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Full text of "The Cactaceae : descriptions and illustrations of plants of the cactus family"

THE CACTACEAE 



DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
PLANTS OF THE CACTUS FAMILY 



BY 



N. L. BRITTON and J. N. ROSE 



Volume I 



ilBHARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 




The Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Washington, 1919 



V.I 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 
Publication No. 248, Volume I 



>Y8re first issued 

JUN 21 ISIS 



PRFSS OF GIBSON BROTHERS 
WASHINGTON 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Introduction 3 

Order Cactales 8 

Family Cactaceae 8 

Key to Tribes 8 

Tribe Pereskieae 8 

Pereskia 8 

Key to Species 9 

Tribe Opuntieae 24 

Key to Genera 24 

Pereskiopsis 25 

Pterocactus 30 

Nopalea 33 

Tacinga 39 

Maihuenia 40 

Opuntia 42 

Key to Subgenera and Series 44 

Subgenus Cylindropuntia 46 

Series Ramosissimae 46 

Series Leptocaules 46 

Series Thurberianae 52 

Series Echinocarpae 56 

Series Bigelovianae 58 

Series Imbricatae 60 

Series Fulgidae 67 

Series Vestitae 71 

Series Clavarioides 72 

Series Salmianae 73 

Series Subulatae 75 

Series Miquelianae 78 

Series Clavatae 79 

Subgenus Tephrocactus 84 

Series Weberianae ■. 84 

Series Floccosae 86 

Series Glomeratae 87 

Series Pentlandianae 90 



PAGB. 

Family Cactaceae — continued. 
Tribe Opuntieae — continued. 
Opuntia — continued. 

Subgenus Platyopuntia 99 

Series Pumilae 100 

Series Curassavicae 102 

Series Aurantiacae 106 

Series Tunae no 

Series Basilares 118 

Series Inamoenae 125 

Series Tortispinae 126 

Series Sulphureae 133 

Series Strigiles 136 

Series Setispinae 136 

Series Phaeacanthae 139 

Series Elatiores 149 

Series Elatae 156 

Series Scheerianae 159 

Series Dillenianae 159 

.Series Macdougalianae 169 

Series Tomentosae 172 

Series Leucotrichae 1 74 

Series Orbiculatae 1 76 

Series Ficus-indicae 177 

Series Streptacanthae 181 

Series Robustae 191 

Series Poly acanthae 193 

Series Stenopetalae 200 

Series Palmadorae 201 

Series Spinosissimae 202 

Series Brasilienses 209 

Series Ammophilae 211 

Series Chaffeyanae 213 

Grusonia 215 

Appendix 216 

Index : . . . 227 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate i 
Plate 2 

Plate 3 

Plate 4 

Plate 5 
Plate 6 

Plate 7. 

Plate 8 

Plate 9 

Plate 10 
Plate ii 

Plate 12 
Plate 13 

Plate 14 

Plate 15 

Plate 16 

Plate 17 

Plate 18 

Plate 19. 

Plate 20. 
Plate 21. 
Plate 22. 

Plate 23. 

Plate 24. 
Plate 25. 

Plate 26. 

Plate 27. 

Plate 28. 

Plate 29. 
Plate 30. 
Plate 3 1 . 
Plate 32. 

Plate 33- 

Plate 34- 

Plate 35- 

Plate 36. 



FACING 

PLATES PAGE 

Cactus Desert in Arizona Frontispiece 

i) Flowering branch of Pereslda pereskia. (2 and 3) Fruit of Pereskia pereskia. (4) Leaf y branch of 

Pereskia sacharosa (5) Proliferous fruit of Pereskia sacharosa 10 

i) Flowering branch of Pereskia grandifolia. (2) Leafy branch of Pereskiopsis chapistle. (3) Leaf}- 

branch of Pereskiopsis pititache 20 

i) L'pper part of flowering joint of Nopalea cocheniUifera. (2) Upper part of flowering joint of 

Xopalea auberi. (3) Fruit of Nopalea auberi. (4) Flowering joint of Nopalea dejecta 34 

Nopalea auberi as it grows near Mitla, Mexico 38 

I and 2) Branch of Opuntia mortolensis. (3 and 4) Branch of Opuntialeptocaulis. (5) Flowering 

branch of Opuntia arbuscula. (6) Flowering branch of Opuntia kleiniae 48 

i) Leafy branch of Opuntia kleiniae. (2) Terminal branch of Opuntia vivipara. (3) Branch of 

Opuntia panri. (4) Flowering branch of Oprmtia echinocarpa. (5) Fruiting branch of 

Opuntia versicolor 50 

i) Type plant of Opuntia \d\'ipara, near Tucson, Arizona. (2) A much branched plant of Opuntia 

versicolor 52 

i) Joint of Opuntia tetracantha. (2, 3, 4, 5) Flowering joint of Opuntia versicolor. (6) Prohferous 

fruits of Opuntia fulgida 54 

i) Joint of Opuntia tunicata. .(2, 3, 4, 5) Joint of Opuntia spinosior 66 

i) Leafy branch of Opuntia imbricata. (2) Flowering branch of Opuntia proUfera. (3, 4) Form of 

Opuntia alcahes. (5, 6) Opuntia vestita 68 

i) Clump of plants of Opuntia fulgida. (2) A very open plant of Opuntia spinosior 70 

i) Opuntia exaltata as seen in the highlands of Peru. (2) Clump of Oprmtia floccosa as it grows in 

the valleys of the Andes of eastern Peru 76 

i) Flowering branch of Opuntia burrageana. (2) Opuntia cylindrica. (3, 4) Joint of Opuntia stanlji. 

(5) Flowering joint of Opuntia macrorhiza 78 

I, 2) Part of joint of Opuntia exaltata. (3) L'pper part of joint of Opuntia macrarthra. (4) L'pper 

part of joint of Opuntia tortispina 80 

i) Top of Opuntia miquehi. (2) Old and young joints of Optmtia inNicta. (3) L'pper part of joint 

of Opuntia iguescens 98 

i) Joint of Opuntia pascoensis. (2) Joints of Opuntia taj-lori. (3, 4) Form of Opuntia repens. 

(5) Flower of Opuntia repens. (6) Flowering joint of Opuntia drummondii 102 

i) Two plants of Opuntia drummondii. (2) Joints of Opuntia retrorsa with flower. (3) Joints of 

Opuntia triacantha. (4) Joint of Opuntia jamaicensis. (5) Section of fruit of Opuntia 

jamaicensis 104 

i) Plant of Opuntia jamaicensis. (2, 3) Flower of Opuntia jamaicensis. (4) Longitudinal section 

of flower of Opuntia jamaicensis. (5, 6) Stamen of Opimtia jamaicensis. (7) Style of 

Opuntia jamaicensis 112 

i) Flowering joint of Opuntia decumbens. (2) Fruiting joint of Opuntia decumbens. (3) H3-brid 116 
Group of hardy Optmtia, mosti}- Opuntia tortispina, in groimds of New York Botanical Garden . ... 126 
i) Joints of Opuntia microdasys. (2) Flowering joint of Opuntia macrarthra. (3) Fruit of Opuntia 

macrarthra. (4) Seed of Opimtia macrarthra. (5) Flowering joint of Opuntia opuntia 128 

i) Flowering joint of Opuntia fuscoatra. (2) L'pper part of joint of Opuntia sulphiu'ea. (3) Joint 

of Opuntia tenmspina 132 

i) Plant of Opuntia santa-rita. (2) Plant of Opuntia discata 142 

i) Flowering joint of Opuntia atrispina. (2) Flowering joint of Opuntia phaeacantha. (3) Upper 

part of joint of Opuntia engelmanrui 144 

i) Flowering joint of Opuntia bergeriana. (2) Flowering joint of Opuntia elatior. (3) Flowering 

joint of Opuntia boldinghii. (4, 5) Joint of Opimtia data 152 

i) L^pper part of fruiting joint of Opuntia schumannii. (2) Flower of Opuntia schumannii. (3) 

Flowering joint of Opuntia Aiilgaris. (4) Flowering joint of Opuntia stricta 156 

i) Flowering joint of Opuntia lae\'is. (2) Flowering joint of Opuntia dillenii. (3) L'pper part of 

flowering joint of Opimtia aciculata 160 

i) View of Opuntia keyensis. (2) View of Opuntia dillenii 162 

Flowering joint of Opuntia linguif ormis 1 64 

Flowering joints of Opuntia hndheimeri. (i) Orange-flowered race. (2) Red-flowered race 166 

i) L'pper part of flowering joint of Opuntia leptocarpa. (2) Fruit of Opuntia leptocarpa. (3) Flower- 
ing joint of Opuntia velutina. (4) L'pper part of joint of Opuntia megacantha 172 

i) L'pper part of joint of Opuntia tomentosa. (2) Flowering joint of Opuntia brasiUensis. (3) 

Flowering branch of Opuntia brasiUensis. (4) Joint of Grusonia bradtiana 174 

i) Part of joint of Opuntia leucotricha. (2) Part of joint of Opimtia maxima. (3) Joint of Opuntia 

lasiacantha. (4) Joint of Opuntia robusta i So 

i) Plant of Opuntia fragilis. (.2) Flowering branch of Opuntia rhodantha. (3) Flowering joint of 

Opuntia polyacantha 194 

i) Flowering joint of Opuntia spinosissima. (2, 3) Single flower of Opuntia spiuosissima. (4, 5) 

Longitudinal section of flower of Opuntia spinosissima. (6) Cross-section of ovarj' of 

Opuntia spinosissima. (7) Style of Opuntia spinosissima 204 



THB cactaceae;. 



TEXT-FIGURES. 



PAGE. 

1. Hedge of Pereskia pereskia 7 

2. Tree of Pereskia autmnnalis 11 

3. Branches of Pereskia autumnalis 12 

4. Branch of Pereskia lychnidiflora 12 

5. Leafy branch of Pereskia nicoyana 13 

6. Branch of Pereskia zehntneri 13 

7. Cultivated plant of Pereskia zehntneri . . 14 

8. Herbarium specimen of Pereskia moorei . 15 

9. Tree of Pereskia guamacho 15 

10. Flowering branch of Pereskia guamacho. 16 

11. Leafy branch and flower of Pereskia 

colombiana 17 

12. Branch and fruit of Pereskia bleo 18 

13. Fruit of Pereskia bahiensis 19 

14. Leafy branch of Pereskia bahiensis 19 

15. Tree of Pereskia bahiensis 20 

16. Hedge containing Pereskia grandifolia. . . 21 

17. Branch of Pereskia zinniaeflora 21 

18. Tree of Pereskia cubensis 22 

19. Leafy branch of Pereskia cubensis 22 

20. Branch and fruit of Pereskia portulaci- 

folia 23 

21. Potted plant grown from a cutting of 

Pereskiopsis velutina 26 

22. Branch of Pereskiopsis diguetii 27 

23. Branch of Pereskiopsis opuntiaeflora .... 27 

24. Branch of Pereskiopsis rotundifolia 27 

25. Shows a clump of Pereskiopsis rotundi- 

foUa 28 

26. Branch of Pereskiopsis porteri 28 

27. Branch of Pereskiopsis aquosa 29 

28. Leaf of Pereskiopsis kellermanii 30 

29. Leaf of Pereskiopsis kellermanii 30 

Leaf of Pereskiopsis kellermanii 30 

Seed of Pterocactus hickenii 31 

Plant of Pterocactus hickenii 31 

Branch of Pterocactus fischeri 31 

Seed of Pterocactus fischeri 31 

Seed of Pterocactus pumilus 31 

Seed of Pterocactus tuberosus 31 

Plant of Pterocactus tuberosus, showing 

a very large root 32 

Potted plant of Pterocactus tuberosus ... 33 

Joint of Nopalca guatemalensis 35 

Joint of Nopalea lutea 35 

Large plant of Nopalea dejecta 36 

Joints of Nopalea dejecta 37 

Joints of Nopalea karwinskiana 37 

Joint of Nopalea inaperta 37 

Flower of Tacinga funalis 38 

Longitudinal section of fiower of Tacinga 

funalis 38 

47. Section of stem of Tacinga funalis 38 

48. Tip of young branch of Tacinga funalis. 38 

49. Plant of Tacinga funalis, climbing over 

bushes 39 

50. Plant of Maihuenia valentinii 40 

51. Fruit of Maihuenia poeppigii 41 

52. Joint and flower of Maihuenia brachydel- 

phys 41 

53. Plant of Maihuenia tehuelches 41 

54. Branch of Opuntia ramossissima 46 

55. Section of stem of Opuntia ramosissima. 46 

56. Plant of Opuntia leptocaulis 48 



Fig. 57- 
58. 
59- 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73- 
74- 
75. 



87. 



99- 
100. 

lOI. 

102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 

108. 
109. 
no. 
III. 
112. 
"3. 
114. 
115- 
116. 



PAGE. 

Section of stem of Opuntia leptocaulis' . . 48 

Joint of Opuntia caribaea 48 

Thicket formed of Opuntia caribaea 49 

Clump of Opuntia arbuscula 50 

Plant of Opuntia arbuscula 51 

Fruiting branch of Opuntia arbuscula. . . 51 

Flowering branch of Opuntia thurberi ... 53 

Branch of Opuntia davisii 55 

Branch of Opuntia viridiilora 55 

Branch of Opuntia whipplei 55 

Plant of Opuntia acanthocarpa 56 

Joint of Opuntia serpentina 58 

Plant of Opuntia bigelovii 59 

Joint of Opuntia bigelovii 59 

Potted plant of Opuntia ciribe 60 

Joint of Opuntia ciribe 60 

Potted plant of Opuntia cholla 61 

Joint of Opuntia cholla 62 

Proliferous fruits of Opuntia cholla, devel- 
oping new joints 62 

Proliferous fruits of Opuntia cholla, 

developing new joints 62 

Joints of Opuntia loydii 63 

Plant of Opuntia lloydii 63 

Plant of Opuntia imbricata 64 

Potted plant of Opuntia tunicata 65 

Plant of Opuntia pallida 65 

Potted plant of Opuntia molesta 67 

Joint of Opuntia prolif era 69 

Potted plant of Opuntia prolif era 70 

Potted plant of Opuntia alcahes 70 

Joint of Opuntia verschafFeltii 72 

Grafted plants of Opuntia clavarioides ... 73 

Potted plant of Opuntia salmiana 74 

Joints of Opuntia salmiana 74 

Potted plant of Opuntia subulata 76 

Joint of Opuntia pachypus 77 

Joints of Opuntia schottii 81 

Joints of Opuntia clavata 81 

Joints of Opuntia parishii 82 

Joints of Opuntia pulcheUa 82 

Plants of Opuntia vilis 83 

Joints and cluster of spines of Opuntia 

bulbispina 83 

Joints of Opuntia grahamii 84 

Plants of Opimtia weberi 84 

Joints of Opuntia weberi 85 

Potted plant of Opuntia fioccosa 86 

Mound of Opuntia lagopus 88 

Root, joints, and fiower of O. australis . . 88 

Joints of Opuntia glomerata 89 

Joint of Opuntia aoracantha 91 

Joint of Opuntia rauppiana 92 

Flowering plant and fruit of Opuntia sub- 

terranea 92 

Joints of Opuntia hickenii 92 

Joint of Opuntia darwinii 94 

Joints of Opuntia atacamensis 94 

Joints of Opuntia russellii 94 

Joints of Opuntia ovata 95 

Potted plant of Opuntia sphaerica 96 

Joint of Opuntia skottsbergii 97 

Joint of Opuntia nigrispina 97 

Joint of Opuntia pentlandii 97 



VI 



the; cactacbae;. 



TEXT-FIGURES— continued . 



PAGE. 



Fig. 117. Joints of Opuntia pentlandii 

Joint of Opuntia ignescens 

Mound of Opuntia ignescens 

Plant of Opuntia campestris 

Joints of Opuntia ignota 

Thicket of Opuntia pumila 

Joints of Opuntia pumila 

124. Joints of Opuntia pubescens 

125. Joints of Opuntia curassavica 

126. Joints of Opuntia borinquensis 

Joints of Opuntia militaris 

Joints and flower of Opvmtia tracyi 

Joints and flowers of Opuntia pusilla. . . . 

130. Joints of Opuntia aurantiaca 

131. Potted plant of Opuntia schickendantzii . 

Plant of Opuntia kiska-loro 

Joints of Opuntia canina 

134. Plant of Opuntia retrorsa 

135. Plant of Opuntia utkilio 

136. Joints of Opuntia anacantha 

137. Thicket of Opuntia bella 

Joints of Opuntia bella 

Joint of Opuntia bella 

1 40. Plant of Opuntia triacantha 

141. Plant of Opuntia tuna 

142. Joints of Opuntia tuna 

143. Thicket of Opuntia antillana 

144. Joints of Opuntia antillana 

145. Plant of Opuntia deciunbens 

146. Plant of Opuntia depressa 

147. Joints of Opuntia lubrica 

148. Landscape showing Opuntia treleasei . . . . 

149. Joints of Opuntia basilaris 

150. Plant of Opuntia microdasys 

151. Potted plant of Opuntia, probable hybrid 
Joint of Opuntia macrocalyx 

153. Plant of Opuntia rufida 

154. Plant of Opuntia pycnantha 

155. Potted plant of Opuntia comonduensis . . 

156. Plant of Opuntia inamoena 

157. Joint of Opimtia inamoena 

158. Joints of Opuntia allairei 

159. Joints of Opuntia pollardii 

1 60. Plant of Opuntia opuntia 

161. Fruit of Opimtia grandiflora 

162. Flowering joint of Opuntia grandiflora. . 

163. Flowering joints of Opuntia austrina. . . . 

164. Joints, flower, and fruit of O. plmnbea, . 

165. Fruit of Opuntia stenochila 

166. Fruit of Opuntia stenochila 

167. Joint of Opuntia stenochila 

168. Potted plant of Opuntia delicata 

169. Joint of Opuntia soehrensii 

Joint of Opmitia microdisca 

171. Joints of Opuntia strigil 

172. Joints of Opuntia baUii 

Joints of Opuntia pottsii 

Joint of Opuntia setispina 

Plant and fruit of Opuntia mackensensii 

176. Joint of Opuntia macrocentra 

177. Joint of Opuntia tardospina 

178. Cluster of spines of Opuntia gosseliniana 

179. Joint of Opuntia gosseliniana 

Joint of Opimtia angustata 

Plant of Opnntia azurea 

Joints of Opuntia azurea 

Joint of Opimtia covillei 

184. Joint of Opuntia covillei 



Fig. I? 



100 


190. 


lOI 


191. 


lOI 




102 


192. 


104 


193- 


104 


194. 


105 


195. 


106 


196. 


107 


197. 


107 


198. 


108 


199. 


108 


200. 


109 


201. 


no 


202. 


no 


203. 


III 


204. 


112 


205. 


112 




113 


206. 


114 


207. 


114 


208. 


"5 


209. 


115 


210. 


117 


211. 


118 


212. 


119 


213. 


119 


214. 


120 


215- 


121 


216. 


121 


217. 


122 


218. 


122 


219. 


123 


220. 


124 


221. 


12.S 


222. 


125 


223. 


126 


224. 


126 


225. 


128 


226. 


129 


227. 


129 


228. 


130 


229. 


131 


230. 


132 


231. 


132 


232. 


132 


233. 


133 


234- 


13.S 


235- 


13.S 


236. 


136 


237- 


137 


238. 


138 


239- 


138 


240. 


139 


241. 


140 


242. 


141 


243- 


141 


244. 


141 


245- 


142 


246. 


143 


247. 


143 


248. 


145 
145 


249. 



PAGE. 

Joint of Opuntia vaseyi 146 

Potted plant of Opuntia occidentalis . ... 147 

Joint of Opuntia brunnescens 150 

Fruit of Opuntia brunnescens 150 

Joint of Opuntia galapageia 150 

Flower of Opuntia galapageia 150 

Joint and cluster of spines of Opuntia 

galapageia 151 

Flowering joint of Opimtia delaetiana.. 152 

Joints of Opuntia hanburyana 154 

Joint of Opuntia quitensis 154 

Joint of Opimtia distans 155 

Joint of Opuntia elata 157 

Joints of Opuntia cardiosperma 157 

Joint of Opimtia scheeri 159 

Plant of Opuntia chlorotica 160 

Joints of Opuntia chlorotica 160 

Plant of Opuntia dillenii 162 

Joint of Opuntia tapona 164 

Potted plant of Opuntia littoralis 164 

Joints of Opimtia cantabrigiensis 167 

Part of joint and cluster of spines of 

Opuntia procumbens 167 

Joint of Opuntia caiiada 167 

Joint of Opuntia pyriformis 168 

Joint of Opuntia durangensis 1 69 

Plant of Opuntia macdougaliana 1 70 

Potted plant of Opuntia macdougaliana . 171 

Joint of Opuntia wilcoxii 172 

Plant of Opimtia tomentosa 1 73 

Joint of Opuntia tomentella 174 

Potted plant of Opimtia leucotricha 175 

Joints of Opuntia orbiculata 176 

Potted plant of Opuntia pilifera 177 

Plants of Opimtia ficus-indica 178 

Fruit of Opimtia ficus-indica 178 

Plant of Opimtia crassa 179 

Potted plant of Opuntia maxima 1 80 

Joint of Opimtia spinulif era 182 

Joint of Opuntia lasiacantha 1 83 

Joint of Opimtia zacuapanensis 183 

Joint of Opuntia hyptiacantha 1 83 

Joint of Opuntia streptacantha 1 84 

Potted plant of Opuntia megacantha .... 185 

Plants of Opimtia megacantha 186 

Joint of Opuntia megacantha 1 86 

Joint of Opuntia deamii 187 

Joint of Opuntia eichlamii 188 

Joint of Opuntia inaequilateralis 1 88 

Joint of Opimtia pittieri 189 

Joint of Opuntia cordobensis. ." 189 

Fruit of Opuntia cordobensis 1 89 

Joint of Opuntia quimilo 190 

Fruit of Opimtia quimilo 190 

Joint and flowers of Opimtia quimilo .... 191 

Plant of Opimtia robusta 192 

Plant of Opuntia fragilis 194 

Joints of Opuntia arenaria 195 

Joint of Opuntia trichophora 195 

Plant of Opuntia erinacea 196 

Joint of Opuntia juniperina 197 

Seed of Opimtia juniperina 197 

Joint of Opimtia hystricina 197 

Joint of Opimtia sphaerocarpa 198 

Joints of Opimtia polyacantha 199 

Joint of Opimtia stenopetala 200 

Upper part of joint and flower of Opuntia 

stenopetala 201 



the; cactacbae. 



VII 



TEXT-FIGURES— continued . 



PAGE. 

Fig. 250. Plants of Opuntia palmadora 202 

251. Joints of Opuntia palmadora 202 

252. Plants of Opuntia nashii 202 

253. Potted plant of Opimtia nashii 203 

254. Joint of Opuntia bahamana 204 

255. Flower of Opuntia bahamana 204 

256. Plants of Opuntia macracantha 204 

257. Potted plant of Opuntia macracantha. . . 205 

258. Potted plant of Opuntia spinosissLma ... . 205 

259. Plants of Opuntia millspaughii 206 

260. Plant of Opuntia moniliformis 206 

261. Plant of Opuntia moniUformis 207 

262. Plant of Opuntia moniliformis 207 

263. Plants of Opuntia rubescens 208 

264. Plants of Opuntia rubescens 208 

265. Proliferous fruits of Opuntia rubescens . . 209 

266. Joint of Opuntia rubescens 209 

267. Fruit of Opuntia brasiliensis 209 

268. Plant of Opuntia brasiliensis 210 

269. Branch of Opuntia bahiensis 210 

270. Joint and fruit of Opuntia bahiensis 210 

271. Plant of Opuntia bahiensis 211 

272. Plant of Opuntia ammophila 211 

273. Fruiting joint of Opuntia ammophila ... . 211 

274. Flower of Opuntia argentina 212 

275. Potted plant of Opuntia chaffeyi 212 

276. Plant of Opuntia chaffeyi 213 



Fig. 277. 
278. 
279. 
280. 
281. 
282. 
283. 
284. 



290. 
291. 
292. 
293. 
294. 
295- 
296. 
297. 
298. 
299. 
300. 
301. 
302. 



Small joint of Nopalea gaumeri 216 

Elongated joint of Nopalea gaumeri .... 216 

Plant of Opuntia depauperata 216 

Joint of Opuntia depauperata 217 

Plant of Opuntia pestif er 217 

Plant of Opuntia discolor 218 

Joints of Opuntia pestifer 218 

Joint of Opuntia discolor 218 

Joint of Opuntia guatemalensis 219 

Joint of Opuntia pennellii 219 

Joints of Opuntia caracasana 219 

Plant of Opuntia aequatorialis 220 

Joints of Opuntia aequatorialis 220 

Joints of Opuntia lata 220 

Fruits of Opuntia lata 220 

Joint with flower of Opuntia macateei. . . 220 

Joint of Opuntia macateei 220 

Plants of Opuntia soederstromiana 221 

Plants of Opuntia zebrina 222 

Fruit of Opuntia zebrina 222 

Plants of Opuntia keyensis 223 

Section of flower of Opuntia keyensis. . . . 223 

Flower of Opuntia keyensis 223 

Joint of Opuntia bonplandii 224 

Plant of Opuntia dobbieana 224 

Plant of Opuntia dobbieana (without 

legend) 225 



THE CACTACEAE 

Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus 

Family 



THE CACTACEAE. 



INTRODUCTION. 
The writers began field, greenhouse, and herbarium studies of the Cactaceae in 
1904 and in the years following they made studies and collections over wide areas 
in the United States, Mexico, and the West Indies. It was first intended that 
these should be followed by a general description of the North American species 
only, but a plan for a more complete investigation of the family was proposed by 
Dr. D._T_- MacDougal in January 191 1. This was approved by the trustees of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington at its next regular meeting and a grant was made 
to cover the -expenses of such an investigation. Dr. Rose was given temporary 
leave of absence from his position as Associate Curator in charge of the Division of 
Plants, United vStates National Museum, and became a Research Associate in the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, with William R. Fitch and Paul G. Russell as 
assistants; Dr. Britton, Director-in-Chief of the New York Botanical Garden, was 
appointed an honorary Research Associate, while R. S. Williams, of the New York 
Botanical Garden, was detailed to select and preserve the specimens for illustration. 
Work under this new arrangement was begun January 15, 191 2, and thus several 
lines of investigation were undertaken in a comprehensive way. 

1. Reexamination of type specimens and of all original descriptions: This was 
necessary because descriptions had been incorrectly interpreted, plants had been 
wrongly identified, and the errors perpetuated; thus the published geographical 
distribution of many species was faulty and conclusions based on such data were 
unreliable. Not only had specific names been transferred to plants to which they 
did not belong, but generic names were interchanged and the laws of priority 
ignored. Many valid species, too, had dropped out of collections and ouroTcurrent 
literature and had to be restored. 

2. Assembling of large collections for greenhouse and herbarium use: Extensive 
greenhouse facilities were furnished by the New York Botanical Garden and the 
United States Department of Agriculture, while the herbaria and libraries of the 
United States National Museum and of the New York Botanical Garden furnished 
the bases for the researches. The New York Botanical Garden has also cooperated 
in contributing funds in aid of the field operations, in clerical work, and a large 
number of the illustrations used have been made there, the paintings and line 
drawings mostly by Miss Mary B. Eaton. 

3. Extensive field operations in the arid parts of both Americas: Many of these 
deserts are almost inaccessible, while the plants are bulky and if not handled care- 
fully are easily destroyed. Many plants require several years to mature, in some 
cases many years to flower in cultivation. Through these explorations were obtained 
the living material for the greenhouse collections and for exchange purposes, as well 
as herbarium material for permanent preservation. Of much importance, also, 
were field observations upon the plants as individuals, their form, habit, habitat, 
and their relations to other species. 



4 THE CACTACEAE. 

Early in 191 2 Dr. Rose went to Europe to study the collections there and to 
arrange for exchanges with various botanical institutions having collections of these 
plants. He spent considerable time at London, mainly at the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, where through the courtesy of the Director, Sir David Prain, he was 
able to examine the greenhouse, illustrative, and herbarium material for which this 
institution has long been famed. The collection at the British Museum of Natural 
History and that of the Linnaean Society of London were examined. At Paris he 
studied the collections at the Natural History Museum, many of which have historic 
interest; one of his interesting discoveries there was that the Pereskia bleo, collected 
by Baron Friedrich Alexander von Humboldt in Colombia, is a very different species 
from the plant which for nearly a century has been passing in our collections and 
literature under that name. He also visited the famous botanical garden of the 
late Sir Thomas Hanbury, at La Mortola, Italy, and through the courtesy of Lady 
Hanbury was given every possible facility for the study of this collection; Mr. 
Alwin Berger, who was then curator in charge, had brought together one of the most 
extensive representations of this family to be found growing in the open in any 
place in the world. Here in the delightful climate of the Riviera were grown many 
species which were apparently just as much at home as they would have been in 
their desert habitats. Dr. Rose also visited Rome, Naples, Venice, and Florence, 
where he saw smaller collections in parks and private gardens. At Munich he 
examined certain types in the Royal Botanical Museum, then under the charge of 
Dr. L. Radlkofer, and saw some interesting species in the Royal Botanical Garden 
then being organized by Dr. K. Goebel. At Berlin he examined the herbarium and 
living specimens in the Berlin Botanical Garden, through the courtesy of Dr. A. 
Engler, and the West Indian collection through the courtesy of Dr. I. Urban. He 
then went to Halle and saw L. Ouehl's collection of mammiUarias; to Erfurt, where 
he saw the Haage and Schmidt, and Haage Jr. collections; to Darmstadt to see the 
Botanical Garden under Dr. J. A. Purpus; and to Antwerp to see DeLaet's private 
collection. 

In 19 13 Dr. Britton and Dr. Rose visited the West Indies. Dr. Britton, who 
was accompanied by Mrs. E- G. Britton, Miss D. W. Marble, and Dr. J. A. Shafer, 
collected on St. Thomas and the other Virgin Islands, Porto Rico, and Curasao. 
At the latter island he rediscovered the very rare Cactus mammiUarls, which had not 
been in cultivation for many years. Dr. Rose, who was accompanied by WiUiam 
R. Fitch and Paul G. Russell, also stopped at St. Thomas, and collected on St. 
Croix, St. Christopher, Antigua, and Santo Domingo. 

In 19 14 and 19 15 Dr. Britton again visited Porto Rico and, assisted by Mr. 
John F. Cowell and Mr. Stewardson Brown, explored the entire southwestern arid 
coast and the small islands Desecheo, Mona, and Muertos. 

In 1 9 14 Dr. Rose went to the west coast of South America, making short stops 
at Jamaica and Panama. He made extensive collections in central and southern 
Peru, central Bolivia, and northern and central Chile. At Santiago, Chile, he 
examined a number of Philippi's types in the National Museum and obtained 
some rare specimens from the Botanical Garden through the courtesy of Johannes 
Sohrens. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

In 19 1 5 Dr. Rose, accompanied by Paul G. Russell, visited Brazil and Argentina 
on the east coast of South America, collecting extensively in the semiarid parts of 
Bahia, Brazil, and in the region about Rio de Janeiro, so rich in epiphytic cacti. 
In the deserts about Mendoza and Cordoba, in Argentina, collections were also 
made. Here he also arranged for exchanges with the leading botanists and collec- 
tors. The following persons have made valuable contributions from the regions 
visited: Dr. Leo Zehntner, Joazeiro, Brazil; Dr. Alberto Lofgren, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil; Dr. Carlos Spegazzini, La Plata, Argentina; Dr. Cristobal M. Hicken, 
Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Dr. Carlos S. Reed, Mendoza, Argeritina. 

In October and November 1916, Dr. Rose, accompanied by Mrs. Rose, visited 
Curasao and Venezuela, studying especially the cactus deserts about La Guaira 
and Puerto Cabello. A number of photographs were taken by Mrs. Rose. 

While en route for Venezuela, arrangements were made with Mr. Harold G. 
Foss to make a collection of cacti at Coro, Venezuela. Among the specimens 
obtained were species not found farther east in Venezuela, so far as known. 

In 1916 Dr. Britton, assisted by Mr. Percy Wilson, studied the cacti of Havana 
and Matanzas Provinces and those of the Isle of Pines, Cuba. 

In 1918 Dr. Rose, assisted by George Rose, visited Ecuador on behalf of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, aided by the Gray Herbarium of Har- , 
vard University and the New York Botanical Garden ; about thirty rare or little- 
known species were obtained. 

Through the expenditure of about $2,400, contributed by Dr. Britton, a very 
important collection of cacti was made by JDjL-J^^A^^jiafer during a six months' 
exploration from November 1916 to April 19 17 of the desert regions of northwestern 
Argentina, southeastern Bolivia, northeastern Argentina, and adjacent Uruguay 
and Paraguay. Fortunately, for the purposes of this work, this collection was 
^Drought back to New York by Dr. Shafer in time for the information yielded by 
it and by his field observations to be used in the manuscript. It has given us-^ 
first-hand information concerning over 120 species of cacti as to which we have - 
previously known little. 

There are still a few cactus regions which ought to be explored, but the following 
summary will show the wide field from which we have obtained information. 

Our field investigations have covered practically all the cactus deserts of 
Mexico. The most important of these are the vicinities of Tehuacan and Tomellin, 
the plains of San Luis Potosi, the chalky hills surrounding Ixmiquilpan, the lava 
fields in the Valley of Mexico and above Cuernavaca, the deserts of Oueretaro, the 
west coast of Mexico extending from the United States border to Acaponeta, and 
the seacoasts and islands of Lower California. Other regions in Mexico containing 
cacti, but not in such great abundance as the foregoing, are those about Pachuca, 
Oaxaca City, Mitla, Jalapa, Iguala, Chihuahua City, and Guadalajara. All the'/' 
work in Mexico, however, was done prior to 19 12, for, owing to political disturb-*^ ^4 
ances, no field work there has been feasible since that time.jJt^-- 

In the United States our work has extended over the cactus regions of Florida, 
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, southern California, western Kansas, and south- 
eastern Colorado. 



6 THE CACTACEAE. 

In the West Indies we have explored all of the Greater Antilles, the Bahamas, 
the Virgin Islands, St. Christopher, Antigua, Barbados, and Curasao. 

In South America our field study included the most important deserts of Peru, 
Bolivia, and Chile, and parts of Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Argentina. The 
cactus deserts of South America are so extensive and so remote from one another 
that it was possible to visit only a part of them in the four seasons allowed for 
their exploration. 

Among many enthusiastic volunteers whose contributions of specimens and 
data have greatly supplemented our own collections and field studies, the following 
deserve especial mention: 

Mr. Henry Pittier has made valuable sendings from Colombia, Venezuela, 
Panama, Costa Rica, and Mexico; Mr. O. F. Cook, from Guatemala and Peru; 
Mr. G. N. Collins, the late Federico Eichlam, Mr. R. H. Peters, Mr. C. C. Deam, 
Mrs. T. D. A. Cockerell, Baron H. von Tiirckheim, and the late Professor W. A. 
Kellerman have sent important collections from Guatemala; Mr. A. Tonduz, 
Mr. Oton Jimenez, Dr. A. Alfaro, Mr. C. Werckle, and Mr. Alfred Brade, local 
collectors and naturalists in Costa Rica, have sent much good material from their 
country; Mr. William R. Maxon has sent new and rare material from Costa Rica, 
Guatemala, and Cuba; Professor C. Conzatti and his son. Professor Hugo Conzatti, 
Dr. C. A. Purpus, Dr. Blswood Chaffey, Mrs. Irene Vera, M. Albert de Lautreppe, 
and the late Mr. E. A. H. Tays have sent us many interesting specimens from 
Mexico ; Mr. W. E- Safford made a valuable collection in Mexico in 1907 ; E. W. Nelson 
and E. A. Goldman, who have collected so extensively in Mexico and the Southwest, 
have obtained many herbarium and living specimens for our use; Mrs. Gaillard, 
who lived at Panama several years while the late Colonel D. D. Gaillard was a 
member of the Isthmian Canal Commission, collected interesting cacti, including 
Epiphyllum gaillardae; the late Dr. H. E. Hasse sent specimens from southern 
California and Arizona; C. R. Orcutt, the well-known cactus fancier, has aided 
us in many ways besides sending us specimens from his collections; Dr. R. E. Kunze 
has frequently sent specimens, especially from Arizona; General Timothy E. Wilcox, 
for whom Wilcoxia was named, has sent us specimens from the Southwest, while 
his son, Dr. G. B. Wilcox, contributed several sendings from the west coast of 
Mexico and Guatemala; Dr. D. T. MacDougal has sent many specimens from all 
over the Southwest, especially from Mexico, Arizona, and southern California; 
he has made several excursions into remote deserts, which have yielded interesting 
results, and has contributed many excellent photographs, quite a number of which 
are reproduced in this report (Plate i, etc.). Professor F. E- Lloyd, while located 
in Arizona and in Zacatecas, Mexico, made large collections of living, herbarium, 
and formalin material, often accompanied by valuable field notes, sketches, and 
photographs. Dr. Forrest Shreve has sent specimens, especially from northern 
Arizona and Mr. W. H. Long from New Mexico; Mr. S. B. Parish and Mr. W. T. 
Schaller have furnished interesting specimens and valuable notes on southern Cali- 
fornia species; Professor J. J. Thornber has made valuable contributions of material 
and notes from Arizona; Mr. M. E. Jones, Mr. I. Tidestrom, Mr. Thomas H. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

Kearney, and Professor A. O. Garrett have all sent specimens from Utah; Profes- 
sor T. D. A. Cockerell and Mr. Merritt Gary have sent specimens from Golorado; 
Dr. P. A. Rydberg has brought many specimens from the Rocky Mountain region; 
Messrs. Paul G. Standley, E. O. Wooton, Vernon Bailey, and H. L. Shantz have 
sent specimens from the southwestern United States; Brother Leon, of the Golegio 
de la Salle, Havana, and Dr. Juan T. Roig, of the Bstacion Agronomica, Santiago 
de las Vegas, Guba, have contributed Guban specimens, and Dr. J. A. Shafer has 
collected widely in Guba; Mr. William Harris, of Hope Gardens, Jamaica, has col- 
lected for us in Jamaica; Dr. John K. Small has obtained collections from nearly 
all over the southeastern United States, aided by Mr. Gharles Deering. Dr. Henry 
H. Rusby and Dr. Francis W. Pennell have contributed plants and specimens from 
Golombia, collected in 1917 and 1918. Mr. Frederick V. Goville, of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, has made many valuable suggestions during the 
progress of the investigation. 

In our studies we have also had use of the cacti of the following American 
collections: Herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden at St. Louis; the Gray 
Herbarium of Harvard University; the Rocky Mountain Herbarium at Laramie, 
Wyoming; the collection of the United States Department of Agriculture; the 
herbarium of the University of Galifornia, especially the Brandegee collection; and 
the herbarium of the Field Museum of Natural History. 

The types of the new species described in this work are deposited in the herbaria 
of the New York Botanical Garden and the United States National Museum, unless 
otherwise indicated. 

In greenhouse collections many kinds of cacti grow very slowly, and flower 
only after many years' cultivation. We have a number of plants of this kind 
from various parts of America. It is hoped that some of them may bloom during 
the period of publication of this book and thus enable us to include them in an 
appendix. 



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-Pereskia pereskia. Grown as a hedge. 



8 the; cactace;ae. 

Order CACTALES. 

Perennial, succulent plants, various in habit, mostly very spiny, characterized by specialized 
organs termed areoles. Leaves usually none, except in Pereskia and Pereskiopsis, where they are 
large and flat but fleshy, and in Opuntia and its relatives, where they are usually much reduced 
and mostly caducous, terete, or subulate. Spines very various in size, form, arrangement, and 
color, sometimes with definite sheaths. The areoles are peculiar and complex organs, situated in 
the axils of leaves when leaves are present, and bearing the branches, flowers, spines, glochids, hairs, 
or glands; in some genera two kinds of areoles occur, either distinct or united by a groove. Flowers 
usually perfect, either regular or irregular, usually solitary but sometimes clustered, sometimes 
borne in a specialized terminal dense inflorescence called a cephalium; perianth-tube none, or large 
and long, the limb spreading or erect, short or elongated, the lobes few or numerous, often inter- 
grading in shape and color, but sometimes sharply differentiated into sepals and petals; stamens 
commonly numerous, elongated or short, sometimes clustered in series, the filaments usually borne on 
the throat of the perianth, the small oblong anthers 2 -celled; style one, terminal, short or elongated; 
stigma-lobes 2 to many, usually slender; ovary i -celled, distinct, or immersed in a branch or 
forming a part of a branch; ovules numerous. Fruit a berry, often juicy and sometimes edible, 
sometimes dry, in one species described as capsular and dehiscing by an operculum, in others opening 
by a basal pore. Seeds various; cotyledons two, accumbent, sometimes minute knobs, often broad 
or elongated; endosperm little or copious; radicle terete. 

The order consists of the following family only: 

Family CACTACEAE Lindley, Nat. Syst. ed. 2. 53. 1836. 
Characters of the order as given above. The family is composed of three tribes. 

Key to Tribes. 

Leaves broad, flat; glochids wanting; flowers stalked (sometimes short-stalked), often clustered i. Pereskieae 

Leaves (except in Pereskiopsis) terete or sub terete, usually small, often wanting on the vegetative parts; 
flowers sessile. 
Areoles with glochids (except in Maihuenia) ; vegetative parts bearing leaves, which are usually 

small and fugacious; flowers rotate (petals erect in Nopalea) 2. Opimtieae 

Areoles without glochids; usually no leaves on the vegetative parts (except cotyledonary) ; flowers 

with definite tubes (except Rhipsalis) 3. Cereeae 

Tribe 1. PERESKIEAE. 

Stems and foliage as in other dicotyledonous plants; inflorescence in some species compound; 
flowers more or less stalked, their parts all distinct; glochids wanting; ovule with short funicle; 
testa of seed thin, brittle. 

The genus Pereskia, the only representative of this tribe, is, on account of its similarity 
to other woody flowering plants, considered the nearest cactus relative to the other families, 
but this relationship is in all cases remote. 

The nearest generic relatives oi Pereskia in the cactus family are doubtless the following: 

Pereskiopsis, some of whose species were first assigned to the genus Pereskia, but they 
have different foliage and the areoles often bear glochids. 

Opuntia, whose species have leaves, though much reduced and usually caducous, other- 
wise very different; but some of the species of Opuntia were first referred to Pereskia. 

Maihuenia (two of whose species have only recently been taken out of Pereskia), whose 
seeds are similar but the areoles lack glochids, otherwise very different. 

This tribe has a wide geographic distribution, but is found wild only in the tropics. 

1. PERESKIA (Plumier) Miller, Gard. Diet. Abr. ed. 4. 1754. 

Leafy trees, shrubs, or sometimes clambering vines, branching and resembling other woody 
plants; spines in pairs or in clusters in the axils of the leaves, neither sheathed nor barbed; glochids 
(found only in the Opuntieae) wanting; leaves alternate, broad, flat, deciduous, or somewhat fleshy; 
flowers solitary, corymbose, or in panicles, terminal or axillary, wheel-shaped; stamens numerous; 
style single ; stigma-lobes linear ; seeds black, glossy, with a brittle shell, the embryo strongly curved ; 
the cotyledons leafy; seedlings without spines. 



PERESKIA. 9 

Type species: Cactus pereskia Linnaeus. 

In 1898 about 25 names had been proposed in Pereskia, but, in his monograph pubHshed 
that year, Karl Schumann accepted only 1 1 species. Several new ones have been proposed 
since the publication of Schumann's monograph. 

The species are., native in Mexico, the West Indies, Central America, and South 
America. Soine of the species are much used as stocks for growing the various forms of 
Zygocactus, Epiphyllmn, and other cacti requiring this treatment; P. pereskia is most 
used and P. grandijolia next. Several species are widely cultivated as ornamentals in 
tropical regions; they do not flower freely under glass in northern latitudes. All species 
studied by us in the living state grow readily from cuttings. 

The typical species seems to have been first introduced into Europe from the West 
Indies in the latter part of the sixteenth century. A straight-spined species was first 
described and figured by L. Plukenet in 1696, who called it a portulaca, and the next year 
by Commerson as an apple {Malus). In 1703 C. Plumier described the genus Pereskia, 
basing it upon a single species. The genus was repeatedly recognized by Linnaeus in his 
earlier publications, and by some pre-Linnaean botanists, but in 1753 Linnaeus merged it 
into Cactus along with a number of other old and well-established genera; but it was 
retained by Phihp Miller in 1754 in the fourth edition (abridged) of his Gardeners' Dic- 
tionary and has since been generally recognized as a genus by botanical and horticultural 
authors. 

The name is variously spelled Peirescia, Peireskia, Perescia, and Pereskia. 

Named for Nicolas Claude Fabry de Peiresc (1580-1637). 

Key to Species. 

Climbing vines, the twigs with a short pair of reflexed spines from each areole, the stem with 

acicular spines (Series i. Typicae) 1. P. pereskia 

Shrub or trees with slender straight spines (Series 2. Grandifoliae). 
Petals toothed or fimbriate. 

Petals somewhat toothed 2. P. aidumnalis 

Petals fimbriate. 

Species from Mexico; ovary turbinate 3. P. lychnidiflora 

Species from Costa Rica; ovary pyriform 4- -P- nicoyana 

Petals entire, at least not fimbriate. 

Branches and leaves very easily detached 5. P, zehntneri 

Branches and leaves not easily detached. 

Axils of sepals bearing long hairs and bristles. 

Leaves lanceolate 6. P. sacharosa 

Leaves orbicular 7. P. moorel 

Axils of sepals not bearing long hairs and bristles. 

Flowers white 8. P. weheriana 

Flowers not white. 
Petals yellow. 

Leaves Ian eolate to oblong or obovate 9. P. gtiamacho 

Leaves orbicular or broadly ovate 10. P. colombiana 

Petals red or purple. 

Spines few or none 11. P. tampicana 

Very spiny, at least on old branches. 
Flowers terminal. 
Flowers panicled. 

Fruit naked, broadly truncate 12. P. bleo 

Fruit leaf -bearing, not truncate. 

Leaves of ovary cuneate at base 13. P. bahiensis 

Leaves of ovary broad at base 14. P. grandifolia 

Flowers solitary 15. P. zinniaeflora 

Flowers usually axillary and solitary. 

Leaves i cm. long or longer, obtuse or acute. 

Flowers 2 to 5 together, i cm. long; South American species. ... 16. P. horrida 
Flowers solitary, 1.5 cm. long; petals elliptic-obovate; Cuban 

species 17. P. cubensis 

Leaves emarginate, i cm. long or less, petals obovate 18. P. port-, 

Affinity unknown 19. P. conzattii 



the; CACTACEAe. 



Series l.TYPICAE. 



Consists of only the typical species, which is widely distributed, and much cultivated through- 
out tropical America. Schumann regarded it as a subgenus under the name Eupereskia. 

1. Pereskia pereskia (Linnaeus) Karsten, Deutsch. Flora 888. 1882. 

Cactus pereskia Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 469. 1753. 

Pereskia aculeata Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. 1768. 

Cactus lucidus Salisbury, Prodr. 349. 1796. 

Pereskia Icngispina Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 178. 1812. 

Pereskia aculeata longispina De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828. 

Pereskia fragrans Lemaire, Hort. Univ. 2:. 40. 1841. 

Pereskia undulata Lemaire, Illustr. Hort. 5: Misc. 11. 1858. 

Pereskia joetens Spegazzini in Weingart, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 134. 1904. 

Pereskia godseffiana Sander, Gard. Chron. III. 43: 257. 1908. 

Shrub, at first erect, but the branches often long, clambering, and forming vines 3 to 10 
meters long; spines on lower part of stem solitary or 2 or 3 together, slender and straight; spines 
in the axils of the leaves paired, rarely in threes, short, recurved ; leaves short-petioled, lanceolate 
to oblong, or ovate, short-acuminate at the apex, tapering or rounded at base, 7 cm. long or less; 
flowers in panicles or corymbs, white, pale yellow, or pinkish, 2.5 to 4.5 cm. broad; ovary leafy and 
often spiny; fruit light yellow, 1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter, when mature quite smooth; seeds black, 
somewhat flattened, 4 to 5 mm. in diameter; hilum basal, circular, depressed, or crater-shaped. 

The plant and fruit have several common names, one of which, blade apple, was in use 
as early as 1697. Lemon vine, Barbados gooseberry, and West Indian gooseberry are three 
others, with various French and Dutch modifications. In Argentina it is called sacharosa, 
according to Sir Joseph Hooker (Curtis's Bot. Mag. 116: pi. 7147), but this name is prop- 
erly applied only to the P. sacharosa of Grisebach, native of Argentina, a distinct species, 
which Hooker thought identical with this. 

The berries are eaten throughout the West Indies and the leaves are used as a pot herb 
in Brazil. The species was in cultivation in the Royal Gardens of Hampton Court in 1696 
and has been at Kew ever since its establishment in 1760, but did not flower until 1889. 
In Washington we have one plant among a dozen which flowers abundantly each year; 
three plants at New York bloom annually. 

In tropical America the plant climbs over walls, rocks, and trees, and at flowering time 
is covered with showy, fragrant blossoms, followed by beautiful clusters of yellow berries. 
In La Plata it is grown sometimes for hedges (see fig. i), but its strong, almost offensive 
odor makes it objectionable for growing near habitations. 

Type locality: Tropical America. 

Distribution : West Indies and along the east and north coasts of South America ; found 
also in Florida and Mexico, but perhaps only as an escape; widely grown for its fruit. 

This species consists of several races, differing in shape and size of the leaves and in 
color of the flowers. One of these races, with ovate-orbicular leaves rounded at the base, 
had heretofore been known to us only in cultivation, but in October 1916, while collecting 
in Venezuela, Dr. Rose found this broad-leafed form common in the coastal thickets near 
Puerto Cabello. 

Pereskia lanceolata (Forster, Handb. Cact. 513. 1846), P. acardia Parmentier (Pfeiffer, 
Enum. Cact. 176. 1837), and P. brasiliensis Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 176. 1837), usually 
referred as synonyms of P. aculeata, were not formally published in the places above cited. 

The following varieties, based on the shape of the leaves, are recorded under P. aculeata: 
lanceolata Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 176. 1837); latifolia Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 202. 1834, 
name only); rotundifolia Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 176. 1837); rotunda (Suppl. Diet. Gard. 
Nicholson 589. 1901) is perhaps the same as rotundifolia. 

Pereskia aculeata rubescens Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 176. 1837) is described with glaucous- 
green leaves above, tinged with red beneath. 

Near the last belongs Pereskia godseffiana, described as a sport in the Gardeners' 
Chronicle in 1908. It is a very attractive greenhouse plant, often forming a round, 



3RITT0N AND ROSE 




M. B. Eaton del, 



1. Flowering branch of Pereskia pereskia. 4. Leafy branch of Pereskia sacharosa. 

2, 3. Fruits of the same. 5. Proliferous fruit of the same. 

^All natural size.) 



PERESKIA. 



densely branched bush, but is sometimes grown as a chmber, as a basket plant, or in the form 
of a pyramid. It is especially distinguished by the rich coloration of the leaves, which are 
variously mottled or blotched above with crimson, apricot-yellow, and green, but of a 
uniform purphsh crimson beneath. We have seen this form in the New York Botanical 
Garden, where it is grown only as a bush. It was exhibited first at Ghent, Belgium, in 
1908, and is supposed to have originated in Queensland, Australia. 

Illustrations: Stand. C)^cl. Hort. Bailey 5 : pi. 87 ; Bliihende Kakteen 2 : pi. 86; Bot. Reg. 
23: pi. 1928; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 116: pi. 7147; Gard. Chron. III. 29: f. 61 ; Plumier, Nov. PI. 
Amer. pi. 26, in part; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: f. 10; Schumann, Gesamtb. 




Fig. 2. — Pereskia autumnalis. 

Kakteen f. 109, all as P. aculeata. Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antill. ed. 2. 4: pi. 294, as Cactier a 
Fruits Feuilles; Vellozo,Fl. Flum. 5: pi. 26, as Cactus pereskia; Gard. Chron. III. 43: f. 114, 
as P. godseffiana. 

Plate II, figure i , of this volume is a flowering branch of a plant at the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden obtained from M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France, in 1901 ; figure 2, fruit 
of same plant; figure 3, fruit of another plant. Text-figure i, from a photograph taken by 
Paul G. Russell at La Plata, Argentina, in September 19 15, shows the plant used as a hedge. 

Series 2. GRANDIFOLIAE. 

In this series we include 18 species, all tropical American, both continental and insular. 
Schumann, regarding the series as a subgenus, applied to it the name Ahoplocarpus. 

2. Pereskia autumnalis (Eichlam) Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12:399. 1909. 

Pereskiopsis anttimnalis Eichlam, Monatssclir. Kakteenlc. 19: 22. 1909. 

Tree, 6 to 9 meters high, with a large, round, much branched top, the trunk usually very definite 
and 40 cm. or more in diameter, often covered with a formidable array of spines; young branches 



12 THE CACTACEAE. 

cherrv-brown, smooth; spines in the axils of the leaves usually solitary, sometimes in threes, long and 
slender, 3 to 4 cm., rarely 16 cm. long; leaves thickish, oblong to orbicular, 4 to S cm. long, rounded 
or somewhat narrowed at base, mucronatel}' tipped; flowers solitary', near the tops of the branches, 
short -peduncled; ovary covered with leafy scales; flowers 4 to 5 cm. broad; petals entire, orange- 
colored; stamens numerous; fruit globular, 4 to 5 cm. in diameter, fleshy, glabrous, bearing small, 
scattered leaves, these naked in the axils; seeds black, glossy, 4 mm. long. 

Type locality: In Guatemala. 

Distribution: Widely distributed in Guatemala, usually at an altitude of 120 to 300 
meters; but we do not know of its occurrence elsewhere. 




Fig. 3. — Pereskia autumnalis. X0.5. 



Fig. 4. — Pereskia lychnidifiora. 



The plant, so far as we know*, has no common name and no use is made of its fruit. 

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pi. 52 to 54; Safi'ord, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 
1908: pi. 10, f. i; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 21: 37, the last as Pereskiopsis autumnalis. 

Text-figures 2 and 3 are copied from the above-cited illustrations. The original 
photographs were obtained bj^ O. F. Cook in Guatemala. 

3. Pereskia lychnidifiora De Candolle, Prodr. 3:475. 1828. 

E\^dently a tree or shrub; branches cylindric, woody; leaves large, 4 to 7 cm. long, oval to 
oblong, pointed, rounded at base, sessile, fleshy, with a prominent midvein; axils of leaves each 
bearing a stout spine 2 to 5 cm. long and several long hairs; flowers large, 6 cm. broad, solitary, 
borne at the ends of short, stout branches; petals broadly cuneate, laciniate at the apex; ovary 
turbinate, bearing small leaves. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 
Distribution: ^Mexico. 



PERESKIA. 



13 



This species was described by De Candolle from Mocino and Sesse's drawing, but it has 
never been collected since, so far as we can learn. Its large flowers with laciniate petals must 
make this a very striking species and it is surprising that it has not been rediscovered. 
Schumann thought it might be the same as P. nicoyana of Costa Rica, but a study of recent 
Costa Rican collections indicates that the species are distinct. The measurements given in 
the description are taken from De Candolle's plate, and may require some modification. 
Cactus jimbriatus Mocino and Sesse (De Candolle, Prodr. 3 : 475. 1828) was published only as 
a synonym of this species. 

Illustrations: Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: pi. 18; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 
1003. f. 136; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: 545. f. 11. 

Text-figure 4 is copied from the fiirst illustration above cited. 

4. Pereskia nicoyana Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 8:468. 1902. 

Tree, usually about 8 meters high; branches rigid, stout, covered with smooth brown bark; spines 
wanting or single, long (4 cm. long), stout and porrect ; leaves in fascicles on old branches, but alternate 
on young shoots, lanceolate or oblanceolate, subsessile, the lateral veins almost parallel and some- 




FiG. 5. — Pereskia nicoyana. Xo.6. 



Fig. 6. — Pereskia zehntneri. Xo.6. 



times seeming to come from the base, acute, bright green, and somewhat shining; axils of the young 
leaves containing long white hairs; petals reddish yellow, fimbriate; ovary pyriform, bearing 8 to 12 
spreading leaves, except the uppermost ones, which are much smaller and connivent. 

Type locality: Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. 

Distribution: Costa Rica. 

The spines, hairs in the axils of the leaves, and fimbriate petals indicate a relationship to 
the little-known P. lychnidiflora. 

Mr. H. Pittier informs us that this species is common in the open coastal forests along 
the Pacific side of Costa Rica. The plant illustrated by Mr. Pittier, referred to below, has 
a long, slender trunk and is very spiny. 

According to Mr. W. E. Safford, it has long, slender spines and the habit of the Osage 
orange, and is used as a hedge plant in Costa Rica, where it is known as mateare or puipute. 

Illustration: Pittier, PI. Usuales Costa Rica pi. 2. 

Text-figure 5 was drawn from a plant obtained by Mr. C. Werckle at San Jose, Costa 
Rica, in 1912. 



14 



THE CACTACEAE. 



5. Pereskia (?) zehntneri sp. nov. 

Shrub, 2 to 3 meters high, with a central erect trunk, very spiny; branches numerous, horizontal, 
usually in whorls, sometimes as many as lo in a whorl; branches terete, green, fleshy, very easily 
detached from the stem; leaves stiff, fleshy, numerous, small, 2 to 4 cm. long, ovate to orbicular, 
acute, standing at right angles to the branches; areoles large, filled with short white wool and 
numerous slender white spines ; flowers at tops of branches, large, 7 to 8 cm. broad, bright red, appear- 
ing in November; petals broad, retuse; ovary borne in the upper end of the branch, very narrow, 
3 to 4 cm. long, bearing the usual leaves, areoles, and spines of the branches. 

Collected by Dr. Leo Zehntner (Nos. 567 and 
630, type) November 15 and 16, 1912, at Bom Jesus 
da Lapa, Bahia, Brazil, on the Rio Sao Francisco. 

This is a very rare plant and seen in only one 
locality, in soil of a pecuhar chalky formation. Liv- 
ing plants were taken by Dr. Zehntner to the Horto 
Florestal, Joazeiro, Brazil, where they grew well, and 
whence Dr. Rose obtained specimens in 1915 which 
were shipped to the United States under No. 19722. 

The plant is known in Bahia under the name 
quiabento. It is probably not a true Pereskia; it sug- 
gests in its habit and foliage some of the Mexican spe- 
cies of Pcreskiopsis, but it may represent a distinct 
genus. 

Text-figures 6 and 7 are from the type plant 
above cited. 

6. Pereskia sacharosa Grisebach, Abh. Ges. Wiss. Gottin- 

gen 24: 141. 1879. 

Pereskia amapola Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 938. 189S. 
Pereskia argeniina Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 938. 1898. 

Small tree or shrub, 6 to 8 meters high ; branches green 
and smooth, but in age becoming yellowish or light brown ; 
leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, 8 to 12 cm. long, cuneate 
at base, more or less pointed at apex; j^oung areole with i to 
3 spines, the longest 5 cm. long, the others when present 
not over half as long, all acicular and dark in age; older 
areoles often with 6 or more spines; pedicels sometimes 10 
mm. long; flowers in terminal clusters, either white or 
rose-colored and very showy, 8 cm. broad, open at midday; sepals about 8, i or 2 petal- like, the others 
scale-like, the outer sepals and upper scales bearing long hairs; petals 8, rose-colored, oblanceolate, 
3 cm. long; stamens free from the petals, numerous, unequal, erect; filaments, style, and stigma- 
lobes white ; o\'nles borne on the lower part of ovary ; ovary bearing small leaves, their axils filled with 
short wool and occasionally bearing a spine ; fruit hard, 2.5 to 4 cm. in diameter, more or less tapering 
at base, many-seeded, leafless or nearly so, sometimes proliferous. 

Type locality: Cobos, Oran, Argentina. 

Distribution: Paraguay and Argentina. 

Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 765. 1898) gives Opitntia sacharosa Grisebach as a 
synonym of this species, but erroneously, since it w^as never taken up by Grisebach as an 
Opuntia. The Index Kewensis refers this species to P. aculeata, doubtless following 
Hooker's references in Curtis's Botanical Magazine for 1890 in regard to Argentine plants, 
which even then were little known. 

The common name of this plant in Argentina is sacharosa. It is sometimes used as 
a hedge plant. 

Plate II, figure 4, represents a leafy branch of a plant given to the New York 
Botanical Garden by Frank Weinberg in 1903; figure 5 shows its fruit. 




-Pereskia zehntneri. Photograph 
by Paul G. Russell. 



PI^RESKIA. 



15 



7. Pereskia moorei sp. nov. 

A much branched shrub about i meter high, covered with brown bark; branches stout; leaves 
orbicular or obovate-oblong, rounded or apiculate at the apex, somewhat cuneately narrowed at the 
base, thick and fleshy, 4 to 8 cm. long, 3.5 to 6 cm. wide; areoles suborbicular, 4.5 mm. in diameter, 
the wool gray; spines at each areole mostly 2 to 4, very unequal, the longest 7.5 cm. long or less, ashy 
gray, blackish toward the apex; flowers purplish red, about 4.5 cm. long; ovary few-leafed, its leaves 
obovate-oblong, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, bearing i to 3 black spines about 5 mm. long in the axils; sepals 
narrowly oblong-obovate, bluntly acute, 2.5 cm. long, bearing long bristles in their axils; petals 
obovate, obtuse, 3.5 cm. long, rose-colored; stamens about 2 cm. long; areoles on the ovary large, 
filled with a mass of short, white wool and bearing an occasional short spine; fruit not known. 




Fig. 8. — Pereskia moorei. X0.66. 



Fig. 9. — Pereskia guamacho. 



Described from the specimen preserved in the herbarium of the British Museum of 
Natural History collected at Corumba, Brazil, by Spencer Moore, No. 955, who has kindly, 
furnished us with data for this description, together with a sketch of the type specimen. 
Specimens were also collected at Corumba by F. C. Hoehne in 1908, No. 4863, who sup- 
posed it to be P. sacharosa. 

Figure 8 is from a photograph of an herbarium specimen from Matto Grosso, Brazil, 
received from F. C. Hoehne in 19 15. 

8. Pereskia weberiana Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 762. 1898. 

Shrubby, much branched, glabrous, 2 to 3 meters high, the slender round branches about 3 mm. 
thick; leaves ovate to elliptic, about 3 cm. long and 2 cm. wide, sessile, acute at the apex, obtuse at 
the base ; areoles circular, slightly elevated, the wool short, whitish, fading brown ; spines 3 to 6 at the 
lower areoles, solitary at the upper, 2 cm. long or less, terete, acicular, yellow or horn-colored; flowers 
clustered, white, about i cm. long or less; ovary about 2 mm. long, bearing a few white, woolly areoles; 
outer segments of the perianth triangular, acute, woolly at the axils, the inner spatulate to obovate; 
stamens a little longer than the petals; stigma-lobes 3 or 4, erect. 



i6 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Type locality: Tunari Mountains,* Bolivia, at 1,400 meters altitude. 

Distribution: Bolivia, known only from the type locality. 

This species is said to flower in ]May. 

The description has been drawn from a cotype in the herbarium of the New York 
Botanical Garden, and from Professor Schumann's original account of the species in his 
Gesamtbeschreibung der Kakteen, p. 762. Dr. Kuntze obtained the specimens during his 
botanical exploration of Bohvia in 1S92. The species was named, but not described, by 
Professor Schumann in Dr. Kuntze's Revisio Genera Plantarum (3-: 107. 1893). 

The material preserved is too imperfect to enable us to give an illustration of this 
plant. 




Fig. 10. — Pereskia guamacho. Xo.8. 

9. Pereskia guamacho Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 938. 189S. 

Plant ver}" spinv, usually a small shrub i to 3 meters high, but often a tree 10 meters high 
with a trunk up to 4 dm. in diameter and 3 meters long or more below the much branched top; 
areoles rather prominent, especiallv in age often standing out like small knobs on the branches, filled 
with brown felt, at first usually with only i to 4 spines along with a few short accessory ones, but in 
age often with 20 spines or more; spines somewhat divaricate, rigid, brown, the longer ones often 
4 cm. long; leaves on voung branches solitarA-, but on old wood growing in fascicles, acute, lanceolate 
to ovate or obovate \\-ith cuneate bases, usually about 3 cm. long, but sometimes 5 to 9 cm. long by 
3 to 6 cm. broad, fleshy; flowers probably solitary-, but so thickly set along the branches as to appear 
almost spicate, sessile, bright vellow, 4 cm. broad; ovar\- covered with small, lanceolate-acuminate 
leaves, these hairj' in the axils; stamens numerous; fruit globular, about 2 cm. in diameter, becoming 
naked, said to be orange-colored and edible; seeds black, flattened, 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Basin of the Orinoco, Venezuela. 

Distribution: Venezuela mainland and on ^Margarita Island. 

This plant is very common not only in the flat land along the coast of Venezuela but 
also in the mountains. It is also ^videl}^ grown in and about yards, for the leaves are 
supposed to have medicinal properties, and when properly grown as a hedge it forms a 

*Timari Mountains, just northwest of Cochabamba, Bolivia, about at the site of Sacaba. 



PERESKIA. 



17 



most formidable protection. In the grazing regions of the country and along railways 
where wire fencing is employed, the trunks and larger branches are used for posts and 
smaller branches for intervening supports ; these posts and stays, however, do not die, but 
in time grow to considerable size. 

Although the wood, especially the branches, has little strength or endurance, it is used 
somewhat for making hanging baskets for orchids. It is known everywhere as guamacho, 
which was taken by Weber as the specific name for the plant. 

Figures 9 and 10 are from photographs taken by Mr. H. Pittier at Caracas, Venezuela, 
in 1913. 

10. Pereskia colombiana sp. nov. 

A tree, 6 to 1 1 meters high, or sometimes smaller and shrub-like; main stem covered with clus- 
ters of slender spines, 2.5 to 7 cm. long; branches glabrous, either bearing spines or naked, covered 
with light-brown bark; areoles small, woolly; leaves oblong to obliquely 
orbicular, short-petioled, unarmed at base, often broad above, usually 
acute, probably fleshy, glabrous, 4 cm. long or less; flowers bright yel- 
low, opening about midday, borne on the old wood, solitary, sessile, 4 cm. 
broad; ovary covered with small ovate, acute leaves, these hairy in the 
axils; sepals oblong, obtuse, about i cm. long, entire on the margins; 
stamens numerous; fruit not known. 

Collected by Herbert H. Smith at low altitudes near Santa 
Marta, Colombia, in April, 1898' to 1905 (No. 1886, type), and from 
the same locality by Justin Goudot in 1844, and by Francis W. 
Pennell in 1918 (No. 4765). 

Mr. Smith remarks that the leaves are deciduous in March or 
April, and that the tree is leafless when in bloom in the spring. 

Figure 1 1 is copied from a drawing of an herbarium specimen 
collected by Herbert H. Smith at Ronda, Santa Marta, Colombia. 

11. Pereskia tampicana Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 939. 1898. 

Shrub; branches often without spines or the spines several, needle 
like, black, 2 to 3 cm. long; areoles globular, appearing as knobs along the 
stem; leaves about 5 cm. long, petioled; flowers 2.5 cm. long; petals entire, 
rose-colored. , „ , . , 

hiG. u. — Pereskia colom- 

Type locality: Near Tampico, Mexico. '''''"''• ^°-^- 

Distribution: Eastern Mexico, but known only from the type locality. 

P. tampicana is not well known and has been reported only from Tampico, Mexico. 
Dr. E- Palmer made a careful search for it some years ago at the type locality, but in vain. 
In 19 1 2 Dr. Rose examined the two small specimens of the species preserved in the 
herbarium of the Royal Botanical Garden of Berlin, and is convinced that it is a Pereskia 
and not a Pcreskiopsis. 

Pereskia rosea A. Dietrich (Allg. Gartenz. 19: 153. 185 1; Opuniia rosea Schumann, 
Gesamtb. Kakteen 764. 1898) is supposed to have come from Mexico, but we have not 
been able to identify it ; Schumann refers to it in a note under P. tampicana. Here he also 
takes up Pereskia zinniaeflora De Candolle (Prodr. 3 : 475. 1828). Both these specific names 
are much older than P. tampicana, and should either of them be found identical with it, the 
name P. tampicana would be rejected. 

12. Pereskia bleo (HBK.) De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828. 




Cactus bleo Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 69. 
Pereskia panamensis Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 739. 1898. 



1823. 



A tree, sometimes 7 meters high ; trunk 10 cm. in diameter or less, when old becoming naked, but 
young shoots often bear large fascicles of spines (sometimes 25 or more); young branches red, leafy, 
its spines in fascicles of 5 and 6, but young shoots often bear but i to 4, black, acicular, up to 2.5 cm. 



i8 



THE CACTACEAE. 



long; leaves thin, oblong to oblanceolate, 1 6 to 21 cm. long, 4 to 5.5 cm. wide, acuminate, cuneate at 
base, tapering into petioles 2 to 3.5 cm. long; areoles circular, bearing when young a little wool, but 
soon becoming naked; calyx turbinate, somewhat angled, naked, with linear deciduous sepals; 
petals 12 to 15, rose-colored, obovate, 3.5 cm. long; style longer than the stamens, red, thick; stigma- 
lobes 5 to 7; ovary depressed; fruit yellow, truncate, 5 to 6 cm. long; seeds 6 mm. long, black, 
shining. 

Type locality: Near Badillas, on the Magdalena River, Colombia, South America. 

Distribution: Northwestern South America and throughout Panama. 

This species was collected by Bonpland during Humboldt's trip through the New 
World and was described and pubHshed by Kunth in 1823. Dr. Rose examined two of 
the original specimens in the herbarium of the Museum of Natural History at Paris, one 
being the specimen given by Bonpland and the other the specimen in the Kunth Herbarium, 




Fig. 12. — Pereskia bleo. 

which is kept distinct from the general herbarium. The only other representatives of this 
species from South America which we have seen are a specimen in the herbarium of the 
same museum, which was collected by Justin Goudot in Colombia in 1844, and one collected 
in 1852, by I. F. Holton at San Juancito, Colombia, preserved in the Torrey Herbarium 
and one recently brought by Francis W. Pennell from Boca Verde, Rio Sinu, Colombia. 

Heretofore Pereskia bleo has been considered one of the most common species, for 
many living collections as well as herbaria contain many specimens under that name; the 
plant which has been known as P. bleo, however, is P. grandifolia Haworth, now known to 
be a native of Brazil and not found wild in Colombia. 

Since determining that the so-called Pereskia bleo of our gardens and of Brazil is not 
the true P. bleo of Humboldt, we have become convinced that P. panamensis Weber is the 
same as P. bleo; Mr. Pittier's exhaustive exploration of Panama has strengthened our con- 
clusions, for he has traced this species as far south as the Colombian border. Humboldt's 
plant came from northern Colombia. 



PERESKIA. 



19 



In Panama the plant is known under the name naju de Culebra. 

Illustrations: All illustrations referred to this species which we have examined are 
cited under P. grandifolia. 

Figure 12 is from a photograph taken by Henry Pittier, near Chepo, Panama, October 
30, 1911. 

13. Pereskia bahiensis Giirke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18:86. 1908. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 8 meters high, with a more or less definite trunk, sometimes i meter or 
more long and 1.5 to 2 dm. in diameter, and a large, rounded, much branched top; spines on new 
growth wanting, but on old wood 5 to 40 at an areole, some of them 5 to 9 cm. long; young branches 
green; leaves lanceolate, 6 to 9 cm. long, deciduous, somewhat 
pointed, narrowed at base into short petioles; flowers in small 
panicles, rose-colored; ovary bearing large leaves with cuneate 
bases ; fruit often proliferous, yellowish when mature, more or less 
irregularly angled, bearing large leaves 3 to 4 cm. long, which ulti- 
mately fall away; seeds black, oblong, 5 mm. long. 

Type locality: In the southeast catinga between Rio 
Paraguagu at Tambury and Rio das Contas at Caldeirao, 
Bahia, Brazil. 

Distribution: Dry parts of eastern Brazil. 

This species is very common in the dry regions of Bahia; 
and is often planted for hedges about small towns. The fruit 
is proliferous ; as many as eight were found hanging from a 
single peduncle; it is said 
to be edible, but while 
half-ripe is very astrin- 
gent. The perfect fruits 
can seldom be found, 
because the birds peck 
into them for the large 
black seeds. 

Called in Brazil, 
according to Dr. Leo 
Zehntner, Iniabanto, 
Espinha de Sao Antonio, 
and Flor de Cera. He 
also says: "I think 
Iniabanto is the best and ought to be generahzed. It is derived from Iniabo = Okra = 
Hibiscus esculentus, without doubt because the leaves of the pereskias are sometimes eaten 
by people, giving a mucilaginous dish like that of the Hibiscus fruit." 

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 87. 

Figure 13 is from a specimen, preserved in formalin, collected by J. N. Rose near 
Machado Portello, Bahia, Brazil, in June 1915 ; figure 14 is from a plant from the same place; 
figure 15 is from a photograph obtained by J. N. Rose at Barrinha, Bahia, in June 1915. 

14. Pereskia grandifolia Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 85. 1819. 

Cactus rosa Vellozo, FI. Flum. 206. 1825. 

Pereskia ochnacarpa Miquel, Bull. Sci. Phys. Nat. Neerl. 48. 1838. 

Tree or shrub, 2 to 5 meters high, usually with a definite, very spiny, woody trunk up to i dm. 
in diameter, the branches fleshy, glabrous, elongated, usually with i or 2 acicular spines at the 
areoles; leaves oblong, obtuse or acute, somewhat narrowed at base, 8 to 15 cm. long; petioles short; 
inflorescence terminal, usually few-flowered; 3.5 to 4 cm. broad; sepals green; petals rose-colored, 
sometimes white; filaments red; style and stigma-lobes white ; ovary leaf-bearing; fruit described 
as large, pear-shaped, many-seeded; seeds black. 




Figs. 13, 14. — Pereskia bahiensis. X0.5. 



the; cactaceae. 



Type locality: In Brazil. 

Distribution: Brazil, widely planted and subspontaneous throughout the West Indies. 

The plant is extensively used for hedges in tropical America. It is planted by pushing 
cuttings into the ground, its spiny stems soon forming a capital barrier. 

Illustrations: Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 5: pi. 27, as Cactus rosa. Amer. Garden 11: 462; 
Bliihende Kakteen 3: 137; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 63: pi. 3478; Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey i: 
f. 309; Diet. Hort. Bois f. 678; Edwards's Bot. Mag. 17: pi. 1473; Engler and Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. 3^": f. 71; Gard. Chron. III. 20: f. 75; Karsten, Deutsch. Fl. 887. f. 9; 
Martins, Fl. Bras. 4-: pi. 63; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. i: pi. 30; Reichen- 
bach, Fl. Exot. pi. 328, all as Pereskia blco. 



.'< t 4- 




Fig. 15. — Pereskia bahiensis. Photograph by Paul G. Russell. 

Plate III, figure i, represents a flowering branch of a plant obtained by N. I,. Britton 
on St. Christopher in 1901. Figure 16 is from a photograph of the plant used as a hedge 
near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

15. Pereskia zinniaeflora De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828. 

Shrub; leaves oval to oblong, 2 to 4 cm. long, acuminate, cuneate at base; spines on young 
branches i or 2 at an areole, on old branches 4 or 5, all short, less than i cm. long; flowers broad, 
5 cm. wide, rose-red; petals entire, obtuse or retuse; style and stamens very short; ovary truncate, 
bearing small, stalked leaves. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 
Distribution: Mexico. 

Nicholson associates this species with Pereskia bleo, that is, P. grandifolia, but the 
relationship is not close. The measurements of the flower given above are taken from 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Baton del 



1 . Flowering branch of Pereskia grandifolia. 2. Leafy branch of Pereskiopsis chapistle. 

3. 'Li&dAy \)X2^XQh. oi Pereskiopsis pUitache. (All natural size.) 



PERESKIA. 21 

De Candolle's plate cited below, and may not be quite correct. This species, so far as 
we are aware, has not been again collected. 

Cactus zinniaeflora Mocino and Sesse (De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828) was given 
as a synonym. 

Illustrations: Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 135; Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 
pi. 17; Riimpler, Sukkulenten f. 127; Suppl. Diet. Gard. Nicholson f. 624. 

Figure 17 is a copy of the second illustration above cited. 




-Pereskia grandifolia. Exposed b 
shown above the other foliage. 



Fig. 17. — Pereskia zinniaeflora. 



16. Pereskia horrida (HBK.) De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828. 

Cactus horridus Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 70. 1823. 

Tree, 4 to 6 meters high, with terete slender branches ; spines often solitary, sometimes 2 or 
3, slender, dark in color, unequal, the longest 2 to 3 cm. long; leaves solitary, alternate, 
narrowly oblong, 3 cm. long, subsessile, entire, glabrous; flowers 3 to 5 together in upper axils, 
about lo mm. long; calyx described as 5-toothed and persistent; petals 5 or 6, red, lanceolate, 
spreading; fruit fleshy, many-seeded. 

Type locality: "Ad flumen Marahon prov. Jaen de Bracamoros." (Schumann says 
this locality is in Peru.) 

Distribution: Northwestern South America. 

The above description is compiled from Kunth's original description and from notes 
made by Dr. Rose upon the type material in the herbarium of the Museum of Natural 
History at Paris, in which there are specimens from both Bonpland and Kunth. Both of 
these sheets lack flowers and fruit, and only Kunth's bears leaves. So far as we are aware. 



22 



Th^ CACTACEA^. 



no other material of this species has been collected since Humboldt's time except that 
in 1912 Dr. Weberbauer wrote that he had visited the INIarafion, at Humboldt's locahty, 
and had collected a single specimen, which had been sent to the Botanical Museum at Berlin. 

17. Pereskia cubensis Britton and Rose, Torreya 12: 13. 1912. 

A tree, 4 meters high, with a trunk 2.5 dm. in diameter and a large, flat, much branched top; 
bark brownish, rather smooth, marked here and there by black bands (representing the old areoles) , 
these broader than high; young branches slender, smooth, with Ught-brown bark; spines from young 
areoles 2 or 3, needle-like, brownish, 2 to 4 cm. long, from old areoles ver\' numerous (25 or more), 
and much longer (5 cm. or more long) ; leaves several at each areole, sessile, bright green on both 
sides, oblanceolate to oblong or obovate, i to 4 cm. long, 10 to 12 mm. wide, acute at both ends or 
obtuse at the apex, fleshy, the midvein broad, the lateral veins very obscmre; peduncle very short, 
jointed near the base, bearing i to 3 leaf-like bracts; flowers terminal and also axillar^^ solitary; sepals 
5, obtuse or rounded, ovate-oblong to orbicular, unequal, 7 to 9 mm. long, the larger ones with broad 
purple margins; petals 8, about 15 mm. long, deep reddish purple, obovate-elliptic, roimded; stamens 
manv, about 6 mm. long; anthers light yellow; ovarj^ turbinate, naked, spineless; fruit not seen. 





Fig. iS. — Pereskia cubensis. 



-Pereskia cubensis. 
X0.5. 



Type locality: In Cuba. 

Distribution: Near the southern coast of eastern and central Cuba. 

The tree is abundant on the plain between Guantanamo and Caimanera, Oriente, 
where the type specimens were collected ; it also inhabits coastal thickets at Ensenada de 
Mora, in southwestern Oriente, the plants of this colony bearing leaves with less acute 
apices than those of the typical ones. A single plant was also observed on La Vigia Hill, 
at Trinidad, province of Santa Clara, which had shorter and smaller leaves than either of 
the other two. The description of the flower is from one of a plant collected by N. L. 
Britton and J. F. Cowell at Ensenada de Mora, southern Oriente, Cuba, in 1912, and 
brought to the New York Botanical Garden, where it flowered in IMay 191 7. 

Dr. Rose finds that the plant in De Candolle's herbarium which represents the Pereskia 
portiilacifolia of the Prodromus is undoubtedly Pereskia cubensis. It was collected as 
early as 1821. 

Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 10: f. 22. 

Figure 18 is from a photograph taken by Dr. M. A. Howe in the colony of this tree 
at NuevaUches, near Guantanamo, Cuba, studied by Dr. N. L. Britton in 1909; figure 19 
represents a leafy branch of the same plant. 



PERESKIA. 23 

18. Pereskia portulacifolia (Linnaeus) Haworth in De Candolle, Prodr. 3 : 475. 1828. 

Cactus portulacifolius Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 469. 1753- 

A tree, 5 to 6.6 meters high, the branches terete, very spiny; spines acicular, sometimes almost 
bristle-like, 2 cm. long, on old wood in clusters of 7 to 9, but on new growth usually solitary; leaves 




Pereskia portulacifolia. Xo.66. 



only I cm. long or less, cuneate at base, often retuse at apex; peduncles short but definite, 2 to 5 mm. 
long, bearing several small spatulate to broadly obovate leaves; flowers rose-colored, about 3 cm. 
broad; sepals about 3, ovate to shortly oblong, obtuse, fleshy, 8 mm. or less long; petals oblong, about 
2 cm. long, thin, obtuse; ovary small, truncate, naked or bearing a single small leaf; immature fruit 
hard, depressed, 2 cm. long, 2.5 cm. broad, smooth, naked or with a single small leaf 5 to 6 mm. long, 
with a broad scar at the top 8 to 10 mm. in diameter; fruit globular, naked; seeds large, black. 

Type locality: Tropical America, doubtless Hispaniola. 

Distribution: Haiti. 

The usual reference for the first publication of the plant under Pereskia is Haworth's 
Synopsis (Syn. PI. Succ. 199. 1812), but it was not here formally transferred from the 
genus Cactus. His statement is: "Cactus portulacifolius is another species of this genus." 

Our knowledge of this plant is drawn from the illustration below cited and descriptions, 
and from a fragmentary specimen collected by W. Buch near Gonaives, Haiti, in 1900, 



24 The cacTace;aE. 

where it grows on dry calcareous rocks, and one obtained by Paul Bartsch at Tomaseau in 
April 19 1 7. Dr. Bartsch states that the flower reminds one very much of a rose and the 
fruit is pendent like a green plum. 

Lunan in 1814 (Hort. Jam. 2: 236) described a tree nearly a foot in diameter, growing 
at a residence near Spanish Town, Jamaica, stating that it differed from Pereskia by the 
absence of tufts of leaves on its fruit. His description points to Pereskia portulacifolia, 
but nothing is known of the species in Jamaica at the present day; according to Grisebach, 
Macfadyen recorded it as cultivated there. 

Illustration: Plumier, PL Amer. ed. Burmann pi. 197, f. i. 

Figure 20 is copied from the illustration above cited. 
19. Pereskia conzattii sp. nov. 

Tree, 8 to 10 meters high; bark of stems and branches brown and smooth; leaves orbicular to 
obovate, acute, i to 2.5 cm. long; areoles small, with short white wool and a few long hairs; spines 2 
to 6 on young branches, 10 to 20 on main stem, acicular, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, at first yellowish brown, 
dark brown in age; flowers not known; ovary bearing small scales; fruit naked, pear-shaped, more 
or less stalked at base, 3 to 4 cm. long; seeds black, glossy, 3 mm. long, with a small white hilum. 

Collected at Salina Cruz and Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico, in February and April, 
1913, by Professor C. Conzatti; probably also in Guatemala. 

Species Unknown to Us. 

Pereskia affinis and P. haageana Meinshausen, Wochenschr. Gartn. Pflanz. 2: 118. 1859. 
Pereskia cruenta, P. grandiflora, and P.{f) plantaginea, the first two given as synonyms 
and the last merely mentioned by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. pp. 176, 177, and 179) can not be 
identified. The same is true of P. grandispina Forbes (Journ. Hort. Tour Germ. 159. 1837). 

Tribe 2. OPUNTIEAE. 

Plants usually very fleshy, never epiphytic, branched (usually much branched), one to many- 
jointed; joints diverse in structure, terete, compressed, or much flattened, with irregularly scattered 
areoles, ribless, except one species; leaves usually caducous, but in some species more or less persist- 
ent, small or minute, subulate or cylindric, in one genus broad and flat; areoles usually glochidif- 
erous (except in Maihiienia; in Grusonia only those of the ovary), mostly spine-bearing; spines 
usually slender, straight or nearly so, sometimes sheathed ; corolla mostly rotate (sepals and petals 
in Nopalea erect) ; flowers sessile, diurnal, one from an areole; fruit usually a fleshy berrj^ sometimes 
dry, rarely capsular; seed white or black, globular, flattened or even winged, with a thin or hard 
testa; cotyledons large, elongated. 

This tribe contains 7 genera and at least 300 species, various in habit, flower, fruit, 
and seeds. It is more closely related to the Pereskieae than to the Cereeae. The following 
characters possessed by some or all genera of the Opuntieae are wanting in the Cereeae: 

Leaves on the stem (see also Harrisia and Hylocereus) ; glochids in the areoles; sensi- 
tive stamens; sheathed spines; winged, white, and bony-covered seeds; the separation of 
withering calyx, stamens, and style from the ovary; areoles irregularly distributed over the 
stem in all the genera except Grusonia, in which they are arranged on ribs as in many of 
the Cereeae. 

The tribe is distributed throughout the cactus regions of the Americas, but the genera, 
except Opuntia, are localized. 

Key to Genera. 

Leaves broad andflat i. Pereskiopsis 

Leaves subulate or cylindric. 

Seeds broadly winged .■ 2. Pterocactus 

Seeds wingless. 

Stamens much longer than the petals. 

Petals erect; joints flat 3. Nopalea 

Petals recurved ; joints terete 4. Tacinga 

Stamens shorter than the petals. 
Joints flat to terete, not ribbed. 

Testa of the seed thin, black, shining 5. Maihuenia 

Testa thick, pale, dull 6. Opuntia 

Joints terete, longitudinally ribbed 7. Grusonia 



PERESKIOPSIS. 25 

1. PERESKIOPSIS Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 331. 1907. 

Trees and shrubs, in habit and foliage similar to Pereskia; old trunk forming a solid woody 
cylinder covered with bark and resembling the ordinary dicotyledonous stem; areoles circular, 
spine-bearing or sometimes spineless, also bearing hairs, wool, and usually glochids; flowers similar 
to those of Opuntia; ovary sessile (one species described as pedunculate), with leaves at the areoles 
(except in one species) ; fruit red, juicy; seeds bony, few, covered with matted hairs. 

Type species: Opuntia hrandcgeei Schumann. 

The plants are common in hedges and thickets of Mexico and Guatemala. 

As to the number of species to be recognized in this genus we are uncertain ; about 1 6 
have been described. In our first discussion of the genus {op. cit.) we recognized 11 
species, including several known only from descriptions. There now seem to be at least 
ID species, of which 8 are in cultivation in Washington and New York. Two of the plants 
were described, as early as 1828, as species of Pereskia, and here they remained with 2 
later-described species until, in 1898, Dr. A. Weber transferred them to Opuntia, placing 
them in a new subgenus, Pereskiopuntia. The same year Dr. Karl Schumann adopted 
Weber's conclusions, publishing his treatment of the subgenus and assigning 5 species to it. 

In its large leaves and woody, spiny stems, this group suggests Pereskia, but it has 
glochids and different flowers, fruit, and seeds ; in flowers, fruit, seeds, and glochids it re- 
sembles Opuntia, but on account of habit and foliage must be excluded from that genus . 

In view of these differences, Britton and Rose in 1907 established the genus Peres - 
kiopsis and listed 1 1 species, 4 of which had been originally described as species of Pereskia 
and 5 as species of Opuntia. Since then we have grown most of these plants along with 
the pereskias and opuntias so as to compare them. Unfortunately we are not able to 
describe all the species fully, for they have never been known to flower in cultivation, 
although some of the species, at least, bloom freely in the wild state. The leaves on the 
lower parts of shoots are sometimes broader and shorter than those on the upper parts, 
and in greenhouse cultivation the leaves of some species are narrower than when the plants 
are growing under natural conditions. 

The generic name is from the Greek and signifies resembling Pereskia. 

Key to Species. 

stems, ovary, and often the leaves more or less pubescent. 

Normal leaves long-acuminate, narrow, with narrow cuneate bases i. P. velutina 

Normal leaves abruptly pointed, somewhat cuneate at base 2. P. diguetii 

Stems, ovary, and leaves glabrous. 

Leaves, at least some of them, not much longer than broad. 

Fruit without leaves, at least so figured i- P- opunliaeflora 

Fruit with leaves subtending the areoles. 
Areoles white, with few glochids or none. 

Leaves orbicular or nearly so, rounded or apiculate 4. P. rolundifolia 

Leaves, at least the upper ones, obovate or elliptic, acute at both ends S- P- chapistle 

Areoles dark, filled with numerous brown glochids 6. P. porleri 

Leaves, at least some of them, twice as long as broad or longer. 

Leaves spatulate 1- P- spathulata 

Leaves elliptic to oblong, or obovate. 

Leaves pale green, glaucous 8. P. pititache 

Leaves bright gr.en, shining. 

Glochids few, yellow 9. P. aquosa 

Glochids many, brown 10. P. kellermanii 

1. Pereskiopsis velutina Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 333. 1907. 

Stems weak and spreading, forming compact bushes 9 to 12 dm. high or sometimes higher; 
old stems with cherry-brown bark; young branches green, borne nearly at right angles to the old 
stem, velvety-pubescent ; areoles bearing long white hairs and several short spines and some glochids ; 
leaves elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 2 to 6 cm. long by 1.5 to 2.5 cm. broad, acuminate, or acute at both 
ends, dull green, more or less velvety-puberulent on both surfaces, when very young brighter green; 
flowers sessile on the second-year branches; ovary obovoid to oblong, pubescent, bearing large 



26 



THE CACTACEAE. 



leaves and areoles similar to those of the stem; leaves on ovary spreading or ascending and persisting 
after the flower falls; flower-bud (above the ovary) 2 to 3 cm. long, acute; sepals green or deep red 
tinged with yellow ; petals bright yellow. 

Type locality: In hedges about city of Ouere- 
taro, Mexico. 

Distribution: Table-lands of central Mexico. 

This plant is called by the natives nopaleta and 
cola de diablo. 

Illustration: Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: pi. 44. 

Figure 21 is from a photograph of type plant. 

2. PeresMopsis diguetii (Weber) Britton and Rose, 

Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 332. 1907. 

Opuniia diguetii Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: 
166. 1898. 

Tall shrub, larger than the preceding species; old 
stems reddish; branches pubescent; areoles when young 
filled with long, white, cobwebby hairs, when old" large 
and filled with short black wool ; leaves elliptic to obovate, 
3 to 5 cm. long, usually abruptly pointed, more or less 
cuneate at the base ; spines usually i , rarely as many as 
4, at first nearly black, in time becoming lighter, some- 
times nearly 7 cm. long; glochids brownish, not very 
abundant; flowers yellow; fruit 3 cm. long, red, pubes- 
cent, its areoles often bearing spines as well as glochids ; 
seeds white, 5 mm. broad, covered with matted hairs. 

Type locality: Near Guadalajara, Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

Common in hedges near Guadalajara and 
Oaxaca, Mexico. According to W. E. Safford, it 
is known in Guadalajara as tasajillo and alfilerillo. 

Figure 22 represents a leafy branch of a plant 
collected by W. E. Safford in Guadalajara, Mexico, 
in 1907. 

3. Pereskiopsis opuntiaefiora (De Candolle) Britton and 

Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50:332. 1907. 

Pereskia optintiaeflora De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828. 
Opuniia golziana Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 654. 1898. 

Shrubby, glabrous; leaves obovate, mucronate, 
often in pairs; spines, when present, solitary, elongated, 
2 to 3 times as long as the leaves; flowers subterminal, 
short-pedunculate; petals numerous, ovate, subacute, 
reddish yellow, arranged in two series; ovary leafless, 
bearing areoles filled with glochids. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Known only from the original 
description. 

This description is drawn from De Candolle's 
original description and illustration ; otherwise nothing is known of the plant. 

This species, as illustrated by De Candolle, is unlike anything we know. In its pedun- 
culate fruit it is like Pereskia, but its leafless ovary and its areoles filled with glochids would 
exclude it from that genus. In a general way the illustration looks more like a Pereskiopsis, 
and we suspect that the delineation is incorrect or that the leaves had fallen away from the 
specimen drawn. 




Pereskiopsis velutina. 



pErEskiopsis. 27 

Cactus opuniiaeflorus Mocino and Sesse (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 178. 1837) was published 
as a synonym of Pereskia opuniiaeflora. 

Illustrations: Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 137; Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 
pi. 19, both as Pereskia opuniiaeflora. 

Figm^e 23 is copied from the second illustration above cited. 

4. PeresMopsis rotundifolia (De Candolle) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50:333. 1907. 

Pereskia rotundifolia De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828. 
Opmitia rotundifolia Schumann, Gesaratb. Kakteen 652. 1898. 

Stem thick, more or less woody; branches slender, glabrous; leaves nearly orbicular, mucronate; 
spines elongated, solitary ; flowers 3 cm. broad, borne on the second-year branches ; petals reddish 
yellow, broad, with mucronate tips; ovary leafy; fruit obovoid, red, leafy. 






Fig. 22. — Pereskiopsis Fig. 23. — Pereskiopsis opuntiae- Fig. 24. — Pereskiopsis 

diguetii. X0.5. flora. X0.5. rotundifolia. X0.5. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Known only from the original description and, apparently, from Oaxaca, 

Cactus frutescens Mocifio and Sesse (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 178. 1837) and Cactus 
rotundifolia Mocino and Sesse (De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828) were given as synonyms 
of Pereskia rotundifolia, but were never published. 

Illustrations: Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: pi. 20, as Pereskia rotundifolia; Schu- 
mann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 99, as Opuntia rotundifolia. 

Figure 24 is copied from the first illustration above cited; figure 25 is from a pho- 
tograph taken by Dr. MacDougal at Oaxaca, Mexico, in 1906. 

5. Pereskiopsis chapistle (Weber) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 331. 1907. 
Opuntia chapistle Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 388. 1904. 

A large, branching shrub, sometimes 3 to 4 meters high, the branches widely spreading, glab- 
rous; spines single, white, long (6 cm. long), very stout; leaves fleshy, somewhat persistent, obovate 
to elliptic, sometimes nearly orbicular, 3 to 4 cm. long, glabrous; flowers yellow; fruit red. 

Type locality: In Oaxaca. 

Distribution: Oaxaca and perhaps Morelos, Mexico. 

Illustration: Bull. Soc. Nat. Acclim. France 52: f. 10, as Opuntia chapistle. 
Plate III, figure 2, represents a leafy branch of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at 
Cuernavaca, Mexico, in 1906. 



28 



THE CACTACEAE. 




Fig. 25. — Pereskiopsis, apparently P. rotundifolia, with other cacti in the background. 



6. Pereskiopsis ported (Brandegee) Britten and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 332. 1907. 

Opuntia porleri Brandegee in Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 899. 1898. 

Opuntia brandegeei Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 653. 1898. 

Pereskiopsis brandegeei Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 331. 1907. 

Stems stout, woody, branching, 6 to 12 dm. high, 3 cm. in diameter, the old areoles bearing 3 
to 8 stout spines 3 to 5 cm. long, but on the trunk Often 15 to 20 spines from an areole; first and sec- 
ond year branches usually short, spineless, or with i or 2 brown spines, those of the first year green, 
the second-year brownish ; areoles bearing numerous small, brown glochids ; 
leaves sessile, 2 to 3 cm. long, obovate, acute, fleshy, in greenhouse speci- 
mens sometimes much narrower ; flowers about 4 cm. in diameter; sepals 
few, spatulate, short; petals few, yellow, broad, entire; fruit joint-like, 
oblong, 4 to 5 cm. long, orange-colored, with large areoles bearing brown 
glochids ; seeds i or few, covered with white deciduous hairs. 

Type locality: In Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Distribution: Common in the Cape region of Lower Cali- 
fornia and in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Figure 26 shows a leafy twig of a plant sent in 1904 from 
the Missouri Botanical Garden to the New York Botanical Garden 
as Opuntia brandegeei, which had been received by the Missouri Bo- 
tanical Garden from Mrs. Katharine Brandegee in 190 1. 

7. Pereskiopsis spathulata (Otto) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 

50:333. 1907. 

Pereskia spalhulala Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 176. 1837. 
Opuntia spathulata Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: 165. 1898. 




Fig. 26. — Pereskiopsis 
porteri. Xo.66. 



Branching shrub, i to 2 meters high; branches few, glaucescent, deflexed; leaves spatulate, 
thick, green, 2.5 to 5 cm. long; areoles distant, woolly, hairy when young; spines i or 2, rigid, white 
below, 2.5 cm. long; glochids brown, borne in the upper part of the areoles; flowers red; seeds white. 



PERESKIOPSIS. 



29 



Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Probably southern Mexico, but no definite locality is known. 

There is some confusion in the literature of this species; Schumann describes it as 
pubescent, while in the original description nothing is said about pubescence ; this error 
is probably due to a misidentification, for Dr. Rose found in the Museum of Paris two 
specimens collected by Diguet at Guadalajara, Mexico, which were labeled Opuntia 
spathulata, and which have pubescent branches and leaves; these are undoubtedly 0. diguetii. 

Pereskia crassicaulis Zuccarini (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 176. 1837) was never published, 
simply being given as a synonym of P. spathulata. 

8. Pereskiopsis pititache (Karwinsky) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50:332. 1907. 



Pereskia pititache Karwinsky in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 176. 1837. 

Pereskia calandriniaefolia Link and Otto in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 252 

ing to Schumann.) 
Opuntia pititache Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: i65. 189S. 



1850. (Accord- 



Stems rather low and somewhat branching; bark light brownish and flaking off'; areoles on 
main trunk each bearing i to 4 slender acicular spines and a small cluster of yellowish glocliids; 
branches, even when several years old, bearing a single long, acicular spine from an areole and 
no glochids; young and growing branches rather slender and green, their areoles small, black in 
the center, with long, white hairs from their margins and no spines; leaves obovate or oblong- 
obovate, 4 cm. long or less, pale green, thin, acute or bluntish at the apex, narrowed at the base. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Uncertain, but reported from southern Mexico. 

In the original description this species is said to have a very spiny, erect woody trunk, 
the branches spreading nearly horizontally, the spines unequal, 3 to 6, 25 to 37 mm. long, 
the leaves fleshy, green, lanceolate to ovate, 37 mm. long, 16 mm. broad. It was named by 
Baron Wilhelm von Karwinsky and probably collected by him in Mexico, but no definite 
locality was given ; Weber states it is from Tehuantepec, while Schumann gives Tehuacan 
on a statement of Weber. 

Pereskia calandriniaefolia we have referred here, follow- 
ing Schumann, but the original description is somewhat dif- 
ferent from that of P. pititache, the leaves being described 
as spatulate to lanceolate, strongly narrowed below, 7.5 
cm. long. 

Our description is mostly drawn from specimens grow- 
ing in the New York Botanical Garden obtained from 
M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, in 1901. 

Illustrations: Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen 2 : pi. i, 
sec. 6, f. I, 2; pi. 2, f. 9, both as Pereskia pititache. 

Plate III, figure 3, represents a leafy shoot of a plant 
sent by M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France, to the New 
York Botanical Garden in 1901. 

9. Pereskiopsis aquosa (Weber) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. 
€011.50:331. 1907. 

Opuntia aqiiosa Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: 165. 1898 

Shrub, with glabrous, glaucous, green branches, the young 
shoots with long white hairs at the areoles; leaves bright green, 
nearly elliptic, acute, about twice as long as wide, narrowed at the 
base, glabrous; spines usually solitary, standing at right angles to 
the stem, white; glochids few, yellow; flowers yellow; outer petals 
blotched with red; fruit pear-shaped, 4 to s cm. ong, 2 to 2.s -a,^ n ,■ ■ 

,. ',. ^ t- ' T o o> J I.rG, 27. — Pereskiopsis aquosa. 

cm. m diameter, yellowish green. X0.66. 





30 THE CACTACEAE. 

Type locality: Guadalajara, ^Mexico. 

Distribution: In hedges about Guadalajara, Mexico. 

The fruit, called in Mexico tuna de agua and tasajillo, is used in making a cooling 
drink and for preserves. 

Opuntia spathulaia aquosa (Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: 165. 189S) was given as a 
synonj-m of this species, but was never published. 

Illustration: Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pi. 10, f. 2. 

Figure 27 represents a leafy shoot of the plant collected by W. E. Safford near 
Guadalajara, iSIexico, in 1907. 

10. Pereskiopsis kellermanii Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 332. 1907. 

Stem glabrous, herbaceous, weak, and clambering over shrubs to a length of 4 to 5 meters, 
about 2 cm. in diameter; second-year branches usually at right angles to main stem, with cherry- 
red bark; old stem bearing several slender, acicular brown spines, sometimes only i, sometimes 
wanting, and numerous brown glochids; young branches green, fleshy, their areoles circular, white, 
filled with long white hairs, brown glochids, and often with several 
acicular brown spines; spines on wild plants often stout, usually 
soUtary, nearly black, 2 to 3 cm. long ; leaves various, shining green, 
glabrous, thickish, elliptic and two or three times as long as wide, 
or suborbicular, acute at the apex, narrowed at the base, 5 cm. long 
or less, 2 to 2.5 cm. broad; flowers not known; fruit red, glabrous, 
leafy, 3 to 6 cm. long, bearing large areoles filled with brown 
glochids; seeds covered with matted hairs. 

. . Figs 28, 29, and 30. — Pereskiopsis keller- 

Type locality: Trapichlte, Guatemala. manii. showing three leaf forms. X0.5. 

Distribution: Guatemala. 

Figures 28, 29, and 30 are copied from sketches of the leaf-forms of the type plant, 
made by "\V. A. Kellerman in Guatemala in 1908. 

2. PTEROCACTUS Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 6. 1S97. 

Stems low, more or less branched above, cylindric, from tuber-like and often greatl)^ enlarged 
roots; leaves minute, caducous; spines weak, several or many at each areole; glochids small, cadu- 
cous as in Opuntia; flower terminal, regular, without tube; perianth-segments several, erect; fila- 
ments and pistil shorter than the petals; ovan,- nearly turgid, bearing numerous small clusters of 
spines; fruit dr\', capsular, dehiscent; seeds winged, white; embr\^o curved. 

Type species: Ptcrocactus kuntzei Schumann. 

Four species have already been described, but three of these we have combined and 
the fourth is referred to Opuntia. Three additional species, however, are here described. 
The generic name refers to the winged seeds. 

This is a remarkable genus, and it is surprising that it remained unrecognized so long, 
for one of its species was known as long ago as 1837 ; the fruit and seeds, however, seem not 
to have been known until about 1897. In habit the plants are nearest some of the anom- 
alous species of Opuntia, ha\-ing large roots and short, weak stems Uke Opuntia chaffeyi, 
of ^Mexico; the seeds, however, differ, not only from those of Opuntia, but from those of 
all other cactus genera, in being winged. The fruit, according to Schumann, although 
we have not been able to confirm his obser^-ation definitely, is a capsule with an opercu- 
lum. Another peculiarity is that the fruit is borne in the end of the stem or branch. 

While this genus has good characters, it is no more distinct than many others and does 
not desen,-e the relative importance given to it by T. von Post and Otto Kuntze in Lexicon 
Generum Phanerogamarum, who treat it as one of the only three cactus genera to be 
conserved, in their view. 



I 



pterocactus. 31 

Key to Species. 

Seeds narrowly winged; spines up to 2 cm. long i. P. hickenii 

Seeds broadly winged; spines 3 to 10 mm. long. 

Joints strongly tuberculate 2 . P. fischeri 

Joints scarcely tuberculate. 

Ovary densely covered with weak spines; wing of seed i mm. wide 3. P. pumilus 

Ovary loosely covered with stiff spines; wing of seed 2 mm. wide 4. P. tuberosus 





Figs. 31, 32. — Pterocactus 
hickenii. X0.7. 



Fig. 3i-- 



-Pterocactus fischeri. X i . 
by Paul G. Russell. 



Photograph 



1. Pterocactus hickenii sp. nov. 

Rootstocks moniliform, consisting of at least 4 joints widely separated; joints above ground 
2 or 3, 2 to 3 cm. long, almost hidden by the spines; spines from each areole numerous, slender, 
yellow above, brown at base; glochids numerous; fruit and flower not known; seeds thick, 5 mm. in 
diameter, with narrow lateral wing. 

Collected by Cristobal M. Hicken 
(No. 3284) January 10, 1914, near Como- 
doro Rivadavia, southeastern Chubut, 
Argentina. 

Figures 3 1 and 32 represent a plant 
and a seed from the specimen above cited 

2. Pterocactus fischeri sp. nov. 

Stems low, i dm. high or less, spreading or erect, cylindric, 1.5 cm. in diameter, tuberculate; 
leaves minute, acute ; tubercles about as long as broad, arranged in spiral ridges somewhat resembling 
those of Opuntia wkipplei; spines numerous, the radials 12 or more, white, setaceous, 6 mm. long, 
spreading; centrals usually 4, i to 1.5 cm. long, brownish, the tips and bases often yellowish; 





Seeds of three species of Pterocactus. 
Natural size. 



32 



the; cactaceae. 



glochids numerous, yellowish, 3 to 4 mm. long; flowers, in only specimen seen, terminal, almost con- 
tinuous with the stem; ovary tuberculate and spiny like the stem, deepl}' umbilicate; seed one, large, 
flat-winged. 

Collected by Walter Fischer in 19 14 in the Pro^•ince of Rio Negro, Argentina, and 
given to Dr. Rose during his visit to Argentina in 19 15 by Professor Cristobal ISI. Hicken. 

While this species resembles some of the 
species oiCylindropuniia of the United States, 
the spines are not sheathed. 

Figure 33 is from a photograph of the 
specimen above cited; figure 34 shows a seed 
of the same specimen. 

3. Pterocactus pumilus sp. nov. 

Plants low, usually prostrate or ascending; 
joints cvlindric, i cm. in diameter, covered with 
weak appressed spines ; areoles very woolly ; flower 
terminal ; oA'ar}- sunk in the apex of the terminal 
joint, somewhat umbilicate; ovules several; seed 
flattened, 7 mm. in diameter, ver^- thin. 

Collected by Cristobal M. Hicken (No. 
3286), January 8, 1914, at Puerto Piramides, 
Chubut, Argentina. 

Figure 35 shows a seed of above speci- 
men. 



4. Pterocactus tuberosus (Pfeiffer). 

Opuntia tuberosa Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 146. 1S37. 
Pterocactus kutitzei Schumann, Monatsschr. Kak- 

teenk. 7- 6- i?97- 
Pterocactus kurlzei Schumann in Engler and Prant!, 

Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 259. 1S97. 
Pterocactus dccipiens Giirke, ilonatsschr. Kakteenk. 

17: 147- 1907. 

Roots tuber-like, single or in clusters, usualh- 
small but sometimes large and thick, up to 12 cm. 
long by 8 cm. in diameter, deep-seated, giving off 
several erect stems, these branching at surface of 
the ground; terminal branches purplish, turgid, 
3 to 40 cm. long, I cm. in diameter, more or less 
clavate; areoles numerous, small, bearing numer- 
ous small white appressed spines; flowers terminal, 
2 to 3 cm. long; petals long, lanceolate, apiculate, 
vellow ; ovarj' with numerous areoles bearing long 
bristles; ovules numerous; fruit dr\^; seeds large, 
flat, ^\-inged, 10 to 12 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Near Mendoza, Argentina. 

Distribution : Western provinces of Argen- pj, 
tina, chiefly in the mountains. 

We have not seen the tj'pe of P. kuntzei, 
which is doubtless at BerUn, but we have examined cotypes in the Kurtz Herbarium at 
Cordoba, Argentina, and at New York. 

Opuntia tiibcrosa, described from Mendoza as long ago as 1S37, has long been a puzzle 
to botanists, who have tried to associate it with various opuntias. Dr. Rose, who visited 
Mendoza in 1915, found a tuberous-rooted cactus in the mountains above that city, which 
we are convinced is the plant described by Pfeiffer. There is no doubt, on the other 




Pterocactus tuberosus. Natural size. Photograph 
by Paul G. RusselU 



NOPALEA. 



33 



hand, that it is Pterocacius kunizei, from the same region, which was described as new by 
Schumann in 1897. 

Opuntia alpina Gilhes (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 146. 1837) was not pubhshed, but was 
given as a synonym of Opuntia tuberosa. Schumann referred both names to Opuntia 
platyacantha. 

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 7; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 107, both 
as Pterocactiis kuntzei; Bliihende Kakteen 3: pi. 140, as P. dccipiens. 

Figure 36 shows a seed of a plant, collected by Dr. Rose near Mendoza, Argentina, 
in 19 15; figure 37 is from a photograph of same plant; figure 38 is from a photograph 
taken by Dr. Carlos Spegazzini. 




Fig. 3 



Pterocactvis tuberosus. 



3. NOPALEA Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 63. 1850. 

Much branched cacti with definite cylindric trunks; roots so far as known fibrous; branches or 
joints flattened, fleshy, often narrow; glochids usually less abundant than in Opuntia; spines solitary 
or in clusters at the areoles, sheathless; leaves small, subterete, soon deciduous; areoles bearing white 
wool, glochids, and often spines ; flowers originating in the areoles usually at or near the edges of the 
joints; sepals ovate, erect; petals red or pinkish, erect, closely appressed against the numerous 
stamens and the style ; filaments and style slender, much longer than the petals ; ovary more or less 
tuberculate, naked or spiny, with a very deep umbilicus; fruit a juicy berry, red, edible, usually 
spineless; seeds numerous, flat, covered by a hard bony aril. 

Nopalea is closely related to Opuntia, with which it is sometimes united; the erect 
petals and elongated filaments and style are constant in Nopalea, however. 

Three species were included by Salm-Dyck in this genus when it was described, of 
which Opuntia cochenillifera Linnaeus was the first and is therefore considered the type. 

Karl Schumann described five species in his monograph, but since then two species, 
N. guatemalensis and N. lutea, have been described by Dr. Rose, and one, N. inaperta, 
by Dr. Griffiths. N. moniliformis (Linnaeus) Schumann, based on plate 198 of Plumier, 
is Opuntia moniliformis (Linnaeus) Steudel. 

The species are natives of Mexico and Guatemala, and have been accredited to Cuba, 
although none has recently been observed wild on that island. Some of them are widely 



34 THE CACTACEAE. 

cultivated and may be found throughout the warmer parts of the world. Two are of 
some economic importance and two or three are grown as ornamentals. 

The name Nopalea is doubtless from nopal, the common name of Mexicans for certain 
opuntias and nopaleas. 

Key to Species. 

Spineless, or rarely a few short spines on old joints ■ i. N. cochenillifera 

Joints spiny (spines few in N. auberi). 

Spines, at least those of young joints, very slender, acicular, several at each areole. 

Spines white 2. N. gualemalensis 

Spines yellow or becoming brown. 

Joints obovate to oblong, 10 to 22 cm. long, 5 to 10 cm. wide 3. N. lulca 

Joints linear-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 6 to 12 cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. wide 30. N. gaumeri 

Spines stouter, subulate. 

Areoles with i or 2 spines, or spineless; joints glaucous 4. N. auberi 

Areoles with 2 to 4 spines; joints green. 

Joints linear or linear-oblong, 4 to 7 times as long as wide 5. N. dejecta 

Joints oblong or oblong-obovate, 2 to 4 times as long as wide. 

Spines 2 to 4; joints not tuberculate 6. N. karwinskiana 

Spines 4 to 12; joints strongly tuberculate ' 7. N. inaperta 

1. Nopalea cochenillifera (Linnaeus) Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 64. 1850. 

Cactus cochenillifer Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 468. 1753. 

Opun'ia cochinelijem Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 6. 1768. 
Often tall plants, 3 to 4 meters high, with trunks up to 2 dm. thick; branches of ascending or 
spreading oblong joints, sometimes 5 dm. long, green, bright green at first; spines none or rarely 
minute ones develop on the older joints; glochids numerous, caducous; leaves small, awl-shaped, 
soon deciduous; flowers appearing from the tops of the joints, usually in great abundance; flower, 
from base of ovary to tip of style, 5.5 cm. long; ovary nearly globular, 2 cm. long, with low diamond- 
shaped tubercles, its areoles iDearing many glochids; sepals broadly ovate, acute, scarlet; petals a 
little longer than the sepals, otherwise similar, persistent; stamens pinkish, exserted i to 1.5 cm. 
beyond the petals; stigma-lobes 6 or 7, greenish, exserted beyond the stamens; style swollen just 
above its base into a broad disk; fruit red, about 5 cm. long, rarely maturing in greenhouse plants; 
seeds about 5 mm. long and 3 mm. wide. 

Type locality: Jamaica and tropical America. 

Distribution: Cultivated in the West Indies and tropical America; its original habitat 
unknown. 

Opuntia magnifolia Noronha (Verhandl, Batav. Genootsch. 5*: 22. 1790), published 
without description, is referred to this species by Schumann and others. The name 
Opuntia mexicana, although it has been used for more than one species, first appeared in 
Pfeiffer's Enumeratio (p. 150. 1837) as a synonym of 0. cochenillifera. Cactus subinermis 
Link (Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. i : 246. 1840) is given as a synonym of Opuntia cochenillifera. 

The specific name of this plant was given because it is one of the species of cactus from 
which cochineal was obtained. Cochineal was long supposed to be a vegetable product; 
it was not until 1 703 that, by the aid of the microscope, it was definitely determined to be 
of insect origin. The cochineal industry is of prehistoric origin. The Spaniards found it well 
established when they conquered Mexico in 15 18, and began at once to export the product. 
As early as 1523 Cortez was ordered to obtain and send to Spain as much as he possibly 
could, while during the early colonial days it was one of the chief articles of tribute to the 
crown. From Mexico and Peru the industry was taken to southern Spain, India, Algiers, 
South Africa, New Granada (Colombia), Jamaica, and the Canary Islands. The industry 
grew rapidly and was very profitable. The greatest source of the cochineal was probably the 
Canary Islands. In about the year 1868 more than 6,000,000 pounds, valued at $4,000,000, 
were exported from these islands alone, of which the largest part was sent to England. 

The cochineal insects were placed on the joints or branches of the cactus plants, where 
they rapidly multiplied and in about four months were collected by brushing them off 
into baskets or bags. Then, after being dried in various ways, they became the cochineal 
of commerce. Two or three such collections were made each year. 



3RITT0N AND ROSE 




1. Upper psLTt of lowering ]omt oi Nopa/ea cockenU/ifera. 3. Fruk oi JVopalea aude7'i. 

2. Upper part of flowering joint of Nopalea auberi. 4. Flowering joint of Nopalea dejecta. 

(All natural size.) 



NOP ALBA. 



35 



The cactuses upon which the cochineal was raised were often grown in large planta- 
tions called nopalries, sometimes containing 50,000 plants in rows about 4 feet apart. 

Since the introduction of the aniline dyes, the cochineal industry has almost dis- 
appeared. The cochineal colors, while brilliant and attractive, are not very permanent. 

According to J. J. Johnson, this plant was introduced into cultivation in England, 
in 1688; but according to Ray it was growing in Chelsea before that time. 

Illustrations: Hernandez, Nov. PI. Hist. 78 and 479. f. i. 1651, as Nopalnochetzli ; 
Andrews, Bot. Rep. 8: pi. 533; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 54: pi. 2741, 2742; Descourtilz, Fl. 
Pict. Antilles 7: pi. 516, all as Cactus cochenillijer. Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey i: 205. 
f. 308; Gard. Chron. III. 34 : 92. f. 41 ; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Gact. i : pi. 24, 
all as Opimtia cochenillijera; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 3, as Opuntia coccijera; 
Dillenius, Hort. Elth. pi. 297, as tuna, etc. ; Agr. Gaz. 25 : pis. opp. p. 884; Amer. Garden 
II : 457; Martius, Fl. Bras. 4'" : pi. 60. Schumann Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 109, b. 

Plate IV, figure i, shows a plant which flowered in the New York Botanical Garden 
in 1912. 

2. Nopalea guatemalensis Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 330. 1907. 

Tree-like, 5 to 7 meters high, branched, sometimes nearly to the base; joints bluish green, ovate 
to oblong, 15 to 20 cm. long; areoles numerous, filled with short white wool; spines 5 to 8, unequal, 
nearly or quite porrect, white or sometimes rose-colored, the longest 2.5 to 3 cm. long; leaves small, 
linear, reflexed; flower, including ovary, 5 to 6 cm. long; sepals ovate, thickened; petals red; fruit 
4 to 5 cm. long, clavate, red, more or less tuberculate, deeply umbilicate, without prominent glochids; 
seeds irregular, 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: El Rancho, Guatemala. 
Distribution: Arid valleys of Guatemala. 

Illustrations: Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: f. 13, 14; Smiths. Misc. Coll. 
50: pi. 41, 42. 

Figure 39 illustrates joints of a plant obtained from Frank Weinberg in 19 10. 




Fig. 39. — Nopalea guatemalensis. X0.4. Fig. 40. — Nopalea lutea. X0.4. 

3. Nopalea lutea Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 405. 1909. 

More or less arborescent, 5 meters high or less, with a short, definite trunk and several large, 
lateral, more or less spreading branches; joints obovate to elliptic or oblong, 10 to 22 cm. long, pale 
green, slightly glaucous; areoles about 2 cm. apart, large, filled with short brown wool; spines weak, 
yellow, acicular or bristle-like, the longest 4 cm. long; flowers 5 cm. long; petals red, 2 cm. long; 



36 



THE CACTACEAE. 



ovary with numerous prominent areoles filled with yellow bristles; fruit red, 4 cm. long; seeds 4 to 
5 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Near El Rancho, Guatemala. 

Distribution: Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. 

This species, although not discovered until 1907, is very common, extending from 
altitude 300 meters at El Rancho to altitude 1,100 meters near Aguas CaUentes. Accord- 




FiG. 41. — Nopalea dejecta. 

ing to Mr. Charles C. Deam, who has explored extensively in Guatemala, the plant when 
growing on river sand-bars is low, but in rich soil is tall. 

Our reference of this species to Nicaragua is based on a specimen collected by A. S. 
Oersted in 1 845-1 848 between Granada and Tipitapa. The joints of this, however, are 
nearly orbicular or a little longer than broad, with numerous brown spines and glochids. 
More material may show that this specimen should be referred elsewhere. 

Illustration: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pi. 58. 

Figure 40 shows a joint of a plant from Guatemala, received from F. Eichlam in 1911. 



NOPALEA. 



37 



30. Nopalea gaumeri sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 216.) 

4. Nopalea auberi (Pfeiffer) Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 64. 1850. 
Opuntia auberi Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 8: 282. 1840. 
Often 8 to 10 meters high, with a cyhndric, jointed trunk, never very spiny, but the areoles 
bearing tufts of brown glochids; branches often at right angles to the stem; joints narrow, thick, 
3 dm. long, bluish green and glaucous; areoles circular, about 2 mm. broad, bearing short white wool 
and later a tuft of brown glochids; spines, when present, i or 2, subulate, the upper one about twice 
as long as the other, white or nearly so, with brownish tips, the longest one 2 to 3 cm. long; flowers 
from base of ovary to tip of style about 9 cm. long; petals erect, closely embracing the stamens, 
rose-pink, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 2 to 3.5 cm. long; filaments 12 to 15 mm. longer than the 
petals, white below, but the exposed parts pinkish; anthers dehiscing before maturing of stigma; 
style stout, light pink with a large, white, circular disk just above the constricted base; stigma- 
lobes green ; ovary 4 cm. long, with low but very distinct tubercles and a deep umbilicus, its areoles 
bearing many brown glochids, these sometimes 10 mm. long. 




Type locality: Erroneously cited as Cuba. 

Distribution: Central and southern Mexico. 

Illustration: Addisonia i : pi. 10. 

Plate IV, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant obtained by W. E. Safford at 
Guadalajara, Mexico, in 1907; figure 3 shows young fruit of the same plant; plate v is 
from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal near Mitla, Mexico, in 1906. 

5. Nopalea dejecta Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 64. 1850. 

Opuntia dejecta Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 361. 1834. 

Plant I to 2 m. high, with a definite trunk, very spiny, the old areoles often bearing 6 or 8 spines ; 
joints narrow, 10 to 15 cm. long, only moderately thick, often drooping, bright green even in age, 
bearing usually two somewhat spreading spines at an areole ; spines at first pale yellow or pinkish, 
in age gray, the longest 4 cm. long; flower, including ovary and style, 5 cm. long; sepals obtuse; petals 
erect, dark red; stamens long-exserted, dark red. 

Type locality: Erroneously cited as Havana, Cuba. 

Distribution : Common in cultivation in tropical America ; perhaps native in Panama. 
Opuntia diffusa and 0. horizontalis are both given by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 159. 
1837) as synonyms of this species. 



38 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Illustrations: Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 25: pl.opp.p. 138; Roig, Cact. Fl. Cub. pi. [6], this 
last as Nopalea auberi. 

Plate IV, figtire 4, shows a flowering joint of a plant obtained from Mr. S. F. Curtis in 
1897. Figure 41 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Juan T. Roig in the Havana Botanical 
Garden, Cuba; figure 42 shows a joint of a plant collected by Mr. J. F. Cowell at Panama 
in 1905. 

6. Nopalea karwinsMana (Salm-Dyck) Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 752. 189S. 
Opuntia karwinskiana Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 239. 1850. 

A tree, 2 meters high or more, with a definite jointed terete spiny trunk; joints oblong, 1.5 to 3 
dm. long, Ught dull green, only sHghtly glaucous; leaves elongated, acute; areoles distant; spines 3 
to 7 from an areola, porrect, i to 2 cm.' long, pale 3-ellow to nearly white; glochids yellow, numerous, 
caducous; flowers red, 11 to 12 cm. long; ovary deeply umbihcate, 3 cm. long. 

Type locality: In IMexico. 
Distribution: Mexico. 





Figs. 45 , 46. — Flower of Tacinga f unalis. 
Drawing by A. Lofgren. 



Figs. 47, 4S. — Tacinga funalis. X0.6. 



This species was sent from Mexico by Karwinsky, who supposed it was an Opuntia. 
When described by Salm-Dyck in 1850 it had not flowered. It was re-collected by 
Edmund Kerber near Cohma, Mexico, and flowered for the first time in cultivation in 1879. 

Our description is drawn chiefly from a plant now in the New York Botanical Garden, 
obtained from AI. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France. In the original description it is 
stated that the young spines are 2 to 4 and rose-colored, but afterwards 18 to 20, gray and 
deflexed. O. nopalilla Karwinsky (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 68. 1850) was 
first given as a synonym of this species. 

Figure 43 represents a joint with young fruit, from a plant sent by M. Simon, St. Ouen, 
Paris, France, in 1901. 

7. Nopalea inaperta Schott in Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 139. 1913. 

Described as 5 to 7 meters high, but in cultivation much smaller, diffusely branched, often 
bush-like; trunk very spin}'; terminal joints rather small, obovate, 6 to 17 cm. long, strongly 
tuberculate, bright green; spines usually 3 to 6 at areoles of young joints, more at old ones, yellowish 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




Nopalea auberi as it grows near Mitla, Mexico. 
Photograph by D. T. MacDougal. 



TACINGA. 



39 



brown, 2 cm. long or less; flowers rather small, including ovary and stamens 4 cm. long; filaments 
numerous, long-exserted; style much longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes 5, green; fruit smally 
red, 1.5 cm. long. 

Type locality: In Yucatan, Mexico. 

Distribution: Yucatan. 

Dr. Griffiths states that he found this species in the Albert S. White Park, Riverside, 
California, in 1904. In the Bulletin of the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station 
No. 60 he describes and illustrates it, but without specific name. Later he identified it as 
the same as one of Schott's specimens from Yucatan, and then published it as above. 

Dr. Griffiths compares it with A'', auberi, but its nearest relative is A", kariiinskiana, 
from which it differs in its smaller and more tuberculate joints and much smaller flowers. 

Illustration: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60 : pi. 3, f. i, as Nopalea. 

Figure 44 shows a joint from a plant obtained by Dr. David Griffiths at Riverside. 

4. TACINGA gen. nov. 

Long, clambering or climbing cacti, more or less branched; old stems smooth, brown; branches 
faintly ribbed, terete; young branches green, each tipped with a tuft of long wool or soft hairs; are- 
oles small but conspicuous, black, the margin giving off long, white, cobwebby hairs; leaves minute, 
soon deciduous, 3 to 4 mm. long; spines sometimes present, on j^oung joints 2 or 3, reflexed, 
appressed, brown, 2 to 3 mm. long, not seen on old branches; glochids from the upper parts ofjthe 
areoles, pale yellow, numerous, caducous, falling in showers at the slightest jarring of the branch; 
flower-buds acute; flowers usually terminal, opening in the evening or at night; ovary narrow, 
bearing numerous areoles, the umbilicus very deep ; petals few, spreading or recurved ; a row of hairs 
between the petals and the stamens ; stamens and style erect, much longer than the petals ; fruit 
oblong, the upper half sterile, bearing areoles but no spines; seeds nearly globular, white, covered 
with a bony aril. 

This genus is intermediate between 
Opuntia and Nopalea, having the erect, 
non-sensitive stamens of the latter, 
and the areoles, leaves, and glochids of 
the former. From Opuntia it differs in 
its narrow, green, recurved petals, in 
having one or possibly more rows of 
hairs between the stamens and the 
petals, in the clambering or climbing 
habit, and its very caducous glochids. 

Only one species is known, this 
a common and characteristic plant of 
the catinga* in Bahia, Brazil, w'hence 
the anagramatic name. 

1. Tacinga funalis sp. nov 

At first erect, then climbing over shrubs 
or through trees, i to 1 2 meters long, some- 
what branching; old stems wood}^ slender; 
branches usually reddish, the areoles borne 
on low ribs; glochids short; flower, includ- 
ing ovary, 7 to 8 cm. long; sepals about 10, 
short, ovate, acute, 5 to 15 mm. long; petals 
about 7, green, 4 cm. long, acute, revolute; 
stamens erect, connivent, not sensitive; anthers narrow, elongated; style elongated, thread-like, 
most slender below, a little longer than the stamens, 4.5 cm. long, cream-colored; stigma-lobes 5, 
green; fruit 4 to 5 cm. long; seeds 3 to 4 mm. broad. 

* Catinga or caatinga is the common Brazilian name for the thorn-bush desert region in Bahia, Brazil. Dr- 
Albert Lof gren says that the name (best spelled caatinga) is of Indian origin, meaning caa = wood, forest ; tinga = white, 
clear; a forest in which one can see far. 




Fig. 49. — Tacinga funalis. Showing how it climbs over bushes. 



40 



The; cactaceae. 



Common in the dry parts of Bahia, Brazil, where it was collected by Rose and Rus- 
sell in 1915 (No. 19723, type). Dr. Zehntner thinks there may be a second species, as he 
has found one with purple flowers; specimens from southern Bahia had purple buds, but 
the open flowers were not seen. The type comes from Joazeiro, northern Bahia. 

Dr. Rose studied this species in the field and beheved it to be new. On reaching 
Rio de Janeiro, he found that Dr. A. Lofgren had also studied it, referring it, however, 
to Opuntia, using the above specific name. 

Figures 45 and 46 are copied from drawings of the flowers given to Dr. Rose by Dr. 
Lofgren; figures 47 and 48 are from twigs of the plant grown at the New York Botanical 
Garden ; figure 49 is from a photograph of the type plant. 

5. MAIHUENIA Philippi, Gartenflora 32: 260. 1883. 

Plants low, cespitose, often forming small, dense mounds; stems jointed; joints small, globular 
or short-cylindric ; leaves small, usually terete, persistent; leaves of seedlings terete, ascending, 
with 2 long white bristles in the axils; areoles filled with white wool; spines 3, the central one 
elongated, the 2 lateral ones small and very short; glochids wanting; flowers large for the size of the 
plant, yellow or red, usually terminal; petals distinct; flower-tube none; stamens and sty"e much 
shorter than the petals; fruit juicy (described as dry in one species), oblong to obovoid, bearing 
small scattered, ovate, persistent leaves; wall of fruit thin; cotyledons linear; seed black, shining, 
with a brittle testa. 





^-^ttiJ 


\^^t^ 




^M^ 




^^B 


^L. 


■." 


J-,' " - 




] 


i^BB^V 


^wm 


^&. 


-■;3^Pi^ 


•ESS' '^^f ^. ■^' 






--^i^^^ 


- -'-5 





Fig. 50. — Maihuenia valentinii. 

Type Species: Opuntia poeppigii Otto. 

There are five species described, rather closely related, natives of the high mountains 
of Chile and Argentina. 

The generic name is derived from maihuen, the native name of the plant. 

This is a small, localized genus; it is perhaps nearest Opuntia, but is without glochids 
and has different seeds. The first species was described in 1837, and a second in 1864, 
both as Opuntia. Weber in 1898 transferred them to Pereskia, proposing a new subgenus 
for them, but they are much less hke Pereskia than Opuntia, for, except as to the seeds, 
they have little in common with Pereskia; in habit, leaves, spines, flowers, and fruits they 
are quite unhke any of the pereskias. 



MAIHUENIA. 



41 




-Maihuenia poeppigii. X0.75. 
-Maihuenia brachydelphys. X0.75. 



Key to Species. 

Joints subglobose i. M. patagonica 

Joints oblong to cylindric. 

Leaves linear, 4 to 6 mm. long 2. M. poeppigii 

Leaves ovate to subulate, 2 to 4 mm. long. 

Joints spineless below 3 . M. brachydelphys 

Joints spiny all over. 

Leaves on the ovary with white hairs 

in their axils 4. M. valentinii 

Leaves on the ovary without hairs in 

their a.xils 5. M. tehiielches 

1. Maihuenia patagonica (Philippi). 

Opuntia patagonica Philippi, Linnaea 33: 82. 1864. 
Pereskia philippii Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 939. 1898. 
Maihuenia philippii Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kak- 
teen 757. 1898. 

Low, much branched, and dense, resembling Sempervi- 
vum tomentosimi in habit; joints subglobose, i to 1.5 cm. in 
diameter; leaves subulate, green; young areoles bearing 
white hairs; spines weak, hardly pungent, white, the longest 
10 to 15 mm. long; flowers 2.8 to 3 cm. long; fruit 8 to 10 mm. long, thicker than long; leaves on 
the ovary ovate to lanceolate, fleshy, naked in their axils, except some of the upper ones; seeds 
round, 3 to 4 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: In southern Argentina. 

Distribution: Near snow-line on southern mountain ranges of Argentina and Chile. 
Opuntia philippii Haage and Schmidt, without description, is given by Weber (Diet. 
Hort. Bois 939. 1898) as a synonym of this species. 
This is called by the natives espina blanca. 

2. Maihuenia poeppigii (Otto) Weber in 

Schumann, Gesamtb. Kaktcen 755. 
1898. 

Opuntia poeppigii Otto in PfeilTer, 

Enum. Cact. 174. 1837. 
Opuntia maihuen Remy in Gay, Fl. 

Chilena 3 : 29. 1847. 
Pereskia poeppigii talm-Dyck, Cact. 

Hort. Dyck. 1849. 252. 1850. 

Shrubby, much branched, prostrate, 
forming dense cespitose masses i meter 
broad; joints spiny to the bases, cylin- 
dric, 6 cm. long or more, 1.5 cm. in diam- 
eter; leaves cylindric, green, 4 to 6 mm. 
long; spines 3 from each areole, the 2 late- 
rals very short, the central one 1.5 to 2 
cm. long; flowers terminal, yellow; fruit 
oblong to obovoid, about 5 cm. long and 
3 cm. thick. 

Type locality: In Chile, without 
definite locality. 

Distribution: High mountains of 
Chile. 

Illustrations: Schumann, Ge- 
samtb. Kakteen f. 108, b, c; Gar- 
tenflora 32: pi. 1129, f. i to 4, as 
Opuntia poeppigii; Diet. Gard. Nich- 
olson 3 : f. 82, as Pereskia poeppigii. 

Figure 51 is from a fruit obtained 
by Dr. Rose at the National Museum 
of Chile, Santiago, in 1914. 




Fig. 53. — Maihuenia tehuelches 



42 THE CACTACEAE. 

3. Maihuenia brachydelphys Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 756. 1898. 

Cespitose, prostrate; joints cylindric or nearly ellipsoid, naked below, 2 cm. long; spines 2 or 3, 
one much stouter and longer, yellow except at base and there brown; leaves terete, 2 to 3 mm. long; 
areoles circular, full of white wool; flowers usually from the tips of joints, red, 3.5 cm. long. 

Type locality: Pasco Cruz, Argentina, 34° south latitude, province of Mendoza. 
Distribution: Western Argentina. 

Opuntia brachydelphys Schumann is mentioned by Kuntze (Rev. Gen. PL 3': 107. 
1898) by name only. 

Illustration: Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 108, a. 

Figure 52 is copied from Schumann's illustration above cited. 

4. Maihuenia valentinii Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires II. 4: 289. 1902. 

Shrubby, i to 2.5 dm. high, dull green; joints cylindric, somewhat clavate, i to 3.5 cm. long; 
leaves ovate, small; spines 3, the central much larger, 2 to 6 cm. long; flowers from near the ends of 
the branches, 2 cm. broad, the sepals reddish, the petals white to light yellow; stamens indefinite; 
filaments white; style 6 mm. long, white, longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes 5, short, 2 mm. 
long, purplish; ovary globular to obconic, 5 to 8 mm. long, bearing numerous triangular fleshy 
leaves with long white hairs and sometimes i or 2 spines in their axils; fruit unknown. 

Type locality: Near Trelew, Chubut, Argentina. 

Distribution: Territory of Chubut, southern Argentina. 

Related to M. tehuelches and M. poeppigii, but said to be very distinct. 

Figure 50 is from a photograph furnished by Dr. Carlos Spegazzini. 

5. Maihuenia tehuelches Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires II. 4: 288. 1902. 

Shrubby, 2 to 3 dm. high, with many intricate branches, dull green; joints cylindric, ellipsoid 
to somewhat clavate, 2 to 8 cm. long by 10 to 12 cm. in diameter; leaves ovate, small, 2 to 4 mm. 
long; spines 3, the central one erect, 2 to 4 cm. long, the 2 lateral ones only 5 to 10 mm. long; flowers 
at the apex of the branches, 35 to 45 mm. broad, white to yellowish white; fruit globose, naked, dry, 
2 cm. in diameter ; seeds black, 3 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Between San Julian and Rio Deseado, Argentina. 

Distribution: Dry, rocky deserts, southwestern Argentina. 

Figure 53 is from a photograph furnished by Dr. Carlos Spegazzini. 

6. OPUNTIA (Tournefort) Miller, Card. Diet. Abridg. ed. 4. 1754. 

Cactodendron Bigelow, Pac. R. Rep. 3: 102; 4:7, 11, iii. 1856. 
Consolea Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862. 
Tephrocaclus Lemaire, Cact. 88. 1868. 
Ficindica St. Lager, Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 70. 1880. 

Cacti, sometimes with definite trunks, or more often much branched from the base, the branches 
often spreading, reclining, or prostrate, sometimes clambering, but never climbing (one species 
known with annual stems) ; roots fibrous or rarely tuberous and large and fleshy ; ultimate branches 
(joints or pads) cylindric to globose or flattened, usually very fleshy, sometimes woody; areoles 
axillary, bearing spines, barbed bristles (glochids), hairs, flowers, and sometimes glands; leaves 
usually small, terete, mostly early deciduous; spines solitary or in clusters, terete or flattened, 
naked or sheathed, variously colored; glochids usually numerous, borne above the spines; flowers 
usually one at an areole; ovary inferior, one-celled, many-oviiled, bearing leaves, the areoles often 
with spines and glochids; sepals green or more or less colored, usually grading into the petals; 
petals usually of various shades and combinations of green, yellow, and red (rarely white), widely 
spreading; stamens much shorter than the petals, sensitive; style single, thick; stigma- lobes short; 
fruit a berry, dry or juicy, often edible, spiny or naked, globular, ovoid or ellipsoid; seed covered 
by a hard, bony aril, white, flattened; embryo curved; cotyledons 2, large. 

The species grow naturally from Massachusetts to British Columbia south to the 
Strait of Magellan. Several have been naturalized and have become very abundant 
locally in the Old World and in Australia. 



OPUNTIA. 



43 



The type species is Cactus opuntia Linnaeus. 

Karl Schumann recognized 131 species in his " Gesamtbeschreibung der Kakteen," 
pubUshed during the years 1897 and 1898. Many have been described since this mono- 
graph was pubhshed. 

The name Opuntia was that of a town in Greece, where some cactus-hke plant is said 
to have grown. 

The genus is important economically. It furnishes the well-known tuna fruit largely 
imported into our eastern cities from Italy and which is common in the markets of Mexico. 
Some species are used for hedges, the branches of others are cooked like spinach, and still 
others furnish forage for stock. 

The species are numerous and very diverse, and have at various times been grouped 
by authors into several genera, while other species, now referred by us to Nopalea, 
Maihuenia, and Pereskiopsis, were included in Opuntia. 

The following genera now referred to Opuntia have been regarded as distinct from it : 

Consolea was described by Lemaire in 1862. He described five species, of which 
C. rubescens is the first and therefore the type. This group is a striking one, characterized 
by a pronounced cylindric trunk in old plants, with an unjointed central woody axis, 
pecuUar semaphore-like branches at the top, and very small flowers. There are eight species 
of this group, described under our series Spinosissimae. They are confined to the West 
Indies, although C. rubescens, the spineless race of Opuntia catacantha, was originally 
described as from Brazil — doubtless erroneously. 

Tephrocactus was described by Lemaire in 1868, and to it he referred eight species of 
Opuntia. T. diadematus is the type species. Schumann included it in Opuntia as a sub- 
genus, with 15 species. They are all South American, chiefly in Argentina and Bolivia. 

Ficindica was established by St. Lager in 1880, based on Opuntia ficus-indica, which 
is clearly congeneric with Opuntia opuntia. 

In 1856 the name Cactodendron was proposed in an account of Whipple's Expedi- 
tion, published in volumes 3 and 4 of the Pacific Railroad Reports. It was apparently 
not intended to be a formal publication, but as a definite species is indicated, the name 
is published. It will be of interest to record here the evidence upon which we reach 
this conclusion: 

Cactodendron Bigelow Pac. R. Rep. 3: 102; 4: 7, 11; Additional Notes and Corrections iii. 1856. 

"There are * * * Opuntia of many varieties; some with wide leaf -like joints, others of 
shrubby form and woody fibre, which the botanist proposes to name Cactodendron. " Pac. R. Rep. 
3: 102. 

"Immediately on our entrance into this valley (November 19 [1856]) we found and collected a 
new species of Opuntia, with prostrate, nearly terete joints, entirely devoid of woody fibre ; * * *_ 
Lieutenant Whipple discovered the first specimen of our new Cactodendron, as we were pleased to 
call it, to distinguish it from the O. arborescens. " Pac. R. Rep. 4: 7. 

"The arborescent Opuntia, first found near Zuni, which, to distinguish from the true 0. arbores- 
cens, we called Cacto-dendron, finds its western limits near the termination of this region." Pac. 
R. Rep. 4: 10. 

"15. 'New arboresent Opuntia,' called also 'our new Cactodendron,' pages 7 and 11, is Opuntia 
whipplei, E. & B., new species." Pac. R. Rep. 4: Additional Notes and Corrections iii. 

Opuntias are known under a great variety of names. Among the names for the flat- 
jointed species, the most common are: prickly pear in the United States; tuna in Mexico; 
sucker and buUsucker in the Lesser Antilles. For the round-stemmed forms we have: 
cane cactus, and such Mexican names as cholla and tasajo. Dr. David Griffiths has 
published a list of names used in Mexico. 

The genus Opuntia, as understood by us, is composed of at least 250 species, but more 
than 900 names are to be found in literature. No type specimens of many of the species 



44 THE cactaceae;. 

were preserved by their authors, some have, apparently, been lost, and some, which are 
probably preserved, we have been unable to study. 

The genus shows a great range in stem structure, varying from cylindric to broad and 
flat. These extremes suggest different generic types, but these characters can not be used 
except in the most general way, for some species have both rounded and flattened stems. 
Some with round stems have flowers which suggest a closer relationship with the species 
with flattened stems. 

The habits of some of the species are very characteristic, while others show a wide 
range of forms. Many of the erect or tree-like forms, when grown from cuttings, develop 
bushy habits much unlike their normal shapes. 

The spines, while somewhat constant in color in some species, vary considerably in 
others, and the number of spines is rather inconstant. Species which are normally abun- 
dantly spined are sometimes naked when cultivated, while species which are normally 
naked sometimes develop spines in cultivation; cultivated specimens usually have weaker 
spines and sometimes decidedly different ones from wild plants. 

The flowers often vary greatly in color, as is seen especially in 0. versicolor and 0. 
lindheimeri, which show wide ranges of color forms. Some flowers vary in color during 
the day. 

We group the species known to us into 3 subgenera, 46 series, and with the following 
characteristics : 

Key to Subgenera and Series op Opuntia. 

A. Joints all terete, elongated or short, cylindric to globose. 

B. Branches several, many-jointed Subgenus i. CylindropunTia 

C. Spines with papery sheaths. 

D. Spines, at least some of them, solitary, sometimes several, 

acicular; ultimate branches slender, rarely more 

than I cm. thick. 

E. Stem and branches conspicuously marked by flattened, 

diamond-shaped tubercles; fruit dry, covered with 

long bristle-like spines Series i. Ramosissimae (N. A.^ 

EE- Tubercles not flattened nor diamond-shaped; fruit 

usually a naked berry Series 2. Leptocaules (N. A.) 

DD. Spines always more than i ; ultimate branches stouter. 

E. Ultimate branches not over 2 cm. thick Series 3. Thurberianae (N. A.) 

EE- Ultimate branches 2 cm. thick or more. 

F. Fruit dry Series 4. Echinocarpae (N. A.) 

FF. Fruit fleshy. 

G. Tuberclesof young joints scarcely longer than broad. Series 5. Bigelovia?iae {N. A..) 
GG. Tubercles distinctly longer than broad. 

H. Tubercles narrow, high, laterally flattened Series 6. Imbricatae (N. A.) 

HH. Tubercles broad, low Series 7. Fulgidae (N. A.) 

CC. Spines without sheaths. 

D. Joints not tuberculate, or with broad or flat tubercles. 
E. Areoles long-woolly or with weak hairs (without hairs 

in 0. verscliaffellii) Series 8. Vestitae (S. A.) 

EE. Areoles neither long-woolly nor long-hairy. 

F. Joints clavate or crested Series 9. Clavarioides (S. A.) 

FF. Joints neither clavate nor crested. ^ 

G. Low, slender species, scarcely, if at all, tuberculate . . Series 10. Salmianae (S. A.) 
GG. Tall, stout species, the tubercles broad or flat; 

leaves large Series 1 1 . Subidata? (S. A.) 

DD. Joints strongly tuberculate, the tubercles elevated. 

E. Tall, shrubby species; joints cylindric Series 12. Miqiielianae (S. A.) 

EE. Low, prostrate species; joints clavate (transition to 

Tephrocactus) Series 13. Clavatae (N. A.) 

BB. Branches i to few-jointed, the short joints usually clustered. . . . Subgenus 2. Tephrocactus (S. A.) 
C. Joints, at least some of them, cylindric, tuberculate, the 

tubercles contiguous (transition to Cy/iw(iro/)M«<m) Series i. Weberianae 
CC. Joints globose to oblong, mostly little, if at all, tuberculate. 
D. Areoles normally bearing many long white hairs, which 

often cover the whole plant Series 2. Floccosae 

DD. Areoles without hairs. 

E. Spines, when present, at least some of them, modified 

into fat, papery processes Series 3. Glomeralae 

EE. Spines, when present, all subulate or acicular, terete or 

somewhat flattened. Series 4. Penllandianae 



OPUNTIA. 



45 



Key to Subgenera and Series of Opuntia — continued. 



AA. At least some of the joints flat or compressed Subgenus 3. PlaTyopunTia 

B. Stems perennial, stout or slender. 

C. Plants branching from near or at the base, not forming erect, 
cylindric un jointed trunks; flowers mostly large. 
D. Epidermis glabrous or pubescent, not papillose-tuberculate 
when dry. 
E. Flowers perfect; petals obovate to oblong. 

F. Fruit a juicy berry (exceptions in Series 5, Basilares). 
G. Joints readily detached. 

H. Joints very readily detached; low, mostly small- 
jointed species. 
I. Joints little flattened, subterete (transition to 

Cylindropuntia) Series i. Puinilae (N. A.; S. A.) 

II. At least the ultimate joints distinctly flattened. 

J. Ultimate joints or all joints turgid Series 2. Curassavicae (N. A. ; S. A.) 

JJ. Ultimate joints flat and thin Series 3. Auratttiacae (S. A.) 

HH. Joints less readily detached; mostly taller and 

larger-jointed species Series 4. Tunae (N. A.; S. A.) 

GG. Joints not readily detached, persistent. 

H. Areoles small, i to 2 mm. in diameter, not ele- 
vated, mostly close together Series 5. Basilares (N. A.) 

HH. Areoles larger, mostly distant. 

I. Prostrate or spreading species; joints relatively 
small. (0. austrhia suberect.) 
J. Joints not tuberculate. 

K. Flowers small, brick-red Series 6. Inamoenae (S. A.) 

KK. Flowers large, yellow Series 7. Torlispinae (N. A.) 

JJ. Joints strongly tuberculate Series 8. Sulphureae (S. A.) 

11. Bushy, depressed or tall species. 

J. vSpines, when present, brown or yellow (white 
in 0. setispina). 
K. Spines brown, at least at the base or tip. 
L. Bushy or depressed species. 

M. Fruit very small Series 9. Slrigiles (N. A.) 

MM. Fruit large. 

N. Spines acicular Series 10. Selispinae (N. A.) 

NN. Spines subulate Series 11. Phaeacanthae (N. A.) 

LL. Tall species, sometimes with a definite 
trunk (O. galapageia sometimes de- 
pressed). 

M. Spines several at each areole Series 12. Elaliores (N. A. ; S. A.) 

MM. Spines, when piesent, i to few at each 

areole Series 13. Elatae (S. A.) 

KK. Spines, if any, yellow, at least partially. 
h. Epidermis glabrous. 

M. Areoles close together, bearing long 

brown wool Series 14. Scheerianae (N. A.) 

MM. Areoles distant, without long wool. Series 15. Dillenianae (N. A.) 
LL. Epidermis, at least that of the ovary, 

pubescent Series 16. Macdoiigalianae (N. A.) 

JJ. Spines, when present, white (or faintly yellow) . 
K. Epidermis pubescent. 

L. Spines, when present, acicular Series 17. Tomentosae (N. A.) 

LL. Spines several, setaceous, flexible Series 18. Leucotrichae (N. A.) 

KK. Epidermis glabrous. 

L. Areoles bearing long, soft hairs Series 19. Orhiculalae (N. A.) 

LL. Areoles without long hairs. 

M. Joints green or bluish green. 
N. Spineless, or with few, usually short, 

spines Series 20. Ficus-indicae (N. A. ; S. A.) 

NN. Spiny, at least old joints so Series 21. Slreplacanlhae (N. A.; S. A.) 

MM. Joints blue Series 22. Robuslae (N. A.) 

FF. Fruit dry, not juicy Series 23. Polyacanthae (N. A.) 

EE. Flowers dioecious; petals very narrow Series 24. Slenopetalae (N. A.) 

DD. Epidermis densely papillose-tuberculate when dry Series 25. Palmadorae (S. A.) 

CC. Plants with erect, unjointed trunks, the branches with flat 
joints; flowers mostly small. 
D. Flowers small; joints spreading. 

E. Joints all flat, relatively thick Series 26. Spinosissimae (N. A.) 

EE. Some joints terete, others flat and very thin Series 27. Brasilienses (S. A.) 

DD. Flowers large; joints ascending Series 28. Ammophilae (N. A.) 

BB. Stems annual, very slender Series 29. Chaffeyanae (N. A.) 



46 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Subgenus 1. CYLINDROPUNTIA. 

Includes the many- jointed species in which none of the joints is at all flattened. 

Series 1. RAMOSISSIMAE. 

The series consists of a single bushy species, with slender joints, the nearly flat tubercles 
diamond-shaped and contiguous, the acicular spines, when present, usually only i at an areole. 

1. Opuntia ramosissima Engelmann, Amer. Jotorn. Sci. II. 14: 339. 1852. 
Opuntia iessellata Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3 : 309. 1856. 

Frutescent, bushy, sometimes 2 meters high, the branches gray, often widely spreading, and 9 cm. 
lang; tubercles low, slightly convex, 4-angled to 6-angled, giving the surface an appearance of being 
covered with diamond-shaped plates; leaves ovoid, 
I to 3 mm. long, acute; areoles on young shoots 
circular, with white or tawny wool and pale glochids, 
the upper part in age compressed into the narrow 
slit between the two adjoining tubercles, the lower 
part depressed-linear, with a slightly elevated border ; 
spines often wanting, but when present abundant, 
usuall}' one at each areole, rarely 2, porrect, acicular, 
sometimes 6 cm. long, usually reddish when young, 
covered by loose, yellow, papery sheaths; flowers, 
including ovaries, 3 to 4 cm. long; sepals subulate, 
similar to the leaves of the ovary, but longer; petals 
greenish j^ellow, tinged with red, obovate, aristulate, 
about I cm. long; stamens greenish yellow; anthers 
orange-colored; style and stigma-lobes cream-colored; 
ovar}^ narrowly obconic, covered with emarginate 
tubercles, the areoles bearing wool and long glochids, 
but no spines; fruit drj^ obovate, '2 to 2.5 cm. long, 
covered with clusters of weak, slender spines, appear- 
ing like a bur; seeds few, white, 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In California, near the Colo- 
rado River. 

Distribution: Southern Nevada, western 
Arizona, southeastern California, northwestern 
Sonora and probably northeastern Lower Cali- 

j. . Figs. 54, 55. — Opuntia ramosissima. X0.75. 

lomia. 

The flowers of this species have been described as purple, apparently erroneously. 

This species is found in the most arid deserts of the southwestern part of the United 
States, usually growing on low hills, and is confined chiefly to the lower Colorado; it is 
here rather inconspicuous and might easily be overlooked. It is one of the least succulent 
species of the genus, the terminal shoots soon becoming hard, and hence the plant is 
difficult to propagate from cuttings, and is rarely found in greenhouse collections. 

Opuntia tessellata cristata Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8 : 70. 1898) is a striking 
monstrosity which Schumann has described and figured. 

Illustrations: Cact. Joum. i : pi. [i]; Cycl. Amer. Hort. Baileys : f- 1549; Pac. R. Rep. 
4 : pi. 21 ; 24, f. 20, all as Opuntia tessellata. 

Figure 54 represents a spiny branch drawn from a specimen sent by Mr. S. B. Parish 
from Barstow, California, in 19 15; figure 55 shows a portion of an unarmed branch sent 
by the same collector from the same locality. 

Series 2. LEPTOCAULES. 

Bushy species, with slender joints, the ultimate ones 4 to 15 mm. thick, often readily detached; 
the flowers small. 

Inhabitants of the southwestern United States, Mexico, northern South America, and 
one species in Santo Domingo. 




OPUNTIA. 47 

Key to Species. 

Ultimate joints short, usually at right angles to the branches, 4 to 7 mm. thick. 
Bushy plants, 1.5 meters high or less; fruit small, fertile. 
Branches scarcely if at all tuberculate. 

Leaves ovoid to ovoid-subulate; young areoles long-hairy 2. O. 7nortolensis 

Leaves linear; areoles not long-hairy 3. 0. leplocaulis 

Branches long-tuberculate 4. 0. tesajo 

Elongated plants, up to 2 meters long; fruit larger, sterile 5. 0. caribaea 

Ultimate joints longer, 8 to 15 mm. thick, usually at an acute angle to the branches. 

Joints only slightly tuberculate 6. 0. arbuscula 

Joints manifestly tuberculate 7. O. kleiniae 

2. Opuntia mortolensis sp. nov. 

Slender, 6 dm. high or less, dull green, with dark blotches below the areoles, the ultimate twigs 
short, sometimes only 2 cm. long, 4 to 5 mm. thick, scarcely tuberculate; leaves ovate to ovate- 
subulate, 2 to 4 mm. long, green, with acute bronze-colored tips; young areoles with numerous, early 
deciduous, weak white hairs sometimes longer than the leaves, and several brown glochids; areoles 
. of old branches with solitary acicular spines 3 to 5 cm. long, these with tightly fitting brownish sheaths ; 
flowers and fruit unknown. 

Described from No. 25360, New York Botanical Garden, received from the garden of 
Sir Thomas Hanbury, La Mortola, Italy, in 1906. Mr. Berger has referred this specimen 
to Opuntia leptocaulis longispina, but this was considered by Dr. Bngelmann as the "usual 
western form" of 0. leptocaulis. 

An herbarium specimen collected by Rose, Standley, and Russell at Empalme, Sonora, 
Mexico, March 11, 1910 (No. 12644), appears to be referable to this species. 

The short leaves and long-hairy young areoles appear to distinguish this plant from 
0. leptocaulis. 

Illustration: Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 37, as Opuntia leptocaulis longispina. 

Plate VI, figure i, represents a branch of a plant sent from La Mortola, Italy, in 1906; 
figure 2 shows a leafy twig of the same plant. 

3. Opuntia leptocaulis De Candolle, Mdm. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 

Opuntia ramulifcra Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 360. 1834. 

Opimlia [gracilis Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 172. 1837. 

Opuntia fragilis fnilescens Engeknann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5: 245. 1845. 

Opuntia virgata Link and Otto in Forster, Handb. Cact. 506. 1846. 

Opuntia vaginata Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 100. 1848. 

Opuntia fnUescens Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 208. 1850. 

Opuntia frutescens brevispina Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 309. 1856. 

Opuntia frutescens longispina Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3 : 309. 1856. 

Opuntia leptocaulis brevispina S. Watson, Bibl. Index i : 407. 1878. 

Opuntia leptocaulis vaginata S. Watson, Bibl. Index i : 407. 1878. 

Opuntia leptocaulis stipata Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 456. 1896. 

Opuntia leptocaulis longispina Berger, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 36: 450. 1905. 

Usually bushy, often compact, 2 to 20 dm. high, but sometimes with a short, definite trunk 5 to 8 
cm. in diameter, dull green with darker blotches below the areoles, with slender, cylindric, ascending, 
hardly tuberculate branches; branches, especially the fruiting ones, thickly set with short, usually 
spineless joints spreading nearly at right angles to the main branches, very easily detached; leaves 
green, awl-shaped, 12 mm. long or less, acute; spines usually solitary at young areoles, very slender, 
white, at areoles of old branches 2 or 3 together, 2 to 5 cm. long or less; sheaths of spines closely fit- 
ting or loose and papery, yellowish brown to whitish; areoles with very short white wool; flowers 
greenish or yellowish, 1.5 to 2 cm. long including the ovary; sepals broadly ovate, acute, or cuspidate; 
ovary obconic, bearing numerous small woolly brown areoles subtended by small leaves, its glochids 
brown; fruit small, globular to obovate or even clavate, often proliferous, red or rarely yellow, 10 
to 18 mm. long, turgid, slightly fleshy; seeds compressed, 3 to 4 mm. broad, with narrow, often 
_ acute, margins. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Southwestern United States and Mexico. 

This species has a wide distribution for an Opuntia, extending from southern United 
States to Puebla, Mexico. 



THE CACTACEAE. 



The great variation in the length of the spines and in the character of the spine sheaths 
has led to the description of several varieties. These all seem to us to merge into the one 
species, as above indicated. It sometimes hybridizes with 0. imhricata. See C. B. 
Allaire's plant from San Antonio, New Mexico. 

The following names, Opiintia Icpiocaulis laetevircns Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 184. 
1834), 0. gracilis siihpatcns Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 73- 1850), and 0. lepto- 
caulis major Tourney (Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 3:1152- 1901) are printed but not described.- 

Illustrations: Bull. Torr. Club 32 : pi- 10, f. 9; Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 19 : pi. 21, in part; 
Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: f. 12; Emory, Mil. Reconn. app. 2. f. 12; Pac. R. 
Rep. 4 : pi. 20, f. I ; pi. 24, f. 13 to 15, all as Opuntia vaginata. Cact. Journ. i : 154, as Opuntia 




I'lG. 56. — Opuntia leptocaul; 



Fig. 58. — Opuntia ca- 
ribaea. Xo.66. 



jrntescens. Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 20, f. 4, 5; pi. 24, f. 19, all sls Opuntia fnitescens brevispina. 
Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 20, f. 2, 3; pi. 24, f. 16 to 18, all as Opuntia fruicscens longispina. 

Plate VI, figure 3 , represents a fruiting branch from a plant collected by Dr. Rose near 
Sierra Blanca, Texas, in 19 13; figure 4 shows a fruiting branch from another Texas plant 
obtained by the same collector. Figure 56 is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal 
near Tucson, Arizona, in 1913; figure 57 represents a branch with young leafy shoots, of a 
specimen collected by Dr. Rose in 19 13 at Laredo, Texas. 
4. Opuntia tesajo Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 448. 1896. 

Bushy, 3 dm. broad and high; joints slender, indistinctly tuberculate, 2 to 5 cm. long; areoles 
5 to 6 mm. apart; leaves awl-shaped, 2 to 4 mm. long, often red; spines at first 2, small, dark brown, 
4 to 8 mm. long, either erect or reflexed; later a long central spine develops, this porrect, 5 cm. long, 
yellow near the tip; flowers yellow, small, 1.5 to 1.8 cm. long, including the ovary; style whitish; 
stigma-lobes 5, yellowish. 

Type locality: In Lower California. 

Distribution: Central part of Lower California. 

The type of this little-known species should be in the herbarium of the Missouri 
Botanical Garden, at St. Louis, but it can not now be found. The species has been in 
cultivation at La Mortola, Italy, but it does not do well under cultivation. Dr. C. A. 
Purpus, who has collected the plant in Lower Cahfornia, regarded it as related to 0. 
ramosissima, claiming that the stems have the peculiar marking of that species. This 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del. 



1, 2. Branches of Optuitia moriolensis . 5. Flowering branch of Opuntia arbuscula. 

3, 4. Branches of Opitntia leptocauHs. 6. Flowering branch of Opuntia kleiniae. 

(All natural size.) 



50 



THE CACTACEAE. 



6. Opuntia arbuscula Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 309. 1856. 
Opuntia neoarbusciila Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 260. 1908. 
Forming a bush 2 to 3 meters high, often with a rounded, very compact top with numerous 
short branches; trunk short, 10 to 12 cm. in diameter, with several woody branches; ultimate joints 
5 to 7.5 cm. long, 8 mm. in diameter, with low, indistinct tubercles; leaves small; spines usually i, 
but sometimes several, especially on old joints, porrect, up to 4 cm. long, covered with loose straw- 
colored sheaths; flowers greenish 3'ellow tinged with red, 3.5 cm. long; fruit often proliferous, some- 
times only one-seeded. 



^ M\X-i 




Fig. 60. — Opuntia arbuscula. 

Type locality: On the lower Gila near ISIaricopa village. 

Distribution: Arizona and Sonora. 

Opuntia congesta Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 88, pi. 2, f. 4, 7; pi. 8; pi. 13, f. 5. 
1909), from the description, is near this species and probably a race of it. 

Races of the species differ in size, in armament, in the length of the tubercles, and in 
size and shape of the fruit. 

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67 : pi. 6, f. 2; Bull. Torr. Club 32 : pi. 9, f. 3; 
Plant World 11'^°: f. 11; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 22; 19: pi. 23, in part, this last as 
Opuntia neoarbuscula; Carnegie Inst. Wash. 269: pi. 11, f. 95. 

Plate vr, figure 5, represents a flowering branch from Professor J. W. Toumey's collec- 
tion at Tucson, Arizona. Figure 60 is from a photograph taken by Dr. ISIacDougal near 
Tucson, Arizona, in 1906; figure 61 is from a photograph taken by George B. Sudworth in 
Santa Rita INIountains, Arizona; figure 62 shows a fruiting branch from the same collection. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del. 1. 3, 4 
Krieger del. 2. 5 



1. Leafy branch of Optmtia kleiniae. 4. Flowering branch of Opuntia echinocarpa 

2. Terminal branch of Opuntia vivipara. 5. Fruiting branch of Opuntia versicolor. 

3. Branch of Opuntia parryi. (All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



51 



7. Opuntia kleiniae De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 
0/'z(»/ja wWg/i/w' Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3 : 308. 1856. 
Opuntia caerulescens Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 86. 1909. 

Stems pale, glaucous, sometimes 2.5 meters tall, woody at base; tubercles long; areoles large, 
a little longer than wide, filled with white wool from the very first; spines usually i, but sometimes 
more, from the base of the areole, covered with yellow sheaths, on old joints accompanied by several 
bristle-like spines from the lower margin of the areole; glochids yellow to brown; leaves linear, 15 cm. 
long, acute; flowers 3 cm. long, purplish; petals broad, rounded at apex; fruit red, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, 
long persisting; seeds 4 to 5 mm. broad. 




-Opuntia arbusciil 



Fig. G2. — Opuntia arbuscula. X0.75. 



Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Texas to central Mexico. 

Opuntia kleiniae was originally described as without tubercles on the stems, which has 
raised the question whether the plant bearing this name is properly referred; in this 
respect 0. arbusmla answers the description better, but it is very doubtful whether 0. 
arbuscula could have been known at that time. 

Opuntia kleiniae has long been in cultivation and is to be seen in most collections. 

In 1910 Dr. Rose collected near Alamos, Mexico, an Opuntia very similar in habit 
and joints to 0. kleiniae, but much more spiny. 

Opuntia kleiniae cristata (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 55. 1908) is a garden form. 
0. kleiniae laetevirens Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 73. 1850) is only a name. 

Illustrations: Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen 2: pi. i, sec. 7, f. 9; Rep. Mo. Bot. 
Gard. 19 : pi. 21, in part; 20 : pi. 6, in part, this last as Opuntia caerulescens. 

Plate VI, figure 6, represents a flowering branch of a specimen obtained from M. 
Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France, in 1901; plate vii, figure i, represents a leafy branch 
of a specimen collected by Dr. Rose at Ixmiquilpan, Mexico, in 1905. 

Two remarkable opuntias were cohected in Lower CaHfornia by Dr. Rose in 191 1, 
but as they were not in flower or fruit, and have not developed flowers since they were 
brought into cultivation, we are unable to describe them fully; they are doubtless of 
this relationship and their characters are given as follows: 

Opuntia sp. 

Stems 1.3 to 2 meters high, rather weak, often clambering over bushes, 10 mm. in diameter, 
woody below, pale, when dry the white epidermis peeling off; lateral branches numerous, horizontal, 



52 THE CACTACEAE. 

short (2 to 6 cm. long) ; areoles on old stems bearing 3 or 4 long (2 to 4 cm. long) needle-like brownish 
spines ; young areoles usually with a single spine each, filled with brown wool ; glochids brown, numer- 
ous sheaths on young spines straw-colored, soon deciduous; flowers and fruit unknown. 

Description based on field notes and on living and herbarium specimens. 
CoUectedbyDr.RoseonSantaCruzIsland, Gulf of California, April i, 1911 (No. 16845). 

Opuntia sp. 

Procumbent, forming an indeterminable mass of spiny branches, 3 to 10 dm. in diameter; old 
stems woody, smooth, brown, and shiny, 2 cm. in diameter; branches 10 to 20 cm. long, bluish green; 
spines of two kinds; the 2 to 4 principal ones long (2 to 3 cm. long), needle-like, at first covered with 
thin yellow sheaths, straw-colored when 3'oung, becoming purplish, finally fading to gray; secondary 
spines 4 to 6, radial, inconspicuous; glochids brownish; flowers and fruit unknown. 

Description based on field notes and living and herbarium specimens. 

Collected by Dr. J. N. Rose on East San Benito Island, off the coast of Lower Cali- 
fornia, March 9, 191 1 (No. 16085). This is, doubtless, the plant referred to by Walton 
(Cact. Journ. 2: 137. 1899) as Q. ramosissima, but it is not that species. 

Series 3. THURBERIANAE. 

Bushy, arborescent, or depressed species, with slender joints, the ultimate ones tuberculate, 
about 2 cm. thick or less, the areoles bearing several spines. We recognize 8 species, 7 of them 
natives of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, and i in Lower California. 

Key to Species. 

Bushy or arborescent species, 6 dm. high or higher. 
Tubercles narrowly oblong, i cm. long or more. 

Joints readily detached 8.0. vivipara 

Joints not readily detached. 

Longer spines 2.5 cm. long or longer. 

Flowers orange to scarlet 9. 0. tetracantlta 

Flowers purple 10. O. recondita 

Spines 2 cm. long or less 11. O. thurheri 

Tubercles low, oblong, 6 to 8 mm. long 12. 0. clavellina 

Depressed species, 6 dm. high or less. 

Spines j-ellow or brown; flowers green or tinged with yellow. 

Spines yellow, up to 5 cm. long; petals i to 1.5 cm. long 13. O. davisii 

Spines brown, 2.5 cm. long or less; petals 2 to 2.5 cm. long 14. 0. viridiflora 

Spines white; flowers yellow 15-0. whipplei 

8. Opuntia vivipara Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 52: 153. 1908. 

Plant 2 to 3.5 meters high, usually several strong branches from the base, 8 to 10 cm. in diame- 
ter, much branched above, but not compactly so; old stems with rather smooth bark; young branches 
bluish green, slender, i to 2 cm. long, 10 to 12 mm. in diameter; tubercles low, oblong, 15 to 20 mm. 
long; areoles when young bearing a dense cushion of yellow wool with few or no glochids; spines 
I to 4, 2 cm. long or less, porrect or ascending, covered with straw-colored sheaths ; leaves small, terete, 
acutish, purple; flowers numerous, borne in clusters at the top of the branches, purplish; ovary 
strongly tuberculate, bearing white deciduous bristles; fruit oblong, 4 to 6 cm. long, smooth, with a 
somewhat depressed umbilicus, yellowish green, spineless; seeds white, very thick, 5 mm. long. 

Type locality: Near Tucson, Arizona. 

Distribution: Known only from type locality. 

The relationship of this species is doubtful; it resembles certain garden forms of 
0. tetracantha, but differs from typical forms of that species in its much larger fruit and 
seeds, different armament, and habit. The type grew associated with 0. spinosior and 
0. versicolor, but there is no indication that it is the result of hybridization of those species. 

Ilhistrations : Smiths. Misc. Coll. 52: pi. 12; Plant World 11": f. 12. 

Plate VII, figure 2, represents a branch drawn by L. C. C. Krieger at the Desert 
Botanical Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona; plate viii, figure i, is from a photograph of 
the type plant taken by Dr. MacDougal in 1908. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 





-•-^Sj^- 



1. Type plant of Opjcntia vivipara, near Tucson, Arizona. 

2. A much-branched plant of Opuntia versicolor. 



OPUNTIA. 



53 



9. Opuntia tetracantha Tourney, Gard. and For. 9: 432. 1896. 

Low bush, 5 to 15 dm. high, branching; central stem woody, 5 to 8 cm. in diameter; young 
joints 23 to 30 cm. long, 10 to 15 mm. in diameter, purplish; tubercles at first prominent, elongated, 
16 to 22 mm. long; areoles bearing wool, light brown glochids, prominent glands and spines; spines 
3 to 6, usually 4, slender, somewhat deflexed, 2 to 3.5 cm. long; flowers greenish purple, 1.5 to 2 cm, 
broad; fruit 2 to 2.5 cm. ong, yellowish orange to "scarlet, " nearly smooth, but rarely bearing a few 
spines, deeply umbilicate; seeds 3 to 5 cm. broad, with irregular faces and a thick, spongy commissure. 

Type locality: Five miles east of Tucson, Arizona. 

Distribution: Known only from the region about Tucson, Arizona. 

The species was originally compared by Mr. Tourney with 0. thurberi, with which he 
thought it to be closely associated, but differing in ' ' its longer, more strongly deflexed spines, 
smaller and different-colored flowers." 

The type specimen was not indicated, but Toumey's own plant, collected in 1895, which 
was recently purchased by the U. S. National Herbarium, is doubtless the type. 

Illustration: Bull. Torr. Club 32 : pi. 9, f. 2. 

Plate IX, figure i, shows a joint painted by L- C. C. Kriegeratthe Desert Botanical 
Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona. 

10. Opuntia recondita Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 131. 1913. 

"A stout broad-branched shrub, i to 1.5 meters in height; trunk cylindric, 4 to 7 cm. in diam- 
eter, with constrictions corresponding to each year's growth, with gray bark, and having a few lateral, 
easily detachable, weakly spined joints about 10 cm. long, the remaining joints being 20 to 30 cm. 
long, very spiny, in the second year about 2 cm. in diameter, tuberculate; tubercles forming a ridge, 
flattening out below, above extending precipitously, about 2 to 5 cm. long, 5 to 6 mm. wide, and 4 
to 5 mm. high, remaining recognizable three years, and then disappearing; areoles broadly obovate, 
5 to 6 mm. in the longest diameter, in age becoming larger and more prominent, forming new wool 
for several years; glochids yellow, in a thick 3 mm. long 
cluster on the upper part of the areole, also smaller clusters 
on the other parts of the areole, mostly at the base of the 
longest and most central spine ; spines first 2 to 4, later 6 to 
8 or 10, upr ght, spreading, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, in cross-sec- 
tion weakly circular, gray at the base, becoming deep red- 
dish brown at the tips, surrounded the entire length by a 
loose, comparatively bright sheath; between the spines are 
scattered a few dirty-black, sheathless bristles about 6 mm. 
long; leaves subulate, finely tipped, terete, 12 to 20 mm. long. 

"Flowers bright purple, when open about 2.5 cm. in 
diameter; petals finely and irregularly serrate, inconspic- 
uously but finely irregularly notched; sepals thick, trian- 
gular pointed, greenish purple ; anthers greenish with purple 
tinge; pistil greenish at base, with purple tinge above; 
stigma-lobes 6, white ; ovary obovoid, tuberculate, with small 
areoles, 2 mm. in diameter, short greenish brown glochids 
I to 2 mm. long, and i, 2, or 3 brown, caducous spines 
sheathed in part; fruit not deciduous, 3 to 3.5 by 2 to 2.4 
cm., large, greenish yellow with a reddish tinge on the outer- 
most side, only weakly tuberculate in the second year, with 
projecting brownish glochids 3 mm. long; seeds white, thick, 
mostly flat but often lightly angled with narrowly thickened 
edges, and often somewhat concave." 

Type locality: La Perla, Mexico. 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, and, 
to us, only from the description of which the above 
is a translation by Mr. Russell. 

11. Opuntia thurberi Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3:308. 1856. 

Large bushy plants, 2 to 4 meters high; joints slender, elongated, 1.5 to 2.5 dm. long, 10 to 12 
cm. in diameter; tubercles 1.5 to 2 cm. long, flattened laterally; leaves linear, 6 to 8 mm. long, spread- 





s^ 




% jeK^ 




s^A,wBi|BHH 


^ 


i^ 


( 


r 



Fig. 63. — Opuntia thurberi. Natural size. 



54 The cactaceae). 

ing; spines 3 to 5, short (10 to 12 mm. long), spreading, covered with thin, brown, papery sheaths, 
the lowest one stoutest; flowers 3.5 cm. broad, brownish; fruit 2 cm. to 3 cm. long, spineless; seeds 
nearly globular, 4 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Bacuachi, Sonora, Mexico. 

Distribution: Western coast of Mexico. 

Opuntia thurberi has long been one of our least-known species. The type, which is 
but a fragment, has not been clearly associated with any recent collections, but we are 
disposed now to believe that specimens collected on the west coast of Mexico by Dr. Rose 
in 1910 belong here. If we are correct, it ranges from Sonora to Sinaloa, Mexico. It is 
sometimes associated with Opuutia versicolor in its northern range, but is not so stout and 
has fewer and longer spines. 

Figure 63 is from a photograph of the type specimen. 

12. Opuntia clavellina Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 444. 1896. 

Plant I meter high or less, rather openly branched; ultimate joints slender, spreading or ascend- 
ing, somewhat clavate, 5 to 10 cm. long, a little over i cm. in diameter; tubercles prominent, 
elongated; spines 3 to 6 in a cluster, very long, covered with loose straw-colored or brown sheaths, 
the central one much longer and porrect; flowers yellow; fruit clavate, short, tuberculate. 

Type locality: Near Mision Purisima, Lower California. 

Distribution: Interior of central Lower California. 

The above description is based on the original one and on the t3^pe If the plant illus- 
trated as cited below belongs here, this is a very distinct species, which was referred, however, 
by Mrs. Brandegee to Opuntia molesta Brandegee. 

Illustration: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: pi. 129, a. 

Of this series there is another peculiar Lower California species, perhaps nearest 0. 
clavellina, but of different habit and spines. It also suggests 0. tetracantha of Arizona. 
It was obtained first by Dr. Rose in 191 1, but was without flowers or fruit. It may be 
characterized as follows : 

Opuntia sp. 

Stems slender (i to 1.5 cm. in diameter), weak, often clambering over bushes, pale green in 
color, terete, pointed, 6 to 7 dm. long; areoles set on low tubercles, circular; chief spines 2 to 6, 
only slightly spreading, nearly equal, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long, clothed with loose straw-colored sheaths 
(rose-colored when very young) ; accessory spines 3 or 4, almost bristle-like, borne from the lower 
parts of the areoles; glochids short, greenish when young, yellow in age; flowers and fruit not seen. 

Collected by Dr. J. N. Rose on Cerralvo Island, off southern Lower California, April 19, 
191 1 (No. 16875), ^i^d also by Nelson and Goldman on the same island in 1906 (No. 7524). 

13. Opuntia davisii Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 305. 1856. 

Plants low, 3 to 5 dm. high, much branched, their dense covering of straw-colored spines making 
them conspicuous objects in the landscape; terminal joints slender, 6 to 8 cm. long, about i cm. in 
diameter, strongly tuberculate; spines 6 to 12, unequal, the longest ones 4 to 5 cm. long, acicular, 
covered with thin sheaths; glochids numerous, j'ellow; flowers, including ovary, 3.5 cm. long; petals 
olive-green to yellow, broad, with rounded mucronate tips; ovary with large areoles bearing a few 
spines each; fruit 3 cm. long, somewhat tuberculate, naked; seeds not known. 

Type locality: Upper Canadian, about Tucumcari Hills, near the Llano Bstacado. 

Distribution: Western Texas and eastern New Mexico. 

For many years this plant was not collected and the name was confused with other 
species, so that at one time it was supposed to extend as far west as California. It is now 
believed to have a rather circumscribed range. It is first seen going west on the Texas & 
Pacific Railroad about Colorado, Texas. 

The plant was named for Jefferson Davis, who was Secretary of War when Whipple's 
report was made. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




Kriegerdel. 1, 6 
Kako Morita del. 2 to 5 



1. 3 o'lni ol Opziniia ietracaniha. 2 to 5. Vlo^frering ]oints oi Opuntia versicolor. 

6. Proliferous fruits of Opuntia fulgida. (All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



55 



Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. io8 : pi. 6652; Pac. R. Rep. 4 : pi. 16. 
Figure 64 is copied 'from the second illustration above cited. 

14. Opuntia viridiflora sp. nov. 

A low, round, bushy plant 30 to 60 cm. high; terminal joints 5 to 7 cm. long, 1.5 to 2 cm. thick, 
often quite fragile; areoles prominent, flattened from the sides; areoles circular, filled with short, 
yellow or dull-gray wool; spines 5 to 7, somewhat spreading, the longest ones 2 cm. long, dark brown 
in color; glochids numerous, very short, yellow; flowers at tips of branches in clusters of 3 to 8, 3.5 
to 4.5 cm. long (including ovary), "green, tinged with red"; fruit strongly tuberculate, except for a 
few long, deciduous bristles, with a deep umbilicus; seeds smooth, white, 3 mm. broad. 




Fig. 64. — Opuntia davisii. X0.5 



Fig. 65. — Opuntia viridiflora. X0.5. 



Fig. 66. — Opuntia whipplei. X0.5 



Collected in the vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico, altitude about 2,225 meters, by 
Paul C. Standley, July 6, 191 1 (No. 6493, type) and at the same locality by T. D. A. Cock- 
erell in 1912, and by J. N. Rose in 1913 (No. 18776). It is quite common on the hills just 
north of Santa Fe about Fort Marcy, where it is one of the dominant plants, but it was 
not observed elsewhere in that region. 

This species differs from Opuntia imbricata with which it is found, in its much lower 
stature, more bushy habit, in its branches, spines, and smaller, differently colored flowers, 
different fruit, and smaller seeds. 

Figure 65 represents two joints of a specimen collected by Dr. Rose at the type locality 
in 1913. 

15. Opuntia whipplei Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 307. 1856. 
Opuntia whipplei laevior Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3 : 307. 1856. 
Low, much branched, with long, fibrous roots; areoles prominent, flattened laterally, 10 to 15 
cm. long, circular, filled with Hght-brown wool; glochids pale yellow, short; spines about 12, the 



56 



THE CACTACEAE. 



longest about 2 cm. long, dark brown, covered with lighter colored papery sheaths; flowers yellow, 
small (2 cm. broad); young ovary bearing brown spines in the axils of the leaves; fruit strongly 
tuberculate, spineless, 2.5 to 4 cm. long, with a deeply depressed umbilicus, sometimes with only 
one seed but usually many; seeds small, 4 cm. broad, smooth. 

Type locality: About Zuni, New Mexico. 

Distribution: Northern New Mexico and Arizona to southwestern Colorado and prob- 
ably southern Utah. Also reported by Coulter in southern California, Lower California, 
and Sonora, but not to be expected there. 

Illustration: Pac. R. Rep. 4 : pi. 24, f. 9, 10. 

Figure 66 is copied from the illustration above cited. 




Fig. 67. — Opuntia acanthocarpa in the foreground. Photograph by MacDougal. 



Series 4. ECHINOCARPAE. 

Dry-fruited, rather stout-jointed, bushy or depressed species, the areoles bearing several 
spines, the flowers red, yellow, or yellowish. Four species, inhabiting the southwestern United 
States, Sonora, and Lower Californja. 

Key to Species. 

Tubercles elongated, 2 to 3 times as long as wide. 

Fruit long-spiny, strongly tuberculate 16. 0. acanthocarpa 

Fruit short-spiny, little tuberculate ; 17. 0. parryi 

Tubercles short, less than twice as long as wide. 

Spines with white or straw-colored sheaths 18. O. echinocarpa 

Spines with yellow-brown sheaths 19. 0. serpentina 



OPUNTIA. • 57 

16. Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 308. 1856. 

Much branched, 1.5 to 2 meters high; branches becoming woody, alternate, making a narrow 
angle with the trunk; terminal joints 4 to 8 cm. long, strongly tuberculate; tubercles elongated, 
flattened laterally; spines 8 to 25, acicular, dark brown, covered with thin and lighter colored sheaths, 

2 to 3 cm. long; glochids numerous, yellow; flowers large, red to yellow, 5 cm. long, and when fully 
open nearly as broad; ovary rather short, turbinate, with few prominent tubercles; fruit dry, about 

3 cm. long, naked below, tuberculate above, each tubercle crowned by a cluster of 10 to 12 stout 
spines; umbilicus broad and somewhat depressed; seeds 5 to 6 cm. broad, sharply angular. 

Type locality: On the mountains of Cactus Pass, Arizona, about 500 miles west of 
Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

Distribution: Arizona and California; reported also from Utah, Nevada, and Sonora. 

Illustrations: N. Amer. Fauna 7 : pi. 7, 8; Pac. R. Rep. 4 : pi. 18, f. i to 3; pi. 24, f. 11. 

Figure 67 is from a photograph by Dr. MacDougal of a plant near Pictured Rocks, 
Tucson Mountains, Arizona. 

17. Opuntia parryi Engelmann, Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 339. 1852. 

Opuntia bernardina Engelmann in Parish, Bull. Torr. Club 19: 92. 1892. 
Low and bush-like, 2 to 4 dm. high; joints cylindric, 7 to 30 cm. long by 1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter, 
strongly tuberculate; tubercles i to 1.5 cm. long; areoles rather large, bearing light-brown wool, 
yellow glochids, and spines; spines about 10, dark brown, the longer ones 3 cm. long, covered with 
loose sheaths; flowers, several near together at ends of branches, 4 cm. long; sepals greenish or dull 
red ; petals yellow, obtuse ; stigma-lobes cream-colored ; ovary tuberculate ; fruit dry, ovoid, 2 cm. long , 
strongly umbilicate, when mature and fertile plump, otherwise more or less tuberculate; areoles on 
the fruit large, filled with wool and glochids, those at top of fruit often with short spines; seeds 
white, 4 to 6 mm. broad, beaked, the margins channeled. 

Type locality: Near San Felipe, eastern slope of California Mountains — San Jacinto 
Mountains. 

Distribution: Interior valleys of southern California. 

This is common in some of the interior valleys of southern California, although its 
range has not been very definitely determined. It was first collected by Dr. C. C. Parry 
in 1 85 1 and named for him by Dr. Engelmann in 1852; but when the latter again took up 
this name a few years later, he associated it with a very different species, which most later 
writers and dealers accepted as the true Opuntia parryi. Later on Dr. Engelmann segre- 
gated a species which he named 0. bernardina, including therein Parry's specimen, but this 
was not published until after his death. We therefore regard 0. bernardina as a synonym 
of 0. parryi, while the 0. parryi of most collections becomes 0. parishii. We are under 
obHgation to Mr. C. R. Orcutt for first calling our attention to this confusion. 

Mr. Orcutt thinks that this species is near 0. serpentina; but the former has larger 
flowers, different spines, much less spiny fruit, and is of different habit. 

Opuntia bernardina cristata Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 20. 1902), an 
abnormal form, has been described. 

Plate VII, figure 3, is from a plant collected by W. T. Schaller at Pala, California, show- 
ing a leafy joint. 

18. Opuntia echinocarpa Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 305. 1856. 

Opuntia echinocarpa major Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 305. 1856. 
Opuntia echinocarpa nuda Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 446. 1896. 
Opuntia echinocarpa parkeri Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3 : 446. 1896. 
Opuntia echinocarpa robustior Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 446. 1896. 
Opuntia deserta Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23 : 132. 1913. 

Plant usually low, but sometimes 1.5 meters high, much branched and widely spreading, with 
a short woody trunk 2 to 3 cm. in diameter, in age with nearly smooth bark; joints short, turgid, 
strongly tuberculate; spines numerous, when young bright yellow, when older brownish, or in age 
grayish, unequally covered with thin papery sheaths; flowers yellowish, but the sepals often tipped 
with red; ovary short, turbinate, densely spiny especially in the upper part; fruit dry, very spiny; 
seeds somewhat angular, 4 mm. broad. 



S8 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Type locality: In the Colorado Valley near the mouth of Bill Williams River. 

Distribution: Nevada, Utah, Arizona, California, and Lower California. 

Coulter has described three varieties of this species, none of which is quite typical, but 
without seeing more specimens we can only refer them all to the species proper. His 
variety parkeri seems more like a very spiny form of 0. parryi. 0. parkeri Engelmann 
(Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3 : 446. 1896) was pubhshed as a synonym. 

Mrs. Brandegee thought Opuntia echinocarpa nuda very near 0. alcahes, if not identical 
with it (Erythrea 5: 122). 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4 : pi. iS, f.5 to 10; pi. 24, f. 8; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23 : 
132, the last as Opuntia deserta. 

Plate VII, figure 4, is from a plant collected by Dr. Rose near the Salton Sink, Cali- 
fornia, showing a flowering joint. 

19. Opuntia serpentina Engelmann, Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 33S. 1852. 

Cereiis californicus Torrey and Gra)-, FI. N. Amer. i: 555. 1840. Not Optmtia calif ornica Engelmann. 

1848. 
Optmtia californica Cov-ille, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 13: 119. 1899. 

Ascending, erect, or prostrate; branches slender, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, bluish green, strongly 
tuberculate; leaves minute; tubercles elevated, i to 1.5 cm. long, longer than broad, flattened; spines 
7 to 20, brown, covered with yellowish-brown papery sheaths about i cm. long; glochids light brown; 
flowers close together at the top of short branches, about 4 cm. broad, greenish j^ellow, the outer 
petals tinged with red; ovars' strongly tuberculate, spiny, with a depressed umbilicus; fruit dry, very 
spiny. 

Type locality: Near the seacoast about San Diego, California. 

Distribution: Southern California and northern Lower CaUfornia. 

Cactus californicus Nuttall, although given in the Index Kewensis 
(i : 367), was never published by Nuttall, although he did have the name 
in manuscript, as stated in Torrey and Gray's "Flora" in the place cited 
above, where it was taken up as a Cereus. 

Figure 68 is from a plant collected by ]\Ir. G. Sykes near San 
Diego, California. 

Series 5. BIGELOVIANAE. 

We recognize two species in this series, natives of the southwestern 
United States and Lower California. They are low, bushy plants, with 
short definite trunks densely covered with short, stout, very spiny branches, 
the spines white, straw-colored, or yellow, the tubercles, at least those of 
young shoots, little if any longer than broad, and considerably elevated. 
Their fruits are flesh}' berries. 

Key to Species. 

Larger spines numerous; upper tubercles on fruit larger than lower ones 20. 0. bigelovii 
Larger spines 4 to 6; tubercles on fruit all alike 21. 0. ciribe 

20. Opuntia bigelovii Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 307. 1S56. 

Usually with a central, erect trunk, i meter high or less, with short 
lateral branches, the upper ones erect; joints usually 5 to 15 cm. long, very 
turgid, with closely set areoles and almost impenetrable armament; tubercles 
slightly elevated, pale green, somewhat 4-sided, about as long as broad, i cm. broad or less; spines, 
as well as their papery sheaths, pale yellow; flowers several, borne at the tips of the branches, 4 
cm. long including the ovary ; sepals orbicular, about i cm. in diameter, tinged with red; petals 
about 1.5 cm. long, pale magenta to crimson; ovary 2 cm. long, its large areoles bearing brown wool 
and several acicular spines; fruit usually naked, strongly tuberculate, the upper tubercles larger than 
the lower. 




Fig. 68. — Opuntia ser- 
pentina. X0.66 



OPUNTIA. 



59 



Type locality: Bill Williams River, Arizona. 

Distribution: Southern Nevada, Arizona, California, northern Sonora, and northern 
Lower California. 

Illustrations: Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn. 26: pi 12; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: pi. 
128, b; Hornaday, Camp-fires on Desert and Lava, facing p. 154; Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 
5: f. i6;Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 19; Plant World 11^° -A. 10. 

Figure 69 is from a photograph by Dr. MacDougal of a plant in Pima Canyon, Santa 
Catalina Mountains, Arizona; figure 70 is copied from the Pacific Railroad Report above 
cited. 

21. Opuntia ciribe Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 445. 1896. 

One meter high or less, with numerous stout branches densely armed; ultimate joints 4 to 5 cm. 
in diameter, strongly and regularly tuberculate, 3 cm. in diameter ; tubercles about as long as broad 





Fig. 69. — Opuntia bigelovii. 



Fig. 70. — Opuntia bigelovii. Xo.66. 



(5 to 7 cm. broad) ; larger spines 4 to 6, stout, 2 to 3 cm. long, covered with loose yellow sheaths, 
accompanied by several bristle-like spines or hairs; glochids numerous; flowers yellow; ovary some- 
what bristly; fruit strongly tuberculate, 3 to 4 cm. long, spineless. 

Type locality: Comondu and Loreto northward to beyond Rosario, Lower California. 

Distribution: Central Lower California. 

Opuntia ciribe is near 0. bigelovii, but differs from it in having less spiny stems and 
globular, slightly different fruits. 

Figure 71 is from a photograph of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at the head of Con- 
cepcion Bay, Lower California; figure 72 is from a drawing of a joint from the same plant. 



6o 



THE CACTACEAE. 







Fig. 71. — Opuntia ciribe. 



Fig. 72. — Opuntia ciribe. X0.8. 



Series 6. IMBRICATAE. 

The typical species are tall, much branched, very spiny. The terminal joints are fleshy and 
strongly tuberculate, the tubercles large and flattened laterally. The fruit is either smooth or 
strongly tuberculate. We recognize 8 species, natives of Mexico and southwestern United States. 

Key to Species. 

Joints cylindric; tubercles much flattened laterally. 
Fruit smooth or but slightly tuberculate. 

Branches very stout, 5 cm. thick or more 22. O. cliolla 

Branches relatively slender, 2 cm. thick or less. 

Plant glaucous ; spines 4 at an areole 23. 0. calmalliana 

Plant not glaucous; spines more than 4 at an areole 24. 0. versicolor 

Fruit manifestly tuberculate. 

Tall species, up to 2 or 4 meters high. 

Flowers small; petals 1.5 cm. long 25. 0. lloydii 

Flowers large; petals 2 to 3 cm. long 26. 0. imhricata 

Low species, 6 dm. high or less. 

Flowers yellow 27. 0. lunicata 

Flowers rose-colored 28. O. pallida 

Joints clavate; tubercles not much flattened laterally 29. O. molesla 

22. Opuntia choUa Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris i : 320. 1895. 

Usually tree-like, i to 3 meters high, with a definite trunk 7 to 15 cm. in diameter; trunk 
very spiny at first and becoming more spiny each year for some time, but in age spineless and 
developing a smooth, brownish yellow bark; top of plant often dense and broad; joints often in 
whorls, horizontal, pale, with large compressed tubercles; spines usually numerous, more or less 
porrect, covered with loose brownish sheaths; glochids numerous, yellow; flowers rather small, 
3 cm. broad, deep purple; fruit often 4 to 5 cm. long, usually proliferous, often in long chains of 8 
to 12 individuals or forming compound clusters; seeds numerous, very small, often abortive. 



6i 



Type locality: In Lower California. 

Distribution: Lower California. 

This is one of the commonest opuntias in southern Lower California and was usually 
seen by Dr. Rose at every locality visited south of Magdalena Bay on the west coast and on 
the east coast as far north as Muleje. It is undoubtedly the plant referred to 0. prolifera by 
Mr. Brandegee, but it differs in habit and armament from that species ; the fruit of 0. pro- 
lifera is nearly or quite devoid of seeds, while this species often has numerous small ones. 
In this species, as in a few other opuntias, the fruits are quite proliferous, hanging on for a 
number of years and usually remaining green. They are, however, easily detached, and 
on falling to the ground, readily 
take root and start new colonies. 
Our illustration shows some of 
the fruits which have already 
rooted and have developed young 
joints. 

The plant here described is 
the true "choUa" of the people 
of Lower California, and is the 
plant cultivated under that name 
by A. Berger at La Mortola from 
a cutting of Weber's type speci- 
men, and by the late Mr. Darrah 
at Manchester, England. 

Illustrations: ^Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. i6: pi. 128, a; Kar- 
sten and Schenk, Vegetations- 
bilder 13; pi. 17, b. 

Figure 73 is from a photo- 
graph of a plant collected by Dr. 
Rose at Cape San Lucas; figure 
74 represents a joint of the same 
plant; figures 75 and 76 repre- 
sent its proliferous fruits devel- 
oping new joints. 



23. 



Opuntia calmalliana Coulter, 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 453. 




"Habit and height unknown; 

joints cylindrical, I to 2 cm. in Fig- 73- — Opuntia cholla. 

diameter, glaucous, with linear- 
oblong crested (mostly distinct) tubercles 20 to 25 mm. long; pulvini densely covered with yellow- 
ish wool, and with a penicillate tuft of whitish bristles at upper edge; spines usually 4, the upper 
one stout and porrect, reddish with yellowish tip (as are all the spines), 2 to 2.5 cm. long (occa- 
sionally I to 2 short upper ones added), the usually 3 (sometimes 4) lower ones more slender and 
sharply deflexed, i to 1.5 cm. long (occasionally one of them longer); flowers apparently purple; 
ovary covered with very prominent woolly pulvini which are more or less bristly and spiny, but 
ripening into a smooth juicy obovate fruit; seeds discoid and beaked, irregularly angular, with 
broad commissure, about 4 mm. broad." (Coulter, I. c.) 



Type locality: Calmalli, Lower California. 

Distribution: Lower California. 

Type in the Brandegee Herbarium, University of California. 



62 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Referred by Mrs. Brandegee (Erythea 5 : 122) to 0. molesta Brandegee. It is closely 
related to 0. molesta, but its spines are different, though on the same general plan, and its 
seeds are quite different. 





Figs. 74, 75, 76. — Opuntia cholla. X0.66. / 

24. Opuntia versicolor Engelniann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 452. 1896. 

Opuntia arborescens versicolor E. Dams, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 3. 1904. 

Bush or tree-like, 2 to 4 meters high, with a large, open top sometimes 5 meters broad; trunk 
and larger stems woody throughout, except the younger branches; terminal joints 10 to 20 cm. 
lono-, 2.5 cm. in diameter, variously colored, not strongly tuberculate when living; tubercles 1.5 
cm^'iong; spines 5 to 11, 5 to 25 mm. long, dark colored, with close-fitting sheaths; glochids red- 
dish brown; flowefs variously colored, yellow, greenish, reddish, or brown, 3 to 5.5 cm. broad; 
ovary tuberculate, with large areoles bearing wool, glochids, and long deciduous bristles; fruit 
persisting for months, sometimes for a year, 2.5 to 4 cm. long, at first somewhat tuberculate, becom- 
ing pear-shaped or globose, sometimes proliferous; seeds white, 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Tucson, Arizona. 

Distribution: Arizona and northern Mexico. 

This species is common on the lower foothills and is only rarely found on the mesas. 
It is of slow growth, propagating almost entirely from seed. As the name suggests, it has 
flowers of many colors ; each plant has its own color and the color of the flowers is to a 
greater or less extent paralleled in that of the branches. The contrast in color shown by 
a colony of these plants is very striking and one's first impression is that more than one 
species exists. 

Named specimens of this species were distributed by the late Dr. C. G. Pringle in 
1881, but the species was not published until 1896. 

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 6, f . i ; Bull. Torrey Club 32: pi. 9, f. 
4 to 8 ; Hornaday, Camp-fires on Desert and Lava, pi. facing p. 18, 116, 320; N. Mex. Agr. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 60 : pi. 6, f. i ; Plant World ii^°: f. 8; Sargent, Man. Trees N. Amer. f. 561. 

Plate VII, figure 5, represents a fruiting joint; plate viii, figure 2, is from a photo- 
graph taken by Dr. MacDougal near the base of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona; 
plate IX, figures 2 to 5, are paintings made at the Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Ari- 
zona, by Kako Morita, showing the range in color of the flowers. 



OPUNTIA. 63 

25. Opuntia Uoydii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 292. 1909. 

Much branched, 2 to 3 meters high and nearly as broad; joints terete, 2 cm. in diameter; 
tubercles prominent, oblong; spines few, on last year's joints 3, reddish, 1.5 cm. long; leaves terete, 
6 to 8 mm. long; flowers 3 cm. long, opening after midday; petals 15 mm. long, dull purple; fila- 
ments olive-green below purplish above ; style rose-colored; stigma-lobes white; ovary yellowish, 
strongly tuberculate, naked; fruit 3 cm. long, yellow to orange, slightly tuberculate. 

Type locality: On foot slopes. Hacienda de Cedros, Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

According to F. E. Lloyd, for whom this species was named, it is known to the Mexi- 
cans as tasajo macho. 

We have had this plant in cultivation for several years, but it does not grow well 
under glass; these specimens have white areoles; no glochids are developed the first 




Fig. 77. — Opuntia lloydii. 



Fig. 78. — Opuntia lloydii. Photograph by F. E. Lloyd. 



year, but on old branches dark-brown bunches of glochids are developed in the upper 
edges of the areoles, and the several brownish spines are acicular. 

Illustration: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: f. 34; pi. 25. 

Figure 77 represents two joints of the type specimen; figure 78 is from a photograph 
of the type plant. 

26. Opuntia imbricata (Haworth) De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 471. 1828. 

Cereus imbricatus Haworth, Rev. PI. Succ. 70. 1821. 

Cactus .cylindricus 'ia.mes, Q2Lt. i?i2. 1825. Not Lamarck. 1783. 

Cactus bleo Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 2 : 202. 1828. Not Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth. 1823. 

Opuntia rosea De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 471. 1828. 

Opuntia decipiens De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 

Opuntia exuviata De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 182S. 

Opuntia exuviata angustior De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 

Opuntia exuviata spinosior De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 

Opuntia exuviata stellata Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 67. 1839. 

Opuntia exuviata viridior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Di'ck..i844. 48. 1845. 

Opuntia arborescens Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 90. 1848. 

Opuntia imbricata crassior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 249. 1850. 



64 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Opuntia imbricala ramosior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 73. 1850. 
Opunlia imbricala teniiior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 73. 1850. 
Opuntia vexans Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 28. 1912. 
Opuntia magna Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 23. 1914. 
Opuntia spinotecla Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 24. 1914. 

Tree-like, often 3 meters high or higher, with a more or less definite woody trunk 2.5 cm. in 
diameter; ultimate joints 2 to 3 cm. in diameter, strongly tuberculate; leaves 8 to 24 mm. long, 
terete; tubercles 2 to 2.5 cm. long, flattened laterally; spines 8 to 30, 2 to 3 cm. long, brown, covered 
with papery sheaths; flowers borne at ends of branches, 4 to 6 cm. long, sometimes 8 to 9 cm. broad, 
purple ; ovary tuberculate, bearing a few bristles from some of the upper areoles ; fruit naked, yellow, 
2.5 to 3 cm. long, strongly tuberculate or, when long persistent, smooth; seeds 2.5 to 3.5 mm. in 
diameter. 

Type locality: Unknown; introduced into England by Loddiges in 1820. 

Distribution: Central Colorado to Texas, New Mexico, and central Mexico. 

The plant is hardy in southwestern Kansas, and has been recorded as a native of 
that State ; it has existed through three winters out of doors at the New York Botanical 
Garden, but has made little growth. 

We have followed Schumann and Weber in uniting Opuntia arborescens and 0. imbri- 
cata. As thus treated, the species has a wide geographic distribution, and in our view 
con sists of many slightly differing races. In its northern limits it is much smaller than in 
its southern range. 

Opuntia cristata tenuior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 49. 1845, name only), 
0. decipiens major Hort. in Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 49. 1845, as synonym), 0. 
cristata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 50. 1842), and 0. stellata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. 
Dyck. 50. 1842) are unpublished names. 0. ruthei is a garden name mentioned by Berger. 

Opuntia cxuviata major (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 49. 1845) is an unpub- 
lished name. 

Opuntia cardcnche Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 259. pi. 21, in part. 1908) is 
described as standing between Opuntia kleiniae and 0. imbricala, being stouter than the 




~''m& 




^^«:^ 











Fig. 79. — Opuntia imbricata. 



OPUNTIA. 



6S 



one and more slender than the other. It resembles very closely specimens collected by 
Dr. Rose at Ixmiquilpan, Mexico, in 1905, which we have referred to 0. kleiniae. 

Optmtia galeottii de Smet (Miquel, Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 4: 337. 1858) and 0. 
costigera Miquel (Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 4 : 338. 1858), if really from Mexico, may belong 
here, but the descriptions are indefinite. Dr. Schumann did not know them. 

Opuntia mendocienses (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 56. 1908) is said to be "prob- 
ably only a form of 0. imbricata. " 

Opuntia undulata Link and Otto (Verh. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 6: 434. 1830) was not 
published. According to Pfeiffer, it is the same as 0. exuviata, which we refer here. 

Opuntia decipiens minor (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 172. 1837) is unpublished. 

Cactus suhquadrifolius Mocino and Sesse (De CandoUe, Prodr. 3 : 471. 1828) was given 
as a synonym of Opuntia rosea and therefore belongs here. 




Fig. 80. — Opuntia tunicata. 



Fig. 81. — Opuntia pallida. 



Illustrations: Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 22 : pi. opp. p. 696; Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31 : pi. 
5; pi. 6, f. i; Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 73, f. 7, 8 ; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 135 : pi. 8290; N. Mex. 
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60 : pi. 7, f. 2; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 134; Mem. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris 17: pi. 15; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 85, the last three as Opuntia rosea. W. 
Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 8, in part, this as Opuntia decipiens. Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn. 
26: pi. 8, f. a; Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 16, 17; Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 36; Gard. 
and For. 9 : f . i ; Illustr. Fl. 2 : f. 2533 ; ed. 2. 2 : f . 2992 ; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78 : 
pi. [10]; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 17, f. 5, 6; pi. 18, f. 4; pi. 24, f. 12; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 
pi. 7, in part; all as Opuntia arborescens. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22 : pi. 6, 7, in part, these 
two as Opuntia vexans. 

Plate XI, figure i, represents a joint of a plant collected by W. L. Bray in western 
Texas. Figure 79 is from a photograph taken by Professor F. E- Lloyd in Zacatecas, 
Mexico, in 1908. 

27. Opuntia tunicata (Lehmann) Link and Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 170. 1837. 

Caclus tunicatus Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hort. Hamb. 6. 1827. 

Opuntia stapeliae De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 117. 1828. 

Opuntia hystrix Grisebach, Cat. PI. Cub. 117. 1866. 

Opuntia perrita Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 33. 1912. 



66 THE CACTACEAE. 

Very variable, sometimes low and spreading from the base and forming broad clumps, at other 
times 5 to 6 dm. high, with a more or less definite woody stem and numerous lateral branches; joints 
easih- detached, sometimes short and nearly globular to narrowly oblong, lo to 15 cm. long, strongly 
tuberculate; spines reddish, normally 6 to 10, elongated, 4 to 5 cm. long, covered with thin, white, 
paper}^ sheaths ; flowers 3 cm. long, yellow; petals obtuse; ovary often bearing long spines at the 
areoles, but usualh^ naked. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Highlands of central Mexico; also in Ecuador, Peru, and northern Chile. 

Opuntia stapeliae has long puzzled collectors and students of cacti. We are convinced 
now that it is only star\-ed or stunted greenhouse specimens of the common O. tunicata. 
When grown in cultivation, 0. tunicata takes on abnormal shapes, for the joints, which 
break oflt easily, rarely grow to their full size. In its native home many small dwarf plants 
are found even,Tvhere about the larger plants. We have discussed this explanation of 
0. stapeliae with Mr. A. Berger, and he agrees with our conclusion. 

No specimens of the type of 0. stapeliae are preser\^ed in the De CandoUe Herbarium. 
The plant figured as Opuntia stapeliw (?) by Goebel in Pflanzenbiologische (f. 36) does not 
belong here. It is erect, has strongly tuberculate joints, very short spines and narrow 
elongated leaves. 

Cereus tunicatus (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 170. 1S37) is given as a synonym of Opuntia 
tunicata, but has never been formally taken up. 

We. believe Opuntia hystrix Grisebach, collected by C. Wright in Cuba, belongs here, 
probabl}' being an escape from a garden. Dr. Rose examined the specimens in the Krug 
and Urban Herbarium in Berlin in 1912; the loose sheaths of the spines of these specimens 
are now brown, while the flowers seemed a little smaller than those of the Mexican speci- 
mens. The flowers were described as red. 

Opuntia Juriosa Wendland (Pfeiifer, Enum. Cact. 170. 1837) is referred to 0. tunicata 
by Pfeiffer, while Sakn-Dyck refers it to his variety 0. tunicata laevior (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 
1849. 73. 1850). 

Illustrations: Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31 : pi. 4; Cact. Journ. i : October; The Garden 62 : 
425; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pi. 10, f. 5; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 2; 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22 : pi. 13, 14, these two as Opuntia perrita. 

Plate X, figure i, represents a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose near Cuzco, 
Peru. Figure 80 is from a photograph of the same plant. 

28. Opimtia pallida Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 507. 1908. 

Stems 5 cm. in diameter, about i meter high, with widely spreading branches, the whole plant 
often broader than high ; old areoles ver^- spiny, often bearing 20 spines or more, often 3 to 4 cm. long, 
^vith white, paper}- sheaths; young areoles bearing few spines; ovary tuberculate, the areoles 
either naked or bearing a few bristly spines; flowers pale rose-colored; petals 15 mm. long. 

Type locality: Near Tula, Hidalgo, INIexico. 

Distribution: State of Hidalgo, Mexico. 

This species is known only from near Tula, Mexico, where it was discovered by Dr. 
J. N. Rose in 1905, and afterwards collected near the same station by Mr. E. W. Nelson. 
It grows interspersed with 0. imbricata, but is much lower in stature and has smaller leaves 
and lighter-colored flowers. It is much like 0. tunicata, but that species has yellow flowers 
and is always smaller. 

Illustration: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: pi. 17, a. 

Figure 81 is from a photograph of the type specimen. 

29. Opuntia molesta Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. II. 2: 164. 1889. 

Stems I to 2 meters high, or in cultivation only 6 dm. high, with few, long, spreading branches ; 
joints clavate to subcylindric, 10 to 40 cm. long, sometimes as much as 4 cm. in diameter at the top, 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




















N 



4W 






y' 



\1 







>^.^^ i^^s 



4 









1. Joint of Opuntia tunicata. 2 to 5. Joints of Opuntia spinosior. 

(AH natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



67 



pale green, with low, broad tubercles, these elongated and often 4 cm. long or more; leaves linear, 
10 mm. long or less; spines few, 6 to 10, unequal, the longest ones 2.5 to 5 cm. long, straw-colored, 
with loose, papery sheaths; flowers purple, 5 cm. in diameter; fruit ovoid, 2.5 cm. long, somewhat 
spiny or naked; seeds 6 mm. in diameter, irregular in shape. 

Type locality: San Ignacio, Lower California. 

Distribution: Lower California. 

The type of the species is deposited in the Brandegee Herbarium, now a part of the 
herbarium of the University of California. Living plants have been distributed by A. 
Berger from La Mortola, Italy, and are now to be found in various collections. 

In the Index Kewensis, first supplement, this species is wrongly entered as Opuntia 
modesta! 

Figure 82 is from a photograph of a plant sent 
from La Mortola, Italy, to the New York Botanical 
Garden in 1913. 

Series 7. FULGIDAE. 
Much branched, bushy plants, usually with the termi- 
nal joints very fleshy, the tubercles broad and low, about as 
broad as long. The species, of which we recognize five, 
inhabit the southwestern United States and western Mexico. 

Key to Species. 

Joints very readilj' detached, freely falling 30. 0. fulgida 

Joints not very readily detached, persistent. 
Spines brown or reddish, at least at base. 

Branches slender; fruit not proliferous. ... 31. 0. spinosior 

Branches stout; fruit proliferous 32. 0. prolifera 

Spines white or yellow. 

Spines white; petals greenish yellow, i cm. 

long orl ess 33 

Spines yellow; petals red, 2 cm. long 34 



0. alcahes 
0. burrageana 



30. 




Fig. 82. — Opuntia molesta. 



Opuntia fulgida Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3:306. 
1856. 

Opunlia mamillala Schott in Engelmann, Proc. Amer. 

Acad. 3 : 308. 1856. 
Opuntia fulgida mamillala Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 3 : 449. 1896. 

Plant sometimes 3 meters high or even more, with a 
rather definite woody trunk 10 to 20 cm. in diameter, 
much branched, sometimes almost from the base, and 
forming a compact flattened crown; terminal joints 10 to 
20 cm. long, 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, very succulent, strongly 
tuberculate, easily breaking off; spines 2 to 12, yellowish 
to brown, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. long, acicular, covered with loose, 
papery sheaths; glochids small, whitish to light yellow; 
flowers light rose, 2.5 to 3 cm. broad; petals few, obtuse; 

stamens and style very short; fruit at first tuberculate, in age smooth, somewhat pear-shaped, 
5 cm. long,green, usually very proliferous; seeds rather small, 4 mm. broad, often wanting. 

Type locality: Mountains of western Sonora, Mexico. 

Distribution: Gravelly and sandy situations, southern Arizona, Sonora, and Sinaloa. 

We consider 0. mamillata as synonymous with 0. fulgida; in herbarium and green- 
house specimens we can find no constant differences. Professor J.J. Thomber, who has long 
studied this group, says there is no difference between the flowers and fruits, and that there 
is no difference in distribution (Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67 : 501). In the field, however, 
one can see two rather distinct forms which differ in armament, the typical plant being 
the more spiny. 

This is one of the most characteristic opuntias of southern Arizona, being very abun- 
dant on the valley slopes and lower foothills. It often forms dense colonies almost to the 
exclusion of other cacti, or it may be associated with other species, especially of Opuntia. 



to 



68 THE CACTACEAE. 

It is a most troublesome plant to come in contact with, for, as the sharp, barbed spines 
pierce the flesh, the joints easily break loose from the plant and are detached with difficulty 
from the unfortunate ^-ictim. 

The flowering season extends from early spring to September. The fruit is markedly' 
proliferous, often developing in chains, and so persisting for several j^ears, possibly- eight 
or ten 3-ears, as suggested by Professor D. S. Johnson. They grow in chains of 8 or 9 
fruits (12 to 14 have been reported 1, several chains hanging from a single joint and forming 
a large cluster. We have seen as many as 38 fruits (40 to 50 have been reported) in a 
single cluster, and doubtless vmder favorable conditions many more would be foimd. 
These juicv fruits, usually spineless, are much sought by grazing animals. 

According to Professor Johnson, who has studied this species several j^ears, the seeds 
are not known to germinate in nature. Only by cutting awaj- a part of the hard, bon}^ coat 
could thev be made to germinate in the greenhouse. The species is propagated easily 
bv the terminal joints, which come off readil}' and are transported far and wide Hke burs, 
and soon strike root on reaching the soil. New plants are also started occasionally by the 
fruits themselves. 

This species appjears to hybridize with O. spinosior. 

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. i, f. 2; Bull. Torr. Club 32 : pi. 9, f. i; 
Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 18; Gard. and For. 8 : f. 46; Homaday, Camp-fires on Desert 
and Lava opp. p. 42, 320; Lumlioltz, New Trails in IMex. opp. p. 18 ; ]SIonatsschr. Kakteenk. 
18: 153; Nat. Geogr. Mag. 21: 710; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. BuU. 60: pi. 6, f. 2; Plant 
World II®: f. i, in part; 11^'- : f. 9, in part; Sargent, ]Man. Trees N. Amer. f. 559; Ariz. Agr. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 5, f. i; Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 19; Lumholtz, New Trails in 
Mex. opp. p. 152; Nat. Geogr. Mag. 21 : 710; Plant World 11^: f. i, in part; 11" : f. 9, in 
part, the last six as Opuniia rnainiUaia; Carnegie Inst. Wash. 269: Frontispiece; pi. i to 
7; pi. 8, f. 76 to 79; pi. 12. 

Plate IX, figure 6, represents the proliferous frxiit; plate xn, figure i, is from a photo- 
graph taken b^- Dr. MacDougal near Tucson, Arizona, showing the t5^ical plant to the 
left and the less spin}- plant to the right. 

31. Opuntia spinosior (Engehnann) Toiunej^ Bot. Gaz. 25: 119. 1898. 
Opuniia whipplei spinosior Engetmaim, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3 : 307. 1856. 

Plants 2 to 4 meters high, tree-like in habit, with a more or less definite, woody trunk, openly 
branched; ultimate joints i to 3 dm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, often bright purple, 
strongly tuberculate; tubercles about 6 to 12 mm. long, longer than broad, more or less flattened 
laterally; spines 6 to 12, but on old branches sometimes as man}^ as 25, 10 to 15 mm. long, diver- 
gent, gray to brownish, covered with thin sheaths; glochids yellowish white; flower-buds short, 
acute; flowers 5 to 6 cm. broad, purple to pink, yelow, or even white; petals about 10, broad at 
apex, narrowed at base; style thick, cream-colored or pinkish; ovary tuberculate, bearing small, 
purple leaves and long, white, easUy detached bristles ; fruit strongly tuberculate, spineless, j^ellow, 
globose to broad'y oblong, 2.5 to 4 cm. long, with a depressed umbilicus; seeds white, 4 mm. broad, 
smooth, with a verj^ indistinct marginal band. 

Type locality: South of the Gila River. 

Distribution: Arizona, western New IMexico. and northern ^Mexico. 

Opuniia spinosior neomexiiana (Toume}', Bot. Gaz. 25: 119. 1898) seems to be a 
yeUow-flowered form of this species, ilr. Tomne^' writes that his original material of 
this variet}- came from the low foothills north of the RiUito River near Tucson. 

Opuniia spinosior was described by Engelmann in 1S56 as a variet}^ of 0. ii'hipplei, to 
which it is only remotely related, but it was not separated until 1898, when it was described 
as distinct by Professor J. W. Toumey. 

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. BuU. 67 : pi. i. f. i : pi. 5, f. 2 ; Gard. and For. 9 : f. i ; 
N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60 : pi. 7,, f. i ; Plant World 11^*^' : f. 7; Sargent, :Man. Trees 
N. Amer. f. 560. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del. 



1. Leafy branch of Opuntia iinbricata. 3, 4. Forms of Opuntia alcahes. 

2. V\o-^^iva.g\ii2LXiQ)a.Qi Opimtia prolifera. 5,6. Opuntia vestita . 

(All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



69 



Plate X, figures 2 and 3, are from paintings showing different flower-colors, made at 
the Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona; figure 4 represents a fruiting joint of a plant 
collected by F. Oilman at Sacaton, Arizona; and figure 5 represents a leaf -bearing joint 
of the same plant; plate xii, figure 2, is from a photograph of the plant in the Tucson 
Mountains, Arizona, by Dr. MacDougal. 

32. Opuntia prolifera Engelmann, Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 338. 1852. 

Stems I to 2 meters high, the trunk and old branches terete and woody; terminal joints 3 to 
12 cm. long, easily breaking off, fleshy, covered with short, more or less turgid tubercles; spines 6 
to 12, brown, 10 to 12 mm. long; glochids pale; flowers small; sepals orbicular, obtuse, dark red; 
petals red; fllaments yellow; style stout; stigma-lobes red; ovary i cm. long, strongly tuberculate; 
upper areoles bearing 2 to 6 reddish spines or the joints naked throughout; fruit proliferous, 3 to 
3.5 cm. long and often without seeds; seeds, if present, large, regular, 6 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Arid hills about San Diego, California. 

Distribution: Southern California and coast of Lower California. 

The range of this species is not well known. We have referred here, with some doubt, 
specimens collected by Dr. Rose on Guadalupe Island, off the coast of Lower California, as 
well as specimens from the south end of Lower California, but we have seen no flowers from 
these Lower California collections. A peculiar form less than 5 dm. high with bluish-green 
joints and small seeds, from near Newport, Orange County, California, deserves further study. 

This species, although common in southern California, has never been fully and accu- 
rately described. It is often confused in collections with 0. serpentina, with which it grows, 
although they are very different. 

In greenhouse specimens the joints and spines are not well developed. 

Illustration: Meehan's Monthly 3: pi. i. 

Plate XI, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant col- 
lected by E- W. Nelson and E. A. Goldman in Lower California, 
which bloomed at the New York Botanical Garden in April 1914. 
Figure 83 represents a joint of a plant sent from La Mortola, 
Italy, in 1912; figure 84 is from a photograph of this plant. 

Of this relationship, but of very different habit, is the species 
collected by Dr. Rose on West San Benito Island in 191 1. Unfor- 
tunately no flowers or fruits could be obtained, and hence we have 
not named it here. It may be briefly characterized as follows : 

Opuntia sp. 

Low, much branched plants; joints short (10 cm. long), thick, and 
fleshy; leaves cylindric, 10 mm. long, acute; areoles distant, circular, 
bearing brown wool, tawny glochids and numerous spines; spines 6 to 
8, often 4 cm. long, slender, reddish brown, inclosed in loose, thin, brownish 
sheaths. Collected by Dr. J. N. Rose on West San Benito Island, off 
the west coast of Lower California, March 9, 191 1 (No. 16043). 

33. Opuntia alcahes Weber, BuH. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris i: 321. 1895. 

Plant about i meter high, much branched, very spiny, especially when 
old; branches terete; spines on young joints about 12, short, covered with 
white or very pale sheaths; tubercles prominent, diamond-shaped; leaves small, i cm. long, terete, 
somewhat bronzed; sepals small, brownish, closely imbricated, hardly spreading at tips; petals 
sometimes wanting, or, if present, about i cm. long, greenish yellow, obtuse; stamens numerous; 
stigma-lobes very short, 6 to 8, at first exserted beyond the sepals, yellowish; fruit globular, 
small, becoming turgid in age, yellowish, more or less proliferous, the umbilicus truncated or 
slightly depressed. 

Type locality: In Lower CaHfornia. 
Distribution: Lower California. 




Fig. 83. — Opuntia prolifera. 



70 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Plate XI, figure 3, represents a leaf -bearing joint of a plant obtained by the same col- 
lector on Espiritu Santo Island, Lower California ; figure 4 is from a plant sent to the New 
York Botanical Garden from La Mortola, Italy, in 1906. Figure 85 is from a photograph 
of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at San Francisquito, Lower CaUfornia. 

34. Opuntia burrageana sp. nov. 

Usually low and bushy, rarely i meter high; stems slender, i to 2 cm. in diameter, densely 
spiny; leaves small, 2 mm. long, green, early deciduous; old stem and branches terete; young 




Fig. 84. — Opuntia prolifera 



Fig. 85. — Opuntia alcahes. 



joints cylindric to narrow-clavate, 15 cm. long or less; areoles closely set; tubercles rather low, 
not much broader than long; spines numerous, similar, spreading, rarely 2 cm. long, all covered 
with thin, bright-yellow sheaths; wool in areoles short, brown; glochids, when present, short, light 
yellow; flowers to 4 cm. broad; petals few, brownish red with green bases ; filaments green ; stigma- 
lobes white; ovary very spiny; fruit not proliferous, globular, 2 cm. in diameter, somewhat tuber- 
culate, probably dry; seeds pale, 4 mm. in diameter. 

Common on the hiUs along the coast of southern Lower California. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




.rfi^/^S 




1. Plants of Opuntia fulgida. 



A very open plant of Opuntia spinosior. 



OPUNTIA. 7 1 

The following specimens were collected by Dr. J. N. Rose in 191 1: Near Pichilinque 
Island (No. 16533, type); near San Jose del Cabo (No. 16468); near Cape San Lucas 
(No. 16379); on Carmen Island (No. 16630); on San Josef Island (No. 16552). 

Plate XIV, figure i , is from a plant collected by Dr. Rose on San Josef Island, Lower 
California, in 191 1, which flowered the next year at the New York Botanical Garden. 

Series 8. VESTITAE. 

The series Vestitae contains three or perhaps four species, two of which possibly represent green- 
house forms of species of Tepkrocactus, natives of the high Andes. They are low species with elon- 
gated cylindric joints sometimes arising from subglobose ones, and form a connecting link between 
the true species of Tepkrocactus and Cylindropuntia. Opuntia vcstita in the field was supposed to 
be a form of 0. pentlandii, but in cultivation it has developed quite differently ; 0. floccosa, a Tepk- 
rocactus, sometimes develops like the Vestitae; one specimen which we have grown shows a slender 
cylindric stem with few long hairs or none. Opuntia boUviana and 0. pentlandii, both from Bolivia 
and described at the same time by Salm-Dyck, and which we have united, seem to represent two 
forms of the same species, 0. pentlandii being the abnormal form. The same condition seems to 
exist in 0. versckaffeltii and its variety digitalis, the variety being the normal form. Schumann had 
these species in his series Teretes (our series Subulatae), but 0. subulata and 0. cylindrica are tall 
woody, much branched plants. 

Key to Species. 

Arcoles with hairs; joints not or scarcely tuberculate. 

Joints I to 1.5 cm. thick; spines 2.5 cm. long or less; fruit mostly sterile 35-0. vestita 

Joints 2.5 to 3 cm. thick; spines up to 5 cm. long; fruit many-seeded 36. 0. shaferi 

Areoles without hairs; joints distinctly tuberculate 37-0. versckaffeltii 

Of this series? 38. 0. hypsophila 

35. Opuntia vestita Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 388. 1845. 
Opuntia teres Cels in Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 898. 1898. 
Roots fibrous ; stems much branched, weak, forming small clumps 3 dm. broad or less and nearly 
as high, fragile ; joints short or elongated, becoming in greenhouse cultivation 2 dm. long or more, ob- 
long or cylindric, i to 1.5 cm. thick, very spiny, easily breaking apart; areoles circular, conspicuous, 
bearing short wool, spines, and several long hairs; spines about 6 in each cluster, acicular, brownish, 
2 to 2.5 cm. long; leaves minute, acute; flowers small, including the ovary; 2 cm. long, deep red; petals 
I cm. long; areoles on ovary conspicuous, filled with white wool and long hairs; fruit red, usually 
sterile, globular or a little longer than broad, usually naked, generally truncate at apex, often bearing 
small spiny joints at the areoles. 

Type locality: In Bolivia. 

Distribution: Common on the sterile hills about La Paz, Bolivia. 

Specimens were collected by Miguel Bang some years ago and segregated as a new 
species by the late Karl Schumann, but this was never published ; others were obtained by 
Dr. H. H. Rusby in 1885, and by R. S. Williams in 1901. It was again collected by Dr. 
Rose in 1914, and living plants are now growing at the New York Botanical Garden. As 
seen wild, it is a strange little plant, growing in low clumps, its fragile stems easily breaking 
apart, especially at the terminal joints. The bright red fruits remain on the parent plant 
until they produce a number of spiny joints, often as many as five, which, after falling 
off, strike roots and start new colonies. 

Dr. Rose suspected at the time he collected his material that it might be Opuntia 
vestita, and suggested that it should be carefully compared with it. This he was not able 
definitely to prove in the field, but the living specimens sent to the New York Botanical 
Garden put out new branches which are long, slender, and cylindric, and are devoid of long 
acicular spines, quite unlike the wild plants but almost identical with the specimens re- 
ceived from La Mortola, Italy, some years ago as 0. vestita. 

Optmtia teres Cels must belong here, at least in part. Weber states that the flowers 
are very similar to 0. vestita, while the fruit is said to be small, red, and proHferous, just as 
found in 0. vestita. The leaves are described as 2 cm. long, however, and there is a pos- 
sibility that 0. exaltata may be partly represented in the description, as we find herbarium 
material of both species, from Bolivia, mounted on the same sheet. 



72 



THE CACTACEAE. 



■^ 



Plate XI, figure 5, shows the plant collected by Dr. Rose in 1914; figure 6 is from a 
plant received from La Mortola, Italy, in 1912. 

36. Opuntia shaferi sp. nov. 

Plants in clusters of 2 to 4, erect, about 3 dm. high; joints terete, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. in diameter, 
elongated, very spiny; tubercles low, often indistinct; leaves deciduous, 6 mm. long; areoles i cm. 
apart or less, circular, white-felted ; glochids numerous, whitish from the upper margin 
of the areole; spines about 6 at an areole, brownish, acicular, often 4 to 5 cm. long 
and associated with long white hairs; flowers not known; fruit globular, about 2 cm. 
in diameter, bearing numerous large areoles, the areoles white-felted, with glochids and 
hairs, but no spines; seeds turgid, pointed at base, 4 mm. long. 

Collected by J. A. Shafer among stones between Purmamaria and Tum- 
baya, Argentina, February 6, 19 17 (No. 90). 

Nearest O. vestita but less cespitose, taller and larger, and with fertile fruit. 

37. Opuntia verschaffeltii Cels in Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 898. 1898. 

Opuntia verschaffeltii digitalis Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 898. 1898. 

Forms low, in dense clumps, much branched; joints globular to short-cylindric 
I to 4 cm. long, somewhat tuberculate, pale green; spines i to 3, yellowish, weak. 
and bristle-like, i to 3 cm. long; in cultivated plants joints elongated, 6 to 21 cm- 
long, slender, i to 1.5 cm. in diameter, strongly tuberculate, spineless; glochids few, 
white; areoles narrow, longer than broad, filled with short white wool. 

Type locality: In Bolivia. 

Distribution: Bolivia. 

In 19 14 Dr. Rose collected this species on the barren hills about La Paz, 
Bolivia, and from his observations it seemed to be only a form of Opuntia 
pentlandii. In cultivation, however, it behaves very differently from his spec- 
imens of the latter, and in fact has developed a phase very unlike its normal 
type but identical with other greenhouse specimens sent out by Mr. Berger 
some years ago under the name of 0. verschaffeltii. 

Opuntia digitalis Weber (Diet. Hort. Bois 898. 1898) was given as a 
synonym of 0. verschaffeltii digitalis. 

Figure 86 represents an elongated joint, from a greenhouse specimen; this 
grew from the short normal joint, collected by Dr. Rose near La Paz, Bolivia, 
in 1914. 

38. Opuntia hypsophila Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4:509. 1905. 
Cespitose, branching, small, 5 to 10 cm. high, pale green; joints 

globose to cylindric, 1.5 to 3 cm. long; tubercles depressed; spines 3 to 
5, subulate, weak, spreading, white at first, in age brownish; flowers 
and fruit unknown. 

Type locality: In the Province of Salta, Argentina, in the 
Andes, at an altitude of 2,500 to 4,000 meters. 

Distribution: Salta, Argentina. 

We do not know this species, but Dr. Spegazzini thought 
it might be a Tephrocactus and associated it with Opuntia ^j 
verschaffeltii digitalis. 

Series 9. CLAVARIOIBES. 

This series is the same as the Etuberculatae of Schumann and contains but a single species, 
recorded as a native of Chile. According to Schumann, the stems are cylindric to clavate, not 
tuberculate, the leaves are small and caducous, and the spines are very small and appressed. The 
fruit is said to contain one woolly seed. 

39. Opuntia clavarioides Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 173. 1837. 

Low, much branched, grayish brown, 4 dm. high or less, truncate or cristate at apex; joints not 
tuberculate, rather fragile, short-cylindric or clavate, 1.5 cm. in diameter; leaves minute, 1.5 mm. 



-Opuntia verschaffeltii. 
X0.66. 



OPUNTIA. 



73 



long, reddish, caducous ; areoles minute, closely set, filled with wool and minute spines ; spines 4 to 
ID, white, appressed; flowers 6 to 6.5 cm. long; sepals linear, pointed, reddish; petals light brown, 
narrowly spatulate, slightly crenate ; ovary bearing minute leaves with wool and short bristles in their 
axils; filaments white, shorter than the petals; style white, with 7 stigma-lobes; fruit elhpsoid, 1.5 
cm. long, one-seeded. 

Type locality: In Chile. 

Distribution: Originally described from Chile, but often referred to Mexico. 

Very little is known of this species, although it was described as long ago as 1837, and 
it is rare in collections. We have never seen it in flower and have seen only one record of 
its flowering in cultivation. The peculiar structure of the stem, narrow petals and single 
lanate seed, join a combination of characters separating it from other opuntias, and lead 
Schumann to refer it to a distinct series which he calls Etuberculatae. The question has 
been raised in our own minds if this is a true Opiintia. In cultivation the plant is usually 
grafted on some Pldtyopuntia. 

Variety cristata is offered in the trade journals. 

Opuntia microthele, Cereus clavarioides, and Cereus sericeus are usually given as 
synonyms, but all these were cited by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 173. 1837) as synonyms 
of this species at the place commonly given as their first 
publication. The varieties fasciata Schumann (Mon- 
atsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 159. 1900), fastigiata Mundt 
(Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 30. 1893), and monstruosa 
Monville (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 489. 1853) are anom- 
alous greenhouse forms. 

Illustrations: Gartenflora 44: f. 7; Monatsschr. Kak- 
teenk. 3: 9; 16: 169; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 
104; Gard. Chron. III. 30: f. 75, this last as Opuntia 
clavarioides cristata. 

Figure 87 is copied from the illustration used by 
Schumann cited above. 

Series 10. SALMIANAE. 

This series {Frutescentes of Schumann), by some supposed to 
be composed of five species but here treated as containing but one, Fig. 87.— Opuntia clavarioides grafted on 
is confined to central South America. It is characterized by another species, 

slender, bushy, often vine -like habit, terete branches, and red 

fruit, the latter crowned by proliferous spiny joints. Seeds are unknown. Greenhouse specimens 
often resemble Opuntia leptocaulis, but the flowers are somewhat larger, and the spines are not 
sheathed. 

40. Opuntia salmiana Parmentier in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 172. 1837. 

Opuntia spegazzinii Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 898. 1898. 

Opuntia albiflora Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 152. 1903. 

A bushy plant, 3 dm. to 2 meters high, much branched at base; branches often weak, terete, 
1.5 cm. in diameter or less, often purplish, etuberculate ; areoles small, bearing wool, yellow glochids, 
and spines; spines sometimes wanting, usually several, 1.5 cm. long or less, white; flowers 2 to 3.5 
cm. broad, scattered along the stem; buds pinkish or even scarlet; petals obovate, pale yellow to 
white, sometimes tinged with pink; stamens and style short; stigma-lobes yellowish green; fruits 
sterile, clavate, scarlet, with few or no spines. 

Type locality: In Brazil. 

Distribution: Southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. 

After careful consideration, we have combined three species of Schumann's series 
Frutescentes into one. We have examined considerable living material and all the illus- 
trations, but have found no grounds for separating the group into species. All were 
described as proliferous and sterile. 0. spegazzinii was supposed to be unarmed, but this 




74 



THE CACTACEAE. 



character is not constant; flower differences are described, but these are inconstant. One 
species, 0. albiflora, has akeady been referred to synonymy. 

Opimtia salmiana is said to have come from Brazil, but no definite locaUty is given for 
it, and it has not been collected there in recent times. If really from Brazil, and there is 
no good reason to question this reference, it is doubtless from the southern part, possibly 
on the border of Paraguay; indeed, 0. albiflora, one of the three, was described from a 
Paraguay collection ; the other, 0. spegazzinii, is a native of the deserts of northern Argentina. 

Cactus salmiamis Lemaire (Cact. 87. 1868, name only) has been referred here as a 
synonym; as has also O.floribunda Lemaire (Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 68. 1839). 

Opuntia schickendantzii Weber, included by Schumann in this relationship, we refer 
to our series Aurantiacae. 





Fig. 88. — Opuntia salmiana. 



Fig. So.— O. sain 



Opuntia wagneri Weber in Gosselin (Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 393. 1904), de- 
scribed without flower or fruit, is probably to be referred here; at least Roland-Gosselin 
beUeved it to be of this group. We have not seen any of the specimens from Chaco, 
Argentina, obtained by M. Emile Wagner in 1902. 

Illustrations: Bliihende Kakteen 3 : pi. 123 ; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 76: pi. 4542 ; Fl. Serr. 7: 
pi. 670; Jard. Fleur. 2: pi. 194; Loudon, Encycl. pi. ed. 3. f. 19406; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. 
Beschr. Cact. i: pi. 6; Castle, Cactaceous plants f. 15; Bliihende Kakteen 2: pi. 103, this 
last as Opuntia spegazzinii; Hogg, Veg. King. 340. f . 1 1 1 . 

Figure 88 is from a plant in the greenhouses of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture at Washington; figm-e 89 represents a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at 
C6rdoba, Argentina, in 19 15. 



OPUNTIA. 75 

OpunTia maldonadBnsis Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 286. 1905. 

Cespitose, erect; branches cylindric, entangled or intertwined; joints 3 to 10 cm. long, about 2 
cm. in diameter, the terminal ones obovate-spherical, dark green to olive-colored; areoles each sur- 
rounded by a violet blotch, small or prominent, orbicular ; spines 5 or more, stout, spreading, elon- 
gated, unequal, the longest one 2 to 2.5 cm. long, reddish to brown; flowers and fruit unknown. 

Type locality: Punta Ballena, near Maldonado, Uruguay. 

Distribution: Uruguay. 

This species, referred to the subgenus CyUndropuntia by Arechavaleta, inhabits the 
coast of Uruguay and is known to us only from description; we append it to the series 
Salmianae, but its nearest relationship may be elsewhere. 

Series 11. SUBULATAE. 

This series is confined to South America and represents a very distinct group, differing greatly 
from the tall cylindric-jointed species of North America. They lack sheaths to the spines, and the 
typical species has elongated persistent leaves. Although several of the species have long been in 
cultivation, at least two of them being known only from garden plants; for a long time the flowers 
were unknown and the plants were as frequently called Cerens or Pereskia as Opuntia. 

Key to Species. 

Leaves long-persisting, elongated. 

Leaves up to 1 2 cm. long ; spines yellowish white 41 . 0. siihtdata 

Leaves i to 7 cm. long; spines brownish 42. 0. exaltata 

Leaves early deciduous, short. 

Stem I meter high; leaves 4 mm. long 43-0. pachypus 

Stem 3 to 4 meters high; leaves 10 to 13 mm. long 44. 0. cylindrica 

41. Opuntia subulata (Miihlenpfordt) Engelmann, Gard. Chron. 19: 627. 1883. 

Pereskia subulata Miihlenpfordt, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 347. 1845. 
Opuntia eUemeetiana Miquel, Nederl. Krudk. Arch. 4: 337. 1858.* 
Opuntia segeihii Philippi, Bot. Zeit. 26: 861. 1868. 

Either with a simple erect stem or with several main branches from the base, 2 to 4 meters high; 
trunk 6 to 10 cm. in diameter, the old bark smooth and brown, its areoles bearing clusters of 8 spines 
or more; branches numerous, more or less clustered but not whorled, at first almost at right angles 
to main stem but soon erect, bright green; leaves persistent, green, nearly at right angles to branch, 
straight or somewhat bowed above, nearly terete, pointed, 5 to 12.5 cm. long, grooved on the under 
side; tubercles large, depressed, becoming obliterated on old branches, arranged in longitudinal or 
spiral lines, more or less diamond-shaped, but retuse at apex and pointed or attentuate below, 2 to 
4 cm. long ; areoles in the retuse grooves of the tubercles bearing a few short yellow spines or some- 
times spineless, but usually having i or 2 slender spines; flowers borne toward the ends of the branches ; 
sepals reddish, minute, 4 to 8 mm. long or less; petals broader than the sepals, orange or greenish 
yellow; style rose-red except the whitish base, including the stigma-lobes about 3 cm. long, about as 
long as the longest stamens; stigma-lobes 5 or 6, slender, orange-yellow; fruit oblong, more or less 
persistent, 6 to 10 cm. long, leafy, with a deep umbilicus, sometimes proliferous; seeds few, 10 to 12 
mm. long. 

Type locality: Valparaiso, Chile, but doubtless described from cultivated plants. 

Distribution: Chile is usually given as the home of this plant, but it is not found wild 
there. It may be a native in Argentina. 

This species has long been in cultivation, it having originally been sent from Valpa- 
raiso, but Dr. Rose did not find it wild there or in any other part of Chile. It is rarely seen 
in cultivation in Chile. For many years it passed as a species of Pereskia, but in 1883 Dr. 
George Engelmann pointed out that it could not be retained in that genus and transferred 
it to Opuntia. The leaves are the largest in the genus, and it has larger seeds than any 
other Opuntia. 

We have referred Opuntia eUemeetiana (originally described from Chile), a species 
with very long leaves, to 0. subulata, although we have never seen specimens. Schumann 
did not know it and only lists it. 

♦Schumann says 1859. 



76 



THE CACTACEAE. 



We have been able more definitely to refer here Opuntia segethii, for we saw not only 
Philippi's type specimens in his herbarium, but also Hving specimens grown from Philippi's 
original stock. The type specimen was from plants cultivated at Santiago, but in a later 
publication he states that his species grows spontaneously near Arequipa. A part of this 
latter material is preser^'ed in his herbarium at Santiago, which Dr. Rose was able to study ; 
he also examined the Arequipa plant alive, and is convinced that it is quite different, being 
the plant common in Peru and Bohvia described below as Opuntia exaltata. 

Illustrations: Engler and Prantl, Pfianzenfam. 3'^'': f. 56, L; Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 
33, 38; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 7; 9: 183; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 103; Neub. 
Gart. Mag. 1893: 291, this as Pereskia stibiilata; Bot. Zeit. 26: pi. 13, C. f . i ; Gartenflora 32: 
pi. 1 129, f. 5, the last two as Opuntia segethii. 

Figure 90 is from a photograph of a plant 
at the New York Botanical Garden grown 
from a cutting brought by Mrs. H. L- Britton 
from the Riviera, Italy, in 1907. 

42. Opuntia exaltata Berger, Hort. Mortol. 410. 
1912. 

Stem 2 to 5 meters high, with a definite trunk 
5 to 30 cm. in diameter when well grown, much 
branched; ultimate joints fleshy, easily detached, 
somewhat curved upward, clavate, strongly tuber- 
culate; tubercles large, 1.5 to 3 cm. long, more 
or less diamond-shaped, elevated, and rounded; 
areoles rounded, filled with short white wool ; glo- 
chids often wanting, when present brown; leaves 
fleshy, terete, i to 7 cm. long; spines on young joints 
I to 5, mostly I to 3, dark yellow or brownish, 
unequal, the longest ones 5 cm. long; spines on old 
wood numerous, sometimes 12 or more, often 13 
cm. long, brown, with roughened tips; flowers, in- 
cluding ovaries, 7 cm. long ; sepals and petals brick- 
red; outer sepals ovate, small, the inner ones pass- 
ing into petals ; petals 2 cm. long, broadly obovate 
to broadly spatulate, sometimes nearh^ truncate 
at apex; stamens mmierous, short, pinkish above, 
nearly white below; stjde swollen below, pinkish; 
stigma-lobes greenish; ovary 4 cm. long, deeply 
umbilicate, with large flat tubercles; areoles on 
ovary circular, filled with short brown and white 
wool, long, loosely attached brown spines, and a few 
shorter glochids, and subtended by small, tardily de- 
ciduous leaves ; fruit green, pear-shaped, 9 cm. long, 
usually sterile; seeds large, irregiilar, 10 mm. broad. 
















Fig. 90. — Opuntia subulata. 



Type locality: Not cited; described from cultivated plants. 

Distribution: Ecuador, Peru, Bohvia, and probably northern Chile. 

This Opuntia is called pataquisca by the Cuzco and Arequipa Indians, and is also 
known as espina. 

This species was the most widely distributed Opuntia seen by Dr. Rose on the west 
coast of South America; but it is dilBcult to decide whether it is really native there, for it 
is widely cultivated as a hedge plant in many places. It seems to be native along the 
upper Rimac of central Peru; at least it is well estabhshed on the hills. Although very 
common in southern Peru and about La Paz, Bohvia, it is probably introduced for it grows 
only about towns and cultivated fields and seems never to produce fertile fruit. About 
Cuzco it is hkewise cultivated, but maybe a native there also, for the fruit is generally fertile. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 



PLATE XI 11 




H|H^|H|[^HH||^^^^'' 


m 


^■^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


,m 


^^^V JWB^H^^^^^ISBBal^BHI^' - - 


. ^ ,. .■-,^_^;- .SS^m^m 


^^K' '•^ * Iff- r nA^rfii'"^^" ^ - - ' 


-'^^^^^^^1 







1. Opuntia exaltata as seen in the highlands of Peru. 

2. Clump of Opuntia floccosa as it grows in the valleys of the Andes of eastern Peru. 



OPUNTIA. 



77 



Opuntia maxillare Roezl (Morren, Belg. Hort. 24: 39. 1874), published without 
description and probably collected in the high mountains above Lima, may belong here. 

Opuntia cumingii, of European gardens, belongs here. It was briefly mentioned in 
the journal of the BerHn Cactus Society (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 160. 1897), but not 
formally described. Schumann referred it to 0. penilandii. 

This species is near Opuntia subulata, but probably is distinct, although it is not 
always easy to distinguish them in greenhouse plants. Berger speaks of the similarity 
of the two as follows : 

"This new species stands very close to 0. subulata, and may be easily mistaken for it, but when 
grown side by side the differences are quite obvious. 0. exaltata is a taller plant with generally 
longer branches, and somewhat glaucous instead of grass-green. The tubercles are more elongated 
and differently marked. The leaves are shorter, the spines, when young, are not white, but yellowish 
brown, generally stouter and stiffer. I have not yet seen a flower of it. 
It is an old inhabitant of our gardens. " 

Plate XIII, figure i, is from a photograph taken by Hiram 
Bingham, July 7, 1912, near Tipon, Cuzco Valley, Peru, showing 
the plant near the upper left-hand comer; plate xv, figure i, repre- 
sents a leaf-bearing joint of a plant sent to the New York Botanical 
Garden from La Mortola, Italy, in 19 15; figure 2 represents the 
lower part of a fruiting branch obtained by Dr. Rose at Cuzco, 
Peru, in 19 14. 

43. Opuntia pachypus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14:26. 1904. 

Plant about i meter high, much branched and candelabrum-like; 
branches cylindric, 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, either straight or curved, marked 
with broad tubercles; leaves subulate, pointed, constricted at the base, 4 
mm. long, early deciduous; areoles circular, borne at the upper edges of the 
tubercles, 4 mm. in diameter, filled with short wool; spines 20 to 30, subu- 
late, 5 to 20 mm. long; glochids yellow; flowers scarlet, 7 cm. long, including 
the ovary; petals variable, the longest ones 1.4 cm. long; style very thick, 9 
mm. long; stigma-lobes 5 mm. long; ovary more or less spiny. 

Type locality: Near Santa Clara, Peru. 

Distribution: Central Peru, near the coast. 

We know this species only from the description and illustra- 
tions. In 1 9 14 Dr. Rose made several unsuccessful efforts to find 
it at Santa Clara, the type locaHty. ^'"=-^' 

Illustrations: Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 12: pi. 5^; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 27. 
Figure 91 is copied from the second illustration above cited. 

44. Opuntia cylindrica (Lamarck) De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 471. 1828. 

Cactus cylindricus Lamarck, Encycl. i: 539. 1783. 
Cereus cylindricus Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 183. 1812. 

More or less branched, 3 to 4 meters high, the old trunk becoming smooth; joints cylindric, 
obtuse at apex, green, with slightly elevated tubercles; leaves deciduous, 10 to 13 mm. long, terete, 
acute; areoles depressed, filled with white wool, bearing some long hairs and at first 2 or 3, afterwards 
more, short white spines (spines often wanting on greenhouse plants) ; flowers appearing just below 
the ends of the terminal branches, small, inconspicuous, about 2.5 cm. broad, scarlet; petals small, 
erect, obtuse; stamens numerous; style slender, 2.5 cm. long; ovary strongly tuberculate, depressed 
at apex; fruit about 5 cm. long, yellowish green; seeds more or less angled, 4 to 6 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: In Peru. 

Distribution: Highlands of Ecuador and Peru. 

The home of this species is usually given by recent writers as Chile, but Lamarck, who 
described it first in 1783, said it came from Peru. Dr. Rose, who visited Peru and Chile in 




Opuntia pachypus. 



78 THE CACTACEAE. 

1 914, was not able to find it wild in either country but found it abundant in Ecuador 
in 1918. This species was introduced into England in 1799, but flowers were not known 
until about 1834. 

There are two abnormal forms in cultivation which are offered under the names variety 
cristata and monstruosa. Several varieties of this species are given in catalogues: cristata 
(Haage and Schmidt, Haupt-Verzeichnis 1908: 228. igo?>) ; cristata minor Haage and 
Schmidt (Verzeichnis Blumenzwiebeln 1913: 37. 191 3); and robustior (Haage and Schmidt, 
Haupt-Verzeichnis 1908: 228. 1908). 

Illustration: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 61: pi. 3301; Carnegie Inst. Wash. 269: pi. 10, f. 88. 

Plate XIV, figure 2, shows a leaf-bearing top of a plant grown at the New York 
Botanical Garden. 

Series 12. MIQUELIANAE. 

Bushy plants, with elongated cylindric bluish joints; tubercles large, elevated; leaves minute, 
early deciduous. The series consists of but one species, confined to the deserts of northern Chile. 

45. Opuntia miquelii Monville, Hort. Univ. i: 218. 1840.* 

Opuntia pulverulenta Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 8: 407. 1840. 

Opuntia pulvendenia miquelii Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 49. 1845. 

Opuntia geissei Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile 85: 492. 1894. 

Opuntia rosiflora Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 686. 1898. 

Often growing in colonies 2 to 5 meters broad ; stems cylindric, much branched, usually less than 
I meter high, but occasionally 1.5 meters high, with numerous lateral branches; branches rather 
short, usually only 8 to 20 cm. long, thick (5 to 6 cm. in diameter) ; old branches bluish green, with 
low tubercles sometimes 2 cm. long; young joints bright green, with high tubercles flattened laterally; 
spines tardily developing, but formidable on old branches, very unequal, in clusters of 10 or more, 
the longest ones nearly 10 cm. long, whitish in age; glochids numerous, brownish, caducous; leaves 
minute, 2 to 3 mm. long; areoles circular, when young filled with white wool, in age somewhat ele- 
vated on the areoles; flowers rather variable in length, 4 to 8 cm. long including the ovary, rose- 
colored to nearly white; petals broad, apiculate, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; filaments rose-colored; ovary 
strongly tuberculate ; areoles filled with numerous brown glochids and subtended by minute leaves ; 
style white; stigma-lobes green; fruit ovoid to oblong in outline, nearly white; umbilicus truncate; 
seeds small, 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In South America, but no definite locality. 

Distribution: Province of Atacama, Chile. 

Opuntia miquelii and 0. pulverulenta have long been considered identical. We have 
not seen the types of either, but are following such authorities as Salm-Dyck (in 1850), 
Labouret (1853), and Riimpler (1885) in uniting them. They seem to have been pub- 
lished in the same year. 

Opuntia geissei, according to a statement made to Dr. Rose by Juan Sohrens, of San- 
tiago, is the same as 0. miquelii, and this the former was able to verify by later herbarium 
and field studies. 

Opuntia rosiflora Schumann was based on Phihppi's unpublished name O. rosea; while 
0. rosea was made by Philippi the type of 0. geissei. This is clearly shown by Philippi's 
herbarium, where he has erased the name 0. rosea and substituted 0. geissei. Dr. Rose 
also obtained from William Geisse a part of Philippi's original specimen, which came, as the 
label states, from near Bandurrias, in the valley of Carrizal, in the Province of Atacama. 
Later on, while making field observations in Atacama, Dr. Rose found this species very com- 
mon from north of Castillo to Vallenar. This is in the general region of 0. geissei (O. rosea 
and 0. rosiflora) and in the river valley of the Huasco. Huasco, the type locality of 
0. miquelii, is 25 miles lower down this valley, and we have no hesitancy in uniting them all. 

Although this species is not uncommon in cultivation, it has rarely been seen in flower, 
and we believe that the fruit has not heretofore been described. 

♦Schumann states that this book was published in 1839. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




3. «* 






M. E. Eaton dej. 




1. Flowering branch of Opuntia burrageana. 3, 4. Joints of Opuntia stanlyi. 

2. Opunha cylindrica. 5. Flowering joint of Opuntia macrorhiza. 

(All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



79 



Dr. Rose observed a single plant infested by Loranthus aphyllus, the parasite which is 
so abundant on Cereus chiloensis. 

Opuntia heteromorpha Philippi (Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile 1891-: 28. 1891) we refer here 
on the authority of Schumann, but we have seen no specimens, the type specimen being 
missing from the Philippi herbarium in Santiago; it was collected at Chiquito, Tarapaca, 
Chile. 

Dr. Weber thought that Opuntia segethii belonged here, but we have referred it to 
O. subulata. 

Opuntia carrizalensis Philippi is only mentioned by Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 
Nachtr. 152. 1903). It is doubtless to be referred here. 

Plate XVI, figure i, is from a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Vallenar, Chile, in 1914. 

Series 13. CLAVATAE. 

Here we include nine prostrate or spreading, low species, natives of the southwestern United 
States and Mexico, characterized by clavate joints and by sheathless spines, although rudimentary 
sheaths have been observed on young spines in some of the species ; they appear to form a transition 
between the subgenus Cylindropunti a andthe South American subgenus T e phrocactus ,hom which they 
differ essentially in having clavate joints. 

Key to Species. 

Spines flattened. 
Stems very stout. 

Stems hardly clavate ; ovary very prickly 46. 0. invicta 

Stems strictly clavate; ovary only slightly prickly 47. 0. slanlyi 

Stems more slender and weak. 

Spines brown, slender, long (4 to 6 cm. long) 48. O. schottii 

Spines stout, white, when old very flat. 

Bristles on ovary and fruit white 49. 0. clavata 

Bristles on ovary and fruit brown 50. 0. parishii 

Spines terete, elongated, and flexible, or the central ones somewhat flattened. 
Flowers pinkish or purple. 

Bristles on ovary numerous, brown 51. 0. pidchella 

Bristles on ovary few, white 52 . 0. vilis 

Flowers yellow. 

Spines comparatively short, swollen at base 53. 0. bulbispina 

Spines long and flexible, not swollen at base 54. 0. grahamii 

46. Opuntia invicta Brandegee, Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 2: 163. 1889. 

Plants growing in large clusters 2 meters in diameter and 2 to 5 dm. high, with many ascending 
or spreading branches; joints obovoid to clavate, dark green, 8 to 10 cm. long, strongly tuberculate; 
tubercles large, flattened laterally, 3 to 4 cm. long; areoles large, i to 1.5 cm. in diameter; leaves 
linear, 8 to 14 mm. long, reddish, curved, acute, deciduous; spines very formidable, when young 
reddish or purple with carmine-red bases, chestnut-brown at tips and grayish between, but in age 
dull in color; radial spines 6 to 10; central spines 10 to 12, much stouter than the radials, strongly 
flattened; wool white; glochids few, white, 2 to 4 mm. long; flowers yellow, 5 cm. in diameter; sepals 
ovate, acuminate; ovary 2 cm. in diameter, almost hidden by the numerous reddish, acicular spines ; 
seeds yellowish, 2 mm. broad. 

Type locality: About San Juanico, Lower California. 

Distribution: Central Lower California, at low elevations. 

Mr. Brandegee has called attention to the strong resemblance in habit of this species 
to some of the species of Echinocereus, and Dr. Rose states that when he first saw it he 
supposed it to be some strange Echinocereus. It grows in great tufted masses and does 
not suggest in the remotest degree any of our North American opuntias. The species 
clearly belongs to Engelmann's series Clavatae, where it was placed by Schumann, who 
associated it with 0. cereiformis, but it is undoubtedly much nearer to O. stanlyi. So far 
as we know, the plant has never been in the trade ; it does not succeed well in cultivation. 
Considerable living material was brought back by ihe^ Albatross in 1911, most of which was 
sent to the New York Botanical Garden ; but some of the plants were sent to collections at 
St. Louis, Washington, and Los Angeles. 

Illustration: Cact. Joum. i: February. 



8o THE CACTACEAE. 

Plate XVI, figure 2, represents a plant collected by Dr. Rose at San Francisquito, 
Lower California, in 191 1. 

47. Opuntia stanlyi Engelmann in Emory, Mil. Reconn. 158. 1848. 

Opuntia emoryi Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 303. 1856. 
Opuntia kunzei Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 505. 1908. 

Stems low, usually less than 3 dm. high, much branched, creeping, forming broad, impenetrable 
masses 2 to 3 meters in diameter; joints 10 to 15 cm. long, clavate, more or less curved, strongly 
tuberculate; tubercles 3 to 4 cm. long, flattened laterally, 4 to 6 cm. apart; spines numerous, stout, 
elongated, somewhat roughened, reddish brown, the larger ones strongly flattened, 3.5 to 6 cm. long; 
flowers yellow, 5 to 6 cm. broad; fruit ovate, clavate at base, yellow, 5 to 6 cm. long, very spiny, 
with a depressed umbilicus; seeds flattened, 4.5 to 6.5 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: On the del Norte and Gila, New Mexico. 

Distribution: Southwestern New Mexico to eastern Arizona and adjacent Mexico. 

O. stanlyi was first found October 22, 1846, by W. H. Emory on his first trip across 
the continent; he reported the plant as abundant on the Del Norte and Gila. There 
has been much speculation as to what this species is, for no specimens were preserved. Dr. 
George Engelmann, who named the species, based it upon a sketch made by the artist of 
the expedition, Mr. J. M. Stanly. By a reference to Emory's itinerary we find that on 
October 22, 1846, he was in southwestern New Mexico. In 1908 Dr. Rose visited this 
region where he collected the various species of cacti to be found there. The only plant 
which we know from that part of New Mexico which could represent 0. stanlyi is Opuntia 
emoryi; this was the conclusion reached by Wooton and Standley, who, in their Flora of 
New Mexico, have restored the name 0. stanlyi. 

We have referred Opuntia kunzei here because recent specimens sent in by Dr. Kunze 
have taken on a phase very much Hke the true 0. stanlyi. There is a possibility that 0. kunzei 
should be maintained, for we are not altogether convinced that certain material we have 
seen should be merged into O. stanlyi. To clear up this point, it is hoped that someone 
will collect and preserve a full series of specimens showing flowers, fruits, and seeds. 

Illustrations: Emory, Mil. Reconn. App. 2. f. 9; Amer. Garden 11: 531?; Cact. Journ. 
i: 154; Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 70, 71, these last three as Opuntia emoryi; Hornaday, Camp- 
fires on Desert and Lava opp. p. 116, this as Opuntia kunzei. 

Plate XIV, figure 3, represents a plant collected by Dr. R. E. Kunze near Gunsight 
Mountains, Arizona, in 1912 ; figure 4 shows a leaf -bearing joint of the same plant. 

48. Opuntia schottii Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 304. 1856. 

Prostrate, rooting from the areoles, forming dense clusters sometimes 2 or 3 meters in diameter ; 
joints clavate, curved, ascending, easily breaking off, 6 to 7 cm. long, 2 cm. in diameter at thickest 
part, strongly tuberculate; leaves subulate, bronze-colored, 6 to 8 mm. long, acuminate; areoles i 
to 1.5 cm. apart; spines white and sheathed when young, soon brown, the larger ones sometimes as 
many as 12, very slender, sometimes 6 cm. long, somewhat flattened; wool white when young, turning 
brown; glochids white when young, turning brown, 4 mm. long or less; flowers yellow, 4 cm. long 
including ovary ; sepals narrow, acuminate ; petals acuminate ; fruit yellow, narrowly oblong in out- 
line, a little narrowed at base, 4 cm. long, closely set with areoles bearing numerous short spines, 
bristles, and white wool, the umbilicus depressed; seeds yellow, flattened, 4 mm. in diameter, notched 
at base. 

Type locality: Arid soil near the mouth of the San Pedro and Pecos, western Texas. 

Distribution: Southern and western Texas and northern Mexico. 

Opuntia schottii greggii Engelmann (Cact. Mex. Bound. 68. pi. 73, f. 4. 1859), which 
came from near San Luis Potosi, Mexico, where it was collected by Dr. J. Gregg, in Decem- 
ber 1848, is much out of the range of the normal form and probably belongs elsewhere; but 
no specimens have been examined except the type, which is fragmentary. Engelmann at 
first considered it a distinct species. 

Illustration: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 73, f. i to 3. 

Figure 92 represents joints of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Langtry, Texas, in 1908. 




M. a. Eaton del 



1, 2. Parts of joints of Opimtia exaltata. 3. Upper part of joint of Opuntia macrarthra. 

4. \]p-per pd^rt oi]omtoi Opzrnfia torfispijia. (All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 8 1 

49. Opuntia clavata Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 95. 1848. 

Plants low, not over 1.5 dm. high, much branched at base, spreading, forming large patches 
sometimes 2 meters in diameter; joints short, 3 to 7 cm. long, turgid, ascending, clavate; areoles 
close together; leaves subulate, 4 to 5 mm. long; spines pale, somewhat roughened, the radial ones 
6 to 12, slender and acicular, 4 to 16 mm. long; central spines 4 to 7, much longer than the radials, 
more or less flattened, the largest one dagger-like; glochids numerous, yellowish, 3 to 5 mm. long; 
flowers yellow, 3.5 to 4 cm. long; fruit 4 to 5 cm. long, with numerous areoles filled with yellow, radiat- 
ing glochids; seeds white, 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

Distribution: New Mexico, chiefly in the central part of the State. 

This is one of the most characteristic species of the genus and has no near relative 
except 0. parishii, of the deserts of California and Nevada. It is a great pest to grazing 
stock. 

Illustrations: Bull. Agr. Hxper. Station N. Mex. 78: pi. [i, 2], Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 22, 
f. I to 3; pi. 24, f. 6. 

Figure 93 represents joints of a plant collected by W. T. H. Long at Albuquerque, New 
Mexico, in 1915. 




Fig. 92. — Opuntia schottii. Xo 75. Fig. 93. — Opuntia clavata. X0.75. 

50. Opuntia parishii Orcutt, West Amer. Sci. lo: 8i. 1896. 

Stems low, creeping, rooting along the under surface and forming dense, broad clusters ; terminal 
joints short, clavate, ascending but almost hidden under the dense armament; tubercles prominent 
but short, 5 to 7 mm. long; spines at first reddish but soon grayish and finally nearly white; radial 
spines numerous, slender; central spines about 4, strongly angled and more or less flattened, 2 to 4 
cm. long; glochids numerous; flowers not known; fruit 5 cm. long, the numerous large areoles bearing 
many long yellow glochids and short spines forming a radiating band about the margin; seeds dark, 
4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Mohave Desert. 

Distribution: Southern California and Nevada. 

The species here described is the Opuntia parryi as described by Engelmann in 1856, 
although he then suspected it was different from that species. It has been renamed 
Opuntia parishii by Orcutt, who wrote as follows : 

"We propose this name for that interesting plant of the Mohave desert region, hitherto called 
0. parryi, and under which it has been well described. The Messrs. Parish have hardly earned this 
light honor in many laborious trips through these desert regions, and I take pleasure in dedicating 
this species to them; Opuntia parryi (type from San Felipe), along with bernardina and echinocarpa, 
and a bewildering host of nameless forms, I unhesitatingly class under serpentina!" 

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. i: 132; N. Amer. Fauna 7: pi. 10; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 22, f. 
4 to 7; pi. 24, f. 7, all as Opuntia parryi. 

Figure 94 represents joints of a plant collected by S. B. Parish in southern California. 



82 



THE CACTACEAE. 



51. Opuntia pulchella Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 201. 1863. 

Low, 10 to 20 cm. high, densely branched, sometimes forming compact heads 6 dm. in diameter; 
main stem more or less definite, covered with areoles bearing yellow glochids 10 to 12 mm. long; 
lateral joints 5 to 6 cm. long, narrowly clavate, strongly tuberculate, purplish; areoles 6 to 8 mm. 
apart, 2 to 3 mm. broad; spines 10 to 16, slender, reddish, the longer ones 5 to 6 cm. long, somewhat 
flattened; flower 5 cm. long, when open, fully as broad; petals purple, 3 cm. long; ovary 2 cm. long, 
bearing numerous areoles filled with white wool and purple glochids 10 to 12 mm. long; fruit about 
2.5 cm. long; seeds (according to Coulter) thick and round, 4 mm. in diameter, with broad flat com- 
missure. 

Type locality: Sandy deserts on Walker River, Nevada. 

Distribution: Nevada and Arizona. 

The plant was first collected by Henry Engelmann in 1859, and brought to his brother, 
Dr. George Engelmann. The species does not succeed well in cultivation under glass. 

Illustration: Simpson's Rep. pi. 3. 

Figure 95 is from an herbarium specimen collected by Thomas H. Means at Fallon, 
Churchill County, Nevada, in 1909. 





Fig. 94. — Opuntia parishii. Xo.66. 



Fig. 95. — Opuntia pulchella. Xo.66. 



52. Opuntia vilis Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 293. 1909. 

Low, creeping, often forming mats several meters in diameter and only 10 to 15 cm. high; joints 
prostrate, becoming erect or ascending, the ultimate vertical ones clavate, 5 cm. long, the others 2 
to 4 cm. long, very turgid, pale green, with low tubercles; leaves terete, 2 to 3 mm. long, acute, red; 
young areoles bearing white wool; radial spines upward of 12, the number increasing with age by 
the addition of very small whitish ones; central spines on prostrate joints 4, reddish, white-tipped, 
I to 4 cm. long, terete, slightly scabrous, with a sheath 5 mm. long, those of clavate joints white, 
reddish on the upper surface at the base, and along the whole of the lower surface flattened ; flowers 
4 cm. long; petals brilhant purplish, 2 cm. long; filaments bright yellow with green bases; style 
white; stigma-lobes yellow; fruit pale green, blackening in drying, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, 2.5 to 
3 cm. long, tuberculate, especially about the margin of the umbilicus, spiny, fluted above, somewhat 
dry, with large white seeds. 

Type locality: Foot-slopes and plains of Zacatecas, Mexico. 
Distribution: State of Zacatecas, Mexico. 
Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pi. 27; f. 36. 

Figure 96 is from a photograph of the type plant taken by F. E. Lloyd in Zacatecas, 
Mexico, in 1907. 



OPUNTIA. 



83 




Fig. 96. — Opuntia vilis. 



53. Opuntia bulbispina Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 304. 1856. 

Stems low, forming wide-spreading clumps 6 to 12 dm. broad; joints ovoid in outline, 2 to 2.5 
cm. long by 10 to 12 mm. in diameter; tubercles prominent, 6 to 8 mm. long; radial spines 8 to 12, 
acicular, 3 to 6 mm. long; central spines 4, much stouter than the radials, 8 to 12 mm. long, bulbose 
at base ; flower and fruit not described in original description and as yet unknown. 

Type locality: Near Perros Bravos, north of Sal- 
tillo, Mexico. 

Distribution: Coahuila and probably into Durango, 
Mexico. 

The type of this species was collected by Josiah 
Gregg in 1 848 and it has not with certainty been found 
since; it has been reported from one or two localities, 
but doubtless erroneously. At one time we supposed 
certain plants collected by Dr. Palmer in Chihuahua 
were to be thus referred. It is possible that specimens 
collected by Dr. Chaffey near Lerdo, Durango, may be 
referred here, as they have the short joints of this 
species, but the central spines are much longer, often 
reaching 2.5 to 3.5 cm. long. The type is deposited in 
the Engelmann Herbarium at St. Louis, and although 
the material is poor, it may yet serve to clear up this 
species definitely. 

As stated by Coulter, this species has been re- 
garded as the same as O. tunicata, a plant to which it 
is very remotely related. 

Illustration: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 73, f. 5, 6. 

Figtu-e 97 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

54. Opuntia grahamii Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3 : 304. 

1856. 

Roots at first thick and fleshy, becoming woody, 2 cm. thick or more ; plant low, much branched, 
spreading, forming low mounds often half buried in the sand, sometimes giving off roots at the are- 
oles; terminal joints erect, clavate, bright green, 3 to 5 cm. long, with large oblong tubercles; leaves 
thick, bronze-colored, ovate, acute, 3 to 4 mm. long; areoles about 3 mm. broad; wool white; spines 
8 to 15, slender, slightly scabrous, terete or some of the larger ones slightly compressed, white when 
young, soon reddish, the longest 3.5 to 6 cm. long; glochids numerous, slender, 4 mm. long or less. 




Fig. 97. — Opuntia bulbispina. 



84 



THE CACTACEAE. 




Fig. 98. — Opimtia grahamii. X0.75. 



white, turning brown, persistent on the old stems; flowers yellow, 5 cm. broad; sepals ovate, acute, 
about 5 mm. long; fruit oblong to ovoid, 3 to 4.5 cm. long, its numerous areoles bearing white glochids 
and some slender spines; seeds beakless, 5 to 5.5 mm. in diameter, the commissure indistinct, linear. 

Type locality: Near El Paso, Texas. 

Distribution: Western Texas, New Mexico, and 
adjacent parts of IMexico. 

This species was named for James Duncan 
Graham, Colonel, Corps of Engineers, United States 
Army, who died December 28, 1865, at Boston, 
INIassachusetts. Colonel Graham was for a time 
chief of the scientific corps of the United States 
and ^Mexican Boundary Commission, and caused 
the specimens of this plant to be transmitted to Dr. 
George Engelmann. 

The plant succeeds rather well in cultivation under glass. 

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 72; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 102. 

Figure 98 represents joints of a plant collected by Dr. Rose on hills near Sierra Blanca, 
Texas, in 1913. 

Subgenus 2. TEPHRO CACTUS. 

Includes all the South American species of Opunlia which have short, oblong, or globular joints. 
It is hardly to be distinguished from the North American series Clavatae. Four series are recog- 
nized. The plants are confined to Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and .\rgentina. (See key to series, p. 44.) 

Series 1. WEBERIANAE. 
Plants low, forming dense clumps; joints subcylindric, strongly tuberculate and bearing numer- 
ous spines. This series suggests Platyopuntia, while the other series show closer relationship with 
the Cylindropuntia. Only one species known, inhabiting the dry part of northern Argentina. 

55. Opuntia weberi Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 509. 1905. 

Densely cespitose, forming clumps 2 to 3 dm. in diameter and 10 to 18 cm. high; joints yellomsh 
green, erect, cyUndric, strongly tuberculate, 2 to 6 cm. long, 1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter, densely spiny; 




Fig. 99. — Opuntia weberi as it grows wild. 



OPUNTIA. 



85 



leaves described as wanting; tubercles spirally arranged, obtuse, somewhat 4-angled, 5 to 6 mm. 
broad; areoles somewhat depressed; spines 5 to 7, brown, 3 to 5 cm. long, flexuous, the upper ones 
erect; flowers borne near the top of the plant, small, soUtary; ovary somewhat woolly below and with 
short spines above; flower rotate, yellow; fruit dry, white, 10 mm. in diameter; seeds somewhat 
contorted, bony, glabrous. 

Type locality: In Sierra Pie de Palo, Province of San Juan, Argentina. 
Distribution: Mountains of Provinces of San Juan and Salta, Argentina. 
This description, though largely drawn from Dr. Spegazzini's full account of this 
species, has been amplified from examination made of the type. Dr. Spegazzini refers it 




Fig. 100. — Opuntia weberi. Natural size. 



to the subgenus Tephrocactiis, and we have followed him in this ; but it differs widely from 
any other known species of that group and its true affinity may be elsewhere. If the plant 
is leafless, as Dr. Spegazzini's description imphes, this is a most interesting exception to 
the character of Opuntia. 

Figure 99 is from a photograph of the plant at MoHnos, Argentina; figure 100 is from a 
photograph of the type specimen in the collection of Dr. Spegazzini, to whom we are 
indebted for both of these illustrations. 



86 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Series 2. FLOCCOSAE. 
Low plants, forming dense clumps or mounds ; joints short, thick, and fleshy, usually covered 
with long, white, silky hairs. The two species are common in the high valleys of the Andes of Peru 
and Boli\'ia. 

Key to Species. 

Spines yellow, stout 56. 0. floccosa 

Spines white, acicular 57-0. lagopus 

56. Opuntia floccosa Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 388. 1845. 

Opuntia senilis Roezl in Morren, Belg. Hort. 24: 39. 1874. 
Opuntia floccosa denudata Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 897. 1898. 
Opuntia hempeliana Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 690. 1898. 

Plant growing in clumps or low mounds sometimes i to 2 meters in diameter, with himdreds of 
short, erect branches; joints oblong, 5 to 10 cm. long, usually hidden under a mass of long white 
hairs coming from the areoles ; spines usualh^ one from an areole, sometimes as many as three, yellow, 
I to 3 cm. long; leaves minute, green or pinkish; tubercles somewhat elevated, elongated; flowers, 
small, 3 cm. long, yellow; fruit globular, 3 cm. in diameter: seeds 4 mm. in diameter, with very nar- 
row margins. 




Fig. ioi. — Opuntia floccosa. 



Type locality: Said to be from vicinity of Lima, Peru, but doubtless only from the 
high mountains east of Lima. 

Distribution: High mountain valleys and hills of the Andes from central Peru to 
central BoHvia. 

0. floccosa is one of the most unusual and striking species of all the opuntias. One 
who is familiar only with the opuntias of North America would not suspect that it belongs 
to the genus. It does not grow on the hot mesas in the low country, as one would expect, 
but in the high, cold valleys and hills near the top of the Andes. The following paragraph, 
taken from John Ball's notes, is interesting in this connection: 

Reserving some remarks on the botanj^ of this excursion, there is j^et to be mentioned here one 
plant of the upper region so singular that it must attract the notice of ever>^ traveler. As we ascended 
from Casapalta we noticed patches of white, which from a distance looked like snow. Seen nearer 



OPUNTIA. 87 

at hand, they had the appearance of large, rounded, flattened cushions, some five or six feet in diam- 
eter, and a foot high, covered with dense masses of floss silk that glistened with a silvery lustre. The 
unwary stranger who should be tempted to use one of these for a seat would suffer from the experi- 
ment. The plant is of the cactus family, and the silky covering conceals a host of long, slender, 
needle-like spines, that penetrate the flesh, easily break, and are most difficult to extract. Unfor- 
tunately, the living specimen which I sent to Kew did not survive the journey. 

Dr. Rose found the plant very abundant in the Andes from 3,600 to 4,260 meters 
altitude, while others have reported it as high as 4,570 meters altitude. It is very common, 
forming everywhere great, conspicuous, usually white mounds. Dr. Rose also found it 
quite common between Cuzco and Juliaca, in southwestern Peru. 

Mr. O. F. Cook, in the Journal of Heredity (8: 113. 1917), who has named this plant 
the polar bear cactus, wrote of it as follows : 

Many exposed slopes on the bleak plateaus of the high Andes are dotted with clumps of pure 
white cacti that look from a distance like small masses of snow. On closer view, the shaggy white 
hair of these cacti make them appear Uke small sheep or poodle-dogs, or like reduced caricatures 
of the denizens of the arctic regions. We are so accustomed to think of cacti primarily as desert 
plants, peculiarly adapted to hot, dry deserts, that they seem distinctly out of place on the cold 
plateaus of the high Andes of southern Peru. 

While most of the plants are covered with long white hairs, plants without hairs 
are not uncommon. These naked plants, which are characteristic of the whole clump 
or colony, appear at first sight very unUke the other forms, but they grow in the same region 
and have the same kind of flowers and fruits. In cultivated plants few hairs are developed. 
The variety denudata Weber seems to be only one of these naked forms. 

Opuntia involuta Otto (Forster, Handb. Cact. 505. 1846) was not published, but was 
given as a synonym of this species. It was used the year before (Salm-Dyck, AUg. Gar- 
tenz. 13: 388. 1845) as a synonym of 0. vestita. 

Illustrations: Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 12: pi. 14; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 41, 
44, these last two as Opuntia hempeliana; Journ. Heredity 8: f. 3 to 8. 

Plate XIII, figure 2, is from a photograph taken by Mr. O. F. Cook in the high moun- 
tains of eastern Peru. Figure loi is from a photograph of a fragment of the plant col- 
lected by Dr. Rose in 1914, at Araranca, Peru. 

57. Opuntia lagopus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 151. 1903. 

Plants cespitose, growing in compact mounds; joints stout, cylindric, 10 cm. long, 3 to 3.5 cm. in 
diameter, densely covered with long white hairs; leaves minute, hidden under the wool, 7 mm. long; 
spines solitary, white, 2 cm. long, slender; glochids white, bristle-like; flowers probably red; fruit 
not known. 

Type locality: Mountains of Bolivia above Arequipa, Peru. 

Distribution: On the plains of the high Andes of Peru and Bohvia (altitude 4,000 
meters) . 

This species is related to 0. floccosa, with which it often grows, but it takes on a very 
different habit, growing in very dense, peculiar rounded mounds much higher than those 
formed by 0. floccosa. 

Illustration: Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 12: pi. 14. 

Figure 102 is from a photograph by H. ly. Tucker, near I^axsa, Peru, in 191 1. 

Series 3. GLOMERATAE. 

Plants low, composed of globose or oblong joints, the spines, or some, of them, modified into 
flat papery processes. We recognize two species, confined to western Argentina. 

Key to Species. 

Central spines papery; radial spines subulate 58. 0. australis 

Spines, when present, all developed into long papery processes 59-0. glomerata 



THE CACTACEAE. 




Fig. I02. — Opuntia lagopus, growing in a mound. 

58. Opuntia australis Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 
896. 1898. 

Pterocactus valentinii Spegazzini, Anal. Soc. 
Cient. Argentina 48: 51. 1899. 

Plants often with large roots, these 5 to 8 cm. 
long by 2 to 3 cm. in diameter and larger than 
the parts above ground; joints described as 
cucumber-shaped, usually 6 to 8 cm. long by i to 
2 cm. in diameter, but apparently often much 
smaller, tuberculate; radial spines 10 to 15, 
spreading, white, short, 3 to 4 cm. long; central 
spines i or 2, much longer than the radials, 2 
cm. long, erect, flattened, and somewhat papery; 
flowers yellow, 2 to 3 cm. broad; seeds said to 
be rugose. 

Type locality: Between Santa Cruz 
River and the Strait of Magellan, Argentina. 

Distribution: The southernmost parts of 
Argentina. 

We have recently examined three col- 
lections of this plant made by Carl Skotts- 
berg in the Territory of Santa Cruz, which in 
the main agree with Weber's description. 
We have also seen Pterocactus valentinii, 
which is the same as Skottsberg's plant. 

Dr. Spegazzini records this species as being in Santa Cruz, Argentina ; but as he regards 
the plant collected there by him as only a variety of O. darwinii, we are inclined to believe 
he must have collected something else. 

This species, which is found at the Strait of Magellan, extends farther south than any 
other cactus known to us. 




Fig. 103. — Opuntia australis. Showing large roots, jo 
and flower. Natural size. 



OPUNTIA. 



89 



Figure 103 is from a photograph of an herbarium specimen collected by Carl Skotts- 

berg in the Territory of Santa Cruz, Patagonia, in 1908. 

59. Opuntia glomerata Haworth, Phil. Mag. 7: iii. 18,30. 

Opuntia articulata Otto, Allg. Gartenz. i: ii6. 1833. 

Cereus articulatus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 103. 1837. 

Cereus syringacanthus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 103. 1837. 

Opuntia platyacanlha Salm-Dyck in Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 5: 371. 1837. 

Opuntia tuberosa spinosa Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 146. 1837. 

Opuntia andicola Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 145. 1837. 

Opuntia diademata Lemaire, Cact. Aliq, Nov. 36. 1838. 

Opuntia turpinii Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 36. 1838. 

Opuntia andicola elongata Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 72. 1839. 

Opuntia andicola fulvispina Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 72. 1839. 

Opuntia andicola major Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 72. 1839. 

Opuntia calva Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 73. 1839. 

Opuntia platyacanlha gracilior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 43. 1845. 

Opuntia platyacantha momiillei Salm-Dyck, Cact. Kort Dyck. 1849. -J I. 1850. 

Opuntia platyacanlha deflexispina Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 245. 1850. 

Opuntia papyracantha Philippi, GartcnfloTa 21: I2g. 1872. 

Opuntia syringacantha Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 6: 156. 1896. 

Opuntia plumosa nivea Walton, Cact. Journ. i: 105. 1898. 

Forming low, spreading clumps, the branches either erect or prostrate; joints globular, 3 to 6 
cm. in diameter, often in cultivated specimens even smaller, dull grayish brown, hardly tuberculate 
except in drying; areoles large, bearing numerous long, brown glochids; spines often wanting, when 
present i to 3, long, weak, thin and papery, hardly pungent, either white or brownish, sometimes 
10 cm. long; flowers light yehow, small; fruit globose, i to 1.5 cm. long, dry; seeds corky. 

Type locality: Brazil, according to Haworth, 
but erroneously. 

Distribution: Western Argentina. It has also 
been referred to Brazil and Chile, but surely not 
found in Brazil, and we should not expect it to 
inhabit Chile. 

The plant figured by Nicholson (Diet. Gard. 
2: f- 755) as 0. platyacantha hardly belongs here. 

0. glomerata, which is common on the dry 
hills about Mendoza, is very variable, especi- 
ally as to whether it is spine-bearing or not; 
while the spines — which are really not spines but 
thin ribbon-like processes — vary much as to their 
color, markings, and length. These variations 
are partly the cause of so many synonyms for the 
species. Dr. Rose, who visited the region in 
which this species grows, found wide variation in 
the size of the joints, as well as in the absence or 
presence of spines. 

Tephrocactus diadematus Lemaire (Cact. 88. 
1868), T. turpinii Lemaire (Cact. 88. 1868), 
Opuntia polymorpha Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 103 
morpha Sahn-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 71. 
of Opuntia diademata, but none of them was actually published. Opuntia polymorpha 
Pfeiffer was used by Pfeiffer as a synonym for Cereus articulatus Pfeiffer. 

Tephrocactus andicolus, T. calvus, and T. platyacanthus , all of Lemaire (Cact. 88. 1868), 
without descriptions, are referred here by inference. 

Spegazzini (Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4:511. 1905) describes three varieties 
of this species under O. diademata, from Argentina, as follows: inermis, oligacantha, and 
polyacantha; while Weber (Diet. Hort. Bois 896. 1898) under the same name describes var. 
caha, but these all seem to be forms of this very variable species. 




Fig. T04. — Opuntia glomerata. Xo.,5. 

1837), and Opuntia turpinii poly- 
1850) are usually given as synonyms 



go THE cactaceae;. 

The following varietal names, under Opuntia glomerata var. albispina Forster (Handb. 
Cact. 472. 184^), \ax. flavispina Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 43. 1845), and var. 
minor Sakn-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 71. 1850), are mentioned in the places cited, 
but not described. 

Opuntia horizontalis Gillies (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 145. 1837) was used as a synonym 
of Opuntia andicola, and should be referred here. 

Opuntia pelaguensis (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 71. 1850) was published as 
a synonym of Opuntia platyacantha deflexispina. 

Opuntia andicola minor, an unpubHshed variety, is mentioned by name only in Monats- 
schrift fiir Kakteenkunde (10: 48. 1900). 

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. i: 100, as Opuntia andicola: Kngler and Prantl, Pflanz- 
enfam. 3'''': f. 56, K.; Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 39; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 13: 23, these 
three as Opuntia diademata. Cact. Journ. i: February; Diet. Gard. Nicholson Suppl. 
f. 607 ; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 125; Gard. Chron. III. 23: f. 129; 2g:i. 63 ; Gartenflora 
21: pi. 721, f. 2, all as Opuntia papyracantha; Cact. Journ. i: 105, as Opuntia plumosa 
nivea. 

Figure 104 represents a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Mendoza, Argentina, in 1915. 

Opuntia schumannii Spegazzini (Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 511. 1905, 
not Berger, 1904) is a homonym, and we hesitate to give it a new name until it is better 
known. The type comes from Salta, Argentina, from a region where we already have a 
number of species of Tephrocactus. Spegazzini, who described it, says it is related to 
0. diademata, which is now referred to 0. glomerata, but is very distinct. It is without spines 
and the flowers are unknown. 

Series 4. PENTLANDIANAE. 

Plants often growing in large mounds; joints globular to oblong; spines usually slender, acicular 
to subulate. Seventeen species are here recognized. 

K©Y TO SpeICIES. 

Spines very long and stout, up to 15 to 20 cm. long 60. 0. aoracantha 

Spines slender, 10 cm. long or less. 
Spines appressed to the joints. 

Spines 12 to 20, flexuous; joints 7 cm. long 61. O. rauppiana 

Spines 6 or 7; jomts 2 to 4 cm. long 62. O. subterranea 

Spmes straight, not appressed. 
Spines flat or semiterete. 

Spines 7 to 10 cm. long 63. q. hickenii 

Spines 6 cm. long or less. 
Longer spines i to 3. 

Joints ellipsoid, 4 to 5 cm. thick 64. 0. darwinii 

Joints oblong, i cm. thick 65. 0. tarapacana 

Longer spines 4 or 5. 

Spines gray 66. O. atacamensis 

Spines yellow 67. O. russellii 

Spines terete. 

Spines white, at least when young. 

Joints tuberculate 68. 0. corrueata 

Joints not tuberculate. 

Joints oblong 69. 0. ovata 

. Jomtsglobose 70. 0. sphaerica 

bpines yellow to brown or nearly black. 

Roots large and woody; spines nearly black 71. 0. skoltsbersii 

Roots fibrous. 

Spines purple-black 72. Q. nigrispina 

bpmes yellow to brown. 

Plants forming large clumps. 

Fruit about 2.5 cm. long, nearly unarmed 73. 0. pentlandii 

Fruit 5 to 6 cm. long, copiously armed with long spines above 74. O. ignescens 

Plants isolated, not forming clumps. 

Old joints globose; spines acicular 75. Q. campestris 

Joints all oblong; spines subulate 76. 0. ignota 



OPUNTIA. 



91 



60. Opuntia aoracantha Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 34. 1838. 

Cereus ovahis Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 102. 1837. Not Opuntia ovata Pfeiffer, 1. c. 144. 1837. 
Opunlia formidabilis Walton, Cact. Joum. i: 105. 1898. 

Usually low, cespitose, forming clumps 2 to 5 dm. in diameter and sometimes i to 2 dm. high; 
branches grayish, either erect or prostrate, made up of 5 to 10, perhaps even more, globular joints; 
joints easily detached, freely rooting and starting new colonies, 5 to 8 cm. in diameter, strongly tuber- 
culate especially when young, the lower part spineless, the upper areoles large, spine-bearing; spines 
brown or blackish, i to 7, the longer ones 13 cm. long, straight, a little flattened, roughish to the 
touch; flowers white; fruit short-oblong, 3 cm. long, red, weakly tuberculate, bearing numerous 
areoles, usually naked but sometimes bearing a few short spines near the top, becoming dry; umbili- 
cus of fruit broad and depressed; seeds white, flattened, 4 to 5 mm. broad, the margins thick and 
corky. 




Fig. 105. — Opuntia aoracantha. Xo.66. 



Type locality: Not cited, but doubtless from Mendoza. 

Distribution: Western provinces of Argentina, from Mendoza to Jujuy. 

Opuntia gilliesii Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 102. 1837, ^-s synonym) and Tephrocactus 
aoracanthus Lemaire (Cact. 89. 1868) are usually given as synonyms of this species, but 
they were not described in the places usually cited, and as here given. Opuntia acra- 
cantha Walpers (Repert. Bot. 2: 354. 1843) is a typographical error. 

0. aoracantha, although described nearly 80 years ago, is practically unknown in col- 
lections and has been very poorly described. The fruit has heretofore been unknown. 
Dr. Rose found it in 19 15 in great abundance growing on dry, rocky hills west of Mendoza, 



92 



THE CACTACEAE. 



although in but one locahty. A bountiful supply of living material was sent home, several 
photographs were taken, and fruit and seeds obtained. 

Opuntia tuheriformis Philippi (Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile 1891": 28. 1891), referred here 
by Schumann, doubtless belongs elsewhere. It may possibly belong to some Platyopuntia, 
for it is described as having ovate joints only 5 mm. thick. It comes from the foot of the 
Andes in the Province of Tarapaca, Chile. 

Illustrations: Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 40; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 172; Cact. Journ. 
i: 105, the last as 0. Jormidahilis. 

Figure 105 represents a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Mendoza, Argentina, 
in 1915. 

61. Opuntia rauppiana Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9 : 118. 

1899. 

Joints ellipsoid, rounded at each end, somewhat tubercu- 
late, dark green or becoming graj'ish green, 7 cm. long by 4 cm. 
in greatest diameter; glochids yellow, 5 cm. long; spines 12 to 
14, sometimes as many as 20, very weak, almost bristle-like, 
2 cm. long, hardly pungent. 

Type locality: In the Andes. 

Distribution: BoHvia, according to Schumann. 

Little is known of the habit of this plant, as only one 
joint is figured and this appears to be a sickly greenhouse 
specimen. It suggests some of the species which grow in 
large clumps Hke the one figured as Opuntia grata by Fries. 

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 118; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 
f. 36 (same). 

Figure 106 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

62. Opuntia subterranea R. E. Fries, Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Upsal. IV. i^: 122. 1905. 

Almost buried in the sand, simple or few-branched from a thick root 7 to 12 cm. deep: joints 
terete, 2 to 4 cm. long; tubercles low; spines i to 7, all radial, short, whitish, recurved, appressed; 




Fig. 106. — Opuntia rauppiana. 





Fig. 107. — Opuntia subterranea. 



Fig. ioS. — Opuntia hickenii. Xo.6. 



OPUNTIA. 



93 



flowers lateral, brownish; ovary small, with a depressed umbilicus, its areoles bearing small glochids 
and a little wool; fruit 12 to 15 mm. long; seeds 3 mm. broad, irregular. 

Type locality: Near Moreno, Jujuy, Argentina. 
Distribution: Northern Argentina and adjacent Bolivia. 

This peculiar little plant, heretofore known only from the type collection, was obtained 
by Dr. Shafer on stony plains at Villazon, Bolivia, in February 1917, but was not in bloom. 
Illustration: Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Upsal. IV. i': pi. 8, f. 4 to 8. 
Figure 107 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

63. Opuntia hickenii sp. nov. 

Low, cespitose, forming clusters i meter in diameter; joints globular, 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, 
strongly tuberculate, the lower tubercles usually spineless; areoles rather large, circular; spines 2 to 5, 
flat and thin, narrow, weak, pungent, 5 to 12 cm. long, silvery-colored but nearly black in age; 
flowers yellow; fruit not known. 

Type in United States National Herbarium, No. 603229, from Puerto Madryn, Chubut, 
Argentina, collected by Cristobal M. Hicken. 

Common in Chubut and Rio Negro, southern Argentina, where it was collected several 
times by Dr. Hicken. 

Figure 108 represents the type specimen above cited. 

A photograph of a plant from San Juan, Argentina, communicated by Dr. Spegaz- 
zini, indicates another species of this relationship. 

64. Opuntia darwinii Henslow, Mag. Zool. Bot. i: 466. 1837. 

Low, perhaps not more than 2 to 4 cm. high, much branched at base from a more or less elon- 
gated woody root; joints normally few, nearly globular, about 3 cm. in diameter, or often nearly 
cylindric, frequently numerous and small and growing out from the main axis, then only 5 to 10 mm. 
in diameter; areoles large, filled with wool, the lower ones spineless; spines i to 3, nearly erect, the 
longest one 3 to 3.5 cm. long, yellow or reddish yellow, decidedly flattened; flowers originally de- 
scribed as larger than the joints, but certainly often much smaller; petals yellow, broad, with a trun- 
cate or depressed top and usually with a mucronate tip; ovary, in specimens seen, only 2 cm. long, 
covered with large woolly areoles ; styles described as stout, with 9 thick radiating stigma-lobes. 

Type locality: Port Desire, Patagonia, latitude 47° south. 

Distribution: Southern Argentina. 

This species seems to be common in that part of Patagonia known now as the Ter- 
ritory of Santa Cruz, Argentina. We have recently examined four separate collections 
made in this region, especially one from about Lake Buenos Aires and on the Fenix River 
by Carl Skottsberg, in 1907- 1909. 

The plant is in cultivation in Europe and is offered for sale by cactus dealers. 

It was first collected by Charles Darwin, but only a single joint was taken, which was 
described and figured by Rev. J. S. Henslow. The illustration of the flowers seems too 
large, but otherwise represents fairly well the plant as we know it. The following interest- 
ing note is taken from Mr. Henslow 's article as it appeared in the Magazine of Zoology and 
Botany, volume i, page 467: 

I have named this interesting Cactus after my friend C. Darwin, Esq., who has recently 
returned to England, after a five years' absence on board H. M. S. Beagle, whilst she was employed 
in surveying the southernmost parts of South America. The specimen figured was gathered in the 
month of January, at Port Desire, lat. 47° S. in Patagonia. He recollects also to have seen the 
same plant in flower as far south as Port St. Julian in lat. 49° S. It is a small species growing close 
to the ground on arid gravelly plains, at no great distance from the sea. The flowers had one day 
arrested his attention by the great irritability which their stamens manifested upon his inserting a 
piece of straw into the tube, when they immediately collapsed round the pistil, and the segments of 
the perianth soon after closed also. He had intended to procure fresh specimens on the following 
day, and returned to the ship with the one now figured, but unfortunately she sailed immediately 
afterwards, and he was prevented from obtaining any more. The geographical position of this 



94 



the; cactaceae. 



species is beyond the limits hitherto assigned to any of the order, which are not recorded as growing 
much south of the tropic of Capricorn. The chmate is remarkably dry and clear, hot in summer, 
but with sharp frosts during the winter nights. He found Cacti both abundant and of a large size, 
a little farther to the north at Rio-Negro in latitude 41° S. 

Illustration: Mag. Zool. Bot. i: pi. 14, f. i. 

Figure 109 is copied from a photograph of an herbarium specimen collected by Carl 
Skottsberg in Patagonia in 1908. 

65. Opuntia tarapacana Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile 1891^: 27. 1891. 
Opimtia rahmeri Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile 1891^: 27. 1891. 

Low, cespitose plants; joinfs small, ovoid, about 2 cm. long by i cm. thick, bearing spines from 
white woolly areoles at tips; spines usually 3, straight, 12 to 15 mm. long, white with yellowish tips; 
flowers yellow; petals 21 mm. long; ovary elongated, 2 cm. long. 

Type locality: Calalaste, Chile. 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, although Schumann in his Keys refers 
this species to Bolivia. 

Although the type of this species is preserved in the Museum at Santiago, Chile, it is 
insufficient to enable us to give a very full description. It seems distinct from the other 
species of the group. 




Fig. 109.- 



X0.6 



Fig. 1 10. — O. atacamensis. X0.6. 



Fig. III. — O. russellii. X0.6. 



66. Opuntia atacamensis Philippi, Fl. Atac. 24. i860. 

? Pereifa'ag/omerate Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 179. 1837. Not Opimtia glotnemta Hav/orth. 1830. 
Growing in large, dense clusters sometimes 6 dm. broad and 3 dm. high; joints ovoid, 2.5 cm. 
long by 2 cm. in diameter; areoles in 5 to 7 series, the lower ones with wool and very short spines; 
upper areoles each bearing i erect central spine 18 to 25 mm. long, yellow or reddish; radial spines 
2 to 4, strongly appressed, 2 mm. long; flowers yellow. 

Type locality: Prof etas, Chile; also Puquios, 23° 50' south latitude. 

Distribution: On the high central deserts of northern Chile at an altitude of 2,700 
to 3,300 meters. 

We have not seen the type of this species, and our reference of Pereskia glomerata here 
may not be correct. 

Illustration: Nov. Act. Soc. Set. Upsal. IV. i^: pi. i, as Opuntia grata. 

Figure no represents a plant obtained by Dr. Rose at the Botanical Garden, Santiago, 
Chile, in 1914. 

67. Opuntia russellii sp. nov. 

Forming small, compact clumps i to 2 dm. in diameter; joints small, globular to obovoid, dull 
green to more or less purplish, 2 to 4 cm. long, very spiny near the top; leaves minute, acute, soon 
faUing; prominent spines 3 to 6, yellow, 2 to 3 cm. long, slightly flattened; accessory spines i to 



OPUNTIA. 95 

several, i cm. long or less; glochids at first inconspicuous, but in time very abundant, sometimes 2 
cm. long, somewhat persistent ; flowers not known ; fruit globular, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, spineless ; 
seeds pale, 4 mm. broad. 

Collected by J. N. Rose and Paul G. Russell on the dry hills at Potrerillos, Mendoza, 
Argentina, September 2, 1915 (No. 21002). 

This is a common species in the foothills of the Andes, in the Province of Mendoza, 
where it forms low mounds along with other cacti. 

Figure 1 1 1 represents joints of the type specimen above cited. 
68. Opuntia corrugata Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 360. 1834. 

Opuntia eburnea Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 35. 1838. 
Opuntia retrospinosa Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 35. 1838. 
Opuntia parmentieri Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 6: 276. 1838. 

More or less cespitose; joints 3.5 cm. long, 8 to 12 mm. in diameter, orbicular to cylindric, often 
erect, attenuate at both ends, light green, the terminal one often flattened; glochids minute, yel- 
lowish; spines 6 to 8, acicular, 8 to 12 mm. long, white; flowers reddish; fruit red. 

Type locality: None given. 

Distribution: Northwestern Argentina, according to later writers. 

Lemaire (Cact. 88. 1868) uses the names Cactus corrugatus and C. eburneus, both of 
which Schumann refers here. 

Tephrocactus retrospinosiis Lemaire (Cact. 88. 1868) is placed by Lemaire in his third 
section of Tephrocactus, but it is without description. It is doubtless the same as Opuntia 
retrospinosa Lemaire, which belongs here. 

Opuntia aulacothele Weber (Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10:392. 1904), 
which was described without flowers or fruit, may be of this alliance. It comes from San 
Rafael, Argentina. 

Opuntia cornigata, mentioned in Bailey's Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture (4: 2367 . 
1916), is a misspelUng of this name. 

Opuntia corrugata monvillei Sahn-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 72. 1850) was not 
described. 

Opuntia longispina Haworth (Phil. Mag. 7: iii. 1830), when first described, was sup- 
posed to have come from Brazil; the Index Kewensis refers it to Chile; while Schumann 
treats it in a note under 0. corrugata as an Argentine species. It may not be an Opuntia 
but a Maihuenia. 

69. Opuntia ovata Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 144. 1837. 

Opuntia ovallei Remy in Gay, Fl. Chilena 3: 29. 1847. 
Opuntia grata Philippi, Linnaea 30: 211. 1859. 
Opuntia monticola Philippi, Linnaea 33: 82. 1864. 
Low, branching, cespitose plants; joints yellowish green, 
some deep purple when young, subcylindric to ellipsoid, 3 
cm. long; spines 5 to 9, 4 to 10 mm. long, when young brown- 
ish, in age white ; fruit ovoid ; umbilicus curved outward. 
Type locality: Mendoza, Argentina. 
Distribution: Mountains of Argentina and Chile. Fig. 112. -Opuntia ovata. xo.5. 

Opuntia ovoides Lemaire (Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 73. 1839) and Cactus ovoides Lemaire 
(Cact. 88. 1868) are usually cited as synonyms for Opuntia ovata; they are unpublished names. 
This species forms low clumps, each branch consisting of 2 to 5 joints. Dr. Rose found 
it abundant in the Andes above Mendoza and it has also been reported from the Chilean 
side of the Andes. Colonies differ in armament. In cultivation some of the joints are 
elongated and club-shaped. 

Illustration: Schumann Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 105, as Opuntia grata. 
Figure 112 shows joints of the plant collected by Dr. Rose in 1915 at Potrerillos, 
Argentina. 




96 



THE CACTACEAE. 



70. Opuntia sphaerica Forster, Hamb. Gartenz. 17: 167. 1S61. 

Opiintia dimorpha Forster, Hamb. Gartenz. 17: 167. 1S61. 

Opuntia Jeonina Haage and Schmidt in Regel and Schmidt, Gartenflora 30: 413. 1881. 

Opuntia leucophaea PhiUppi, Anal. JIus. Kac. Chile 1891-: 27. 1891. 

Opuntia corotillu Schumann in Vaupel, Bot. Jahrb. Engler Beibl. iii: 28. 1913. 

Plants often erect, alwaj^s low, usuallj- few-branched, often forming large patches; joints usually- 
globular, 12 to 40 cm. in diameter; areoles large, numerous, sometimes nearly hiding the surfaces of 
the joints with their short brown wool; spines variable as to number, sometimes few, sometimes 
numerous, brown at first, in age sometimes gray, i to 4 cm. long, usually stiff; flowers 4 cm. long, 
deep orange; petals obtuse; fruit globular, often very spiny; seed globular, white, 4 mm. in diameter, 
siUTOimded by a thin, broad band. 

Type locality: Xear Arequipa, Peru. 

Distribution: Central Peru to central Chile. 

The three illustrations cited below were made from the same cultivated plant. They 
look xery much like a poor specimen of Opuntia glomerata, and, if such it should prove, 
the name 0. leonina should be re- 
ferred to the synonymy of that 
species. 

We have referred Opuntia di- 
morpha here with some hesitancy. 

This plant often passes for 
Opuntia ovata and, from herbariinn 
specimens we have seen, it has been 
so identified by Rudolph PhiHppi. 

This species is ven." common in 
sandy places on hiUs, dry flats, and 
in mountain valleys, often cover- 
ing the ground to the exclusion of 
all other plants. The joints readily 
break loose and, falling to the 
ground, start new colonies. We 
found the species verj^ common 
both above and below Arequipa, 
Peru, where it is called corotilla; 
in central Chile it grows at lower 
altitudes but in similar situations. 
In Chile it is called Icon or leoncito, which is probably the origin of the name Opuntia 
leonina. 

Opuntia phyllacantha Haage and Schmidt (Regel and Schmidt, Gartenflora 30: 414. 
1881), if it actually came from Chile, as stated, maj- belong here. The joints are more 
elongated, although the habit is somewhat similar. The illustration is poor and has doubt- 
less been made from a greenhouse specimen. This name was given, with Salm-Dyck as 
authority, by Forster (Handb. Cact. 508. 1846), but without any description. 

Illustrations: Cact. Joum. i: 100; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 133; Gartenflora 30: 
413, aU as Opuntia leonina. 

Figure 113 is from a photograph of joints of the plant collected by Dr. Rose above 
Arequipa, Peru, in 1914. 

71. Opuntia skottsbergii sp. nov. 

Roots thick and fleshy, sometimes 10 cm. long, the plant doubtless more or less cespitose; joints, 
at least some of them, globular, 3 cm. in diameter, almost hidden by the numerous closely set spines ; 
areoles close together, small, at times producing long tufts of white wool; spines about 10, black 
except the yellowish tips, i to 2 cm. long; glochids numerous, elongated; flowers, including the very 




Fig. 113. — Opuntia sphaerica. 



OPUNTIA. 



97 



spiny ovary, about 6 cm. long; petals about 3 cm. long, drying reddish or reddish green; areoles of 
the ovary bearing 5 to 7 spines, which are brown or blackish below and with more or less yellowish 
tips; fruit not known. 

Collected near Lake Buenos Aires, Territory of Santa Cruz, Argentina, December 12, 
1908, by Carl Skottsberg (No. 675); and again on the Rio Fenix, north of the locality 
above given, December 10, 1908 (No. 625, type). 

This species belongs to the subgenus Tephrocactus, but is not closely related to any of 
the described species. The flower resembles very much the one figured by Henslow 
as 0. darwinii, and it is possible that he may have had some of this species in his 0. dar- 
winii; the plant bodies, however, are so different that one could hardly confuse the two. 

Figure 114 is copied from a photograph of the type specimen above cited. 

72. Opuntia nigrispina Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 695. 1898. 

Opunlia purpurea R. E. Fries, Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Upsal. IV. i': 123. 1905. 

Described as a shrub, i to 2 dm. high and much branched, the branches upright; joints dull 
green or reddish violet, 2 to 4 cm. long, i to 2 cm. in diameter, oblong-elhpsoid, terete, when young 
bearing decurrent, spirally arranged tubercles; areoles 2 to 3 mm. in diameter, bearing abundant 




Fig. 114. — Opuntia skottsbergii. Fig. 115. — Opuntia nigrispina. X0.8. 



Fig. 116. — Opuntia pentlandii. X0.4. 



wool and glochids; spines 3 to 5 from upper areoles, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, straight, spreading, subterete, 
weak, purplish black; flowers small, purple, 2.2 to 2.5 cm. long; petals spatulate, 1.5 cm. long, 6 
mm. broad; stigma-lobes 5; ovary i cm. long, obovoid, nearly smooth. 

Type locality: On the puna of Humahuaca, Bolivia. 

Distribution: Rare in stony mountains, altitude 3,500 meters, Jujuy, Argentina, and 
southern Bolivia. 

Figure 115 represents a fruiting joint collected by J. A. Shafer at La Quiaca, Argen- 
tina, February 2, 1917 (No. 79). 

73. Opuntia pentlandii Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 387. 1845. 

Opuntia holiviana Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 388. 1845. 

Opuntia pyrrhacantha Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 694. 1898. 

Opuntia dactylifera Vaupel, Bot. Jahrb. Engler Beibl. iii: 29. 1913- 

Opuntia cucumiformis Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 524. 1916. (From the description.) 

Plant much branched, forming low, rounded, compact mounds sometimes a meter broad with 
hundreds of short stubby branches; joints obovoid to oblong-cylindric, plump, 2 to 10 cm. long, 
sometimes 4 dm. in diameter, more or less pointed, pale green or sometimes purplish, tuberculate; 
areoles small, circular, filled with short wool and yellow glochids, the upper ones sometimes also 
having spines; spines sometimes wanting, when present mostly from the upper areoles, erect, 2 to 10, 
usually bright yellow, sometimes brownish becoming dull brown, the longest one 7 cm. long ; flowers 



THB cactaceae;. 



very variable in color and size, lemon-yellow to deep red, 2 to 3 cm. long, sometimes 5 cm. broad when 
fully expanded; petals obtuse; filaments short; style thick; stigma-lobes very short ; ovary short with 
few areoles ; areoles on ovary subtended by minute leaves, filled with short wool, the upper ones with 
bristle-like spines; fruit globular to short-oblong, 2 to 3 cm. long, dry; seeds numerous, 4 to 5 mm. long. 

Type locality: In Bolivia. 

Distribution: Very common on the high pampas of southeastern 
Peru and Bolivia, and adjacent Argentina. 

Cactus pentlandii Lemaire (Cact. 88. 1868), name only, is sup- 
posed to apply to this species. 

This is one of the most characteristic plants of the high pampas 
of the Andean region, mostly growing at elevations of 12,000 feet or 
higher, forming low, broad, compact clumps, sometimes made up 
of a hundred plants or more. 

Illustrations: PDict.Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 751 ; PForster, Handb. 
Cact. ed. 2. f. 124; ?W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 77, all as Opuntia 
boliviana; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 24: 175, as Opuntia dactylifera. 

Figure 116 represents a joint of the plant collected in 
19 14 by Dr. Rose at Comanche, Bolivia; figure 117 shows a 
flowering joint collected by Dr. Rose in 1914, at Juliaca, Peru. 

74. Opuntia ignescens Vaupel, Bot. Jahrb. Engler Beibl. iii : 30. 

1913- 

Plants forming clumps 2 dm. high or less, with hundreds of 
erector spreading joints; joints bluish green, 8 to 10 cm. long, very 
fleshy, naked below; upper areoles very spiny; spines 6 to 15 from 
each areole, nearly equal, 4 to 5 cm. long, erect, acicular, yellow ; 
flowers very showy, deep red; ovary oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long, naked 
below, but the upper areoles producing numerous spines 4 to 7 cm. 
long; fruit red, 7 cm. long, spiny and tuberculate above, terete 
below, with a deep umbilicus; seeds nearly globular, about 5 mm. 
in diameter. 

Type locality: Near Sumbay, southern Peru. 
Distribution: On the pampas of southern Peru and 
northern Chile, at altitude of 3,000 to 3,600 meters. fig. ns.—Opuntia ignescens. xo.5. 





Fig. 119. — Opuntia ignescens forming large mounds. 




M. E. Eaton del. 



1. Top oiOpuniia vnqueln. 2. Old and young joints of Opuntia invicta. 

6. Upper part of ]oint of Opwitia ignescens. {All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



99 



Plate XVI, figure 3, represents old and young joints of the plant collected above Ay- 
rampl, Peru, by Dr. Rose in 1 9 1 4. Figure 118 shows a fruit from the same plant ; figure 1 1 9 
is from a photograph taken by H. L. Tucker at Coropuna, Peru, in 191 1. 

75. Opuntia campestris sp. nov. 

Much branched, often forming low, dense masses, 3 to 6 dm. in diameter; terminal joints readily 
breaking off; joints globular or a little longer than thick, 3 to 5 cm. long, with numerous prominent 
areoles, the tubercles conspicuous when young; leaves minute, i to 1.5 mm. long, caducous; glochids 
conspicuous, numerous, yellow; spines usually wanting at the lower areoles, present above, very 
unequal, 5 to 10, acicular, the longest ones 3.5 cm. long; flowers rosy white to light yellow, 2 to 3 cm. 
long; ovary naked or spiny; fruit thicker than long, 2.5 cm. long, with deep umbilicus, often very 
spiny. 

Common just below railroad station at 
Pampa de Arrieros, Peru, where it was col- 
lected by Dr. Rose, August 23, 1914 (No. 18957). 
Figure 120 represents joints of the type 
specimen above cited. 





Fig. 120. — Opuntia campestris. Xo.8. 



-Opuntia ignota. Xo.8. 



76. Opuntia ignota sp. nov. 

Low, much branched, spreading; joints small, narrow, 2 to 3 cm. long, more or less purplish; 
leaves minute, often purplish; spines 2 to 7 from an areole, brownish, acicular, the longest ones 4 to 
5 cm. long; glochids, when present, yellow; areoles large, full of grayish wool; flowers and fruit not 
seen. 

Collected by Dr. Rose on the hills below the railroad station at Pampa de Arrieros, 
Peru, August 23, 1914 (No. 18974). 

Plants grown in greenhouses are dark green and develop few spines or none. 
This plant grows in the same region as 0. campestris, but is quite different from it. 
Figure 121 shows joints of the type specimen above cited. 

Subgenus 3. PLATYOPUNTIA. 
Includes all the species with flattened joints; a few species have nearly terete joints; 
others have some of the joints terete. Twenty-eight series are recognized. The species 
are most abundant in North America, but several series are found only in South America, 
while others have representatives in both Americas. (See Key to the Series, p. 45.) 



loo THE cactace;ae. 

Series 1. PUMILAE. 

Low, spiny species, with slightly flattened, narrowly cylindric or linear-oblong, readily detached 
ultimate joints, the main stem terete. We know three species, the typical one in Mexico and Guate- 
mala, one from Oaxaca, Mexico, and one Peruvian. In the structure of their joints they form a 
transitional series between Cylindropuntia and Platyopuntia, and might be included in either of these 
subgenera with about equal reason. 

Key to Species. 

Young areoles with only i to 3 spines; joints 2 to 3 cm. thick. 

Plant I to 5 meters high; joints tubercled; spines yellowish 77. O. pumila 

Plants about 2 dm. high; joints not tubercled; spines reddish to brown 770. 0. depauperata 

Areoles with 3 to 7 spines; plants i to 4 dm. high. 

Joints I to 1.5 cm. thick; areoles not blotched; spines brownish 78. O. pubescens 

Joints 2 to 3 cm. thick; young areoles dark-blotched; spines yellowish 79. O. pascoensis 




Fig. 122. — Opuntia pumila forming low thickets. 



77. Opuntia pumila Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 521. 1908. 

Stems low, very much branched, the joints readily falling off when touched, 6 to 20 cm. long, 
velvety-pubescent, terete or sometimes slightly flattened, turgid, bearing more or less prominent 
tubercles; areoles small, those of old stems bearing several slender spines, the longer ones 3 cm. long; 
areoles of young joints usually bearing 2 yellowish spines; ovary pubescent, with few spines or none; 
petals yellow, tinged with red, 15 mm. long; fruit globular, red, 15 mm. long. 

Type locality: Near Oaxaca City, Mexico, on the road to Mitla. 
Distribution: Central and southern Mexico. 

When this species was described, attention was called to various forms which belonged 
here or to one or more related species. These we now refer to 0. pubescens. 

Figure 122 is from a photograph of the type; figure 123 represents joints of the same. 



OPUNTIA. 



77a. Opuntia depauperata sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 216.) 

78. Opuntia pubescens Wendland* in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 149. 



1837- 




Fig. 123. — Opuntia pumila. X0.4. 
Fig. 124. — Opuntia pubescens. X0.75. 



Opuntia leptarlhra Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 393. 1904. 
Plants small, usually low, sometimes 4 dm. high, much branched; joints easily becoming de- 
tached, nearly terete, glabrous or pubescent, 3 to 7 cm. long; spines numerous, short, brownish; 
flowers lemon-yellow but drying red; filaments greenish; style white; stigma-lobes cream-colored; 
fruit small, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, red, a little spiny, with a depressed umbilicus; seeds small, 3 mm. in 
diameter. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Northern Mexico to Gua- 
temala. 

This species was sent to the Exposition 
Universelle at Paris by the Mexican Govern- 
ment in 1889. and was there seen and de- 
scribed by Dr. Weber as 0. leptarthra. A part 
of this material finally went to the Hanbury 
Garden at La Mortola, Italy, whence we 
obtained specimens in 1913 which prove to 
be identical with specimens obtained by Dr. 
Rose and others in Mexico and Guatemala in 
1905 to 1909. 

This is an insignificant species and hence 
has generally been overlooked in the region 
where so many more striking species are found. 
It is widely distributed, extending from the 
State of Tamauhpas, in Mexico, to Guate- 
mala, a much greater range than that of most 

species. Its wide distribution is doubtless due to the fact that the joints, which are cov- 
ered with barbed spines and are easily detached, fasten themselves to various animals 
and are scattered like burs over the country; each little joint thus set free starts a new 
center of distribution. 

This is a difficult plant to grow in greenhouses, for the spreading or hanging branches 
soon become entangled with other plants and break off in attempts to free or move them ; 
partly for this reason, doubtless, it rarely flowers in cultivation. 

Opuntia angusia Meinshausen (Wochenschr. Gartn. Pflanz. i: 30. 1858) was unknown 
to Schumann. It was originally described as similar to the South American species, 
0. aurantiaca, and, if so, it must be near 0. pubescens, if not identical with it, being a native 
of Mexico, where it was first collected by Karwinsky. 

Figure 124 represents joints of the Guatemalan plant, cultivated in the green- 
houses of the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, obtained in 1907. 

79. Opuntia pascoensis sp. nov. 

Stems erect and rigid, up to 3 dm. high; joints easily breaking apart, erect or ascending, terete 
or slightly flattened, 3 to 12 cm. long, 1.5 to 4 cm. broad, puberulent, hardly tuberculate but with 
faint upturned lunate depressions between the dark-blotched areoles; leaves minute; areoles some- 
what elevated, filled with brown wool intermixed with longer white cobwebby hairs; spines 4 to 8 
on young joints, more on older joints, acicular, yellow, 2 cm. long or less; glochids numerous, short, 
yellow, tardily developing; fruit globular, 1.5 cm. in diameter, naked below, spiny above. Doubt- 
less of wide distribution, for the joints are easily detached and are distributed like burs, but so far 
only two collections have been reported. 

*Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 1837) frequently refers several of Wendland's species to Catal. h. Herrnh. 1835, but we 
can find no references to Wendland having published a catalogue of the Herrenhausen Garden either in 1835 or about 
that time. We have therefore cited all of Wendland's species so referred by Pfeiifer to the pages given in his 
Enumatio. 



I02 the; cactaceae. 

Collected by Dr. and Mrs. J. N. Rose in central and southern Peru, in 1914, first from 
just below Matucana (No. 18653), and later at Pasco (No. 188 12, type). 

Plate XVII, figure i, represents a joint of the type specimen above cited. 
Series 2. CURASSAVICAE. 

This series is composed of 10, or perhaps 11, species of low plants, characterized by their fragile 
branches, the small joints separating and becoming detached very readily, more or less flattened or 
subterete. They mostly inhabit the southern United States and the West Indies ; one is known 
from Ecuador; the original home of one of the species recognized is unknown. 

Key to Species. 

Spines acicidar. 

Joints oval, mostly not more than twice as long as wide; plants prostrate, little branched So. 0. curassavica 

Joints oblong to Unear, 2 to 8 times as long as wide; plants ascending or erect, much branched. 

Joints narrowly linear, i to 2 cm. wide 81. 0. taylori 

Joints oblong to linear-oblong or obovate-oblong, 2 to 4 cm. wide. 

Joints oblong to Unear, 4 to 8 times as long as wide; spines i to 3 cm. long. 

Joints not tubercled 82. 0. repens 

Joints tubercled, at least when young 82a.. O. pestifer 

Joints oblong to obovate-oblong, 2 to 3 times as long as wide; spines 3 to 5 cm. long 83. 0. borinquensis 

Spines subulate. 
Spines white. 

Roots fibrous; spines at most of the areoles 84. 0. militaris 

Roots tuberous; spines only at the upper areoles 85. 0. nemoralis 

Spines brown. 

Joints oval to oblong. 

Joints scarcely repand; plant up to 2 dm 86. O. drummondii 

Joints strongly repand; plant i dm 87. O. tracyi 

Joints linear-lanceolate 88. 0. pusilla 

Affinity uncertain 89. 0. darraUana 

80. Opuntia curassavica (Linnaeus) Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 7. 1768. 

Cactus curassavicus Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 469. I753- 

Stems low, 5-jointed, light green, pros- 
trate and creeping or hanging over rocks ; joints 
oval to oblong, decidedly flattened but thick, 
2 to 5 cm. long, glabrous ; leaves minute, soon 
withering; areoles small, bearing short wool ,^ T^f^^^^r '' 

and longer, white cobwebby hairs ; spines 4 to '^^^^C<^'iS>i^^^^^S^I'^^^i'''M^^^^'^ ^ 

many, acicular, 2.5 cm. long or less, yellowish, -"^^ "" 

becoming white in age; glochids tardily de- 
veloping. 

V Type locality: CuragaO Island. Fig. 125.— Opuntia curassavica. Xo.75- 

Distribution: Curagao, Bonaire, and Aruba. 

Haworth (Syn. PI. Succ. 196. 1812) describes three varieties, major, media, and minor, 
and later (Rev. PI. Succ. 71. 1821) also describes the variety longa. 0. curassavica elongata 
Haworth (Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 184. 1834), a name only, is supposed to be the same 
as var. longa. 

This is one of the oldest species of Opuntia, having been described and figured as early 
as 1696. For a long time it has been unknown, the name having been transferred to a 
similar species, 0. repens. In 1913 Dr. Britton visited Curasao, its native home, and re-col- 
lected it. Its flowers have not been described, and several residents informed him that 
they had never seen it in flower; Dr. Britton did not find it in flower on Curagao, nor has it 
flowered with us in cultivation; Haworth, who wrote about it in 1812, speaks of its being 
a shy bloomer, saying he had seen it in flower but once. In early English books it is called 
pin pillow, because its turgid joints suggest pincushions filled with pins. 

Illustrations: Bradley, Hist. Succ. PI. ed. 2. pi. 4, as Opuntia minima americana, etc.; 
Commerson Hort. pi. 56, as Opuntia curassavica minima; Plukenet, Opera Bot. 3: pi. 281, 
f. 3, as Opuntia minor caulescens. 

Figure 125 represents the plant collected on Curagao by Dr. N. L. Britton and Dr. 
J. A. Shafer in 1913. 




BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del 



1. Joint of Opuntia pascoensis. 

2. Joints of Opuntia taylori. 



3, 4. Forms of Opuntia repens. 5. Flower of same. 

6. Flowering joint of Opuntia drumniondii. 
(All natural size.) 



I04 



THE CACTACEAE. 



the larger up to 6 cm. long, brown when young, fading white; leaves subulate, acuminate, i to 2 mm. 
long; fruit obovoid, subtruncate, 1.5 cm. long. 

Limestone swale, Morillos de Cabo Rojo, Porto Rico (Britton, Cowell, and Brown, 
No. 4741), growing with O. repens Bello, from which it differs by its larger, broader, and 
flatter joints and much longer spines. 

The only locality known for this plant is at the extreme southwestern corner of Porto 
Rico, where numerous colonies of it were observed. The region is a very dry one, rain fall- 
ing there only at long intervals; the associated vegetation is of a highly xerophytic character. 

Figure 126 represents joints of the type specimen above cited. 

84. Opuntia militaris sp. nov. 

Stems 3 dm. tall, the branches weak and more or less spreading; joints thick, narrowly oblong 
to obovate, 5 to 8 cm. long, somewhat shiny when young, easily breaking apart; spines i or 2 from an 
areole, occasionally more, acicular, white, i to 2 cm. long; flower-buds pointed; flowers small, 3 cm. 
long; petals greenish to cream-colored, tinged with pink; ovary small, its small areoles without spines. 

Collected by Dr. N. L. Britton, March 17 to 30, 1909, at the U. S. Naval Station, 
Guantanamo Bay, Oriente, Cuba (No. 1957). 

Figure 127 represents joints of the type specimen above cited. 




Fig. 126. — Opuntia borinquensis. X0.5. 



Fig. 127. — Opuntia militaris. X0.5. 



85. Opuntia nemoralis GriSiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 133. 19 13. 

Plants low, usually prostrate, forming clumps i meter in diameter, sometimes 3 dm. high; joints 
ovate to obovate, thick, 7 to 9 cm. long, green, but often with purple blotches about the areoles; 
spines i or 2, only from the upper areoles, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, mostly erect; glochids yellow; flowers 
yellow; fruit obovoid to pyriform, small, 3 cm. long, light red, truncate. 

Type locality: Longview, Texas. 

Distribution: Pine woods and fields about Longview, Texas. 

This species in habit, joints, and spines suggests the Tortispinae; but on account of 
having easily detached joints we have referred it to the Curassavicae, as indicated in the 
original description, placing it between the Cuban species 0. militaris and the United 
States species 0. drmnmondii. It is known only from the type specimens. 

86. Opuntia drummondii Graham in Maund, Botanist 5: pi. 246. 1846. 

Opzintia pes-corvi LeConte in Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 346. 1856. 
Opuntia frusttdenta Gibbes, Proc. Elliott Soc. Nat. Hist, i: 273. 1859. 

Plant prostrate or spreading, 2 dm. or less high, from thickened single or sometimes moniliform 
roots; joints rather variable, narrowly linear to broadly oblong, with entire margins, sometimes 12 
cm. long and 5 to 6 cm. broad, usually light green, sometimes darker about the areoles; leaves 2 to 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del. 1 to 3 



H. A. Wood del. 4, 5 

1. Two plants of Opuntia drummondii. 3 Joints of Opuntia triacantha. 

2. Joints of Opu7itia retrorsa with flower. 4, 5. Joint and section of fruit of Opuntia jamaicensis. 

(All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



105 



6 mm. long; spines (if present) solitary or 2 to 4, brownish red or gray, 2 to 4 cm. long; flowers yellow, 
6 cm. broad ; petals obovate ; fruit red, juicy but insipid, obovoid to clavate, 22 to 35 mm. long, 15 mm. 
in diameter at thickest part, bearing few areoles and no spines; umbilicus slightly depressed in the 
center; seeds i to 8, about 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Apalachicola, Florida. 

Distribution: Sandy soil from northern Florida to Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. 

In February 1916, Dr. J. K. Small visited the coastal islands near Charleston, South 
Carolina, for the purpose of collecting Gibbes's Opuntia frusiulenta. He found this species 
very common on Folly Island and on the Isle of Palms, where it grows abundantly in the 
sand, and also very variable as to shape and size of joints. He says the joints break off 
easily and attach themselves to one 's clothing Uke the sand spur, making progress over these 
islands difficult and painful. It is the common belief that this species rarely flowers. It 
usually flowers when first brought into 
cultivation, but rarely afterward, this 
doubtless being due to unsuitable green- 
house conditions. 

The fruit described was collected by 
Dr. J. K. Small, December 10, 191 7, at 
Apalachicola, Florida, the type locaUty. 

According to Professor L. R. Gibbes, 
it is known as dildoes about Charleston. 

Illustration: Maund, Botanist 5: 
pi. 246. 

Plate XVII, figure 6, represents 
flowering joints of a plant sent from La 
Mortola, Italy, to the New York Botani- 
cal Garden in 1912; plate xviii, figure i, 
shows the plant collected by Dr. Small 
on the Isle of Palms, South Carolina, in 
1916. 

Herbarium specimens apparently 
representing a related species, were 
collected by W. L. McAtee at Cameron, 
Louisiana, in 1910 (No. 1955). 

87. Opuntia tracyi Britton, Torreya 11 : 152. Fig. 128.— Opuntia tracyi. 

1911. 

Low, diffusely much branched, pale green, about 2 dm. high or less; older joints oblong 
to linear-oblong, flat, 6 to 8 cm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. wide, about i cm. thick; young joints scarcely 
flattened or terete, i cm. thick ; areoles elevated, 5 to 10 mm. apart; spines i to 4, acicular, light gray with 
darker tips, 3.5 cm. long or less; glochids numerous, brownish; corolla pure yellow, 4 cm. broad; 
ovary 1.5 cm. long, bearing a few triangular acute scales similar to the outermost sepals, which are 
2 mm. long; sepals triangular-ovate, 5 to 15 mm. long, the outer green, the inner yellowish with a 
green blotch; petals obovate, apiculate, 2 to 2.5 cm. long ; filaments yellow, i cm. long; anthers white. 

In sandy soil near the coast, Biloxi, Mississippi. 

Figure 128 is from a photograph of the plant collected by S. M. Tracy at Biloxi, 
Mississippi, in 19 11. 

88. Opuntia pusilla Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 195. 1812. 

Cactus piisillus Haworth, Misc. Nat. 188. 1803. 
Cactus foliosus Willdenow, Enum. PI. Suppl. 35. 1813. 
Opuntia foliosa Salm-Dyck in De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 471. 1828. 

Low, usually prostrate; joints narrow, more or less flattened, sometimes nearly terete, hardly 
tuberculate, light green in color; leaves 6 mm. long, linear, early deciduous; areoles remote; spines 




io6 



THE cactaceae;. 



I or 2, subulate, usually brownish when young, in age straw-colored; flowers pale yellow, rather 
large for the plant ; petals few, about 8, spreading, acute. 

Type locality: Not cited. 

Distribution: Usually assigned to South America, but not known from any definite 
locality; Schumann, in his Keys, however, says West Indies. 

This species has usually passed under the name of O. foliosa, although all writers seem 
to agree that the older name, 0. pusilla, was given to the same species. It may belong in 
the series Aurantiacae rather than in the Curassavicae. 

Specimens distributed from European gardens as 0. foliosa in recent years are not 
typical, and are probably referable to O. drmnmondii. 

Tephrocactus pusillus Lemaire (Cact. 88. i868), an unpubHshed name, referred by 
Lemaire to his third section of Tephrocactus, may belong here. The Index Kewensis refers 
it to Opuntia pusilla. 

Illustration: Pfeiffer and Otto, Ab- 
bild. Beschr. Cact. i: pi. i8, as Opuntia m 

foliosa. m 

Figure 129 is copied from the illus- 
tration above cited. 

89. Opuntia darrahiana Weber in Gosselin, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 388. 
1904. 

Growing in masses, 2 to 2.5 dm. high 
3.5 to 4 dm. broad, very much branched, 
joints 7 to 8 cm. long by 4 to 5 cm. broad, bright green 
to sea-green ; areoles somewhat elevated, especially when 
young, I cm. apart; spines 6, the two uppermost the 
longest, these 4 to 4.5 cm. long, all suberect, white or 
grayish white, more or less brownish at tip ; glochids said 
to be wanting; flowers and fruit not known. 

Type locality: Turks Islands. 

Distribution: Known only from the type lo- 
cality. 

This species is known only from the Turks 
Islands, a small group at the southeastern end of 
the Bahaman Archipelago. It was introduced 
into Europe by the late Charles Darrah. 

We know the plant only from the above-cited description, and, so far as we have been 
able to learn, it is not now in cultivation, nor have we been able to find any herbarium 
specimens preserved. The opuntias known to us to inhabit Turks Islands are 0. dillenii, 
0. nashii, and 0. lucayana. The description of 0. darrahiana does not agree with any of 
these. The species is referred to the series Curassavicae with doubt, but as this series has 
representatives in Florida, Cuba, and Hispaniola, the existence of one in the Bahamas is 
not improbable. 

Series 3. AURANTIACAE. 

The species of this series are low plants, mostly with readily detached joints; the main stems are 
often terete or turgid, the ultimate joints narrow and flat. They inhabit southeastern South Amer- 
ica. During the expedition to Brazil and Argentina conducted by Dr. Rose in the summer of 1915, 
only a few of the species here grouped were found ; Dr. Shafer collected several of them in the winter 
of 1916-17. Dr. Spegazzini has given us photographs of several. 

We recognize 8 species, and have appended another, which may belong here. 




Fig. 129. — Opuntia pusilla. 



OPUNTIA. 



107 



Key to Species. 

Joints not conspicuously purple-blotched under the areoles. 
Joints linear, elongated. 

Stem terete or subterete; branches mostly flat. 

Joints dark green, not tubercled 9°- 

Joints tubercled, bluish green when young 91- 

All the joints flat. 

Joints elongated, hnear 92- 

Joints linear-oblong. . . 93- 

Joints short, elliptic 94- 

Joints with a long purplish blotch under each areole. 
Joints more or less spiny. 
Joints flattened. 

Joints 2 to 3.5 cm. wide 95- 



0. aurantiaca 

0. schickendantzii 

0. kiska-loro 

O. canina 

O. montevidensis 



0. retrorsa 



Joints 3.5 to 6 cm. wide 96. 0. utkilio 



0. discolor 
0. anacantha 
0. grosseiana 



Joints subterete, turgid > 960. 

Joints spineless 97- 

Perhaps of this series 

90. Opuntia aurantiaca Lindley, Edwards's Bot. Reg. 19 : 
pi. 1606. 1833. 
Opuntia aurantiaca extensa Salm-Dyck in Forster, Handb. 
Cact. 476. 1846. 

Low, much branched, and spread- 
ing; stem terete or subterete, i to 2 
cm. thick; joints very fragile, linear, 
6 to 8 cm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. broad, 
almost terete at base, dark green, shin- 
ing; areoles somewhat elevated, filled 
with white wool; spines 2 or 3, brown- 
ish, I to 3 cm. long; flowers yellow, 2.5 
cm. broad; fruit 2 to 2.5 cm. long. 

Type locality: Chile (in error). 

Distribution: Argentina and 
Uruguay. 

Cactus aurantiacus Lemaire 
(Cact. 87. 1868) is usually cited in 
synonymy, but Lemaire only men- 
tions the name as a species of 
Cactus. It is in fact Gillies's man- 
uscript name, first pubhshed in 
the Botanical Register in 1833 
as a synonym of 0. aurantiaca. 

0. extensa Salm-Dyck (Pfeif- 
fer, Enum. Cact. 147. 1837) is also 
given as a synonym. 

Remy states (Gay, Fl. Chilena 
3: 25. 1847) that it grows in the 
central provinces of Chile, but he 
probably had in mind some other plant, as 0. aurantiaca is not known to be native of Chile 
by resident botanists. 

Illustrations: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pi. 34; Edwards's Bot. Reg. 19: pi. 1606. 

Figure 130 represents a joint from a plant found by Dr. Rose, in Argentina, in 19 15. 
91. Opuntia schickendantzii Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 688. 1898. 

Shrub-like, i to 2 meters high, much branched, grayish green; branches cylindric or flattened, 
somewhat tuberculate; leaves minute, 2 mm. long, reddish; spines i or 2, subulate, i to 2 cm. long; 
flowers 4 cm. in diameter, yellow; fruit green, sterile. 

Type locality: In Tucuman, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

Figure 131 is from a photograph of a plant in Argentina contributed by Dr. Spegazzini. 




Fig. 130. — O 
aurantiaca. 



Fig. 131. — O. schickendantzii. 



io8 



THE CACTACEAE. 




Fig. 132. — Opuntia kiska-loro 

92. Opuntia kiska-loro Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 516. 1905. 

Prostrate, rooting, forming spreading 
clumps 3 to 6 dm. high; joints flat, at first 
very narrow, becoming lanceolate, 20 cm. long, 
4 cm. broad, shining green; spines 2 to 4, un- 
equal, whitish, 4 to 6 cm. long; flowers orange, 
rather large, 3 to 6 cm. broad; filaments pale 
orange; stigma-lobes 6, flesh-colored; fruit 5 
cm. long, deep violet-purple without, white 
within; seeds 5 mm. broad, pubescent. 

Type locality: Deserts of La Rioja, 
Catamarca, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northwest Argentina. 

Figure 132 is from a photograph of 
the type plant sent by Dr. Spegazzini. 

93. Opuntia canina Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 518. 1905. 

At first erect, then decumbent, i to 3 
meters broad; joints flat, very narrow, atten- 
uate at both ends, 2.5 to 3.5 dm. long, 4.5 cm. 
broad, shining green; areoles on young joints 
unarmed; spines of areoles of older joints i or 
2, sometimes 3, 1.5 to 3.5 cm. long, reflexed, 
subterete, grayish white with yellowish tips; 
flowers numerous, medium sized; ovary obo- 
void; corolla rotate, yellowish orange, 4 to 5 
cm. broad ; petals obovate ; filaments yellow ; 
stigma-lobes 5; fruit obovoid, 2.6 to 2.8 cm. 
long, red without, white within ; seeds 4 mm. 
broad, white, lanate. 



Type locality: 
Jujuy, Argentina. 



Near Pampablanca, 




Fig. 133. — Opuntia canina. 



Distribution: Provinces of Jujuy and Tucuman, Argentina. 
Figure 133 is from a photograph sent by Dr. Spegazzini. 



OPUNTIA. 



109 



94. Opuntia montevidensis Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 515. 1905. 
Cespitose, the branches 3 to 5 dm. high; joints 5 to 10 cm. long, obovate to elliptic; areoles not 

very prominent; spines usually 5, 3 longer and stouter, 2 very small, reflexed, and setiform, the 2 or 

3 longer ones erect or spreading, 2 to 3 cm. long; flowers 4 to 5 cm. broad, orange-colored; fruit 
dark purple, clavate, 3.5 to 4 cm. long ; seeds lanate. 

Type locality: Cerro de Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Distrihtdion: Cerro de Montevideo, and near La Colonia, Uruguay. 

95. Opuntia retrorsa Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4:517. 1905. 

( ?) Opuntia platynoda Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 526. 1916. 
Stems prostrate, intricately branched, creeping, rooting at the nodes; joints linear-lanceolate, 
more or less attenuate at each end, flattened; areoles somewhat prominent, each subtended by a 
long, dull purplish blotch; spines i to 3, reflexed, white below, with pinkish tips; flowers yellowish, 

4 to 5 cm. broad ; fruit about 2 cm. long, violet-purple on the outside, light rose on the inside ; seeds 
2 to 2.5 mm. broad, somewhat villous. 




Fig. 134. — Opuntia retrorsa. 

Type locality: In the Territory of the Chaco, Argentina. 
Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

Plate XVIII, figure 2, represents a plant from Argentina which flowered at the New 
York Botanical Garden in 1911. Figure 134 is from a photograph sent by Dr. Spegazzini. 

96. Opuntia utkilio Spegazzani, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 516. 1905. 

Low, creeping plant, rooting at the joints, with elongated branches 5 to 15 dm. long; joints flat, 
elliptic-linear, 15 to 30 cm. long, 5 to 6 cm. broad; spines at first 2 or 3, the upper one longer, later 
more numerous, reflexed; flowers small, 3.5 to 4 cm. broad, yellowish; ovary obovoid, somewhat 
spiny; fruit small, 3 cm. long, fleshy, insipid, reddish violet both within and without; seeds sub- 
orbicular, 4 mm. broad, lanate. 

Type locality: Province of Tucuman, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

Figure 135 is from a photograph sent by Dr. Spegazzini. 
96a. Opuntia discolor sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 218.) 

97. Opuntia anacantha Spegazzini in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 391. 1904. 
Usually decumbent and rooting along the under surface, sometimes ascending and clambering, 

I to 2.5 meters long; joints unarmed, dark green except for purple spots under the areoles, elhptic 
to lanceolate, narrowed toward each end, 1.5 to 4 dm. long, 3.5 to 7 cm. broad; areoles small; flowers 
large, numerous, yellowish orange, 4 cm. long, 5 to 6 cm. in diameter; sepals large, reddish, obtuse, 
emarginate or even 2-lobed; petals 12; style white; stigma-lobes white or rose-colored; fruit 3 cm. 
long, red, the pulp yellowish or white. 

Type locality: In the southern Chaco, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northeastern Argentina. 

Figure 1 36 is from a photograph of a part of the type plant, received from Dr. Spegazzini. 



THE CACTACEAK. 



98. Opuntia grosseiana Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris lo: 391. 1904. 

Described as having joints intermediate between those of Opuntia data and 0. anacantha, and 
resembling these species. 

Type locality: In Paraguay. 

Distribution: Paraguay. 

Introduced from Paraguay by Hermann Grosse ; known to us only from the description. 

Series 4. TUNAE. 
Bushy, ascending, depressed, or erect plants, with rather large and more or less readily 
detached joints, bearing acicular or subulate, often numerous, yellow or white spines. The 
species inhabit the West Indies, Mexico, Guatemala, and northern South America. 




s 


"VS Js^ mf^jSmS^Si^^ 



Fig. 135. — Opuntia utkilio. Fig. 136. — Opuntia anacantha. 

, . , , . Key to Species. 

Joints glabrous. 

Spines slender, acicular. 
Spines white. 
Joints dull. 

Joints dark green, repand; areoles somewhat elevated 99- 0- bella 

Joints light green, not repand ; areoles not elevated. 

Spines several at the areoles; plant ascending 100. 0. triacantha 

Spines 1 to few at the areoles or often wanting; plant erect loi. O. jamaicensis 

Joints shining loio. 0. guatemalensis 

Spines yellow, at least when young; plant bushy branched 102. O. tuna 

Spines stout, subulate. 

Spines white; joints relatively thick, turgid 102a. 0. pennellii 

Spines yellow, at least when j^oung; joints relatively thin. 
Plants low, spreading, 2 dm. high or less. 

Joints repand; spines bright yellow 103. 0. antillana 

Joints not repand; spines pale yellow 103a. O. caracasana 

Plants tall, i to 2 meters high. 

Joints obovate or broadly elliptic 104. 0. wentiana 

Joints narrowly oblong or oblong-obovate 104a. 0. aequatorialis 



OPUNTIA. 



Joints pubescent. 

Areoles surrounded by purplish spots 105. 0. decumbens 

Areoles not surrounded by purplish spots 106. O. depressa 

99. Opuntia bella sp. nov. 

Stems low, 10 to 12 dm. high, forming thickets; joints oblong, repand, 10 to 16 cm. long, dull 
dark green; areoles i to 2 cm. apart, somewhat elevated, small, filled with short brown wool and 
glochids; leaves minute, 1.5 to 2.5 mm. long; spines white, 2 to 6, unequal, acicular, the longer ones 
about 2 cm. long; flowers 5 cm. long, "sulphur-yellow turning to orange-red;" petals 20 to 22 mm. 
long; ovary deeply umbilicate; "fruit small, greenish yellow." 




Opuiiliii bella in the fortground. 



Type locality: Venticas del Dagua, Dagua Valley, western cordillera of Colombia. 
Distribution: Western Colombia. 

The type is based upon plants collected by Mr. Henry Pittier in the State of Cauca, 
Colombia, in 1906, and grown ever since in Washington and New York. The species is 
very common in Cauca, forming with other cacti impenetrable thickets. 

Figure 137 is from a photograph by Mr. Pittier of the type plant, taken near Cauca, 
Colombia, in 1906; figm-e 138 is from a photograph by the same collector, showing flowering 
and fruiting joints; figure 139 represents a single joint. 



THE CACTACEAE. 



100. Opuntia triacantha (Willdenow) Sweet, Hort. Brit. 172. 1826. 
Cactus triacantlws Willdenow, Enum. PI. Suppl. 34. 1813. 

Stems half procumbent or clambering over rocks, sometimes even erect but always low; joints 
turgid, oblong, 4 to 8 cm. long, the terminal and often the second and third ones breaking off 
easily; spines usualh' 3, white but often dn,-ing yeUo^rish, 4 cm. long or less; iiowers, including the 
ovaries, 5 cm. long, brownish j-eUow to cream-colored, tinged with pink ; petals obtuse ; filaments and 
style pale green; fruit 2.5 cm. long, red, spineless. 

Type locality: Not cited; cultivated in the Berlin Garden. 

Distribution: Desecheo Island, Porto Rico; Lesser Antilles, St. Thomas to Guadeloupe. 




Opuntia bella. Xo.66. 



^^"hen published, the origin of this species was uncertain. It has been referred to the 
South American flora, but if our interpretation is correct it is a West Indian plant. It was 
introduced into ctdtivation in 1796. 

This species is ver\^ common on flats or low hills and, so far as our observation goes, 
is never found verj^ far inland in the Lesser Antilles. 

Professor Schumann's description includes two species, one of which belongs here and 
one in the Streptacanthae, perhaps as Mr. Berger thinks to 0. amydaea — and a tall plant, 
3.5 meters high, is now grown in Italy under that name. The Index Kewensis refers 
0. triacantha as a s>Tionym of 0. curassavica, which is erroneous if our interpretation of 
it is correct. 

Plate x^^II, figure 3, represents joints of the plant collected on Antigua by Rose, Fitch, 
and Russell in 1913. Figure 140 is from a photograph taken on St. Christopher, British West 
Indies, by Paul G. RusseU in 1913. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




H. A. Wood del. 



1. Plant. 2, 3. Flower. 



Opu7itia jaynaicensis. 
4. lyongitudinal section of flower. 



5, 6. Stamen. 7. Style. 



OPUNTIA. 



113 



An Opuntia collected by H. Pittier in Costa Rica and now growing in the cactus house 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture has not been identified. It resembles somewhat 
Opuntia triacantha, but is much out of the range of that species and differs from it in some 
important respects. The joints are small, obovate to oblong, rounded at apex, dark green 
with purple blotches below the areoles, with low, broad tubercles ; margin of the areole 
bearing short white hairs ; spines usually wanting, but cultivated specimens bear a single 
short spine 6 to 7 mm. long from an areole. 




Fig. 140. — Opuntia triacantha. 

101. Opuntia jamaicensis Britton and Harris, Torreya 11: 130. 191 1. 

Erect, I meter high, with a short subcylindric trunk; branches several, ascending, joints dull 
green, obovate, much narrowed at base, flat, rather thin, readily detached, 7 to 13 cm. long, 5 to 
7.5 cm. wide; areoles about 2.5 cm. apart; spines i to 5, usually only 2, acicular, unequal, white, 
2.5 cm. long or less; flowers 4 cm. broad; petals 16 to 18; filaments greenish white; style white; 
stigma-lobes 7 or 8, creamy white; fruit pyriform, red, 3.5 to 4 cm. long; seeds 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: St. Catherine, Jamaica. 

Distribution: Plain south of Spanish Town, Jamaica. 

The following figures are from paintings by Miss H. A. Wood: 

Plate XVIII, figure 4, shows a fruiting joint; figure 5 is of a section of the fruit; plate xix, 
figure I, shows the type plant about one-third natural size; figures 2, 3, and 4 are of the 
flowers; figures 5 and 6 show the stamens; figure 7 represents the style. 

101a. Opuntia guatemalensis sp. nov, (See Appendix, p. 218.) 

102. Opuntia tuna (Linnaeus) Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 3. 1769. 

Cactus tuna Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 468. 1753. 
Cactus humilis Haworth, Misc. Nat. 187. 1803. 
Opuntia humilis Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 189. 181 2. 
Opuntia polyantha Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 190. 1812. 
Cactus polyanthos Sims, Curtis's Bot. Mag. 53: pi. 2691. 1826. 
Opuntia multiflora Nicholson, Diet. Gard. 2: 503. 1885. 

Plants 6 to 9 dm. high or less; joints usually small, but sometimes up to 16 cm. long, obovate 
to oblong, light green, except above the areoles and there brownish; leaves minute, fugacious; areoles 
arge; spines 2 to 6, usually only 3 to 5, slightly spreading, light yellow; glochids yellow; flowers about 
5 cm. broad; sepals orbicular, yellowish, with a purple stripe along the center; petals light yellow. 



114 



THE cactaceae;. 



slightly tinged with red, oblong, rounded at apex ; filaments short, greenish below ; style and stigma- 
lobes cream-colored or yellowish; ovary bright green, narrowed downward; fruit red, obovoid, about 
3 cm. long; seeds 3 to 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Jamaica. 

Distribution: Southern side of Jamaica, West Indies. 

Opuntia tuna is one of the old Cactus species. It was described by Linnaeus as Cactus 
tuna and by Philip Miller as Opuntia tuna. In the early part of the Nineteenth Century it was 
renamed Opuntia humilis and also 0. polyantha, and has long passed under the latter name. 
Opuntia tuna, however, is one of the commonest Opuntia names in our botanical literature. 
This is due partly to the fact that the name was early transferred to Opuntia dillenii, one 
of the most common species, both wild and cultivated, and partly because tuna is the 




Fig. 141. — Opuntia tuna. 



KiG. 142. — Opuntia tuna. X0.5. 



common Mexican name for opuntias, and many species have therefore been identified as 
0. tuna. So far as our studies indicate, this species is confined to the Jamaica lowlands. 

Opuntia multiflora is referred here, although we do not know the plant. It is figured 
by Nicholson (Diet. Card. Nicholson 2: f. 754); this figure is republished by Riimpler 
(Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 130), and by Knippel (Kakteen, pi. 28), both calhng it 
Opuntia polyantha; while W. Watson (Cact. Cult. f. 79) uses the same illustration, caUing 
it 0. dillenii. 

Opuntia coccinea (Pfeiffer, Knum. Cact. 161. 1837) is given as a synonym of 0. tuna, 
but it was never pubUshed; it is doubtless different from 0. coccinea Rafinesque (Med. Fl. 
U. S. 2: 247. 1830), also unpublished. The following names seem to belong here, but were 
not formally pubHshed: Opuntia flexibilis (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 161. 1837); 0. tuna 
humilis Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845); 0. tuna laevior Salm-Dyck (Hort. 
Dyck. 186. 1834) ; and 0. tuna orbiculata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 47. 1845). 

Illustrations: Loudon, Encycl. PI. ed. 3. f. 6878, as Cactus tuna; Wiener lUustr. 
Gartenz. 10: f. 114, as Opuntia humilis; Bliihende Kakteen 2: pl. 75; Forster, Handb. Cact. 



OPUNTIA. 



115 



ed. 2. f. i3o;Knippel, Kakteen 2:pl. 28, these three as Opuntia polyantha; Curtis' sBot. Mag. 
53: pi. 2691, as Cactus polyanthos; De Candolle, PI. Succ. Hist. 2: pi. 1381"^], as Cactus opuntia 
polyanthos; Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antil. pi. 513, as Cactus opuntia. 

Figure 141 is from a photograph of a plant collected by William Harris, near Kingston, 
Jamaica, in 1913; figure 142 represents a joint of the same plant. 

102a. Opuntia pennellii sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 219.) 

103. Opuntia antillana Britton and Rose, Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Mem. i : 74. 1918. 

Growing in dense clumps, often i meter broad, more or less prostrate; joints usually obovate, 
7 to 20 cm. long, narrow and nearly terete at base; terminal joints easily breaking off; leaves conic- 
subulate, about 2 mm. long; areoles large, 2 to 3 cm. apart, containing soft brown wool; spines stout, 
terete, 3 to 6 at an areole, unequal, i to 6 cm. long, yellow but becoming gray to nearly white in age; 
glochids numerous, yellow; flowers 5 to 7 cm. long; petals broad, obtuse, yellow, turning reddish in 
age; fruit reddish purple, 4 cm. long. 




Fig. 143. — Opuntia antillana forming thickets. 

Type locality: Near Basse Terre, vSt. Christopher, Rose, Fitch and Russell, No. 3230, 
February 2, 1913. 

Distribution: St. Christopher, St. Croix, Tortola, 
St. Thomas, Porto Rico, and Hispaniola. 

This species is one of the most widely distributed 
in the West Indies and, on some of the islands on which 
it occurs, generally the most abundant. This is partly 
due to the fact that the terminal joints are easily de- 
tached and may thus be widely scattered. 

The question has frequently been raised in our 
minds whether this species may not be of hybrid origin. 

It has some resemblance to 0. dillenii, but has much '^^' -^ l^^-v'^^ 

smaller joints and these very fragile. What the other 
parent would be is not so clear. The fragile joints 
would suggest 0. triacantha or 0. repens, but otherwise 
there is no close alliance with either of these. Owing 
to the fact that it is more common than any of these 
species, and is often not associated with any of them, we believe it to be distinct, In the 




44. — Opuntia antillana. X0.33. 



Il6 THE CACTACEAE. 

desert of Azua, Santo Domingo, this is the dominant cactus, forming dense, impenetrable 
thickets on the low coastal plain. In the wild state the Azua plant has the joints often 
bronzed or purple. On Tortola and St. Thomas it occurs with 0. dillenii and 0. re pens, 
and is there called bull suckers. 

Figure 143 is from a photograph taken by Paul G. Russell in 19 13 near Azua, Santo 
Domingo; figure 144 represents joints of the type plant. 

103(2. Opuntia caracasana Salm-Dyck. (See Appendix, p. 219.) 

104. Opuntia wentiana sp. nov. 

Opuntia tunoides Britton and Shafer in Boldingh, Fl. Ned. W. Ind. Eiland 300. 1913. Not 0. tunoidea 
Gibbes. 

Plant erect, much branched, i to 2 meters high' joints obovate to elliptic, rather thin, up to 
25 cm. long, usually rounded at apex, pale green, slightly glaucous; terminal joints somewhat fragile; 
leaves small and subulate ; spines on young joints usually 3, afterwards 4 or 5, when young pale yellow 
but soon white; flowers small, 6 to 7 cm. long including the ovary; petals pale yellow, 3 cm. long, 
obovate, acute; style cream-colored; fruit small, red. 

Type locality: Curagao. 

Distribution: Venezuela, and the neighboring islands, Margarita, Bonaire, Curasao, 
and Aruba. 

Dr. Rose found this plant repeatedly in Venezuela and writes of it as follows : Very 
common not only on the savannas along the coast but also on the neighboring hills along 
with Lemaireocereus, Cephalocereus, and other cactus genera; its more or less fragile joints, 
yellowish spines, bushy stature, and structure of flowers ally it with the Tunae. 

This species has been confused with the Jamaican Opuntia tuna (Linnaeus) Miller, 
which it resembles. Named in honor of Professor F. A. F. C. Went, distinguished 
Dutch botanist. 

104a. Opuntia aequatorialis sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 219.) 

105. Opuntia decumbens Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 361. 1834. 

Opuntia pubenila Pfeiffer, Eniim. Cact. 156. 1837. 

Stems low, often creeping or trailing, rarely over 4 dm. high; joints i to 2 dm. long, oval to 
oblong, covered with a short, soft pubescence; areole usually small, surrounded by a purple blotch, 
bearing yellow glochids and wool, the wool cobweb-like on very 3'oung joints; spines often wanting, 
usually solitary but sometimes numerous, slender or rather stout, 4 cm. long and yellow; flowers 
numerous, small, including the ovary about 4 cm. long; petals dark yellow; fruit deep purple, very 
juicy; seeds about 4 nun. broad. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Guatemala and Mexico as far north as Mazatlan and Tamaulipas. 

Opuntia repens Kanvinsky (Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 361. 1834) and 0. irrorata Mar- 
tins are usually given as synonyms of this species, but as they were printed without 
descriptions, they should hardly be referred to sjmonymy. 

The species has long been in cultivation, a colored illustration having been published 
in Curtis's Botanical Magazine in 1841. It grows luxuriously in greenhouses, flowering 
profusely in the spring. 

We have referred here Opuntia pubenila Pfeiffer, which seems to be different from the 
plant now grown in collections under that name. Pfeiffer's original description, based upon 
sterile plants alone, may be paraphrased as follows: Joints thick, obovate, 7.5 to 12.5 cm. 
long by 5 to 7.5 cm. broad, puberulent, green; areoles somewhat remote, each surrounded by 
a red spot, bearing in the upper part a bunch of short glochids and below 2 to 4 slender, 
white, divergent spines, the longer ones 8 mm. long; leaves 4 mm. long, acute, red at apex. 

Labouret's description of 1853, of O. pubenila Pfeiffer, is very similar to Pfeiffer's, 
except that he states that the spines are 9 cm. long. Both these descriptions answer very 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




\ * 




vV 





M. E. Eaton del. 



1, 2. Flowering and fruiting joints of Opuntia deaimbens. 3. Probable hybrid, with fruit and flower. 

(All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



117 



well to the plant which we know as Opuntia decumbens, originally described from plants 
growing in the Botanical Garden in Vienna. 

Opuntia decumbens irrorata Forbes (Hort. Tour. Germ. 158. 1837) is doubtless the 
same as 0. irrorata Martins (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 154. 1837). These and 0. decumbens 
longispina Salm-Dyck (Haage and Schmidt, Haupt-Verzeichnis 1912: 230. 1912) pre- 
sumably belong here. 

Opuntia parvispina Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 238. 1850), described from 
garden specimens of unknown origin, without flowers, has never been definitely placed. 
Schumann Usts it among his unknown species, but attributes it to Mexico. Salm-Dyck 
states that it resembles 0. puberula, but that it is glabrous. 

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 68: pi. 3914; Bliihende Kakteen 3: pi. 132. 




Fig. 145. — Opuntia decumbens. 

Plate XX, figure i, represents a flowering joint of a plant collected by Dr. MacDougal 
and Dr. Rose at Tehuacan, Mexico, in 1906; figure 2 represents a fruiting joint of a plant 
collected by William R. Maxon at El Rancho, Guatemala, in 1905. Figure 145 is from a 
photograph of the plant taken at Tomellin, Mexico, by Dr. MacDougal in 1906. 

106. Opuntia depressa Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 517. 1908. 

Low, creeping or spreading plant, sometimes 60 cm. high and forming a patch 3 to 4 meters in 
diameter; joints of a dark glossy yellowish green color, pubescent, when young, obovate, 20 cm. long, 
usually with i long, somewhat curved spine at each areole, sometimes with i to 3 shorter ones, all 
yellowish; old joints oblong, 30 cm. long, bearing 4 to 6 spines at each areole; flowers red; fruit small, 
globular, with large clusters of brown glochids, when immature with a broad, deep umbilicus. 

Type locality: Near Tehuacan, Mexico. 
Distribution: Southern Mexico. 

This plant is very common about Tehuacan, growing with species of Agave, Beau- 
carnea, and Echinocactus. 

Figure 146 is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal of the type plant. 



iiS 



THE CACTACEAE. 




Fig. 146. — Opuntia depressa, in the foreground. 



Series 5. BASILARES. 

We recognize eiglit species as forming this series. Thej^ are low or bushj^, much branched 
plants, with flat, thin, broad joints, the areoles small, usuall}" numerous and close together. 

Key to Species. 

Joints papillose, not pubescent. 

Fruit juicy, red 107. 0. luhrica 

Fruit dr\- or nearly dr^- loS. O. treleasei 

Joints mostly manifestly pubescent. 
Spines none or few. 

FloTvers red 109. 0. basHaris 

Flowers yellow to orange. 
Joints bright green. 

GlocMds long 1 10. O. microdasys 

Glochids short iii. 0. macrocalyx 

Joints grayish green 112. 0. rufida 

Spines ver>' numerous. 

Areoles close together 113. 0. pycnantha 

Areoles distant 114. O. ccnnonduensis 

107. Opuntia lubrica Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21 : 169. 1910. 

"A low ascending, spreading species vers' similar in habit to 0. microdasys, frequently 4?^ dm. 
high and when weU developed 10 dm. or more in diameter; joints sub-circular to obovate, about 15 
by 20 cm., or in case of last joints of pre-\-ious year about 12 by 15 cm., bright, glossy, leaf -green, very 
e^■idently papillate but scarcely pubescent under a lens; leaves subulate, cuspidate-pointed, 6 to 9 
mm . in length; areoles 15 to 22 mm. apart, 4 to 6 mm. in diameter, sub-circular, prominent; spicules 
prominent, 4 to 5 mm. in length, erect, bushy, in crescentic tufts in upper portion of areoles, becom- 
ing much more numerous in age, and at 2 to 4 years completely filling the areole, and, like 0. rufida 
and some other species, becoming very abtmdant and conspicuous by proliferation of areolar tissue 
into short raised or columnar structures ; spines exceedingly variable, sometimes nearly absent, again 
quite abundant and irregularly distributed, none to many, mostly i to 3, becoming more numerous 
■^vith age and in scattering areoles to as high as 1 6, mostly about 1 2 mm. long, but sometimes 2 J/2 cm., 
yeUowish, translucent, bonelike, sometimes darker at base; fruits decidedl)- acid, light red without 
with 3-ellowish green rind and red pulp; seed small, thin shelled, about 3 mm. in diameter." 

Type locality: Xear Alonzo, ^Mexico. 
Distrihiition: Known onh- from the t}-pe locality. 



OPUNTIA. 



119 



Our examination of a painting of this plant in the collection made by Dr. Griffiths 
showed it to have great similarity to Opuntia nifida. 

Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 23. 

Figure 147 is copied from the illustration above 
cited. 

108. Opuntia treleasei Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 
434. 1896. 

Opuntia basilaris treleasei Tourney, Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 

3:1147. 1901. 
Opuntia treleasei kernii GriiBths and Hare, N. Mex. Agr. 

Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: Si. 1906. 

Low, sometimes 3 dm. high, spreading at base, some of 
the branches of 2 to 4 erect joints; joints obovate, 15 cm. long 
or more, fleshy, pale bluish green, glabrous, terete at base; 
areoles numerous, filled with dirty yellow glochids, usually 
without spines, sometimes quite spiny; flowers rose-colored; 
fruit dry, subglobose, with large areoles filled with glochids 
and sometimes bearing spines; seeds large, turgid, 7 cm. in 
diameter. 

Type locality: Caliente, in the Tehachapi Moun- 
tains, California. 

Distribution: Southern California. 

Figure 148 is from a photograph of the plant grow- 
ing on the mesa southeast of Bakersfield, California, 
taken by Dr. MacDougal in 19 13. 

109. Opuntia basilaris Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 3: 298. 1S56. 

Opuntia basilaris ramosaParish, Bull.Torr. Club 19:92. 1S92. 
Opuntia intricata GriiBths, Proc. Biol. See. Washington 29: 
10. 1916. 




Fig. 147. — Opuntia lubrica. 




Fig. 148. — Opuntia treleasei, Southern California. 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Stems low, gro-n-ing in clumps, either prostrate or erect, sometimes 12 dm. high; joints broadly 
obovate, 8 to 20 cm. long, slightly pubescent or glabrous, usually highly colored; leaves 2 to 5 mm. 
long, subulate ; areoles numerous, filled with white to brown wool and brownish glochids ; spines none 
or rarely a few at upper areoles ; flowers large, 6 to 8 cm. long, deep purple or sometimes white ; 
filaments purple; fruit dry, globular to obovoid; seeds large, thick, 6 to 10 mm. broad. 

Type locality: From Cactus Pass down the valley of the Bill Williams River. 

D-istribution: Northern Sonora, western Arizona, southern California, Nevada, and 
southern Utah. 

This is a variable species as to habit, size, pubescence, and color of flowers. The 
variety ramosa described by Mr. Parish is more erect than the ordinary form and glabrous. 
It has large, handsome flowers, and is a splendid plant for outdoor cultivation where the 
chmate is suitable, but does not Ave long in greenhouses. It is called beaver-tail in 
Arizona. 

Opuntia humistrata Grifiiths (BuU. Torr. Club 43: 83. 1916) we refer here from the 
description; it is said to differ from 0. hasilaris "by its much smaller as well as different 
shaped joints"; it was found in the San 
Bernardino JNIountains, northern California, 
within the range of 0. hasilaris. 

The following varieties are listed, but 
have not been described: albi flora, coertdea, 
nana, and pfersdorffii. 

Opuntia hasilaris cordata is a garden plant 
briefly described by F. Forbes (Monatsschr. 
Kakteenk. 16: 46. 1906), of which we have 
seen no specimens. 

Illustrations: Cact. Joum. i: 167; Diet. 
Card. Nicholson 2: f. 750; Forster, Handb. 
Cact. ed. 2. f. 129; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 13, f. i 
to 5 ; pi. 23, f. 14; Riimpler, Sukkulenten f. 123 ; 
W.Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 76; Cact. Journ. i: 
pi. October, as Opuntia hasilaris var. cristata 
and var. nevadensis; Alverson, Cact. Cat. 
frontispiece, as Opuntia hasilaris albiflora. ^"'- '49.-Opuntia basiiaris. 

Figure 149 is copied from Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 13, f. i, an illustration cited above. 

Opuntia brachyclada Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 25. 1914) is an anom- 
alous plant with some of the joints terete and others somewhat flattened. It has been 
suggested that it is a hybrid between a cyHndric and a flat-jointed species; but, so far as 
we know, natural hybrids do not occur between species of these subgenera. It is more 
likely to be an anomalous form of Opuntia hasilaris, a form of which is known in the same 
mountains where it was found. 

110. Opuntia microdasys (Lehmann) Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 154. 1S37. 

Cactus microdasys Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hamburg. 16. 1S27. 

Opuntia puhinata De CandoUe, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 119. 1828. 

Opuntia microdasys minor Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 186- 1834. 

Opuntia microdasys laevior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Djxk. 1849. 241. 1850. 

Often low and creeping but sometimes nearly erect and 4 to 6 dm. high; joints oblong to orbicu- 
lar, 10 to 15 cm. long, soft-velvety, usually pale green, spineless; areoles conspicuous, closely set, 
filled with numerous yellow or brown glochids; flowers usually produced in abundance, 4 to 5 cm. 
long, pure yellow or tinged with red; sepals acuminate; petals broad, retuse; filaments and style 
white; stigma-lobes 6 to 8, green; fruit dark red, juicy, nearly globular; seeds small, 2 to 3 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In Mexico, but originafly stated by Lehmann as coming from Brazil. 
Distribution: Northern Mexico. 




OPUNTIA. 



In spite of its troublesome glochids, which easily become detached, this species has 
long been a greenhouse favorite. No cactus collection, however small, lacks one or more 
pots of this species, which rarely grows large in cultivation. 

Opuntia niicrodasys is usually credited to Lehmann, but he apparently pubHshed it 
as Cactus niicrodasys, and this is the way it is cited in the Index Kewensis. Lehmann 
soon repubUshed this species (Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. i6: 317) where it appears as Cactus 
(Opuntia) microdasys. The first use of the name of Opuntia microdasys was by Salm-Dyck 
(Hort. Dyck. 186) in 1834, but was without description or synonymy. Pfeiffer in 1837, 
however, repubhshes Lehmann's description 
under Opuntia and is therefore cited as the 
author of the binomial. Here it is first cred- 
ited to Mexico, although Lehmann stated 
definitely that it comes from Brazil; this he 
does also with regard to Opuntia tunicata and 
Cactus bradypus, both Mexican species, while 





Fig. 150. — Opuntia microdasys. 



Fig. 151. — Opuntia, probable hybrid. 



Cactus linkii and C. ottonis, both credited to Mexico, are known only from South America. 
If this Opuntia really came originally from Brazil, it might very well be the same as 

Opuntia inamoena. 

As shown above (p. 116), Opuntia puberula is referred to 0. decumbens. The 0. puberula 
of our gardens, however, is quite a different plant, and in all probability is of hybrid origin. 
It is almost identical with a hybrid between 0. microdasys and 0. cantabrigiensis which Dr. 
Rose collected in Hidalgo, Mexico, in 1905, and which is now grown in the collection in 
Washington and in the New York Botanical Garden. 

Illustrations: Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 25: pi. opp. p. 138; p. 138; Gard. Chron. III. 30: f. 76; 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 28, in part; 20: pi. 12, in part; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 
1908: pi. 10, f. 4; U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 262: pi. 5, f. 2. 

Plate XXII, figure i, represents joints of the plant grown in a garden at Riverside, Cal- 
ifornia, received by Dr. Rose in 1905. Figure 150 is from a photograph taken by Professor 
F. E. Lloyd in Zacatecas, Mexico, in 1908. 



the; cactaceae. 



Plate XX, figure 3, shows a flowering joint of a plant sent to the New York Botanical 
Garden by M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France, in 1901, as Opuntia puherula. Figure 151 
is from a photograph of the plant sent from La Mortola, Italy, to the same institution 
in 1912, as Opuntia puherula. 
111. Opuntia macrocalyx Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 268. 1908. 

"A profusely, divaricately branched, ascending or erect, spreading plant, 9 to 10 dm. high and 
about the same in diameter; joints long-obovate, variable but commonly 9 by 22 cm. for last year's 
o-rowth, gray green, pubescent, velvety to the touch; areoles subcircular, usually 2 to 3 mm. in 
diameter, very close to i cm. apart, slightly sunken ; wool tawny, prominent, as long as spicules and 
occupying lower half of areole; spicules reddish brown, about i mm. long, occupying upper half of 
areole, easily separable and causing fully as much annoyance in handling as those of 0. microdasys, 
in age often appearing dirty yellow in situ but distinctly reddish brown when removed; strictly 
spineless; flowers yellow, green outwardly, the leaves on ovary very long subulate and changing 
gradually into the sepals which are very long subulate, delicately pointed, loosely arranged or often 
half recurved at apex, giving to the bud a rather ragged appearance; fruit red but both pulp and 
rind greenish, long obovate to cylindrical, about 2 by 7 cm., with but few rather small seeds, about 
3 mm. in diameter." 




Fig. 152. — Opuntia macrocalyx. X0.75. Fig. 153. — Opuntia rufida. 

Type locality: In cultivation at Riverside, CaUfornia. 

Distribution: Known only from cultivated plants ; perhaps also from Coahuila, Mexico. 
Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 28, in part. 

Figure 152 is drawn from a joint of the plant collected by Fdward Palmer at Saltillo, 
Mexico, in 1904. 

112. Opuntia rufida Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 298. 1856. 

Opuntia microdasys rufida Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 706. 1898. 

More or less erect, 2 to 15 dm. high, with a somewhat definite trunk; joints nearly orbicular, 
6 to 25 cm. in diameter, thickish, velvety-tomentose, dull grayish green ; leaves subulate, caducous, 
4 to 6 cm. long, green with reddish tips; areoles large, filled with numerous brown glochids; flowers 



OPUNTIA. 



123 



yellow to orange, 4 to 5 cm. long including the ovary; petals obovate, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; filaments 
greenish white, short, i cm. long; style 1.5 cm. long, thick, bulbous just above the base; stigma- 
lobes 5, deep green; ovary globular, 1.5 cm. in diameter, umbilicate, with large areoles; fruit, accord- 
ing to field observation of Dr. Griffiths, bright red. 

Type locality: About Presidio del Norte, on the Rio Grande. 

Distribution: Texas and northern Mexico. 

This species seems much less common than 0. microdasys, with which it is often con- 
fused. The joints are gray or bluish green, and the glochids are brown. It does fairly well 
under greenhouse conditions. 

Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 3; Carnegie Inst. Wash. 269: pi. 11, f. 94. 

Figure 153 is from a photograph of a plant brought from Mexico for the New York 
Botanical Garden in 1896 by Mrs. N. L. Britton. 




Fig. 154. — Opuntia pycnantha. Along the coastal plain of Lower California. 



113. Opuntia pycnantha Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 423. 1896. 

Opuntia pycnantha margaritana Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 424. 1896. 

Often low and creeping, but sometimes forming a clump 2 dm. high ; joints oblong to orbicular, 
often 20 cm. long, puberulent or papillose, usually nearly hidden by the thick mass of spines; areoles 
large and closely set, the upper part filled with yellow or brown glochids, and the lower part with 8 
to 12 yellow or brown reflexed spines 2 to 3 cm. long; leaves and flowers unknown; fruit 4 cm. long, 
very spiny; seeds 2 cm. broad, very thick. 

Type locality: Magdalena Bay, Lower CaHfornia. 

Distribution: Southern Lower California. 

Coulter's variety margaritana is known only from Margarita Island, while the species 
proper is known only from an adjacent island, Magdalena. They differ only in the color 
of their spines and glochids. Both have been in cultivation in New York City and Wash- 
ington, but are not weU suited for indoor plants. 

This species grows in one of the driest parts of Lower California on islands where there 
is no surface water and where there is no rain sometimes for five or six years. 

Figure 154 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Rose near Santa Maria Bay, Magda- 
lena Island, Lower California, in 191 1. 



124 



The; cactaceae. 



114. Opuntia comonduensis (Coulter) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 519. 1908. 

Opuntia angustala comonduensis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 425. 1896. 

Low, spreading plants, sometimes 2 dm. high and forming broad clumps; joints obovate to 
orbicular, 12 to 15 cm. long, softly pubescent; areoles large, filled with brown wool and yellow glo- 
chids; lower areoles spineless, the upper ones bearing i or 2, rarely 3, or on old stems as many as 10, 
slender spines, 3 to 5 cm. long or longer, yellow; flowers, including ovary, 6 cm. long, yellow; fruit 
purple, 4 cm. long, spineless; seeds 4 to 4.5 mm. broad, thick. 

Type locality: Comondu, Lower California. 
Distribution: Southern Lower California. 

As was pointed out by Mrs. K. Brandegee, this plant is not closely related to Opuntia 
angustata. 




Fig. 155. — Opuntia comonduensis. 

This species has long been known only from herbarium specimens collected by Mr. 
Brandegee in 1889. In 191 1 Dr. Rose collected considerable material both near the town 
of San Jose and on Carmen Island which has since been in cultivation in the New York 
Botanical Garden and in Washington. The above description is based largely on this 
collection. 

This species sometimes grows with 0. tapona, in fact being confused in the original 
material; except for its pubescent joints, they are not readily distinguished. 

Figure 155 is from a photograph by Mr. T. W. Smillie of a plant collected by Mr. E. W. 
Nelson and Mr. K- A. Goldman in Lower California in 1906. 



OPUNTIA. 



125 




Fig. 156. — Opuntia inamoena. A single plant. Photograph by P. H. Dorsett. 



Series 6. INAMOENAE. 



depressed, usually spineless, light-green 



A single, prostrate 
Brazilian species. 

115. Opuntia inamoena Schumann in Martins, Fl. Bras. 4-: 306. 
1890. 

Opuntia quipa Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 1898. 

Usually low, often prostrate, forming clumps 2 to 10 dm. broad, 
or sometimes in sheltered situations 6 cm. high and forming dense, 
extensive thickets; roots fibrous; joints bluish green, when young 
bright green, orbicular to oblong, 8 to 16 cm. long, usually quite 
thick, sometimes 3 cm. thick, usually quite spineless ; leaves minute, 
2 mm. long; areoles small, when young filled with numerous yellow- 
ish-brown glochids; glochids unequal, spreading, easily becoming de- 
tached; flowers small, brick-red; petals spreading; filaments orange ; 
style yellow; stigma-lobes pale green; fruit globular, yellowish, 2.5 
to 3 cm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Schumann cites Rio de Janeiro in original 
description. 

Distribution: Pernambuco, Bahia, and MinasGeraes, Brazil. 

This plant is known as quipa in Bahia, Brazil. 

This species is very common in all the dry part of Bahia and, although abundant and 
mostly spineless, is avoided by all kinds of grazing animals, even when the country is devoid 
of other suitable forage. It has been suggested that the plant may be bitter, or that the 
glochids are troublesome; the glochids, however, are usually wanting on old joints. 

The plant rarely develops acicular spines up to 3 cm. long on some joints, as shown 
by specimens collected by Dr. Rose and Mr. Russell near Machado Portello, Brazil. 

Figure 156 is from a photograph taken by Mr. P. H. Dorsett near Joazeiro, Brazil, in 
1914; figure 157 is from a plant collected by Dr. Rose near Machado Portello, Bahia, 
Brazil, in 19 15. 




157. — Opuntia inamoena. 
X0.66. 



126 



the; cactaceae;. 



Series 7. TORTISPINAE. 
Prostrate or spreading plants rarely erect, with mostly rather small, persistent, scarcely tuber- 
culate, orbicular or oval joints, and large flowers; natives of the eastern, central, and southern 
United States. 

Plate 21 represents a group of hardy cacti, chiefly species of this series, at the New 
York Botanical Garden. 

Key to Species. 

Spines none or only i or 2 at an areole. 

Joints bluish green; at least when young; roots tuber-hke. 
Fruit clavate; joints thin. 

Fruit about 4.5 cm. long 116. 

Fruit 5 to 7 cm. long ii6a. 

Fruit obovoid; joints turgid 117. 

Joints green ; roots not tuberous. 
Flowers 8 cm. broad or less. 

Joints orbicular or little longer than wide 118. 

Joints oblong, much longer than wide 119. 

Flowers 10 to 12 cm. broad 120. 

Spines mostly 2 or more at an areole. 
Ovary obconic, 2 to 4 cm. long. 
Roots tuberous. 

Joints repand; plant suberect 121. 

Joints scarcely lepand; plants nearly prostrate 122. 

Roots not tuberous. 

Flowers and fruit small 1 23. 

Flowers and fruit large. 

Spines white to light brown, slender. 

Seeds acute-margined 124. 

Seeds obtuse-margined. 

Fruit large, 4 to 5 cm. long; spines light colored. ... 125. 

Fruit small, 2 to 3 cm. long; spines brown 126. 

Spines dark brown, stout 127. 

Ovary narrowly subcylindric, 5 to 6 cm. long 127a. 



O. allairei 

O. lata 

0. pollardii 



O. opuniia 
O. macrarthra 
O. grandiflora 



O. austrina 
0. macrorhiza 



0. plumbea 



0. tortispina 

0. stenochila 
O. delicata 
O. fuscoatra 
0. macateei 




116. Opuntia allairei Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 83. 1909. 

A low, spreading, tuberous-rooted, prostrate 
plant, with some of the joints ascending; joints 
bluish green, obovate, usually 10 to 15 cm. long, 
originally described as even longer, with or without 
spines; spines, if present, i to 3, yellowish brown, 
2.5 cm. long or less, slender but a little flattened; 
glochids numerous, especially abundant at very old 
areoles, yellow; leaves 6 to 8 mm. long; flowers 
6 to 7 cm. broad, yellow with a red center; fruit 4 to 
5 cm. long, dark red. 

Type locality: Mouth of Trinity River, 
Texas. 

Distribution: Southern Texas and western 
Louisiana. 

This species is perhaps nearest 0. macror- 
hiza, but differs in the usual absence of spines 
and in differently colored joints. 

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 
2, f. 2; pi. 5; pi. 12, in part. 

Figure 158 is copied from the second illus- 
tration above cited. 

116a. Opuntia lata Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 

20:26. 1919. (See Appendix, p. 220.) Fig. 159— Opuntia pollardii. Xo.4- 

117. Opuntia pollardii Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 523. 1908. 

Prostrate, tuberiferous, related to Opuniia opuntia; young joints bluish green, glaucous, 5 to 16 
cm. long, I to 2 cm. thick; areoles '.5 to 3 cm. apart, bearing numerous yellow glochids 2 to 3 cm. 




BRITTON AND ROSE 




OPUNTIA. 127 

long, those toward the top of the joint each with a single stout, stiff, pungent spine 2.5 to 4 cm. 
long; fruit short-obovoid, 2.5 cm. long, 1.5 cm. thick, with a few areoles bearing tufts of brownish 
wool but no spines and but few glochids; flowers yellow, 6 to 8 cm. broad; sepals deltoid to rhom- 
bic; fruit 2.5 to 4 cm. long; seeds 4 to 6 mm. wide, much thicker than those of Opuniia opuntia. 

Type locality: Biloxi, Harrison County, Mississippi. 

Distribution: Coastal plain, Church Island, North Carolina, to northern Florida, Ala- 
bama, and Mississippi. 

Figure 159 is from a photograph of fruiting joints collected by A. H. Howell on 
Petit Bois Island, Alabama. 

118. Opuntia opuntia (Linnaeus) Karsten, Deutsch. Fl. 888. 1882. 

Cactus opuntia Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 468. 1753. 

Cactus compressus Salisbury, Prodr. 348. 1796. 

Cactus opuntia nana De CandoUe, PI. Succ. Hist. 2: pi. 138. [A]. 1799. 

Cactus humifusus Rafinesque, Ann. Nat. 15. 1820. 

Opuntia vulgaris major Salm-Dyck, Observ. Bot. 3: 9. 1822. 

Opuntia vulgaris media* Salm-Dyck, Observ. Bot. 3: 9. 1822. 

Opuntia humifusa Rafinesque, Med. Fl. U. S. 2: 247. 1830. 

Opuntia mesacantha Rafinesque, Bull. Bot. Seringe 216. 1830. 

Opuntia caespitosa Rafinesque, Bull. Bot. Seringe 216. 1830. 

Opuntia intermedia Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 364. 1834. 

Opuntia nana Visiani, Fl. Dalmatica 3: 143. 1852. 

Opuntia rafinesquei] Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856. 

Opuntia rafinesquei microsperma Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856. 

Opuntia rafinesquei minor Engelmann and Bigelow, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 55. 1856. 

Opuntia vulgaris rafinesquei Gray, Man. Bot. ed. 2. 136. 1856. 

Opuntia rafinesquei arkansana Riimpler in Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 922. 1885. 

Opuntia mesacantha microsperma Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 429. 1896. 

Opuntia mesacantha parva Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 429. 1896. 

Opuntia vulgaris nana Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 715. 1898. 

Opuntia humifusa microsperma Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. ed. 2. 8. 1900. 

Opuntia humifusa parva Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. ed. 2. 8. 1900. 

Low, spreading plants, sometimes ascending, with fibrous roots; joints orbicular to oblong, 
3 to 13 cm. long, rarely longer, thick, dark green; areoles usually far apart; leaves subulate, appressed 
or spreading, 4 to 8 mm. long, early deciduous ; spines often wanting, when present usually one from 
an areole, rarely two, 5 cm. long or less, brownish or sometimes nearly white, but on seedlings 5 to 
1 2 ; glochids numerous, yellow to dark brown ; flowers usually bright yellow, sometimes with reddish 
centers, 5 to 8.5 cm. broad; petals 8 to 10, widely spreading; filaments yellow; stigma-lobes white; 
fruit obovoid to oblong, red, juicy, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, edible; seeds 4 to 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In Virginia. 

Distribution: Sandy and rocky places from Massachusetts to Virginia, the mountains 
of Georgia and central Alabama extending north into southern Ontario, Canada (Point 
Pelee), west in isolated colonies to northern IlUnois, eastern Missouri and Tennessee, and 
long established in the mountains of northern Italy and Switzerland. 

Linnaeus undoubtedly had two species in his Cactus opuntia, one being the low Virginia 
plant commonly known as 0. vulgaris, and the other a tall, branching plant figured by 
Bauhin (p. 154). Upon Bauhin's illustration Miller based his Opuntia vulgaris, a name 
which was afterwards transferred to the low, procumbent plant of the eastern United States. 
For this reason Burkill (Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 288. 191 1) would displace the name 0. 
vulgaris and take up the name 0. nana. We are quite in agreement with him as to the 
0. vulgaris Miller, but we retain for the low plant the specific name opuntia Linnaeus. The 
tall species is 0. monacantha, which we now call 0. vulgaris, as suggested by Burkill. 

It is to be noted that the southern Atlantic coast specimens of Opuntia opuntia have 
yellow or greenish-yellow glochids, while those in its northern and western range have 
brown glochids. Its southwestern limit is uncertain. It probably does not extend to 
Texas, although two varieties have been reported from there ; these we are disposed to treat 
as species under the names Opuntia macrorhiza and 0. grandiflora. It is reported from 

*Opuntia vulgaris minor (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 476. 1853) was doubtless intended for this name. 
fSometimes spelled rafinesquiana. 



128 



THE CACTACEAE. 



eastern Kansas, but the plants found there are not like those found in Illinois and Indiana, 
having more spines and a glaucous bloom, and are tuberous-rooted, and these are referred 
by us to 0. macrorhiza. The published western varieties of 0. hitmifusa are specifically 
distinct; we have referred them to 0. tortispina. 

Some of the joints of this plant elongate under shade conditions, reaching at least 2.5 
dm. in length and not more than 5 cm. in width. 

Optintia arkansana (Hirscht, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 115. 1898) has not been 
formally described. The name should doubtless be referred here. 

Opiintia prostrata Monville and Lemaire (Forster, Handb. Cact. 478. 1846) was given 
only as a s)monym of 0. intermedia, while 0. intermedia prostrata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. 
Dyck 1849. 69. 1850) was based on 0. prostrata. 

0. rafinesquei parva Haage and Schmidt (Verzeichnis Blumenzwiebeln 1915: 29. 1915) 
is a new name for 0. mesacantha parva Coulter. 

Under Opuntia vulgaris Michaele Gandoger in his Flora Kuropea (9: 145. 1886) has 
proposed the following new binomials: 0. recedens, 0. morisii, 0. cydoidea, 0. inaequalis, 
O. Ugiistica, and O. mediterranea. The following varieties cited under 0. humifusa are in 
the trade: cymochila, greenei, niacrorhiza, oplocarpa and stenochila (Stand. Cycl. Hort. 
Bailey 4: 2363. 1916.) 




Fig. 160. — Opuntia opuntia in its natural surroundings on Staten Island, New York. 

Illustrations: Illustr. Fl. 2: f. 2527; ed. 2. 2: f. 2986; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 50: pi. 2393; 
Loudon, Encycl. PI. ed. 3. f. 6884, the last two as Cactus opuntia; De Candolle, PI. Succ. 
Hist. 2: pi. 138 [A]; DeTussac, Fl. Antill. 2: pi. 30, the last two as Cactus opuntia nana. 
Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pi. [i], f. 2; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 
3^^: f. 57. G; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 12; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 10, f. i, 2; 4: pi. 23, f. 13; 
Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. i, all as Opuntia vulgaris. Standard Cycl. Hort. 
Bailey 4: f. 2602, in part as Opuntia humifusa. Amer. Entom. Bot. 2: f. 160; Amer. Gar- 
den 11: 462; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 115: pi. 7041; Diet. Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 756; Fl. Serr. 
22: pi. 2328; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 2; Gard. Mag. 4: 280; Gartenflora 24: 218; 
Lemaire, Cact. f. 9; Meehan's Monthly 2: pi. 6; 10: 121; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 10, f. 4, 5; 
pi. 23, f. 7, 8; Riimpler, Sukkulenten f. 125; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 84, all as Opuntia 
rafinesquei; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 11, f. i, as Opuntia rafinesquei minor; Forster, Handb. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. B, Eaton del. 



1. Joints of Op7C7itia microdasys. 

2. Flowering joint of Opuntia ?>iacrartkra. 

3. Fruit of Opuntia macrarthra. 



4. Seed of same. 

5. Flowering joint of Opuntia opuntia. 
(All natural size except 4.) 



OPUNTIA. 



129 



Cact. ed. 2. f. 126, as Opuntia rafinesquei arkansana; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 124, as 
Opuntia vulgaris nana; Miller, Fig. PI. Gard. Diet. 2: pi. 191, as Opuntia folio minori, etc., 
Diet. Hort. Bois f. 638; Rev. Hort. 40: f. 10, 11; 66: f. 59, all as Opuntia rafinesquiana. 
Wiener Illustr. Gartenz. 10: f. 112, as Opuntia rafinesquiana arkansana. 

Plate XXII, figure 5, represents a flowering joint of the plant which grows naturally on 
schistose rocks in the New York Botanical Garden. Figure 160 is from a photograph qf 
the plant growing on sand dunes at Crooke's Point, Staten Island, New York, taken by 
Howard H. Cleaves in 19 14. 

119. Opuntia macrarthra Gibbes, Proc. Elliott Soc. Nat. Hist, i: 273. 1859. 

Stems prostrate or ascending; joints narrowly oblong to obovate, 12 to 35 cm. long, thick, 
pale green, somewhat shining; leaves subulate, 10 mm. long, green, sometimes with purplish tips; 
areoles large, 2 to 3 cm. apart, filled with brown wool ; spines wanting, or sometimes i , up to 2 .5 cm. long ; 
glochids when present yellow ; flowers not known ; fruit narrowly obovoid, red, fleshy, 4 to 6 cm. long. 

Type locality: Near Charleston, South Carolina. 

Distribution: Coast of South Carolina. 

This species, long overlooked, has recently been col- 
lected by Dr. J. K. Small in the vicinity of the type locality. 

This is doubtless one of the species to which Elliott 
called attention and which he said he expected to publish, 
but never did.* The original description long remained 
unnoticed in the Proceedings of the Elliott Society of 
Natural History ; it is as follows : 

"The second, which we will call Opuntia macrarthra, falls 
under the same section with the preceding, and seems to be 
near Opuntia angustata, of Engelmann, from the west of the Rio 
Grande; a prostrate species, joints from ten to fifteen inches 
long and three inches wide, one-third of an inch thick; no 
spines, fruit two and a half inches long, slender, clavate." 

Plate XV, figure 3, represents a fruiting joint collected 
by Dr. Small on James Island, South Carolina, in 1916; 
plate XXII, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of the plant 
collected by Dr. Small on the Isle of Palms, near Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, in 1916; figure 3 shows a fruit of the 
same plant and figure 4 a seed, enlarged. 

120. Opuntia grandiflora Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 
1856. 



Opuntia rafinesquei grandiflora Engelmann, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 55. 1856. 
Opuntia mesacantha grandiflora Coulter, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 429. 




Figs. 161, 162. — Opuntia grandiflora 



Low, with somewhat ascending branches; joints 12.5 to 15 cm. long; areoles 2.5 cm. apart; 
spines usually wanting; flowers very large, 11 to 12.5 cm. broad, yellow with a red center; petals 
broad; fruit elongated, 6 cm. long. 

Type locality: On the Brazos, Texas. 

Distribution: Eastern Texas. 

Although Dr. Engelmann formally described this as a species, he introduced it as 
"probably only a southern variety of 0. rafinesquei ." A little later he actually used the 
name as a variety. The position of the plant is still uncertain ; if specimens collected by 
Mr. Wm. R. Maxon at Victoria, Texas, and by Mr. C. V. Piper at Dallas, Texas, belong 
here, as they appear to, we believe it to be a distinct species. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 11, f. 2, 3, as Opuntia rafinesquei grandifiora. 

Figures 161 and 162 are copied from the illustrations above cited. 



* Cactus opuntia. " It is probable that there are now three distinct species on the sea coast of the Southern States 
covered under this name." ElUott, A Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia, i: 537. 



I30 



THE CACTACEAE. 



121. Opuntia austrina Small, Fl. Southeast. U. S. 8i6. 1903. 

Opuntia yoiotgii C. Z. Nelson, Chicago Examiner. June 13, 1915. 
Roots fusiform or tuberous, resembling sweet potatoes, often 4 to 6 cm. in diameter, 5 to 15 
cm. long; stems erect or ascending; joints narrowly obovate to oblong-obovate, thick, tubercu- 
late, repand, bright green, 5 to 12 cm. long; leaves soon deciduous, less than 10 mm. long; glochids 
yellowish; spines usually on the upper half and margin of the joint, often 2, sometimes i to 6, from 
an areole, whitish or pinkish, darker at base and apex, twisted, sometimes wanting; flowers bright 
yellow, 6 to 7 cm. broad; petals cuneate, truncate or retuse at apex, mucronate ; fruit 2.5 to 3 cm. long. 




Fig. 163. — Opuntia austrina. X0.5. 

Type locality: Miami, Florida. 

Distribution: Southern Florida. 

Opuntia youngii C. Z. Nelson, published in a Chicago newspaper, we have referred here, 
after studying a specimen sent by the author. 

Opuntia spinalba Rafinesque (Atl. Journ. i : 147. 1832) was described as from the keys 
of Florida, and answers in some respects to 0. austrina; but it is very unlikely that any 
plants of the region inhabited by austrina were known to botanists as early as 1832. 

Figure 163 represents a plant collected by Dr. Small at the type locality in 1901. 

122. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 206. 1850. 

Opunlia fusiformis Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 297. 1856. 
Opuntia rafi?iesquei fusiformis Engelmann, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 43. 1856. 
Opuntia mesacantha macrorhiza Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 430. 1896. 
Opuntia xanthoglochia Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 166. 1910. 
Opuntia roseana IMackensen, Bull. Torr. Club 38: 142. 191 1. 

Plant low, usually nearly prostrate, forming a clump i meter in diameter, from a cluster of 
tuber-like roots, these sometimes 5 to 7.5 cm. in diameter; joints orbicular to obovate, duU green, 
5 to 16 cm. long, about i cm. thick; leaves subulate, 4 to 10 mm. long; areoles rather large, the lower 
ones and sometimes all of them spineless ; glochids numerous, yellow or brown ; spines, when present, 
I to 4, unequal, yellow to brown, the longest 2.5 cm. long; flower yellow, with a reddish or purplish 
center, 7 to 8 cm. broad; fruit narrowly obovoid, 3.5 to 5 cm. long, purple or red, with a depressed 
umbilicus, not edible; seeds 5 mm. in diameter, with broad margins. 

Type locality: Rocky places on the Upper Guadalupe, Texas. 
Distribution: Missouri and Kansas to Texas. 

Opuntia seguina C. Z. Nelson (Galesburg Register, July 20, 1915), published in a news- 
paper, and said to have come from San Antonio, Texas, seems to be one of the Tortispinae, 



OPUNTIA. 



131 



and is probably referable to 0. macrorhiza. Through the kindness of Mr. Nelson, we have 
seen a joint of this species. 

Opuntia bulbosa Hngelmann (Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 297. 1856) was used by Kngelmann 
for 0. fusiformis, but never described. 

Opuntia macrorhiza, originally described by Dr. Kngelmann as a species, was afterwards 
(Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 296. 1856) proposed as a subspecies but not formally indicated, so 
that the reference 0. rafinesquei macrorhiza Coulter (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 430. 1896) 
is the proper designation if it is used as a variety. 

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 69; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 11, 127; Pac. R. 
Rep. 4: pi. 12, f. 7, 8; pi. 23, f. 6; Suppl. Diet. Card. Nicholson f. 606; W. Watson, Cact. 
Cult. f. 82, 83 ; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21 : pi. 20, in part, this last as Opuntia xanthoglochia; 
Addisonia i : pi. 19. 

Plate XIV, figure 5, represents a 
flowering joint of the plant collected 
at Irving, Dallas County, Texas, by 
Albert Ruth in 1912. 

123. Opuntia plumbea Rose, Smiths. 
Misc. Coll. 50: 524. 1908. 

Plant low, creeping, 10 cm. high, 20 
to 30 cm. broad, few jointed; joints small, 
nearly orbicular, 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, 
of a dull lead-color, the surface some- 
what wrinkled in dead specimens ; areoles 
rather large for the size of the joints; 
spines pale brownish, slender, usually 
porrect, often 3 cm. long, mostly 2 in 
number, rarely as many as 4, sometimes 
one or even wanting; flowers very small, 
red; ovary naked; fruit 1.5 to 2 cm. long 
with a few small areoles and these simply 
woolly ; seeds small, rather turgid, smooth, 
and with a shallow obtuse margin. 

Type locality: San Carlos Indian 
Reservation, Arizona. 

Distribution: Arizona. 

This is a peculiar httle opuntia with very small joints and fruits. 
from the original collections made by Mr. F. V. Coville in 1904. 

Figure 164 is from a photograph of the type specimen. 

124. Opuntia tortispina Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856. 

Opuntia torlisperma Engelmann, Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 23, f. i to 5. 1856. 

Opuntia cymochila Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856. 

Opuntia rafinesquei cymochila Ijngelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856. 

Opuntia rafinesquei cycmochila montana Engelmann and Bigelow, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 42. 1856. 

Opuntia mesacantha cymochila CouMuT, Contr. V. S. 'Nat. HuTh. y. ^io. 1896. 

Opuntia mesacantha greenei Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896. 

Opuntia mesacantha oplocarpa Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896. 

Opuntia greenei Engelmann in Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 523. 1908. 

(?) Opuntia sangtiinocula Griflfiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27.' 26. 1914. 

Prostrate and creeping; joints ascending, orbicular to obovate, 15 to 20 cm. long; areoles 1.5 to 
3 cm. apart; spines several, often 6 to 8, the upper and longer ones 3 to 6 cm. long, either white, yel- 
lowish, or brown; on the upper areoles one spine erect, the others spreading or with the lowermost 
ones deflexed; flowers sulphur-yellow, 6 to 7.5 cm. broad; fruit rather large, 4 to 5 cm. long, 2 to 3 
cm. broad; seeds 4 to 6 mm. broad, thick, regular, with a slight indentation at the hilum. 

Type locality: On the Camanchica Plains near the Canadian River. 

Distribution: Wisconsin to South Dakota, Texas, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico. 




Fig. 164. — Opuntia plumbea 



It is known only 



132 



the; cactaceae. 



This has long remained one of our least-understood species. We believe now that it 
has a wide range, and that it has been referred heretofore to several species. Opimtia 
cymochila does not seem to differ from it, and the two published varieties of Opuntia 
mesacantha, geographically out of harmony with that species, doubtless belong here. 

Opuntia oplocarpa Engelmann (Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896) was 
published only as a synonym. Opuntia rafinesquei greenei (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 
58. 1908) is a catalogue name. 

The plant is hardy at New York, flowering profusely, and also at Buck Hill Falls, 
eastern Pennsylvania. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 12, f. i to 3; pi. 23, f. 10 to 12; Rev. Hort. Belg. 40: 
after 186, all as Opuntia cymochila; Illustr. Fl. 2:1. 2528; ed. 2. 2:f. 2987; Pac. R. Rep. 
4: pi. 10, f. 3; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4:f. 2602, 
in part, these as Opuntia humifusa. Pac. R. Rep. 4: 
pi. 8, f. 2, 3; pi. 23, f. I to 5, as 0. tortisperma. Illustr. 
Fl. 2: f. 2529; ed. 2. 2: f. 2988. 

Plate XV, figure 4, represents a flowering and 
fruiting joint of a plant from Colorado, grown at the 
New York Botanical Garden. 

125. Opuntia stenochila Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 
296. 1856.* 

Opuntia mesacantha stetiochila Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 3: 430. 1896. 

Prostrate; joints obovate, 10 cm. long by 7.5 cm. broad; 
leaves small, 4 to 6 mm. long; spines usually 2, sometimes 
3, spreading, i long (2.5 to 3 cm. long), and i or 2 short and 
reflexed, usually light-colored, sometimes nearly white; glo- 
chids brown; flowers yellow, 6 cm. long; fruit very juicy, 
4 to 5 cm. long or more, attenuate at base; seeds thick, quite 
regular, with very narrow obtuse edges. 

Type locality: Canyon of Zuni, New Mexico. 

Distribution: Western New Mexico and Arizona. 

This species has not been well understood. It 
has usually passed as a variety of the common species 
of the eastern Mississippi Valley States, but it grows 
in a very different region. It is the common low, 
spreading Opuntia of northwestern New Mexico and 
Arizona. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 12, f. 4 to 6; pi. 23, f. 9. 

Figures 165, 166, and 167 are copied from the first illustration above cited. 

126. Opuntia delicata Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 310. 1911. 

A small, procumbent plant with rather thin, ovate, bluish, slightly glaucous joints, often only 4 
to 9 cm. in diameter; areoles prominent, bearing conspicuous brown glochids; lower areoles spineless, 
the upper ones bearing i or 2 very slender brownish spines, the longer one 3 to 4 cm. long ; flowers 
yellow, 5 cm. long, 5 to 6 cm. broad; fruit oblong, spineless, 2 to 3 cm. long; seeds small, about 
4 mm. in diameter, nearly smooth. 

Type locality: Calabasas, Arizona. 

Distribution: Southeastern Arizona. 

Figure 168 is from a photograph of the type plant. 




Opuntia stenochila, 
Figs. 165, 166. — Fruits. Fig. 167. — Joint. 



*Although formally published as a species, Engelmann states that it is a form or subspecies, and hence Coulter 
(Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 430. 1896) uses the synonym O. rafinesquei stenochila Engelmann. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del. 



1. Flowering joint of Opuntia fuscoatra. 2, Upper part of joint of Opimtia sulphurea. 

3. Joint of Opujitia tenuispina. (All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



133 




Fig. 168. — Opuntia delicata. 

127. opuntia fuscoatra Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 297. 1856. 

Diffuse prostrate plants; joints orbicular to obovate, somewhat tuberculate, 5 to 8 cm. long, 
areoles 12 to 20 mm. apart, very large for the group; spines single or in twos or threes, one rather 
stout, sometimes a little flattened, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, yellow to dark brown or even nearly black; 
usually from the lower areoles; glochids numerous, brown; flowers 7.5 cm. broad, yellow; petals very 
broad; stigma-lobes 5; ovary 2.5 cm. long, slender; fruit 4 to 5 cm. long, red; seeds 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Sterile places of prairies west of Houston, Texas. 
Distribution: Eastern Texas. 
Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 11, f. 4. 

Plate XXIII, figure i, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by W. L. Mc- 
Afee at Rockport, Texas, in 1911. 

127 a. Opuntia macateei sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 221.) 
Opuntia rubiflora Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 529. 1916. 

Described as a spreading plant 3 to 4.5 dm. high and a meter broad, with obovate, 
green joints 12 to 18 cm. long, few white spines up to 5 cm. long with brown or straw- 
colored bases, and pink flowers. The species is based on cuttings received from European 
collections, and its origin is unknown. 

We have received a similar if not identical plant from Haage and Schmidt of Erfurt, 
Germany, and we suspect it to be a hybrid, having one of the Tortispinae as one of its 
parents. 

The specific name rubiflora was used by Davidson a few months earlier than by 
Griffiths for another plant. 

Series 8. SULPHUREAE. 

Low or prostrate species, with rather thick, flat, tuberculate joints; fruit small, nearly globular. 
Three species, natives of central and southern South America. 

Key to Species. 

Flowers yellow. 

Spines stout, subulate 128. 0. sulphurea 

Spines slender, acicular 129. O, soehrensii 

Flowers red ' 130. 0. microdisca 



134 '^^^ cactacEae;. 

128. Opuntia sulphurea G. Don in Loudon, Hort. Brit. 196. 1830. 

Opunlia maculacantha Forster, Handb. Gartenz. 17: 166. 1861. 
Opuntia panipeana Spegazzini, Contr. Fl. Ventana 30. 1896. 
Opuntia vulpina Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 895. 1898. 

Plants low and spreading, forming broad clumps i to 2 meters in diameter, 3 dm. high or less ; 
joints flattened, oblong to obovate, 12 to 25 cm. long, thick, strongly tuberculate, usually green 
but sometimes purplish; terminal joints easily detached; leaves conic, about 2 mm. long; spines 2 to 
8, generally straight but sometimes curved and twisted, spreading, 3 to 10 cm. long, brownish to 
red, but sometimes quite pale at first ; flowers about 4 cm. long, yellow ; fruit with a deep umbilicus, 
short, about i cm. long. 

Type locality: Cited as Chile, but doubtless wTong. 

Distribution: Dry parts of western Argentina; recorded also from Chile, and perhaps 
occurring in BoHvia. 

This species was not seen in Chile by Dr. Rose, and we are doubtful in considering the 
Bolivian material to be 0. sulphurea; the joints, as shown by Dr. Rose's specimens, col- 
lected at La Paz (No. 18860), while thick, are not conspicuously tuberculate; the spines are 
rather short and stiff, white at first, but somewhat j-ellowish or horn-colored in age. 

The name Cactus sulpbureus Gillies was published by G. Don at the place cited above 
as a synonym of this species. 

Opuntia maculacantha was first described from specimens from Buenos Aires, which 
had doubtless been sent down from the desert regions to the west or northwest. Schumann 
in his Monograph referred this species to Mexico, but in his Nachtrag corrects this state- 
ment. Dr. Weber, with whom we are in agreement, refers the species to O. sulphurea. It 
is the only species we know mth such large tubercles on the joints. 

Several varieties of this species, some of which have been described, are given, such as 
laevior, major, minor, and palUdior. 

Here probably belongs Opuntia sericea G. Don (Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 363. 1834), 
also reported from Chile, but doubtless from Argentina. Cactus sericeus Gillies (Loudon, 
Hort. Brit. 196. 1830) is the same. There are several varieties of 0. 5m t"?a which we would 
put with it: longispina Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 363. 1834); coerulea Forbes (Hort. Tour 
Germ. 159. 1837) which is probably 0. coerulea GiUies (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 155. 1837); 
maelenii Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845) which is 0. maelenii (Salm-Dyck, 
Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845). Opuntia tweediei (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 745. 
1898) is given as a synonym of this species by Schumann. Opuntia albisetosa Hildmann, 
a name only, belongs here according to Hirscht (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 48. 1900). 

Illustrations: Bliihende Kakteen 3 : pi. 136 ; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8:121; Schumann, 
Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 106, all as Opuntia maculacantha. 

Plate XXIII, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose 
near Cordoba, Argentina, in 1915. 

129. Opuntia soehrensii sp. nov. 

Prostrate, in masses usually i meter in diameter or less; joints at first erect or ascending, finally 
prostrate and rooting and forming new colonies, flattened, rather thin, somewhat tuberculate, very 
spiny, orbicular, 4 to 6 cm. in diameter, often purplish; spines slender, rather variable in color, 
usually yellow or brown, several from each areole, sometimes as many as eight, the longest ones 
5 cm. long, erect; flowers light yellow, 3 cm. long; sepals brown; filaments yellow; style white; 
stigma-lobes green; fruit naked, 3 cm. long; seeds 3 to 3.5 mm. broad, ovate, thickish, with narrow 
margin and roughened sides. 

Highlands of southern Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina. Type collected by Dr. 
and Mrs. J. N. Rose below Pampa de Arrieros, Peru, August 23, 1914 (No. 18967). 

This species is very common in its region, but as it is cultivated somewhat for its seeds 
as well as used as a protection for gardens and yards, its natural distribution is difficult to 
determine. On the barren hills below La Paz, BoUvia, the species is well estabUshed and 



OPUNTIA. 



135 




grows as if native; on some of these hills it is the dominant and sometimes exclusive plant. 
In the same general region, however, one finds the plant about the houses, especially on 
walls, where it has undoubtedly been planted. At Oruro, Bolivia, it was seen only in the 
wild state, while at several stations along the railroad between Juliaca and Cuzco, Peru, 
especially at Combatata and Tinta, Peru, it has been planted on top of many of the mud 
walls about the yards. On the hills below Pampa de Arrieros, Peru, the species is extremely 
common and undoubtedly native. 

The plant is known everywhere by the natives as ayrampo. The seeds are collected in 
great quantity and dried, and may be bought in the market places, especially in Arequipa. 
Indeed, there must have been a time when they were shipped by freight, for the name 
Ayrampo has always appeared on the printed freight classification of the Southern Railroad 
of Peru. The assistant superintendent of the road, Mr. Brown, states that, so far as he 
knows, there are few or no shipments made now. One of the places in Peru where Dr. 
Rose found the plant very abundant is named Ayrampal. 

The dry seeds, when placed in water, yield a red substance 
which is used for coloring jellies and gelatine and, according to some, 
for coloring wines. In former days the Indians also used this sub- 
stance in some of their carnival ceremonies. The coloring matter 
does not come from the seeds themselves, but from the red juice of 
the fruit which has dried on the surfaces. 

Figure 169 represents a joint of this species collected by Dr. 
Rose at Oruro, Bolivia, in 1914. 

130. Opuntia microdisca Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 896. 1898. 

Forming small clumps, very much branched, prostrate; joints mostly obovate to oblong, 4 to 
8 cm. long, usually much flattened, but sometimes nearly cylindric, grayish green; leaves minute, 
purple, soon dropping off'; areoles numerous, 5 to 6 mm. apart, rather large, when young densely 
white-felted; spines 10 to 15, white to reddish, unequal, some of the centrals 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long; 
glochids numerous, yellow ; flower-buds red; flowers 2.5 cm. long, bright red; filaments purple; style 
white; stigma-lobes 6 to 8, short; ovary turbinate, 16 mm. long, bearing numerous areoles sub- 
tended by narrow red leaves; areoles on ovary densely felted and 
bristly; fruit red. 

Type locality: In Catamarca, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

Schumann refers this species to Platyopuntia, while Weber 
referred it to Tephrocactus. It evidently belongs to our 5m/- 
phureae, being nearest our 0. soehrensii. 

Our description is drawn chiefly from specimens obtained 
by J. A. Shafer between Andalgala and Concepcion, Argen- 
tina, in 191 6, supplemented by a Hving specimen obtained by 
Dr. Spegazzini in 191 5. In Argentina this species also is 
known as ayrampo. 

Figure 170 represents a joint of the plant collected by J. A. 
Shafer between Andalgala and Concepcion, Argentina, Decem- 
ber 28, 1916 (No. 24). 

To this relationship may belong the following species: 



Fig. 169. — Opuntia soehrensii. 
X0.4. 




Opuntia penicilugera Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires Fig. i7o.--joint of Opuntia micro- 

' ° disca. X0.7. 

4: 291. 1902. 



II. 



Low, nearly prostrate; joints flattened, orbicular to broadly obovate, 10 to 12 cm. long, 7 to 
10 cm. broad, dull green; spines slender, twisted, one elongated and i to 5 cm. long, the others much 
shorter, all white; glochids brownish; flowers from the lateral and marginal areoles, citron-yellow; 



136 



THE CACTACEAE. 



ovary 3 to 3.5 cm. long, with very many areoles bearing numerous glochids; stj'le thick; stigma- 
lobes 8 to 10, greenish white; fruit reddish, clavate, 4.5 cm. long, with a depressed umbilicus; seeds 
small, 3 to 3.5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Argentina, between Rio Negro and Rio Colorado. 

Distribution: Southern Argentina. 

According to Dr. Spegazzini, this species is not near to any of the known South Ameri- 
can species, but resembles somewhat the North American species 0. microdasys and 0. 
basilaris. We know it only from the description. 

Opuntia calantha Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43 : 524. 1916. 

A low, creeping, prostrate plant 15 cm. high, one meter in diameter; joints obovate, narrowed 
above and below, inequilateral, 11 cm. long, 4 cm. broad, tuberculate-wrinkled, mostly deep green; 
areoles i to 1.5 mm. long, obovate, at first tawny, turning gray; leaves small, subulate, cuspidate, 
red. I mm. long; glochids yellow; spines 5 to 10, up to 5 mm. long; flowers carmine; fruit globular, 
1.5 cm. in diameter. 

Recorded as probably of South American origin and usually distributed as Opuntia 
microdisca, but from which it is said to differ very much. The plant is known to us only 
from the description of cultivated specimens. 

Series 9. STRIGILES. 

The series consists of a single species, native of 
Texas. It is a low, bushy plant with large joints bear- 
ing many areoles, these close together, each with sev- 
eral acicular, reddish brown spine? ; the fruit is small. 

131. Opuntia strigil Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 
290. 1856. 

Suberect, 6 dm. high; joints orbicular to obovate, 10 to 125 cm. 
long; areoles close together, prominent ; spines 5 to 8, spreadmg, man^ 
of them appressed to the joint and deflexed, red to reddish brown with 
lighter tips, the longer ones 2.5 cm. long; glochids numerous; flowers 
unknown; fruits small, nearly globular, 12 mm. in diameter, trun- 
cate, red; areoles on fruit ver}' small; seeds 3 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In cre^^ces of limestone rock, between the 
Pecos River and El Paso, Texas. 

Distribution: Texas. 

A rare plant, first collected by Charles Wright in 1851. 
Engelmaim says in the Mexican Boundary Report that it 
was also collected by Wright and Bigelow, but there is no 
mention of it in his report on Bigelow's plants, nor do we find specimens in the Engelmann 
herbarium, so that it would appear that this reference to Bigelow was a mistake. Bigelow, 
it is true, crossed the River Pecos, on w-hich the type was found, but it was well up in New 
Mexico and not in Texas, where it was crossed by Charles Wright. It w^as more recently 
collected by Nealley somewhere in Texas. The place of collection by Wright and the later 
one by Nealley are very indefinitely indicated on the labels accompanying the specimens. 

Illustration: Cact. IVIex. Bound, pi. 67. 

Figure 171 is copied from the illustration above cited. 




Fig. 171 



-Opuntia strigil. 
X0.4. 



Series 10. SETISPINAE. 



Bushy or depressed species, with tuberous or thickened roots, broad, flat, thin joints, and elon- 
gated, acicular, brown spines which fade whitish; their fruits are large and juicv. We recognize 
six species, natives of the south central and southwestern United States and northern Mexico. 
They approach the Tortispinae on the one hand and the Phaeacanthac on the other. 



OPUNTIA. 137 

Key to Species. 

Joints elongated 132 . 0. megarhiza 

Joints obovate to orbicular. 

Fruit small, 2 cm. long or less 133. O. hallii 

Fruit large 2.5 to 6 cm. long. 

Flowers red to purple 134. 0. pottsii 

Flowers yellow. 

Areoles large, more or less elevated on old joints; joints glaucous, purplish about the 

areoles 135. 0. setispina 

Areoles small; mature joints green throughout. 

Joints usually orbicular; seeds 5 to 6 mm. broad 136. O. mackensenii 

Joints obovate; seeds 4 mm. broad or less 137. 0. tenuispina 

132. Opuntia megarhiza Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 126. 1906. 

Roots long and thickened, sometimes 3 to 6 dm. long, 5 to 6 cm. in diameter; stems low, 2 to 

3 dm. high, much branched; lower joints elongated, 2 to 3 dm. long, cuneate below, thin, 3 cm. 
broad; lateral joints appearing along the margins of the older joints and often, if not always, in the 
same plane; spines 2 to 4, acicular, i to 2.5 cm. long, brown; leaves minute; flowers lemon-yellow, 
often tinged with rose, 5 cm. broad; petals about 13, obovate, mucronately tipped; stigma-lobes 7, 
greenish; ovary clavate, 3 cm. long; fruit and seeds unknown. 

Type locality: Alvarez, Mexico. 

Distribution: San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

This species is not very closely related to the 
other species of this series, but it is referred here on 
account of its very slender spines. 

133. Opuntia ballii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 309. 
1911. 

Plants low, spreading; joints obovate, 6 to 10 cm. long, 
thickish, pale green, glaucous; spines 2 to 4, brownish, a little 
flattened, usually ascending or erect, the larger ones 4 to 7 cm. 
long; glochids conspicuous; fruit small, about 2 cm. long, 
clavate, glaucous, spineless; seeds thick, 3.5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Pecos, Reeves County, Texas. Fig. 172.— o. baiui. Part of type, xo.5- 

Distribution: Western Texas. 

Wooton and Standley in their Flora of New Mexico refer this species to Opuntia fili- 
pendula, but 0. ballii grows in a different habitat, has smaller fruit, stouter and erect 
spines, and different areoles; it grows on the dry mesa beyond Pecos, Texas. 

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: pi. 64. 

Figure 172 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

134. Opuntia pottsii Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 236. 1850. 

Opuntia filipendula Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 294. 1856. 

Low, spreading plant, 3 dm. high or less, from thickened tuberous roots 2 to 3 cm. in diameter, 
these sometimes moniliform; joints broadly obovate, 3.5 to 12 cm. long, pale green to bluish; areoles 
few, either small or large; spines confined to the upper and marginal areoles, i or 2, slender, 2 to 

4 cm. long, usually white Ijut sometimes purplish; glochids yellow, usually few but sometimes abun- 
dant; flowers large, 6 to 7 cm. broad, deep purple; ovary slender, 3 to 3.5 cm. long, with only a few 
scattered areoles; fruit spineless. 

Type locality: Near Chihuahua City, Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Chihuahua, Mexico, to Texas and New Mexico. 

This species was described by Prince Salm-Dyck in 1850 from material collected by 
John Potts, who was manager of the mint at Chihuahua and who sent many cacti to F. 
Scheer at Kew between 1842 and 1850. No types of his species seem to have been retained. 




138 



THE CACTACEAE. 



In 1885 C. G. Pringle again collected this species near Chihuahua City and it was dis- 
tributed as 0. filipendula, and there Coulter leaves Pringle's specimen (Cont. Nat. Herb. 
3: 428). Dr. E. Palmer collected an abundance of material in 1908 which enabled us to 
reestablish 0. pottsii, which Coulter omits and Schumann lists under unknown species. 

If these Chihuahua specimens are the same as the Texas plants, as Coulter beUeved 
and as we regard them, then Opuntia filipendula must give place to the older name of Salm- 
Dyck. 

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 68; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 10, 131; Suppl. 
Diet. Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 605; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 81, aU as Opuntia filipendula. 

Figure 173 shows a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose in the valley of the Rio 
Grande below El Paso, Texas, in 1913. 

135. Opuntia setispina Engelmann in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 239. 1850. 

Stem branching and spreading, sometimes 9 to 12 dm. broad, with some of the branches com- 
posed of 3 or 4 joints, erect and 6 dm. high; joints deep bluish green, somewhat glaucous, often 
purpUsh at the areoles, sometimes more or less tinged with purple throughout, obovate to orbicular, 
5 to 15 cm. in diameter; leaves minute, subulate; spines i to 6 from an areole, white, 2 to 3 cm. 
long; glochids yellow, very conspicuous on old joints; flowers yellow; fruit purplish, about 4 cm. long. 




Fig. 173. — Opuntia pottsii. X0.4. 



Fig. 1 74. — Opuntia setispina. X0.4. 



Type locality: Pine woods in the mountains west of Chihuahua, Mexico (fide Engel- 
mann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 294. 1856). 

Distribution: Western Chihuahua, Mexico. 

This species has long been known only from the type specimens; but in 1908 Dr. Rose 
visited western Chihuahua, where this species is quite common; our description is based 
largely upon the specimens he then collected. 

Figure 174 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near Mifiaca, Chi- 
huahua, in 1908. 

136. Opuntia mackensenii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 310. 191 1. 

Plants low, with thick, tuberous roots, spreading, usuaUy resting on the edges of the joints, but 
some of the branches often erect; joints orbicular to obovate, 10 to 20 cm. long, rarely broader than 
long, pale and glaucous when young, deep green when older; areoles small, the lower ones without 
spines, the upper ones with i to 4 spines; spines white or brown, or brown at base and white above, 
somewhat flattened and twisted, slender, 5 cm. long or less; glochids brown; flowers of medium size, 
7 to 8 cm. broad, yellow with a reddish brown center; stigma-lobes 7 to 9, white; fruit spineless, 4 to 
6 cm. long, truncate or nearly so at apex, rose-purple; seeds suborbicular, 5 to 6 mm. broad, acute 
on the margin. 



OPUNTIA. 



139 



Type locality: Near Kerrville, Texas. 
Distribution: Kerr County, Texas. 

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: pi. 67; Plant World 19: 142. f. i; 143. f. 
2, the last as 0. macrorhiza. 

Figure 175 is from a photograph of the type plant from near Kerrville, Texas. 




Fig. 175. — Opuntia mackensensii. 



1S56. 



137. Opuntia tenuispina Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 294. 
Opuntia minor C. Mueller in Walpers, Ann. Bot. 5: 50. 1858. 
Low and spreading, but becoming 3 dm. high; joints obovate, attenuate at base, 7 to 15 cm. 
long, light green ; leaves very slender, 4 mm. long or less; spines i to 3 from an areole, slender, usually 
white but sometimes brownish, 3 to 5 cm. long, the upper spines erect or spreading; glochids brown; 
flowers yellow, 6 to 7.5 cm. broad; ovary with numerous areoles filled with brown wool and brown 
glochids; fruit oblong, 2.5 to 4 cm. long, with a deep umbilicus; seeds 4 ram. broad or less, very 
irregular. 

Type locality: Sand hills near El Paso, Texas. 

Distribution: Southwestern Texas and adjacent parts of Mexico and New Mexico, 
apparently extending to Arizona. 

Engelmann says that this plant grows with 0. phaeacantha, but is readily distinguished 
from the latter by its spines and fruit. Cultivated plants and herbarium specimens closely 
resemble 0. phaeacantha. 

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 14; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pi. [15]. 

Plate xxiir, figure 3, represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near El 
Paso, Texas, in 1913. 

Series 11. PHAEACANTHAE. 

Bushy or depressed species, with relatively large, flat, persistent joints, the subulate, usually 
stout spines brown at least at the base, or in some species nearly white. The series is composed of 
about fifteen species, natives of the south central and southwestern United States, northern and 
central Mexico. 



140 



The; cactaceae. 



Key to Species. 

More or less bushy plants. 

Joints thin; spines, when present, ver\- long and confined to the upper and middle areoles. 
Spines dark brown, stout, rigid. 

Plant pale green to purpUsh; spines up to 12 cm. long 138. O. macrocentra 

Plant dull dark green; spines 6 cm. long or less 139. O. tardospina 

Spines pale brown, flexible or subulate. 

Usually abundantly spiny 140. 0. gosseliniana 

Usually spineless or some areoles with i setaceous deflexed spine 141. O. santa-rita 

Joints thick ; spines not confined to the upper and middle areoles. 

Joints relatively small, seldom over 15 cm. broad; plants relatively low. 

Joints narrowly obovate, about twice as long as ^ ide 142. O. anguslata 

Joints broadly obovate to orbicular. 
Flowers yellow. 

Spines subulate, brown at least in part. 

Plant light green 143. 0. atrispina 

Plant bluish green or grayish green. 

Plant erect, 2 meters high or less 144. 0. azurea 

Plant bushy, rarelj- over i meter high 145. 0. phaeacantha 

Plant prostrate ' 146. O. mojavensis 

Spines acicular, nearly white 147. O. covillei 

Flowers magenta 148. O. vaseyi 

Joints relatively large, mostly over 15 cm. broad; plants relatively tall. 

Spines clear brown nearly throughout 149. 0. occidentalis 

Spines nearlj- white above or throughout. 

Spines with dark brown bases 150. 0. engelmannii 

Spines whitish throughout 151. O. discata 

Small creeping plants 152. O. rastrera 

138. Opuntia macrocentra En- 

gelmann, Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 3: 292. 1856. 

Somewhat bushy, with as- 
cending branches, 6 to 9 dm. 
high; joints orbicular to oblong, 
or sometimes broader than long, 
10 to 20 cm. long, often bluish 
or purplish, sometimes spineless 
but usually bearing spines at the 
uppermost areoles; spines i or2, 
rarely 3 together, usually brown- 
ish or black but sometimes white 
above, slender, erect or porrect, 
4 to 7 cm. long ; flowers j^ellow, 
often drying red, 7.5 cm. broad; 
sepals ovate, acuminate; ovarv 
with few areoles, these bearing 
brown glochids; filaments ver}- 
short; fruit 3 to 6 cm. long, pur- 
ple; seeds 4 to 4.5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Sand hills 
on the Rio Grande near El 
Paso, Texas. 

Distribution : Western 
Texas to Eastern Arizona 
and Chihuahua, IMexico. 

This species, especially 
the forms that have bluish 
and purplish joints, are very 
sho\yy. SeedUngs sometimes 
produce long, silky hairs from 
the areoles, in this respect 

resembling the Crinijcrae. pia. lye.-Opuntia macrocentra. X0.5. 




OPUNTIA. 



141 



Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 8; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pi. [8]. 
Figure 176 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near the Rio Grande in 
New Mexico, northwest of El Paso, Texas, in 19 13. 

139. Opuntia tardospina Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 34. 1912. 

Roots fibrous; low, spreading plant, the joints usually resting on the ground; joints orbicular 
to obovate, 16 to 24 cm. long; areoles large, usually distant, often 4 cm. apart; spines usually wanting 
except from the upper areoles and along the upper margin, usually single, sometimes 2 from an 
areole, 4 to 5 cm. long, brown, but lighter towards the apex; glochids numerous, brown, persistent; 
fruit red, 6 cm. long; seeds 5 mm. broad, acute on the margin. 

Type locality: Near Lampasas, Texas. 
Distribution: Eastern Texas. 

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pi. 11, in part; pi. 15. 

Figure 177 represents a joint of the plant collected by Albert Ruth in 191 2, north of 
Dallas, Texas. 




177. — O. tardospina. X0.5 



Figs. 178, 179. — Cluster of spines and joint of O. gosseliniana. X0.4. 



140. Opuntia gosseliniana Weber, Bull. Soc. Acclim. France 49: 83. 1902. 

One meter or more high, branching from the base, the old trunk often bearing numerous, long, 
acicular spines; joints usually red or purplish, usually very thin, as broad as or broader than long, 
sometimes 2 dm. broad; lower and sometimes all the areoles without spines; spines porrect or nearly 
so, generally i, sometimes 2, rarely 3 from an areole, 4 to 5 or even 10 cm. long, brown, usually 
weak; glochids brown, numerous, forming on old joints very large clusters; fruit 4 cm. long, without 
spines but bearing numerous brown glochids at the areoles, with a depressed umbilicus. 

Type locality: Coast of Sonora on the Gulf of California. 

Distribution: Sonora and Lower California, Mexico. 

This species was placed tentatively in the Pubescentes by Schumann, although always 
glabrous; but it belongs better in the Phaeacanthae . In some of its phases it resembles 
0. niacrocentra. It is a very showy species and worthy of a place in any collection. 

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17: 69. 

Figure 179 represents a joint of the plant collected at Hermosillo in Sonora, by Rose, 
Standley, and Russell in 1910; figure 178 shows a cluster of spines from a trunk areole. 



142 



THE CACTACEAE. 



141. Opuntia santa-rita (Griffiths and Hare) Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 52: 195. 190S. 

Opiintia chlorotica sanla-rita Griffiths and Hare, N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: 64. 1906. 
Opuntia sJireveana C. Z. Xelson, Galesburg Register, Juh" 20, 1915. 

Compact plant, 6 to 14 dm. high, with a very short trunk; joints orbicular or a little broader 
than lono", bluish green but deep purple about the areoles and margins; areoles 1.5 cm. apart, bear- 
iuCT numerous chestnut-brown glochids and occasionally a brown spine; flowers very handsome, 
deep yellow, 6 to 7 cm. broad ; ovary purple, oblong. 

Type locality: Selero Mountains, Arizona. 

Distribution: Southeastern Arizona. 

This species is one of the most ornamental of the opuntias, and although it does not 
o-row well in greenhouse cultivation, it would doubtless flourish in the Southwest, where it 
could be given conditions similar to its wild surroundings. 

Illustrations: Smiths. Misc. Coll. 52: pi. 15 ; Plant World 11"': f. 6, this last as Opuntia 
chlorotica; Joum. Inter. Gard. Club 3: facing page 5, as 0. chlorotica santa-rita. 

Plate XXIV, figure i, is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal of a plant near 
Surritas, Arizona, in 1906. 

142. Opuntia angustata Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 

292. 1S56. 

Ascending to erect; joints narrow, 15 to 25 cm. long, 
rounded above, gradually narrowing downward; areoles 
distant, often 2.5 cm. apart, large, oblong; spines sharply 
angled, straw-colored or whitish but with brown bases, 2 .5 to 
3.5 cm. long ; glochids brown ; frtiit obovoid, 2.5 to 3 cm. long. 

Type locality: Bottoms, Bill Williams Fork, 
Arizona. 

Distribution: Recorded as extending from New 
Mexico to California, but known definitely to us only 
from central Arizona, perhaps extending north to Utah. 

Engelmann's Opuntia angustata wsls based on 
three specimens, one from New Mexico, one from 
Arizona, and one from California. He stated that the 
first and last were prostrate, while the second was erect. 
A study of his specimens and descriptions indicates 
that he had three species before him. The first is 
from Zuni, New JNIexico, and is probably Opuntia 
phaeacantha. The California specimen is the Opuntia 
magenta Griffiths, which is probably the same as 
0. vaseyi, while the suberect plant from the bottoms 
of the Bill "V\'illiams River we have allowed to stand 
for 0. angustata. Wooton and Standley (Contr. 
TJ. S. Nat. Herb. 19: 447. 1915) suggest that the two 
fruits illustrated by Engelmann in connection with this 
species may belong to two species oi Cylindropiintia. 

This plant was first collected by J. M. Bigelow, February 4, 1854. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 7, f. 3, 4. 

Figure 180 is copied from figure 3 of the illustrations above cited. 

143. Opuntia atrispina Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 172. 1910. 

Usually low and spreading, sometimes 2 meters in diameter, but sometimes the ceiitral branches 
nearly erect and 6 dm. high; joints rather small, nearly orbicular, 10 to 15 cm. in diameter, light 
green, sometimes a little glaucous; lower areoles spineless; spines from the upper areoles 2 to 4, 
the principal ones spreading, flattened, dark brown, almost black at base, much lighter above; 
glochids at first yellow or yellowish, but soon changing to brown; flowers described as yellow, 
changing to orange; fruit reddish purple. 




Opuntia angustata. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 



PLATE XXIV 




1 1 \ \/m •:*^ 




1. Plant of Opuntia santa-rita. 



2. Plant of Opuntia discata. 



OPUNTIA. 



143 



Type locality: Near Devil's River, Texas. 

Distribution: Type locality and vicinity. 

This plant is abundant between Del Rio, Texas, and Devil's River, being one of the 
two commonest species in that region. 

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 26, in part. 

Plate XXV, figure i, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected near Devil's 
River, Texas, by Dr. Rose in 1913. 




Fig. 181. — Opuntia azurea, Zacatecas, Mexico, 



144. Opuntia azurea Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 291. 
1909. 

Compact, upright, with a single trunk, or branching 
from the base and more or less spreading; joints orbicular to 
obovate, 10 to 15 cm. in diameter, pale bluish green, glau- 
cous; areoles about 2 cm. apart, the lower ones spineless, 
the upper ones with i to 3 rather stout spines; spines, at 
least when old, almost black, unequal, the longer ones 2 to 3 
cm. long, more or less reflexed; glochids numerous, brown; 
petals 3 cm. long, deep yellow, with crimson claw, but in 
age pink throughout; filaments greenish or almost white; 
stigma-lobes pale green; fruit dull crimson, subglobose to 
ovoid, spineless, truncate, juicy, edible. 

Type locality: Northeastern Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Distribution: Zacatecas and probably Durango. 

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pi. 24; 
also f. 33. 

Figure 181 is from a photograph by F. E- Lloyd 
of the type plant; figure 182 represents joints of the 
plant collected by Albert de Lautreppe near Zacatecas, 
Mexico, in 1904. 




Fig. 182. 

Opuntia azurea 

X0.4. 



144 "^he; cactaceae;. 

145. Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann in Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. 4: 52. 1849. 

Opuntia phaeacantha brunnea Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856. 
Opuntia phaeacantha major Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856. 
Opuntia phaeacantha nigricans Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3 : 293. 1 856. 
Opuntia camanchica Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856. 
Opuntia chihuahuensis Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 291. 1909. 
Opuntia toumeyi Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 402. 1909. 
Opuntia blakeana Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 402. 1909. 
Opuntia zuniensis Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 86. 1916. (From the description.) 

Low, usually prostrate, with some branches ascending; joints usually longer than broad, 10 to 
15 cm. long; areoles rather remote, the lower ones often spineless; spines i to 4, those on the 
sides of the joints more or less reflexed, somewhat flattened, usually rather stout, brown, some- 
times darker at base, or often nearly white throughout, the longer ones 5 to 6 cm. long; glo- 
chids numerous, yellow to brown; flowers 5 cm. broad, yellow; ovary short; fruit 30 to 35 mm. 
long, much contracted at base. 

Type locality: About Santa Fe and on the Rio Grande, New Mexico. 

Distribution: Texas to Arizona and Chihuahua. 

We have referred to Opuntia phaeacantha the common low, bushy Opuntia with small 
joints, brown spines, and yellow flowers of the Southwest ; we formerly regarded it as com- 
posed of several species, and others have followed our lead ; but we are unable to draw any 
distinct Hnes after a study of much additional herbarium and greenhouse material. Dr. 
Rose has collected a large series of specimens from the Southwest, especially from the type 
localities, but his specimens seem to bridge over differences which before seemed tangible; 
cited differences appear to be racial rather than specific. 

Opuntia blakeana, which is found west of the Rocky Mountains, one would expect to 
be different. It is characterized by small obovate joints, rather short spines, small yellow 
flowers purple at center. 

Opuntia chihuahuensis, which was first described from Mexican specimens, if it belongs 
here, is in the southern range of 0. phaeacantha. It, too, has yellow flowers with red 
centers, rather large joints, and long, slender spines. Mr. Wooton is of the opinion that to 
O. chihuahuensis is to be referred the common, low, brown species from El Paso, which 
includes the specimens of G. R. Vasey, which Coulter called Opuntia mesacantha oplocarpa. 
This long-spined form extends north throughout eastern New Mexico to southeastern 
Colorado. With the latter form Mr. Wooton believes Opuntia camanchica belongs. If 
we take this broad view of the limits of this species we are forced to include Opuntia 
toumeyi, although it is much larger than 0. blakeana, and was considered by Dr. Rose to 
be different. 

Opuntia mesacantha sphaerocarpa Wooton and Standley (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 19: 
446. 19 15) is a mistake, 0. mesacantha oplocarpa being intended. 

Opuntia rubrifolia Engelmann in Coulter (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 424. 1896), 
from St. George, Utah, belongs in this series if E- W. Nelson's No. 156, from the same place 
has been properly determined as such. The type specimen of 0. rubrifolia has, apparently, 
been lost. 

The following varieties of Opuntia camanchica have been offered by Haage and Schmidt 
in their catalogues: albispina (Trade Seed Cat. 104. 1911-1912); orbicularis, rubra, and 
salmonea (all in Haupt-Verzeichnis 1908: 228. 1908). Under 0. camanchica has been 
mentioned also variety luteo-staminea (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 53. 1908). 

Opuntia eocarpa Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 11. 1916), also 0. recurvo- 
spina Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 12. 1916) and possibly 0. superbospina 
Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 13. 191 6) and 0. caesia Griffiths (Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Washington 29: 13. 1916) are of this relationship. 

Opuntia microcarpa* Engelmann (Emory, Mil. Reconn. 158. f. 7. 1848) and 0. violacea 
Engelmann (Emory, Mil. Reconn. 158. f. 8. 1848) were described from drawings brought 

*Since the above was written Dr. Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club, 43: 527) has pubHshed a detailed account of this 
species, which he regards as distinct; it inhabits southern Arizona. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del 



1. mow&r'mg joints, oi Opu7itiaafrispina. 2. Flowering joint of Ifumtia phaeaamtha . 

3. Upper part of joint of Opuntia engelmannii. (All natuifal Vize. ) 



OPUNTIA. 



145 




Fig. 183. — Opuntia covillei. X0.4. 



back from the Southwest by W. H. Emory. They can never be critically identified, but 
are probably of this relationship. 

Illustrations: Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 3*'':f. 57, C; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 
2. f. 141; Illustr. Fl. 2:f. 2530; ed. 2. 2:f. 2989; Pac. R. Rep. 4:pl. 9, f. i to 5; pi. 22, f. 
12 to 15; Wiener Illustr. Gartenz. 10: f. 115, all as Opuntia camanchica; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. 
Sta. Bull. 78: pi. [7], as Opuntia chihuahuensis; Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 12 : pi. 55, as Opuntia blakeana; Cact. Mex. Bound, 
pi. 75, f. 9 to 13. 

Plate XXV, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a 
plant sent from Tucson, Arizona, in 1916, by Dr. Mac- 
Dougal. 

146. Opuntia mojavensis Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 

1856. 

Prostrate, with suborbicular joints; pulvini remote, with large 
yellow bristles; spines 2 to 6, stout and annulate, acutely angu- 
lar and compressed, more or less curved, reddish brown, paler 
toward tip, 2.5 to 6 cm. long, i to 3 smaller, slenderer, pale ones 
added below; fruit oblong, 4.5 cm. long. 

Type locality: On the Mojave, west of the Colorado, 
California. 

Distribution: Known only 
from the type locality. 

The fragmentary type speci- 
men has been examined ; we have 
been unable to refer any other 
specimens to this species, which 
is thus very imperfectly under- 
stood. 

Illustration: Pac. R. Rep. 4: 
pi. 9, f. 6 to 8. 

147. Opuntia covillei Britton and 

Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 
532. 1908. 

Opuntia megacarpa Griffiths, 

Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 

91. 1909. 
Opuntia rugosa Griffiths, Proc. 

Biol. Sec. Washington 27: 

27. 1914. 
Bushy plants, usually growing 
in dense thickets; joints orbicular to 
obovate, 10 to 20 cm. long or more, 
pale green, sometimes purplish, 
slightly glaucous; areoles 2 to 4 cm. 
apart; spines several from an areole, 
slender, unequal, the longest ones 
6 cm. long, white when young, 
brownish when old; flowers large, 
yellow. 

Type locality: San Bernard- 
ino, California. 

DisirifeMi/on.' Interior valleys ^ „ ^ • 

. . ■' Fig 184. — Opuntia covillei. 

of southern Cahfomia. 

Opuntia covillei and 0. vaseyi grow in the same valleys, often in adjoining colonies, 
and while hybrids may occur, the two species could easily be distinguished. When growing 




146 



the; cactaceab. 



in conjunction, 0. covillci is considerably taller, has joints of different color, and has yellow 
flowers. It has doubtless generally passed as Opimtia occidcntalis , but that is a much 
larger, stouter plant, with strong, more or less flattened spines, and is common along the 
coast. 

Figure 183 represents a joint of the plant sent by Dr. MacDougal from Klsinore, 
California, in 1913; figure 184 is from a photograph of a specimen collected by Mr. S. 
B. Parish from near the type locality in 1916. 

148. Opuntia vaseyi (Coulter) Britten and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 532. 1908. 

Opiinlia mesacantha vaseyi Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896. 
Opuntia rafinesquei vaseyi Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 717. 1898. 
Opuntia humijusa vaseyi Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. ed. 2. 8. 1900. 
Opuntia magenta Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 268. 1908. 
Opuntia rubiflora Davidson, Bull. South. Calif. Acad. 15: 33. 1916. 

Plants low, the lower stems spreading at base, but some of the branches erect and 4 to 7 joints 
high; joints thick, small (usually 10 to 12 cm. long), ovate, pale green, somewhat glaucous; areoles 
rather large, 2 to 3 cm. apart, bearing i to 3 spines; spines porrect, usually short (rarely 2 cm. long), 
grayish brown or bright brown, whitish or yellowish towards the tips, somewhat flattened; young 
joints bright green, thickish, bearing short purplish leaves and a single brownish spine from an areole ; 
flowers deep salmon, almost a red-salmon, from the very first; ovary globular to shortly oblong; 
areoles few, mostly towards the top of the ovary, spineless but with a few brown glochids ; fruit 
globular to shortly oblong, 4 to 5 cm. long, deep purple, truncate at apex, with few areoles, the pulp 
sweetish but hardly edible; umbilicus broadly depressed. 

Type locality: Cited as Yuma, Arizona, presumably erroneously. 

Distribution: San Bernardino and Orange Counties, southern California. 

Even from a moving train this species is distinguishable from its relatives by the 
color of its flowers. It forms great thickets along the Southern Pacific Railroad north of 
Los Angeles, either alone or interspersed with one or more other species, and it is also common 
in the San Bernardino Valley toward the Cajon Pass where it forms great thickets either 
alone or with Opimtia covillei. Considerable quantities were seen also on hills near River- 
side, and it was found cultivated in the cactus garden at River- 
side and in the Soldiers' Home Grounds at Santa Monica. 

Illustration: Bull. South. Calif. Acad. 15: 32, as Opuntia 
rubiflora. 

Figure 185 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. 
Rose at Fernando, California, in 1908. 

149. Opuntia occidentalis Engelmann, and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 

3: 291. 1856. 

Opuntia lindheimeri occidentalis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 421 

1896. 
Opuntia engelmannii occidentalis Engelmann in Brewer and Watson, Bot. 

Calif, i: 248. 1876.* 
Opuntia demissa Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 29. 1912. 
Erect or spreading, often i meter high or more, forming large 
thickets ; joints large, obovate to oblong, 2 to 3 dm. long ; areoles remote ; 
spines 2 to 7, stout, unequal, the longest ones 4 to 5 cm. long, more or 
less flattened, brown or nearly white, sometimes wanting ; shorter spines 
often white ; glochids often prominent, brown ; flowers yellow, large, in- 
cluding the ovary often 10 to 11 cm. long; fruit large, purple. 

Type locality: Western slopes of the CaHfornia Mountains, 
between San Diego and Los Angeles. 

Distribution: Southwestern CaHfornia and northern Lower Fig. iSs.-Opuntia vaseyi. 
CaHfornia and adjacent islands. x°-5- 

In their description of this species, Engelmann and Bigelow state that it was found on 
the western slope of the CaHfornia Mountains near San Diego and Los Angeles. In the 

*Coulter refers this name to Pac. R. Rep. 4: errata, 3. 1856, but no formal name is published there. 




OPUNTIA. 



147 



Engelmann herbarium are the two original sheets. One of these comes from the "Moun- 
tain Valleys of San Pasquel and Santa Isabel," northeast of San Diego. This consists of 
a single flower and a small piece of a joint containing three bunches of spines; we doubt if 
this can be identified. The other comes from near Tos Angeles and consists of a large pad 
and fruit with seeds. The spines are dark 
brown or nearly black. This specimen ap- 
pears to be the one figured in the Pacific 
Railroad Report and may very properly be 
taken as the type of the species. 

There is much uncertainty regarding 
the range of this species, some referring it 
to the interior valleys of California. An ex- 
amination, however, of the type material, 
and a study of the living plants in southern 
California by Dr. Rose, convince us that 
the coastal opuntias can not all be referred 
to O. littoralis as is sometimes done, but a 
part belongs to 0. occidenialis. The limits 
of the latter species, and its distribution, 
are not well defined. 

Of this relationship is to be consid- 
ered Opuntia semis pinosa Griffiths (Bull. 
Torr. Club 43: 89. 1916), which the author 
describes as a common, conspicuous spe- 
cies in the coastal region of California. 

Illustrations: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. 
Bull. 60: pi. 3, f. 2; Pac. R.Rep.4:pl. 7, f.1,2; 
pi. 22, f. 10; Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 22: pi. 8, 
this last as Opuntia demissa. 

Figure 186 is from a plant collected 
on Santa Catalina Island, Cahfornia, by 
Mr. S. B. Parish in 1916. „ =^ o ,■ -a , r 

Fig. 186. — Opuntia occidentahs. 

150. Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck in Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 207. 1850. 

Opuntia engelmannii cyclodes Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 291. 1856. 
Opuntia lindheimeri cyclodes Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 422. 1896. 
Opuntia dillei Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard, 20: 82. 1909. 
Opuntia arizonica Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 93. 1909. 
Opuntia wootonii Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 171. 1910. 
Opuntia cyclodes Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 309. 1911. 
Opuntia gregoriana Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 26. 1912. 
Opuntia valida Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 24. 1914. 
Opuntia confusa Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 28. 1914. 
Opuntia magnarenensis Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 9. 1916. 
Opuntia expansa Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 14. 1916. 

Originally described as erect and up to 2 meters high, but more properly a widely spreading 
bush, usually without a definite trunk; joints oblong to orbicular, 2 to 3 dm. long, thick, pale green; 
areoles distant, becoming large and bulging; spines usually more or less white, with dark red or 
brownish bases and sometimes with black tips, usually 3 or 4, sometimes only i , or entirely wanting 
from the lower areoles, but on old joints 10 or more, usually somewhat porrect or a little spreading, 
but never reflexed, the larger ones much flattened, the longest one 5 cm. long; leaves subulate, 
about 15 mm. long; glochids numerous, brown with yellowish tips; flowers large, yellow; fruit 
3.5 to 4 cm. long, red; seeds small, 3 to 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: From El Paso to Chihuahua. 

Distribution: Chihuahua, Durango, Sonora, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. 




148 THE CACTACEAE. 

An examination of the plant collected by Wislizenus (No. 223) north of Chihuahua, 
now in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden and labeled by Dr. Engelmann as 
0. engehnannii Salm-D3^ck, shows that this species is of Schumann's series Fulvispinosae 
(our series Phacacanthae) rather than series Tunae. 

Opmitia engelmannii has been more confused than any other species of Opuntia. 
Salm-Dyck, who first studied the species, doubtless had but a single specimen before him, 
and this or a duplicate is now in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden. This 
type specimen came from near Chihuahua City, from which place Dr. Rose has collected 
identical material. Dr. Engelmann, who published Salm-Dyck's name, described the 
plant as erect and 5 to 6 feet high, gi\ang its range from Chihuahua City to Texas. These 
remarks of his were doubtless based on notes of Dr. Wishzenus, who collected the type, 
and must have included more than one species; as Engelmann says it is both cultivated 
and wild, the cultivated plants doubtless referring to some of the many forms grown about 
towns and ranches. In 1S52 Engelmann extends the distribution of the species westward 
to the Pacific Ocean, referring especially to a San Diego specimen. In 1856 he refers here 
his previously described species 0. lindheimeri, and extends the range eastward to the mouth 
of the Rio Grande and to lower Mexico. Coulter brought all this material together under 
0. lindheimeri and four varieties. 

An examination of herbarium and greenhouse specimens shows that at least half a 
dozen species have been passing under the name of 0. engehnannii. WTiile certain varieties 
and specimens are evidentty to be excluded from the species, we are still uncertain as to its 
specific Hmits. It is quite common about Chihuahua Cit}^ and extends to INIontere}' 
and Saltillo or is represented there by a near ally, while ]Mr. E. O. Wooton would refer here 
plants of southern New Mexico, and we are including large, bushy opuntias from Arizona. 

Dr. Rose was inclined at one time to separate the Tucson plant, which seems to have 
some just claims for specific recognition, but there is a mass of herbarium material which 
seems to connect this with the true 0. engelmannii. 

Opuntia engelmannii monstrosa (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 54. 1908) is doubt- 
less one of the abnormal forms so common among the flat-jointed opuntias. 

Opuntia cyclodes, first found by Bigelow near Anton Chico, New Mexico, is certainly 
of this relationship. The characters of orbicular joints, of small fruit and of stout, usually 
solitar}' spines, originally assigned to it, are not constant, for it often has obovate to oblong 
joints bearing as many as four slender spines and large fruit. 

In 1 9 13 Dr. Rose explored the upper Pecos, especially about Anton Chico, near the 
type locaUty, where he collected specimens similar to the Bigelow plant, but these grade 
into more spiny forms, some bearing as many as five spines at an areole, usually 
yellow, especialty distally, and more slender than in typical 0. engelmannii. From the 
same type localit}-, and associated with 0. cyclodes, is 0. expansa Griffiths, which has more 
and whiter spines than the typical form, although they are sometimes yellowish with brown 
bases. 0. dillei Griffiths is also related to 0. cyclodes, but the spines are fewer; Dr. Grif- 
fiths states, however, that more spines develop on cultivated plants. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4 : pi. 8, f . i ; pi. 22, f . 8, 9, all as Opuntia engehnannii cyclodes; 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 4, in part, as Opuntia dillei. Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 
7, f. i; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 10; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pi. 10, f. 3, 
6, all as Opuntia arizonica. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 26, in part, 27, both as Opuntia 
uvotonii. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22 : pi. 3, this last as Opuntia gregoriana. Standley, Ann. 
Rep. Smiths. Inst, igiiipl. 2;Bull. Torr. Club 32:pl. 10, f. 10 to 13; Cact. Journ. 2: 147; 
Cact. ]Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. i to 4; Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 3 : f. 1547; Gard. Chron. III. 
3o:f. 123; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pi. [5, 6]. 

Plate XXV, figure 3, represents a flowering joint of a plant sent from Arizona by Dr. 
MacDougal in 1902. 



OPUNTIA. 149 

151. Opuntia discata Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 266. 1908. 

Opuntia gilvescens Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 87. 1909. 
Opuntia riparia Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 26. 1914. 

Plants bushy, spreading, sometimes 15 dm. high; joints thick, orbicular to broadly obovate, 
2.5 dm. in diameter or less, pale bluish green, somewhat glaucous; areoles rather few, distant, in 
age becoming very large, hemispheric, filled with short brown wool ; spines usually 2 to 4, sometimes 
7 or more in old areoles, 2 cm. long or more, grayish with dark bases, somewhat flattened; flowers 
large, 9 to 10 cm. broad, light yellow, darker near the center; style white; stigma-lobes green; fruit 
magenta, pyriform, 6 to 7 cm. long. 

Type locality: Foothills of Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona. 

Distribution: Foothills and high mesas of southern Arizona and northern Sonora. 

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 2, f. 5; pi. 7; pi. 13, f. 6, all as Opuntia gil- 
vescens; Amer. Garden 11: 469, this last as Opuntia angustata. Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
67: pi. I, f. 2; Bull U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pi. 3, f. 2; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 27, in part. 

Plate XXIV, figure 2, is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal in the Tortolita 
Mountains, Arizona, in 1916; Opuntia discata is the plant shown in left foreground. 

152. Opuntia rastrera Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 896. 1898. 

?Opunlia lucens Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 269. 1908. 
Creeping plant; joints circular to obovate, the largest 2 dm. in diameter; spines white, several 
from an areole, the longest 4 cm. long; glochids yellow; flowers yellow; fruit purple, acid, obovoid. 

Type locality: San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Distribution: The type locaUty and vicinity. 

This species was very briefly described in 1898 by Dr. Weber, who states that it is 
quite distinct from 0. tuna, the Jamaican species. Schumann, who treats it in a note under 
0. tuna, states that it is a well-differentiated species from Mexico. 

From descriptions we are referring here 0. lucens Griffiths, also described from San 
Luis Potosi specimens. Dr. Griffiths states that his 0. lucens is related to 0. engelmannii, 
but has a different habit; he says it is called cuija by the Mexicans, but that it is very 
different from Opuntia cuija. 

Series 12. ELATIORES. 

Tall species, with flat, broad, persistent joints, the areoles bearing acicular, setaceous, or subulate 
brown spines, or some species spineless. We know about twelve species, most of them South 
American, with one in Florida (see Appendix p. 222), possibly one (0. fuliginosa) in Mexico. 

Key to Species. 

Joints very spiny. 
Spines not banded. 

Areoles surrounded by a purple blotch 153. 0. brunnescens 

Areoles not surrounded by a purple blotch. 

Spines setaceous; petals yellow 154. O. galapageia 

Spines, when present, acicular or subulate; petals mostly red or orange. 

Joints strongly undulate; spines short, stout 155. 0. delaetiana 

Joints not undulate or scarcely undulate. 

Joints bluish green, glaucous 156. 0. bergeriana 

Joints bright green, not glaucous or slightly glaucous 
Spines, at least on young joints, acicular, slender. 

Spines, when present, dark brown or blackish; joints dull 157. O. elalior 

Spines light brown to straw-colored. 

Spines up to s cm. long; joints shining 158. 0. hanburyana 

Spines 3 cm. long or less; joints dull. 

Flowers 12 to 15 mm. wide; spines i to 4 at an areole or 

wanting i59- O. quitensis 

Flowers 5 to 6 cm. wide; spines up to 10 at an areole i59ff. O. soederslromiana 

Spines subulate, stout; joints shining 160. 0. schumannii 

Spines acicular; petals yellow; joints shining [in this series?] 161. O. fuliginosa 

Spines distinctly banded; joints dark green, obscurely glaucous i6ia. 0. zebrina 

Joints usually spineless. 

Bushy, I to 2 meters high; flowers rose 162. 0. boldinghii 

Erect, 3 to 4 meters high; flowers orange-red 163. 0. distans 



150 



The cactaceae;. 



153. Opuntia brunnescens sp. nov. 

Usually low and prostrate, sometimes i meter high, without a definite trunk, usually forming 
a bushy clump; joints oblong to orbicular, 15 to 30 cm. long, smooth, dull green, except the purple 
blotches about the prominent areoles; spines 2 to 5, brownish, porrect or pointing forward, up to 
4.5 cm. long, stout, sometimes twisted. 

Hills about the city of Cordoba, Argentina, where it was collected by Rose and Russell, 
September 8, 1915 (No. 21029). 

This species is very common on the dry hills about Cordoba, where it is often associ- 
ated with Opuntia sulphiirea. It apparently extends northward into Jujuy. 

Figure 187 represents a joint of the type specimen above cited; figure 188 shows its 
fruit collected by Dr. Shafer (No. 78). 

154. Opuntia galapageia Henslow, Mag. Zool. and Bot. i: 467. 1837. 

Opimtia myriacantha Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 1898. 

Opuntia helleri Schumann in Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 180. 1902. 

Opuntia insularis Stewart, Proc. Calif. Acad. IV. i: 113. 191 1. 
Sometimes low and creeping, but often becoming very large, 5 to 10 meters high, with a large top 
either open or very compact and rounded; trunk at first very spiny and made up of flat joints set 
end to end, with the short axis of each joint at right angles to that of the adjacent joint, in time 
becoming terete, and when old nearly naked, 3 to 13 dm. in diameter; bark of old trunks smooth, 
brown, peeling off in thin layers; joints oblong to orbicular, usually very large, 1.5 to 3.5 dm. long, 
very spiny; areoles large, often prominent on the trunk, there especially forming knobs bearing 
numerous spines ; spines extremely variable, but nearl}^ all yellowish brown ; areoles on young, vigorous 
plants very stout and rigid, very unequal, the longest 7 to 8 cm. long; joints of old plants bearing 
more or less pungent bristles or sometimes very weak soft hairs instead of spines, while the spines 
from the trunks often are very stout and sometimes 40 in a cluster; flowers yellow, 7.5 cm. broad; 
ovary more or less tuberculate ; fruit greenish, sometimes borne in the ends of joints, more or less 
spiny; seeds large, 5 to 6 mm. broad, white, covered with soft hairs. 




X0.4 



— Fruit of O. brun- 
nescens. X0.9. 



Fig. 190.- 



-Flower of same. 
X0.75 



Fig. 189 — Joint of 
O. galapageia. 



Type locality: Galapagos Islands. 

Distribution: Very common, often forming forests, on the Galapagos Islands. 

We have here combined the four species reported from the Galapagos Islands, while 
Alban Stewart, in his admirable paper on the botany of these islands, not only recognizes 
four species, but describes a fifth without specific name. He also has fourteen full-page 



OPUNTIA. 



151 



illustrations showing fine habit views of the Galapagos Opuntia. The early descriptions 
of this species were very inaccurate and, as pointed out by Mr. Stewart, the characters 
assigned to its fruit are those of a Cereus-like plant. Mr. Stewart visited the Galapagos 
Islands in 1 905-1 906 and brought back a remarkable series of photographs and specimens. 
Through the kindness of Miss Alice Eastwood, Curator of Botany in the California Academy 
of Sciences, we have been able to study this material. It consists of about forty sheets of 
well-preserved joints with a few flowers and fruits. These, in connection with the pub- 







■iM^ 








-^^ 


lUH^^fe 


:. .._ 








H 


1 


t 






w^m 


1 


»"< 






^^ 


1 


R;- 






HRBH|^j»^jjM90 


1 


p:r-l^ 






■B^^i'^fiB^'SK 


1 


f ^^^ 




(hH 


^^^^Hp 


' 


' 






\ " 







Fig. 191. — Opuntia galapageia. X0.75. 

lished illustrations, show a great range of variation in habit, armament of joints, and char- 
acter of spines. While these differences are very marked, they are similar to what is 
sometimes met with in other opuntias, such as 0. gosseliniana and 0. leucotricha, or in 
certain Peruvian and Chilean types of Cereus relatives; indeed, in a number of cacti 
which live under intense desert influences, most diverse forms in the same species are often 
produced. The habit-character in this species seems to be of little value, according to Mr. 



152 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Stewart himself, for he calls attention to procumbent and arborescent forms of 0. gala- 
pageia, while the greatest range of spine characters is shown between the young plants and 
old ones and between the trunk and the joints. The specimen which Mr. Stewart has 
made the type of his Opuntia insularis is quite different from all the others, and yet one 
can easily believe that intergrades could be found ; his species is described without flowers 
or fruit. Mr. Stewart states that this Opuntia forms the principal article of food for the 
Galapagos land tortoise. Its trunk becomes thicker than that of any other known species 
of the genus. 

Illustrations: Gard. Chron. III. 24: f. 75 ; Mag. Zool. and Bot. i : pi. 14, f. 2 ; Proc. Calif. 
Acad. IV. I : pi. 7, f. 2; pi. 8; pi. 9, f. 2; pi. 10 to 12. Gard. Chron. Ser. III. 27: f. 56; Proc. 
Calif. Acad. IV. i: pi. 7, f. i; pi. 13, f. 2; pi. 16 to 18, all as Opuntia myriacantha. Proc. 
Calif. Acad. IV. i: pi. 13, f. i; pi. 14, the last two as Opuntia helleri. Proc. Calif. Acad. 
IV. I : pi. 9, f. I ; pi. 15, the last two as Opuntia insularis. 

Figure 189 represents a joint of the plant collected by Robert E. Snodgrass and 
Edmund Heller on Wenman Island, Galapagos, on the Hopkins-Stanford Expedition (type 
of Opuntia helleri Schumann), drawn from the herbarium specimen in the Gray Herbarium; 
figure 190 is of a flower of the same plant; figure 191 is from a photograph of an herbarium 
specimen collected by Alban Stewart. 

155. Opuntia delaetiana Weber in Vaupel, Bliihende Kakteen 3: pi. 148. 1913. 

Opuntia elata delaetiana Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist, Nat. Paris lo: 392. 1904. 
Joints oblong, 25 cm. long, 8 cm. broad, bright green, at first thin and spineless, the margin 
strongly undulate ; areoles large, bearing 3 to 5 straight, rose-colored or yellowish brown spines up to 
4 cm. long; leaves subulate, about 4 mm. long; glochids wanting in young areoles, later appearing 
numerous and brown; flower-buds rounded at the apex; outer sepals orbicular, obtuse, red; flower 
rotate, 5 to 7 cm. broad, orange-colored; stigma-lobes white; fruit oblong or pyriform, red, 5 to 7 cm. 
long, 3 to 5 cm. in thickness. 

Type locality: Paraguay. 

Distribution: Paraguay and northeastern Ar- 
gentina. 

The plant was collected by Dr. Thomas 
Morong at Asuncion, Paraguay, in 1888, and re- 
ferred in his list of plants collected in Paraguay 
(Annal. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 7: 121. 1892) to 0. nigri- 
cans Haworth; Dr. Shafer found it in 19 17 in waste 
places and in hedge-rows about Concordia and Po- 
sados, Argentina. This species may more prop- 
erly belong in our series Elatae than in Elatiores. 

Illustration: Bliihende Kakteen 3: pi. 148. 

Figure 192 is copied from the illustration 
above cited. 

156. Opuntia bergeriana Weber in Berger, Gard. Chron. 
111.35:34- 1904- 
Growing singly or in dense thickets, qften i to 3.5 

meters high and having a trunk 3 to 4 dm. in diameter, 
with a large, spreading top, or clambering over walls 
and rocks; joints narrowly oblong, sometimes 2.5 cm. 
long, when young often quite narrow, bright green, but 
becoming dull and somewhat glaucous; areoles rather distant, on old joints 2 to 4 cm. apart, filled 
with short gray wool; spines 2 or 3, rarely 5, unequal, the longest one 3 to 4 cm. long and somewhat 
flattened, more or less brownish at base, sometimes yellowish, porrect, or somewhat turned down- 
ward; leaves 2 to 3 mm. long, fugacious; glochids yellow but sometimes turning brown, rather promi- 
nent, formmg a half circle in the upper part of the areole; areoles circular, when young filled with 
light brown wool m the center and white in the outer region; flowers numerous, showy, deep red; 




Fig. 192. — Opuntia delaetiana. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del. ^ moweTing ]omt oi Op7(ntia 5er£-eriana. 3. mowtring ioint oi Opzentia Soldi ng /in . 

2. Flowering joint of Opvntia elatior. 4, 5 Joints of Opuntia elata. 

(All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



153 



some joints bearing 20 or more ; petals 2.5 cm. long, mucronate; filaments numerous, scarlet-rose; 
stigma-lobes 6, green; fruit small, 3 to 4 cm. long, red, not edible; seeds few, flattened, 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Described from cultivated specimens. 

Distribution: Not known in the wild state, but now very common on the Riviera, 
northern Italy, forming large thickets. 

Mr. Berger would place this species next to 0. nigricans, which we now call 0. elatior. 
This species was named for Alwin Berger, formerly curator of the Hanbury Garden at La 
Mortola, Italy, who sent material to the late Dr. Weber, from which the species was 
described. The species is quite common on the Riviera and has run wild in many places, 
especially about Bordighera, Italy. It produces a great abundance of flowers in May, 
but blooms more or less throughout the year. 

Opuntia ledienii (Berger, Hort. Mortol. 233. 1912), unpubHshed, is referred here. 

Illustrations: Gard. Chron. III. 35: f. 14; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 156. 

Plate XXVI, figure i , represents a flowering joint of a plant sent from La Mortola, 
Italy, to the New York Botanical Garden in 1906. 

157. Opuntia elatior Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 4. 1768. 

Cactus nigricans Haworth, Misc. Nat. 187. 1803. 

Opuntia nigricans Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 189. 1812. 

Cactus elatior Willdenow, Enum. Hort. Berol. Suppl. 34. 1813. 

Cactus tuna nigricans Sims, Curtis's Bot. Mag. 38: pi. 1557. 1813. 

Cactus tuna elatior Sims, Curtis's Bot. Mag. 38: under pi. 1557. 1813. 

Cactus pseudococcinellifer Bertoloni, Excerpta Herb. Bonon. 11. 1820. 

Plants densely bushy-branched, up to 5 meters high ; joints obovate to oblong or suborbicular, 
olive-green, i to 2 dm. or even 4 dm. long; leaves 4 mm. long, green with reddish tips; areoles 2 to 
4 cm. apart; spines 2 to 8, acicular, mostly terete, dark brown, 2 to 4 cm. or even 7 cm. long; 
flowers about 5 cm. broad; petals dark yellow striped with red or sometimes salmon-rose, with 
mucronate tips; filaments numerous, pink or red; style nearly white; stigma-lobes 5, green; ovary 
ovoid, deeply umbilicate, its areoles either with or without spines; fruit obovoid, truncate when 
mature, reddish, the pulp dark red; seeds about 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Unknown. 

Distribution: Common or frequent in Curagao, Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama, 
escaped from cultivation in Austraha. 0. nigricans has been referred to Mexico, but 
doubtless wrongly, unless cultivated there. Plants brought by Dr. Howe from Tobogilla 
Island, Panama, have narrowly obovate joints. 

The early history of this species and its various synonyms are rather confusing. Dil- 
lenius figured Opuntia elatior and this name was taken up by Miller in 1768. There is 
some doubt as to its native home, but it probably came from northern South America, or 
possibly Curagao. Opuntia nigricans, also referred here, was described by Haworth from 
cultivated specimens; plate 1557 of Curtis's Botanical Magazine was made from Haworth's 
specimen and may be considered typical. 

Introduced into cultivation in Europe about 1793. 

Illustrations: Loudon, Encycl. pi. ed. 3. f. 6877, as Cactus elatior; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 38: 
pi. 1557, this last as Cactus tuna nigricans; Dillenius, Hort. Elth. pi. 294, this as Ttina elatior, 
etc.; Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 23: pi. opp. 208; pi. opp. 210, both these as Opuntia nigricans; 
Journ. Hort. Home Farm. III. 60: 30, this as Opuntia occidentalis. 

Plate XXVI, figure 2, shows a flowering joint of a specimen obtained by Dr. Britton 
and Dr. Shafer in Curagao in 191 3. 

158. Opuntia hanburyana Weber in Berger, Gard. Chron. III. 35: 34. 1904- 

Bushy I to 2 meters high, somewhat straggling; joints narrowly oblong, about 3 dm. long, bright 
green- leaves subulate, 4 to 5 mm. long; areoles closely set, filled with brown or blackish wool; 
spines' several, spreading, acicular, somewhat flattened and twisted, yellowish brown, the longest 
3 cm. long; flowers widely spreading, rather small; fruit small. 

Type locality: Described from cultivated plants. 

Distribution: Not known in the wild state. 



154 



THE CACTACEAE. 



The species commemorates Sir Thomas Hanbury, who, through his extensive garden 
at La Mortola, Italy, contributed much to botany and horticulture. 
Illustration: Gard. Chron. III. 35: f. 15. 
. Figure 193 represents joints of the plant sent from La Mortola, Italy, in 19 13. 

159. Opuntia quitensis Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 1898. 

Bushy, sometimes 2 meters high; joints obovate, i to 4 dm. long, 8 to 9 cm. broad; areoles 
small, distant, 2 cm. apart, bearing some white tomentum and short glochids; spines wanting, or i 

to 3, sometimes as many as 4 on old joints, straight, yellowish 
brown, or nearly white when young, acicular, somewhat flexu- 
ous, 2 to 3 cm. long; leaves green, minute, acute; flowers red, 
12 to 15 mm. broad; petals erect, obtuse; anthers white; style 
white, short and thick; stigma-lobes 13, white, about as long as 
the style; fruit obovoid, red, nearly spineless, about 2 cm. long; 
seeds about 3 cm. broad. 





Fig. 193. — O. hanburyana. X0.5. 



Fig. 194. — O. quitensis. X0.5. 



Type locality: Near Quito, Ecuador. 

Distribution: Ecuador. 

As observed by Dr. Rose in Ecuador in 191 8, this species is very variable in habit, 
for when grown in the open it is low and bushy with rather small joints, but when grow- 
ing in thickets it becomes tall and has large joints. About Huigra, where it is very 
common, it is often spineless, and when the spines are present they are few and weak. 
In southern Ecuador there is a plant which has small, red flowers Uke this species, but 
the joints have stout subulate spines. 

Figure 194 represents a joint of a plant obtained in 1901 for the New York Botanical 
Garden from M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France. 

159a. Opuntia soederstromiana sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 221.) 



OPUNTIA. 



155 



160. Opuntia schumannii Weber in Berger, Gard. Chron. III. 35: 34. 1904. 

Bushy, I to 2 meters high; joints obovate to oblong, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long, dull dark green; areoles 
distant, medium sized; spines 2 to 10, sHghtly spreading, very unequal, the longest ones 4.5 cm. 
long, more or less twisted, flattened, dark brown; glochids few, soon disappearing; flowers 6 cm. 
long, yellowish to orange, turning in age to dull red; ovary tuberculate, spineless, deeply umbilicate; 
fruit dark purple, turgid, juicy, deeply umbilicate, 5 cm. long. 

Type locality: Not cited. 

Distribution: Northern South America; sometimes assigned to Argentina. 

Opuntia schumannii is described by Berger as being intermediate between Opuntia 
and Nopalea, and according to him, it has long stamens and upright petals; otherwise it 
has little in common with Nopalea; a plant from Santa Clara, Colombia, which agrees 
with plants of 0. schumannii from La Mortola, Italy, has a normal Opuntia flower. 

Illustration: Gard. Chron. III. 35: f. 16. 

Plate XXVII, figure i, represents a fruiting joint of the plant collected by John G. Sin- 
clair at Santa Clara, Colombia, in 1913; figure 2 shows a flower of the same plant. 

161. Opuntia fuliginosa Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 262. 1908. 

Tall, tree-like, 4 meters high or more, much branched; joints orbicular to oblong, 3 dm. long 
or less, shining; leaves subulate, 8 to 12 mm. long; areoles distant; spines few, rarely as many as 6, 
dull brown or horn-colored, the longest ones 4 cm. long, slightly twisted; glochids yellow to brown; 
flowers at first yellow but in age red, 5 to 6 cm. long including the ovary; stigma-lobes yellowish 
green; fruit pyriform to short-oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long, red; seeds 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Near Guadalajara, Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

We refer this species to our series Elatiores with hesitation. 

Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 25. 

161a. Opuntia zebrina Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: 35. 1919. (See Appendix, p. 222.) 

162. Opuntia boldinghii sp. nov. 

Bushy, 2 meters high; joints dull green, somewhat glaucous, 
obovate, 2 cm. long, spineless or with very short brown spines; 
leaves conic, red, 2 to 3 mm. long; areoles large, elevated, filled 
with short brown wool; flowers rose-colored, 5 cm. long; petals 
obtuse; filaments pink, much shorter than the petals; style 
nearly white; stigma-lobes yellowish; fruit obovate, 4 cm. long, 
spineless; seeds 4 mm. in diameter. 

Collected by Dr. N. L- Britton and Dr. J. A. Shafer, 
March 1913, in cultivation on Curasao (No. 2905, type); 
also collected by H. Pittier around El PaUto, Venezuela, 
July 2, 1913 (No. 6450), and by Dr. Rose in a hedge at 
Valencia, Venezuela, October 27, 1916 (No. 21842). 

This species is named in honor of Dr. I. Boldingh, a 
Dutch botanist, author of a valuable descriptive flora of 
the Dutch West Indian islands. 

Plate XXVI, figure 3, shows a flowering joint of a 
specimen obtained by Dr. Britton and Dr. Shafer in 
Curagao in 19 13. 

163. Opuntia distans sp. nov. 
Erect, densely much branched, 3 to 4 meters tall, with a 

short trunk 1.5 dm. in diameter; joints flat, bluish green when 
young, grayish green when old, obovate, 2 to 2.5 dm. long, about 
1.5 dni. wide and nearly 2 cm. thick, rounded above, narrowed 




Fig. 195 — Joint of O. distans. X0.4. 



1^6 THE CACTACEAE. 

at the base, glabrous; areoles few, only about 12 on each side of a joint, distant, large, nearly cir- 
cular, S to 10 mm. broad, slightly elevated, bearing many short glochids, but quite spineless; leaves 
subulate, about 3 mm. long; ovar>' obconic, 3 to 4 cm. long, bearing a few small areoles; sepals 
broadly triangular, acute, 6 to 10 mm. long; petals broad, rounded, i to 2 cm. long, orange-red. 

Distribution: Sandy places, Andalgala, Catamarca, Argentina, J. A. Shafer, December 
15, 1916 (Xo. 7). 

A spineless species noteworthy for its few, large, distant areoles. We append it to 
the series Elatiores, but are uncertain as to its real affinity. The large distant areoles 
forbid associating it with the Fiais-indicae or the Streptacanihae. 

Figure 195 represents a joint of the type specimen. 

Series 13. ELATAE. 

Erect, tall species, natives of South America, with oblong or oval joints, the brown or white 
spines, when present, only one or few at each areole, except on the trunk and old joints. 

Key to Species. 

Joints ovate to broadly oblong or obovate. 

Joints t±in, lustrous, light green 164. O. vulgaris 

Joints turgid, dull green. 

Leaves purplish, rigid; joints dark green 165. O. data 

Leaves green, not rigid; joints pale green. 

Spines slender, terete 166. O. cardiosperma 

Spines stout, angled, elongated 167. O. arecliavaletai 

Joints narrowlv oblong to linear or spatulate. 

Joints oblong to linear; flowers brick-red 168. 0. mieckleyi 

Joints spatulate; flowers orange 169. O. bonaerensis 

164. Opuntia vulgaris ^Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. Xo. i. 176S. 

Cactus monacanthos Willdenow, Enum. PL Suppl. 33. 1813. 
Opuntia monacantha Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 81. 1819. 
Cactus urumheba Vellozo, FI. Flum. 207. 1825. 
Cactus indicus Roxburgh, Fl. Indica 2: 475. 1832. 
Cactus chinensis Roxburgh, Fl. Indica 2: 476. 1832. 
Opuntia monacantha gracilior Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 68. 1839. 
■ Opuntia umbrella Steudel, Xom. ed. 2. 2: 222. 1841. 

Opuntia roxburghiaiw Xoigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 62. 1845. 

Opuntia monacantha deflexa Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 66. 1850. 

Opuntia lemaireana Console in Weber, IDict. Hort. Bois 894. 1898. 

Plant 2 to 4 or even 6 meters high, often with a definite trunk, usually with a large much 
branched top; trunk cylindric, 1.5 dm. in diameter, either spiny or smooth; joints ovate to oblong, 
narrowed at base, i to 3 dm. long, bright shining green; leaves subulate, 2 to 3 mm. long; areoles 
filled with short wool; glochids brownish; spines i or 2, sometimes more (on the trunk often 10 or 
more) from an areole, erect, i to 4 cm. long, yellowish brown to dark reddish brown ; flowers yellow 
or reddish, 7.5 cm. broad; sepals broad, each with a broad red stripe down the middle; petals golden- 
yellow, widely spreading; filaments greenish; style white; stigma-lobes 6, white; ovarj- spineless, 
3.5 cm. long; fruit obovoid, 5 to 7.5 cm. long, reddish purple, long-persisting, sometimes proliferous. 

Type locality: Type, based on an illustration, the origin unknown. 

Distribution : Coast and islands of Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina ; in the interior to 
Paraguay; an escape in Cuba, India, and south Africa and naturalized in AustraUa; fre- 
quently cultivated. According to J. H. INIaiden it is found in every state of Australia, but 
it is not incUned to spread and become a pest. 

As has been recently pointed out by Burkill, the Opuntia vulgaris of IMiller is the same 
as 0. juonacantlia Haworth. 0. vulgaris was based on Bauhin's figure (Hist. PI. i: 154. 
1650), which was taken from LobeHus (Icones 2: 241. 159 1), and is a tall, branching plant. 
This species is not to be confused with the low, spreading species of the eastern United 
States, long known as 0. vulgaris. (See. p. 127.) 

This species is said by Burkill to be distributed over the earth more widely than any 
other, but our obser\-ation in America is that O.ficus-indica is by far the most widely 
spread species. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 







M. B. Eaton dfl 



1. Upper part of fruiting joint of Opuntia sclutmannii. 3. Flowering joint of Opuntia vulgaris. 

2. Flower of Opuntia sclmmannii. 4. Flowering joint of Opuntia stricta. 

(All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



157 



0. vulgaris was one of those most commonly used in the nopalries of India and South 
Africa in the cochineal industry. 

We have referred both of Roxburgh's species here, although Burkill was inclined to 
refer Cactus chinensis to 0. decumana, which in his sense is 0. ficus-indica . 

Opuntia monacantha variegata (listed in Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 57. 1908) is 
common in cultivation. Some of the joints are normally green; others are more or less 
blotched with white or yellow, while others may be entirely white or yellow; the leaves 
are bright red and though small are conspicuous. 

Opuntia urunibella Steudel (Nom. ed. 2. i: 246. 1840), given as a synonym of Cactus 
urumbella, is doubtless a name for this species. 

Opuntia defiexa Lemaire (Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 68. 1839) was given as a synonym of 
0. monacantha gracilior; while the latter was given as a synonym of 0. elatior deflexa Salm- 
Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 47. 1845). 

Illustrations: Rev. Hort. 41: f. 37; 66: f. 58; Bauhin, Hist. PI. i: 154 [ = I,obelius, 
Icones 2: 241], this last as Opuntia vulgo, etc. Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pi. 32; 
Curtis's Bot. Mag. 68: pi. 391 1 ; Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pi. [3], [4]; Agr. Gaz. 
N. S. W. 24: facing p. 864; Edwards's Bot. Reg. 20: pi. 1726; Gard. Chron. III. 30: f. 122, 
in part; 34: f. 35; Journ. Dept. Agr. Vict. 6: pi. 25; Martins, Fl. Bras. 4": pi. 62; Weeds, 
Pois. PI. Nat. Al. Vict. pt. i. pi. 
[10], [32], all asOpuntia monacantha; 
Amer. Garden 1 1 : 529 ; Cact. Journ. 
i: 167, these last two as Opuntia 
monacantha variegata; Vellozo, Fl. 
Flum. 5: pi. 32, as Cactus urumbeba; 
DeCandolle, PI. Succ. Hist. 2: pi. 
138 [B] ; De Tussac, Fl. Antill. 2 : pi. 
3 1 , these last two as Cactus opuntia 
tuna; Gard. Chron. III. 47: f. 174, 
this as Opuntia ficus-indica; Riim- 
pler, Sukkulenten f. 122, this as 
Opuntia tuna; Addisonia i : pi. 38. 

Plate XXVII, figure 3, represents 
a flowering joint of a plant pre- 
sented to the New York Botanical 
Garden by Mr. Gustav Rix in 1900. 

165. Opuntia elata Link and Otto in 

Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 361. 

1834. 

An erect plant, i meter high or more; joints thick, dark green, oblong, 5 to 25 cm. long, half 

as broad as long; leaves minute, caducous; areoles remote, large (7 mm. m diameter), filled with 

short white wool, usually spineless; spines if present only i to 3, except on old stems and there 

more, horn-colored, stiff, sometimes 3.5 cm. long; glochids very tardy m appearing, long persistent, 

flowers about 5 cm. broad, orange-yellow; petals obtuse, broad; filaments short; stigma-lobes white; 

fruit oblong, 6 cm. long, spineless, with a truncate umbilicus; seeds 6 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In Brazil. 

Distribution: Paraguay, but according to Salm-Dyck and Pfeiffer, from Brazil and 
probably Curagao; our exploration of Curasao failed to prove its existence there. It is 
grown for ornament in Cuba and has there escaped from cultivation m gardens to road- 
sides and waste grounds. . . 

Schumann did not know where to place this species, but we believe it is most nearly 

related to Opuntia vulgaris. 





Fig. 196. — O. elata. X0.4. 



Fig. 197. — O. cardiosperma. X0.4. 



1^8 THE CACTACEAE. 

Plate XXVI, figure 4, represents a flowering joint of a plant given to the New York 
Botanical Garden by Frank Weinberg in 1903; figure 5 represents another joint of the 
same plant. Figure 196 represents a joint of a plant obtained by Professor Carlos de la 
Torre at Punta de los Molinos, Cuba, in 19 12. 

166. Opuntia cardiosperma Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 150. 1899. 

About 2 meters high, erect, branching; joints narrowly oblong to obovate; rounded at apex, 
10 to 15 cm. long or smaller in greenhouse specimens, easily breaking apart, pale green, more or 
less tuberculate ; leaves minute, subulate ; areoles large, i to 2 cm. apart, with white wool, when young 
having conspicuous secreting glands; spines, when present, i to 4, acicular, stiff, more commonly i or 
2 from an areole, short, i to 2 cm. long, brownish at first but nearly white when old, porrect or ascend- 
ing; glochids tardily developing, never conspicuous, brownish; flowers unknown; fruit elongated, 
pear-shaped, 7.5 cm. long; seeds 6 mm. broad, 2.5 to 3 mm. thick, cordate, gray, with broad yehow 
margins, woolly on the sides. 

Type locality: At Recoleta, near Asuncion, Paraguay. 
Distribution: Paraguay. 

Figure 197 represents joints of the plant sent to the New York Botanical Garden 
from La Mortola, Italy, in 1913. 

167. Opuntia arechavaletai Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires. III. 4: 520. 1905. 
Plants tall, i to 3 meters high, much branched; joints flattened, oblong to obovate, 25 to 30 cm. 

long, green; spines, usually i, sometimes 3, elongated, porrect, up to 9 cm. long, white, flattened; 
flowers 4.5 cm. long, yellow; stamens and style white; fruit violet-purple, 7 cm. long. 

Type locality: Near Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Distribution: Argentina and Uruguay. 

Illustration: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo S:pl. 35. 

168. Opuntia mieckleyi Schumann, Blxihende Kakteen i: pi. 44. 1903. 

Plant erect, much branched; joints narrowly oblong, 15 to 25 cm. long, 4 to 6 cm. broad, glab- 
rous, dark green, darker below the areoles; tubercles rather prominent; leaves small; areoles large, 
filled with white wool; spines, when present, i or 2, very short (5 mm. long), dark-colored; flower- 
buds obtuse; flowers brick-red, 6 cm. broad; petals irregularly notched; ovary spineless. 

Type locality: In Paraguay. 

Distribution: Paraguay; Estancia Loma, in San Salvador. 

Named for W. Mieckley, gardener in the Berlin Botanical Garden. 

Illustration: Bliihende Kakteen i: pi. 44. 

169. Opuntia bonaerensis Spegazzini, Contr. Fl. Tandil 18. 1904. 

Opuntia chakensis Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. III. 4: 519. 1905. 
Two meters high, very much branched; joints spatulate to elliptic-spatulate, 15 to 25 cm. long, 
green; spines wanting or one, short; flowers orange, large, 4 cm. long; fruit obconic, 6 to 7 cm. 
long, dull purple; seeds 5 to 6 mm. long, subglobose. 

Type locality: Sierra de Curamalal, Argentina. 
Distribution: Argentina and perhaps Paraguay. 

Opuntia paraguayensis Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 149. 1899) accord- 
ing to Spegazzini, and if so this name would supplant 0. bonaerensis. 
Illustration: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pi. 23. 

The three following, known to us only from descriptions, may belong to this series. 

Opuntia stbnarthra Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 149. 1899. 

Shrubby, erect or decumbent, creeping over stones or ascending trees; joints thin, narrow, 
yellowish green, oblong to lanceolate, rounded at base, glabrous; spines either wanting or i to 3 
from an areole, stoutish, subangular; flowers yellow; seeds woolly. 

Type locality: Estancia Tagatiya, Paraguay. 
Distribution: Paraguay. 



OPUNTIA. I^g 

OpunTia ASSUMPTioNis Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 153. 1899. 

Erect, I meter high; joints obovate, narrowed at base, thickish; spines at areoles on the faces 
of the joints none, but on the edges i or 2, stout, subulate, the upper one stouter, 3 to 4.5 cm. long; 
flower 3.5 cm. long, lemon-yellow; fruit pear-shaped, with a deep umbiUcus; seeds densely villous. 

Type locality: Ascuncion, Paraguay. 
Distribution: Known only from the type locality. 

Opuntia canTBrai Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 278. 1905. 

Stems erect, branching, 5 to 10 dm. high; joints elongated, shining green, attenuate below, 
15 to 20 cm. long, 4 to 6 cm. broad; areoles orbicular, when young each surrounded by a violet 
spot, mostly spineless, about 4 cm. apart; spines, when present, i or 2 from an areole, 1.5 to 2 cm. 
long, whitish, with brownish tips; flowers orange-colored, 4 to 4.5 cm. broad; stigma-lobes 6 or 7, 
light flesh-colored; fruit somewhat pear-shaped, 5 cm. long; seeds flattened. 

Type locality: In Uruguay. 

Distribution: Along the coast of Uruguay. ^'^T"© ^'^6-' 

In Uruguay this species flowers in January and Feb- 
ruary. 

Series 14. SCHEERIANAE. w^ a ^ 

A single bushy species, with broad, thin, persistent joints, the '^tf ^ " - yy\ 

areoles close together, each bearing several yellow, acicular /^ * f ° '^ 
spines and long white or yellow hairs. Its home is unknown. T 0. ^ i 

170. Opuntia scheeri Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 895. 1898. \ --o ^' i 

About I meter high, branching at base, the lower branches \(.« '^ « '».''/,'*]! 
sprawling over the ground; joints oblong to orbicular, 1.5 to 3 \/---^ ^ p o ' 
dm. long, bluish green; areoles circular, elevated, filled with '-\^ S^ .. « i "^ 
short brown wool; spines 10 to 12, yellow, acicular, each sur- 
rounded by a row of long white or yellow hairs ; flowers large, !^ ■*> 
pale yellow, but in age salmon-colored; stigma-lobes deep V. .' o '^ ^ o- f.i 
green; fruit globular, red, juicy, truncate; seed small, 4 mm. 
broad, with a broad irregular margin. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Mexico, but known to us only from Fig. 198.— Opuntia scheeri. xo.5. 
cultivated specimens. 

This is a very beautiful species, covered as it is by yellow spines and long hairs. A 
fine plant is growing in the open at La Mortola, Italy. The seedhngs produce a long mass 
of soft white hairs almost covering the joints and giving an appearance very different from 
the adult plant. In this young stage, according to Mr. Alwin Berger, they readily pass 
for Opuntia senilis (0. crinijera). 

Figure 198 represents a joint from a specimen sent from La Mortola, Italy, in 191 2. 

Series 15. DILLENIANAE. 

Mostly bushy or tall species, with large, flat, persistent joints, and yellow spines which are 
sometimes brown at base, some species spineless or nearly so. We recognize thirteen species as 
composing the series, but many more have been described. The plants inhabit the southern United 
States, the West Indies, Mexico, and northern South America. 

Key to Species. 

Spines nearly setaceous, most of them reflexed i7i- 0. chlorolica 

Spines, when present, acicular to subulate. 

Joints spineless, or with only i or 2 spines at some of the areoles, or spmes very short. 
Corolla rotate; petals yellow. 

Plant tall; spines, when present, 2 cm. long or less 172. U. laevis 

Plant depressed, bushy or spreading; spines, when present, up to 7 cm. long 173- O. stncta _ 

Corolla cup-shaped; petals salmon i730. 0. keyensis 

Joints usually manifestly spiny ; spines mostly 2 or more at the areoles. 

Spines mostly stout, commonly flattened i74- ^• 

Spines acicular to subulate, terete, or slightly flattened at the base. 




i6o 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Joints elongated-lanceolate or oblong, several times longer than wide 175. 0. linguiformis 

Joints obovate to suborbicular. 
Spines long. 

Areoles mostly 1.5 to 2 cm. apart. 

Spines subulate, up to 7.5 cm. long 176. O. tapona 

Spines acicular, 4 cm. long or less. 

Spines nearly clear yellow, short 177. 

Spines brown at base, long and slender 178. 

Areoles mostly 2.5 to 4 cm. apart. 
Bushy species. 

Spines yellow or yellowish brown 179. 

Spines pale yellow or whitish 180. 

Depressed or procumbent plant 181. 

Spines only 1.5 cm. long or less, or becoming longer on old joints. 

Plant I meter high or less; joints thin 182. O. Canada 

Plant 3 to 5 meters high ; joints very thick. 

Spines reflexed; flowers yellow 183, 

Spines spreading, deciduous; flowers orange-red 1830, 

171. Opuntia chlorotica Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 291. 1856. 



O. litloralis 
0. aciculata 



0. lindheimeri 
O. cantabrigiensis 
O. procumbens 



0. pyriformis 
0. bonplandii 



Opuntia tidballii Bigelow, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 11. 1856. 
Opuntia curvospina Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 88. 



1916. 



Krect bushy, sometimes 2 meters high or more, with a definite trunk; main branches nearly 
erect; joints ovate to orbicular, sometimes broader than long, 15 to 20 cm. long, more or less glau- 
cous, bluish green; leaves subulate, small, reddish at tip; areoles closely set, prominent; spines 
yellow, several, most of them usually appressed and reflexed, setaceous, 3 to 4 cm. long; glochids 
yellow, numerous, elongated, persistent; flowers yellow, 6 to 7.5 cm. broad; filaments white; fruit 
purple without, green within, 4 cm. long; seeds small. 




Fig. 199. — Opuntia chlorotica. 



Fig. 200. — Opuntia chlorotica. X0.4. 



Type locality: On both sides of the Colorado from San Francisco Mountains to head- 
waters of Bill Williams River. 

Distribution: Sonora and New Mexico to Nevada, California, and Lower California. 

This species is of wide distribution, but is chiefly confined to mountain canyons, being 
rarely found on the open mesas. 

Illustrations: Bull. Torr. Club 43: pl. y, Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 6, f. i to 3; Bull. Torr. 
Club 43: pl. 2, this last as Opuntia curvospina. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 



PLATE XXIX 





1. View of Opuniia keyensis. 

2. View of Opuntia dillenii. 



OPUNTIA. 163 

This species is composed of many races varying greatly in habit, character and number 
of spines, shape of joints, and color of flowers. Brother Leon has sent us specimens of 
several individually quite different plants which inhabit hilltops in Cuba. 

Opimtia lucayana Britton (Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 141. 1906), inhabiting Grand 
Turk Island, Bahamas, differs in having elongated, often narrowly oblong joints 2 to 4 
times as long as wide and many elongated, little-flattened spines. It grows with Opuntia 
dillenii and 0. uashii, and is beheved to be a hybrid with these species as parents. A 
closely similar plant was observed on Buck Island, St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, 
growing immediately with 0. dillenii and 0. rubescens, the hybrid nature of which was 
unmistakable, and similar plants were seen also on Antigua, British West Indies. 

Opuntia cubensis Britton and Rose (Torreya 12: 14. 1912), observed in a valley near 
the southern coast of Cuba at Guantanamo Bay, differs in having narrower joints, rather 
readily separable and smaller flowers, its stout spines little flattened. It grows near 
colonies of Opuntia dillenii and 0. militaris, and is probably a hybrid between them. 

Reference has already been made to the possible hybrid origin of Opuntia antillana, 
with 0. dillenii as one of its parents. (See p. 115). 

Two varieties of Opuntia dillenii are given by name only; minor Salm-Dyck (Hort. 
Dyck. 185. 1834); orbiculaia Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 67. 1850). 

Opuntia gilva Berger (Hort. Mortol. 233. 191 2) is unpublished. The name was ap- 
plied to a specimen collected by Carl F. Baker in Cuba in 1907, and has been distributed 
under this name. It is only a form of this very variable species. 

The plant is hardy on the Gulf coast of the United States and in southern California. 
It is widely distributed through cultivation in the warmer parts of the Old World, being 
a "pest pear" in southern India and in Austraha; it is used for hedges in Teneriffe, and is 
common along the sea on Grand Canary Island. On Bermuda, when growing in shade, 
the plant is often spineless, and its joints elongate sometimes to a length of 3 dm., while 
only 6 or 7 cm. wide. This elongation of the joints also appears in plants from Florida. 

Illustrations: Edwards's Bot. Reg. 3: pi. 255, as Cactus dillenii; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
22: pi. I, 2, both these as Opuntia bentonii; Dillenius, Hort. Elth. 2: pi. 296, this as Titna 
major, etc. ; Amer. Journ. Pharm. 68: pi. opp. 169, as Opuntia vulgaris; Descourtilz, Fl. Med. 
Antill. 7: pi. 513, this as Cactus opuntia. Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen 2: pi. 3, f. 7 (?) ; 
Amer. Garden 11:473 (?); Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 3: f. 1545, 1546; Cact. Journ. i-' 154 (?); 
Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pi. [2]; Diet. Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 757; W. Watson, 
Cact. Cult. f. 86, all these as Opuntia tuna; Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 10: f. 26, this as Opun- 
tia inermis; Loudon, Encycl. PI. ed. 3. f. 6878, this as Cactus tuna; Britton, Fl. Bermuda 255. 

Plate xxviii, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant collected in 1901 by N. L. 
Britton and J. F. Cowell on the Island St. Martin, West Indies; plate xxix, figure i, is 
from a photograph of the related Opuntia keyensis growing on Boot Key, Florida, taken 
by Marshall A. Howe in 1909; figure 2 is from a photograph of the plant on Bermuda, 
obtained by Dr. Britton in 1912. Figure 201 is from a photograph of the plant growing 
on Antigua, British West Indies, taken by Paul G. Russell in 1913. 

175. Opuntia linguiformis Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 270. 1908. 

A bushy plant, i meter high or more; joints elongated, oblong to ovate-oblong or lanceolate, 
2 to 5 dm. long or even more, often several times longer than wide, pale green and slightly glaucous; 
leaves 6 mm. long, terete; spines yellow, very slender, terete or nearly so; areoles filled with brown 
wool; flowers yellow, 7 to 8 cm. broad; petals broad; filaments white or greenish at base; stigma- 
lobes 9, green; ovary bearing numerous long glochids at the upper areoles; fruit reddish purple; 
seeds 3 or 4 mm. broad, acute on the back. 

Type locality: Near San Antonio, Texas. 

Distribtition: Southern Texas, in the vicinity of San Antonio. 



164 



THE CACTACEAE. 



This plant is rather common in cultivation in the Southwest and is now found in 
most cactus collections. According to Dr. Griffiths, it is occasionally found wild near 
San Antonio. We have seen somewhat similar plants from near Brownsville, Texas, 
probably referable to one of the races of Opimtia lindheimeri. 

On account of the shape of the joints, this species is commonly called cow's tongue or 
lengua de vaca. 

Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 27, lower figure. 

Plate XXX represents a flowering joint of a plant obtained by Dr. MacDougal from 
the collection of Professor J. W. Toumey at Tucson, Arizona, for the New York Botani- 
cal Garden in 1902. 

176. Opuntia tapona Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 423. 1896. 

Low, spreading plants rarely over 6 dm. high; joints glabrous, orbicular to obovate, 20 to 25 cm 
in diameter, turgid, pale green; spines 2 to 4, yellow, one much longer, 5 to 7 cm. long, slender, 
porrect or sometimes curved downward; glochids brownish; fruit 4 to 6 cm. long, clavate, dark 
purple without, red within, spineless. 

Type locality: Near Loreto, Lower California, 

Distribution: Southern part of Lower California. 

Figure 202 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose on Pichilinque Island, 
Lower California, in 191 1. 

Related to 0. tapona, but probably specifically distinct from it, is a plant growing 
in the mountains of Cedros Island, Lower California; it was recorded from this island by 
Dr. E. L. Greene as 0. engelmannii, and a specimen was brought to Washington by Dr. 
Rose in 191 1. This plant may be described 
as follows: About i meter high; joints ob- 
long, large, 20 cm. long or more, smooth; 
areoles 3 cm. apart or more, very large, filled 
with brown wool; spines usually about 7, pale 
yellow, slender, terete, the longest ones 3 
cm. long; glochids yellow. (Rose No. 161 70.) 




Fig. 202. — Opuntia tapona. X0.4. 




Fig. 203. — Opuntia littoralis. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del. 



Flowering joint of Opuntia linguiformis . 
(Natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 165 

177. Opuntia littoralis (Engelmann) Cockerell, Bull. South. Calif. Acad. 4: 15. 1905. 

Opiintia engelmaruiii lilioralis Engelmann in Brewer and Watson, Bot. Calif, i: 248, 1876. 
Opuntia Kndheimeri littoralis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 422. iSg6. 

Bushy plants, low and spreading; joints thick, orbicular to oblong, 15 cm. long or more, usually 
smaller in greenhouse plants, didl green; areoles rather closely set, large, often elevated on old joints; 
spines numerous, yellow, rather short on young joints (i to 2 cm. long), but on old joints much 
longer, in age more or less flattened; wool of the areoles brown; flowers large, yellow, 8 to 12 cm. 
broad; sepals broad, apiculate; petals refuse; ovary with many areoles; fruit red, juicy; seeds 
4 to 5 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Coast from Santa Barbara to San Diego, California. 

Distribution: Along and near the coast of southern California. 

This species was very briefly described as a variety of Opuntia engelmannii in 1876. 
No definite locality was given for it, and the original material preserved is so poor that its 
identification is doubtful. We have taken as our representative of this species the low, 
bushy plant with rather thick joints, large and closely set areoles and yellow spines. 

Opuntia littoralis often grows in proximity to 0. occidentalis in southern California, 
and hybrids of the two may exist. 

Figure 203 represents joints of the plant collected at Klsinore, California, by Dr. 
MacDougal in 19 13. 

178. Opuntia aciculata Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 10. 1916. 

Low, bushy plant, i meter high or more, often 3 meters broad or more, the lower branches 
decumbent and sending up erect branches; joints obovate, 12 to 20 cm. long, rounded at apex, dull 
dark green, somewhat glaucous, bearing large, closely set areoles, these often spineless; leaves 
subulate, 7 mm. long; spines several in a cluster, acicular, slender, 3 to 5.5 cm. long, often reflexed, 
brownish at base, with yellow tips, seemingly deciduous; glochids numerous, from all parts of the 
areoles, long, persisting for several years; flower golden yellow, sometimes with a greenish center, 
large, 8 to 10 cm. broad; petals broad, rounded or refuse; filaments yellowish; style dull yellowish 
green; stigma-lobes 8 to 10, green; fruit pyriform, purple. 

Type locality: Near Laredo, Texas. 

Distribution: On high gravelly ground at type locality and vicinity. 

This species is not very common about Laredo, Texas, but grows in small colonies 
usually to the exclusion of all other plants. It can easily be distinguished from related 
species, and is usually restricted to dry hills. Our description is based on specimens ob- 
tained by Dr. Rose at Laredo in 1913. Since then it has been grown both in Washington 
and New York. 

Plate xxviii, figure 3, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose 
near the type locality in 1913. 

179. Opuntia lindheimeri Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 207. 1850. 

Opuntia dulcis Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 291. 1856. 

Opuntia lindheimeri dulcis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 421. 1896. 

Opuntia engelmannii dulcis Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 725. 1898. 

Opuntia cacanapa Griffiths and Hare, N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: 47. 1906. 

Opuntia ferruginispina Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 267. 1908. 

Opuntia tricolor Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot, Gard. 20: 85. 1909. 

Opuntia texana Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 92. 1909. 

Opuntia subarmata Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 94. 1909. 

Opuntia alia Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 165. 1910. 

Opuntia gomei Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 167. 1910. 

Opuntia sinclairii Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 173. 1910. 

Opuntia cyanella Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 30. 1912. 

Opuntia gilvoalba Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 35. 1912. 

Opuntia convexa Mackensen, Bull. Torr. Club 39: 290. 1912. 

Opuntia griffithsiana Mackensen, Bull. Torr. Club 39: 291. 1912. 

Opuntia reflexa Mackensen, Bull. Torr. Club 39: 292. 1912. 

Opuntia deltica Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 84. 1916. 

Opuntia laxiflora Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 85. 1916. 

Opuntia flexospina Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 87. 1916. 

Opuntia squarrosa Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 91. 1916. 



1 66 the; cactaceae. 

Usuallv erect, 2 to 4 meters high, with a more or less definite trunk, but at times much lower and 
spreading; joints green or bluish green, somewhat glaucous, orbicular to obovate, up to 25 dm. long; 
leaves subulate, 3 to 4 mm. long, somewhat flattened, pointed; areoles distant, often 6 cm. apart; 
spines usuallv i to 6, often only 2, one porrect and 4 cm. long or more, the others somewhat shorter 
and only slig'htlv spreading, pale 3'ellow to nearly white, sometimes brownish or blackish at base, 
or some' plants spineless; glochids yellow or sometimes brownish, usually prominent; petals yellow 
to dark red; stigma-lobes usually green; fruit purple, pyriform to oblong, 2. 5 to 5.5 cm. long. 

Type locality: About New Braunfels, Texas. 

Distribution: Southwestern Louisiana, southeastern Texas, and Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

Opuntia lindheimeri is an extremely variable species, composed of many races, differing 
in armament, color of flowers, size and shape of joints and of fruit. Certain forms have 
been described which in cultivation we have been able to recognize as possibly distinct; 
but in the field they seem to intergrade with other forms, indicating that they are at most 
onlv races of a ver\' variable species. In the delta of the Rio Grande this is especiall)- true, 
and from this region a number of species has been described. In fact, all the plants 
described as species which are cited above in the sj.Tionymy grow within a relatively smaU 
distributional area. Dr. Rose has examined all this region and is of the opinion that only 
one species of this series exists there, and this we believe is to be referred to Opuntia lind- 
heimeri. It is very common about Browns^-ille and Corpus Christi, where it forms thickets 
covering thousands of acres of land. It is verj- variable in habit, being either lo\v and widely 
spreading or becoming tall and tree-Hke, sometimes 3 meters high, with a definite cylin- 
dric trunk. Plants from these two extremes, if studied apart from the field, might be con- 
sidered as different species, but in the field one sees innumerable intergrading forms. The 
low, prostrate forms gradually pass into others with more or less erect or ascending branches, 
while the large tree-Hke forms often bear large lateral branches which lie prostrate on the 
ground, indicating that they have developed from the prostrate ones. Decided differences 
in the flower colors have been pointed out in the original descriptions, and we have obser^-ed 
them in greenhouse specimens, but they do not correlate with other characters. 

Opuntia ellisiana Griffiths (Rep. 'Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 170. pi. 25. 1910), an unarmed 
species, is known only from cultivated plants. Dr. Griffiths states that it is quite different 
from the Ficus-indicae series, which it much resembles, and is quite hardy in southern Texas. 
It may be a spineless race of the common 0. lindheimeri of this region. 

Opuntia pyrocarpa Griffiths (BuU. Torr. Club 43: 90. 19 16) we do not know; in its 
long pjTiform fruit it suggests this plant; the type comes from ^Marble Falls, Texas. 

0. 'ix'interiana Berger and 0. haematocarpa Berger (Bot. Jahrb. Engler 36:455 and 
456. 1905) are of this relationship, but have browner spines than is usual in the species. 

Opuntia leptocarpa ^Nlackensen (BuU. Torr. Club 38: 141. 1911), characterized b}- its 
low, bushy habit and elongated, almost abnormal fruits, suggests a natural hybrid between 
0. lindheimeri and 0. macrorhiza. Indeed, Mr. :Mackensen described the species as inter- 
mediate between these two, and aU three species are often found growing together. 0. 
leptocarpa originally came from San Antonio, Texas. 

Illustrations: Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1911: pi. 3, 4, B; Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 
5 to 7; Karsten, Deutsch. Fl. f. 501. 13, 13^, 13b; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pi. [13, 
14], aU as Opuntia dulcis. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pi. 3, f. i, this as Opuntia cacanapa; 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 4, in part, this as Opuntia tricolor; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 
pi. 9; pi. 13, f. I, these two as Opuntia texana. BuU. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pi. 2, f. i ; Rep. 
:Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 2, f. i ; pi. 11 ; pi. 13, f. 4, aU these as Optuitia subarmata. Rep. Mo. 
Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 19; pi. 20, in part, these two as Opuntia alta. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
21: pi. 21 ; pi. 22, in part, these two as Opuntia gomei. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 28, this 
as Opuntia sinclairii. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pi. 9, in part; pi. 10; Joum. Agr. Research 
4. pi. f., these three as Opuntia cyanella. Rep. INIo. Bot. Gard. 22: pi. 9, in part; pi. 16, 
17, these three as Opuntia gikoalba. BuU. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: f. i. . 



BRITTON AND ROSE 



V- 




M. E. Eaton del. 



Flowering joints/of Optmtia lindheimeri. 

1. Orange-flowered r&ce. 2. Red-flowered race. 

(Natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



167 



Plate XXXI, figure i, represents a flowering joint of a plant collected near Brownsville, 
Texas, by Dr. Rose in 1913 ; figure 2 represents a flowering joint of a plant obtained by the 
same collector at the same locality; plate xxxii, figure i, represents a flowering joint of a plant 
sent by Mr. M. Mackensen from the type locaUty of 0. leptocarpa in 19 10; figure 2 shows 
the fruit of the same. 

180. Opuntia cantabrigiensis Lynch, Gard. Chron. III. 33: 



1903. 

Opuniia engdmannii ciiija Griffiths and Hare, N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: 44, 
Optintia cuija Britton and Rose, Smitlis. Misc. Coll. 50: 529. 1908. 



1906. 



Rounded bushy plant, i to 2 meters high; joints orbicular to obovate, 12 to 20 cm. long, rather 
pale bluish green; areoles remote, large, filled with brown wool; spines usually 3 to 6 but sometimes 
more, somewhat spreading, acicular, yellow with brown or reddish bases, 1.5 to 4 cm. long; glochids 
numerous, large, i cm. long or more, yellowish, not forming a brush; iiowers 5 to 6 cm. long, yel- 
lowish with reddish centers ; upper areoles on the ovary bearing long bristles ; stigma-lobes green ; 
fruit, globular, about 4 cm. in diameter, purple; seeds numerous, small, 4 mm. in diamter. 

Type locality: Described from specimen in Cambridge Botanic Garden, England. 

Distribution: Very common in the States of San Luis Potosi, Oueretaro, and Hidalgo, 
Mexico. 

Opuntia chrysacantha (Berger, Hort. Mortol. 231. 1912, name only), an undescribed 
species, probably belongs here. 

Our determination of the identity of 0. cantabrigiensis and 0. cuija is based on a living 
plant of the former received from Mr. Lynch. 

Illustrations: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. 2, as Opuntia engehnannii cuija; 
Gard. Chron. III. 30: f. 123, as Opuntia engehnannii. 

Figure 204 represents joints of a olant collected by Dr. Rose near Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo, 
Mexico, in 1905. 




Fig. 204. — O. cantabrigiensis. X0.4. Fig. 205. — O. procumbens. X0.5. 

181. Opuntia procumbens Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 292. 1856. 

Stems low and spreading, forming broad masses; joints "always edgewise," orbicular, 2 to 4 or 
even 5 dm. in diameter, yehowish green, somewhat glaucous; areoles distant (3 to 5 cm. apart), 



1 68 



THE CACTACEAE. 



large, bearing long vellow glcchids; spines i to 5, spreading, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, j'ellow, lighter above, 
flattened; flowers said to be j-ellow; fruit red, juic}-. 

Type locality: San Francisco ^Mountains to Cactus Pass, Arizona. 

Distribuiicn: Northern Arizona. 

This species has long been wanting or poorly represented in our great herbaria. Dr. 
Rose coUected it near Flagstaff, Arizona, and the above description is largely drawn from 
his notes ; but his material was lost. In 1913 it was again collected by ]Mr. E. A. Goldman. 

lUiisiration: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 6, f. 4, 5. 

Figure 205 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

182. Opuntia Canada Grilflths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 90. 1909. 

Plant about i meter high, with many erect or ascending branches, forming a broad top; joints 
ovate to obovate, 16 to 22 cm. long, smooth, and shining; leaves subulate, i cm. long; spines various, 
white to vellow, flattened, sometimes twisted; glochids few on young joints, very abundant on old 
ones; flowers vellow with red or orange centers; stvle white to reddish; stigma-lobes green; fruit red. 



Type hcality: Foothills of the 
Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona. 

Distribution: Southeastern Ari- 
zona. 

Dr. Griffiths comments on the 
close relationship of this plant to 0. 
laevis. 

lUusiratious: Rep. INIo. Bot. Gard. 
20: pi. 2,f. 6;pl. 6,inpart; pi. 13, f. 2, 12. 

Figure 206 is copied from the 
second illustration above cited. 

183. Opuntia pyriformis Rose, Contr. 
U. S. Xat. Herb. 12: 292. 1909. 

Plant 3 to 5 meters high, with widely 
spreading branches, the lower ones almost 
resting on the ground and 3 to 5 meters 
long; joints obovate, thick, iS cm. long 
or more ; areoles closeh' set, small ; spines 
I or 2, on old joints more, usually reflexed, 
slender, weak, yellow, 10 to 22 mm. long; 
flowers yellow; fruit 4 cm. long, some- 
what tuberculate, spineless, its large are- 
oles crowded with brown hairs forming 
hemispherical cushions. 

Type locality: Hacienda de Ce- 
dros, Zacatecas, Alexico. 

Distrihiition : Zacatecas, ]\Iexico. 

The type of this species is in the U. S. National Herbarium. It is known only from 
the original collection of Professor F. E. Lloyd, made in 1908. 

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: f. 35; pi. 26. 

Figure 207 is copied from the second illustration above cited. 

183 J. Opuntia bonplandii (HBK.) Weber. (See Appendix, p. 223.) 

The three following described species may belong to this series: 
Opu^n'IA BECKERiANA Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 722. 1S9S. 

The plant on which this species is based was sent to Dr. Schumann from a garden at 
Bordighera, Italy, and its origin is unknown; Dr. Schumann thought that it might have 




Fig. 207. — Opuntia pyrif 



OPUNTIA. 169 

come from Mexico. From the description it may belong to our series Dillenianae, but we 
are unable to associate it with any species known to us; the ovary is described as com- 
pressed and tubercled. 

OpunTia anahuacEnsis Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 92. 1916. 

A low, reclining or prostrate plant, up to 5 dm. high, 1.5 meters broad; joints obovate, glossy, 
yellowish green, 27 cm. long,. 13 cm. broad; spines yellow or becoming white, i or 2, porrect, flattened, 
twisted, 2 or 3 cm. long; flowers yellow; style white; stigma-lobes 6, white; fruit dark purplish red, 
pyriform, 7 cm. long. 

Type locality: Anahuac, Texas. 

Distribution: Known only from the type locality, at the mouth of Trinity River, 
eastern Texas. 
Opuntia megalanTha Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 530. 1916. 

A tall, erect, open-branching plant, 2 meters high or more; joints obovate, glaucous, grayish 
green, 21 cm. long, 14 cm. broad; spines yellow, i to 3, or even 5 or 6 on old wood, the longest often 
4 to 5 cm. long; flowers yellow, 10 to 11 cm. in diameter; petals 5 cm. long, obovate; style white; 
stigma-lobes 8 or 9, white or tinged with green; fruit dark red. 

Known only from cultivated plants received from the Berlin Botanical Garden, where 
it was grown as Opuntia bergeriana. 

Series 16. MACDOUGALIANAE. 1 a 

Erect, mostly tall species, with flat, broad, ^ -^ \^ #^ 

and thin, persistent joints, the epidermis, at least ^^^^^ !^ ^**~ 

that of the ovary, pubescent or puberulent. The ~^ ~^ P 1 Hr 

spines, when present, yellow. There are about O^^ W ^ 

half a dozen species, natives of central and /^ ' ty y / 

southern Mexico. ^T W «^ \ 3/ '^ 

Key to Species. -^ j -x~ ^ 

Joints merelj' finely puberulent or ^^ ^ ^ >(h — T 

glabrous; spines 1.5 cm. long or '^ ^ ^ Of ^ ^ 

less; ovary velvety 184. 0. durangensis •! , . v ^ 

Joints distinctly pubescent; spines 

2 to 3 cm. long. "''^ M •^■^ \ -^ 

Petals red. M ^ /\ • '^ a V^ 

Style shorter than the petals 185. 0. atropes ^^K n 7 V- \" '^^ 

Style as long as the petals. 186. 0. affinis -X/^ ^ ' '^^ rL 

Petals yellow. ^KO ^ y V 

Spines acicular, at first yel- /\ ja 1 A j/y ^J^ 

low, soon white 1S7. 0. macdougaliana \ \ ws ^ I/l 

Spines subulate. «s "%. / \\i A;}^ 

Petals retuse; areoles of \R , -^ S \jV ' /* 

ovary many, approxi- ^\^ ^ ,-j 9~ ' 

mate 188. 0. veliitina ^\ '^ "X \f 

Petals mucronate; are- V ft • 1 i 

oles of ovary few, dis- ^J^-4) ^a> 

tant 1S9. 0. wikoxii ''\.J^ ^ -^.^ 

ix. ^/. T 
184. Opuntia durangensis Britton and Rose, \ /;i-.n 

Smiths. Misc. Coh. 50: 518. 1908. „ ^ r^ .■ a ■ ^ 

^ ^ ^ Fig. 208. — Opuntia durangensis. X0.4. 

Joints broadly obovate, about 20 cm. long, 
16 cm. broad, pale green, glabrous or minutely puberulent, bearing numerous areoles; areoles i to 
2 cm. apart, elevated; spines 3 to 5 at an areole, short, 1.5 cm. long or less, pungent, spreading, 
yellow, but in age becoming darker ; glochids brown, 2 to 3 mm. long; flowers yellow, 5 cm. long; 
petals broad, apiculate ; ovary 3 to 4 cm. long, finely pubescent, bearing many areoles with numer- 
ous glochids and a few spines; fruit white or red; seeds about 3 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Near Durango, Mexico. 
Distribution: Central Mexico. 

This species was collected by the late Dr. E. Palmer in 191 2, but he did not record 
the size and habit of the plant. The joints suggest a large, bushy species. 
Figure 208 represents a joint of the type specimen. 




lyo 



ths cactaceae;. 



185. Opuntia atropes Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 518. 1908. 

Plant I to 3 meters high, much branched; joints oblong to obovate, 20 to 30 cm. long, deep 
green, softly pubescent; young joints somewhat glossy, leaves 4 to 5 mm. long, acuminate, pubescent, 
standing almost at right angles to the joints, the tips reddish, areoles circular, filled with short 
tawny wool; young spines white or yellowish; old spines 3 to 6 cm. long, somewhat angled, standing 
almost at right angles to the joints, dark yellow or brown at the base, much lighter, often white 
above; glochids numerous, long, yellow; petals reddish; ovary pubescent, covered with large cushion- 
like areoles bearing long glochids near the top but with few spines or none, truncate at apex. 

Type locality: Lava beds near Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico. 
Distribution: Central Mexico. 

186. Opuntia affinis Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 27. 1914. 

"A low, arborescent species, from 125 cm. high with us at 4 years of age to 2 m. or more in its 
natural habitat; joints obovate, 13 by 35 cm., broadly rounded above and gradually narrowed below, 
densely silky, villous to the touch, and villous nature plainly visible when viewed in proper light, 
slightly raised at areoles, the tubercles being surrounded by a sunken dark-green line; leaves small, 
subulate, pointed, scarcely 2 mm. in length; areole small, obovate, 3 mm. long, 25 to 30 mm. apart, 
white to gray; spicules light straw-colored, at first not conspicuous but rather in a connivent tuft, 
3 mm. long; spines absent below and i to 5 in upper five-sixths of joint, straw-colored, becoming 
white the second year, the longest 3 cm. and others much shorter, increasing in age in both length 




Fig. 209. — Opuntia macdougaliana, Tehuacan, Mexico. 



OPUNTIA. 



171 



and numbers, at 3 years often 10 in number and some 6 cm. long, divergent, flattened, angular, 
twisted; flowers dull dark-red in bud, with stigma protruding the day before the petals 
spread, small, about 3 cm. in diameter when opened, petals 20 to 25 mm. long, slightly, when at all, 
recurved, ribs of petals red and wings orange, filaments greenish below and pink above, style bright- 
glossy red, stigma dull greenish red, 4-parted, equaling the petals in length; ovary small, subglobose, 
deeply pitted, 15 to 17 mm. in diameter, with small subcircular to slightly transversely elongated, 
dirty brown areoles, 4 mm. apart; fruit small, subglobose, red." 

Type locality: State of Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Distribution: Known only from type locality. 

Our examination of the type specimen of this species shovi^ed that it is closely related 
to Opuntia macdougaliana, differing in the color of its petals, which may not be a specific 
character. 




Opuntia macdougaliana 



187. Opuntia macdougaliana Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 516. 1908. 
Opuntia niicrarthra Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 130. 1913. 

Plant about 4 meters high, with a distinct cylindric trunk branching from near the base; joints 
oblong, 30 cm. long by 8 to 10 cm. broad, softly pubescent; areoles distinct, small; spines generally 4, 
one much longer (2.5 to 4 cm. long), somewhat flattened, yellowish, becoming whitish in age; 
glochids short, numerous, yellow; fruit globular to oblong, 5 cm. long, the surface divided into 
diamond-shaped plates, red, with a broad deep cup at apex, the numerous small rounded areoles 
filled with clumps of yellow glochids, very rarely with one or two spines. 

Type locality: Near Tehuacan, Mexico. 
Distribution: Southern Mexico. 

Figure 209 is from a photograph of the type plant taken by Dr. MacDougal at Bl Riego, 
Tehuacan, Mexico, in 1906; figure 210 represents a plant grown from a cutting of the type. 



172 



THE CACTACEAE. 



188. Opuntia velutina Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris lo: 3S9. 1904. 

Opunlia nelsonli Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 516. 1908. 
Stems I to 4 meters high; joints flattened, oblong to pear-shaped in outline, 15 to 20 cm. long 
by 10 to 15 cm. broad near the top, pubescent, pale yellowish green in herbarium specimens; areoles 
2 to 3 cm. apart; spines 2 to 6, yellow, becoming white in age, very unequal, the longer ones 3 to 4 
cm. long; bristles many, yellow, becoming brownish; flowers rather small; petals yellow, i to 3 cm. 
long ; ovary pubescent, bearing many yellowish brown bristles ; filaments red ; stigma-lobes pale green ; 
fruit "dark red." 

Type locality: In Guerrero, Mexico. 
Distribution: Southern Mexico. 

Plate XXXII, figure 3, represents a flowering joint of a plant collected at Tehuacan, 
Mexico, by Dr. MacDougal and Dr. Rose in 1906. 

189. Opuntia wilcoxii sp. nov. 

A tall, bushy plant, i to 2 meters high, very much branched; joints oblong, thinnish, large, 2 cm. 
long, dark green, more or less purplish about the large areoles, finely puberulent; glochids numerous, 
long, yellow; spines i to 3, one very long (5 to 6 cm. long), porrect, white or somewhat yellowish; 
flower, including ovary, 6 cm. long, yellow; petals oblong, mucronate; ovary bearing few large 
areoles, these filled with brown wool and yellow glochids; filaments short; style thick, 2 cm. long, 
with 10 stigma-lobes; fruit pubescent, 4 cm. long. 

Very common on the hills in the coastal plain of west- 
ern Mexico from southern Sonora to southern Sinaloa, 
Mexico, where it was frequently collected by Rose, 
Standley, and Russell in 1910; their No. 13546, with 
flower, from Fuerte, Sinaloa, is selected as the type of 
the species. It is named for Dr. Glover B. Wilcox, who 
first sent in living specimens in 1909. 

Figure 211 represents a joint of the type specimen. 

To this series belong two plants which we have not 
been able to identify but are here briefly characterized : 

The first, a very peculiar species, collected by Rose, 
Standley, and Russell, March 14, 1910 (No. 12853), o" 
the dry hills near Alamos, Sonora, Mexico, is unlike any of 
the described species. It is living both in Washington 
and New York, but it has not done well in cultivation. 
It may be described as follows: 

Bushy; joints oblong, thickish, pale green in color, with very 
short puberulence, nearly or quite spineless ; glochids yellowish 
or greenish, numerous; young areoles brown in the center, 
white-woolly in the margin; flowers and fruit not known. 

Dr. H. H. Rusby collected the second species on the Balsas River, southern Mexico. 
It comes from the region of 0. velutina, but we do not know its flowers. It may be described 
as follows: 

Joints oblong, 18 cm. long, but cultivated specimens smaller, usually obovate, dark green; 
spines few, short, at first white; young areoles large, bordered with white wool, bearing the spines 
and glochids from the center. 

lyiving specimens are growing in the New York Botanical Garden under No. 3281 1. 

Series 17. TOMENTOSAE. 

Tall, erect, pubescent or puberulent species, with flat persistent joints, the spines, when present, 
white. We know three species, natives of Mexico and Guatemala. 




Fig. 2 1 1 . — Opuntia wilcoxii. X0.4. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 



PLATE XXXII 




M. E. Eaton del. 



1. Upper part of flowering joint of 0/>z<«^za /i?//(7f«r/a. 3. Flowering ioint oi Opiintia vehiiina. 

2. Fruit of the same. 4. Upper part of joint of Opuntia megacayitha . 

(All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



173 



Key to Species. 

Joints narrowly obovate. 

Joints grayish green, densely velvety 190. O. tomentosa 

Joints bright green, minutely puberulent 191. O. tomentella 

Joints broadly obovate 192. 0. guilanchi 

190. Opuntia tomentosa Salm-Dyck, Observ. Bot. 3: 8. 1822. 

Cactus tomentosus Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 2: 24. 1822. 
Opuntia oblongata Wendland in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 161. 1837. 
Opuntia icterka Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 138. 1913. 

Becoming 3 to 6 meters high or more, with a broad top and a smooth trunk 10 to 30 cm. in 
diameter; joints oblong to narrowly obovate, 10 to 20 cm. long, velvety pubescent, somewhat 
tuberculate when young; glochids yellow; spines usually wanting but sometimes i or more appear; 
flowers orange-colored, 4 to 5 cm. long; filaments white or rose-colored; style dark carmine, longer 
than the stamens; stigma-lobes 5 or 6, white; fruit ovoid, red, sweetish; seeds 4 mm. broad. 




Opuntia tomentosa. 



Type locality: Not cited; doubtless Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico and as an escape in Australia. 

This species was first described from cultivated plants and has long been a favorite. 
When grown out of doors, as it is in Bermuda, it forms a large and conspicuous plant. It 
is usually nearly or quite spineless, but plants which come from the Valley of Mexico are 
often spiny. 

According to J. H. Maiden, this plant had been sent to him under the unpubHshed 
name Opuntia lurida, and as 0. pnbescens. 

Illustrations: Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 23: pi. opp. 1028; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 121; 
De Candolle, PI. Succ. Hist. 2: pi. 137 [A, B], this last as Cactus cochenillifer (fide Berger). 



174 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Plate xxxiii, figure i, represents a fruiting joint of a plant raised from seeds received 
by the United States Department of Agriculture. Figure 212 is from a photograph of a 
plant near St. Georges, Bermuda, taken by Stewardson Brown in 1912. 

191. Opuntia tomentella Berger, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 22: 147. 1912. 

Bushy; joints obovate to oblong, 20 to 30 cm. long, 9 to 15 cm. broad, light green, somewhat 
shining, finely puberulent; areoles about 3 cm. apart, small; spines i or 2, acicular, white, short 
(7 to ID mm. long), porrect, sometimes wanting; glochids few; flowers numerous, 5 to 6 cm. long; 
petals obovate, reddish yellow; filaments yehowish green; style rose-colored; stigma-lobes white; 
ovary tomentose, armed with numerous black glochids ; fruit oblong, red, sour. 

Type locality: In Guatemala. 

Distribution: Guatemala. 

This species was distributed by the late F. Hichlam, who sent 
plants both to Washington and to La Mortola, those sent to La 
Mortola being used by Mr. Berger for his description. The species 
is perhaps near the common Mexican species 0. tomcntosa, but 
does not grow so tall, and the tomentum is not so dense nor so 
soft. 

Figure 213 represents a joint of a plant collected in Guatemala 
by F. Eichlam in 1909. 

192. Opuntia guilanchi Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 265. 1908. 

Becoming 1.5 to 2 meters high, often with a distinct trunk 1.5 to 
2.5 cm. in diameter; joints broadly obovate, 14 to 16 cm. wide, 20 to 
24 cm. long, minutely pubescent; spines at first white, slightly flat- 
tened, the longest 2 cm. long; glochids light yellow; fruit subglobose, 4 
cm. in diameter, pubescent, variously colored, aromatic. 

Type locality: Near the city of Zacatecas, Mexico. 
Distribution: Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Series 18. LEUCOTRICHAE. 

This series is restricted to a single species. Schumann grouped as 
Chaclophorac, 0. kucotricha with 0. ursina, the latter a species with simi- 
lar long bristles on the stem but otherwise very different, it being dry- 
fruited. Opuntia leucotricha is characterized by its long, weak, hair- 
like or bristle-like spines on many of the joints, especially the stem and F^°- 2i3.-Opuntia tomentella. 
very old joints. The fruit of this plant is very different from that of °"*' 

related series in that the pulp is fragrant and does not come free from the rind when mature. 

193. Opuntia leucotricha De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 119. 1828. 

Opuntia fulvispina Salm-Dyck in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 164. 1837. 

Opuntia leucotricha fulvispina Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 157. 1903. 

Often 3 to 5 meters high, with a large top; trunk as well as the older joints covered with long 
white bristles; joints oblong to orbicular, i to 2 cm. long, pubescent; areoles closety set, the upper 
part filled with yellow glochids, the lower part at first with only i to 3 weak white spines; flowers, 
including ovary, 4 to 5 cm. long; petals yellow, broad; ovary with numerous areoles, the upper ones 
bearing long, bristly glochids (i cm. long); style red; stigma-lobes green; fruit variable, 4 to 6 cm. 
long, white or red, the rind not easily coming off from the pulp, aromatic, edible. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

Opuntia erythrocentron Lemaire (Forster, Handb. Cact. 492. 1846) was given as a 
synonym of 0. fulvispina. 

Opuntia leucosticta Wendland (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 167, 1837) probably belongs here. 

Opuntia leucacantha Link and Otto (Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 362. 1834), published 
first in 1834 — although the name occurs in Hterature as early as 1830 (Verh. Ver. Beford. 




BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del 



1. Upper part of joint of Opiinlia tomentosa. 2, 3. Flowering joint and branch of Opuntia brasiliensis. 

4. Joint oi Grusonia bradtiana. (All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



175 



Gartenb. 6: 434. 1830) — which was later taken up as Consolea leucacantha by Lemaire (Rev. 
Hort. 1862: 174. 1862), seems to belong here rather than to 0. spinosissima. If it came 
from Mexico, as reported, it could not be 0. spinosissima or any of its relatives, for none 
of them is known from Mexico. 

Opuntia siihferox Schott (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 167. 1837) was given as a synonym 
of 'this species, while 0. leucacantha laevior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 47. 1845) 
and 0. leucacantha subferox Salm-Dyck (Forster, Handb. Cact. 497. 1846) were supposed 
to be based on 0. subferox. 

Opuntia leucantha (De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 474. 1828), unpublished, is doubtless the 
same as 0. leucacantha. 




Fig. 214. — Opuntia leucotricha 



Opuntia fulvispina laevior Salm-Dyck (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 164. 1837) and 0. ful- 
vispina badia Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 65. 1850) are given as synonyms of 
O. leucotricha; while 0. riifescens Salm-Dyck (Forster, Handb. Cact. 493. 1846) is given 
as a synonym of fulvispina laevior; all these seem to belong here. 

This is called durasnilla in Mexico. It is grown in Bermuda under the name of Aaron's 
Beard. 

Illustrations: Engler and Prantl, Pfianzenfam. 3^^: f. 56, J; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. 
Bull. 60: pi. 4, f . I, 2. 

Plate XXXIV, figure i, represents a flowering joint of a plant in the collection of the 
New York Botanical Garden. Figure 214 is from a photograph of a plant grown from a 
cutting received from the collection of M. Simon, St. Ouen, Paris, France, in 1901. 



176 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Series 19. ORBICULATAE. 

We have retained the series Criniferae, although changing its name to Orbiculatae, but we have 
excluded 0. scheerl, which was placed here by Schumann. The species are characterized by long 
hairs produced from the areoles. The species retained in the series are not closely related; while 
others, like 0. macrocentra, in other series, sometimes produce long hairs from the areoles in the 
seedling stage, and 0. hyptiacantha and some other species have a few hairs at the areoles of mature 
joints. 

Key to Species. 

Hairs from the areoles of young plants long and white, long-persistent; plant low- 
Hairs from the areoles of young joints of old plants early deciduous; plant tall. 

194. Opuntia orbiculata Salm-Dyck in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 156. 

Opuntia crinifera Salm-Dyck in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 157. 1837. 
Opuntia crinifera lanigera Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 157. 1837. 
Opuntia lanigera Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 65. 1850. 

A plant without a very definite trunk, about i meter high, often 
broader than high; joints green or bluish green, orbicular to obo- 
vate, sometimes spatulate, about 15 cm. long; leaves subulate, 2 
to 3 mm. long; areoles small, in seedlings and young plants pro- 
ducing long white hairs or wool long-persistent; spines acicular, 
several, yellow; flowers yellow. 



194. 0. orbiculata 

195. 0. pilifera 




Fig. 215. — Opuntia orbiculata. X0.66. 



Type locality: Cited as Brazil, but undoubtedly by error. 

Distribution: Northern Mexico. 

Opuntia senilis Parmenteer is given by Pfeiffer 
(Enum. Cact. 157. 1837) as a synonym of 0. crinifera, 
and 0. pintadera by Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 
1844. 47. 1845) as a synonym of 0. lanigera. They 
doubtless both belong here. 

Opuntia metternichii Piccioli (Salm-Dyck, Cact. 
Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845) and 0. orbiculata met- 
ternichii Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 68. 
1850), names without descriptions, doubtless be- 
long here. 

We have studied living plants sent from the 
Berlin Botanical Garden as 0. crinifera and from 
the Botanical Garden of Santiago, Chile, as 0. orbic- 
ulata; the plant is not native in Chile. 

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 155, as Opuntia lanigera. 

Figure 215 represents joints of a plant sent from the Berlin Botanical Garden in 1902. 

195. Opuntia pilifera Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 1898. 

Becoming 4 to 5 meters high, with a definite, thick, woody, cyhndric trunk and abroad, rounded 
top; joints oblong to orbicular, i to 3 dm. long, obtuse at apex, pale green; leaves subulate, about 
5 mm. long; areoles 2 to 3 cm. apart, scarcely elevated; spines 2 to 9, white, slightly spreading, 
acicular; the outer part of the areole filled with nearly white, more or less deciduous hairs 2 to 3 cm. 
long; flowers large, red; areoles on the ovary bearing brown glochids and deciduous hairs, the latter 
especially abundant towards the top of the ovary; fruit red, juicy. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Puebla, Mexico. 

No definite locality was given for this species when it was first described, and apparently 
no type material was preserved; living specimens identified by Weber are still grown at 
La Mortola, Italy. The species is common about Tehuacan, Mexico, being one of the 
large forms occurring in that region. It is common in all large greenhouse collections. 



OPUNTIA. 



177 



Figure 216 is from a photograph of a plant in the collection of the New York Botanical 
Garden grown from a cutting brought by Dr. MacDougal and Dr. Rose from Tehuacan, 
Mexico, in 1906. 

Series 20. FICUS-INDICAE. 

Large plants, usually with large, nearly 
spineless green joints; spines, when present, few, 
small, white ; flowers large, usually orange to yel- 
low. None of the species is definitely known in 
the wild state, but all doubtless originated from 
tropical American ancestors, and they may all 
represent spineless races of plants here included 
in our series Sirepiacanthae. Some of them are 
cultivated for their fruit and others for forage. 

Key to Species. 

Joints obovate to elliptic, comparatively- 
broad, more or less glaucous. 
Joints dull. 

Joints thin, up to 5 dm. long. . 196. 0. ficus-indica 
Joints thick, 15 cm. long or less. 197. 0. crassa 

Joints glossy 198. 0. undulala 

Joints elongated, comparatively nar- 
row. 
Flowers yellow; joints somewhat 

tuberculate 199. O. lanceolata 

Flowers orange-red; joints not tu- 
berculate 200. 0. maxima 

196. Opuntia ficus-indica (Ivinnaeus) Miller, Gard. 
Diet. ed. 8. No. 2. 1768. 

Cactus ficus-indica Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 468. 1 753 
Cactus opuntia Gussone, Fl. Sic, Prodr. 559 

1827-8. Not Linnaeus. 
Opuntia vulgaris Tenore, Syll. Fl. Neap. 239. 

1 83 1. Not Miller. 
Opuntia ficus-barbarica Berger, Monatsschr. 

Kakteenk. 22: 181. 19 12. 

Large and bushy or sometimes erect and tree- Fig- 216.— Opuntia piiifera. 

like and then with a definite woody trunk up to 

5 meters high, usually with a large top; joints oblong to spatulate-oblong, usually 3 to 5 cm. long, 
sometimes even larger; areoles small, usually spineless; glochids yellow, numerous, soon dropping 
off; leaves subulate, green, 3 mm. long; flowers large, normally bright yellow, 7 to 10 cm. broad; 
ovary 5 cm. long; fruit normally red, edible, 5 to 9 cm. long, with a low, depressed umbiHcus. 

Type localtiy: Tropical America. 

Distribution: Native home not known, but now found all over the tropics and sub- 
tropics either as cultivated plants or as escapes. It is hardy in Bermuda and Florida. 

This cactus is widely cultivated in all tropical and subtropical countries, where it is 
grown for its fruits and for forage. It has run wild in many waste places along the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, about the Red vSea, in southern Africa, and in Mexico. 

We have not attempted to list the many named garden varieties of this species, 
which are sometimes Latin and sometimes English in form. 

Opuntia amyclaea ficus-indica (Berger, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 154. 1905) has 
never been described. 

The origin of this common, cultivated species doubtless dates back to prehistoric 
times. We have long been convinced that it is a close relative of the Streptacanthae, and 
have kept it out of that series as only a matter of convenience. Mr. A. Berger believed it 
to be a spineless form of 0. amyclaea, which is now a well-established species in certain parts 
of Italy. Dr. Griffiths has recently figured a reversion which appeared on the common 




178 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Spineless form which points very definitely to 0. megacaniha as the origin of this form. (See 
Reversion in Prickly Pears, Journ. Hered. 5: 222. 1914.)" 

Illustrations: Amer. Garden '11: 471 ; Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pi. i ; pi. 2, f. i ; Cycl. 
Amer. Hort. Bailey 3: f. 1543; Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 233: pi. [i], f. i, 3; Diet. 
Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 753 ; Dodon. Pempt. f. 10, 11; Lemaire, Cact. f. 10; Meehan's Monthly 
10: 28; Mem. Acad. Neap. 6: pi. i, 2; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 151; W. Watson, Cact. 
Cult. f. 8, in part; f. 80. 




Opuntia ficus-indica, Cordoba, Argentina. 

Figure 2 1 7 is from a photograph of the plant growing at Cordoba, Argentina, taken by 
Paul G. Russell in 1915 ; figure 218 represents the fruit, obtained in Bermuda by Dr. Britton 
in 1913. 

197. Opuntia crassa Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 81. 18 19. 

Opuntia parmila Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 364. 1834. 
Opuntia crassa major Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 153. 1837. 
Opuntia glauca Forbes, Hort. Tour Germ. 158. 1837. 

Plant I to 2 meters high, somewhat branched; joints ovate to ob- 
long, 8 to 12.5 cm. long, thick, bluish green, glaucous; areoles bearing 
brown wool and brown glochids; spines wanting or sometimes i or 2, 
acicular, 2.5 cm. long or less; flowers and fruit unknown. 

Type locality: Described from cultivated specimens supposed 
to have come from Mexico. 

Distribution: Unknown in the wild state; locally found in 
cultivation in tropical America. 

Haworth, who first described this species, thought it to be 
near 0. stricta. 

Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 153. 1837) uses 0. glabcrrima Hort. 
Berol. as a synonym of 0. crassa major. 

Opuntia parvula, when first published, was supposed to be 
native of Chile, but this was a mistake. Salm-Dyck compared 

the species with 0. crassa and 0. spinulifera, but says it is thrice smaller than either. 
Schumann refers 0. parvula directly to 0. crassa, which disposition we follow. 

Figure 2 1 9 is from a photograph of a plant in the Organ Mountains, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil, taken by Paul G. Russell in 191 5. 




Fig. 2i8. — Fruit of Opuntia 
ficus-indica. X0.66. 



OPUNTIA. 



179 



198. Opuntia undulata Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 32. 1912. 

Opuntia undosa Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kaktenk. 23: 139. 1913. 

"Plant tall, large, stout, open-branching, with cylindrical trunk, often 30 cm. or more in 
diameter; joints very large, obovate, broadly rounded above, widest above middle, commonly 
35 by 55 cm., firm, hard, quite fibrous, dished, wavy or flat, glossy light yellowish green at first, but 
changing through a darker green with a slight touch of glaucous to scurfy brown on old trunks; 
leaves subcircular in section, subulate, pointed, usually tinged with red at the tip, about 4 mm. long, 
upon a prominent tubercle and subtending a prominent dark-brown areole; areoles subcircular to 
ellipsoid or obovate, about 3.5 by 4.5 mm., gray, 5 to 6 cm. apart; spicules yellow in a short, compact 
tuft in upper part of areole, about 
I mm. long, soon becoming dirty 
and inconspicuous; spines white, 
few, short, erect, flattened, straight 
or twisted, 10 to 15 mm. long, i 
to 3 or 4, mostly one or none; 
fruit large, 4 to 5 by 9 to 10 cm., 
dull red to slightly tinged with 
orange and pulp streaked with red 
and orange when rind is removed. ' ' 

Type locality: Described 
from cultivated plant obtained 
at Aguascalientes, Mexico. 

Distribution: Mexico. 

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. 
Gard. 22: pi. 11, in part; pi. 12. 

We have doubtfully referred 
to this species plants collected 
by Dr. Rose on the west coast 
of Mexico, where they were 
growing wild ; this is some dis- 
tance from the place where the 
type was obtained from culti- 
vated plants. These speci- 
mens are like this species in having quite glossy joints with few spines. The plants were 
not in bloom when seen by Dr. Rose in the spring of 19 10. 

Dr. Griflfiths has changed his first name, 0. undulata, on account of the use of that 
name at an earlier time, which was not accompanied, however, by description. 

199. Opuntia lanceolata Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 192. 1812. 

Cactus lanceolatus 'Ra.worih, Misc. Nat. 188. 1803. 
Cactus elongattis Willdenow, Enum. PI. Suppl. 34. 1813. 
Opuntia elongata Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 81. 1819. 

Plants tall, much branched; joints elongated, 3.5 cm. long, dull green, somewhat tuberculate; 
areoles distant, small ; spines if present few, small, white, i cm. long or less ; glochids yellow ; flowers 
large, yellow. 

Type locality: In South America. 

Distribution: Known only in cultivation. 

We have combined 0. lanceolata and 0. elongata, although there is a possibility of their 
being different. 0. lanceolata was first described essentially as follows: Joints flattened, 
suberect, subnaked, with leaves 3 lines long; stems at first erect; joints lanceolate, green, 
when young with many leaves; spines (spicules?) in fascicles, the shortest of all species 
(except Cactus coccinellifer) ; leaves longer than in other species. 

The species was received by Haworth from W. Anderson; no habitat given. In 181 2 
Haworth calls it the spear-shaped Opuntia. He says it probably came from South America, 




Fig. 219. — Opuntia crassa. 



i8o 



THE CACTACEAE. 



and flowers in July. It had been in cultivation before 1796; it flowered in 1808 with Haw- 
orth and was described as follows: Flowers shiny yellow; filaments yellow, half as long as 
petals; style longer than stamens; stigmas 5, thick, obtuse, 2 lines long, sulphur-colored. 

De Candolle says the flowers are 4 inches in diameter. 

Pfeiffer states the joints are 5 to 6 inches long by i to 1.5 inches broad; that the leaves 
are red and the spicules yellow. 

Opimtia elongata laevior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 242. 1850) may or may not 
belong here. 




Fig. 220. — Opuntia maxima. 

200. Opuntia maxima :Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. S. No. 5. 1768. 

Cactus decumanus Willdenow, Enum. PI. Suppl. 34. 1S13. 

Opuntia decumana Haworth, Rev. PL Succ. 71. 1821. 

Opuntia gymnocarpa Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois S93. 1898. 

Opuntia lahouretiana Console* in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 717. ^ 189S. 

Opuntia jicus-indica decumana Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 512. 1905. 

Opuntia' ficus-indica gymnocarpa Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 512. 1905. 
Forming large, much branched plants; joints elongated, more or less spatulate, 35 cm. long 
or more, 10 to 12 cm. broad, rounded at apex, somewhat cuneate at base, pale green, not at all 
tuberculate; areoles small, distant; spines sometimes wanting or sometimes i or 2, short, white; 
glochids yeUow (brown in some specimens referred here) ; flowers conspicuous, 8 cm. broad, orange- 
red; ovar>^ elongated, 7 to 8 cm. long, bearing numerous large glochids. 

*Berger (Hort. Mortol. 409. 1912) says this is known as 0. lahouretiana Console. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. B. Eaton del. 



1. Fart oi ]oini oi Opun^ia ^eucotricka. 3. Joint oi Op?miia lasiacaniha. 

2. Part of joijit of Opuntia maxima. 4. Joint of Opuntia robusta. 

(All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. l8l 

Type locality: In America. 

Distribution: Known only in cultivation. 

Opuntia maxima Miller was described as the largest of all the opuntias and as the 
name is older than any of those here cited, it is taken up for this species. Haworth was 
uncertain whether or not his 0. decumana is distinct from Miller's 0. maxima, although 
in the Index Kewensis the two are considered the same ; Burkill considered them distinct, 
but his idea of 0. decumana is the 0. ficus-indica type. Mr. Berger, on the other hand, 
states that it is evidently of the 0. dillenii group, but this is hardly warranted by the descrip- 
tion. Berger is convinced that 0. elongata is distinct from 0. decumana. 

Opuntia labouretiana macrocarpa (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 55. 1908) is only a 
garden name. 

Plate XXXIV, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant presented to the New 
York Botanical Garden by Frank Weinberg in 1901, which bloomed in May 191 6. Fig- 
ure 220 is from a photograph of the same plant. 

Opuntia bartramii Rafinesque (Atl. Journ. i: 146. 1832) is based on Bartram's de- 
scription (Travels p. 163. 1790), in which he states that the plant is 7 to 8 feet high; joints 
very large, bright green, glossy; spines none; glochids numerous; flowers large, yellow; 
fruit pear-shaped, purple. It was found about 6 miles from Lake George, northern Florida, 
associated with Zamia pumila and Erythrina. We do not know of any Opuntia answering 
the description, growing in Florida at the present time. Dr. Small visited the type 
locality in 191 8 but failed to find any plant answering Rafinesque's description. 

Opuntia hernandezii De Candolle (Mem. Hist. Nat. Paris 17 : 69. pi. 16. 1828) is a com- 
plex. The reference to Hernandez applies to Nopalea cochenillijera. Schumann was not 
able to identify the plant illustrated by De Candolle, but thought it might be referable to 
Opuntia ficus-indica, in which we agree. 

Series 21. STREPTACANTHAE. 

Tall, branched, glabrous, green species with white or faintly yellow, acicular or subulate spines, 
large yellow or red flowers, and fleshy fruits, natives of Mexico and Central and South America. 
We recognize twelve species. The fruits, known as tunas, are mostly edible and are sold in large 
quantities in Mexican markets, a practice which probably dates from prehistoric time. The long- 
continued selection of plants for their fruit has perpetuated many slightly differing races. 

Key to Species. 

Spines short, 5 mm. to 8 cm. long. 
Joints scarcely if at all tuberculate. 

Joints obovate to elliptic, mostly not more than twice as long as wide. 

Areoles close together, sunken 201. O. spinulifera 

Areoles not close together, not sunken. 
Joints dull. 

Spines acicular 202. O. lasiacantha 

Spines subulate. 

Areoles with 2 or more short reflexed hairs or bristles at the lower part 
of the areoles. 

Spines strongly depressed; areoles with several hairs 203. O. hypliacantha 

Spines not strongly depressed; areoles with i or 2 hairs. 

Joints obovate 204. O. streptacanlha 

Joints oblong 205. 0. amyclaea 

Areoles without reflexed hairs or bristles. 

Spines clear white, terete or nearly so; fruit spineless, 6 to 8 cm. long, 

yellow, edible 206. O. megacantha 

Spines white to dull yellow, somewhat flattened; fruit 6 cm. long or 
less bearing a few spines near the top, red, not edible. 
Plant with a definite trunk; petals reddish; fruit spiny only at top 207. 0. deamii 
Plant bushy; petals chocolate-colored; fruit spiny all over. . . . 207a. dobbieana 

Joints shining 208. 0. eichlamii 

Joints oblong to oblanceolate, some of them much longer than wide. 

Joints shining; wool of young areoles white; petals yellow 209. 0. inaequilateralis 

Joints dull; wool of young areoles brown; petals deep orange to scarlet 210. O. pittieri 

Joints strongly tuberculate 211. O. cordobensis 

Spines elongated, 10 to 14 cm. long 212. O. quimilo 



182 



The; cactaceae;. 



201. Opuntia spinulifera Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 364. 1834. 

Opuntia candelabriformis Martins in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 159. 1837. 
Opuntia oligacantha Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 241. 1850. 

Tall, much branched plants; joints orbicular to oblong, sometimes obovate, 20 to 30 cm. long, 
glabrous, a little glaucous; leaves small, red, 4 to 6 mm. long; areoles on young joints usually small, 
sometimes longer than broad, the margin at first bordered with cobwebby hairs, afterwards short 
white hairs, either spineless or with short white bristle-like spines; areoles on old joints more or less 
sunken, rather close together; spines on old joints i to 3, i to 2 cm. long, subulate, bone-colored. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Mexico. 

We have seen no wild specimens of this species, but Mr. Berger has grown it at La 
Mortola, Italy, and has distributed specimens now growing in New York and Washington. 

So-called Opuntia candelabriformis and 0. 
oligacantha are also in cultivation; but the 
original descriptions indicate that these two 
species should be merged into 0. spinulifera, 
and plants so determined in European collec- 
tions support this view. In so far as we have 
been able to ascertain, no type specimens of 
any of the three supposed species are extant. 
Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 740. 1898) de- 
scribes the flowers of 0. candelabriformis as 
purple, 6 to 7 cm. broad. Opuntia candela- 
briformis ngiiiior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 
1849. 68. 1850), an unpublished variety, may 
belong here. 

Figure 221 represents a joint of a plant 
presented to the New York Botanical Garden 
by Mrs. George Such in 1900. 




-Opuntia spinulifera. X0.4. 



202. Opuntia lasiacantha Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. i6o. 

1837- 

Opuntia megacantha lasiacantha Berger, Bot. pm o, 

Jahrb. Engler 36: 453. 1905. 

A tall plant, with a more or less definite trunk; joints obovate to oblong, 20 to 30 cm. long; 
leaves short, red; areoles small, 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines usually i to 3, acicular, white, 2 to 4 cm. 
long, slightly spreading ; glochids numerous, prominent, dirty yellow to brown ; flowers large, yellow 
or deep orange, 6 to 8 cm. broad ; ovary bearing long, brown, deciduous bristles, especially from 
the upper areoles ; style pinkish ; stigma-lobes pale green. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

Schumann refers 0. lasiacantha to 0. robusta, but wrongly, as Berger states, and as 
living plants show. Pfeiffer said it is near 0. candelabriformis, here taken up under 
0. spinulifera. 

This species is very variable and, while it seems distinct from 0. megacantha, it is 
to be noted that Mr. Berger referred it to that species as a variety. 

Opuntia chaetocarpa Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 25. 1914), in its few 
long white spines, resembles plants collected by Dr. Rose in southern Mexico which we 
have referred to this species. 

Illustration: Addisonia 3: pi. 90. 

Plate xxxiv, figure 3, rej^resents a flowering joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose near 
the City of Mexico in 1906. Figure 222 represents a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Mac- 
Dougal and Dr. Rose at Tehuacan, Mexico, in 1906. 



OPUNTIA. 



183 



Opuntia zacuapanbnsis Berger, Hort. Mortol. 413. 1912. 

"A fine new species with bright-orange flowers. "We received this plant a few years ago from 
M. L. Puteaux, Versailles, as Opuntia spec, from Zacuapan.* Joints 13 to 20 cm. long and 9.5 cm. 
broad, obovate, smooth, glossy green, areoles 15 to 25 mm. distant, slightly elevated, small, roundish 
or obovate. Spicules yellow, short, not numerous. Spines generally two, white, with yellowish 
points and base, terete, the lower deflexed shorter, the upper one spreading (2-) 3 cm. long. Flowers 
numerous from the top of the joint, 7.5 cm. long and 6.5 cm. broad, ovary obovate turbinate, 
3.5 to 4 cm. long and 22 mm. broad, areoles somewhat elevated, prickly; petals obovate lanceolate, 
acute and aristate, orange-yellow, with a more reddish-brown hue along the midrib on the back 
and as well on the shorter obtuse outer petals ; stamens yellow, style yellowish, thickened or clavate 
above the base, stigmata (6-) 7, dirty rose-coloured." 

We have studied a plant, sent from La Mortola to the New York Botanical Garden 
in 1913, which has not flowered; it appears to be related to 0. lasiacantha. 

Figure 223 represents a joint from the plant received from La Mortola, Italy, in 1913. 




Fig. 222. — Opuntia lasiacantha. 
X0.4. 



Fig. 223. — Opuntia zacuapanensis. 
X0.4. 



Fig. 224.- 



-Opuntia hyptiacantha. 
X0.5. 



203. Opuntia hyptiacantha Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 1898. 

Opuntia nigrita Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 169. 1910. 

? Opuntia cretochaela Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 11. 1916. 

A tall, much branched plant, but in cultivation often only i meter high ; joints oblong to obovate, 
20 to 30 cm. long, pale green, but when young bright green; spines on young joints single, porrect, 
and accompanied by 2 or 3, sometimes many, white, slightly pungent hairs; spines on old joints 

*Perhaps Zacualpan, in Vera Cruz, Mexico. 



THE CACTACEAE. 



4 to 6 (in the original description 8 to lo), somewhat spreading or appressed, i to 2 cm. long; glochids 
few, brownish; areoles small, 1.5 cm. apart; leaves small, brownish; flowers red; fruit globular, 
yellowish, its areoles filled with long, weak glochids; umbilicus broad, only slightly depressed. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Oaxaca, Mexico. 

This species is very near Opuntia streptacantha, and in many cases it is difficult to 
separate them. It is also near 0. pilifera, but the areoles are not so hairy. Weber, who 
first described it, gives no definite locality for the species; but Dr. Rose has examined, at 
La INIortola, Italy, a living plant sent by Weber which seems to be the same as one of the 
large opuntias from Tehuacan, Mexico. 

Opuntia chavena Griffiths (Rep.Mo. Bot. 
Gard. 19: 264. pi. 23, in part. 1908) is a 
near relative of 0. hyptiacantha or not dis- 
tinct from it. 

Illustration: Rep. ]\Io. Bot. Gard. 21: 
pi. 24, as Opuntia nigrita. 

Figure 224 represents a joint of a plant 
obtained for the New York Botanical Garden 
from the collection of M. Simon, St. Ouen, 
Paris, France, in 1901. 

204. Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire, Cact. Gen. 
Nov. Sp. 62. 1839. 

Much branched, up to 5 meters high, sometimes 
with a trunk 45 cm. in diameter; joints obovate 
to orbicular, 25 to 30 cm. long, dark green; areoles 
small, rather close together for this group ; spines 
numerous, spreading or some of them appressed, 
white; glochids reddish brown, very short; flowers 

7 to 9 cm. broad, yellow to orange, the sepals red- 
dish; filaments greenish or reddish; stigma-lobes 

8 to 1 2 , green ; fruit globular, 5 cm. in diameter, dull 
red or sometimes yellow, both within and without. 

Type locality: Not cited. 
Distribution: Very common on the Mex- 
ican table-lands, especiall}^ on the deserts of 

San Luis Potosi. ^"'- -=5.-Opuntia streptacantha. Xo 5. 

This species is known as tuna cardona or nopal cardon, and is one of the most impor- 
tant economic opuntias in Mexico. It has many forms and seems to grade into some of 
the species which we have here recognized. 

Opuntia cardona Weber (Diet. Hort. Bois 895. 1898) and 0. coindettii Weber (Diet. 
Hort. Bois 895. 1898) are two names given as synonyms of the species by Weber, but they 
were never pubHshed. O. diplacantJia (Berger, Hort. Mortol. 232. 1912) must be referred 
here, but of this, so far as we know, there is no published description. Berger has distrib- 
uted living specimens which we are inclined to refer here. 

Opuntia pachona Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 168. pi. 22. 1910) is closely related 
to 0. streptacantha, if not a race of that species. Opuntia megacantha tenuispina Salm-Dyck 
(Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 45. 1845) was given as a new name for 0. lasiacantha, but was 
never described. 

Illustrations: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. i; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 
1908: pi. 9, f. 6; U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 102': pi. i; 116: pi. i, this last as tuna 
cardona; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 3^^: f. 70, this last as Opuntia pseudotuna. 

Figure 225 represents a joint of a plant received from C. Werckle in 1902 as 0. cardona. 




OPUNTIA. 



185 



205. Opuntia amyclaea Tenore, Fl. Neap. Prodr. App. 5: 15. 1826. 
Opuntia fictis-indica amyclaea Berger, Hort. Mortol. 411. 191 2. 

Erect; joints oblong to elliptic, 3 to 4 dm. long, about twice as long as broad, thick, dull green, a 
little glaucous; leaves 4 mm. long, acute, red; areoles small, with i or 2 short bristles from the lower 
parts of areoles; spines i to 4, stiff, nearly porrect, usually less than 3 cm. long, white or horn-colored, 
the stoutest angled; glochids brown, soon disappearing; flowers yellow; fruit yellowish red, not very 
juicy. 

Type locality: Described from specimens grown in Italy. 

Distribution: Doubtless Mexico, but not known in the wild state. 

Our description is based on the original description and a specimen collected by A. 
Berger near Palermo, where it is grown as a hedge plant. Berger's plant suggests very 
much 0. streptacantha, but is not quite so spiny; it does not suggest very much 0. ficus- 
indica, where Berger has placed it. Our description of the spines is taken from Berger's 
plant, while the original description states that the spines are 3 to 8, stout, spreading, 
unequal, white, the longest 35 mm. long. 

0. aljagayucca (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 68. 1850) and 0. alfayucca (Riim- 
pler in Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 938. 1885) were given as synonyms of 0. amyclaea. 




Fig. 226. — Opuntia megacantha. 



1834. 



206. Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 363. 

Opuntia castillae Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 261. 190S. 

? Optmtia incarnadilla Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 27. 1912. 

Plant tall, 4 to 5 meters high or more, with a more or less definite woody trunk; joints of large 
plants obovate to oblong, often oblique, sometimes 40 to 60 cm. long or more, but in greenhouse 
specimens often much smaller, pale dull green, slightly glaucous; leaves minute, often only 3 mm. 
long, green or purplish; areoles rather small, on large joints often 4 to 5 cm. apart, when young 
bearing brown wool; spines white, usually i to 5, shghtly spreading, sometimes nearly porrect, 
usually only 2 to 3 cm. long, sometimes few and confined to the upper areoles ; glochids few, yellow, 
caducous, sometimes appearing again on old joints; flowers yellow to orange, about 8 cm. broad; 
ovary spiny or spineless, obovoid; fruit 7 to 8 cm. long. 



i86 



THE CACTACEAE- 




Fig. 227 — Opuntia megacantha on Lanai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Type locality: In Alexico. 

Distrihition: Much cultivated in Mexico ; grown also in Jamaica and southern Cali- 
fornia and escaped from cultivation in Hawaii. 

This species was originally described by Salm-Dyck essentially as follows: Erect and 
of the size of 0. decumana; joints 17.5 cm. long by 7.5 cm. broad and 2.5 cm. or more 
thick ; areoles close together, filled with gray wool ; 
glochids brow^nish, becoming blackish ; spines yjto 
10, white, unequal, acicular, somewhat radiating, 
the longest one deflexed, 5 cm. long; flowers not 
known; leaves small, reddish. 

Opuntia megacantha trichacantha Salm-Dyck 
was given as a synonym of this species by Forster 
(Handb. Cact. 486. 1846), but was never pub- 
Hshed. 

Opuntia tribuloides Griffiths (Monatsschr. 
Kakteenk. 23: 137. 1913), according to the de- 
scription, is of this relationship. 

This is the chief Mission cactus. It is the 
one from which the best varieties of edible tunas 
are obtained and is one of the commonest culti- 
vated opuntias in Alexico, having numerous forms, 
many of them bearing local names. 

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: 
pi. 8, f. 2; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 24, both as 
Opuntia castillae. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pi. 4, 
5, these two as Opuntia incarnadilla; Amer. Journ. 
Bot. 4: 572. f. 6. 

Plate XXXII, figure 4, represents a flowering 
joint of a plant in the same collection received 
from Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, in 1905. 
Figure 226 is from a photograph of a plant in 
the collection of the New York Botanical Garden ; fig 22s.— Opuntia megacantha. xo.4. 




OPUNTIA. 



I87 



figure 227 is from a photograph taken by A. S. Hitchcock on Lanai in 1916; figure 228 
represents a joint of a plant obtained by Dr. MacDougal near Mount Wilson, Cali- 
fornia, in 1906, a nearly spineless form. 

207. Opuntia deamii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 309. 1911. 

One meter or so high, with a definite cylindric trunk, branching a short distance above the base ; 
branches few, ascending; joints erect or spreading, very large, obovate to oblanceolate, 25 to 30 cm. 
long, at first bright leaf-green, in age dark green, glabrous; areoles remote, often 4 cm. apart, rather 
small; spines 2 to 6, usually 4, white or dull yellow, stout, somewhat flattened, spreading or porrect, 
3 to 5.5 cm. long; flowers 7 cm. long, reddish; fruit oblong, 6 cm. 
long, naked, except for a few spines near the top, wine-red both 
within and without, not edible; seeds small, 3 mm. 
broad. 

Type locality: Fiscal, Guatemala. 

Distribution: Fiscal to San Jose de Golfo and 
Sanarata, Guatemala. 

Illustration: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 
pl. 65. 

Figure 229 represents a joint 
of the type specimen. 

A tall, white-spined Opuntia, 
closely resembling the Mexican 0. 
macracantha, was obtained by Dr. 
Rose in 1918 (No. 22390) along 
roadsides at Ambato, Ecuador, 
presumably escaped from cultiva- 
tion ; its fruit is edible. 

207a. Opuntia dobbieana sp. nov. 
(See Appendix, p. 225.) 

208. Opuntia eichlamii Rose, Contr. 

U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 310. / 
1911. 

Tree-like, 5 to 6 meters high, the 
main branches nearly erect; joints obo- 
vate to orbicular, 15 to 20 cm. long, 
more or less glaucous, especially in 
dried specimens; leaves minute, cadu- 
cous; areoles small, 3 to 3.5 cm. apart; 
spines 4 to 6, very unequal, 2 cm. long 
or less, rose-colored at first, soon be- 
coming white, spreading, the larger 
ones flattened; glochids brown; flower 
3.5 cm. long; petals carmine; style 
red; stigma-lobes 8 to 11, bright 
green; fruit 4 cm. long, strongly tu- 
berculate, not edible. 




Fig. 229. — Opuntia deamii 



Type locality: Near Guatemala City. 
Distribution: Suburbs of Guatemala City, Guatemala. 
Illustration: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: pl. 66. 
Figure 230 represents a joint of the type specimen. 



209. 



Opuntia inaequilateraUs Berger, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 36: 453. 1905. 

About 12 dm. high, with spreading branches; joints oblique, narrowly ovate to subrhomboid, 
40 to 70 cm. long, 2 to 4 times as long as wide, narrowed at base, obtuse at apex, with somewhat 



l88 THE CACTACEJAE). 

sinuate margins, green, shining; young joints bright green, not at all glaucous, oblanceolate to 
narrowly oblong, rounded at apex; leaves reddish, subulate, 2 to 3 mm. long; areoles small, circular, 
filled with white wool when young, and having white, somewhat cobwebby hairs on the outer edge ; 
glochids brown, in a dense cluster; spines 3 to 7, acicular on young joints, but finally 10 to 15, stout, 
3 to 4 cm. long, at first yellowish, becoming white, somewhat spreading but not appressed to the 
joint; flowers large, borne at the apex of the joints; petals yellow, broadly obovate, retuse with 
crenulate margins; stigma-lobes green; fruit oblong, truncate, reddish, juicy, sweet. 

Type locality: Described from cultivated specimens grown at La Mortola, Italy. 
Distrihttion: Known only from cultivated specimens, their origin unknown. 
Illustration: Figure 231 shows a joint of a plant sent from La Mortola, Italy, in 1913. 





Fig. 230. — Opuntia eichlamii. X0.5. 



Fig. 231. — Opuntia inaequilateralis. X0.5. 



210. Opuntia pittieri sp. nov. 

Plant up to 5 meters high, with a rather definite cylindric spiny trunk; joints large, 25 to 50 cm. 
long, 2 to 4 times as long as wide, narrowly oblong, green ; leaves subulate, with purple tips ; wool 
in young areoles dark brown to purple ; areoles elevated, rather large, 2 to 3 cm. apart ; spines 3 
to 6, slightly spreading, acicular, white, the longest 2 to 2.5 cm. long; glochids tardily developing, 
few, often wanting; flowers deep orange, turning to scarlet; ovary nearly globular, more or less 
spiny, nearly truncate at apex. 

Collected at Venticas del Dagua, Dagua Valley, western cordillera of Colombia, 
February 1906, by H. Pittier, and since grown in Washington and New York. 



OPUNTIA. 189 

Opuntia pittieri differs from 0. inaequilateralis in having the young joints thinner, 
somewhat tuberculate, and with longer leaves; the areoles, too, are filled with brown or 
purple wool, while the glochids develop more slowly or never appear. 

Figure 232 represents a joint of the type plant. 

211. Opuntia cordobensis Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 513. 1905. 

Much branched, the trunk i to 2 meters long, 20 cm. in diameter, very spiny ; joints large, 3 dm. 
long or more, broadly oblong to obovate ; areoles prominent, numerous ; spines i to 6, white, somewhat 
spreading, a little flattened and twisted; flowers usually on the margins of the joints; petals about 
12, yellow; fruit pyriform, yellowish both within and without, 8 cm. long; seeds about 3 mm. long. 




Fig. 232. — O. pittieri. X0.4. Fig. 234.— Fruit of O. cordobensis. X0.7. Fig. 233. — O. cordobensis. X0.4. 



Type locality: Near Cordoba, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

The only white-spined species observed by Dr. Rose in 19 15 about Cordoba were 
0. ficus-indica, in cultivation, and what we have taken to be O. cordobensis. The latter 
is very abundant, growing on the hills about the city, and sometimes planted as hedges. 
Dr. Spegazzini states that it has the habit of 0. labouretiana. 

Figure 233 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near Cordoba, Argen- 
tina, in 1915; figure 234 represents the fruit as collected by J. A. Shafer at Calilegua, 
Argentina, in 1917 (No. 197). 



I go 



THE CACTACEAE. 



212. Opuntia quimilo Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 746. 1898. 

Much branched, about 4 meters high; joints large, elliptic or obovate, 5 dm. long by 2.5 dm. 
broad, 2 to 3 cm. thick, grayish green; spines very long, usually i, sometimes 2 or 3 from an areole, 
twisted, 7 to 14.5 cm. long; flowers red, 7 cm. broad; fruit pear-shaped to globular, 5 to 7 cm. long, 
greenish yellow; seeds 8 mm. broad, 1.5 to 2 mm. thick, with broad, thick, white margins. 

Type locality: La Banda, Santiago del Estero, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

This plant is known to the natives as quimilo. 

Dr. Rose obtained a good photograph of it from Dr. J. A. Dominguez, and -seed and a 
photograph from Dr. Spegazzini. While the volume was going through the press a fine 
specimen in fruit with the long spines so characteristic of this species was obtained by 

H. M. Curran at OuiUno, Cordoba, 
Argentina. Dr. Shafer's specimens 
collected at Rio Piedras, show that the 
trunk-areoles sometimes bear as many 
as eight spines. 





Fig. 235. — Joint of Opuntia quimilo. X0.3. 



Fig. 236. — Fruit of Opuntia quimilo. X0.3. 



Figure 235 represents a joint obtained by Dr. Shafer at Rio Piedras, Salta, Argentina, 
January 4, 1917 (No. 34); figure 236 represents the fruit from the same plant; figure 237 
is from a photograph of a flowering joint of the plant, contributed by Dr. Spegazzini. 

The following may belong to this series : 
Opuntia ithypetala Grifiiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 529. 1916. 

Tall, erect plant, 2 meters or more high; joints large, obovate, 26 to 45 cm. long, 14 to 19 cm. 
broad, much contracted below, bright dark green, somewhat tuberculate at the areoles; subulate, 
5 to 6 mm. long; areoles large, often i cm. in diameter, 4 to 5 cm. apart; spines white at least on 
second year's growth, 3 to 5 ; central spine largest, porrect, 3 to 4 cm. long ; flowers yellow, fading 
to rose-purplish; petals erect, 3 cm. in diameter; style white; stigma-lobes 6, light green. 

Known only from cultivated plants received from the Berlin Botanical Garden. 



OPUNTIA. 



191 



Series 22. ROBUSTAE. 

Tall or large plants with blue or bluish green joints, the spines, when present, white or yellowish. 
Two of the species are widely distributed in warm regions through cultivation for their edible fruits ; 
the other is known in cultivation only in central Mexico. All are presumably Mexican in origin. 

Key to Species. 

Joints orbicular to broadly obovate or 
elliptic. 
Fruit deep red, 7 to 9 cm. in diameter . 213. O. robusta 
Fruit greenish white, 4 to 5 cm. in 

diameter 214. 0. guerrana 

Joints oblong, narrowed at both ends . . 215. 0. Jusicaulis 

213. Opuntia robusta Wendland in Pfeiffer, 
Enum. Cact. 165. 1837. 

Opuntia flavkans Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov- 

Sp. 61. 1839. 
Opuntia larreyi Weber in Coulter, Contr. U. S. 

Nat. Herb. 3: 423. 1896. 
Opuntia gorda Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 

23: 134- 1913- 

Often erect, sometimes 5 meters high, usually 
much branched; joints orbicular to oblong, 20 to 
25 cm. long by 10 to 12.5 cm. broad, very thick, 
bluish green, glaucous; leaves 4mm. long, reddish, 
acute; spines 8 to 12, stout, very diverse, brown 
or yellowish at base, white above, up to 5 cm. long, 
but often wanting on greenhouse specimens; 
flowers 5 cm. broad, yellow; stigma-lobes green; 
fruit globular to ellipsoid, at first more or less 
tuberculate, deep red, 7 to 9 cm. long. 



Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico; cultivated 
in Argentina. 

This is one of the few species of Opuntia 
of which we have not been able to verify the 
original publication. It was redescribed by 
Pfeiffer in 1837. 

Opuntia camuessa Weber (Diet. Hort. Bois 895. 1898) was given as a synonym of 0. 
robusta, but was never described; and the same is true of 0. piccoloniiniana Parlatore 
(Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 741. 1898). 

The variety Opuntia robusta viridior Salm-Dyck (Forster, Handb. Cact. 487. 1846) 
was never described. 

Opuntia albicans Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 361. 1834) we do not know, but A. Berger, 
who has grown a plant under that name at La Mortola, says it is closely related to 0. 
robusta, while in the New York Botanical Garden are specimens labeled 0. albicans which 
are difficult to distinguish from 0. ficus-indica. Here belong the following: 0. prate 
Sabine (Pfeiffer, Bnum. Cact. 155. 1837), given as a synonym of 0. albicans; 0. albicans 
laevior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 67. 1850), name only; and 0. pruinosa Salm- 
Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 67. 1850) given as a synonym of 0. albicans laevior. 

Opuntia larreyi, a manuscript name of Weber, which was published by Coulter in 
1896, is based on the plant known to the Mexicans as camuessa. Weber gave it the name 
of 0. camuessa, as shown above, but did not publish it ; it is usually considered to be only 
a race of 0. robusta, but Dr. Griffiths considers it a distinct species, even referring it to a 
different series, the Ficus-indicae (N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 64: 56. 1907). 




Fig. 237, — Opuntia quimilo. 



192 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Berger remarks that this species is very variable, but that it can not well be divided 
even into varieties. 

Opiintia megalarthra Rose (Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 529. 1908), in its very spiny joints, 
yellow spines, and small fruits, seems very different from the common cultivated O. robusta; 
yet when grown in the greenhouse for several years it takes on much the appearance of 
0. robusta. If this view is correct, 0. megalarthra represents the wild form of the species. 

Opuntia cochinera Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 263. pi. 26. 1908) from Zacatecas, 
Mexico, is, perhaps, a hybrid between Opuntia robusta and one of the Sircptacantkae. 

Illustrations: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. 5, f. i; Monatsschr. Kakteenk.23: 
135; Joum. Inter. Gard. Club 3: 14, the last two as Opuntia gorda; U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. 
PI. Ind. Bull. 74: pi. 5, as Tapuna pear. ? N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 64: pi. i. 

Plate XXXIV, figure 4, represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose in Hidalgo, 
Mexico, in 1905, and described by him as Opuntia megalarthra. Figure 238 is from a photo- 
graph taken in Zacatecas, Mexico, by Professor F. E. Eloyd in 1908. 







J 




M 


HHa^^HUHHB.^jf^ tSu^^^AffilwaMUH^HH^v 


"V> 


""^^Bm 




K*^ ' wL/iwpfikJ 




sit^. 


r^ 




^H 






hm 












" ^J?»^-^S»5' ^ 











Fig. 238. — Opuntia robusta. 

214. Opuntia guerrana Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 266. 1908. 

Plant 9 to 12 dm. high, with an open, branching top; joints oblong to orbicular, 15 to 25 cm. 
long, thick, glaucous; areoles 5 mm. in diameter, filled with tawny wool; spines white to yellow, 
I to 6, flattened, twisted; petals yellow; filaments greenish white; stigma-lobes green; fruit globose 
greenish white, 4 to 5 cm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Near Dublan, Hidalgo, Mexico. 
Distribution: Known only from type locality. 

Except in size and color of fruit this species is very much Uke the common Opuntia 
robusta of this part of Mexico. 

215. Opuntia fusicaulis Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 271. 1908. 

Plant 5 meters high or less, the branches erect or spreading; joints oblong, elongated, 4 dm. 
long or less, much longer than wide, glaucous, bluish green, spineless, narrowed at both ends; glo- 
chids often wanting; areoles small, filled with tawny wool; fruit greenish white. 

Type locality: Described from cultivated plants. 
Distribution: Known only from cultivated specimens. 
Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 23, in part. 



OPUNTIA. 193 

The following may be referable to this series : 

OpunTia crystalEnia Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 528. 1916. 

Erect, 2 to 2.5 meters high; joints broadly obovate, 25 cm. long, 18 cm. wide, glaucous, bluish 
green, becoming yellowish in age; leaves 4 mm. long, subulate; spines white, porrect, only on the 
upper parts of the joints, i to 4, usually only 2, the longest i to 1.5 cm. long; glochids yellow; flowers 
yellow; stigma-lobes 10, dark green; fruit subglobose, 4 to 4.5 cm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Cardenas, Mexico. 

Distribution: Highlands of Mexico, where it is also cultivated. 

Series 23. POLYACANTHAE. 

This series is confined chiefly to plains of the western United States. The species are all low, 
creeping plants, very spiny, with dry fruits. On account of the dry fruit this series forms a natural 
group, although some species in the series Basilares also have dry fruits. One species of series 
Polyacanthae has fragile branches, in this respect resembling the Curassavicae. The species 
hybridize with those of the Tortispinae. 

Key to Species. 

Joints readily detached, turgid, some of thera subterete or subglobose 216. 0. fragitis 

Joints not readily detached, usually flat and thin, or in 0. arenaria sometimes turgid and 
nearly terete. 

Joints turgid, usually small 217. 0. arenaria 

Joints thinner than the last, mostly flat, larger. 

Spines, or some of them, very long, flexible and bristle-like. 

Flowers 4 to 5 cm. long 218. 0. Irkhophora 

Flowers 5 to 6 cm. long 219. 0. erinacea 

Spines stiff, acicular or subulate ; areoles distant. 
Spines subulate. 

Fruit naked 220. 0. juniperina 

Fruit spiny. 

Flowers yellow 221. 0. hyslricina 

Flowers red 222 . O. rhodanlha 

Spines acicular, slender; areoles close together. 

Ovary and fruit without spines 223. 0. sphaerocarpa 

Ovary and fruit with spines 224. O. polyacanlha 

216. Opuntia fragilis (NuttaU) Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 82. 1819. 

Cactus fragilis Nuttall, Gen. PI. i: 296. 1818. 

Opuntia brachyarlhra Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 302. 1S56. 

Opuntia fragilis brachyarthra Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 440. 1896. 

Opuntia fragilis caespitosa and tuberiformis Hortus, Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: 2363. 1916. 

(?) Opuntia Columbiana Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 523. 1916. 

Usually low and spreading, small and inconspicuous, but sometimes forming mounds 2 dm 
high in the center and 4 dm. in diameter, with hundreds of joints; joints fragile (the terminal ones 
especially breaking off at the shghtest touch), often nearly globular but sometimes decidedly flat- 
tened, usually dark green, i to 4 cm. long; areoles closely set, small, filled with white wool; spines 
5 to 7, brown or only with brown tips and hghter below, i to 3 cm. long; glochids yellowish; flowers 
pale yehow, about 5 cm. broad; fruit dry, spiny, 1.5 to 2 cm. long, with a truncate or slightly 
depressed umbilicus; seeds large, 5 to 7 mm. broad. 

Type locality: "From the Mandans to the mountains, in sterile but moist situations." 

Distribution: Wisconsin to central Kansas and northwestern Texas, westward to Ari- 
zona, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. 

Dr. Engelmann says "it is rarely found in flower and still more rarely seen in fruit." 
The only fruit we have seen was collected by Dr. Rose near Liberal, Kansas, in 191 2. 

Opuntia brachyarthra, sometimes regarded as a variety of 0. fragilis, we regard as not 
specifically separable from that species. An examination of the type material now pre- 
served in the Missouri Botanical Garden does not warrant a separation of any kind. 

This species is of wide distribution and is especially common on the plains. It usually 
grows low, often being hidden by the grass. In the grazing country it is a most trouble- 
some weed, for the joints easily break off and become attached by their spines to passing 
objects, thus greatly annoying and pestering all animals on the range, even frightening 



194 



THE CACTACEAE. 



horses. The wide distribution of the species is doubtless largely due to the fact that the 
joints are so easily scattered. A hybrid with 0. tortispina has been found in Kansas 
(Rose, No. 1 7132). 

The plant is of especial interest as the most northern in distribution of the opuntias. 

It is stated that Opuntia cervicomis Spath (Cat. 156. 1906-7) is "probably a hybrid 
of which 0. fmgilis is a parent" (Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1907: App. 74. 1907). 0. sabinii 
(Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 147. 1837) was given as a synonym of 0. fragilis. 

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. i: 100; Diet. Card. Nicholson 2: f. 752; Forster, Handb. 
Cact. ed. 2. f. 132; Gartenfiora 30: 413; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 12, f. 9; Riimpler, Sukkulenten 
f. 126; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 78; Wiener lUustr. Gartenz. 10: f. 113, all as Opuntia 
brachyarthra. lUustr. Fl. 2 : f. 2532 ; ed. 2. 2 : f . 2991 ; Pac. R. Rep. 4 : pi. 24, f. 5. 

Plate XXXV, figure i, shows old and young joints of the plant collected by C. Birdseye 
at Florence, Montana, in 1910. Figure 239 is from a photograph of the plant taken by 
B- R. Warren at San Acacio, Colorado, in 1912. 




— < ipiiiitia fragilis. 



217. Opuntia arenaria Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 301. 1S56. 

Roots in clusters of 10 to 15, spindle-form, somewhat fleshy; stem prostrate, 2 to 3 dm. long, 
much branched; joints during growing season quite turgid, afterwards much thinner, 4 to 8 cm. 
long, half as broad as long; areoles large, numerous, filled with brown wool, glochids, and spines; 
spines 5 to S from an areole, 2 or 3 much longer than the others, sometimes 4 cm. long; flowers red, 
7 cm. broad; fruit Axj, spiny, 3 cm. long; seeds large, 7 cm. broad. 

Type locality: Sandy bottoms of the Rio Grande near El Paso. 

Distrihiition: Texas and southern New Mexico. 

This species is very rare and has been reported only a few times. Dr. Rose, who has 
repeatedly collected at El Paso, was never able to find it until October 19 13, and then but 
a single plant about 8 miles above El Paso on the New Mexican side of the Rio Grande. It 
grows in nearly pure sand not far above the level of the river. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del. 



1. Flant oi O/niniia fragilis. 2. Flowenng hrsLUch oi Ofiiattia r/2odant/ia. 

3. 'Flowering ]omt oi Opnnimpolyacant/ia. (All natural size. ) 



OPUNTIA. 



195 



Illustration: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 15. 

Figure 240 is from a drawing of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near El Paso, Texas, in 

1913- 

218. Opuntia trichophora (Engelmann) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 535. 1908. 

Opuntia missouriensis trichophora Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300. 1856. 
Opuntia polyacantha trichophora Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 437. 1896. 

A low, spreading plant, often forming small clumps 6 to 10 dm. in diameter; joints orbicular 
to obovate, 6 to 10 cm. in diameter; areoles closely set; spines numerous, very unequal, the longer 
one 4 cm. long or so, acicular, pale, often white, but on old joints developing into long, weak hair- 
like bristles; flowers yellow, the sepals tinged with red; ovary with numerous areoles, these bear- 
ing weak, pale bristles; fruit unknown. 

Type locality: Mountains near Albuquerque, New 
Mexico. 

Distribution: New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. 

This plant, while closely related to Opuntia polya- 
cantha, seems worthy of specific rank, its long weak spines 
being apparently characteristic. Its northern extension 
into Oklahoma has recently been determined 
from plants collected by G. W. Stevens. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 15, f. i 
to 4; pi. 23, f. 19, all as Opuntia missouriensis 
trichophora. 

Figure 241 is copied from the first illus- 
tration above cited. 





KiG. 240. — Opuntia arenaria. X0.75. 



Fig. 241. — Opuntia trichopho 



219. Opuntia erinacea Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 301. 1856. 

Opimlia ursina Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 896. 1898. 

Growing in small, low clumps, the branches ascending or erect; joints ovate to oblong, flattened 
or thick, sometimes nearly terete, 8 to 12 cm. long; areoles somewhat tuberculate, large, numerous, 
closely set, 4 to 10 mm. apart; spines numerous, usually white or sometimes brownish or with brown 
tips, slender, often 5 cm., sometimes 12 cm. long or even more, stiff, often developing on the old 
joints as long hairs or bristles; glochids numerous; flowers rather large, 6 to 7 cm. long, either red or 
yellow; ovary and fruit very spiny; seeds large, rather regular. 

Type locality: On Mojave Creek, California. 

Distribution: Northwestern Arizona, southern Utah, southern Nevada, and eastern 
California. 



196 THE CACTACEAE. 

This species has long been passing under the name of Opuntia rutila Nuttall (Torrey and 
Gray, Fl. N. Amer. i : 555. 1840). Dr. Engelmann referred it there in the Report of Simp- 
son's Expedition (page 442), and again in the Botam^ of CaHfornia, with the remark that 
"this plant seems to be Nuttall's long lost 0. rutila." And while it is true that the identi- 
fication of Nuttall's plant is still doubtful, it seems improbable that this reference is correct. 




Fig. 242. — Opuntia erinacea. 

for the description does not agree with that of the above, and the original station of 0. rutila 
in Wyoming is far removed from the other; keen collectors like A. Nelson and V. Bailey, who 
have searched for the plant for us, have failed to find it in Wyoming. We suspect that 0. 
rutila will prove to be 0. polyacantha. 

Opuntia ursina, which comes from the Mojave Desert, seems to be only a slender 
form with long weak spines. This is known in the trade as the California grizzly bear cac- 
tus. Alverson has described it as follows : "This curious plant is covered with tawny white 



OPUNTIA. 



197 



hairs or flexuous spmes, some of which are from 3 to 6 inches long, and I have some extra 
fine specimens with the spines or hairs 9 and 12 inches long." 

Illustrations: Alverson, Cact. Cat. 9 as Opuntia ursina; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 13, f. 
8 to II ; pi. 24, f. 4. 

Figure 242 is from a photograph of the plant taken by F. B. Headley at a point about 
29 miles east of Fallon, Nevada, in 19 10. 

220. Opuntia juniperina sp. nov. 

Somewhat of the habit of Opuntia polyacantha, but not so procumbent, stouter, and with fewer 
and stouter spines; joints obovate, 10 to 12 cm. long, broad, rounded at top; areoles small, all below 
the middle of the joint naked, the upper ones each bearing one stout spine and i to several very 
short accessory ones ; the longer spine very stout, 3 to 4 cm. long, brown ; flowers not known ; fruit 
dry, oblong, 3 cm. long, spineless, with a shallow, flat umbilicus; seeds large, irregular, 6 to 8 mm. 
broad. 





Fig. 243. — Joint of Opuntia juni- 
perina. X0.5. 



Fig. 244. — Seed 
of same. X0.5. 



Fig. 245. — Opuntia hystr 
X0.5. 



On dry hills among junipers in vicinity of Cedar Hill, San Juan County, New Mexico, 
altitude about 1,900 meters, August 17, 1911, Paul C. Standley (No. 8051). 

This species is nearest Opuntia rhodantha, but has stouter joints and much larger seeds. 
Figure 243 represents a joint of the type specimen; figure 244 represents a seed. 

221. Opuntia hystricina Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 299. 1856. 

More or less diffuse ; joints obovate to orbicular, 8 to 20 cm. long; areoles numerous, 10 to 15 mm. 
apart, rather large; spines numerous, pale brown to white, the longer ones 5 to 10 cm. long, stout, 
flattish, often reflexed; glochids yellow; flowers 6 cm. long; petals broad, yellow; ovary nearly glob- 
ular; fruit oblong to obovoid, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, spiny above, dry, with a compressed umbilicus; seeds 
7 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Colorado Chiquito and on San Francisco Mountains. 

Distribution: New Mexico to Arizona and Nevada. 

Although this species has a wide range, it is not very well understood ; it approaches 
0. rhodantha in some of its forms. We have referred here a very remarkable form collected 
by B. W. Nelson at Lee's Ferry, Arizona, in 1909. This plant has thick, obovate joints 17 



iqS 



THE CACTACEaE. 



to 22 cm. long, strongly tuberculate, with some of the spines very strong, flattened, and re- 
flexed; the fruit is very spiny; the seeds are 8 mm. broad, angled, with margins thin and 
acute. This may be the plant Hsted in Weinberg's catalogue, also from the Grand Canyon, 
under the name of Opuntia hochder_fferi. 

Opiiniia xerocarpa Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 15. 1916), from Kingman, 
Arizona, is of this relationship, described as "readily distinguished from other species of 
its drj"-fruited allies by its spines, shape of joints and color of plant body." 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 15, f. 5 to 7; pi. 23, f. 15. 

FigiU'e 245 is copied from the first illustration above cited. 

222. Opuntia rhodantha Schumann, La Semaine Hort. 1897. 

Opuntia xanthoslemma Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 735. 1898. 
Opuntia utaliensisj. A. Purpus, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 133. 1909. 

Joints obovate to oblong, 5 to 12 cm. long; areoles distant, 10 mm. apart or more; spines rather 
stout, 3 or 4, 2 to 3 cm. long, brownish, with 2 or 3 short accessory ones; lower areoles usually naked; 
glochids brown ; flowers, including ovaries, 5 to 6 cm. long, 8 cm. broad ; petals red or pink to salmon- 
colored, obovate, apiculate; stamens red or yellow; fruit spiny; seeds small, 5 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Colorado, at 2,000 to 2,300 meters altitude. 

Distribution: Western Nebraska, Colorado, and Utah. 

After a careful examination of living plants of both 0. rhodantha and 0. xanthostemma, 
we feel convinced that the latter is only a form of the other. The color of the stamens in 
the opuntias does not furnish a constant character. It is hardy in cultivation at New York 
and highly ornamental when in bloom. 

Haage and Schmidt, in their 191 5 cata- 
logue, list several varieties of this species: 
brevispina, flavispina, pisciformis, and schu- 
manniana; and under Opuntia xanthostemma 
in the same place they Hst the following 
varieties ; clegans, fulgens, gracilis, orbicularis, 
and rosea. 

Illustrations: Meehan's jNIonthly 7: 133; 
Gartenwelt i: 83, this last as Opuntia xantho- 
stemma; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 135, this 
last as Opuntia utahensis. 

Plate XXXV, figure 2, represents a flower- 
ing plant received by the Ne\v York Botanical 
Garden from Haage and Schmidt, of Erfurt, 
Germany, in 19 13. 




Fig. 246. — Opuntia sphaerocarpa. X0.66. 



223. Opuntia sphaerocarpa Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300. 1856. 

Small, spreading plants; joints orbicular, 6 to 7 cm. broad, thickish, strongly tuberculate, 
wrinkled in drying, light green or becoming more or less purple; areoles 8 to 10 mm. apart, mostly 
spineless or the upper and marginal ones bearing short acicular spines, the longest ones about 
2 cm. long; glochids yellow; flowers not known; fruit naked, 18 mm. in diameter, with a truncate 
umbilicus; seeds 5 mm. broad, very irregular. 

Type locality: IMountains near Albuquerque, New Mexico. 
Distribution: Known only from type locality. 

We have not, with certainty, identified an)^ recently collected plants with this species, 
although some New Mexican specimens appear to be referable to it. 
Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 13, f. 6, 7; pi. 24, f. 3. 
Figure 246 is copied from the first illustration above cited. 



OPUNTIA. 



199 



224. Opuntia polyacantha Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 82. 1819. 

Cacte^/erox Nuttall, Gen. PI. i: 296. 1818. NotWilldenow. 1813. 

Opuntia media Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 82. 1819. 

Opuntia missouriensis De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 472. 1S28. 

Opuntia splendens Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 159. 1837. 

Opuntia missouriensis albispina Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300, 

Opuntia missouriensis microsperma Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300. 

0. rafinesquei microsperma Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856. 
Opuntia missouriensis platycarpa Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300. 1856. 
Opuntia missouriensis rufispina Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300. 
Opuntia missouriensis subinennis Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300. 1856. 
Opuntia polyacantha albispina Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 437. 1896. 
Opuntia polyacantha borcalis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 436. 1896. 
Opuntia polyacantha platycarpa Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 436. 1896. 
Opuntia polyacantha watsonii Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 437. 1896. 
Opuntia schweriniana Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 148. 1899. 



1856. Not 



1S56. 




Fig. 247. — Opuntia polyacantha. 

Low, spreading plants, with fibrous roots, usually forming small clumps; joints not very thick, 
orbicular, usually less than 10 cm. in diameter, generally light green; areoles small, closely set, 
usually less than i cm. apart, all spiny; spines numerous, often 9, those from the sides mostly short, 
appressed, and white, but often i or 2 of these elongated and like those from the upper and marginal 
areoles, dark brown, with lighter tips and about 3 cm. long; glochids yellow; flowers small, 4 to 5 cm. 
long, including the ovary; sepals tinged with red; petals lemon-yellow; stigma-lobes green; fruit 
dry, oblong, 2 cm. long, bearing small clusters of white, acicular spines at the areoles; seeds white, 
6 mm. long, acute on the margin. 

Type locality: Arid situations on the plains of the Missouri. 

Distribution: North Dakota to Nebraska, Texas, and Arizona to Utah, Washington, 
and Alberta. 

Opuntia sphaerocarpa utahensis Engelmann (Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 199. 1863) can 
not be referred to 0. sphaerocarpa, where Dr. Engelmann only provisionally placed it when 
he first described it. On account of its yellow flowers we have referred it here. Opuntia 



I 



THE CACTACEAE. 



polyacantha microsperma and 0. polyacantha rufispina, mentioned in Bailey's Standard 
Cyclopedia of Horticulture (3: 2363. 1916), belong here. 

Opuntia polyacantha was one of the first of our western opuntias to be collected and 
described. It was first collected by Thomas Nuttall on his memorable trip to the Upper 
Missouri. He described it in 181 8 as Cactus ferox, a name which had been previously used 
by Willdenow, which led A. H. Haworth in 1819 to rename Nuttall's plant, caUing it Opun- 
tia polyacantha. At the same place Haworth published a second name, Opuntia media, 
undoubtedly based on a less spiny form of 0. polyacantha. In 1828 Nuttall's plant was 
again renamed, this time by A. De Candolle, who called it Opuntia missouriensis, under 
which name it was known for many years. In 1896 Dr. John M. Coulter very properly 
restored Haworth's name 0. polyacantha. 

This species has a wide distribution laterally and altitudinally. It is properly a 
plains' species, but is found in mountain valleys and on dry hills, usually in the open, 
l3ut sometimes in sparse pine woods. In a species of such wide distribution and growing 
under such diverse circumstances, a wide range of forms is to be expected and a number of 
varieties have been proposed for the various races, some of which may perhaps have red 
flowers. The plant is hardy at New York, flowering freely in June. 

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 115: pi. 7046; lUustr. Fl. 2: f. 2531; ed. 2. 2: f. 2990; 
N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pi. [3]; Cact. joum. i: 167; Card. Chron. 50: 340, the last 
two as Opuntia missouriensis; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 14, f. 8 to 10; pi. 23, f. 18, the last two as 
Opuntia missouriensis albispina; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 14, f. 5 to 7; pi. 24, f. i, 2, the last two 
as Opuntia missouriensis microsperma; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 14, f. 4; pi. 23, f. 17, these last 
two as Opuntia missouriensis platycarpa; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 14, f. i to 3; pi. 23, f. 16, these 
last two as Opuntia missouriensis rufispina; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 148, this last as 
Opuntia schweriniana. 

Plate XXXV, figure 3, represents 
aflowering joint of the plant collected 
by Dr. Rose in western Kansas in 
191 2. Figure 247 represents joints 
of the plant from Colorado, photo- 
graphed by T. W. SmiUie. 

Series 24. STENOPETALAE. 

This is an anomalous group in 
Opuntia, since the flowers are dioeci- 
ous and the petals are linear and more 
or less erect. It contains three species 
which are very different in habit and 
color of spines, but which were all 
united into a single species by Profes- 
sor Schumann. Dr. Engelmann was so 
much impressed bj^ the peculiar struc- 
ture of the flowers of this group that he 
proposed for it a new subgenus, Steno- 
puntla. 

Key to Species. 

Spines dark; plants low, 

prostrate 225. 0. stenopelala 

Spines white; plants erect. 
Joints narrow; spines 

acicular 226. 0. glaucescens 

Joints broader; spines 

stouter 227. 0. grandis 

225. Opuntia stenopetala Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 289. 1856. 

Low bushy plant, often forming thickets, the main branches procumbent and resting on the 
edges of the joints; joints obovate to orbicular, i to 2 dm. long, grayish green, but often more or less 



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Fig. 248. — Opuntia stenopetala. 



OPUNTIA. 



purplish, very spiny; areoles often remote, i to 3 cm. apart, the lower ones often without spines, 
bearing white wool when young; leaves only on young joints, spreading, dark red, about 2 mm. long; 
spines usually reddish brown to black, but sometimes becoming pale, usually 2 to 4, the longest 
ones 5 cm. long, the larger ones somewhat flattened; glochids very abundant on young joints, 
brown; flowers dioecious, small, including the ovary only 3 cm. long; petals orange-red, very narrow, 
10 to 12 mm. long, with long acuminate tips; filaments short; style very thick in the middle, the male 
flowers with an abortive, pointed style, but female flowers with 8 or 9 yellow stigma-lobes on style; 
ovary leafy, the upper leaves similar to the sepals; fruit globular, 3 cm. in diameter, acid, naked 
or spiny; seeds small, smooth, 3 mm. in diameter, with broad, rounded margins. 

Type locality: On battlefield of Buena Vista, south of Saltillo, Mexico. 

Distrihiiiion: In States of Coahuila to Oueretaro and Hidalgo, central Mexico. 

Referred by Schumann to 0. glaucescens, but surely a distinct species, as indicated 
by Berger (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 171. 1904). 

Although in its habit this Opuntia is much like many others, its flowers are unique, 
the petals being very narrow and erect ; it is a very beautiful plant, and at flowering time 
is covered with numerous, small, beautiful flowers. Dr. Griffiths states that it is one of 
the most valuable ornamental opuntias, and that it is hardy in southern California. 

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 66; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 172. f. i. 

Figure 248 is from a photograph of a 
fruiting joint of a specimen collected by 
Dr. Edward Palmer near Saltillo, Mexico, 
in 1905; figure 249 is copied from the 
illustration first above cited. 

226. Opuntia glaucescens Salm-Dyck, Hort. 

Dj^ck. 362. 1834. 

Probably erect; joints erect, oblong-obo- 
vate, 12 to 15 cm. long, 5 cm. broad, some- 
times narrowed at both ends, pale green, 
glaucous, usually purplish around the are- 
oles; leaves small, reddish when young; are- 
oles filled with gray wool; spines i to 4, 
elongated, acicular, white, 2.5 cm. long; glo- 
chids brownish to rose-colored. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribtttion: Mexico, but range un- 
known.' 

The flowers were not known when the species was first described and we do not know 
that they have since been observed. It has long been in cultivation, but specimens grown 
under glass at New York have not flowered. 

227. Opuntia grandis Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 155. 1837. 

More or less erect, 6 dm. high or more; joints oblong, 12 to 18 cm. long, erect, when young 
reddish, glaucous; leaves rose-colored; spines few, white; flowers small, a little open, 2 cm. broad; 
petals few, narrowly lanceolate, 12 mm. long; filaments reddish; style shorter than the stamens, 
rose-colored; stigma-lobes 2 or 3, acute. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Mexico, but range unknown. 

Referred by Schumann to 0. glaucescens, but doubtless distinct, as indicated by Berger. 

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 172. f. 2. 

Series 25. PALMADORAE. 

An erect plant with narrow flat joints, small, brick-red flowers, and apparently erect stamens; 
the epidermis densely papillose-tuberculate when dry. The flowers suggest those of the Spinosis- 
simae, but otherwise the plant is quite different. The series consists of a single species, from the 
catinga region of eastern Brazil. 




Fig. 249. — Opunlia slenopetala. 



THE CACTACEAE. 



228. Opuntia palmadora sp. nov. 

Plant often 3 meters high, sometimes even 5, but often low; trunk 
sometimes 9 cm. in diameter, sometimes with brown, smooth bark, but 
usually very spiny; branches numerous, usually erect, at times forming a 
compact, almost globular top, at other times quite open; joints unusually 
thin and narrow, i to 1.5 dm. long, generally erect, verj^ spiny; leaves 
subulate, minute, 3 to 4 mm. long, green with reddish tips, found only on 
very young joints; areoles filled with white wool; spines usually i to 4, 
sometimes 6, from an areole, all yellow at first, in age white, the largest 
one porrect, 3 cm. long; petals erect or only slightly spreading, brick-red 
in color; stamens short, erect; filaments orange-colored; style cream-col- 
ored; stigma-lobes white; ovary broadly turbinate, 2 cm. long, tubercu- 
late; fruit small. 

Collected by Rose and Russell at Barrinha, Bahia, Brazil, June 
7, 8, 1915 (No. 19787)- 

This plant is common in the semiarid parts of Bahia, where 
it is known as palmadora or palmatoria. Johnston and Tryon 
describe it briefly without giving it a name in their Report of the 
Prickly-Pear TraveUing Commission, 104. 1914. 

Figure 250 represents joints of the type plant; figure 251 is from 
a photograph of the wild plant from which the above was taken. 
Series 26. SPINOSISSIMAE. 

Erect species, mostly tall, with terete, continuous, unjointed, usually 
densely spiny trunks, the ultimate branches spreading or divaricate, flat, 
usually elongated, spiny or sometimes unarmed; flowers small, yellow, 
orange or red, or changing from yellow to red ; fruit fleshy. We recognize seven species, all natives 
of the West Indies. The series represents the genus Consolea of Lemaire. 




-O. palmadora. 




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Fig. 252. — Opuntia nashii. 



Key to Species. 



Areoles of the joints distant, 2 to 4 cm. apart. 
Spines few, 3 cm. long or less, or none. 

Areoles elevated, bearing 2 to 5 graj'ish spines 3 to 6 cm. long 229. 

Areoles scarcely elevated, spineless or with i to 4 weak yellow spines i to 2 cm. long . . . 230. 

Spines, when present, many, the older up to 12 cm. long 231. 

Areoles of the joints closer together, i to 1.5 cm. apart. 
Spines of the trunk-areoles, or most of them, deflexed. 

Young spines straw-colored or whitish; plant up to 5 m. tall 232. 

Young spines purple; plant 6 dm. high or less 233. 

Spines of the trunk-areoles, when present, spreading. 

Joints distinctly reticulate-areolate, light green; ovary prominently tuberculate 234. 

Joints indistinctly reticulate-areolate, mostly dark green or reddish; ovary low-tuberculate 235. 



0. nashii 
0. bahamana 
0. macracantha 



0. spinosissima 
0. millspaughii 

0. moniliformis 
O. rubescens 



OPUNTIA. 



263 



229. Opuntia nashii Britton, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 3 : 446. 1905. 

Tree-like, or sometimes bushy, dull green; main axis round, 
I to 4 meters high, 5 to 12 cm. in diameter, spiny; branches flat 
or becoming round below, the principal ones continuous, i meter 
long or more, 6 cm. wide or less, crenate, blunt; lateral branches 
opposite or alternate, oblong to linear-oblong, often 3 dm. long, 
and S cm. wide, only about 6 mm. thick, blunt, crenate; areoles 
I to 3 cm. apart, slightly elevated; spines mostly 5 at each areole 
(2 to 5), divergent, slender, straight, light gray, pungent, the 
longer 3 to 6 cm. long; glochids very small, brownish; ovary 3 
cm. long, 1.5 cm. thick, somewhat clavate, tubercled, the tuber- 
cles bearing areoles and spines similar to those of the joints, but 
the spines somewhat shorter; flowers 1.5 cm. broad when ex- 
panded, red; petals broadly oval to obovate, blunt, about 8 mm. 
long, much longer than the stamens. 

Type locality: Inagua, Bahamas. 

Distribution: Andros, Crooked Island, Fortune Island, 
Atwood Cay, Caicos Islands, Turks Islands, Ship Channel 
Cay, and Inagua, Bahamas. 

Figure 252 is from a photograph of a plant at Matthew 
Town, Inagua, Bahamas, taken by George V. Nash, in 1904; 
figure 253 is from a photograph of a plant from the same 
place in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden. 

230. Opuntia bahamana sp. nov. 

Branched from near the base, bushy, about 1.5 m. high; 
joints oblong to lanceolate, flat, and thin, i to 5 dm. long, 4 to 
10 cm. wide, dull green, obtuse, scarcely undulate; leaves red, 
subulate, 3 cm. long; areoles 1.5 to 3 cm. apart, scarcely elevated, 
about 2 mm. in diameter, spineless, or bearing i to 4 acicular yel- 
low spines 2 cm. long or less when young; glochids few and short; 
flower about 6 cm. broad; petals obovate, rose-tinted below, yel- 
lowish rose above; sepals dark rose, whitish margined. 

Distribution : Rocky slopes, The Bright, Cat Island, Ba- 
hamas, collected by N. L- Britton and C. F. Millspaugh, 
March 1907, No. 5794. 

This plant was tentatively referred by us (Smiths. 
Misc. Coll. 50: 525. 1908) to Opuntia lanceolata Haworth. 
It has been grown under glass at New York ever since, 
but does not respond well to greenhouse conditions. 

It is here included in the series Spinosissimae, but with hesitation, its bushy habit 
and larger flowers being anomalous in this group. 

Figure 254 represents a joint of the type specimen above cited; figure 255 is copied 
from a sketch of a flower made by Dr. Millspaugh on Cat Island, when the plant was 
discovered. 

231. Opuntia macracantha Grisebach, Cat. PI. Cub. 116. 1866. 

Erect, the trunk up to 15 cm. in diameter, its areoles i to 2 cm. broad, bearing many brownish 
glochids and several divergent spines 15 cm. long or less; upper portion of the trunk, and the 
ultimate, oblong, or oblong-ovate, spreading branches flat, green, faintly shining, the areoles 2 to 
3 cm. apart, scarcely elevated, the numerous glochids brown; spines i to 4, up to 15 cm. long, nearly 
white, stout, subulate, or wanting; flowers often numerous; ovary 2.5 to 3 cm. long, densely beset 
with glochid-bearing areoles; petals orange-yellow, i to 1.3 cm. long. 

Type locality: Cuba, in maritime depressions. 

Distribution: Southern coast of eastern Cuba and adjacent plains. 




-Opuntia nashii. 



204 



The; cactaceae. 



Specimens of the plant were erroneously referred by Grisebach to 0. triacantha. It 
is a picturesque feature of the flora of its native habitat. 

Figure 256 is from a photograph of the plant on the United States Naval Station, 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, taken by Marshall A. Howe in 1909; figure 257 is from a pho- 
tograph of a plant from the same place, grown at the New York Botanical Garden. 





Fig. 254. — Joint of Opuntia 
bahamana. 



Fig. 255. — Flower 
of the same. 



Fig. 256. — Opuntia macracantha. 



232. Opuntia spinosissima Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 8. 1768. 

Cactus spinosissimus Martyn, Cat. Hort. Cant. 88. 1771. 
Consolea spinosissima 'Le.vaaire:, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862. 

Erect, up to 5 m. high, the trunk sometimes 8 cm. in diameter, densely clothed with areoles 
bearing many long brownish glochids and acicular, deflexed or spreading spines up to 8 cm. long; 
ultimate branches flat, dull green, narrowly oblong, 2 to 4 times as long as wide, their areoles i to 
1.5 cm. apart, slightly or not at all elevated, bearing brown glochids and i to 3 acicular, straw-col- 
ored or whitish spines 8 cm. long or less, or spineless; ovary 3 to 8 cm. long, often flattened, its 
areoles bearing short glochids; petals about i cm. long, oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex, at 
first yellow, turning dull red. 

Type locality: Jamaica. 

Distrihition: Southern coast of Jamaica. 

Plate XXXVI, from a painting by Miss H. A. Wood at Hope Gardens, Jamaica, 
sent by WilHam Harris in 1907. Figure 258 is from a photograph of a plant obtained 
by Professor John F. Cowell in Jamaica and sent from the Buffalo Botanical Garden to 
the New York Botanical Garden in 1904. 

233. Opuntia millspaughii Britton, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 513. 1908. 

Trunk terete, 7 cm. thick at base, 5 cm. thick at top, 6 dm. high or less, branching at the summit, 
the branches divaricate-ascending, narrowly oblong, much compressed, 40 cm. long or less, 5 to 



8RITT0N AND ROSE 




H. A. Wood del. Opu7itia spinosissima. 

1. Flowering joint. 6. Cross-section of ovary. 

2, 3. Single flowers. 7. Style. 

4, 5. Longitudinal section of flower. 



OPUNTIA. 



205 



10 cm. wide, i to 1.5 cm. thick, light green; branchlets obUquely lanceolate, obtuse, as wide as 
the branches, but shorter, i cm. thick or less, floriferous at and near the apex; areoles of the older 
branches pitted, about i cm. apart, those of very young shoots slightly elevated, the glochids very 
short, yellowish brown; spines of the trunk 15 cm. long or less, very numerous and densely clothing 
the trunk, very slender, gray, mostly strongly reflexed, pungent, those of the branches and branch- 
lets restricted to the areoles on their edges, shorter than those of the trunk but similar, purple when 





spinosissima. 



young, those of the fruit yellowish gray, 2 cm. long or less; flowers cupulate, crimson-lake, i cm. 
wide; sepals fleshy, ovate, acute, 4 mm. long and wide; petals erect-ascending, obovate, mucro- 
nulate, about 4 mm. wide; stamens half as long as the corolla; style about as long as the corolla; 
stigma-lobes oblong, yellowish crimson; fruit compressed-obovoid, 2 cm. long, 1.5 cm. thick, bear- 
ing one or two spines at most of the areoles. 



206 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Type locality: Rock Sound, Eleuthera Island, Bahamas. 

Distribution: Eleuthera and Great Ragged Island, Bahamas ; Cayo Paredon Grande, Cuba. 

Figure 259 is from a photograph of the type plant taken at the type locality by Dr. 

C. F. Millspaugh, February 22, 1907. 

234. Opuntia moniliformis (Linnaeus) Haworth in Steu- 
del, Nom. ed. 2. 2: 221. 1841. 

Cactus moniliformis Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 468. 1753. 
Cactus ferox Willdenow, Enum. PI. Suppl. 35. 1813. 
Opuntia ferox Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 82. 1819. 
Cereus moniliformis De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 470. 1828. 
CoKJo/ea fcro.v Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862. 
Opuntia microcarpa Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 714. 

1898. Not Engelmann. 1848. 
.Nopalea moniliformis Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 750. 

1898. 
Opuntia t£studinis-crus Weber in Gosselin, Bull. ilus. 

Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 389. 1904. 
Opuntia haitiensis Britton, Smiths. oSIisc. Coll. 50: 513. 

190S. 

Trunk somewhat ilattened above, 3 to 4 m. high, 
branching at the top, densely armed with acicular, yel- 
lowish or gra}^ spines 12 cm. long or less, their bases 
clothed with yellowish-white wool i to 2 cm. long; joints 
obliquely linear-oblong to obovate, i to 3 dm. long, 13 cm. 
wide or less, about i cm. thick, obtuse, distinctl}' areolate- 
reticulate, the areoles somewhat elevated, i to 1.5 cm. 
apart, those of young joints bearing near the edges 3 to 6 
acicular spines i to 2.5 cm. long, those on the sides of the 
3'oung joints often spineless or with i to 3 yellowish 





Fig. 260. — Opuntia moniliformis on the plain at Azua, Santo Domingo 



OPUNTIA. 



207 



spines, and with small tufts of grayish wool; older joints bearing at all areoles 5 to 8 yellowish 
spines similar to those of the trunk, and brown glochids 6 or 8 mm. long; flowers about 2.5 cm. 
broad; sepals as broad as long, or broader, apiculate; petals yellow to orange, ovate, apiculate, 
spreading; stamens much shorter than the petals; ovary cylindric to obovoid-cylindric, terete or 
nearly so, 4 to 5 cm. long, its distinctly elevated areoles close together, only 5 or 6 mm. apart, 
bearing brown glochids 2 mm. long, but no spines ; fruit oblong-obovoid, about 6 cm. long. 

Type locality: Hispaniola. 

Distribution: Hispaniola; Desecheo Island, Porto Rico. 

The ovaries, fruits and small joints of this species are readily detached and on falling 
to the ground strike root and proliferate, forming masses of subglobose or turgid joints 
entirely different in aspect from the fully developed, tree-like plant. It was on this stage 
of the organism that the Cactus monilifonnis of Linnaeus, founded on Plumier's convention- 
alized plate above cited, was based; this illustration is, however, apparently erroneous in 
showing the style as long-exserted. 

The names Opuntia dolabriformis and Opuntia cruciata were published by Pfeiffer 
(Enum. Cact. 167. 1837) as synonyms of O. ferox. vSome of the joints and, perhaps, 
some whole plants of this species are nearly or quite spineless. •^ 

Illustrations: Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antill. ed. 2. 7: pi. 514, as Cactier moniliforme ; 
Plumier, PI. Amer. ed. Burmann. pi. 198, as Cactus, etc. 





Fig. 261. — Opuntia moniliformis. The same species as 260. but 
showing a different mode of growth. 



Fig. 262. — Opuntia monili- 
formis. X0.66. 



Figure 260 is from a photograph of a plant at Azua, Santo Domingo, taken by 
Paul G. Russell in 1913; figure 261 is from a photograph taken by Frank E. Lutz on 
Desecheo Island, Mona Passage, Porto Rico, in 1914, showing a mass of proliferating 
sterile ovaries or small joints below and the mature stage of the plant above; figure 262 
represents several of the small joints of the Desecheo plant. 



208 



THE CACTACfiAE. 



235. Opuntia rubescens Salm-Dyck in De CandoUe, Prodr. 3: 474. 182S. 

1837. 



Opuntia catacanlha Link and Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 166. 

Consolea rubescens Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862. 

Consolea catacanlha Lemaire, Rev, Hort, 1862: 174. 1862. 

Opuntia guanicana Schumann in Giirke, Monatsschr, Kakteenk, 18: 180, 



1908, 



Trunk erect, nearly cylindric below, flattened above, 3 to 6 meters high, sometimes 1.5 dm. in 
diameter, branching above, its areoles bearing several or many acicular spines up to 8 cm. long or 
more, or spineless; ultimate joints thin and flat, mostly dark green or reddish green, not reticulate- 
areolate except when young, oblong to oblong-obovate, 2.5 dm. long or less, mostly 2 to 4 times as 
long as wide, the terminal ones often much smaller; areoles i to 1.5 cm. apart, bearing several acicular 
nearly white spines i to 6 cm. long, or spineless; flowers yellow, orange or red, about 2 cm. broad; 
ovary long-tuberculate, 4 to 5 cm. long, about 1.5 cm. in diameter; petals obovate, apiculate; sta- 
mens about half as long as the petals; fruit reddish, obovoid or subglobose, 5 to 8 cm. in diameter, 
spiny or spineless; seeds suborbicular, 6 to 8 mm. in diameter. 




Figs. 263, 264. — Opuntia ru 



Type locality: Cited as Brazil, but erroneously. 

Distribution: Mona and Porto Rico to Tortola, St. Croix, and Guadeloupe. 

Culebra, St. Thomas, St. Jan, and Montserrat plants agree with the description of 
Opuntia rubescens, which clearly belongs with the Spinosissiniae {Crucijormes), as pointed 
out by Berger, rather than with the South American series Inarmatae, where it was placed 
by Schumann; it is a spineless state of O. catacantha, as was conclusively proven by us 
through field observations in the Virgin Islands, and greenhouse plants of 0. rubescens 
develop spines. 

Both the spiny and spineless races exhibit remarkable proliferation of the ovaries, 
these often forming chains of several joints while attached to the plant; these, falling to 
the ground, strike root and form many small, flattened joints 2 to 4 cm. long, as in Opuntia 
Dionilifonnis, to which this species is otherwise closely related. 

Illustration: Joum. N. Y. Bot. Card. 7: f. 6, as Opuntia. 



OPUNTIA. 



209 



Figure 263 is from a photograph of the plant taken by Professor John F. Cowell at 
Guanica, Porto Rico, in 1915; figure 264 is from a photograph taken by Professor Cowell 
at the same time and place, showing in the foreground a mass of young plants arisen 
from proliferating joints, and a mature plant behind; figure 265 represents proliferating 
joints of a plant grown at Nisky, St. Thomas, collected by Dr. Britton and Dr. Rose 
in 1913; figure 266 represents a fruit, collected by Dr. Britton and Dr. Shafer on Buck 
Island, St. Thomas, in 1913. 





Figs. 265. 266.— Opuntia rubescens. X0.66. Fig. 267.— Opuntia brasiliensis. X0.75. 

Series 27. BRASILIENSES. 

This series represents one of the five subgenera described by Dr. Schumann, which he called 
BrasiUopuntia. It perhaps should be recognized as a distinct genus. We recognize three species in 
the series, which may be races of a single one, characterized by an erect cylindric trunk with cylin- 
dric, horizontal branches terminating in a series of flattened, thin, leaf-like branches. The 
leaves are small and caducous. The spines are few on the young growth, but large clusters are 
developed on the old stem and trunk. The flowers are small, the fruit is juicy, and the seeds are 
large and covered with a dense mass of wool. Unlike most species of Opuntia, these grow 
in the moist tropical forests, forming tall, slender, tree-like plants. 

Key to Species. 

Fruit globular, yellow 236. O. brasiliensis 

Fruit clavate to oblong, red. ' ^ , , • 

Fruit oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long 237- 0. hahiensis 

Fruit clavate, 5 cm. long 238. 0. argenhna 

236. Opuntia brasiliensis (Willdenow) Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 79. 1819. 

Cactus brasiliensis Willdenow, Enum. PI. Suppl. 33. 1813. 
Cactus paradoxus Homemann, Hort. Hafn. 2: 443. 1815. 
Cactus arboreus Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 207. 1825. 
Opuntia arborea Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 2: 220. 1841. 
Cereus paradoxus Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. i: 335. 1841. 

Becoming 4 meters high, with a cyhndric woody trunk and a small rounded top; old trunk 
either naked or spiny; branches dimorphic, the lateral ones horizontal, terete; the terminal joints 
flat and leaf -like, many of these in time dropping off; flowers 5 to 5.5 cm. long; petals yellow, oblong, 
obtuse ; filaments very short; fruit yellow, globular, 3 to 4 cm. in diameter, with a low or nearly trun- 
cate umbilicus, bearing large areoles; seed usually one, very woolly, 10 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Distribution: Southern Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and central BoHvia. Natural- 
ized in southern Florida. 



THE CACTACEAE. 



A number of varieties of this species appear in literature, of which we may mention 
the following: minor Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 169. 1837); schomhurgkii Salm-Dyck (Cact. 
Hort. Dyck. 1849. 74. 1850); spinosior Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 184. 1834); tenuifolia 
Forbes (Hort. Tour Germ. 159. 1837); and tenidor Sahn-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 376. 1834). 

Dr. John H. Bamhart recently called our attention to a number of cactus names 
published by St. Hilaire which have been overlooked by later writers. One of these, 
Cactus heierocladus St. Hilaire (yoy. Rio de Janeiro and JNIinas Geraes 2: 103. 1830) 
seems to belong here, as the following free translation would indicate : 

"Another cactus, which I have already seen near Rio de 
Janeiro, raised its branches in the midst of tortuous lianas; 
its trunk, which grows more slender from the base to the 
summit, is covered with fascicles of spines arranged in a 
quincunx, and it shows various stages of verticillate, hori- 
zontal, rounded branches, to the number of seven in each 
whorl; these branches, like those of the spruce tree, grow 
shorter toward the summit of the plant, and they bear sec- 
ondar\' branches, flattened and oval-oblong, which may in a 
certain sense be taken as leaves." 

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 61: pi. 3293; 
Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pi. [6]; Martins, 
Fl. Bras. 4^: pi. 61; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. 
Cact. i: pi. 29; vSchumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 100; 
Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 5: pi. 28, this last as Cactus arboreus. 

Plate XXX, figm-e 2, represents a flowering joint 
taken from a specimen in the New York Botanical 





Fig. 26S. — Opuntia brasiliensis. 



Figs. 269, 270. — Opuntia bahiensis. X0.5. 



Garden; figure 3 is from the same plant, showing terete and flat joints. Figure 267 repre- 
sents a fruit collected b}^ Dr. Rose near Iguaba Grande, Brazil, in 1915; figure 268 is 
from a photograph taken by Paul G. Russell in a public park in Bahia, Brazil. 

237. Opuntia bahiensis sp. nov. 

Trunk 3 to 15 meters high, cylindric, 20 to 25 cm. in diameter, tapering gradually upward; 
the center of trunk pithy, hollow in age, surrounded by an open woody c\dinder; lateral joints 
terete, the terminal ones flat and thin, ovate to oblong; leaves small, 2 to 3 mm. long, turgid; 
spines on terminal joints, if present, i or 2, slender, red at first, then brown; spines on old trunk 
forming large clusters at all the areoles; flowers not seen; fruit deep red both within and without, 
oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long; its small areoles with brown glochids; seeds i to 5, mostl}^ i or 2 in each 
fruit, ver}' hairy, thick, S mm. broad. 

Collected in the Adcinity of Toca da Onca, Bahia, Brazil, by Rose and Russell, 
June 27 to 29, 1915 (No. 20068). 



OPUNTIA. 



Figure 269 represents joints of the type plant above cited; figure 270 represents a 
joint with fruit; figure 271 is from a photograph of the type specimen. 




Fig. 271. — Opuntia bahiensis. The tree to the left and Fig. 272. — Opuntia amtnophila. 

somewhat in the foreground. 

238. Opuntia argentina Grisebach, Abh. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen 24: 140. 1879. 

Opuntia hieronymi Grisebach, Abh. Ges. WisSj Gottingen 24: 140. 1879. 

Erect, 5 to 15 meters high, branching at the top, the lateral branches subverticillate, teretes 
terminal branches flat, 5 to 12 cm. long, 3 to 8 cm. broad; ovary 2 to 2.5 cm. long; petals elliptic to 
spatulate, 1.8 cm. long, 8 mm. broad, greenish yellow; filaments white; style white; stigma-lobe; 
yellowish green; ovary flattened, tuberculate, deeply umbilicate; fruit clavate, 5 cm. long, dull 
purplish violet, with wine-colored pulp; seeds lens-shaped, 5 to 6 mm. long, 2.5 to 3 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Near San Andres, Oran, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

This species was considered identical with 0. brasili- 
ensis by Schumann, but they separate on very good fruit 
characters. 

Figure 274 is from a photograph of a fiowering branch 
furnished by Dr. C. Spegazzini. 

Series 28. AMMOPHILAE. 

One peculiar species, native of Florida, constitutes this 
series, characterized by a continuous erect subterete trunk, 
flat, spiny branches, and large, yellow flowers. 

239. Opuntia ammophila Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: 29. 

1919. 

Plant erect, more or less branched throughout or ultimately 
with a stem i to 2 meters tall or more, becoming 2 to 2.5 dm. in 
diameter, bearing several spreading branches near the top, thus tree-like, tuberous at the base; 
joints various, those of the main stem elongate, ultimately fused on the ends and subcylindric, 
those of the branches typically obovate or cuneate, varying to elliptic or oval, thickish, 5 to 1 7 cm. 
long, becoming grayish green; leaves stout-subulate, 6 to 10 mm. long, green; areoles relatively 




Fig. 273. — Opuntia ammophila. 



THE CACTACEAB. 



numerous, conspicuous on account of the densely crowded long bristles, especially on the older 
joints, the marginal ones, at least, armed; spines very slender, solitary or 2 together, reddish or 
red, at maturity gray, mostly 2 to 6 cm. long, nearly terete, scarcely spirally twisted; flowers sev- 
eral on a joint; sepals lanceolate, acute or slightly acuminate; buds sharply pointed; corolla bright 
yellow, 5 to 8 cm. wide; petals obovate, cuneate, notched, and prominently apiculate, 3 cm. long, 
scarcely erose ; stigma-lobes cream-color; berries obovoid, 2 to 3 cm. long, more or less flushed with 
reddish purple, many-seeded; seeds about 4 mm. in diameter. 




Fig. 274. — Opuntia argentina. Fig. 275. — Opuntia chaffeyi. Photograph 

by Senor Don Teodoro Chairez. 

Type locality: Fort Pierce, Florida. 

Distribution: Inland sand-dunes (scrub), peninsular Florida. 

The plant was first collected by Dr. Small near Fort Pierce, Florida, in 1917, and again 
studied by him in its more northern range west of St. George in 191 8. He describes it as 
the most conspicuous native prickly pear of Florida, always viciously armed and with a char- 
acteristically unjointed trunk. In spite of its many slender spines, cattle browse upon it. 

Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 224. 



OPUNTIA. 



213 



Figure 272 is from a photograph of the plant taken by Dr. Small near Fort Pierce, 
Florida; figure 273 shows a fruiting joint of the type specimen. 

Series 29. CHAFFEYANAE. 

This series contains a single Mexican species, differing from all the other opuntias in having 
an annual stem which arises from a large, fleshy root or rootstock. The joints, which are elongated 
and nearly terete, resemble somewhat those of 0. lepiocaulis, but are more fleshy, while the flowers 
and fruit are like those of the platy opuntias. 

240. Opuntia chaffeyi Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 241. 1913. 

Perennial by a large, fleshy, deep-seated root or rootstock often 35 cm. long by 4 cm. in diam- 
eter; stems normally annual, 5 to 15 cm. long, sometimes in cultivated specimens 25 cm. long, much 
branched, often weak and prostrate; joints elongated, 3 to 5 cm. long, 6 to 7 mm. broad, slightly 




Fig. 276. — Opuntia chaffeyi. 

flattened, glabrous, pale bluish green or sometimes purplish; leaves minute, caducous; areoles small, 
circular, with white wool in the lower parts and brown wool in the upper parts ; spines i , rarely 2 or 
3, acicular, 2 to 3 cm. long, whitish or pale yellow; glochids numerous, pale yellow; flower-buds, in- 
cluding ovary, 8 cm. long; flower opening at 10 a. m., closing at 2 p. m., 6 cm. broad; sepals few, small, 
ovate to oblong, greenish; petals few, 7 to 9, pale lemon-yellow, but slightly pinkish on the outside; 
filaments numerous, about i cm. long; style slender, extending beyond the stamens, about 22 mm. 
long, somewhat swollen at base; ovary deeply umbilicate, somewhat club-shaped, 4 to 5 cm. long, 
bearing flattened tubercles and large areoles filled with white wool ; upper areoles on ovary bearing 
also white bristly spines; ovules numerous, borne in the upper third of the ovary; fruit and seeds 
still unknown. 

Type locality: Hacienda de Cedros, near Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mexico. 
Distribution: State of Zacatecas, Mexico. 
Illustration: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: pi. 72. 



214 



YhE cacTacEa:^. 



Figure 275 is from a photograph of part of the original collection as grown by Dr. E. 
Chaff ey, taken and contributed by Senor Don Teodoro Chairez, of Ciudad Lerdo, Mexico; 
figure 276 is from a photograph of the type showing the large root and the young shoot. 

As stated in the original description, this is a remarkable Opuntia, being the only one 
known which has an annual stem. In cultivation, where the plant is grown under abnor- 
mal conditions, the stem persists for more than a year; but Dr. Chaff ey assures us that in the 
desert, where the species grows naturally, the stem dies down to the ground in the dry 
season. We have had it in cultivation since 1910, but it does not do well, and is gradually 
dying out. It has not been found in flower in a wild state, but it flowered with Dr. Chaffey 
at Ciudad Lerdo, Dtuango, Mexico, in 1915. Dr. Chaffey, who has been studying this spe- 
cies for several years, has made a number of interesting observ'ations ; he states that the 
large base, which usually is found 15 to 20 cm. beneath the surface of the ground, when 
allowed to grow above the ground develops clusters of spines hke those on the normal 
stems, and finds that the plant is easily started from cuttings which soon develop the 
normal, large, underground part. He further states that the desert turtle eats this plant. 
It is well known that the Galapagos turtles feed upon the native opuntias of those islands. 

The native name of this plant is sacacil. 



The foUomng described Opuntias we have been unable to refer to any of the species 
otherwise mentioned in this work : 

Opuntia hicolor Philippi, Lirmaea 33: 83. 1S64. 

glaucophylla Wendland, Cat. Hort. Herrenh. 1835. 

laevior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845. 
longiglochia C. Z. Nelson, Galesburg Register. July 20, 1915. 
lucida Hortus, Wiener lUustr. Gartenz. 14: 146. 18S9. 
prosirata spiuosior Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 723. 1898. 
spinaurea Kam'insky in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845. As sj-nonym for 0. 

pseudotiina elongata Salm-D\'ck. 
tuherctilata Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. So. 1819, first described as Cactus tuhercidatus (Enum. 

Hort. Berol. Suppl. 34. 1813). 

The following names of Opuntia are chiefly found in catalogues or in lists, or have 
been so briefly described that we have not been able to identify them, and it does not seem 
worth while even to cite the places where they first occur in Hteratiure : 



Opuntia alpicola Schumann 
americana Forbes 
attuJica Forbes 
harhata K. Brandegee 
barbata gracillima K. Brandegee 
bernliardinii Hildmann 
betancourt Murillo 
calacantha 
calacantha rubra 
Carolina Forbes 
ciliosa Forbes 
consoleana Todaro 
consolei Haage and Schmidt 
demorenia Forbes 
demoriana Forster 
deppei Wendland 
dichotoma Forbes 
eborina Forster 
erecta Schumann 
festi'ca Sencke 

ficus-indica albispina Haage and Schmidt 
flavispina Forster 
liei'ernickii Hildmann 
hitchenii Forbes 
italica Tenore 

joconostle Haage and Schmidt 
jnssieuii Haage 
leucostala Forbes 
macrophylla Haage and Schmidt 



Opuntia missouriensis elongata Salm-Dyck 

erythroslemma Haage and Schmidt 
salmonea Haage and Schmidt 

montana Sencke 

morenoi Schumann 

myriacantha Link and Otto. Not Weber 

ottonis Salm-Dyck 

pachyarthra jiava Haage and Schmidt 

pachyclada rosea Haage and Schmidt 
spaethiana Haage and Schmidt 

parote Forbes 

piccolomini Hort. 

platyclada Haworth 

praecox Forbes 

proiracta Lemaire 

elongata Salm-Dyck 

psendococcineHifer Bertoloni 

pseudotuna Salm-Dyck 
elongata Salm-Dyck 
spinosior Salm-Dyck 

pulverata Forster 

reptans Karwinskj" 

sal mil Forbes 

schomburgkii Salm-Dyck 

speciosa Steudel 

spiniiliflora Salm-Dyck 

spinulosa Salm-D3-ck 

straininea Sencke 

stricta spinulescens Salm-Dyck 

subinermis Link 



OPUNTIA. 215 

Opuntia clavata Philippi (Anal. Univ. Chile 41: 722. 1872), 0. ottonis G. Don (Hist. 
Dichl. PI. 3: 172. 1834), 0. phyllanthus Miller (Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 9. 1768), 0. salicor- 
nioides Sprengel (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 141. 1837), and 0. spiniflora Philippi (Linnaea 
30: 211. 1859) are of the tribe Cereeae. 

7. GRUSONIA F. Reichenbach in Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 6: 177. 1896. 

A low, much branched cactus, the branches terete, jointed, and ribbed; areoles borne on the 
tops of the ribs, very spiny, but all except the flowering ones without glochids, subtended by small 
deciduous leaves; corolla rotate, yellow; fruit baccate. 

This was first described as a Cereus from specimens collected by Mrs. Anna B. Nickels 
in 1895, then as a new genus Grusonia, and lastly as an Opuntia. It clearly is not Cereus, 
but when growing might easily be mistaken by its habit for Eckinocereus. The leaves, 
glochids, flowers, and fruit are those of Opuntia, but its ribbed stem is unlike that of any 
known species of that genus. 

1. Grusonia bradtiana (Coulter). 

Cereus bradtianus Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 406. 1896 (April). 

Grusonia cereiformis V. Reichenbach in Schumann, Monatsschr, Kakteenk. 6: 177. 1896 (December). 

Opuntia bradtiana K. Brandegee, Erythea 5: 121. 1897. 

Opnntia cereiformis Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 897. 1898. 

Forming dense, often impenetrable thickets 2 meters high or less, very spiny; stems light green, 
4 to 7 cm. thick, with 8 to 10 low, longitudinal, somewhat tuberculate ribs ; areoles i to i .5 cm. apart, 
3 to 5 mm. in diameter; leaves linear, fleshy, green, 8 mm. long, early deciduous; spines 15 to 25, 
yellowish brown when young, soon becoming white, acicular, terete or slightly compressed, i to 3 
cm. long, not sheathed, some of the longer ones reflexed; wool white, turning brown, early disappear- 
ing; corolla rotate, opening in bright sunlight, 3 to 4 cm. broad; sepals ovate, acute, fleshy; petals 
bright yellow, spatulate, fringed; filaments brownish yellow; stigma-lobes 8, yellow; areoles of the 
ovary with long, yellow, weak spines, white wool, and yellow glochids; berry (according to Schu- 
mann) ellipsoid, deeply umbilicate; seeds not seen. 

Type locality: Plains of Coahuila, Mexico. 

Distribution: Coahuila, Mexico. 

This species first appeared in print in the catalogue of Johannes Nicolai under the name 
of Grusonia cereiformis, but we are informed that there was no description and therefore it 
was not technically published. The same name next appears in the Monatsschrift fiir 
Kakteenkunde for 1 894. Here Dr. Schumann wrote a long article about the name, especially 
condemning the loose manner in vogue of publishing new names without descriptions, but 
giving no characters of the plant, and as a matter of fact he did not then know it. Two 
months later this name again appears in this same pubUcation, but without description. 
Two years later Dr. Schumann records seeing this plant and describes it briefly, although he 
does not approve of the name Grusonia. If the name is to be considered published, it should 
not date earlier than this (December 1896), although Dalla Torre and Harms accept the 
date of 1894. In 1898 Weber transferred the name to Opuntia, pubhshing it as Opuntia 
cereiformis; in the meantime Coulter (in 1896) pubUshed the name Cereus bradtianus 
for the plant and Mrs. Brandegee (in 1897) transferred it to Opuntia, calling it Opuntia 
bradtiana. 

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 21: 121, as Opuntia bradtiana; Schumann, 
Gesamtb. Kakteen f. loi, as Opuntia cereiformis. 

Plate XXXIII, figure 4, represents a joint of the plant collected by C. A. Purpus at 
Cerro de Cypriano, near Morano, Mexico, in 19 10. 



APPENDIX. 



3 a. Nopalea gaumeri sp. nov. (See page 37, ante.) 

About 3 meters high, much branched; joints small, linear-oblong or oblong-oblanceolate, 6 to 
12 cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. broad, rather thin; areoles small, i to 2 cm. apart; spines very unequal, 5 
to 20 mm. long, acicular, 4 to 12, yellowish when young; flower small, including ovary and stamens 
about 4 cm. long; sepals ovate, acute; petals oblong, 12 mm. long; stamens long-exserted ; style 
longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes 6, greenish; fruit red, darker within, obovoid, 3 cm. long, its 
numerous areoles bearing spines and yellow glochids; umbilicus prominent, i cm. deep; seeds about 

4 mm. broad, with a very narrow margin and a very thin testa. 




Figs. 277 and 278. — Nopalea gaumeri 

Collected by George F. Gaumer and sons near Sisal, Yucatan, March 1916 (No. 23250, 
type); also by Dr. Gaumer from Port Silam, 1895 (No. 647). 

Dr. Gaumer's field note is as follows: "A coastal cactus, 10 feet high, much branched, 
small-jointed and of slight build, not of robust build like the interior species. It blooms from 
February to June. The birds are very fond of the fruit and consume it as fast as it ripens." 

Figures 277 and 278 show joints of the type-specimen. 

77 a. Opuntiadepauperatasp.nov. (See page loi, an/e.) 

Plant I to 2 dm. high, with a flattened, much 
branched top; joints dark green, readily detached, 
terete or slightly flattened, 3 to 12 cm. long, 2 to 3 
cm. thick, puberulent; spines on young joints 2 or 3, 
on old joints sometimes 6 at each areole, reddish to 
pale brown, acicular, i to 2.5 cm. long, nearly porrect; 
glochids tardily developing, conspicuous on old joints, 
yellow; ovary with a deep umbilicus. 

Collected by Dr. and Mrs. J.N. Rose north of 
the station of Zig Zag, along the railroad above 
Caracas, Venezuela, October 17, 1916 (No. 21751). 

This little cactus is very inconspicuous and 
only a few specimens were observed. The station 
is near the top of the mountains which separate 
the valley, in which Caracas lies, from the sea. 
The region here is not so dry as it is farther down on 
the seaward side of the mountains, but there are 
several other species of cacti associated with it. 

Figure 279 is from a photograph of type plant 
taken by Mrs. Rose; figure 280 shows a joint. 

A plant, apparently of this relationship, was collected by Dr. H. H. Rusby in 191 7 on 
granite rocks, narrows 01 Magdalena River, Colombia. The joints, however, are glabrous, 
only 2 to 3 cm. long, the young joints have numerous brown spines and the young areoles 
produce long white wool. 





■ ■^^jff^^^f^^^^^^W 


r' "'" '-ij^l^'^'- * "'j^^H^B^HKifc 






^^ 




e^i^i3fi 


^MP0^ 


^^^ff^S^'iS^if^^lf^TJI^^^^W^!^'!!^ 


m^Sk^S^S^^^^^^ 


^iSFiSb^j^^BB^^S 


Sl^^^^^^^^K 


^^^^^^ 



Fig. 279. — Opuntia depauperata. 



APPENDIX. 



217 



82a. Opuntia pestifer nom. nov. (See page 103, ante.) 

Cactus nanus Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 68. 1823. 
Cereus nanus De CandoUe, Prodr. 3: 470. 1828. 

Low and nearly prostrate but sometimes 2 dm. high, much branched; the 
joints very fragile, glabrous; young joints 2 to 5 cm. long, or when old up to 
8 cm. long, nearly terete, i to 3 cm. in diameter, or when young flattened and 
2 to 3 cm. broad, very spiny; spines 2 to 5 at each areole, acicular, brownish, 
I to 3 cm. long; glochids numerous, yellow; flowers and fruit unknown. 

Type locality: Near Sondorello and Guancabamba. In Humboldt's 
time these places were in southern Ecuador, but they are now in 
northern Peru. 

Distribution: Northern Peru to central Ecuador. 

Dr. Rose observed the plant in various places in Ecuador, usually 
at an altitude ranging from 1,000 to 1,500 meters. The following col- 
lections were made: at Huigra (No. 22306); at Sibambe (No. 22433); 
and west of San Pedro, Province of Loja (No. 23352). 

This plant, although widely distributed and very common, has ^'°' 280.— Opuntia de- 

1 11. • n I- • ^TM • pauperata. Xo.s. 

never been seen by botanists m flower or fruit. The joints, which 
come loose easily, are freely distributed by animals. It is so small that, growing half- 
hidden in the grass, it is easily overlooked but very annoying when one comes upon it 
unawares. Humboldt speaks of its being troublesome to men and dogs. 





Fig. 281. — Opuntia pestifer. Xo-5. 

Kunth who described it as Cactus nanus referred it with hesitancy to the Section Cereus. 
De Candolle transferred it from Cactus to Cereus placing it in a new subgenus Opuntiacei 
along with C. moniliformis (which we know now is an Opuntia) and C. serpens. He 
thought these might represent a genus between Opuntia and Cereus. 

Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 166) considered it an Opuntia but did not formally 
refer it to that genus. 

This name should not be confused with Opuntia nana (El. Damatica 3: 143. .1852) 
which is Opuntia opuntia. 

Figure 281 is from a photograph taken by George Rose at Sibambe, Ecuador, in 1918; 
figure 283 shows the joints of the same plant (Rose, No. 22433.) 



2l8 



THE CACTACEAE. 



96 a. Opuntia discolor sp. nov. (See page 109, ante.) 

Alow plant, forming small dense clumps; joints slender, 4 to 12 cm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. in 
diameter, turgid, glabrous, dark green with dark purple blotches extending downward from the 
imder margin of the areoles; spines i to 6, acicular, nearly porrect, somewhat variegated but mostly 
brown, 3 cm. long or less; glochids tardily developing but conspicuous on old branches, dark brown; 
flowers light vellow to orange-yellow, only 3 cm. long including the ovarj^; filaments white; style and 
stigma-lobes nearly white; fruit evidently ven,- small, bright red. 




Fig. 2S2. — Opuntia discolor. 

This species is represented by two collections made by Dr. J. A. Shafer in 191 7 which 
slightly differ from each other. They are No. iii, from sandy thickets, Santiago del 
Estaro, Argentina, Februar>^ 23 (type), and No. 
~95, from gravelly hills near Tapia, Tucuman, 
February 9. 

Apparently common in drs' sandy thickets, 
growing best under bushes where it is least dis- 
turbed. The joints easily become detached, 
sticking readily to any disturbing object. 

The species differs from Opuntia retrorsa in its 
more nearl)^ terete joints and spreading spines. 

Figure 282 is from a photograph of the type 
plant; figure 284 represents a joint of the plant 
from near Tapia, Tucuman. 



101 a. Opuntia guatemalensis sp. nov. 
113, ante.) 



(See page 




Fig. 283. — Opuntia 
pestifer. Xo. 5. 



Fig. 2S4. — Opuntia discolor. 



Low, spreading plant, resembling 0. decuinbens, but joints glabrous and shining; joints deep 
green, sometimes with dark blotches below the areoles; areoles small, filled \vith brown wool, sub- 
tended bv small leaves; spines i to 3 at the areoles, terete, acicular, shining white with blackish tips 
when young, soon gray, mostly deflexed, somewhat spreading; flower-buds reddish; flowers much 
smaller than those of O. deciimbens; petals lemon-j^ellow, 2.5 cm. long; stigma-lobes cream-colored. 

Collected b}- Dr. Glover B. Wilcox in 1909 while acting as siu-geon on a ship plying 
between Guatemala and San Francisco. Living specimens were sent directly to Washing- 
ton and flowered there in April 191 5. 

Figm-e 285 represents a joint of the type specimen. 



APPEINDIX. 



219 



102 a. Opuntia pennellii sp. nov. (See page 115, ante.) 

Plant low; joints i to 1.5 cm. long, obovate, turgid, bright green; spines i or 2 at each areole, 
nearly porrect, subulate, 3.5 cm. long or less, white with dark tips; glochids not very conspicuous, 
yellowish. 

Collected near Magangue, coastal plain of Colombia, Department of Bolivar, at 
about 100 meters altitude, by Francis W. Pennell in 1918. 

Figure 286 shows a joint of the type plant. 

Here may belong herbarium specimens which we have seen from northern Colombia 
but with the material at hand it is impossible to determine them definitely. One of these 
was collected by Wilham R. Maxon, April 10, 1906 (No. 3849) at Puerto Colombia. This 
plant is described as consisting of 3 to 6 joints, branching at the third or fourth joint, the 
joints all being in one place. The flowers are yellow and small, only about 4 cm. long, 
including the ovary. Another was collected by H. H. Smith near Bonda in 1 898-1 899 
(No. 2728); this has joints very similar to those of Dr. Pennell's plant. It is said to be 
from 2 to 4 feet high. 




- Opuntia guatemalensis. 
X0.33. 



286. — Opuntia pennellii. 
X0.5. 



Fig. 287.- 



-Opuntia caracasana. 
X0.5. 



103 a. Opuntia caracasana Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 238. 1850. (See page 116, ante.) 

Stems low, bushy, 4 to 12 dm. high; joints oblong, 10 to 12.5 cm. long, turgid, pale green, 
"leaves squamiform, minute"; spines 2 to 4, unequal, 2.5 to 4 cm. long or less, pale yellow; flowers 
and fruit unknown. 

Type locality: Near Caracas, Venezuela. 

Distribution: Mountains about Caracas, Venezuela. 

The type specimens were collected near Caracas by E- Otto, prior to 1849. Dr. Rose 
found the plant abundant above Caracas in 191 6. It usually grows on exposed hillsides 
near the top of the divide which separates Caracas from the coast, and it was especially 
common along the railroad just below the little station of Zig Zag. Several other cacti 
are to be found in this neighborhood, among which are 0. elatior and 0. depauperata. 

Figure 287 shows a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose above Caracas in 1916. 

104 a. Opuntia aequatorialis sp. nov. (See page 116, ante.) 

Bushy, much branched; i to 1.5 meters high; the branches spreading or recurved; joints nar- 
rowly oblong to obovate, 1.5 to 2 dm. long, 3 to 8 cm. broad, easily becoming detached; spines pale 
yellow, at first only 2 to 4 but more in age, subulate, 2.5 to 6 cm. long; flower-buds ovoid, acute, red; 
petals few, 8 to 10, orange-red, spatulate; filaments and style red; stigma-lobes cream- colored. 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Collected in thickets on dr^^ hiUs near Sibambe, Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador, 
bv J. X. Rose and George Rose, August 29, 1918 (No. 22432). 

The locahty at which this species is 
found is semiarid and a number of other 
cacti are associated with it, among which 
is the little 0. pestifer, described on a 
preceding page. 0. aequatorialis was not 
so common as some of the other species 
and was usually found growing up through 
open-branched bushes and was in this 
wav more or less protected. 

Figure 2 88 is from a photograph of 
the tvpe plant taken by George Rose; 
figure 289 shows one of its joints. 

116 a. Opuntia lata Small, Joum. N. Y. Bot. 
Gard. 20:26. 1919. (See page 
126, ante.) 

Plant prostrate, often radially branched, 
sometimes forming mats nearly a meter in 
width, the tip of the branches sometimes 
assurgent, with elongate cord-like roots; 
joints elliptic to narrowly obovate, often 
narrowly so, thick, 4 to 15 cm. long, deep 
green, sometimes glaucous, especial] j^ when 
young; leaves subulate, 6 to 11 mm. long, 
green or purple-tinged; areoles scattered, 
often conspicuous, sometimes ven,' promi- 
nent and densely bristly, the marginal ones, 
at least, armed; spines slender, solitary' or 2 
together, pink, turning red or red-banded, 
at maturitv grav or nearlv white, nearly 





Fig. 2S9. — O. aequatorialis. X0.4. 



Figs. 290 and 291. — O. lata. X0.4. 



Figs. 292 and 293, — 
Opuntia macateei. 
X0.4. 



APPENDIX. 221 

terete, slightly spirally twisted; flowers usually several on a joint, conspicuous; sepals subulate to 
lanceolate, acute; corolla yellow, 7 to 9 cm. wide; petals numerous, the inner ones broadly obovate 
to flabellate, erose at the broad minutely mucronate apex; berries clavate, 5 to 6.5 cm. long, 
red or reddish purple, many-seeded; seeds about 5 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Twelve miles west of Gainesville, Florida. 

Distribution: Pinelands, northern peninsular Florida. 

It was first observed by Dr. Small near Gainesville, Florida, in 191 7, and plants were 
taken to Mr. Charles Deering's cactus garden at Buena Vista, Miami, where it has grown 
luxuriantly, flowering and fruiting freely alongside of 0. poUardii which it resembles in 
habit, but differs from in its long clavate berries and more numerous petals. 

Figure 290 shows joints of the plant; figure 291 shows its fruit. 
127 a. Opuntia macateei sp. nov. (Seepage 133, ante.) 

Small prostrate plant; joints 2.5 to 6 cm. long, orbicular to obovate, glabrous, dull green, in 
age somewhat tuberculate; leaves linear, 10 mm. long or less, green; spines i to 3, brownish, the 
longer ones up to 2.5 cm. long; flowers, including the ovary, 8 to 10 cm. long, 7 to 8 cm. broad, 
yellow with a red center ; ovary subcylindric, 5 to 6 cm. long, bearing conspicuous leaves, some- 
times 12 mm. long. 

Differs from related species by its small joints and slender, elongated, leafy ovaries. 
Collected by W. L. MacAtee at Rockport, Texas, December 28, 1910 (No. 1992). 
Figures 292 and 293 represent the joints and flower of the plant. 

159 a. Opuntia soederstromiana sp. nov. 
(See page 154, ante.) 

Sometimes spreading and bushy, 
but usually erect, 6 to 10 dm. high, very 
spiny; joints obovate, 2 to 4 dm. long, 
bright green when young, or sometimes 
slightly glaucous, grayish green in age; 
leaves subulate, small, reddish at top; 
spines at first 2 to 5, but in age 10 or 
more, when young reddish or pinkish 
at base and paler above, soon gray 
throughout, unequal, subulate, 4 cm. 
long or less ; flowers at first yellow but 
soon orange to brick-red, rather large, 5 
to 6 cm. long; petals few, about 10, ob- 
long, retuse; filaments and style red- 
dish; stigma-lobes pale green; fruit 
obovate to oblong, 4 to 5 cm. long, 
usually spiny, red, juicy, with a de- 
pressed umbilicus. 

Collected at San Antonio, Prov- 
ince of Quito, Ecuador, by J. N. 
Rose and George Rose, October 29, 
1918 (No. 23559). 

This plant was first collected 
for us by Ludovic Soderstrom of 
Quito, at the request of the Presi- 
dent of the Central and South Amer- 
ican Cable Company. Although 
great care was taken in shipping the plants they all died in transit. In 191 8 Dr. Rose 
visited Mr. Soderstrom's locality and collected herbarium, living, and formalin material 
which has enabled us to describe the plant fully. The illustration here used was made 
at the same time. 

Figure 294 is from a photograph of the type plant taken by George Rose. 




Fig. 294. — Opuntia soederstromiana. 



The; cactaceai?. 



161 a. Opuntia zebrina Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: 35. 1919. (See page 155, ante.) 

Plant erect, more or less branched throughout, fully i meter tall or less, the roots fibrous, 
joints oval or obovate, thickish, mostly i to 2 dm. long, deep green, sometimes obscurely glau- 
cous; leaves ovoid, 2 to 3 mm. long, bright green; areloes scattered, some of them, usually the lower 
ones, unarmed, the upper ones irregularly armed; spines slender, solitary or 2, 3, or 4, together, 
red-brown, finely banded, nearly terete, closely spirally twisted; flowers few on a joint, or soli- 
tary ; sepals deltoid to deltoid-reniform or nearly reniform ; corolla yellow, rotate, 6 to 7 cm. wide ; 
petals rather numerous, the inner ones broadly obovate, undulate, minutely mucronate or notched 
at the apex; berries obovoid, not constricted at the base, 3.5 to 4.5 cm. long, red-purple; seeds 
many, 6 to 7 mm. in diameter. 





O. zebrina. X0.5. 



Fig. 295. — Opuntia zebrina. 

Type locality: Middle Cape Sable, Florida. 

Distribution: Coastal sand-dunes. Cape Sable, Florida, and the lower 
Florida Keys. 

The plant was first discovered by Dr. Britton on Boot Key, Florida, 
in 1909, and this is the most northern locality yet known for it. The spe- 
cies is interesting not only from its strikingly banded spines but also as 
being the only known member of the series Elatiores growing wild within 
the United States. In habit it resembles 0. dillenii, and on Key West the 
two species were observed growing close together. 

Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20 : pi. 226. 

Figure 295 is from a photograph of the plant on Cape Sable, Florida, in cultivation at 
Buena Vista, Miami, Florida; figure 296 shows a fruit collected by Dr. Rose on Key West, 
Florida, in 1918. 

173 a. Opuntia keyensis Britton in Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: 31. 1919. (See p. 162, ante.) 

Plant erect, much branched, sometimes forming clumps 3 meters tall, with long fibrous roots ; 
joints elliptic, oval, obovate, or spatulate, thick, i to 3 dm. long, bright green; leaves ovoid, 2 to 3 
mm. long, green; areoles rather conspicuous, often relatively large and prominent, apparently 
unarmed ; spines stout, 4 to 13 together, very short, mostly hidden in the bristles; at first pink, 
at maturity salmon-colored, sHghtly flattened; flowers soHtary or 2 or 3 on a joint; sepals deltoid 
to subreniform, acute or acutish; corolla salmon-colored, cup-like, or short-campanulate, 3 to 3.5 cm. 
wide; petals rather few, thinner ones broadly obovate or orbicular-obovate, undulate, scarcely, if 
at all, mucronate; berries obovoid, 4 to 6 cm. long, purple; seeds numerous. 



APPENDIX. 



223 




Fig. 297. — Opuntia keyensis. 



Type locality: Boot Key, Florida. 

Distribution: Hammocks, Florida Keys and Cape 
Sable. 

Opuntia keyensis was first collected by Dr. Britton in 
1909 on Boot Key, Florida. Plants brought subsequently 
by Dr. Small from the Keys to Buena Vista, Miami, and 
there observed by him under cultivation show the spe- 
cies to be distinct from either 0. dillenii or 0. stricta, 
with both of which it has been associated. 

Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 225. 

Figure 297 is from a photograph of the plant in 
cultivation at Buena Vista, Miami, Florida; figures 298 
and 299 show its flowers, collected by Dr. Small on Key 
Largo, Florida, in 1909. See also plate xxx, figure i. 

183 a. Opuntia bonplandii (HBK.) Weber, Diet. Hort. 
Bois 894. 1898. (See page 168, ante.) 




Figs. 298 and 299. - 
keyensi; 



-Flower of Opuntia 
X0.5. 



Cactus bonplandii Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 69. 1823. 



Plants tall, 2 to 4 meters high, open-branching; joints ovate to obovate, 2 to 3 dm. long, dull 
green; spines at first 2 to 7, pale yellow, acicular, i to 1.5 cm. long but soon falling off; flowers orange- 
colored, about 6 cm. long and nearly as broad when fully expanded ; petals obtuse ; stamens short. 

Type locality: Cuenca, Ecuador. 
Distribution: Ecuador. 

This species was collected by Humboldt and Bonpland at Cuenca, Ecuador, and 
was first described as Cactus {Opuntia) bonplandii. Apparently the type was not pre- 



224 



THE CACTACEAE. 



served as Dr. Rose did not find it either at Berlin or Paris in 191 2. Schumann mentions 
it only in a note under 0. quitensis following Weber who associates the two. Dr. Rose, 
while in Ecuador in 191 8, spent about a week at Cuenca collecting plants in all direc- 
tions from the town. The only Opuntia in this whole region is the one above described 
which grows in hedges and along the roadsides. It may be an introduced species which 
has escaped from gardens but we know nothing in cultivation just like it. It resembles 




Fig. 300. — Opuntia bonplandii. X0.5. 

somewhat the Nopal de Castilla, so common in ISIexico and the southwestern states 
Humboldt compared it with the tuna de Espana which may be the same. Bonpland 
seems to have called his plant Cactus coccinellifer which it very much resembles in the 
shape of the joints and in being spineless in age. If we are right in our interpretation 
of this species it has no close alHance with 0. quitensis which Dr. Rose collected also; 
it has very small flowers with erect petals which are not readily affected by the sun as 
are those of 0. bonplandii and most of the other species. 




Fig. 301. — Opuntia dobbieana. 



APPENDIX. 



225 



Figure 300 shows a joint collected by Dr. Rose at Cuenca, Ecuador, in 1918. 
207(2. Opuntia dobbieana sp. nov. (See page 1S7, ante.) 

Usually low and bushy, forming dense thickets, but sometimes tall and then 3 to 4 meters high ; 
joints orbicular to short-oblong or obovate, i to 2.5 dm. long, pale green in color, very spiny; leaves 
minute, i to 2 mm. long, green, spreading; areoles small, closely set; spines white, 5 to 12, usually 
acicular but on old joints subulate, i to 3 dm. long, accompanied by 2 to 4 reflexed hairs from the 
lower side of the areole ; flower, including ovary, 5 to 6 cm. long ; petals chocolate-colored, oblong, 2 
cm. long; filaments and style pinkish; stigma-lobes dull green; overy strongly tubercled, leafy, very 
spiny, especially towards the top ; fruit juicy, red, at first spiny, 3 to 5 cm. long. 

Common in dry places from Huigra to Sibambe, Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador- 

Collected by J. N. Rose and George Rose, August to November 1918, at Huigra (No. 
22201, type); at Sibambe, August 29 (No. 22434). 

This species, on account of its white spines, is referred to the Streptacanthae, although 
it usually is more bushy than these species generally are. So far as we could learn, the 
fruit is not used by the Ecuadoreans; the plant was never seen cultivated, and there is 
every reason to believe it is native to Ecuador. 

The species is named for John Dobbie, general manager of the Guayaquil and Quito 
Railway, whose courtesies and assistance added greatly to the success of Dr. Rose's visit 
to Ecuador in 191 8. 

Figures 301 and 302 (the latter at the bottom of this page) are from photographs of 
the type plant, taken by George Rose. 




BRITTON AND ROSE 



PLATE XXVIll 




M. E, Eaton del 



1. Flowering joint of Opiintia laevis. 2. Flowering joint of Opicntia dillenii. 

3. Upper part of flowering joint of Opuntia aciculata. (All natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. l6l 

Figure 199 is from a photograph of a plant with narrow joints, in McClearj^'s Canyon, 
Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona, taken by Dr. MacDougal; figure 200 represents a joint of 
a plant from the collection made by Professor J. W. Toumey at Tucson, Arizona, olatained 
by Dr. MacDougal in 1902. 

OpunTia palmEri Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 423. 1896. 

This plant has not been again collected and is still a doubtful species ; it came from St. 
George, southwestern Utah. In 1909 E- W. Nelson made a collection for us in this region, 
but the only shrubby, juicy-fruited species which he collected has brown spines and brown 
glochids, which would seem to exclude it from 0. palmeri. It is not at all unlikely that 
O. palmeri should be referred to 0. chlorotica, a widely dispersed species, but of which we 
have not seen any specimens from Utah. 

172. Opuntia laevis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 419. 1S96. 

Loosely few-branched, i to 2 meters high, but in cultivation often forming a low, dense bush; 
joints obovate to oblong, 1.5 to 3 dm. long, light green, often spineless but usually with a few (i to 3) 
short spines i cm. long or less at the areoles of the upper part of the joint; areoles rather distant, 
small; flower large, 6 to 7 cm. broad; petals lemon-yellow, sometimes tinged with red, broad, and 
obtuse or refuse; filaments and style short, pale yellow; stigma-lobes green; ovary turbinate, more 
or less tuberculate, at first leafy, often bristly at top; fruit obovoid, 5 to 7 cm. long; seeds 4 to 5 mm. 
broad. 

Type locality: In Arizona. 

Distribution: In the mountains about Tucson, Arizona. 

Referred by Professor Schumann to 0. inermis (0. stricta), but it is not that species. 

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. E-xp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 8, f. i ; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
72: pi. i; Plant World ii'»: f. 5. 

Plate XXVIII, figure i, represents a flowering joint of a plant brought by Dr. Mac- 
Dougal from Tucson, Arizona, in 1902, to the New York Botanical Garden. 

173. Opuntia stricta Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 191. 1812. 

Cactus opuntia inermis De CandoUe, PI. Succ. Hist. 2: pi. 13S [C]. 1799.* 

Cactus striclus Haworth, Misc. Nat. 188. 1803. 

Opuntia inermis De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 473. 1828. 

Opuntia airampo Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile 85: 492. 1894. 

Opuntia parva Berger, Hort. Mortol. 411. 1912. 

Opuntia bentonii Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 25. 1912. 

Opuntia longiclada Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 525. 1916 (according to description and illustration). 
Bushy, low, spreading plants, sometimes forming large clumps, seldom over 8 dm. high; joints 
obovate to oblong, usually 8 to 15 cm. long, but sometimes much elongated and then 30 cm. long 
or more, green or bluish green, glabrous, often spineless especially in greenhouse specimens, some- 
times but a spine or two on a joint, at other times spines more abundant; leaves stout, subulate, 

3 to 4 mm. long; areoles distant, the wool brownish, the glochids short; spines, when present, usually 
I or 2 from an areole, stiff, terete, yellow, i to 4 cm. long; flowers 6 to 7 cm. long; petals yellow, 
broad, obtuse, apiculate; filaments yellow to greenish; style usually white; stigma-lobes usually 
white but sometimes greenish; fruit purple, usually broadest at top, tapering to a slender base, 

4 to 6 cm. long, with a more or less depressed umbilicus. 

Type locality: Not given. 

Distribution: Western Cuba; Florida to southern Texas. 

Opuntia vulgaris balearica Weber (Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 1898) is given by Weber as 
a synonym of 0. inermis; Opuntia balearica Weber (Hirscht, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 
175. 1898) has also been used, but not described, and Hirscht says it belongs here. 

This species is often cultivated on the west coast of South America. It was there 
given the name 0. airampo by Dr. Philippi, who supposed it to be the airampo of the Peru- 
vians, a native species, quite different from this one. 

This species is the pest pear of New South Wales and Queensland. It has now run 
wild over thousands of acres of the best agricultural and grazing land of the interior of 

*Berger (Jlort. Mortol. 411. 1912) gives the date 1797. 



l62 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Australia. J. H. Maiden says: "The growth of this Opuntia is one of the wonders of the 
world, and the spread of few plants in any country can be compared with it. " 

Illustrations: Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pi. [5]; Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 32; 
Gartenflora 31: pi. 1082, f. d, e, f ; De Candolle, Pi. Succ. Hist. 2: pi. 138 [C]; De Tussac, Fl. 
Antill. 2: pi. 34, the last two as Cactus opuntia inennis; Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 23: pi. opp. 713; 
pi. opp. 714; pi. opp. 716; Bliihende Kakteen 2: pi. 108, all these as Opuntia inennis. 

Plate XXVII, figure 4, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by Dr. Brit- 
ton and John F. CoweU on Hmestone rocks near Pinar del Rio, Cuba, in 1911. 
173a. Opuntia keyensis Britton. (See Appendix, p. 222.) 
174. Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawler) Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 79. 1819. 

Cactus dillenii Ker-Gawler, Edwards's Bot. Reg. 3: pi. 255. 1818. 
Opuntia horrida Salm-Dj-ck in De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 472. 1828. 
Opuntia maritima Rafiuesque, Atl. Joum. 146. 1832. 
Opuntia timoidea Gibbes, Proc. Elliott See. Nat. Hist, i: 272. 1859- 




FiG. 201. — Opuntia dillenii, Antigua, West Indies. 

Low, spreading bushes growing in broad clumps and often forming dense thickets, or tall and 
much branched, 2 to 3 meters high, sometimes with definite terete trunks; joints obovate to oblong, 
7 to 40 cm. long, the margin more or less undulate, bluish green, somewhat glaucous, but bright 
green when young, the areoles somewhat elevated; leaves subulate, curved backward, 5 mm. long; 
areoles often large, filled with short brown or white wool when young, usuall}^ few and remote, on 
old joints 10 to 12 mm. in diameter; spines often 10 from an areole on first-j^ear joints, ven,^ variable, 
usually more or less flattened and curved, sometimes terete and straight, j^ellow, more or less brown- 
banded, or mottled, often brownish in age, sometimes 7 cm. long, but usually shorter, sometimes few 
or none; glochids numerous, yellow; wool in areoles short, sometimes brown, sometimes white; 
flowers in the typical form lemon-yellow, in some forms red from the first, 7 to 8 cm. long; petals 
broadly obovate, 4 to 5 cm. long; filaments greenish yeUow; style thick, white; stigma-lobes white; 
fruit pear-shaped to subglobose, narrowed at base, 5 to 7.5 cm. long, purplish, spineless, juicy. 

Type locality: Based onDillenius's illustration. 

Distribution: Coasts of South Carohna, Florida, Bermuda, the West Indies, east coast 
of Mexico, and northern vSouth America; extending inland in Cuba. 



INDEX. 



(Pages of principal entries in heavy-face type.) 



Aaron's beard, 175 

Agave, 117 

Ahoplocarpus, 1 1 

Airampo, 161 

Alfilerillo, 26 

Ammophilae, 45, 211 

Apple, 9 

Aurantiacae, 45, 74, 106 

Ayrampo, 135 

Barbados gooseberry, 10 

Basilares, 45, 118, 193 

Beaucarnea, 1 1 7 

Beaver-tail, 120 

Bigelovianae, 44, 58 

Blade apple, 10 

Brasilienses, 45, 209 

Brasiliopuntia, 209 

BuUsucker, 43, 116 

Cactaceae, 3, 8 

Cactales, 8 

Cacti, 5, 6, 7, 9, 28, 33, 39, 42, 49, 66, 67, 80, 87, 94, 95, 

III, 126, 137, 151, 216, 219, 220 
Cactodendron, 42, 43 

Cactus, 5, 6, 8, 9, 23, 30, 32, 34, 35, 43, 49, 87, 88, 93, 
107, 113, 114, 116, 120, 121, 146, 164, 177, 186, 
207, 210, 215, 216, 217, 221 
Cactus, arboreus, 209, 210 

aurantiacus, 107 

bleo, 17, 63 

bonplandii, 223 

bradypus, 121 

brasiliensis, 209 

californicus, 58 

chinensis, 156, 157 

coccinellifer, 179, 224 

cochenillifer, 34, 35, 173 

compressus, 127 

corrugatus, 95 

curassavicus, 102 

cylindricus, 63, 77 

decumanus, 180 

dillenii, 162, 163 

ebumeus, 9.5 

elatior, 153 

elongatus, 179 

ferox, 199, 200, 206 

ficus-indica, 177 

fimbriatus, 13 

foliosus, 105 

fragilis, 193 

frutescens, 27 

heterocladus, 210 

horridus, 21 

humifusus, 127 

humilis, 113 

indicus, 156 

lanceolatus, 179 

linkii, 121 

lucidus, 10 

mammillaris, 4 

microdasys, 120, 121 

monocanthos, 156 



Cactus — continued. 

moniliformis, 206, 207 

nanus, 217 

nigricans, 153 

opuntia, 43, 115, 127, 128, 129, 163, 177 

opuntia inermis, 161, 162 

opuntia nana, 127, 128 

opuntia polyanthos, 1 1 5 

opuntia tuna, 157 

opuntiaeflorus, 27 

ottonis, 121 

ovoides, 95 

paradoxus, 209 

pentlandii, 98 

pereskia, 9, 10, 11 

polyanthos, 113, 115 

portulacifolius, 23 

pseudococcinellifer, 153 

pusillus, 105 

rosa, 19, 20 

rotundifolia, 27 

salmianus, 74 

sericeus, 134 

spinosissimus, 204 

strictus, 161 

subinermis, 34 

subquadrifolius, 65 

sulphureus, 134 

tomentosus, 173 

triacanthos, 112 

tuberculatus, 214 

tuna, 113, 114, 163 • 

tuna elatior, 153 

tuna nigricans, 153 

tunicatus, 65 

urumbeba, 156, 157 

urumbella, 157 

zinniaeflora, 21 
Camuessa, 191 
Cane cactus, 43 
Cephalocereus, 116 
Cereeae, 8, 24, 215 
Cereus, 58, 75, 151, 215, 217 

articulatus, 89 

bradtianus, 215 

californicus, 58 

chiloensis, 79 

clavarioides, 73 

cylindricus, 77 

imbricatus, 63 

moniliformis, 206, 217 

nanus, 217 

ovatus, 91 

paradoxus, 209 

sericeus, 73 

serpens, 217 

syringacanthus, 89 

tunicatus, 66 
Chaetophorae, 174 
Chaffeyanae, 45, 213 
ChoUa, 43, 61 
Clavarioides, 44, 72 



228 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Clavatae, 44, 79, 84 
Cola de diablo, 26 
Consolea, 42, 43, 202 
catacantha, 208 
ferox, 206 
leucacantha, 175 
rubescens, 43, 208 
spinosissima, 204 
Corotilla, 96 
Cow's tongue, 164 
Criniferae, 140, 176 
Cruciformes, 208 
Cuija, 149 

Curassavicae, 45, 102, 104, 106, 193 
Cylindropuntia, 32, 44, 45, 4^1 71. 75. 79. 
Dildoes, 105 

Dillenianae, 45, 159. 169 
Durasnilla, 175 
Echinocactus, 117 
Echinocarpae, 44, 56 
Echinocereus, 79, 215 
Elatae, 45, 152, 156 
Elatiores, 45. 149. 152. i55. 156, 222 
Epiphyllum, 9 

gaillardae, 6 
Erythrina, 181 
Espina, 76 
Espina blanca, 41 
Espinha de Sao Antonio, 19 
Etuberculatae, 72, 73 
Eupereskia, 10 
Ficindica, 42, 43 

Ficus-indicae, 45, 156, 166, 177, 191 
Floccosae, 44, 86 
Flor de Cera, 19 
Frutescentes, 73 
Fulgidae, 44, 67 
Fulvispinosae, 148 
Glomeratae, 44, 87 
Grandifoliae, 9, 11 
Grizzly bear cactus, 196 
Grusonia, 24, 215 
Grusonia bradtiana, 215 

cereiformis, 215 
Guamacho, 17 
Harrisia, 24 
Hibiscus, 19 
Hibiscus esculentus, 19 
Hylocereus, 24 
Imbricatae, 44, 60 
Inamoenae, 45, 125 
Inarmatae, 208 
Iniabanto, 19 
Lemaireocereus, 116 
Lemon vine, 10 
Lengua de vaca, 164 
Leon, 96 
Leoncito, 96 
Leptocaules, 44, 46, 49 
Leucotrichae, 45, 174 
Loranthus aphyllus, 79 
Macdougalianae, 45, 169 
Maihuen, 40 

Maihuenia, 8, 24, 40-42, 43, 95 
brachydelphys, 41, 42 
patagonica, 41 
philippii, 41 
poeppigii, 41, 42 



Maihuenia — continued. 
tehuelches, 41, 42 
valentinii, 40, 41, 42 
Malus, 9 
Mammillaria, 4 
Mateare, 13 
Miquelianae, 44, 78 
Mission cactus, 186 
Najii de Culebra, 19 
Nopal, 34 
Nopal cardon, 1 84 
Nopal de Castilla, 224 
Nopalea, 8, 24, 33-39. 43. i55. 216 

auberi, 34, 37, 38, 39 

cochenillifera, 34, 181 

dejecta, 34, 36, 37 

gaumeri, 34, 37, 216 

guatetnalensis, 33, 34, 35 

inaperta, 33, 34, 37. 38 

karwinskiana, 34, 37, 38, 39 

lutea, 33, 34, 35 

moniliformis, 33, 206 
Nopaleta, 26 
Nopalnochetzli, 35 
Ohulago, 103 
Olago, 103 

Opuntia, 8, 14, 24, 25, 30, 32. 33. 34. 38. 39. 4°. 42-215. 
217-224 

acanthocarpa, 56, 57 

aciculata, 160, 165 

acracantha, 91 

aequatorialis, no, 116, 219, 220 

affinis, 169, 170 

airampo, 161 

albicans, 191 

albicans laevior, 191 

albiflora, 73, 74 

albisetosa, 134 

alcahes, 58, 67, 69, 70 

alfagayucca, 185 

alfayucca, 185 

allairei, 126 

alpicola, 214 

alpina, 33 

alta, 165, 166 

americana, 214 

ammophila, 211 

amyclaea, 112, 177, 181, 185 

amyclaea ficus-indica, 177 

anacantha, 107, 109, no 

anahuacensis, 169 

andicola, 89, 90 

andicola elongata, 89 , 

andicola fulvispina, 89 

andicola major, 89 

andicola minor, 90 

angusta, loi 

angustata, 124, 129, 140, 142, 14s 

angustata comonduensis, 124 

antillana, no, 115, 163 

aoracantha, 90, 91 

aquosa, 29 

arborea, 209 

arborescens, 43, 63, 64, 65 
arborescens versicolor, 62 
arbuscula, 47, 50, 51 
arechavaletai, 156, 158 
arenaria, 193, 194, 195 



INDEX. 



229 



Opuntia — continued. 

argentina, 209, 211, 212 
arizonica, 147, 148 
arkansana, 128 
articulata, 89 
assumptionis, 159 
atacamensis, 90, 94 
atrispina, 140, 142 
atropes, 169, 170 
attulica, 214 
auberi, 37 
aulacothele, 95 
aurantiaca, loi, 107 
aurantiaca extensa, 107 
australis, 87, 88 
austrina, 45, 126, 130 
azurea, 140, 143 
bahamana, 202, 203, 204 
bahiensis, 209, 210, 211 
balearica, 161 
ballii, 137 
barbata, 214 
barbata gracillima, 214 
bartramii, 181 
basilaris, 118, 119, 120, 136 
basilaris albiflora, 120 
basilaris coerulea, 120 
basilaris cordata, 120 
basilaris cristata, 120 
basilaris nana, 120 
basilaris nevadensis, 120 
basilaris pfersdorffii, 120 
basilaris ramosa, 119, 120 
basilaris treleasei, 1 1 9 
beckeriana, 168 
bella, no, in, 112 
bentonii, 161, 163 
bergeriana, 149, 152, 169 
bemardina, 57, 81 
bernardina cristata, 57 
bemhardinii, 214 
betancourt, 214 
bicolor, 214 
bigelovii, 58, 59 
blakeana, 144, 145 
boldinghii, 149, 155 
boliviana, 71, 97, 98 
bonaerensis, 156, 158 
bonplandii, 160, 168, 223, 224 
borinquensis, 102, 103, 104 
brachyarthra, 193, 194 
brachyclada, 120 
brachydelphis, 42 
bradtiana, 215 
brandegeei, 25, 28 
brasiliensis, 209, 210, 211 
brasiliensis minor, 210 
brasiliensis schomburgkii, 210 
brasiliensis spinosior, 210 
brasiliensis tenuifolia, 210 
brasiliensis tenuior, 210 
brunnescens, 149, 150 
bulbispina, 79, 83 
bulbosa, 131 
biurrageana, 67, 70 
cacanapa, 165, 166 
caerulescens, 51 
caesia, 144 



Opuntia — continued. 
caespitosa, 127 
calacantha, 2 1 4 
calacantha rubra, 2 14 
calantha, 136 
californica, 58 
calmalliana, 60, 61 
calva, 89 

camanchica, 144, 145 
cananchica albispina, 144 
camanchica luteo-staminea,, 144 
camanchica orbicularis, 144 
camanchica rubra, 144 
camanchica salmonea, 144 
campestris, 90, 99 
camuessa, 191 
Canada, 160, 167, 168 
candelabriformis, 182 
candelabriformis rigidior, 182 
canina, 107, 108 
cantabrigiensis, 121, 160, 167 
canterai, 159 
caracasana, no, 116, 219 
cardenche, 64 

cardiosperma, 156, 157, 158 
cardona, 184 
caribaea, 47, 48, 49 
Carolina, 214 
carrizalensis, 79 
castillae, 185, 186 
catacantha, 43, 208 
cereiformis, 79, 215 
cervicornis, 194 
chaetocarpa, 182 
chaff eyi, 30, 212, 213 
chakensis, 158 
chapistle, 27 
chavena, 184 
chihuahuensis, 144, 14s 
chlorotica, 142, 159, 160, 161 
chlorotica santa-rita, 142 
choUa, 60, 61, 62 
chrysacantha, 167 
ciliosa, 214 
ciribe, 58, 59, 60 
clavarioides, 72, 73 
clavarioides cristata, 73 
clavarioides fasciata, 73 
clavarioides fastigiata, 73 
clavarioides monstruosa, 73 
clavata, 79, 81, 215 
clavellina, 52, 54 
coccifera, 35 
coccinea, 1 1 4 
cocbenillifera, 33, 34, 35 
cochinelifera, 34 
cochinera, 192 
coerulea, 134 
coindettii, 184 
Columbiana, 193 
comonduensis, 118, 124 
confusa, 147 
congesta, 50 
consoleana, 214 
console!, 214 
convexa, 165 
cordobensis, 181, 189 
comigata, 95 



230 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Opiintia — contin ued. 
corotilla, 96 
corrugata, 90, 95 
corrugata monvillei, 95 
costigera, 65 
co\-iUei, 140, 145, 146 
crassa, 178, 179 
crassa major, 178 
cretochaeta, 183 
crmifera, 159, 176 
crinifera lanigera, 176 
cristata, 64 
cristata tenuior, 64 
cniciata, 207 
cn-stalenia, 193 
cubensis, 163 
cucumifomiis, 97 
cuija, 149, 167 
cumingii, 77 

curassavica, 102, 103, 112 
curassa%'ica elongata, 102 
curassavica longa, 102 
curassavica major, 102 
curassavica media, 102 
curassa\'ica minima, 102 
curassavica minor, 102 
carassa\-ica taylori, 103 
cur\"ospina, 160 
cyanella, 165, 166 
cydodes, 147, 148 
cydoidea, 128 
cylindrica, 71, 75, 77 
cylindrica cristata, 78 
cylindrica cristata minor, 78 
cylindrica monstruosa, 78 
cylindrica robustior, 78 
c\"inochila, 131, 132 

dactj-lifera, 97, 98 

darrahiana, 102, 106 

darsvinii, 88, 90, 93, 94, 97 

da\-isii, 52, 54, 55 

deamii, 181, 187 

decipiens, 63, 65 

decipiens major, 64 

decipiens minor, 65 

decumana, 157, 180, 181, 1S6 

decimibens, iii, 116, 117, 121, 218 

decumbens irrorata, 117 

decumbens longispina, 117 

deflexa, 157 

dejecta, 37 

delaetiana, 149, 152 

ddicata, 126, 132, 133 

ddtica, 165 

demissa, 146, 147 

demorenia, 214 

demoriana, 214 

depauperata, 100, loi, 2i5, 217, 219 

deppei, 214 

depressa, iii, 117, 118 

deserta, 57, 58 

diademata, 89, 90 

diademata calva, 89 

diademata inermis, 89 

diademata oligacantha, 89 

diademata polyacantha, 89 

dichotoma, 214 

diffusa, 37 



Opuntia — continued. 
digitalis, 72 
diguetii, 26, 29 
diUei, 147, 148 

dillenii, 106, 114, 115, 116, 159, 162, 163, 181, 22: 
dillenii minor, 163 
dillenii orbiculata, 163 
dimorpha, 96 
diplacantha, 184 
discata, 140, 149 
discolor, 107, 109, 218, 219 
distans, 149, 155 
dobbieana, 181, 187, 224, 225 
dolabriformis, 207 
drummondii, 102, 104, 106 
dulcis, 165, 166 
durangensis, 169 
eborina, 214 
ebumea, 95 
echinocarpa, 56, 57, 81 
echinocarpa major, 57 
echinocarpa nuda, 57, 58 
echinocarpa parkeri, 57, 58 
echinocarpa robustior, 57 
eichlamii, 181, 187, 188 
data, no, 156, 157 
data ddaetiana, 152 
datior, 149, 153, 219 
datior deflexa, 157 
dlemeetiana, 75 
ellisiana, 166 
elongata, 179, 181 
dongata laevior, 180 
emorj-i, 80 

engdmannii, 140, 147, 14S, 149, 164, 165, 167 
engdmannii cuija, 167 
engdmannii cydodes, 147, 148 
engdmannii dulcis, 165 
engdmannii littoralis, 165 
engdmannii monstrosa, 148 
engelmannii occidentalis, 146 
eocarpa, 144 
erecta, 214 

erinacea, 193, 19S. 196 
erythrocentron, 174 
exaltata, 71, 75, 76, 77 
expansa, 147, 148 
extensa, 107 
exu\aata, 63, 65 
exu\iata angustior, 63 
exu\-iata major, 64 
exu\nata spinosior, 63 
exuviata stdlata, 63 
exu\-iata %-iridior, 63 
ferox, 206, 207 
ferruginispina, 165 
f estiva, 214 
ficus-barbica, 177 

ficus-indica, 43, 156, 157, 177, 178, 181, 185, iS 
ficus-indica albispina, 214 
ficus-indica amyclaea, 1S5 
ficus-incida decumana, iSo 
ficus-indica g\-mnocarpa, 180 
filipendula, 137, 13S 
flavicans, 191 
flavispina, 214 
flexibiHs, 114 
flexospina, 165 



INDEX. 



231 



Opuntia — continued. 
floccosa, 71, 86, 87 
floccosa denudata, 86, 87 
floribunda, 74 
foliosa, 105, 106 
formidabilis, 91, 92 
fragilis, 193, 194 
fragilis brachyarthra, 193 
fragilis caespitosa, 193 
fragilis frutescens, 
fragilis tuberiformis, 193 
frustulenta, 104, 105 
frutescens, 47, 48 
frutescens brevispina, 47, 48 
frutescens longispLna, 47, 48 
fulgida, 67 

fulgida mamillata, 67 
fuliginosa, 149, 155 
fulvispina, 174 
fulvispina badia, 175 
fulvispina laevior, 1 75 
furiosa, 66 
fuscoatra, 126, 133 
fusicaulis, 191, 192 
fusiformis, 130, 131 
galapageia, 45, 149, 150, 151, 152 
galeottii, 65 
geissei, 78 
gilliesii, 91 
gilva, 163 
gilvescens, 149 
gilvoalba, 165, 166 
glaberrima, 178 
glauca, 178 
glaucescens, 200, 201 
glaucophylla, 214 
glaucophylla laevior, 214 
glomerata, 87, 89, 90, 94, 96 
glomerata albispina, 90 
glomerata flavispina, 90 
glomerata minor, 90 
golziana, 26 
gomei, 165, 166 
gorda, 191, 192 
gosseliniana, 140, 141, 151 
gracilis, 47 

gracilis subpatens, 48 
grahamii, 79, 83, 84 
grandiflora, 126, 127, 129 
grandis, 200, 201 
grata, 92, 94, 95 
greenei, 131 
gregoriana, 147, 148 
griffithsiana, 165 
grosseiana, 107, no 
guanicana, 208 

guatemalensis, no, 113, 218, 219 
guerrana, 191, 192 
guilanchi, 173, 174 
gynmocarpa, 180 
haematocarpa, 166 
haitiensis, 206 
hanburyana, 149, 153, 154 
hattoniana, 103 
helleri, 150, 152 
hempeliana, 86, 87 
hemandezii, 181 
heteromorpha, 79 



I Opuntia — conlinued. 
hevemickii, 214 
hickenii, 90, 92, 93 
hieronymi, 211 
hitchenii, 214 
hochderfferi, 198 
horizontalis, 37, 90 
horrida, 162 
humifusa, 127, 128, 132 
humifusa cymochila, 128 
humifusa greenei, 128 
himiif usa macrorhiza, 128 
humifusa microsperma, 127 
humifusa oplocarpa, 128 
humifusa parva, 127 
hvmiifusa stenochila, 128 
humifusa vaseyi, 146 
humilis, 113, 114 
himiistrata, 120 
hypsophila, 71, 72 
hyptiacantha, 176, 181, 183, 184 
hystricina, 193, 197 
hystrix, 65, 66 
icterica, 173 
ignescens, 90, 98 
ignota, 90, 99 

imbricata, 48, 55, 60, 63, 64, 65, 66 
imbricata crassior, 63 
imibricata ramosior, 64 
imbricata tenuior, 64 
inaequalis, 128 

inaequilateralis, 181, 187, 188, 189 
inamoena, 121, 125 
incamadilla, 185, 186 
inermis, 161, 162, 163 
insularis, 150, 152 
intermedia, 127, 128 
intermedia prostrata, 128 
intricata, 119 
invicta, 79 
involuta, 87 
irrorata, 116,117 
italica, 214 
ithypetala, 190 
jamaicensis, no, 113 
joconostle, 214 
juniperina, 193, 197 
jussieuii, 214 
karwinskiana, 38 
keyensis, 159, 162, 163, 222, 223 
kiska-loro, 107, 108 
kleiniae, 47, 51, 64, 65 
kleiniae cristata, s i 
kleiniae laetevirens, s i 
kunzei, 80 

labouretiana, 180, 189 
labouretiana macrocarpa, 181 
laevis, 159, 161, 168 
lagopus, 86, 87, 88 
lanceolata, 177, 179, 203 
lanigera, 176 
larreyi, 191 

lasiacantha, 181, 182, 183, 184 
lata, 126, 220 
laxiflora, 165 
ledienii, 153 
lemaireana, 156 
leonina, 96 



232 



the; .cactac^ab. 



Opuntia — continued. 
leptarthra, loi 
leptocarpa, i66, 167 
leptocaulis, 47, 48, 49, 73, 213 
leptocaulis brevispina, 47 
leptocaulis laetevirens, 48 
leptocaulis longispina, 47 
leptocaulis major, 48 
leptocaulis stipata, 47 
leptocaulis vaginata, 47 
leucacantha, 174, 175 
leucacantha laevior, 1 75 
leucacantha subferox, 1 75 
leucantha, 175 
leucophaea, 96 
leucostata, 214 
leucosticta, 174 
leucotricha, 151, 174, 175 
leucotricha fulvispina, 174 
ligustica, 128 

lindheimeri, 44, 148, 160, 164, 165, 166 
lindheimeri cyclodes, 147 
lindheimeri dulcis, 165 
lindheimeri littoralis, 165 
lindheimeri occidentalis, 146 
linguiformis, 160, 163 
littoralis, 147, 160, 164, 165 
Uoydii, 60, 63 
longiclada, 161 
longiglochia, 214 
longispina, 95 
lubrica, 118, 119 
lucayana, 106, 163 
lucens, 149 
lucida, 214 
lurida, 173 

macateei, 126, 133, 220, 221 
macdougaliana, 169, 170, 171 
mackensenii, 137, 138, 139 
macracantha, 187, 202, 203, 204, 205 
macrarthra, 126, 129 
macrocalyx, 118, 122 
macrocentra, 140, 141, 176 
macrophylla, 214 

macrorhiza, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 139, 166 
maculacantha, 134 
maelenii, 134 
magenta, 142, 146 
magna, 64 
magnarenensis, 147 
magnifolia, 34 
maihuen, 41 
maldonadensis, 75 
mamillata, 67, 68 
maritima, 162 
maxillare, 77 
maxima, 177, 180, 181 
media, 199, 200 
mediterranea, 128 

megacantha, 178, 181, 182, 185, 186 
megacantha lasiacantha, 1 82 
megacantha tenuispina, 184 
megacantha trichacantha, 186 
megacarpa, 145 
megalantha, 169 
megalarthra, 192 
megarhiza, 137 
mendocienses, 65 



Opuntia — continued. 

mesacantha, 127, 132 

mesacantha cymochila, 131 

mesacantha grandiflora, 129 

mesacantha greenei, 131 

mesacantha macrorhiza, 130 

mesacantha microsperma, 127 

mesacantha oplocarpa, 131, 144 

mesacantha parva, 127, 128 

mesacantha sphaerocarpa, 144 

mesacantha stenochila, 132 

mesacantha vaseyi, 146 

mettemichii, 176 

mexicana, 34 

micrarthra, 171 

microcarpa, 144, 206 

microdasys, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 136 

microdasys laevior, 120 

microdasys minor, 120 

microdasys rufida, 122 

microdisca, 133, 135, 136 

microthele, 73 

mieckleyi, 156, 158 

militaris, 102, 104, 163 

millspaughii, 202, 204, 206 

minima americana, 102 

minor, 139 

minor cardescens, 102 

miquelii, 78 

missouriensis, 199, 200 

missouriensis albispina, 199, 200 

missouriensis elongata, 214 

missouriensis erythrostemma, 214 , 

missouriensis microsperma, 199, 200 

missouriensis platycarpa, 199, 200 

missouriensis rufispina, 199, 200 

missouriensis salmonea, 214 

missouriensis subinermis, 199 

missouriensis trichophora, 195 

modesta, 67 

mojavensis, 140, 145 

molesta, 54, 60, 62, 66, 67 

monacantha, 127, 156, 157 

monacantha deflexa, 156 

monacantha gracilior, 156, 157 

monacantha variegata, 157 

moniliformis, 33, 202, 206, 207, 208 

montana, 214 

montevidensis, 107, 109 

monticola, 95 

morenoi, 214 

morisii, 128 

mortolensis, 47 

multiflora, 113, 114 

myriacantha, 150, 152, 214 

nana, 127, 217 

nashii, 106, 163, 202, 203 

nelsonii, 172 

nemoralis; 102, 104 

neoarbuscula, 50 

nigricans, 152, 153 

nigrispina, 90, 97 

nigrita, 183, 184 

nopalilla, 38 

oblongata, 173 

occidentalis, 140, 146, 147, 153, 163, 165 

oligacantha, 89, 182 

oplocarpa, 132 



INDEX. 



233 



Opuntia — continued. 

opuntia, 43, 126, 127, 128, 217 

orbiculata, 176 

orbiculatametternichii, 176 

ottonis, 214, 215 

ovallei, 95, 214 

ovata, 90, 9Si 9^ 

ovoides, 95 

pachona, 184 

pachyarthra flava, 214 

pachyclada rosea, 214 

pachyclada spaethiana, 2 1 4 

pachypus, 75. 77 

pallida, 60, 65, 66 

palmadora, 202 

palmeri, 161 

pampeana, 134 

papyracantha, 89, 90 

paraguayensis, 158 

parishii, 57, 79, 81, 82 

parked, 58 

pannentieri, 95 

parote, 214 

parryi, 56, 57, 58, 81 

parva, 161 

parvispioa, 117 

parvula, 178 

pascoensis, 100, loi 

patagonica, 41 

pelaguensis, 90 

penicilligera, 135 

pennellii, no, 115, 219 

pentlandii, 71, 72. 77. 9°. 97. 98 

perrita, 65, 66 

pes-corvi, 104 

pestifer, 102, 103, 217, 218, 220 

phaeacantha, 139, 140, 142, 144 

phaeacantha brunnea, 144 

phaeacantha major, 144 

phaeacantha nigricans, 144 

philippii, 41 

phyllacantha, 96 

phyllanthus, 215 

piccolomini, 214 

piccolominiana, 191 

pilifera, 176, 177, 184 

pintadera, 176 

pititache, 29 

pittieri, 181, 188, 189 

platyacantha, 33, 89 

platyacantha deflexispina, 89, 90 

platyacantha gracilior, 89 

platyacantha monvillei, 89 

platyclada, 214 

platynoda, 109 

plumbea, 126, 131 

plumosa nivea, 89, 90 

poeppigii, 40, 41 

pollardii, 126, 221 

polyacantha, 193, 195. 196, i97. IQQ. 200 

polyacantha albispina, 199 

polyacantha borealis, 199 

polyacantha microsperma, 200 

polyacantha rufispina, 200 

polyacantha trichophora, 1 95 

polyacantha platycarpa, 199 

polyacantha watsonii, 199 

polyantha, 113, 114, 115 



Opuntia — continued. 
polymorpha, 89 

porteri, 28 

pottsii, 137, 138 

praecox, 214 

prate, 191 

procumbens, 160, 167 

prolifera, 61, 67, 69, 70 

prostrata, 128 

prostrata spinosior, 214 

protracta, 214 

protracta elongata, 214 

pruinosa, 191 

pseudococcinellifer, 153 

pseudotuna, 184, 214 

pseudotuna elongata, 214 

pseudotuna spinosior, 214 

puberula, 116, 117, 121, 122 

pubescens, 100, loi, 173 

pulchella, 79, 82 < 

pulverata, 214 

pulverulenta, 78 

pulverulenta miquelii, 78 

pulvinata, 120 

putnila, 100, loi 

purpurea, 97 

pusilla, 102, 105, 106 

pycnantha, 118, 123 

pycnantha margaritana, 123 

pyriformis, 160, 168 

pyrocarpa, 166 

pyrrhacantha, 97 
quimilo, 181, 190, 191 
quipa, 125 

quitensis, 149, IS4, 224 
rafinesquei, 127, 128, 129 
rafinesquei arkansana, 127, 129 
rafinesquei cymochila, 131 
rafinesquei cymochila montana, 131 
rafinesquei fusiformis, 130 
rafinesquei grandiflora, 129 
rafinesquei greenei, 132 
rafinesquei macrorhiza, 131 
rafinesquei microsperma, 127, 199 
rafinesquei minor, 127, 128 
rafinesquei parva, 128 
rafinesquei stenochila, 132 
rafinesquei vaseyi, 146 
rafinesquiana, 127, 129 
rafinesquiana arkansana, 129 
rahmeri, 94 

ramosissima, 46, 48, 52 
ramulifera, 47 
rastrera, 140, 149 
rauppiana, 90, 92 
recedens, 128 
recondita, 52, 53 
recurvospina, 144 
reflexa, 165 

repens, 102, 103, 104, 115, 116 
reptans, 214 
retrorsa, 107, 109, 218 
retrospinosa, 95 
rhodantha, 193, 197, 198 
rhodantha brevispina, 198 
rhodantha flavispina, 198 
rhodantha pisciformis, 198 
rhodantha schimianniana, 198 



234 



THE cactaceae;. 



Opuntia — continued. 
riparia, 149 
robusta, 182, 191, 192 
robusta viridior, 191 
rosea, 17, 63, 65, 78 
roseana, 130 
rosiflora, 78 
rotundifolia, 27 
roxburghiana, 156 
rubescens, 163, 202, 208, 209 
rubiflora, 133, 146 
rubrifolia, 144 
rufescens, 175 
rufida, 118, 1 19, 122 
rugosa, 145 
russellii, 90, 94 
ruthei, 64 
rutila, 196 
sabinii, 194 
sacharosa, 14, 
salicornioides, 215 
salmiana, 73 74 
salmii, 214 
sanguinocula, 131 
santa-rita, 140, 142 
scheeri, 159, 176 
schickendantzii, 74, 107 
schomburgkii, 214 
schottii, 79, 80, 81 
schottii greggii, 80 
schumannii, 90, 149, 155 
schweriniana, 199, 200 
segethii, 75, 76, 79 
seguina, 130 
semispinosa, 147 
senilis, 86, 159, 176 
sericea, 134 
sericea coerulea, 134 
sericea longispina, 134 
sericea maelenii, 134 
serpentina, 56, 57, 58, 69, 81 
setispina, 45, 137, 138 
shaferi, 71, 72 
shreveana, 142 
sinclairii, 165, 166 
skottsbergii, 90, 96, 97 
soederstromiana, 149, 154, 221 
soehrensii, 133, 134, 135 
spathulata, 28, 29 
spathulata aquosa, 30 
speciosa, 214 
spegazzinii, 73, 74 
sphaerica, 90, 96 
sphaerocarpa, 193, 198, 199 
sphaerocarpa utaliensis, 199 
spinalba, 130 
spinaurea, 214 
spiniflora, 215 
spinosior, 52, 67, 68 
spinosior neomexicana, 68 
spinosissima, 103, 175, 202, 204, 205 
spinotecta, 64 
spinulifera, 178, 181, 182 
spinuliflora, 214 
spinvilosa, 214 
splendens, 199 
squarrosa, 165 
stanlyi, 79, 80 



Opuntia — contin ued. 
stapelia, 66 
stapeliae, 65, 66 
stellata, 64 
stenarthra, 158 
stenochila, 126, 132 
stenopetala, 200, 201 
straminea, 214 
streptacantha, 181, 184, 185 
stricta, 159, 161, 178, 223 
stricta spinulescens, 214 
strigil, 136 
subarmata, 165, 166 
subferox, 175 
subinertnis, 214 
subterranea, 90, 92 
subiHata, 71, 75, 76, 77, 79 
sulphurea, 133, 134, 150 
sulphurea laevior, 134 
sulphurea major, 1 34 
sulphurea minor, 134 
sulphurea pallidior, 134 
superbospina, 144 
syringacantha, 89 
tapona, 124, 160, 164 
tarapacana, 90, 94 
tardospina, 140, 141 
ta5'lori, 102, 103 
tenajo, 49 

tenuispina, 137, 139 
teres, 71 

tesajo, 47, 48, 49 
tessellata, 46 
tessellata cristata, 46 
testudinis-crus, 206 
tetracantha, 52, 53, 54 
texana, 165, 166 
thurberi, 52, 53, 54 
tidballii, 160 
tomentella, 173, 174 
tomentosa, 173, 174 
tortisperma, 131, 132 
tortispina, 126, 128, 131, 194 
toumeyi, 144 
tracyi, 102, 105 
treleasei, 118, 119 
treleasei kemii, 119 
triacantha, no, 112, 113, 115, 204 
tribuloides, 186 
tricolor, 165, 166 
trichophora, 193, 195 
tuberculata, 214 
tuberiformis, 92 
tuberosa, 32, 33 
tuberosa spinosa, 89 
tuna, no, 113, 114, 116, 149, 157, 163 
tuna humilis, 114 
tuna laevior, 114 
tuna orbiculata, 114 
tunicata, 60, 65, 66, 83, 121 
tunicata laevior, 66 
tunoidea, 116, 162 
tunoides, 116 
turpLnii, 89 

turpinii poljonorpha, 89 
tweediei, 134 
tunbrella, 156 
imdosa, 177, 179 



INDEX. 



235 



Opuntia — continued. 

undulata, 65. 177, 179 

ursina, 174, 195, 196, 197 

unimbella, 157 

utahensis, 198 

utkilio, 107, 109, no 

vaginata, 47, 48 

valida, 147 

vaseyi, 140, 142, 145, 146 

velutina, 169, 172 

verschaffeltii, 44, 71, 72 

verschaffeltii digitalis, 71, 72 

versicolor, 44, 52, 54, 60, 62 

vestita, 71, 72, 87 

vexans, 64, 65 

vilis, 79, 82, 83 

violacea, 144 

virgata, 47 

viridiflora, 52, 55 

vivipara, 52 

vulgaris, 127, 128, 156, 157, 163, 177 

vulgaris balearica, 161 

vulgaris major, 127 

vulgaris media, 127 

vulgaris minor, 127 

vulgaris nana, 127, 129 

vulgaris rafinesquei, 127 

vulgo, 157 

vulpina, 134 

wagneri, 74 

weberi, 84, 85 

wentiana, no, 116 

whipplei, 31. 43. 52, 55. 68 

whipplei laevior, 55 

whipplei spinosior, 68 

wilcoxii, 169, 172 

winteriana, 166 

wootonii, 147, 148 

wrightii, 51 
'xanthoglochia, 130, 131 

xanthostemma, 198 

xanthostemma elegans, 198 

xanthostemma fulgens, 198 

xanthostemma gracilis, 198 

xanthostemma orbicularis, 198 

xanthostemma rosea, 198 

xerocarpa, 198 

youngii, 130 

zebrina, 149, 155, 222 

zacuapanensis, 183 

zuniensis, 144 
Opuntiacei, 217 
Opuntieae, 8, 24 
Orbiculatae, 45, 176 
Palmadora, 202 
Palmadorae, 45, 201 
Palmatoria, 202 
Pataquisca, 76 
Peirescia, 9 
Peireskia, 9 
Pentlandianae, 44, 90 
Perescia, 9 
Pereskia, 8-24, 25, 26, 40, 75 

acardia, 10 

aculeata, 10, 11, 14 

aculeata lanceolata, 10 

aculeata latifolia. 10 

aculeata longispina, 10 



Pereskia — continued. 

aculeata rotunda, 10 

aculeata rotundifolia, 10 

aculeata rubescens, 10 

afiinis, 24 

amapola, 14 

argentina, 14 

autumnalis, 9, 11, 12 

bahiensis, 9, 19, 20 

bleo, 4, 9, 17, 18, 20 

brasiliensis, 10 

calandriniaefolia, 29 

colombiana, 9, 17 

conzattii, 9, 24 

crassicaulis, 29 

cruenta, 24 

cubensis, 9, 22 

foetens, 10 

fragrans, 10 

glomerata, 94 

godseffiana, 10, 11 

grandiflora, 24 

grandifolia, 9, 18, 19, 20, 21 

grandispina, 24 

guamacho, 9, 15, 16 

haageana, 24 

horrida, 9, 21 

lanceolata, 10 

longispina, 10 

lychnidiflora, 9, 12, 13 

moorei, 9, 15 

nicoyana, 9, 13 

ochnacarpa, 19 

opuntiaeflora, 26, 27 

panamensis, 17. 18 

pereskia, 7, 9, 10 

philippii, 41 

pititache, 29 

plantaginea, 24 

poeppigii, 41 

portulacifolia, 9, 22, 23, 24 

rosea, 17 

rotundifolia, 27 

sacharosa, 9, 10. 14, 15 

spathulata, 28, 29 

subulata, 75, 76 

tampicana, 9, 17 

undulata, 10 

weberiana, 9, 15 

zehntneri, 9, 13, 14 

zinniaeflora, 9, 17, 20, 21 
Pereskieae, 8, 24 
Pereskiopsis, 8, 14, 17, 24, 25-30, 43 

aquosa, 25, 29 

autumnalis, 11,12 

brandegeei, 28 

chapistle, 25, 27 

diguetii, 25, 26, 27 

kellermanii, 25, 30 

opuntiaeflora, 25, 26, 27 

pititache, 25, 29 

porteri, 25, 28 

rotundifolia, 25, 27, 28 

spathulata, 25, 28 

velutina, 25, 26 
Pereskiopuntia, 25 
Pest pear, 161, 163 
I Phaeacanthae, 45, 136, 139, 141, 148 



236 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Pin pillow, 102 

Platyopuntia, 45, 73. S4, 92, 99. 100. i35. 211 

Polar bear cactus, 87 

Polyacanthae, 45, 193 

Portulaca, 9 

Prickly pear, 43. 212 

Pterocactus, 24, 30-33 

decipiens, 32, 33 

fischeri, 31 

hickenii, 31 

kuntzei, 30, 32, 33 

kurtzei, 32 

pumilus, 31, 32 

tuberosus, 31. 32. 33 

valentinii, 88 
Pubescentes, 141 
Puipute, 13 
Puinilae, 45, 100 
Quiabento, 14 
QuimUo, 190 
Quipa, 125 

Ramosissimae, 44, 46 
Rhipsalis, 8 
Robustae, 45, 191 
Sacacil, 214 
Sacharosa, 10, 14 
Salmianae, 44, 73. 75 
Scheerianae, 45. 159 
Sempers,-ivmn tomentosum, 41 
Setispinae, 45, 136 
Spear-shaped opuntia, 179 
Spinosissimae, 43, 45, 201, 202, 203, 20S 
Stenopetalae, 45, 200 
Stenopuntia, 200 

Streptacanthae, 45, 112, 156, 177, 181, 192, 225 
Strigiles, 45, 136 



Subulatae, 44, 71, 75 
Sucker, 43, 103 
Sulphureae, 45, 133, 135 
Tacinga, 24, 39, 40 
funalis, 38, 39 
Tapuna pear, 192 
TasajiUo, 26, 30 ■ 

Tasajo, 43 

macho, 63 
Tephrocactus, 42, 43, 44, 71. 72, 79. 84, 85, 90, 95, 97, 
106, 135 
andicolus, 89 
aoracanthus, 91 
cahnis, 89 
diadematus, 43, 89 
platyacanthus, 89 
pusillus, 106 
retrospinosus, 95 
turpinii, 89 
Teretes, 71 
Thurberianae, 44, 52 
Tomentosae, 45, 172 

Tortispinae, 45, 104, 126, 130, 133, 136, 193 
Tuna, 35, 43, 114, 181, 186 
Tuna cardona, 184 
Tuna elatior, 153 
Tuna de agua, 30 
Tuna de Espana, 224 
Tuna major, 163 
Tunae, 45, no, 116, 148 
Vestitae, 44, 71 
Weberianae, 44, 84 
West Indian gooseberrj', 10 
Wilcoxia, 6 
Zamia pumila, 181 
Zygocactus, 9 



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