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Full text of "Calculations used in cane sugar factories. A practical system of chemical control for Louisiana sugar-houses and other cane-producing countries"

353 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF, CALIFORNIA. 

Class v 




CALCULATIONS 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



A PRACTICAL SYSTEM OF CHEMICAL CONTROL 

FOR LOUISIANA SUGAR-HOUSES AND 

OTHER CANE-PRODUCING 

COUNTRIES. 



BY 

IRVING H. MORSE, B.S. 



FIRST EDITION. 
FIRST THOUSAND. 




NEW YORK: 

JOHN WILEY & SONS. 

LONDON : CHAPMAN & HALL, LIMITED. 

1904. 



GTKERAl 



Copyright, 1904, 

BY 
IRVING H. MORSE. 



ROBERT DKUMMONU, PRINTER, NEW YORK. 




THIS collection of tables, formulae, and methods 
of calculation has been made for the benefit of the 
sugar chemist of Louisiana and other countries man- 
ufacturing cane-sugar. The information found in 
the standard work on sugar chemistry has pur- 
posely been omitted so that this book may be con- 
sidered in the nature of a supplement, the outline 
of a system of chemical control which will, . if 
followed out conscientiously, make a laboratory a 
valuable addition to any sugar-house. 

The manager depends on the chemist for infor- 
mation used in conducting the work of the factory, 
and the efficiency of a laboratory is judged by the 
accuracy and dispatch used in furnishing this 
information. The manager wishes to know the 
mill extraction, the per cent of sucrose in the raw 
juice, the yield of sugar, the losses in manufacture, 
and most of all, whether or not all of the available 
sugar is being extracted from the cane. 

The value of securing accurate figures of all of 
these details every day or week is evident to every 

iii 



IV PREFACE. 

practical sugar man. In themselves the figures are 
not valuable, but the comparison which naturally 
follows this examination leads to changes and 
improvement in the manufacture, and thereby 
increases the yield of sugar. 

A good chemist should be thoroughly familiar 
with the practical side of the manufacture in order 
to more readily see the information most needed. 
In some factories there is a poor filter-press arrange- 
ment, and the loss of sucrose by running the skim- 
mings into the ditch is immense. A careful check- 
ing of the sucrose account shows by the difference 
between the sucrose in the juice and sucrose in the 
total product the amount of sucrose lost, and the 
importance of watching this part of the factory is 
clearly shown. In other factories there is a large 
loss of sugar in the final molasses and the pan work 
requires especial attention. The main object of 
carrying on the business is the recovery of the 
greatest amount of sugar at the least cost, and the 
chemist should always keep this before him during 
the season if he desires to become valuable to his 
employer. 

The tables of "factors," the "yield of sugars 
from a ton of cane," and the formula for "available 
sugar," are all based on a formula published by 
Prof. Crowley of the Hawaiian Experimental 
Station, in the "Louisiana Planter." The blank 
forms were compiled by C. S. McFarland, the man- 
ager of the Houmas Central Factory. The possi- 



PREFACE. V 

bility of "checking up" the sucrose account, thus 
locating errors in the measurement and analysis, 
and the losses in manufacture, is the chief benefit of 
this system of chemical control, and although 'the 
number of calculations necessary at first seems great, 
after the analyses are averaged and the weekly report 
finished, there is a satisfaction in knowing just what 
the factory has accomplished. 

IRVING H. MORSE. 

KMPORIA, KANSAS. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Analysis of Products. Method of Analysis. Tables. 
Sucrose in Mill Juice. Massecuite and Molasses. 
Glucose i 

CHAPTER II. 

Extraction. Saturation. Inversion. Formula for 
Pan Work. Available Sugar. Crowley's Formula. 
Spencer's Formula for Mixtures o 

CHAPTER III. 

Laboratory Records. Blank Forms. Mill Record. 
Record of Raw Juice. Clarification. Pan Record, 
First Sugars. Pan Record, Second Sugars. Hot- 
room Record. Stock on Hand. Weekly Esti- 
mate. Weekly Report. Filter-press Cake and 
Bagasse 25 

CHAPTER IV. 

Tables. Solids and Purity corresponding to each De- 
gree Polarization of Commercial Sugar. Pounds 
and Pounds Solids in One Gallon of Sugar Solu- 
tions: Mill Juice; Syrup; Molasses. Pounds and 
Pounds Solids in One Cubic Foot of Massecuite. ... 43 



Vill CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

, PAGE 

Factors used in Calculating Available Sugar. For 
Refinery Products. Beet-sugar Factories and Fac- 
tories Manufacturing 96 Sugar or " YC " Sugar. ... 53 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Most Profitable Sugar to Manufacture. Does it 

Pay to Melt Second Sugar? 59 

CHAPTER VII. 

The Available Sugar in a Ton of Cane. " Yellow Clari- 
fied," Second and Third. "96 Test," Second and 
Third. "Rendimiento" or Sugar Extraction, for 
Cub?n Factories 66 




CALCULATIONS 

USED IN 

CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



CHAPTER I. 

ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTS. 

IT is important that all the products should be 
analyzed by the same method for the entire season. 
Either all of the samples should be weighed out and 
made up to 100 c.c. or all should be made by the 
volumetric method. By analyzing a part of the 
samples by the volumetric method and part by 
weighing, the error due to the lead precipitate and 
temperature affect the polariscope reading in oppo- 
site directions and at the end of the week the sucrose 
account does not " check up." Especial care should 
be taken in determining the accuracy of the Brix 
spindle, and if possible the same spindles should be 
used for all samples. 

The analysis necessary to keep track of all the 
operations of the factory are as follows: 



2 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

Raw juice 4 to 6 times a day continuous sam- 
ple. 

Syrup every twelve hours continuous sample. 

ist massecuite, ist sugar, ist molasses every 
strike. 

2d massecuite, 2d sugar, 2d molasses once a day. 

sd massecuite boiled every strike. 

3d massecuite boiled every strike. 

Bagasse once a day. 

Filter-press cake once a day. 

METHOD OF ANALYSIS. 

RAW, SULPHURED, CLARIFIED, AND FILTERED 
JUICES. Per Cent Solids. Use Brix hydrometer 
1/20 division. 

SUCROSE. Weigh out double-normal weight, add 
lead and water in a loo-c.c. flask, filter, and polarize. 
Divide reading by two; or measure out 100 c.c., 
make up to no with lead and polarize; the reading 
is found in Table I, page 4. 

GLUCOSE. Weigh out 5 or 10 grams, dilute with 
water to 100 c.c., and test by means of Fehling's 
solution. For per cent glucose consult Table IV. 

SYRUP. Per Cent Solids. Reduce the density of 
the syrup by the addition of water to approximately 
the density of the juice by weighing out i66f grams 
or 125 grams of the syrup and adding enough water 
to make the solution weigh 500 grams. It is ana- 
lyzed in the same manner as the raw juice and the 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 3 

percentages multiplied by three or four to find the 
solids, sucrose, and glucose of the original solution. 

MASSECUITE AND MOLASSES. Dissolve 50 grams 
of massecuite or molasses in 450 grams of water. 
Analyze in the same way as raw juice and multiply 
the results by 10. 

FILTER-PRESS CAKE (Spencer). Weigh out 12^ 
grams of cake, add hot water, and beat to a paste, 
transfer to a loo-c.c. flask, add a few drops of lead, 
and place on a steam-bath for thirty minutes. Cool, 
make up to 100 c.c., filter, and polarize. Multiply 
the reading by 2. 

BAGASSE SUCROSE. 50 grams of finely divided 
bagasse treated with a few drops of lead and about 
450 grams of water is placed on a steam-bath for 
thirty minutes. It is then weighed the second time 
and sufficient water added to make the total weight 
500 grams. The sugar solution is separated from 
the fibre by pressure and the sucrose determined by 
the volumetric method. Multiply the reading by 10. 

WOODY FIBRE (Spencer). Weigh out 20 grams of 
finely divided bagasse into a beaker, cover the top 
of the beaker with thin muslin, add cold water, allow 
to stand for twenty minutes, then decant the water 
and add cold water twice and hot water five times. 
The fibre is then dried at 100 C. and weighed. 

The woody fibre in the cane may be determined 
approximately by the following proportion: 20 
grams : wgt. of fibre :: total wgt. of bagasse : woody 
fibre in bagasse. 



4 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

For example, suppose the per cent mill extraction 
to be 75 per cent, then 25 per cent would represent 
the per cent of bagasse (the woody fibre in the sam- 
ple weighed 8 grams). Then 

2o:8::25:#=io = the woody fibre m the cane. 



TABLE I. 
SUCROSE IN MILL JUICE. 

(Schmitz.) 

726.048 \ 
Per cent sucrose = reading 1 j no. 

TO BB USED IN LOUISIANA. 



Polari- 
scope 
Reading. 


Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


Polari- 
scope 
Reading. 


Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


25 


6.84 


46 


12.35 


26 


7.12 


47 


I 2. 6 1 


27 


7 39 


48 


12.87 


28 


7.66 


49 


13-14 


29 


7.92 


50 


13-40 


30 


8.18 


51 


13 66 


31 


8-45 


52 


13.92 


32 


8.71 

8r8 


53 


14.17 


33 
34 


:7^ 

9 24 


Tenth of 


Per Cent 


35 


9-5 1 


Degrees 


Sucrose. 


37 


9-77 
10.03 


0- I 


.03 


38 


10. 29 


O 2 


05 


39 


10.55 


0-3 


.08 


40 


10. 81 


0.4 


. II 


4 1 


n .07 


05 


. 13 


42 


ii .33 


0.6 


.16 


43 


U-59 


0.7 


19 


44 


11.84 


0.8 


.21 


45 


12. 10 


0.9 


.24 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



TABLE I. (Continued.) 

SUCROSE IN MILL JUICE. 

(Schmitz.) 

726.048 \ 

Per cent sucrose = reading ( I no. 

6 \sp. gr. / 

TO BE USED IN CUBA. 



Polari- 
scope 
Reading. 


Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


Polari- 
scope 
Reading. 


Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


54 


14.42 . 


74 


19 45 


55 


14.67 


75 


19 70 


56 


14 92 


76 


19 94 


5V 


15.18 


77 


20 18 


58 


15 44 


78 


20.42 


59 


15 70 


79 


20.66 


60 


15 95 


80 


20 90 


61 








62 


16.46 


Tenth of 


Per Cent 


63 


16.72 


Degrees 


Sucrose. 


64 


16 96 










65 


17.21 


0. I 


03 


66 


17-47 


0.2 


05 


67 


17.72 


o 3 


,08 


68 


17.97 


0.4 


10 


69 


l8 21 


o 5 


.13 


70 


18 46 


o 6 


16 


7i 


18 70 


o 7 


.18 


72 


18.95 


o 8 


21 


73 


19. 20 


o 9 


23 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



TABLE II. 

SUCROSE IN SECOND AND THIRD MASSECUITE, 
FIRST, SECOND, AND COMMERCIAL MOLASSES. 

(Corrected for Lead Precipitate.) 
i/io Solution Volumetric Method. 



Polari- 
scope 
Read- 
ing. 


Second 
Massecuite. 


Third 
Massecuite. 


First 
Molasses. 


Second 
Molasses. 


Commercial 
Molasses. 


I .0 


-273 


.271 


.277 


.276 


.274 


2.O 


.546 


542 


553 


551 


549 


3-0 


.819 


.813 


.830 


.827 


.823 


4.0 


I .092 


1.084 


i . 107 


I . 102 


i .098 


5-0 


1.364 


1-353 


1.384 


1-379 


1.372 


6.0 


1.644 


1.630 


i .660 


1.653 


1,646 


7.0 


I .910 


1.894 


1-937 


1.929 


1.921 


8.0 


2.193 


2.165 


2. 214 


2.204 


2.195 


9.0 


2.456 


2-435 


2.491 


2.480 


2.470 


10 


2.729 


2.706 


2.767 


2.756 


2.744 


ii 


3.002 


2.977 


3-044 


3.03I 


3-oiS 


12 


3-275 


3-247 


3.321 


3.307 


3.293 


13 


3.548 


3.5i8 


3-598 


3.582 


3-567 


14 


3.821 


3.789 


3.874 


3.858 


3.842 


15 


4.094 


4.059 


4.I5I 


4-133 


4. 116 


16 


4.366 


4.330 


4.428 


4.409 


4-390 


17 


4.639 


4.600 


4.704 


4.685 


4.665 


18 


4.912 


4.871 


4.981 


4.960 


4-939 


19 


5.185 


5-141 


5.258 


5.236 


5-213 


20 


5.458 


5.412 


5-535 


5-5II 


5.488 



NOTE. Remove decimal point one place to the left to obtain 
per cent sucrose corresponding to tenth of degree polariscope 
reading. 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



TABLE III. 

SUCROSE IN FIRST MASSECUITE AND 
SECOND SUGAR. 

(Corrected for Lead Precipitate.) 
i/ 10 Solution Volumetric Method, 

FIRST MASSECUITE). SECOND SUGAR. 



Polari- 
scope 
Reading. 


Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


Polari- 
scope 
Reading. 


, Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


0. I 


.028 


I 


.028 


0. 2 


.055 


O' 2 


055 


0-3 


.083 


o 3 


,083 


0.4 


. 1 10 


0.4 


.110 


o 5 


138 


o 5 


.138 


0,6 


.165 


o 6 


.166 


0.7 


193 


0.7 


.193 


0.8 


. 220 


0.8 


.221 


0.9 


.248 


09 


249 


20 


5 512 


28 


7,691 


21 


5 788 


29 


7 966 


22 


6 . 063 


30 


8.241 


23 


6 339 


3i 


8 515 


24 


6 614 


32 


8 767 


25 


6 890 


33 


9.118 


26 


7.166 


34 


9-394 


27 


7,441 






28 


7.718 






29 


7 992 






30 


8 268 







CALCULATIONS USED IN 



TABLE IV. 
GLUCOSE. 

WEIGH OUT 5 GRAMS OF SUGAR SOLUTION AND 
MAKE UP TO 100 C.C. 



No. c.c. 
Solution. 


Per Cent 
Glucose. 


No. c.c. 
Solution. 


Per Cent 
Glucose. 


20 


5.00 


30 


3-33 


20.5 


4.88 


30-5 


3-28 


21 


4.76 


31 


3-22 


21-5 


4-65 


31-5 


3-17 


22 


4-54 


32 


3.12 


22.5 


4-44 


32.5 


3-08 


23 


4-35 


33 


3.03 


23.5 


4-25 


33-5 


2. 9 8 


24 


4.17 


34 


2.94 


24.5 


4.08 


34-5 


2.89 


25 


4.00 


35 


2.86 


25-5 


3-92 


35-5 


2.81 


26 


3-85 


36 


2.78 


26.5 


3-77 


36.5 


2.74 


27 


3-70 


37 


2.70 


27-5 


3-64 


37-5 


2.66 


28 


3-57 


38 


2.63 


28.5 


3-51 


38-5 


2-59 


29 


3-45 


39 


2.56 


29.5 


3-39 


39-5 


2-53 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



TABLE IV. 

GLUCOSE. 

WEIGH OUT 5 GRAMS OF SUGAR SOLUTION AND 
MAKE UP TO 100 C.C. 



No. c.c. 
Solution. 


Per Cent 
Glucose. 


No. c.c. 
Solution . 


Per Cent 
Glucose. 


40 


2.50 


50 


2.00 


40.5 


2.47 


50.5 


.98 


41 


2.44 


51 


.96 


41.5 


2.40 


51-5 


94 


4 2 


2.38 


52 


93 


42.5 


2-35 


52.5 


.90 


43 


2.32 


53 


.88 


43-5 


2.30 


53-5 


.87 


44 


2. 27 


54 


85 


44-5 


2.24 


54-5 


83 


45 


2. 22 


55 


.81 


45-5 


2 . 2O 


55-5 


.80 


46 


2.17 


56 


.78 


46.5 


2.15 


56.5 


77 


47 


2.13 


57 


75 


47-5 


2. IO 


57-5 


74 


48 


2.08 


58 


.72 


48.5 


2.O6 


58.5 


7i 


49 


2.O4 


59 


.70 


49-5 


2.02 


59-5 


.68 



10 CALCULATIONS USED IN 



CHAPTER II. 

EXTRACTION. 

THE term " extraction " when used in connection 
with the manufacture of sugar has acquired three 
distinct meanings, depending on the locality. In 
Louisiana it means the "per cent of juice by weight 
extracted from the cane." In Cuba the yield of 
sugar is called " the extraction, " and in the Hawaiian 
Islands the name is applied to the sucrose in the 
juice compared with the sucrose in the cane. The 
different kinds of extraction may be distinguished 
by the terms "mill," "sugar," and "sucrose extrac- 
tion." 

I. MILL EXTRACTION. The most accurate method 
of determining the amount of juice extracted from 
the cane is by direct weighing, but this is not usually 
done on account of the extra cost of the weighing 
apparatus, tanks, etc. The juice is conveniently 
measured in large tanks with an overflow, a method 
undoubtedly the most accurate of any used for 
measuring the juice, and one which has been adopted 
by most of the large factories. In measuring the 
juice by means of tanks without an overflow p^ in 
clarifiers, there is a chance for irregularity, and it is 
only by careful watching, that the correct percentage 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 1 1 

of mill extraction can be determined. Although in 
filling two tanks with juice there may be a consider- 
able difference in the amount, yet in filling one hun- 
dred tanks the average will be the same as another 
one hundred filled under similar conditions. It is 
this fact which makes it possible to obtain satis- 
factory figures in factories measuring the juice in 
this manner. 

The use of clarifiers for measuring the juice in- 
troduces other irregularities. The temperature is 
increased and a correction is necessary to reduce 
the hot to cold juice. Often "tank" bottoms are 
pumped into the clarifiers and the juice drained from 
the troughs is mixed with the green juice, for which 
an allowance must be made in the total capacity of 
the clarifier. 

These corrections are, however, constant, and 
although the actual number of gallons of juice for 
each clarifier may be higher or lower than the actual, 
contents, yet the percentage of extraction will in- 
crease or decrease in the same proportions as it 
would if the exact number of gallons had been 
recorded. The mill work is thus indicated in direct 
proportions to the true per cent of extraction. 

II. SUGAR EXTRACTION. Per cent sugar extrac- 

/pounds of dry sugar\ 

tion=(- : f- -lioo. 

\ pounds of cane / 

III. SUCROSE EXTRACTION. The Sugar-chemist 
Association of Hawaii have defined "sucrose" ex^ 
traction as follows: 



12 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

"The amount of sucrose coming to the mill in the 
cane is the sum of the sucrose in the properly weighed 
mixed juice and the sucrose in the bagasse. 

"By extraction is meant the percentage of sucrose 
in the cane which is obtained in the mixed juice." 

SATURATION. 

The percentage of saturation is computed in two 
different ways: 

Either 

Per cent ) /weight of water of saturationX 

lioo 



saturation ) \ weight of cane / 

or 

Per cent ) /weight of water of saturationX 

100. 



saturation ) \ weight of raw juice / 

The percentage of water of saturation which is 
found in the diluted juice is determined approxi- 
mately by the following formula: 

Let #=per cent of water of saturation in diluted 

juice; 

a pounds of water of saturation ; 
& = pounds of diluted juice; 
c = per cent of solids in raw juice; 
d = per cent of solids in diluted juice; 
then 

fi 

\ 

x=- 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 1 3 

As it is impossible to take a sample of raw juice 
when the water of saturation is being added, the 
relation between the per cent solids in the juice 
from the first mill and the juice from all the mills 
when saturation has been discontinued is carefully 
determined. In the above formula the per cent 
solids in the raw juice is represented by the per cent 
solids in the juice from the first mill less this differ- 
ence, usually about T 3 Q- of i Brix. 

INVERSION. 

(Dr. Stubbs.) 

Let ^ = ratio of juice before any treatment; 
R 2 = ratio of juice after any treatment; 
then 

R 2 ~ R, 

Per cent inversion = n , 7. 
R 2 + 105.26 

The pounds of sucrose in the juice before treat- 
ment multiplied by the per cent inversion gives the 
pounds of sucrose lost by inversion. 

The addition of lime and the application of heat 
to the juice always destroys a certain amount of 
glucose, so that the total amount of inversion can- 
not be determined accurately. The inversion be- 
tween the raw and sulphured juices may be found 
and also between the syrup and first massecuite. 
An increase in the ratio of the syrup over that of 
the sulphured juice indicates only a part of the 
inversion, for by the addition of lime in the clarifi- 



14 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

cation a certain amount of the glucose has been 
destroyed, consequently the ratio has been lowered. 

FORMULAE FOR PAN WORK. 

In making " ninety-six sugar" a certain per cent of 
first molasses is drawn into the pan with the syrup, 
a practice which considerably increases the yield of 
first sugar. No rule can be laid down governing 
this part of the manufacture, for every factory is 
differently arranged and operated, and it is natural 
that some will obtain much better results than others 
on this account. 

The control of the hot-room is, however, the key 
to the situation. The cars should be filled with a 
massecuite having the lowest purity possible that 
will granulate and dry in time to prevent the house 
from being "blocked off" for the lack of cars. Hav- 
ing found by experiment the purity which fulfils all 
these conditions, the next step is to mix the first 
molasses in the pan to a point that the massecuite 
on being dried will yield a first molasses having a 
purity suitable for the hot-room. 

In order to do this the average " per cent of com- 
mercial sugar recovered from the sucrose in the mas- 
secuite " is found by the following formula. Under 
similar conditions an average analysis of five strikes 
will give a reliable figure. 

Formula /. To find per cent of commercial sugar 
recovered jrom the sucrose in the massecuite. 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 15 

Let # = per cent of commercial sugar recovered; 
a = purity of massecuite ; 
b = purity of resulting molasses; 
then 

(a-b) " factor" 

oc 

a 

The " factor " corresponding to various polariza- 
tions and purity of molasses are found in Table VII. 

Example. Let a = 80; 

6 = 50; 

polarization of sugar = 96 ; 
then 

(80 50)2.16 
x = g - =81 per cent. 

Formula II. To find the purity of a mixture oj 
massecuite which will yield on purging a given 
purity of molasses: 

factor of molasses 

Purity of I _ X purity of molasses 

mixture factor of molasses 

per cent of com. sugar recovered 

Example. 

Purity of molasses = 46 

Factor of molasses = 1.99 

Per cent 96 sugar recovered.. . = 81 
then 

Purity of mixture = ^- = 77. 57. 
1.99 .81 



1 6 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

Formula III (S. L. Langdon, Jr.). To -find the 
amount of first molasses necessary to reduce the 
purity of the massecuite to a required purity. 

The number of gallons of first molasses taken into 
the pan to reduce the purity of the mixture to a re- 
quired purity may be found in two different ways. 

First Method. Assuming the complete strike 
contains 100 parts solids, 
then 

purity of syrup 



Per cent solids of first 
molasses used 



purity of mixture 
purity of syrup 



purity of molasses 
Example. 

Per cent solids of first molasses = c =8.10. 

80- 50 

Multiply the per cent solids of first molasses by 
the total pounds solids in an average strike and 
divide this by the number pounds solids in one 
gallon found in Table IV, page 49. 

Example. 

Total pounds of solids in strike = 32,000 

Per cent of solids in first molasses =8.10 

Pounds of solids in one gallon molasses, 

80 B =9.43 

then 

Number of gallons first ) 32oooX.o8i 
molasses 80 Brix ( 9.43 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 17 

Second Method. 

Let x = gallons of first molasses for each 100 

gallons of syrup; 

a = pounds of solids in one gallon of syrup ; 
b = pounds of solids in one gallon of molasses; 
c = per cent of solids of syrup to be taken into 

the pan; 
J = per cent of solids of molasses to be taken 

into the pan; 
then 




Example. 

Leta= 5.136; 

b= 9-435 

c = qi. 90 = (100 8.10 = 91.90); 
d= 8.10; 
then 

(5-136x8.10)100 



9.43X91.80 






For every 100 gallons of syrup 50 Brix and 80 
purity, 4.8 gallons of first molasses 80 Brix and 50 
purity are necessary to insure a purity of 77.57 in 
the mixture. 

Formula I may be used to advantage in control- 
ling the work of the pans and centrifugals. The 
object of good sugar-boiling and sugar-drying is to 
obtain the greatest amount of sugar in one opera- 
tion. The formula gives the per cent of commercial 
sugar from the sucrose in the massecuite, so that the 



1 8 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

work of both departments can be controlled. A 
sample of massecuite, molasses and sugar are taken 
about the middle of the strike, analyzed, and the 
percentage recovered calculated. By finding out 
this percentage for each strike, poor boiling or cen- 
trifugal work can be detected at once. Occasionally 
the centrifugal sieve is broken, allowing grains of 
sugar to pass through into the molasses, which 
causes the percentage of sugar to be greatly reduced. 
False grain in the pan is another cause, of the low 
yields of sugar and is often discovered by means of 
this calculation. 

AVAILABLE SUGAR. 
Formula /. 
Let x = pounds of commercial sugar per gallon or 

cubic foot; 

a = pounds of sucrose per gallon or cubic foot; 
b = purity of original sugar solution ; 
c = purity of resulting molasses; 

then 

/ (b-c) " factor "\ 
= a \- J /' 

Case I. To find the available sugar in one gallon 
of raw juice. 

Example. Analysis : 

Brix. 16.00 

Sucrose I 3- 

Purity 81.20 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 19 

From Table VII the following data are obtained: 

Weight of one gallon of juice (16 Brix). .. =8.88 

Pounds of solid matter = 1.421 

Pounds of sucrose = 1.1544 

The usual loss in manufacture is 5 per cent. Thus 
only 95 per cent of the sucrose would be treated. 
Then 

x= (.95)1.15441 - 'z -} = i. 044 Ibs. available 
sugar. 

Case II. To find the available first and second 
sugar and gallons of molasses in a cubic foot of first 
massecuite. 
Analysis: 

Brix 94.00 

Sucrose 75.2 

Purity 80.0 

Weight of one cubic foot 94.6 

Pounds of solids in one cubic foot 88.92 

Pounds of sucrose in one cubic foot 71-14 

Polarization of first sugar ' 96.00 

Purity of first molasses (assumed) 45 .00 

FIRST SUGAR: 

71. i 4 f (8o ~^ 5)l ' 95N ) =60.68 Ibs. available first 
\ So / 

sugar. 



20 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

Proof: 

Pounds. Solids. Sucrose. Purity. 

94.60 88.92 71.14 80 ist massecuite 

60.68 60.26 58.25 96.7 96 sugar 



33.92 28.66 12.89 44.98 ist molasses 

SECOND SUGAR: 

Polarization of second sugar ....... 88. oo 

Purity of second molasses (assumed) 30.00 

Then 



^ ggo 



44-9 
Proof: 

Pounds. Solids. Sucrose. Purity. 

33.920 28.660 12.890 44.98 ist molasses 
7.325 7.156 6.446 90.1 2d sugar 



25.595 21.504 6.444 3- 2 d molasses 



COMMERCIAL MOLASSES = 

21.504 

- 2.28 gallons. 
9-43 

Yield of first sugar 60.68 Ibs. 

" ' ' second sugar 7-3 2 5 " 

Total 68.005 Ibs. 

Gallons of com. molasses 2.28 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



21 



Case III. To find the available sugar in one 
cubic foot of second massecuite. 
Analysis : 

Brix ........................ 91.00 

Sucrose ..................... 41.86 

Purity ...................... 46.00 

Weight of one cubic foot .................. 93- 2 S 

Pounds of solids in one cubic foot .......... 84.86 

Pounds of sucrose in one cubic foot ........ 39-3 

Polarization of second sugar ............... 88.00 

Purity of second molasses ................. 30.00 



SECOND SUGAR: 

(46 3 

- 






= 23.164 Ibs. sugar. 



Proof: 








Pounds. 


Solids. 


Sucrose. Purity. 




93- 2 5 


84.86 


39.03 46.0 


2d massecuite 


23.164 


22.63 


20.38 90.1 


2d sugar 



62.23 



30.0 2d molasses 



6.6 gallons. 



COMMERCIAL MOLASSES. 

62.23 



9-43 

One cubic foot of second massecuite yields : 
Second sugar ........... 23.164 Ibs. 

Molasses ............... 6.60 gals. 



22 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

Formula II (International Sugar Journal). 
Let # available sugar; 

a solids in one gallon or cubic foot; 

6 = sucrose" " " " " " 

then x = r^ -. purity of molasses 2^.8, 
polarization 

The same formulae, using. 4 .5, etc., instead of .3. 
are given below, which will yield a final molasses oi 
higher purity: 

b .4(0 b) 

x = ; -. purity of molasses =31.4. 
polarization 

b-.$(a-b) f 1 

x= ; : -. purity of molasses 30. 
polarization 

b-.6(a-b) f . 

x= = r -; purity of molasses 40. 
polarization 

x= r~^ : purity of molasses 43. \. 
polarization 

b .8(a b) 

x== . purity of molasses 46. 5. 
polarization 

b-.g(a-b) 

x = . purity oi molasses 40. i. 
polarization 

b -(a -b) 

b , : 7^ purity of molasses =^1.4. 
polarization 

Example. 

Per cent of solids ,94-oo 

Per cent of sucrose, 75- 2 

Purity c ,.... 80.00 

Solids in one cubic foot 88.92 

Sucrose in one cubic foot 7 I - I 4 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 23 



Then 



71.14 .8(8^.02-71.14) 

A 3^ = 59.3 Ibs. 96 sugar. 



CROWLEY'S FORMULA. 

Let # = pounds of commercial sugar; 
a= pounds of any sugar solution; 
I) = per cent of solids of any sugar solution ; 
c = purity of any sugar solution; 
d= il il molasses after purging; 
e = " " commercial sugar; 
/ = per cent of solids of commercial sugar; 



ab(c 



C= 



fe-d 

_fx(e-d) m 

~ b(c-d) ' 

)x(e-d) _ 
a(c d) ' 
d)+abd 



ab 

abc ^ 
ab xf 

e = 

ab(c-d) 



24 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

SPENCER'S FORMULA FOR MIXTURE. 

Let a = purity of first solution; 
b = " " second solution; 
expounds of solids in first solution; 
d= " " il " second solution; 
x = purity of mixture ; 

then 

ac + bd 



oc= 



c + d ' 
x(c-\-d) 



x(c + d) 
~- 



a x ' 
c(a-x} 

- r . 

x-b 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 25 



CHAPTER III. 

\ 

LABORATORY RECORDS. 

IT is of the greatest importance that each analysis 
should be recorded and from time to time an average 
made of the analyses of the same kind of products 7 in 
order to compare the various operations of the fac- 
tory. As a rule the factories close down Sunday 
morning, and it is the custom to call upon the 
chemist for a report of the week's work. From the 
weight of cane and sugar and the average analyses of 
the different products he must construct a statement 
which will be understood by the men having charge 
of the departments, and serve as a guide for the 
future working of the factory. The set of blank 
forms given on pages 32 to 42 are suitable for a 
factory manufacturing first, second, and third sugar, 
but with a few changes they could be adapted to the 
needs of any factory. 

Form i. The per cent u water of saturation" is 
found by the formula under the heading u Satura- 
tion" and multiplied by the pounds of water added 
to the bagasse. The pounds of water subtracted 



26 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

from the pounds of diluted juice gives the pounds 
of raw juice, and this divided by the weight of the 
cane gives the per cent of extraction. 

Form 2. The daily analyses are averaged and 
recorded. The gallons of diluted juice correspond- 
ing are calculated from the number of tanks of juice. 
From the Brix of the juice the pounds for one gallon 
of juice are found from the tables and the total 
pounds of diluted juice determined. This is multi- 
plied by the per cent solids, sucrose, and glucose. 

Form 3. The juices affected by clarification are 
arranged together for comparison. The glucose 
ratio and purity of each product indicate the effi- 
ciency of the treatment, and error in the manufac- 
ture can be corrected and the process improved. 

Form 4. The massecuite, molasses, and sugar 
for each strike are analyzed and the percentage of 
" sugar from the sucrose in the massecuite" deter- 
mined and recorded. This form makes it possible 
to control the pans and centrifugal work. 

Form 5. The analyses of the second and third 
massecuite are recorded and the amount of solids, 
sucrose, and glucose calculated as in Form 2. 

Form 6. The analyses of second massecuite 
(dried), second molasses, and second sugar are 
analyzed once a day and the percentage of second 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 27 

commercial sugar from the sucrose in the massecuite 
calculated. 

Form 7. This form makes it possible to calcu- 
late accurately the amount of " available sugar" in 
; the factory when the mill stops grinding. Sunday 
. morning the chemist is given a report of the total 
sugar dried. The average " polarization to date " 
for this sugar is used to find the per cent solids of the 
sugar in the tables (page 43) and the pounds of sugar 
multiplied by the per cent of solids and polarization 
gives the pounds of solids and sucrose of the sugar. 

Any clarified juice on hand in the factory is meas- 
ured, a sample analyzed, and the pounds, pounds of 
solids, and sucrose calculated, and also the avail- 
able first and second sugar. The syrup, first and 
second molasses are measured and sampled and the 
available sugar determined in the same way. The 
amount of second and third massecuite on hand is 
found by counting the cars in the hot-room and 
measuring number of cubic feet of the third masse- 
cuite in the tanks and the corresponding analysis 
found by averaging the analysis of the strikes not 
dried. In case any commercial molasses has been 
shipped, the average analysis and amount are re- 
corded. 

It is evident that the sum of the pounds solids 
of each of the products and sucrose in each of the 
products should be the same as the pounds solids 
and sucrose of the original product, the syrup, for in 



28 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

the process of manufacture nothing is lost; the 
molasses is separated from the sugar, but the total 
pounds solids and sucrose should remain the same. 
To prove whether this is so the total pounds sucrose 
is divided by the total pounds solids, and if the 
purity of the total product is the same as the purity 
of the syrup, it is a proof that the measurement and 
analysis of the " stock on hand" is correct. The 
greater the accuracy in sampling, analyses, and 
measurement, the nearer the purity of the total 
product will approach the purity of the syrup. 

If the purity of the total product is lower than the 
purity of the syrup, it indicates that there is too much 
low-grade sugar or too little sugar. On the other 
hand, if the purity is higher than the purity of the 
syrup, the opposite is true a part of the low-grade 
sugars have been omitted. When the purity of the 
total product and syrup are the same the difference 
between the sucrose in the raw juice and total prod- 
uct represents the "loss in manufacture." 

The calculation of the available sugar in the prod- 
uct on hand is based on previous results. In houses 
making 96 sugar, the high-grade first molasses is 
iaken back into the pan with the syrup in sufficient 
quantities to insure a first molasses from a "mixed" 
strike suitable for the hot-room, so in calculating the 
available first sugar in the syrup the purity desired 
for the hot-room is used in the calculations. In 
making "YC" sugar first molasses is seldom taken 
back into the pan, so the average "per cent of com- 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 29 

mercial sugar from the sucrose in the massecuite'' 
for the preceding week can be used. 

These calculations may be better understood b} 
the example in "Form 7," pages 38 and 39. 

Analysis of syrup: 

Brix ..................... 50 

Sucrose .................. 40.5 

Purity ................... 81.0 

Number of gallons ...................... 7,640 

Pounds ............. . ......... . ........ 78,478 

Solids ................................. 39> 2 39 

Sucrose ................................ 3^7 8 3 

Purity of first molasses (assumed) .......... 45-oo 

Pounds of available 96 sugar 

i-4s)i.QS 

~~ 



31-783= 27546. 

Proof: 

Pounds. Solids. Sucrose. Purity. 
78,478 39,239 31,783 81 syrup 
27,546 27,376 26,466 96.7 sugar 



11,863 S'3 1 ? 44-^3 nrs t rnolasses 
Pounds of available second sugar, 88, 

t 

-5317=3722. 



( 44.83 ) 



30 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

Proof: 

Pounds. Solids. Sucrose. Purity. 

11,863 5317 44-83 first molasses 
3,722 3,636 3275 90.1 second sugar 



8,227 2042 24.82 second molasses 

To calculate the yield of " YC" sugar and second 
sugar from the same syrup, the average per cent 
sugar from sucrose in massecuite being 68 per cent. 
Then 

31, 783X68 = 21, 752 Ibs. 99 sugar. 
Proof: 

Pounds. Solids. Sucrose. Purity. 
78,478 39,239 31,783 81 syrup 
21,752 21,675 2 i>479 99- 1 "YC" sugar 



17,564 10,304 58.66 first molasses 
Available second sugar, 88, 

'(58.66-25)1.575 



58.66 



10.304 = 9311. 



Proof: 



Pounds. Solids. Sucrose. Purity. 

17,564 10,304 58.66 first molasses 
9,311 9,097 8,194 90.1 second sugar 



8,467 2,110 24.8 second molasses 






CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 31 



Form 8. This is the weekly report and contains 
the average analysis of all the products for the week 
and to date. The mill extraction yield of sugar from 
cane and juice, the sucrose account, and the loss in 
manufacture when compared from week to week are 
valuable aids to the management in improving the 
effectiveness of the factory. 

Form 9. Here the analyses of the filter-press cake 
and the bagasse are recorded. 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



Form i. 



Factory. Season of 190 

MILL RECORD. 



Date. 


Tons 
of 
Cane. 


Mill Time. 


No. of Tanks of Juice Extracted. 


No. of 
Watches. 


| 

K 


Minutes. 


H 

4*,* 
g 

& 


Second 
Watch. 


Third 
Watch. 


Fourth 
Watch. 


*c3 

I 


Week 







































Bgt. forward . 
Total to date. 



















Form 2. Factory. Season of 190 

RECORD OF RAW JUICE 



Date. 


Analysis of Raw Juice. 


Brix. 


Sucrose. 


Glucose. 


Non- 
sugars. 


Ratio. 


Purity. 


Week. . 




























Bgt. forward . 
Total to date. 














CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



33 



Factory. 

MILL RECORD. 



Season of 190 



No. of 
Gallons 
Juice and 
Water. 


No. of 
Pounds 
Juice and 
Water. 


Saturation. 


Pounds 
ot Raw 
Juice. 


Mill 
Extrac- 
tion. 


Pounds 
of Water, 
Total 


Per Cent 
in Juice. 


Pounds 
of Water 
in Juice. 











































Factory. Season of 190 

RECORD OF RAW JUICE. 



Gallons of 


Pounds of 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Diluted 


Diluted 


Solids. 


Sucrose. 


Glucose. 


Juice. 


Juice. 







































34 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

Form 3. Factory. Season of 190 

CLARIFICATION. 



Date. 



Week 

Brought forward. . . 

Total to date 



Sulphured Juice. 



Filtered Juice. 



Form 4. Factory. Season of 190 

PAN RECORD FIRST SUGARS. 



Date. 


1 

03 

1 


1 




Analysis 
of First 
Massecuite. 




First Sugar. 


JH 

PQ 


Sucrose. 




-t-j 

fr 


Pounds. 


d 

'o 
Ck 


Sucrose. 


Week. . 







































Brought forward. . . 
To date 




















Dried 




















On hand 

























CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



35 



Factory. Season of 190 

CLARIFICATION. 



Clarified Juice. 






Syrup. 



Factory. Season of 190 

PAN RECORD. FIRST SUGAR. 



First 
Molasses. 



81 

II 



Remarks. 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



Form 5. Factory. Season of 190 

PAN RECORD vSECOND SUGARS. 



Date. 


Analysis of Second Massecuite. 


Strike 
No. 


No. 
Cars. 


Brix. 


vSu- 
crose. 


Glu- 
cose. 


Non- 
sugars. 


Ratio. 


Purity 


Week. 
Bgt. forward . 

To date 










































Form 6. Factory. Season of 190 

HOT-ROOM RECORD. 



Date. 


Second Massecuite. 




No. 
Cubic 
Feet 
Masse- 
cuite 
Dried. 


Pounds of 
Second 
Sugar. 


Polar- 
iza- 
tion 
of 2d 
Sugar 


Brix. 


Su- 
crose. 


Purity. 


Week. 

































Bgt. forward . 
To date 
Dried. 
















On hand 















CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



37 



Factory. Season of 190 

PAN RECORD SECOND SUGARS. 



Cubic Feet. 


Pounds. 


Solids. 


Sucrose. 


Glucose. 
































. F actor V- Season of IQO 



HOT-ROOM RECORD. 



Pounds 
Sucrose. 


Pounds 
of Sugar 
per 
Cubic 
Foot. 


Second Molasses. 




Per Cent 

Second 
Sugar 
Recov- 
ered. 


, 


Brix. 


Sucrose 


Purity. 














































































CALCULATIONS USED IN 



Form 7. Factory. Season of 190 

STOCK ON HAND WEEKLY ESTIMATE. 



Products. 


Analyses of Products. 


Gal- 
lons or 
Cubic 
Feet. 


Total 
Pounds. 


Brix. 


Sucrose. 


Purity. 


Total first sugar. . . 
Total second sugar. 
Clarified juice 


99-4 
97.6 
15.20 
50.00 
83.00 
91 .00 
85.00 
92.00 


96.5 
87.5 
12. 16 

40.50 
38.18 
41.40 

25-50 
31.28 


97.1 
89.65 
80.00 
81 .00 
46.00 

45.50 
30.00 
34-oo 




2,649,350 
205,925 
132,720 
78,4/8 
28,326 
484,900 
36,240 
754,446 




15000 
7640 
2450 
5200 
3000 
8050 


Svrup . 


First molasses 
Second massecuite . 
Second molasses. . . 
Third massecuite. . 
Com. molasses. . . . 
Total to date 
Previously reported 
For week 






79.38 
79.10 














80.50 













PURITIES OF TOTAL PRODUCTS. 

100(3.241,504 -5- 4.083,513) =79.38 
100(2. 584,643 -7-3.266,807) = 79.10 

ioo( 657,464-7- 816,706) = 80.50 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



39 



Factory. Season of 190 

STOCK ON HAND WEEKLY ESTIMATE. 



Pounds 
Solids. 


Pounds 
Sucrose. 


Available Sugar. 


First 
Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


2,633,454 
200,983 
20,173 
39,239 
23,510 
441,260 
30,804 
694,090 


2,556,622 
180,184 
16,139 

31,783 
10,805 
200,749 
9,241 
235,98i 


2,649,350 




2,649,350 
205,925 

I5,6i4 
31,268 
7,742 
142,449 
2,826 
98.380 


205,925 

1,843 
3,722 
7,742 
142,449 
2,826 
98,380 


13,771 
27,546 










4,083,513 
3,266,807 


3,241,504 
2,584,643 


2,690,667 
2,126,260 


462,887 
379,152 


3,153,554 
2,505,412 


816,706 


657,464 


564,407 


83,735 


648,142 



40 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



WEEKLY REPORT. 

Form 8. Factory. 6 A.M. Sunday, 190 

AVERAGE ANALYSIS FOR WEEK. 





CD 

* 


Sulphured 
Juice. 


Clarified 
Juice. 


Filtered 
Juice. 


ft 
CO 


First 
Massecuite. 


First 
Molasses. 


Second 
Massecuite. 


Second 
Molasses. 


Third 
Massecuite. 


oJ 

w ^ 


Second 
Sugar. 





Specific grav... 
Beaume 
Brix 




























Sucrose 




























Glucose 




























Non-sugars. . . 
Ratio 




























Purity . 

























































AVERAGE ANALYSIS TO DATE. 














<u 




8) 




<D 










0} 

J^ 


|. 


Clarified 
Juice. 


Filtered 
Juice. 


ft 
p 

CO 


First 
Massecuit 


First 
Molasses. 


Second 
Massecuil 


Second 
Molasses 


Third 
Massecui' 


$-.' 


Second 
Sugar. 


i Filter-pres 
'. Cake. 


Specific grav... 


























Beaume. .... 




























Brix 




























Sucrose 
Glucose 




























Non-sugars. . . 
Ratio 


Purity* . . . 





CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 
WEEKLY REPORT. 



For Week. 



To Date. 



MILL-WORK : 

No. days grinding (by watches) . 

' ' hours " 

' ' tons of cane ground 

" " " " " per day. 

Percentage mill extraction 

saturation 

YIELD FROM CANE PER TON I 

Pounds first sugar 

' ' second sugar 

' ' total sugar 

YIELD FROM SUCROSE IN RAW JUICE : 

Percentage first sugar 

second sugar 

total sugar 

SUCROSE ACCOUNT (PERCENTAGE) : 

In mill juice 

In dry sugar 

In hot room 

In syrup and molasses on hand 
Accounted for 

SUCROSE LOST IN M'F'G (PERCENT- 
AGE): 

In presses 

By inversion 

Mechanically, 

Total loss 

POUNDS SUCROSE LOST IN BAGASSI 
PER TON. . 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



Form 9. Factory. Season of 190 

ANALYSIS OF FILTER-PRESS CAKE, BAGASSE. 



Date. 


Sucrose 
in Filter- 
ress 
ake. 


Bagasse. 


Barrels 
of Coal 
Used. 


Barrels 
of Oil 
Used. 


Cords of 
Wood. 


Woody 
Fibre. 


Sucrose. 
















For week.. 
Bgt. for'd. 














To date . . 















CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



43 



CHAPTER IV. 
LABORATORY TABLES. 

TABLE V. 

COMMERCIAL SUGAR. 

PER CENT SOLIDS AND PURITY CORRESPONDING TO THE 
POLARIZATION FROM 80 TO 100. 



Solids. 


Sucrose. 


Purity. 


Solids. 


Sucrose. 


Purity. 


100 


IOO 


IOO 


98.0 


89.5 


91.30 


IOO 


99-5 


99-5 


97-9 


89.0 


90.9 


99-9 


99.0 


99.1 


97.8 


88.5 


90.5 


99.8 


98.5 


98.7 


97.7 


88.0 


90. I 


99-7 


98.0 


98.3 


97.6 


87.5 


89.65 


99.6 


97-5 


97-9 


97-5 


87.0 


89-05 


99-5 


97.0 


97-5 


97.4 


86.5 


88.80 


99.4 


96.5 


97.1 


97-3 


86.0 


88.40 


99-3 


96.0 


96.7 


97.2 


85-5 


87.95 


99.2 


95-5 


96.3 


97.1 


85.0 


87.55 


99.1 


95-0 


95.85 


97-0 


84.5 


87.11 


99-o 


94-5 


95-45 


96.9 


84.0 


86.7 


98.9 


94.0 


95.05 


96.8 


83.5 


86.2 


98.8 


93-5 


94.65 


96.7 


83.0 


85-8 


98.7 


93-0 


94.20 


96.6 


82.5 


85.4 


98.6 


92.5 


93-Si 


96.5 


82.0 


84.95 


98.5 


92.0 


93-40 


96.4 


81.5 


84.55 


98.4 


91-5 


93-00 


96.3 


81 .0 


84. 10 


98-3 


91 .0 


92.65 


96.2 


80.5 


83.65 


98.2 


90-5 


92.15 


96. i 


80.0 


83.22 


98.1 


90.0 


91-75 









44 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



TABLE VI. 

JUICE. 
TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOLIDS IN ONE GALLON. 



Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


12.0 


8-734 


1.048 


15-5 


8.859 


1-373 


12. I 


8.738 


1.057 


I 5 .6 


8.86 3 


1.383 


12. 2 


8.741 


I .066 


15-7 


8.866 


1.392 


12.3 


8-745 


I .076 


15-8 


8.870 


I .402 


12.4 


8.748 


1.085 


15-9 


8-873 


1.411 


12-5 


8-752 


I 094 








12.6 


8-755 


1.103 


16.0 


8.880 


1.421 


I2.y 


8-759 


I . 112 


16.1 


8.884 


1.430 


12.8 


8.762 


I . 122 


16.2 


8.887 


1.440 


12.9 


8.766 


I.I3I 


16.3 


8.890 


1.449 








16.4 


8-895 


1-459 


13.0 


8.769 


I . 140 


16.5 


8.898 


1.468 


13-1 


8.773 


I.I49 


16.6 


8.902 


1.478 


13.2 


8.777 


I.I58 


16.7 


8.906 


1.487 


13.3 


8.780 


I.I68 


16.8 


8.910 


1-497 


13-4 


8-784 


I.I77 


16.9 


8.913 


1.506 


13-5 


8.787 


I.I86 








13.6 


8.791 


I-I95 


17-0 


8.917 


1.516 


13.7 


8-794 


1.205 


17.1 


8.921 


1.526 


13.8 


8.798 


I .214 


17.2 


8.924 


1.535 


13-9 


8.801 


I . 224 


17-3 


8.928 


1.545 








17.4 


8.932 


1.554 


14.0 


8.805 


1.233 


17.5 


8-935 


1.564 


14.1 


8.809 


I . 242 


17.6 


8-939 


1-574 


14.2 


8.812 


I.25I 


17.7 


8.942 


1-583 


H-3 


8.816 


I . 26l 


17.8 


8-947 


1-593 


14.4 


8.819 


I .270 


17.9 


8.950 


i .602 


14-5 


8.823 


1.279 








14.6 


8.826 


1.289 


18.0 


8-954 


i .612 


14-7 


8.830 


1.298 


18.1 


8.958 


1.621 


14.8 


8-834 


1.307 


18.2 


8.961 


1.631 


14.9 


8.837 


I.3I6 


18.3 


8-965 


1.641 








18.4 


8.968 


1.650 


15-0 


8.841 


1.326 


18.5 


8-972 


i . 660 


15-1 


8.844 


1.336 


18.6 


8.976 


1.669 


15.2 


8.848 


1-345 


18.7 


8.979 


1.679 


15.3 


8.852 


1-354 


18.8 


8.983 


1.689 


15-4 


8-855 


1-364 . 


18.9 


8.986 


1.698 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



45 



MILL JUICE. 
TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOLIDS IN ONE GALLON. 



Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


19.0 


8.990 


1.708 


21-5 


9.084 


1-953 


19.1 


8.994 


1.718 


21.6 


9.088 


1.963 


19.2 


8.998 


1.728 


21.7 


9.092 


1-973 


19-3 


9.001 


1-737 


21.8 


9-095 


1.982 


19.4 


9.005 


1-747 


21.9 


9.099 


1.992 


19-5 


9.009 


1-757 








19.6 


9.012 


1.767 


22.0 


9.103 


2. OO2 


19.7 


9.016 


1.776 


22. I 


9.107 


2.OI2 


19.8 


9.020 


1.786 


22. 2 


9. Ill 


2.022 


19.9 


9.024 


1.796 


22.3 


9.114 


2.032 








22.4 


9. 118 


2 .042 


20.0 


9.028 


i. 806 


22.5 


9. 121 


2.053 


20. I 


9.032 


1.816 


22.6 


9.125 


2.063 


20. 2 


9-035 


1.826 


22.7 


9.129 


2.073 


20.3 


9-039 


1.836 


22.8 


9.133 


2.083 


20.4 


9-043 


1-845 


22.9 


9.136 


2.093 


20.5 


9.046 


1-855 








20. 6 


9.050 


1.865 


23-0 


9.140 


2. 102 


20.7 


9-054 


1.875 


23.1 


9.144 


2. 112 


20.8 


9.058 


1.884 


23.2 


9.148 


2. 122 


20.9 


9.061 


1.894 


23.3 


9.152 


2.132 








23-4 


9.156 


2. 142 


21 .O 


9.065 


1.904 


23-5 


9.159 


2. 152 


21 . I 


9.069 


1.914 


23.6 


9.163 


2. l62 


21 .2 


9-073 


1.924 


23-7 


9.167 


2.172 


21.3 


9.076 


1-934 


23.8 


9.171 


2. 182 


21.4 


9.080 


J -943 


23-9 


9-175 


2. 192 



SYRUP. 

TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOLIDS IN ONE GALLON. 



Per 


Total 


Pounds 


Per 


Total 


Pounds 


Cent 
Solids. 


Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Solids per 
Gallon. 


Cent 
Solids. 


Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Solids per 
Gallon. 


41 .O 


9.872 


4.047 


41.5 


9.893 


4.105 


41.1 


9.876 


4-059 


41 .6 


9.998 


4.117 


41.2 


9.881 


4.070 


41.7 


9.902 


4.129 


41-3 


9.885 


4.082 


41.8 


9.906 


4.141 


41.4 


9.889 


4.094 


41.9 


9.911 


4.152 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



SYRUP. 

TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOLIDS IN ONE GALLON. 



Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


Per 
Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


42.0 


9-9I5 


4.164 


46.0 


10.092 


4.642 


42.1 


9.919 


4.176 


46. I 


10.096 


4.654 


42.2 


9.924 


4. 1 88 


46. 2 


IO. IOI 


4.666 


42.3 


9.928 


4.199 


46.3 


10.105 


4.678 


42.4 


9-933 


4. 21 I 


46.4 


IO. IIO 


4.690 


42.5 


9-937 


4.223 


46.5 


10. 114 


4.702 


42.6 


9.941 


4.235 


46.6 


10. 119 


4.714 


42.7 


9.941 


4.247 


46.7 


10. 123 


4.726 


42.8 


9.946 


4.258 


46.8 


10. 128 > 


4.738 


42.9 


9-954 


4.270 


46.9 


10.132 


4.750 


43-0 


9-959 


4.282 


47.0 


10.137 


4.764 


43-i 


9-963 


4.294 


47.1 


10. 141 


4.776 


43-2 


9.968 


4.306 


47-2 


10. 146 


4.788 


43-3 


9.972 


4.318 


47-3 


10.150 


4.800 


43-4 


9-977 


4-330 


47-4 


10.155 


4.813 


43-5 


9.981 


4-341 


47-5 


10.159 


4-825 


43-6 


9-985 


4-353 


47-6 


10. 164 


4.837 


43-7 


9.990 


4-365 


47-7 


10. 168 


4.850 


43-8 


9-994 


4-377 


47-8 


10.173 


4.862 


43-9 


9.998 


4-389 


47-9 


10.177 


4-874 


44.0 


10.003 


4.401 


48.0 


10. l82 


4.887 


44.1 


10.007 


4.413 


48.1 


10.186 


4.899 


44.2 


IO.OI2 


4-425 


48.2 


10. 191 


4.912 


44-3 


10.016 


4-437 


48.3 


10.195 


4.924 


44-4 


10.021 


4.449 


48.4 


IO. 2OO 


4-937 


44-5 


10.025 


4.461 


48.5 


10. 204 


4-950 


44.6 


10.029 


4-473 


48.6 


10. 209 


4.961 


44-7 


10.033 


4.485 


48.7 


10.213 


4-974 


44.8 


10.043 


4-497 


48.8 


10. 2l8 


4.986 


44-9 


10.047 


4.509 


48.9 


IO. 222 


5.000 


45-0 


10.047 


4.521 


49.0 


10.227 


5.011 


45-1 


10.052 


4-533 


49.1 


10. 231 


5.024 


45-2 


10.056 


4-545 


49.2 


10.236 


5-036 


45-3 


10.061 


4-557 


49-3 


10. 240 


5-049 


45-4 


10.065 


4-569 


49-4 


10.245 


5.061 


45-5 


10.069 


4.58i 


49-5 


10. 249 


5-074 


45-6 


10.074 


4-593 


49-6 


10.254 


5 . 086 


45-7 


10.078 


4.605 


49-7 


10.258 


5-099 


45-8 


10.083 


4.617 


49-8 


10. 263 


5.111 


45-9 


10.087 


4.629 


49-9 


10. 267 


.5 i ?4 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



47 



SYRUP. 

TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOLIDS IN ONE GALLON. 



Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


50.0 


10. 272 


5.136 


54-0 


10.459 


5.648 


50.1 


10.277 


5-149 


54-i 


10.464 


5-661 


50.2 


10.282 


5- 161 


54-2 


10.468 


5.674 


50-3 


10. 287 


5-174 


54-3 


10.473 


5.687 


50.4 


10.291 


5.186 


54-4 


10.478 


5-700 


50-5 


10. 296 


5-199 


54.5 


10.482 


5.7I3 


50,. 6 


10.300 


5-2II 


54-6 


10.487 


5.726 


50.7 


10.305 


5.224 


54-7 


10.492 


5-739 


50.8 


10.310 


5-237 


54.8 


10.497 


5.752 


50.9 


10.315 


5-249 


54-9 . 


10.501 


5.765 


51.0 


10.319 


5-263 


55-0 


10.507 


5-779 


5i-i 


10.323 


5-275 


55-1 


10.512 


5.792 


51-2 


10.328 


5-288 


55-2 


10.517 


5.806 


51-3 


10.333 


5-301 


55-3 


10.521 


5.819 


51.4 


10.337 


5.314 


55-4 


10.526 


5.832 


51.5 


10.342 


5.326 


55-5 


10.531 


5.845 


51-6 


10.347 


5-339 


55-6 


10.537 


5.859 


51.7 


10.351 


5-352 


55-7 


10.541 


5.872 


5L8 


10.356 


5-365 


55-8 


10.545 


5-885 


51-9 


10.360 


5-377 


55-9 


10.550 


5.899 


52-0 


10.365 


5-390 


56.0 


10.555 


5.912 


52.1 


10.375 


5.403 


56.1 


10.560 


5-925 


52.2 


10.380 


5.416 


56.2 


10.565 


5.938 


52.3 


10.384 


5.429 


56.3 


10.570 


5.951 


52-4 


10.389 


5.442 


56.4 


10.574 


5.964 


52.5 


10.394 


5-455 


56.5 


10.579 


5-977 


52.6 


10.399 


5.468 


56.6 


10.584 


5-990 


52.7 


10.404 


5.48i 


56.7 


10.589 


6.003 


52.8 


10.408 


5-494 


56.8 


10.594 


6.010 


52.9 


10.411 


5.507 


56.9 


10.598 


6. 020 


53-0 


10.414 


5.519 


57-0 


10.603 


6.043 


53-i 


10.418 


5-532 


57-1 


I0.6o8 


6.056 


53-2 


10.422 


5-545 


57-2 


10.613 


6.070 


53-3 


10.427 


5-558 


57-3 


10.618 


6.083 


53-4 


10.431 


5.571 


57-4 


10.622 


6.097 


53-5 


10.436 


5.584 


57-5 


10.627 


6. no 


53-6 


10.441 


5-597 


57.6 


10.632 


6.123 


53-7 


10.445 


5.610 


57-7 


10.637 


6.137 


53-8 


10.450 


5-623 


57-8 


10.642 


6.150 


53-9 


10.454 


5-636 


57-9 


10.646 


6. 164 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



SYRUP. 
TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOLIDS IN ONE GALLON 



Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


58.0 


10.651 


6.177 


59-5 


10.725 


6.381 


58.1 


10.656 


6. 190 


59-6 


10.730 


6-395 


58.2 


10.661 


6.203 


59-7 


10.735 


6.408 


58.3 


10.666 


6.216 


59-8 


10.740 


6.422 


58.4 


0.671 


6.230 


59-9 


10.745 


6-435 


58.5 


10.676 


6.244 








58.6 


10.680 


6.257 


60.0 


10.749 


6-449 


58.7 


10.685 


6.271 


60. i 


10.7^4 


6-463 


58.8 


10.690 


6.285 


60.2 


10.759 


6-477 


58.9 


10.695 


6.298 


60.3 


10.764 


6.591 








60.4 


10.769 


6.505 


59-0 


10.700 


6.313 


60.5 


10.774 


6.519 


59-i 


10.705 


6.327 


60.6 


10.778 


6-533 


59-2 


10.710 


6.340 


60.7 


10.783 


6.547 


59-3 


10.715 


6-354 


60.8 


10.788 


6.561 


59-4 


10.720 


6.367 


60.9 


10.793 


6.576 



MOLASSES. 

TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOLIDS IN ONE) GALLON. 



Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


71.0 


11.31 


8.03 


72.5 


H-39 


8.26 


7I.I 


11.31 


8.04 


72.6 


11-39 


8.2 7 


71.2 


11.32 


8.06 


72.7 


11.40 


8.29 


71-3 


H.33 


8.07 


72.8 


ii .40 


8.30 


71.4 


H.33 


8.09 


72.9 


ii .41 


8. 3 2 


71-5 


H-34 


8.10 








7 I.6 


11.34 


8.12 


73-0 


ii .42 


8-33 


71.7 


11-35 


8.13 


73-i 


ii .42 


8-35 


7 I.8 


n-35 


8.15 


73-2 


n-43 


8.36 


71.9 


11.36 


8.16 


73-3 


H-43 


8.38 








73-4 


11.44 


8-39 


72 .O 


11.36 


8.18 


73-5 


11.44 


8.41 


72. I 


11-37 


8.20 


73-6 


H-45 


8.42 


72.2 


ii-37 


8.21 


73-7 


H-45 


8-44 


72.3 


11.38 


8.23 


73-8 


ii .46 


8.45 


72.4 


11.38 


8.24 


73-9 


11.47 


8.47 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



49 



MOLASSES. 

TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOUDS IN ONE GAUX)N 



Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


74.0 


11.47 


8.49 


78.0 


II .69 


9. 10 


74.1 


11.48 


8.50 


78.1 


II .70 


9.12 


74.2 


11.48 


8.52 


78.2 


11.70 


9.14 


74-3 


11.49 


8.53 


78.3 


11.71 


9. 16 


74-4 


11.49 


8.55 


78.4 


11.71 


9.17 


74-5 


11.50 


8.57 


78.5 


11.72 


9.19 


74.6 


11.50 


8.58 


78.6 


11-73 


9.21 


74-7 


11.51 


8.60 


78.7 


H.73 


9.22 


74-8 


11.51 


8.61 


78.8 


11.74 


9.24 


74-9 


11.52 


8.63 


78.9 


H.74 


9.26 


75-0 


11.52 


8.64 


79.0 


11.74 


9.27 


75-1 


H-53 


8.66 


79.1 


H.75 


9.29 


75-2 


11-53 


8.67 


79-2 


H.75 


9-3i 


75-3 


n-54 


8.69 


79-3 


11.76 


9-33' 


75-4 


n-55 


8.70 


79-4 


ii .76 


9-34 


75-5 


11.56 


8.72 


79-5 


11.77 


9-35 


75-6 


11.56 


8-73 


79.6 


11.78 


9-37 


75-7 


11-57 


8-75 


79-7 


11.78 


9-38 


75-8 


H.57 


8.77 


79.8 


11.79 


9.40 


75.9 


11.58 


8.79 


79-9 


11.79 


9.41 


76.0 


11.58 


8.80 


80.0 


11.80 


9-43 


76.1 


11.58 


8.81 


80. i 


11.80 


9-45 


76.2 


H.59 


8.83 


80.2 


ii. 81 


9-47 


76.3 


H.59 


8.85 


80.3 


11.82 


9.48 


76.4 


1 1. 60 


8.86 


80.4 


11.82 


9-49 


76.5 


ii .60 


8.87 


80.5 


11.83 


9-5i 


76.6 


ii .61 


8.89 


80.6 


11.83 


9-53 


76.7 


ii .62 


8.91 


80.7 


11.84 


9-55 


76.8 


ii .62 


8.92 


80.8 


11.84 


9-57 


76.9 


11.63 


8-93 


80.9 


11.85 


9-59 


77.0 


11.63 


8.95 


81.0 


11.85 


9.60 


77-1 


ii .64 


8-97 


81.1 


11.86 


9.61 


77.2 


ii .64 


8-99 


81.2 


11.87 


9- 6 3 


77-3 


ii .65 


9.00 


81.3 


11.87 


9-65 


77-4 


11.65 


9.02 


81.4 


11.88 


9.67 


77-5 


11.66 


9.04 


81.5 


11.89 


9.69 


77-6 


ii .67 


9.05 


81.6 


11.89 


9.70 


77.7 


11.68 


9.06 


81.7 


ii .90 


9.72 


77.8 


11.68 


9.08 


81.8 


11.90 


9-74 


77.9 


ii .69 


9.09 


81.9 


11.91 


9.76 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



MOLASSES. 

TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOLIDS IN ONE GALLON. 



Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


Per 

Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


82.0 


11.91 


9-77 


84.5 


12.05 


IO.I8 


82.1 


II .92 


9-79 


84.6 


I 2. 06 


10". 2O 


82.2 


II .92 


9.81 


84.7 


1 2. O6 


IO.22 


82.3 


1 1 93 


9.82 


84.8 


12.07 


10.23 


82.4 


11-93 


9.84 


84.9 


12.08 


10.25 


82.5 


11.94 


9.86 








82.6 


11.94 


9.87 


85.0 


12.08 


10.27 


82.7 


ii-95 


9.89 


85.1 


12.09 


10.28 


82.8 


ii .96 


9.90 


85.2 


12. 09 


10.30 


82.9 


ii .96 


9.91 


85-3 


12. 10 


10.32 








85-4 


12. II 


10.34 


83.0 


11.97 


9-93 


85.5 


12. II 


10.35 


83-1 


11.97 


9-95 


8 5 .6 


12. 12 


10.37 


83.2 


11.98 


9-97 


85.7 


12. 12 


10.39 


83-3 


11.98 


9.98 


85.8 


12.13 


10.40 


83.4 


11.99 


10.00 


85.9 


12.13 


10.42 


83.5 


12.00 


IO.O2 








83-6 


12.00 


10.03 


86.0 


12. 14 


10.42 


83.7 


12. OI 


10.05 


86.1 


12.15 


10.46 


83.8 


12.01 


IO.O7 


86.2 


12.15 


10.47 


83.9 


12.02 


10. 08 


86.3 


12. l6 


10.49 








86.4 


12. l6 


10.50 


84.0 


12.02 


IO. IO 


86.5 


12. 17 


10.52 


84.1 


12.03 


10. 12 


86.6 


12.17 


10.54 


84.2 


I2.O4 


10.13 


86.7 


I2.I8 


10.56 


84.3 


12.05 


10.15 


86.8 


12. 19 


I0.5S 


84.4 


12.05 


10. 17 


86.9 


12. 19 


10.60 



MOLASSES. 

TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOLIDS IN ONE GALLON AND IN 
ONE CUBIC FOOT. 



Per 


Total 


Total Pounds 


Total Pounds 


Pounds Solids 


Cent 
Solids. 


Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Solids per 
Gallon. 


per Cubic 
Foot. 


per Cubic 
Foot. 


87.0 


12.20 


10. 61 


91.49 


79.60 


87.1 


12.21 


10. 63 


91-53 


79.72 


87.2 


12.21 


10.65 


9L38 


79.85 


87.3 


12.22 


10.66 


91 .62 


79.98 


87.4 


12.22 


10.68 


91.66 


80. II 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



S 1 



MOLASSES. 

TOTAL LBS., ETC., IN ONE GALLON AND IN ONE CUBIC FOOT. 



Per 

.Cent 
Solids. 


Total 
Pounds per 
Gallon. 


Total Pounds 
Solids per 
Gallon. 


Total Pounds 
per Cubic 
Foot. 


Pounds Solids 
per Cubic 
Foot. 


87-5 


12.23 


10. 70 


91.70 


80.24 


87.6 


12.24 


10.72 


91.75 


80.37 


87.7 


12. 24 


10.74 


91.79 


80.50 


87.8 


12.25 


10.75 


91.83 


80.63 


87.9 


12.25 


10.77 


9 1.8 7 


80.76 


88.0 


12. 26 


10.79 


91.92 


80.89 


88.1 


12.26 


I0.8I 


91.96 


81.02 


88.2 


12.27 


10.82 


92.00 


81.15 


88.3 


12.27 


10.84 


92.05 


81.28 


88.4 


12.28 


10.86 


92. 10 


81.41 


88.5 


12.28 


10.87 


92.14 


81.54 


88.6 


12.29 


10.89 


92.18 


81.67 


88.7 


12. 29 


10.91 


92.22 


81.80 


88.8 


12.30 


10.93 


92.27 


81.93 


88.9 


12.30 


10.94 


92.32 


82.06 












89.0 


12.31 


10.96 


92.36 


82.20 


89.1 


12.32 


10.98 


92.40 


82.33 


89.2 


12.32 


11.00 


92.45 


82.46 


89-3 


12-33 ' 


II .01 


92.49 


82.59 


89.4 


12-33 


II .03 


92.54 


82.72 


89.5 


12.34 


11.05 


92.58 


82.85 


89.6 


12.35 


II .07 


92.63 


82.98 


89.7 


12.35 


II .09 


92.67 


83.11 


89.8 


12.36 


II . 10 


92.71 


83.24 


89.9 


12.36 


II. 12 


92.76 


83.37 












90.0 


12.37 


11.14 


92.80 


83-52 


90. i 


12.38 


II .16 


92.85 


83.65 


90.2 


12.38 


II.I8 


92.89 


83.78 


90.3 


12.39 


II . 19 


92.94 


83-91 


90.4 


12.39 


II. 21 


92.98 


84.04 


90-5 


I2.4O 


11.23 


93.03 


84.17 


90.6 


12.41 


11.25 


93.07 


84.30 


90.7 


12.41 


11.27 


93-H 


84.43 


90.8 


12.42 


11.28 


93.16 


84.56 


90.9 


12.43 


11.30 


93.20 


84.69 



5 2 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



MASSECUITE. 

TOTAL POUNDS AND POUNDS SOLIDS IN ONE CUBIC FOOT. 



Per Total 


Pounds 


Per 


Total 


Pounds 


Cent Pounds per 
Solids, i Cubic Foot. 


Solids per 
Cubic Foot. 


Cent 
Solids. 


Pounds per 
Cubic Foot. 


Solids per 
Cubic Foot. 












A 














91 .O 


93-25 


84.86 


94 o 


94.60 


88 92 


9I.I 


93-29 


84.98 


94-i 


94.64 


89.05 


91.2 


93-34 


85.12 


94 2 


94.69 


89.18 


91.3 


93.38 


85.25 


94 3 


94-73 


89 32 


91.4 


93-43 


85-39 


94-4 


94.78 


89 45 


91-5 


93-47 


85.52 


94-5 


94.83 


89 58 


91.6 


93-53 


85-66 


94.6 


94.87 


89 72 


91.7 


93.58 


85-79 


94-7 


94.92 


89.85 


91.8 


93-64 


85.93 


94.8 


94 -'96 


89.99 


91.9 


93.68 


86.06 


94-9 


95-00 


90.13 


92.O 


93-72 


86.22 


95.o 


95-05 


90.30 


92.1 


93.76 


86.34 


95-i 


95-10 


90.43 


92.2 


93-79 


86.47 


95-2 


95.14 


90.58 


92-3 


93-82 


86.60 


95-3 


95.19 


90.71 


92.4 


93.89 


86.75 


95-4 


95-23 


90.85 


92.5 


93-92 


86.88 


95-5 


95.28 


90.99 


92.6 


93-97 


87.01 


95-6 


95-32 


9i-i3 


92.7 


94.00 


87-15 


95-7 


95-37 


91.27 


92.8 


94.06 


87.28 


95-8 


95.42 


91.40 


92.9 


94.10 


87-42 


95-9 


.95-46 


9^54 


93-0 


94.15 


87.56 


96.0 


95-51 


91.69 


93-1 


94.19 


87-69 


96. i 


95.56 


91-83 


93-2 


94.24 


87-83 


96.2 


95.6o 


91.97 


93-3 


94-28 


87.97 


96.3 


95-65 


92. ii 


93-4 


94-33 


88.11 


96-4 


95.69 


92.25 


93-5 


94-37 


88.25 


96.5 


95-74 


92 - 39 


93-6 


94-42 


88.39 


96.6 


95-79 


92-53 


93-7 


94-46 


88.52 


96.7 


95.83 


92.67 


93-8 


94-51 


88.65 


96.8 


95.88 


92.81 


93-9 


94-55 


88.79 


96.9 


95-92 


92.95 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 




CHAPTER V. 

TABLE OF FACTORS 

USED IN CALCULATING THE PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIAL 
SUGAR RECOVERED FROM THE SUCROSE IN/ THE MAS- 
SECUITE. 

The formula is: 

(Purity of massecuite purity of molasses) factor 
Purity of massecuite 

= per cent of commercial sugar. 



54 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



TABLE VII. 

FACTORS USED IN CALCULATING THE PERCENT- 
AGE OF COMMERCIAL SUGAR RECOVERED 
FROM THE SUCROSE IN THE MASSECUITE. 
(Especially adapted for sugar refineries.) 



Purity of 
Molasses. 


Polarization of Sugar. 


IOO. 


99.5. 


99- 


9 S.5. 


93-0 


14.30 


15.40 


16.40 


17.60 


92.8 


13.90 


14-95 


15.90 


I7.OO 


92.6 


I3-50 


14.50 


15.40 


16.45 


92.4 


13.15 


14. 10 


H-95 


15-95 


92.2 


12.80 


13.70 


14.50 


15-45 


92 .0 


I 2 . 5O 


13.35 


14.10 ' 


15.00 


91.8 


12.20 


13.00 


13.70 


14-55 


91.6 


II .90 


12.65 


13-35 


14.15 


91.4 


11.65 


12.30 


13-05 


13-75 


91 . 2 


n-35 


12.05 


12.65 


I3-40 


91 .O 


II . 10 


11-75 


12.35 


13.05 


90.8 


10.85 


11.50 


12.05 


I2.7O 


90.6 


10.65 


11.25 


H.75 


12.40 


90.4 


10.40 


ii .00 


11.50 


12. IO 


90.2 


10. 20 


10.70 


11.25 


II.80 


9O.O 


10.00 


iQ-55 


ii .00 


n-55 


89.8 


9.80 


10.30 


10.75 


11.25 


89.6 


9.60 


10. 10 


10.55 


II .00 


89.4 


9-45 


10.00 


10.30 


10.80 


89.2 


9-25 


9.90 


10.10 


10.55 


89.0 


9. 10 


9.70 


9.90 


10.35 


88.8 


8.95 


9-50 


9.70 


10.15 


88.6 


8.75 


9-35 


9-55 


9-95 


88.4 


8.60 


9-15 


9-35 


9-75 


88.2 


8-45 


9.00 


9. 20 


9-55 


88.0 


8-35 


8.85 


9.00 


9-35 


87.8 


8.20 


8.70 


8.85 


9.20 


87.6 


8.05 


8.55 


8.70 


9-05 


87.4 


7-95 


8.40 


8.55 


8.85 


87.2 


7.80 


8.25 


8.40 


8.70 


87.0 


7.70 


8.15 


8.25 


8.55 


86.8 


7.60 


8.00* 


8.15 


8.40 


86.6 


7-45 


7-85 


8.00 


8.30 


86.4 


7-35 


7-75 


7.90 


8.15 


86.2 


7-25 


7-65 


7-75 


8.00 


86.0 


7-15 


7-50 


7-65 


7.90 


85-8 


7-05 


7.40 


7-50 


7.80 


85-6 


6-95 


7-30 


7.40 


7.65 


85.4 


6.85 


7.20 


7-30 


7-55 


85-2 


6.75 


7.10 


7. 20 


7-45 


8c r 


& fie 


7 OO 


7. OS. 


7-32 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



55 



FACTORS USED IN CALCULATING THE PERCENT- 
AGE OF COMMERCIAL SUGAR RECOVERED 
FROM THE SUCROSE IN THE MASSECUITE. 

(Especially adapted for yellow clarified sugar.) 



Puritv 
of Mo- 
lasses. 


Polarization of Sugar. 


IOO. 


99-5- 


99- 


98.5. 


98. 


75 


4-000 


4.080 


4.M5 


4. 210 


4.280 


74 


3.845 


3-920 


3.980 


4.040 


4-103 


73 


3.705 


3-775 


3.830 


3.880 


3-940 


72 


3-570 


3-635 


3-685 


3-740 


3.790 


7i 


3-445 


3.5io 


3 555 


3.605 


3.650 


70 


3.335 


3-390 


3 435 


3 475 


3.525 


69 


3-225 


3.280 


3-320 


3 . 360 


3-. 405 


68 


3-125 


3-175 


3-210 


3-250 


3-290 


67 


3.030 


3-075 


3.110 


3-150 


3-185 


66 


2.940 


2.985 


3.020 


3-050 


3.085 


65 


2.855 


2.900 


2.930 


2.960 


2-995 


64 


2.778 


2.815 


2-845 


2.875 


2.905 


63 


2.705 


2.740 


2.765 


2-795 


2.825 


62 


2.630 


2.665 


2-695 


2.720 


2-747 


61 


2.565 


2-595 


2.620 


2.645 


2-675 


60 


2.500 


2-530 


2-555 


2.580 


2.605 


59 


2.440 


2.470 


2.490 


2-515 


2 - 535 


58 


2.380 


2.410 


2.430 


2.450 


2-475 


57 


2-325 


2-355 


2.375 


2.395 


2.415 


56 


2.275 


2.300 


2.315 


2-335 


2-355 


55 


2.220 


2-245 


2.265 


2.285 


2.305 


54 


2-175 


2.200 


2.215 


2-235 


2.250 


53 


2. 130 


2.150 


2.165 


2.185 


2. 2OO 


52 


2.085 


2. IOO 


2. 120 


2.130 


2.155 


5i 


2.040 


2.060 


2.075 


2.090 


2. 110 


50 


2.000 


2.010 


2.035 


2.050 


2.060 


49 


1.960 


.980 


1-995 


2.OIO 


2.020 


48 


I-925 


.940 


-955 


.970 


.980 


47 


.885 


.905 


.915 


.930 


945 


46 


.850 


.870 


.880 


895 


905 


45 


.820 


.835 


.845 


.860 


.870 


44 


.785 


.800 


.815 


.825 


-835 


43 


755 


.770 


.780 


.790 


1.805 


42 


725 


740 


.750 


.760 


1.770 


4i 


-695 


.710 


.720 


730 


1.740 


40 


.665 


.680 


.685 


.700 


1.710 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



FACTORS USED IN CALCULATING THE PERCENT- 
AGE OF COMMERCIAL SUGAR RECOVERED 
FROM THE SUCROSE IN THE MASSECUITE. 
(Especially adapted for 96 sugar.) 



1 Purity of ] 
1 Molasses. | 


Polarization of Sugar. 


97- 


96.5. 


9 6. 


95-5- 


95- 


94-5. 


75 


4.470 


4-555 


4.650 


4.740 


4.840 


4.940 


74 


4.270 


4.360 


4.440 


4.525 


4.615 


4.710 


73 


4-105 


4-175 


4-255 


4.335 


4.4I5 


4.500 


72 


3-940 


4.010 


4.080 


4. 160 


4.230 


4.310 


7i 


3-795 


3.855 


3.920 


3-990 


4-055 


4.130 


70 


3-655 


3.715 


3-775 


3.835 


3.910 


3-970 


69 


3-530 


3.585 


3-640 


3-695 


3-755 


3.820 


68 


3.410 


3.460 


3-5io 


3.565 


3.620 


3.675 


67 


3-295 


3-345 


3-395 


3-445 


3.495 


3.550 


66 


3.190 


3-235 


3-285 


3-330 


3-375 


3.430 


65 


3-095 


3-135 


3.180 


3-225 


3-265 


3-320 


64 


3.000 


3.040 


3 080 


3-125 


3.165 


3-210 


63 


2-9*5 


2.950 


2.990 


3-030 


3.070 


3.115 


62 


2.830 


2.870 


2.905 


2.942 


2.980 


3.020 


61 


2-755 


2.790 


2.820 


2.860 


2.895 


2.930 


60 


2.680 


2.713 


2-745 


2-775 


2.810 


2.850 


59 


2.610 


2.640 


2.675 


2.702 


2-735 


2.770 


58 


2-545 


2-575 


2.605 


2.635 


2.665 


2.695 


57 


2.485 


2.510 


2.540 


2.570 


2.600 


2.627 


56 


2.425 


2.450 


2.480 


2.505 


25.35 


2.560 


55 


2-365 


2.395 


2.420 


2.445 


2-475 


2.510 


54 


2 3 10 


2.335 


2.360 


2.385 


2.410 


2.435 


53 


2 360 


2.285 


2.305 


2.330 


2.355 


2.380 


52 


2.210 


2.235 


2.255 


2.280 


2.300 


2.325 


5i 


2. 160 


2.185 


2.205 


2.230 


2.250 


2. 270 


50 


2.II5 


2-135 


2. 160 


2.180 


2. 2OO 


2.220 


49 


2.075 


2.095 


2.115 


2.135 


2-155 


2.175 


48 


2.030 


2.050 


2.070 


2.090 


2. IIO 


2. 130 


47 


1.990 


2.010 


2.030 


2.045 


2.065 


2.085 


46 


1.950 


1.970 


.990 


2.005 


2.025 


2.040 


45 


L9I5 


1.930 


.950 


1.970 


.985 


2.OOO 


44 


1.880 


1.895 


.915 


1.930 


945 


.960 


43 


1.845 


1.860 


.875 


1-895 


.910 


.925 


42 


I.8IO 


1.825 


.845 


i . 860 


-875 


.890 


4i 


1.780 


1-795 


1.810 


1.825 


.840 


-855 


40 


1-750 


1-765 


1.780 


1-795 


.810 


.820 


39 


I .720 


1.730 


1-745 


1.760 


-775 


790 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



57 



FACTORS USED IN CALCULATING THE PERCENT- 
AGE OF COMMERCIAL SUGAR RECOVERED 
FROM THE SUCROSE IN THE MASSECUITE. 

(Especially adapted for 96 sugar.) 



1 Purity of 
Molasses. 


Polarization of Sugar. 


97- 


96.5. 


96. 


95-5- 


95- 


94-5- 


38 


I .690 




705 


I-/I5 




730 


1-745 




. 7 60 


37 


1.660 




.675 


i .690 




.700 


i.7i5 




730 


36 




.635 




645 




.660 




.675 




.685 




.700 


35 




.610 




.620 




635 




645 




.660 




.670 


34 




.585 




595 




.605 




.620 




.630 




.645 


33 




.560 




570 




.580 




595 




.605 




.620 


32 




535 




545 




.560 




570 




.580 




590 


3i 




.510 




525 




535 




545 




555 




.565 


30 




.490 




.500 




.510 




.520 




530 




545 


29 




.470 




.480 




.490 




.500 




.510 




.520 


28 




445 




455 




465 




475 




.485 




495 


27 




425 




435 




445 




455 




465 




475 


26 




.410 




.420 




430 




435 




445 




455 


25 


L385 




395 


1.405 




4i5 




425 




435 


24 


I-365 




375 


1-385 




395 




405 




415 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



FACTORS USED IN CALCULATING THE PERCENT- 
AGE OF COMMERCIAL SUGAR RECOVERED 
FROM SUCROSE IN THE MASSECUITE. 
(Especially adapted for seconi sugar.) 



Purity o f . 
Molasses. 


Polarization of Sugar. 


92. 


90. 


88. 


86. 


84. 


82. 


80 


60 


3.040 


3. 2 TO 


3.405 


3.620 


3.865 


4.I50 


4.480 


59 


2.950 


3.H5 


3.295 


3 495 


3.725 


3-990 


4-275 


58 


2 870 


3.020 


3 190 


3.38o 


3-595 


3.840 


4- *2S 


57 


2 790 


2.935 


3-095 


3-274 


3.476 


3.705 


3.968 


56 


2 7 T 5 


2 850 


3 005 


3.J75 


3.360 


3^575 


3.820 


55 


2 645 


2 775 


2 920 


3 080 


3.255 


3.455 


3.685 


54 


2-575 


2 700 


2.840 


2 990 


3.160 


3.345 


3.560 


53 


2 5*5 


2.630 


2.760 


2.905 


3-065 


3-165 


3-440 


52 


2 45.5 


2.560 


2.690 


2 825 


2-975 


3.100 


3-332 


ST 


2-395 


2.500 


2 62O 


2.750 


2.890 


3.050 


3-230 


50 


2 340 


2 440 


2-555 


2.680 


2.815 


2.960 


3-130 


49 


2 285 


2 385 


2 495 


2.610 


2 740 


2.880 


3.040 


48 


2 235 


2 330 


2 430 


2 545 


2.670 


2.800 


2-955 


47 


2 190 


2 280 


2-375 


2.485 


2.600 


2.730 


2.870 


46 


2. 140 


2 230 


2.320 


2-425 


2 535 


2 . 670 


2.790 


45 


2 100 


2. 180 


2. 270 


2.370 


2^475 


2.590 


2 720 


44 


2 055 


2 135 


2 220 


2-315 


2.420 


2.530 


2.652 


43 


2.015 


2 090 


2 175 


2-265 


2 365 


2.470 


2 585 


42 


1-975 


2 050 


2.130 


2 215 


2.310 


2 4IO 


2-525 


4* 


1 -935 


2.010 


2 08 5 


2.170 


2. 26O 


2.355 


2.465 


40 


i 900 


1.970 


2.045 


2 125 


2 2TO 


2 305 


2 405 


39 


T.86 5 


J 935 


2 005 


2 080 


2 165 


2-255 


2 350 


38 


* 835 


1-895 


I 965 


2.040 


2 120 


2.205 


2.300 


3 7 


T 800 


T 860 


I 930 


2 000 


2.075 


2. 160 


2.250 


36 


i 770 


I 830 


1.895 


I 960 


2.035 


2.115 


2,200 


35 


I 740 


i 795 


I 860 


I 925 


2,000 


2 075 


2-155 


34 


T .710 


i 765 


I 825 


T 890 


T 960 


2.035 


2.H5 


33 


1.680 


i 735 


* 795 


855 


920 


1-995 


2.O7O 


32 


'655 


i 710 


i 765 


820 


890 


955 


2 030 


3i 


I 630 


i 680 


1-735 


.790 


855 


920 


1.990 


30 


i 595 


i 650 


1.705 


760 


820 


885 


i 955 


29 


1-575 


T 625 


i 675 


730 


790 


-855 


i .920 


28 


^555 


I .600 


i 650 


7OO 


.760 


820 


.885 


27 


1-530 


i 575 


i 625 


675 


730 


790 


850 


26 


1-505 


1-550 


i 600 


650 


.700 


760 


.815 


25 


i 485 


i 525 


i 5 7 5 


620 


.675 


730 


.785 


24 


1.465 


i 505 


i 550 


600 


645 


.700 


-755 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 59 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE MOST PROFITABLE SUGAR TO MANUFAC- 
TURE. 

A cane-sugar factory may manufacture: 

I. Syrup. 

II. 96 sugar and first molasses. 
TTT a VC* " 1 1 * i i t ' ( 

IV 96 " second sugar, and second molasses. 

V U YO " ' ' <f ' ' ' ( ( ( il 

VI. 96 " " " third sugar, and third 

molasses. 

VII. "YC J><< " " third sugar, and third 

molasses. 

Which of these seven methods of treating the cane 
will yield the best financial returns is an open ques- 
tion that cannot be settled as long as the price of 
syrup, sugar, and molasses are subject to change. 

The tables following are intended as a help in 
solving this problem. Having the daily market 
report for each product, knowing the cost of manu- 
facture and the yield per ton, an up-to-date manager 
is able to calculate each morning wiiether or not he 
is manufacturing the product that will net him the 
largest financial returns. 



6o 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



YIELD OF SUGAR AND MOLASSES FOR EACH PER 

CENT OF SUCROSE FROM NINE TO FOURTEEN, 

FROM ONE TON OF CANE. 

(Extraction 75 per cent.) 
CASK I. 



Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


Gallons 
Syrup 38 
Beaume. 


9 
10 


21 .2 
22.6 


ii 


23-9 


12 

13 


25.0 
26.1 


14 


27.2 



CASK II. 



CASK III. 



Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


Pounds 
96 Sugar. 


Gallons 
First 
Molasses. 




Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


Pounds 
"YC" 
Sugar. 


Gallons 
First 
Molasses. 


9 


96. 2 


8.8 




9 


8 7 .I 


9 .6 


10 


106.4 


8.9 




10 


96.9 


9 .8 


ii 


125.5 


8-3 




ii 


106.6 


IO.O 


12 


143-3 


7-4 




12 


116.3 


10. 


13 


162.7 


6.4 




13 


126.0 


IO.O 


H 


182.8 


5-3 




H 


135.7 


9-9 



CASK IV. 



Per Cent 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Gallons 


Sucrose. 


96 Sugar. 


Second 


Second 






Sugar. 


Molasses. 


9 


96. 2 


12.5 


7-5 


10 


106.4 


19.3 


7-i 


ii 


124.5 


I 7 .8 


6-5 


12 


143-3 


16.0 


5-8 


13 


162.7 


13-9 


5-i 


H 


182.8 


ii-5 


4.2 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



61 



YIELD OF SUGAR AND MOLASSES FOR EACH PER 

CENT OF SUCROSE FROM NINE TO FOURTEEN, 

FROM ONE TON OF CANE. 

CASE V. 



Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


Pounds 
"YC" 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
Second 
Sugar. 


Gallons 
Second 
Molasses. 


9 


8 7 .I 


I8. 3 


7.8 


10 


96.9 


25-3 


7-4 


ii 


106.6 


32.9 


6.8 


12 


116.3 


40.8 


6.0 


13 


126.0 


49-4 


5-2 


H 


135-7 


58.4 


4.2 



CASE VI. 



Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


Pounds 
96 Sugar. 


Pounds 
Second 
Sugar. 


Per Cent 
Third 
Sugar. 


Gallons 
Third 
Molasses. 


9 


96.2 


12-5 


9-4 


6.6 


10 


106.4 


19-3 


8-9 


6.2 


ii 


124-5 


17.8 


8.2 


5-7 


12 


143-3 


16.0 


7-4 


5-i 


13 


162.7 


13-9 


6.4 


4-4 


14 


182.8 


"' 5 


5-3 


3-7 



CASE VII. 



Per Cent 
Sucrose. 


Pounds 
"YC" 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
Second 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
Third 
Sugar. 


Gallons 
Third 
Molasses. 


9 


8 7 .I 


I8. 3 


9-8 


6.9 


10 


96.9 


25-3 


9-3 


6.5 


ii 


106.6 


32-9 


8.5 


5-9 


12 


116.3 


40.8 


7-6 


5-3 


13 


126.0 


49-4 


6.5 


4-5 


H 


135-7 


58.4 


5.2 


3-7 



62 CALCULATIONS USED IN 

This calculation is best understood by an example. 
Suppose the daily market report was as follows : 

Syrup 25c. per gallon 

96 sugar 3fc. ' ' pound 

"YO " ' * AC ' ( ' ' 

2d " 3C. " " 

3 d " 2|C. " " 

ist molasses i6c. ' ' gallon 

2d " I2C. " " 

3d " 4C- " 

and the cane yields a juice of 12 per cent sucrose. 
Referring to the tables and applying the quota- 
tions the actual value of the product is determined. 

Case I. 
25 gallons of syrup @25c = $6.25 

Case II. 

143.3 pounds of 96 sugar @3fc. . . = $5.37 
7.4 gallons of molasses @i6c. . . . = 1.18 



$6.55 



Case IIL 

116.3 pounds " YC " sugar @4C. . .. = $4.65 
10 gallons of ist molasses @i6c . = 1.60 



2 S 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 63 

Case IV. 

143.3 pounds 96 sugar @3fc = $5.37 

16 88 " 30 = .48 

5 .8 gallons of 2d molasses @ 1 2c. . = .70 

$6.55 

Case V. 

116.3 pounds "YC" sugar @4C = $4.65 

40.8 " 88 " 30 = 1.22 

6 gallons 2d molasses @i2c. . . . = .72 



Case VI. 

143.3 pounds 96 sugar @3fc = $5.37 

16 " 88 M 30 = .48 

7.4 " 88 " @2fc - .20 

5.1 gallons 3d molasses 40 = .20 

$6.25 



VII. 

116.3 pounds " YC >J sugar @4C . . . = $4.65 

40.8 " 88 (i @3C...= 1.22 

7.6 " 88 <f @2jc...= .21 

5.3 gallons 3d molasses @4C = .21 



$6.29 



6 4 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



TABLE SHOWING THE PROFIT MADE BY FOLLOW- 
ING EACH OF THE SEVEN METHODS. 





Value of 
Product. 


Cost of 
Cane. 


Cost of 
Manufac- 
ture. 


Profit. 


Case I. ..... 


$6 25 


$3 oo 


$1 50 


Si 7^ 


' II 


6 SS 


^ oo 


I 7S 


I 80 


' III 


6 2S 


3 oo 


I 7 S 


CQ 


' IV 


6 SS 


1 OO 


2 OO 


c c 


' V 


6 . 59 


"} .00 


2 OO 


59 


1 VI 


6 2S 


3 oo 


2 ^ 


oo 


' VII 


6 2Q 


i> oo 


2 2^ 


04. 













A careful study of this table, or better still, one 
similar, but using the real market quotations and 
cost of manufacture, will indicate the best method to 
follow during a grinding season. 



TABLE VIII. 

THIS TABLE vSHOWS THE YIELD FROM 100 POUNDS 
OF SECOND SUGAR WHEN REMELTED AND 
MANUFACTURED INTO 96 SUGAR. 



IN LOUISIANA. 



IN CUBA. 



Polariza- 








Polariza 






tion of 
100 !bs. 
Second 


Pounds 
96 Sugar. 


Gallons 
of 
Molasses. 




tion of 
TOO Ibs. 
Second 


Pounds 
96 Sugar. 


Gallons 
of 
Molasses. 


Sugar. 








Sugar. 






80 


76.36 


2.04 




80 


71-53 


2.51 


82 


79-37 


1.77 




82 


75-10 


2. 19 


84 


82.32 


1-52 




84 


78.74 


,1.8 7 


86 


85-14 


1.27 




86 


82.25 


I. 5 6 


88 


88.15 


I .Ol 




88 


85.78 


1.25 


90 


91 . 10 


.76 




90 


89.32 


95 


92 


94.12 


50 




92 


92.86 


.63 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 65 

Does it pay to melt second sugar? 

Knowing the price of 96 sugar, second sugar, and 
extra cost of melting, the question can be answered 
satisfactorily by applying the figures to the yield 
indicated in the above table. 

Price of 96 sugar, 3! c. 

" " 88 " 30. 
100 pounds 88 sugar @3C = $3.00 $3.00 

88.15 " 96 " @ 3 fc - $3.30 

i.oi gallon of molasses '. . = .03 

Total = $3-33 

Gain = -33 



66 CALCULATIONS USED IN 



CHAPTER VII. 
AVAILABLE SUGAR. 

THE following tables give the pounds of avail- 
able sugar first, second, third, and total for each 
per cent of sucrose from 9 to 14. If a sample of 
juice contains 11.4 per cent sucrose and the mill 
extraction is 75 per cent, then the available total 
sugar is : 

1 1 per cent = 147.7 Iks. 

.4 " " (1.7X4) = 6.8 " 



1 1.4 per cent = 154.5 Ibs. 

In this case the first sugar is " YC " sugar and the 
second, 88 polarization. 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



67 



TABLE IX. 

YIELD OF SUGAR FROM ONE TON OF CANE. 
JUICE CONTAINING NINE PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of " YC " sugar 99 

1 second and third sugar 88 

Purity of final molasses 25 



Per 
Cent 
Extrac- 
tion. 


"YC" 
Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
for Each 
Vio% Su- 
crose. 


68 


79.1 


16.6 


8. 9 


104.6 


I .46 


6 9 


80.2 


16.8 


9.0 


106.0 


1.49 


70 


81.4 


17.1 


9.2 


107.7 


1.50 


71 


82.6 


17 3 


9-3 


109.2 


1.52 


71 


83-7 


17.6 


9-4 


no. 7 


1-55 


73 


84-8 


17.8 


9.6 


112. 2 


i-57 


74 


85.9 


18.1 


9-7 


H3.7 


i .60 


75 


8 7 .I 


18.3 


9.8 


II5-2 


1.63 


76 


88.2 


18.5 


10. 


II6.7 


1.65 


77 


89.4 


18.8 


10. I 


II8.3 


1.67 


73 


90.6 


19.0 


10.2 


II9.8 


1.69 


79 


91.7 


19-3 


10.3 


I2I.3 


1.72 


So 


92.9 


19-5 


10.5 


122.9 


1-73 


81 


. 94.1 


19.7 


10.6 


124.4 


1-75 


82 


95-3 


20.0 


10.8 


126. I 


1.77 



JUICE CONTAINING TEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of " YC " sugar. 99 

" second and third sugar 88 

Purity of final molasses 25 



Per 
Cent, 
Extrac- 
tion. 


i, ye" 
Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
for Each 
Mo% Su- 
crose. 


68 


87.9 


22.9 


8.4 


119.2 


49 


69 


89.1 


23.3 


8.4 


120.8 


52 


7 


90.4 


23-6 


8-5 


122.5 


54 


7i 


91.7 


23.9 


8.6 


124. 2 


57 


72 


93 o 


24-3 


8.7 


126.0 


59 


73 


94-3 


24.6 


8.8 


127.7 


.61 


74 


95-6 


25.0 


8-9 


129. 5 


63 


75 


96.9 


25-3 


9.0 


131.2 


-65 


76 


98.2 


25-6 


9.1 


132.9 


.68 


77 


99-5 


26.0 


9-2 


134-7 


.70 


78 


100.8 


26.3 


9-3 


136.4 


73 


79 


IO2 .O 


26.7 


9-4 


138. i 


.75 


80 


103.3 


27.0 


9-5 


139-8 


77 


81 


104.6 


27-3 


9.6 


141 .5 


.80 


82 


105.9 


27.7 


9-7 


143-3 


.CI 



68 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



YIELD OF SUGAR FROM ONE TON OF CANE. 
JUICE CONTAINING ELEVEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of " YC " sugar 99 

" second and third sugar 88 

Purity of final molasses 25 



Per 
Cent 
Extrac- 
tion* 


" YC" 

Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
for Each 
Vio% Su- 
crose. 


68 


96.6 


29.8 


7-7 


I34.I 


J -53 


69 


98.0 


30.2 


7-8 


136.0 


1.56 


70 


99-4 


30.6 


7-9 


137-9 


1.58 


71 


100.8 


3I-I 


8.0 


J 39-9 


1.61 


72 


IO2 . 2 


31.5 


8.2 


141.9 


1.62 


73 


103.6 


31-9 


8-3 


H3; 8 


1.65 


74 


105.0 


32.4 


8-4 


145.8 


1.66 


75 


IO6.4 


32.8 


8-5 


147-7 


1.70 


76 


107.8 


33-3 


8.6 


149-7 


1.71 


77 


IO9. 2 


33-7 


8.8 


I5I-7 


1.74 


78 


110.6 


34-2 


8-9 


153-7 


i-75 


79 


112. 


34-6 


9.0 


155-6 


1.79 


80 


II3-4 


35.o 


9-i 


157-5 


1.83 


81 


II4.8 


35-5 


9.2 


159.5 


1.84 


82 


Il6. 2 


35-9 


9-3 


161 .4 


1.86 



JUICE CONTAINING TWELVE PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization, etc., same as above. 



Per 
Cent 
Extrac- 
tion. 


" YC " 
Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
fo Each 
Vi % Su- 
rose. 


68 


105.4 


37-1 


6-9 


149.4 


.56 


69 


107.0 


37-6 


7.0 


I5L6 


58 


70 


108.5 


38.1 


7.i 


J53-7 


.61 


71 


IIO. I 


38.7 


7.2 


156.0 


.62 


72 


in. 6 


39-2 


7-3 


158.1 


.64 


73 


113.2 


39-7 


7.4 


160.3 


.67 


74 


114.7 


40.2 


7-5 


162.4 


71 


75 


116.3 


40.8 


7-6 


164.7 


.72 


76 


117.8 


41-3 


7-7 


166.8 


-75 


77 


119.4 


41.9 


7-8 


169. i 


76 


78 


120.9 


42.4 


7-9 


171.2 


.80 


79 


122.5 


42.9 


8.1 


173.5 


.81 


80 


124.1 


43-5 


8.2 


175-8 


.82 


81 


125.6 


44.0 


8-3 


177.9 


.85 


82 


127.1 


44-5 


8.4 


1 80 . 


.88 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



69 



YIELD OF SUGAR FROM ONE TON OF CANE. 
JUICE CONTAINING THIRTEEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of " YC " sugar 99 

1 ' second and third sugar 88 

Purity of final molasses 25 



Per 

Cent 
Extrac- 
tion. 


" YC" 
Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar". 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
for Each 
tto% Su- 
crose. 


68 


114. 2 


44.8 


5-9 


164.9 


1-59 


69 


II5-9 


45-5 


6.0 


167.4 


1 .60 


70 


117.6 


46. I 


6.1 


169.8 


1.62 


7i 


119.2 


46.8 


6.2 


172.2 


.64 


72 


120.9 


47.4 


6.2 


174.5 


.68 


73 


122.6 


48.1 


6-3 


177.0 


.70 


74 


124.3 


48.8 


6-4 


179-5 


.72 


75 


126.0 


49.4 


6.5 


181.9 


75 


76 


127.6 


50.1 


6.6 


184-3 


77 


77 


129.3 


50.7 


6-7 


186.7 


.80 


78 


I3I.O 


5L4 


6.8 


189.2 


.81 


79 


132.7 


52.1 


6.8 


191 .6 


83 


80 


134-4 


52.7 


6.9 


194.0 


.86 


81 


136.0 


53-4 


7.0 


196.4 


.89 


82 


137-7 


54-0 


7-i 


198.8 


-91 



JUICE CONTAINING FOURTEEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization, etc., same as above. 



Per 
Cent 
Extrac- 
tion. 


"YC" 
Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
for Each 
Mo% Su- 
crose. 


68 


123.0 


53-0 


4-8 


180.8 


.61 


6 9 


124.8 


53-7 


4-8 


183-3 


63 


70 


126.6 


54-5 


4-9 


186.0 


65 


71 


128.4 


55-3 


5-0 


188.6 


.68 


72 


130.2 


56.1 


5-o 


191-3 


.70 


73 


132.0 


56.9 


5-i 


194.0 


.72 


74 


133-9 


57-6 


5-2 


196.7 


75 


75 


135-7 


58.4 


5.3 


199.4 


-77 


76 


137-5 


59-2 


5-3 


202.0 


.80 


77 


139-3 


60.0 


5-4 


204.7 


.81 


78 


141 . 1 


60.7 


5-5 


207 . 3 


83 


79 


142.9 


61.5 


5-5 


209.9 


.86 


80 


144.7 


62.3 


5-6 


212.6 


.89 


81 


146.5 


63.1 


5-7 


215.3 


91 


82 


148.3 


63-9 


5-7 


217.9 


93 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



TABLE X. 

YIELD OF SUGAR FROM ONE TON OF CANE. 
JUICE CONTAINING NINE PER CENT SUCROSE, 

Polarization of First sugar 96 

4 4 second and third sugar 88 

Purity of final molasses. .' 25 



Per 
Cent 
Extrac- 
tion. 


"YC" 

Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
for Each 
Vio% Su- 
crose. 


68 


8 7 .2 


ii. 3 


8.5 


107.0 


I 51 


6 9 


88.5 


ii. 5 


8.6 


108.6 


1.52 


70 


89.8 


II-7 


8.7 


II0.2 


i-54 


71 


91.1 


n. 8 


8.9 


in. 8 


i-55 


72 


92.3 


12.0 


9.0 


II3-3 


i-59 


73 


93-6 


12.2 


9.1 


114.9 


1.62 


74 


94-9 


12.3 


9.2 


116.4 


i .64 


75 


96.2 


12.5 


9-4 


118.1 


1.65 


76 


97-5 


12.7 


9-5 


119.7 


1.66 


77 


98.7 


12.8 


9.6 


121. I 


1.71 


78 


100. 


13.0 


9-7 


122.7 


1-73 


79 


101.3 


13.2 


9-9 


124.4 


1.74 


80 


102.6 


13.3 


10. 


125.9 


1.77 


81 


103.9 


13.5 


IO. I 


127.5 


1.78 


82 


105.2 


13.7 


10.2 


I29.I 


i. 80 



JUICE CONTAINING TEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization, etc., same as above. 



Per 
Cent 
Extrac- 
tion. 


" YC" 

Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
for Ear 
Mo% Sv 
crose. 


68 


96.5 


17-5 


8.1 


122. I 


-44 


69 


97-9 


17.7 


8.2 


123.8 


47 


70 


99-3 


18.0 


8-3 


125.6 


.49 


7i 


100.7 


18.2 


8-4 


127.3 


-5i 


72 


IO2 . 2 


18.5 


8.5 


129.2 


53 


73 


103.6 


18.8 


8.7 


I3I.I 


55 


74 


IO5.O 


19.0 


8.8 


132.8 


57 


75 


106.4 


19-3 


8.9 


134.6 


59 


76 


107.8 


19-5 


9.0 


136.3 


.61 


77 


109.3 


19.8 


9-i 


138.2 


63 


78 


II0.7 


20. o 


9-3 


140.0 


.66 


79 


112. I 


20.3 


9-4 


I4I.8 


.68 


80 


II3-5 


20. 6 


9-5 


143.6 


1.70 


81 


II4.9 


20.8 


9.6 


145-3 


1.72 


82 


Il6.3 


21 . I 


9-7 


I47.I 


1.75 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 



YIELD OF SUGAR FROM ONE TON OF CANE 
JUICE CONTAINING ELEVEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of First sugar 9 6 

' ' second and third sugar 88 

Purity of final molasses 25 



Per 
Cent 
Extrac- 
tion. 


"YC" 

Sugar. 


Second 

Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
for Each 
Mo% Su- 
crose. 


68 


112.9 


16.1 


7-5 


136.5 


.46 


69 


II4-5 


16.4 


7.6 


138.5 


.48 


70 


Il6. 2 


16.6 


7-7 


140.5 


50 


7i 


117.8 


16.9 


7.8 


142.7 


-52 


72 


119-5 


17.1 


7-9 


H4-5 


54 


73 


121 . 2 


17-3 


8.0 


146.5 


.58 


74 


122.8 


17.6 


8.1 


* 148.5 


.60 


75 


124.5 


17.8 


8.2 


150.5 


.62 


76 


126. I 


18.0 


8-3 


152.4 


-65 


77 


I2 7 .8 


18.3 


8.4 


154.5 


.66 


78 


129-5 


18.5 


8.6 


156.6 


.67 


79 


I3I.I 


18.8 


8-7 


158.6 


.69 


80 


132.8 


19.0 


8.8 


160.6 


.72 


81 


134-4 


19.2 


8-9 


162.5 


75 


82 


136. I 


19-5 


9.0 


164.6 


1.77 



JUICE CONTAINING TWELVE PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization, etc., same as above. 



Per 
Cent 
Extrac- 
tion. 


" YC" 

Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
for Each 
Vio% Su- 
crose. 


68 


129.9 


14-5 


6.7 


151.1 


48 


69 


I3I-8 


H*7 


6.8 


153-3 


-51 


70 


133-7 


14.9 


6-9 


155-5 


54 


7i 


135-6 


I5-I 


7.0 


157-7 


55 


72 


137-5 


15-3 


7-i 


159-9 


57 


73 


139-5 


15-6 


7.2 


162.3 


58 


74 


I4J-4 


15-8 


7-3 


164. 5 


.60 


75 


143-3 


16.0 


7-4 


166.7 


-63 


76 


145.2 


16.2 


7-5 


168.9 


.66 


77 


147.1 


16.4 


7-6 


171.1 


.69 


78 


149.0 


16.6 


7 7 


173-3 


.70 


79 


150.9 


16.8 


7-8 


175-5 


72 


80 


152.8 


17.1 


7-9 


177-8 


74 


81 


154-7 


17.3 


8.0 


180.0 


/6 


82 


156.7 


17-5 


8.1 


182.3 


78 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



YlElvD OF SUGAR FROM ONE TON OF CANE. 
JUICE CONTAINING THIRTEEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of Frist sugar , . . 96 

' ' second and third sugar.. . 88 

Purity of final molasses 25 



Per 
Cent 
Extrac- 
tion. 


"YC" 

Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar, 


Total 
Sugar 


Pounds 
for Each 
Mo% Su- 
crose. 


68 


147-5 


12.6 


5 8 


165-9 


1.50 


69 


149.7 


12 8 


5 9 


168 4 


1.52 


70 


I5I.9 


13.0 


60 


170.9 


i-53 


7i 


154.0 


*3 * 


6 i 


173.2 


1.56 


72 


156. 2 


13-3 


6.1 


175-6 


i. 60 


73 


158.4 


13-5 


6.2 


178. i 


i 62 


74 


160.5 


13-7 


6-3 


180.5 


1.63 


75 


l62 .7 


13.9 


6.4 


183.0 


1.66 


76 


164.9 


14.1 


6.5 


185.5 


1.67 


77 


167. I 


14-3 


6.6 


188.0 


i .69 


78 


169.2 


14.4 


6.7 


190.3 


1.72 


79 


171 4 


14-6 


6.7 


192.7 


i-75 


80 


173.6 


14.8 


6.8 


195 2 


1.77 


81 


175-7 


15.0 


6.9 


197.6 


1.79 


82 


177-9 


15.2 


7.0 


200. I 


1.81 



JUICE CONTAINING FOURTEEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization, etc.. same as above. 



Per 
Cent 
Extrac- 
tion. 


"YC" 
Sugar. 


Second 
Sugar. 


Third 
Sugar. 


Total 
Sugar. 


Pounds 
for Each 
VLQ% Su- 
crose. 


68 


165.7 


10.4 


4-8 


180.9 


52 


6 9 


168.2 


10.5 


4-9 


183.6 


54 


70 


170.6 


10.7 


4-9 


186.2 


56 


71 


173.0 


10.8 


50 


188.8 


-59 


72 


175.5 


ii 


5-i 


191 .6 


.62 


73 


177.9 


II .2 


5-2 


194-3 


.64 


74 


180.3 


"3 


5 2 


196,8 


.66 


75 


182.8 


ii. 5 


53 


199.6 


67 


76 


185.2 


ii. 6 


5-4 


2O2. 2 


.69 


77 


187.7 


, ii. 8 


5-4 


204.9 


72 


78 


190. I 


11.9 


5-5 


207.5 


74 


79 


192.6 


12. I 


5-6 


210.3 


77 


80 


195.0 


12 . 2 


5-7 


212.9 


79 


81 


197-4 


12.4 


5-7 


215-5 


.81 


82 


199.8 


12.6 


5-8 


218.2 


83 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 

TABLE XL 

" RENDIMIENTO." 

FOURTEEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of First sugar 96 

FOR USE IN CUBA. 



73 



Per Cent 
Extrac- 


Purity of Final Molasses. 


Mo of 
One 


tion. 












Per Cent. 




30. 


35- 


40. 


45- 


So. 




68 


8.83 


8.67 


8.50 


8.29 


8.02 


.071 


6 9 


8.96 


8.80 


8.62 


8.41 


8.14 


.072 


70 


9. 10 


8-93 


8.75 


8.53 


8.25 


073 


71 


9-23 


9.06 


8.87 


8.65 


8.36 


.074 


72 


9-36 


9.19 


9.00 


8.78 


8.49 


.075 


73 


9.48 


9-32 


9.12 


8.90 


8.61 


.076 


74 


9.61 


9-45 


9-25 


9.02 


8.73 


.077 


75 


9-74 


9-58 


9-37 


9.14 


8.85 


.078 


76 


9.87 


9.70 


9-50 


9.27 


8.96 


.079 


77 


9.90 


9-83 


9.62 


9-39 


9.08 


.080 


78 


10.13 


9.96 


9-75 


9-5i 


9.21 


.081 



" RENDIMIENTO." 

FIFTEEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of First sugar 96 



Per Cent 
Extrac- 


Purity of Final Molasses. 


Mo of 
One 


tion. 












Per Cent. 




30. 


35- 


40. 


45- 


50. 




68 


9-53 


9-38 


9.21 


8-99 


8-75 


.072 


69 


9.66 


9-52 


9-34 


9.12 


8.80 


073 


70 


9.80 


9.66 


9-47 


9-25 


8.96 


.074 


7i 


9-94 


9.80 


9.61 


9-37 


9.09 


075 


72 


10.09 


9-93 


9-75 


7-52 


9-23 


.076 


73 


IO.2I 


10.07 


9.89 


9-65 


9-37 


.077 


74 


10.34 


10.22 


10.02 


9.78 


9-50 


.078 


75 


10.49 


10.35 


IO.I5 


9.91 


9.64 


.079 


76 


10.65 


10.48 


10.28 


10.02 


9-77 


.080 


77 


10.79 


io6i 


10.41 


IO.I8 


9.89 


.081 


78 


10.93 


10-75 


10.55 


10.32 


10.03 


.082 



74 



CALCULATIONS USED IN 



" RENDIMIENTO." 

SIXTEEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of First sugar 96 



Per Cent 
Extrac- 


Purity of Final Molasses. 


Mo of 
One 


tion. 












Per Cent. 




30. 


35- 


40. 


45- 


50. 




68 


IO.22 


IO.O8 


9.92 


9.71 


9.48 


073 


69 


10.37 


10.23 


10.07 


9-86 


9.62 


.074 


70 


10.52 


10.38 


10.22 


IO.OO 


9.76 


075 


?i 


10.67 


10.55 


10.37 


10. 14 


9.90 


.076 


72 


10.82 


10.68 


10.51 


10.28 


10.04 


.077 


73 


10.97 


10.83 


10.66 


10.33 


10.18 


.078 


74 


II . 12 


10.98 


10.80 


10.57 


10.32 


.079 


75 


11.27 


11.13 


10.95 


10.71 


10.46 


.080 


76 


II .42 


11.27 


11.09 


10.85 


10. 60 


.081 


77 


11-57 


ii .42 


11.24 


10.99 


10.74 


.082 


78 


11.72 


11-57 


11.38 


II . 14 


10.88 


.083 



" RENDIMIENTO." 

SEVENTEEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of First sugar 06 



Per Cent 


Purity of Final Molasses. 


Mo of 


Extrac- 




One 


tion. 












Per Cent. 




30. 


35- 


40. 


45- 


50- 




68 


10.92 


IO.80 


10.65 


10.46 


10.23 


.072 


69 


II.08 


10.96 


10.80 


10,61 


10.38 


.074 


70 


11.24 


II. II 


10 = 95 


10.76 


10.53 


.075 


7i 


11-39 


11.27 


ii. ii 


10.91 


10.68 


.076 


72 


11-55 


II .42 


11.27 


ii .07 


10.83 


.077 


73 


11.71 


11.58 


ii .42 


II .22 


10.98 


.078 


74 


11.87 


11-73 


11-57 


H.37 


II. 12 


.079 


75 


12.03 


11.89 


11.72 


11.52 


11.27 


.080 


76 


12. 19 


12.04 


11.88 


11.67 


11.42 


.081 


77 


12-35 


12.20 


12.03 


11.82 


11-57 


.082 


78 


12.52 


12.35 


12. 19 


11.98 


11.71 


.083 



CANE-SUGAR FACTORIES. 

RENDIMIENTO." 
EIGHTEEN PER CENT SUCROSE. 

Polarization of First sugar 96 



75 



Per Cent. 


Purity of Final Molasses. 


Mo of 


Extrac- 




One 


tion. 












Per Cent. 




30. 


35- 


40. 


45- 


50. 




68 


II .63 


11.52 


n-37 


II . 19 


10.99 


075 


69 


11.79 


11.68 


H-53 


11-35 


II . 14 


.076 


70 


II .96 


11.84 


ii .70 


11.51 


11.30 


.078 


?i 


12.13 


12.01 


11.86 


II .67 


II .46 


.079 


72 


12.30 


12.17 


12.03 


H.83 


11.62 


.080 


73 


12,46 


12.33 


12. 19 


11.99 


11.77 


.082 


74 


12.63 


12.50 


12.35 


12. l6 


H.93 


.084 


75 


12.79 


12.66 


12.51 


12.32 


12.09 


.086 


76 


12.96 


12.83 


12.68 


12.48 


12.25 


.087 


77 


12.13 


12.99 


12.84 


12.64 


12.40 


.088 


78 


I3-50* 


13.16 


13.02 


I2.8I 


12.56 


.089 



" RENDIMIENTO." 
NINETEEN PER CENT SUCROS: 

Polarization of First sugar 96 




Per Cent. 


Purity of Final Molasses. 




Extrac- 






tion. 
















30. 


35- 


40. 


45- 


50. 




68 


12-35 


12.25 


12. 12 


II .96 


11.77 




69 


12.53 


12-43 


12.30 


12. 14 


II .91 




70 


12.71 


12. 6l 


12.48 


12.31 


12. II 




7i 


12.89 


12.79 


12.66 


12-59 


12.28 




72 


13.08 


12.97 


12.83 


12.66 


12.46 




73 


13.26 


13.15 


13.01 


12.84 


12.64 




74 


13.45 


13-33 


I3.I9 


13.01 


12.82 




75 


I3-63 


13.51 


13-37 


13.19 


12.98 




76 


13.80 


13.69 


13-55 


13.36 


13.15 




77 


13.98 


13.87 


13-73 


13.54 


13.33 




78 


14.17 


14.05 


13.90 


13.71 


I3-50 





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