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for the 

Daughters of the 
JItiiericdn Rcvoluttoi 

Copyright, ms 


Helen m. and Hate C. Boardman 


daughters of the 

American Revolution 



den M. and Kate T. Boardman 



The hills beyond the river lay yesterday at sunset lost in 
Purple gloom ; they receded into airy distances of dream^ they 
sank softly into flighty the peaks of the ^'' delectable mountains^ 
^ut I knew as I gazed enchanted that the hills so purple^ soft 
.of seeming^ were hard^ and gray^ and barren^ in the wintry 
twilight^ and that in the distance was the magic that ?nade 
them fair. So beyond the river of time that plows between, 
zvalked the brave men^ and the beautiful women of our ances- 
try, grouped in twilight upon the shore. 

Distance smoothes away defects^ and with gentle darkness 
rounds every form into grace. It steals a harshness from 
their speech, and every word a song. Far across the 
gulf that ever widens they look upon us with eyes whose glance 
is tender, and which light us to success. We acknowledge our 
inheritance; we accept our birthright. We own that their 
careers have pledged us to noble action. Every great life is an 
incentive to all other lives. This is the true pride of ancestry, 

George William Curtis. 



And now another cup of the generous; and a merry 
New Year and many of them to you, my masters. — Lamb. 

1 780— Arrival of Martha Washington at Mon istown. 
Fearless graced she camp and cabin, Middlebrook and - 

.... While the hand that erst touched spinnet, wafted 

fan or turned the wheel, 
Still more gently soothed the suffering, kindling fires of 
patient zeal. 

— ^Julia C. Jones, 
Anthony Wayne born 1745. 

1 777 — Battle of Asumpink. 

1 777 — Battle of Princeton. 


1778— Battle of the Kegs. 

The "infernals," as the British called them, were 
prepared by David Bushnell. . . . The incident 
gave rise to the most popular ballad of the Revolution, 


JANUARY— Continued. 

by Judge Hopkinson, one of the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence, and father of Joseph Hopkinson, the 
author of " Hail Columbia." — American Monthly Maga- 

Washington never bought or sold a slave — a proof of 
the highest and most intelligent humanity. — Parkinson. 
1759 — Washington's wedding day. 

Years have rolled beyond the century, 
All these scenes have passed away; 
But the bride from old Virginia 
In each heart is here to-day. 

— ^Julia C. Jones. 
Israel Putnam born 1718. 

The obscure young farmer of 1743 had every dis- 
tinguishing characteristic of the brave " Old Put " of '76. 
— Colonial Magazine. 

1 780 — Washington writes on the 8th of January : For 
a fortnight past the troops, both officers and men, 
have been almost perishing with want ; yet they have 
borne their sufferings with a patience that merits the 
approbation and ought to excite the sympathies of their 
countrymen. — Washington Irving. 

1 788 — Ratification and adoption of the Constitution in 
the name of the people of the State of Connecticut. 



Ethan Allen born 1737. 

At Bennington also we meet with one of the striking 
figures of the exploit — Ethan Allen, the pride of the Green 
Mountain Boys. Eccentric and fearless, with one hundred 
and fifty comrades of his own stamp, he added momen- 
tum to the force and picturesqueness to the character of 
the expedition. — Professer Henry P. Johnson. 

1 1 

Alexander Hamilton born 1757. 

Whether he speaks or writes he is equally great. 
. . . Among great men anywhere Alexander Ham- 
ilton would be felt to be great. — Republican Court. 


The hounds met three times a week in the season — 
usually at Mt. Vernon, sometimes at Belvoir. They 
would get off at daybreak — Washington in the midst of 
his hounds, splendidly mounted, generally on his favorite 
Blueskin, a powerful iron-gray horse. — American States- 


When Franklin was told in Paris that Howe had 
taken Philadelphia, his reply was, " Philadelphia has 
taken Howe." — American Statesmen. 

It was the practice of Washington to communicate 
with Congress only by written messages, except at the 
commencement of each session, when he met in person 
both branches in joint assembly. — Republican Court. 



1 78 1 — Tarleton reached the Parcelot in the evening, 
but halted on observing some troops on the opposite bank. 
It was merely a party of observation v^hich Morgan had 
left there, but he supposed that officer to be there in full 


An honest heart being the first blessing, a know- 
ing head the second; . . . a strong body makes 
the mind strong. — Thomas Jefferson. 


Battle of Cowpens, 1781. The British defeated. 

Benjamin Franklin born 1706. By the instructions 
which he gave, by his discoveries, by his inventions, by 
his achievements in public life, he earns the distinction 
of having rendered to men varied and useful services 
excelled by no other one man. — ^John F. Morse, Jr. 

They admired Franklin because he did not wear a 
wig; they lauded his spectacles; they were overcome 
with enthusiasm as they contemplated his great cap of 
Martin fur, his scrupulously white linen, and the quaint 
simplicity of his brown Quaker raiment of Colonial make. 
— ^John T. Morse, Jr. 


Undertake not to teach your equal in the art himself 
professes; it savors of arrogancy. — Washington's Rules 
of Behavior. 


Richard Henry Lee born 1732. 

Richard Henry Lee, the man selected to address the 
people of Great Britain on the eve of the Revolution, to 
give the first instructions to General Washington, to pro- 
pose the initial resolution of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, is not likely to be forgotten. — Evert A. Duyckinck. 


Of that honorable band of South Carolinians, men 
of birth and fortune, who stood forth at the outset of the 
Revolution, no one brought more accomplishments or a 
better zeal to the cause than Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. 
— National Portrait Gallery. 

John Hancock born 1737. 

Then Squire Hancock, like a man 

Who dearly loved the nation. 
By a concil'atory plan 
Prevented much vexation. 

— Evert A. Duyckinck. 
Dost thou love life ? then do not squander time, for 
that is the stuff life is made of. — Benjamin Franklin. 

The patriot, John Hancock, in 1792, wore a red 
velvet cap, blue damask gown lined with velvet, a white 
stock, and white satin embroidered waistcoat, black satin 
small clothes, white silk stockings, and red morocco 
slippers. — American Monthly Magazine. 


A tailor's advertisement in the New York Gazetteer, 
1773, says: A general assortment of scarlet, buff, green, 
crimson, white, sky-blue, and other colored superfine 
cloths. A neat assortment of gold and silver lace; gold 
and silver spangled buttons; gold buttons with loops 
and bands; silver-ground gold brocade for hats. — Ameri- 
can Monthly Magazine. 


Mock not, nor jest at anything of importance; break 
no jests that are sharp or biting, and if you deliver any- 
thing witty or pleasant, abstain from laughing thereat 
yourself. — Washington's Rules of Behavior. 

Robert Morris born 1733. 

This liberal merchant and financial stay of the Ameri- 
can Revolution . . . was not a native of America. 
— Evert A. Duyckinck. 

John Adams was no halfway revolutionist; he had 
the ring of the true metal in him ; while others lagged 
in the rear, he pressed forward to the van, in the very 
front rank of this revolutionary movement, and by his 
side stood John Rutledge of South Carolina. — Lives of 
the Chief Justices. 

Be not hasty to believe flying reports, to the disparage- 
ment of any one. — Washington's Rules of Behavior. 

Go on, my dear general ; crown yourself with glory, 
and establish the liberties and lustre of your country on 
a foundation more permanent than the capitol rock. — 
Extract from a letter of General Lee to Washington. 

A February face so full of frost, of storm and cloudi- 
ness. — Shakespeare. 

1781. — Battle at Cowan's Ford. 

" In one word^ be a nation, be Americans, and be 
true to yourselves." — Washington's Farewell Address. 


"Diligence is the mother of good luck." — Benjamin 


" In 1779 it is recorded that at a party George Wash- 
ington danced for three hours with Mrs. Greene without 
sitting down or resting, which speaks well for the health 
and spirits both of the lady and the gentleman. Even 
after Yorktown he was ready to walk a minuet at a ball, 
and to the end he liked to see young people dance as he 
had danced himself in his youth." — "American States- 

James Otis born 1725. 

James Otis, the herald of the Revolution in Massa- 
chusetts, "the flame of fire," was born at Great Marshes, 
in what is now called West Barnstable. — E. A. Duyckinck, 

1778 — France signs a defensive alliance with the 
American States. 


He wore black velvet and powdered hair, knee 
breeches and diamond buckles. ... Let it be 
remembered, however, that Washington also wore the 
hunting shirt and fringed leggings of the backwoods- 
man, and that it was he who introduced this purely 
American dress into the army as a uniform. — American 


It is hard for an empty sack to stand upright. — Ben- 
jamin Franklin. 


" For my own part, 1 never did, nor do 1 believe I 
ever shall, give advice to a woman who is setting out on 
a matrimonial voyage ; first, because I never could advise 
her to marry without her own consent, and secondly, 
because I know it is to no purpose to advise her to re- 
frain when she has obtained it." — Extract from a letter of 


1780 — Sir Henry Clinton sets sail for Charleston and 
takes post opposite Charleston. 

1798 — The French frigate d'Insurgente, of forty guns, 
was captured by the frigate Constellation of thirty-six 
guns. Commodore Tracton compelled another frigate 
of fifty guns to strike her colors, but she afterwards 
escaped in the night. 


We must, indeed, all hang together, or most assuredly 
we shall all hang separately/' — Benjamin Franklin. 


'' Speak not when others speak, sit not when others 
stand, and walk not when others stop." — Washington's 
Rules of Behavior. 


Washington in fact was less affected by his surround- 
ings, and rose above them more quickly than any other 
man of his day, because he was the greatest man of his 
time, with a splendid breadth of vision. — American 

1 781 — General Greene was driven out of North Carolina. 

St. Valentine's Day was one of the few English holi- 
days observed in New England. ... In Eng- 
land . . . the first person of the opposite sex seen 
in the morning was the observer's valentine. 
— Note from Anna Green Winslow's Diary. 


Undertake not what you cannot perform; but be 
careful to keep your promise. — Washington's Rules of 

One to-day is worth two to-morrows. — Benjamin 

1783 — Cessation of hostilities proclaimed in London. 


Washington's exact height was 6 ft. 2 in. in his boots; 
he weighed 200 pounds, and there was no surplus flesh 
about him. He was tremendously muscled, and the 
fame of his great strength was everywhere. — American 

Am I loaded with care, she takes off a large share, 

That the burden ne'er makes me to reel ; 
Does good fortune arrive, the joy of my wife 
Quite doubles the pleasure I feel. 

— Benjamin Franklin. 
181 5 — His Majesty's sloops Cfane and Levant were 
captured by the United States frigate Constitution. 
"A Yankee ship and a Yankee crew — 'Constitution.^ 
"Where ye bound for? Wherever the British 

prizes be. 
Though 'tis one to two — or one to three, 
' Old Ironsides ' means victory, 
Across the Western ocean." 

— ^james Jeffrey Roche. 

1 81 5 — The British withdrew from the coast of 

George Washington born 1732. 

Virginia gave us this imperial man — 
She gave us this unblemished gentleman. 

— Lowell. 


"The pine tree flag first appeared in 1775. It was 
purely a New England device, and was used afloat as 
well as on land. The first motto known to have been 
put on the pine tree flag was 'An appeal to heaven.' 
This was done a year before the colonies declared their 


1 813 — His Majesty's sloop P^^coc^ was sunk by the 
United States brig Hornet. 

When a man does all he can, though it succeeds not 
well, blame not him that did it.— Washington's Rules of 


1 775 — General Gage attempted to destroy the stores at 


1 782 — Conway's motion in Parliament against prosecut- 
ing the war was carried. 

Washington knew human nature well, and had a 
smile for its little weaknesses when they came to his mind. 
It was this same human sympathy which made him also 
love amusements of all sorts, but he was as little their 
slave as their enemy. — American Statesmen. 
Firmness, moderation, and deep religious sentiment 
were leading traits of Mrs. Washington.— Colonial Days 
and Dames. 


Ah! March; we know that thou art kindhearted, 
Spite of thy ugly looks and threats; 
And, out of sight, art nursing April's violets. 

— H. H. 


Horatio Gates, the victor of Saratoga, was a native of 
England, born, according to biographical account, in the 
year 1728. 

March second 1 778 catched fox with bob'd tail and 
cut ears, after seven hours chase in which most of the 
dogs were worsted. — Washington's Diary. 


1 778 — Battle of Briar Creek. 

March 3d, 1797. — When the cloth was removed 
Washington filled his glass and said, " Ladies and Gen- 
tlemen, this is the last time I shall drink your health as a 
public man. I do it with sincerity, wishing you all pos- 
sible happiness." — American Statesmen. 

1776 — Washington gains possession of Dorchester 

1770 — The Boston Massacre. 

"General Washington exhorted his soldiers to bear in 
mind the 5th of March!" 

Historians have made little account of the shooting of 
Christopher Snider, but there can be no question that it 
led directly to the collision between the ropemakers and 


MARCH— Continued, 
soldiers one week later, resulting in the massacre of 
March 5th, 1770. — Daughters of the Revolution and 
Their Times, 1 769- 1 776. 

The Bunch of Grapes Tavern, Boston, stood on the 
corner of Macerel Lane and Kings Street, now Kilby and 
States streets. Its sign was three clusters of grapes. It 
was a noted tavern, often patronized by the royal Gov- 
ernors. — Daughters of the Revolution and Their Times. 

The troops were ordered to Boston in 1 765 in conse- 
quence of the riots growing out of the passage of the 
Stamp Act, the mob having sacked the house of Chief 
Justice Hutchinson. — Daughters of the Revolution and 
Their Times. 

And there's a nice youngster of excellent pith — 

Fate tried hard to conceal by naming him Smith; 
But he shouted a song for the brave and the free — 
Just read on his medal, "My Country, of Thee." 

— Oliver Wendell Holmes. 
1 778 — Lord North's conciliatory bill receives the royal 

Firmness of mind, and unintermitting occupation, 
will not long leave you in pain. — Extract from a letter of 



A famous dinner spread by Mrs. Abel James in 1777, 
for some ill fed Continental soldiers, . . . was 
unceremoniously interrupted by the sentry's cry, "The 
Red Coats are upon us!" .... The invited guests 
retreated by one door, while the unbidden convives en- 
tered by the other, and taking their places at the board 
fell with a will upon Mrs. James' good cheer. — Colonial 
Days and Dames. 


1778 — Corporation of London address the King in 
favor of conciliation. 


"A nation without a national government is an awful 
spectacle," wrote Alexander Hamilton. 

1 78 1 — Battle of Guilford Court House, North Caro- 
lina, was fought on Thursday, the fifteenth day of 
March, between Gen. Nathaniel Greene, commanding the 
American forces^ and Earl Cornwallis, commanding the 
British army. " It was by far the most obstinate fight 1 
ever saw," wrote Greene to Washington, 


James Madison born 1751. 

" Purity, modesty, decorum — a moderation, temper- 
ance, and virtue in everything," said the late Senator 
Benton, "were the characteristics of Mr. Madison's life 
and manners," — Evert A. Duyckinck. 


1776 — The British forces evacuate Boston; Washington 
takes possession. 

The first time James Madison ever saw Mrs. Dorothy 
Todd, she v^as dressed in a mulberry colored satin, with 
a silk tulle kerchief over her neck, and on her head an 
exquisite dainty little cap, from which an occasional un- 
cropped curl escaped. — American Monthly Magazine. 

A saying of Mrs. Dolly Madison's was, " I would 
never forgive a woman who did not dress to please, nor 
one who seemed pleased with her dress. — American 
Monthly Magazine. 


All the neighbors, relatives and friends were invited to 
make merry at the wedding of the lovely Dolly Todd 
and the great James Madison. — American Monthly Mag- 


1778 — The American deputies were presented to 
Louis XVI. 

1 775 — Burke's conciliatory propositions rejected. 


General Washington had a large family coach, a 

light carriage, and chariot, all alike — cream-colored, 

painted with three enamelled figures on each panel — and 

very handsome He drove in the coach to 


MARCH— Continued. 
Christ Church every Sunday morning with two horses. 
- . . . In going to the Senate he used the chariot 
with six horses. — Republican Court. 

1 782 — American Independence acknowledged by 

It was Mrs. Washington's custom to return visits on 
the third day. ... A footman would knock 
loudly and announce Mrs. Washington. Her manners 
were easy, pleasant and unceremonious, with the charac- 
teristics of other Virginia ladies. — Republican Court. 
Be not tedious in discourse, make not many digres- 
sions, nor repeat often the same matter of discourse. — 
Washington's Rules of Behavior. 
At Mrs. Washington's levees none were admitted but 
those who had either a right by official station to be 
there, or were entitled to the privileges by established 
merit and character; and full dress was required of all. — 
American Monthly Magazine. 
,1775 — The Boston Port Bill receives the royal assent. 


The Greyhound was a much-frequented tavern in Rox- 

bury, with a figure of a greyhound upon its sign. It 

was in this tavern that the repeal of the Stamp Act was 


MARCH— Continued, 
celebrated, 1776. — Daughters of the Revolution and 
Their Times, 

In 1752, when about twenty years old, Washington 
addressed a letter to Mr. Fontleroy, which has been pre- 
served, asking permission to make a proposal of marriage 
to his daughter, "in the hope of a revocation of a former 
cruel sentence, and see if I cannot find an altercation in 
my favor." This was the most serious love affair Wash- 
ington ever had, except that with the Widow Custis, 
which resulted in marriage. — Rev. A. N. Lewis. 

1 770 — American ladies agree to disuse tea till the duty 
is repealed. 

Worse than being fooled of others is to fool one's self. 
— Tennyson. 

Thomas Jefferson born 1743. "The author of the 
Declaration of Independence, of the statute of Virginia 
for religious freedom, and father of the University of Vir- 

" Here, perhaps, we have one of the reasons why Dr. 
Franklin, who was universally confessed to be the ablest 
pen in America, was not always asked to write the great 
documents of the Revolution. He would have put a 
joke into the Declaration of Independence, if it had fallen 
to him to write it." — John T. Morse. 


" Give up money, give up fame, give up science, 
give up the earth itself and all it contains, rather than do 
an immoral act." — Thomas Jefferson. 


Play not the peacock, looking everywhere about you 
to see if you be well decked, if your shoes fit well, if 
your stockings sit neatly, and clothes handsomely. — 
Washington's Rules of Behavoir. 

The first business after the organization of the two 
houses on the sixth of April, 1 789, was the opening and 
counting of the votes for President of the United States. 
Washington secured sixty-nine. — Republican Court. 


1 789 — ^John Armstrong wrote to General Gates from 
New York — "All the world here are busy in collecting 
flowers and sweets of every kind to amuse and delight 
the President in his approach and on his arrival. Even 
Roger Sherman has set his head at work to devise some 
style of address more novel and dignified than '*Excel- 
lency." — Republican Court. 

I often fancy I should have enjoyed living in the 
good old times, but I am glad I never was a cfnld in 
Colonial New England, to have been baptized in ice 
water, fed on brown bread, .... to have been 
forced to commit Wigglesworth's "Day of Doom" to 
memory. — Customs and Fashions in Old New England. 


Fisher Ames born 1758. "The eminent orator of 


General Gates died 1806. " Victor of Saratoga." 

1 1 

War of the Revolution ended April 1 1, 1783. 

Mr. Adams was the first to receive official information 
of Washington's election, and the first to arrive in New 
York at ten o'clock on the morning of the twelfth of 
April, 1789. He left his residence in Braintree, and was 
escorted to Boston by a troop of horse from Roxbury. 
His arrival and departure were signalized by federal sa- 
lutes, which were repeated at all the chief places through 
which he passed with his numerous retinue in Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut. — Republican Court. 

"If you speak of eloquence, John Rutledge of South 
Carolina is the greatest orator." 


General Lafavette wrote in his old age, "The patience 
and endurance of both soldiers and officers was a miracle 
which each moment seemed to renew." 


Perhaps the nearest approach to "Old Glory" that 
was essayed before the Declaration of Independence was 
the flag of the Royal Savage, first floated in 1776. It 

APRIL— Continued, 
had theUnon Jack in the corner and the American stripes 
for a field.— N. Y. Herald. 

1789 — "On the evening of the i6th, about 10 o'clock, 
1 bade adieu to Mount Vernon, to private life, and to 
domestic felicity; and with a mind oppressed with more 
anxious and painful sensations than 1 have words to ex- 
press, set out for New York .... with the best 
disposition to render service to my country in obedience 
to its call." — Washington's Diary. 


Benjamin Franklin died 1790. 

It appears to me that " Poor Richard's Almanac " did 
more than anything else towards making him familiarly 
known to the public. Thus it was the humblest of all 
his labors that has done the most for his fame. — Na- 
thaniel Hawthorne. 


1789 — Washington arrived in Trenton. On the 
bridge across the Assumpink .... a triumphal 
arch had been erected; on the side toward the approach- 
ing hero'was inscribed " The defender of the mothers will 
be a protector of the daughters."— Republican Court. 


1775 — Battle of Lexington. 

" The first blood of the Revolution reddened the field 
at Lexington." 

Roger Sherman born 1 72 1 . 


Roger Sherman was of a grave and massive under- 
standing. A man wiio looked at the most difficult ques- 
tions and untied their tangled knots without having his 
vision dimmed, or his head made dizzy. — Hollister's His- 
tory of Connecticut. 


'* The first official flag was designed under the 
personal supervision of General Washington, aided by 

Mrs. Betsy Ross Mrs. Ross made the flag 

— was appointed flagmaker to the Government. — Amer- 
ican Monthly. 


Show not yourself glad at the misfortune of another 
though he were your enemy. — Washington's Rules of 


By whom, under whose influence, then, were we 
changed and made one American people ? I answer, 
by and under no one man so much as Washington. — 
Rev. Daniel Sylvester Tuttle. 

The Marquise de Lafayette, who entertained a warm 
friendship for Mrs. Jay, said with charming simplicity 
that "Mrs. Jay and she thought alike — that pleasure 
might be found abroad, but happiness only at home.'* 
— Through Colonial Doorways. 

•777 — Twenty-six sail of British vessels appeared 
off Norwalk Islands, standing in for Cedar Point. 


"Nations, like individuals, keenly feel prompt and 
sympathetic assistance in an hour of need or trial." — 
American Monthly. 

"By the rude bridge that arched the flood, 
Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, 
Here once the embattled farmers stood 
And fired the shot heard 'round the world." 

— Spirit of '76. 
James Monroe born 1758. "In person President 
Monroe was tall and well formed, of light complexion and 
blue eyes. His long and acceptable public life bears wit- 
ness to his personal and intellectual qualities." — National 
Portrait Gallery. 

Oliver Ellsworth born 1745. "Mr. Ellsworth evinced 
an inflexible integrity, the purest morality and the most 
unshaken firmness and independence." — Lives of the 
Chief Justices. 

1 789 — General Washington inaugurated President of 
the United States. 

The sun shone clearly down as if commissioned to 
give assurance of the approbation of the Divine Ruler of 
the World. — Republican Court. 

Oh ! the sweetness of the fifth month morning. — 
Walt Whitman. 


MAY 2 
At a wedding in New England where there were 
ninety-two guests, ninety-two jigs, fifty-two contra- 
dances, fifty-five minuets, and seventeen hornpipes were 
danced. — American Monthly. 

A bridal dress of 1780 was " a fawn colored satin 
damask without a train, open in front, and over a blue 
satin damask petticoat. The elbow sleeves were trimmed 
with lace, shoes were pointed at the toe, and the heels 
were two inches high." — American Monthly. 

Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There 
is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations 
and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. 
— From Patrick Henry's speech. 

The first cannon-ball which entered Nassau Hall, 
when Washington opened a fire upon it, passed through 
the portrait of George the Second and destroyed it; the 
frame was uninjured, and left suspended upon the wall. — 
Pictorial Field Book. 

"Oh! who shall know the might of the words he uttered 

The fate of nations then was turned by the fervor of his 

MAY — Continued. 
But would'st thou know his name, who wandered there 

Go, read, enroll'd in Heaven's archives, the prayer of 

Washington." — ^J. L. Chester. 

There may be, and there often is, a regard for ancestry, 

which nourishes a weak pride, but there is also a moral 

and philosophical respect for our ancestors, which elevates 

the character and improves the heart. — Daniel Webster. 

I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided, and 
that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judg- 
ing of the future but by the past. — Extract from a speech 
of Patrick Henry. 

1787 — Crossed from Mt. Vernon to Mr. Driggs's a little 
after sunrise, and, pursuing the route by the way of Bal- 
timore, dined at Mr. Richard Henderson's in Bladens- 
burg and lodged at Major Snowden's, where, feeling 
very severely a violent headache, I went to bed early. — 
Extract from Washington's Diary. 

1775 — Americans under Ethan Allen take Ticonderoga 
"In the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental 

1 1 
Immense fans were carried for sunshades as Well as 
flirting. A fan used before the Revolution, and costing 
$8, was of pictured paper with ivory frame. — American 


MAY 12 

1779 — Charleston, South Carolina, surrendered to the 


1787 — About eight o'clock Mr. Corbin and myself set 
out and dined at Chester, . . . proceeded to Phil- 
adelphia. At Gray's Ferry the city light-horse, com- 
manded by Col. Miles, met me and escorted me in; and 
the artillery officers who stood arranged saluted me as I 

passed On my arrival the bells were 

chimed. — Washington's Diary. 

1 787 — This being the day appointed for the Conven- 
tion to meet, such members as were in town, assembled 
at the state house; but only two states being represented, 
namely, Virginia and Pennsylvania. Dined in a family 
way at Mr. Morris's, — Washington's Diary. 

1 787 — Repaired at the hour appointed to the State- 
House, but, no more States being represented, . . . 
dined with members of the general meeting of the So- 
ciety of the Cincinnatti. — Washington's Diary. 

1787 — No more than two states being yet represented, 
agreed till a quorum of them should be formed to alter 
the hour of meeting at the State-house to one o'clock — 
Dined at the President, Dr. Franklin's, and drank tea at 
Mr. John Penn's. — Washington's Diary. 


MAY 17 

1 787 — Mr. Rutledge from Charleston and Mr. Charles 
Pinckney from Congress, having arrived gave a repre- 
sentation to South Carolina Dined at Mr. 

Powell's and drank tea there. — Washington's Diary. 

On Monday, the i8th of May, 1778, was given a 
great entertainment in honor of Sir William Howe and 
his brother Richard — Earl Howe (the naval commander} 
then on the eve of their departure from America. It was 
called the Mischianza, an Italian word signifying a med- 
ley. — Lossing's Field Book. 

1787 — No more States represented. Dined at Mr. 
Ingersoll's — spent the evening at my lodgings — and re- 
tired to my own room soon. — Washington's Diary. 
1775 — Perpetual union of the colonies. 
Lafayette died 1834. 
Dolly Madison born 1772. 
Colonel Greene continued to serve his country with 
honor till May 14, 1787, when, at the age of forty-four 
years, his brilliant career was brought to a close. 
Martha Washington died 1802. 

Faithful wife, and noble lady. 
Brave and tender, just and true. 

— American Monthly. 

MAY 23 
Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction ? 
Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by ly- 
ing supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive 
phantom of Hope ? — Extract from a speech of Patrick 

1775 — Josiah Martin, Royal Governor of North Caro- 
lina, fled from Newburn, the capital of the Province, and 
took refuge in Fort Johnston, at the mouth of the Cape 
Fear River. 

1787 — Another delegate coming in from the State 
of New Jersey, gave it a representation and increased the 
number to seven, which forminga quorum of the thirteen, 
the memders present resolved to organize the body 
. . . . — Washington's Diary. 
1 787 — Returned all my visits this forenoon. Dined 
with a club at the City Tavern, and spent the evening at 
my quarters writing letters. — Washington's Diary. 
Nathaniel Greene, born 1742, 

"At the Brandy wine, where more men were engaged 
than in any other battle of the war, it is well known 
that Greene saved the Continentals from annihilation.'' 
1 787 — Met in convention at ten o'clock. Two States 
more, namely, Massachusetts and Connecticut, were on 
the floor to-day .... Dined at home. — Wash- 
ington's Diary. 

MAY 29 

Patrick Henry born 1 736. 

The genius of Patrick Henry was powerful, intuitive, 
swift. By a glance of the eye he could take in what an 
ordinary man might spend hours in toiling for. His mem- 
ory held whatever was once committed to it, all his re- 
sources were at instant command ; his faculty for debate, 
his imagination, humor, tact, diction, elocution, were 
rich and exquisite — John T, Morse. 

Brood o'er the land they died to save 

Sweet Peace, with sheltering wing. 
And freedom's stainless banner wave, 
And freedom's anthem sing. 

— American Monthlv. 
Associate yourself with men of good quality if you es- 
teem your own reputation, for it is better to be alone 
than in bad company. — Washington's Rules of Behavior. 


June is the pearl of our New England year. — Lowell. 

The first of June the British fleet appeared in Charleston 
harbor. — American Monthly. 

1 787 — Major Jenifer coming in with sufficient powers 
for the purpose gave a representation to Maryland which 
brought all the States in the Union into convention, ex- 
cept Rhode Island, which had refused to send delegates. — 
Washington's Diary. 


Men and women feel the same inclination toward each 
other now that they always have done, and which they 
will continue to do, until there is a new order of things; 
and you, as others have done, may find that the passions 
of your sex are easier raised than allayed. Do not, there- 
fore, boast too soon nor too strongly of your insensibility. 
Extract from a letter of Washington's to Nelly Custis. 

Keep up a brave heart. They have begun it, that 

either could do, and we'll end it, that only one can do. — 

Joseph Warren. 

1775 — Flight of Lord Dunmore from Williamsburg, 
Virginia, to his warship Fowey. 

Nathan Hale born 1755. 

Patrick Henry died 1799. "The remarkable orator of 
the Revolution." 


When Mrs. Washington came from Mount Vernon to 
New York, after the inauguration, we are told in journals 
of the day that, "like her illustrious husband, she was 
clothed in the manufactures of our own country, in 
which her native goodness and patriotism appeared to the 
greatest advantage." — American Monthly. 

Andrew Jackson died 1843. 

The child of the Revolution, the old man of seventy, 
closed his eyes in everlasting repose at his beloved Her- 
mitage. — National Portrait Gallery. 


" Ladies you had better leave off your high roles, 
Lest by extravagance you lose your poor souls; 
Then haul out the wool, and likewise the tow, 
Twill clothe our whole army, we very well know." 
— A Revolutionary Soldier. 
— Customs and Fashions in Old New England. 


Let your recreations be manful, not sinful. — Washing- 
ton's Rules of Behavior. 

1 1 

Joseph Warren born 1741. 

We study men's lives backward to discover the germs 
of excellence in their youth ; may we not also prophesy 
of what would have been had opportunity been given ? 
No augury of excellence could well be based on a surer 
foundation than the hope which was dashed to the 
ground with the fall of Warren. — Evert A. Duyckinck. 

Nathaniel Greene died 1 786. 

" Sir, he stood high in the opinion of Washington." 

Love is said to be an involuntary passion, and it is 
therefore contended that it cannot be resisted. This is 
true in part only, for, like all things else, when nourished 
and supplied plentifully with aliment, it is rapid in its 
progress; but let these be withdrawn and it may be 
stifled in its birth or much stinted in its growth. . . . 
— Extract from Washington's Letter. 

JUNE 14 
On Saturday, June 14, 1777, the American Congress 
took the first legislative action of which there is any rec- 
ord for the establishment of a national flag for the sov- 
ereign United States of America. — American Monthly. 

1775 — General Washington made commander-in- 
chief of the continental forces. 

No shout disturbs the night, 
Before the fearful fight^ 
There was no boasting high — no marshaling 
Of men, who ne'er might meet again, 
No cup was filled and quaffed to victory. 

— ^John Neal, 
1775— The Battle of Bunker Hill. 
Death of Warren. Burning of Charleston. 
"The old Continentals, in their ragged regimentals, 
faltered not. " — Lossing's Field Book. 

1778 — Philadelphia evacuated by the British. 


Richard Henry Lee died 1 794. 

One of that band of high-minded gentlemen in Vir- 
ginia whose intelligence and spirit gave the strength of 
manhood to the infancy of the Revolution. — Evert A. 

JUNE 20 
1778 — We have heard an astonishing piece of news: 
The English have entirely left the city; it is almost im- 
possible. Evening — A horseman has just confirmed the 
above intelligence. They decamped yesterday. It is 
true; they have gone, past a doubt. May they never, 
never return. I understand that General Arnold 
has command of the city. I now think of nothing but 
returning to Philadelphia. — From the diary of Miss Sally 


It was not until June 21,1 788, that nine States ratified 
the Constitution. 


If we desire to avoid insult, we must be able to repel 
it. If we desire to secure peace — one of the most power- 
ful instruments of our prosperity — it must be known that 
we are at all times ready for war. — Extract from a speech 
of Washington. 


To call up our ancestors before us, with all their pecu- 
liarities of language, manners and garb, to show us over 
their houses, to seat us at their tables, to rumm.age their 
old wardrobes, to explain the uses of their ponderous fur- 
n iture, these parts of the duty which properly belong to 
the historian, have been appropriated by the historical 

novelist. — Macaulay. 


Watson says that weddings in Old Philadelphia, even 

among Friends, were "very expensive and harassing to 


JUNE— Continued, 
the wedded." The bride's home was filled with com- 
pany to dine, the same guests usually staying to tea and 
supper, while for two days punch was served in great 
profusion. — Colonial Days and Dames. 

At one of her ladyship's drawing rooms, owing to the 
extreme lowness of the ceiling, the ostrich feathers in the 
head-dress of a most distinguished belle, in New York 
city, (Miss Mary McEvers), took fire from the chandelier. 
They were extinguished by one of the gallant gentlemen 
clapping them between his hands. — American Monthly. 
" His integrity was most pure, his justice the most in- 
flexible I have ever known; no motives of interest or 
consanguinity of friendship or hatred being able to bias 
his decision." — So wrote Jefferson of Washington. 
The Battle of Monmouth was one of the most severely 
contested during the war. — Lossing's Field Book. 
1778 — Battle of Monmouth. Retreat of Charles Lee, 
victory of Washington. 

1776 — Charleston, South Carolina, attacked by Sir 
Peter Parker and Sir Henry Clinton; after ten hours' fight- 
ing the British were repulsed by Sir Henry Clinton. 
''Mrs. Knox" says the Duke de la Rochefoucauld Linn- 
coust, " is a lady of whom you conceive a still higher 

JUNE— Continued, 
opinion the longer you are acquainted with her. Seeing 
her in Philadelphia you think of her only as a fortunate 
player at whist; at her house in the country you dis- 
cover that she possesses sprightliness, knowledge, a good 
heart, and an excellent understanding." — Republican 

Tradition states that the "lowland beauty" was a Miss 
Grimes, of Westmoreland, afterwards Mrs. Lee, and 
mother of General Henry Lee, who figured in revolution- 
ary history as Light Horse Harry, and was always a 
favorite with Washington, probably from the recollections 
of his early tenderness for the mother. — Washington 
Irving's Life of Washington. 

The green ^hollows are filled with blossoming elder — 
white as a lake of milk. The pimpernell is awake. The 
world is at high tide of delight. — Celia Thaxter. 
We cannot claim great antiquity for our flag, and yet 
it is older than the present flag of Spain or Germany or 
China or Japan or the tricolor of France, and twenty 
years older than the one now used by Great Britain. — 
American Monthly. 

When liberty is the prize, who would shun the war- 
fare ? Who would stoop to waste a coward thought on 
life? — Extract from a Letter of Joseph Warren's. 

1 776 — Declaration of Independence. 
That old bell is still seen by the patriots' eye 
And he blesses it ever when journeying by. 

— Lossing's Field Book. 
On the fourth of July, 1826, passed away the two 
great apostles of American liberty — Thomas Jefferson 
and John Adams. — Evert A. Duyckinck. 

1779 — New Haven, Conn., plundered by the British, 


1781 — Battle near Jamestown Ford. 

Daniel Morgan born 1 736. 

Paul Jones born 1747. "The popular naval hero of 
the Revolution." 


Our flag adopted officially 1 1 8 years ago ; first waved 
above the colors of Great Britain after the Battle of Oris- 
kany. When Fort Stanwix was under siege by a com- 
bined force of British and Indians, an American flag had 
been hastily improvised, the officers giving up their 
white shirts to furnish the white stripes, and enough 
remnants of red flannel having been found to piece out 
the red ones. A blue military cloak was sacrificed to 
form the blue field, and the remaining bits of white cot- 
ton were cut into stars. — American Monthly. 

Let us stand by one another, then, and fight it out like 
brave soldiers. — From Putnam's speech. 


1 776 — On the 9th of July Washington had the declara- 
tion read at six o'clock in the evening at the head of 
each brigade of the army. 


In person, Daniel Morgan was large and strong. He 
was six feet in height and very muscular. Patriotism and 
valor were the prominent features of his character, and 
the honorable services he rendered to his country during 
the Revolutionary War crowned him with glory, and 
will remain in the hearts of his countrymen, a perpetual 
monument to his memory. — Lossing's Field Book, 

1 1 
John Quincy Adams born 1767. He comes nobly 
heralded upon the scene of our Revolutionary annals. — 
Evert A. Duyckinck. 

In person. Captain Hale was handsome, and in man- 
ners, frank and engaging. He was bold and soldierly in 
his bearing, and fond of the society of refined ladies, and 
a general favorite with them. — Hollister's History of Con- 

Francis Marion was a true, unflinching patriot, a man 
of deeds, and not of words; a prudent, sagacious soldier, 
jiot sudden or quick in quarrel, but resolute to the end. — 
Evert A. Duyckinck. 

The great fete of Colonial society was a tea drinking, 
beginning at six and ending at nine. It was a great dis- 
play of hospitality and housewifery. — The Spirit of '76. 

JULY 15 
Pure and disinterested virtue must ever be its own re- 
ward. Mankind are too selfish and too depraved to dis- 
cern the pure gold from the baser metal. — Extract from a 
letter of Abigail Adams. 

1779. — Stony Point taken by the Americans. 
Soon Wayne's watchfires at the outposts 

Set the murky night ablaze! 
Thus was Stony stormed and captured 
In the brave colonial days. 

— Sara B. Kennedy. 

One purpose then we had in view — 
To form of States a union true ; 
And eyes and hearts were turned to you, 
Our banner — grand Old Glory. 

— Thomas Dunn English. 
Justice and self-preservation are duties as much incum- 
bent upon Christians as forgiveness and love of enemies. 
— Extract from Abigail Adams' letter. 

Of all the thirteen original Colonies, Connecticut, 
founded by the learned, wise and polished John Win- 
throp, the younger, blessed with a liberal charter and 
unimpeded growth — was the Mecca for men of cultured 
mind. — The Spirit of '76. 

1775 — Continental Fast Day. 

JULY— Continued. 
More things are wrought by prayer than this world 
dreams of. . . . For so the whole round earth is 
every way bound by gold chains about the feet of God. 
— Tennyson. 


In his " Instructions " Washington commits the con- 
duct of the war to Greene's prudence and judgment. 
Both were needed for his coming work. It was an un- 
dertaking of delicacy and peril, which would have dis- 
heartened a less discreet or persevering commander. — E. 
A. Duyckinck. 


Labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of 
celestial fire called conscience. — Washington's Rules of 


Roger Sherman died 1793. But good lineage and 
intellectual powers of a high order were not adequate 
of themselves to form such a character as Sherman's. 
It was to be tried in the school of poverty and to buffet 
the waves of adversity. — Hollister's History of Con- 


Life is too short to have the dearest of its enjoyments 
curtailed; the social feelings grow callous by disuse, and 
lose that pliancy of affection which sweetens the cup of 
life as we drink it.— Extract from a Letter of Abigail 


JULY 25 

Henry Knox bom 1750. Knox, in his manly frame, 
had a woman's heart and tenderness. The brotherhood 
of the Society of the Cincinnati, founded as well with 
the idea of ''cordial affection" among the officers of the 
war, as of patriotism, is said to have originated at the 
suggestion of General Knox, and he became the general 
secretary of that body on its organization. — Evert A. 


George Clinton born 1739. "A soldier and statesman 
of the Revolution." 


1779 — General Washington made his headquarters at 
West Point. The house he occupied was situated in 
what is now called Washington's Valley. 

I believe there is no one principle which predominates 
in human nature so much, in every stage of life, from the 
cradle to the grave, in males and females, old and young, 
black and white, rich and poor, high and low, as this 
passion for superiority. — Extract from a letter of John 

Of all Connecticut's cities, New London, famous old 
seaport on the Thames, has most claim to be considered 
the distinctly original expression of the residential town. 
. . . . Here Winthrop upreared his rooftree; here 
he joyfully returned from the cares of state; here Saltin- 
stall and other governors, jurists, teachers and soldiers 


JULY— Continued. 

dwelt; here Washington and Lafayette partook of social 

cheer. — The Spirit of '76. 

1780 — " General Washington arrived at the Robinson 

House, situated on the opposite side of the river, a little 
below West Point. This house is still standing. It was 
also Arnold's headquarters at the time he was command- 
ing at West Point and maturing his plans to betray the 
fortress into the hands of the enemy, and thus by one 
blow annihilate the hopes of the independence of the 

Hope is an anchor and a cordial, 
Disappointment however will not disconcert us. 
— Extract from a letter of John Adams. 
Nothing is too slight to be precious; the flashing of an 
oar-blade in the morning light; the twinkling of a gull's 
wings afar off, like a star in the yellow sunshine of the 
drowsy summer afternoon. — Celia Thaxter. 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, at this period was the 
seat of a refined and generous hospitality, and few cities 
in America could boast of a more cultivated or polite 
society. — Republican Court. 

Martha Washington, the patient, untiring, unassertive, 

gentle yet strong, dignified and right-minded wife, made 

her presence felt in camp to help as in the Court to adorn. 

— The Colonial Magazine. 



As Mrs. Wolcott was moving with her accustomed 
ease and dignity through a dance, her figure arrested the 
attention of Liston, the British minister, who exclaimed, 
turning to Tracy, "Your countrywoman would be ad- 
mired even at St. James." ''Sir," replied the senator, 
"she is admired even on Litchfield Hill." — Rufus Wil- 
mot Griswold. 


Go not thither when you know not whether you will 
be welcome or not. Give not advice without being 
asked, and when desired, do it briefly. — Washington's 
Rules of Behavior. 


1 777 — General Herkimer was defeated and slain. 

Colonel Willet and Lieutenant Stocton cut their 
way through the English camp to alarm the country and 
gain assistance. 

1 778 — Sumpter defeats the British at Hanging Rock, 


Thaddeus Kosciusko was born in 1 736, of an ancient 
and noble family. He came to America and presented 
himself to the Commander-in-Chief, saying, "I come to 
fight asavolunteer for American Independence." — Hollis- 
ter's History of Connecticut. 

Henry Laurens, the eminent South Carolinian, was 
born in 1 724. He sacrificed property, ease, health, and 
freely perilled his life in the cause of his country. — Hollis- 
ter's History of Connecticut. 


Let us be cheerful whatever happens. Cheerfulness is 
not a sin in any times. — Extract from a letter of John 


Every action in company ought to be w^ith some sign 
of respect to those present. — Washington's Rules of Be- 

1 1 

John Stark took command of the forces gathering on 
the frontier at Bennington prepared for the attack of the 
enemy, who on the iith of August, 1777, began their 
advance on Saratoga. — Evert A. Duyckinck. 

Joel Barlow born 1755. He was one of the celebrities 
of the Revolutionary era. The author of the "Colum- 
biad." — E. A. Duyckinck. 

Don't be in the dumps, above all things. I am hard 
put to it to keep out of them. . . . But I will be 
gay if I can. — Extract from a letter of John Adams. 

1772 — Lord Hillsborough was succeeded by the Earl 
of Dartmouth as American Secretary of State. 

1778 — Sullivan besieges Newport. 
1 777 — The British defeated at Bennington. 
" Now, my men, there are the red-coats! Before night 


AUGUST— Continued, 
they must be ours, or Molly Stark will be a widow." — 
E. A. Duyckinck. 

1 780 — Battle near Camden and defeat of the Americans 
by Cornwallis, in which Baron De Kalbe is wounded. 

Jonathan Trumbull died 1809. Industrious, quiet, 
unselfish, trustworthy and with a head never giddy, 
however steep the precipice upon which he stood, and a 
heart that kept all secrets confided to it as the deep wave 
holds the plummet that is dropped into its bosom. — Hol- 
lister's History of Connecticut. 

Baron De Kalbe, a German officer, . . . came to 
America in 1777 with Lafayette and other foreign offi- 
cers. . . . His distinguished talents and many virtues 
weighed with Congress to appoint him Major-General 
in the Revolutionary Army. — Lossing's Pictorial Field 


The man who violates private faith cancels solemn ob- 
ligations. Whom neither honor nor conscience holds shall 
never be knowingly trusted by me. — Extract from a letter 
of John Adams. 


1 781 — "General Washington took up his headquarters 
at the house of Josiah Seth Smith, below Stony Point. 
. . . . Beneath its roof, on September 22nd, 1 780, 
Andre and Arnold had their meeting." 


Break not a jest where none take pleasure in mirth. 
Laugh not aloud, nor at all without occasion. Deride no 
man's misfortune, though there seem to be some cause. — 
Washington's Rules of Behavior. 


1 776 — The British land on Long Island. 

I was struck with General Washington. You had pre- 
pared me to entertain a favorable opinion of him, but I 
thought the half was not told me. Dignity, with ease 
and complacency, the gentleman and soldier, looked 
agreeably blended in him. — Extract from a letter of Abi- 
gail Adams 


1783 — General Washington arrived at Rocky Hill, four 
miles north of Princeton. "It was there he occupied the 
last headquarters of the Revolution. The house was the 
home of Judge Derrien; although somewhat dilapidated 
is still standing." 

. . . For the meeting of the General Congress at 
Philadelphia, Washington was joined at Mount Vernon 
iDy Patrick Henry and Edmund Pendleton, and they per- 
formed the journey together on horseback. It was a 
noble companionship. . . . Well may we say of 
that eventful period, "There were giants in those days." 
— Washington Irving's Life of Washington. 

Patrick Henry scouted the idea of sectional distinc- 


AUGUST— Continued, 
tions, or individual interests. . . . "All America," 
said he, " is thrown into one mass. I am not a Virgin- 
ian, but an American."— John Adams' diary. 


1 782 — The last action in the war was near Combahee 
Ferry, South Carolina. 

1776 — Battle of Long Island. Howe defeats the 
American generals Putnam and Sullivan. "It is the 
twenty-seventh of August and the British have landed. 
The battle begins, and goes against us. Behold through 
the smoke Washington's face." — Walt Whitman. 

John Stark born 1 728. 
1 78 1 — Cornwallis enters Yorktown. 

1 778— Battle of Rhode Island. 

"There is a natural firmness in some minds which can- 
not be unlocked by trifles; but which, when unlocked, 
discovers a cabinet of fortitude." — Washington Irving's 
Life of Washington. 

I know America's capable of anything she undertakes 
-with spirit and vigor. "Brave in distress, serene in 
conquest, drowsy when at rest," is her true characteristic 
— Extract from a letter of Abigail Adams. 


'Twas autumn, and a clear and placid day — a day 

With silver clouds, and sunshine on the grass. 

And in the sheltered and the sheltering groves 

A perfect stillness. 

— Wordsworth. 


The young ladies fi-om the country used to come to the 
balls at Annapolis, riding with their hoops arranged "fore 
and aft," like lateen sails ; and after dancing all night, 
would ride home again in the morning. — Washington Ir- 
ving's Life of Washington. 

It seems human nature is the same in all ages and coun- 
tries. Ambition and avarice reign everywhere, and 
where they predominate there will be bickerings after 
places of honor and profit. — Extract from Abigail Adams' 

" Modesty and mildness are the finest ornaments of the 
soul." — Maxim of Penn's. 

1774 — The first Continental Congress met in Phila- 
delphia and sat with closed doors for more than fifty 
days. Washington and Patrick Henry were among the 
delegates from Virginia. — Colonial Magazine. 

1 78 1 — The traitor, Arnold, burned New London. 
The bloody battle of Fort Griswold fought in 

Gilbert Motier de Lafayette born 1757. 


SEPTEMBER— Continued. 
The name of Lafayette has long been coupled with 
that of Washington. Both were men of justice, mod- 
esty, untiring usefulness and activity, combined with 
great moderation. — E. A. Duyckinck. 

Think before you speak; pronounce not imperfectly, 
nor bring out your words too hastily, but orderly and 
distinctly. — Washington's Rules of Behavior. 


1781 — Battle of Eutaw Springs. 

These springs are in Charleston district, near the Or- 
angeburg line, about sixty miles northwest of Charles- 
ton. — Lossing's Field Book. 

''There were many traits in the character of John Rut- 
ledge calculated to attract the popular admiration. He 
was bold, open, frank and ardent in temper and dispo- 
sition, and was gifted with those captivating conversa- 
tional powers which rarely failed to find their way to the 
sympathies and hearts of his fellows." — Lives of the 
Chief Justices. 

General Lee looks like a careless, hardy veteran, and 
by his appearance brought to my mind his namesake, 
Charles the Twelfth of Sweden. The elegance of his 
pen far exceeds that of his person. — Extract from a letter 
of Abigail Adams. 

1777 — Battle of Brandywine. The Americans de- 


Every fashionable dame of these far-off Colonial days 
wore a frontage — that is, a head-dress formed of rows of 
plaited muslin stiffened with wire, one above the other, 
and diminishing in size as they rose. — Spirit of '76. 

The dress of the gentlemen was rich with silver lace, 
the coats lined with silk, the waistcoats of satin, some- 
times 'broidered in seed pearls, the breeches trimmed with 
silver at pockets and knees; the stockings of silk, and the 
low shoes adorned with immense silver buckles. — Story 
of the City of New York. 


There is in our hearts an indignation against wrong 

that is righteous and benevolent; and he who is destitute 

of it is defective in the balance of his affections and in 

his moral character. — Extract from a letter of John Adams. 

New York evacuated by the Americans in 1 776 and 
occupied by the British. For seven years two months 
and ten days from this date the city of New York re- 
mained in possession of the British. 

Some faults have we all, and so has my Joan, 

But then they're exceedingly small; 
And now I've grown used to them so like my own, 
1 scarcely can see them at all. 

— Benjamin Franklin. 


On September 1 7, 1 787 — a day ever to be memorable 
— Washington affixed his bold and handsome signature to 
the Constitution of the United States. — American States- 

A not unworthy daughter-in-law of the thrifty mis- 
tress of the Blue Bell was Deborah Reed, the wife of Ben- 
jamin Franklin, whose dignity, discretion and great pa- 
tience during the long absences of her "dear child" 
entitle her to the respect and admiration of those who 
revere her more brilliantly endowed husband. — Colonial 
Days and Dames. 

Life takes its complexion from inferior things. It is lit- 
tle attentions and assiduities that sweeten the bitter 
draught and smooth the rugged road. — Extract from a 
letter of Abigail Adams. 

The sanctity and quiet of Sunday were strictly observed 
by Washington. — Washington Irving's Life of Washing- 


I also forgot, among the china, to mention a large fine 
jug for beer, to stand in the cooler. I fell in love with 
it at first sight, for 1 thought it looked like a fat, jolly 
dame, clean and tidy, with a neat blue and white calico 
gown on, good natured and lovely, and put me in mind 
of— somebody. — Extract from a letter of Franklin's to his 


1776 — Nathan Hale executed in New York. 
His last words, his message words, 
They burn, lest friendly eye should read how proud and 

A patriot could die with his last words, his dying words, 
A soldier's battle cry! 

— F. M. Finch. 
Major Andre captured 1779. 

Pride, vanity, envy, ambition and malice are the un- 
grateful foes that combat merit and integrity; though for 
a while they may triumph, to the injury of the just and 
good, the steady, unwearied perseverance of virtue and 
honor will finally prevail over them. — Extract from Abi- 
gail Adams's letter. 

1781 — " General Washington had his headquarters at 
the house of Chancellor Wythe at Williamsburg, Va. 
Among the associations of the past connected with this 
mansion is a legend to the effect that a titled dame^ 
Lady Skipwith, appears periodically to the tenants of 
to-day. She is always dressed in rustling silk brocade, 
and her little feet encased in high-heeled slippers." 

Patience, perseverance and firmness will overcome all 
our difficulties. — Extract from a Letter of John Adams. 

1777 — Philadelphia occupied by the British. 


SEPTEMBER— Continued. 

Samuel Adams born 1722. Mr. Adams was born and 
tempered a wedge of steel to split the knot of lignum vitae 
which tied North America to Great Britain. — ^John 


Although we cannot avoid first impressions, we may 
assuredly place them under guard. — Extract from a let- 
ter of Washington's. 


They were sad coquettes in their youth — these fair 
dames — although they look so demure in their portraits 
and proved such exemplary wives and mothers in later 
years. Duels and despairing lovers seem scarcely to have 
ruffled the serenity of their lovely countenances, or to 
have made their hearts beat faster under their stiff bod- 
ices. Did they realize, with a wisdom beyond their 
years, that heart-breaks were not of necessity fatal. Yet 
how crushed and bruised the poor hearts seemed ! — Co- 
lonial Days and Dames. 

Providence has wisely placed the real blessings of 
life within the reach of moderate abilities; and he who 
is wiser than his neighbor sees so much more to pity and 
lament, that I doubt whether the balance of happiness is 
in his scale. — Extract from a letter of Abigail Adams. 


Welcome, O brown October, like a monk with a drink- 
ing horn, like a pilgrim in russet. — Longfellow. 



Major Andre hung as a spy in 1 779. 


1777 — Battle of Germantown. 

I really am of the opinion that there are few of the 
young fellows of the modern age exempt from vanity, 
more especially those who are blessed with exterior graces. 
If they have a fine pair of eyes they are forever rolling 
them about; a fine set of teeth, mind, they are great 
laughers; a genteel person, forever changing their attitudes 
to show them to advantage. Oh, vanity, vanity; how 
boundless is thy sway. — From Miss Sally Wister's Diary, 


Time misspent and faculties misemployed, and senses 
jaded by labor or impaired by excess cannot be recalled. 
— American Statesmen. 


Washington's residence in New York — The first presi- 
dential residence was at the junction of Pearl and 
Cherry streets, Franklin Square. — Washington Irving's 
Life of Washington. 


1 78 1 — General Lincoln had the honor of opening the 
first parallel before Yorktown. 


1780 — Battle of King's Mountain. The British general 
Ferguson totally defeated by the mountaineers of the 

1777 — Second battle near Stillwater. 



John Hancock died 1793. 

He was easy and engaging in his manners; liberal in 
the employment of his wealth, turning his influence to 
good account. — Evert A. Duyckinck. 

1779 — Battle of Savannah. 

The Dorothy Quincy who married John Hancock is not 
to be confounded with the Dorothy Q. of Holmes's poem. 
— Daughters of the Revolution and Their Times. 

1 1 
Speak no evil of the absent, for it is unjust. — Wash- 
ington's Rules of Behavior. 

Jonathan Trumbull born 1710. As the Revolution 
approached, it was to men like Trumbull that the country 
specially looked for advice and counsel. — E. A. Duyck- 

. . . . Washington triumphed gloriously as never 
soldier triumphed before over enemies^ over circumstances, 
over himself, and plucked glory for himself, freedom for 
us, help for the world from the very darkness of engulf- 
ing desperation. — Rev. Daniel Sylvester Tuttle, D.D., 

William Moultrie, the distinguished major-general of 
the Revolution was one of the earliest as well as ablest 


OCTOBER— Continued, 
supporters of the popular cause. Born, according to 
some accounts, in England, about the year 1 730. — Evert 
A. Duyckinck. 

"Jonathan Harrington, the fifer of the Lexington 
minute men, was sixteen years old." 
The term " Brother Jonathan" was frequently applied 
by Washington to Governor Trumbull. When he 
wanted honest counsel and wise, he would say, " Let us 
consult Brother Jonathan." — Hollister's History of Con- 

1 777 — Burning of Kingston. 
1 777 — Surrender of General Burgoyne. 

"Would we, therefore, be true to the instincts of human 
nature if, as Americans, we felt no pride in these great 
facts, or allowed them to sink into obscurity with the 
lapse of time?" — Colonial Magazine. 

1781 — Battle of Yorktown. "Past two o'clock and 
Cornwallis is taken." " The proud army of British vet- 
erans under Lord Cornwallis marched out of their entrench- 
ments to the old British tune "The World Turned Up- 
side Down," and surrendered their arms, thus closing the 
active military operations of the War for American Inde- 


In the presence of others sing not to yourself with a 
humming noise, nor drum with your fingers or feet. — 
Washington's Rules of Behavior. 


1777— A company destined for reinforcement of Fort 
Mifflin, across the river, arrived at Red Bank for the 
night, bringing news of a march of about twelve hundred 
Hessians under Colonel Dunop in their rear on their way 
to attack Red Bank. — Lossing's Pictorial Field Book. 

May the blood spilled by thousands with equal merit in 
the cause of independence and freedom be to the ensu- 
ing generations an eternal pledge of unalloyed repub- 
licanism, federal union, public prosperity and domestic 
happiness. — Toast given by Lafayette in 1825. 

1777 — Battle of Red Bank. The whole country rang 
with the story of Colonel Greene and his brave Rhode 
Island garrison. Washington at once sent him an ele- 
gant silver sword, which the brave colonel never saw. — 
American Monthly Magazine. 

Some of the old provincial mile-stones, however, re- 
main, and put us closely in touch with the past. . . . 
Between Boston and Philadelphia there are moss-grown 
stones that were set under the supervision of Benjamin 
Franklin when he was Colonial Postmaster-General. — 
Customs and Fashions in Old New England. 


1774 — The Edenton Tea Party. At the residence of 
Mrs. Elizabeth King, at Edenton, North Carolina, fifty-one 
patriotic ladies met and passed resolutions commending 
the action of the Provincial Congress. They also declared 
that they would not conform " to that pernicious custom 
of drinking tea," or that the aforesaid ladys would not 
promote ye wear of any manufacture from England, un- 
til ye tax was repealed. — American Monthly Magazine. 

" Nathaniel Greene was born a general." 

John Adams was'diligently employed in the preparatory 
measures which led to the Declaration of Independence 
and confederation of the following year. As the time 
approached, his activity and boldness were displayed as 
the full grandeur of the scene rose to his mind. — Evert A. 

1776— Battle of White Plains. 
On the evening of the 29th of October, 1 773, the Sons 
of Liberty again assembled at the Green Dragon. A 
ship had dropped anchor off Castle William, bringing 
the news that Parliament had passed a law taxing tea. — 
Daughters of the Revolution and Their Times. 

The Green Dragon stood in Green Dragon Lane, now 
Union Street. . . . The rooms were named Devon 

OCTOBER— Continued, 
shire, Somerset, Norfolk respectively, for the shires of 
England. — Daughters of the Revolution and Their Times. 

On one occasion at a dinner table, several officers 
swore in conversation. Washington laid down his knife 
and fork and said: "I thought we were all gentlemen.' 
— Extract from an address by the Rev. A. N. Lewis. 


Like birds of passage that have taken their departure, 
so abruptly blossoming June, midsummer, and nutty 
brown October have journeyed into other lands. — Syl- 


John Cadwalader drilled and entertained .... 
this company, "The Greens," called in derision the "Silk 
Stocking Company," most of its members being gentle- 
men who afterwards formed a part of General Cadwala- 
der's brigade, which distinguished itself on many battle- 
fields. — Colonial Days and Dames. 

1783 — The American army disbanded. 

The battalion of Associators, known as "The Greens," 
and commanded by John Cadwalader, . . , wore 
green uniforms faced with buff, their hats a hunter's cap, 
and "were without exception the genteelest companies 
he (Silas Deane) had ever seen. — Colonial Days and 


Heaven seems to have granted us our desire. May it 
also direct us to improve it aright. — Extract from a Letter 
of Abigail Adams. 


With respect to the distribution of your time, the fol- 
lowing is what I should approve: From 8 to 10, prac- 
tice music; from 10 to i, dance one day and draw an- 
other; from 1 to 2, draw on the day you dance and write 
a letter next day; from 3 to 4, read French; from 4 to 5, 
exercise yourself in music; from 5 till bedtime, read Eng- 
lish, write, &c. — Extract from a letter of Thomas Jeffer- 
son to his daughter Martha. 


The olden time girl, except in the house of the Puritan 
and the Quaker, was taught to dance as well as to use 
her needle. ... Dr. Franklin expressed great inter- 
est in Sally's dancing. — Colonial Days and Dames. 

Madam Faith Trumbull contributed her scarlet cloak to 
the soldiers of the Revolution in 1777. It was after- 
wards cut into strips and employed as red trimmiing to 
stripe the dress of the American soldiers. — Hollister's His- 
tory of Connecticut. 

1775 — Lord George Germaine becomes American Sec- 
retary of State. 

I was dressed in a light French blue coat, with a high 
collar, broad lapels, and large gilt buttons, a double- 


NOVEMBER— Continued, 
breasted Marseilles vest, Nankeen — colored cassimere 
breeches, with white silk stockings, . . . and full 
lace ruffles on my breast and at my wrists, together with 
a ponderous white cravat, with a pudding in it, as we 
then called it ; and I was considered the best dressed 
gentleman in the room. — Extract from a letter to Gen. 

1 1 
If virtue was to be rewarded with wealth it would not 
be virtue. If virtue was to be rewarded with fame it 
would not be virtue of the sublimest kind. — Extract from 
a letter of John Adams. 


Be not forward but friendly and courteous, the first to 
salute, hear, and answer; and be not pensive when it is a 
time to converse, — Washington's Rules of Behavior. 

"Laurence Washington, . , . called Mount Vei- 

non, after the British admiral Vernon, under whom he 

had served in the Spanish war. . . . He died 1752, 

leaving George the guardian and eventual inheritor of 

Mount Vernon." — Colonial Magazine. 

A veteran officer of the Revolution used to speak in 
his old days of the occasion on which he first saw Ham- 
ilton. It was during the memorable retreat through the 
Jerseys. ''I noticed" said he, "a youth, a mere stripling, 
small, slender, almost delicate in frame, was marching 
beside a piece of artillery, with a cocked hat pulled 
down over his eyes, apparently lost in thought, with his 


NOVEMBER— Continued, 
hand resting on the cannon, and every now and then 
patting it as he mused, as if it were a favorite horse or pet 
plaything." — Washington Irving's Life of Washington. 

1 777 — The Articles of Confederation were adopted by 

1776 — Fort Washington taken by the British. 

I shall call that my country where I may most glorify 
God and enjoy the presence of m.y dearest friends. — 
Extract from a letter of Governor Winthrop. 

1 776 — Fort Lee evacuated. 
•777 — The Americans evacuate Fort Mercer. 

In glancing over the colonies North and South there 
seems to have been no life more delightful than that of 
Maryland and Virginia. Handsome, spacious mansions, 
a fertile soil, genial climate, fine horses and retinues of 
servants conspired to give the home life of the Southern 
planter many of the characteristics of English country life. 
— Colonial Day and Dames. 
Not a word other face, of her shape, or her air, 
Or of flames, or of darts, you shall hear; 
I beauty admire, but virtue 1 prize, 
That fades not in seventy year. 

— Benjamin Franklin. 


Nature has made more insects than birds, more but- 
terflies than eagles, more foxes than lions, more peb- 
bles than diamonds. The most excellent of her produc- 
tions, both in the physical, intellectual and moral world, 
are the most rare. — Extract from Abigail Adams' letter. 


God helps them who help themselves. — Benjamin 


It was in the drawing-room of Mrs. Robert Morris 
that the Prince de Broglie performed his feat of tea-drink- 
ing, accepting one cup of tea after another because they 
were offered to him by a lady, as he afterwards ex- 
plained, adding, *' I should be even now drinking it if 
the ambassador had not charitably notified me at the 
twelfth cup that I must put my spoon across it when I 
wished to finish with this sort of warm water." — Colo- 
nial Days and Dames. 


Colonial women faced perils and difficulties with un- 
failing heroism and patience. " To find a way or make 
one " seemed to be the motto of the hour. Danger de- 
veloped latent courage, and emergency seemed to whet 
mother wit to keen edge. — Colonial Days and Dames. 

. . . But the day of days . . . was when the 
lady . . . came down the steps as a bride in her trav- 
elling dress of rich silk, attended by the groom, who was 

NOVEMBER— Continued, 
brave in satin, velvet and shining buckles. When the 
steps of the great black chariot with its yellow wheels 
were let down, and the bride stepped in and the groom 
took his place beside her, the moment was intensely- 
thrilling — the last act in this drama of love. Are there 
any such weddings now ? Are there any brides like 
those ? — Colonial Days and Dames. 
The famous belle, Mrs. Vining, in a letter to Governor 
Dickinson in 1783, wrote, ''Here, or more properly speak- 
ing, in New York, you enter the room with a formal 
set curtsy, and after the how-do's, things are finished; 
all's a dead calm till the cards are introduced, when 
you see pleasure dancing in the eyes of all the matrons, 
and they seem to gain new life." — Republican Court. 
1 778 — British forces sail for Georgia. 

Where there is most learning, sense and knowledge^ 
there is always observed to be the most modesty and rec- 
titude of manners. — Extract from a letter of Abigail 


When we look into the faces of some of these, Colonial 
dames, as they have come down to us in portraits of the 
time, and read there the strength, nobility and self-restraint 
that the lines disclose, we realize how much these women 
contributed toward the character-building that rendered 


NOVEMBER— Continued, 
the Revolutionary period an almost phenomenal epoch in 
the history of nations. — Colonial Days and Dames. 

if men turn their backs and run from an enemy, they 
cannot, surely, expect to conquer him. — Extract from a 
letter of Abigail Adams. 

Softly, thickly, fastly fall the snowflakes — like the 
seasons of life upon man. — I. K. Marvel. 

Richard Montgomery born 1736, The noble-spirited 
hero, of vivid intellect and ardent susceptibilities, brought 
military experience and domestic virtue to the service of 
the Revolution. — Eveit A. Duyckinck. 

Vapors avaunt! I will do my duty and leave the 
event. If I have the approbation of my own mind, 
whether applauded or censured, blessed or cursed by the 
world, I will not be unhappy. — ^John Adams. 

"On December 4th, Washington's officers assembled in 

Fraunces's Tavern to bid him farewell. Taking a glass 

of wine, he lifted it up and said simply, "With a heart 

full of love and gratitude, 1 now take my leave of you, 

most devoutly wishing that your latter days may be as 

prosperous and happy as your former ones have been 

glorious and honorable." 

1 782 — Charleston evacuated by the British. 


It was General Washington's custom frequently, when 
the day was fine, to come out to walk attended by his 
secretaries, Mr. Lear and Major William Jackson, one on 
each side. He always crossed directly before his own 
door to the sunny side of the street and walked down. 
He was dressed in black, and all three wore cocked hats. 
— From the Note Book of the late Mrs. Horace Binney 
Wallace of Philadelphia. 


Sunday at home with my family thinking, reading, 
searching, concerning taxation without consent. — ^John 
Adams's Diary. 


Washington was to open the session of Congress. He 
stood in all his civic dignity and moral grandeur — erect, 
serene, majestic. His costume was a full suit of black 
velvet; his hair, in itself blanched by time, powdered to 
snowy whiteness; a dress sword at his side, and his hat 
held in his hand. — Mr. Richard Rush. 

1776 — Washington crossed the Delaware. 
" These," wrote Thomas Paine, " are times that try 
men's souls." 

It may be the action at Great Bridge, near' Norfolk, 
Virginia, fought December ninth, 1775, is entitled to the 
honor of being called the first victory of the Revolution. 
— American Monthly Magazine. 

Governor Wolcott in a letter to his mother from New 
York, writes: "As there appears to be great regularity 
here; honesty is as much in fashion as in Connecticut; 
and I am persuaded that there is a much greater atten- 
tion to good morals than has been supposed." — 
Republican Court. 

1 1 

In the early part of the Revolution the very boys wore 
wigs, and their dress was similar to that of the men. — 
American Monthly Magazine. 


John Jay born 1 745. The Christian patriot of the 
Revolution. His favorite maxim was — " Those who own 
the country ought to govern it." — Evert A. Duyckinck. 

Broad-minded, higher-souled, there is but one who 
was all this, and ours, and all men's Washington. — 

General Washington died 1 799. 
Thrice favored Virginia — to have formed the early lite 
of such a man, to have rocked his cradle, and to con 
tain his ashes. — Richard Rush. 

Blessed be that man who is possessed of true love of 
liberty; let all the people say Amen. — From the Rev. 
David Jones's address. 

1773 — Boston Tea Party. 

How odd it is tiiat the liberties of America should 
have anything to do with a cup of tea. — Hawthorne. 


The waters in the rebel bay 

Have left their tea-leaf savor, 
Our old north enders in their spray — 
Still taste a Hyson flavor. 

— Oliver Wendell Holmes. 
Be not angry at table whatever happens; and if you 
have reason to be so, show it not; put on a cheerful 
countenance, especially if there be strangers; for good 
humor makes one dish a feast. — Washington's Rules of 

Lafayette wrote to his wife in 1777: "Host and 
hostess sit at the table with you and do the honors of a 
comfortable meal; and on going away you pay your fare 
without higgling." — Customs and Fashions of Old New 

About Christmas time, 1 777, Mr, Bushnell committed 
to the Delaware River a number of his " infernal, ma- 
chines " in the form of kegs, which he designed should 
float down and destroy the British fleet at Philadelphia; 
but the strange squadron having been separated and re- 
tarded by the ice, demolished but a single boat. — Hol- 
lister's History of Connecticut. 


The cannons roar from shore to shore; 

The small guns loud did rattle; 
Since wars began, I'm sure no man 

E'er saw so strange a battle. 
From morn to night, these men of might 

Displayed amazing courage, 
And when the sun was fairly down, 

Repaired to sup their porridge. 

—The Battle of the Kegs. 


When a person or people are in a state of perplexity, 
and know not what to do, they ought never to do I 
know not what. — From a letter of John Adams. 

Washington resigned his commission as Commander- 
in-Chief of the American armies 1783. 

Oldmixon describes Germantown in 1 700 as composed 
of one street a mile in length, lined on each side in front 
of the houses with blooming peach trees. — HoUister's 
History of Connecticut, 


In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the sea, 

With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me; 

As He died to make men holy, let us die to make men 


While God is marching on. 

— Mrs. Julia Ward Howe's Battle Hymn. 

DECEMBER— Continued. 
On Christmas Day in Seventy-six, 
Our ragged troops, with bayonets fixed, 
For Trenton marched away. 
— Moore's Ballads and Songs of the Revolution. 

1 776— Battle of Trenton. 

"The Trenton campaign has all the qualities of some 
of the last battles fought by Napoleon in France before 
his retirement to Elba. Moreover, the battles show not 
only generalship of the first order, but great statesman- 

The earliest roads for travel throughout New England 
followed the Indian trails or paths, and were but two or 
three feet wide. — Customs and Fashions in Old New 


1778 — The British captured Savannah. 

" Our women of the Revolution were strong factors 
from its incipiency and through every step of its prog- 
gress; they worked untiringly with hands and brains, 
providing food, clothes, and all that was needful— watch- 
ful of the fold and of events; quick of wit, clever at ex- 
pedients, skilful in diplomacy, and as spies unequalled.'' 
— The Colonial Magazine. 


"As yet our histories contain scarcely more than the 
groundwork; the record of marches, skirmishes, defeats, 
losses, want and suffering, and, to crown all, the glori- 
ous fruition so long struggled for, so hardly won; but 
when these fireside tales of home life and personal ad- 
ventures run like a thread of shining gold through this 
fabric of bare cold facts, giving brightness, life and 
warmth to our revolutionary history, then will shine 
forth also the glorified faces ot the women factors, and 
their factorship be recorded." — The Colonial Magazine. 


The colored design on the cover is used by the 
courtesy of " The Spirit of '76/' a monthly publication 
issued in the interests of patriotic organizations. Office. 
14 Lafayette Place, New York City. Subscription price, 
$1 a year. 

H32 75 Si*^ 

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