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Bennington and Caledonia. 

No. III. 

AprH, 1862. 


V, It:. Cc 

VEEMOI^T. ::>.>. 




" She stands fair Freedom's chosen Home,. 
Our own beloved Green Mountain State." 

" "Where breathes no c.istled lord or cabined slave j 
Where thoughts, and hands, and tongues are free.' 

'•: B 1 T E D E Y 



Terms: One Dollar per Year. Clubs solicited. 



Press of Geo. C. Hand Jt Avery, Eosfon. , ^^ 



A Quarterly, which is a free Historical Channel for eFvery Town. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, ia tlie year 1S59, by Abuv Mauia Hemenwat, in the Clerk'a 
Oflice of the District Court of the District of Vermont. 

T E R INI S . 

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Postage, three cents, paid at Office of Delivery. 

WjLNTED. — One or more Lady Assistants or Local Agents in each uncanvassed Town. 

The Agents have all been instructed to solicit through or. yearly subscriptions, ytt to as readily take 
quarterly ones, with the understanding tliat the subscribers arc to pay on delivery for each number of the 
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CLUB TERMS. — The field is open in every Town for Clucs, which may be sent direct to the Publisher. 
Terras — Everv Fourth >i'umbkr Fuke ; or for Four Wnr/i/, or equivalent, a copy of the "I'oets and 
I'oetry of Verm(jut," 12mo. 400 pp.; or Si.v I'liotographs of leading Vermont I'oets; or for the above list 
doubled. Twelve I'lates, or a I'lated and elegantly (jilt copy of the I'oets; or lor Four Yearly Subscriptions, 
a copy of the " Vermont School Journal," — a work devoted to a cause that ought to bring twice the patronage 
it has yet received; or Dr. C. H. Cleavlaud's ably conducted " MedicalJouriial,'' published at Cincinnati, O. 


No. 3. 
BENNINGTON — Concluded. 

Sketch of Jeremiah Evarts, by E. E. Tracy. 

AVinhall, '' . .0. Chamberlain, Esq. 

Woodlord, " . Stephen Gleasou. 

CocxTV Items. — Printing, County Agricult. Society 
and County Census Table, by Governor Hall. The 
Artificial Pond and Orvis Kocking Stone, &c. 

Ge>'ERAL Items. — Addison County Corrections, &c. 
Letter from the Chicago Historical Society, &c. 


County Chapter, by . . Kev. Thomas Goodwillie. 

Barnet, " .. IJev. Thomas Goodwillie. 

Burke, " A. Burington, Esq. 

Danville, " M. T. C. Alexander. 

Groton " Eev. O. G. Clark. 

Hardwick, " Kev. J. Torrey. 

Kirby, " C.H.Graves 

Lyndon, " .....<.. Hon. G.C. Gaboon. 

No. 4. 

- Concluded. 

Lyndon — Concluded, . . by Hon. G. C. Cahoon 

Newark, '' . 

I'eacliam, " . 

Ilyegate, •' . 

St. johnsbury, " . 

Shellield, " . 

Sutton " , 

Walden, '• . 

AVaterford, " . 

Wheelock, " . 

Goshen Gore, ...■• " 

. L. M. Sleeper. 

Kev. A. lioutelle. 

Kev. James 31. Beattie. 
. Edward T. Fairbanks. 

A. S. Lamb. 

. . John Ueckwith, Ksn. 

Hon James liell. 

T. A. Cutler. 

Hon. T. J.Cree. 

County Chapter, 


Burlington, .... 


by Hon. D. Keed. 

" G. W. Kenedy, Esq. 

. .' • • Historical Contributions for Chittenden County. 

Received from Henry Stevens, Esq., G. Sawver. Esq , Rev. Mr. Flemming, Rev. Dr. Witherspoon, Kev. Joslnia 
Young, .F. N. Pomeroy, Esq.. Professor N. G. Clark, James Johns, Dr. Ceorge L. Lyman. Hon. David Reed, 
Henry .'^liller, Esq., Rev. William Hough, Hector Adams, Esq., Congregational Pastor of Milton, H. Law- 
rence, Esq., G. H. Naramore, Esq., Hon. Rev. J. H. "Woodward, and E. Bostwick's History of Uinesburg, 
compiled by Rev. 3Ir. Ferrin. Other contributions of value promised by Rev. Dr. John Hix, l{ev. Dr. 
Foster, Rev. .Mr. Converse, Professors Torrey, Henedict, and Buckham; Sketch of Hon. llemen Allen, by 
Professor George Allen, of Philadelphia, Shelburne and Richmond Histories, by G. T. Sutton, A. B., and 
S. U. Davis, Esq., respectively. 

F XJ B Xj I S li E n' S C-A.XIID- 

Thfre are no class of citizens", perhaps, as well circumstanced to render ready and efficient aid in the 
distiibution of this work, especially to quarterly subscribers, as the postmasters of the State; and with much 
pleaiurc we embrace this occasion to return our most hand.'^ome and courteous thanks to each and all -who have 
thus rendeied most essential service: and would particular) v thank, as the most obliging and e/ficifiit, E. S. 

masters of Westminster, Orwell, and Arlington. Not of the postmasters, but among our practical Iricnds. not 
lieretolbie mentioned, nun who give a hand to the circulatiim, we gratefully lecord Charles Allen, Esq., Biir- 
lin"-ton: Joshua Lclaiid. Ihiltimnre; Benoni Buck, Esq., Ludlow; and .Mr. Weaver, meichant at \\ inooskie 
Fafis. Others will be iluly remembered in the patronage table continued in ne.xt number, in whidi we propose 
to give an especial "star-table" to lady live assistant and patrons — terms to admis.>-ion to which will be 
twelve yearly subscribers, or the equiveleiit. The income of this publication, thus far, has been barely enough 
to pav its printing cxpcn-ses. The editorial labor and expense bestowed upon it has never been even partially 
remunerated. Its completeness and forwardness will, in a great measure, depend upon the continued exer- 
tions of its practical friends. It is, therefore, most respectfully solicited of every subscriber to endeavor — and 
unto success — to add one or more to the present list, by calling the attention to it of each person known in 
their vicinity to have a taste for history or biograpliy, a veneration for the memories and mementoes ot our 

lis CUMUlMUll IUIU^|JU11U cwlumiiT i.\f Ji.- ......i.-, ...v... .... ...v.v. .,..,. M..,.u,iwi, ...> ..", j -. 

number of the Gazettker will be published in April, and drawn from the press as soon as tlic suDscnptiona 
of its patrons cancels the printing bill. The plate of Governor Fairbanks will appear in No. 4. 






Peevious to the American Eeyolution, that 
part of the country now known as "Vermont " was 
called " The New Hampsliire Grants," and was 
claimed by New Hampshire and New York. The 
General Assembly of New York divided it into 
four counties, viz : Bennington and Charlotte on 
the west, and Cumberland and Gloucester on the 
east side of the Green Mountains. 

Gloucester County was organized March 16, 
1770, containing 

" all that certain tract or district of land situate, ly- 
ing and being to the northward of the county of 
Cumberland, beginning at the northwest corner of 
the said county of Cumberland, and thence running 
north as the needle points fifty miles, thence east to 
Connecticut Kiver; thence along the west bank of 
the same river, as it runs, to the northeast corner 
of said county of Cumberland, on said river, and 
thence along the north bound of said county of 
Cumberland to the place of beginning." On the 
24th of March, 1772, by an act " for the better ascer- 
taining the boundaries of the counties of Cumber- 
land and Gloucester," these limits were changed and 
Gloucester County was bounded •' on the south by 
the north bounds of the County of Cumberland ; on 
the east by the east bounds (Connecticut River) of 
this colony (New York); on the north by the north 
bounds thereof (Canada) ; on the west and northwest 
partly by a line to be drawn from the northwest cor- 
ner of the said County of Cumberland on a course 
north, ten degrees east, until such line shall meet with 
and be intersected by another line proceeding on an 
east course from the south bank of the mouth of Ot- 
ter Creek, and partly by another line to be drawn and 
continued I'rom the said last-mentioned point of in- 
tersection, on a course north, fifty degrees east, until 
it meets with and terminates at the said north bounds 
of the Colony." 

Newbury was fixed as the shire town of Glou- 
cester County. 

In a large map of the British province of New 
Hampshire (now before the writer), made by 
Blanchard and Langdon, and insciibed to the 
British " secretary of war and one of his majesty's 
privy council," October 21, 1761, the whole of 
Vermont is laid down as a part of that province. 
At that time none of the towns in this county 
were chartered, but many of the towns which 
were surveyed and chartered in 1762 and 1763 
were laid down on this map with pen and ink. 

Only three towns in this county are so laid down, 
Barnet, Ryegate, and Peacham ; the latter town 
being located west of Eyegate, which shows that 
Groton, which was charterted by Vermont, was 
sur\'eyed long before Vermont became a State. In 
a large map of New York (now before the writer), 
constructed by order of Gen. Tryon, governor of 
that province, January 1, 1779, from sun'eys pre- 
viously made, the whole of Vermont is laid down 
as a part of New York. On this map Cumber- 
land County is bounded on the north by Canada 
and on the east by Connecticut River, separating 
it from New Hampshire, and on the other sides 
by a line beginning at the Connecticut River in 
Nonvich, and running a little north of west to 
the Green Mountains, to a point probably in the 
town of Ripton ; thence running northerly along 
the mountains to a point near Onion River, prob- 
ably in the town of Duxbury ; thence running 
northeast to Canada line, which it joins in Der- 
by, a few miles east of Lake Memphremagog. 
The whole of this district is represented on this 
map as sm-veyed into townships, except some parts 
on the northwest. 

Within the present limits of Caledonia County 
the towns of Barnet, Ryegate, Peacham, and Gro- 
ton are laid down nearly according to the New 
Hampshire surveys. The most of the other parts 
of the county are surveyed into townships, which 
in number, form, and location are altogether differ- 
ent from the other tovrats now in this county. 

On the Connecticut River, above Barnet, was 
a large township called "Dunmore," including 
the whole of Waterford and a considerable part 
of St. Johnsbury and Concord. Along the Bar- 
net line a narrow tract of land was laid down, in- 
cluding parts of Waterford and St. Johnsbury, 
and which was inscribed "Lt. Cargills." North 
of Dunmore, on the Passumpsic River, was 
" Besborough," including the south part of Lyn- 
don and the north part of St. Johnsbury. On 
the head branches of the Passumpsic was a large 
tract, includingBurkeand adjacent parts,in which 
was inscribed " Thomas Clark & Co." North of 
Peacham was "Hillsborough," embracing Dan- 
ville and parts of Walden and Hardwick. These 
are aU the towns in this county laid down on 
the New York map of 1779. 



The Xew Vork prant3 were abolished when 
Vermont became independent, and the prantees 
received a [loition of the S30,000 which was <;ivcn 
to New York, 1790, to quitclaim Vermont. 
Thomas Clark's share was S237 05, and John 
Gaibraith's S99 81. 

In 1777, the General Convention of Vermont 
declared "The New Hampshire Grants "indepen- 
dent, and adopted a constitution for the State. 
In February, 1779, the Ic^'islature of Vermont, 
in face of the opposition of New York, divided 
the State into two counties, and each county into 
two shires, viz : Bennington on the west, and 
Cumberland County on the east side of the Green 
Mountains. Cumberland County was divided 
into the shires of Westminster and Newbury. In 
1781, the legislature divided Cumberland into 
tliree counties, viz : Windham, Windsor, and 
Orange. Newbury was the shire town of the 
County of Orange, which embraced the north- 
eastern part of the State to the Canada line. 
November 5, 1792, Caledonia County was incor- 
porated from Orange County, including all that 
part of the State north of that county, and 
extending so far west as to include Montpelier 
and adjacent towns. But this county was not 
fully organized till Novembers, 1796, when Dan- 
ville was made the shire town. The whole State 
was divided into eleven counties in 1811, when 
the counties of Orleans and Essex were in- 
corporated from Caledonia County. Four 
towns from this county were incorporated 
with Washington County in 1811, to which 
Woodbury was annexed in 1836 and Cabot in 
1855. Caledonia County consists at the present 
time of sixteen towns. In 1856 the county seat 
was removed from Danville to St. Johnsbmy, 
where new county buildings were erected. The 
court-house is a large, elegant, and commodious 

The lands, therefore, in this part of the country 
were first of all in Gloucester County, New York ; 
then in the shire of Newbury and County of 
Cumberland, Vermont; afterwards in Orange 
County, Vermont ; and now in Caledonia Coun- 
ty, Vermont. 

The county is bounded on the north by Orleans 
County ; on the east by Essex County ; on the 
southeast by Connecticut River, which separates 
it from Grafton County, N. H.; on the south by 
Orange County ; and on the west by Washington 
and Lamoille counties. It lies between N. lat. 
44° 10' and N. lat. 44° 45', and immediately 
north of a line which if drawn east and west 
would divide the State into two equal parts. Its 
length from north to south is about forty miles, 
and its breadth from east to west about thirty. It 
contains about 700 square miles, with a popula- 
tion of 21,768, which gives 31 inhabitants tea 
square mile. 

There are many flourishing villages situated in 
different parts of the county, containing fine 

It is well watered by many streams. The Con- 
necticut River runs on the southeast side. The 
northern towns are watered by the head branchea 
of the Passumpsic River, which is the larirest in 
the county, and rans south and empties into the 
Connecticut River in Barnct. Wells, Stevens, 
and Joes rivers water it on the south, and the head 
branches of Onion and Lamoille rivers on tho 
west. There are about twenty lakes and ponds 
in the county ; the chief of which are Harvey's 
Lake in Bamet, Wells River and Lund's Ponds 
in Groton, Cole's Pond in Walden, Clark's and 
Centre Ponds in Newark, and Stile's Pond in 
Waterford. Fish of various kinds abound in 
most of the ponds and rivers. There are flills at 
dift'erent places otj the Connecticut, Passumpsic, 
Wells, and Joes's rivers. Stevens's river, near 
its month, falls 80 feet in the distance of 20 rods. 
The water-power is improved by mills and facto- 
ries built at the falls and other places on the 

The western part of the county is mountain- 
ous ; but though the towns in that part are on 
high lands, they admit of successful cultivation. 
The eastern part is an excellent farming country. 
The intervales on the Connecticut and Passump- 
sic rivers are easily cultivated. From the tops 
of the mountains in difierent parts of the county 
extensive prospects may be obtained, and in some 
sites grand views of the "White Hills of New 
Hampshire and of the Green Mountains of Ver- 
mont may be enjoyed. A mountain in Burke, 
whose height is 3,500 feet, is probably the highest 
in the county. 

It is not certainly known at what time this 
part of the country was discovered by Europeans. 
It has been known to the New England settlers for 
more than a century. Prior to this period the 
Indians owned and occupied the soil, covered 
with the forest. The wilderness was the home 
and inheritance of these wild men of the woods. 
Here, they camped in its valleys, hunted on its 
mountains, and fished in its waters, over which 
they glided swiftly in their light canoes ; and 
hence, they went forth to war, fighting with sav- 
age cunning and cruelty the foreigners who came 
over the great waters from the east, to dwell iu 
their domains, converting the forests into fruitful 
fields. When it first became known to Europeans 
the St. Francis tribe of Indians roamed over this 
part of the country. They had an encampment 
at Newbuiy and cultivated " the meadows " on 
the Great Ox Bow. But their prinripal settle- 
ment was in Canada. St. Francis, a village on the 
south side of the River St. Lawrence, not far from 
the Three Rivers, was their head-(iuarters. The 
French employed them in their wars against the 
English colonies. With their acquaintance with 
the country and their deadly hatred of the Eng- 
lish, they were formidable enemies. From none 
of the Indian tribes had the provinces of New 
Hampshire and Massachusetts suffered so much. 
They made their incursions along the River St. 



Francis and Lake IMcmphremagog, and thence 
down the Passumpsic and Connecticut rivers. 
This was their highway retui-ning from the 
slaughter of the English, with their scalps, pris- 
oners, and plunder. They were much distin- 
guished by the slaughter and destruction spread 
among the advanced settlements, the enormity of 
their cruelties and barbarities, and the number of 
their scalps and captives. 

lu the spring of 1752 a party of ten of these 
Indians surprised a party of four New England 
settlers wliile hunting on Baker's River in Rum- 
ney, N. H. One fled, one was killed, and the 
other two were taken prisoners and carried captive 
into Canada, to their head-quarters at St. Fran- 
cis. One of these captives was John Stark, after- 
wards the famous General Stark, who must have 
been one of the first of Europeans to behold this 
part of the country. One of his daughters lived 
and died in Ryegate, and some of her descendants 
now reside in Ryegate and Barnet. These two 
men returned from their captivity in Canada in 
the summer of 1 752, and gave an account of the 
country through which they had passed. 

No doubt later and fuller information of tliis 
part of the country was given by Major Rogers 
and his rangers upon their return in 1759, by the 
Passumpsic River and the Coos " Meadows," 
from their successful expedition against the St. 
Francis Indians in Canada. But the sad fate of 
many of these brave yet unfoitunate men, which 
took place in our county, gives a melancholy in- 
terest to the early history of this part of the 

General Amherst being at Crown Point on 
Lake Champlain, caiTyingon the war against the 
French colonies in 1759, determined to make 
these Indians, who continued to disturb and dis- 
tress the frontiers, feel the power of the English 
colonies. For this purpose, on September 13, 
1759, the very day that the English took Que- 
bec, he appointed Major Rogers, a brave and ex- 
perienced officer from New Hampshire, who had 
become famous for the number, boldness, and 
success of his enterprises, to conduct an expedi- 
tion against this barbarous tribe, carrying the 
hoiTors of war unexpectedly into their head-quar- 
ters in Canada. The night after the orders were 
given he set out with two hundred men in boats 
and proceeded down Lake Champlain, On the 
fifth day after they left Crown Point, while en- 
camped on the eastern shore of the lake, a keg of 
gunpowder accidentally exploded, wounding a cap- 
tain of the royal regiment and several men, who 
were sent back to Cro\vn Point, with a party to 
conduct them. This reduced Rogers's force to 
one hundred and fortj'-two men, with whom he 
proceeded to Missisco Bay, as ordered. Here he 
concealed his boats among some bushes which 
hung over one of the streams, and left in them 
provisions sufficient to carry them back to Crown 

According to orders Le left the lake and ad- 

vanced into the wilderness towards St. Francis 
village, having left two men to watch the boats 
and provisions, with orders that if the enemy dis- 
covered them, they were to pursue the p.irty with 
expedition and give him intelligence. The sec- 
ond evening after he left the bay these two men 
overtook the party and informed him that four 
hundred French and Indians had discovered the 
boats and sent them away with fifty men, while 
the rest of the party went in pursuit of the Eng- 
lish. Rogers kept this intelligence to himself, 
but sent away the two rangers with a lieutenant 
and eight men to Crown Point, to inform Gen, 
Amherst of what had taken place and request 
him to send provisions to Coos on Connecticut 
River, by which route he intended to return, 
Rogers, in order to outmarch his enemies if they 
pursued him, pushed forward towards St. Francis 
with all possible expedition. He came in sight 
of the village on the 4th of October at 8 o'clock 
in the evening. Ordering his men to halt and 
refresh themselves, he dressed himself in the In- 
dian garb and took with him two Indians, who 
understood the language of the St. Francis tribe, 
and went to reconnoitre the town. He found the 
Indians engaged in a grand dance, without the 
least apprehension of danger. He returned to his 
men at 2 o'clock in the morning and marched 
them to a distance of about five hundred yards 
from the town. About 4 o'clock the Indians 
finished their dance and retired to rest. Rogers 
waited till they were asleep, and at break of day 
he posted his men in the most favorable situation 
and commenced a general assault. The Indians 
were completely surprised and soon subdued. 
Some of them were killed in their houses, and of 
those who attempted to fly, many were shot or 
knocked on the head by the rangers, who were 
placed at the avenues. Amherst ordered Rogers 
and liis men " to take their revenge on the Indian 
scoundrels " for their " barbarities and infamous 
cruelties," but he ordered also that " no women 
or children be killed or hurt, though these 
A-illains have dastardly and promiscuously mur- 
dered the women and children of all orders." 
But the Indian method of slaughter and destmc- 
tion was adopted on this occasion ; and wherever 
Indians were found, their men, women, and chil- 
dren were slain without distinction and without 
mercy. As the morning light increased the fierce 
wrath of the rangers was inflamed to the highest 
degree when they saw the scalps of several hun- 
di-eds of their countrymen suspended on poles and 
waving in the air. Under this new force and 
irritation of their feelings and passions, they put 
forth their utmost exertions to avenge the blood 
of their friends and relations by utterly destroy- 
ing the village and all they could find of its in- 
habitants. The village contained three hundred 
Indians. Two hundred were killed on the spot 
and twenty taken prisoners. 

The town appeared to have been in a flourish- 
ing state. The houses were well furnished, and 



tho church was handsomely adomeil with plate. 
The whole village had been enriched hy the plun- 
der and scalps taken from tlie English. Two 
hundred guineas were found in money and a sil- 
ver image weighing ten pounds, besides a large 
quantity of wampum and clothing, and some pro- 
visions. Collecting the provisions and such arti- 
cles as they could easily transport, they set fire to 
the village and reduced it to ashes. At 7 o'clock 
in the morning the atiair was finished, which 
broke the pride and power of the St. Francis 
tribe of Intlians. Rogers then assembled his men 
and found that one was killed and six slightly 
wounded. Hax'ing refreshed his men for one 
hour, he immediately set out on his return, -with 
the addition of five English captives he had re- 
taken. To avoid his pursuers, he took a different 
route and marched up the St. Francis River, 
meaning to have his men collect and rendezvous 
at Coos on the Connecticut River. On their 
march they were harassed by the Indians, and 
tho enemy several times attacked them in tho 
rear. In these rencounters they lost seven of 
their men, till Rogers, favored by the dusk of the 
evening, formed an ambuscade upon his own track 
and fell upon the enemy when they least expected 
it ; by this stroke he put an end to further pur- 
suit and annoyance from their foes. For about 
ten days the detachment kept together till they 
had passed the eastern side of Lake Memphre- 
magog. Tiieir sufferings now began to be severe, 
not only from the excessive fatigues they had en- 
dured, but from hunger. Their provisions were 
expended and they were at a distance from any 
place of relief. 

Here Rogera divided his detachment into 
small companies, and having ordered them all to 
a,«semble at the mouth of the upper Amonusuck 
River, where he expected to find food, sent them 
on their march. After a journey of several days 
he and his party reached the appointed place of 
meeting, having come on the Passumpsic River, 
which they descended. 

In the mean time, by order of Gen. Amherst, 
Samuel Stevens and three others proceeded from 
Charlestown, N. H., up Connecticut River, with 
two canoes laden with provisions. They landed 
on Round Island, at the mouth of Passumpsic 
Hirer, where they encamped for the night; but 
hearing the report of guns in the morning, and 
supposing Indians were in the vicinity, they were 
so terrified that they reloaded their provisions and 
hastened back to Charlestown. 

Their fearful misapprehensions were soon fol- 
lowed by fatal consequences. Rogers and his 
men encamped the same night a few miles up the 
Passumpsic, the mouth of which river they reach- 
■ ed about noon the next day, and discovered fire on 
Round Island. He made a raft and passed over to it, 
but to his surprise and disappointment discovered 
that no provisions had been left. His men were 
so disheartened by this discovery that a consid- 
erable number of them died before the next day. 

In these dismal circnmstanecs Rogers gave up 
the command and told his men to take care of 
themselves. Some were lost in the wooils and 
others died of famine, but Rogers and most of his 
party, after almost incredible hardships, arrived 
at Number Four, or Charlestown, N. II. 

Peter Lervcy, of Haverhill, N. H., who came 
to Barnet to live a short time before his death, 
which was about the year 1817, and whom the 
writer has seen, was one of Rogers's party and 
visited the scenes of their sufferings. He said 
that many of the rangers died on the Passumpsic 
River and on the meadow below on the Connec- 
ticut River. On this meadow and along the Pas- 
sumpsic for two or three miles from its mouth 
human bones have been found at different times 
and places. Some of those might have been the 
bones of Indians who had been buried in a sitting 
postm'C, but many others were found in a horizon- 
tal position ; and in one place the skeletons of 
two persons were discovered in the earth together. 
These probably were the remains of some of Rog- 
ers's men who perished in Barnet. 

Lervey also said that he and some others, in 
order to have a better chance to find game, left the 
Connecticut River and went through the woods 
and came upon "Wells River about two miles 
above its mouth. They killed a bear and some 
small game, so that none of his party perished. 

The following account, taken from Major Rog- 
ers's journals, gives many interesting particulars, 
though it seems to differ in a few unimportant 
points from the histories from which the preceding 
account is taken : — 

Maj. Rogers writes to Gen. Amherst, Novem- 
ber 5, 1759, " It is hardly possible to describe the 
gr-Icf and consternation of those of us who came to 
Cohasse Intervales. Upon our arrival there, after 
so many days' tedious march, over steep, rocky 
mountains, or through wet, dirty swamps, with 
the ten-ible attendants of fatigue and hunger, we 
found that here was no relief for us, where we had 
encouraged our^lves that we should find it, and 
have our distresses alleviated. Notwithstanding 
the ofticer I dispatched to the general, discharged 
liis trust with great expedition, and in nine days 
arrived at Cro^vn Point, which was one hundred 
miles through the wilderness ; and the general, 
without delay, sent Lieut. Stevens to Number 
Four, with orders to take pro^^sion3 up the river 
to the place I had appointed, and there wait so 
long as there was any hopes of my returning ; yet 
the officer that was sent, being an indolent fellow, 
tarried at the place but two days, when he re- 
turned, taking all the provisions wth him, about 
two hours before our arrival. Finding a fresh 
fire burning in his camp, I fired guns to bring 
him back, wliich guns he heard, but would not 
return, supposing we were the enemy. Our dis- 
tress on this occasion was truly inexpressible. 
Our spirits, greatly depressed by the htmger and 
fatigues we had already suffered, now almost en- 
tirely sank within us, seeing no resotirce left, nor 





" The Bargain " we copy from a beautiful volume entitled tlie Poets of Vermont. — New 
Yorh Independent. 

People cannot afford to read everything; hence the disposition to select works that 
relate to their own country, their own state, their own town, their own parish, their own 
family. The work before us is based on the same general principle. It was a happy thought 
to group together the poets of a State ; and we doubt whether any State of the Union has 
furnished more poetrj% in projjortion to its population, worthy of preservation, than Vermont. 
— American Baptist, New York Cihj. 

This is an exceedingly neat edition of poems by the Green Mountain State, embracing 
many sweet specimens of verse, and touching ujoon all themes, from lively to severe. — Glea- 
son's Pictorial Drawing Room Companion. 

A beautifully bound volume, and contains some of the finest poetical productions of the 
age. — Independence Gazette, Missouri. 


POETS AND POETRY OF VERMONT. Edited by Abby Mahia Hemenway. 
Publishers, Boston : Brown, Taggard & Chase. Brattleboro : W. Felton. 

The poems embrace a great variety of topics, as well as of style and poetic merit 
While they are not all brilliant, there are very few which are not good, and we question 
whether it would not be difficult to produce a more acceptable volume from the poetic 
writings of the sons and daughters of any other State, and embracing as wide a range in the 
selection of authors. — Boston Journal. 

A new edition, revised and enlarged, of a book which had already been very cordially 
received by the press and the public. There is a great deal of excellent poetry in the five 
hundred and more pages ; quite as much as you will find in Griswold's " Poets and Poetry of 
America," and kindred compilations. The book will be a popular one in Vermont, of course, 
and deserves to be so eA'erywhere else. — Boston Times. 

The volume contains a large number of poems of varied merit, as they must be, coming 
from many writers ; and forms a collection of poetry to which any State might point with an 
honest pride. — Worcester Palladium. 

Vermont has, in fact, many " poets of the people," as the volume before us abundantly 
demonstrates. — Bangor Whig ^- Courier. 

The "Green Mountain State " need not be ashamed of her poetry, any more than of 
her patriotism. These poetical specimens are very creditable to their genius. — Providence 

The degree of talent presented shows that the cold regions of the North are nurseries 
of poetry. — Portsmouth Journal. 

The names of Drs. Spenser, Asa D. Smith, and Hopkins (Bishop), R. W. Griswold, 
George P. Marsh, and Walter Colton, are assurance enough that the land of mountain and 
rock has produced Arctic flowers worth transplanting. A likeness of J. G. Saxe accompa- 
nies the volume. — Church Mirror, Portland. 

If you are a Vermpnter, and want to send a handsome and appropriate present to " the 
old folks at home;" or if you are not a Vermonter, but have some .particular friend who is, 
you will be tempted, we think, to buy it. — The Lawrence American. 

The Vermont press has been as warm in encouragement as our generous neighbors ; but 
it is not well to select out from among home-friends, where many are equally worthy. 

The first edition of the Poets will be mailed, upon the reception of $1.00, to any part 
of the United States, or of the revised edition for $1.25. 






This publication is to coasist of a series of fourteen Quarterlies, 
one to be devoted to each county, commencing with Addison, and the 
remainder following in alphabetical order. 

The whole is designed to embrace a comprehensive history of each 
town — civil, educational, religious, geological, and literary. 

The writers in the historical department will, we think, be found 
to be those at once the best qualified for this work, and the most 
acceptable to their respective towns and the general public. 

The biographical and specimen departments will be enriched by 
sketches of, and specimens from, such men as Ethan Allen, Thomas 
Chittenden, General Stark, Silas Wright, Governors Sladc, Hall, 
Fairbanks, <fec. ; Senators Tichenor, Upham, Phelps, Foote, (fee. ; Hon. 
James Meacham, M. C. ; Bishops Hedding, Henshaw, and Hopkins j 
Stephen Olin, D.D.; Amos Deane, LL.D.; Dr. Edwin James; Prof. 
Boardman; Carlos Wilcox; Rev. Drs. Spencer, Sheldon, Asa D. 
Smith, &c. ; Hiram Powers, George P. Marsh, 4^P. Thompson, Hon. 
William C. Bradley, Judge Noble, &c. &c. 

We improve this occasion to give notice that each town is 
expected to furnish its own chapter of history and biographic 
sketches; each church its own records, sketches of first pastor, &c. 
Chapters on the geology of each county will be prepared by our best 

Finally, we may be allowed to add; in order that this enterprise 
prove at once creditable and profitable to all concerned, wc shall, 
of course, have to depend upon the active sympathy and hearty 
cooperation of every son and daughter of Vermont. 









his work, -which is a storeliouse of New England 
ily history, is issued quarterly in January, April, 
r and October, each number containing 96 pages, 
I and a full index to names is given in the last No. 
ach volume. Sixteen volumes have been corn- 
ed, containing biographical sketches, family pedi- 
s, early American history, and numerous portraits 
teel, which may be had at $2 a vol. in Nos. 
complete set, 16 vols, bound iu half morocco, $40. 


Series of Town Histories, Grouped in Counties. 


h number containing 100 pages in double columns, 

and a portrait on steel. 
0. 1, Addison Co., portrait of Gov. Slade. 
0. 2, Bennington Co., portrait of Gov. Hall. 
0. 3, Bennington and Caledonia, portrait of Gov. 

0. 4, Caledonia Co., portrait of Gov. Fairbanks. 
0. 5, Chittenden Co., portrait of Gov. Van Ness, 
isex, Franklin, Grand Isle, and Lamoille Counties 
er Preparation. 

jrms, 50 cents a number, or $3 for 14 numbers, if 
. in advance. 4 numbers ready for delivery, 5th 


cial Organ of State Teachers' Association 
and Department of Public Instruction, 


iblished Monthly, 8°, pp. 40, $1 per annum, in 
mce. It is aimed to make the Teacher the expo- 
; of enlightened views and improved methods; 
ixpression of the best culture in tlie state ; and a 
iful chronicle of educational news and educational 




le History of Ancient Windsor being very nearly 
of print, the author proposes to issue a Supple- 
t, containing such additions and corrections as 
! accrued since the work was issued in 1859, the 
i of which will not much exceed a dollar. Those 
ng the former work who may desire the Supple- 
t, will please .<!end their orders either to the author 
T^oodbridge, N. J., or to the publisher, 

J. MUNSELL, Albany, N. Y. 




The edition of this work will be limited to 150 co- 
pies ; it will consist of about lOO pages in octavo, will 
be printed on fine and heavy paper, with wide mar- 
gins, and furnished to subscribers at $1.50 sewed and 
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A list of Subscribers will be given. 

Ji\-om the PhUadelplda Press. 
Mr. Clifford Stanley Pims, a mpmber of the Philadelphia bar, 
hag written an interesting work, entitled the Origin and Signifioar 
tion of Scottish Surnames, which will he siieediiy publishfd by 
Mr. J. Munsell, Albany — a gentleman whose name is honorably 
associated with many valuable books. Only 150 copies will be 
printed, to be supplied by subscription, and got up upon superior 
paper, with wide margins, in Mr. Munsell's accustomed excellent 
manner. The edition is very limited— we should fancy that the 
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it. We had the pleasure of perusiug Mr. Sim.«'s work in manu- 
script, and cheerfully bear testimony to the research, erudition, 
and full acquaintance with the subject which it exhibits. It is 
entertaining as well as antiquarian, and is liberally studded with 
historical and personal anecdotes. 


It is proposed, if a sufl5cient Subscription can be 
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By Increase Mather, together with Cotton Mather's 
Account of the same War, and an Introduction and 
Notes by Samuel G. Drake, Esq. This Work, for a 
long time difl5cult to be obtained, is not only indis- 
pensable to all students of New England History, but 
also an important adjunct to the Work on tlie same 
Subject in the Series above alluded to, more especially 
on Account of tlie Animadversions of Mather upon 
the Statements made therein by Easton. 

The Work will be printed in Old Style, in 4to form, 
on fine laid Paper, containing about 300 pages, with 2 
steel Portraits, at $3, in paper covers, sewed and un- 
cut; or $3.50 in green cloth, top edge gilt; large paper 
copies, sewed, f 10. A List of Subscribers will accom- 
pany the Volume, and the Edition will be limited 
very nearly to the orders received before printing. 


J. MUNSELL, 78 State street, Albany, N. Y. 





Illustrated by numerous Examples. 

By J. 0. Halliwell. 

This interesting Es.say, of whicli only 60 copies were printed 
in England for presents, will form an octavo volume of 150 pages, 
printed on fine and heavy paper, in elegant style, and bound in 
cloth, neatly, at $1.50; ^ turk., top edge gilt, $2. Ed. 100 copies. 



I (J 






Tliis publication is to consist of a series of Quarterlies, devoted to each county, commencing 
with Addison, and the remainder following in alphabetical order. 

The whole is de.signed to embrace a comprehensive history of each town — civil, educational, 
religious, geological, literary and military. 

The writers in the historical department will, we think, b^ found to be those at once the 
host qualified for this work, and the most acceptable to their respective towns and the general 

The biographical and specimen departments will be enriched by sketches of, and specimens 
from, such men as Ethan Allen, Thomas Chittenden, Seth Warner, Silas Wright; Governors 
Robinson, Tichenor, Williams, Crafts, Slade, Hall, Mattocks, Fairbanks, Van Ness, Royce, 
Ilolbrook, &c. ; Senators Upham, Phelps, Douglas, Foote, &c. ; Hon. James Meacham, Hon. 
Rollin C. Mallory, Hon. Justin S. Morrell, M. Cs.; Bishops Hedding, Henshaw, and Hop- 
kins ; Stephen Olin, D. D. ; Dr. Edwin .James ; Rev. Drs. Spencer, Sheldon, Asa D. Smith, Cal- 
vin Pease, &c. ; Prof. J. Torrey ; Hon. Amos Dean, LL. D. ; Hiram Powers, George P. Marsh, 
Hon. William C. Bradley, Judge Noble, D. P. Thompson, Rev. S. R. Hall, Rev. P. H. White, 
George F. Houghton, Esq., Judge Kellogg, A. D. Hager, Esq., &c., &c. 

We improve this occasion to give notice that each town is expected to its own 
chapter of history and biograpliic sketches; each church its own records, sketches of first 
pastor, ice. Chapters on the geology of each county will be prepared by our best geologists. 

Finally, we may be allowed to add, in order that this enterprise prove at once creditable and 
profitable to all concerned, we shall, of course, have to depend upon the active sympathy and 
hearty cooperation of every son and daughter of Vermont. 





"The Bargain" we copy from a beanliful volume 
entitled the Poets of Vermont. — Nevj York Independ- 

People can not nflord to read every thing; hence the 
di«l><)t<ition to select works that relate to their own 
ciiiintry, their own state, their own town, their own 
p.-irif^h, their own family. The work before us is 
based on the same general principle. It was a happy 
Ihoiiu'lit to trroiip together the poet« of a ftate; and 
we ddiibt whether any elate of the Union has furnish- 
ed mure poetry, in proportion to itspopolaiion, worthy 
of prrHervaiion, thaa Vermont. — American Baptist, 
-Veto York city. 

This is an exceedingly neat edition of poems by the 
Green Mountain State, embracing many sweet epecl- 
lUiTis of verce, and touching upon all themes,' trora 
lively to severe.— G/ea4on'» Pic. Draw. Room Comp. 

The volume contains a largo number of poems of 
varie<l merit, as they must be, coming from many 
writers, and forms a collection of poetry to which 
any sliito miijht point with an honest pride. — Worces- 
ter Pal/nJium. 

The poems embrace a great variety of topics, ns well 
as of style and poetic merit. While they are not all 

brilliant, there are very few which are not good, and 
we question whether it would not be ditBcuIl to pro- 
duce a more acceptable volume from the poetic writ, 
ings of the sons and daughters of any other state, and 
embracing as wide a range in the selection of authors. 
I — Boston Journal. 

I A new edition, revised and enlarged, of a book which 
i had already been very cordially received by the press 
and the public. There is a great deal of excellent 
poetry In the five hundred and more pages; quite as 
much as you will lind in Griewold's Poets and Poetry 
of America, and kindred compilations. The book will 
be a popular one in Vermont, of course, and deserves 
to be so every where else. — Boston Times. 

The Green Mountain State need not be ashamed of 
her pooiry, any more than of tier patriotism. These 
poeiical specimens are very creditable to their genius. 
— Providence Journal. 

The names of Drs. Spencer, Asa D. Smith, and Hop- 
kins (Bisliop), R. W. Griswold, George P. Mirsh, and 
Waller Colton, are assurance enouuh that the land of 
mountain and rock has produced Arctic flowers worth 
transplanting. A likeness of J. G. Saxe accompuniea 
the volume. — Chuvh MirroT,.Portland. 

The first edition of the Poets will be mailed, upon the reception of $1, to any part of the 
United States; or of the revised edition, for $1.25. 





any reasonable hope that we should escape a most 
miserable death by famine. At length I came to 
a resolution to push as fast as possible towards 
Number Four, leaving the remains of my party, 
now unable to march fm-ther, to get such wretch- 
ed subsistence as the barren wilderness could 
afford, till I could get relief to them, which I en- 
gaged to do within ten days. I taught Lieut. 
Grant, the commander of the party, the use and 
method of preparing ground-nuts and lily roots, 
which being cleaned and boiled, will serve to pre- 
serve life. I, with Capt. Ogden and one ranger 
and a captive Indian boy, embarked upon a raft 
we had made of dry pine-trees. The current car- 
ried us down the stream in the middle of the 
river, where we endeavored to keep oui- wretched 
vessel by such paddles as we had made out of 
small trees or spires split and hewed. 

" The second day we reached White River 
Falls, and very narrowly escaped being carried 
over them by the current. Our little remains 
of strength, however, enabled us to land and to 
march by them. At the bottom of these falls, 
while Capt. Ogden and the ranger hunted for 
red squirrels for a refreshment, who had likewise 
the good foitiine to kill a partridge, I attempted 
the forming of a new raft for our further convey- 
ance. Being unable to cut down trees, I burnt 
them down and then burnt them off at proper 
lengths. This was our tliird day's work after 
leaving our companions. The next day we got 
our materials together and completed our raft 
and floated with the stream again till we came to 
Otta Quechee Falls, which are about fifty yards 
in length. Here we landed, and by a withe made 
of hazel-bushes, Capt. Ogden held the raft till I 
went to the bottom, prepared to swim and board 
it when it came down, and, if possible, to paddle 
it ashore, this being the only resource for life, as 
we were not able to make a third raft in case we 
had lost this. I had the good fortune to suc- 
ceed, and the next morning we embarked and 
floated down the stream to within a small distance 
of Number Four, where we found some men cut- 
ting timber, who gave us the first relief an,d as- 
sisted us to the fort, whence I dispatched a canoe 
with provisions, which reached the men at Co- 
hasse four days after, which, agreeable to my 
engagement, was the tenth day after I left them. 
Two days after my arrival at Number Four, I 
went up the river myself, with other canoes 
loaded with provisions for the relief of others of my 
party that might be coming on that way, having 
hired some of the inhabitants to assist me in this 
affair. I likewise sent expresses to Pembroke 
and Concord upon the Merrimack Eiver, that any 
who should straggle that way might be assisted, 
and provisions were sent up said rivers accord- 

Having returned from his expedition up the 
river, Maj. Eogers waited for his men at Number 
Four, and having collected and refreshed a con- 
siderable part of his force, he marched to Crown 

Point, where he arrived December 1, 1759, and 
joined the army under Gen. Amherst. Upon 
examination he found that after leaving the smok- 
ing ruins of St. Francis he had lost three lieuten- 
ants and forty- six sergeants and privates. 

This expedition, though it proved extremely 
dangerous and fatiguing to the men engaged in 
it, produced a deep impression on the enemy, car- 
rying consternation and alarm into the heart of 
Canada, and convincing the Indians that the re- 
taliation of vengeance was now come upon them. 
Newbury was chartered May 8, 1763, and set- 
tled in 1764. Some of the St. Francis tribe of 
Indians returned to the Coos, where they lived and 
died, and their families became extinct. One of 
these was Capt. John, who had been a noted 
chief of the St. Francis tribe. He was in the 
battle of Braddock's defeat, and used to relate 
how he shot a British officer, after the officer had 
knocked him down ; and how he tried to shoot 
young Washington, but could not succeed. He 
was a fierce and cruel Indian, and had repeatedly 
used the tomahawk and scalping-knife upon the 
defenceless inhabitants of Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire. When excited by ardent spir- 
its, he took a fiendish satisfaction in relating his 
cruel and savage deeds, particularly his bloody 
barbarities in torturing and killing captive fe- 
males, whose cries of distress he imitated, to make 
sport. He w3s, however, a firm friend of the 
American colonies. During the revolutionaiy 
war he received a captain's commission, raised a 
part of a company of Indians and marched with 
the New England companies against Burgoyne. 
One of his sons, in 1777, fought near Fort Inde- 
pendence, under the command of Capt. Thomas 
Johnston of Newbury. 

Captain Joe was another of these Indians. His 
disposition was mild. He hated the British, and 
rejoiced in the success of the American colonies. 
Accompanied with his wife, Molly, he used to 
hunt in this county. His name was given to 
Joe's Pond, on the western border of this county, 
and once belonged to it ; and to the stream which 
issues out of it and empties into Passumpsic 
in Barnet, where it is sometimes called Merrit's 
Eiver. Her name was given to Molly's Pond in 
Cabot, which untU lately belonged to this county. 

During the revolutionary war, he with Molly 
visited Gen. Washington at his head-quartei-s on 
the Hudson River, and was received with marked 
attention. When he became old and unable to 
support himself, the legislature of Vermont 
granted him a pension of $70 annually. 

The war with the French in Canada and the 
dread of the Indians retarded the settlements on 
the Connecticut Eiver. 

In 1760, no towns were chartered and no settle- 
ments made on that river north of Charlestown, 
N. H., 75 miles below this county. But after the 
courage and power of the Indians were destroyed 
by Eogers's daring expedition in 1759, and the 
termination of the war with the French colonies 



in Canada in 1 760, the settlements on the Con- 
necticut River rapidly increased. 

In 1 760, Samuel Stevous was employed by a 
land company to explore this partof the country, 
to find out the best lauds for settlement. He, with 
a few others, began at the mouth of White River 
and proceeded up the Connecticut River till they 
came to the head branches of Onion River, which 
rise in the southern part of this county and not 
many miles from the Connecticut. Thence they 
went down Onion River to Lake Champlain. 
Then beginning at the mouth of Lamoille River, 
they proceeded up that stream to its head branches 
in the western part of this county, through which 
they passed to the Connecticut River. 

In 1761, no less than sixty towns on the west, 
and eighteen on the east side of the Connecticut, 
were chartered. After this period Elijah King, with 
a party, surveyed the towns north of Wells River. 

The towns first chartered in this part of the 
county were New Hampshire Grants. Benning 
Wentworth, governor of that province, chartered 
Ryegate, September 8, 1763 ; Baniet,September 
16, 1763, and Peacham, December 31, 1763. 

Barnet was the first town in the county that was 
settled. Its first settlers were from the New Eng- 
land settlements. Jacob, Elijah, and Daniel 
Hall and Jonathan Fowler settled in Bai-net, 
March 4, 1770. The first house erected in the 
county was built by the Halls, at the foot of the 
falls on the north side of Stevens River in Barnet. 
Sarah, daughter of Elijah Hall, was the first 
child born in the county, and Barnet Fowler, son 
of Jonathan Fowler, was probably the first male 
born in the county. In October, 1773, there 
were fifteen families in town, and in 1775 it began 
to be rapidly settled by emigrants from Scot- 
land, who soon composed the great majority of 
the inhabitants. In 1773, emigrants from Scot- 
land began to settle in Ryegate, having purchased 
the south half of the town* The most of the in- 
habitants were Scotch, who settled in different 
parts of the town. The first inhabitants of the 
town, however, were Aaron Hosmer and his 
family, who had camped on the Connecticut 
River, two miles above Wells River. In the 
spring of 1775, Jonathan Elkins came to Peach- 
am, to the lot he had pitched in 1774. Danville 
was chartered October 27, 1784, and a few years 
afterwards was rapidly settled. Dr. Arnold, of 
St. Johnsbury, procured the charters of that town 
and Lyndon, Burke, and Billymead (now Sut- 
ton), and named them for his four sons, John, 
Lyndon, Burke, and William. John, however, 
was dead. His father sainted his name and 
called the town named for him St. Johnsbury.* 
Ryegate, Barnet, and Peacham, the towns first 
chartered in the county, were settled before the 
revolutionaiy war. The rest of the towns in the 
county were chartered by the State of Vermont 
between 1780 and 1790. 

* See St. Johnsbury chapter on this point. Ed. 

The first mills erected in the county were a saw- 
mill and gristmill built by Col. Hurd of Haver- 
hill, N. H., in 1771, at the Falls on Stevens's Riv- 
er in Barnet, by a contract with Enos Stevens, 
one of the grantees of the town, for one hundred 
acres of land lying on the Connecticut River, and 
running back half a mile and enclosing the Falls ; 
Stevens, however, furnishing the mill-irons on 
the spot. 

In 1774, a line was run from Connecticut River 
in Barnet through Peacham to Missique Bay on 
Lake Champlain, which was of great use to our 
scouts and to deserters from the enemy during 
the revolutionary war. On this line, in March, 
1776, several companies belonging to Col. Bee- 
del's regiment marched to Canada on snow- 

Early in the spring of 1776, Gen. Bailey of 
Newbury was ordered to open a road from New- 
bury in Orange County, beginning at the mouth 
of Wells River, which empties into the Connecti- 
cut River near the southeast corner of the county, 
to run through the wilderness to St. Johns, for 
the purpose of facilitating the conveyance of 
troops and provisions into Canada. He had 
opened the road six miles above Peacham, when 
the news arrived that the American army had re- 
treated from Canada, and the undertaking was 
abandoned. But in 1799 Gen. Hazenwas ordered 
to Peacham with part of a regiment for the pur- 
pose, as was said, of completing the road begun 
by Gen. Bailey, so that an array might be sent 
through for the reduction of Canada. But this 
was probably a feint for dividing the enemy and 
preventing them from sending their whole force 
up Lake Champlain. Gen. Hazen, however, 
continued the road fifty miles above Peacham, 
through the towns of Cabot, Walden, Hardwick, 
Greensboro', Craftsbury, Albany, and Lowell, 
and it terminated at a remarkable notch in the 
mountain in Westfield. He erected block-houses 
at Peacham and other places along the road, 
which to this day is called the " Hazen Road," 
and the notch where it terminated is known as 
" Hazen's Notch." This road was of great ad- 
vantage to the settlers after the revolutionary 

But it appears from a letter wTitten by Gen. 
Wliitelaw to liis flither and the company in Scot- 
land, and dated Feb. 7, 1774, that a road from 
Connecticut River to Lake Champlain and 
Canada had been designed, and the opening of 
it had commenced at that early period, which 
was probably designed to facilitate the settlement 
of the country. As this letter was written soon 
after the settlement of the county had com- 
menced, and as it contains many interesting par- 
ticulars, we quote it at length. 

" Ryegate, Feb. 7, 1774. 
" We have now built a house and live very 
comfortably, though we are not troubled much 
with our neighbors, having one family about half 



a mile from us, another a mile and a half, and 
two about two miles and a half, — one above and 
the other below us. In the township above us 
(Barnet) there are about fifteen families, and in 
the township below (Newbury), about sixty, 
where they have a good Presbyterian minister, 
whose meeting-house is about six miles from us. 
There is as yet no minister above us, though 
there are some few settlers sixty miles beyond 
us, on the river (Connecticut). There are no 
settlers to the west of us till you come to Lake 
Champlain, which is upwards of sixty miles. 
There is a road now begun to be cut from Con- 
necticut River to the Lake, which goes through the 
middle of our purchase, and is reasoned to be a 
considerable advantage to us, as it will be the chief 
post-road to Canada. We are extremely well 
pleased with our situation, as the ground on a sec- 
ond view is better than we expected, and we live 
in a place where we can have a pretty good price 
for the products of the earth. The ordinary price 
of provisions are as follows : Wheat, four shil- 
lings per bushel ; barley, the same ; oats, rye, and 
Indian com, from one to two shillings ; pease four 
shillings and sixpence ; all sterling, and all the 
English bushel ; and the soil here produces these 
in perfection, besides water and muskmelons, cu- 
cumbers, potatoes, squashes, pumpkins, turnips, 
parsnips, can-ots, onions, and all garden vegeta- 
bles in the greatest plenty and perfection. They 
have also excellent ilax, which they sell at four 
and a half pence sterling per pound, when swin- 
gled, which is sixpence lawful money, at Boston, 
in which they commonly reckon, as most of the 
trade here is with that part of New England. 
Beef sells here at one and three fourths pence per 
pound, pork at four and one half to sixpence, 
mutton from two to three pence, butter and- 
cheese from five to six pence ; all sterling and all 
by the English pound. These are the real 
prices of provisions here, and what we onrselves 
pay for all these articles ; and as they have 
great demand for these things in the seaport 
towns to the eastward, the price will continue. 
This country seems to be extraordinarily well 
adapted to the raising of cattle, as it is all cov- 
ered with excellent grass where it is cleared, and 
even in many places in the woods. As butter 
and cheese here sell at a good price, a good dairy 
here might be a very profitable business. Though 
this is a new country we have every necessary 
of life at the above prices. We have a grist- 
mill within six miles of us, and a sawmill 
within two and a half. We know nothing of 
the hardships of settling a new place, for the 
first settlers in the town below, only ten years 
ago, had not a neighbor nearer than sixty miles, 
and no road but through the woods, and the 
nearest mill was one hundred and twenty miles 
down the river. The people here are hospitable, 
social, and decent. One thing I know, that here 
they are very strict in keeping the Sabbath. 
The mnter here is far from being what I ex- 

pected, for though it freezes sometimes pretty 
severely, yet it is not very cold. The weather is 
commonly clear and settled." 

Barnet, Ryegate, and Peacham being New 
Hampshire grants, were involved in the con- 
troversy with New York, and took an active 
part in declaring Vermont independent, and 
establishing its government. 

These three towns were settled but a few years 
before the revolutionary war commenced, no 
other towns in the county having been settled till 
some years after the independence of the United 
States was acknowledged by Great Britain. 
Though feeble frontier settlements, they contrib- 
uted according to their ability to establish that 
independence. In 1777, when there was a gen- 
eral call on that part of the country for soldiers, 
they sent armed men to Saratoga, where they 
had the pleasure of witnessing the surrender of 
Burgoyne and his army. Afterwards they raised 
militia to guard the frontier, sent soldiers to the 
American army, and furnished provisions accord- 
ing to their abihty. 

The legislatm'C of Vermont passed an act, 
Feb. 28, 1782, to raise three hundred able-bodied 
men for the ensuing campaign, and the men for 
Col. Johnston's regiment were to meet at his 
house in Newbury, March 1, 1782. The board 
of war, under this act, required two men from 
this county, — one from Ryegate and another 
from Barnet. 

For the support of the troops raised by Ver- 
mont during the revolutionary war, the legisla- 
tmre passed an act, October 27, 1781, to levy on the 
polls and ratable estate of that year a provision 
tax of twenty ounces of wheat flour, and six 
ounces of rye flour, and also ten ounces of beef, 
and six ounces of pork mthout bone except 
backbone and ribs ; and in 1782 another act was 
passed to levy a provision tax on the towns, by 
which three towns in the county were taxed as 
follows, viz : — 

Salted Indian 

Flour. Beef. Pork. Corn. Eye. 

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Bushels. Bushels. 

Ryegate, 1,800 600 300 54 12 

Barnet, 750 250 125 24 12 

Peacham 750 250 125 24 12 

3,300 1,100 550 106 


As these towns had not fully furnished these 
provisions, the legislatm-e passed an act, Feb. 22, 
1783, " to remit all the aixears of taxes (except 
land taxes) due from Peacham, Barnet, and Rye- 
gate, and laid on said towns before the session in 
October, 1782, as these towns lie so detached from 
the firm citizens of this State, as that they cannot 
be said properly to have been within the protec- 
tion and to have received the benefit of the gov- 
ernment of the State." The other towns in this 
county began to be settled about the time of the 
formation of the Constitution of the United 
States, in 1787 ; and their settlement rapidly 



increased in 1789, when the first Congress met 
and Gen. Washington was inaugurated President; 
in 1790, when the long fierce controversy with 
New York was amicably adjusted, and in 1791, 
when Vermont was admitted as one of the 
United States. All the towns in the county 
were settled before the end of the century. 

The county was called "Caledonia," — the 
ancient Roman name of Scotland, — out of 
regard for the emigrants from that country, who 
had purchased large tracts of land in the 
county, and had largo and flourishing settlements 
in Barnet and Ryegate, and who were distin- 
guished for their intelligence, integrity, enter- 
prise, industry, and patriotism, as well as for 
their reUgious character. They favored the 
cause of American independence, and some of 
them served in the revolutionaiy army. They 
supported Vermont in the declaration of her 
independence and the formation of her constitu- 
tion, in trying circumstances, which called for 
the highest exercise of the greatest wisdom, for- 
titude, and patriotism. They organized a church 
and settled a clergyman long before any other 
church was founded, or any other clergyman 
was installed in the county. Some of Caledo- 
nia's sons were appointed by the legislatm-e of 
Vermont to high and responsible offices, which 
they held for many years, with credit to them- 
selves and benefit to the State and county. 

Rev. John Witherspoon, D.D., an emigrant 
from Scotland, owned a large tract of land in 
Ryegate, and his influence contributed largely to 
the early settlement of the county by his country- 
men. He was a descendant of Jolm Knox, the 
famous Scottish Reformer, by his daughter, 
the n-ife of John Welch, another reformer of 
Scotland. He was president of Princeton Col- 
lege in New Jersey, and was an able advocate of 
American independence. He was a member 
of Congress for six years, and evinced his pat- 
riotism by strenuously lu'ging Congress to adopt 
the Declaration of Independence, which he him- 
self readily signed. He was appointed by Con- 
gress on different important committees. He 
was a member of the committee appointed by 
Congress to repair to Vermont and endeavor to 
obtain a settlement of the matters in dispute 
between that State and New York, and came 
to Bennington, Vt., and had an inter^aew with 
Gov. Chittenden immediately after liis appoint- 
ment. His able, humorous, vdttj, and sarcastic 
^vritings were greatly subsei-vient to the cause of 
religion and civil liberty. That he was an emi- 
nent divine is shown by his excellent sermons, 
which he printed, and the admirable publications 
of Congress, calling on their constituents to 
seasons of fasting and prayer. 

James, his eldest son, settled in the north part 
of Ryegate, where he remained nearly two years, 
but by his father's solicitation he joined the 
American army, in which he attained the rank 
of major. He was killed at the battle of Ger- 

mantown. It is said that he was an aidecamp 
to Gen. Washington. 

Gen. James Whitelaw, of Ryegate, was an 
emigrant from Scotland, being sent out as an 
agent to purchase a large body of land for " The 
Scots American Company " of Renfrewshire, 
composed of 140 members, most of whom were 
farmers, for whom ho purchased, in 1773, the 
south half of Ryegate, from Dr. Witherspoon, 
at the price of " three shillings Yoi'k money " 
per acre. He was a surveyor by profession, 
and was appointed by the surveyor-general of 
Vermont, deputy surveyor from 1778 to October, 
1786. After his term he was annually elected 
by the legislature surveyor-general of Ver- 
mont till 1796. He surveyed a large majority 
of town lines in the State, and a number of 
towns he surveyed into lots, and drew the maps. 
By John Adams, President of the United States, 
he was appointed one of the five commissioners 
to execute, within the State of Vermont, an act 
of Congress, passed July 9, 1798, " to pro-vide 
for the valuation of lands and dwelling-houses 
and the enumeration of slaves within the United 
States." In 1796, he published a large, beanli- 
ful, and coiTcet map of Vermont, which he 
aftei-wards improved and republished. 

Col. Alexander Harvey was another emigrant 
from Scotland, being sent as the agent of " The 
Farmers' Company, of Perthshire and Sterling- 
shire," to purchase a tract to be settled by them. 
In 1774, he purchased for the Company 7,000 
acres in the southwest part of Barnet, the price 
being fourteen pence sterling (about twenty-five 
cents) an acre. He took an active part in the 
declaration of the independence of the State, 
and the formation of its constitution and gov- 
ernment, having been a member of the conven- 
tions of 1777, and all the sessions of the legis- 
lature, till 1788, and also a member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1791. He was 
appointed Associate Judge of Orange County, in 
1781, which office he held till 1794. The gov- 
ernment gave him a commission to build a fort 
on Onion or Lamoille River, which he declined 
to accept. 

The emigrants from Scotland, in Barnet and 
Ryegate, wei-e distinguished for religious knowl- 
edge, being well acquainted vnih the Holy Scrip- 
tures. They observed daily the "worship of God 
in their families, and were careful to bring up 
tiicir children " in the nurture and admonition 
of the Lord." They strictly sanctified the Sab- 
bath, and loved the house of God. Feeling the 
want of the public ordinances of religion, they 
made strenuous endeavors, before and during the 
revolutionaiy war, to obtain them, and after 
repeated efforts they succeeded. During the 
revolutionary war and before and after it, several 
clergymen, most of whom were Presbyterians, 
and emigrants from Scotland came and preached 
in these two towm. Rev. Peter Powers, who 
was settled in Newbury from 1765 to 1784 was 



probably tlie first clergyman who preached in 
this county. Dr. Witherspoon visited Barnet 
and Ryegate two or three times and preached 
and baptized. On one of these occasions he 
rode the saddle on which his son sat at the battle 
of Germantown, and which bore the mark of the 
ball which killed him. The first visit was prob- 
ably in 1775, and in 1782 he returned. Rev. 
Thomas Clark, of Salem, N. Y., preached here 
in 1775, and afterwards returned two or three 
times. Rev. Robert Annan, of Boston, Mass., 
preached in these parts first in 1784, then in 
1785, in which year Rev. David Annan came 
and preached. Rev. John Houston, of Bedford, 
N. H., first visited these towns in the latter part 
of 1785, and retm'ned in 1787, and remained a 
year. In 1784, the town of Barnet voted unani- 
mously "to choose the Presbyterian form of 
religious worship, founded upon the word of 
God, as expressed in the confession of faith, cate- 
chisms, larger and shorter, with the form of Pres- 
byterian church government agreed upon by the 
assembly of divines at Westminster, and prac- 
tised by the church of Scotland." In 1787, the 
town and church of Barnet sent a joint petition 
to the Associate Presbyterian Synod in Scotland, 
for a minister, ofiering to pay the expense of his 
passage to this country. They were dkected to 
apply to the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylva- 
nia, and informed that two clergymen had been 
sent out to that Presbytery, to which they made 
application, in consequence of which Rev. 
Thomas Beveridge, of Cambridge, Washington 
County, N. Y., came and preached in 1789, and 
returned in 1790. In consequence of application 
to that Presbyteiy, Rev. David GoodwiUie came 
in the autumn of 1789, and continued his minis- 
terial labors in Barnet and Ryegate till February, 
1790, in which year a unanimous call was given 
to him to become their pastor, Ryegate receiving 
a sixth part of his pastoral labors. In this call 
the town of Barnet concurred. In September, 
1790, Mr. Goodwillie returned and was settled 
as the minister of the town and pastor of the 
chmxh. While yet a student in his native land, 
he was a friend to the American colonies strug- 
gling for their hberties. August 2, 1830, he 
died, honored and lamented, having labored suc- 
cessfully more than forty years in the county. 

A Presbyterian church was organized in 
Peacham, by Rev. Peter Powers, January 22, 

The Congregational Chm-ch in Peacham was 
formed April 14, 1794. Rev. Leonard Worcester 
was settled as the pastor of the church, Oct. 30, 
1799, and continued his labors for many years. 
He was the second clergyman settled in the 

At the present time there are difierent denomi- 
nations of Christians in the county, the Congre- 
gationalists. Baptists, and Methodists being the 
most numerous. 

Bible and missionary societies have existed in 

the county for many years, and many of the 
most honorable, useful, and influential persons 
have become members. 

June 14, 1785, the legislature chartered the 
town of Wheelock, in this county, contaiDing 
23,040 acres, and granted it to the President and 
Trustees of Dartmouth College, and Moore's 
Charity School, at- Hanover, N. H. The town 
was called Wheelock, in honor of Rev. John 
Wheelock, then president of the college. 

The academy of Caledonia County was char- 
tered and endowed by the legislatm-e, and estab- 
lished at Peacham, Oct. 27, 1795. Alexander 
Harvey, Jamss Whitelaw, Josiah L. Arnold, 
David Goodwillie, Daniel Cahoon, Horace 
Beardsly, Wm. Chamberlin, Benjamin Sias, 
and Jacob Davis were appointed trustees by the 
charter. The academy is a large, beautiful, and 
commodious ediSce, in a fine situation, command- 
ing a view of the White Mountains in New 
HampsMre, and contains a good library, and an 
extensive philosophical apparatus. The institu- 
tion, from its organization to the present time, 
has been in a prosperous condition. Floux'ishing 
academies exist also in St. Johnsbury, Danville, 
Lyndon, and Barnet, with large and elegant 

The excellent system of common schools 
adopted by Vermont is in successful operation 
in all parts of the county. 

The legislature of Vermont held its session 
in Danville, the county seat, from Oct. 10 to 
Nov. 8, 1805. 

The .first newspaper published in the county 
was printed at Peacham, by Amos Farley and 
Samuel Goss. It was called " The Green 
Mountain Patriot," and commenced in Feb. 
1798, and continued till March, 1807. "The 
North Star," published at Danville, commenced 
the first week in January, 1807, and still con- 

For many years the Hazen Road, according to 
its original design, was the highway for settlers 
coming into the county. At an early period a 
branch from that road began at Col. Harvey's 
residence on the North side of Harvey's Moun- 
tain, in Barnet, and ran past the north end of 
Haiwey's Lake, and through the centre of that 
town to the mouth of Joes River, and was after- 
wards extended up the Passumpsic to St. Johns- 
bmy. At a later date another branch from the 
Hazen Road was made to Danville. 

The Passumpsic Turnpike Company was 
incoi-porated in 1805. The construction of the 
road commenced in 1807 at Joes River, and in 
1808 it was made to Ryegate Kne, and aftenvards 
extended to Wells River. 

The Connecticut and Passumpsic rivers Rail- 
road was constructed from White River, through 
Ryegate, and Barnet, to St. Johnsbury in 1850, 
and was extended to Barton, Vt., in 1858. 

The Agricultural Society of the county has 
been in successful operation for many years, and 



its auuual exbibitious show that agnculture is in 
a very flourishing condition. Indeed, the agri- 
cultural products of the county are greater than 
those of any other county in the United States, 
having no greater population. It is famous for 
cattle, sheep, horses, &c. The Scotch were 
early noted for making excellent butter. It is 
probable that no better butter is made in any 
other part of the world. Vast quantities are 
exported from the county every year, to Boston, 
where it always brings the highest price, and 
has repeatedly gained the highest premium. 

For many years the nearest post-office to the 
county was at Newbury, Orange County, Vt. 
The mail was extended through Ryegate and 
Peacham to Danville, probably about the end of 
last century. In 1808, it was extended to Bar- 
net and St. Johnsbuiy. 


Hon. "Wm. A. Palmer, of Danville, one of 
the judges of the supreme court in 1816, and 
senator in congress 1819-1825 ; was governor 
of Vermont, 1831-1834. 

Hon. John Mattocks, of Peacham, one of the 
judges of the supreme court, 1833, 1834, and 
member of congress, 1821-1823, 1825-1827, 
1S41-1843 ; and was governor of the State in 

Hon. Erastus Fan-banks, of St, Johnsbmy, 
was governor of the State, 1852 and 1860. 

Hon. William Chamberlin, of Peacham, a 
revolutionary soldier, who fought in the battles 
of Trenton, Princeton, and Bennington, and 
took an active part in the formation of the 
State government, was a member of congress, 
1803-1805, 1809, 1810, and lieut.-govemor of 
the State, 1813, 1814. 

Hon. Wm. Cahoon, of LjTidon, was a mem- 
ber of congress, 1827-1831, and lieut.-govemor 
of the State 1821, 1822. 

Hon. Luther Jewett, of St. Johnsbury, was a 
member of congress, 1815-1817. 

Hon. Benjamin F. Demming of Danville was 
member of congress, 1833-1835. 

Hon. Isaac Fletcher, of Lyndon, was member 
of congress, 1837-1841. 

Hon. Thomas Bartlett, of Lyndon, was mem- 
ber of congress, 1851, 1852. 

Hon. Ephraim Paddock, of St. Johnsbury, 
was one of the judges of the supreme court, 

Hon. Charles Davis, of Danville, was one of 
the judges of the supreme court, 1846, 1847, and 
United States attorney for the District of Ver- 
mont, 1841-1845. 

Hon. Luke P. Poland, one of the judges of 
the supreme coiu-t, lo48-1859, was chosen chief 
justice of Vermont, 1860, which office he now 

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1=2 § 


TOWNS. 1791. ISOO. 1810. 1820. 1830. 1840. 1850. 1800, 





Goshen Gore 

by Wheeloek 
Gosuen Gore 

by Plainfield 


Hardwiek .... 
Harris's Gore . 


l^ndon ... 
Newark . . . 
Peacham . . 
Kvecratc . . . 
Sheflield . . 
St. Johnsbury 
Sutton ... 
Waldcn .. 








31li .?12 

I.OIHM l,2!l(i 

SSl ]:.4 

1,301; 1,214 

812 an 

388 Wl 

1,334 1,4114 

4.'«i Giir 

4.>5i rm 

1,289 1,24; 

9G4i 90U 





SO 107 


nil? 1,103 

2,633 2.578 





2,0.'59 7,207 1.1,914 15,361 17,990 20,451 22,04-3 21,7 























The magnetic variation observed by Gen. 
Whitelaw on the north line of Vermont, 20 
miles west of the Connecticut River in 1785, was 
7° and 40' west ; and by Dr. Williams, at the 
northeast corner of the State, in 1806, it was 9' 
west. At the present time it is very nearly 10° 
west in this county. 



Meteorological Tables for the years 1858, 
1859, and 1860, deduced from the daily Meteor- 
ological Observations taken with standard in- 
struments, at St. Johnsbury, Vt., in N. lat. 44° 
25/ and W. Ion. 70°, and 540 feet above tide 
water. These observations were kindly fur- 
nished by Franklin Fairbanks, Esq., to make 
these tables, which, had I'oom in this work per- 
mitted, might have been extended, including some 
general obsen^ations on the clouds and winds. 
The thanks of the community are due to that 
gentleman for his diligence and care in taking 
these observations three times a day for years, 
making more than thirty daily observations to 
be recorded. He is one of more than five hun- 
dred regular meteorological obsei*vers in differ- 
ent parts of North America, taking daily obser- 
vations, morning, noon, and night, for the Smith- 
sonian Institution at Washington, to which their 
meteorological records are regularly returned. 
These observations, when properly discussed by 
that highly scientific institution, promise to pro- 
duce, in process of time, results greatly con- 
ducive to the interests of agriculture and com- 
merce. It is very desirable that the number 
of these observers were increased in all parts of 
the continent, and all the newspapers should 
publish monthly abstracts of their observations, 
as is done by the Caledonian, published at St. 
Johnsbury, and a few other papers in the country. 

















^ 3 









a a 







January . . 















29.29 29.41 














34 4.5 





















99 90 












58 73 





August . . . 





29 12 











■'S r.9 

47 C6I52 





29. M 

29.52 29.54 


"8 8fl 

38 ,51 







29.2G 29.42 


29 04 








29.52 29.53 










29.40 29.47 







January . . 






August . . . 
















29.4029.42 29.4529.9029.84 3148 36 68 19 32.07 104 



January . . 
March . . . 










.46 29.. 
.44 29.' 
,23 29.! 

29.36l29.,37l29.37 29.80 28.79 .. 51 

29.95 28.88 

30.05 28.65 

29.77 28. __ 

29.9G 28.93 










In the year 1859 rain fell on 95 different days. 
" " snow " 83 " " 

" " total fall of snow, 104 inches 

" " rain and melted snow, 32.7 in 

In order to obtain information of the early his 
toiy of Caledonia Cotmty, the writer has exam- 
ined the public records of all the towns first set 
tied, and made diligent search for private letters 
papers, and journals ; and lie has succeeded be 
yond expectation, having had the privilege of 
examining very many early written and highly 
interesting and important documents, which be- 
longed to Gen. Whitelaw, Col. Harvey, Eev. D. 
Goodwillie, Enos Stevens, Esq., and others. He 
is indebted to Walter Hai-vey, Esq., of Barnet, 
for the letters, papers, charts, and journal of his 
father, Col. Harvey; to the daughter of Gen. 
Whitelaw, Mrs. Abigail Henderson of Eyegate, 
for the general's correspondence with his father 
in Scotland, Dr. Witherspoon, and Eev. Thomas 
Clark, and other clergymen who preached in the 
county at an early period, and for the sketch of 
her father's life vsaitten by herself; and to the 
general's grandson, W. T. Whitelaw, Esq. of 
Eyegate, for the use of his grandfather's journal, 
papers, deeds, charts, and business correspond- 
ence, which consists of thousands of letters and 
several folio volumes of answers to correspond- 
ents. One of the deeds is from Dr. Witherspoon, 
and is beautifully written on a large sheet of 

Barnet, Vt., Jan. 1, 1861. 



Barnet lies on the Connecticut Eiver, at the 
bend where the river, coming from the northeast, 
turns and rans south. It is opposite Monroe 
(formerly Lyman), Grafton Co., N. H., in JST. 
lat. 44° 18'' and E. Ion. 4° 55' and is 35 miles E. 
from Montpelier, 65 miles N. from Windsor, and 
50 N. fi-om Dartmouth College at Hanover N. 
H. It is bounded N. E. by Waterford and St. 
Johnsbury; S. E. by Connecticut Eiver, which 
separates it from New Hampshire ; S. by Eye- 
gate ; and N. W. by Peacham and Danville. It 
contains 25,524 acres, and according to the cen- 
sus of 1860, 2,002 inhabitants, which gives 50 
persons to the square mile. 

On the Connecticut and Passumpsic rivers are 
extensive intervales. The rest of the town is 
uneven and in some parts elevated. The town 
is well watered and the soil very productive. 
Harvey's lake in the southwest part of the town 
is nearly a mile and a half long and more than a 
half mile wide near the middle, and has a smface 
of more than three hundred acres. Boss's Pond, 
near the centre of the town, one third of a mile 
long and a quarter of a mile wide, covers 
about fifty acres. Moor's Pond, near the centre 
of the town, covers about twenty acres. All the 



streams of the town empty into the Connecticut. 
A stream from Ryegate enters Harvey's Lake at 
the south end, and Stevens's River issues from the 
north end of the hike, runs in a southeasterly di- 
rection and empties into Connecticut River about 
two and half miles from the southeast comer of 
the town. About one hundred and fifty rods 
from its mouth it falls eighty feet in twenty rods, 
and presents a grand view when the waters are 
high. A stream from Peacham enters it near 
the lake and another considerable stream from 
the same town enters it about four miles from its 
mouth. A small stream issues out of Ross's Pond 
and runs through Moor's Pond and enters the 
Connecticut a quarter of a mile below the Pas- 
Bumpsic. Joes River issues from Joes Pond 
in Danville, and nins in a southeasterly direction 
through the town and enters the Passumpsic 
about a mile and a half from its mouth. It 
is the largest stream in Barnet except the Pas- 
sumpsic, and is also called Merrit's River, 
because John Merrit owned land near its mouth. 

Enerick Brook, coming from Danville, enters 
the Passumpsic about a mile above the mouth of 
Joes River. 

The Passumpsic, the longest and largest river 
in the county, comes from St. Johnsbuiy through 
a comer of Waterford, and enters the town on the 
northeast part, and gradually turns and runs south 
and empties into the Connecticut River about two 
miles and a half from the northeast corner of the 
town. Major Rogers and his rangers came down 
tliis river from Canada in his expedition to pun- 
ish the St. Francis tribe of Indians in October, 
1759, and being disappointed in not receiving 
provisions when they came to the Connecticut 
River, a number of them died of starvation and 
fatigue, as related in the preceding history of the 

Thompson's Gazetteer of Vermont, edition of 
1824, says, " Maj. Rogers, with one hundred and 
fifty-six men, came to the mouth of the Passump- 
sic, discovered fire on the round island, made a 
raft and passed over to it, but, to their surprise 
and mortification, found no provisions had been 
left. The men, already reduced to a state of star- 
vation, were so disheartened at this discovery 
that tliii-ty-six of them died before the next day. 
An Indian was cut to pieces and divided among 
the survivors. David Woods, who has recently 
lived in this town, was one of Rogers's sergeants, 
and stated the above account to be correct." This 
account is incorrect in some important particu- 
lars. Rogers's joumal and the histories of the 
expedition show that the soldiers and prisoners, 
all told, did not amount to that number, besides 
all the sui-vivors were not then and there present, 
and that it is highly improbable that so great a 
number as thirty-six died in eighteen hours. 
Peter Lervey, one of Rogers's men, who lived in 
t'lis town a short time before his death, about 
1817, and who made no mention of the party 
eating human flesh, said that some of the men 

died on the Passumpsic before they ci'.me to its 
mouth, and others on the Connecticut River be- 
low its mouth. Human bones have been discov- 
ered in the meadows on the Passumpsic above its 
mouth and on the Connecticut above the Barnet 
depot. The story of David Woods, that " an In- 
dian was cut to pieces and divided among the sur- 
vivors " has been diligently investigated. Neither 
the histories of the time nor Rogers's journal 
mention such a circumstance, so repulsive to the 
refined feelings of civilized society. The story 
has been traced up to David Woods, who lived 
in an adjoining town, as the sole witness, and 
application has been made to living persons who 
knew "the man and his manner." One of these 
persons, who was for many years president of the 
Historical Society of Vermont, writes, " I have 
heard Woods say that he was with Rogers, and 
was one of his sergeants, and that they camped 
near the mouth of the Passumpsic, and that night 
snow fell several inches deep, and that a negro 
soldier died that night and was cut up in the 
morning and divided among the soldiers, and he 
had one hand for his share, on which, with a 
small trout, after being cooked, he made a very 
good breakfast. After breakfast, in going down 
the river they discovered fire on the round island 
opposite its mouth, and that Rogers and one man 
passed over to the island. Rogers became satis- 
fied that men had been there with provisions but 
had left. On his return to his men a consiiltar 
tion was had and each soldier was told to take 
care of himself." 

Another person wi-ites, " Joseph Woods told 
me, and I think he said his father told liim, that 
about the time the rangers expected to die of 
starvation, the men cast lots to see who should 
be lulled to furnish food so that they might not 
all die, and that one was killed and eaten." 
Another person has assured the writer that he 
heard David Woods say that he had " eaten a 
piece of an Indian." 

Now all these stories can be reconciled upon the 
improbable supposition that Rogers's party killed 
one living man, a soldier ; and ate three dead men, 
a white man, a negro, and an Indian. If Rogers 
and his men did these things, they had the hearts of 
hyenas, destitute of all good feelings and refined 
sentiments. Rather than attribute such honible 
deeds to them, it would be far more reasonable to 
believe that the criminal who could boast that ho 
" stood the pilloiy like agentleman," was not a man 
of honor and integrity. Whatever this one witness, 
and perhaps some few others hke him, may have 
done, it is safe to assert that there is no proof 
that Rogers and his men, as a party, killed or ate 
any man, white, black, or red. It is gratifying 
that this investigation has dispelled the cloud 
that has for so long time obscured, in some 
degree, the gloiy of the heroic Rogers and his 
brave men, who fearlessly Avcnt hundreds of miles 
through the woods into the enemy's country, 
perfoi-med exploits and endured the tortures of 



famine and fatigue to punish the hon-id barbarities 
long practised by the savages of Canada, and so 
save the families of the frontier settlements of 
New England from murder, plunder, and arson. 
A man by the name of Barnes lived in Barnet 
a short time, at an early period, who belonged to 
Rogers's party, and said that the silver image 
■weighing ten pounds, which they took from the 
chapel in St. Francis, was hid on the way 
in a crevice of a rock, and covered with leaves. 
He said also that they took from the chapel 
two gold candlesticks, which they hid in the 
woods, under the root of a tree, near the 
Canada line, and that he went back after some 
years and searched for them, but could not find 
where he hid them. It is said that this part 
of his story was confirmed by a report in the 
newspaper, about 1816, that two gold candle- 
sticks, worth $1,000, were found in the woods in 
Hatiey, C. E., which lay in Rogers's way. 

The first Geological Report of Vermont says, 
that beds of shell marl are found in Barnet. 
The second report on that subject says, "Barnet 
lies on the Connecticut River, in the calcareo- 
mica slate region. A considerable range of clay 
slate is found near the river. A range of granite 
passes through the west part of the town. The 
soil in the Passumpsic and Connecticut valleys 
is alluvial and river deposit of good quality. In 
the westerly part the limestone is rapidly decom- 
posing and uniting with the drift and makes an 
excellent soil. The town, although considerably 
broken, has an excellent soil for grazing. Many 
valuable cattle and some horses are sent to mar- 
ket annually, and large quantities of excellent 
butter. Deposits of muck are numerous, and 
considerable quantities of marl are found in sev- 
eral places, from which a good quality of lime 
has been manufactured. The agricultural prod- 
ucts of the town are abundant and of a good 
quality, besides, many beef cattle and some 
horses and sheep are sent to market. The Scotch 
were early noted for making good butter." . 

Almost every farmer keeps a dairy, and some 
of them make more than a ton of butter in a 
season. It brings the highest price in the mar- 
ket. One who has travelled extensively in 
Europe and America, thinks that the butter made 
in this part of our country is the best in the 

For many years after the settlement of the 
town by the Scotch, they manufactured large 
quantities of oatmeal, which is a healthy and 
nutritive kind of food. Dr. Johnson, who had 
a powerful prejudice against the Scotch, defined 
oatmeal as the food of men in Scotland and 
of horses in England. Upon which a Scotch 
nobleman exclaimed, " Where will he find such 
men and such horses 1 " Oatmeal was highly 
serviceable to the first settlers, and was fur- 
nished to the surrounding towns to the Canada 
line and even beyond it. In one of the years of 
scarcity of provisions, a man from a distant town 

came to Barnet, and having obtained a sufiicient 
supply of oatmeal for his famishing family, ex- 
pressed his gladness and gratitude by exclaiming, 
" Blessed be the Scotch, for they invented oat- 
meal ! " 

It was the first town settled and the second 
chartered in the country; Ryegate, lying on the 
Connecticut River, south of it, receiving its char- 
ter but eight days before. The charter is dated 
September 16, 1763, and was granted under the 
British crown by Benning Wentworth gover- 
nor of the province of New Hampsliire. It is in 
the common form of the New Hampshire char- 
ters. It calls the town "Barnet," which it de- 
scribes and bounds as follows, viz : — 

"Beginning at the northwesterly corner of Eye- 
gate, thence south sixty-eight degrees east by Ryegate 
to the southeasterly corner thereof, being a tree stand- 
ing on the banks of the westerly side of Connec- 
ticut Kiver, thence up said river as that tends so far 
as to make six miles on a straig-ht line, thence turn- 
ing off and running north twenty-eight degrees west 
so far that a straight line drawn from that period to 
the northwesterly corner of Ryegate, the bounds be- 
gun at, shall include the contents of six miles square 
or 23,040 acres and no more, out of which an allow- 
ance is to be made for highways and unimprovable 
lands by rocks, ponds, mountains, and rivers, one 
thousand and forty acres free, according to the plan 
and survey thereof made by our said governor's order 
and returned to the secretary's ofBce and hereto an- 

The' plan delineated in the charter gives three 
sides of the town. The line on Ryegate is 
marked six and one fourth miles. The length 
of the northeast line is not given. The Connec- 
ticut River is delineated as the southeast side. A 
part of the Passumpsic is sketched on which the 
word " falls " is vnitten, not far from its mouth. 
But the town is actually larger than described in 
the charter, which limits it to 36 square miles. 
As surveyed and returned to the State office of 
Vermont, it contains 25,524 acres, which is al- 
most 40 square miles. 

The south line along Ryegate is 6 and one 
half miles, being a quarter of a mile more than is 
mentioned in the charter. The distance from tho 
southeast to the northeast corner, in a straight 
line (through New Hampshire), is more than 6 
miles, the length prescribed in the charter. The 
northeast line, along "Waterford and St. Johns- 
bury, is 5 miles and 52 rods, and the northwest 
line, along Peacham and Danville, is 10 miles 
and 228 rods. By the charter, the town is incor- 
porated, and its inhabitants enfranchised j and so 
soon as there were fifty families settled in town 
it should have the privilege of holding two fairs 
annually, and a market opened and held one or 
more days each week. The first meeting for the 
choice of town officers was to be held on the 
fir-st Tuesday of Oct., 1764, and to be notified 
by Simeon Stevens, who was appointed its mod- 
erator, and that the annual meeting thereafter 
should be always held in March. The grant of 
lands to the proprietors was on the following 



conditions, ^^z : that every grantee should culti- 
vate five acres of land \\'ithin the terra of five 
years for every fifty acres of land owned, and to 
continue afterwards additional cultivation on 
penalty of forfeiture ; that all pine trees fit for 
masts should be presented for the royal navy ; 
that before the division of the town a lot near 
the centre of the town should be divided into 
acres, one of wliich should belong to each 
grantee, and that each grantee should pay to the 
governor and his successor, one car of Indian 
corn annually, for ten years, if demanded, and af- 
ter that period one shilling, proclamation money, 
for every 100 acres owned, to be paid annually, 
forever. The town was to be divided equallj' 
into seventy-three shares. A lot of 500 acres 
was laid oft" on the Connecticut River, in the 
northeast corner of the town as " the governor's 
lot," which was to be two shares ; and one share 
for the society propagating the gospel in foreign 
paits ; one share for a glebe for the Church of 
England ; one share for the first settled minister, 
and one share for schools, were granted forever. 
Sixty-seven grantees are named in the charter, 
which is signed by Benning "Wentworth, gov- 
ernor and commander, and attested by T. Atkin- 
son, Jr., Secretary. The American Revolution 
swept away the conditions of the charter, but the 
United States government confirmed all such 

It is not known when the town was organized, 
and the first meeting was held according to the 
charter. In Willard Stevens's collection of 
documents, were foimd some loose papers, worn 
and torn, containing some brief minutes of town 
meetings held during the revolutionaiy war. 
The following is a summary of these minutes, 
which are in the handwriting of Stevens Rider : 

" Sept. 8, 1778. Alexander Harvey chosen Repre- 
sentative to the General Assembly, and entrusted 
■with the votes (for Governor, Lieut. Governor, aud 
Councillors) and all powers necessary, agreeable to 
the Constitution." Signed " Stevens Kider, T. 
Clerk." "Dec. 3, 1779. The town took into con- 
sideration the voles, and chose Thomas Smith 
constable to collect what was demanded of the 
town: voted Walter Brock and Peter Lang to settle 
the wages of the boys that were hired for this town, 
and they brought in that they should have eight 
bushels of wheat a month." " March 13, 1781. 
Chose Jacob Hall, moderator; Stevens Rider, town 
clerk; Alexander Harvey, justice of the peace for 
this town ; Teter Lang, John Waddell, Walter Brock, 
select men." 

Other toA\Ti oificers were chosen, but the mice 
have gnawed off a part of the paper. 

" Voted that every man work six days on said 
road, or pay a fine of one dollar for every day he is 
missing without sufficient reason." '• Voted, if any 
man let his hogs run out so as to hurt any of his 
neighbor's interest, the owner of the hogs should 
make it good to his neighbor." " May 14, 1781. Voted 
to raise two able-bodied men to guard the frontiers 
of this place and others, according to the orders 
Col. Johnston sent, in part of five men Ave had to 
raise according to orders that came to this town 

Voted a committee to raise one man for this town, 
as reasonably as they can, and tlie town agrees to it, 
by avote of this meeting, for guarding the frontiers." 
"Voted Jacob Hall, James Gilchrist, and Peter Lang, 
a committee to write letters to Col. Beedel aud Col. 
Johnston." " Voted Jacob Hall, captain; Daniel 
Hall, lieutenant." 

Then follows a list of the men who have no 
guns, 15 in number. 

" Sept. 8, 1781. Took into consideration a (despatch 
from) Major Childs. Voted, the major part, not to do 
any thing as to the last year's provisions — not to 
raise any at all." " Voted to raise 750 weight as to 
this year, to turn to the store for troops at Peacham." 
" Voted James Cross and Walter Brock a committee 
to speak to Major Childs concerning the provisions." 
" Voted Jacob Hall, Mr. Stuart, Mr. Gilchrist, and 
Peter Lang, to write a letter to Major Childs con- 
cerning getting last year's provisions. Chose two 
assessors; chose Mr. Harvey for a representative." 
" Oct. 2, 1781. Chose Walter Brock a lister, with 
James Cross, chosen a lister before, and likewise 
carried in to the listers their ratable estate." 

At a meeting having no date, Alexander 
Harvey was chosen a representative to the 
General Assembly that sat at Charlcstown, N.H., 
Oct. II, 1781. These are certainly not the 
regular town records which the wiiter is assured 
Stevens Rider said, after the revolutionary 
war, were lost I The State records show that 
tOAvn meetings were regularly held to choose 
Col. Harvey a delegate to the three conventions 
of 1777, and a representative to the legislature, 
from its first meeting, March 12, 1778, till tho 
town meeting, March, 1783, which therefore was 
not the first town meeting at which the town 
was organized, as has been asserted in some his- 
tories of the town. 

The regular town records begin "March 18, 
1783. At a meeting of the freemen of this town, 
legally warned at the house of Robert TwaddcU, 
made choice of the following gentlemen for one 
year : Alexander Harvey, president, £tnd Walter 
Brock, clerk ; James Gilchrist, Thomas Smith, 
Bartholomew Somers, selectmen ; James Orr 
and Stevens Rider, constables ; James Cross, 
treasm-er ; James Stuart and Peter Sylvester, 
listers ; John McLaren and Jacob Hall, col- 
lectors ; James Gilchrist, grand-juror ; Peter 
Lang, Robert Brock, tythingmen ; James Stuart, 
scaler of weights and raeasm-es ; Alexander 
Thompson, William Rider, Archibald Harvey, 
road surveyors ; Elijah Hall, George Garland, 
fence surveyors. John Shaw declined to be a 

Walter Brock, Town Clerk." 




Walter Brock - 



- 1783 to 1787 

Walter Stuart - 



- 1787 to 1806 

David Goodwillie 



- 1807 to 1827 

John Shaw 



- 1827 to 1852 

Austin 0. Hubbard 



- 1852 to 1855 

.Jonathan D. Abbott 



- 1855 to 1859 

Thomas Goodwillie 



- 1859 to 1861 



But though the meeting held March 18, 1783, 
was not the fii-st town meeting at which the town 
was organized, as has been asserted, yet a list of 
all the freemen of the town seems to have been 
commenced the next year, and is recorded at the 
beginning of the first volume, as follows, viz : — 

•' Barnet, January 29, 1784. Now and formerly the 
persons mentioned took the freeman's oath : Peter 
Sylvester, Samuel Perie, James Cross, Alexander 
Thompson, Stevens Eider, Elijah Hall, Walter 
Brock, James Stuart, Samuel Stevens, John Merrit, 
James Orr, Daniel McFarlane, Jacob Hall, Barthol- 
omew Somers, James Gilchrist, Alexander Harvey, 
William Tice, Hugh Koss, John McFarlane, Robert 
Twaddell, William Stevenson, John McLaren, 
Ezekiel Manchester, Eobert Somers, John Waddell, 
Robert McFarlane, John Ross, Andrew Lackie, 
Archibald Harvey, Peter Lang, Cloud Stuart, Wal- 
ter Stuart, Daniel Hall, Thomas Smith, George Gar- 
land. Jan. 29, 1784. The following gentlemen took 
the freeman's oath in as far as it agrees with the 
word of God: John Waddell, Hugh Ross, John 
McFarlane, John McLaren, Ezekiel Manchester, 
Robert Somers, Andrew Lackie, Archibald Harvey, 
Cloud Stuart, Walter Stuart, George Garland. 
Barnet, March 11, 1785. The following persons took 
the freeman's oath : John Robertson, Wm. Robert- 
son, Moses Hall, Levi Hall, Robert Blair, James 
Buchanan, William Maxwell, Isaac Brown, Elijah 
Hall, Jr., Simon Perie. April 6, 1785. John Young- 
man, WUliam Warden, Hugh Gammell. August 27, 
1785. Joseph Bonet. Sept. 5. John Mclndoe, John 
Hindman. 1787. John Gilkenson. May 1. John 
Goddard. Sept 4. 1788. Enos Stevens. March 11. 
John Rankins, William Gilflllan, Sen., John McNabb, 
James McLaren, Andrew Lang. Feb. 2, 1789. Alex- 
bander Mcllroy (Roy), Samuel Huston. March 10. 
Thomas Hazeltine, Phineas Aimes, Phineas Thurs- 
ton, Oliver Stevens, Ephraim Pierce, Moses Cross, 
Job Abbott, Levi Sylvester. 1790, Feb. 4. Aaron 
Wesson, Dr. Stevens, John Mitchell, John Stevens, 
Timothy Hazeltine, Cloud Somers, John Galbraith. 
Sept. 24. Joseph Hazeltine. Dec. 7. Thomas Gil- 
flllan, William Innes, John Waddell, Jr., and Wm. 

the first male child born in Barnet, and probably 
in the county. The Fowler family moved to 
Shipton, C.E. about 1810. The witer possesses 
documents signed by Jonathan Fowler, Sept. 3, 
1791, and by Barnet Fowler, March 12, 1799. 

Daniel Hall's wife was the first person who 
died in town after its settlement. She was 
buried in the graveyard at Stevens Village. She 
was the mother of Dr. Abiathar Wright, who 
was a physician in the town. Jacob Hall had 
but one son, Moses, to whom he sold his farm, 
but they afterwards moved to Shipton, C. E. 
Daniel Hall moved to St. Johnsbury, thence to 
Lyndon, and thence to Burke, where he died, 
having been an early settler in four towns in this 

The town from the very first took an active 
part in the declaration of the independence of 
the State of Vermont, and the formation of its 
constitution and government. Alexander Har- 
vey represented the town in the three conventions 
in 1777, which declared the State independent, 
and formed a constitution, and organized a 


March 4, 1770, the first settlement in the town 
and county was made. The first settlers were 
Daniel, Jacob, and Elijah Hall, three brothers, 
and Jonathan Fowler. The first house in the 
town and county was built by the Halls at the 
foot of the Falls on Stevens Kiver, and on its 
north side. The three brothers, and probably 
Jonathan Fowler, received gratuitously from the 
proprietors 100 acres each to encourage them 
to settle the town. Daniel Hall's lot was the 
farm where Cloud and Robert Somers first set- 
tled. Jacob Hall's lot included the meadows 
north of Stevens River, and Elijah Hall's lot 
was north of Rider's Farm. Jonathan Fowler 
probably settled first on the north end of the 
Mclndoe Plain, and then in the S. W. part of 
the town, near Aaron and Peter "Wesson's house, 
in the Harvey tract. Sarah, daughter of Elijah 
Hall, was the first child bom in the town and 
county. She was married Dec. 27, 1787, to 
James McLaren, in the I7th year of her age. 
She was a member of the Associate Presbyterian 
Church of Barnet, and died at an advanced age. 
Barnet Fowler, son of Jonathan Fowler, was , 

Alexander Harvey 
James Cross 
Enos Stevens - 
Walter Brock - 
James McLaren 
John Barchop - 
David Goodwillie 
William Sti-obridge - 
Enos Stevens 
John Duncan - 
Adam Duncan - 
Alexander Gilchrist - 
Henry Oakes 
William Gilkerson 
Walter Harvey - 
Henry Stevens - 
Hugh Somers - 
Walter Harvey - 
William Gilkerson 
Cloud Harvey - 

William Shearer 

Hugh Somers - 

William Shearer 

Walter Haiwey - 

James Gilchrist - 

William Lackie - 

Walter Harvey - 

Lloyd Kimball - 

Obed S. Hatch - 

John Harvey 

Bartholomew Gilkerson 

Obed S. Hatch - 

James K. Eemick 

Robert Harvey - 

(No choice] 





1840 _ 
1842 - 

1845 - 

- 1849- 

1853 - 

to 1788. 
to 1794. 
to 1796. 
to 1800. 
to 1803. 




to 1811. 

- 1813. 
to 1816. 

- 1818. 
to 1823. 

- 1825. 

- 1827. 

to 1831. 
to 1833. 



to 1839. 

- 1841. 

- 1843. 



Alexander Johnston - - - 1856 to 1857. 
Jonathan D. Abbott - - - 1858 to 1859. 
William Warden - - - 1860. 

First justices of tho peace appointed by tlie 
State were Walter Brock and James Gilchrist. 
Walter Hai-\-ey was a justice 36, Silas Harvey 
33, AVilliam Shearer 29, Hugh Somers 23^ and 
James Gilchrist, Jr. 17 years. 

Enos and Willard Stevens, of Charlestown, N. 
H., " chief proprietors of the township of Bar- 
net, make a contract, July 11, 1770, with Col. 
John I-Iiird of Haverhill, N. H., to build at the 
falls on Stevens's River in Barnet, a sawmill the 
ensuing fall, if convenient, otherwise by the first 
of July, 1771, and a gristmill within six months 
after that time, both to be kept in good repair 
during five years, the dangers of war and the 
enemy excepted." The saw and gristmill irons 
were to be furnished on the spot by E. & W. 
Stevens, and Col. Hurd was to have for his en- 
couragement one hundred acres of land for a 
mill lot, bounded one hundred rods on Connec- 
ticut River, running back half a mile, and in- 
cluding the falls on Stevens's River. According 
to contract, the irons were furnished and Col. 
Hurd built the first mills in the town and coun- 
ty, and received for his reward a title to the mill- 
lot, on which he built a house and barn, and 
cleared twenty acres of land, and otherwise en- 
couraged the settlement of the town. But by 
consent of E. and W. Stevens, Elijah Hall had 
previously pitched on a part of said lot when he 
first settled the town, March 4, 1770, and had 
cleared a part of it and built a house on it. Eor 
his improvements Col. Hurd gave Elijah Hall 
$50, and E. and W. Stevens gave him one hun- 
dred acres in a different part of the town for his 
quitclaim. August 14, 1774, Col. Hurd sold 
the land and mills to Willard Stevens. 

Joseph Hutchins, of Haverhill, N. H., engaged 
by contract to come to Barnet and pitch a lot 
and begin to improve it, in the summer of 1770, 
but he did not receive a deed till 1780. Col. 
Hurd, who built the mills at the falls on Stev- 
ens's River, 1771, seems to have continued his 
residence in town some years. 

Thomas Smith receives a deed from Enos and 
Willard Stevens in 1775, and Stevens Rider was 
in town May 5, 1776, when Willard Stevens, 
one of the principal proprietors of the town, 
writes to him "several disappointments have 
prevented my not being in Barnet the winter 
past. This spring I intended to have moved up 
with my family. For several reasons I cannot 
move up till June. I send up my brother Solo- 
mon in ord^r to assist Thomas Smith in getting 
in some spring grain. I intend to be up about 
the middle of May." He came and settled in 
. town, but when the revolutionary war commen- 
ced he left it, and Elijah King, who married his 
sister Mary, came. They resided in town till 
death. Archibald McLaughlin, a Scotchman, 

receives a deed, 1776, for lots in the southeast 
corner of Harvey's tract. 

According to the proprietors' records,at a meet- 
ing of the proprietors, held at Walter Brock's, in 
Barnet, August 23, 1785, which seems to be the 
first meeting held for some years, an inquiry for 
the charter was made, when it was found that it 
had been " carried out of the United States." The 
document before the writer is a copy of the char- 
ter, taken June 24, 1788, from the third volume 
of the book of charters in the State office of New 
Hampshire, and attested by Joseph Pearson, 
Secretary. The document is worn into eight 

The records of the proprietors previous to 
August 23, 1785, are lost. Were these missing 
records " carried out of the United States " along 
with the charter ? 

According to a contract found among Enos 
Stevens's papers, dated April, 1770, Joseph 
Hutchins of Haverhill, N. H., engages to im- 
prove some part of the lands in Barnet within 
the term of four or six months, and to pitch and 
work "either one of the fifty acre lots of upland or 
one of the meadow lots surveyed and laid out in 
said township." Enos Stevens engages to deed 
to him " within three months three fifty acre lots 
of upland, and three intervale lots of land as they 
are now surveyed and laid out in said township." 
No plan of this survey has been found and no 
reference to it is made in the record. This sur- 
vey may have been entered on the plan of 1774, 
but that part of the chart is worn off and lost. Wc 
next read of the survey of the east part of the 

From the existing proprietors' records, with 
a few accompanying papers, we learn when the 
town was surveyed into lots, and how they were 
divided to the proprietors or grantees, and the 
cost of procuring the charter and the surveys and 
division of the town. In 1773, the east part of 
the town was surveyed by Caleb Willard, and in 
1774, the survey into large lots was completed. 
Among the papers of Enos Stevens was found a 
part of a chart of the town on a smnll scale. 
The other part, nearly one half, being worn off 
and lost. It is marked " a plan of Barnet, 1 774," 
most probably in the handwriting of Solomon 
Stevens, surveyor. Samuel Stevens presented 
an account, dated Charlestown, August 18, 1785, 
to the proprietors at their meeting, August 23, 
1785, of which we give a summary. 

"July, 1762, to expense of procuring a char- 
ter, £219." This was probably dated before the 
charter,to include the survey of the town limits, 
as ordered by Gov. Wentworth, and described 
and delineated in the charter. Elijah King and 
others surveyed the charter limits of the towns 
immediately above Wells River in 1762 or 1763. 
" October, 1773, to survey of the east part of the 
town by Caleb Willard, £50." "June, 1774, 
to surveying the town into lots of one hundred 
acres each, £139." 



These sums, together with the interest to Au- 
gust 13, 1785, amount to £886, for the costs of 
chartering and surveying the town. He charges 
"October, 1770, for one hundred acres given to 
Col. Kurd as an encouragement to build mills 
£50." " To mill-irons delivered there, £30." 
" To ten lots of land given to divers persons, as 
an encouragement to settle in said town, at £10 
each, £100." These sums, with interest to the 
date of the account, amounted to £355. The 
sum total was £1,241. The proprietors voted to 
rectify and allow Samuel Stevens's account, and 
also voted to raise a tax of £17 on each original 
right, which was to be paid in silver or gold, 
at the rate in silver of 6s. 8d. per oz., which tax 
was for paying the proprietors' debts. Samuel 
Stevens was appointed to collect this tax, in 
doing which he sold at vendue in Springfield, 
February 27, 1786, forty-six original rights, in- 
cluding Benning Wentworth's two shares, to 
Enos Stevens. The proprietors also at their 
meeting, August 23, 1785, " voted to accept and 
establish the survey formerly made by Solomon 
Stevens, according to the plan by him made, and 
that said plan be lodged in the proprietors' 
clerk's office for reference. Among the propri- 
etors' papers is a chart of the town on a scale 
of 60 chains to an inch, on the face of' which is 
inscribed " A contracted copy of the plan of Bar- 
net, taken from a plan called a true copy of the 
plan of the division of Barnet, accepted by the 
proprietors in their meeting, August, 1785, and 
attested by James Whitelaw, surveyor." 

In the proprietors' records this plan, of which 
this is a contracted copy, is called " Whitel-aw's 
plan," and agrees with the survey of the lots 
according to the plan of 1774, which, however, 
did not contain a survey of the small, irregular 
lots on the Connecticut River, and on the south 
line of the town called the " after division lots," 
as they were divided after the partition of the 
large lots to equalize the shares of the proprie- 
tors in quantity and quality. 

It appears from Gen. "Whitelaw's field-book 
that he surveyed the town lines of Barnet, in 1784, 
and found at the northeast corner of the town a 
pine-tree standing on the bank of the Connecti- 
cut River, marked " 1770," which was probably 
done by the New York surveyors when they sur- 
veyed " Duumore." From these facts it appears 
that General Whitelaw surveyed the whole town 
and made a complete chart of it and presented 
it to the proprietors at their meeting August 23, 
1785, which was accepted by them, and hy which 
the whole town was divided among them. 

The writer has seen four charts of Barnet, 
on a scale of 30 chains to the inch, all of which 
were made by him. They are all soiled, worn 
or torn. One of these, found among the papers 
of Enos Stevens, attested by Gen. Whitelaw, and 
dated 1785, is most probably the one accepted 
by the proprietors, and by which the town was 
ultimately divided among them, which division 

seems to have been nearly completed in 1785, 
when the proprietors' records terminate, but it 
would appear probable that the after division 
lots were not all pitched so late as 1802. 

The names of the proprietors are entered on 
all Whitelaw's maps in the lots which they 
pitched. Since the survey the magnetic varia- 
tion of the compass needle has increased nearly 
two degrees westward. 

Most of the town was surveyed into lots of 
100 acres each. The side lines of the lots are 
160 rods, and run parallel with the N. E. side 
of the town, which runs N. 28 deg. W., and 
the end lines of the lots are 100 rods, nearly 
J of a mile, and run parallel with the N. W. 
line of the town, which runs N. 48 deg. E. 
The lots are therefore not quite rectangular. 
The lots along Peacham and Danville were 
made to consist of 287 acres. The small and- 
irregularly formed lots were on the Ryegate 
line, and along Connecticut River, at the S. 
E. and N. E. corners of the town. 

There were 366 acres to each proprietor's 
right, for which he had three 100-acre lots, and 
such a small lot, "after division lot," as equalized 
the rights or shares in quantity and quality. The 
propi'ietors voted lots for public uses, according 
to the charter ; but no part near the centre of 
the town was surveyed into acre-lots, that each 
proprietor might have one, as required by the 
charter. The full division of the large lots of 
the town to the proprietors, was finally settled 
and completed about 1787. The proprietors 
voted, Nov. 28, 1787, that "Enos Stevens, for 
and in consideration of his rebuilding the mills 
on Stevens River in Barnet, have the exclusive 
privilege of pitching the after division of the 
lands belonging to ten rights or shares." " Dec. 
12, 1787, voted that lot No. 160 be for the 
clerk (Walter Brock), and he to pay Mr. 
Whitelaw, and find a book, and transfer the 
whole." This division of the town to the pro- 
prietors was called "the original survey" or 
"Grand Division of Barnet." 

Nov. 8, 1774, John Clark and Alexander 
Harvey bought of Samuel Stevens, one of the 
chief owners of Barnet, 7000 acres of land in the 
S. W. part of the town, which was to be laid off 
in one body on the Peacham line, and received 
a bond for a deed, when the sum of £408 6s. 8d. 
was paid, and guaranteeing peaceable possession, 
in the mean time. The price per acre was 14d., 
or about '25. This tract occupies the S. W. 
part of the town, of which it is more than one 
fourth part, thus described: Beginning at the 
S. W. corner of the town, its boundary line ran 
along the Peacham line 5 miles to a large 
beach-tree marked A . H, J.W, A . T, 1776; 
thence, turning a right angle, it runs S. 42 deg. 
past the Presbyterian meeting-house, near the 
centre of the town, 2 miles, 188 rods, and 95 
links, to a small hemlock marked A . H, I . W, 
1776, on the top of the hill north of John Gil- 



fillan's house ; thence, turning a right angle, it 
ran S. 48 (leg., W. in a direction parallel with 
the Peacham line, about 3 miles, 112 rods, and 
32 links, to a great hemlock marked A . H, I .W, 
1776; thence, turning an obtuse angle, it ran 
along the Rvegate town line, N. 68 deg. W. 
about 3 miles, to the place of beginning ; the 
whole containing 7,000 acres, which was deeded 
by Willard Stevens to Alexander Harvey, 
March 10, 1781. Gen, Whitelaw surveyed tlie 
Harvey Tract in 1776. It is divided into 5 
ranges running parallel with the Peacham line. 
The lots contain 50 acres each, and are rectan- 
gular, long, and narrow, and are numbered 
separately in each range, beginning at the 
Ryegate line. Their whole number is 135. 

The present town clerk, by a late vote of the 
town, made a double index of all the land records 
from 1783 to the present time. The index-book 
is a royal folio of 500 pages, made for such a 
purpose. The index occupies more than 300 
pages, with blank leaves under each letter for 
future use. It consists of a descending index, 
by which land titles can be traced down to the 
present time, and an ascending index, by which 
the title can be traced up to the grantees in the 
charter. To facilitate the process, the years in 
which the deeds were recorded are entered by 
the clerk in the double index, to make which 
every page of the land records, amounting to 
several thousand, was examined, so that, if a 
deed is recorded, it can be easily and quickly 
found, and, if it is not in the index, it is certainly 
known that it has not been recorded. It is 
believed Barnet is the first town in Vermont 
that has made such an index, which saves much 
time and trouble, aud gives certain and satisfac- 
tory information in searching the records. 

During the Revolutionary War, and for some 
years after it, the town held its meetings at 
John McLaren's, but more frequently at Robert 
Twaddell's, whose houses were near the centre 
of the town. June 1, 1786, the proprietors 
pitched lots 87, 38, and 39 for the first settled 
minister of the gospel, according to the charter 
of the town. In 1785 or 178G, 4 acres in the 
N. "VV. corner of lot 87 were cleared, each quarter 
■ of the town clearing an acre. On this a meeting 
house was raised. Dec. 18, 1788, the town voted 
to raise money by subscription towards finishing 
the meeting-house. "Jan. 15,1789. Thirty-one 
persons declare their intention of having the 
meeting-house for a place of public worship." 
" Oct. 9. Town resolves that the house should 
be finished by subscription." Dec. 30, 1791. 
Town votes that the meeting-house was town 
property, and subject to town rules. Jan. 19, 
1792. The town votes to constitute and appoint 
the meeting-house for public worship of God. 
Eeb. 1, 1792. The lower part of the house 
having been finished, the pews, 28 in number, 
were sold at vendue, under certain regulations, 
for about £300, one tenth part to be paid in money, 

and the rest in wheat, at 5s. per bushel. July 
5, 1795. The galleries were finished, and the 
pews were sold, in a similar manner, for about 
£110, which was to be paid for the expense 
of finishing the house. Jan. 14, 1799. The 
town votes that a sum not exceeding Si 20 of 
the money due for the sale of seats be applied 
to purchase stoves for the liouse. They were 
not, however, procured till about 1810; still, 
the meeting on Sabbath was well attended in 
the winter, all being warmly clothed, and the 
women having foot-stoves, as they were called. 

In 1829, the year before the demise of Rev. 
David Goodwillie, the first meeting-house was 
removed, and, on the same site, a large brick 
church edifice, with a steeple, was built at a 
cost of nearly $5,000. This edifice was acci- 
dentally burnt in February, 1849, and the con- 
gregation erected and finished the present ele- 
gant and commodious house of public worship, 
all ready for use, in 5 months after the former 
one was burnt, and the cost of erection was 
promptly paid. 

The Revolutionary soldiers were Thomas 
Hazeltine, a pensioner, John Bonett, a pen- 
sioner, Daniel Hall, Caleb Stiles, John Woods, 
William Strobridge, a pensioner, Amasa Grout, 
and William Tice. The following Scotchmen 
also served in the Revolutionary War : Archi- 
bald Harvey, a pensioner, who was at the taking 
of Quebec : Thomas Clark, who emigrated to 
this country in 1774. He enlisted at Hanover, 
N. H., and served in Col. Cilley's regiment. 
He was in the battle of Saratoga, and was so 
badly wounded that he was taken to the hos- 
pital in Albany. When recovered, and on his 
way to rejoin the army, he was seized with 
fever and ague, and hired a man for $200 to 
take his place in the army, which sum he lost, 
as the Continental money was so depreciated 
in value. He settled in Barnet in 1792 or 1793, 
but, some years before his death, removed to 
the S. E. corner of Peacham. He was an in- 
telligent man, and a member of the Associate 
Presbyterian Church of Barnet. William 
Johnston, a staff officer and a pensioner, was 
at the battles of Gerraantown, Monmouth, and 
Brandywine. He saw Gen. Putnam plunge 
down the frightful precipice, and escape, and 
witnessed Maj. Andre's execution, when, he 
said, the American oiEcers wept. On one 
occasion, he was engaged in taking some British 
soldiers captive, one of whom was Alexander 
Emsley, who settled in Barnet, and married his 

Upon the first call for Revolutionary soldiers 
in 1777, Bartholomew Somers, John McLaren, 
and James Orr, all of whom settled early in 
town, near the centre, went to Saratoga at the 
time of Burgoyne's surrender. They were all 
members of the same church. Mr. McLaren's 
potatoes were not dug till the next spring, when 
they were found to be fresh and good, as the 



snow, which fell early, and was deep all winter, 
preserved them. Thus Providence favored the 
brave and patriotic. 

In 1782, the State ordered a force of 300 men 
to be raised from all the towns in the State, 
except the towns on Connecticut River, above 
Barnet, the number to be raised according to 
the town lists. Jacob Hall was chosen cajitain 
of the militia of Barnet, 1779. 

John Galbraith, a Scotchman, came to Barnet 
and bought 300 acres on the Passumpsic, at the 
mouth of Enerick Brook, from Enos Stevens, 
in 1776, intending to return to Scotland and 
send his sons to improve the lands, but the war 
prevented his return, and he built a house and 
lived alone. Indians often called upon him ; 
sometimes in greater number than he thought 
safe ; but as he was kind to them they did him 
no harm. Rev. Thomas Clark, of Salem, N. Y., 
Rev. Robert Annan, of Boston, John Galbraith, 
and some others, most of whom were Scotchmen, 
obtained a grant from New York, which lay on 
the Passumpsic, including Burke and parts ad- 
jacent, being about 9 miles long and 6 broad, 
and which they called Bamf. John Galbraith re- 
ceived $99 81 as his-share of the $30,000 paid by 
this State to New York to quitclaim Vermont. 
He went to Canada to return to Scotland, and 
was seized as a spy and shipped, with Jonathan 
EUdns of Peacham and others, to England, where 
he was acquitted and set free, having got a free 
passage. He went home to Scotland,and, after the 
Revolution, his sons came and occupied his lands. 
Archibald McLaughlan, another Scotchman, 
bought land in the southeast comer of the Har- 
vey Tract, in 1776, from Col. Harvey. Two 
Scotchmen, William Stevenson and James Cross, 
settled in town in 1776, and took lots in Har- 
vey's tract, on Stevens's River. They lived alone 
in a house for a number of years. Coming home 
at one time in the dusk of the evening from the 
mill at Newbury, with grists on their backs, when 
about a mile from their house, they found a bear 
sitting in the path. Mr. Stevenson, who was 
considerably ahead, while his hound engaged the 
bear, got an opportunity to strike it across the 
eyes with a cudgel of a staff that he carried, 
which broke its nose and stunned it in some 
measure ; still Bruin gave fight to him and his 
dog ; but Stevenson, watching a good opportu- 
nity, struck it across the small of the back and 
continued the blows till he beat the bear to death. 
He was a strong and courageous man, and told 
the writer that he did not know the nature of the 
beast he killed, and never thought he was in any 
danger till he examined the bear's great paws 
after death. He carried it home, while Mr. 
Cross, who came up during the fight and broke 
a fine staff over the beast, carried the two grists. 
James Gilchrist, Esq., a Scotchman, about the 
year 1777, settled on the plain atMcIndoe's Falls. 
At an early period he was elected to important 
offices in town, in which Ms influence was long 

felt. His wife had a very vigorous mind, good 
judgment, and memory. She was noted for her 
extensive religious knowledge and piety, and 
was a member of the Associate Congregation of 
Barnet for about 40 years. She rode on horse- 
back to Mr. GoodwiUie's church, and so regular 
and constant was her attendance, that one day, 
when too feeble to attend, her horse, from long 
use, jumped out of the pasture one Sabbath 
morning, went with the neighbors to meeting, 
stood at the horse-block, where it used to be tied 
till the evening, and then went home ; all this 
without bridle, saddle, or rider. She died in 
1828, aged 95 years. 

When on her deathbed she thanked her aged 
pastor for the precious truths of the gospel she 
had heard him so long preach, and kissed the 
young pastor's hand, saying to him, " I esteem 
your office higher than that of the kings of the 
earth." She and Mrs. Twaddel, though nearly 
99 years of age, could repeat correctly the West- 
minster shorter catechism, besides many psalms 
and other parts of the Bible. 

John McCulloch, a very intelligent, judicious, 
and religious man, and long an elder of the As- 
sociate congregation, had a son, who died lately, 
about 53 years of age, who had a very remark- 
able memory. He was well acquainted with the 
Bible, and could repeat more chapters after twice 
or thrice reading them than the teacher in the 
Sabbath school had time to hear. Often his 
memory has been tried by opening the Bible at 
many different parts ; and reading a passage, he 
would promptly tell the book, the chapter, and 
almost always the very verse read. He was not 
so exact, however, as to the verse as the cele- 
brated blind Alick of Stirling, Scotland, whom 
the writer has seen and tried his memoiy. How- 
ever, his memory was most remarkable for the 
date of events. He could tell promptly the year, 
the day of the month, the day of the week, and 
what kind of a day it was on which the event hap- 
pened. He could tell who he had heard preach, 
from the text, the psalm, and the tune to which 
the psalm was sung. The writer has tested his 
memory in different ways, not only by the Bible, 
but by records, through a course of nearly 50 
years, and found it correct. Eebruary can have 
five Sabbaths only when it begins and ends on 
that day, which can occur only once in 28 years. 
The writer once suddenly asked when had 
February five Sabbaths in it? "In 1824," he 
promptly replied. When will it have five again 
was the next question, as promptly answered, 
" In 1852." Indeed, he was a living almanac, 
and so used by the family and others. His fath- 
er one day was speaking of an event the date of 
which he' did not recollect. His son was fixing 
the fii-e and not appearing to be taking notice of 
the conversation, when his father, according to 
Ms custom, said, "John, when was it 1 " He in- 
instantly replied, " Six years ago last Saturday." 
He was weU read in commentaries on the 



Bible and other religious books, and, moreover, 
had some talent for poetiy. He composed an 
elegy in wliich he eulogized his aged minister, 
whose death he lamented, and also wi-ote a hu- 
morous and satirical song on the vices and follies 
of an unworthy individual. The latter, with 
other liumorous songs, he used to sing, being 
very fond of music and somewhat of a proficient 

In 1788, the town voted to fine absentees from 
town meetings SI 00. 

Until some years after the Revolutionary "War 
the only way of access to the town was by the 
Hazcn road, running through the west part of it. 

At an early period a road was made, beginning 
at the Hazen road, on the north side of Harvey's 
Mountain, and proceeding by the north end of 
Harvey's Lake and the centre of the town, and 
terminated at the mouth of Joes Eivei-, and was 
afterwards extended up the Passumpsic River to 
St. Johnsbury. No road from Wells River was 
made up the Connecticut River till some years 
after the Revolutionary War. 

The Passumpsic Turnpike Company was in- 
corporated in 1805. The first mile from Joes 
Brook down the Passumpsic was made in 1807, 
and the next season it was made to Ryegate line, 
when the Legislature granted the privilege of 
taking half toll. Afterwards the road was ex- 
tended to Wells River. It is said to have cost 
$26,000. Alterations in Barnet and Ryegate, 
extending in the whole to about seven miles, 
were subsequently made, costing more than 
$7,000, of which nearly $4,000 were paid by 
Barnet, Ryegate, and Newbury. A committee 
appointed by the County Com-t prized the turn- 
pike at $4,000, which was paid by the towns and 
it became a free road. 

Dr. Phineas Stevens, brother of Enos Stevens, 
was the first physician in town. William Shaw 
was the first merchant, having a store at Stevens's 
Falls. Thomas Dennison was probably the first 
lawyer who lived in town. 

Mr. Wilson, a Revolutionary soldier, who had 
lost an arm in battle, was the first school-teacher, 
and taught between Stevens's and Mclndoe's 
Palis. The log schoolhouse stood near where 
William Harvey now lives. William Shearer, 
senior, taught school at an early period near 
Ross's Pond. William Johnston, who served in 
the American army, came to town about 1790, 
and for a few years taught a school on the rising 
ground around which the public road runs, near 
the northwest corner of Harvey's Lake. In 
1801 he moved near to the centre of the town 
and taught school near the Presbyterian church. 

He was a good teacher, and his handwriting 
was very plain, neat, and regular. He kept 
school more than 20 years in town, and many 
of the youth of Barnet, great and small, were 
taught by him. The writer possesses docu- 
ments containing the signature of Jonathan 
Fowler, who was one of the four men who first 

settled the town and county, written May 1, 
1787; the signature of Bamet Fowler, his son, 
the first-born male in the town and county, writ- 
ten March 12, 1799; and a school-bill, "Jona- 
than Fowler to William Johnston, Dr., to one 
quarter's school-rate for your son Barnet, com- 
mencing November 19, 1792, $2 00." 

April 1, 1788, the town is divided into four 
districts, according to the following description : 
" 1st, north of Thomas Smith's Falls into Pas- 
sumpsic ; 2d, south of Thomas Smith's Falls to 
Stevens's River ; 3d, south of Stevens's River to 
Peacham line ; 4th, Great River." Now there 
are 18 school districts and 20 schools in town, 
besides a flourishing academy at Mclndoe's Falls. 

The spotted fever prevailed in town in 1811, 
and was very fatal. It returned in 1818. The 
typhus fever prevailed in 1815, '16, and '17, and 
proved fatal in many cases. 

There are 4 villages, 4 post-oflSces, and 7 
churches in town. 

Barnet Village, situated at the Falls on 
Stevens's River, contains a large number of 
houses and inhabitants. Here are the Barnet 
post-office, an inn, a gristmill, a sawmill, two 
woollen factories, and two stores, the town house, 
and a Union church, a fine building with steeple 
and bell. 

McIndoe's Falls is situated in theS. E. corner 
of the town, at Mclndoe's Falls, on Connecticut 
River, so called because John Mclndoe early set- 
tled and owned land at the Falls, on which are 
great lumber mills. The village is beautifully 
situated on an extensive plain, and contains a 
large number of houses and inhabitants. Here 
are the Mclndoe's Falls post-office, an inn, two 
stores, a carriage factory, the Methodist chapel, 
the Congregational church, a fine building, with 
steeple and bell, and the Mclndoe's Falls Acade- 
my, a large, elegant, and commodious edifice, 
finely situated. 

Passumpsic Village, situated at the north 
part of the town, on the Passumpsic Rivei", at 
Kendall's Falls, at which are mills and factories. 
It contains the Passumpsic post-office, the Bap- 
tist chapel, two stores, an inn, and a considerable 
number of houses. 

West Baenet, situated on Stevens's River, 
near the north end of Harvey's Lake, contains 
the West Barnet post-office, a neat Union church, 
a store, grist and sawmill. 

There is a Union meeting-house in the south- 
western part of the town. 

The Scotchmen were generally very robust men 
and retained their strength to an advanced age. 
Many of them lived till 90 and some to 95 years 
of age. Robt. Twaddell's wife was nearly 99, and 
Ciaud Stuart 100 years and 4 months when they 
died. In Fcbniaiy, 1774, Gen. Whitelaw writes 
that there were 15 families in Barnet, and in Au- 
gust of the same year, when Col. Harvey viewed 



the town to buy land for the Scotch company, he 
writes in his journal, August 27, that there were 
six or seven settlers on the river and a few in the 
other parts of the town. 

In all Whitelaw's charts, the names of the 
grantees are inserted in the lots they drew, but 
few of the original proprietors ever settled the 
lands granted to them by the charter. Eev. 
Thomas Beveridge, who visited the town in the 
summer of 1789, writes that there were then 40 
Scotch families in town. 

In the collection of papers belonging to 
Eev. David Goodwillie, was found an accurately 
drawn map of the town, made by him about the 
time he came to settle, in September, 1790. In 
this chart all the names of the actual settlers, 
about 90 in number, are inserted in the lots on 
which they settled. From this map it appears 
that at that time the most of the inhabitants of the 
town were settled on the lots near the central parts 
of the town, and between these and the Peacham 
line, with a considerable number in the southwest 
part of the town. The meadow lands along the 
Connecticut River, from Eyegate to the Pas- 
Bumpsic Eiver, were settled, and there were a 
few settlers between that river and Waterford. 
In the north and southeast parts of the town 
there were no inhabitants. 

In 1786, the first grand list recorded gives, 
polls, 57, $5,816; 1790, the grand list gives, 
polls, 93, $13,142; 1860, the grand list gives, 
polls, 362, $70,213. 

Population in 1791 was 477 ; in 1800, 860 ; in 
1810, 1,301 ; in 1820, 1,488 ; in 1830, 1,707 ; in 
1840, 2,030; in 1850, 2,522 ; in 1860, 2,002. 

Enos Stevens, Esq., was bom October 2, 
1739. There is a tradition in his father's family 
that the town was called Bamet from the cir- 
cumstance that his great-grandfather, who emi- 
grated to Massachusetts in 1685, came from Bar- 
net in England, which is a market town 11 miles 
north- northwest from London, and is situated in 
a parish of the same name. " It stands on a 
height, and has a church, built in 1400, a gram- 
mar school founded by Queen Elizabeth in 1573, 
and some well-endowed almshouses. An obelisk 
near the town commemorates a battle fought 
there between the York and Lancaster armies in 
1471, when the latter was totally defeated, and 
their leader, the great Earl of "Warwick was 
killed. Its population in 1851 was 2,380." His 
uncle, Samuel Stevens, was employed by a 
land company to explore the country, from White 
River to the heads of the Onion and Lamoille 
ri^rers, to find out the best lands for settlement. 
This he did in 1 760. His father, Capt. Phineas 
Stevens, in 1747, with 30 men, bravely defend- 
ed the fort at CharlestOAvn, N. H., against 400 
French and Indians, whose assault was carried 
on in different ways for three days. He repelled 
tbem without the loss of a man, while the loss 

of the enemy was considerable. His father and 
some members of the family procured signers to 
the petition to Gov. "Wentworth, who granted the 
charter of the town. They in most instances 
procured deeds of acquittance from the petition- 
ers, as proprietors, giving from a few shillings to 
a few pounds for a share of 360 acres, so that he 
and his thr-ee elder brothers, Samuel, Willaed, 
and Simon, became chief proprietors of the town. 
His younger brother, Solomon, was a land sur- 
veyor, and surveyed Barnet in 1774. 

He took the side of the British in the war of 
the Eevolution. His father and brothers had been 
honored by commissions from the governors of 
the British provinces of New Hampshire and 
New York, and like many others, no doubt, he 
thought that the poAverful crown of Great Britain 
would soon crush the infant American Eepublic. 
In his journal he writes : " Charlestown, N. H., 
May 2, 1777. Set out for New York; left my 
all for the sake of my king and my country." 
In New York, he joined a volunteer company 
appointed by the British Commander to guard 
on the coast, but it does not appear that he was 
ever engaged in battle. He, with six others, 
Sept. 30, 1782, received a commission from "his 
excellency, the commander-in-chief," to go to 
Nova Scotia " to take charge of the provisions, 
arms, and ammunition sent by the commander- 
in-chief for the use of refugees going with them 
to settle in that country, and divide the same 
among them." He bought land and settled in 
Digby, Nova Scotia, where he resided till 1785. 
After the war of independence, he applied to the 
British government for indemnity for " loyalty 
losses, and services," but it is not probable that 
he was indemnified for his losses, as his lands in 
Barnet were not confiscated. In his journal he 
writes: "Feb. 25, 1785. Came to Charlestown; 
found all my friends well ; seven years and ten 
months since I left this town." He came to 
Barnet, and was present at a meeting of the 
proprietors, August 23, 1785, and drew his shai-es 
in the town when the first division took place. 
After this, he sold his possessions in Nova 
Scotia, and came to Barnet to reside. He pur- 
chased the lands owned by his brothers, and 
obtained vendue-titles to others ; so that he 
owned the greater part of the town. He encour- 
aged the early settlement of the town by giving 
lots to the first settlers. He engaged Col. Hurd 
to build grist and sawmills on the Falls, at the 
mouth of Stevens Eiver, and aftei-wards pur- 
chased them, and they were called Stevens Mills. 
It is said that it was one of his brothers who 
built the gristmill at the outlet of Harvey's 
Lake, which was long owned by Eobert Brock, 
and near which Walter Brock afterwards built a 
sawmill, and these were called " Brock's Mills," 
which were the first built in town after Stevens 
Mills. To Barnet Fowler, son of Jonathan 
Fowler, the first male child born in Barnet, he 
gave a lot of land in the N. E. part of the town. 



and the name of Barnet Fowler is written near 
Harvey Fowler in Whitelaw's chart of the to\vn. 
Sept. 4, 1787, he was admitted to take the free- 
man's oath. For many years he was a magis- 
trate, and represented the town in the Legislature 
in 1795, 1796, and 1807. In 1798, he was ap- 
pointed by the government one of the commis- 
sioners to take the census in this part of Ver- 
mont. His brother, Willard Stevens, moved to 
Bamet in 1776, but soon returned to Charles- 
town, and, immediately after, Elijah King, who 
married Mary Stevens, the sister of Enos 
Stevens, moved to Bamet, where they lived 
till their death. 

He was manied March 4, 1791, to Sophia 
Grout, of Charlestown. They had 10 children, 
most of whom died before adult age ; only three 
now survive. Henry Stevens, Esq., the eldest, 
was bom Dec. 13, 1791. He has transacted 
much business in town, and has been elected to 
ditfereut town offices, and represented Bamet in 
the Legislatm-e in 1826 and 1827. For many 
years he has been collecting files of newspapers, 
pamphlets, and written documents, to illustrate 
the liistory of the Town and State, many of which 
he sold to the State for $4,000. He was for 
many years President of the Histokical So- 
ciety OF Vermont. His present collection 
consists of 3,485 bound volumes, about 6,500 
pamphlets, about 400 volumes of newspapers, 
and probably 20,000 letters, bearing date from 
1726 to 1854. He has the old field-books of all 
town lines surveyed by James Whitelaw, Esq., 
surveyor-general, and his deputies. His son 
Enos graduated at Middlebury College. His 
son Henry, after being engaged by the govern- 
ment in different offices in Washington, graduated 
at Yale College, and went to London, and was 
employed in purchasing rare and valuable books 
for several Ajnerican gentlemen, and in 1846 he 
was employed by the Trustees of the British 
Museum to make up a catalogue of American 
works not fol^nd in the library of that institution,' 
and was then appointed to furnish these works, 
and a complete set of the public documents of 
each one of the United States, and a complete 
set of all documents published by Congress, and 
all such books as contain the general literatui-e 
of each State. 

He became, about 1848, agent for the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and is still extensively en- 
gaged in the exchange of books between the 
institutions of England and America. 

His son George graduated at West Point, 1843, 
and was appointed second lieutenant in 1844, 
and joined the army at Fort Joseph, commanded 
by Gen. Taylor, but was not long afterwards ac- 
cidentally drowned. 


CoL. Alexander Harvet was born in May, 
1747, in the parish of Gargunoch, Stu-Hngshire, 
Scotland. His credentials represent him as 

" descended from creditable and honest parents ; 
that ho had an education suitable to his station, 
and that ho was, in his conduct and behavior, ia 
every respect virtuous, obliging, and modest." 
Mr. Harvey and John Clark were the agents of 
a company of farmers in the shires of Perth and 
Stii'ling, appointed to search out and purchase a 
large tract of land in America for the company 
to settle. Ho left his father's house May 9, 1774, 
and they sailed for America, and landed in New 
York, July 22, in company with Jolm Galbraith, 
Thomas Clark, and othei-s, who came to Bamet. 
The agents proceeded by Albany to examine 
lands near Schenectady, but the quantity for sale 
was not sufficient. They proceeded by Balls- 
town, Saratoga, and Salem, to Cambridge, N. 
Y., but, not obtaining their object, crossed the 
Green Mountains, and came by Charlestown, 
Hanover, and Newbury, to Ryegate, one half of 
wliich Gen. Whitelaw had purchased from Dr. 
Witherspoon, and examined the other half of the 
town, as they were instructed by the directors. 
They then came to Bamet, where they arrived 
August 27, in company with Solomon Stevens, 
the brother of Samuel Stevens, both of whom 
were proprietors of the town. The next day, 
they went and examined 7,000 acres of land in 
the S. W. part of the town, attended by Mr. 
Stevens and a guide. In Col. Harvey's jour- 
nal (now before the wiiter), he says " there are 
six or seven settlers in the township on the river, 
and a few in the back parts of the town." They 
offered Mr. Stevens one shilling sterling per 
acre, but he asked 18 pence, and gave them a 
letter to his brother in Ncav York, " with whom 
they might treat at large." Returning by 
Albany to New York, they went by Philadelphia, 
and examined lands on the Susquehanna and 
Schuylkill rivers, and then returned to New 
York, where they arrived in October, 1774. 
They offered Samuel Stevens one shilling an 
acre, but he demanded 16 pence. But, Nov. 8, 
they " agree with Mr. Stevens to pay 14 pence 
sterling for each acre of 7,000 acres of land in 
Bamet, lying on the Peacham line, to extend 5 
miles on said line, and to pay one half of the 
money in November, 1775, and the other to be 
paid them, or to bear interest for such time as it 
remained unpaid." His journal, under date of 
Nov. 23, 1784, says : "Accordingly, received a 
bond of Samuel Stevens of £1,600, 6s. 6d. ster- 
ling, that wo were to receive a complete deed for 
7,000 acres of land in Barnet, vritt a covenant 
of warrantee deed to pay and receive at Nov. 
1775 ; at the same time, we granted a bond to 
said Mr. Stevens, of equal sum, to fulfil the 
promises on our part. The bond was scaled on 
both parts, and signed and delivered before two 
witnesses." Having made out an account of 
their proceedings to send to the company, John 
Clark sailed for Scotland, Dec. 11, 1774, and 
took the record with him. 

The whole sum they agreed to pay was £408, 



6s 8d., which was ultimately paid, and the re- 
ceipt for payment is recorded in the town books, 
and Col. Hai-vey received deeds from Samuel, 
Willard, and Bnos Stevens for the 7,000 acres 

Having bought some tools and furniture, and 
hired some persons to work for the company, he, 
in company with Claud Stuart, Robert Brock, 
John Scot, John McLaren, and Robert Bentley, 
sailed from New York, March 23, 1775, and 
came by New Haven to Hartford, Ct. Having 
bought provisions at these places, Mr. Harvey 
left Mr. Stuart with Mr. Bentley to assist him in 
bringing the "lumber up the river in boats, and 
he, with the rest of the company, came a foot by 
Charlestown, Newbury, and Ryegate to Barnet, 
where they arrived March 21, 1775. His journal 
says they " came along Peacham line two and a 
half miles, struck across the breadth, came to the 
pond, camped all night near the pond, and 
cleared some part of the ground." The next 
day they returned to Ryegate, "the snow being 
too thick to work, and then to Newbury, where 
they bought wheat, beef, and pork, and hired a 
horse to carry their provisions to Barnet ; 
returned thi-ough Ryegate, where they tarried 
some days, and bought sugar and other articles, 
and, in company with John McLaren and Robert 
Brock, returned to their camp in Barnet, May 3 ; 
and on the 4th, built another camp ; on the 5th, 
viewed a proper place for improvements, and on 
the 6th, cut down and burnt up wood ; on the 
7th, Claud Stuart, John Scot, and Robert Bent- 
ley, arrived, after a long and bad passage up the 
Connecticut River to Newbury. 

They cleared some land, sowed some grain, 
and planted some potatoes and beans. They 
prepared logs and raised a house, June 11th, 
with " the assistance of Mr. Whitelaw and four 
men from Ryegate." In July, he went to New 
York "to draw money to carry on the work, 
and to receive letters from the company," and 
on the way back he bought a cow of Col. Bel- 
lows. In October he sowed some wheat, and 
Peter Sylvester and Mr. Kimball harrowed it in 
with their oxen. On the 28th of October he 
" raised another house for two dwellers," which 
was completed in November, and which was 
inhabited by Robert McFarlane. "About the 
13th of the month, snow came on so as to con- 
tinue." "November 14, cut a road to Stevens 
MjIIs." During the year 1775, he received 
authority from the Directors of the Company in 
Scotland to increase his purchase of land to 
12,000 acres. He purchased a number of lots in 
other parts of Barnet, but the Revolutionary war 
commencing the next year, impeded the opera- 
tions of the Company, and the emigration of its 
members from Scotland. 

The site where he first camped, and built his 
first house is on the farm of Jeremiah Abbott, 
and situated a few rods above the stone house 
built by William Bachop. Afterwards, he built 

a house of hewn logs on the Hazen Road, in 
which his son Claud lived before he built a new 
house. In 1796, however, he sold his farm on 
the north side of Harvey's Mountain, and moved 
down the Hazen Road, and lived on the south 
side of the mountain, where "William McPhee 
now lives, and where he died, Dec 14, 1809, 
aged 62 years. He was a man of good abil- 
ities, widely known, and highly honored ; a 
member of the State Conventions of 1777, and 
of all the sessions of the Legislature, from the 
first session in 1778 till 1788, and a member of 
the Council of Censors, 1791. He was Associate 
Judge of Orleans County from 1781 to 1794, and 
long and early honored with office by the toAvn of 
Barnet. The Legislature appointed him one of 
the trustees of the County Academy, and he was 
president of the board of trustees tiU his death. 
The Government also appointed him to build a 
fort on the Onion or Lamoille River, which he 
declined. He and Gen. Whitelaw were attor- 
neys appointed by Dr. Witherspoon, for the sale 
of lands which he owned in Kyegate, Newbury, 
and Walden. 

He possessed a public spirit, was generous and 
facetious, and exerted himself for the good of 
the Town, County, and State, having taken an 
active part in declaring the State independent, 
and forming its constitution and government. 

He was chosen colonel of the regiment formed 
in this part of the country. 

AlS a proof of his " good vrill and favor to 
Mr. and Mrs. Goodwillie," he gave them a 
donation of some acres of land adjoining their 

Jonathan Fowler, one of the first four men 
who settled in the town, named one of his sons 
for him, and the colonel gave him a lot of land 
situated in the northeast part of the town, and 
Harvey Fowler is entered in aU Whitelaw's 
charts of Barnet. 

On one occasion during the Revolutionary War, 
when soldiers were di-afted in Barnet, the lot fell 
on George Gibson, a man of small stature, who 
said he would join the army, adding, " Who 
knows but I may be the means of establish- 
ing the independence of the United States 1 " 
Col. Harvey observed that he never knew a 
means so small to produce an effect so great. A 
member of the Legislature, who was a great hero 
and patriot, boasting of his mother and six 
brothers, triumphantly asked the company if 
ever they heard of such a mother having seven 
such sons. Col. Harvey replied he had read of 
a woman who had seven just such sons, and 
what was very remarkable, they were all born at 
one birth ! " Who was she 1 " asked the hero. 
" Mary Magdalene," replied the colonel, "who, 
was delivered of seven devils all at once ! " 

He was married, by the Rev. Peter Powei'S, 
October 5, 1781, to Jennet Brock, a daughter of 
Walter Brock, Esq., of Barnet, and who was 
born in Scotland, October 10, 1767. They had 



16 children, three of whom died when young. 
Eight sons and five daughters were married, 
most of wliora lived in Baraet, of whom two sons 
and two daughters are now deceased. His son, 
Hon. Walter Harvey, was 36 years a justice of 
the peace, a member of the executive coimcil in 
1835, and a representative of the town in 1824, 
1825, 1829, 1837, 1838, 1839, and 1844, and was 
associate judge of the county in 1850. 

His son, Hon. Robert Harvey, was member of 
the State Senate in 1838 and 1839, associate 
judge of the county in 1848 and 1849, and 
member of the council of censors in 1834 and 
1835, and a representative of the town in 1853 
and 1854. His son, Claud Harvey, Esq., was 
representative of the town in 1832 and 1833. 
His name-son, Alexander Harvey, Esq., is mar- 
ried to a granddaughter of Gen. Stark, the hero 
of Bennington, and was high sheriff of the 
county in 1843. His son, Peter Harvey, Esq., 
was the friend and associate of Daniel "Webster, 
and is mentioned in his life. Col. Harvey's de- 
scendants are numerous. His widow was mar- 
ried, by Rev. David GoodwilUe, to Gen. White- 
law, of Ryegate, August 29, 1815, and died, 
Dec. 28, 1854, aged 89 years. 


It is not known at what period the Presbyte- 
rian churches of Bamet and Ryegate — chiefly 
composed of emigrants from Scotland — were 
formed, but they were organized previous to 
1779, a number of years before any other church 
was formed in the county. Before, during, and 
after the Revolutionary War, several Scotch cler- 
gymen came and preached to them occasionally, 
and sometimes administered baptism. 

The company of Perth and Stirling, whose 
agent was Col. Harvey, agreed to buy a large 
tract of land in America, in order to settle 
together, and have a settled minister among 
them, thus taking forethought for their spiritual 
as well as temporal interests. Harvey's tract in 
Bamet was purchased for them in the close of 

1774, and began to be settled by them early in 

1775, but the Revolutionary War checked the emi- 
gration. However, some Scotch families from 
Ryegate moved into town towards the close of 
the war, after which it was rapidly settled in dif- 
ferent parts by emigrants from various parts of 
Scotland. Gen. Whitelaw, who was the agent 
of the Scotch Company in Ryegate, on his way 
tliither in 1773, called on Rev. Thomas Clark, a 
Scotch clergyman belonging to the Associate 
Presbyterian Church, and settled in Salem, 
Washington County, N. Y., and Col. Harvey, 
agent of the Scotch company that settled in Bar- 
net, on his way to town in 1774, called also 
upon him. To this clergyman John Gray, of 
Ryegate, travelled on foot 140 miles, to obtain 
his services. He gave them a favorable answer, 
April 8, 1775, and came and preached some time 
in Bamet and Ryegate in the latter part of the 

summer of that year. He revisited these towns 
two or three times during the Revolutionaiy War. 
Dr. Witherspoon, president of Princeton Col- 
lege, N. J., a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and a member of Congress, who 
owned lands in Ryegate, Newbury, and Walden, 
and whose son was settled in the north part of 
Ryegate, \-isited this part of the country three 
times, first, probably in 1775. In 1782, he 
preached in Ryegate and Barnet, and baptized 
Col. Harvey's oldest child. He returned in 
1786, to this part of the county. Rev. Hugh 
White, a Scotch clergyman, preached in Rye- 
gate at the end of 1775. Rev. Peter Powers, 
English Presbji;erian clergyman, settled in New- 
bmy from 1765 to 1784; preached occasionally 
in Ryegate, and probably in Barnet, dming that 

The proceedings of the town and church of 
Barnet to obtain a settled minister, are recorded 
at length in the town records, from which the 
history of the settlement of the fii-st minister in 
the town and county is taken. 

Jan. 29, 1784. The town "voted unani- 
mously to choose the Presbyterian form of relig- 
ious worship, founded on the word of God as 
expressed in the confession of faith, catechisms, 
longer and shorter, with the form of church 
government agreed upon by the Assembly of 
divines at Westminster, and practised by the 
church of Scotland." August 17,1784. The 
town " voted lot No. 87, for a meeting-house 
and glebe ; also, voted to apply to the Scotch 
Presbytery for a minister." 

The Scotch Presbytery here mentioned was 
The Associate Reformed Prcsbyteiy of Lon- 
donderry, N. H., formed there Feb. 13, 1783, to 
which Rev. Robert Annan, of Boston, Rev. 
David Annan, of Peterboro', N. H., and Rev. 
John Huston, of Bedford, N. H., belonged. Rev. 
Robert Annan preached in these towns in 1784, 
and returned next year. Rev. David Annan 
preached in Barnet and Ryegate in 1785. The 
fii-st leaf of the chmxh records of Barnet is lost. 
The third page begins with August 27, 1786. 
Rev. John Huston was present with the session 
of Barnet, at an election of elders, August 31, 
1786, when the record says " a petition was 
drawn up by the elders of Barnet and Ryegate, 
and preferred to the Associate (Reformed) Pres- 
bytery, to sit at Peterboro', Sept. 27, 1786, earn- 
estly desiring one of then* number might be sent 
to preach, visit, and catechise the two congre- 
gations, and ordain elders at Barnet." Accord- 
ingly the Presbytery appointed Mr. Huston for 
that purpose. In pursuance thereof, Mr. Huston 
came in October following, and visited and cate- 
chised the greater pai-t of both congregations. 
He remained till May, 1787, preaching in Bamet 
and Ryegate, and i-etumed November, 1788. 

Previous to 1787, the emigrants from Scotland 
made an unsuccessful attempt to obtain Rev. 
Walter Galbraith, from Scotland, for their minis- 



ter. In that year the town voted to apply to the 
Associate Synod, of Scotland, and sent a petition 
to that Synod, desiring a minister to be sent 
to them, and promising him a salary and the 
payment of expense of his passage to this coun- 
try, and settlement among them. Funds were 
raised for that purpose. In 1787, before receiv- 
ing an answer to their petition, the town voted 
to raise funds for the support of the gospel 
among them, and authorized the committee, with 
tlie elders, to employ such preachers as they 
could procure, agreeing with them in religious 
sentiments. In the beginning of 1789, informa- 
tion was received from Scotland that the Associ- 
ate Synod in that country had sent three preach- 
ers to the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania, 
and directed them to apply to that Presbytery 
for a preacher to become their minister. The 
town having voted to make application as 
dii-ected, in June, 1789, William Stevenson 
went to Cambridge, N. Y., and had an interview 
with Eev. Thomas Beveridge, a minister and 
member of the Presbytery of Pennsylvania, and 
having obtained the information desired, he wrote 
a letter to the Eev. David Goodwillie, a minister 
and member of the same Presbytery, then at 
New York City, informing him that "the con- 
gregation of Barnet would be exceedingly glad 
of a visit " from him, and referring him to cer- 
tain information contained in an enclosed letter 
from Mr. Beveridge, who writes that the people 
in Barnet had made appKcation to the Synod in 
Scotland, and that they had been directed to 
apply to the Presbytery of Pennsylvania for 
a hearing of Mr. Goodwillie ; that there were 
about 40 Scotch families in Barnet, with a 
number in Eyegate ; that some of the emi- 
grants from Scotland in Barnet, had heard Mr. 
Goodwillie in their native country, and would be 
well pleased to have liim settled in Barnet, as 
their minister; and that Mr. Stevenson had 
made application to obtain sermon for Barnet. 
In consequence of this information and applica- 
tion Mr. Beveridge came and preached in Barnet 
Sabbaths July 26, and August 2, and baptized 
several children ; one of these was Walter, son of 
Col. Harvey. The session, in conjunction with 
the committee of the town, then petitioned the 
Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania " for sup- 
ply of sermon, and particularly a hearing of the 
Eev. David Goodwillie." 

In consequence of this petition, Mr. Good- 
willie came to Barnet in the latter part of No- 
vember the same year, and remained preaching 
in Barnet, and occasionally in Eyegate, till the 
latter part of February, 1790, during which 
time he administered baptism, observed a public 
fast, Jan. 7, 1790, and occasionally preached in 

Feb. 4, 1 790. The town "voted to apply to the 
Presbytery of Pennsylvania for a minister, forty 
for and seven against it. Voted £10 a year as a 
salary for said minister, and to augment it £1 a 

year till it amount to £80 lawful, to be paid in 
wheat at 5s. a bushel, and stock and other pro- 
duce to be conformed to the wheat. Voted to 
raise £60 lawful, for a settlement for said minis- 
ter, £20 of which to be paid a year, and the 
whole to be paid in three yeare, to be paid in 
wheat, stock, and produce, the same as the yearly 
salary. Voted to raise £22, to be paid in wheat 
at 5s. a bushel to pay the present supply of ser- 
mon. Voted that the committee formerly ap- 
pointed by the town to procure sermons, be 
requested to apply to the Presbytery of Pennsyl- 
vania for a minister. 

The few who voted against this application 
wished to obtain a minister from the Established 
Church of Scotland, but did not afterwards 
oppose the settlement and ministrations of Mr. 
Goodwillie. The elders of the church and com- 
mittee of town, Feb. 15, 1790, petition the Asso- 
ciate Presbytery of Pennsylvania " to appoint 
one of their number to preside in the election 
and call of one to be the stated minister of this 
town and congregation, and a supply of sermon 
in the mean time." 

The town records, July 5, 1790, say " The 
committee appointed by the town, Feb. 4, last, 
for the purpose of applying to the reverend, the 
Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania, for a mod- 
eration of a call agreeable to the vote of that day, 
for procuring a settled minister, having petitioned 
said Presbytery for one of their number to mod- 
erate in the election of a minister, said Presby- 
tery having granted the petition by appointing 
the Rev. Thomas Beveridge, of Cambridge, 
N. Y., for the purpose mentioned in the petition, 
and Mr. Beveridge, having, agreeable to appoint- 
ment, come to this town, and declared his 
instructions to said committee, and the piiblic 
being duly notified by intimation from the pulpit, 
on two Sabbaths before the day appointed for 
the moderation, agreeable to the rule of the 
church in such cases, and the people being met at 
the meeting-house this day for the aforesaid pur- 
pose, after sermon by the reverend, the modera- 
tor, proceeded, by calling for a nomination, when 
the Eev. Mr. David Goodwillie being nominated 
by one of the elders, and upon the question 
being put, 'Do the people of this town make 
choice of the Eev. David GoodwilKe for their 
minister 1 ' when there appeared upwards of forty 
for the affirmative ; and the question, ' Who are 
against the Eev. David Goodwillie ? ' being put 
three several times, and none appearing, the 
moderator was pleased to declare the Eev. David 
Goodwillie duly elected, and a call to the said 
Mr. Goodwillie to take the ministerial charge of 
this congregation presented and duly subscribed, 
in the presence of the moderator and witnesses, 
the tenor whereof, is as follows, viz : — 

"We, the subscribers, elders, trustees, and other 
members of the Associate Congregation of Barnet, 
in the State of Vermont, who have acceded to the 
Lord's cause as professed and maintained by the 



Associate Presbytery of I'ennsylvaiiia, taking into 
our serious consideration tlie great loss we sutler 
through the want of a fixed gospel ministry among 
us, and being fully satisfied that the great Head of 
the Church has bestowed on you, the Reverend Mr. 
Goodwillie, a minister of the gospel, and member of 
the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania, those 
gifts and ministerial endowments which, with the 
exercise of them, will, through the blessing of the 
Holy Spirit, be profitable for our edification, —we 
therefore call and beseech you to take the oversight 
of this congregation, to labor in it and watch over it 
as that part of Christ's flock under your immediate 
charge; and we promise that, according to what is 
required in the Holy Scriptures, we will conscien- 
tiously endeavor to give a ready obedience to the 
Lord's message delivered by you, and to aid and 
support you in his work. And we hereby desire and 
entreat this Eeverend Presbytery, under whose 
inspection we are, and to whom we present this our 
call, to sustain the same, and take the ordinary 
steps, with all due expedition, to have the said Mr. 
Goodwillie settled among us. In testimony whereof 
we have subscribed this our call at our church iu 
Barnet, on the fifth day of July, A.d. 1790, before 
these witnesses, Jonathan Elkins, Jacob Guy, and 
Ephraim r oster, all of Peacham. 

William Uilkerson, Andrew Lang, "Wm. Warden, 
Alexander Gilchrist, James Orr, John McCallum, 
Ezekiel Manchester, John Mclndoe, Robert Mclndoe, 
James Gilchrist, JohnWaddel, Bartholomew Somers, 
James Ferguson, Archibald McLaughlin, John Mc- 
STabb, James Warden, William Innis, Alexander 
Lang, John Gilkerson, David Moor, Alexander 
Thompson, Samuel Huston, Edward Pollard, Hugh 
Ross, William Maxwell, William Lang, John Gilker- 
son, John Ross, William Shaw, Thomas Gilfillan, 
John McLaren, Geo. Garland, Bartholomew Somers, 
William Warden, Caleb Stiles, Noah Halladay, 
William Gilfillan, Jr., Wilham Hindman, John 
Galbraith, Cloud Somers, James McLaren, Andrew 
Lackie, Elijah Hall, Jr., John Robertson, John 
Shaw, Jr., William Gilfillan, Sen., Robert Laird, 

Robert Blair. 

John Shaw, \ 

Robert Twaddel, KMders. 

Archibald Stuart, ) 

James Gilchrist, 
John Waddel, 
James Cross, 
John Hindman, 
William Shearer, 
Wm. Stevenson, 

Jonathan Elkins, 
Jacob Guy, 
Ephraim Foster 




The above subscriptions, in number fifty-seven, are 
attested to be genuine. 

Thomas Bbveeidqe, Minister. 

Barnet, July 5, 1790. We, the subscribers, belong- 
ing to the town of Ryegate, in the State of Vermont, 
though we cannot join in the call given to the 
Reverend Mr. David Goodwillie by the people of 
Barnet, not being within the bounds of that congre- 
gation, yet, as we expect some part of Mr. Good- 
willie's labors will be among us, do hereby testify 
our concurrence with our brethren in the said call, 
and our readiness to join with them in endeavoring 
to aid and support the said Mr. Goodwillie in the 
Lord's work. 

John Gray, William Nelson, Jr., William Craig, 
Andrew Brock, Alexander Jliller, James Henderson, 
WiUiam Nelson. James McKinley, John Wallace, 
James Nelson, Hugh Gardner, William Craig. 

Barnet, July 5, 1790. The petition of the elders 
and trustees belonging to the town of Barnet, hum- 
bly showeth — That whereas the congregation have 
given a call to Reverend Mr. Goodwillie, we entreat 
that the Presbytery proceed as quickly as possible to 
forward his settlement among us, and that, until this 
is done, he may be appointed to supply this place 
with sermon, and we hereby appoint Mr. Beveridge 
as our commissioner to give tho Presbytery what 
further information may be judged necessary, and 
that the Lord may direct you in this and all other 
matters, is, and through grace shall be, the prayer 
of your petitioners. 

James Gilchrist, John Hindman,' John Shaw, 
William Stevenson, James Cross, Robert Twaddel, 
William Shearer, John Waddel, Archibald Stuart. 

New York, Oct. 21, 1790. Which day and place 
the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania met, and 
was constituted with prayer by Mr. Beveridge, the 
moderator. Present: Messrs. AVilliam Marshall, 
James Clarkson, John Anderson, Archibald White, 
ministers, and Andrew Wright from New York, and 
Thomas Cummings from Cambridge, ruling elders. 
The moderator, acting as commissioner for the con- 
gregation of Barnet, in the State of Vermont, pre- 
sented a call given by that congregation to the Rev. 
David Goodwillie, and also gave an account of his 
conduct iu fulfilling the appointment laid upon him 
at last meeting to moderate in said call. The Pres- 
bytery having been satisfied as to the minister's 
maintenance in that congregation, the question 
being put, "Approve of Mr. Beveridge's conduct or 
not ? " it was carried unanimously, "Approve." 
Presbytery then proceeded to the consideration of 
the aforesaid call, and a member having been em- 
ployed in prayer for the Lord's blessing and direc- 
tion in this important matter, the question was put, 
" Sustain or not the call given by the congregation 
of Barnet to the Rev. Mr. Goodwillie?" The roll 
being called, it was carried unanimously, "Sustain." 
Wherefore the Presbytery did, and hereby do, sus- 
tain the call given to the Rev. Mr. Goodwillie by the 
congregation of Barnet. And in consequence of 
this determination, and in answer to a petition from 
the said congregation, presented also by the moder- 
ator, the Presbytery appoint this call to be presented 
to Mr. Goodwillie, and that, upon his acceptance of 
the same, he be admitted to that pastoral charge, 
according to the rules of the church, on the eighth 
day of February next. The Presbytery further 
appoint Mr. Beveridge to preside in said admission, 
and Mr. Anderson to preach after it. 

Barnet, at the house of James Cross, Feb. 8 (1791), 
forenoon, which day and place the Presbytery being 
met, according to appointment of last meeting, and 
constituted with prayer by Mr. Beveridge, moderator. 
Present: Messrs.Goodwillie and Anderson, ministers, 
and James Small from Cambridge, and John Shaw 
from Barnet, ruling elders. The minutes of the last 
meeting having been read, relating to the call from 
the congregation of Barnet, and containing an ap- 
pointment of this interim meeting, the call was pre- 
sented to Mr. Goodwillie, and he having accepted 
it, an edict having been served first on the pre- 
ceding Sabbath and at the opening of this meeting, 
the Presbytery, after waiting a considerable time, 
and finding no objection offered, proceeded to the 
admission of Mr. Goodwillie to the pastoral charge 
of the congregation of Barnet. Public worship be- 
ing then begun in the same place, and a sermon 
preached by the moderator from 1 Cor. iii. 7, on 
these words, "God giveth the increase," the questions 
in the formula for ministers, excepting the seventh, 
were put to Mr. Goodwillie, and he was admitted, 
according to the usual form, as minister of the 
aforesaid congregation ; and after a charge given by 



the moderator to the minister, elders, and people, 
the public work of the day was concluded by Mr. 
Anderson with a sermon from Acts xxvi. 22. 
" Having- obtained help of God, I continue unto 
this day witnessing." The public assembly being 
dismissed, the Presbytery closed with prayer. 

A true copy. Certified by 

William Marshall, Moderator. 

[This account may be considered by many long, as 
indeed it is ; but it takes up and fully explains the 
Scotch Presbyterian mode of settlement of pastors, 
etc., a part of our ecclesiastical State history, hereto- 
fore quite untouched, and which will not need be 
again described at length in any town. — Ed.] 

After the settlement of the minister, for the 
period of 12 or 15 years the church of Bamet 
had trials arising from dissensions among a few 
individuals, and one or two difficult and doubt- 
ful cases of discipline, in consequence of which 
a few individuals left the congregation. But 
even during this period the church continued 
to flourish, the number of its members being in- 
creased more than threefold. Though the coun- 
try was new and money scarce, the congregation 
contributed liberally eveiy year for the payment 
of the incidental expenses. After this time of 
trial the church continued to flourish in greater 
peace and purity. Erom the foundation of this 
church to this time, every year, quarterly meet- 
ings of the pastor, elders, and deacons, for prayer 
and praise and the government of the church, 
have been regularly held. 

Every year two public fasts were kept, one rela- 
ting to the congregation, and the other to the sins 
and troubles of the nation and the world. Indeed, 
the influence of true religion has been so long and 
so much felt that there are probably few places 
in the country where the sanctuary has been more 
generally and punctually attended and the sacred 
Sabbath better observed. This church, from the 
beginning to this time, has contributed liberally 
to the funds of the Presbytery, Synod, and Gen- 
eral Assembly, to which they are subject, for the 
purpose of supporting and extending the cause 
of Christ. Their minister's salary was augment- 
ed to £80, which was raised generally by a town 
tax, but sometimes by voluntary subscriptions, 
when almost every tax-payer in the town sub- 
scribed liberally. In 1805, the pastoral relation 
between the minister and town was dissolved by 
mutual consent. In the same year the town 
chose the minister to represent them in the State 
Legislature. In that year also the Presbyterian 
Society of Bamet was incorporated by the Legis- 
latm'e, which paid the minister's salary as long 
as he lived. 

The members of the church of Bamet, in 
full communion when the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper was first dispensed in Caledonia 
County, September 25, 1791, were 46; in '92, 
68 ; in '96, 91 ; in '97, 97 ; in '98, 111 ; in 1802, 
117 ; in '13, 140 ; in '23, 182 : and in '30, when 
Mr. Goodwillie died, more than 200. During 
his ministry in Barnet more than 400 persons 
were enrolled as members, besides probably more 

than 150 in Ryegate, under his pastoral care from 
1790 to 1822. 

Since the present pastor's ordination and set- 
tlement as Ms father's assistant and successor, 
September 27, 1826, more than 250 persons have 
become members of this church. In 1840, how- 
ever, the congregation was divided, and Eev. 
James McAi-thur ministered to one part at Ste- 
vens's Village, one half of his time, from 1846 
to '57. The whole numbers of members at pres- 
ent belonging to the United Presbyterian Church 
in Barnet is about 200, besides some who reside 
in adjacent towns. 

Nine persons connected with the Associate Con- 
gregation of Bamet have become ministers of the 
gospel, viz : Rev. D. Chassell, D.D., who gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in 1810; Eev. Peter 
Shaw, Rev. Robert Shaw, Rev. Thomas Goodwil- 
lie, and Rev. David Goodwillie, the sons of the 
pastor, who graduated in Dartmouth College in 
1820 ; Rev. William Galbraith, a son of one of 
the elders, who graduated at Union College, N. 
Y., and settled as a minister of the Associate 
Church in Freeport, Pa.; Rev. Thomas Gilkev- 
son, who graduated at JeiFerson College, Pa., 
became a minister of the Associate Church, and 
settled in Conemaugh, Pa.; Rev. William C. 
Somers, who graduated at Union College, N. Y., 
and is now settled as the pastor of the United 
Presbyterian Congregation of Hobart, N. Y.; 
and Rev. Robert Samuel, who graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1856. 

Mr. Gilkerson's father is now one of the elders 
of the church in which he has held office about 
50 years. He was the first person who sub- 
scribed Mr. Goodwillie's call in 1790, and has 
been long in office in the town, being a magis- 
trate for many years and representing the town 
seven times in the Legislature of the State. 

The Associate Presbyterian Congregations of 
Barnet and Ryegate belonged to the Associate 
Presbytery of Pennsylvania from the time that 
these congregations applied to that Presbytery 
for a minister till May 21, 1801, when the Asso- 
ciate Synod of North America was organized, 
when they were included in the Associate Pres- 
bytery of Cambridge, N. Y., then formed. To 
this Presbytery they belonged till July 10, 1840, 
and the Associate Presbytery of Vermont, in- 
cluding all the ministers and congregations in Ver- 
mont belonging to the Synod, was constituted at 
Bamet by Rev. Thomas Goodwillie, senior min- 
ister according to the decree of the Associate 
Synod. The Presbytery of Vermont has be- 
longed, since May, 1858, to the General Assem- 
bly of the United Presbyterian Church of North 
America, then formed by the union of the Asso- 
ciate and Associate Reformed Synods. 

Rev. David Goodwillie was born in Tans- 
hall, in the parish of Ivinglassie, Fifeshire, Scot- 
land. The mansion in which he was born stands 



a little south of the highway between Leslie, on 
the Levcn River, and tlie church of Kinglassie, 
and distant from each place about half a mile. 
It commands an extensive prospect, Edinburgh, 
15 miles to the south, being seen in a clear 
day. Here the good-natured Goodwillie family 
(as their neighbors called them) dwelt for five 
successive generations for more than 150 years. 
His great-grandfather lived in times of persecu- 
tion, and encountered the opposition of the curate. 
His father, grandfiither, and great-grandfather 
were "smiths" by trade. His grandfather,* 
David Goodwillie, was baptized October 15, 
1665, and died November 7, 1745, aged 80 years. 
He was a member of the Established Church of 
Scotland and a ruling elder in the parish of Kin- 
glassie, and was buried in its churchyard. He 
was married to Elizabeth Dewar, who died No- 
vember 10, 1739, aged 65 years. They had four 
children, who survived them, — two sons, David 
and James, and two daughters, Christian and 
Elizabeth. They were possessed of considerable 
property in land and "movables." Their young- 
est son, James Goodwillie, inherited the " mova- 

He was a member of the Established Church 
of Scotland, and a ruling elder in the Paiish of 
Kinglassie, whose minister was ]\Ir. Currie, who 
at first decidedly favored the cause of the Ers- 
kines and others who seceded from the Established 
Church of Scotland on account of grave ciTors in 
doctrine and practice, which the General Assem- 
bly of that church refused to condemn and cor- 
rect ; but who afterwards strenuously opposed 
by his writings the secession or Associated Clmrch 
of Scotland, which cause his niling elder espoused 
as the cause of God, and therefore left the Estab- 
lished Church and joined the Associate Chm-ch 
and became a member of the Associate Congre- 
gation of Abemethy, 12 miles distant from his 
residence. But when the Associate Congi-ega- 
tion of Leslie was organized, he became a member 
and elder, and so continued till his death. He 
was widely known and highly esteemed as an 
intelligent and pious man. His letters to liis 
childi'en show that he exercised himself unto 
godliness and entertained a deep concern that 
the glory of God should be promoted in his own 
and their spiritual and eternal welfare. He was 
married to Slary Davidson, December 26, 1748, 
who was a helpmeet to him in things both tem- 
poral and spiritual. They had eight children, 
foru: sons and four daughters, three of whom died 
young. The parents were diligent in "bringing 
up their children in the nurture and admonition of 
the Lord," and had the satisfaction of seeing 

* We are aware this part of the sketch is not strict- 
ly Vermont history, yet we have 6uch an accurate 
history of tliis old Scotch settlement, reversing the 
order and running from the present backward into 
the past, that it is much like an inclination felt when 
standing at the lower end of a picture gallery, to let 
our eye sweep up through the vista as far as our un- 
broken vision may extend. — Ed. 

their surviving children become members of the 
church, and hearing one son preach the everlast- 
ing gospel. 

The father died of dropsy, which for a long 
time affected one of his lower limbs. One day, 
when rather worse than usual, he called all the 
family together and prayed with them, after 
which he told tlie children that he had taken sol- 
emn baptismal vows for them, which, as he had 
received help from God, he had endeavored to 
fulfil by liis instructions and example, and then 
solemnly warned them that if they did not live a 
life of faith and holiness the blame would rest 
upon themselves. He was born in 1709, and 
died on the Sabbath day, Jauuaiy 6, 1782, aged 
73 years, and was buiied in the cliurchyard of 
Kinglassie. Two or three days before his death, 
while lying still on his bed, he broke out in 
a rapture, saying he was full of the joy of 
the Holy Spirit, and inquired when the Sabbath 
would come, expressing " a desii'e to depart and 
be with Christ." His son, having been ap- 
pointed to preach at a distant place the Sabbath 
liis father died, on the Saturday before his depart- 
ure, called the family togethei', and having sung 
Psalm xxiii. and prayed, took his farewell. 

Extract from a letter of Rev. David Goodwil- 
lie to his brother in America, wiitten at this time. 
. . . . " Our father finished his pilgrimage 
on earth on the sixth of January last. He died 
a peaceful death at 8 o'clock on Sabbath morn- 
ing, in the presence of our mother, brother, 
and sisters, and was buried on Tuesday, the 
eighth, in the family burial-place. His senses 
remained to the last. Great patience, Clu'istian 
resignation, and other religious exercises were 
manifest during the whole of his last affliction, 
wliich lasted for about three weeks. Thus, my 
dear brother, has the Lord of life been pleased 
to remove from the troubles of this vain world, 
and, as we confidently hope, taken to the full 
enjoyment of himself forever, one of the best of 
parents, who, in a careful manner, gave us 
Chiistian instruction, and guided us by his good 
example. Our loss is great, but his gain by this 
happy change is far greater. Blessed be the 
God of grace and consolation, we are not left to 
mourn as those who have no hope. " Mark the 
perfect man and behold the upright, for the end 
of that man is peace." "Precious in the sight 
of the Lord is the death of his saints." 

Let this lead us to take faith's view of him 
who died for us, and to a firm confidence in the 
everlasting Father for the supply of all our 
wants, spiritual and temporal. Let us be con- 
cerned to be ready to enter into the joy of om* 
Lord, for we know not how soon we may be 
called to go hence. Let us live by faith in 
" Christ who died and rose again." How 
full of consolation are the following subjects 
on which I have lately been led to mediti-.te ! 
Rom. Aiii. 18. " For I reckon that the suffer- 



ings of this present time are not worthy to be 
compared with the glory Wiiit.-h shall be revealed 
in us." Phil. i. 21. "For me to live is Christ, 
and to die is gain." 2 Tim. i. 10. " Jesus 
Chiist hath abolished death, and brought life 
and immoi-tality to light by the gospel." 

Rev. David Goodwillie was the first-bom 
of his father's family, and was baptized Dec. 31, 
1749, by Eev. John Erskine, son of Rev. Eben- 
ezer Erskine, who was the first minister of the 
Associate Presbyterian Congregation of Leslie, 
to which the family belonged. 

His eldest sister, Elizabeth, was bom in 1753, 
and married to James Blythe, an elder of the 
Associate Congregation of Abemethy, Sept. 1, 
1775, and died in 1836. 

His brother Joseph, bom April 3, 1751, emi- 
grated to America about the year 1773, and died 
in Bamet, Eeb. 24, ISOS. 

His sister Christian, bom July 26, 1758, was 
married to "William Coventrie, a member of the 
Associate Congregation of Abemethy, where she 
died Feb. 14, 1806. 

His brother James, born July 16, 1760, was 
married, had a large family, and lived to old age. 

His mother died in Leslie, Scotland, June 25, 
1806, at an advanced age, and was buried in the 
churchyard of Kiaglassie. She was a Ckristian 
mother indeed, and took a deep interest in the 
temporal and spiritual welfare of her children. 
She sm-vived her husband 24 years, and was sep- 
arated, 18 years before her death, from her first- 
bom, for whom she entertained a high esteem 
and strong attachment, and he proved his filial 
affection and regard by conti'ibuting liberally to 
her support as long as she lived, though his sal- 
ary was not large, and his family increasing. 

It is probable that Mr. GoodwUlie was en- 
gaged at manual labor till about 18 years of age, 
when he began to study, with a -view to the 
sacred ministry, and prosecuted his academical 
education at Alloa, and finished it at the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh. He studied theology under 
Professor Moncrief, at Alloa, where the Theolog- 
ical Seminary of the Associate Synod was estab- 
lished. For support when prosecuting his studies 
he successfully engaged in teaching, and taught 
at Ryelaw near Leslie, and Easter Fernie, near 
Capar, ia Fifeshire. 

After he had passed through the usual course 
of academical and theological studies, the Asso- 
ciate Synod recommended him to be taken on 
trial for license. His trials having proved satis- 
factory, he was licensed to preach the everlasting 
gospel by the Associate Presbytery of Eirkcaldy 
in the beginning of October, 1778. The next 
month he went to L-eland, where he remained 
preaching to the congregations of the Associate 
Church in that country for nearly a year, when 
he returned to Scotland. In September, 1785, 
he went to the north of England, where he con- 
tinued more than a year, preaching in Westmore- 
land and Cumberland. The rest of the time till 

his emigration to America, he was employed in 
preaching in the different Presbyteries of the 
Associate Church in Scotland. He kept a list 
of all the times and places when and where he 
officiated, and the texts of Scripture on wliich 
he preached at these times and places, from which 
it appears that he was diligent in fulfilling the 
appointments of the Associate Synod in sending 
him to the different Presbyteries, and of these 
Presbyteries in sending bim to preach to the con- 
gregations under their jurisdiction. His ac- 
quaintance and coiTCspondence with the ministers 
and preachers of the Associate Synod of Scot- 
land, were extensive. 

In consequence of application for preachers, 
made by the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylva- 
nia to the Associate Synod in Scotland, and a 
petition fi-om the chm'ch and town of Bamet, 
preferred to that synod, to send them a 
preacher, that Synod recommended him and the 
Rev. A. White to go to the assistance of that 
Presbytery. With this recommendation he com- 
plied. Taking a sorrowful farewell of his 
mother, sisters, brother, and many friends, both 
lay and clerical, he sailed fi-om Greenock, March 
15, 1788, in com]3any with Rev. A. White, two 
other gentlemen, and five ladies as cabin passen- 
gers. After a passage of 51 days, he arrived 
at New York the fifth of May following, where 
he remained preaching till the last week of the 
month, when he went to Philadelphia, Pa., to 
meet with the Associate Presbytery of Pennsyl- 

He was an important and seasonable acquisi- 
tion to that Presbytery, as urgent calls for preach- 
ers were numerous and increasing. That he 
might be qualified to exercise all the functions 
of a minister of the gospel in the newly organ- 
ized congregations in which he should be called 
to labor, the Presbytery determined to ordain 
bim at an early period, and assigned him subjects 
for trials for ordination. According to appoint- 
ment of Presbytery, he preached in June, in Ox- 
ford and Rocky Creek, Pa., in August in Rock- 
bridge Co., Va., and in September and October, 
in MUl Creek, Franklin, Rocky Creek, and other 
places in Pennsylvania, and attended the Presby- 
tery of Pennsylvania, at Pequea, Oct. 1, 1788. 
His trials for ordination having proved satisfac- 
tory, he was ordained by the Associate Presbytery 
of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 31, 
1788, in the hall of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Rev. Thomas Beveridge presided, and 
preached fi-om 2 Cor. iv. 1. " Therefore, seeing 
we have this ministry, as we have received 
mercy, we faint not." Immediately after which 
he delivered the charge to him. The sermon 
and charge were soon printed. Rev. John An- 
derson, D. D., was ordained by the Presbytery in 
the afternoon of the same day. Rev. William 
Marshall presided, and preached on the occasion. 
After this, Mr. Goodwillie went to New York, 
where he dispensed the Lord's Supper. In No- 



vcniber ho arrived iu Cambridge, N. Y., where 
he labored during the winter, preaching occasion- 
ally in Argyle and other places in the vicinity. 
In April, 1789, ho returned to New York and 
Philadelphia, where he attended a meeting of the 
Presbjtory, and then went to Carlisle, where he 
labored the most of May and June, occasionally 
preaching in Pequea and other congi-cgations in 
that part of Pennsylvania, and assisting JNIr. 
Clarkson at his communion on the 24th of May. 
Returning to Philadelphia, he assisted Mr. Mar- 
shall at a dispensation of that holy ordinance, 
June 21st. On the next Sabbath he preached in 
New York, where he continued to labor till Sep- 
tember, when he went to Cambridge, where, ac- 
cording to the appointment of Presbytery, he 
presided at the installation of Rev. Thomas Bev- 
eridge, and delivered to him the pastoral charge. 

From Cambridge, probably after the meeting 
of the Presbytery there, Oct. 1, 1789, he returned 
to New York, where ho attended a meeting of 
Presbytery, Oct. 19, with Messrs. Marshall, 
Beveridge, Anderson, and White. His call to 
Barnet, and settlement there, in 1781, we have 
already related in the ecclesiastical record of 

During these transactions in Bamet Mr. Good- 
willie went back to New York, where he was 
April 10, 1790, and proceeded to Philadelphia, 
where he assisted Mr. Marshall at the commun- 
ion, April 25. In May he probably preached in 
the vacant congregations west of Philadelphia, 
as we find he was at Marsh Creek, where he 
manicd his friend and companion. Rev. A. 
White to Margaret Kerr, May 27, 1790. In the 
first part of June he visited Alexandria and 
Fredericksburg, Va., and returned to Philadel- 
phia, where he was mamed to Miss Beatrice 
Henderson, July 7, 1 790. They went to New 
York before the end of that month, and proceeded 
to Bamet, where they amved about the 12th of 
September, 1790. They lodged at first at John 
Hindman's for a few days, after which they 
resided, till the close of 1791, with John Ross, 
who lived near the south end of Ross Pond. 

The charter of the town gave one share or 
right of land to the first settled minister of the 
gospel. As he was the first settled in the town 
and county, he obtained this right, which con- 
sisted of 340 acres of land, situated in three 
different parts of the town. A lot of 100 acres 
lay nearly a mile southeast of the centre of the 
town, four acres of which, on the northwest cor- 
ner of the lot, were cleared when he moved into 
town. Ho gave to " tlie Presbyterian Society of 
Barnet," two acres on the northeast corner of 
which were the meeting-house and graveyard. 
200 acres lay about a mile southeast from the 
centre of the town. Another lot of forty acres 
of inferior land lay on a liill east of the Pas- 
sumpsic, above the fiills near the mouth of the 
river. In order to obtain a better site for build- 
ing, he purchased a piece of land on the north- 

west line of the first-mentioned lot, on which he 
erected a largo frame house, into which he moved, 
Dec. 20, 1791. 

For about 12 or 16 years after he settled in 
Barnet, he had two difiicult and doubtful cases 
of discipline, but his faith, patience, and perse- 
verance finally triumphed over all discourage- 
ments. Ml'. Beveridge, that " good servant of 
Jesus Christ," who had similar tiials, wiites to 
him at different times. 

" Vert dear Sir: Lotus not be discouraged with 
trials and temptations, but let us consider thom ns 
means by which the Lord fits instruments lor bis ser- 
vice. I feel in some measure tlic afflictions of my 
brethren. Let us be cheerful under them." " We 
must set our faces to the storm. If we faithfully 
serve the Lord, suffering for him, and with him, we 
shall reign with him. In a little while all these 
things which cause us grief and pain in this world 
shall be to us no more. I hope if we attend to our 
Master's service, he will not leave us without evi- 
dences, both of his fatherly care iu providing for 
our wants, and of his gracious presence with us in 
liis service. The more cheerful, we are iu his work, 
all things will go the better with us." 

In 1804, a communication written by a clergy- 
man of another denomination, and residing in 
an adjoining State, was published, in which the 
congregation of Bai-net was said to be " a 
worldly sanctuary," and " no church of Christ." 
This occasioned a correspondence, which is still 
preserved, and which manifests that while Mr. 
Goodwillie was a man able to defend the right, 
ho was still the Christian, full of candor, charity, 
and meekness. Indeed, he used arguments, 
drawn from reason and revelation, so poweifnlly, 
and applied the facts in the case so forcibly, that 
the calumniator of the congregation of Bamet 
was constrained to confess that " they were a 
body of Christians highly and generally re-- 

Clergymen of another denomination, who, 
both in their discourses and publications, opposed 
the government of the United Stales as no ordi- 
nance of God, both from the pulpif and press, 
traduced Mr*. Goodwillie as a traitor to the 
church of Scotland. But he was a firm friend 
of civil and religious liberty, and held fast the 
standards of the church of Scotland, as founded 
on the word of God. While he was a student 
in his native country, he favored the cause of the 
United States, then nobly struggling for their 
independence. Moreover, ho never belonged to 
the Established Church of Scotland, but to the 
Associate Church, which, both in Scotland and 
America, testified against the en-ors of the 
Established Church, but held fast "the refor- 
mation principles of the Cluirch of Scotland." 
Yet notwithstanding these asper.'^ions, ho contin- 
ued to prosper in his ministerial labors till death 
dissolved the pastoi-al relation to his congrega- 
tion, which he left in a prosperous condition; 
and it is remarkable that the congi-egations of all 
those clergymen who misrepresented him and his 
I congregation, rejected them long before their 



death. Here it may also be proper to add that 
he observed through life the rule "to speak 
evil of no man." When he was defamed he 
made no defence, following a more excellent and 
effectual way ; " when he was reviled, he reviled 
not again, but committed himself to Him who 
judgeth righteously," and obeyed the inspired 
injunction, "with well-doing put to silence the 
ignorance of foolish men." 

During this long period of trial he did not 
labor in vain, for, as it has been before stated, the 
communicants numbered threefold more than 
at his settlement ; and after this there were 
annual accessions till his death, when there were 
more than 200 living members. The whole 
number enrolled under his ministry in Barnet 
was more than 400. 

When the call for him was executed in Bar- 
net, July 5, 1790, it will be remembered that 12 
members from the congregation of Ryegate 
attended and signed a paper of adherence to the 
call, expecting to receive a portron of his labors. 
That congregation received a sixth part of pas- 
toral services till the autumn of 1 822, when they 
obtained a settled minister. The records of that 
church were lost, but it is supposed that more 
than 150 members were admitted during that 
time, as the congregation was so strong that they 
gave a preacher a call in 1809, who accepted 
one from another congregation, and in 1814 gave 
another preacher a call, who had some thoughts 
of accepting it, but was also settled in another 
congregation. So that during his ministry for 
about 40 years in Barnet, and 32 in Ryegate, 
nearly 600 persons were enrolled members of 
these two congregations. During the whole of 
his ministry, even to old age, he was diligent, 
not only in preaching on the Sabbath, and visit- 
ing the sick, but every year paid a pastoral visit 
to the families of the congregations of both Bar- 
net and Ryegate, and publicly catechised the 
parents and childi-en in meetings in different 
parts of these two towns. The number of his 
baptisms of infants and adults amounts to sev- 
eral hundred. Once he baptized a child of the 
fifth generation, all living. When he was town- 
minister of Barnet he made a pastoral visit every 
year to every family in town. On one occasion 
a woman, the head of the household, refused to 
receive him as a minister. When departing, he 
turned round at the door of her house, and wiping 
his feet on the floor, said to her, " Christ com- 
manded them whom he ' sent to preach the king- 
dom of God ' in any house or city to ' shake off 
the very dust of their feet for a testimony against 
them who would not receive them nor hear their 
words,' and to depart saying, ' notwithstanding, 
be ye sure of this, the kingdom of God is come 
near to you.'" But the truth and grace of God 
soon prevailed, for what was said and done bad 
such an effect that the woman soon professed her 
faith in Christ, and he baptized her and her chil- 
dren, and she continued till lier death an exem- 

plary member of his church. His list of marriages 
amounts to nearly 200. In answer to petitions 
sent from Canada, for preaching, the Presbytery 
appointed him to go on a mission to the petition- 
ers. He left home Jan. 18, 1798, and went more 
than 150 miles beyond Montreal, and preached 
to them a few Sabbaths, and returned Feb. 24, 
having travelled nearly 600 miles in the winter. 

During this prolonged period of trial he was 
called in God's gracious providence to endure 
two grievous losses, one of a public and the other 
of a domestic nature, — the death of his well-be- 
loved brother, Mr. Beveridge, with whom he was 
most intimately associated in the ministry, and the 
death of two of his own children, vv^hich mouniful 
events took place in his own house nearly at the 
same time. The sacrament of the Lord's Sup- 
per Avas dispensed to the congregation of Barnet 
the First Day, being the first Sabbath of July, 
1798. Mr. Beveridge came to assist on that oc- 
casion. Coming through Ryegate he took a 
drink of water, which sickened him and issued in 
dysentery. Though much indisposed wlien he 
arrived in Barnet, he preached on Saturday be- 
fore the communion. On the Sabbath his dis- 
ease had increased to such a degree that he was 
obliged to sit while he served two tables, and 
after the sacred ordinance was dispensed he 
preached an excellent and very affecting sermon 
from John xvii. 11 : " And now I am no more in 
the world, but these are in the world, and I come 
to thee." This was his last appearance in pub- 
lic ; and though conflicting with a mortal mala- 
dy, his talents and piety seerfed to shine with 
uncommon lustre, while he addressed the people 
with all the fervor of a dying man. He was un- 
able to attend public worship on the thanksgiv- 
ing on Monday. It was not till three weeks after 
this that he died, and all hopes of his recovery 
were Hot lost till the evening before his death. 
During these three weeks he was chiefly employed 
in prayer and reading the Scriptures ; and when 
unable to read he employed one of the elders who 
waited on him, to read such passages of the Bible 
as he pointed out, on which he frequently made 
observations as they went along. William Gil- 
kerson, of Barnet, was sent to inform his family 
and congregation of his sickness, and they imme- 
diately sent James Small and Robert Oliver, 
two of the elders, to him. 

The disease extended to Mr. Goodwillie's fam- 
ily, and two of his children died on Saturday, 
July 7th, the anniversary of their parents' mar- 
riage. The children were laid in one grave. 
Mr. Goodwillie himself, ere the tliii-d Sabbath of 
the month, was seized with the same disorder, 
which pi-evailed and proved very mortal iu the 
town at that time. Btit such was Mrs. Good- 
willie's exemplary prudence and tenderness, that 
notwithstanding Mr. Beveridge was the means 
of bringing the disorder into the family, of which 
two of her children died,«he was unremitting in 
kindness to him ; and though an affectionate 



mother, never slied a tear in liis sight, for fear 
of hurting his sensibility. On the third Sabbath 
a number of people gathered to the house wliere 
the two distressed ministers lay. Mr. Bever- 
idge's heart was so touched with compassion to- 
wards them, who were, at that time, like sheep 
■without a slieplierd, that he insisted on being per- 
mitted to preach to them. Notwithstanding the 
entreaty of his friends, who still had some hopes 
of his I'ecovery, he roused himself once more and 
sat up in the bed, around which the people gath- 
ered, and after praise and prayer, preaclicd a 
well-connected and very practical sermon from 
Psalm xxxi. 23, " Oh love the Lord, all ye his 
saints ! " This discourse was delivered vnth 
great fervor of spirit, and in the application he 
did, in a veiy pathetic manner, exhort the people 
of Barnet to study peace among themselves, and 
to continue steadfast in their religious profession ; 
warned them of the danger of apostasy, and said 
that if any of them should continue their conten- 
tious, which he hadbefore endeavored to remove, 
he would be a witness against them in the day 
of judgment. He preached about an hour, and, 
after prayer and praise, dismissed the congrega- 
tion. This exertion was far too great for his 
strength. In the evening he grew worse, the 
fever increased, and before midnight all hopes of 
liis recovery were lost. He was fully sensible of 
his situation, and continued in this state till near 
the dawn of day, when the storm was changed 
into a calm. To the astonishment of his attend- 
ants, he sat up in bed and said, " I am a dying 
man, and dying ftist ; as to bodily pain, I am free 
of it. It is well that I am not afraid to die." 

Mr. Goodwillie was then called up from his 
bed of sickness. When he and his family 
were come into the room, Mr. Beveridge said 
lie would pray ^vith them once more before 
he died ; and then stretching forth his hands 
and speaking as fully and distinctly and with as 
much composure as when in perfect health, 
addressed the throne of grace, praying for the 
church of Christ in general and the Associate 
Church in particular ; for his own congregation 
(in Cambridge, N. Y.) ; especially for the rising 
generation ; for his bretlircn in the ministry, Mr. 
Marshall in Pliiladelphia and Mr. Goodwillie by 
name, that they might be supported under the 
trials they had met with in their congregations 
and families ; and for those who had so faitlifully 
attended liim during his illness ; and then, hav- 
ing commended his soul into the hand of God 
who gave it, concluded his pathetic and heart- 
melting prayer with these words : " The prayers 
of Thomas Beveridge are now ended." 

After this he addi-essed the company around 
him and exhorted Mr. Goodwillie, who was a ten- 
der-hearted man and an affectionate father, not to 
give way to excessive grief for the loss of his 
children, as he would find their death among the 
things that were working together for good ; 
thanked him and Mrj. Goodwillie for their kind- 

ness shown to him in his illness, and desired 
him, when he wrote to Mr. Marshall in Philadel- 
phia, to inform him that he had not forgotten 
him in his last moments. He then addressed 
others in the company, according to the various 
trials they had passed through, — in which he 
discovered the most perfect recollection. After 
which he lay do^vn and desired two persons to 
sit by him, one on each side, and requested the 
rest of the company to withdraw. In the fore- 
noon he lay peifectly at ease ; in the aftenioon, 
grcw worse and took little notice of any person, 
but called Mr. Goodwillie and asked him if he 
knew what time the Son of Man would come. 
He replied that he thought about 10 o'clock the 
ensuing night, or at furthest at midnight; to 
which Mr. Beveridge replied, "I know now," 
after which he lay still. 

In the evening he seemed to revive, and as dis- 
tinctly as from the pulpit, repeated twice that re- 
markable passage, "/ hww that my Redeemer 
liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon 
the earth ; and though after my shin worms destroy 
this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God ; whom I 
shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and 
not another ; though my reins be consumed within 
me." After this he gradually sank, and about 
10 o'clock expired, without a struggle, a sigh, 
or groan. He lies buried in the churchyard at 
Baniet, in Mr. Goodwillie's burial-place, where 
his congregation erected a monument, with an 
appropriate inscription, which contains the orig- 
inal Hebrew of the passage, " / know that my Re- 
deemer liveth." 

The death of this eminent servant of Christ 
was deeply felt by Mr. and Mrs. Goodwillie, as 
he was their intimate friend, and as there were at 
that time so many urgent calls in the Associate 
Church for such sound, able, and faithful minis- 
ters. Mrs. Goodwillie, who was " a mother in 
Israel " indeed, expressed her pious public spirit 
on this mournful occasion by saying, that her 
loss by the death of her two childi-en in one day 
was not to be compared to the loss of the church 
by the death of Mi'. Beveridge. One of Mr. 
GoodwilUe's elders said that he would have 
willingly died in Mr. Beveridge's stead had it 
been the will of God to spare him to preach the 

Mr. Oliver, after he returned home to Cam- 
bridge, writes, after describing the saddening 
effect of the news of Mr. Beveridge's death on liis 
wife and congregation, "We all join with her in 
om- most sincere acknowledgments to you and 
Mrs. Goodwillie for your great care and kindness 
to the deceased and to us. We are anxious to hear 
of your recovery and Mary's, and how it fares with 
Mrs. Goodwillie after so much toil and trouble 
both in body and mind." Mr. Marshall,who was 
ministering to the bereaved congregation at that 
time, writes : " My salutations to you, who are 
like Joseph, separated from your ministerial 
brethren. Eememberme in a particular manner 



to your dear yoke-fellow, whose praise is in this 
church for her many. gifts and graces." 

Mr. and Mrs. Goodwillie, in 1802, were called 
to lament their loss by the death of Eev. William 
Marshall, of Philadelphia, another eminent min- 
ister of the Associate Church, and their kind and 
faithful friend, highly esteemed and well-be- 

On account of the distance from his residence to 
the places where the Synod and Presbyteries of 
Pennsylvania and Cambridge met,Mr. Goodwillie 
was not frequently present, which Avas regretted by 
both himself and his brethren. He wished to attend 
to the duties of a Presbyter, and they wished to 
have his counsel and advice, as well as to enjoy 
his company, to encourage and cheer them in the 
duties and difficulties of the ministry. He was 
present at the meeting of the Associate Synod 
in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1803, when he was chosen 
moderator; in 1804, 1807, 1809, and in 1824, 
when he was appointed to preach the Synod ser- 
mon in the absence of the moderator. 

So highly was he esteemed for his wisdom and 
understanding of the doctrine and order of the 
chui'ch of Christ that the Synod appointed him to 
make " a book of church government and disci- 
pline," which, after a few amendments and addi- 
tions, was enacted by the Synod as " a standing 
rule," and which is still in force. 

In his large collection of papers were found 
more than 1,000 letters, preserved to this time. 
The most of these were written by ministers of the 
Associate Church, both in Scotland and America, 
with some of whom the correspondence was main- 
tained till death. We find letters from Rev. Adam 
Gibb, Rev. John Jamieson, D.D., and also from 
Alexander Pringle, D.D., with whom he corre- 
sponded till his death. We also find letters from 
Rev. William Marshall, Eev. Thomas Bever- 
idge. Rev. John Anderson, D.D., with whom he 
corresponded till their death ; Rev. A. White, 
Rev. Francis Pringle, Eev. Thomas Hamilton, 
Rev. John Banks, D.D., and most of the other 
ministers of the Associate Church in this country 
at an early period. Prom one of these clergy- 
men he received nearly 300 letters in about 20 
years. The letters of very many of his coitc- 
spondents show that the writers were men of su- 
perior intelligence and piety, and many quota- 
tions might be made from them to show their 
high esteem of Mr. Goodwillie. They refer to 
liis company and conversation as having been so 
agreeable and edifying, and thank him for his let- 
ters, as giving them so much pleasure and profit, 
that they desire a continuance of his correspond- 
ence and the enjoyment of his company. 

Mr. Goodwillie seemed, indeed, well qualified 
for the station and relations in the church in which 
a gracious Providence had placed him. His men- 
tal endowments were suited to his circumstances, 
and were highly acceptable and advantageous to 
the people among whom he labored. From^his 
knowledge of human nature, he accurately dis- 

cerned the characters of men, and estimated and 
treated them according to their real worth ; and 
was generally regarded by them to be " a very 
knowing man ; " moreover, he was known to be 
amiable, peaceful, and contented ; hence he was 
frequently consulted by all classes, and, as a 
blessed peacemaker, through Ms influence many 
difiiculties were settled. 

It was his custom on the Sabbath forenoon to 
expound the Scriptures. In this way he ex- 
pounded all the New and most of the books of the 
Old Testament, — drawing inferences and obser- 
vations, both doctrinal and practical, from the 
passages expounded. His sermons were sound 
and sohd, well arranged, and full of the doctrines 
and duties of religion ; and many of his people 
became eminent for their faith, holiness, and 
good works. In the pulpit he was grave and 
solemn, calm and deliberate in delivery, — a 
minister of the word who did not aspire after 
popular applause " with the enticing words of 
man's wisdom," but who, rather with great 
plainness of speech, preached the glorious and 
everlasting gospel of Christ crucified ; while so 
deeply did his own soul experience the gracious 
power of the precious truths he taught that he 
often shed tears while delivering them to others. 

His last discourse was preached in the new 
brick meeting-house, Sabbath, July 18, 1830, 
from Hebrews, respecting the sojourning of 
Israel in the wilderness for forty years, and the 
use to wliich the apostle applies it. " There re- 
maineth, therefore, a rest for the jDCople of God. 
Let us therefore labor to enter into that rest." 
The people observed, afterwards, that the dis- 
course was remarkable, and he was himself 
deeply affected in delivering it, as he had been 
nearly 40 years settled in Barnet, and anticipated 
that his end Avas drawing near. A diary, kept 
by his son and assistant in the ministry, contains 
a particular account of his last sickness and 
death. On Thursday following, he seemed to be 
overcome by the heat of the weather, which was 
very oppressive, accompanied with debility and 
symptoms of cough and congestion of the lungs. 
For more than a week he Avas often delirious, 
and unable to converse much, but manifested 
during his sickness, by being often observed to 
be engaged in prayer and repeating parts of the 
Scriptures, that his thoughts Avere occupied Avith 
the things of God. After this, he greAV worse, 
and died in the evening of the 12th day of his 
sickness. In the morning of that day, he became 
quite sensible ; was aware that he had been 
delirious, and inquired how long it was since he 
was taken ill ; how it came upon him ; how long 
it was since the Lord's Supper had been dis- 
pensed, and how often he had preached since. 
He directed his executor to divide his library 
between his two sons in the ministry. After 
lying quiet for some time, apparently meditating, 
he looked up in the face of his son, to Avhom he 
had formerly observed that he would soon be 



left alone in his ministry, and said, in a calm j 
but firm tone of voice, " It appears that God, in 
his providence, is about to put a period to my 
life and labors, and take me to himself. I 
acknowledge his goodness to me and my family 
and connections. Tell my absent children and 
relatives that I pray for every one of them, and 
desire that they walk in the ways of the Lord, 
and that they pray for each other, and especially 
for those who have been bereaved by death. 
This affliction has come on me suddenly, and 
has left me little time for reflection, but it is the 
will of the Lord, and we should submit to it 
■with cheerful readiness. I acknowledge God's 
goodness to me and the church." He then ex- 
horted his three children present " to walk by 
faith." Afterwards, he spoke of his being de- 
voted to God, and acknowledged his unworthi- 
ness, but expressed his confidence in the mani- 
fold mercy of God in Christ. In the afternoon, 
the delirum returned, and the diflSculty of breath- 
ing increased, till 6 o'clock, August 2, 1830, 
when he departed in peace, in the 81st year of 
his age, having preached the gospel nearly 52 

His funeral was attended by a large concourse 
of people, many of whom were from Eyegate 
and other toAvns around Barnet. Several clergy- 
men belonging to adjacent towns were also 
present. Eev. Wm. Pringle, whose ordination 
and settlement in Ryegate he had lately attended, 
and to whom he gave the pastoral charge, read 
the 19th Psalm, with prayer; and he was in- 
teiTcd beside his deceased wife and children and 
fellow-laborer, jNIr. Beveridge. A monument was 
soon erected near the graves of Mr. and Mrs. 
Goodwillie, with appropriate inscriptions. The 
following Sabbath, Rev. Mr. Pringle preached 
to a large audience an excellent sermon, suited 
to the solemn occasion, from Psalm cxlii. 5. "/ 
cried unto thee, Lord; I said. Thou art my 
refuge and my portion in the land of the living." 
His death was considered a public loss ; even 
his acquaintance who survive still revere and 
cherish his memory, which is blessed. 

When he was settled in Barnet, the county 
was new. Except a clergyman of another de- 
nomination settled about 20 miles south of him, 
there was not another settled minister of any 
denomination within GO miles in any other direc- 
tion. This solitary state continued for 9 years. 

In 1798, he procured sheet iron, and got his 
brother, who followed his father's occupation, 
and had moved his family from Nova Scotia to 
Barnet in 1793, in order to enjoy his ministry, to 
make him a stove, wliich for a long time was 
the first used in this part of the country, and 
considered a great curiosity and comfort. About 
the year 1812, he i)rocured from the State of 
New York a four-wheeled vehicle, wliich was for 
some years the first carriage o^vned and used in 
In stature he was about 5 feet 10 inches; had a 

robust frame, and inclined to be corpulent in the 
decline of life. In his habits he was temperate 
and regular, and enjoyed generally good health. 
Thus he was enabled to endure without com- 
plaint the fatigue of travelling and the inclem- 
ency of the weather at all seasons, as well as the 
arduous labors of his ministry for so many years. 
In the last years of his life, he became deaf to a 
considerable degree, but his eyesight remained 
good, so that he could read till the last. 

He brought from Scotland a good library, 
mostly composed of theological works, which 
were much damaged by the carelessness of those 
who transported them up the Connecticut River, 
permitting them to get wet. At home, he kept 
close to the study-room adjoining his library, 
continuing his labors till midnight, — a practice 
maintained till near his death. 

In 1805, as before mentioned, his relation of 
pastor to the to-\vn was dissolved with mutual 
consent, the law of the State under which he 
was settled having been essentially modified. 
But Ms fellow-citizens soon gave him proofs, 
which continued through Hfc, of their high 
esteem, as well as their confidence in his ability 
and integi'ity, in electing him to three responsible 
offices. In the autumn of the same year, he was 
chosen to represent the town in the legislature, 
which held its session from Oct. 5 to Nov. 8, 
1805, at Danville, 7 miles from his residence. 
He always returned home on Saturday, and 
preached to his congregation on the Sabbath. 
In the same year, the Presbyterian Society of 
Barnet was incorporated, %vhich paid liis salary 
till his death. In 1807 he was chosen town 
clerk, and was annually re-elected by the town to 
that office till 1827, when he declined re-election. 

The mail was first extended to Barnet in 
1808. It was a weekly mail, and ran through 
the centre of the town. He was appointed the 
first postmaster in Barnet, and was continued in 
that office till 1818, when the route was changed 
to the Connecticut River. 

His talents for business were great. He was 
a ready writer, and wrote a good hand, and his 
transactions were methodical and exact. His 
residence, being near the centre of the town, was 
convenient for the inhabitants, and the duties of 
these offices were light and quickly discharged, 
and did not interfere with his pastoral duties, 
which he diligently discharged with punctuality. 

He labored both pul:)licly and privately till an 
academy was established in the county, at Peach- 
am, five miles from his residence, and some years 
before any otlier clergyman was settled in the 
county. By the charter he was appointed a tnas- 
tee, which ofiice he held till 1827, when he re- 
signed, and the Board of Trustees passed a vote 
of " thanks to him for his long and faithful ser- 
vices." He attended all their annual meetings 
during this period, and was the President of the 
Board for many years ; and annually chosen one 
of the examiners, and punctually attended. The 



pui^ils long remembered their examinations by 
the venerable minister of Bamet, who was es- 
teemed the most learned member of the Board 
of Trustees. Long after his death, the 50th an- 
niversary of tlie institution was celebrated, being 
attended by great numbers of its former pupils, 
from different parts of the United States and 
Canada. The jubilee lasted for two days. The 
late Chief Justice of Vermont delivered an ora- 
tion, and a distinguished lawyer from Massa- 
chusetts, one of the early pupils, in his speech, 
eulogized Mr. Goodwillie for his talents, erudi- 
tion, and piety. James On*, a member of his 
congregation in Barnet, gave the County Acad- 
emy $1,000 as a donation. 

He was charitable, hospitable, generous ; but 
modest and humble, and did not let his left hand 
know what his right hand gave to support the 
poor and spread the gospel. He was a life mem- 
ber of the Bible Society. He possessed great 
equanimity and fortitude, — was not uplifted by 
prosperity or cast down by adversity ; but rather 
inherited and cultivated through life a pecu- 
liarly cheerful disj)Osition, insomuch that it was 
remarked by the most intelligent of his people, 
that he appeared most cheerful in preaching 
when under trouble, whether of a public or do- 
mestic nature. He was esteemed a judicious man, 
and a faithful, affectionate friend. His brethren 
in the ministry sought his counsel and company, 
and the regret was mutual that they were set- 
tled so far apart. Eev. John Anderson, D.D., 
who was ordained with him in Philadelphia, and 
who officiated at his installation in Barnet, was 
a friend very highly esteemed and beloved for 
his superior talents, learning, and piety, with 
whom Mr. Goodv^^illie continued to correspond 
till the death of Mr. A., not four months before 
his own, which event deeply affected him as long 
as he lived. 

Eev. Andrew Heron, D.D., who was many 
years clerk of the Associate Synod, -NiTites to one 
of Mr. Goodwillie's sons with respect to his 
"venerated father's life and character." "I 
never heard him preach, but spent some days in 
his hospitable mansion, in 1814, when he was 
considerably advanced in life. His kindness and 
hospitaiity were unbounded. I was delighted 
and edified with his society and conversation. 
He had a rich fund of anecdotes, and a pleasing 
manner of telling them. I have often heard the 
fathers of the Associate Church, now dead, ex- 
press their confidence in him and their regard 
for him. I have often heard my aunt, who emi- 
grated in the same ship, tell how much she and 
the rest of the cabin passengers were indebted 
to his constant pleasantries and liveliness of 
manner, making the voyage to seem short and 

Besides his inexhaustible fund of good anec- 
dotes and a good way of relating them, his sal- 
lies were ready, pertinent, forcible ; and the quick 
wit of his replies produced sudden bursts of 

great laughter. When a little child, he wandered 
from home, and, when returning, was met by his 
mother searching for him. Fearing chastise- 
ment, he fell do'svn on his knees before her, held 
up his hands, and said, " All obedience, mother." 
Such submission satisfied the mother. When 
a member of the Legislature of Vermont, his re- 
plies to the arguments of an opponent were so 
forcible and facetious, that the whole house was 
convulsed with laughter, at the opponent's ex- 
pense, who had the magnanimity not to resent 
it. One Saturday evening, a young, reckless 
member moved " that the Legislature adjourn till 
to-morrow morning," which so shocked the moral 
sense of the house, that many members turned 
their eyes on the Scotch minister as a sign for 
him to defend the sacred Sabbath. He rose and 
said, " I second the motion," which greatly as- 
tonished the house ; but he continued, " I second 
the motion, not because I approve of it, but to 
have the right to call for the yeas and nays, 
which I accordingly do, for I wisli it to be kno^vn 
who in this house are the friends and who the 
foes of the Sabbath." The mover immediately 
withdrew the motion, knowing his name would 
be recorded in the journal and published in the 
newspapers as an enemy to the Lord's day, 
which would give him rather a killing notoriety. 
More than 40 years since, he attended commence- 
ment of Dartmouth College, after whicli he 
called on Dr. ShurtlefF, one of the professors, 
who loved sprightly conversation as well as him- 
self. While they were engaged in talking, Mr. 
A., a graduate, entered the room and took the 
seat of another graduate who had just gone out. 
Mr. Goodwillie, having been so earnestly engaged 
in conversation that he did nojt perceive the 
change, said, " I liked Mr. A.'s speech very well." 
The doctor said, "I am glad to hear it, and will 
introduce you to him." Turning to Mr. A., Mr. 
Goodwillie remarked, immediately after the in- 
troduction, " I liked your speech very well ; but 
perha]}s it was not so deep as some of the others." 
Thus he saved himself in some degree from the 
impropriety of praishig a person in his presence. 
Dr. ShurtlefF spoke highly of his public spirit 
and generosity. One morning at the breakfast 
table, with a few witty words spoken occasion- 
ally as he was eating, he kept a brother clergy- 
man laughing so heartily that he could not get 
time to eat or drink, which he constantly urged 
him to do. 

Mns. Goodwillie was born in Earkcaldy, 
Eifeshire, Scotland, Jan. 24, 1761. David Hen- 
derson, her father, widely known for his great 
zeal and piety, was a member of the Associate 
Church. He, at first, belonged to the congrega- 
tion of Ceres, 14 miles distant, but when the 
Associate Congregation of Kirkcaldy was or- 
ganized, about 1750, he became a member and 
was chosen an elder, which office he held till his 
death, in 1775. It was his custom to rise early 
in the morning and engage till breakfast in 



reading the Scriptures, self-examination, medita- 
tion, and prayer, and continued "instant in 
prayer" through the day. He was a merchant, 
and it was his custom, when he had placed the 
goods on the counter, while his customers were 
examining what to buy, to turn his back upon 
them and his face to the wall, and engage in 

Her mother was a daughter of William Gard- 
ner of Cupar, Fifeshii-e, who joined the Associ- 
ate Church and became a member of the con- 
gregation of Abemethy, 14 miles distant, but 
afier the congregation of Ceres, in the neighbor- 
hood of Cupar, was organized, became a mem- 
ber and continued to adorn his profession till his 
death in 1772, aged 90 years. He had two chil- 
dren, daughters, one of whom was man-ied to 
John Culbcrt, a merchant in Cupar, who had 14 
children, one of whom was Rev. John Culbert, 
a minister of the Associate Synod, who was in 
France at the time of the Revolution, lost all his 
property, and narrowly escaped with his life ; and 
who was acquainted and corresponded with the 
eminent Rev. Jolm Newton, of London, whose 
nan-ative he had printed in Scotland in 1783. 
He died in 1825. 

Margaret Gardner, the youngest daughter, was 
man-ied in 1744 to David Henderson. They 
had 7 children. The youngest was Mrs. Good- 
willie, whose mother, noted for piety, died when 
she was but a little child, and her father when 
she was but 14; but his religious instruc- 
tions and example had made a powerful and per- 
manent impression, and having been afterward 
more thorouglily instructed in the word of God, 
she joined the congregation of Kirkcaldy. 

She emigrated to America with Mr. Good- 
willie in 1788, and resided two years with her 
brother, David Henderson, of Fredei'icksburg, 
Va., who came to America before the Revolu- 
tionary War, in which he suffered great losses, 
and enlisted in a company commanded by Capt. 
Washington, a brother of Gen. Washington, 
with whose mother he was acquainted. Mr. 
Henderson was a godly and generous man ; for 
many years a member and ruling elder of the 
Presbyterian church of Fredericksburg, Va., and 
died in 1837. Among his many acts of gener- 
osity was a liberal donation, continued for many 
years, for the education of two of his sister's 
sons for the sacred ministry. 

Miss Henderson was married to Mr. Good- 
willie July 7, 1790, by Rev. William Marshall, 
in liis own house in Philadelphia, Pa., and he 
held her in high esteem during life and made 
"honorable mention" of her in his life of Mr. 
Beveridge. To one who had always been accus- 
tomed to a city life, the change to live in a coun- 
try newly settled was great ; but she submitted 
to discomforts cheerfully, that she might be in- 
strumental for the spiritual interests of those 
among whom she came to dwell. Ever verj' 
much concerned that she might be helpful to 

a man of God in promoting the success of his 
ministry, she was indeed a gi'cat helpmeet to 
her husband, in thiugs spiritual as well as tem- 
poral. So deep an interest did they naturally 
take in the prosperity of the church, that it was 
their usual practice to set apart days for fosting, 
humiliation, and prayer, which they obseiwed in 
the family, for the peace and prosperity of the 
congregation, as well as the spiritual interests of 
the family. She had a female prayer-meeting 
which met in their house, and was an active 
member of a female society stiU existing in the 
congregation, for the puq)Ose of contributing to 
Bible and missionary societies, and the support 
of young men studying with a view to the sacred 
ministry. Her friends who had the best oppor- 
tunity of knowing her character and hal)its, rep- 
resent her as conscientiously careful in discharg- 
ing all personal and domestic duties, much de- 
voted to prayer and perusal of the Word of God, 
and greatly enriched with religious experience. 
She was a faithful and affectionate Christian 
mother. When her husband was gone from 
home, she observed family worship ; and so fer- 
vent were her prayers for her family and the 
church, that frequently the floor where she 
bowed down on her knees to pray was wet with 
her tears. And it appears that when she came 
to die she was well "exercised unto godliness; " 
yet her humility was so great that she now es- 
teemed herself "to be nothing," and lamented 
that she had not lived a more useful life. But 
her faith in the gracious promises remained firm, 
and she had a desire to depart, and repeatedly 
prayed, " O Lord Jesus, come quickly ! " When 
dj'ing, her aged husband kissed her, and said, 
"I resign you to God from whom I received 
you." She died Feb. 4, 1827, aged 66 years, 
three years and a half before her liusband. A 
great concourse of people followed her to the 

In concluding this history of Bamet, the 
writer would observe that he obtained materials 
so abundant that it would require a volume to 
contain a full history of the town. His chief 
work has been to examine, select, an-ange, and 
condense. Besides the use of the town and 
church records and papers, and the extensive 
collections of letters, papers, journals, and charts 
belonging to the late Rev. David Goodwillie, he 
is indebted to Hon. Walter Han^ey for the 
letters, papers, jotirual, and chart of his father, 
Col. Harvey ; to Henry Stevens, Esq., for im- 
portant maps and documents, and to Willard 
Stevens, Esq., for the papei*s, letters, lists, jour- 
nal, and charts of his father, Enos Stevens, Esq. 

Bamet, March 4, 1861. 



They had 8 children, four sons and four 
daughters; of whom one daughter and three 



sons are now living. One of the sons has been 
long and intimately connected with the church 
and town of Bamet. 

Mart Goodwillie was bom Oct. 2, 1792. 
She was dangerously sick when her brother and 
sister died, and Mr. Beveridge joined in prayer 
with the elders that she might be recovered. 
She lived to become the wife of his successor in 
his congregation. She was educated at the 
Caledonia County Academy, and married by 
her father Sept. 28, 1810, to Kev. Alexander 
Bullions, D.D., pastor of the Associate Congre- 
gation of Cambridge. Eev. P. Bullions, D. D., 
in the life of her eminent and excellent husband, 
says " she was a woman of uncommon worth 
and loveliness ; meek, unassuming, patient under 
many afflictions ; of sincere, unaffected piety, 
and beloved by all who knew her. She was the 
mother of 6 children, whom she endeavored to 
train up to fear and serve the Lord, commending 
them with much and fervent prayer to Him who 
gave them. She died in the full assurance of 
faith, Jan. 4, 1830." Her eldest daughter, a 
superior woman, was man'ied to the Eev. Wm. 
Pringle, pastor of the Associate Congregation of 
Eyegate. Her eldest son, Eev. David G. Bul- 
lions, graduated at Union College, N. Y. ; became 
a minister of the Associate Church, and was 
settled as his father's assistant and successor. 
The other son graduated at Union College, and 
became a celebrated physician, having studied 
his profession in Europe and America. 

Mildred Goodwillie, born Aug. 1, 1798, 
was educated in Caledonia County Academy, 
and married by her father, July 11, 1817, to 
Eev. John Donaldson, pastor of the Associate 
Congregation of Florida, N. Y., but afterwards 
settled in Scroggsfield, Ohio, where she died in 
183-, greatly lamented. She deserves the good 
character given to Mrs. Bullions, whom she 
greatly resembled. She had 7 children, five of 
whom are living. 

Thomas Goodwillie, bom Sept. 27, 1800, 
and David Goodwillie, bom Aug. 28, 1802. 
These two sons in 1813 went to Cambridge, 
N. Y., and studied under Dr. Bullions, and 
attended some time the Cambridge Academy, 
under Dr. Chassell. Eetm-ning home in the 
spring of 1817, they attended the Caledonia 
County Academy for a short time, and then 
entered Dartmouth College, where they gradu- 
ated August, 1820. Having become members 
of the Associate Church a few years before, 
they were admitted by the Associate Presbytery 
of Cambridge, and commenced the study of 
theology in the beginning of 1821, at the 
Eastern Theological Seminary of the Associate 
Church in Pliiladelphia. Dr. Banks, the pro- 
fessor under whom they studied, was eminent 
for his knowledge of theology and profound 
acquaintance with the Greek, but especially the 
Hebrew language, which made him an able 
critic and expositor of the Holy Scriptures. 

He represented them to their parents as " bear- 
ing a good character, and making excellent 
progress ; " and the Presbytery of Cambridge, 
before the appointed time for the study of 
theology had elapsed, recommended them to the 
Synod to be licensed, and the Synod suspended 
the rule, and ordered this Presbytery to take 
them on trials for this end. These trials having 
proved satisfactory, the Associate Presbytery 
of Cambridge licensed them at Eyegate, Sept. 
29, 1823. Their hoary-headed father was the 
moderator of the Presbytery at that time, and 
from his great knowledge and experience, with 
tears flowing fast, gave them suitable and sage 
council with respect to the duties and difficulties 
of the "good work " in which they were engaging. 
Claiming their right which was accorded to 
them by the Synod, they returned to the Theo- 
logical Seminary, and studied another term. 

Leaving Philadelphia early in the spring of 
1824, in fulfilling the Synod's appointments to 
preach, they went to South Carolina, then into 
Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio, and 
returned to Philadelphia the next spring. On 
their way South, their first interview with their 
uncle, who had so long and Hberally supported 
them in prosecuting their studies, was very 
gratifying, and he was highly pleased with their 
company and conversation, but his greatest 
.pleasure was to hear his nephews preach the 
gospel of Christ, which was dear to his own soul. 

Dr. Banks, the professor, writes to their 
" venerable father," " with much satisfaction," 
that his two sons were " excellent young men, 
who gave great attention to their studies, in 
which they made excellent progress ; " that they 
preached several times in Pliiladelphia, and 
"were very acceptable to the people, among 
whom they left a savory remembrance of their 
character and abilities." The aged and vener- 
able Dr. Anderson writes to their father, "Peb. 
18, 1825 : I have had much satisfaction in 
being visited by your two sons. They both 
preached to our people with much acceptance. 
I hope the Lord will bless them, and make 
them a blessing to his people." They returned 
home to Bamet, and assisted their father in 
July, 1825, in dispensing the ordinance of the 
Lord's Supper. So well pleased and profited 
were the people of their father's congregation 
with their ministrations that they immediately 
applied to the Presbytery for a moderation of 
a call, and on the 26th day of October, 1825, 
they gave Eev. Thomas Goodwillie a unanimous 
call to be assistant pastor and successor to his 
father. The aged pastor still being able to 
officiate, and preachers being few, and the 
vacant congregations many, his son continued 
to fulfil the appointments of Synod. Having 
passed satisfactory trials for ordination, he was 
ordained and settled as pastor of the Associate 
Congregation of Barnet by the Associate Pres- 
bytery of Cambridge, Sept. 27, 1826, before a 



large audience, many of whom came from sur- 
rounding towns. The aged father, with many 
tears, gave the pastoral charge to his son. 

Soon after his settlement, the Legislature 
elected him to preach before the Governor, 
Council, and General Assembly, at the opening 
of the Legislature the next year. Accordingly, 
he preached at Montpelier, October 11, 1827, be- 
fore the Legislature, and a vast audience of atten- 
tive listeners, and gave appropriate addresses to 
the Governor, Council, and General Assembly. 
The Legislature voted him thanks for the " elo- 
quent and able " sermon, and requested a copy 
for publication, and elected him their chaplain 
for the session. His sermon Avas immediately 
published at the expense of the State, and gra- 
tuitously distributed to all its towns. Rev. 
Ashbel Green, D.D., of Philadelphia, editor of 
" The Christian Advocate," in noticing its pub- 
lication, says : — 

" It is a sensible and faithful sermon, on a text 
manifestly appropriate to the occasion, — Prov. xiv. 
31: ^Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a re- 
proach to any people.' We know not whether it be 
more creditable to the author of this discourse that 
he had the lidelity to deliver it, or to the Legisla- 
ture of the State of Vermont that they had the 
good sense and piety to request its publication. We 
wish that such a sermon were addressed to every 
State Legislature, and to our congress, too, at the 
commencement of each of their sessions." 

The sermon was afterwards reprinted. By 
appointment of the Presbytery to which he 
belonged, he went on a mission to Upper Can- 
ada in 1827. In consequence of a petition from 
Lower Canada, he went and preached in several 
towns on the St. Francis River, in 1829. While 
he was officiating as chaplain to the Legislature, 
and absent on these missions, his father offi- 
ciated in the congregation in Barnet. 

A few weeks after his father died, he left 
Barnet on account of ill-health, and for a year 
travelled in the Southern and Western States. 
In 1831 he went to the south of France, and 
proceeded to Sicily, and went as far as Syracuse. 
From thence lie proceeded to Naples ; visited 
Horculancum and Pompeii ; ascended Mt. Ve- 
suvius, and entered the crater of this volcano ; 
then journeyed to Rome, and saw the vast 
remains of antiquity, and the works of the fine 
arts. By Florence and Milan, he went over the 
Alps, by the Jit. Simplon road, to Geneva, where 
he saw the libraiy of Calvin. Thence he trav- 
elled to the north of Europe ; visited Scotland, 
and returned in 1833, with his health so far 
recovered as to resume his labors in the con- 
gregation of Barnet, where he has continued to 
labor to the present time ; and his congregation 
has cxp\-esscd their high appreciation of liis 
character and services, and their sympathy with 
him in his trials, both public and domestic. 

He was clerk of the Associate Synod (of the 
North) from 1841 to 1854, when the Synods 
united, except in 1852, when he was chosen mod- 

erator. After preaching at the opening of the 
Synod the next year, which is the duty of the 
moderator, the Synod, without precedent, voted 
him " thanks for his very excellent sermon." 
He was again chosen moderator of the Associate 
Synod in 1859. He has long been a life mem- 
ber of the American Bible Society. 

In 1827, when his father resigned his seat in 
the board of ti-ustees of the Caledonia County 
Academy, he was immediately chosen a trus- 
tee, to fill his place, which he still continues 
to occupy, and lias been one of the examiners, 
and, most of the time, president of the board. 
In 1827, also, when his father declined a re-elec- 
tion as town clerk, he was chosen to that office, 
which he then declined; but, in 1859, was re- 
elected to the office, which was urged upon him, 
and he accepted, and has been since annually 

He was married, April 11, 1833, and has four 
children living, — three sons and a daughter, — 
besides a daughter who died in 1850, in the thir- 
teenth year of her age, remarkable for her intel- 
ligence and i^iety. The two oldest sons have 
gi-aduated at the Pennsylvania College of Den- 
tal Surgery, and settled in their profession in 
Pliiladelphia, Pa. The eldest son is one of the 
faculty of that college, and for some years lias 
given great satisfaction in discharging the 
duties of his office, and has also become a good 
writer on some parts of his profession. The 
youngest son (who bears his father's name) is a 
student in Dartmouth College, preparing for the 
Christian ministry. 

Rev. David Goodwillie, Jr., recei^'ed a call 
from Xenia and Sugar Creek, O. ; but accepted 
one from the united congregations of Poland, 
Liberty, and Deer Creek, and was ordained and 
settled by the Associate Presbytery of Ohio at 
Deer Creek, Lawrence Co., Pa., April 26, 1826, 
and ever since has been a laborious minister, and 
his ministiy has been blessed with great success. 
His congregations increased so much that each 
one desired to have a greater share of his 
labors, but feared the loss of the valued labors 
of their highly-esteemed pastor, in a division of 
his pastoral charge. But his labors still in- 
creased to such a degree that he was at length 
constrained to ask the Presbytery for a division, 
which was granted, and Deer Creek was dis- 
joined in the beginning of 1833. After the 
union of the Associate and Associate Reformed 
churches, he was disjoined from Poland in 
April, 1859, that it might unite with another 
congregation in the vicinity, and he now con- 
tinues his ministrations in Liberty, Trumbull 
Co., Pa. The number of church members 
enrolled under his pastoral care in Deer Creek, 
in 7 years, M-as 104 ; in Poland, in 33 years, 303, 
and in Liberty, in 35 years, extending to the pres- 
ent time (1861)253, making a total of 660. For 
a number of years he was president of the board 
of trustees of Westminster College, Pa, He was 



married April 20, 1826. His children were three 
sons and three daughters, of whom two sons 
and two daughters survive. His firstborn, Eev. 
David Henderson Goodwillie, graduated at Jef- 
ferson College, Pa. ; studied theology in the 
seminary of the Associate Church, and was 
licensed to preach by the Associate Presbytery 
of Shenango, Sept. 2, 1 853, and about the same 
time he was elected by the board of trustees of 
Westminster College, the professor of natural 
philosophy and chemistry, and continued to fill 
that office successfully, till he resigned, in De- 
cember, 1854. He was ordained and settled in 
the Associate congregation of Stamford in Can- 
ada, four miles from Niagara Falls, Sept. 27, 
1855, where he still continues. 
April 11, 1861. A. H. 



The Eeformed Pi-esbyterian Congregation, of 
Barnet, in connection with the General Synod 
of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North 
America, was originally a branch of the Pye- 
gate congregation of the same denomination. 
The congregation was organized in 1851, under 
the pastorate of Rev. Robert A. Hill, who 
demitted Ins charge in 1852. And in 1853, the 
Rev. John Bole was ordained pastor of the con- 
gregations of Ryegate and Barnet. In little 
more than a year after his organization, Mr. 
Bole demitted the charge of the Barnet congre- 
gation. Since then, this congregation has re- 
mained a vacancy under the care of the North- 
ern Presbytery of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church in connection with the General Synod. 
The congregation numbers about 20 members. 



This congregation was organized in 1840, the 
year that Rev. James Milligan was disjoined 
from Ryegate. It then consisted of about ten 
members. It was in a short time increased by 
the accession of members of the Ryegate congre- 
gation, who resided in that vicinity. It united 
with Ryegate, in 1844, in giving Rev. James 
M. Beattic a call, when there were 25 members, 
in regular standing. Mr. Beattie, who con- 
tinues to be their pastor, preaches alternately to 
the two congregations, the two meeting-houses 
being five miles distant from each other. In this 
congregation there is a flourishing Sabbath 
school. The people contribute liberally to the 
different schemes of the church. By very liberal 
exertions they have recently repaired the meet- 
ing-house, which is in the southwest part of the 
town. Since the settlement of the present pastor 
there have been 48 additions. There are at pre- 
sent 58 communicants. 



Nov. 21, 1816. A congregational church was 
organized by Rev. Samuel Goddard, then of 
Concord, Vt., composed of members in part of 
Barnet, and in part of Lyman, N. H. It was 
called the " Congregational Church of Bamet 
and Lyman." This church was small, but 
continued, with various degrees of prosperity, 
about 12 years. It appears to have been sound 
in the faith, and to have exerted a good influence. 
It was organized with 20 members, and dur- 
ing its continuance, received into its fellowship 
about 100 persons. It never had a settled pas- 
tor. Most of its members have fallen asleep. 
A few remain to the present time. 

In October, 1829, the first Congregational 
Church in Barnet was formed. It consisted of 
three members, viz : James Gildchrist, Willard, 
and J. F. Skinner. After the church was 
organized, the Rev. A. Govan was constituted 
the pastor. 

During the 30 years of the existence of this 
church, 238 members were received by letter and 
l)rofession; 111 dismissed, and 25 have died. 
The large number of dismissions is owing to 
the fact that on Sept. 10, 1858, forty-three were 
dismissed for the purpose of being organized 
into a church at Stevens Village, the first church 
having built a meeting-house, and established 
its centre at Mclndoes Falls. This church 
has been blessed with many pastors, but only 
two of them have been settled. Rev. Mr. Govan 
continued as pastor from 1829 to September, 
1832. Rev. Noah Cressey was employed a part 
of the time until 1835, when Rev. Joseph B. 
White began his labors with this church. After 
him. Rev. E. I. Carpenter, Rev. T. E. Ranney, 
and Rev. A. O. Hubbard were employed succes- 
sively. Mr. Hubbard continued his connection 
with the church some six years. After him. 
Rev. E. H. Caswell was acting pastor about 
three years. In 1854, Rev. E. Cleaveland 
began to preach to this church, and continued 
two years. March 5, 1856, Rev. B. F. Ray was 
ordained, and dismissed Aug. 30, 1859. In 
December following. Rev. M. B. Bradford, the 
present pastor, commenced his labors. 

This church is now situated near the border 
of the town, and is made up in part by mem- 
bers from Ryegate, Vt., and from Munroe and 
Bath, in N. H., who find it convenient to attend 
worship at Mclndoes Falls. 



Barnet, originally settled by Scotch Presbyte- 
rians, had no other religious organization for 
several years. Prior to 1811, there was a small 
Baptist Church, called " Bamet and Ryegate 
Church " to which Elder Bailey — still remem- 
bered with Christian love — ministered for some 



time. (For twenty-four years before ho became 
Baptist, he had been a Cougregatioualist ; but, 
believing it liis duly to be baptized by immer- 
sion, submitted to the rite, and united with tlic 
Baptist Church at Danville.) He was a labo- 
rious minister, and often blessed with revivals. 
The time of his death I do not know. Nor do I 
deem it a matter of importance. Ho lived a 
Christian, — best record that can be made of 
any man, — and died, I doubt not, in the faith. 
The Baptist Church in Passumpsic Village, 
in the north part of Bamet, was formed in 
1811 ; but its place of worship has always been 
in Barnet Village, and its members have be- 
longed to different towns, principally St. Johns- 
bury, "Waterford, Danville, Ryegate, and Groton. 
At one time there was in Groton quite a branch 
of the Passumpsic Chm-ch, which was subse- 
quently organized into an independent church. 
The records of the church at Passumpsic are in 
such a state I cannot state positively the number 
of members when organized. As near as I can 
ascertain, however, there were some eight or ten. 
The whole number received into the church was 
508 ; baptized, 333 ; present number (Nov. 1, 
1861), 74. This church has had ten pastors, 
viz : Silas Davidson, George B. Ide, D. D., 
now of Springfield, Mass., J. Merriam, B. Bur- 
rows, Levi Smith, John Ide, N. W. Smith, A. 
Boardman, and A. H. House. The average 
length of the pastoral relation, nearly 5 years ; 
the fii-st pastor 19 years and 3 months, the 
last pastor now in Ms 7th year. The church 
has licensed and ordained six ministers, 
some of whom are in heaven, and some oc- 
cupying important places in the church mili- 
tant. The average number of baptisms per 
year, during the history of the church, is six 
and a fraction. The church has been blessed 
with a number of precious revivals. In 1816, 
thkty-fire were baptized; in 1828, forty-eight ; 
in 1831, fifty-eight; in 1833, twenty; and in 
1839, sixty-three. While some of these have 
turned backward, many, we trust, will be saved 
in the day of Chiist. There were several years, 
in which cveiy year more or less were bap- 
tized. There has been, however, no general 
revival since 1839. During the ministrations of 
the first pastor, dependence, under God, was 
placed on the ordinary means of grace, and God 
did not disappoint the expectations of liis peo- 
ple. But since his day, more dependence has 
been placed on extraordinary, — on exciting 
measures, and we have been shown, what the 
writer has always believed, that such a course is 
not wise. If the Lord does not renew his work, 
this church, which has done so much for the 
truth, which has been so honorable among her 
sister chm-ches, which for a long time was a 
model church for its discipline and benevolence, 
wliich has always been blessed with good men 
for its deacons, for whose welfare the Clarks, 
the Woods, the Parks, and the Browns have 

toiled so much, will soon become extinct ! Elders 
Davidson, Men-iam, Ide, and Green have gone 
ivome. The rest of the pastors who have served 
this church arc still in the field. I regret I am 
not able to give a short sketch of the life of 
Elder Mcniam, who is remembered with so 
much aft'ection by all M'ho sat uudcr his minis- 
try while pastor of the churrli in tliis place. I 
would also speak of Elder J. Ide, did I not ex- 
pect a sketch of his honorable and useful life 
would be furnished with the history of Coventry, 
where he labored many years, and where he was 
ordained to the work of the ministiy. I will close 
this meagre sketch of our church — which is 
perhaps akeady too long — with a brief notice 
of its first pastor. Elder Silas Davidson, who 
was bom in Pomfret, Ct., November, 1766. He 
came to Vermont in 1779. He united v.'ilh the 
Baptist Church in Hartland, in 1795. In 1798, 
he moved to Waterford, and soon began minis- 
terial laboi% there, and was instrumental in 
gathering a small chm-ch in that town, which, 
after a few years, was blended mth the church 
at Passumpsic, with which he himself united 
in 1811, and was ordained its pastor, July 1, 
1812, and for 19 years and 3 months after, he 
honorably sustained that relation; faithfully 
preaching Christ as the only hope of the guilty. 
He dwelt among his people, and, at his own 
request, was dismissed. Few men have been 
more useful. He was a Baptist from principle, 
— sound in the faith, — unswerving to the last ; 
but a lover of all who loved the Lord Jesus. 
While he possessed not the advantages of an 
early education, his sermons were eminently 
acceptable to those whose minds were better cul- 
tivated, for he studied the Booh, quoted, with 
great accuracy, the Book, and the Book was his 
guide through life. He was, moreover, a true 
friend of education; and all the benevolent 
associations of the day had his prayers and sin- 
cere co-operation. Indeed, a devout man and 
an excellent counsellor, few churches have been 
better instructed in theii* duty than this, of which 
he was so long pastor ; and no man did more 
for the association to wliich he belonged, for 
which he was moderator six times, clerk twelve 
times, and preached its introductory sermon four 
times. Three of his sons entered the ministry, 
though but one lived to be ordained, and these 
all went before him to rest. He died in clear 
hope of eternal life, at his residence in Water- 
ford, May 16, 1842, aged 76. His memoiy " esto 



By turning to the census of this State, A. D. 
1790, 1800, 1810, it will be found that at each 
census which was taken at those periods, the 



people of Vermont possessed more sheep accord- 
ing to their popiilation than any other State. 
Our household manufactures amounted to much 
more, according to our population, than any 
other State. The census shows that the inhabi- 
tants of the town of Danville manufactured 
26,907 yards of linen cloth, 1,214 yards of 
cotton, aiid 16,128 yards of woollen cloth ; 
Peacham, 13,608 yards of linen, 2,119 of cotton, 
and 9,824 yards of woollen cloth ; St. Johns- 
buiy, 16,505 of linen, 1,179 cotton, 9,431 wool- 
len ; Barnet, 5,535 yards linen, 319 cotton, 
10,830 of Avoollen cloth. Caledonia County, at 
that period, contained 23 towns, population 
18,740; number of sheep, 34,587 ; woollen cloth 
manufactured, more than 7 yards to each person. 
All kinds of cloth of household manufacture 
averaged more than 19 yards to each inhabitant. 
The whole quantity manufactured in this county, 
in 1810, was 360,516 yards. The number of 
females over 15 years of age was 4;485 ; there- 
fore, they manufactured more than 80 yards of 
cloth each. There were 1,419 looms. The aver- 
age quantity of cloth wove in each was more than 
254 yards. The estimated value of household 
manufactures for eacl;i female over 15 years of 
age, in 1810, was more than $40. 

Again, since Vermont was admitted into the 
Federal Union, her delegates in Congress have 
been the fast and firm friends in favor of encour- 
aging industry, and promoting domestic manu- 
factures. As a people, we have, from the time 
our fathers declared the New Hampshire Grants 
a free and independent State, 15th January, A.D. 
1777, pursued this policy. It was the pursuing 
of tliis policy that enabled our fathers to meet 
the expenses of the Revolutionary War, to redeem 
the then paper issues at par, and the only State 
that ever did redeem their paper issues were at a 
discount of $40 for one. Not a single bill of 
purchase of woollen blankets or woollen gar- 
ments, out of the State, for our brave soldiers 
during the Revolutionary War, has yet been dis- 

Our mothers manufactured cloth for garments, 
and blankets for their husbands and sons, when 
at home, or in the field of action. Our mothers 
would say to their husbands and sons, on their 
leaving for the army, " My dear, if anything 
should happen that you do not return, you will 
direct that my blanket be sent back." 

Soon after the close of the Revolutionary War, 
our country was flooded with goods of the man- 
ufacture of foreign countries, which soon drained 
the country of most of the solid coin. Paper 
currency, State and government securities be- 
came nearly Avorthless. Tender laws and ap- 
praisement laws became the order of the day 
throughout the Union. The General Assembly of 
this State, as early as 1786, passed a law, say- 
ing that for the encouragement of domestic man- 
ufactures, the owner of sheep should be credited 
oa his list two shillings for every pound of 

wool shorn, and one shilling for every yard of 
linen or tow cloth manufactured. This policy 
soon caused the balance of trade to become in 
favor of the State, — paper issues redeemed, pri- 
vate debts paid, and the State Treasurer soon 
reported a balance in the ti-easury of $14,000 in 

silver and gold 

We may with propriety speak of the patriot- 
ism and heroic acts of Chittenden, Allen, and 
Warner, and others of our citizens, in the cabi- 
net, and in the field of action. We also must 
remember that at that period our mothers and 
sisters were cultivating the fields, harvesting the 
crops, and, by hand, manufacturing for their 
household. That spirit of enterprise and perse- 
verance on the part of our mothers yet runs in 
the veins of many of those who are termed the 
better half. Their workmanship, exhibited to 
us this day, is sufficient to satisfy us that they 
are yet willing to contribute their proportion in 
i-endering old Caledonia independent of our 

sister States, or foreign Countries 

Vermont can raise as fine wool as any section 
of the world. Our mountains furnish pasturage 
of the best kind, and roll down their thousand 
streams to aid us in its manufacture. Our State 
abounds with ores, and with forests for the 
miners and colliers, ample for the manufacture of 
iron in all its varieties, and equal to the calls of 
the State consumption, and ultimately, for export. 
Our Country and our State should follow up the 
mode of policy which is pursued by the greatest 
manufacturing interest in the world. We should 
sit on our wool-sacks, in order to encourage the 
wool-grower. We should give bounties, and 
grant prohibitions until the branches of our 
manufacturing rise to an equal level with other 
orders graduated to the wants they supply. 

No governor of this State has at any time, in 
his message to the General Assembly, put forth 
any sentiments other than in favor of industry, 
economy, and the protection of the agricultural, 
mechanical, and manufacturing interest. You 
may take a candle, and search the archives of 
every State in this Union, and you will find no 
better lessons of wisdom in favor of the great and 
leading intererest of the State and of this Union, 
than are recorded in the archives of the Green 
Mountain State. I hope the time wiU come 
when every freeman will be furnished with the 
annual messages of our past governors, the an- 
swers on the part of the Assembly, and reports of 
committees relating to the agricultural, mechani- 
cal, manufacturing, and other leading interests of 
our State and Country. 

Shall we who love to laud the deeds of our 
ancestors, and who live by the result of their 
toil, be content with less intelligence, or less pat- 
riotism ? A State exists in its history. 
Take away the memory of the past, and what 
remains ? A name, and only a name. Take 
away the example and the recorded wisdom 
of the past, and what ray of light would be 



left for our g:uidaiico 1 What could we do but 
gropo in darkness and inexperience, and wander 
in the maze of perpetual childhood 1 If we are 
bound to respect the claims of posterity, we like- 
^Yise owe a debt to our ancestors 



While adverse winds and tempests lower, 
And fortune's frowns like mountains tower, 
They boldly brave stern winter's power. 

One individual alone remains of the veteran 
band of hardy pioneers who inhabited the town 
of Burke the eight years succeeding the first set- 
tlement, and this individual is a female, worn and 
broken by a life of toil. 

Yet, with the records and papers in the ar- 
chives of the town, and what still lives in story, 
we hope to collate and embody as many local 
facts and incidents as time and circumstances will 
pei-mit. Burke, in the N. E. part of Caledonia 
County, is bounded N. by Newark and E. Haven 
(in Essex Co.),E. by Victory (inEssex Co.) and 
Ivh-by, S. by Lyndon, and W. by Sutton. The 
town originally contained a little over 6 miles 
square, including a gore of about 3,400 acres, 
lying easterly of Lyndon, and formerly called 
Burke Tongue. In 1 807, the Legislature annexed 
this gore to the township of Kirby, leaving the 
present area of Burke about 20,320 acres, in the 
form of an irregular octagon, the surface some- 
what uneven, rising between the rivers into high 
ridges, three in number, running in a northerly 
and southerly direction through the town, and 
mostly covered with a heavy growth of hard wood, 
among which a large proportion of sugar maple 
abounds. In the valleys bordering on the streams 
the timber is mostly evergreen, among which is 
some cedar and a small quantity of pine. The 
soil is various ; the ridges or hills mostly contain 
a deep rich loam, and are well adapted to agricul- 
tural pursuits. In the valleys, in some localities, 
the soil is composed of a mixture of sand and 
gravel, but bordering on the streams are some 
meadows of a deep alluvial soil, and very fertile. 
Generally, the soil is well adapted to grazing, and 
some of the finest and best cattle and sheep found 
in market are raised in this town. 

ThePassumpsic River, a branch of Connecticut 
River, i-uns through this town, and is divided into 
two branches, called the East and West branches ; 
one passing near the eastern, and the other near 
the western part of the town. Into these branches^ 
which unite their waters in the town of Lyndon, 
flow several tributary streams, on which are 
many excellent water privileges adapted to the 
various purposes of mechanical arts. 

At the eastern extremity of the township is a 
mountain bearing the name of Burke Mountain, 
lying partly in Burke and partly in Victory; the 
line between the towns crossing near the sum- 

rait. The summit of this mountain towers nearly 
3000 feet above the bed of Passumpsic River. It 
is mostly covered with a small growth of ever- 
green. Along the western base arc many good 
farms. A small house has lately been built on 
the summit, for the accommodation of visitors, 
by Mr. Joseph S. Hall, an enterprising citizen of 
this place, from which a picturesque and deUght- 
ful view of the surrounding country can be 

The original grantees of this town were a com- 
pany of 05, mostly, if not all, inhabitants of the 
county of Litchfield, Conn., among whom were a 
number of females. A grant or charter was dated 
Februaiy 6, 1782, and signed by Thomas Cliit- 
tenden, Governor, and Joseph Fay, Secretaiy, in 
behalf of the freemen of the State of Vermont, 
granting to said company the exclusive right to 
form and incorporate the same into a township, on 
certain specified conditions. In the year 1787, 
Seth Spencer and Uriah Seymour, the latter be- 
ing one of the original proprietors, proceeded in 
the allotment of said township, and surveyed the 
same into shares or Eights as they were called, each 
share or right containing 300 acres, the town be- 
ing first divided into two divisions, and a lot in 
each division of ICO acres was assigned to each 
proprietor, reserving five rights, or one lot in each 
division, for public uses, viz : one riglit for the first 
settled minister, one for the minister's support, 
one for common English schools, one for an 
academy in the county, and one for a seminary 
or college in the State of Vermont. 

The first settlement of the town commenced in 
1794, by Lemuel Walter, from Litchfield County, 
Conn. The year following, several families, 
mostly from Connecticut, settled. Owing to the 
inconveniences ever attendant upon a settlement 
of a new country, these worthy pioneers had to 
endure many hardships, sufierings, and priva- 
tions. The badness of the roads, the lack of 
privileges of almost every description, rendered 
it A^ery difficult, many times, to obtain necessary 
supplies for themselves and families, St. Johns- 
bm-y then being the nearest place where they 
could be accommodated, a distance of 16 or 
17 miles. Almost the whole of the first inhab- 
itants of the town followed the pursuit of agri- 
culture, and for the period of five or six years 
little other business was done in the immediate 
vicinity. During many years, the inhabitants 
lived in cabins built of logs, and covered with 
bark peeled from spruce trees, and were often 
doomed, especially in the winter seasons, to en- 
dure cold and hunger ; for, being poor, they had 
not the requisite means to procure comfortable 
clothing to screen themselves and families prop- 
erly from the rigors of a northern climate. Cliii- 
drcn would frequently be seen in winter days 
running barefooted in the snow, and otherwise 
but poorly clad, sleeping on straw beds or the 
skins of animals, at night, in the upper loft of 
their bark-covered cabins, whose roofs, by the iu- 



fluence of the sun's rays, would but poorly 
shield them from the.rain and snow, or the blasts 
of a wintry storm. Sometimes these cabins 
would have no chimney save a few boards fas- 
tened together in a conical form through which 
to convey the smoke. Sometimes they would 
have backs, as they were called, built against the 
logs at one end of their dwellings ; but many 
were destitute of this appendage, and had noth- 
ing for a substitute but logs of wood, which 
when bm-nt away were replaced by others. Of- 
tentimes these wooden chimneys would take fire ; 
but, to use the common adage, " Necessity is the 
mother of invention." Most families had an 
instrument familiarly called a "squirt-gun," of a 
large size, through which a considerable quan- 
tity of water could be emitted to any part of 
their dwellings. This was the only engine made 
use of in those days for extinguishing fire in 
their dwellings, and reminds the writer of an 
anecdote which he heard related many years ago. 
At a certain time, Lemuel Walter, the first in- 
habitant of the town, was sitting at his table in 
his log cabin, with a wooden chimney, at noon- 
day, taking his frugal meal, when a stranger on 
horseback rode up to his door, and with an ear- 
nest voice enquired, " Sir, do you know that 
your house is on fire 1 " Ah, said the owner, 
well, no matter, I will see to it as soon as I have 
finished my dinner. " But," said the stranger, 
"yoxir house will all be in flames before that 
time." Be not alarmed, sir, said Walter, I am 
used to fire and have no fears. Thank you, sir, 
for your trouble. " If you are disposed to stay 
there and let your house burn down over your 
head," rejoined the stranger, "it is no business 
of mine," and rode off, and left the owner to 
take care of Ms own house. Whereupon, Wal- 
ter deliberately took his squirt-gun and soon ex- 
tinguished the fire. 

Perhaps many circumstances and events might 
be here related touching the character and con- 
dition of the first settlers of the town which 
might serve to interest the reader ; but lest the 
writer should extend this part of the history be- 
yond its proper limits, it will not be prudent, 
perhaps, to dwell much longer on this descrip- 
tion ; yet it may not be amiss to relate some of 
the trials and perplexities our venerable fathers 
had to encounter, and the labor and toil which 
they experienced in subduing the forests, and 
braving the dangers and vicissitudes to which 
their condition exposed them. 

Besides the labor and privations with which 
they then had to struggle, the country at that 
time was considerably infested with wolves, pan- 
thers and bears, which rendered it somewhat 
dangerous many times to venture a great dis- 
tance from home without being properly n.rmcd 
and equipped to meet a deadly foe in the charac- 
ter of some ferocious and hungry wild beast. 
Still they were often under the necessity of jour- 
neying into the wilderness, and sometimes to a 

considerable distance. At that time, most of 
the inhabitants owned but one cow, and for 
many years the only pasture which they had for 
their cattle consisted of the forest, and not un- 
frequently they would ramble to a considerable 
distance, in which case the only guide the OAvner 
had in seeking them was the sound of the bell, 
fastened with a leather strap to the neck of a fa- 
vorite cow. I have heard of several instances in 
this town, in the early stages of its settlement, 
of inhabitants being beset by bears in their ram- 
bles in search of their cattle. Wolves, it is pre- 
sumed, were not as plenty here as in many other 
places, still their flocks of sheep, though small, 
were sometimes annoyed by them. Yet wild 
animals, in another sense, were of benefit, espe- 
cially bears, as their flesh, many times, served in 
part to furnish the inhabitants with meat, which 
from domestic animals was very scarce, and 
their skins were used for moccasins and various 
other purposes. Sometimes they were hunted 
in the woods, and sometimes they Avere caught 
in traps when visiting corn-fields, or by guns set 
in corn-fields, or by watching or lying in wait for 
them ; various ways and means being resorted to, 
to entrap and destroy them. Moose and deer hunt- 
ing was also resorted to, to supply the deficit of 
meat. The countiy north of this town for many 
miles, at that time, was an unbi'okcn Avilderncss, 
wliere moose and deer were found in great num- 
bers. It is the nature of these animals, in the 
Avinter season, to herd together in considerable 
numbers, especially when the snow is very deep, 
which circumstance greatly facilitated the means 
of taking them. The most hardy of the vet- 
eran settlers would resort thither on snow-shoes 
as soon as a suflScient depth of snow had fallen, 
and surprise and slay them, and after dressing 
them select the best part of the flesh for food, 
and carry it on then- backs a distance of 7 or 8 
miles, throixgh the wilderness, to their homes. 
jSTot unfrequently a man would carry a burden 
of 100 lbs. But they soon grew wise by expe- 
rience, and furnished themselves with a kind of 
hand sled made expressly for the purpose, the 
timber of which was made very light, and tlie 
runners, being 5 or 6 inches in width, prevented 
their sinking in the snow to a very grent depth. 
On these a man would draw more than double 
the quantity that he could carry on his back, 
and the labor was not so hard. These kinds of 
sleds are used by many at the present time in 
tins vicinity, and still retain the name of inoose- 
sleds. Eor weeks, many times, they would re- 
main in the woods, sleeping by night on hem- 
lock boughs for beds, and in camps, as they were 
called, made of poles and covered -with boughs, 
and subsisting on the flesh of wild animals, and 
perhaps a little bread carried from home. These 
camps were warmed by a fire made in front of 
them, one side of which was left open for that 
pui-pose. The skins of these animals, after be- 
ing partially tanned by a process of t;:eir own 



iuventinjr, were much used for beds, being spread 
upon the ground or floor of their cabins. "Wliole 
families of children would sleep upon them be- 
fore the warm fire, with as much seeming com- 
posure as though they were reposing on a bed of 

Vai-ioas other means were resorted to at that 
time to obtain the necessary supplies for the sus- 
tenance of their families. One of these con- 
sisted in making salts from the ashes of wood. 
The new lands that were first cleared were cov- 
ered ynth a lieavy growth of hard wood, and 
when clearing their lauds of this timber the 
ashes made from the wood were collected and 
put into leaches, generally made of hollow logs, 
cut from the trunks of hollow trees, and after 
being thoroughly leached, the lye was boiled in 
small kettles, generally holding no more than 12 
or 14 gallons, to a consistence called salts of hje. 
These were generally transported to St. Johns- 
bm-y, and sold from S3 to 54 per 100 lbs. ; the 
avails of which were applied in purchasing the 
necessary articles for family consumption. These 
salts, after being sold, were manufactured into 
pot or pearlash, and transported to Boston, or 
some other market. Most of the men who were 
not engaged in hunting found employment in 
this business during a large portion of the win- 
ter season. The business of making these salts 
was continued for several years after the town 
was considerably settled, wlien a different dispo- 
sition was made in this branch of business. 
A man by the name of Dan. White, who emi- 
grated from Tomnford, Litchfield Co., Ct., in 
or about 1 800, purchased a small farm, on which 
he labored for several years, then purchased a 
few goods and opened a small store in a room 
in his dwelling-house, built a small potash, and 
exchanged his merchandise for ashes and other 
produce. These ashes were manufactured into 
potash and transported to Portland, Me., with a 
two-horse waggon through the Notch of the White 
Mountains in New Hampshire, and exchanged 
for such articles of merchandise as the people 
most needed. At that time, the road to Port- 
land was extremely bad, especially through the 
Notch of the mountains, and twelve to fifteen 
hundred was considered to be a full load for a 
span of horses. In a few years, however, (the 
writer thinks about 1805), White sold his inter- 
est in the Potash to Chandler, Bigelow & Co., 
of Putney, who built a small store, and brought 
their merchandise from Boston, and manufac- 
tured their ashes into pearlash, and considerably 
enlarged the manufacturing of that article of 
commerce. For many succeeding years this ar- 
ticle was manufactured on a more enlarged scale 
by successive merchants, and even until the tim- 
ber was so much used up that it could not lon- 
ger be spared for that purpose. At the present 
time, the business is almo.-^t wholly discontinued 
in this section of country. 


Joseph Lord, of St. Johnsbury, a Justice of 
the Peace for the County of Orange, on applica- 
tion of a number of the inhabitants of Burke, 
set up a notification, warning the inhabitants of 
said town to meet at the dwtUing-house of Lem- 
uel Walter, in Burke, on the 5th day of Decem- 
ber, 1796, for the purpose of organizing said 
town, and electing the officers thereof as required 
by law. At said meeting, Lemuel Walter was 
elected Moderator and Town Clerk unanimously; 
Baniabas Thurber, Godfrey Jones, and Lemuel 
Walter, Selectmen, and L-a Walter Constable. 
On the 23d day of March, follo^^^ng, a meeting 
was duly warned and holden for the election of 
town officers, and the transaction of other busi- 
ness appertaining to said town. Lemuel Walter 
was re-elected Town Clerk ; Barnabas Thui-bcr, 
David Colfix, and Godfi-ey Jones, Selectmen ; 
Ii-a Walter, Constable ; and Barnabas Thurber, 
Surveyor of Highways. Thenceforward, to the 
present time, meetings have been held annually, 
in the month of March, for the election of town 
officers, and the transaction of the business of 
the town. A freemen's meeting was warned and 
holden on the first Tuesday of September, 1801, 
for the purpose of giving their votes for State 
officers; and in December, 1802, a freemen's 
meeting was holden for the purpose of electing 
a Representative to Congress. At a freemen's 
meeting in Sept. 1805, Thomas Bartlott M'as 
elected the first Representative for General As- 
sembly of Vermont, to which office he was 
elected the two succeeding years. 

In the year 1801, the first sehoolhouse was 
erected near the centre of the town, which aa- 
swered the double purpose of a school and town 
house. Thomas Bartlett taught the first school 
in the winter of 1802. Schools were taught in 
this house for 8 years, and the scholars came 
from nearly all parts of the town, some of them 
a distance of 3 miles. In 1803, the town was 
divided into 7 school districts, but no schools 
were established, or schoolhouses erected in any 
other part of the town, till the year 1809; in 
that year another house was built, and schools 
taught therein. Other districts soon followed 
the example, and schools were discontinued at 
the old house ; still it was occupied for a town 
house till 1825. There are now 11 school dis- 
tricts, all of which have schoolhouses, and 
schools are taught from 4 to 9 months each year. 
Select scliools, for improvement in the liigher 
branches of learning, are generally taught 3 
months in a year in some of these districts. 

Roman Pyler, an enterprising citizen of the 
town of Winchester, Litchfield Co., Ct., emigrat- 
ed to this to■^^^l in 1800, and commenced the build- 
ing of a saw and grist mill on a small stream of 
water near the centre of the town, where the 
village of Burke Hollow is now located, which 
gave a new impetus to afiiiirs. But the new saw- 



mill had but just commenced running when it 
took fire and was laid -in ashes. This unfortu- 
nate circumstance was severely felt by the inhab- 
itants generally, but the untiring enterprise and 
perseverance of the owner, in spite of many 
obstacles, soon found means to repair the injury. 
In 1802, another saw-mill was erected and put 
in operation, which served to supply the inhab- 
itants with lumber for several years. After this 
saw-mill had been in operation several years, it 
was torn down, and another built in the same 
place by the same owner, and occupied by him 
until his death in 1828. A now grist-mill was 
also built near where the old one stood, bj' the 
same individual, in 1817, and occupied by him 
while he lived. In 1845, another mill was built, 
on a larger scale, by a company formed for that 
pui'pose, which is now in successful operation. 
Other mills have since been erected from time to 
time, and there are now 3 grist-mills, 8 saw-mills, 
3 starch factories, 2 carriage shops, 2 planing 
machines, 1 clothing shop, and 1 carding ma- 
chine, within the limits of the town ; and various 
other machinery for artificial purposes. 

The oldest person deceased in town was Reu- 
ben Lippingwell, who died about 30 years since, 
in the 99th year of his age. The oldest person 
now living is Esther Walter, the widow of Ira 
Walter, one of the first settlers of the town, and 
the first constable, — the widow being now in her 
87th year. Chloe Jones, daughter of Godfrey 
and Sally Jones, was the first born in town; 
and Willard Spencer, son of Ranney and Cyn- 
thia Spencer, the first male child, who is now a 
prominent citizen. The first death was an in- 
fant of Godfrey and Sally Jones. The first 
marriage on the records of the tovra, John 
Woodruff and Esther Barbour, man-ied Dec. 
4th, 1799. 

There are three small villages, known as Burke 
Hollow, Burke East Village, and Burke West 
Village. Burke HoUow is the oldest, and situ- 
ated near the centre, on a stream of water called 
Fyler's Mill Stream, from the circumstance that 
Roman Eyler built the first mills in town on tliis 
stream, as already related. There are about 30 
families, mostly mechanics and laborers. The 
village has increased very slowly for several 
years past, owing, perhaps, in a great measure, 
to the settlement and growth of the other two 
villages in different parts of the town, which 
possess many local and superior advantages. 
There is 1 meeting-house, a union house, and 
1 schoolhouse, in the village ; 2 stores, a grist- 
mill, a starch mill, a clothing machine, a card- 
ing machine, a carriage shop, a post office, 3 
shoe and boot makers, a blacksmith, 2 physi- 
cians, a harness maker, and 1 lawyer. David 
Chadwick, Esq., is the only attorney at law who 
has ever had a permanent residence in the toym. 
The village probably contains about 150 inhab- 

(Eor a description of Burke East Village, see 
Rev. R. Godding's article.) 

Burke West Village is situated near the west- 
em exti-emity of the town, on the west branch 
of Passumpsic River, at the junction where 
another stx-eam of water, called Trull's Mill 
Stream, unites with the Passumpsic, and near the 
depot on the Connecticut and Passumpsic Riv- 
ers Rail Road, which passes through the western 
part of this town. About 28 years since, Joel 
Trull, Esq., of this town, purchased a water 
privilege, where the village is now located, and 
built a grist and saw mill, where a large portion 
of the inhabitants of the town of Sutton could 
be better accommodated than at any other place. 
The place improved but slowly for several years. 
In time, however, a number of dwelling-houses 
were built, and a store opened by Daniel Beck- 
with, Esq., who, with his sons, stiU carries on 
quite an extensive business in the mercantile line. 
In 1857, the above mentioned railroad was ex- 
tended through this to-ivn, and a depot was lo- 
cated near the village, wHch soon gave a new 
impetus to the business transactions of this little 
village. Large quantities of lumber are annu- 
ally brought to this place from the surrounding 
country, to be transported on the railroad to 
other markets. Present population probably 
about 30 families, and 150 inhabitants. Within 
the limits of the village, there is now but 1 
store where business is done, 1 hotel, 1 school- 
house, 1 carriage shop, 1 grist-mill, 1 saw-mill, 
1 starch mill, and 2 shoe and boot manufactur- 
ers. At no distant time, this little village is des- 
tined to become the largest in town, owing to its 
proximity to the railroad. 

Dr. Samuel Putnam was the first physician. 
He commenced practice here in 1804, and re- 
mained till 1808, when George W. Denison 
came and established himself as physician ; and 
Putnam went to Newbury, and soon after died. 
He was elected town clei-k in 1805, which office 
he held 3 years. 

By the census of 1850, the number of inhab- 
itants was 1103; and in 1860, 1138. 



(For a history of this denomination, see Rev. 
R. Godding's contribution.) 


In 1804, a circuit was formed by the Metho- 
dist Conference, embracing the County of Cale- 
donia, and in 1805, a preacher by the name of 
James Young appointed to this circuit, who 
preached in Burke occasionally, the writer thinks 
once in 4 weeks. In 1806, an associate preacher, 
by the name of HolHs Sampson, was appointed 
to this field ; and Young and Sampson held 
meetings alternately at stated times. The wri- 
ter thinks they continued this about 2 years, and 



were then transferred to another field, and other 
laborers appointed. In this manner, alternately 
chang;ing, new preachers were successively ap- 
pointed to this important chai'ge, but no society 
or class formed, for the space of 10 successive 
years. Li the year 1815, Rev. Zenas Adams 
was appointed to this charge, and remained 2 
years, during which time he formed a class. 
There are no available records that describe the 
number, yet the writer is aware that it must have 
been very small. But from this time foi-ward, 
the societies have been supplied with preachers, 
and success has, in a great measui'e, attended 
their efforts, and several successive re^^vals en- 
larged the borders of their spiritual Zion. Ow- 
ing to the increase in numbers, and the extent in 
the field of labor, in 1824 the circuit was divided 
into two parts, designated as the Danville and 
Lyndon circuits, and a definite number of preach- 
ers were assigned to each of these respective de- 
partments. At the present time, the Sutton and 
Burke charge, so called, consists of 236 members, 
of which 124 are residents of Burke. The 
Methodist financial society of male members, 
for several years past, will probably average 
about 60. 


During the period of 20 years and upwards, 
subsequent to the first settlement of Burke, 
there were a few among the inhabitants who 
were believers in the final holiness and happi- 
ness of the human race; yet no efibrts were 
made to embody themselves into a separate de- 
nomination, hence they united with others of a 
different belief, — went to their meetings, and 
gave their influence and support as they deemed 
most proper. Occasionally, however, a preacher 
of that doctrine would visit the place and preach 
a short time, perhaps one or two Sabbaths ; and 
additions were made to their numbers, and their 
means were increased. 

On the 20th of March, 1815, a meeting was 
called, and a society organized, — 44 citizens of 
the town enrolling their names as members 
thereof. From that time foi-ward, various preach- 
ers were employed, generally for a portion of the 
time, but no settled pastor secured for several 
succeeding years. In September, 1827, a church 
was formed, which at first consisted of only 9 
members, and Rev. Daniel Wellman, a citizen 
of the town, was oi'dained as their pastor, who 
preached most of the time for about 5 years, and 
then removed to the State of Ohio, where he still 
lives at an advanced age. This worthy man had 
previously been a preacher in the Free-will Bap- 
tist denomination for several years ; but after his 
views on religious subjects became changed, he 
henceforth preached the new doctrine he had cm- 
braced, ever sustaining the character of an ex- 
emplaiy Christian. The church and society, 
being thus destitute of a pastor, depended, as 
previously, on hiring preachers a portion of the 
time, for about 15 years. Under these circum- 

stances no accessions were made, and its few 
members had become greatly lessened by deaths 
and removals. 

In September, 1848, the church was again re- 
newed, and Rev. L. H. Tabor employed for one- 
half of the time. Under the influence of this 
cflieient pastor, an increased interest was soon 
discernible. The church consisted of about 30 
members, and the society soon numbered 110. 
The labors of this worthy pastor were contin- 
ued 6 years, when he was dismissed by his own 
request, to the regret of the greater portion of 
the people of his charge. Since that time, there 
has been no settled pastor over this church, but 
various clerg}Tnen employed for a poition of the 
time, and sometimes they have been destitute 
some length of time. Among those employed 
was Rev. John E. Palmer, an aged father in 
the ministry, who commenced his labors as a 
minister of the gospel in early life, and for many 
years was an able preacher in the Baptist de- 
nomination ; but after much deliberation, his 
fonner religious views ha^ving become changed, 
thenceforth he became an advocate of the final 
holiness and consequent happiness of all our 
race. He is now in the winter of life, and feels 
sensibly the effects of age and infirmity; yet, 
notwithstanding, preaches occasionally to good 

Rev. Alson Scott, of Lyndon, now supplies 
the desk every fom-th Sabbath, to good accep- 
tance ; still, the society has been on the decline 
since they dispensed \vith the labors of Rev. L. 
H. Tabor. The society now numbers about 80 


During several years subsequent to the first 
settlement of this town, there were inhabitants 
who cherished the fundamental doctrines of this 
denomination, several of whom had formerly 
united ynth. Congregational churches in other 
places ; but their numbers were so small they did 
not deem it expedient to organize into a sepa- 
rate society, but mostly gave their support to 
the Baptist denomination, then the only organ- 
ized order in the town. 

In the year 1807, 11 in number of males and 
females covenanted together in church fellow- 
ship, called the Congregational Church in Burke. 
Rev. John Fitch, pastor of the Congregational 
Church in Danville, officiated at the organiza- 
tion, and preached with them one Sabbath. 
Oct. 6, 1 808, a meeting of the male members of 
this church was holden, and William Barbour 
chosen deacon, and Orentus Brownson, clerk. 
Thenceforward meetings were held at various 
times for the transaction of the ordinary busi- 
ness of the church, and to aid in the prosperity 
of the cause; but owing to the smallness of 
their number, and the want of means, tlie church 
for a long time labored under many disadvan- 
tages. Missionaries Avould sometimes spend a 
short time with them, and sometimes the little 



church would tax their means almost beyond 
their ability to procure the services of some 
neighboring clergyman. But they persevered in 
the cause they had espoused, and, notwithstand- 
ing death and removals thinned their ranks, still 
continued to increase gradually, though, at times, 
very slowly, till the year 1834, when Eev. 
Thomas W. Duncan was employed for a time, 
the writer thinks for one year. The drooping 
spirits of the chm-ch, and its friends, under his 
ministration, soon began to revive, and addi- 
tions were made to their numbers. In Novem- 
ber, 1839, he was installed pastor; but a short 
time after his installation requested to be dis- 
missed, which, by vote of the church, was 
granted. He was succeeded by Rev. S. M. 
Wheelock, who continued 2 years, and was suc- 
ceeded by Eev. John Clark, who remained about 
10 years. For some time after Mr. Clark's dis- 
mission, they had only occasional preaching, till 
1859. Since that time. Rev. Edward P. Good- 
win supplied the desk — who was ordained Nov. 
10th, 1859 — till Oct,, 1860, when he removed 
to Ohio. Eev. M. Underwood now supplies 
this church. Present number of members about 




Was bom in Farmington, Ct., in 1755. In , 

he moved to Tinmouth in this State, where he 
resided until he moved to this town. While re- 
siding in Tinmouth, he was chosen captain of 
the artillery company there, and retained in that 
capacity until his removal. In 1800, he removed 
to this town, and settled on what is called the 
"West Hill." 

He was, while a resident of this town, often 
chosen to fill town ofiices, such as justice of the 
peace, selectman, lister, etc., and he always dis- 
charged Ms duty with fidelity and despatch. He 
raised a family of 10 cliildren, — 8 now living, — 
the youngest of whom is Dr. Selim Newell, of 
St. Johnsbury. Another (Isaac) was a Baptist 
preacher, for a long time settled over the Baptist 
Society at Danville Green, Vt., but moved 
West about the year 1836, where he died. 

In his religious sentiments, the Captain was a 
Baptist, and one who exemplified his religion by 
dispensing with a liberal hand to the poor and 
needy, — consoling the afilicted, encouraging the 
faint-hearted, — in short, by obeying the injunc- 
tion, "Do unto others as ye would that others 
should do unto you." Possessed of a kind 
heart and a large share of " sociaKty," he was 
ever a welcome guest in every circle, whether of 
old or young, rich or poor. Moreover, he was a 
very public-spirited man ; and, while unostenta- 
tious in all his acts, always one of the first to en- 
gage in any work whereby the community might 
be benefited, without asking or expecting re- 

ward, yet having his reward in the conscious- 
ness of ft^lfilling the design of his creation, and 
in the respect, confidence and love of his fcUow- 
men. Perhaps no man ever lived in town who 
was more generally respected and beloved. 

Physically, he was a fine specimen of manly 
beauty, being above the common height, well 
proportioned, and very straight. His carriage 
Avas full of ease and dignity, and his countenance 
but the reflection of his heart. In 1824, he went 
to his rest. 


Born in Farmington, Ct., in 1756 ; first came 
into this town in 1792, as an agent for distant ^ 
land proprietors. He paid the town a visit every 
year on business for his employers, until 1805, 
when he became a permanent settler. He was 
first married about the year 1780, to Miss Rhoda 
Phelps, who died in 1783. In 1790, he was 
again married to Miss Sally Woodruff, who died 
in 1831. He died July 9, 1820. 

Born in Winstead, Ct., in 1768 ; mamed to Sally 
Lyman in . In 1799, moved with his fam- 
ily, consisting of his wife and four children, to 
Burke, and located on what is now called Burke 
Green, a ridge of land running N. and S. through 
the town, dividing it nearly in the centre. Here 
he built him a log house, and commenced the 
laborious work of a pioneer. There was at that 
time no grist-mill nearer than Lyndon, and he, as 
well as other settlers, was often under the neces- 
sity of going to Bamet to pm-chase grain and 
bringing it to Lyndon to be ground, and from 
thence home, his path guided by marked trees. 
In 1801, he built the first grist-miU in town, and 
subsequently added 2 grist-mills and 2 saw-mills. 
In 1803, he met with a serious accident in one 
of his mills, having his foot and ankle severely 
crushed, which troubled him more or less to the 
close of his life. He was one of the company 
that, about the year 1806, built the road through 
the Notch of the White Mountains in N. H. He 
also formed one of the company that built the 
turnpike through the town of Barnet. He was 
one of the "early few" who represented the town 
in " olden times ; " was also town clerk a number 
of years, besides holding many other offices of 
trust, always discharging his duty Mdth fidelity 
and zeal. In religious sentiments he favored the 
Methodists, of which his wife was a member. In 
physical proportions he was almost gigantic. It 
has been asserted, moreover, that he was the 
strongest man ever in town. He died in the 
year 1828. 


Born in Hartland, Oct. 16, 1779 ; about the year 
1803, commenced the study of medicine with Dr. 
Fuller, of Cavendish ; in 1806, went into partner- 
ship with Dr. Fuller; practised with him one 
year; and in 1807, moved to Burke, and pur- 


\t:rmont historical magazine. 

he was often called upon to ofiSciato at funerals, 
speak on the Fourth of July, etc. He was the first 
deacon of the Congregational church ; first town 
clerk; first repreiJcntative of the town, in 1805 ; 
planted the first apple-trees, and raised therefrom 
the first apples in town. Physically, he was a 
little above the common height, spare, and very 
straight, and retained his faculties in a remark- 
able degree to the time of liis death, Juno 19, 
1857. A man who was esteemed by all who 
knew liim, for the excellence of his principles, 
can be truly wi-itten of him. 

Of Burke, is one of those individuals so identi- 
fied with the general history of the town, of 
whom a brief sketch, at the least, is requisite to 
complete the history thereof. A citizen of B. 
has furnished such sketch ; but, although abound- 
ing in interest, it yet is so minute in detail, but a 
summary can be given. 

"Asahel Bm-ington was bom in New Hart- 
ford, Ct., Feb. 17, 1791, the youngest of a fam- 
ily of 8 children. In 1802, the older brothers of 
our sketch persuaded then- father to sell out his 
farm in Connecticut, emigrate to Vermont, and 
purchase lands sufiicient to make farms for liim- 
self and them. The avails of the sale barely 
purchased 500 acres of wild land, at $2.50 per 
acre, and defrayed the expenses of the removal. 
Their cabin was thus built : spruce logs, locked 
together at the corners, chinked with mud, and 
covei-ed with bark. Within, large logs piled 
against the wall-logs for a chimney, the fire being 
kindled in front, and loose boards floored the one 
room, whose area Avas mostly filled by three 
beds, curtained with blankets, and the large pine 
table. The one schoolhouse, near the centre of 
the town, was on a high ridge of land, where in 
winter the snow, from 3 to 4 feet deep, blowed 
into well-nigh impassable drifts ; and even the 
boy of 11 could not be spared from clearing up 
and cultivating the farm in summer ; and when 
at school, only reading, spelling, writing, and the 
first four rules of arithmetic, were indifierently 

Here our -writer goes on to tell how young B. 
was destitute of all mathematical text-books, till, 
learning a man had moved in who had one of 
Pike's Arithmetics, he hastened to secure a loan 
thereof, and bent eveiy energy systematically to 
the task, till he had mastered that tough old 
book. In a few years he added to this science, 
grammar, geography, logic, pWlosophy, &c. A 
library association had previously been formed 
by a number of the citizens of Burke and Bil- 
lymead, (now Sutton,) wliich contained Rollins' 
Ancient History, Robinson's History of Amer- 
ica,v Josephus, one excellent novel. The Fool 
of Quality, &c. Embracing every opportunity 
state of health did not admit of his carryir,g out | rainy days, and especially evenings, mostly by 
his cherished plans. He moved into Burke in I the firelight, volume after volume was digested. 
1802. Beiug an able writer and effective speaker, I In 1810, Martin Doyle moved in from Walpole, 

chased the farm, upon which he lived imtil his 

Believing it was not good for man to be alone, 
in 1813 he was married, at Lyndon, to Miss 
Sally Jenks. From 1808 to 1813, he was town 
clerk; in 1822 and '23, was elected town repre- 
sentative, and in 1837 was chosen one of the 
assistant judges of the County Com-t, which 
office he held two years. 

His wife died January 25, 1843. One of their 
sons is a practising physician in Illinois ; anoth- 
er, a lawyer of considerable repute in Washing- 
ton Territory, was formerly Judge of the County 
Court in Los Angelos County, Cal. ; another is 
now in California ; two remain in their native 
town, one upon the old homestead ; another is in 
Canada ; Charles 0. (deceased) was formerly a 
practising physician at Lyndon; and Emeliue, 
wife of Dr. Sclim Newell, lives at St. Johnsbury. 
Dr. Denison was one who was out of his ele- 
ment unless engaged in business. He built sev- 
eral mills in town, and was iintil his death a 
large land-holder, owning large tracts of wild 
land in several different towns. His practice 
as physician extended over many towns. Phys- 
ically, the Doctor was a model man, 6 feet 
and upward, finely proportioned, with a carriage 
full of grace and dignity, and Ms countenance 
when at rest was but an index of his heai-t, re- 
flecting all its loftier attiibutes, mild and gentle, 
yet wearing the stamp of an iron Avill that must 
and would accomplish everything it undertook. 
In his religious sentiments, he looked upon all 
mankind as brothers and sisters, ti-avelling the 
same highway to one common home, — or was a 
Universalist. In his politics, he was a Republi- 
can. In relation to slavery, his ideas of justice 
were to give it no more territory, but confine it 
within its present bounds and let it work its 
own desti-uction. He was a capital shot. Noth- 
ing suited him better, even in his old age, than 
to take down liis trusty rifle and try his skill with 
the young men, and if he succeeded in beating 
them, he would " fat an inch on the rib." He 
died March 4, 1847. 


One of the early settlers, was born in old Ply- 
mouth, Mass., May 19, 1771, and was a descen- 
dant of Sylvanus Bartlett, who emigrated from 
England in the year 1G24. He moved to Ver- 
mont at the age of 16, and fitted for college with 
Judge Miles, of Fairlee. He entered Dartmouth 
College in the year 1794. In consequence, how- 
ever, of poor health, he was obliged, after two 
years, to abandon his studies. While at college, 
he attained a high rank as a scholar, and main- 
tained it to a respectable degree ever after. In 
early life he contemplated the ministry, but his 



N. H., bringing a respectable library for those 
days. Doyle and Buiington were old friends. 
Not only were the use of Doyle's books gra- 
tuitous, but his assistance in study cheerfully 
given. Here Mr. B. discovered "Ferguson's 
Astronomy," and in a year could calculate the 
changes of the moon and eclipses with perfect 
accuracy. Doyle, a self-taught scholai", imbibed 
his enthusiasm, and mutually assisting, these 
friends spent hours investigating the problems 
of this work. Doyle died in 1848. 

From the study of this sublime science, the 
investigation of this " stupendous machinery," 
Mr. B. claims that his mind was led upward, 
till he, too, could exclaim, 

" An undevout astronomer is mad," — 

till he was irresistibly confirmed in belief of the 
universal mindfulness and mercy of the Creator 
over and toward all his creatm-es, particularly 
his offspring man. 

From 1812 to '21, he was employed during the 
winter seasons to good acceptance in common 
schools, — a popular teacher, who drew many 
scholars from the districts around; in 1816, from 
thence nearly 25 years, was postmaster; and for 
upward of 38 years has held the office of town 
clerk, during which time every instrument re- 
corded in the town, nearly or quite 5,000, has 
been done with his own hand. He also retains 
the office of town treasurer, held nearly 31 years, 
and justice of the peace about 24 years ; in 1838 
and '39, was town representative, and has from 
time to time held other town offices. 

.When not engaged in public business, his pur- 
suit has ever been agricultural, being located on 
the farm on which Ms father settled in 1802. 
He is now living with his fourth wife. The Rev. 
L. M. Biirington, mentioned by Eev. Mr. God- 
ding in liis sketch of East Burke, is his son ; and 
H. A. Burington, in the specimen department 
of this chapter, a liberally educated young lady, 
now engaged in teaching, his daughter. And 
our venerable State Antiquarian Society Pres- 
ident (H. Stevens, Esq.) may be gratified to 
know there is a blooming bevy of younger daugh- 
ters in this family still taught to dexterously turn 
the somewhat antiquated spinning-wheel. 

]Mi\ B. has from time to time written several 
poems, which have appeared in different journals 
of the day. An obituary notice to his first wife 
(who died of an epidemic fever in 1832) was 
transcribed by Rev. Hosea Ballou, 2d, into a 
book entitled, " Happy Deaths." In the fall of 
1842, erysipelas commenced in the northern sec- 
tion of the State, and continued its fatal ravages 
for about 6 months, till a twenty-eighth part of 
the inhabitants of this town were its victims ; a 
large proportion of the population clothed in 
mourning ; a melancholy gloom visible in each 
countenance ; and it was difficult to obtain assis- 
tance sufficient to alleviate the wants of the sick 
and dying. January and February, the disease 

was the most prevalent and fatal. The close of 
this sadly eventful year he chronicled in verse, 
and for the fallen mourned : — 

" They sank 'neath autumn's chilling blast, 
And with the leaf grew pale and sere; 
Their memory only with the past 
Is mirrored with the dying year." 

Jan. 1, 1843, which he inscribes "Unhappy 
New Year," the second Mrs. B., a lady of un- 
usual attainments for those days, — the affection- 
ate, the gentle, and the congenial wife, whose 
memory is still fragrant in the old farmhouse, — 
died of the fatal erysipelas. In the "InMemo- 
riam " which commemorated again his dead, he 
thus touchingly generalizes sorrow : — 

" There lives not in this world of human mould, 
Not even savage Nature's rudest child, 
A form so dull, affectionless, and cold, 

Midst gloomy forests born, or deserts wild, 
But he has sometimes felt, when doomed to part, 
The last sad hopeless sorrows of the heart." 

Near the close of liis 69th year, he is still en- 
gaged in the active business of life. May a score 
of years yet crown his worthy head, who, in 
his waning manhood, with a pleasant pathos 
sings, — 


" Farewell my youth ! thy star was bright. 

And mildly did it beam on me ; 
But nevermore upon my sight 
Will fall its pure, its heavenly light, — 

Dear in the waste of memory. 

Farewell my youth ! thy dream of love 
Was like the sunset's brilliant calm, 

When not a leaf the breezes move ; 

But never more my soul shall prove 
Its luxury and dewy balm. 

Farewell my youth ! thy years are past, 
Thy hopes and sunny smiles are gone, — 

I knew they could not always last ; 

Like roses on the torrent cast, 
A moment, and their joys were flown." — Ed. 

Down beneath the drooping willows, 
' By the streamlet's limpid wave. 
Where the wild -birds sing above it, 

Is a little, new-made grave, — 
In it lieth all of Winnie 

That could die, 
WhUe his soul, immortal, liveth 
In the sky. 

Three short summers scarce are measured, 

Since on earth his life begun ; 
But the world was all too sinful 

For our sweet and gentle one, — 
All too rough for his pure spirit 

Long to dwell. 
And the Father called him homeward, — 
" All is well." 

Fare thee well, our darling Winnie, 

Till we pass the river cold ; 
Through the pearly gates celestial. 

Through the shining streets of gold, 
Thou shalt be our guardian angel, 

Watching o'er, 
Guiding us in paths of virtue 





Close gently her eyes, in their long dreamless slum- 
Fold meekly the arms o'er the heart that's now 
Oh bear her away from that now broken number, 
The place that is vacant none other may fill. 

Ko more will her smile banish sorrow and sadness 
From hearts that are swept by grief a death-flood- 
ing, wave, 
Ko more will she join in the gay song of gladness. — 
That voice once so sweet is now hushed for the 

She's far above sorrow, nor heeds she the weeping 
Of friends who on earth ever blest her Avith love ; 

Ye've paid the last tribute, she's now in the lieep- 
Of angels, — Oh, leave her in glory above. 




On the eastern slope of Burke Mountain, the 
Dishmill Brook rises, which takes its name from 
the cu-cumstance that in the early settlement of 
the town, a man by the name of Walter built a 
small shop here, where he turned wooden plates, 
dishes, and bowls, of different shapes and sizes. 
At the junction of this brook Avith the Passump- 
sic Eiver, is the village of East Burke. In this 
part of the town, previous to 1820, there were 
but a few families. In that year the Rev. Rufus 
Godding, some 10 years before he commenced 
preaching, purchased the lot of land where the 
village is located, and commenced clearing away 
the forest to make a farm. 

In 1825 he sold 10 acres, at first cost, to Jo- 
seph Wood, to encourage him to build a set of 
mills and commence a village. Wood moved 
into Godding's house, and commenced building 
a dam across the river. Coming in one evening 
from his work, he said, using liis familiar by- 
word, " By gracious ! there are bears in the place, 
and I'll have Mr. Bruin in the morning." The 
next morning he and his son, with two of the 
neighbors, started with dog and guns, and before 
sum-ise killed two bears and brought them in. 
" Now," said Wood, " I will have some of the 
gentleman for breakfast." He breakftxsted de- 
liciously, and went to his work. In that year he 
completed his saw-mill, and put it in operation. 
The next year he built a grist-mill. 

Soon others settled in the place : Mr. C. C. 
Newell, who built a blacksmith shop, and Mr. C. 
Harvey, who opened a store. Wood remained a 
few years, when, becoming invoh'cd in del)t, he 
sold his interest in the village to Willard Spen- 
cer, and removed to Victory, where, several miles 
from any inhabitant, he built another saw-mUl ; 
but his stay was short. From thence he removed 
to Lyndon ; then to Brighton, East Haven, and 
Newark, building a saw-mill in each place, — his 
last being in Newark. In his history we find one 
ever ready to shake the bush, but who caught no 

bird. He finally came back, and died at the 
liouse of his daughter, in East Burke. 

Spencer built a new grist-mill, dwelling-house, 
shop, &c., and the village slowly increased until 
A.D. 1852. In the fall of this year Spencer sold 
all his property in the village to D. P. Hall. 
Soon after this sale we had a heaA^y freshet, which 
carried off the old grist-mill, bridge, dwelling- 
house, shed, shop, &c., leaving the new grist- 
mill tottering on its foundation, in the centre of 
a deep gulf many rods in width, caused by the 
flood. Tliis took place in the night, and the 
work of destruction was not so clearly seen ; but 
the crash of buildings, and the giving way of the 
earth under the feet of those who were clearing 
the house and other buildings. Some barely es- 
caped from a watery grave, their property being 
borne down the once beautiful but now dark and 
ten'ible Passumpsic. The inhabitants on either 
side, opposite their homes but a few rods, passed 
the lonely night, there being no way of reach- 
ing their homes without a jom-ney of many 
miles. The next morning hundi-eds of people 
assembled to behold the devastation so suddenly 
and unexpectedly made. Some remarked, East 
Burke is sunk, and can never rise again. 

But Mr. Hall, with an energy and enterprise 
seldom equalled, repau-ed the dam and grist-mill, 
filled in part the gulf, and buUt a new saw-mill, 
probably the best in the county, at a cost of some 
SlO or §12,000, since which time there has been 
quite an increase in business and building, for a 
small place. There are now 2 meeting-houses, 
3 stores, 1 hotel, 2 saw-mills, 1 grist-mill, plan- 
ing and clapboard macliine, 2 blacksmith shops, 
3 shoe shops, a post-office, starch factory, um- 
brella stick factory, a rejiair shop, cabinet shop, 
and a good schoolhouse, in which school is sus- 
tained 9 months in the year. 

One incident occurred in 1846, near East Burke, 
which shows that God takes care of his own 
thi-ough life, and takes them home to himself as 
he pleases. There was a Mr. Newell and his 
wife,* some 70 years of age, poor in things of this 
world, but rich in fiiith, and heirs of the king- 
dom. She was his third wife, and he was her 
third husband. They lived in a small log house, 
at the foot of a steep bank, in a retired place. 
Being destitute of food and fuel, the neighbors 
carried in a good supply of the necessaries of 
life, for which they were very thankful. IVIrs. 
Newell, a few days after this, in conversation 
with some of her neighbors, remarked that they 
were poor, and that it would be difficult to sup- 
port themselves, and they hardly knew what to 
do. She said that her cliildren were willing to 
maintain her, but not her husband ; and that his 
children would support him, but Avere not willing 
to support her, and they could not bear the 
thought of being separated. Slie said, " We have 
concluded to IIa'c together, and hope to die to- 

*She was a daughter of the Eev. Peleg Hix, the 
first settled minister of Burke. 



gctlier." A short time after this- conversation, 
there was a heavy rain during the night, which 
caused an avalanche or slide in the hill back of 
their house, which came down with such force as 
to carry away the roof, and fill the entire house 
with earth to the depth of some 5 feet. It was 
discovered the next morning by a man who was 
passing by. He informed the inhabitants of the 
village, many of whom immediately repaired to 
the place and commenced removing the earth, 
which in a moment of time had unroofed the 
house, and buried its occupants alive, while in 
bed, apparently asleep, as appeared when the 
cold, thick, heavy, earthy covering was removed 
from their lifeless remains. Near the bed a Bible 
was found lying on the stand. They had doubt- 
less read the Word of God, and in prayer had 
committed to him the keeping of theh souls, and 
fell asleep to wake no more on earth. And in 
this providence it seemed that their desires were 
granted ; they were not separated in life, nor di- 
vided by death. A large congregation assembled 
on the day of their interment, and on many a 
manly face the tear stole silently down as they 
saw them lie side by side in death, and borne 
away to rest in one grave. 


Was organized April 29, 1801, Barnabas Thur- 
ber, clerk and first deacon. Elder Peieg Hix 
preached in Burke several years previous to his 
instalment, I find by the records. In 1803, 9 
were added to the church ; in 1806, 27 ; and 
probably Elder Hix was installed by a council of 
elders, May 1, 1807. He remained pastor until 
April 13, 1809, when he was, at his request, dis- 
missed from pastoral care, in full fellowship with 
said church. In A. D. 1810, it appears this 
church enjoyed a precious revival, and 30 addi- 
tions, mostly by baptism. There was no other 
minister settled as pastor, but others were em- 
ployed to preach and administer the ordinances 
to the church. Among the many, I name the 
following reverend gentlemen : Colby, Palmer, 
Beckwith, Ide, Davison, Fisher, Grow, Mitchel, 
and Doge. This church, for the want of a per- 
manent place of worshiiJ, and the lack of means 
to sustain a settled minister among them, did not 
prosper as they otherwise might. Additions were 
made ; but dismissions, removals, and death, 
reduced their numbers, and placed additional dis- 
couragements in their way. 


Was organized in the spring of 1830, consisting 
of 2 males and 4 females. Rev. Jonathan 
Woodman labored with them several years, and 
in 1831, R. Godding was licensed to preach. In 
1834, Mr. Godding was called to ordination and 
the pastorate. Prom time to time additions 
were made and revivals enjoyed, till, in 1840, it 
numbered 42. At this time 8 members of the 
fii-st-mentioned church united with this, and the 

two churches became one, and united with the 
Danville Baptist Association. In 1841, 25 mem- 
bers were added. Rev. N. Denison, who preached 
in several towns in this State, and Skeneateles, 
N. Y., with so much success, and died a few years 
since at Mendota, 111., was, at his conversion, re- 
ceived into this church, and by it licensed to 
preach the gospel. 

1852 and '53 were its most discouraging days, 
not having any place of worship but in a Union 
house, and their minister preaching with them 
but part of the time. In 1855, they decided to 
sell their interest in the Union house, and build 
a house themselves. In March, 1856, their 
house was finished and dedicated. It cost about 
$4,000, and for convenience and taste is seldom 
surpassed in a country village. Since that time 
they have had constant preaching on the Sab- 
bath, and have been greatly prospered. Rev. 
Mr. Godding, who became their pastor in 1834, 
still sustains that relation. Within the last 4 
years 75 have been received into fellowship. 
The aggregate number of members has been 
about 210. The number of members belonging 
to the Baptist church is about 116. 

There have been a number of good scholars 
who have gone out from this place and became 
eminent teachers, who have not taken a full col- 
legiate course, viz. : George Buckman, Rev. C. 
M. Gushing, and L. M. Burington. The fol- 
lowing have graduated at college, viz. : I. D. 
Newell, an able and successful Baptist minis- 
ter, who labored in this State, New York, and Il- 
linois until his death; Daniel Ladd, now a 
missionary at Smyrna; B. P. Denison, attor- 
ney at law in California ; B. P. Rat, a Congre- 
gationalist clergyman in this State ; and A. W. 
Godding, a teacher in one of the city schools in 
Providence, R. I., and associate editor of the 
" Rhode Island Schoolmaster." 


We once heard of an interesting little fellow, 
to whom was given a beautiful rose-tree. It was 
to be his own, to cultivate and to admire. He 
was delighted with his ti-easure, and bestowed 
upon it his most assiduous care. He watered it, 
loosened the soil about it, and watched its pro- 
gress till it put forth its green foliage, and was at 
last covered with little rose-buds. As these were 
very much hidden by the thick leaves, he cut 
them away, and exposed them to the sun. Af- 
ter a few days, he saw a little opening on the 
side of several buds, through which he spied the 
colored petals. In his impatience to gather the 
fragrant roses, that he might carry them to his 
mother, he plucked away the calyx and unfolded 
the petals. But in the moi-ning, he was sadly 
disappointed to find that his roses were all with- 
ered away. ..... 


\t:rmont historical magazine. 

A profound tliinkcr once asked, " What be- 
comes of all the bright children 1 " Does not 
the fate of the little rose-buds furnish a practi- 
cal solution ? Many a parent, who would sternly 
chide the nurse that should attempt too soon 
to teach their little one to walk, do, after all, 
precisely the same thing in the management of 
their minds. The earlier years of the child are 
sufficiently occupied with words and things. 
When his mind is matured, then give him ideas, 
and permit liim to remember, to imagine, and to 
reason. It is evident, that many parents and 
teachers, and even school supervisors, expect too 
much from children. It is necessary that the 
vai'ious faculties should be somewhat developed 
before mature results can be expected from their 
exercise. . . Besides, the minds of all cliildren 
are not uniformly progressive. . . Some are more 
quickly matured tlian others. . . It is by no 
means a sure evidence that a pupil may not ulti- 
mately succeed, because he is backward at an 
eai-ly stage of his education. There is far more 
danger from too rapid, than from too slow pro- 
gress. The anxiety of many parents to make 
their childi-en proficients very often defeats itself. 
Thousands, who might have been able men, were 
spoiled in vain efforts to make them remarkable 
children. Shakspeare and Milton speak com- 
plainingly of their- "late spring." But where 
are those prodigies of whom we have heard so 
much 1 

Let us then learn a lesson from the i^rocesses 
of nature. The leaves must sliield the tender 
buds from the scorching rays of the sun ; and the 
rough calyx is reqmred to confine the petals till 
their color and fragrance are duly perfected. 
We must not expect to turn out perfect scholars 
to order. Indeed, it may be suspected that 
there is some mistake when such examples are 
exhibited. Let children be childlike ; but when 
they ai'e men, not till then, let them " put away 
childish things." A. w. godding. 



Miss G., a native of Burke, educated herself for a 
successful teacher without any pecuniary aid. She 
has taught in several 2}laces in this State, the city of 
Hartford, Ct., St. Louis, Mo., and is now Principal 
in a Ladies^ Boarding School in St. Anthony, Minne- 
sota. (ISGO.) 

I wonder how deep, 

In a fatliomless sleep, 
Lay the earth in her primitive state, 

"When Jehovah passed by, 

With his fiat so high, 
And each particle ran to its mate. 

I wonder how low 

The old primaries go. 
Mysteriously building so long — 

That time sped away 

In long ages ere they 
Could form a foundation so strong. 

I wonder what power 
Thus caused tliem to tower, 

And lift their grey beads to the skies ; 

While the loftiest hills 

Have the granite for rills, 
And their tops interspersed as they rise. 

I wonder how trees, 

And the fish of the seas, 
So ventured (the truth nature shocks) 

That they should intrude, 

In a manner so rude, 
Even into the centre of rocks. 

1 wonder what time. 

In old Ocean's young prime, 
Little insects so busy could be, 

As to form in vast piles 

Those coral-reef isles, 
Springing up in the midst of the sea. 

I wonder, below, 

What I never can know, 
Of that ocean whose fiery tides lave 

The crust of the earth 

Since the morn of its birth, — 
Lo, it rises and falls with its wave, 

I wonder what hour, 

By Omnipotent Power, 
Creation's vast wheel shall be stayed. 

And the internal fire, 

Bursting forth in its ire, 
Earth's funeral pile shall be made. 

DANVILLE. — TO 1860. 


Part of that tract of country now known as 
DanviUe, and granted by New York, was origi- 
nally called Hillsboro'* — a name at once apt, 
and descriptive of its most prominent natural fea- 
tures, being for the most part a high, elevated, 
and withal a notoriously hilly region, lying 
along tlie base of a still more elevated and broken 
range of country to the westward, known as Cow 
Hill, Walden Mountain, &c., and which range 
extends far into the northern portion of the State. 

The exact limits and boundaries of old Hills- 
boro' cannot at this time be ascertained with any 
degree of certainty. It was most probably given 
to a certain tract running north and south, and 
embracing all that the original State grant of 
1786 covered, and also some of the western por- 
tion of St. Johnsbury. From some cause equally 
obscure, the old name of Hillsboro', on the issu- 
ing of the charter of 1786, or even before, was 
set aside, and in these latter years has, we pre- 
sume, been entirely forgotten. During the early 
struggle of the then New Hampshire Grants for 
a separate state existence, the efforts of E. Allen 
and associates were encouraged and assisted by 
the French consul then at Boston, Hector St. 
John Crevecoeur. Allen and associates, wishing 
to show their appreciation of these timely ser- 
vices, named several townships in honor of dis- 
tinguished Frenchmen. Danville, in accordance 
with this noble intention, was named in honor 
of the distinguished French Admiral, D'Anville. 
His name is neither written on pillars of brass 

* A name never put on record in the town. 



or towers of stone, but fastened to the eternal 
hills, which are his monument. 

Spring of 1783 or '84, Charles Hackett, the 
pioneer of this mountain region, opened a spot 
for his cabin just south of the house now occupied 
by Peter Bovee, on what is now called the 
" Isaac Morrill Pitch." This improvement was 
bought by Isaac Morrill, who subsequently set- 
tled on the farm. Mr. Hackett made a second 
pitch upon a spot just north of this first, now 
called the "Charles Sias Pitch." This improve- 
ment was bought by Capt. Charles Sias, for 
which he gave a cow. Mrs. Hackett was the 
first woman who came into this town ; but, dread- 
ing the severity of the winter, remained only 
through the summer, and returned to Peacham. 

1784, March. Capt. Charles Sias, with his 
family, made the first actual settlement here. 
His wife was the first white woman who dared to 
breast the long and dreary winter of this deep, 
unbroken wilderness. Mr. Sias drew his family 
and effects into town from Peacham on a hand- 
sled. Mr. Sias brought with him 10 children, 
seven sons and three daughters, as follows : 
Solomon, Joseph, Charles, John, James, Nathan, 
Samuel, Sarah, Polly, and Abigail. The snow 
was very deep, and the way was trackless. No 
mark was there to guide them, save the long line 
of spotted trees leading away into the dark for- 
ests. The father, with Solomon, Joseph, Charles, 
and John, and the three daughters, made the first 
company. Mr. Sias, with two men to assist, 
went forward on snow-shoes, and drew the sled, 
loaded with the girls and some goods, the boys 

They reached their log cabin early in the after- 
noon, dug it out from beneath the snow, which 
had nearly buried it, left John and the sisters to 
take care of themselves through the night, — the 
others retm'ned to Peacham. John was but 1 1 
years old, and was the first male child that ever 
slept in Danville. The next day, came the 
mother with the other children, on the hand-sled. 
In three days more the effects were all removed, 
and the lone family began their hard labors upon 
the wilderness. They commenced by tapping 
the maples, which stood thick around them in 
the most beautiful groves, affording them sugar 
in abundance, and supplied, in a great degree, 
the lack of other food. Thus was settled the first 
family in this town. The father, Charles Sias, 
was the first captain of the first military company 
in town, and was one of the first members of the 
Calvinist Baptist Chm'ch in Danville. 

In this year, Sargent Morrill commenced 
chopping in town. 

1785. During this year, or in the spring of 
1786, some 50 emigrants fi-om New Hampshire 
and Massachusetts, Essex Co., had settled here 
as "squatters." The first settlers in Danville 
were Charles Sias, Sargent Morrill, Daniel 
Wheeler, Daniel Cross, Abraham Morrill, Jer- 
emiah Morrill, Abner Morrill, Paul Morrill, Jo- 

seph Magoon, Timothy Batchelder, E. Howard, 
James Kiteridge, and Israel Bi-ainard. In Gen. 
Bailey's list, of some years after, among the Pro- 
prietors' Records, the number of settlers was 54. 

1786. Oct. 27. This township was granted. 
Oct. 31, of same year, the town was chartered to 
Gen. Jacob Bailey, Jesse Leavenworth, Moses Lit- 
tle, John McKisson, Luke Knowlton, James Whit- 
law, Alexander Harvey, Ira Allen, and Thomas 
Chittenden. The grant covered 73 rights, of 300 
acres each, which, with 17 settler's rights, and 4 
public rights of same amount, gave an area of 
about 28,000 acres. At the approach of winter, 
all those that came into town during the past 
year or two, except Charles Sias and Daniel 
Cross, returned to their former homes. 

1787. Those that left in the fall of 1786, re- 
turned in the spring. During the wintei-, 40 
additional families joined the settlement, and 
from this time the ingress was very rapid. March 
20, the town was organized, the meeting being 
holden at the house of Daniel Wheeler, near the 
centre of the town. The following is a list of 
the first town officers of Danville : — Sargent 
Morrill, Moderator ; Abraham Morrill, Town 
Clerk ; Charles Sias, Israel Brainard, Jeremiah 
Morrill, Selectmen ; Daniel Wheeler, Consta- 
ble; Zebediah Parker, Tythingman; Abner Mor- 
rill, Charles Sias, James Kiteridge, and Joseph 
Magoon, Surveyors of Highways ; Samuel Ful- 
ler, Hayward, Timothy Batchelder, Pence 


The first child born in town was named Dan- 
ville Howard, (sometimes in the records spelled 
Hayward). The date of his birth was in the 
summer of 1787. The conch which was blown 
at his birth, is still in existence somewhere in 
Ohio. The grant of land which the first-bom 
was to receive, was never deeded, as the child 
was not long-lived, — not more than 3 years. 

1788. Dec. 25, was married, by Abraham 
Mon-ill, Esq., Joseph Page to Abigail Morrill. 
This v/as the first marriage in town. 

1789. Six years before this, a solitary man 
sat himself down among these wooded hills . 
Now, so rapidly has emigration been pouring in 
during these few years, it is estimated that there 
are no less than 200 families in town. The re- 
sult of so rapid an increase of population, and 
the consequent increased drain iqoon the limited 
means of the settlers, accompanied with a severe 
drought, was a great scarcity of provisions. The 
sufferings of that time were very severe. Maple 
sugar formed the chief article of food. Like the 
manna of the ancient Hebrews, it was really a 
providence in the time of hunger and famine. 
No doubt, those stern old fathers blessed the for- 
est trees that gave them food and life. 

Large quantities of com and other provisions 
were brought from Essex County, Mass., whence 
many of the settlers had emigrated, a distance of 
nearly 200 miles, and over roads barely passable. 

1790. Improvements had been commenced 


"^t:rmont msTOEiCAL magazine . 

on nearly every lot in town. About this time, 
John AVebber opened the first store in town, on 
the form now owoied by Gen. Stephen Dole, near 
the centre of the town, and near the site of the 
present Centre District sehoolhouse. 

1792, Oct. 29. Walden Gore, containing 2,828 
acres, and situated in the western part of the 
town, was annexed to this township. 

When Caledonia County was established from 
a portion of old Orange, there arose quite a stiife 
between the towns of Peacham and Danville, as 
to which should be the shire town. Finally, the 
difficulty was adjusted by Danville's being made 
the sliii-e, and Peacham's taking the grammar 
school. 1795. 

1796, Sept. Aaron Hartshorn and Thomas 
Dow, for and in consideration of £30, deeded to 
the County a parcel of land containing 4 acres, 
situated in Danville Green Village, to have and 
to hold the same so long as the Public Buildings 
should remain at Danville. 

1802. Soon after this to^vnship was granted, 
difficulties began to arise between the settlers 
and the several grantees, respecting the quantity 
of land to which they were entitled. Settlers' 
meetings were holden, and committees chosen ; 
there ^\ere proprietors' meetings and conferences; 
but, seemingly, all to no pui'pose. Piually, the 
matter was refcn-ed to the General Assembly. 
Commissioners were appointed, the grounds of 
dilierenco investigated, and a report made. The 
result of tliese investigations and deliberations 
was, that the General Assembly decided on issu- 
ing, and did accordingly issue, a new or " quiet- 
ing charter" to the proprietors, November 12, 

The first survey of this township was made by 
Ebcn Thompson, who came here as early as 1787, 
and was one of the first who settled in the north 
part of the to\\Ti. Joshua Stevens sometime 
after made a re-suiwey, altering the former lines 
in certain cases, clipping certain lots, and adding 
to others. His survey was considered the most 
correct ; and the lines as established by him are 
still adhered to in all latter transactions touching 
the partition of lands. 

1805. The General Assembly convened here. 
The House met in the old Court House hall ; 
the Council met in the hall of the hotel. The 
old Court Plouse at that time stood on the west 
side of the Green, nearly opposite the Bank. 
The Jail stood on the east side of the Green, 
opposite the Court House. 

Deweysburgh was a tract of 5,310 acres, lying 
between Danville and Peacham, from its shape 
called the Boot, and chartered to Elijah Dewey 
and associates, Feb. 28, 1782. It was organized 
as a town, and represented in the General Assem- 
bly foiir years. 

1810, Nov. Was divided by act of the Legis- 
lature, and the southern half annexed to Peach- 
am, and the northern half to Danville, making 

the area of Danville to be 33,483 acres, or over 
50 square miles. 

1812. During the war, a company was raised 
here to serve six months. This company was 
stationed near the line. Joseph Morrill was the 
captain; John A. Stanton, lieutenant; Luther 
Bugbee, ensign ; Harvey Kelsey, Lidce Swett, 
Plummer Sa^^'yer, (who had abeady sen-cd in 
the war of the Revolution), Samuel Langmaid, 
Solomon Langmaid, John Bickford, Peter Heath, 
William Heath, Asa Glincs, Moses Varney, Ja- 
son Wilkins, Samuel Long, James Watson, 
Leavitt Daniels, Stutson West, Ephraim Harts- 
horn, JeiTy Walker, Josh Otis, Noah Willey, 
who was stationed at Portsmouth, N. H. At the 
expiration of the six months, Captain Morrill's 
company was discharged. He then raised a vol- 
unteer company of " years men," who served 
till peace was declared. Solomon Langmaid 
served as a di-agoon at the battle of Plattsburgli. 
He is still living in New York, as ready to fight 
against tyi-anny as ever. Hiram Kelsey raised a 
company, but was not called out. 

Dming the mnter of 1812, there were two com- 
panies of Kentucky Dragoons quartered here, 
commanded by Captains Hall and Butler. One 
company was quartered on the Charles Sias 
Pitch, and one at the old " Mears " house, 
about a mile south of the Green. They came 
from Burlington here on account of tlie abund- 
ance of forage and provisions. Among them was 
a big, burly bully, who considered himself in- 
vincible in all rough-and-tumble figlits, and was 
continually annoying all who came in contact 
with him. One day, at Cash's Tavern, in the 
Village, sitting before the huge fireplace, was a 
young man by the name of John Wilson, who 
had just returned from a season's work at rafting 
on the Canadian rivers. He was a tall, power- 
ful man, all brawn, and sinews like whijj-cord, 
and weighed when in " fighting trim " some 240 
or '50 pounds. As Wilson was composedly sit- 
ting there, Mr. Bully took a chair, and deliber- 
ately sat down in front of liim, (W.), and be- 
tween him and the fire. Wilson raised his foot, 
and with tremendous force sent him sprawling 
into the fire. Bully leaped up, and made at 
Wilson, who met him with a blow that would 
have stunned an ox. Two of Bully's friends 
then essayed to help, but Wilson, backing into a 
comer, knocked them down as often as they 
came within reach of his arm. Wilson's sledge- 
hammer blows soon decided the day in his favor. 
"Now," says Wilson, "I have two brothers at 
home, and we three will be here on such a day, 
(naming it), when we will engage to whip the 
whole regiment of you." They came on the ap- 
pointed day, but their antagonists did not see fit 
to ajipear. 

1826. The Bank of Caledonia, located in this 
town, was chartered, with a capital of $50,000, 
since increased to $75,000. 



1843. Erysipelas, in its most malignant form, 
raged here, carrying- off some 30 or 40 persons, 
mostly young persons and women at childbirth. 

During the early history of the town, it had a 
marked influence in the councils of the State; 
and for many years, even up to and during Anti- 
Masonic times, (from 1828 to 1835), stood among 
the foremost in the State for its wealth and pro- 
ductions, the energy and public spirit of its peo- 
ple. Its citizens were the recipients of the high- 
est honors in the gift of the people. Many 
causes, however, both physical and moral, which 
we have not space to detail, have operated seri- 
ously to lessen her influence and popularity. 
Old Danville has settled down at length into a 
quiet, staid old town, shorn of her honors, and 
forgotten of those who once were glad of her 

1855. The General Assembly, setting at 
naught its former guarantees and obligations of 
1795, and against the express wishes of a large 
portion of the county, removed the public build- 
ings to St. Johnsbury. 

1860. Danville generally, the northern and 
eastern portions especiallj-, is not surpassed in 
the northern portion of the State for its depth 
and richness of soil, the abundance and quality 
of its productions. It is well watered and well 
timbered. There are three medicinal springs in 
town, strongly impregnated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas and iron. One is near North 
Danville Village, one about a mile east of Dan- 
ville Green Village, the thuxl is by the bank of 
Joe's Brook, a short distance below Greenbank's 
Village. The three are in a direct N. and S. 
line. There are five villages here. The oldest 
in point of time, and largest in size, is Danville 
Green Village, very pleasantly situated on ele- 
vated land, near the centre of the town, and in 
the midst of a fine farming countiy. It com- 
mands a sm-passingly beautiful view of the far- 
famed White Hills and Pranconia Notch, which 
loom up m,ajestically against the eastern sky. 

North Danville Village, five miles north of 
the Green, is on Sleeper's Brook, a tributary of 
the Passtimpsic Eiver, and is in the immediate 
vicinity of some of the finest land in town. 
Samuel Chamberhn was the first to make im- 
provements at this point, having removed here 
from his former location on what is called the 
old Trescott Place, some one and a half miles 
north of the Green, in accordance with the sug- 
gestion and advice of Gen. Chamberlin, who 
came from Peacham on a visit. West Danville 
Village, Harvey's Hollow, and Greenbank's Vil- 
lages, are on Joe's Brook, and have fine mill- 
privileges. Jesse Leavenworth, one of the orig- 
inal grantees of the town, settled in town very 
early, on or near the old Hazen Military Eoad, 
wliich runs through the western part of the town, 
and he erected the mills at West Danville Vil- 
lage, at the mouth of Joe's Pond. Joe's Pond 
covers about 1,000 acres, and was once famed in 

the land for the abundance and superior quality 
of its trout ; but now, alas ! containing only 
the voracious pike, sucker, and other of this ilk. 
Some 25 or 30 years ago, some very public-spir- 
ited and benevolently-minded scamp transported 
a quantity of these destroyers from afar into Ly- 
ford's Pond, whose waters connect with Joe's 
Pond, and has been rewai-ded ever since with the 
cm-ses of every decent man in the country. 



This church was organized Aug. 7, 1792 ; 20 
persons then became members, some by letter, 
some by profession, and others belonging to dif- 
ferent denominations. The Eev. John Fitch 
was then invited to take its pastoral charge, and 
on the 30th of Oct., 1793, was ordained and in- 
stalled as their first pastor, — salary $275 per 
annum. His ministry extended to Oct. 1, 1816, 
a term of 23 years, when his pastoral relation 
with the church and society ceased. 

Rev. Jeremiah Plint succeeded him, and was 
settled as their pastor July, 1817, and in March, 
1818, was dismissed. Eev. Edward HoUister 
was settled March 26, 1823, and, on account of 
ill health, dismissed May 7, 1826. He was suc- 
ceeded by the Eev. Elderkin J. Boardman, set- 
tled Jan. 3, 1827, and dismissed Oct. 9, 1833; 
120 were added to the chm'ch during his pasto- 
rate. Eev. David A. Jones, from England, was 
settled March 25, 1835, and at the close of his 
4th year dismissed. In the beginning of the 
year 1840, Eev. E. C. Hand commenced his 
ministiy in Danville, and after about 1 year was 
installed as pastor. Mr. Hand was dismissed 
Sept. 16, 1846, after an acceptable and useful 
ministry of 5| years. Eev. David Perry was 
settled in Feb. 1847, and dismissed April, 1850. 
He was succeeded by the Eev. John Dudley, as 
stated supply, for the tenn of 6 years. The 
Eev. John Eastman is now acting pastor, hav- 
ing acceptably supplied the pulpit for the last 4 

While the chm'ch has had in its communion 
600 members, the whole membership at present 
is but 140. Four meeting-houses have been 
built by the church and society since its organ- 
ization, and their present house of worship, built 
in modern style, is a large, beautiful edifice, 
with bell, organ, and clock. 



The first records of the Methodist Church at 
Danville Station show the first quarterly meet- 
ing was holden Oct. 1-2, 1803, and Elder Lems 
Bates the first minister, or one of the first, as 
Phineas Peck appears to have been there about 
the same time. 

Samuel Bachelder was steward in 1803, and, 
for anything that appears of record, the only 
steward at that time. Danville circuit, as early 



as 1806 and probably as early as 1803, embraced I 
within its bounds the towns of Danville, Barton, 
Burke, Cabot, Greensboro', Hardwick, Ivirby, 
Lyndon, Peacham, Sutton, (then called Billy- 
mead,) "Walden, and Waterfotd. These to^vns 
were probably visited and supplied with Metho- 
dist preaching at stated periods, as the itinerants 
passed around the circuit. 

Aaron Bickford was baptized by Elder Joseph 
Crawford, Sept. 30, 1803, and is probably the 
first person baptized on this circuit. Nathaniel 
Hart and John Bachelder were baptized Oct. 1, 
1 803, by the same elder, which were the only per- 
sons baptized on the circuit that year. In 1S04, 
there were some 20, or more, baptized ; and 
among the number appears the name of Solo- 
mon Sias, as receiving that ordinance July 22, 
and "Wilbur Fisk, on the 9th day of Sept. 
Archelaus Sias was baptized Dec. 21, 1805, and 
his wife Jan. 5, 1806, both by Joseph Fairbanks, 
circuit preacher, and were received into the 
church, Jan., 1806. Solomon Sias was received 
into the church, and "licensed to travel and 
preach," in 1805, and in a very few years be- 
came quite a popular preacher, and for many 
years exerted a very favorable and controlling 
influence throughout New England. Archelaus 
Sias became a local elder, and spent his days in 
Danville, where, by his uniform, pious and con- 
sistent life, he has exerted an influence in favor 
of religion worthy of the man and of Methodism. 

The Methodist church at Danville had no 
meeting-house in which to worship until the year 
1822 ; that year they built a chapel 40 by 55 feet, 
on land given to the church by the Hon. B. F. 
Deming. It was a neat, plain house, in a pleas- 
ant location, and cost not far from $2000. 

In 1825, the church built the present parson- 
age, with a small barn attached. A new barn 
has since been built, and the parsonage repaired. 

In 1842-3 the chapel was moved back a few 
feet and raised up, and enlarged by 22 feet addi- 
tion in front, with a cupola upon it, and a base- 
ment story underneath. The house is finished 
inside in a very neat style, all new pews, and a 
pulpit of a more modern height and form than 
the old one, all of which cost nearly, or quite, 

[Of the Baptist chiurch or churches in Danville, 
we have, as yet, received no account ; but ear- 
nestly request them to send in their record for the 
next number. ed.] 



This institution was chartered by an act of 
the Legislature of Vermont, Oct. 1840. 

By the will of Paul D. Phillips, Esq., a citi- 
zen of the town of Danville, the sum of $2000 
was bequeathed and given its inhabitants, pro- 
vided they, or any part of them, should forth- 
with erect and finish a suitable and substantial 

building near the Green, to be distinguished and 
known as "Phillips Academy;" and also pro- 
cure from tlie Legislature an act of incorporation. 
Through the generous contributions of a few 
of the inhabitants of the said town, the pro- 
visions of the will were complied with, a beautiful 
and imposing edifice erected; and in Oct. 1841, 
the institution went into successful operation, 
under the charge of the Rev. A. Fleming. Its 
success up to the present day gives evidence of 
its usefulness. 



Population, June 1, 1860, 2547. 
Productions of the year preceding June 1, 1860. 
Potatoes, 58,188 bushels. 
Butter, 114,980 pounds. 
Maple sugar, 165,925 lbs. 
Hay, 8,272 tons. 
Horses, June 1, 1860, 795. 
Cows, do. do. 1,234. 
Other cattle, do. 2,290. 


[We here resume Mr. Alexander's MS. — Ed.] 


Was bom in Durham, N. H., Sept. 29, 1754. 
His early life was spent on the farm with his 
parents ; but, during his 21st year, war having 
broken out with England, aroused at once the 
spirit of independence and resistance against 
oppression. Being of a bold and adventurous 
spirit, he soon enlisted as a private in his coun- 
try's service. Several months, however, having 
elapsed, and being called into no engagement 
with the enemy, loginging for more exciting 
scenes, he embarked on board a vessel privately 
cruising on the north-cast coast. During their 
first engagement with an English man-of-war, he, 
with the rest of the crew, were taken prisoners, 
and for a time confined on board the " Old Jersey." 
Soon, with others, he was sent to England, where 
for more than four years he was kept in close 
confinement. Many pleasing anecdotes are re- 
lated by him, concerning this period of his life. 
Having found a piece of the hinge of a door, the 
prisoners formed a plan to escape, by digging a 
passage under ground sufficient to admit of their 
egress. One morning the keeper came into the 
prison and said, " Well, Bickford, I hear that 
you are digging out; how soon will you be 
ready to go '? " " To-morrow night," was the 
reply. " Oh, that is only some of your nonsense," 
was the rejoinder of the keeper. To wliich Bick- 
ford replied, " However, this is our intention ; " 
and when the time came the keeper found it true. 
After digging a passage for some distance under 
ground, concealing the dirt in their hammocks, 
made into bags for this purpose, coming under 
an adjoining house, they took up the brick floor. 



unlocked the door, and passed out. After con- 
cealing tliemselres for a time, hoping by some 
means to escape from the Island, but being un- 
able to do so on account of the vigilant watch 
which was instituted, they finally made a con- 
tract with a man who should return them to the 
prison, and give them one half of the reward of 
40 shillings sterling which was offered for their 
recapture. So successful was this game that it 
was afterward played several times, whenever 
their empty pui-ses needed replenishing. At 
length, when peace was declared, an exchange of 
prisoners being made, he was set at liberty, and 
returned to New Hampshire, where he was soon 
married to Abigail Rand, of Deerfield. Owing 
to the depreciation in value of Continental money 
at this time, his entire propei-ty, personal and 
real estate, amounted to the sum of $7, one of 
which went to pay the parson's fee. 

In 1792 and '93, many settlers emigrated to 
Northern Vermont ; and he among the rest, with 
his wife and 4 children, found a home in what was 
then an almost unbroken wilderness. Selecting a 
location in the eastern part of Danville, he at 
once commenced the arduous work of clearing 
up a farm and erecting a log house. Scarcely 
had he commenced his labors before he was pros- 
trated by a fever, and the strong man was laid 
low. Dark was the prospect which opened be- 
fore liim. A long, cold winter had already com- 
menced. The settlers, it is true, were kind ; but 
they, too, were poor, and so few in number that 
Ml-. Bickford has frequently said that he has 
seen all the men in town sit on one log. Added 
to this, his house was not yet completed. One 
day, as a nei^bor listened to his delirious vaga- 
ries and fearful forebodings while his reason was 
wandering, the man remarked that "this house 
must be finished." The neighbors immediately 
rallied, the house was completed, and Mr. B. 
and his family entered upon its occupancy. Of- 
ten has he remarked that never was he so happy 
in his life as when he first took possession of his 
new home. With untiring energy he toiled on, 
until he had acquired a competency for himself 
and 9 children, causing his wilderness home to 
bud and blossom as the rose. When in after 
years his sons and daughters left their paternal 
home to go forth into the wide world, his feet still 
lingered around the old homestead, where were 
associated so many pleasant scenes of the past ; 
and when the snows of more than 50 -Nvinters 
had sprinkled the brow of his youngest born, 
and grandchildi'en and great-grandchildren gath- 
ered in the old homestead, his cheerful laugh and 
pleasant voice was heard recounting the scenes 
of the long ago, — the freshness of youth that 
still lingered about his heart rendering him a fit 
companion for every age ; but when a centmy 
had passed, and left him still tossed upon life's 
billows, thought left the busy present and wan- 
dered back to the bright scenes of the past. The 
old man was a child again. On the 5th of May, 

1856, at the advanced age of 101 years 7 months 
and 6 days, he peacefully passed up to the 
Saviour whom he had long loved. 


Was bom in Pomfret, Vt., April 13, 1774, and 
from thence came with his family to Danville in 
1805. He was the fifth of a family of 12 chil- 
di'en of John Winchester Dana, one of the first 
proprietors and settlers of that town, who came 
from Pomfret, Conn. His mother was Hannah, 
eldest daughter of Gen. Israel Putnam, of Rev- 
olutionary fame. She inherited and transmitted 
much of her father's spirit to her large family. 
It will illustrate the hardships which were en- 
countered in the early settlement of Vermont, if 
we here put on record the narrative of an authen- 
tic tradition, that at the buth of Israel Putnam 
his father had to draw the midwife 6 miles over 
the hills and through deep snows, on a hand-sled. 
So exhausting was the labor, that, stopping to 
rest for a moment at the sugar-camp of his neigh- 
bor, Abidah Smith, he sank down insensible, 
and Mr. S. went on with the doctress ; thus ren- 
dering an important service to his future son-in- 
law, — the child then born, — who twenty -four 
years after became the husband of Sarah Smith. 

During his residence in Pomfret, Mr. Dana was 
engaged chiefly in trade. The native elements 
of character which marked him so decisively for 
a leader in whatever sphere he moved, had se- 
cured for him the rank of Colonel in the Vermont 
militia, which at that period merited and com- 
manded respect. On his removal to Danville, 
he kept for 3 or 4 years the tavern on the old 
stand, near the present location of the Bank. He 
soon also resumed his mercantile pursuits, in 
which he continued during his active life. As a 
merchant he was enterprising and successful, and 
his store was for many years an important and 
well-known centre for a wide region. 

He was elected high sheriff for Caledonia 
County, A.D. 1808, and held the office 5 years. 
In 1809, he took the first company of prisoners 
to the new state prison at Windsor, and the old- 
fashioned whipping-post was employed in dis- 
pensing justice to offenders no longer. 

In the war of 1812, he was an earnest sup- 
porter of the national administration, and active 
in measures for the prosecution of the war. At 
one time he made two journeys to Boston and 
back, a distance of more than 160 miles, on 
horseback, in 12 days, using the same horse 
through the entire trip. He was much employed 
in raising volunteers for the service and in fur- 
nishing the commissariat for considerable num- 
bers of the soldiers quartered from time to time 
in Danville. In 1814, he raised a company, and 
was on his way with them to Burlington as com- 
mander, when he was met at Montpelier by 
intelligence of the decisive battle of Plattsburg, 
After the war he was appointed collector, for a 
large district of Northern Vermont, of the direct 


ver:mont msTOEiCiiL mag.vzint:. 

tax levied by the United States government, to 
defray tlie expenses of the war, and in the dis- 
charge of this office found much arduous employ- 

In later years, he was for a considerable period 
member of the Governor's Council, before that 
organization gave place to our present Senate, 
and in tliis position he exerted a wide and impor- 
tant influence on the legislation of the State. 
He was prominent in the formation, and for 
several years tlie first president of the Vermont 
Mutxial Fire Insurance Company. The Bank 
of Caledonia was also largely indebted to his 
agency in securing its charter and organization. 
Colonel Dana was a man decided in his opiir- 
ions, firm in his convictions, yet always charita- 
ble to such as differed from him, and generous 
to an opponent. He possessed that enterprise, 
public spirit, courage, and discretion, which, 
united in any person, make their mark on a com- 
munity, and exert a signal influence, especially 
in the development of a new settlement. It was 
the habit of his mind to look below the surface ; 
to trace the underlying currents of larger, wider 
influences ; to plant liimself upon and never take 
his departure from sound principles. He had an 
eye keen to discern the right tiling to be done in 
critical or perplexing circumstances ; and, as he 
often said, made it a rule to act from first impres- 
sions, and that instanter. Though never inclined 
to protrude himself, but rather marked by a true 
modesty of dispositiod, he was, however, always 
ready to act, wherever he could do so wisely. 
Indolence or timidity did not tempt him to wait 
on the leadership of some more efficient mind. 
The town and the county owe much for the de- 
velopment of their institutions and resources to 
his agency and inspiration, and his name must 
fill a conspicuous place in any just estimate of 
theu" early history. 

His mind was esserttiaUy reverent. He al- 
ways held firmly, as he was early taught, the 
truths of the Christian religion, and ho found 
them practically powerful and precious in his 
own experience. For 30 years he was an ef- 
ficient and consistent member of the Congre- 
gational church in Danville, candying liis native 
zeal, courage, and prudence in counsel into his 
rehgious activity. His love for the cause, at 
homo and abroad, was strong and ardent, and 
his house a home for ministers of the gospel 
and tlie early missionaries who labored in this 
part of the State. To the American Board, 
of which he was an early and fast ft-iend, he con- 
tributed for tlie support of its foreign missionary 
enterprise. His eldest daughter, Frances, became 
the wife of Rev. Austin Hazen, whose pastoral 
life of more than 40 years was spent in Hartford 
and Berlin. Her surA^ving children, Allen and 
Sophia, became missionaries of the Board ; the 
former in India, the latter in Pei-sia, as the wife 
of Rev. David S. Stoddard. 

Col. Dana died June 22, 184S, at the age of 

74. The wife of his youth survived him live 

It may be of sufficient interest to add, that the 
Rev. Judah Dana, of Fiycburg, Mc, for some 
years U. S. Senator, and enjoying the confidence 
of Gen. Jackson, was an older brother. 


"Was bom at Brentwood, N. H., in December, 
1775, and had he lived till the next December, 
would have been 84 years old. "When about 21 
years old he came to Danville, and in a year or 
two afterwards became a resident of our village, 
where he has always resided. He served in the 
war of 1812, was a recruiting officer, held a cap- 
tain's commission, and at one time was stationed 
on the Canada frontier near Derby Line. At 
another time he recruited a company of soldiers 
in this town, was appointed captain, and served 
with them several months near Lake Champlain. 
In 1 822, Mr. Morrill was elected a member of 
the Legislature, and also, we believe, represented 
the town another year. In 1823 and 1824, he 
held the office of County Court Judge, and sub- 
sequently, for many years, held the place of 
County Treasurer. The best years of his life 
were devoted to active business pursuits. For 
many years previous to his death he lived in 
quiet retirement, in the enjoyment of his religious 
faith, that of the Methodist denomination, of 
which church he was a constant and devoted 
member. All men speak well of the dead. — 
"North Star." 


"Was a prominent and higldy respected citizen. 
He was prominently known, not only in his own 
vicinity, but throughout the State, as the founder, 
and for many years the editor, of the North Star. 
He first came to Dau\'ille, with his family, in the 
autumn of 1806. He was then about 30 years 
of age. The town, prior to that period, had been 
established as the county seat, and the village 
had commenced to grow rapidly. Previous to 
this time, also, a newspaper had been established 
at Peacham, and, we believe, was still being 
published at the time it was detei-mincd to estab- 
lish the Star at Danville. Tlie paper at Peacham, 
however, was soon after discontinued. At a meet- 
ing of several leading citizens of Danville the 
name to be given the new paper was fully can- 
vassed ; and after various names had been sug- 
gested, Mr. Aaron Porter finally proposed that 
" The North Star" be the title, which suggestion 
was at once unanimously adopted. 

The first number of the Star was issued the 
first week in January, 1807. It was a small- 
sized sheet, but well filled -with political and mis- 
cellaneous reading. Its politics were cleai-ly 
defined, as being Republican, in opposition to the 
then styled Federal party. For moi-e than 30 
years, Mr. Eaton was the principal editor of the 
Star; and during this period, his wiitings and 



the selections for his paper exerted a marked in- 
fluence upon the pubKc mind. During part of 
the time, the paper had a very large circulation, 
probably larger than any other political journal 
in the State. In several of the party contests of 
that day, it had also a wide and commanding in- 
fluence. As a political writer, Mi-. Eaton was 
frank, fearless, and honest in the expression of 
his opinions. In short, he was a good editor, 
and continued actively in that capacity until 
1841, when his son, N. H. Eaton, became the 
principal editor and jjroprietor of the Star, which 
is still published by him at Danville. Up to the 
close of Mr. Eaton's life, however, he was asso- 
ciated with his son as nominal editor of the Star. 
Personally, no man was more highly respected, 
yea, beloved, by all classes, than Ebenezer Eaton. 
Though not rich in this world's goods, yet he 
was rich in the honor and regard extended to 
him by his fellow-townsmen, and all who knew 
him by personal acquaintance. He was kind, 
social, generous, and ever compassionate to the 
sick and afilicted. As early as 1818, Mr. Eaton 
became a member of the Congregational Church ; 
and from that time until the hour of his death, 
ever exemplified the character of a sincere, de- 
voted, liberal-minded Christian. He manifested 
this character in all the daily walks of life ; and 
especially dming the 18 years prior to his death, 
when, released from the cares and jjerplexities of 
active business, his Christian light shone pre- 
eminent. It had a marked and salutary effect 
on those around him. Eveiy one loved and 
honored " Father Eaton." He retained his phys- 
ical and mental faculties until within about two 
months prior to his decease. He died, calm and 
happy, at his residence in Danville, January 31, 
1859, at the ripe age of 82 years. 


Was born in the town of Hebron, Ct., Sept. 12, 
1781. He was the son of Stephen and Susannah 
Palmer, who emigrated from England before the 
Revolution, and was the fourth son of a family of 
4 sons and 4 daughters, who all came to the age 
of 80 years and upwards, except the subject of 
this notice. 

At an early age dming his minority, he met 
with a casualty in falling upon the ice with an 
axe, by which he lost a part of one of his hands. 
This occm'rence seemed to be the means of de- 
termining his future course of life. By being 
measurably precluded from manual labor, he re- 
solved on the study of a profession, and soon 
entered, with this view, the law office of the late 
Hon. Judge Peters, of Hartford, Ct. He remained 
here for a time; when he resolved to seek Ms 
fortune in the new State of Vermont, about 
which, at that time, considerable was said as 
being a good place to emigrate to. Following 
up the Connecticut River, he finally found his 
way to Chelsea, Vt., where he entered the of&ce 
of Daniel Buck, Esq., with whom he remained 

for some time, peifecting himself more fully in 
the practice of his profession. 

Thinking himself tolerably well qualified for 
the practice of law, he applied for admission to 
the bar of Orange County, and was admitted in 
due form soon after. He then very soon started 
on a torn- of observation northward, travelling as 
far as Brownington, stopping a short time in 
the office of Wm. Baxter, Esq., who at that 
time and subsequently was a lawyer of consid- 
erable eminence in that place. He afterward 
went to Derby with a view of locating himself 
there, but not liking entu-ely his situation there, 
returned as far as St. Johnsbury, where he made 
a stand and opened an office for the practice of 
law. This was about the year 1805 or there- 

He remained at St. Johnsbury for a term of 2 
or 3 years, when he was elected to the office 
of Judge of Probate for Caledonia County, and 
removed to Danville, the then county seat. He 
held this office quite a number of years, and also 
dming this time was County Clerk, — in the 
mean tune being frequently elected to represent 
said town in the Legislatm-e. He was elected 
Judge of the Supreme Comi; of Vermont in 1815 
(I think). Holding this office for about 2 years, 
he resigned the same. In 1817, he was elected 
as Senator in Congress for 6 years, and also 1 
year to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation 
of James Fisk (I think). He took his seat in 
Congress in December, 1818, serving in this ca- 
pacity for 7 years, which terminated in 1825. 
For the next 2 or 3 years he held no office, ex- 
cept, perhaps, representing Danville 1 year in 
the Legislature, where he was instrumental in 
getting passed the charter of the Bank of Cale- 
donia, located at Danville, — devoting himself 
during this time to his favorite pm'suit of agri- 
cultm-e. In 1830, he was nominated for the 
office of Governor, but failed this year in the 
election, Hon. Samuel C. Crafts being the suc- 
cessful candidate. He was, however, elected 
Governor in 1831, holding the office 4 years, 
bringing it down to 1835. 

This may be said to have terminated his pub- 
lic life, although he was chosen as delegate after- 
ward once or twice to the Constitutional Con- 
vention of the State, — the last time in 1848. 
Soon after this period his health became im- 
paired, so much so as to withdraw him from all 
direct or active participation in affau's of a polit- 
ical or public character. He continued in a state 
of slow decline for upwards of 10 years, only be- 
ing confined for a short period before his death, 
which took place December 3, 1860. 

Gov. Palmer was a man of strong natural abil- 
ities, possessing a decided and penetrating mind. 
His heart and hand were ever open to the calls 
of want and distress, and if he erred at all in this 
direction, it was in being too benevolent, loving 
his neighbor better than himself. He was re- 
markable for his intelligence, high social qual- 



ities, and unpretending Mmplicity of manners. 
In politics, he commenced as a Jeft'orsonian dem- 
ocrat, adhering through all the phases of party 
to the democratic side, supporting every dem- 
ocratic administration from Jefierson to Bu- 

He helped make in Congress the famous Com- 
promise line, and voted for the admission of 
IVIissouri into the Union with the constitution 
with which she presented herself. He always 
contended that his vote was cast honestly for 
that measure, and as he believed to be in accord- 
ance with his oath. He was, liowevcr, much 
censured at the time and afterwards for his voto 
on that occasion, but he lived long enough, how- 
ever, to see that line done away by the action of 
the party that was mainly insti-umental in its 

Gov. Palmer was an honest and just man in 
all liis business ti-ansactions, a most affectionate 
husband and father, and in all his relations of 
life an estimable man. His departure was la- 
mented by a wide circle of friends. 


At a very early period, anterior to the Revo- 
lution, three brothers, named Alexander, emi- 
grated from Scotland to this country and settled 
at ISToi'thfield, Mass. One of the In-others, Thom- 
as, was a captain in the war of Independence, on 
the side of the colonics. A son of one of them, 
named Eldad, from his father, studied med- 
icine and resided in Hartland, Vt., and prac- 
tised his profession until his death, 1829. His 
son Eldad, the eighth of 9 children, and the 
subject of the present sketch, was bom May 22, 
1798, in Hartland. lie graduated at Yale Med- 
ical College, and yet while in his minority com- 
menced the practice of his profession. He came 
to Dan\dlle in 1821, where he resided until his 
death, in Eeb., 1859. He attained a high rank 
in his profession, and up to his last illness had 
an extensive practice. He became specially em- 
inent as a surgeon, and probably was regarded as 
the most skilful in surgery of any in this whole 
section of country. He was much attached to 
hia profession, making it the main business of 
his life ; and, being a profound thinker and a 
great reader, added to liis acquired knowledge a 
thorough practical experience in medical and 
surgical science. Personally, he was highly 
respected, ever maintaining the character of a 
good citizen, a kind neighbor, an obliging friend, 
and died in fidl hope of realizing the Christian's 
reward. His loss is justly regarded as a public 


Digested from an obituary published at the time in 
the "North Star," by M. T. C. A. 
Mr. Deming entered public life early. He was 
first chosen County Clerk for Caledonia County, 
in 1819. He was subsequently Judge of Pro- 
bate and Councillor of the county for several 

years, which latter office he was peculiarly well 
fitted for. Several other minor offices he also 
held with honor to himself and the satisfaction 
of the public. November, 1832, as the anti- 
Masonic candidate, by a handsome majority, he 
was elected member of Congress from this, the 
5th Congressional District of "Vermont. He was 
not, however, permitted to serve his constituents 
but one session in the councils of the nation. 
Contracting, at Washington, a disease of the 
bowels, he started for his Northern home, in hope 
of benefit from the change of air and water, 
but only arrived at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 
where he lingered a few days, and died at the 
Union Hall, Friday, July 11, 1834, aged 44 
years. He left a wife and young family, to 
whom he was affectionately devoted. In what- 
ever light we consider Judge Deming, his char- 
acter will appear alike conspicuous. With more 
than ordinary talent, and a naturally calm and 
deliberative mind, quick of perception, he was 
well fitted for public stations and legislative as- 
semblies. His business capacity and dealings, 
in which he was prompt, apt, correct, and emi- 
nently upright, have been before alluded to. As 
a man and citizen, he was social and winning ; 
equanimity of temper and habits characterizing 
his whole general deportment. It is written of 
him, " He was good to the widow and the father- 
less, and the poor he never sent empty away." 
Last, not least, he was one to whom religion was 
above everything else, and to whom all oilier 
things came in as of minor consequence ; who 
was thus enabled, on his dying bed, to review his 
past life, and exclaim, " I have fought a good 
fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the 
faith ; henceforth there is laid up for me a crown 
of glory." 

[A notice of Hon. S. Sias we have not yet 
been able to obtain. — Ed.] 


'Mid the fast-falling shadows, 

Weary and worn and late, 
A timid, doubtinj^ pilgrim, 

I reach the wicket gate. 
Where crowds have stood before me, 

I stand alone to-night, 
And in the deepening' darkness 

Pray for one gleam of light. 

From the foul sloughs and marshes, 

I've gathered many a stain ; 
I've heard old voices calling 

From far across the plain. 
Now in my wretched weakness, 

Fearful and sad, I wait; 
And every refuge fails me, 

Here at the wicket gate. 

And will the portals open 
To me, who roamed so long, 

Filthy and vile and burdened, 
With this great load of wrong? 

Hark! a glad voice of welcome 
Bids my wild fears abate ; 



Look ! for a hand of mercy 
Opens the wicket gate. 

On to the palace Beautiful ! 

And the bright room called Peace, 
Down to the silent river, 

Where tliou shalt find release; 
Up to the radiant city, 

Where shining ones await; 
On, for the way of glory 

Lies through the wicket gate. 




Grotott, situated in the south part of Cale- 
donia County, is bounded N. by Peacham, E. by 
Kyegate, S. by Topsham, and W. by Goshen 
Gore. Its area is 38 square miles, and it con- 
tained in 1830, 836 inhabitants; in 1840, 928; 
in 1850, 895 ; and in 1860, a slight increase on 
the preceding decade. 

Groton was chartered Oct. 20, 1789. It was 
settled in 1787, and consequently it is 73 years 
since the first settlement was made. March the 
28th, 1797, it was organized by a town-meeting, 
held at the dwelling-house of John Darling, 
pursuant to a notice issued by William Cham- 
berlin. Justice of the Peace of the town of Peach- 
am. At this meeting were elected the following 
town officers, viz. : — Samuel Bacon, Moderator; 
Nathaniel Knight, Town Clerk; Samuel Bacon, 
Nathaniel Knight, and James Abbott, Select- 
men ; Jonathan James, Town Treasurer ; Wm. 
Prost, Constable and Collector ; Dominicus 
Gray, Town Grand Juror; Israel Bailey and 
Edmund Morse, Tithingmen; Aaron Hosmer, 
Jr., and Silas Lund, Highway Surveyors ; Eo- 
bards Darling, Surveyor of Lumber; Wm. Prost, 
Sealer of Weights and Measures; Jeremiah 
Bachelder and Samuel Darling, Hogreeves ; 
James Hooper, Penceviewer. 

The first freemen's meeting was held Sept. 
3, 1799 ; but the town records do not show 
vrhether there was an election or not. There is, 
liowever, a tradition that at this meeting there 
were two parties, viz. : the Kennebunkers, who 
were settlers from Sanford, Wells, and Kenne- 
bunk, Mc. ; and the Gaghegans, from New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut; 
and that the former, being more numerous, elect- 
ed Jonathan Macomber, Eepresentative. The 
truth of this tradition can be ascertained only by 
reference to the State records. 

The surface of the town is agreeably diversi- 
fied by hill and vaUey, presenting to the eye a 
landscape pleasing and beautiful, rather than 
grand and sublime. The soil, though hard, is 
well adapted to grass and grain, and, when well 
cultivated, richly remunerates the husbandman 
for his labor. 

Whitcher's Mountain, situated in the south- 
eastern part, is the highest elevation of land in 
town, being 1,100 feet above the level of the 

ocean, and capable of cultivation to its summit, 
where there is quite a pond of water ; not of suf- 
ficient dimensions and depth, to be sure, for 
steamboats and men-of-war, but ample enough 
for ducks and geese. 

The soil, except in the eastern part, is hard 
and stony, and consequently difficult of cultiva- 
tion. The rock is granite, and there is an abun- 
dance of it for all fencing purposes, and some to 
spare. In general, the rock of Caledonia County 
is primitive, and of the calcareo-mica-slate forma- 
tion ; but in Groton, Peacham, Danville, and the 
eastern part of Cabot, it is almost exclusively 
granite ; showing that at some former period of 
the history of the earth, and by some powerful 
convulsion of her interior elements, the granite 
has been forced up through the primitive rock. 

Wells Eiver, which rises in Groton Pond, 
flows through the town from N. W. to S. E., 
and by its falls affords many excellent water 
privileges for mills and machineiy, of which the 
inhabitants have availed themselves by erecting 
mills and locating macliiuery at various points 
along its banks. 

In the north-western part of the town are two 
beautiful ponds of water, called Long Pond and 
Little Pond ; the former 4 mUes long by 1 broad, 
and the latter 1 mile in length by |- mile in 
width. At the foot of the latter is the " Lake 
House," recently erected by McLane Marshall, 
the present proprietor and occupant. On the 
latter pond, also, is a pleasure-boat 30 feet long 
by 10 wide, called the "Lady of the Lake," and 
capable of carrying 60 persons at a time. Both 
these ponds contaia an abundance of fish, and af- 
ford the inhabitants of this and adjoining towns 
no little sport in catching them. They both 
cover an area of 2,880 acres, one being 8 times as 
large as the other, and are at an elevation of 
1,083 feet above the level of the sea, as esti- 
mated by Zadoc Thompson. 

The first settlers of the town were as fol- 
lows : — Aaron Hosmer, the great-grandfather of 
Josiah D. Hosmer, lately deceased, is said to 
have been the first individual who made even a 
temporary residence in town. He, being a hunter, 
pitched his tent on the meadow now known as 
the Orson Eicker meadow, and from thence went 
north to the ponds, one of which is in Peacham, 
and is called Hosmer Pond. But he never made 
a permanent residence within the limits of the 
town. Edmund Morse was the first settler in the 
north part of the town, and James Abbott occu- 
pied the farm now known as the Jacob Abbott 
place, and now owned and occupied by Pei-cival 
Bailey. A Mr. James settled on the next farm 
south of James Abbott, known afterward as the 
Heniy Low place, and now owned by Peter 
Whitehill. Edmund Morse, who was the first 
military captain in town, and whose sword was 
an old rusty scythe, settled in the north part of 
the town, on the next farm south of Mr. James, 
where he continued to live till Ms death, which 



was at a good old age. Mr. Morse built the first 
saw and grist-mill in town, at the foot of the Lit- 
tle Pond. Before this, the early settlers went to 
Newbury to mill, some 15 miles distant, and not 
uufrequently carried and brought tlicii- grist on 
their backs. Mr. Morse's daughter, Sally, now 
the widow Hill, was the first female born in town. 

John Darlixg, the father of Robert, Samuel, 
and Moses Darling, and great-gi-andfather of the 
present race of Darlings, was one of the first, and 
some say the first settler in Groton. He occu- 
pied the farm near the old burying-ground, since 
known as the Joseph Monison place. He lived 
to a good old age, retaining his faculties to the 
last. At fourscore years he stood erect as a 
young man of twenty. 

Edmund Welch was the first who settled on 
the William Frost farm, to whom he aftei-ward 
sold it, and here Mr. Frost lived till his death, 
which was when he was about 65. 

Jonathan Welch, brother to Edmund, first 
settled on the farm now owned and occupied by 
his son Jonathan. John Emery settled on the 
Timothy Morrison farm, and Charles Emery, 
his father, on the Medad Welch farm. 

The first settler in what is now called Groton 
Village was one Daniel Munroe. His house 
was near the present site of William F. Clark's 
tannery, at the east end of the village. 

A. M. Henderson, of Ryegate, built the first 
saw-mill on Wells River, near the present site of 
Gates's carriage shop, and soon after he also 
built a grist-mill where the present one, now 
owned by A. L. Clark, stands. 

John Hogins, a tailor, was also one of the 
first settlers in the village. His house stood 
where Almun L. Clark's tavern now stands. 

Jerry Bachelder first settled in the Moses 
Plummer neighborhood, on the farm now owned 
and occupied by Joseph Ricker. 

John Heath first settled in West Groton, on 
the place now occupied by Otis Rhodes. Mr. 
Heath lived here quite a number of years, was a 
justice of the peace, and quite a prominent re- 
ligious man of the Baptist order. Afterward, 
Mr. Heath moved to the West. 

David Jenkins was the first who began on 
the farm now owned and occupied by Charles 
Morrison. The next occupant of the place after 
Jenkins was Moses Darling, with his father, 
John Darling ; and after them, Jonathan Dar- 
ling, son of Samuel Darling, occupied it quite a 
number of years, until he sold it to Charles Mor- 
rison, the present owner, and moved to the "Far 
West," where he now lives. 

The next settlers in West Groton were Jona- 
than and James Renfrew, of Scotch descent, 
one of whom made the quaint remark in refer- 
ence to the soil of AVest Groton, viz. : " K a 
man should strike an axe into the ground, and it 
did not hit a stone, it would be sure to hit a 
guinea." Their farms were the two places now 
occupied by Nathan Darling and Moses Adams. 

David Vance was also one of the first set- 
tlers of this part of the town, where he lived a 
good many years, and became wealthy. He was 
elected representative of the town a number of 
years, and after raising up a family of 7 sons and 
4 daughters, he moved to the east part of the 
town, where he now lives. 

Edmund and Stephen Welch, and Na- 
thaniel Cunningham, were the first settlers in 
the extreme west of the town. 


Elder James Bailey, of Peacham, formed 
the first church in town, of the Calvinist Baptist 
order, upwards of 70 years ago. The first mem- 
bers were as follows: — Phebe Darling, wife of 
John Darling ; Anna Welch, wife of Jonathan 
Welch ; Edmund Welch and wife ; Sarah, wife 
of Stephen Welch ; Betsey Morrison, wife of 
Bradbury Morrison ; John Emeiy and wife Sa- 
rah ; Mary, wife of James Hooper ; Edmund 
Morse ; Josiah Paul and wife Sarah. 

In 1824, Rev. Otis Robinson, from the 
State of Maine, was installed pastor over the 
church, and for a number of years it continued in 
a flourisliing condition. But at length troubles 
arose, Mr. Robinson became deranged and 
moved away, and the chm'ch received a shock 
from which it has not recovered to the present 
day. Since that time they have had no settled 
ministers, but haVe been supported from adjoin- 
ing towns, till within a few years they have had 
no preaching at all. A few years ago their 
number was 35. Of late they have taken a vote 
not to continue their church organization any 
longer, but to let each member have the priv- 
ilege of joining any other church he pleases. 
The first deacon was Wm. Hodsdon ; the second, 
Enoch Page; the last, Hosea Welch. The first 
is deceased ; the two last are yet living, — living, 
too, in the full assurance of immortality and eter- 
nal life. 



The Freewill Baptist Church in Groton was 
first formed in the west part of the town by El- 
der Latiirop, but how long ago, the records of 
the church do not say, but probably over 40 
years since. Elder Lathrop presided over the 
church for a number of years Avith great accepta- 
bility as a preacher and a Christian, and under 
his labors there was a great revival of religion, by 
which the church was quickened, her numbers in- 
creased, and much good done. They had no meet- 
ing-house, and therefore were under the necessity 
of holding their meetings in private houses in the 
winter, and in barns in the summer. But not- 
withstanding the humble place of worship, the 
people at times came from all parts of the town 
to hear the word, and found it indeed a Bethel. 
.^\fter Elder Lathrop left the chui-ch, his place 



^•was supplied by rarious other ministers from 
. other towns, but the church had no regular pas- 
tor till the year 1857, when Eev. Francis Morri- 
son was ordained a minister over them ; since 
■which time the church, though small, has been 
in a prosperous condition. Their present num- 
ber is 20. 


The records of the M. B. Church do not say 
who were the first Methodist preachers in town, 
nor how long it is since they first preached here ; 
but the first preachers were quite successful, and 
soon gathered a small class, which was increased 
from time to time, till private dwellings and 
school-houses became too small for their accom- 
modation. About the year A. D. 1837, they 
were enabled to build a good and commodious 
meeting-house, since which time, with the excep- 
tion of a few years lately, they have had a 
preacher stationed with them aU the time. 

In 1838, Samuel G. Scott preacher in charge, 
there were on Groton circuit 107 members. Dur- 
ing this year there was a great revival, the church 
* was quickened, and many added to the church, 
some of whom continue faithful to this day. 

In 1844, Benjamin Burnham preacher in 
charge, there were in Groton cncuit 111 mem- 

Groton Village class contained 72 members. 

West Groton class " 7 " 

Jeficrson Hill class " 19 " 

Topsham class " 13 " 

Total Ill 

Since that time, by deaths, removals, and 
other causes, the number of members has consid- 
erably decreased, till of late, when a good work 
seems to be going on in the church, and some 
additions are being made. 



Hardwick is the most westerly town of Cale- 
donia County, lying 21 miles north-east of Mont- 
pelier, and 73 north of Windsor. The surface 
of the township is pleasantly diversified with 
swells and vales, but no part of it mountain- 
ous. The Lamoille River enters the town very 
near the north-east corner, and, after running a 
course of about 10 miles, affording, together with 
its tributaries, several excellent mill-privileges, 
it makes its exit a little north of the south- 
west corner of the town. The timber is a mix- 
ture of maple, birch, hemlock, spruce, etc. The 
maple-groves are remarkably fine. The rocks 
are granite, gray limestone, slate, and quartz, 
with fine specimens of rock crystals. The soil 
is rich and fertile — well adapted for grazing 
purposes. The south-eastern part of the town 
is on the' western declivity of the eastern range 
of the Green Mountains. The north-western 

part has a southern inclination. Along the 
banks of the river, and extending for half a 
mile or so back from either side, are table-lands. 
In the southern part of the town is a mineral 
spring. It has been found to be efficacious in 
cutaneous diseases, and was formerly a place of 
considerable resort. 

1779. Gen. Hazen came to Peacham with a 
part of his regiment, for the purpose, as he said, 
of completing the road commenced by Gen. 
Bailey, in 1776, that an anny might be sent 
through for the reduction of Canada. Hazen 
cut, cleared, and made a passable road for 50 
miles above Peacham, through the to^vns of 
Cabot, Walden, Hardwick, Greensboro', Crafts- 
bury, Albany, and Lowell, and erected several 
block-houses. This road, called to this day the 
Hazen road, was the inlet to Hardwick in its 
early days, and a great benefit to the early 

1780. The town of Hardwick, containing 
23,040 acres, was granted Nov. 7, 1780, and char- 
tered Aug. 19, 1781, to Danforth Keyes, and his 

Shortly after this, Peter Page, a native of 
Swansey, N. PL, in the employ of Governor 
Robinson, one of the proprietors of the town, 
came to Hardwick with a man by the name of 
Safford. The first trees were felled by him in 
the commencement of a clearing near the centre 
of the town, on what is now the French farm. 
These two men brought their provisions on their 
backs from Cabot, 8 miles. When their first 
supply was exhausted. Page volunteered to go 
for more. On his return, — being overtaken by 
the rain, and thoroughly wet, — he comforted 
himself with the thought that when he reached 
the camp he should find a good fire to warm 
and dry himself withal ; but when he di-ew near 
and saw no smoke, and nearer still and found 
Safibrd asleep, and the fire entirely out, he sat 
down and vented his feelings after the manner 
of children. There was no alternative but to go 
back to Cabot after fire. Page thought he could 
stay in Hardwick no longer, but was prevailed 
upon by Safibrd to stay until two acres or more 
were cleared, when both left, discom-aged. 

1792. In a certain "ciphering book," con- 
taining the names of the first settlers, Mark 
Norris made this record of himself; " I drove 
the first sleigh through the woods from Deweys- 
burgh to Greensborough that ever was drove 
through by man, to my knowing, which was on 
the 4th of Jan. 1792. I moved into Hardwick, 
the first that ever moved in to settle the town, 
on the 13th day of March, 1792." Mr. Nonis 
seems to have forgotten to record the important 
fact that he brought his wife with him. He was 
a mason by trade, and yet seemed to possess the 
faculty of turning his hand to various kinds of 
work ; was possessed of energy, intelligence, and 



good judgment. He was afterwards much en- 
gaged in tlio public business of the town ; was 
at different times representative, treasurer, and a 
preacher of the gospel. 

Toward tlic close of March, Nathaniel Norris, 
a cousin of Mark, moved, with liis wife, into 
town. Ho also was a mason — a good work- 
man, but very moderate in all his movements. 
It is said he was never seen to run, and yet he 
felled his acre of trees daily for six successive 

About the same time, March, 1792, Peter 
Page — the same who had a few years before 
left Hardwick, discouraged — took heart and 
returned. He built himself a rude log shanty, 
about three-quarters of a mile south-east of the 
present village of East Hardwick, and then went 
to bring his family. His shanty was full half a 
mile from the Hazen road, and the snow was 
deep ; however, when he had moved his family 
and goods as near as he could by the road, he 
put on Ms snow-shoes, put his wifft and three 
children (the youngest of whom was put in a 
bread-ti-ough) on a hand-sled, drew them to 
their new home, and then returned for his goods. 
They lived a year in their rude hovel without 
floor or chimney, building their fire at one side, 
and leaving a hole in the roof for the smoke to 
escape. Mr. Page's wardrobe, during that win- 
ter, is said to have consisted of one pair of tow 
pantaloons, one tow frock, tow shirts, woollen 
socks, and a woollen vest. He brought all the 
provisions for himself and family on his back, 
either from Peacham, 20 miles distant, or from 
Cabot, 8 miles. This family afterwards suffered 
much from poverty. Then- only cow strayed ; 
when Mr. P. found her, ten miles from home, 
she had been away so long she gave no milk. 
The man who had kept her awhile demanded 
pay, and his only woollen garment, the vest, was 
all he could give to redeem his cow. Water 
gruel was substituted for milk, and was sometimes 
their only sustenance. The father and mother 
took this cheerfully themselves, but the substitu- 
tion of water gruel for milk for their little babe 
caused them sore grief. Mr. Page was an ec- 
centric man, and yet he was considered a Chris- 
tian ; loved to study his Biblo, and what few 
religious books he had, and was a man of much 
meditation and prayer. He died Dec. 1852, 
aged 83. 

John Page, the babe that rode into Hard- 
wick in a bread-trough, afterwards removed to 
Westmore. He died in Montpelier in 1835, 
while representing his town in the Vermont 

The following year, 1793, three more famihes 
were added to the settlement — those of Timothy 
Hastings and James Sinclair, who, with an 
aged father, came in Feb., and that of David Nor- 
ris, a cousin of Mark Norris, in June. Old Mr. 
Sinclair, who emigrated from Scotland, settled 

Bunker Hill, and afterwards came, with his son, 
to Hardwick, died shortly after his arrival. A 
log was dug out for his coffin, and a slab, split 
from another log, was nailed on or pinned on for 
the cover. He was buried near a spring of water 
not far from the Hazen road, but his remains 
were afterward exhumed and deposited in the 
Hazen Road Cemctciy. Mr. Hastings soon after 
moved to Hvde Park. 

The remaining settlers had a serious time of 
it. They were living at a distance of from one 
to three miles from each other, finding their way 
by means of blazed trees. Mark Norris lived 
near where Mr. Onrin Kellogg now lives. Na- 
thaniel lived near where Mi-. Ward NoitIs now 
lives, and David, near where Mr. J. L. Pope now 

In the Spring of 1793, these cousins supplied 
themselves with provisions sufficient, as they 
supposed, to last them through then- Spring's 
\york, when they were expecting to return to 
Peacham for a while. They had no such thing 
as a team or even a hoe to work with ; but with 
their axes they hewed out wooden hoc-blades * 
from maple chips, hardened them in the fire, and 
took saplings for handles. With these they 
hoed in, on Nathaniel's gi'ound, two acres of 
wheat ; but Saturday night came, when they 
had sowed only one acre, and they found they 
had only provisions enough to last them one 
day longer. What should they do 1 Neither of 
them were professors of religion, but they had 
been trained to keep the Sabbath day. How- 
ever, they now held a council, concluded that it 
was a " work of necessity," and hoed in the sec- 
ond and last acre on the Sabbath. " Wo shall 
see," said Mark and David, " whether this acre 
will not yield as well as the other." But Nathan- 
iel was troubled in conscience. Reaping time 
came ; the proceeds of the two acres were stacked 
separately, and the time for comparing drew 
near. But the comparison was never made. 
The stack which came of the Sabbath day's 
work took fire from a clearing near by, and 
every straw and kernel was burned. 

These cousins were usually in the habit of re- 
ligiously observing the Sabbath day. On the 
first Sabbath after they came into town they 
held a religious meeting, and ever afterwards 
this practice was kept up. 

1794. During this year there were added the 
families of Daniel Chase. Elijah True, Stephen 
Adams, Gideon Sabin, James Bundy, Israel 
Sanborne, and Elisha Sabin. Mr. Cliase was 
a deacon in the Baptist Church. He was after- 
wards ordained an Elder of the Free-Will Bap- 
tist Church in 1810. He moved, in 1816, to 
Pennsylvania, where he continued to preach 
until his death. Mrs. Gideon Sabin has ren- 
dered herself illustrious by giving birth to 26 
children ; and surely Gideon himself deserves to 
be remembered if he found food, as we presume 

in New Market, N. II., fought in the battle of' he did, for such a family, poor as he was. Mr. 



Sanborne was a kind and public-spirited man, 
and was blessed with a family of 14 childi-en, 
the third of whom, Mr. William Sanborne, now 
lives in Hardwick. Elisha Sabin was a hunter, 
led a wild life, and allowed his children to go 
barefooted through the winter. 

1795. On the 31st of March, in this year, the 
town was organized. The first town-meeting 
was held at the house of Mark Norris. Paul 
Spooner was chosen the first Town Clerk, and 
also the first Eepresentative. 

Among the items of interest respecting these 
days, which we have gathered, is the fact that 
these men were obhged to go 40 miles to mill — 
Newburg being the nearest town where there 
was a grist-mill. Wc also learn of certain cases 
in which what was called wild justice was ad- 
ministered to offending citizens, the executive 
and judicial functions being combined in the per- 
son of a certain strong man with a whip. 

In the fall of 1795, Elder Amos Tuttle, the 
first minister of the town, moved in. His son, 
Capt. David Tuttle, says, " There was not a 
cart in to^vn ; but in the following spring, two 
carts were constructed out of my father's wagon." 
He also says, " My father and I took $44 of my 
mother's 'savings' — money which came safely 
to Hardwick, sewed up in a bed — and went to 
Ryegate to purchase a cow ; but when we got 
her home, she proved almost worthless. My 
father killed her for beef, and my mother learned 
to make bean-porridge, so we had a plenty of that 
instead of milk." 

Between the time of Elder Tuttle's settlement 
as pastor of the church and town, and the year 
1800, many families moved into Hardwick. 
Among them were several of Puritan descent, 
whose influence for good is, no doubt, felt to this 

In 1796, Mr. David Philbrook and wife 
moved in. Mx-s. Philbrook died in August, 1860, 
100 years of age. 

In 1797, the first public-house in town, a log 
building, at Hardwick Street, on the Hazen road, 
was opened by Col. Alpha Warner. In the same 
year, Capt. J. C. Bridgeman made the first set- 
tlement at South Hardwick. Also, Aug. 29th, 
of the same year, Mr. Samuel Stevens was the 
first settler at East Hardwick, thence and for some 
time afterwards called Stevensville, or Stevens' 
Mills. Mr. Stevens and his wife ate their first 
meal in Hardwick over a chest which contained 
about all their earthly possessions. He soon 
erected a saw-mill on the north side of the river, 
and in 1800 he also built a grist-mill near by. 

In 1798, Thomas Fuller came to settle in 
Hardwick, with his wife and children. For six 
months' he, with a family of eleven, occupied a 
log house, 24 feet square, with Mr. Wm. Cheever, 
whose family also numbered eleven. There was 
a stone fire-place in the centre of the house, and 
a hollow log for a chimney. 

Samuel Frencli moved in in 1799. His son 

Daniel (now Dea. French), then aged 18 years, 
says, "We moved from Hardwick, Mass., to 
our namesake in Vermont, where we arrived 
the 4th of March. The last of March the snow 
lay 4 feet deep on a level, but the weather was 
mild, and we prepared for sugaring ; but there 
came two feet more of snow, and not a tree was 
tapped until the 15th of April. We gathered 
our buckets the 15th of May. Snow-banks were 
visible the 9th of June. Vegetation came for- 
ward very rapidly, but not sufficiently so to save 
our crops. Many of them were much injured 
by the early frosts." 

1812. Mr. and Mrs. Elisha Swett came to 
Hardwick ; they lived together 80 years. Mr. S. 
died Nov. 1859, aged 96, and Mrs. S. died Feb. 
1860, aged 98. 

1816. About this time there were many emi- 
grations from Hardwick to what was then called 
"the West;" but few went farther than the 
Genesee Valley. During this year, the inhab- 
itants of Hardwick suffered much from the snow 
and frost. A heavy snow began to fall on the 
7th of June, and continued to fall until the 9th. 
The sheep had just been sheared, and had to bo 
covered again with their fleeces ; but there was 
little or no hay for them or for the cattle, and 
many of them died. The forest-leaves were all 
killed, and the woods went in mourning through 
the summer. Eye sold for 3 dollars per bushel. 


From an early day the people of Hardwick 
have manifested considerable interest in the 
cause of education. 

1799. The town was divided into four school 
districts, called respectively the Hazen Eoad, 
Centre, middle, and eastern districts. The mid- 
dle district was between the centre and East 
Hardwick, and the Eastern was on the east side 
of the river. The first school meeting was held 
in the Middle district; voted to have a two 
months' school, and to raise a tax on the grand 
list for its support. The first teacher was Anna 
Hill. The first part of this term she taught in 
a log barn, owned by Israel Sanborne ; the re- 
mainder of the time in different log houses — the 
family occupying one room, and she the only 
remaining one. This was in the summer of 

1800. March. It was voted by the town to 
seU the land appropriated by the proprietors of 
the town for the benefit of an English school. 
The land was sold the following year. From 
the fund thus raised a small dividend has been 
paid annually to each school district, according to 
the number of scholars. The whole number of 
scholars at that time was 85. 

1801. Flavel Bailey, from Peacham, was 
lured to teach a six months' school in the middle 

1802. The first school-house was built in the 
middle district, by Martin Fuller, for $165. This 



money was raised by a tax on the grand list', and 
was paid principally in cattle and grain. 

1815. Wc find the town divided at this date 
into 9 districts, containing 339 scholars. 

1821. The first select school in town was 
kept two terms by Miss Deborah Worcester, 
from Ilollis, N. 11., at the Centre. 

1842. The first select school at East Hard- 
wick was taught by Miss A. Stevens, a graduate 
of Cazcnovia Seminary, N. Y. 

1855. The town contains 12 school districts, 
and 382 scholars. 

1860. By the efforts of the people of South 
Hardwick an Academy building, over the Town 
Hall, has been completed. In Nov., 1860, this 
Academy obtained a charter from the Vermont 
Legislature. Its prospects are bright. Princi- 
pal, A. J. Sanborne ; lady teachers. Miss L. Sin- 
clair and Miss Bundy. 

During the foil of this year measures were 
taken to establish the select school at East Hard- 
wick on a permanent basis. 

Of college graduates and of professional men 
Hardwick has raised a fair proportion. 


There are four villages in town. The old- 
est, called the Street or Hazen Road, is situated 
on high land, near the north line of the town. 
The first settlement was made in 1793. This 
was formerly a place of considerable business, 
but time has wrought such changes by deaths or 
removals, that it has now become a quiet little 
place, with liardly a vestige of its former activity. 
The second village in age is East Hardwick, 
situated on the Lamoille River, in the eastern 
part of the town. The first settlement was made 
by Mr. Samuel Stevens, in 1797. This is at 
present a place of considerable business. 

The third village is South Hardwick, which is 
also situated on the Lamoille, in the south-west 
part of the town. The first settler was Capt. J. 
C. Bridgman, in the year 1797. Tliis is also a 
place of considerable business. It contains the 
Town Hall. 

" Mackville," the fourth village in town, is situ- 
ated one mile south of South Haixhvick, on a 
brancli of the Lamoille River. This small sti-eam 
affords excellent water-privileges, which at pres- 
ent are occupied by a saw-mill, coni-mill, etc. A 
largo building has been erected the past year, 
designed for a woollen factory. 

The commencement of this place was about 
the year 1831, by the building of a saw-mill by 
Mr.George P. Fish. Mr. Elisha Mack built the 
first dwelling-house in 1834 ; but before he was 
ready to move with his family to this anticipated 
earthly home, death removed liim to his eternal 
home. His eldest son. Resolved Mack, with his 
widowed mother, brothers and sisters, came to 
this new home ; but eventually the family were 
scattered. Mr. R. ^Mack retained the place, and 
was married, in 1838, to Miss Mary Bancroft. 

These families were the first settlers, and the 
village has been named for them. 

There arc now some dwelling-houses and pub- 
lic buildings in process of building — a Free- 
Will Baptist church and a large and commodious 

This place has experienced a great loss in the 
removal by death, in February, of the present 
year (1861), of their first settler, Mr. Resolved 
Mack. He was kind and companionable in his 
family, a very worthy citizen, and an efficient 
member of the JSIethodist church. In the inidst 
of usefulness he was called; but calmly and 
cheerf'ully met the call. 



On Nov. 18th, 1795, the members of the Dan- 
ville Baptist Church who were residents of 
Hardwick, ■wishing to form themselves into a 
Baptist Church, for the purpose of enjoying 
chm-ch privileges among themselves ; and hav- 
ing obtained permission of that church to be con- 
stituted into a church by themselves, a Baptist 
Church was organized on Thursday, Dec. 17, 
1795. Rev. Amos Tuttle received a call to be- 
come their pastor, and was called to ordination 
June 16, 1796. The records of this church are 
lost, therefore notliing further of its history can 
be ascertained. Its visibility has become extinct. 

Subsequent to this, there was a Baptist 
Church organized in Greensboro' ; but as a ma- 
jority of its members resided in Hardwick, it 
was deemed expedient to form a church in East 
Hardwick. In 1831, a Baptist Church was 
organized, consisting of 25 members. Elder 
Marvin Grow, a good man, and one whose 
preacliing talent was very acceptable to the 
brethren, became tlieir pastor. He continued 
his pastoral labors with them about 6 years, and 
becoming infirm and indisposed, requested and 
obtained his dismission. 

He was succeeded by Rev. Aaron Angier, 
whose faithful and devoted labors were in a very 
remarkable manner owned and blessed of God. 
During his pastorate, A. D. 1840, a meeting- 
house was built, and 92 added to the cliurch by 
bai)tism and by letter. The church, at ttiis 
time, was one of the most flourishing Baptist 
churches in northern Vermont, numbering 150 
members. Ho closed his pastorate, much to the 
regret of the church, and went west and died. 

[From Mrs. Maiy Spofford, eldest daughter 
of Rev. Mr. Angier, we have the following ad- 
ditional items : " My father remained a little 
more than four years in Hardwick ; from there 
ho removed to Middlebury, where he remained 
two years, and published a paper called the 
Vermont Observer. After whicli he resided in 
Poultneyayear ; then in Ludlow a year, where 
he was associate and leading editor of a paper. 



named the Genius of Liberty — the first paper 
published in Ludlow ; when he again removed 
to Cavendish, where he sojourned tAvo years, and 
in the spring of 1850 went to Cato, Cayuga Co., 
N. Y., where he Uved three years, and then ac- 
cepted an agency for the Bible Union, and moved 
his family to Elbridge, N. Y. This, however, he 
retained but one year, and in 1854 became the 
pastor of the Baptist Church in Lamoille, 111., 
where he lived but four months, when he died, 
the 3d of Sept., 1854, in the 48th year of his age. 
His family reside there stUL] 

E.EV. JoNATHAisr E. Green, an earnest and 
stirring preacher, who was laboring with the 
church in Hanover, N. H., received a call to be- 
come pastor of the Baptist Church in Hardwick. 
He accepted the call, and commenced his labors ; 
but, contrary to the expectation and wish of the 
church and society, he tamed with them but one 
year, and then returned to the people of Ms for- 
mer charge. 

Elder Nathan Dennison, a zealous, enter- 
prising, and devoted servant of his Master, next 
became then* pastor. His unwearied efforts were 
blessed in the conversion of many, and the 
church was prospering under his administration, 
when some difficulty arising between two breth- 
ren, which they would not settle themselves, it 
was brought into the church ; and, as is too fre- 
quently the case, each had his friends, and party 
spirit soon became manifest. There could be no 
settlement of the difficulty effected ; but the state 
of things rather grew worse and worse. The 
church divided. A part went off and worshipped 
in the school-house, and a part worshipped in 
the meeting-house. This state of things con- 
tinued till Eev. Mr. Jones, agent of the Conven- 
tion, came into town, and induced them to come 
together again, and organize anew into one 

Elder Dennison left them after a pastorate of 
five years, with a constitution, naturally strong 
and robust, broken do-\vn and enfeebled by grief 

Elder Samuel Smith, of Pen Yan, JN". Y., 
was their next pastor ; a good man, who, though 
he commenced his labors under the most dis- 
couraging circumstances, yet accomplished some 
good. He remained three years, and returned 
to N. Y. 

Elder E. Evans, of Lunenburg, then re- 
ceived and accepted a call to become their pas- 
tor. He commenced his labors under circum- 
stances by no means encouraging; but the 
church seems to be improving; the members 
appear to be more united. He has been with 
them three, and has commenced upon his fourth 
year. During his stay among them, they have 
expended something in fixing the inside of the 
meeting-house; paid $180 for an organ, and 
laid out about $1000 in building a parsonage, 
wliich is now occupied by their pastor. 

The means of grace are well attended. The 
church numbers now 77. 



II. The Congregational Church in Hardwick 
was organized July 29, 1803, at the house of Mr. 
Thomas EuUer. There were present, as an or- 
ganizing council, Eev. Leonard Worcester, of 
Peacham, and Eev. John Fitch, of Danville, 
with their delegates. The new church consisted 
of 7 male members ; 9 females were received to 
membership two days afterwards. 

These first members were from New Braintree, 
Hardwick, and Westminster, Mass. ; from San- 
bornton, Hanover, and Tamworth, N. H. ; and 
one from Newbury, Vt. Bro. Thomas Puller 
was chosen first deacon. Eev. L. Worcester 
was standing moderator of the church for some 
years. Por about thi-ee years after their organi- 
zation, the church attended upon the ministra- 
tions of Elder Amos Tuttle, who in 1796 had 
been settled as minister of the town, and pastor 
of the Calv. Bapt. Church. In the year 1806, 
however, he was, at his own request, dismissed ; 
and from tliis time until 1810, the church had no 
stated preaching. They met regularly for wor- 
ship, however, at dwelling-houses, and received 
occasional ministrations of the word and of the 
sacraments from Mr. Worcester, of Peacham, 
and Mr. Hobart, of Berlin. 

During the years 1809 and 1810 several mis- 
sionaries visited them. Those whose names ap- 
pear upon the church records, are Jonathan 
Hovey, Seth Payson, D. D., Solomon Morgan, 

Leland, James Parker, and J. Waters. A 

powerful revival followed the labors of the last 
two of these men. About 60 persons were added 
to the church during this and the following year. 
Some of these were men of the first ability and 
business talent in town. 

The church now felt itself sufficiently strength- 
ened to support a pastor, and in the fall of 1810, 
extended a call to Mr. Nathaniel Eawson. He 
accepted, and was ordained and installed pas- 
tor of the church, Peb. 13, 1811. The pub- 
lic services were held in a barn, on the farm then 
owned by Captain Hatch. During the summers 
of 1812 and 1813, Mr. Eawson met a company 
of children at his house every Friday, to hear 
them recite portions of Scripture. This pre- 
pared the way for the Sabbath Schools, which 
were established a year or two later in the several 
districts in town. 

In 1817, Mr. E. resigned the pastorate of the 
church, and during the three following years the 
church was in a divided state. 

Mr. J. N. Loomis, a graduate of Middlebury 
College and Andover Seminary, was ordained 
and installed pastor of the church, Jan. 3, 1822. 
The services were held in an unfinished meeting- 
house, just erected by Mr. Samuel French, half 
a mile east of the centre of the town ; but as Mr. 
French declined selling this house to the church, 
they after much perplexity in regard to a lo- 
cation, decided to build a house of worship upon 



the hill near the four coi-ncrs. The meeting- 
house was built, but the location failed to give 
entire satisfaction, and the consequence was a 
division of the church with the advice of a mu- 
tual council. 

Accordingly, a new church, called the Second 
Cong. Church, was organized March 2, 1825. 
Mr. Loomis, whose counsels were of great val- 
ue to the church during the period of erecting 
their house of worship, and the separation that 
followed, continued his labors until the last of 
January, 1830, when, on account of the feeble 
state of his health, he was dismissed. 

On the 25th of Sept. 1833, Rev. Robert Page, 
a graduate of Bowdoin College and of Andover, 
was installed pastor. He continued his relation 
until June, 1835, wheu he was dismissed at his 
own request. 

In July, 1836, the chm-ch extended a call to 
Eev. Chester Wright. He commenced preach- 
ing to them soon after, and was installed pastor 
of the church June 15, 1837. He continued his 
labors until the beginning of the year 1840, 
when, his health failing, he removed to ]Montpe- 
lier, still retaining his pastoral relation ; but he 
died shortly afterwards in Montpelier, — April, 

Rev. Austin 0. Hubbard, a graduate of Yale 
and Princeton, was installed July 7, 1840, and 
was dismissed, at his own request, May 1, 1843. 

Prom this date until 1846, the chmxh were 
without a settled pastor, when they united in giv- 
ing a call to Rev. Joseph Underwood, a graduate 
of Bangor. He accepted, and was installed on 
the 18th of Dec. of the same year. Dtu:ing his 
pastorate, which continued nearly 12 years, the 
condition of the church and society became 
much improved. 

In the year 1851, the old meeting-house upon 
the liill was torn down, and a new one erected, 
vnth great unanimity, at East Hardwick. 

Several persons who had been members of 
the second church, when that ceased to exist, 
joined this. Since 1851, there has been a healthy 
increase of the church and congregation. The 
Sabbath School embraces nearly three-fourths of 
the entire congregation. 

In Jan. 1858, Mi-. Underwood, on account of 
the impaired state of his health, resigned his 
pastorate, and was dismissed, Feb. 2d. 

Rev. Henry Hazen, a graduate of Dartmouth 
and Andover, preached one year, as stated sup- 
ply, commencing Oct., 1858. In March, 1860, 
the church and society united in extending a call 
to ilr. Joseph Torrey, Jr., a graduate of Bur- 
lington College and of Andover, to become their 
pastor. He was ordained and installed May 
30, 1860, and is the present pastor. 

The whole number of members since the 
organization of the church is 436. Of these, 
about 278 have joined by profession, and 158 by 
letter. The present number of members is 127. 

Average attendance on Sabbath about 165. 
Number of families represented about 70. 



Prior to the year 1803, there had been no 
I\Ietliodist preaching in the town of Hardmck. 
But during this year, the Rev. Lewis Bates 
commenced liis labors in tliis town as a Metho- 
dist preacher, and a few persons connected them- 
selves with a society in an adjoining town, which 
stood connected with what was then called Dan- 
ville Circuit. 

In June, 1809, the Rev. Nathaniel Stearns 
formed a society in Hardwick, and was still 
attached to the Danville Circuit, which at this 
time embraced nearly all of Caledonia, Orleans, 
and Essex Counties. Peter Page was appointed 
the fu'st class-leader, and Nathaniel Noixis the 
first steward. 

Nathaniel Norris, for several years, had been a 
member of, and an ordained deacon in, the Free- 
will Baptist Church previous to 1809, when ho 
became one of the memorable fourteen who 
formed the first society. He received a license 
as an exhorter in the M. E. Church, bearing 
date July 14, 1810, and signed by David Kil- 
burn and Benjamin R. Hoyt, who were the first 
circuit preachers in this town after the fonnation 
of the society. 

Jan. 7, 8, 1816, the society held their fii-st 
quarterly meeting in Hardwick. 

For several years, the society prospered, and 
increased gradually until 1823, when John Ward 
Norris was appointed class-leader, at the age of 
19, at which time the society numbered 60 mem- 

Several following years, the society did not 
increase very extensively, and they were com- 
pelled to hold their meetings in dwelling or 
school houses for the want of ability to build a 
church edifice. 

In 1846, Hardwick was connected with Crafts- 
bury, and the Rev. George Putnam and the 
Rev. 0. S. Morris appointed circuit preachers. 

At the fu'st quarterly conference, a vote was 
taken to divide the labors of the circuit, by which 
the said Morris was to labor at Hardwick, and 
the said Putnam at Craftsbury. 

Rev. O. S. Morris remained at Hardwick two 
years, during which time, through his efforts, 
and the concurring efforts of the society and 
friends, a good church edifice was erected, fin- 
ished, and dedicated, at the south village, which 
has now become the centre of the town business 
by the erection of a new town hall during the 
last summer, and probably one of the best in the 

The church at that time numbered 65 mem- 
bers. Since 1847, the desk has been supplied as 
follows : 

1848, from the local ministry; 1849, by Eev. 



A. L. Cooper ; 1850, left to be supplied ; 1851-2, 
by Rev. J. Whitney; 1853-4, by Eev. James S. 
Spinny; 1855-6, by Eev. L. Hill; 1857-8, by 
Eev. E. Pettingill ; 1859-60, by Eev. A. C. Smith. 
The present membership, including probationers, 
numbers 103. 



There are quite a number of this denomina- 
tion in the south and west part of the town ; 
those of the south belong to the Maiden Church, 
and the west, till last June, to the Wolcott. 
This chui-ch is now called " Wolcott and Hard- 
wick Church." The whole number is 26. They 
have had for 6 or 7 years a very flourishing Sab- 
bath School of 35 to 48 ; also a good library. 

The pastor. Elder Ctjmmings, died last 
summer. Since then they have had no pastor, 
but preaching three-fourths of the time by various 
individuals. The school-house is their place of 



During the year 1837, a small band of fanat- 
ics, who called themselves "New Lights," com- 
menced a brief career in Hardwick. Their leader 
had been a professed Universalist, but liis mind 
having become discomposed, and, as some 
thought, partially deranged, he professed to be 
inspired from on high, and was not long in enlist- 
ing several followers. 

Great numbers were drawn together to see and 
hear their strange doings, and soon they began 
to hold their meetings in the South Meeting 
House. (This meeting house was built in the 
year 1820, by Samuel French. The motto, 
"Liberty of Conscience," inscribed on its front, 
expressed the design of its builder that it should 
be open to all, to hold such religious meetings as 
they pleased.) No more than 6 or 8 persons 
took very active parts ; still, they were counte- 
nanced and encouraged by large numbers from 
this and neighboring towns, who preferred to 
spend their Sabbaths at the ^arclwich Theatre, 
rather than to engage in a rational religious wor- 
ship. Sabbath after Sabbath, for several months, 
that large house was crowded with spectators. 
The " drollery " of these meetings consisted of 
jumping, swinging the arms, rolling on the floor, 
frightful yelling, barking in imitation of dogs, 
foxes, etc. Their leader professed to have had 
it revealed to him that men should not shave ; 
they accordingly suffered their beards to grow for 
several months, until it was revealed to another 
that they must all be shaved, and it was done. 

It was believed that the seeds of these extrav- 
agances had been sowing for a long time in con- 
nection with the notion that the fourth com- 
mandment is not obligatory under the gospel 
dispensation, — that much of the religion of 
regular evangelical churches is composed of hy- 
pocrisy or of human tradition, and that special 

revelations in regard to duty, and in regard to 
future events, are communicated to individuals 
now by the inspiration of the Spu-it of God. 

The meetings were usually opened, after a sea- 
son of sitting in silence, by the utterance of some 
text of scripture in a loud scream. A large por- 
tion of what was said consisted of texts of 
scripture. Much was also said by way of de- 
nunciation of ministers and churches, charging 
them with tradition, superstition, hypocrisy, etc. 

The irregularity and disorder of these meet- 
ings was much increased by the attempt of a 
young man, who thought himself called to 
preach, to occupy the desk on the Sabbath, in 
the very midst of the scenes enacted on the floor. 
The men with beards shouted and screamed, and 
the man in the pulpit exerted all the power of his 
lungs for hours together, to overpower the tumul- 
tuous noise below, and to gain the attention of 
the people. 

But the career of these fanatics was short. 
Eev. Chester Wright, at that time pastor of the 
Cong. Church in Hardwick, believing that such 
services were calculated to bring the religion of 
the gospel into contempt, and to sow broadcast 
over this town and region the seeds of infidelity, 
resolved to make an effort to withstand such in- 
fluence. He accordingly gave notice that on the 
first Sabbath in May he expected to preach with 
some reference to the proceedings at the South 
Meeting House during the past year, and invited 
a large audience. 

Some of the most distinguished of the fanat- 
ics were present on the occasion of the delivery 
of these sermons, and in the midst of the fore- 
noon services one of them interrupted the preach- 
er by a tremendous yell, which he seemed resolved 
to continue. He was, however, immediately 
ordered into custody by a magistrate, and the 
services were continued and closed as usual. 

In these sermons, Mr. Wright aimed to show 
that the fundamental error of those who believed 
themselves, or others, to be moved by the Spirit 
of God, to practise the extravagances in ques- 
tion, was this : That the Spmt of God reveals 
to men truths, and inculcates duties contrary to, 
or above and beyond, what may be learned from 
the Holy Scriptures. 

The influence of this strange movement was 
very deeply felt by the Chiirch of Hardwick. 
Some of the effects were only temporary, but 
some were of long duration. One of the leaders 
hung himself not very long after the excitement 

Notwithstanding the feelings of sadness and re- 
gret with which the Christian now calls to mind 
these scenes, lie yet desires to erect a monument 
to their memory, that so future pilgrims may say, 
" It is true. Christian did here meet with Apoll- 
yon, with whom he had also a sore combat," 
and that they, like Christiana and her children, 
may see a pillar with this inscription upon it, 
" Let Christian's slips before he came hither, and 



the battles that he met ^vith in this place, be a 
waniint' to those that corao after." 



The following sketch will be found to contain 
facts of great interest, and of liistorical import- 
ance, presenting as they do a vivid picture of 
the labors, trials, and hardships of the early set- 
tlers of the town. The facts are furnished by 
Capt. David Tuttle of South Hardwick, the old- 
est son of the Elder. 

Amos Tuttle was bom in Southbury, Ct., Oct. 
31, 1761, was manied to Rachel T. Jones, June 
16, 1782, lost a large property soon after his mar- 
riage through the rascality of a man in high life, 
and in 1788 engaged in the boot and shoe 
business in the town of Washington, Ct. He 
was at that time a noted infidel, and strong in 
argument ; but soon, although there was no reli- 
gious excitement in the neighborhood, his atten- 
tion became powerfully attracted to the subject 
of personal religion. He began to attend wor- 
ship in an adjoining town. New Preston ; experi- 
enced a change of heart, and connected himself 
with the Baptist Church in New Preston, of 
which Rev. Isaac Root was the pastor. Soon 
after this, he prepared liimself to preach the gos- 
pel, and was settled over a church in the town of 
Litchfield, Ct. 

Rev. Mr. Root moved about this time to Dan- 
ville, Vt., and was settled over the first Baptist 
Church in that town. Retm-ning to Connecticut 
for a visit, he called upon Mr. Tuttle, and gave 
him such a description of the beauty and fertil- 
ity of Northern Vermont, that, notwithstanding 
the urgent invitation of another friend calling 
him to "Western New York, Mr. Tuttle conclud- 
ed to visit Vermont the next season. Accord- 
ingly, in June, 1794, he came to Danville, and 
thence to Walden, Hardwick, Greensboro', and 
Craftsbuiy, became acquainted with the inhabi- 
tants, and found that a chm'ch could be organ- 
ized from the four last towns, the majority of the 
members living in Hardwick. A church was 
formed. Mr. Tuttle was called to settle as min- 
ister of the town and church, and he accepted. 

In the month of Oct. 179.5, he started with his 
family from Litchfield for Hardwick. Such a 
journey was in those days a great undertaking. 
They were fifteen days on the way, but meeting 
with no more serious accident than the breaking 
of the wagon, they amved at Oilman's, in Wal- 
den, during the night of the 31st of October, in 
the midst of a hard rain-storai. Beds were soon 
taken from the wagon and placed on the floor of 
the little bark-covered log house, and our cold, 
tired immigrants lay down to rest. There was 
not a pane of glass about the house, and so no 
sign of day appeared until the door was opened 
in the morning. Then day appeared indeed, and 
with it, to tho great surpiiso of all, appeared a 

white mantle of snow, covering the ground with 
a depth of at least 15 inches. A messenger was 
sent to Hardwick, requesting the friends of tho 
family to send teams to bring them on their jour- 
ney. Three sleds, with wild steers, were sent. 
Two of them were loaded with the goods, and 
the third was fitted up with boxes for seats, and 
with plenty of straw, to carry the sick, disheart- 
ened, and weeping mother and children. Mr. 
David Tuttle, who was then a boy, says, " As 
we reached the bottom of the awful hill by wliich 
the Hazen road descends to the Lamoille River, 
the sleds stopped that the bridge might be re- 
paired. I saw my mother, brother, and httle sis- 
ters all in tears, and shall never forget the ex- 
pression of anguish with which my mother said, 
'Dear husband, where are you taking me 9 I 
shall die, and what will become of the children 1 ' 
It sobered me for the rest of that day, and brings 
tears to my eyes now in my old age, as I relate 

They turned oflT from the Hazen road near 
the place where L. H. Delano, Esq., now resides, 
followed a nan-ow sled-path which wound 
tlu'ough the woods, crossed the Tuttle brook at a 
place above where the road now crosses, ascended 
the steep bank by doubling the teams, and passed 
through a burnt slash to the house of Mark 

Tlie journey being thus safely over, the next 
care of our j^ioneer pastor was to find a house 
for his family. There was an empty log shanty 
to be had, but it was much out of repair. ]Mr. 
Tuttle was strong and healthy however, and, 
with the aid of his friends, he succeeded, by the 
middle of November, in making it habitable. 
There were, to be sure, neither windows nor cup- 
boards nor chimney, and the hut itself was only 
12 feet by 15, but he cut some holes through the 
logs and pasted oiled paper over them for win- 
dows, and the smoke found its own way upwards. 

A successful hunt on snow-shoes on the West 
Hill, in which three moose were killed by his 
paity, provided the family with meat for a time. 
He was so fortunate, also, as to prociire a 
bushel of salt of a peddler by.paying five dol- 
lars in cash. The price of salt seems to haVe 
risen higher still, or else money must have be- 
come scarce, for the next year he paid six bush- 
els of wheat for one of salt, and this in prefer- 
ence to paying three dollars cash. 

After thus providing these " creature com- 
forts," the next question seems to have been how 
to get about his parish. His gumption soon 
found the way. A " Tom-pung," as he called it, 
was hewed out and put together with wooden 
pins and rods, and the pieces of rope which had 
been used as binders on the jom-ncy he made 
into a kind of harness, sufiicient at least to fasten 
the horse to the pung, and to guide him through 
the woods. 

The town of Hardwick was organized March 
31, 1795. In April, 1796, tho town met and 



voted to unite Avith the Baptist Churcli in settling 
Mr. Tuttle as minister of the town. He was 
installed in June following. The people being 
poor, it was agreed that he should receive no sal- 
ary during the first four years ! By a provision 
of the town charter, however, he was entitled to 
draw three lots of land, as the first minister of 
the town. One of these lots he sold for a little 
money and a little wheat, to be paid in four an- 
nual instalments. 

Soon after his installation, Mr. Tuttle went to 
work to clear a piece of land and build himself a 
log house. By the middle of November, he 
completed his work, and in just one year from 
the time the family had first huddled themselves 
into the little hut, they moved into the largest 
and best log house in town, 32 feet by 15. 

The Sabbath worship was held in this house 
during the winter months, and in barns in differ- 
ent parts of the town during the sumner. 

But the sorest trials of this servant of God 
were yet to come. They were of quite a differ- 
ent nature from any that he had ever before 
experienced, nor can they be related, — for time 
and language would fail. Unlearned and igno- 
rant men sowed seeds of disaffection and vanity 
in the church, and the little flock was divided. 
Only a few firm friends stayed by their pastor, 
and tried to comfort and strengthea him. He 
still continued to preach in town, and as there 
were Congregational church members in Hard- 
wick, it was thought best to organize a Congre- 
gational church, and to employ Mr. Tuttle as 
their pastor. Eor three years he ministered to 
them, at the expiration of which time he was 
urged to accept a call from the Baptist Church 
in Fairfax, Vt. A meeting of the Congrega- 
tional brethren was called, and it was concluded 
to consent to his departure. 

During the same year, he was settled as the 
first minister in Fairfax, and received the por- 
tion of land granted to him ex officio. He did 
not retain possession of it, however, but gave it 
for the benefit of the town district schools. For 
a time, he labored here with great acceptance ; 
but sorrow was again on his track. An Old 
and New School controversy arose in the church, 
a schism occurred, some of the most prominent 
men moved out of town, and Mr. Tuttle, find- 
ing that his usefulness there was at an end, re- 
quested a dismission, which was granted in 1811. 

Eesolving to devote himself to the work of a 
missionary, he visited most of the towns in Ver- 
mont, and many of the townships bordering on 
the line in Canada. During this time he made 
his home in Hardwick ; but he afterwards re- 
moved again to Fairfax, where his daughters 
were married and settled. He remained at Fair- 
fax until the death of his wife, when he finally 
returned to Hardwick to spend the remainder of 
his days with his son, in the very house which 
his own hands had built in the vigor and strength 
of manhood. He lived after his return to his 

old home about two years, preached his last sei'- 
mon at the funeral of a son of Col. Warner, 
soon after which he was prostrated by a painful 
disease, and died a lingering but peaceful death, 
February, 1833, aged 72 years. His body was 
buried in the Hazen Eoad Cemetery, where he 
had attended the first burial ever made there. 
On that occasion he had remarked to those pres- 
ent, that, in all probability, his own body would 
moulder to dust in that ground. A short time 
before his death his two sons were expecting to 
carry his remains to Fairfax and deposit them 
near those of his wife ; but their father said that 
although this seemed pleasing to him at first 
view, yet the travelling was so bad and the dis- 
tance so great, that it was his preference to be 
buried at the Hazen Road Cemetery. And so 
his prophecy came true. 


Dea. Elnathan Stx'ong was bom in Chatham, 
Ct., March 25, 1787. He was the son of Eev. 
Cyprian Strong, who was for many years a min- 
ister of the gospel in Chatham. He left home 
when quite young, and lived with a relative in 
Windsor, Vt. He afterwards removed to Dan- 
ville, where he abode until the year 1808, when 
he removed to Hardwick. About two years after 
coming to this town, he united himself with the 
Congregational Church. He was married to 
Jane Chamberlain, Oct. 17, 1820. Was chosen 
deacon of the chm'ch in the year 1826, which 
office he continued to hold until his death, which 
occurred June 19, 1843. 

In a discourse preached on the occasion of his 
death, the Eev. O. A. Hubbard says : " I should 
shrink from anything like mere eulogium in regard 
to any individual, and certainly in regard to one, 
a leading trait of whose character was modesty, 
and of whom it is well known .that he rather 
shunned observation than sought it. Deacon 
Strong possessed a native discrimination of mind, 
and an accuracy of judgment, that fall to the 
lot of exceedingly few. Scarcely ever have I 
seen the individual that would investigate a 
complex subject with greater readiness, or pro- 
nouce, in regard to it, a more correct decision ; 
for while he was quick of apprehension, he was 
careful and deliberate in arriving at his conclu- 
sions. Although in early life his opportunities 
for education had been quite limited, yet he was, 
at least, in the practical sense of that word, a 
close and accurate scholar." 

Deacon Strong was especially distinguished in 
regard to the extent and accuracy of his knowl- 
edge of the Bible. He also possessed a peculiar 
power of illustrating scripture ti-uth, wliich fit- 
ted him to fill with great acceptance the place of 
a teacher in the Sabbath School, and made his 
presence always welcome in the conference meet- 
He was a man of marked integrity and upright- 
ness. His prevailing tone of Christian character 



was that of a meek, spiritual, and consistent disci- 
ple ; never giving utterance to common-place or 
cant expressions in regard to feeling, exercises, 
etc. ; but exhibiting a heart softened, humbled, 
and elevated by the Divine grace, directed to the 
extension of the church and the salvation of the 
world, — one of those men whose rehgion seems 
to consist in being and doing, and that heartily 
and liberally. His home was always open to the 
servants of God, and they loved to linger there. 
Favored by Providence with large means, he ex- 
emplified much of the principle, " It is more 
blessed to give than to receive." His memory 
will long be cherished by all who knew him, and 
especially by the members of the church, of 
which he was the father, the counsellor, and the 




And wife emigrated from Lee, N. H., to Hard- 
wick, in 1794. They were a valuable addition to 
the new settlement. He was first town treasurer, 
which office, with others, he held many years. 
A benevolent regard for others was a character- 
istic of Mr. and Mrs. Sanborn. Their log barn 
was often occupied as a school-room, and their 
house for a church and town hall ; and at one 
time, when the people had been exposed to the 
small pox, was thrown open for a pest house. 
Families in need of a temporary home till they 
could build, were kindly received here. They 
were both church-members. As an illustration 
of the Christian character of Mr. S., we may be 
allowed to offer the following anecdote. There 
existed a little difference between him and a 
neighbor in regard to a road. The neighbor 
called to see about it. Mr. S. was at the barn. 
Going out to the barn, he did not see him, but 
heard the voice of prayer. Mr. S. was implor- 
ing a blessing upon each neighbor by name. 
The one present was not omitted. Never after- 
ward did the latter doubt the honesty of his 
neighbor S. In a word, his was in every way a 
noble nature. But, " Our fathers, where are 


"Was a native of Cape Cod, and early left an 
orphan. At the age of 16 he went to Hardwick, 
Mass., where some years after he married Lydia, 
daughter of Colonel Page, and in 1798 removed 
to Hardwick, Vt. He was of Puritan descent, 
and strictly carried out their principles in the 
training of his family, and matters pertaining to 
the church and society generally. 

His public spirit and capability to serve the 
town gave him frequent offices and the confi- 
dence of the people. He aided in the organiza- 
tion of the first Congregational Church, and was 
elected its first deacon, which office he held till 
his death, in 1823. 


Son of Capt. Simeon Stevens, an officer in the 
army of the Revolution, was a native of New- 
bury. Early bereft of father and mother, the 
promise to the orphan was verified to him ; for in 
the midst of corrupt examples, compelled to hear 
profanity, exposed to all the allm-ements of vice, 
he yet never defiled his lips with an oath, or fol- 
lowed the multitude to do evil. He was appren- 
ticed to a man who required various kinds of 
service, and who, contrary to agreement, gave 
him few opportunities for mental improvement, 
a deprivation he deeply lamented during his life. 
In his minority he gave proof of his native 
strength of mind, enterprise, and rare business 
talents for which he was afterwards distinguished. 
In 1798, he came to Hardwick, and, with a 
small patrimony left him by his father, together 
with his own gains, he purchased a wild lot, 
erected a log house, and, the same year, was 
married to Miss Puah Mellen, of Holliston, 
Mass. They were the first settlers of the flour- 
isliing village East Hardwick, formerly called 
Stevens's Village. He built the first mills in 
town, a saw -mill in 1798, and a grist-mill in 1800, 
and prosecuted various brandies of business ; 
was remarkable for his promptness in making 
contracts, for the energy with which he carried 
forward whatever he undertook, and his strict in- 
tegrity in all his dealings. For 21 years he was 
town treasurer ; was one of the first in the tem- 
perance reform, practising abstinence from all 
intoxicating drinks, and requiiing the same of 
all in his employ. He gave land on which to 
build a store on condition that it should be a 
temperance one. The carrying out of these 
temperance principles exerted a moral influence 
that is still felt in the village. " Mr. and Mrs. S. 
manifested a deep interest, also, in the cause of 
education. They were, moreover, noted for hos- 
pitality. Ministers, friends generally, and the 
travellers, as well, seeking entertainment, always 
found a welcome. Both members of the Con- 
gregational Church, they manifested their piety 
by their willingness to support the gospel, and 
by their regard for the requirements of God. 
They lived happy and died happy, and their 
memory is blcsssed. 


•' Third son of the foregoing, was a young man of 
much promise ; a graduate ( ) at the Uni- 
versity of Vermont ; conducted for a season the 
Craftsbury Seminary ; and commenced the study 
of theology in the Bangor (M. E.) Theological 
Seminary. In consequence, however, of failing 
health, he was obliged to abandon all anticipa- 
tions in reference to the ministry. He, never- 
theless, was married about this time to Miss M 
A. Young, daughter of Hon. Augustus Young, 
and settled upon a farm in his native to^vn. But 



■with returning health, desiring a wider field in 
which to labor for the good of his fellow-men, 
he removed to Johnson, and became Principal 
of the Lamoille Co. Grammar School. A year 
had not elapsed, when he was suddenly removed 
by death. His remains were intenred in Hard- 
wick. It was remarked upon the occasion of 
his funeral that the large audience were all 


Settled from Massachusetts in 1798. A worthy 
and efficient man in the town and the church. 

Born in Hoosich, Mass., came to Hardwick, Vt., 
about 1800. He married Tabitha Dow, a sister 
of the far-famed Lorenzo Dow, a woman of tal- 
ent, and agreeable and lady-like. "He was 
considered a man of talent, especially in public 
speaking." He was one of Nature's noblest 
sons, but was peculiar in his religious feelings ; 
yet it was true of him that he entertained no 
sectarian views. Sectional variances delayed 
the building of a church for worship, and he was 
led to feel a special order from heaven to build a 
house for the Lord. This he did almost wholly 
unaided in 1820, which was the first church- 
building in town to be occupied by all denomi- 
nations. He never would sell or deed it to any 
sect ; the Congregational Church made repeated 
efforts to purchase it. Although it is conceded 
that liis motive to furnish the town with a 
chm'ch was good, yet the result was, contrary to 
his expectations, deleterious to the town. The 
inscription, "Liberty of Conscience," gave all a 
right of occupancy ; but finally it was used in a 
way foreign to the worship of God, and the in- 
tent of the builder. He was repeatedly urged 
to serve the town in a public capacity ; though a 
phUantliropic man, he always despised office. 
On once being asked to run as a candidate for 
representative, he declared "he would not go if 
elected." He was very kind in his family, a 
good neighbor and citizen. He died in 1848, 
aged 69 yeai-s. 


Was the first physician in Hardwick. He came 
into town with his family in 1800, and contmued 
in practice until his death. "He was a very 
kind and feeling man, and a good family physi- 
cian." He died in 1820, aged 46 years. His 
wife survived him nearly 40 years — an active 
woman, who energetically met the wants of a 
large family. She was a very shrewd but useful 
woman in community, and a professing Chris- 
tian. She died in 1859, in the 82d year of her 


From Coventry, Conn., to Hardwick, the first 
settler in the south part of the town, served the 
town in different ways. Was a very kind man 
to Ms friends, and in his family. 

And wife came into Hardwick with their son, 
Joel Whipple, and famUy, in 1804, from New 
Braintree. He was a very jovial man, much 
given to anecdote, but firm in principle, and a 
very industrious, economical, and useful citizen. 
In his last sickness his prayer was especially for 
the welfare of the church. He died in 1823, aged 
81. His wife, Mrs. Whipple, was a woman of 
superior mind, and a mother in Israel, beloved 
by all, young and old. She possessed a great 
fund of cheerfulness, and was often very shrewd. 
A fanatical minister once called, and said, " You 
sometimes entertain ministers." " Yes, if they 
have a recommendation." "And what would 
you say at one from heaven 1" — " Go straight 
back, 'tis a poor country here for such a man ! " 
When a widow, an aged man asked her to be- 
come his wife. In answer, "Why, Mi-. B., we 
are nothing but old cMldi-en. You have one foot 
in the grave, the other will be there soon. You 
had better go home, read your Bible, and pre- 
pare to die, than to be here on such an errand ! " 
She was very industrious ; some of her last 
work was spinning linen for a web. She warped 
it, forgot to tie the leases, and, as she took it 
from the bars, a gust of wind blew the whole into 
an irrecoverable snarl. " And is this the great 
Babylon I have built 1 a just rebuke to my pride 
and vanity ! " She was a friend to the sick and 
needy, and such was her great disinterestedness 
and every-day piety, she was a fit counsellor for 
all. The last years of her life she made her 
friends a yearly visit. She always chose to walk. 
People, sick or well, ever gave her a cheer- 
ful welcome. " Grandma is coming," has been 
echoed from many a child's glad heart. The 
words of wisdom and instruction which were 
dropped from her lips are as golden treas- 
ures in the memory of those who knew her. 
The last visit she made was in December. She 
walked half a mile to see a sick man. The 
effijrt was too much, and proved the occasion of 
her death. Her last audible prayer was, " Clothe 
me in the righteousness of Christ, and may I, in 
the morning of the resurrection, rise in the image 
of my Saviour ! " She died Dec. 1833, aged 89. 


Inherited the ready wit of his mother, and the 
firmness of his father. Was very active in town 
business, and in promoting schools. He was 
elected deacon of the Congregational Church in 
1821, which office he held till his death, in 1827. 
During this time, the church was subjected to 
severe trials, and a division, caused by the locat- 
ing a house of worship. 

He gave liberally, and was firm and perse- 
vering in his efforts to accomplish the work of 
building a house for the Lord. The brethren 
were nerved on to action by his cheerful, hopeful 
spirit ; the pastor encom-aged ; religion honored 
by his love to Gx)d, to the church, and his fellow- 



man, aud in the promotion of peace and har- 
mony, for which ho was especially distinguished. 


His wife, was a woman of great refinement, 
meek, and Christ-like. She, and also her hus- 
band, joined in singing praises to Grod in his 
house till thek death. The tones of her voice 
were sweet and melodious. She died in 1836, 
aged 54 years. 


Their oldest son, a graduate of Middlebury Col- 
lege, and principal of an academy in Granville, 
N. Y., died in 1830, aged 25. He was intending 
to enter the ministry. 

Their third son, two years in Amherst College, 
was taken sick, and obliged to leave. Having 
paitially recovered, he engaged in teaching in 
Medway, Mass. Ho taught but a short time, 
however, before he went to his uncle Levi Whip- 
ple's, in Putman, Ohio, where he died of con- 
sumption in 1835, aged 26 years. 

He, too, had decided to be a minister. He was 
a very devoted, useful Chiistian ; unassuming, 
pleasing in liis ways, and had the love and 
esteem of all who knew him. 

The youngest son and brother, commenced a 
preparatory course of study, with the ministry in 
view, but relinquished his cherished wishes to 
live with and care for his widowed mother ; but 
the angel of death claimed yet another. He died 
in 1832, aged 21. 

Son of Deacon Nathaniel Norris, the second 
man who came, with his family, to settle in 
Hardmck, was the first child born in town 
(1792), and named Hakdwick in honor thereof. 
In early life he became a preacher and member 
of the Vermont Methodist Conference ; and, not- 
withstanding the accumulating care of a large 
family, was an itinerant for many yeai-s — for 
more than forty a faithful minister of the gos- 
pel. January, 1861, he left the vineyard of toil 
for the banqueting house above. 


BY A. J. HYDE, M. D. 

Colonel Warner was bom in Hardwick, 
Mass., Dec. 1770, and removed to Hardwick, 
Vt., 1796, following the old military road to 
Canada, opened through the wilderness by Col. 
Hazen. Soon after he came here, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Lydia Cobb, of IIard^vick, Mass. 

As the old sign shows, bearing the date of 
1797, he, this year, opened a house of entertain- 
ment on the Hazen Eoad, and presided in the 
capacity of host for nearly 60 years. This house 
was one of the most noted in Vermont, and many 

a traveller would ride a little later or go a littlo 
further to get to "Warner's." In 1816, he had 
the misfortune to lose, by death, the companion 
of his early years. In 1818, he was married 
again to ilrs. Anna Burton, whose death pre- 
ceded his but a short time. He went West in 
1853, aud died Jan. 1854, at Chillicothe, Ohio, 
in the 84tli year of his age. 

Col. Wai'uer was one of the principal men by 
whose influence the name of the tovm was called 
after " Old Hard\vick, Mass." He was one of 
the early representatives of the town in the State 
Legislatm-e. A member of the church, he con- 
tinued in his Chi-istian profession up to Ids death. 
He was a very public-spirited man, always fa- 
vored improvements, especially of roads. 

He was considered a man of good judgment 
upon matters of eveiy-day life. This father of 
the town had the gratification to witness repeated 
rewards of his usefulness and public generositj', 
the waving grains take the place of the wilder- 
ness, the town teem with life and activity, the 
thoroughfares busy with the hun-ied traveller, 
and society flomish under the nurture of truth 
and virtue. 

[We are also indebted to Dr. Hyde for helping 
gather and copy other historical material, both in 
and near this section. — ed.] 



Mr. David Tuttle, son of Eev. Amos Tut- 
tle, the first minister of Hardwick, who has lived 
in town longer than any other person now living, 
says we are mistaken in one item of history — 
that is, of the first bm-ial of an adult in town. In 
the history, we have written of a Mr. Sinclair, an 
aged man, that he died in 1796, and was bmied 
in a log dug out, etc. Mi-. Tuttle says he was 13 
years old ; remembers well of his death, funeral, 
and burial. His father attended or heard the ex- 
ercises. He says liis coffin was made of pine 
boards, and painted black. Still Mr. Sinclair, a 
great-grandcluld of the one in question, claims 
that he was interred in a log, as described. He 
says, his mother was at the funeral, etc. In 
Greensboro', two miles away, there was a good 
saw-mill ; with means at hand, we can hardly 
suppose so rude a coffin would have been pre- 

]\Ir. Tuttle says, before the town was settled 
but after the clearing made by Messrs. Safford 
and Page, a Mr. Satford, the one who worked 
with IVIr. Page, or a man by the same name, 
was moving with Ms family through Hardwick 
to Cambridge. They encamped for the night in 
the hut built l)y Peter Page. He was taken with 
bilious colic, and died ; and Mr. Tuttle says, 
Ml-. Safford's son told him that they were 
obliged to dig out a bass log to bury him in. 
He was interred near the stopping-place. This, 



perhaps, gave rise to the story of Mr. Sinclair's 
being buried in such a coffin. 


I am an old man, seventy-eight to-day. I am 
the only person living in this town that was liv- 
ing in it at the time it was organized. I have 
seen its growth for the last sixty-six years ; have 
shared in its trials, prosperity, and honors, and 
have now retired from business with little capital, 
except a middHng clear conscience, excellent 
health for one of my age, many friends, and not 
an enemy that I know. If I have any, we never 
meet ; so I am pleasantly situated at the present, 
and visit my friends often, in which I take great 

I meet citizens of this town, with their splen- 
did equipage, on a good smooth road, where I, 
sixty odd years ago, found my way through then 
a dense forest, by blazed ti-ees. Not long since, 
I was on an eminence where, in by-gone days, I 
followed my sable line. Then I could see but a 
few rods into the great woods ; now, from that 
stand-point, I can see many splendid farms and 
residences, and even look in upon adjoining 
towns. I stood for a time enjoying the beauti- 
ful prospect, contrasting it with the pasf, when 
thoughts crossed my mind of the great West ; and 
I said, Wliat is this, compared with that I have 
seen there 1 Here, it has taken over half a cen- 
tury to bring about this change. There, I have 
seen on the shores of the great lakes, and on the 
banks of the Father of Waters, villages grow up 
in a few months larger than this town owns at 
the present. But soon my thoughts were again 
on the landscape before me, and I said, mentally, 
though this has been a slow work compared with 
some of young America for a few years past, 
yet it has been sure. The splendid farms and 
residences that I see here, the occupants own, 
and have money to let; whereas those I have 
seen grow up so rapidly at the West, some cap- 
italist living East holds a mortgage for much 
more than they can be sold for in these hard 
times. Although I admire those Western States, 
— believing they are destined to be the heart of 
the greatest republic on earth, — I am compelled 
to say, Vermont is a good httle State to live in, 
after all that is done and said. The Vermonters 
have ever done then- own work and thinking, and 
will continue to for a long time to come, I am 

Ladies and gentlemen, citizens of the town of 
Hardwick, Caledonia County, and State of Ver- 
mont, I wish you all the prosperity and happi- 
ness that belongs to a correct and vktuous com- 
munity, David Tuttle. 

South Hardwick, Feb. 20, 1861. 

[We thank most cordially this Hardwick father 
for his contribution. How many other towns will 
send, for our Literary Department, a tribute from 
their oldest man living i" When old men talk, we 
love to listen. — ed.] 


Miss Jane Ann Porter, bom in East Hard- 
wick, in 1832, died December, 1855. The fol- 
lowing lines were written three weeks before her 
death : — 

I am passinof through the valley 
Called by mortals dark and drear ; 

Where the dread death-angel reigneth, 
Striking stoutest hearts with fear. 

Round me rolls the rapid river, 
And the breaking waves dash high ; 

But they shall not overwhelm me, 
For my Saviour still is nigh. 

One strong arm around me circles, 
While the other points above — 

And he whispers to my spirit 
Words of holy peace and love. 

Ah ! this valley, dark and lonely, 

Is not dark and lone to me ; 
For the Star of Bethlehem gleaming 

Through the rippled clouds I see. 

Brighter yet it grows, and brighter, 

Till the shadows disappear ; 
And the shore of life eternal 

Rises to my vision clear. 

Forms of loveliness excelling 

All I've ever seen before. 
Wait to welcome me to glory, 

When my pilgrimage is o'er. 



Many long years since, I can just perceive in 
the distance a ruddy youth of beautiful counte- 
nance, full of animation, of kindly disposition, 
dearly beloved by all his friends, full of zeal for 
the extension of the Redeemer's kingdom, ready 
to triumph over filial, fraternal, and social affec- 
tions, to go far hence among the aborigines of 
the Western wilds. 

Distances were not then shortened to the ex- 
tent that they now are. It was a long, long way 
over hill and dale, terminating at last in literally 
a howhng wilderness, with no other road than an 
Indian trail, where the wolves played well their 

This young missionary was among the pio- 
neers to the Cherokee nation, therefore subjected 
to all the privations incident to a first expedi- 
tion. He at once fixed his habitation among the 
red man's wigwams, where the forest was not 
only to be feUed, but the wild man tamed. At 
the very commencement he reared the standard 
of Immanuel, and to the nations around told the 
story of Jesus. Faster than his means would 
allow, he would have collected the youth and 
children into schools. 

That knowledge might be diffused the whole 
length and breadth of the nation, he often itine- 
rated. More than once on the excursions was he 
compelled to subsist on the productions of nat- 
ure, without any material modification of art to 
render his dish palatable. In a letter to his 
friends he remarked, " I often make my breakfast 



of a water-melon, and my dinner and supper on 
cucumbers and green corn. 

" All day have I rode in the rain, swam deep 
creeks, and at night laid down in my drenched 
clothes on the ground, and slept quietly, unin- 
jured by exposure. So you see I have great rea- 
son to praise God for a good constitution." 

In process of time other missionaries were 
sent to the Cherokee nation, among whom some 
whole fiimihes, that the nations might have a 
sample of good order and industry to awake 
their dormant energies. From one of these fam- 
ilies this missionary selected a companion. Tliis 
was the first Christian marriage celebrated in 
the Cherokee nation, therefore publicly solem- 
nized in the presence of many natives, who soon 
learned the propriety of the institution. 

A single instance out of thousands will show 
that they were mutual sharers of trials of no 
orinary kind. Once when they were journey- 
ing on horseback from one station to another, 
the distance of 50 miles or more, the sable cur- 
tains of night encircled them while they were still 
in the midst of a dense forest, the rain descend- 
ing in torrents. There was no alternative but 
to remain through the night. The first effort to 
obtain fii-e, doubtless by friction, forced the 
whole apparatus from his grasp, while the dark- 
ness rendered the search for it wholly unavailing. 
A shelter composed of their saddles and a few 
barks was all a tender female and helpless infant 
had to shield them a whole night from the pelt- 
ing storm. The little one, notwithstanding all 
the defence its mother could afford, was so com- 
pletely drenched as to wear marks of its ' green 
cap until its hair was of sufficient length to be 
cropped from its head. 

While on a visit to his friends in Hardwick, 
relating some of the various scenes through which 
he had passed, his friends inquired " Why he did 
not mention in his public addresses some of the 
many trials he had to encounter on missionary 
ground 1" "1 should blush to hold up to pub- 
lic gaze my trials, while the goodness and mercy 
of my Heavenly Father have followed me all my 
days," he replied. Very true, indeed ; praise 
might well dwell upon his tongue. 

He did not spend liis strength for naught. In 
the course of a few years, the entire aspect of the 
nation was changed. "Instead of comfortless 
wigwams," he wrote, " I now find good framed 
or brick houses; instead of sleeping on the 
ground, I now repose on feather beds ; instead 
of partaking my scanty meal with my fingers, I 
now find good, wholesome food placed on a 
neatly-furnished table ; and, what is far better, 
instead of the heathen, the blind worshippers of 
the ' Great Spirit,' I now find a well-organized 
community, the meek and humble followers of 
Christ Jesus, — not that it is true of the whole na- 
tion, but a good proportion." 

Here I would gladly leave the Cherokee na- 
tion, and the devoted missionary, quietly and 

faithfully pui'suing his labors of love ; but the 
white man coveted the highly productive land 
of the Indians, who, after long and grievous 
abuses, were removed fi-om their cherished homes, 
to the uncultivated regions of the " far West," 
where thousands, victims to the change, found an 
early grave. 

The missionary, after laboring more than 20 
years with the Indians, was employed by the 
Home IMissionary Society to labor in Illinois. 
But he has gone to his reward. He died 1841, 
while attending the Presbytery at Alton, 111. 

His name was Rev. Wm. Chamberlain, a 
native of Bradford, Vt. He passed several 
years in Hardwick, where he was converted, and 
sent forth to the missionary work. 

While visiting his friends in Vermont in 1835, 
an uncle inquired if he had made any provision 
for his future support ? " Certainly." "Where "? " 
"In Heaven," was the emphatic reply. "I 
commit all to the care of my Heavenly Father." 
Subsequent events proved his faith genuine, and 
the gracious promises immutable. On his re- 
turn, provision was made for the education of 
two of his daughters. Mr. Fanshaw, of N. Y., 
well known as the printer and agent of the 
American Tract Society, educated one ; a lady 
in Brooklyn, another. When the faithful mis- 
sionary was called suddenly away, aid was im- 
mediately proffered. Rev. S. Worcester, of Sa- 
lem, Mass., whose father was the first Secretary 
of the Board of Foreign Missions, and died at 
Brainard, Cherokee Nation, at the house of Mr. 
C, who closed his eyes, and committed dust to 
dust, claimed the privilege of educating one ; all 
the others were kindly educated by benevolent 



A TOWNSHIP lying in the easterly part of 
Caledonia County, and very well adapted to 
agricultural pursuits — the soil being generally 
free from stone, and consisting of a rich gravelly 
loam ; is well adapted to the raising of all kinds 
of grain and grass, and in most parts to the 
growing of Indian corn successfully. Fruit, 
also, grows well here ; there are some fine speci- 
mens in town. The winter of 1858 was, how- 
ever, rather unfavorable for the apple ; the old 
growth ah-eady shows signs of decay. With the 
exception of a range of mountains in the east- 
erly part, the town is susceptible of cultiva- 
tion ; and even those mountain-lots, after being 
cleared of their heavy growth of timber, i)ro- 
duce the best of pastm-age. Indeed, there is 
very little waste land in town. The low lands, 
that in the early settlement were considered too 
wet and swampy for cultivation, arc now the 
most productive and valuable. The township is 
well watered witli springs and brooks that rise 
among the hills, and wind their way through the 



valleys to tlie Passumpsic and Moose Rivers, the 
latter of which passes through a corner of the 
town. Along its borders arc a few excellent 
farms, but no sites for mills. Near the centre of 
the town there is quite a mountain-ridge wMch 
somewhat divides the business of the town. 
Here is also a small pond, from wliich issues 
Pond Brook, on which are erected 2 saw-mills 
and 1 starch factory, which do good business ; 
there are also 2 other saw-mills in town in 
successful operation a part of the year. In the 
easterly part of the township is an excellent 
quarry of granite, known as the " Evans quarry," 
which, for beauty and feasibility, excels any- 
tliing of the kind yet found in this section, and 
will, doubtless, at some future day, be exten- 
sively used for building purposes. Tiie town 
did not settle very rapidly, and has never num- 
bered much more than 5G0 inhabitants. There 
was nothing unusual or remarkable in the events 
connected with the early settlement. In com- 
mon with the early settlers of the rest of this 
region, the first Id habitants of Kirby suffered 
much inconvenience and many hardships — Hv- 
ing as they did in a wilderness country, far from 
any market or source of supplies, and destitute 
in almost every instance of a team. 

The exact date of the first permanent settle- 
ment made hero is not knoTv^n. Theophilus 
Grant and Phineas Page removed thither about 
1792, locating near the town line adjacent to St. 
Johnsbury. In 1800, Jonathan Leach came into 
the north part of the town, then called Bmice 
Tongue, and cut his first tree. Ho was soon 
joined by Josiah Joslin, Jude Whi^te, Jonathan 
Lewis, Ebcnezer Damon, Asahel Burt, Antipas 
Harrington, and others, mostly from Massachu- 
setts and New Hampsliu'e. Jonathan Leach 
and wife are still living upon the same farm 
upon which he first settled, and are the only sur- 
vivors of the first company of settlers. They 
still enjoy comfortable health, and their mental 
faculties are as yet very little impaired. The 
age of Mr. Leach is 85 ; of Mrs. Leach, 88 or 
89. He was a native of Bridgewater, Mass. He 
made his first " pitch" in the town of Burke — 
purchasing a lot of land near the centre of that 
town. While absent, however, engaged in remov- 
ing liis family from Massachusetts to their new 
home, the proprietors obtained a new draught of 
the town, bringing his number some five miles 
to the southward of the spot where he had com- 
menced clearing, in an unbroken wilderness. 
Procuring, on his return, the assistance of a 
neighbor as a guide, started out in quest of his 
number, which, after some difficulty, he suc- 
ceeded in finding. In this new location he com- 
menced his labors, in the month of April, 1800. 
lie erected at once a log house, though, as the 
reader may readily imagine, "under difficulties," 
innsmuch as he was destitute both of shiagles and 
boards, not to mention numerous other articles 
usually deemed indispensable in order to con- 

venient and successful house-building. Into this 
rude structure, and while his gable-ends were 
still open, he removed his family, consisting of a 
wife and two small children. Addressing him- 
self now to clearing away the forest about him, 
and preparing the soil for cultivation, he suc- 
ceeded the first year in raising a sufficient amount 
of grain to meet the wants of his family. By 
another year, without the aid of a team, he had 
subdued enough of the forest to gather in 150 
bushels of wheat. By the third year, he liad put 
up a framed barn — the building in which he 
thinks was taught the first school and held 
the first religious meeting in town (A. D. 1804). 
That barn is still standing, and is in a good con- 
dition. The first saw-mill in town, moreover, 
Avas built by Mr. Jonathan Leach. 

The to-wn charter was granted Oct. 20, 1786, 
and chartered Oct. 27, 1790, to Ptoswell Hop- 
kins, by the name of Hopkinsville, containing 
11,284 acres. Subsequently, 2527 acres were 
added from the town of Burke, known as Burke 
Tongue, and the name of the toAvnship altered, 
by an act of Legislature, in 1808, to Kirby. The 
town was organized on the 8th of August, 1807, 
and on the 29 th of the same month, the first 
town-meeting was called to elect town officers. 
Selah Howe was chosen Moderator, Jonathan 
Lewis, ToAvn Clerk, which office he held 17 
years. Benjamin Estabrooks, Joel Whipple, Ai'- 
unah Burt, first Selectmen ; Philomen Bro\\Ti, 
first Constable ; Josiah Joslin, first Town Repre- 

Dr. Abncr Mills removed into town about 
1810, practising medicine in this and adjoining 
towns ; but did not remain long, with the excep- 
tion of the year 1813, when the prevailing epi- 
demic proved very mortal here, there being 21 
deaths in town, and mostly of adults. The peo- 
ple have ever enjoyed a veiy good degree of 
health. The oldest person deceased in town 
appears, from the record, to have been Zebulon 
Burroughs, aged 84. The first birth (June 2d, 
1801) was that of Lavina Harrington. The first 
marriage celebrated was that of Nathaniel Reed 
and Sukcy Sweat, Eeb. 8, 1804. The first 
death was that of Henry White, Sept. 3, 1803. 

There are now seven organized school districts 
in town. 

In 1812, there was a Congregational Church 
organized, consisting of 1 1 members. Timothy 
Locke was chosen first deacon, which office he 
held until his death in 1850. This church has never 
had a pastor ordained over it ; but has been im- 
proved a part of the time by itinerant ministers 
from abroad. In 1824, Rev. Luther Wood united 
with this church, and continued to preach a por- 
tion of the time, until, on account of the infirmi- 
ties of age, he was no longer able to perform pas- 
toral duties. In 1828, the church erected a 
comfortable house of worship, in wliich they con- 
tinued to meet until about 1840, at which time 
the church numbered 45 members. About the 



same year a new church was formed at East St. | 
Johnsbury. In order to enjoy bettor privileges 
and accommodations than what they had hitherto 
been able to, a portion of the Kirl)y Chm-ch 
asked and obtained dismission from the latter 
with a view to uniting with the former. This 
exodus from the old church left it in such a fee- 
ble condition that it was no longer able to sus- 
tain stated preaching. In consequence, most of 
the members have taken letters to churches in 
adjoining towns. 

There was a Methodist Society established here 
as early as 1804, the class being formed under 
the supervision of the Rev. Mr. Peck, of the 
Lyndon charge. They were for a long time 
supplied -nath preaching from adjoining towns. 
At present, however, this society is in a flourish- 
ing condition, about 25 having been added the 
past year. They now number about 75 members, 
and enjoy stated preaching, — Ecv. Mr. BuUard, 


Eathcr Wood, as ho was more familiarly 
called, was born in Lebanon, N. H. In 1800 he 
i-emovod to St. Johnsbuiy, Yt. He obtained a 
license to preach about 180-1. I tliink he was 
never ordained over any church. His early his- 
toiy was marked with affliction, privations, and 
losses, — having been burnt out once or twice, 
and thi-own upon the charities of the world with 
a large family of small childi-en to sustain. His 
motto, however, was ever onward and upward. 

At an early day he purchased a farm, and re- 
moved his family to this town. About 1824, he, 
with his wife and some of his childi-en, united 
with the Congregational Church here, which at 
that time was very feeble, and the timely aid 
which this connection afforded was joyfully i-e- 
ceived by its members. He continued to preach 
to them at intervals until he was called to his 
reward. Although he never possessed so much 
pulpit eloquence as many, yet his sermons were 
deep and impressive, and fall of gospel truth. 
. They were more deeply impressed on the mind 
by the fact that they came from a warm and feel- 
ing heart, without any affectation of over-heated 
imagination. He lived to the advanced age of 
79, and retained his mental faculties almost to 
the end of life. Of liim it was emphatically 
trao, he was a faithful servant of his Master. 
In his death the church and community sustain 
no ordinaiy loss. In his will ho bequeathed 
$1800 to carry forward missionary cntei-prise. 

Judge Burroughs, son of Setli and Olive Bur- 
roughs, was born April 18, 1815. Although he 
never enjoyed the advantages of what is termed 
a classic education, being by nature a scholar, 
he early manifested an ardent love for books ; 
and being possessed of a discriminating mind 
and a disposition to improve, was, while quite 
young, initiated into the business interests of 

the town. Not only was ho disposed to succeed, 
but was eager to excel in all his pursuits. At 
the age of 19, he was appointed county surveyor, 
and after that did most of the surveying in this 
vicinity. Ho entered the militia company, and 
was in due time placed at the head of the same. 
In 1843, he Avas elected RcprescntatiYe to the 
General Assembly; in 1850 and '51 elected ono 
of the Assistant Judges of tlie County Court for 
this county ; and, although he was a practical 
farmer and never entered the school of law, yet 
his knowledge of the science was quite extensive, 
and his practice considerable. His opinions, 
indeed, were often sought, and liis decisions con- 
sidered very reliable, scarcely less so than the 
majority of the bar. lEs death occuiTcd on the 
3d day of September, 1858. 



Lyndox is a six miles square toAvuship, situa- 
ted a little north of the centre of Caledonia 
County, in the valley of the Passumpsic, the 
natiu-al northern terminus of the beautiful valley 
of the Connecticut. It is bounded S. by St. 
Johnsbury, cornering on the S. W. by Dan- 
ville, Vi. by "Wheelock, N. by Sutton and Burke, 
and E. by Burke and Kirby, and lies in latitude 
44 deg. 32 min. N., and in long. 4 deg. 54 min. 
E. Its surface is uneven, interspersed with liills 
and valleys, carved out by the many tributaries 
of the Passumpsic, flowing from other towns, 
and uniting in tliis, and forming one beautiful 
river. Its waters arc uncommonly cold and 
pure. These rivulets divide the town into a fair 
proportion of meadow and upland. The soil is' 
a rich loam, easy of cultivation, and very pro- 
ductive. There is scarcely any barren or waste 
land in the town, and the highest hills arc ara- 
ble to their summits, and are usually as fertile 
and productive as the low lands, and will yield 
abundant harvests of any crop the farmer may 
choose to cultivate ; and they also afford excel- 
lent grazing for neat cattle, sheep, and horses. 
The intervales, which are ovci-flowed by the 
spring and fall freshets, and sometimes — un- 
luckily for the growing crops in the summer — ■ 
arc sufiBciently enriched by the alluvial deposit 
thus given them, as not to require the manure- 
dressings which uplands need to restore the ex- 
haustions of frequent harvests. In addition to 
those benefits, the beauty of the scenery is greatly 
enhanced by the vaiiety of hill and dale pro- 
duced by these various streamlets. Several sites 
of excellent water-power for mills and machin- 
ciy arc located in the town. The most noted of 
these are the "Great Falls" and the "Little 
Falls," botli being on the main branch of Pas- 
sumpsic River, and the Great Falls on the entire 
river as it leaves town ; the head of the Falls, 
over which the railroad passes, being some 60 
rods north of the south lino of the town, and 



having a descent, in about 30 rods, of 65 feet. 
The Little Falls are one mile above, having a de- 
scent from the bed of the river of about 20 feet. 

Both sites of Falls having rock beds, and rock- 
bound shores, afford good faciUties for the erec- 
tion of factories, mills, and machinery of any 
kind — the river being of sufficient breadth, 
depth, and capacity for all needed practical pur- 
poses. The Great Falls have a capacity of oper- 
ating an almost unlimited amount of machinery. 
*The Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers Rail- 
road, which runs tlu-ough the town north and 
south near its centre, passes near both these 
Falls, and affords ready transportation for the 
manufactured or raw material. 

The town was located in the summer of 1780, 
by Hon. Jonathan Ai-nold, Daniel Gaboon, and 
Daniel Owen, of Providence, R. I, an Explor- 
ing Committee of an association of about fifty 
of the most enterprising citizens of that city and 
its vicinity, to select ungranted territory for a 
township in wliich to settle a colony in the new 
State of Vermont — then famed for its beauty 
and fertility — and to procure its charter. Bamet, 
Peacham, and Ryegate were the only towns 
then chartered in the present limits of Caledonia 
County. The approach of the committee to the 
ungranted territory was by way of the Connec- 
ticut River Valley; and, as a natural continua- 
tion of the same valley, they followed up the 
Passumpsic River to its Great and Little Falls, 
and its extensive meadows on the main river, 
and its many tributaries ; and made such farther 
reconnoissances as they deemed necessaiy, to be 
sure that they were right. They then, from the 
summit of the high conical hill south-east of the 
" Corner Village," with the eye fixed the out- 
lines now forming the boundaries of the town of 
Lyndon, as best comporting with the interests of 
their mission ; and all will agree that it was 
a very judicious selection. Before its charter- 
grant, the territory thus selected was called Best- 
bury. The author of the name is unknown, but it 
is indicative of the same sentiment in the sojourn- 
ers in the wilderness, which has been entertained 
by its settlers — that it is the better land for an 
earthly habitation. It appears to have been the 
hunting and fishing-ground of the native Ameri- 
can ; and many arrow-points of flint, and other 
implements — made and used by Indians — of 
stone, were found by the early settlers about the 
Falls, in the river, and on the late Gen. Gaboon's 
farm, indicating that those pleasant fields, which 
have been the chosen grounds for military pa- 
rades and mock-fights, in modern times, were 
also the battle-grounds of the aborigines at an 
earlier period. 

The St. Francis Indians Avere the last known 
to occupy this part of Vermont, and scarcely a 
year passes without some of the descendants of 
that tribe come out of Canada in families, and 
select some favorite grove to encamp in, to make 
and peddle baskets and nick-nacks peculiar to 

their race ; and they make themselves quite at 
home, and if reminded by the owner of the prem- 
ises that they are too free-and-easy with the lands 
and property of others, they adroitly set up prior 
right by priority of possession, saying, " Indians 
were here before white men." With such squat- 
ter sovereigns to contend with, a few presents to 
the matrons of the tribe, with an intimation that 
you wish them to leave, is the most efiective way 
for their removal. 

The town was granted by the General Assem- 
bly of Vermont, Nov. 2, 1780, to Jonathan Ar- 
nold and his associates — in all 53, inclusive of 
the Governors of Vermont and Rhode Island, 
and the Rev. James Manning, D.D., of Provi- 
dence, and the others, mostly his parishioners, 
uniting the interests of church and state in favor 
of the adventurers. The name Lyndon was 
given it in honor of the oldest son of the first 
grantee, Doct. Arnold, whose name was Josias 
Lyndon. Historically it was chartered Nov. 20, 
1780; but that recorded in the Town Clerk's 
office bears date June 27, 1781, after its survey, 
and confers on the township the usual privileges 
and immunities of corporate towns, dividing the 
proprietary shares into seventieth parts, and re- 
serving six for public uses, viz. College, County 
Grammar Schools, Town Schools, minister's 
settlement, minister's support, and mill-right, 
and 9 1-7 acres of each share for roads ; a wholo 
right containing 329 1-7 acres. Also, reserving 
that each share have a settlement, with a house 
18 feet square on it, in four years, or so soon 
after the war as safety will allow. Josias Lyn- 
don Arnold was a native of Providence, liber- 
ally educated, and professionally a lawyer, and 
also a poet. He settled at St. Johnsbury at an 
early day, but it is said that his social and edu- 
cational tastes did not perfectly harmonize with 
backwoods life. He was probably the first 
lawyer settled within the present limits of the 
county. He died in 1792, and left a widow and 
daughter. The widow afterwards mamed the 
Hon. Charles Marsh, of Woodstock, and was 
mother of the Hon. George P. Marsh, the pres- 
ent American Minister to Sardinia. The Hon. 
Jonathan Arnold, first grantee of the town, 
having afterwards obtained the charters of Billy- 
mead and St. Johnsbury, and settled in the last 
town, died therein in 1793. 

The natural productions of grain are wheat, 
rye, oats, barley, corn, potatoes, and the usual 
cuKnary vegetables of the State ; these are 
grown for home consumption, and some for 
market. More oats are raised than all other 
grains, as they furnish good forage both by the 
grain and the straw, and they find a more ready 
market, and are a very sure crop. Wheat used 
to bo grown in great abundance, and formed 
quite an article of traffic, and the soil is well 
adapted to its culture at the present time ; but 
the weevil has been its great enemy, and the 
cause of the failure of the crop for years ; but 



many farms have recently successfully tiicd the 
crop acrain, and others will do well to follow the 
example. Potatoes have given good profits for 
their cultivation for several years, and partic- 
ulai-ly since the construction of the raihoad 
through the town for exportation, and were hc- 
foi'c that much grown for starch, as at a previous 
period for the maldug of whiskey. Eye and bar- 
ley were formerly grown here for malt and dis- 
tillation ; but the worm of the still has long 
since ceased to devour cither the potatoes, the 
rvc or the barley, and they are all much more 
used for the feeding of cattle than formerly. 

The growing of grain is not always so ready 
paying as the raising of neat-cattle, sheep, and 
horses. In all these, Lyndon holds a prominent 
position. The Shearman, the Root, and the Bc- 
miss Morgans, have enjoyed a world-wide rci^uta- 
tion. About a year since, a purchaser from the 
State of Georgia came here to buy a colt at a price 
of one thousand dollars. For symmetry of fonn, 
and for beauty of action, and for speed, they are 
unrivalled. Vermont horses rank high, and 
Ljmdon horses rank with the highest. And so 
as to neat-cattle and sheep. Lyndon furnishes 
her fidl share of good oxen and good cows, and 
stock of every description, and a fair proportion 
of the Vermont butter found in market comes 
from tliis quarter ; and many beef cattle, sheep, 
lambs, and calves, arc marketed from tliis same 
region. Another rich product of the town is 
maple sugar, relieving the North from subser- 
viency to the South for the sweets of life. 

The native forest-trees arc wliite pine, spruce, 
hemlock, fir, and cedar, of evergreens, and of 
annual foliage the sugar-maple is predominant ; 
beech, birch, bass-wood, butternut, elm, ash, and 
tamarack, interspersed with a variety of trees of 
smaller growth, both ornamental and useful, as 
the cherry, the moosemissa, the raspberry, and 
blackberry — the two latter, with the delicious 
strawberry of the hay-field, yielding rich nutri- 
tive fruit, contributing much to good living. 

Tiie grant of the township being to citizens of 
Rhode Island, so most of its early settlers came 
from tliat State and its viciniiy, Scekonk and 
Reholjoth, Mass. Others came from the interior 
of Massachusetts, and the valley of the Connec- 
ticut River in Massachusetts, Vermont, and New 
Hampshire ; and some from the interior of New 
Hampslnrc, — Sandwich, and its neighborhood. 

The first settlement was commenced by Dan- 
iel Cahoon, Jr., a native of Providence, R. I., 
then coming from Winchester, N. IT. He, with 
a few chosen men, commenced a clearing on 
Right No. 3, allotted to his fatlier, as original 
proprietor, in April, 1788. The first season was 
devoted to clearing land and building the log 
house, and growing scanty supplies of provis- 
ions ; he having the honor of falling the first 
tree for the settlement. As the woods were full 
of game, and the river of ti'out, they fared more 

sumptuously than such adventurers would now. 
His first experience in housekeeping was in a 
camp of boughs ; and then in one covered with 
baik peeled from the trees in large sheets, and 
afterwards in the log house, covered with the 
same material, keeping bachelor's hall. After 
his beginning, others followed in Ins wake, and 
shortly many a new opening was made in the 
forest, and many a smoke, rolling upward, indi- 
cated that human habitations were there in pro- 
gress of construction. Jonathan Davis, Jonas 
Sprague, Nathan Ilines, and Daniel Hall, were 
of the number. They did not attempt a winter's 
residence, but retired to their friends for more 
comfortable quarters ; and, after rest and social 
cnjojmient, and obtaining supplies of necessaries, 
tlie former adventurers returned the next spring, 
17S9, invigorated and with new zeal in their en- 
terprises, — and one at least with a new stimulant 
to action, — and that was Davis, with his wife, 
the first female settler of the town, they making 
it their home in Mr. Gaboon's new log liouse. 
Tliis year, most of the beginners of the previous 
year, with several others, moved their famihes 
into town ; and this year and the next were so 
well prospered and increased, that in 1791, so 
many had commenced settlements in different 
parts of the town, that it became desirable to 
have it organized for the making and repairing 
roads and bridges, and the better managing the 
prudential affairs of the community ; and with 
the patriotic purpose of duly honoring the 4th of 
July, they fixed on that day for its organization ; 
Abraham Morrill, Esq., of Wheelock, warning 
the meeting, and presiding until it was effected 
by the choice of Elder Philemon Hines, Modera- 
tor. Daniel Cahoon, Jr.,was elected Town Clerk ; 
James Spooner, Daniel Reniff, and Daniel Ca- 
hoon, Jr., Selectmen and Listers ; Nehemiah 
Tu5kcr, Treasurer, and Nathan Hines, Consta- 
ble and Collector. There were, at the time of 
taking the census this year, 59 inhabitants. 

It was "Voted to have the Selectmen di^ide 
the town into six highway districts, to convene 
the inhabitants in working on the highways near 
home," and surveyors were chosen ; then voted 
to adjourn the meeting to August 1st. 

At the adjourned meeting, as expressed by 
the record, " Thinking it necessary, and highly 
conducive to the settlement of the town, that 
measures be taken to open new roads, and erect 
bridges for the convenience of the inhabitants 
of this and other towns, where the roads are 
almost impassable," and declaring the inability 
of the inhabitants of the town to do it — Voted 
that the Town Clerk make and foi-ward a peti- 
tion to the next General Assembly, for a tax of 
two pence on each acre of land in town for the 
l)Ui-pose. And voted to purchase the Statute 
Lav.'s and suitable record books for the town, and 
raised money by subscription, on the credit of the 
town, to pay for said books. 

Caledonia County. 

No. IV. 

October, 1863. 




' She stands, fair Freedom's chosen Home, 
Our own beloved Green Mountain State." 

"Where breathes no castled lord or cabined slave; 
Where thoughts, and hands, and tongues are free." 




Terms: One Dollar per Year. Clubs solicited. 







Entered according to Act of CongresB, in the year 1859, by Abbt Maria Hemenwat, In the Clerk's Office 
of the District Court of the District of Vermont. 


Fifty Cents a ITumber ; $1 a year ; or Pourteen Ifumbers for $3— Invariably in Advance. 
Postage, three cents, paid at Office of Delivery, 

WANTED. — One or more Lady AsBistants or Local Agents in each uncanvaseed Town. 

The Agents have all been instructed to solicit through or yearly subscriptionp, yet to as readily fake 
quarterly ones, -with the understanding that the subscribers are to pay on delivery for each number of the 
work, till they may regularly discontinue the same. No subscriptioDs should be paid to Traveling Agents, 
unless they bear our Certificate of Agency. 

CLUB TERMS.— The field is open in every Town for Clubs, which may be sent direct to tlie Publisher. 
Terms— Every Fourth Number Free; or for Four Yearly, or equivalent, a copy of the Poets and 
Poetry of Vermont, 12mo. 400 pp.; or Six Photographs of leading Vermont Poets; or for the above list 
doubled. Twelve Plates, or a Plated and elegantly Gilt copy of the Poets; or for Four Yejirly Subscriptions, 
a copy of the Vermont School Journal — a work devoted to a cause that ought to bring twice the patronage 
it has yet received ; or Dr. C. H. Cleavland's ably conducted Medical Journal, published at Cincinnati, O. 


No. 4. 

Lyndon — concluded,. . . by Hon. G. C. Cahoon. 

New.-irk, " L.M. Sleeper. 

Peacham, " Rev. A. Boulelle. 

Ryegate, «' .. .Rev. James M.Beattie. 

St. Johnsbury, " ....Edward T. Fairbanks. 

Sheffield,.. " A.S.Lamb. 

Sutton, «« John Beckwith, Esq. 

Walden, " Hon. James D, Bell. 

Waterford, " T. A. Cutler. 

Wheelock, " Hon. T. C. Cree. 

Goshen Gore, " Jos.Clark&Dr H.J.Hyde. 

Military Chapter, " 

No. 5. 

County Chapter, by Hon. David Reed. 

Bolton, " ....Geo. W. Kenedy, Esq. 

Burlington " Board of Writers. 

Charlotte, " Rev. B. D. Ames. 

Colchester, " Hon. David Reed. 

Essex, " Dr. L.C. Butler. 

Hinesburgh, compiled . " Rev. C. E. Ferrin. 

Huntington,. " James Johns. 

Jericho, " .. Dr. George Lee Lyman. 

Milton, " Hector Adams, Esq. 

Richmond, " S. H. Davis, Esq. 

St. George, " H. L iwrcnce, Esq. 

Shelburne, " Board of Writers. 

Undorhill " ..Gay H. Nananiore, E^q. 

Westford, « Hon. J. H.Woodward, D D. 

Williston, " Board of Writers. 


FOR ESSEX COUNTY.— Bloomtteld, by Hon. A. Burbank; Brighton, by N. P. Bowman, Esq.; 
Brunswick, by Mrs. Margaret G. Marshall; Canaan, by Geo. W. Hartshorno, Esq. ; Concord, by J. E. Wood- 
bury; Granby, by Loomis Wells; Guildhall, by Milton Cutler; Lemington, by Arthur T. Holbrook ; Luncn- 
burgh, by Hon. Jonah Brooks; Maidstone, by Hon. Charles Rich; County Chapter of Natural History, by 
H. A. Cutting. East Haven, Granby, and Victory, to be supplied. 

FOB. FKANKLEN" COUK'TY'.— Introductory, or County Chapter, by George F. Houghton, Esq. ; 
Bakersfield, by Rev. Caleb W. Piper; Berkshire, by Hon. Stephen Royce ; Enosburgh, by Hon. Alvin H. Baker; 
Fairfax, by Pres. Upham and John Uflbrd; Fairfield, by Col. Samuel Perley ; Fletcher, by Benj. A. King-ley, 
Esq.; Franklin, by Edwin R. Towle, Esq. ; Georgia, by Rev. Alvah Sabin; Highgate, by Amos Skeels, Esq. ; 
Montgomery, by Nelson W. Clapp, Esq. ; Ricbford, by Rev. B. J. Livingston ; Sheldon, by Hon. Alfred Keith 
and Hon. D. D. Weed ; St. Albans, by Rev. J. E. Rankin ; Swanton, by Rev. John B. Perry ; Geology of the 
County, by Rev. John B. Perry. 

No. V, CHrrTEKDEN CouNTT (now in press), will be embellished with portrait of Gov. Van Ness. 
The succeeding Nos. of the Gazetteer may now be expected to go to press quarterly, and to be drawn as fast 
as the subRcriptions of its patrons cancel its printing bills. 








At town meeting, March 12, 1792, Elder 
Philemon Hines was chosen moderator; 
Daniel Cahoon, town clerk; Daniel Ca- 
hoon, Philemon Hines and James Spooner, 
selectmen and listers; Nathan Hines, con- 
stable; and Nehemiah Tucker, treasurer. 
" Voted, that the selectmen be paid four 
shillings per day for services actually per- 
formed for the town." 

"Voted, that a tax of six pounds be as- 
sessed for exigence expenses of the town. 
At freemen's meeting, 1792, Daniel Cahoon, 
Jr., was elected the first representative of 
the town. 

Prior to 1792 all taxes and assessments 
for highways and other purposes were by 
common consent and voluntary subscription, 
and enforced by self-will and patriotic pur- 
pose. The first grand list was made this 
year, composed of 30 persons, and the total 
of each item and the amount of the whole 
was as follows: polls 28; 26 acres of land, 
22 oxen, 22 cows, 6 3 ji-ears old cattle, 7 2 
years old cattle, 2 yearlings and 11 horses — 
amount £359, equal to $1,196.66. Of those 
who composed that list, William Fisher, the 
last survivor, died in town, June 30, 1861, 
aged 96 years o months. The family name 
of only six of the number remains in town ; 
Cahoon ; Easterbrook (there- were in the list 
two of this name — Benjamin and Caleb), 
three Fishers, Jeremiah, William and James ; 
and two McGaiFeys, John and Andrew ; Jo- 
nas Sprague, and Zebina Wilder. 

1793, at March meeting, Daniel Cahoon 
was re-elected town clerk, and Daniel Ca- 
hoon, Daniel Reniff and Nehemiah Tucker 
wore elected selectmen and listers ; and An- 
drew McGaffey, constable. In the early 
period of the settlement milling and market- 
ing had to be done at Barnet, over 20 miles, 
and at Newbury, about 35 miles distant, on 

almost impassible roads, as best they could ; 
Col. Wallace of Newbury, was the wholesale 
commissariat of Northern Vermont ; at a 
later period they obtained ample supplies at 
Barnet, and still later at St. Johnsbury, 
Their luxuries, though few, were with a keen 
relish enjoyed with each other. In a brief 
period the patron of the enterprise, Daniel 
Cahoon, Jr., nurtured under milder skies 
and kindlier influences, not having a consti- 
tution of sufficient power and vigor to keep 
up with his mental and bodily exertions, 
became prostrate with that insidious and 
flattering but fatal disease, the consumption, 
long ere the meridian of life ; but to the last 
he sought the faithful performance of all 
trusts, and the best good of the infant plant- 
ation. He had rendered himself useful in 
other settlements, as St. Johnsbury, Billy- 
mead, now Sutton, and Barton, presiding at 
Barton at its organization. To the great sor- 
row of his friends and neighbors, it remained 
for him to fill up with his death the notable 
coincidences of his relationship to the history 
of Lyndon, that he was its first settler, first 
town clerk of the first board of selectmen 
and listers, the first justice of the peace, the 
first representative, and holding all these offi- 
ces at the time of his death, finally to be the 
first person who died in town, which occurred 
June 11th, 1793, aged 26 years 4 months. 
His son, Benjamin P. Cahoon, then nearly 
2 years of age, was the second male child 
born in town, Lyndon Hines being the first, 
and Lydia Wilder being the first female born 
in town. B. P. Cahoon removed from Lyn- 
don in 1817, and in the year 1861, died at 
Kenosha, Wisconsin, a noted gardener. It 
remained for a younger brother, William 
Cahoon, then 19 years of age, who had come 
to the rescue, to take the helm of affairs 
and go ahead, which he did, from that 
time forth, successfully to the close of his 
life. May 30th, 1833. During that period he 
had the pleasure of seeing the town become 
thickly populated, and supplied with all 



needful julvnutagcs for home comfort and 
for common school and academic education 
and religious worship, with a competency of 
property, himself having sustained meekly 
all the offices of honor, profit and trust in 
town, county, and state, which he could de- 
sire, and the last four years of his life re- 
presented the state in the congress of the 
United States. 

In May, 1793, Daniel Cahoon, Sen., one 
of the locating committee and a charter 
grantee of the township, moved his family 
into town, occupying a portion of the log 
house erected by his son in 1788, which had 
been essentially enlarged and otherwise im- 
proved for comfort. He was the only one 
of the original proprietors who settled in 
town. His transition from the wharves and 
storehouses of the importing merchant, and 
the councils of the city, and the counting 
room of the forge and furnace, in which he 
had spent the vigor of his manhood, to this 
backwoods settlement, was very great; but 
such as the devastations of the war of the 
Revolution occasioned to him as to many 
others. He did not possess physical strength 
sufficient to endure the rugged labor of the 
farmer, but he had the mental ability and 
ready tact to render himself very useful in 
Irhe management of the financial and pru- 
dential affairs of the community, and on the 
death of his son Daniel, he was immediately 
chosen to fill the town offices thus made 
vacant, and performing their duties accept- 
ably, he was re-elected thereto many years ; 
having been town representative 8 years, 
selectman 11, and town clerk 15 in succes- 
sion, to which offices his son AVilliam suc- 
ceeded on his retirement, and held the lat- 
ter office 21 years in succession, resigning 
it in 1829, on being elected to congress. In 
1808, when Daniel Cahoon retired from the 
office, he received high commendation from a 
special committee appointed to report in the 
premises, and a vote of thanks from the 
town for the faithful and satisfactory man- 
ner in which he had performed the duties of 
the various town offices which he had held, 
and particularly of town clerk, which is of 
record. He died September 13th, 1811, aged 
74 years, being gored by a bull not known 
to be vicious, when passing through a barn- 
yard, and not on his guard. The concourse 
at his funeral was much the largest that had 
then ever assembled in the town on such an 
occasion, numbering eight or nine hundred, 
and many fiom other towns. 

In 1793, 43 were listed, one deceased be- 
ing omitted, showing an increase during the 

year of 14, some of whom were young men 
arriving at manhood, others were from im- 
migration ; in which latter class we find 
Daniel Cahoon, Sen., Widow Cynthia Jenks, 
and her two sons, Nehemiah and Brown 
Jenks, Calvin and Jesse Doolittle, John and 
Roswell Johnson, Joel Fletcher, Ephraim 
Hubbard, Job Olney, Samuel Winslow, and 
others, active, useful citizens. The amount 
of the list was £479 personal property, 34 
oxen, 35 cows, cattle 2 years old 6, cattle 
of 1 year 10, and 8 horses, showing an in- 
crease of 32 neat cattle. John Johnson was 
the first merchant in town. In 1794, 50 
were listed. Its amount was £583, the in- 
crease in neat cattle was 8, of horses 6. 
Joel Ross, Simeon Smith, Peter Tibbets, Ben- 
jamin Bucklin, Jonathan Parks, Jonathan 
Robinson and others, moved into town. Mr. 
Robinson at an early day moved into Barton. 
During the current year from June, '93 to 
June, '94, the settlers though well prospered 
in their agricultural pursuits were sorely 
afflicted by the sickness and sudden death 
of several of their members ; first, of Daniel 
Cahoon, Jr., as already noticed, in June '93, 
and, in the same month, of a son aged 12 
years of Samuel Winslow, by a falling tree ; 
in May '94, of a daughter of Daniel Hall of 
canker-rash, aged 12 years ; on the 4th June, 
'94, of Philemon Hines, a Baptist elder 
of estimable character, by suicide — verdict 
of jury of inquest, cause insanity — and 12th 
August, of Widow Cynthia Jenks, of lock- 
jaw. Mrs. Jenks commenced the first settle- 
ment of the Corner village, occupying the 
grounds where the Fletcher buildings stand, 
now owned by E. A. Cahoon. After her 
death her log house became noted as the 
temporary residence of many a new settler 
entering town, and as the first school-house, 
being first occupied as such by Abel Carpen- 
ter, Esq., and afterwards by Dr. Abner Jones, 
who then was or subsequently became a 
Baptist preacher. This year was also nota- 
ble for the one in which they began to marry 
in the settlement, and the first transpiring 
was that of Jeremiah Washburn and Hannah 
Orcutt, June Itath. Mr. Washburn previously 
living in Lyndon, and the ceremony having 
been performed by Daniel Cahoon, Esq., it 
has been reputed to have been the first that 
occui-red in town, but the bride's father re- 
sided in Billymead (now Sutton) and the 
wedding was at her home, and the first ipar- 
riage in Lyndon was of Roswell Johnson and 
Naomi Bartlett by the same magistrate, 
Oct. 5, 1794. 

1795, at a freemen's meeting in February, 



to elect member to congress, Wm. Cahoon 
and three othei's were admitted freemen, 

■ Daniel Buck had 14 votes, and Nathaniel 
Niles 4. At March meeting, Daniel Cahoon, 
Jesse Doolittle and Nehemiah Tucker were 
elected selectmen and listers. The number 
of lists were 65, and the amount of the list 
£732, or $2440, an increase of nearly $500, 
arising from immigration, internal improve- 
ments, and increase of cattle and horses, of 
the former 36 and the latter 10. Joel and 
Wait Bemiss, John and Josiah Brown, Caleb 
Parker, Wm. Ruggles and Ziba Tute, all good 
citizens, moved into town this year, and others 
also. Some of the notable occurrences of 
the year, were the building of the first 
framed house by Nathaniel Jenks, Esq., a 
scientific and practical surveyor who about 
■ this time moved into town, and a Mr. Arnold 
put up some imperfect mills on the site now 
occupied by Mr. Kimball's planing mill, on 
the branch near the Coi'ner, with a view 
to acquire the mill right, but the town not 
accepting them, voted said mill right to 
William Cahoon, if he would build thereon 
suitable mills, which he did to acceptance. 

• Mr. Ziba Tute, who some years after removed 
to AVindsor, was a man stout and athletic, 
and of noble daring, as is shown by an occur- 
rence at the burning of the Tontine building 
at Windsor. The building had many occu- 
* pants, merchants and others ; when the fire 
■was raging and no hopes of saving the build- 
ing, it was told that in one of the rooms, 
in an upper story there was a quantity of 
powder stored, which if not removed would 
soon explode and imperil the lives of many, 
and spread the fire. The avenues to the 
powder were all closed except by a long lad- 
der — Mr. Tute had no personal interest in 
the matter, but seeing others unwilling to 
run the risk, dashed forward and promptly 
ascended the ladder, opened the window and 
entered the almost suffocating room, seized 
the powder cask with its hoops on fire, clutch- 
ed it under his arm, and descended the lad- 
der with it but little singed, extinguished its 
burning hoops, and put it in a safe deposit- 
ory, much to his own comfort, and the great 
joy of all others. 
In 1796 Wm. W. McGaffey was elected se- 
^, lectman and lister in lieu of Mr. Doolittle. 
The lists were 73, neat cattle, 209, an increase 
of 74 ; amount of list, £1054.15 or $3515.83 ; 
and Abel Carpenter, Esq., Capt. Elias Be- 
miss, SI Smith Matthewson, Gains Peck, Ely 
Dickerman, Jose^ Harris, Peleg Hix and 
others came to reside in town. Esquire 
Carpenter, as he was familiarly called, or 

captain in reference to his military proclivi- 
ties, was a lieutenant and commissary in the 
Rhode Island line in the army of the Revolu- 
tion, carrying in his person, as an evidence 
of his valor, one of the enemy's bullets re- 
ceived in battle, for which he received im- 
mediately an invalid pension of small 
amount, and afterwards a more munificent 
pension under the general pension laws, com- 
mensurate with his official position- in the 
army ; which were in this case meritoriously 
bestowed, as he was a brave man and good 
ofiicer. He used facetiously to call his invalid 
pension his short staff and his Revolutionary 
pension his long staff, saying that Uncle Sam 
made better provision for him when old than 
when he was young ; he was thankful for 
what he could get. It so occurred that he 
did not, when living, receive the pension that 
he should as commissary. By a new con- 
struction of the law his children obtained it 
after his decease. At the time he moved into 
Lyndon he possessed a good practical busi- 
ness education, acquired in part by his official 
services in the army, and having an aptitude 
to turn the same to account, and also to im- 
part it to others, he soon became the first 
school master in town, and a principal officer 
to manage the town affairs for some 20 years, 
in various capacities. Capt. Bemiss was also 
a prominent man, as also his sons, two of 
whom, Elias and Welcome, were state sena- 
tors. A military company was organized 
this year of about 50 persons, and soon in- 
creased to 76. 

In 1797, Daniel Cahoon, Nathaniel Jenks 
and Abel Carpenter were elected selectmen 
and listers. They were also the principal 
trial justices for several years ; and integrity 
of purpose seems to have characterized the 
courts of that day, for an early lawyer is 
reported to have said of the first, that if he 
had a bad cause, he would be the last man 
in the world he would have try it, but if he 
had a good one, the very first. The same 
might have been said of the others. Mr. 
Cahoon was the favorite justice in the court 
of matrimony, usually receiving his fees, if 
paid at all, in the currency of the times — 
"change of works" with the swain in his 
peculiar vocation or calling, the contrast 
sometimes rendering it amusing. There 
were 75 lists, amounting to $4374.50, ex- 
ceeding the list of last year $858.67. Neat 
cattle, 229, and 31 horses. Timothy Ide, 
two families of Houghtons, two of Evans 
and two of Norris, Caleb Parker and three 
or four other families moved into town. In 
1798, the same were elected selectmen and 



listers. There were 85 lists, 264 neat cattle 
and 43 horses — increase of neat cattle, 35; 
of horses, 12. Total lists, $5120; increase 
of tlie year, $751.50. The town this year 
had quite an ingress of valuable citizens, 
of whom were Leonard and Henry Wat- 
son, Eben Peck 1st. Levi Lockling, Jacob 
Houghton, Elijah Ross, Zerah Evans, Jude 
Kimball, John Woodiui\n, Nathan Parker, 
Benjamin Walker, and Nathan Hubbard. 
Mr. Woodman was father of the Rev. Jona- 
than AVoodmau, a popular Freewill Baptist 

In 1799, selectmen and listers same as the 
three years preceding. The lists were 100 ; 
neat cattle, 336, and horses, 63 — increase of 
neat cattle, 72 ; of horses, 32. Total list, 
$6669.25 ; increase, $1543.25. A number 
of good citizens moved into town this year, 
of whom were Isaiah Fisk, the father of the 
Rev. Dr. Wilbur Fisk, late president of the 
Wesleyan University at Middletown, Conn., 
who, at that time being six or seven years 
old, came with the family, and remained 
here until he commenced his academic edu- 
cation, some ten or more years afterwards ; 
also the Hofifmans, the Sheldons, the Win- 
sors, Bacons ; Dr. Abner Jones, who was 
also a preacher ; Eleazer Peck and Josiah 
Gates, whose daughters, Elizabeth, Lucy and 
Sally, became the good wives of Elijah Ross, 
Eliphas Graves and David McGaifey ; Mrs. 
Lucy Graves marrying Capt. Elias Bemiss 
for her second husband and his second wife. 
Mr. Job Sheldon, though he resided in town 
but a short time, left behind him the lasting 
remembrance of the generosity of the sailor, 
by his donation to the town of ten acres of 
valuable land, near its centre, for a public 
cemetery and common. 

In 1800, Daniel Cahoon, William Winsor 
and Isaiah Fisk were elected selectmen and 
listers. There were 110 lists, 347 neat cattle, 
and 77 horses — increase, 11 cattle and 14 
horses. Amount of list, $7186.50 — increase, 
$517.25. The town received a good recruit 
of new settlers this year, of whom Avere the 
Blys, Browns, Wilmarths, Alphs. Fletcher, 
Field; John Gates the miller; Haskell the 
clothier, the Scotts, Ripley, and others. There 
is incorporated into the town records of this 
year the formation of a religious society for 
the purpose of settling a minister, and a vote 
of the town of 100 acres of the minister's 
settlement right to any acceptable preacher 
who would settle in town, and of said so- 
ciety's tendering such settlement to Elder 
Stephen Place, understood to have been a 
Baptist, who did not accept the offer. 

In 1801, Daniel Cahoon, Nathaniel Jenks 
and Isaiah Fisk were selectmen and listers. 
The number of lists were 133; there being 
439 neat cattle, and 103 horses and colts — 
whole amount, $8608. Of those who moved 
into town this year, were James Ayer, Joel 
Bemiss, Abel Brown, Oliver Chaffee, Ira 
Evans, Wm. Houghton the tanner, Samuel 
Park, Job Randall, Abraham Smith, James 
Shearman and Aaron Walker. Mr. Randall 
and Mr. Smith have both represented the 
town and held various offices. Mr. Randall 
still lives, in a vigorous old age. much re- 
spected, and is probably now the oldest per- 
son living in town. Mr. Shearman obtained 
a celebrity for good horses. 

In 1802, ten years from taking the first 
grand list, Daniel Cahoon, AVm. Winsor and 
Isaiah Fisk were the selectmen, and William 
Cahoon, Abraham Smith and Nehemiah Jenks, 
listers. The lists were 147 ; neat cattle, 450; 
horses, 75; and sheep, 420; amounting, in- 
clusive of the yaluation of improved real 
estate — as is to be considered in all the 
lists — to $9118.75; thus giving the progress 
of events in town for the first decenary 
after its organization, its gradual increase 
and means, and the basis of its taxation. 
At this period, the settlement had got under 
good headway, and, owing to the uniform 
goodness of the soil, and the charter pro- 
vision that settlements should be made on 
each right, to prevent forfeiture, "as soon 
as safety would allow after the war," 50 
acres being accorded by common consent to 
such settler; and being thus obtained scot 
free, the settlements became very general 
and nearly simultaneous on each right ; 
roads were opened to every section of the 
town, encouraging others to follow, which 
they did rapidly; so that soon the town be- 
came populous. Like gregarious animals, 
the early settlers were a little clannish — 
grouping together in clusters coming from 
the same locality, state, or territory, so far 
as circumstances would allow, which phase 
is not entirely obliterated; but many of the 
old landmarks are removed by time, and a 
denser population succeeding, with the amal- 
gamation of the second and third generations 
by marriage, it is less noticeable. 

It may well be believed that the old folks 
were a merry set of jokers by the nick-names 
they gave the different localities in town in 
its early settlement, as Pudding Hill, 
Squabble Hollow, Mount Hunger, Hard 
Scrabble, Hog Street, Shanticut, Musquito 
District, the Whale's Back, Owlsboro', Egypt, 
and Pleasant Street, from being the residence 



of some fair ladies ; and most of these names 
are yet familiarly known, but not confessed 
to be truthfully descriptive of the present 
condition of those localities. A good degree 
of shrewdness characterized the inhabitants, 
and being frugal and industrious, they made 
themselves comfortable with what they had 
and could acquire, and happy in the antici- 
pation of possessing a competency for ordi- 
nary gratification, and obtaining an addi- 
tional store for the evening of life, and if 
they have not succeeded to their utmost 
wishes, it should not be attributed to want 
of calculation and forethought, so much as 
to unforeseen events. 

About this time the town canvassed the 
matter of putting up a building to answer 
the double purpose of a town hall and meet- 
ing house, and fixed its location at the Cen- 
tre, but deferred the enterprise. It was 
finally erected in 1809, but the expense ex- 
ceeding the estimate after an expenditure by 
the town in its corporate character of over 
$1000, it was left unfinished, and occupied 
with temporary seats and desks for several 
years, being finally completed by the sale of 
pews, to be occupied by the diiferent denomi- 
nations in proportion to ownership, reserving 
to the town its use for town meetings. But 
other appropriate churches, needful for wor- 
ship having been built, the old house by com- 
mon consent, was yielded up to the town, and 
the same has recently been remodeled and 
renovated exclusively for a town hall. 

In 1812, by the concurrent votes of the 
town, and a religious society associated for 
the purpose, Elder Phinehas Peck, a Method- 
ist minister who had preached in town some 
years before, was permanently settled as the 
first minister of the town, and in considera- 
tion thereof the selectmen, by vote of the 
town, conveyed to him a lot of land, being 
a third of the right reserved for minister's 
settlement. Mr. Peck continued to ofl[iciate 
as such until a|30ut 1819, acceptably and 
with good success ; when his health failing, 
he ceased from his labors here, and his 
charge in 1820 was supplied, in the person 
of the Rev. Daniel Fillmore, a very talented 
man and able preacher of the Methodist 
itinerant ministry, and has ever since been 
cared for in the same manner, the last 2 
years by the Rev. Lewis Hill, and the present 
by the Rev. P. M. Granger. The Methodists 
built a new chapel in the Corner village in 
1840, with a small basement vestry, and in 
1855 or 6, the house was renovated, the vestry 
enlarged to the size of the house, with an 
ante-room and stair-way from the basement. 

and the whole new painted and papered. 
Since that period the Congregational Meeting 
House, which was built in 1826-7, at the 
Corner, has been new modeled and thorough- 
ly fitted up inside and out. In 1848 the 
Freewill Baptists, built a neat church at the 
Centre. The Universalists built another of 
the same dimensions soon after. The last 
is noticeable for its singular vane — an angel 
in the act of blowing his trumpet. The 
academy was built in 1831, and was incorpo- 
rated that year by the name of " Caledonia 
County Grammar School at Lyndon," and 
subsequently endowed by an act of the Gene- 
ral Assembly of the state with a portion of 
the Grammar School lands lying in the 
county of Caledonia reserved by the charters 
of the towns for the use of county grammar 
schools within, and throughout the state, and 
to be under the control of said General As- 
sembly for ever, "subject to the opinion of 
the Supreme Court as to the validity of said 
act against an act establishing a County 
Grammar School at Peacham," which decis- 
ion was that said lands were irrevocably 
granted to the Peacham corporation, and that 
the corporation of the Lyndon School could 
take nothing by their grant, which decision, 
in view of the charter reservations, and the 
evident intent of the legislature making 
those reservations, and the spirit of the go- 
vernment itself to confer equal privileges on 
all, was never relished as good law by the 
Lyndonenses, compelling them individually 
to raise funds which they believed should 
emanate from another source. Henry 
Chase, Esq., a graduate of Yale College, and 
his sister. Miss Ada Chase, a lady highly 
educated, and a graduate of Mount Holyoke 
Seminary, are present principals and worthy 
of good patronage. The churches and aca- 
demy have each a cupola, and all have good 
bells, excepting the Universalist. The reli- 
gious community who keep up public wor- 
ship are divided into four congregations, two 
at the Corner, the Methodist and Congre- 
gationalists, and two at the Centre, the 
Freewill Baptists and the Universalists. 
Each is well attended. The Methodists when 
they held their meetings for worship at the 
Centre were much the most numerous, and 
are probably so now, but many of their 
members were discommoded by the erection 
of the new chapel at the Corner, one and a 
half miles further from them, and have since 
attended other meetings at the Centre, gene- 
rally the Freewill Baptist, whereby their 
numbers were considerably increased, the 
congregation formerly j worshiping at the 



north part of the town gathered by Elder 
Quimby having also united with it. Its desk 
has been supplied by very worthy preach- 
ers, Elders Quimby, Moult on, Woodman, 
Jackson, Smith, and the present incumbent, 
the Ilev. M. C. Henderson. The Congrega- 
tionalists have usually been supplied by able 
preachers, the Revs. Messrs. Tenny, Scales, 
Thayer, Greenleaf and Hale, are of the num- 
ber. And the Universalists by their best, 
the Rev. Messrs. Taboi-, Scott and others. 
There are some Calvinistic Baptists in town, 
and others who would prefer the Episcopal 
church service, but neither sufficiently nume- 
rous to maintain the public worship of the 
order. The writer docs not possess the pre- 
sent statistical numbers of any of the de- 
nominations, having expected that they 
■would be furnished from another source. 

In 1802, '03, '04, '05, the Graves, Ma- 
thewsons, Roots and AVilliams, and other 
farmers; and the brothers Nathaniel and 
Samuel B. Goodhue, lawyers; and Doctors 
Hubbard Field and Olney Fuller; and the 
Cushings, house joiners, cabinet and chair 
makers, settled in the town ; and from that 
period to 1810, Charles F. H. Goodhue, 
Bela Shaw, Jr., Asa S. and Alanson and 
George B. Shaw, brothers; and Benjamin 
F. and R^euben H. Deming, his brother; at a 
later period all the last engaged in merchan- 
dise in stores of Chandler, Bigelow & Co. at 
Lyndon and elsewhere, and of Daniel Cham- 
berlin & Co. and Chamberlin & Deming. 
Alpheus Houghton and his brother Elijah, 
farmers, with their families, and the Emerys 
and Bundys, also farmers; Major Elias 
Clark, Jr., saddler ; Samuel Hoyt, 1st, farmer, 
soon after his brother Dr. Moses Hoyt; Dr. 
Meigs, Jolin M. Foster, attorney ; Ephraim 
Chamberlin, Esq., innkeeper, and after- 
-ivards mill owner ; James Knapp, mill wright ; 
Josiah Rawson, and afterwards his brother 
Dr. Simeon Rawson. In 1811, Isaac Fletch- 
er, an educated man and well read lawyer, 
came in town, and soon after William and 
Joseph and their father Ichabod Ide; Daniel 
Bowker, cabinet maker, now the oldest re- 
sident at the Corner ; Warren Parker, cloth- 
ier ; Jonathan and Nehemiah Weeks, tanners 
and shoemakers ; Richard and Nathan Stone, 
saddlers; Abel Edgell, Bela Shaw, Senr., 
and Charles Stone, farmers ; Richard and 
Charles Stone, brothers, were both after- 
wards deacons ; and not far from the same 
time, Josiah C. and Samuel A. Willard, bro- 
thers, who came into the country at an early 
day with their mother and grandfather, 
Daniel Cahoon, Sen., but resided part of the 

time in Sutton and Burke and elsewhere, 
became permanently settled in Lyndon. Mr. 
B. F. Deming went to Danville to fill official 
positions of which we shall speak elsewhere. 
Mr. R. H. Deming after quitting trade be- 
came a Methodist preacher, and removed to 
Wisconsin, and has officiated as county and 
city clerk at Kenosha; Mr. Bela Shaw, Jr., 
removed west, and at Rockford, Illinois, 
held the office of judge of probate several 
years. About the year 1816, '17, quite a 
colony of good citizens came to Lyndon as 
settlers, from Sandwich, N. H., and its vi- 
cinity, headed by three brothers. Major .\a- 
ron and Elders Joseph and Daniel Quimby, 
with their large families. They were of the 
Freewill Baptist denomination of Christians, 
the major devoting himself to farming, and 
the elders dividing their time between secu- 
lar and ecclesiastic pursuits, as they ap- 
peared to have a call in either vocation; 
never being idle, but always actively and 
usefully employed. They drew in their 
train the Gilmans, Prescotts, Rices and Ran- 
dalls, and others, with their families. Elder 
Joseph left the town after a few years, yet it 
can hardly be believed to return to Sand- 
wich for agricultural purposes, for the com- 
parison between Lj^ndon and Sandwich, both 
for ease of culture and the amount of pro- 
duct, must have been greatly in favor of 
Lyndon. After his departure. Elder Daniel 
doubled his diligence, and mostly at his own 
expense built a meeting house near the cen- 
tre of that settlement, and not far from his 
own house in the north part of the town, and 
succeeded in collecting a large church, which 
continuing to w'orship there until 1840, 
when the Methodists having vacated the 
meeting house at Lyndon Centre, and some 
of the Freewill denomination residing in 
that vicinity, it was deemed good church 
tactics to remove their place of worship to 
the Centre, which was done, consolidating 
the different memberships in one communion 
at that place; by so doing, they had the ac- 
cession of the Methodists in that locality 
disaflFected by the building of their new 
chapel at the Corner. Their congregation 
being very much enlarged, the effect w'as to 
raise the standard of their meetings by call- 
ing into their pulpit their best preachers 
before named, and occasioned the demand 
for a better house of worship, which Avas 
built in 1848. There was no better man than 
Elder Quimby, but his severe secular labors 
would not allow him as a preacher to equal 
his worthy brothers in the ministry, who de- 
voted themselves exclusively to the gospel. 



The descendants of the early settlers ar- 
riving at maturity, nurtured in the school of 
industry and economy, became important 
members of the community. Since that 
period others have come from abroad, Avho, 
from their business capabilities or profes- 
sional skill, have filled large spaces in public 
estimation, of whom are Gen. E. B.^ Chase 
and Halsey Riley, merchants at an early 
period. Philip Goss, Esq., and Doctors 
Phineas Spalding, Freedom Dinsmore, and 
Abel Underwood, Nicholas Baylies, Thomas 
Bartlett, Jr., Moses Chase, Henry S. Bartlett, 
and Samuel B. Mattocks, lawyers by profes- 
sion, but not all in practice ; and subse- 
quently Doctors Hoyt, Carpentei^ Sanborn, 
Darling, Mattocks, Newell, Denison, Blan- 
chard, Scott and Stevens ; Doctors Gaboon 
and Houghton of the town helping to fill 
the ranks — as a class distinguished for high 
professional attainments — and more recent- 
ly Jonathan W. Colby and Wm. H. McGaifey, 
merchants ; L. R. Brown, goldsmith ; J. N. 
Bartlett, silver plater; G. T. Spencer, mar- 
ble engraver; Hill, Howe, Baker, Welton 
& Currier, harness makers and carriage 
trimmers ; E. Underwood, merchant tailor ; 
and the Millers, carriage makers ; there are 
two establishments, one. Miller & Trull, very 
extensive ; the other, C. C. Miller & Co. — 
both do excellent work, in good times em- 
ploying about 30 men. The Weeks, Quim- 
bys, and W. H. McGaffey, merchants, and 
the Cahoons, lawyers and physicians, were 
descendants of the early settlers ; and in all 
parts of the town there are those equally 
meritorious in their places, as Messrs. Bige- 
low. Baker, Pearl, Folsom, Thompson, In- 
galls, Cunningham, Chaffee, Knapp, Fletch- 
er, Sanborn, Spalding and Wakefield, but 
where all are equal it is impossible to dis- 
criminate, and we have no space to enroll 
all. The mass of the population are thrifty, 
well-to-do farmers, with a proper sprinkling 
of mechanics and professional men to incul- 
cate good principles, keep good order and 
assuage and alleviate pain and sickness. 

Of the selectmen, listers and other town 
officers, since the time specifically given, our 
limits will not allow the detail ; all were com- 
petent to perform those duties, but the ex- 
perienced could do so with greater ease, hence 
the old gentlemen, Daniel Gaboon, William 
Winsor and Abraham Smith were held in the 
service a few years longer ; and then Judge 
Fisk, Gen. William Gaboon and Abel Carpen- 
ter, Esq., succeeded them in those offices 
very many years, some of them till 1827. 
Alplieus Houghton, Job Randall, Elias Re- 

miss, Samuel A. Willard, Samuel W. Win- 
sor, William Way, Benjamin F. Deming, 
Josiah C. Willard, Bela Shaw, Jr., Halsey 
Riley and Jerry Dickerman participating as 
selectmen, or listers, and the last five princi- 
pally in the latter office, for a period of some 
20 years. Since then there has been more 
change, either on the principle of rotation in 
office, or taking turns in doing the drudgery 
of it. New comers and younger men, as the 
Bemisses, Bigelow, Baker, Chase, Cham- 
berlain, Cunningham, Chaffees, Evanses, 
Fletchers, Folsom, Goss, Graves, the Hough- 
tons, Hoyts, Ingalls, Ide, McKoy, McGaff'eys, 
Parks, Pearl, Pierce, Pike, Prescott, Powers, 
C. Randall, Ray, Sanborns, Spauldings, 
Thompsons and Weeks, with some others, 
alternately being the ins and outs of said 
offices most of the time since — all, from first 
to last, tinctured with the infallibility of town 
rights and town prerogatives as against an in- 
dividual. And the longer retained in office, 
the more tenacious, apparently on the prin- 
ciple of regal government that "the king 
can do no wrong," the officer acting in the 
representative character, embodying himself 
in the corporation, arrogates for it all he 
could desire it to have. We suspect that 
these sentiments are not confined to town cor- 
porations, but pervade much larger com- 
munities, though justice requires the admis- 
sion that this arises, probably, from an over 
anxiety to faithfully perform their official 
duties, making individual rights subservient 
to the public good. We are apt to flatter 
ourselves that we possess greater merits and 
virtue than our neighbors, and may consider 
ourselves exemplary and praiseworthy in 
many particulars, for good qualities and good 
acts incident to all, yet in two things, if 
the Lyndonenses do not excel, they at least 
are commendable for their well doing, the 
one is for their care for the poor, the other 
their liberal expenditures, both publicly and 
individually, for the support of education, 
fostering public and private schools. For 
many years furnishing a throng of students 
to academies abroad, they have since, by 
private munificence, erected an academy at 
home, supplied it with a good apparatus, and 
then without funds, sustained it. Before this 
several had fitted for and completed their 
college course. Several have since fitted here 
and elsewhere, and received degrees at col- 
lege, at a much less expense in preparing 
than formerly, and it is a noticeable fact that 
many more young men in this town than 
in any other town in the county or this 
section of the state, with perhaps the ex- 



ception of Pcacham, have obtained liberal 
educations, and many others, not graduates, 
•with finished academic and professional 
educations, have gone forth to do honor to 
themselves and their country in their appro- 
priate spheres. The late 

Rev. Wilbur Fisk, D D., 
the eloquent divine, and learned president of 
Wesleyan University at Middletown, Conn., 
a model of Christian excellence and purity, 
stands at the head of the list of Lyndon 
graduates in 1815 of Brown University. He 
was son of the Hon. Isaiah Fisk of this town, 
was born August 31, 1792, at Brattleboro, 
fitted for college at Peacham, and first en- 
tered college at Burlington ; but that institu- 
tion being suspended by the war, he trans- 
ferred his relationship to that at Providence, 
R. I., where he graduated with distinguished 
honor. He entered the law office of the late 
Hon. Isaac Fletcher, and grasped the ele- 
mentary principles with avidity, but the 
practice did not harmonize with his views 
of Christian duty and inclination, and after 
a year or two, a portion of which was spent 
in Maryland as tutor in a gentleman's family, 
he yielded to his sense of duty and became 
an itinerant Methodist minister in 1818. 
This as some would think it, was not placing 
his light under a bushel, but where his talents 
like a luminous body became resplendent and 
shone all around. As is usual in the con- 
ference, as the representative body of the 
denomination is called, he was stationed here 
and there, where his experience and talents 
would seem to indicate, and to some places 
where his innate modesty and infirm health 
would make him, in anticipation, quail, but 
where the reality fully justified the appoint- 
ment ; he never failed to be most accepta- 
bly received wherever he went, and there 
were probably but few, if any, his superiors 
in his order. He Avas soon appointed prin- 
cipal of the institution at Wilbraham, at 
Avhich place he labored hard and successfully, 
and was .appointed a bishop, which he de- 
clined, and afterwards first president of the 
AVesleyan University which he accepted, hav- 
ing presided over the institution at Wilbra- 
ham 5 years, being elected to the last oflice 
in 1830, 15 years and 4 months after gradu- 
ating ; over this new institution, in its com- 
mencement laboring under many difficulties, 
and the greatest the want of funds, he pre- 
sided with distinguished ability the remainder 
of his life, about 9 years, dying the 22d of 
February, 1839. During the term of his 
presidency, for the double purpose of solicit- 

ing aid for the university, and promoting his 
health and also enriching his mind, he visited 
Europe, or to use the phrase of his biographer, 
Prof. Holdich, "at the meeting of the joint 
board of the Wesleyan University it was re- 
solved to give the president a commission to 
Europe for the two-fold purpose of benefiting 
his health and advancing the interests of the 
institution, particularly having in view, for 
the university, additioMs to its philosophical 
apparatus and library. On the 4th Septem- 
ber, 1835, Rev. Dr. Wayland, president of 
Brown's University, officially communicated 
to the Rev. Mr. Fisk that the board of fellows 
of Brown's University had conferred on him 
unanimously the degree of doctor of divinity. 
This was very acceptable from his alma mater 
on the eve of his departure for the tour of 
the east, which occurred on the 8th day of 
September, 1835. His wife and a Mr. Lane, 
afterwards professor in the university, ac- 
companied him ; they were absent over a 
year, making an interesting and profitable 
tour to the most important cities and places 
of Europe, including England, France, Italy, 
Ireland and Scotland, and returning in No- 
vember, 1836, invigorated with health and 
well laden Avith very valuable donations as 
desired for the university. All were well 
satisfied with the result of his mission. 
During his absence, the maxim, Out of sight, 
out of mind, was not true in regard to him, 
for the general conference elected him to the 
office of a bishop, his former election to that 
office being in 1829, by the Canada confer- 
ence. He declined this also, considering his 
duties to the university paramount, prefer- 
ring duty to honor, and also disregarding 
great offers of wealth if he would accept that 
office, and continued to do his whole duty to 
the university as long as health would admit, 
and it continued to increase in popularity 
and numbers under his administration. His 
incidents of travel in Europe, published by 
request, is an interesting work ; he published 
other works of interest, some were election 
sermons, and upon other occasions, and some 
dissertations on matters of ecclesiastical 
polity, all well worthy of perusal. In placing 
the name of Fisk at the head of the list of 
Lyndon graduates, I have made a biographical 
digression unintended in this place, yet per- 
haps more appropriate with his friends than 
if placed elsewhere alone as intended in some 
niche of our sketch, as we should deem it 
imperfect -without him ; for we think or speak 
of him but to admire and venerate. His last 
sickness was of pulmonary complaints, which 
troubled him through life, and it is said were 



m the last stages extremely painful, yet 
borne with great fortitude and meekness. 
He died as the good man dieth, aged 47^ years 

George B. Shaw, Esq., 
Was the next on the list graduated at the 
University of Vermont in 1819, aged about 
19 years, and was immediately appointed 
tutor in the university. He subsequently 
studied law in the offices of Messrs. Gris- 
wold and Follett of Burlington, and of Hon. 
I. Fletcher of Lyndon ; was admitted to the 
bar in 1822, opened an office at Danville, 
and received a generous patronage of the 
business done there, which was not great, 
acquitting himself, handsomely in its per- 
formance. By the influence of his father- 
in-law, Hon. Wm. A. Griswold, who formerly 
resided in Danville, he was induced to move 
to Burlington in 1823, where he remained 
some two years, and then returned to Dan- 
ville; afterwards, when Lowell, Mass., broke 
like a meteor on the horizon, he removed 
there, and, after remaining a year or two, 
removed to Ottawa, Canada, and remained 
several years, and then returned to Burling- 
ton, which he made his permanent residence 
for life. When young, Mr. Shaw was re- 
markably precocious, possessing maturity far 
beyond his years ; and in early manhood was 
characterized by the same trait, coming for- 
ward as the learned scholar and accomplished 
gentleman much earlier than his youthful as- 
sociates. He was an elegant penman, a good 
accountant and a ready debater ; of uncom- 
mon suavity of manners, he could render 
himself, with ease, the centre of any social 
circle in which he mingled. The young and 
the old alike regarded him as a shining orna- 
ment of society. After his return to Bur- 
lington he became absorbed in other matters 
than his professional pursuits, in part rela- 
tive to the estate of Mr. Bigelow, father of 
his second wife (the first having died young, 
when at Danville). And at this time, while 
residing at Burlington, he was elected by the 
general assembly, several years in succes- 
sion, reporter of the decisions of the Supreme 
Court ; and afterwards his partner, William 
Weston, Esq., received the same appointment 
several years. Previously to this, during the 
administration of Governor Crafts, Mr. Shaw 
held the office of secretary to the governor 
and council, combining the present offices of 
secretary of the senate and secretary of civil 
and military affairs ; both offices of secre- 
tary and reporter were very efficiently and 
acceptably filled by him. His son, Wm. G. 
Shaw, Esq., has since, under Gov. Fletcher, 

held the office of secretary of civil and mili- 
tary afi"airs, and has for a number of years 
been supreme court reporter, and now holds 
the office. The father died in 1853, of 

George C. Cahoon 
Graduated at the University of Vermont in 
1820, and his name is under the head of the 
practicing lawyers in town. 

Rev. John Q. A. Edgell 
Graduated at the same institution, and was 
settled in Massachusetts as a Congregational 
clergyman, possessing good talents and a 
genial disposition, and presumed to be an 
ornament of his profession, and is supposed 
to be still living. 

Rev. James L. Kimball, 
Of the same order, graduated at Dartmouth 
College about the year 1823 or '24, and 
having studied divinity, Avas ordained, and 
enjoyed bright prospects of eminence and 
future usefulness, when the destroying angel 
entered the abode of his father, Jude Kim- 
ball, Esq., with the flattering but insidious 
disease of consumption, and first took a 
beautiful and accomplished sister, Mary, in 
1826, and in quick succession, an elder 
brother, Benjamin, and himself. And the 
flowers of youth were faded, and the early 
hopes of parents and friends blighted. 

Edwakd a. Cahoon 
Also graduated at the University of Vermont 
in 1838, and is in the list of Lyndon lawyers. 

Feederick H. Stone 
Graduated at Hanover, and is settled in 

William W. Cahoon 
Graduated at Dartmouth in 1845, and at the 
Medical College at Woodstock in 1848, and 
subsequently at a medical college in New 
York, where he was afterwards connected 
with the institution, under Doctor Mott, as 
assistant physician, where he made good 
progress in science and made himself useful 
about a year, when he contracted a pesti- 
lential disease and died. None had better 
abilities and higher aspirations for excel- 
lence and professional usefulness than he 
had. Having studied with able and skillful 
physicians and surgeons, attended the best 
lectures in the state, and received his diplo- 
ma, in pursuit of still higher attainments, he 
sought the fountain heads of the profession 
in New York, resolved to never unskillfully 
tamper with human life in the practice of 



his profession, if adequate knowledge could 
be attained, and in his laudable endeavors to 
make himself more useful by garnering from 
the purlieus of the hospital, he became a 
martyr to the cause of humanity. The fol- 
lowing tribute erected in New York city to 
"him and thirteen others, speaks for itself: 

IIsRC niea ornamenta sunt (These are my 
jewels). "Gorham Reals, William W. Ga- 
boon" and 12 others, strangers here, "stu- 
dents of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, died of pestilential disease while 
serving in the Public Hospitals of New York. 
This Tablet is erected by the Faculty that 
the memory of these Martyrs of Humanity 
may not die, and that taught by their exam- 
ple, the graduates of the College may never 
hesitate to hazard life in the performance of 
professional duty." 

The editor of the newspaper from which 
the above is taken, adds: "Many of our 
readers will remember one whose name is 
given above — W. W. Gaboon of Lyndon — 
a young man of much promise, whose sun 
went out ere it had reached the meridian." 
He was the son of the late Hon. William Ga- 
boon, and died August 31st, 1848, aged 23 
years and 6 months. He was a favorite of 
the family, and wherever known was ap- 

Charles B. Fletcher 
Was a graduate at the Catholic College, Mon- 
treal, G. E., of him we have spoken else- 
where, he makes the fifth of the honored 
dead of the Lyndon graduates. 

Hon. Charles W. Willard, 
A lawyer and editor at Montpelier, is a 
graduate at Dartmouth, belonging to Lyn- 

Henry Chase, by profession a lawyer in 
Illinois, at present principal of the Aca- 
demy at Lyndon, is a graduate of Yale Col- 
lege ; Geo. W. Cahoon, attorney at Lyndon, 
and Charles M. Chase, attorney and editor in 
Illinois, were classmates, graduating at Dart- 
mouth ; Henry S. Bartlett, now a lawyer of 
R. I., was a graduate of the same institution ; 
Messrs. George E. Ghamberlin and Henry 
Newell, should rightfully be classed as Lyn- 
don students, who have recently graduated at 
Dartmouth (but it would be characteristic of 
St. Johnsbury to claim them); Mr. George 
W. QuiMBY of Lyndon, is also another recent 
graduate at Dartmouth, and two others hold 
a student's relation to the same, Wm. Henry 
Peck and Dennis Duhigg. The other gradu- 

ates living in town, are Moses Chase, Esq., 
the Rev. William Scales, Hon. Samuel B. 
Mattocks, the last two of Middlebury ; Dr. 
Enoch Blanchard, Messrs. Chase and 
Blanchard of Dartmouth ; Messrs. Isaac 
Fletcher and Nicholas Baylies, deceased, 
also being graduates — and much is due to 
Mr. Fletcher for his influence in behalf of a 
liberal education. Others of the class are 
probably inadvertently overlooked. 

Under the head of educatipn we may ap- 
propriately include professional teaching, in 
law, medicine and divinity, for Lyndon at 
diflFerent periods, and almost constantly, has 
possessed among her citizens able tutors in 
all these sciences ; and it is within the recol- 
lection of the writer that nearly an hundred 
young men belonging to the town, or coming 
from abroad for the purpose, have received 
their professional education here, and more ' 
particularly in the professions of law and 
medicine ; many have in this and in neigh- 
boring states, become ornaments in their 
professions and valued members of society. 
Their numbers being proportioned about 20 
theologians to 80 medical and 50 law stu- 

Of residents in town, of gentlemen in these 
professions, there have been nearly 50 cler- 
gymen settled acording to their order : 30 
Methodists, one settled by the town and 
preaching 8 or 10 years, the others stationed 
annually by Conference, and most of them 
continued 2 years each, of whom are dead, 
Messrs. P. Peck, Fillmore, Fisk, Cahoon, 
Dow, Perkins and Mann ; 8 or 10 Freewill 
Baptists, one, elder Quimby, dead ;* and 
nearly the same number of Congregation- 
alists, though not more than 6 technically 
settled permanently ; some others preaching 
for a limited time on probation or otherwise, 
one, Mr. Kimball, dead,* particularly spoken 
of elsewhere, and some 4 or 5 Universalists. 
We have elsewhere alluded to the merits of 
this worthy class of our citizens. 

There have resided in town over 20 diflfer- 
ent physicians, most of whom we have named ; 
some were eminently skilled and all of good 
repute for science as well as morals. Some 
of the most scientific and skilled still live, of 
whom it is not my purpose to make remarks 
in any department other than general, yet 
it may not be deemed invidious to name as 
such, Drs. Spaulding and Newell, who are 
neither now residents here, and Dr. Fuller, 
deceased, one of the earliest, was a very 
learned and skillful man, having visited 

* Only two died in this town. 



France to perfect his education ; Dr. Field, 
also deceased, was noted for his prudent care 
and good nursing. Since its settlement about 
25 practising lawyers and some 4 or 5 out of 
practice, have lived in town, "the kee;pers 
and doers of the law." All have had a share 
of patronage. It is lucky that they were 
not all here together, for it would have been 
dry pickings, and some might have obtained 
a bad name; but spreading them over a 
space of nearly 60 years, they all have had 
opportunities to make themselves useful. 
Some look upon the lawyer as a sort of har- 
binger of evil, but this is illiberal, his duty 
is to suppress evil ; and if governed by prin- 
ciple, he will endeavor to do it. The virtu- 
ous should not complain of him ; but the 
rogue when caught undoubtedly would, for 

"No rogue e'er felt the halter drawn, 
With good opinion of the law." 

As a class, the lawyers of Lyndon have 
compared favorably with those elsewhere, 
and their general deportment has been cour- 
teous, manly and honorable ; but we do "not 
intend to speak of the merits of the living, 
but to the dead would give a passing tri- 

Nathaniel Goodhue, 
The first of whom we have knowledge, 
coming here in 1804 or '05, was a courtly 
gentleman, and as a town lawyer, very ac- 
ceptable and efficient. As he left no record 
of his legal learning, we can not speak of it 
with certainty, not then being a correct 
judge of such matters ; but coming from 
Windham county, the old school for good 
lawyers, we infer that it was respectable. 
He returned there after a few years, and 
his brother, 

Samuel B. Goodhue, 
Took his place, but was very unlike him in 
appearance, and eccentric and erratic in his 
movements, a crusty old bachelor, who was 
reported to have been soured and shattered 
by an unfortunate amour in his youth. Like 
other eccentric bodies, he had his bright 
scintillations, but not very endui-ing. He 
appeared to be a harmless, upright and con- 
scientious man, remaining here till 1811 ; 
when last heard from he was in a lunatic 

John M. Foster 
Came next. He had been in practice else- 
where, and being naturally bright and kinky, 
he was a troublesome opponent for our 
bachelor friend, and particularly so, when 
he was a little warmed up by the spirit of the 

bar. Mr. Foster joined the army in 1812, 
and left town, probably in turn having 
been a little worried by Ihe next coming 
lawyer. We have said that "in 1811 

Isaac Fletcher, 
An educated man and a well read lawyer 
came to town ;" he was a native of Massa- 
chusetts, and a graduate of Dartmouth Col- 
lege. After receiving his diploma, he taught 
in the Academy at Chesterfield, N. H., and 
there formed an acquaintance with Miss 
Abigail Stone, his future wife, and read law 
with Mr. Vose of New Hampshire, and Judge 
White of Putney, Vt. He possessed an 
ardent temperament, with an ambition to 
equal, if not excell his competitors; prompt, 
energetic and unremitting in his efi'orts for 
his clients, he soon attained a good reputa- 
tion and an extensive and lucrative practice, 
competing successfully with the most noted 
of the bar in the state, giants of their time. 
In doing this, he overwrought both his 
bodily and mental powers, participating in 
the trial of almost every cause in the su- 
preme and county courts in Caledonia, Or- 
leans and Essex counties, and being 8 years 
in succession state's attorney of Caledonia 
county, from early morn to a late evening 
hour, while attending court, being thronged 
with clients, or pressed with business ; and 
when it was the period of repose for others, 
it came his time for genial social intercourse, 
which he greatly relished, endowed with 
kindly feelings, and greatly needing relaxa- 
tion from his severe labors. In addition to 
his ordinary labors was the care at different 
periods of some 30 students, some of these 
however lightening his burdens by assist- 
ance in writing and ordinary office business. 
He also entered the political arena, first in 
the house of representatives of the general 
assembly of the state, to which he was elect- 
ed four times, and at the last session he was 
chosen speaker of that body. He was twice 
elected member of congress, but his health 
failing him from over exertion and mental 
and bodily prostration, he could not distin- 
guish himself as he did in his profession, 
nor as his native talents and learning would 
entitle himself and friends to anticipate; 
yet when others would have been negligent, 
he was constant and faithful in his duty to the 
end of his term. His motto seemed to be, 
to do with all his might whatever he had to 
do. He acquired his military title by being 
appointed adjutant general in the staff of 
Governor Van Ness. He died in October, 
1842, the year after the close of his con- 



gressional term, literally worn out, aged 58. 
Less ambition and less labor would probably 
have saved him many years to his family, 
his friends, and the world. His only son 

Charles B. Fletcher, 
A young man of brilliant intellect, who was 
necessarily with his father most of his con- 
gressional course, and became well posted in 
matters of state, succeeded to his father's 
business in the office with Mr. Bartlett, his 
late partner, and remained at Lyndon a year 
or two, afterwards removed to Nashua, N. H., 
and then to Boston, Mass., to practice law 
with his father-in-law, Mr. Farley, a distin- 
guished lawyer there ; but he returned to 
Lyndon in 1852, with consumption, and died 
soon after, aged 34. 

' Hon. Nicholas Baylies 
Came to Lyndon to reside in 1835. He was 
a graduate of Dartmouth College, and after- 
wards a student and partner of the Hon. 
Charles Marsh of Woodstock, and afterwards 
of Senator Upham of Montpelier. He was a 
native of Massachusetts. While residing at 
Woodstock, he married Mary, daughter of 
Professor Ripley of Hanover, and sister of 
Gen. Eleazer W. and James W. Ripley, of the 
army of 1812, and since of congress. He 
moved to Montpelier in 1810, and had Judge 
Prentiss and other able men to compete 
with; yet, by industry, besides laboriously 
attending to his office and large court busi- 
ness, he composed several volumes of Indexes 
of Common and American Law, arranged 
under appropriate heads, affording ready re- 
ferences for practical use, and very valuable 
to the profession, three good sized volumes 
of, which were published, entitled Baylies' 
Digested Index. Other volumes, written 
afterwards as an addenda, have not been 
published. He also published a treatise on 
the powers of the mind, considered valuable. 
He was an able practitioner of his profession 
till 1833, when he was elected judge of the 
Supreme Court, and reelected in 1834, dis- 
charging the duties of the office with distin- 
guished ability. His wife having deceased, 
on retiring from the bench he ever after made 
it his home with his only daughter, Mary R., 
Mrs. George C. Cahoon; and, although ad- 
vanced in life, yet, possessing good health 
and a vigorous constitution, he entered into 
the practice of law again with the ardor of 
youth, especially of chancery, in which he 
delighted, and at his death, in 1847, aged 79 
years, was esteemed one of the most learned 
lawyers of the state. His mind was not so 

much characterized for brilliancy as for 
patient and indomitable perseverance in 
investigation and in arriving at correct con- 
clusions. His family consisted of three chil- 
dren, the oldest a son, Horatio N., who was 
a merchant, and died in Louisiana in 185- ; 
and his youngest a son, Nicholas, Jr., a law- 
yer, who resides in Des Moines, Iowa. The 
daughter, Mdry Ripley, Mrs. George C. 
Cahoon, died at Lyndon, July 18, 1858. 

There are two considerable villages in the 
town, Lyndon Corner and Lyndon Centre, 
and some other places which aspire to the 
name, not very numerously settled, as the 
Red Village and East Lyndon. 

Lyndon Corner is a centre for several other 
towns to do much of their mercantile and 
mechanical business, and is noted for being 
a brisk business place. The villagers having 
in their number those who professionally deal 
in almost all the necessaries and comforts of 
life, they transact business of nearly every 
kind found in the country, and there are 
enough of each trade and profession, so that 
a person can have a fair opportunity to select 
with whom to deal, and the subject matter to 
deal about. It contains 2 church edifices, 
an academy, and 2 school-houses ; a public 
house, livery stable, and two buildings with 
large halls for public occasions ; 2 retail 
stores, in one of which Lyndon post office is 
kept; 1 merchant tailor's clothing store, 1 
other tailor's shop, 1 extensive tin and sheet- 
iron factory and stove and variety store; 1 
flour and grocery store, 1 medical store, 4 
shoe stores and shops, 2 harness shops and 
2 carriage trimmers, 2 jewellers, 1 daguer- 
rean gallery, 1 silver plater ; 2 extensive 
carriage factories, one operated by steam, 
the other by water, both making excellent 
carriages ; marble works, cabinet makers, 
house-joiners ; 4 blacksmith shops, 2 plan- 
ing-mills, sawmills, grain mill, oil mill, 
plough shop, blind-maker, sash and door 
makers, coopers, painters, mason, butcher, 
cattle dealers; also 2 clergymen, 4 physi.- 
cians and 4 lawyers. The private dwelling- 
houses are about 120, with 150 families and 
from 700 to 1000 inhabitants. This village 
lies in the southerly part of the town, and 
derives its name from the junction and course 
of the roads. 

Lyndon Centre, deriving its name from its 
locality, is about two miles north from the 
Corner, situate in which are 2 church edifices, 
the town hall and school-house, and a public 
house. It has 2 clergymen, 1 physician, 2 
merchants, 2 shoe shops, 2 blacksmiths, se- 



veral house-joiners, 1 rail road contractor, 1 
starch factory, 1 sawmill, 1 tannery, 1 har- 
ness shop, and about one-third of the number 
of houses at the Corner, and families and 
people in proportion ; also a post office. The 
cemetery is also in this village, and, although 
it may not possess great interest to strangers, 
yet their own is a very interesting feature to 
the people of every town and locality. It is 
situated in rear of the town hall, as now 
called, being for many years the only meet- 
ing-house in town, and the ground in the 
cemetery first used for burial, is part of that 
donated to the town by Mr. Job Sheldon. It 
was first used in 1803, by the burial of Lucy, 
daughter of Capt. Joel Fletcher, and none 
other in town has been used since, unless a 
few in the Elder Quimby neighborhood, long 
ago. It contains a large congregation of our 
loved and honored dead. The old part was 
indiscriminately used without reference to 
, order, but on adding the new part at the 
west, it was allotted out as well as it could 
be, and laid out in good taste. Another 
addition, on the whole length of the north 
side, was made a year or two ago. Since 
this purchase, the whole grounds have been 
encircled with a nice new painted fence, and 
ornamented by terraces and flower beds ; 
costly family monuments and a very large 
number of beautiful head-stones are erected 
to our friends, and high above them all, on 
elevated ground at the west end of the centre 
avenue, stands a tall Italian obelisk upon 
marble pedestals and granite base of appro- 
priate dimensions, inscribed to the memory 
of about twenty Revolutionary officers and 
soldiers who have died in town. This was 
erected under the superintendence of a town 
committee, with funds raised by private and 
voluntary donation ; an appropriate tribute 
from the right source — a spontaneous out- 
pouring of the treasures of the heart to the 
champions of freedom. There is an expensive 
tomb near the centre of the ground, with 
hewn granite front and iron doors, erected 
by Elder Daniel Quimby for private family 
use, which has occasionally been used as a 
receiving tomb. The family monument of 
Abel Carpenter, Esq., one of the Revolution- 
ary officers, whose name is familiar, was the 
first erected here. Its base was granite, and 
its column white Vermont marble, good for 
its time, but less than those of recent struc- 
ture. The next erected, was to the family 
of Jude Kimball, Esq. This, for the purposes 
intended and the number of its inscriptions, 
is probably better proportioned and more 
symmetrical than any other in the cemetery. 

It is placed in the centre of the group of graves 
of father, mother, her mother, two sons, two 
daughters, and two grandsons. A beautiful 
bed is made over the graves, and the shaft 
of the monument rests on appropriate bases 
of marble and granite. The surviving son 
who caused its erection, Lucius Kimball, 
Esq., of Brooklyn, N. Y., must have cultivat- 
ed his taste in Greenwood Cemetery. The 
monument of Dr. Charles B. Darling, of rich 
Italian marble, octagonal, fluted and other- 
wise ornamented, and of elegant proportions, 
is the most beautiful in the cemetery. Its 
truthful tribute is " He was a good man." 
A few weeks since his beautiful wife was 
laid by his side, to claim another tablet to 
departed worth. The family monuments of 
Hon. Isaac Fletcher, Capt. Joel Fletcher and 
Josiah C. Willard, Esq., are as large and ex- 
pensive, and some of them more so, than Mr. 
Kimball's, and of similar materials, but vary 
in form and finish, to suit the taste of the 
purchaser. The Trull, Bemiss, Curtis and 
Bowker, are also good ones, but not so large 
nor of the same order. In proportion to the 
whole, the monuments are but few, but there 
are an unusual number of beautiful head 
stones, and many of them of the richest Ita- 
lian marble of good size and proportions, 
very thick and highly polished on all sides, 
and set in appropriate granite bases. 

In other parts of the town there are some 
8 blacksmith shops, also other mechanics, 
such as are needful and will make themselves 
useful in every community, such as house 
joiners, chair makers, sash and blind makers, 
mill Wright, 7 or 8 saw mills, carding ma- 
chine, starch factories, &c., &c., and at the 
rail road station a large wholesale store, be- 
sides the capacious depot and storage store. 
More with propriety might be said of the 
convenience and benefit of the rail road to 
the town. Freight for the Lyndon stations 
is usually deposited in the depot, but might 
be taken off at the Folsom crossing, three 
miles north, where there is a side track con- 
venient to East Burke, where many cars are 
loaded from the north part of the town and 
Burke, and from Wheelock and Sheffield ; 
but all those towns usually take their freight 
to and from the depot, situated about -| of a 
mile southeast from the Corner. Large 
numbers of cattle, sheep and horses are sent 
from here, also large quantities of butter, 
potatoes and starch, and of whatever is 
marketable ; and a great number of carri- 
ages and harnesses made in town for the 
sunny south and California, in better days, 
to order. 



There is not great ornamental beauty in 
the location or structure of the buildings of 
the main village, the site being uneven and 
lacking compass and space for building and 
pleasure grounds ; but it is adapted to its 
use of being a busy central business place 
not only of the town, but of a large sur- 
rounding country. Its surroundings are 
high, but verdant hills of pasture ground 
and cultivated fields, and if the mind is 
weary of confinement in the seeming fast- 
nesses, the body has but to climb to the 
summit, and there will be ample space in 
which to breathe free and easier, and for 
thought to soar. 

The census shows the population to have 
been in 1791, 59; in 1800, 542; in 1810, 
1092; in 1820, 1296; in 1830, 1750; in 1840, 
1753; in 1850, 1754; and 1860, number not 
known by the writer, but understood to have 
diminished a trifle. For several years the 
town has not increased much in population, 
and probably for the last decenary not quite 
held its own.* This arises from a variety of 
causes, one of which is that the inhabitants 
are mostly engaged in agriculture, and that 
there is but little unsettled land in the home 
market, and that held at so high a price as to 
be eclipsed by the large amount of lands at 
the west at government prices. Another is 
the golden bait for the greedy at California, 
Pike's Peak and Australia, both these causes 
have greatly tended to deplete this and other 
towns in the vicinity of their richest trea- 
sures, their enterprising young men and 
■women, to people the wilderness or delve in 
the mines. And many young men and wo- 
men have gone abroad to find broader fields 
in which to disseminate learning, mete out 
justice, administer the potent pill, or declare 
peace on earth and good will to man. It is 
no wonder then, that our numbers should de- 
crease under such a process : yet we have a 
healthful and intelligent population left, with 
as fair prospects of prosperity and happiness 
as usually falls to the lot of man. 


besidents of lyndon. 
Town Clerks. 
1791, '2, '3, Daniel Gaboon, Jr.f 
1793-1808, Daniel Cahoon, Sr.f 
1808-1829, William Cahoon.f 
1829-1843, Elias Remiss, Jr.f 
1843-1845, Andrew J. Willard. 
1845-1855, John M. Hoyt. 
1855, John McGaflfey. 
* See Chapter County Census Table, page 270. 

1856, Edward A. Cahoon. 

1857, William H. McGaifey. 
1858-1861, Isaac W. Sanborn, incumbent. 

State Councillors. 
1814, Nicholas Bayliesf (then of Montpelier). 
1815-'20, William Cahoon.f 
1820-22, Wm. Cahoon,f Lieut. Gov. and ex- 

ofiicio Councillor. 
1826-32, Benj. F. Deming.f 
1833-34, George C. Cahoon. 
Office abolished in 1836, and Senate created. 

State Senators. 
1836, Joseph H. Ingalls.f 

1840, Elias Remiss, Jr.f 

1841, '2, Thomas Bartlett, Jr. 

1843, '4, George C. Cahoon. 

1845, '6, Welcome Remiss. 

1847, '8, Sam'l R. Mattock, now of L. 

1849, '51, Eph. Chamberlin. 
1856, '7, Edward A. Cahoon. 


Council of Censors. 

1806, Isaiah Fisk.f 
1813, Nicholas Raylies.f 


1792, Dan. Cahoon,f .... 

1793, Josiah Arnold, .... 
1794-1802, inclusive, Daniel Cahoon, Sr.,f 

1802, '5, '8, '9, '10, '11, '12, '25, '26, Wil- 

liam Cahoon,f . . 

1803, '4, '13, '14, '15, '16, '17, '18, '21, '23, 

Isaiah Fisk,f .... 
1806, '7, Abraham Smith,f 
1819, '20, '22, '24, Isaac Fletcher,f 
1827-33, Job Randall, . 

1834, '52, '53, E. R. Chase, 

1835, George C. Cahoon, 
1836, '7, Elias Remiss, Jr.,f 
1838, '9, Renjamin Walfe;er,f . 
1840, '41, '48, '49, Stephen McGaffey, 

1842, '3, Renaiah Sanborn, 

1844, '5, Asaph Willmarth,f 

1846, '7, Lucius Kimball, 

1850, '54, '55, Thomas Rartlett, Jr., 

1851, John D. Miller, 

1856, Daniel L. Ray, . 

1857, '8, William H. McGaffey, 
1859, '60, Sumner S. Thompson, 
1861, George Ide, incumbent. 

. 1 



Delegates to Constitutional Convention. 
1793, Josiah Arnold.f 
1814, '28, William Cahoon.f 
1822, Isaac Fletcher.f 
1836, '43, George C. Cahoon. 
1850, '57, Thomas Rartlett, Jr. 
t Deceased. 



Judge of Supreme Court. 
1833, '4, Nicholas Baylies.* Judge Baylies 
formerly resided at Montpelier but in 
Lyndon the last 12 years of his life. 

Judges of the County Court. 
1807 (1st), Isaiah Fisk.* Years. 

1822 (last), in all 14 years, being chief 

justice, . . . . . .8 

1811-19, William Cahoon,* ... 8 

1824, '5, Samuel A Willard, ... 2 
1839, '42 '3, Ephs. B. Chase, . . 3 

State Attorneys. 

1820-29, Isaac Fletcher,* ... 8 

1835, '6, '7, '47, George C. Cahoon, . 4 

1839, '41, '2, Thomas Bartlett, Jr., . . 3 

1851, '2, 3, Henry S. Bartlett, . . 3 

1854, '5, Edward A. Cahoon, ... 2 

1860, '1, George W. Cahoon, incumbent, 2 

1815, '16, Jude Kimball,* . 
1828, '9, '30, '31, Silas Houghton,* . 
1832, '3, '4, '5, Charles Roberts, . 

1851, '2 '3, George Ide, 

1854, '5, Horace Evans at St. Johnsbury, 
1856, '7, Orenso P. Wakefield, . . ' . 
Mr. Evans's family were early settlers 
of Lyndon, where he lived many years 
and officiated as deputy there a long pe- 
riod, previously to his election as sheriff. 

Judges of Probate. 
1821-32, Benjamin F. Dcming,* 
1836 (1st), '47 (last), Samuel B. Mat- 
tocks, . . . . , . 

1821, '2, George B. Shaw,* . 
1823, '3, '5, George C. Cahoon, . 
1826 (1st), '38 (last), Samuel B. Mattocks, 


County Clerks. 
1817-32, Benj. F*. Deming, . . " .16 

Mr. D. was a merchant at Lyndon, and 
relinquished it to very faithfully perform 
his official oppointments. 
1837 (1st), '48 (last), Samuel B. Mattocks, 12 

Mr. Mattocks formerly resided at Dan- 
ville, and represented that town 3 years, and 
was cashier of the Bank of Caledonia 8, 
and has been cashier of the Bank of Lyn- 
don 5 years, and now holds it. 

Members of Congress. 

1829-33, William Cahoon,* ... 4 

1833, '4, Benjamin F. Deming,* . . 2 

1837-41, Isaac Fletcher,* ... 4 

1851-53, Thomas Bartlett, Jr., . . 2 
* Deceased. 

Presidential Electors. 
Of President Madison, William Cahoon ;* 
of President Lincoln, Edward A. Cahoon. 
Both were messengers to Washington. 

Practicing Attorneys, 
Thomas Bartlett. 
Edward A. Cahoon. 
George C. Cahoon, 
George W. Cahoon, partners. 

Charles S. Cahoon. 
Horace Stevens. 
Daniel Trull. 

Edward Mattocks, Allopathy. 
Chester W. Scott, Homoeopathy, 

Lyndon Centre. 
Enoch Blanchard, Allopathy. 

Post Masters. 
John M. Weeks, 
1861, Aug., Wm. H. McGaffey. 
Lyndon Centre. 
Elisha Sanborn. 

In the 71 freemen's meetings, holden since 
the organization of the town, it is a remark- 
able fact that there has always been an elec- 
tion of a representative, and never but one 
failure of his attending the legislature, and 
that of General Cahoon in 1810 by reason of 
sickness. Farmers have represented 48 
years, lawyers 9, merchants 9, physician 2, 
carriage-maker 1, and rail road contractor, 
2 ; the representatives of 40 years are 
known to be dead, the others except one, are 
known to be living. 



A convention was called at the Town Hall 
in Lyndon, the 5th day of September, 1860, 
to organize an agricultural society to accom- 
modate more particularly the citizens of 
Northern Caledonia. A large number were 
in attendance, the convention enthusiastic 
and harmonious. After a temporary organ- 
ization by choosing Hon. E. A. Cahoon, 
president, and I. W. Sanborn, secretary, and 
spirited remarks from gentlemen of the seve- 
ral towns represented, a county farmers' 
club was permanently organized, with the 
following officers: Elisha Sanborn, presid- 
ent ; Sullivan Ranney, vice president ; I. 
W. Sanborn, secretary ; Charles Folsom, 
_The first exhibition was held at Lyndon 



Centre on Thursday, the 20th of the same 
month, with very satisfactory results. 
Nearly a thousand head of cattle wei-e ex- 
hibited, including 792 oxen ! The other de- 
partments were well represented, especially 
the ladies, or Floral Hall. 

At the second annual meeting, held Jan. 
30, 1861, the same oflBcers were reelected with 
an additional vice-president and secretary. 

The second exhibition was held on the 
same ground, Oct. 2, 1861. The fair was 
very successful. 

The society is founded upon a basis in 
many respects dissimilar to any other in the 
state. Diplomas are awarded instead of cash 
premiums, thus rendering the expenses of 
the society comparatively small, the neces- 
sary funds being raised by membership sub- 
scriptions. The results thus far have proved 
very satisfactory. 




For the farmer's girl, hurrah, hurrah ! 

Hurrah for the farmer's girl ! 
Light is her step o'er the grassy lawn, 
As that of the playful, agile fawn, — 

Hurrah for the farmer's girl ! 

For the farmer's girl, hurrah, hurrah ! 

Hurrah for the farmer's girl ! 
Her cheeks are tinged with a roselike hue. 
Her lips are red and her eyes are blue, — 

For the farmer's girl, hurrah ! 

For the farmer's girl, hurrah, hurrah ! 

Hurrah for the farmer's girl ! 
She's hale and hearty, noble and true, 
Ever ready for the work she has to do, — 

Hurrah for the farmer's girl ! 

For the farmer's girl, hurrah, hurrah ! 

Hurrah for the farmer's girl ! 
She's truthful, trusting, generous, kind, 
Happy and gleeful — just to your mind, — 

For the farmer's girl, hurrah ! 

Kxlracts from " Lelia Lyndon " (Miss Susannah S. Burt). 


In reply to an article in The Aurora of 

Nov. 24, 1860. 

We have found the priceless dower, 
We've obtained the fitting gem. 

And it sparkles bright this hour. 
In our nation's diadem 

Would you know the thing selected, 
As the "something new " we scan? 

'Tis that "Honest Abe" 's elected 
Champion in the truth's bright van. 

'Tis that error now shall crumble 
'Neath the power of justice's might. 

Truth shall cruel tyrants humble, 
Bringing "hidden things" to light. 

Now the fettering curse of thralldom 

Shall extend not with its sin. 
Since our Ruler we've installed him, 

Lincoln's rails will fence it in ! 

Weary not tho' each endeavor 

Brings not now success to thee, 
Work in faith — remember never 

Acts of goodness lost will be. 

Sit not down with heart despairing. 
Weary not within the strife, 

There's a goal that's worth the sharing, 
Brighter than this tear-dimmed life. 


The history of this town contains little to 
interest that class of readers whose homes 
are among the thriving towns and villages of 
our state, surrounded by wealth and luxury, 
and who have little or no sympathy for the 
rough backwoodsman and hardy pioneer. 
Those, however, who cherish the memory of 
our forefathers, and sympathize with those 
who encountered so many difficulties and 
hardships in subduing the dense forests, and 
preparing a home for themselves and their 
descendants, will love to read their humble 
story, and draw the parallel between their 
own comfortable times, and those of their 
ancestors. This town is situated in the 
north or northeast part of the county, and 
was laid out in the form of a square, con- 
taining 36 square miles. It was formerly a 
part of Essex county. It was chartered 
August 15, 1781, to William Wall and others. 

The first land that was cleared in its limits 
was near the boundary of Burke, in the year 
1795. In September, 1797, James Ball 
came with his family, and settled upon the 
farm now occupied by his son, Mr. Perley 
Ball. In 1801, Eleazer Packer came and set- 
tled some two miles deeper still in the forest. 
Charles Palmer came in 1804. These were 
the first settlers. Others came in soon after, 
and the town was organized in 1809. These 
families suflFered many privations. The 
nearest grist mill was at Lyndon, 12 miles 
away, and the cold summer of 1816 destroyed 
nearly all their crops. In the course of a 
few years, however, large tracts of forest land 



were cleared of then- timber, and bountiful 
harvests repaid the settler for his labors and 
placed hijS family in comfortable circum- 
stances. The soil of this town is naturally- 
fertile and well adapted to the growth of 
wheat. 40 bushels to the acre have been 
raised on the farm now owned by D. D. Hall, 
and from 30 to 40 bushels on fields of from 40 
to 75 acres on the farm of Alpheus Stoddard. 
But the ravages of the weevil (or midge, as 
it is now called), has led to the cultivation 
of other crops to the almost total neglect of 
wheat. The present year (1860), however, 
the weevil has not made its appearance, and 
strong hopes are entertained by our farmers 
that wheat will yet be raised abundantly as 
in "days of old." The failure of the wheat 
crop turned the attention of our farmers 
especially to the raising of potatoes and 
herds grass seed. 

The last named gentleman above who set- 
tled here in 1820, has cleared 600 acres of 
timbered land for this purpose. He has 
reaped some years 100 acres of grass for 
seed. The labor of clearing a heavy growth 
of timber from the soil, is immense; to en- 
gage in it extensively and successfully, re- 
quires men of muscle and strong constitu- 
tions. Among the enterprising farmers of 
this town who have added much to its 
wealth in this way, are Alpheus Stoddard, 
Henry DoUoff, Eleazer Davis, Marshall Stod- 
dard and Samuel Gray. In 1852, M. Stod- 
dard raised 8,600 bushels of potatoes, all 
upon newly cleared land ; he has also reaped 
100 acres of grass seed in a single year. 

The township is well watered. Here the 
Passumpsic river takes its rise. The settle- 
ment has extended gradually. It is a post 
town, and has four school districts. 

This town is also celebrated for its large 
productions of maple sugar. The original 
growth of timber upon two-thirds of its 
area, consisted of maple, beech and birch, 
maple being in the excess ; many beautiful 
groves of this useful tree have been cut 
down, but many yet remain. The eastern 
slope of a mountain which extends from East 
Haven to the centre of the town (a distance 
of three miles), is covered for two miles or 
more with a continuous forest of sugar- 
maple. Many tons of sugar are made here 
annually. Another remarkable feature of 
the town, is the great number of perennial 
springs. There is scarcely a farm that does 
not contain one, and some six or seven. On 
the farm of Mr. A. P. Taft is a beautiful 
spring of clear water, which sends off from 
its fountain-head a stream sufficient to turn 

a saw mill. On the road from Newark to 
Island Pond is a mineral spring, the waters 
of which are supposed to run through a 
stratum of coal, as it is strongly impregnated 
with carbonic acid. There are three large 
ponds of water in the town, one of which 
is situated exactly in its centre, and is called 
Centre Pond. The manufacture of lumber 
is carried on to a considerable extent ; there 
are 7 saw mills, 1 grist mill and 2 starch fac- 
tories. The number of school districts is 9, 
and the population is 567. 

One serious drawback to the interests of 
this town, has been its geographical position, 
though we trust the time will come when-it 
will cease to be felt. It is divided by ranges 
of hills in such a manner that it is difficult 
to establish a central locality where the citi- 
zens may meet to transact their business. 
One palpable effect of this is, that the mer- 
chant in the adjoining towns receive the 
benefit of our trade. Another is, that though 
there are 3 religious societies in town, there 
is no meeting house. Several attempts have 
been made to erect one, but have failed by 
reason of disputes as to the location. A 
proposition is now before the town to build 
a town hall in connection with a church, 
which will probably succeed. 

[The meeting house has been erected and 
dedicated the past season — Ed.'\ 

Obed Johnson 

Moved into Newark from in 1812, and 

began clearing his land. He was a man of 
uncommon energy and industry ; an excel- 
lent and skillful farmer. As a citizen, he 
was obliging and trustworthy ; as a christian, 
he was of exemplary piety, and an invalu- 
able member of the church. Practically 
benevolent, it was his custom when a sub- 
scription was in circulation in behalf of any 
religious enterprise to give a sum double 
that of any other contributor. He acted as 
class leader in the Methodist churclj for 40 
years. He died in 1858, aged 72. 



List of first town officers, 1809 — Eleazer 
Packer, James Ball, John Sleeper, select- 
men ; David Pike, treasurer ; Miles Coe, con- 

First justice — Eleazer Packer, 1808, 20 
years ; others, Lauren M. Sleeper, 19 ; Amos 
Parker, 15 ; Philemon Hartwell, 13 ; and 
Miles Coe, 12. 

First representative — Eleazer Packer, 
1811 (1858). 



First merchant — James Morse, 1832. 

First teacher of common school — Ursula 
Newell, 1810. 

First birth — Arnold, son of James Ball. 

First death — Eleazer Jr., son of Eleazer 
Packer, April 3, 1806. 

First marriage — Philemon Hartwell and 
Sally Hartwell, by Eleazer Packer, June 28, 

The oldest person among the early settlers 
who has deceased, was Mr. Billings. 

The oldest now living, is the same Eleazer 
Packer, who was at the head of the second 
family that moved into town. From the 
organization of the town till age demanded 
his retirement from public services, he was 
among the first and foremost in all business 
transactions ; he held many of the most im- 
portant town offices year after year, and 
many times represented this town in the 
general assembly of the state ; was justice 
of the peace until he refused longer to serve, 
and is a member of the Methodist church. 

[About 21 years since, in the northeast 
■ corner of Newark, lived Calvin Hudson, first 
settler on the east road from Burke line to 
Bi'ighton, which was then only brushed out. 
Here he and his brother, Kitridge Hudson, 
had bought a right of land, and Calvin had 
built a log house, and moved his family, a 
wife and 7 children, in the fall before. In 
the winter he made shingles. One morning 
his family being in want of "necessaries," 
he took his knapsack and started for Burke. 
Not being very well, he declined waiting for 
breakfast, and started before the family had 
risen. At Burke he made his purchases, and 
started for home. A storm came on, and 
the snow fell fast; at Seymour Walton's, 
last house in East Haven, still 5 miles dis- 
tant, he stopped to warm, and again, not to 
be detained, pushed on homeward. Two 
days afterward (I had the narrative from the 
lips of his brother, and give it from memory), 
within 40 rods of home, he was found frozen 
by the wayside. Coiled up at his feet (the 
snow melted beneath the devoted animal), 
lay his own faithful little dog. And after 
.the funeral several days — the family having 
been removed — some one visiting the de- 
serted house, found this same affectionate 
creature had stayed behind and crawled be- 
neath the blanket that wrapped the body of 
his dead master before the burial, and had 
been left upon the shelf in the entryway; 
and with difficulty was he coaxed from the 
sacred relic and solitary house. — IId.'\ 



Peacham received a corporate existence by 
charter from Benning Wentworth, governor 
of New Hampshire, Dec. 31, 1763. This 
charter made over to seventy grantees, " in- 
habitants of N. Hampshire and of our other 
governments, and to their heirs and assigns 
forever," a tract of land — 23,040 acres — 
" six miles square and no more." 

A tract of land lying between Danville and 
Peacham, which afterward received a town- 
ship charter under the name of Deweysburg, 
was by act of the legislature divided in 1810, 
a part added to Danville and a part to Peach- 
am, which gave it a territory of 25,695 acres. 
Peacham is in the second range of town- 
ships westerly from Connecticut River, and 
its principal village is 7 miles northwesterly 
from its rail road station at Barnet. A high 
ridge of land passes through the westerly 
part of the town, running northeast and 
southwest, which divides the waters of the 
town running into Lake Champlain, from 
those passing into Connecticut River. The 
territory of the town lies chiefly on the east- 
ern slopes of this dividing ridge, and though 
a varied surface, has many excellent farms, 
well adapted for all kinds of grain, grass and 
pasturage. We can say in truth, both val- 
leys and hills possess a remarkable fertility, 
some of our best farms being on high swells 
of land. 

From the summits of some of our high 
hills beautiful prospects are obtained. On 
one of these, called by w^ay of legendary 
distinction. Devil Hill, looking west and 
north, the eye gazes upon an almost un- 
broken wilderness, extending from the base 
of the hill directly beneath your feet for 
several miles, while by just turning around, 
without other change of position, the culti- 
vated farms of Peacham and Barnet, lie 
spread out to the beholder's view. From 
Cow Hill, a still higher eminence, the 
vision is bounded north and west by the 
Green Mountain range and to the east by 
the Franconia and White mountains in New 
Hampshire. Looking west, or looking east, 
the whole intervening country lies spread 
out in all its untold variety of hills, valleys, 
forests, ponds, farms and villages. 

Within the limits of the town are several 
ponds, or small lakes, some of wliich, en- 
vironed with forests, and fed by mountain 
springs, are remarkably clear and much vi- 
sited by those fond of piscatorial diversions. 
Onion River Pond — so called as the source 



of one of the principal branches of Onion, 
or Winooski River — is in the westerly part 
of the town, covering an area of about 300 
acres. Little Osmore Pond, one mile west 
of Onion — a long sheet of water wholly sur- 
rounded by forests — has on its bed a deposit 
of infusorial marl, much admired by geolo- 
gists for its fineness and freedom from foreign 
ingredients. Shell marl of coarser quality 
is found in other places in town, from which 
lime in considerable quantities has been 

There are several streams of water running 
easterly, affording numerous mill privileges, 
upon which are 4 sawmills, 2 gristmills, a 
starch factory, a carding machine, a tannery, 
a blind and sash factory and 2 wagon shops. 

According to charter prescription, the first 
town meeting of the proprietors of Peacham 
was held in Hadley, Mass., Jan. 18, 1764. 
Hadley is distant from Peacham 164 miles. 
It is an honored town, and Peacham need 
never be ashamed of the place of its birth. 
There the machinery of the town was put 
into working order, but the power to work 
the maehinei'y was in the city of London, 
while the chief overseer had his dwelling in 
Portsmouth, N. H. Affairs slumbered, and 
for nearly 20 years the town remained in al- 
most unbroken silence. 

After long intervals the proprietors held 
an occasional meeting, and made some pro- 
gress in surveying lots and running lines 
around the town! Their first meeting held 
in Peacham, bears date August 20, 1783, 6 
months previous to the first regular town 
meeting of which there is any record. The 
disturbed condition of the counti-y, arising 
from the contested claims of New Hampshire 
and New York, and the American Revolution 
retarded the growth of the town. A very 
few inhabitants tried to carve out homes for 
themselves and families as early as 1775, but 
lived in constant peril by day and night. 
Early in the spring of that year, Dea. Jona- 
than Elkins* came with a few others, and 
began cutting down the forest ; but from fear 
of the enemy, soon after returned to New- 
bury. In 1776 the solitude was broken by 
the marching of several companies of sol- 
diers along a line made by blazed trees from 
Newbury to Champlain. It was in early 
spring, and they marched on snow shoes. 
But upon hearing of an invasion from Cana- 
da, they soon marched back again. The few 
people who were here, fled M'ith them. Dea. 
Elkins, however, with John Skeele and Ar- 
chcy McLaughlin, returned in the fall and 
* Of Hampton, N. H. * 

spent the winter together in Peacham. These 
were the first white men who wintered here, 
and may be called the fathers of the town. 
But the few increased a little from year to 
year till the close of the war. 

In October, 1777, was born Harvey Elkins, 
the first white m<ale child born in Peacham ; 
and next year, Ruth Skeele, the first female 
child born in Peacham, and who died Sept. 
25, 1860, aged 82 years. 

In 1779, Gen. Hazen, stationed at New- 
bury, had orders to clear a road from that 
place to Champlain, and thus gave name to 
the so-called Hazen Road, which for a long 
time thereafter was a great convenience to 
the inhabitants. As usual in those early 
days, that road did not avoid the high hills. 
In 1780 a Capt. Aldrich built a picket around 
James Bailey's house for security from the 
enemy, and this was probably the only block 
house in the limits of P. Generally the 
people had to take care of themselves as 
best they could, and seasons of alai-m were 
not unfrequent; though it is not known 
that any one was killed in the limits of the 
town by Briton, Tory or Indian. A few 
were taken prisoners, among whom were 
Cols. Elkins of Peacham, and Johnson from 
Newbury in 1781, and two by the name of 
Bailey, in 1782. Col. Elkins was carried to 
Quebec, thence to England, and was there 
exchanged for one of equal rank. Col. 
Johnson returned on parole. 

After the war closed, population rapidly 
increased. It was a point of considerable 
commercial importance in Indian trade, and 
as the Hazen Road became famous as a medi- 
um of transit across the country, the land ra- 
pidly came under cultivation. People began 
to forget past trials in the prospects opening 
before them, and population became respect- 
able in numbers, intelligence and character. 
By December, 1784, there were 24 freemen 
in the town, and a population of some 200. 
The census of 1791 shows a popixlation of 
365. In 1800, there were 873 — only 374 less 
than at this present year (1860). Thus in 
1784 the town was fully organized, and on 
that same year, it was voted to raise $60 for 
preaching, to be paid in wheat at 6s. per 
bushel, and the selectmen were the commit- 
tee to hire ministers and appoint places for 

In 1791, was agitated the question of erect- 
ing a meeting-house. The vote stood con- 
tcni.i 33, ti07i-contcn/s 28. But the jjeople 
could not agree on the place of building, for 
even when they agreed to abide the decision 
of men appointed from out of town, who 



should "stick the stake," they were Tery 
reluctant to stick to their vote. Happily in 
1795, their thoughts were turned to the ques- 
tion of erecting an academy, and of using 
the same building, both for a school and a 
sanctuary, and the question prevailed, and 
Caledonia County Grammar School, located 
in Peacham, received its charter, bearing 
date Oct. 27, 1795. It seems the question 
was agitated whether the County School 
should be here or the Court House and Jail, 
and the people wisely decided to have the 
School, and posterity thanks them for the 
wisdom of the choice. For Peacham, it was 
a happy day when she said, Danville may 
have the Court House, we will have the 
School; and Danville was satisfied, rejoiced 
and was glad. The academy located here, 
drew to it the eyes and the hearts of the 
people. The meeting house wrangle was 
hushed. The men called from New Hamp- 
shire, to " stick the stake," were not needed. 
The people this time stuck their own stake, 
and on the brow of the noble eminence called 
afterward Academy Hill, the stake was 
stuck and all the people said amen. The 
town agreed to support the principal three 
years, and in addition, erect a commodius 
building. On the 1st of December, 1797, it 
was opened for the reception of pupils, and 
Ezra Carter, Esq., was the first principal. 
From that time to this, it has gone its way 
prospering, with an annual average aggre- 
gate of 200 pupils. It has had 35 different 
preceptors, of whom 24 were graduates of 
Dartmouth, 3 of Yale, 2 of U. V. M., 4 of 
Middlebury and 1 of Harvard. Among these 
are the honored names of Ezra Carter and 
Jeremiah Evarts, Esqrs., David Chassell, D. 
D., David Merrill, Prof. Bartlett, Evarts and 
Noah Worcester, Daniel Christie, John Lord, 
Mellen Chamberlin and C. C. Chase. Hon. 
Thaddeus Stevens, Hon. Samuel Merrill, 
Chief Justice Redfield, Rev. Wilbur Fiske, 
D. D., were among its pupils. Its present 
principals are Lyman S. Watts, A. B., and 
Miss Jane E. Chamberlin. 

The people of the town have ever taken a 
warm interest in its moral and religious 
welfare. In 1784, when it does not appear 
there were more than 6 freemen in town, it 
was voted to raise $60 for preaching, and in 
that same year a church was organized by 
Rev. Mr. Powers of Newbury, consisting of 
18 members of the Presbyterian order. That 
church did not prosper, and at length dis- 
banded. On the 14th of April, 1794, the 

present Congregational Church was organ- 
ized with 12 members. The last survivor of 
this number was Mary Bailey, 2d, who died 
in Glover in 1844, aged 92 years. In the 
same year 23 others united with the church, 
three of whom lived till after the present 
pastor was settled over the church. Jona- 
than Elkins and Reuben Miner were its first 
deacons. In 1800 there were 41 members, 
of whom Rev. Leonard Worcester was the 
40th, who was ordained pastor of the church, 
Oct. 30, 1799. 

Thus we come down to 1800. Within less 
than 30 years the wilderness had been in- 
vaded, and before the sturdy blows of the 
woodchopper the forest had rapidly disap- 
peared, and these now beautiful and fertile 
slopes of land laid open to the light of the 
sun, and bountiful harvests crowned the la- 
bors of the husbandman. Substantial dwell- 
ings took the place of log cabins, roads were 
opened and graded, an academy built and set 
agoing under auspicious influences, a print- 
ing press established from whence for several 
years a weekly newspaper was issued, a 
church organized and a pastor settled. The 
people worked — earned their bread by the 
sweat of the brow. The idle and shiftless 
were not wanted and were summarily re- 
minded they might return whence they came. 

The Elkinses were brave men, the six 
gigantic Blanchards were not behind, while 
William Chamberlain run lines both for land 
and conduct. Others too, as the McLaugh- 
lins, Skeele, the Baileys, Minors, Merrills, 
Martins, made their mark, and posterity 
honor their memory. Among its freemen at 
that time were William Chamberlain, after- 
ward member of congress and lieutenant- 
govenor of the state, John Mattocks, for 6 
years member of congress, governor of the 
state and a judge in the supreme court, 
Leonard Worcester, for 40 years a wise, de- 
voted and successful minister of the gospel ; 
not to mention the boys and girls, who in 
after years grew up sturdy yeomanry, bow- 
ing not, nor doing reverence to king, pope 
or bishop, abhorring slavery, and titled aris- 
tocracies of all grades. 

From 1800 its prosperity has been steadily 
onward to this day, comparing favorably 
with any other town in a rural region for 
health, wealth, enterprise, thrift, intelligence 
and positive religious influences. 

The Academy has had a very happy in- 
fluence on the resident population as upon 
other hundreds who have gone from us. In 
1840 Mr. Worcester stated in a published 
serm'on ; " No less than 26 young men from 



among the inhabitants of this town have ob- 
tained a college education, having been fitted 
for college in this institution." It is be- 
lieved this was the first academy building 
erected in the state of Vermont. 

The Congregational Chuiich and So- 

As before remarked, the church was or- 
ganized in 1794. Rev. Leonard AVorcester 
was ordained as pastor Oct. 30, 1799, and till 
1810 labored faithfully in the work of the 
ministry. He appears to have been the right 
man in the right place, and in the memories 
of a grateful people his words and deeds are 
still garnered up. It was a ministry of great 
prosperity, and generally during the period of 
his labors the church occupied a very com- 
manding position among those of the de- 
nomination in the state. In the 18th year 
of his ministry there began a revival of re- 
ligion which continued for tAvo years, when 
225 were received to its membership on profes- 
sion of faith. Again in 1831, in a time of 
great darkness and no little alienation among 
brethren, the Spirit was wonderfully poured 
out from on high, and in the course of 14 
months 154 w^ere added; when the total of 
its membership arose to 370, and except 
Middlebury, it was the largest church in the 
state. During Mr. Worcester's ministry 571 
were added. His formal connection as pas- 
tor was not dissolved till his death, which oc- 
curred May 28, 1846. He was succeeded by 
Rev. David Merrill — a native of Peacham, 
and a member of the church, — who was in- 
stalled September 9, 1841. Mr. Merrill was 
pastor nearly 9 years, dying suddenly, July 
22, 1850. During his ministry 99 were added 
to the membership. The present pastor, Pi,ev. 
A. Boutelle, was installed February 13, 1851. 
Since his ministry commenced, 132 have been 
added, leaving a present membership of 
about 260. Since .its organization in 1794, 
there have been added 877. 

This chui-ch and society have always taken 
a warm interest in the cause of humanity, 
temperance and missions. Forty years ago 
there were some 30 distilleries in operation 
here, but for more than 25 years they have 
ceased to be, and the places they occupied 
will be known as such no more forever. So 
far as votes are tests of temperance, this 
town has sometimes been called the "banner 
town " in Vermont, and the same may pro- 
bably be said of the attendance upon public 
worship on the sabbath day. The statistics 
of contributions for benevolent purposes in 
the Congregational Church and Society can 

be given only for 10 years — from 1851 to '61. 
These amount to about $5,844; beside some 
$22,000 in legacies by Dr. Josiah Shedd. 

The first meeting-house of the Congrega- 
tional Society was built in 1806 on Aca- 
demy Hill, and for the times was a large 
and beautiful building, and what was better 
still, usually filled with hearers from sabbath 
to sabbath. Its cost was more than $5,000. 
The present pastor of the church is the third 
from its beginning. 

[Not long since while on a visit at the 
Peacham parsonage, the present lady there 
(Mrs. B.) remarked unto us, " This church can 
claim what probably not another church of 
its age can in the state. It has had but three 
pastors — two are in the grave yard over 
there, the other in the parsonage here." — 

Methodist Episcopal Chuech. 
by kev. d. packer. 

The M. E. Church in Peacham was organ- 
ized by Rev. D. Field in 1831. There had 
been occasional preaching in the east part 
of the town, some three years previous, by 
the Rev. Mr. Fairbank, stationed preacher 
at Danville, and Rev. A. Sias. 

The following ministers have been regu- 
larly appointed at Peacham : 

D. Field, 




John Currier, . 

. 1832, 



0. Curtiss, . 




J. A. Sweetland, 

. 1835, 



C. Lyscomb, 




Roswell Putnam, 

. 1837, 



J. H. Patterson, 




J. N. Hume, . 

. 1839, 



W. Evans, . 




John Clark, 

. 1841, 



J. D. Rust, . 




R. Bedford, . 

. 1844, 



F. T.Albee, . 




H. P. Gushing, 

. 1847, 



A. G. Button, 




H. Hitchcock, . 

. 1851, 



D. S. Dexter, 




E. D. Hopkins, 

. 1854, 



N. W. Aspinwall, 




George F. Wells, 

. 1858, 



D. Packer, . 




The Society built a chapel in 1832, which 
was dedicated January 1, 1833. During the 
first decade to 1840 the Society numbered 
111, including probationers. In 1850 it 
numbered in full membership and probation- 
ers 123. In 1860 we reported in full and 
probationers 141. In 1859 the number was 
74 only; but the Lord of the vineyard blessed 



us with a gloi'ious revival during our first 
year, nearly 100 professed faith in Christ. 
We have expended during our two years, in 
repairs in the chapel, and parsonage $725. 
Well may we say, "AVhat hath God wrought," 
to Ilim be the praise. 

[We here resume Mr. Boutelle's MS. — Ed.'\ 

Peacham had in 1791 the largest population 

of any town in the county, and in 1800 the 

largest except Danville. In 1840 it had 1443 ; 

in 1850, 1377 ; in 1860, 1257. 


Aloof from scenes of war, in which the 
towns bordering on Lake Champlain so 
much participated, we have scarce anything 
to speak of as unusual or marvelous. 

The first millstones for a gristmill in 
Peacham were drawn from Newbury on an 
ox sled, by Col. Johnson, of N. He tarried 
over night with Dea. Elkins. Somehow, the 
Tories found out he was there. They had a 
special dislike to Col. Johnson, Gen. Bailey, 
and Rev. Peter Powers. They hated Bailey 
for his influence over the Indians j they hat- 
ed Johnson for his bravery at the taking of 
Ticonderoga ; and Powers, for he now and 
then preached on freedom and human rights, 
and that was preaching politics. Knowing 
Johnson was staying with a defenceless 
farmer, about midnight they surrounded the 
house, and entering, took prisoners whom 
they would, at the point of the bayonet. 
Resistance was useless, and Johnson, with 
Jacob Page, Col. J. Elkins and a younger 
brother, were marched ofl^ before daylight, 
prisoners of war. Johnson told the Tories 
the younger Elkins would not live to get 
through the woods, as he was feeble, "hav- 
ing been drowned when a little boy," and 
they let the boy return, to his great joy and 
that of his parents. Col. J. found many old 
acquaintances among the Tories, now bitter 
enemies. There were eleven of them under 
the command of a Capt. Prichard. This afi^air 
happened March 6, 1781. 

At another time during the war, several 
men were cleai'ing land not far from Cow 
Hill. One morning, as they went for lunch 
in their camp, leaving axes behind, an In- 
dian stole down from the hill — where also 
were two Tories and other Indians — and 
counted and examined the axes, and fled 
back. The Tories insisted on going down to 
scalp and massacre. "No," said the Indian, 
"we no meet men who use such big axes. 
We want three Indians to fight one big white 
man. We no go." The Tories yielded, and 
they went away. 

At another clearing, at P. Blanchard's 
place, about dark, one thought he saw an 
Indian. The dog soon began to bark and 
snarl. The cabin fire was put ovxt, the dog 
seized, his jaws held together to keep him 
still, and the family fled into a slashing of 
timber, where they spent the night in dark- 
ness, taking turns in confining the dog's 
mouth till light, when they fled to the gar- 

One day, at the farm of Mr. Aaron Bailey, 
the hog made an outcry. Upon looking, it 
was found a large bear had laid hold of the 
porker, resolved on a good meal. Mrs. B. 
seized a cudgel, and in the true grit of those 
early days, dealt out tipon him blow after 
blow, till Bruin gave up and fled, and so 
she delivered the hog out of the paw of the 

In the cold summer of 1816, snow began 
to fall on the 9th of June and continued next 
day till it was several inches deep. Mr. 
Joseph Walker, aged 82 years, went to a 
distant pasture to drive in some lately 
sheared sheep, became bewildered in the 
snow-storm, lost his way, laid out in the 
woods two nights, and when found on the 
third day was near perishing. His feet were 
badly frozen, rendering amputation of some 
of the toes necessary. He was found on 
Sunday, and so general was the rally to 
search for him, that it is said only two men 
were present at church that day. 

In 1811, a malignant fevei; swept over the 
town — called the spotted fever — particularly 
fatal to children. There were 59 deaths that 
year, out of a population of 1300, of whom 
34 were under ten years of age. Almost 
every house was a house of mourning. From 
1800 to 1838, the average mortality was 
16f per year. From Jan,, 1851, to Jan., 
1861, the number of deaths has been 192, an 
average of 19^ per year, the largest, annual 
mortality being in 1852, when the deaths 
were 38. The erysipelas and scarlet fever 
were very prevalent that year. 

Mrs. Ruth Watts was instantly killed by 
lightning July 13, 1813. 


It is believed the first trees felled by white 
men for clearing, were on the Dea. Elkins 
farm, and the first log cabin was on that 

The first religious meeting was at the 
house of Mr. Moody Morse, where Thomas 
Morse now lives, and at or near the same 
place was assembled the first common 



James Bailey was the first town clerk, the 
first town treasurer, and the first represent- 
ative to the state legislature. The first 
selectmen were James Bailey and Simeon 
Walker. The first justices were Wm. Cham- 
berlain and James Bailey. 

The first recorded death of an adult was 
that of Gen. John Chandler of Newtown, 
Conn., father of Hon. John W. Chandler, 
March 15, 1796. 

The first salary pledged by the town to 
the principal of the academy, for the ensu- 
ing three years, beginning with 1796, was 
$833.33. Tuition free to the youth of the 
county, and tioenty-jive cents a quarter for 
pupils residing out of the county. 

The first call to a minister to settle in the 
town in the work of the ministry, was as 
follows: "At a town meeting held in Mr. 
Reuben Miner's Barn, July, 1791, Voted 
to offer Rev. Israel Chapin one half of the 
minister's lot and a salary of fifty pounds 
annually, which sum be paid in wheat at 
five shillings a bushel, or neat cattle, rating 
six-feet oxen at twelve pounds per yoke." 

The following are the names of the 12 
persons, members of the Congregational 
Church at its organization, April 12, 1794: 
James Bailey, died 1808, aged 86. 
Dea. Jonathan Elkins, do 1808, do 74. 
James Bailey, Jr., do 1828, do 77. 
Ephraim Foster, do 1803, do 72. 
Dea. Reuben Miner, do 1829, do 93. 
William Varnum, do 1814, do 68. 
James Abbott, do 1815, do — . 
Mary Bailey, do 1818, do 84. 
Mary Bailey, 2d, do 1844, do 92. 
Mary Walker, do 1834, do 74. 
Phebe Skeele, do 1836, do 80. 
Anna Bailey, do , do — . 

Dea. Jonathan Elkins, 
Born at Hampton, N. H., 1734 ; married Eliza- 
beth of Chester, N. H., 1756, and in 1760 

removed to Haverhill, N. H., being among the 
first settlers of that town, and coming there in 
very troublous times. From thence in 1776 
he removed with his family to Peacham. 
His was the first family to settle in town, and 
his house the first public house kept in P. 
He was also the first deacon of the Presby- 
terian Church in P., and when that ceased to 
be, filled the same of&ce in the Congregational 
Church. More than any other man, he may 
be called the father of the town. As a pio- 
neer, he was patient, peaceful, persevering ; 
as a citizen, trusty, worthy and honest;, as a 
Christian, exemplary, kind, quiet, submissive. 

He loved peace, and to maintain it, would 
make almost any sacrifice. When the Tories 
took possession of his dwelling, he yielded 
rather than defend it, as being in his circum- 
stances the wisest course, and they left his 
house standing, and him with his family in 
it, excepting his two sons, and one of those 
returned the day aXter, and the other in the 
space of two years. His idea was, conquer 
by mildness, more than by fighting ; to per- 
suade rather than drive, and beseech rather 
than fret and threaten ; and by his gentle, 
yielding temperament, may have averted 
trouble and calamity from the infant settle- 
ment. He died Dec. 4, 1808, aged 74 years. 
His wife died in Peacham, March 7, 1809, 
aged 71 years. 

Col. Jonathan Elkins, 
Son of Dea. E., born in Haverhill, N. H., 
Oct. 23, 1761, came with the family to 
Peacham, and was taken captive by Tories 
in his father's house, March 6, 1781. He 
was marched away on foot, in deep snow, 
direct to Canada, first to Quebec, then carried 
to Ireland, then to England, from whence by 
exchange of prisoners, he returned to his 
friends the following yearii He removed 
from P. about 1836, to Albion, N. Y., where 
he died. He possessed a soldierly element, 
was fearless, hardy, able to endure, met perils 
and dangers with firmness, and could mingle 
in stirring events with self-possession and 
confidence. His memory is held in high 
esteem by those who knew him, as a citizen 
of Peacham in the stirring times of its early 

Hon. William Chamberlain, 
Born at Hopkinton, Mass., April 27, 1753; 
removed with his father to Loudon, N. H., 
1773 ; enlisted a volunteer in the army 1775, 
where he. held the office of orderly sergeant ; 
went with the army at the invasion of Canada ; 
suffered all sorts of privations while so doing, 
especially in the retreat, and was one out of 
the nine officers and privates who remained 
of a company of 70 to take part in the battle 
of Trenton, N. J., that same year. At the 
expiration of his enlistment he returned to 
New Hampshire, but went forth again at the 
invasion of Burgoyne, as a volunteer, was in 
the battle of Bennington, from whence he is 
said to have brought away some trophies of 
personal contest with his Hessian enemies. 
About 1780 he removed to Peacham, being 
then clerk of the proprietors of the town. 
He was town clerk 12 years, justice of the 
peace 24 years, was a member of the con- 



vention for framing a state constitution, 
town representative 11 years, member of 
congress from 1803 to 1805, and from 1809 
to 1811, and lieutenant governor in 1814, the 
last of Ms public and civil offices. He died 
Sept. 27, 1828. 

In private life Gen. C. was upright, a 
friend of order, learning and religion. For 
15 years he Avas president of the board of 
trustees of Peacham Academy and held the 
same office for some years in the County 
Bible Society. He lived to see the wilder- 
ness become a cultivated and populous re- 
gion, and as a matter of far higher moment 
to himself, closed a long, useful and event- 
ful life on earth in humble trust of a better 
life in heaven. 

The Blanchakds. 
Abiel, Peter, Joel, Abel, Reuben and Simon, 
six brothers born in Hollis, N. H., came to 
Peacham about 1780. Strong, stalwart, fear- 
less men, well fitted for the privations and 
hazards of pioneer life, they have left a 
numerous posterity ; and while many are 
dispersed abroad, very many still bear the 
name around the old homestead. The child- 
ren of these six brothers, as shown by the 
town records, amount to 44. 

Ezra Carter, Esq., 
Born at Concord, N. H., Feb. 15, 1773 ; 
graduated at Dartmouth College, 1797; was 
the same year appointed first principal of 
the academy in Peacham, which office he 
held 10 years, and died Oct. 10, 1811, aged 
38 years. 

Though a lawyer by profession, he devoted 
himself principally to teaching. In that 
vocation he was strict almost to sternness, 
and in discipline resorted pretty freely to 
arguments that were more telling and impressive 
than words. He had to cope with the rtide- 
ness and independence of a forming period 
in society, and determined to make heaven's 
first law the motto of his doings. In the 
early history of the town he filled an im- 
portant and useful sphere of action, because 
he had so much to do with its moral and 
mental culture, to give shape and tone to 
methods of study, application and industry. 
Many of his surviving pupils, now aged men 
and women, though not forgetting the dis- 
cipline, bear testimony to his fidelity as a 
teacher, and his worth as a man. 

Hon. John Winthrop Chandler, 
Born in 17G7, the son of Gen. John Chand- 
ler of Newtown, Ct., who died at Peacham, 

March 15, 1796. He was one of the early 
settlers of the town, was successful in his 
business transactions, amassed a large pro- 
perty, and after filling many offices of trust 
and honor, died July 15, 1855, aged 88 years. 
He was assistant judge 6 years, treasurer of 
the Grammar School, and of the town of 
Peacham 34 years, when both these offices 
were transferred to his son, Samuel A. 
Chandler, Esq., who held them till his death, 
Feb. 11, 1855. 

Rev. Leonard Worcester, 
Born in Hollis, N. H., Jan. 1, 1767 ; he Avas 
the third son of Noah Worcester, and of the 
6th generation from Rev. William Worcester, 
who came from England and was settled 
pastor of the first church gathered in Salis- 
bury, Mass., about 1640. The descendants 
of William may be reckoned by hundreds, 
if not thousands, widely scattered over the 
Union. Noah (the father of Leonard) was 
the father of 16 children, and before he died, 
August, 1817, having nearly completed his 
82d year, had noted the natal day of 77 
grandchildren. In a record in his family 
bible, Sept., 1798, he says: "I had eighteen 
children of my own and by mai-riage at my 
table to-day." In all he had 95 grandchild- 
ren, and of these 94 were born to 6 sons 
and 2 daughters. Of his descendants, 17 
have regularly graduated at college, nearly 
half of whom entered the ministry. Six 
others have been in the sacred office. 

The brothers of Leonard who entered the 
ministry were Noah W., D. D., settled in 
Thornton, N. H., Thomas W. settled in 
Salisbury, N. H., and Samuel W., D._ D., 
settled in Fitchburg, then in Salem, Mass. 

Of the sons of Noah, two, Samuel and 
Thomas, entered the ministry. 

Of the sons of Jesse, Henry Aikin W. 
entered the ministry, while his 2d son, 
Joseph Emerson W., LL. D., devoted him- 
self to literary pursuits, noted as the author 
of gazetteers, geographies and dictionaries. 

Of the sons of Samuel, Samuel M., D. D., 
was successor of his father 25 years in the 
ministry at Salem. 

Leonard of Peacham, was the father of 
14 children, of whom Samuel Austin, Evarts, 
Isaac Redington and John Hopkins entered 
the ministry. Four of his sons regularly 
graduated at college, from which it will be 
seen he well sustained the ancient character 
of his ancestors. He served an apprentice- 
ship, beginning in his 18th year, in the 
printing office of Isaiah Thomas, Esq., in 
Worcester, Mass., after which he was for 



several years editor, printer and publisher 
of the Massachuse'tts Spy. This occupation 
gave him great facilities for reading, and 
presented a stimulus for correct composing, 
and he diligently improved his opportunity. 
He learned grammar,' not from grammar 
books, but from a careful reading of stand- 
ard authors, and there he learned the power 
of the English language and how to use it. 
Tn 179-5 he was chosen deacon of the. first 
church in Worcester, of which Samuel 
Austin, D. D., was pastor, and turning his at- 
■ tention to the study of theology, was licensed 
to preach the gospel March 12, 1799, at the 
house of Dr. Emmons, Franklin, Mass. He 
came to Peacham in June the same year, 
preached a few sabbaths, and being unani- 
mously invited to settle in the ministry, was 
installed Oct. 30, 1799. It was a prosp.erous 
ministry of 40 years ; during that time 571 
were added to the church. He succeeded 
admirably in uniting the people in himself, 
and for more than 31 years of his pastorate, 
his was the only organized church and so- 
ciety in Peacham, and when he closed his 
ministry, it was in. point of numbers among 
the foremost in the state. At that time one- 
fourth of the population of the town were 
professing Christians. 

The writer of these lines never heard or 
saw Mr. W. ; but he sees among the people 
the presence of an influence, which he trusts 
will not soon pass away. Few ministers 
leave behind them a more healthy and abid- 
ing impression. His habits of punctuality, 
exactness in the common dealings of life, his 
conscientious regard for right and wrong in 
all public and private transactions, his indig- 
nant rebukes when judgment was perverted 
by men in power, his kind and gentle treat- 
ment of the serious and thoughtful^ both 
young and old, his style of preaching, so 
free from effort at efi^ect and sensation, so 
straightforward, so simple, yet solemn and 
earnest, gi-ave, methodical, evangelical, these 
gave him power, and his memory is blessed. 
Such a ministry of 40years could hardly fail to 
do a great and good work for the people. The 
town, indeed, owes much to him for the order- 
ly, moral, religious elements yet existing in 
the habit of attending public worship, punc- 
tuality therein, and a prevalent bias of feeling 
toward evangelical religion. The house in 
which he so long lived still stands, and his 
grave is among us. A massive granite 
monument marks the spot. — fitting memorial 
of such a man. In a sermon preached on 
the occasion of his death by Rev. D. Mei-rill 
who knew him well, he thus speaks : 

"His personal appearance was tall, com- 
manding, and of full proportions in middle 
life, erect to the last, strong, compact, and 
capable of much endurance, a fit habitation 
for such a mind. He never appeared in the 
pulpit without full written preparation, and 
what he had written, he had written. His 
voice was strong, clear, and sweet, and his 
manner ardent and energetic. Yet with all 
his resolution and force of mind, he was na- 
turally bashful, and easily put to the blush. 
His defects were such as belong to his pecu- 
liar cast of mind — an independent spirit 
could scarcely brook control or desert a po- 
sition once taken — a sanguine temperament 
that could hardly conceive itself wrong. 
There was the honest, ih.^ just, and the pure ; 
but too slight an admixture of the lovely and 
the amiable. But these defects disappeared 
in great measure as he advanced in life. 
May 28, 1846, he finished his course and re- 
tired to rest, but his works live after him, 
not only in this, the principal scene of his 
labors, but wherever the young people of 
Peacham are scattered. They will feel when 
they learn of his death, that a. great man 
has fallen." 

Mr. Worcester was town clerk of Peacham 
34 years, a trustee in the Grammar School 
27 years, and president of the board 10 years. 
Several sermons of his preached on special 
occasions, were published. 

He married for his first wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Rev. Samuel Hopkins, D. D., of 
Hadley, Mass., Nov. 1, 1793; foi' his second 
wife, Eunice Woodbury of Salem, Mass., 
Jan. 25, 1820, who survived him only about 
3 months. 

Rev. David Merkill, 
The successor of Mr. Worcester, and son of 
Jesse and Priscilla Merrill, was born at 
Peacham, Sept. 8, 1798. He was of the 
7th generation from Nathaniel Merrill, who 
settled in Ipswich, Mass., in 1638. His 
parents came to Peacham in March, 1789. 
Their children, all born in Peacham, were 
10 sons and 3 daughters. Three of their 
sons have been members of Dartmouth 
College ; James, the oldest, graduated in 
1812; David in 1821. 

He made a profession of religion in 1817, 
along with 69 others, who united with the 
church the same day. Turning his attention 
to the work of the ministry he graduated at 
Andover, in 1825; was licensed to preach 
the gospel the same j'ear, and the year after 
emigrated to the west. After preaching in 
various places in Indiana and Illinois, he 



came ia 1827 to Urbana, 0., was installed 
over the Presbyterian Church in that town, 
and there remained 14 years. Unanimously 
invited to succeed Mr. W. at Peacham, the 
invitation was accepted, and he was installed 
Sept. 9, 1841. 

Mr. Merrill was the author of the popular 
temperance tract — Ox Sermon. It was 
written and published in a village newspa- 
per in Urbana, in 1832. The Temperance 
Society next .published it in an extra news- 
paper form, issuing more than 2,000,000 co- 
pies. Next it was adopted as a permanent 
tract by the American Tract Society, who 
printed more than 200,000 copies. In this 
way it has had an immense circulation, and 
no doubt done great good. That sermon 
reveals the cast of his mind, as original, 
shrewd, logical, sagacious. One who knew 
what he was going to say, and having said, 
knew when to stop. Having taken his posi- 
tion, he was not easily driven therefrom. 
He respected human authorities, but his 
convictions were superior to authorities, the 
Bible being his great guide in policy and 
theology. As a preacher, earnest, sincere, 
awakening, he made a most faithful applica- 
tion of truth to the hearts and consciences 
of his hearers. Dying in "manhood's mid- 
dle day," he still lives, and will long live in 
the hearts of many, both east and west. He 
died of erysipelas, after a short and distress- 
ing sickness of four days, July 22, 1850, aged 
51 years. 

A volume of his sermons, compiled by 
Thomas Scott Pearson, was published in 
1855, to which is prefixed a short biographi- 
cal memoir. It is a fact of interest that the 
last sermon in the volume, from the text 
*' What I do thou knowest not now, but thou 
shalt know hereafter," was never preached. 
He left a widow and 10 children, of whom 
all but one are living at this writing. 

Rev. Ora Pearson, 
Born in Chittenden, Oct. 6, 1797, graduated 
at Middlebury College in 1820, and at An- 
dover Theological Seminary in 1824. In 
1826 was settled as pastor at Kingston, New 
Hampshire, where he remained seven years, 
after which he labored 3^ years as a mis- 
sionary in Canada East, and next settled 
over the churches of Glover and Barton, 
where he remained 6 years. The last 6 
' years of his life was spent in Peacham, where 
he died July 5, 1858, aged 60 years. Bereft 
of his eyesight, at about 50 years of age he 
ceased to act as pastor, though continuing 
to preach as opportunity presented till his 

last sickness. He Mas a good man, of un- 
feigned humility of spirit, Christlike, tender, 
peaceable, conscientious, earnest in his work 
and in his convictions, a man of prayer, of 
faith and love, dying in calm and joyful 
hope of entering the saints' everlasting rest. 

Rev. Samuel Austin Worcester, 
Born in Worcester, Mass., Jan. 19, 1798; the 
3d son of Leonard W., graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Vermont, 1819, and at Andover, 
1823 ; went as a missionary to the Cherokee 
Indians in 1825 ; was stationed at Brainard, 
East Tennessee, till 1827, then removed to 
Georgia. In Sept., 1831, was imprisoned in 
the Georgia Penitentiary for refusing to 
comply with unjust state requirements, 
bearing on the Indians within its borders, 
where he continued till Jan. 14, 1833 — 16 
months, when he was released and returned 
to his former place of labor. After various 
removals, he finally went with the tribe to 
the Indian Territory, and died at Park Hill, 
April 20, 1858. He was a man of great 
wisdom, firmness, courage, consistency and 
devotedness, eminently fitted for the post he 
held among the Indians in the turbulent 
scenes through which he passed, occasioned 
by the forcible removal of the Indians from 
the state of Georgia. 

Rev. Evarts Worcester, 
Fourth son of Leonard, was born at Peacham 
March 24, 1807 ; graduated at Dartmouth, 
in 1830, was principal of Peacham Academy, 
one year, a tutor in Dartmouth College one 
year, and resided in Hanover, pursuing 
theological studies till 1836, when he was 
ordained pastor of the Congregational Church 
in Littleton, N. H., where he died the same 
year, Oct. 21. He was a distinguished 
scholar, and had he lived would unquestion- 
ably have attained a high rank in his pro- 

Rev. Isaac R. Worcester, 
Fifth son of Leonard, was born at Peacham, 
Oct. 30, 1808, received a medical degree at 
Dartmouth in 1831; ordained pastor of the 
Congregational Church in Littleton, N. H., 
1837 ; dismissed 1842 ; now an assistant 
secretary of the American Board, and resides 
at Auburndale, Mass. 

Rev. John H. Worcester, 
Sixth son of Leonard, born at Peacham, May 
28, 1812; graduated at Dartmouth, 1833; 
tutor at Dartmouth one year, ordained over 
Congregational Church at St. Johnsbury, 
1839 ; dismissed in 1846 ; installed at Bur- 



lington, 1847 ; dismissed Oct. 11, 1854; now 
resides at Burlington. 

JosiAH Shedd, M. D., 
Born at Eindge, N. H., 1781. He received 
a medical diploma at Dartmouth College. 
Spent nearly all his professional life in this 
town; was regarded as a skillful practi- 
tioner, a successful financier, a man of in- 
tegrity, energy and firmness of character. 
He died suddenly of apoplexy, Sept. 4, 1851, 
aged 70 years. 

Hon. Thaddeus Stevens. 
He fitted for college in our Grammar 
School, and graduated at Dartmouth College, 
A. D. 1815 ; for a time pursued the study of 
law in the ofiice of John Mattocks, Esq., of 
this town ; and this town, more than any 
other place, was his early home. Here lived 
the family, and the graves of his parents 
are among us. From Peacham he went to 
Gettysburg, Pa., thence to Lancaster, Pa. 
He is at this time a member of congress 
(1861), and for several preceding sessions 
has served his country in that position. He 
has just been reelected by a large majority 
to the next congress. 

Hon. John C. Blanchard, 
Was born in Peacham, 1787, and graduated 
at Dartmouth in 1812. After graduating 
he taught in York, Pa., two years, reading 
law at the same time. He then went into 
practice at Bellefont, Pa. Was elected to 
congress in 1844, and took his seat in 1845. 
He died in 1849 at Lancaster, Pa., while 
on his way home from Washington. 

Mellen and William Chamberlain, 
Sons of Hon. William Chamberlain. Mellen, 
born June 17, 1795, graduated at Dartmouth 
in 1816 ; was in the practice of law some 
years in the state of Maine, and while mak- 
ing the tour of Europe, drowned in the river 
Danube, May 14, 1840. His grave is on the 
banks of the Danube, province of Servia, 
empire of Austria. 

William, born May 24, 1797; graduated 
at Dartmouth in 1818; in 1820 was elected 
professor of languages in his alma mater, and 
so continued till his death, July 11, 1830. 

The following inhabitants of Peacham are 
graduates of college : 

Clergymen. — Samuel A. Worcester, Evarts 
Worcester, John H. Worcester, David Merrill, 
Horace Herrick, Ephraim W. Clark, John 
Mattocks, William Walker, Elnathan Strong. 

Lawyers. — Thaddeus Stevens, John C. 
Blanchard, Nathaniel Blanchard, William 
C. Carter, George B. Chandler, S. A. Chand- 
ler, 0. P. Chandler, William Mattocks, James 
Merrill, David Gould, A. A. Kix, James 
Stuart, John A. Gilfillan. 

In other callings. — Leonard Worcester, 
Enoch Blanchard 1st, Enoch Blanchard 2d, 
Mellen Chamberlain, William Chamberlain, 
George Mattocks, Moses Hall, William Var- 
num, Willard Thayer, William Bradlee, Wil- 
liam W. Moore, Ephraim Elkins, Lyman S 
Watts. Total, 35. 

Public Life and Character or Governor 


Editor of the Vermont Hist. Magazine : 

You write to obtain information of the 
public life and character of Gov. Mattocks, 
from one who was acquainted with him. It 
is true I was long acquainted with him, but 
not intimately, till the last years of his life. 
I send you the following sketch drawn from 
personal knowledge and other sources : 

Hon. John Mattocks was born at Hartford, 
Conn., March 4, 1777. His father, who was 
treasurer of the state of Vermont from 1785 
to 1801, came with his family about the year 
1778 or 1779, and settled in Tinmouth, Kut- 
land county, Vt. His youngest son became 
the fourteenth governor of Vermont. Hav- 
ing been admitted to practice law before he 
was 21 years of age, he opened an ofiice in 
Danville, Caledonia county, and commenced 
the practice of his profession in 1797, but 
the next year removed to Peacham in the 
same county, where he resided till his death. 
In a few years he became a celebrated law- 
yer, and ultimately a very popular man, be- 
ing elected to every ofiice for which he was 
a candidate. He was one of the great men of 
Caledonia county, indeed he was one of the 
eminent men of the state of Vermont. He 
practised law about 50 years, the most of 
the time in the courts of four counties. He 
has often been engaged in every jury trial 
at a whole session at the county court, and 
won every case. He represented Peacham 
in the legislature of Vermont in 1807, and 
again in 1815 and 1816, and also in 1828 and 
1824 ; and was a member of the constitu- 
tional convention of 1835, when the measure 
for a state senate was adopted, and which 
he advocated. During the last war with 
Great Britain he was brigadier-general of 
militia in this part of the state. He was 
judge of the supreme court of the state in 
1883 and 1834, but declined a reelection on 



account of domestic afflictions. He was a 
representative in congress from Vermont in 
1821-1828, 1825-1827, and 1841-1843, and 
was governor of Vermont in 1843-4. It is 
the opinion of good judges that in many re- 
spects he resembled the celebrated lawyer, 
Jeremiah Mason of New Hampshire. 

He did not receive a liberal education, but 
was a self-educated man. " My brother," 
said he, "rode through college to the law, 
but I came up afoot." He possessed in an 
uncommon degree "the sanguine tempera- 
ment," as physiologists call it, being dis- 
tinctly characterized by vigor, vivacity and 
activity of mind, a ready and retentive me- 
mory, lively feelings and a humorous disposi- 
tion. Indeed so strong and active were his 
mind and memory, that a book which a good 
lawyer would take a number of days to 
master thoroughly for practical purposes, he 
could devour and digest in a day, storing 
its contents away in his capacious memory 
ready for future use. His wonderful talent 
of appropriating the contents of books ena- 
bled him, though altogether a practical man, 
to obtain a tolerable knowledge of standSh-d 
English, and the current literature of the 
day, as well as a considerable acquaintance 
with history. His style, as may be seen in 
his reported judicial opinions, was direct 
and forcible, using few words to convey his 
thoughts. His concentration of mind and 
power of analysis and illustration were so 
great that he had an admirable faculty of 
presenting facts and points in a clear and 
convincing manner, and his address had a 
peculiar aptitude to the case under consi- 

In stature he was about 5 feet 10 inches 
high, with a large robust frame inclined to 
corpulency, but with a very healthy appear- 
ance. Active, energetic, industrious and 
prompt, he did much work, which was well 
done and done in due season. He had a 
superior way of examining witnesses, but his 
great and universally acknowledged power 
as a lawyer was advocacy before a jury. Here 
he stood unrivaled among great lawyers. 
His success was almost certain, especially 
when he had the closing argument. His 
power as an advocate was not owing to his 
eloquence as an orator. It did not consist 
in long and loud speaking. He had not a 
copious flow of fine words "like flaxseed 
running out of a bag " to use one of his own 
comparisons with respect to flowery pleading 
and preaching. He employed no rhetorical 
flourishes or fanciful sketches to fascinate 
the jury. But in a familiar and colloquial 

manner he talked the whole matter over with 
them and he talked his side of the case into them. 
In a manner really ingenious and artful, but 
apparently frank, fair, and artless, he con- 
vinced them that his client was in the right 
and ought to gain the case. He seized upon 
the strong points of his case with consummate 
skill and ability and urged his natural and 
simple logic with such power and perspicuity 
that any man of common sense could easily 
comprehend the case. He excelled also in 
making the most out of a series of circum- 
stances, not always harmonious, and was long 
celebrated for his skill and tact in managing 
criminal cases. His knowledge of hum^n na- 
ture, which was deep and extensive, he suc- 
cessfully employed in his profession. As a 
book lawyer he was not so remarkable, for 
although he had such an acquaintance with 
the books as readily to find what he wanted, 
yet his mind was too active and impulsive to 
plod patiently among authorities. So acute 
and rapid were his mental operations that he 
grasped a knotty point instantly, as if by in- 
tuition, and solved the legal problem in some 
quick mysterious manner quite incomprehen- 
sible to ordinary minds. As a judge he was 
cautious and upright, desiring to do justice to 
all. His reported dissenting opinion given in 
the Supreme Court with respect to the Christ- 
ian sabbath agrees with the word of God and 
the laws of the state. His views on this im- 
portant subject were sound and Christian. 
He had warm sympathies for his fellow-men, 
and could not have been an oppressor, a per- 
secutor, or an inquisitor, had he lived in the 
dark ages when oppression and superstition 
prevailed. Ever ready to relieve the poor, 
his charities were like numerous rivulets 
which water a wide space. When a member 
of congress and governor of the state he took 
an early and decided stand against human 
bondage. In a speech he made in congress 
when he presented a petition for the abolition 
of slavery in the District of Columbia, he 
said, ^^ I present this petition because I believe 
in my soul, that the prayer thereof ought to be 
granted, so as to free this land of liberty from 
the national and damning sin of slavery in this 
our own bailiwick, the District of Columbia." 

As he was intelligent and social, his con- 
versation was interesting and instructive. 
He was universally acknowledged to be a 
keen and ready wit. The lightning-like ope- 
rations of his mind and his prompt memory, 
always gave him ready command of all his 
resources, which were numerous and diver- 
sified. His wit consisted in combinations of 
these materials adapted to the subject and 



occasion. His witty sayings were sometimes 
very pungent, but in general they were harm- 
less pleasantries. His fund of anecdotes was 
inexhaustible, and both in public and pri- 
vate, he illustrated the subject with pertinent 
anecdotes well told in few words. His con- 
versation was sprightly, and he enjoyed a 
hearty laugh. He was fond of joking, even 
with strangers. One evening at the place of 
his residence, he heard an agent of the Co- 
lonization Society represent its claims in a 
manner so forcible that he thought him a 
good beggar in a good cause. The next morn- 
ing the agent called upon the governor and 
in a general conversation, asked him "what 
is the chief business in this place at pre- 
sent ?" ^^ Begging, ^^ quickly replied the go- 
vernor, " is now the chief business," at the 
same time slily slipping some gold into the 
agent's hand, for which he thanked him. 
"Not at all," said the governor, "/ thank 
you, sir." "Why thank me?" asked the 
agent. " Because," answered the governor, 
"you let me off so easy." In a tight pinch he 
was very adroit in devising ingenious and 
prompt expedients for effectual deliverance 
from difficulty. He wrote such a hasty and 
imperfect hand, that sometimes he could not 
read it himself, but which, his brother, a 
lawyer in the country, could decipher. 
Going to trial before the County Court on 
one occasion he had such difficulty to read 
the writ, though written with his own hand, 
that the judge questioned the correctness of 
his reading, when he instantly gave it to his 
brother, saying, "You are college learned, 
read that writ." At one time when return- 
ing from the court at Guildhall, he lodged on 
Saturday night in the town of W., then a 
new settlement, where they had no public wor- 
ship. The next day he went home through 
Barnet, intending to worship with the Pres- 
byterians in that town (whose religious prin- 
ciples and practices he esteemed so highly 
as to refer to them with approbation in a re- 
ported opinion he gave from the bench of 
the Supreme Court), and to hear their vene- 
rable minister. Rev. David Goodwillie, whom 
he held in high estimation, preach. The 
next morning the sheriff from Barnet arrested 
him at his residence in Peacham and took 
him to Barnet, to be tried upon a charge of 
violating the law of the state by traveling 
on the sabbath in prosecution of his secular 
affairs. Arraigned before a sage Scotch 
Presbyterian justice, he called for a jury, and 
by exercising his right of challenge, he got 
a number of Presbyterians on the jury, 
knowing they were strict observers of the 

sanctity of the sabbath. Having produced 
his testimony, he freely admitted that he 
went home from court on the sabbath, but in 
his defence he said, " The court at Guildhall 
sat so late on Saturday I had not time to go 
home that evening. The next morning I 
found that there was no public worship in 
the town of W., where I lodged on Saturday 
night. It being my custom to attend church 
on sabbath, I came to Barnet to worship 
with the Presbyterians whom I know to be 
sound in the faith and right in practice, and 
to hear their intelligent and pious pastor 
preach. But I was disappointed, for when I 
came to their church door I found that their 
worthy minister was officiating out of town 
that day. I was then half way home, and 
instead of returning to the place whence I 
came that morning, I went home, knowing 
my residence was in a better place than the 
wicked town of W. where there is no church, 
no clergyman, no public worship, no sabbath 
and no religion." The court having heard his 
witnesses and defence, immediately with- 
drew the action and discharged him from 
arrest. He then generously entertained the 
court and company at his own expense. 

About the time he became governor of the 
state, I was sent to him by the board of 
trustees of Caledonia County Academy to 
procure from him a piece of his land to com- 
plete the site for the new academy. When 
shown what was wanted, he instantly gave 
it as a donation to the academy, although the 
land was a part of his mansion garden. 
After returning to his house, we engaged for 
some time in relating anecdotes, respecting 
the folly and wickedness of dueling, as a 
member of congress had been lately mur- 
dered in a duel. About to depart I related 
an anecdote, which convulsed the governor 
with laughter. I bid him farewell and left 
him still laughing heartily, but the next time 
I saw him, which was not long afterwards, 
oh how sadly changed ! The shocking death 
of his youngest son, a college graduate, then 
at home, produced lamentable effects upon 
his mind and body, which lasted as long as 
he lived, although he recovered from them in 
a good degree. But there is reason to believe 
that a gracious Providence overruled this 
heart-rending event for his spiritual interest 
and eternal welfare. At the grave of the 
'deceased, he said to the multitude that at- 
tended the funeral, "With the mangled body 
of my son, I bury my ambition and love of 
the world, and God grant that they may 
never revive." Regretting the errors and 
delinquencies of his past life, he settled his 



worldly affairs, made his last will and testa- 
ment, declined a re-election to the office of 
governor of the state, and joined the Con- 
gregational Church of Peacham, of which 
he continued a member till death. His creed 
was Calvinistic, embracing the great doc- 
trines of the gospel. He always preferred 
such sermons as were deeply doctrinal 
and practical. Through life he refrain- 
ed from secular affairs on the sabbath, 
and it was his constant practice to attend 
church on that holy day. He was never rude 
nor insolent, but courteous to all. He was 
particularly spoken of, and is gratefully re- 
membered by many, for the assistance and 
encouragement he almost uniformly gave to 
young men, and markedly so to those of his 
own profession. He always acted in an 
honorable manner towards his fellow law- 
yers and judges, and his clients were his firm 
friends. His great success as a lawyer, 
though his charges not were exorbitant, laid 
the foundation of an ample fortune. Be- 
sides the donations bestowed on his children 
after he gave them a liberal education, his 
property at death was valued at $80,000. 
He died August 14, 1847, aged 70 years. 
His funeral was attended by a great concourse 
of people from different and distant parts. 
Three sons survived him — one of whom be- 
came a clergyman, another a physician, and 
a third a lawyer. 

Thomas Scott Peabson, 
by mrs. l. h. kendall. 

Son of Rev. Ora and M. K. Pearson, was 
born at Kingston, N. H., Sept. 14, 1828. His 
religious birth dates about the age of seven- 
teen. He entered Middlebury College in 
1847, and was graduated in 1851 ; for the 
year subsequent was principal of Addison 
County Grammar School, at Middlebury, and 
librarian of the College. 

In 1852, he became principal of Caledonia 
County Grammar School, Peacham, which 
position he filled with great acceptance 
until compelled by ill health to resign in 
the spring of 1855. The summer of 1855 was 
passed under medical care, and in traveling 
for his health ; the autumn and winter of the 
same year, in part, in completing a catalogue 
of the library of Middlebury College. In 
the spring of 1856, he became connected, as 
teacher, with Kimball Union Academy, at 
Meriden, N. H. ; a post, however, he was 
soon obliged, in consequence of increasing 
feebleness, to relinquish. In August, he left 
his home in Peacham to try the effect of the 
western climate upon his still failing health ; 

but death had placed his seal upon him. He 
died at Indianapolis, Ind., Nov. 10, 1856. 

To a stranger, this is but a short and 
common-place story ; to those who knew 
Mr. Pearson, a brief outline of an earnest, 
well-spent life. 

As " the boy is father of the man," so 
there early appeared in the subject of this 
sketch those traits of character which enno- 
bled maturer years. Orderly, conscientious, 
truthful, eminently persevering, obtaining a 
ready mastery of the rudiments of know- 
ledge, and exhibiting withal a marked predi- 
lection for the gathering up and classification 
of facts, he became early distinguished as a 
reliable, intelligent boy, and in later years 
as the devoted son and brother, the faithful 
friend, the trusted pupil, the indefatigable 
teacher, the upright citizen, and the consis- 
tent Christian. As a Christian, he was always 
in his place. His seat in the prayer-meeting 
was seldom vacant, nor his voice silent there ; 
as a sabbath school teacher and superin- 
tendent, it is believed he accomplished much 

Although gifted with unusual conversa- 
tional powers, having rare fluency of utter- 
ance, an inexhaustible fund of anecdote, and 
a keen perception of the ludicrous, he rarely, 
if ever, indulged in unseemly mirth, or uttered 
a word inconsistent with his profession as a 
Christian. In religion, as in every thing 
else, he was in earnest, doing with his might 
whatsoever his hand found to do. His early 
fondness for collecting facts, alluded to, 
strengthened with his years. He was always 
on the alert for items of value, for all which 
he had a place and a use. While maintain- 
ing a high rank as a scholar, and defraying 
most of his college expenses by teaching, he 
made this remarkable talent effective in the 
preparation of several important works, viz., 
the triennial catalogues of Middlebury Col- 
lege, which he greatly improved ; an elabo- 
rate catalogue of the college library ; the 
biographical catalogue of the graduates of 
Middlebury College, believed to be the most 
thorough and complete work of the kind 
ever published in this country; obituary 
notices of deceased members of the alumni ; 
the literary remains and memoir of Rev. 
David Merrill. And in addition to these, a 
large amount of unpublished material, which, 
had he lived, might have been wrought into 
works of value. The remarkable manner in 
which all this was accomplished, clearly in- 
dicated the work for which he was peculiarly 
adapted. His talent was becoming widely 
known and appreciated. He was elected 



resident member of the N. E. Historic-Gene- 
alogical Society, and his death was noticed 
by this and several- other societies. 

But there was another, a moral trait, as 
beautiful as rare, deserving of especial men- 
tion; it was filial piety. Loss of eyesight 
and impaired health had rendered his father 
unable to labor for the support of the family 
as in former years, and so this noble son 
assumed and fully met the heavy responsi- 

Reluctant to lose even a day, he had 
resumed his duties as teacher, after an 
attack of illness, before health had become 
fully established. Reduced as he was previ- 
ously by unremitting toil, it was too much 
for him ; and his system gave way and con- 
sumption began its insidious work. While 
it was evident he was gradually loosening 
his hold on earthly things, still there was so 
much work to be done, he would make one 
effort more for health and life. Counseled 
by physicians, he decided to try the west. 
He arranges his study,* sacred to him by 
many hallowed associations, gives a parting 
glance at his varied treasures gathered there. 
One more prayer and he turns the key upon 
the place dearest to him on earth. With a 
full heart but chastened spirit, and a calm, 
manly bearing, he gives to each member of 
the household a tender, affectionate farewell 
and goes forth from his home forever. A few 
weeks of weary, fruitless wandering among 
strangers, were terminated by distressing 
sickness and death. It was a mysterious 
providence that led him from home only to 
suffer and to die, away from the affectionate 
ministrations of his kindred. This it was, 
doubtless, that in his delirium caused him 
to utter in vain the bitter cry, " My mother ! 
take me to my mother!" It was, perhaps, 
the last needful refining process with which 
God often visits his children, just before he 
takes them to himself. 

Neighbors and friends in Peacham, to 
whom he had become greatly endeared, 
rested not until his remains were brought 
from their grave in the distant prairie to 
rest on the sunny slope of one of their own 
green hills. The marble that marks the 
spot bears the fitting sentence, "Not sloth- 
ful in business ; fervent in spirit ; serving 
the Lord." 

* This room is kept as he left it— large accumulations 
of newspaper files, hooks, manuscripts, ns his own hands 
arranged, In collating Addison county for the Gazetteer, 
his biographical catalogue of the college had been afavorite 
text book. We stood as in our dead master's room— a 
large, well-fiiled, antiquarian treasure-room — during a 
day spent with this interesting family, in the summer 
of 1860.-SZ. 


Requesting Mr. Merrill to prepare a Sermon to 
be Preached on the occasion of his Death. 
St. Johnsbury, Jan. 3, 1844. 
It has long seemed to me that, in obituary 
notices of Christians and Christian ministers, 
in funeral sermons and in Christian biogra- 
phies, there is, much too commonly, some- 
thing like high wrought panegyric — some- 
thing which approaches very near, and some- 
times quite reaches to gross adulation — to 
me, things of this nature are always un- 
pleasant — I had almost said disgusting. In 
relation to myself, I am sure any thing of 
this sort would be utterly out of place ; and 
it is my earnest desire that, by every one 
who may have occasion to say anything con- 
cerning me, after my decease, it may be 
most carefully avoided. Living and dying, 
my prayer must be, "God be merciful to me 
a sinner." And though I would not dictate 
as to the text for a sermon at my funeral, I 
do not think of one better adapted to the 
occasion than this prayer of the publican, or 
the declaration of Paul to Timothy, which 
has been a favorite text in my preaching, 
"It is a faithful saying and worthy of all 
acceptation that Jesus Christ came into the 
world to save sinners." I think that neither 
of these texts could legitimately suggest any 
inflated eulogy in speaking of a poor un- 
worthy sinner. 

A word or two now in relation to my de- 
sire that my remains may be laid in the 
grave in Peacham. When I was sick at 
Littleton, a respected and beloved brother 
of our church made me a visit ; and having 
understood that I had expressed such a de- 
sire, in allusion to it, remarked that he had 
felt that it would be of no consequence 
where he should be buried ; intending I sup- 
pose to intimate that he thought my desire 
to be, to say the least, a childish one. His 
remark however, produced no change in my 
feelings. And when I find in my Bible, that 
good old Jacob exacted an oath of his son 
Joseph, that he would bury him in the cave 
of Machpelah with his venerable grand- 
parents and parents, and one of his deceased 
wives, which was done at no little expense; 
and that Joseph himself also exacted an 
oath of the children of Israel, that they 
should take his bones with them when they 
should return to Canaan, that they might be 
buried in the land of promise, I can not but 
hope it need not be thought either unrea- 



sonable, or very strange, under all the cir- 
cumstances of the case, that I should desire 
that my poor remains may be interred in 
Peacham, in preference to any other place. 
There for almost forty years of my life I 
found a pleasant home, and in my poor way 
performed the duties of the ministry, en- 
deavoring "to testify the gospel of the grace 
of God." There, too, I was made the hum- 
ble instrument of gathering a goodly num- 
ber into the visible fold of the Good Shep- 
herd, no small proportion of whom, I 
humbly trust, will be found among those 
on his right hand, in the day of his appear- 
ing. There is the grave of the beloved wife 
of my youth, the mother of my numerous 
family of children, and the graves of more 
than half these dear children themselves. 
Yes, and there too no small number of the 
members of that beloved church and society, 
to whom I ministered the gospel of the Son 
of God so long, have been gathered into the 
congregation of the dead; and there, no 
doubt, many more of them, and you my 
dear brother, it may be, among them, will 
yet be gathered together into that same con- 
gregation. There too, I freely own, if the 
Lord will, I would that my poor remains may 
rest with them until "the voice of the Arch- 
angel, and the trump of God" shall call us 
all from thence. And 0, that we may all, 

" Then burst the chains in sweet surprise, 
And in our Saviour's image rise," 

and go away to be forever with the Lord. 

I add one item more. It seems to me a 
somewhat remarkable fact that, although 
thirty ministers have been ordained or in- 
stalled pastors of churches in Caledonia 
county, only seven of whom, including my- 
self, now retain that relation, and four of 
whom certainly, and others not improbably, 
have deceased, yet no one of them has ever 
died, or found his grave among the people 
of his charge here. One only (Brother 
Wright) has deceased, sustaining his pas- 
toral relation ; and he died and was buried, 
not among the people of his charge, in 
Hardwick, but among his former charge in 
Montpelier village — my son Evarts is the 
only minister of our order who has yet 
found his grave in this county. 

Your very affectionate brother 

In the bonds of the gospel, 

Leonard Woecester. 

Rev. David Merrill. 



Among the laws given by the Divine Law- 
giver through Moses to the Jews, was the 
following: "If an ox gore a man or a wo- 
man that they die, then the ox shall be 
stoned — but the owner shall be quit. But 
if the ox were wont to push with his horn in 
time past, and it hath been testified to his 
owner, and he hath not kept him in, but he 
hath killed a man or a woman, the ox shall 
be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to 
death." — Exodus, xxi, 28, 29. 

The principle of this law is a very plain 
one — and a very broad one — here applied 
in a specific case, but extending to ten thou- 
sand others. It is this. Every man is re- 
sponsible to God for the evils which result 
from his selfishness, or his indifference to 
the welfare of others. * * * * 

The principle of ^his law is a principle of 
common sense. * * * Every man is re- 
sponsible for evils which result from his own 
selfishness or indifference to the lives of men. 
In other words, to make a man responsible 
for results, it is not necessary to prove that 
he has malice, or that he intended the re- 
sults. The highwayman had no malice 
against him he robs and murders, nor does 
he desire his death, but his money, and if 
he can get the money he does not care. And 
he robs and murders because he loves him- 
self and does not care for others ; acting in 
a different way, but on the same selfish prin- 
ciple with the owner of the ox, and on the 
very same principle is he held responsible. 

In the trial of the owner of the ox, the 
only questions to be asked were these two : 
Was the ox wont to push with his horn in 
time past? Did the owner know it when 
he let him loose? If both these questions 
were answered in the affirmative, the owner 
was responsible for all the consequences. 
This is a rule which God himself has esta- 

I. Is Intoxicating Liquor wont to produce 
misery, and wretchedness, and death? Has 
this been testified to those who make and 
deal in it as a beverage ? If these two 
things can be established, the inference is 
inevitable — they are responsible on a prin- 
ciple perfectly intelligible, a principle recog- 
nised and proclaimed, and acted upon by 
God himself. 

Turn then your attention to these two 
facts : 

1. Intoxicating liquor is wont to produce 



2. Those who make or traffic in it know 
this. * * * -K- * * * 

The greatest Avretchedness which human 
nature in the world is called to endure, is 
connected with the use of inebriating drink. 
There is nothing else that degrades and de- 
bases man like it — nothing so mean that a 
drunkard will not stoop to it — nothing too 
base for him to do to obtain his favorite 
drink. Nothing else so sinks the whole 
man — so completely destroys, not only all 
moral principle, but all self-respect, all re- 
gard to character, all shame, all human 
feeling. The drunkard can break out from 
every kind of endearing connection and 
break over every kind of restraint ; so com- 
pletely extinct is human feeling, that he can 
be drunk at the funeral of his dearest re- 
lative, and call for drink in the last accents 
of expiring nature. 

Now look at a human being, whom God 
has made for noble purposes and endowed 
with noble faculties, degraded, disgraced, 
polluted, unfit foi- heaven, and a nuisance 
on earth. He is the centre of a circle — 
count up his influence in his family and his 
neighborhood — the wretchedness he endures, 
and the wretchedness he causes — count up 
the tears of a wretched wife who curses the 
day of her espousals, and of wretched child- 
ren who curse the day of their birth. To 
all this positive evil which intoxicating 
liquor has caused, add the happiness which 
but for it this family might have enjoyed 
and communicated. Go through a neighbor- 
hood or a town in this way, count up all the 
misery which follows in the train of intoxi- 
cating liquor, and you will be ready to ask, 
can the regions of eternal death send forth 
any thing more deadly ? Wherever he goes 
the same cry may be heard — lamentation, 
and mourning, and wo ; and whatever things 
are pure, or lovely, or venerable, or of good 
report, fall before it. These are its effects. 
Can any man deny that "the ox is wont to 
push with his horn?" 

II. Has this been testified to the owner? or 
are the makers and venders aware of its 
effects ? The effects are manifest, and they 
have eyes, ears and understandings as well 
as others. ****** 

Look at the neighborhood of a distillery — 
an influence goes forth from that spot which 
reaches miles around — a kind of constrain- 
ing influence that brings in the poor, and 
wretched, and thirsty, and vicious. Those 
who have money bring it — those who have 
none bi-ing corn — those who have neither 

bring household furniture — those who have 
nothing bring themselves and pay in labor. 
Now the maker knows all these men, and 
knows their temperament, and probably 
knows their families. He can calculate ef- 
fects, and he sends them off, one to die by 
the way, another to abuse his family, and 
another just ready for any deed .of wicked- 
ness. Will he say that he is not responsi- 
ble, and like Cain ask, "Am I my brother's 
keeper?" The ox was wont to push with 
his horn, and he knew it ; and for a little 
paltry gain he let him loose, and God will 
support his law by holding him responsible 
for the consequences. 

But a common excuse is, that "very little 
of our manufacture is used in the neighbor- 
hood : we send it off." And are its effects 
any less deadly ? In this way you avoid 
seeing the effects, and poison strangers in- 
stead of neighbors. What would you say to 
a man who traded in clothes infected with 
the small-pox or cholera, and who would say 
by way of apology, that he sent them off, he 
did not sell any in the neighborhood ? Good 
man ! he is willing to send disease and death 
all abroad ! but he is too kind hearted to ex- 
pose his neighbors. Would you not say to 
him, you may send them off, but you can 
not send off the responsibility ? The eye of 
God goes with them, and all the misery 
which they cause will be charged to you. 
So we say to the man who sends off his 
intoxicating liquor. 

" But if I do not make it and traffic in it, 
somebody else will." What sin or crime 
can not be excused in this way ? I know of 
a plot to rob my neighbor ; if I do not 
plunder him somebody else will. Is it a 
privilege to bear the responsibility of send- 
ing abroad pestilence and misery and death ? 
"Our cause is going down," said Judas, 
" and a price is set upon the head of our 
Master, and if I do not betray him somebody 
else will. And why may not I as well pocket 
the money as another ?" * * * * 

Says another, "I wish it were banished 
from the earth. But then what can I do ?" 
What can you do ? You can keep one man 
clear ; you can wash your hands of this 
wretched business. And if you are not 
willing to do that, very little reliance can be 
placed on your good wishes. The days of 
ignorance on this* subject have passed by; 
every man acts with his eyes open. 

Look at the shop and company of the re- 
tailer. There he stands in the midst of dis- 
sipation, surrounded by the most degraded 
and filthy of human beings, in the last 



stages of earthly wretchedness. His busi- 
ness is to kindle strife, to encourage pro- 
fanity, to excite every evil passion, to de- 
stroy all salutary fears, to remove every re- 
straint, and to produce a recklessness that 
regards neither God nor man. And how 
often in the providence of God is he given 
over to drink his own poison, and to become 
the most wretched of this wretched com- 
pany. Who can behold an instance of this 
kind without feeling that God is just. "He 
sunk down into the pit which he made, in 
the net which he hid is his own foot taken." 

Another will say, "I neither make nor 
traffic in it." But you drink it occasionally. 
As far as your influence supports it and 
gives it currency, so far are you a partaker 
of its evil deeds. If you lend your influence 
to make the path of ruin respectable, or will 
not help to affix disgrace to that path, God 
will not hold you guiltless. You can not 
innocently stand aside and do nothing. 

A deadly poison is circulating over the 
land. Its victims are of every class ; and 
however wide the difference in fortune, edu- 
cation, intellect, it brings them to the same 
dead level. An effort has been made to stay 
the plague, and a success surpassing all ex- 
pectation has crowned the effort. Still the 
plague rages to an immense extent. What 
will every good citizen do ? Will he not 
clear his house, his shop, his premises of it ? 
Will he not take every precaution to defend 
himself against it, and use his influence and 
his exertions to diminish its circulation and 
thus diminish human misery ? If he fears 
God or regards man, can he stop short at 
this ? "I speak as unto wise men : judge ye 
what I say." 


Sung at the Semi- Centennial Celebration of the 
Incorporation of the Caledonia County Gram- 
mar School, at Peacham, July 1, 1846. 


Who was born in Peacham in 1809, and 
served an apprenticeship in the office of the 
Montpelicr Watchman. He was one of the 
twelve who formed Jan. 1, 1832, the present 
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, and 
from that day has been prominently indenti- 
fied with the anti-sla,very cause ; aiding it as 
lecturer, and editing several of its leading 
papers in the country. He was associated 
with Garrison in the Liberator, three years ; 
an associate editor of the New York Tribune, 
four years, 1853 (1858) ; has edited the Anti- 
Slavery Standard, New York. 

When forests crowned these verdant hills, 

Full fifty years ago. 
And ringing through these fertile vales 

Was heard the axman's blow ; 
When Peace and Thrift came hand in hand 

These woodland wilds among, 
Above the settler's humble cot 

A modest Temple sprung. 

In Faith our fathers reared the shrine 

To Truth and Knowledge given, 
And lifted high a beacon-light 

To guide the soul to Heaven ! 
That light, though kindled long ago. 

Is burning brightly still ; 
Its rays are now in beauty shed 

O'er valley, plain, and hill. 

The Fount of Knowledge opened here. 

From purest source supplied, 
Hath sent afar its healing streams. 

And showered its blessings wide ; 
The dusky Indian of the West 

Hath felt his soul reclaimed, 
And e'en to heathen isles its sons 

The Gospel have proclaimed. <: 

In honored places of the land 

Its sons have served their age, 
And won for it a noble name 

On History's glowing page ; 
In Pulpit, Court, and Council Hall, 

Their words of Truth are heaxd, 
And through the Press their clarion voice 

The Nation's heart hath stirred. 

On this dear spot, in youth's fair morn. 

While yet our hopes were bright. 
Wise Teachers sought to guide our feet 

In paths of love and light ; 
And now we come in manhood's honr 

To pour our grateful song. 
And offer up our fervent prayer 

Where holiest memories throng. 

The Father, leaning on his staff, 

This day renews his joy. 
And in the mother's listening ear 

Talks proudly of her boy ; 
The Widow's broken heart revives 
' To see her §on return. 
And Friendship's fires, once more renewed, 

With holy fervor burn. 

Father ! in this joyful hour 

Our thanks to Thee we bring. 
And with united heart and voice 

Thy glorious praises sing ; 
Thy love is boundless as the sea — 

Thy mercy ever sure — 
may the shrine our Fathers reared 

To latest time endure ! 



May Education's holy light 

Extend on every hand, 
Till War's foul blot, and Slavery's curse 

Be banished from the land ! 
And may Freedom's sacred fires 

On every altar flame, 
And Temperance, Righteousness and Peace 

Exalt our Nation's fame ! 



The town of Ryegate v^as chartered by New 
Hampshire, to Rev. John Witherspoon, D. D., 
Sept. 8, 1763. In the winter of 1773, a com- 
pany was formed by a number of farmers, 
in the vicinity of Glasgow, Scotland, for the 
purpose of purchasing a tract of land for 
settlement in North America. This company 
was called the Scotch-American Company 
of Farmers. In March of the same year, 
David Allen and James Whitelaw, were 
commissioned by the company to carry out 
their purpose. Accordingly, on the 25th of 
March, they sailed from Greenock, and reach- 
ed Philadelphia, May 24. On their arrival, 
they providentially met with Dr. Wither- 
spoon, who was then president of New Jersey 
College, Princeton. He informed them 
that he had a township of land called Rye- 
gate, in the province of New York on the 
Connecticut river, containing about 23,000 
acres, which, .if they could not suit them- 
selves elsewhere, he would be glad to sell 
to them, professing at the same time, to take 
a deep interest in the success of their enter- 
prise. After spending five months in explor- 
ing the country, north and south, they re- 
turned to Dr. Witherspoon, then in Princeton, 
N. J., and bargained with him for one half 
of the town of Ryegate. On coming to New 
York, they met with James Henderson, a car- 
penter, and one of their shipmates, who had 
been sent to assist them in their undertaking. 
Leaving Mr. Henderson to come in a sloop by 
way of Hartford, with their chests, tools, 
and other necessary articles, they left New 
York, on the 19th of October, and arrived in 
Newbury, Vt., November 1, where they were 
hospitably entertained by Jacob Bailey, Esq., 
to whom they had a letter of introduction from 
John Church, Esq., who was connected with 
Dr. Witherspoon in the proprietorship of 
Ryegate. One week after their arrival, 
James Henderson appeared in a canoe 
freighted with the chests and tools aforesaid. 
On the 10th of November, Mr. Church came 
to Newbury. The town of Ryegate was then 

divided. The south half fell to the Scotch 
American Company. This was considered 
preferable to the north half for reasons given 
by Gen. Whitelaw. 

"The south," he says in his journal, "has 
the advantage of the north in many respects. 

" 1. It is the best land in general. 

"2. It is nearest to provisions which we 
have in plenty within three or four miles, and 
likewise within six miles of a grist mill, and 
two miles of a saw mill, all which are great 
advantages to a new settlement. 

" 3. We have several brooks with good 
seats for mills, and likewise Wells river runs 
through part of our purchase, and has water 
enough for a grist mill at the driest season of 
the year, of which the north part is almost 
entirely destitute. 

" We are within six miles of a good Pres- 
byterian' Meeting ; and there is no other mi- 
nister about that place." 

The last reason is particularly worthy of 
notice. These sons of Scotia in seeking out 
a home for themselves and others in the new 
world, were influenced in their choice not 
merely by the fertility of the soil, and other 
natural advantages ; but by considerations of 
a religious character. Noble example ! 
Worthy the imitation of all immigrants from 
the old world. 

When they came to Ryegate, they found 
JohnHyndman, one of their own countrymen, 
who had with his family moved into town a 
few months before. He was engaged in 
building a house. "So," says the journal, 
" we helped him up Avith it both for the con- 
veniences of lodging with him till we built 
one of our own, and also that he might assist 
us in building ours." 

These houses, built of logs and covered 
with bark, were finished about the 1st of 
January, 1774. John Hyndman's house 
stood a little northeast of the present house 
of' John Bigelow. James Whitelaw's was 
situated near where William T. Whitelaw's 
house now stands. 

Aaron Hosmer and family were the only 
persons, and the shanty in which they lived 
about one mile north of Samuel More's, was 
the only house in town previous to this 

The remainder of the winter was spent in 
making an opening in the wilderness ; the 
whole of the town being covered with trees of 
various kinds, among which were beech, 
maple, hemlock, spruce, birch and pines. 
James Henderson was employed part of the 
time in manufacturing wooden bowls, dishes, 
and other articles for domestic use. James 



"Wliitelaw went to Portsmouth and Newbury- 
port for a sleigh load of such necessaries as 
they needed. In the month of April they 
made 60 pounds of maple sugar — a business 
that has been followed up in the town ever 
since, large quantities being manufactured 
annually, both for domestic and foreign use. 
In May, James Whitelaw commenced the 
survey of the company's half of the town. 

On the 23d of May, David Ferry, Alexan- 
der Lynn and family, Andrew and Robert 
Brock, John and Robert Orr, John Willson, 
John Gray, John Shaw, and Hugh Semple, 
came over from Scotland ; and in July when 
the survey was completed, drew their lots, 
and commenced a permanent settlement. 
These were among the first settlers. They 
were men of sterling worth. And some of 
their descendants are among the most re- 
spectable at the present time. 

In the survey of the southern portion of 
Ryegate, a lot extending from the parsonage 
to the foot of the hill below John 0. Page's, 
was laid out for a town. This was divided 
into small lots. Each purchaser of a lot in 
any other part of the township received a 
town lot. It was the expectation that a large 
town or city would, in the course of time, 
grow up in that place. But time has rolled 
on, and the city is still unbuilt. Like many 
cities in the West, it is but a city of faith. 
Whenever the early settlers had occasion to 
refer to that part of the township, they 
called it the town, although the only building 
upon it was a small log house. The hill at 
John 0. Page's is still called the town hill. 

The company's half of the town, having 
been surveyed and allotted, David Allen, 
James Whitelaw's associate, left for Scot- 
land. It was an affecting occasion. All the 
inhabitants accompanied him to Col. Bailey's 
in Newbury, where they took farewell of 
him. James Henderson was unwilling to 
part from him even then, but journeyed with 
him all the way to Newburyport, before he 
took his leave. These early settlers, far 
from their native land, and exposed to danger, 
both from the Indians and wild beasts, were 
bound together by strong ties. It is no 
wonder therefore, that they were so loth to 
part with one of their number, and especially 
as that one had been a leader among them. 
Soon after the survey of the south half, the 
north half was surveyed and allotted. 

In 1774, the settlement realized another 
accession from Scotland, John Waddle, James 
Neilson, Thomas McKeach, Patrick Lang and 
family, William NeilsOn and family, and 
David Reed and family, Robert Gemmil and 

son, Robert Tweedale and family, and An- 
drew and James Smith. 

About this time, it was found necessary to 
erect a house to accommodate the immigrants 
on their arrival, until they could build houses 
of their own. 

On the 22d of October, Andrew Smith de- 
parted this life. This was the first death 
that occurred. About a mile south from the 
Corner, a lot was selected for a burying 
ground, and here he was interred. The re- 
mains of a number of others of the early 
settlers lie in the same place. 

And is it not highly discreditable to the 
town that that sacred spot — sacred by con- 
taining all that is mortal of men, whose 
memory, on account of their toils and perils 
in exploring and subduing our forests, ought 
to be dear to us all — should be unmarked by 
any monument. As the trees and bushes 
have been recently cleared off, why not pro- 
ceed a step further, in honoring the memory 
of our worthy ancestors, by erecting upon 
the place of their interment, a monument 
with an appropriate inscription ? 

In January, 1775, Gen. Whitelaw purchased 
a lot of land of Newbury, on the north side 
of that part of Wells river which contains 
the great falls, with the privilege of one half 
the river, for the purpose of erecting mills 
thereon. Accordingly, James Henderson 
commenced to prepare materials, and in 
October of the " same year, a grist mill was 
finished, and put in operation. In this same 
month, the frame of a saw mill was erected, 
but not completed until July, 1776. These 
mills although in Newbury, were only two 
and a half miles from the centre of Rye- 
gate. They stood where Bolton's Mills now 

In April, 1775, the settlement was enlarged 
by the arrival of Archibald Taylor and 
family in February, and John Scot in April. 

About this time the war of the Revolution 
commenced, and, in consequence, few addi- 
tions were made to the settlement for a num- 
ber of years. After peace was concluded, 
the spirit of emigration revived, and the 
town received many valuable accessions from 
Scotland. As a general rule, the Scotch, es- 
pecially those of the Presbyterian faith, 
with their habits of industry and economy, 
their knowledge of the scriptures, their 
regard for the sabbath, and the institutions 
of religion, are a blessing to any community 
where their lots may be cast. 

The town was organized on the third Tues- 
day of May, 1776. James Whitelaw, first 
town clerk ; assessors, John Gray and James 



Whitelaw ; treasurer, Andrew Brock ; over- 
seers of highways, Robert Tweedale and John 
Orr; overseers of the poor, Patrick Lang 
and John Shaw ; collector, John Scot ; con- 
stables, Archibald Taj'^lqr, James Smith, 
William Neilson and David Reid. 

The high estimation in which these persons 
were held, is evinced by the fact that at the 
expiration of the year for which they were 
chosen, they were by a vote of the town, 
continued in of&ce for another year. In this 
year James Taylor was born, the first male 
child born in town. He died at the age of 64 

In common with the other early settle- 
ments, the people of Ryegate were subjected 
to great hardships and privations, a minute 
account of which would fill volumes. Take 
the following as a specimen : 

In the summer of 1776, a year so memora- 
ble in the history of the United States, a 
message was received that St. Johns was 
retaken by the British, and that the Indians, 
who were a terror to all the early settlers, 
would be sent to lay waste the country. 
They were greatly alarmed, and at their wits' 
end to know what to do. After some con- 
sultation, they concluded the only course 
was to remove to some place of greater 
safety. Accordingly with what of their 
effects, they could carry in their flight, 
they left for Newbury, where a fort had been 
erected, and soldiers stationed, both to pro- 
tect the settlers from the Indians and Tories 
in the surrounding country, and to check the 
incursions of the Indians and British from 
Canada. Before leaving, William Neilson 
filled a large Scotch chest with sundry arti- 
cles, and buried it, and then to prevent the 
suspicions of the sons of the wilderness, 
burnt a pile of brush upon its grave. They 
soon found, however, that if they remained 
long at Newbury, a greater calamity, if possi- 
ble, than war, would befall them. They had 
commenced to clear and cultivate the land ; 
their crops Avere in the ground, and they 
must secure them, or die of starvation. These 
brave men again held a council and all agreed 
that there was no alternative but to return at 
the risk of their lives. Tradition reports 
that William Neilson preceded the rest. He 
bravely said, "It is better to die by the 
sword than famine;" and tearing himself 
away from his weeping wife and children, 
went boldly back, trusting in Jehovah's 
arm for safety. During the day he worked 
hard, and slept at night with his door barri- 
caded, and his gun at his pillow. The ex- 
pected invasion, however, did not occur, and 

consequently all in a few days returned to 
their own habitations. 

Beasts of prey proved a greater annoyance 
than the Indians. The latter, by kind and 
hospitable treatment became the friends of 
the settlers, but the wolves and bears which 
were very numerous, were not so easy to 
subdue. For some time, John Henderson was 
the only person that owned a cow. One 
evening the cow not returning home as usual, 
Mrs. Henderson, her husband being absent, 
went in search of the cow. Soon after Mr. 
Henderson came in, and missing his wife, 
a,sked the children where their mother was ? 
They replied, "Mother has gone for the cow." 
It then being dark, it at once occurred to 
him that she was lost. With. a pine torch in 
one hand, and a gun in the other, he sallied 
forth to find her. He fired off his gun, but 
no reply being given, he proceeded further 
into the woods, and discharged his gun the 
second time. She answered. Following the 
direction of her voice, he found her lodged 
in a tree, where she had taken refuge from 
Avild beasts. At another time, George Rey- 
nolds, on his way to pay a visit to one of his 
neighbors, encountered, as he supposed, a 
very fierce dog. After a sharp contest with 
the animal, he succeeded in putting it to 
flight ; left however, in anything but a good 
humor, on arriving at his neighbor's, he gave 
the good woman of the house, a severe repri- 
mand for keeping such a cross dog, and on 
examination it was found to be a wolf. 

One day in the summer of 1778, Mrs. John 
Gray saw a bear carrying off a sheep. With 
a courage with which probably few ladies in 
this age are endowed, she followed the 
bear by his trail, till she suddenly came up 
within a few feet of him. Greatly terrified, 
she screamed outright, whereupon Bruin not 
accustomed to such noises, dropped his prey 
and betook himself to flight ; and Mrs. Gray 
putting the sheep on her shoulder, returned 
home in triumph. 

There was a long time before the bears 
were completely destroyed, particularly in 
the northeastern part of the town. In 1804, 
four bears that had been making havoc 
among the sheep, were killed on Robert Dick- 
son's farm. 

Bear's meat was much used by the early 
settlers. The lean part of the bear being 
like beef, and the fat like poi-k, it was a good 
substitute for both. When salted a little it 
was called corned beef. 

Besides the perils from the Indians and 
wild beastSj there were other difiiculties that 
the early settlers had to surmount to put their 



descendants into the possession of their pre- 
sent inheritance. There were no bridges 
and no roads, but spotted trees. When they 
went to mill which was in Newbury, 10 miles 
distant from the central part of the town, 
they carried their grists on their backs. 
This was also the mode of conveyance, in 
carrying articles to and from the store, which 
was also located in Newbury. There, too, 
was their place of worship. Not only men, 
but women also, traveled all that distance on 
foot, that they might have an opportunity of 
worshiping the God of their fathers in the 
public congregation. "When the ladies," 
says Mr. Powers, "came to Wells river 
(there being no canoe), they would bare 
their feet, and trip it along as nimbly as a 
deer, the men generally went barefooted, the 
ladies certainly, wore shoes." 

Money was a scarce article, as is shown 
by the following incident: Gen. Whitelaw 
purchased a corn-broom, the first that was 
used- in the settlement. His daughter being 
very much pleased, with it, remarked that 
she would never again be at the trouble to 
make a broom of hemlock brush, when one 
so much superior could be bought for twenty- 
five cents. "Marion," said her father, "I 
have seen the time when there was not 
twenty-five cents in Ryegate." (For the in- 
cidents that we have just related, and for 
many other facts in these sketches, we are 
indebted to Mrs. Abigail Henderson, daugh- 
ter of Gen. Whitelaw, in her 78th year. 
She is a pious lady, and endowed with a re- 
markable memory). 

January 9, 1777, James Henderson was 
married to Agnes Lynn, and on the 17th of 
the same month, Robert Brock to Elizabeth 
Stewart. These were the first marriages in 
Ryegate. Mr. Brock moved into Barnet, and 
settled. Mr. Henderson took up his residence 
in Ryegate. He was the first carpenter in 
town. Besides being very useful as a me- 
chanic during the infancy of the settlement, he 
afterwards served the town as representa- 
tive, and in various town ofiices to which he 
was elected. He was a consistent member 
of the Associate Church. He died at the 
age of 85 years. His farm is owned and 
occupied by his son, William Henderson, in 
his 80th year (1861). 

While exploring and subduing the forests, 
the early settlers did not neglect the intel- 
lectual and religious culture of their children. 
In the year 1787, the first regular school was 
established in James Whitelaw's house. 
The first teacher was Jonathan Powers. 
The school continued to be kept in private 

houses until 1792, when the first school 
house was erected. This was built of logs, 
and stood on the town lot, southeast of John 
0. Page's. 

Previous to this time, James Whitelaw 
had been appointed surveyor general of the 
state of Vermont ; and, in consequence was 
under the necessity of resigning his ofl&ce as 
agent of the Scotch-American company. 

Accordingly, he intimated to the company in 
Scotland, that they must appoint some other 
person to be their land agent in this country. 
In accordance with his request, they author- 
ized the members of the company, residing in 
the town of Ryegate, to call a meeting for that 
purpose. This meeting was held in March, 
1793, at which William Neilson, James Hen- 
derson and Hugh Gardner were appointed 
managers, and it was "voted that James 
Whitelaw, who now holds the deeds of the 
company's land shall deed it to the managers 
and their successors in oifice." 

Up to this date, Gen. Whitelaw held all 
the deeds of all the land that had been sold 
in the south half of Ryegate. He then de- 
livered them all up with the disposal of all 
the lands belonging to the Scotch- American 
company not taken up, to the said managers. 
This was Gen. Whitelaw's last act as agent 
for that company, which he had served so 
long and so faithfully ; and yet all his valu- 
able services received but very small com- 

In 1795, the town was divided into two 
school districts. These were afterwards 
subdivided to meet the wants of the people. 
There are now in the town 9 school districts. 
The school-houses with one or two excep- 
tions, are neat and commodious. A growing 
interest is also taken in the schools ; and it 
is the determination in most of the districts, 
that none but competent teachers shall be 
employed. The number of scholars between 
the ages of 4 and 18, are 342. 

The attention of our forefathers was 
turned to the education of the heart and 
conscience, as well as the head. At one 
time they were under the impression that 
they would enjoy the ministrations of Di\ 
Witherspoon, the Rev. proprietor. But dis- 
appointed in that, those of them that did not 
find it convenient to attend church at New- 
bury, held meetings for prayer and Christian 
conference, read good books, and attended 
particularly to the religious education of the 
children. In March, 1797, they "voted to 
raise forty bushels of wheat by a tax, to 
support the gospel in the town for the ensu- 
ing year." They then engaged a part of the 



services of Rev. David Goodwillie of the 
Associate Church, who had been settled in 
Barnet over a colony also from Scotland. 
And it may be remarked in passing, that it 
was from the first settlers of these two 
towns, Ryegate and Bai-net, that the county 
received the name of Caledonia. 

Another event of some importance that 
occurred in 1797, was the erection of the 
frame of a meeting house on the hill west of 
the Corner. It was soon enclosed and meet- 
ings held in it. But it was not finished until 
in the year 1800. This was the first meeting 
house in town. Previous to this time, civil 
and religious meetings were held in private 
houses. For sixteen years after the erection 
of the meeting house, the people worshipped 
in it without any stove. It was used as a 
house of worship till 1850, when it was 
abandoned for a new and tasteful meeting 
house, built at the Corner south of the brick 
house, by the Reformed Presbyterian (old 
school) and Associate congregations of Rye- 
gate. Town meetings, however, continued 
to be held in it till 1855, when it was pulled 
down, and a town house erected in the same 

In the same year that the meeting house 
was finished. Rev. William- Gibson of the Re- 
formed Presbyterian Church, was settled. 
And being the first settled minister, he drew 
one right of land, which is now owned and 
occupied by James Beattie, Esq. 

For some time after, Mr. Gibson's settle- 
ment, there were no carriages in the town. 
The only modes of locomotion were on foot 
and on horseback. It was not an uncommon 
thing on a sabbath morning, to see the wor- 
shipers, some on foot and some on horseback, 
flocking to the house of God. A man and 
his wife, each holding a child, frequently 
rode one horse. And notwithstanding these 
difficulties, many that lived from 4 to 6 miles 
distant from the place of worship, were sel- 
dom absent on the sabbath. 

From the time that Mr. Gibson becanie 
pastor in Ryegate, the town has been well 
supplied with gospel ordinances. 

The professors of religion in Ryegate are, 
with a few exceptions, Presbyterians ; and 
are divided into three denominations — the 
Reformed Presbyterian (old school). Re- 
formed Presbyterian (new school), and the 
United Presbyterian. 

About the time of Mr. Gibson's installment, 
a lot of land consisting of two acres, south 
of the meeting house, was purchased of An- 
drew Brock, for a burying ground. Being 
ledgy, and therefore not well adapted for a 

place of interment, another lot south of it 
has recently been purchased, by a company 
formed for that purpose. Some improve- 
ments have been made on it. When orna- 
mented with walks and trees, it will be a 
neat yard. It is called the Blue Mountain 
Cemetery. Besides those mentioned, there 
are two other burying grounds in the town, 
one in the western part, and one near South 

The surface of this town is generally 
uneven. The northern and eastern portions 
are hilly and broken. The only mountain, 
called Blue Mountain, is situated in the 
northwest part. This, though a bleak, bar- 
ren mountain, is valuable for its quarries of 
granite, from which monuments, mill stones, 
&c., are manufactured. Its summit affords a 
commanding view of the surrounding coun- 
try. Indeed Ryegate abounds in picturesque 
scenery. Limestone is found in different 
parts of the town. 

Connecticut river bounds it on the east, 
and Wells river runs through the southwest 
part of the town, affording ample water 

Ticklenaked pond, in the southern- part, 
discharges its waters into Wells river, and 
North pond in the northern part, enipties 
itself into Connecticut river. The whole 
town is well watered by springs and small 

The soil is mostly of clay and loam. Th$ 
interval land on the Connecticut and Wells 
river, is level, and the soil of an excellent 
quality, producing abundantly all kinds of 
garden vegetables and grain. The other 
portions, though hilly, are also well adapted 
to the production of grain, and yield luxuri- 
ant crops of grass. The attention of the 
farmers is chiefly occupied with cattle raising 
and the dairy. This town has long been 
celebrated for its excellent butter. 

There are two small villages in town, Rye- 
gate Corner and South Ryegate, with a post 
office at each. Besides the meeting house 
already mentioned, there is another place of 
worship at Ryegate Corner, which belongs to 
the United Presbyterians. There is also a 
Union Church at South Ryegate where the 
Ref. Presbyterians (new school) worship. 

There is no high school in town. But this 
is not felt to be a want, as in each of the ad- 
joining towns of Peacham, Barnet and New- 
bury, there is an excellent academy. Hence 
the youth are well instructed, and care is 
taken to have the school attainments sancti- 
fied by lessons of Christianity. The inha- 
bitants of Ryegate, are a plain, unassuming, 



honest, industrious and peaceable people. 
The Puritan and Presbyterian principles are 
finely blended in their manners and char- 

The professional men that claim Ryegate 
as their birth place, are Rev. Robert Gibson, 
for many years pastor of the 2d Reformed 
Presbyterian Church, New Yorli city, now 
deceased; Rev. John Gibson, and Rev. 
William Gibson, ministers in connection with 
the Presbyterian church in the south ; Rev. 
A. M. Milligan settled in New Alexandria, 
Pa. ; Rev. S. T. Milligan in Michigan ; Rev. 
J. K. Milligan, pastor of the 1st Reformed 
Presbyterian Church, New York ; Rev. James 
M. Dickson, pastor of the Church of the 
Covenanters, Brooklyn, Long Island ; Rev. 
John Lynn, pastor of a Presbyterian church 
in Maryland ; Dr. William Neilson, a distin- 
guished physician and surgeon in Cambridge, 
N. Y., deceased. 

Dr. Eli Perry came to Ryegate in 1814. 
He was the first physician in town, and is 
still with us, aged 70 years. 

George Cowles is at present town clerk ; 
and so completely does he enjoy the confi- 
dence of all parties that he has held that 
office for 18 years. 

For the last half century the town has ad- 
vanced rapidly, and we stand to-day amid 
fields of waving grain, and under trees bend- 
ing with luscious fruit ; we look at the beau- 
tiful green meadows, and neatly painted 
farm houses, the well cultivated- gardens and 
tasteful yards, the white school-houses, warm 
and comfortable ; we see from a distance 
the church spire ; all this to-day we see, 
where 86 years ago was a wild and unbroken 
forest. Thanks to the strong arms and brave 
hearts of our forefathers! Thanks to the 
Great Protector, who amid all their toils and 
perils, blessed them with health and strength, 
to accomplish the great work which they had 

James Whitelaw, 

Who may be called the father of Ryegate, 
was born at New Mills, parish of Oldmonk- 
land, Scotland, February 11, 1748. He came 
here in 1773. The circumstances connected 
with his arrival and settlement, have been 
already stated. 

He certainly was the chief agent in the 
settlement of the town, and for about 40 
years his influence was felt in almost every 
movement. He built the first framed house 
in the town, which stood where the late Wm. 
Whitelaw's house now stands. 

He was surveyor-general of the state of 
Vermont, and not only surveyed this town, 
but many of the town lines in the northern 
part of the state were run by him, and some 
of the towns allotted. This was done when 
there were no roads but dotted trees, and 
but few houses, and these many miles distant 
from each other. Hence his way, in many 
places through which he traveled, was ob- 
structed by logs, rocks, mountains, and other 
obstacles. He was always attended, at such 
times, by three or four men, whose business 
it was to carry the chain, mark the trees, 
and render him such assistance as was need- 
ed. They carried their provisions on their 
backs, in knapsacks ; slept at night in the 
woods, on beds of hemlock boughs ; and of- 
ten when they awoke in the morning, found 
themselves covered with a soft, white blank- 
et, more than a foot thick, it having snowed 
during the night. 

Surveying was his employment for 12 or 
14 years, yet during all this time there is no 
record of his ever having been molested by 
any savage, beast, or venomous reptile. He 
always enjoyed good health and spirits, and 
submitted to the trials and hardships of his 
occupation with patience, and even cheerful- 

In the year 1796 he completed a very cor- 
rect map of the state of Vermont. He after- 
wards established himself in a land office, 
in which situation he continued the residue 
of his life. 

He was three times married. In 1778 he 
was married to Abigail Johnstone of New- 
bury, by whom he had two sons and two 
daughters. The sons, who were useful citi- 
zens, are dead. The daughters are still liv- 
ing. His first wife died July 13, 1790. His 
second wife, Susanna Rogers, died in 1815. 
He married for his third wife, Jannet Har- 
vey, a widow, who died in 1854, aged 88. 
She came from Scotland before the Revolu- 
tionary War, and lived to see the wilderness 

We will bring this sketch to a close, by 
quoting from the communication of a person 
who had excellent opportunities of becom- 
ing acquainted with Gen. Whitelaw. Says 
Mrs. A. Henderson: "As husband, father, 
brother, or friend, he was not surpassed by 
any in his day. His townspeople had the 
utmost confidence in him. He was their 
town clerk for upwards of 40 years; and 
town treasurer and postmaster, from the 
time of their establishment in the town, to 
the day of his death. He had always great 
care and government of his own words and 



actions. There was no pride or passion in 
his intercourse with mankind, but a wondei*- 
ful serenity of mind and evenness of temper 
were visible in his very countenance. His 
benevolence and philanthropy were always 
equal, if not beyond his means. He was 
ready on all occasions to administer to the 
necessities of every one he saw in need. 
Few men have been more beloved in life, or 
more lamented in death." He died April 
29, 1829, aged 81 years. 

John Geay 
Was born in Ederslie, near Paisley, Renfrew- 
shire, Scotland, in 1749. At the age of 23 
he joined the Scotch-American Company of 
Farmers. As already mentioned, he came 
with others to Ryegate, in May, 1774. On 
his arrival he had but one shilling in his 
pocket. He selected a lot about half a mile 
north of the Corner, on which he erected a 
log-cabin, and commenced to clear the land, 
but spent the subsequent winter in Newbury, 
ill laboring for the necessaries of life. 

In 1777 he was married to Jean McFar- 
land, by whom he had 7 children, 5 of whom 
died in 1796 and '97, leaving the eldest 
daughter and one next the youngest, a son. 
During the war he was occasionally molested 
by the Tories and Indians passing through 
this part of the country. 

He was, from the commencement of its 
settlement, devoted to the interests of the 
town. Being a man of energy and decision 
of character, and withal generous and public 
spirited, he gained the confidence and esteem 
of all, and occupied a prominent position in 
the community. Several times he represent- 
ed the town, was first captain of the militia, 
and held various town oifices. 

He Avas an efiicient elder in the Associate 
Church, and a zealous advocate for the divine 
right of the Presbyterian form of church 
government. He was a peace-maker. "He 
was," said one that knew him well, "the 
noblest work of God — an honest man." 

He died in Nov., 1816, leaving a widow, a 
daughter and son — the daughter since de- 
ceased. The son, William Gray, Esq., occu- 
pies the homestead, is the father of 11, and 
grandfather of 40 children, all alive. 

Hugh Laughlin 
Was a native of Ireland, who emigrated to 
the United States and settled in Ryegate, 
Aug. 2, 1799. Possessed of considerable at- 
tainments, and a benevolent heart, he soon 
rose in the estimation of the people. Thrice 
he represented the town, was many years a 

justice of the peace, for a long time an ac- 
tive member of the bible society, and a dea- 
con in the Congregational Church. He died 
June 30, 1826, in the 65th year of his age. 
He had 8 children. 


Born in Scotland in 1780, came to Ryegate 
when he was 14 years of age. In 1806 he 
married Margaret Renfrew. They had 12 
children, 6 of whom, with their families, 
reside in town, within a few miles of each 

Mr. Park took an active part in all the 
public movements of the town, was several 
years selectman, many years justice of the 
peace, and at difi'erent times overseer of the 
poor. He departed this life Dec. 12, 1847, 
in his 68th year. 

William Gibson, 
Born in Renfrewshire, Scotland; came to 
Ryegate with a family of 9 children (7 sons 
and 2 daughters), in June, 1801. He was a 
quiet, peaceable, and useful member of so- 
ciety, held various ofiices in the town, and 
was also an exemplary member and zealous 
office bearer in the Associate Church. Very 
generous and public spirited, he contributed 
liberally towards the support of the gospel. 

All his children, except one son and a 
daughter, settled in Ryegate, and with one 
exception, have large families. His sons and 
grandsons are for the most part thrifty farm- 
ers, and honest, upright men. 

Mr. Gibson died Jan. 2, 1844, in his 90th 
year. At the time of his death he had be- 
tween 50 and 60 great-grandchildren. 

James Neilson, 
Son of William Neilson, was born in June, 
1779. He possessed, in a high degree, the 
confidence of his townsmen. He represent- 
ed the town 5 successive years, was justice 
of the peace many years, and held other of- 

In 1808 he was married to Agnes Gibson. 
They had 11 children. His son. Dr. William 
Neilson, now deceased, was an eminent phy- 
sician. In early life he became a member 
of the Associate Church. As a professor he 
was exemplary. He died in June, 1840, in 
his 61st year. 

John Cameron, 
A native of Scotland, came to America and 
settled in Ryegate in 1790. He purchased 
1000 acres of land in the western part of 



the town, and afterwards at the Corner, 1^ 
acres of John Orr, on which he built the first 
store in town. The land is now owned by 
his son, John Cameron, whose dwelling- 
house occupies the place of the store. He 
represented the town more than 12 years, 
was several years member of the council, a 
judge in 1814, and although a Democrat, he 
was retained in office under the Federalists. 
Judge Cameron was a man of large mental 
endowments, whose influence was not only 
felt in the community where he resided, but 
throughout the state. He died in 1837, aged 
76 years. His first wife was a daughter of 
Gen. Stark. 

Jonathan Cobuen, 
"Was a native of New Hampshire, but spent 
the most of his life in Ryegate, his father 
having removed to Vermont in 1789, when 
he was but 7 years of age. At the age of 
24, after a careful examination of the prin- 
ciples of the Ref. Presbyterian church, 
becoming satisfied of their agreeableness to 
the Scriptures, he embraced them by public 
profession in the congregation of Ryegate, 
and continued an upright and exemplary 
member till his death, January 3, 1860. He 
Avas a consistent covenanter, who had no 
sympathy with defection. By his death the 
church sustained a great loss, where as an 
elder he was an active, zealous, and faithful 
office bearer for 40 years, exemplary in all 
his attendance upon the ordinances. 

He was moreover a peacemaker, often in- 
strumental in removing offences and healing 
divisions. A man of comprehensive benevo- 
lence, his heart was full of love to all, and 
his hand ready to perform kindness to any 
of whom he knew as in need. He also took 
a deep and lively interest in the cause of 
missions, sabbath schools, temperance, and 
the oppressed Africans in our land. He died 
as he lived. "Let me die the death of the 
righteous, and let my last end be like his." 
Mr. Coburn left a widow and several child- 

John Neilson, Esq. 


In Ryegate, Sept. 6 (1853?), died John 
Neilson, Esq., in the 79th year of his age. 
Mr. Neilson was born in the memorable year 
of the Declaration of American Independ- 
ence. He was thfe second male child born 
in the town of Ryegate, and therefore inti- 
mately acquainted with its early history. 
He was born of religious parents, brought 
up in the fear of the Lord, and educated in 

the principles of the Associate Presbyterian 
church. These principles he espoused some 
40 years since, in connection with the Asso- 
ciate congregation of Ryegate, and main- 
tained them with an unwavering faith unto 
the last. He was an active member of the 
congregation in the weakness of its early 
history, and in its struggles of a later day 
stood firm in its cause ; was liberal in his 
support of the gospel, and not only sound 
but strong in the faith. 

He was ever modest and humble, but under 
afflictive providences, and in times of danger, 
when others were alarmed and disturbed, 
calm and peaceful he would say, "we are in 
the hands of a good providence," and there- 
fore neither unduly feared nor murmured. 
He further manifested his faith by a truly 
Christian deportment in all his relations of 
life. As a husband, ever tender and affec- 
tionate ; as a parent, maintaining that kind- 
ness and intimacy that ever endears ; as a 
friend and neighbor, peaceable and obliging ; 
possessing in an unusual degree that Christ- 
ian courtesy and politeness preceding froKa 
a kind and generous heart. 

Though his long life was one of almost 
uninterrupted good health, yet he had ac- 
quired in a high degree the patience of the 
saints, which is usually through much tribu- 
lation. This he ever indicated as occasion 
offered, but especially in sickness, a severe 
attack of which brought him near to the 
gates of death about four years since, and 
which seemed to have been specially designed 
to discipline his mind and heart preparatory 
to his last illness, which in a few weeks re- 
duced the strong man to the extremity of 

A few days before his death he remarked 
that he thought he could say with another, 
that he would place all his good deeds in 
one scale, and his evil in another, and flee 
from both to the merits of his Saviour. Let 
us then " Mark the perfect man, and behold 
the upright? for the end of that man is 

James Whitehill, 
by kev. james milligan. 

The subject of this memoir was born in 
RenfrcAvshire, Scotland, emigrated to Ame- 
rica about the year 1798, and was for many 
years a ruling elder in the Reformed Pres- 
byterian congregation of Ryegate ; was cha- 
ritable to the poor, and liberal in support 
of the gospel ; but in imparting his benefac- 
tions, seemed from principle to shun ostenta- 

His habits were those of industry, sereni- 



ty, and piety. Even in advanced life, he 
w&s "diligent in business," and "fervent in 
spirit." His modesty and difi&dence even to 
a fault, was probably one reason why he did 
not pursue his education farther, and fill a 
place in one of the learned professions, for 
he had made in his youth considerable pro- 
gress in the Latin language, besides having 
acquired a very ample English education. 
He was well supplied with religious books, 
which he read with great care and spiritual 
discernment ; but the Bible was his chief de- 
light, especially towards the close of his life. 
On his death-bed he remarked to the writer 
of this, that in secret prayer, morning and 
evening, he had great comfort, and also en- 
dured terrible conflicts with the adversary. 
"Many a time," said he, "the adversary 
tried to drive me from that post, but by the 
grace of God did not prevail." As a ruler in 
Israel, he was eminently useful, having an 
extensive knowledge of church history and 
government, as well as of didactic and prac- 
tical theology. His attachment to truth and 
ecclesiastical order, united to his love of 
peace, made his services invaluable. Dur- 
ing his last illness his ejaculations were fre- 
quent and transporting. His conversation 
became more and visibly in heaven. Reserve 
was laid aside, but humility continued, add- 
ing weight to his piety. His path was re- 
markably that of the just, which "shineth 
more unto the perfect day." A short time 
before his death he sent for his pastor, and 
requested him to take the following state- 
ment from his lips : 

"I was baptized in the established church 
of Scotland, and before I was 20 years of 
age, renewed the baptismal bans avouching 
God to be my own God in Christ. Long I 
felt the obligation to commemorate Christ's 
dying love, but was afraid, until I had more 
evidence that I had passed from death to 
life. I was from early life persuaded that 
the Revolution was not so pure as the Re- 
formation Church, but delayed joining the 
latter until I was 30 years of age. * * * 

"I have found great advantage and com- 
fort in consecrating and keeping my birth- 
day as a day of fasting, prayer, and self-de- 
dication. I had frequently attended to this 
occasionally, but never statedly, until about 
14 years ago. It affords an opportunity of 
ascertaining and comparing our spiritual 
progress from year to year. 

" I approve of the American Revolution. 
The Colonies had a right to be free from 
Great Britain. But oh ! they have declared 
their independence of God, as if they needed 

not His wisdom to direct, nor His power to 
protect them. The nations need to be taught 
their dependence upon the Lord, and allegi- 
ance to the Prince of the Kings of the Earth. 
I have endeavored, though in great meek- 
ness, to promote the interests of the Cove- 
nanted Church in this place. * * ^" * 
I should like to see all my children take an 
active and growing interest in the Reforma- 
tion cause, and hope they will ; but in the 
meantime, I desire to say with David — 
' though my house be not so with God, yet 
hath He made with me an everlasting cove- 
nant, ordered in all things and sure.' * * 
I have no desire to live any longer, though I 
do not despise my life. I think it lawful to 
pray for an easy passage through the valley 
of the shadow of death, but leave it alto- 
gether with my God, who has been with me 
in all the six troubles of life, and who will 
not forsake me in the seventh. * -x- * * 
Oh! that He would hasten the consumma- 
tion of His work, sanctify and deliver me 
from this body of sin and death, and take 
me to Himself, all through Jesus Christ my 


The Associate Congregation, now the 
United Pbesbt. Church of Ryegate. 

by rev. thomas goodwillib of barnet. 

It is not known at what period the Pres- 
byterian churches of Barnet and Ryegate 
were formed, but they were organized pre- 
vious to 1779. Before, during and after the 
Revolutionary war, several Scotch clergy- 
men came and preached to them occasionally, 
and sometimes administered baptism. Gen. 
Whitelaw who was the agent of that com- 
pany, on his way to Ryegate in 1773, called 
on Rev. Thomas Clark, a Scotch clergyman 
belonging to the Associate Presby. Church, 
settled in Salem, N. Y., and Col. Harvey, 
agent of the Scotch company that settled in 
Barnet, on his way to town in 1774, called 
also upon him, and to this clergyman John 
Gray of Ryegate traveled on foot 140 miles 
to obtain his services. He gave them a fa- 
voi-able answer April 8, 1775, and came and 
preached some time in Barnet and Ryegate, 
in the latter part of the summer of that year. 
He revisited these towns two or three times 
afterwards, during the Revolutionary war. 

Dr. Witherspoon, president of Princeton 
College, N. J., a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, and a member of congress, 
who owned lands in Ryegate, Newbury and 
Walden, and whose son was settled in tha 
north part of Ryegate, visited this part of 



the country three times, first probably in 
1775. In 1782 he preached in Ryegate and 
Barnet, and baptized some children. He 
returned in 1786 to this part of the country. 

Rev. Hugh AVhite, a Scotch clergyman, 
preached in Ryegate at the end of 1775. 

Rev. Peter Powers, English Presbyterian 
clergyman, settled in Newbury from 1765 to 
1784, preached occasionally in Ryegate, and 
probably in Barnet during that period. 

Previous to 1779, the congregations of 
Barnet and Ryegate were associated in joint 
endeavors to obtain preachers. In that year 
a petition Avas sent from Ryegate to the 
church in Newbury, to obtain a share of the 
ministerial labors of . Rev. Peter Powers. 
Rev. Robert Annan preached in these towns 
in 1784, and returned next year. Rev. Da- 
vid Annan preached in Barnet and Ryegate, 
in 1785. Rev. John Huston was present 
with the session of Barnet, August 31, 1786, 
when, the record says, " a petition was 
drawn up by the elders of Barnet and Rye- 
gate, and preferred to the Associate (Ref.) 
Presbytery, to sit at Petersboro', Sept. 27, 
1786, earnestly desiring one of their number 
might be sent to preach, visit, and catechize 
the two congregations, and ordain elders at 
Barnet." Accordingly the Presbytery ap- 
pointed Mr. Huston for that purpose. In 
pursuance thereof, Mr. Huston came in Oc- 
tober following, and visited and catechized 
the greater portion of the congregations. He 
remained till May, 1787, preaching in Bar- 
net and Ryegate, and returned in November, 

In 1789 and 1790, Rev. Mr. Goodwillie of 
Barnet, preached occasionally at Ryegate. 
And this church, from his settlement in 1790 
(see Barnet Ecclesiastical History, pp. 205 
and 206), received one-sixth of his labors 
till 1822. 

For 32 years Mr. Goodwillie was diligent 
in preaching, pastoral visitation of families, 
and public catechisings, and never failed to 
fulfill his appointments except twice, when 
prevented by sickness. During this time, 
however, they occasionally had preachers 
sent to them by the Presbytery. In 1809, 
they gave Mr. Mushat, and in 1813, Mr. 
Francis Pringle, Jr., calls, but they settled 
in other congregations. In 1822, Rev. Thos. 
Ferrier was ordained, and settled as their 
their pastor. He resigned in 1825. In 1827, 
Rev. Thomas Beveridge was called to the 
pastorate of the Associate congregation of 
Ryegate, but did not accept the call. 

After being a considerable time supplied 
1»y Rev. William Pringle, he was ordained 

and settled as their pastor, June 29, 1830, 
by the Associate Presbytery of Cambridge, 
Mr. Goodwillie, their former pastor, giving 
him the pastoral charge. He was the son of 
the eminent Rev. Alexander Pringle, who 
was for more than 60 years pastor of the As- 
sociate Congregation of Perth, Scotland, and 
married to the daughter of Rev. Alexander 
Bullions, D. D., being the granddaughter of 
Mr. Goodwillie. The greatest number of 
members at one time was 140. Mr. Pringle 
ministered till 1852. The congregation, how- 
ever, divided in 1840. Rev. James McAr- 
thur ministered in Ryegate one-half of the 
time, from 1846 till 1857, when he resigned. 
The congregation, after serious difficulties, 
is now happily united. The town hall and 
meeting house, finished in 1800, was the only 
church edifice in Ryegate till 1825, when the 
Associate congregation built a good chui-ch 
on a fine site at Ryegate Corner. 

May 21, 1801, Barnet and Ryegate con- 
gregations were included in the Associate 
Presbytery of Cambridge, N. Y., to which 
they belonged till July 10, 1840, when they 
were included in the Associate Presbytery 
of Vermont. (See Barnet, p. 287.) 

The Refokmed Pbesbtteeian Congkega- 
Tioji (Old School) of Ryegate. 


This congregation was organized in 1798 
or 1799. About the time that Rev. Win. 
Gibson, who was driven from Ireland, be- 
cause of his republican firmness, and parti- 
cipation with the United Men, emigrated to 
this country, and preached in Ryegate. In 
1800, the Covenanters, then few and feeble, 
not numbering more than 8 in full commu- 
nion, . gave Mr. Gibson a call, which he ac- 
cepted. He labored among them with some 
success until 1805, when his connection with 
them was dissolved. 

While vacant. Rev. Jas. Milligan preached 
for them by Presbyterial appointment, and 
in 1817, became their pastor. The number 
of members at this time was 80. Mr. Milli- 
gan's labors were very abundant. He not 
only cultivated his own field, but for many 
years he visited and preached to the congre- 
gations in Topsham and Craftsbury. He 
continued to labor among the people in Rye- 
gate till 1840, when he received and accepted 
a call from New Alexandria, Pa. The con- 
gregation again became vacant, and remained 
destitute of a pastor for 4 years. It was, 
however, for part of that time supplied with 
preaching, by Presbytery. In the winter of 
1843 and '44, James M. Beattie, a licentiate, 



preached to them, and in the spring received 
a unanimous call, which was by him accept- 
ed. In June, Mr. Beattie was ordained and 
installed in the pastoral charge of the united 
congregations of Ryegate and Barnet, the 
Barnet congregation having united with 
Ryegate in the call. 

At the time of Mr. Beattie's settlement, 
these congregations were in a somewhat 
broken and scattered condition. Owing to 
the troubles that arose towards the close of 
Mr. Milligan's pastorate here, they had de- 
creased in numbers. In Ryegate there were 
only 82 communicants, when Mr. Beattie 
took the spiritual charge. 

By the blessing of God, the people soon 
became more united, and a new impulse was 
given to the cause. 

Some very valuable members have been 
called to the congregation of the upper 
sanctuary, but others have arisen whom we 
trust will fill their places. The sabbath 
school, in connection with Ryeg.ite congre- 
gation, promises to do much good. 

Besides supporting their pastor, the people 
contribute yearly to aid the funds of the 
foreign and domestic missions, and of the 
Theological Seminary. Since the settlement 
of the present minister 89 have been added 
to the congregation ; and notwithstanding 
the losses that have been sustained in re- 
movals and deaths, there are at present 129 

The Reformed Peesbyterian Congrega- 
tion OF Ryegate, in connection with the 
General Synod of the Reformed Pres- 
byterian Church in North America. 

by rev. john bole, pastor. 

The origin of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church in Ryegate, is nearly coeval with the 
first settlement of the town itself. The first 
pastor, the Rev. James Gibson, was settled in 
the year 1798. Mr. Gibson labored faith- 
fully and successfully in building up a Re- 
formed Presbyterian congregation amongst 
the early settlers in Ryegate. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. James Milligan, who was 
translated from Coldingham to Ryegate in 
the year 1817. Mr. Milligan spent a long 
and useful pastorate amongst the green hills 
of Vermont, and the seed which he sowed 
here amid much toil and trouble is still 
bringing forth fruit to the Master's praise. 
Mr. Milligan removed from Ryegate, leaving 
the congregation vacant, in 1839. In the 
meantime a division had taken place in the 
Reformed Presbyterian church in America, 

respecting the use of the elective franchise. 
One party maintaining that those who exer- 
cised the elective franchise under the consti- 
tution of the United States, ought to be sub- 
jected to the discipline of the church, the 
other maintaining that this should be made 
a matter of forbearance. This resulted in 
the formation of two separate synods, each 
claiming to be the Synod of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church. This unhappy division 
occurred in the year 1833. Its influence was 
soon felt in the congregation in Ryegate ; and 
ultimately in the year 1843, the congregation 
were divided in respect to this question of 
using the elective franchise. Those in the 
congregation who believed that the exercise 
of this political privilege, ought not of itself, 
to be regarded as a sufficient ground for 
church censure, gave in their adherence to 
the General Synod of the Reformed Presby- 
terian Church, and were by that body recog- 
nised as the Reformed Presbyterian congre- 
gation of Ryegate, in connection with the 
General Synod of the Reformed Presbyte- 
rian Church in North America. We have 
thus stated (as we believe impartially), the 
ground of the division which took place in 
the congregation, respecting the elective 
franchise ; we have also defined, as distinct- 
ly as we could, the position occupied by the 
congregation with which we stand connected. 
It would evidently be out of place in a work 
like the present, to enter into any particular 
defence of the ground which we occupy as a 
congregation. However willing we might be 
to do this in other circumstances, yet in the 
present connection, as a matter of taste and 
courtesy, we confine ourselves to a simple 
statement of the facts in the case. 

In the year 1848, the Rev. Robert A. Hill, 
was ordained pastor over the congregation. 
Mr. Hill continued to labor in Ryegate with 
much zeal and acceptance for upwards of 
three years, when he was removed to another 
field of labor. The present pastor was or- 
dained over the congregation, in the year 
1853. He has had much comfort in his pas- 
toral connection with his people. There are 
now 135 members on the roll. Preaching is 
sustained all the time at South Ryegate, a 
sabbath school is in successful operation, 
and a large and valuable library is esta- 
blished in connection with the congregation. 
In reviewing our history there as a congre- 
gation, from the beginning down to the 
present time, surely we have abundant rea- 
son to erect our " Ebenezer," and inscribe 
upon it, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped 




On Rev. David Goodwillie, who died Aug. 
2, 1830. 

"I have waited for thy salvation, Lord."— Gfen. XLix, 18. 
And long thou waitedst, venerable man, 
While more than eighty circling periods ran, 
Full fifty years through many a dreary 

Proclaimed a Saviour's grace with modest 

While Time, his desolating havoc spread, 

Stood at thy work and choose still to remain, 

Pleased with God's service to thy latest year. 

Not long ago, did I behold thee stand, 
With consecrated symbols in thy hand, 
With hoary head, with aspect kind and meek. 
The tears fast flowing down thy aged cheek. 
Discoursing of thy Saviour's dying love. 
And pointing to the boundless bliss above. 
Like pilgrim past the dangers of the way. 
Almost at home, thy looks appeared to say, 
"My friends no more will I partake with 

TDl we in heaven our intercourse renew " 



Where can I look for peace, to heal 
My weary soul ; and sorrow steal 
From out my mind, and heaven reveal ? 
In the Bible ? 

What Book, unto our hearts doth bring 
Good cheer ; and never leaves a sting ; 
And give us hope, God's praise to sing ? 
The Bible. 



An invalid, we have been told, for many 
years ; yet the first one to send the Quarterly 
a club from Caledonia county. Unable to 
go out into the neighborhood around, she 
laid the enterprize before her visitors. We 
appreciatingly commemorate this fair exam- 
ple of practical sympathy, and cheerfully 
find a modest niche in the department of her 
birthtown for this dear girl : 

I'd love to climb the mountains high. 
To wander thro' the valleys green. 

To look athwart the azure sky. 
And o'er the lakelet's silver sheen. 

I'd love to wander with some friend, 
Some dear, congenial, tender soul ; 

And view the blessings God doth send. 
And watch the bright waves gleam and roll. 

But ah! it may not — can not be. 

And I must try to bow in love ; 
To leave my lot, God, to thee, 

And hope for happiness above. 



Like gleams of the far-oflf heavenly — • 

One by one in vision bright. 
How the by-gone memories come. 

To brighten the spirit's night. 

I am kissing now a dimpled cheek, 

I am smoothing golden hair, 
I am thinking now, with a mother's pride, 

My babe is wond'rous fair. 

Two little snow-white arms of love. 

Hold me in a soft embrace, 
Two tender eyes of the sweetest blue 

Look up to my happy face. 

But the twilight deepens to night, 
And I hear the wind's low moan ; 

And it whispers sad as it passes by, 
"Alone, young mother, alone! " 

! it is true that the sunshine fled, 
That lighted our home so bright ; 

! it is true that the music died. 
When those lips grew still and white. 


Lat. 44° 27''. Long. 72° V W. 


Prior to the independence of New Hamp- 
shire Grants, and 16 years before the settle- 
ment of St. Johnsbury, a tract of land on 
Passumpsic river was granted by King 
George III, to certain of his "loving sub- 
jects of the Province of New York." This 
tract contained 39,000 acres — including the 
whole or nearly the whole of St. Johnsbury, 
together with a portion of Concord and 
Waterford — was granted to 39 petitioners 
under leadership of John Woods and Wm. 
Swan, and formally chartered by Cadwal- 
lader Golden, who in 1770 was governor 
general of New York. The charter was 
issued at New York city on the 8th August, 
1770 ; and in honor of the Earl of Dunmore, 
who on the 19th October following was ap- 
pointed under his majesty, governor of the 
province, the new township received the 



name of Diinmore. From this document, 
which is still preserved in the State Hall at 
Albany, the following sections are tran- 
scribed : 

"George th? Third, by the Grace of God — 
of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, 
Defender of the Faith and so forth — To all to 
whom these Presents shall come. Greeting : 

"Whereas our loving subjects John AVoods 
and William Swan in behalf of themselves 
and their Associates, by their humble peti- 
tion presented unto our trusty and well- 
beloved Cadwallader Golden Esquire, our 
Lieut. Governor, and Commander in Chief 
of our Province of New YoTk and the terri- 
tories depending thereon in America — and 
read in our Council for our said Province on 
the 31st day of Jan. now last past — did set 
forth among other things — That the Peti- 
tioners had discovered a certain Tract of 
vacant Land situate on the West Branch of 
Connecticutt Eiver in the County of Glou- 
cester, within our said Province, containing 
about 39,000 acres, and that the said Lands 
are not included in any grant heretofore 
made by the Gov. of New Hampshire and 
are still lying vacant and vested in us. 

"Know ye,' That of our especial Grace, and 
certain Knowledge, and meer Motion, we 
have given, granted, ratified and confirmed, 
and do by these Presents, for us our Heirs 
and Successors, give, grant, ratify and con- 
firm to them, the aforesaid John Woods, 
William Swan and Associates their heirs 
and assigns forever — All that Tract of 
Land aforesaid set out, abutted, bounded 
and described in the Manner and Form as 
aforesaid, together with all and singular the 
Tenements, Hereditaments, Emoluments and 
Appurtenances thereunto belonging or ap- 
pertaining, and also our Estate, Right, 
Title, Interest, Possession, Claim and De- 
mand whatever of, in, and to the same 
lands and Premises, and every Part and 
Parcle thereof. And the Reversion and 
Reversions, Remainder and Remainders, 
Rents, Issues and Profits thereof, and of 
every Part and Tarcle thereof — Except, and 
always reserved out of this our present 
Grant unto us, our heirs and Successors 
forever. All Mines of Gold and Silver and 
also all White or other Sorts of Pine Trees 
fit for Masts, of the growth of 24 inches 
diameter and upward at 12 inches from the 
Earth, for Masts for the Royal Navy of us, 
our heirs and Successors — To their only pro- 
per and separate Use and Behoof respect- 
ively forever as Tenants in common and not 
as joint Tenants. Yielding, rendering, and 

paying therefor yearly and every year for- 
ever unto . us our heirs and Successors, at 
our Custoih House in our City of New York, 
unto us, our or their Collector or Receiver 
General there for the time being, on the 
Feast of Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, commonly called Lady Day — the 
yearly Rent of two shillings and Six pence 
Sterling, for each and every 100 acres of the 
above granted lands, and so in proportion 
for every lesser Quantity thereof. And we 
do by our especial Grace, and certain Know- 
ledge and meer Motion, erect, create, and 
constitute the Tract or Parcle of Land herein 
granted and every Part and Parcle thereof, 
a Township, forever hereafter to be and 
continue, and remain — and by the Name of 
DuNMOEE forever hereafter to be called and 
known. And for the better and more easily 
carrying on and managing the public Affairs, 
and Business of the said Township, our 
Royal AVill and Pleasure is, that there shall 
be forever in the said Township, 2 Assessors, 
1 Treasurer, 2 Overseers of Highways, 2 
Overseers of Poor, 1 Collector and 4 Con- 
stables, Elected and chosen out of the In- 
habitants of the said Township, yearly and 
every year on the first Tuesday in May at 
the most publick place in said Township, by 
the majority of the Freeholders thereof, 
then and there met and Assembled for that 
purpose. In testimony whereof. We have 
caused these our Letters to be made Patent 
and the Great Seal of our Province to be 
hereunto affixed. Witness our said trusty 
and well-beloved Cadwallader Golden Es- 
quire, our said Lieut. Gov. and Commander 
in Chief of our said Province of New York, 
and the Territories depending thereon in 
America. At our Fort in our City of New 
York, the Eighth day of Aug. in the Year of 
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and 
seventy, and of Our Reign the Tenth. 

Signed, &c. 
The conditions of the above grant were as 
follows : "That some or one of the grantees 
should within three years next after date, 
settle on the tract granted, so many families 
as should amount to one family for every 
1000 acres of land — or plant or effectually 
cultivate at the end of three years, at least 
three acres for every 50 acres of land grant- 
ed capable of cultivation." That no one 
should "by their Privity, consent or Pro- 
curement, fell, cut down, or destroy any of 
the Pine Trees suitable for the Royal Navy. 
Otherwise the Grant should be void, and the 
land should revert to, and be vested in the 



Whether any of the grantees undertook 
the fulfillment of these conditions, we are 
not informed, but it is highly probable that 
the difficulties which shortly after arose in 
adjusting the claims of landed proprietors 
in New Hampshire grants, prevented the 
actual settlement and tillage of the Dunmore 

Seven years after the grant of Dunmore, 
the state of Vermont threw off her shackles, 
and declared herself an independent sove- 
reignty. In the conflict which thence arose 
respecting the right of lands granted under 
the seal of neighboring states, a board of 
commissioners was appointed to adjust the 
claims of the New York grantees. These 
latter had the choice of paying ten cents 
per acre on their lands, and retaining them, 
or giving up their title thereto and removing 
to new grants in western New York. Pro- 
bably most of the grantees of Dunmore sold 
or relinquished their claims in Vermont, and 
settled in other quarters. From records 
preserved at Albany, we learn that the town- 
ship lines had been surveyed previous to the 
issuing of the charter, and that two war- 
rants of surveys had been filed on the first 
of January, 1770, but the field books of the 
surveyor general from this quarter are not 
found. We learn further, from a petition 
presented to the general assembly of this 
state in 1787, by one Moses Little, that the 
proprietors of Dunmore had completed the 
lotting out of the township, and that this 
had been done at great expense. The same 
petition, proceedeth to show "that the Peti- 
tioner, not in the least doubting that the 
said Grant had been legally made by the 
said Governor of New York, had purchased 
at a very high Price, Ten Thousand Acres of 
Land in the said Dunmore, situate about 
20 miles north of Newbury in the Co. of 
Orange. That since the State of Vermont 
had Exercised Jurisdiction, the whole of 
said Tract of Land had been granted by the 
said St. of Vt. to the Proprietors of St. Johns- 
borough and other towns, whereby the Peti- 
tioner hath suffered greatly by the loss of 
his property, and hath no redress besides 
applying to the Hon. Assembly of the 
State." This comprises all that can be 
found relative to the township of Dunmore. 
On a map of " His Majesties' Province of 
New York," published in London about 
1779, may be seen this township, located ac- 
cording to th^ boundaries designated in the 
grant, on either side of the Passumpsic (west 
branch of Connecticut), and extending on 
the east nearly to the boundary line of New 

Hampshire. It is not known that any per- 
manent settlements were made within its 
limits, until the year immediately preceding 
Gov. Chittenden's charter of St. Johnsbury. 
It is certain however, that the valley of the 
Passumpsic was often traversed by survey- 
ors, hunters and trappers, and had probably 
been spied out and examined by the future 
proprietors of St. Johnsbury, sometime be- 
fore its forests had been opened by the 
squatter's axe. 

On the 27th October, 1786, Thos. Chitten- 
den, then in the 10th year of his service as 
governor of Vermont, made an official grant 
to Dr. Jonathan Arnold and associates, of a 
tract of land in old Orange county, to be 
known as the "Township of St. Johnsbury." 
The shorter and more euphonious name 
which Cadwallader C olden had bestowed on 
this tract in 1770, and by which he thought 
to immortalize the memory of the British 
earl, was now repudiated by the less loyal 
mountaineers, who had already assumed the 
control of the state. Among the French 
people they had found a man, whose love of 
liberty, and disinterested friendship for the 
Green Mountain State, challenged their re- 
spect, and won their gratitude, and as a 
most appropriate testimony of their regard 
for his character and services, the new 
township was named the borough or town of 
St. John de Crevecoeur, the French consul at 
New York. This was done at the suggestion 
of Gen. Ethan Allen, who was a warm per- 
sonal friend of St. John, and who success- 
fully advocated the claims of the latter 
before the governor and council. The fol- 
lowing letter, addressed by St. John to Gen. 
Allen, evinces in a striking manner the 
characteristics of the man, besides contain- 
ing an allusion to the name in question : 
New York, 31st May, A. D. 1785. 

" Gen. Allen : In consequence of the leave 
you have given me, with pleasure I will com- 
municate to you the following thoughts, 
earnestly desiring you'd be persuaded that 
they have not been dictated by any vanity or 
foolish presumption, but by a sincere and 
honest desire of being somewhat useful to a 
state for the industry and energy of which I 
have a great respect. I am an American by 
a law of this state passed in the year 1763. 
I have lived and dwelled in it ever since. I 
married in 1770. I have three children. I 
have drained 3000 acres of Bog Meadow, 
built a house, cleared many acres of land, 
planted a great orchard. I have had the 
pleasure of publishing in Europe a work 
which has been well received by the public ; 



wherein many interesting facts are recorded 
of the bravei-y, patience and suffering of the 
Americans in the prosecution of their last 
war. Such, dear sir, are the titles whereon 
I presume to found and establish the libei-ty 
I am now taking. First, I offer to have the 
seal of your state elegantly engraven on 
silver by the king's best engraver, and to 
change somewhat the devices thereof. I offer 
with pleasure to get another engraved for 
the college which the state of Vermont 
intends erecting, and I will take upon 
myself the imagining of the device thereof. 

1 will do my best endeavors to procure from 
the king some marks of his bounty and some 
useful presents for the above college. If the 
general approves what I told him formerly 
concerning national gratitude and the simple 
though efficacious way of showing it to such 
French characters as have amply deserved 
it, no opportunity can be so favorable as the 
present, since new counties and districts will 
soon be laid out. If the general dont think 
it too presumptuous, in order to answer what 
he so kindly said respecting names, I would 
observe that the name of St. John being al- 
ready given to many places in this country, 
it might be contrived by the appellation of 
St. Jolinsbury. But the most flattering 
honor that the citizens of Vermont could 
confer on me would be, to be naturalized a 
citizen of that state, along with my 3 child- 
ren — America Francis St. John, William 
Alexander St. John, Philip Lewis St. John. 
As soon as any resolution will be taken to- 
wards giving to the new townships and dis- 
tricts, some of the new names, I earnestly 
beg the general would write the account of 
it, which I should beg of him to send me by 

2 or 3 different ways, so that I should not 
fail to have that part of it translated and put 
into the French newspapers with the name 
of the general. Wishing your state every 
prosperity, your good governor and council 
and yourself, my dear sir, I take my sin- 
cere leave of you, and beg you will look on 
me as a true friend and your very humble 
servant, St. John." 

From Allen's reply to the above we extract 
the following : 

" Sir, in behalf of the people of Vermont I 
return you thanks for the honor you have 
done me and them in your correspondence 
and assure you that we esteem it a great 
honor to be noticed by the French nation, the 
guarantees of American independence, more es- 
pecially as we are not as yet confederated 
with the United States, and we flatter our- 
selves that a mutual interchange of friend- 

ship and good offices amounts neai-ly to an 
alliance. We have not as yet made an ac- 
curate plan or map of the state, but are now 
doing it, which, when done, we will send to 
France, to be completed by the king's en- 
graver with the seal of the state, as you pro- 
pose. With regard to the other matters, the 
people of Vermont confide in Mr. St. John, 
and are his humble sei'vants. I should have 
written you much earlier could I have ob- 
tained an opportunity of laying the subject 
of your letter before the governor and council 
of the state, which I have since done. They 
readily conceived your good intentions, and 
nothing will be wanting on their part to pro- 
mote your laudable requests in every parti- 

" I have the honor to be, sir, with every 
sentiment of respect and esteem, 

"Your friend and vei'y humble servant, 
"Ethan Allen." 

Besides St. Johnsbury, the names of Dan- 
ville and Vergennes were adopted at the re- 
quest of Mr. St. John. 

The township of St. Johnsbury, which was 
granted to the petitioners " for the due en- 
couragement of their laudable designs, and 
for other valuable considerations thereunto 
moving," comprised 71 equally divided rights, 
each right including 810 acres, 1 rood, 22 
poles, the whole being estimated at 21,167 
acres. Besides the rights appropriated to 
the several grantees, we find one 71st part 
reserved for the use of a seminary or college, 
and the same for the use of county grammar 
schools in the state. Also "lands to the 
amount of one 71st part for the purpose of 
settlement of a minister or ministers of the 
Gospel in the said township, and the same 
amount for the support of an English school 
or schools in the said township." The two 
first mentioned reservations were to be under 
the control and disposal of the state assem- 
Tily, the latter to .be located "justly and 
equitably or quantity for quality " in such 
parts of the township as would least incom- 
mode the settlement thereof. At the first 
proprietors' meeting it was determined that 
the college and grammar school reservations 
should include two full rights in the extreme 
north-eastern corner of the town — the others 
were variously located, in no case comprising 
more than one-third of the same right. Pro- 
vision was also made in the charter for the 
erection of the first grist and saw mills out 
of the proceeds of the public lands and 9 
acres in each 71st part, and the same pro- 
portion for each lesser part were so reserved 
by the charter, that the profits arising there- 



from should be applied to the construction 
of public, roads and highways. The condi- 
tions and other reservations of this charter 
were "that each proprietor of the township 
should plant and cultivate 5 acres of land, 
and build a house at least 18 feet square on 
the floor, or have one family settled on each 
respective right in said township within the 
time limited by law of the state. Also, that 
all pine timber suitable for a navy be reserv- 
ed for the use and benefit of the freemen of 
the state." The penalty of non-fulfillment 
was forfeiture of each non-improved right of 
land, the same to revert to the freemen of the 
state, and by their representatives be re- 
granted to such persons as should after ap- 
pear to settle and cultivate them. 

Thus was granted the town of St. Johns- 
bury. The quaint memorials of olden days, 
will hardly be sought in the annals of a 
town, whose birth dates so late in New 
England history. A hundred and sixty-six 
years had already passed since the May- 
flower first dropped her anchors in Ply- 
mouth Bay. Nine years since the squatter 
sovereigns of New Hampshire Grants, had 
declared their green hills an independent 
territory. Full twice nine since the boys of 
the Green Mountains had first raised the 
arm of resistance against the tyranny of the 
Granite and Empire states. The straight 
forward policy and decision of the incipient 
commonwealth had been felt to the east of 
the Connecticut, and west of the Lake, and 
the time had come when '* tall grenadiers of 
the King's army, stood and trembled in the 
day of her fierce anger." But not as yet 
had this little state been accepted by Con- 
gress, as one of the confederated union. 
Her repeated applications had been treated 
with an evasive policy which at the time 
was regarded as alike unfortunate for the 
state, and discreditable to Congress. Never- 
theless, her very disappointment resulted 
eventually in good to the state, since it 
served to develop a greater self-reliance and 
energy on the part of the citizens, and 
furthermore released them from the heavy 
governmental taxation, necessitated by the 
expenses of the Revolution, just concluded. 
This consideration, together with the strength 
•and efficiency of the state government, and 
the cheapness of lands, induced a large 
immigration of young and enterprising men, 
who came up to clear her forests and settle 
within her borders. Such were the men 
whose axes first rang in the wood lands of 
St. Johnsbury. Earnest, hardy, and vigor- 
ous, they sought not the refinements of 

society so much as a lordly independence 
around their log cabin firesides. 

The names of the grantees were as fol- 
lows: Jonathan Arnold, Esq., Samuel Ste- 
vens, Esq., John James Clark and Joseph 
Nightingale, Joseph Lord, Ebenezer Scott, 
Jr., David Howell, Thomas Chittenden, Esq., 
John Bridgeman, John C. Arnold, Joseph 
Fay, Esq., Ira Allen, Esq., Simeon Cole, 
Benjamin Doolittle, Josiah Nichols, James 
Adams, Jona. Adams, J. Callender Adams, 
Thomas Todd, William Trescott and Jona. 
Trescott. Thomas Chittenden, the governor, 
in accordance with the usage of the day re- 
ceived one 71st part as remuneration for his 
services in drawing up the charter. His 
right was located on the east bank of Pas- 
sumpsic river, north of the Center village, 
Ira Allen of Irasburgh, and Joseph Fay of 
Bennington, men of influence and position in 
the state were also non-resident proprietors 
to the amount of four 71st parts. The 
principal proprietor was Samuel Stevens, 
Esq., who held 18 rights or about 5400 
acres. Being a non-resident, however, he 
subsequently transferred most of his lands 
to Dr. Arnold and others who were ready to 
settle. Arnold at the date of the charter 
held 3900 acres, 13 rights, or a tenth in 
amount of the old township of Dunmore. 
Of the other grantees, the last eight in the 
list, obtained the rights of proprietorship, 
by virtue of settlement previous to the char- 
tering of the town, and held respectively 
one 210th part, or about 100 acres. 

In the latter part of 1786, before the 
boundaries of the township had been fixed, 
or its charter issued, James Adams, Martin . 
Adams, James Callender Adams, and Jona- 
than Adams, came up the valley of the 
Passumpsic, to the meadow south of Rail- 
road street, and there began the first clear- 
ing in the town. About the same time 
Simeon Cole, whose old pasture gate sub- 
sequently swung on the edge of Cole Gate 
Hill, established himself on the meadowa 
south of Center village. Before the close 
of this year Benj. Doolittle, Josiah Nichol— 
Thomas Todd, Jonathan and William Tres- 
cott had all obtained the right of proprietor- 
ship. It is difficult to trace the history of 
these early pioneers, inasmuch as most of 
them removed to other settlements, and of 
those who remained no very reliable record 
can be found. The two Trescotts lived and 
died in this vicinity. Jonathan, on a certain 
occasion, sent out the following ^'Friendly 
Salutation : " 

" Know all men by these lines, that th 



undersigner is expecting to leave tliis coun- 
try, .and wishes all his friends, or foes 
if any, to call on ■ him by the 20th May 
instant, and he will endeavor to make them 
satisfaction. Sheriffs, Constables and Law- 
yers are desired to make their demands or 
otherwise hold their peace. Adieu ! Wish- 
ing all, God's blessing here on earth, and 
eternal life hereafter, when I hope to meet 
you all again. Jonathan Teescott." 

He died at the age of 88, and from the 
rough hewn stone which marks his resting 
ing place in the cemetery, we learn that 
"He was one of the first settlers in town, 
being the seventh inhabitant." His brother 
William died in a kind of subterranean ha- 
bitation near Joe's pond in Danville. He 
was something of a hero in his day as we 
shall find in a subsequent part of this nar- 

A winter of primitive simplicity was that 
of 1786-7 in St. Johnsbury. A great set- 
tlement had not as yet sprung up on the 
ruins of Dunmore. To the few and scattered 
families who braved out the first winter in 
this wilderness, the distant stores and grist 
mills of Barnet, furnished rum, sugar and 
flour. No bridge had been erected, no roads 
established, and the lines of travel were as 
yet but rough cut sled paths through the 
"forest primeval." 

Eai'ly in the spring of 1787, came Jona- 
than Arnold, Joseph Lord, and Barnabas 
Barker, with 14 others. Dr. Arnold, the prin- 
cipal proprietor of the three towns Lyndon, 
Billymead and St. Johnsbury, was much the 
most efficient and enterprising man among 
the settlers of this vicinity. He was now in 
his 46th year, and had already seen much 
of ^public life both in state and national 
assemblies. For several years he was a 
member of congress from Rhode Island, and 
while serving in this capacity, he was sus- 
pected by many of being over friendly to 
the interests of Vermont, and in particular, 
of communicating to men in this state cer- 
tain doings of the continental congress 
while in secret session. The following ex- 
tracts from a letter addressed to Hon. Daniel 
Gaboon of New Hampshire (afterwards a 
a resident of Lyndon), indicate the position 
of Dr. Arnold, respecting the affairs of 
Vermont ; but whether he advocates the in- 
dependence of the state solely as a safety 
measure for New Hampshire, may be doubt- 
ed. He says, writing from Philadelphia : 

" Co'ngress has been on the aifair of Ver- 
mont for several days, and upon the whole, 
s appears that the present members will 

do nothing to its advantage. I have it from 
the friends of New York, that a new state 
will probably be formed on Connecticut 
River, having for its western line the Green 
mountains, and its eastern they care not 
where. I think it would not be amiss to 
suggest to the friends of New Hampshire, 
that New York policy will probably set such 
a project on foot (if Vermont is not sup- 
ported in her present claims), in order to 
secure the land west of the mountains and 
on the lake to themselves at Hampshire's 
expense — and that as the only sure means 
of preventing such an event, it is the policy 
of the latter to concede in the clearest and 
most decided manner to Vermont's independ- 
ence. Propositions, I doubt not, have 
passed between some individuals of your 
state and New York to divide Vermont be- 
tween them by the height of land, but from 
what I can discover, it will be dangerous for 
New Hampshire to depend on such a di- 
vision ; and if New York agrees to it, I 
think it must be with a view to effect a 
future division of your state. I am the 
more confirmed in this opinion from senti- 
ments discoverable in the persons lately 
banished from Vermont, viz : Phelps and his 
companion, who are now in this city, and 
who are daily and nightly propagating every 
false and scandalous rumor that malice can 
invent to injure the people of that country, 
who have no agent or other person to con- 
tradict them. I must therefore again repeat, 
that New Hampshire can only be safe in ■ 
holding jurisdiction to the river — by leaving 
Vermont to its present limits, Indcpe.ndent." 

If Dr. Arnold anticipated at this time 
a future settlement in Vermont, he was well 
aware that his own interest would be fur- 
thered by the indepehdence of the state, 
without regard to the policy of New Hamp- 
shire ; but it is more probable that as a true 
patriot and a disinterested observer of the 
struggles which he here witnessed for free- 
dom, he threw his influence and sympathies 
in favor of the oppressed. It was shortly 
after the close of his term in congress that 
Dr. Arnold immigrated to St. Johnsbury. 
He had served as a sergeant and surgeon in 
the Revolutionary war, and received his com- 
pensation in continental money, which he 
desired to invest in landed property. We 
learn however, that a few years after his 
removal here, the state effected a trade with 
Arnold, according to which he was to supply 
the medical chest of the state which was 
kept at Bennington, and receive in com- 
pensation his charter fees. The value of 



these charter fees may be determined from a 
resolution passed in council at R,utland, 
Oct. 27, 1786, in which it is declared that 
the '* grant of land made to Jonathan Arnold 
and associates, be under the following terms, 
viz: That each proprietor agreeable to the 
grant, pay for each right in said grant, nine 
pounds hard money, on or before the first 
day of June next, in order to be appropriat- 
ed to the exigencifes of the state." Subse- 
quently, the sum of £537 13s. 7c?. was dis- 
counted on the charter fees of St. Johnsbury 
and Danville, being due bills given by Sur- 
veyor General Whitelaw for services ren- 
dered in the town surveys. The survey of 
the lot lines and the division of the town- 
ship into rights, was not completed until the 
sutamer of 1787, as we learn from a call for 
proprietors' meeting, published in the Ben- 
nington Gazette, and also from a letter ad- 
dressed by Dr. Arnold to Esquire Whitelaw, 
the surveyor. This letter which was dated 
at Bennington March 8th, 1787, runs as fol- 

James Whitelaw, Esq. : 

Sir — The surveyor general has appointed 
me to look out, cut and make a road from 
the west line of St. Johnsbury, beginning 
where Capt. Leavenworth ends the road he 
is to make through Danville, and thence 
crossing the Passumpsic river at (or as near 
as the land will suit), the best falls in the 
said river, which I suppose is between Cole's 
and Adams [now Paddock's village], thence 
on a course which will bring it through 
some part of the gore east of Lyndon, to the 
west line of Lunenburg — which road will 
not only be necessary for facilitating the 
transport of provisions for the surveyors 
and their parties, but will serve valuable 
purposes for general roads in that part of 
the state. The siirveyor general having also 
consented that you should complete the out- 
lines of St. Johnsbury, and lay the same 
into lots of 300 acres each before you enter 
upon the general survey, I am to desire 
you to get Josiah Nichols and Martin Adams 
to assist you to make the same, which I 
would wish to be done plain and distinct ; and 
if Mr. Adams or Nichols can not attend to 
that service, the old gentleman, or Mr. 
Simeon Cole may be applied to, although I 
hope and expect that Mr. Cole will be other- 
wise engaged for me at that time. You will 
please call on Mr. E. R. Chamberlin for pork 
and flour for this service, and get some rum 
from Col. Thos. Johnston. I hope to be with 
you early in May, ^nd fix the magazine for 

your supplies for surveying that quarter. I 
enclose a sketch of the manner which I tliink 
will lay the lots to best advantage in St. 
Johnsbury — if you can better it, you Avill. I 
am the less anxious about matters there, 
from having the fullest confidence in your 
ability, will and friendship. Desiring you 
to make my compliments agreeable to all 
friends in that quarter, I am sir, with esteem, 
your assured friend and humble servant. 
JoNA. Aknold. 

Squire Whitelaw was subsequently ap- 
pointed surveyor general, and from his Field 
Book of Surveys of Town Lines in St. Johnsbury 
we extract the following as a specimen of the 
manner .in which he filled some forty or fifty 
pages of the journal while surveying in this 
quarter : 

" Began the W line of St. J. at NW being 
Birch tree marked Lyndon SW corner Nov. 
16, 1786, and ran S 6°, 20^ E. At 18 Ch. 
brook 10 links wide runs SW. At 63 Ch. 
little brook runs W. 1 3Iile, on W. branch 
of brook 10 links wide running S. Easterly 
by an Alder marked M. 1, 1787, and an alder 
meadow (m) 2 3Iiles, a stake 12 links S. 40° 
W. fr. a fir tree on land descending east (g) 
the wood elm, fir, beech, ash and maple, ex- 
cellent land for grass. At 8 Ch. a stream 3 
rods wide runs NE. * * * 7 Miles, a stake 
8 links westerly fr. a little birch on the south 
side of a hill (g) — this mile chiefly uneven — ■ 
the wood beech and maple, good for grain 
and pasture ; at 51 Ch. Barnet Corner at a 
hemlock tree marked Barnet Cor. March 23, 
1784, standing on flat land on the edge of 
brook running SE. wood chiefly hemlock (g) 
A lot in St. J. 310 A. 1 R. 22 P." 

Under a later date, and after the surveys 
of town and lot lines had been completed, we 
find the account of James Whitelaw against 
the state as presented to the treasurer for 
settlement ; from a portion of this account we 
quote as follows : 
To Provisions and assistance fur- 
nished by Dr. Jona. Arnold, . £52 4 5J 
To 1 Quart of Rum, . , 10 

To 7 Males' Victuals at lOd, . 5 10 
To 10 Days surveying. . . 6 

To 2 Days settling acc'ts with 

Jona. Arnold, Esq., . .14 
To a man and horse 1 Day, . 6 

To 2 Camp Kettles, . . .080 
To 1 Quart West India Rum, . 2 

To 3 males' victuals at lOd, . 2 6 
To Entertainment (?) for Hands, 0-10 
To 2 Bags worn out in the Sur- 





To Dr. Arnold's Account, . £118 5 OJ 
To 7 lbs. Salt Pork of Capt. Colt 

and 2 Galls. Rum, . . . 17 
To 35 Days Surveying, . . 21 

To 4 Days making Plan to lay 
before Commissioners ap- 
pointed to locate the Flying 

Grants, 2 8 

A single tradition in connection with the 
surveys of this town, although it occurred at 
a later date, is perhaps worthy of mention. 
Dr. Arnold was in town at the time, and in 
company with Squire Whitelaw and others, 
was laying out certain lines in the vicinity 
of Sleeper's River, then known as West 
Branch. The provisions and equipments 
of the party were left in charge of Thomas 
Todd, who was instructed to keep a careful 
watch over the same, while the others pe- 
netrated into the forest to finish their sur- 
veys. Meantime Todd removed his effects 
from the bushes to the river bank, and on 
the return of the party was found rolled up 
against a log and fast asleep. "Hencefoward," 
said Dr. Arnold, "let the West Branch be 
known as Sleeper's River,'' and to this day 
its waters flow along the sandy bed whose 
name recalls this legend of our " Sleepy Hol- 

After the settlement and before the organ- 
ization of the town in 1790, all matters of 
township business were transacted in pro- 
prietor's meetings held at some one of the 
houses in the town. In the Bennington Gazette, 
vol. 4, No. 182, we find an advertisement 
signed by Isaac Tichenor, afterwards go- 
vernor of the state, in which the " Proprie- 
tors of St. Johnsbury are warned and notified 
to meet on the eighth Feb., 1787, for the 
purpose of choosing committees to complete 
the division of lands then undivided in the 
township — to hear report of committee ap- 
pointed to settle with new residents in town- 
ship — to make provision for erecting mills 
in the course of the ensuing summer — to 
take measures for the furtherance of the set- 
tlement, and transact other business deemed 
necessary." It is doubtful whether this 
meeting was ever called to order, and if it 
was, probably no business of importance was 
transacted, as no record of proceedings can 
be found. Another meeting was called in 
the June following, and in the meantime Dr. 
Arnold had removed to the township and 
erected a house, as we infer from the follow- 
ing minutes, taken from the first page of the 
. town records : 

"At a meeting of the Proprietors of the 
Township of St. Johnsbui-y held at the House 

of Jonathan Arnold, Esq., in the said Town- 
ship, in the Co. of Orange, on the 18th Day 
of June, A. D. 1787, Alex. Harvey, Esq., was 
chosen Moderator, Dr. Joseph Lord, Pro- 
prietors' Clerk. Voted, that the several 
rights in said Township (exclusive of two 
Lots of One-Third Right each to the 10 per- 
sons who had entered the town in 1786 and 
who were admitted as Proprietors by reason 
of actual settlement — also one Full right for 
building mills in said Township and Five 
public Rights, all which said Rights are lo- 
cated and designated on the said Plan) be 
now drafted for." 

Thereupon Alex. Harvey, Jos. Lord and 
Enos Stevens, were authorized to prepare 
lots with numbers affixed, the same to be 
shuffled and drawn against each proprietor's 
name. Dan'l Cahoon, Jr., and William Tres- 
cott " in presence of and under superintend- 
ance of the Assembly, made draft of the lots, 
and in the said draft the lots came out to 
each proprietor's name" in the order record- 
ed in the proprietors' record book. 

The " one full right" which was reserved 
according to charter for building mills, was 
located on the Passumpsic at the most avail- 
able place for water-power, just above the 
mouth of Moose River. This property in- 
cluding about three hundred acres was as- 
signed to Dr. Arnold, and during the spring 
of '87 he put up a saw mill. The following 
year a grist mill was erected, and the busi- 
ness importance of the settlement largely 
increased. These were days when our mo- 
dern Paddock village was known as "Ar- 
nold's Mills," and before the "big moose" 
which was afterwards victimized on the bank 
of East Branch, had left to that dashing 
stream a more historic name. The house of 
Dr. Arnold was located in the wood lands at 
the northern extremity of the plain, just above 
the park which still bears the family name. 
The erection of this house began the settle- 
ment of the plain, and within its walls, dur- 
ing succeeding generations, no less than 
seven several families found a home, and last 
of all the owl and the bat. We could wish 
that the " boys " who in 184- brought down 
its old timbers with fire, to the ground, had 
reserved their torches until some artist could 
have sketched the "rough exterior" of the 
first frame house erected in St. Johnsbui'y. 

To this house it was that Dr. Arnold car- 
ried home his third wife, Cynthia Hastings. 
Now the way in which Cynthia came to be 
the wife of the doctor was as follows : On a 
certain occasion the latter was journeying 
down the river, and quartered for the night 



with one Enos Stevens of Barnet. In the 
course of the evening it vi^as determined vpith 
great unanimity of feeling that their condi- 
tion bore a forlorn resemblance to that of the 
old Piomans before the visit of the Sabines — 
pioneers in a new settlement and hopelessly 
destitute of wives. Nothing could be done 
to remedy the matter in this northern wilder- 
ness ; accordingly an expedition to Charles- 
ton "No. 4" (N. H.) was immediately plan- 
ned, to take effect on the morrow, the object 
being to spy out the available daughters of 
the land. Arrived in Charleston they called 
on Samuel Stevens, Esq., and made known 
their wishes. After some consultation in- 
vitations were issued to Cynthia Hastings 
and Sophy Grout requesting their company 
at tea, it being understood by the contrivers 
of this plot, that the two strangers from Ver- 
mont should accompany them back to their 
homes. In anticipation of a possible emer- 
gency it was judged advisable that Mrs. 
Squire West should also be in attendance to 
play the part of umpire in case both gentle- 
men should claim the same lady. Tea time 
arrived, and so did the unsuspecting maidens. 
The evening passed, but when the hour of 
departure came, Cynthia Hastings seemed to 
be in double demand. The ladies still re- 
mained in blissful ignorance of the conspira- 
cy. Mrs. Squire West was called for, and 
constituted referee. She very sagely argued 
that Sophy Grout was admirably adapted to 
be the companion of a farmer (Mr. Stevens 
was a tiller of the soil), but as for Cynthia it 
was much more suitable that she should be 
attended by a professional man. This wise 
decision of Mrs. Squire West (especially 
grateful to Dr. Arnold), prevailed, and before 
separating that night each of the gentlemen 
from the north made known to parties most 
concerned the special object of their visit to 
Charleston. Sophy Grout suffered somewhat 
from paternal interference, grounded on the 
fact that Stevens was a tory, but she was 
finally told that if she icould marry an old 
tory she might, only she should carry nothing 
from the ancestral domain but herself and a 
cow. A few days later the afflicted Grout 
family witnessed the departure of Sophy and 
the old cow with a tory. The doctor expe- 
riencing less difficulty in preliminary ar- 
rangements, went foward to Rhode Island 
where he remained a few days, and on his 
return was accompanied to St. Johnsbury by 
the aforesaid Cynthia of Charleston. She 
became the mother of Lemuel Hastings Ar- 
nold, who was born at St. Johnsbury, edu- 
cated at Providence, governor of Rhode Is- 

land in 1841-42, member of governor's coun- 
cil during the Dorr rebellion, member of 
congress in 1845-47, and died at Kingston 
June 27th, 1852. We learn from the poli- 
tical journals of the day that Mr. Arnold met 
with some opposition while a candidate for 
the office of governor. " During the canvass 
and in the heart of the electioneering cam- 
paign conducted upon the high pressure 
principle, a zealous Jackson man lustily ac- 
cused Mr. Arnold of the enormous crime of 
having been born in Vermont ! " Thereupon 
a question arose, as to whether a man could 
be held accountable for being born in any 
particular age or country. This kind of ac- 
countability was hardly recognized in the 
political creed of the Green Mountain boys, 
and does not appear to have been sanctioned 
by the sons of Rhode Island, for Mr. Arnold, 
notwithstanding he was born " way up in 
Vermont," was elected by a decided majo- 
rity, and did honor both to the state of his 
birth and the state of his adoption. 

After the mills were established, the rights 
assigned, and the settlement of the town 
fairly under way, the population increased 
rapidly by immigration from the south. 
Most of the new comers were citizens Of 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts or Rhode 
Island. No regular record of marriages, 
births and deaths was kept, until after the 
organization of the town, in 1790. The 
marriage service was commonly performed 
by Dr. Arnold, the first on record being that 
of Eneas Harvey and Rhoda Hamlet, who 
" Avere married 17th Jany., 1793, by Jonathan 
Arnold, Esquire, in presence of several wit- 
nesses." The earliest recorded births are 
those of Polly, daughter of David Doolittle, 
Dec. 14, 1789 ; and Polly, daughter of John 
McGaffey, Aug. 28, 1788. About this time 
a tax was imposed on the township to raise 
funds for the purpose of procuring a record 
book, wherein such interesting events might 
subsequently be preserved. Something of 
the condition of the town in the third year 
of its existence, maybe gathered from the 
following petition presented to the general 
assembly by Dr. Arnold, the original of 
which is in the state department at Mont- 
pelier : 

" To the Hon. Gen. Assembly of the State 
of Vt., convened Oct. 1789. The subscriber 
humbly showeth — That he hath with great 
difficulty and expense begun a settlement in 
the northern part of this state. That he 
hath since the 25th April, 1787, introduced ' 
more than Fifty Industrious men as settlers 
(which number would have been much 



greater, but for the scarcity of Provisions 
in that Country), and some of whom have 
families now there. That a principal diffi- 
culty we have had to encounter, hath origin- 
ated from the want of passable roads to the 
Townships by which we are planted, and 
which we have had no means of procuring 
to be made. And this difficulty is still like- 
ly to continue, unless by the interposition 
of your Honors we are relieved." 

The location of the contemplated roads is 
then desci-ibed, the principal one being 
through Barnet, corner of Waterford, St. 
Jobnsbury, Lyndon, &c., which is now the 
regular river road. 

Doubtless the scarcity of provisions al- 
luded to in the above, petition, resulted 
chiefly from the want of roads and suitable 
conveyances ; and this indeed might have 
been expected in days when meji carried the 
necessaries of iife on their backs for miles 
through the forest. 

It is said that the old pioneer, who was 
afterwards elected first representative to the 
state assembly, used to make periodic jour- 
neys on foot to Barnet, and return with a 
two bushel bag of grain on his back, and a 
galUon of rum in his hand. Of course the 
measurement of the latter was taken at 
Barnet. Another illustrative tale is told of 
a certain eccentric individual, who bought 
a bag of potatoes " down below," and hav- 
ing with the assistance of two or three able 
bodied men, secured the same upon his back, 
set out for St. Johnsbury. Unfortunately 
and greatly to his dismay, a small rent in 
the corner of the bag, became so enlarged 
in the course of the homeward trip, as to 
permit the escape of one of the esculents, 
and how to recover this was a problem 
which gave ample scope to his available 
eccentricity. Fearing to stoop, lest the 
weight of the bag should prevent his subse- 
quent perpendiculai'ity, and unwilling to 
lose so dainty a morsel, he proceeded to 
Inflict upon the said potato sundry well-di- 
vected kicks, which in due time propelled it 
with variable velocities to the floor of his 
kitchen, whence it met its appropriate fate. 
For the authenticity of the above we are 
incompetent to vouch, but we accept it as a 
practical treatise on the times. Probably 
very few of the early settlers were burdened 
with a surplus of hard money. Wild meat, 
grain and furs were the legal tender. A 
letter has been found, written by one Mer- 
ritt, who lived iii the south part of the town 
a year or two after the settlement was 
begun. It seems that he had been dunned 

by Capt. Lovell for a debt. His reply states 
"that he had just hoed in three acres of 
wheat, a few potatoes and some barley, 
which was all the property he had in the 
world, save flint, powder and gun. He pro- 
poses to set out on a hunt the following day, 
and if Providence is pleased to give him 
usual success, he pledges within a limited 
time to redeem his credit with furs." 

For many years moose were abundant, 
and contributed much toward supplying the 
wants of the settlers. How Daniel Hall, in 
1793, gat for himself the necessaries of life, 
and the name of a mighty hunter, may be 
gathered from the following notes, inserted 
as they were taken from the narrator : 

"Hall had grant of land from Dr. Ar- 
nold — hundred acres — in St. Johnsbury — 
west of Passumpsic — above Plain — by mis- 
take, deed not given — next year Doctor 
dies — alarming apprehensions — Hall applies 
to Josias Lyndon — son of Doctor — J. L. 
gives him hundred acres — up in Lyndon — 
Hall satisfied — next morning up early — 
packs wife and goods on hand sled — travels 
to Lyndon — on crust — unpacks wife and 
goods — builds fire — sets up wigwam — moves 
in wife and goods — all settled — sundown — 
Next morning, nothing to eat — takes gun — 
sallies into forest — tracks a moose — big 
one — shoots moose — skins thigh — cuts out 
steak — carries home — wife delighted — heard 
gun go ofi" — thought breakfast coming — 
roasts meat on forked stick — eats — no but- 
ter, pepper, salt — after breakfast calls up 
all neighbors — they skin moose — each takes 
a piece — Hall gets out hand sled — loads on 
moose meat and pelt — goes to St. Johns- 
bury — trades — gets three pecks potatoes, 
half bushel meal, peck salt — carries home 
to wife — wife delighted — sundown." 

In the year 1790, the first town meeting 
was held at Dr. Arnold's house, and the 
organization of the town eifected. The re- 
cord of this meeting stands as follows : 

"At a meeting of the Inhabitants of the 
Township of St. Johnsbury, legally warned 
and holden at the Dwelling house of Jona- 
than Arnold Esquire, in the said township, 
on Monday the 21st day of June, Anno 
Dom. 1790, being the first town meeting 
ever held in the said Town. 

Jonathan Arnold, Esq., was chosen Mode- 
rator ; Jonathan Arnold, Town Clerk ; Jona- 
than Adams, Town Treasurer ; Asa Daggett, 
Constable ; Asa Daggett, Collector of Taxes ; 
Jonathan Arnold, Sealer of Weights and 
Measures ; Joel Roberts, Joseph Lord, Mar- 
tin Adams, Selectmen ; The Selectmen, List- 



ers and Assessors ; Barnabas Barker and 
Four others, Surveyors of Highways and 
Fence Viewers. Meeting Dissolved. 

JoNA. Arnold, Town Clerk. 

The selectmen immediately proceeded with 
the duties of their office, and sent up to the 
assembly an urgent petition for roads, in 
which it is 

" Humbly shewn — that they suffer under 
great inconvenience from the want of Roads 
and Bridges in the Township of St. Johns- 
bury, and although the Inhabitants have 
exerted themselves equal at least to those of 
any new Settlement, and have also had the 
Assistance of a small Proprietor's tax; the 
whole is utterly inadequate to what is abso- 
lutely necessary for their convenience,^ the 
advantage of Land Owners, and the Interest 
of the State. For the circumstances of the 
Town is such as requires much mor^ to be 
expended for such purposes than falls to the 
Lot of such Townships in General, it being 
so Situate as to be the Key to a very fertile 
Country northward, and the only practica- 
ble and nearest communication between the 
towns on and about the Onion River, to 
those on the Connecticutt at the Upper Coos ; 
which render necessary an extent of about 
35 miles of Roads for general purposes, be- 
sides many others for more private and par- 
ticular uses therein. And the said Town- 
ship having nearly through its center from 
North to South the Passumpsick, a River 
about 12 rods wide, and on the East part the 
Moose River about 6 rods wide, and runs 
therein an extent of about 5 miles, and on 
the West part the Sleepers River about 4 
rods wide, and runs therein an extent of 
about 7 miles — requires a large number of 
Bridges, two at least on the Passumpsick, 
one near the Mills, and the other near the 
North line of the said Township ; two on 
Moose River, and three at least on Sleepers 
River. Wherefore your Petitioners humbly 
pray Your Honors for leave to bring in a 
Tax of 4 pence per acre on the lands in St. 
J. for the purpose aforesaid. And as in duty 
bound will ever respectfully pray." 

Signed, &c., by Selectmen. 

To this petition were also affixed the signa- 
tures of Jonathan Arnold, Joseph Fay, Enos 
Stevens and Thomas Chittenden, as pro- 
prietors, to the amount of 32 rights, joining 
in the prayer of the petition ; and upon the 
30th .lune following, we find that the com- 
mittee appointed by legislature for laying 
out and making these roads in St. Johns- 
bury, "allowed £30 for Bridge over the 
Pass. River at the Mills — £20 for ditto 

across the East Branch or MoDse River near 
its mouth, and six pence per rod for com- 
pleting a road (1 rod wide) from one bridge 
to the other." Jonathan Arnold undertook 
the job, and in building the first bridge, 
" tradition says that his inflexible will com- 
pelled the workmen to commence the plank- 
ing at the opposite end from which the 
plank were, so that they were compelled to 
convey all the plank across the river as best 
they might, instead of laying them down in 
advance of their own steps." During this 
year, 1790, the plain was mostly cleared of 
its forests, and contained three habitations ; 
Dr. Arnold's at the northern extremity, Jo- 
seph Lord's log hut at the southern, and a 
rude cabin on the site now occupied by the 
St. Johnsbury House. A road was cut 
across the plain, corresponding to Main 
street as it, now lies — charred stumps on 
either side and dense woods beyond. A 
ravine about 20 feet deep ran across the 
street near the corner of Church street, 
which was afterwards spanned by a dry 
bridge. By especial vote, and at expense 
of the township, a guide-post had been 
erected. The population of the town was 
148 ; grand list, $590 ; first freeman's meet- 
ing was held Sept. 26th, 1791, and Joel 
Roberts was elected representative of the 
town in state assembly. His certificate, 
which is preserved in the secretary of 
state's office, runs as follows: 

" This certifies that at the Freeman's Meet- 
ing in St. Johnsbury on the day assigned by 
law, Mr. Joel Roberts was Chosen to Repre- 
sent in the General Assembly of the State 
of Vt. for the year thence ensuing, the Town 
of St. Johnsbury aforesaid. 

"Attest, Asa Daggett, Constable. 

"St. J., Sept. 26, 1791."^ 

The first freemen's oaths taken in St. 
Johnsbury were administered on the 2d Sept. 
1794. Only one of the eleven young men 
who on that day first exercised their elective 
franchise, is still living, and he, through the 
infirmities of three score and thirty years, 
but faintly recalls the scene. On the same 
hills where, in 1791, he began his clearings, 
Mr. Goss, our oldest citizen, is still residing, 
and the beautiful valley which his axe first 
opened along the upper waters of Sleeper's 
River, preserves the memory of his labors in 
the name of "Goss Hollow." The freemen's 
oaths alluded to were taken by John Barker, 
•Jeriah Hawkins, P. Gardner, Moses Melvin, 
David Goss, Wm. Hawkins, B. Bradley, 
Steph. Houghton, Nath. Daggett, Danl. 
Smith and Nath. H. Bishop. On the same 



clay, was held the first recorded election for 
governor, with the following result : 

For Governor. — Nathaniel Niles had 16 
votes, Thomas Chittenden 8 votes, Isaac 
Tichenor 6 votes. 

For Lieut. Governor. — Jona. Hunt, had 30 
votes, Nath. Niles 1 vote. 

For Treasurer. — Saml. Mattocks, had 23 

In the state election for this year, Thomas 
Chittenden was for the 17th time elected 
Governor, Jonathan Hunt Lieut. Governor, 
and Samuel Mattocks Treasurer. 

The first hog constables in the town were 
James Thurber, James Wheaton, Mai'tin 
Wheeler, Eneas Harvey and Alpheus Hough- 
ton, elected on the first Monday of March, 
1793, and as record declares "all married 
within the year last past." The first mer- 
chant in St. Johnsbiiry was a Mr. Sumner, 
who, about 1794 or '5 opened a store in the 
house of Jonathan Trescott, which stood on 
the road to Passumpsic, just below the 
county fair grounds. Afterwards Stephen 
Hawkins and Reuben Alexander came from 
Winchester, and commenced trade about 

1798. Hawkins married a daughter of Capt. 
Arnold the miller. This Arnold was an old 
sea captain, a brother of Dr. Jonathan, and 
was the first person employed to tend the 
gristmill. His successor was Daniel Bowen, 
who lived in a rude hut by the corner of the 
bridge at the rail road crossing, which was 
the first house built in that village. The 
first store kept on the Plain was opened by 
Fred. Phelps as early as the year 1800, at 
the north end of the street. He carried on a 
potash factory near the mills, which was af- 
terwards converted into a distillei-y of whis- 
key. Amaziah D. Barber kept a store some- 
what later near the head of Maple street, 
which was subsequently occupied by Cham- 
bei'lin & Paddock, afterwards fitted up as a 
house of worship for the Second Congrega- 
tional Church, then in its infancy, and fi- 
nally moved to its present location nearly 
opposite the post ofiice, where it is still 
occupied as a dwelling house. The first 
public house or tavern was opened by Dr. 
Lord soon after the settlement of the town, 
at the southern extremity of the Plain. In 

1799, the building now occupied as a bakery 
was built and opened as a tavern by Maj. 
Thomas Peck. It is said that Dr. Lord, after 
he had erected his great two story red house, 
distinguished himself and astonished his 
neighbors by importing from Montreal an 
enormous metallic structure, known as. the 
first cooking stove brought into town. It is 

reported to have been cast in Scotland. The 
first clock in St. Johnsbury was purchased 
before 1800, by Nath. Edson in Danville, for 
$75, and is still to be seen in running order 
at the house of Mrs. J. Clark on the Plain. 
It is one of those lofty relics of antiquity 
which used to stand guard in the corners of 
old kitchens, surmounted with brazen balls, 
and the moon's disc. It was on the lawn 
fronting Edson's house (now Mr. Butler's), 
that the first public muster and training was 
held. A few years after when Edson was 
preparing to remove to the west, he expe- 
rienced some difficulty in making his exit 
from the town. His wagon was packed up 
with moveable property, ready for an early 
start on a certain morning, but during the 
night some mischievous person purloined 
one of the wagon wheels, rendering it im- 
possible to proceed. The vexation of the 
Edson family was great, for it was not until 
two or three days had passed that the wheel 
was found, buried in a thistle bed half a 
mile from the house ; and this vexation was 
greatly increased when it was discovered 
that a vast multitude of spectators had assem- 
bled on the Plain to witness the progress of 
a wagon that had gained so much notoriety. 
This same man subscribed in company with 
one of his neighbors for Spooner's Vermont 
Journal, which Avas the first paper that cir- 
culated in this part of the state. As one of 
them lived away from the main road, it was 
proposed that all the papers be left at 
Edson's house until the end of the year, and 
then equally divided between the two. 
Among the earliest lawyers in St. Johnsbury 
were Lyndon Arnold, Goodhue, Bissel, Dorr, 
and Gov. William A. Palmer. The row of 
maple trees front of the court house and 
along the east side of the street were set out 
by Gov. Palmer, who brought them all out 
of the woods on his back as early as 1805. 
He died in Danville, December, 1860. Hon. 
Ephraim Paddock is the first lawyer that can 
be said to have had a permanent residence 
in St. Johnsbui-y. Very soon after the "st- 
tlement of the town, Joel Roberts, Gardiner 
Wheeler, Ariel Aldrich and Martin Wheeler, 
each purchased a 100-acre lot about two 
miles north west of the Plain. They com- 
menced clearing at the same point which 
Avas the common corner of the four lots, and 
in process of time the title " Four Corners," 
which was at first applied to this clearing 
simply, came to embrace the whole region 
now known by that name, and where the 
descendants of the original propi-ietors are 
still residing. 



About three years after its organization, 
the town was deprived of its most efficient 
leader in the death of Dr. Jonathan Arnold. 
He had risen rapidly in public estimation, 
and was regarded by all as one of the most 
able men in this section of the state. The 
following notice of Dr. Arnold's death is 
quoted from a series of letters published in 
London, about 1797. " The first principal 
inhabitant and proprietor of St. Johnsbury, 
Vt., was the truly patriotic and learned Dr. 
Jonathan Arnold, who is now no more. The 
Doctor emigrated from Providence in the 
state of Rhode Island. How sincerely his 
death is lamented, those only who had the 
happiness of knowing him can tell. His son 
(Josias Lyndon) was bred to the law, to 
which profession he does honor. His attain- 
ments are great. With the Greek and 
Roman authors he is familiar, and however 
strange it may appear, perhaps Mr. Arnold 
is the only person in Vermont who is perfect 
master of the French language, and who 
speaks it in its utmost purity. Saint Johns- 
bury lies on the Passumpsic river, and to 
this town is attached some of the best land 
in the whole state." From one who was for 
more than half a century an active citizen of 
the town, we learn that the Doctor was a 
strong minded independent man. Yet acces- 
sible and companionable, but in St. Johns- 
bury always maintaining a complete ascend- 
ancy over all about him. He was a member 
of the governor's council at the time of his 
death. On a marble slab in the cemetery 
overlooking the valley of the Passumpsic and 
the beautiful village he founded, we read the 
simple inscription : " Hon. Jonathan Arnold, 
died Feb. 1st, 1793, Aged 52." 

After the death of the Doctor, his eldest 
son Josias Lyndon, referred to in the above 
quotation, removed from Rhode Island and 
settled in St. Johnsbury. His career was 
short, although uncommonly brilliant in 
prospect. He was graduated at Dartmouth 
College with high honors in the class of 1788, 
admitted to the bar of Rhode Island — elected 
a tutor in Brown University — received in '91 
the degree of A. M., from Brown, and was 
admitted ad eundem at Dartmouth and Yale. 
He removed to Vermont in 1793, married 
Miss Susan Perkins of Plainfield, Ct., and 
died June 7, 1796, aged 28. The year fol- 
lowing Arnold's death a small volume was 
published in Providence, entitled, Poems 
by the late Josias Lyndon Arnold, Esq., of 
St. Johnsbury, Vermont. From the preface 
to this volume we make the following ex- 
tract: " Mr. Arnold, before leaving college, 

had given splendid proofs of his practical 
talents, and acquired the reputation of un- 
common attainments in all the ornamental 
and useful branches of literature. His ac- 
quaintance with the Greek and Latin classics 
and the best English writers in history and 
belles-letters was intimate ; with the vernac- 
ular and learned languages he was familiar 
and critical. With an imagination bold and 
fruitful, he possessed an understanding cool 
and discriminating ; and while indulging the 
fanciful flights of the muse, he was equal to 
the calm discussions of reason. No man was 
better calculated to command the voice of 
popular applause. No one of his age re- 
ceived more flattei'ing proofs of public appro- 
probation. He was an early candidate for 
fame. His political prospects were bright 
and promising, and few had stronger rea- 
sons for attachment to life ; but alas ! the 
strength of his constitution was unequal to 
the vigor of his mind." As representative 
of Mr. Arnold's versification, we quote the 

Lines on a Young Lady embarhincf for a Sea 
Ye winds be hushed — forbear to roar 

Ye waves, nor proudly lash the shore ; 
Be hush'd, ye storms, in silence sleep, 

Nor rage destructive o'er the deep. 
AsPASiA sails — and at her side, 
The Beauties on the ocean ride. 
Rise, Neptune, from thy coral bed, 

And lift on high thy peaceful head ; 
Calm with thy rod the raging main. 

Or bid the billows rage in vain. 
AsPASiA sails — and at her side 
The Graces on the ocean ride. 

Attendants of the watery god. 

Ye Tritons, leave your green abode ; 

Ye Nereids, with your flowing hair. 
Arise, and make the nymph your care. 

AsPASiA sails — and at her side 

The 3Iuses on the ocean ride. 

Thou sea-born Venus, from thine isle, 
Propitious on this voyage smile ; 

Already anxious for the fair, 

Thy winged son prefers his prayer. 

AsPASiA sails — and at her side 

The Loves upon the ocean ride. 

Let ALL attend — and bid the breeze 
Blow softly — bid the swelling seas 

Swell gently — for such worth before, 
The ocean's bosom never bore. 

AsPASiA sails — and at her side 

The Virtues on the ocean ride. 
July 22, 1791. 


The following lines have perhaps more 
local interest than intrinsic merit, being a 
brief extract from 

An Ode Written on the Banks of Pas- 

sumpsic River, in September 1790. 
Passumpsick, hail! who glid'st along 
Unknown to melody and song, 

Reflecting in thy watery glass 

Wide spreading elms, . . • . 

And pines that kiss the ambient sky. 

Thy stream which runs like Fancy's child. 

Irregular and sweetly wild. 

Oft on its margin has beheld. 

The Sachem and his tawny train, 

Roll the red eye in vengeful ire. 

And lead the captive to the fire. 

Now, fairer scenes thy banks adorn ; 

Yellow wheat and waving corn 

Bend in gratitude profound, 

As yielding homage to the ground. 

Passumpsick, hail ! who glid'st along, 
The theme of many a future song. 
Had'st thou a wish, that wish would be 
Still on thy banks such scenes to see. 
Where innocence and peace are found. 
While vice and tumult fill the earth 

Mr. Arnold at the date of his death held 
the offices of town clerk and town repre- 
sentative. His widow, Mrs. Susan P. Ar- 
nold, afterwards re-married, and was the 
mother of the Hon. Geo. P. Marsh of this 

An old chronicler, who half a century ago 
was recording passing events, makes the 
following allusion to the death of the Ar- 
nolds : 

"The father had chosen for his family 
seat, a plain near the south part of the town. 
The son occupied the same. They looked to 
that spot as the seat of the future village. 
Every thing was favorable. The leading 
roads almost unavoidably centered there. 
The situation was favorable for building. 
On its border were excellent seats for mills, 
and all kinds of machinery requiring the aid 
of water. The short life of the father, and 
still shorter of the son blasted all these pro- 
spects, and destroyed the design of the Doc- 
tor, which was to build up a city around 

It is further stated that Dr. Arnold in- 
tended to have parceled out the Plain lands 
into "small lots, sufficiently large for gar- 
den and necessary buildings," allowing no 
one more than one or two lots, and thus to 

have controlled and superintended the build- 
ing up of the village. 

In turning over the early records of our 
town clerks, we find the business transac- 
tions of town and freemen's meetings to 
have partaken largely of the miscellaneous. 
These meetings were commonly held at the 
dwelling house of Dr. Arnold until his death, 
after which they were "held around." 
Sometimes they convened at Nathaniel Ed- 
son's barn, and sometimes in the new dwell- 
ing house of the said Edson. In 1798, it 
was unanimously "voted, that the town will 
agree to hold their meetings at Asquire 
Edson's house in future." Apprehending 
certain contingencies however, it was judged 
advisable to appoint a committee " to enquire 
of the said Edson for liberty of the use of 
his house." This committee after a confer- 
ence with said Edson, reported "that the 
said Nath. Edson gives his consent that the 
town shall hold a meeting at his House on 
March next and not thereafter." The house 
in question is the same now occupied by 
Mr. Beaumon Butler south of Center vil- 

In 1792 it was " Voted, that a Bounty of 
$10, be paid to any Inhabitant of this 
Township who shall take track of a Wolf 
in town and kill the same in any part of the 

In 1795 "Voted, that a committee be ap- 
pointed to procure powder and lead if 

Voted, that the town be districted for 
schools, and that the Selectmen be com- 
mittee for the said purpose." 

1796, "Voted, that Surveyors of Highways 
shall see that Canada thistles are cut in the 
season directed or complain. 

"Voted, that the Selectmen shall take in- 
voice of ye rateable properties by going to 
their several dwellings." 

1797, " Voted, that Henry ITofiFman have 
the Improvement of the Burial Yard in the 
South Parish in St. Johnsbury (Plain), pro- 
vided he clear the same, and does not inter- 
fere with the use heretofore made thereof, 
until such time as the said town shall put 
the said land to some other use." 

1798, " Voted, to dispense M'ith such part 
of the fine imposed on John K — t for theft, 
as belongs to the town of St. Johnsbury." 

1799, " Voted, that Nath. Edson receive 
from the town $70 in grain, for the use and 
trouble of his house." 

1800, " Voted, that Hogs shall not run at 
large daring the ensuing year." 

Sheep, cattle and swine had for the most 



part, been suffered to ramble at large. So 
long as this was the case, it became neces- 
sary for each animal to submit to the process 
of marking, which operation generally in- 
volved the mutilation of one or both ears. 
We find the following "cattle ma.rks" re- 
corded in 1795 : " The mark of Josias L. 
Arnold, Esq., is a swallow's tail in the end 
of the right ear, and a crop off the left ear, 
being formerly the mark of Jonathan Arnold 
his father. The mark of Barnabas Barker is 
a hole through the left ear (simplex mun- 
ditiis). The mark of Nathaniel Edson is a 
hole through the right ear and a slit in the 
same. The mark of Joseph Lord is a cut of 
half an inch on the top of the right ear and 
about the middle thereof, anfl a half penny 
on the upper side of the left ear near the 
head. Recorded March 2, 1795, J. L. 
Arnold, T. Clerk." 

Before the XVIIIth century closed St. 
Johnsbury had grown to be a thriving town, 
and was fast increasing in population and 
wealth. In 1800 the town numbered 663 in- 
habitants, and the grand list was figured at 
$8628. The table from which this list was 
made out is here inserted ; probably the ten 
houses mentioned did not include the log 
cabins in which most of the settlers were 
quartered : 

Town of St. Johnsbury, County of Orange. 

Grand List, A. D. 1800. 
No. of Polls, . 124 ; Assessment, $2480.00 
No. a. imp. land, 1059 ; " 1853.25 

No. of Houses, 10; " 61.00 

Other property to value of, . . . 5754.00 

Deduct 76 Militia Polls, assessed at 1,520.00 
do Horses of Cavalry, none. 

Bal., or true list for State Taxes, $8628.25 

To show the comparative increase of pro- 
perty in the town, a table of grand lists is 
here quoted from the date of organization 
down to the year 1800 : 

1790, . . $408.10 1796, . $1415.10 

1791, . . 590.00 1797, . . 6295.25 

1792, . . 863.15 1798, . . 7286.50 

1793, . . 1033.15 1799, . . 7261.75 

1794, . . 1200.00 1800, . . 8628.25 

1795, . . 1500.00 

In the year 1797, St. Johnsbury was set 
off from Orange county, and with eighteen 
others united to form the neAV county of Ca- 
ledonia. This year we notice an increase in 
the grand list over preceding years of nearly 
The increase of population by births 

and immigration for the first five years after 
settlement of the town was not far from 50 
a year or 250 in all. The exact number is 
not known. 

As yet no established post roads had been 
constructed, and the arrangements for carry- 
ing mails were every way inadequate to the 
wants of the settlers. All the southern 
mails were conveyed from Barnet to St. 
Johnsbury, over the hill road through 
Peacham and Danville. The post riders 
made their periodic circuits on horseback, 
fully equipped with saddle bags and tin 
horns. Prominent among these public func- 
tionaries, and well known for his daring, 
was the man William Trescott. He had been 
endowed by nature with a versatile genius. 
His attainments in astronomy and capacity 
for ardent spirits Avere alike immense, and 
his genius was especially exercised in the 
construction of almanacs and the destruc- 
tion of bears. He it was, who encountered 
and vanquished Bruin on the edge of the 
gravel bank south of the Plain. It happened 
on this wise : Trescott had been employed in 
clearing and burning over the tract of hill 
land to the south of Dr. Lord's house. The 
fires which required "tucking up "in the 
evening, had excited the curiosity of a cer- 
tain bear, who after dark, prowled out of the 
woods to investigate proceedings. In the 
course of their wanderings over the hill-side 
Trescott and Bruin most unadvisedly met, 
each being astonished at seeing in the dark- 
ness an undefined phenomenon standing ou 
two feet. No very considerable space of time 
elapsed before an acquaintance was effected, 
and warmly embracing each other, the two 
rolled in alternate victory and defeat down 
the hill-side, until cradled in the hollow of 
an uprooted stump. Trescott was now un- 
derneath, uninjured and unterrified. His 
right hand was free, with which he straight- 
way produced a knife from his pocket, and 
after opening the blade of the same with his 
teeth, applied it with fatal effect to the jugu- 
lar vein of the quadruped. Thus ended the 
tragedy ; but the bear meantime had suffered 
untold agonies from the incessant worrying 
and yelping of Trescott's dog, and it is said 
that the personal comfort of both combat- 
ants had been seriously endangered by the 
showers of fire brands that came blazing 
down the hill-side at the instigation of a cer- 
tain terrified youth above. Now in giving 
the minor particulars of this transaction, 
authorities somewhat differ, but as to the 
essential facts, that Bill Trescott met, hugged 
and rolled down hill with a bear, and there- 



upon instituted a course of proceedings 
highly disgusting to the latter, all agree. 

Several years after the above adventure, 
and indeed within the recollection of many 
eye witnesses still living, a movement was 
made which evinced a unanimous determina- 
tion on the part of the citizens, to wage a 
war of extermination against the bears. 
The fact that the latter had greatly multi- 
plied in the land, and had long waxed cor- 
pulent over the plundered cornfields of the 
settlers, was regarded as ample provocation 
for this belligerent movement. In due time 
Dr. Calvin Jewett as commander-in-chief, 
mustered all the effective forces of St. Johns- 
bury, who took up their fowling-pieces and 
followed him into the haunts of the taciturn 
offenders. An ample range of forests was 
enclosed by the encompassing hosts, and the 
point of convergence determined upon, was 
the steep bluff on the east bank of the Pas- 
sumpsic, opposite the bend in the river road, 
midway between Center village and the Plain. 
Hither in course of time, were gathered nine 
distracted bears. Furthermore it is a very 
suggestive fact, that shortly after the advent 
of these bears over the hill-top, nine black 
pelts might have been seen, spread out on 
the grass plat front of Edson's tavern. 
Equally suggestive is the fact that these 
nine pelts were " all sold off for the neces- 
saries of life — rum, bread and butter." 

Previous to the year 1800, vigorous and 
repeated efforts had been made by various 
citizens of the town to establish a place of 
public worship, or some building to answer 
the two fold purpose of a church and town 
house. It was not however until the year 
1802, that the town voted an appropriation 
for this purpose. On the 2nd September of 
this year, a meeting was called " by request 
of 18 substantial freeholders," to consider 
the question of building a town house. 

" Met at the house of Lieut. Pierce, and 
made Choise of Alexander Gilchrist Mode- 
rator. On motion, voted to raise $850, Pay- 
able in good wheat at the market Prise, for 
the purpose of building a house for holding 
town meetings — one half to be paid in the 
Town treasury by the first of January next, 
viz : $425 at each payment. On motion, 
voted to erect said house on a certain Peace 
of Land given by Lieut. Thomas Pierce for 
Publick use near his house in said Town. 
On motion, voted to choose a committee of 
three to superintend building said House, 
and that Joel Roberts, Asquire Aldrich, and 
Thomas Pierce, Esq., be the Committee, who 
eccepted the appointment. On motion, voted 

that said Committee have Liberty to Dispose 
of the floors of the house to individuals, in 
such a manner as they in their wisdom shall 
Judge best, the avails of which to be appro- 
priated in order to finish said house Sutible 
and Convenent to attend Publict Worship in, 
and for a Town House. On motion, voted 
that the said Committee prosead as soon as 
may be, in the line of their appointment. 
On motion, voted to dissolve said meeting. 
Attest, Nath. Edson, T. Clerk." 

During the following year $80 more were 
appropriated to the same object, and in the 
autumn of 1804, the building was raised. 
At this raising all the able bodied men and 
boys in town were assembled. After the 
frame had been erected, a gymnastic enter- 
tainment was executed by Zibe Tute, who 
about the going down of the sun, ascended 
one of the rafiers, stood on his head at the 
end of the ridge pole, and thence, after 
emptying the contents of his flask, descended 
with head downwards to the ground. The 
temperance reform had not yet began. 
Tradition tells us that all the shingles used on 
this building were taken from a single tree. 
The floor of the house was divided up into 
the square pews which were characteristic 
of olden days, 51 being placed on the lower 
floor and 25 in the galleries. This building, 
which stood for more than 20 years the only 
meeting house in town, was built on the high 
hill west of Center Village, in the central 
right of the township, which had been ori- 
ginally alloted to Ebenezer Scott, and by 
him deeded to Lieut. Pierce, with a special 
reservation of 2 acres for the use of the 
town. From its high and bleak location, it 
overlooked the valley of the Passumpsic, 
from Lyndon Falls, past the mouth of 
Moose river and Arnold's Mills to the mea- 
dows at the mouth of the Sleeper. Within 
its spacious walls it received on town days 
the representatives of every family, and on 
the sabbath the worshipers of every denomi- 
nation. For 41 years its brown old timbers 
stood on the hill top, until in 1825 it was 
removed to its present location in the Center 
village, and as late as 1855 the lower floor 
was used for the accommodation of town 
meetings. The former site is now a green 
sward, with no relic of former years, save 
the projecting end of ledge which was known 
as "Whig Rock" in the days when it was 
used as a rostrum for political haranguers. 
The first town meeting held in this house 
was on September 1, 1804. Respecting this 
building the following action was subse- 
quently taken by the town ; 



" Voted, that Capt. John Barney be em- 
ployed to keep the Meeting House clean, and 
that he sweep it at least twice during the 

"Voted, that no person or persons be al- 
owed to enter the Pulpit on town meeting 
Days, unles speshely Directed by the town. 

"Voted, that Five persons be appointed 
to Expel dogs from the Meeting House on 
Sundays, and that they be authorized to 
take such measures as they think proper, 
and that the town will indemnify them for 
so doing." 

Gen. Joel Roberts, Capt. John Barney, 
Gen. R. W. Fenton, Simeon Cobb and Abel 
Shorey, were appointed dog committee, and 
accepted the responsibilities of the office. 
One of the ways in which expenses of public 
worship were met may be gathered from the 
following note, in which the subscriber pro- 
mises to pay "three midling likely ewe sheep 
as to age, size and quality, on demand, and 
to keep the said three sheep five years, free 
from expence to the said Society, and to pay 
the Wooll to the committee in June, and the 
lambs on or Before the first day of Novem- 
ber yearly. All the Wooll and all the lambs 
and all the proffits arising from the said 
Sheep, to be laid out yearly for Congrega- 
tional Preaching." 

The first district school house built by the 
town has led a more restless career than its 
predecessor the meeting house. No less than 
six distinct localities on Main street have 
sustained this classic edifice. Oi-iginally it 
stood on Main street, corner of Winter ; thence 
it was moved southward to a place opposite 
the Bank ;' thence northward to the foot of 
Mt. Pleasant ; thence southward to the corner 
of Church street ; thence northward over 
against Arnold park ; thence southward a 
short distance to its present location, a few 
hundred yards noi'th of its original site. 
The first school in this building which is 
now attached to a dwelling house, was kept 
by Miss Rhoda Smith. Rev. Dr. Goodell of 
Constantinople was also at one time a teacher 
on the Plain. A few years later a small 
building was erected on the south side of 
Moose river, and was known as the Branch 
Bridge school house. In this house a party 
of soldiers returning from the war of 1812, 
were quartered for a night, making use of 
the hemlock fire wood for pillows, and the 
handkerchief of the mistress for bandages. 
No record of dates is found to indicate the 
time when the difi^erent school houses in 
town were erected. The present number of 
school districts is 17, the number of schools 

23, and the amount expended for their sup- 
port per annum, about $3000. 

It must have been after the erection of the 
meeting house and the establishment of the 
first school on the Plain, that a petition was 
sent in to the legislature by the land owners 
and settlers in the west part of Littleton 
(now Waterford), praying to be set off from 
that town and united to St. Johnsbury. For 
in this petition " it is humbly shewn that the 
Inhabitants of St. Johnsbury being Organ- 
ized, and amongst whom Law is known, and 
Order is duly observed, and having begun to 
provide for the introduction of regular 
Schools, and the Preaching of the Gospel; 
for these reasons in an especial manner, as 
well as others, we are desirous to be united 
with them that we and our Children may as 
Citizens and Christians enjoy those valuable 
advantages as early as may be, and which 
without such Union we cannot expect to do, 
if ever, for many years." It would seem 
that the Governor was not opposed to such a 
change, for he states in a foot note to the 
petition that " in case the foregoing facts 
are truly stated, he has no objection to the 
prayer of the petitioners being granted." 

St. Johnsbury at this time was rapidly 
improving. The publication of its weekly 
paper, the increase in the number of its 
churches, and the subsequent establishment 
of the Academies, tended much to elevate 
the character and influence of the place. 

On the 3d of July, 1828, was issued at St. 
Johnsbury Plain, the first number of The 
Farmer's Herald, a weekly Whig journal, 
edited by Dr. Luther Jewett. This publica- 
tion was continued about four years, when 
the failing health of the editor caused its 
temporary abandonment. In July of 1832, 
however, it was revived by Samuel Eaton, 
Jr. , under the name of The Weekly Uessenger, 
or Connecticut and Passumpsic Valley Adver- 
tiser. In the course of the following year, 
the establishment passed into the hands of 
A. G. Chadwick, Esq., who commenced in 
August, 1837, and for 18 years continued the 
publication of The Caledonian. Since 1855, 
this paper has been under the management 
of Rand & Stone and Stone & Co., has nearly 
reached its XXVth volume, and attained a 
circulation of about 1900 copies. 

De. Luther Jewett, 
Whose enterprise established and whose lite- 
rary talent ably sustained the first paper 
in St. Johnsbury, was for many years an 
active and honored citizen of this town. He 
was born in Canterbury, Ct., 1772 — gradu- 



ated at Dartmouth College, class of 1792 — 
removed to St. Johnsbury in 1800, and imme- 
diately commenced the practice of medicine. 
In 1817 he represented the north-east district 
of Vermont in Congress, and took his seat 
by the side of Daniel Webster, then in his 
second term. He was licensed to preach the 
year following by the Coos Association, and 
supplied the pulpits of Newbury and other 
towns in this vicinity for a period of ten 
years. His varied acquirements, and expe- 
rience in public life especially fitted him for 
the post of a journalist, and in the editorial 
management of the Herald, he displayed 
much practical tact and ability. He was 
honest and straightforward in every expres- 
sion of opinion, and no less fii'm in his sup- 
port of justice and right, than unsparing in 
his rebuke of existing evils. Slavery, in- 
temperance and anti-masonry, he denounced 
in the most fearless manner, and to combat 
the ultraism of the latter, he issued during 
the year 1827, a weekly sheet entitled The 
Friend, whose columns were entirely devoted 
to the discussion of this and kindred sub- 
jects. A late member of Congress from 
Massachusetts, and intimate friend of the 
Doctor, writes as follows : " To us, the name 
of Luther Jewett will always recall some of 
the most pleasant memories of life. He was 
eminently good, and scrupulously just in all 
his ways. In a delightful village, unsur- 
passed for its picturesque beauty by any in 
New England, his bright example has con- 
tributed largely for half a century in the 
development of its character for enterprise, 
as well as for moral and intellectual eleva- 
tion. On revisiting the town a few years 
since, we sought out the venerable old man 
at his retired house, and found him so feeble 
that he scarcely ventured from his door. 
His snowy locks and patriarchal mein lent 
impressiveness to his words as he conversed 
of current events with the zest of one who 
was never content to be a mere spectator of 
the world's progress. It was our last meet- 
ing. We left him 

' in a green old age, 

And looking lilie the oak, worn, but still steady 
Amidst the elements, while younger trees 
Fell fast around him.' " 

He died in 1860, aged 87. 

St. Joi-insbury Female Seminary. 
On the 27th November, 1824, was incorpo- 
rated the St. Johnsbury Female Seminary. 
This institution owed its existence to the 
efforts of Judge Paddock and Deacon Luther 
Clark, by whom the charter was obtained, 
and a small school opened the year follow- 

ing in the hall of the brick house built by 
Capt. Martin, the ruins of which are still 
standing near the Union school house. 
Owing to the want of sufficient funds, no 
organization under the charter was effected, 
but for several years the seminary was sus- 
tained with much success, until after the 
grant of St. Johnsbury Academy 18 years 
later, when it was given up and merged into 
the latter institution. The persons employed 
as teachers in this seminary were 8 in num- 
ber, extending their instructions over a 
period of nearly seventeen years, viz : Miss 
Trowbridge of Worcester, Miss Giles of Wal- 
pole. Miss Newcomb of Keene, Miss Almira 
Taylor of Derry, Misses Susan and Catha- 
rine Clark of St. Johnsbury, Miss Bradley 
of Peacham, and Miss Hobart of Berlin. 

Hon. Ephkaim Paddock, 
One of the originators and warmest sup- 
porters of this Seminary, was a strong- 
minded, self-educated man, and 'well-known 
for many years as one of the ablest lawyers 
in this part of the state. His early educa- 
tion was that of the common school only, 
but in this he made such proficiency that on 
removing to this state from Massachusetts, 
he was for two or three years employed as 
an instructor in Peacham Academy, then the 
only institution of the kind in the county. 
His opportunities for professional studies 
were very limited, and the standard of legal 
acquirements at the time was by no means p. 
high one ; yet after he had commenced prac- 
tice in St. Johnsbury, he applied himself 
with such diligence to judicial investigation, 
that he was quickly enabled " to take rank 
with the most learned lawyers of the state." 
He always maintained a high position as a 
lawyer, and did much to elevate the stand- 
ard of the legal profession in this vicinity. 
We find the following record of his public 
services: "He was representative of St. 
Johnsbury in the state legislature from 1821 
to '26, inclusive — a member of the consti- 
tutional convention in 1828 — one of the 
council of censors in 1841 — judge of the su- 
preme court from 1828 to '31. In 1847 he 
retired from professional duties, having well 
earned a quiet old age by a long life of act- 
ivity and usefulness." He died July 27, 
1859, aged 79. 

St. Johnsbury Academy. 
Early in the year 1842 a movement was 
made by several persons who were w.armly 
interested in the cause of education, to esta- 
blish on a permanent and liberal basis a high 



school or academy on the Plain. This move- 
ment resulted in the establishment of the St. 
Johnsbury Academy, an institution, which 
from a small and unpretentious beginning 
has grown to become one of the most flour- 
ishing of its kind in this part of the state. 
A constant and efficient religious influence, 
systematic thoroughness in everything un- 
dertaken, and cultivation of the mental 
faculties rather than mere accumulation of 
knowledge, were the objects specially aimed 
at in the establishment of this institution, 
and by which it was thought that a founda- 
tion might be laid for a consistent, sound, 
and useful character. The first session of 
this academy was opened on a small scale in 
the fall of 1842, and during the following 
year a building of ample accommodations 
was erected at the south end of the Plain. 
The subsequent growth of the town and in- 
creasing demands of the school, have re- 
quired a more appropriate and commodious 
building. From the commencement, with 
exception of a short interval, the school has 
been under charge of the same principal, 
who is still at its head. There have been 
connected with the instructing department 
of the institution, 21 male and 17 female 
teachers assistant, and nearly 1800 difi"erent 
names are recorded on the 18 catalogues 
which have already been issued. The rate 
of increase for the first five years may be 
seen from the following enumeration : Num- 
ber of scholars during first year, 101 ; second 
year, 164 ; third, 196 ; fourth, 206 ; fifth, 
257. Greatest number in any one year sub- 
sequent to 1847, 223 ; James K. Colby, prin- 
cipal ; J. C. Cutler, principal in 1856-7. 
The springing up of other similar institutions 
in this vicinity, has withdrawn somewhat 
from the patronage which it formerly re- 
ceived, but it is believed that the high stand- 
ard, and well earned reputation of St. 
Johnsbury Academy, will still give it that 
favor and influence in the community to 
which its antecedents so justly entitle it. 

We'would not in this connection, omit the 
name of one, who but a few years since, was 
actively identified with the interests of reli- 
gion, education, and social progress in this 
community, and whose memory is yet warm- 
ly cherished in the hearts of those who knew 
him. In early manhood and the full tide of 
usefulness, he passed from earth, but not 
until by an earnest, benevolent and guarded 
Christian character, he had faithfully accom- 
plished "life's great end." Another's pen, 
if any, should eulogize, but ours is the privi- 
lege to make grateful mention of an honored 

parent, a liberal and worthy man 
P. Fairbanks. 



Nearly 8 years were numbered after the 
settlement of the town, before any active 
movement was made to establish public 
divine worship. Not a large proportion of 
the first settlers were religious men, and 
after the rough labors of the week were 
closed, the sabbath seems to have been re- 
garded rather as a day of physical relaxation 
than religious observances. We are told 
that in those days they were wont to spend 
the sabbath in rambling the fields, visiting 
each other's homes, and planning those 
labors which called for the public arm, and 
aimed at the public good. The first town 
meeting was held in 1790, but not till 1794 
was the question put, " Will the town raise 
money by tax to pay for preaching of the 
gospel?" It was determined in the nega- 
tive, and during the following year, J. L. 
Arnold, Joseph Lord, Stephen Dexter, John 
Ladd and Jona. Adams, were chosen com- 
mittee to draw up a subscription paper with 
the same object in view. No record of their 
labors is found, and in September, 1797, it 
was voted that a minister be hired at the 
expense of the town. Before the close of the 
meeting however, this vote was recalled, and 
a committee of three appointed to find how 
much money could be raised for this purpose 
by voluntary contributions. What success 
attended their labors we are not informed, 
but at the next March meeting in 1798, we 
find that the town voted to raise $80, paya- 
ble in grain within the year for the support 
of preaching. It was also voted' "that the 
town build a house for public use or a town • 
house, to be framed, enclosed with rough 
boards, and shingled by Nov. 1st, 1799 ; to 
be 56 by 46 feet square on the ground, and 
to be located wherever a committee ap- 
pointed for the purpose should designate." 
On the 18th day of June following, a meeting 
was called, in which the last mentioned vote 
respecting the town house was revoked, and 
it was then and there determined that the 
town should not build a meeting house. 
The month following a meeting was called 
to consider the question of hiring a minister. 
Committee of seven was appointed to con- 
sider the subject, and report within one 
hour. According to the records, they re- 
ported it as their opinion " that the town 
ought to hire a minister, and therefore to raise 
$230, payable in wheat, rye, corn, pork and ., 



beef, for his yearly salary. Also that said 
minister preach one half the time on the 
Plain, and the other half at the most con- 
venient place toward the north end of the 
town. On motion, voted to hire a minister. 
A minister was accordingly engaged, who 
probably remained a few weeks only, for in 
September of the same year " it was put to 
vote to see if the town would raise money to 
pay for further preaching and determined in 
the negative. But, voted to raise $15 to pay 
expense of preaching already incurred." 
One year later, September, 1799, a motion 
to hire a minister by the town was again 
negatived. On the 25th of May, 1801, it was 
"voted, to raise $100, payable in grain by 
the 1st of Feb. next, to pay for preaching." 
The first of February came — the grain and 
the minister came not. 

On the 2d September, 1802, one more, and 
finally successful efi'ort was made by the 
town to erect a church edifice, and esta- 
blish at last a place for the observance of 
sabbath worship. Record of this meeting, 
which is one of interest [and somewhat ano- 
malous, as the town subsequently seemed to 
abide by its action], has been transcribed, 
and inserted in a previous section, page 
401. A large and commodious building was 
erected in the fall of 1804, and so finished 
off as to answer the purpose of town and 
meeting house, although it was some years 
before the formation of any church body. 

The First Congregational Church, 
Was organized Nov. 21st, 1809, fifteen years 
after the settlement of the town, and five 
after the raising of the meeting house. Rev. 
Leonard Worcester of Peacham, Rev. John 
Fitch of Danville, and Rev. Asa Carpenter 
of Waterford, constituted the ecclesiastical 
council. The little band of nineteen whose 
names constitute the first church roll of the 
town, formed the nucleus of four large Con- 
gregational churches which now stand in its 
place. Six were males, and thirteen females. 
Hubbard Lawrence was chosen moderator 
and David Stowell clerk, both of whom were 
subsequently appointed deacons, and both 
of whom were recorded as "good men and 

Six years passed away before the church 
obtained a pastor, but public worship is 
said to have been uniformly maintained, 
sometimes with, and often without preaching. 
The sisters of the church frequently walked 
from three to six miles in mid-winter to 
attend worship, and sat in a cold room 
hrough the service. The following list em- 

braces all who have been settled over the 
church : 

Pastors. Installed. Dismissed. 

Pearson Thurston, Oct. 25, 1815, Oct. 17, '17. 
JosiahMorse,M.D.,Feb.21, 1833, May 3, '43. 
James P. Stone, Sep. 29, 1846, Sep. 23, '50. 
H. Wellington, Jan. 4, 1855, Oct. 25, '60. 
George H. Clarke, Jan. 15, 1862. 

During the 2 years' ministry of the first 
pastor, 52 members were added to the church, 
and during the 7 years of the third, 66. 
This church still worships in the old meet- 
ing house, which was moved from the hill 
into Center village, in 1845, and located east 
of the burial ground. About 15 years after 
the organization of the First Church, in con- 
sequence of the scattering of the families 
and the increase of population in town, 

The Second Congregational Church 
Was set off as a colony from the first, and 
organized on the 7th April, 1825. It is a 
noticeable coincidence that this church also 
was established with 19 members, of whom 
six were males and thirteen females. They 
were set off by their own request, and with 
full consent of the church then existing, and 
adopted the same Confession of Faith and 
Covenant. This church worshiped on the 
Plain, and over it we find the following list 
of pastors, settled and dismissed : 

Pastors. Installed. Dismissed. 

James Johnson, Feb. 28, 1827, May 3, '38. 
JohnH.Worcester, Sep. 5, 1839, Nov. 6, '46. 
William B. Bond, Oct. 14, 1847, June 29, '58. 
Ephraim C. Cum- 

mings, . . May 10, 1860. 

The church was very much enlarged dur- 
ing the ministrations of its two first pastors, 
and especially during the revivals of 1827, 
1831 and 1832. The additions embraced a 
large number who resided in and near the 
East village of St. Johnsljury, and in accord- 
ance with their wish, to be set off in a sepa- 
rate body. 

The Third Congregational Church 
Was organized, Nov. 25th, 1840. A meeting 
house was erected for their accommodation 
in the East village, and the church at the 
date of its organization, consisted of 26 in- 
dividuals from neighboring churches, to wit, 
two from the First and eleven from the Se- 
cond in St. Johnsbury ; five from the church 
in Erby ; and two from the church in Lyn- 
don. This church subsequently received 
large additions under the ministrations of 
its successive pastors, as follows : 



Pastors. Installed. Dismissed. 

Rufus Case, May 4, 1842, Feb. 26, '50. 

J. H. Gurney, Feb. 27, 1850, '55. 

John Bowers, Feb. 4, 1858. 

The Second Church, located on the Plain, 
by reason of the increase of its congrega- 
tion, found it necessary to erect a new house 
of larger dimensions, which was completed 
in 1847, standing on the corner of Church 
and Main streets. But the population of the 
parish still continued to increase. The new 
house was found insufficient to accommodate 
all who wished • to attend public worship ; 
and in the spring of 1851, it was determined, 
after mature deliberation, that the interests 
of religion rendered expedient the formation 
of a new church, and the erection of a new 
house of worship on the Plain. Accord- 
ingly a 

FouETH Congregational Church 
Was organized Oct. 23, 1851, consisting of 
65 members — it having been previously voted 
that 'not less than one-quarter, nor more 
than one-third of the members of the Second 
or North Church should be designated to the 
new organization. The church edifice, lo- 
cated near the academy at the south end of 
the Plain, was built at the expense of the 
whole society, and became the property of 
the new church, its rents being appropriated 
to the support of their own pastor, and other 
expenses of public worship. After the es- 
tablishment of this colony, the two churches 
on the Plain, Second and Fourth became 
known as the North and South Congrega- 
tional churches of St. Johnsbury. Pastors 
of the South Church have been as follows : 

Pastors. Installed. Dismissed. 

S. G. Clapp, Jan. 13, 1852, Jan. 18, '55. 

Geo. N. Webber, Dec. 4, 1855, Sep. 13, '59. 
Lewis 0. Brastow, Jan. 10, 1860. 

Respecting churches of other denomina- 
tions, our records are incomplete. The 
Universalist Church at Center village, was 
built about the year 1830 ; the Methodist in 
the same village, a few years later. Of the 
other two Methodist churches in St. Johns- 
bury, one is located at the East village, the 
other on Central street, at the Plain, which 
latter was completed in 1858, and is at pre- 
sent supplied by Rev. H. W. Worthen. Early 
in 1859, an association was organized for the 
purpose of sustaining Episcopal worship, 
but as yet no church has been built, or 
permanent preacher obtained. The corner 
stone of a Catholic church was laid in 
the summer of 1860, and when completed, 

there will be numbered in St. Johnsbury 
9 church edifices — two at the East, and 
three at Center village, and four on the 
Plain. Yet, less than 40 years ago, not a 
church spire was to be seen in either of the 

The influence of the strong religious ele- 
ment, which after the formation of the first 
church, began to prevail over the immorali- 
ties of former years, has been great. It is 
said that few towns have at different periods 
of their history, developed such marked 
changes of character as this. Originally the 
standard of morality was low ; in a few 
years, with the influx of a mixed poi:)ulation, 
it became still lower ; biit by degrees the 
influence of good men, and the increasing 
facilities for religious and intellectual culti- 
vation, imparted a more salutary tone to 
society, and elevated the social condition of 
the place to such a degree, that it soon ac- 
quired, and has for many years retained, a 
high character for morality, industry and 
intelligence. And it is a fact worthy of 
mention, that at the present time (1861), thti 
heads of both the executive and judiciary of 
this state, are residents of St. Johnsbury — 
Gov. E. Fairbanks, and Chief Justice L. P. 

The relative increase of popvilation in the 
town since 1800, may be seen by comparing 
the following tables quoted from the census 
reports: 1800, 663; 1810, 1334; 1820, 1404; 
1830, 1592; 1840, 1887; 1850, 2758; 1860, 
3470. In 1857, the first registration report 
was made, recording for that year 114 births, 
59 deaths, 10 marriages. The increase in 
post office business has been great. Thirty 
years ago there was but one office, the com- 
pensation of the post master being about 
$50. Now, of the three independent offices 
located at the Plain, East and Center villages, 
a single one receives twenty times the com- 
pensation which was paid in 1830. Within 
the last decade, the town has made its most 
rapid growth and internal development. The 
opening of the rail road — chartering of the 
bank — removal of county buildings, and the 
extensive manufacturing and rail road in- 
terests here established, have all tended to 
increase the importance of the place -as a 
business center. Passumpsic Bank was in- 
corporated in 1849 — capital, $100,000. Mt. 
Pleasant Cemetery was laid out and dedicated 
in the summer of 1852, and is probably un- 
surpassed in natural beauty and location by 
any other in the state. Caledonia County 
Court House was built in 1855, at an expense 
of $15,000. Of this amount, $3,000 was 



Raised by the town for furnishing a hall, 
$1,770 paid as share of county tax, and 
$1,000 by voluntary subscription in the 
village, making a total of $5,770, or about 
two-fifths the whole expense. The ground 
occupied by the Court House, was originally 
granted to the town by Jonathan Arnold for 
a burial yard, and was used for this purpose 
until the new cemetery was opened in 1852. 
The Union School House on Summer street, 
was built in 1854, providing for the primary, 
intermediate and high school departments in 
the same building. Caledonia County Fair 
Grounds were first opened south of the Plain 
in the autumn of 1858. 

The manufacturing interests of St. Johns- 
bury are varied and extensive, embracing 
almost every variety of wooden and metalic 
wares, machinery, agricultural and house- 
hold- implements. The business villages 
which have sprung up on the banks of each 
of the rivers, witness to the natural endow- 
ments of the town, and these all with a single 
exception are of modern date. In 1821, be- 
fore Center village had ceased to be knoAvn 
as Sanger's Mills, not a single dwelling 
house had been erected on the marshes 
which then covered that region. As late as 
1848, the only building on the flat now in- 
tersected by rail way tracks, was the little 
farm house which still stands at the southern 
extremity of Rail road village. Arnold's 
Mills, built in 1787, give to Paddock village 
the right of priority in settlement, but before 
Huxum Paddock had built his foundries and 
revived the importance of the village which 
has since then borne his name, grist and saw 
mills had been put up on the banks of 
Sleeper's river, by a man from Brimfield, 
whose descendants have originated and de- 
veloped on the same water privilege the 
manufacture of "weights and balances." 
By request of the publishers, more particu- 
lar details of this manufacture are here in- 

About the year 1830, a business company 
was established at St. Johnsbury, for the 
purpose of cleaning hemp, and preparing 
the fibre for market. The location of this 
business was in Moose river valley, on the 
site of the large red mill, whic\was burned 
in the summer of 1860. After commencing 
operations, it was found that a machine or 
scale was very much needed to facilitate the 
operation of weighing the hemp. This ne- 
cessity led to an investigation of the princi- 
ple of levers as combined in a weighing 

machine, and resulted ultimately in the in- 
vention and development of the platform 
scale, by Mr. Thaddeus Fairbanks. The 
invention of this machine — the first grand 
idea which has resulted in profit not only to 
the manufacturers, but to almost every 
branch of human industry — was by no 
means an accident ; and yet, hardly less 
mental ingenuity was required to originate 
the idea, than in after years to perfect the 
manufacture, a work to which the skillful 
mechanical genius of the inventor has been 
constantly and most successfully directed. 
Labor-saving nKichinery, and all the appli- 
ances which years of study can develop, are 
employed to facilitate the work; and the 
delicate accuracy, strength and unchanging 
quality of the scales are due in a great 
measure to the minor improvements succes- 
sively introduced. The success of the esta- 
blishment has been a natural sequence of 
skill in construction, care in management, 
and increasing demand for the article manu- 
factured. The limited resources of Sleeper's 
river, have proved utterly insufficient to sup- 
ply the power required for driving the thou- 
sand machinery wheels of the factory. And 
even since the employment of steam, one 
engine after another has been removed to 
make room for others of higher power. The 
works at present employ an average of 300 
men, on wages of about $130,000 annually — 
consume 2500 tons pig iron, 200 tons bar 
iron, 88 tons steel, 26 tons copper, 300 tons 
anthracite coal, 100,000 bushels charcoal and 
1,000,000 feet of lumber. The annual pro- 
duct of scales amounts to $500,000. Up to 
January 1st, 1861, there had been made 
96,658 portable scales; 8,872 hay and track 
scales, and 94,712 counter and even-bal- 
ances ; making an aggregate of more than 
190,000 in all, including a hundred different 
modifications, and a range of capacity from 
half an ounce of the even-balance to five 
hundred tons of the canal scale. 

A correspondent of the New York press, 
after visiting this manufactory, remarks : 
"There is no business worthy of New Eng- 
land, but will aiford emploj^ment for all the 
skill and care which can be commanded, but 
the scale manufacture seems in an especial 
degree to require experienced and intel- 
lectual labor. The three hundred workmen 
employed in the scale works at St. Johns- 
bury are unequaled by any like number of 
operatives collected together in the world. 

"This is due partly to the nature of their 
employment, their isolated situation, the in- 
fluence of employers, but more than all, no 



doubt to the traits of character inherent in 
the people of this section. The village is 
purely New England — the proverbial air of 
freshness, neatness and industry, being no 
where more strongly marked than in this 

Well does the author of the above allude 
to the prosperity and thrift of the em- 
ployees in this manufactory, and justly 
may our community congratulate itself on 
the general intelligence, public spirit and 
energy which characterize this class of its 
citizens. From their daily workshops, where 
indeed " thought is embodied in iron and 
brass," the delicate emblems of Astrea have 
gone out to every quarter of the globe, and 
in distant resting places their quick re- 
sponses have silently witnessed to the indus- 
try and skill of this Green Mountain town. 


In closing this imperfect record of his- 
torical sketches, it is fit that a passing men- 
tion be made of our lost Aborigines, and of 
the traces which they have -left to us of a 
sovereignty here, anterior to the date of 
even most of the traditional history. 

The records of early adventurers, and the 
comparative scarcity of Indian relics, in- 
duces the belief, that in this immediate 
vicinity the numbers of the warlike red men 
were few. Not, indeed, because nature here 
refused them ample means of subsistence, 
for within the memory of men now living, 
game was abundant — numberless trout 
leaped in our brooks, and rotund bears 
rioted through the forest. But this was 
contested land. The powerful and dreaded 
tribes of the Iroquois on Lake Champlain, 
and the Abenaquis or Coossucks, who ranged 
the Connecticut valley and the forests of 
Canada, each laid claim to the fair hunting 
grounds of Northern Vermont, and this 
being border land between them, never be- 
came permanently settled or abundantly 
stocked with their rough-hewn relics. Yet 
now and then, even at the present time, 
there is found some rudely fashioned imple- 
ment of savage days. Arrow points are 
turned up from time to time in the furrows 
of the plow. And within the year last past, 
a more formidable object — a veritable stone 
battle axe was discovered on the pasture 
ground south of the plain. This Indian 
axe head is verily an object of interest, a 
grim old reminder of those taciturn tribes, 
who stalked of yore along our thorough- 
fares. It bears a rough and venerable look, 
as characteristic of those days " when the 

rank thistle nodded in the wind, and the 
wild fox dug his hole unscared " — when the 
hand of some patient squaw chipped it into 
fashion, and the stout arm of an Algonquin 
brave sent it crashing on its fatal errand. 
Its granite edge seems to tell of tracts away 
to the east of Connecticut river, and how of 
old the fierce Coossucks 

"Armed themselves Tvith all their war gear, 
Sang their war-song wild and woful," 

and journeyed hitherward on their way to- 
ward the hunting grounds of the mighty 

But a few years have passed since our 
Aborigines took up their farewell marches. 

When Lord Cornwallis surrendered his 
sword, not a white habitation had been seen 
within the boundary lines of St. Johnsbury. 
Scarce fifty years have gone since old Joe, 
the " last of the Coossucks " passed away to 
the " kingdom of Ponemah," and only a 
hundred since Major Rogers sacked the 
Indian villages of St. Francis, and saw his 
brave rangers on their return starving on 
the islands at the mouth of Passumpsie 
river. Strange and sad, that in these re- 
gions, over which contesting tribes of In- 
dians roamed and hunted and fought, the 
traces of their existence should have been 
so quickly and thoroughly obliterated. We 
might almost think to find their lodge poles 
undecayed, and shelving rocks still black- 
ened with the smoke of their camp fires. 

Note. — For facts and valuable assistance 
in compiling the above sketches, especial 
acknowledgments are due to Henry Stevens, 
antiquarian, whose abundant resources were 
readily tendered to the writer. The pre- 
paration of the narrative has involved many 
difficulties, in combining at the same time 
the requisites of a readable article for the 
Quarterly, and a faithful record of the town 
history ; and if inaccuracies have crept into 
the text, or too much incoherence character- 
ises the whole, it must be remembered that 
the limited space and the nature of the case, 
forbid a thorough and systematic treatment 
of the almost endless variety of subjects in- 

Saint Johnsbury, Dec. 31st, 1860. 

The Catholic Chuech. 
Until the erection of Burlington into an 
Episcopal see, in 1853, St. Johnsbury had 
received occasional visits from missionary 
priests of Canada, and Rev. H. Drolet, who 
was then stationed at Montpelier. 



Soon after the arrival of the oblate fathers 
at Burlington, they were appointed to attend 
St. Johnsbury, and one of them, Rev. R. 
Maloney, visited there once every month on 
Sunday, until the fall of 1856. The lot on 
which stands the present church was brought 
at his suggestion. 

Rev R. Maloney officiated for the congre- 
gation in a public hall, hired for that pur- 
pose, and service continued to be held there 
until lately, when the church was far enough 
completed to allow it to be used for worship. 

Rev. Charles O'Reilley of Bellows Falls, 
attended the congregation after Rev. R. Ma- 
loney, until July, 1858, when Rev. Stanis- 
laus Danielou was appointed resident pastor 
of the place. To his exertions is due the 
erection of the handsome church of St. 
Johnsbury, named Our Lady of Victories, 
after a celebrated church in Paris, situated 
on the Place des Petits Peres. 

Rev. Stanislaus Danielou purchased also a 
lot for a cemetery, which he laid out with 
great taste. 

The Catholics of St. Johnsbury and vici- 
nity number about eighty families." 

Captain John Bakney, 
Said The Caledonian, in an obituary notice, 
" was one of our oldest citizens ; had been a 
resident of this town 50 years or upwards, 
was widely known and much respected." 
Mrs. Curtis, his daughter, who resides at St. 
Johnsbury, thus writes : 

"Your kind offer to insert something in 
the St. Johnsbury chapter, if I would fur- 
nish it, of my father, stirs me up to attempt. 
I shall fail to write an article that will read 
well — would that I could borrow some able 
pen to write a history of that lovely man — 
but I will endeavor to give you a few facts. 
From the large family Bible (bequeathed to 
me), I find in the record, 'John Barney, 
born in New Haven, Conn., Jan. 4th, 1775 ; 
married in St. Johnsbury, Vt., July 17, 1802, 
to Betsy Carlton.' He resided in his native 
place till about 21 years of age. After his 
settlement in St. Johnsbury he became the 
captain of a military company, which office he 
acceptably filled several years. He built the 
second public house of entertainment on the 
Plain. A part of the building now remains, 
connected with the St. Johnsbury House. 
This house he kept for many years, and as 
was customary in those days, it had its 6a?-, 
.but when the temperance cause awoke in 
Vermont, and came up like a bannered host 
from the wilderness, he was one of the first 
to enlist in this great moral reform, and 

stand ever afterward by its sacred standard. 
He held several town offices in his day ; was 
deputy sheriflF from 1809 a number of years ; 
also justice of the peace several years ; and 
was known as a townsman always. one of the 
first in all patriotic, enterprising and bene- 
volent movements. I have often heard my 
parents narrate various incidents connected 
with their habits of living, social, moral and 
physical. True, I find as I dwell upon them 
none of the superfluities and elegancies of 
life that constitute the luxuries of the pre- 
sent, but I find instead, a homely but hearty 
sufficiency, with frugality and cleanliness 
withal, and a home ever made desirable and 
appreciated. A characteristic picture of 
their sociality was the winter evening visit : 
Some long and pleasant December or January 
evening, the noble yoke of oxen were 
'whoa'd' and 'gee'd' to the kitchen dooi', 
hitched to the sled,' and the first family 
started ; calling for the next family and the 
next, on the way, till the last family on the 
road joined the party. Arrived at their 
destination — as our old fashioned surprise 
party came steadily up to the log mansion, 
and shaking off their 'buffalo of hay,' the 
sleds were unloaded upon the great stone 
door step — the welcomings and greetings 
were sometimes so hearty as to be almost 
deafening. The well fatted turkey must be 
prepared for the spit, and pies and puddings 
well flavored, placed for baking ; meanwhile 
a mug of hot flip came not amiss after their 
cold ride of eight or ten miles. A good 
supper, joviality and sincere good will 
crowned the hour. I could dwell at much 
length on many adventures of these early 
settlers, deer huntings, &c., but others will 
recount for you similar nai'rations. And of 
my father's Christian character I would 
speak more fully. In or about 1827, he 
made a profession of the Christian religion — 
a public profession, and erected a family 
altar, where from thenceforth prayer went 
up daily from a heart overflowing. Even 
now I seem to hear the kindness that lin- 
gered in his voice as he reproved our child- 
ish follies, or see the patient, beaming smile, 
as he encouraged our feeble efforts to do the 
right. Thus a sainted father's heavenly 
influences still shines out sweetly and clear 
upon the path of his child, guiding on like a 
beacon star to right purposes — activity, 
patience here, and the hope of the beyond. 
It is an inestimable blessing to liave such a 

father. And to lose him -. But I write 

of the dead, and would not wrong the mes- 
senger that gathered back the breath, 



' For his touch Tvas like the angel's, 

Who comes at close of day, 
To lull the willing flowers asleep, 
Until the morniDg ray.' 

"He died Oct. 12, 1860, suddenly, of heart 
disease, at the house of his daughter in Lan- 
caster, N. H., aged 76. At his funeral, one of 
the deacons of the church arose after the 
sermon, and amid the tearful congregation, 
spoke at some length of the power of holy 
example. ' I know,' said he, ' it is not ac- 
cording to our custom to thus speak in the 
funerals of our dead, but a good man has 
departed, and I cannot refrain from this just 
tribute.' [This deacon was Gov. Fairbanks.] 
Our aged mother, who has already seen 81^ 
summers, resides in her old home with her 
son George. Her children are all living, four 
in number." 

A niece of the departed, from Connecticut, 
present upon the funeral occasion, published 
at the time, a poem, in The Caledonian, from 
which we extract: 

A Good Man has Departed. 
'Twas a solemn gathering. A day 
Long to be treasured in the kindliest hearts 
That worshiped in that temple. An aged 

A man whom all had known for many years, 
A friend, a Christian, honest and sincere, 
Had by that shaft, which nothing can resist, 
Been called to part with earth and earthly 

"A good man had depai'ted " — full of years 
'Tis true, and ready for his sudden change ; 
But happy in his love of brotherhood, 
His old familiar friends, his kindred ties, 
And ripening for his immortality. 
An aged man, of whiten'd locks, he stood 
Whene'er the sabbath came, in his own pew. 
To show his reverence for the sacred word, 
And love for holy things. I see him now 
"With form erect, and noble brow, as o'er 
The sacred hymns he pondered oft. 
Within this temple now — silent unseen, 
His spirit hovers o'er that chosen pew. 
And bids them look above, with faith's clear 

Above the cares of earth — these sordid 

To purer joys. . . . 

Sauah Elizabeth. 

Eleazee, Sanger, 
Born in Keene, N. H., married Sabrina 
Whitney of Winchester, Mass., and settled 
in St. Johnsbury at the Four Corners, about 
1790. Mrs. Roxana Sears, a daughter of Mr. 
Sanger, from whom we have the account, 

says her parents came immediately after 
their marriage to St. Johnsbury, moving in 
on an ox sled, and she thinks her father 
was, after Mr. Cole, one of the first five 
settlers in town. Here his 12 children 
were born and he lived, till his death about 
17 years since, and died aged nearly 70, 
being insane some 18 years before his death. 
Dr. Arnold, Gen. Roberts, Martin and Gar- 
diner Wheeler, and Mr. Sanger, all settled at 
the Four Corners. Three of the families, the 
Roberts and Wheelers, have always lived 
there. Mr. Sanger soon removed to the 
Centre, where he was the first settler, and 
owned the land upon which the Centre 
village now stands — some 200 acres. Here 
he built a large "hopper-roofed" house for 
his family, and though he never opened a 
public house, yet, as he was himself a 
teamster, the teamsters and so many others 
put up with him, that he kept about as 
many travelers as the tavern. After his 
death, the ample old house was rented at 
one time to some five families; it may still 
be seen standing near the Methodist chapel. 
He also built several other houses to rent, 
and the first saw and grist-mill at the Centre. 
After many years these mill privileges were 
sold to Reuben Spaulding from Cavendish, 
who built new mills on the old sites. Ezra, 
Mr. Sanger's son, kept the first store at the 
Centre. Mr. Sanger never coveted any part 
or lot in town offices, but appears to have " 
been a prominent business man, helping well 
toward first building up the Centre Village. 
He was, moreover, one of the first free 
masons of St. Johnsbury — to whose lodge 
also belonged General Roberts, Gardiner 
Wheeler, Capt. Barney and Gen. Fenton, 
who moved in somewhat later, and carried 
on the manufacture of earthen ware, which 
business his son Leander, has since fol- 
lowed. In those pleasant olden days, town 
meeting was a great day ; the farmers for 
miles around were accustomed to bring their 
wives into the village for a visit. For years 
at St. Johnsbury Centre, Mr. Sanger's was 
a general rendezvous where the men left 
their wives to visit while they went to the 
meeting, and then came back to supper. 
Speaking of suppers — we are told Mrs. 
Sanger kept the first anniversary of her 
birthday in St. Johnsbury with a supper, 
to which Dr. Arnold, Gen. Roberts, the 
Wheelers, and the wives of all were invited, 
and came — and " all went merry as a mar- 
riage bell." The pine table was loaded, 
and the jovial guests around — when sud- 
denly the floor, unsupported by crossbeams 



or props (they lived in the little log hut 
at the Corners then,) began to slide and 
cave and tunnel cellarward — down went 
the table, pewter, ' turkey, gravy, Doctor, 
General, host, ladies, floor and all. Great 
was the smash, the scare and the laugh, 
after the party had all crept safe from the 
hole — for cellars were but holes in those 
primitive huts, and men and women both 
could laugh heartily over little mishaps — 
the pewter plates were not broken, the 
floor could be relaid. 

Mrs. Sanger died about 3 years after her 
husband, while on a visit to a daughter in 
the west. None of the family reside now 
in St. Johnsbury. But three of the child- 
ren survive, a son and a daughter in Ohio, 
and Mrs. Sears, now a resident of Ludlow, 
before alluded to. "At St. Johnsbury Plain," 
says Mrs. S., "43 years ago, old Dr. Lord 
lived in a large two story house at the 
lower end of street ; Dr. Calvin Jewett 
about the middle of the Plain; his bro- 
ther, Dr. Luther Jewett, who was the old- 
est, lived just opposite, and old Mr. West, 
a ' dreadful good ' old man, lived next 
door to Dr. Luther, and John Clark kept 
store with his brother at the north end of 
the village." 

St. Johnsbuky Plain. 
August, 1860. 
The railway hugging close the river-land 
as we come up the Passumpsic valley, gives 
no hint of the handsome village we are ap- 
proaching till we are there, landed at the 
convenient and respectable depot under the 
hill — nor indeed, then and there, the village 
proper is on the plain over above. Only a 
few sightly residences like light-houses at 
sea, hang oif the hill. Winding up the as- 
cent to the village — rather steep for an 
invalid or the aged — though pleasantly 
assuring the hearty they are getting up in 
the world — arrived at the street of the 
Plain which runs north and south, if you 
turn to the right and go up, you pass pre- 
sently ofiices, shops, stores, &c., while a con- 
spicuous block over the left labeled in gilt, 
the " St. Johnsbury House " (the stand 
where old Captain Barney used to keep 
tavern), looks over to you, and you to that. 
Anon you come to dwellings — pleasant resi- 
dences with pleasant yards, till you have 
passed up — I can not measure distance 
safely by memory two years back — it is 
1862 now — but till you have gone a long 
way up the street — till the last house is 
left — and the village passed in this direction. 

A little further on, through an entrance 
way, about which there is nothing remarka- 
ble, a new road leads by a gradual curve 
downward, and around the hillside, away at 
once from all sight and sound of the other. 
You stand in the beautiful cemetery of St. 
Johnsbury, a broken landscape, more hillside 
than dell ; in sacred seclusiveness, so holily 
shut away from the world, you feel you 
would love to be buried here. Each pictur- 
esque site has its headstone and grave, and 
a good carriage way winds through the 
handsome grounds. Here you stand by 
the monument of Joseph P. Fairbanks, 
whom you will remember as the benefactor 
of Middlebury College,* the liberal patron 
of education and works of worthy promise. 
Let his memory be blessed : and let espe- 
cially the history of the just and liberal man 
be written. And here is the monument and 
grave of Judge Paddock. But turn with me 
and search now for the grave of Josiah L. 
Arnold, the- poet of St. Johnsbury. The St. 
Johnsbury cemetery is indeed the most beau- 
tiful yard of burial we have found in the 

Returning to the head of Eastern avenue, 
if you take the left hand and go down the 
main street southward, you directly pass the 
handsome court house and county buildings, 
churches, academy, &c., and soon arrive at 
the terminus of the village ; and at the natural 
head of this street, fronting the street, com- 
manding an extensive view down through 
the street, stands the residence of the same 
late Joseph P. Fairbanks, by whose tomb we 
stood in the cemetery. The beautiful, under 
the hand of elegant culture, begins to de- 
velop more markedly here in the parterre of 
shrubs and flowers fronting the pleasant 
porches. Crossing the street to the right- 
ward, on the road leading toward Danville, 
the house and flower grounds upon the right, 
of Horace Fairbanks, may not be passed 
without receiving a full tithe of admiration. 
You recognize the place at once, having been 
told he has this summer the most beautiful 
garden in St. Johnsbury. It can not be 
other than this. The beds in their arrange- 
ment are markedly unique — the flowers in 
their glory of bloom. As you go down yet 
farther into Fairbanksville, the road winding 
through a natural glen or narrow defile in 
the hills, one house in particular, upon the 
hillside leftward, from its several terraces 
of earth, verdant and velvety smooth, looms 
up like the olden towers on a rock, looking 
down upon you as you pass. But where all 
*Seepage 55, No. 1. 



is beautiful, who may with just delicacy 
designate ? We will individualize but one 
other. At the foot of the village on your 
right — up and away from the street beneath 
where you only catch a partial view of a 
pillared porch — you ascend a marble flight, 
Avhere upon the topmost stair, from within 
a natural recess in the hills, the mansion, 
with its quietly perceptive swell of graded 
ground between, serenely develops. The 
hills hang over and above and half around. 
At the westward or right wing of the build- 
ing, knots of flowers spread away, and over 
beyond the flower plat, lies a miniature lake 
beneath. This is the home and family seat 
of Governor Fairbanks. 

St. Johnsbury has grown very much, we 
are told, within a few years. It is now, in- 
deed, one of the handsomest villages of the 
Btate. Nature made it beautiful at first, and 
architecture and horticulture have lavished 
upon it since. Several fine views of the 
place, and especially of Fairbanksville, by 
B. F. Gage, the artist of St. Johnsbury, 
decorate the picture saloons of some of the 
first artists in New York. 

The sun had set, 
And night's black shadows hung once more, 
O'er Saint Helena's distant shore ; 
The god of storms o'er land and tide, 
Had flung the banner of his pride, 
And mustered all his legions there, 
To battle in the midnight air, 
Or revel in their reckless mirth, 
And scatter ruin o'er the earth. 

The storm grew wild — 
The guarded Exile heard the sound. 
That shook the midnight air around, 
Anon he saw the lightning's flash. 
And started at the thunder's crash, 
As if he deemed he heard once more 
The music of the battle's roar ; 
Yet as the tempest raved and moaned, 
Low on his couch he raved and groaned 

In mortal pain. 

Gasping, he spake 
In accents low — " Ye know the tree 
That waves beside the distant sea, 
Where I have loved to sit all day, 
And watch the billows in their play. 
There ye shall lay me down to rest. 
And heap the turf above my breast. 
And long its drooping bough shall wave, 
Above my low and lonely grave. 
Wild birds their mournful lays shall weave. 
And nature o'er my ashes grieve, 

And all earth's nations yet shall weep. 

Where the great hero lies asleep. 

And curse the foul deceit and hate. 

That gave him to the arms of Fate, 

That crushed his heart and closed the strife, 

E're waned the glorious noon of life." 

Night rolled away. 
The sun returned with quiet smile, 
To Saint Helena's lonely isle. 
But that sweet smile came not to him. 
The mighty chief whose eye was dim. 
Whose iron frame and royal brow, 
In death were cold and pallid now. 
Sweet sounds the murm'ring breezes bore, 
And balmy scents were in the air ; 
The glad waves rippled on the shore. 
And wild birds carol'd gaily there ; * 
Yet the proud chieftain's favorite tree. 
Waved not besides the solemn sea. 
Torn by the fury of the blast, 
And on the shore in fragments cast. 

The tree lay dead ! 

B. F. CAQE. 



Several years elapsed after the settlement 
of the southern portions of the county before 
settlers were willing to locate within the 
wilds of the more northern towns. Hence 
so late as 1793, the dense forests of this 
town were still standing wholly unharmed 
by the woodman's axe. 

In this year, October 25, the town was 
chartered by the legislature of Vermont to 
Stephen Kingsbury and associates, with five 
rights for public purposes. 

In the latter part of the following winter 
several families from New Hampshire came 
on and commenced a settlement in the south- 
ern part. The town was organized the 25th 
of March, 1796. Moses Foss, moderator; 
Archelaus Miles, Jr., first town clerk, an 
ofiice which he held 12 years in succession ; 
Stephen Drown, Archelaus Miles, Jr., and 
Isaac Kenaston, selectmen ; Jonathan Gray, 
constable. The first representative, was 

Stephen Drown in 1806; first physician, 

Mitchell ; and first merchant, John Green ; 
no lawyer ever yet resided in town. The 
first settlement was made in the spring of 
1794, by John and Richard Jenness, and 
James and Jonathan Gray with their fami- 

It is impossible at this day to form a just 
conception of the hardships encountered by 
early settlers, leaving the comforts and con- 



veniences of an older country, moving to a 
distant wilderness into dwellings insufficient 
to protect them from the wintry blast, and 
with but scanty fare; yet with unremiting 
toil they sought to clear them up a home. 
The first year proved favorable for the 
growth of grain, and as early as the 28th of 
July, they had wheat harvested and at the 
mill. At no time since, has wheat been 
harvested in town so early. 

And yet with all their industry and fru- 
gality, for the first few years they were un- 
able to raise sufficient provisions to subsist 
upon. Their corn had to be brought from 
the river towns upon horses, a great part 
of the distance through the forest, guided 
by marked trees. At one time being out 
of provisions Jonathan Gray and a neighbor 
started for the Connecticut valley in quest 
of corn. Not being able to find any upon 
this side of the river they resolved to cross 
to the New Hampshire side. No boat was 
near and although late in the evening they 
mounted their horses and attempted to swim 
them to the other shore, but the darkness 
was so great that they reached the shore at 
a considerable distance below the landing 
place, where a steep bank covered with a 
heavy growth of bushes prevented their 
horses from obtaining a footing. A few 
lusty halloes, however, brought a sturdy 
farmer to the bank who exclaimed with a 
strong Scotch accent: "Hoot, mon, what 
do ye here?" A few words sufficed to ex- 
plain to him their situation and with the 
assistance of himself and sons they were 
soon upon terra firma once more, where wet 
and benumbed with cold they gladly availed 
themselves of the invitation extended to 
them by the hospitable Scotchman to spend 
the night at his house. The following morn- 
ing having procured their corn, they crossed 
the river by means of a boat and proceeded 

The first buildings erected by the settlers 
were rudely constructed log cabins, with a 
bark roof and stone chimney outside the 
house. The floors were of short, thick plank 
split from the bass, sometimes from other 
trees, and confined with wooden pins in 
place of nails. The doors were formed in 
the same rude manner, and all combined to 
give the cabins a unique and shaggy appear- 
ance. If they could secure a few panes of 
glass and a pound or two of nails, they con- 
sidered themselves provided with a very 
convenient and tasty dwelling. 

While the men were laboring in the field, 
their wives with commendable zeal were 

striving, what time they could well spare 
from other duties, to improve the condition 
of their cabins. The wife of Richard Jen- 
ness, unwilling longer to perform her cook- 
ing upon the hearthstone, with her own 
hands constructed an oven of stone, daubing 
it well with mud in lieu of mortar, and in 
this for several years she performed the 
baking for her family. 

Although good crops of grain were raised 
the first year, yet they found it hard to pro- 
cure sufficient fodder to winter their stock. 
At that time there was no English grass 
nearer than North Danville, but they for- 
tunately discovered a beaver meadow in the 
western part of the town covered with a 
heavy growth of wild grass, which they cut 
and stacked, drawing it the following winter 
upon handsleds, four miles, through a dense 
forest, and thus were enabled to supply 
their cows with food through the rigors of 
a Vermont winter. 

John Jenness worked at his trade as a 
tanner for several years, in the early settle- 
ment of the town, using for a vat a large 
trough dug from a tree with his axe, and 
pounding his bark for tanning purposes by 
hand. He built the first framed house in 

The following year Deacon Stephen Drown 
and wife moved in. Mrs. Drown is still 
living, at the advanced age of 85 years. Her 
mental faculties are yet good, and she recol- 
lects incidents which occurred in the early 
settlement of the town distinctly. She says 
that when she first came into town the only 
covering to their cabin consisted of strips of 
bark confined to the roof by means of large 
timbers placed at right angles. A few plank 
were split out, upon which was placed their 
bed ; while two more pinned together served 
them for a door ; and in such a dwelling, 
surrounded by wild beasts, and exposed to 
the vicissitudes of a New England climate, 
they lived and labored. No hardship so 
great, no labor so severe, no undertaking so 
hazardous, as to daunt their spirits or cause 
them to waver from their firm determination 
to build them up a home ; but true to their 
purpose they struggled on against difficulties, 
still laboring for that "better time" which 
they could then but faintly discern in the 
distance, yet afterwards so happily realized. 

The first male child born in town, was 
William Gray, July 28, 1794. He still re- 
sides in town. The first female, Hannah 
Jenness, born Oct. 15, of the same year — 
her death occurred April 4, 1860. The first 
marriage in town was that of Capt. Samuel 



Twombly, to Miss Elizabeth Gray. Oldest 
person deceased in town, Samuel Drown, 
aged 96 years. Oldest person now living in 
town. Ward Bradley, Esq., aged 88. The 
first death in town, was that of a child of 
Richard Jenness, caused by eating pieces of 
isinglass. First school-house built in 1805, 
on land now owned by Sylvester Hall — 
Stephen Drown was the first teacher ; pre- 
sent number of districts, nine. Three con- 
venient school-houses have been erected 
quite recently. The remainder are wholly 
unfit for the purposes for Avhich they were 

Heretofore there has been too little inte- 
rest manifested in educational matters ; but 
for the few past years the prospect has 
looked more cheering ; public feeling has 
been roused somewhat to the importance of 
the subject, and it is sincerely to be hoped 
that this feeling will continue to be strength- 
ened, until a subject of such vital import- 
ance shall receive that attention which it 
demands from every enlightened commu- 

The town was first surveyed by Jesse 
Gilbert, a man well fitted to perform the 
arduous duties of a surveyor. A beautiful 
tract of land situated in this town, consist- 
ing of about 1000 acres, was named in honor 
of this surveyor, Gilbert Square, an appel- 
lation which it still retains. 

The soil of this town is mostly of a loamy 
nature ; some portions are quite stony, while 
others are entirely free from stone. 

The town is well adapted to the raising of 
stock, and our farmers are beginning to see 
the importance of an improved system of 

This town remained as it was originally 
chartered until Nov. 23, 1858, when a corner 
consisting of 3000 acres was annexed to the 
town of Barton. A mountain range passes 
through the northern and western portions 
of the town, which separates the waters of 
the Passumpsic and Barton rivers. Not- 
withstanding this elevation is a continuance 
of the " water shed " between the valleys of 
the Connecticut and St. Lawrence, the alti- 
tude is not sufficient to produce sterility of 
soil or failure of crops. Upon the very sum- 
mit the soil is fertile, producing well all 
kinds of grain usually raised in this section, 
excepting corn. 

This elevation of land, unlike most moun- 
tain ranges, does not seem to penetrate the 
distant sky, nor is it characterized by craggy 
cliffs, abrupt precipices, or sharply pointed 
peaks, but rather by gently sloping sides, 

and rounded summits heavily wooded to the 
very top. 

The town is watered by several brooks, 
which rising upon the mountains, unite a 
short distance north of the village and form 
a considerable stream, which flowing onward 
empties into the Passumpsic at Lyndon. 

That portion of the town upon the other 
slope of the mountain is watered by streams 
that flow into the Barton river. But a small 
portion of the town lies upon the western 
side, and consequently no good mill privi- 
leges are found ; but in the southern and 
central portions, water power is abundant. 

In this town are several ponds romantic- 
ally situated among our green-clad hills. 
At the outlet of one of these, years ago, 
when the country in that vicinity was all a 
wilderness, a man by the name of Bruce 
attempted to build a saw-mill, but after 
erecting the frame and getting his mill in 
running order, he suddenly abandoned his 
project, removed the machinery, and left the 
country. The ruins of the mill are still to 
be seen, a part of the timbers still standing. 
From this circumstance the body of water 
received the name of Bruce pond. Another 
pond, called "Duck pond," from its having 
been a favorite resort for wild ducks, has the 
appearance of once having covered a much 
greater surface than now, the position of 
the land and growth of timber denoting the 
place it once occupied. It appears gradu- 
ally to be growing less ; what occasions this 
dimunition of its waters is a mystery. 

One feature of the town is the abundance 
of excellent springs which every where 
abound. Upon nearly every hill side, 
gushes forth the pure, limpid stream. The 
climate is healthful, although our winters 
are more rigorous than in towns situated 
upon large streams. There is one limestone 
ledge in the extreme western portion of the 
town, which has been worked but little. 

Bears were numerous in the early settle- 
ment of the town, and often disturbed the 
settlers by their nocturnal visits. At one 
time, Hiram Jenness, then a lad of 12 years, 
was sent by his father to a bear trap which 
he had placed in the forest adjacent to his 
clearing. Not finding the trap sprung, the 
lad sauntered leisurely along through the 
forest, musket in hand, in search of game. 
Wandering on among the thickly wooded 
hills, he at last found himself several miles 
from home, and nearly to the summit of the 
mountain range which runs through the 
western portion of the town. Halting to 
view the scenery around, he espied a large 



bear lying beside a log quietly gnawing a 
bone. As he stepped forward to reconnoiter, 
the bear, evidently considering this as an 
intrusion upon his rights, rose upon his hind 
legs and growled defiance at the invader. 
The boy, nothing daunted, cooly leveled his 
musket and laid the beast dead at his feet. 
The bear weighed upwards of 400 pounds. 

In conversing a few days since with Mr. 
Haines, an aged man, who resides a short 
distance from the winter, he related the fol- 
lowing circumstance, Avhich so strikingly 
exhibits the dangers to which early settlers 
were subjected that we are inclined to give 
it place in our columns, nearly verbatim, as 
related to us at the time. 

He was then a young man just commenc- 
ing in life. His family consisted of a wife 
and one child. They lived at the time in a 
rude log house, the door of which was with- 
out suitable fastenings. One night, weary 
with the labors of the day, they had retired 
to rest : when about midnight they were 
awakened by something traveling upon the 
outside of the bed. 

They at first supposed it to be a dog, but 
upon looking up, they at once discovered 
that their visitant was in fact a full grown 
bear. They were terribly frightened, but 
Mr. Haines quickly springing upon his feet 
caught him by the hind leg, and endeavored 
to pull him from the bed, but Bruin, it 
seems, was as much frightened as the rest, 
for quickly extricating his foot from the 
grasp, he sprang from the bed, leaned for 
the door, and put for the forest with all 
speed. Our mountain streams were former- 
ly a favorite resort for the beaver tribe, 
There are several meadows in town which 
were formed by these industrious little crea- 
tures, all of which produce a luxuriant 
growth of grass, and which from the earli- 
est settlement of the town, until these lots 
were taken up and settled, was yearly cut, 
stacked and drawn to the barns upon sleds 
the ensuing winter. 

Some of their dams still remain almost 
entire, but the greater part of them have 
been leveled by the plough of the farmer. 

Previous to the extension of the Passump- 
sic rail road from St. Johnsbury to Barton, 
stages ran regularly through the town, giv- 
ing us a daily communication with other 
parts of the country ; but since the building 
of the rail road we are obliged to content 
ourselves \Vith a semi-weekly mail. In 1850, 
an accident of a serious nature occurred 
upon this line of staging, by which a Dr. 
Flanders of N. H. was instantly killed, and 

several other passengers were more or less 
injured. The accident was occasioned by 
the upsetting of a coach within the limits of 
this town. Blame was attached to the town 
at the time for not keeping a suitable railing 
beside the road at this place, and also to the 
driver for not exercising suitable caution ; 
the night in question being extremely dark 
and foggy. Probably both parties were some- 
what to blame, and a compromise shojild 
have been efi"ected, and a settlement made 
with the friends of the deceased; but bitter 
feeling was engendered, and an expensive 
litigation entered into, which for intensity 
of feeling manifested has rarely been ex- 
celled in our courts. 

Dense forests yet cover a considerable 
portion of the mountain range which passes 
through the town ; and encircled by these 
timbered hills, lie several beautiful sheets 
of water. Tiny ponds half a mile in length, 
and perhaps half that distance in width, 
with their clear, sparkling waters now glis- 
tening in the sunbeams, then flowing in 
graceful ripples along the wooded shore. 
Nothing can be more pleasing to the student 
of nature, than to roam through these grand 
old woods and behold the diversity of scene- 
ry so wild and picturesque everywhere un- 
folded to view. It was a lovely morning in 
autumn, accompanied by a friend, we started 
upon such excursion. Not a cloud obscured 
the clear, blue sky, as the bright beams of 
the sun began to tinge every hill-top with a 
golden light, richly in contrast with the 
deep gloom of the vales below. 

Moving leisurely along, we at last reached 
the confines of the most remote clearing, and 
climbing the brush fence which ran along 
its border, at once entered the forest wilds. 
Not a sound disturbed the surrounding still- 
ness, save the joyous carol of some warbler 
as perched upon a slender twig, he poured 
forth his song of praise, or the merry chitter 
of the bright-eyed squirrel as he nimbly 
sprang from tree to tree, or peered forth 
from his sly retreat far up among the 
branches. All was lovely, and everything 
seemed fresh with the impress of Divinity. 

Beauty, utility, and perfection, exist in 
nature's Laboratory. She brings forth no- 
thing but what is perfect. Now pausing to 
enjoy the romantic wildness of the scene, 
then pursuing a tortuous course through 
some winding vale, covered with its tangled 
growth of alders, and anon climbing some 
thickly wooded hill side, we, at last, reached 
one of those mimic lakes which lie embosom- 
ed among these green hills. 



At its eastern extremity lies a tract of 
several acres, destitute of timber, covered 
with a rank growth of brakes and wild grass 
For a considerable distance around extends 
one unbroken wilderness. Standing upon a 
slight eminence near the center of this little 
clearing, we have a fine view of the sur- 
rounding scenery. Below lies the miniature 
pond with its pebbly shores and gleaming 
wq,tef s, while around far as vision sweeps, ex- 
tend the huge forest trees that raise their 
heads reverently toward Heaven, and wave 
in silent praise, their bright foliage in the 
gentle breeze. We stood upon that gentle 
eminence, we looked down upon those limpid 
waters and beheld the dancing ripples as 
they broke upon the solitary shore. A thou- 
sand new beauties everywhere spread around 
us, we almost imagined ourselves in the pri- 
mitive Eden, and could but wonder if any 
could be found so insensible to the influences 
of these exhibitions of beauty and grandeur 
as not to be led from this contemplation of 
nature to look away to nature's God. 

This little tract of land was cleared by 
nature, in 1806, by a tornado passing 
through this section of country. Prior to 
this time, a road had been cut through the 
wilderness, now known as the Duck Pond 
road, to accommodate travelers passing be- 
tween the northern and southern portion of 
the state. It was barely passable for wagons 
and a journey from the settlements of this 
town to Barton was considered quite tedious. 
At the time of which we are speaking, a 
gentleman and his wife were passing through 
the forest in the vicinity of Duck Pond ; they 
heard the roar of the rushing blast, and its 
nearing approach, but escape was impossible. 
The tornado burst upon them in all its fury. 
The huge forest trees came crashing around 
in confused and tangled heaps, here piled 
and crossed in multitudinous confusion, 
there broken and crushed in one shattered 
mass ; yet strange to narrate, our travelers, 
although so completely hemmed in by fallen 
timbers that it required considerable time, 
with all the assistance which could be pro- 
cured to extricate their team from the 
tangled mass, were wholly unharmed. But 
we have wandered with our story. Let 
us return to the little eminence where 
we stood. We soon left this position and 
followed down the western shore of the pond, 
across a tract of land, dry, free from stone 
and apparently well calculated to reward 
the labors of the husbandman ; and we venture 
to predict that at no very distant day we 
shall find in this section, a district of well 

cultivated farms. Following the little stream 
which forms an outlet to the pond which we 
had left behind, we soon reached another 
sheet of water somewhat smaller and oc- 
cupying a much lower position, yet sur- 
rounded by the same wild beauty which 
characterized the former. This pond is 
situated less thixn a mile from the main road, 
and is not far distant from the dividing line 
between this town and Glover. But all days 
have their end, and we reached home as the 
gray shadows of twilight were fast deepen- 
ing into night, feeling ourselves amply re- 
paid for the toils and fatigues of the day. 

All the wild land in this town is now 
taken up, yet there are several lots that 
have not yet been settled. 

Perhaps it would be well to state before 
closing this cursory sketch, that General 
Hull once owned a large portion of the 
town, but previous to his disgraceful con- 
duct in the war of 1812, he exchanged with 
Isaac McLellan, Esq., for lands in Newbury- 
port, Mass. Lumber has for several years 
formed quite an article of export, and six 
saw-mills in different parts of the town, find 
abundant occupation during the sawing sea- 

Our little village is situated about one 
mile from the southern boundary of the 
town, in a pleasant and fertile valley through 
which flows a small creek designated as 
Millers run, which furnishes to the peo- 
ple all necessary water power, and adds 
much to the appearance of the place. The 
first trees were felled in this place by Jona- 
than Gray and Samuel Daniels, in 1794, near 
where the school-house now stands, on land 
then owned by Deacon Wm. Hawkins. The 
first house was built by Deacon Hawkins in 
1794. In 1797 he also built a saw and grist- 
mill, upon the above mentioned stream, near 
where the mills now stand. The clothing 
mill was built by James Townsend, in 1822 ; 
the first hotel in the village, by Sewall Brad- 
ley, in 1832 ; though there were taverns 
kept in town as early as 1800 ; the first 
church in town was erected by the Freewill 
Baptist society, A. D. 1829 ; one store, one 
church, a school-house and several dwelling 
houses have been added quite recently. Old 
antiquated buildings have been repaired, or 
have given place to more elegant structures, 
and a spirit of improvement which is really 
commendable, seems at present to be mani- 
fested among our citizens. The village has 
2 churches, 2 stores, 1 grocery, 1 saw-mill, 1 
shoe shop, 1 starch factory, 1 carding mill, 



1 hotel, 2 blacksmith shops, 1 school house, 
1 town hall, and 21 dwelling houses. 


The early settlers of this town were mostly 
of the Freewill Baptist persuasion, and they 
early began to hold religious meetings upon 
the sabbath. In 1800, six years after the 
town was first settled, the Baptists of this 
town and Wheelock united, and the first 
church was organized. The first monthly 
meeting was held October 6 of that year. 
The church at that time, counting the mem- 
bers from both towns, consisted of 77 mem- 
bers. Although destitute of a pastor, and 
with no suitable place to meet for public 
worship, yet they continued their meetings, 
preserved their discipline, and enjoyed fre- 
quent religious revivals, as the fruit of their 
labors, until 1829, when a church was built 
at the village, where they afterwards met 
for worship. They had occasional preach- 
ing, but no steady pastor until March 9, 
1836, when they organized anew — the mem- 
bers of the different towns having become 
sufficiently numerous to render a separate 
organization expedient. The Rev. Zebina 
Young was this year installed pastor, being 
the first settled minister in town. To him 
consequently fell the right of land granted 
by the state at the time of the original 
charter. Since his removal, the church has 
enjoyed the labors of several different cler- 

In 1850, Rev. Jonathan Woodman, the 
present pastor, was installed. He has the 
pastoral care of two churches, preaching 
alternately at this place and Wheelock. The 
society originally built their house without 
a steeple ; but during the past season, they 
have caused some repairs to be made. The 
long wished for belfry has been added, and 
an excellent bell procured and placed therein. 

The society now consists of 51 members. 

Second Baptist Church. 
We have not been able to procure the sta- 
tistical facts in connection with this church, 
but will here insert what information we 
have been able to ascertain. The church 
was organized soon after the great revival 
of 1839, and made up mostly of people re- 
siding in the eastern part of the town. The 
Rev. Mr. Bugby was their first pastor. For 
several years they held religious meetings at 
a school house in that part of the town, but 
about 1850, erected a convenient house for 
public worship, and are now in a prosper- 

ous condition. The Rev. Mr. Ij^ll is their 
present pastor. Number of members about 



In the fall of 1854, the Rev. Mr. Hall, a 
Wesleyan Methodist minister, who was then 
stationed on Albany and Glover circuit, 
came into this town and commenced laboring 
among the people in the vicinity of Gilbert 
Square. There were soon such an interest 
manifested, and such an attachment to the 
principles of Wesleyan Methodism displayed, 
that Mr. Hall deemed it best to organize a 
small class as a branch of the Glover church. 
This may be considered as the commence- 
ment of Wesleyan Methodism here, although 
there had been previous to this time, a few 
lectures by Wesleyan ministers, who pre- 
ceded Mr. Hall on the charge above men- 
tioned. In the spring of 1856, the Rev. 
Dyer Willis succeeded Mr. Hall, and during 
his stay of two years he held a few evening 
meetings. Mr. Willis was succeeded in the 
spring of 1858 by the Rev. John Croker. 

During Mr. Croker's stay of one year, he 
held a few meetings in this town. In the 
latter part of the year he preached a few; 
times in the school-house on what is called 
Glover road, four miles from Sheffield vil- 
lage. Some interest was manifested by the 
inhabitants, and they expressed a desire to 
have regular preaching among them ; ac- 
cordingly, a regular appointment for preach- 
ing every fourth Sabbath was established. 
In May, 1859, Mr. Croker was succeeded by 
Rev. John Dolph, the present pastor, who 
took up his residence in Sheffield. Soon 
after Mr. Dolph commenced his labors, it 
became apparent that a church organization 
in this town would be beneficial to the cause 
of religion ; accordingly on the 25th of July, 
1849, the friends of the cause met and or- 
ganized a church of about 40 members. 
From that time to the present, although 
they have met with strong opposition, which 
grew out of prejudice, the AVesleyans have 
gradually increased in numbers and in- 
fluence. Prejudice is, however, dying away, 
opposition has partially ceased, and they 
are now in a prosperous condition, and 
number, at present, about 60 members. 
During the past summer (1860), they have 
erected a convenient and tasty chapel for 
religious worship, at Sheffield village, which 
was dedicated on the 20th of Oct., 1860. 
Rev. P. A. Field of Shelburn officiating. 



We would here return our thanks to indi- 
viduals who have furnished us with items of 
facts pertaining to the early history of the 
town, and especially are our thanks due to 
the Hon. John P. Ingalls and Dr. A. M. 
Ward, by whose efforts much of the material 
for this sketch has been collected. 

This town has never been prolific in what 
the world denominates great men, yet many 
are deserving of an honorable mention. 

James Gray, 
One of the first settlers of the town, was 
born in Barrington, N. H. He married 
Hannah Burrill of the same place, and 
moved to this town with his family in the 
spring of 1794. There being no bridge 
across the river at Wheelock at the time, 
they crossed upon the dam, and passed on to 
their claim which was upon lot 36, now 
owned by Mr. Holmes. Mrs. Gray was the 
first white woman that ever came into this 
town. The following year Mr. Gray moved, 
and commenced anew upon the lot where 
Isaac Pearl now resides. Here he lived 
until a year before his death, when feeble in 
health, and bowed down with hard labor 
and the infirmities of age, he left to spend 
the remainder of his life with his son George, 
upon the place now owned by his grandson, 
L. M. M. Gray, Esq., and here he continued 
to reside until his death. His son Jonathan 
also came the same year with his father. 
To him belongs the honor of having felled 
the first tree in town. 

The hardships incident to early settlers 
bore heavily upon Mr. Gray. At this time 
there was no gristmill near, and he was 
obliged to take his grain sometimes even to 
Newbury to be ground, and often for the 
want of a horse, he carried it upon his own 
back. Yet with all his labor and hardships 
he was healthy and vigorous, and lived to 
the good old age of 85 years. 

Samuel Duown, 
Was born at Rochester, N. H. He came into 
this town in 1795. He was an old revolu- 
tionary soldier, having been attached during 
some part of the war to an artillery corps. 
His grandchildren have often heard him 
relate incidents of different battles in which 
he had been engaged, and of the dif&eulties 
they sometimes encountered in drawing their 
pieces into battery in places inaccessible for 
horses. He was first engaged in the battle 

of Bunker Hill, and served his country 
faithfully for several years afterwards. He 
died at the advanced age of 96 years, being 
the oldest person deceased in town. 

Deacon Stephen Drown, 
Son of Samuel Drown above mentioned, was 
born in Rochester, N. H., September 17th, 
1770, was married at the age of 21, to Sarah 
Gray, daughter of James Gray, a brief 
sketch of whom we have before given. They 
moved to this town in 1795, four years after 
their marriage, and settled upon the farm 
now owned by Elisha Davis, Esq., where 
they continued to reside until his death, 
which occurred April 6, 1841. His wife sur- 
vived him, and is now living with her son 
Horace, and is the oldest female now resid- 
ing in town, and but so short a distance is 
she now removed from the scenes of her 
earlier years, that she can sit at her Avindow 
and look upon the farm where she and her 
husband first commenced their labors, and 
for nearly 50 years lived and toiled together. 
They commenced in town poor, and often 
suffered for the necessaries of life. For 
some time during the first year, they sub- 
sisted entirely upon the milk of one cow. 
In the spring they had been unable to obtain 
potatoes for seed, but had planted a few 
parings given them for the purpose, which 
had sprouted and grown and were now in 
full blossom. To this field the wife turned 
her footsteps, when she could no longer be- 
hold her husband exhausted with the labors 
of the day, and no suitable food to prepare 
for the evening repast. Having dug a half- 
pint of potatoes of diminutive size and killed 
a small chicken, she prepared a meal which 
may well be called the first product of the 

But they did not long remain in such 
circumstances. Industry and economy 
worked wonders in their case, and they were 
soon surrounded with plenty. Mr. Drown 
represented the town for several years in the 
legislature of the state, was 22 years town 
clerk, and taught the first school in town. 
He experienced religion in 1800, was the first 
convert, and ever after one of the main pil- 
lars of the church. To him the people were 
indebted as to a pastor for visiting the sick, 
attending funerals, holding meetings, bap- 
tizing converts, and performing all other 
pastoral duties which devolved upon him. 
He lived an exemplary life, sustaining his 
Christian profession unblemished until death 
closed his labors. 



Capt. Staples, 
Served in the war of 1812. It is said that 
in one engagement he. slew with his own 
hand three British soldiers that had attacked 
him, and afterwards joined his company in 
safety. He continued in service until the 
close of the war, when he moved into this 
town and labored for several years at his 
trade, being the first blacksmith in town. 

Hon. Joseph H. Ingalls, 
Father of the Hon. John P. Ingalls of this 
town, was born in Madbury, Mass., A. -D. 
1774. Came into Wheelock about the year 
1797, where he married Comfort Weeks, 
daughter of Capt. Joshua Weeks of that 
town, and continued to live in Wheelock 
until 1806, when he moved with his family 
to Sheffield, where he resided until his death. 
He came into Wheelock with little or no pro- 
perty, but by industry and strict attention 
to business became a wealthy man. 

At one time he owned nearly all the land 
where our village is now situated. He was 
one of the most influential citizens in the 
place, and for a long series of years held 
responsible offices in town. 

He was a member of the Vermont Legis- 
lature 13 years, and of the senate one year. 
As a man of sound judgment and thorough 
business habits, he probably never had a 
superior in town. His decease occurred 
June 14, 1850, aged 76 years. 

Elder Moses Cheney. 


Moses Cheney was born in Haverhill, 
Mass., December 15, 1776, in an old " garri- 
son house " still standing. 

Mrs. Hannah Dustin, famous in our history 
for having killed the ten Indians that cap- 
tured and carried her from Haverhill up the 
Merrimac river to where Concord, N. H., 
now is, was his great grandmother. 

When he was 5 years old, the family 
moved to Sanbornton, N. H., where his 
father purchased 60 acres of wild land, and 
with much hard labor reared a family of 9 

Moses was the second child, a weakly boy ; 
kept in doors pretty much in childhood. He 
sat on the split basswood floor by the side of 
his mother, and learned to read of her while 
she spun linen. Their library consisted of 
the English Primer, Watts' Psalms and 
Hymns, and the Bible. The first he com- 
mitted to memory and much of the New 
Testament, which he retained through life. 

The family was emphatically poor. Moses 
never had clothes proper to wear from home 
till after he was thirteen. That spring, in 
imitation of his father and brother who were 
making sugar, he split troughs and dug them 
out, tapped several trees, obtained sap, and 
after the others were done boiling and retired 
to rest, and he could have the kettles, in the 
dead hours of the night, boiled his sap alone. 
He made wooden "clappers" for shoes, 
drove nails through the bottoms to keep 
them from slipping on the crust, and with 
some rags wound about his feet for stockings 
and the clappers on, he was able to brush 
about and do his work. With his sugar he 
bought 8 yards of tow cloth, which was 
colored black with white maple bark, all but 
enough for a shirt, which was bleached as 
white as snow, and made up by his mother, 
who also made his whole suit ; and when it 
was completed he put it on, and went, into 
the field to show his father and Daniel. 
When his father saw him coming he ex- 
claimed, " There comes our clergyman ; see 
there, Daniel, I guess our Moses will make a 
minister." It is to be borne in mind that 
only clergymen wore black in those days. 

Now, then, he would go to church, and for 
the first time. He had even then, as ever 
after, a great taste for sabbath day meetings. 
He went to school a few days at different 
times, but it all amounted to pretty nearly 

At the age of 17, when he had grown tall 
and had better health, his father gave him 
his time, and he went out to work on a farm. 
At 20, he went to learn the joiner's trade; 
and the next year, attended school during 
the winter, kept by Elder John Drew, as 
also to singing school, by Mr. William 
Fenney of Goffstown, N. H. At the close of 
these two schools, his teachers give him 
the credit of having done very well ; and the 
latter, as Avas his custom, to his best scho- 
lar, at the close of a winter's school, "gave 
Moses Cheney his pitch-pipe and singing 

He was now a healthy and powerful man, 
stood 6 feet and an inch in his boots, broad- 
shouldered, with long and strong arms. He 
was a great chopper, and at one time, felled 
two acres of trees of heavy growth in two 
days, finishing the second day when the sun 
was two hours high. Moreover, he was not 
only strong, but remarkably quick, and 
could leap a line that he could walk erectly 
under with his hat on. 

At the age of 24 he married Abigail Lea- 
vitt, eldest daughter of Moses Leavitt of 



Sanbornton, N. H., and pursued his trade 
with much ambition. But at the close of 
about three years of excessive labor, his 
health was gone, and in addition to this, 
within six months, they lost their two little 
children. In his own words, "he was at 
that time brought to a childless state — a 
healthless state — a comfortless state — a 
hopeless state — a sinful state — and a state 
of condemnation." He also adds, "When 
the breath left the body of our little boy, I 
lifted my right hand and said, I have now 
done with the happiness of this world, unless 
I find it in God." 

He suffered much for about four weeks, 
when he was urged to go into social com- 
pany ; and he was inclined so to do ; but a 
voice said to him, "What did you promise ? 
It will be four weeks to-morrow, at 9 o'clock, 
since you made that promise — wait! " And 
he did. The morning came, and as the hour 
drew near he was impressed to go to a cer- 
tain wood ; he went and there sat as he felt 
directed, and took from his pocket a leaf of 
of the Bible, which he had secretly put 
there, and read : " This shall be written for 
the generation to come, and they shall praise 
the Lord." In an instant his sorrows were 
all gone, and he was leaping and praising 
God. He hastened home and told his wife 
of his happiness. Ran to neighbor Copp, 
who was mowing close by, and told him. 
He dropped his scythe and met him, and 
both rejoiced with great joy. 

^' After the turn about in my mind," he 
writes, " I applied myself to the Bible, being 
unable to do any work. The word of God 
became my meat and drink ; I really thought 
I loved God's law. I thought I loved to 
pray. I thought I loved to praise. I thought 
I loved to speak, and I thought I loved to 
hear. I thought I loved to mourn and to 
rejoice — in a word, that I loved all that God 
loved, and hated all He hated. I attended 
all the meetings that I could, and I think I 
always had something given me to say." 

The loss of his health brought him to 
think of the study of medicine, and the next 
spring he commenced it with Dr. Daniel 
Jacobs of Gilmanton Corners. At the same 
time he entered the academy for one term, 
and it was said he went ahead in both. He 
also taught a singing school in the academy. 
After that he taught town schools, and pur- 
sued the medical study for a while ; but at 
length gave that up and taught summer and 
winter for four years. 

But all this time he had "impressions" 
that he must preach, and one passage of Scrip- 

ture followed him day and night for one year 
till he " did preach " from it, and then it 
was gone ; but another took its place, and 
so on. He thought he could not preach, and 
after trying a few times, declared he would 
not. Then came terrible trials and tempta- 
tions, all the while growing worse and 
worse, till a certain time, concerning which, 
let him speak for himself: 

"It came to pass one day, as I was on thp 
way to school, crossing a pasture, in a deep 
hollow, out of sight of all flesh, I came to a 
sudden stop, and stood still. I could not so 
much as turn to the right or to the left, nor 
could I go forward a single step, till the 
great question was decided about preaching. 
I stood, I know not how long ; at length I 
began to repeat the following words : ' Lord, 
open doors and provide places for me to 
preach in — open ears to hear me, and give 
me food and raiment convenient for myself 
and family, and I am thy servant forever.' 
Never was there an agreement more tho- 
roughly ratified. I believe the Holy Spii'it 
was the editor on my tongue to print a word 
at a time until the whole was finished." 

The next sabbath he preached, and from 
that time forward he continued to preach 
until his death. The first few years of his 
ministry he was with the Freewill Baptists ; 
but a most singular vision caused him to 
leave them, and join the Calvinistic Baptists, 
to the principal doctrines of which sect he 
adhered through life. 

We can not follow him through his long 
ministry ; but it must be said that probably 
no man ever preached, prayed and sung 
more for 30 years than " Old Elder Cheney." 
He was a great Bible student, prepared his 
sermons well, but never wrote them. He 
was a natural, spirited, and gifted orator, 
always so plainly setting forth his ideas, 
that all who heard understood and were 
pleased. His large, white head, and pro- 
portionately large Roman nose, gave him a 
most dignified look. His voice was a pure 
tenor, and whether you heard him sing or 
preach, you could but feel that he possessed 
great vitality, and capability of most pro- 
tracted vocal effort. 

He was a man capable of the most deeply 
solemn feelings and looks; but he enjoyed a 
little fun at proper times, as well as any 
other man, and was capable of using sharp 
words, and was sometimes sarcastic, but 
never bitter. • He used to say he was "sorry 
to have people laugh under his preaching, 
but they ivould sometimes." Yet tears were 
as common as smiles. A stranger to him 



once told it about right, when she said, 
" Father Cheney, I heard you preach once, 
and I never laughed and cried so much in 
one sermon." 

He was a most intense lover of music, and 
his musical talents were of great service to 
him. He imparted them to his children, all 
of whom could sing before they could re- 
member. The family consisted of five sons 
and four daughters ; four of the sons and 
one of the daughters were teachers of mu- 
sic, and at one time were known as the 
Cheney Family. The whole nine are still 

In the early years of his ministry, he was 
accustomed a good deal of the time to go 
here and there, in a sort of missionary style, 
as he was invited, and so was from home a 
great deal. It was a singular fact, that if 
there was any trouble or sickness at home, 
he was informed of it, and that too, without 
any visible messengers ; and many times he 
went home, when he had arranged far dif- 
ferently, because he "was impressed" to 
go ; and sometimes he knew the precise 
nature of the cause that called him home. 
There is scarcely a town in all New Hamp- 
shire in which he has not preached, and 
ever after he was 40 years old he was fami- 
liarly known all abroad as " Old Father Che- 
ney," or "Old Elder Cheney " — not because 
he was decrepid, for he had very little of 
that up to the last year of his life, but his 
hair was abundant and white at 40, having 
been red originally. 

In the summer of 1823, he moved to the 
town of Derby, Vt., where he was the pastor 
of a church for several years. During his 
residence there, he occasionally accepted a 
call for a few weeks or months from towns 
in other parts of the state, and even in New 
Hampshire and Massachusetts, and spent 
one entire summer in the town of Littleton, 
Mass. He loved "the sea-board." He also 
preached in Beverly, and 30 years ago, he 
was well known in the towns and cities of 
Exeter, Portsmouth, Salem, Chelmsford, Low- 
ell and Groton. 

At length he sold out at Derby, and went 
back and lived and preached two or three 
years in Sanbornton, N. H., and towns 
around. In 1843, he finally moved to Shef- 
field, Vt., where he lived till his death, Aug. 
9, 1856. During these last 13 years he had 
the charge of no church, but continued to 
preach till his last sickness. He was always, 
but particularly in his old age, much called 
upon to preach funeral sermons, and to offi- 
ciate at weddings. 

For 20 or more of the last years of his 
life, he was free from all sectarianism ; and 
ceased to be interested in the new move- 
ments of the Baptists, or to attend their 
associations. While he was living in San- 
bornton, the Meridith Association to which 
he had belonged, held a meeting at New 
Hampton, which was close by him. The 
association appointed a committee "to go 
and visit Father Cheney, and ascertain 
where he was." They called on him and 
made their business known. He told them, 
very pleasantly, that they " might return to 
the association, and tell them that Old 
Father Cheney was away back behind, right 
in the middle of the road, with the good, old 
Bible under his arm''^ — and that was all they 
could get from him. 

He believed, and made known his belief, 
that the Baptists had ceased to be the spirit- 
ual people they were when he joined them, 
and were "too much conformed to this 
woi'ld." He believed that a man, to be a 
true and genuine preacher of the Gospel, 
must verily "be called of the Spirit to 
preach," and when he was so called, "must 
go to preaching, and not to a theological 
seminary to Team to preach. He must preach 
and study, and study and preach, and God 
would take care of him.^' He claimed that 
the Scriptures sustained him in this belief ; 
and could we, in this brief sketch, lay before 
the reader the thrilling accounts he has left 
on record of the numerous revivals of reli- 
gion that followed his preaching, and the 
numerous churches that were built up from 
them, he might see other reasons why he 
should believe as he did. 

In politics he was a thorough-going old 
fashioned Jeffersonian Democrat from first 
to last. 

He abhorred dishonesty in any man, and 
hated above all things to be cheated; we 
give an anecdote to illustrate this: The 
Baptist Society in Derby, on a certain time 
thought they ought to do more than they 
were doing for the Elder, so they appointed 
a committee to purchase a cow and present 
her to him. They did so, and he was very 
grateful. But upon trial, the milk of the 
cow was found to be skimmed milk, and that 
continually. She was faithfully tried for 
one week ; during which time the Elder as- 
certained that the committee had bought her 
of a man who had once made him ' pay for 
a pair of blinders twice,' and that, together 
with the fact that there Avas "no cream on 
the joke," determined the Elder to return the 
cow. So one morning he called one of his 



boys to 'Mm, and said: "Here P., take this 
whip, and drive that cow back to where she 
came from, and tell Deacon Carpenter that 
your father says he will stand a law suit 
before he will take the gift of her." It 
was done as he commanded, as the writer of 
this personally knows, and that was the 
last of "the present" on both sides. 

He was a high-tempered man, but usually 
kept that temper under his control, or as he 
used to say, he " kept down the Dustin 
blood." He was not in the habit of doing 
things hastily ; but when it Avas necessary 
for any work of severity to be done, he was 
not the man to flinch. 

Among other peculiar things in his history 
we may mention his numerous escapes with 
his life, when there seemed but a step be- 
tween him and death. He was once drowned 
till he "lay still." Once barely escaped 
from freezing, having fallen into the water 
on a very cold day, and having miles to go 
before he could reach a house. At two dif- 
ferent times it was thought he must die with 
fever. His life was despaired of when he 
had the measles ; and he was once thrown 
from a carriage and his neck nearly broken. 

At about the age of 18 years he had an 
encounter with a cross bull, which so well 
sets forth his physical powers, and so well 
proves that the Dustin blood was " strong 
blood " even to the fourth generation, we are 
tempted to a description of it in his own 
words : 

"I was requested by my employer to go 
to a certain pasture and drive said animal to 
the bars. I had heard, by the by, that he 
was cross, and drove his owner out of his 
barn yard only a few days before. I did not 
wish to discover cowardice ; so not a word 
was to be said, but out into the large pasture 
I went in pursuit of the chap. But by the 
way, it looked proper enough to furnish 
myself with a tough beech sprout about six 
feet long. I thought it best to go at him as 
one having authority. At first he seemed to 
consider me so, and started off very peace- 
ably ; but suddenly, as we were rising a steep 
bank, he whirled and came at me with great 
fury. I voided out of his way, and flew to 
a large clump of bass bushes that surround- 
ed a great stump. Round the bushes I 
went, and he after me, on the clean jump. I 
soon overtook him, and put on the cudgel 
the whole length of his back. Then he 
whirled again after me, and I after him, and 
as often as I overtook him he took six feet 
of beech. In this way we played circus till 
my antagonist gave a frightful roar, and 

took off for the bars. I was still at his 
heels laying on the beech, till I saw the 
battle was won. That was a terrible fight ! 
It was both furious and long. I was very 
warm and rather short for breath ; and as for 
curl-head, if he did not puff and blow and 
sweat, no matter! " 

Last to be mentioned, but the first narrow 
escape he had, was in this wise: When a 
little boy, he went to carry his father his 
dinner, where he was felling trees. He had 
arranged a "drove" of trees, so that by 
starting one, they would all go down. He 
did not see his boy approaching, until the 
trees had started. In an instant he cried 
out, "Run, Moses ! " but Moses had no time 
to run. He was close to a large hemlock, 
when he saw his danger, and dropped be- 
tween two large roots that had grown in 
such a way as to leave a cavity just large 
enough to receive him. The thick limbs fell 
all round about and over him. His father 
shrieked "I have killed my boy," but Moses 
was not hurt. His father cut away the 
limbs and took him out, and was so much 
affected, "he went home, related the story 
to the family and went to bed." The stump 
of that tree lasted many years, and Moses 
went often to visit it, while the family lived 
there, and he says: "After my father 
moved away, I was often back to visit the 
old hemlock stump. At length I sought in 
vain for any remains of it. / have not been 
there since." Then he wrote the following: 

Fareiuell to the Old Hemlock Tree. 
Old Hemlock, you're gone — ah how lonely I 

When I knew where you stood — then I knew 

where to kneel ; 
'Twas thither I flew, when no other could 

And the tall evergreen saved the boy from 

the grave. 

My God ! didst Thou plant that strong-root- 
ed tree 

On the side of this hill, just to save one like 

Yes, answers my Lord, when 'twas small as 
a hair, 

I bid it stand there and watch and take care. 

My Lord and my King ! your command was 

When the fast falling trees threatened death 

o'er my head. 
And the lad was secure by Eternal decree 
Through the watch and the care of the Old 

Hemlock Tree. 



Old Hemlock, you're gone, yet I see where 

you stood 
And pointed your green, spriggy hands up 

to God, 
Ne'er shall I forget, with my heart full of joy. 
How thou kept the command and protected 

the boy. 

Old Hemlock, you're gone — 'tis a warning to 

That just as thou didst, so must we all fall ; 
Farewell, then, old friend, but this pledge 

take from me, 
I'll be kind unto others, as thou wast to me. 

Thus we have briefly considered a few of 
the leading incidents in the life of this sin- 
gular, but natural and noble-hearted man. 
At no period of his life was he more interest- 
ing as a man and a Christian, than during 
his last illness. Through all that long and 
terrible ordeal of more than three months' 
suffering, he was never known to be impa- 
tient for a moment, nor breathe a word of 
regret. At one time, he said to his daughter 
who was almost constantly with him, "if 
you see any symptoms of impatience about 
me at any time, tell me ; and may God forbid 
that one who has tried to preach his word 
for half a century, should murmur at his 
will at last." 

His disease was dropsy of the chest ; but 
all its pains could not exclude him from mo- 
ments of most ecstatic joy, and even at times 
he would wish he could be out of doors, that 
he might have more room to praise in. A 
brother minister asked him if he was hap- 
py ? He replied, " Yes, but not all of the 
time ; sometimes there is a cloud in the 
way; hut I know ivho is behind the cloud." 

A few hours before he expired (his speech 
having been many days gone), his son Moses 
sung a portion of the "Dying Christian," 
commencing with, " The world recedes and 
disappears." Instantly his dying father 
seemed to be inspired ; he had known the 
music and words long before the son was 
born, and when he came to the line, " Lend, 
lend your wings, I mount, I fly," he raised 
both hands, 'neither of which he had been 
able to move for more than a week, and beat 
the time throughout to the end ; and when 
the last words " Oh death where is thy 
sting " were sung — shouted a loud and ex- 
ulting "Amen ! " 

That was his last loud word ; he expired 
without a struggle, and, as we trust, is now 
reaping the rewards of a long, thoughtful, 
and active Christian life. 



Sutton is a town on the north side of Cale- 
donia county, on a latitude of about 44° 30'' 
north. It is bounded south by Lyndon, east 
by Burke, north by AVestmore and Newark, 
west by Sheffield. It lies about 40 miles N. 
E. of Montpelier and 18 northwesterly from 
St. Johnsbury. 

Sutton was chartered by the name of 
Billymead, Feb. 26, A. D. 1782, to Jonathan 
Arnold and his associates, by his excellency 
Thomas Chittenden, then governor of the 
state of Vermont, and contains 28,140 acres. 
In 1812, the name was changed to Sutton. 
The settlement of the town was commenced 
in the year A. D. 1790, by Mr. Hacket, who 
was soon after joined by several other fami- 
lies from Sandwich and Moultonboro in the 
county of StaiFord, N. H., together with a 
few families from Lyndon and the adjoining 
towns. The town was organized July 4th, 
A. D. 1794. Samuel Orcutt was chosen mo- 
derator ; James Cahoon, town clerk ; John 
Anthony, Samuel Cahoon and Samuel Or- 
cutt, selectmen; and Jeremiah Washburn, 
constable. The surface of the town is gene- 
rally level, laying in four swells or ridges, 
which are called the south, middle, north 
and east ridges. These divisions are made 
by three branches of the Passumpsic river, 
which have their sources in the north and 
west part of said town, and running south- 
eastwardly unite in Lyndon. These streams 
afi"ord plenty of water power. 

There are in the N. W. part of the town 
several ponds, which are well supplied with 
fish, and are situated on an elevation where 
the waters divide, a part running southerly 
to the Connecticut river, a part north to the 
St! Francis river. In some places a few 
hours' labor would cause rills or brooks to 
flow to the St. Lawrence river or Long Island 
sound. There are several bogs of marl of 
which lime is made ; also, several sulphur 
springs, some iron ore and a quarry of 

The natural timber was principally syca- 
more or sugar maple, with some beech, birch 
and ash ; but along the streams are large 
quantities of spruce and white cedar. The 
soil is generally free from stone, and is well 
adapted to the raising of oats and grass. 
The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agri- 
culture. There is a small village near the 
centre of the town, consisting of about 30 
dwelling houses and about 200 inhabitants. 



The Passiimpsic rail road passes through the 
centre of the town from Burke to Barton. 
There is but one mountain worthy of no- 
tice which is in the northwest part of the 
town near Lake AVilloughby, and is called 
Mount Pisgah or Millstone Movintain ; it is 
about 4000 feet above tide water and 200 
above the waters of the lake. The inhabit- 
ants of the town have ever been celebrated 
for the manufacture of maple sugar ; accord- 
ing to the census of the. state they have al- 
ways made a larger quantity than any other 
town in the state of equal population. 



In the early settlement of the town, a few 
families from Sandwich, N. H., located here, 
who were either Freewill Baptists or favor- 
able to their doctrines and usages. They 
soon established social meetings, which were 
held in private houses and school houses ; 
but were seldom favored with preaching 
until December, 1799, when Rev. Joseph 
Quimby from N. H. visited them, and found 
an interesting revival of religion in progress. 
There being no organized church in town it 
was thought proper to organize a Freewill 
Baptist church, which was effected in De- 
cember, 1799, consisting of 8 or 9 members ; 
Bradbury M. Richardson was chosen deacon. 
The church was organized in the house of a 
Mr. Cahoon, where a serious, yet fortunate 
accident occurred. Being assembled in a 
room directly over the cellar, the sleepers 
gave way and the congregation were preci- 
pitated into the cellar. But as the falling 
floor assumed a tunnel shape, they all rolled 
or tumbled into a confused pile in the cen- 
tre ; and fortunately no one was injured. 
Rev. Mr. Quimby remained with. them some 
time and the revival increased in interest, 
and for several years scarcely a month 
passed without some additions to the church, 
which in October, 1810, nvimbered 117. The 
first meeting house was built in 1812, by 
Rev. John Colby, under peculiar circum- 
stances. The fact that they were destitute of a 
suitable place of worship impressed his mind 
very deeply with the importance of proceed- 
ing to build. He accordingly drew a plan 
for a convenient hoiise, and laid the subject 
before the people of the town and tried to 
encourage them to build. A few were zeal- 
ous for the enterprise. Some were too poor, 
others had their land to pay for. They were 

expecting a war with Great Britain, and the 
people of the town gave him little encourage- 

Elder Colby, however, was so strongly 
impressed that the Lord would clear the 
way before him and assist him, that he re- 
solved to build at his own expense. His 
engagements were such that he had only 
about one week to stay in town. During 
this time he selected a spot near the centre 
of the town, adjoining a grave yard, pur- 
chased the land, contracted for the lumber, 
nails, glass, &c., and also with a workman 
to complete the outside of the house by the 
20th of June following. He then gave out 
an appointment to preach' in the new house 
on the last Sabbath in the same June ; while 
the timber was yet growing in the forest. 
At the day appointed he preached in the 
new house agreeable to his notice. This 
house has long since gone to decay, and in 
the year 1832 another neat and commodious 
house was erected by the society, which is 
still occupied. About the year 1833 or 1884, 
while the church was under the pastoral 
care of Rev. Jonathan Woodman, its name 
and policy were changed to correspond with 
the general Baptists in England, but did not 
meet with the favor of many members of the 
old church, and in October, 1837, it was 
again organized into a Freewill Baptist 
church, by a council consisting of Revs. D. 
Quimby, J. Quimby and David Swett. The 
church was now composed of 20 members, 
but soon large additions were made. Rev. J. 
Woodman, now of Wheelock, filled the pas- 
torate of this church with marked ability and 
success for nearly 30 years. Rev. R. D. 
Richardson preached here some 10 or 12 
years, and succeeded well as a preacher and 
pastor. The labors of several other minis- 
ters have been enjoyed by this church whose 
names are not here given. Rev. L. T. Har- 
I'is is the present pastor. The church now 
numbers about 100. 

We have a neat and pleasant parsonage in 
the village, a congregation of about 200, a 
prosperous sabbath school with about 600 
volumes in its library. In the fall of 1859, 
the people were called out to pursue a bear 
which had been seen in the town. After a 
chase of two or three hours by about 40 men 
and boys, the bear was shot ; after which 
the company were called together to deter- 
mine in what way to dispose of the avails of 
the hunt. It was agreed, without a dissent- 
ing voice, to appropriate the money ($11) 
to purchase books for the Sunday school 



Frank Rice, son of John M. Rice, was born 
April 12, 1854. When 5 years of age he 
weighed 105 pounds. In the fall after he 
was 3 years old a basket containing one 
bushel of potatoes was placed before him, 
which he readily raised from the ground by 
the ears of the basket. He is now 8 years 
old, and weighs about 130 pounds, not having 
grown as fast for two or three years past as 
formerly. His form is good, being in about 
the usual proportions. He is also much in 
adrance of his years in intelligence and judg- 
ment. A few years since a caravan was ex- 
hibiting at the village, which drew out the 
usual crowd of people attendant upon the 
traveling menagerie and circus in the coun- 
try town. Our little hero came down to the 
show — and the people from abroad, we are 
told by an eye witness, gathered around him 
with as much curiosity as they evinced for 
the wonders of the menagerie. Indeed, our 
reliable nai'rator rather carried the idea that 
the "big boy" eclipsed the caravan. — Ed. 

John Wesley and Charles Wesley Harris, 
sons of Rev. L. T. Harris, born Sept. 11, 
1851, in Brookfield this state, are noted 
for a similarity unusual even for twins in 
their looks, size and general appearance. 
At their birth there was a diflference of but 
one ounce in their weight, one weighing 6 
lbs. 10 oz., and the other 6 lbs. 11 oz., and 
there has never been known since, at any 
one time, a greater diiference than one 
pound, and usually the difference has not 
exceeded the original ounce. While infants 
their mother distinguished them by strings 
of different colored beads, till when from 
eight to ten months old, first one and then 
the other broke the beads from their necks, 
Avhereupon a string of red yarn was tied 
around the ancle and worn for a long time 
as a distinguishing mark. When they were 
about one year old, one of them being unwell, 
the mother after getting them to sleep, pre- 
pared some medicine to give the sick child 
when it should awake. At length the child 
as she supposed, aroused, and the medicine 
was administered, but shortly after, by con- 
sulting the red string on the ancle, it was 
found the well child had taken the medicine. 
Their present weight is 91^ pounds. They 
still retain the same similarity in their looks, 
and those best acquainted with them can not 
distinguish the one from the other. Charles, 
however, is able to get his lessons in school 

more readily than John, and on one occasion, 
when they were called to recite, John failing 
to have his lesson committed was sent back to 
study it over. Upon which the boys quietly 
changed seats, and when John Avas called 
out to recite again, Charles came promptly 
and recited the lesson, and the teacher was 
satisfied. "The resemblance is still,so per- 
fect," their father writes, "I do not often 
attempt to distinguish them, and can not do 
so without the closest inspection." — Ed. 


Walden is 6 miles square, situated in the 
western part of Caledonia county, having 
Cabot on the S. W., Danville on the S. E., 
Goshen Gore on the N. E., and Hardwick on 
the N. W. It lies 25 miles N. E. from Mont- 
pelier, and 12 W. from St. Johnsbury. 

Walden belonged to Orange county until 
the organization of Caledonia county in 1796 ; 
was granted Nov. 6, 1780 ; chartered August 
I8, 1781, by the legislature of Vermont, to 
Moses Robinson and 64 others, on condition 
that each grantee put under cultivation 5 
acres and build a house 18 feet square or 
more within 3 years after the close of the 
war, the state ever reserving all pine timber 
suitable for naval purposes. The town was 
surveyed in 1786. 

The surface is broken, laying upon the 
high lands that divide' waters flowing from 
a marsh near the center of the town east into 
the Connecticut river, and west into the St. 
Lawrence by way of the river Lamoille and 
lake Champlain. The soil is good, produc- 
ing grass and the English grains in abund- 
ance. The highest point of land is under 
cultivation, and is probably the most elevated 
improved land in the state. The snows fall 
very deep, covering the earth nearly one- 
half the year. One of the early residents 
described the town as being a first rate place 
for sleigh rides, for the reason that we have 
nine months winter and the other three 
months were very late in the fall. There 
has been but little emigration west from 
Walden, the farms of the first settlers are 
generally occupied by their sons. There are 
now probably in town 25 voters by the name 
of Perkins who have descended from two 
persons of that name among the early set- 
tlers, thus showing the peculiar attachments 
that surround mountain homes. 

Joe's brook, which has its origin in Cole's 
pond in the north part of the town, runs 



southerly into Joe's pond in Cabot, thence 
into the Passumpsic, is the largest stream. 
Cole's pond was discovered by a hunter by 
the name of Cole from St. Johnsbury, thus 
deriving its name. Lyfford's pond in the 
south part of Walden was also discovered by 
one of Gen. Hazen's men of that name. A 
small portion of Joe's pond is situated in 

Joe's brook and pond derived their names 
from a friendly Indian of the St. Francis 
tribe who first discovered them, and used to 
fish and hunt in and around them. He had 
a cabin in town for himself and his squaw 
Molly, for some years after its settlement. 
He rendered valuable service to the early 
settlers by warning them of danger from his 
red brethren, and in assisting them to ex- 
plore the wilderness around. He died at an 
advanced age in Newbury in 1819. His me- 
mory was ever kindly cherished by those 
whom he had befriended. Capt. Joe, as he 
was familiarly called, in his old age received 
a pension of $70 per year granted by the 
legislature of Vermont. 

In 1779, Gen. Hazen built a military road 
from Peacham through Cabot, Walden, Hard- 
wick, and north to Hazen's notch in West- 
field. Hazen's road, as it is still called, 
passes through the S. W. part of Walden, 
and was of essential service to those who 
early came into town. Gen. H. built a block 
house on the land now occupied by Cyrus 
Smith, and left a small garrison to man it 
until the next year. The name of the officer 
left in command was Walden, who requested 
that the town should receive his name when 
chartered, which was accordingly done. 

The block house remained for some years 
and was temporarily occupied by many of 
the first settlers, having the honor of having 
the first school, the first sermon and the first 
birth in town, and at one time a family by 
the name of Sabin, consisting of father, mo- 
ther and 26 children within its walls. 

Walden Avas mainly settled by emigrants 
from New Hampshire. Nathaniel Perkins 
moved his family into town in 1789, his 
being the only family for the three succeed- 
ing years. Nathan Barker was the next. 
Mr. B. was soon followed by Joseph Burley, 
Samuel and Ezekiel Gilman, Elisha and Ben- 
jamin Cate, Samuel Huckins, Robert Carr, 
Major Roberson and many others, who main- 
ly settled on or near the Hazen road ; and so 
rapidly was the settlement increased, that in 
ISOOthe inhabitants numbered 153; at which 
time numerous families arrived, among whom 
were Timothy Haynes, Stephen Currier and 

John Stevens, who were the first settlers on 
or near the county I'oad — a road running 
nearly centrally through the town east and 
■west, which was laid out by a special act of 
the. Vermont legislature, probably in 1801. 
The land upon which they originally settled 
is still occupied by their sons, and it may 
not be amiss to say in this connection, that 
they were men possessed of sterling qualities, 
and met the exigencies incident to the hard- 
ships of life in a new settlement with pa- 
tience, courage and hope largely developed ; 
lived to a good old age, and departed leaving 
the impress of their exertions on the religi- 
ous, educational and other institutions of the 

Walden was organized March 24, 1794, — 
Nathaniel Perkins, town clerk, Nathan Bar- 
ker, Nathaniel Perkins and Joseph Burley, 
selectmen, Samuel Gilman, treasurer, Elisha 
Cate, constable. In March, 1795, Samuel 
Huckins was first grand juror, and in the 
the same year Nathaniel Perkins was elected 
first representative. 

March, 1796, the town voted to raise 30 
bushels of wheat to pay for preaching, 30 do. 
to pay for schooling, $10 worth to defray 
town expenses ; and appointed a committee 
of three to hire preaching. Thus early 
evincing their interest in the cause of reli- 
gion and education. 

In March, 1797, voted to raise $5 for town 
expenses for the current year, being the first 
money raised by the town for any purpose, 
and $25 for schools likewise, and selected 
the first petit jurors. 

First sermon in town by Elder Chapman, 
at the house of Nathaniel Perkins, in 1794. 
Dr. George C. Wheeler came into town in 
1828; remained about one year; was the 
first physician. James Bell, the first lawyer, 
being the only professional man that ever 
permanently resided in town. 

Nathaniel Fai-rington, Jr., was first mer- 
chant. Jesse Perkins, son of Nathaniel 
Perkins, first child born in town, is still a 
resident. No settled minister has ever had 
a residence in Walden. 

The first death in town was that of Sumuel 
Gilman, caused by the burning off and falling 
of a stub of a tree where he was clearing on 
the farm now occupied by Otis Freeman. 
He left his house in the evening to roll to- 
gether the brands of the piles that were 
burning ; not returning, his wife went in 
search and found his lifeless body crushed 
to the earth, and was obliged to obtain as- 
sistance of a neighbor before it could be ex- 
tricated. The second death was that of Mrs. 



Melcher, who was buried with her infant a 
few days old. The third, Ezekiel Gilman, 
killed by the rolling of a log upon him while 
engaged in rearing a log cabin. First mar- 
riage, Mr. Melcher. First school taught by 
Nathaniel Perkins. The oldest person de- 
ceased in town was Mrs. George aged 102. 
Her son Moses is now 90 years of age. Ed- 
ward Smith is the oldest now living, aged 91 

There have been five college graduates 
from this town, viz : Rev. Samuel H. Shepley, 
now a teacher in Pennsylvania; Mark Du- 
rant, now a teacher in Kentucky ; James S. 
Durant, now a physician in Danville ; Daniel 
W. Stevens, teaching in Ohio ; and Giles F. 
Montgomery, now a theological student in 

Present number of school districts, 18. 
The first church built was a Union house in 
South Walden, in 1826 ; the second, a Con- 
gregational house, in 1844, in the north part 
of Walden ; the third and last, a Union 
house, in 1856, in the southerly part of the 

Walden has suffered for the want of a 
common center. There is no village in town, 
and no mills that do business to much 
amount, excepting saw mills. Population 
in 1860, 1102, showing an increase during 
the last decade of about 200. 


The first church organization was Con- 
gregational, organized in 1805. Its deacon, 
Theophilus Rundlet, was a man of fervent 
j/iety, and conducted public worship on 
the sabbath, with the help of occasional 
preaching, for many years. He left town, 
&.nd was gathered to his grave like a shock 
of corn fully ripe, at an advanced age, a few 
years since. This church has lost its organ- 
ization, and none of its records are to be 
found. In 1828 a new Congregational 
church was formed, and by the aid of the 
Vermont D. M. society and other sources, it 
was supplied with the services of a clergy- 
man for some years, but is now essentially 
disbanded. Its two first deacons, Merrill 
Foster and Gilman Dow, being dead, and 
others of its members, united with the Con- 
gregational church in Hardwick. 

In 1810 a Methodist E. church was formed 
by Elders Kilbourn and Hoyt. Nathaniel 
Gould and wife, Timothy Haynes and wife, 
and Nathaniel Perkins and wife, were among 
its original members. It is the leading de- 
nomination in town ; has had constant 

preaching for a long series of years. Its 
present membership is 107. 

A Universalist society was formed in 1829, 
and a Freewill Baptist in 1837. The two 
last have only occasional preaching. 

Capt. Enoch Foster, ■^^ 
Was born at Bow, N. H., in the year 1770. 
At the age of 13 he removed to Peacham, 
Vt., with his parents, where he lived until 
the year 1800, when he removed to AValden. 
Much of his early manhood was spent in 
the woods. He was often employed as a 
guide by the early settlers, to conduct them 
to different parts of the country. Indian Joe 
was his constant companion in the woods for 
a number of years. Capt. Foster was a man 
of stern integrity and possessed great en- 
ergy, which together, made him a friend of 

Many are the strangers that remember his 
generous hospitality. He lived to follow 
four of his six children to the grave, and 
died at the age of 84 years. He was a mem- 
ber of the Congregationalist church for 40 
years, and died as he had lived, a zealous 

Nathaniel Farbington, 
Came into Walden from New Hampshire in 
1799, and settled on the farm now occupied 
by Jacob Dutton. He was possessed of pro- 
perty to some extent — a man of energy, so 
much so that in 1802, he raised 1300 bushels 
of English grains, accumulated property 
rapidly, kept the only hotel in town, for a 
number of years, and in various ways ex- 
erted a controllifig influence over his towns- 
men. He represented Walden in the state 
legistature in 1801-2-3-8-9 and 1811. He 
lived to old age, and left a large property to 
his children. 

Nathaniel Fakrington, Jr. 
Came into town when a lad with his father. 
He early developed business tact, was the 
first merchant in town, and engaged to 
the time of his death, in 1854, in farming, 
merchandizing, building mills, &c., ever 
doing a large miscellaneous business, there- 
by adding largely to his own estate, and 
to the material wealth of the town. He 
was possessed of a cool, sound judgment, 
and exercised an influence rarely attained, 
over his fellow townsmen for a long series 
of years. He was town representative in 
the years 1828-29-30-31-36 and 37. Simple 
* This article furnished by a friend. 



and unostentatious in his own habits, he 
disbursed of his means with great liberality 
for the maintenance and education of his 
large family, and ever exercised a kind, con- 
siderate care over the interests of those whom 
he had assisted by pecuniary aid, to better 
their fortune, and his memory is cherished 
gratefully by the poor and needy. 

Nathaniel Perkins 
Moved his family into town in 1789, being 
the only family there for the three succeed- 
ing years. 

He was possessed of uncommon energy, 
which enabled him to overcome the difficul- 
ties and hardships incident to living thus 
separated from the neighborhood of men. 
On one occasion he went to Newbury, a dis- 
tance of 30 miles, on foot, and procured a 
bushel of Indian corn meal and returned 
with it on his shoulders. 

His house was the home of all the first 
settlers for the time being, and no weary 
traveler was denied its shelter, or a share in 
its sometimes extremely scanty stores. He 
represented his town in the state legislature 
in 1795, being its first representative, also 
in ' 96-99-1 800-.1 804-5 and 6. 

Mr. Perkins was one of the original mem- 
bers of the Methodist church, and ever one 
of its pillars. He lived to see great changes 
in the town of his early adoption, and died 
at the age of 90 years, leaving numerous de- 

A friend has kindly furnished the follow- 

James Bell. 

John, Austin of pure Norman extraction, a 
native of Glasgow, Scotland, invented the 
tulip-shaped bell — for which he was knighted 
by Queen Elizabeth, and took the name of 
Bell. He was a staunch Presbyterian, and 
during the religious controversy was obliged 
to flee, and went to the north of Ireland. 
From thence a large family of brothers emi- 
grated to the United States, and settled in 
various parts of the Union. James, the 
second son, settled in New Hampshire, froi^ 
whom the subject of the following sketch 

James Bell was born in Lyme, N. H., in De- 
cember, 1776. His father, James Bell, was 
accidentally killed by falling on the point of a 
scythe which he was carrying on his shoulder. 
His son was then but two years old. Mr. 
Bell's mother was a woman of strong sense 
and Christian character, for whom he ever 
cherished the strongest affection and respect. 
She married for her second husband, Col. 

Robert Johnston of Newbury, Vt., in which 
town Mr. Bell was brought up to manhood. 
Not far from 1800, he went to reside in 
Hard wick, Vt., and was married to Lucy 
Dean of Hardwick, Mass., in 1801. Soon 
after this, he became entangled with a law- 
yer for whom he had done business as de- 
puty sheriff. A legal quarrel arose which 
lasted for years ; litigation stripped him of 
his property, and threatened to ruin him. 
The struggles of that season of his life re- 
quired more courage than to fight -v^ith phy- 
sical giants. The inevitable privations of 
the early settler, the scarcity of provisions, 
when the cleai'ings were small, and shaded 
by the thick forests which encircled them, so 
that the grain which had struggled through 
the summer was likely to be nipped by un- 
timely frosts ; the fearful drain upon pecu- 
niary means, and the excitement attendant 
upon litigation ; the wants of a young family 
of children, whom he tenderly loved ; the 
pain to think that he had made the sharer 
of his trials a woman Avho had seen better 
days, — a woman of the strictest principles, 
ambitious — and who must have been more 
than human to be always patient under the 
allotments of fortune ; — was enough to tempt 
a less buoyant spirit to do as another indivi- 
dual was advised to when sorely tried. Still, 
he never yielded, but rather pressed onward. 
The " divinity that shapes our ends," used 
this roughhewing as a means of showing to 
himself and others the talents that were in 
him. He became too poor to employ coun- 
sel, and was obliged to defend himself and 
plead his own causes ; and soon displayed 
wit and a native eloquence, which, in those 
primitive times were more than a match for 
his mere legal antagonist. He eventually 
drove him from the field, and was ever after 
engaged in legal business, though not ad- 
mitted to the bar for a number of years 

He settled in Walden in 1804 or 5 ; in 1810 
he commenced the farm where he ever after 
lived, and where his son, Hon. James D, 
Bell now resides. The place was entirely 
wild, and the first tree fallen was the foun- 
dation log on which his cabin was erected. 
In 1815 he was elected to the state legislat- 
ure, after having had conferred on him the 
office of justice of the peace, captain of mi- 
litia, &c., which honors in those days were 
not without their significance. He was 
again elected to the legislature in 1818, and 
was a member of that body for 10 years in 
succession. He was an eloquent debater, 
and few men had more influence in the 



house. Few were there whose political sway- 
was felt more throughout the state than My. 

At the time that Mr. B. was admitted to 
the bar of Caledonia county, it was composed 
of a constellation of many of the first order 
of talents, among whom he was received as a 
peer, and in mother wit surpassed perhaps 
any one of them. Intellectual sport he en- 
joyed from the foundations of his being, and 
his irrepressible laughter was genial and 
sparkling, as the bursting forth of sunshine. 
He moreover had an immense persuasive in- 
fluence with a jury ; his sympathies being 
strong, he intuitively hit upon those points 
which would sway them in the direction he 

The man was the man in his esteem, what- 
ever the texture of his coat might be ; his 
client's wrongs were his own wrongs, and 
he defended him with a zeal and enthusiasm 
that never flagged till his point was gained. 
He was a hard man to face, for perhaps when 
his legal antagonist had finished a labored 
plea, and thought his mountain stood strong, 
a few playful sallies from Bell, or a stroke or 
two of the scalpel of satire directed to the 
weak points of his argument, and he would 
find the whole fabric tumbling about his 
ears. , A case of this kind occurred once, 
when he w^as attending court in a neighbor- 
ing state, where he was a stranger. The 
counsel on the other side was a man of pre- 
tension, wealthy, influential, and much of 
an egotist. He made a great eifort for his 
client, represented the wrongs he had suf- 
fered as without a parallel, labored to excite 
the sympathy by the presentation of argu- 
ments drawn from no vei-y apparent facts, 
and worked himself up to a very high point 
of commisseration for his much abused client, 
and sat down. Mr. Bell arose with a very 
solemn face, but a queer twinkle of the eye, 
and said he thought they would all feel it a 
privilege to join in singing, " Hark, from 
the tombs a doleful sound," — he struck the 
old minor tune in which the words were then 
sung, and sung the verse through. The 
speech of his opponent, in the minds of those 
present, was upon the poise between the pa- 
thetic and ridiculous — the ridicule flashed 
upon them, and the house was in a roar. 
When the merriment subsided he went on 
with his plea. The advocate who preceded 
him had indulged in invidious remarks, not 
only in reference to Mr. Bell, but to the Ver- 
mont bar generally, and Mr. B. mentioned 
that he had been both surprised and pained 
at the ungentlemanly and nai-row allusions 

which had been made by one who had the 
honor of belonging to one of the most liberal 
professions in the world ; and the man af- 
terwards ingenuously said, that he was never 
so used up. 

In 1832, Mr. B. made a public profession, 
and joined the Congregational church in 
Hardwick ; and was ever after a conscien- 
tious and constant attendant at the sanctu- 
ary, when his health permitted. He Avas a 
lover of freedom, and a hater of oppression. 
Well, do we remember his relating the fol- 
lowing anecdote. He was standing in front 
of the Capitol at Washington, when a gang 
of slaves, manacled together, and driven by 
their keeper, passed by. When they came 
opposite the Capitol, they struck up, "Hail! 
Columbia !" and the refrain was kept up un- 
til their voices were lost in the distance. 
He said : " What a satire upon our brags of 
freedom was that music from those uncon- 
scious wretches ! Oh, how I longed to stand 
upon the floor of that house and say what I 
wanted to say." He was an earnest tem- 
perance advocate. During the political and 
other conflicts of his manhood, he was a 
firm, warm friend, and a most whole-souled 
despiser of those he disliked ; but, as age 
advanced, and the tumults of life receded, 
the afi^ections became predominant, and em- 
braced all. His sportiveness almost went 
with him to the grave. After he was so in- 
firm that his step was almost as uncertain as 
an infant's, he said to some one, alluding to 
his infirmities, that there was one thing he 
could do as quick as ever. "And what is 
that?" said the person addressed. "I can 
fall down as- quick as ever I could !" was the 
answer. He was chosen a member of the 
council of censors, in 1848, which was the 
last public service in which he engaged. 

There is but one sketch of any of his public 
efi"orts remaining. That was reported by S. 
B. Colby, Esq. of Montpelier, and which we 
take the liberty to insert in this article. 

Orleans County, January Term, ) 
A. D. 1847. ] 
Brother Bell has made one of his great 
speeches to-day in defence of Mrs. Hannah 
Parker, on trial for the murder of her own 
child. I have never heard or felt a deeper 
pathos than the tones of his voice bore to 
the heart, as he stood up in the dignity of 
old age, his tall, majestic form over-leaning 
all the modern members of the bar (as if he 
had come from some superior physical gene- 
ration of men), tremulous, slightly, with 
emotions that seemed thronging up from the 
long past, as the old advocate yielded for a 



moment to the effect of early associations, 
and introduced himself and his fallen breth- 
ren whom his eye missed from their wonted 
seats, as it glanced along the vacant places 
inside the bar. He said : 

May it please your honor, 

and gentlemen of the jury : 

I stood among giants, though not of them : 
my comrades at the bar have fallen. Fletch- 
er! the untiring and laborious counselor, 
the persuasive advocate, the unyielding com- 
batant, is where ? Eternity echoes, here ! 

Cushman, the courtly and eloquent lawyer, 
the kind and feeling man, the polished and 
social companion and friend, where now is 
he ? The world unseen alone can say. 

Mattocks lives, thank God ; but is with- 
drawn from professional toil, from the clash 
of mind on mind, the combat of intellect and 
wit, the flashing humor and grave debates 
of the court room, to the graceful reti'eat of 
domestic life. 

I am alone, an old tree, stiupped of its 
foliage and tottering beneath the rude storms 
of seventy winters : but lately prostrate at 
the verge of the grave, I thought my race 
was run ; never again did I expect to be 
heard in defence of the unfortunate accused. 
But Heaven has spared me, another monu- 
ment of His mercy, and I rejoice in the op- 
portunity of uttering, perhaps my last public 
breath in defence of the poor, weak, imbecile 
prisoner at the bar. 

Gentlemen, she is a mother. She is 
charged with the murder of her own child ! 
She is arraigned here a friendless stranger. 
She is without means to reward counsel ; 
and has not the intelligence, as I have the 
sorry occasion to know, to dictate to her 
counsel a single fact relating to her case. I 
have come to her defence without hope of re- 
ward ; for she has nothing to give but thick, 
dark poverty, and of that, too, I have had 
more than enough. 

But it gives me pleasure to say that the 
stringent hardship of her case has won her 
friends among strangers, and the warm sym- 
pathies which have been extended to my 
client, and the ready and useful aid I have 
received during this protracted trial, from 
various members of the bar, strongly indi- 
cate the great hearts and good minds of my 
depai'ted brothers, have left their influence 
upon these, their successors. 

Soon after Mr Bell's return from court he 
received the following from Mattocks : 

"Peacham, 16th January, 1847. 

Brother Bell: In the Watchman I have 
just seen a specimen of your speech in the 

murder case. It is worthy of being inserted 
in the next edition of * Elefjant Extracts in 
Prose". Sir, you are the last of the Mohi- 
cans and the greatest, and when you die 
(which I fear will be soon, for from the ac- 
count I hear of your effort in the cause of 
humanity, it was all but a superhuman 
brightening before death), the tribe will be 
extinct. You have justly called our two la- 
mented friends giants, and with the discrimi- 
nation of a reviewer, have given to each the 
distinguishing traits of excellence ; and al- 
though your introducing me with them was 
gratuitous, it was kind, and the traits you 
have given me I owe to your generosity. 

You say ' I was not of them ;' this was a 
fiction, used in an unlawyerlike manner to 
prevent self-commendation, unless, indeed, 
you meant as Paul might have said, that he 
was not of the prophets, because he was a 
head and shoulders above them. I am proud 
that you have sustained and surpassed the 
old school of lawyers. Sir, you are the Nes- 
tor of the bar, and may be truly called the 
'Old man eloquent.' 

I am, sir, with the greatest respect, 

your friend and humble serv't, 

John Mattocks. 

N. B. I reserve the all important part of 
this letter to stand by itself. Let us hold 
fast to our hope in Christ. We near the 

Bell survived his friend a few years, en- 
compassed with infirmity, and died of para- 
lysis, 17th April, 1852. 



This town is pleasantly situated on the 
Connecticut river, lying along the 15 miles 
fall S. S. E. of St. Johnsbury, and 45 miles 
E. from Montpelier. The surface is gene- 
rally broken, presenting that diversified 
scenery of mountain and valley so common 
to Vermont. The soil is fertile and well 
adapted to agriculture, especially to grazing, 
which has ever been the favorite pursuit of 
the inhabitants, and in which they have 
gained an honorable reputation. The valleys 
produce bountifully the usual varieties of 
grains and grasses, while the hills, arable to 
their tops and thickly dotted with maple 
groves, abound in rich pastures. The 
rocks are primitive and belong to the calca- 
reo-mica slate formation, and there is a 
range of clay slate running north through 
the town from which superior specimens of 



slate for roofing haye been quarried by- 
Messrs. Hale & Bracket. There are also 
many specimens of a peculiar formation of 
granite, sometimes called nodular granite. 
" It contains balls, usually a little flattened, 
scattered in it like plums in a pudding. 
These balls are usually about an inch in dia- 
meter, and are composed essentially of black 
mica, having the plates arranged in concen- 
tric layers with a very thin deposit of quartz 
between the layers." 

Except the Passumpsic, which flows 
through the west corner of the town, Water- 
ford has no rivers, though it is well watered 
by numerous brooks and springs. Styles' 
pond, covering an area of about 100 acres, 
lies in the north part of the township. 

Of the early settlement of Waterford, 
though probably attended with the trials and 
hardships incident to all early settlements, 
nothing has been handed down worthy of 
record. The town, by name of Littleton, 
was chartered Nov. 8, 1780, to Benjamin 
Whipple and his associates. The name was 
changed to Waterford in 1797. Tradition 
says that James Adams was the first settler. 
The exact time of his coming is not now 
known. Thompson dates the first settlement 
at 1787, but we find by the proprietors' re- 
cords that a proprietors' meeting, held in 
Barnet in the fall of 1783, was adjourned to 
the house of James Adams in " said Little- 
ton," which shows that Mr. Adams was here 
as early, at least, as 1783. The next settlers 
were Joseph and John Woods, who came as 
early as 1784 or '85, and settled on the Pas- 
sumpsic river. Very soon after came the 
Pikes, who were the first settlers in the east 
part of the town. The first person born in 
town was Polly Woods, daughter of Joseph 
Woods. The first male boi-n in Waterford 
was William Morgan. 

The town was organized in 1798. The 
first town officers were: Selah Howe, clerk; 
Peter Sylvester, Daniel Pike aud Nehemiah 
Hadley, selectmen ; Levi Aldrich, Luther 
Pike and Levi Goss, listers ; Samuel Fletcher, 
constable ; Abel Goss, town treasurer. Po- 
pulation in 1791, 63; in 1800, 565; in 1810, 
1289 ; in 1820, 1247 ; in 1830, 1858 ; in 1840, 
1388; in 1850, 1412; in 1860 (see census 
table in county chapter, No. 8). 

There being no valuable water power 
manufacturing establishments or central 
place of business, the occupation of the peo- 
ple has been confined exclusively to agri- 
culture, and much of the business of the 
town goes to the adjoining towns of Barnet, 
St. Johnsbury and Concord ; consequently 

the population has for many years remained 
nearly stationary, and the two little villages 
present to-day nearly the same appearance 
as in early days, when a rhyming son of Vul- 
can sang of his beloved village as 

" A very fine place, 

Adorned with majesty and grace; 

Situated under Rabbit Hill, 

With a tavern, store and a clover mill." 

With this change, however, a beautiful 

church now stands in each village, and the 

clover mill has been changed to a starch 

mill, which suits the wants of the people 

quite as well, though it might grate a little 

in the poet's measui'e. In 1798, a 

Congregational Church. 
Was organized, consisting of 8 members — 4 
males and 4 females. The Rev. Asa Carpen- 
ter, the first minister, was born Oct. 4, 1770, 
in Ashford, Conn. He graduated at Dart- 
mouth college when about 25 years of age ; 
studied theology with Rev. Mr. Burton of 
Thetford, Vt. ; preached a short time in se- 
veral towns in the state as a missionary of 
the Connecticut Home Missionary Society ; 
moved to Waterford in the fall of '97, and 
was ordained pastor of the Congregational 
church at its organization. He labored in 
Waterford until June, 1816, when he removed 
to Pennfield, N. Y., where he died in 1827 or 
'28. In 1818 the first Congregational Meet- 
ing House was built, and in October of the fol- 
lowing year, Rev. Reuben Mason was settled 
as pastor, and sustained this relation 5 years. 
Soon after the first, another meeting house 
was built at Wefet Waterford, and meetings 
were held at the two houses until a church 
was erected in Lower Waterford in 1837. In 
Sept., 1825, Rev. Thomas Hall was installed ; 
dismissed in 1830; reinstalled in 1834, and 
sustained his pastoral relation until January, 
1844. During the interval of Mr. Hall's la- 
bors from 1830 to 1834, the pulpit was sup- 
plied by Rev. Messrs. White, Bradford and 
others. Mr. Hall was succeeded by Rev. 
Eben Smith, whose pastorate continued until 
Jan., 1848. Immediately after, Rev. Francis 
Warriner commenced his labors with the 
church ; was installed in 1854, and sustained 
the pastoral relation till Oct., 1860, Avhen he 
was dismissed on account of ill health, and 
Rev. Geo. J. Bard, the present pastor was 
ordained. In 1818, a meeting house was 
erected in the N. AV. part of the town and 
occupied by the 

Freewill Baptist Society, 
Over which the Rev. Rufus Cheney was in- 
stalled. How long he preached, or how long 



the society remained in existence the writer 
is not informed, nor are the records of the 
church to be obtained. A religious society 

The First Univeesalist Society 
In Waterford, was formed on the 17th of May, 
1824, consisting of over 100 members. The 
society has never had a settled minister, but 
has been supplied a portion of the time by 
different preachers. At the present time, 
and for a year past the society have occu- 
pied the Union meeting house in the upper 
village and have had preaching regularly on 
the sabbath by 'Rev. Carlos Mantin. Con- 
nected with the society is a sabbath school, 
furnished with a good library. The society 
is not as large, owing to death and removals, 
now as it has been, but at the present is 

Professional Men 
Born and educated in Waterford : 

Clergymen. — Wm. H. Hadley,* Alfred Ste- 
vens,* Samuel A. Benton,* James H. Ben- 
ton, E. I. Carpenter,* Prosper Davidson, 
Thomas Kidder, Eben. Cutler,* Zenas Goss,* 
Samuel Hurlbert, Silas Gaskill, Philander 

Lawyers. — .J. D. Stoddard, R. C. Benton, 
R. C. Benton, Jr.,* Jacob Benton, A. H. 
Hadley, 0. T. Brown, A. J. Hale, Jona. 
Ross,* E. Cutler, Jr.,* A. P. Carpenter,* 
Luther Kidder. 

Physicians. — A. Kinne,* A. Farr, C. Farr, 
R. Bugbee, Jr., A. G. Bugbee, Frank Bug- 
bee, N. S. Goss, Wm. Benton. 

Representatives. — 1795, Jona. Grow ; 1796- 
98, John Grow; 1799-1801, Asa Grow; 
1802-5, Jos. Armington ; 1806, Silas David- 
son ; 1807, Jos. Armington ; 1808-16, S. 
Hemingway ; 1817, Jos. Armington ; 1818- 
19, Nathan Pike; 1820-21, Jacob Benton; 
1822, S. Hemingway ; 1823, Jonah Carpen- 
ter ; 1824, S. Hemingway; 1825-26, Silas 
Davidson; 1827-29, S. Hemingway; 1830- 
32, Robert Taggard ; 1883-34, J. D. Stod- 
dard; 1835, S. Hemingway ; 1836-37, Lyman 
Buck ; 1838-39, James Works ; 1840-41, R. 
F. Rowell; 1842-44, Royal Ross; 1845-46 
Dennis May; 1847-48, Joseph Ide; 1849-50, 
Barron Moulton ; 1851-52, A. P. Bonney; 
1853-54, Wm. Adams; 1855, Dennis May; 
1856-57, J. D. Stoddard. 

Town Clerks.— \im-%b, Selah Howe ; 1796 
-1801, John Grow; 1802-5, S. Hemingway; 
1806, Samuel Gaskill ; 1807-16, S. Heming- 
way ; 1817-23, J. Carpenter; 1824-41, S. 
Hemingway ; 1842-57, L. S. Freeman. 

* Graduates. 



This town embraces a territory of about* 
six miles square. It lies about six miles 
from the line of the Passumpsic Rail 
Road. In 1785, the legislature of this state 
gave by charter, this town to Dartmouth 
College and Moors Indian Charity School, 
institutions situate at Hanover, N. H., one 
moiety to the college and the other moiety 
to the school. In the same instrument the 
town was incorporated, and named after 
President Wheelock, the first officer of the 
aforesaid institutions. In the charter it is 
provided that so long and while the said 
college and school actually apply the rents 
and profits of this land to the purposes of 
the college and school, the land and tene- 
ments in town shall be exempt from public 
taxes ; so that the town have never been 
called upon to pay state taxes. This, in the 
mind of the writer, was a great oversight in 
the legislature, and it is doubtful whether 
such wholesale exemption from the public 
burthens is constitutional. The town en- 
joys all the rights and privileges of other 
towns, and yet pays but little of the expense 
of maintaining the state government. There 
being no list of the real estate returned to 
the legislature accounts for the smallness of 
the grand list reported. 

The town was organized March 29, 1792. 
Abraham Morrill, first clei'k ; Dudley Swa- 
sey, Abraham Morrill, Joseph Venen, first 
selectmen ; Gideon Leavett, first constable. 

The settlements commenced about 1780. 
I am unable to ascertain the names of the 
first settlers ; they were a hardy race of men 
and women, and were compelled to bear bur- 
thens and hardships that would now be in- 
supportable to some of the "young Am eri- 
ca " of the town. For several years after 
the first settlement there were no roads to 
the older and adjacent towns, so that their 
grain for grinding had to be transported to 
Danville, a distance of 12 miles, upon their 
shoulders or upon handsleds, the route being 
indicated only by spotted trees. 

The general surface of the town is rather 
uneven. One range of the Green mountains 
runs through the west part of the town, but 
is no where very steep or stony. Roads 
cross the summit in. several places. The 
land upon the mountain is well timbered, 
and susceptible of cultivation to the summit ; 
and what has been cleared affords some of 
the best grazing land in the state. The 



eastern part is more level, and all good 
land for farming purposes. Large quanti- 
ties of hay, oats and lumber are carried from 
this town to Lyndon and St. Johnsbury, and 
large quantities of maple sugar are also an- 
nually manufactured here. 

Miller's river runs through the north part 
of the town and empties into the Passumpsic 
at Lyndon. This river affords some excel- 
lent mill sites, and along its banks is some 
of the most fertile land in the country. 

In November, 1796, the town voted to 
build a meeting-house — the first one in 
town. It was built the following year, was 
a large, two-story edifice, and, like others 
of its kind, was never finished. Enough 
was done, however, so that meetings could 
be held in it. It was never lathed and 
plastered overhead ; a hail storm broke some 
of the windows in the upper story, which 
invited the swallow and wren to make it 
their abode. The writer occasionally at- 
tended meeting there in 1829-30; the mono- 
tonous tone of the preacher, the cheerful 
twitter of the swallow and the crying of the 
babies, that used then to be carried to meet- 
ing, formed rather a medley of sounds. 

One curious vote was taken by the town in 
relation to this house, that I must not omit. 
It appears by the record that they had a 
town meeting for the purpose of selling the 
pews, and the first vote passed was as fol- 
lows: "Voted that the town be at the ex- 
pence of rum for the vendueing off the meet- 
ing-house pews;" and from the subsequent 
bids it would appear that some of the pews 
were very valuable ; however, I suppose it 
was then customary to have rum at all ven- 
dues to stimulate people to bid for that they 
did not want, and was thought to be well 
enough even in selling church property. It 
would hardly do now, in these temperance 
times, for even a town to furnish or give 
away rum to sell anything, particularly pews 
in a meeting-house. 

Mineral Spkings. 
There are 2 in town ; one in the village 
and one about 50 rods north. The waters 
have never been analyzed, but it is said by 
those who profess to know, that they are the 
strongest impregnated in the state. Their 
properties are the same as those at Alburgh 
and Newbury in this state. There is no 
doubt they possess medicinal qualities. The 
water of the one in the village is used for 
common drinking purposes by the whole 
village in the warm part of the year, and 
more or less at other times ; and to this fact 

is attributed the unusual healthiness of the 
inhabitants. These springs are not affected 
by great rains or drouth, but the water flows 
at all times alike. Persons subject to head- 
ache, humors, and the like, have found relief 
and cure by drinking and bathing in the 

The Village 
is situate near the northeast corner of the 
town, on the bank of Miller's river, and 
contains about 30 dwelling houses, 1 meet- 
ing house, 1 tavern, 1 grist mill, 2 saw mills, 
1 machine shop, 1 tannery, 1 planing mill, 1 
store and post office, 1 law oQice, 2 black- 
smith shops, 2 shoe shops, and 1 starch fac- 
tory. The population in 1860, was 858. The 
town has been the home of a large number 
of soldiers of the Revolution and the War of 
1812 ; the last of the former has now gone to 
his rest. 


The prevailing denomination of Christians 
is th« Free-will Baptists. There are 2 socie- 
ties in town, one South, the other North ; both 
have meeting houses. The South Church was 
organized about 1800, by Elder Joseph Boo- 
dy of Stratford, N. H. Among the names of 
ministers who have had charge of this church 
may be mentioned Elders Benjamin Page, 
Robinson, Mainard, Gillman and Allen. The 
society do not support preaching all the time. 
The North Church was organized Feb. 11, 
1831, Elder Jonathan Woodman. They or- 
ganized with 6 members ; have 30 members ; 
their house of worship is at the village. El- 
der J. Woodman is their present pastor. 

There are quite a number of Congrega- 
tionalists and Methodists in town, but no 
organized chm-ch or society of those denomi- 

The town is divided into 10 school districts. 
All except one have summer .and winter 
schools. Most of the districts have 3 months 
each term. Most of the school houses are 
poor ; but a better feeling is manifest in re- 
lation to them, and it is evident, from some 
late demonstrations that better times are 
coming for the youth, as to good, commodious 
school houses — as one has been built at the 
village, worthy of the name. 

[The reader will observe that no bio- 
graphic sketches appear in connection with 
the history of Waterford or of this town. 
The historian whose well written sketch ap- 
pears above, writes us, in extenuation of his 
seeming neglect, in connection with the mat- 
ter, that tbey have up there "neither pre- 
sidents nor fools to write about." We have 
not received the "extenuation" of Water- 
ford yet. — Ud.'\ 





There are two Gores in Caledonia county 
by this name. The largest contains 7339 
acres ; lies in the northwest part of the 
county, is bounded north by Wheelock, east 
by Danville, south by Walden, and west by 
Greensboro'. The smaller Gore contains 
2828 acres, and lies in the southwest corner 
of the county.* These Gores derive their 
name from the town to which they formerly 
belonged. By a singular act of the legislat- 
ure, these two Gores in Caledonia county, and 
one still larger in Addison county, 70 miles 
distant, containing 13,000 acres, were incor- 
porated into a town, by the name of Goshen ; 
chartered Feb. 1, 1792, to John Rowell, Wm. 
Douglass, and 65 others, and re-chartered 
to the same, Nov. 1, 1798. The inhabitants 
of the part of the town in Addison county, 
organized March 29, 1814. The Gores in 
Caledonia county were severed from the 
town of Goshen by the legislature in 1854. 
There have been frequent petitions by the 
inhabitants of the larger Gore in this county 
to become organized into a town, the first 
being presented to the legislature in 1835 ; 
but an organization has never been granted. -j- 
The larger Gore in this county, being most 
accessible to East Hardwick, as a place of 
business and post office address, is distin- 
guished from the other, by " Goshen Gore, 
near Hardwick." This tract of land lies 
sloping from the valley of Lamoile river, 
rising to form one limb to the fork 6f the Y. 

The first settlements were made by Elihu 
Sabin and Warren Smith in 1802. Smith did 
not settle permanently. Sabin built a frame 
house which he occupied until his decease, 
some 41 years. Other settlements were 
made soon after that of Sabin, by Reuben 
Smith, Elisha Shepard, Reuben Crosby, 
Thomas Ransom, Azariah Boody, Ephraim 
Perrin and Andrew Blair. Improvements 
were made about the same time by several 
other transient residents. Although the set- 
tlement of the place was at comparatively 
a late date, the hardships incident to new 
settlements had to be encountered. Supplies 
of grain and necessaries had to be procured 
in a measure from adjoining towns; the 
method of transportation frequently upon 
their backs, and the method of payment, 

* Goshen Gore the less was set off to Washington Co. 

t The people, for the most part, are not dissatisfied 
with their present situation, being exempt from the de- 
mands of the tax-gatherer, and the expenses incident to 
a town organization. 

generally,- by day's work. The frosty season 
of 1816, and others which occurred previ- 
ously, was severely felt. Mary Sabin was 
the first child born. Freeman Smith was the 
first male child, and Edmund Barker and 
Betsy Sabin, the first couple married. 

The western portion of the Gore, towards 
Lamoile river, comprising about two-thirds 
of the territory, is improved by resident 
occupants. The number of families is over 
40. The soil is a mold, in some parts black, 
in others reddish ; but little clay or loam. 
It is strong and well adapted to grass and 
English grain ; the timber chiefly maple, 
birch, spruce and fir. Two or three farms 
on the eastern extremity, adjoining Danville, 
have been under improvement since 1805. 
James Clark and Thomas Young made the 
first improvement there. 

The eastern portion is chiefly unimproved 
and mountainous, but well timbered. In the 
northern part, there is a pond covering about 
80 acres, the outlet of which finds its way 
to the Connecticut river. A steam saw mill 
was erected by this pond in 1856, by T. G. 
Bronson. Bronson died in 1857, and the 
mill passed into the hands of others — Haw- 
kins & Ross, present proprietors. Nearly 
1,000,000 feet of lumber is manufactured at 
this mill annually, which is principally 
drawn to St. Johnsbury, and used in the 
manufactory of E. & T. Fairbanks. About 
a mile west of this pond is a "beaver meadow, 
also called "Blueberry Meadow," where ves- 
tiges of the labors and dwellings of thia 
sagacious animal are yet to be seen. A 
stream arises from this meadow, called Gore 
Brook, which empties into Lamoile river. 

The first saw mill was built by G. W. 
Cook, on a stream which is the outlet of a 
pond in Wheelock. This mill was burnt, 
and another built by William Shurburn on 
the same spot. The second was burned, and 
the third was built by Enoch Foster in 1833, 
which is still in operation. There was also 
another built in 1840, by Levi Utley, on the 
Gore brook, leading from Beaver meadow. 

The first meeting house, first public house, 
first grist mill, first physician, and first law- 
yer, are among the things that never were. 
The first school was kept by Barilla Morse, 
in Reuben Crosby's barn, in 1812. Judith 
Chase, Betsy Sabin and Lucretia Washburn 
were the next succeeding teachers. Mrs. 
Andrew Blair sent her girl to the first school, 
and paid the tuition with a pink silk hand- 
kerchief. " Schoolmarm know'd I had it, 
and she wanted it to make her a bonnet." 
(Good old Mrs. Ann Blair's testimony.) The 



first frame school house was built in 1823. 
In 1834 a second school district was formed. 

A Freewill Baptist Church was organized 
here in August, 1841, and Elder John Gar- 
field ordained pastor. It consisted orignally 
of 12 members ; upwards of 50 have since 
belonged to it. Two of their quarterly 
meetings were held here. In 1855, H. W. 
Harris became their minister, who was suc- 
ceeded by Elder Geo. King, ordained pastor 
of the church in 1857. Elder King has left 
the place, and the church is now supplied 
only by initerant ministers. In 1850, this 

"Resolyed themselves into a society for 
the purpose of aiding superannuated minis- 
ters and poor widows and orphans, and to 
do all they could for their aid and support." 

Elihxt Sabin 
Born in Dudley, Mass., in 1772, died in 
" Goshen Gore, near Hardwick," July 9, 
1848, aged 71. He was one of the 26 child- 
ren of Mr. and Mrs. Gideon Sabin, comme- 
morated in the Hardwick History (No. 3, p. 

As has been before mentioned, he was 
the first permanent settler of this Gore. A 
generous-hearted, worthy man, talented £or 
his day and opportunities, energetic and 
persevering, he had the respect of all the 
settlers of the neighboring towns, and was, 
for about 20 years, a justice of the peace. 
He was, moreover, distinguished for uncom- 
mon muscular strength, in so much that the 
history of the Gore is not without an example 
of the courage and prowess requisite for a 
hand-to-hand mortal combat. 

Once on a time, well verified it is said, 
Sabin did face the foe in a single-handed 
struggle for life. It appears that he had 
caught a cub, whose cries brought forward 
the bear robbed of her young, whom Eli- 
hu unflinchingly smote with the breech of 
his gun ; the bear was dispatched, and so 
was the breech of Elihu's gun. Lest, how- 
ever, it may be said, in cavil, that sudden 
desperation which has been known to give 
supernatural strength, nerved our hero's 
arm, we have a more deliberate feat with 
which to crown our point — the prodigious 
strength of Elihu Sabin — a feat of no thrill- 
ing moment, a plain, practical test, however, 
evincing not less arm-strength in the man. 
A living witness testifies that he has seen 
Mr. Sabin knock down with one blow of his 
fist, a two year old bullock, striking him 
between the fore shoulders, and breaking a 
rib. Can the state show a stronger man ? 

Epheaim Perbin 
From Connecticut, came into the Gore in 1807, 
and lived entirely alone 8 years in a log hut, 
which he constructed by the side of a large 
rock, which served the purpose of fire-place, 
and one end of his apartment. It is said all 
the bedding which this man had, "was a rag 
coverlet and a second-hand great coat which 
Mrs. Sabin let him have." Finally, his 
afi"airs prospered, and one of his neighbors, 
a good old lady, told him he must get mar- 
ried, and " picked a wife out " for him. Miss 
Polly Cheever, whom he married, and then 
built a frame house. This wife died in a 
few years, and he married the second time 
to Maria Cutler, and reared a numerous 
family. He justly merited the reputation he 
obtained, of being a remarkably honest, 
hard working man ; was rather tenacious 
in his opinions and prejudices, but not for- 
ward to assert them. He died in 1859. 

Reuben Crosby 
One of the first settlers, accumulated a hand- 
some property, but becoming partially in- 
sane, meditated self destruction. For this 
purpose he made his escape from his house, 
and seated himself upon a large rock, where 
he remained till his limbs were frozen. But 
by a change in the. weather the process of 
thawing, much more painful than freezing, 
commenced. This led him to creep to the 
house, but he lived only a few days. He 
died in 1830. 

Reuben Smith 
From Warren, N. H., was another of the 
early proprietors. He died Jan. 30, 1860. 

Isaac Stevens 
Came into the place about 1820. An excel- 
lent variety of potato, extensively known as 
the Stevens potato, was propagated by him 
from the balls. He died in 1859. 

Andrew Blair. 
Had the Olympic races come down to our 
times, Mr. Blair, according to report, might 
have become a successful competitor for a 
crown. It is current that he once I'an down 
and captured a fox, and was overheard hold- 
ing a parley with the captive, whether the 
thing was done fair. But, unlike the Olym- 
pic races, not having an impartial judge to 
decide the i^oints, the fox seemed to dissent 
from his victor's boast of fair play. " Now," 
says Mr. Blair, "if you think the thing was 
not done fair, we'll try it again." Whereupon 
the fox was let go, and was allowed to have 
a few rods the start, when Blair took the 



track. Away went the fox — away went 
Blair ; one for life, the other for victory, 
over hill, over fence, over brush, till Blair 
caught the breathless trophy, a second time, 
in triumijh. 

Mr. Blair was one of the pioneer settlers. 
Andrew M. Blair, Esq., son of Andrew 
Blair, was late a member of the Wisconsin 
state senate. 



[Desirous of obtaining from the most au- 
thentic source, a full and correct account of 
the organizing, of&cering, equipping, sub- 
sisting and sending into the field the first 
six Vermont regiments raised during the 
late administration, we made application to 
Gov. Fairbanks for such historic paper, who 
complied with the request and forwarded 
the following account. With his character- 
istic modesty, he gives his account as in the 
third person, and has evidently avoided 
speaking of the labors to which he was ne- 
cessarily subjected during the last six months 
of his official year. It was necessary, under 
the law, that he should give his personal 
attention to the details in the formation of 
each regiment, and every bill and voucher in 
an expenditure of more than half a million, 
was audited by him, assisted only by his 
valuable secretary, Col. Merrill. (See re- 
ports of the legislative committee. In other 
states, such duties are divided among other 
boards of ofiicers.) There was also the sign- 
ing of 500,000 of state bonds, and drawing 
his warrants on the state treasury for ac- 
counts and bills allowed. In brief, an 
amount of business which could hardly have 
been accomplished, had he not been accus- 
tomed to active business habits ; all which, 
however, and much more, he passes over, 
submitting the following valuable record, 
which we give verbatim. — Ed.'\ 

Governor Fairbanks accepted the nomina- 
tion for the executive office in 1860, with the 
distinct understanding that it should be but 
for a single term only. The country was at 
peace, and all the interests of the state were 
prosperous. The annual October session of 
the legislature was mai'ked by no unusual 

The governor, in his address, recommended 
a few important measures for the considera- 
tion of the two houses, and closed by con- 
gratulating the members upon the general 
prosperity of the state and country. 

The result of the presidential election in 

November, was the signal for the develop- 
ment of dark schemes for the overthrow of 
the government and the dismemberment of 
the Union. 

Immediately after the assembling of the 
36th congress, the insolent bearing of south- 
ern senators and members — the development 
of treason in the cabinet — the threatening 
tone of the southern press, and the disloyal 
resolves of southern legislatures and con- 
ventions, indicated but too cjearly the pro- 
bable necessity of effective military prepara- 
tions to protect the country and the United 
States government from the deep and fast 
maturing plans of traitors. 

Vermont had no effective military organ- 
ization. Her uniformed militia consisted of 
a few unfilled companies, in some of the 
principal villages, while the enrolled mili- 
tia was a myth. The duty devolved upon 
the town listers to make returns of citizens 
liable to be called to do military service, but 
that duty had been extensively neglected, 
and, at best, the provision of the statute was 
practically inefficient. In view of the pos- 
sibility, not to say probability, that a requi- 
sition for troops would be made upon Ver- 
mont by the general government. Gov. Fair- 
banks issued an order, dated the 25th of 
January, IBfil, requiring the officers charged 
with the duty, to make returns of the en- 
rolled militia forthwith ; and at the same 
time a general order, Nov. 10, was issued, re- 
quiring the commanding officers of the uni- 
formed militia companies to adopt measures 
for filling all vacancies, and to have their 
men properly drilled and uniformed. A few 
of the companies responded to this order, 
but very little was accomplished until after 
the requisition of the secretary of war. 

On the 15th of April, a requisition was 
received by telegraph from the secretary of 
war, upon the governor of Vermont, for one 
regiment of infantry, being the quota for 
Vermont of the 75,000 troops called for by 
the president's proclamation of the same 

Governor Fairbanks immediately issued 
his proclamation for a special session of the 
legislature, and gave the necessary orders 
for detailing ten companies from the uni- 
formed militia, and for furnishing the regi- 
ment with its outfit. The legislature assem- 
bled at the capital April 23d, when Gov. 
Fairbanks delivered the following address 
before the joint assembly : 

Gentlemen of the Senate and House of Re- 
presentatives : 

We are convened to day in view of events 
of an extraordinary and very alarming cha- 
racter. The element of disunion which, in 
a portion of the United States, for many 
years, vented itself in threats and menaces, 
has culminated in open rebellion ; and an 
unnatural and causeless civil war has been 
precipitated against the general govern- 

Unprincipled and ambitious men have or- 
ganized a despotism and an armed force, for 



the purpose of overthrowing that govern- 
ment which the American people have formed 
for themselves, and of destroying that con- 
stitutional frame-work, under which we have 
enjoyed peace and prosijerity. and from a 
small and feeble people, grown and expand- 
ed to a rank among the first nations of the 

The enormity of this rebellion is heightened 
by the consideration that no valid cause ex- 
ists for it. The history of the civilized world 
does not furnish an instance where a revolu- 
tion was attempted for such slight causes. 
No act of oppression, no attempted or threat- 
ened invasion of the rights of the revolting 
states, has existed, either on the part of the 
general government, or of the loyal states ; 
but the principle has been recognized and 
observed, that the right of each and every 
state to regulate its domestic institutions, 
should remain inviolate. 

The inception and progress of this rebellion 
have been remarkable; and characterized, at 
every stage, by a total absence of any high 
honorable principle or motive in its leaders. 

Its master spirits are composed, essentially, 
of men who have been in high oflBcial position 
in the general government ; and it has tran- 
spired that members of the late cabinet at 
Washington, while in the exercise of their 
official functions, were engaged in treason- 
able plots for seizing the public property and 
subverting the United States government. 

Conventions of delegates in the revolting 
states, chosen, in some instances, by a mi- 
nority of the legal voters in those states, 
have, with indecent haste, adopted ordinances 
of secession, which ordinances have in no 
instance been submitted to the people for 
their ratification. 

These proceedings have been followed by a 
convention of delegates from the several re- 
volting states, which iconvention has organiz- 
ed a confederate government, adopted a con- 
stitution,- elected its executive officers and 
subordinate functionaries, constituted itself 
into a legislative body, and enacted a code 
of laws — all which proceedings have been 
independent of any action of the people of 
those states. 

The authorities of the revolting states, 
and subsequently that of their confederacy, 
have proceeded to acts of robbery and theft 
upon the property of the United States, with- 
in their limits. Forts, arsenals, arms, mili- 
tary stores, and other public property, have 
been seized and appropriated for use against 
the power of the general government ; and 
custom houses and mints in southern cities, 
with large amounts of treasure, have been 
feloniously robbed. 

These acts have been followed by military 
demonstrations and strategetical operations 
against the United States forts at Pensacola 
and Charleston, the latter of which, under 
its gallant commander, Maj. Anderson, after 
a bombardment of thirty-four hours, from 
beleaguering batteries of the insurgents, was 
evacuated on the loth instant, and the flag 
of the Union withdrawn. But the crowning 


act of perfidy, on the part of the conspirators, 
is the proclamation of J eiferson Davis, styling 
himself the president of the southern confe- 
deracy, "inviting all those who may desire, 
by service in private armed vessels on the 
high seas, to aid his government, to make 
application for commissions, or letters of 
marque or reprisal : " thus instituting a 
grand scheme of piracy on the high seas, 
against the lives and private property of 
peaceful citizens. 

These acts of outrage and daring rebellion 
have been equalled only by the forbearance 
of the general government. Unwilling to 
precipitate a conflict which must involve the 
country in all the calamities of civil war, the 
present government of the United States has 
exhausted every effort for peace, and every 
measure for bringing back to their allegiance 
these disaffected and misguided states. 

The duty of protecting the forts and go- 
vernment property, not possessed by the in- 
surgents, was imperative upon the adminis- 
tration; but further than this, no measures 
for coercing the revolting states into obedi- 
ence to the constitution and the laws were 
adopted; and in the matter of the belea- 
guered forts, the government acted only on 
the defensive, until the conflict was com- 
menced by the insurgents. 

Such forbearance on the part of the go- 
vernment, while it has served to place the 
conspirators in a moral wrong, is no longer 
justifiable ; and the country hails, with entire 
unanimity and with ardent enthusiasm, the 
decision of the president to call into requisi- 
tion the whole power of the nation for sup- 
pressing the rebellion and repelling threat- 
ened aggressions. 

From every part of the country, in all the 
loyal states, there is one united voice for 
sustaining the Union, the constitution, and 
the integrity of the United States govern- 
ment. All partizan difl^erences are ignored 
and lost in the higher principle of patriot- 

In this patriotic enthusiasm, Vermont emi- 
nently participates. Her citizens, always 
loyal to the Union, will, in this hour of peril, 
nobly rally for the protection of the governr 
ment and the constitution. 

On the fifteenth instant, the president of 
the United States issued his proclamation, 
" calling forth the militia of the several states 
of the Union, to the aggregate number of 
seventy-five thousand, in order to suppress 
treasonable combinations, and cause the laws 
to be duly executed." 

The quota required of Vermont, for imme- 
diate service, is one regiment of seven hun- 
dred and eighty officers and privates. 

On receiving the requisition from the se- 
cretary of war, for this regiment, I ordered 
the adjutant and inspector general to adopt 
the proper measures for calling into service 
such of the volunteer companies as are ne- 
cessary to make up the complement; and the 
quartermaster general was directed to pro- 
cure, with the least possible delay, the requir 
site outfit of knapsacks, overcoats, blankets, 



and other equipments ; which duty he has 

Having adopted the foregoing preliminary 
measures, for responding to the call of the 
president, I availed myself of the constitu- 
tional provision for convening the general 
assembly in an extra session ; not doubting 
that you, gentlemen, representing the uni- 
versally expressed patriotism of the citizens 
of this state, vi'ill make all necessary appro- 
priations and provisions for defraying the 
expenses already incurred and carrying into 
execution further measures for placing our 
military quota at the service of the general 

Conceiving it imminently probable that, 
at an early day, further calls Avill be made 
upon this state for troops, I respectfully call 
your attention to the importance of adopting 
immediate measures for a more eificient or- 
ganization of the military arm of the state. 

During the long interval of peace which 
we have enjoyed, while our citizens have 
been uninterrupted in their lawful industrial 
pursuits, the importance of a military organ- 
ization and discipline has been lost sight of. 
Our laws in relation to the militia have been 
subjected, during nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury, to numerous isolated amendments and 
alterations, until as a code, they are disjoint- 
ed, complicated, and altogether too cumbrous 
for the basis of a regular and effective organ- 
ization. I therefore recommend that the le- 
gislature should promptly remedy these de- 
fects, and adopt s^uch enactments as shall 
provide, effectively, for organizing, arming, 
and equipping the militia of the state, and 
for reasonably compensating the officers and 
privates, when required to meet for exercise 
and drill. 

I desire, also, to urge upon you the duty of 
making contingent appropriations of money, 
to be expended under the direction of the 
executive, for the outfit of any additional 
military forces which may be called for by 
the general government. 

The occasion is an extraordinary one. In- 
telligence reaches us, that the Virginia con- 
vention of delegates, elected under the ex- 
press provision that any ordinance adopted 
by them, should be submitted to the people 
for their approval or rejection, has, in secret 
session, passed an ordinance of secession, 
and that the governor of the state has assum- 
ed to order the seizure of the United States 
forts, arsenal and vessels within the limits 
of that state. 

The Federal capitol is menaced by an im- 
posing and well armed military force, and 
the government itself, and the national ar- 
chives, are in imminent peril. 

Such is the emergency, in view of which I 
invoke your immediate action. The legislat- 
ures of other states have made liberal ap- 
propriations and extensive military arrange- 
ments for aiding the government, and their 
citizens are hastening to the rescue of our 
country's flag. We shall discredit our past 
history should we, in this crisis, suffer Ver- 
mont to be behind her sister states, in her 

patriotic sacrifices for the preservation of the 
Union and the constitution. 

I feel assured, gentlemen, that you will, 
best reflect the sentiments and wishes of 
your constituents, by emulating in your le- 
gislative action, the patriotism and liberality 
of the noble states which have already re- 
sponded to the call of the government. 

It is devoutly to be hoped that the mad 
ambition of the secession leaders may be 
restrained, and the impending sanguinary 
conflict averted. But a hesitating, half-way 
policy on the part of the administration of 
the loyal states, will not avail to produce 
such a result. 

The United States government must be 
sustained and the rebellion suppressed, at 
whatever cost of men and treasure ; and it 
remains to be seen whether the vigorous 
preparations that are being made and the 
immense military force called into service 
by the president, are not the most probable 
and certain measures for a speedy and suo- 
cessful solution of the question. 

May that Divine Being, who rules among 
the nations, and directs the afl'airs of men, 
interpose by Ilis merciful Providence, and 
restore to us again the blessing of peace, 
under the a3gis of our national constitution. 
Ekastus Fairbanks. 

On the 25th, the legislature passed an act 
appropriating $1,000,000 for arming, &c., 
the militia of Vermont ; and, on the 26th, 
certain acts were passed for organizing and 
paying the aforesaid regiment of the uni- 
formed militia. 

The legislature also passed " an act to 
provide for raising six special regiments for 
immediate service for defending and protect- 
ing the constitution and Union." 

This last mentioned act was independent 
of any previous militia law ; and, without 
naming any other officer, placed the respons- 
ibility of raising, organizing, uniforming, 
arming, equipping and subsisting the regi- 
ments solely in the hands of the Governor, 
with authority to draw his warrants on the 
state treasurer for all expenditures. 

The legislature adjourned on the 27th, and 
on the same day a general order was issued 
by the commander-in-chief, designating the 
companies detailed for the first regiment, and 
requiring them to hold themselves in readi- 
ness to march to the place of rendezvous, to 
be thereafter designated, on twenty-four 
hours' notice. 

On the 2d day of May the regiment was 
mustered at Rutland, under the command of 
Col. J. W. Phelps and Lt. Col. P. T. Wash- 
burn ; and on the 9th it left its encampment, 
fully armed, uniformed and equipped, en 
route for Old Point Comfort — being only 2'1 
days after the requisition by telegraph from 
the secretary of war, 

This regiment did important service at 
Newport News, and was honorably discharg- 
ed at Brattleboro after the expiration of its 
term of three months. 

On the 7th of May, commissions were is- 



sued for recruiting the 2d and 3d regiments 
of volunteers, for three years' service, or 
during the war. TJhe impression was common 
in the state, that these regiments could only 
be filled by drafting; but the result showed 
that the sons of Vermont needed no compul- 
sory process to rally them for the defense of 
their country's flag. The regiments were 
filled with great despatch, and were muster- 
ed at Burlington and St. Johnsbury early in 

The 2d regiment, under the command 
of Col. Henry Whiting and Lieut. Col. G. F. 
Stannard, left their encampment for Wash- 
ington city, June 24th, and soon afterwards 
participated in the battle of Bull Run, in the 
brigade under the command of Col. (now 
Brig. Gen.) C. C. Howard. They Avere in 
the hottest of the fight, and sufi'ered the loss 
of 66 men in killed, wounded and prisoners. 
(See Stannard's reijort.) 

In response, afterwards, to an address from 
the non-commissioned ofiicers of the regi- 
ment. Gen. Howard remarked : "I remember 
you on the march before the 21st of July, at 
Sangster's, at Centreville, and on the memo- 
rable day at Bull Run. I often speak of your 
behavior on that occasion ; cool and steady 
as regular troops, you stood on the brow of 
that hill and fired your 36 rounds, and retired 
only at the command of your colonel." 

This regiment was afterwards ordered to 
Fort Grifiin, and forms a part of the Ver- 
mont brigade. 

The 3d regiment remained in camp at 
St. Johnsbury until the 24th of July. Dur- 
ing the time they were thus encamped, there 
were between two and three hundred cases 
of measles, and some fifty men were unfit 
for service when the troops were ordered 
forward. The regiment, under the command 
of Col. Wm. F. Smith and Lieut. Col. B. N. 
Hyde, arrived in Washington city, .July 27th, 
and was immediately ordered forward to 
Chain Bridge. Here the men performed im- 
portant work in throwing up intrenchments 
and making rifle pits, on the Maryland side 
of the Potomac, and were afterwards sent 
across the river into Virginia, without tents, 
being in near proximity to the enemy, and 
for ten consecutive days and nights bivou- 
acked, while constructing the abattis and 
earth works at Fort Marcy. They were 
afterwards exposed to severe service, as 
skirmishers and pickets, and are now with 
(he Vermont brigade at Camp Grifiin. 

At the time of the passage of the act to 
raise six special regiments, it was not ex- 
pected that more than two regiments would 
be called for. The act " authorized and re- 
quired the governor to raise tivo regiments 
without delay, and, at such time as in his 
discretion it may be necessary, four other 
regiments." On the 30th of July, the go- 
vernor issued the following proclamation : 

State of Vermont, 

Executive Department, 
St. Johnsbury, July 80, 1861. 
By an act of the legislature, passed April 

26th, 1861, the governor was " authorized 
and required to raise, organize and muster 
into service of the state, without delay, two 
regiments of soldiers ; and at such time as in 
his discretion it may appear necessary, four 
other regiments," &c. IJnder this provision, 
two regiments — being the 2d and 3d Ver- 
mont volunteers— have been raised, uni- 
formed, armed, equipped, and mustered into 
the service of the United States for the term 
of three years, or during the war. 

The 1st Vermont regiment, having been 
detailed from the companies composing the 
uniformed militia of the state, were muster- 
ed into the service of the United States, for 
three months' service, on the 2d day of May 
last. This regiment, under the command of 
Col. J. W. Phelps, rendered important service 
at Newport News, Va., and during thoir term 
of enlistment have nobly sustained the honor 
of the state and the country. Their term of 
service will expire early in Aiigust. 

The 2d regiment having been ordered to 
Washington, participated in the disastrous 
battle of the 21st. The 3d regiment has been 
ordered to Washington, where it still re- 

The events of the 21st instant, and the re- 
treat of the United States army from the field 
near Manassas .Junction, demonstrate the ne- 
cessity of a greatly increased national force ; 
and, although no formal requisition has been 
made upon me by the secretary of war, nor 
any apportionment of troops as the quota for 
this state communicated, yet the events re- 
ferred to, indicate clearly the necessity of 
exercising the discretionary power conferred 
on me by the aforesaid act, for raising and 
organizing additional regiments. Orders will 
therefore be issued immediately, to the ad" 
jutant and inspector generals, for enlisting 
the 4th and 5th regiments of volunteers for 
three years, or during the war, to be tend- 
ered to the general government, so soon as 
it may be practicable to arm, equip and dis- 
cipline the troops for service. 

Eeastus Fairbanks. 

By his excellency the governor, 

Geo. a. Merkill, Private Sec'y. 

Commissions were issued August 6th, for 
enlisting the 4th and 5th regiments, and a 
call having meantime been made by the se- 
cretary of war, the governor, on the 20th, 
issued the following proclamation : 

Executive Department, 1 
St. Johnsbury, Aug. 20, 1861. / 
To the citizens of Vermont : 

An emergency has arisen which demands 
the active and prompt cooperation of every 
lover of his country, in efi'orts to raise and 
organize troops for the aid and protection of 
the general government. 

In view of imminent danger, an earnest 
call has been made upon the executive, by 
direction of the president of the United 
States, for the two regiments which, under 
my general order of the 5th inst., are being 
enlisted — requesting that the troops may be 



forwarded to Washington with the utmost 

Deeply impressed with the importance of 
the crisis, I earnestly call upon the citizens, 
and especially upon the young men of the 
state, to enroll their names at the several 
recruiting stations, for the service of their 
country. Verniont has never been delin- 
quent when called to defend the honor of 
the national flag, and at this critical junc- 
ture, when our invaluable institutions, our 
dearest privileges, and our national exist- 
ence even, are imperiled, let it not be said 
that the Green Mouptain state was among 
the last to fly to the rescue. 

Erastus Fairbanks, Governor 

and Commander-in-Chief. 

This call was nobly responded to, so that 
before the middle of September, two full 
regiments of volunteers were enlisted and 
mustered — the 4th at Brattleboro, under Col. 
E. H. Stoughton and Lt. Col. H. N. Worthen, 
and the 5th at St. Albans, under Col. H. A. 
Smalley and Lt. Col. S, A. Grant. These 
regiments arrived at Washington, Sept. 24th- 
26th, and were assigned to the army of the 
Potomac, in the Vermont brigade. 

A requisition having been made by the se- 
cretary of war for the 6th Vermont regi- 
ment, commissions were issued on the 17th 
of September for recruiting ; and, in the re- 
markably short space of thirty days, a full 
regiment was raised, uniformed, armed, and 
equipped, under the sole direction of the go- 

This 6th regiment, under the command of 
Col. N. Lord, Jr., and Lt. Col. A. P. Blount, 
left their encampment at Montpelier, October 
19th, and form a part of the Vermont brigade 
in the army of the Potomac. 

All these regiments were armed with rifle 
muskets of uniform calibre — the 6th with 
the Springfield rifles, and the 2d, 3d, 4th, 
and 5th, with the Enfield rifle muskets. 

Two companies of sharp shooters for Ber- 
dan's regiment were enlisted in August and 
September, and left their place of rendezvous 
at West Randolph for Washington city — the 
first under Capt. E. Weston, Jr., and the 
second under Capt. H. R. Stoughton. 

Valedictory Address of Erastus Fairbanlcs, 
Governor of the State of Vermont, to the 
General Assembly, at their Annual Session, 
October, 1861. 

The Honorable, the General Assembly of the 
State of Vermont : 
The extraordinary events of the present 
year — the critical condition of the country, 
and the very responsible and difiicult duties 
assigned to the executive, under the provi- 
sions of the acts of the late extra session of 
the legislature, furnish a sufficient reason 
why I should depart from the usual custom 
in retiring from the executive ofiice, and com- 
municate briefly, in an address to the general 
assembly, the transactions of the past few 
months, and especially those pertaining to 

the organization and equipment of troops for 
the service of the United States. 

Immediately after the passage of the act 
of April 2Gth, providing for "the appoint- 
ment of regimental and field officers," the 
1st regiment was detailed from the uniformed 
militia for three months' service, under the 
requisition of the president of the United 
States, and on the 2d day of May, mustered 
at Rutland. 

This regiment, under its accomplished 
commander. Col. Phelps, did important 
service at Newport News, and was honora- 
bly mustered out of the service of the Unit- 
ed States, at Brattleboro', on the 13th of 

On the 7th of May, orders were issued for 
recruiting the 2d and 3d regiments of volun- 
teers, under the provisions of the act of 
the 26th of April, entitled "an act to, pro- 
vide for raising 6 special regiments." These 
were filled with great dispatch, and mus- 
tered at Burlington and St. Johnsbury, early 
in June. 

The 2d regiment, under Col. Whiting, left 
Burlington for Washington city, June 24th. 

The 3d regiment was ordered forward by 
the secretary of war, July 18th, and left St. 
Johnsbury, under the command of Col. (now 
Brig. Gen.) Smith, July 24th. 

On the 6th of August, commissions were 
issued for raising the 4th and 5th regiments 
of volunteers, which were filled nearly or 
quite to the maximum number of 1046 men 
each, and mustered at Brattleboro' and St. 
Albans, September 12th-14th. 

The 4th, under Col. Stoughton, left Brat- 
tleboro' for Washington city, September 21st, 
and the 5th, under Col. Smalley, left St. Al- 
bans, September 23d. 

These several regiments have been uni- 
formed, equipped, furnished with army wag- 
ons and horses, and armed with rifled mus- 
kets, at the expense of the state. 

On the 17th of September, recruiting 
officers were appointed for raising the 6th 
regiment of volunteers, which was filled with 
great promptitude, and mustered at Mont- 
pelier, the first week in October, under the 
command of Col. Lord — being fully equipped 
and uniformed, ready to be ordered forward 
to the seat of war. 

These five regiments are composed, prin- 
cipally, of the mechanics and yeomanry of 
the state, and under their educated and ex- 
perienced commanders, will, it is believed, 
form a Vermont brigade. 

On the 7th of August, I issued a commis- 
sion to Capt. E. Weston, Jr., to raise a com- 
pany of practical sharp shooters, to be or- 
ganized upon the plan of Col. H. Berdan, as 
approved and authorized by the president 
and secretary of war. This company was 
recruited to the maximum number, and left 
West Randolph for Col. Berdan'^ regiment 
in the army of the Potomac, on the 4th of 

On the 25th of September, I issued a com- 
mission to Capt. H, R. Stoughton, to raise 
a second company of sharp shooters. 


These companies have been or are to be 
armed, uniformed and equipped by the ge- 
neral gorernment. 

A regiment of cavalry has been raised by 
voluntary enlistment, under a commission of 
the secretary of war to Col. L. B. Piatt. 

I have authorized Capt. L. R. Sayles of 
Leicester, to raise a squadron of cavalry, to 
form a part of a regiment apportioned to the 
several New England states, to be organized, 
uniformed, and equipped, by Gov. Sprague 
of Rhode Island, and denominated the New 
England regiment of cavalry. This order 
is subject to the direction of the legis- 

These several corps are composed of intel- 
ligent, independent citizens — volunteers — 
enlisted for three years, or during the war ; 
and the alacrity with which they have vo- 
lunteered and entered into the service of the 
country, is a remarkable and gratifying ex- 
pression of the devoted patriotism of our 
citizens, and an unmistakable pledge of the 
loyalty of Vermont to the government of the 
United States and the cause of the Union. 

I should do injustice to my own feelings, 
as well as to the ofl&cers and men in service, 
should I fail to mention the uniform testi- 
mony which has been communicated to me, 
of the excellent conduct of our troops. Those 
of them who have been in active service, have 
been under excellent discipline, and have, 
when in posts of danger and fatigue, dis- 
played a coolness, courage and endurance, 
not excelled by soldiers in the regular army ; 
while their moral bearing and exemplary de- 
portment has won for them the confidence 
and approbation of their superior officers. 

I doubt not that the regiments which have 
recently joined them, as well as the one 
soon to follow, will do themselves equal cre- 
dit, and prove an honor to the state and the 

It will be recollected that the acts of the 
extra session, authorizing the raising of these 
special regiments, is independent of any pre- 
vious military organization or statute. The 
responsibility of raising, organizing, uniform- 
ing, arming and equipping them, is made the 
sole duty of the governor. In the absence of 
any existing military organization or author- 
ized code, this duty has been embarrassing 
and laborious ; and not unfrequently respon- 
sibilities were assumed for which no specific 
authority existed. But in all cases, care has 
been taken to conform to the obvious intent 
and meaning of the act aforesaid. 

By the provisions of this act, the term of 
service is limited to two years ; and each 
non-commissioned officer, musician and pri- 
vate, is entitled to receive from the state of 
Vermont, $7 per month, in addition to the 
compensation paid by the United States. 

The requisition of the president of the 
United States for troops for three years, or 
during the war, made it expedient and neces- 
sai-y to adopt a form of contract in accord- 
ance thereto, while at the same time it was 
made to conform to the provisions of the act 
aforesaid, as follows: "We enlist and agree I 

to serve for the first two years under and b;^,.'^ 
virtue of the provisions of the act of the *••,"'« '3.^' 
legislature of this state, entitled an act to •«*** 

provide for raising six special regiments, for 
immediate service, for protecting and defend- 
ing the constitution and the Union, approved 
April 26, 1861, and are to receive the com- 
pensation therein provided, and for the third 
year, under the laws, rules and regulations 
relating to the army of the United States, 
and such further compensation, if any, as 
the legislature of the state of Vermont may 
hereafter provide." It will be seen, there- 
fore, that should the term of service be ex- 
tended to the third year, the soldiers thus 
serving will not be entitled to the $7 per 
month extra pay, without further legislative 

Every consideration of equity and justice 
demands that provisions should be made for 
placing the several corps of citizen soldiers 
upon the same footing in this regard. 

Owing to circumstances beyond my con- 
trol, it has, until the present time, been im- 
possible to obtain all the vouchers necessary 
for preparing properly the abstracts to be 
presented to the treasury department, for 
the reimbursement of expenses incurred by 
the state. 

An estimate, certified by me to be within 
the amount actually expended for the first, 
second and third regiments, was forwarded 
to Washington by J. W. Stewart, Esq., in- 
spector of finance, early in September, upon 
which estimate 40 per cent, or $123,000 has 
been refunded and placed in the state trea- 

The amount of warrants drawn by me upon 
the Treasurer, up to and including the 4th of 
October, is $512,362.59; which amount has 
been disbursed upon proper vouchers for the 
six regiments aforesaid, under appropriate 
heads, to be submitted hereafter. Of this 
amount, $123,000 has been reimbursed by 
the secretary of the treasury, as above stated. 
A few bills for expenses of the 4th and 
5th regiments are yet unsettled, as also the 
reci'uiting service, transportation, subsist- 
ence and incidental expenses of the 7th. 
There is also a class of claims, which I have 
not felt authorized to allow, which will pro- 
bably be presented. 

By the act of congress of July 27th, it is 
provided as follows : " That the secretary 
of the treasury be, and he is hereby directed, 
out of any money in the treasury, not other- 
wise appropriated, to pay to the governor of 
any state, or his duly authorized agents, the 
costs, charges, and expenses properly incur- 
red by such state, for enrolling, subsisting, 
clothing, supplying, ai-ming, equipping, pay- 
ing and transporting its troops employed in 
aiding to suppress the present insurrection 
against the United States, to be settled upon 
proper vouchers, to be filed and passed upon 
by the proper accounting officers of the trea- 

I respectfully request the appointment by 
the legislature, of a commission to examine 
the accounts for disbursements already made 



by me for the above purposes, to adjust and 
settlo all outstanding bills, to arrange the 
vouchers and prepare the necessary abstracts 
of expenses, to be presented to the secretary 
of the treasury for allowance under the act 

Early in June, I received a letter from T. 
^Y. Park, Esq., of San Francisco, Cal., cover- 
ing a check for $1000, as a patriotic contri- 
bution to his native state, "towards defray- 
ing the expense of fitting out her sons for 
the service of the country," which amount I 
placed in the hands of the state treasurer. 

Under the provisions of the act of Novem- 
ber 27th, 1860, entitled "an act for the bet- 
ter protection of the treasury," I appointed 
John W. Stewart, Esq., of Middlebury, in- 
spector of finance, which ofiice he has ac- 

In common with the executives of the 
other loyal states, whose legislatures were 
not then in session, I appointed commission- 
ers to the peace convention, so called, which 
assembled in Washington in February last. 
The question of providing for reimbursing 
the expense of this commission is respect- 
fully submitted for the consideration of the 

In accordance with general order No. 25, 
of the war department, I appointed a board 
of medical examiners, for the examination of 
candidates for the oifice of surgeons of regi- 
ments, consisting of Samuel W. Thayer, Jr., 
M. D., Burlington, Edward E. Phelps, M. D., 
Windsor, Selim Newell, M. D., St. Johnsbury, 
Avho have attended to the duties of their ap- 
pointment, and the expenses of the board are 
included in those of the volunteer militia. 

I have appointed the Hon. Joseph Poland 
of Montpelier, a special financial agent to 
visit and remain with the Vermont regiments 
at the seat of war, for the purpose of being a 
medium of communication between the sol- 
diers and their friends and consignees at 
home, giving information to the men, and 
receiving and transmitting such portion of 
their pay as they may desire to send home 
for investment and safe keeping, or for the 
use of their families or friends. 

Mr. Poland has been constituted by me a 
trustee of the soldiers aforesaid, for the 
above service, and has ex.ecuted a bond, with 
ample sureties, for the faithful execution of 
the trust. 

The importance of this appointment, both 
to the officers and men of the regiments and 
to the state, can hardly be over-estimated ; 
but, as it is not provided for by law, I com- 
mend it to the favorable consideration of the 

The multiform and onerous duties relating 
to the raising, organizing and furnishing the 
several regiments, the auditing of bills and 
accounts, the disbursement of funds, &c., 
imposed upon the executive by the acts of 
the extra session, rendered it impossible that 
I should attend to the appointment and cor- 
respondence of town agents for the support 
of families of citizen soldiers ; and at my re- 
quest, the lieutenant governor kindly con- 

sented to take charge of that department of 
the public service. 

By his report, which is herewith submit- 
ted, it will be seen that the amount drawn 
from the treasury prior to October 1st, is 

I submit herewith a copy of instructions, 
prepared by me for the observance of the 
several town agents, but the expei'ience of 
the lieutenant governor has shown the im- 
portance of a more perfect system, and I 
respectfully commend the suggestions con- 
tained in his report to the consideration of 
the general assembly. 

Under my directions, the quartermaster 
general has sold a quantity of Windsor rifles 
belonging to the state, at $13.50 each. These 
rifles are a good arm, but being without bayo- 
nets, and not adapted to the use of our sol- 
diers, they have long remained practically 
useless to the state. 

It has been my purpose to confine this 
communication to the history of the past, 
earnestly hoping that the goveimor elect, 
who is detained by illness, will, at an early 
day, be able to lay before you the appropri- 
ate business for the session. I therefore 
omit to call your attention to measures 
which, under other circumstances, I might 
deem important. 

Gentlemen of the Senate and House of 
Representatives : 

In retiring from the arduous duties of the 
political year now closing, I desire to express, 
through you, to the citizens of Vermont, my 
high appreciation of their confidence and 
patrotic cooperation in carrying into execu- 
tion the important measures required by the 
acts of the special session, and to assure you 
that I shall carry with me into private life a 
sacred devotion to the interests of the state 
and to the cause of our common country. 

You, gentlemen, are called to deliberate 
upon measures more important and vital to 
the interests of the state and the country, 
than any which have ever before occupied 
the attention of the general assembly; re- 
quiring your patient, carefvil and dispassion- 
ate deliberation. May an all-wise Providence 
guide you; and may our Heavenly Father 
interpose to deliver our beloved country from 
its present calamity and from the perils which 
threaten it, and restore to it again the bless- 
ings of peace, union and prosperity. 

[Careful historians will be engaged to fur- 
nish historical papers for this department, 
which will continue to give an accurate sum- 
mary of our legislative acts pertaining to the 
war, and also an account of the part taken 
by the Vermont soldiers in every engagement 
in which they have or may be called to par- 
ticipate, so soon as the facts can be gleaned 
and established for a reliable history — lists 
of the killed or wounded will also be given 
by counties, or companies, and anecdotes of 
the soldiers. — Ud."] 



8 Regiments). 


First Regiment. 

Colonel, J. Wolcott Phelps. 

Lieutenant Colonel, Peter T. Washburn. 

Major, Harry N. Worthen. 

Chaplain, Rev. Levi H. Stone. 

Co. A. — Captain, Lawrence D. Clark ; 1st 

Lieut., Albert B. Jewett ; 2d Lieut., 

John D. Sheridan. 
Co. B. — Captain, William W. Pelton ; 1st 

Lieut., Andrew J. Dike; 2d Lieut., 

Solomon E. Woodward. 
Co. C. — Captain, Charles G. Chandler; 1st 

Lieut., Hiram E. Perkins ; 2d Lieut., 

Freeborn E. Bell. 
Co. D. — Dudley K. Andros ; 1st Lieut., John 

B. Pickett, Jr. ; 2d Lieut., Roswell 

Co. E. — Captain, Oscar S. Tuttle ; 1st Lieut., 

Asaph Clark ; 2d Lieut., Salmon 

Co. F. — Captain, William H. Boynton ; 1st 

Lieut., Charles C. Webb; 2d Lieut., 

Francis B. Gove. 
Co. Q. — Captain, Joseph Bush ; 1st Lieut., 

William Cronan ; 2d Lieut., Ebene- 

zer J. Ormsbee. 
Co. M. — Captain, David B. Peck ; 1st Lieut., 

Oscar G. Mower ; 2d Lieut., George 

J. Hager. 
Co. I. — Captain, Eben S. Hayward ; 1st 

Lieut., Charles W. Rose; 2d Lieut., 

Orville W. Heath. 
Co. Z".— Captain, William Y. W. Ripley ; 1st 

Lieut., George T. Roberts ; 2d Lieut., 

Levi G. Kingsley. 

Second Regiment. 

Colonel, Henry Whiting. 
Lieutenant Colonel, George J. Stannard. 

Major, Charles H. Joyce. 
Chaplain, Rev. C. B. Smith of Brandon. 

Co. A. — Captain, James H. Walbridge ; 1st 

Lieut., Newton Stone ; 2d Lieut., 

William H. Cady. 
Co. B. — Captain, Samuel Hope ; 1st Lieut., 

John Howe ; 2d Lieut., Enoch John- 
Co. C. — Captain, Edward A. Todd; 1st Lieut., 

John S. Tyler ; 2d Lieut., Henry C. 

Co. D. — Captain, Charles Dillingham ; 1st 

Lieut., William W. Henry; 2d 

Lieut., Charles C. Gregg. 
Co. E. — Captain, Richard Smith ; 1st Lieut. 

Lucius C. Whitney ; 2d Lieut., 

Orville Bixby. 
Co. F. — Captain, Francis V. Randall ; 1st 

Lieut., Walter A. Phillips ; 2d Lieut., 

Horace F. Grossman. 
Co. G. — Captain, John T. Drew; 1st Lieut., 

David L. Sharpley ; 2d Lieut., Anson 

H. Weed. 
Co. H. — Captain, William T. Burnham ; 1st 

Lieut., Jerome B. Case; 2d Lieut. 
Chester K. Leach. 

Co. I. — Captain, Volney S. FuUam ; 1st 
Lieut., Sherman W. Parkhurst ; 2d 
Lieut., Isaac N. Wadleigh. 

Co. K. — Captain, Solon Eaton; 1st Lieut., 
Amasa S Tracy ; 2d Lieut., Jona- 
than M. Hoyt. 

Third Regiment. 

Colonel, William F. Smith. 

Lieutenant Colonel, Breed N. Hyde. 

Major, Walter W. Cochran. 

Chaplain, Rev. M. K. Parmalee of Underbill 

(resigned). Rev. Mr. Mack succeeded. 

Co. A. — Captain, Wheelock G. Vearey ; 1st 

Lieut., Frederick Grain; 2d Lieut., 

Horace W. Floyd. 
Co. B. — Captain, Augustine C. West ; 1st 

Lieut., Enoch H. Bartlett ; 2d Lieut., 

John H. Coburn. 
Co. C. — Captain, David T. Corbin ; 1st Lieut., 

Danford C. Haviland ; 2d Lieut., 

Edwin M. Noyes. 
Co. D. — Captain, Fernando C. Harrington ; 

1st Lieut., Daniel J. Kenneson; 2d 

Lieut., Charles Bishop. 
Co. E. — Captain, Andrew J. Blanchard ; 1st 

Lieut., Robert D. Whittemore ; 2d 

Lieut., Burr J. Austin. 
Co. F. — Captain, Thomas 0. Seaver ; 1st 

Lieut., Samuel E. Pingree; 2d 

Lieut., Edward A. Chandler. 
Co. G. — Captain, Lorenzo D. Allen ; 1st 

Lieut., John H. Hutchinson ; 2d 

Lieut., Moses F. Brown. 
Co. H. — Captain, Thomas F. House ; 1st 

Lieut. Waterman F. Corey ; 2d 

Lieut., Romeo H. Start. 
Co. I. — Captain, Thomas Nelson ; 1st Lieut., 

James Powers ; 2d Lieut., Alexander 

W. Beattie. 
Co. K. — Capt. Elon 0. Hammond ; 1st Lieut., 

Amasa T. Smith ; 2d Lieut., Alonzo 

E. Pierce. 

Fourth Regiment. 

Colonel, Edwin H. Stoughton. 

Lieutenant Colonel, Harry N. Worthen. 

Major, John C. Tyler. 

Chaplain, Rev. S. M. Plymton. 

Co. J:.— John E. Pratt; 1st Lieut., Albert 

K. Parsons ; 2d Lieut., Gideon H. 

Co. B. — Captain, James H. Piatt Jr. ; 1st 

Lieut., Alfred K. Nichols ; 2d Lieut., 

Samuel H. Chamberlin. 
Go. C. — Captain, Henry B. Atherton ; 1st 

Lieut., George B. French; 2dLieut., 

Daniel D. Wheeler. 
Co. D. — Captain, George Tucker; 1st Lieut., 

George W. Quimby ; 2d Lieut., John 

H. Bishop. 
Co. E. — Captain, Henry L. Terry; 1st Lieut., 

Stephen M. Pingree; 2d Lieut., 

Daniel Lillie. 
Co. F. — Captain, Addison Brown, Jr. ; 1st 

Lieut., William C. Holbrook; 2d 

Lieut., Dennie W. Farr. 



Co. G. — Captain, George P. Foster ; 1st 

Lieut., Henry H. Hill; 2d Lieut., 

Joseph W. D. Carpenter. 
Co. n. — Captain, Robert W. Laird ; 1st 

Lieut., Abial W. Fisher; 2d Lieut., 

J. Byron Brooks. 
Co. I. — Captain, Leonard A. Stearns ; 1st 

Lieut., Levi M. Tucker; 2d Lieut., 

Albert A. Allard. 
Co. K. — Captain, Frank B. Gove; 1st Lieut. , 

Charles W. Bontin ; 2d Lieut., Wm. 

C. Tracy. 

Fifth Regiment. 

Colonel, Henry A. Smalley. 

Lieutenant Colonel, Nathan Lord, Jr. 

Major, Lewis A. Grant. 

Chaplain, Rev. V. M. Simons. 

Co. A. — Captain, Charles G. Chandler; 1st 

Lieut., Alonzo R. Hurlburt ; 2d 

Lieut., Louis M. D. Smith. 
Co. B. — Captain, Charles W. Rose ; 1st 

Lieut., Wilson D. Wright ; 2d Lieut., 

Olney A. Comstock. 
Co. C. — Captain, John D. Sheridan ; 1st 

Lieut., Friend H. Barney ; 2d Lieut., 

Jesse A. Jewett. 
Co. D. — Captain, Reuben C. Benton ; 1st 

Lieut., James W. Stiles; 2d Lieut., 

Samuel Sumner, Jr. 
Co. E. — Captain, Charles P. Dudley ; 1st 

Lieut., William II. H. Peck; 2d 

Lieut., Samuel E. Burnham. 
Co. F. — Captain, Edwin S. Stowell ; 1st 

Lieut., Cyrus R. Crane; 2d Lieut., 

Eugene A. Hamilton. 
Co. G. — Captain, Benjamin R. Jenne ; 1st 

Lieut., Charles T. Allchine; 2d 

Lieut., Martin J. McManus. 
Co. II. — Captain, Chai'les W. Seagar; 1st 

Lieut., Cornelius H. Forbes; 2d 

Lieut., Charles J. Ormsbee. 
Co. I. — Captain, John R. Lewis; 1st Lieut., 

William P. Spalding ; 2d Lieut., 

Henry Ballard. 
Co. K. — Captain, Frederick F. Gleason ; 1st 

Lieut., William Symons ; 2d Lieut., 

George J. Hatch. 

Sixth Regiment. 

Colonel, Nathan Lord, Jr. 

Lieutenant Colonel, Asa P. Blunt. 

Major, Oscar S. Tuttle. 

Chaplain, Rev. S. H. Stone. 

Co. A. — Captain, George Parker, Jr. ; 1st 

Lieut., Riley 0. Bird; 2d Lieut., 

Frank G. Buttorfield. 
Co. B. — Captain, Alonzo B. Hutchinson ; 1st 

Lieut., La Marquis Tubbs ; 2d 

Lieut., Barnard D. Fabyan. 
Co. C. — Captain, Jesse C. Spaulding; 1st 

Lieut., George C. Randall; 2d 

Lieut., Hiram A. Kimball. 
Co. D.- — Captain, Oscar A. Hale; 1st Lieut., 

George H. Phelps; 2d Lieut., Carlos 

W. Dwinnell. 
Co. E. — Captain, Edward W. Barker ; 1st 

Lieut., Thomas R. Clark; 2d Lieut., 

Frank B. Bradbury. 

Co. F. — Captain, Edwin F. Reynolds ; 1st 

Lieut., Elijah Whitney; 2d Lieut., 

Dennison A. Raxford. 
Co. (?.— Captain, William H. H. Hall; 1st 

Lieut., Alfred M. Nevins; 2d Lieut., 

Edwin C. Lewis. 
Co. H. — Captain, David B. Davenport ; 1st 

Lieut., Robinson Templeton; 2d 

Lieut., Luther Ainsworth. 
Co. I. — Captain, Wesley Harelton ; 1st 

Lieut., William B. Reynolds; 2d 

Lieut., Edwin R. Kinney. 
Co. K. — Captain, Elisha L. Barney ; 1st 

Lieut., Lucius Green; 2d Lieut., 

Alfred H. Keith. 

Seventh Regiment. 

Colonel, George T. Roberts. 

Lieutenant Colonel, Volney S. FuUam. 

Major, William C. Holbrook. 

Co. A. — Captain, David B. Peck ; 1st Lieut., 

Heman Austin ; 2d Lieut., Hiram 

B. Fish. 
Co. B. — Captain, William Cronan ; IstLieut., 

Darwin A. Smalley; 2d Lieut., 

Jackson V. Parker. 
Co. C. — Captain, Henry M. Porter ; 1st 

Lieut., Erwin V. N. Hitchcock; 2d 

Lieut., John G. Dickinson. 
Co. D. — Captain, John B. Kilburn ; 1st Lieut., 

William B. Thrall; 2d Lieut., 

George E. Cross. 
Co. E. — Captain, Daniel Landon ; 1st Lieut., 

George W. Sheldon ; 2d Lieut., 

Richard T. Cull. 
Co. F. — Captain, Lorenzo D. Brooks ; 1st 

Lieut., Edgar N. Ballard; 2d Lieut., 

Rodney C. Gates. 
Co. O. — Captain, Salmon Button ; 1st Lieut., 

George M. R. Howard; 2d Lieut., 

Leonard P. Bingham. 
Co. H. — Captain, Mahlon M. Young; 1st 

Lieut., Henry H. French; 2d Lieut., 

George H. Kelley. 
Co. I. — Captain, Charles C. Ruggles; 1st 

Lieut., Charles Clark ; 2d Lieut., 

Aiistin E. Woodman. 
Co. K. — Captain, David P. Barber ; 1st 

Lieut., John L. Moseley; 2d Lieut., 

Allen Spalding. 

Eighth Regiment. 

Colonel, Stephen Thomas. 

Lieutenant Colonel, Edward M. Brown. 

Maj or, Charles Dillingham. 

Co. A. — Captain, Luman M. Grant ; 1st 
Lieut., Moses McFarland ; 2d Lieut., 
Gilman S. Rand. 

Co. B. — Captain, Charles B. Child ; 1st 
Lieut., Stephen T. Spalding; 2d 
Lieut., Frederick D. Buttertield. 

Co. C. — Captain, Henry E. Foster ; 1st Lieut., 
Edward B. Weight; 2d Lieut., 
Frederick J. Fuller. 

Co. D. — Captain, Cyrus B. Leach; IstLieut., 
Alfred E. Getchell; 2d Lieut., Da- 
rius G. Child. 

Co. E. — Captain, Edward Hall; 1st Lieut. 



Kilbum Day; 2d Lieut., Truman 

Co. F. — Captain, Hiram E. Perkins ; 1st 

Lieut., Daniel S. Foster; 2d Lieut., 

Carter H. Nason. 
Co. G. — Captain,