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Full text of "The Cactaceae, descriptions and illustrations of plants of the cactus family"

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BOM— 048— Form 8 



THE CACTACEAE 



DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
PLANTS OF THE CACTUS FAMILY 



BY 

N. L. BRITTON and J. N. ROSE 

Volume I 




Thh CARNEGiii Institution of Washington 
Washington, 1919 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

Publication No. 248, Volume I 



Reprinted by 
SCOTT E. HASELTON 

ABBEY SAN ENCINO PRESS 

PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 

1937 



CONTENTS 



Introduction 

Order Cactales 

Family Cactaceae 

Key to Tribes 

Tribe Pereskieae 

Pereskia 

Key to Species 

Tribe Opuntieae 

Key to Genera 
Pereskiopsis 

Pterocactus 

Nopalea 

Tacinga 

Maihiienia 

Opunt.a 

Key to Subgenera and Set 
Subgenus Cylindropuntia 
Series Ramosissimae 
Series Leptocaules. . . 
Series Thurberianae , 
Series Echinocarpae 
Series Bigelovianae. . . 

Series Imbricatae 

Series Fulgidae 

Series Vestitae 

Series Clavarioides. . . 

Series Salmianae 

Series Subulatae 

Series Miquelianae. . . 

Series Clavatae 

Subgenus Tephrocactus. . 
Series Weberianae . . . . 

Series Floccosae 

Series Glomeratae. . . , 
Series Pentlandianae . 



Family Cactaceae — tonl'nund. 
Tribe Opuntieae — conlniiinJ. 
Opuntia— co«/;H«f^/, 

Subgenus Platyopuntia 99 

Series Pumilae 100 

Series Curassavicae 102 

Series Aurantiacae 106 

Series Tunae 110 

Series Basilares 118 

Series Inamoenae 125 

Series Tortispinae 126 

Series Sulphureae 1}3 

Series Strigiles 136 

Series Setispinae 136 

Series Phaeacanthae 139 

Series Elatiores 149 

Series Elatae 156 

Series Scheerianae 159 

Series Dillenianae 159 

Series Macdougalianae 169 

Series Tomentosae 172 

Series Leucotrichae 174 

Series Orbiculatae 176 

Series Ficus-indicae 177 

Series Streptacanthae 181 

Series Robustae 191 

Series Polyacanthae 193 

Series Stenopetalae 200 

Series Palmadorae 201 

Series Spinosissimae 202 

Series Brasilienses 209 

Series Ammophilae 211 

Series Chaffeyanae 213 

Grusonia 215 

Appendix 216 

Index 227 



12S555 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATES 'pr" 

Platf 1. Cactus Dtscrt in Arizona Frontispiece 

Plate 2. (1 ) Flowering branch of Pereskia pereskia. (2 and 3) Fruit of Pereskia pereskia. (4) Leafy branch of 

Pereskia sacharosa. (5) ProHferous fruit of Pereskia sacharosa lu 

Plate 3. (1) Flowering branch of Pereskia grandifoha. (2) Leafy branch of Pereskiopsis chapistle. (3) Leafy 

branch of Pereskiopsis pititache 20 

Plate •). (1) Upper part of flowering joint of Nopalea cocheniUifera. (2) Upper part of flowering joint of 

Nopalea auberi. (3) Fruit of Nopalea auberi. (4) Flowering joint of Nopalea dejecta 3-i 

Plate ^. Nopalea auberi as it grows near Mitla. Mexico 38 

Plate 6. (1 and 2) Branch of Opuntia mortolensis. (3 and 4) Branch of Opuntia leptocaulis. ( ^ ) Flowering 

branch of Opuntia arbuscula. (6) Flowering branch of Opuntia kleiniac 18 

Plate 7. (1) Leafy branch of Opuntia kleiniae. (2) Terminal branch of Opuntia vivipara. (3) Branch of 

Opuntia parryi. (4) Flowering branch of Opuntia echinocarpa. (5) Fruiting branch of 

Opuntia versicolor 50 

Plate 8. (1) Type plant of Opuntia vivipara, near Tucson, Arizona. (2) A much branched plant of Opuntia 

versicolor 52 

Plate 9. (1) Joint of Opuntia tetracantha. (2. 3. 4. 5) Flowering joint of Opuntia versicolor. (6) Proliferous 

fruits of Opuntia fulgida 54 

Plate 10. (1 ) Joint of Opuntia tunicata. (2, 3. 4. 5) Joint of Opuntia spinosior 66 

Plate 11. (1 ) Le.ify branch of Opuntia imbricata. (2) Flowering branch of Opuntia prolifera. (3. 4) Form of 

Opuntia alcahes. ( 5, 6) Opuntia vestita 68 

Plate 12. (1 ) Clump of plants of Opuntia fulgida. (2) A very open plant of Opuntia spinosior 70 

Plate 1?. (1 ) Opuntia exaltata as seen in the highlands of Peru. (2) Clump of Opuntia floccosa as it grows in 

the valleys of the Andes of eastern Peru "6 

Plate 14. (1) Flowering branch of Opuntia burrageana. (2) Opuntia cylindrica. (3. 4) Joint of Opuntia stanlyi. 

( 5 ) Flowering joint of Opuntia macrorhiza ~8 

Plate 15. (1. 2) Part of joint of Opuntia exaltata. (3) L'pper part of joint of Opuntia macrarthra. (4) Upper 

part of joint of Opuntia tortispina 80 

Plate 16. (1 ) Tup of Opuntia miquelii. (2) Old and young joints of Opuntia invicta. (3) Upper part of joint 

of Opuntia ignescens 98 

Plate 1". (1) Joint of Opuntia pascoensis. (2) Joints of Opuntia taylori. (3, 4) Form of Opuntia repens. 

(5) Flower of (Jpuntia repens. (6) Flowering joint of Opuntia drummondii 102 

Pl..\te 18. (1) Two plants of Opuntia drummondii. (2) Joints of Opuntia retrorsa with flower. (3) Joints of 

Opuntia triacantha. (1) Joint of Opuntia jamaicensis. (5) Section of fruit of Opuntia 

jamaicensis 104 

Pl.\te 19. (1) Plant of Opuntia jamaicensis. (2. 3) Flower of Opunti.i luniaiccnsis. (i) Longitudinal secticui 

of flower of Opuntia jamaicensis. (5.6) Stamen .it Opunti.i i.im.iRt-nsiv (") Style of 

Opuntia jamaicensis 112 

Plate 20. (1) Flowering lomt of Opuntia decumhens. (2) Fruitin.i; iiunt ,.t Opuntia dccumbens. (3) Hybrid 116 

Plate 21. Group of hardy Orunti.i. mostlv Opunti.i toitispin.i. in j^r.uiiuls .'t New York Botanical Garden 126 

Plate 22. (1) Joints of Opunti.i iiiicrotlasys. (2) Flowering |oiiu I't Opunti.i macrarthra. (3) Fruit of Opuntia 

macrarthra. (O Seed of Opuntia macrarthra. O) FlowLring |oint of Opuntia opuntia 128 

Plate 23. (1) Flowering joint of Opuntia fuscoatra. (2) Upper part of |omt of Opuntia sulphurea. (3) Joint 

of Opuntia tenuispina 132 

Plate 24. ( 1 ) Plant of Opuntia santa-rita. ( 2 ) Plant of Opuntia discata 142 

Plate 25. (1) Flowering joint of Opuntia atrispma. (2) Flowering |oint of Opuntia phaeacantha. (3) L'pper 

part of joint of Opuntia enpelmannii Il4 

Pl.\TE26. (1) Flowering |oint of Opuntia bcrgeriana. (2) Flowering joint of Opuntia elatior. (3) Flowering 

joint of Opuntia boldinghii. (1. 5) Joint of Opuntia elata 152 

Plate 27. (1) L'pper part of fruiting joint of Opuntia schumannii. (2) Flower of Opuntia schumannii. (3) 

Flowering joint of Opuntia vulgaris. (4) Flowering joint of Opuntia stricta 156 

Plate 28. (1) Flowering joint of Opuntia laevis. (2) Flowering joint of Opuntia dillenii. (3) Upper part of 

flowering joint of Opuntia aciculata 160 

Plate 29. (1 ) View of Opuntia keyensis. (2) View of Opuntia dillenii 162 

Plate 30. Flowering joint of Opuntia linguiformis 164 

Plate 31. Flowering joints of Opuntia lindheimeri. (1) Orange-flowered race. (2) Red-flowered race 166 

Plate 32. (1 ) Upper part of flowering joint of Opuntia leptocarpa. (2) Fruit of Opuntia leptocarpa. (3) Flower- 
ing joint of Opuntia velutina. (4) Upper part of joint of Opuntia megacantha 172 

Plate 33. (1) Upper part of joint of Opuntia tomentosa. (2) Flowering joint of Opuntia brasiliensis. (3) 

Flowering branch of Opuntia brasiliensis. (4) Joint of Grusonia bradtiana 17-1 

Plate 34. (1 ) Part of loint of Opuntia leucotricha. (2) Part of joint of Opuntia maxima. (3) Joint of Opuntia 

lasiacantha. (4) Joint of Opuntia robusta 180 

Plate 35. (1) Plant of Opuntia fragilis. (2) Flowering branch of Opuntia rhodantha. (3) Flowering joint of 

Opuntia polyacantha 194 

Plate 36. ( 1 ) Flowering loint of Opuntia spinosissima. (2. 3) Single flower of Opuntia spinosissima. (4, 5) 

Longitudinal section of flower of Opuntia spinosissima. (6) Cross-section of ovary of Opuntia 

spinosissima. ( 7 ) Style of Opuntia spinosissima 204 



THE CACTACEAE, 
TEXT-FIGURES 



1. Hedge of Pereskia pereskia 

2. Tree of Pereskia autumnalis 

3. Branches of Pereskia autumnalis 

4. Branch of Pereskia lychuidiflora 

5. Leafy branch of Pereskia nicoyana 

6. Brancli nf Pcrtskia zehntneri 

7. Culiiv.in.l plain of Pereskia zehmneri 

8. Herh.niiiin siuuincn of Pereskia moorei... 

9. Tree of Peicskia guamacho 

10. Flowering branch of Pereskia guannacho. . . 

11. Leafy branch and flower of Pereskia 

Columbiana 

12. Branch and frmt nl l\i\skia bleo 

13. Fruit of l'u.sk,., ImI,,uis,s 

14. Leafy braiicli ,•[ IVuski.i hahiensis 

15. Tree of Pereskia bahiensis 

16. Hedge containmg Pereskia grandifolia 

17. Branch of Pereskia zinniaeflora 

18. Tree of Pereskia cubensis 

19. Leafy branch of Pereskia cubensis 

20. Branch and fruit of Pereskia portulaci- 

foha 

21. Potted plant grown from a cutting of 

Pereskiopsis velutina 

22. Branch of Pereskiopsis diguetii 

2 3. Branch of Pereskiopsis opuntiaeflora 

24. Branch of Pereskiopsis rotundifolia 

25. Shows a clump of Pereskiopsis rotundi- 

folia 

26. Branch of Pereskiopsis porteri 

27. Branch of Pereskiopsis aquosa 

28. Leaf of Pereskiopsis kellermanii 

29. Leaf of Pereskiopsis kellermanii 

30. Leaf of Pereskiopsis kellermanii 

31. Seed of Pterocactus hickenii 

32. Plant of Pterocactus hickenii 

33. Branch of Pterocactus fischen 

34. Seed of Pterocactus fischeri 

35. Seed of Pterocactus pumilus 

36. Seed of Pterocactus tuberosus 

37. Plant of Pterocactus tuberosus, showing 

a very large root 

38. Potted plant of Pterocactus tuberosus 

39. Joint of Nopalea guatemalensis 

40. Joint of Nopalea lutea 

41. Large plant of Nopalea dejecta 

42. Joints of Nopalea dejecta 

43. Joints of Nopalea karwinskiana 

44. Joint of Nopalea inaperta 

45. Flower of Tacinga funalis 

46. Longitudinal section of flower of Tacinga 



47. Section of stem of Tacinga funalis 

48. Tip of young branch of Tacinga funalis. . 

49. Plant of Tacinga funalis, climbing over 

bushes 

50. Plant of Maihuenia valentinii 

51. Fruit of Maihuenia poeppigii 

52. Joint and flower of Maihuenia brachydel- 

phys 

53. Plant of Maihuenia tehuelches 

54. Branch of Opuntia ramossissima 

55. Section of stem of Opuntia ramosissima. . 

56. Plant of Opuntia leptocaulis 



57. Section of stem of Opuntia leptocaulis. . . . 

58. Joint of Opuntia caribaea 

5'), 'I tiK < • I 1 ! "f Opuntia caribaea 

6(1. ( i ■ ; : I 'I iiii.i arbuscula 

61 . I 1... ill: . .11,1 arbuscula 

62. fiuuui.u lii.uiili of Opuntia arbuscula 

63. Flowering branch of Opuntia thurberi 

64. Branch of Opuntia davisii 

65. Branch of Opuntia viridiflora 

66. Branch of Opuntia whipplei 

67. Plant of Opuntia acanthocarpa 

68. Joint of Opuntia serpentina 

69. Plant of Opuntia bigelovii 

70. Joint of Opuntia bigelovii 

71. Potted plant of Opuntia ciribe 

72. Joint of Opuntia ciribe 

73. Potted plant of Opuntia cholla 

74. Joint of Opuntia cholla 

75. Proliferous fruits of Opuntia cholla, devel- 

oping new joints 

''6. Proliferous fruits of Opuntia cholla. 

developing new joints 

77. Joints of Opuntia loydii 

"8. Plant of Opuntia Iloydii 

^9. Plant of Opuntia imbricaia 

SO. Potted plant of Opuntia tunicata 

81. Plant of Opuntia pallida 

82. Potted plant of Opuntia molesta 

83. Joint of Opuntia prolifera 

84. Pntte.l plain ut Opuntia prolifera 

85. PiitteJ pl.ini .4 Opuiiiia alcahes 

S6. J.iint ..f Opuiiii.i xciscliaffeltii 

87. Grafted pl.nits of ( )pumia clavarioides 

88. Potted pl.uii nf Opuntia salmiana 

90. Potted plant ot Opuntia subulata 

91. Joint of Opuntia pachypus 

92. Joints of Opuntia schottii 

93. Joints of Opuntia clavata 

94. Joints of Opuntia parishii 

95. Joints of Opuntia pulchella 

96. Plants of Opuntia vilis 

97. Joints and cluster of spines of Opuntia 

bulbispina 

98. Joints of Opuntia grahamii 

99. Plants of Opuntia weberi 

100. Joints of Opuntia weberi 

101. Potted plant of Opuntia floccosa 

102. Mound of Opuntia lagopus 

103. Root, joints, and flower of O. australis. . . . 

104. Joints of Opuntia glomerata 

105. Joint of Opuntia aoracantha 

106. Joint of Opuntia rauppiana 

107. Flowering plant and fruit of Opuntia sub- 



Joints of Opuntia hickenii 

Joint of Opuntia darwinii 

Joints of Opuntia atacamensis 

Joints of Opuntia russellii 

Joints of Opuntia ovata 

Potted plant of Opuntia sphaerica. 

Joint of Opuntia skottsbergii 

Joint of Opuntia nigrispina 

Joint of Opuntia pentlandii 



THE CACTACEAE. 



TEXT-FIGURES— continued. 



117. Joints of Opuntia pentlandii 98 

118. Joint of Opuntia ignescens 98 

119. Mound of Opuntia ignescens 98 

120. Plant of Opuntia campestris 99 

121. Joints of Opuntia ignota 99 

122. Thicket of Opuntia pumila 100 

123. Joints of Opuntia pumila 101 

124. Joints of Opuntia pubescens 101 

125. Joints of Opuntia curassavica 102 

126. Joints of Opuntia borinquensis 104 

127. Joints of Opuntia militaris 104 

128. Joints and flower of Opuntia tracyi 105 

129. Joints and flowers of Opuntia pusilla 106 

130. Joints of Opuntia aurantiaca 107 

131. Potted plant of Opuntia schickendantzii. . . 107 

132. Plant of Opuntia kiska-loro 108 

133. Joints of Opuntia canina 108 

134. Plant of Opuntia retrorsa 109 

135. Plant of Opuntia utkilio 110 

136. Joints of Opuntia anacantha 110 

137. Thicket of Opuntia bella Ill 

138. Joints of Opuntia bella 112 

139. Joint of Opuntia bella 112 

140. Plant of Opuntia triacantha 113 

141. Plant of Opuntia tuna 114 

142. Joints of Opuntia tuna 114 

143. Thicket of Opuntia antillana 115 

144. Joints of Opuntia antillana 115 

145. Plant of Opuntia decumbens 117 

146. Plant of Opuntia depressa 118 

147. Joints of Opuntia lubrica 119 

148. Landscape showing Opuntia tieleasei 119 

149. Joints of Opuntia basilaris 120 

150. Plant of Opuntia microdasys 121 

151. Potted plant of Opuntia, probable hybrid. . 121 

152. Joint of Opuntia macrocalyx 122 

153. Plant of Opuntia rufida 122 

154. Plant of Opuntia pycnantha 123 

155. Potted plant of Opuntia comonduensis. . . . 124 

156. Plant of Opuntia inamoena 125 

157. Joint of Opuntia inamoena 125 

158. Joints of Opuntia allauei 126 

159. Joints of Opuntia pollardii 126 

160. Plant of Opunti.i i.puntia 128 

161. Fruit of Opuntia .yramlifl.ira 129 

162. Flowering joints of Opuntia grandiflora. . . 129 

163. Flowering joints of Opuntia austrina 130 

164. Joints, flower, and fruit of O. plumbea. ... 131 

165. Fruit of Opentia stenochila 132 

166. Fruit of Opuntia stenochila 132 

167. Joint of Opuntia stenochila 132 

168. Potted plant of Opuntia delicata 133 

169. Joint of Opuntia soehrensii 135 

170. Joint of Opunti.i micmdisca 135 

171. Joints of Opunti.i stnt;,! n6 

172. Joints of Opunti.i hallii 1 3"' 

173. Joints of Opuntia pi.itMi 138 

174. Joint of Opuntia setispina 138 

175. Plant and fruit of Opuntia mackensensii . . . 139 

176. Joint of Opuntia macrocentra 140 

177. Joint of Opuntia tardospina 141 

178. Cluster of spines of Opuntia gosseliniana. . 141 

179. Joint of Opuntia gosseliniana 141 

180. Joint of Opuntia angustata 142 

181. Plant of Opuntia azurea 143 

182. Joints of Opuntia azurea 143 

183. Joint of Opuntia covillei 145 

184. Joint of Opuntia covillei 145 



PAGE 

Joint of Opuntia vaseyi 146 

Potted plant of Opuntia occidentalis 147 

Joint of Opuntia brunnescens 150 

Fruit of Opuntia brunnescens 150 

Joint of Opuntia galapageia 150 

Flower of Opuntia galapageia 150 

Joint and cluster of spines of Opuntia 

galapageia 151 

Flowering joint of Opuntia delaetiana. ... 152 

Joints of Opuntia hanburyana 154 

Joint of Opuntia quiiensis 154 

Joint of Opuntia distans 155 

Joint of Opuntia elata 15~ 

Joints of Opuntia cardiosperma 15" 

Joint of Opuntia scheeri 159 

Plant of Opuntia chlorotica 160 

Joints of Opuntia chlorotica 160 

Plant of Opuntia dillenii 162 

Joint of Opuntia tapona I6l 

Potted plant of Opuntia littoralis 164 

Joints of Opuntia cantabrigiensis 167 

Part of joint and cluster of spines of 

Opuntia procumbens 167 

Joint of Opuntia Canada 167 

Joint of Opuntia pyriformis 168 

Joint of Opuntia durangensis 169 

Plant of Opuntia macdougaliana 170 

Potted plant of Opuntia macdougaliana. ... l"'l 

Joint of Opuntia wilcoxii 172 

Plant of Opuntia tomentosa 173 

Joint of Opuntia tomentella 174 

Potted plant of Opuntia leucotricha 175 

Joints of Opuntia orbiculata 176 

Potted plant of Opuntia pilifera 177 

Plants of Opuntia ficus-indica 178 

Fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica 178 

Plant of Opuntia crassa 179 

Potted plant of Opuntia maxima 180 

Joint of Opuntia spinulifera 182 

Joint of Opuntia iasiacantha 183 

Joint of Opuntia zacuapanensis 183 

Joint of Opuntia hyptiacantha 183 

Joint of Opuntia streptacantha 184 

Putted pl.int nt Opuntia megacantha 185 

I'l.iiu- .,( Opunii.i iiK-.u.K-antha 186 

Ji.int .it Opuiui.i nit.y.u.intha 186 

Joint of Opuntia dcamii 187 

Joint of Opuntia eichlamii 188 

Joint of Opuntia inaequilateralis 188 

joint of Opuntia pittieri 189 

Joiiu of Opuntia cordobensis 189 

Fruit ot Opuntia cordobensis 189 

Joiiu ,.| Opuniia quimilo 190 

Fruit ot Opuntia quimilo 190 

Joint and flowers of Opuntia quimilo 191 

Plant of Opuntia robusta 192 

Plant of Opuntia fragilis 194 

Joints of Opuntia arenaria 195 

Joint of Opuntia trichophora 195 

Plant of Opuntia erinacea 196 

Joint of Opuntia juniperina 197 

Seed of Opuntia juniperina 197 

Joint of Opuntia hystricina 197 

Joint of Opuntia sphaerocarpa 198 

Joints of Opuntia polyacantha 199 

Joint of Opuntia stenopeiala 200 

Upper part of joint and flower of Opuntia 

stenopetala 201 



THH CACTACHAE. 



TEXT-FIGURES— continued. 



Fig. 250. Plants of Opuntia palmadora 202 

251. Joints of Opuntia palmadora 202 

252. Plants of Opuntia nashii 202 

253. Potted plant of Opuntia nashii 203 

254. Joint of Opuntia bahamana 20-i 

255. Flower of Opuntia bahamana 201 

256. Plants of Opuntia macracanth.i 201 

257. Potted plant of Opiiiui.i iiiacrac.iruh.i , 205 

258. Potted plant of Opuntia spiridsisMni.i 211". 

259. Plants of Opuntia niillspau.ului 206 

260. Plant of Opuntia moniliformis 206 

261. Plant of Opuntia moniliformis 207 

262. Plant of Opuntia moniliformis 207 

26.3. Plants of Opuntia riibescens 208 

264. Plants of Opuntia rubcsans 208 

265. Proliferous fruits ot Opuntia riihcscens 209 

266. Joint of Opuntia rubtSLins 209 

267. Fruit of Opuntia brasiliensis 209 

268. Plant of Opuntia brasiliensis 210 

269. Branch of Opuntia bahiensis 210 

270. Joint and fruit of Opuntia bahiensis 210 

271. Plant of Opuntia b.ihit-nMs 211 

272. Plant of Opentia aniniophila 211 

273. Fruiting joint of Opuntia amniophila .211 

274. Flower of Opuntia argentina 212 

275. Potted plant of Opuntia chaffeyi 212 

276. Plant of Opuntia chaffevi 213 



HAGE 

Fig. 277. Small joint of Nopalea gaumeri 216 

278. Elongated joint of Nopalea gaumeri 216 

279. Plant of Opuntia depauperata 216 

280. Joint t)f Opuntia depauperata 217 

281. Plant of Opuntia pestifer 217 

282. Plant of Opuntia discolor 218 

28r Joints of Opuntia pestifer 218 

28 1. Joint of ( )puntia discolor 218 

285. Joint of Opuntia guatemalensis 219 

286. Joint of Opuntia pennellii 219 

287. Joints of Opuntia caracasana 219 

288. Plant of Opuntia aequatorialis 220 

289. Joints of Opuntia aequatorialis 220 

290. Joints of Opuntia lata 220 

291. Fruits of Opuntia lata 220 

292. Joint with flower of Opuntia macaieei 220 

293. Joint of Opuntia macateei 220 

294. Plants of Opuntia soederstromiana 221 

295. Plants of Opuntia zebrina 222 

296. Fruit of Opuntia zebrina 222 

297. Plants of Opuntia keyensis 223 

298. Section of flower nf Opunii.i keyensis 223 

299. Flower of Opuntia kcvcnsis 223 

300. Joint of Opuntia honplandii 224 

301. Plant of Opuntia dobbieana 224 

302. Plant of Opuntia dobbieana (without 

legend) 225 



THE CACTACEAE 

Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants 
of the Cactus Family 



THE CACTACEAE 



INTRODUCTION. 

The writers began held, greenhouse, and herbarium studies of the Cactaceae in 
1904 and in the years following they made studies and collections over wide areas 
in the United States, Mexico, and the West Indies. It was first intended that 
these should be followed by a general description of the North American species 
only, but a plan for a more complete investigation of the family was proposed by 
Dr. D. T. MacDougal in January 191 i- This v/as approved by the trustees of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington at its next regular meeting and a grant was made 
to cover the expenses of such an investigation. Dr. Rose was given temporary 
leave of absence from his position as Associate Curator in charge of the Division of 
Plants, United States National Museum, and became a Research Associate in the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, with William R. Fitch and Paul G. Russell as 
assistants; Dr. Britton, Director-in-Chief of the New York Botanical Garden, was 
appointed an honorary Research Associate, while R. S. Williams, of the New York 
Botanical Garden, was detailed to select and preserve the specimens for illustration. 
Work under this new arrangement was begun January 15, 1912, and thus several 
lines of investigation were undertaken in a comprehensive way. 

1. Reexamination of type specimens and of all original descriptions: This was 
necessary because descriptions had been incorrectly interpreted, plants had been 
wrongly identified, and the errors perpetuated; thus the published geographical 
distribution of many species was faulty and conclusions based on such data M'ere un- 
reliable. Not only had specific names been transferred to plants to which they did 
not belong, but generic names were interchanged and the laws of priority ignored. 
Many valid species, too, had dropped out of collections and out of current literature 
and had to be restored. 

2. Assembling of large collections for greenhouse and herbarium use: Extensive 
greenhouse facilities were furnished by the New York Botanical Garden and the 
United States Department of Agriculture, while the herbaria and libraries of the 
United States National Museum and of the New York Botanical Garden furnished 
the bases for the researches. The New York Botanical Garden has also cooperated 
in contributing funds in aid of the field operations, in clerical work, and a large num- 
ber of the illustrations used have been made there, the paintings and line drawings 
mostly by Miss Mary E. Eaton. 

3. Extensive field operations in the arid parts of both Americas: Many of these 
deserts are almost inaccessible, while the plants are bulky and if not handled care- 
fully are easily destroyed. Many plants require several years to mature, in some cases 
many years to flower in cultivation. Through these explorations were obtained the 
living material for the greenhouse collections and for exchange purposes, as well as 
herbarium material for permanent preservation. Of much importance, also, were 
field observations upon the plants as individuals, their form, habit, habitat, and 
their relations to other species. 

3 



D. H. HILL LIBRARY 
North Carolina State College 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Early in 1912 Dr. Rose went to Europe to study the collections there and to 
arrange for exchanges with various botanical institutions having collections of these 
plants. He spent considerable time at London, mainly at the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, where through the courtesy of the Director, Sir David Prain, he was 
able to examine the greenhouse, illustrative, and herbarium material for which this 
institution has long been famed. The collection at the British Museum of Natural 
History and that of the Linnaean Society of London were examined. At Paris he 
studied the collections at the Natural History Museum, many of which have historic 
interest; one of his interesting discoveries there was that the Pereskia bleo, collected 
by Baron Friedrich Alexander von Humboldt in Colombia, is a very different species 
from the plant which for nearly a century has been passing in our collections and 
literature under that name. He also visited the famous botanical garden of the 
late Sir Thomas Hanbury, at La Mortola, Italy, and through the courtesy of Lady 
Hanbury was given every possible facility for the study of this collection; Mr. 
Alwin Berger, who was then curator in charge, had brought together one of the most 
extensive representations of this family to be found growing in the open in any 
place in the world. Here in the delightful climate of the Riviera were grown many 
species which were apparently just as much at home as they would have been in 
their desert habitats. Dr. Rose also visited Rome, Naples, Venice, and Florence, 
where he saw smaller collections in parks and private gardens. At Munich he 
examined certain types in the Royal Botanical Museum, then under the charge of 
Dr. L. Radlkofer, and saw some interesting species in the Royal Botanical Garden 
then being organized by Dr. K. Goebel. At Berlin he examined the herbarium and 
living specimens in the Berlin Botanical Garden, through the courtesy of Dr. A. 
Engler, and the West Indian collection through the courtesy of Dr. I. Urban. He 
then went to Halle and saw L. Quehl's collection of mammiUarias; to Erfurt, where 
he saw the Haage and Schmidt, and Haage Jr. collections; to Darmstadt to see the 
Botanical Garden under Dr. J. A. Purpus; and to Antwerp to see DeLaet's private 
collection. 

In 1913 Dr. Britton and Dr. Rose visited the West Indies. Dr. Britton, who 
was accompanied by Mrs. E. G. Britton, Miss D. W. Marble, and Dr. J. A. Shafer, 
collected on St. Thomas and the other Virgin Islands, Porto Rico, and Curacao. 
At the latter island he rediscovered the very rare Cactus mammillaris, which had not 
been in cultivation for many years. Dr. Rose, who was accompanied by William 
R. Fitch and Paul G. Russell, also stopped at St. Thomas, and collected on St. 
Croix, St. Christopher, Antigua, and Santo Domingo. 

In 1914 and 1915 Dr. Britton again visited Porto Rico and, assisted by Mr. 
John F. Cowell and Mr. Stewardson Brown, explored the entire southwestern arid 
coast and the small islands Desecheo, Mona, and Muertos. 

In 1914 Dr. Rose went to the west coast of South America, making short stops 
at Jamaica and Panama. He made extensive collections in central and southern 
Peru, central Bolivia, and northern and central Chile. At Santiago, Chile, he 
examined a number of Philippi's types in the National Museum and obtained 
some rare specimens from the Botanical Garden through the courtesy of Johannes 
Sohrens. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

In 1915 Dr. Rose, acompanied by Paul G. Russell, visited Brazil and Argentina 
on the east coast of South America, collecting extensively in the semiarid parts of 
Bahia, Brazil, and in the region about Rio de Janeiro, so rich in epiphytic cacti. 
In the deserts about Mendoza and Cordoba, in Argentina, collections were also 
made. Here he also arranged for exchanges with the leading botanists and collec- 
tors. The following persons have made valuable contributions from the regions 
visited: Dr. Leo Zehntner, Joazeiro, Brazil; Dr. Alberto Lofgren, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil; Dr. Carlos Spegazzini, La Plata, Argentina; Dr. Cristobal M. Hicken, 
Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Dr. Carlos S. Reed, Mendoza, Argentina. 

In October and November 1916, Dr. Rose, accompanied by Mrs. Rose, visited 
Curacao and Venezuela, studying especially the cactus deserts about La Guaira 
and Puerto Cabello. A number of photographs were taken by Mrs. Rose. 

While en route for Venezuela, arrangements were made with Mr. Harold G. 
Foss to make a collection of cacti at Coro, Venezuela. Among the specimens 
obtained were species not found farther east in Venezuela, so far as known. 

In 1916 Dr. Britton, assisted by Mr. Percy Wilson, studied the cacti of Havana 
and Matanzas Provinces and those of the Isle of Pines, Cuba. 

In 191 8 Dr. Rose, assisted by George Rose, visited Ecuador on behalf of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, aided by the Gray Herbarium of Har- 
vard University and the New York Botanical Garden; about thirty rare or little- 
known species were obtained. 

Through the expenditure of about $2,400, contributed by Dr. Britton, a very 
important colleaion of cacti was made by Dr. J. A. Shafer during a six months' 
exploration from November I9I6 to April 1917 of the desert regions of northwestern 
Argentina, southeastern Bolivia, northeastern Argentina, and adjacent Uruguay 
and Paraguay. Fortunately, for the purposes of this work, this colleaion was 
brought back to New York by Dr. Shafer in time for the information yielded by 
it and by his field observations to be used in the manuscript. It has given us 
first-hand information concerning over 120 species of cacti as to which we have 
previously known little. 

There are still a few cactus regions which ought to be explored, but the follow- 
ing summary will show the wide field from which we have obtained information. 

Our field investigations have covered praaically all the cactus deserts of 
Mexico. The most important of these are the vicinities of Tehuacan and Tomellin, 
the plains of San Luis Potosi, the chalky hills surrounding Ixmiquilpan, the lava 
fields in the Valley of Mexico and above Cuernavaca, the deserts of Queretaro, the 
west coast of Mexico extending from the United States border to Acaponeta, and 
the seacoast and islands of Lower California, other regions in Mexico containing 
cacti, but not in such great abundance as the foregoing, are those about Pachuca, 
Oaxaca City, Mitla, Jalapa, Iguala, Chihuahua City, and Guadalajara. All the 
work in Mexico, however, was done prior to 1912, for, owing to political disturb- 
ances, no field work there has been feasible since that time. 

In the United States our work has extended over the cactus regions of Florida, 
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, southern California, western Kansas, and southeast- 
ern Colorado. 



6 THE CACTACEAE. 

In the West Indies we have explored all of the Greater Antilles, the Bahamas, 
the Virgin Islands, St. Christopher, Antigua, Barbados, and Curacao. 

In South America our field study included the most important deserts of Peru, 
Bolivia, and Chile, and parts of Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Argentina. The 
caaus deserts of South America are so extensive and so remote from one another 
that it was possible to visit only a part of them in the four seasons allowed for 
their exploration. 

Among many enthusiastic volunteers whose contributions of specimens and 
data have greatly supplemented our own collections and held studies, the following 
deserve especial mention: 

Mr. Henry Pittier has made valuable sendings from Colombia, Venezuela, 
Panama, Costa Rica, and Mexico; Mr. O. F. Cook, from Guatemala and Peru; 
Mr. G. N. Collins, the late Federico Eichlam, Mr. R. H. Peters, Mr. C. C. Deam, 
Mrs. T. D. A. Cockerell, Baron H. von Turckheim, and the late Professor W. A. 
Kellerman have sent important collections from Guatemala; Mr. A. Tonduz, 
Mr. Oton Jimenez, Dr. A. Alfaro, Mr. C. Werckle, and Mr. Alfred Brade, local 
colleaors and naturalists in Costa Rica, have sent much good material from their 
country; Mr. William R. Maxon has sent new and rare material from Costa Rica, 
Guatemala, and Cuba; Professor C. Conzatti and his son. Professor Hugo Conzatti, 
Dr. C. A. Purpus, Dr. Elswood Chaffey, Mrs. Irene Vera, M. Albert de Lautreppe, 
and the late Mr. E. A. H. Tays have sent us many interesting specimens from 
Mexico; Mr. W. E. Safford made a valuable collection in Mexico in 1907; E. W. Nelson 
and E. A. Goldman, who have collected so extensively in Mexico and the Southwest, 
have obtained many herbarium and living specimens for our use; Mrs. Gaillard. 
who lived at Panama several years while the late Colonel D. D. Gaillard was a 
member of the Isthmian Canal Commission, collected interesting cacti, including 
Epiphylluni gaillard ae; the late Dr. H. E. Hasse sent specimens from southern 
California and Arizona; C. R. Orcutt, the well-known cactus fancier, has aided 
us in many ways besides sending us specimens from his collections; Dr. R. E. Kunze 
has frequently sent specimens, especially from Arizona; General Timothy E. Wilcox, 
for whom Wilcoxia was named, has sent us specimens from the Southwest, while 
his son. Dr. G. B. Wilcox, contributed several sendings from the west coast of 
Mexico and Guatemala; Dr. D. T. MacDougal has sent many specimens from all 
over the Southwest, especially from Mexico, Arizona, and southern California; 
he has made several excursions into remote deserts, which have yielded interesting 
results, and has contributed many excellent photographs, quite a number of which 
are reproduced in this report (Plate i, etc.). Professor F. E. Lloyd, while located 
in Arizona and in Zacatecas, Mexico, made large collections of living, herbarium, 
and formalin material, often accompanied by valuable field notes, sketches, and 
photographs. Dr. Forrest Shreve has sent specimens, especially from northern 
Arizona and Mr. W. H. Long from New Mexico; Mr. S. B. Parish and Mr. W. T. 
Schaller have furnished interesting specimens and valuable notes on southern Cali- 
fornia species; Professor J. J. Thornber has made valuable contributions of material 
and notes from Arizona; Mr. M. E. Jones, Mr. I. Tidestrom, Mr. Thomas H. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

Kearney, and Professor A. O. Garrett have all sent specimens from Utah; Profes- 
sor T. D. A. Cockerell and Mr. Merritt Gary have sent specimens from Golorado; 
Dr. P. A. Rydberg has brought many specimens from the Rocky Mountain region; 
Messrs. Paul G. Standley, E. O. Wooton, Vernon Bailey, and H. L. Shantz have 
sent specimens from the southwestern United States; Brother Leon, of the Golegio 
de la Salle, Havana, and Dr. Juan T. Roig, of the Estacion Agronomica, Santiago 
de las Vegas, Guba, have contributed Guban specimens, and Dr. J. A. Shafer has 
collected widely in Guba; Mr. William Harris, of Hope Gardens, Jamaica, has col- 
lected for us in Jamaica; Dr. John K. Small has obtained collections from nearly 
all over the southeastern United States, aided by Mr. Gharles Deering. Dr. Henry 
H. Rusby and Dr. Francis W. Pennell have contributed plants and specimens from 
Golombia, colleaed in 1917 and 1918. Mr. Frederick V. Goville, of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, has made many valuable suggestions during the 
progress of the investigation. 

In our studies we have also had use of the cacti of the following American 
collections: Herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden at St. Louis; the Gray 
Herbarium of Harvard University; the Rocky Mountain Herbarium at Laramie, 
Wyoming; the coUeaion of the United States Department of Agriculture; the 
herbarium of the University of Galifornia, especially the Brandegee collection; and 
the herbarium of the Field Museum of Natural History. 

The types of the new species described in this work are deposited in the herbaria 
of the New York Botanical Garden and the United States National Museum, unless 
otherwise indicated. 

In greenhouse collections many kinds of cacti grow very slowly, and flower 
only after many years' cultivation. We have a number of plants of this kind 
from various parts of America. It is hoped that some of them may bloom during 
the period of publication of this book and thus enable us to include them in an 
appendix. 




8 THE CACTACEAE. 

Order CACTALES. 

Perennial, succulent planes, various in habit, mostly very spiny, characterized by specialized 
organs termed areoles. Leaves usually none, except in Pereskia and Peresk.'opsis, where they are 
large and flat but fleshy, and in Optnitia and its relatives, where they are usually much reduced 
and mostly caducous, terete, or subulate. Spines very various in size, form, arrangement, and 
color, sometimes with definite sheaths. The areoles are peculiar and complex organs, situated in 
the axils of leaves when leaves are present, and bearing the branches, flowers, spines, glochids, hairs, 
or glands; in some genera two kinds of areoles occur, either distinct or united by a groove. Flowers 
usually perfect, either regular or irregular, usually solitary but sometimes clustered, sometimes 
borne in a specialized terminal dense inflorescence called a cephalium; perianth-tube none, or large 
and long, the limb spreading or erect, short or elongated, the lobes few or numerous, often inter- 
grading in shape and color, but sometimes sharply differentiated into sepals and petals ; stamens 
commonly numerous, elongated or short, sometimes clustered in series, the filaments usually borne on 
the throat of the perianth, the small oblong anthers 2-celled; style one, terminal, short or elongated; 
stigma-lobes 2 to many, usually slender; ovary 1-celled, distinct, or immersed in a branch or 
forming a part of a branch; ovules numerous. Fruit a berry, often juicy and sometimes edible, 
sometimes dry, in one species described as capsular and dehiscing by an operculum, in others opening 
by a basal pore. Seeds various; cotyledons two, accumbent, sometimes minute knobs, often broad 
or elongated; endospern little or copious; radicle terete. 

The order consists of the following family only: 

Family CACTACEAE Lindley, Nat. Syst. ed. 2.53. 1836. 

Characters of the order as given above. The family is composed of three tribes. 

Key to Tribes. 



Leaves broad, flat; glochids wanting; flowers stalked (sometimes short stalked), often clustered 1. Peieskieae 

Leaves (except in Pereskiopsis) terete or subterete, usually small, often wanting on the vegetative parts; 
flowers sessile. 
Areoles with glochids (except in Maihuenia) ; vegetative parts bearing leaves, which are usually 

small and fugacious; flowers rotate (petals erect in Nopalea) 2. Opnntteae 

Areoles without glochids; usually no leaves on the vegetative parts (except cotyledonary) ; flowers 

with definite tubes (except Rhipudis) 3. Cereeae 

Tribe 1. PERESKIEAE. 

Stems and foliage as in other dicotyledonous plants; inflorescence in some species compound; 
flowers more or less stalked, their parts all distinct; glochids wanting; ovule with short funicle; 
testa of seed thin, brittle. 

The genus Pereskia, the only representative of this tribe, is, on account of its similarity 
to other woody flowering plants, considered the nearest cactus relative to the other families, 
but this relationship is in all cases remote. 

The nearest generic relatives of Pereskia in the cactus family are doubtless the ft)lk)wing: 

Pereskiopsis, some of whose species were first assigned to the genus Pereskia. but they 
have dilferent foliage and the areoles often bear glochids. 

Opuntia, whose species have leaves, though much reduced and usually cadticous, other- 
wise very different; but some of the species d. Opuntia were first referred to Pereskia. 

Maihuenia (two of whose species have only recently been taken out of Pereskia). whose 
seeds are similar but the areoles lack glochids, otherwise very different. 

This tribe has a wide geographic distribution, but is found wild only in the tropics. 

1. PERESKIA (Plumier) Miller, Card. Diet. Abr. ed. 4. 1754. 

Leafy trees, shrubs, or sometimes clambering vines, branching and resembling other woody 
plants ; spines in pairs or in clusters in the axils of the leaves, neither sheathed nor barbed ; glochids 
(found only in the Opuntieae) wanting; leaves alternate, broad, flat, deciduous, or somewhat fleshy; 
flowers solitary, corymbose, or in panicles, terminal or axillary, wheel-shaped; stamens numerous; 
style single; stigma-lobes linear; seeds black, glossy, with a brittle shell, the embtyo strongly curved; 
the cotyledons leafy; seedlings without spines. 



Type species: Cactus pereskia Linnaeus. 

In 1898 about 25 names had been proposed in Peresk'hi. but, in his monograph pubUshed 
that year, Karl Schumann accepted only 11 species. Several new ones have been proposed 
since the publication of Schumann's monograph. 

The species are native in Mexico, the West Indies, Central America, and South 
America. Some of the species are much used as stocks for growing the various forms of 
Zygocactus, Epiphyllmn, and other cacti requiring this treatment; P. pereskia is most used 
and P. grandijolia next. Several species are widely cultivated as ornamentals in tropical 
regions; they do not flower freely under glass in northern latitudes. All species studied by 
us in the living state grow readily from cuttings. 

The typical species seems to have been first introduced into Europe from the West Indies 
in the latter part of the sixteenth century. A straight-spined species was first described and 
figured by L. Plukenet in 1696, who called it a portulaca, and the next year by Commerson 
as an apple (Mains). In 1703 C. Plumier described the genus Pereskia, basing it upon a 
single species. The genus was repeatedly recognized by Linnaeus in his earlier publications, 
and by some pre-Linnaean botanists, but in 1753 Linnaeus merged it into Cactus along with 
a number of other old and well-established genera; but it was retained by Philip Miller in 
1754 in the fourth edition (abridged) of his Gardeners' Dictionary and has since been 
generally recognized as a genus by botanical and horticultural authors. 

The name is variously spelled Peirescia. Peireskia. Perescia. and Pereskia. 

Named for Nicholas Claude Fabry de Peiresc (1580-1637). 

Key to Species. 

Climbing vines, the twigs with a short pair of reflexed spines from each areole, the stem with 

acicular spines (Series 1. Typicae) 1. P. pereskia 

Shrub or trees with slender straight spines (Series 2. Grandifoliae). 
Petals toothed or fimbriate. 

Petals somewhat toothed 2. P. aiitiimnalis 

Petals fimbriate. 

Species from Mexico; ovary turbinate 3. P. lychnidiflora 

Species from Costa Rica ; ovary pyriform 4. P. mcoyana 

Petals entire, at least not fimbriate. 

Branches and leaves very easily detached 5. P. zehntiteri 

Branches and leaves not easily detached. 

Axils of sepals bearing long hairs and bristles. 

Leaves lanceolate 6. P. sacharosa 

Leaves orbicular 7. P. moorei 

Axils of sepals not bearing long hair and bristles. 

Flowers white 8. P. u-eberiana 

Flowers not white. 
Petals yellow. 

Leaves lanceolate to oblong or obovate 9. P. guamacho 

Leaves orbicular or broadly ovate 10. P. colomhian.! 

Petals red or purple. 

Spines few or none 11. P. tampicw.i 

Very spiny, at least on old brandies. 
Flowers terminal. 
Flowers panicled. 

Fruit naked, broadly truncate ' 12. P. Iileo 

Fruit leaf-bearing, not truncate. 

Leaves of ovary cuneate at base 13. P. bahiensis 

Leaves of ovary broad at base 14. P. grandijolia 

Flowers solitary 15. P. ziiiiihiefloni 

Flowers usually axillaiy and solitary. 

Leaves 1 cm. long or longer, obtuse or acute. 

Flowers 2 to 5 together. 1 cm. long; South American species. . 16. P. honida 
Flowers solitary, 1.5 cm. long; petals elliptic-obovate; Cuban 

species \1. P. ciibensh 

Leaves emarginate, 1 cm. long or less, petals obovate 18. P. portHlacijolia 

Affinity unknown 19. p. conzattii 



10 THE CACTACEAE. 

Series 1. TYPICAE. 
Consists of only the typical species, which is widely distributed, and much cultivated throughout 
tropical America. Schumann regarded it as a subgenus under the name Eupereskia. 

1. Pereskia pereskia (Linnaeus) Karsten, Deutsch. Flora 888. 1882. 

Cjc/us pereskni Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 469. 1753. 

Pereskia aculeaU Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. 1768. 

Cactus lucidus Salisbury, Prodr. 349. 1796. 

Pereskia lottgispina Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 178. 1812. 

Pcresti.i .u-/,!c.:!.i Inn^itpina De CandoUe, Prodr. 3:475. 1828. 

Pen l- •' , .'. lu.i.ure, Hort. Univ. 2:40. 1841. 

Petci j ii.i.re, Illustr. Hort. 5: Misc. 11. 1858. 

Pert'. -;:,;...'/. ni in Weingart, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14:13-1. 1904. 

Pen^i:-^ . .'. . S.inder, Gard. Chron. 111. 43:257. 1908. 

Shrub, at first erect, but the branches often long, clambering, and forming vines 3 to 10 meters long; 
spines on lower part of stem solitary or 2 or 3 together, slender and straight; spines in the axils of 
the leaves paired, rarely in threes, short, recurved; leaves short-petioled, lanceolate to oblong, or ovate, 
short-acuminate at the apex, tapering or rounded at base, 7 cm. long or less; flowers in panicles or 
corymbs, white, pale yellow, or pinkish, 2.5 to 4.5 cm. broad; ovary leafy and often spiny; fruit light 
yellow, 1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter, when mature quite smooth; seeds black, somewhat flattened, 4 to 
5 mm. in diameter; hilum basal, circular, depressed, or crater-shaped. 

The plant and fruit have several common names, one of which, blade apple, was in use 
as early as 1697. Lemon vine, Barbados gooseberry, and West Indian gooseberry are three 
others, with various French and Dutch modifications. In Argentina it is called sacharosa, 
according to Sir Joseph Hooker (Curtis's Bot. Mag. 116: pi. 7147), but this name is prop- 
erly applied only to the P. sacharosd of Grisebach, native of Argentina, a distinct species, 
which Hooker thought identical with this. 

The berries are eaten throughout the West Indies and the leaves are used as a pot herb 
in Brazil. The species was in cultivation in the Royal Gardens of Hampton Court in 1696 
and has been at Kew ever since its establishment in 1760, but did not flower until 1889. 
In Washington we have one plant among a dozen which flowers abundantly each year; 
three plants at New York bloom annually. 

In tropical America the plant climbs over walls, rocks, and trees, and at flowering time 
is covered with showy, fragrant blossoms, followed by beautiful clusters of yellow berries. 
In La Plata it is grown sometimes for hedges (see fig. 1), but its strong, almost offensive 
odor makes it objectionable for growing near habitations. 

Type locality: Tropical America. 

Distribution: West Indies and along the east and north coasts of South America; found 
also in Florida and Mexico, but perhaps only as an escape; widely grown for its fruit. 

This species consists of several races, differing in shape and size of the leaves and in 
color of the flowers. One of these races, with ovate-orbicular leaves rounded at the base, 
had heretofore been known to us only in cultivation, but in October 1916, while collecting 
in Venezuela, Dr. Rose found this broad-leafed form common in the coastal thickets near 
Puerto Cabello. 

Pereskia lanceolata (Forster, Handb. Cact. 513. 1846), P. <«■./;«'/./ Parmentier (Pfeiffer, 
Enum. Cact. 176. 1837), and P. hrasilieusis Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 176. 1837), usually 
referred as synonyms of P. aciileata. were not formally published in the places above cited. 

The following varieties, based on the shape of the leaves, are recorded under P. aculeata: 
lanceolata Pfeiffer" (Enum. Cact. 176. 1837) ; latijolia Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 202. 1834, 
name only); rot/oidifolia Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 176. 1837); rotunda (Suppl. Diet. Gard. 
Nicholson 589. 1901) is perhaps the same as rotundifolia. 

Pereskia aculeata ruhescens Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 176. 1837) is described with glaucous- 
green leaves above, tinged with red beneath. 

Near the last belongs Pereskia godse^iana. described as a sport in the Gardeners' 
Chronicle in 1908. It is a very attractive greenhouse plant, often forming a round, 
densely branched bush, but is sometimes grown as a climber, as a basket plant, or in the form 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




1. Flowering branch of Pereskia pereskia. 4. Leafy branch of Pereskia sacharosa. 

2, 3. Fruits of the same. 5. Proliferous fruit of the same. 

(All 2 3 natural size.) 



of a pyramid. It is especially distinguished by tlie rich coloration of the leaves, which are 
variously mottled or blotched above with crimson, apricot-yellow, and green, but of a uni- 
form purplish crimson beneath. We have seen this form in the New York Botanical Garden, 
where it is grown only as a bush. It was exhibited first at Ghent, Belgium, in 1908, and is 
supposed to have originated in Queensland, Australia. 

Pereskid longnpina rubeicens Pfeiffer and P. longhp'ma rotundi\olia Salm-Dyck were 
given by Walpers (Repert. Bot. 2: 283. 1843) as synonyms of P. aculeata, but they were not 
described. 

lllustratiofis: Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 5: pi. 87; Bluhende Kakteen 2: pi. 86; Bot. Reg. 
23: pi. 1928; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 116: pi. 7147; Gard. Chron. III. 29: f. 61; Plumier, Nov. PI. 
Amer. pi. 26, in part; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: f. 10; Schumann, Gesamtb. 




Kakteen f. 109; Garten-Zeitung 4: 182. f. 42. No. 5; Gard. Chron. Ill, 20: f. 108; Stand Cycl. 
Hort. Bailey 2: f. 7l4, all as ?. aculeata. Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antill. ed. 2. 4: pi. 294, as 
Cactier a Fruits Feuilles; Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 5: pi. 26; London, Encycl. PI. ed. 3.413, as Cactus. 
pereskia: Gard. Chron. III. 43: f. 114; Mollers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 23: 256. f. 15, as P. 
godseffiaua. 

Plate II, figure 1, of this volume is a flowering branch of a plant at the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden obtained from M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France, in 1901; figure 2, fruit 
of same plant; figure 3, fruit of another plant. Text-figure 1, from a photograph taken by 
Paul G. Russell at La Plata, Argentina, in September 1915, shows the plant used as a hedge. 

Series 2. GRANDIFOI.IAE. 

In this series we include IS species, all tropical American, both continent.il and insular. Schumann, 
regarding the series as a subgenus, applied to it the name Ahnplocarpiis. 

2. Pereskia autumnalis (Eichlam) Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12:339. 1909. 
Pereskiopsis mitiimnalU Eiclilam. Moii.itssclir. K.ikteenk. 19:22. 1909. 



12 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Tree, 6 to 9 meters high, with a large, round, much branched top, the trunk usually very definite 
and 40 cm. or more in diameter, often covered with a formidable array of spines; young branches 
cherry brown, smooth ; spines in the axils of the leaves usually solitary, sometimes in threes, long and 
slender, 3 to 4 cm., rarely 16 cm. long; leaves thickish, oblong to orbicular, 4 to 8 cm. long, rounded 
or somewhat narrowed at base, mucronately tipped ; flowers solitary, near the tops of the branches, 
short-peduncled; ovary covered with leafy scales; flowers 4 to 5 cm. broad; petals entire, orange-colored; 
stamens numerous; fruit globular, 4 to 5 cm. in diameter; fleshy, glabrous, bearing small, scattered leaves, 
these naked in the axils ; seeds black, glossy, 4 mm. long. 

Type locality: In Guatemala. 

Distribution: Widely distributed in Guatemala, usually at an altitude of 120 to 300 
meters; also common in Salvador where it is much planted for hedges. 




Fig. 3.— Pereskia autiimnalis. Xo.V Fir.. .l.--Pereski.i lychnidiflor.i 

The plant, so far as we know, has no common name and no use is made of its fruit. 

llhistrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pi. 52 to 54; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 
1908: pi. 10, f. 1; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 21:. 37, and 25: 35, the last two as Pereskiapsis aiit- 
umnalis; Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 13: f. 10, as Pereskia guatanuileus/s. 

Text-figures, 2 and 3 are copied from the above-cited illustrations. The original photo- 
graphs were obtained by O. F. Cook in Guatemala. 

3. Pereskia lychnidiflora De Candolle, Prodr. 3:475. 1828. 

Evidently a tree or shrub; branches cylindric, woody; leaves large, 4 to 7 cm. long, oval to 
oblong, pointed, rounded at base, sessile, fleshy, with a prominent midvein; axils of leaves each bearing 
a stout spine 2 to 5 cm. long and several long hairs ; flowers large, 6 cm. broad, solitary, borne 
at the ends of short, stout branches; petals broadly cuneate, laciniate at the apex; ovary turbinate, 
bearing small leaves. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 
Distribution: Mexico. 



PERESK.1A. 13 

This Species was described by De Candolie from Mocifio and Sesse's drawing, but it has 
never been collected since, so far as we can learn. Its large flowers with laciniate petals must 
make this a very striking species and it is surprising that it has not been rediscovered. 
Schumann thought it might be the same as P. >!!coyana of Costa Rica, but a study of recent 
Costa Rican collections indicates that the species are distinct. The measurements given in 
the description are taken from De Candolie' s plate, and may require some modification. 
Cactus fimbrjatus Mocifio and Sesse (De Candolie, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828) was published only 
as a synonym of this species. 

Illnstrat!0)is: Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: pi. 18; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2, 1003. 
f. 136; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: 545. f. 11. 

Text-figure 4 is copied from the first illustration above cited. 

4. Pereskia nicoyana Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 8:468. 1902. 

Tree, usually about 8 meters high; branches rigid, stout, covered with smooth brown bark; spines 
w.inting or single, long (4 cm. long), stout and porrect; leaves in fascicles on old branches, but alternate 
on young shoots, lanceolate or oblanceolate, subsessile, the lateral veins almost parallel and some- 




-Pereskia nicoyana. Xo.6. 



tunes seeming to come from the base, acute, bright green, and somewhat shining; axils of the young 
leaves containing long white hairs; petals reddish yellow, fimbriate; ovary pyriform, bearing 8 to 12 
spreading leaves, except the uppermost ones, which are much smaller and connivent. 

Type loccility: Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. 

Distribution: Costa Rica. 

The spines, hairs in the axils of the leaves, and fimbriate petals indicate a relationship 
to the little-known P. lychiiidijlora. 

Mr. H. Pittier informs us that this species is common in the open coastal forests along 
the Pacific side of Costa Rica. The plant illustrated by Mr. Pittier, referred to below, has 
a long, slender trunk and is very spiny. 

According to Mr. W. E. Safford, it has long, slender spines and the habit of the Osage 
orange, and is used as a hedge plant in Costa Rica, where it is known as mateare or puipute. 

Illustration: Pittier, PI. Usuales Costa Rica pi. 2. 

Text-figure 5 was drawn from a plant obtained by Mr. C. Werckle at San Jose, Costa 
Rica, in 1912. 



14 



THE CACTACEAE. 



i-erv narrow. 



5. Pereskie zehntneri sp. nov. (See Appendix following page 226). 

Shrub, 2 to 3 meters high, with a central erect trunk, very spiny; branches numerous, horizontal, 
usually in' whorls, sometimes as many as 10 in a whorl; branches terete, green, fleshy, very easily 
detached from the stem; leaves stiff, fleshy, numerous, small, 2 to 4 cm. long, ovate to orbicular, 
acute, standing at right angles to the branches; areoles large, filled with short white wool and 
numerous slender white spines ; flowers at tops of branches, large, 7 to 8 cm. broad, bright red, appear 
ing in November; petals broad, retuse; ovary borne in the upper end of the branch, 
3 to 4 cm. long, bearing the usual leaves, areoles, and spines of the branches. 

Collected by Dr. Leo Zehntner (Nos. 567 and 
630, type) November 15 and 16, 1912, at Bom Jesus 
da Lapa, Bahia, Brazil, on the Rio Sao Francisco. 

This is a very rare plant and seen in only one 
locality, in soil of a peculiar chalky formation. Liv- 
ing plants were taken by Dr. Zehntner to the Horto 
Florestal, Joazeiro, Brazil, where they grew well, and 
whence Dr. Rose obtained specimens m 19 n which 
were shipped to the United States under No. 19722. 

The plant is known in Bahia under the name 
quiabento. It is probably not a true Pereskni: it sug- 
gests in its habit and foliage some of the Mexican spe- 
cies of Peresk'ujpsis. but it may represent a distinct 
genus. 

Text-figures 6 and 7 are from the type plant 
above cited. 
6. Pereskia sacharosa Grisebach, Abh. C.es. Wiss. Gottin- 

gen 24:141. 1879. 

Pereskia amapola Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 938. 1898. 
Pereskia argentina Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 938. 1898. 
Pereskia amapola argentina Weber in Weingart, Mon- 
atsschr. Kakteenk. \4: 87. 1894. 

Small tree or shrub, 6 to 8 meters high; branches green 
and smooth, but in age becoming yellowish or light brown; 
leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, 8 to 12 cm. long, cuneate 
at base, more or less pointed at apex; young areole with 1 to 
3 spines, the longest 5 cm. long, the others when present 

not over half as long, all acicular and dark in age; older ^^ ^ ^^ _ ^ 

areoles often with 6 or more spines; pedicels sometimes 10 
mm. long; flowers in terminal clusters, either white or 

rose-colored and very showy, 8 cm. broad, open at midday; sepals about 8, 1 or 2 petal-like, the others 
scale-like, the outer sepals and upper scales bearing long hairs; petals 8, rose-colored, oblanceolate, 
3 cm. long; stamens free from the petals, numerous, unequal, erect; filaments, style, and stigma- 
lobes white; ovules borne on the lower part of ovary; ovary bearing small leaves, their axils filled with 
short wool and occasionally bearing a spine; fruit hard, 2.5 to 4 cm. in diameter, more or less tapering 
at base, many-seeded, leafless or nearly so, sometimes proliferous. 

Type locality: Cobos, Oran, Argentina. 

Distribution: Paraguay and Argentina. 

Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 765. 1898) gives Opuntia sacharosa Grisebach as a 
synonym of this species, but erroneously, since it was never taken up by Grisebach as an 
Opuntia. The Index Kewensis refers this species to P. aculeata. doubtless following 
Hooker's references in Curtis's Botanical Magazine for 1890 in regard to Argentine plants, 
which even then were little known. 

The common name of this plant in Argentina is sacharosa. It is sometimes used as 
a hedge plant. 

Plate II, figure 4, represents a leafy branch of a plant given to the New York 
Botanical Garden by Frank Weinberg in 1903; figure 5 shows its fruit. 




PERESKIA. 



15 



7. Pereskia moorei sp. nov. 

A much branched shrub about 1 mcttr high, covered with brown bark ; branches stout ; leaves 
orbicular or obovate-oblong, rounded or apiculate at the apex, somewhat cuneately narrowed at the 
base, thick and fleshy, 4 to 8 cm. long, 3.5 to 6 cm. wide; areoles suborbicular, 4.5 mm. in diameter, 
the wool gray; spines at each areole mostly 2 to 4, very unequal, the longest 7.5 cm. long or less, ashy 
gray, blackish toward the apex; flowers purplish red, about 4.5 cm. long; ovary few-leafed, its leaves 
obovate-oblong, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, bearing 1 to 3 black spines about 5 mm. long in the axils; sepals 
narrowly oblong-obovate, bluntly acute, 2.5 cm. long, bearing long bristles in their axils; petals 
obovate, obtuse, 3.5 cm. long, rose-colored; stamens about 2 cm. long; areoles on the ovary large, 
filled with a mass of short, white wool and bearing an occasional short spine; fruit not known. 




Pereskia gua 



Described from the specimen preserved in the herbarium of the British Museum of 
Natural History collected at Corumba, Brazil, by Spencer Moore, No. 955, who has kindly 
furnished us with data for this description, together with a sketch of the type specimen. 
Specimens were also collected at Corumba by F. C. Hoehne in 1908, No. 4863, who supposed 
it to be P. sacharosa. 

Figure 8 is from a photograph of an herbarium specimen from Matto Grosso, Brazil, 
received from F. C. Hoehne in 1915. 



8. Pereskia weberiana Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 762 



1898. 



Shrubby, much branched, glabrous, 2 to 3 meters high, the slender round branches about 3 mm. 
thick; leaves ovate to elliptic, about 3 cm. long and 2 cm. wide, sessile, acute at the apex, obtuse at 
the base; areoles circular, slightly elevated, the wool short, whitish, fading brown; spines 3 to 6 at the 
lower areoles, solitary at the upper, 2 cm. long or less, terete, acicular, yellow or horn-colored; flowers 
clustered, white, about 1 cm. long or less; ovary about 2 mm. long, bearing a few white, woolly areoles; 
outer segments of the perianth triangular, acute, woolly at the axils, the inner spatulate to obovate; 
stamens a little longer than the petals ; stigma-lobes 3 or 4, erect. 



16 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Type locality. Tunari Mountains,* Bolivia, at l,-i()() meters altitude. 

Distribution: Bolivia, known only from the type locality. 

This species is said to flower in May. 

The description has been drawn from a cotype in the herbarium of the New York 
Botanical Garden, and from Professor Schumann's original account of the species in his 
Gesamtbeschreibung der Kakteen, p. 762. Dr. Kuntze obtained the specimens during his 
botanical exploration of Bolivia in 1892. The species was named, but nt)t described, by 
Professor Schumann in Dr. Kuntze's Revisio Genera Plantarum (3': 107. 1893). 

The material preserved is too imperfect to enable us to give an illustration of this 
plant. 




Fig 1(1 — Ptreskia guamacho 

9. Pereskia guamacho Weber, Diet, Hort. Bois 938. 1 89« 

Plant very spiny, usually a small shrub 1 to 3 meters high, but often a tree 10 meters high 
with a trunk up to 4 dm. in diameter and 3 meters long or more below the much branched top; 
areoles rather prominent, especially in age often standing out like small knobs on the branches, filled 
with brown felt, at first usually with only 1 to 4 spines along with a few short accessory ones, but in 
age often with 20 spines or more; spines somewhat divaricate, rigid, brown, the longer ones often 
4 cm. long; leaves on young branches solitary, but on old wood growing in fascicles, acute, lanceolate 
to ovate or obovate with cuneate bases, usually about 3 cm. long, but sometimes 5 to 9 cm. long by 
3 to 6 cm. broad, fleshy ; flowers probably solitary, but so thickly set along the branches as to appear 
almost spicate, sessile, bright yellow, 4 cm. broad; ovary covered with small, lanceolate-acuminate leaves, 
these hairy in the axils; stamens numerous; fruit globular, about 2 cm. in diameter, becoming naked, said 
to be orange-colored and edible; seeds black, flattened, 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Basin of the Orinoco, Venezuela. 

Distribution: Venezuela mainland and on Margarita Island. 

This plant is very common not only in the flat land along the coast of Venezuela but 
also in the mountains. It is also widely grown in and about yards, for the leaves are 
supposed to have medicinal properties, and when properly grown as a hedge it forms a 

*Tunari Mountains, just northwest of Cochabamba, Bolivia, about at the site of Sacaba. 



17 



most formidable protection. In the grazing regions of the country and along railways 
where wire fencing is employed, the trunks and larger branches are used for posts and 
smaller branches for intervening supports; these posts and stays, however, do not die, but 
in time grow to considerable size. 

Although the wood, especially the branches, has little strength or endurance, it is used 
somewhat for making hanging baskets for orchids. It is known everywhere as guamacho, 
which was taken by Weber as the specific name for the plant. 

Figures 9 and 10 are from photographs taken by Mr. H. Pittier at Caracas, Venezuela, 
in 1913. 

Illustration: Carnegie Inst. Wash. 269: pi. II, f. 92, 93- 

10. Pereskia colombiana sp. nov. 

A tree, 6 to 11 meters high, or sometimes smaller and shrub-like; main stem covered with clus- 
ters of slender spines, 2.5 to 7 cm. long; branches glabrous, either bearing spines or naked, covered 
with light-brown bark; areoles small, woolly; leaves oblong to obliquely 
orbicular, short-petioled, unarmed at base, often broad above, usually acute, 
probably fleshy, glabrous, 4 cm. long or less; flowers bright yellow, 
opening about midday, borne on the old wood, solitary, sessile, 4 cm. broad ; 
ovary covered with small ovate, acute leaves, these hairy in the axils ; sepals 
oblong, obtuse, about 1 cm. long, entire on the margins; stamens numerous; 
fruit not known. 

Collected by Herbert H. Smith at low altitudes near Santa 
Marta, Colombia, in April, 1898 to 1905 (No. 1886, type), and 
from the same locality by Justin Goudot in 1844, and by Francis W. 
Pennell in 1918 (No. 4765). 

Mr. Smith remarks that the leaves are deciduous in March or 
April, and that the tree is leafless when in bloom in the spring. 

Figure 11 is copied from a drawing of an herbarium specimen 
collected by Herbert H. Smith at Ronda, Santa Marta, Colombia. 

11. Pereskia tampicana Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 939. 1898. 

Shrub; branches often without spines or the spines several, needle- 
like, black, 2 to 3 cm. long ; areoles globular, appearing as knobs along the 
stem; leaves about 5 cm. long, petioled; flowers 2.5 cm. long; petals entire, 
rose-colored. 

Type locality: Near Tampico, Mexico. 

Distribution: Eastern Mexico, but known only from the type locality. 

P. tampicana is not well known and has been reported only from Tampico, Mexico. 
Dr. E. Palmer made a careful search for it some years ago at the type locality, but in vain. 
In 1912 Dr. Rose examined the two small specimens of the species preserved in the 
herbarium of the Royal Botanical Garden of Berlin, and is convinced that it is a Pereskia 
and not a Pereskiopsis. 

Pereskia rosea A. Dietrich (AUg. Gartenz. 19: 153. 1^51; Opuntia rosea S,chum3.nn., 
Gesamtb. Kakteen 764. 1898) is supposed to have come from Mexico, but we have not 
been able to identify it; Schumann refers to it in a note under P. tampicana. Here he also 
takes up Pereskia zinn/aejlora De Candolle (Prodr. 3: 475. 1828). Both these specific names 
are much older than P. tampicana, and should either of them be found identical with it, the 
name P. tampicana would be rejected. 

12. Pereskia bleo (HBK.) De Candolle, Prodr. 3:475. 1828. 

CmIus bleo Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 69. 1823. 
Peresi/ii panamensis Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 739. 1898. 

A tree, sometimes 7 meters high; trunk 10 cm. in diameter or less, when old becoming naked, but 
young shoots often bear large fascicles of spines (sometimes 2 5 or more) ; young branches red, leafy, 
its spines in fascicles of 5 and 6, but young shoots often bear but 1 to 4, black, acicular, up to 2.5 cm. 




. — Pereskia cole 
biana. XO.5. 



18 



THE CACTACEAE. 



long; leaves thin, oblong to oblanceolate, 16 to 21 cm. long, a to 5.5 cm. wide, acuminate, cuneate at 
base, tapering into petioles 2 to 3.5 cm. long; areoles circular, bearing when young a little wool, but 
soon becoming naked; calyx turbinate, somewhat angled, naked, with linear deciduous sepals; 
petals 12 to 15, rose-colored, obovate, 3.5 cm. long; style longer than the stamens, red, thick; stigma- 
lobes 5 to 7; ovary depressed; fruit yellow, truncate, 5 to 6 cm. long; seeds 6 mm. long, black, 
shining. 

Type locality: Near BadiUas, on the Magdalena River, Colombia, South America. 

Distributio)!: Northwestern South America and throughout Panama. 

This species was collected by Bonpland during Humboldt's trip through the New 
World and was described and published by Kunth in 1823. Dr. Rose examined two of 
the original specimens in the herbarium of the Museum of Natural History at Paris, one 
being the specimen given by Bonpland and the other the specimen in the Kunth Herbarium, 




which is kept distinct from the general herbarium. The only other representatives of this 
species from South America which we have seen are a specimen in the herbarium of the 
same museum, which was collected by Justin Goudot in Colombia in 1844, and one collected 
in 1852, by I. F. Holton at San Juancito, Colombia, preserved in the Torrey Herbarium 
and one recently brought by Francis W. Pennell from Boca Verde, Rio Sinu, Colombia. 

Heretofore Pereskia bleo has been considered one of the most common species, for 
many living collections as well as herbaria contain many specimens under that name; the 
plant which has been known as P. bleo. however, is P. grandijolia Haworth, now known to 
be a native of Brazil and not found wild in Colombia. 

Since determining that the so-called Pereskia bleo of our gardens and of Brazil is not 
the true P. bleo of Humboldt, we have become convinced that P. pananiensis Weber is the 
same as P. bleo; Mr. Pittier's exhaustive exploration of Panama has strengthened our con- 
clusions, for he has traced this species as far south as the Colombian border. Humboldt's 
plant came from northern Colombia. 

In Panama the plant is known under the name najii de Culebra. 



PERESKIA. 19 

llhistrutiotis: All illustrations referred to this species which we have examined are 
cited under P. i^randijo/ia. 

Figure 12 is from a photograph taken by Henry Pittier, near Chepo, Panama, October 
30, 19 n. 

13. Pereskia bahiensis Giirke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18:86. 1908. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 8 meters high, with a more or less definite trunk, sometimes 1 meter or 
more long and 1.5 to 2 dm. in diameter, and a large, rounded, much branched top; spines on new 
growth wanting, but on old wood 5 to 40 at an areole, some of them 5 to 9 cm. long; young branches 
green ; leaves lanceolate, 6 to 9 cm. long, deciduous, somewhat pointed, 
narrowed at base into short petioles ; flowers in small panicles, rose- 
colored ; ovary bearing large leaves with cuneate bases ; fruit often 
proliferous, yellowish when mature, more or less irregularly angled, 
bearing large leaves 3 to 4 cm. long, which ultimately fall away; seeds 
black, oblong, 5 mm. long. 

Type locality: In the southeast catinga between Rio 
Paraguacu at Tambury and Rio das Contas at Caldeirao, 
Bahia, Brazil. 

Distribution: Dry parts of eastern Brazil. 

This species is very common in the dry regions of Bahia; 
and is often planted for hedges about small towns. The fruit 
is proliferous; as many as eight were found hanging from a 
single peduncle; it is said 
to be edible, but while 
half-ripe is very astrin- 
gent. The perfect fruits 
can seldom be found, be- 
cause the birds peck into 
them for the large black 
seeds. 

Called in Brazil, 
according to Dr. Leo 
Zehntner, Iniabanto, 
Espinha de Sao Antonio, 
and Flor de Cera. He also 
says: "I think Iniabanto 

is the best and ought to be generalized. It is derived from Iniabo= Ok:^ = Hibiscus esculeti- 
tus, without doubt because the leaves of the pereskias are sometimes eaten by people, giving 
a mucilaginous dish like that of the Hibiscus fruit." 

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 87. 

Figure 13 is from a specimen, preserved in formalin, collected by J. N. Rose near Ma- 
chado Portello, Bahia, Brazil, in June 1915; figure 14 is from a plant from the same place; 
figure 15 is from a photograph obtained by J. N. Rose at Barrinha, Bahia, in June 1915. 

14. Pereskia grandifolia Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 85. 1819- 

Gn/Jis rosa Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 206. 1825. 

Pereskia ochnacarpa Miquel, Bull. Sci. Phys. Nat. Neerl. 48. 1838. 
Cactus grandiflonis Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 2: 25. 1822. 
Tree or shrub, 2 to 5 meters high, usually with a definite, very spiny, woody trunk up to 1 dm. 
in diameter, the branches fleshy, glabrous, elongated, usually with 1 or 2 acicular spines at the areoles; 
leaves oblong, obtuse or acute, somewhat narrowed at base, 8 to 15 cm. long; petioles short; inflorescence 
terminal, usually few-flowered; 3.5 to 4 cm. broad; sepals green, petals rose-colored, sometimes white; 
filaments red; style and stigma-lobes white; ovary leaf-bearing; fruit described as large, pear-shaped, 
many-seeded ; seeds black. 

Type locality: In Brazil. 

Distribution: Brazil, widely planted and subspontaneous throughout the West Indies. 




Figs. 




20 



THE CACTACEAE. 



The plant is extensively used for hedges in tropical America. It is planted by pushing 
cuttings into the ground, its spiny stems soon forming a capital barrier. 

lUustratious: Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 5: pi. 27, as Cactus rosa. Amer. Garden II: 462; Blii- 
hende Kakteen 3: 137, pi. 137; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 63: pi. 3478; Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey I 
f. 309; Diet. Hort. Bois f. 678; Edwards's Bot. Mag. 17: pi. 1473; Engler and Prantl, Pflan 
zen fam. 3'^: f. 57, J, f. 71; Gard. Chron. III. 20: f. 75; Karsten, Deutsch. Fl. 887. f. 9, ed 
2. 2: 456 f. 605, No. 9; Martius, Fl. Bras. 4r: pi. 63; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact 
I: pi. 30; Reichenbach, Fl. Exot. pi. 328; Rumpler, Sukkulenten f. 128; Watson, Cact. Cult 
f. 6, in part; 222. f. 87; ed. 3 f. 63; Loudon, Enc7cl. PI. ed. 3. 1202 f. 17371; Van Geel, Sert 
Bot. 4: pi. I, all as Pereskia bleo. Diet. Gard. Nicholson 3: 75. f. 81; Monatsschr. Kakteenk 
15: 81. 




— Pereskia bahiensis. Photograph by Paul G. Russell. 

Plate III, figure 1, represents a flowering branch of a plant obtained by N. L. Britton 
on St. Christopher in 1901. Figure 16 is from a photograph of the plant used as a hedge 
near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 
15. Pereskia zinniaeflora De Candolle, Prodr. 3:475. 1828. 

Shrub ; leaves oval to oblong, 2 to 4 cm. long, acuminate, cuneate at base ; spines on young 
branches 1 or 2 at an areole, on old branches 4 or 5, all short, less than 1 cm. long; flowers broad, 
5 cm. wide, rose-red; petals entire, obtuse or retuse; style and stamens very short; ovary truncate, bear- 
ing small, stalked leaves. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Mexico. 

Nicholson associates this species with Pereskia bleo, that is, P. grandijolia, but the 
relationship is not close. The measurements of the flower given above are taken from 



ITTON AND ROSE 




Flowering branch of Peiesk/a graiidifolia. 2. Leafy branch m I'ntskiopsts cLip/jtle. 

3. Leafy branch of Pereskiopsis pitilache. (All three-fourths size.) 



PERESKIA. 21 

De CandoUe's plate cited below, and may not be quite correct. This species, so far as we 
are aware, has not been again collected. 

Cactus zi>i>i!dc\lora Mociiio and Sessc (De Candolle, Prt)dr. 3: 475. 1828) was given 
as a synonym. 

lllustiations: Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 135; Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 
pi. 17; Riimpler, Sukkulenten f. 127; Suppl. Diet. Gard. Nicholson f. 624; Watson Cact. 
Cult. ed. 1 and 2. 223. f. 88; ed. 3 f. 64; Diet. Gard. Nicholson 4: 586. f. 55. 

Figure 17 is a copy of the second illustration above cited. 




horridus Humboldt, BonpUmd, a.^d Kun:h, No\. Gen et Sp. (>; 70. 
skia horrida De Ondolle, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828 

Tree, 4 to 6 meters high, with terete slender branciies; spines often solitary, sometimes 2 or 
3, slender, dark in color, unequal, the longest 2 to 3 cm. long; leaves solitary, altetnate, narrowly 
oblong, 3 cm. long, subsessile, entire, glabrous; flowers 3 to 5 together in upper axils, about 10 mm. 
long; calyx described as 5-toothed and persistent; petals ^ or 6, red, lanceolate, spreading; fruit fleshy, 
many-seeded. 

Type locality: "Ad flumen M. 
this locality is in Peru.) 

Distribution: Northwestern South America. 

The above description is compiled from Kunth's original description and from notes 
made by Dr. Rose upon the type material in the herbarium of the Museum of Natural 
History at Paris, in which there are specimens from both Bonpland and Kunth. Both of 
these sheets lack flowers and fruit, and only Kunth's bears leaves. So far as we are aware, 



ranoii prov. Jaen de Bracamoros." (Schumann says 



22 THE CACTACEAE. 

no other material of this species has been collected since Humboldt's time except that in 
1912 Dr. Weberbauer wrote that he had visited the Marafion, at Humboldt's locality, and 
had collected a single specimen, which had been sent to the Botanical Museum at Berlin. 
17. Pereskia cubensis Britton and Rose, Torreya 12:13. 1912. 

A tree, 4 meters high, with a trunk 2.5 dm. in diameter and a large, flat, much branched top; 
bark brownish, rather smooth, marked here and there by black bands (representing the old areoles), 
these broader than high; young branches slender, smooth, with light-brown bark; spines from young 
areoles 2 or 3, needle-like, brownish, 2 to 4 cm. long, from old areoles very numerous (25 or more), 
and much longer (5 cm. or more long) ; leaves several at each areole, sessile, bright green on both 
sides, oblanceolate to oblong or obovate, 1 to 4 cm. long, 10 to 12 mm. wide, acute at both ends or 
obtuse at the apex, fleshy, the midvein broad, the lateral veins very obscure; peduncle very short, jointed 
near the base, bearing 1 to 3 leaf-like bracts; flowers terminal and also axillary, solitary; sepals 5, obtuse 
or rounded, ovate-oblong to orbicular, unequal, 7 to 9 mm. long, the larger ones with broad purple mar- 
gins; petals 8, about 15 mm. long, deep reddish purple, obovate-elliptic, rounded; stamens many, about 
6 mm. long; anthers light yellow; ovary turbinate, naked, spineless; fruit not seen. 





. — Pereski.i cubensis. Fig. 19. — Pereskia cubensis. 

X0.5 

Type locality: In Cuba. 

Dhtrihtition: Near the southern coast of eastern and central Cuba. 

The tree is abundant on the plain between Guantanamo and Caimanera, Oriente, 
where the type specimens were collected; it also inhabits coastal thickets at Ensenada de 
Mora, in southwestern Oriente, the plants of this colony bearing leaves with less acute 
apices than those of the typical ones. A single plant was also observed on La Vigia Hill, 
at Trinidad, province of Santa Clara, which had shorter and smaller leaves than either of 
the other two. The description of the flower is from one of a plant collected by N. L. 
Britton and J. F. Cowell at Ensenada de Mora, southern Oriente, Cuba, in 1912, and brought 
to the New York Botanical Garden, where it flowered in May 1917. 

Dr. Rose finds that the plant in De Candolle's herbarium which represents the Pereskia 
portulac/folia of the Prodromus is undoubtedly Pereskia cubensis. It was collected as early 
as 1821. 

Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 10: f. 22. 

Figure 18 is from a photograph taken by Dr. M. A. Howe in the colony of this tree 
at Nuevaliches, near Guantanamo, Cuba, studied by Dr. N. L. Britton in 1909; figure 19 
represents a leafy branch of the same plant. 



PERESKIA. 23 

18. Pereskia portulacifolia (Linnaeus) Haworth in De Cindolle, Prodr. 3:475. 1828. 
Cactus porlulacijoliia Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 469. 1753. 
A tree, 5 to 6.6 meters hi^h, the branches terete, very spiny; spines acicular, sometimes almost 
bristle-Hke, 2 cm. long, on old wood in clusters of 7 to 9, but on new growth usually solitary; leaves 




only 1 cm. long or less, cuneate at base, often retuse at apex; peduncles short but definite, 2 to 5 mm. 
long, bearing several small spatulate to broadly obovate leaves ; flowers rose-colored, about 3 cm. broad ; 
sepals about 3, ovate to shortly oblong, obtuse, fleshy, 8 mm. or less long; petals oblong, about 2 cm. 
long, thin, obtuse; ovary small, truncate, naked or bearing a single small leaf; immature fruit hard, 
depressed, 2 cm. long, 2.5 cm. broad, smooth, naked, or with a single small leaf 5 to 6 mm. long, with a 
broad scar at the top 8 to 10 mm. in diameter; fruit globular, naked; seeds large, black. 

Type locality: Tropical America, cloubtless Hispaniola. 

Distribution: Haiti. 

The usual reference for the first publication of the plant under Pereskia is Haworth's 
Synopsis (Syn. Pi. Succ. 199. 1812), but it was not here formally transferred from the 
genus Cactus. His statement is: "Cactus portulacijnlius is another species of this genus." 

Our knowledge of this plant is drawn from the illustration below cited and descriptions, 
and from a fragmentary specimen collected by W. Buch near Gonaives, Haiti, in 1900, 



24 THE CACTACEAE, 

where it grows on dry calcareous rocks, and one obtained by Paul Bartsch at Tomaseau in 
April 1917. Dr. Bartsch states that the flower reminds one very much of a rose and the 
fruit is pendent like a green plum. 

Lunan in 1814 (Hort. Jam. 2: 236) described a tree nearly a foot in diameter, growing 
at a residence near Spanish Town, Jamaica, stating that it differed from Pereskia by the 
absence of tufts of leaves on its fruit. His description points to Pereskia portiiliicijoHd. but 
nothing is known of the species in Jamaica at the present day; according to Grisebach, 
Macfadyen recorded it as cultivated there. 

Illustration: Plumier, PI. Amer. ed Burmann pi. 197, f. 1. 

Figure 20 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

19- Pereskia conzattii sp. nov. 

Tree, 8 to 10 meters high; bark of stems and branches brown and smooth; leaves orbicular to 
obovate, acute, 1 to 2.5 cm. long; areoles small, with short white wool and a few long hairs ; spines 2 
to 6 on young branches, 10 to 20 on main stem; acicular, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, at first yellowish brown, 
dark brown in age; flowers not known; ovary bearing small scales; fruit naked, pear-shaped, more or 
less stalked at base, 3 to 4 cm. long; seeds black, glossy, 3 mm. long, with a small white hilum. 

Collected at Salina Cruz and Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico, in February and April, 
1913, by Professor C. Conzatti; probably also in Guatemala. 
Species Unknown to Us. 

Peresii.i ^fjnus and P. hajgeana Meinshausen. Wochenschr. Garin. Pfl.inz. 2:118. 1859. 

Pereskia cruenta, P. grandiflora. and P. ( ?) plantagi>iea. the first two given as synonyms 
and the last merely mentioned by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. pp. 176, 177, and 179) can not be 
identified. The same is true of P. graudispi/ni Forbes (Journ. Hort. Tour Germ. 159. 1837). 

Pereskia reciirvi^olia and P. galeottiana are two names marked with an asterisk by Lemaire 
(Cactees 95. 1868), indicating that they are new. So far as we know they were never de- 

^^'■'^^'^- Tribe 2. OPUNTIEAE. 

Plants usually very fleshy, never epiphytic, branched (usually much branched), one to many-jointed; 
joints diverse in structure, terete, compressed, or much flattened, with irregularly scattered areoles, 
ribless, except one species; leaves usually caducous, but in some species more or less persistent, small 
or minute, subulate or cylindric, in one genus broad and flat; areoles usually glochidiferous (except 
in Maihuenia: in Grusouta only those of the ovary), mostly spine-bearing; spines usually slender, 
straight or nearly so, sometimes sheathed; corolla mostly rotate (sepals and petals in Nopalea erect) ; 
flowers sessile, diurnal, one from an areole; fruit usually a fleshy berry, sometimes dry, rarely capsular; 
seed white or black, globular, flattened or even winged, with a thin or hard testa; cotyledons large, 
elongated. 

This tribe contains 7 genera and at least 300 species, various in habit, flower, fruit, 
and seeds. It is more closely related to the Pereskieae than to the Cereeae. The following 
characters possessed by some or all genera of the Opitntieae are wanting in the Cereeae: 

Leaves on the stem (see also Harrisia and Hylocereiis); glochids in the areoles; sensi- 
tive stamens; sheathed spines; winged, white, and bony-covered seeds; the separation of 
withering calyx, stamens, and style from the ovary; areoles irregularly distributed over the 
stem in all the genera except Griisonia, in which they are arranged on ribs as in many of 
the Cereeae. 

The tribe is distributed throughout the cactus regions of the Americas, but the genera, 
except Opuntia, are localized. j^^^^, ^^ Genera. 

Leaves broad and flat 1- Peresiiopsh 

Leaves subulate or cylindric. 

Seeds broadly winged 2. Pterocacltis 

Seeds wingless. 

Stamens much longer than the petals. 

Petals erect; joints flat \ ^opalea 

Petals recurved ; joints terete 4. Taanga 

Stamens shorter than the petals. 
Joints flat to terete, not ribbed. 

Testa of the seed thin, black, shining 5. Mii/juenia 

Testa thick, pale, dull 6. Opuntm 

Joints terete, longitudinally ribbed 7. Grusoma 



PERESKIOPSIS. 25 

1. PERESKIOPSIS Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50:3.31. 1907. 

Trees and shrubs, in habit and foliage similar to Pereskia: old trunk forming a solid woody 
cylinder covered with bark and resembling the ordinary dicotyledonous stem; areoles circular, spine- 
bearing or sometimes spineless, also bearing hairs, wool, and usually glochids; flowers similar to those 
of Opitiitia: ovary sessile (one species described as pedunculate), with leaves at the areoles (except in 
one species); fruit red, juicy; seeds bony, few, covered with matted hairs. 

Type Species: Opinit'ui brniidei^eei Schumann. 

The plants are common in hedges and thickets of Mexico and Guatemala. 

As to the number of species to be recognized in this genus we are uncertain; about 16 
have been described. In our first discussion of the genus (op. cit.) we recognized 11 
species, including several known only from descriptions. There now seem to be at least 
10 species, of which 8 are in cultivation in Washington and New York. Two of the plants 
were described, as early as 1828, as species of Peresk/d. and here they remained with 2 
later-described species until, in 1898, Dr. A. Weber transferred them to Opuiitia. placing 
them in a new subgenus, Pereskiopuiitia. The same year Dr. Karl Schumann adopted 
Weber's conclusions, publishing his treatment of the subgenus and assigning 5 species to it. 

In its large leaves and woody, spiny stems, this group suggests Pereskia. but it has 
glochids and different flowers, fruit, and seeds; in flowers, fruit, seeds, and glochids it re- 
sembles Opniit'ui. but on account of habit and foliage must be excluded from that genus. 

In view of these differences, Britton and Rose in 1907 established the genus Peres- 
kiopsis and listed 1 1 species, 4 of which had been originally described as species of Pereskia 
and 5 as species of Opinitia. Since then we have grown most of these plants along with 
the pereskias and opuntias so as to compare them. Unfortunately we are not able to 
describe all the species fully, for they have never been known to flower in cultivation, 
although some of the species, at least, bloom freely in the wild state. The leaves on the 
lower parts of shoots are sometimes broader and shorter than those on the upper parts, and 
in greenhouse cultivation the leaves of some species are narrower than when the plants are 
growing under natural conditions. 

The generic name is from the Greek and signifies resembling Pereskia. 

Key to Species. 

Stems, ovary, and often the leaves more or less pubescent. 

Normal leaves long-acuminate, narrow, with narrow cuneate bases I. P. relulina 

Normal leaves abruptly pointed, somewhat cuneate at base 2. P. digiietii 

Stems, ovary, and leaves glabrous. 

Leaves, at least some of them, not much longer than broad. 

Fruit without leaves, at least so figured 3. P. opunlijeflorc. 

Fruit with leaves subtending the areoles. 
Areoles white, with few glochids or none. 

Leaves orbicular or nearly so, rounded or apiculatc 4. P. lolutidifolij 

Leaves, at least the upper ones, obovate or elliptic, acute at both ends 5. P. chapistle 

Areoles dark, filled with numerous brown glochids 6. P. porleri 

Leaves, at least some of them, twice as long as broad or longer. 

Leaves spatulate 7. P. spalhHhiiit 

Leaves elliptic to oblong, or obovate. 

Leaves pale green, glaucous 8. P. pitit.iche 

Leaves bright green, shining. 

Glochids few, yellow 9. P. aquosa 

Glochids many, brown 10. P. kellerm.uiii 

1. Pereskiopsis velutina Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50:333. 1907. 

Stems weak and spreading, forming compact bushes 9 to 12 dm. high or sometimes higher: 
old stems with cherry-brown bark; young branches green, borne nearly at right angles to the old 
stem, velvety-pubescent; areoles bearing long white hairs and several short spines and some glochids; 
leaves elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 2 to 6 cm. long by 1.5 to 2.5 cm. broad, acuminate, or acute at both 
ends, dull green, more or less velvety-puberulent on both surfaces, when very young brighter green; 
flowers sessile on the second-year branches; ovary obovoid to oblong, pubescent; bearing large 



D. H. HfLL LIBRARY 
North Carolina State College 



26 



THE CACTACEAE. 



leaves and areoles similar to those of the stem; leaves on ovary spreading or ascending and persisting 
after the flower falls; flower-bud (above the ovar)') 2 to 3 cm. long, acute; sepals green or deep red tinged 
with yellow; petals bright yellow. 

Type locality: In hedges about city of Queretaro, 
Mexico. 

Distributio}!: Table-lancls of central Mexico. 

This plant is called by the natives nopaleta and 
cola de diabio. 

Illustration: Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: pi. 44. 

Figure 21 is from a photograph of type plant. 

2. Pereskiopsis diguetii (Weber) Britton and Rose, Smiths. 

Misc. Coll. 50: 332. 1907. 

Opuntia diguelii Weber. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Pans 4: 
166. 1898. 

Tall shrub, larger than the preceding species; old stems 
reddish; branches pubescent; areoles when young filled with 
long, white, cobwebby hairs, when old large and filled with 
short black wool ; leaves elliptic to obovate, 3 to 5 cm. 
long, usually abruptly pomted, more or less cuneate at the 
base; spines usually 1, rarely as many as 4, at first nearly 
black, in time becoming lighter, sometimes nearly 7 cm. 
long; glochids brownish, not very abundant; flowers yellow; 
fruit 3 cm. long, red, pubescent, its areoles often bearing 
spines as well as glochids; seeds white, 5 mm. broad, covered 
with matted hairs. 

Type locality: Near Guadalajara, Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

Common in hedges near Guadalajara and Oaxaca, 
Mexico. According to W. E. Safford, it is known in 
Guadalajara as tasajillo and allilerillo. 

Figure 22 represents a leafy branch of a plant 
collected by W. E. Safford in Guadalajara, Mexico, in 
1907. 

3. Pereskiopsis opuntiaeflora (De CandoUe) Britton and 

Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 332. 1907. 

Peieikia opHnlhiefloiut De Candolle, Prodr. 3: -ty?. 1828. 
Opuntia gohiana Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 654. 1898. 

Shrubby, glabrous; leaves obovate, mucronate, often 
in pairs; spines, when present, solitary, elongated, 2 to 3 
times as long as the leaves; flowers subterminal, short- 
pedunculate; petals numerous, ovate, subacute, reddish yellow, 
arranged in two series; ovary leafless, bearing areoles filled 
with glochids. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Known only from the original de- 
scription. 

This description is drawn from De CandoUe's 
original description and illustration; otherwise nothing is known of the plant. 

This species, as illustrated by De Candolle, is unlike anything we know. In its pedun- 
culate fruit it is like Pereskia, but its leafless ovary and its areoles filled with glochids would 
exclude it from that genus. In a general way the illustration looks more like a Pereskiopsis, 
and we suspect that the delineation is incorrect or that the leaves had fallen away from the 




. — Pereskiop: 



PERESKIOPSIS, 



27 



specimen drawn. 

Cactus opuntiaejlovus Mocino and Sesse (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 178. 1837) was published 
as a synonym of Pereskia opuutiae^lora. 

Illustrations: Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 137; Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: pi. 19, 
both as Pereskia opu>itiaejlora. 

Figure 23 is copied from the second illustration above cited. 

4. Pereskiopsis rotundifoiia (De Candolle) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50:333. 1907. 

Peieskh rotundifoiia De Candnlle, Prodr. 3:475. 1828. 
OpiitUia rotrindifoliii Schumann, Gesamtb. Kaktecn 652. IS^S. 

Stems thick, more or less woody; branches slender, glabrous; leaves nearly orbicular, mucronate; 
spines elongated, solitary; flowers 3 cm. broad, borne on the second-year branches; petals reddish yellow, 
broad, with mucronate tips; ovary leafy; fruit obovoid, red, leafy. 






Fig. 22.— Pereikiops. 
diguetii. XO.5 



Fig. 23. — Pereskiopsis opuntiae- 
flora. XO.5. 



Fig. 24. — Pereskiopsis 
rotundifoiia. XO.5. 



Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Known only from the original description and, apparently, from Oaxaca. 

Cactus frutesceiis Mocifio and Sesse (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 178. 1837) and Cactus 
rotundifoiia Mocifio and Sesse (De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 475. 1828) were given as synonyms 
of Pereskia rotundifoiia, but were never published. 

Illustrations: Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: pi. 20, as Pereskia rotundifoiia: Schu- 
mann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 99, as Opuntia rotundifoiia. 

Figure 24 is copied from the first illustration above cited; figure 25 is from a photo- 
graph taken by Dr. MacDougal at Oaxaca, Mexico, in 1906. 

5. Pereskiopsis chapistle (Weber) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50:331. 1907. 
Opuntta chapiitle Weher in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 388. 1904. 
A large, branching shrub, sometimes 3 to 4 meters high, the branches widely spreading, glabrous; 
spines single, white, long (6 cm. long), very stout; leaves fleshy, somewhat persistent, obovate to elliptic, 
sometimes nearly orbicular, 3 to 4 cm. long; glabrous; flowers yellow; fruit red. 

Type locality: In Oaxaca. 

Distribution: Oaxaca and perhaps Morelos, Mexico. 

Illustrations : Bull. Soc. Nat. Acclim. France 52: f. 10, as Opuntia chapistle. Smiths. Misc. 
Coll. 50: pi. 43. 

Plate III, figure 2, represents a leafy branch of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Cuerna- 
vaca, Mexico, in 1906. 



28 



THE CACTACEAE. 




-Pereskiopsis, appa 



th other cacti in the hackpround. 



6. Pereskiopsis porteri (Brandegee) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 332. 1907. 

Opunlia rotiDidijulia Brandegee, Zoe 2: 21. 1891. Not Peiesihi roliindijolia De Candolle, 1828. 

Opiinlia porteti Brandegee in Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 899. 1898. 

Opiinlia btandegeei Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 65.^. 1898. 

Perefiwpsis brandefieei Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 331. 190". 

Stems stout, woody, branching, 6 to 12 dm. high, 3 cm. in diameter, the old areoles bearing 3 to 
8 stout spines 3 to 5 cm. long, but on the trunk often 15 to 20 spines from an areole; first and second 
year branches usually short, spineless, or with 1 or 2 brown spines, those of the first year green, the 
second-year brownish; areoles bearing numerous small, brown glochids; leaves 
sessile, 2 to 3 cm. long, obovate, acute, fleshy, in greenhouse specimens 
sometimes much narrower; flowers about 4 cm. in diameter; sepals few, 
spatulate, short; petals few, yellow, broad, entire; fruit joint-like, oblong, 4 to 5 
cm. long, orange-colored, with large areoles bearing brown glochids ; seeds 1 or 
few, covered with white deciduous hairs. 

Type locality: In Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Distribution: Common in the Cape region of Lower California 
and in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Figure 26 shows a leafy twig of a plant sent in 1904 from the 
Missouri Botanical Garden to the New York Botanical Garden as 
Opuntia brandegeei, which had been received by the Missouri Botani- 
cal Garden from Mrs. Katharine Brandegee in 1901. 



7. Pereskiopsis spathulata (Otto) Britton 
50:333. 1907. 



and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 



Pereskia spalhuUta Otto in Pfciffer, Enum. Cact. 176. 1837. 
Opuntia spathulata Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: 165. 




1898. 



Fig. 26.— Pereski 
porteri. XO.66. 



Branching shrub, 1 to 2 meters high; branches few, glaucescent, deflexed; leaves spatulate, thick, 
green, 2.5 to 5 cm. long; areoles distant, woolly, hairy when young; spines 1 or 2, rigid, white below, 
2.5 cm. long; glochids brown, borne in the upper part of the areoles; flowers red; seeds white. 



PERESKIOPSIS. 



29 



Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distributio)!: Probably southern Mexico, but no definite locality is known. 

There is some confusion in the literature of this species; Schumann describes it as 
pubescent, while in the original description nothing is said about pubescence; this error 
is probably due to a misidentification, for Dr. Rose found in the Museum of Paris two 
specimens collected by Diguet at Guadalajara, Mexico, which were labeled Opunt'ta 
spathtilata, and which have pubescent branches and leaves; these are undoubtedly O. diguet'i'i. 

Pereskia crasskaulis Zuccarini (PfeifTer, Enum. Cact. 176. 1837) was never published, 
simply being given as a synonym of P. spathnlata. 

Illustration: Mollers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 488, f. 22, No. 1, as Pereskia spathulata. 

8. Pereskiopsis pititache (Karwinsky) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 332. 1907. 



Pereskia pititache Karwinsky in PfeifTer, Enu 
Pereskia calandriniaefolia Link and Otto in J 

to Schumann.) 
Optinlia pititache Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Pans 4 



Cact. 176. 1837. 

n-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 



1850. (According 



Stems rather low and somewhat branching; bark light brownish and flaking off; areoles on main 
trunk each bearing 1 to 4 slender acicular spines and a small cluster of yellowish glochids ; branches, 
even when several years old, bearing a single long, acicular spine from an areole and no glochids; young 
and growing branches rather slender and green, their areoles small, black in the center, with long, white 
hairs from their margins and no spines; leaves obovate or oblong-obovate, 4 cm. long or less, pale green, 
thin, acute or bluntish at the apex, narrowed at the base. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Uncertain, but reported from southern Mexico. 

In the original description this species is said to have a very spiny, erect woody trunk, 
the branches spreading nearly horizontally, the spines unequal, 3 to 6, 25 to 37 mm. long, 
the leaves fleshy, green, lanceolate to ovate, 37 mm. long, 16 mm. broad. It was named by 
Baron Wilhelm von Karwinsky and probably collected by him in Mexico, but no definite 
locality was given; Weber states it is from Tehuantepec, while Schumann gives Tehuacan 
on a statement of Weber. 

Pereskia calandriniaefolia we have referred here, follow- 
ing Schumann, but the original description is somewhat dif- 
ferent from that of P. pititache. the leaves being described 
as spatulate to lanceolate, strongly narrowed below, 7.5 cm. 
long. 

Our description is mostly drawn from specimens grow- 
ing in the New York Botanical Garden obtained from M. 
Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, in 1901. 

Illustrations: Abh. Bayer, Akad. Wiss. Munchen 2: pi. 1, 
sec. 6, f. 1, 2; pi. 2, f. 9, both as Pereskia pititache. Deutsche 
Gart Zeit. 8: 33, as Pereskia calandriniaefolia. 

Plate III, figure 3, represents a leafy shoot of a plant sent 
by M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France, to the New York 
Botanical Garden in 1901. 

9. Pereskiopsis aquosa (Weber) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. 
Coll. 50:331. 1907. 

Opuntia aquosa Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: 165. 1898. 
Shrub, with glabrous, glaucous, green branches, the young shoots 
with long white hairs at the areoles; leaves bright green, nearly 
elliptic, acute, about twice as long as wide, narrowed at the base, 
glabrous; spines usually solitary, standing at right angles to the stem, 
white; glochids few, yellow; flowers yellow; outer petals blotched 

with red; fruit pear-shaped, 4 to 5 cm. long, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, p.^. 27.-Pereskiopsis aquosa. 

yellowish green. Xo 66 




30 THE CACTACEAE. 

Type loculity: Guadalajara, Mexico. 

Distribution: In hedges about Guadalajara, Mexico. 

The fruit, called in Mexico tuna de agua and tasajilU), is used in making a cooling 
drink and for preserves. 

Opuntui spathiilata acjuosa (Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: 165. 1898) was given as a 
synonym of this species, but was never published. 

Illustration: Salford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pi. 10, f. 2 

Figure 27 represents a leafy shoot of the plant collected by W. E. Safford near Guadala- 
jara, Mexico, in 1907. 

10. Pereskiopsis kellermanii Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50:332. 1907. 

Stem glabrous, herbaceous, weak, and clambering over shrubs to a length of 4 to 5 meters, about 
2 cm. in diameter; second-year branches usually at right angles to main stem, with cherry-red bark; 
old stem bearing several slender, acicular brown spines, sometimes only 1, sometimes wanting, 
.ind numerous brown glochids; young branches green, fleshy, their areoles circular, white, Hlled with 
long white hairs, brown glochids, and often with several acicular 
brown spines; spines on wild plants often stout, usually solitary, /\ 

nearly black, 2 to 3 cm. long; leaves various, shining green, glabrous, \ '\ 

thickish, elliptic and two or three times as long as wide, or / \ ' ^ /^ 

suborbicular, acute at the apex, narrowed at the base, 5 cm. long I ] [ \ \ 

or less, 2 to 2.5 cm. broad; flowers not known; fruit red, glabrous, \ ' \ \ 

leafy, 3 to 6 cm. long, bearing large areoles filled with brown \ , \ / \. /' 

glochids; seeds covered with matted hairs. \/ \/ 

Figs. 28, 29, and 30.— Pereskiopsis keller- 

Type locality: Trapichite, Guatemala. "i'>"". showing three leaf forms. N o.'i. 

Distribution: Guatemala. 

Figures 28, 29, and 30 are copied from sketches of the leaf-forms of the type plant, 
made by W. A. Kellerman in Guatemala in 1908. 

11. Pereskiopsis scandens sp. nov. (Appendix following page 226). 

2. PTEROCACTUS Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7:6. 1897. 
Stems low, more or less branched above, cylindric, from tuber-like and often greatly enlarged roots; 
leaves minute, caducous; spines weak, several or many at each areole; glochids small, caducous as in 
Opnnlia; flower terminal, regular, without tube; perianth-segments several, erect; filaments and pistil 
shorter than the petals; ovary nearly turgid, bearing numerous small clusters of spines; fruit dry, cap- 
sular, dehiscent; seeds winged, white; embryo curved. 

Type species: Pterocactus kuntzei Schumann. 

Four species have already been described, but three of these we have combined and 
the fourth is referred to Opuntia. Three additional species, however, are here described. 
The generic name refers to the winged seeds. 

This is a remarkable genus, and it is surprising that it remained unrecognized so long, 
for one of its species was known as long ago as 1837; the fruit and seeds, however, seem not 
to have been known until about 1897. In habit the plants are nearest some of the anom- 
alous species of Opuntia. having large roots and short, weak stems like Opuntia chaffeyi. 
of Mexico; the seeds, however, differ, not only from those of Opuntia, but from those of 
all other cactus genera, in being winged. The fruit, according to Schumann, although we 
have not been able to confirm his observation definitely, is a capsule with an operculum. 
Another peculiarity is that the fruit is borne in the end of the stem or branch. 

While this genus has good characters, it is no more distinct than many others and does 
not deserve the relative importance given to it by T. von Post and Otto Kuntze in Lexicon 
Generum Phanerogamarum, who treat it as one of the only three cactus genera to be 
conserved, in their view. 



PTEROCACTUS. 31 

Key to Species. 

Seeds narrowly winged ; spines up to 2 cm. long 1 . P. bickenii 

Seeds broadly winged; spines 3 to 10 mm. long. 

Joints strongly tuberculate 2. P. fischeri 

Joints scarcely tuberculate. 

Ovary densely covered with weak spines; wing of seed 1 mm. wide 3. P. pumitus 

Ovary loosely covered with stiff spines; wing of seed 2 mm. wide 4. P. tuherosus 





hickeni 
Pterocactus hickenii 



-Pterocactus fischeri. Xl.12. Photograph 
by Paul G. Russell. 



sp. nov. 

Rootstocks moniliform, consisting of at least 4 joints widely separated; joints above ground 2 
or 3, 2 to 3 cm. long, almost hidden by the spines; spines from each areola numerous, slender, yellow 
above, brown at base; glochids numerous; fruit and flower not known; seeds thick, 5 mm. in diameter, 
with narrow lateral wing. 

Collected by Cristobal M. Hicken 
(No. 3284) January 10, 1914, near Como- 
doro Rivadavia, southeastern Chubut, 
Argentina. 

Figures 31 and 32 represent a plant 
and a seed from the specimen above cited. 

2. Pterocactus fischeri sp. nov. 

Stems low, 1 dm. high or less; spreading or erect, cylindric, 1.3 cm. in diameter, tuberculate; 
leaves minute, acute; tubercles about as long as broad, arranged in spiral ridges somewhat resembling 
those of Opuntta u-hipplei; spines numerous, the radials 12 or more, white, setaceous, 6 mm. long, 
spreading, centrals usually 4, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, brownish, the tips and bases often yellowish; 





34 


35 36 


s. 34, 35, 36.- 


—Seeds of three species of Pterocactus 




Natural size. 



32 



THE CACTACEAE. 



ijlochids numerous, yellowish, 3 to 4 mm. long; flowers, in only specimen seen, terminal, almost con- 
tinuous with the stem; ovary tuberculate and spiny like the stem, deeply umbilicate; seed one, large, 
flat-winged. 

Collected by Walter Fischer in 1914 in the Province of Rio Negro, Argentina, and 
given to Dr. Rose during his visit to Argentina in 1915 by Professor Cristobal M. Hicken. 

While this species resembles some of the 
species of Cyliudropuntid of the United States, 
the spines are not sheathed. 

Figure 33 is from a photograph of the 
specimen above cited; figure 34 shows a seed 
of the same specimen. 

3. Pterocactus pumilus sp. nov. 

Plants low, usually prostrate or ascending; joints 
cylindric, 1 cm. in diameter, covered with weak 
appressed spines; areoles very woolly; flower termi- 
nal; ovary sunk in the apex of the terminal joint, 
somewhat umbilicate; ovules several; seed flattened, 
7 mm. in diameter, very thin. 

Collected by Cristobal M. Hicken (No. 
3286), January 8, 1914, at Puerto Piramides, 
Chubut, Argentina. 

Figure 35 shows a seed of above speci- 
men. 

4. Pterocactus tuberosus (Pfeiffer). 

Opiititia tuberosa Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 1-46. 1837. 

Opunlia tuberosa albhpina Salm-Dyck in Forsier. 
Handb. Cact. ed. 2, 911. 1885. 

Pterocactus kuntzei Schumann, Monatsschr. Kak- 
teenk. 7: 6. 1897. 

Pterocactus kurlzei Schumann in Engler and Prantl. 
Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 259. 1897. 

Pterocactus decipiens Giirke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 
17: 147. 1907. 
Roots tuber-like, single or in clusters, usually 
small but sometimes large and thick, up to 12 cm. 
long by 8 cm. in diameter, deep-seated, giving o&. 
several erect stems, these branching at surface of the 
ground; terminal branches purplish, turgid, 3 to 40 
cm. long, 1 cm. in diameter, more or less clavate; 
areoles numerous, small, bearing numerous small 
white appressed spines; flowers terminal, 2 to 3 
cm. long; petals long, lanceolate, apiculate, yellow; 
ovary with numerous areoles bearing long bristles; 
ovules numerous; fruit dry; seeds large, flat, winged, 
10 to 12 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Near Mendoza, Argentina. 

Distribution: Western provinces of Argen- Fig. 37.— Ptem 
tina, chiefly in the mountains. 

We have not seen the type of P. kuntzei. 
which is doubtless at Berlin, but we have examined cotypes in the Kurtz Herbarium at 
Cordoba, Argentina, and at New York. 

Opuntia tuberosa. described from Mendoza as long ago as 1837, has long been a puzzle 
to botanists, who have tried to associate it with various opuntias. Dr. Rose, who visited 
Mendoza in 1915, found a tuberous-rooted cactus in the mountains above that city, which 
we are convinced is the plant described by Pfeiffer. There is no doubt, on the other 




us tuberosus. Natural size. Photograph 
by Paul G. Russell. 



hand, that it is Pterocactus kiailzci. from the same rei^ion, which was described as new by 
Schumann in 1897. 

Opiaitia alp'nia GiUies (Pieiffer, Enum. Cact. 146. 1837) was not pubhshed, but was 
given as a synonym of Opuutia tuberosa. Schumann referred both names to Optintia 
platyacantha. 

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7:7; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 107; Haage 
and Schmidt, Cat. Gen. 230, 1908; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 74; all as Pterocactus kuntzd; Blii- 
hende Kakteen 3: pi. 140, as P. decipiens. 

Figure 36 shows a seed of a plant, collected by Dr. Rose near Mendoza, Argentina, 
in 1915; figure 37 is from a photograph of same plant; figure 38 is from a photograph 
taken by Dr. Carlos Spegazzini. 




\ !«#&#■* 




Fig. 38. — Pterocactus tuberosus. 
3. NOPALEA Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 63. 1850. 

Much branched cacti with definite cylindric trunks ; roots so far as known fibrous ; branches or joints 
flattened, fleshy, often narrow; glochids usually less abundant than in Opuutia; spines solitary or in 
clusters at the areoles, sheathless; leaves small, subterete, soon deciduous; areoles bearing white wool, 
glochids, and often spines; flowers originating in the areoles usually at or near the edges of the joints; 
sepals ovate, erect; petals red or pinkish, erect, closely appressed against the numerous stamens and the 
style; filaments and style slender, much longer than the petals; ovary more or less tuberculate, naked 
or spiny, with a very deep umbilicus; fruit a juicy berry, red, edible, usually spineless; seeds numerous, 
flat, covered by a hard bony aril. 

Nopalea is closely related to Opuutia. with which it is sometimes united; the erect 
petals and elongated filaments and style are constant in Nopalea. however. 

Three species were included by Salm-Dyck in this genus when it was described, of 
which Opuutia cocheuillijera Linnaeus was the first and is therefore considered the type. 

Karl Schumann described five species in his monograph, but since then two species, 
N. guatewaleusis and N. lutea. have been described by Dr. Rose, and one, N. iuaperta, 
by Dr. Grifhths. N. u/ouilifor/uis (Linnaeus) Schumann, based on plate 198 of Plumier, is 
Opuutia niouilijormis (Linnaeus) Steudel. 

The species are natives of Mexico and Guatemala, and have been accredited to Cuba, 
although none has recently been observed wild on that island. Some of them are widely 



34 THE CACTACEAE. 

cultivated and may be found throughout the warmer parts of the world. Two are of some 
economic importance and two or three are grown as ornamentals. 

The name Nopaleii is doubtless from nopal, the common name of Mexicans for certain 
opuntias and nopaleas. 

Key to Species 

Spineless, or rarely a few short spines on old joints 1. N. cochenilUjera 

Joints spiny (spines few in N. auheri). 

Spines, at least those of young joints, very slender, acicular, several at each areole. 

Spines white 2. N. guatemalemis 

Spines yellow or becoming brown. 

Joints obovate to oblong, 10 to 22 cm. long, 5 to 10 cm. wide 3. N. lulea 

Joints linear-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 6 to 12 cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. wide iu-K. gaumeri 

Spines stouter, subulate. 

Areoles with 1 or 2 spines, or spineless; joints glaucous A. N. auheri 

Areoles with 2 to 4 spines; joints green. 

Joints linear or linear-oblong, 4 to 7 times as long as wide 5. N. dejecta 

Joints oblong or oblong-obovate, 2 to 4 times as long as wide. 

Spines 2 to 4 ; joints not tuberculate 6. N. iarwiriskiana 

Spmes 4 to 12 ; joints strongly tuberculate 7. N. inaperlj 

I. Nopalea cochenillifera (Linnaeus) Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 64. 1850. 
CjcIiis cocheiiillifer Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 468. 1753. 
OpiintLi coi-hiiietifera Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 6. 1768. 
Cacniy nup.,1 Thierry, Diet. Sci. Nat. 6: 103. 1817. 
Cactus splendidiii Thierry, Diet. Sci. Nat. 6: 103. 1817. 
Cactus campechianui Thierry, Diet. Sci. Nat. 6: 103. 1817. 
Nopalea coccifera Lemaire, Cactees 89. 1868. 
Often tali plants, 3 to 4 meters high, with trunks up to 2 dm. thick; branches of ascending or 
spreading oblong joints, sometimes 5 dm. long; green, bright green at first; spines none or rarely 
minute ones develop on the older joints; glochids numerous, caducous; leaves small, awl-shaped, soon 
deciduous; flowers appearing from the tops of the joints, usually in great abundance; flower, from base 
of ovary to tip of style, 5.5 cm. long, ovary nearly globular, 2 cm. long, with low diamond-shaped 
tubercles, its areoles bearing many glochids; sepals broadly ovate, acute, scarlet; petals a little longer 
than the sepals, otherwise similar, persistent; stamens pinkish, exserted 1 to 1.5 cm. beyond the petals; 
stigma-lobes 6 or 7, greenish, exserted beyond the stamens; style swollen just above its base into a broad 
disk; fruit red, about 5 cm. long, rarely maturing in greenhouse plants; seeds about 5 mm. long 
and 3 mm. wide. 

Type locality: Jamaica and tropical America. 

Distribution: Cultivated in the West Indies and tropical America; its original habitat 
unknown. 

OpHutia magni\olia Noronha (Verhandl, Batav. Genootsch. 5': 22. 1790), published 
without description, is referred to this species by Schumann and others. The name 
Opuntia mexicatia, although it has been used for more than one species, first appeared in 
Pfeif¥er's Enumeratio (p. 150. 1837) as a synonym oi O. cochenillifera. Cactus subinerniis 
Link (Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 1: 246. 1840) is given as a synonym of Opuntia cochenillifera. 
The specific name of this plant was given because it is one of the species of cactus from 
which cochineal was obtained. Cochineal was long supposed to be a vegetable product; 
it was not until 1703 that, by the aid of the microscope, it was definitely determined to be 
of insect origin. The cochineal industry is of prehistoric origin. The Spaniards found it well 
established when they conquered Mexico in 1518, and began at once to export the product. 
As early as 1523 Cortez was ordered to obtain and send to Spain as much as he possibly 
could, while during the early colonial days it was one of the chief articles of tribute to the 
crown. From Mexico and Peru the industry was taken to southern Spain, India, Algiers, 
South Africa, New Granada (Colombia), Jamaica, and the Canary Islands. The industry 
grew rapidly and was very profitable. The greatest source of the cochineal was probably the 
Canary Islands. In about the year 1868 more than 6,000,000 pounds, valued at $4,000,000, 
were exported from these islands alone, of which the largest part was sent to England. 

The cochineal insects were placed on the joints or branches of the cactus plants, where 
they rapidly multiplied and in about four months were collected by brushing them off into 
baskets or bags. Then, after being dried in various ways, they became the cochineal of 
commerce. Two or three such collections were made each year. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




Upper part of flowering joint of Nopalea cocheiiillifeui 
Upper part of flowering joint of NopMeu jiiberi. 

Ail tliree-fourtlis 



Fruit of Nopjlia ,iuhei;. 
Flowering joint of Nopalej dejecta 



NOPALIiA. 



35 



The cactuses upon which the cochineal was raised were often grown in large phmta- 
tions called nopalries, sometimes containing 50,000 plants in rows about 4 feet apart. 

Since the introduction of the aniline dyes, the cochineal industry has almost disappeared. 
The cochineal colors, while brilliant and attractive, are not very permanent. 

According to J. J. Johnson, this plant was introduced into cultivation in England, m 
1688; but according to Ray it was growing in Chelsea before that time. 

Illustrations: Hernandez, Nov. PI. Hist. 78 and 479. f. 1. 1651, as Nopalnochetzli; 
Andrews, Bot. Rep. 8: pi. 533; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 54: pi. 2741, 2742; Descourtilz, Fl. 
Pict. Antilles 7: pi. 516, all as Cactus cocheriillijer. Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 1: 205. 
f. 308; Card. Chron. III. 34:92. f. 4l;Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pi. 24, 
all as Opuntia cochenillijera; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2 f. 3, as Opuntia coccifera; Dillenius, 
Hort. Elth. pi. 297, as tuna, etc.; Agr. Gaz. 25: pis. opp. p. 884; Amer. Garden II: 457; 
Martius, FI. Bras. 4": pi. 60. Schumann Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 109, B. Loudon, Encycl. PI. ed. 
1 and 3. 4l2 L 6888, as Cactus cocheiiHl/jer: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: pi. 48 as spineless 
opuntia; Knorr, Thesaurus pi. o, 1. 

Plate IV, figure i, shows a plant which flowered in the New York Botanical Garden in 
1912. 
2. Nopalea guatemalensis Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 330. 1907. 

Tree-like, 5 to 7 meters high, branched, sometimes nearly to the base; joints bluish green, ovate 
to oblong, 15 to 20 cm. long; areoles numerous, filled with short white wool; spines 5 to 8, unequal, 
nearly or quite porrect, white or sometimes rose-colored, the longest 2.5 to 3 cm. long; leaves small, 
linear, reflexed ; flower, including ovary, 5 to 6 cm. long; sepals ovate, thickened; petals red; fruit 
4 to 5 cm. long, clavate, red, more or less tuberculate, deeply umbilicate, without prominent glochids; 
seeds irregular, 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: El Rancho, Guatemala. 

Distribution: Arid valleys of Guatemala. 

Illustrations: Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: f. 13, 14; Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 
pi. 41, 42. 

Figure 39 illustrates joints of a plant obtained from Frank Weinberg in 1910. 




Fig. 39.— Nopalea guatemalensis. X0.-4. Fig. -iO.— Nopalea lutea. XO.4. 

3. Nopalea lutea Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 405. 1909. 

More or less arborescent, 5 meters high or less, with a short, definite trunk and several large, 
lateral, more or less spreading branches; joints obovate to elliptic or oblong, 10 to 22 cm. long, pale 
green, slightly glaucous; areoles about 2 cm. apart, large, filled with short brown wool; spines weak, 
yellow, acicular or bristle-like, the longest 4 cm. long; flowers 5 cm. long; petals red, 2 cm. long; 



36 



THE CACTACEAE. 

filled with yellow bristles; fruit red, 4 cm. long; seeds 4 to 



ovary with numerous prominent areol 
5 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Near El Runcho, Guatemala. 

Distribution: Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. 

This species, although not discovered until 1907, is very common, extending from 
altitude .lOO meters at Ei Rancho to altitude 1,100 meters near A^uas Clalientes. Accord- 




FiG. 41. — Nopalea dejecta, 
ing to Mr. Charles C. Deam, who has explored extensively in Guatemala, the plant when 
growing on river sand-bars is low, but in rich soil is tall. 

Our reference of this species to Nicaragua is based on a specimen collected by A. S. 
Oersted in 1845-1848 between Granada and Tipitapa. The joints of this, however, are nearly 
orbicular or a little longer than broad, with numerous brown spines and glochids. More 
material may show that this specimen should be referred elsewhere. 

lllustratuni: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pi. 58. 

Figure 4() shows a joint of a plant from Guatemala, received from F. Eichlam in 1911. 



NOPALEA. 



37 



ia. Nopalea gaumeri sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 216.) 

4. Nopalea auberi (PfeifFer) Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hon. Dyck. 1849.64. 1 850. 
Opuntia auberi Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 8: 282. 1840. 
Often 8 to 10 meters high, with a cyhndric, jointed trunk, never very spiny, but the areoles 
bearing tufts of brown glochids; branches often at right angles to the stem; joints narrow, thick, 

3 dm. long, bluish green and glaucous; areoles circular, about 2 mm. broad, bearing short white wool 
and later a tuft of brown glochids; spines, when present, 1 or 2, subulate, the upper one about twice 
as long as the other, white or nearly so, with brownish tips, the longest one 2 to 3 cm. long; flowers 
from base of ovary to tip of style about 9 cm. long; petals erect, closely embracing the stamens, 
rose-pink, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 2 to 3.5 cm. long; filaments 12 to 15 mm. longer than the petals, 
white below, but the exposed parts pinkish; anthers dehiscing before maturing of stigma; style stout, 
light pink with a large, white, circular disk just above the constricted base; stigma-lolses green; ovary 

4 cm. long, with low but very distinct tubercles and a deep umbiHcus, its areoles bearing many brown 
glochids, these sometimes 10 mm. long. 




Fig. 42. — Nopalea 
dejecta. XO.33. 



Fig. 43. — Nopalea karwinskiana 
X0.5. 



Fig. 44. — Nopalea inaperta 
X0.5. 



Type locality: Erroneously cited as Cuba. Distribution: Central and southern Mexico. 
liluitration: Addisonia 1: pi. 10. 

o Nopalea is known from Cuba we have been unable to account for this ref- 



Opuntia auiieri -Wis described as from Cuba, but as 
erence. The following incidents may explain it: 

L. Pfeiffer described the plant in 1840 just after his return fro 
visited the Botanical Garden, then in charge of Pedro Auber. for whom 
Pfeiffer made this trip especially to gather cacti, he saw only one speci 
plant was obtained from the Botanical Garden at Havana, perhaps with 



itnougn 

horriiJa. The probabilities, therefore, arc that this 
from Auber that it was Cuban. 



Plate IV, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant obtained by W. E. Safford at 
Guadalajara, Mexico, in 1907; figure 3 shows young fruit of the same plant; plate v is from 
a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal near Mitla, Mexico, in 1906. 
5. Nopalea dejecta Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 64. 1850. 

Opuntia dejecta Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 361. 1834. 

Nopalea anguuijrnns Lindberg, Act. Soc. Sc. Fenn. 10: 123. 18^1. 
Plant 1 to 2 m. high, with a definite trunk, very spiny, the old areoles often bearing 6 or 8 spines; 
joints narrow, 10 to 15 cm. long, only moderately thick, often drooping, bright green even in age, 
bearing usually two somewhat spreading spines at an areole; spines at first pale yellow or pinkish, in 
age gray, the longest 4 cm. long; flower, including ovary and style, 5 cm. long; sepals obtuse; petals 
erect, dark red; stamens long-exserted, dark red. 

Type locality: Erroneously cited as Havana, Cuba. 

Distribution: Common in cultivation in tropical America; perhaps native in Panama. 
Opuntia diffusa and O. horizontalis are both given by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 1'59. 1837) 
as synonyms of this species. 



38 



THE CACTACEAE. 



lllustrut!o>is: Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 25: pi. opp. p. 138; Roig, Cact. Fl. Cub. pi. [6], this 
last as Nopalea auberi; Act. Soc. Sc. Fenn. 10: pi. 2, as Nopalea angustifions. 

Plate IV, figure 4, shows a flowering joint of a plant obtained from Mr. S. F. Curtis in 
1897. Figure 41 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Juan T. Roig in the Havana Botanical 
Garden, Cuba; figure 42 shows a joint of a plant collected by Mr. J. F. Cowell at Panama 
in 1905. 

6. Nopalea karwinskiana (Salm-Dyck) Schumann, Ge.samtb. Kakteen 752. 1898. 
Opuntia karwinskiana Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hdh. Dyck. 1849. 239. 1850. 
A tree, 2 meters high or more, with a definite jointed terete spiny ttunk; joints oblong, 1.5 to 3 
dm. long, light dull green, only slightly glaucous; leaves elongated, acute; areoles distant; spines 3 
to 7 from an areole, porrect, 1 to 2 cm. long, pale yellow to nearly white; glochids yellow, numerous, 
caducous; flowers red, II to 12 cm. long; ovary deeply umbilicate, 3 cm. long. 

Type loccility: In Mexico. 
Distiihuti(»! : Mexico. 




Figs. 45, 46. — Flower of Tacinga funalis. XO.9. 
Drawing by A. Lofgren. 



u 




Figs. 47, 48.— Tac 



This species was sent from Mexico by Karwinsky, who supposed it was an Opiiiit'hi. 
When described by Salm-Dyck in 1830 it had not flowered. It was re-collected by Edmund 
Kerber near Colima, Mexico, and flowered for the first time in cultivation in 1879. 

Our description is drawn chiefly from a plant now in the New York Botanical Garden, 
obtained from M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France. In the original description it is stated 
that the young spines are 2 to 4 and rose-colored, but afterwards 18 to 20, gray and deflexed. 
0. nopalilla Karwinsky (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 68. 1850) was first given as 
a synonym of this species. 

Figure 43 represents a joint with young fruit, from a plant sent by M. Simon, St. Ouen, 
Paris, France, in 1901. 

7. Nopalea inaperta Schott in Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 139. 1913. 

Described as 5 to 7 meters high, but in cultivation much smaller, diffusely branched, often 
bush-like; trunk very spiny; terminal joints rather small, obovate, 6 to 17 cm. long, strongly tuber- 
cuhuc, bright green; spmes usually 3 to 6 at areoles of young joints, more at old ones, yellowish 



BRITTON AND ROSE 










Nopiilea auberi as it grows near Mitla, Mexico. 
Photographed by D. T. MacDougal. 



TACINGA. 



39 



brown, 2 cm. long or less; flowers rather small, including ovary and stamens 4 cm. long; filaments 
numerous, long-exserted ; style much longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes 5, green; fruit small, red, 
1.5 cm. long. 

Type locality: In Yucatan, Mexico. 

Distribution : Yucatan . 

Dr. Griffiths states that he found this species in the Albert S. White Park, Riverside, 
Cahfornia, in 1904. In the Bulletin of the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station 
No. 60 he describes and illustrates it, but without specific name. Later he identified it as 
the same as one of Schott's specimens from Yucatan, and then published it as above. 

Dr. Griffiths compares it with N. aubevi, but its nearest relative is N. kanvniskiiuhi. 
from which it differs in its smaller and more tuberculate joints and much smaller flowers. 

llhistrcttiuu: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. 3, f. 1, as Nopated. 

Eigure 44 shows a joint from a plant obtained by Dr. David Griffiths at Riverside. 

4. TACINGA gen. nov. 
Long, clambermg, or climbing cacti, more or less branched; old stems smooth, brown; branches 
faintly ribbed, terete; young branches green, each tipped with a tuft of long wool or soft hairs; are- 
oles small but conspicuous, black, the margin giving off long, white, cobwebby hairs; leaves minute, 
soon deciduous, 3 to 4 mm. long; spines sometimes present, on young joints 2 or 3, reflexed, appressed, 
brown, 2 to 3 mm. long, not seen on old branches; glochids from the upper parts of the areoles, 
pale yellow, numerous, caducous, falling in shov^ers at the slightest jarring of the branch; flower- 
buds acute; flowers usually terminal, opening in the evening or at night; ovary narrow, bearing 
numerous areoles, the umbilicus very deep ; petals few, spreading or recurved ; a row of hairs between 
the petals and the stamens ; stamens and style erect, much longer than the petals ; fruit oblong, 
the upper half sterile, bearing areoles but no spines; seeds nearly globular, white, covered with a 
bony aril 

This genus is mtermediate between 
Opuntia and Nopalea, having the erect, 
non-sensitive stamens of the latter, 
and the areoles, leaves, and glochids of 
the former. From Opuntia it differ;; in 
its narrow, green, recurved petals, in 
having one or possibly more rows of 
hairs between the stamens and the 
petals, in the clambering or climbing 
habit, and its very caducous glochids. 

Only one species is known, this 
a common and characteristic plant of 
the catinga* in Bahia, Brazil, whence 
the anagramatic name. 

1. Tacinga funalis sp. nov. 

At first erect, then climbing over shrubs 
or through trees, 1 to 12 meters long, some- 
what branching; old stems woody, slender; 
branches usually reddish, the areoles borne 
on low ribs; glochids short; flower, includ- 
ing ovary, 7 to 8 cm. long; sepals about 10, 
short, ovate, acute, 5 to 15 mm. long; petals fig. 49.— Tacinga funalis. Showing how it climbs over hushes. 

about 7, green, 4 cm. long, acute, revolute ; 

stamens erect, connivent, not sensitive; anthers narrow, elongated; style elongated, thread-like, most 
slender below, a little longer than the stamens, 4.5 cm. long, cream-colored; stigma-lobes 5, green; fruit 
4 to 5 cm. long; seeds 3 to 4 mm. broad. 

*Catinga or caatinga is the common Brazilian name for the thorn-bush desert region in Bahia, Brazil. Dr. 
Albert Lofgren says that the name (best spelled caatinga) is of Indian origin, meaning caa=wood, forest; tinga 
^ white, clear; a forest in which one can see far. 




40 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Common in the dry parts of Bahia, Brazil, where it was collected by Rose and Russell 
in 1915 (No. 19723, type). Dr. Zehntner thinks there may be a second species, as he has 
found one with purple flowers; specimens from southern Bahia had purple buds, but the 
open flowers were not seen. The type comes from Joazeiro, northern Bahia. 

Dr. Rose studied this species in the field and believed it to be new. On reaching Rio 
de Janeiro, he found that Dr. A. Lofgren had also studied it, referring it, however, to 
OpHut'ia. using the above specific name. 

Figures 45 and AG are copied from drawings of the flowers given to Dr. Rose by Dr. 
Lofgren; figures 47 and 48 are from twigs of the plant grown at the New York Botanical 
Garden; figure 49 is from a photograph of the type plant. 



5. MAIHUENIA Phi 



ippi 



Gartenflora 32: 260. 1883. 



Plants low, cespitose, often forming small, dense mounds; stems jointed; joints small, globular 
or short-cylindric; leaves small, usually terete, persistent; leaves of seedlings terete, ascending, with 
2 long white bristles in the axils; areoles filled with white wool; spines 3, the central one elongated, 
the 2 lateral ones small and very short; glochids wanting; flowers large for the size of the plant, yel- 
low or red, usually terminal; petals distinct; flower-tube none; stamens and style much shortet than 
the petals; fruit juicy (described as dry in one species), oblong to obovoid, bearing small scattered, 
ovate, persistent leaves; wall of fruit thin; cotyledons linear; seed black, shinint;, wirh a brittle testa. 




Fig. 50. — Maihueni, 



Type species: Optint'ia pi>epptgii Otto. 

There are five species described, rather closely related, natives of the high mountains 
of Chile and Argentina. 

The generic name is derived from maihuen, the native name of the plant. 

This is a small, localized genus; it is perhaps nearest Opuntia, but is without glochids 
and has different seeds. The first species was described in 1837, and a second in 1864, 
both as Opiintia. Weber in 1898 transferred them to Pereskia, proposing a new subgenus 
for them, but they are much less like Peresk'ui than Opuntia, for, except as to the seeds, they 
have little in common with Peresk'ni: in habit, leaves, spines, flowers, and fruits they are quite 
unlike any of the pereskias. 



MAIHUHNIA. 



41 




Fig, 51.— Maihuenia pcicppigii. XO.75. 
Fig. 52. — Maihuenia bracliydelphys. XO.75. 



Key to Species. 

Joints subglobose 1. AI. p.iLigotiici 

Joints oblong to cylindric. 

Leaves linear, 4 to 6 mm. long 2. Af. poeppig/i 

Leaves ovate to subulate, 2 to 4 mm. long. 

Joints spineless below 3. M. hrachydelphyi 

Joints spiny all over. 

Leaves on the ovary with white hairs 

in their axils 4. M. vJenlinii 

Leaves on the ovary without hairs in 

their axils 5. Al. lehiielchei 

1. Maihuenia patagonica (Philippi). 

Opiintia patagonica Philippi, Linnaea 33: 82. 1864. 

Peteskia philtppii Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 939. 1898. 

Maihuetiia philippii Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kak- 

teen 757. 1898. 

Low, much branched, and dense, resembling Se/nperi'/- 

iiini tomentosiim in habit; joints subglobose, 1 to 1.5 cm. in 

diameter; leaves subulate, green; young areoles bearing 

white hairs ; spines weak, hardly pungent, white, the longest 

10 to 15 mm. long; flowers 2.8 to 3 cm. long; fruit 8 to 10 mm. long, thicker than long; leaves on 
the ovary ovate to lanceolate, fleshy, naked in their axils, except some of the upper ones; seeds round, 
3 to 4 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: In southern Argentina. 

Distribution: Near snow-line on southern mountain ranges of Argentina and Chile. 
Op tint id philippii Haage and Schmidt, without description, is given by Weber (Diet. 
Hort. Bois 939. 1898) as a synonym of this species. 
This is called by the natives espina blanca. 

2. Maihuenia poeppigii (Otto) Weber in 

Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 755. 
1898. 

Opuntid poeppigii Otto in Pfeifter, 

Enum. Cact. 174. 1837. 
Opiintia maihuen Remy in Gay, Fl. 

Chilena 3: 29. 1847. 
Pereskia poeppigii Salm-Dyck, Cact. 
Hort. Dyck. 1849. 252. 1850. 
Shrubby, much branched, prostrate, 
forming dense cespitose masses 1 meter 
broad; joints spiny to the bases, cyhn- 
dric, 6 cm. long or more, 1.5 cm. in diam- 
eter; leaves cylindric, green, 4 to 6 mm. 
long; spines 3 from each areola, the 2 lat- 
erals very short, the central one 1.5 to 2 
cm. long; flowers terminal, yellow; fruit 
oblong to obovoid, about 5 cm. long and 
3 cm. thick. 

Type locality: In Chile, without 
definite locality. 

Distrihiitio)!: High mountains of 
Chile. 

Illustrations: Schumann, Gesamtb. 
Kakteen f. 108, B, c; Gartenflora 30. 
412, AS Pereskia poeppigii; Gartenflora 
32: pi. 1129, f. 1 to"4, as Opitntia 
poeppigii; Diet. Gard. Nicholson 3: 1. 
82, as Pereskia poeppigii. 

Figure 51 is from a fruit obtained 
by Dr. Rose at the National Museum 
of Chile, Santiago, in 1914. 

o K,^ ^1 — M„,i„,„nia tehuelches 




42 THE CACTACEAE. 

3. Maihuenia brachydelphys Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 756. 1898. 

Opiintia hrachydelpbis Schumann in Just, Bot. Jahresb. 26': 3-43. 1898. 

Cespitose, prostrate; joints cylindric or nearly ellipsoid, naked below, 2 cm. long; spines 2 or 3, 
one much stouter and longer, yellow except at base and there brown; leaves terete, 2 to 3 mm. long; 
areoles circular, full of white wool; flowers usually from the tips of joints, red, 3.5 cm. long. 

Type locality: Pasco Cruz, Argentina, 34° south latitucle, province of Mendoza. 

Distribution: Western Argentina. 

Opuntia brachydelphys Schumann is mentioned by Kuntze (Rev. Gen. PI. 3": 107. 1898) 
by name only. 

Illustration: Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 108, a. 

Figure 52 is copied from Schumann's illustration above cited. 
Mawmillaria brachydelphis is a clerical error for Opuntia brachydelphis. 

4. Maihuenia valentinii Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires II. 4: 289. 1902. 

Shrubby, 1 to 2.5 dm. high, dull green; joints cylindric, somewhat clavate, 1 to 3-5 cm. long; 
leaves ovate, small; spines 3, the central much larger, 2 to 6 cm. long; flowers from near the ends of 
the branches, 2 cm. broad, the sepals reddish, the petals white to light yellow; stamens indefinite; 
filaments white; style 6 mm. long, white, longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes 5, short, 2 mm. long, 
purplish; ovary globular to obconic, 5 to 8 mm. long, bearing numerous triangular fleshy leaves with 
long white hairs and sometimes 1 or 2 spines in their axils; fruit unknown. 

Type locality: Near Trelew, Chubut, Argentina. 

Distribution: Territory of Chubut, southern Argentina. 

Related to M. tehuelches and M. poeppigii. but said to be very distinct. 

Figure 50 is from a photograph furnished by Dr. Carlos Spegazzini. 

5. Maihuenia tehuelches Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires II. 4:288. 1902. 

Shrubby, 2 to 3 dm. high, with many intricate branches, dull green; joints cylindric, ellipsoid 
to somewhat clavate, 2 to 8 cm. long by 10 to 12 cm. in diameter; leaves ovate, small, 2 to 4 mm. 
long; spines 3, the central one erect, 2 to 4 cm. long, the 2 lateral ones only 5 to 10 mm. long; flowers 
at the apex of the branches, 35 to 45 mm. broad, white to yellowish white; fruit globose, naked, dry, 
2 cm. in diameter; seeds black, 3 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Between San Julian and Rio Deseado, Argentina. 

Distribution: Dry, rocky deserts, southwestern Argentina. 

Figure 53 is from a photograph furnished by Dr. Carlos Spegazzini. 

6. OPUNTIA (Tournefort) Miller, Card. Diet. Abridg. ed. 4. 1754. 

Cactodendron Bigelow, Pac. R. Rep. 3: 102; 4:7, 11, lii. 1856. 

Consolea Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862. 

Tephrocactus Lemaire, Cact. 88. 1868. 

Ficindica St. Lager, Ann. Sue. Bot. Lyon 7: 70. 1880. 

Cactus Lemaire + Cactees 86. 1868. Not Linnaeus, 1753. 
Cacti, sometimes with definite trunks, or more often much branched from the base, the branches 
often spreading, reclining, or prostrate, sometimes clambering, but never climbing (one species known 
with annual stems); roots fibrous or rarely tuberous and large and fleshy; ultimate branches (joints 
or pads) cylindric to globose or flattened, usually very fleshy, sometimes woody; areoles axillary, bear- 
ing spines, barbed bristles (glochids), hairs, flowers, and sometimes glands; leaves usually small, terete, 
mostly early deciduous; spines solitary or in clusters, terete or flattened, naked or sheathed, variously 
colored; glochids usually numerous, borne above the spines; flowers usually one at an areole; ovary 
inferior, one-celled, many-ovuled, bearing leaves, the areoles often with spines and glochids; sepals 
green or more or less colored, usually grading into the petals; petals usually of various shades and 
combinations of green, yellow, and red (rarely white), widely spreading; stamens much shorter than 
the petals, sensitive; style single, thick; stigma-lobes short; fruit a berry, dry or juicy, often edible, 
spiny or naked, globular, ovoid or ellipsoid; seed covered by a hard, bony aril, white, flattened; embryo 
curved; cotyledons 2, large. 

The species grow naturally from Massachusetts to British Columbia south to the Strait 
of Magellan. Several have been naturalized and have become very abundant locally in the 
Old World and in Australia. 



OPUNTIA. 43 

The type species is Cactus opuntia Linnaeus. 

Karl Schumann recognized 131 species in his "Gesamtbeschreibung der Kakteen," pub- 
lished during the years 1897 and 1898. Many have been described since this monograph 
was published. 

The name Opuntia was that of a town in Greece, where some cactus-like plant is said 
to have grown. 

The genus is important economically. It furnishes the well-known tuna fruit largely 
imported into our eastern cities from Italy and which is common in the markets of Mexico. 
Some species are used for hedges, the branches of others are cooked like spinach, and still 
others furnish forage for stock. 

The species are numerous and very diverse, and have at various times been grouped 
by authors into several genera, while other species, now referred by us to Nopalea, Maihuenia, 
and Pereskiopsis. were included in Opuntia. 

The following genera now referred to Opuntia have been regarded as distinct from it: 

Consoled was described by Lemaire in 1862. He described five species, of which 
C. rubescens is the first and therefore the type. This group is a striking one, characterized 
by a pronounced cylindric trunk in old plants, with an unjointed central woody axis, pecu- 
liar semaphore-like branches at the top, and very small flowers. There are eight species of 
this group, described under our series Sp'inosisshnae. They are confined to the West Indies, 
although C. rubescens. the spineless race of Opuntia catacantha, was originally described 
as from Brazil — doubtless erroneously. 

Tephrocactus was described by Lemaire in 1868, and to it he referred eight species of 
Opuntia. T. diadeniatus is the type species. Schumann included it in Opuntia as a sub- 
genus, with 15 species. They are all South American, chiefly in Argentina and Bolivia. 

Ficindica was established by St. Lager in 1880, based on Opuntia ficus-indica. which is 
clearly congeneric with Opuntia opuntia. 

In 1856 the name Cactodendron was proposed in an account of Whipple's Expedition, 
published in volumes 3 and 4 of the Pacific Railroad Reports. It was apparently not 
intended to be a formal publication, but as a definite species is indicated, the name is 
published. It will be of interest to record here the evidence upon which we reach this 
conclusion: 

Cactodendron Bigelow Pac. R. Rep. 3: 102; 4:7, 11; Additional Notes and Corrections iii. 1856. 

There are * * * Opuntia of many varieties; some with wide leaf -like joints, others of 
shrubby form and woody fibre, which the botanist proposes to name Cactodendron." Pac. R. Rep. 3: 
102. 

"Immediately on our entrance into this valley (November 19 [1856}) we found and collected a 
new species of Opiinlhi. with prostrate, nearly terete joints, entirely devoid of woody fibre; * * * 
Lieutenant Whipple discovered the first specimen of our new Cactodendron. as we were pleased to 
call it, to distinguish it from the O. arhorescens." Pac. R. Rep. 4: 7. 

'The arborescent Opuntia. first found near Zuni, which, to distinguish from the true O. arhores- 
cens, we called Cacto-dendron, finds its western limits near the termination of this region. " Pac. R. 
Rep. 4: 10. 

"15. 'New arboresent Opuntia,' called also 'our new Cactodendron.' pages 7 and 11, is Opuntia 
tvhipplei. E. & B., new species." Pac. R. Rep. 4: Additional Notes and Corrections iii. 

Opuntias are known under a great variety of names. Among the names for the flat- 
jointed species, the most common are: prickly pear in the United States; tuna in Mexico; 
sucker and buUsucker in the Lesser Antilles. For the round-stemmed forms we have: cane 
cactus, and such Mexican names as choUa and tasajo. Dr. David Grifhths has published a 
list of names used in Mexico. 

The genus Opuntia, as understood by us, is composed of at least 250 species, but more 
than 900 names are to be found in literature. No type specimens of many of the species 



44 THE CACTACEAE. 

were preserved by rheir authors, some have, apparently, been lost, and some, which are prob- 
ably preserved, we have been unable to study. 

The genus shows a great range in stem structure, varying from cylindric to broad and 
flat. These extremes suggest different generic types, but these characters can not be used 
except in the most general way, for some species have both rounded and flattened stems. 
Some with round stems have flowers which suggest a closer relationship with the species 
with flattened stems. 

The habits of some of the species are very characteristic, while others show a wide 
range of forms. Many of the erect or tree-like forms, when grown from cuttings, develop 
bushy habits much unlike their normal shapes. 

The spines, while somewhat constant in color in some species, vary considerably in 
others, and the number of spines is rather inconstant. Species which are normally abun- 
dantly spined are sometimes naked when cultivated, while species which are normally naked 
sometimes develop spines in cultivation; cultivated specimens usually have weaker spines 
and sometimes decidedly different ones from wild plants. 

The flowers often vary greatly in color, as is seen especially in O. vt'isicolor and O. 
Ihidheimeri. which show wide ranges of color forms. Some flowers vary in color during 
the day. 

We group the species known to us into 3 subgenera, 46 series, and with the following 
characteristics : 

Key to Subgenera and Series oi- Opuntia. 

A. Joints all terete, elongated or short, cylindric to globose. 

B. Branches several, many-jointed Subgenus 1. Cylindropuntia 

C. Spines with papery sheaths. 

D. Spines, at least some of them, solitary, sometimes several, 

acicular; ultimate branches slender, rarely more 

than 1 cm. thick. 

E. Stem and branches conspicuously marked by flattened, 

diamond-shaped tubercles; fruit dry, covered with 

long bristle-hke spines Series 1. Ramos issimae (N. A.) 

EE. Tubercles not flattened nor diamond-shaped; fruit usually 

a naked berry Series 2. Leptocaules (N. A.) 

DD. Spines always more than 1; ultimate branches stouter. 

E. Ultimate branches not over 2 cm. thick Series 3. Thurberiaiiae (N. A.) 

EE. Ultimate branches 2 cm. thick or more. 

F. Fruit dry Series 4. Echinocarpae (N. A. ) 

FF. Fruit fleshy. 

G. Tubercles of young joints scarcely longer than broad. Series 5. Bigelovianae (N. A.) 
GG. Tubercles distinctly longer than broad. 

H. Tubercles narrow, high, laterally flattened Series 6. Imbricatae (N. A.) 

HH. Tubercles broad, low Series 7. Fi/lgidae (N. A. ) 

CC. Spines without sheaths. 

D. Joints not tuberculate, or with broad or flat tubercles. 

E. Areoles long-woolly or with weak hairs (without hairs 

in O. verse half eltii) Series 8. VestilM (S. A.) 

EE. Areoles neither long-woolly nor long-hairy. 

F. Joints clavate or crested Series 9. CLuariuiJes (S. A.) 

FF. Joints neither clavate nor crested. 

G. Low, slender species, scarcely, if at all, tuberculate. . . Series 10. Salmianae (S. A.) 
GG. Tall, stout species, the tubercles broad or flat; 

leaves large Series 11. Subulatae (S. A.) 

DD. Joints strongly tuberculate. the tubercles elevated. 

E. Tall, shrubby species; joints cylindric Series 12. MiqiielianM (S. A.) 

EE. Low, prostrate species; joints clavate (transition to 

Tephrocactus) Series 13. Clavalae (N. A.) 

BB. Branches 1 to few-jointed, the short joints usually clustered Subgenus 2. Tephrocactus (S. A.) 

C. Joints, at least some of them, cylindric, tuberculate, the 

tubercles contiguous (transition to C;7;Ht/TO/'«K//d) Series 1. Weherianae 
CC. Joints globose to oblong, mostly little, if at all. tuberculate. 

D. Areoles normally bearing many long white hairs, which often 

cover the whole plant Series 2. Floccosae 

DD. Areoles without hairs. 

E. Spines, when present, at least some of them, modified into 

flat, papery processes Series 3. Glomeralae 

EE. Spines, when present, all subulate or acicular, terete or , „ , ,. 

somewhat flattened Senes 4. ?entUndtanae 



OPUNTIA. 45 

Key to Subgenera and Series oe Opuntia — continued. 

AA. At least some of the joints flat or compressed Siibjjtnus V Pi.atvoi'Uniia 99.* 

B. Stems perennial, stout or slender. 

C. Plants branching from near or at the base, not formmg erect, 
cylindric unjointed trunks; flowers mostly large. 
D. Epidermis glabrous or pubescent, not papillose-tuberculate 
when dry. 
E. Flowers perfect; petals obovate to oblong. 

F. Fruit a juicy berry (exceptions in Series 5, Buiilares). 
G. Joints readily detached. 

H. Joints very readily detached; low, mostly small- 
jointed species. 
I. Joints little flattened, subterete (transition to 

Cylindropttnlij) Series 1. Pumilae (N. A.; S. A.) 100. 

II. At least the ultimate joints distinctly flattened. 

J. Ultimate joints or all joints turgid Series 2. Curassavicae (N. A. ; S. A.) 102. 

JJ. Ultimate joints flat and thin Series 3. Aurantiacae (S. A.) 106. 

HH. Joints less readily detached; mostly taller and 

larger-jointed species Series A. Tiinae (N. A.; S. A.) 110. 

GG. Joints not readily detached, persistent. 

H. Areoles small, 1 to 2 mm. in diameter, not ele- 
vated, mostly close together Series 5. B^tsHnres (N. A.) 118. 

HH. Areoles larger, mostly distant. 

I. Prostrate or spreading species; joints relatively 
small. (O. auitrhia suberect.) 
J. Joints not tuberculate. 

K. Flowers small, brick-red Series 6. Utamoenae (S. A.) 125. 

KK. Flowers large, yellow Series 7. Turliipitue (N. A. ) 126. 

JJ. Joints strongly tuberculate Series 8. Sulphureae (S. A.) 13.t. 

U. Bushy, depressed or tall species. 
J. Spines, when present, brown or yellow (white 
in O. seti spina). 
K. Spines brown, at least at the base or tip. 
L. Bushy or depressed species. 

M. Fruit very small Series 9. Strigiles (N. A.) 136. 

MM. Fruit large. 

N. Spines acicular Series 10. Selispinae (N. A.) 136. 

NN. Spines subulate Series 11. Pkieacantkie (N. A.) 139. 

LL. Tall species, sometimes with a definite 
trunk (O. galjpageia sometimes de- 
pressed). 

M. Spines several at each areole Series 12. ELitiores (N. A.; S. A.) 149. 

MM. Spines, when present, 1 to few at each 

areole Series 13. ELiim (S. A.) 156. 

KK. Spines, if any, yellow, at least partially. 
L. Epidermis glabrous. 

M. Areoles close together, bearing long 

brown wool Series 14. Scheerianae (N. A. ) 159. 

MM. Areoles distant, without long wool Series 15. Dillenianae (N. A.) 159. 

LL. Epidermis, at least that of the ovary, pub- 
escent Series 16. Macdougalhm.ie (N. A.) 169. 

JJ. Spines, when present, white (or faintly yellow). 
K. Epidermis pubescent. 

L. Spines, when present, acicular Series 17. TomentosM (N. A.) 172. 

LL. Spines several, setaceous, flexible Series 18. Leucolrkbae (N. A.) 174. 

KK. Epidermis glabrous. 

L. Areoles bearing long, soft hairs Series 19. Orbkulatae (N. A.) 176. 

LL. Areoles without long hairs. 

M. Joints green or bluish green. 

N. Spineless, or with few, usually short, 

spines Series 20. Ficm-indicje (N. A. ; S. A.) 177. 

NN. Spiny, at least old joints so Series 21. Streptacatithje (N. A.; S. A.) 181. 

MM. Joints blue Series 22. Rohushie (N. A.) 191. 

FF. Fruit dry, not juicy Series 23. Polyac.mlk,e (N. A.) 193. 

EE. Flowers dioecious; petals very narrow Series 24. Steiiopetahe (N. A.) 200. 

DD. Epidermis densely papillose-tuberculate when dry Series 25. Palmadorae (S. A.) 201. 

CC. Plants with erect, unjointed trunks, the branches with flat joints; 
flowers mostly small. 
D. Flowers small; joints spreading. 

E. Joints all flat, relatively thick Series 26. Spinosissimje (N. A.) 202. 

EE. Some joints terete, others flat and very thin Series 27. Brasilienses (S. A.) 209. 

DD. Flowers large; joints ascending Series 28. AmmophiUe (N. A.) 211. 

BB. Stems annual, very slender Series 29. Chaffeyanae (N. A.) 213. 

• The page references (as 99, etc.) were not in the original printing but were added here for convenience. 



46 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Subgenus 1. CYLINDROPUNTIA. 
Includes the many-jointed species in which none of the joints is at ail flattened. 
Series 1. RAMOSISSIMAE. 

The series consists of a single bushy species, with slender joints, the nearly flat tubercles diamond- 
shaped and contiguous, the acicular spines, when present, usually only 1 at an areole. 

1. Opuntia ramosissima Engelmann, Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 339. 1852. 
Opunthi tetsellMj Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 309. 1856. 

Frutescent, bushy, sometimes 2 meters high, the branches gray, often widely spreading, and 9 cm. 
long; tubercles low, slightly convex, 4-angled to 6-angled, giving the surface an appearance of being 
covered with diamond-shaped plates; leaves ovoid, 
1 to 3 mm. long, acute; areoles on young shoots cir- 
cular, with white or tawny wool and pale glochids, 
the upper part in age compressed into the narrow 
slit between the two adjoining tubercles, the lower 
part depressed-linear, with a slightly elevated border; 
spines often wanting, but when present abundant, 
usually one at each areole, rarely 2, porrect, acicular, 
sometimes 6 cm. long, usually reddish when young, 
covered by loose, yellow, papery sheaths; flowers, 
including ovaries, 3 to 4 cm. long; sepals subulate, 
similar to the leaves of the ovary, but longer; petals 
greenish yellow, tinged with red, obovate, aristulate, 
about 1 cm. long; stamens greenish yellow; anthers 
orange-colored; style and stigma-lobes cream-colored; 
ovary narrowly obconic, covered with emarginate tuber- 
cles, the areoles bearing wool and long glochids, but 
no spines; fruit dry, obovate, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, cov- 
ered with clusters of weak, slender spines, appearing 
like a bur; seeds few, white, 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In California, near the Colo- 
rado River. 

Distribution: Southern Nevada, western 
Arizona, southeastern California, northwestern 
Sonora and probably northeastern Lower California. 

The flowers of this species have been described as purple, apparently erroneously. 

This species is found in the most arid deserts of the southwestern part of the United 
States, usually growing on low hills, and is confined chiefly to the lower Colorado; it is 
here rather inconspicuous and might easily be overlooked. It is one of the least succulent 
species of the genus, the terminal shoots soon becoming hard, and hence the plant is difficult 
to propagate from cuttings, and is rarely found in greenhouse collections. 

opuntia leiielLilj Jenudata according to C. R. Orcutt, is only a form — spiny joints frequently occurring on the 
same plant with the spmeless form; it is common in the Mojave Desert, California. It was mentioned by Alverson 
(Cact. Cat. 6) while O. ramoiiisima denudala is listed by Weinberg (Cacti 22). O. rdmoshiima crhtala is mentioned 
by Schelle (Handb. Kakteenk. 41. 1907). 

Opiuitia tessellata ciistata Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8:70. 1898) is a striking 
monstrosity which Schumann has described and figured. 

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. 1: pi. for February, pi. [l};Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 3: f. 1549; 
Pac. R, Rep. 4: pi. 21; 24, f. 20, all as Opuntia tessellata. Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 71, as 
Opuntia tessellata cristata; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2596, 2610. 

Figure 54 represents a spiny branch drawn from a specimen sent by Mr. S. B. Parish 
from Barstow, California, in 1915; figure 55 shows a portion of an unarmed branch sent 
by the same collector from the same locality. 

Series 2. LEFfOCAULES. 

Bushy species, with slender joints, the ultimate ones 4 to 1 5 inm. thick, often readily detached; 
the flowers small. 

Inhabitants of the southwestern United States, Mexico, northern South America, and 
one species in Santo Domingo. 




-Opun 



OPUNTIA 47 

Key to Species. 

intimate juints short, usually at right angles to the branches, 4 to 7 mm. thick. 
Bushy plants, 1.5 meters high or less; fruit sinall, fertile. 
Branches scarcely if at all tuberculate. 

Leaves ovoid to ovoid-subulate; young areoles long-hairy 2. O. morlolensh 

Leaves linear; areoles not long-hairy i. O. teptocaulis 

Branches long-tuberculate 4. O. lesa/o 

Elongated plants, up to 2 meters long; fruit larger, sterile 5. O. caribaea 

Ultimate joints longer, 8 to 15 mm. thick, usually at an acute angle to the branches. 

Joints only slightly tuberculate S. O. arbuscula 

Joints manifestly tuberculate 7. O. kleiniae 

2. Opunda mortolensis sp. nov. 

Slender, 6 dm. high or less, dull green, with dark blotches below the areoles, the ultimate twigs 
short, sometimes only 2 cm. long, 4 to 5 mm. thick, scarcely tuberculate ; leaves ovate to ovate- 
subulate, 2 to 4 mm. long, green, with acute bronze-colored tips; young areoles with numerous, early 
deciduous, weak white hairs sometimes longer than the leaves, and several brown glochids ; areoles of old 
branches with solitary acicular spines 'S to 5 cm. long, these with tightly fitting brownish sheaths; flowers 
and fruit unknown. 

Described from No. 25360, New York Botanical Garden, received from the garden of 
Sir Tliomas Hanbury, La Mortola, Italy, in 1906. Mr. Berger has referred this specimen 
to Opuntia leptocaulis longispina, but this was considered by Dr. Engelmann as the "usual 
western form" of O. leptocaulis. 

An herbarium specimen collected by Rose, Standley, and Russell at Empalme, Sonora, 
Mexico, March 11, 1910 (No. 12644), appears to be referable to this species. 

The short leaves and long-hairy young areoles appear to distinguish this plant from 
0. leptocaulis. 

Illustrations: Gard. Chron. Ill, 34: f. 37, as Opuntia leptocaulis longispina. 

Plate VI, figure 1, represents a branch of a plant sent from La Mortola, Italy, in 1906; 
figure 2 shows a leafy twig of the same plant. 

3. Opuntia leptocaulis De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 

Opuntia ramuUjera Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 360. 18.^1. 

Opuntia gracilis Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 172. 1837. 

Opuntia fragilis frutescens Engelmann, Host. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5: 245. 1845. 

Opuntia virgata Link and Otto in Forster, Handb. Cact. 506. 1846. 

Opuntia raginata Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 100. 1848. 

Opuntia calif oniica Engelmann in Emory, Mil. Reconn. 158. 1848. 

Opuntia fnaescens Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 208. 1850. 

Opuntia jrutescens hreii\pina Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 309. 1856. 

Opuntia frutescens longispina Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 309. 185h. 

Opuntia leptocaulis brevispina S. VCatson, Bibl. Index 1: 407. 1878. 

Opuntia leptocaulis vaginata S. Watson, Bibl. Index 1: 407. 1878. 

Opuntia leptocaulis stipata Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 456. 1896. 

Opuntia leptocaulis longispina Berger, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 36: 459. 1905. 
Usually bushy, often compact, 2 to 20 dm. high, but sometimes with a short, definite trunk 5 to 8 
cm. in diameter, dull green with darker blotches below the areoles, with slender, cylindric, ascending, 
hardly tuberculate branches; branches, especially the fruiting ones, thickly set with short, usually spine- 
less joints spreading nearly at right angles to the main branches, very easily detached; leaves 
green, awl-shaped, 12 mm. long or less, acute; spines usually solitary at young areoles, very slender, 
white, at areoles of old branches 2 or 3 together, 2 to 5 cm. long or less; sheaths of spines closely fit- 
ting or loose and papery, yellowish brown to whitish; areoles with very short white wool; flowers 
greenish or yellowish, 1.5 to 2 cm. long including the ovary; sepals broadly ovate, acute, or cuspidate; 
ovary obconic, bearing numerous small woolly brown areoles subtended by small leaves, its glochids 
brown; fruit small, globular to obovate or even clavate, often proliferous, red or rarely yellow, 10 to 
18 mm. long, turgid, slightly fleshy; seeds compressed, 3 to 4 mm. broad, with narrow, often acute, 
margins. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Southwestern United States and Mexico. 

This species has a wide distribution for an Opuntia. extending from southern LInited 
States to Puebla, Mexico. 

The great variation in the length of the spines and in the character of the spine sheaths 
has led to the description of several varieties. These all seem to us to merge into the one 
species, as above indicated. It sometimes hybridizes with O. inihricata. See C. B. Allaire's 



48 



THE CACTACEAE. 



plant from San Antonio, New Mexico. 

The following names, Opiiiitia leptocaidis Lietevirens Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 184. 1834), 
O. grad/is subpatens Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 73. 1850), and O. leptocaulis 
major Tourney (Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 3: 1152. 1901) are printed but not described. O. 
stipata (Schumann, Index Gesemtb. Kakteen 830. 1898) refers to O. leptocaulis stipata. 

lllnstYationr. Bull. Torr. Club 32: pi. 10, f. 9; Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 19: pi. 21, in part; 
Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: f. 12; Emory, Mil. Reconn. app. 2 f. 12; Pac. R. Rep. 
4: pi. 20, f. 1; pi. 24, f. 13 to 15, all as Opuntia vaginata. Cact. Journ. 1: 154, as Opioitia 




Fig. 57 — Opuntia leptocau- Fig. 58. — Opuntia ca- 
FiG. 56 — Opuntia leptocaulis in the foieground. lis. XO.4. ribaea. XO.66. 

jrutescens. Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 20, f. 4, 5; pi. 24, f. 19, all as Opuntia jrutescens brevispina. 
Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 20, f. 2, 3; pi. 24, f. 16 to 18, all as Opuntia jrutescens longispina. Emory, 
Mil. Reconn. 158. No. 11, as Opuntia calijornica; Gartenwalt 11: 75, as O. vaginata; Carnegie 
Inst. Wash. 269: pi. 10, f. 89; pi. H, f. 96, Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 2: f. 717; Schelle, Handb. 
Kakteenk. 41. f. 2; M5llers Deutsche Girt. Zeit. 25: 475. f. 9, No. 21. 

Plate VI, figure 3, represents a fruiting branch from a plant collected by Dr. Rose near 
Sierra Blanca, Texas, in 1913; figure 4 shows a fruiting branch from another Texas plant 
obtained by the same collector. Figure 56 is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal 
near Tucson, Arizona, in 1913; figure 57 represents a branch with young leafy shoots, of a 
specimen collected by Dr. Rose in 1913 at Laredo, Texas. 

4. Opuntia tesajo Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 448. 1896. 

Bushy, 3 dm. broad and high; joints slender, indistinctly tuberculate, 2 to 5 cm. long; areoles 
5 to 6 mm. apart; leaves awl-shaped, 2 to 4 mm. long, often red; spines at first 2, small, dark brown, 
4 to 8 mm. long, either erect or reflexed ; later a long central spine develops, this porrect, 5 cm. long, 
yellow near the tip; flowers yellow, small, 1.5 to 1.8 cm. long, including the ovary; style whitish; stigma- 
lobes 5, yellowish. 

Type locality: In Lower California. 

Distribution: Central part of Lower California. 

The type of this little-known species should be in the herbarium of the Missouri 
Botanical Garden, at St. Louis, but it can not now be found. The species has been in cul- 
tivation at La Mortola, Italy, but it does not do well under cultivation. Dr. C. A. 
Purpus, who has collected the plant in Lower California, regarded it as related to O. ramos- 
issima, claiming that the stems have the peculiar marking of that species. This relation- 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




1, 2. Branches of Opuntia mortolens 
3, 4. Branches of Opuntia leptocaulh. 



5. Flowering branch of Opuntia arbuscula 

6. Flowering branch of Opuntia kleiniae. 
All three-fourths size 



OPUNTIA 49 

ship, however, is not shown in the La Mortoia plant. With only a very meager description 
published and no type specimen preserved, it is difficult to decide the relationship of this 
species. No exact type locality is cited for it, but it is said to grow "among rocks, especially 
towards the west coast, and in the more central portions" of Lower California, where it was 
first collected by W. M. Gabb in 1867. 

We refer this species with hesitation to the series Leptocaulis. 

Opuntta tenajo (Just's Bot. Jahresb. 24=: 380. 1896) is doubtless an error in spelling 
for 0. tesdp. 




Fig. 59. — Opuntia caribae;. forming dense thickets. 
5. Opuntia caribaea sp. nov. 

Steins ; to 3 meters high, forming thickets in open woods and waste grounds; ultimate joints 
horizontal, 5 to 10 cm. long, much thicker than in O. leptocaulis , with short, elevated tubercles; areoles 
large, bearing white wool and a few long caducous hairs ; spines 1 to 3, porrect, acicular, 2 to 3 cm. 
long, covered with thin, brown, papery sheaths; glochids dark brown; leaves small, 1 to 2 mm. long, 
acute; flowers not known; fruit red, 1.5 to 2 cm. long, usually naked but sometimes bearing short spines 
from the upper areoles, so far as known always sterile. 

Very common on the cactus plain about Azua and also near Barahona, Santo Domingo; 
collected near Azua, March 1913, by Rose, Fitch, and Russell (No. 3837, type) ; also by Paul 
Bartsch in Haiti, 1917; also on the northern coast of Venezuela, and on Margarita Island, and 
apparently in Trinidad, as indicated by a colored drawing in the Kew herbarium received in 
1825 from David Lockhart. Dr. Britton endeavored to find this plant in Trinidad in 1920 and 
1921 but failed and he could not learn anything about it. It appears probable that the draw- 
ing sent by Mr. Lockhart to Kew in 1825 was made from a Venezuelan plant. 

The plant grows in great abundance in Santo Domingo with other cacti, and certainly 
appears to be indigenous. Its nearest relative is O. Icptocauln. from which it differs in its 
greater size, thicker joints, and larger fruit. 

Figure 58 represents a joint of a plant collected by Rose, Fitch, and Russel at Azua, 
Santo Domingo, in 1913; figure 59 is from a photograph of the type plant taken by Paul 
G. Russell. 



50 



THE CACTACEAE. 



6. Opuntia arbuscula Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 309. 1836. 
Opuntia tieoarbuscula Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 260. 1908. 
Forming a bush 2 to 3 meters high, often with a rounded, very compact top with numerous short 
branches; trunk short, 10 to 12cm. in diameter, with several woody branches; ultimate joints 
5 to 7.5 cm. long, 8 mm. in diameter, with low, indistinct tubercles; leaves small; spines usually 1, but 
sometimes several, especially on old joints, porrect, up to 4 cm. long, covered with loose straw-colored 
sheaths; flowers greenish yellow tinged with red, 3 5 cm. long; fruit often proliferous, sometimes only 
one-seeded. 



.X.iM^M¥i^.\^Xi- 



%rw^^^^ .■ ■'.-. 



I ** Jji-i"^^' 



<-^r 









■€-^, 



Fig. 60. — Opuntia arbuscula. 

Type locality: On the lower Gila near Maricopa village. 

Distribution: Arizona and Sonora. 

Opuntia congesta Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 88, pi. 2, f. 4, 7; pi. 8; pi. 13, f. 5. 
1909), from the description, is near this species and probably a race of it. 

Races of the species differ in size, in armament, in the length of the tubercles, and in 
size and shape of the fruit. 

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 6, f. 2; Bull. Torr. Club 32: pi. 9, f. 3; 
Plant World 11'": f. 11; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 22; 19: pi. 23, in part, this last as Opun- 
tia neoarbuscula; Carnegie Inst. Wash. 269: pi. II, f. 95. 

Plate VI, figure 5, represents a flowering branch from Professor J. W. Tourney's collec- 
tion at Tucson, Arizona. Figure 60 is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal near 
Tucson, Arizona, in I906; figure 61 is from a photograph taken by George B. Sudworth in 
Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona; figure 62 shows a fruiting branch from the same collection. 




1. Leafy branch of Opuntia kleiniae. 4. Flowering branch of Opuntia echhiocarpa 

2. Terminal branch of Opunlia vivipara. 5. Fruiting branch of Opuntia versicolor. 

3. Branch o( OpHittia parryi. (All three-fourths size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



51 



Engclmaiin, Pnic. Anici 
cens Griffiths, Rep. Mo 



Acad. 3: 308. 1856. 

Bot. Gard. 20: 86. 1909. 



7. Opunda kleiniae De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 
Opiwtu 

OpKlllUl 

Stems pale, glaucous, sometimes 2.5 meters tall, woody at base; tubercles long; areoles large, a 
little longer than wide, filled with white wool from the very first; spines usually 1, but sometimes 
more, from the base of the areole, covered with yellow sheaths, on old joints accompanied by several 
bristle-like spines from the lower margin of the areole; glochids yellow to brown; leaves linear, 15 mm. 
long, .icute; flowers 3 cm. long, purplish; petals broad, rounded at apex; fruit red, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, 
long persisting; seeds 4 to 5 mm. bru.id. 




Fig. 62. — Opuntia arbuscula. XO.75. 



Type locality: In Mexico. 

Dhtr'ihution: Texas to central Mexico. 

Opuntia kleiniae was originally described as without tubercles on the stems, which has 
raised the question whether the plant bearing this name is properly referred; in this respect 
O. arbuscula answers the description better, but it is very doubtful whether O. arbuscula could 
have been known at that time. 

Opuntia kleiniae has long been in cultivation and is to be seen in most collections. 

In 1910 Dr. Rose collected near Alamos, Mexico, an Opuntia very similar in habit and 
joints to 0. kleiniae. but much more spiny. 

Opuntia kleiniae cristata (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 55. 1908) is a garden form. O. 
kleiniae laetevirens Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 73. 1850) is only a name. 

Illustrations: Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen 2: pi. 1, sec. 7, f. 9; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
19: pi. 21, in part; 20: pi. 6, in part, this last as Opuntia caerulescens. 

Plate VI, figure 6, represents a flowering branch of a specimen obtained from M. Simon, 
of St. Ouen, Paris, France, in 1901; plate vii, figure 1, represents a leafy branch of a specimen 
collected by Dr. Rose at Ixmiquilpan, Mexico, in 1905. 

Two remarkable opuntias were collected in Lower California by Dr. Rose in 1911, but 
as they were not in flower or fruit, and have not developed flowers since they were brought 
into cultivation, we are unable to describe them fully; they are doubtless of this relationship 
and their characters are given as follows: 
Opuntia sp. 

Stems 1.3 to 2 meters high, r.ulier weak, often clambering over bushes, 10 mm. in diameter, woody 
below, pale, when dry the white epidermis peeling off; lateral branches numerous, horizontal, short (2 



52 THE CACTACEAE. 

to 6 cm. long) ; areoles on old stems bearing 3 or 4 long (2 to 4 cm. long) needle-like brownish spines; 
young areoles usually with a single spine each, filled with brown wool ; glochids brown, numerous sheaths 
on young spines straw-colored, soon deciduous; flowers and fruit unknown. 

Description based on field notes and on living and herbarium specimens. 

Collected by Dr. Rose on Santa Cruz Island, Gulf of California, April 1, 1911 (No. 16845). 

Opuntia sp. 

Procumbent, forming an indeterminable mass of spiny branches, 3 to 10 dm. in diameter; old stems 
woody, smooth, brown, and shiny, 2 cm. in diameter; branches 10 to 20 cm. long, bluish green; spines 
of two kinds; the 2 to 4 principal ones long (2 to 3 cm. long), needle-like, at first covered with thin 
yellow sheaths, straw-colored when young, becoming purplish, finally fading to gray; secondary spines 4 to 
6, radial, inconspicuous: glochids brownish; flowers and fruit unknown. 

Description based on field notes and living and herbarium specimens. 

Colleaed by Dr. J. N. Rose on East San Benito Island, of? the coast of Lower California, 
March 9, 1911 (No. 16085). This is, doubtless, the plant referred to by Walton (Cact. Journ. 
2: 137. 1899) as O. rciviosissii)ia, but it is not that species. 

Series 3. THURBERIANAE. 
Bushy, arborescent, or depressed species, with slender joints, the ultimate ones tuberculate, about 2 
cm. thick or less, the areoles bearing several spines. We recognize 8 species. 7 of them natives of the 
southwestern United States and northern Mexico, and 1 in Lower California. 

Key to Species 

Bushy or arborescent species, 6 dm. high or higher. 
Tubercles narrowly oblong, 1 cm. long or more. 

Joints readily detached 8.0. tiripiim 

Joints not readily detached. 

Longer spines 2.5 cm. long or longer. 

Flowers orange to scarlet 9. O. letracanlha 

Flowers purple 10. O. recondita 

Spines 2 cm. long or less 11. O. ihiirbeii 

Tubercles low, oblong, 6 to 8 mm, long 12. O. clatellina 

Depressed species, 6 dm. high or less. 

Spines yellow or brown; flowers green or tinged with yellow. 

Spines yellow, up to 5 cm. long; petals 1 to 1.5 cm. long 13. O. dctvisii 

Spines brown, 2.5 cm. long or less; petals 2 to 2.5 cm. long 14. O. viridiflorj 

Spines white ; flowers yellow 1 5. O. whipplei 

8. Opuntia vivipara Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 52: 153. 1908. 

Plant 2 to 3.5 meters high, usually several srrong branches from the base, 8 to 10 cm. in diame- 
ter, much branched above, but not compactly so; old stems with rather smooth bark; young branches 
bluish green, slender, 1 to 2 cm. long, 10 to 12 mm. in diameter; tubercles low, oblong, 15 to 20 mm. 
long; areoles when young bearing a dense cushion of yellow wool with few or no glochids; spines 1 to 
4, 2 cm. long or less, porrect or ascending, covered with straw-colored sheaths; leaves small, rerete, acut- 
ish, purple ; flowers numerous, borne in clusters at the top of the branches, purplish ; ovary strongly 
tuberculate, bearing white deciduous bristles; fruit oblong, 4 to 6 cm. long, smooth, with a somewhat 
depressed umbilicus, yellowish green, spineless; seeds white, very thick, 5 mm. long. 

Type locality: Near Tucson, Arizona. 

Distribution: Known only from type locality. 

The relationship of this species is doubtful; it resembles certain garden forms of 
O. tetracantha, but differs from typical forms of that species in its much larger fruit and 
seeds, different armament, and habit. The type grew associated with O. spinosior and 
O. versicolor, but there is no indication that it is the result of hybridization of those species. 

Illustrations: Smiths. Misc. Coll. 52: pi. 12; Plant World W": f. 12. 

Plate VII, figure 2, represents a branch drawn by L. C. C. Krieger at the Desert 
Botanical Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona; plate viii, figure 1 is from a photograph of the type 
plant taken by Dr. MacDougal in 1908. 



rTON a ROSE 



'.;t\:--J 





1. Type plant of Ufuuiti.i iju ■'.!!. i. iK.ir Tucson, Arizona. 

2. A much-branched plant of Upuntia tersicolor. 



OPUNTIA. 



53 



is doubtless the type. 
C. C. Krieger at the Desert Botanical 



9. Opuntia tetracantha Tourney, Gard. and For. 9: 432. 1896. 

Low bush, 5 to 1 5 dm. high, brancning; central stem woody, 5 to 8 cm. in diameter; young 
joints 23 to 30 cm. long, 10 to 15 mm. in diameter, purplish; tubercles at first prominent, elongated, 
16 to 22 mm. long; areoles bearing wool, light brown glochids, prominent glands and spines; spines 
3 to 6, usually 4, slender, somewhat deflexed, 2 to 3.5 cm. long; flowers greenish purple, 1.5 to 2 cm. 
broad; fruit 2 to 2.5 cm. long, yellowish orange to "scarlet," nearly smooth, but rarely bearing a few 
spines, deeply umbilicate; seeds 3 to 5 mm, broad, with irregular faces and a thick, spongy commissure. 

Type locality: Five miles east of Tucson, Arizona. 

Distribnt'iou: Known only from the region about Tucson, Arizona. 

The species was originally compared by Mr. Tourney with O. thurberi, with which he 
thought it to be closely associated, but differing in "its longer, more strongly deflexed spines, 
smaller and different-colored flowers." 

The type specimen was not indicated, but Totimey's own plant, collected in 1895, which 
was recently purchased by the U. S. National Herbai 

Illustration: Bull. Torr. Club 32: pi. 9, f. 2. 

Plate IX, figure 1, shows a joint painted by L. 
Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona. 

10. Opuntia recondita Grifliths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 131. 1913. 

"A stout broad-branched shrub, 1 to 1.5 meters in height; trunk cylindric, 4 to 7 cm. in diam- 
eter, with constrictions corresponding to each year's growth, with gray bark, and having a few lateral, 
easily detachable, weakly spined joints about 10 cm. long, the remaining joints being 20 to 30 cm. 
long, very spiny, in the second year about 2 cm. in diameter, tuberculate; tubercles forming a ridge, 
flattening out below, above extending precipitously, about 2 to 5 cm. long, 5 to 6 mm. wide, and 4 to 

5 mm. high, remaining recognizable three years, and then disappearing; areoles broadly obovate, 5 to 

6 mm. in the longest diameter, in age becoming larger and more prominent, forming new wool for 
several years; glochids yellow, in a thick 3 mm. long cluster 
on the upper part of the areole, also smaller clusters on the 
other parts of the areole, mostly at the base of the longest 
and most central spine ; spines first 2 to 4, later 6 to 8 or 

10, upright, spreading, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, in cross-section 
weakly circular, gray at the base, becoming deep reddish 
brown at the tips, surrounded the entire length by a loose, 
comparatively bright sheath; between the spines are scattered 
a few dirty-black, sheathless bristles about 6 mm. long; leaves 
subulate, finely tipped, terete, 12 to 20 mm. long. 

"Flowers bright purple, when open about 2.5 cm. in 
diameter; petals finely and irregularly serrate, inconspicu- 
ously but finely irregularly notched; sepals thick, triangular 
pointed, greenish purple, anthers greenish with purple tinge ; 
pistil greenish at base, with purple tinge above; stigma-lobes 
6, white; ovary obovoid, tuberculate, with small areoles, 2 
mm. in diameter, short greenish brown glochids 1 to 2 mm. 
long, and 1, 2, or 3 tsrown, caducous spines sheathed in 
part; fruit not deciduous, 3 to 3.5 by 2 to 2.4 cm., large, 
greenish yellow with a reddish tinge on the outermost side, 
only weakly tuberculate in the second year, with projecting 
brownish glochids 3 mm. long; seeds white, thick, mostly 
flat but often lightly angled with narrowly thickened edges, 
and often somewhat concave." 

Type Locality: La Perla, Mexico. 

Distiibution: Known only from type locality, and, 
to us, only from the description of which the above 
is a translation by Mr. Russell. 

11. Opuntia thurberi Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 308. 1856. 

Large bushy plants, 2 to 4 meters high; joints slender, elongated, 1.5 to 2.5 dm. long, 10 to 12 
cm. in diameter; tubercles 1.5 to 2 cm. long, flattened laterally; leaves linear, 6 to 8 mm. long, spread- 




FiG. 63.— Opun 



54 THE CACTACEAE. 

ing; spines 3 to 5, short (10 to 12 mm. long), spreading, covered with thin, brown, papery sheaths, 
the lowest one stoutest; flowers 3.5 cm. broad, brownish; fruit 2 cm. to 3 cm. long, spineless; seeds 
nearly globular, 4 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Bacuachi, Sonora, Mexico. 

Distribution: Western coast of Mexico. 

Opuntia thurberi has long been one of our least-known species. The type, which is 
but a fragment, has not been clearly associated with any recent collections, but we are 
disposed now to believe that specimens collected on the west coast of Mexico by Dr. Rose 
in 1910 belong here. If we are correct, it ranges from Sonora to Sinaloa, Mexico. It is 
sometimes associated with Opuntia versicolor in its northern range, but is not so stout and 
has fewer and longer spines. 

Figure 63 is from a photograph of the type specimen. 

12. Opuntia clavellina Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 444. 1896. 

Plant 1 meter high or less, rather openly branched; ultimate joints slender, spreading or ascend- 
ing, somewhat clavate, 5 to 10 cm. long, a little over 1 cm. in diameter; tubercles prominent, elon- 
gated; spines 3 to 6 in a cluster, very long, covered with loose straw-colored or brown sheaths, the 
central one much longer and porrect; flowers yellow; fruit clavate, short, tuberculate. 

Type locality: near Mision Purisima, Lower California. 

Distribution: Interior of central Lower California. 

The above description is based on the original one and on the type. If the plant illus- 
trated as cited below belongs here, this is a very distinct species, which was referred, however, 
by Mrs. Brandegee to Opuntia niolesta Brandegee. 

Illustration: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: pi. 129, A. Karsten and Schenck, Vegetations- 
bilder 13: pi. 18, in part. 

Of this series there is another peculiar Lower California species, perhaps nearest O. 
clavellina, but of different habit and spines. It also suggests O. tetracantha of Arizona. It 
was obtained first by Dr. Rose in 1911, but was without flowers or fruit. It may be char- 
acterized as follows: 

Opuntia sp. 

Stems slender (1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter), weak, often clambering over bushes, pale green in 
color, terete, pointed, 6 to 7 dm. long; areoles set on low tubercles, circular; chief spines 2 to 6, only 
slightly spreading, nearly equal, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long, clothed with loose straw-colored sheaths (rose- 
colored when very young) ; accessory spines 3 or 4, almost bristle-like, borne from the lower parts of 
the areoles; glochids short, greenish when young, yellow in age; flowers and fruit not seen. 

Collected by Dr. J. N. Rose on Cerralvo Island, off southern Lower California, April 19, 
1911 (No. 16875), and also by Nelson and Goldman on the same island in 1906 (No. 7524). 

13. Opuntia davisii Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 305. 1856. 

Plants low, 3 to 5 dm. high, much branched, their dense covering of straw-colored spines making 
them conspicuous objects in the landscape; terminal joints slender, 6 to 8 cm. long, about 1 cm. in 
diameter, strongly tuberculate; spines 6 to 12, unequal, the longest ones 4 to 5 cm. long, acicular. 
covered with thin sheaths; glochids numerous, yellow; flowers, including ovary, 3.5 cm. long; petals 
olive-green to yellow, broad, with rounded mucronate tips; ovary with large areoles bearing a few 
spines each; fruit 3 cm. long, somewhat tuberculate, naked; seeds not known. 

Type locality: Upper Canadian, about Tucumcari Hills, near the Llano Estacado. 

Distribution: Western Texas and eastern New Mexico. 

For many years this plant was not collected and the name was confused with other 
species, so that at one time it was supposed to extend as far west as California. It is now 
believed to have a rather circumscribed range. It is first seen going west on the Texas & 
Pacific Railroad about Colorado, Texas. 

The plant was named for Jefferson Davis, who was Secretary of War when Whipple's 
report was made. 




1. Joint of Opunlia setracaniki. 1 to 5. Flowering joints of Opuntu lersuoln 
6. Proliferous fruits of Opiintia fitlg/Ja. (All three-fourths size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



55 



Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mat>. 108: pi. 6652; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 16. 
Figure 64 is copied from the second illustration above cited. 
14. Opunda viridiflora sp. nov. 

A low, round, bushy plant 30 to 60 cm. hi^^h ; ttrminal joints 5 to 7 cm. lon,t;, l.=i to 2 cm. thick, 
often quite fragile; tubercles prominent, flattened from the sides; areoles circular, filled with short! 
yellow or dull-gray wool ; spines 5 to 7, somewhat spreading, the longest ones 2 cm. long, dark brown 
in color; glochids numerous, very short, yellow; flowers at tips of branches in clusters of 3 to 8, 3.5 
to 4.5 cm. long (including ovary), "green, tinged with red"; fruit strongly tuberculate, except for a 
few long, deciduous bristles, with a deep umbilicus; seeds smooth, white, 3 mm. broad. 




Collected in the vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico, altitude about 2,225 meters, by 
Paul C. Standley, July 6, 1911 (No. 6493, type) and at the same locality by T. D. A. Cock- 
erell in 1912, and by J. N. Rose in 1913 (No. 18776). It is quite common on the hills just 
north of Santa Fe about Fort Matey, where it is one of the dominant plants, but it was not 
observed elsewhere in that region. 

This species differs from Opiintui niihy'icatd with which it is found, in its much lower 
stature, more bushy habit, in its branches, spines, and smaller, differently colored flowers, 
different fruit, and smaller seeds. 

Figure 65 represents two joints of a specimen collected by Dr. Rose at the type locality 
in 1913. 

15. Opuntia whipplei Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 307. 1856. 
Opiintia whipplei laevror Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Ac.ul. 3; 307. 185(i. 

Low, much branched, with long, fibrous roots; areoles prominent, flattened laterally, 10 to 15 cm. 
long, circular, filled with light-btown wool; glochids pale yellow, short; spines about 12, the longest 



56 



THE CACTACEAE. 



about 2 cm. long, dark brown, covered with lighter colored papery sheaths; flowers yellow, small (2 
cm. broad) ; young ovary bearing brown spines in the axils of the leaves; fruit strongly tuberculate, 
spineless, 2.5 to 4 cm. long, with a deeply depressed umbilicus, sometimes with only one seed but 
usually many; seeds small, 4 mm. broad, smooth. 

Type locality: About Zuni, New Mexico. 

Distribution: Northern New Mexico and Arizona to southwestern Colorado and prob- 
ably southern Utah. Also reported by Coulter in southern California, Lower California, 
and Sonora, but not to be expected there. 

llliistratiou: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 24, f. 9, 10. Bull. Agr. Exper. Sta. N. Mex. 78: pi. 11, 
12,; North Amer. Fauna 7: pi. 9; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 17, f. 1 to 4; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 
4: f. 2609. 

Figure 66 is copied from the first illustration above cited. 




Fig. 6^. — Opunti.i if miliucjrpa in the forepmund. Phutographed by MacDuugal. 

Series 4. ECHINOCARPAE. 

Dry-fruited, rather stout-jointed, bushy or depressed species, the areoles bearing several spines, 

the flowers red, yellow, or yellowish. Four species, inhabiting the southwestern United States, Sonora. 

and Lower California. 

Key to Species. 

Tubercles elongated, 2 to 3 times as long as wide. 

Fruit long-spiny, strongly tuberculate 16. O. acanthocarpa 

Fruit short-spiny, little tuberculate 17. O. partyi 

Tubercles short, less than twice as long as wide. 

Spines with white or straw-colored sheaths 18. O. echinocarpa 

Spines with yellow-brown sheaths 19. O. serpentina 



OPUNTIA. 57 

16. Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 308. 1856. 

Much branched, 1.5 to 2 meters high; branches becoming woody, alternate, making a narrow 
angle with the trunk; terminal joints 4 to 8 cm. long, strongly tuberculate; tubercles elongated, flat- 
tened laterally; spines 8 to 25, acicular, dark brown, covered with thin and lighter colored sheaths, 

2 to 3 cm. long; glochids numerous, yellow; flowers large, red to yellow, 5 cm, long, and when fully 
open nearly as broad; ovary rather short, turbinate, with few prominent tubercles; fruit dry, about 

3 cm. long, naked below, tuberculate above, each tubercle crowned by a cluster of 10 to 12 stout 
spines; umbilicus broad and somewhat depressed; seeds 5 to 6 mm. broad, sharply angular. 

Type loccilit)': On the mountains of Cactus Pass, Arizona, about 500 miles west of 
Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

D'iStYihiit'Knr. Arizona and California; reported also from Utah, Nevada, and Sonora. 

UlHStyjtinuM N. Amer. Fauna 7: pi. 7, 8; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 18, f. 1 to 3; pi. 24, f. 11. 
Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2606; Gartenwelt 11: 75. 

Figure 67 is from a photograph by Dr. MacDougal of a plant near Pictured Rocks, 
Tucson Mountains, Arizona. 

17. Opuntia parryi Engelmann, Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 339. 1852. 

C.utu! parryi Lemaire, Cactees 88. 1868. 

Opuntia bernardina Engelmann in Parish, Bull. Turr. Club 19: 92. 1892. 
Low and bush-like, 2 to 4 dm. high; joints cylindric, 7 to 30 cm. long by 1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter, 
strongly tuberculate; tubercles 1 to 1.5 cm. long; areoles rather large, bearing light-brown wool, yel- 
low glochids, and spines; spines about 10, dark brown, the longer ones 3 cm. long, covered with 
loose" sheaths ; flowers, several near together at ends of branches, 4 cm. long; sepals greenish or dull 
red; petals yellow, obtuse; stigma-lobes cream-colored; ovary tuberculate; fruit dry, ovoid, 2 cm. long, 
strongly umbilicate, when mature and fertile plump, otherwise more or less tuberculate; areoles on the 
f fuit "^large, filled with wool and glochids, those at top of fruit often with short spines; seeds white, 

4 to 6 mm. broad, beaked, the margins channeled. 

Type locality: Near San Felipe, eastern slope of California Mountains — San Jacinto 
Mountains. 

Distribution: Interior valleys of southern California. 

This is common in some of the interior valleys of southern California, although its 
range has not been very definitely determined. It was first collected by Dr. C. C. Parry 
in 1851 and named for him by Dr. Engelmann in 1852; but when the latter again took up 
this name a few years later, he associated it with a very different species, which most later 
writers and dealers accepted as the true Opuntia parryi. Later on Dr. Engelmann segregated 
a species which he named O. bernardina, including therein Parry's specimen, but this was 
not published until after his death. We therefore regard O. bernardina as a synonym of 
0. parryi. while the O. parryi of most collections becomes O. parishii. We are under obli- 
gation to Mr. C. R. Orcutt for first calling our attention to this confusion. 

Mr. Orcutt thinks that this species is near O. serpentina; but the former has larger flow- 
ers, different spines, much less spiny fruit, and is of different habit. 

Opuntia bernardina cristata Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 20. 1902), an ab- 
normal form, has been described. 

Plate VII, figure 3, is from a plant collected by W. T. Schaller at Pala, California, 
showing a leafy joint. 

18. Opuntia echinocarpa Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 305. 1856. 

Opuiiiij .ihnu.cjipa major Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: .^05. 1856. 
Caciiii Lchnnn.n piii Lemaire, Cactees 88. 1868. 

Opinit,., cchinnc.irpa nuda Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 4-46. 1896. 
Opiinlia ec/nnocarpa parkeri Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 416. 1896. 
Opuntia ecljinocarpa robuslior Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 446. 1896. 
Opuntia deserta Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 132. 1913. 
Plant usually low, but .sometimes 1.5 meters high, much branched and widely spreading, witli 
.1 short woody trunk 2 to 3 cm. in diameter, in age with nearly smooth batk; joints short, turgid. 



58 



THE CACTACEAE. 



strongly tuberculate; spines numerous, when young bright yellow, when older brownish, or in age gray- 
ish, unequally covered with thin papery sheaths; flowers yellowish, but the sepals often tipped with 
red; ovary short, turbinate, densely spiny especially in the upper part; fruit dry, very spiny; seeds 
somewhat angular, 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In the Colorado Valley near the mouth of Bill Williams River. 

Distribution: Nevada, Utah, Arizona, California, and Lower California. 

Coulter has described three varieties of this species, none of which is quite typical, but 
without seeing more specimens we can only refer them all to the species proper. His variety 
par key i seems more like a very spiny form of 0. parryi. O. parkeri Engelmann (Coulter, 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 446. 1896) was published as a synonym. 

Mrs. Brandegee thought Opinitia echinocarpa nitda very near 0. alcahes, if not identical 
with it (Erythrea 5: 122). 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 18, f. 5 to 10; pi. 24, f. 8; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 
132, the last as Opuntia desert a. 

Plate VII, figure 4, is from a plant collected by Dr. Rose near the Salton Sink, California, 
showing a flowering joint. 

19- Opuntia serpentina Engelmann, Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 338. 1852. 

Ceveus catijoiincui Torrey and Gray, FI. N. Amer. 1: 555. 18-10. Not 0/>«h/A( f^/z/ocH/Vd Engelmann. 

1848. 
Opuntia califoniiai Coville, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 13: 119. 1899. 

Ascending, erect, or prostrate; branches slender, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, bluish green, strongly 
tuberculate; leaves minute; tubercles elevated, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, longer than broad, flattened; spines 
7 to 20, brown, covered with yellowish-brown papery sheaths about 1 cm. long; glochids light brown; 
flowers close together at the top of short branches, about 4 cm. broad, greenish yellow, the outer petals 
tinged with red; ovary strongly tuberculate, spiny, with a depressed umbilicus; fruit dry, very spiny. 

Type locality: Near the seacoast about San Diego, California. 

Distribution: Southern California and northern Lower California. 

Cactus calijornicus Nuttall, although given in the Index Kewensis 
(1: 367), was never published by Nuttall, although he did have the 
name in manuscript, as stated in Torrey and Gray's "Flora" in the place 
cited above, where it was taken up as a Cereus. 

Figure 68 is from a plant collected by Mr. G. Sykes near San 
Diego, California. 

Series 5. BIGELOVIANAE. 

We recognize two species in this series, natives of the southwestern 
United States and Lower California. They are low, bushy plants, with short 
definite trunks densely covered with short, stout, very spiny branches, the 
spines white, straw-colored, or yellow, the tubercles, at least those of young 
shoots, little if any longer than broad, and considerably elevated. Their fruits 
are fleshy berries. 

Key to Species. 

Larger spines numerous; upper tubercles on fruit larger than lowe: 
Larger spines 4 to 6; tubercles on fruit all alike 



20. O. bigelov 

21. O. chibe 




Fig. 68. — Opuntia ser- 
pentina. X0.6(5 



20. Opuntia bigelovii Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 307. 1856. 

Usually with a central, erect trunk, 1 meter high or less, with short lateral 
branches, the upper ones erect; joints usually 5 to 15 cm. long, very turgid, 
with closely set areoles and almost impenetrable armament; tubercles slightly 
elevated, pale green, somewhat 4-sided, about as long as broad, 1 cm. broad or less; spines, as well as 
their papery sheaths, pale yellow; flowers several, borne at the tips of the branches, 4 cm. long including 
the ovary; sepals orbicular, about 1 cm. in diameter, tinged with red; petals about 1.5 cm. long, pale 
magenta to crimson; ovary 2 cm. long, its large areoles bearing brown wool and several acicular spines; 
fruit usually naked, strongly tuberculate, the upper tubercles larger than the lower. 



OPUNTIA. 



59 



Type locality: Bill Williams River, Arizona. 

Distribution: Scnithern Nevada, Arizona, California, northern Sonora, and northern 
Lower California. 

Illustrations: Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn. 26: pi 12; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: pi. 
128, b; Hornaday, Camp-fires on Desert and Lava, facing p. 154; Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 
5: f. 16; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 19; Plant World 11'": f. 10. MacDougal, Bot. N. Amer. Des. pi. 
47; Shreve, Veg. Des. Mt. Range pi. 4; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: pi. 10; Stand. Cycl. Hort. 
Bailey 4: f. 2607; Karsten and Schenck, Vegetationsbilder 4: pi. 40, B. 

Figure 69 is from a photograph by Dr. MacDougal of a plant in Pima Canyon, Santa 
Catalina Mountains, Arizona; figure 70 is copied from the Pacific Railroad Report above 
cited. 

21. Opuntia ciribe Ent^elmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 445. 1896. 

One meter high or less, witii numerous stout branches densely armed: ultimate joints 4 to 5 cm. 
in diameter, strongly and regularly tuberculate, 3 cm. in diameter; tubercles about as long as broad 




Fig. M. — Opuntia hipel 



Fig. 70. — Opuntia bigelovii. 



(5 to 7 cm. broad) ; larger spines 4 to 6, stout, 2 to 3 cm. long, covered with loose yellow sheaths, 
accompanied by several bristle-like spines or hairs ; glochids numerous ; flowers yellow ; ovary some- 
what bristly; fruit strongly tuberculate, 3 to 4 cm. long, spineless. 

Type locality: Comondu and Loreto northward to beyond Rosario, Lower California. 

Distribution: Central Lower California. 

Opuntia ciribe is near 0. bigelovii, but differs from it in having less spiny stems and 
globular, slightly different fruits. 

Figure 71 is from a photograph of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at the head of Con- 
cepcion Bay, Lower California; figure 72 is from a drawing of a joint from the same plant. 



60 



THE CACTACEAfc. 





Fig. 72.— Opuntia ciribe. XO.! 



Series 6. IMBRICATAE. 

The typical species are tall, much branched, very spiny. The terminal joints are fleshy and strongly 
tuberculate, the tubercles large and flattened laterally. The fruit is either smooth or strongly tuber- 
culate. We recognize 8 species, natives of Mexico and southwestern United States. 

Key to Species. 

Joints cylindric; tubercles much flatteneJ laterally. 
Fruit smooth or but slightly tuberculate. 

Branches very stout, 5 cm. thick or more 11. O. cbolla 

Branches relatively slender, 2 cm. thick or less. 

Plant glaucous ; spines A at an areole 23. O. cahnalliana 

Plant not glaucous; spines more than 4 at an areole 2 i. 0. versicolor 

Fruit manifestly tuberculate. 

Tall species, up to 2 or 4 meters high. 

Flowers small; petals 1.5 cm. long 25. O. lloydii 

Flowers large; petals 2 to 3 cm. long 26. O. hi/br/aiLi 

Low species, 6 dm. high or less. 

Flowers yellow 27. O. tunicala 

Flowers rose-colored 28. 0. pallida 

Joints clavate; tubercles not much flattened laterally 29. O. molesia 

22. Opuntia cholla Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 1 : 320. 1895. 

Usually tree-like, 1 to 3 meters high, with a definite trimk 7 to 15 cm. in diameter; trunk very 
spiny at first and becoming more spiny each year for some time, but in age spineless and developing a 
smooth, brownish yellow bark; top of plant often dense and broad; joints often in whorls, horizontal, 
pale, with large compressed tubercles; spines usually numerous, more or less porrect, covered with loose 
brownish sheaths; glochids numerous, yellow; flowers rather small, 3 cm. broad, deep purple; fruit often 
4 to 5 cm. long, usually proliferous, often in long chains of 8 to 12 individuals or forming compound 
clusters; seeds numerous, very small, often abortive 



THE CACTACEAE. 



61 



Type locality: In Lower California. 

Distribution: Lower California. 

This is one of the commonest opuntias in southern Lower California and was usually 
seen by Dr. Rose at every locality visited south of Magdalena Bay on the west coast and on 
the east coast as far north as Muleje. It is undoubtedly the plant referred to O. prolifera by 
Mr. Brandegee, but it differs in habit and armament from that species; the fruit of O. pro- 
/ijei-ii is nearly or quite devoid of seeds, while this species often has numerous small ones. 
In this species, as in a few other opuntias, the fruits are quite proliferous, hanging on for 
a number of years and usually remaining green. They are, however, easily detached, and 
on falling to the ground, readily 
take root and start new colonies. 
Our illustration shows some of the 
fruits which have already rooted 
and have developed young joints. 

The plant here described is 
the true "choUa" of the people 
of Lower California, and is the 
plant cultivated under that name 
by A. Berger at La Mortola from 
a cutting of Weber's type speci- 
men, and by the late Mr. Darrah 
at Manchester, England. 

Illustiuttiom: Contr. LI. S. 
Nat. Herb. 16: pi. 128, A; Kar- 
sten and Schenk, Vegetations- 
bilder 13: pi. 17, b. 

Figure 73 is from a photo- 
graph of a plant collected by Dr. 
Rose at Cape San Lucas; figure 
74 represents a joint of the same 
plant; figures 75 and 16 represent 
its proliferous fruits developing 
new joints. 

OpHiilh, chelLi (Index Kew. Suppl. 
1: 302) is a typographical error 
for O. cholhi. 

23. Opuntia calmalliana Coulter, 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 453. 

Fig. 73.— Opuntia cliolla. 
""Habit and height unknown; joints 
cylindrical, 1 to 2 cm. in diameter, 

glaucous, with linear-oblong crested (mostly distinct) tubercles 20 to 25 mm. long; pulvini densely cov- 
ered with yellowish wool, and with a penicillate tuft of whitish bristles at upper edge; spines usually 4, 
the upper one stout and porrect, reddish with yellowish tip (as are all the spines), 2 to 2.5 cm. long 
(occasionally 1 to 2 short upper ones added), the usually 3 (sometimes 4) lower ones more slender and 
sharply deflexed, 1 to 1.5 cm. long (occasionally one of them longer) ; flowers apparently purple; ovary 
covered with very prominent woolly pulvini which are more or less bristly and spiny, but ripening into 
a smooth juicy obovate fruit ; seeds discoid and beaked, irregularly angular, with broad commissure, about 
4 mm. broad." (Coulter, /. c.) 

Type locality: Calmalli, Lower California. 

Distribution: Lower California. 

Type in the Brandegee Herbarium, University of California. 




62 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Referred by Mrs. Brandegee (Er)'thea 5: 122) to O. n/o/estj Brandegee. It is closely 
related to O. molesta, but its spines aie different, though on the same general plan, and its 
seeds are quite different. 





-Opuntia c 



24. Opuntia versicolor Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 452. 1896. 

Opuntia arhoiescens versicolor E. Dams, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 3. 190-4. 

Bush or tree-like, 2 to 4 meters high, with a large, open top sometimes 5 meters broad ; trunk and 
larger stems woody throughout, except the younger branches; terminal joints 10 to 20 cm. long, 2.5 
cm. in diameter, variously colored, not strongly tuberculate when living; tubercles 1.5 cm. long; spines 
5 to 11, 5 to 25 mm. long, dark colored, with close-fitting sheaths; glochids reddish brown; flowers 
variously colored, yellow, greenish, reddish, or brown, 3 to 5.5 cm. broad; ovary tuberculate, with large 
areoles bearing wool, glochids, and long deciduous bristles ; fruit persisting for months, sometimes for 
a year, 2.5 to 4 cm. long, at first somewhat ruberailate, becoming pear-shaped or globose, sometimes pro- 
liferous ; seeds white, 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Tucson, Arizona. 

Distribution: Arizona and northern Mexico. 

This species is common on the lower foothills and is only rarely found on the mesas. 
It is of slow growth, propagating almost entirely from seed. As the name suggests, it has 
flowers of many colors; each plant has its own color and the color of the flowers is to a 
greater or less extent paralleled in that of the branches. The contrast in color shown by a 
colony of these plants is very striking and one's first impression is that more than one species 
exists. 

Named specimens of this species were distributed by the late Dr. C. G. Pringle in 1881, 
but the species was not published until 1896. 

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 6, f. 1; Bull. Torrey Club 32: pi. 9, f. 
4 to 8; Hornaday, Camp-fires on Desert and Lava, pi. facing p. 18, 116, 320; N. Mex. Agr. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. 6, f. 1; Plant World 11": f. 8; Sargent, Man. Trees N. Amer. f. 561; 
Carnegie Inst. Wash. 269: pi. 8, f. 81; pi. 9; MacDougal Bot. N. Amer. Des. pi. 58; Plant 
World 9'': f. 50. 

Plate VII, figure 5, represents a fruiting joint; plate VIII, figure 2, is from a photo- 
graph taken by Dr. MacDougal near the base of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona; 
plate IX, figures 2 to 5, are paintings made at the Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona, by 
Kako Morita, showing the range in color of the flowers. 



OPUNTIA. 63 

25. Opunda lloydii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 292. 1909. 

Much branched, 2 to 3 meters high and nearly as broad ; joints terete, 2 cm. in diameter ; tubercles 
prominent, oblong; spines few, on last year's joints 3, reddish, 1.5 cm. long; leaves terete, 6 to 8 mm. 
long; flowers 3 cm. long, opening after midday; petals 15 mm. long, dull purple; filaments olive-green 
below, purplish above; style rose-colored; stigma-lobes white ; ovary yellowish, strongly tuberculate, naked ; 
fruit 3 cm. long, yellow to orange, slightly tuberculate. 

Type locality: On foot slopes, Hacienda de Cedros, Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

According to F. E. Lloyd, for whom this species was named, it is known to the Mexi- 
cans as tasajo macho. 

We have had this plant in cultivation for several years, but it does not grow well under 
glass; these specimens have white areoles; no glochids are developed the first year, but on 




Fig. 77.— Opuntia Lioydn Fic. "S. Opunti.i LInydii. Ph..i..j;r.irh hy F. E. 

old branches dark-brown bunches of glochids are developed in the upper edges of the areoles, 
and the several brownish spines are acicular. 

Illustration: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: f. 34; pi. 25. 

Figure 77 represents rwo joints of the type specimen; figure 78 is from a photograph of 
the type plant. 

26. Opuntia imbricata (Haworth) De CandoUe, Prodr. 3: 471. 1828. 
Cereus imbiicutiis Haworth, Rev. PI. Succ. 70. 1821. 
Cactus cylindricti! James, Cat. 182. 1825. Not Lamarck. 1783. 

Cactus bleo Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 2: 202. 1828. Not Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth. 1825. 
Opuntia roseaVit CandoUe, Prodr. 3: 471. 1828. 

Opmit'ui JcciptLUs De CandoUe, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 
Opunl:.iL\ini,Li Dc Cmdolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 
Opuniij cxuiuLi .iii,K»it/or De CandoUe, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 
OpunlijcxiaiM.i tpniosior De CandoUe. Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 118. 1828. 
Opuntia exuiial.1 stellata Lemaire. Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 67. 1839. 
Opuntia exuviata viridior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hon. Dyck. 1844. 48. 1845. 
Opuntia arhorescens Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 90. 1848. 
Opuntia ivihricata crassior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 249. 1850. 
Opuntia imbricata ramosiur Salm-Dyck, Cacr. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 73. 1850. 
Opuntia imbricata tenuior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 73. 1850. 
Cactus imhricatu^ Lemaire, Cactees 88. 1868. 



64 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Opunliaiexam Gritfitlis, Rep. Mo. Boi. Gard. 22: 28. 1912. 
Opuntiama^na Griffiths, Pn.c. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 23. 1914. 
Opuntia spinotecta Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 24. 1914. 

Tree-like, often 3 meters high or higher, with a more or less definite woody trunk 2.5 cm. in 
diameter; ultimate joints 2 to 3 cm. in diameter, strongly tuberculate; leaves 8 to 24 mm. long, terete; 
tubercles 2 to 2.5 cm. long, flattend laterally; spines 8 to 30, 2 to 3 cm. long, brown, covered with 
papery sheaths; flowers borne at ends of branches, 4 to 6 cm. long, sometimes 8 to 9 cm. broad, purple; 
ovary tuberculate, bearing a few bristles from some of the upper areoles; fruit naked, yellow, 2.5 to 3 
cm. long, strongly tuberculate or, when long persistent, smooth; seeds 2.5 to 3.5 mm. in diameter. 

T'Spe locality. Unknown; introduced into England by Loddiges in 1820. 

Distribution: Central Colorado to Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and central Mexico. 
Rdyberg (Fl. Rocky Mountains 576. 1917) reports this species from Utah under the name 
of Opuntia arborescois ; we have seen no specimens of it from Utah. 

The plant is hardy in southwestern Kansas, and has been recorded as a native of that 
State; it has existed through three winters out of doors at the New York Botanical Garden, 
but has made little growth. 

We have followed Schumann and Weber in uniting Opuntia arbonsctns and O. inibri- 
cata. As thus treated, the species has a wide geographic distribution, and in our view 
consists of many slightly differing races. In its northern limits it is much smaller than in 
its southern range. 

Opuntia cristata tenuior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. A^. 1845, name only), 
0. decipiens major Hort. in Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort Dyck. 1844. 49. 1845, as synonym), O. 
cristata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 50. 1842), and O. stellata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. 
Dyck. 50. 1842) are unpublished names. O. ruthei is a garden name mentioned by Berger. 

Opuntia exuviata major (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 49. 1845) is an unpublished 
name. 

Opuntia carclenche Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 259. pi. 21, in part. 1908) is 
described as standing between Opuntia kleiniae and O. imbricata, being stouter than the 
one and more slender than the other. It resembles very closely specimens collected by 




OPUNTIA. 65 

Dr. Rose at Ixmiquilpan, Mexico, in 1903, which we have referred to O. kleiuiae. 

Opuntia galeottii de Smet (Miquel, Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 4: 337. 1858) and O. coi- 
tigera Miquel (Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 4: 338. 1858), if really from Mexico, may belong 
here, but the descriptions are indefinite. Dr. Schumann did not know them. 

Opuntia mendociensas (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 56. 1908) is said to be "prob- 
ably only a form of O. inibricata." 

Opuntia undulata Link and Otto (Verh. Ver tieford. Gartenb. 6: 434. 1830) was not 
published. According to Pfeiffer, it is the same as O. exuviata, which we refer here . 

Opuntia decipiens minor (Pfeiffer, Enuni. Cact. 172. 1837) is unpublished. 

Cactus subquadrijlorus Mociiio and Sesse (De CandoUe, Prodr. 3: 471. 1828), given 
as a synonym of Opuntia rosea, doubtless belongs here. Schumann's reference, C. quadrif- 
lorus, is incorrect. C. subquadrifolius (Cactaceae 3: 65) is a clerical err(;r 




Illustrations Agr C, iz N S W 22: pi. opp. p. 696; Bull, U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pi. 5; 
pi. 6, f. 1; Cact Mcx Bound pi ly f. 7, 8, Curtis's Bot. Mag. 135: pi. 8290; N. Mex. 
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. 7, f. 2; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 134; Mem. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris 17: pi. 15; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 85, the last three as Opuntia rosea. W. 
Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 8, in part, this as Opuntia decipiens. Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn. 
26: pi. 8, f. a; Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 16, 17; Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 36; Gard. 
and For. 9: f. 1; lUustr. Fl. 2: f. 2533; ed. 2. 2: f. 2992; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: 
pi. [10}; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 17, f. 5, 6; pi. 18, f. 4; pi. 24, f. 12; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 
pi. 7, in part; all as Opuntia arborescens. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pi. 6, 7, in part, these 
two as Opuntia vexans. Diet. Gard. Nicholson Suppl. 179. f. 195, as Opuntia decipiens; 
Diet. Gard. Nicholson 4: 581. f. 52, as O. rosea; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2608; Eng- 
ler and Drude, Veg. Erde 13: f. 28, in part; Gartenwelt 4: 159, as O. arborescens; Bot. Jahrb. 
Engler 58: Beibl. 1^29: 33. f. 10. 

Plate XI, figure 1, represents a joint of a plant collected by W. L. Bray in western 
Texas. Figure 79 is from a photograph taken by Professor F. E. Lloyd in Zacatecas, Mex- 
ico, in 1908. 

27. Opuntia tunicata (Lehmann) Link and Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact, 170. 1837. 
Cactus tunicalus Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hort. Hamb. 6. 1827. 
Opuntia stapeliae De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 117. 1828. 
Opuntia hystrix Grisebach, Cat. PI. Cub. 117. 1866. 
Opuntia perrita Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 33. 1912. 



66 THE CACTACEAE. 

Very variable, sometimes low and spreading from the base and terming broad clumps, at other 
times 5 to 6 dm. high, with a more or less definite woody stem and numerous lateral branches; joints 
easily detached, sometimes short and nearly globular to narrowly oblong, 10 to 15 cm. long, strongly 
tuberculate; spines reddish, normally 6 to 10, elongated, 4 to 5 cm. long, covered with thin, white, 
papery sheaths; flowers 3 cm. long, yellow; petals obtuse; ovary often bearing long spines at the 
areoles, but usually naked. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribiitioti: Highlands of central Mexico; also in Ecuador, Peru, and northern Chile. 

Opuntia stapdiae has long puzzled collectors and students of cacti. We are convinced 
now that it is only starved or stunted greenhouse specimens of the common O. tunicatti. 
When grown in cultivation, O. tunic at a takes on abnormal shapes, for the joints, which 
break off easily, rarely grow to their full size. In its native home many small dwarf plants are 
found everywhere about the larger plants. We have discussed this explanation of O. stapeliae 
with Mr. A. Berger, and he agrees with our conclusion. 

No specimens of the type of O. stapeliae are preserved in the De CandoUe Herbarium. 
The plant figured as Opuntia stapeliae ( ?) by Goebel in Pflanzenbiologische (f. 36) does not 
belong here. It is erect, has strongly tuberculate joints, very short spines and narrow elongated 
leaves. 

Cereus tunicatus (Pfeifi'er, Enum. Cact. 170. 1837) is given as a synonym of Opuntia 
tunicata, but has never been formally taken up. 

We believe Opuntia hystrix Grisebach, collected by C. Wright in Cuba, belongs here, 
probably being an escape from a garden. Dr. Rose examined the specimens in the Krug and 
Urban Herbarium in Berlin in 1912; the loose sheaths of the spines of these specimens are 
now brown, while the flowers seemed a little smaller than those of the Mexican specimens. 
The flowers were described as red. 

Opuntia furiosa Wendland (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 170. 1837) is referred to 0. tunicata 
by Pfeiffer, while Salm-Dyck refers it to his variety 0. tunicata laerior (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 
1849. 73. 1850). 

Illustrations: Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31:pl. 4; Cact. Journ. 1: October; The Garden 62: 
423; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pi. 10, f. 5; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 2; 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pi. 13, 14, these two as Opuntia peirita. Garden 13: 107*, as Opun- 
tia exuviata: MoUers Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 7; Goebel, Pflanz, Schild. 1: f. 
36, as 0. Stapeliae; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: pi. 17, f. A. 

Plate X, figure 1, represents a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose near Cuzco, Peru. 
Figure 80 is from a photograph of the same plant. 

28. Opuntia pallida Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 507. 1908. 

Stems 5 cm. in diameter, about 1 meter high, with widely spreading branches, the whole plant 
often broader than high; old areoles very spiny, often bearing 20 spines or more, often 3 to 4 cm. long, 
with white, papery sheaths; young areoles bearing few spines; ovary tuberculate, the areoles either 
naked or bearing a few bristly spines ; flowers pale rose-colored : petals 1 5 mm. long. 

Type locality: Near Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. 

Distribution: State of Hidalgo, Mexico. 

This species is known only from near Tula, Mexico, where it was discovered by Dr. 
J. N. Rose in 1905, and afterwards collected near the same station by Mr. E. W. Nelson. 
It grows interspersed with O. imbricata, but is much lower in stature and has smaller leaves 
and lighter-colored flowers. It is much like O. tunicata, but that species has yellow flowers and 
is always smaller. 

Illustration: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: pi. 17, A. 

Figure 81 is from a photograph of the type specimen. 

29. Opuntia molesta Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. II. 2: 164. 1889. 

Stems 1 to 2 meters high, or in cultivation only 6 dm. high, with few, long, spreading branches; 
joints clavate to subcylindric, 10 to 40 cm. long, sometimes as much as 4 cm. in diameter at the top, 

'This illustration is very poor and is only tentatively referred here. If native to California, as one might infer from the account 
which accompanies the illustration, it may refer to a form of Opuntia prolijera or O. echinocarpa. 




Joint of Opu 



2 to 5. Joints of Opunlh, 
(All three-fourths size.) 



OFIINTIA. 



67 



pale green, with low, broad tubercles, these elongated and often 4 cm. long or more; leaves linear, 10 
mm. long or less; spines few, 6 to 10, unequal, the longest ones 2.5 to 5 cm. long, straw-colored, with 
loose, papery sheaths; flowers purple, 5 cm. in diameter; fruit ovoid, 2.5 cm. long, somewhat spiny or 
naked ; seeds 6 mm. in diameter, irregular in shape. 

Type locality: San Ignacio, Lower California. 

Distribution: Lower California. 

The type of the species is deposited in the Brandegee Herbarium, now a part of the 
herbarium of the University of California. Living plants have been distributed by A. Berger 
from La Mortola, Italy, and are now to be found in various collections. 

In the Index Kewensis, first supplement, this species is wrongly entered as Opiiutia 
mode St al 

Figure 82 is from a photograph of a plant sent 
from La Mortola, Italy, to the New York Botanical 
Garden in 1913. 

Series 7. FULGIDAE. 

Much branched, bushy plants, usually with the terminal 
joints very fleshy, the tubercles broad and low, about as broad 
as long. The species, of which we recognize five, inhabit 
the southwestern United States and western Mexico. 

Key to Species 

Joints very readily detached, freely falling 30. O. julgida 

Joints not very readily detached, persistent. 
Spines brown or reddish, at least at base. 

Branches slender; fruit not proliferous. . . .31. O. spinoiior 

Branches stout; fruit proliferous .32. O. proliferd 

Spines white or yellow. 

Spines white; petals greenish yellow, 1 cm. 

long or less 33. O. alcahes 

Spines yellow; petals red, 2 cm. long 34. O. burrageana 

30. Opuntia fulgida Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 306. 

1856. 

Opuntia mamillata Schott in Engelmann, Proc. Amer. 

Acad. 3: 308. 1856. 
opuntia fulgida mamillata Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 3: 4-49. 1896. 

Plant sometimes 3 meters high or even more, with a 
rather definite woody trunk 10 to 20 cm. in diameter, much 
branched, sometimes almost from the base, and forming a 
compact flattened crown; terminal joints 10 to 20 cm. long, 
3 to 5 cm. in diameter, very succulent, strongly tuberculate, 
easily breaking off; spines 2 to 12, yellowish to brown, 2.5 
to 3.5 cm. long, acicular, covered with loose, papery sheaths; 
glochids small, whitish to light yellow; flowers light rose, 2.5 fig. s:.— Opuntia moiesta. 

to 3 cm. broad ; petals few, obtuse ; stamens and style very 

short; fruit at first tuberculate, in age smooth, somewhat pear-shaped, 2 to 5 cm. long, green, usually 
very proliferous ; seeds rather small, 4 mm. broad, often wanting. 

Type locality: Mountains of western Sonora, Mexico. 

Distribution: Gravelly and sandy situations, southern Arizona, Sonora, and Sinaloa. 

We consider O. mamillata as synonymous with 0. \ulgida: in herbarium and green- 
house specimens we can find no constant differences. Professor J. J. Thornber, who has long 
studied this group, says there is no difference between the flowers and fruits, and that there 
is no difference in distribution (Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: 501). In the field, however, 
one can see two rather distinct forms which differ in armament, the typical plant being the 
more spiny. 

This is one of the most characteristic opuntias of southern Arizona, being very abun- 
dant on the valley slopes and lower foothills. It often forms dense colonies almost to the 
exclusion of other cacti, or it may be associated with other species, especially of Opuntia. 
It is a most troublesome plant to come in contact with, for, as the sharp, barbed spines 




68 THE CACTACEAE. 

pierce the tlesh, the joints easily break loose from the plant and are detached with difficulty 
from the unfortunate victim. 

The flowering season extends from early spring to September. The fruit is markedly 
proliferous, often developing in chains, and so persisting for several years, possibly eight or 
ten years, as suggested by Professor D. S. Johnson. They grow in chains of 8 or 9 fruits (12 
to 14 have been reported), several chains hanging from a single joint and forming a large 
cluster. We have seen as many as 38 fruits (40 to 50 have been reported) in a single clus- 
ter, and doubtless under favorable conditions many more would be found. These juicy fruits, 
usually spineless, are much sought by grazing animals. 

According to Professor Johnson, who has studied this species several years, the seeds 
are not known to germinate in nature. Only by cutting away a part of the hard, bony coat 
could they be made to germinate in the greenhouse. The species is propagated easily by 
the terminal joints, which come off readily and are transported far and wide like burs, and 
soon strike root on reaching the soil. New plants are also started occasionally by the fruits 
themselves. 

This species appears to hybridize with O. sp'uios'iur. 

lllustyat'ions: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 1, f. 2; Bull. Torr. Club 32: pi. 9, f . 1 ; 
Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 18; Gard. and For. 8: f. AG; Hornaday, Camp-fires on Desert 
and Lava opp. p. 42, 320; Lumholtz, New Trails in Mex. opp. p. 18; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 
18: 153; Nat. Geogr. Mag. 21: 710; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. 6, f. 2; Plant World 
11": f. 1, in part; 11": f. 9, in part; Sargent, Man. Trees N. Amer. f. 559; Ariz. Agr. Exp. 
Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 5, f. 1; Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 19; Lumholtz, New Trails in Mex. opp. 
p. 152; Nat. Geogr. Mag. 21: 710; Plant World 11": f. 1, in part; 11": f. 9, in part, the last 
six as Opuntia luciiii'dlata; Carnegie Inst. Wash. 269: Frontispiece; pi. 1 to 7; pi. 8, f. 76 to 
79; pi. 12. MacDougal, Bot. N. Amer. Des. pi. 57, as Opuntia nhimillata: McDougal, Bot. 
N. Amer. Des. pi. 87. 

Plate IX, figure 6, represents the proliferous fruit; plate XII, figure 1, is from a photo- 
graph taken by Dr. MacDougal near Tucson, Arizona, showing the typical plant to the left 
and the less spiny plant to the right. 

31. Opuntia spinosior (Engelmann) Tourney, Bot. Gaz, 25: 119. 189H. 
Opuntia uhipplei spinosior Engelmann, Proc. Am£r. Acad. 3:307. 1856. 

Plants 2 to 4 meters high, tree-like in habit, with a more or less detinite, woody trunk, openly 
branched; ultimate joints 1 to 3 dm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, often bright purple, strongly 
tuberculate; tubercles about 6 to 12 mm. long, longer than broad, more or less flattened laterally; spines 
6 to 12, but on old branches sometimes as many as 25, 10 to 15 mm. long, divergent, gray to brown- 
ish, covered with thin sheaths; giochids yellowish white; flower-buds short, acute; flowers 5 to 6 cm. 
broad, purple to pink, yellow, or even white; petals about 10, broad at apex, narrowed at base; style 
thick, cream-colored or pinkish; ovary tuberculate, bearing small, purple leaves and long, white, easily 
detached bristles; fruit strongly tuberculate, spineless, yellow, globose to broadly oblong, 2.5 to 4 cm. 
long, with a depressed umbilicus; seeds white, 4 mm. broad, smooth, with a very indistinct marginal 
band. 

Type loccility: South of the Gila River. 

Distributio)i: Arizona, western New Mexico, and nt)rthern Mexico. 

Opuntia spinosior neoniexicana (Tourney, Bot. Gaz. 25: 119. 1898) seems to be a yellow- 
flowered form of this species. Mr. Toumey writes that his original material of this variety 
came from the low foothills north of the RiUito River near Tucson. 

Opuntia spinosior was described by Engelmann in 1856 as a variety of O. whipplei. to 
which it is only remotely related, but it was not separated until 1898, when it was described 
as distinct by Professor J. W. Toumey. 

This plant is sometimes found in the trade as Opuntia arborescens spinosior (see 
Griissner) . 

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 1, f. 1; pi. 5, f. 2; Gard. and For. 9: f. 1 ; 
N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. 7, f. 1; Plant World 11'": f. 7; Sargent, Man. Trees N. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




1. Lt^iy ht3.nch oi O puntia imbricata. 3,4. ¥otms oi Opuntia alcahes. 

2. Flowering branch of Opuntia prolifera. 5, 6. Opuntia lestita. 

(All three-fourths size.) 



OPUNTIA. 69 

Amer. f. 560. Emory, Mil. Reconn. App. 2. f. 10, as Opnutia avbovciceus; Shreve, Veg. Des. 
Mt. Range pi. 2, A. 

Plate X, figures 2 and 3, are from paintings showing diiferent flower-colors, made at 
the Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona; figure 4 represents a fruiting joint of a plant col- 
lected by F. Oilman at Sacaton, Arizona; and figure 5 represents a leaf-bearing joint of the 
same plant; plate XII, figure 2, is from a photograph of the plant in the Tucson Moun- 
tains, Arizona, by Dr. MacDougal. 

32. Opuntia proHfera Engelmann, Amer. Journ. Sci. II, 14: 338. 1852. 

Stems 1 to 2 meters high, the trunk and old branches terete and woody; terminal joints 3 to 12 
cm. long, easily breaking off, fleshy, covered with short, more or less turgid tubercles; spines 6 to 12, 
brown, 10 to 12 mm. long; glochids pale; flowers small; sepals orbicular, obtuse, dark red; petals ted; 
filaments yellow; style stout; stigma-lobes red; ovary 1 cm. long; strongly tubeiculate; upper areoles 
bearing 2 to 6 reddish spines or" the joints naked throughout; ftuit proliferous, 3 to 3.5 cm. long and 
often without seeds ; seeds, if present, large, regular, 6 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Arid hills about San Diego, California. 

Distrihution: Southetn California and coast of Lower California. 

The range of this species is not well known. We have referred here, with some doubt, 
specimens collected by Dr. Rose on Guadalupe Island, off the coast of Lower California, as 
well as specimens from the south end of Lower California, but we have seen no flowers from 
these Lower California collections. A peculiar form less than 5 dm. high with bluish-green 
joints and small seeds, ftom near Newport, Orange County, California, deserves further study. 

This species, although common in southern California, has never been fully and accu- 
rately described. It is often confused in collections with O. serpeulhia. with which it grows, 
although they are very different. 

In greenhouse specimens the joints and spines are not well developed. 

Illustration: Meehan's Monthly 3: pi. 1. 

Plate XI, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant col- 
lected by E. W. Nelson and E. A. Ooldman in Lower California, 
which bloomed at the New York Botanical Oarden in April 1914. 
Figure 83 represents a joint of a plant sent ftom La Mortola, Italy, 
in 1912; figure 84 is from a photogtaph of this plant. 

Of this relationship, but of vety different habit, is the species 
collected by Dr. Rose on West San Benito Island in 1911. Unfor- 
tunately no flowers or fruits could be obtained, and hence we have 
not named it here. It may be briefly charactetized as follows: 

Opuntia sp. 

Low, much branched plants; joints short (10 cm. long), thick, and 
fleshy; leaves cylindric, 10 mm. long, acute; areoles distant, circular, bear- 
ing brown wool, tawny glochids and numerous spines; spines 6 to 8, often 
4 cm. long, slender, reddish brown, inclosed in loose, thin, brownish sheaths. 
Collected by Dr. J. N. Rose on West San Benito Island, off the west coast 
of Lower California, March 9, 1911 (No. 16043). 

33. Opuntia alcahes Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 321. 1895. 
Plant .about 1 meter high, much branched, very spiny, especially when 

old; branches terete; spines on young joints about 12, short, covered with 

white or very pale sheaths; tubercles prominent, diamond-shaped; leaves small, 1 cm. long, terete, some- 
what bronzed; sepals small, brownish, closely imbricated, hardly spreading at tips; petals sometimes 
wanting, or, if present, about 1 cm. long, greenish yellow, obtuse; stamens numerous; stigma-lobes 
very short, 6 to 8, at first exserted beyond the sepals, yellowish; fruit globular, small, becoming turgid 
in age, yellowish, more or less proliferous, the umbilicus truncated or slightly depressed. 

Type locality: In Lower California. 

Distrihution: Lower California. 




70 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Plate XI, figure 3, represents a leaf-bearing joint of a plant obtained by the same collector 
on Espiritu Santo Island, Lower California; figure 4 is from a plant sent to the New York 
Botanical Garden from La Mortola, Italy, in 1906. Figure 85 is from a photograph of a plant 
collected by Dr. Rose at San Francisquito, Lower California. 

34. Opuntia burrageana sp. nu\ . 

Usually low and bushy, r.ircly 1 meter high; stems slender, 1 to 2 cm. in diameter, densely spiny ; 
leaves small, 2 mm. long, green, early deciduous; old stem and branches terete; young joints cylindric 




i. — Opuntia prolifi 



8^.— Opu: 



to narrow-clavate, 15 cm. long or less; areoles closely set; tubercles rather low, not much broader than 
long; spines numerous, similar, spreading, rarely 2 cm. long, all covered with thin, bright-yellow sheaths; 
wool in areoles short, brown; glochids, when present, short, light yellow; flower 3 to 4 cm. broad; 
petals few, brownish red with green bases; filaments green; stigma-lobes white; ovary very spiny; fruit 
not proliferous, globular, 2 cm. in diameter, somewhat tuberculate, probably dry; seeds pale, 4 mm. in 
diameter. 



the hilLs along the 



Call 



BRITTON AND ROSE 





Plants of Opiinlui jiilgida 



A viTv open plant of Oj'unli.i sphiosioi 



OPUNTIA. 71 

The following specimens were collected by Dr. J. N. Rose in 1911: Near Pichilinque 
Island (No. 16533, type) ; near San Jose del Cabo (No. 16468) ; near Cape San Lucas (No. 
16379) ; on Carmen Island (No. 16630) ; on San Josef Island (No. 16552). 

Plate XIV, figure 1, is from a plant collected by Dr. Rose on San Josef Island, Lower 
California, in 1911, which flowered the next year at the New York Botanical Garden. 
Series 8. VESTITAE. 

The series Vestitiie contains three or perhaps four species, two of which possibly represent green- 
house forms of species of Tephiocacltis. natives of the high Andes. They are low species with elon- 
gated cylindric joints sometimes arising from subglobose ones, and form a connecting link between the 
true species of Tephrocactiis and CyliuJropNiit/a. O piiiitia teslita in the field was supposed to be a form 
of O. pentldudi't. but in cultivation it has developed quite differently: O. floccosa, a Tephrocacltis, some- 
times develops like the Vestitae: one specimen which we have grown shows a slender cylindric stem 
with few long hairs or none. Optintia boliiiana and O. pentlanJii, both from Bolivia and described at 
the same time by Salm-Dyck, and which we have united, seem to represent two forms of the same 
species, O. pentlaiidii being the abnormal form. The same condition seems to exist in O. lerschaffeltii 
and its variety digitalis, the variety being the normal form. Schumann had these species in his series 
Teretes (our series S/ihidatae) , but O. siihulnla and O. cylindrica are tall woody, much branched plants. 

Key to Species 

Areoles with hairs; joints not or scarcely tuberculate. 

Joints 1 to 1.5 cm. thick; spines 2.5 cm. long or less; fruit mostly sterile 55. O. vestita 

Joints 2,5 to 3 cm. thick; spines up to 5 cm. long; fruit many-seeded 36. O. shaferi 

Areoles without hairs; joints distinctly tuberculate 37. O. verschaffeltii 

Of this series? 38. O. hypsophila 

35. Opuntia vestita Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz, 13: 388. 1845. 
Opiintia teiei Cels in Weber, Diet. Hon, Bois 898 1898. 

Roots fibrous; stems much branched, weak, forming small clumps 3 dm. broad or less and nearly 
as high, fragile; joints short or elongated, becoming m greenhouse cultivation 2 dm. long or more, ob- 
long or cylindric, 1 to 1.5 cm. thick, very spiny, easily breaking apart; areoles circular, conspicuous, bear- 
ing short wool, spines, and several long hairs ; spines about 6 in each cluster, acicular, brownish, 2 to 
2.5 cm. long; leaves minute, acute; flowers small, including the ovary; 2 cm. long, deep red; petals 
1 cm. long; areoles on ovary conspicuous, filled with white wool and long hairs; fruit red, usually 
sterile, globular or a little longer than broad, usually naked, generally truncate at apex, often bearing 
small spiny joints at the areoles. 

Type locality: In Bolivia. 

Distribution: Common on the sterile hills about La Paz, Bolivia. 

Specimens were collected by Miguel Bang some years ago and segregated as a new 
species by the late Karl Schumann, but this was never published; others were obtained by Dr. 
H. H. Rusby in 1885, and by R. S. Williams in 1901. It was again collected by Dr. Rose 
in 1914, and living plants are now growing at the New York Botanical Garden. As seen 
wild, it is a strange little plant, growing in low clumps, its fragile stems easily breaking apart, 
especially at the terminal joints. The bright red fruits remain on the parent plant until they 
produce a number of spiny joints, often as many as five, which, after falling off, strike root 
and start new colonies. 

Dr. Rose suspected at the time he collected his material that it might be Opuntia vestita, 
and suggested that it should be carefully compared with it. This he was not able definitely 
to prove in the field, but the living specimens sent to the New York Botanical Garden put 
out new branches which are long, slender, and cylindric, and are devoid of long acicular 
spines, quite unlike the wild plants but almost identical with the specimens received from 
La Mortola, Italy, some years ago as O. vestita. 

Opuntia teres Cels must belong here, at least in part. Weber states that the flowers are 
very similar to O. vestita, while the fruit is said to be small, red, and proliferous, just as found 
in O. vestita. The leaves are described as 2 cm. long, however, and there is a possibility 
that O. exaltata may be partly represented in the description, as we find herbarium material 
of both species, from Bolivia, mounted on the same sheet. 

Illustration: MoUers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 8. 



72 THE CACTACEAE. 

Plate XI, tigure 5, shows the phxnt collected by Dr. Rose in 1914; figure 6 is from a plant 
received from La Mortola, Italy, in 1912. 

36. Opuntia shaferi sp. no v. 

Plants in clusters of 2 to 4, erect, about 3 dm. high; joints terete, 2.3 to 3.3 cm. in diameter, 
elongated, very spiny; tubercles low, often mdistinct; leaves deciduous, 6 mm. long; areoles 1 cm. 
apart or less, circular, white-felted; glochids numerous, whitish from the upper margin 
of the areole; spines about 6 at an areole, brownish, acicular, often 4 to 5 cm. long and 
associated with long white hairs; flowers not known; fruit globular, about 2 cm. in 
diameter, bearing numerous large areoles, the areoles white-felted, with glochids and 
iiairs, but no spines: seeds turgid, pointed at base, 4 mm. long. 

Collected by J. A. Shafer among stones between Purmamaria and Tum- 
baya, Argentina, February 6, 1917 (No. 90). 

Nearest O. vestita but less cespitose, taller and larger, and with fertile fruit. 

37. Opuntia verschaffeltii Cels in Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 898. 1898. 

Opiiiilia verschalfeltii digitalis Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 898. 1898. 

Forms low, in dense clumps, much branched; joints globular to short-cylindric, 
I to 4 cm. long, somewhat tuberculate, pale green ; spines 1 to 3, yellowish, weak, and 
bristle-like, 1 to 3 cm. long; in cultivated plants joints elongated, 6 to 21 cm. long, 
slender, 1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter, strongly tuberculate, spineless; glochids few, white; 
areoles narrow, longer than broad, tilled with short white wool. 

Type locality: In Bolivia. 

Distribution: Bolivia. 

In 1914 Dr. Rose collected this species on the barren hills about La Paz. 
Bolivia, and from his observations it seemed to be only a form of OpiDitia 
pentlandii. In cultivation, however, it behaves very differently from his spec- 
imens of the latter, and in fact has developed a phase very unlike its normal 
type but identical with other greenhouse specimens sent out by Mr. Berger 
some years ago under the name of O. verschafjeltii. 

Opuntia digitalis Weber (Diet. Hort. Bois 898. 1898) was given as a 
synonym of O. verschajjeltii digilulis. 

Figure 86 represents an elongated joint, from a greenhouse specimen; this 
grew from the short normal joint, collected by Dr. Rose near La Paz, Be 
in 1914. 

38. Opuntia hypsophila Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 309. 
Cespitose, branching, small, 5 to 10 cm. high, pale green; joints 

globose to cylindric, 1.5 to 3 cm. long; tubercles depressed; spines 3 to 
5, subulate, weak, spreading, white at first, in age brownish; flowers and 
fruit unknown. 

Type locality: In the Province of Salta, Argentina, in the 
Andes, at an altitude of 2,500 to 4,000 meters. _^_ 

Distribution: Salta, Argentina. 

We do not know this species, but Dr. Spegazzini thought ^"^- ^'' 
it might be a Tephrocactus and associated it with Opuntia ver- 
scha^eltii digitalis. 

Series 9. CLAVARIOIDES. 

This series is the same as the Elnberc/ilatue of Schumann and contains but a single species, re- 
corded as a native of Chile. According to Schumann, the stems ate cylindtic to clavate, not tuberculate, 
the leaves are small and caducous, and the spines are very small and appressed. The fruit is said to 
contain one woolly seed. 

39. Opuntia clavarioides Pfeiifer, Enum. Cact. 173. 1837. 

Low, much branched, grayish brown, 4 dm. high or less, truncate or cristate at apex; joints not 
tuberculate, rather fragile, short-cylindric or clavate, 1.5 cm. in diameter; leaves minute, 1.5 mm. 
long, reddish, caducous; areoles minute, clo-sely set, filled with wool and minute spines; spines 4 tn 




OPUNTIA. 



73 



10, white, appressed ; flowers 6 to 6.5 cm. long; sepals linear, pointed, reddish, petals light brown, nar- 
rowly spatulate, slightly crenate; ovary bearing minute leaves with wool and short bristles in their 
axils; filaments white, shorter than the petals; style white, with 7 stigma-lobes; fruit ellipsoid, 1.5 cm. 
long, one-seeded. 

Type locality: In Chile. 

Distribiitio)!: Originally described from Chile, but often referred to Mexico. 

Very little is known of this species, although it was described as long ago as 1837, and 
it is rare in collections. We have never seen it in flower and have seen only one record of 
its flowering in cultivation. The peculiar structure of the stem, narrow petals and single 
lanate seed, join a combination of characters separating it from other opuntias. and lead 
Schumann to refer it to a distinct series which he calls Etuhen/thitae. The question has 
been raised in our own minds if this is a true Opuut'ui. In cultivation the plant is usually 
grafted on some Platyopuntui. 

Variety cr/stdtd is offered in the trade journals. 

Opmit'id Dmiothele. Ceveiis clavario'ides, and Cereiis sev'iceiis are usually given as syno- 
nyms, but all these were cited by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 1^3. 1837) as synonyms of this species 
at the place commonly given as their first publication. The 
varieties \asc'iata Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 
159. 1900), \asUgiata Mundt (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 
30. 1893), and monstniosa Monville (Labourer, Monogr. 
Cact. 489, 1853) are anomalous greenhouse forms. 

lUustrdt'ions: Gartenflora A^\ f. 7; Montsschr. Kak- 
teenk. 3:9; 16: 169; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 104; 
Card. Chron. III. 30: f. 75, this last as Opuntia clavar'i- 
oides cristata: Garden 13: 107, as Opuntia clavarioides 
cristata: Rother, Praktischer Leitfaden Kakteen 106; Mol- 
lers Deutsche Gart. Zeit, 15: 67; 25: 476. f. 9, No. 19; 
Thomas, Zimmerkultur Kakteen 59; Wiener III. Giirt. 
Zeit. 28: f. 18; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 32: 131. 

Figure 87 is copied from the illustration used by 
Schumann cited above. 

Series 10. SALMIANAE. 

This series (Vriitescentes of Schumann), by some supposed 
to be composed of five species but here treated as containing but another spenes 

one, is confined to central South America. It is characterized by 
slender, bushy, often vine-like habit, terete branches, and red 

fruit, the latter crowned by proliferous spiny joints. Seeds are unknown. Greenhouse specimens often 
resemble Opuntia leptocaidis, but the flowers are somewhat larger, and the spines are not sheathed. 
40. Opuntia salmiana Parmentier in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 172. 1837. 
Opiinthi ipegjzzinti Weher, Diet. Hon. Bois 898. 1898. 
Opuitlij jlliiflorj Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 152. 1903. 

A bushy plant, 3 dm. to 2 meters high, much branched at base; branches often weak, terete, 1.5 
cm. in diameter or less, often purplish, etuberculate ; areoles small, bearing wool, yellow glochids, and 
spines; spines sometimes wanting, usually several, 1.5 cm. long or less, white; flowers 2 to 3.5 cm. broad, 
scattered along the stem; buds pinkish or even scarlet; petals obovate, pale yellow to white, sometimes 
tinged with pink; stamens and style short; stigma-lobes yellowish green; fruits sterile, clavate, scarlet, 
with few or no spines. 

Type locality: In Brazil. 

Distribution: Southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. 

(Extend range to central Argentina and habit to rocky hillsides [according to W. B. 
Alexander] ) . 

After careful consideration, we have combined three species of Schumann's series 
Trutescentes into one. We have examined considerable living material and all the illus- 
trations, but have found no grounds for separating the group into species. All were 




74 



THE CACTACEAE. 



described as proliferous and sterile. O. spegcizzhii/ was supposed to be unarmed, but this 
character is not constant; flower differences are described, but these are inctinstant. One 
species, O. albijlora. has already been referred to synonymy. 

Opuntta salm'tana is said to have come from Brazil, but no definite locality is given for 
it, and it has not been collected there in recent times. If really from Brazil, and there is no 
good reason to question this reference, it is doubtless from the southern part, possibly on the 
border of Paraguay; indeed, 0. alhijlora, one of the three, was described from a Paraguay 
collection; the other, 0. spegazziiiii, is a native of the deserts of northern Argentina. 

Cactus sahnianus Lemaire (Cact. 87. 1868, name only), has been referred here as a 
synonym; as has also O. \lorihunda Lemaire (Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 68. 1839). 

Opitntta schickendantzii Weber, included by Schumann in this relationship, we refer to 
our series Aurantiacae. 




buntia wagneri Weber in Gosselin (Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 393. 1904), de- 
scribed without flower or fruit, is probably to be referred here; at least Roland-Gosselin be- 
lieved it to be of this group. We have not seen any of the specimens from Chaco, Argentina, 
obtained by M. Emile Wagner in 1902. 

Illustrations: Bliihende Kakteen 3: pi. 123; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 76: pi. 4542; Fl. Serr. 7: 
pi. 670; Jard Fleur. 2: pi. 194; Loudon, Encycl. pi. ed. 3. f. 19406; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. 
Beschr. Cact. 1: pi. 6; Castle, Cactaceous plants f. 15; Bliihende Kakteen 2: pi. 103, this last 
as Opuntia spegazzhni; Hogg, Veg. King. 340. f . HI. 

Figure 88 is from a plant in the greenhouses of the LInited States Department of Agri- 
culture at Washington; iigure 89 represents a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at 
Cordoba, Argentina, in 1915. 



OPUNTIA, 75 

Opuntia maldonadensis Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Nfontevideo 5: 286. 1905. 

Cespitose, erect; branches cylindric, entangled or intertwined; joints 3 to 10 cm. long, about 2 cm. 
in diameter, the terminal ones obovate-spherical, dark green to olive-colored ; areoles each surrounded 
by a violet blotch, small or prominent, orbicular; spines 5 or more, stout, spreading, elongated, un- 
equal, the longest one 2 to 2.5 cm. long, reddish to brown; flowers and fruit unknown. 

Type locality: Punta Ballena, near Maldeonado, Uruguay. 

Distribution: Uruguay. 

This species, referred to the subgenus CyHiiclyop/mtia by Arechavaleta, inhabits the coast 
of Uruguay and is known to us only from description; we append it to the series Salviianae, 
but its nearest relationship may be elsewhere. 

Series 11. SUBULATAE. 
This series is confined to South America and represents a very distinct group, differing greatly 
from the tall cylindric-jointed species of North America. They lack sheaths to the spines, and the 
typical species has elongated persistent leaves. Although several of the species have long been in cul- 
tivation, at least two of them being known only from garden plants ; for a long time the flowers 
were unknown and the plants were as frequently called Cereiis or Pereskia as Opuntta. 

Key to Species 

Leaves long-persisting, elongated. 

Leaves up to 12 cm. long; spines yellowish white A\. O. subulata 

Leaves 1 to 7 cm. long ; spines brownish 42. O. exaltata 

Leaves early deciduous, short. 

Stem 1 meter high ; leaves 4 mm. long 43. O. pachypus 

Stem 3 to 4 meters high ; leaves 10 to 13 mm. long 44. O. cylitidrica 

41. Opuntia subulata (Miihlenpfordt) Engelmann, Gard. Chron. 19:627. 1883. 

Peresiita subi/ljta Muhlenpfotdt, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 347. 1845. 
Opuiilia eHemeethtiij Miquel, Nederl. Krudk. Arch. 4: 337. 1858.* 
Opuntia segethii Philippi, Bot. Zeit. 26: 861. 1868. 

Either with a simple erect stem or with several main branches from the base, 2 to 4 meters high; 
trunk 6 to 10 cm. in diameter, the old bark smooth and brown, its areoles bearing clusters of 8 spines 
or more ; branches numerous, more or less clustered but not whorled, at first almost at right angles to 
main stem but soon erect, bright green ; leaves persistent, green, nearly at right angles to branch, straight 
or somewhat bowed above, nearly terete, pointed, 5 to 12.5 cm. long, grooved on the under side; 
tubercles large, depressed, becoming obliterated on old branches, arranged in longitudinal or spiral 
lines, more or less diamond-shaped, but retuse at apex and pointed or attentuate below, 2 to 4 cm. 
long; areoles in the retuse grooves of the tubercles bearing a few short yellow spines or sometimes 
spineless, but usually having 1 or 2 slender spines; flowers borne toward the ends of the branches; 
sepals reddish, minute, 4 to 8 mm. long or less ; petals broader than the sepals, orange or greenish 
yellow; style rose-red except the whitish base, including the stigma-lobes about 3 cm. long, about as 
long as the longest stamens; stigma-lobes 5 or 6, slender, orange-yellow; fruit oblong, more or less 
persistent, 6 to 10 cm. long, leafy, with a deep umbilicus, sometimes proliferous; seeds few, 10 to 12 
mm. long. 

Type locality: Valparaiso, Chile, but doubtless described from cultivated plants. 

Distribution: Chile is usually given as the home of this plant, but it is not found wild 
there. It may be a native in Argentina. 

This species has long been in cultivation, it having originally been sent from Valpa- 
raiso, but Dr. Rose did not find it wild there or in any other part of Chile. It is rarely seen 
in cultivation in Chile. For many years it passed as a species of Pereskia, but in 1883 Dr. 
George Engelmann pointed out that it could not be retained in that genus and transferred it 
to Opuntia. The leaves are the largest in the genus, and it has larger seeds than any other 
Opuntia. 

We have referred Opuntia ellemeetiana (originally described from Chile), a species 
with very long leaves, to O. subulata, although we have never seen specimens. Schumann 
did not know it and only lists it. 

says 1859. 



76 



THE CACTACEAE. 



We have been able more detinitely to refer here Opioit'ui segeth'ii. tor we saw not only 
Philippi's type specimens in his herbarium, but also living specimens grown from Philippi's 
original stock. This type specimen was from plants cultivated at Santiago, but in a later pub- 
lication he states that his species grows spontaneously near Arequipa. A part of this latter 
material is preserved m his herbarium at Santiago, which Dr. Rose was able to study; he also 
examined the Arequipa plant alive, and is convmced that it is quite different, being the plant 
common in Peru and Bolivia described below as Opuntia exaltata. 

lllustratiotis: Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 3"': f. 56, L; Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 33, 
38; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 7; 9: 183; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 103; Neub. Gart. 
Mag. 1893: 291, this as Peresk'ut suhulatu: Bot. Zeit. 26: pi. 13, C. f. 1; Gartenflora 32: pi. 
1129, f. 5, the last two as 0/)//;///^ .ff^^f/Zw.' Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 8: 32, as Peiesk'ni uibulata: 
Haage and Schmidt, Haupt-Verz. Kakteen 1919: 169; Goebel, Pflanz. Schild. 1: f. 35; MoUers 
Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 15. 

Figure 90 is from a photograph of a plant at 
the New York Botanical Garden grown from a 
cutting brought by Mrs. H. L. Britton from the 
Riviera, Italy, in 1907. 



He 



Mortol. 



42. Opuntia exaltata Berber, 

1912. 

Stem 2 to 5 meters high, with a definite trunk 
5 to 30 cm. in diameter when well grown, much 
branched; ultimate joints fleshy, easily detached, some- 
what curved upward, clavate, strongly tuberculate ; 
tubercles large, 1.5 to 3 cm. long, more or less dia- 
mond-shaped, elevated, and rounded; areoles rounded, 
filled with short white wool; glochids often wanting, 
when present brown ; leaves fleshy, terete, 1 to 7 cm. 
long; spines on young joints 1 to 5, mostly 1 to 3, 
dark yellow or brownish, unequal, the longest ones 5 
cm. long ; spines on old wood numerous, sometimes 
12 or more, often 13 cm. long, brown, with roughened 
tips; flowers, including ovaries, 7 cm. long; sepals and 
petals brick-red; outer sepals ovate, small, the inner 
ones passing into petals; petals 2 cm. long, broadly 
obovate to broadly spatulate, sometimes nearly trun- 
cate at apex ; stamens numerous, short, pinkish above, 
nearly white below; style swollen below, pinkish; 
stigma-lobes greenish; ovary 4 cm. long, deeply urn- 
bilicate, with large flat tubercles; areoles on ovar\ 
circular, filled with short brown and white wool, lon^, 
loosely attached brown spines, and a few shoritr 
glochids, and subtended by small, tardily deciduous 
leaves; fruit green, pear-shaped, 9 cm. long, usu.ilK 
sterile; seeds large, irregular, 10 mm. broad. '" run i.i su u .i .i 

Type locality. Not cited; described from cultivated plants. 

Distribution: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and probably northern Chile. 

This Opuntia is called pataquisca by the Cuzco and Arequipa Indians, and is also known 
as espina. 

This species was the most widely distributed Opuntia seen by Dr. Rose on the west 
coast of South America; but it is difficult to decide whether it is really native there, for it 
is widely cultivated as a hedge plant in many places. It seems to be native along the upper 
Rimac of central Peru; at least it is well established on the hills. Although very common in 
southern Peru and about La Paz, Bolivia, it is probably introduced for it grows only about 
towns and cultivated fields and seems never to produce fertile fruit. About Cuzco it is like- 
wise cultivated, but may be a native there also, for the fruit is generally fertile. 




BRITTON AND ROSE 




1. Optintia exaltata as seen in the highlands of Peru. 

2. Clump of Opuntia floccosa as it grows in the valleys of the Andes of eastern Peru. 



OPUNTIA. 77 

Opinit'ht iinixilliire Roezl (Morren, Belg. Hort. 24: 39. 1874), published without descrip- 
tion and probably collected in the high mountains above Lima, may belong here. 

Opuntid cu))i'nigu, of European gardens, belongs here. It was briefly mentioned in the 
journal of the Berlin Cactus Society (Monatsschr. Kaktcenk. 7: 160. 1897), but not formally 
described. Schumann referred it to O. pentland'i'i. 

This species is near Opuntia sub ul at a. but probably is distinct, although it is not always 
easy to distinguish them in greenhouse plants. Berger speaks of the similarity of the two 
as follows: 

"This new species stands very close to O. subulata. and may be easily mistaken for it, but when 
grown side by side the differences are quite obvious. O. exaltala is a taller plant with generally longer 
branches, and somewhat glaucous instead of grass-green. The tubercles are more elongated and differ- 
ently marked. The leaves are shorter, the spines, when young, are not white, but yellowish brown, gen- 
erally stouter and stiffer. I have not yet seen a flower of it. It is an old 
inhabitant of our gardens." 

Plate XIII, figure 1, is from a photograph taken by Hiram 
Bingham, July 7, 1912, near Tipon, Cuzco Valley, Peru, showing 
the plant near the upper left-hand corner; plate XV, figure 1, rep- 
resents a leaf-bearing joint of a plant sent to the New York Botani- 
cal Garden from La Mortola, Italy, in 1915; figure 2 represents the 
lower part of a fruiting branch obtained by Dr. Rose at Cuzco, Peru, 
m 1914. 

43. Opuntia pachypus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 26. 1904. 

Plant about 1 merer high, much branched and candelabrum-like; 
branches cylindric, 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, either straight or curved, marked 
with broad tubercles ; leaves subulate, pointed, constricted at the base, 4 mm. 
long, early deciduous ; areoles circular, borne at the upper edges of the 
tubercles, 4 mm. in diameter, filled with short wool; spines 20 to 30, subu- 
late, 5 to 20 mm. long; glochids yellow; flowers scarlet, 7 cm. long, includ- 
ing the ovary; petals variable, the longest ones 1.4 cm. long; style very thick, 
9 mm. long; stigma-lobes 5 mm. long; ovary more or less spiny. 

Type locality: Near Santa Clara, Peru. 

Distribution: Central Peru, near the coast. 

We know this species only from the description and illustra- 
tions. In 1914 Dr. Rose made several unsuccessful efforts to find it 

„ „, , II- Fig. 91.— Opuntia pachypus. 

at Santa Clara, the type locality. 

Illustrations: Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 12: pi. 5''; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 27. 
Figure 91 is copied from the second illustration above cited. 

AA. Opuntia cylindrica (Lamarck) De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 471. 1828. 

Cactus cylindricus Lamarck, Encycl. 1: 539. 1783. 
Ceretis cylindrki/s Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 183. 1812. 

More or less branched, 3 to 4 meters high, the old trunk becoming smooth; joints cylindric, 
obtuse at apex, green, with slightly elevated tubercles; leaves deciduous, 10 to 13 mm. long, terete, 
acute; areoles depressed, filled with white wool, bearing some long hairs and at first 2 or 3, afterwards 
more, short white spines (spines often wanting on greenhouse plants) ; flowers appearing just below 
the ends of the terminal branches, small, inconspicuous, about 2.5 cm. broad, scarlet; petals small, erect, 
obtuse; stamens numerous; style slender, 2.5 cm. long; ovary strongly tuberculate, depressed at apex; 
fruit about 5 cm. long, yellowish green; seeds more or less angled, 4 to 6 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: In Peru. 

Distribution: Highlands of Ecuador and Peru. 

The home of this species is usually given by recent writers as Chile, but Lamarck, who 
described it first in 1783, said it came from Peru. Dr. Rose, who visited Peru and Chile in 
1914, was not able to find it wild in either country but found it abundant in Ecuador in 




78 THE CACTACEAE. 

1918. This species was introduced into England in 1799, but flowers were not known until 
about 1834. 

There are two abnormal forms in cultivation which are ottered under the names variety 
cristata and moustruoia. Several varieties of this species are given in catalogues: crntata 
(Haage and Schmidt, Haupt-Verzeichnis 1908: 228. 1908); crhtata minor Haage and 
Schmidt (Verzeichnis Blumenzwiebeln 1913: 37. 1913); and rabustior (Haage and Schmidt, 
Haupt-Verzeichnis 1908: 228. 1908). 

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 61: pi. 3301; Carnegie Inst. Wash. 269: pi. U), f. 88; 
Mollers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 12; Gartenwelt 15: 339; Rother, Praktischer 
Leitfaden Kakteen 107; Cact. Journ. 1: 100; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 42. f. 4, as Opuntia 
cylindrka cristata: Wiener Illustr. Gartenz. 29: f. 22, No. 10; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 88; Mo- 
natsschr. Kakteenk. 13: 71; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 42. f. 3. 

Plate XIV, figure 2, shows a leaf-bearing top of a plant grov\n at the New York Botani- 
cal Garden. 

Series 12. MIQUELIANAE. 

Bushy plants, with elongated cylindric bluish joints; tubercles large, elevated; leaves minute, early 
deciduous. The series consists of but one species, confined to the deserts of northern Chile. 

45. Opuntia miquelii Monville, Hon. Univ. 1: 218. 1840.* 
Opiituia puUerulenla Pfeiffer, AUg. Gartenz. 8: 407. 1840. 
Opuntupuherulenla miquelii Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 49. 1845. 
Opiaitu geissei Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile 85: 492. 1894. 
Opiintij'rostfloij Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 686. 1898. 
Often growing in colonies 2 to 5 meters broad; stems cylindric, much branched, usually less than 
1 meter high, but occasionally 1.5 meters high, with numerous lateral branches; branches rather short, 
usually only 8 to 20 cm. long, thick (5 to 6 cm. in diameter) ; old branches bluish green, with low 
tubercles sometimes 2 cm. long; young joints bright green, with high tubercles flattened laterally; spines 
tardily developing, but formidable on old branches, very unequal, in clusters of 10 or more, the longest 
ones nearly 10 cm. long, whitish in age; glochids numerous, brownish, caducous; leaves minute, 2 to 3 
mm. long; areoles circular, when young filled with white wool, in age somewhat elevated on the 
areoles; flowers rather variable in length, 4 to 8 cm. long including the ovary, rose-colored to nearly 
white; petals broad, apiculate, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; filaments rose-colored; ovary strongly tuberculate; 
areoles filled with numerous brown glochids and subtended by minute leaves; style white; stigma-lobes 
green; fruit ovoid to oblong in outline, nearly white; umbilicus truncate; seeds small, 4 mm. broad. 
Type locality: In South America, but no definite locality. 
Distribution: Province of Atacama, Chile. 

O punt id miquelii and 0. pulverulent a have long been considered identical. We have 
not seen the types of either, but are following such authorities as Salm-Dyck (in 1850), La- 
bouret (1853), and Riimpler (1885) in uniting them. They seem to have been published in 
the same year. 

Opuntia geissei, according to a statement made to Dr. Rose by Juan Sohrens, of Santiago, 
is the same as O. miquelii. and this the former was able to verify by later herbarium and 
field studies. 

Opuntia rosiflora Schumann was based on Phiiippi's unpublished name O. rosea: while 
O. rosea was made by Philippi the type of 0. geissei. This is clearly shown by Phiiippi's her- 
barium, where he has erased the name O. rosea and substituted O. geissei. Dr. Rose also 
obtained from William Geisse a part of Phiiippi's original specimen, which came, as the label 
states, from near Bandurrias, in the valley of Carrizal, in the Province of Atacama. Later on, 
while making held observations in Atacama, Dr. Rose found this species very common from 
north of Castillo to Vallenar. This is the general region of O. geissei (O. rosea and O. rosi- 
flora) and in the river valley of the Huasco. Huasco, the type locality of O. miquelii, is 25 
miles lower down this valley, and we have no hesitancy in uniting them all. 

Although this species is not uncommon in cultivation, it has rarely been seen in flower, 
and we believe that the fruit has not heretofore been described. 

•Schumann states that this book was publishtd in 1839. 




1. Flowering branch of Opiintui binrageMhi. 3, t. Joints of Opuntia staiilyi. 

2. Opniitia cylindrica. 5. Flowering joint of Opiinlia macrorhiza. 

(all three-fourths size.) 



OPUNTIA. 79 

Dr. Rose observed a single plant infested by Lovanthus aphyllus, the parasite which is 
so abundant on Cereus chiloensu. 

OpuntJa heteromorpha Philippi (Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile 1891'': 28. 1891) we refer here 
on the authority of Schumann, but we have seen no specimens, the type specimen being 
missing from the Philippi herbarium in Santiago; it was collected at Chiquito, Tarapaca, 
Chile. 

Dr. Weber thought that Opuntia segeth'n belonged here, but we have referred it to O. 
suhulata. 

Opuntia cayrhahnsis Philippi is only mentioned by Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 
Nachtr. 152. 1903). It is doubtless to be referred here. 

Plate XVI, ligure 1, is from a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Vallenar, Chile, in 1914. 

Series 13. CLAVATAE. 

Here we include nine prostrate or spreading, low species, natives of the southwestern United 
States and Mexico, characterized by clavate joints and by sheathless spines, although rudimentary sheaths 
liave been observed on young spines in some of the species; they appear to form a transition between 
the subgenus Cylindropiintia and the South American subgenus Tephrocacttis. from which they differ 
essentially in having clavate joints. 

Key to Species. 

Spines flattened. 

Stems very stout. . . 

Stems hardly clavate ; ovary very prickly 46. O. inticta 

Stems strictly clavate; ovary only slightly prickly 47. O. slanlyi 

Stems more slender and weak. 

Spines brown, slender, long (4 to 6 cm. long) 48. O. schottii 

Spines stout, white, when old very flat. 

Bristles on ovary and fruit white 49- O. claiata^ 

Bristles on ovary and fruit brown .50. O. parishii 

Spines terete, elongated, and flexible, or the central ones somewhat flattened. 
Flowers pinkish or purple. 

Bristles on ovary numerous, brown 51. O. pjilchella 

Bristles on ovary few, white 32. O. r:!is 

Flowers yellow. 

Spines comparatively short, swollen at base .55. O. bulbispina 

Spines long and flexible, not swollen at base 54-0. grahamii 

46. Opuntia invicta Brandegee, Proc. CaUf. Acad. II. 2: 163. 1889. 

Plants growing in large clusters 2 meters in diameter and 2 to 5 dm. high, with many ascending 
or spreading branches; joints obovoid to clavate, dark green, 8 to 10 cin. long, strongly tuberculate; 
tubercles large, flattened laterally, 3 to 4 cm. long; areoles large, 1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter; leaves 
linear, 8 to 14 mm. long, reddish, curved, acute, deciduous; spines very formidable, when young reddish 
or purple with carmine-red bases, chestnut-brown at tips and grayish between, but in age dull in color; 
radial spines 6 to 10; central spines 10 to 12, much stouter than the radials, strongly flattened; wool 
white; glochids few, white, 2 to 4 mm. long; flowers yellow, 5 cm. in diameter; sepals ovate, acumi- 
nate; ovary 2 cm. in diameter, almost hidden by the numerous reddish, acicular spines; seeds yellowish, 
2 mm. broad. 

Type Locality: About San Juanico, Lower California. 

Distribution: Central Lower California, at low elevations. 

Mr. Brandegee has called attention to the strong resemblance in habit of this species 
to some of the species of Echinocereus, and Dr. Rose states that when he first saw it he 
supposed it to be some strange Echinocereus. It grows in great tufted masses and does 
not suggest in the remotest degree any of our North American opuntias. The species clearly 
belongs to Engelmann's series Clavatae, where it was placed by Schumann, who associated it with 
O. cereiforniis, but it is undoubtedly much nearer to O. stanlyi. So far as we know, the plant 
has never been in the trade; it does not succeed well in cultivation. Considerable living 
material was brought back by the Albatross in 1911, most of which was sent to the New 
York Botanical Garden; but some of the plants were sent to collections at St. Louis, Wash- 
ington, and Los Angeles. 

Illustration: Cact. Journ. 1: February. 

Plate XVI, figure 2, represents a plant collected by Dr. Rose at San Francisquito, 



80 THE CACTACEAE. 

Lower California, in 1911. 

47. Opuntia stanlyi Engelmann in Emory, Mil. Reconn. 15cS. 1848. 

Opunlia emoryi Engelmann. Proc. Amer. AcaJ. 3: 303. 1856. 

C.tclui emoryi Lema'ne. Cactees 88. 1868. 

Opnnli.1 kunzei Rose. Smiths, Misc. Coll. 50: 505. 1908. 

Stems low, usually less than 3 dm. high, much branched, creeping, forming broad, impenetrable 
masses 2 to 3 meters in diameter; joints 10 to 15 cm. long, clavate, more or less curved, strongly tuber- 
culate; tubercles 3 to 4 cm. long, flattened laterally, 4 to 6 cm. apart; spines numerous, stout, elongated, 
somewhat roughened, reddish brown, the larger ones strongly flattened, 3.5 to 6 cm. long; flowers yel- 
low, 5 to 6 cm. broad; fruit ovate, clavate at base, yellow, 5 to 6 cm. long, very spiny, with a depressed 
umbilicus; seeds flattened, 4.5 to 6.5 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality. On the del Norte and Gila, New Mexico. 

DiitribuUon: Southwestern New Mexico to eastern Arizona and adjacent Mexico. 

O. stanlyi was first found October 22, 1846, by W. H. Emory on his first trip across 
the continent; he reported the plant as abundant on the Del Norte and Gila. There has 
been much speculation as to what this species is, for no specimens were preserved. Dr. 
George Engelmann, who named the species, based it upon a sketch made by the artist of 
the expedition, Mr. J. M. Stanly. By a reference to Emory's itinerary we find that on Octo- 
ber 22, 1846, he was in southwestern New Mexico. In 1908 Dr. Rose visited this region 
where he collected the various species of cacti to be found there. The only plant which 
we know from that part of New Mexico which could represent O. Uanlyi is Opuntia 
etnoryi; this was the conclusion reached by Wooton and Standley, who, in their Flora of New 
Mexico, have restored the name O. stanlyi. 

We have referred Opuntia kunzei here because recent specimens sent in by Dr. Kunze 
have taken on a phase very much like the true O. stanlyi. There is a possibility that O. kunzei 
should be maintained, for we are not altogether convinced that certain material we have 
seen should be merged into 0. stanlyi. To clear up this point, it is hoped that someone 
will collect and preserve a full series of specimens showing flowers, fruits, and seeds. 

/////j-Z/W/ow-f.- Emory, Mil. Reconn. App. 2. f. 9; Amer. Garden 11: 331?; Cact. Journ. 
1: 154; Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 70, 71, these last three as O/'aw//^ f;«o;7/; Hornaday, Camp- 
fires on Desert and Lava opp. p. 116, this as Opuntia kunzei. Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 
38. f. 1, as Opuntia emoryi; Nat. Geogr. Mag. 21: pi. on p. 716, as O. kunzei. 

Plate XIV, figure 3, represents a plant collected by Dr. R. E. Kunze near Gunsight 
Mountains, Arizona, in 1912; figure 4 shows a leaf-bearing joint of the same plant. 

48. Opuntia schottii Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 304. 1856. 

Prostrate, rooting from the areoles, forming dense clusters sometimes 2 or 3 meters in diameter; 
joints clavate, curved, ascending, easily breaking off, 6 to 7 cm. long, 2 cm. in diameter at thickest 
part, strongly tuberculate; leaves subulate, bronze-colored, 6 to 8 mm. long, acuminate; areoles 1 to 
1.5 cm. apart; spines white and sheathed when young, soon brown, the larger ones sometimes as many 
as 12, very slender, sometimes 6 cm. long, somewhat flattened; wool white when young, turning brown; 
glochids white when young, turning brown, 4 mm. long or less; flowers yellow, 4 cm. long including 
ovary; sepals narrow, acuminate; petals acuminate; fruit yellow, narrowly oblong in outline, a little 
narrowed at base, 4 cm. long, closely set with areoles bearing numerous short spines, bristles and white 
wool, the umbilicus depressed; seeds yellow, flattened, 4 mm. in diameter, notched at base. 

Type locality: Arid soil near the mouth of the San Pedro and Pecos, western Texas. 

Distribution: Southern and western Texas and northern Mexico. 

Opuntia schottii greggii Engelmann (Cact. Mex. Bound. 68. pi. 73, f. 4. 1859), which 
came from near San Luis Potosi, Mexico, where it was collected by Dr. J. Gregg, in Decem- 
ber 1848, is much out of the range of the normal form and probably belongs elsewhere; but 
no specimens have been examined except the type, which is fragmentary. Engelmann at 
first considered it a distinct species. 

Opuntia greggii occurs only in Schumann's Index (Gesamtb. Kakteen 829) with page 
references to O. schottii gi'eggii. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




., 2. Parts of joints of Op/aitia ewilLi/a. 3- Upper part of joint of Opuntia iihurarthr& 

4. Upper part of joint of Opuntia tortispi»a. (All three-fourths size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



81 



49 



Illustration: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 73, f. 1 to 3. 

Figure 92 represents joints of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Langtry, Texas, in 1908. 

Opuntia clavata Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 95. 1848. 
CiKliis davatui Lemaire, Cactees 88. 1868. 

Plants low, not over 1.5 dm. high, much branched at base, spreading, forming large patches some- 
times 2 meters in diameter; joints short, 3 to 7 cm. long, turgid, ascending, clavate; areoles close to- 
gether; leaves subulate, 4 to 5 mm. long; spines pale, somewhat roughened, the radial ones 6 to 12, 
slender and acicular, 4 to 16 mm. long; central spines 4 to 7, much longer than the radials, more or 
less flattened, the largest one dagger-like; glochids numerous, yellowish, 3 to 5 mm. long; flowers yel- 
low, 3.5 to 4 cm. long; fruit 4 to 5 cm. long, with numerous areoles filled with yellow, radiating glo- 
chids ; seeds white, 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

Distribution: New Mexico, chiefly in the central part of the State. 

This is one of the most characteristic species of the genus and has no near relative 
except 0. pjyishii. of the deserts of California and Nevada. It is a great pest to grazing 
stock. 

lUiistrations: Bull. Agr. Exper. Station N. Mex. 78: pi. [1, 2], Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 22, 
f. 1 to 3; pi. 24, f. 6. Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2605. 

Figure 93 represents joints of a plant collected by W. T. H. Long at Albuquerque, New 
Mexico, in 1915. 





Fig. ^^. — Opuntia schottii. xO.75. Fig. 93. — Opuntia clavata. xO.75. 

50. Opuntia parishii Orcutt, West Amer. Sci. 10:81. 1896. 

Stems low, creeping, rooting along the under surface and forming dense, broad clusters ; terminal 
joints short, clavate, ascending but almost hidden under the dense armament; tubercles prominent but 
short, 5 to 7 mm. long; spines at first reddish but soon grayish and finally nearly white; radial spines 
numerous, slender; central spines about 4, strongly angled and more or less flattened, 2 to 4 cm. long; 
glochids numerous; flowers not known; fruit 5 cm. long, the numerous large areoles bearing many 
long yellow glochids and short spines forming a radiating band about the margin ; seeds dark, 4 mm. 
broad. 

Type locality: Mohave Desert. 

Distribution: Southern California and Nevada. 

The species here described is the Opuntia parryi as described by Engelmann in 1856, 
although he then suspected it was different from that species. It has been renamed Opuntia 
parishii by Orcutt, who wrote as follows: 

"We propose this name for that interesting plant of the Mohave desert region, hitherto called 
O. parryi, and under which it has been well described. The Messrs. Parish have hardly earned this 
light honor in many laborious trips through these desert regions, and I take pleasure in dedicating this 
species to them; Opuntia parryi (type from San Felipe), along with beriiardina and echinocarpa. and a 
bewildering host of nameless forms, I unhesitatingly class under serpentina!" 

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. 1: 132; N. Amer. Fauna 7: pi. 10; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 22, f. 
4 to 7; pi. 24, f. 7, all as Opuntia parryi. 

Figure 94 represents joints of a plant collected by S. B. Parish in southern California. 



82 



THE CACTACEAE. 



51. Opuntia pulchella Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 201. 1863. 

Low, 10 to 20 cm. high, densely branched, sometimes forming compact heads 6 dm. in diameter, 
main stem more or less definite, covered with areoles bearing yellow glochids 10 to 12 mm. long; lat- 
eral joints 'i to 6 cm. long, narrowly clavate, strongly tuberculate, purplish; areoles 6 to 8 mm. apart, 
2 to 3 mm. broad; spines 10 to 16, slender, reddish, the longer ones 5 to 6 cm. long, somewhat flat- 
tened; flower 5 cm. long, when open, fully as broad; petals purple, 3 cm. long; ovary 2 cm. long, 
bearing numerous areoles filled with white wool .md purple glochids 10 to 12 mm. long; fruit about 
2.5 cm. long; seeds (according to Coulter) thick and round. 4 mm. in diameter, with broad flat com- 
missure. 

Type locality: Sandy deserts on Walker River, Nevada. 

Distribution: Nevada and Arizona. 

The plant was first collected by Henry Engelmann in 1859, and brought to his brother, 
Dr. George Engelmann. The species does not succeed well in cultivation under glass. 

Illustiirtion: Simpson's Rep. pi. 3; MacDougal, Bot. N. Amer. Des. pi. 26, as O. pusillu. 

Figure 95 is from an herbarium specimen collected by Thomas H. Means, at Fallon, 
Churchill County, Nevada, in 1909. 





rishii. X 0.66. 



Fig. 95.— Opuntui pulchelKi. x 0.66. 



52. Opuntia vilis Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 293. 1909- 

Low, creeping, often forming mats several meters in diameter and only 10 to 15 cm. high; joints 
prostrate, becoming erect or ascending, the ultimate vertical ones clavate, 5 cm. long, the others 2 to 
4 cm. long, very turgid, pale green, with low tubercles; leaves terete, 2 to 3 mm. long, acute, red; 
young areoles bearing white wool; radial spines upward of 12, the number increasing with age by the 
addition of very small whitish ones; central spines on prostrate joints 4, reddish, white-tipped, 1 to 4 
cm. long, terete, slightly scabrous, with a sheath 5 mm. long, those of clavate joints white, reddish on 
the upper surface at the base, and along the whole of the lower surface flattened; flowers 4 cm. long; 
petals brilliant purplish, 2 cm. long; filaments bright yellow with green bases; style white; stigma-lobes 
yellow; fruit pale green, blackening in drying, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, tuberculate, 
especially about the margin of the umbilicus, spiny, fluted above, somewhat dry, with large white seeds. 

Type locality: Foot-slopes and plains of Zacatecas, Mexico. 
Distribution: State of Zacatecas, Mexico. 
Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pi. 27; f. 36. 

Figure 96 is from a photograph of the type plant taken by F. E. Lloyd in Zacatecas, 
Mexico, in 1907. 



83 




Fig. >)6.— Orv)n 



Amer. Ac.ici 3: 304. 1856. 



33. Opuntia bulbispina Engelmann, Proc 

Stems low, forming wide-spreading clumps 6 to \2 dm. broad; joints ovoid in outline, 2 to 2.5 
cm. long by 10 to 12 mm. in diameter; tubercles prominent, 6 to 8 mm. long; radial spines 8 to 12, 
acicular, 3 to 6 mm. long; central spines 4, much stouter than the radials, 8 to 12 mm. long, bulbose 
at base; flower and fruit not described in original description and as yet unknown. 

Type locdlity: Near Perros Bravos, north of Sal- 
tillo, Mexico. 

Distribution: Coahuila and probably into Durango, 
Mexico. 

The type of this species was collected by Josiah 
Gregg in 1848 and it has not with certainty been found 
since; it has been reported from one or two localities, 
but doubtless erroneously. At one time we supposed 
certain plants collected by Dr. Palmer in Chihuahua were 
to be thus referred. It is possible that specimens collected 
by Dr. Chaffey near Lerdo, Durango, may be referred 
here, as they have the short joints of this species, but the 
central spines are much longer, often reaching 2.5 to 3.5 
cm. long. The type is deposited in the Engelmann Her- 
barium at St. Louis, and although the material is poor, 
it may yet serve to clear up this species definitely. 

As stated by Coulter, this species has been regarded 
as the same as O. tiiniciita. a plant to which it is very re- 
motely related. 

Cactus, bulbispinus Lemaire. (Cactees 88. 1868) was 
intended as a synonym of this species. 

Illustration: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 73, f. 5, 6. 

Figure 97 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

54. Opuntia grahamii Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 304. 

1856. 

Roots at first thick and fleshy, becoming woody, 2 cm. thick or more; plant low, much branched, 
spreading, forming low mounds often half buried in the sand, sometimes giving off roots at the are- 
oles; terminal joints erect, clavate, bright green, 3 to 5 cm. long, with large oblong tubercles; leaves 
thick, bronze-colored, ovate, acute, 3 to 4 mm. long; areoles about 3 mm. broad; wool white; spines 
8 to 15, slender, slightly scabrous, terete or some of the larger ones slightly compressed, white when 




bulbispina. 



84 



THE CACTACEAE. 




-Opun 



young, soon reddish, the longest 3.5 to 6 cm. long; glochids numerous, slender, 4 mm. long or less, 
white, turning brown, persistent on the old stems; flowers yellow, 5 cm. broad; sepals ovate, acute, 
about 5 mm. long; fruit oblong to ovoid, 3 to 4.5 cm. long, its numerous areoles bearing white glochids 
and some slender spines; seeds beakless, 5 to 5.5 mm. in diameter, the commissure indistinct, linear. 

Type locality: Near El Paso, Texas. 

Distribiitio)!: Western Texas, New Mexico, and 
adjacent parts of Mexico. 

Tiiis species was named for James Duncan 
Graham, Colonel, Corps of Engineers, United States 
Army, who died December 28, 1865, at Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. Colonel Graham was for a time chief of the 
scientific corps of the United States and Mexican 
Boundary Commission, and caused the specimens of 
this plant to be transmitted to Dr. George Engelmann. ^"' 

The plant succeeds rather well in cultivation under glass. 

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 72; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 102. 

Figure 98 represents joints of a plant collected by Dr. Rose on hills near Sierra Blanca, 
Texas, in 1913. 

Subgenus 2. TEPHROCACTUS. 

Includes all the South American species of Opiintia which have short, oblong, or globular joints. 
It is hardly to be distinguished from the North American series Clavatae. Four series are recognized. 
The plants are confined to Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina. (See key to series, p. 44.) 

Series 1. WEBERIANAE. 

Plants low, forming dense clumps; joints subcylindric, strongly tuberculate and bearing numer- 
ous spines. This series suggests Platjopuntia, while the other series show closer relationship with the 
Cylindropuntia. Only one species known, inhabiting the dry part of northern Argentina. 

55. Opuntia weberi Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 509. 1905. 

Densely cespitose, forming clumps 2 to 3 dm. in diameter and 10 to 18 cm. high; joints yellowish 
green, erect, cylindric, strongly tuberculate, 2 to 6 cm. long, 1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter, densely spiny; 



;.3^^.^^ii->.rivx^ -^.■•- ivi'-' .■•#-; .^;^*^«wl 






Fig. 99.— Opunti.T weberi .is it grows wi 



OPUNTIA 85 

leaves described as wanting; tubercles spirally arranged, obtuse, somewhat 4-angied, 5 to 6 mm. broad; 
areoles somewhat depressed; spines 5 to 7, brown, 3 to 5 cm. long, flexuous, the upper ones erect; flowers 
borne near the top of the plant, small, solitary; ovary somewhat woolly below and with short spines 
above; flower rotate, yellow; fruit dry, white, 10 mm. in diameter; seeds somewhat contorted, bony, 
glabrous. 

Type locality: In Sierra Pie de Palo, Province of San Juan, Argentina. 
Distribution: Mountains of Provinces of San Juan and Salta, Argentina. 
This description, though largely drawn from Dr. Spegazzini's full account of this species, 
has been amplified from examination made of tiie type. Dr. Spegazzini refers it to 




Opuntia weberi. Natural siz 



the subgenus Tephiocactus, and we have followed him in this; but it differs widely from 
any other known species of that group and its true affinity may be elsewhere. If the plant 
is leafless, as Dr. Spegazzini's description implies, this is a most interesting exception to the 
character of Opuntia. 

Figure 99 is from a photograph of the plant at Molinos, Argentina; figure 100 is from 
a photograph of the type specimen in the collection of Dr. Spegazzini, to whom we are 
indebted for both of these illustrations. 



86 



Low plants, forming dense 
long, white, silky hairs. The two specie 



THE CACTACEAE 

Series 2. FLOCCOSAE. 

ps or mounds; joints short, thick, and fleshy 



are common m the high valleys of 

Key to Species 



ally covered with 
he Andes of Peru and 



ellow, stout 56. O. fhccoia 

I'hite. acicular 57. O. hguptn 



56. Opuntia floccosa Salm-Dyck, AUg. Gartenz. 13:388. 1845. 

Opiintia senilis Roezl in Morren. Belg. Hon. 24: 39. 187-4. 
Opuntia floccosa denudau Weber, Diet. Hon. Bois 897. 1898. 
Opuntia hempeliana Schumann. Gesamtb. Kakteen 690. 1898. 

Plant growing in clumps or low mounds sometimes 1 to 2 meters in diameter, with hundreds of 
short, erect branches; joints oblong, 5 to 10 cm. long, usually hidden under a mass of long white 
hairs coming from the areoles; spines usually one from an areole, sometimes as many as three, yellow, 
1 to 3 cm. long; leaves minute, green or pinkish; tubercles somewhat elevated, elongated; flowers, 
small, 3 cm. long, yellow; fruit globular, 3 cm. in diameter: seeds 1 mm. in diameter, with very narrow 
margins. 




Opuntia floccosa. 



T-^pe locality: Said to be from vicinity of Lima, Peru, but doubtless only from the high 
mountains east of Lima. 

Distribution: High mountain valleys and hills of the Andes from central Peru to central 
Bolivia. 

O. floccosa is one of the most unusual and striking species of all the opuntias. One who 
is familiar only with the opuntias of North America would not suspect that it belongs to the 
genus. It does not grow on the hot mesas in the low country, as one would expect, but in the 
high, cold valleys and hills near the top of the Andes. The following paragraph, taken from 
John Ball's notes, is interesting in this connection: 

Reserving some remarks on the botany of this excursion, there is yet to be mentioned here one plant 
of the upper region so singular that it must attract the notice of every traveler. As we ascended from 
Casapalta we noticed patches of white, which from a distance looked like snow. 



Seen nearer at hand, 



OPUNTIA 87 

they had the appearance of large, rounded, flattened cushions, some five or six feet in diameter, and a 
foot high, covered with dense masses of floss silk that glistened with a silvery lustre. The unwary 
stranger who should be tempted to use one of these for a seat would suffer from the experiment. The 
plant is of the cactus family, and the silky covering conceals a host of long, slender, needle-like spines, 
that penetrate the flesh, easily break, and are most difficult to extract. Unfortunately, the living specimen 
which I sent to Kew did not survive the journey. 

Dr. Rose found the plant very abundant in the Andes from 3,600 to 4,260 meters alti- 
tude, while others have reported it as high as 4,570 meters altitude. It is very common, forming 
everywhere great, conspicuous, usually white mounds. Dr. Rose also found it quite common 
between Cuzco and Juliaca, in southwestern Peru. 

Mr. O. F. Cook, in the Journal of Heredity (8: 113. 1917), who has named this plant 
the polar bear cactus, wrote of it as follows: 

Many exposed slopes on the bleak plateaus of the high Andes are dotted with clumps of pure 
white cacti that look from a distance like small masses of snow. On closer view, the shaggy white haii 
of these cacti make them appear like small sheep or poodle-dogs, or like reduced caricatures of the 
denizens of the arctic regions. We are so accustomed to think of cacti primarily as desert plants, pecu- 
liarly adapted to hot, dry deserts, that they seem distinctly out of place on the cold plateaus of the high 
Andes of southern Peru. 

While most of the plants are covered with long white hairs, plants without hairs are 
not uncommon. These naked plants, which are characteristic of the whole clump or colony, 
appear at first sight very unlike the other forms, but they grow in the same region and have 
the same kind of flowers and fruits. In cultivated plants few hairs are developed. The variety 
denudata Weber seems to be only one of these naked forms. 

Opuntia involuta Otto (F5rster, Handb. Cact. 505. 1846) was not published, but was 
given as a synonym of this species. It was used the year before (Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 
13: 388. 1845) as a synonym of O. vestita. 

Illustrations: Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 12: pi. 14; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 41, 
44, these last two as Opuntia hempeliana; Journ. Heredity 8: f. 3 to 8. 

Plate XIII, figure 2, is from a photograph taken by Mr. O. F. Cook in the high mountains 
of eastern Peru. Figure 101 is from a photograph of a fragment of the plant collected by Dr. 
Rose in 1914, at Araranca, Peru. 

57. Opuntia lagopus Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 151. 1903. 

Plants cespitose, growing in compact mounds; joints stout, cylindric, 10 cm. long, 3 to 3.5 cm. in 
diameter, densely covered with long white hairs; leaves minute, hidden under the wool, 7 mm. long; 
spines solitary, white, 2 cm. long, slender; glochids white, bristle-like; flowers probably red; fruit not 
known. 

Type locality: Mountains of Bolivia above Arequipa, Peru. 

Distribution : On the plains of the high Andes of Peru and Bolivia (altitude 4,000 
meters) . 

This species is related to O. floccosa, with which it often grows, but it takes on a very 
different habit, growing in very dense, peculiar rounded mounds much higher than those 
formed by O. floccosa. 

Illustration: Engler and Drude, Veg. Erde 12: pi. 14. 

Figure 102 is from a photograph by H. L. Tucker, near Laxsa, Peru, in 1911. 

Series 3. GLOMERATAE. 

Plants low, composed of globose or oblong joints, the spines, or some of them, modified into flat 
papery processes. We recognize two species, confined to western Argentina. 

Key to Species 

Central spines papery; radial spines subulate 58. O. australis 

Spines, when present, all developed into long papery processes 59. O. glomerata 



THE CACTACEAE 





58. Opuntia australis Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 
896. 1898. 

Pterocactus valentinii Spegazzini, Anal. Soc. 
Cient. Argentina 48: 51. 189V. 
Plants often with large roots, these 5 to 8 cm. 
long by 2 to 3 cm. in diameter and larger than 
the parts above ground; joints described as cu- 
cumber-shaped, usually 6 to 8 cm. long by 1 to 
2 cm. in diameter, but apparently often much 
smaller, tuberculate; radial spines 10 to 15, spread- 
ing, white, short, 3 to 4 cm. long; central spines 
1 or 2, much longer than the radials, 2 cm. long, 
erect, flattened, and somewhat papery; flowers 
yellow, 2 to 3 cm. broad; seeds said to be rugose. 

Type locality: Between Santa Cruz 
River and the Strait of Magellan, Argentina. 

Distributiofi: The southernmost parts of 
Argentina. 

We have recently examined three col- 
lections of this plant made by Carl Skotts- 
berg in the Territory of Santa Cruz, which in 
the main agree with Weber's description. 
We have also seen Pterocactus vahnthm, 
which is the same as Skottsberg's plant. 

Dr. Spegazzini records this species as being in Santa Cruz, Argentina; but as he regards 
the plant collected there by him as only a variety of O. darwiiiii, we are inclined to believe 
he must have collected something else. 

This species, which is found at the Strait of Magellan, extends farther south than any 
other cactus known to us. 



— Opuntia australis. 
joints, and flower. 1 



OPUNTIA 89 

Figure 103 is from a photograph of an herbarium specimen collected by Carl Skottsberg 
in the Territory of Santa Cruz, Patagonia, in 1908. 

59- Opuntia glomerata Haworth, Phil. Mag. 7: HI. 1830. 

116. 1833. 



Opu 
Cere 
Cere 
opu 
opu 
opu 
opu 
opu 
opu 
opu 

Opunlu, M, 
Opuul,.,.., 
Opuulu pi 
Opnnu., /-, 
Opuni.a pi 
Opunt,., /..; 
Opunua.y 
Opunlu pi 
Forming low, spreadin 



I artkulala Otto, Allg. Gartenz. 1 : 1 

arliculatus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 103. 1837. 

syringacanthus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 103. 1837. 

iplutyacantha Salm-Dyck in Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 5:371. 1837. 

iluherosa spinoui Pfefffer, Enum. Cact. 116. 18.^7. 

landicola Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 145. 1857. 

I il'uiclemata Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 36. 1838. 

ilurpinii Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 36. 1838. 

ijiiilicriln elongiita Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 72. 

I .»;./;,■-.',• ',v,';; ,r-;.- ; Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 12 

i.:i:.l:. ' ■ I ii.iiie, Cact. Gen. Nov. .Sp. 72. II 

a.ili., I.!, ,1- 1 ,1 l.cn. Nov. Sp. 7t. 1859. 

'/'/.,/!, „,,-.', ,;,,.■,., Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 

■ l>L,i).n.,rih.i „;,.,;ulU, Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dycl 

■ plil),H uiiIki JcjhMspiiij Salm-Dyck. Cat!. Hon. D 
' I'.ipyi.iL.inlh.i Philippi, Gartenflora 21: 120. 18-2. 
! i)nii,KJtdiilhj Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 6: 156. 1896. 

Walton, Cact. Journ. 1: 105. 1898. 
clumps, the branches either erect or prostrate 



1839. 
1839. 



84.i. 43. 1845. 
18-19. 71. 1850. 
k. 1849. 245. 1850. 



joints globular, 3 to 6 cm. 
diameter, often in cultivated specimens even smaller, dull grayish brown, hardly tuberculate except 
in drying; areoles large, bearing numerous long, brown glochids; spines often wanting, when present 
1 to 3, long, weak, thin and papery, hardly pungent, either white or brownish, sometimes 10 cm. long; 
flowers light yellow, small; fruit globose, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, dry; seeds corky. 

Type locality: Brazil, according to Haworth, 
but erroneously. 

Distribution: Western Argentina. It has also 
been referred to Brazil and Chile, but surely not 
found in Brazil, and we should not expect it to 
inhabit Chile. (Extend range to central and 
northern Argentina. — Appendix.) 

The plant figured by Nicholson (Diet. Gard. 
2: f. 755) as O. platyacantha hardly belongs here. 

O. glomerata, which is common on the dry 
hills about Mendoza, is very variable, especi- 
ally as to whether it is spine-bearing or not; 
while the spines — which are really not spines but 
thin ribbon-like processes — vary much as to their 
color, markings, and length. These variations are partly 
the cause of so many synonyms for the species. Dr. 
Rose, who visited the region in which this species grows, 
found wide variation in the size of the joints, as well 
as in the absence or presence of spines. 

Tephrocactus diadematus Lemaire (Cact. 88. 
1868), r. turpinii Lemaire (Cact. 88. 1868), 
Opuntia polymorpha Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 103. 1837) , and Opuntia turpinii polymorpha Salm- 
Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 71. 1850) are usually given as synonyms of Opuntia diadein- 
ata, but none of them was actually published. Opuntia polymorpha Pfeiffer was used by Pfeif- 
fer as a synonym for Cereus articulatus Pfeiffer. 

Tephrocactus polyacanthus (Index Kewensis Suppl. 1: 421) was intended for T. platya- 
canthus Lemaire (Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 915. 1885). 

Tephrocactus andicolus, T. calvus, and T. platyacanthus, all of Lemaire (Cact. 88. 1868), 
without descriptions, are referred here by inference. 

Spegazzini (Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 511. 1905) describes three varieties of 
this species under O. diademata, from Argentina, as follows: inermis, oligacantha, and polya- 
cantha; while Weber (Dia. Hort. Bois 896. 1898) under the same name describes var. calva, 
but these all seem to be forms of this very variable species. 




-Opuntia gl 



90 THE CACTACEAE 

The following varietal names, under Opuntia gluiueiula var. albispiiui Forster (Handb. 
Caa. 472. 1846), var. jiavisphia Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 43. 1845), and var. 
minor Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 71. 1850), are mentioned in the places cited, 
but not described. 

Opuutia horizontal'n Gillies (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 145. 1837) was used as a synonym 
of Opuntia andkola, and should be referred here. 

Opuntia pelaguensis (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 71. 1850) was published as a 
synonym of Opuntia platyacantha deflexispina. 

Opuntia andicola minor, an unpublished variety, is mentioned by name only in Monats- 
schrift far Kakteenkunde (10: 48. 1900). 

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. 1: 100, as Opuntia andicola: Engler and Prantl, Plianzenfam. 
3'^: f. 56, K.; Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 39; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 13: 23, these three as Opim- 
tia diademata. Caa. Journ. 1: February; Diet. Gard. Nicholson Suppl. f. 607; Forster, Handb. 
Cact. ed. 2. f. 125; Gard. Chron. III. 23: f. 129; 29: f. 63; Gartenflora 21: pi. 721, f. 2; Watson, 
Cact. Cult. ed. 1 and 2. 257. f. 97; ed. 3. f. 60, all as Opuntia papyracantha; Cact. Journ. 1: 
105, as Opuntia plumosa nivea; Diet. Gard. Nicholson 2: 503. f. 755; MoUers Deutsche Gart. 
Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 1, as O. platyacantha; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 45. f. 7, as O. andi- 
cola; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 60; Rev. Hort. Belg. 40: after 186; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 44. f. 
6; Moellers Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9- No. 2, as. 2, as O. diademata. 

Figure 104 represents a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Mendoza, Argentina, in 1915. 

Opuntia schumannii Spegazzini (Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 511. 1905, not Ber- 
ger, 1904) is a homonym, and we hesitate to give it a new name until it is better known. 
The type comes from Salta, Argentina, from a region where we already have a number of 
species of Tephrocactus. Spegazzini, who described it, says it is related to 0. diademata, which 
is now referred to O. glomerata, but is very distinct. It is without spines and the flowers are 
unknown. 

Series 4. PENTLANDIANAE. 

Plants often growing in large mounds; joints globular to oblong; spines usually slender, acicular 
to subulate. Seventeen species are here recognized. 

Key to Species 

Spines very long and stout, up to 15 to 20 cm. long 60. O. aoiacantija 

Spines slender, 10 cm. long or less. 
Spines appressed to the joints. 

Spines 12 to 20, flexuous; |omts 7 cm. long 61. O. rjuppiana 

Spines 6 or 7; joints 2 to 4 cm. long 62. 0. sublerranea 

Spines straight, not appressed. 
Spines flat or semiterete. 

Spines 7 to 10 cm. long 63. O. hickenii 

Spines 6 cm. long or less. 
Longer spines 1 to 3. 

Joints ellipsoid, 4 to 5 cm. thick 64. O. daruinii 

Joints oblong, 1 cm. thick 65. O. tarapacana 

Longer spines 4 or 5. 

Spines gray 66. O. atacamensis 

Spines yellow 67. O. russellii 

Spines terete. 

Spines white, at least when young. 

Joints tuberculate 68. O. cunugjtj 

Joints not tuberculate. 

Joints oblong 69. O. ar^ui 

Joints globose 70. O. sphaerica 

Spines yellow to brown or nearly black. 

Roots large and woody; spines nearly black 71. O. skottsbergii 

Roots fibrous. 

Spines purple-black 72. O. nigrhpina 

Spines yellow to brown. 

Plants forming large clumps. 

Fruit about 2.5 cm. long, nearly unarmed 73. O. pentlandii 

Fruit 5 to 6 cm. long, copiously armed with long spines above. . . 74. O. ignescens 
Plants isolated, not forming clumps. 

Old joints globose; spines acicular 75. O. campestris 

Joints all oblong; spines subulate 76. O. ignota 



OPUNTIA 91 

60. Opuntia aoracantha Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 34. 18.3H. 

Cereui oijtut Pfeiffer, Fnum. Cact. 102. 18^7. Noi Opunti.i m,,!., Pfeiffei. I.e. 111. 1«.^7. 

Opuyjlia foTmidahHn Walton, Cact. Journ. 1: lO-i. 1898. 
Usually low, cespitose, forming clumps 2 to 5 dm. in diameter and sometimes 1 to 2 dm. high; 
branches grayish, either erect or prostrate, made up of 5 to 10, perhaps even more, globular joints; 
joints easily detached, freely rooting and starting new colonies, 5 to 8 cm. in diameter, strongly tuber- 
culate especially when young, the lower part spineless, the upper areoles large, spine-bearing; spines 
brown or blackish, 1 to 7, the longer ones 13 cm. long, straight, a little flattened, roughish to the touch; 
flowers white; fruit short-oblong, 3 cm. long, red, weakly tuberculate, bearing numerous areoles, usually 
naked but sometimes bearing a few short spines near the top, becoming dry; umbilicus of fruit broad 
and depressed ; seeds white, flattened, 4 to 5 mm. broad, the margins thick and corky. 




)S. — Opuntia aoracan 



Type locality: Not cited, but doubtless from Mendoza. 

Distribution: Western provinces of Argentina, from Mendoza to Jujuy. 

Opuntia gilliesii Pfeififer (Enum. Cact. 102. 1837, as synonym) and Tephrocactus aora- 
canthus Lemaire (Cact. 89. 1868) are usually given as synonyms of this species, but they 
were not described in the places usually cited, and as here given. Opuntia acracantha Wal- 
pers (Report. Bot. 2: 354. 1843) is a typographical error. 

O. aoracantha. although described nearly 80 years ago, is practically unknown in collec- 
tions and has been very poorly described. The fruit has heretofore been unknown. Dr. Rose 
found it in 1915 in great abundance growing on dry, rocky hills west of Mendoza, although 
in but one locality. A bountiful supply of living material was sent home, several photographs 



92 



THE CACTACEAE 



were taken, and fruit and seeds obtained. 

Opiint'ia tiiben]orniis Philippi (Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile 1891": 28. 1891), referred here 
by Schumann, doubtless belongs elsewhere. It may possibly belong to some Platyopuntia, for 
it is described as having ovate joints only 5 mm. thick. It comes from the foot of the Andes in 
the Province of Tarapaca, Chile. 

Illustrations: Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 40; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 172; Schelle, 
Handb. Kakteenk. 44. f. 5; Cact. Journ. 1: 105, the last as O. jormidabilis. 

Figure 105 represents a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Mendoza, Argentina, 
in 1915. 

61. Opuntia rauppiana Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 118. 

1899. 

Joints ellipsoid, rounded at each end, somewhat tuberculate, 
dark green or becoming grayish green, 7 cm. long by 4 cm. in 
greatest diameter; glochids yellow, 5 cm. long; spines 12 to 14, 
sometimes as many as 20, very weak, almost bristle4ike, 2 cm. long, 
hardly pungent. 

Type locality: In the Andes. 

Distribution: Bolivia, according to Schumann. 

Little is known of the habit of this plant, as only one 
joint is figured and this appears to be a sickly greenhouse 
specimen. It suggests some of the species which grow in 
large clumps like the one figured as Opuntia grata by Fries. 

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 118; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 
36 (same). 

Figure 106 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

62. Opuntia subterranea R. E. Fries, Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Upsal. IV. 1^: 122. 1905. 

Almost buried in the sand, simple or few-branched from a thick root 7 to 12 cm. deep: joints 
terete, 2 to 4 cm. long; tubercles low; spines 1 to 7, all radial, short, whitish, recurved, appressed; 
flowers lateral, brownish; ovary small, with a depressed umbilicus, its areoles bearing small glochids 
and a little wool; fruit 12 to 15 mm. long; seeds 3 mm. broad, irregular. 






Fig. 107.— Opuntia subterr 



Fig. 108— Opuntia hickenii. xO.6. 



OPUNTIA 93 

Type locality: Near Moreno, Jujuy, Argentina. 
Distribution: Northern Argentina and adjacent Bolivia. 

This peculiar little plant, heretofore known only from the type collection, was obtained 
by Dr. Shafer on stony plains at Villazon, Bolivia, in February 1917, but was not in bloom 
Illustration: Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Upsal. IV. 1': pi. 8, f. 4 to 8. 
Figure 107 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

63. Opuntia hickenii sp. nov. 

Low, cespitose, forming clusters 1 meter in diameter; joints globular, 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, 
strongly tuberculate, the lower tubercles usually spineless; areoles rather large, circular; spines 2 to 5, 
flat and thin, narrow, weak, pungent, 5 to 12 cm. long, silvery-colored but nearly black in age; flow- 
ers yellow; fruit not known. 

Type in United States National Herbarium, No. 603229, from Puerto Madryn, Chubut, 
Argentina, collected. by Cristobal M. Hicken. 

Common in Chubut and Rio Negro, southern Argentina, where it was collected several 
times by Dr. Hicken, . 

Figure 108 represents the type specimen above cited. . 

Mr. W. B. Alexander suggests that Opuntia platyacct)itha Spegazzini (not Salm-Dyck) 
is probably a synonym of this species. 

A photograph of a plant from San Juan, Argentina, communicated by Dr. Spegazzini, 
indicates another species of this relationship. 

64. Opuntia darwinii Henslow, Mag. Zool. Bot. 1: 466. 1837. 

Low, perhaps not more than 2 to 4 cm. high, much branched at base from a more or less elon- 
gated woody root; joints normally few, nearly globular, about 3 cm. in diameter, or often nearly 
cylindric, frequently numerous and small and growing out from the main axis, then only 5 to 10 mm. 
in diameter; areoles large, filled with wool, the lower ones spineless; spines 1 to 3, nearly erect, the 
longest one 3 to 3.5 cm. long, yellow or reddish yellow, decidedly flattened; flowers originally de- 
scribed as larger than the joints, but certainly often much smaller; petals yellow, broad, with a trun- 
cate or depressed top and usually with a mucronate tip; ovary, in specimens seen, only 2 cm. long, 
covered with large woolly areoles ; styles described as stout, with 9 thick radiating stigma-lobes. 

Type locality: Port Desire, Patagonia, latitude 47° south. 

Distribution: Southern Argentina. 

This species seems to be common in that part of Patagonia known now as the Terri- 
tory of Santa Cruz, Argentina. We have recently examined four separate collections made 
in this region, especially one from about Lake Buenos Aires and on the Fenix River by Carl 
Skottsberg, in 1907-1909. 

The plant is in cultivation in Europe and is offered for sale by cactus dealers. 

It was first collected by Charles Darwin, but only a single joint was taken, which was 
described and figured by Rev. J. S. Henslow. The illustration of the flowers seems too large, 
but otherwise represents fairly well the plant as we know it. The following interesting note 
is taken from Mr. Henslow's article as it appeared in the Magazine of Zoology and Botany, 
volume I, page 467 : 

I have named this interesting Cactus after my friend C. Darwin, Esq., who has recently returned 
to England, after a five years' absence on board H. M. S. Beagle, whilst she was employed in sur- 
veying the southernmost parts of South America. The specimen figured was gathered in the month 
of January, at Port Desire, lat. 47° S. in Patagonia. He recollects also to have seen the same plant 
in flower as far south as Port St. Julian in lat. 49° S. It is a small species growing close to the 
ground on arid gravelly plains, at no great distance from the sea. The flowers had one day arrested 
his attention by the great irritability which their stamens manifested upon his inserting a piece of 
straw into the tube, when they immediately collapsed round the pistil, and the segments of the peri- 
anth soon after closed also. He had intended to procure fresh specimens on the following day, and 
returned to the ship with the one now figured, but unfortunately she sailed immediately afterwards, 
and he was prevented from obtaining any more. The geographical position of this .species is beyond 
the limits hitherto assigned to any of the order, which are not recorded as growing much south of 



94 



THE CACTACEAE 



the tropic of Capricorn. The cHmate is remarkably dry and clear, hot in summer, but with sharp 
frosts during the winter nights. He found Cacti both abundant and of a large size, a little farther 
to the north at Rio-Negro in latitude 41" S. 

Illustration: Mag. Zool. Bot. 1: pi. 14, f. 1. 

Figure 109 is copied from a photograph of an herbarium specimen collected by Carl 
Skottsberg in Patagonia in 1908. 

64a. Opuntia wetmorei sp. nov. (Appendix following page 226). 

65. Opuntia tarapacana Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile 1891 = : 27. 1891. 

Opiintid rahmeri Philippi, Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile 1891 = : 27. 1891. 

Low, cespitose plants; joints small, ovoid, about 2 cm. long by 1 cm. thick, bearing spines from 
white woolly areoles at tips; spines usually 3, straight, 12 to 15 mm. long, white with yellowish tips; 
flowers yellow; petals 21 mm. long; ovary elongated, 2 cm. long. 

Type locality: Calalaste, Chile. 

Distribution: Known only from type locality, although Schumann in his Keys refers this 
species to Bolivia. 

Although the type of this species is preserved in the Museum at Santiago, Chile, it is 
insufficient to enable us to give a very full description. It seems distinct from the other spe- 
cies of the group. 




0. — O. atacamensis. xi).6. Fit,. 

66. Opuntia atacamensis Philippi, Fl. Atac. 24. I860. 

? Pereskia glomerataPfeifier, Enum. Cact. 179- 1837. Not Opuntia glonierala Haworth. 1830. 

Growing in large, dense clusters sometimes 6 dm. broad and 3 dm. high; joints ovoid, 2.5 cm 
long by 2 cm. in diameter; areoles in 5 to 7 series, the lower ones with wool and very short spines; 
upper areoles each bearing 1 erect central spine 18 to 25 mm. long, yellow or reddish; radial spines 
2 to 4, strongly appressed, 2 mm. long; flowers yellow. 

Type locality: Profetas, Chile; also Puquios, 23° 50' south latitude. 

Distribution: On the high central deserts of northern Chile at an altitude of 2,700 to 
3,300 meters. 

We have not seen the type of this species, and our reference of Pereskia glowerata here 
may not be correct. 

Illustration: Nov. Act. Soc. Set. Upsal. IV. 1': pi. 1, as Opuntia grata. 

Figure 110 represents a plant obtained by Dr. Rose at the Botanical Garden, Santiago, 
Chile, in 1914. 

67. Opuntia russellii sp. nov. 

Forming small, compact clumps I to 2 dm. in diameter; joints small, globular to obovoid, dull 
green to more or less purplish, 2 to 4 cm. long, very spiny near the top ; leaves minute, acute, soon 
falling; prominent spines 3 to 6, yellow, 2 to 3 cm. long, slightly flattened; accessory spines 1 to 
several, 1 cm. long or less; glochids at first inconspicuous, but in time very abundant, sometimes 2 
cm. long, somewhat persistent; flowers not known; fruit globular, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, spineless; 
seeds pale, 4 mm. broad. 

Collected by J. N. Rose and Paul G .Russell on the dry hills at Potrerillos, Mendoza, 



OPUNTIA 



95 



Argentina, September 2, 1915 (No. 21002). 

This is a common species in the foothills of the Andes, in the Province of Mendoza, 
where it forms low mounds along with other cacti. 

Figure 111 represents joints of the type specimen above cited. 

68. Opuntia corrugata Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 360. 1834. 

Opnnli.i ehurnea, Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. ,^5. 183S. 
Opiinlij retrosphtoia Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. S'i. 1S^8. 
OpNiilhi pjimentieri Pfeiflfer, Allg. Gartenz, 6: 276. 1838. 

More or less cespitose; joints 3.5 cm. long, 8 to 12 mm. in diameter, orbicular to cylindric, often 
erect, attenuate at both ends, light green, the terminal one often flattened; glochids minute, yellowish: 
spines 6 to 8, acicular, 8 to 12 mm. long, white; flowers reddish; fruit red. 

Type locality: None given. 

Distribution: Northwestern Argentina, according to later writers. 

Lemaire (Cact. 88. 1868) uses the names Cactm conugatm and C. ehtirneus. both of 
which Schumann refers here. 

TephrocactHS vetrospinosus Lemaire (Cact. 88. 1868) is placed by Lemaire in his third 
section of Tepbroccictiis. but it is without description. It is dt)ubtless the same as Opuntia 
retrospinosa Lemaire, which belongs here. 

Tephrocactus rectrospinus (Index Kewensis Suppl. 1: 421) is a misspelling for T. rectro- 
spinosus Lemaire. 

Opuntia aulacothele Weber (Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 392. 1904), which 
was described without flowers or fruit, may be of this alliance. It comes from San Rafael, 
Argentina. 

0/>/^«//W co?7Z/^d/<3, mentioned in Bailey's Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture (4: 2367. 
1916), is a misspelling of this name. 

Opuntia corrugata monvillei Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 72. 1850) was not 
described. 

Opuntia longispina Haworth (Phil. Mag. 7: HI. 1830), when first described, was sup- 
posed to have come from Brazil; the Index Kewensis refers it to Chile; while Schumann treats 
it in a note under O. corrugata as an Argentine species. It may not be an Opuntia but a 
Maihuenia. 

Illustration'^- MoUers Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 11; 488. f. 22, No. 8. 

69. Opuntia ovata Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 144. 1837. 

Opuntia onillei Remy in Gay. Fl. Chilena 3: 29. 184^. 
Opuntia gi.ita Philippi, Linnaea 30: 211. 1859. 
Opuntia monticola Philippi, Linnaea 33: 82. 186-1. 

Low, branching, cespitose plants; joints yellowish green, 
some deep purple when young, subcylindric to ellipsoid, 3 
cm. long; spines 5 to 9, 4 to 10 mm. long, when young 
brownish, in age white; fruit ovoid; umbilicus curved out- 
ward. 

Type locality: Mendoza, Argentina. 

Distribution: Mountains of Argentina and Chile. 

Opuntia oroides Lemaire (Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 73. 1839) and Cactus ovoides Lemaire 
(Cact. 88. 1868) are usually cited as synonyms for Opuntia ovata; they are unpublished names. 

This species forms low clumps, each branch consisting of 2 to 5 joints. Dr. Rose found it 
abundant in the Andes above Mendoza and it has also been reported from the Chilean side 
of the Andes. Colonies differ in armament. In cultivation some of the joints are elongated 
and club-shaped. 

Opuntia pusilla Salm-Dyck (Observ. Bot. 3: 10. 1822. Not Haworth, 1812) was referred 
by Schumann to O. corrugata. We have seen a photograph of Haworth's specimen (bearing 
the date November 8, 1824) which seems to answer to Salm-Dyck's plant which we would 
refer here. 

Illustration: Schumann Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 105, as Opuntia grata. 




96 



THE CACTACEAE 



Figure 112 shows joints of the plant collected by Dr. Rose in 1915 at Potrerillos, 
Argentina. 

70. Opuntia sphaerica Forster, Hamb. Gartenz. 17: 167. 1861. 
Opuntia dimorpha Forster, Hamb. Gartenz. 17: 167. 1861. 

Opuntia leonina Haage and Schmidt in Kegel and Schmidt, Gartenflora 30: 413. 1881. 
Opuntia leucophaea Philippi. Anal. Mus. Nac. Chile 1891^: 27. 1891. 
Opuntia orata leonina Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk, 46. 1907. 
Opuntia corotilla Schumann in Vaupel, Bot. Jahrb. Engler Beibl. Ill: 28. 1913. 
Plants often erect, always low, usually few-branched, often forming large patches; joints usually 
globular, 12 to 40 cm. in diameter; areoles large, numerous, sometimes nearly hiding the surfaces of 
the joints with their short brown wool; spines variable as to number, sometimes few, sometimes 
numerous, brown at first, in age sometimes gray, 1 to 4 cm. long, usually stiff; flowers 4 cm. long, 
deep orange; petals obtuse; fruit globular, often very spiny; seed globular, white, 4 mm. in diameter, 
surrounded by a thin, broad band. 

Type locality: Near Arequipa, Peru. 
Distribution: Central Peru to central Chile. 

The three illustrations cited below were made from the same cultivated plant. They 
look very much like a poor specimen of Opuntia olomcrata, and, if such it should prove, 
the name O. leonina should be re- 
ferred to the synonymy of that 
species. 

We have referred Opuntia di- 
morpha here with some hesitancy. 

This plant often passes for 
Opuntia ovata and, from herbarium 
specimens we have seen, it has been 
so identified by Rudolph Philippi. 

This species is very common in 
sandy places on hills, dry flats, and 
in mountain valleys, often covering 
the ground to the exclusion of all 
other plants. The joints readily break 
loose and, falling to the ground, start 
new colonies. We found the species 
very common both above and below 
Arequipa, Peru, where it is called 
corotilla; in central Chile it grows at 
lower altitudes but in similar situa- 
tions. In Chile it is called leon or 
leoncito, which is probably the origin of the name Opnutia leonina. 

Opuntia phyllacantha Haage and Schmidt (Regel and Schmidt, Gartenflora 30: 4l4. 
1881), if it actually came from Chile, as stated, may belong here. The joints are more elon- 
gated, although the habit is somewhat similar. The illustration is poor and has doubtless been 
made from a greenhouse specimen. Tliis name was given, with Salm-Dyck as authority, by 
Forster (Handb. Cact. 508. 1846), but without any description. 

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. 1: 100; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 133; Gartenflora 30: 
413; Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 7: 313, all as Opuntia leonina. Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. A6. f. 8, 
as O. grata leonina. 

Figure 113 is from a photograph of joints of the plant collected by Dr. Rose above Are- 
quipa, Peru, in 1914. 

71. Opuntia skottsbergii sp. nov. 

Roots thick and fleshy, sometimes 10 cm. long, the plant doubtless more or less cespitose; joints, 
at least some of them, globulat, 3 cm. in diameter, almost hidden by tiie numerous closely set spines; 
areoles close together, small, at times producing long tufts of white wool; spines about 10, black 
except the yellowish tips, 1 to 2 cm. long; glochids numerous, elongated; flowers, including the very 




OPUNTIA. 



97 



spiny ovary, about 6 cm. long ; petals about 3 cm. long, drying reddish or reddish green ; areoles of the 
ovary bearing 5 to 7 spines, which are brown or blackish below and with more or less yellowish tips; 
fruit not known. 

Collected near Lake Buenos Aires, Territory of Santa Cruz, Argentina, December 12, 
1908, by Carl Skottsberg (No. 675); and again on the Rio Fenix, north of the locality 
above given, December 10, 1908 (No. 625, type). 

This species belongs to the subgenus Tephrocactiis, but is not closely related to any of 
the described species. The flower resembles very much the one figured by Henslow as O. dar- 
ivinii, and it is possible that he may have had some of this species in his 0. darwinii; the plant 
bodies, however, are so different that one could hardly confuse the two. 

Figure 114 is copied from a photograph of the type specimen above cited. 

72. Opuntia nigrispina Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 695. 1898. 

Opiintia purpurea R. E. Fries, Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Upsal. IV. 1^: 123. 1905. 
Described as a shrub, 1 to 2 dm. high and much branched, the branches upright; joints dull green 
or reddish violet, 2 to 4 cm. long, 1 to 2 cm. in diameter, oblong-ellipsoid, terete, when young bearing 
decurrent, spirally arranged tubercles; areoles 2 to 3 mm. in diameter, bearing abundant wool and 




Fig. 114.— Op 



pentlandii 



glochids; spines 3 to 5 from upper areoles, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, straight, spreading, subterete, weak, 
purplish black; flowers small, purple, 2.2 to 2.5 cm. long; petals spatulate, 1.5 cm. long, 6 mm. broad; 
stigma4obes 5 ; ovary 1 cm. long, obovoid, nearly smooth, 

Type locality. On the puna of Humahuaca, Bolivia. 

Dhty'ibntion: Rare in stony mountains, altitude 3,500 meters, Jujuy, Argentina, and south- 
ern Bolivia. 

Figure 115 represents a fruiting joint collected by J. A. Shafer at La Quiaca, Argentina, 
February 2, 1917 (No. 79). 

73. Opuntia pentlandii Salm-Dyck, AUg. Gartenz. 13: 387. 1845. 

Opuntia boliviana Salm-Dyck, AUg. Gartenz. 13: 388. 1845. 

Ciic/j/s bolivianus Lemaire, Cactees 88. 1868. 

Opuiilia pyrrhacantha Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 694. 1898. 

Opuntiadjctylifera Ys^uptl hoi. ]3.h\:h. Engler Beibl. 111:29. 1913. 

Opuntia ciicumijormh Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 524. 1916. (From the description.) 
Plant much branched, forming low, rounded, compact mounds sometimes a meter broad with hun- 
dreds of short stubby branches; joints obovoid to oblong-cylindric, plump, 2 to 10 cm. long, sometimes 
4 dm. in diameter, more or less pointed, pale green or sometimes purplish, tuberculate; areoles small, 
circular, filled with short wool and yellow glochids, the upper ones sometimes also having spines; spines 
sometimes wanting, when present mostly from the upper areoles, erect, 2 to 10, usually bright yellow, 
sometimes brownish becoming dull brown, the longest one 7 cm. long; flowers very variable in color 
and size, lemon-yellow to deep red, 2 to 3 cm. long, sometimes 5 cm. broad when fully expanded; 
petals obtuse; filaments short; style thick; stigma-lobes very short; ovary short with few areoles; areoles 
on ovary subtended by minute leaves, filled with short wool, the upper ones with bristle-like spines; fruit 



98 



THE CACTACEAE. 

m. lont;. Jry; seeds numerous, 4 to 5 mm. ion^. 



globular to short-oblong, 2 to 3 

Type locality: In Bolivia. 

Distribution: Very common on the high pampas of southeastern 
Peru and Bolivia, and adjacent Argentina. 

Cactus pentLindi! Lemaire (Gict. 88, 1868), name only, is sup- 
posed to apply to this species. 

This is one of the most characteristic plants of the high pampas 
of the Andean region, mostly growing at elevations of 12,000 feet or 
higher, forming low, broad, compact clumps, sometimes made up of 
a hundred plants or more. 

Illustrations: Watson, Cact. Cult. ed. .i. 106. f. 54; Deutsche 
Gart. Zeit. 7: 312; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 58. f. 16; .>Dict. Gard. 
Nicholson 2: f. 751; PForster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 124; ?W. Wat- 
son, Cact. Cult. f. 77, all as Opuntia boliviana: Monatsschr. Kak- 
teenk. 24: 175, as Opuntia dactyli\era: Mollers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 
25: 476. f. 9, No. 14. 

Figure 116 represents a joint of the plant collected in 1914 
by Dr. Rose at Comanche, Bolivia; figure 117 shows a flower- 
ing joint collected by Dr. Rose in 1914, at Juliaca, Peru. 

74. Opuntia ignesccns Vaupel, Bot. Jahrb. Engler Beibl. Ill : 30. 

1913. 

Plants forming clumps 2 dm. high or less, with hundreds of 
erect or spreading joints; joints bluish green, 8 to 10 cm. long, very 
fleshy, naked below ; upper areoles very spiny ; spines 6 to 1 5 from 
each areole, nearly equal, 4 to 5 cm. long, erect, acicular, yellow; 
flowers very showy, deep red ; ovary oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long, naked 
below, but the upper areoles producing numerous spines 4 to 7 cm. 
long; fruit red, 7 cm. long, spiny and tuberculate above, terete 
below, with a deep umbilicus; seeds nearly globular, about 3 mm. 
in diameter. 

Type locality: Near Sumbay, southern Peru. 
Distribution: On the pampas of southern Peru and 
northern Chile, at altitude of 3,000 to 3,600 meters. 



-^' \ / 







Fig. 117. — Opuntia pent- 




-Opuntia ij;nescens. x 0.5. 



*.. 


^'^'-^^•'"^^SMH^SHi 


HPPWBI^^r'^ A' 


i 







Fig. 119. — Opuntia ignesccns forming 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




up of Opiinl'id m'lqiieVti. 2. Old and young joints of Opi/iuia i>n/cl.i. 

3. Upper part of joint of O piniti^ /t^iieu-ei/s. (All thrte-fourths size.) 



OPUNTIA. 99 

Plate XVI, figure 3, represents old and young joints of the plant collected above Ay- 
rampl, Peru, by Dr. Rose in 1914. Figure 118 shows a fruit from the same plant; figure 119 
is from a photograph taken by H. L. Tucker at Coropuna, Peru, in 1911. 

75. Opuntia campestris sp. nov. 

Much branched, often forming low, dense masses, 3 to 6 dm. in diameter; terminal joints readily 
breaking off; joints globular or a little longer than thick, 3 to 5 cm. long, with numerous prominent 
areoles, the tubercles conspicuous when young; leaves minute, 1 to 1.5 mm. long, caducous; glochids 
conspicuous, numerous, yellow ; spines usually wanting at the lower areoles, present above, very unequal, 
5 to 10, acicular, the longest ones 3.5 cm. long; flowers rosy white to light yellow, 2 to 3 cm. long; 
ovary naked or spiny; fruit thicker than long, 2.5 cm. long, with deep umbilicus, often very spiny. 

Common just below railroad station at 
Pampa de Arrieros, Peru, where it was collected 
by Dr. Rose, August 23, 1914 (No. 18957). 

Figure 120 represents joints of the type 
specimen above cited. 




Fig. 120. — Opuntia campestris. xO.I 



-Opuntia ignota \0 8. 



76. Opuntia ignota sp. nov. 

Low, much branched, spreading; joints small, narrow, 2 to 3 cm. long, more or less purplish; leaves 
minute, often purplish; spines 2 to 7 from an areole, brownish, acicular, the longest ones 4 to 5 cm. 
long; glochids, when present, yellow; areoles large, full of grayish wool; flowers and fruit not seen. 

Collected by Dr. Rose on the hills below the railroad station at Pampa de Arrieros, Peru, 
August 23, 1914 (No. 18974). 

Plants grown in greenhouses are dark green and develop few spines or none. 
This plant grows in the same region as O. caiiipestyis, but is quite different from it. 
Figure 121 shows joints of the type specimen above cited. 

76a. Opuntia alexanderi sp. nov. (Appendix following page 226). 
Subgenus 3. PLATYOPUNTIA. 
Includes all the species with flattened joints; a few species have nearly terete joints; others 
have some of the joints terete. Twenty-eight series are recognized. The species are most abun- 
dant in North America, but several series are found only in South America, while others have 
representatives in both Americas. (See Key to the Series, p. 45.) 



100 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Series 1. PUMILAE. 
Low, spiny species, with slightly flattened, narrowly cylindric or linear-oblong, readily detached 
ultimate joints, the main stem terete. We know four species, the typical one in Mexico and Guate- 
mala, one Venezuelan, one from Oaxaca, Mexico, and one Peruvian. In the structure of their joints 
they form a transitional series between Cyliiidrop/iiiti.i and PLuyipitntia. and might be included in 
either of these subgenera with about equal reason. 



Key to Spi-cihs 

Young areoles with only 1 to 3 spines ; joints 2 to 3 cm. thick. 

Plant 1 to 5 meters high; joints tubercled; spines yellowish 77. 

Plants about 2 dm. high; joints not tubercled; spines reddish to brown 77a 

Areoles with 3 to 7 spines; plants 1 to -4 dm. high. 

Joints 1 to 1.5 cm. thick; areoles not blotched; spines brownish 78. 

Joints 2 to 3 cm. thick; young areoles dnrk-blotched ; spines yellowish 79. 



O. pumila 
O. de pail pen, 



O. puhescens 
O. pascoensis 




11. Opuntia pumila Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 521. 1908. 

Stems low, very much branched, the joints readily falling off when touched, 6 to 20 cm. long 
velvety-pubescent, terete or sometimes slightly flattened, turgid, bearing more or less prominent tubercles ; 
areoles small, those of old stems bearing several slender spines, the longer ones 3 cm. long; areoles of 
young joints usually bearing 2 yellowish spines; ovary pubescent, with few spines or none; petals yel- 
low, tinged with red, 15 mm. long; fruit globular, red, 15 mm. long. 

Type locality: Near Oaxaca City, Mexico, on the road to Mitla. 
Distribution: Central and southern Mexico. 

When this species was described, attention was called to various forms which belonged 
here or to one or more related species. These we now refer to O. puhescens. 
Illustration: Mollers Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 5. 
Figure 122 is from a photograph of the type; figure 123 represents joints of the same. 




OPIINTIA. 101 

77a. Opuntia depauperata sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 216.) 

78. Opuntia pubescens WendLind* in Pfeiffer, Rnum. Cact. 149. 18.^7. 

Cactus pubescent Lemaire, Cactees 87. 1868. 

Opuntia leptarthra Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 593. 1901. 

Plants small, usually low, sometimes 4 dm. high, much branched ; joints easily becoming detached, 
nearly terete, glabrous or pubescent, 3 to 7 cm. long; spines numerous, short, brownish; flowers lemon- 
yellow but drying red; filaments greenish; style white; stigma-lobes cream-colored; fruit small, 2 to 2.5 
cm. long, red, a little spiny, with a depressed umbilicus; seeds small, 3 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution : Northern Mexico to Guate- 
mala. 

This species was sent to the Exposition 
Universelle at Paris by the Mexican Govern- 
ment in 1889, and was there seen and de- '" 
scribed by Dr. Weber as O. leptarthra. A part 
of this material finally went to the Hanbury 
Garden at La Mortola, Italy, whence we ob- ^■^'' ' ^r~ 
tained specimens in 1913 which prove to be \D* 7^ 
identical with specimens obtained by Dr. Rose V ,i '^ 
and others in Mexico and Guatemala in 1905 to -^/^f ^^"^ 
1909. >ii4-\ 

This is an insignificant species and hence 

has generally been overlooked in the region where 

so many more striking species are found. It is 

widely distributed, extending from the State of 

r^ ,. • n J- • '/-^ 1 1 Fig. 123. — Opuntia pumila. xO.4. 

Tamauhpas, in Mexico, to Guatemala, a much Fig. 1 2 4.-Opuntia pubescens. xo,^^. 

greater range than that of most species. Its 

wide distribution is doubtless due to the fact that the joints, which are covered with barbed 
spines and are easily detached, fasten themselves to various animals and are scattered like 
burs over the country; each little joint thus set free starts a new center of distribution. 

This is a difficult plant to grow in greenhouses, for the spreading or hanging branches 
soon become entangled with other plants and break ofi^ in attempts to free or move them; 
partly for this reason, doubtless, it rarely flowers in cultivation. 

Opuntia angusta Meinshausen (Wochenschr. Gartn. Pflanz. 1: 30. 1858) was unknown 
to Schumann. It was originally described as similar to the South American species, O. auran- 
tiaca, and, if so, it must be near 0. pubescens. if not identical with it, being a native of Mexico, 
where it was first collected by Karwinsky. 

Figure 124 represents joints of the Guatemalan plant, cultivated in the greenhouses of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, obtained in 1907. 

79. Opuntia pascoensis sp. nov. 

Stems erect and rigid, up to 3 dm. high; joints easily breaking apart, erect or ascending, terete or 
slightly flattened, 3 to 12 cm. long, 1.5 to 4 cm. broad, puberulent, hardly tuberculate but with faint up 
turned lunate depressions between the dark-blotched areoles; leaves minute; areoles somewhat elevated 
filled with brown wool intermixed with longer white cobwebby hairs; spines 4 to 8 on young joints, 
more on older joints, acicular, yellow, 2 cm. long or less; glochids numerous, short, yellow, tardily de 
veloping; fruit globular, 1.5 cm. in diameter, naked below, spiny above. Doubtless of wide distribution, 
for the joints are easily detached and are distributed like burs, but so far only two collections have been 
reported. 

*Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 1837) frequently refers several of Wendland's species to Catal. h. Herrnh. 1835, but we 
can find no references to Wendland having published a catalogue of the Herrenhausen Garden either in 1835 or about 
that time. We have therefore cited all of Wendland's species so referred by Pfeiffer to the pages given in his 
Enumatio. 



102 



THE CACTACEAE. 



914, first from 



O. drumm 
O. inuyi 
O. pKsilh, 
O.djnahi. 



Collected by Dr. and Mrs. J. N. Rose in central and southern Peru, 
just below Matucana (No. 18653), and later at Pasco (No. 18812, type). 

Plate XVII, figure 1, represents a joint of the type specimen above cited. 
Series 2. CURASSAVICAE. 

This series is composed of 10, or perhaps 11, species of low plants, characterized by their fragile 
branches, the small joints separating and becoming detached very readily, more or less flattened or sub- 
terete. They mostly inhabit the southern United States and the West Indies; one is known from Ecua- 
dor; the original home of one of the species recognized is unknown. 

Key TO Species 

Spines acicular. 

Joints oval, mostly not more than twice as long as wide; plants prostrate, little branched 80. O. ci/nis>iiiica 

Joints oblong to linear, 2 to 8 times as long as wide; plants ascending or erect, much branched. 

Joints narrowly linear, 1 to 2 cm. wide 81. O.taylori 

Joints oblong to linear-oblong or obovate-oblong, 2 to 4 cm. wide. 

Joints oblong to hnear, 4 to 8 times as long as wide; spines 1 to 3 cm. long. 

Joints not tubercled 82. O. repens 

Joints tubercled, at least when young 82a. O. pestijer 

Joints oblong to obovate-oblong, 2 to 3 times as long as wide; spines 3 to 5 cm. long 83. 0. borinquensh 

Spines subulate. 
Spines white. 

Roots fibrous; spines at most of the areoles 84. O. miUtaris 

Roots tuberous; spines only at the upper areoles 85. O.nemoralis 

Spines brown. 

Joints oval to oblong. 

Joints scarcely repand; plant up to 2 dm 86. O. lirummnnd'u 

Joints strongly repand; plant 1 dm 87. 

Joints linear-lanceolate 88. 

Affinity uncertain 89. 

80. Opuntia curassavica (Linnaeus) Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 7. 1768. 
Cactus curassjvicui Linneaus, Sp. PI. 469. 1753. 
Stems low, 5-jointed, light green, prostrate 
and creeping or hanging over rocks; joints oval 
to oblong, decidedly flattened but thick, 2 to 5 cm. ; 
long, glabrous; leaves minute, soon withering; 
areoles small, bearing short wool and longer, white 
cobwebby hairs; spines 4 to many, acicular, 2.^ 
cm. long or less, yellowish, becoming white in 
age; glochids tardily developing. 

Type locality: Curacao Island. 
Distribution: Curacao, Bonaire, and Aruba. 
Haworth (Syn. PL Succ. 196. 1812) describes three varieties, major, media, and minor, 
and later (Rev. Pi. Succ. 71. 1821) also describes the variety longa. O. curassavica elongata 
Haworth (Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 184. 1834), a name only, is supposed to be the same as 
var. lunga. 

This is one of the oldest species of Opuntia, having been described and figured as early 
as 1696. For a long time it has been unknown, the name having been transferred to a sim- 
ilar species, 0. repens. In 19 13 Dr. Britton visited Curacao, its native home, and re-collected 
it. Its flowers have not been described, and several residents informed him that they had never 
seen it in flower; Dr. Britton did not find it in flower on Curacao, nor has it flowered with 
us in cultivation; Haworth, who wrote about it in 1812, speaks of its being a shy bloomer, 
saying he had seen it in flower but once. In early English books it is called pin pillow, because 
its turgid joints suggest pincushions filled with pins. 

Illustrations: Bradley, Hist. Succ. PI. ed. 2. pi. 4, as Opuntia minima americana, etc.; 
Commerson Hort. pi. 56, as Opuntia curassavica minima; Plukenet, Opera Bot. 3: pi. 281, f. 
3, as Opuntia minor caulescens; Dillenius, Hort. Elth. 2: pi. 295, as tuna; Loudon, Encycl. PI. 
413. f. 6897, as Cactus curassavicus; Knorr, Thesaurus pi. 0.2. 

Figure 125 represents the plant collected on Curacao by Dr. N. L. Britton and Dr. J. A. 
Shafer in 1913. 
80a. Opuntia adjecta Small, sp. nov. (Appendix following page 226). 




?5.~Op 



assavica. xO.75. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




1. Joint of Opuntia pascoensis. 3, 4. Forms of Opuntia re pens. 5. Flower of same. 

2. Joints of Opuntia taylori. 6. Flowering joint of Opiiiilia drunniiondii. 

(All three-fourths size.) 



OPUNTIA. 103 

81. Opuntia taylori Britton and Rose, Smiths. Mi.sc. ('oil. 50: "i^O. 1908. 

Opmilia halloniana Brittim and Rose in Johnston and Tryon, Rep. Prickly- Pear Comm. 97. 191 i. 
Prostrate, widely branched; joints hnear to linear-oblong, 12 cm. long or less, bright green, 1 to 

2 cm. wide, turgid, glabrous or pubescent; areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, not elevated; spines acicular, 

3 to 6 at each areole, yellowish brown, becoming white, 4 cm. long or less; glochids yellowish brown, 

3 mm. long; flowers yellow, small, the petals about 1 cm. long; ovary pyriform, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, 
its areoles with few bristles and spineless. 

Type locality: Between Gonaives and La Hutte Rochce, on road to Terre Neuve, Haiti. 

Distribution: Deserts of Haiti and of Azua, Santo Domingo. 

This species, while similar to O. repens. has more terete joints. 

It was first collected in 1905 in Haiti by Nash and Taylor, and upon this collection 
the species was based. In 191.5 Rose, Fitch, and Russell collected it in the Azua desert of 
Santo Domingo. In this last collection the joints are pubescent, but otherwise the plants 
seem to be the same, although we at one time thought they might be distinct; in fact, in 
their report on the opuntias, Johnston and Tryon published the Santo Domingo plant as 
new, from notes given to them. 

Plate XVII, figure 2, represents joints of the plant collected by Rose, Fitch, and Russell 
at Azua, Santo Domingo, in 1913. 

82. Opuntia repens Bello, Anal. Soc. Esp .Hist. Nat. 10: 277. 1881. 

Stems erect or ascending, 5 dm. high or less, commonly much branched, often forming dense, 
flat masses 4 meters in diameter, glabrous or pubescent, green or olive-green; joints oblong to linear 
5 to 16 cm. long, 3.5 cm. broad or less, usually strongly flattened; areoles small, bearing brown wool 
and a few cobwebby white hairs; spines when very young pinkish, becoming brown, afterwards fading 
out, acicular, numerous, 3.5 cm. long, or less; glochids numerous, yellow, tardily developing; flowers 

4 cm. broad, bright yellow, fading to salmon-colored; ovary and fruit with or without spines; fruit red, 
2 to 3 cm. long, 1 to few-seeded. 

Type locality: Near Guanica, Porto Rico. 

Distribution: Porto Rico and its islands, Mona, Muertos, Vieques, and Culebra, to 
Virgin Gorda and St. Croix. 

Opuntia repens has long been confused with O. curassavica. It was first collected on 
St. Thomas, where it is abundant and a troublesome weed, and was illustrated by Pfeiffer 
and Otto in the year 1843. It was described by Bello in 1881, who thought it might be 
a variety of O. spinosissima. According to Bello, it is called olaga in Porto Rico, which is 
a corruption of ohulaga; the name suckers is used for it in the Virgin Islands. The plant is 
freely distributed by its fragile, clinging joints. Unlike its relative, O. curassavica, this plant 
flowers freely, blooming in late spring and summer. 

Opuntia repens Karwinsky in Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 361. 1834) has been published 
only as a synonym, and therefore does not invalidate the use of Bello's name. 

The plant is recorded by Johnston and Tryon (Rep. Prickly-Pear Comm. 95. 1914) as 
O. curassavica taylori. 

Illustration: Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pi. 6, f. 2, as Opuntia curas- 
savica. 

Plate XVII, figure 3, represents joints of the plant collected near Guanica, Porto Rico, 
by Dr. Britton in 1913; figure 4 is from a plant obtained by the same coUeaor the same year 
on Virgin Gorda; figure 5 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

82a. Opuntia pestifer sp. nov. (See Appendix p. 217.) 

83. Opuntia borinquensis sp. nov. 

Plants few-branched, forming colonies often 2 meters across, 5 dm. high or less; joints readily 
detached, oblong to obovate-oblong, dull green, glabrous, compressed but turgid, 5 to 8 cm. long. 
4 cm. wide or less, about 1.5 cm. thick; areoles small, 1 to 2 cm. apart, bearing 2 or 3 acicular spines, 



104 



THE CACTACEAE. 



the larger up to 6 cm. long, brown when young, fading white; leaves subulate, acuminate, 1 to 2 mm. 
long; fruit obovoid, subtruncate, 1.5 cm. long. 

Limestone swale, Morillos de Cabo Rojo, Porto Rico (Britton, Coweil, and Brown, 
No. 4741), growing with O. repens Bello, from which it dififers by its larger, broader, and 
flatter joints and much longer spines. 

The only locahty known for this plant is at the extreme southwestern corner of Porto 
Rico, where numerous colonies of it were observed. The region is a very dry one, rain fall- 
ing there only at long intervals; the associated vegetation is of a highly xerophytic character. 

Figure 126 represents joints of the type specimen above cited. 

84. Opuntia militaris sp. nov. 

Stems 3 dm. tall, the branches weak and more or less spreading; joints thick, narrowly oblong 
to obovate, 5 to 8 cm. long, somewhat shiny when young, easily breaking apart; spines 1 or 2 from an 
areole, occasionally more, acicular, white, 1 to 2 cm. long; flower-buds pointed; flowers small, 3 cm. 
long; petals greenish to cream-colored, tinged with pink; ovary small, its small areoles without spines. 

Collected by Dr. N. L. Britton, March 17 to 30, 1909, at the U. S. Naval Station, 
Guantanamo Bay, Oriente, Cuba (No. 1957). 

Figure 127 represents joints of the type specimen above cited. 




Fig. 126. — Opuntia borinquensis. xO.5 



Fig. 127.— Opu 



85. Opuntia nemoralis Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 133. 1913. 

Plants low, usually prostrate, forming clumps 1 meter in diameter, sometimes 3 dm. high; joints 
ovate to obovate, thick, 7 to 9 cm. long, green, but often with purple blotches about the areoles ; 
spines 1 or 2, only from the upper areoles, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, mostly erect; glochids yellow; flowers 
yellow; fruit obovoid to pyriform, small, 3 cm. long, light red, truncate. 

Type locality: Longview, Texas. 

Distribution: Pine woods and fields about Longview, Texas. 

This species in habit, joints, and spines suggests the Tortispinae; but on account of 
having easily detached joints we have referred it to the Curassavicae, as indicated in the origi- 
nal description, placing it between the Cuban species O. militaris and the United States 
species O. drummondii. It is known only from the type specimens. 

86. Opuntia drummondii Graham in Maund, Botanist 5: pi. 246. 1846. 

Opuntia pei-corvi Le Conte in Engelman, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 346. 1856. 

Opunlidfruuidenla Gibbes, Proc. Elliott Soc. Nat. Hist. 1: 273. 1859. 
Plant prostrate or spreading, 2 dm. or less high, from thickened single or sometimes moniiiform 
roots; joints rather variable, narrowly linear to broadly oblong, with entire margins, sometimes 12 
cm. long and 5 to 6 cm. broad, usually light green, sometimes darker about the areoles; leaves 2 to 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




1. Two plants of Opuntia drtiminondii. 3. Joints of Opiint'ia tr'hKcmtb.i. 

2. Joints of Opuiilia retrorsa with flower. 4, 5. Joint and section of fruit of 

Opuntia jamaicensis. 
(All three fourths size) 



OPUNTIA. 



105 



6 mm. long; spines (if present) solitary or 2 to 4, brownish red or gray, 2 to 4 cm. long; flowers yellow, 
6 cm. broad; petals obovate; fruit red, juicy but insipid, obovoid to clavate, 22 to 35 mm. long, 15 mm. 
in diameter at thickest part, bearing few areoles and no spines; umbilicus slightly depressed in the 
center; seeds 1 to 8, about 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Apalachicola, Florida. 

Distribution: Sandy soil from northern Florida to Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. 

In February 1916, Dr. J. K. Small visited the coastal islands near Charleston, South 
Carolina, for the purpose of collecting Gibbes's Opuntia jvustulenta. He found this species 
very common on Folly Island and in the Isle of Palms, where it grows abundantly in the 
sand, and also very variable as to shape and size of joints. He says the joints break ofif 
easily and attach themselves to one's clothing like the sand spur, making progress over these 
islands difficult and painful. It is the common belief that this species rarely flowers. It 
usually flowers when first brought into 
cultivation, but rarely afterward, this 
doubtless being due to unsuitable green 
house conditions. 

The fruit described was collected by 
Dr. J. K. Small, December 10, 1917, at 
Apalachicola, Florida, the type locality. 

According to Professor L. R. Gibbes, 
it is known as dildoes about Charleston. 

Illustrations: Maund, Botanist 5: pi. 
246; Journ. Elisha Mitchell, Sci. Soc. 34: 
pi. 13, 14. 

Plate XVII, figure 6, represents flow- 
ering joints of a plant sent from La Mor- 
tola, Italy, to the New York Botanical 
Garden in 1912; plate XVIII, figure 1, 
shows the plant collected by Dr. Small 
on the Isle of Palms, South Carolina, in 
1916. 

Herbarium specimens apparently rep- 
resentmg a related species, were collected 
by W. L. McAtee at Cameron, Louisiana, 

in 1910 (No. 1955). F,„. ,,«._Orum,.. u.uy,. 

86a. Opuntia impedata Small, sp. nov. (Appendix following page 226). 

87. Opuntia tracyi Britton, Torreya 11: \^2. 1911. 

Low, diffusely much branched, pale green, about 2 dm. high or less; older joints oblong 
to linear-oblong, flat, 6 to 8 cm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. wide, about 1 cm. thick; young joints scarcely 
flattened or terete, 1 cm. thick; areoles elevated, 5 to 10 mm. apart; spines 1 to 4, acicular, light gray with 
darker tips, 3.5 cm. long or less; glochids numerous, brownish; corolla pure yellow, 4 cm. broad; 
ovary 1.5 cm. long, bearing a few triangular acute scales similar to the outermost sepals, which are 2 
mm. long; sepals triangular-ovate, 5 to 1 5 mm. long, the outer green, the inner yellowish with a green 
blotch; petals obovate, apiculate, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; fihiments yellow, I cm. long; anthers white. 

Type locality: Biloxi, Mississippi. 

Distribution: Southern Mississippi, southeastern Georgia to northern Florida. 

Figure 128 is from a photograph of the plant collected by S. M. Tracy at Biloxi. 
Mississippi, in 1911. 

88. Opuntia pusilla Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 195. 1812. 

Cacliu pusilliii Hawcirth. Mi.sc. iWit. 1»,S. isui 
Cactui joliosus Willdenow. Enum. PI. Suppl. 35. 1813. 
opuntia foliou, S,ilm-Dyck in De CanJolle, Prodr. 3: 471. 182s. 
Low, usually prostrate; joints narrow, more or less flattened, somctunes nearly terete, hardly tuber- 
culate, light green in color; leaves 6 mm. long, linear, early deciduous; areoles remote; spines i or 2, 




106 



THE CACTACEAE. 



flowers pale yellow, rather large for the 



subulate, usually brownish when young, in age straw-colored; 
plant; petals few, about 8, spreading, acute. 

Type locality: Not cited. 

Distribution: Usually assigned to South America, but not known from any definite lo- 
cality; Schumann, in his Keys, however, says West Indies. 

This species has usually passed under the name of 0. folios,!, although all writers seem 
to agree that the older name, O. pusilla, was given to the same species. It may belong in 
the series Aurantiacae rather than in the Cmassaviccie. 

Specimens distributed from European gardens as O. ^oliosd in recent years are not typi- 
cal, and are probably referable to O. dritniniondii. 

Tcphrocactiis pusillus Lemaire Cact. 88. 1868), an unpublished name, referred by Le- 
maire to his third section of Tephvocactus, may belong here. The Index Kewensis refers it 
to Opiintia pusilla. 

Illustration: Pfeiffer and Otto, Ab- 
bild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pi. 18, as Opuntia 
foliosa. 

Figure 129 is copied from the illus- 
tration above cited. 



Opuntia darrahiana Weber 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Par 




in Gosselin, 
s 10: 388. 

1904. 

Growing in masses, 2 to 2.5 dm. high, 
3.5 to 4 dm. broad, very much branched, joints 
7 to 8 cm. long by 4 to 5 cm. broad, bright green to sea- 
green ; areoles somewhat elevated, especially when young, 
1 cm. apart; spines 6, the two uppermost the longest, 
these 4 to 4.5 cm. long, all suberect, white or grayish white, 
more or less brownish at tip ; glochids said to be wanting ; 
flowers and fruit not known. 

Type locality: Turks Islands. 

Distribution: Known only from the type lo- 
cality. 

Tliis species is known only from the Turks 
Islands, a small group at the southeastern end of 
the Bahaman Archipelago. It was introduced into 
Europe by the late Charles Darrah. 

We know the plant only from the above-cited description, and, so far as we have been 
able to learn, it is not now in cultivation, nor have we been able to find any herbarium 
specimens preserved. The opuntias known to us to inhabit Turks Islands are O. dilletiii, 
0. nashii. and O. hicayana. The description of O. darrahiana does not agree with any of 
these. The species is referred to the series Curassavicae with doubt, but as this series has 
representatives in Florida, Cuba, and Hispaniola, the existence of one in the Bahamas is 
not improbable. 

Series 3. AURANTIACAE 

The species of this series are low plants, mostly with readily detached joints; the main stems are 
often terete or turgid, the ultimate joints narrow and flat. They inhabit southeastern South America. Dur- 
ing the expedition to Brazil and Argentina conducted by Dr. Rose in the summer of 1915, only a few of 
the species here grouped were found; Dr. Shafer collected several of them in the winter of 1916-17. Dr. 
Spegazzini has given us photographs of several. 

We recognize 8 species, and have appended anotiicr, wiiich may belong here. 



Opuntia pusilla. 



Opuntia. 



107 



Key to Species 



nts not conspicuously purple 

Joints linear, elongated. 

Stem terete or suhtercte; 

Joints dark green, ni 

"joints tuhercled. hlui 

All'tlie loinis Hat. 

joints elongated, lini 
|(•lnt^ Inuar-oblong.. 



branches mostly flat. 

t tuhercled 

At green when young.. 



Joint: 



long purplish blotch under each areole. 

e or less spiny. 

flattened. 

nts 2 to .1.5 cm. wide 

Its .1.5 to 6 cm. wide 

subterete, turgid 



.91. O. schickendanlzii 

-92. O. kiska-loro 

.93. O. canina 

.94. O. montefidensis 



95. 0. relrors,j 

96. O. utkilio 
<)6a. 0. discolor 

97. O. anacanllm 
O. .vo^^eiMK 



Perhaps of this series 

90. Opuntia aurantiaca Lindley, Edwards 
pi. 1606. 18.13. 

Opnnti.i .iiitjiiliji.i I'.Mciis.i Salm-Dyck 
Cact. 1-6, l.Sih. 
Low, much branched, and spread- 
ing; stem terete or subterete, 1 to 2 cm. 
:hick; joints very fragile, linear, 6 to 8 
cm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. broad, almost 
terete at base, dark green, shining; are- 
oles somewhat elevated, filled with white 
wool ; spines 2 or 3, brownish, 1 to 3 cm. 
long; flowers yellow, 2.5 cm. broad; fruit 
2 to 2.5 cm. long. 

Type locality: Chile (in error.) 

Distribntio)!: Argentina and 
Uruguay. 

Cactus aurantiacus Lemaire 
(Cact. 87. 1868) is usually cited in 
synonymy, but Lemaire only men- 
tions the name as a species of Cactus. 
It is in fact Giilies's manuscript 
name, first published in the Botanical 
Register in 1833 as a synonym of 
O. aurantiaca. 

O. extensa Salm-Dyck (Pfeif- 
fer, Enum. Cact. 147. 1837) is also 
given as a synonym. 

Remy states (Gay, Fl. Chilena 3: 
25. 1847) that it grows in the cen- fig. i.io.— o. 

tral provinces of Chile, but he prob- aurantiaca. Fig. 131.— O. schickendantzii. 

ably had in mind some other plant, as O. aurantiaca is not knou'n to be native of Chile by 
resident botanists. 

Illustrations: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pi. 34; Edwards's Bot. Reg. 19: pi. I6O6. 

Figure 130 represents a joint from a plant found by Dr. Rose, in Argentina, in 1915. 

91. Opuntia schickendantzii Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 688. 1898. 

Shrub-like, 1 to 2 meters high, much branched, grayish green ; branches q'lindric or flattened, some- 
what tuberculate; leaves minute, 2 mm. long, reddish; spines 1 or 2, subulate, 1 to 2 cm. long; flowers 
4 cm. in diameter, yellow; fruit green, sterile. 

Type locality: In Tucuman, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

Figure 131 is from a photograph of a plant in Argentina contributed by Dr. Spegazzini. 




108 



The Cactaceae. 




Opuntia kisk.1 



92. Opuntia kiska-loro Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 516. 1905. 

Prostrate, rooting, forming spreading clumps 
3 to 6 dm. high; joints flat, at first very nar- 
row, becoming lanceolate, 20 cm. long, 4 cm. 
broad, shining green; spines 2 to 4, unequal, 
whitish, 4 to 6 cm. long; flowers orange, rather 
large, 3 to 6 cm. broad; filaments pale orange; 
stigma-lobes 6, flesh-colored; fruit 5 cm. long, 
deep violet-purple without, white within; seeds 5 
mm. broad, pubescent. 

Type locality: Deserts of La Rioja, 
Catamarca, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northwest Argentina. 
Figure 132 is from a photograph of the 
type plant sent by Dr. Spegazzini. 

93. Opuntia canina Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires III. 4: 518. 1905. 

At first erect, then decumbent, 1 to 3 meters 
broad ; joints flat, very narrow, attenuate at 
both ends, 2.5 to 3.5 dm. long, 4.5 cm. broad, 
shining green ; areoles on young joints unarmed ; 
spines of areoles of older joints 1 or 2, some- 
times 3, 1.5 to 3.5 cm. long, reflexed, subterete, 
grayish white with yellowish tips; flowers nu- 
merous, medium sized; ovary obovoid; corolla 
rotate, yellowish orange, 4 to 5 cm. broad; 
petals obovate, filaments yellow; stigma lobes 5; 
fruit obovoid, 2.6 to 2.8 cm. long, red with- 
out, white within; seeds i mm. broad, white, 
lanate. 

Type locality: Near Pampablanca, Ju- 

juy, Argentina. '^"' 

Distribj/tiof/: Provinces of Jujuy and Tucurnan, Argentina 

Figure 133 is from a photograph sent by Dr. Spegazzini. 




Opuntia. 



109 



94. Opuntia montevidensis Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 515. 1905. 
Cespitose, the branches 3 to 5 dm. high; joints 5 to 10 cm. long, obovate to elliptic; areoles not 

very prominent; spines usually 5, 3 longer and stouter, 2 very small, reflexed, and setiform, the 2 or 
3 longer ones erect or spreading, 2 to 3 cm. long; flowers 4 to 5 cm. broad, orange-colored; fruit dark 
purple, clavate, 3.5 to 4 cm. long; seeds lanate. 

Type locality: Cerro de Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Distribution: Cerro de Montevideo, and near La Colonia, Uruguay. 

95. Opuntia retrorsa Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 517. 1905. 

if) Opuntia pUtynoda Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 526. 1916. 
Stems prostrate, intricately branched, creeping, rooting at the nodes; joints linear-lanceolate, more 
or less attenuate at each end, flattened; areoles somewhat prominent, each subtended by a long, dull 
purplish blotch; spines 1 to 3, reflexed, white below, with pinkish tips; flowers yellowish, 4 to 5 cm. 
broad; fruit about 2 cm. long, violet-purple on the outside, light ro.se on the inside; seeds 2 to 2.5 mm. 
broad, somewhat villous. 



wr-' 


ip^ 


EflF'^TfVf^pX ^ 


wm 




aM 




.^ 


L/^,^saM 


i«HC^^ 




^Tj^ 


S 


M 


^^^^ 


1^^^^^ 


^ 


^y 


^^'"^'iM'iij^s 1^^"""^ J 


v*^B 



Fig. n-l. — Opunti.i retrorsa. 

Type locality: In the Territory of the Chaco, Argentina. 
Distribution: Northern Argeniina. 

Plate XVIII, figure 2, represents a plant from Argentina which flowered at the New York- 
Botanical Garden in 1911. Figure 13 4 is from a photograph sent by Dr. Spegazzini. 

96. Opuntia utkilio Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 516. 1905. 

Low, creeping plant, rooting at the joints, with elongated branches 5 to 15 dm. long; joints flat, 
elliptic-linear, 15 to 30 cm. long, 5 to 6 cm. broad; spines at first 2 or 3, the upper one longer, later 
more numerous, reflexed; flowers small, 35 to 4 cm. broad, yellowish; ovary obovoid, somewhat spiny; 
fruit small, 3 cm. long, fleshy, insipid, reddish violet both within and without; seeds suborbicular, 4 
mm. broad, lanate. 

Type locality: Province of Tucuman, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

Figure 135 is from a photograph sent by Dr. Spegazzini. 

96j. Opuntia discolor sp. nov. (See Appendix, p 2 IS.) 

97. Opuntia anacantha Spegazzini in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat, Paris 10: 391, 1904. 

Usually decumbent and rooting along the under surface, sometimes ascending and clambering, 1 
to 2.5 meters long; joints unarmed, dark green except for purple spots under the areoles. elliptic to 
lanceolate, narrowed toward each end, 1.5 to 4 dm. long, 3.5 to 7 cm. broad; areoles small; flowers 
large, numerous, yellowish orange, 4 cm. long, 5 to 6 cm. in diameter; sepals large, reddish, obtuse, 
emarginate or even 2-lobed; petals 12, style white; stigma-lobes white or rose-colored; fruit 3 cm. long, 
red, the pulp yellowish or white. 

Type locality: In the southern Chaco, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northeastern Argentina. 



no The Cactaceae. 

Figure 136 is from a photograph of a part of the type plant, received from Dr. Spegazzini. 
98. Opuntia grosseiana Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 391. 1904. 

Described as having joints intermediate between those of Opiintui elala and O. aiuicantha. and re- 
sembling these species. 

Type locdlity: In Paraguay. 

Distiibutio)!: Paraguay. 

Introduced from Paraguay by Hermann Grosse; known to us only from the description. 

Series 3a. PISCIFORMES. (Appendix following page 21h). 

Series 4. TUNAE. 
Bushy, ascending, depressed, or erect plants, with rather large and more or less readily detached |oints, 
bearing acicular or subulate, often numerous, yellow or white spines. The species inhabit the West Indies. 
Mexico, Guatemala, and northern South America. 







5.— Oruniia iitkil 



Key to Species 

Juints glabrous. 

Spines slender, acicular. 
Spines white. 

Joints dull. , 

Joints dark green, repand; areoles somewhat elevated 99. O. helLi 

Joints light green, not repand ; areoles not elevated. 

Spines several at the areoles; plant ascending lUO. O. Iriacaniha 

Spines 1 to few at the areoles or often wanting; plant erect 101. O. jamaicensis 

Joints shining lOld. O. gttatemalensis 

Spines yellow, at least when young; plant bushy branched 102. O. tutut 

Spines stout, subulate. 

Spines white; joints relatively thick, turgid 102./. O. peiiitellii 

Spines yellow, at least when young; joints relatively thin. 
Plants low, spreading, 2 dm. high or less. 

Joints repand; spines bright yellow 103. O. antilhvia 



Opuntia. 1 ] 1 

J^)l^t^ nut icpand; spiiics pale yellow 103^. O. caracasana 

PLiniS [.ill, : [(. J IIKKIS liiuli. 

Joniis oh.u.itc ni hh.jJK elliptic 104. O. wentiana 

jointi lUiiiuwl) ubliing ui oblong-obovate 104a. O. aetjuatorialis 

Joints pubescent. 

Areoles surrounded by purplish spots 105. O. decutnhens 

Areoles not surrounded by purplish spots 106. O. depressa 

99- Opuntia bella sp. nov. 

Stems low, 10 to 12 dm. hi^h, forming thickets; joints oblong, repand, 10 to 16 cm. long, dull 
dark green; areoles 1 to 2 cm. apart, somewhat elevated, small, filled with short brown wool and glo- 
chids; leaves minute, 1.5 to 2.5 mm. long; spines white, 2 to 6, unequal, acicular, the longer ones about 
2 cm. long; flowers 5 cm. long, "sulphur-yellow turning to orange-red;" petals 20 to 22 mm. long; ovary 
deeply umbilicate; "fruit small, greenish yellow." 



L 



3 ^ v'h«. 






t«,iirt 










Type locality: Venticas del Dagua, Dagua Valley, western cordillera ot Colombia. 

Distribution: Western Colombia. 

The type is based upon plants collected by Mr. Henry Pittier in the State of Cauca, Colom- 
bia, in 1906, and grown ever since in Washington and New York. The species is very com- 
mon in Cauca, forming with other cacti impenetrable thickets. 

Figure 137 is from a photograph by Mr. Pittier of the type plant, taken near Cauca, Co- 
lombia, in 1906; figure 138 is from a photograph by the same collector, showing flowering and 



112 



The Cactaceae. 



fruiting joints; figure 139 represents a single joint. 

100. Opuntia triacantha (Willdenow) Sweet, Hort. Brit. 172. 1826. 
Gicliis liiacMithus WilKlenDw, Enum. Pi. Suppl. 34. 181 n. 

Stems fialf procumbent or clambering over rocks, sometimes even erect but always low; joints 
turgid, oblong, 4 to 8 cm. long, the terminal and often the second and third ones breaking off easily; 
spines usually 3, white but often drying yellowish, 4 cm. long or less; flowers, including the ovaries, 5 
cm. long, brownish yellow to cream-colored, tinged with pink; petals obtuse; filaments and style pale 
green; fruit 2.5 cm. long, red, spineless. 

Type locality: Not cited; cultivated in the Berlin Garden. 

Distrihiitioii: Desecheo Island, Porto Rico; Lesser Antilles, St. Thomas to Guadeloupe. 




Fig. H8.— Opumi.1 bclU. xO.-'5. Fig. 139.— Opuntia bella. xO.66. 

When published, the origin of these species was uncertain. It has been referred to the 
South American flora, but if our interpretation is correct it is a West Indian plant. It was 
introduced into cultivation in 1796. 

This species is very common on flats or low hills and, so far as our observation goes, is 
never found very far inland in the Lesser Antilles. 

Professor Schumann's description includes two species, one of which belongs here and 
one in the Streptacanthae, perhaps as Mr. Berger thinks to O. atnyclaea — and a tall plant, 
3.5 meters high, is now grown in Italy under that name. The Index Kewensis refers 0. 
triacantha as a synonym of O. curassavica, which is erroneous if our interpretation of it is 
correct. 

Plate XVIII, figure 3, represents joints of the plant collected on Antigua by Rose, Fitch, 
and Russell in 1913. Figure 140 is from a photograph taken on St. Christopher, British West 
Indies, by Paul G. Russell in 1913. 



BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL. 



PLATE XIX 




Opuntia jamaiceiuis . 
1. Plant. 2, 3. Flower. 4. Longitudinal section of flower. 5, 6. Stamens. 7. Style. 



OPUNTIA. 



113 



An Optintia collected by H. Pittier in Costa Rica and now growing in the cactus house 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture has not been identified. It resembles somewhat 
Opuntia triacuntha, but is much out of the range of that species and differs from it in some 
important respects. The joints are small, obovate to oblong, rounded at apex, dark green 
with purple blotches below the areoles, with low, broad tubercles; margin of the areola 
bearing short white hairs; spines usually wanting, but cultivated specimens bear a single 
short spine 6 to 7 mm. K)ng from an areole. 




Fig. 140. — Opuntia triacantha. 

101. Opuntia jamaicensis Britton and Harris, Torreya 11: 130. 1911. 

Erect, 1 meter high, with a short subcylindric trunk; branches several, ascending, joints dull green 
obovate, much narrowed at base, flat, rather thin, readily detached, 7 to 13 cm. long, 5 to 7.5 cm. wide 
areoles about 2.5 cm. apart; spines 1 to 5, usually only 2, acicular, unequal, white, 2.5 cm. long or less 
flowers 4 cm. broad; petals 16 to 18; filaments greenish white; style white; stigma-lobes 7 or 8, creamy 
white; fruit pyriform, red, 3.5 to 4 cm. long; seeds 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: St. Catherine, Jamaica. 

Distribution: Plain south of Spanish Town, Jamaica. 

The following figures are from paintings by Miss H. A. Wood: 

Plate XVIII, figure 4, shows a fruiting joint; figure 5 is of a section of the fruit; plate 
XIX, figure 1, shows the type plant about one-third natural size; figures 2, 3, and 4 are of the 
flowers; figures 5 and 6 show the stamens; figure 7 represents the style. 

\Q\a. Opuntia guatemalensis sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 218.) 

102. Opuntia tuna (Linnaeus) Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 3. 1768. 

Cactus tuna Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 468. 1753. 

Cactus horridus Salisbury, Prodr. 348. 1796. 

Cactus humilis Haworth, Misc. Nat. 187. 1803. 

Opuntia humilis Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 189. 1812. 

Opuntia polyantha Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 190. 1812. 

Cactus polyanthos Sims, Curtis's Bot. Mag. 53: pi. 2691. 1826. 

Opuntia tuna humilior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 66. 1860. 

Opuntia mullijlora Nicholson, Diet. Gard. 2: 503. 1885. 
Plants 6 to 9 dm. high or less; joints usually small, but sometimes up to 16 cm. long, obovate to 
oblong, light green, except above the areoles and there brownish ; leaves minute, fugacious ; areoles large ; 
spines 2 to 6, usually only 3 to 5, slightly spreading, light yellow; glochids yellow; flowers about 5 cm. 
broad; sepals orbicular, yellowish, with a purple stripe along the center; petals light yellow, slightly 
tinged with red, oblong, rounded at apex ; filaments short, greenish below ; style and stigma4obes cream- 



114 



THE CACTACEAE. 



colored or yellowish; ovary bright ^yrecn, narrowed downward; truii red, obovoid, about 3 cm. long; 
seeds 3 to 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Jamaica. 

Distribution: Southern side of Jamaica, West Indies. 

Opiintia tuna is one of tlie old Cactus species. It was described by Linnaeus as Cactus 
tuna and by Philip Miller as Opuntia tuna. In the early part of the Nineteenth Century it was 
renamed Opuntia humilis and also O. polyantha. and has long passed under the latter name. 
Opuntia tuna, however, is one of the commonest Opuntia names in our botanical literature. 
This is due partly to the fact that the name was early transferred to Opuntia diUenii, one 
of the most common species, both wild and cul tivated, and partly because tuna is the common 




Fig. 1-41.— Opunti; 



Mexican name for opuntias, and many species have therefore been identified as O. tuna. So far 
as our studies indicate, this species is confined to the Jamaica lowlands. 

Opuntia multi flora is referred here, although we do not know the plant. It is figured 
by Nicholson (Diet. Card. Nicholson 2: f. 754); this figure is republished by Riimpler 
(Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 140), and by Knippel (Kakteen, pi. 28), both calling it 
Opuntia polyantha, while W. Watson (Cact. Cult. f. 79) uses the same illustration, calling 
it O. dillenii. 

Opuntia maidenii Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 46: 201. 1919) described from a culti- 
vated plant sent from Australia and grown at Chico, California, seems referable to this species. 

Opuntia coccinea (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 16 1. 1837) is given as a synonym of 0. tuna, but 
it was never published; it is doubtless different from O. coccinea Rafinesque (Med. Fl. U. S. 
2: 247. 1830), also unpublished. The following names seem to belong here, but were not 
formally published: Opuntia flexibilis (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. I6l. 1837); O. tuna humilis 
Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845 ) ; O. tuna laevior Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 186. 
1834) ; and O. tuna orhiculata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 47. 1845). 

Illustrations: Loudon, Encycl. PI. ed. 3. f. 6878, as Cactus tuna; Wiener lUustr. Gartenz. 
10: f. 114, as Opuntia humilis: Bliihende Kakteen 2: pi. 75; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 
130; Knippel, Kakteen 2: pi. 28, these three as Opuntia polyantha: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 53: pi. 



2691, as Cactus polyanthns; De CandoUe, PI. Succ. Hist. 2: pi. 138^''^ as Cactus opuntia poly 
anthos; Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antil. pi. 513, as Cactus opuntia. Loudon, Enc7cl. pi. 411. f. 
6880, as Cactus polyanthos; Monatssdir. Kakteenk. 6: 25, as Opuntia polyaiitha; Deutsche 
Gart. Zeit. 7: 447, as 0. huiiiilis; Watson, Cact. Cult. ed. 3- f. 62; Cact. Journ. 2: 169; Useful 
Wild Plants U.S. Canada, opp. 18, 108, 174; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2599; Schelle, 
Handb. Kakteenk. 51. f. 13; Remark, Kakteenfreund 24. 

Figure 141 is from a photograph of a plant collected by William Harris, near Kingston, 
Jamaica, in 1913; figure 142 represents a joint of the same plant. 
\02ii. Opuntia pennellii sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 219.) 
10.3. Opuntia antillana Britton and Rose, Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Mem. 1: 74. iyi8. 

Growing in dense clumps, often 1 meter broad, more or less prostrate; joints usually obovate, 7 
to 20 cm. long, narrow and nearly terete at base; terminal joints easily breaking off; leaves conic- 
subulate, about 2 mm. long; areoles large, 2 to 3 cm. apart, containing soft brown wool; spines stout, 
terete, 3 to 6 at an areole, unequal, 1 to 6 cm. long, yellow but becoming gray to nearly white in age; 
glochids numerous, yellow; flowers 5 to 7 cm. long; petals broad, obtuse, yellow, turning reddish in 

truii reddish purple, 4 cm. lent;. 




Fig. 113. — Opuntia 

Basse Terre, St 



.ntillana forming thickc 

Christopher, Rose 
Croix, Tortola, St. 



Type locality 
February 2, 1913.' 

Distribution: St. Christopher, St 
Thomas, Porto Rico, and Hispaniola. 

This species is one of the most widely distributed in 
the West Indies and, on some of the islands on which it 
occurs, generally the most abundant. This is partly due to, 
the fact that the terminal joints are easily detached and may 
thus be widely scattered. 

The question has frequently been raised in our minds 
whether this species may not be of hybrid origin. It has 
some resemblance to O. dillenii, but has much smaller joints 
and these very fragile. What the other parent would be 
is not so clear. The fragile joints would suggest O. tr'ui- 
cantha or O. repens, but otherwise there is no close alliance 
with either of these. Owing to the fact that it is more 
common than any of these species, and is often not associated 



Fitch and Russell, No. 




116 THE CACTACEAE. 

with any of them, we beUe\e it to be distinct. In the desert of Azua, Santo Domingo, this 
is the dominant cactus, forming dense, impenetrable thickets on the low coastal plain. In the 
wild state the Azua plant has the joints often bronzed or purple. On Tortola and St. Thomas 
it occurs with O. dilleuii and O. repeiis, and is there called bull suckers. 

Opiint'id doi)ii)2gensis appears without description in Urban's Symbolae (8: 466. 1920). 
It was a manuscript name for which O. antillaua was substituted. 

Figure 143 is from a photograph taken by Paul G. Russell in 1913 near Azua, Santo 
Domingo; figure 144 represents joints of the type plant. 

103rf. Opuntia caracasana Salm-Dyck. (See Appendix, p. 219.) 

104. Opuntia wentiana sp. nov. 

Opimtia tmwides Bricton and Sliafer in Boldingh, Fl. Ned. W. Ind. Eiland 300. 1913. Not O. timoidea 
Gibbes. 

Plant erect, much branched, 1 to 2 meters high; joints obovate to elliptic, rather thin, up to 25 
cm. long, usually rounded at apex, pale green, slightly glaucous ; terminal joints somewhat fragile, leaves 
small and subulate; spines on young joints usually 3, afterwards 4 or 5, when young pale yellow but soon 
white; flowers small, 6 to 7 cm. long including the ovary; petals pale yellow, 3 cm. long, obovate, acute; 
style cream-colored ; fruit small, red. 

Type locality: Curagao. 

Distribution: Venezuela, and the neighboring islands, Margarita, Bonaire, Curasao, and 
Aruba. 

Dr. Rose found this plant repeatedly in Venezuela and writes of it as follows: Very com- 
mon not only on the savannas along the coast but also on the neighboring hills along with 
Lemaireocereus. Cephalocereus, and other cactus genera; its more or less fragile joints, yel- 
lowish spines, bushy stature, and structure of flowers ally it with the Tunae. 

This species has been confused with the Jamaican Opuntia tuna (Linnaeus) Miller, which 
it resembles. Named in honor of Professor F. A. F. C. Went, distinguished Dutch botanist. 

104/. Opuntia aequatoriaiis sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 219-) 

105. Opuntia decumbens Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 361. 1834. 

Opuntia p:iheruld Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 156. 1837. 
Stems low, often creeping or trailing, rarely over 4 dm. high; joints 1 to 2 dm. long, oval to oblong, 
covered with a short, soft pubescence; areole usually small, surrounded by a purple blotch, bearing 
yellow glochids and wool, the wool cobweb-like on very young joints; spines often wanting, usually 
solitary but sometimes numerous, slender or rather stout, 4 cm. long and yellow; flowers numerous, 
small, including the ovary about 4 cm. long; petals dark yellow; fruit deep purple, very juicy; seeds 
about 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Guatemala and Mexico as far north as Mazatlan and Tamaulipas. 

Opuntia repens Karwinsky (Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 361, 1834) and 0. irrorata Martins 
are usually given as synonyms of this species, but as they were printed without descriptions, 
they should hardly be referred to synonymy. 

The species has long been in cultivation, a colored illustration having been published 
in Curtis's Botanical Magazine in 1841. It grows luxuriously in greenhouses, flowering pro- 
fusely in the spring. 

We have referred here Opuntia puberula Pfeiffer, which seems to be different from the 
plant now grown in collections under that name. Pfeiffer's original description, based upon 
sterile plants alone, may be paraphrased as follows: Joints thick, obovate, 7.5 to 12.5 cm. 
long by 5 to 7.5 cm. broad, puberulent, green; areoles somewhat remote, each surrounded by 
a red spot, bearing in the upper part a bunch of short glochids and below 2 to 4 slender, 
white, divergent spines, the longer ones 8 mm. long; leaves 4 mm. long, acute, red at apex. 

Labourer's description of 1853, of 0. puberula Pfeiffer, is very similar to Pfeiffer's, except 
that he states that the spines are 9 cm. long. Both these descriptions answer very well to 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




2. Flowering and fruiting joints of Opiiiiliu decionhens. 3. Probable hybrid, with fruit and flower. 
(All three-quarters size.) 



OPUNTIA. 117 

the plant which we know as Opuntia dt'Ci/Dibeiis. orii^inally described from plants growing 
in the Botanical Garden in Vienna. 

Opuntid deaniihens irrordtu Forbes (Hort. Tour. Germ. 158. 1837) is doubtless the 
same as O. /nonihi Martins (Pfeififer, Enum. Cact. 154. 1837). These and 0. decuDibens lon- 
ghpina Salm-Dyck (Haage and Schmidt, Haupt-Verzeichnis 1912: 230. 1912) presumably 
belong here. 

bpiint'ta parviipiud Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 238. 1850), described from 
garden specimens of unknown origin, without flowers, has never been definitely placed. Schu- 
mann lists it among his unknown species, but attributes it to Mexico. Salm-Dyck states that 
it resembles O. puhcnild. but that it is glabrous. 

lllnstvdt!(»is: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 68^ pi. 3914; Bluhende Kakteen 3: pi. 132; Bull. U. S. 
Depr. Agr. 31: pi. 7. f. 1, as Opioit'ia puberiihr. Mollers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, 
No. 3. 




Fig. 145. — Opuntia decumhens. 

Plate XX, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of a plant collected by Dr. MacDougal 
and Dr. Rose at Tehuacan, Mexico, in 1906; figure 2 represents a fruiting joint of a plant col- 
lected by William R. Maxon at El Rancho, Guatemala, in 1905. Figure 145 is from a photo- 
graph of the plant taken at TomelHn, Mexico, by Dr. MacDougal in 1906. 

106. Opuntia depressa Rose. Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 517. 1908. 

Low, creeping or spreading plant, sometimes 60 cm. high and forming a patch 3 to 4 meters in diam- 
eter; joints of a dark glossy yellowish green color, pubescent, when young, obovate, 20 cm. long, usually 
with 1 long, sometimes curved spine at each areole ; sometimes with 1 to 3 shorter ones, all yellowish ; old 
joints oblong, 30 cm. long, bearing 4 to 6 spines at each areole; flowers red; fruit small, globular, with 
large clusters of brown glochids, when immature with a broad, deep umbilicus. 

T'^pe locality. Near Tehuacan, Mexico. 
Distribution: Southern Mexico. 

This plant is very common about Tehuacan, growing with species of A};^dve. Beducdnied, 
.uid Echinucdctiis. 

Figure 146 is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal of the type plant. 



118 



THE CACTACEAE. 




Fig. l-i6. — Opunt 



Series 5. BASILARES. 

We recognize eight species as forming this series. They are low or bushy, much branched plants, 
with flat, thin, broad joints, the areoles small, usually numerous and close together. 

Key to Species 

Joints papillose, not pubescent. 

Fruit juicy, red 107. O. liibrica 

Fruit dry or nearly dry 108. O. Ireleasei 

Joints mostly manifestly pubescent. 
Spines none or few. 

Flowers red 109. O. kisilaris 

Flowers yellow to orange. 
Joints bright green. 

Glochids long 1 10. O. microJasys 

Glochids short 111.0. macrocalyx 

Joints grayish green 112.0. rufida 

Spines very numerous. 

Areoles close together 113. O. pycnantha 

Areoles distant 114. O. comonduensis 

107. Opuntia lubrica Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 169. 1910. 

"A low ascending, spreading species very similar in habit to O. inicrodasys, frequently 41/2 dm. high 
and when well developed 10 dm. or more in diameter; joints sub-circular to obovate, about 15 by 20 cm., 
or in case of last joints of previous year about 12 by 15 cm., bright, glossy, leaf-green, very evidently 
papillate but scarcely pubescent under a lens; leaves subulate, cuspidate-pointed, 6 to 9 mm. in length; 
areoles 15 to 22 mm. apart, 4 to 6 mm. in diameter, sub-circular, prominent; spicules prominent, 4 to 
5 mm. in length, erect, bushy, in crescentic tufts in upper portion of areoles, becoming much more numer- 
ous in age, and at 2 to 4 years completely filling the areole, and, like O. rufida and some other species, 
becoming very abundant and conspicuous by proliferation of areolar tissue into short raised or columnar 
structures; spines exceedingly variable, sometimes nearly absent, again quite abundant and irregularly dis- 
tributed, none to many, mostly 1 to 3, becoming more numerous with age and in scattering areoles to as 
high as 16, mostly about 12 mm. long, but sometimes 21/2 cm., yellowish, translucent, bonelike, some- 
times darker at base; fruits decidedly acid, light red without with yellowish green rind and red pulp; seed 
small, thin shelled, about 3 mm. in diameter." 

Type locality: Near Alonzo, Mexico. 
Distribution: Known only from the type locality. 



OPUNTIA. 119 

Our examination of a painting of this plant in the collection made by Dr. Griffiths showed 
it to have great similarity to Opunt'ia rufida. 

llliistvaUou: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 23. 
Figure 147 is copied from the illustration above 
cited. 

108. Opuntia treleasei Coulter, Contr. U. S. N.u. Herb. 3: 
434. 1896. 

Opuntia basilaris treleasei Tourney, Cycl. Anier. Hort. Bailey 

3: 1147. 1901. 
Opuntia treleasei kernii Griffiths and Hare, N. Mcx. Agr. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: 81. 1906. 
Low, sometimes 3 dm. high, spreading at base, some of the 
branches of 2 to 4 erect joints; joints obovate, 15 cm. long or 
more, fleshy, pale bluish green, glabrous, terete at base; areoles 
numerous, filled with dirty yellow glochids, usually without 
spines, sometimes quite spiny; flowers rose-colored; fruit dry, 
subglobose, with large areoles filled with glochids and sometimes 
bearing spines; seeds large, turgid, 7 cm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Caliente, in the Tehachapi Mountains, 
California. 

Distribution: Southern California. 

Figure 148 is from a photograph of the plant grou'- 
ing on the mesa southeast of Bakersfield, California, 
taken by Dr. MacDougal in 1913. 

109. Opuntia basilaris Englemann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 3: 298. 1856. 

Opuntia basilaris ramosa Parish, Bull. Torr. Club 19: 92. 1S92. 
Opuntia intricata Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 
10. 1916. 




Fig. 147. — Opuntia luhrica. 



^>^U- ^^'i^ 



A^ 



' ,r>^ J •. ^. 




Fig. lis. — Opuntia treleasei. .Southern Ca 



120 THE CACTACEAE. 

Sttms low, growing in clumps, either prostrate or erect, sometimes 12 dm. high; joints broadly 
obovate, 8 to 20 cm. long, slightly pubescent or glabrous, usually highly colored; leaves 2 to 5 mm. 
long, subulate; areoles numerous, filled with white to brown wool and brownish glochids; spines none 
or rarely a few at upper areoles; flowers large, 6 to 8 cm. long, deep purple or sometimes white; filaments 
purple; fruit dry, globular to obovoid; seeds large, thick, 6 to 10 mm. broad. 

Type locality: From Cactus Pass down the valley of the Bill Williams River. 

Distribution : Northern Sonora, western Arizona, southern California, Nevada, and south- 
ern Utah. 

This is a variable species as to habit, size, pubescence, and color of flowers. The variety 
raviosa described by Mr. Parish is more erect than the ordinary form and glabrous. It has large, 
handsome flowers, and is a splendid plant for outdoor cultivation where the climate is suitable, 
but does not live long in greenhouses. It is called beaver-tail in Arizona. 

Opuntia dor\ii is advertised by Haage and Schmidt (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 29: Septem- 
ber). We have had a cutting which we would refer to one of the forms of O. basihiris. 

Opuntia huniistrata Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 43: 83. 1916) we refer here from the de- 
scription; it is said to differ from O. basilaris "by its much smaller as well as different shaped 
joints"; it was found in the San Bernardino 
Mountains, northern California, within the 
range of O. basilaris. 

The following varieties are listed, but have 
not been described: a/bi flora, coerulea. nana. 
and pfersdorflii. 

Opuntia basilaris cordata is a garden plant 
briefly described by F. Forbes (Monatsschr. 
Kakteenk. 16: A6. 1906), of which we have 
seen no specimens. 

Illustrations: Cact. Journ. 1: 167; Diet. 
Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 750; Forster, Handb. 
Cact. ed. 2. f. 129; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 13, 
f. 1 to 5; pi. 23, f. 14; Riimpler, Sukkulenten f. 
123; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 76; Cact. Journ. 
1 : pi. October, as Opuntia basilaris var. cristata 
and var. neradensis: Alverson, Cact. Cat. front- F'g. 1 49.— Opuntia basilaris. 

ispiece, as Opuntia basilaris albi flora; Cact. Journ. 2: 163, as Opuntia basilaris albiflora; 
Cact. Journ. 1: pi. for October; Mollers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 13, as O. basi- 
laris cordata; Mollers Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 25: f. 9, No. 9, as O. basilaris minima; Watson, 
Cact. Cult. ed. 3. f. 53, Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 7: 312; Remark, Kakteenfreund 23; Monatsschr. 
Kakteenk. 7: 125; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2597; Gartenflora 31: 280; Schelle, Handb 
Kakteenk. 47. f. 10. 

Figure 149 is copied from Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 13, f. 1, an illustration cited above. 

Opuntia brachyclada Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 25. 1914) is an anoma- 
lous plant with some of the joints terete and others somewhat flattened. It has been suggested 
that it is a hybrid between a cylindric and a flat- jointed species; but, so far as we know, natural 
hybrids do not occur between species of these subgenera. It is more likely to be an anomalous 
form of Opuntia basilaris, a form of which is known in the same mountains where it was found 

110. Opuntia microdasys (Lehmann) Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 154. 1837. 

Cactus microdasys Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hamburg. 16. 1827. 

Opuntia puli'inata De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 119. 1828. 

Opuntia microdasys minor Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 186. 1834. 

Opuntia microdasys laevior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 241. 1850. 

Often low and creeping but sometimes nearly erect and 4 to 6 dm. high; joints oblong to orbicu 

lar, 10 to 15 cm. long, soft-velvety, usually pale green, spineless; areoles conspicuous, closely set, 

filled with numerous yellow or brown glochids; flowers usually produced in abundance, 4 to 5 cm. long. 

pure yellow or tinged with red; sepals acuminate; petals broad, retuse; filaments and style white; stigma- 




121 



lobes 6 to 8, green; fruit dark red, juicy, nearly globular; seeds small, 2 to 3 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In Mexico, but originally stated by Lehmann as coming from Brazil. 

Distribution: Northern Mexico. 

In spite of its troublesome glochids, which easily become detached, this species has long 
been a greenhouse favorite. No cactus collection, however small, lacks one or more pots of this 
species, which rarely grows large in cultivation. 

Opuntia vticrodasys is usually credited to Lehmann, but he apparently published it as 
Cactus microdasys, and this is the way it is cited in the Index Kewensis. Lehmann soon re- 
published this species (Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 16: 317) where it appears as Cactus (Opuntia) 
microdasys. The first use of the name of Opuntia microdasys was by Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 
186) in 1834, but was without description or synonymy. Pfeififer in 1837, however, republishes 
Lehmarm's description under Opuntia and is 
therefore cited as the author of the binomial. 
Here it is first credited to Mexico, although 
Lehmann stated definitely that it comes from 
Brazil ; this he does also with regard to Opuntia 
tunicata and Cactus hradypus. both Mexican 
species, while Cactus linkii and C. (itt(i)iis. both 





Fig. 150. — Opuntia microdasys. Fig. m. — Opunti.i, prciKible hyhr 

credited to Mexico, are known only from South America. If this Opuntia really came origi- 
nally from Brazil, it might very well be the same as Opuntia inanwena. 

As shown above (p. 116), Opuntia puherula is referred to O. decumbens. The O. puber- 
ula of our gardens, however, is quite a different plant, and in all probability is of hybrid origin. 
It is almost identical with a hybrid between O. microdasys and O. cantabrigiensis which Dr. 
Rose collected in Hidalgo, Mexico, in 1905, and which is now grown in the collection in Wash- 
ington and in the New York Botanical Garden. 

Illustrations: Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 25: pi. opp. p. 138; p. 138; Gard. Chron. III. 30: f. 76; 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 28, in part; 20: pi. 12, in part; Safiford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 
1908; pi. 10, f. 4; U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 262: pi. 5, f. 2; MoIIers Deutsche G5rt. 
Zeit. 25: 488. f. 2, No. 4, as Opuntia microdasys monstrosa; Garden 13: 107,* as O. pubes- 
cens; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 47. f. 9; Mollers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 476. £. 9, No. 16; 



is very poor ;ind the identificatii 



ased larRcly upon the desc 



122 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Karsten and Schenck, Vegetationsbilder 2: pi. 22, B. 

Plate XXII, figure 1, represents joints of the plant grown in a garden at Riverside, Cali- 
fornia, received by Dr. Rose in 1905. Figure 150 is from a photograph taken by Professor F. 
E. Lloyd in Zacatecas, Mexico, in 1908. 

Plate XX, figure 3, shows a flowering joint of a plant sent to the New \'oik Botanical 
Garden by M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France, in 1901, as Opiiutui pi/lnriila. Figure 151 
is from a photograph of the plant sent from La Mortola, Italy, to the same institution in 1912, 
as OpHUtia piiberida. 
111. Opuntia macrocalyx Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 268. 190S. 

"A profusely, divaricately branched, ascending or erect, spreading plant, 9 to 10 dm. high .uid 
about the same in diameter; joints long-obovate, variable but commonly 9 by 22 cm. for last year's 
growth, gray green, pubescent, velvety to the touch; areoles subcircular, usually 2 to 3 mm. in diameter, 
very close to 1 cm. apart, slightly sunken; wool tawny, prominent, as long as spicules and occupying 
lower half of areole; spicules reddish brown, about 1 mm. long, occupying upper half of areole, easily 
separable and causing fully as much annoyance in handling as those of O. uiicrodasys. in age often ap- 
pearing dirty yellow /;/ situ but distinctly reddish brown when removed; strictly spineless; flowers yellow, 
green outwardly, the leaves on ovary very long subulate and changing gradually into the sepals which are 
very long subulate, delicately pointed, loosely arranged or often half recurved at apex, giving to the bud a 
rather ragged appearance; fruit red but both pulp and rind greenish, long obovate to cylindrical, about 
2 bv 7 cm., with but few rather small seeds, about 3 mm. in diameter. " 




Fig. 152. — Opuntia macrocalyx. x 0.75 



Type locality: In cultivation at Riverside, California. 

Distribution: Known only from cultivated plants; perhaps also from Coahui 
lllust)atio)i: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 28, in part. 

Figure 152 is drawn from a joint of the plant collected by Edward Palmer at Sa 
ico, in 1904. 

112. Opuntia rufida Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3 : 298. 1856. 

Opuntia microdasys rufida Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 706. 1898. 



a, Mexico, 
tillo, Mex- 



OPUNTIA. 123 

More or less erect, 2 to 15 dm. high, with a somewhat definite trunk; joints nearly orbicular, 6 to 
25 cm in diameter, thickish, velvety-tomentose, dull grayish green; leaves subulate, caducous, 4 to 6 cm. 
long, green with reddish tips; areoles large, filled with numerous brown glochids; flowers yellow to orange; 
4 to 5 cm. long including the ovary; petals obovate, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; filaments greenish white, short, 
1 cm. long; style 1.5 cm. long, thick, bulbous just above the base; stigma-lobes 5, deep green; ovary 
globular, 1.5 cm. in diameter, umbilicate, with large areoles; fruit, according to field observation of Dr. 
Griffiths, bright red. 

Type locality: About Presidio del Norte, on the Rio Grande. 

Distributio)!: Texas and northern Mexico. 

Tliis species seems much less common than O. luicrocidsys, with which it is often con- 
fused. The joints are gray or bluish green, and the glochids are brown. It does fairly well 
under greenhouse conditions. 

lllustYdUou: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. .o; Carnegie hist. Wash. 269: pi. 11, f. 94. 

Figure 153 is from a photograph of a plant brought from Mexico to the New York 
Botanical Garden in 1896 by Mrs. N. L. Britton. 




113. Opuntia pycnantha Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 423. 1896. 
Opuntij pyaiunth., ium^mUmui Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 424. 1896. 

Often low and creepmg, but sometimes forming a clump 2 dm. high; joints oblong to orbicular, 
often 20 cm. long, puberulent or papillose, usually nearly hidden by the thick mass of spines; areoles 
large and closely set, the upper part filled with yellow or brown glochids, and the lower part with 8 
to 12 yellow or brown reflexed spines 2 to 3 cm. long; leaves and flowers unknown; fruit 4 cm. long, 
very spiny; seeds 2 cm. broad, very thick. 

Type locality: Magdalena Bay, Lower California. 

Distributio)!: Southern Lower California. 

Coulter's variety Duiygaritdihi is known only from Margarita Island, while the species 
proper is known only from an adjacent island, Magdalena. They differ only in the color of 
their spines and glochids. Both have been in cultivation in New York City and Washington, 
but are not well suited for indoor plants. 

This species grows in one of the driest parts of Lower California on islands where there is 
no surface water and where there is no rain sometimes for five or six years. 

Figure 154 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Rose near Santa Maria Bay, Magdalena 
Island, Lower California, in 1911. 

Opuntia pyoiacantha (Just's Jahresb. 24^: 380. 18) seems to have been a misspelling for 
O. pycnantha. 



124 



THE CACTACEAE. 



114. Opuntia comonducnsis (Coulter) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 519. 1908. 
Opuntia angustata comonduensis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: li"). 1H96. 
Low, spreading plants, sometimes 2 dm. high and forming broad clumps; joints obovate to orbicular. 
12 to 15 cm. long, softly pubescent; areoles large, filled with brown wool and yellow glochids; lower 
areoles spineless, the upper ones bearing 1 or 2, rarely 3, or on old stems as many as 10, slender spines. 
3 to 5 cm. long or longer, yellow; flowers, including ovary, 6 cm. long, yellow; fruit purple, 4 cm. long, 
spineless; seeds 4 to 4.5 mm. broad, thick. 

Type locality: Comondu, Lower California. 
Distribution: Southern Lower California. 

As was pointed out by Mrs. K. Brandegee, this plant is not closely related to OpiDitia 
augustitta. 




This species has long been known only from herbarium specimens collected by Mr. 
Brandegee in 1889. In 191 1 Dr. Rose collected considerable material both near the town of San 
Jose and on Carmen Island which has since been in cultivation in the New York Botanical 
Garden and in Washington. The above description is based largely on this collection. 

This species sometimes grows with 0. tapona. in fact being confused in the original ma- 
terial; except for its pubescent joints, they are not readily distinguished. 

Figure 153 is from a photograph by Mr. T. W. Smillie of a plant collected by Mr. E. W. 
Nelson and Mr. E. A. Goldman in Lower California in 1906. 



OPUNTIA. 



125 




Fig. 156.— Opiini 



graph hy P. H. Dorsett. 



Series 6. INAMOENAE. 

A single, prostrate or depressed, usually spineless, light-green Brazilian species. 



Martius, 
t. Bdis 89 



Fl. Bras. 4-': .^06. 189(). 



115. Opuntia inamoena Schumann in 

Opunti.i qiiipj Weber, Dici. Hi. 

Usually low, often prostrate, forming clumps 2 to 10 dm. broad, or 
sometimes in sheltered situations 6 cm. high and forming dense, extensive 
thickets; roots fibrous; joints bluish green, when young bright green, 
orbicular to oblong, 8 to 16 cm. long, usually quite thick, sometimes 3 cm. 
thick, usually quite spineless; leaves minute. 2 mm. long; areoles small, 
when young filled with numerous yellowish-brown glochids; glochids un- 
equal, spreading, easily becoming detached ; flowers small, brick-red ; petals 
spreading; filaments orange; style yellow; stigma-lobes pale green; fruit 
globular, yellowish, 2.5 to 3 cm. in diameter. 

Type Locality. Schumann cites Rio de Janeiro in original 
description. 

Distribution: Pernanibuco, Bahia, and Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

This plant is known as quipa in Bahia, Brazil. 

This species is very common in all the dry part of Bahia and, although abundant and 
mostly spineless, is avoided by all kinds of grazing animals, even when the country is devoid 
of other suitable forage. It has been suggested that the plant may be bitter, or that the glochids 
are troublesome; the glochids, however, are usually wanting on old joints. 

The plant rarely develops acicular spines up to 3 cm. long on some joints, as shown by 
specimens collected by Dr. Rose and Mr. Russell near Machado Portello, Brazil. 

Figure 156 is from a photograph taken by Mr. P. H. Dorsett near Joazeiro, Brazil, in 
1914; figure 157 is from a plant collected by Dr. Rose near Machado Portello, Bahia, Brazil, 
in 1915. 




126 



THE CACTACEAE. 
Series 7. TORTISPINAE. 



Prostrate or spreading plants rarely erect, with mostly rather small, persistent, scarcely tuberculate, 
orbicular or oval joints, and large flowers; natives of the eastern, central, and southern United States. 

Plate 21 represents a group of hardy cacti, chiefly species of this series, at the New York 
Botanical Garden. 

Key to Species 

Spines none or only 1 or 2 at an areole. 

Joints bluish green; at least when young; roots tuber-Hke. 
Fruit clavate; joints thin. 

fruit about 4.5 cm. long 116. 0. alia. 



Fruit 5 to 7 cm. long. 



O. lata 



l\. O. 

XI. o. 



hizj 



IJ}. O. pliimbea 



O. 




Fruit obovoid ; joints turgid 117. O. pollardii 

Joints green; roots not tuberous. 
Flowers 8 cm. broad or less. 

Joints orbicular or little longer than wide 118. O. opuntia 

Joints oblong, much longer than wide 119. O. mMi\iilhi\. 

Flowers 10 to 12 cm. broad 120. O. gnnnlitloi. 

Spines mostly 2 or more at an areole. 
Ovary obconic, 2 to 4 cm. long. 
Roots tuberous. 

Joints repand; plant suberect 

Joints scarcely repand ; plants nearly prostrate 
Roots not tuberous. 

Flowers and fruit small 

Flowers and fruit large. 

Spines white to light brown, slender. 

Seeds acute-margined 

Seeds obtusL-m.iiuiiicd. 

Fruit I.Li.ur, I tn =. cm. long; spines light colored. 125. O. stenochiL. 

Fru)t siii.ill, 2 to '^ cm. long; spines brown 126. O.delicata 

Spines dark bmwn, muui 127. O. fiiscoalij 

Ovary narrowly subcylindric, "i lo 6 cm. long 127i( O. mjcjieei 

116. Opuntia allairei Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 20:8.^. 1909. 

A low, spreading, tuberous-rooted, prostrate plant, 
with some of the joints ascending; joints bluish green, 
obovate, usually 10 to 15 cm. long, originally described 
as even longer, with or without spines; spines, 
present, 1 to 3, yellowish brown, 2.5 cm. long or less, 
slender but a little flattened; glochids numerous, espe- 
cially abundant at very old areoles, yellow; leaves 6 
to 8 mm. long; flowers 6 to 7 cm. broad, yellow with 
a red center; fruit 4 to 5 cm. long, dark red. 

Type locality: Mouth of Trinity River, 
Texas. 

DistributJon: Southern Texas and western 
Louisiana. 

This species is perhaps nearest O. inaaor- 
h'lza, but differs in the usual absence of spines 
and in differently colored joints. 

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 
2, f. 2; pi. 5; pi. 12, in part 

Figure 158 is copied from the second illus- 
tration above cited. 

Il6a. Opuntia lata Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 
20:26. 1919. (See Appendix, p. 220.) 

117. Opuntia pollardii Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 523. 1908. 

Prostrate, tuberiferous, related to Opuntia opiint'ui: young joints bluish green, glaucous, 5 to 16 
cm. long, 1 to 2 cm. thick; areoles 1.5 to 3 cin. apart, bearing numerous yellow glochids 2 to 3 cm. 




159.— Opuntia pollard] 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




OPUNTIA 127 

long, those toward the top of the joint each with a single stout, stiff, pungent spine 2.5 to 4 cm. long; fruit 
short-obovoid, 2.5 cm. long, 1.5 cm. thick, with a few areoles bearing tufts of brownish wool but no spines 
and but few glochids; flowers yellow, 6 to 8 cm. broad; sepals deltoid to rhombic; fruit 2.5 to 4 cm. long; 
seeds 4 to 6 mm. wide, much thicker than those of O piintia opinithi. 

Type locality: Biloxi, Harrison County, Mississippi. 

Distribution: Coastal plain, Church Island, North Carolina, to northern Florida, Ala- 
bama, and Mississippi. 

Figure 159 is from a photograph of fruiting joints collected by A. H. Howell on Petit 
Bois Island, Alabama. 
118. Opuntia opuntia (Linnaeus) Karstcn, Deutsch. I"l. HHH. 1H82. 

Cactus opuntia Linnaeus, Sp. PL -468. 1753. 

Cactus compressus Salisbury, Prodr. 348. 1796. 

Cactus opuntia nana De Candolle, PL Succ. Hist. 2: pi. 138. [A]. 1799. 

Cactus Ijumifusui Rafinesque, Ann. Nat. 15. 1820. 

Opunti.i iuls,Mis mjioi Salm-Dyck, Observ. Bot. 3: 9. 1822. 

Opunttj nilgjrn medui*' Salm-Dyck. Observ. Bot. 3: 9. 1822. 

Opuntia hunnJNSj Rafinesque. Med. Fl. U. S. 2: 247. 1830. 

Opuntia me sac ant ha Rafinesque. Bull. Bot. Seringe 216. 1830. 

Opuntia caespitosa Rafinesque, Bull Bot. Seringe 216. 1830. 

Opuntia intermedia Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 364. 1834. 

Opuntia nana Visiani, Fl. Dalmatjca 3: 143. 1852. 

Opuntia rafinesqueif Engelmann. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856. 

Opuntia rafinestjuei microsperma Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856. 

Opuntia rafinesquei minor Engelmann and Bigelow, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 55. 1856. 

Opuntia vulgarn rafineu/i/ci Gray, Man. Bot. ed. 2. 136. 1856. 

Opuntia rafinesqm: .iiLiin.ni.i Rumpler in Fo.ster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 922. 1885. 

Opuntia mesac.niil'.i mur.nperma Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 429. 1896. 

Opuntia mesat.iiilh.i p.m., Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 429. 1896. 

Opuntia nilgjiit ii.iii.i Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 715. 1898. 

Opiiiiii.i humilin.i micusperma Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PL ed. 2. 8. 1900. 

Opuni,., l.iimit'".' I'.nra Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. ed. 2. 8. 1900. 
Low, spreading plants, sometimes ascending, with fibrous roots; joints orbicular to oblong, 3 to 13 
cm. long, rarely longer thick, dark green; areoles usually far apart; leaves subulate, appressed or spread- 
ing, 4 to 8 mm. long, early deciduous; spines often wanting, when present usually one from an areole, 
rarely two, 5 cm. long or less, brownish or sometimes nearly white, but on seedlings 5 to 12; glochids 
numerous, yellow to dark brown; flowers usually bright yellow, sometimes with reddish centers, 5 to 8.5 
cm. broad; petals 8 to 10, widely spreading; filaments yellow; stigma-lobes white; fruit obovoid to ob- 
long, red, juicy, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, edible; seeds 4 to 5 mm. broad. 
Type locality: In Virginia. 

Distribution: Sandy and rocky places from Massachusetts to Virginia, the mountains of 
Georgia and central Alabama extending north into southern Ontario, Canada (Point Pelee), 
west in isolated colonies to northern Illinois, eastern Missouri and Tennessee, and long 
established in the mountains of northern Italy and Switzerland. 

Linnaeus undoubtedly had rwo species in his Cactus opuntia. one being the low Virginia 
plant commonly known as O. vulgaris, and the other a tall, branching plant figured by 
Bauhin (p. 154). Upon Bauhin's illustration Miller based his Opuntia vulgaris, a name 
which was afterwards transferred to the low, procumbent plant of the eastern United States. 
For this reason Burkill (Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 288. 1911) would displace the name O. 
vulgaris and take up the name O. nana. We are quite in agreement with him as to the O. 
vulgaris Miller, but we retain for the low plant the specific name opuntia Linnaeus. The tall 
species is O. nionacantha. which we now call O. vulgaris, as suggested by Burkill. 

It is to be noted that the southern Atlantic coast specimens of Opuntia opuntia have 
yellow or greenish-yellow glochids, while those in its northern and western range have brown 
glochids. Its southwestern limit is uncertain. It probably does not extend to Texas, although 
two varieties have been reported from there ; these we are disposed to treat as species under 
the names Opuntia niacrorhiza and O. granciijiora. It is reported from eastern Kansas, but 
the plants found there are not like those found in Illinois and Indiana, having more spines 

* Opuntia vulgaris minor (Labourer, Monogr. Cact. 476. 1853) was doubtless intended for this name. 
+ Sometimes spelled rafinesquiana. 



128 



THE CACTACEAE. 



and a glaucous bloom, and are tuberous-rooted, and these are referred by us to 0. niacro- 
rhiza. The published western varieties of O. hui)ii\usd arc specifically distinct; we have 
referred them to O. tort'isphia. 

Some of the joints of this plant elongate under shade conditions, reaching at least 2.5 
dm. in length and not more than 5 cm. in width. 

Opiint'ta arkansana (Hirscht, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 115. 1898) has not been for- 
mally described. The name should doubtless be referred here. 

Opuntia prostrata Monville and Lemaire (Forster, Handb. Cact. 478. 1846) was given 
only as a synonym of O. intermedia, while O. intermedia prostrata Salm- Dyck (Cact. Hort. 
Dyck 1849. 69. 1850) was based on O. prostrata. 

O. M/iw^J^//^/' /'rf/Ttf Haage and Schmidt (Verzeichnis Blumenzwiebeln 1915: 29. 1915) 
is a new name for O. mesacantha parva Coulter. 

Under Opuntia vulgaris Michaele Gandoger in his Flora Europea (9: 145. 1886) has 
proposed the following new binomials: O. recedens, O. morisii, O. cycloidea, O. inaequalis, 
O. Ugustica. and O. mediterranea. The following varieties cited under 0. humijusa are in 
the trade: cymochila, greenei. macmrhiza, oplocarpa and stenochila (Stand. Cycl. Hort. 
Bailey 4: 2363. 1916.)' 




(I 'i;, :;, inMin.i in its natural surroundings on Staten Island, New York. 

Illustrations: lUustr. Fl. 2: f. 2527; ed. 2. 2: f. 2986; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 50: pi. 2393; 
Loudon, Encycl. Pi. ed. 3. f. 6884, the last two as Cactus opuntia; De CandoUe, PI. Succ. 
Hist. 2: pi. 138 [A]; DeTussac, Fl. Antill. 2: pi. 30, the last two as Cactus opuntia nana. 
Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pi. [1], f. 2; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 3"': 
f. 57, G. Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 12; Pac. R. Rep. "4: pi. 10, f. 1, 2, 4: pi. 23, f. 13; 
Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 1, all as Opuntia vulgaris. Standard Cycl. Hort. 
Bailey 4: f. 2602, in part as Opuntia humijusa. Amer. Entom. Bot. 2: f. 160; Amer. Garden 
11: 462; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 115: pi. 7041; Diet. Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 756; Fl. Serr. 22: 
pi. 2328; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 2; Gard. Mag. 4: 280; Gartenflora 24: 218; Lemaire, 
Cact. f. 9; Meehan's Monthly 2: pi. 6; 10: 121; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 10, f. 4, 5; pi. 23, 
f. 7, 8; Riimpler, Sukkulenten f. 125; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 84, all as Opuntia rafinesquei; 
Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 11, f. 1, as Opuntia rafinesquei minor; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




1. Joints of Opiintta nucrodasys. 

2. Flowering joint of Opunt'ia niacnirthi 

3. Fruit of Opunt'ia macrarthra. 



4. Seed of same. 

5. Flowering joint of Opiiiitii opinitia 
(All three-fourths size except 4.) 



OPUNTIA 129 

126, as Opuntia rafinesquei arkansana; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 124, as Opuntla vulgaris 
nana; Miller, Fig. PI. Gard. Diet. 2: pi. 191, as Opuntia jo/io minori, etc.. Diet. Hort. 
Bois f. 638; Rev. Hort. 40: f. 10, 11; 66: f. J>9, M as Opz/ntia rafinesq/ziana. Wiener lUusn. 
Gartenz. 10: f. 112, as Opuntia rafinesquiana arkansana. 

Plate XXII, figure 5, represents a flowering joint of tlic plant wiiicli grows naturally 
on schistose rocks in the New York Botanical Garden. Figure 160 is from a photograph of 
the plant growing on sand dunes at Crooke's Point, Staten Island, New York, taken by 
Howard H. Cleaves in 1914. 



119. Opuntia macrarthra Gibbes, Proc. Elliott Soc. Nat. Hist. 1: 273. 1859. 

Stems prostrate or ascending; joints narrowly oblong to obovate, 12 to 35 cm. long, thick, pale 
green, somewhat shining; leaves subulate, 10 mm. long, green, sometimes with purplish tips; areoles 
large, 2 to 3 cm. apart, filled with brown wool; spines wanting, or sometimes 1, up to 2.5 cm. long; 
glochids when present yellow; flowers not known; truit narrowly obovoid, red, fleshy, 4 to 6 cm. long. 

Type locality: Near Charleston, South Carolina. 

Distribution: Coast of South Carolina. 

This species, long overlooked, has recently been col- 
lected by Dr. J. K. Small in the vicinity of the type locality. 

This is doubtless one of the species to which Elliott 
called attention and which he said he expected to publish, 
but never did.* The original description long remained 
unnoticed in the Proceedings of the Elliott Society of Natu- 
ral History; it is as follows: 

'The second, which we will call Opuntia iiiMraiihra. falls un- 
der the same section with the preceding, and seems to be near 
Opiiutia angustata, of Engeimann, from the west of the Rio Grande; 
a prostrate species, joints from ten to fifteen inches long and three 
inches wide, one-third of an inch thick; no spines, fruit two and a 
half inches long, slender, clavate." 

Plate XV, figure 3, represents a fruiting joint collected 
by Dr. Small on James Island, South Carolina, in 1916; 
plate XXII, figure 3, represents a flowering joint of the 
plant collected by Dr. Small on the Isle of Palms, near 
Charleston, South Carolina, in 1916; figure 3 shows a fruit 
of the same plant and figure 4 a seed, enlarged. 
120 Opuntia grandiflora Engeimann. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295 

1856. 



icjuei giijiidifloi 
\1nti7a grandifio 



Engeimann, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 55. 1856. 
:; Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herh. 3 : -\ 




; areoles 2.5 cm. apart; spmes 
red center; petals broad; fruit 



Low, with somewhat ascending branches; joints 12.5 to n ci 
usually wanting; flowers very large, 11 to 12.5 cm. broad, yellow- 
elongated, 6 cm. long. 

Type locality: On the Brazos, Texas. 

Distribution: Eastern Texas. 

Although Dr. Engeimann formally described this as a species, he introduced it as 
"probably only a southern variety of O. rafinesquei." A little later he actually used the name 
as a variety. The position of the plant is still uncertain; if specimens collected by Mr. Wm. 
R. Maxon at Victoria, Texas, and by Mr. C. V. Piper at Dallas, Texas, belong here, as they 
appear to, we believe it to be a distinct species. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 11, f. 2, 3, as Opuntia rafinesquei grandiflora. 

Figures 161 and 162 are copied from the illustrations above cited. 

* Caclus opuntia. "It is probable that there are now three distinct species on the sea coast of the Southern .Statt- 
covered under this name." Elliott, A Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia, 1: 537. 



130 



THE CACTACEAE. 



121. Opunda austrina Small, Fl. Southeast, U. S. 816. 1903. 

Opiiittia youngii C. Z. Nelson, Chicago Examiner. June 13, 1915. 
Roots fusiform or tuberous, resembling sweet potatoes, often -J to 6 cm. in diameter. 5 to 1 5 cm. 
long; stems erect or ascending; joints narrowly obovate to oblong-obovate, thick, tuberculate, repand. 
bright green, 5 to 12 cm. long; leaves soon cleciduous. less than 10 mm. long; glochids yellowish : spines 
usually on the upper half and margin of the joint, often 2, sometimes 1 to 6, from an areole, whitish or 
pinkish, darker at base and apex, twisted, sometimes wanting; flowers bright yellow, 6 to 7 cm. broad- 
petals cuneate, truncate or retuse at apex, mucronate; fruit 2.5 to .3 cm. long. 




-Opuntia austrina. 

Type locality: Miami, Florida. 

Distribution: Soutliern Florida. 

Opuntia youngii C. Z. Nelson, published in a Chicago newspaper, we have referred here, 
after studying a specimen sent by the author. 

Opuntia spinalba Rafinesque (Atl. Journ. 1: 147. 1832) was described as from the keys 
of Florida, and answers in some respects to 0. austrina; but it is very unlikely that any 
plants of the region inhabited by austrina were known to botanists as early at 1832. 

Figure 163 represents a plant collected by Dr. Small at the type locality in 1901. 

121a. Opuntia eburnispina Small, sp. nov. (Appendix following page 226). 

122. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 206. 1850. 

Opiiiil'hi jiisijnrmii Engelmann and Bigelow, Pnic. Amer. Acad. 3: 297. 1856. 
OpiinlU rafineujuci fuuformis Engelmann, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 43. 1856. 
Opuntia ;wi >./.,'./.' . ", ,.',-//,,., Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. ?>: -430. 1896. 
Opuntia x^tm: ciMiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 166. 1910. 

Opuntia (vyu , \l , . -, , Bull. Club 38: 142, 1911. 

Plant low, usually m..a!) luuitrate, forming a clump 1 meter in diameter, from a cluster of tuber- 
like roots, these sometimes 5 to 7.5 cm. in diameter; joints orbicular to obovate, dull green, 5 to 16 cm. 
long, about 1 cm. thick; leaves subulate, 4 to 10 mm. long; areoles rather large, the lower ones and some- 
times all of them spineless; glochids numerous, yellow or brown; spines, when present, 1 to 4, unequal, 
yellow to brown, the longest 2.5 cm. long; flower yellow, with a reddish or purplish center, 7 to 8 cm. 
broad; fruit narrowly obovoid, 3.5 to 5 cm. long, purple or red, with a depressed umbilicus, not edible; 
seeds 5 mm. in diameter, with broad margins. 

Type locality: Rocky places on the upper Guadalupe, Texas. 
Distribution: Missouri and Kansas to Texas. 

Opuntia seguina C. Z. Nelson (Galesburg Register, July 20, 1915), published in a news- 
paper, and said to have come from San Antonio, Texas, seems to be one of the Tortispinae, 



OPUNTIA 131 

and is probably referable to O. macrorhizu. Throut^h the kindness of Mr. Nelson, we have 
seen a joint of this species. 

OpHutid bulhosa Engelmann (Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 297. 1856) was used by Engehnann 
for O. \usi\ormh, but never described. 

Opuntui uiacrorhiza. originally described by Dr. Engelmann as a species, was afterwards 
(Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 296. 1856) proposed as a subspecies but not formally indicated, so 
that the reference O. rafinesquei macrorhiza Coulter (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 430. 1896) 
is the proper designation if it is used as a variety. 

Illustrations': Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 69; Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 11, 127; Pac. R. 
Rep. 4: pi. 12, f. 7, 8; pi. 23, f. 6; Suppl. Diet. Gard. Nicholson f. 6()6; W. Watson, Cact. 
Cult. f. 82, 83; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 20, in part, this last as Opimtia xanthoglochia; 
Addisonia 'l: pi. 19; Watson, Cact.; Cult. ed. 3. f. 59; Diet. Gard. Nicholson 4: 580. f. 50, 51. 

Plate xiv, figure 5, represents a 
flowering joint of the plant collected at 
Irving, Dallas County, Texas, by Albert 
Ruth in 1912. 

123. Opuntia plumbea Rose, Smitl. 
Misc. Coll. 50: 524. 1908. 
Plant low, creeping, 10 cm. high, 20 

to 30 cm. broad, few jointed; joints small, 
nearly orbicular, 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, 
of a dull lead-color, the surface somewhat 
wrinkled in dead specimens; areoles rather 
large for the size of the joints; spines pale 
brownish, slender, usually porrect, often 3 
cm. long, mostly 2 in number, rarely as many 
as 4, sometimes one or even wanting; flowers 
very small, red; ovary naked; fruit 1.5 to \ 
cm. long with a few small areoles and thL^x■ 
simply woolly; seeds small, rather turgid, 
smooth, and with a shallow obtuse margin 

Type locality: San Carlos Indian 
Reservation, Arizona. 

Distribution: Arizona. F'g- iw.— Opuntu plumhe.i. 

This is a peculiar little opuntia with very small joints and fruits. It is known only from 
the original collections made by Mr. F. V. Coville in 1904. 

Figure 164 is from a photograph of the type specimen. 

124. Opuntia tortispina Engelmann, Proc Amer Acad 3" 293 1856 




Opuni, , 


• , >^,« Inu 


OpinU, , 


<)» ./ w lni,d 


Op„„u, 




Opunu, 




Op„n, 




Op,n 




Op:n, 




Op,aU^ 


mt . u tnlh I i,pl 


Opurtia 


g,eene, Engelm 



1 Pac R Rep 4 pi 2-, 
Pioc Amei Acid 3 295 1SS6 
in,l(.nnnn Picic Amei Acid 3 

I M^ liiiiMM I'm Amci Acid 3 



5 1SS6 
96 



1856 
295 1856 
I lu liiMhii 111 I Bi.elow Pic R Rep 4:42. 1856. 
I I nil I s \u Herb S 4i() 1896 

< Mil I s \,t Hcih ^ 111 1896 
(oultci Ciuiti L' i. Nit Heib S 4il 1896 
Button md Rose Smiths Misc Coll 50 52t 1908. 
{>) Opuntia (a«.g«/«of«/r GriHiths Pioc Biol Soc Wishington 27 26 1914 
Prostrate and cieepmg ]omts iscending orbicuhr to oboMte 15 to 20 cm. long; areoles 1.5 to 
3 cm. apart spmes se\eral often 6 to 8 the upper and longer ones 3 to 6 cm. long, either white, 
yellowish, or brown ; on the upper areoles one spine erect, the others spreading or with the lowermost 
ones deflexed; flowers sulphur-yellow, 6 to 7.5 cm. broad; fruit rather large, 4 to 5 cm. long. 2 to 3 cm. 
broad; seeds 4 to 6 mm. broad, thick, regular, with a slight indentation at the hilum. 
Type locality: On the Camanchica Plains near the Canadian River. 
Distribution: Wisconsin to South Dakota, Texas, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico; 
southeastern Colorado. Established and slowly spreading east of Cincinnati, Ohio (E. T. 
Wherry) . 



132 



THE CACTACEAE. 



This has long remained one of our least-understood species. We believe now that it 
has a wide range, and that it has been referred heretofore to several species. Opuntia cynio- 
chila does not seem to differ from it, and the two published varieties of Opmilia inesaaaitha. 
geographically out of harmony with that species, doubtless belong here. 

Opiint'id oplocarpa Engelmann (Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896) was 
published only as a synonym. Opuntia vapnesqiiei greenei (Cat. Durrah Succ. Manchester 58. 
1908) is a catalogue name. 

The plant is hardy at New York, flowering profusely, and also at Buck Hill Falls, east- 
ern Pennsylvania. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 12. f. 1 to 3; pi. 23, f. 10 to 12; Rev. Horr. Belg. 40; 
after 186, all as Opuntia cymochila: Illustr. Fl. 2: f. 2528; ed. 2. 2; f. 2987; Pac. R. Rep. 4: 
pi. 10, f. 3; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2602, in part, 
these as Opuntia huniijusa. Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 8, f. 2, 3; 
pi. 23, f. 1 to 5, as O. tortisperma. Illustr. Fl. 2: f. 2529; 
ed. 2. 2: f. 2988; Watson, Cact. Cult, ed 3. pi- opp. 102; 
Meehans' Monthly 11: 57, as Opuntia inesacantha: Meek- 
ans' Monthly 5: 172, as Opuntia oplocarpa. 

Plate XV, figure 4, represents a flowering and fruiting 
joint of a plant from Colorado, grown at the New York 
Botanical Garden. 

125. Opuntia stenochiia Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 
3: 296. 1856.* 

Opuntia meiacantha stenochiLi Coulter, Contr, L'. S. Nat 
Herb. 3: 430. 1896. 

Prostrate; joints obovate, 10 cm. long by 7.5 cm. bro.id ; 
leaves small, 4 to 6 mm. long; spines usually 2, sometimes 3, 
spreading, 1 long (2.5 to 3 cm. long), and 1 or 2 short and 
reflexed, usually light-colored, sometimes nearly white; giochids 
brown; flowers yellow, 6 cm. long; fruit very juicy, 4 to 5 cm. 
long or more, attenuate at base; seeds thick, quite regular, with 
very narrow obtu.se edges. 

Type locality: Canyon of Zuni, New Mexico. 

Distribution: Western New Mexico and Arizona. 

Tliis species has not been well understood. It has 
usually passed as a variety of the common species of the 

eastern Mississippi Valley States, but it grows in a very opuntia stenochil.i, 

different region. It is the common low, spreading Opun- Figs. i65, 1 66.— Fruits. Fig. 1 67.- -joint. 
tia of northwestern New Mexico and Arizona. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 12, f. 4 to 6; pi. 23, f. 9. 

Figures 165, 166, and 167 are copied from the first illustration above cited. 

126. Opuntia delicata Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 310. 1911. 

A small, procumbent plant with rather thin, ovate, bluish, slightly glaucous joints, often only 4 to 
9 cm. in diameter; areoles prominent, bearing conspicuous brown giochids; lower areoles spineless, the 
upper ones bearing 1 or 2 very slender brownish spines, the longer one 3 to 4 cm. long; flowers 
yellow, 5 cm. long, 5 to 6 cm. broad; fruit oblong, spineless, 2 to 3 cm. long; seeds small, about 
4 mm. in diameter, nearly smooth. 

Type locality: Calabasas, Arizona. 

Distribution: Southeastern Arizona. 

Figure 168 is from a photograph of the type plant. 

127. Opuntia fuscoatra Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 297. 1856. 

Difi^use prostrate plants; joints orbicular to obovate, somewhat tuberculate, 5 to 8 cm. long, areoles 

id hence Coulter 




*Altliough formally published as a species, Engelmann states that it i 
(Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 430. 1896) uses the synonym O. refines<iuei 



I form or subspecies, 
nochild Engelmann. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




1. Flowering joint of Opiintui juscoatya. 2. Upper pa.n o( \o\m oi 0/)//ij/ht s/ilph/nej. 
3. Joints of Op/inlia leii/iispiihi. (All three-fourths size.) 



133 







• ^ 




1 





12 to 20 mm. apart, very large for the group; spines single or in twos or threes, one rather stout, some- 
times a httie flattened, 2.5 to .t cm. long, yellow to dark brown or even nearly black; usually from 
the lower areoles; glochids numerous, brown; flowers 7.5 cm. broad, yellow; petals very broad; stigma- 
lobes 5; ovary 2.5 cm. long, slender; fruit 4 to 5 cm. long, red; seeds 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Sterile places of prairies west of Houston, Texas. 

Dntnhntiou: Eastern Texas. 

lllnstialiniis: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 11, f. 4. 

Plate xxiii, hgure (, represents .•■ lluwering joint of the plant collected by W. L. McAtee 
at Rockport, Texas, in 1911. 

127a. Opuntia macateei sp. uov (See Appendix, p. 221.) 

Opuntia rubifi.ora Griffiths. Bull. lorr Club 43: 529. 1916. 

Described as a spreading plant 3 to 4.5 dm. high and a meter broad, with obovate, 
green joints 12 to 18 cm. long, few white spines up to 5 cm. long with brown or straw- 
colored bases, and pink flowers. The species is based on cuttings received from European 
collections, and its origin is unknown. 

We have received a similar if not identical plant from Haage and Schmidt of Erfurt, 
Germany, and we suspect it to be a hybrid, having one of the Tortisp'niae as one of its 
parents. 

The specific name nihiiloiu was used by Davidson a few months earlier than by 
Griffiths for another plant. 

Series 8. SULPHUREAE. 

Low or prostrate species, with rather thick, flat, tuberculate joints; fruit small, nearly globular. 
Three species, natives of central and southern South America. 

Key to Species. 

Flowers yellow. 

Spines stout, subulate 128. 0. iulphurea 

Spines slender, acicular 129. O. soehrensii 

Flowers red 130. O. microdisca 



128. Opuntia sulphurea G. Don in Loudon, Hort. Brit. 196. 1830. 

opuntia maculacantba Forster, Handb. Garienz. 17: 166. 1861. 
Opuntia pampeana Spegazzini, Conir. Fl. Ventana 30. 1896. 
Opuntia vulpina Weber, Diet. Hon. Bois 895. 1898. 



134 THE CACTACEAE. 

Plants low and spreading, fornning broad clumps 1 to 2 meters in diameter, 3 dm. high or less; 
joints flattened, oblong to obovate, 12 to 25 cm. long, thick, strongly tuberculate, usually green but 
sometimes purplish; terminal joints easily detached; leaves conic, about 2 mm. long; spines 2 to 8, 
generally straight but sometimes curved and twisted, spreading, 3 to 10 cm. long, brownish to red, 
but sometimes quite pale at first; flowers about 4 cm. long, yellow: fruit with a deep umbilicus, short, 
about 1 cm. long. 

Type locality: Cited as Chile, but doubtless wrong. 

Distiibution: Dry parts of western Argentina; recorded also from Chile, and perhaps 
occurring in Bolivia. 

This species was not seen in Chile by Dr. Rose, and we are doubtful in considering the 
Bolivian material to be 0. uilphiiyea: the joints, as shown by Dr. Rose's specimens, col- 
lected at La Paz (No. 18860), while thick, are not conspicuously tuberculate; the spines are 
rather short and stiff, white at first, but somewhat yellowish or horn-colored in age. 

The name Cactus siilphureus Gillies was published by G. Don at the place cited above 
as a synonym of this species. 

Opiintia maculacanthd was first described from specimens from Buenos Aires, which had 
doubtless been sent down from the desert regions to the west or northwest. Schumann in 
his Monograph referred this species to Mexico, but in his Nachtrag corrects this statement. 
Dr. Weber, with whom we are in agreement, refers the species to O. sulphured. It is the only 
species we know with such large tubercles on the joints. 

Several varieties of this species, some of which have been described, are given, such as 
laevior. major, minor, and pallidior. 

Mr. W. B. Alexander writes as follows concerning this species: 

"This is by far the commonest species of Opuniia in the Argentine, where it is commonly known as penca', i. e. the spiny plant, 
sometimes being distinguished from other larger species by the name penquilla' or penca chica . The writer met with it in the provinces 
of Buenos Aires, Cordoba, San Luis, Mendoza, San Juan. La Rioja, Catamarca and Santiaga del Estero." 

Here probably belong Opuntia sericea G. Don (Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 363. 1834), 
also reported from Chile, but doubtless from Argentina. Cactus sericeus Gillies (Loudon, 
Hort. Brit. 196. 1830) is the same. There are several varieties of O. if /vV^-rf which we would 
put with it: loiigispina Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 363. 1834); coerulea Forbes (Hort. Tour 
Germ. 159. 1837) which is probably O. coerulea GilUes (Pfeififer, Enum. Cact. 155. 1837); 
maeletiii Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845) which is 0. maelenii (Salm-Dyck, 
Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845). Opuntia tweediei (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 745. 
1898) is given as a synonym of this species by Schumann. Opuntia albisetosa Hildmann, a 
name only, belongs here according to Hirscht (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 48. 1900). 

Illustrations: Bliihende Kakteen 3: pi. 136; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 121; Schumann. 
Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 106, Wiener 111. Gart. Zeit. 28: f. 17; all as Opuntia maculacantha. 
Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 18. 

Plate xxiii, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose 
near Cordoba, Argentina, in 1915. 

129. Opuntia soehrensii sp. nov. 

Cactus ayrampo Azara, Voy. 2; 526. 1809. 

Opuntia liaenquiana Herrera, Rev. Univ. Cuzco 8: 60. 1919. 

Prostrate, in masses usually 1 meter in diameter or less; joints at first erect or ascending, finally 
prostrate and rooting and forming new colonies, flattened, rather thin, somewhat tuberculate, very spiny, 
orbicular, 4 to 6 cm. in diameter, often purplish; spines slender, rather variable in color, usually yel- 
low or brown, several from each areole, sometimes as many as eight, the longest ones 5 cm. long, 
erect; flowers light yellow, 3 cm. long; sepals brown ; filaments yellow ; style white; stigma-lobes green; 
fruit naked, 3 cm. long; seeds 3 to 3.'' mm. broad, ovate, thickish, with narrow margin and rough- 
ened sides. 

Highlands of southern Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina. Type collected by Dr. 
and Mrs. J. N. Rose below Pampa de Arrieros, Peru, August 23, 1914 (No. 18967). 

This species is very common in its region, but as it is cultivated somewhat for its seeds 
as well as used as a protection for gardens and yards, its natural distribution is difficult to 



OPUNTIA 135 

determine. On the barren hills below La Paz, Bolivia, the species is well established and 
grows as if native; on some of these hills it is the dominant and sometimes exclusive plant. 
In the same general region, however, one finds the plant about the houses, especially on walls, 
where it has undoubtedly been planted. At Oruro, Bolivia, it was seen only in the wild state, 
while at several stations along the railroad between Juliaca and Cuzco, Peru, especially at Com- 
batata and Tinta, Peru, it has been planted on top of many of the mud walls about the yards. 
On the hills below Pampa de Arrieros, Peru, the species is extremely common and undoubt- 
edly native. 

The plant is knt)wn everywhere by the natives as ayrampo. The seeds are collected in 
great quantity and dried, and may be bought in the market places, especially in Arequipa. 
Indeed, there must have been a time when they were shipped by freight, for the name 
Ayrampo has always appeared on the printed freight classification of the Southern Railroad 
of Peru. The assistant superintendent of the road, Mr. Brown, states that, so far as he 
knows, there are few or no shipments made now. One of the places in Peru where Dr. Rose 
found the plant very abundant is named Ayrampal. '! \' 

The dry seeds, when placed in water, yield a red substance which !/, 

is used for coloring jellies and gelatine and, according to some, for '"~i^/ 

coloring wines. In former days the Indians also used this substance in '.~^^ 

some of their carnival ceremonies. The coloring matter does not come - 

from the seeds themselves, but from the red juice of the fruit which has ^_,,' wj. ^ \- " 

dried on the surfaces. " ^^^^h^j^^J^^ 

Azara's original description is interesting and a translation of it is given: / y \^ 

-K species of tun.lla (cactus) whuh .s found m the temperate gorges near the Cordillera produces Fig! 169— Optintia 

the seed in question. The plant is found in and and sterile soil where ordinarily this family of plants , • a -i 

grows and thrives by creeping on the ground m such a way as to stifle all the others. From the seed soenrensil. X U.4. 

confined within the round and spiny fruit is derived a color of clear violet, brilliant and extremely agreeable to the eye but very super- 
ficial and very light, although it acquires a little stability and durability by the means of alum and some other chemicals. '" 

Figure 169 represents a joint of this species collected by Dr. Rose at Aruro, Bolivia, in 
1914. 

129a. Opuntia macbridei sp. nov. (Appendix following page 226). 
130. Opuntia microdisca Weber, Diet. Hort, Bois 896. 1898. 

Forming small clumps, very much branched, prostrate; joints mostly obovate to oblong, 4 to 8 
cm. long, usually much flattened, but sometimes nearly cylindric, grayish green; leaves minute, purple, 
soon dropping ofT; areoies numerous, 5 to 6 mm. apart, rather large, when young densely white-felted; 
spines 10 to 15, white to reddish, unequal, some of the centrals 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long; glochids num- 
erous, yellow; flower-buds red; flowers 2.5 cm. long, bright red; filaments purple; style white; stigma- 
lobes 6 to 8, short; ovary turbinate, 16 mm. long, bearing numerous areoies subtended by narrow red 
leaves ; areoies on ovary densely felted and bristly ; fruit red. 

Type locality: In Catamarca, Argentina. 

D'ntrlbiitiou: Northern Argentina. 

Schumann refers this species to Flatyopuntia, while Weber 
referred it to Tephrocactiis. It evidently belongs to our Sulphureae. 
being nearest our 0. soehrensii. 

Our description is drawn chiefly from specimens obtained by 
J. A. Shafer between Andalgala and Concepcion, Argentina, in 
1916, supplemented by a living specimen obtained by Dr. Speg- 
azzini in 1915. In Argentina this species also is known as ayrampo. 

Figure 170 represents a joint of the plant collected by J. A. 
Shafer between Andalgala and Concepcion, Argentina, Decem- 
ber 28, 1916 (No. 24) r 

To this relationship may belong the following species: 

Opuntia penicilligera Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires II. [„ ,, _Cnt it Opu 

4: 291. 1902. isca xo- 

Low, nearly prostrate; joints flattened, orbicular to broadly obovate, 10 to 12 cm. long, 7 to 10 

cm. broad, dull green ; spines slender, rwisted, one elongated and 1 to 5 cm. long, the others much 

shorter, all white; glochids brownish; flowers from the lateral and marginal areoies, citron-yellow; 




136 THE CACTACEAE. 

ovary 3 to 3.5 cm. lon^', with very many areoles be.trin^ numerous glochids; style thick; stigma-lobes 
8 to 10, greenish white; fruit reddish, clavate, 4.5 cm. long, with a depressed umbilicus; seeds small, 
3 to 3.5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Argentina, between Rio Negro and Rit) Clolorado. 

Distribution: Southern Argentina. 

According to Dr. Spegazzini, this species is not near to any of the known South Ameri- 
can species, but resembles somewhat the North American species O. /i/icroddsys and O. 
basil aris. We know it only from the description. 

Mr. W. B. Alexander sends us the following account of this plant: 

"This plant was met with close to the coast at Bahia Blanca, and near the foot of the Andes at Tunuyan. As remarked by Speg- 
azzini. this species is very distinct from any other found in Argentina and there seems no reason tor thinking that it may belong to the 
Series Sulphureae in which it is tentatively placed in the Cactaceae. It should surely be the type of a separate series or be placed in the 
Series Basilares, to the members of which, judging by illustrations, it shows great resemblance." 

Opuntia catalantha Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 524. 1916. 

A low, creeping, prostrate plant 15 cm. long, one meter in diameter; joints obovate, narrowed 
above and below, inequilateral, 1 1 cm. long, 4 cm. broad, tubetculate-wrinkled, mostly deep green ; areoles 
1 to 1.5 mm. long, obovate, at first tawny, turning gray; leaves small, subulate, cuspidate, red. 1 mm. 
long; glochids yellow; spines 5 to 10, up to 5 mm. long; flowers carmine; fruit globular, 1.5 cm. 
in diameter. 

Recorded as probably of South American origin and usually distributed as Opiiiitia 
iiiicrodisca, but from which it is said to differ very much. The plants known to us only from 
the description of cultivated specimens. , 

Series 9- STRIGILES. 

The series consists of a single species, native of Texas /( 
It is a low, bushy plant with large joints beating man) '^ \ ^ 

areoles, these close together, each with several acicular * '^ 

reddish brown spines; the fruit is small. ^ , 

131. Opuntia strigil Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad 

3: 290. 1856. 

Suberect, 6 dm. high; joints otbiculat to obovate, 10 to 12 5 cm long 
ateoles close together, prominent; spines 5 to 8, spteadmg miny of them 
appressed to the joint and deflected, red to reddish brown with lighter tips 
the longer ones 2.5 cm. long; glochids numerous; flowers unknown fruits 
small, nearly globular, 12 mm. in diameter, truncate, red trcolc 
very small; seeds 3 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In crevices of limestone rock, between the Pecos 
River and El Paso, Texas. ' ' | 

Distribution: Texas. 

A rare plant, first collected by Charles Wright in 1851. Engel- ^"'- "^"^Pr"' '"'^''' 
mann says in the Mexican Boundary Report that it was also collected 
by Wright and Bigelow, but there is no mention of it in his report 

on Bigelow's plants, nor do we find specimens in the Engelmann herbarium, so that it would 
appear that this reference to Bigelow was a mistake. Bigelow, it is true, crossed the River 
Pecos, on which the type was found, but it was well up in New Mexico and not in Texas, 
where it was crossed by Charles Wright. It was more recently collected by Nealley some- 
where in Texas. The place of collection by Wright and the later one by Nealley are very 
indefinitely indicated on the labels accompanying the specimens. 

lllustratiij)i: Cact. Mex. bound, pi. 67. 

Figure 171 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

Series. 10. SETISPINAE. 

Bushy or depressed species, with tuberous or thickened roots, broad, flat, thin joints, and elon- 
gated, aciculat, brown spines which fade whitish; theit fruits are large and juicy. We recognize six- 
species, natives of the south central and southwestern United States and northern Mexico. They 
approach the Toiiispiii.ie on the one hand and the Phaeacanthae on the other. 




OPUNTIA 

Key to Species. 



137 



132. O. megarhiza 

ess 133. O. iallii 



Joints elongated 

Joints obov.itc to orbicul 
Fru.t sni.ill. 2 cm. loi 
Fi-u.t l..ii;c, l^ to 6 cm. long. 

Flowers ted to purple 134. O. pcttsii 

Flowers yellow. 

Areoles large, more or less elevated on old joints; joints glaucous, purplish about the 

areoles -- I 35.0, 

Areoles small; mature joints green throughout. 

Joints usually orbicular; seeds 5 to 6 mm. broad 136. O. 

Joints ohovate; seeds 4 mm. broad or less 137. O. 



p,na 



■xkemenii 
'ui'pina 




132. Opuntia megarhiza, Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 126. 1906. 

Roots long and thickened, sometimes 3 to 6 dm long, "S to 6 cm. in diameter; stems low, 2 to 3 dm 
high, much br.inched ; lower joints elongated, 2 to 3 dm. long, cuneate below, thin, 3 cm. broad, lateral 
joints appearing along the margins of the older joints and often, if not always, in the same plane; spines 
2 to 4, acicular, 1 to 2.5 cm. long, brown; leaves minute; flowers lemon-yellow, often tinged with rose, 5 
cm. broad; petals about 13, ohovate, mucronately tipped; stigma-lobes 7, greenish; ovary clavate, 3 cm. 
long; fruit and seeds unknown. 

Type locdlity: Alvarez, Mexico. 

Distribution: San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

This species is not very closely related to the other 
species of this series, but it is referred here on account 
of its very slender spines. 

133. Opuntia ballii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 
309. 1911. 

Plants low, spreading; joints obovate, 6 to 10 cm. long, 
thickish, pale green, glaucous; spines 2 to 4, brownish, a little 
flattened, usually ascending or erect, the larger ones 4 to 7 cm. 
long; glochids conspicuous; fruit small, about 2 cm. long, clavate, 
glaucous, spineless; seeds thick, 3.5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Pecos, Reeves County, Texas. 

Distribution: Western Texas. 

Wooton and Standley in their Flora of New Mexico refer this species to Opuntia pli- 
pendula, but 0. ballii grows in a different habitat, has smaller fruit, stouter and erect spines, 
and different areoles; it grows on the dry mesa beyond Pecos, Texas. 

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: pi. (yA. 

Figure 172 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

134. Opuntia pottsii Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 236. 1850. 

opuntia jilipendula Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 294. 1856. 
Low, spreading plant, 3 dm. high or less, from thickened tuberous roots 2 to 3 cm. in diameter, these 
sometimes moniliform; joints broadly obovate, 3.5 to 12 cm. long, pale green to bluish; areoles few. 
either small or large; spines confined to the upper and marginal areoles, 1 or 2, slender, 2 to 4 cm. long, 
usually white but sometimes purplish; glochids yellow, usually few but sometimes abundant; flowers 
large, 6 to 7 cm. broad, deep purple; ovary slender, 3 to 3.5 cm. long, with only a few scattered areoles; 
fruit spineless. 

Type locality: Near Chihuahua City, Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Chihuahua, Mexico, to Texas and New Mexico. 

This species was described by Prince Salm-Dyck in 1850 from material collected by 
John Potts, who was manager of the mint at Chihuahua and who sent many cacti to F. 
Scheer at Kew between 1842 and 1850. No types of his species seem to have been retained. 



138 



THE CACTACEAE. 



In 1885 C. G. Pringle again collected this species near Chihuahua City and it was dis- 
tributed as O. filipendula. and there Coulter leaves Pringle's specimen (Cont. Nat. Herb. 
3: 428). Dr. E. Palmer collected an abundance of material in 1908 which enabled us to 
reestablish O. pottsii. which Coulter omits and Schumann lists under unknown species. 

If these Chihuahua specimens are the same as the Texas plants, as Coulter believed and 
as we regard them, then Opuntia filipendula must give place to the older name of Salm-Dyck. 

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 68; Forster Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 10, 131; Suppl. 
Diet. Card. Nicholson 2: f. 605; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 81; Watson, Cact. Cult. ed. 3- f. 
58; Diet. Gard. Nicholson 4: 580 f. 49; all as Opuntia filipendula. 

Figure 173 shows a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose in the valley of the Rio Grande 
below El Paso, Texas, in 1913. 

135. Opuntia setispina Engelmann in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 239. 1850. 

Stem branchint; .ind spreading, sometimes 9 to 12 dm. bro.id, with some of the branches composed 
of 3 or 4 jomts, erect and 6 dm. high; joints deep bluish green, somewhat glaucous, often purplish at 
the areoies, sometimes more or less tinged with purple throughout, obovate to orbicular, "i to 1 5 cm. in 
diameter; leaves minute, subulate; spines 1 to 6 from an areole, white, 2 to 3 cm. long; glochids yellow, 
very conspicuous on old joints; flowers yellow; fruit purplish, about 4 cm. long. 




Fig. 173. — Opuntia pottsii. x 0.4. 



Fig. 174. — Opuntia setispina. x 0.4. 



T^pe locality: Pine woods in the mountains west of Chihuahua, Mexico {\\de Engel- 
mann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 294. 1856). 

Distribution: Western Chihuahua, Mexico. 

This species has long been known only from the type specimens; but in 1908 Dr. Rose 
visited western Chihuahua, where this species is quite common; our description is based 
largely upon the specimens he then collected. 

Figure 174 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near Miiiaca, Chihua- 
hua, in 1908. 

136. Opuntia mackensenii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 310. 1911. 

Plants low, with thick, tuberous roots, spreading, usually resting on the edges of the joints, but some 
of the branches often erect; joints orbicular to obovate, 10 to 20 cm. long, rarely broader than long, pale 
and glaucous when young, deep green when older; areoies small, the lower ones without spines, the upper 
ones with 1 to 4 spines; spines white or brown, or brown at base and white above, somewhat flattened 
and twisted, slender, 5 cm. long or less; glochids brown; flowers of medium size, 7 to 8 cm. broad, 
yellow with a reddish brown center; stigma-lobes 7 to 9, white; fruit spineless, 4 to 6 cm. long, truncate 
or nearly so at apex, rose-purple; seeds suborbicular. 5 to 6 mm. broad, acute on the margin. 



OPUNTIA 139 

Type locality: Near Kerrville, Texas. 
Distribution: Kerr County, Texas. 

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb, 13: pi. 67; Plant World 19: 142. f. 1; 143. f. 2, 
the last as O. iiiacrorhiza. 

Figure IT'S is from a photograph of the type plant from near Kerrville, Texas. 




Fig. 175,— Opumi.1 m.ickcn 



137. Opuntia tenuispina Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 294. 1856. 

Opunl'ui minor C. Mueller in Walpers, Ann. Boi. 5: 50. 185S. 
Low and spreading, but becoming 3 dm. high; joints obovate, attenuace ac base. 7 to 15 cm. long, 
light green; leaves very slender, 4 mm. long or less; spines 1 to 3 from an areole, slender, usually white 
but sometimes brownish, 3 to 5 cm. long, the upper spines erect or spreading ; glochids brown ; flowers 
yellow, 6 to 7.5 cm. broad; ovary with numerous areoles filled with brown wool and brown glochids; 
fruit oblong, 2.5 to 4 cm. long, with a deep umbilicus; seeds 4 mm. broad or less, very irregular. 

Type locality: Sand hills near El Paso, Texas. 

Distributio//: Southwestern Texas and adjacent parts of Mexico and New Mexico, appar- 
ently extending to Arizona. 

Engelmann says that this plant grows with O. phaeacaiitha. but is readily distinguished 
from the latter by its spines and fruit. Cultivated plants and herbarium specimens closely re- 
semble O. phaeacantha. 

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f. 14; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pi. [15.] 

Plate xxiii, figure 3, represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near El Paso, 
Texas, in 1913. 

Series 11. PHAEACANTHAE. 

Bushy or depressed species, with relatively large, flat, persistent joints, the subulate, usually stout 
spines brown at least at the base, or in some species nearly white. The series is composed of about hfteen 
species, natives of the .south central and southwestern United States, northern and central Mexico. 



140 



THE CACTACEAE. 



liddle areoles. 



Key to Sphcies. 

or less bushy plants. 

ints thin; spines, when present, very long and confined to the upper 
Spines dark brown, stout, rigid. 

Plant pale green to purplish; spines up to 12 cm. long 138. O. macrocenira 

Plant dull dark green; spines 6 cm. long or less 139. O.tardospina 

Spines pale brown, flexible or subulate. 

Usually abundantly spiny 140. O. gosseliniana 

Usually spineless or some areoles with 1 setaceous deflexed spine 141. O. santa-rita 



Joints thick; spines 



nfined to the upper and middle areoles. 



Joints relatively small, seldom over 15 cm. broad; plants relatively low 

Joints narrowly obovate, about twice as long as wide 

Joints broadly obovate to orbicular. 
Flowers yellow. 

Spines subulate, brown at least in part. 

Plant light green 143. O. 

Plant bluish green or grayish green. 

Plant erect, 2 meters high or less 144, O. 

Plant bushy, rarely over 1 meter high - - --- 145. O. 

Plant prostrate 146. O. 

Spines acicular, nearly white 147. O. 

Flowers magenta 148. O. 

Joints relatively large, mostly over 15 cm. broad; plants relatively tall. 

Spines clear brown nearly throughout 149. O. 

Spines nearly white above or throughout. 

Spines with dark brown bases 150. O. 

Spines whitish throughout 151. O. 

Small creeping plants 152. O. 

138. Opuntia macrocentra En- 

gelmann, Proc. Amer. 

Acad. 3: 292. 1856. 
Somewhat bushy, with ascending 
branches, 6 to 9 dm. high; joints 
orbicular to oblong, or sometimes 
broader than long, 10 to 20 cm. 
long, often bluish or purphsh, some- 
times spineless but usually bearing 
spines at the uppermost areoles; 
spines 1 or 2, rarely 3 together, usu- 
ally brownish or black but some- 
times white above, slender, erect or 
porrect, 4 to 7 cm. long; flowers 
yellow, often drying red, 7.5 cm. 
broad; sepals ovate, acuminate; 
ovary with few areoles, these bear- 
ing brown glochids; filaments very 
short; fruit 3 to 6 cm. long, pur- 
ple; seeds 4 to 4.5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Sand hills on 
the Rio Grande near El Paso, 
Texas. 

Distribution : Western 
Texas to Eastern Arizona and 
Chihuahua, Mexico. 

This species, especially the 
forms that have bluish and pur- 
plish joints, are very showy. 
Seedlings sometimes produce 
long, silky hairs from the are- 
oles, in this respect resembling 
the Cri>/ifeiuie. 



142. O. ariKHitMa 



pliiieacantlia 
covillei 



engclmannii 

dhcata 

rastrera 




-Opunt 



macrocentra. 



141 



Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 7^, f. 8; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pi. [8]. 
Figure 176 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near the Rio Grande in 
New Mexico, northwest of El Paso, Texas, in 191.0. 

139. Opuntia tardospina Gnfifiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 22: 34. 1912. 

Roors fibrous; low, spreading plant, the joints usually resting on the ground; joints orbicular to 
obovate, 16 to 24 cm. long; areoles large, usually distant, often 4 cm. apart; spines usually wanting ex- 
cept from the upper areoles and along the upper margin, usually single, sometimes 2 from an areole, 4 
to 5 cm. long, brown, but lighter towards the apex; glochids numerous, brown, persistent; fruit red, 6 
cm. long; seeds 5 mm. broad, acute on the margin. 

Type locality: Near Lampasas, Texas. 
Distribution: Eastern Texas. 

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 22: pi. 11, in part; pi. 15. 

Figure 177 represents a joint of the plant collected by Albert Rurh in 1912, north of 
Dallas, Texas. 




Fig. 177. — O. tardospina. xO.5. FiGS. 178, 179. — Cluster of spines and joint of O. gosseli 



140. Opuntia gosseliniana Weber, Bull. Soc. Acclim. France 49: 83. 1902. 

One meter or more high, branching from the base, the old trunk often bearing numerous, long, 
acicular spmes; joints usually red or purplish, usually very thin, as broad as or broader than long, some- 
times 2 dm. broad; lower and sometimes all the areoles without spines; spines porrect or nearly so, gen- 
erally 1, sometimes 2, rarely 3 from an areole, 4 to 5 or even 10 cm. long, brown, usually weak; glo- 
chids brown, numerous, forming on old joints very large clusters; fruit 4 cm. long, without spines but 
bearing numerous brown glochids at the areoles, with a depressed umbilicus. 

Type locality. Coast of Sonora on the Gulf of California. 

Distribution: Sonora and Lower California, Mexico. 

This species was placed tentatively in the Pubescetitcs by Schumann, although always 
glabrous; but it belongs better in the Phaeacanthae. In some of its phases it resembles 0. 
i}iacr(JC(.iilra. It is a very showy species and worthy of a place in any collection. 

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17:69. 

Figure 179 represents a joint of the plant collected at Hermosillo in Sonora, by Rose, 
Standley, and Russell in 1910; figure 178 shows a cluster of spines from a trunk areole. 



142 



THE CACTACEAE. 



141. Opuntia santa-rita (Griffiths and Hare) Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 52: 195. 1908. 

Opiiiilia chlorolica santa-rita Griffiths and Hare, N. Mex. Agi. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: 6l. 1906. 
Opuntia shreieana C. Z. Nelson, Galesburg Register, July 20, 1915 

Compact plant, 6 to 14 dm. high, with a very short trunk; joints orbicular or a little broader than 
long, bluish green but deep purple about the areoles and margins; areoles 1.5 cm. apart, bearing numer- 
ous chestnut-brown glochids and occasionally a brown spine; flowers very handsome, deep yellow, 6 to 
7 cm. broad: ovary purple, oblong. 

Type locality : Seiero Mountains, Arizona. 

Distribution: Southeastern Arizona. 

This species is one of the most ornamental of the opuntias, and although it does not 
grow well in greenhouse cultivation, it would doubtless Hourish in the Southwest, where it 
could be given conditions similar to its wild surroundings. 

Ill ustrcit ions: Smiths. Misc. Coll. 52: pi. 15; Plant World 11'": f. 6, this last as Opuntia 
chlorotiCii: Journ. Inter. Card. Club 3: facing page 5, as O. chlorotica santa-rita. 

Plate XXIV, figure 1, is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal of a plant near 
Surritas, Arizona, in 1906. 



142. 



Opuntia angustata Engelmann, 
Acad. 3: 292. 1856. 



Proc. Amer. 



Ascending to erect; joints narrow, 15 to 25 cm. long, 
rounded above, gradually narrowing downward; areoles dis- 
tant, often 2.5 cm. apart, large, oblong; spines sharply angled, 
straw-colored or whitish but with brown bases, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. 
long; glochids brown; fruit obovoid, 2.5 to .3 cm. long. 

Type locality: Bottoms, Bill Williams Fork, 
Arizona. 

Distribution: Recorded as extending from New 
Mexico to California, but known definitely to us only y^/'yA 
from central Arizona, perhaps extending north to Utah. ^ / \ 

Engelmann's Opuntia angustata was based on 
three specimens, one from New Mexico, one from 
Arizona, and one from California. He stated that the 
first and last were prostrate, while the second was erect. 
A study of his specimens and descriptions indicates 
that he had three species before him. The first is 
from Zuni, New Mexico, and is probably Opuntia 
phaeacantha. The California specimen is the Opuntia 
magenta Griffiths, which is probably the same as 
O. vaseyi. while the suberect plant from the bottom: 
of the Bill Williams River we have allowed to stand 
for O. angustata. Wooten and Standley (Contr. U. S 
Nat. Herb. 19: 447. 1915) suggest that the two fruits 
illustrated by Engelmann in connection with this species 
may belong to two species of Cylindropuntia. 

This plant was first collected by J. M. Bigelow, February 4, 1854. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 7, f. 3, 4. 

Figure 180 is copied from figure 3 of the illustrations above cited. 

143. Opuntia atrispina Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 172. 1910. 

Usually low and spreading, sometimes 2 meters in diameter, but sometimes the central branches 
nearly erect and 6 dm. high; joints rather small, nearly orbicular, 10 to 15 cm. in diameter, light green, 
sometimes a little glaucous; lower areoles spineless; spines from the upper areoles 2 to 4, the principal 
ones spreading, flattened, dark brown, almost black at base, much lighter above; glcKhids at first yellow 
or yellowish, but soon changing to brown; flowers described .as yellow, changing to orange; fruit reddish 
purple. 




Opuntia angustata. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 



PLATE XXIV 



. t' 



r^r^A. 





'-^43^ii,.iia(&et:il7?-'fc^^:^A 



11 ol f^■^, ';/;.( Jiu-.lt.. 



OPUNTIA. 143 

Type locality: Near Devil's River, Texas. 

Distribution: Type locality and vicinity. 

This plant is abundant between Del Rio, Texas, and Devil's River, being one of the two 
commonest species m that region. 

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 26, in part. 

Plate XXV, figure i, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected near Devil's River, 
Texas, by Dr. Rose in 1913. 




*^4(«3*? ,4],ji^ 



Fig. 181. — Opuntia azurea, Zacatecas, Mexico 



144. Opunda azurea Rose, Contr.. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 
291. 1909. 
Compact, upright, with a single trunk, or branching from 
the base and more or less spreading; joints orbicular to obovate, 
10 to 15 cm. in diameter, pale bluish green, glaucous; areoles 
about 2 cm. apart, the lower ones spineless, the upper ones with 
1 to 3 rather stout spines ; spines, at least when old, almost 
black, unequal, the longer ones 2 to 3 cm. long, more or less 
reflexed; glochids numerous, brown; petals 3 cm. long, deep 
yellow, with crimson claw, but in age pink throughout; filaments 
greenish or almost white; stigma-lobes pale green; fruit dull 
crimson, subglobose to ovoid, spineless, truncate, juicy, edible. 

Type locality: Northeastern Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Distribution: Zacatecas and probably Durango. 

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pi. 24; also 
f. .33. 

Figure 181 is from a photograph by F. E. Lloyd of 
the type plant; figure 182 represents joints of the plant 
collected by Albert de Lautreppe near Zacatecas, Mexico, 
in 1904. 




144 THE CACTACEAE. 

145. Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann in Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. 4: 52. 1849. 

Opumia phaeacatitha brunnea Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856. 

Opunthi phat'MMiiha major Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856. 

Opuntia phaeacantha nigricans Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293- 1856. 

Opuntia camanchica Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856. 

Opuntia chihuahuensis Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 291. 1909. 

Opuntia toumeyi Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: .^02. 1909. 

Opumia blakeana Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 402. 1909. 

Opuntia zuniensis Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 86. 1916. (From the description.) 

Low, usually prostrate, with some branches ascending; joints usually longer than broad, 10 to 15 cm. 
long; areoies rather remote, the lower ones often spineless; spines 1 to 4, those on the sides of the 
joints more or less reflexed, somewhat flattened, usually rather stout, brown, sometimes darker at base, 
or often nearly white throughout, the longer ones 5 to 6 cm. long; glochids numerous, yellow to brown; 
flowers 5 cm. broad, yellow; ovary short; fruit 30 to 35 mm. long, much contracted at base. 

Ty[)e locality: About Santa Fe and on the Rio Grande, New Mexico. 

Distribnt'tdti: Texas to Arizona and Chihuahua. 

We have referred to Opuntia phaeacantha the common low, bushy Opuntia with small 
joints, brown spines, and yellow flowers of the Southwest; we formerly regarded it as com- 
posed of several species, and others have followed our lead; but we are unable to draw any 
distinct lines after a study of much additional herbarium and greenhouse material. Dr. Rose 
has collected a large series of specimens from the Southwest, especially from the type locali- 
ties, but his specimens seem to bridge over differences which before seemed tangible; cited 
differences appear to be racial rather than specific. 

Opuntia hldkeana, which is found west of the Rocky Mountains, one would expect to 
be different. It is characterized by small obovate joints, rather short spines, small yellow flowers 
purple at center. 

Opuntia chihuahuensis. which was first described from Mexican specimens, if it belongs 
here, is in the southern range of O. phaeacantha. It, too, has yellow flowers with red centers, 
rather large joints, and long, slender spines. Mr. Wooton is of the opinion that to O. chihua- 
huensis is to be referred the common, low, brown species from El Paso, which includes the 
specimens of G. R. Vasey, which Coulter called Opuntia niesacantha oplocarpa. This long- 
spined form extends north throughout eastern New Mexico to southeastern Colorado. With 
the latter form Mr. Wooton believes Opuntia camanchica belongs. If we take this broad view 
of the limits of this species we are forced to include Opuntia toumeyi. although it is much 
larger than 0. blakeana, and was considered by Dr. Rose to be different. 

Opuntia niesacantha sphaerocarpa Wooton and Standley (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 19: 
446. 1915) is a mistake, 0. niesacantha oplocarpa being intended. 

Opuntia ruhrifolia Engelmann in Coulter (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 424. 1896), from 
St. George, Utah, belongs in this series if E. W. Nelson's No. 156, from the same place 
has been properly determined as such. The type specimen of O. ruhrijolia has, apparently, 
been lost. 

The following varieties of Opuntia camanchica have been offered by Haage and Schmidt 
in their catalogues: alhispina (Trade Seed Cat. 104. 1911-1912); orbicularis, rubra, and sal- 
nionea (all in Haupt-Verzeichnis 1908: 228. 1908). Under O. camanchica has been men- 
tioned also variety luteo-staminea (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 53. 1908). 

Opuntia eocarpa Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 11. \9\6) , also 0. recurvo- 
spina Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 12. 1916) and possibly O. superbospina 
Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 13. 1916) and O. cacsia Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington 29: 13. 1916) are of this relationship. 

Opuntia microcarpa* Engelmann (Emory, Mil. Reconn. 158. f. 7. 1848) and O. violacea 
Engelmann (Emory, Mil. Reconn. 158. f. 8. 1848) were described from drawings brought 
back from the Southwest by W. H. Emory. They can never be critically identified, but are 

* Since the above was written Dr. Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 43: 527) has published a detailed account of this 
species, which he regards as distinct; it inhabits southern Arizona. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 



PLATE XXV 



:^^'-i.^ . 




i 




^ 






^ 


m 


'J 


■H 


^HA 


w 


^^ 


1 : 



Flowering joints of Optmtui atrispiiia. 2. Flowering joint of Opuntia phaeacaiitha. 

3. Upper part of joint of Opuntia eiigehiiaiinii. (All three-auarters size.) 




OPUNTIA. 145 

probably of this relationship. 

Illustrations: Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 3"'': 1- 57, C. Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 
2. f. 141; lUustr. Fl. 2: f. 2530; ed. 2. 2: f. 2989; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 9, f. 1 to 5; pi. 22, f. 
12 to 15; Wiener Illustr. Gartenz. 10: f. 115, all as Opiaitia camamhka; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. 
Sta. Bull. 78: pi. [7], as Opunt'ia chihuahuensis; Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 12: pi. 55, as Opuntia blakeana; Cact. Mex. Bound, 
pi. 75, f. 9 to 13; Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 7: 447, as Opuntia 
canianchica: Meehan's Monthly 11: 57, as 0. phaeacantha 
major; Shreve, Veg. Des. Mt. Range pi. 5, A, as O. tounieyi; 
De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 58. 

Plate XXV, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant 
sent from Tucson, Arizona, in 1916, by Dr MacDougal. 

146. Opuntia mojavensis Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 

293. 1856. 

Prostrate, with suborbicular joints; pulvini remote, with large 
yellow bristles; spines 2 to 6, stout and annulate, acutely angular and 
compressed, more or less curved, reddish brown, paler toward tip, 
2.5 to 6 cm. long, 1 to 3 smaller, slenderer, pale ones added below; 
fruit oblong, 4.5 cm. long. 

Type locality: On the Mojave, west of the Colorado, 
California. 

Distribution : Known only 
from the type locality. 

The fragmentary type speci 
men has been examined; we have 
been unable to refer any other 
specimens to this species, which is 
thus very imperfectly understood. 

Illustration: Pac. R. Rep. 4: 
pi. 9, f. 6 to 8. 

147. Opuntia coviilei Britton and 

Rose, Smiths, Misc. Coll. 
50: 532. 1908. 

Ofiiiitu nngjcjipj Griffiths, 

Rep. Mo. But. Card. 20: 

91. 1909. 
Op/ii/li.i iniin.Ki Griffiths. Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Washingt,.n 27: 

27. 19N. 

Bushy plants, usually growing in 
dense thickets; joints orbicular to obo- 
vate, 10 to 20 cm. long or more, pale 
green, sometimes purplish, slightly 
glaucous; areoles 2 to 4 cm. ap.irt; 
spines several from an areole, slender, 
unequal, the longest ones 6 cm. long, 
white when young, brownish when 
old ; flowers large, yellow. 

Type locality: San Bernardino, 
California. 

Distribution: Interior 
of southern Califotnia. 

Opuntia coviilei and O. vaseyi grow in the same valleys, often in adjoining colonies, 
and while hybrids may occur, the two species could easily be distinguished. When growing 



valleys 




146 



THE CACTACEAE. 



in conjunction, O. covillei is considerably taller, has joints of different color, and has yellow 
flowers. It has doubtless generally passed as Opuntia occidentcilis, but that is a much larger, 
stouter plant, with strong, more or less flattened spines, and is common along the coast. 

Figure 183 represents a joint of the plant sent by Dr. MacDougal from Elsinore, Cali- 
fornia, in 1913; figure 184 is from a photograph of a specimen collected by Mr. S. B. Parish 
from near the type locality in 1916. 

148. Opuntia vaseyi (Coulter) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 532. 1908. 

OpuNtJ.1 mcjM.iin'^i Liieyi Coulter, Contr. U. S.Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896. 
Optiiili.i i./lmtu/iiti r.iif)/ Schumann. Gesamtb. Kakteen 717. 1898. 
Upiniluhumijusj i.ite)i Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. ed. 2. 8. 1900. 
Opuiil!^ magenhi Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 268. 1908. 
Opiinthiruhiflora Davidson, Bull. South. Calif. Acad. 15: 53. 1916. 
Plants low, the lower stems spreading at base, but some of the branches erect and 4 to 7 joints 
high; joints thick, small (usually 10 to 12 cm. long), ovate, pale green, somewhat glaucous; areoles 
rather large, 2 to 3 cm. apart, bearing 1 to 3 spines; spines porrect, usually short (rarely 2 cm. long) , 
grayish brown or bright brown, whitish or yellowish towards the tips, somewhat flattened ; young joints 
bright green, thickish, bearing short purplish leaves and a single brownish spine from an areole; flowers 
deep salmon, almost a red-salmon, from the very first ; ovary globular to shortly oblong ; areoles few, 
mostly towards the top of the ovary, spineless but with a few brown glochids ; fruit globular to shortly 
oblong, 4 to 5 cm. long, deep purple, truncate at .ipex, with few areoles, the pulp sweetish but hardly 
edible; umbilicus broadly depressed. 

Type locality: Cited as Yuma, Arizona, presumably erroneously. 
Distribution: San Bernardino and Orange Counties, southern California. 
Even from a moving train this species is distinguishable from its relatives by the color 
of its flowers. It forms great thickets along the Southern Pacific Railroad north of Los An- 
geles, either alone or interspersed with one or more other species, and it is also common in 
the San Bernardino Valley toward the Cajon Pass where it forms great thickets either alone 
or with OpHutia covillei. Considerable quantities were seen also on hills near Riverside, and 
it was found cultivated in the cactus garden at Riverside and in the Soldiers' Home Grounds 
at Santa Monica. 

lllustvcitio'u: Bull. South. Clalif. Acad. 15: 32, as Opuiitia viihi- 

flofil. 

Figure 185 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. 
Rose at San Fernando, California, in 1908. 

149. Opuntia occidentalis Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 3: 291. 1856. 

Opuntia lindheimeii occidentalis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 121 

1896. 
Opuntia engelmannii occidentalis Engelmann 

Calif, i: 248. 1876.* 
Opuntia demissa Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 29. 1912. 
Erect or spreading, often 1 meter high or more, forming large thickets ; 
joints large, obovate to oblong, 2 to 3 dm. long; areoles remote; spines 2 to 7, 
stout, unec|ual, the longest ones 4 to 5 cm. long, more or less flattened, 
brown or nearly white, sometimes wanting; shorter spines often white; glo 
chids often prominent, brown ; flowers yellow, large, including the ovary often 
10 to 11 cm. long; fruit large, purple. 

Type locality: Western slopes of the California Mountains, be- 
tween San Diego and Los Angeles. 

Distribution: Southwestern California and northern Lower Cali- 
fornia and adjacent islands. 

In their description of this species, Engelmann and Bigelow state that it was found on 
the western slope of the California Mountains near San Diego and Los Angeles. In the 
Engelmann herbarium are the two original sheets. One of these comes from the "Moun- 



Brewer and Watson. Bo 




* Coulter refers this i 



Pac. R. Rep. 4 : 



is published there. 



OPUNTIA. 147 

tain Valleys of San Pasquel and Santa Isabel, " northeast of San Diego. This consists of 
a single flower and a small piece of a joint containing three bunches of spines; we doubt if 
this can be identified. The other comes from near Los Angeles and consists of a large pad 
and fruit with seeds. The spines are dark 
brown or nearly black. This specimen ap- 
pears to be the one figured in the Pacific 
Railroad Report and may very properly be 
taken as the type of the species. 

There is much uncertainty regarding 
the range of this species, some referring it 
to the interior valleys of California. An ex- 
amination, however, of the type material, 
and a study of the living plants in southern 
California by Dr. Rose, convince us that the 
coastal opuntias can not all be referred to 

0. llttoraUs as is sometimes done, but a part 
belongs to 0. occideutalis. The limits of the 
latter species, and its distribution, are not 
well defined. 

Of this relationship is to be considered 
Opuntia sem'tsp'nioia Griffiths (Bull. Torr. 
Club 43: 89. 1916), which the author de- 
scribes as a common, conspicuous species in 
the coastal region of California. 

llluitrationr. N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. 
Bull. 60: pi. 3, f. 2; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 7, f. 

1, 2; pi. 22, f. 10; Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 22: 
pi. 8, this last as Opuntia deniissa. 

Figure 186 is from a plant collected on 
Santa Catalina Island, California, by Mr. S. 

B. Parish in 1916. f"- 186. --Opuntia ocadentali 




150. Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck in Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 207. 1850. 

Opunti.1 tngiiniMiuit c)cluJci Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 291. 1856. 

Opuntia Undheimeri cyclodes Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 422. 1896. 

Opuntia dillei Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 82. 1909. 

Opuntia arizonica Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 93. 1909. 

Opuntia wootonii Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 171. 1910. 

Opuntia cyclodes Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 309. 1911. 

Opuntia gregoriana Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 26. 1912. 

Opuntia valida Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 2 4. 1914. 

Opuntia confusa Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 28. 191-4. 

Opuntia magnarenensis Griffiths, Proc, Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 9. 1916. 

Opuntia expansa Gniiiihs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 14. 1916. 

Opuntia engelmannii ducata C. Z. Nelson, Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 12: 124. 1919. 
Originally described as erect and up to 2 meters high, but more properly a widely spreading bush, 
usually without a definite trunk; joints oblong to orbicular, 2 to 3 dm. long, thick, pale green; areoles 
distant, becoming large and bulging; spines usually more or less white, with dark red or brownish 
bases and sometimes with black tips, usually 3 or 4, sometimes only 1, or entirely wanting from the 
lower areoles, but on old joints 10 or more, usually somewhat porrect or a little spreading, but never 
reflexed, the larger ones much flattened, the longest one 5 cm. long; leaves subulate, about 15 mm. long; 
glochids numerous, brown with yellowish tips; flowers large, yellow, fruit 3.5 to 4 cm. long, red; 
seeds small, 3 to 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: From El Paso to Chihuahua. 

Distribution: Chihuahua, Durango, Sonora, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. 



148 THE CACTACEAE. 

An examination of the plant collected by Wislizenus (No. 223) north of Chihuahua, 
now m the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden and labeled by Dr. Engelmann as 
O. engehnanni'i Salm-Dyck, shows that this species is of Schumann's series Viilvispinosae 
(our series Phaeacauthcie) rather than series Tinnie. 

OpuHtiii engelmannii has been more confused than any other species of Opiiutux. 
Salm-Dyck, who first studied the species, doubtless had but a single specimen before him, 
and this or a duplicate is now in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden. This 
type specimen came from near Chihuahua City, from which place Dr. Rose has collected 
identical material. Dr. Engelmann, who published Salm-Dyck's name, described the plant as 
erect and 5 to 6 feet high, giving its range from Chihuahua City to Texas. These remarks of 
his were doubtless based on notes of Dr. Wislizenus, who collected the type, and must have 
included more than one species; as Engelmann says it is both cultivated and wild, the culti- 
vated plants doubtless referring to some of the many forms grown about towns and ranches. 
In 1852 Engelmann extends the distribution of the species westward to the Pacific Ocean, 
referring especially to a San Diego specimen. In 1856 he refers here his previously described 
species O, lindheimeri, and extends the range eastward to the mouth of the Rio Grande and 
to lower Mexico. Coulter brought all this material together under O. Itndhe'nneri and four 
varieties. 

An examination of herbarium and greenhouse specimens shows that at least half a dozen 
species have been passing under the name of 0. DigeluiaiDi'ii. While certain varieties and 
specimens are evidently to be excluded from the species, we are still uncertain as to its spe- 
cific limits. It is quite common about Chihuahua City and extends to Monterey and Saltillo 
or is represented there by a near ally, while Mr. E. O. Wooton would refer here plants of 
southern New Mexico, and we are including large, bushy opuntias from Arizona. 

Dr. Rose was inclined at one time to separate the Tucson plant, which seems to have some 
just claims for specific recognition, but there is a mass of herbarium material which seems to 
connect this with the true O. engelmannii. 

Opuntia engelmannii monstrosa (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 54. 1908) is doubtless 
one of the abnormal forms so common among the flat-jointed opuntias. 

Opuntia cyclodes, first found by Bigelow near Anton Chico, New Mexico, is certainly of 
this relationship. The characters of orbicular joints, of small fruit and of stout, usually soli- 
tary spines, originally assigned to it, are not constant, for it often has obovate to oblong joints 
bearing as many as four slender spines and large fruit. 

In 1913, Dr. Rose explored the upper Pecos, especially about Anton Chico, near the type 
locality, where he collected specimens similar to the Bigelow plant, but these grade into more 
spiny forms, some bearing as many as five spines at an areole, usually yellow, especially dis- 
tally, and more slender than in typical O. engelmannii. From the same type locality, and asso- 
ciated with O. cyclodes, is O. expansa Griffiths, which has more and whiter spines than the 
typical form, although they are sometimes yellowish with brown bases. O. dillei Griffiths is 
also related to O. cyclodes. but the spines are fewer; Dr. Griffiths states, however, that more 
spines develop on cultivated plants. 

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 8, f. 1; pi. 22, f. 8, 9, all as Opuntia engelmannii cyclodes; 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pl. 4, in part, as Opuntia dillei. Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 7, 
f. 1; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pl. 10; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 10, f. 3, 6, all 
as Opuntia arizonica. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pl. 26, in part, 27, both as Opuntia wootonii. 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pl. 3, this last as Opuntia gregoriana. Standley, Ann. Rep. Smiths. 
Inst. 1911: pl. 2; Bull. Torr. Club 32: pl. 10, f. 10 to 13; Cact. Journ. 2: 147; Cact. Mex. 
Bound, pl. 75, f. 1 to 4; Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 3: f. 1547; Gard. Chron III. 30: f. 123; N. 
Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pl. [5, 6]; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for February; 2: 162, as Opuntia 
engelmannii cristata; Gard. Chron. III. 39: 148. f. 58; Plant World 9'': f. 49; Shreve, Veg. 
Des. Mt. Range pl. 5, B; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2601 ; Scientific Month. 17: 70, 71, 72. 



OPUNTIA. 149 

Plate XXV, figure 3, represents a flowering joint of a plant sent from Arizona by Dr. Mac- 
Dougal in 1902. " 

151. Opuntia discata Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 266. 1908. 

OpuntiA aihfsctns Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 87. 1909. 
Opiinlij ripari., GiilHths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 26. 1914. 

Plants bushy, spreading, sometimes 15 dm. high; joints thick, obicular to broadly obovate, 2.5 
dm. in diameter or less, pale bluish green, somewhat glaucous; areoles rather few, distant, in age 
becoming very large, hemispheric, filled with short brown wool; spines usually 2 to 4, sometimes 7 
or more in old areoles, 2 cm. long or more, grayish with dark bases, somewhat flattened; flowers large, 
9 to 10 cm. broad, light yellow, darker near the center; style white; stigma-lobes green; fruit magenta, 
pyriform, 6 to 7 cm. long, 

T^ype locality: Foothills of Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona. 

Distr'ibut'i<»r. Foothills and high mesas of southern Arizona and northern Sonora. 

lllustratiuin: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 2, f. 5; pi. 7; pi. 13, f. 6, all as Opuntia gil- 
vesceris; Amer. Garden II: 469, this last as Opuntia angustata. Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
67: pi. 1, f. 2; Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pi. 3. f. 2; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 27, in part; 
Carnegie Inst. Wash. 269: pi. 10, L 87. 

Plate xxiv, figure 2, is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal in the Tortolita 
Mountains, Arizona, in 1916; Opuntia discata is the plant shown in left foreground. 

152. Opuntia rastrera Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 896. 1898. 

?Opunt'ui Ulceus Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 269. 1908. 

Creeping plant; joints circular to obovate, the largest 2 dm. in diameter; spines white, several 
from an areole, the longest 4 cm. long; glochids yellow; flowers yellow; fruit purple, acid, obovoid. 

Type locality: San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Distribution: The type locality and vicinity. 

This species was very briefly described in 1898 by Dr. Weber, who states that it is 
quite distinct from O. tuna, the Jamaican species. Schumann, who treats it in a note under 
0. tuna, states that it is a well-dififerentiated species from Mexico. 

From descriptions we are referring here O. lucens Griffiths, also described from San Luis 
Potosi specimens. Dr. Griffiths states that his O. lucens is related to 0. engehnannii. but has 
a different habit; he says it is called cuija by the Mexicans, but that it is very different from 
Opuntia cuija. 

Series 12. ELATIORES. 
Tall species, with flat, broad, persistent joints, the areoles bearing acicular, setaceous, or subulate 
brown spines, or some species spineless. We know about twelve species, most of them South American, 
with one in Florida (see Appendix p. 222), possibly one (O. jtiUginosa) in Mexico. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

Joints very spiny. 

Spines not banded. 

Areoles surrounded by a purple blotch 153. O. biunnescens 

Areoles not surrounded by a purple blotch. 

Spines setaceous; petals yellow , , 154. O. galcipagei.i 

Spines, when present, acicular or subulate; petals mostly red or orange. 

Joints strongly undulate; spines short, stout 155. O. delaetianit 

Joints not undulate or scarcely undulate. 

Joints bluish green, glaucous 156. O. heigeriana 

Joints bright green, not glaucous or slightly glaucous. 
Spines, at least on young joints, acicular, slender. 

Spines, when present, dark brown or blackish; joints dull l'>7. O. tLil/or 

Spines light brown to straw-colored. 

Spines up to 5 cm. long; joints shining I'li. O. Ihiiihiirycina 

Spines 3 cm. long or less; joints dull. 

Flowers 12 to 15 mm. wide; spines 1 to 4 at an areole or 

wanting 1 59. O. i/»i!ensis 

Flowers 5 to 6 cm. wide; spines up to 10 at an areole 159.'. O. soedentromhina 

Spines subulate, stout; joints shining \6l). O. ic/}Hma>!>iii 

Spines acicular; petals yellow; joints shining [in this series?] __. \(-<\. O. fidigiiiosa 

Spines distinctly banded; joints dark green, obscurely glaucous \6\a. O.zebrina 

Joints usually spineless. 

Bushy, 1 to 2 meters high; flowers rose 162.0. boldinghii 

Erect, 3 to 4 meters high; flowers orange-red l(-,}i.O. dhtans 



150 



THE CACTACEAE. 



153. Opuntia brunnescens sp. nov. 

Usually low and prostrate, sometimes 1 meter liigh, without a definite trunk, usually forming a 
bushy clump; joints oblong to orbicular, 15 to 30 cm. long, smooth, dull green, except the purple 
blotches about the prominent areoles; spines 2 to 5, brownish, porrect or pointing forward, up to 4.5 
cm. long, stout, sometimes twisted. 

Hills about the city of Cordoba, Argentina, where it was collected by Rose and Russell, 
September 8, 1913 (No. 21029). 

This species is very common on the dry hills about (Cordoba, where it is often associated 
with Opuntia sulphured. It apparently extends northward into Jujuy. 

Figure 187 represents a joint of the type specimen above cited; figure 188 shows its 
fruit collected by Dr. Shafer (No. 78) . 

154. Opuntia galapageia Henslow, Mag. Zool. and Bot. 1: 467. 1837. 

opuntia myiacjntha Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 1898. 

Opuntia helleri Schumann in Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 38: 180. 1902. 

Opuntia insuLiis Stewart, Proc. Calif. Acad. IV. 1: 113. 1911. 

Sometimes low and creeping, but often becoming very large, 5 to 10 meters high, with a large top 
either open or very compact and rounded; trunk at first very spiny and made up of flat joints set 
end to end, with the short axis of each joint at right angles to that of the adjacent joint, in time 
becoming terete, and when old nearly naked, 3 to 13 dm. in diameter; bark of old trunks smooth, 
brown, peeling off in thin layers; joints oblong to orbicular, usually very large, 1.5 to 35 dm. long, 
very spiny; areoles large, often prominent on the trunk, there especially forming knobs bearing numer- 
erous spines ; spines extremely variable, but nearly all yellowish brown ; areoles on young, vigorous plants 
very stout and rigid, very unequal, the longest 7 to 8 cm. long; joints of old plants bearing more or 
less pungent bristles or sometimes very weak soft hairs instead of spines, while the spines from the 
trunks often are very stout and sometimes 40 in a cluster; flowers yellow, 7.5 cm. broad; ovary more 
or less tuberculate; fruit greenish, sometimes borne in the ends of joints, more or less spiny; seeds large, 
5 to 6 mm. broad, white, covered with soft hairs. 

Type locality: Galapagos Islands. 




Fig. 187. — O. brunnescens 



nescens. X0.9. 



-Flower of same. Fig. 189 — Joint of 
X0.75 O. galapageia. 



Distribution: Very common, often forming forests, on the Galapagos Islands. 

We have here combined the four species reported from the Galapagos Islands, while 
Alban Stewart, in his admirable paper on the botany of these islands, not only recognizes 
four species, but describes a fifth without specific name. He also has fourteen full-page 



OPUNTIA. 151 

illustrations showing fine habit views of the Galapagos Opuntia. The early descriptions of 
this species were very inaccurate and, as pointed out by Mr. Stewart, the characters assigned to 
its fruit are those of a Cereus-like plant. Mr. Stewart visited the Galapagos Islands in 1905- 
1906 and brought back a remarkable series of photographs and specimens. Through the kind- 
ness of Miss Alice Eastwood, Curator of Botany in the California Academy of Sciences, we 
have been able to study this material. It consists of about forty sheets of well-preserved joints 
with a few flowers and fruits. These, in connection with the published illustrations, show a 




great range of variation in habit, armament of joints, and character of spines. While these 
differences are very marked, they are similar to what is sometimes met with in other opuntias, 
such as O. gosseliniana and O. leucotricha, or in certain Peruvian and Chilean types of Cereiis 
relatives; indeed, in a number of cacti which live under intense desert influences, most diverse 
forms in the same species are often produced. The habit-character in this species seems to be 
of little value, according to Mr. Stewart himself, for he calls attention to procumbent and 



152 



THE CACTACEAE. 



arborescent forms of O. galapageia, while the greatest range of spine characters is shown 
between the young plants and old ones and between the trunk and the joints. The specimen 
which Mr. Stewart has made the type of his Opunt'ia nniilaris is quite different from all the 
others, and yet one can easily believe that intergrades could be found; his species is described 
without flowers or fruit. Mr. Stewart states that this Opuntia forms the principal article of 
food for the Galapagos land tortoise. Its trunk becomes thicker than that of any other known 
species of the genus. 

lllustyatiuns: Gard. Chron. III. 24: f. 75; Mag. Zool. and Bot. 1: pi. 14, f. 2; Proc. Calif. 
Acad. IV. 1: pi. 7, f. 2; pi. 8; 9, f. 2; pi. 10 to 12. Gard. Chron. Ser. III. 27: f. 56; Proc. 
Calif. Acad. IV. 1: pi. 7, f. 1; pi. 13, f. 2; pi. 16 to 18, all as Opuntta viyiacantha. Proc. 
Calif. Acad. IV. 1: pi. 15, f. 1; pi. 14, the last two as Opuntia helleri. Proc. Calif. Acad. 
IV. 1: pi. 9, f. 1; pi. 15, the last two as Opuntia insularis. 

Figure 189 represents a joint of the plant collected by Robert £. Snodgrass and Edmund 
Heller on Wenman Island, Galapagos, on the Hopkins-Stanford Expedition (type of Opuntia 
helleri Schumann), drawn from the herbarium specimen in the Gray Herbarium; figure 190 
is a flower of the same plant; figure 191 is from a photograph of an herbarium specimen 
collected by Alban Stewart. 

155. Opuntia delaetiana Weber in Vaupel, Bliihende Kakteen 3: pi. 148. 1913. 

opuntia elata delaetiana Webet in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Pans 10: 392. 190 1. 

Joints oblong, 25 cm. long, 8 cm. broad, bright green, at first thin and spineless, the margin 
strongly undulate; areoles large, bearing 3 to 5 straight, rose-colored or yellowish brown spines up to 
4 cm. long; leaves subulate, about 4 mm. long; glochids wanting in young areoles, later appearing 
numerous and brown; flower-buds rounded at the apex; outer sepals orbicular, obtuse, red; flower 
rotate, 5 to 7 cm. broad, orange-colored; stigma-lobes white; fruit oblong or pyriform, red, 5 to 7 
cm. long, 3 to 5 cm. in thickness. 

T]pe locality: Paraguay. 

Distribution: Paraguay and northeastern Ar- 
gentina. 

The plant was collected by Dr. Thomas Morong 
at Asuncion, Paraguay, in 1888, and referred in his 
list of plants collected in Paraguay (Annal. N. Y. 
Acad. Sci. 7: 121. 1892) to 0. nigricans Haworth; 
Dr. Shafer found it in 1917 in waste places and in 
hedge-rows about Concordia and Posados, Argen- 
tina. This species may more properly belong in our 
series Elatae than in Elatiores. 

Illustration: Bliihende Kakteen 3: pi. 148. 

Figure 192 is copied from the illustration above 
cited. 

i56. Opuntia bergeriana Weber in Berger, Gard. 
Chron. III. 35: 34. 1904. 

Growing singly or in dense thickets, often 1 to 3.5 
meters high and having a trunk 3 to 4 dm. in diameter, 
with a large, spreading top, or clambering over walls 
and rocks; joints narrowly oblong, sometimes 2.5 cm. long, 
when young often quite narrow, bright green, but becoming 
dull and somewhat glaucous; areoles rather distant, on old joints 2 to 4 cm. apart, filled with short 
gray wool ; spines 2 or 3, rarely 5, unequal, the longest one 3 to 4 cm. long and somewhat flattened, 
more or less brownish at base, sometimes yellowish, porrect, or somewhat turned downward; leaves 2 
to 3 mm. long, fugacious; glochids yellow but sometimes turning brown, rather prominent, forming 
a half circle in the upper part of the areolc; areoles circular, when young filled with light brown 
wool in the center and white in the outer region; flowers numerous, showy, deep red; some joints 




192.— Op 



BRITTON AND ROSE 



PLATE XXVI 




1. Flowering joint of Opimti.t bergenjiia. 3. Flowennt; joint of Opinitut boldinghii. 

2. Floweriny joint of Opinilu elitior. 4, 5. Joints of Opniitta elata. 

(All three-fourths size) 



OPUNTIA. 153 

bearing 20 or more; petals 2.5 cm. long, mucronate; filaments numerous, scarlet-rose; stigma-lobes 6, 
green; fruit small, 3 to 4 cm. long, red, not edible; seeds few, flattened, 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Described from cultivated specimens. 

Distribution: Not known in the wild state, but now very common on the Riviera, 
northern Italy, forming large thickets. 

Mr. Berger would place this species next to O. >iigricans, which we now call O. elatior. 
This species was named for Alvvin Berger, formerly curator of the Hanbury Garden at La 
Mortola, Italy, who sent material to the late Dr. Weber, from which the species was de- 
scribed. The species is quite common on the Riviera and has run wild in many places, 
especially about Bordighera, Italy. It produces a great abundance of flowers in May, but 
blooms more or less throughout the year. 

Opuntia ledieuii (Berger, Hort. Mortol. 233. 1912), unpublished, is referred here. 

Illustrations: Gard. Chron. III. 35: f. 14; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 136; Gartenwelt 
II: 75. 

Plate XXVI, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of a plant sent from La Mortola, 
Italy, to the New York Botanical Garden in 1906. 

157. Opuntia elatior Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 4. 1768. 

Cactus nigricans Haworth, Misc. Nat. 187. 1803. 

Opuntia nigricans Haworth. Syn. PI. Succ. 189. 1812. 

Cactus elatior Wildennw, Enum. Hon. Berol. Suppl. 34. 1813. 

Cactus tuna nigricans Sims, Curtis's Bet. Mag. 38: pi. 1557. 1813. 

Cactus tuna elatior Sims. Curtis's Hot. Mag. 38: under pi. 1557. 1813. 

Cactus pseudococcinellijer Bertoloni, Excerpta Herb. Bonon. II. 1820. 

Plants densely bushy-branched, up to 5 meters high; joints obovate to oblong or suborbicular, olive- 
green, 1 to 2 dm. or even 4 dm. long ; leaves 4 mm. long, green with reddish tips ; areoles 2 to 
4 cm. apart; spines 2 to 8, acicular, mostly terete, dark brown, 2 to 4 cm. or even 7 cm. long; flowers 
about 5 cm. broad ; petals dark yellow striped with red or sometimes salmon-rose, with mucronate tips ; 
filaments numerous, pink or red; style nearly white; stigma-lobes 5, green; ovary ovoid, deeply umbili- 
cate, its areoles either with or without spines; fruit obovoid, truncate when mature, reddish, the pulp 
dark red; seeds about 4 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Unknown. 

Distribution: Common or frequent in Curacao, Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama, es- 
caped from cultivation in Australia. O nigricans has been referred to Mexico, but doubtless 
wrongly, unless cultivated there. Plants brought by Dr. Howe from Tobogilla Island, Pan- 
ama, have narrowly obovate joints. 

The early history of this species and its various synonyms are rather confusing. Dil- 
lenius figured Opuntia elatior and this name was taken up by Miller in 1768. There is 
some doubt as to its native home, but it probably came from northern South America, or 
possibly Curacao. Opuntia nigricans, also referred here, was described by Haworth from 
cultivated specimens; plate 1557 of Curtis's Botanical Magazine was made from Haworth's 
specimen and may be considered typical. 

Introduced into cultivation in Europe about 1793. 

Illustrations: Loudon, Encycl. pi. ed. 3 f. 6877, as Cactus elatior: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 
38: pi. 1557, this last as Cactus tuna nigricans: Dillenius, Hort. Elth. pi. 294. this as Tuna 
elatior, etc.; Agr. Gaz. N. S. "W. 23: pi. opp. 208; pi. opp. 210, both these as Opuntia nigri- 
cans: Journ. Hort. Home Farm. III. 60: 30, this as Opuntia occidentalis: Loudon, Encycl. pi. 
ed. 3. 411. f. 6879, as Cactus nigricans. 

Plate XXVI, figure 2, shows a flowering joint of a specimen obtained by Dr. Britton and 
Dr. Shafer in Curacao in 1913. 

158. Opuntia hanburyana Weber in Berger, Gard. Chron. III. 35: 34. 1904. 

Bushy, 1 to 2 meters high, somewhat straggling; joints narrowly oblong, about 3 dm. long, bright 
green; leaves subulate, 4 to 5 mm. long; areoles closely set, filled with brown or blackish wool; 
spines several, spreading, acicular, somewhat flattened and twisted, yellowish brown, the longest 3 cm. 
long; flowers widely spreading, rather small; fruit small. 



154 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Type locality. Described from cultivated plants. 

Distribution: Not known in the wild state. 

The species commemorates Sir Thomas Hanbury, who, through his extensive garden 
at La Mortola, Italy, contributed much to botany and horticulture. 

Illustration: Gard. Chron. III. 35: t. 15. 

Figure 193 represents joints of the plant sent from La Mortola, Italy, in 1913. 
159. Opuntia quitensis Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 894, 1898. 

Bushy, sometimes 2 meters high; joints obovate, 1 to 4 dm. long, 8 to 9 cm. broad; areoles 
small, distant, 2 cm. apart, bearing some white tomentum and short glochids; spines wanting, or 1 
ro 3, sometimes as many as 4 on old joints, straight, yellowish 
brown, or nearly white when young, acicular, somewhat flexuous, 
2 to 3 cm. long; leaves green, minute, acute; flowers red, 12 to 
15 mm. broad; petals erect, obtuse; anthers white; style white, 
short and thick; stigma-lobes 13, white, about as long as the style; 
fruit obovoid, red, nearly spineless, about 2 cm. long; seeds about 





Type locality: Near Quito, Ecuador. 

Distribution: Ecuador. 

As observed by Dr. Rose in Ecuador in 1918, this species is very variable in habit, 
for when grown in the open it is low and bushy with rather small joints, but when grow- 
ing in thickets it becomes tall and has large joints. About Huigra, where it is very com- 
mon, it is often spineless, and when the spines ate present they are few and weak. In 
southern Ecuador there is a plant which has small, red flowers like this species, but the 
joints have stout subulate spines. 

Figure 194 represents a joint of a plant obtained in 1901 for the New York Botanical 
Garden from M. Simon, of St. Ouen, Paris, France. 

159a. Opuntia soederstromiana sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 221.) 



OPUNTIA. 155 

160. Opuntia schumannii Weber in Berger, Gard. Chron. III. 35: 34. 1904. 

Bushy, 1 to 2 meters high; joints obovate to oblong, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long, dull dark green; areoles 
distant, medium .sized; spines 2 to 10, slightly spreading, very unequal, the longest ones, 4.5 cm. long, 
more or less twisted, flattened, dark brown; glochids few, soon disappearing; flowers 6 cm. long, yel- 
lowish to orange, turning in age to dull red; ovary tuberculate, spineless, deeply umbilicate; fruit dark 
purple, turgid, juicy, deeply umbilicate, 5 cm. long. 

Type locality: Not cited. 

Distributio)!-. Northern South America; sometimes assigned to Argentina. 

Opuntia schumannii is described by Berger as being intermediate between Opuntia and 
Nopalea, and according to him, it has long stamens and upright petals; otherwise it has 
little in common with Nopalea; a plant from Santa Clara, Colombia, which agrees with plants 
of O. schumannii from La Mortola, Italy, has a normal Opuntia flower. 

Illustration: Gard. Chron. III. 35: f. 16. 

Plate XXVII, figure 1, represents a fruiting joint of the plant collected by John G. Sin- 
clair at Santa Clara, Colombia, in 1913; figure 2 shows a flower of the same plant. 

161. Opuntia fuliginosa Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 262. 1908. 

Tall, tree-like, 4 meters high or more, much branched; joints orbicular to oblong, 3 dm. long or 
less, shining; leaves subulate, 8 to 12 mm. long; areoles distant; spines few, rarely as many as 6, dull 
brown or horn-colored, the longest ones 4 cm. long, slightly twisted; glochids yellow to brown; flowers 
at first yellow but in age red, 5 to 6 cm. long including the ovary; stigma-lobes yellowish green; fruit 
pyriform to short-oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long, red; seeds 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Near Guadalajara, Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

We refer this species to our series Elatiores with hesitation. 

Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 25. 

161a. Opuntia zebrina Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: 35. 1919. (See Appendix, p. 222.) 

162. Opuntia boldinghii sp. nov. 

Bushy, 2 meters high; joints dull green, somewhat glaucous, 
obovate, 2 cm. long, spineless or with very short brown spines; 
leaves conic, red, 2 to 3 mm. long; areoles large, elevated, filled 
with short brown wool; flowers rose-colored, 5 cm. long; petals 
obtuse; filaments pink, much shorter than the petals; style nearly 
white; stigma-lobes yellowish; fruit obovate, 4 cm. long, spineless; 
seeds 4 mm. in diameter. 

Collected by Dr. N. L. Britton and Dr. J. A. Shafer, 
March 1913, in cultivation on Curacao (No. 2905, type) ; 
also collected by H. Pittier around El Palito, Venezuela, 
July 2, 1913 (No. 6450), and by Dr. Rose in a hedge at 
Valencia, Venezuela, October 27, 1916 (No. 21842). Chaca- 
chacare and Patos Islands, Trinidad. 

This species is named in honor of Dr. I. Boldingh, a 
Dutch botanist, author of a valuable descriptive flora of the 
Dutch West Indian islands. 

Plate XXVI, figure 3, shows a flowering joint of a speci- 
men obtained by Dr. Britton and Dr. Shafer in Curacao in 
1913. 

163. Opuntia distans sp. nov. 

Erect, densely much branched, 3 to 4 meters tall, with a 
short trunk 1.5 dm. in diameter; joints flat, bluish green when 
young, grayish green when old, obovate, 2 to 2.5 dm. long, about 
1.5 dm. wide and nearly 2 cm. thick, rounded above, narrowed fig. 195.— Joint of O. distans. x 0.4. 




156 THE CACTACEAE. 

at the base, glabrous; areoles few, only about 12 on each side of a joint, distant, large, nearly circular, 
8 to 10 mm. broad, slightly elevated, bearing many short glochids, but quite spineless: leaves subulate, 
about 3 mm. long ; ovary obconic, 3 to 4 cm. long, bearing a few small areoles ; sepals broadly triangular, 
acute, 6 to 10 mm. long; petals broad, rounded, 1 to 2 cm. long, orange-red. 

Distyibut'ton: Sandy places, Andalgala, Caramarca, Argentina, J. A. Shafer, December 
15, 1916 (No. 7). 

A spineless species noteworthy for its few, large, distant areoles. We append it to the 
series Elatiores, but are uncertain as to its real affinity. The large distant areoles forbid 
associating it with the Ficus-indicae or the Streptcicanthae. 

Figure 195 represents a joint of the type specimen. 
Series 13. ELATAE. 

Erect, tall species, natives of South America, with oblong or oval joints, the brown or white spines, 
when present, only one or few at each areole, except on the trunk and old joints. 

Key to Species 

Joints ovate to broadly oblong or obovate. 

Joints thin, lustrous, light green 161. O. vulgum 

Joints turgid, dull green. 

Leaves purplish, rigid; joints dark green Ib'i.OeLita 

Leaves green, not rigid; joints pale green. 

Spines slender, terete 166. O c^rdiosperma 

Spines stout, angled, elongated 167. O. arechavaletai 

Joints narrowly oblong to linear or spatulate. 

Joints oblong to hnear; flowers brick-red 16&. O. tnieckleyi 

Joints spatulate; flowers orange 169. O. hotuierensis 

164. Opuntia vulgaris Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 1. 1768. 

CmIu5 monacMithoi Wildenow, Enum. PI. Suppl. 33. 1813. 
Opuntia monacanthj Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 81. 1819. 
Cactus urumbeba Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 207. 1825. 
Cactus Micus Roxburgh. Fl. Indica 2: 475. 1832. 

Cactus chinensh Roxburgh. Fl. Indica 2: 476. 1832. 
Opuntia monacantha gracHior Lemaire. Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 68. 1839. 
Opuntia umbrella Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 2: 222. 1841. 
Opuntia roxhurghiana Voigt, Hon. Suburb. Calcutt. 62. 1845. 
Opuntia monacanthi dejlexa Salm-Dyck. Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 66. 1850. 
Opuntia lemaireana Console in Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 1898. 
Plant 2 to 4 or even 6 meters high, often with a definite trunk, usually with a large much branched 
top; trunk cylindric, 1.5 dm. in diameter, either spiny or smooth; joints ovate to oblong, narrowed 
at base, 1 to 3 dm. long, bright shining green; leaves subulate, 2 to 3 mm. long; areoles filled with 
short wool; glochids brownish; spines 1 or 2, sometimes more (on the trunk often 10 or more) from 
an areole, erect, 1 to 4 cm. long, yellowish brown to dark reddish brown; flowers yellow or reddish, 
7.5 cm. broad; sepals broad, each with a broad red stripe down the middle; petals golden-yellow, 
widely spreading; filaments greenish, style white; stigma-lobes 6, white; ovary spineless, 3.5 cm. long; 
fruit obovoid, 5 to 7.5 cm. long, reddish purple, long-persisting, sometimes proliferous. 
Type locality: Type based on an illustration, the origin unknown. 

Distrihut!07r. Coast and islands of Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina; in the interior to 
Paraguay; an escape in Cuba, India, and south Africa and naturalized in Australia; fre- 
quently cultivated. According to J. H. Maiden it is found in every state of Australia, but it 
is not inclined to spread and become a pest. 

As has been recently pointed out by Burkill, the Opuntia riih^aris of Miller is the same 
as O. monacantha Haworth. O. vidgayh was based on Bauhin's figure (Hist. PI. 1: 154. 
1650), which was taken from Lobelius (Icones 2: 241. 1591), and is a tall, branching plant. 
This species is not to be confused with the low, spreading species of the eastern United 
States, long known as O. vulgaris. (See p. 127.) 

This species is said by Burkill to be distributed over the earth more widely than any 
other, but our observation in America is that 0. pats-indica is by far the most widely spread 
species. 

O. vulgaris was one of those most commonly used in the nopalries of India and South 
Africa in the cochineal industry. 

We have referred both of Roxburgh's species here, altiiough Burkill was inclined to 



BRITTON AND ROSE 



LATE XXVn 




1. Upper part of fruitint; joint of OpinUid sch/niidiniii. 3. Mowennt; joint of Opmifhi vulgaris. 

2. Flower of Opinilid sch/uiiaiiiiii. 4. Flowering joint of Opnntia stiicta. 

(All three-fourths size) 



OPUNTIA. 157 

refer Cactus chinensis to O. decumana, which in his sense is O. ficus-indica. 

Opuntia monacantha variegata (Usted in Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 57. 1908) is 
common in cultivation. Some of the joints are normally green; others are more or less 
blotched with white or yellow, while others may be entirely white or yellow; the leaves 
are bright red and though small are conspicuous. 

Opuntia urumbelta Steudel (Nom. ed 2. 1: 246. 1840), given as a synonym of Cactus 
urutiibella, is doubtless a name for this species. 

Opuntia deflexa Lemaire (Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 68. 1839) was given as a synonym of 
O. monacantha graci/ior; while the latter was given as a synonym of O. elatior dejlexa Salm- 
Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 47. 1845). 

Opuntia graci/ior (hidex Kewensis 3: 357. 1894) is a mistake for O. monacantha gra- 
cilior Lemaire. 

Illustrations: Rev. Hort. 4l: f. 37; 66: f. 58; Bauhin, Hist. PI. 1: 154 [ = Loebelius, 
Icones 2: 241}, this last as Opuntia vulgo, etc. Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pi. 32; 
Curtis's Bot. Mag. 68: pi. 3911; Dept. Agr. N.S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pi. [3], [4]; Agr. Gaz. 
N. S. W. 24: facing p. 864; Edwards's Bot. Reg. 20: pi. 1726; Gard. Chron. III. 30: f. 122, 
in part; 34: f. 35; Journ. Dept. Agr. Vict. 6: pl.25; Martius, Fl. Bras. 4': pi. 62; Weeds, 
Pois. PI. Nat. Al. Vict. pt. 1. pi. 
[10], [32], all as Opuntia monacan- 
tha: Amer. Garden II: 529; Cact. 
Journ. 1: 167, these last two as 
Opuntia monacantha variegata; Vel- 
lozo, Fl. Fium. 5: pi. 32, as Cactus 
urumbeba; De CandoUe, Pi. Succ. 
Hist. 2: pi. 138 [B]; De Tussac, Fl. 
AntiU. 2: pi. 31, these last two as 
Cactus opuntia tuna; Gard. Chron. 
III. 47: f. 174, this as Opuntia ficus- 
indica; Riimpler, Sukkulenten f. 122, 
this as Opuntia tuna; Addisonia 1: pl. 
38. Mollers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 
476. f. 9, No. 20, as Opuntia mona- 
cantha variegata; PI. Utiles Madagas- 
car 124. f. 39; 125. f. 39. pic, 196.— O. elata. xO.4. Fig. 197.— O. cardiosperma. x 0.4. 

Plate XXVII, figure 3, represents a flowering joint of a plant presented to the New York 
Botanical Garden by Mr. Gustav Rix in 1900. 

165. Opuntia elata Link and Otto in Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 361. 1834. 

An erect plant, 1 meter high or more; joints thiK:k, dark green, oblong, 5 to 25 cm. long, half as 
broad as long; leaves minute, caducous; areoles remote, large (7 mm. in diameter), filled with short 
white wool, usually spineless; spines if present only 1 to 3, except on old stems and there more, horn- 
colored, stiff, sometimes 3.5 cm. long; glochids very tardy in appearing, long persistent; flowers about 
5 cm. broad, orange-yellow; petals obtuse, broad; filaments short; stigma-lobes white; fruit oblong, 6 
cm. long, spineless, with a truncate umbilicus; seeds 6 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In Brazil. 

Distribution: Paraguay, but according to Salm-Dyck and Pfeiffer, from Brazil and 
probably Curacao; our exploration of Curacao failed to prove its existence there. It is grown 
for ornament in Cuba and has there escaped from cultivation in gardens to roadsides and 
waste grounds. 

Schumann did not know where to place this species, but we believe it is most nearly 
related to Opuntia vulgaris. 




158 THE CACTACEAE. 

Plate XXVI, figure 4, represents a flowering joint of a plant given to the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden by Frank Weinberg in 1903; figure 5 represents another joint of the same 
plant. Figure 196 represents a joint of a plant obtained by Professor Carlos de la Torre 
at Punta de los Molinos, Cuba, in 1912. 

166. Opuntia cardiosperma Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 150. 1899. 

About 2 meters high, erect, branching; joints narrowly oblong to obovate; rounded at apex, 10 to 
15 cm. long or smaller in greenhouse specimens, easily breaking apart, pale green, more or less tuber- 
culate; le.ives minute, subulate; areoles large, 1 to 2 cm. apart, with white wool, when young having 
conspicuous secreting glands ; spines, when present, 1 to 4, acicular, stiff, more commonly 1 or 2 from 
an areole, short, 1 to 2 cm. long, brownish at first but nearly white when old, porrect or ascending; glo- 
chids tardily developing, never conspicuous, brownish; flowers unknown; fruit elongated, pear-shaped, 
7.5 cm. long; seeds 6 mm. broad, 2.5 to 3 mm, thick, cordate, gray, with broad yellow margins, woolly 
on the sides. 

Type locality: At Recoleta, near Asuncion, Paraguay. 

Distribution : Paraguay. 

Figure 197 represents joints of the plant sent to the New York Botanical Garden from 
La Mortola, Italy, in 1913 

167. Opuntia arechavaletai Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires. III. 4:520. 1905. 
Plants tall, 1 to 3 meters high, much branched; joints flattened, oblong to obovate, 25 to 30 cm. 

long, green; spines, usually 1, sometimes 3, elongated, porrect, up to 9 cm. long, white, flattened; 
flowers 4.5 cm. long, yellow; stamens and style white; fruit violet-purple, 7 cm. long. 

Type locality: Near Montevideo, Uruguay 

Distributio>i: Argentina and Uruguay. 

Illustrations: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pi. 35; Karsten and Schenck, Vegetations- 
bilder II: pi. 17. 

168. Opuntia mieckleyi Schumann, Bliihende Kakteen 1: pi. AA. 1903. 

Plant erect, much branched; joints narrowly oblong, 15 to 25 cm. long, 4 to 6 cm. broad, glab- 
rous, dark green, darker below the areoles; tubercles rather prominent; leaves small; areoles large, 
filled with white wool; spines, when present, 1 or 2, very short (5 mm. long), dark-colored; flower- 
buds obtuse; flowers brick-red, 6 cm. broad; petals irregularly notched; ovary spineless. 

Type locality: In Paraguay. 

Distribution: Paraguay; Estancia Loma, in San Salvador. 

Named for W. Mieckley, gardener in the Berlin Botanical Garden. 

Illustration: Bliihende Kakteen 1: pi. 44. 

169. Opuntia bonaerensis Spegazzini, Contr. Fl. Tandil 18. 1904. 

opuntia ckialiensis Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. III. 4: 519. 1905. 
Two meters high, very much branched; joints spatulate to elliptic-spatulate, 15 to 25 cm. long, 
green; spines wanting or one, short; flowers orange, large 4 cm. long; fruit obconic, 6 to 7 cm. long, 
dull purple; seeds 5 to 6 mm. long, subglobose. 

Type locality: Sierra de Curamalal, Argentina. 

Distribution: Argentina and perhaps Paraguay. 

Opuntia paraguayensis Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 149. 1899) according 
to Spegazzini, and if so this name would supplant 0. bonaerensis. 

Illustrations: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pi. 23; Anal. Mus. Nac. Mt)ntevidco 5: 
pi. 33, as Opuntia chakensis. 

Mr. W. B. Alexander writes of this species as follows: 

This species was seen only on rocky slopes in the Sierra de la Vent.ina in the south of the province of 
Buenos Aires. It is known only from the few Sierras which rise from the pampas in the east of the province. 
There is little douht that it is nearly related to Opuntia vulgaris Miller (O. monacanllja Haworth) which was 
found by the writer at Rio de Janeiro and is familiar in Australia. 

The three following, known to us only from descriptions, may belong to this series. 
Opuntia stenarthra Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 149. 1899. 

Shrubby, erect or decumbent, creeping over stones or ascending trees; joints thin, narrow, yellowish 



OPUNTIA. 

pines 



ither wanting or 



159 

to 3 from an areole, 



green, oblong to lanceolate, rounded at base, glabrous 
stoutish, subangular; flowers yellow; seeds woolly. 

Type locality: Estancia Tagatiya, Paraguay. 

Distribution : Paraguay. 
Opuntia assumptionis Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 153- 1899. 

Erect, 1 meter high ; joints obovate, narrowed at base, thickish ; spines at areoles on the faces of 
the joints none, but on the edges 1 or 2, stout, subulate, the upper one stouter, 3 to 4.5 cm. long; flower 
3.5 cm. long, lemon-yellow; fruit pear-shaped, with a deep umbilicus; seeds densely villous. 

Type locality: Ascuncion, Paraguay. 

Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 
Opuntia cant^rai Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 278. 1905. 

Stems erect, branching, 5 to 10 dm. high; joints elongated, shining green, attenuate below, 15 to 
20 cm. long, 4 to 6 cm. broad ; areoles orbicular, when young each surrounded by a violet spot, mostly 
spineless, about 4 cm. apart; spines, when present, 1 or 2 from an areole, 1,5 to 2 cm. long, whitish, 
with brownish tips; flowers orange-colored, 4 to 4.5 cm. broad; stigma-lobes 6 or 7, light flesh-colored; 
fruit somewhat pear-shaped, 5 cm. long; seeds flattened. 

Type locality: In Uruguay. 

Distribi/tion: Along the coast of Uruguay. 

In Uruguay this species flowers in January and Feb 
ruary. 

Series 14. SCHEERIANAE. 

A single bushy species, with broad, thin, persistent joints, the 
areoles close together, each bearing several yellow, acicular spines 
and long white or yellow hairs. Its home is unknown. 

170. Opuntia scheeri Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 895. 1898 

About 1 meter high, branching at base, the lower branches 
sprawling over the ground; joints oblong to orbicular, 1.5 to 3 dm 
long, bluish green; areoles circular, elevated, filled with short brown 
wool; spines 10 to 12, yellow, acicular, each surrounded by a rov, 
of long white or yellow hairs; flowers large, pale, yellow, but m 
age salmon-colored; stigma-lobes deep green; fruit globular, red 
juicy, truncate; seed small, 4 mm. broad, with a broad irregular 
margin. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Mexico, but known to us only from cul- 
tivated specimens. 

This is a very beautiful species, covered as it is by yellow spines and long hairs. A line 
plant is growing in the open at La Mortola, Italy. The seedlings produce a long mass of 
soft white hairs almost covering the joints and giving an appearance very different from the 
adult plant. In this young stage, according to Mr. Alwin Berger, they readily pass for 
Opuntia senilis (O. crinijera). 

Opuntia diversispina Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 46: 197. pi. 9. 1919) grown from seed 
of unknown origin at Brownsville, Texas, is described as similar to O. scheeri and in the ac- 
companying illustration the joints resemble those of that species. 

Figure 198 represents a joint from a specimen sent from La Mortola, Italy, in 1912. 
Series 15. DILLENIANAE. 

Mostly bushy or tall species, with large, flat, persistent joints, and yellow spines which are some- 
times brown at base, some species spineless or nearly so. We recognize thirteen species as composing the 
series, but many more have been described. The plants inhabit the southern United States, the West 
Indies, Mexico, and northern South America. 




-Opun 



KEY TO SPECIES. 



Spines nearly setaceous, most of tlieni lefkxcti 

Spines, when present, acicular to subulate. 

Joints spineless, or with only 1 or 2 spines at some of th( 
Corolla rotate; petals yellow. 



171. O. cl}lorolka 



160 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Plant tall; spines, when present, 2 cm. long or less . 172. O.laevis 

Plant depressed, bushy or spreading; spines, when present, up to 7 cm long Hi. O. siricta 

turalla cup-shaped; petals salmon ITia. O. keyein 

Joints usually manifestly spiny; spines mostly 2 or more at the areoles 

Spines mostly stout, commonly flattened 

Spines acicular to subulate, terete, or slightly flattened at the base. 

Joints elongated-lanceolate or oblong, several times longer than wide 
Joints obovate to suborbicular. 
Spines long. 

Areoles mostly 1.5 to 2 cm. apart. 

Spines subulate, up to 7.5 cm. long.... 
Spines acicular, 4 cm. long or less. 
Spines nearly clear yellow, short.. 
Spines brown at base, long and slender 
Areoles mostly 2.5 to 4 cm. apart. 
Bushy species. 

Spines yellow or yellowish brown 

Spines pale yellow or whitish 

Depressed or procumbent plant 

Spines only 1.5 cm. long or less, or becoming longer on old joints. 

Plant 1 meter high or less; joints thin 182. O. cafiada 

Plant 3 to 5 meters high; joints very thick. 

Spines reflexed; flowers yellow 183. O. pyriformis 

Spines spreading, deciduous; flowers orange-red ISiJ. O. bonpl.mdi/ 

171. Opuntia chlorotica Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amen. Acad. 3: 291.. 1856. 

Opuntia tidballii Bigelow, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 11. 1856. 

Opunlia ciirvospina Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club, 43: 88. 1916, 
Erect, bushy, sometimes 2 meters high or more, with a definite trunk; main branches nearly erect; 
joints ovate to orbicular, sometimes broader than long, 15 to 20 cm. long, more or less glaucous, bluish 
green; leaves subulate, small, reddish at tip; areoles closely set, prominent; spines yellow, several, most 
of them u.sually appressed and reflexed, setaceous, 3 to 4 cm. long; glochids yellow, numerous, elon- 
gated, persistent; flowers yellow, 6 to 7.5 cm. broad; filaments white; fruit purple without, green within, 
4 cm. long; seeds small. 



lli.O.JtlU'nii 
5 O. Iingiiiformis 



76. O. lapona 



111.0. li II oral is 
178. O.ackulatj 



179. O. lindheimeri 

180. O. cantabrigiensis 

181. O. procumhens 




Fig. 199. — Opuntia chlorotica. Fig. 200. — Opuntia chlorotica. x 0.4. 

l-^pe locality. On both sides of the Colorado from San Francisco Mountains to head- 
waters of Bill Williams River. 

Distribution: Sonora and New Mexico to Nevada, California, and Lower California. 

This species is of wide distribution, but is chiefly confined to mountain canyons, being 
rarely found on the open mesas. 



BRH rON AND ROSE 



PLATE XXVI 




1. Flowering joint of Ojjnnl'hi laevis. 2. Flowerint; joint of Opiinlia d/llei, 

3. Upper part of flowering joint of Opiiiitia .iciciilata. (All three-fourths size.) 



OPUNTIA. 161 

Illustrations: Bull. Torr. Club 43: pi. 3; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 6, f. 1 to 3; Bull. Torr. Club 
43: pi. 2, this last as Opmitia cuvvosp'ma: Bull. N. Mex. Coll. Agr. No. 78. pi. 4; Stand. 
Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2600. 

Figure 199 is from a photograpli of a plant with narrow joints, in iVIcCleary's Canyon, 
Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona, taken by Dr. MacDougal; figure 200 represents a joint of a 
plant from the collection made by Professor J. W. Toumcy at Tucson, Arizona, obtained by 
Dr. MacDougal in 1902. 

Opuntia palmeri Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 423. 1896. 

This plant has not been again collected and is still a doubtful species; it came from St. 
George, southwestern Utah. In 1909 E. W. Nelson made a collection for us in this region, 
but the only shrubby, juicy-fruited species which he collected has brown spines and brown 
glochids, which would seem to exclude it from O. palnu'vi. It is not at all unlikely that O. 
pcdiiieri should be referred to 0. chlorot'idi. a widely dispersed species, but of which we have 
not seen any specimens from Utah. 

172. Opuntia laevis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 419. 1896. 

Loosely few-branched, 1 to 2 meters high, but in cultivation often forming a low, dense bush; 
joints obovate to oblong, 1.5 to 3 dm. long, light green, often spineless but usually with a few (1 to 3) 
short spines 1 cm. long or less at the areoles of the upper part of the joint; areoles rather distant, 
small; flower large, 6 to 7 cm. broad; petals lemon-yellow, sometimes tinged with red, broad, and ob- 
tuse or retuse; iilaments and style short, pale yellow; stigma-lobes green; ovary turbinate, more or less 
tuberculate, at first leafy, often bristly at top; fruit obovoid, 5 to 7 cm, long; seeds 4 to 5 mm. broad. 

Type locality: In Arizona. 

Distribution: In the mountains about Tucson, Arizona. 

Referred by Professor Schumann to 0. inerniis {0. stricta), but it is not that species. 

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 8, f. 1; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
72: pi. 1; Plant World 11'": f. 5; MacDougal, Bot. N. Amer. Des. pi. 56.' 

Plate XXVIII, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of a plant brought by Dr. Mac- 
Dougal from Tucson, Arizona, in 1902, to the New York Botanical Garden. 

173. Opuntia stricta Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 191. 1812. 

Caclus opuntia inermh De CandoUe, PI. Succ. Hist. 2:pl. 138 [C]. 1799.* 
Cactui strictus Haworth, Misc. Nat. 188. 1803. 
Opuntia inermis De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 473. 1828. 
Opuntia airampo Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile 85: 492. 1894. 
Opuntia parva Berger, Hort. Mortol. 411. 1912. 
Opuntia bentonii Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 25. 1912. 

Opuntia longiclada Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 525. 1916 (according to description and illustration). 
Bushy, low, spreading plants, sometimes forming large clumps, seldom over 8 dm. high; joints 
obovate to oblong, usually 8 to 15 cm. long, but sometimes much elongated and then 30 cm. long or 
more, green or bluish green, glabrous, often spineless especially in greenhouse specimens, sometimes 
but a spine or two on a joint, at other times spines more abundant; leaves stout, subulate, 3 to 4 mm. 
long; areoles distant, the wool brownish, the glochids short; spines, when present, usually 1 or 2 from 
an areole, stiff, terete, yellow, 1 to 4 cm. long; flowers 6 to 7 cm. long; petals yellow, broad, obtuse, 
apiculate; filaments yellow to greenish; style usually white; stigma-lobes usually white but sometimes 
greenish ; fruit purple, usually broadest at top, tapering to a slender base, 4 to 6 cm. long, with a more 
or less depressed umbilicus. 

Type locality: Not given. 

Distribution: Western Cuba; Florida to southern Texas. 

Opuntia viih^aris haUarica Weber (Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 1898) is given by Weber as 
a synonym of O. iiierniis: Opiiittia balcarica Weber (Hirscht, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 
175. 1898) has also been used, but not described, and Hirscht says it belongs here. 

This species is often cultivated on the west coast of South America. It was there 
given the name O. airampo by Dr. Philippi, who supposed it to be the airampo of the Peru- 
vians, a native species, quite different from this one. 

•Berger (Hort. Mortol. 411. 1912) gives the date 1797. 



162 



THE CACTACEAE. 



This species is the pest pear of New South Wales and Queensland. It has now run 
wild over thousands of acres of the best agricultural and grazing land of the interior of 
Australia. J. H. Maiden says: "The growth of this Opiintia is one of the wonders of the 
world, and the spread of few plants in any country can be compared with it." 

Illustrations: Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Pupl. 253: pi. [5}; Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 32; 
Gartenflora 31: pi. 1082, f, d, e, f; De Candolle, PI. Succ. Hist. 2: pi. 138 [C}; De Tussac, 
Fl. AntiU. 2: pi. 34, the last two as Cactus opuutia iuermis; Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 23: pi. opp. 
713; pi opp. 714; pi. opp. 716; Bliihende Kakteen 2: pi. 108, all these as Opuutia i)ien//is. 

Plate XXVII, figure 4, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by Dr. Britton 
and John F. Cowell on limestone rocks near Pinar del Rio, Cuba, in 1911. 
173a. Opuntia keyensis Britton. (See Appendix, p. 222.) 
174. Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawler) Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 79. 1819. 

Cactus dillenii Ker-Gawler, Edwards's Bot. Reg. 3: pi. 255. 1818. 

Opuntia horriJa Salm-Dyck in De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 472. 1828. 

Opuntia maritima Rafinesque, Atl. Journ. 146. 1832. 

Opunti., lunonlea Gibbes, Proc. Elliott Soc. Nat. Hist. 1: 272. 1859. 



' '-f-^ 




'/ 


"'T'''**^ 




f 


;fc 


^■^i^^M^ 


w 


^^^.■i^^'f,,. 









Fig. 201.— Opuntia dillenii, Antigua, West Indies. 

Low, spreading bushes growing in broad clumps and often forming dense thickets, or t.ill .ind 
much branched, 2 to 3 meters high, sometimes with definite terete trunks; joints obovate to oblong, 
7 to 40 cm. long, the margin more or less undulate, bluish green, somewhat glaucous, but bright green 
when young, the areoles somewhat elevated; leaves subulate, curved backward, 5 mm. long; areoles 
often large, filled with short brown or white wool when young, usually few and remote, on old joints 
10 to 12 mm. in diameter; spines often 10 from an areoie on first-year joints, very variable, usually 
more or less flattened and curved, sometimes terete and straight, yellow, more or less brown-banded, 
or mottled, often brownish in age, sometimes 7 cm. long, but usually shorter, sometimes few or none; 
glochids numerous, yellow; wool in areoles short, sometimes brown, sometimes white; flowers in the 
typical form lemon-yellow, in some forms red from the first, 7 to 8 cm. long; petals broadly obovate. 
4 to 5 cm. long; filaments greenish yellow; style thick, white; stigma-lobes white; fruit pear-shaped 
to subglobose, narrowed at base, 5 to 7.5 cm. long, purplish, spineless, juicy. 

Type locality: Based on Dillenius's illustration. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




View of Opuniia keyensis. 
View of Opuntia dillenii. 



OPUNTJA. 163 

Distribution : Coasts of South Carolina, Florida, Bermuda, the West Indies, east coast 
of Mexico, and northern South America; extending inland in Cuba. 

This species is composed of many races varying greatly in habit, character and number 
of spines, shape of joints, and color of flowers. Brother Leon has sent us specimens of 
several individually quite different plants which inhabit hilltops in Cuba. 

Opuntia lucayana Britton (Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 141. 1906), inhabiting Grand 
Turk Island, Bahamas, differs in having elongated, often narrowly oblong joints 2 to 4 times 
as long as wide and many elongated, little-flattened spines. It grows with Opuntia dilloiii 
and 0. nashii, and is believed to be a hybrid with these species as parents. A closely sim- 
ilar plant was observed on Buck Island, St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, growing imme- 
diately with O. dillenii and O. rubescens, the hybrid nature of which was unmistakable, and 
similar plants were seen also on Antigua, British West Indies. 

Opuntia cubensis Britton and Rose (Torreya 12: 14. 1912), observed in a valley near 
the southern coast of Cuba at Guantanamo Bay, differs in having narrower joints, rather 
readily separable and smaller flowers, its stout spines little flattened. It grows near colo- 
nies of Opuntia dilloiii and O. inilitaris. and is probably a hybrid between them. 

Reference has already been made to the possible hybrid origin of Opuntia antillana, 
with O. dillenii as one of its parents. (See p. 115). 

Two varieties of Opuntia dillenii are given by name only; minor Salm-Dyck (Hort. 
Dyck. 185. 1834); orbiculata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 67. 1850). 

Opuntia gilva Berger (Hort. Mortol. 233. 1912) is unpublished. The name was ap- 
plied to a specimen collected by Carl F. Baker in Cuba in 1907, and has been distributed 
under this name. It is only a form of this very variable species. 

The plant is hardy on the Gulf coast of the United States and in southern California. 
It is widely distributed through cultivation in the warmer parts of the Old World, being a 
"pest pear" in southern India and in Australia; it is used for hedges in Teneriffe, and is com- 
mon along the sea on Grand Canary Island. On Bermuda, when growing in shade, the plant 
is often spineless, and its joints elongate sometimes to a length of 3 dm., while only 6 or 7 cm. 
wide. This elongation of the joints also appears in plants from Florida. 

Uliistrations: Edwards's Bot. Reg. 3: pi. 255, as Cactus dillenii: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pi. 
1, 2, both these as Opuntia bentonii: DiUenius, Hort. Elth. 2: pi. 296, this as Tuna major, etc.; Amer. 
Journ. Pharm. 68: pi. opp. 169, as Opuntia vulgaris: Descourtilz, Fl, Med. Antill. 7: pi. 513, this as 
Cactus opuntia. Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen 2: pi. 3, f. 7 (?); Amer. Garden 11: 473 (.^); 
Cyl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 3: f. 1545, 1546; Cact. Journ. 1: 154 (.?); Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 
253: pi. [2]; Diet. Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 757; W. Watson, Cact. Cult, f. 86, all these as Opuntia tuna: 
Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 10: f. 26, this as Opuntia inermis: Loudon, Encycl. PI. ed. 3. f. 6878, this as 
Cactus tuna; Britton FI. Bermuda 255. Garden 13: 107*, as Opuntia crassa: Bull. Torr. Club 46: pi. 
10, as O. maritinia: Lindley, Veg. King. ed. 3. 746. f. 498, No. 1, 2: Knorr, Thesaurus pi. o; Watson, 
Cact. Cult. ed. 3. f. 56. 

Plate XXVIII, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant collected in 1091 by N. L. Britton 
and J. F. Cowell on the Island St. Martin, West Indies; plate xxix, figure 1, is from a photograph of 
the related Opuntia keyensis growing on Boot Key, Florida, taken by Marshall A. Howe in 1909; fig- 
ure 2 is from a photograph of the plant on Bermuda, obtained by Dr. Britton in 1912. Figure 201 "is 
from a photograph of the plant growing on Antigua, British West Indies, taken by Paul G. Russell 
in 1913. 
174a. Opuntia ochrocentra Small, sp. nov. 

Erect, 1 meter tall or less, much branched or sometimes diffuse, with fibrous roots; joints elliptic to 
oval, varying to broadest above the middle, 1 to 3 dm. long, thitkish, light green, not repand; leaves 
ovoid, 2 to 4 mm. long, often purplish; areoles rather prominent; glochids yellowish brown; spines 5 to 
6 together or sometimes fewer on new joints, yellow, stiff, subulate, rcfle.xed, becoming gray when dry, 
yellowish green when wet, straight, the longer ones 4.6 to 5 cm. long; flowers rather few; ovary tur- 
binate, even; sepals often purple-tinged, deltoid to rhombic-orbicular or rhombic-reniform, acute; corolla 
bright lemon-yellow, 7 to 8.5 cm. wide; petals few, cuneate, somewhat crisped; berry obovoid, red, 

~ -.the .'same one tli.it Nicholson used (f. 757) and that \V. Watson 



164 



THE CACTACEAE. 



about 2 cm. long. 

On edge of hammock, southeastern end of Big Pine Key, Florida. Type specimens collected in De- 
cember 1921, by J. K. Small, in the herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. Related to O. dil- 
lenii. differing in shape of the joints, which are not repand, and the strongly reflexed, scarcely flattened 
spines. 

175. Opuntia linguiformis Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Boc. Card. 19: 270. 1908. 

A bushy plant, 1 meter high or more; joints elongated, oblong to ovate-oblong or lanceolate, 2 to 
4 dm, long or even more, often several times longer than wide, pale green and slightly glaucous; leaves 
6 mm. long, terete; spines yellow, very slender, terete or nearly so; areoles filled with brown wool; 
flowers yellow, 7 to 8 cm. broad; petals broad; filaments white or greenish at base; stigma-lobes 9, 
green; ovary bearing numerous long glochids at the upper areoles; fruit reddish purple; seeds 3 or 4 
mm. broad, acute on the back. 

Type locality. Near San Antonio, Texas. 

Distribution: Southern Texas, in the vicinity of San Antonio. 

This plant is rather common in cultivation in the Southwest and is now found in most 
cactus collections. According to Dr. Griffiths, it is occasionally found wild near San Antonio. 
We have seen somewhat similar plants from near Brownsville, Texas, probably referable to 
one of the races of Opuntia lindheinieri. 

On account of the shape of the joints, this species is commonly called cow's tongue or 
lengua de vaca. 

Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 27, lower figure. 

Plate XXX represents a flowering joint of a plant obtained by Dr. MacDougal from the 
collection of Professor J. W. Toumey at Tucson, Arizona, for the New York Botanical 
Garden in 1902. 

176. Opuntia tapona Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 423. 1896. 
Low, spreading plants rarely over 6 dm. high ; 

joints glabrous, orbicular to obovate, 20 to 25 cm. in 
diameter, turgid, pale green; spines 2 to 4 yellow, 
one much longer, 5 to 7 cm. long, slender, porrect or 
sometimes curved downward; glochids brownish; 
fruit 4 to 6 cm. long, clavate, dark purple without, 
red within, spineless. 

Type locality: Near Loreto, Lower Califor- 




FlG. 202. — Opuntia tapona. x 0.4. 




Fig. 203.— Opuntia littorali; 



ITTON AND ROSE 



PLATE XXX 




M. £. iiaton del, 



Flowering joint of Opuntia linguijorDiis. 
(% Natural size.) 



OPIJNTIA. 165 

Distribution : Southern part of Lower California. 

Figure 202 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose on Pichilinque Island, Lower Cali- 
fornia, 1911. 

Related to O. tapona, but probably specifically distinct from it, is a plant growing in the mountains 
of Cedros Island, Lower California ; it was recorded from this island by Dr. E. L. Greene as O. engelnian- 
nii, and a specimen was brought to Washington by Dr. Rose in 1911. This plant may be described as fol- 
lows: About 1 meter high; joints oblong, large, 20 cm. long or more, smooth; areoles 3 cm. apart or more, 
very large, filled with brown wool; spines usually about 7, pale yellow, slender, terete, the longest ones 3 
cm. long; glochids yellow. (Rose No. 16170.) 

177. Opuntia littoralis (Engelmann) Cockerell, Bull. South. Calif. 4: 15. 1905. 

Opuntia eiifielnuvinii littoralis Engelmann in Brewer and Watson, Bot. Calif. 1: 248. 1876. 
Opiinlij Itiidheimeri littoralis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 422. 1896. 
Bushy plants, low and spreading; joints thick, orbicular to oblong, 15 cm. long or more, usually 
smaller in greenhouse plants, dull green; areoles rather closely set, large, often elevated on old joints; 
spines numerous, yellow, rather short on young joints (1 to 2 cm. long), but on old joints much longer, in 
age more or less flattened ; wool of the areoles brown ; flowers large, yellow, 8 to 12 cm. broad; sepals 
broad, apiculate; petals retuse; ovary with many areoles; fruit red, juicy; seeds 4 to 3 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Coast from Santa Barbara to San Diego, California. 

Distribution: Along and near the coast of southern California. 

This species was very briefly described as a variety of Opuntia engelmannii in 1876. 
No definite locality was given for it, and the original material preserved is so poor that its 
identification is doubtful. We have taken as our representative of this species the low, 
bushy plant with rather thick joints, large and closely set areoles and yellow spines. 

Opuntia littoralis often grows in proximity to O. occideiitdlis in southern California, and hybrids of 
the two may exist. 

Figure 203 represents joints of the plant collected at Elsinore, California, by Dr. MacDougal in 1913. 

178. Opuntia aciculata Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 10. 1916. 

Low, bushy plant, 1 meter high or more, often 3 meters broad or more, the lower branches decum- 
bent and sending up erect branches; joints obovate, 12 to 20 cm. long, rounded at apex, dull dark green, 
somewhat glaucous, bearing large, closely set areoles, these often spineless; leaves subulate, 7 mm. long; 
spines several in a cluster, acicular, slender, 3 to 5.5 cm. long, often reflexed, brownish at base, with yel- 
low tips, seemingly deciduous; glochids numerous, from all parts of the areoles, long, persisting for sev- 
eral years; flower golden yellow, sometimes with a greenish center, large, 8 to 10 cm. broad; petals broad, 
rounded or retuse; filaments yellowish; style dull yellowish green; stigma-lobes 8 to 10, green; fruit 
pyriform, purple. 

Type locality: Near Laredo, Texas. 

Distributioti: On high gravelly ground at type locality and vicinity. 

This species is not very common about Laredo, Texas, but grows in small colonies 
usually to the exclusion of all other plants. It can easily be distinguished from related 
species, and is usually restricted to dry hills. Our description is based on specimens ob- 
tained by Dr. Rose at Laredo in 1913. Since then it has been grown both in Washington 
and New York. 

Plate xxviii, figure 3, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose 
near the type locality in 1913. 

179. Opuntia lindheimeri Engelmann Bost Jouin Nat Hist. 6: 207. 1850. 

OpJiiili iJiiUn Eni,tlnnnn Proc Amer Acad 3 291 1856 

0/'//«//;//H./Atv//<// ,////i/i Oiultei Conti U S Nat Herb 3 421 1896. 

Opiinli I Lii^dii ,1 ','• 1 SLhuminn Gcstrntb Kiktcen 725 1898. 

Opuntiaiuii (,i"i' ,il Hut N Ml\ Ali I \p Sti Bull 60:47. 1906. 

Opuntiajeii . ( .Its Kq. M,, I„>t C,u,l 19 26"' 1908. 

Opuntiatiui I- I 1 Mo b..t tiuj 2(i s^ 1909 

Optint!ite\ II (iMIkI, Iv p M,. h,,i C.u.l 20 •): 1909 

Opiinln uil III' (.Mlliilis lUp Mo boi C.u.l 20 Ml 1909 

Opin.t,, ill, (^,nttnhs Rep Mo Hot Cu.l 21 U.i 1910 

Opiinl , ,/. w (, Nihil, s iUp Mo Boi Cud 21 16^ 1910 

0/ww/, /.;,// w (. I uluhs lUp M.I Bot Ciul 21 Hi 1910 

Opi.i (ouluhs Rep Mo Bot Gild 22 iO 1912 

Op'o (uiiml.s Rep M,> Bot Grid 12 ,5 1912 

Opi„ . MuLcnseu Bull Toir Club 39 290 1912 



166 THE CACTACEAE. 

Opiimiagrifjilhiicinj Mackensen, Bull. Torr. Club 39: 291. 1912. 
Opu/it/a reflexa Mackensen, Bull. Torr. Club 39: 292. 1912. 
Opuntiadeltiai Griffiths. Bull. Torr. Club 43: 8-1 1916. 
Opunlia laxiflora Gritfiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 85. 1916. 
Opiwlhijlexospimi Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 87. 1916. 
Opumiasquarroui Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 91. 1916. 

Usually erect, 2 to 4 meters high, with a more or less definite trunk, but .it times much lower and 
spreading; joints green or bluish green, somewhat glaucous, orbicular to obovate, up to 25 cm. long; 
leaves subulate, 3 to 4 mm. long, somewhat flattened, pointed; areoles distant, often 6 cm. apart; spines 
usually 1 to 6, often only 2, one porrect and 4 cm. long or more, the others somewhat shorter and only 
slightly spreading, pale yellow to nearly white, sometimes brownish or blackish at base, or some plants 
spineless; glochids yellow or sometimes brownish, usually prominent; petals yellow to dark red; stigma- 
lobes usually green; fruit purple, pyriform to oblong, 3.5 to 5.5 cm. long. 

Type locid'ity. About New Braunfels, Texas. 

Dhtr'ibut'ion: Southwestern Louisiana, southeastern Texas, and Taniaulipas, Mexico. 

Opunt'ui Hudheiiney'i is an extremely variable species, composed of many races, differ- 
ing in armament, color of flowers, size and shape of joints and of fruit. Certain forms have 
been described which in cultivation we have been able to recognize as possibly distinct; 
but in the field they seem to integrade with other forms, indicating that they are at most 
only races of a very variable species. In the delta of the Rio Grande this is especially true, 
and from this region a number of species has been described. In fact, all the plants de- 
scribed as species which are cited above in the synonymy grow within a relatively small 
distributional area. Dr. Rose has examined all this region and is of the opinion that only 
one species of this series exists there, and this we believe is to be referred to Opunt'ui Vnid- 
hehiiei'i. It is very common about Brownsville and Corpus Christi, where it forms thickets 
covering thousands of acres of land. It is very variable in habit, being either low and widely 
spreading or becoming tall and tree-like, sometimes 3 meters high, with a definite cylin- 
dric trunk. Plants from these two extremes, if studied apart from the field, might be con- 
sidered as different species, but in the field one sees innumerable intergrading forms. The 
low, prostrate forms gradually pass into others with more or less erect or ascending branches, 
while the large tree-like forms often bear large lateral branches which lie prostrate on the 
ground, indicating that they have developed from the prostrate ones. Decided differences 
in the flower colors have been pointed out in the original descriptions, and we have observed 
them in greenhouse specimens, but they do not correlate with other characters. 

Dr. Small has found this plant established, after cultivation, in pine lands west of Halenville, l-'lorida. 

Opiintia eUiUtvia Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard.21: 170. pi. 25. 1910), an unarmed species, is known 
only from cultivated plants. Dr. Gritfiths states that it is quite different from the r-icin-iudicae series, which 
it much resembles, and is quite hardy in southern Texas. It may be a spineless race of the common O. 
Undhehneri of this region. 

Opiint'ta pyrocarpa Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 43: 90. 1916) we do not know; in its long pyriform 
fruit it suggests this plant; the type comes from Marble Falls, Texas. 

O. tfhileiiana Berger and O. haemalocarpa Berger (Bot. Jahrb. Engler 36: 455 and 456. 1905) are 
of this relationship, but have browner spines than is usual in the species. 

OpNinia leptocaipa Mackensen (Bull. Torr. Club 38: I4l. 1911), characterized by its low, bushy 
habit and elongated, almost abnormal fruits, suggests a natural hybrid between O. liiiJheiiiieii and O. 
ruacrorhiza. Indeed, Mr. Mackensen described the species as intermediate between these two, and all three 
species are often found growing together. O. leptocar pa originally came from San Antonio, Texas. 

llltislratious: Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1911: pi. 3, 4, B; Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 75, f . 5 to 7 ; 
Karsten, Deutsch. Fl. f. 501. 13, 13a, 13b; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pi. (13, 14), all as Opuntia 
dulch. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pi. 3, f. I, this as Opnutia cacanapa: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 4, 
in part, this as Opuntia tricolor: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 9; pi. 13, f. 1, these two as Opuntia texana. 
Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pi. 2, f. 1 ; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 2, f. 1; pi. 11; pi. 13, f. 4, all these 
as Opuntia suharmata. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 19; pi. 20, in part, these two as Opuntia alta. Rep. 
Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 21; pi. 22, in part these two as Opuntia gomei. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pi. 28, 
this as Opuntia sinclairii. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pi. 9, in part; pi. 10; Journ. Agr. Research 4. pi. f., 
these three as Opuntia cyanella. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. pi. 22: pi. 9, in part; pi. 16, 17, these three as 
Opuntia gdvoalba. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: f. 1. Journ. Hered. Washington, 6^: f. 19, as Opuntia 



BRITTON AND ROSE 



PLATE XXXI 



lU^w 




% 


, ^..«IJ 


^ 


^^^^^B| ^^Hr^ ^ 




^%r-^^-^ 



M. E. Eaton del. 



Flowerins; joints of Opmitia Uudheimeri. 

1. Orange-flowered race. 2. Red-flowered race. 

(% Natural size.) 



OPUNTIA. 167 

ellisiaiia: Journ. Hered. Washington 6*: f. 15, 16, as O. cacanapa: Journ. Hered. Washington 6': f. 17, 
18, as O. snbarmata; Journ. Hered. Washington 5: 233. f. 13; Schulz, 500 Wild Fl. San Antonio pi. 12. 
Plate XXXI, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of a plant collected near Brownsville, 
Texas, by Dr. Rose in 191.^; figure 2 represents a flowering joint of a plant obtained by the 
same collector at the same locality; plate xxxii, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of a 
plant sent by Mr. M. Mackensen from the type locality of O. leptoccirpu in 1910; figure 2 
shows the fruit of the same. 
180. Opuntia cantabrigiensis Lynch, Gard. Chron. III. 33 : 98. 1903. 

Opiinti.i ens^elmiUinu ciiiia Griffiths and Hare, N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: 44. 1906. 
OpuiilijcmiJ Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 529. 1908. 
Rounded bushy plant, 1 to 2 meters high; joints orbicular to obovate, 12 to 20 cm. long, rather pale 
bluish green; areoles remote, large, filled with brown wool; spines usually 3 to 6 but sometimes more, 
somewhat spreading, acicular, yellow with brown or reddish bases, 1.5 to 4 cm. long; glochids numer- 
ous, large, 1 cm. long or more, yellowish, not forming a brush; flowers 5 to 6 cm. long, yellowish with 
reddish centers; upper areoles on the ovary bearing long bristles; stigma-lobes green; fruit, globular, 
about 4 cm. in diameter, purple; seeds numerous, small, 4 mm. in diameter. 

Type locjlity: Described from specimen in Cambridge Botanic Garden, England. 
Distiihi/t/oii: Very common in the States of San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, and Hidalgo, 
Mexico. 

Professor Duncan S. Johnson found this species naturalized on sand dunes at Beaufort, North Carolina, in 1899, 
and Dr. Small studied it there in 1922. At Cambridge, England, it passed through many winters out of doors. 

Opuntia chvysiicdjithd (Berger, Hort. Mortol. 231. 1912, name only,) an undescribed 
species, probably belongs here. 

Our determination of the identity of O. caiilubrigieinii and O. cuija is based on a living plant of the 
former received from Mr. Lynch. 

lUtistratioiis: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. 2, as Opuntia eugeh)iaiiuii cuija: Gard. Chron. 
III. 30: f. 123, as OpiiiUia engelmannii: Gartenwelt 10: 560; Gard. Chron. III. 33: 98. f. 42. 

Figure 204 represents joints of a plant collected by Dr. Rose near Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo, Mexico, 
in 1905. 




2u.).— (.). ranlabriKiciisls. X0.4. V\g. 205.— O. procumbcns. X" .s. 

181. Opuntia procumbens Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 292. 1856. 



168 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Stems low and spreading, forming broad masses; joints "always edgewise," orbicular, 2 to 4 or 
even 5 dm. in diameter, yellowish green, somewhat glaucous; areoles distant (3 to 5 cm. apart), large, 
bearing long yellow glochids; spines 1 to 5, spreading, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, yellow, lighter above, flattened; 
flowers said to be yellow; fruit red, juicy. 

Type locality: San Francisco Mountains to Cactus Pass, Arizona. 

Distiibiitio}!: Northern Arizona. 

Tiiis species has long been wanting or poorly represented in our great herbaria. Dr. 
Rose collected it near Flagstaff, Arizona, and the above description is largely drawn from 
his notes; but his material was lost. In 1913 it was again collected by Mr. E. A. Goldman. 

llliistrat'iun: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 6, f. 4, 5. 

Figure 205 is copied from the illustration above cited. 

182. Opuntia caiiada Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 90. 1909. 

Plant about 1 meter high, with many erect or ascending branches, forming a broad top; joints 
ovate to obovate, 16 to 22 cm. long, smooth, and shining; leaves subulate, 1 cm. long; spines various, 
white to yellow, flattened, sometimes twisted; glochids few on young joints, very abundant on old 
ones; flowers yellow with red or orange centers: style white to reddish; stigma-lobes green; fruit red. 

Type locality: Foothills of the 
Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona. 

DiitYibution: Southeastern Ari- 
zona. 

Dr. Griffiths comments on the 
close relationship of this plant to 0. 
hie vis. 

UI/isti\itioi!s: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
20: pi. 2, f. 6; pi. 6, in part; pi. 13, 
f. 2, 12. 

Figure 206 is copied from the 
second illustration above cited. 

183. Opuntia pyriformis Rose, Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 292. 1909. 
Plant 3 to 5 meters high, with widely 

spreading branches, the lower ones almost 
resting on the ground and 3 to 5 meters 
long; joints obovate, thick, 18 cm. long 
or more; areoles closely set, small; spines 
1 or 2, on old joints more, usually reflexed, 
slender, weak, yellow, 10 to 22 mm. long; 
flowers yellow; fruit 4 cm. long, some- 
what tuberculate, spineless, its large are- 
oles crowded with brown hairs forming 
hemispherical cushions. 

Type locality: Hacienda de Ce- 
dros, Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Distribution: Zacateais, Mexico. ''"■• -^07.— Opunii.i pynfomns. xo.v 

The type of this species is in the U. S. National Herbarium. It is known only from 
the original collection of Professor F. E. Lloyd, made in 1908. 

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: f. 35; pi. 26. 

Figure 207 is copied from the second illustration above cited. 
183a. Opuntia bonplandii (HBK.) Weber. (See Appendix, p. 223.) 

The three following described species may belong to this series: 
Opuntia beckeriana Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 722. 1S9S. 

The plant on which this species is based was sent to Dr. Schumann from a garden at 
Bordighera, Italy, and its origin is unknown; Dr. Schumann thought that it might have 




OPUNTIA. 169 

come from Mexico. From the description it may belong to our series Dillenianae, but we 
are unable to associate it with any species known to us; the ovary is described as compressed 
and tubercled. 
Ophntia prostrata spinosior (Schumann, Gesamtb, Kakteen 723. 1H98) seems to have been a garden 

name which Schumann would refer to O. hecker'uina. 
Opuntia ANAHUACiiNsis Griffiths, Bull. Terr. Club 43: 92. 1916. 

A low, reclining or prostrate plant, up to 5 dm. high, 1.5 meters broad; joints obovate, glos.sy, yel- 
lowish green, 27 cm. long, 13 cm. broad; spines yellow or becoming white, 1 or 2, porrect, flattened, 
twisted, 2 or 3 cm. long; flowers yellow; style white; stigma-lobes 6, white; fruit dark purplish red, 
pyriform, 7 cm. long. 

Type locality: Anahuac, Texas. 

Distribution: Known only from the type locality, at the mouth of Trinity River, east- 
ern Texas. 
Opuntia megalantha Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 530. 1916. 

A tall, erect, open-branching plant, 2 meters high or more; joints obovate, glaucous, grayish green, 
21 cm. long, 14 cm. broad; spines yellow, 1 to 3, or even 5 or 6 on old wood, the longest often 4 to 5 
cm. long; flowers yellow, 10 to 11 cm. in diameter; petals 5 cm. long, obovate; style white; stigma-lobes 
8 or 9, white or tinged with green; fruit dark red. 

Known only from cultivated plants received from the Berlm Botanical Garden, where 
it was grown as Opuntia bcrgeriiina. 

Series 16. MACDOUGALIANAE. siisi^r^^^ 

Erect, mostly tall species, with flat, broad, and ^.^^^i^^ s^ ^aCT -^T^ ^^^^^ 

thin, persistent joints, the epidermis, at least that of O^ ^ J' ^^.c 

the ovary, pubescent or puberulent. The spines, when 'y^' V 1^ ^ a^ 1 ^^^^ 

present, yellow. There are about half a dozen species, -^W \ / V ^^a*^ 

natives of central and southern Mexico. ^ * w \ *^ ®i i_ ^, ^^~ ^ 

Key to Species ^F ^ ^v ^' ^^ 

Joints merely finely puberulent or "] -\J "^ ^\ ^;- j// sf^ 

glabrous; spines 1.5 cm. long or 3 ^ ly ^ >5J.— _^t- 

less; ovary velvety \%\.0. dmjngtnus ^^fl ^ V '? ^ \ ^^^ 

Joints distinctly pubescent; spines X ^^ "^ ^ ij^ ^# 

2 to 3 cm. long. /7, ^ \i { ^ /l -^M 

Petals red. A^\ u ^ ^ /« '!> 

Style shorter than the petals 185. O. j/rw/ifj -\^'^ ~^^ 7 - X A fY 

Style as long as the petals. \S6. O. jffinis -^ •, \ ' ""*^ 5^ t^ --^ t 

Petals yellow. V -4 ^ X -v J^ 

Spines acicular, at first yel- \ "^ { -/ > '^ 'T\W 

low, soon white 187. O. macdoiigjVhin.i Jk -fl. ^ ^ ^ ^y>^ i^ 

Spines subulate. "Xa T ./ ,,, '^ s n. if 

Petals retuse; areoles of TV b ' * /V'^T'iw 

ovary many, approxi- ^ ' H J*^' J^-K ^^ 

mate \9,%.0. vdulinj \ ' A ' \ -i^ M 

Petals mucronate; areoles \fK 'o ^iv/C^ ' 

of ovary few, distant 1S9. O. tri!co.\ii aV 'i^ \a 'A sW 

184. Opuntia durangensis Britton and Rose, \-^^ / ^l^ 

Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 518. 1908. ^^n-i-L^ 

Joints broadly obovate, about 20 cm, long, 16 f'^' 208.-Opuntia durangensis. xO.i. 

cm. broad, pale green, glabrous or minutely puberulent, bearing numerous areoles; areoles 1 to 2 cm, 
apart, elevated; spines 3 to 5 at an areole, short, 1.5 cm. long or less, pungent, spreading, yellow, but in 
age becoming darker; glochids brown, 2 to 3 mm. long; flowers yellow, 5 cm. long; petals broad, apicu- 
late; ovary 3 to 4 cm, long, finely pubescent, bearing many areoles with numerous glochids and a few 
spines ; fruit white or red ; seeds about 3 mm, broad. 

Type locality: Near Durango, Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

This species was collected by the late Dr. E. Palmer in 1912, but he did not record the 
size and habit of the plant. The joints suggest a large, bushy species. 

Figure 208 represents a joint of the type specimen. 



170 



THE CACTACEAE. 



185. Opuntia atropes Rose, Smiths, Misc. Coll. 50: 518. 1908. 

Plant 1 to 3 meters high, much branched ; joints oblong to obovate, 20 to 30 cm. long, deep green, 
softly pubescent; young joints somewhat glossy, leaves 4 to 5 mm. long, acuminate, pubescent, standing 
almost at right angles to the joints, the tips reddish, areoles circular, filled with short tawny wool; young 
spines white or yellowish ; old spines 3 to 6 cm. long, somewhat angled, standing almost at right angles 
to the joints, dark yellow or brown at the base, much lighter, often white above; glochids nu.T.erous, 
long, yellow; petals reddish; ovary pubescent, covered with large cushion-like areoles bearmg long 
glochids near the top but with few spines or none, truncate at apex. 
Type locality: Lava beds near Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico. 
Distributioji: Central Mexico. 

186. Opuntia affinis Grififiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 27. 1914. 

"A low, arborescent species, from 125 cm. high with us at 4 years of age to 2 m. or more in its 
natural habitat; joints obovate, 13 by 35 cm., broadly rounded above and gradually narrowed below, 
densely silky, villous to the touch, and villous nature plainly visible when viewed in proper light, slightly 
raised at areoles, the tubercles being surrounded by a sunken dark-green line; leaves small, subulate, 
pointed, scarcely 2 mm. in length; areole small, obovate, 3 mm. long, 25 to 30 mm. apart, white to 
gray; spicules light straw-colored, at first not conspicuous but rather in a connivent tuft, 3 mm. long; 
spines absent below and 1 to 5 in upper five-sixths of joint, straw-colored, becoming white the second 
year, the longest 3 cm. and others much shorter, increasing in age in both length and numbers, at 3 years 



^^;'." 






P^'':i4 K\ 


ib 




WSt ^fH 


Lt^ 




i^vli^ 


W 




'"'^ 'JK^^SI^^S 




b^ 


a.0. 




^ ''m 


" 


■■■ !.»>>.. ^sdfcv 


■ P" 


^ /-'IM 


^" 


^. ^ 


~, -'^-.w fir- 


*%;'-«^?^ 




■:. 


'^^ -^^ 


^■^ 




..7^^ 


■11 '-- 


..i^^^^^^^s,*' 


■^-■■-.■■■■^? 




i»;.....^.;.siiSMH 


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- 



Fig. 2U9.— Opuntia macJoiiga 



OPUNTIA. 



171 



often U) in number and some 6 cm. long, divergent, flattened, angular, twisted; flowers dull dark-red 
in bud, with stigma protruding the day before the petals spread, small, about 3 cm. in diameter when 
opened, petals 20 to 2 5 mm. long, shghtly, when at all, recurved, ribs of petals red and wings orange, 
filaments greenish below and pink above, style bright-glossy red, stigma dull greenLsh red, 4-parted, 
equaling the petals in length; ovary small, subglobose, deeply pitted, 15 to 17 mm. in diameter, with 
small subcircular to slightly transversely elongated, dirty brown areoles, 4 mm. apart; fruit small, sub- 
globose, red." 

Type locality: State of Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Disty'ihut'iou: Known only from type locality. 

Our examination of the type specimen of this species showed that it is closely related 
to OpHut'id uidcdoiigal'iana. differing in the color of its petals, which may not be a specific 
character. 




Fig. 210. — Opuntia macdougaliana. 

187. Opuntia macdougaliana Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 516. 1908. 

Opuntiu micrartlnj Gritfilhs, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 130. 1913. 

Plant about 4 meters high, with a distinct cylindric trunk branching from near the base; joints 
oblong, 30 cm. long by 8 to 10 cm. broad, softly pubescent; areoles distinct, small; spines generally 4, 
one much longer (2.5 to 4 cm. long), somewhat flattened, yellowish, becoming whitish in age; glo- 
chids short, numerous, yellow; fruit globular to oblong, 5 cm. long, the surface divided into diamond- 
shaped plates, red, with a broad deep cup at apex, the numerous small rounded areoles filled with clumps 
of yellow glochids, very rarely with one or two spines. 

Type locality: Near Tehuacan, Mexico. 

Distribution: Southern Mexico. 

Figure 209 is from a photograph of the type plant taken by Dr. MacDougal at EI Riego, 
Tehuacan, Mexico, in 1906; figure 210 represents a plant grown from a cutting of the type. 



172 



THE CACTACEAE. 



188. Opuntia velutina Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 389. 1901. 

Opuntia nehonii Rose, Smiths, Misc. Coll. 50: 516. 19U8. 
Stems 1 to 4 meters high; joints flattened, oblong to pear-shap-.d in outline, 15 to 20 cm. long 
by 10 to 15 cm. broad near the top, pubescent, pale yellowish green in herbarium specimens; areoles 
2 to 3 cm. apart; spines 2 to 6, yellow, becoming white in age, v:ry unequal, the longer ones 3 to 4 
cm. long; bristles many, yellow, becoming brownish; flowers ralhc-r small; petals yellow, 1 to 3 cm. 
long; ovary pubescent, bearing many yellowish brown bristles; filaments red; stigma-lobes pale green; 
fruit "dark red." 

Type locality: In Guerrero, Mexico. 
Distributio}i: Southern Mexico. 

Plate XXXII, figure 3, represents a flowcrini; joint of 
Mexico, by Dr. MacDougal and Dr. Rose in 1906. 



plant collected at Tchuacan, 



189. Opuntia wilcoxii sp. nov. 

A tall, bushy plant, 1 to 2 meters high, very much branched; joints oblong, thinnish, large, 2 cm. 
long, dark green, more or less purplish about the large areoks, finely puberulent; glochids numerous, 
long, yellow; spines 1 to 3, one very long (5 to 6 cm. long), porrect, white or somewhat yellowish; 
flower, including ovary, 6 cm. long, yellow ; petals oblong, mucronate ; ovary bearing few large areoles. 



style thick. 



long. 



these filled with brown wool and yellow glochids; 
stigma-lobes, fruit pubescent, 4 cm. long. 

Very common on the hills in the coastal plain oi west- 
ern Mexico from southern Sonora to southern Sinaloa, 
Mexico, where it was frequently collected by Rose, Stand- 
ley, and Russell in 1910; their No. 13346, with flower, from 
Fuerte, Sinaloa, is selected as the type of the species. It is 
named for Dr. Glover B. Wilcox, who first sent in living 
specimens in 1909- 

Figure 211 represents a joint of the type specimen. 

To this series belong two plants which we have not 
been able to identify but are here briefly characterized: 

The first, a very peculiar species, collected by Rose, 
Standley, and Russell, March 14, 1910 (No. 12853), on 
the dry hills near Alamos, Sonora, Mexico, is unlike any of 
the described species. It is living both in Washington and 
New York, but it has not done well in cultivation. It may 
be described as follows; 

Bushy; joints oblong, thickish, pale green in color, with very 
short puberulence, nearly or quite spinele.ss; glochids yellowish or 
greenish, numerous; young areoles brown in the center, white- 
wooly in the margin; flowers and fruit not known. 

Dr. H. H. Rusby collected the second species on the Balsas River, southern Mexico. It 
comes from the region of (). vclntiihi, but we do not know its flowers. It may be described as 
follows: 

Joints oblong, 18 cm. long, but cultivated specimens smaller, usually obovate, dark green; spines 
few, short, at first white; young areoles large, bordered with white wool, bearing the spines and glo- 
chids from the center. 

Living specimens are growing in the New York Botanical Garden under No. 32811. 




-Opunt, 



Series 17. TOMENTOSAE. 

Tall, erect, pubescent or puberulent species, with flat persistent joints 
:e. We know three species, natives of Mexico and Guatemala. 



.'hen present, 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




Upper part of flowering joint of Opnnt'ia leptocarpd. 3. Flowerint; joint of OpHiitu iclnHii.i. 
Fruit of tiie same. 4. Upper part of joint of Opitntia niegacitiilh, 

(All three-fourths size) 



OPUNTIA. 



173 



Key to Species 

Juints narrowly obovate. 

Joints grayish green, densely velvety 190. O. lomentosa 

Joints bright green, minutely puberulent l^l. O. lomenlella 

Joints broadly obovate 192. O. guHanchi 

190. Opunda tomentosa Salm-Dyck, Obsei\ Bot 3: 8. 1822. 

CmUi-. lunuiitosiis Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 2: 24. 1822. 

Opiinli.i ublongata Wendland in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 161. 1837. 

Opiinlij ulericu Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kaktetnk. 23: 138. 1913. 
Becoming 3 to 6 meters high or more, with a broad top and a smooth trunk 10 to 30 cm. in 
diameter; joints oblong to narrowly obovate, 10 to 20 cm. long, velvety pubescent, somewhat tubercu- 
late when young; giochids yellow; spines usually wanting but sometimes 1 or more appear; flowers 
orange-colored, 4 to 5 cm. long; filaments white or rose-colored; style dark carmine, longer than the 
stamens; stigma-lobes 5 or 6, white; fruit ovoid, red, sweetish; seeds 4 mm. broad. 




Fig. 212. — Opuntia tomentosa. 

Type locality: Not cited; doubtless Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico and as an escape in Australia. 

This species was first described from cultivated plants and has long been a favorite. 
When grown out of doors, as it is in Bermuda, it forms a large and conspicuous plant. It 
is usually nearly or quite spineless, but plants which come from the Valley of Mexico are 
often spiny. 

According to J. H. Maiden, this plant had been sent to him under the unpublished 
name Opuntia lurida, and as O. puhescens. 

Illustrations: Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 23: pi. opp. 1028; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 121; 
De CandoUe, PI. Succ. Hist. 2: pi. 137 [A, B}, this last as Cactus cochtnilliicr {\uie Berger) ; 
Blanc, Cacti 82. No. 2200, as Opuntia lurida; Reiche, Elem. Bot. f. 163; Gartenwelt II: 75. 



174 THE CACTACEAE. 

Plate XXXIII, figure 1, represents a fruiting joint of a plant raised from seeds received 
by the United States Department of Agriculture. Fig. 212 is from a photograph of a plant 
near St. Georges, Bermuda, taken by Stewardson Brown in 1912. 

191. Opuntia tomentella Berger, Monatsschr. Kaktcenk. 22: 147. 1912. 

Bushy; joints obovate to oblong, 20 to 30 cm. long, 9 to 15 cm. broad, light green, somewhat 
shining, finely puberulent; areoles about 3 cm. apart, small; spines 1 or 2, acicular, white, short (7 to 
10 mm. long), porrect, sometimes wanting; glochids few; flowers numerous, 5 to 6 cm. long; petals 
obovate, reddish yellow; filaments yellowish green; style rose-colored; stigma-lobes white; ovary tomen- 
tose, armed with numerous black glochids; fruit oblong, red, sour. 

Type locality: In Guatemala. 

Distribution: Guatemala. 

This species was distributed by the late F. Fichlam, who sent 
plants both to Washington and to La Mortola, those sent to La 
Mortola being used by Mr. Berger for his description. The species 
is perhaps near the common Mexican species O. tonieutosa, but 
does not grow so tall, and the tomentum is not so dense nor so soft. 

Figure 213 represents a joint of a plant collected in Guatemala 
by F. Eichlam in 1909. 

192. Opuntiaguilanchi Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot.Gard. 19:265. 1908. 

Becoming 1.5 to 2 meters high, often with a distinct trunk 1.5 to 
2.5 cm. in diameter; joints broadly obovate, 14 to 16 cm. wide, 20 to 24 
cm. long, minutely pubescent; spines at first white, slightly flattened, the 
longest 2 cm. long; glochids light yellow; fruit subglobose, 4 cm. in dia- 
meter, pubescent, variously colored, aromatic. 

Type locality: Near the city of Zacatecas, Mexico. 
Distribution: Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Series 18. LEUCOTRICHAE. 

This series is restricted to a single species. Schumann grouped as 
Chaelophorae, O. leitcotricha with O. tirsiini. the latter a species with simi- 
lar long bristles on the stem but otherwise very different, it being dry- 
fruited. Opinitia lei/colricha is characterized by its long, weak, hair-like 
or bristle-like spines on many of the joints, especially the stem and very ^"^ 
old joints. The fruit of this plant is very different from that of related 
series in that the pulp is fragrant and does not come free from the rind when mature. 

193. Opuntia leucotricha De Candolle, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 119. 1828. 

opuntia fult'ispiua Salm-Dyck in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 161. 1837. 

Opuntia leucotricha jidvispina Weber in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 157. 190?. 
Often 3 to 5 meters high, with a large top; trunk as well as the older joints covered with long 
white bristles; joints oblong to orbicular, 1 to 2 cm. long, pubescent; areoles closely set, the upper 
part filled with yellow glochids, the lower part at first with only 1 to 3 weak white spines; flowers, in- 
cluding ovary, 4 to 5 cm. long; petals yellow, broad; ovary with numerous areoles, the upper ones 
bearing long, bristly glochids (1 cm. long); style red; stigma-lobes green; fruit variable, 4 to 6 cm. 
long, white or red, the rind not easily coming off from the pulp, aromatic, edible. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

Opuntia erythrocentron Lemaire (Forster, Handb. Cact. 492. 1846) was given as a syn- 
onym of O. \ulvispina. 

Opuntia leucosticta Wendland (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 167, 1837) probably belongs here. 

Opuntia leucacantha Link and Otto (Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck, 362. 1834), published 
first in 1834 — although the name occurs in literature as early as 1830 (Verh. Ver. Beford. 




ERITTON AND f 



PLATE XXXI 




M. E. Eaton del. 

1. Upper part of joint of Opiinl'i.j Imiieiilos.i. 2, 3. Flowering joint and branch of Opnnt'i.i biM/l/eiisis. 
4. Joint of Grtisoiiia bradtiana. (All % size.) 



OPUNTIA. 



175 



Gartenb. 6: 434. 1830) — which was later taken up as Consolea leucacantha by Lemaire (Rev. 
Hort. 1862: 174. 1862), seems to belong here rather than to O. spinoshsivut. If it came from 
Mexico, as reported, it could not be 0. sphiosissiDia or any of its relatives, for none of them 
is known from Mexico. 

Opuntia subjevox Schott (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 167. 1837) was given as a synonym of 
this species, while 0. leucacantha laevior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 47. 1845) 
and O. leucacantha subjerox Salm-Dyck (Forster, Handb. Cact. 497. 1846) were supposed 
to be based on O. subjerox. 

Opuntia leucantha (De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 474. 1828), unpublished, is doubtless the 
same as O. leucacantha. 




4. — Opuntia leucotricha. 

Opuntia fulvispi/ia laeriur Salm-Dyck (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 164. 1837) and O. jul- 
rispina hudia Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 65. 1850) are given as synonyms of O. 
leucotricha: while O. rufescens Salm-Dyck (Forster, Handb. Cact. 493. 1846) is given as 
a synonym of julvispina laevior; all these seem to belong here. 

This is called durasnilla in Mexico. It is grown in Bermuda under the name of Aaron's 
Beard. 

Illustrations: Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 3''': f. 56, J; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. 
Bull. 60: pi. 4, f. 1, 2; Mollers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9., No. 4 as Opuntia leuca- 
cantha; Cassel's Diet. Gard. 2: 138. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pi. 6, f. 2; pi. 7, f. 2; U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 262: pi. 4; pi. 5, f. 1. 

Dr. John K. Small has found this plant naturalized in a hammock south of Fort Pierce, 
Florida, where it is reported as established during the Seminole wars. 

Plate xxxiv, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of a plant in the collection ot the New 



176 THE CACTACEAE. 

York Botanical Garden. Figure 214 is from a photograph of a phint grown from a cutting 
received from the collection of M. Simon, St. Ouen, Paris, France, in 1901. 
Series 19- ORBICULATAE. 
We have retained the series Criiiiferae. although changing its name to Oibicula/ae. but we have 
excluded O. scheeii, which was placed here by Schumann. The species are characterized by long hairs 
produced from the areoles. The species retained in the series are not closely related; while others, like 
O. niacioceiilra. in other series, sometimes produce long hairs from the areoles in the seedling stage, 
and O. hypt'iacaiuha and some other species have a few hairs at the areoles of mature joints. 

Key TO Species. 

Hairs from the areoles of young plants long and white, long-persistcni ; plant low l()\. O. orhiiuLiLi 
Hairs from the areoles of young joints of old plants early deciduous; plant tall... 195. O. pilifem 

194. Opuntia orbiculata Salm-Dyck in Pfeifter, Enuni. Cact. 156. 1837. 

Opunlia crinifera Salm-Dyck in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 157. 1837. 
Opuntia crinifera lanigera Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 157. 1837. 
Opunlia lanigera Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 65. 1850. 

A plant without a very definite trunk, about 1 meter high, often 
broader than high; joints green or bluish green, orbicular to obovate, 
sometimes spatulate, about 1 5 cm. long ; leaves subulate, 2 to 3 mm. 
long; areoles small, in seedlings and young plants producing long 
white hairs or wool long-persistent; spines acicular, several, yellow; 
flowers yellow. 

Type locality: Cited as Brazil, but undoubtedly by error. 

D'ntribut'io)!: Northern Mexico. 

Opuntia senilis Parmenteer is given by Pfeiffer 
(Enum. Cact. 157. 1837) as a synonym of O. crinijera. 
Al. 1845) as a synonym of O. lanigera. They doubtless 
47. 1845) as a synonym of 0. langiera. They doubtless 
both belong here. 

Opuntia vjetternichii Piccioli (Salm-Dyck, Cact. 
Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845) and O. orbiculata met- 
ternichii Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 68. 
1850), names without descriptions, doubtless be- 
long here. 

We have studied living plants sent from the 
Berlin Botanical Gardens as O. crinifera and from ' 
the Botanical Garden of Santiago, Chile, as O. orbic- 
ulata; the plant is not native in Chile. 

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 11: 155, as 
Kakteenk. 48. f. 11, as Opuntia crinifera; Gartenwelt 

Figure 215 represents joints of a plant sent from the Berlin Botanical Garden in 1902. 

195. Opuntia pilifera Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 1898. 

Becoming 4 to 5 meters high, with a definite, thick, woody, cylindric trunk and a broad, rounded 
top; joints oblong to orbicular, 1 to 3 dm. long, obtuse at apex, pale green; leaves subulate, about 5 
mm. long; areoles 2 to 3 cm. apart, scarcely elevated; spines 2 to 9, white, slightly spreading, acicular; 
the outer part of the arcole filled with nearly white, more or less deciduous hairs 2 to 3 cm. long; flowers 
large, red; areoles on the ovary bearing brown glochids and deciduous hairs, the latter especially abun- 
dant towards the top of the ovary; fruit red, juicy. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Puebla, Mexico. 

No definite locality was given for this species when it was first described, and apparently 
no type material was preserved; living specimens identified by Weber are still grown at La 
Mortola, Italy. The species is common about Tehuacan, Mexico, being one of the large 
forms occurring in that region. It is common in all large greenhouse collections. 




215. — Opuntia orbiculata 



Opuntia lanigera; Schelle, Handb. 
[I: 76, as O. lanigera. 



Figure 216 is from a photograph of a plant in the collection of the New York Botanical 
Garden grown from a cutting brought by Dr. MacDougal and Dr. Rose from Tehuacan, 
Mexico, in 1906. 

Series 20. FICUS-INDICAE. 

Large plants, usually with large, nearly spine- 
less green joints; spines, when present, few, small, 
white; flowers large, usually orange to yellow. None 
of the species is definitely known in the wild state, 
but all doubtless originated from tropical American 
ancestors, and they may all represent spineless races 
of plants here included in our series Streplaiwithae. 
Some of them are cultivated for their fruit and others 
for forage. 

Key to Species. 

Joints obovate to elliptic, comparatively 
broad, more or less glaucous. 
Joints dull. 

Joints thin, up to 5 dm. long.. 196. O. ficin-indica 
Joints thick, 15 cm. long or less 197. O. ciassa 

Joints glossy 198. O. iindiiLita 

Joints elongated, comparatively nar- 
row. 
Flowers yellow; joints somewhat 

tuberculate 199. O. Linceolata 

Flowers orange-red; joints not tu- 
berculate 200. O. maximn 

196. Opuntia ficus-indica (Linnaeus) Miller, 
Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 2. 1768. 

CiUtui ficus-indka Linnaeus, Sp. PI. -168. 1753 
Cactus opuntia Gussone, Fl. Sic. Piodr. 559 
1827-8. Not Linnaeus. 

Opuntia vulgaris Tenore, Syll. Fl. Neap. 239. 

ISM. Not Milk-r. 
Opniiiij fiiin-lKiiharica Berger, Monatsschr. Kak- 

teeiik. 22: 181. 1912. 

Large and bushy or sometimes erect and tree- 
like and then with a definite woody trunk up to 
5 meters high, usually with a large top; joints ob 
long to spatulate-oblong, usually 3 to 5 dm. long, 
sometimes even larger; areoles small, usually spine 
less ; glochids yellow, numerous, soon dropping off ; 

leaves subulate, green, 3 mm. long; flowers large, normally bright yellow, 7 to 10 cm. broad; ovary 
5 cm. long; fruit normally red, edible, 5 to 9 cm. long, with a low, depressed umbilicus. 

Type locality: Tropical America. 

Distribution: Native home not known, but now found all over the tropics and sub- 
tropics either as cultivated plants or as escapes. It is hardy in Bermuda and Florida. 

This cactus is widely cultivated in all tropical and subtropical countries, where it is 
grown for its fruits and for forage. It has run wild in many waste places along the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, about the Red Sea, in southern Africa, and in Mexico. 

We have not attempted to list the many named garden varieties of this species, \\hich 
are sometimes Latin and sometimes English in form. 

Opuntia aiiiyclaea fiais-iiidica (Berger, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 154. 1905) has 
never been described. 

The origin of this common, cultivated species doubtless dates back to prehistoric 
times. We have long been convinced that it is a close relative of the Streptacanthae. and 
have kept it out of that series as only a matter of convenience. Mr. A. Berger believed it 
to be a spineless form of O. aiityclaea, which is now a well-established species in certain parts 
of Italy. Dr. Griffiths has recently figured a reversion which appeared on the common 




Opuntia pilifera. 



178 



THE CACTACEAE. 



spineless form which points very definitely to O. vtegacautha as the origin of this form. (See 
Reversion in Prickly Pears, Journ. Hered. 5: 222. 1914.) 

Illustrations: Amer. Garden 11: 471; Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pi. 1; pi. 2. f. 1; Cycl. 
Amer. Hort. Bailey 3: f. 1543; Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pi. [1], f. 1, .^; Diet. 
Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 753; Dodon. Pempt. f. 10, 11; Lemaire, Cact. f. 10; Meehan's Monthly 
10: 28; Mem. Acad. Neap. 6: pi. 1, 2; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 151; W. Watson, Cact. 
Cult. f. 8, in part; f. 80; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 3"'': f. 57,H; Gard. Chron. III. 34: 
89. f. 34; 92. f. 42; Karsten, Deutsche Fl. 887. f. 501. No. 10, 11; ed. 2. 2: 456. f. 605. 
No. 10. 11; Journ. Dept. Agr. S. Austr. 13: 764; Garten-Zeitung 4: 182. f. 42, No. 1; 
Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2598; Watson, Cact. Cult, ed 3 f. 57." 




Fio Zi" - Opuniu fiLUb indica, Cordoba, Argentina. 

Figure 217 is from a photograph of the plant growing at Cordoba, Argentina, taken by 
Paul G. Russell in 1915; figure 218 represents the fruit, obtained in Bermuda by Dr. Britton 
in 1913. 
197. Opuntia crassa Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 81. 1819. 

Opinitia parvula Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 364. 183-4. 
Opuntia crassa major Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 153. 1837. 
Opuntia glauca Forbes, Hort. Tour Germ. 158. 1837. 
Plant 1 to 2 meters high, somewhat branched; joints ovate to oblong, 
8 to 12.5 cm. long, thick, bluish green, glaucous; areoles bearing brown wool 
and brown glochids; spines wanting or sometimes 1 or 2, acicular, 2.5 cm. 
long or less; flowers and fruit unknown. 

Type locality: Described from cultivated specimens supposed to 
have come from Mexico. 

Distribution: Unknown in the wild state; locally found in culti- 
vation in tropical America. 

Haworth, who first described this species, thought it to be near 
0. stricta. Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 153. 1837) uses 0. glaheyriuut Hort. 
Berol. as a synonym of O. crassa ma]or. 

Opuntia parvula, when first published, was supposed to be native Fig. 
of Chile, but this was a mistake. Salm-Dyck compared the species with 
O. crassa and O. spinulijera, but says it is thrice smaller than either. Schumann refers O. 
parvula directly to O. crassa, which disposition we follow. 

Figure 219 is from a photograph of a plant in the Organ Mountains, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil, taken by Paul G. Russell in 1915. 




OPUNTIA. 179 

198. Opuntia undulata Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 32. 1912. 

Opuntid Kiiilosa Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23.- 139. 1913. 
"Plant tall, large, stout, open-branching, with cylindrical trunk, often 30 cm. or more m diameter; 
joints very large, obovate, broadly rounded above, widest above middle, commonly 35 by 53 cm., firm, 
hard, quite fibrous, dished, wavy or flat, glossy light yellowish green at first, but changing through a 
a darker green with a slight touch of glaucous to scurfy brown on old trunks; leaves subcircular in 
section, subulate, pointed, usually tinged with red at the tip, about 4 mm. long, upon a prominent 
tubercle and subtending a prominent dark-brown areole; areoles subcircular to ellipsoid or obovate, 
about 3.5 by 4.5 mm., gray, 5 to 6 cm. apart; spicules yellow in a short, compact tuft m upper part 
of areole, about 1 mm. long, soon 
becoming dirty and inconspicuous ; 
spines white, few, short, erect, flat- 
tened, straight or twisted, 10 to 15 
mm. long, 1 to 3 or 4, mostly one 
or none; fruit large, 4 to 5 by 9 to 
10 cm., dull red to slightly tinged 
with orange and pulp streaked with 
red and orange when rind is re- 
moved." 

Type locality: Described 
from cultivated plant obtained 
at Aguascalientes, Mexico. 

Distribution: Mexico. 

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. 
Gard. 22: pi. 11, in part; pi. 12. 

We have doubtfully referred 
to this species plants collected 
by Dr. Rose on the west coast 
of Mexico, where they were 
growing wild; this is some dis- 
tance from the place where the 
type was obtained from culti- 
vated plants. These specimens ^"'' -!"■ -<'rn"ii'i '-'■''-■•.i- 
are like this species in having quite glossy joints with few spines. The plants were not in 
bloom when seen by Dr. Rose in the spring of 1910. 

Dr. Griffiths has changed his first name, 0. undulata, on account of the use of that name 
at an earlier time, which was not accompanied, however, by description. 

199. Opuntia lanceolata Haworth, Syn. PI. Succ. 192. 1812. 

Cactus lanceolalus Haworth, Misc. Nat. 188. 1803. 
Cactus elongatus Willdenow, Enum. PI. Suppl. 34. 1813. 
Opuntia elongata Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 81.1819. 

Plants tall, much branched; joints elongated, 3.5 cm. long, dull green, somewhat tuberculate; areoles 
distant, small; spines if present few, small, white, 1 cm. long or less; glochids yellow; flowers large, 
yellow. 

Type locality: In South America. 

Distribution: Known only in cultivation. 

We have combined O. lanceolata and O. elongata, although there is a possibility of their 
being different. 0. lanceolata was first described essentially as follows: Joints flattened, sub- 
erect, subnaked, with leaves 3 lines long; stems at first erect; joints lanceolate, green, when 
young with many leaves; spines (spicules?) in fascicles, the shortest of all species (except 
Cactus coccinellijer) : leaves longer than in other species. 

The species was received by Haworth from W. Anderson; no habitat given. In 1812 
Haworth calls it the spear-shaped Opuntia. He says it probably came from South America, 




180 



THE CACTACEAE. 



and flowers in July. It had been in cultivation before 1796; it flowered in 1808 with Haw- 
orth and was described as follows: Flowers shiny yellow; filaments yellow, half as long as 
petals; style longer than stamens; stigmas 5, chick, obtuse, 2 lines long, sulphur-colored. 

De CandoUe says the flowers are 4 inches in diameter. 

Pfeifter states the joints are 5 to 6 inches long by 1 to 1.5 inches broad; that the leaves 
are red and the spicules yellow. 

Opiintia elongata laevior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 18 i9. 2-i2. 1850) may or may not 
belong here. 




200. Opuntia maxima Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 5. 1768. 

Cactus deciimanus Willdenow. Enum. PI. Suppl. 34. 1813. 

Opuntia decumana Haworth, Rev. PI. Succ. 71. 1821. 

Cactus maximus. CoUa. Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino 33: 140. 1826 (?). 

Opuntia gymnocarpa Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 893. 1898. 

Opuntia labouretiana Console* in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 717. 1898. 

Opuntia fuus-indica decumana Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 512. 1905. 

Opuntia ficus-indica gymnocarpa Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4:512. 1905. 
Forming large, much branched plants; joints elongated, more or less spatulate, 35 cm. long or 
more, 10 to 12 cm. broad, rounded at apex, somewhat cuneate at base, pale green, not at all tubercu- 
late; areoles small, distant; spines sometimes wanting or sometimes 1 or 2, short, white; glochids yellow 
(brown in some specimens referred here) ; flowers conspicuous, 8 cm. broad, orange-red; ovary elongated, 
7 to 8 cm. long, bearing numerous large glochids. 

lllustratio)i: MoUers Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 25: 488. f. 22, No. 3, as Opuntia labouretiana. 

*Berger (Hort. Mortol. 409. 1912) says this is known as O. labouretiana Console. 



TON AND ROSE 




M. E. Eaton del. 

1. 'P!ittoi]ointoi Oji/inlia leiicolr'nha. 3. Jo'mt o[ Op;/i///.i LuMcaiilha. 

2. Part of joint of 0/)//;///j wj.v/wj. 4. ]o'm\. oi Op/nilia robiista. 

(All three-fourths size.) 



OPUNTIA. 181 

Type locality: In America. 

Distribution: Known only in cultivation. 

Opuntia maxima Miller was described as the lari^est of all the opuntias and as the name 
is older than any of those here cited, it is taken up for this species. Haworth was uncer- 
tain whether or not his O. decumana is distinct from Miller's O. maxima, although in the 
Index Kewensis the two are considered the same; Burkill considered them distinct, but his 
idea of O. decumana is the O. ficus-indica type. Mr. Berger, on the other hand, states that it 
is evidently of the O. dillenii group, but this is hardly warranted by the description. Berger 
is convinced that O. t'longata is distinct from O. dcciiDunia. 

Opiintid labuiiretiaiia macrocarpa (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 55. 1908) is only a 
garden name. 

Plate XXXIV, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant presented to the New York 
Botanical Garden by Frank Weinberg in 1901, which bloomed in May 1916. Figure 220 is 
from a photograph of the same plant. 

Opufitia baitramii Ra.(inesque (Atl. Journ. 1: 146. 1832) is based on Bartram's de- 
scription (Travels p. 163. 1790), in which he states that the plant is 7 to 8 feet high; joints 
very large, bright green, glossy; spines none; glochids numerous; iiowers large, yellow; fruit 
pear-shaped, purple. It was found about 6 miles from Lake George, northern Florida, 
associated with Zamia pumila and Erythrina. We do not know of any Opuntia answering 
the description, growing in Florida at the present time. Dr. Small visited the type locality 
in 1918 but failed to find any plant answering Rafinesque's description. 

Opuntia hernandezii De CandoUe (Mem. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 69. pi. 16. 1828) is a com- 
plex. The reference to Hernandez applies to Nopalea cochenillijera. Schumann was not 
able to identify the plant illustrated by De CandoUe, but thought it might be referable to 
Opuntia ficus-indica, in which we agree. Opuntia hernandezii first appeared in De CandoUe's 
Prodromus (3: 474. 1828). Nopal silvestre Thierry (Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 929. 1885) 
is cited as a synonym of Opuntia hernandezii. This reference is given also in the Index 
Kewensis. 

Illustration: Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 930. f. 128. 

Series 21. STREPTACANTHAE. 

Tall, branched, glabrous, green species with white or faintly yellow, acicular or subulate spines, 
large yellow or red flowers, and fleshy fruits, natives of Mexico and Central and South America. We 
recognize twelve species. The fruits, known as tunas, are mostly edible and are sold in large quantities 
in Mexican markets, a practice which probably dates from prehistoric time. The long-continued selec- 
tion of plants for their fruit has perpetuated many slightly differing races. 

Key to Species. 

spines short, 5 mm. to 8 cm. long. 
Joints scarcely if at all tuberculate. 

Joints obovate to elliptic, mostly not more than twice as long as wide. 

Areoles close together, sunken 201. O. spin/ilijent 

Areoles not close together, not sunken. 
Joints dull. 

Spines acicular 202. O. lusiMaiill)a 

Spines subulate. 

Areoles with 2 or more short reflexed hairs or bristles at the lower part 
of the areoles. 

Spines strongly depressed; areoles with several hairs 20},. O. Iiyptiadnitlnt 

Spines not strongly depressed; areoles with 1 or 2 hairs. 

Joints obovate 20-4. O. sireplacanlija 

Joirits oblong 205. O amyclaea 

Areoles without reflexed hairs or bristles. 

Spines clear white, terete or nearly so; fruit spineless, 6 to 8 cm. long, 

yellow, edible 206. O. megacanttia 

Spines white to dull yellow, somewhat flattened ; fruit 6 cm. long or 
less bearing a few spines near the top, red. not edible. 
Plant with -i detinue mink; ptt.iK nddisli; liiiu spinv only at top 201. O. deamii 

Plant bushy; pu.iK i li.H,il.itt mlonj ; tiuii sp.m .ill over 2aia. O. dobbieana 

Jomts shining 208. O. ekhlamii 

Joints oblong to oblanceolate, some ot tlicin much longer ih.ui uule. 



182 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Joints shining; wool of young areoles white; petals yellow lO'). O. inaequiluteralis 

Joints dull; wool of young areoles brown; petals deep orange to scarlet 210. O. pillieii 

Joints strongly tuberculate 211.0. torilohens'n 

Spines eliingated, 10 to 14 cm. long 2\2. O. quimilo 

201. Opuntia spinulifera Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 364. 1834. 

Optint'ut cjiiiieLihriformis Martius in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 159. 1837. 
Opunlu nligMMthj Salm-Dyck. Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 241. 1850. 

Tall, much branched plants, joints orbicular to oblong, sometimes obovate, 20 to 30 cm. long, glab- 
rous, a little glaucous; leaves small, red, 4 to 6 mm. long; areoles on young joints usually small, some- 
times longer than broad, the margin at first bordered with cobwebby hairs, afterwards short white hairs, 
either spineless or with short white bristle-like spines; areoles on old joints more or less sunken, rather 
close together; spines on old joints 1 to 3, 1 to 2 cm. long, subulate, bone-colored. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distributio)!: Mexico. 

We have seen no wild specimens of this species, but Mr. Bergcr has grown it at La 
Mortohx, Italy, and has distributed specimens now growing in New YiMk and Washington. 

So-called Opuntia cavdelabyijorniis and O. 
oligacautha are also in cultivation; but the 
original descriptions indicate that these trwo 
species should be merged into O. spinulijera, 
and plants so determined in European collec- 
tions support this view. In so far as we have 
been able to ascertain, no type specimens of 
any of the three supposed species are extant. 
Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 740. 1898) de- 
scribes the flowers of O. candelabrijormis as 
purple, 6 to 7 cm. broad. Opuvtia candela- 
biifor///is ligidior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 
18 19. 68. 1850), an unpublished variety, may 
belong here. 

Figure 221 represents a joint of a plant 
presented to the New York Botanical Garden 
by Mrs. George Such in 1900. 

202. Opuntia lasiacantha Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 
160. 1837. 

Berger. Bot. 




Ofiiiiti.i menjcanlhii lashicantha ^__. 

Jahrh. Engler 36: 453. 1905. Ho. J21.-Upunt,a spui 

A tall plant, with a more or less definite trunk; joints obovate to oblong, 20 to 30 cm, long; leaves 
short, red; areoles small, 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines usually 1 to 3, acicular, white, 2 to 4 cm. long, 
slightly spreading; glochids numerous, prominent, dirty yellow to brown; flowers large, yellow or deep 
orange, 6 to 8 cm. broad; ovary bearing long, brown, deciduous bristles, especially from the upper are- 
oles; style pinkish; stigma-lobes pale green. 

Type locality. In Mexico. 

Distribution: Central Mexico. 

Schumann refers O. lasiacantha to O. robusta. but wrongly, as Berger states, and as 
living plants show. Pfeiffer said it is near O. candi'labri\<)rniis. here taken up under 0. 
spinuli]era. 

This species is very variable and, while it seems distinct from O. nwgacantha. it is 
to be noted that Mr. Berger referred it to that species as a variety. 

Opuntia chaetocarpa Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 25. 1914), in its few 
long white spines, resembles plants collected by Dr. Rose in southern Mexico which we have 
referred to this species. 

Illustration: Addisonia 3: pi. 90. 

Plate XXXIV, figure 3, represents a flowering joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose near 
the City of Mexico in 1906. Figure 222 represents a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Mac- 
Dougal and Dr. Rose at Tehuacan, Mexico, in 1906. 



OPUNTIA. 183 

Opuntia zacuapanensis Berger, Hort. Mortol. 413- 1912. 

"A fine new species with bright-orange flowers. We received this plant a few years ago from M. L. 
Puteaux, Versailles, as Opuntia spec, from Zacuapan.* Joints 13 to 20 cm. long and 9.3 cm. broad, 
obovate, smooth, glossy green, areoles 15 to 25 mm. distant, slightly elevated, small, roundish or obo- 
vate. Spicules yellow, short, not numerous. Spines generally two, white, with yellowish points and 
base, terete, the lower deflexed shorter, the upper one spreading (2-) 3 cm. long. Flowers numerous 
from the top of the joint, 7.5 cm. long and 6.5 cm. broad, ovary obovate turbinate, 3.5 to 4 cm. long 
and 22 mm. broad, areoles somewhat elevated, prickly; petals obovate lanceolate, acute and aristate, 
orange-yellow, with a more reddish-brown hue along the midrib on the back and as well on the shorter 
obtuse outer petals; stamens yellow, style yellowish, thickened or clavate above the base, stigma (6-) 7, 
dirty, rose-coloured." 

We have studied a plant, sent from La Mortola to the New York Botanical Garden 
in 1913, which has not flowered; it appears to be related to O. lasiacantha. 

Figure 223 represents a joint from the plant received from La Mortola, Italy, in 1913. 




Fig. 222. — Opuntia lasiacantt 
X 0.4. 



1898. 



meter high; joints oblong to obo- 



203. Opuntia hyptiacantha Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 894. 

Opiinlhi nigvita Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 169. 1910. 
? Opuuti.i aeloclhU'ta Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 

A tall, much branched plant, but in cultivation often only 
vate, 20 to 30 cm. long, pale green, but when young bright green; spines on young joints single, por- 
rcct, and accompanied by 2 or 3, sometimes many, white, slightly pungent hairs; spines on old joints 
4 to 6 (in the original description 8 to 10), somewhat spreading or appressed, 1 to 2 cm. long; glo- 
chids few, brownish; areoles small, 1.5 cm. apart; leaves small, brownish; flowers red; fruit globular, 
yellowish, its areoles filled with long, weak glochids; umbilicus broad, only slightly depressed. 
* Perhaps Zacualpa 



in Vera Cruz, Mexico. 



184 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Type locality: In Mexico. 

Dhtributioji: Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Tiiis species is very near Opuntia itreptacuntha, and in many cases it is difficult to 
separate them. It is also near O. pili^era, but the areoles are not so hairy. Weber, who first 
described it, gives no definite locality for the species; but Dr. Rose has examined, at La 
Mortola, Italy, a living plant sent by Weber which seems to be the same as one of the large 
opuntias from Tehuacan, Mexico. 

Opuntia chavena Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. 
Gard. 19: 264. pi. 23, in part. 1908) is a near 
relative of 0. hyptiacantha or not distinct 
from it. 

lllusti-atioii: Rep. Mo. Dot. Gard. 21: pi. 
24, as Opuntia iiigrita. 

Figure 224 represents a joint of a plant 
obtained for the New York Botanical Garden 
from the collection of M. Simon, St. Ouen, 
Paris, France, in 1901. 

204. Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire, Cact. 
Gen. Nov. Sp. 62. 1839. 

Much branched, up to 5 meters high, sometimes 
with a trunk 45 cm. in diameter; joints obovate to 
orbicular, 25 to 30 cm. long, dark green; areoles 
small, rather close together for this group; spines 
numerous, spreading or some of them appressed, 
white; glochids reddish brown, very short; flowers 
7 to 9 cm. broad, yellow to orange, the sepals red- 
dish; filaments greenish cr reddish; stigma4obes 8 
to 12, green; fruit globular, 5 cm. in diameter, dull 
red or sometimes yellow, both within and without. 

Type locality: Not cited. 

Distribution: Very common on the Mex- 
ican tabledands, especially on the deserts of 
San Luis Potosi. 

This species is known as tuna cardona or nopal cardon, and is one of the most impor- 
tant economic opuntias in Mexico. It has many forms and seems to grade into some of 
the species whicih we have here recognized. 

Opuntia cardona Weber (Diet. Hort. Bois 895. 1898) and O. coindcttii Weber (Diet. 
Hort. Bois 895. 1898) are two names given as synonyms of the species by Weber, but they 
were never published. O. diplacantha (Berger, Hort. Mortol. 232. 1912) must be referred 
here, but of this, so far as we know, there is no published description. Berger has distributed 
living specimens which we are inclined to refer here. 

^Opuntia pachona Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 168. pi. 22. 1910) is closely related 
to O. streptacantha, if not a race of that species. Opuntia nic<^acantha tenuispma Salm-Dyck 
(Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 45. 1845) was given as a new name for O. lasiaciintlja. but was 
never described. 

Illustrations: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. 1; Stafford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 
1908: pi. 9, f. 6; U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 102': pi. 1; 116: pi. 1, this last as tuna 
cardona; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 3*^^: f. 70, this last as Opuntia pseudotuiia: Useful 
Wild PI. U. S. Canada app. 18, 108, 174, as Opuntia tuna. 

Figure 225 represents a joint of a plant received from C. Werckle in 1902 as O. cardona. 

205. Opuntia amyclaea Tcnorc, Fl. Neap. Prodr, App. 5:15. 1826. 

Op»ia/,i fiais-imlii.i Jiiiyclu'.i Berger, Hort. Mi)rti)l. 111. 1912. 




J5.— Op 



ptacantli; 



OPUNTIA. 



185 



Erect; joints oblong to elliptic, 3 to 4 dm. long, about twice as long as broad, thick, dull green, a 
little glaucous; leaves 4 mm. long, acute, red; areoles small, with 1 or 2 short bristles from the lower 
parts of areoles; spines 1 to 4, stiff, nearly porrect, usually less than 3 cm. long, white or horn-colored, 
the stoutest angled; glochids brown, soon disappearing; flowers yellow; fruit yellowish red, not very 
juicy. 

Type locality: Described from specimens grown in Italy. 

Distribution: Doubtless Mexico, but not known in the wild state. 

Our description is based on the original description and a specimen collected by A. 
Berger near Palermo, where it is grown as a hedge plant. Berger's plant suggests very much 
O. streptacatithd. but is not quite so spiny; it does not suggest very much O. ficus-indica, 
where Berger has placed it. Our description of the spines is taken from Berger's plant, while 
the original description states that the spines are 3 to 8, stout, spreading, unequal, white, 
the longest 35 mm. long. 

O. alfagayucca (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 68. 1850) and O. aljayucca (Riim- 
pler in Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 938. 1885) were given as synonyms of O. auiyclaea. 




206. Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 363. 1834. 

OpuntLi caitillae Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 261. 190S. 
?Opunthi incainadillt Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 11: 27. 1912. 

Plant tall, 4 to 5 meters high or more, with a more or less definite woody trunk; joints of large 
plants obovate to oblong, often oblique, sometimes 40 to 60 cm. long or more, but in greenhouse speci- 
mens often much smaller, pale dull green, slightly glaucous; leaves minute, often only 3 mm. long, 
green or purplish; areoles rather small, on large joints often 4 to 5 cm. apart, when young bearing 
brown wool; spines white, usually 1 to ^, slightly spreading, sometimes nearly porrect, usually only 2 to 
3 cm. long, sometimes few and confined to the upper areoles; glochids few, yellow, caducous, some- 
times appearing again on old joints; flowers yellow to orange, about 8 cm. broad; ovary spiny or spine- 
less, obovoid ; fruit 7 to 8 cm. long. 



186 



THE CACTACEAE. 




Fig. 227. — Opuntia megacantha on Lan, 

Type locality;: In Mexico. 

D'lstr'ihiit'ion: Much cultivated in Mexico; grown also in Jamaica and southern California 
and escaped from cultivation in Hawaii. 

This species was originally described by Salm-Dyck essentially as follows: Erect and of 
the size of O. decumana; joints 17.5 cm. long by 7.5 cm. broad and 2.5 cm. or more thick; 
areoles close together, filled with gray wool; glo- 
chids brownish, becoming blackish; spines 7 to 10, 
white, unequal, acicular, somewhat radiating, the 
longest one deflexed, 5 cm. long; flowers not known; 
leaves small, reddish. 

Opuntia megacantha trichacantha Salm-Dyck 
was given as a synonym of this species by Forster 
(Handb. Cact. 486. 1846), but was never published. 

Opuntia tvihul aides Griffiths (Monatsschr. Kak- 
teenk. 23: 137. 1913), according to the description, 
is of this relationship. 

This is the chief Mission cactus. It is the one 
from which the best varieties of edible tunas are 
obtained and is one of the commonest cultivated 
opuntias in Mexico, having numerous forms, many 
of them bearing local names. 

Opuntia effulgia Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 
46: 195. 1919) was obtained from San Luis Potosi, 
Mexico, and grown at Chico, California; 0. hispanica 
Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 46: 198. 1919) was de- 
scribed from a plant received from Spain and grown 
at Chico; O. chata Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 46: 
199- 1919), from Aguascalientes, Mexico, was 
grown at Brownsville, Texas, and at Chico; O. obo- 
rata Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 46: 202. 1919) from 
Hepasote, Mexico, was also grown at Brownsville 
and at Chico; O. ainarilla Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 




Gard. 19: pi. 24, both as 
iniadilLi: Amcr. Journ. Bot. 



OPUNTIA, 187 

A6: 205. 1919) was obtained in cultivation at Cardenas, Mexico, and grown at Chico. These 
are known to us only from the descriptions and appear to be races of O. megacantha or of 
some of the related tall, white-spined species. 

lUiistralwns: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pi. 8, f. 2; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi 
Opiintia castillae. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pi. 4, 5, these two as OpiiniL 
4: 572. f. 6; Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1917: pi. 16, f. 2. 

Plate XXXII, fii;ure 4, represents a flowering joint of a plant in the same collection received from Fair- 
mount Park, Philadelphia, m 1905. Figure 226 is from a photograph of a plant in the collection of the 
New York Botanical Garden; figure 227 is from a photograph taken by A. S. Hitchcock on Lanai in 1916; 
figure 228 represents a joint of a plant obtained by Dr. MacDougal near Mount Wilson, California, in 
1906, a nearly spineless form. 

207. Opuntia deamii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 309. 1911. 

One meter or so high, with a definite cylindric trunk, branching a short distance above the base; 
branches few, ascending; joints erect or spreading, very large, cbovate to oblanceolate, 25 to 30 cm. long, at 
first bright leaf-green, in age dark green, glabrous ; areoles remote, often 4 cm. apart, rather small ; spines 2 
to 6, usually 4, white or dull yellow, stout, somewhat flattened, spreading or porrect, 3 to 5.5 cm. long; 
flowers 7 cm. long, reddish ; fruit oblong, 6 cm. long, naked, except for 
a few spines near the top, wine-red both within and without, not edible; 
seeds small, 3 mm. broad. 

Type locality: Fiscal, Guatemala. 

Distribution : Fiscal to San Jose de Golf 
Sanarata, Guatemala. 

Ill Hit vat ion: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1 
65. 

Figure 229 represents a joint of 
the type specimen. 

A tall, white-spined Opuntia. 
closely resembling the Mexican O. 
macracantha, was obtained by Dr. 
Rose in 1918 (No. 22390) along 
roadsides at Ambato, Ecuador, pre- 
sumably escaped from cultivation; its 
fruit is edible. 

207^/. Opuntia dobbieana sp. nov. 
(See Appendix, p. 225.) 

208. Opuntia eichlamii Rose, Contr. 

U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 310. 
1911. 

Tree-like, 5 to 6 meters high, the 
main branches nearly erect; joints obovate 
to orbicular, 15 to 20 cm. long, more or 
less glaucous, especially in dried speci- 
mens ; leaves minute, caducous ; areoles 
small, 3 to 3.5 cm. apart; spines 4 to 6, 
very unequal, 2 cm. long or less, rose- 
colored at first, soon becoming white, 
spreading, the larger ones flattened ; glo- 
chids brown; flower 3.5 cm. long; petals 
carmine; style red; stigma-lobes 8 to 11, 
bright green ; fruit 4 cm. long, strongly tu- 
berculate, not edible. 

Type locality: Near Guatemala City. 

Distrih/itidii: Suburbs of Guatemala City, Guatemala 

]lliisiyati,,u: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: pi. (■><^. 

FigLirc 230 represents a joint of the type specimen. 




— Opuntia deamii 



188 



THE CACTACEAE. 



209. Opuntia inaequilateralis Berger, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 36: 453. 1905. 

About 12 dm. high, with spreading; branches; joints oblique, narrowly ovate to subrhomboid, 40 to 70 
cm. long, 2 to 4 times as long as wide, narrowed at base, obtuse at apex, with somewhat sinuate margins, 
green, shining; young joints bright green, not at all glaucous, oblanceolate to narrowly oblong, rounded at 
apex; leaves reddish, subulate, 2 to 3 mm. long; areoles small, circular, filled with white wool when young, 
and having white, somewhat cobwebby hairs on the outer edge; glochids brown, in a dense cluster; spines 
3 to 7, acicular on young joints, but finally 10 to 15, stout, 3 to 4 cm. long, at first yellowish, becoming 
white, somewhat spreading but not appressed to the joint; flowers large, borne at the apex of the joints; 
petals yellow, broadly obovate, refuse with crenulate margins ; stigma-lobes green ; fruit oblong, truncate, red- 
dish, juicy, sweet. 

Type locality: Described from cultivared specimens grown at La Mortola, Italy. 

Distribulion: Known only from cultivated specimens, their origin unknown. 

Illustration: Figure 231 shows a joint of a plant sent from La Mortola, Italy, in 1913. 




210. Opuntia pittieri sp. nov. 

Plant up to 5 meters high, with a rather definite cylindric spiny trunk; joints large, 25 to 50 cm. 
long, 2 to 4 times as long as wide, narrowly oblong, green; leaves subulate, with purple tips; wool in 
young areoles dark brown to purple; areoles elevated, rather large, 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines 3 to 6, slightly 
spreading, acicular, white, the longest 2 to 2.5 cm. long; glochids tardily developing, few, often want- 
ing; flowers deep orange, turning to scarlet; ovary nearly globular, more or less spiny, nearly truncate 
at apex. 

Collected at Venticas del Dagua, Dagua Valley, western cordillera of Colombia, February 
1906, by H. Pittier, and since grown in Washington and New York. 



189 



Opuntia pitticri differs from O. hiaequilateralh in having the young joints thinner, some- 
what tuberculate, and with longer leaves; the areoles, too, are filled with brown or purple wool, 
while the glochids develop more slowly or never appear. 

Figure 232 represents a joint of the type plant. 

211. Opuntia cordobensis Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 513. 1905. 

Much branched, the trunk 1 to 2 meters long, 20 cm. in diameter, very spiny; joints large, 3 dm. 
long or more, broadly oblong to obovate ; areoles prominent, numerous; spines 1 to 6, white, somewhat 
spreading, a little flattened and twisted; flowers usually on the margins of the joints; petals about 12, 
yellow; fruit pyriform, yellowish both within and without, 8 cm. long; seeds about 3 mm. long. 




Fig. 232.— O 



O. cordobensis. xO.4. 



T]pe locality. Near Cordoba, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

The only white-spined species observed by Dr. Rose in 1915 about Cordoba were O. ficus- 
indica, in cultivation, and what we have taken to be 0. cordobensis. The latter is very abund- 
ant, growing on the hills about the city, and sometimes planted as hedges. Dr. Spegazzini 
states that it has the habit of O. labouretiana. 

Figure 233 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near Cordoba, Argen- 
tina, in 1915; figure 23-1 represents the fruit as collected by J. A. Shafer at Calilegua, Argen- 
tina, in 1917 (No. 197). 



190 



THE CACTACEAE. 



212. Opuntia quimilo Schumann, Gcsamtb. Kakteen 7 i6. KS'AS . 

Much branched, about 4 meters his;h; joints lari;e, elliptic or obovate, 5 dm. loni; by 2.5 dm. broad, 
2 to 3 cm. thick, grayish green; spines very long, usually 1, sometimes 2 or 3 from an areole, twisted, 7 to 
14.5 cm long; flowers red, 7 cm. broad; fruit pear-shaped to globular, 5 to 7 cm. long, greenish yellow, 
seeds 8 mm. broad, 1.5 to 2 mm. thick, with broad, thick, white margins. 

Type locality. La Banda, Santiago del Estero, Argentina. 

Distribtitiun: Northern Argentina. 

This plant is known to the natives as quimilo. 

Dr. Rose obtained a good photograph of it from Dr. ). A. Domingucz, and seed and 
a photograph from Dr. Spegazzini. While the volume was going through the press a fine 
specimen in fruit with the long spines so characteristic of this species was obtained by 

H. M. Curran at Quilino, Cordoba 
Argentina. Dr. Shafer's speciinens col- 
lected at Rio Piedras, show that the 
trunk-areoles sometimes bear as many 
as eight spines. 




Fig. 235.— Joint of Opiim: 




36.— Fiuu u£ Op 



Figure 235 represents a joint obtained by Dr. Shafer at Rio Piedras, Salta, Argentina, 
January 4, 1917 (No. 34) ; figure 236 represents the fruit from the same plant; figure 237 is 
from a photograph of a flowering joint of the plant, contributed by Dr. Spegazzini. 

The following may belong to this series: 

Opuntia ithypetala Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 529. 1916. 

Tall, erect plant, 2 meters or more high; joints large, obovate, 26 to 45 cm. long, 14 to 19 cm. broad, 
much contracted below, bright dark green, somewhat tuberculate at the areoles; subul.ate, 5 to 6 mm. long; 
areoles large, often 1 cm. in diameter, 4 to 5 cm. apart; spines white .at least on second year's growth, 3 to 
5; central spine largest, porrect, 3 to 4 cm. long; flowers yellow, fading to rose-purplish; petals erect, 3 cm. 
in diameter; style white; stigma-lobes 6, light green. 

Known only from cultivated plants received from the Berlin Botanical Ciardcn 



OPUNTIA. 191 

Series 22. ROBUSTAE. 

Tall or lar^t plants with blue- or bluish green joints, the spines, when present, white or yellowish. Two 
of the species are widely distributed in warm regions through cultivation for their edible fruits; the other 
is known in cultivation only in central Mexico. All are presumably Mexican in origin. 

KUV TO SPl!CIIiS 

Joints orbicular lo broadly obovatt or 
elliptic. 
Fruit deep red, 7 to 9 cm. in diameter. 213. O. rohiisla 
Fruit greenish white, A to 5 cm. in 

diameter 214. O. giierraiia 

Joints oblong, narrowed at both ends ... 21 '5. 0. 'imicaidn 

213. Opuntia robusta Wendland in Pfeitifer, 
Enum. Cact. 165. 1837. 



opuntia III 



Opuiiliu Liiwyf Webei- in C' 
Nat. Herb. 3: -123. 1896. 

Opuntia gorda Griffiths, Mc 
2.3: 13-4. 1913. 



Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 
Contr. U. S. 
r. Kakteenk. 



Often erect, scm- times 5 meters high, usually 
much branched; joints orbicular to oblong, 20 to 25 
cm. long by 10 to 12.5 cm. broad, very thick, bluish 
green, glaucous; leaves 4 mm. long, reddish, acute; 
spines 8 to 12, stcut, very diverse, brown or yellow- 
ish at base, white above, up to 5 cm. long, but often 
wanting on greenhouse specimens ; flowers 5 cm. 
broad, yellow ; stigma-lobes green ; fruit globular to 
ellipsoid, at first more or less tuberculate, deep red, 
7 to 9 cm. long. 



In Mexico. 

Central Mexico; cultivated 




Opuntia quimilo. 



Type locality. 

Distribution : 
in Argentina. 

This is one of the few species of Opntitiu 
of which we have not been able to verify the 
original publication. It was redescribed by 
Pfeiffer in 1837. 

Opuntia caniues.ui Weber (Diet. Hort. Bois 895. 1898) was given as a synonym of 0. 
robusta, but was never described; and the same is true of O. piccoloininiana Parlatore (Schu- 
mann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 74l. 1898). 

The variety Opuntia rubusta viridior Salm-Dyck (Forster, Handb. Cact. -i87. 1846) was 
never described. 

Opuntia albicans Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 361. 1834) we do not know, but A. Berger, 
who has grown a plant under that name at La Mortola, says it is closely related to O. robusta, 
while in the New York Botanical Garden are specimens labeled O. albicans which are difficult 
to distinguish from O. ficus-inclica. Here belong the following: O. prate Sabine (Pfeifi'er, 
Enum. Cact. 155. 1837), given as a synonym of O. albicans; O. albicans laevior Salm-Dyck 
(Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849- 67. 1850), name only; and O. pruinosa Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. 
Dyck. 1849. 67. 1850) given as a synonym of O. albicans laevior. 

Opuntia cyanea Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 46: 196. 1919) judging from the original de- 
scription may be related to O. robusta. 

Opuntia larreyi. a manuscript name of Weber, which was published by Coulter in 1896, is 
based on the plant known to the Mexicans as camuessa. Weber gave it the name of O. caniu- 
essa, as shown above, but did not publish it; it is usually considered to be only a race of O. 
robusta, but Dr. Griffiths considers it a distinct species, even referring it to a different series, 



192 



THE CACTACl-AE. 



the Ficus-hidkae (N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 64: 56. 1907). 

Berger remarks that this species is very variable, but that it cau not well be divided even 
into varieties. 

Opuntia vw^^dlarthra Rose (Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 529. 1908), in its very spiny joints, 
yellow spines, and small fruits, seems very dirt'erent from the common cultivated O. loh/ista: 
yet when grown in the greenhouse for several years it takes on much the appearance of O. 
robusta. If this view is correct, O. iiiegcilcirthra represents the wild form of the species. 

Opuntia coch'mera Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 263- pi. 26. 1908) from Zacatccas, 
Mexico, is, perhaps, a hybrid between Opuntia robusta and one of the Streptacanthae. 

Illustrations: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pi. 5, f .1; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 135; 
Journ. Inter. Gard. Club 3: 1-4, the last two as Opuntia gorda: U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Pi. Ind. 
Bull. 74: pi. 5, as Tapuna pear. ?N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 64: pi. 1; Engler and Prantl, 
Pflenzenfam. 36^: f. 56, G, as Opuntia albicans. 

Plate XXXIV, figure 4, represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose in Hidalgo, Mex- 
ico, in 1905, and described by him as Opuntia in c gal art bra. Figure 238 is from a photograph 
taken m Zacatecas, Mexico, by Professor F. E. Lloyd in 1908. 




'^ ~^^^*^^?1^'^J^CIZ 



Fig. 238.— Opunti 



214. Opuntia guerrana Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 266. 1908. 

Plant 9 to 12 dm. high, with an open, branching top; joints oblong to orbicular, 15 to 25 cm. long, 
thick, glaucous; areoles 5 mm. in diameter, filled with tawny wool; spines white to yellow, 1 to 6, flattened, 
twisted; petals yellow; filaments greenish white; stigma-lobes green; fruit globose greenish white, 4 to 5 
cm. in diameter. 

Type locality. Near Dublan, Hidalgo, Mexico. 
Distribution: Known only from type locality. 

Except in size and color of fruit this species is very much like the comn^ 
of this part of Mexico. 

215. Opuntia fusicaulis Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 271. 1908. 

Plant 5 meters high or less, the branches erect or spr ading; joints cblong, dor 
less, much longer than wide, glaucous, bluish green, spineless, narrowed at both ends 
ing; areoles small, filled with tawny wool; fruit greenish white. 

Type locality: Described from cultivated plants. 

Distribution: Known only from cultivated specimens. 

Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pi. 23, in part. 



Opuntia rohnsti, 



^ated, I dm. long or 
glochids often want- 



OPUNTIA. 193 

The following may be referable to this series: 
Opuntia crvstalhnia Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 528. 1916. 

Erect, 2 to 2.5 meters high; joints broadly obovate, 25 cm. long, KS cm. wide, glaucous, bluish 
green, becoming yellowish in age; leaves 4 mm. long, subulate; spines white, porrect, only on the upper 
parts of the joints, 1 to 4, usually only 2, the longest 1 to 1.5 cm. long; glochids yellow; flowers yellow; 
stigma-lobes 10, dark green; fruit subglobose, 4 to 4.5 cm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Cardenas, Mexico. 

Distrihi/tioii: Highlands of Mexico, where it is also cultivated. 

Series 23. POLYACANTHAE. 

This series is confined chiefly to plains of the western United States. The species are all low, 
creeping plants, very spiny, with dry fruits. On account of the dry fruit this series forms a natural 
group, although some species in the series Basilares also have dry fruits. One species of series Polja- 
canthae has fragile branches, in this respect resembling the C/n\tssai'n\ie. The species hybridize with those 
of the Tortisphiae. 

Key to Species 

Jciints readily detached, turgid, SDiiie of them subterete or subglobose 216. O. fijgilh 

Joints not readily detached, usually flat and thin, or in 0. arenaria sometimes turgid and nearly 

Joints turgid, usually Mii.ill 217. O. arenaria 

Joints thinner than tlx I.im, mostly Hat, larger. 

Spines, or some of tliciii, \cry long, flexible and bristle4ike. 

Flowers 4 to 5 cm. long 218. O. trichophora 

Flowers 5 to 6 cm. long 219. O. erhiacea 

Spines stiff, acicular or subulate; areoles distant. 
Spines subulate. 

Fruit naked 220. O. juniperina 

Fruit spiny. 

Flowers yellow 221. O. hystricina 

Flowers red 222. O. rhodantha 

Spines acicular, skihic i .luoks ilnsc together. 

Ovary and tiu.i wiili.,iii spims 223. O. sphaerocarpa 

Ovary and fmii witli spims _.__ 22A. O. polyacaniha 

216. Opuntia fragilis (Nuttall) Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 82. 1819. 

C.n-lin li.ivil/. \uitall. Gen. PI. 1: 246. 1818. 

Op/,1.';, .'„. 1 '.;..; Fimelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. .^: i02. 1856. 

0/>//'. ;, ■ ^ ni:uni/v., Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 110. 1896. 

OpHii:;, ;. i...:. ■,>./'//-/>.( and luhenformii Hortus, Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: 2i6i. 1916. 

(.>) Upiniin, iuuimhiMui Griffiths. Bull. Torr. Club 43: 52.i. 1916. 

Usually low and spreading, small and inconspicuous, but sometimes forming mounds 2 dm. high in 
the center and 4 dm. in diameter, with hundreds of joints; joints fragile (the terminal ones especially 
breaking off at the slightest touch), often nearly globular but sometimes decidedly flattened, usually dark- 
green, 1 to 4 cm. long; areoles closely set, small, filled with white wool; spines 5 to 7, brown or only 
with brown tips and lighter below, 1 to 3 cm. long; glochids yellowish; flowers pale yellow, about 5 cm. 
broad; fruit dry, spiny, 1.5 to 2 cm. long, with a truncate or slightly depressed umbilicus; seeds large, 
5 to 7 mm. broad. 

Type locality. "From the Mandans to the mountains, in sterile but moist situations." 

Distribution: Wisconsin to central Kansas and northwestern Texas, westward to Arizona, 
Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. 

Dr. Engelmann says "it is rarely found in flower and still more rarely seen in fruit." The 
only fruit we have seen was collected by Dr. Rose near Liberal, Kansas, in 1912. 

Opuntia hvacbyarthra, sometimes regarded as a variety of O. fragilis. we regard as not spe- 
cifically separable from that species. An examination of the type material now preserved in the 
Missouri Botanical Garden does not warrant a separation of any kind. 

This species is of wide distribution and is especially common on the plains. It usually 
grows low, often being hidden by the grass. In the grazing country it is a most troublesome 
weed, for the joints easily break off and become attached by their spines to passing objects, 
thus greatly annoying and pestering all animals on the range, even frightening horses. The 
wide distribution of the species is doubtless largely due to the fact that the joints are so easily 



194 THE CACTACEAE. 

scattered. A hybrid with O. toitisp/iia has been found in Kansas (Rose, No. 17132). 

The plant is of especial interest as the most northern in distribution of the opuntias. 

It is stated that 0/)//;///'^ fcrr/Von/w Spath (Cat. 136. 1906-7) is "probably a hybrid of 
which O. /w?/7« is a parent" (Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1907: App. 74. 1907). O. .wih'niii (Pfeif- 
fer, Enum. Cact. 147. 1837) was given as a synonym of O. jragi/is. 

lllustrcitio>u: Cact. Journ. 1: 100; Diet. Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 752; Forster, Handb. Cact. 
ed. 2. f. 132; Gartenflora 30: 413; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 12, f. 9; Riimpler, Sukkulenten f. 126; W. 
Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 78; Wiener Illustr. Gartenz. 10: f. 113, all as Opioit'ni brachyurthra. 
lUustr. Fl. 2: f. 2532; ed. 2. 2: f. 2991; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 24, f. 5; Watson, Cact. Cult. ed. 3. 
f. 55; Deutsche Giirt. Zeit. 7: 313, Remark, Kakteenfreund 22, as Opunt'ia brachyaythru; Schelle, 
Handb. Kakteenk. 56, f. 15, as O. fragilis brachyarthrci: Meehans' Monthly II: 57. 

Plate XXXV, figure 1, shows old and young joints of the plant collected by C. Birdseye at 
Florence, Montana, in 1910. Figure 239 is from a photograph of the plant taken by E. R. 
Warren at San Acacio, Colorado, in 1912. 





fSm 


Jf* 


i -vl 

1 ^-^ttF 


?^ 


.A^>'l 


^ra^^lie^aoMl 


i 


-^mK 


^^ 


"> '' ij^K^^^B 


a^^^f^str^ 


*l 




i^^ 






<lrir'3i 




^^fjjjtjBI^^BBI 


|'^''-^R9n 


t^ ^JMrCTaKiy" >• ' 


"JnMj^ 




^^^BvmSB 


fe^g 


l^i^'4 


S 




ifl^^ra 


^^P@ 


S^^ffl^T " 


m 




1^!^^^ 


^0'pi 




K«l>* 





Fig. 239. — Opuntia fiagilis. 

217. Opuntia arenaria Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 301. 1856. 

Roots in clusters of 10 to 15, spindle-form, somewhat fleshy; stem prostrate, 2 to 3 dm. loni;, much 
branched; joints during growing season quite turgid, afterwards much thinner, 4 to 8 cm. long, half as 
broad as long; areoles large, numerous, filled with brown wool, glochids, and spines; spines 5 to 8 from an 
areole, 2 or 3 much longer than the others, sometimes 4 cm. long; flowers red, 7 cm. broad; fruit dry, 
spiny, 3 cm. long; seeds large, 7 cm. broad. 

Type locality: Sandy bottoms of the Rio Grande near El Paso. 

DistiJbi/tion: Texas and southern New Mexico. 

This species is very rare and has been reported only a few times. Dr. Rose, who has re- 
peatedly collected at El Paso, was never able to find it until October 1913, and then but a 
single plant about 8 miles above El Paso on the New Mexican side of the Rio Grande. It 
grows in nearly pure sand not far above the level of the river. 




Plant of OpiiiiliA jyagilis. 2. Flowering; branch of Of'/iiUht rhnj.viih.. 

3. Flowerini; joint of Opiintui poly.uwilha. (All natural size.) 



195 



lllustrat'iov: Cact. Mex. Bt)und. pi. 75, f. 15. 
Figure 240 is from a drawing iit the plant a 



lected by Dr. Rose near El Paso, Texas, in 



ritton and Rose, Smiths, Misc. Coll. 50: 535. 1908. 
AmcM. Acad. 3: 30U. 1856. 



i9i; 

218. Opuntia trichophora (Engelmann) 

OpHiUij missouriensis trichuphora Engelmann, Pre 

Opuiuiu polyacantha trichophora Coulter, Contr. Li. S. Nut. Herb. 3: 137. 1896. 

A low, spreading plant, often forming small clumps 6 to 10 dm. in diameter; joints orbicular to 
obovate, 6 to 10 cm. in diameter; areoles closely set; spines numerous, very unequal, the longer one 4 cm. 
long or so, acicular, pale, often white, but on old joints developing into long, weak hair like bristles; 
flowers yellow, the sepals tinged with red; ovary with numerous areoles, these bearing weak, pale bristles; 
fruit unknown. 

Type locality : Mountains near Albuc]uerc|ue, New 
Mexico. 

Distribi/tioii: New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. 

This plant, while closely related to Opuntia polya- 
cantha, seems worthy of specific rank, its long weak spines 
being apparently characteristic. Its northern extension 
into Oklahoma has recently been determined 
from plants collected by G. W. Stevens. 

lllnstrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 15, f. 1 
to 4; pi. 23, f. 19, all as Opuntia missouri- 
ensis tiichophora. 

Figure 241 is copied fix)m the first illus- 
tration above cited. 





Fig. 240. — Opuntia arena 



-Opu 



219. Opuntia erinacea Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 301. 1856. 

Opunl'ui uniiui Weber, Diet. Hurt. Bois 896. 1898. 

Opuntia nruis horribilis Walton, Cact. Journ. 2: 152. 1899. 

Growing in small, low clumps, the branches ascending or erect; joints ovate to oblong, flattened or 
thick, sometimes nearly terete, 8 to 12 cm. long; areoles somewhat tuberculate, large, numerous, closely 
set, 4 to 10 mm. apart; spines numerous, usually white or sometimes brownish or with brown tips, slen- 
der, often 5 cm., sometimes 12 cm. long or even more, stiff, often developing on the old joints as long 
hairs or bristles; glochids numerous; flowers rather large, 6 to 7 cm. long, either red or yellow; ovary and 
fruit very spiny; seeds large, rather regular. 

Type locality: On Mojave Creek, California. 

Distribution: Northwestern Arizona, southern Utah, southern Nevada, and eastern 
California. 



196 



THE CACTACEAE. 



This species lias long been passing under die name of Opunt'ia nilila Nutrall (Torrey and 
Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 555. 1840). Dr. Engelmann referred it diere in die Report of Simp- 
son's Expedition (page 442), and again in the Botany of CaUfornia, with the remark that 
"this plant seems to be Nuttall's long lost O. n/tihi." And while it is true that the identi- 
fication of Nuttall's plant is still doubtful, it seems improbable that this reference is correct, 




Fig. 242. — Opuntia ennacea. 

for the description does not agree with that of the above, and the original station of 0. rutila 
in "Wyoming is far removed from the other; keen collectors like A. Nelson and V. Bailey, who 
have searched for the plant for us, have failed to find it in Wyoming. Wq suspect that O. 
rutila will prove to be O. polyacantha. 

Opuntia ursina. which comes from the Mojave Desert, seems to be only a slender form 
with long weak spines. This is known in the trade as the California grizzly bear cactus. 
Alverson has described it as follows: "This curious plant is covered with tawny white hairs 
or flexuous spines, some of which are from 3 to 6 inches long, and I have some extra fine 



OPUNTIA. 



ly? 



specimens wirh the spines or hairs 9 and 12 inches long." 

lllust)atioiis: Alverson, Cact. Cat. 9 as Opnnt'ui Hvshia; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 13, f. 8 to 
11; pi. 24, f. 4; Cact. Journ. 1: 93, as Opuntia; Moliers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, 
No. Ic; Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 3: 1149. f. 1548; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: 2363. f. 2603, 
as 0. urs'ina; Meehans' Monthly 4: 9; Monatssschr. Kakteenk. 14: 105; N. Amer. Fauna 7: 
pi. II, as O. rutila. 

Figure 242 is from a photograph of the plant taken by F. B. Headley at a point about 29 
miles east of Fallon, Nevada, in 1910. 

220. Opuntia juniperina sp. nov. 

Somewhat of the habit of Opuntia palyacaniha. but not so procumbent, stouter, and with fewer and 
stouter spines; joints obovate, 10 to 12 cm. long, broad, rounded at top; areoles small, all below the 
middle of the joint naked, the upper ones each bearing one stout spine and 1 to several very short 
accessory ones; the longer spine very stout, 3 to 4 cm. long, brown; flowers not known; fruit dry, ob- 
long, 3 cm. long, spineless, with a shallow, flat umbilicus; seeds large, irregular, 6 to 8 mm. broad. 




^Jom 


of Opunt 


,1 juni- 


FiG. 244.— Seed 


penna 


. xO.5. 




of same. xO.5 



On dry hills among junipers in vicinity of Cedar Hill, San Juan County, New Mexico, 
altitude about 1,900 meters, August 17, 1911, Paul C. Standley (No. 8051)'. 

This species is nearest Opniit'ia rhoddiitha, but has stouter joints and much larger seeds. 
Figure 243 represents a joint of the type specimen; figure 244 represents a seed. 

221. Opuntia hystricina Engelmann and Bigelou', Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 299- 1856. 

More or less diffuse; joints obovate to orbicular, 8 to 20 cm. long; areoles numerous, 10 to 15 mm. 
apart, rather large; spines numerous, pale brown to white, the longer ones 5 to 10 cm. long, stout, flat- 
fish, often reflexed ; glochids yellow; flowers 6 cm. long; petals broad, yellow; ovary nearly globular; 
fruit oblong to obovoid, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, spiny above, dry, witii a compressed umbilicus; seeds 7 mm. 
broad. 

"["ipc locality: Colorado Chiquito and on San Francisco Mountains. 

D'ntr'ibitt'ion: New Mexico to Arizona and Nevada. 

Although this species has a wide range, it is not very well understood; it approaches 
0. rhodiintha in some of its forms. We have referred here a very remarkable form collected 
by E. W. Nelson at Lee's Ferry, Arizona, in 1909. This plant has thick, obovate joints 17 to 
22 cm. long, strongly tubcrcul.irc, wirli sonn- of (Ik- spines very strong, fl.ittcncd, .ind re- 



198 



THE CACTACEAE, 



flexed; the fruit is very spiny; the seeds are 8 mm. broad, angled, with mari;ine thin and 
acute. This may be the plant listed in Weinberg's catalogue, also from the Grand Canyon, 
under the name of Opinitia hochdeiffeii. 

OpiDitia xerocarpa Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 15. 1916), from King- 
man, Arizona, is of this relationship, described as "readily distinguished from other species of 
its dry-fruited allies by its spines, shape of joints and color of plant body." 

lllustrathns: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 15, f. 5 to 7; pi. 23, f. 15. 

Figure 245 is copied from the first illustration above cited. 

222. Opuntia rhodantha Schumann, La Semaine Hort. 1897. 

1 89.S. 



Opuntia 



Dithostemma Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 735. 
iihensh J. A. Purpus, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 



Joints obovate to oblong, 5 to 12 cm. long; areoles distant, 10 mm. apart or more; spines rather 
stout, 3 or 4, 2 to 3 cm. long, brownish, with 2 or 3 short accessory ones; lower areoles usually naked; 
glochids brown ; flowers, including ovaries, 5 to 6 cm. long, 8 cm. broad ; petals red or pink to salmon- 
colored, obovate, apiculate; stamens red or yellow; fruit spiny; seeds small, 5 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Colorado, at 2,000 to 2,300 meters altitude. 

Distribution: Western Nebraska, Colorado, and Utah. 

After a careful examination of living plants of both O. rhodaiithd and 0. Xtnithostentnia, 
we feel convinced that the latter is only a form of the other. The color of the stamens in 
the opuntias does not furnish a constant character. It is hardy in cultivation at New York 
and highly ornamental when in bloom. 

Haage and Schmidt, in their 1915 cata- 
logue, list several varieties of this species: 
brevispina, jlavispina, piscijormis, and schu- 
manniana; and under Opuntia xanthostetmna 
in the same place they list the following varie- 
ties: elegans, julgens, gracilis, orbicularis, and 
rosea. 

lllustratio}is: Meehan's Monthly 7: 133; 
Gartenwelt 1: 83, this last as Opuntia xantho- 
stemma; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 135, this 
last as Opuntia utahensis; Monatsschr. Kak- 
teenk. 30: 153, as Opuntia xanthostemma. 

Plate XXXV, figure 2, represents a flow- 
ering plant received by the New York Botanical 
Garden from Haage and Schmidt, of Erfurt, 
Germany, in 1913- 




-Opuntia 



locarpa. x().66. 



223. Opuntia sphaerocarpa Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300. 1856. 

Small, spreading plants; joints orbicular, 6 to 7 cm. broad, thickish, strongly tuberculate, wrinkled 
in drying, light green or becoming more or less purple; areoles 8 to 10 mm. apart, mostly spineless or 
the upper and marginal ones bearing short acicular spines, the longest ones about 2 cm. long; glochids 
yellow; flowers not known; fruit naked, IS mm. in diameter, with a truncate umbilicus; seeds 5 mm. 
broad, very irregular. 

Type locality: Mountains near Albuquerque, New Mexico. 
Distribution: Known only from type locality. 

We have not, with certainty, identified any recently collected plants with this species, al- 
though some New Mexican specimens appear to be referable to it. 
Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 13, f. 6, 7; pi. 24, f. 3. 
Figure 246 is copied from the first illustration above cited. 



OPUNTIA. 
Opuntia polyacantha Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 82 

C/1//M /.).\ Nuttill Gen PI 1 296 1818. Not Willdcnov 
Opiniti I »,// 1 Hiwoub Suppl PI Succ. 82, 



199 



1819. 

1813. 



0^,«// 


W/M II 


0/>/,»// 


^pluil 


Opm // 


nil 1 1 < 


Opm,l, 


1 in Mill 


O 


, ijinei 


Op„nl, 




Upunu 


tmnuiii 


Opuntta poh " 


Opr/nli 


t poh ti 


Up,<nl, 


• p..h 


Opnni, 


ip h 


Opnnu 


1 II 


Op,n 1, 





1819. 
De Cindolle Prodr. 3: 472. 1828. 
UK Pttifter hnum Oct. 159. 1837. 

inninn ilhnpini Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. .3: 300. 1856 
i/(«(/i micicuptiiiiii Engelmann and Bibelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3; 300. 
■/uei miciospeim I Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856 
iiemii platycai p I Engelmann, P.oc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300. 1856. 
ininii mlnpint Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc, Amer, Acad, 3: 300, 1856, 
■inn n Mi/nniwn Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300. 1856. 
1,1'/ , dlnpnii Coulter Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 437. 1896. 
I : I , I Coulter Contr. U. S, Nat, Herb. 3: 436, 1896, 
; Coulter, Contr. U, S, Nat, Herb, 3: 436, 1896, 
Coulter Comr. U, S, Nat, Herb. 3: 437. 1896. 
Jichumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 735. 1898. 
1 II inn Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 148, 1899. 




Fig. 247. — Opuntia polyacantha. 

Low, spreadin^y plants, with hbrous roots, usually forming small clumps; joints not very thick, orbic- 
ular, usually less than 10 cm. in diameter, generally light green; areoles small, closely set, usually less 
than 1 cm. apart, all spiny; spines numerous, often 9, those from the sides mostly short, appressed, and 
white, but often 1 or 2 of these elongated and like those from the upper and marginal areoles, dark 
brown, with lighter tips and about 3 cm. long; glochids yellow; flowers small, 4 to 5 cm. long, includ- 
ing the ovary; sepals tinged with red; petals lemon-yellow; stigma-lobes green; fruit dry, oblong, 2 cm. 
long, bearing small clusters of white, acicular spines at the areoles; seeds white, 6 mm. long, acute on 
the margin. 

Type locdlity: Arid situations on the plains of the Missouri. 

Distiibiitioir. North Dakota to Nebraska, northwestern Oklahoma, Texas, and Arizona 
to Utah, Washington, and Alberta. 

Opnntid sphaerocarpa utaheusis Engelmann (Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 199. 1863) can 
not be referred to O. sphaerocarpci. where Dr. Engelmann only provisionally placed it when he 
first described it. On account of its yellow flowers we have referred it here. Opmit'hi poly- 
acantha Diicrospcriiui and O. pulydCciulha nifisphia, mentioned in Bailey"s Standard Cyclopedia 



200 



THE CACTACEAE. 



of Hurciculture (3: 2363. 1916), belong here. 

Opuntia polyacautha was one of the first of our western opuntias to be collected and 
described. It was first collected by Thomas Nuttall on his memorable trip to the Upper 
Missouri. He described it in 1818 as Citctits jerox. a name which had been previously used 
by Willdenow, which led A. H. Haworth in 1819 to rename Nuttall's plant, calling it Opun- 
tia polyacantha. At the same place Haworth published a second name, Opiiutia media, un- 
doubtedly based on a less spiny form of O. polsacantha. In 1828 Nuttall's plant was again 
renamed, this time by A. De Candolle, who called it Opuntia inissouriensis. under which name 
it was known for many years. In 1896 Dr. John M. Coulter very properly restored Haworth's 
name 0. polyacantha. 

This species has a wide distribution laterally and ultitudinally. It is properly a plains' 
species, but is found in mountain valleys and on dry hills, usually in the open, but sometimes 
in sparse pine woods. In a species of such wide distribution and growing under such diverse 
circumstances, a wide range of forms is to h~ expected and a number of varieties have been 
proposed for the various races, some of which may perhaps have red flowers. The plant is 
hardy at New York, flowering freely in June. 

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 115: pi. 7046; lUustr. Fl. 2: f. 2531; ed. 2. 2: f. 2990; 
N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pi. [3]; Cact. Journ. 1 : 167; Gard. Chron. 50: 340, the last 
two as Opuntia niissouriensis; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 14, f. 8 to 10; pi. 23, f. 18, the last two as 
Opuntia niissouriensis albispina; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 14, f. 5 to 7; pi. 24, f. 1, 2, the last two 
as Opuntia niissouriensis viicrospernia; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pi. 14, f. 4; pi. 23, f. 17, these last two 
as Opuntia niissouriensis platycarpa; Pac. R. Rep. 4; pi. 14, f. 1 to 3; pi. 23, f. 16, these last two 
as Opuntia niissouriensis rufispina; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 148, this last as Opuntia schwer- 
iniana; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: pi. opp. 13; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 54. f. 14, as Opuntia 
niissouriensis; MoUers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 6, as O. schweriniana; Scientific 
American 124: 492; Meehans' Monthly II: 57; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2604. 

Plate xxxv, figure 3, represents a 
flowering joint of the plant collected 
by Dr. Rose in western Kansas in 
1912. Figure 247 represents joints 
of the plant from Colorado, photo- 
graphed by T. 'W. Smillic. 

Series 24. STENOPETALAE. 

This is an anomalous group in 
Opuntia, since the flowers are dioecious 
and the petals are linear and more or less 
erect. It contains three species which are 
very different in habit and color of spines, 
but which were all united into a single 
species by Professor Schumann. Dr. En- 
gelmann was so much impressed by the 
peculiar structure of the flowers of this 
group that he proposed for it a new sub- 
genus, Stenopnnlia. 

Key to Species 

Spines dark ; plants low, 

prostrate 225. O. sitiiiopehihi 

Spines white; plants erect. 
Joints narrow ; spines 

acicular 226. O. glaucesct'iis 

Joints broader; spines 

stouter 227. O. grairdis 




225. Opuntia stenopetala Engelmann, Proc. 
Low bushy plant, often forming tliickcts, t 
edges of the joints; joints obovate to orbicular, 



Amer. Acad. 3: 289. 1856. 

ic main branches procumbent and resting on the 
to 2 dm. long, grayish green, but often more or less 



201 



purplish, very spiny; areoles often remote, 1 to 3 tm. apart, the lower ones often without spines, bear- 
ing white wool when young; leaves only on young joints, spreading, dark red, about 2 mm. long; spines 
usually reddish brown to black, but sometimes becoming pale, usually 2 to 4, the longest ones 5 cm. 
long, the larger ones somewhat flattened; glochids very abundant on young joints, brown; flowers 
dioecious, small, including the ovary only 3 cm. long; petals orange-red, very narrow, 10 to 12 mm. 
long, with long acuminate tips; fihiments short; style very thick in the middle, the male flowers with 
an abortive, pointed style, but female flowers with 8 or y yellow stigma-lobes on style; ovary leafy, the 
upper leaves similar to the sepals; fruit globular, 3 cm. in diameter, acid, naked or spiny; seeds small, 
smooth, 3 mm. in diameter, with broad, rounded margins. 

Type locality: On battlefield of Buena Vista, south of SaltiUo, Mexico. 

Distribution: In States of Coahuila to Queretaro and Hidalgo, central Mexico. 

Referred by Schumann to O. glaucescens, but surely a distinct species, as indicated by 
Berger (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 71. 1904). 

Although in its habit this Opuntia is much like many others, its flowers are unique, the 
petals being very narrow and erect; it is a very beautiful plant, and at flowering time is cov- 
ered with numerous, small, beautiful flowers. Dr. Griffiths states that it is one of the most 
valuable ornamental opuntias, and that it is hardy in southern California. 

llliistYdtioui: Cact. Mex. Bound, pi. 66; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 172. f. 1; The Gar- 
den 62: 425; Mollers Deutsche Glirt. 25: 476. f. 9, No. 17. 

Figure 248 is from a photograph of a 
fruiting joint of a specimen collected by 
Dr. Edward Palmer near Saltillo, Mexico, 
in 1905; figure 249 is copied from the 
illustration first above cited. 

226. Opuntia glaucescens Salm - Dyck, 
Hort. Dyck. 362. 1834. 

Probably erect; joints erect, obiong-obovate, 
12 to 15 cm. long, 5 cm. broad, sometimes nar- 
rowed at both ends, pale green, glaucous, usu- 
ally purplish around the areoles; leaves small, 
reddish when young; areoles filled with gray 
wool; spines 1 to 4, elongated, acicular, white, 
2.5 cm. long; glochids brownish to rose-colored. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Mexico, but range un- 
known. 

The flowers were not known when the species was first described and we do not know 
that they have since been observed. It has long been in cultivation, but specimens grown 
under glass at New York have not flowered. 

227. Opuntia grandis Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 155. 1837. 

More or less erect, 6 dm. high or more; joints oblong, 12 to 18 cm. long, erect, when young 
reddish, glaucous; leaves rose-colored; spines few, white; flowers small, a little open, 2 cm. broad; 
petals few, narrowly lanceolate, 12 mm. long; filaments reddish; style shorter than the stamens, rose- 
colored ; stigma-lobes 2 or 3, acute. 

Type locality: In Mexico. 

Distribution: Mexico, but range unknown. 

Referred by Schumann to O. glaucescens, but doubtless distinct, as indicated by Berger. 

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 172. f. 2. 




Opuntia stenopetala. 



Series 25. PALMADORAE. 

An erect plant with narrow flat joints, small, brick-red flowers, and apparently erect stamens; the 
epidermis densely papillose-tuberculate when dry. The flowers suggest those of the Sp'nwsissimae, but 
otherwise the plant is quite different. The series consists of a single species, from the catinga region of 
eastern Brazil. 



202 



THE CACTACEAE. 



228. Opuntia palmadora sp. nov. 

Plant often 3 meters lii^li, sometimes even 5, but often low; trunk some- 
times 9 cm. in diameter, sometimes with brown, smooth bark, but usually very 
spiny; branches numerous, usually erect, at times forming a compact, almost 
globular top, at other times quite open ; joints unusually thin and narrow, 1 to 
1.5 dm. long, generally erect, very spiny; leaves subulate, minute, 3 to ^ mm. 
long, green with reddish tips, found only on very young joints; areoles filled 
with white wool ; spines usually 1 to 4, sometimes 6, from an areole, all yellow 
at first, in age white, the largest one porrect, 3 cm. long; petals erect or only 
slightly spreading, brick-red in color; stamens short, erect; filaments orange- 
colored; style cream-colored; stigma-lobes white; ovary broadly turbinate, 2 cm. 
long, tuberculate; fruit small. 

Collected by Rose and Russell at Barriiiha, Bahia. Brazil, June 7, 
8, 1915 (No. 19787). 

This plant is common in the semiarid parts of Bahia, where it is 
known as palmadora or palmatoria. Johnston and Tryon describe it 
briefly without giving it a name in their Report of the Prickly-Pear 
Travelling Commission, 104. 191 i. 

Figure 250 represents joints of the type plant; figure 251 is from 
a photograph of the wild plant from which the above was taken. 

Series 26. SPINOSISSIMAE. 

Erect species, mostly tall, with terete, continuous, unjointed, usually densely 
spiny trunks, the ultimate branches spreading or divaricate, flat, usually elongated, Fk,, 250.- 
spiny or sometimes unarmed ; flowers small, yellow, orange or red, or changing 
from yellow to red; fruit fleshy. We recognize seven species, all natives of the West 
series represents the genus Coiisolea of Lemaire. 




-O. pain 




I'lc. ^-^l- ()|Mn,h,, pjlMMa.iM A iliuk.i ,1, H.ihi.i, Fig. 252.— Opuntia n.isliii. 

Ki;v TO Species. 

Areoles of the joints distant, 2 to -i cm. apart. 

Spines few, 3 cm. long or less, or none. 

Areoles elevated, bearinj; 2 to 5 grayish spines 3 to 6 cm. long 229. O 

Areoles scarcely elevated, spineless or with 1 to 4 weak yellow spines 1 to 2 cm. long. . 230. O 

Spines, when present, many, the older up to 12 cm. long 231. O 

Areoles of the joints closer together, 1 to 1.5 cm. apart. 

Spines of the trunk-areoles, or most of them, deflexed. 

Young spines straw-colored or whitish; plant up to 5 m. tall 232. O 

Young spines purple; plant 6 dm. high or less 233. O 

Spines of the trunk-areoles, when present, spreading. 

Joints distinctly reticulate-areolate, light green; ovary prominently tuberculate 234. O 

Joints indistinctly reticulate-areolate, mostly dark green or reddish; ovary low-tuberculate 235. O 



. nashii 
hahamana 
macracaniha 



mnnilifortiih 
rtibeicens 



203 



229. Opuntia nashii Britton, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 3: 1 16. 
1905. 

Tree-like, or sometimes bushy, dull green ; main axis round, 
1 to 4 meters high, 5 to 12 cm. in diameter, spiny; branches flat or 
becoming round below, the principal ones continuous, 1 meter long 
or more, 6 cm. wide or less, crenate, blunt ; lateral branches opposite 
or alternate, oblong to linear-oblong, often 3 dm. long, and 8 cm. 
wide, only about 6 mm. thick, blunt, crenate; areoles 1 to 3 cm. apart, 
slightly elevated; spines mostly 5 at each areole (2 to 5), divergent, 
slender, straight, light gray, pungent, the longer 3 to 6 cm. long; 
glochids very small, brownish; ovary 3 cm. long, 1.5 cm. thick, some- 
what clavate, tubercled, the tubercles bearing areoles and spines similar 
to those of the joints, but the spines somewhat shorter; flowers 1.5 
cm. broad when expanded, red; petals broadly oval to obovate, blunt, 
about 8 mm. long, much longer than the stamens. 

Type locality: Inagua, Bahamas. 

Distribution: Andios, Crooked Island, Fortune Island, 
Atwood Cay, Caicos Islands, Turks Islands, Ship Channel Cay, 
and Inagua, Bahamas. 

Figure 252 is from a photograph of a plant at Matthew 
Town, Inagua, Bahamas, taken by George V. Nash, in 1904; 
figure 253 is from a photograph of a plant from the same 
place in the collection of the New York Botanical Garden. 

llhistvation: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 6: f. 3. 

230. Opuntia bahamana sp. nov. 

Branched from near the base, bushy, about 1.5 m. high; joints 
oblong to lanceolate, flat, and thin, 1 to 5 dm. long, 4 to 10 cm. 
wide, dull green, obtuse, scarcely undulate; leaves red, subulate, 3 cm. 
long; areoles 1.5 to 3 cm. apart, scarcely elevated, about 2 mm. in 
diameter, spineless, or bearing 1 to 4 acicular yellow spines 2 cm. 
long or less when young; glochids few and short; flower about 6 cm. 
broad; petals obovate, rose-tinted below, yellowish rose above; sepals 
dark rose, whitish margined. 

Distribution: Rocky slopes. The Bright, Cat Island, Ba- 
hamas, collected by N. L. Britton and C. F. Millspaugh, 
March 1907, No. 579-i. 

This plant was tentatively referred by us (Smiths. Misc. 
Coll. 50: 525. 1908) to Opmitia Icuiceohita Haworth. It has Fig. 253.— Opunti.i n.ishii. 

been grown under glass at New York ever since, but does not respond well to greenhouse 
conditions. 

It is here included in the series Spinosissinnie. but with hesitation, its bushy habit and 
larger flowers being anomalous in this group. 

Figure 254 represents a joint of the type specimen above cited; figure 255 is copied from 
a sketch of a flower made by Dr. Millspaugh on Cat Island, when the plant was discovered. 

231. Opuntia macracantha Grisebach, Cat. PI. Cub. 116. 1866. 

Erect, the trunk up to 15 cm. in diameter, its areoles 1 to 2 cm. broad, bearing many brownish 
glochids and several divergent spines 15 cm. long or less; upper portion of the trunk, and the ultimate, 
oblong, or oblong-ovate, spreading branches flat, green, faintly shining, the areoles 2 to 3 cm. apart, 
scarcely elevated, the numerous glochids brown; spines 1 to 4, up to 15 cm. long, nearly white, stout,' 
subulate, or wanting; flowers often numerous; ovary 2.5 to 3 cm. long, densely beset with glochid-bear- 
ing areoles; petals orange-yellow, 1 to 1.3 cm. long. 

Type locality: Cuba, in maritime depressions. 

Distribution: Southern coast of eastern Cuba and adjacent plains. 




204 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Specimens of the plant were erri)neously referred by Cirisebacli to (>. ti'hn\i)ithd. It is a 
picturesque feature of the flora of its native habitat. 

Figure 256 is from a photograph of the plant on the United States Naval Station, Guan- 
tanamo Bay, Cuba, taken by Marshall A. Howe in 1909; figure 257 is from a photograph 
of a plant from the same place, grown at the New ^'ork Botanical Garden. 




232. Opuntia spinosissima Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 8. 1768. 

Cactus spinuiiishnm Martyn, Cit. Hort. Cant. 88. 1771. 
Con.iolea spinosisshmi Lemaire, Rev, Hort. 1862: 174. 1862. 
Erect, Up to 5 m. high, the trunk sometimes 8 cm. in diameter, densely clothed with .ireoles bear- 
ing many long brownish glochids and acicular, deflsxed or spreading spines up to 8 cm. long; ultimate 
branches flat, dull green, narrowly oblong, 2 to 4 times as long as wide, their areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, 
slightly or not at all elevated, bearing brown glochids and 1 to 3 acicular, straw-colored or whitish 
spines 8 cm. long or less, or spineless; ovary 3 to 8 cm. long, often flattened, its areoles bearing short 
glochids; petals about 1 cm. long, oblong-obovate, rounded at the ape.x, at first yellow, turning dull red. 

Type locality: Jamaica. 

Distiibutiu)!: Southern coast of Jamaica. 

Plate XXXVI. from a painting by Miss H. A. Wood at Hope Gardens, Jamaica, sent by 
William Harris in 1907. Figure 258 is from a photograph of a plant obtained by Professor 
John F. Cowell in Jamaica and sent from the Buffalo Botanical Garden to the New York 
Botanical Garden in 1904. 

A species of this series, Spiiiosissiuiue, occurs on Navassa Island off the southeastern 
point of Haiti; specimens were sent us by Mr. F. P. Dillan, Superintendent of Light Houses, 
San Juan, Porto Rico, but they are not cornplete enough to be specifically referred. 

233. Opuntia millspaughii Britton, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 513. 1908. 

Trunk terete, 7 cm. thick at base, 5 cm. thick at top, 6 dm. high or less, branching at the summit, 
the branches divaricate-ascending, narrowly oblong, much compressed, 40 cm. long or less, 5 to 10 cm. 



BRITTON AND ROSE 




UpiDithi spniusissniu 



1. Flowering joint. 
2, 3. Single flowers. 
4, 5. Longitudinal section of flowc 



Cross-section of ov.iry. 
Style. 



OPUNTIA. 



20J 



wide, 1 to 1.5 cm. thick, light green; branchlets obliquely lanceolate, obtuse, as wide as the branches, 
but shorter, 1 cm. thick or less, floriferous at and near the apex; areoles of the older branches pitted, 
about 1 cm. apart, those of very young shoots slightly elevated, the glochids very short, yellowish brown ; 
spines of the trunk 15 cm. long or less, very numerous and densely clothing the trunk, very slender, 
gray, mostly strongly reflexed, pungent, those of the branches and branchlets restricted to the areoles on 
their edges, shorter than those of the trunk but similar, purple when young, those of the fruit yellowish 





gray, 2 cm. long or less; flowers cupulatc, crimson-lake, 1 cm. wide scpils flesh) ovate, acute, 4 mm. 
long and wide; petals erect-ascending, obovate mucronulate, about -J mm wide, stamens half as long as 
the corolla; style about as long as the corolla; stigma-lobes oblong, yellowish crimson; fruit compressed- 
obovoid, 2 cm. long, 1.5 cm. thick, bearing one or two spines at most of the areoles. 

Type locality: Rock IslancJ, Eleuthera Island, Bahamas. 

DistribtHion: Eleuthera and Great Ragged Island, Bahamas; Cayo Paredon Grande, Cuba. 



206 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Figure 259 is from a photograph of the type phint taken at the type locahty by Dr. C. 
F. Millspaugh, February 22, 190^. 

234. Opuntia moniliformis (Linnaeus) Haw^rth in Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 2: 221. 1841. 
Cactus monilijormh Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 468. 1753. 
Cactus jerox Willdenow, Enum. PI. Suppl. 35. 1813. 
Opuntia jerox Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 82. 1819. 
Cereus moniliformis De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 470. 1828. 
Consolea ferox Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862. 
Opuntia microcarpa Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen ^14. 

1898. Not Engelniann. 1848. 
Cactus reticulatus Index Kewensis I: 369. 1893.* 
Opuntia reticulata Karsten, Deutsche Fl. ed. 2. 2: 45". 

1895. 
Nopalea moniliformis Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen ^50. 

1898. 
Opuntia testudinis-crus Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. 

Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 389. 1904. 
Opuntia haitiensis Britton, Smiths. Misc. Coll. SO; 513. 



Trunk somewhat flattened above, 3 to 4 m. high, branch- 
ing at the top, densely armed with acicuhir, yellowish or gray 
spines 12 cm. long or less, their bases clothed with yellowish- 
white wool 1 to 2 cm. long; joints obliquely linear-oblong to 
obovate, 1 to 3 dm. long, 13 cm. wide or less, about 1 cm. thick, 
obtuse, distinctly areolate-reticulate, the areoles somewhat ele- 
vated, 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, those of young joints bearing near 
the edges 3 to 6 acicular spines 1 to 2.5 cm. long, those on 
the sides of the young joints often spineless or with 1 to 3 




Opunl..i m.llsp.iu« 




The Index Kewtn>ii 



in the plain at Azua, Santo D 

! (FI. Med, Antill. I: rl. 68), Inn 



(^PUNTIA. 



207 



yellowish spines, and with small tufts of grayish wool ; older joints bearing at all areoles 5 to 8 yellow- 
ish spines similar to those of the trunk, and brown glochids 6 or 8 mm. long; flowers about 2.5 cm. 
broad; sepals as broad as long, or broader, apiculate; petals yellow to orange, ovate, apiculate, spread- 
ing; stamens much shorter than the petals; ovary cylindric to obovoid-cylindric, terete or nearly so, 4 to 
5 cm. long, its distinctly elevated areoles close together, only 5 or 6 mm. apart, bearing brown glochids 
2 mm. long, but no spines; fruit oblong-obovoid, about 6 cm. long. 

Type locality: Hispaniola. 

Distribution: Hispaniola; Desecheo Island, Porto Rico. 

The ovaries, fruits and small joints of this species are readily detached and on falling 
to the ground strike root and proliferate, forming masses of subglobose or turgid joints 
entirely different in aspect from the fully developed, tree-like plant. It was on this stage of 
the organism that the Cactus viomlijonnis of Linnaeus, founded on Plumier's conventional- 
ized plate above cited, was based; this illustration is, however, apparently erroneous in show- 
ing the style as long-exserted. 

The names Opuiitia dolabrijorniis and Opuiitia cvuciata were published by Pfeiffer 
(Enum. Cact. 167. 1837) as synonyms of O. ferox. Some of the joints and, perhaps, some 
whole plants of this species are nearly or quite spineless. 

Illustrations: Descourtilz, Fl. Med. AntiU. ed. 2. 7: pi. 514, as Cactier moniliforme; 
Plumier, PI. Amer. ed. Burmann. pi. 198, as Cactus, etc. 





Fig. :rtl.— Opuntui momlifomiis. The s.um- specjes .is 260, hu 
showing a different mode of growth. 



Fig. 262.— Opuntia monili- 
formis. xO.66. 



Figure 260 is from a photograph of a plant at Azua, Santo Domingo, taken by Paul 
G. Russell in 1913; figure 261 is from a photograph taken by Frank E. Lutz on Desecheo 
Island, Mona Passage, Porto Rico, in 1914, showing a mass of proliferating sterile ovaries 
or small joints below and the mature stage of tiie plant above; figure 262 represents several 
of the small joints of the Desecheo plant. 



208 



THE CACTACEAE. 



235. Opuntia rubescens Salm-Dyck in De CandoUe, Prodr. 3: -i7l. 1828. 

Opiintia calacanlba Link and Otto in PfeifFer, Enum. Cact. 166. 1S37. 

Consolea rubescens Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862. 

Consolea catacanlha Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862. 

Optinlht guanicana Schumann in Giirke, Mona sschr. Kakteenk. 18: 180. 1908. 
Trunk erect, nearly cylintlric below, flattened above, 3 to 6 meters high, sometimes 1.3 dm. in 
diameter, branching above, its areoles bearing several of many acicular spines up to 8 cm. long or 
more, or spineless: ultimate joints thin and flat, mostly dark green or reddish green, not reticulate- 
areolate except when young, oblong to oblong-obovate, 2.5 dm. long or less, mostly 2 to 4 times as 
long as wide, the terminal ones often much smaller; areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, bearing several acicular 
nearly white spines 1 to 6 cm. long, or spineless; flowers yellow, orange or red, about 2 cm. broad; 
ovary long-tuberculate, 4. to 5 cm. long, about 1.5 cm. in diameter; petals obovate, apiculate; stamens 
about half as long as the petals; fruit reddish, obovoid or subgiobose. 5 to 8 cm. in diameter, spiny or 
spineless; seeds suborbicular, 6 to 8 mm. in diameter. 




Type locality: Cited as Brazil, but erroneously. 

Distribution: Mona and Porto Rico to Tortola, St. Croix, and Guadeloupe. 

Culebra, St. Thomas, St. Jan, and Montserrat plants agree with the description of Opuiilia 
rubescens, which clearly belongs with the Spinosissiniae (Crucifoni/es), as pointed out by 
Berger, rather than with the South American series hiarniatde, where it was placed by Schu- 
mann; it is a spineless state of 0. catacantha, as was conclusively proven by us through field 
observations in the Virgin Islands, and greenhouse plants of O. rubescens develop spines. 

Both the spiny and spineless races exhibit remarkable proliferation of the ovaries, these 
often forming chains of several joints while attached to the plant; these, falling to the ground, 
strike root and form many small, flattened joints 2 to i cm. long, as in Opuntia nionilijnrwis, 
to which this species is otherwise closely related. 

Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Card. 7: f. 6, as Opuntia: Carnegie hist. Wash. 269: pi. 
10, f. 90. 91, as Opuntia catacantha. 



209 



Figure 263 is from a photograph of the plant taken by Professor John F. Cowell at 
Guanica, Porto Rico, in 1915; figure 264 is from a photograph taken by Professor Cowell at 
the same time and place, showing in the foreground a mass of young plants arisen from 
proliferating joints, and a mature plant behind; figure 265 represents proliferating joints of 
a plant grown at Nisky, St. Thomas, collected by Dr. Britton and Dr. Rose in 1913; figure 
266 represents a fruit, collected by Dr. Britton and Dr. Shafer on Buck Island, St. Thomas, 
in 1913. 





Figs. 265, 266.— Opuntia rubcscens. xO.66. Fig. 267.— Opuntia bi.i.siliensi>. x().75. 

Series 27. BRASILIENSES. 
This series represents one of the five subgenera described by Dr. Schumann, which he called 
BrasiUopiintia. It perhaps should be recognized as a distinct genus. We recognize three species in the 
series, which may be races of a single one, characterized by an erect cylindric trunk with cylindric, 
horizontal branches terminating in a series of flattened, thin, leafdike branches. The leaves are small 
and caducous. The spines are few on the young growth, but large clusters are developed on the old 
stem and trunk. The flowers are small, the fruit is juicy, and the seeds are large and covered with a 
dense mass of wool. Unlike most species of Op/intij, these grow in the moist tropical forests, forming 
tall, slender, treedike plants. 

Key to Species. 

Fruit gluhul.u', yellow 236. O. />ij\/lu-niii 

Fiuit clavate to oblong, red. 

Fruit oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long 237. O. bahierisii 

Fruit clavate, 5 cm. long 238. O. argenlina 

236. Opuntia brasiliensis (Willdenow) Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 79. 1819. 

Cactiii bijs/liensis Willdenow, Enum, PI. Suppl. 33. 1813. 
Cac/m paradoxus Hornemann, Hort. Hafn. 2: 443. 1815. 
Ciiclus .irboreus Vellozo, Fl. Flum. 207. 1825. 
Opunt'hi arborea Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 2: 220. 1841. 
Cereui paradoxus Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 1: 335. 1841. 
Becoming 4 meters high, with a cylindric woody trunk and a small rounded top; old trunk either 
naked or spiny; branches dimorphic, the lateral ones horizontal, terete; the terminal joints flat and 
leafdike, many of these in time dropping off; flowers 5 to 5.5 cm. long; petals yellow, oblong, obtuse; 
filaments very short; fruit yellow, globular, 3 to 4 cm. in diameter, with a low or nearly truncate um- 
bilicus, bearing large areoles; seed usually one, very woolly, 10 mm. broad. 
Type locality: Near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Dislnliiilidii: Southern Brazil, Paraguay, Peru, Argentina, and central Bolivia. Natiu'al- 
ized in southern Florida. 

Dr. Small has found tiiis plant established after planting on shell mounds and waste 
places in southern Florida. 



210 



THE CACTACEAE. 



A nuinbei- of varieties of this species appear in literature, of which we may mention 
the following: minor Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 169. 1837); schomburgkii Salm-Dyck (Cact. 
Hort. Dyck. 1849. 74. 1850); sphwiior Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 184. 1834); tenuifolht 
Forbes (Hort. Tour Germ. 159. 1837); and teiiiiinr Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 376. 1834). 

Op/riitid bnis/Uefisis gnid/iorS'd\m-Dyckv,'dS given by Forster (Handb. Cact. 500. 1846) 
as a synonym of 0. bnisz/ieiisis minor. 

Dr. John H. Barnhart recently called our attention to a number of cactus names pub- 
lished by St. Hilaire which have been overlooked by later writers. One of these, Cactus 
hctc'r(jcliic1us St. Hilaire (Voy. Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes 2: 103. 1830) seems to be- 
long here, as tiie following free translation would indicate: 

"Another cactus, which I have already seen near Rio de 

Janeiro, raised its branches in the midst of tortuous lianas; its 
trunk, which grows more slender from the base to the summit, is 
covered with fa.scicles of spines arranged in a quincunx, and it 
shows various stages of verticillate, horizontal, rounded branches, 
to the number of seven in each whorl; these branches, like those 
of the spruce tree, grow shorter toward the summit of the plant, 
and they bear secondary branches, flattened and oval-oblong, 
wliicli may in a certain sense be taken as leaves." 

lllustrdtions: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 61: pi. 3293; Dept. 
Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pi. [6]; Martius, Fl. Bras. 
4-: pi. 61; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pi. 
29; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 100; Vellozo, Fl. 
Flum. 5: pi. 28, this last as Cactus arhoreus: Goebel, Pflanz. 
Schild. 1: f. 37, 38. 

Plate XXX, figure 2, represents a flowering joint taken 
from a specimen in the New York Botanical Garden; fig- 




li.^:fi 




Fig. 268.— Opuntia brasiliensis. Figs. 269, 270.— Opunti.i balm-nsis. xO.5. 

ure 3 is from the same plant, showing terete and flat joints. Figure 267 represents a fruit 
collected by Dr. Rose near Iguaba Grande, Brazil, in 1915; figure 268 is from a photograph 
taken by Paul G. Russell in a public park in Bahia, Brazil. 

237. Opuntia bahiensis sp. nov. 

Trunk 3 to 15 meters high, cylindric, 20 to 25 cm. in diameter, tapering gradually upward; the 
center of trunk pithy, hollow in age, surrounded by an open woody cylinder; lateral joints terete, the 
terminal ones flat and thin, ovate to oblong; leaves small, 2 to 3 mm. long, turgid; spines on terminal 
joints, if present, 1 or 2, slender, red at first, then brown ; spines on old trunk forming large clusters at 
all the areoles; flowers not seen; fruit deep red both within and without, oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long; its 
small areoles with brown glochids; seeds 1 to =i, mostly 1 or 2 in each fruit, very hairy, thick, 8 mm. broad. 

Collected in the vicinity of Toca da Onca, Bahia, Brazil, by Rose and Russell, June 27 to 
29, 1915 (No. 20068). 



211 



Figure 269 represents joints of the type plant above cited; figure 270 represents a joint 
with fruit; figure 271 is from a photograph of the type specimen. 




Fig. 271.— Opuntia b-iliRiiMs. Tlic tret- t.. the left .iml Fic. 272.— Opuntui iimmophi 

.somcwliat in the f(irei;niiind. 

238. Opuntia argentina Grisebach, Abh. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen 24: 140. 1879. 

Opuntid hieronymi Grisebach, Abh. Ges. Wiss. Giktingen 2-4: l-iO. 1879. 

Erect, 5 to 15 meters high, branching at the top, the lateral branches subverticillate, teretes ter- 
minal branches flat, 5 to 12 cm. long, 3 to 8 cm. broad; ovary 1 to 2.5 cm. long; petals elliptic to 
spatulate, 1.8 cm. long, 8 mm. broad, greenish yellow; filaments white; style white; stigma4obe; yel- 
lowish green; ovary flattened, tuberculate, deeply umbilicate; fruit clavate, 5 cm. long, dull purplish 
violet, with wine-colored pulp; seeds lens-shaped, 5 to 6 mm. long, 2.5 to 3 mm. broad. 

Type locality. Near San Andres, Oran, Argentina. 

Distribution: Northern Argentina. 

This species was considered identical with O. brasiliensii 
by Schumann, but they separate on very good fruit characters. 

Figure 274 is from a photograph of a flowering branch 
furnished by Dr. C. Spegazzini. 

Series 28. AMMOPHILAE. 

Erect species, sometimes with a definite continuous trunk, often much 
branched, the joints broad and flat, spiny or unarmed, the spines (when present) 
subulate or subulatae-acicular, whitish, gray or reddish, the large flowers yellow. 

The series now appears to be most nearly related to the Series Torthpinae 
(vol. 1: 126) and may be placed to follow it as series 7a. Opuntia amtrina 
Small, of southern Florida, may be transferred from the Torlispinae to the 
Ammophilae, 

One peculiar species, native of Florida, constitutes this 
series, characterized by a continuous erect subterete trunk, flat, 
spiny branches, and large, yellow flowers. 

239. Opuntia ammophila Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: 
29. 1919. 

Plant erect, more or less branched throughout or ultimately 
with a stem 1 to 2 meters tall or more, becoming 2 to 2.5 dm. in Fig. 273.— Opuntia ammophila. 




212 



THE CACTACEAE. 



diameter, bearing several spreading branches near the top, thus tree-hke, tuberous at the base; joints 
various, those of the main stem elongate, ultimately fused on the ends and subcylindric, those of tiie 
branches typically obovate or cuneate, varying to elliptic or oval, thickish, 5 to 17 cm. long, becoming 
grayish green; leaves stout-subulate, 6 to 10 mm. long, green; areoles relatively numerous, conspicuous 
on account of the densely crowded long bristles, especially on the older joints, the marginal ones, at 
least, armed; spines very slender, solitary or 2 together, reddish or red, at maturity gray, mostly 2 to 
6 cm. long, nearly terete, scarcely spirally twisted; flowers several on a joint; sepals lanceolate, acute 
or slightly acuminate; buds sharply pointed; corolla bright yellow, 5 to 8 cm. wide; petals obovate, 
cuneate, notched, and prominently apiculate, 3 cm. long, scarcely erose; stigma-lobes cream-color; ber- 
ries obovoid, 2 to 3 cm. long, more or less flushed with reddish purple, many-seeded; seeds about 4 
mm. in diameter. 




Fig. 275. — Opuntia cliafFeyi. Photograph 
by Senor Don Teodoro Chairez. 



Type locality: Fort Pierce, Florida. 

Distribution: Inlancl sand-dunes (scrub), peninsular Florida. 

The plant was first collected by Dr. Small near Fort Pierce, Florida, in 1917, and again 
studied by him in its more northern range west of St. George in 1918. He describes it as 



OPUNTIA. 212a 

the most conspicuous native prickly pear of Florida, always viciously armed and with a char- 
acteristically unjointed trunk. In spite of its many slender spines, cattle browse upon it. 

More recent collections of this plant by Dr. Small, show that its range extends south to Cape Romano, Florida, 
and that the definite trunk, at first taken as characteristic of it, is not always developed; his living plants from 
different stations show slight individual differences which do not appear to be specific. This species has been 
erroneously referred by Dr. Gritfiths (Bull. Torr. Club 46: 201) to Opiinli.i kiih.imii Rafinesque. 

Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Card. 20: pi. 224. 

Figure 272 is from a photograph of the plant taken by Dr. Small near Fort Pierce, 
Florida; figure 273 shows a fruiting joint of the type specimen. 

239a. Opuntia turgida Small, sp. nov. 

Plant erect, more or less diffusely branched, 0.5 meter tall or less, with fibrous roots; joints elliptic 
to elliptic-obovate, 5 to 12 cm. long, thickish, deep green, sometimes slightly glaucous when young; 
leaves subulate, 6 to 10 mm. long, spreading and more or less recurved, green, sometimes accompanied 
by fine bristles, but without spines; areoles scattered, often prominent and densely bristly on the older 
joints; spines (as far as known) wanting; flowers often several on a joint; ovary obovoid or obconic- 
obovoid, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, acute, the inner rhombic-ovate, fully 1.5 cm. long, stout-pointed; corolla 
bright yellow, 5.5 to 6.5 cm. wide; petals 10 to 12, about 3 cm. long, broadly cuneate, abruptly nar- 
rowed, rounded or subtruncate at the ape.x, mucronate; anthers, 2 mm. long; berry obovoid, 2 to 2.5 cm. 
long, greenish purple, even, broadly rounded at the base, the umbilicus flat or a little depressed at the 
middle; seeds rather numerous, about 4 mm. in diameter, somewhat turgid. 

Hammocks near Yulee and on the mainland along the Halifax River south of Daytona, 
Florida. Type collected about five miles south of Daytona, in December 1919, by J. K. 
Small, preserved in the herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. 

This spineless, small-jointed species is tentatively referred to the Series AiiiDiophihie on 
account of its fruit characters and erect habit. A plant sent from Kew to the New York 
Botanical Garden in 1902, under an unpublished name, very closely resembles this species. 

Opuut'id uapoh'd, offered for sale by Griissner (JVIonatsschr. Kakteenk. February 1920) 
we have not seen. 

The name Opuntia sp'irocentra Engelmann and Bigelow (Haage, Verz. Cact. 30), found 
in the Index Kewensis, we have not been able to verify. As the name is credited to Engel- 
mann and Bigelow and the habitat of the plant is said to be New Mexico it is doubtless an 
error and probably was intended for 0. inacroceutva. 

Opuntia todari (Haage and Schmidt, Haupt-Verz. 230. 1912) is known only in the trade. 

Cactus italicus referred by the Index Kewensis to Tenore (Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 2: 246. 
1840) occurs first in 1831 (Tenore, Syll. PI. Neop. 241) where also occurs the name 
Opuntia italica. Both are unpublished but doubtless refer to some species of Opuntia. 
Cactus parvifolius Ehrenberg in F. G. Dietrich, Vollst. Lex. Gaertin. 2: 4l6. 1802. 

An upright, cylindrical, almost articulate stem; the upper part bedecked with small, cylindrical, 
fleshy, pointed leaves; on lower part of the stem, at the place where the leaves are attached, stiff bristles 
are formed which are surrounded at the base by a whitish-gray, woolly substance; in old age the stem 
requires a support on account of its slender growth ; if the stem is cut through in the middle and the 
wound well dried, young sprouts make their appearance at this place which serve to propagate the plant. 
South America is its home. 

The above paragraph is a free translation of the description. 

We have not been able to identify this plant, but it is probably some species of Opuntia 
or possibly Tacinga funalis. 

Cereus vulnerator Cortes (Fl. Colombia 69. 1897) and C. guasabara Cortes (Fl. Colom- 
bia 208. 1897) are different names for the same plant. From the brief descriptions it is dif- 
ficult to identify this plant but it certainly is not a Cereus. It suggests some sheathed-spined 
Opuntia such as O. tunicata which has been introduced into South America and is common 
in northern Ecuador. It is known as curuntiUa or guasabara in Colombia. 



THE CACTACEAE. 



213 



Series 29. CHAFFEYANAE. 

The series contains a single Mexican species, differing from all the other opuntias in having an 
annual stem which arises from a large, fleshy root or rootstock. The joints, which are elongated and 
nearly terete, resemble somewhat those of O. leptoi\i/il/s. but are more fleshy, while the flowers and fruit 
are like those of the platyopuntias. 

2-10. Opuntia chalifeyi Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 241. 1913. 

Perennial by a large, fleshy, deep-seated root or rootstock often 35 cm. long by 4 cm. in diameter; 
stems normally annual, 5 to 15 cm. long, sometimes in cultivated specimens 23 cm. long, much branched, 
often weak and prostrate; joints elongated, 3 to 5 cm. long, 6 to 7 mm. broad, slightly flattened, gla- 



,.^ 




Fig, 276.— Opunti 



brous, pale bluish green or sometimes purplish; leaves minute, caducous; areoles small, circular, with 
white wool in the lower parts and brown wool in the upper parts; spines 1, rarely 2 or 3, acicular, 2 to 
3 cm. long, whitish or pale yellow; glochids numerous, pale yellow; flower-buds, including ovary, 8 cm. 
long; flower opening at 10 a. m., closing at 2 p. m., 6 cm. broad; sepals few, small, ovate to oblong, 
greenish; petals few, 7 to 9, pale lemon-yellow, but slightly pinkish on the outside; filaments numerous, 
about 1 cm. long; style slender, extending beyond the stamens, about 22 mm. long, somewhat swollen at 
base; ovary deeply umbilicate, somewhat club-shaped, 4 to 5 cm. long, bearing flattened tubercles and 
large areoles filled with white wool; upper areoles on ovary bearing also white bristly spines; ovules 
numerous, borne in the upper third of the ovary; fruit and seeds still unknown. 

Type Incdlity: Hacienda de Cedros, near Mazapil. Zacatecas, Mexico. 
D'ntr'ibut'iou: State of Zacatecas, Mexico. 
Jllustvdtion: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: pi. 72. 



214 OPUNTIA. 

Figure 275 is from a photograph of part of the original collection as grown by Dr. E. 
Chaffey, taken and contributed by Senor Don Teodoro Chairez, of Ciudad Lerdo, Mexico; 
figure 276 is from a photograph of the type showing the large root and the young shoot. 

As stated in the original description, this is a remarkable Opantia. being the only one 
known which has an annual stem. In cultivation, where the plant is grown under abnor- 
mal conditions, the stem persists for more than a year; but Dr. Chaifey assures us that in the 
desert, where the species grows naturally, the stem dies down to the ground in the dry 
season. We have had it in cultivation since 1910, but it does not do well, and is gradually 
dying out. It has not been found in flower in a wild state, but it flowered with Dr. Chaffey 
at Ciudad Lerdo, Durango, Mexico, in 1915. Dr. Chaffey, who has been studying this spe- 
cies for several years, has made a number of interesting observations; he states that the 
large base, which usually is found 15 to 20 cm. beneath the surface of the ground, when 
allowed to grow above the ground develops clusters of spines like those on the normal 
stems, and finds that the plant is easily started from cuttings which soon develop the 
normal, large, underground part. He further states that the desert turtle eats this plant. It 
is well known that the Galapagos turtles feed upon the native opuntias of those islands. 

The native name of this plant is sacacil. 

The following described Opuntias we have been unable to refer to any of the species 
otherwise mentioned in this work: 

Opuntia bicolor Philippi, Linnaea 33: 83. 1864. 

glaucophylla Wendland, Cat. Hort. Herrenh. 1835. 

laevior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. A6. 1845. 
longigloch'ia C. Z. Ncls.in, Galesburg Register. July 20, 1915. 

lucida Hortu-. W; Illiisri. Gartenz. 14: 146. 1889. 

proslr.i!.: il'n: ^ <. Gesamtb. Kakteen 723. 1898. 

spmaiiicj K.ii«!: L - In Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845. As synonym for O. 

p^cuJ.,:u.:i ,, r r: s.ilm-Dyck. 
tubercuLita Haworth, Suppl. PI. Succ. 80. 1819, first described as Or/// j- /«if)r;//.r//M (Enum. Hort. 

Berol. Suppl. 34. 1813). 

The following names of Opuntia are chiefly found in catalogues or in lists, or have been 
so briefly described that we have not been able to identify them, and it does not seem worth 
while even to cite the places where they first occur in literature: 

Opuntia alpkolo Schumann Opunlhi misiotiriensis elongala Salm-Dyck 

' Forbes erythrostemma Haage and Schmidt 



attulica Forbes salmonea Haage and Schmidt 

barhata K. Brandegee montana Sencke 

barbata gracillima K. Brandegee morenoi Schumann 

bernhardmii Hildmann myriacaniha Link and Otto. Not Weber 

betancourt Murillo ononis Salm-Dyck 

calacantha pachyarlhra flaia Haage and Schmidt 

calacaniha rubra pcichyclada rosea Haage and Schmidt 
Carolina Forbes spaethiana Haage and Schmidt 

ciliosa Forbes parole Forbes 

consoleana Todaro piccolomini Hort. 

consolei Haage and Schmidt platyclada Haworth 

demorenia Forbes praecox Forbes 

demoriana Forster protracta Lemaire 
deppei Wendland elongala Salm-Dyck 

dicholoma Forbes pseudococcinellifer Bertoloni 

eborina Forster pseudoluna Salm-Dyck 
erecia Schumann elongala Salm-Dyck 

jesliva Sencke spinosior Salm-Dyck 

ficus-indica albispina Haage and Schmidt piilverala Forster 

flavispina Forster replans Karwinsky 

hevernickii Hildmann salmii Forbes 

hitchenii Forbes schomhurgkii Salm-Dyck 

ilalica Tenore speciosa Steudel 

joconoslle Haage and Schmidt spinuliflora Salm-Dyck 

JHssieuii Haage spiniilosa Salm-Dyck 

leucostata Forbes siraminea Sencke 

macrophylla Haage and Schmidt stricia spinulescens Salm-Dyck 

subinerinis Link 



OPUNTIA. 21 J 

Opuiitht cLivata Philippi (Anal. Univ. Chile 41: 722. 1S72), O. oltoiiis G. Don (Hist. 
Dichl. Pi. 3: 172. 1834), O. phylhmthus Miller (Card. Diet. ed. 8, No. 9. 1768), O. .uilicar- 
iiioules Sprengel (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 141. 1837), and (). spiuijlora Philippi (Linnaea 
30: 211. 1859) are of the triL^e Cereeae. 

1. GRUSONIA F. Reidienbach in Schumann, JVIonatsschr. Kakteenk. 6: 177. 1896. 
A low, imicli branched cactus, the branches terete, jointed, and ribbed; areoles borne on the tops 
of the ribs, very spiny, but all except the flowering ones without glochids, subtended by small deciduous 
leaves; corolla rotate, yellow; fruit baccate. 

This was first described as a Cevcus from specimens collected by Mrs. Anna B. Nickels 
in 1895, then as a new genus Griisoma, and lastly as an Opiintia. It clearly is not Cereus, 
but when growing might easily be mistaken by its habit for Echiiiocereits. The leaves, 
glochids, flowers, and fruit are those of Opinit'ui. but its ribbed stem is unlike that of any 
known species of that genus. 

1. Grusonia bradtiana (Coulter). 

Cereus bi.idtijiiin Gmlter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: -106. 1896 (Apiil). 

Grusonia cereiformi^ F. Reichenbacli in Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 6: 177. 1896 (December). 

npuntia bvadtuinj K. Brandegee, Eiythea 5: 121. 1897. 

Opunlia cereiformis Weber, Diet. Hurt. Bois. 897. 1898. 

Forming dense, often impenetrable thickets 2 meters high or less, very spiny; stems light green, 
-1 to 7 cm. thick, with 8 to 10 low, longitudinal, somewhat tuberculate ribs; areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, 
3 to 5 mm. in diameter; leaves linear, fleshy, green, 8 mm. long, early deciduous; spines 15 to 25, yel- 
lowish brown when young, soon becoming white; acicular, terete or slightly compressed, 1 to 3 cm. 
long, not sheathed, some of the longer ones reflexed; wool white, turning brown, early disappearing; 
corolla rotate, opening in bright sunlight, 3 to 4 cm. broad; sepals ovate, acute, fleshy, petals bright 
yellow, spatulate, fringed; filaments brownish yellow; stigmadobes 8, yellow; areoles of the ovary with 
long, yellow, weak spines, white wool, and yellow glochids; berry (according to Schumann) ellipsoid, 
deeply umbilicate; seeds not seen. 

Type locality: Plains of Coahuila, Mexico. 

Distyibntio!i: Coahuila, Mexico. 

This species first appeared in print in the catalogue of Johannes Nicolai under the name 
of Giusoiiid cereiforuiis. but we are informed that there was no description and therefore it 
was not technically published. The same name next appears in the Monatsschrift fiir 
Kakteenkunde for 1894. Here Dr. Schumann wrote a long article about the name, especially 
condemning the loose manner in vogue of publishing new names without descriptions, but 
giving no characters of the plant, and as a matter of fact he did not then know it. Two 
months later this name again appears in this same publication, but without description. 
Two years later Dr. Schumann records seeing this plant and describes it briefly, although he 
does not approve of the name Gyiisnii'ia. If the name is to be considered published, it should 
not date earlier than this (December 1896), although Dalla Torre and Harms accept the 
date of 1894. In 1898 Weber transferred the name to Opuntia, publishing it as Opuiitnt 
cen'ifor7)iis: in the meantime Coulter (in 1896) published the name Cereus bradtiaiiKS 
for the plant and Mrs. Brandegee (in 1897) transferred it to Opuntid. calling it Opuntia 
bradtiana. 

llliislratidiis: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 21: 121, as Opuntia bradtiiuia: Schumann, Gesaintb. 
Kakteen f. 101, as Opuntia cereiforniis. 

Plate xxxiii, figure 4, represents a joint of the plant ci)llected by C. A. Purpus at Cerro 
de Cypriano, near Moiano, Mexico, in 1910. 



D. H. HILL LIBRARY 
North Carolina State CoOegc 



APPENDIX 



3a. Nopalea gaununi sp. nov. (See page 37, iiiite.) 

About 3 meters high, much branched; joints small, linear-oblong or oblong-oblanceolate, 6 to 12 
cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. broad, rather thin; areoles sm.ill, I to 2 cm. apart; spines very unequal, 5 to 20 
mm. long, acicular, -i to 12, yellowish when young; Hower small, includir.g ovary and stamens about 
-4 cm. long; sepals ovate, acute; petals oblong, 12 mm. long; stamens long-exserted ; style longer than 
the stamens; stigma-lobes 6, greenish; fruit red, darker within, obovoid, 3 cm. long, its numerous 
areoles bearing spines and yellow glochids; umbilicis prominent, 1 cm. deep; seeds about i mm. broad, 
with a very narrow margin and a very thin testa. 




8. — Nopalea gaumeii 



Collected by George F. Gaumer and sons near Sisal, Yucatan, March 1916 (No. 23250, 
type); also by Dr. Gaumer from Port Silam, 1895 (No. 647). 

Dr. Gaumer's field note is as follows: "A coastal cactus, 10 feet high, much branched, 
small-jointed and of slight build, not of robust build like the interior species. It blooms from 
February to June. The birds are very fond of the fruit and consume it as fast as it ripens." 

Figures 277 and 278 show joints of the type-specimen, 

77a. Opuntia depauperata sp. nov. (See page 101, 

Plant 1 to 2 dm. high, with a flattened, much branched 
top; joints dark green, readily detached, terete or slightly 
flattened, 3 to 12 cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. thick, puberulent; 
spines on young joints 2 or 3, on old joints sometimes 
6 at each areole, reddish to pale brown, acicular, 1 to 2.5 
cm. long, nearly porrect; glochids tardily developing, con- 
spicuous on old joints, yellow; ovary with a deep um- 
bilicus. 

Collected by Dr. and Mrs. J. N. Rose north of 
the station of Zig Zag, along the railroad above 
Caracas, Venezuela, October 17, 1916 (No. 21751). 

This little cactus is very inconspicuous and only 
a few specimens were observed. The station is near 
the top of the mountains which separate the valley, 
in which Caracas lies, from the sea. The region 
here is not so dry as it is farther down on the sea- 
ward side of the mountains, but there are several 
other species of cacti associated with it. 

Figure 2^9 is from a photograph of type plant 
taken by Mrs. Rose; figure 280 shows a joint. i-,g. 279.— Opuntia depauperata 




APPENDIX. 



217 



A plant, apparently of this relationship, was collected by Dr. H. H. Rusby in 1917 on 
granite rocks, narrows of Magdalena River, Clolombia. The joints, however, are glabrous, 
only 2 to 3 cm. long, the young joints have numerous brown spines and the young 
produce long white wool. 

82a. Opuntia pestifer nom. nov. (See page 103, ante.) 

Cactus iLuiin Humboldt, Bcinpl.ind, .and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 68. 1823. 
Cereiis thviiis De Candolle, Piodr. 3: 470. 1828. 

Low and nearly pro.strate but .sometimes 2 dm. high, much branched ; the 
joints very fragile, glabrous; young joints 2 to 5 cm. long, or when old up to 
8 cm. long, nearly terete, 1 to 3 cm. in diameter, or when young flattened and 
2 to .1 cm. bro.id, very spiny; spines 2 to 5 at each areole, acicular, brownish,' 
1 to 3 cm. long; glochids numerous, yellow; flowers and fruit unknown. 

Type lactility: Near Sondorello and Guancabamba. In Humboldt's time 
these places were in southern Ecuador, but they are now in northern Peru. 

Dnty'ibiitioii: Northern Peru to central Ecuador. 

Dr. Rose observed the plant in various places in Ecuador, usually at 
an altitude ranging from 1,000 to 1,500 meters. The following collections 
were made: at Huigra (No. 22306); at Sibambe (No. 22433); and west 
of San Pedro, Province of Loja (No. 23352). 

This plant, although widely distributed and very common, has never F'g. 280.— Opuntia 
been seen by botanists in flower or fruit. The joints, which come loose epauperata. xo. 
easily, are freely distributed by animals. It is so small that, growing half-hidden in the 
grass, it is easily overlooked but very annoying when one comes upon it unawares. Hum- 
boldt speaks of its being troublesome to men and dogs. 





Kunth who describes it as Cactus nanus referred it with hesistancy to the Section Cereus. 
De Candolle transferred it from Cactus to Cereus placing it in a new subgenus Opuiitiacei 
along with C. viotiilifovniis (which we know now is an Opuntia) and C. serpens. He thought 
these might represent a genus between Opuntia and Cereus. 

Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 166) considered it an Opuntia but did not formally 
refer it to that genus. 

This name should not be confused with Opuntia nana (Fl. Damatica 3: 1-13. 1852) 
which is Opu)itia opuntia. 



218 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Figure 281 is from a phottjgraph taken by George Rose at Sibambe, I'cuador, in 1918; 
figure 283 shows the joints of the same plant (Rose, No. 22-i33). 
96a. Opuntia discolor sp. nov. (See page 109, ante.) 

A low plant, forming small dense clumps; joints slender, i to 12 cm. long, 1.^ to 2.^ cm. in 
diameter, turgid, glabrous, dark green with dark purple blotches extending downward from the under 
margin of the areoles; spines 1 to 6, acicular, nearly porrect, somewhat variegated but mostly brown, 
3 cm. long or less; glochids tardily developing but conspicuous on old branches, dark brown; flowers 
light yellow to orange-yellow, only 3 cm. long including the ovary; filaments white; style and stigma- 
lobes nearly white; fruit evidently very small, bright red. 







Fig. 282.— Opuntia disoilor. 

This species is represented by two collections made by Dr. J. A. Shafer in 1917 vvhicii 
slightly differ from each other. They are No. Ill, from sandy thickets, Santiago del 
Estaro, Argentina, February 23 (type), and No. 
95, from gravelly hills near Tapia, Tucuman, 
February 9. 

Apparently common in dry sandy thickets, 
growing best under bushes where it is least dis- 
turbed. The joints easily become detached, sticking 
readily to any disturbing object. 

The species differs from Opuntia retrorsa in its 
more nearly terete joints and spreading spines. 

Figure 282 is from a photograph of the type 
plant; figure 284 represents a joint of the plant 
from near Tapia, Tucuman. 

10 la. Opuntia guatemalensis sp. nov. (See page fig. 
113, ante.) P 

Low, spreading plant, resembling O. decinubetis, but joints glabrous 
green, sometimes with dark blotches below the areoles; areoles small, filled with brown wool, sub- 
tended by small leaves; spines 1 to 3 at the areoles, terete, acicular, shining white with blackish tips 
when young, .soon gray, mostly deflexed, .somewhat spreading; flower-buds reddish; flowers much .smaller 
tiian those of O. dec/inibciis ; petals lemon-yellow, 2.5 cm. long; stigma-lobes cream-colored. 

Collected by Dr. Glover B. Wilcox in 1909 while acting as surgeon on a ship plying 
between Guatemala and San Francisco. Living specimens were sent directly to Washing- 
ton and flowered there in April 1915. 

Figure 285 represents a joint of the type specimen. 




APPENDIX. 



219 



102a. Opuntia pennellii sp. ik)v. (See page 113, iiiitf.) 

Plant low; joints 1 to l.^i cm. long, obov.ite, turgid, bright green; .spines 1 or 2 at each areole, 
nearly porrect, subulate, 3-5 cm. long or less, white v\'ith dark tips; glochids not very conspicuous, 
yellowish. 

Collected near Magaiigue, coastal plain of Colombia, Department of Bolivar, at: about 
100 meters altitude, by Francis \X''. Pennell in 1918. Figure 286 shows joint of type plant. 

Here may belong herbarium specimens which we have seen from northern Colombia but 
with the material at hand it is impossible to determine them definitely. One of these was 
collected by William R. Maxon, April 10, 1906 (No. 38 19) at Puerto Colombia. This plant 
is described as consisting of 3 to 6 joints, branching at the third or fourth joint, the joints all 
being in one place. The flowers are yellow and small, only about 4 cm. long, including the 
ovary. Another was collected by H. H. Smith near Bonda in 1898-1899 (No. 2728) ; this has 
joints very similar to those of Dr. Pennell's plant. It is said to be from 2 to 4 feet high. 




Fig. 285. — Opuntia guatemalensis. xO.33. Fig. 286. — Opuntia pennellii. xO.5. Fig. 287. — Opun 

103a. Opuntia caracasana Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 238. 1850. (Seepage 116, 
ante.) 

Stems low, bushy, a to 12 dm. high; joints oblong, 10 to 12.5 cm. long, turgid, pale green, 
"leaves scjuamiform, minute"; spines 2 to 4, unequal, 2.5 to 4. cm. long or less, pale yellow; flowers 
and fruit unknown. 

Type locality: Near Caracas, Venezuela. 

Distribution: Mountains about Caracas, Venezuela. 

The type specimens were collected near Caracas by E. Otto, prior to 1849. Dr. Rose 
found the plant abundant above Caracas in 1916. It usually grows on exposed hillsides 
near the top of the divide which separates Caracas from the coast, and it was especially 
common along the railroad just below the little station of Zig Zag. Several other cacti are 
to be found in this neighborhood, among which are O. elatior and O. depauperata. 

Figure 287 shows a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose above Caracas in 1916. 

104a. Opuntia aequatorialis sp. nov. (See page 116, a)ite.') 

Bushy, much branched; 1 to 1.5 meters high; the branches spreading or recurved; joints narrowly 
oblong to obovate, 1.5 to 2 dm. long, 3 to 8 cm. broad, easily becoming detached; spines pale yellow, 
at first only 2 to 4 but more in age, subulate, 2.5 to 6 cm. long; flower-buds ovoid, acute, red; petals 
few, 8 to 10, orange-red, .spatulate; filaments and style red; stigmadobes cream-colored. 



220 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Collected in thickets on dry lulls near Sibambe 
J. N. Rose and George Rose, August 29, 1918 (No. 

The locality at which this species is 
found is semiarid and a number of other 
cacti are associated with it, among which 
is the little O. pestifer, described on a 
preceding page. O. ciequatorialis was not 
so common as some of the other species 
and was usually found growing up through 
open-branched bushes and was in this way 
more or less protected. 

Figure 288 is from a photograph of 
the type plant taken by George Rose; fig- 
ure 289 shows one of its joints. 

Il6a. Opuntia lata Small, Journ. N. Y. 
Bot. Gard. 20: 26. 1919. (See page 
126, ante.) 

Plant prostrate, often radially branched, 
sometimes forming mats nearly a meter in width, 
the tip of the branches sometimes assurgent, 
with elongate cord-like roots; joints elliptic to 
narrowly obovate, often narrowly so, thick, 4 to 
15 cm. long, deep green, sometimes glaucous, 
especially when young; leaves subulate, 6 to 1 1 
mm. long, green or purple-tinged ; areoles scat- 
tered, often conspicuous, sometimes very promi- 
nent and densely bristly, the marginal ones, at 
least, armed; spines slender, solitary or 2 to- 
gether, pink, turning red or red-banded, at 
maturity gray or nearly white, nearly terete. 



Province of Chimbo 
!2.^32). 





Fir,. 289. — O. .leqiint 



— O. bt.i. xO.4. 



Figs. 292 and 293.- 

Opiintia macateei. 

xO.4. 



sli^litly spirally twisted; flowers usually several on a joint, conspicuous; sepals subulate to lanceolate, 
acute; corolla yellow, 7 to V cm. wide; petals numerous, the inner ones broadly obovate to flabellate, 
erose at the broad minutely mucronate apex; berries clavate, 5 to 6.^ cm, lon^, red or reddish purple, 
many-seeded; seeds about 5 mm. in diameter. 

Type locality: Twelve miles west of Gainesville, Florida. 

Distribution: Pinelands, northern peninsular Florida. 

It was first observed by Dr. Small near Gainesville, Florida, in 1917, and plants were 
taken to Mr. Charles Deering's cactus garden at Buena Vista, Miami, where it has grown 
luxuriantly, flowering and fruiting freely alongside of (>. />(//Liri/// which it resembles in 
habit, but differs from in its long clavate berries and more numerous petals. 

Figure 290 shows joints of the plant; figure 291 shows its fruit. 

127a. Opuntia macateei sp. nov. (See page 133, cii;/e.) 

Small prostrate plant; joints 2.5 to 6 cm. long, orbicular to obovate, glabrous, dull green, in age 
somewhat tuberculate; leaves linear, 10 mm. long or less, green; spines 1 to 3, brownish, the longer 
ones up to 2.5 cm. long; flowers, including the ovary, 8 to 10 cm. long, 7 to 8 cm. broad, yellow with 
a red center; ovary subcylindric, 5 to 6 cm. long, bearing conspicuous leaves, sometimes 12 mm. long. 

Differs from related species by its small joints and slender, elongated, leafy ovaries. 
Collected by W. L. MacAtee at Rockport, Texas, December 28, 1910 (No. 1992). 
Figures 292 and 293 represent the joints and flower of the plant. 

159a. Opuntia soederstromiana sp. 

nov. (See page 154, iiute.) 

Sometimes spreading and bushy, but 
usually erect, 6 to 10 dm. high, very 
spiny; joints obovate, 2 to 4 dm. long, 
bright green when young, or sometimes 
slightly glaucous, grayish green in age ; 
leaves subulate, small, reddish at top; 
spines at first 2 to 5, but in age 10 or 
more, when young reddish or pinkish at 
base and paler above, soon gray through- 
out, unequal, subulate, 4 cm. long or less ; 
flowers at first yellow but soon orange to 
brick-red, rather large, 5 to 6 cm. long; 
petals few, about 10, oblong, refuse; fila- 
ments and style reddish ; stigma-lobes pale 
green ; fruit obovate to oblong, 4 to 5 
cm. long, usually spiny, red, juicy, with 
a depressed umbilicus. 

Collected at San Antonio, Prov- 
ince of Quito, Ecuador, by J. N. Rose 
and George Rose, October 29, 1918 
(No. 23559). 

This plant was first collected 
for us by Ludovic Soderstrom of 
Quito, at the request of the Presi- 
dent of the Central and South Amer- 
ican Cable Company. Although "^" " ' i """■' -^''^-^^^ roim.m.i. 
great care was taken in shipping the plants they all died in transit. In 1918 Dr. Rose 
visited Mr. Soderstrom's locality and collected herbarium, living, and formalin material 
which has enabled us to describe the plant fully. The illustration here used was made at 
the same time. 

Figure 294 is from a photograph of the type plant taken by George Rose. 



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1 


M^3i 


1 ^^^ 


^^BH 


B 


m 


'^i 


^ 


i 


i^HH 


w 


J*' , 


- 



222 



THE CACTACEAE. 



I6la. Opuntia zebrina Small, Jouni. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: 35. 1919. (See page 155, ante.) 
Plant erect, more or less branched tliroughout, fully 1 meter tall or less, the roots fibrous, joints 
oval or obovate, thickish, mostly 1 to 2 dm. long, deep green, sometimes obscurely glaucous; leaves 
ovoid, 2 to 3 mm. long, bright green; areoles scattered, some of them, usually the lower ones, un- 
armed, the upper ones irregularly armed ; spines slender, solitary or 2, 3, or 4, together, red-brown, 
finely banded, nearly terete, closely spirally twisted: flowers few on a joint, or solitary; sepals deltoid 
to deltoid-reniform or nearly reniform; corolla yellow, rotate, 6 to 7 cm. wide; petals rather numerous, 
the inner ones broadly ovobate, undulate, minutely mucronate or notched at the apex; berries obovoid, 
not constricted at the base, 3.5 to -i.5 cm. long, red-purple; seeds many, 6 to 7 mm. in diameter. 





Fig. 296.— Fruit of 
O. zebrin.!. xO.5. 



-Opu, 

Type locality: Middle Cape Sable, Florida. 

Distribiitio}!: Coastal sand-dunes, Cape Sable, Florida, and the lower 
Florida Keys. 

The plant was first discovered by Dr. Britton on Boot Key, Florida, in 
1909, and this is the most northern locality yet known for it. The species is 
interesting not only from its strikingly banded spines but also as being the 
only known member of the series Elatiores growing wild within the United 
States. In habit it resembles 0. d'lllenn, and on Key West the two species 
were observed growing close together. 

Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 226. 

Figure 295 is from a photograph of the plant on Cape Sable, Florida, in cultivation at 
Buena Vista, Miami, Florida; figure 296 shows a fruit collected bv Dr. Rose on Key West, 
Florida, in 1918. 

173a. Opuntia keyensis Britton in Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: 31. 1919. (See page 
162, ante.) 
Plant erect, much branched, sometimes forming clumps 3 meters tall, with long fibrous roots; joints 
elliptic, oval, obovate, or spatulate, thick, 1 to 3 dm. long, bright green; leaves ovoid, 2 to 3 mm. 
long, green ; areoles rather conspicuous, often relatively large and prominent, apparently unarmed ; spines 
stout, 4 to 13 together, very short, mostly hidden in the bristles; at first pink, at maturity salmon-col- 
ored, slightly flattened; flowers solitary or 2 or 3 on a joint; sepals deltoid to subieniform, acute or 
acutish; corolla .salmon-colored, cup-like, or short-campanulate, 3 to 3.5 cm. wide; petals rather few, 
thinner ones broadly obovate or orbicular-obovate, undulate, scarcely, if at all, mucronate; berries obo- 
void, 4 to 6 cm. long, purple; seeds numerous. 



223 




Type locality: Boot Key, Florida. 

Distrihutio)!: Hammocks, Florida Keys and Cape 
Sable. 

OpHut'ia keyetisis was first collected by Dr. Britten in 
1909 on Boot Key, Florida. Plants brought subsequently 
by Dr. Small from the Keys to Buena Vista, Miami, and 
there observed by him under cultivation show the spe 
cies to be distinct from either 0. dilleiiii or O. stricta 
with both of which it has been associated. 

Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 225. 

Figure 297 is from a photograph of the plant in 
cultivation at Buena Vista, Miami, Florida; figures 298 
and 299 show its flowers, collected by Dr. Small on Key 
Largo, Florida, in 1909. See also plate xxx, figure 1. 

Hort. 




.ind 299.— Flower of Opu 
keyensis. xO.5. 



183a. Opuntia bonplandii (HBK.) Weber, Diet. 
Bois 894. 1898. (See page 168, ante.) 

Cactus bonplandii Humboldt. Bonphind. and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 69. 1S23. 
Plants tall, 2 to -i meters high, open-branching; joints ovate to obovate, 2 to 3 dm. long, dull 
green; spines at lirst 2 to 7, pale yellow, acicular, 1 to 1.^ cm. long but soon falling off; flowers orange- 
colored, about 6 cm. long and nearly as broad when fully expanded; petals obtuse; stamens short. 

Type locality: Cuenca, Ecuador. 
Distributio)!: Ecuador. 

This species was collected by Humboldt and Bonpland at Cuenca, Ecuador, and was 
first described as Cactus (Opuntia) bonplandii. Apparently the type was not preserved as Dr. 



224 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Rose did not find it either at Berlin or Paris in 1912. Schumann mentions it only in a note 
under O. quhois'n following Weber who associates the two. Dr. Rose, while in Ecuador in 
1918, spent about a week at Cuenca collecting plants in all directions from the town. The 
only Opiint'ut in this whole region is the one above described which grows in hedges and along 
the roadsides. It may be an introduced species which has escaped from gardens but we know 
nothing in cultivation just like it. It resembles somewhat the Nopal de Castilla, so common 




Opuntia bonplandii 



in Mexico and the southwestern states Humboldt compared it with the tuna de Espana which 
may be the same. Bonpland seems to have called his plant Cactus coccinellifer which it very 
much resembles in the shape of the joints and in being spineless in age. If we are right in 
our interpretation of this species it has no close alliance with 0. qu'itensis which Dr. Rose 
collected also; it has very small flowers with erect petals which are not readily affected by 
the sun as are those of O. bouphiinii'i and most of the other species. 




Fir,. 301.— Op 



Figure 300 shows a joint 



:ted by Dr. Rose at Cuenca, Ecuadi 



1918. 



207a. Opuntia dobbieana sp. nov. (See page 187, iiiitc.) 

Usually low and bushy, forming dense thickets, but .sometimes tall and then 3 to 4 meters high; 
joints orbicular to short-oblong or obovate, 1 to 2.5 dm. long, pale green in color, very spiny; leaves 
minute, 1 to 2 mm. long, green, spreading; areoles small, closely set; spines white, 5 to 12, usually 
acicular but on old joints subulate, 1 to .S dm. long, accompanied by 2 to 4 reflexed hairs from the 
lower side of the areole; flower, including ovary, 5 to 6 cm. long; petals chocolate-colored, oblong, 2 
cm. long; filaments and style pinkish; stigma-lobes dull green; ovary strongly tubercled, leafy, very 
spiny, especially towards the top; fruit juicy, red, at first spiny, 3 to 5 cm. long. 

Common in dry places from Huigra to Sibambe, Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador. 

Collected by J. N. Rose and George Rose, August to November 1918, at Huigra (No. 
22201, type) ; at Sibambe, August 29 (No. 22434). 

This species, on account of its white spines, is referred to the Styeptjcjiithue. althoug'i 
it usually is more bushy than these species generally are. So far as we could learn, the fruit 
is not used by the Ecuadoreans; the plant was never seen cultivated, and there is every rea- 
son to believe it is native to Ecuador. 

The species is named for John Dobbie, general manager of the Guayaquil and Quito 
Railway, whose courtesies and assistance added greatly to the success of Dr. Rose's visit 
to Ecuador in 1918. 

Figures 301 and 302 (the latter at the bottom of this page) are from the photographs 
of the type plant, taken by George Rose. 




INDEX. 



(Pat;ts of pr 



■ies in heavy-face type.) 



Aaron's beard, 175 








Ca 


-tui-~conli,i»ed. 


Aj;ave, 117 










moniliformis, 206, 2 


Ahoplocarpus, 11 










nanus, 2n 


Airampo, 161 










nigricans, 153 


Alfilerillo, 26 










opuntia, 1',, m. 1_ 


Ammophilae, 45, 211 










opunli.l iiurnus, 16 


Apple, 9 












Auiantiacae, 45, 74, 106 










opuntia polyanthos. 


Ayrampo, 135 










opuntia tuna. 157 


Barbados gooseberry, 10 










opunti.refl(Uus, 27 


Basilares, 45, 118, 193 










ottonis. 121 


Beaucarnea. 117 










ovoides, 95 


Beaver-tail, 120 










paradoxus, 209 


Bigelovianae, 44, 58 










pentlandii, 98 


Blade apple, 10 










pereskia, 9, 10, 11 


Brasilienses, 45, 209 










polyanthos, 113, 11 


Brasiliopuntia, 209 










portulacifolius, 23 


Bullsucker, 43, 116 










pseudococcincllifer. 


Cactaceae, 3, 8 










pusiUus, 105 


Cactales, 8 










rosa, 19, 20 


Cacti, 5, 6, 7, 9, 28, 33, 39, 42 


, 49 


66 


67, 80, 87, 94, 95, 




rotundifolia. 27 


111, 126, 137, 151, 216, 


219 


220 




salmianus, 74 


Cactodendron, 42, 43 










sericeus, 134 


Cactus, 5, 6, 8, 9, 23, 30, 32, 


34, 


35, 


43, 49, 87. 88. 93, 




spinosissimus, 204 


107, 113, 114, 116. 


120, 1 


1, 146, 164, 177, 




strictus, l6l 


186, 207, 210, 215, 


.16, 


217 


221 




subinermis. 34 


Cactus, arboreus, 209, 210 










subquadrifolius. 65 


aurantiacus, 107 










sulphureus, 134 


bleo, 17, 63 










tomentosus, 173 


bonplandii, 223 










triacanthos, 112 


bradypus, 121 










tuberculatus, 214 


brasiliensis, 209 










tuna. 113. 114, 163 


californicus, 58 










tuna elatitir. 153 


chinensis, 156, 157 










tuna nigricans, 153 


coccinellifer, 179, 224 










tunicatus, 65 


cochenillrfer, 34, 35, 173 










urumbeba, 156, 157 


compressus, 127 










urumbella, 157 


corrugatus, 95 










zinniaeflora, 21 


curassavicus, 102 








Camuessa, 191 


cylindricus, 63. 77 








Cane cactus, 43 


decumanus, 180 








Cephalocereus, 116 


dillenii. 162. 163 








Cereeae, 8, 24, 215 


eburneus, 95 








Ce 


eus, 58, 75, 151, 215 


elatior, 153 










articulatus. 89 


elongatus, 179 










bradtianus. 215 


ferox, 199, 200, 206 










californicus, 58 


ficus-indica, 177 










chiloensis, 79 


fimbriatus, 13 










clavarioides, 73 


foliosus, 105 










cylindricus, 77 


fragilis, 193 










imbricatus, 65 


frutesccns, 27 










moniliformis, 206. 2 


heterocladus, 210 










nanus, 217 


horridus, 21 












humifusus, 127 










paradoxus, 209 


humilis, 113 










sericeus, 73 


indicus, 156 










serpens, 217 


lanceolatus. 179 










syringacanthus, 89 


linki,. 121 










tunicatus, 66 


liicidiis, 10 








c;h 


etopliorae. 174 


mammillaris, 4 








Ch 


(feyanae. 45, 213 


microdasys, 120, 121 








Ch 


.11a. 43. 61 


monocanthos, 156 








Cla 


varioides, 44, 72 



228 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Clavatae, 44, 79, 84 
Cola de diablo, 26 
Consolea, 42, 43, 202 

catacantha, 208 

ferox, 206 

leucacantha, 175 

rubescens, 43, 2()H 

spinosissima, 201 
Corotilla, 96 
Cow's tongue, 164 
Criniferae, 140. I'fi 
Cruciformes, 20S 
Cuija, 149 

Curassavicae, 45, 102, lol, 106, 193 
Cylindropuniia, 32, 44, 45, 46, 71, 75, 79, 84, 100, l42 
Dildoes, 105 

Dillenianae, 45, 159, 169 
Durasnilla, 175 
Echinocactus, 117 
Echinocarpae, 44, 56 
Echinocereus, 79, 215 
Elatae, 45, 152, 156 
Elatiores, 45, 149, 152, 155, 156, 222 
Epiphyllum, 9 

gaillardae, 6 
Erythrina, 181 
Espina, 76 
Espina blanca, 41 
Espinha de Sao Antonio, 19 
Etuberculatae, 72, 73 
Eupereskia, 10 
Ficindica, 42, 43 

Ficus-indicae. 45, 156, 166, 177, 191 
Floccosae, 44, 86 
Flor de Cera, 19 
Frutescentes, 73 
Fulgidae, 44, 67 
Fulvispinosae, 148 
Clomeratae, 44, 87 
Grandifoliae, 9, 11 
Grizzly bear cactus, 196 
Grusonia, 24, 215 
Grusonia bradtiana, 215 

cereiformis, 215 
Guamacho, 17 
Harrisia, 24 
Hibiscus, 19 
Hibiscus esculentus, 19 
Hylocereus, 24 
Imbricatae, 44, 60 
Inamoenae, 45, 125 
Inarmatae, 208 
Iniabanto, 19 
Lemaireocereus, 116 
Lemon vine, 10 
Lengua de vaca, 164 
Leon, 96 
Leoncito, 96 
Leptocaules, 44, 46, 49 
Leucotrichae, 45, 174 
Loranthus apliyllus, ^9 
Macdougalianae, 45, 169 
Maihu^n, 40 
Maihuenia, 8, 24, 40-42, 43, 95 

brachydclphys, 41, 42, 

patagonica, 4l 

philippii, 41 

poeppigii, 4l, 42 



Mailiutnia — C(iiiiiniii;il. 

tehuelches, 41, 42 

valentinii, 40, 4l, 42 
Mai us, 9 
Mammillaria, 4 
Mateare, 13 
Miquelianae, 44, 78 
Mission cactus, 186 
Najij de Culebra, 19 
Nopal, 34 
Nopal cardon, 184 
Nopal de Castilla, 224 
Nopalea, 8, 24, 33-39, 43, 155, 216 

auberi, 34, 37, 38, 39 

cochenillifera, 34, 181 

dejecta, 34, 36, 37 

gaumeri, 34, 37, 216 

guatemalensis, 33, 34, 35 

inaperta, 33, 34, 37, 38 

karwinskiana, 34, 37, 38, 39 

lutea, 33, 34, 35 

moniliformis, 33, 206 
Nopalefa, 26 
Nopalnochetzli, 35 
Ohulago, 103 
Olago, 103 

Opuntia, 8, 14, 24, 25, 30, 32, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 42-215, 
217-224 

acanthocarpa, 56, 57 

aciculata, 160, 165 

acracantlia, 91 

aequatori.ilis, 110, 116, 219, 220 

affinis, 169, 170 

airampo, 161 

albicans, 191 

albiflora, 73, 74 

alhisctosa, 134 

alcahes, 58, 67, 69, '0 

alfagayucca, 185 

alfavucca, 185 

allairei, 126 

alpicola, 214 

alpina, 33 

alta, 165, 166 

americana, 214 

ammophila, 211 

amyclaea, 112, 177, 181, 185 

amyclaea ficus-indica, 177 

anacantha, 107, 109, 110 

anahuacensis, 169 

andicola clongata, 89 

andicola fulvispina, 89 

andicola major, 89 

andicola minor, 90 

angusta, 101 

angustata, 124, 129, 140, 142, 149 

angustata comonduensis, 124 

antillana, 110, 115, 163 

aoracantha, 90, 91 

aquosa, 29 

arborea, 209 

arborescens, 43, 63, 64, 65 

arborescens versicolor, 62 

arbuscula, 47, 50, 51 

arechavaletai, 156, 158 

arenaria, 193, 194, 195 



229 



Opu 



209, 



argentina 
arizonica, 147, 148 
arkansana, 128 
articulata, 89 
assumptiiinis, 1S9 
atacamensis, 90. 94 
atrispina, 140, 142 
atropes. 164. 1~|) 
attulica. 214 
auberi, ." 
aulacotliclL-. 95 



107 



ausfr n.i, 1^ 126. 130 
a^fuica, 1 10. 14.3 
bahanian.i, 202. 203, 204 
bahiensis, 209. 210, 211 
balearica. 161 
ballii. 137 
barbata. 214 
bai-bata .macillima, 214 
bartramii. 181 

basilaris. lis. 110. 120. 136 
basilan\.ilhi(l,H,i, 120 
basilans ciic i iik.i I 2(1 
ba,silansi,,iJaii, i;i, 
hasil.insu.stata, 12(1 
hasilarisnana. 12ii 
KiMlansncv.ulciiMs. 120 
ba.silansptcisd(.rlhi. 120 
basilans lanio^a, I 1'). 120 
basiiaris lixltasci. I 1^ 
beckenana. 168 
bella, 110. Ill, 112 
bentonii. 161. 163 
bergeriana, 149, 152, 169 
beinaidina, 57, 81 
bernardina cristata, 57 
bernhardinii, 214 
betancourt, 214 
bicolor. 214 
bigelovii, 58, 59 
blakeana. 144. 145 
boldingliii, 149, 155 
boliviana, 71, 97, 98 
bonaeiensis, 156, 158 
bonplandii, 160, 168, 223, 22 
borinquensis, 102, 103, 104 
brachyarthra, 193, 194 
brachydada, 120 
brachydelphis, 42 
biadtiana, 2 1 5 
brandegeei, 25, 28 
brasiliensis, 209, 210, 211 
bra.siliensis minor. 210 
brasiliensis sili,.nibui-,i;kii. 210 
bra.siliensis spindsmr, 210 
brasiliensis tenuilClia. 210 
brasiliensis tciiuiur, 210 
brunnescens, 149, 150 
bulbispina, 79, 83 
bulbosa, 131 
burrageana, 67, 70 
cacanapa, 165, 166 
caerulescens, 51 
caesia, 144 



Opiintia— (c-«,'/;//<f.-/. 
caespitosa. 127 
calacantha, 214 
calacantha rubra, 214 
calantha, 136 
californica, 58 
calmalliana, 60, 61 
calva, 89 

caman_liK-a, I u. 1-15 
canaiulu'.i .ilhispm.i, 144 
caniaii.i|i,,( Inn . .-Mniinea. l44 
cam.il, Ir.r . :|. . ,:l,!,is, 144 

cani.c -: : 144 



caiiada. 160, 16^, 168 
candelahiih.rmis. 182 
canJel.,h;.f.ii(ii.s (imdior, 

cantal-in.mciisis, i:i, 160, 
canterai. 159 
caracasana, 110, 116. 219 
cardenche. 64 
cardiusperma, 156, 157, : 
cardona. 184 
caribaea, 47, 48, 49 
Carolina, 214 
carrizalensis. 79 
castillae, 185, 186 
cata-.an:ha, 43, 208 
cereiformis, 79, 215 
cervicornis. 194 
chaetocarpa. 182 
thaffeyi. 30, 212, 213 
chakensis, 158 



thK.n.., ,. 1 ,:, iS-i. 1 
chluroiK.i sai,ia-.i:a, 14 
cholla, 60, 61, 62 
chrysacantha, 167 
ciliosa, 214 
ciribe. 58, 59, 60 
clavarioides, 72, 73 
cUivarioides cristata, 73 



cla 



73 



81, 



cUivellma. 52. 54 
ciiccifera, 35 
ciiccinea. 114 
cochenillifera. 33, 34, 35 
cochinelifera. 34 
cochinera, 192 
coerulea, 134 
coindettii, 184 
Columbiana, 193 
comonduensis. 118. 124 
a.nfusa. 14^ 
congesta, 50 
consoleana, 214 
consolei, 214 
convexa, 165 
cordobensis, 181, 189 
cornigata, 95 



230 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Opui 



ntia — cotiiiniu'il. 
corotilla, 96 
CDtrugata, 91), 95 
corrugata monvillei, 95 
costigera, 65 
covillei, 140, 145, 146 
crassa, 178, 179 
crassa major, 178 
cretochaeta, 183 
crinifera, 159, 176 
crinifera lanigera, 176 
cristata, 64 
cristata tenuior, 64 
cruciata, 207 
crystalenia, 193 
cubensis, 163 
cucumiformis, 97 
cuija, 149, 167 
cumingii, 77 
curassavica, 102, 103, 11 



minima, 102 
minor, 102 
taylori, 103 

curvospina, 160 

cyanella, 165, 166 

cyclcdes, 147, 148 

cycloidea, 128 

cylindrica, 71, 75, 77 

cylindrica cristata, 78 

cylindrica cristata minor, 78 

cylindrica monstruosa, 78 

cylindrica robustior, 78 

cymochila, 131, 132 

dactylifera, 97, 98 

darrahiana, 102, 106 

darwinii, 88, 90, 93, 94, 97 

davisii, 52, 54, 55 

deamii, 181, 187 

decipiens, 63, 65 

decipiens major, 64 

decipiens minor, 65 

decumana, 157, 180, 181, 18 

decumbens. Ill, 116, 117, 1 

decumbens irrorata. 117 

decumbens longispina, 117 

deflexa, 157 

dejecta, 37 

dclaetiana, 149, 152 

delicata, 126, 132, 133 

deltica, 165 

demissa, 146, 147 

demorenia, 214 

demoriana, 214 

depauperata, 100, 

deppei, 214 

depressa. 111, 117 

deserta, 57, 58 

diademata, 89, 90 

diademata calva, 89 

diademata inermis, 89 

diademata oligacantha, 89 

diademata polyacantha, 89 

dichotoma, 214 

diffusa, 37 



216, 



118 



Opuntia — continued. 
digitalis, 72 
diguetii, 26, 29 
dillei, 147, 148 
dillenii, 106, 114, 115, 116, n 

223 
dillenii minor, 163 
dillenii orbiculata, 163 
dimorpha, 96 
diplacantha, 184 
discata, 140, 149 
discolor, 107, 109, 218, 219 
distans, 149, 155 
dobbieana, 181, 187, 224, 22": 
dolabriformis, 207 
drummondii, 102, 104, 106 
dulcis, 165, 166 
durangensis, 169 
eborina, 214 
eburnca, 95 

tchini.ciip.i, 56, 57, 81 
eJiin,iC,irpani,i|or, 57 
■ ■.hniouiip.i nud.i, 57, 58 
i.diinoLarp.1 parkeri, 57, 58 
echinocarpa robustior, 57 
eichlamii, 181, 187, 188 
elata, 110, 156, 157 
elata dclaetiana. 152 
elatior, 149, 153, 219 
elatior defiexa, 157 
ellemeetiana, 75 
ellisiana, 166 
elongata, 179, 181 
elongata laevior, 180 
emoryi, 80 

engelmannii, 140, 147, 148, 1 
cn£;elmannii cuija, 167 
engelmannii cyclodes, 147, 148 
engelmannii dulcis. 165 
engelmannii littoralis, 165 
engelmannii monstrosa, 148 
engelmannii occidentalis, 146 
eocarpa, 144 
erecta. 214 

erinacea. 193, 195. 196 
erythrocentron, 1"'4 
exaltata, 71, 75, 76, 77 
expansa, 147, 148 
extensa, 107 
exuviata, 63, 65 
exuviata angustior, 63 
exuviata major, 64 
exuviata spinosior, 63 
exuviata stellata. 63 

ferox, 206, 207 

ferruginispina, 165 

festiva, 214 

ficus-barbica, 177 

ficu,s-indica, 43, 156, 157, 17- 

191 
ficus-indica albispina, 214 
ficus-indica amyclaea, 185 
Bcus-incida decumana, 180 
ficus-indica gymnocarpa, 180 
filipendula, 137, 138 
flavicans, 191 
flavispina, 214 



i9, 164, 165, 167 



231 



Opuntia — continued. 
flexibilis, 114 
flexospina, 165 
floccosa, 71, 86, 87 
floccosa denudata, 86, 87 
floribunda, 74 
foliosa, 105, 106 
formid,ibilis, 91. 92 
fr.imlis, 193, 194 
Ir.imlisbiadiyarthra, 193 
fuLiilis t.ic^pitosa, 193 
t ragihs f i-utcscens, 
fragilis tuberiformis, 193 
frustulenta, 104, 105 
frutescens, 47, 48 
f rutescens brevispina, 47, 48 
frutescens longispina, 47, 48 
fulgida, 67 
fulgida mamillata, 67 
fuliginosa, 149, 155 
fulvispina, 174 
fulvispina badia, 175 
fulvispina laevior, 175 
furiosa, 66 
fuscoatra, 126, 133 
fusicaulis, 191, 192 
fusilformis, 130, 131 
galapageia, 45, 149, 150, 151, 152 
galeottii, 65 
geissei, 78 
gilliesii, 91 
gilva, 163 
gilvescens, 149 
gilvoalba, 165, 166 
glaberrima, 178 
glauca, 178 
glaucescens, 200, 201 
glaucophylla, 214 
glaucophylla laevior, 214 
glomerata, 87, 89, 90, 94, 96 
glomerata albispina, 90 
glomerata flavispina, 90 
glomerata minor, 90 
golziana, 26 
gomei, 165, 166 
gorda, 191, 192 
gosseliniana, 140, 141, 151 
gracilis, 47 
gracilis subjatens, 48 
grahamii, 79, 83, 84 
grandiflora, 126, 127, 129 
grandis, 200, 201 
grata, 92, 94, 95 
greenei, 131 
gregoriana, 147, 148 
griffithsiana, 165 
grosseiana, 107, 110 
guanicana, 208 

guatemalensis, 110, 113, 218, 219 
guerrana, 191, 192 
guilanchi, 173, 174 
gymnocarpa, 180 
haematocarpa, 166 
haitiensis, 206 
hanburyana, 149, 153, 154 
hattoniana, 103 
helleri, 150, 152 
liempeliana, 86, 87 



Opunm—conlinufd. 
Iiernandezii, 181 
licteromorph; 
hevernicki], 214 
hickenii, 90, 92 93 



79 



.tch, 



humifusa greenei, 1S2 
bumifusa macrorbiza, 128 
humifusa microsperma, 127 
humifusa opiocarpa, 128 
humifusa parva, 127 
humifusa stenochila, 128 
liumifusa vaseyi, 146 
humilis, 113, 114 
humistrata, 120 
hypsophila, 71, 72 
hypti,icantha, 176, 181, 183, 184 
hystricina, 193, 197 
hystrix, 65, 66 

ignescens, 90, 98 

ignota, 90, 99 

imbricata, 48, 5 5, 60, 63, 64, 65, 66 

imbricata crassior, 63 

imbricata ramosior, 64 

imbricata tenuioi, 64 

in.iequahs, 128 

inaequ. lateralis, 181, 187, 188, 189 

mamoena. 121, 125 



nca 


n.id 


ila. 


85, 186 


ner 


nis. 


161, 


162, 163 


nsu 


aris. 


150 


152 


nte 


meJ 


a. I. 


7, 128 


nte 


med 


a prostrata, 1 


ntri 


cata. 


119 




nvic 


ta, 79 




nvo 


uta. 


87 





thypet.i 



luniperina, 193, 197 

jussieuii, 214 

karwinskiana, 38 

keyensis, 159, 162, 163, 222, 223 

kiska-loro, 107, 108 

kleiniae, 47, 51, 64, 65 

kleiniaecristata, 51 

kleiniae laetevirens, 51 

kunzei, SO 

labouretiana, 180, 189 



labouretiana 



lacrocarpa 



laevis, 159, If 
lagopus, 86, 87, 88 
lanceolata, 177, 179 
lanigera, 176 
larreyi. 191 



lasiacantha, 181 
lata. 126, 220 
laxiflora, 165 
I ledienii, 153 



182, 183, 184 



232 



THE CACTACEAE. 



npunlia—cuiilitt/ieii. 
lemaireana, 156 
leonina, 96 
leptarthra, 101 
leptocarpa, 166, 167 
leptocaulis, 47, 48, 49, 73, 213 
leptocaulis brevispina, 47 
leptocaulis laetevirens, 48 
leptocaulis longispina, 47 
leptocaulis major, 48 
leptocaulis stipata, 47 
leptocaulis vaginata, 47 
leucacantha, 174, 175 
leucacantha laevior, 175 
leucacantha subfetox, 175 
leucantha, 175 
leucophaea, 96 
leucoslata, 214 
leucosticta, 174 
leucotricha, 151, 174, 175 
leucotricha fulvispina, 174 
ligustica, 128 

lindheimei-i. 44, 148, 16(), 164, 165, 166 
UnJhcimc, LVclM.ks, 1 i- 



|,„JI,c,incu lut>ii..l,s, 16S 

luidlK-:mcii uLciJcuah^, 146 

linguiformis, l6o, 163 

littoralis, 147, 16(), 164, 165 

lloydii, 60, 63 

longiclada, l6l 

longiglochia, 214 

longispina, 95 

lubrica, 118, 119 

lucayana, 106, 163 

lucens, 149 

lucida, 214 

lurida, 173 

macateei, 126, 133, 220, 221 

macdougaliana, 169, 170, 171 

mackensenii, 137, 138, 139 

macracan.ha, 187, 202, 203, 204, 205 

macrarthra, 126, 129 

ma:rocalyx, 118, 122 

macrocentra, 140, 141, 176 

macrophylla, 214 

macrorhiza, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 139, 166 

maculacantha, 134 

maelenii, 134 

magenta, 142, 146 

magna, 64 

magnarenensis, 147 

magnifolia, 34 

maihuen, 41 

maldonadensis, 75 

mamillata, 67, 68 

maiitima, 162 

maxillare, 77 

maxima, 177, 180. 181 

media, 199, 200 

mediterranea, 128 

megacantha, 178, 181, 182, 185, 186 

megacantha lasiacantlna, 182 

megacantha tenuispina, 184 

megacantha trichacan;ha, 186 

megacarpa, 145 

megalanJha, 169 

megalai-lhra, 192 



intia — ioni'tnncd. 
megarhiza, 137 
mendocienses, 65 
mesacantlia, 127, 132 
mesacantha cymochila, 131 
mesacantha grandifloia, 12 
mesacantha greenei, 131 
mesacantha macrorhiza, 1 3 
mesacantha microsperma, 
mesacantha oplocarpa, 131 



chii, 176 
mexicana, 34 
micrarthra, 171 
microcarpa, 144, 206 
microdasys, 118, 120, 121, 122, 1 
microdasys laevior, 120 
microdasys minor, 120 
microdasys rufida, 122 
microdisca, 133, 135, 136 
microthele, 73 
mieckleyi, 156, 158 
militaris, 102, 104, 163 
miUspaughii, 202, 204, 206 
minima americana, 102 
minor, 139 
minor caulescens, 102 
miquelii, 78 
missouriensis, 199, 200 
missouriensis albispina, 199, 200 
missoiii.cnsiMK.n.uai.i, 214 
missiiui !■ nsis cu lliiiislemma, 214 
missoiMK MMs iiiR i.ispi_-niia, 199, 2( 
missiiip > 1: 1 ',i:\ I M p.i, 1<)9, 200 
missiiir I ■: ■.1.1,1, I')'), 200 



choph. 



195 



missouriensis 
modesta, 67 
mojavensis, 140, 145 
molesta. 54, 60, 62, 66, 67 
mona:anlha, 127, 156, 157 
monacantha deflexa, 156 
monacantha gracilior, 156, 157 
monacantha variegata, 157 
monihformis. 33, 202, 206, 207, 208 
montana, 214 
montevidensis, ur, 109 
monticola, 95 
morenoi, 214 
morisii, 128 

mortolcnsis, 47 

nniltiilora, 113, 114 

myriacantha, 150, 152, 214 

nana, 127, 217 

nashii, 106, 163, 202, 203 

nelsonii. 172 

nemorahs, 102, 104 

neoarbuscula, 50 

nigricans, 152, 153 

nigrispina, 90, 97 

nigrita, 183, 184 

nopalilla, 38 

oblongata. 173 

occidcntalis. 140, 146, 147, 15^. 163, 



233 



Opuntia — continued. 

()lij;acan;ha, 89, 182 



sp.iHhiana, 214 
6'i, 66 



p.inyi, 56, 57, 58, 81 

paiva. 161 

parv.spma. 117 

parvula, 178 

pascuensis, 100, 101 

pata^'onica, 41 

pelaguensis, 90 

penicillige-a, 135 

pennellii, 110, 115, 219 

pentlanttii, ^1, 72, 77, 90, 97, 98 



pu- 



ph 



103, 217, 2 
39, 140, 1 
.miiea, 144 



pliaeacantha nigiican.s, 144 
philippii, 41 
pliyllacantha, 96 
phyllantluis, 215 
piccolomini, 214 
piccoluminiana, 191 
pilifera, 176, 177, 184 
pintadera, 176 
pititaclie, 29 
pittieii, 181, 188, 189 

pl.ilyac.iiuha Jc-fk-xispina, 89, 90 
platyai.antha ,t;iacilioi-, 89 
platyacantha monvillei, 89 
platyclada, 214 
platynoda, 109 
plunibea, 126, 131 
plumosa nivea, 89, 90 
poeppigii, 40, 41 

p..liatantlia, l')x 195, 196, 197, 199, 200 



Opuntia — coni'tnuccl. 

polyacantha watsonii, 199 
polyantlia, 113, 114, 115 
polynidi-plia, 89 
porteri, 28 
pottsii, 137, 138 
praecox, 214 



P''"' 



ihc-ns 



160, 167 
67, 69, 70 



pseuddlun 


1, ISl, z\ 


J 


pseudotiii 


1 <.lnn,i;.it.i 


21- 


pseudcun 


1 spill. .sin 


n 


puberuL, 


1 1". 1 1", 


121, 


pubescuis 


101), !i)i 


173 


pulchella, 


79, 82 




pulverata, 


214 




pulveiuler 


ta, 78 




pulveiuk-i 


fa miqueh 


i, 78 



quimilu, 181, 190, 191 
quipa, 125 

quitemis, 149, 154, 224 
rafinesquei, 127, 128, 129 
rahncsquci arkansana, 12^, 129 
rahncsqufi Lynn.cliila, 131 

rafint'stjiKi tusituimis, 130 
rafinesqiR I uMiidillma, 129 
rafinesqiKi mumi. i =,2 
i-afinesqiRi ni.kr.irhiza, 131 
rafine.sqiiLi niu k ispL-mia, 127, 199 
rafinesqiiLi nun. 11, 1:7, ijg 
rafinesquei paiva, 128 
rafinesquei stenochila, 132 
rafinesquei vaseyi, 146 
lafinesquiana, 127, 129 
lahnesquiana aitcansana, 129 
lahmeri, 9-1 

ramulifera, 47 

rastrera, 140, 149 

rauppiana, 90. 92 

recedens, 128 

recondita, 52, 53 

recurvospina, 144 

leflexa, 165 

repens, 102, 103, 104, 115, 116 

reptans, 214 

retrorsa, 107, 109, 218 

retrospinosa, 95 

rhodantlia, 193, 197, 193 

rhodantha bri 



rnodantha brevispina, : 
I rhodantha flavispina, 1 



234 



THE CACTACEAE. 



Opuntia — continued. 

rhodantha pisciformis, 198 

rhodantha schumanniana, 198 

riparia, 149 

robusta, 182. 191, 192 

lobusta vindior, 191 

rosea, 17, 63, 65, 78 

roseana, 130 

rosiflora, 78 

rotundifolia, 27 

roxburghiana, 156 

rubescens, 163, 202, 208, 209 

rubiflora, 133, 146 

rubiifolia, 144 

rufescens, 175 

rufida, 118, 119, 122 

rugosa, 145 

lussellii, 90, 94 

luthei, 64 

rutila, 196 

sabinii, 194 

sacharosa, 14 

salicornioides, 215 

salmiana, 73, 74 

salmii, 214 

sanguinocula, 131 

santa-rita, 140, 142 

scheeri, 159, n6 

schickendantzii, 74, 107 

schomburgkii, 214 

schottii, 79, 80, 81 

schottii, greggii, 80 

schumannii, 90, 149, 155 

schweriniana, 199, 200 

segethii, 75, 76, 79 

seguina, 130 

semispinosa, 147 

senilis, 86, 159, 176 

sericea, 134 

sericea coerulea, 134 

sericea longispina, 134 

sericea maelenii, 134 

serpentina, 56, 57, 58, 69, 81 

setispina, 45, 137, 138 

shaferi, 71, 72 

shreveana, 142 

sinclairii, 165, 166 

skottsbergii, 90, 96, 97 

soederstromiana, 149, 154, 221 

soehrensii, 133, 134, 135 

spathulata, 2S, 29 

spathulata aquosa, 30 

speciosa, 214 

spegazzinii, 73, 74 

sphaerica, 90, 96 

sphaerocarpa, 193, 198, 199 

sphaerocarpa utahensis, 199 

spinalba, 130 

spinaurea, 214 

spiniflora, 215 

spinosior, 52, 67, 68 

spinosior neomexicana, 68 

spinosissima, 103, 175, 202. 204, 205 

spinotecta, 64 

spinulifera, 178, 181, 182 

spinuliflora, 214 

spinulosa, 214 

splendens, 199 



Opuntia — continued. 
squarrosa, 165 
stanlyi, 79, 80 
stapelia, 66 
stapeliae, 65, 66 
stellata, 64 
stenarthra, 158 
stenochila, 126. 132- 
stenopetala, 200, 201 
straminea, 214 
streptacantha, 181, 184, 185 
stricta, 159, 161, 178, 223 
stricta spinulescens, 214 
strigil, 136 
subarmata, 165, 166 
subferox, 175 
subinrmis, 214 
Mibtiianta, 90, 92 
subulata, 71, 75, 76. 77, 79 
bulphuici. 133, 134, 150 
sulphurea laevior, 134 
sulphurea major, 134 
sulphurea minor, 134 
sulphurea pallidior, 134 
superbospina, 144 
syring.ic.intha, 89 
tapona, 124, 160, 164 
tarapacana, 90, 94 
lardospina, 140, 141 
t.iylori, 102, 103 



49 



37, 139 



tesajo, 47, 48, 49 
tessellata. Ad 
tessellata cristata, 46 
testudinis-crus, 206 
tetracantha, 52, 53, 54 
texana, 165, 166 
thurberi. 52, 53, 54 
tidballii, 160 
tcimentella, 173, 174 
tomentosa, 173, 174 
tortisperma, 131, 132 
tortispina, 126, 128, 131, 194 
toumeyi, 144 



racy]. 



105 



trcleasei, 118, 119 

treleasei kernii, 119 

triacantha, 110, 112, 113, 115, 204 

tribuloides, IS6 

tricolor, 165, 166 

trichophora, 193, 195 

tubLTiformi's "i;^ 

tuherosa, 32, 33 

tuherosa spinosa, 89 

tuna, 110, 113, 114, 116, 149, 157, 163 

tuna humihs, 114 

tuna l.ievior, 114 

luna orbiculata, 114 

tunicita, 60, 65, 66, 83, 121 

tunicala laevior, 66 

tunoidea, 116, 162 

tunoides, 116 

turpinii, 89 

turgida. 2 1 2a 

turpinii polyniorpha. 89 

tweediei, 134 



235 



( )piintia — Cdittiniied. 
umbrella, 156 
undosa, 177, 179 
undulata, 65, 177, 179 
ursina, 174, 195, 196, 197 
urumbella, 157 
utahensis, 198 
utkilio, 107 109, 110 
vaginata, 47, 48 
valida, 147 

vaseyi, 14(), 142, 145, 146 
velutina, 169, 172 
verschaffeltii, 44, 71, 72 
verschaffeltii digitalis, 71, 72 
versicolor, 44, 52, 54, 60, 62 
vestita, 71, 72, 87 
vexans, 64, 65 
vilis, 79, 82, 83 
violacea, 144 
virgata, 47 
viridiflora, 52, 55 
vivipara, 52 
vulgaris, 127, 
vulgaris balearica, 161 
vulgaris major, 127 
vulgaris media, 127 
vulgaris minor, 127 
vulgaris nan, 127, 129 
vulgaris rafinesquei, 127 
vulgo, 157 
vulpina, 134 
wagneri, 74 
weberi, 84, 85 
wentiana, 110, 116 
whipplei, 31, 43, 52, 55, 68 
whipplei laevior, 55 
whipplei spinosior, 68 
wilcoxii, 169, 172 
winteriana. 166 
wcHitonii, 147, 148 
wnghtii, 51 

xanthoglochia, 130, 131 
xanthostemma, 198 
xanthostemma elegans, 198 
xanthostemma fulgens, 198 
xanthostemma gracilis, 198 
xanthostemma orbicularis, 198 
xanthostemma rosea, 198 
xerocarpa, 198 
youngii, 130 
zebrina, 149, 155, 222 
zacuapanensis, 183 
zuniensis, 144 
Opuntiacei, 217 
Opuntieae, 8, 24 
Orbiculatae, 45, 176 
Palmadora, 202 
Palmadorae, 45, 201 
Palmatoria, 202 
Pataquisca, ^6 
Peirescia, 9 
Peireskia, 9 
Pentlandianae, 44, 90 
Perescia, 9 

Pereskia, 8-24, 25, 26, 40, 75 
acardia, 10 
aculeata, 10, 11, 14 
aculeata lanceolata, 10 



56, 157, 163, 177 



Pereskia — conihiiuil. 
aculeata latifolia, 10 
aculeata longispina, 10 
aculeata rotunda, 10 
aculeata rotundifolia, 10 
aculeata rubescens, 10 
affinis, 24 
amapola, 14 
argentina, 14 
autumnalis, 9, 11, 12 
bahiensis, 9, 19, 20 
bleo, 4, 9, 17, 18, 20 
brasiliensis, 10 
calandriniaefolia, 29 
colombiana, 9, 17, 
conzattii, 9, 24 
crassicaulis, 29 
cruenta, 24 
cubensis, 9, 22 
foetens, 10 
fragrans, 10 
glomerata, 94 
godseffiana, 10, 11 
grandiflora, 24 



lychnidiflora, 9 
moorei, 9, 15 
nicoyana, 9, 13 



philippii, 41 

pititache, 29 

plantaginea, 24 

poeppigii, 41 

portulacifolia, 9, 22, 23, 24 

rosea, 17 

rotundifolia, 27 

sacharosa, 9, 10, 14, 15 

spathulata, 28, 29 

subulata, 75, 76 

tampicana, 9, 17 

undulata, 10 

weberiana, 9, 15 

zehntneri, 9, 13, 14 

zinniaeflora, 9, 17, 20, 21 
Pereskieae, 8, 24 
Pereskiopsis, 8, 14, 17, 24, 25-30, 43 

aquosa. 25, 29 

autumnalis, 11, 12 

biandegeei, 28 

chapistle, 25, 27 

diguetii, 25, 26, 27 

kellermanii, 25, 30 

opuntiaeflora, 25, 26, 27 

pititache, 25, 29 

porteri, 25, 28 

rotundifolia. 25, 27, 28 
spathulata, 25, 28 
velutina, 25, 26 
Pereskiopuntia, 25 



THE CACTACEAE. 



99, 100, 135, 21 



Pest pear. 161. 163 
Phac-icanthae, 45, 136. 139, 
Pin pillow. 102 
Platyiipuntia. 45, 73, 84, 92 
Polar bear cactus, 87 
Pi)lyacanth.ae. 45, 193 
Pcrtulaca. 9 
Prickly pear. 43. 212 
Pterocactus, 24, 30-33 

Jecipiens, 32, 33 

fischeri, 31 

hickenii, 31 

kuntzei, 30, 32, 33 

kurtzei, 32 

pumilus, 31, 32 

tuberosus, 31, 32, 33 

valentinii, 88 
Pubescentes, l4l 
Puipute. 13 
PumiLae, 45. 100 
Quiabentd. 14 
Quimilo. 190 
Quipa, 125 
Ramo.sissimae, 44. 46 
Rhipsalis, 8 
Robustae, 45, 191 
Sacacil, 214 
Sacharosa, 10, 14 
Salmianae, 44, 73, 75 
Scheerianae, 45, 159 
Sempervivuin tomentosum, 41 
Setispinae, 45, 136 
Spear-shaped opuntia. 179 
Spinosissimae. 43. 45, 201, 202, 203. 
Stenopetalae. 45, 200 
Stenopuntia, 200 
Streptacanthae. 45, 112, 156, 177, If 



72, 79. 84, 85, 90, 95, 97, 



Strigiles, 45, 136 
Subulatae, 44, 71, 75 
Sucker, 43, 103 
Sulphureae, 45, 133, 135 
Tacinga, 24, 39, 40 

funalis, 38, 39 
Tapuna pear, 192 
Tasajillo, 26, 30 
Tasajo, 43 

macho, 63 
Tephrocactus, 42, 43, 44, 71 
106, 135 

andicolus, 89 

aoracanthus, 91 

calvus, 89 

diadematus. 43. 89 

platyacanthus, 89 

pusillus, 106 

rctrospinosus, 95 

turpinii, 89 
Teretes, 71 
Thurberianae, 44, 52 
Tomentosae, 45, 172 

Tortispinae, 45, 104, 126, 130, 133, 136, 193 
Tuna, 35, 43, 114, 181, 186 
Tuna cardona, 184 
Tuna elatior, 153 
Tuna de agua, 30 
Tuna de Espana, 224 
Tuna major, 163 
Tunae, 45, 110, 116, 148 
Vestitae, 44, 71 
Weberianae, 44, 84 
West Indian gooseberry, 10 
Wilcoxia, 6 
Zamia pumila, 181 
Zygocactus, 9 



From Appendix Vol. IV, page 252. Insert on page 30. 
11. Pereskiopsis scandens sp. nov. 

Slender, climbing or clambering over walls, up to 10 meters long; branches terete, grayish, 
smooth; areoles circular, white-woolly when young, gray in age, with a short spine (5 mm. long) 
and a bunch of brown glochids in the upper edge; leaves ovate, 1.5 to 2 cm. long, glabrous, acute; 
flowers yellow, from the areoles on old branches, appearing in June; fruit maturing slowly (perhaps 
requiring 2 to 3 years to ripen), very narrow, 5 to 7 cm. long, somewhat tubercled, with a deep umbi- 
licus; seeds few. 

Living specimens of P. scandens were sent by Dr. George F. Gaumer from Izamal, 
Yucatan, Mexico, in July 1921 (type). It was also collected by A. Schott at Merida in 
1865 (No. 409). 

From Appendix Vol. IV, page 252. 

Withdraw the name Pereskia zehiitiieri from page 14, vol. I, and substitute the follow- 
ing at the end of Pereskiopsis on page 30: 

la. QUIABENTIA gen. nov. 
A low, leafy, much branched shrub with numerous horizontal branches, usually in whorls; leaves 
fleshy but flattened, stiff, borne at right angles to the branches; areoles large, white-felted, often with 
numerous spines ; these acicular and white, the upper part of areole bearing glochids ; flowers terminal, 
very large, bright red ; ovary leafy, very narrow ; stamens numerous, a little shorter than the style, much 
shorter than the petals; style short and stiff; stigma-lobes very short, obtuse; seeds white, a little flat- 
tened, covered with a hard bony aril as in Opuntia. 

A monotypic genus, native of the semiarid region of Bahia, Brazil. The generic name 
is from quiabento, the native name of the plant. 

1. Quiabentia zehntneri Britton and Rose. 

Pcie.tkia zehiilneri Britton and Rose, C.ictace.ie 1: 1-1. 1919. 
Flowers at ends of branches, large, 7 to 8 cm. broad, 3 to 4 cm. long, bright red, appearing in 
November ; petals broad, retuse ; ovary borne in the upper end of the branch, very narrow, 3 to 4 cm. 
long, bearing the usual leaves, areoles, and spines of the branches; fruit oblong to ciavate, 6 to 7 cm. 
long, 1.5 cm. in diameter at the top, slightly angled by the low elongated tubercles running downward 
from the small scattered areoles, and finally without leaves, spines, or bristles, sterile below, with thick 
fleshy walls and with a small narrow seed-cavity; umbilicus broad, slightly depressed; seeds thick with 
flattened sides rounded on the back, 5 mm. in diameter. 

In its large, red, rotate flowers this plant at once suggests a Pereskia. Its red flowers 
are so similar to those of P. bahiensis of the same region that at first we considered the two 
species congeneric. Now that we have studied the fruit and seed it is evident that P. zehnt- 
neri belongs to a very different genus. Then, too, the old areoles develop deciduous spines 
or bristles which are doubtless glochids; these occur on the upper part of the areoles but 
do not form the definite brush of the Opiintiae. These glochids would exclude it from the 
Pereskieae. It must therefore be referred to the Opuntieae and next to Pereskiopsis. In its 
broad, thick leaves it resembles that genus, but its flowers are terminal, very large, and rotate; 
its fruit is much elongated and the seeds are glabrous. 

We are indebted to Dr. Leo Zehntner, a very keen observer, for many fine specimens 
and much information regarding it. He has found it only on a small calcareous mountain 
near the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Brazil, but it has been transplanted to the Horto Florestal 
of Joazeiro where it is well established and where it flowered three years after being replanted. 
In 1915 Dr. Rose brought living specimens to the New York Botanical Garden from this 
stock (No. 19722). 



APPENDIX. 
From Appendix Vol. IV, page 255. Insert on page 94. 




Fig 2Vi.— Opun 



64a. Opuntia wetmorei sp. nov 

Forming low mounds of considerable extent with hundreds of branches; joints 4 to 10 cm. long, 
terete, turgid, 2. cm. in diameter or less, slightly tapering towards each end, dull green, but dull purple 
around and especially below the areoles; leaves subtending the minute areoles, 1 to 2 mm. long, cadu- 
cous; areoles circular, bearing tawny or white wool when young; glochids short, yellowish; spines 
numerous, very unequal, scarcely pungent, white to straw-colored or brownish, 3 or 4 of lower ones 
almost hair-like, reflexed or appressed to joints, 3 or 4 of uppermost erect or ascending, flattened, 2 to 
3.5 cm. long; flowers not known; immature fruit glabrous at first, dull green, becoming reddish purplt 
especially about the areoles, 3 cm. long, bearing long white bristly spines, especially from upper areoles. 
deeply umbilicate. 

Collected by W. B. Alexander in the barranca of the Tunuyan River near Tunuyan, 
Mendoza, Argentina, March 22 and 23, 1921. 

This species is perhaps nearest Opuntia darwiiiii. We are under great obligation to W. 
B. Alexander for sending us very fine living plants by Alexander Wetmore, who brought 
them to us directly from Argentina. Mr. Wetmore was with Mr. Alexander when the plant 
was collected and he has given us a word picture of the plant; we take pleasure in naming 
the species for him, not only in recognition of this service but also for obtaining other val- 
uable specimens of cacti. 

Figure 2.34 is from a photograph of the type plant, one-half natural size. 



From Appendix Vol. IV, page 256. Insert on page 99. 
76a. Opuntia alexanderi sp. nov. 

Low, depressed, formini; a small clump; joints readily detached, grayish green, strongly tubercled, 
globose, 2 to 3 cm, in diameter, nearly hidden by the numerous spines; areoles small, close together, 
circular; spines 4 to 12, up to 4 cm. long, flexible, white below, dark above or with black tips, scurfy- 
pubescent even in age ; flowers not known ; fruit red, dry, obovoid, 2 cm. long, lower areoles not spiny, 
but upper ones bearing 2 to 8 long, white, erect, weak spines overtopping the fruit; umbilicus of fruit 
depressed ; seeds white, 5 to 6 mm. broad. 

Collected by W. B. Alexander, between Chilecito and Fanatina, province of La Rioja, 
Argentina, February 19, 1921. Mr. Alexander studied this species in the field but could not 
identify it and sent it to us for study. It belongs to the subgenus Tephvocactus. but is not 
near any of the known species. We take great pleasure in naming it for Mr. Alexander, 
who has extensively studied the cacti in Argentina. 



From Appendix Vol. IV, page 257. Insert on page 102. 
80a. Opuntia abjecta Small, sp. nov. 

Prostrate, often growing in large irregular patches on almost bare limestone or where some sand and 
humus has accumulated, irregularly branched ; joints suborbicular, sometimes nearly subglobose, oval, or 
broadly obovate, mostly 4 to >S cm. long, very thick, frequently turgid, light green, loosely attached to 
each other; leaves ovoid to conic-ovoid, 2 to 3 mm. long, ascending and slightly curved upward, green 
or purplish ; glochids yellowish ; spines setaceous-acicular, mostly solitary, brown, or reddish purple, mot- 
tled light and dark, becommg chalky gray when dry; the larger ones 2 to 6 cm. long; flowers usually 
solitary on a joint; berry urceolate, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, somewhat tuberculate, red or purple-red, rounded 
at base; umbilicus relatively broad, concave; seeds few, flattish, about 4 mm. wide. 

On edge of hammock, southern end of Big Pme Key, Florida. Type collected in May 
1921 by J. K. Small, preserved in the herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. 

Similar to Opuntia druuiniondii but with shorter joints, longer and more slender spines, 
and different fruit. 



From Appendix Vol. IV, page 257. Insert on page 105. 

86a. Opuntia impedata Small, sp. nov. 

Prostrate, ultimately copiously branched, the joints often piled several layers deep and forming 
viciously armed mats, elliptic or oblong, mostly 1 w 1 => cm. long, rather thick, pale green; leaves 




-Uru.uia impc 



stout-subulate, 4 to 6 mm. long, erect or ascending, slightly curved upward, dark green; glochids brown- 
ish; spines subulate, usually numerous, solitary or 2 together, light gray, except the brown tip, salmon- 
colored when dry, and faintly banded when wet; flowers often several on a joint; ovary obconic, nearly 
terete; sepals green, outer lanceolate to ovate, -4 to 8 mm. long, acuminate, the inner much larger, with 
shoulders of very broad body narrowed into stoutish tip; corolla bright yellow, 4.5 to 5.5 cm. wide; 
petals about 12, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, broadly obovate to cuneate-obovate, broadly rounded at apex, mu- 
cronate; anthers nearly 2 mm. long; berry clavate, about 3 cm. long, narrowed at base; umbilicus rather 
small, somewhat concave; seeds rather few, 4 to 4.5 mm. in diameter. 

Sand dunes, northeastern Florida. Type in the herbarium of the New York Botanical 
Garden; collected on dunes at Atlantic Beach, Florida, in April 1921, by J. K. Small. 

Dr. Small notes that the stiff spines may penetrate leather shoes and that the plant is 
very prolific, both vegetatively and through its fruit. 

Figure 235 is from a photograph taken by Dr. Small of the type plant. 



From Appendix Vol. IV, page 258. Insert on page 110. 

Series ia. PISCIFORMES. 
Plants in dense colonies with turgid, very spiny, narrow, deep green joints, the spines conspicuously 
long and slender, salmon-colored in the first year, gray in the second; flowers numerous, bright yellow; 
berry turbinate-obovoid, 4 cm. long or less. The only species inhabits Florida. 

96^?. Opuntia pisciformis Small sp. nov. 

Prostrate, copiously branched, forming dense mats often 1 to 3 meters in diameter, with joints piled 
several layers deep, roots fizrous; joints narrowly elliptic, linear-elliptic, or spatulate, mostly 1 to 3 dm. 




Upunna piscitormis. 



long, very thick, deep green, readily detached; leaves stout-subulate, 2 to 4 mm. long, incurved; areoles 
rather prominent, mostly armed; spines solitary or 2 or 3 together, cream-colored, becoming salmon-col- 
ored and gray with a dark tip when dry, salmon when wet, the longer ones 5 to 6 cm. long; flowers 
numerous; ovary turbinate, angular and tuberculate; sepals green, the outer lanceolate to triangular- 
lanceolate, 9 to 12 mm. long, acuminate, the inner much larger, the broad ovate or suborbicular base 
broadly tapering into the very stout tip; corolla bright yellow, 6 to 7.5 cm. wide; petals about 12, 3 to 4 
cm. long, broadly cuneate, mostly truncate or emarginate at apex, mucronate; anthers nearly 2 mm. 
long; berry broadly turbinate-obovoid, 3.5 to 4 cm. long, purple, narrowed at base, the umbilicus deeply 
concave; seeds rather numerous, 5 to 5.5 mm. in diameter. 

Sand dunes, estuary of the Saint Johns River, Florida. Type in the herbarium of the 
New York Botanical Garden; collected on dunes at Atlantic Beach, Florida, in April 1921, 
by J. K. Small. 

Figure 236 is from a photograph by Dr. Small of the type plant. 



From Appendix Vol. IV, page 260. Insert on page 130. 
121a. Opuntia eburnispina Small, sp. nov. 

Prostrate, widely branched and forming mats on dune sands, witli tuberous roots; joints oval or 
suborbicular, varying to broadest above middle, thickish, 6 to 13 cm. long, pale green, somewhat shining, 
especially when young; leaves ovoid-subulate, 4 to 5 mm. long, pale green, recurved-spreading; spines 
relatively stout, 2 to 4 at an areole or sometimes solitary, 1 to 2 cm. long, ivory-white with yellowish tips 
when young, becoming dark gray, not spirally twisted, greenish when wet; flowers few; ovary obconic; 
sepals triangular, green, 5 to 7 mm. long; corolla clear yellow, 4 to 5 cm. wide; petals few, narrowly 
cuneate, often minutely pointed ; berries obovoid, 2 cm. long or less. 

Coastal sands, Cape Romano, Florida. Type specimens in the herbarium of the New 
York Botanical Garden; collected in May 1922, by J. K. Small. 

Figure 237 is from a photograph by Dr. Small of the type plant. 




Fig. 237. — Opuntia eburnispina 



APPENDIX. 

From Appendix Vol. IV, page 261. Insert on page 133. 

1 29a. Opuntia macbridei sp. nov. 

A low bush, 6 dm. high, forming broad impenetrable thickets on gravelly river flats; joints obovate, 
6 to 8 cm. broad, 8 to 15 cm. long, glabrous, at tirst light green, in age dark green; leaves minute, 1 to 
2 mm. long, caducous; areoles on young joints hemispheric, brown-felted and with brown glochids, on 
old joints 2 to 3 cm. apart; spines 2 to 4, in age gray to horn-colored, with yellowish tips, very un- 
equal, the longest up to 5 cm. long, stout-subulate; flowers very small, orange to orange-red; petals 
only 4 to 5 mm. long; ovary tuberculate, bearing many brown-felted tubercles but without spines, deeply 
umbilicate; fruit deeply umbilicate, red to purple. 

Collected by Macbride and Featherstone at Huanuco, Peru, altitude 2,300 meters, 
August 28 to September 3, 1922 (No. 2365, type), and April 8, 1923 (No. 3250). 

Mr. Macbride states that the seeds are b'-own. All the fruits we have seen were sterile; 
these sterile fruits on falling to the ground take root and form new plants. 




Opuntia macbridei 



This interesting plant, which pro\es to be undescribed, we have named for Mr. J. Francis 
Macbride, who led the Botanical Expedition of 1922 to South America, sent out by the Field 
Museum of Natural History, under the Captain Marshall Field fund. 

Figure 238 is from a photograph showing the habit of this plant. 




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