized for irrigation use. Nevertheless, three-fifths of the total area 
can be irrigated under the comprehensive plan. In this plan the waters 
would be diverted from the streams in each valley and carried to the 
lands in gravity canals. The costly tunnels through the mountainous 
regions separating these valleys largely prohibit the importation of any 
small surplus waters that may occur in adjacent regions, so that the 
agricultural lands of each valley would be largely irrigated by inde- 
pendent systems. 



50 WATER RESOURCES OP CALIFORNIA. 

PACIFIC COAST DRAINAGE BASINS— SANTA BARBARA CHANNEL TO 

MEXICAN BORDER. 

Southward from Santa Barbara Channel skirting the coast and on 
the Pacific slope of the Southern California mountains, lie 2,300,000 
acres of fertile soils. These lie in the valleys of streams draining into 
the Pacific Ocean that are less separated by mountains than the valleys 
northward from the Santa Barbara Channel and form an almost con- 
tinuous body of agricultural land. Although several large streams 
traverse portions of this area, the total waters are hardly sufficient to 
cover the arable lands to half a foot in depth in the average year. Their 
flow is erratic and would require much storage capacity for their com- 
plete development for irrigation use. Reservoir sites are few in number 
and dams expensive. However, it is found that the water supply can 
be perfected on a large part of the 759,000 acres now irrigated and 
perhaps 250,000 additional acres be brought under water. 

Under the comprehensive plan, surface reservoirs would be con- 
structed and largely used for the temporary detention of the waters in 
the streams that they might be released in a more or less uniform flow 
for spreading over gravel beds. Excepting in the southern areas of this 
region, there are coarse alluvial fills that have a large water-holding 
capacity and easily yield their contained waters to wells sunk into their 
depths. Waters spread on the gravel beds of these valley fills would be 
absorbed to join the subterranean waters of these basins. Severed from 
contact wdth the atmosphere, these waters would be held in storage in 
the porous substrata without loss by evaporation and would be available 
as needed through pumping from wells. By combining surface and 
underground storage in a coordinated plan, the maximum service will 
be attained from these waters, even a greater service than could be 
obtained from storage in surface reservoirs, for with complete develop- 
ment by surface storage, about one-third of all the water would be lost 
by evaporation. Without some surface storage, however, to partially 
equalize the flow, large volumes of flood water would rush off into the 
ocean too quickly for absorption by the gravels in the stream beds or 
diversion to artificial spreading grounds. The artificial spreading of 
water is being practiced with success in some of the basins by diverting 
the clear waters that follow the first turbid flood flows. These spreading 
operations can be much extended by the use of surface storage works to 
partially equalize the flood flows and the employment of additional 
spreading areas. 

These investigations have mapped the location of the absorptive 
basins in this territory and collected much data on the surface and 
underground waters. ^^' Considerable amounts of water spread on the 
surface of these basins in irrigation, are known to sink to join the 
ground waters and increase the available supply for other areas. The 
total quantity of water in this region is so limited, however, that there 
cannot be any great increase in the areas watered unless means are 
discovered of maturing crops with smaller applications of water than 
are now customary. It is possible as water increases in value, that much 
may be accomplished in reducing losses by evaporation while applying 
the waters to the soils but at greater expense than is justifiable at the 
present time. 

"'See Appendix "C" to this report, Bulletin No. 7, State Department of Public 
Works, for maps of absorptive areas and underground water contours. 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 51 

GREAT BASIN DRAIN AGE— SOUTH OF LAKE TAHOE. 

More than 3,000,000 acres of excellent agricultural lands lie in the 
south half of the state eastward from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and 
the range extending southerly from Tehachapi Pass. These are situated 
in several parcels varying in elevation from below sea-level to 5000 feet 
or more above. The local waters are small in amount, for of all the 
waters collected by the mountains that separate these areas from the 
rest of the state, only ten per cent run off their easterly slopes. But a 
small part of the entire area could be irrigated if it were not for the 
Colorado River bringing waters from drainage areas outside the state to 
within reach of 939,000 acres of these lands in the extreme southeastern 
corner of the state. There are now 500,000 acres irrigated from the 
natural flow of the Colorado River in this region, but the area can be 
almost doubled by the construction of storage works for saving over 
flood waters. These Avaters would be diverted in the plan, by gravity 
canals, that serve the greatest possible area. 

The local streams in the northerly part of this region are much more 
productive than in the south. The adjacent agricultural lands are at 
elevations greater than 5000 feet. The comprehensive plan would carry 
most of these waters southerly in a canal two hundred and eighty miles 
long to areas 4000 feet or less in elevation. The waters of local streams 
are sufficient to irrigate 430,000 acres, and in all, 1,369,000 acres can be 
irrigated in these regions. 

GREAT BASIN DRAI NAGE— NORTH OF LAKE TAHOE, 

Eastward from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and northward from 
Lake Tahoe, there are 667,000 acres of tillable lands situated in moun- 
tain valleys and on the plateau region of northeastern California that 
drain easterly toward the Great Basin of North America. These vary 
from 4000 feet to 5000 feet or more in elevation and occur in parcels 
of many sizes. There are now 82,500 acres under irrigation in this 
region and the comprehensive plan would increase this area by 48,000 
additional acres. Storage reservoirs would regulate the stream flow, 
and the diversions would generally be near the lands to be watered. 
Short gravity canals would lead the water to the regions of use. 

NORTH PACIFIC COAST DRAINAGE. 

About half of the agricultural areas of the Pacific Coast drainage 
lie adjacent to Mount Shasta on the northern and western sides. 
Situated at elevations of from 2o00 to 4000 feet, these lands would take 
their waters from adjacent streams, principally the Klamath or its 
tributaries, and convey them by gravity to the regions of use. The 
other arable lands of the Pacific Coast drainage basins lie in lower 
levels. Mostly less than 500 feet above the sea, these lands lie in the 
valleys or on the detrital flats along the lower reaches of the streams. 
Gravity conveyance of the waters requires one canal over seventy 
miles in length and two more than twenty miles long. In all 699,200 
acres can be irrigated under the comprehensive plan. Only 87,300 
acres are now served with water out of a total area of 786,000 acres of 
agricultural lands in this region. 



52 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 



CHAPTER VII. 



SETTLEMENT. 

The four millions of people within the confines of California in 
nineteen hundred and twenty-three markedly distinguish this state 
from the wild and uninhabited mountains, the unsettled valleys and 
vacant plains of one hundred year.s ago. Transfigured through years 
of toil, the state's lands are now of immense wealth and the source of 
a great income in foodstuffs and minerals, while in the cities and towns 
are a multitude of industries that enhance the value of the natural 
products. Each succeeding generation contributes to these accumu- 
lated works that transform the fruits of the valley soils and the min- 
erals and waters of the mountains into means of sustaining greater 
numbers of people in prosperity and contentment. But the value of 
these resources and the value of these works is contingent upon their 
service to people. Neither fertile soil, crop-maturing waters or irriga- 
tion and hydro-electric structures; nor harbors, railroads, or industrial 
centers disclose their intrinsic value or seethe with industry without 
man 's vitalizing energy : rather, they are lifeless encumbrances on wide- 
flung landscapes unless experiencing human exploitation. So, without 
man to animate and guide them, great works constructed for convert- 
ing the resources of the state into life-sustaining and comfort-giving 
commodities, neither increase its wealth nor add to the contentment 
of its inhabitants. 

Projects for transforming the immense potential wealth of the 
state's waters into food or into light and warmth, must then grow in 
size and capacity of output in consonance with the augumenting num- 
bers of people waiting to put their product into use, or those industrial 
structures, inanimate and without volition, will weather in the elements, 
and, through nonuse, will deteriorate to early decay before oppor- 
tunity of service arrives. Enterprises that are carriers of water for 
domestic and industrial purposes or those which are to distribute its 
tireless energy in electric current to population centers and rural 
communities, are readily designed in size to accommodate themselves 
to growing communities, and select without difficulty, small numbers 
of employees to operate the works under the direction of trained and 
skilled superintendents. 

However, this not so with systems for carrying the waters of the 
streams to the agricultural lands that these may produce to their full 
capacity. On these systems, the users of the w^ater are so intimately 
dependent upon the supply, their successes and failures are so wrapped 
up in the cost of the waters and excellence of service, that they are as 
workers in the larger enterprise of developing water for the land in 
order that it may produce irrigated crops, rather than as consumers 
of water furnished by the distribution system. The works, the dams, 
the canals and the distribution ditches are but part of a system for 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 53 

increasing the productivity of the soil and until this soil produces 
with greater abundance, the water impounding and distributing works 
are of no service to the people. For these reasons, private enterprises, 
distributing water for agricultural use and selling it as a commodity, 
have been supplanted in irrigation development, by mutual companies, 
district organizations or by the governing political subdivision.^^' In no 
other way have the interests of constructors of the works and users of 
the water become sufficiently coordinated that success could be attained 
in the enterprise as a whole. 

There are now perhaps, a million or more acres^^^ in California, fertile 
enough, and with water at hand, but which are failing to produce 
adequately to pay for all the costs including improvements on the land. 
Much of this is in large holdings and in new districts that have recently 
been brought under irrigation and, although it will undoubtedly be 
closely settled and produce to capacity within a few years, at present 
these lands are lacking in numbers of tillers of the soil to respond to 
the propitious agricultural environment of this state. At the same 
time, while these vast areas are but partially productive, eager workers 
and potential farm owners, anxious to prove their worth, but without 
money to make a start; skilled university-trained agriculturalists, 
capable of directing agricultural effort and anxious to exercise their 
training and accumulated knowledge, are about us in numbers ample to 
people and intensively farm these million or more acres and many 
more besides, if provision were made for their occupying the land. 

It is generally estimated that a settler, in addition to being an experi- 
enced farmer, should have at least from two to five thousand dollars 
capital to make the start under existing conditions with reasonable 
expectancy of ultimate success ; the success so necessary for maintain- 
ing the credit of irrigation enterprises. This ready money is required 
to level the land, to build a house, a barn, fences; to purchase a plow 
and harrow, a mower, rake and seed; to procure a horse, and cow, as 
well as to plant the first crop and sustain the settler until the first 
harvest is sold. Two thousand to five thousand dollars, often the sav- 
ings of a life-time, is not possessed by a large number of people experi- 
enced in farming, and who are desirous of undertaking the intensive 
cultivation of an irrigated farm. These requirements so limit the 
number of prospective occupants for California's agricultural lands 
that the rate of settlement '-^^ on the great irrigation projects already 
constructed is not as rapid as might be desired. In order to enlarge the 
number of people who may become settlers by reducing the initial cash 
outlay required, provisions are being made by some colonization enter- 
prises, through which land may be purchased with small payments that 
extend over longer periods of time than have heretofore been granted. 

Although the million or more acres of land in California now failing 
to put its water supply to use represents a partially idle value in land 
and works of perhaps $200,000,000, the future is more concerned with 

^In 1920, less than 10 per cent of the Irrigated area of the whole United States was 
served by commercial enterprises, U. S. Census Report. 

=U. S. Census Report states that there were 1,675,426 acres which were not irrigated 
in 1920 but which the works were capable of irrigating. (Some of this is probably 
land that never will be irrigated.) 

<^'U. S. Census, 1920, reports 533,981 acres of irrigated land available for settlement 
by owners' statements. The Real Instate Commissioner of California, after a canvass 
of the state, estimates that there are now 950,000 acres available for settlement of 
which 80 per cent is under irrigation. 



54 WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 

increasing the rate of settlement than the present. The lands that are 
yet to receive irrigation waters are lands that have been left after the 
more easily developed projects have been completed, and the cost of 
water for them will be at an enhanced rate per acre over that which has 
prevailed in the past. These residual lands are equally fertile, but are 
usually situated more distant from the source of supply. Some are 
tracts more uneven of surface and so require eleborate systems of 
canals to carry the waters to the place of pouring out upon the soil. 
Others have to acquire water rights before a supply may be obtained, 
and all of them will have to construct storage works to hold over win- 
ter flood-waters for summer use and the run-off of wet seasons for times 
of drouth. The cost of these projects will be large in comparison with 
the ones undertaken in the beginning of irrigated agriculture when 
projects were small and the works simple. 

Future enterprises also must organize in increasingly large units, 
for there will be many more problems presented for solution than here- 
tofore, and these must be surmounted in order to consummate ulti- 
mate success. Practically all the summer flow of California's streams is 
now diverted for irrigation use and the lands which can be watered by 
constructing short canals have been put under irrigation ; but only one- 
quarter of the state's lands that need accessory moisture for greatest 
productivity can be watered by projects already constructed. Even 
now, huge combinations of hundreds of thousands of acres have been 
found necessary that lands situated remote from stream channels or 
source of supply may be improved. By building many miles of canals 
and huge reservoirs to augment the summer flow with saved-over flood 
waters from winter, these projects are preparing to carry water to the 
lands that, through intensive farming, they may be made to yield har- 
vests commensurate with the favorable climate and fertile soils of Cal- 
ifornia. The united eft'orts of whole communities is proving to be nec- 
essary to bring water to the needy lands which would otherwise remain 
dry and unproductive or whose yield would only be realized during 
seasons of copious rains. So that to bring water to the land, large 
projects with their immense construction programs are proving neces- 
sary even at this time, and their size and complication will grow with 
the future. 

The successful culmination of extensive and costl.y enterprises not 
alone necessitates that sound plans be adopted for the construction of 
the works, not alone that they may be erected in an efficient man- 
ner, not alone that they bring water to fertile soil at the time and 
in the quantity needed, but also that the land be quickly occupied 
by the large number of tillers of the soil, which irrigated agriculture 
demands to nurture and harvest the increased yield. The fruition of 
effort, the repayment of borrowed capital in interest and principal, and 
the production of wealth to the community involve thousands of oper- 
ators in these large enterprises, each farming from twenty to forty 
acres of irrigated lands. The running of the waters through the con- 
stracted ditches or even on to the plowed fields does not make the land 
produce. The yielding of harvests is just as necessary for the success- 
ful project as to secure adequate sums of borrowed money with which 
to build the works. The very essence of utility of these works is the 
interested and tireless efforts of the farm operators that strive with 



WATER RESOURCES OF CALIFORNIA. 55 

and overcome the man}' annoyances incident to maturing crops on the 
land. 

But are there sufficient numbers of people possessing the experience 
and skill, the capital and desire, to animate these works and quickly 
bring the lands to fruitful harvests under the requirements of existent 
conditions of land sales and farm credits'; The holders of large proper- 
ties for several years past have been searching for them and many still 
believe that they may be found, but their only partly rewarded efforts 
are indicative that perhaps they are not to be immediately found in the 
numbers desired. 

As the years succeed themselves, the markets for California's farm 
products are ever widening. Kefrigerator cars, fast express trains, and 
the cold storage of ocean transport are carrying California's fruits and 
foods for display in markets undreamed of a few years ago, and the 
demand for these is increasing at an accelerated rate. With propitious 
climate and soils, this state is attaining ranking position, a precursor to 
all the states of the Union in value of agricultural and horticultural 
products yielded by their lands, and an analysis of the reports of the 
United States census indicates that there will be a market for Cali- 
fornia's products in 1940, but seventeen years hence, three-fold greater 
than in the year 1920. The multiplying population of this state also 
demands food in greater and even greater amounts, for the state is 
growing fast. During the decade that closed with 1920, California 
experienced an enlargement in the numbers of people inhabiting its 
farms and cities, of forty-four per cent of the aggregate of 1910. 

These investigations show that there is land and water ample for 
production commensurate with this enlarging demand for California's 
agricultural products, and the past success in financing irrigation con- 
struction demonstrates that money will be at hand to erect the works 
and fashion the canals, but the greatest success can only be attained 
through effecting a system of colonizing the land that will iasten the 
influx of settlers and secure a multiplicity of tillers of the soil without 
dela}-^, so that long periods of stagnation between their construction and 
time of use may not bring embarrassment to the enterprises. The large 
units in which future development must be organized will make it 
increasingly desirable to accelerate the rate of rural settlement of this 
state. 

Two examples of well coordinated and systematized colonization may 
be seen at Durham in Butte County, and at Delhi in Merced County, 
the two state land settlement projects.^^^ However, these two colonies 
are but a demonstration of possibilities in stimulating rural settlement 
for their combined area is only 13,920 acres. A statewide stimulus to 
the occupancy of farm lands would greatly increase the naturally 
expeditious growth of California's irrigated communities, insure a full 
measure of production to meet all demands, and assist California in 
seizing and holding agricultural and horticultural supremacy among 
the states of this nation. 



<»For description of these projects see "Report of Division of Land Settlement," a 
subdivision of tlie Department of Public "Works of the State of California, the report 
being Part V of the first biennial report of that department, dated Septeabfir 1, 1922. 



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