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The Mi$torle<xl ticcov^s Svrvcy 

The Historical RecovS^ 5vtvvcy 
Boston, IlZassaettuselts 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 


of the 

Letters of Charleo Robert Danvin 


Asa Gray 

■,"Jitli an Introclur'.ticn 
■ ■ by 

Bert Loevjonoerg 
Acr-iatant Profecsor of Hictorv, Univeraity of South Dakote 

Prepared by 

The Historical Records Survey 

Division of Professional and Service Projects 

"vC ji-i: ?_;:.j^;;cta Aasiini strati on 

The Historical Recor;] 
Boston, Massachur 
Decer.ber, 19S9 

Tho Historical Records Survey 

Luther H Evans , 
Sargent B Child, 
Carl J Wennerblad , 


Field Supervisor 

State Supervisor 

Division of Professional and Service Projects 

Florence Kerr, 
Robert Y Phillips 
Harold G Dunney 

Assistant Commissioner 
Regional Supervisor 
State Director 


F C Harrington, 
John .J McDonough, 
Denis V/ Delaney, 

Regional Director 
State Administrator 


By authority of a Presidential Letter, the Historical Records Survey 
vras established in January, 1936, under the national direction of Dr. 
Luther H. Evans, as a federally sponsored project of the Works Progress 
Adjnini strati on (nov; the Work Projects Administration) . Since federal 
sponsorship ceased on August 31, 1939', the sponsorship of the Massa- 
chusetts unit of the survey has been undertaken by Frederic W. Cook, 
Secretary of the Comraonv/ealth. 

The purpose of the project is to survey, preserve and render acces- 
sible historical source materials of all kinds. Its work has fallen 
naturally into the following main divisions: public records, private 
manuscripts, church records, early American imprints, historical portraits 
and newspapers. Practically all historical material falls under one or 
another of these divisions. In bringing this material under control 
certain techniques have been found practicable, depending on the nature 
of the subject matter, and using variously the methods of the inventory, 
the guide, the calendar, the check list or the index in the publication 
of the result. For public records, church records and portraits, the 
method of the inventory has worked best; for historical manuscripts, the 
guide or, in rare cases where the material luas of unusual importance, 
the calendar: for imprints, the .check list; for newspapers and court 
records, the index; and so on. 

The actual vrork of gathering information concerning historical ma- 
terials at their place of storage or custody has in most cases been pre- 
ceded by a most necessary and, for both' the custodian and posterity, im- 
portant task, that of putting records 'in' order; of cleaning, dusting, re- 
filing, and treating them; and, in' "short", doing everything possible to 
ensure their preservation. This function of the project, often performed 
by its vrorkers under almost indescribable conditions of dust, filth, 
dampness, poor ventilation, and even vermin may well be regarded by future 
generations as a most important contribution of the survey. 

Scarcely less important, however, are the editorial processes to 
which all field information must be subjected before publication. Here 
gaps and inadequacies are spotted, inconsistencies reconciled, and order 
brought out of chaos. In the field of public records it has been found 
necessary not only to sketch briefly the history of the county or town 
and its government but also to preface the inventory of each subordinate 
office or institution with an outline of its development, based upon its 
ovm records or upon statutory or other sources. In the inventories of 
church records, similarly, the preparation of the history of each church 
constitutes a task equally arduous y;ith that of locating and listing its 
records. In Massachusetts tvro broader works have also been undertaken. 
The general historical background, statutory origin and functioning of 
county, city, or tovm offices have been studied with a view to providing 
satisfactory accounts of the development of county and municipal govern- 
ment generally. These latter undertakings are now happily nearing com- 

In the field of county records the surveys of eight of the fourteen 
counties of Massachusetts are nearing completion. In that of municipal 
records, approximately sixty of 350 citifes and towns have been covered 
to date including several of the more populous. Editorial work is now 
also proceeding on six of an estimated ten volumes of the inventory of 
the records of the city of Boston. Some 200 manuscript depositories, 
large and small, have been surveyed and a preliminary guide to them 
published. An inventory of the records of Universalist churches in 
Massachusetts will soon be published, and field work is being carried 
on in other denominations, particularly in the Unitarian, Congregational, 
Baptist, and Jewish bodies. A catalogue of portraits painted before 
1825 in Massachusetts has been published and editorial work is proceeding 
on similar listings for the other New England states and New York State. 
A listing of the publications of the Massachusetts unit of the survey 
follovrs at the end of this volume. 

This Calendar of the Letters of Charles Robert Darv/ln to Asa Gray , 
the originals of vriiich are in the possession of the G-ray Herbarium at 
Harvard University, was undertaken because of the importance of the ma- 
terial. The 138 letters here condensed are, because of Darv;in's hand- 
writing, difficult and often v:ell-nigh impossible to read. Some pas- 
sages , because of their content , admit of no compression. Many have been 
published and a marginal indication has been made of that fact,, A very 
complete index has been provided. 

The calendar is primarily the work of Miss Cora F, Holbrook to 
whose careful and painstaking scholarship its accuracy and usefulness 
will be due. The field work which called for the reading of each one 
of the letters was largely done by Miss Marion R. Spreadby. The ¥rork 
has been done under the general supervision of Mr. Aron S. Gilmartin, 
who has charge of the manuscript and church survey division of the project, 

The Historical Records Survey is indebted to the officials of the 
Gray Herbarium at Harvard University especially to Charles Alfred 
Weatherby, curator of the Gray Herbarium and to Professor Merritt Lyndon 
Fernald, Bishop Professor of Natural History at Harvard and director of 
the Herbarium, for their cooperation and assistance. It is also indebted 
to Dr. Bert J. Loevrenberg, assistant professor in the department of his- 
tory at the University of South Dakota for the introduction contributed 
by him and for his very helpful criticism of the manuscript. 

Finally, it vdshes to express its obligation to the national 
editorial office of the survey, especially to Dr= Luther E Evans, 
director, and Mrs. Margaret Sherburne Eliot for advice and assistance; 
and to Secretary of the Commonv;ealth, Frederic W Cook, for the sponsor- 
ship which makes this publication possible. 

Carl J .. Wennerblad 
State Supervisor 
Historical Records Survey 


Preface . , i 

Introduction v 

E:>:planatory Notes 1 

Calendar of Charles Robert 

Darvj-in Letters to Asa G-ray 3 

Biographical Notes ».,....... o. , 97 

Index , . o . o . . o . „ , 107 

List of Publications 148 


Letters in the hand of Charles Robert Darwin awaken an enthusiasm 
in collectors of original manuscripts scarcely less fervid than that 
inspired by other literary remains But without the carefully drawn 
bo'jndaries of certain academic specialties, there is little interest 
in the thoLi^jl-Lt of Asa Gray whether in manuscript or in published form 
Charles Robert Darwin, famed before the publication of the OrlSi,n_of, 
Spe cies in 1859, thereafter became the most widely knovm (and most 
widely discussed) scientist of the nineteenth century The reputation 
of Asa Gray, on the other hand, spread fui'ther and deeper in Europe 
than in the United States until the controversy which the Origin__o_f 
Species initiated, directed public notice to his activity as an apostle 
of reasonableness It is, therefore, the distinguished recipient 
rather than the famous sender of these letters who requires some brief 

Asa Gray ^/jas born in Oneida, New York, in 1810 and early indicated 
a fondness for study While still a raedical student (1830) , Gray made 
the acquaintance of Dr John Torrey, a leading American botanist (of 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York) xvho exerted a 
profound influence on the later corrse of his life Association with 
Torrey caused Gray to forsake medical practice for- scientific research- 
but the difficulties confronting professional botanists in the America 
of the thirties were real indeed Botany vras an avocation cultivated 
by doctors, ministers and the independently vrealthy; it was not an 
accepted method of earning a living Remunerative posts for botan- 
ists "■•■fere few and Gray was forced to exist by teaching in various 
capacities in Utica (New York) and elsevAcre Long winters of un- 
requi"t''jd effort, however, were followed by rich summers spent in field 
trips which yielded treasures of experience Gray s ability v;as 
matched by Torrey '' s zeal in his behalf which was responsible for Grays 
first major appointment as curator of the botanical collections of 
the New York Lyceum of Natural History (1836) Torrey s continuing 
patronage— and Gray s continuing success — vras further demonstrated 
by an invitation to collaborate on the Flor a of N or th Ameri ca, an 
invitation for which all disciples hope but which few receive 
Finally in 1838, Gray was appointed professor of Natural History 
at the University of Michigan then an outpost on the American cul- 
tural frontier But Gray was convinced that until he had studied the 
North American planes in European herbaria he could not progress with 
the Fl ora Accordingly, he sought and sec-ored leave from the University 
to visit Europe - It was during these European Wander jahre that he 

1 The connection vrith Michigan never materialized for, when 
Gray returned to the United States after intermittent trips in 184", 
he became Fisher Professor of Natural Plistory at Harvard, a position 
he retained until 1873 He continued at Harvard after 1873 as director 
of the Herbarium 


becaiae acquainted vfith many of the most eminent scientific men and, among 
othGi-3, he met Charles Robert Danvin to whom he vras presented, appro- 
priabely enough, in the gardens at Kew 

The Harvard professorship marks a turning point not only in the history 
Asa Gray but in the history of botanical science in America Here G-cay 
worked for forty- six years in the triple role of scholar, educator axid 
critic During this period ho laid the foundations for systematic 
botany in the United States and made many an excursus into the realms 
of biological philosophy Gray became the foremost American botanist 
v/hile Harvard became the clearing housci for scholarship in this and 
related fields 

Gray vms a great teacher as well as a great scholar His personal 
influence on students, while considerable, was exceeded by the influence 
of his vnritings The famous Manual (first edition, 1848) is simply 
the best known title in a staggering bibliography yet it was not his 
books and articles alone which stimulated American scientific men 
lie was a prolific writer of critical reviews, which he considered one 
of his most vital functions, and it vras partly through these reviews 
that American students were informed of European developments in botany 
and its contiguous provinces- Of these reviews a distinguished natu- 
ralist later said, "a chronological collection of this great series of 
reviews vrould form a most instructive commentary on the history of 
botany for a half a century " 

Gray's teaching was not bounded by the classroom or restricted to 
critical and monographic v/riting The Darv/inian debate, seldom confined 
to the issue of the variability of species, im.pelled Gray to take a 
leading part on the side of tolerance This was Gray s largest class 
and many an untrained but intelligent layman learned something of the 
basic intellectual values which the controversy seemed momentarily to 
threaten Gray al;:v'j conducted by correspondence a seminar in the 
problems of biology He was an ardent and accomplished exponent of 
the art of letter v/riting as a medium of teaching and criticism 
Among the students who sought his consel v/as Charles Robert Darwin 

These letters are noteworthy for v/hat they reveal of Gray as well 
as for v;hat they reveal of Darv7in, They illustrate Darwin s reliance 
upon Gray s learning and his dependence upon Gray s opinion of the 
larger issues of biological theory The correspondence is especially 
valuable because it coincides with an epoc]-L crucial in the history of 
intellectual development and with a period equally crucial in the life 
of Charles Robert Darwin Although the formative era in Dam/dn s think- 
ing came in the thirties and forties, the years from 1555 to 1859 ?rere 


vital since this was the time that the final mental drafts of the 
Origin of Species vrero composed. Thereafter, from 1859 to 1881, 
Darv/in labored unceasingly on revisions of the Origin and his other 
publications, all integral parts of the mosaic of evolution.. Advice 
of men like Asa Gray xvas second in importance only to Darv/in's own 
thought and Darvfin's letters are one of the grandest testimonials of 
the interdependence of scholarship. The period from 1859 to 1881, 
m.oreover , synchronized i-zith the first stage of the evolution contro- 
versy in America in which Gray's activity and strategic .suggestions 
were essential elements of Danvin' s ultimate victory. 

Bert James Loewenberg 

University of South Dakota 


Most of the letters are ivritten from Down, Bromley, Kent; un- 
less otherwise indicated, this may be assumed by the reader. 

Dates supplied from Life and Letters of Charles Darvfin or from 
More Letters of Charles Darv;in have been enclosed in brackets. An 
asterisk used with the date denotes one which has been supplied in pencil 
on the original letters in a handvTriting other than DariTin's. 

A vertical line in the margin indicates that a Tjortion of the 
letter appears in Life and Letters [L. L,] and Mor e Letter s [M. L.]. 
Although other publications also include quotations, such are not indicated. 

The number immediately folloxving the dimensions of each letter 
is that used on the original manuscript at the Gray Herbarium. 

In condensing the text, generous quotations have been made from 
the letters themselves. In addition, Darwin's works, phrases or style 
of vrriting have been retained wherever they best express the thought. 
Such passages, hovrever, have Mot alvrays been enclosed in quotation marks. 

Throughout the letters, Dar'/.dn refers to his several publishers: 
John Murray, 3d, of England; Karl J. Triibn^r, -f Germany, and to D. 
AppJ.eton and Co., and Ticknor and Fields, of the United States. Full 
identifications are not given in the entries. 

The full title of the British Association for tha Advancem.ent 
of Science has not been given in every instance. 

The American Joixrnal of Science and Arts is commonly referred 
to by Darwin, Gray and in publications as Silliman's Journal . This 
shorter form of reference has also been retained in the calendar.. 

First names of persons m.entioned have been supplied in most 
instances. First names are omitted, hovrever, in some cases where it has 
been impossible to identify them with certainty; and in other instances, 
T/here identification vrould necessitate more extended research than v/as 

jjiographical notes have been appended for most of the people 
mentioned in the correspondence. Uhen it has not been possible to 
identify with certainty, no note appears. 

TO ASA GRAY, 1G55-81,, 

3] Dov7n, Farnborough, Kent. 

17-'- Hopes Gray remembers being introduced to him [DarwinJ at Kev;: 
asks if Gray vjould ansvrer some questions for him as he is "no bot- 
anist" and would like to test his animal "variation" facts on plants 
he has the "greatest curiosity about Alpine Flora of the United 
States" and asks Gray to give him "other habitats or range of these 
plants, appending 'Indig.' for such as are confined to the mountains 
of the U S -'A.rctic Am.' to such as are also found in Arctic America 
'Arctic Eu. ' to those also found in Arctic Europe, -'Alps' to those 
.found in any mountains of Europe, and 'Arct, Asia'." Notices there 
are 22 species common to the White Mountains and the mountains of 
New York; asks how xvido a space of lov; land, on vriiich these Alpine 
plants cannot grov7, separates these mountains; hopes Gray vrill for- 
give one who is "not a botanist" for being so "presumptuous" as to 
make "even the most trifling suggestion to such a botanist" as Gray, 
A„ L. S. 2 pp. 25 cm x 20 cm. No, 1 [l 

L L 



Down, Farnborough, Kent, 

Thanlcs Gray for the list of Alpine plants; can now picture, to 
some degree, the plants of American Alpine summits; the New Edition 
of Gray ' s Manual of the Botany of the Northern U Sc is "capital" 
news; knovxs from the preface hoxv "pressed" Gray is for room, but it 
vrould take no space to append "Eu." in a bracket to every European 
plant, and this would ansvrer every purpose; from his ovm experience 
-while "making out" English plants in English manuals, it has often j 
"struck" him how much interest it would give if some notice of thoir I 
range had been .indicated, and so he cannot doubt that American in- j 
quirers and beginners "vrould much like to knov; which of their plants \ 
were indigenous and which European"; asks if it would not be well in | 
the Alpine plants to append the very same additions which Gray has I 
now sent in the manuscript; suggests giving the habitats of those ] 
plants found west of the Rocky Mountains and those found in Eastern : 
Asia, which, if he remembers correctly, is the main partition line j 
of Siberia; "Perhaps Siberia more concerns the northern Flora of N. \ 
/imerica. The rar^es of the plants, to the East and West, viz. v/hether 
most found are in Greenland and VJestern Europe, or in E, Asia appear 
to me a very interesting point as tending to sho?; whether the migra- 
tion has been Eastward or Westvrard," Is "conscious that the only use 
of these remarks is to show a Botanist what points a non-Botanist is 
cutiQUS to learn; for I think everyone who studies profoundly a sub- 
ject often becomes unaxvare v;hat points the ignorant require informa- 
tion." Is glad Gray thinks of "drav/ing up some notice on geographi- 
cal distribution, for the area of the Manual strikes me as in some 


1. Life and Letters dates this letter Apr. 25, 1055, 

2. The vertical '.line indicates what portion of the letter has 
appeared ih print; the marginal note "L.L." refers to Life and 
Letters , 1887 edition, and "M„L." to More Letters , 1902 edition. 

points better adapted for comparison v;ith Europe than that of the 
vrhole of N. America." Cannot state, as Gray has asked him to do, 
definite points on which he -.uishes information as "they are so vague" 
wishes to see vfhat results v;ill come out from comparisons; "I pre- 
sume . you would give for your area, the proportions (leaving 
out introduced plants) to the v/hole of the great leading families; 
this is one point I had intended (and indeed have done roughly) to 
tabulate from your Book, but of course I could have done it only 
very imperfectly I should also , ., have ascertained the pro- 
portion to the v;hole Flora of the European plants (leaving out in- 
troduced) and of the separate great families , in order to speculate 
on means of transportal " Sent Gray a copy of the Gardeners ' Chron - 
icle with his short report of some "trifling" experiments he has 
been trying on tho povrer of seeds to withstand sea v;ater; "Has it 
struck you ■ - that it would be advisable for Botanists to give 
in whole numbers , as vjell as in the lowest fraction, the propor- 
tional numbers of the Families . Then I m.ake out from your Manual 
that of the indigenous plants the proportion of the Umbelliferae 
are 36/1793 - 1/49, for v;ithout one knows the whole numbers, one 
cannot judge hovj" really close the numbers of the plants of the same 
family are in t?ro distant countries . . I may give an instance 
of the sort of points, and how vague and futile they often are , 
which I attempt to work out, tnat reflecting on [Robert] Brown's 
and [Sir Joseph] Hooker's remark, that near identity of propor 
tional number of the great Families in two countries, shows probably 
that they vieve once continuously united-, I thought I would calcu- 
late the proportions of, for instance, the introduced Compositao 
in Grt Britain to all the introduced plants, and the result v/as 
10/92 ~ 1/9 2 In our aboriginal or indigerous flora the proportiaijs l/lO, and 
in many other cases I found an equally striking correspondence; I 
then took your Manual and vrorked out the sam.e question, here I found 
in the .Compositae an almost equally striking correspondence, viz- 
24/206 =^ 1/8 in the introduced plants and 223/1798 - 1/8 in the in- 
digenous; but v-fhen I came to the other Families, I found the propor- 
tions entirely different showing that the coincidences in the British 
Flora vrere probably accidental! You will, I presume, give the pro- 
portion of the species to the genera " Suggests dividing species 
into 3 groups - (a) species common to the Old World, stating numbers 
comraon to Europe and Asia, (b) indigenous species, but belonging to 
genera found in the Old World, (c) species belonging to genera con- 
fined to America or the New World; would like to have marked the 
close species in a Flora, so as to compare in different Floras 
whether the same genera have close species, and "for other purposes 
too vague to enumerate", has attempted, v/ith Hookei ' s help, to "as- 
certain" in a similar v;ay whether the different species of the same 
genera in distant quarters of the globe are variable or present var- 
ieties; "The definition I should give of a 'c lose species ' was one 
that you_ thought specifically distinct, but which you could conceive 
that some other good Botanist might think only a race or variety; or 
again a species that gives bad trouble, thoi:igh havijig opportunities 
of knovdng it vrell , in discriminating from some other species," 

L L 

Thanks G-ray for answering questions about, the distance of the 
Alpine sumnits; from his map he cannot make "tally" what G-ray says 
about the distance of the VJhite Mts, from G-reen Mts , , and Green Mts» 
from those of N.Y, 

A. L S, 18 pp, 20 cm X 13 cm. No, 2 [2] 

[1855?] "It is preposterous in ne to give you hints, but", as [Sir H H L 
May 2 Joseph] Hooker says, "my questions are sometimes suggestive owing 1,422 
to iry comparing the ranges etc- in different kingdoms of nature," 
Forgets whether Gray includes Arctic America, but, if so, for com- 
parison with other parts of the world, suggests he exclude Artie and 
Alpine-Arctic as belonging to a quite distinct category; vfhen ex- 
cluding the naturalized, thirJcs [Alphonse Louis Pierre] de Candolle 
"must be right in advising the exclusion, giving list, of plants ex- 
clusively found in cultivated land, even vfhen it is not known they 
have been introduced by man. I vrould give list of temperate plants ^ 
if any, found in Eastern Asia, China, and Janan, and not elsewhere.., 
Nothing would give m.e a. better' ideaof I'loraof-U. S than the prcport ion 
of the genera to all t.he genera, vmich are confined to America, and 
the proportion of genera cor^ined to A]?ierica and Eastern Asia v/ith 
Japan; the remaining genera vrould be comraon to America and Europe 
and rest of the vrorld; I presuine it vroiild be imxpossible to show any 
esjiecial affinity in genera = „ ,. between America and Western Europe; 
America might be related to Eastern Asia, (alvrays excluding Arctic 
forms) by a genus having the same species confined to these two 
regions; or it might be related by the genus having different spec- 
ies, the genus itself not being found elsevj-herer The relation of 
the genera, (excluding identical species) seems to me a most im- 
portant element in geographical distribution often ignored, and I 
presume of more difficult application in plants than in animals, 
0T;ing to the A'/ider ranges of plants, but I find in N-. Zealand (from 
Hooker) that the consideration of genera v/ith representative species 
tells the story of relationship even plainer than the identity of 
the species v;ith different parts of the vrorld I should like to see, 
the genera of the U. States, say 500 (excluding Arctic and Alpine) 
divided into 3 classes, v/ith the proportions given, thus, 100/500 
American genera, 200/500 Old World genera, but not having any identi- 
cal species in comm^on; 200/500 Old World genera, but having some 
identical species in common; supposing that these 200 genera in- 
cluded 600 U. S, plants, then the 500 vrould be the denominator to 
the fraction of the species in common to the Old World." Refers to 
a "discussion" in De Candolle 's book on the relation of the size of 
families to the average range of the individual species, and "can- 
not but think" from facts he collected "long before De Candolle ap- 
peared" that he is on the "vrrong scent" in having taken families, 
owing to their including too great a diversity in the constitution i 
of the species, but that if he had taken genera he would have found | 
that the individual species in large genera range over a greater area than do the 
species in small genera; thinks, if Gray has materials, this would 
be well vrorth vrorking out, for it is a "very singular relation"; 
asks if any naturalized plants in the United States are social vfhich 
are not so in their parent country; is surprised the imiportance of 
this has not struck De Candolle; asks if m-any of these naturalized 
plants are more variable than the average of United States plants; 

"De Candolle has stated that the naturalized plants do not present M L 
varieties; but being ver'/ variable and presenting distinct varie- 1,422 
ties seems to me rather a different case." Asks if individuals of 
naturalized plants, v^hich have their southern limits v/ithin Gray's 
area, are ever or often stunted in grov/th or unhealthy; has en- 
deavored in vain to find any botanist v>rho has observed this point, 
but has seen seme remarks by Barton on the trees in the United States; 
"Trees seem in this respect to behave rather differently from other 
plants." Believes it vroiLLd be a very curious point, "but I fear 
you would think it out of your Essay, to compare the list of Euro- 
pean plants in Tierra del Fuego (in Hooker) with those in North 
America; for without multiple creation, I think we must admit that 
all nov7 in Tierra del Fuego must have travelled through North Ameri- 
ca and so far they do concern you." De Candolle 's discussion on 
social plants "strikes" him as the best he has ever seen; "two 
points strike me as eminently remarkable in them that they should 
ever be social close to their extreme limits; and secondly that 
species having an extremely confined range, yot should be social 
T;here they do occiu"," Would be obliged for "any cases on these heads 
more especially in regard to a species remaining or ceasir^ to be 
social on the confines of its range." Asks if there are any cases 
of the same species being more variable in the United States than in 
other countries in v;hich it is found, or in different parts of the 
United States; quotes [George ?] Wahlenberg as saying that the same 
species in goiiig south becomes more variable than in the extreme 
north; asks whether any of the genera, which have most of their 
species "horribly" variable in Europe or other parts of the vrorld, 
are less variable in the United States, or the reverse case; "I 
suppose yo\ir Flora is too great, but a simple list in close column 
in small type of all the species, genera, and families, eacn con- 
secutively numbered, has alv;ays struck me as most useful; and Hooker 
regrets that he did not give such a list in the introduction to 
N. Zealand and other Flora." It "appears" to him that the 6 heads 
of Gray's essay include every point vfhich could be desired, 

A. L, S. 10 pp. 21 cm x 16 cm. No. 4 [s] 

What Gray says about extinction in regard to "such" genera be- 
ing hypothetical seems very "just"; thinks something direct, hovrever, 
could bo advanced on this head from fossil shells; "but hypotheti- L L 
cal such notions must remain. It is not a little egotistical, but ill, 437 
should like to tell you (and I do not think I have) how I view my 
vrork. Nineteen years (I) ago it occurred to me that Yirhilst other- 
wise employed on Natural History, I might" perhaps do good if I noted 
any sort of facts bearing on the question of the origin of species, 
and this I have since been doing. Either species have been independ- 
ently created, or they have descended from other species, like va- 
T^-i.eties from one species. I think it can be shown to be probable 
that gets his most distinct varieties by preserving such as a- 
rise best worth ke'eping and destroying the others, but I should fill 
a quire if I v/ere to go on. To be brief I assuine that species arise 
like our domestic varieties v;ith much extinction; and then test this 

hypothesis by comparison vfith as many general and pretty vrell estab- L L 
lished propositions as I can find made out, - in geograph [ical] 1,437 
distribution, geological history, affinities, etc And it seems to 
me, that supposing that such hypothesis were to explain such general 
propositions, we ought, in accordance with the common vray of folloxY- 
ing all sciences, to admit it, till some better hypothesis be found 
out.. For to my mind to say that species were created so and so is 
no scientific explanation, only a reverent way of saying it is so 
and so , But it is nonsensical trying to shovj- hov; I try to proceed 
in the compass of a note But as an honest man, I must tell you 
that I have come to the heterodox conclusion that there are no such j 
things as independently created species - that species are only 
strongly defined varieties I knovf that this vrill make you despise i 
me I do not much underrate the many hugh difficulties on this view', 
but yet it seems to me to explain too much, otherw-ise inexplicable, j 
to be falseo Just to allude to one point in your last note, viz. 
about species of the same genus generally having a common or con- 
tinuous area; if they are actual lineal descendants of one species, > 
this of course Yrould be the case; and the sadly too many exceptions j 
(for me) have to be explained by climatal and geological { j 

changes. , ' ,1 have put a chapter together" on permanence of [ I 
species, and [Sir Joseph] Hooker "kindly read it over I thought | 
the exceptions and difficulties were so great that on the v;hole the 
balance weighed against my notions, but I v;as much pleased to find 
that it seemed to have considerable v/eight v^ath Hooker, who said he 
had never been so m.uch staggered about the permanence of species., * | 
I must say one word more in justification (for I feel sure that 
your tendency vdll be to despise me and my crotchets) that all my j i 
notions about hovj species change are derived from long-continued ! 

study of the works of (and converse v.'ith) agriculturists and horti- j 
culturists; and I believe I see my v/ay pretty clearly on the means i 
used by nature to change her species and adapt them to the wondrous 
and exquisitely beautiful contingencies to which every living be- j 
ing is exposed.," Thanlcs Gray for what he says about the possibilityj 
of crossing of grasses; has been astonished at what botanists say 
on fertilization in tho bud; what G-ray says on papilionacious "ILL 
flovrers is very true; has no facts to shov; that varieties are crossed, II ,434-^ 
yet he must believe that flowers are constructed partly in di- 
rect relation to visits of insects, and how insects can avoid bring- 
ing pollen. from other ' individuals he cannot understand, "It is 
really pretty to vratch the action of a Humble -Bee on the scarlet Kid- 
ney Bean, and in this genus „ , .. the honey is so placed that the 
Bee invariably alights on that one side of the flower towards which 
the spiral pistil is protruded (bringing out with it pollen] and by 
the depression of the wing-petal is forced against the Bee's side 

1.. Life and Letters , II, 434, calls this section of the letter 

all duGted with pollen. In the Broom the piotil is rubbed on centre ;L L 
of back of Bee." Suspects there is sonething to be "made out" about 11,434 
the Leguminosae which will bring the case v;ithin " our " theory, though; 
he has failed to do so; believes the theory vrill explain why, "in the 
vegetable and animal kingdoms, the act of fertilization even in her- i 
maphrodite usually takes place sub-jove, though thus exposed to j 
the great inj'ury from damp and rain. In animals in which the semen I 

cannot, like pollen, be occasionally carried by insects or v/ind, 1 
there is no case of land-animals being hermaphodite v/ithout the con- 

cmiTRf? nt tvrn i ndi vi diinl s . " -' 

No, 9-B [4] 

course of two individuals 

A L S 8 pp, 20 cm X 13 cm 

"Botany has been followed in so much more a philosophical spiri 
than Zoology, that I scarcely ever like to trust any general remark 
in Zoology, vdthout I find that Botanists concur," Regarding in- 
termediate varieties being rare, he "found it put much too 
strongly , by a "very good naturalist", [Thomas ¥ernon] Wollas- 
ton, in regard to insects; "if it could be established as true it 
would ,. be a curious point. Your answer in regard to intro- 
duced plants not being particularly variable, agrees with an an- 
svrer which H[ev;ett] C[ottrell] Watson has sent me in regard to Brit- 
ish agrarian plants, or such , . . as are now found only in culti- 
vated land It seems to me very odd without any theoretical no- 
tions of any kind, that such plants should not be variable, but the 
evidence seems against it " Thanlcs Gray for his invitation to come 
to the United States; "There is no thing xvhich I should enjoy more, 
but ny health is not strong enough, except for the quietest 
routine life in the country,," Will be "glad of" the sheets of Gray' 
paper on geographical distribution; his [Darwin's] remark that he 
supposed there vrere but few plants conmion to Europe and the United 
States not ranging to the Arctic regions was founded on "vague 
grounds and partly on range of animals"; found from Watson's table 
that out of 499 plants believed to be common to the Old and New- 
Worlds only 110 did not range on either side of the Atlantic up to 
the Arctic region; on writing Watson to ask whether he knew of any 
plants not ranging northviard of Britain which were in comiiion, ^o 
replies that he imagines there are very tev-r, for with Mr. Syme's as- 
sistance ho found 20 to 25 species thus circumstanced, but many of 
them, from one cause or other, he considered doubtful; hopes Gray 
will be "inclined to v/ork out" for his next paper what number of his 
[Gray's] 321 in common do not range to the Arctic regions; "Such 
plants seem exposed to such much greater difficulties in diffusion " 
Asks Gray to send anjrthing that should "occur" to him on variability 
of naturalized or agrarian plants, 

A I, S 4 pp„ 25 cm x 20 cm= No. 35 [5] 



-|M L 

[l356] Gray's "admirable" "Statintics [of the Flora of the Horthcrn 
Oct, 12 US ", Silliman's J" 9urnal > Xn.1 and XXIIl] has arrived, and, he 

knows of only one essay, Hooker's "Nevj Zealand", on geographical dis- 
tribution that approaches it in clearness; expresses thanlcs for in- 
formation about "social" and "varyir^ plants", and for giving some 
idea about the proportion of European plants vAich do not range to 
the extreme north; asks G-ray to send the total number of genera and 
orders to which his 260 introduced plants belong; sees they include 
113 genera non-in.digenous; nothir^g has surprised him more than the 
greater generic and specific affinity with East Asia than v«th Uest 
America; asks if climate explains this greater affinity, or is it 
one of the "icany utterly inexplicable problems" in botanical ge- 
ography; inquires if East Asia is nearly as vjell know as West 
pjLiLerics.; believes if the nuiaber of genera strictly or nearly" strict- 
ly European v;cre known, one could compare better with Asia and 
Southern America; is glad Gray , intends to "work but" the north range 
of the 321' European species, and range of species in regard to 
number of species in genus; "I have been attempting to do this in a 
very few cases, but it "is folly for any one but a Botanist to at- 
tempt it I must think that [Alphonse Louis Pierre] de Candolle has 
fallen into error in attempting to do this for orders instead of for 
genera-." [Points out a misprint, and gives suggestion for paging], _ 
[Sir Joseph] Hooker has lately returned from a continental trip, and 
he is to see him Friday 

A L S P pp 20 cm x 13 cm llo 6 [6] 

[1S57?] Has received the second part of Gray's paper ["Statistics of the' 
Jan, 1 Flora of the Northern United States", Silliiaan's Journal , 1857], and 
it "strikes" him as"quite exhausting the subject, and , I nov/ 
appreciate the character of your Flora ¥hat a difference in regard 
to Europe your remarks in relation to the genera make' [Sir 
Charles] Lyell told me that Agassiz having a theory about when 
Saurians were first created, on hearing some careful observations 
opposed to this, said he did not believe it, 'for Nature never 
lied' - I am just in this predicament and repeat to you that 'Nature 
never lies', ergo, theorisers are always right" One point is vrell _ 
v/orth "vrorking out" - a comparison of the principal zone of habi- 
tation in the United States of the 320 European plants -with the 130 
representative native species, and then again vdth the classes of 
strictly congeneric and perhaps divergent congeneric species, would 
be astonished if Gray does not get a very curious and harmonic re- L L 
suit on the great principle that nature never lies; is glad to see -]I,446 
Gray's conclusion in regard to species of large genera widely rang- 
ing; considers it a great compliment to be mentioned in Gray's 
paper; Gray's conclusion that the line of connection of strictly 
Alpine plants is through Greenland makes him "groan", would like to 
see Gray's reasons published in detail, for it "riles me dreadfully. 
Concluded that trees vrould have a strong tendency toward flowers 
v;ith dioecious, monoecious, or polygamous structure; took one little 
British Flora and found the result v/as in species, genera, and 
families as he anticipated; asked [Sir Joseph] Hooker to tabulate 

L L 
1 , 446 


New Zealand Flora for this end; Hooker thought his [Darwin's] re- L L 
suits sufficiently curious to do so; finds the accordance v;ith Brit- 1,446 
ain is very striking - rand the nore so because Hooker has nade three 
classes of trees, bushes, and herbaceous plants; Hooker will v/ork the 
Tasnanian Flora on the same principle; "Pray do not forget variabil- 
ity of naturalized plants," Has been coraparing, as far as he can, __ 
Protean genera and has "loft off in a maze of perplexity " Asks if 
such genera as Salix, Rubus, Rosa, Mentha, Saxifraga, Hieracium and 
Myosotis have equally Protean species in the United States, even if 
they have only one, but more especially if they have many; "I thinlc 
you have no Rosa, and forget hov; it is with some of the other genera " 
It would be valuable to him if G-ray would think over his half-dozen 
or dozen vrorst genera which have any European species, and then he 
[Darvirin] could find out whether such are very troublesome in Europe 
"I think Hooker told me that in Himalaya, Rubus and Salix, though 
large genera, were not troublesome to make out, I think Protean 
genera of shells are troublesome at all geological tines and in c.ll 
places " 

A L S 10 pp 20 cm x 13 cm No 7 [ 7] 

"I thought you would utterly despise me, when I told you vjhat "1l L 
views I had arrived at, v;hich I did because I thought I -was bound as |I,477 
an honest man to do so I should have been a strange mortal seeing 
how much I owe to your quite extraordinary kindness, if in saying 
this I had meant to attribute the least bad feeling to you . , , 
Before I had ever corresponded vath you [Sir Joseph] Hooker had 
shown me several of your letters , , and these gave me the warmest 
feeling of respect for you; . But I did not feel in the least [ 
sure that vfhen you knew vrtiither I was tending, that you might not 
thinly me so wild and foolish in my views (God knov;s arrived at slov/ly 
enough, and I hope conscientiously) that you would thinl: me worth no 
more notice or assistance The last time I savj- my dear old 
friend [Hugh] Falcoiier, he attacked me most vigorously but quite kind- 
ly, and told me 'You v/ill do more harm than any ten naturalists will do 
good,' - 'I can see that you have already corrupted a half -spoiled j 
Hooker.' (;j)Now v;hen I see such strong feeling in my oldest friend, 
you need not vronder that I always expect my views to be received with 
contempt , . I go as far as almost anyone in seeing the grave dif- 
ficulties against my doctrine In animals, embryology leads me 
to an enormous and frightful range The facts vfhich kept me longest 
scientifically orthodox are those of adaptation - the pollen masses 
in Asclepias, - the mistletoe, v/ith its pollen carried by insects, 
and seed by Birds - the vraodpecker with its feet and tail beak and 
tongue to climb trees and secure insects To talk of climate or 
LaiTiarckian habit producing su3h adaptions to other organic being is 
futile The difficulty, I believe, I have surmounted As you seem 
interested in the subject, and as it is an imme nse advantage to me to 
write to you, and to hear over so briefly , what you think, I will en- 
close . the briefest abstract of inj'- notions as to mgans by which 
nature makes her species > Why I thinl: the species have really changed 
depends on general facts in the affinities, embryologjs rudimentary 


organs, geological history, and geographical distribution of organic iL L 
beings^: ^ '- ; You will, perhaps, thinlc if paltry in rae, vrtien I ask 11,477 
you not to mention my doctrine; the reason is, if anyone, like the | 
author of the Vestiges [of the Natural History of Creation, by Robert i 
Chambers, 1S45], were to hear of them, he might easily v/ork them in j 
and then I should have to quote from a work perhaps despised by j 
naturalists and this vrould greatly injiore anj^ chance of my viev/s be- j 
ing received by those alone whose opinion I value " Has been at J 
vrork on a point lately which interests him much, namely, dividing the" 
species of several Floras into 2 as nearly equal cohorts as possible, 
one with all those forming large genera and the other V7ith the small 
genera, "Thus in your U„ States Flora, I make , 1005 species in 
genera of 5 and upwards, and 917 in genera v/ith 4 and downvmrds; and 
the large genera have 80/lOOQ varieties and the small genera only 
50/1000.:. This rule seems to be general and Hooker is going to work 
out some Floras on same plan. But to my disgust your varieties marked 
by big type are only in proportion 4C/1000 to 46/1000- Several 
things have m.ade me confidcntiy believe that 'close' species occurred 
most frequently in the larger genera, and you may remember that you 
made m^e the enclosed list., Now to ray utter disgust, I find the case 
is scmevfhat the reverse of what I had so confidently expected, the 
close species hugging the smaller genera,-. Hence I have enclosed the 
list, and beg you kindly to run your eyes over it, and see xvhether, 
not understanding my motive, you could have attended m^ore to the 
smaller than to the larger genera; but I can see that this is not 
probable. And do not thiri I v/ant you to 'cook' the result for me. 
Are the close species ver}/ generally geographical representation 


species? This mdght make some difference-" Has lately examined buds 
of the Kid,ney Bean with its pollen shed, but was led to believe that 'L L 
the pollen could hardly get on the stigma by the v.and or otherwise, j 11,435 
except by bees visiting and moving the petals; hence he placed sm_all I 
bunches of flowers in 2 bottles, in every wa;/ treated the same; the | 
flowers in one he daily just momentarily m^oved as if by a bee; these j 
set 3 fine pods, and the other not any; "Of course this little ex- j 
perimont must be tried again, and this year in England it is too late,j 
as the flowers seem nov/ seldom, to set . If Bees are necessary to this \ 
flower's self- fertilization. Bees must almost cross them, as their ! 
dusted right side of head and right legs constantly touch the stigma."; 
Has lately been observing daily Lobelia fulgens; the one in his gar- I 
den is never visited by insects and never sets seeds "without pollen 
b e put on its stigm.a " , whereas the blue Lobelia is visited by bees ^ 
and does set seed; "I mention this because there are such beautiful 
contrivances to prevent the stigma ever getting its own pollen; v/hich j 
seems only explicable on the doctrine of the advantage of crosses," _| 
Has received [Hev;ett Cottrell] Watson's papers a.nd Gray's Lessons in 
Botany [ First Lessons in Botany and Vegetable Physiology , 1857]; vnll 
get seeds of A.dlumia cirrhosa and observe it next summer., 

A L. S. 12 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm.- No, 48 [g] 

Enclosed is the abstract mentioned above, "Six Principles of 
Natural Selection", in another handm'iting., 


Every word of Gray's letter interested liira, "When I said that 
your remarks on your Alpine plants 'riled' me, I did not mean to 
doubt them, except - that they went against some theoretic no- 
tions of mine," Is glad to hear that Gray is thinkir^ of discussing' 
the relative ranges of the identical and allied United States and 
European species; "I prosiirae [Sir Joseph] Hooker has been urcjing you 
to finish your great F].ora before you do anything else. Now I woiold 
say it is your duty to generalize as far as you safely can from your 
as yet completed vrork. Undoubtedly careful discrimination of 
species is the foundation of all good vrork , „ , The observer can 
generalize his ovra observations incomparably better than anyone else 
How many astronomers have labored thoir vfhole lives on observations 
and have not dravm a single conclusion. I thirlc it is [John Freder- 
ick WilliaiTi] Eerschel who has remarked hovf much better it would be 
if they had pause'"', in their devoted vrork and seen what they could 
have deduced , So do pray look at this side of the question, 
and let us have another paper or two like the last admirable 
ones , You ask about my doctrine which led me to expect that 
trees would tend to have separate sexes I am inclined to believe 
that no organic being exists v/hich -perpetually self-fertilizes it- 
self. This v;ill appear very v/ild, but I can venture to say that if 
you were to read all my observations on this subject, you vrould a- 
gree it is not so wild as it v;ill at first appear, , from flowers 
said to be always fertilized in bud, etc It is a long subject 
which I have attended to for IS yearn'. Now it has occurred to me 
that in a large tree vfith hermaphrodite flowers, vre will say it 
vrould be ten to one that it would be fertilized by pollen of its 
cvrn flowers, and a thousand or ten-thousand to one that if crossed, 
it would be crossed only with pollen from another flower of the 
saip.e tree, which would be opposed to my doctrine Therefore on 
the great principle of 'nature not lying' I fully expected that 
trees vjould be apt to be dioecious or monoecious (vrtiich as pollen 
has to be carried from flower to flovrer every tine, vrould favour a 
cross from another individual of the same species) and so it seems 
to be in Britain and New Zealand Nor can this fact be explained 
by certain families having this structure and chancing to be trees, 
for the rule seems to hold both in genera and families as well as 
in species- I give you full permission to la^ogh your fill at this 
v/ild speculation; and I do not pretend but v/hat it may be chance 
vrhich, in this case, has led me apparently right But I repeat 
that I feel sure that my doctrine has more probability, than at 
first it appears to have . - - The Leg-'jminosae are rrjj- greatest 
opposors; yet if I vrere to trust to observations on insects made 
during many years, I should fully expect crosses to take place in 
them, but I cannot find that our garden varieties ever cross each 
other," Asks Gray to inquire of "intelligent nurserymen" if they 
take any pains in raising the varieties of papilionaceous plants 
apart to prevent crossing; "The vrorst is that nurserymen are apt 
to attribute all variation to crossir,g Finally I incline to be- 
lieve that every living being requires an o ccasion al cross v/ith 
a distinct individual, and as trees from mere multitude of flowers 



offer obstacle to th^s, I suspeot this obstacle is counteracted by M L 
tendency to have a©xas separated, Ily maxiiauui difficulty is trees |II,252 
having papllionaceoufl flowers. Some of them, I know have their keel- 
petals expanded when ready for fertilization, but [George] Bsntham 
does not believe that this is general; nevertheless , . . I suspect 
that this will turn out so, or that they are eminently sought by bees 
dui^tad with pollen-" Aaks Gray to look at Robinias when in full 
flov;er and sea whether stamens and pistils protrude and whether bees 
visit them; "A..o1o7Q|' Australian gardener", Sir W[illiam] Macarthur, 
told him "how odd it was that his Erythrinas in N S Wales would not 
set seed without ha imitated the movements of the petals which Bees 
cause," Thanks Gray for information about Protean genera, as one of _ 
the greatest of his puzzles is to know or conjecture whether the 
great variability of such genera is due to their conditions of exist- 
ence or v;hether it iq apt to be innate in them at all times and 
places; is aware tha-fc this cannot be strictly predicated of any genus, 
for all have some fi^ed species; has sent the latter half of Gray's 
note, with list of such Arrierican genera, to H[ewett] C[ottrell] 
Watson, of whom he has the highest opinion, and is sending Watson's 
notes to Gray; calls attention to the fact that his question does not 
refer to genera having very close species, but to genex'a having very 
variable species; would be glad to have comments on Watson's papers „ 
A., L S. 13 pp, 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 8 [9] 

Explains not having ansv/ered Gray's letter because of death, 
illness and misery amocgst his children; they are all going from home 
for some weeks. "It is really pretty to v.ratch the H\gible Bees suck- 
ing first on one or the other side of the several flowers [of Di- 
centra]; with their hiiid logs resting on the crest of the hood formed 
by the inner united petals, they .push it to opposite' side: of flovrer, ■ 
and the straight pistil is rubbed against their abdomens and inner 
side of thighs, whicja are white with pollen from the several flowers. 
It is impossible but what the individuals of Dicontra must be largely 
crossed. Your Adlumla has not flowered with me yet, -In Fumaria and 
Corydalis we have another structure, viz ~ nectary on one side and' 
here the pistil bends - so that 'the two stigmas are presented in the- 
gangvTOy to the one nectary; and the hood slips off easiest in opposite 
direction, instead of equally easily to either side. Indeed in 
Corydalis Ijatea it almost springs off, and the pistil decidely springs 
towards the nectary-ljearing petal," Has observed only six 
Fumariaceae and wishRS he knevf whether the rule is general, for he 
must believe the structure of theso flowers is related directly to 
the visits of the bees; suspects from his oiim few observations that 
the foi].owing rule may be general - that when honesr is secreted on 
one point of circle of corolla, the pistil, if it bends, always bends 
so that the stigmas, when mature, lie in the "gangway" to nectary; 
"Thus in Columbine where there is a circle of nectaries the stigmas 
are straight; in Aq,u:),legia grandiflora where there is one nectary the 
stigmas are rectangularly bent so that every Bee , , , hunches over 
them in extracting honey," Asks for date when sketch of notions of 
Nattiral Selection v;aa sent, because [Alfred Russelll Wallace, who is 


exploring New Guinea, has sent an abstract of the sane theory, 
"most curiously coincident oven in expressions « And he could never 
have heard a v/ord of my viev;s. Pie directed me to forward it to [Sir 
Charles] Lyell- Lyell, v;ho is acquainted with mjr notions, consulted 
with [Sir Joseph] Hooker (who road a dozen years ago a long sketch 
mine written in 1844) urged me with much kindness not to let myself be 
quite forestalled and to allow them to publish with Wallace's paper 
an abstract of mine; and as the only very brief thing v/hich I had 
Tn?itten out was a copy of my letters to you, I sent it and I believe 
it has :'ust been read , , . before the Linnaean Society; and this 
is the reason, vfhy I should be glad of the date -. I tun sure it 
v;as written in September, October or November of last year " In re- 
gard to bent pistils arxl nectaries, he largely judges of position of 
nectary by seeing v:here bees suck,, and the rule holds in many cases 
A L S 6 t)t)- 20 en x 13 cm No 20 [lO] 

Isle of Wight 

Has discussed in his long manuscript the later changes of cli- 
mate and the effects on migration, and V7ill now give an abstract of 
an abstract; cannot give facts, and must vnrite "dogmatically", tliough 
he does not feel so on any point; has some foundation for his vicDd, 
for [Sir Joseph] Hooker, Virho at first "demurred" to his main point, 
has since told him that "further reflection and nev; facts have made 
him a convert"; in the Pliocene Age the temperature v/as higher; of 
this there can be little doubt; the land on a large scale held much 
its present disposition, and the species, judging from shells, vrere 
mainly what they are now; at this period, v/hen all animals and plants 
ranged 10 or 15 degrees nearer the poles, he believes the northorn 
part of Siberia and of North America, being almost continuous, T'ore 
peopled by a nearly uniform Fauna and Flora, just as the Artie re- 
gions navr are; the climate then grew gradually colder till it be- 
came vfhat it now is, and then the temperate parts of Europe and 
America would be separated as far as migration is concerned, just as 
they now are; then came the aiacial Period, driving far south all 
li-ving things, and Middle or even Southern Europe becam.e peopled -ivith 
Arctic productions; as the vrarmth returned the Arctic productions 
slowly cravfled up the mountains as they became denuded of snow, and 
we nov; see on their summits the remnants of a once continuous Flora 
and Fauna, "This is E[dward] Forbes' theoiy, which I had vrrit- 
ten out 4 years before he published-" Some facts have made him 
vaguely suspect that betv:een the glacial and the present temperature 
there was a period of slightly greater vrarmth; according to his modi- 
fication doctrines, he looks at many of the species of North America, 
vdiich closely represent those of Europe, as having become modified 
since the Pliocene Age when, in the northern part of the world, there 
was nearly free conmiunication betvjeen the Old and Nevj worlds; but now 
oomes a more important consideration; there is a considerable body of 
geological evidence that during the Glacial Epoch the whole vrorld was 
colder; he inferred that, many years ago, from boulder phenomena 
carefully observed by him on both the east and west coasts of South 
America; novf he is so "bold" as to believe that, at the height of the 

L L 


G-lacial Epoch and when all tropical productions must have been oon-- 
Gidc,rat)ly distressed, several temperate forEis slov/ly travelled into 
the heart of the tropics and even reached the southern hemisphere, 
and some few southern forms penetrated in a reverse direction north- 
vrard; v/herever there vras nearly continuous high land, this migration 
vrould have been immensely facilitated; hence the European character 
of the plants of T[ierra] del Fuogo , sumiaits of the Cordilleras, 
and Himalayas; as the temperature rose, all the temperate intruders 
vrould cravrl up the mountains; hence European forms on Nilgherries, 
Ceylon, summit of Java, and Organ Kountains of Brazil; but these in- 
truders, beiuis surrounded with ncvi forms, would be very liable to 
be improved or modified by natural selection to adapt them to the 
new forms with virhich they had to compete; hence most of the forms 
on the mountains of the tropics are not identical, but are rep- 
resentative forms of north temperate plants, there are similar 
classes of facts in marine productions, "All this will appear verj; 
rash to you, and rash it ma;/ be; but I am sure not so rash as it 
viill at first appear to you, Hooker could not stomach it all at 
first, but has become largely a convert " From majTin.alia of shallovv' 
seas he believes Japan to have been joined to the mainland of China 
vjithin no remote period, and then the m.igration north and south 
before, during, and after the Glacial Epoch would act on Japan, as 
on the corresponding laritude of China and the United States, "I 
should beyond anything like to knov; whether you have any Alpine col- 
lections from Japan, and what is their character ." 

A L 10 pp 20 cm x 13 en Incomplete . Last p or pp 
missing No. 42 [n] 

L L 
1 ,491 


[Sir Joseph] Hooker suggests he ask Gray if he thinlcs that 
good botanists in dravang up a local Flora, -whether small or large, 
or in making a Prodromus like [Alphonse Louis Pierre] de Candolle's, 
would almost universally, but unintentionaLly and unconsciously, 
tend to record varieties in the large or in the small genera, or 
vrould the tendency be to record the varieties about equally in 
genera of all sizes; asks if Gray himself is conscious on reflection 
that he has "attended to", and recorded more carefully, the varieties 
in large or sm.all or very small genera; knows vfhat "fleeting and 
trifling things" varieties are, but says- his' "query" applies .to such 
as have been thought worth markir^ and recording; asks if Gray knoY;s 
Virhether any one has ever published any rem^arks on the geographical 
range of varieties of plants in comparison with the species to which 
they are supposed to belong ^ 

A L S 6 pp . 20 cm x 13 cm. No 21 112] 

L L 


"Your kindnc3GS to irie is really beyond thanks. Believe me that I 
feel it, By an odd chance yesterday morning, before I got your let- 
ter, I had :ust Vv'rittsn dovm what I had to say on closely allied 
species in large genera; and I thought that you had forgotten all 
about your lint, and kno-'fii:ig hov; hard you vrere worked, to i^ credit 
be it said, 1 fir mJ-y resolved that nothing should induce me to re- 
mind you« Therefore you may believe how delighted I v;as to get 
your list, which is novi being tabulated. I am, also, particularly 
obliged for the ansv;er to m;;- question " [Sir Joseph] Hooker and 
several other botanists differ from Gray and think there v/ould be a 
strong tendency to omit recording actually existing varieties in the 
smaller genera; "None of them pretend they even thought of this be- 
fore 1 asked the question,. From xvhat little systematic v/ork 1 have 
done rijyself , I cannot realise their vi¥v;-s ; and my tables of several 
local Floras in some respects contradict them in my opinion, and 
show that Botanists have worked rather more systemically and regular- 
ly in recording varieties than could have been anticipated " This 
is his view, but ho does not know what Hooker will say 7;hen he reads, 
as he hopes he Y/ill, his discussion on this subject, taking books as 
his guide, he finds in local Floras and in the case of two entomolog- 
ical works vihich he has tried, the.t the rule is almost universal that 
the larger genera have more species with varieties, and a greater av= 
erage number of varieties to the varying species, than the smaller 
genera, it will be the highest satisfaction to send Gray the printed 
sheets of his work [ Origin of Sp ecies , 2d Edition, London, 1860]-'- 
as they are finished, "I look at the request as a high compliment 
I shall not, you may depend, forget a request, which I look at as a 
favor But (and it is a 'but' to me) It v;ill be long before 
I go to press I can truly say I am n ever idle, indeed, I work too 
hard for ity much v:eakened health, yet I can do only 3 hours of work 
daily, and I ca-nnot at all see when I shall have finished " Has 
done 11 long chapters, but has some other very difficult ones to do, 
and has to correct and add largely to all those already done, finds 
that each chapter takes him on an average 5 months, "so slow I am 
There is no end to the necessary digressions " Has just finished 
a chapter on Instinct, and "here I found grappling v/ith such a sub- 
ject as Bees' cells and comparing all my notes made durir^g 20. years 
took up a despairing length of time " Has found Gray's letters very 
useful, has been locking them over and quotir^ from them, but 
assures him he will not quote anything he xTOuld dislike, for he tries 
to be very cautious on this head, hopes Gray may succeed in getting 
his "'incubus' of old work" off his hands and be in some degree a 
free man; Agassiz has most kindly sent him. his Introduction to his 
First Part, but he confesses he is disappointed; "I cannot realize 
his rules on the value of the higher groups" 

A L S 6 pp 20 cm x 13 cm,. Ho 25 [l3] 

L L 

1 , Months before the first edition of Ori.(2in £.1 Species ap- 
peared, in November, 1859, Danvin had begun work on a second edi- 
tion, to -jhich this letter seems to refer 


] 1859* J Thanlcs Gray for the " great trouble vjliicli you have takeji about 
\ug. 4 the New[ion] of Tlio Origin [of_ Species ] . From v/hat you say it 
is evidently hopeless and I an sorry . . . for my ovm sake and for 
all your labor in vain. = . . Although the book is complete and 
bound, Hurray for trade reasons v;ill not sell it till Noveraber but 
he promised to send a copy to you." Hopes to begin printing his nev7 
book toward the close of the year, and will send sheets as printed 
in hopes that Gray v;il] have the great kindness -^c ao-ree fo'" "^i 
/uiierican edition. Appended is a brief note from Asa Gray to 
Mr. Fribis [?] asking him to xorward a line v/hich can be sent to Dar- 
win to encourage him to send advance sheets of his nev^; book. 

L. S, 3 pp. 20 cm x 13 :a;i. Ko. 05 [l4] 

[_1059] Is ending abstract of The _Ori^L-- °.^ Sriec ios and will be infi- 
Nov. 11 nitely gratified if Gray yjill read it and take time to send hciever 
short a note telling v/hat he thinks are its weal:est and best parts; 
"As you are not a geologist you v;ill excuse L^y conceit in tellin-g 
you that [Sir Charles] Lyell highly approves of the two geological 
chapters, and thinlcs that on the Imperfection of the Geological 
Record not exaggerated. Kg is nearly a convert to my vievra." Has 
been so hard v/orked and his health is so poor he has not yet read 
Gray's ^apan Flora ["Diagnostic Characterr.-; o-^ New Species of Phacnog- 
amous Plants collected in Japan by Charles ¥right . . . , with Obser- 
vations upon the Relations of tne ^apaneso Flora to that of North 
Jlraerica and of other parts of the Northern Temperate Zone", Memoirs 
of American Acacl'emy of Arts and Science , Vol. YI , p. 377, 1857]; 
{^ir Joseph] Hooker has sent him a fev; pages in which Gray propounds 
a doctrine of migration into iii^icrica like that v;hich ho [Darvnn] 
sent Gray last sujTimer; [laraes Dvri.ght] Dana is, of course, far better 
authority than he, but Dana's arg-jirients have by no means convinced 
him regarding the warm period subsequent to the Glacial Period; 
rather doubts vriiether Dana's and Gray's viexv will explain facta of 
distribution so vrell as his own view of migration during the cer- 
tainly warmer period preceding the Glacial Period; he thought of 
Gray's doctrine several years ago and consulted Lyell, biit rejected 
it as less safe than the warm period "anterioring" the Glacial 
Period; "There seemed to me some little confusion about your fossil 
elephants; the species in N. and S. States, I believe ; are distinct 
according to [Hugh] Falconer. The northeri: one, anyhow, can hardl;/ 
be adduced as evidence of -.'."armor climate." Thinl:s Gray's Japan work 
must have been extremely interesting; asks if Gray has succeeded in 
getting awf iriformation on correlation of com.plexion in Europeans 
and tendency to yellov; fever; fully admits there are manjr difficul- 
ties not satisfactorily 07:pT'"ined by his theory of descent v.'ith modi- 
fication, but cannot possibly believe that a false theory x'-rould ex- 
plain 30 many classes of facts as he thinks it certainly does ex- 
plain; "On thssG grounds I drop my anchor and believe that the dif- 
ficulties will slowly disappear." 

A, T,. S. 7 pp. IP. cm^x 11 era. No. 17 [l5] 



* An asterisk denotes' that the date of the year has been added 
in pencil, not in Danvin's hand^vriting, on the original manuscript. 

i'or ills vic'A'G; "Every criticism from 

good man is"! K L 

i 1,126 

Thanlcs Cri-ay 
of value to me; , . . you hint that my vrork 7-;i.ll be grievouslj 
hypothetical, . . . mjr coirmoneGt crroi: being probably induction ji 
from too few factG. I had not thought of your objection of my j 
using the term 'Natural Selection' as an agent; . . , othervrise I '' 
should , , . have to expand it into . . , 'the tendency bo the p-es- i 
ervation (oviin-g to the severe struggle for life to which all j 
organic beings at some timiO or generation are exposed) of any to 
slightent variation in anjr part, which is of the slightest use or 
favorable to the life of the individual which has thus varied, to- 
gether v.'ith the tendency to its inheritance' ; Any variation, which ' 
was of no use v/hatever to the individual, wouJ.d not be preserved by 
this process of 'nat-oral selection' : . , Several varieties of 
sheep have been tm-ned out together on the Cui-aberland fountains, i 
and one pe.rticular breed is found to succeed so much better , ., 
that it fairly starves the others to death, I shouJ.d here sa;^ that 
natural selection picks out this breed, and vrould tend to improve 
it or aboriginally to have formed it." Tlianlcs Gray for seed and 
specimen of Adlumia; from vratching bees suck Fumarla he sees no 
difficulty whatever in their crossing the individuals; vrould ven- 
ture to predict that it has a nectary on both sides, for the "sort 
of cap" of joined petals can be pushed with equal easiness both 
ways, but v/hen there is orJ.y one nectary it can be pushed only one 
v;ay; "Lecoq, I observe, bririgs forward Fuiiiaria as a genus v;hich 
should never be crossed by nati.iral means, v/hereas I suspec t its 
structure is formiOd in direct relation to foririer crossing';" Has 
sent Gardeners ' C hronicle vrith notice on Kidney Beans; since '.'.writ- 
ing it, he has received a "most' curious" 'lot' of Beans naturally 
crossed, and with the seed coats affected by the act of fertili- 
sation like Gartner's Pea-case; "I must tell you v;hat I heard 
yesterday , ... on the subject of crossir,g of individuals. Bar- 
nacles are hermaphrodite and their well shut-up shell offer 
as great a difficulty to crossiiTg as can v.rell be conceived I found 
an individual with monstrous and imperforate penis, but yet v;ith 
fertilized ova; but I did not knov; XThether it might not be a case 
of parthogeneris [parthenogenesisjor a strange accident of some 
floatir-g spermatozoa; well yesterday I had an acccant of a man -who 
vratching some shells, savr one protrude its lon^ [word illegible] 
formed penis, and insert it in the shell of an adjoinir^ individ- 
ual I So hero is a load off Liy mind.. You speak of species not 
having any materi.?.l base to rest on; but is this any greater hard- 
ship than deciding v:hat deserves to be called a variety and be 
designated by a Greek letter: . . . Uhat a jamp it is from a v;ell- 
markcd variety produced by natural cause, to a specie."^, nroduced 
by the separate act of the Hand of God, , , . [John] Phillips, the 
Palaeontologist . . , asked m.e 'Hov; do you define a species?' I 
ansv/ered'I cannot.' Whereupon he said 'At last I have found out 
the only true definition- 'any form v/hich has cvc^r had a specific 
name':" Thanirs Cray for considering again a list of close ST)ocies 

M L 

"If you do it, will you please take, 

small orderc 

:n your power, large and 

2y come, for possibly there may be some 


difference in the rule in Icrge natui-al and small broken families, 
I intend to go into this with [Karl Friedrich von] Ledebour, as far 
as mere varieties are concerned. In all Ledeboirr and many other 
Floras, I find the rule universal of the large genera presenting 
most varieties,, In the British Flora, by Kr . [Howett Cottrell] 
Watson's aid, I have struck out the raost trifling varieties and I 
find the rule holds good, as it also does v;ith the forms vAich most 
British Botanists rank as speoies, but which some one Botanist has 
considered a variety. This rule, as I must consider it of the large 
genera varying most , I look at as most important for my work and I 
believe it to be the foundation of the manner in v;hich all beings 
are grouped in classes together vvith what I rather vaguely call my 
principle of divergence, - the tending to the preservation from ex- 
tinction of the most different mem.bers of each group " Wishes he 
knew what large moth or "Humble Bee" visits and fertilizes Lobelia 
fulgens in its native home; asks if G-ray knov/s any southern botanist 
who vrould observe; suggests covering a plant 7;ith a verj^ coarse 
gauze cap, and believes that not a pod vrould then set 

A L S 12 pp- 20 cm x 13 cm. No 18 [l6] 

Has received Gray's kind, Inno' and valuable letter, would be ~|L L 
glad of an American EditionLcif Origin of SpeGies];h&s made up his mind 11,39 
to be "v/ell abused", but thinks it important nis notions should be 
read by intelligent men, accustomed to scientific arg-oment , though not 
naturalists, "It may seem absurd but I think such men will drag after 
them those naturalists, who have too firmly fixed in their heads that 
a species is an entity" First Edition of 1250 copies was sold the 
first day, and now his publisher is print ii:ig as rapidly as possible 
3,000 more; would be obliged if Gray could aid an American Reprint 
and could make, "for m.y sake and publisher's", any arrangement for 
any profit; New Edition is only a Reprint, yet he has m.ade a few im- 
portant corrections; will send clean sheets in a few days of as mary 
as are printed and remainder afterviards, and Gray may do anything 
he likes; would be glad for Nevj- Edition to be printed, and not the old 

A L S 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm, No 16 [iv] " 

Has be^ii ^t water cure for 10 weeks; expresses tharJts for a copy "JH L 
of Gray's [Japan] memoir ["Diagnostic Characters of Nev; Species of !l:45[: 
Phaonogamous Plants collected in Japan by Charles Wright , with 
Observations upon the Relations of the Japanese Flora to that of North 
America and of other parts of the Nortnern Temperate Zone", Memoirs of! 
Aiaerican Academy of Arts and Science , Vol., VI, p 377, 15^57] v^hich he 
found on his through London; he has never for a moment put him- 
self in competition v;ith [ James Dwight] Dana on the subject of climate, 
but "v;hen one has thought on subject, one cannot avoid forming some 
opinion-" [Sir Joseph] Hooker has asked him to write Gray on the sub- 
ject, but he [Darv;in] told Hooker he vrould not presume to express an 
opinion to Gray without careful deliberation; savi several years ago 
some speculation on a viarmer period in the United States subsequent to 
the Glacial Period, consulted [Sir Charles] Lyell, vriiose judgm.ent "is 


really adrairably cauticuc", and v;ho seened much to doubt; Gray's 
arguments in his paper and in hla lott3r sacm hardly sufficient, not 
that he [Darv.'in] ivould be at all sorry to adiait this subsequent and 
intercalated v/arraer period; does not believe that introduction of Old 
World forms into the New World subsequent to the C-lacial Period v;ill 
do for the modified forms in the tvro worlds, as there has been too 
much change in comparison 7fith the little change of the isolate Al- 
pine forms; doubts vrfiether meteorological knowledge is sufficient 
for the deduction that land '.rac lovrer subsequent to the Glacial 
■Period as evidenced by the whale; says it might be argued that a 
greater extent of water in the southern hemisphere made the tempera- 
ture lov;er, and v/hen much of the northern land v;as lower it would 
have been covered by the sea and intermigration between the Old and 
New World would have been checked; doubts whether any inference on 
the nature of climate can be deduced from extinct species of raarranals; 
asks vho would have ventured to surmise the excessively cold climate 
under which the musk ox and deer lived if they had been knovm orJLy by 
fossil bones; refers to his Journal of R esearches [into the Natural 
History and Geology of the countries visited during the Voyage of 
H. K. S Beagle round the world , under the command of Capt Fitz - Roy , 
R N , 1845, Kurray's Home and Colonial Library, Ch-, V, p, 85] for 
food of large animals; it is inferred in England, from remains of 
elephants, that the climate at the period of their embedment was 
very severe; had formerly gathered from Lyell that the relative 
position of Megatherium and Hylodon v;ith respect to glacial deposits 
had not been well raade out, that it may have been solved recently, 
but that such are his reasons, vdiich may be wrong and which he will 
not be sorry to have proved so, for not admitting a v.'armer period 
subsequent to the Glacial Epoch; v;ill read Gray's essay with care, 
and thiiiks it very likely that some facts he could not formerly 
clearly understand vfill be c]ec.r enough; regrets Hooker's saying 
a word about his opinion; is interested in v;hat Gray -iJrrites about 
"Creation" and the philosophy of the subject; "I rest on the fact 
that the theory of natural selection explains many lapses of facts, 
which, as far as vre can see, repeated acts of Creation do not ex- 
plain. On this latter vie?; we can only say 'so it is' and not 
at all 'why it is so' . Pray do not decide either way till you have 
read Ch,. ZIII [Origin o_f Species?] and the Recapitulation Ch , XIV 
which will, I thinlc, aid you in balancing facts," Rejoices that 
Lyell, [Thomas Heiny] Huxley ,[williar. Benjamin] Carpenter, and 
H[ewett] C[ottrell] Watson are "converts", but still has many "bitter 
opponents"; he had vra-itten out the Forberian doctrine of Alpine 
plants 4 years before [Edxrard] Forbes published, as Hooker knev/, but 
he does not believe Forbes ever heard of it 

A L S 6 pp, 21 cm x 16 cm. No, 46 ■ [l8] 

n L 


Has just read with great interest Gray's Japan memoir ["Diag- 
nostic Characters 6f New Species of Phaenogamous Plants collected 
in .Tapan by Charles Wright . . . with Observatiors upon the Re- 
lations of the Japanese Flora to that of North America and of other 
parts of the Northern Temperate Zone", Memoirs of American Acadeiriy of ' 
Arts and Science , Vol. VI, p. 377, 1857] and it seems to him a most | 
curious case of distribution; "llovi ybtj v/ell you argue and put the I 
case for analogy on the high probability of sir^le centers of crea- | 
tion. That great man Agassiz, \-rhen he comes to reason seems to me as 
great in taking a i',Tong view as he is great in observing and classi- 
fying. One of the points which has struck me as most remarkable and 
inexplicable in your memoir is the number of monotypic . , . genera 
amongst the representative form.s of Japan and N, /smerica., And hovj- 
very singular the prepondorence of identical and representative spe- 
cies in Eastern compared v^ith Western America." He has no good map 
shoy;ir.g how. wide the m.oderately low country is on the west side of the 
Rocky Mountains, nor does he knovj" XThether the ivhole of the low west- 
ern territory has been botanized; it has occurred to him, looking at 
such maps as he has, that the eastern area must be larger than the 
western, v/hich vfould account, to a sm^all extent, for preponderance 
on the eastern side of the representative species; asks if there is 
any truth in this suspicion; G-ra3'"-s memoir sets one marvelling and 
reflecting; confesses he is not r.ole to imderstand Gra^'-'s geology on 
pages 447 and 443; was grieved to get a letter from [James Dvfight] 
Dana at Florence giving a very poor account of his health; "What an _ 
admirable memoir on the distribution of Australian plants is that by 
[Sir Joseph] Hooker!" 

A'., L. S. 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 15 [l9] 

[Sir Joseph] Hooker has forvrarded to him Gray ' s letter; "I can- " 
not express hovf deeply it has gratified m.e. To receive the approval 
of a man, v/hom one has long moot sincerely respected, and whose judg- 
ment and knowledge are universalljr admitted, is the highest reward an 
author can possibly v/ish for." Has been absent from home for a few 
days so could not earlier answer Gray's letter; thanks him for takir^ 
so much trouble and interest about the [Aiierican] Edition [of The 
Origin of Species ] ; his publisher has made a mistake not thinkin-g of 
sending the sheets; he himself had entirely forgotten Gray's offer of 
receiving them as printed off, out had he remembered he feels sure he 
Vfould not have taken advantage of the offer, for he never dreamed of 
his bock being so successful vrith general readers; "I believe I 'should 
have laughed at the idea of sendin-';; the sheets to America." On the 
strong advice of Lsir Charles] Lyell and others he has resolved to 
leave the present book as it is and to use all his strength, "which 
is but little", to bring out the first part of the 3 volumes which 
will make his bigger work; is therefore very unwilling to take up 
time making corrections for an American Edition; is enclosing a list 
of a fev;' corrections in the second reprint, and could send 4 or 5 
corrections or additions of equal brevity; also intends to write a 
short preface with a brief history of the subject which he will send 
Gray in a short time, "unless I hear that you have given up all idea 

M L 

L L 


of separate edition. You v/ill then be able to judge whether it is 
worth having new Edition v;ith your Revi ew prefixed.. V/hatever be the 
nature of your Review, I assure you I should feel it a great honour _ 
to have my Book thus preceded," Nothing would induce him to touch 
a penny from the American Edition; his terms with Murray are that he 
receives 2/3 of the profits and Murray 1/3; expects Gray villi not 
consider a nexu edition vrorth thinking about, "though an ansv/er to 
Agassiz vrould be a p,v' advantage to the subject," Thanks Gray 
for -telling him [Jeffries] Wyman's "magnificant compliment" /'and 
for sending the extract from Agassiz; "I cannot see the force of 
his argument; and if he wished to puff my book he could not have 
been more ingenious " Is delighted to hear that Hlenry] Dlarwin] 
Rogers, Professor at Glasgov/ and "so excellent a geologist", goes 
a very long vray with his vievra; will value at any time Gray's criti- 
cism either in revisv/s or by letter . [No enclosure] . 

A L S 6 pp 20 cm X 13 cm- No. 43 [gOj 

L L 

[l850] Has received tvTO sheets of Gray's review, [American Jmirnal _of "IL L 
Feb- 18 Science and Arts, March, 1860- Reprinted in Darwiniana, 1876], 11,80 
read them and sent them to [Sir Joseph] Hooker; they are nov; return- 
ed, reread with care and sent to [Sir Charles] Lyell ; it seems admi- 
rable - by far the best he had read; thanks Gray from the bottom of 
his heart for himself and for the subject's sake, "How curious your 
contrast between the vievrs of Agassiz and such as mine^" Hopes 
Gray will tell him if Agassiz vrrites arything on the subject; Gray'; 
distinction between a hypothesis and a theory seems to him very 
ingenious, but he does not think it is ever followed; "Everyone now 
speaks of the undulatory theory of light; yet the ether is itself 
hypothetical and the undulations are inferred only from explaining 
the phenomenon of light .> Even in the theory of gravitation, is the 
attractive power in any vray knovm, except by explaining the fall of 
the apple and the movements of the Planets?" A-. review on his book _^ 
in the last A nnals and Mag azine of Natural ..History is "rather 
bitter"; he feels sure it is by "ray good friend the entomologist 
[Thomas Vernon] Wollastono . . , Several clergymen go far v/ith me, - 
Rev. L, Jenyns, a very good naturalist, [John Stevens] Henslow 
will go a very little way vath me, and is not shocked at me. He 
has just been visiting me=" 

A L, S 4 pp, 20 cm X 13 cm. No= 22 [2l] 

[i860 Sends short Historical Preface and one page more of corrections; 

Feb. ?] has "shamefully blundered" about Agassiz, but considers [Karl Ernst] 
von Baer fully as good an authority - "some would say better"; asks 
Gray to forward enclosure to Agassiz; is writing all the latter 
part of the volume [Ori_gin of Species., new edition] from memory 
and feels it is a blessing more blunders have not yet been detected, 
but the state of his health left him no choice; if the manuscript 
is of no use no harm is done; has received Gray's letter of Jan, 
23 v^hich tells of "all the trouble" Gray has taken about an Ameri- 
can Edition; fears there is no chance of Gray's review now ap- 
pearing at the head, which would have greatly pleased him; asks 


that any errors like "self fertilize itself" be corrected; thanks 
Gray heartily for all -his generous kindness; "VJhat you say about iny ~ 
Book gratifies me most deeply and I wish I could feel all was de- 
served by me- , . ,. A Review from a man who is not an entire con- 
vert, if fair and moderately favorable, is in all respects the best 
kind of Revievfb About v;eak points I agree The eye to this day 
gives me a cold shudder, but when I think of the fine knovm grada= 
tions, my reason tells me I ought to conquer the cold shudder," 
Agrees about sterility, and especially about fertility of the strong- 
est marked varieties, and in the manuscript already sent he has con- 
fessed more plainly the difficulty; "But a vast number of facts shov/ 
how mysteriously and easily the reproductive system is affected " 
Asks Gray to tell Prof- [Jeffries] Wyman, for whose opinion he has "' 
the "highest respect", hov; very grateftil he would be for any hints, 
information, or criticism; is sorry about [James Dwight] Dana's 
health; he puts dovra in his own mind Gray and 3 others as the judges 
Vfhose opinions he values most of all, "If you keep the subject of 
Origin of Species before your mind, you will go further and further 
in your belief. It took me long years, and , I am astonished at 
the impression my Book has made on many minds I fear 20 years ago 
I should not have been half as candid and open to conviction " [No 
enclosure] . 

A L S 2 pp 31 cm X 23 cm No., 11 [22] 

L L 

L L 

He knows xfhat a busy man Gray is, and asks him not to waste 
more time over him; "My book [Origin of Species], your Review, and 
letters etc. must have consiimed an awful amount," Feels sure time 
spent on the review has not been ?;asted, for it will produce a great 
effect in leading people to think, and that is all he vrants; [Sir 
Joseph] Hooker knows cases vihere Gray's articles have "greatly mol- • 
lified opposition" to his book; "It is curious that I remember well L L 
time when the thought of the eye made me cold all over, but I have 11,90 
got over this stage of the ^'^^■nlaint, and now small trifling par- 
ticulars- of structure often make me very uncomfortable. The sight 
of a feather in a peacock's tail, v/henever I gaze at it, makes me 
sick'. Under this point of view your story of the Black Pigs in the 
Everglades delights me, and supports other cases, wiich though found- 
ed on very good evidence I could hardly digest " Asks Gray to "keep 
Prof [Jeffries] Wyman up to the miark" about vnriting him; vrould con- 
sider it a great favor if Gray could find out positively the name of 
the red nuts; is very curious to see Agassiz's remarks; "I met a few 
days ago Prof. [Josiah Parsons] Cooke of your Cambridge and he broijght 
me direct from Agassiz all sorts of very' civil speeches . I hope 
to God A[gassiz] is a sincere man; I had always fancied that he vias 
so," [Adam] Sedg^vick has reviewed his [Darv;in's] book "savagely ~ L L 
and unfairly" in the Spectator; "The notice includes much abuse and 11,90 
is hardly fair in several respects. He would actually lead anyone, 
who was ignorant of geology, to suppose that I had invented the 
great gaps betvreen successive geological formations; instead of its 


L L 

[i860] being an almost universally admitted dogma. But nj dear old friend L L 
Apr 3 Sedgwick with his noble heart is old and is rabid with indignation 11,90 
It is hard to please everyone; you may remember that in my last let- 
ter I asked you to leave out about the Weald denudation; I told 
[Joseph Beete] Juices this (who is head man of the Irish geological 
survey) and he blamed me much for he believed every word of it, and 
thought it not at all exaggerated'- In fact geologists have no means 
of gauging the infinitude of past time," Tells of a "prodigy of a 
Review", in opposition, by [Francois JulesJ Pictet, the palaeontolo- 
gist, in the Bibliothegue Universelle of Geneva, which he calls per- 
fectly fair, "our only difference being that he attaches less vreight 
to arguments in favor and more to arguraents opposed, than I do , Of 
all the opposed revievj-s I- think this the only quite fair one, and I 
never expected to see one." Does not class Gray's review as opposed, 
though Gray himself thinks so; "It has done me much too good service 
ever to appear in that rank in my eyes. I should rather think there 
was a good chance of my becoming the most egotistical man in all 
Europe: Wiat a proud preeminence! Well, you have helped to make me 
so, and therefore you must forgive me if you can." 

A. L,, S 8 pp, 20 cm x 13 cm. No 47 [23] 

[1860] Thanks Gray for copy of "Revievf of the Origin" [The Origin of 
Apr, 25 Species ] in North American Review ; "It seems to me clever, and I do 

not doubt will da:-.iage my Book, I had meant to have made some remarks 
on it; but [Sir Charlfes] Lyell v;ished to keep it,. , , , The 
Reviev;er is v/rong about Bees:' cells, i.e, about the distance; 
any lesser distance would do, or even grater distance, ' but 
tlien some of the planes ?rould lie outside the generative spheres, but 
this v/ould not add much difficulty to work.. The Reviewer takes a 
strange view of instinct; he seem.s to regard intelligence as devel- 
oped instinct; r;hich I believe is v/holly false. I suspect he has 
never much attended to instinct and minds of animals, except perhaps 
by reading-" Reques'cs Gray to procure for him a copy of New York 
Times for Wednesd. /, Har. 28, as it contains a very striking review 
of his book - one "not really useful, but . , . impressive." Asks 
if Gray has seen hovr [Sir Richard] Ov/en "thrashed" him in the last 
Edinburgh Revie?; [April, 1050]; "He misquotes and misrepresents me 
badly, and hov; he lauds himself. But the manner in which he sneers 
at [Sir Joseph_ Hooker is scandalous, . . . VJhen Hooker's Essay ap- 
peared, Owen vrrote a note, v/hich I have seen, full of strongest 
praise I , - . All say his malignity is merely envy because my Book 
has m^ade a little noise. Hovf strange it is that he can be envious 
about a naturalist like myself, immeasurably his inferior' But it 
has araazed me a good deal to be treated thus by a friend of 25 years' 
duration. He might have been just as severe without being so spite- 
ful, Ovren consoles himself by saying that the \vhole subject vfill be 
forgotten in ten years," Hooker is planning to experiment on various 
subjects at Kew, including the attempt to degenerate culinary vege- L L 

tr.bles; hopes he viill not get too much immersed in his and Bentham's 
Genera PI ant arum , [1862], so as not to spare some time for Geographi- 
cal Distribution and- other such questions; "I have begun to work 
steadily, but very slowly as usual, at details on Variation under 
Domestication [ The Variation of Animal s and Plants under Domestica - 
tion ] . " 

A L S, 6 pp, 20 c 13 cm. No, 13 [24]' 



Thanks Gray for sending t22; is astonished at all the "kind 
trouble" Gray has taken for him; returns Appleton's account; sends a 
formal acknowledgnent , in case Gray v/ishes it; asks Gray to thanlc 
Appleton for his generosity, "for it is generosity in iny opinion " 
Is not at all surprised at the sale [of The Origin of Species] dimin- 
ishing j "my extreme surprise is at the greatness of sale Ho doubt 
the public has been shamefully imposed on', for they bought the book, 
thinking that it vrould be nice easy reading I expect the sale to 
stop soon in England; yet [Sir Charles] Lyell vjrote to me the other 
day that calling at Murray's he heard that fifty copies had gone in 
previous 48 hours," Is glad Gray will notice in Silliman ['s J ournal 

of Science ] additions in The Origin [of Species ]; "Judging from let- 
ters (and I have just seen one from [George Henry Kendrick] Thvraites 
to [Sir Joseph] Hooker), and from remarks, the most serious omission 
in my book vras not explaining how it is, as I believe, that all forms 
do not necessarily advance, - hov/ there can be smgle organisms still 
existing " Mentions reviews by [William BenjaminJCarpenter and 
[Francois Jules] Pictet, "[Adam] Sedgv.'ick has been firing broadsides 
at me» « . Prof. [James Henry?] Clarke of Cambridge says publicly 
that the chief characteristic of such books as mine i.^ their 'consum- 
mate impudence' " Mentions other reviews; would be glad to see any ~| L L 

L L 

good American reviews; "[Thomas Henry] Huxley told me some time ago 
that after a time he vrould write reviev/ on all the Revie'.vs, v/hether 
he will I know not " [Sir Richard] Owen's revievx in Saturday Review 
[ of Politics , Literature , Science and Art ] ^ "one of our cleverest 
periodicals", defends Huxley but not Hooker, whom Ovien, he thinlcs, 
treats most ungenerously, "VJith respect to the theological viev/ of "" 
the question this is always painful to me I am bevirildered I had 
no intention to v/rite atheistically But I ovm that I cannot see, as 
plainly as others do, and as I should p;ish to do, evidence of design 
and beneficence on all sides of us There seems to me too much misery 
in the vrorld, I cannot persuade myself that a beneficient and om- 
nipotent God vrould have designedly created the Ichneumonidae v/ith 
the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of 
Caterpillars, or that a cat should play with mice Not believing 
this, I see no necessity in the belief that the eye was expressly de- 
signed- On tiie other hand I cannot anyhow be contented to view this 
wonderful universe and especially the nature of man, and to conclude 
that everj'-thing is the result of brute force. I am Inclined to look 
at everything as resulting from designed laws, with the details, 
v/hother good or bad, loft to tlie v;orking out of what vro may call 
chancoo Not that this notion at all satisfies me, I feel most 
deeply that the v7hole subject is too profound for the human intel- 
lect. A dog might as well speculate on the mind of [Sir Isaac] 
Nevrbono Let each man hope and believe what he can^ Certainly I 
agree with you that in:j viev/s-are not' at all necessarily atheistical. 
The lightning kills a man, whether a good one or bad one, ov;ing to 
the excessively complex action of natural la-,;s, a child (who may 
turn out an idiot) is born by action of even more complex laws, - 
and I can see no reason, why a man, or other animal, may n6t have 
been oboriginally produced by other lavra; and that all these lavro may 
have been expressly designed by an om.niscient Creator, who foresavf 
every future event and consequence. , But the more I thinlc the more 
bev:ildored I become; as indeed I probably have shown by this letter,';. 
A. L S 3 pp, 26 cm x 20 cm.-. No, 26 [25] 


L L. 


Has anticipated Gray's request by making a few renarks on [Sir ^M L 
Richard] Owen's reviev/ [of Origin of Species ]; "I have lately had 1,152 
inany 'more kicks than half -pence' - A review in the last Dublin 
Natural History Mag[azine] is . , , one mass of misrepresentation., 
It is evidently by [Samuel] Haughton, the geologist, chemist and 
mathematician. It shows immeasurable conceit and contempt of all, 
v/ho are not mathematicians. , « . The article is a curiosity of un- 
fairness and arrogance. ... It is clear he cannot reason. He is 
a friend of [William Henry] Harvey with v/hom I have had some cor- 
respondence. Your article has glearly as he admits, influenced him„ 
He admits to certain extent Natural Selection, yet I am sure he does 
not understand me. It is strange that very few do, and I am be- 
come quite convinced that I must bo an extremely bad explainer, . . „ ^ 
Ovren , . . grossly misrepresents and is very unfair to [Thomas Henry] 
Huxley. You say that you thinl-: the article must be by a pupil of 
Owen; but no one fact tells so strongly against Owen, considering 
his former position at College of Surgeons, as that he has never reared 
one puE-il or follo\ver. . In , .. . Eraser's Magazine, there is an 
article or Review on |_Jean de] Lamarck and me by W[illiam] Hopkins, ; 
the matnematician; v/ho like Haughton despises the reasoning pov/ers of : 
all Naturalists. Personally he is extremely kind toward me; but he ; 
evidently in the following number means to blov; me into atoms. He 
does not in least appreciate the difference in my vievfs and Lamarck's, 
as explaining adaptation the principal of divergence, the increase of i 
dominant groups, and the almost necessary extinction of the less 
dominant and smaller groups." Has lately been looking at the common L L 
Orchids, and though the facts may be "as old and well-kno;vn as the 11,438 
hills" he has been so "struck with admiration at the contrivances" 
that he has sent notices to the Gardeners ' Chronicle ; Ophrys apifera 
offers, as Gray will see, a curious contradiction in structure; gets j 
on very slovrlj with his larger vrork on account of his daughter's ill- 
ness; has been making observations with Primroses and Cowslips which 'L L 
have interested and perplexed him; finds about an equal number of : 11,472 
male and female plants; expected to find the male plants barren, but, 
judging from the feel of the capsules, this is not the case, and he 
is very much surprised at the difference in the pollen, which he 
measured many times and always found 2 to 3/6000 of an inch less in 
diojiieter in the female than in the male plants; "If it should prove 
that the so-called male plants produce less seed than the so-called ; 
female, -rhat a beautiful case of gradation from hermaphrodite to uni- i 
sexual' condition it would be'. If they produce about an equal number ! 
of seed, hov: perplexing it will be." a „ 

A,. L, S. 7 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No., 40 [26] 


At water cure. 

Received the mathematical papers , but has not yet had tine to 
try to understand them; has had an unhappy household of late; his 
eldest daughter has been in bed for 9 weeks v/ith fever, but at last 
it was possible to move her; it v;ill soon be necessary to take her 
to the seaside; his own health "quite broke down" from anxiety, and 
he needs a "considerable" change; has done almost nothing for 6 vreeks; 
is very sorry to hear how extremely hard Gray is pressed with vrork; 
"It is a pity that you should spend more time over Reviev/s of my Bookj 
f Origin of Species l ; you have „ . , been of incalculable service. I 
feel very grateful; though I know vrell that this is not a personal 
affair; you V7ish that the subject should be fairly treated and dis- 
cussed. Nevertheless I cannot help feeling deeply obliged to you 
I can novj very plainly see from many late Reviews, that I should have 
been fairly annihilated , had it not been for 4 or 5 men, includirig 
yourself." A letter from [Sir Joseph] Hooker, at B[ritish] Assoc- 
[iation] at Oxford, tells him there vras one day a "savage fight" on 
his book betvreen LSir Richard] Owen and [Thomas Henry] Huxley, and 
subsequently a discussion of "utmost v;armth" , of 4 hours' duration, 
on a paper by [John William] Draper, of the United Gtatos, in which 
his [Darwin's] book became the subject; "Bishop [Samuel Wilberforce] 
of Oxford, one of the most eloquent men in England, ridiculed me at 
great length and v;ith much spirit; and Hooker answered him., I imagine, 
v;ith vionderful spirit and success = Owen will not prove right, xvhen 
he said that the v/holo subject vrould be forgotten in 10 years My 
book has stirred up the mud with a ver^eance; and it will be a bless- 
ir^ to me if all my friends do not get to hate me- But I look at it 
as certain, if I had not stirred up the mud som^e one else would very 
soon; so that the sooner the battle is fought the sooner it will be 
settled; not that the subject will be settled in our lives' time. It 
will be an immense gain, if the question becomes a fairly open one; 
so that each man may try his nev; facts on it pro and contra " Thanl-cs 
Gray about the Nevj Yor k Times ; "I daresay you vjill bo disappointed 
with the article; and I cannot for the life of me tell vrhat it is 
that struck [Sir Charles] Lyell and me in it - I hope I may find it 
at home v/hen I return there in 5 or 4 days " Will order the 2 numbers 
°^ Atlantic [ Monthly ] -rhen he knov/s which months contain Gray's 
articles, as he v;ill be very anxious to see them; has just reread 
Gray's letter; "in truth I am myself quite conscious that my mind is 
in a muddle about 'designed lavas' and 'undesigned consequences' 
Does not [iramanuel] Kant say that there are several subjects on xuhich 
directly opposite conclusions can be proved true?'" Refers to a 
"strong" article by "our great man"-, W[illiam] Hopkins, in E ras e r's 
Magazine for July; "It is written with very fair spirit and without 
more of the arrogance of a mathematician, than might have been ex- 
pected,, I have remonstrated with him for so coolly saying that I 
base my views on v;hat I rank as great difficulties Anyone by taking 
these difficulties alone can make a most strong case against me 
I could myself v/rite a more daring Review than has as yet appeared! 
On question of Hybridity he passes over the ., ., . fine graduations 


from utter sterility to coEiplete fertility - the fertility of 
some hybrids - and the sterility of Verbascum, and of Tobacco, 
v»'hich latter facts you, by the way, never notice " Gray's letter gave 
him much pleasure, but he begs him not to v/rite vihile he is so over- 
\7orkod; has "this minute" received a letter from Lyell vrho is just 
starting for the continent; on his return he [Lyell] is going to in- 
vestigate reported cases of the Hippopotamus subsequent to the Glacial 
Epoch; he [Lyell] finds others nov: believe in this remarkable fact; 
if so, there has probably been in Europe a warmer period subsequent 
to the Glacial Epoch, "Do you remember my saying that I hoped I should 
be proved v.Tong to punish me for disbelieving in you, and it seems 
that ray punishment is at hand'" Not being able lately to work, he 
has "amused" himself about Orchids, has been "struck v/ith amazement" 
at the beauty of the contri-vances V7ith respect to fertilization by 
insects; the insect led him. to find that the 2 horns in Gymnadenia 
conopsea are stigmas; asks if Gray knows Hooker's paper on Listeria; 
"he misapprehended meaning of his facts " Finds the rostellum so 
delicate that the explosion takes place by touch of h-uman hair, and 
the fluid sets hard in under 2 seconds; "It was really beautiful to^see 
a little insect licking the labellum;, and as soon as its head touched 
the rostellum the explosion took place, and the insect crawled out 
vfith the 2 pollen-masses stuck to its forehead, ready to impi-ognate 
next flower into which it crawled One word more on 'designed lavra' HL L 
and 'undesigned results' I see a bird which I want for food, take xtj 1,284 
gun and kill it ■ I do this de sipinedly An innocent and good man 
stands under tree and is killed by flash of lightning Do you believe 
(and I really should like to hear) "that God d esignedly killed this 
man? Many or most persons do believe this; I can't and don't If 
you believe so, do you believe that -.Then a swallov; snaps up a gnat 
that God designed that that particular swallow should snap up that 
particular gnat at that particular instant? I believe that the man 
and the gnat are in the same predicament If the death of neither or gnat are designed, I see no good .reason to believe that their 
first birth or production should be necessarily designed Yet 
I cannot persuade myself that electricity acts, that the tree grows, 
that man aspires to loftiest conceptions all from blind, brute force ", 
A, L S 10 pp. 20 cm X 13 cm No 41 [27] 

[Hartfield, Sussex] 

Due to absence from home at water cure and his daughter's ill- 
ness ho has only lately read the discussion in the American Acad" 
[ emy ] ; expresses his sincere admiration for Gray's clear powers of 
reasoning, quotes [Sir Joseph] Hooker as saying that Gray, more than 
any one else, is the thoroiogh master of the subject, "I declare that 
you knov; my book [ Origin of Species ] as well as I do myself, and 
bring to the question new linos of illustration and argument, in a 
manner v^hich excites my astonishment and almost my envy ' I admire 
these discussions, I thinlc, almost more than your article in Silli- 
man's Journal [of Science] Every single vrord seem.s weighed care- 
fully, and tells like a 32-pound shot " Wishes Gray had time to 
vrrite more in detail and give facts on the variability of American 

L L 


v;ild fruits; iias sent his copy to the Athenaeun , v;hich has the.larg- L L 
est circulation, v;ith a request that the editor republish the first 11,119 
discussion; fears he Yfill not, "as he revievred the subject in so 
hostile a spirit, and is not a liberal nan." Will order the August 
Atlantic [ Monthly ] as soon as he knov/s it contains Gray's "Reviev7 of 
Reviews" , "My conclusion is that you have made a mistake in being 
a Botanist, ycu -ought to have been a La-^vyer, and you vrould have rolled 
in Y.-ealth." A revievj- in the Quart erly [ Journal of Sciencg l by 
Bishop [Samuel] Wilberforce of Oxford, aided by [Sir Richard] Owen, 
"is unconinionly clever, not worth anything scientifically, but quizzes 
ne in splendid style, I chuckled with laiighter at myself From all 
I gather, the B[ritish] Assoc[iation] at Oxford advanced the subject 
greatly, owing to the effort of Hooker, [Thomas Henr^j Huxley and 
[Sir John William] Lubbock, notvathstandirg incessant attacks. L L. 
[John Stevens] Henslovr and [Ciiarles Giles Bridle] Daubeny are shaken ' 11, 119 
I hear from Hooker that he hears from [Baron Ferdinand Christian von] 
Hochstetter that my vievfs are m.aking vary con.siderable progress in 
Germany-" [H G' ] Bronn, at the end of his translation, has a chapter 
of criticism, but the German is so difficult he has not yet read it; 
[William] Hopkins' review in Fraser ['s Magazine ] is thought "the best 
v;hich has appeared agair^st us- I believe that Hopkins is so much op- 
posed because his coirrse of study has never led him to reflect much 
on such subjects as Geograph[ical] Distribution, Classification, 
Homologies, etc^ so that he does not feel it a relief to have som.e j 
kind of ercplanation " Sees most clearly that his book v/ould have beenj 
a "dead failure had it not been for all the generous labor bestov/ed on 
it . - . by yourself. Hooker, Huxley, and [William Benjamin] Carpenter; 
and to these names I hope soon [Sir Charles] Lyell's mas^ be added. 
But I know the Quarterly vdll cause Lyell to shake in his shoes. Con- 
sidering his age, his vievjs and position in the Society, I 
think his conduct has been heroic on this subject," 

A L S 3 pp- 26 em x 21 cm. No, 30 [28] 

On his return from Sussex about a vreek ago he found several arti- 
cles sent by Gray; is very glad to possess the one from the Atlantic 
[ Monthly ] ; the editor of the Athenaeum has inserted Gray's answers to 
"Agassiz, Bovren, & Co.", and v;hen he read them there he admired them 
even more than at first; "They really seem to me admirable in their 
condensation, force, clearness and novelty. I am surprised that 
Agassiz did not succeed in vnriting something better. How absurd that 
logical quibble - 'if species do not exist, how can they var;-? ' As 
if anyone doubted their temporary existencoo How coolly he assumes 
that there is some clearly defined distinction betv/een individual dif- 
ferences and varieties,- It is no vronder that a man who calls identi- 
cal forms when found in two countries distinct species, cannot find 
variation in nature- Again how unreasonable to suppose that domestic 
varieties selected by for his ovm fancy (p 147) should resemble 
natural varieties or species. The whole article seems to me poor; 
it seems to me hardly worth a detailed ansvrer (even if I could do it, 
and I much doubt whether I possess your skill in picking out salient 
points and driving a nail into them) and indeed you have already 

L L 


ansv/ered several pointc. Agassiz's name, no doubt, is a hecLYj v/eight JL-L 
against us, but yesterday I heard that a nan, v^hon I believe to be 11,125 
greater thr-i. Agassiz, viz [Karl Ernst"! yon Baer 'y^'^-^ a I.o^t 
v-ay - ... . v;ay vith ne, ' his spoken out' publicly and 
will probably publish. R. Wagner has puoiia.ied, aj-so, in uemany an 
abstract of Agassiz's Essay on Classification, and says he believes 
the truth lies betv/eon us two; and this will make A[gassiz] very I"-' 
savage, I should th^"k." Asks Gray to thank Prof. [Theophilus] j 11,125 
Parsons for the extremely liberal and fair spirit in which his essay j 
is vrritten, and to tell him that he [Dan'/in] reflected much on the . 
chance of favorable monstrosities - great and sudden variations - j , 
arising; he has no objection to then, as they -.vould be a great aidj i 
but he did not allude to the subject for, after much labor, he could I 
find nothing v/hich satisfied him of the probability of such occur- 
rences; "There seems to ne in almost every case too much, too complex, ; 
and too beautiful Ldaptationin every structure to believe in its sud- l 
den production. 1 have alluded under the head of . . . seeds to j 
such possibility. Konsters are apt to be sterile, or not to transmit [ 
monstrous peculiarities... Look at the fineness of gradation in the ? 
shells of successive sub- stages of same great formation. I could give \ 
many other considerations, v/hich made me doubt such view- It holds t 
to certain extent with domestic productions no doubt, where man pre- ] 
serves some abrupt change in structure. It amused me to see Sir I; 
RLoderick Impey] liurchison quoted as a judge of affinities of animals; i 
and it gave ne a 'cold shudder' to hear of any one speculating about i 
a true Crustacean giving birth to a true Fish'." Gray gives him valu- i 
able hints about dioeciodimorphous flowers; is "all at sea" about the 
difference in fertility of Cov/slip because he was forced to gather 
his seed too soon, but vail try to work the case out next suiiimer; his 
daughter is decidedly better, though still very ill and vreak . 

A, L. S. 7 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. ?5 [29] 

On receipt of Gray's letter, through [Sir Joseph] Hooker, he 
ordered his book seller to send Gray [William] Hopkins' second article 
in Fraser['s Magazine ] ; considers himself stupid not to have sent the 
Quarterly [ Tournal of Science ] , but presumes it has long ago arrived 
in the United States; has ordered Hurray to send The Origin [of 
Species ] to the American Academy of Science, in Gray's care, as he 
did not know the proper address; thanks Gray for sheets replacing 
those sent to the Athenaeum ; sent the copy of this Athenaeum to 
[Sir Charles] Lyell, in Germany, who v/rites that he thinks Gray's 
argument quite admirable; has not yet received the papers mentioned 
in Gray's letter: "You v.'ill have heard of Hooker's astonishing ex- 
pedition to Syria; if he ascends Lebanon, it may answer scientif- 
icallj-. . . . His absence is so groat a loss to me, that I am hardly 
fair judge of the wisdom of the journey." Has the second article in 
Atlantic Monthly , for a copy -,7as sent his brother-in-lav/, Hensleigh 
Wedgvrood, on account of a review of his Dictionary ; asks who tic author 
is, as his brother V70uld like to know; has ordered another copy of 
this August number [^-^ Atlantic Monthly ], as he vrauld like to send a 
copy to [Francois Jiu^s] Pictet; has been thinking, and will consult 
[Thomas Henr;r] Hu:cley, v/hether he will not get it reprinted in some 


English joiirnal; has ordered, by anticipation, 2 copies of the Octo- 
ber number, so Gray need not trouble to send it; is thinking of 
taking a very great liberty, but, after isuch consideration, does not 
think Gray can object; "You said that it '.ras knovm that you "Tere the 
author of the 1st article ; and as the best chance of getting it re- 
printed in England in a scientific Journal would be to affix your 
naiie, I think of doing this and I hope to Heaven that you will not 
think this an unwarrantable liberty I think nost highly of this 
article [by Gray, in Atlantic Honthl:;- , ^uly, I860] and I cannot bear 
to think it shoiild not be knovm. in England. You vrLll be T/eary of inj- ~| L L 
praise, but it does strike ne as quite adnirably argued; and so well 11,130 
and pleasantly viritten. Your aanrA netaphors and ininitably good I 
said in a former letter that you vrore a Lavvyer; but I made a gross 
mistake- I am sure that you are a poet, No by Jove I vri.ll tell you 
what you are, a hybrid, a complex cross of Lav/yer, Poet, Naturalist, 
and Theologian', Kas there ever such a monster seen before?" Has 
just looked through the passages which he has marked as appearing to 
him extra good, but sees they are too nutrierous to specify, "and this 
is no exaggeration Ii^' eye just alights on the happj^ comparison of 
colors of prism and our artificial groups - I see one little error 
of fossil cattle in S America, It is curious hov; each one, I sup- 
pose v/eighs arg'Lffiients in a different balance; embryologj'- is to me by 
far strorigest single class of facts in favour of charige of forms, and 
not one, I think, of my reviewers has alluded to this Variation not 
coming on at a ver;^' early age, and being inlierited at not very early 
corresponding period, explains, as it seems to me, the grandest of 
all facts in Nat[ural] History, or rather, in Zoology, viz the re- 
semblance of embryos, Hensleigh iTedgs-rood , is a very strong 
Theist, and I put it to him, whether he thought that each time a fly 
vias snapped up by a sv/allov;-, its death vras designed; and he admitted 
he did not believe so, only that God ordered general laws and left the 
result to what has been so far called chance, that there './as no design 
in the death of each individual f ly " 

A L S S pp. 20 cm X 13 cm, Ko. 34 [30] 

Statement about guinea pig, by [Karl Ernst] von. 3aer, can hardly 
be trusted unless he .xas brought forward some quite new evidence vfith 
respect to unknovm mid types; has seen hybrids of rabbit and hare,- 
believes case is to be trusted, but does not kno?/ that the exact half- 
bloods are perfectly fertile; "It is a particularly curious case, be- 
cause many have perseveringly tried and utterly failed even to unite 
these two species " Gray's argum.ents about Design seem excellent, has 
a feeling that the existence of the multitude of stars and the motion 
of the planetary system are equally good with living beings to prove 
a first cause, yet he believes if there were no living beings there 
could hardly be Design; knov/s well he is "muddled" on this subject, 
hov-'Gver; Saturday Reviev; [ of Politics , Literature, Sci enc e and Art] 
has lately been discussing Design, so he will send the "Dialogue" to 
it, of course without Gray's name; Vvhether they will print, he doubts; L L 
a letter from [V/illiam Henry] Harvey against his book [ Origin of "^ II, 137 
Species ] has some "ingenious and new remarks", but it is an "extraord- 
inary fact" that Harvey does not understand at all v/hat he [Darwin] 


means '07 Natural Selection; he has begged Harvey to read the 
"Dialogue" in the next Silllnan [ ' s_ Journal of Science ] , as Gray never 
touches the subject v;ithout making it clearer; [Sir Charles] Lyell, 
[Sir Joseph] Hooker, and others v;ho perfo^tly understand his book 
sometimes use expressions to vmich he dci.jjrs, n "'^e had to vnrite his 
book again he vrould use "Natural Preservation" c^uu. drop "Selection"; 
Dr= [John Ed";ard] Gray, of B[ritish] Museum, says, "It is, you knov/, 
obviously impossible that there can be any Selection in case of 
Plants"; is convinced that had it not been for Gray, Hooker, [Thomas 
Henry] Huxley, and Lyell, his book "would scientifically have been 
a complete failure"; hopes and almost believes the tine v/ill come 
v/hen Gray v;ill go further in believing a very large amount of modifi- 
cation of species than he did at first or does nov:; from his immense 
correspondence V7ith Lyell and Hooker he can perceive that vrhere they 
objected to much at first, they have, perhaps unconsciously, con- 
verted themselves during the last 6 months; finds that the movements 
of Drosera are really curious and the manner in vrhich the leaves de- 
tect certain nitrogenous compounds is marvelous; imagines Gray v/ill 
laugh, but at presen.t he believes they detect the 1/2880 part of a 
single grain of nitrate of ammonia, but muriate and sulphate bother 
their chemical skill and they cannot make anything of the nitrogen 
in these salts; he began work on Drosera in relation to gradation 
as throY;iug light on Dionaea 

A L S 5 pp, 26 cm x 21 cm. No. 28 [3l] 

L L 

L L 




Is in much distress as as his daughter has had a relapse, but she 
is rallying again; is VvTiting hurriedly/ to say that [Sir Charles] 
Lyell, "like a good and kind man", has been consulting v/ith Hurray 
about publishing Gray's revievf [of Origin of Suecies ] in pamphlet, 
and that although it is against their vrill to publish pamplets, the^;- 
would "break it through this time", but do not advise it, for it 
vrould be necessary to spend more in advertisement than the cost of 
publication, and they are vvell convinced that it is impossible to get 
a pamphlet circulated; under these circumstances he feels it would be 
of no use to attempt it, and he is "mucl: vexed"; Lyell has the highest 
opinion of the "talent and science" shown in the 3 reviews and feels 
it vrould be well worth v/hile if a little book could be compiled by 
Gray; hopes Annals [and Hagazine | of Nat ural History will take the 
second part, and, if they do, he will try to place the third part v^ith 
themx; offers to pay vrholc expense of paper and printing "if they will 
condescend to accept it. I cannot bear that such. admirable essays 
should not be printed in this country.-" Has no idea whether Saturday 
Revi ew [of Politics , Literatige , Science and Art 1 vriLll insert dialogue- 

A. L.- S 4 pp, 20 cm x 13 cn= No, 55 [32] 


15 Marion Parade, Eastbourne, 
His (laughter is seriously ill; thanks Cis^ 
[ Monthly ] ; has ordered 2 copies besides; wishes 

for October Atlantic 
Gray had time to 

v/rite on affinities in relati'^n to der'::ent v.'ith nodif ications; Gray 
has done more than he promised in '~e'cting his [Darv.'in's] vievre a 
fair hearing; has been ref lee Ling about getting, as Gray suggests, 
if it can be done, 200 or 250 copies of the 3 articles [review of 
Origin of Species ] of the Atlantic reprinted from the plates in 
America and sent to England; he vrould gladly pay 1.4 or L5; wishes 
the title page to bear Gray's name and titles; offers to post copies 
to all the scientific men whose addresses he can get from the Society; 
feels sure that unless Gray's name is appended the articles would not 
be received in England, encloses diagram regarding Spiranthera, 
Vfishes Gray to observe his ovra species; if it is a verj'- distinct 
species, the contrivance vrill probably differ, as contrivances are 
endlessly diversified; intends to publish on Drcsera; since Gray has 
spoken of determinate movements for an end in plants, he gives a case 
in detail, with diagrams, of pyramidalis : [No enclosure] 

A L S 4 pp 20 cm x 16 cm- No. 45 [33] 

Thanks Gray for letter with corrections, vnritten before he had "ILL 
received his [Darwin's] letter asking for an American reprint [of 11,145 
Origin of Species ] and saying it vms hopeless to print Gray's re- 
vievj-s as a pam.phlet , 0T7ir^ to the impossibility of getting pamphlets 
known; is glad to say that the August or second A tlantic [ Monthly ] 
article has been reprinted in the Annals and I-Iagazine of Natural 
Hist or:/ ; read over vrith- care yesterday the third article vfhich seems, 
as before, admirable; "But I grieve to say that I cannot honestly 
go as far as you do about Design- I am conscious that I am in an 
utterly hopeless muddle- I cannot think that the vrorld, as vre see 
it, is the result of chance, and yet I cannot look at each separate 
thing as the result of Design To take a crucial exam^ple, you lead 
me to infer (p, 414] that you believe 'that variation has been led 
along certain beneficial lines' I cannot believe this; and 1 
think you would have to believe, that the tail of the Fan-tail was 
led to vary in the number and direction of its feathers in order to 
gratify the caprice of a few men. Yet if the Ean-tail had been a 
wild bird and had used its abnormal tail for some special end, as 
to sail before the wind, unlike other birds, ever;^ one would have 
said What beautiful and designed adaptation. Again I say I am, and 
shall eter remain, in a hopeless muddle " Thah!<:s Gray for [Erancis] 
Bowen's fourth review [ Memoirs of American Academy/ of Arts and Sci - 
ences , vol, VIIl]; "The coolness 7,mth which he makes all animals 
to be destitute of reason is simply absurd It is monstrous at 
p 103, that he should argue against the possibilitjr of accumulative 
variation and actually leave out entirely Selection! The chance that 
an improved Short-Horn, or improved Pouter-pigeon should be produced 
by acc'jmulative variation, without rian' s selection is as almost in- 
finity to nothing; so vrith natural species \vithout natural selec- 
tion, HoT7 capitally in the Atlantic, you show that Geology and 
Astronomy are according to Bovren Metaphysics; but he leaves out this 


rubbish "in the 4-th Memoir," Has just heard tha+- [Emile Heinrich] Du 
Bo (5 ■Reymond agrees vrith hin; the sale of his book goes on v/ell and has 
not been stopped by the multitude of reviews; Murray sold 700 copies a_ 
few days ago, so he must begin at once on a nev7 corrected editioni "I 
will send you a copy; for the chance of your ever re-reading; but good 
Heavens how sick you must be of it," [Sir Joseph] Hooker has returned^ 
and says he found traces of glacial action on Lebanon; has gone on 
v/orkirig on Drosera, but xyill not publish till next summer as he is 
"frightened" at his results and must retest them; has been rereading, 
in consequence, some parts of Gray's Lessons in Botany [ First L esr.ons 
in Botany and Vegetable Physiology , 1857]; and has been pleased vilth 
the extremely clear way he puts things, "bufyoumay rely on the truth 
of the fact that the prolonged vreight of an atom, placed vfith 
all care on one of the glands, though it weighed only 1/78,000 of one 
grain caused conspicuous movement. I got the vfeight by weighing a 
length of fine hair and cutting off atoms and measuring them with a 
micrometer, - , „ This suffices to start the movement. Moreover it 
produces such changes ?;ithin the cells of the glandular hairs; that an 
hour after weight had been put on, I could distinguish which hair had 
carried this fairy weight for all the other 100 and more hairs on the 
leaf," Asks Gray to observe whether the flo;vers of Apocynum 
androsaemifolium catch numbers of flies by their proboscides as in 
England, and if bees visit the flovrers; means to get this plant, if he 
can, and observe it; vras surprised, as 'a boy, at the number of flies 
captured; asks Grvaj to make a memorandum about this plant and the 
Spiranthes; his daughter is slowly improving. 

A L S. 3 pp. 26 cm x 21 cm. No. 27 [34] 

L Ja 


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Expresses pleasure at having received Gray's photograph; is ex- 'lL L 
pecting his own which he will send 'off as soon as it comes; "It is 11,164 
an ugly affair, and I fear the fault docs not lie -.-ith the photograph- 
er," [Chauncy] Wright's review has come, [Thomas Henry] Huxley has 
taken i'u away, but they both fear it is too general, although it is 
very clever; asks what ho shall do with it if Huxley does not take it 
[for his Natural History Review], as he knov;-E no other Reviev/; has 
received several letters full of the highest commendation of Gray's 
essay; all agree that it is by far the best thing vn?itten, and he feels 
it has done The Origin [of Species ] much g:)od; has not yet heard how it 
has sold; calls Gray's attention to the reviev/ in GLardeners'] Chronicle; 
has received the letter of credit returned; is. much pleased and sur- 
prised at the profit from the American Edition; Gray is to be at no 
expense about his [Gray's] essay; pres\imes nothing literary nov/ sells L L 
in the "troubled U. S."; "Poor dear [John Stevens] Henslov/, to whom I 1ll,164 
owe much, is dying; and [Sir Joseph] 'Hooker is with him." Thanks 
Gray for 2 sots of sheets of his Proceedings ; cannot understand vihat 
Agassiz is driving at; "You once spoke, I think, of Prof [Francis] 
Bowen, as a very clever man. I should have thoiight him a singularly 
unobservant and vreak man from his VvTitings. If ever he agrees with 
me on any one point, I shall conclude that I must be in error on that. L.L 
He never can have seen much of animals or ho would have seen the III, 16 
difference of old and wise dogs and. young ones. His papef about 

hereditariness beats Gverj-thing, Tell a breedGr that he might pick j !■ L 
out his worst individual animals and breed from them and hope to II ,164 
win a prize; and he vrould thinl: you not a fool, but insane, I | 
believe Boweh is a, metaphysician and that I presume accounts for 
an entire vrant of common sense," Reminds Gray that if he inserts 
grass into Spiranthes he must bend or bow it to:rard the rostellum 
before he I'dthdraws it; asks him to observe whether vdld Apocynum 
catches flies as it does in England; encloses his photograph and 
one of his eldest son, LNo enclosures]: 

A. L. S. 2 pp. 26 cm x 21 cm. No, 53 [35] 

Thanks Gray for 2 or 3 little notes; was glad to receive the one 
on [Sir Charles] Lyell and V7ill tell him. v«'hat Gray says on species; 
is pleased at it, but cannot quite agree; "You speak of Lyell as a 
Judge; novi what I complain of is that he declines to be Judge It 
puts me into despair, . : en I see such men as Lyell and you incapable 
(as you thixik) of deciding. I have sometimes almost wished that 
Lyell had pronounced against me. When I say 'me', I mean my change 
of species by descent , That seems to me the turning point Person- 
ally, of course, I care much about Natural Selection; but that seems 
to me utterly unimportant compared to the question of Creation or 
Modification " Considers Gray's remark about Language and Design 
"clover and original and candid"; "Your little discussion on Ai:;gles 
of Divergence of leaves in a spire has almost driven m^e mad- My 
boy George - - , said they formed a converging series , I have 
been drawing all the real and unreal angles , , and I see the armies 
which do not occur in nature, are just as syrainetrical in position 
as the real angles If you wish to save me from a miserable death, "j L,I. 
do tell me v/hy the angles 1/2, 1/3, 2/5, 3/8, etc series occur, and | 11,235 
no other angles. It is enough to drive the o^uietest man mad. Did I 
you and some mathematician publish some paper on the subject? [Sir 1 
Joseph] Hooker says you did; where is it?" Has been visiting rela- _j 
tivGS to tTj to get a little health for his youngest boy "the 
Natural Selection Hero", and for himself, "with very poor success. 
This has led me to muddle mj'' brain over the angles of leaves. Do you 
knov; of any plant in which angle is fluctuating or variable? I often 
bless science; for T/hen observing I forget my discomfort and at no 
other time am I comfortable for tvro successive hours " Has been look- 
ing at Plantapo lanceolata, and finds it is a female dichogamous , which 
is rather -raiB "i ,& . pistil natures . ■ long before antiTe^anthors of same fksver 
mature; fertilized by the v/ind; a few plants have imperfect anthers, 
containing little pollen and a part of this im.perfect " Finds 
Euphorbia a:tiygdaloides is also a female dichogam.ous monoecious plant, 
and is dioecious in function at any one period - 

A, L. S, 4 PP-, 20 cm x 16 cm. No, 59 [36] 


L L 

L L 

L L 


[l86l] Hopes Gray has received the Third Eaitlon of The Origin [ of 
June 5 Species l^' Andrew Murray, an entomologist and horticulturist and n-^vr 
Secretary io the Hort-i'^ni t^ral Society of London, read a "long and 
hostile and rfthir v/eak Review of the Origin at the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh." Has heard nothing from Truji^^-^ l:out the sale of "1 
Gray's essay so fears it has not been great; sent a ccpy vu Sir 
.j[ohn Frederick William] Herschel, and "in his new Edit[ion] of his 
jr'hysical Geography he has note on the Origin of Species, and agrees 
to certain limited extent; but puts in a caution on design, so much __ 
like yours that I suspect it is borrov/ed, - I have been led to think"" 
more on this subject of late, and grieve to say that I come to differ 
more from you. It is not that designed variation makes, as it seems 
to me, my Deity 'Natural Selection' superfluous; but rather frora study^- 
ing lately domestic variation and seeing what an enormous field of 
undesigned variability there is ready for natural selection to appro- 
priate for any purpose useful to each creature." Thanks Gray for 
sending his review of [John] Phillips; "I remember once telling you 
a lot of trades which you ought to have follov/ed; but now I am con- 
vinced that you are a born Reviewer. By Jove how viell and often you 
hit the nail on the head." Believes Gray ranks Phillips' book [ Life 
on the Earth , I860] higher than he does, or than [Sir Charles] 
Lyell does, "who thinks it fearfully retrograde, I amused myself by 
parodying Phillips' argument as applied to domestic variation; and 
you might thus prove that the Duck or Pigeon has not varied because 
the Goose has not, though more anciently domesticated, and no good 
reason can be assigned why it has not produced many varieties," 
Believes small area, compared v/ith sea or land, comes into play v/ith"" 
respect to fresh v/ater; the rate of change and of extinction in 
fresh water having been much Elov;er, hence Ganoid fishes are all 
fresh water; has been idling and vrorking at Primula and thinks his 
experiments will explain their dimorphism; knov/s there are many 
cases of dimorphic plants, but asks if the two forms are not always 
borne on the same plant; asks, also, if there are other cases of 
tvro forms livir^ mingled in nearly equal numbers; has been working 
on insect fertilization of Orchids - "beautiful facts"; v/ants in- 
formation on Gypripedium; asks if Gray could cover up a plant with 
net and leave one uncovered, if it be one which sets seeds, and see 
\7hether the protected one sets seeds, and v/hether the pollen of the 
two after an interval of time is in the same state; asks Gray not 
to forget to look at flowers of Spiranthes just opening, for he 
wishes to know whether they have the same curious structure as do L L 
the English Spiranthes; "I never knew the nevrapapers so profoundly ~II,165 
interesting. America docs not do England justice; I have not seen 
or heard of a soul v/ho is not v;ith the North. Some few, and I am 
one, even wish to God, though at the loss of millions of lives, that 
the North would proclaim a crusade against slavery. In the long run, 
a million horrid deaths would be amply repaid in the cause of hmnan 
ity. What vronderful times we live in, Kasaachusetts se.ems to show 
noble enthusiasm. Great God how I should like to see that greatest 
curse on earth slavery abolished." 

A, L. S. 6 pp. SO cm x 13 cm. No. 60 [3V] 


..?] "Thamr you aincerely for your very loiig and interesting lettersTiL L 
17 political and scientific.. . . . I o.gree Y.'ith lauch of v;.hat you say on.d 11,169 
I hope to G-od v;e English are utterly wrojig in doubting (l) Tihether 
th-i il[orth] can conquer xhe GLouth], (2) vrtiethor the N[orth] has 
ffiany friends in the South, and (3) whether you noble men of Massachu 
setts are right in transferring your ovm good feelings to the inen of 
Washington, Again I say I hope to God we are ^-.Tong in doubting on 
these points. It is nuinber (3) which alone causes England not to be 
enthusiastic with you. What it may be in Lancashire I know not, but in 
5 Englanc" cotton has nothing vjhateTer to do with o^xc doubts. If 
abolitior does follow viith your victory the whole world will look 
brighter in i:!y eyes and in many eyes It v/ould be a great gain even 
to stop the spread of Slavery into the Territories, - if that be 
possible without abolition, v;hich I should have doubted: You ought 
not to vronder so much at England's coldness, when you recollect at 
the comnienceinent of the v/ar how narjy propositions v;ere made to get 
thirjgs back to the old state v:ith the old line of Latitude . . ■ 
All I can say is that ilassachusetts and the adjoining States have the 
full sjTTipathj'- of every good man whom I seo; and this sympathy vrould 
be extended the vriiole Federal States if v;e could be persuaded that 
your feelings were at all common to them.. But enough of this. It is 
out of my line, though I read every v/ord of nevfs and formerly well 
studied [Frederick Lavr] Olmsted " His other enclosed letter was un- 
fortunately 'written last night; he sends it because he is not yet 
sure Gray understands what he wants; has just looked at Gray's 
I-I anual [of the Botany of the Northern US] and now sees that the 
case of the Rubiaceae is exactly the same as in Primula and Linum; 
asks if Gray knov/s that in any case the pollen of the one form is 
not fitted to fully fertilize its own stigma - that sterility ensued 
at about the same degree as when allied species are crossed; 1;his 
fact seeiAG to him. to make the case very interestir^; would be grate- 
ful for any other cases in ether Orders; "I have found an old note 
of yoLurs in which jou say cases abound in 'Rubiaceae, Borragineae, 
Lobirota, etc-'" Asks for seed of any Rubiaceae; though these would 
be "bad"' plants to experiment on, he could to a certain extent; was 
working at Galium cruciatim this sumraer and found many flowers ex- 
clusively male, but did not think of looking at the pollen of the 
hermaphrodite flowers; fears he will weary Gray, but m.ust v/rite a 
little about Spiranthes; at Torquay he vms able to examine groy/ing 
flowers before he had examined any cut flowers; "In my note to you 
I blundered somewhat. I probably spoke of the 'canoe' as being en- 
bedded within the rostellm.!; so it is in early bud, in so far as 
that the back of the 'canoe' is covered v;ith largo cells with viscid 
m.attcr, v/hich burst and thus attach to the pollinia; a process v;hich 
I could never before understand. J"ust as you say, when flower first 
opens only a hair or needle can be passed down and this tho'ogh 
straight , surely removes the pollinia; in this early condition of the 
flowers you will never find pollen on stigma; but after 24 - 4B hours, 
the Label lum moves a little avray and then position of the nectar and 
oblicue projecting stigm.a, allov; the tips of pollen-m.assos beautifully 
to strike the stigma.. If pollen-m.asses have not been removed in early 


period, the burying of the proboscis is necessary for their remov- 
al. The Bees which I sav7 at vrork (one had 5 canoes, one over the 
other, stuck to it) , alight at the base of spike and go spirally up 
it; when they get to the upper flovrers the pollinia are attached to 
proboscis; they then fly to another plant and always alighting at 
beise, they insert the pollinia in the lower and more expanded 
flowers and leave masses of pollen on the stigma as I said. You do 
not seem to have noticed the rupturing of the front of rostellum, 
with the most delicate touch, v/hich seemed to me a vital action for 
the requisite touch was too delicate for mechanical actiouo" As- 
sures Gray that he tried DLrosera] rotundifolia so often and showed 
the leaves to so many persons that there can be no m.istake in his 
observations; "For some time , . , after catching a fly the leaf 
cannot act. This is incidentally of use to plant for whilst the 
greater number of glands are dry, any uselecs object like bit of 
moss or cinder which has been clashed gets easily jerked or blovm 
off. I long to complete my work on Drosera; but must out of virtue 
defer it till next year; otheriTise I shall never, viith my small power 
of work, get even one volume of my larger work finished," Wishes 
Gray would observe DLrosera] filiformis; can hardly believe that any 
Drosera does not digest animal food; has found the best plan is to 
try leaves which have opened after plants have been planted in a 
soup plate; "Heaven forgive me, if you cannot, for scribbling at 
such length. Your question v/hat -.Tould convince me of Design is a f 
poser. If I saw an angel come down to teach us ggod, and I was con- 'L.L 
vinced, from others seeing him, that I v;as not mad, 1 should believe i; 11,169 
in Design. If I could be convinced thoroughly that life and mind ! 
was in an unknovm vray a function of other imponderable forces, I ; 
should be convinced. If man vras made of brass or iron and no vray f 
connected vrith any other organism which had ever lived, I should | 
perhaps be convinced. . , . I have lately been corresponding with f 
[Sir Charles] Lyell, 7/ho, I think, adopts your idea of the stream of !l 
variation having been led or designed, I have asked himi ., . I 
whether he believes that the shape of my nose vras designed. If he I 
does, I have nothing more to say. If not, seeir^ vfhat Fanciers have I 
done by selectir^ individual differences in the nasal bones of Pigeons; 
I must think that it is illogical to suppose that the variations, i 
which NatLural] Selection, preserves for the good of any being, have i 
been designed. But I know that I am in the same sort of muddle = , J 
as all the vrorld seems to be in, v/ith respect to free will, and yet ] 
with every [word omitted] supposed to have been preserved or pre- j 
ordained." English Holly, and all the cultivated varieties, are J 
absolutely dioecious; has just been looking at Gray's Manual; "Could 
I any^There find out a fuller account of the state of some of the 
species of your Ilex, for instance whether the female flovjers have 
any pollen (ours has anthers but no pollen), and whether the male 
flovrers ever set seeds. Our male trees never bear a berry This 
vrould make a good case of gradation. [William Henry] Harvey ob- 
served o\ir Holly years ago. I have alvrays felt curious about the 
stops by v;hich it became dioecious." [No enclosure],. 

A. L. S. 10 pp. 20 cm x 16 cm, " No. 72 [38] 


Sends cordial thanks for 2 most valuable notes from Gray; "¥hat"l L L 

a tiling it is, that v/hen you receive this vie may be at war, and vre 
c\. 3 be bound, as good patriots^ to hate each other, though I shall 
find this hating you very hard work,, Hov/ curious it is to see two 
c luntries. Just like two angry and silly men, taking so opposite a 
vi ;v; of the sane transaction. So far as I can see we rest entirely 
on [Capt. Charles J VJilkes' acting as Judge 1 fear there is no 
shad iw of doubt we shall fight, if the tv;o Southern rogues [James M, 
Haso and John Slidell] are not given up. And what a "virretched thing 
it V; '.1 be, if we fight on tiie side of slavery. No doubt it will be 
said uhat vre fight to get c©tton; but I fully believe that this has 
not entered into the motive in the least. Well, thank [word 
omitted] vie private individuals, have nothing to do viith so awful a 
responsibility. Again how curious it is that you seen to think that 
you can conquer the South; and I never meet a soul, even those who 
would most wish it, vjho thinks it possible, - that is to conquer and 
retain it. I do not suppose the mass of people in your country ^vill 
believe it. but I feel sure if we do go to war, it virill be Y/ith the 
utmost reluctance by all classes, ministers of government and all.- 
Time vdll show, and it is no use v/riting or thinlcing about it = 1 
csiledbhe other day on Dr. [Francis] Boott and was pleased to find 
him pretty vrell and cheerful. I see „ , „ he takes quite an English 
opinion of American affairs, though an American in heart. [Henry 
Thomas?] Buckle might write a chapter on opinion being entirely de- 
pendent on Longitude I" Thanks G-ray for facts on dimorphism in 
Borragineae; "What a riddle is the Mertensia=" Presumes it vrould 
be impossible to get seeds; considers it very kind of G-ray to try 
to send him a living plant of Houstonia; vfill send a copy of his 
Primula paper which he believes vj-ill not be printed until April, 
after his Orchid book [ The Various Contrivances b£_ whi ch Orchids are 
Fertilized by Insects ] ; cares more for Gray's and [Sir Joseph] 
Hooker's opinions than for that of "all the rest of the world", and 
for [Sir Charles] Lyell's on geological points; [George] Bentham 
and Hooker thought well of his paper v/hen read, "but no one can 
judge of evidence by merely hearing a paper"; the only thing which 
has interested him. of late is making out that Catasetum triden- 
tatum is male, l'Ionac[h]anthus viridis female, and Ifyanthus barbatus 
the hermaphrodite, of the same species; this accounts for all 3 
forms appearing sometimes on the same plant, "they differ as much 
as, or more than, a peacock and pea-hen"; Bentham has givrn him a 
list of species of Ozalis, dimorphous like Primula, "and scm.e Mentha; 
are so he says - but I am not sure that he distinguishes such cases 
as Thymus-," Has not yet had time to examine the dried specimen of 
Amsinckia which Gray sent; asks how [James Dvfight] Dana is; Lyell is 
going to publish an interesting book on the Geological History of 
Man [ The Geological Evidences of '-.he Antiquity of Man, London, 1863] ; 
believes he will touch on permanence of species; "With respect to 
Design, I feel more inclined to show a white flag than to fire my 
usual long-range shot,, I like to try and ask you a puzzling ques- 
tion, but when you return the compliment I have great doubts whether] 
it is a fair v/ay of arguing. If anything is designed, certainly manl 


L L 


must be; one's 'inner consciousness' (though a false guide) tells one L L 
so; yet I cannot adjnit that man's rudimentary naimae blalder drained J II, 173 
as if he vrent on all four legs; and pug-nose 7.-ere designed. If I v/as'l ^ L 
to say I believed this, I should believe it in the same incredible 11,175 
manner as the orthodox believe the Trinity in Unity. You say that you 
are in a haze; I am in thick mud; the orthodox would say in fotid J 
abominable mud. I believe I am in much the samt fraiiie of mind as 
an old gorilla v/ould be in if set to learn the first book of Euclid, 
The old gorilla vrould say it was of no manner of use; and I am much _ L.L 
of the same mind; yet I cannot keep out of the question," .1 11,173 

A. L S 5 pp. 20 cm z 16 cm. No. 62 [39] 

Has been trying a few experiments on Melastoraatads and says they 
seem to indicate that the pollen of the 2 curious sets of anthers 
have very different powers; thinks he can now understand the structure 
of flowers and means of fertilization if there are 2 forms - one 
ViTith pistil bent rectangularly out of the flov/er, and the other with- 
it nearly straight; "Study the enclosed magnificent diagram'" His 
hothouse and greenhouse plants have probably all descended by cuttings 
from a single plant of each species, so he can "make out nothing 
from them"; has applied in vain to LO-eorgel Bentham and LSir Joseph] 
Hooker, "but LWV] Oliver picked out some sentences from [Charles] 
Naudin, which seen to indicate differences in the position of the 
pistil,," Sees that Rhexia grows in Massachusetts , and supposes it 
has tvro different sets of staiaens; asks Gray to observe the position 
of the pistils in different plants in lately-opened flowers of the 
same age; specifies this because in Monochaetum he finds great changes 
of position in pistil and staraens as the flovrer gets old; "Supposing 
that iT^y- prophesj'' should turn out right , please observe "whether in 
both forms the passage into the flower is not on the upper side of 
pistil, ov/ing to the basal part of the pistil lying close to the ring 
of filaments on the under side of the flower " !'ould like to knov,-, 
also, the color of the two sets of anthers; this would take only a 
few minutes and is the only vray he can find out vjhether the plants 
are dimorphic in this peculiar vray - orJLy in the position of the 
pistil and in its relation to the two kinds of pollen; is anxious 
about this because if it shoiold prove so, it will shov; that all 
plants v/ith longer and shorter or otherxvise different anthers will 
have to be examined for dimorphism; asks Gray to keep this letter as 
a memorandum, 

A-. L,- S, 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No, 63 [40] 

Enclosed is diagram of Melastomatad. 

M L 


"It is really almost a pleasure to receive stabs from so smooth, 
polished and sharp a dagger as your pen I heartily v.-ish I could 
sympathize more fully v/ith you, instead of merely hating the South 
We cannot enter into your feelings; if Scotland were to rebel, I pre- 
sume we should be very wrath, but I do not thinlc we should care a 
penny what other nations thought " Believes Gray's pamphlet has 
done his [Danvin's] book "great good", and natural science a "good 
turn", for Natural Selection seems to be making a little progress in 
England and on the continent; a nev; German Edition is called for, a 
French Edition has just appeared, and there has even been a Dutch 
Edition; "One of the best men_, though at present unknown, who has 
taken up these views, is Mr,, [Henry Walterj Bates; pray read his 
Travels in Amazonia when it appeax n . " Since t?^iting about Rhexia he 
has been experimenting on Monochaetum, finds that the pistil is first 
bent rectangularly, in a few days straight, end that the 
stamens also move; asks Gray if there are not two forms of Rhexia, and 
to compare the position of the parts in young and old flowers, for 
he has a suspicion that one set of anthers is adapted to the pistil 
in the early state and the other in its later state; also asks, if 
bees visit Rhexia, exactly how the anther and stigma strike their in 
both old and young flowers; he would like a sketch of this; has many _. 
seeds planted for experiment this summer, including Amsinckia spec- 
tabilis „ 

A L. S 5 pp, 20 cm x 13 cm. No,, 64 [4l] 

L L 

M L 

"Your generous sympathy makes you overestimate what you have 
read of ray Orchid book [The Various Contrivances bx w hich Orc hids 
are Fertilized b^^ Insects ] , But your letter of May 18th and 26th 
has given me an almost foolish amount of satisfaction The subject 
interested me, I knevj, beyond its real value; but I had lately got 
to think that I had made myself a complete fool by publishing in a 
semi-popular form,., Nov/ I shall confidently defy the vrorld " Has 
heard that [George] Bentham and [W., V] Oliver approve of it, but 
has heard comments from no one else "whose opinion is vrorth a 
farthing. What strange creatures these Orchids are; for instance 
Mormodes, of V\rhich 1 have this morning examined another species, 
and xvhich supports all that I have said, but v;hiGh has completely 
puzzled me," Thanks Gray for notes on several American species, 
"I am not surprised as no true Orchid grows near you, that the 
pollinia of 0[rchis] spectabilis were not secured I should expect 
that it would tai.ce probably a long time before nev/ insects would 
leave the [word illegible J, You probably pushed toe hard ■ .■ and 
crumpled the i .■• ,• membrane, which, I know, interferes with the 
proper movement " Will write to Murray about costs of 3 first 
woodcuts, but doubts v/hether he will 5,nd the costs, "I will do ray 
best, but by Jove you shall not pay for them If there be 
an American Edit[ion] Murray will expect a little more than simple 
cost„" Thinks he has xvritten "enough and too much about my Orchids 
which are nov/ again become beJoved in my eyes, and which were quite 
lately accursed." Expresses thanlcs about copies of Gray's pamphlet, 

L L 


tells hin not to "trouble" about Hollies, thot^ht they grew near, and 
does not consider the case important; fears nothing urill be made out 
about Rhexia unless a plant could be protected from insects; has now 
a Rhexia glandulosa under trial, but finds there is little difference 
in stamens; is vrorking at several Kelastomas, and is certain there is 
something very remarkable, for pollen of the set of anthers produce 
less seed and, to his airiazement, their seedlings are dviarfs compared 
to the other set, all produced from the same plant; Hr. Hechara has 
sent him. his paper on parellal differences in trees of North America 
and Europe; asks if this can be approximately true, for it interests 
him much as the best case he has seen of apparently direct action of 
condition of life; "Forgive me for one bit more trouble I have a 
Boy with the collecting mania and it has taken the poor form of col- 
lecting Postage stamps; he is terribly eager for 'Wells, Fargo & Co 
Pony Express' 2 and 4 stamps and 'Blood's 1 Penny Envelope 1, 3, 
and 10' cents'. If you virill make him this present you vrill give my 
dear little man as much pleasure as a new and curious genus gives us 
old souls. Since this v/as written the little man has been struck 
doi'm with scarlet fever; but thank God this morning the case has taken 
a mild form=" Has just received Gray's long, "profoundly interest- 
ing" notes on Cypripedium; asks if ho is not going to publish them; 
"Your notes are mors interestir^g than you will suppose, for since 
publishing I saw at Flov;er sho?/ C[ypripedium] hirsutissimum, but 
could not touch it , but it seemed to me that the sterile anther en- 
tirely covered the passages of the anthers. I was aiaased and I saw 
clearly that there must be some quite distinct manner of fertilization 
But I <ii(i not think of insects crawling into flower; still less of 
different kind of pollen and a somewhat . . , viscid stigma, , . , 
You have hit on the same ~ery idea which latterly haj overpowered me, 
vi2 the exuberance of contrivances for same object You vj-ill find this 
point discussed and attempted to be partly explained in the last chap- L I 
tero No doubt ny volume contains much error. Low curiously difficult"] 11,445 
it is, to be accurate, though I tr^' my utmost. Your notes have in- 
terested me beyond measure, I can no-# afford to d - ray critics with 
ineffable complacency, of mind Cordial thanks for this benefit It 
is surprising to me that you should have strength of mind to care for 
science, amidst the awful events daily occuring in your country, I 
daily look at the Times v/ith almost as much interest as an American 
could do I'Jhen will peace come it is dreadful to think of the deso- 
lation of large parts of your magnificent country; and all the speech- 
less misery suffered by many. I hope and think it not unlikely that 
v/e English are vjrcng in concluding that it will take a long time for 
prosperity to return to you It is an awful subject to reflect on " 
Has never received a dull letter from Gray, seldom sees or hears from 
a soul on science; most of his scientific friends are so busy he does 
not v/rite to them, Arethusa 'is very pretty; "How vrell you are attend- 
ing to Cypripedium " Can return Gray's notes on this genus, or any 
other notes, at any time; v/ill make a copy for himself, "How very very 
kind it is in you, overworked as you are, to send me so many notes," 
Expresses thanks about Houstonia; is working hard at that subject, for 
it interests him much; "Did you ever look at the little (so-called 
imperfect) flowers of Viola and Oxalis; they are ver^^ curious, the 


pollen-grains emit their tubes v/hilst vj-ithin the anthers; it is 
curious to see these tuhes traveliog up in straight lines from the 
lovj-er anthers in Oxalic, right to the stigmas; it is like sper- 
matozoa finding their way to ovules " Has just received a French 
translation of The Origin [ of Species l by a Mile [Clemence] Royer, 
"who must be one of the cleverest and oddest vromen in Europe, is an 
ardent Deist and hates Christianity, and declares that natural selec- 
tion and the struggle for life v/ill explain all morality, natures of 
man, politics, etc,!'.'. She makes some very curious and good hits, 
and says she shall publish a book on another subject, and a strange 
production it will be," Has had another look at Gray's Arethusa, and 
finds that the structure seems very like Yanilla and urJ-ike that of 
other Orchids; asks Gray to look at Specularia and tell him whether 
the pollen-grair^ emit tubes direct from the anthers or are grains 
collected oh collecting hairs, has just had a letter from [Alphonse 
Louis Pierre] de Candolle containing facts about Primula, and "his 
queries shov.' he appreciates the case, and about Natural Selection 
He says he goes as far as you about change of species = . I think 
from his letter you go further. He says he vrants direct proof of"" 
Nat[uralJ Selection and he will have to -.rait a long time for that " 
A L S 10 pp 20 cm x 16 cm No 66 [42] 

L L 

.1862] "Our poor Boy" is very sick "I despaired of his life, 

'uly 23 but , < . think [he] has passed the crisis .. I hope . to 

get raj'' brains in order and then I will pick out all your Orchid let- 
ters ,, and return them in hopes of your making use of them " Is _ 
not sure he understands the passages by v;hich insects crav/l in and 
out; asks Gra;/ to draw a diagram, is so in arrears on letters and so 
many experiments have been "going to the dogs" he has not had time 
to make an abstract of Gray's letters, asks him to return such as he 
does not use, but hopes he will use all some time or another, will be 
glad to hear of [J. Trimble] Rothrock's observations on Houstonia, 
Gray only alluded to them, although he did formerly y.Tite about Specu- 
laria; the case in Viola and Oxalis seems "much too remarkable to be 
called 'precocious flowering' ," Hopes Rothrock will publish notes, 
hears that the French say that his [Darwin's] paper on Primula is 
all pure imagination, but cannot find this is grounded on any obser- 
vations; "No one else [but you] has perceived that my chief interest 
in my orchid book, [The Yarious Contrivances b^ which Orchids are 
Fe rtilized by Insects] has been that it was a 'flank movement' on the j 
enemy " Lives in such solitude he has no idea to vfhat Gray alludes 
about [George] Bentham and the Orchids and species, "One of my chief 
enemies [Sir Richard] Owen I hear has been lecturing on Birds, and 
admits that all have descended from one and advances as his oy-ra idea 
that the oceanic v/ingless Birds have lost their wings by gradual 
disuse He never alludes to me or only vfith bitter sneers It 
has been an amusement - . . scribbling egotistically about i^yself and 
my doings." Has managed to "skim"the newspaper, but "had not heart 
to read all the bloody details Good God what will the end be; per- 
haps we are too despondent here, but I must think you are too hopeful 
on your side of the water, I never believed the 'canard' of the 

M L 

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arin-/ of tne Potonac having capitoiated I'iy good dear wife and self 
are come to Y/isti for Peace at any price " Wishes to hear what Gray 
thinks about; what he says in the last chapter of t;he Orchid Book on 
the meaning and cause of the endless diversity of ir.eans for the name 
general purpose, "It bears on design - that endless ques-cion " 
After writing "the above" he read the great bundle of notes, "Whax 
admirable observations- You have distanced me on my own hobby-horse' 
Piat[anthera] hyperborea is a curious ani most interesting case to 
him, "Hov: like the Bee ophrys " Asks if it lives in Artie regions 
where insects nay be scarce; thinks it would be valuable to ascertain 
whether there is occasional crossing of pollinia in this species; 
"How curious about the nectarj-- " Finds Aceras leads closely into 
0[rchis] hircina, "Hov; organic beings are connected'" Gray has 
vrorked Cyp[ripediura] spactabiles excellently; admits he [Darivin] may 
be v.Tong, and fertilization may alviarfs be by small insects bodily 
cravling in, "V.liat diversity in Platanthera Your observations seem 
to me much too good to be suiik: in any reviev/ of my Book " 


M L 


A L 

5 pp= 2G en X 21 cm. No 76 

Thanks Gray for stamps sent to his son who is very ill, and for 
"a capital notice you have published on the orchids' It could not 
have been better; but I fear that you overrate it.. I am very sure 
that I had not the least idea that you or anyone would approve of it 
so much." Retui=ns Gray's last note in case he wishes to publish a 
notice on the subject; "but after all perhaps you may not think it 
vrorth while; yet in ray judgment several of your facts, especially 
P[latanthera ] .lyperborea, are much too good to be merged in a 
Review- But I have alv;ays noticed that you are prodigal in origi- 
nality in your Reviews " Wishes he could understand use of the 
common labellum in foreign Orchids; insects vrould have to be watched 
at work, mentions Gray's having spoken of 2 Fogcnias alv/aj'-s growing 
together, has sent a copy of Gray's reviews to [Sir Joseph] Hooker, 
Gray exactly expresses his conclusion aboat Greenland, v;hile Hooker 
underrates occasional means of transport, "Till I proved the con- 
traiy, he used to maintain vehemently v;ithout a fact that the sea 
would kill all seeds-" Has not had time to look at Mitchella, asks 
if Gray can't persuade his pupil to protect under fine net and 
experiment on some plants; thinks Houstonia may be visited by moths, 
has reason to suspect tLa.t jiiawf Galiaceae are so visited; has been 
looking at Lythrum Salicaria, finds it "beautifully dimorphic like 
Primula", but 77ith additions in both forms of 6 short stamens, is 
curious to make out the use of them, believes there is a third form, 
"But I must hold hard.othcrvase I shall spend my life- over dimor- 
phism." Has con-firmed by oxporiment v/hai? he said about pollens and 
stigmas of Linun grandiflorum; has v.'ritten to Trubner about copies 
of Orchid Book [ The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are 
Fertilized by inseets l - 

A- L S 2 pp., 26 cm x 21 cm. No.- 75 [44] 

L L 



Thanks Gray for sending stamps "of superlative value" to nis son 
who has "gloated" over them; is hoping to get his son to the sea in a 
bed-carriage; has settled vath Trubner who probably spoke to Murray, 
for he has charged him [Darwin] a reduced price, requests Gray to 
present a copy from him [Darv/in] to his [Gray's] pupil, the Mitchella- 
ic very good, but the pollen is equal sized, has just examined Hot- 
tonia and found a grand difference in pollen, calls Echium vulgare a 
"hujabug, merely case like Thymus : " Is almost "stark staring mad 
OT/er Lythrum" ; if he can prove ^.^hat he fully believes, it is a "grand 
case" of trlmorphism with 3 different pollens and 3 stigmas; has 
castrated and fertilized above 90 flowers tryir^ all 18 distinct 
crosses which arc possible v;ithin limits of this one species; feels 
sure Gray v/ould think it a "grand case", vronders if Gray might have 
Lythrum in North America, asks him to look at it, and, if possible, 
get him some seeds; v;ishes to try species with few stamens, if they 
are dimorphic; would expect Nesaea verticillata to be i-rimorphic, 
"There is reason in my madness for I can see that to taose who al- 
re ady believe i^n change of species these facts xrlll modifjr to certain 
extent v/hole viev/ of Hybridity " Homomorphic "grandchildren" of 
Primula have become more sterile 

A L S 4 pp 20 cm x 33 cm, ITo '^1 [45] 

L L 


"¥e are a va-etched family and ought to be exterminated We 
slept here to rest our poor Boy on his journey to Bournemouth, and 
my poor dear wife sickened v;ith Scarlet fever and has had it pretty 
sharply, but is recovering well Our Boy suffered sadly from the 
journoy, though we took it on the advice of tv70 Doctors I fear he 
vTill be an invalid for months, if not years There is no end of 
trouble in this vreary world I shall not feel safe till v;e are all 
at home together, and when that will be I know not But it is fool- 
ish complaining " He received Gray's letter 7irith all the interesting 
details on Houstonia, "It seems a grand case " Hopes [J Trimble] "" 
Rothrock will surely publish them, feels that the simple fact of 2 
pollens in the same species and the reciprocal action of 2 her- 
maphrodities is v/ell worth establishing, and that until any first 
account is confirmed, nothing can be considered as established; has 
no sort of doubt after repeating his experiment on Primula, but will 
probably not publish till v/inter, if then, so Rothrock could first 
establish the case; thanks Gray for sending stamps to his son, "1 
wrote you a mad letter the other day about Lythrixm; but the case is 
vrorth some madness" Appreciates Gray's remarks about Rhexia, and 
what he xvrites about pollen agrees v/ith Y/hat he has seen, "My Rhexia 
glandulosa seems very diffesmt ^Hetorocontron will, I suspect, turn 
out , as I prophesied somethirig marvelous like Lythrum I know almost 
as well as you, that systematic work is the foundation of giei^thing, 
yet in your case and [Sir Joseph] Hooker's case, I perpetually feel 
inclined to do no systematic vrork " Had a note from Hooker giving 
a fair account of Hrs Hooker, but it seems almost as if her heart is 
slightly affected; Hooker has got 2 wonderfully different flowers on 
the same spike of Vanda, and [Thomas Henry] Huxley is going to bring 

L L 

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out a very curious book on Man and Monlcey; can see no honey on 
Melastoma; secretion of honey depends on the ]3iost delicate contri- 
bution of circuinstances, "The conmon Poly gala will go on for many days 
and secrete none, and then will suddenly all coimaence . Affairs 
seem to be getting with you more and more terrible. What will the 
end be It seems to us here far more fearful, than it apparently 
does to you " Would like to hear what Gray thinks of the last chap- 
ter in his Orchid book [The Var ious Cont riv ances b£. which Orc hids 
are Fertilized by Inserts] 

A "l S 6 pp 20 cm X 13 cm No 67 [46] 

-|L L 


Agrees v/ith Gray the Max Muller's book [Lectures on ^o Science 
of Language , 1861] is extremely interesting but considers the latter 
■nart , about the first origin of language, much the least satisfactory; 
"It is a marvelous problem." Has heard, and the book gives him the J 
same impression, that Huller is very much afraid of not being thought 
strictly orthodox; "He even hints at truth of Tower of Babel I, I thus L L 
accounted for covert sneers at me, v/hich he seems to get the better 11,182 
of tovrards the close of the booko I cannot quite see hov; it viill 
forward 'my cause' as you call it; but I can see how anyone with lit- 
erary talent .. , could make great use of the subject, in illustra- 
tion. Wliat pretty notaphors you would make from it J I vrish some one 
would keep a lot of the most noisy monkeys, half free, and study 
their means of communication-," A book by Bishop [John William] 
Colenso has just appeared in England which will "make a noise", and 
which, judging from extracts, "smashes most of the Old Testament " 
Is reading Miss Cooper's Journal of a Na turalist vfhich pleases him 
though it is "very innocent food"; asks who she is; she seems a 
very clever woman, and gives a "capital account of the battle be- 
tvreen our and your vreeds Does it not hurt your Yankee pride that 
v/e thrash you so confoundedly I am sure Mrs Gray will stick jp for 
your own weeds - Ask her whether they are not more honest downright 
good sort of vreeds " The book gives an extremely pretty picture of 
an American village, "but I see your autumn, though so much more 
gorgeous than ours, comes on sooner, and that Is one comfort," Is 
glad Gray has sent off his account of Orchids to New Haven; asks for 
a copy, as he sees no periodicals; wishes Gray had an active pupil 
in the country v^ho could block up with cotton the holes on each side 
of the sterile anther in Cs'-pripedium, and then if pollen were at all 
disturbed it v/ould shoxv that little insects had entered by the toe; 
vrould be very glad of Mitchella and of seed of Nesaea; is more than 
ever interested in Lythrum; the seed of his 88 crossed flovrers prove 
the truth of the diagram he sent Gray, but finds that the 
is in addition moderately fertile vrith half its own stamens, and he 
must make many more crosses, and will not publish this year; thinks 
the case is worth any labor, asks for reference to Gray's notice of 
Gourds affecting each other's fruit, and on movements of the ten- 
drills; would like information on any tendrils descriptive of all 
American varieties of maize; asks for a few grains of the most 
marked varieties of Maize; "I am crav;ling steadily on", compiling 
data -on peaches and nectarines; finds it a curious case; vjould like 
to try a fevf experiments on Gray's tendrils; wonders v;hat would be 


a good easy plant to raise in a pot, "God help your poor country, 
though perhaps you scorn our pity " 

A L S 6 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm No 70 [47] 

Gray's letter and the reviev; in Silliman [ ' s J ournal of ScienceTJL L 
have reached him; "We yrore all very much interested by the political 11,477 
part of your letter; and in some odd way one never foels that in 
formation and opinions printed in a newspaper come from a living 
cource; they seem dead, whereas all that you v/rite is full of life " 
Thanks Gray for information about liaise; "if the husked form had 
been the aboriginal, it vrould surely have not varied so readily; 
there must be some mistake in the statement of Julian, quoted by 
Aug[uste Prouvoncale de] St. Hilaire." Was "profoundly interested" "ILL 
in the reAriov;s; "you i-ashly ask for my opinion, and you must con- 11,477 
sequently endure a lor^ letter." Regarding dimorphism, he does not 
at present like the term "dioeciodimorphism" , for he thinks it give 
quite a false notion that the phenomena are connected with a separa 
tion of the sexes; "CDrtainly in Primula there is unequal fertility 
in the two forms, and I suspect this is case vri-th Linum; and there- 
fore I felt bound in Primula paper to state that it might be a step 
toward dioecious condition; though I believe there are no dioecious 
forms in Primulaceae or Linaceae. But the three forms in Lythrum 
convince me that the phenomenon is in no vray necessarily connected 
v/ith any tendency to separation of sexes,, The case seems to me in 
result or function to be almost identical with what old C K 
[Christian Conrad ?] Sprengel called 'dichogamy' , and which is so 
frequent in truly hermaphrodite groups, naj;iely the pollen and stigma 
of each flower being mature at different periods If I am right it 
is very advisable not to use term 'dioecious', as this at once brings! 
notion of separation of sexes" Hopes Gray will be able to attend aj 
little to Plantago, asks in vdiat form the stigma projects in the bud, 
"(this occurs in long-styled Lythrum, but is not then fertilized)?" 
Asks if short-styled, "your long-stamened" , is really sterile, does "ILL 
not like Gray's term "precocious fertilization" for his second class 11,482 
of dimorphism; "If I can brust my memory, the state of corolla, of 
stigma and pollen- grains is different from^ state of parts in bud, 
that they are in a condition of special modification . The 
temporary theory v;hich I have formed on this class of Dimorphism, 
just to guide experiment, is that the perfect flowers can only be 
perfectly fertilized by insects and are in this case abundantly 
crossed; but that these flowers are not always, especially in early 
spring, visited enough by insects, and therefore the little im- 
perfect self-fertilizing flovfers are developed to ensure a r.uffi- 
ciency of seed for present generations = Viola canina is sterile j 
when not visited by insects, but v>'hen so visited forms plenty of 
seed, I infer from the structure of 3 or 4 forms of Balsaminae 
that they require insects; at least there is almost as plain adapta- 
tion to insects as in Orchids o I have Oxalis acetosella ready in 
pots for experiment; next spring; and I fear this vdll upset n^- little 
theory; : • Campanula carpatica . is absolutely sterile if ! 
insects are excluded.. Specularia speculum is fairly fertile when 
enclosed; and this seemed to me to bo partially effected by the 

frequent closing of the flovrer, the iir/;ard angular folds of corolla ( 
carespanding v/ith the clefts of the open _stigma, and in this action pushitE pol' 
len from outsxleof stigma onto its sm^face Does Sp[ecularia] per- 
foliaba close its floiver like S[pecularia] speculum vith angular in- 
ward folds; if so I am smashed v/ithout some fearfij. 'va-iggling' : Are 
the imperfect flavers of your gpecularia the early or the late ones? " Veiy_ 
early or very late?" Entirely agrees ivith G-ray on the part which 
crossinj:^ plays; v/as much perplexed hy [W V ] Oliver's remarks in the 
Ijatu ral Hisjtorj^ Rs-view on the lower plants of the Primula having 
sexes more often separated than in tJi.e higher plants, so exactly the 
reverse of v/ho.t takes place in animals; [Sir JosephJ Hooker repeats 
this remark in his "Review of Orchids"; "There seems to me much truth 
in what you say, and it did not occur to me, about no improbability of 
specialization in certain lines in lowly organized beings. I could 
hardly doubt that the hermaj'hrodite state is the aboriginal one. 
But hov/ is it in the Conjugation of Confervae - is not one of the 
two individuals here in fact male and the other female??" Has been 
much puzzled by this contrast in se:cual arrangements between plants 
and animals; "Can there be anything in follovving considerj-.tion- By 
roughest calculation about 1/3 of the British generg. of aquatic 
plants belong to the Linnean classes of Mono and Dioecia; whilst of 
terrestrial plants (the aquatic genera being subtracted) only l/l3 
of genera belong to these tyro classes. , . , Does not [Alphonse 
Louis Pierre] de Candolle say that aquatic plants taken as a v;hole 
are lowlj- organized compared with terrestrial; and may not Oliver's 
remark on separation of seyes in lowly organized plants stand in 
some relation to their being frequently aquatic'? Or is this all rub- 
bish?" Admires the cleverness and i.cgenuity 7;ith ?j-hich Gray explains 
and describes all forms of Orchids; asks if Gray's Platantheras smell 
sweetest at night; if so, he suspects moths are the fertilizers; has 
been especially interested in the case of P[latanthera] psycodes, 
more especially since the D[ukeJ of Argyll's "contemptuous remarks 
on my case of Arigraecum x^hich in action seems analogous to your 
case. But by far the most -wonderful is the case of GLymnadenia] 
tridentata; c . . If I understand rightly the roatellurn alone is 
penetrated,. ... I daresay you are quite right about self-fertili- 
zation being much commoner than I thought with orchids = . = . I 
have foimd in Neottia nidus avis that this ensues, if in course of 
fevj- days the floxvers are not visited by insects.?" Gray's observa- 
tions on Cypripediun seem "excellent" and probably he [Darv^in] is 
wholly wrong; it seems to him nov.'- more likely that small insects 
should lick the juice off the hairs with Jaivs or short proboscis 
than with long proboscis; "Hot; curious about the little bristles 
on the stigma I , . . You and Hooker seemai determined to turn my head 
v;ith conceit and vanity (if not already turned) and make me an un- 
bearable VvTetch." Asks if Gray could induce any of his zoological 
coeditors to notice [Henry Walter] Bates* paper; "It vrould be a good 
and charitable deed, for it would encourage and please a man, that 
vrants and deserves encouragement," .Asks if Fragaria vesca and 
virginiana differ much botanically, for he cannot make out that ai:ry 
one has siicceeded in crossing them; has just had a long letter from 


Hooker on the part crossing plays in nature; must consider it v/ell 
and see if it alters his notions. 

A. L. S 6 pp. 25 cni X 21 Gm„ No,, 50 [48] 

Is glad to iiear of Platanthera and the Butterfly and thanics Gray 
for the Indian Corn; "What little grains' I knew nothing about 
'glucose partly replacing starch'," Was "muddled" about the first 
part of Crl-ay ' s reiaev; of Orchids; has been thinking how interesting it vrouldbe 
to experiHent onthe three kinds of flowers of Linium Lewisii , but fears 
it would be ir.iposs'Jble to get seed; "I have been at those confounded"] 11 L 
Kelastomes again; good money (i,e, time) after bad." Asks 11,297 
if Gray remembers te.lling him he could see no nectar in his Rhexla; 
he can find none in Jlonochaetumj and [Henry Walter] Bates tells him 
the flowers are in the most marked manner "neglected" by bees and 
Lepidoptera in Amazonia; the curious projections or horns to the 
staii'ens of Honochaetura are full of fluid, and he suspects that 
diptera or small hymenoptera may puncture these horns as they do the 
dry nectaries of true Orchis; wishes Gray v/ould vratch Rhexia next 
Ewoner on a v.'arm. day, see whether they are visited by small insects, 
and what they do, "Your President [Abraham Lincoln] has issued his _ 
fiat against Slavery,, God r- :-"',. nt .t may have some effect , The 
present generation here never heard much about Slavery 1 sometimes 
cannot help takir^g most gloomy view about your future . I hope 
taat you may prove right and good come out of it„" 

A- L, S 6 pp 20 cm X 16 cm- No 57 [49] 

"The Maize seed has proved a treasure, for besides seeir^ the 
kinds, a young at Edinburgh will experiment on the mutual fortil 
ity of some of the varieties" Asks Gray to thank Dr. [Horace] 
Scudder about pollinia; "that wa.o ver;'- good remark about attGchj.fient 
possible orJLy to eye or proboscis; ar.d these are only t'.TO parts 
vjheve I have seen attachment " Appreciates, also, irjTormation about 
the highness and lo^.vness of the oak tree,[jSir Joseph] Hooker was 
pleased about the Coimrioiiwoalth of Plants; will send his Linum paper 
and then Gray vvill see about L[inum] Levjisiij thiiiks Gray vrill be L L 
interested by parts of [Sir Charles] Lyell's book on Man [The 11,195 
Geological Evidences of the Antiquity all M an ] , but fears the best 
pare, about the Glacial Period, may be too geological for any one 
except a regular geologist; "He quotes you at end vdth gusto By 
the vray he told me t.he othwr day ho;7 pleased some had been by hear- 
ir.g that they could purchase your paEiphlot Thii 'Prrthenon' also 1 
speaks of it as the ablest contribution to the literature of the j 
subject. It delights me when I see your vrork appreciated. The Lyells 
come here this day v;eck, and I shall grumble at his excessive 
caution. , The public m.ay well say, if such a man dare not or 
v;ill not speak out his mind, how can we viho are ignorant, form even 
a guess on subject. Lyell v;as pleased, when I told him lately that 
you thought that language m.ight be used as excellent illustration of 
derivation of species; you will see that he has an admirable chapter 
on this," Has received the correspondence betvifeen [Charles G ] 
Loring and Field and thinks it curious that two able and honest men 
shouJ-d differ so enormously; "Of course I side chiefly with the 
EnglishiTian; but I never so well understood your horror of Disunion 
It is V3ry natural that you should dread becoming split up like 


Germany; but to us it does not seen quite so horrible I think both 
correspondents underrate the very general belief entertained for nany 
years in England, that your Government delighted in making us eat 
dirt , about Boundary Line, Right of Search, Vancouver, etc, I 
believe that this has greatly checked all sympathy v:ith you, and made 
the whole country fire up, v/hen, as vre tho light, you had pressed our 
swallowing powers in the Trent affair, ... I read [Prof. J" E.] 
Cairns 's excellent Locture ["The Slave Power", 1862] which shov/s so L L 
Yrell hoTf your quarrel arose from Slavery,- It made me for a time wish 11,195 
honestly for the north; but I could never help, thoi:igh I tried, all 
the time thinking havr we should be bullied and forced into a war by 
you, when you were triumphant. But I do, most truly think it dread- 
ful that the South, v;ith its accursed Slavery, should triumph, and 
spread the evil. I think if I had power, which thank God I have not, 
I vrould let you conquer the border states, and all v/est of Mississippi 
and then force you to acknowledge the Cotton States. For do you not 
now begin to doubt whether you can conquer and hold them? . . The 
Times is jetting more detestable : . than ever. Ify good wife 
wishes to give it up; but I tell her that is a pitch of heroism, to 
v;hich only a woman is equal to, to give up the 'Bloody old Times' as 
Cobbett used to call it, would be to give up meat drink and air " 

A L S 5 pp. 20 cm X 16 cm- No, 55 [50] 

[Writes at length of his son's stamp collection]; has tried in 
vain at Kev; and elsewhere to get seed of Campanula perfoliata; is 
glad Gray likes [Henry V/alter] Bates' paper and expects his 
"Araazonian Travels" will be good; asks for Gray's opinion on [Sir 
Charles] Lyell's boe^k; "[Sir Joseph] Hooker and I have told him that 
we regret much that he did not speak more boldly out about Species. 
He answers that his belief in change fluctuates " Lyell's book has 
made him reread Gray's essay and he admires it as much as ever; ex- 
plains that by "dichogamy" [Christian Conrad ?] Sprengel means a 
plant in which each flower matures and sheds its pollen and then has its 
stigma mature, and much more rarely matures its stigma first, so that 
these plants are in function monoecious; is sure his observations are 
to a large extent correct, and the case is very common; in the Primula- 
like cases the plants are in function dioecious; has an interesting 
letter from Dr. Criiger, of the botanical gardens of Trinidad, who tells 
of odd facts about a native species of Cattleya which never open 

their flowers and yet set seed capsules; "Happy man, he has actually 
seen crowds of Bees flying ro\md Catasetui.! xvith the .pollinia stick- 

ing to their backs I" He wrote Cruger asking him to observe what the ^ M L | 
insects did in flov;ers of Melastomaceae, he replied it was not yet 11,299 
the proper season, but that on one species a small bee seomed busy 
about the horn-like appendages to the anthers; thinks it would be 
"too good luck" if his study of the flowers in the greenhouse has 
led him to the right interpretation of these queer appendages; has 
just built a hothouse and got some Orchids, and it "amuses" him much; 
"Some plants of Amsinckia spectabilis, at least the seed vras so named 

L L 


(small dark orange flov;ers, elongated hairy leaves) have just begun 
to flower, and I find in two plants the stigma stands on exact level 
with anthers; hence I fear they cariTiot be dimorphic " Gray's 
Mitchellas look healthy, but he hopes they v;ill not flower very soon, 
for his health is so bad the family is going about the middle of 
April to water cure for 6 or 8 weeks; "I shall never get ir^^ present 
Book on Variation under Domestication [ Variation yL An imal s and_ 
Plants under Domestication i finished, yet it interests me much and 
I am now in the middle of long chapter on Inheritance Reversion etc, 
giving results of my own and other Breeders' experiments " 

A L S V pp 18 cm X 13 cm No, 58 [5l] 

[1863?] Gray's review of [Alphonse Louis Pierre] de Candolle [on the ~] M L 
May 31 Oaks, Asa Gray's S cientific Papers, I, p 130] seems excellent, Gray 1,242 
speaks out more plainly in favor of derivation cf species, though 
doubtful about natural selection, asks if Gray does not consider such 
cases as all Orchids next thing to a demonstration against [Osvrald?] 
Heer's view of species arising suddenly by monstrosities, "It is 
impossible to imagine so many coadaptations being formed all by a 
chance blov; Of course Creationists x'rould cut the enigma," Has 
vnritten tv/ice lately and sent 2 copies of his Linum paper which 
probably were lost; remembers v.Triting hov; right Gray was about the 
fertilization of Cypripedium; of the species sent by Gray, 
C[ypripedium] acaule alone has flovrered and has puzzled him, 
Mitchella also does not look very healthy; asks Gray to thank [Horace] 
Scudder for his interesting paper on Pogonia, was glad to see in 
Gray's revievf his remarks in answer to [Hugh] Falconer on Phyllotaxy; 
infers Gray cannot explain why there are not intermediate angles; haslL L 
been looking at [Karl Uilhelm von] Mgeli's work on this subject and 11,236 
is astonished to see that the angle is not always the same in young 
shoots v;hen leaf buds are first distinguishable, as in the full 
grovra branch; "This shews there must be some potent cause for 
those angles which do occur; I daresay there is some explanation as 
simple as that for the angles of the Bee-cells " De Candolle sent 
him a copy of part of a letter from [Marquis G., de?J Saporta in 
which he expressed the strong belief that natural selection vrould 
ultimately be triumphant in France though nov;- quite ignored, is xvor-k- 
ing on his "big book" and is now at all causes of sterility under 
domestication and cultivation; has such an "immense collection" of 
facts that the work, thoiigh laborious and slow, interests him, as he 
can generally come to some sort of conclusion; "There never will be 
a man who will read my big book; it will be a sort of encyclopedia on 
special cases " Has been looking again at the imperfect flowers of 
Oxalis and Viola and finds he vras v/rong in supposing that in Oxalis 
the perfect flov/ers required insect-aid for fertilization, "so this 
view is knocked on the head " Finds Viola does require insects; 
must stick to his opinion that the imperfect flowers of Viola, at 
least , deserve to be ranked as something more than m^ere precocious 
flowers; "In V[iola] canina only 2 anthers are developed; the pollen- 
grains are svrollen - the pistil widely different in shape; no nectar 
appendages to the tvro fertile stamens and no spur. " Asks for seed 
of Campanula perfoliate; has been observing common Broom, "hardly 
any Orchid shows prettier adaptation to insects -ahich are necessary 


for its fertilization. The upper and lower surface of thorax of Bees 
get dusted with pollen, and first the stigma rubs the upper side 
of thorax and aftervrards is rubbed by the lower side of thorax. 

A. L S„ 6 pp. 20 cm x 16 cm. No. 84 [52] 

Is glad to hear Gray is refreshed by his short holiday, and the 
nev;s about his legacy is "capital"; "How good natured you are to my 
little nan about stamps." Thanks Gray for Spccularia; fancied it was 
a specimen to show the flovrers, put it in vrarm water, and then dis- 
coyered his mistake; hopes he has not killed the seeds; has had a 
"kind" note from Mr, [Charles Loring] Brace; vfill not answer, as he 
had previously vnritten thanking him for his present of his book on 
Hungary; "After I had vn^itten to you [Oswald?] Heer's doctrine of 
sudden changes, I suspected what you would say; what, I think, ought 
to give you the severest 'cold chill' is the case of pouter, Fantail- 
pigeons, etc.; v/ere not the variations accidental as far as the 
purpose man has put them to? [Sir Charles] Lyell said he would grap- 
ple with this, but I suspect he found it v/ould be most prudent to 
shirk the question." In his present book he has been comparing varia- 
tion to the shapes of stones fallen from a cliff, and natural or arti- 
ficial selection to the architect, "but I cannot at all vrork a metaphor 
like you do." The case of the Orchid with the prominence on the label- 
um seems a very "pretty" one; has "lots of Hobby-horses" at present - 
fertility of peloric flowers, and especially of "Homorphic" seedlings, 
v;hich he suspects vdll throw much theoretical light on hybrids; has 
worked on Lythrum "like a Tro„an", and has finished 154 crosses, but 
the case is worth any labor, for it seems about the oddest case of re- 
production he has ever noticed - "a triple marriage bet^veen these 
hermaphrodites," His present "Hobby-horse" - tendrils - he ovres to '^ L L 
Gray; "About the spontaneous movements (independent of touch) of the 11,486 
tendrils and upper internodes I am rather taken aback by your saying 
'is it not v;ell knovm?' I can find nothing in any book v;hich I have; 
neither [Sir Joseph] Hooker nor [W, Vc] Oliver knev/ ar^rthing of their 
movements. The spontaneous movement of the tendrils is independent =-|L.L 
of the movement of the upper internodes, but both work harmoniously 11,486 
together in sweeping a circle for the tendrils to grasp a stick. So 
with all climbing plants (without tendrils) as yet examined, the upper 
internodes go on night and day sweeping a circle in one fixed direc- 
tion. It is surprising to watch the Apocyneae ;\-ith shoots 18 [inches] 
long, beyond the supporting stick, steadily searching for something 
to climb up. When the shoot meets a stick, the motion at that point 
is arrested, but in the upper part is continued, so that the climb- 
ing of all plants yet examined is the simple result of the spontane- 
ous circulatory movement of the upper internodes. . . . Has anything 
been published on this subject?" Is glad Gray is going to revievf 
[Henry Walter] Bates' paper; "I enjoy anything riles [Louis J R ?] 
Agassiz. He seems to grow bigoted with increasing years. I once saw 
him years ago, and vras charmed with him. . . , You are unjust on the 
merits of Drosera; it is a wonderful plant, or rather a most sagacious 
animal. I '.-all stick up for Drosera to the day of ity death. Heaven 
knows whether I shall ever publish my pile of experiments on it." 


Asks Gray not to hate "poor old England too much, Anyhov/ she is the 
'Mother of five children all over the vrorld , , No man could have 
tried to v;ish more sincerely for the North than I have done. liy 
reason tells me that perhaps it vrould be best . o o if it v/ould end 
Slavery, but I cannot pump up enthusiasm. The boasting of your 
neviTspaperc and of your little men, and the abuse of England, and the 
treatment of the free colored population, and the not freeing 
Maryland slaves stops all my enthusiasm.. If all the States viere 
like Nev; England the case vrould be different . = . . What devils the 
lovf Irish have proved themselves in New York, If you conquer the 
South you ViTill have an Ireland fastened to your tail," 

A„ Lo S 6 pp. 26 cm x 17 cm. No. 83 [53] 

[1864] "You have been so kind and good a friend to me, that I think you 
Eeb. 25 will like ... to hear that I am better," The vomiting is not now 

daily, and on his good days he is much stronger; his head hardly even 
troubles him, except the ringing in the ears; has not done a "stroke 
of work" for over 6 months, but begins to hope he may be able to work 
again in a few more months; is able to get to his hothouse most days 
now; is "amusing" himself a little by looking at climbing plants; the 
first job v/hich he will do will be to draw up results on Lythrum 
crosses and on movements of climbing plants; has seen and heard from 
no one except "good dear [Sir ^.oseph] Hooker", who, though so over- 
worked, like a good and true friend, often vnrites him; has had one 
letter which has interested him greatly, with a paper by Dr. 
[Hermann] Cruger, of Tr-inidad, ;>rhich will appear in the Linnean 
Journal , and vfhich shovfs he [Darwin] is all right about Catasetum, 
even to the spot v;here the pollinia adhere to bees which visit the 
flower, as he had said, to gnav; the labellum; "Criiger's account of 
Coryanthes and the use of the bucket-like labellum full of water 
beats everything," Suspects that the bees, "being much wetted", 
flatten the hairs and allow the viscid disc to adhere; has given up 
hearing newspapers read aloud, as books are more amusing and less 
tiring; "Good Heavens, the lot of trashy words which I have heard 
is astonishing." Has heard little about America; "Sometime let me 
hear v;hat you are doin^g and what you expect for your Country." 

A L S 6 pp, 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 80 [54] 


Has nothing in particular to say, but "the grand news of Rich- 
mond has stirred me up to write, I congratulate you, and I can do 
this honestly, as my reason has always urged and ordered me to be 
a hearty good wisher for the north, though I could not do so enthu- 
siastically, as I felt we were so hated you. Well, I suppose we 
shall all be proved utterly vjrong vrho thought that you could not 

1. Life and Letters . II, 408, dates one section of the letter 
Apr. 9, 1865, 


entirely subdao the South. I have alvrays thought that the de- 
struction of Slavery v/ould be vrell worth a dozen years vrar. Two 
days ago a very charming man, enthusiastic for the North, called 
here, . . . and he does not believe that you will attack us and 
Canada. I fear it will tale manj.' years before your country will 
shake dovjn to its old routine." He received a paper with a good 
account of G-ray's Herbarium and Library, also,, a long time previously 
Gray's excellent review of [John] Scott's Primulaceae ["On the 
functions and structure of the reproductive organs in thEt 
Primulaceae"] v/hich he forwarded to Scott in India, as it -.Tould 
much please him; vias glad to see in it a new case of dimorphism, 
and v/illbe grateful to hear of any other cases, as he still feels an 
interest in the subject; would be very glad to got some seed of 
Gray's dimorphic Plantagos, for he cannot banish the suspicion that 
they must belong to a very different class like that of the common 
Thyme; asks hov7 the wind, which is the agent of fertilization, could 
with Plantago, fertilize "reciprocally dimorphic" flowers like 
Primula; "Theory says this cannot be, and in such cases of one's 
own theories I follov/ Agassiz and declare 'that nature never lies'." 
Would even be very glad to examine the 2 dried forms of Plantago or 
any other dimorphic plants; asks if his Lythrum paper interested 
Gray; "I crawl on at rate of 2 hours per diem v;ith Variation under 
Domestication [ The Variation of Animals and Plants under Doraesti - 
cation ] ; and I have begun correcting proof of zsy paper on 'Climbing 
Plants' . I suppose I shall be able to send you a copy in 4 or 5 
weeks, I thinlc it contains a good deal new and some curious points, 
but it is so fearfully long, that no one villi ever read it. If how- 
ever, you do not skim through it, you will be an unnatural parent, 


for it is your child. 
A. L. S. pp. 


20 cm X 13 cm. Ko. 77 


[1864J "Your kindness will make you glad to hear that I am nearly as 
May 28 well as I have been of late years, though a good deal v/eaker." Has 
been slowly ^ivriting a paper on Lythrum and this has disinclined him 
for the exertion of writing letters; finds it very pleasant doing a 
little work after 8 months of inaction; Gray's Kesaeas are looking 
very healthy, and Mitchella moderately so; has received Dr. 
[Chauncey] Wright's letter about Orchids, and asks Gray to beg him 
to note V7hat attracts insects to Begonias and vfhether they gnaw or 
penetrate the petals; also, but he cares less, Vij-hat attracts them to 
Melastomas; "Poor Dr.Cruger of Trinidad, who promised to observe, is 
dead." VJill send a copy of his Lythrum paper when it is printed, 
and will like to hear whether Gray thiiiks it as curious a case as he 
does; he has another new sub-class of dimorphic plants; asks if Gray 
has ever traveled south, and, if so, can he tell him v/hether the L L 
trees which Bignonia capreolata climbs are covered with moss or II,4B7 
filamentous lichen or TiLllandsia, because its tendrils "abhor a simple 
stick, do not much relish rough bark, but delight in vjool or moss." 
[Describes how they adhere]; encloses some specimens and asks Gray, 
If he thinlcs it vrorth while, to put them under the microscope; 
thinks it remarkable how specially adapted some tendrils are; 


"Eccremocarpus scaber do not like a stick, v/ill have nothing to say 
to wool; but give them , , , grass or> o , bristles and they seize 
them vrello" Has been reading von Melah on imperfect self-fertile 
flowers, and says he quotes Gray that perfect flowers of Voandseia 
are quite sterile; asks hov; this is known; presumes Gray knows that 
wild plants of Amphicarpaea are generalljr sterile, and wishes he 
might have seed to ascertain whether this plant is sterile v/hen 
fertilized; "What a curious , . . case is that of Leersia„ I have 
lust got plants of this group/' Asks for seeds of Campanula per- 
foliata, if Gray ever comes across it; asks ?;hether American Hollies 
are some hermaphrodite and some female; he has a dimorphic case; 
suggests Gray read [Alfred RussellJ Wallace's article in Anthropologi - 
cal Review on "Natural Selection of Kan"; asks if the museuia for 
Gray's Herbarium is settled; "I am much in arrears" on public news, 
"for I gave up for months hearing the new-spaper, as I found it more 
fatiguing than words, „ ., . What dreadful carnage you have just 
recently suffered. What will the end be?" Asks if [William Henry] 
Harvey will publish; is sending a photograph of himself xvith his 
beard; "Do I not look venerable?" [No enclosures]. 

A. L , S 6 pp. 20 cm x 16 cm. No. 79 [56] 

L L 
II, 4t 

Has delayed ansv;ering Gray's ndte, not because he was ungrateful, 
but because he has less strer:gth; after his 2 hours' work he is glad 
to be quite idle; is still gaining some, and now, at last, is living 
down stairs; "Hy soul has been absorbed with Climbing plants, novf 
finished and tomorrow I begin again, after 13 months interruption on 
'Variation under Domestication' [ Variation of Animals and Plants 
under Domestication] ." He received lately a review on H[erbert] 
Spencer viith the address in Gi-ay's handv/riting; likes much all the 
latter part, but cannot believe Gray T/rote it; "If you did you had 
muddled your brains (in the first part) by reading metaphysics, and 
all elasticity had gone out of your stylo" He also received an 
interesting reviev.' on [James DxTight] Dana, in Gray's handwriting; is 
sending a paper by a gardener, John Scott, which has interested him 
greatly; has just thought that, for chance of Gray's noticing it in 
the [A merican ] Journal [ of Science ] , he will point out the new and 
very remarkable facts; he has paid the "poor fellow's passage out to 
India", vfhero he [Dar\7in] hopes he will succeed; "We are profoundly 
interested in your politics; and do not in the least knovf whether 
the 'old Bloody Times' is to be trusted that there vj-ill be peace and 
that the middle States will join xv^Lth the South on Slavery and eject 
the Northern States, In the latter case, I hope you v/ill marry 
Canada and divorce England and make a grand country, counterbalancing 
the devilish South." [Enclosed is an abstract on Scott's paper on 
red Cowslip],, 

A L S 8 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. G9 [57] 



Oct. 29 

330. 10 

"I have little or nothing to say and it is no wonder, aB I live 
so uniform a life." Is viriting chiefly to ask Gray to get from any 
ornithologist or oologist ansv;ers to enclosed questiono; knov;s 
there is some good man at Cambridge or Boston v.'hose name he has for- 
gotten; tells Gray to read [Thomas Henry] Hujcley in the last Natural 
His tory Review ; "you, yourself could not have done it better " Had 
a"letter from 3[en:;amin Dann] Walsh of Illinois, "a good believer 
in change of species . , ■ There are good philosophical remarks in 
his paper and for some odd cause, philosophy is rarely found in 
entomological works " Is able now to work on his good days for 
about 2 hours; thihtrs phosphate of iron has done him good; Lady 
Lyell has given him wonderful accounts of the benefits to be derived 
from a Philadelphia medicine v;hich is im.ported into England and is 
called Syrup of Phosphates; asks if Gray has ever heard of it; is 
tempted to try iL if he knew of what it was composed; is "plodding 
on with little success" on I^iws of Variation, and has succeeded only 
in making a "disjointed skeleton on which to hang a multitude of 
queer facts-," Has not been able to resist doing a little more at 
"your God-child, iny Climbing paper", which he will have copied out 
by June, "else I shall never stop. This has been nev/ sort of vrork 
for lae and I have been pleased to find v/hat a capital guide for 
observation, a full conviction of the change of species is." His always like to hear Gray's opinion on public news; "My v;ife 
in indignation has changed the Times for the Daily NeY7s , vriiich I 
find rather dull, but it does not much concern me, for I read but 
little, and live on endless foolish novels which arc read aloud to 
me by my dear women- kind = " [No enclosure] 

A L S 4 pp. 20 cm X 15 cm No.. RS [5S] 

Quotes his son' s thanks for stamps; "Your note about Agassiz 
has interested and amused me much for the day before I had been 
reading the Atlantic Monthly and the copy of a letter from Mme . 
Agassiz to [Sir Charles] Lyell and one from him all about the 
Ai'iiazonian Glacier, I-Je were both lost in astonisliiaent at the non- 
sense vmich j'lgassiz vrrites, and I could not resist sending to Lyell 
a copy of , . ■ your note, for his pre-determined wish partly ex- 
plains what he fancies he observed. The evidence advanced by him 
is so weak that I do not thinlc it vrould be admitted for the former 
existence of glaciers even in a temperate region. .. You speak 
of reading the sheets of the [4th edition, -Tune, 1856, of] Origin 
[of Species], but Murray promised me to send you a bound copy. , - . 
As the.'e is no chance of a nev; edition perhaps it would be as v/ell 
to let the Appletons have the sheets if they would make any use of 
thorn." Doubts the success of the next book on domestic animals 
[The Variation of Animals and Plant s under Domestication ? ] , as 

L L 

1 . Life and Letters 
letter 1S6 7. 

II, 4D0, dates one section of this 


some chapters are "curiouG", but nany other;: have too minute details 
for general reading; is grateful to Gray for making a bargain v;ith 
Ticknor about publishing it; thaiil?:s Gray for specimens of Rhamnus; 
both h3 and his son have looked at the pollen of both forms, but can 
find no difference; the difference seems confined to the pistils and 
the peduncles; they cannot conjecture whether this species is re- 
ciprocally dimorphic like Primula or is merely tending to become 
dioecious, Vfhich is a great disappointinent to them; the nature of the 
2 forms could be made out by experiment or by observing their 
seed-production in their natural state; wonders if this species could 
not be purchased in /jiierican nursery gardens; asked in his last letter 
if Gray knew of any striking cases of endemic or naturalized plants 
vriiich never flowered or v/hich never seeded; if Gi-ay does not ansvfor he 
will understand that he knovrs of no cases like the Acorns or Horse- 
radish in Europe; the only point he has made out this summer xYhich "iL L 
could possibly interest Gray is that the co'mjuon Oxlip found everywhere [II , 430 
in England is certainly a hybrid between the Primrose and Co?fslip> 
while the P[rimula] elatior, found only in the Eastern counties, is a 
perfectly distinct and good species hardly distinguishable from the 
coiimioE Oxlip except hy the length of the seed-capsule relatively to the 
calyx; "This seems to m^e rather a horrid fact for all systematic I 
botanists." Has just begun a large course of experiments on the J 
germination of the seed and on the growth of the young plants when L L 
raised from a pistjl fertilized by pollen from the same flovrers, and 11,464 
from pollen from a distinct plant of the same or of some other variety; 
has not made sufficient experiments to ,:'udge certainly, but in some 
cases the difference in the growth of the young plants is highly re- 
markable; "I have taken every precaution in getting seed from the same 
plant, in germinating the seed on iny own chimmey-piece, in planting 
the seedlings in the same flower pot, and under this similar troatm.ent ,' 
I have seen the young seedlings from the crossed seed exactly t-wice as 
tall as seedlings from the self-fertilized seed, both seeds having 
germinated on sair^e day. If I can establish this fact ,. , . in some 50 
cases, with plants of different orders, I think it v;ill be very im- 
portant , for then v;e shall positively know why the structure of every 
flower permits, or favours, or necessitates an occasional cross with | 
a distinct individual." _j 

L S G pp, 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 92 [59] 

Is sendijTg by this post clean shoots of I [ The Variation -iL L 
of Animals and Plants under Domestication . 1368] up to page 336, and 11,256 
there are only 411 pages in this volume; is very glad that Gray is 
going to revievi his book, "but if the Nation is a newspaper, I vrish 
it v;ere at the bottom of the sea, for I fear that you vnll thus be 
stopped revievfing me in a scientific Journal," The first volume is 
all details and Greiy will not be able to read it; the chapters on 
plants are written for natui'alists viho are not botanists; the last 
chapter, on bud variation, is a curious compilation of facts; hovj-- 
ever, some of the chapters in Voliuiie II are nore interesting, and 
ho vj-ill be very curiourj to hear Grey's verdict on the chapter on 
close inter-breeding; "Chapter on vfhat I call Pangenesis will be 


called a r.iad dreaii, and I shall be pretty well satisfied if you 
■ thiiilc it a dream vrorth publishing; , I think it contains a great 
truth- I finish my book mth the semi-theological paragraph) in 
which I quote and drt'fer from you," A man in Natal sent him a packet, 
of the dung of locusts v;ith the statement that it vras believed that 
locusts broi:ight nevi plants to the districts which they visited; 6 
grasses belonging to 2 species have germinated out of the dung and 
the seeds v/ere fairly enclosed in the little pellets as he as- 
certained by dissection; "This verifies what I said in the Origin 
[of Species] that many new methods of transport would be discovered; 
for locusts are often blovm many 100 m.iles out to sea^" The rest of 
the sheets which have all been corrected will be printed by the 
middle of November and- sent to G-ray 

L S 4 pp, 20 cm x 13 cm No, 95 [60] 

[1068] Apologizes for having seemed ungrateful not to have thanked Gray 
May 8 for sending copies of the Nation and for his aid regarding the 

Ajnerican Edition "with your nice preface" which he received this 
morning; Gray's article in the Nation seems very good and gives an 
excellent idea of Pangenesis, "an infant cherished by fev7 as yet, 
except his tender parent, but which will live a long life There is 
parental presumption for you' You give a good slap at my concluding 
metaphor; undoubtedly I ought to have brought in and contrasted 
natural and artificial selection; but it seemed so obvious to me 
that natural selection depended on contingencies even m.ore complex 
than those vmich must have determined the shape 'of each fragment at 
the base of my precipice What I granted to show vras that in refer- 
ence to preordaiiTment whatever holds good in the function of a 
pouter pidgeon holds good in the formation of a natural species of 
Pidgeon, I cannot see that this is false. If the right variatioris 
occurred and no others natural selection V70uld be superfluous." 
Quotes a reviev/er in an Edinburgh paper, "who treats me v/ith pro- 
found contempt", as saying on this subject that Prof_ Asa Gray 
could Y^ith the greatest ease sm.ash him [Darwin] into little pieces. _ 
A L S. 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No, 94 [Sl] 

[IGSS*] Freshwater, Isle of Wight. 

Aug- 15 [Sir Joseph] Hooker, who left j^esterday for his presidency of 
B[ritish?] Assoc[iation] , told him the "wonderful and good news" 
that Dr= ani Hrs. Gray are coming to Europe for a year; invites them 
to visit at Do;-ra anri "see our solitary and very quiet life." Has 
been spending a month at Freshwater, and returns home in a week, was 
in bed for a month before starting, unable to do anything, and to 
his great vexation this outing has done hardly anything for him; 
doubts whether he can resume his small modicujTi of work; hears that 
Gray is coming to Europe to begin a great work, and wishes he could 
have attended the B[ritish] Assoc[iaticn] under the presidency of 
"our good friend". Is greatly disappointed that he himself had not 
strength enough for the undertaking 

A, L S 5 pp 20 cm x 13 cm= No. 93 [62] 

L L 

L L 


Down, Beckeiiham, Kent, 

Expresses iiany thanks to G-rajr and I'Irs= Graj^ for their letters on 
Ezpression; one of Hrs , G-ray's ansvrers about the negro is of special 
value, as he had failed on this head <:r±th all the more distinct types 
of man and had begun even to doubt whether it yrould be (general; also 
of special use will be the case of the shrugging of the shoulders, 
and that about the head not beins shaken laterally for negation is 
very disagreeable; appreciates Gray's kind expressions about his 
accident; his horse fell and partly rolled over on him; he thought 
he v/ould re'iuire 3 months to Eiove, but y;as nearly v/ell in 3 v;eeks , 
althoiigh he has had more pain lately and has not been ver;- brisk; 
"My good and dear v;ife, in consequence, is goi::g co take me, . . 
on the 10 th, to a house, ^vhich ws have, heard of in N, wales for 6 or 7 
Tfeeks " They all wish G-ray could have given a better account of Mrs. 
Grsy's thoughts; feels it is very disheartening that the voyage 
should have driven a^.'/ay so r:iuch of the good effects of the Grays' 
trip up the Nile; has been preparing a New Edition of the "ever- 
lasting old" Origin [ of Species ] v/hich has consiaied 6 weeks, and 
notes for a French Edition of his Orchid book [The Var ious Con - 
trivances by which Orchids -re Fertilized by Insect s i j so that his 
regul-ar work has been iriuc]i interupted„ 

A L G 4 pp. 20 Gr;i x 13 en. Nc no, [63] 

Dovrn, Beckenhaia, Kent, 

"I have been half worked to death in correcting my uncouth 
Sriglish for iry nev;- book" Has been glad to hear of Gray's cases 
appearing like incipient dimorphism; believes they are due to mere 
variability and have no significance; he found good instances in 
Nolana prostrata and Ansinckia and experimented on them, but the 
forms did not differ in feruility; has lon^ thought that such varia- 
tions afforded the basis for the development of dimorphism; was not 
aware of such cases in Phlox, but has adsiired arrangement of anthers, 
causing them to be all raked by an inserted proboscis; is glad to 
learn of Gray's curious case of variability in ovules; Gray's Drosera 
at last made a shoot ;vhich he could observe and the case is rather 
interesting: "The filaiTient of Dionaea is not sensitive to very light 
prolonged pressure or to nitrogenous matter, but is exquisitely 
sensitive to the slightest touch. In our Drosera the filaments are 
not sensitive to a slight touch, but are sensitive to prolonged pres- 
sure from the smallest object of any nature ; they are also sensitive 
to solid or fluid nitrogenous matter. In your Drosera the filaments 
are not sensitive to a rough touch or to anjr jjressure from non- 
nitrogenous matter, but are sensitix'-e to solid or fluid nitrogenous 
matter.. Is it not curious that there should be such diversified 
sensitiveness in allied plants?" 

L 8 4 ppo 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 90 [64] 



[13]72 Down, .Beckenliani, Kent. 

Jan. 15 Has taken up an old subject v;hich formerly interocted him- 

namely, the amo\int of earth brought to the surface by -.TOrms ; v/ants 
to know whether there are in the United States the little vemiform 
piles of earth v/hich are so coa';ion on Eioglish lawns, fields, woods, 
and waste lands; asks if they are as numerous in the Unites States 
as they are in England; vrould have assumed this would naturally 
be the case had it not occurred to him that the severe winters 
miglit make a difference; a very fev/ lines in ansvrev would suffice; 
suggests, if Gray has any correspondent in northern Canada, he send 
this letter to him for additional irformation 

L. S 4 pp.. 20 cm :c 13 cm Ko 99 [65] 

[1372] [Sevenoaks], Down, Beckenham, Kent 

Oct. 22 Has received Gray's "Dubuque Address" and has seen a short 
extract from it on Seq_uoia; vrould gladly accept Gray's view to 
account for the spiral v/inding of a tendril v/hich. has clasped nothing 
had it not been for the fact of the sajae tendril, when it has 
clasped an object, extending in opposite directions; the concave side 
of the lovrer part, in this latter case, can hardly have contracted; 
thihK:s he has explained the approximate Ga.use of the reversed spiral 
curvature, but cannot understand the more remote cause, vrorked 
hard for 4 or 5 weeks on Drosera, and then "broke dovm" and went 
ai/'ay for a complete rest; has "very little power of working now 
and must put off the rest of the work on Drosera till next spring", 
as his plants are dying; "It is an endless subject, and I must 
cut it short, and for this reason shall not do much on Dionaea." 
Th'e point which interests him most is tracing the nerves v/hich 
follow the vascular biuidles; "Bj;- a prick v/ith a shc.rp lancet at a 
certain point, I can paralyze 1/2 the leaf, so that a stimulus to 
the other half causes no movement, It is just like dividing the 
spinal marrov/ of a Frog - no stimjolus can be sent from the Brain or 
exterior part of spine to the hind legs, but if the latter are 
stimulated, they move by reflex action " Einds his old results 
about the astonishing sensitiveness of the nervous system of Drosera 
to various stimulants fully confirm,ed and extended; asks Gray to ^ 
make for him next spring tvro observations on D[rosera] filiformis 
v;hen growing vigorously and on a warm day, he had the Kew specin.ens 
to experiment upon, but is afraid of trusting to his results; in- 
cludes directions for experiments, and asks Gray to keep the paper 
till next spring.. 

A L S 6 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No ^ 100 [66] 

. L 


Dov.T., Beckenhar., Kent. 

Has received a letter about pionaea, sent by Gray, dated 
Wilmington, C"uly 9, [lS]6V, "It has no signature but you refer to it 
as written by Mr, Ganlay or Canbay or Gawley, Will you be so kind 
as to vnrite the name for me distinctly, for some people are so 
foolish as to say that your handvnriting, like mine, is not very 
legible." The letter has interested him much in some respects and 
the gentleman seems very kind and willing to oblige; requests Gray 
to ask him to observe whether the Dionaea catches large or email 
insects; suggests he gather a dozen or score of leaves which are 
auite closely shut, bring them home, and open them; "As 'large' and 
'small' are such vague terms it would be very advisable, if not 
causing too much trouble, to measure the breadth of the broadest 
part and length (from end of head to end of abdomen) if an average 
sized captured insect; and then state hov/ many exceeded or vjero less 
than this mean. But it should be particularly stated ivhether any 
of the captured insects were quite minute. Does your friend still 
abide by his conclusion that a leaf after catching an insect never 
acts again? This agrees with niy small experience v;ith cultivated 
plants." Has received a letter from I'lrs . Treat of Yineland saying 
she would observe D[ro.3era] filiformis next summer; "You will see by 
this letter that 1 am obej^ing your orders and working on Drosera & 
Co -, " 

L S 4 pp, 20 cm x 13 cm. No, 1C2 [6 7] 

Doitm, Kent- 

Is astonished that Agassis should use such an argument as that 
of the trees; has sent the memorandum to Nature, but believes they 
receive so many articles they can find room for only a small portion 
of them; he vrorked hard last sunnier on Drosera, could not finish 
until he got fresh plants, consequently took up the effects of corss- 
ing and self-fertilizing plants, and got so interested that "Drosera 
must go to the dogs till I finish with this and get it published; 
but then I vd.ll resume r.]y beloved Drosera and I heartilj'- apologize 
for having sent the precious little things even for a moment to the 
dogs." Hrs, Darv;in is taking him on Friday, "as an abject prisoner", 
to London for a month, and he hates havin^g to stop vrork; tharJis Gray 
for the "Dubuque Address" which he read v'ith the greatest interest . 

A L 3 7) pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 106 [68] 

L L = 

DoT/n, Beckenham, Kent . 

Was astonished to see about a week ago that Graj' was going to 
vfrite in Natiure an article on him [Darwin], and this morning he 
received an advance copy; "It is the grandest thing ever v/ritten 
about me, especially as comirog from a man like yourself. It has 
deeply pleased me, particularly some of your side remarks It is 
a vronderful thing to me to live to see my name coupled in any 
fashion with that of Robert Brown. But you are a bold man, for I 
ai;i sure that you v/ill be sneered at by not a fevf botanists, I have 
never been so honoured before, and I hope it ;?ill do me good and 
make me try to be as careful as possible; and good Heavens hovi 

L L, 

diffic^jlt accuracy ic." Is no\i hard at vrorl: getting his book on L L 

Drosera ready for ths printers, but it 7;ill take some time for he is 11,497 

alv/ays finding out new points tc observe; thinlcs Gray T/ill be 

interested in his observations on the digestive process in Drosera- the 

secretion contains an acid of the acetic serjes and some ferment 

closely analogous to, but not identical with, pepsin; has been making 

a long series of comparative trials; "No human being v/ill believe v/hat 

I shall publish about the snallnoss of the doses of phosphate of 

ammonia which act." Found out day before yesterday that Pinguicula -J 

digests and then absorbs animal matter; knows this holds good for 

albumen, gelatine, and insects, but is nov; in the midst of his observa-L L 

tions; began to read the Madagascan "scuib" quite gravely; v/hen he ~| 11,497 

found it stated that Felis and Bos inliabited liadagascar he thought 

it vras a false story, and did not perceive it v;as a hoax till he came 

to the woman; asks Gray to thari: Dr. Rood for the sketch of the ears; 

has been glad to sec the account, but it is too late for use, as he 

has finished correcting the early sheets of a Nevr Edition of The 

Descent [of Han ] ; has been forced to say he does not feel so confident 

about the Darv;inian theories as he did before; he and lirs. Darririn have 

their game of backgaiTJiou everj- evening and he often thinlcs of the 

scene betvfoen Gray and ilrs. Gray. 

A, L,;S 7 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 103 [69] 

[1874] DoTvn, Beckenliam, Kent. 

o'une 5 Has read Gray's article ["Charles Danvin", June 4, 1874] in LL 

Nature , and nov; cannot be easy without expressing his profound 11,367 

gratification; "Everyone, I suppose occasionally thinks that he has 

worked in vain, and when one of these fits overtakes me, I will 

think of your article, and if that does not expel the evil 

spirit, I shall knov; thai; I am at the tine a little bit insane, as 

vie all are occasionally," Does not think ai^' one ever noticed the 

point Gray makes about teleology; "I have alwa3'-s said you vrere the 

man to hit the nail on the head." 

A. L. S. 2 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 104 [70] 

[18]74 Dovm, Beckenhain, Kent. 

Dec, 25 Has read with great interest Gray's article on the longevity or 
duration of varieties; has long felt interest in this subject but 
has never before connected it vath inter-crossings; thinks Gray has 
put the case very clearly; has heard from Mrs. Treat about Utricularia, 
but she does not go veiy deep into any subject; has difficulty in 
believing some of her statements; the whole of his book is in manu- 
script for;-n, but does not know how lor^ it v/ill take to get it ready 
for ths printers; hopes it -will be out late in the spring; villi send 
Gray a copy; "The death of Krs. Hooker has indeed been a terrible 
blow. Poor [Sir Joseph] Hooker came here directly after the funeral 
and bore up manfully. I knew I v;ould much sooner die than suffer 
such a loss." 

L. S, 3 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 110 [7l] 


Down, Beckenhani, Kent. 

ExpreGses thanlcs for rnair/ things, especially revievra in the Nation 
and American Journal of Science; the articles are inGtructive and grati- 
fying and give the clearest possible account of his [Darvan's] v/ork; he 
vj-as interested in Gray's essa-^ on diversified jaeans of dis-oorsal 
of seeds, and [F ] Hildebrand's capital essay gives r.iany analogous 
cases; thanks G-ray for facts about Mauranaia; is resolved not to cor- 
rect his books more than once, but to "use the small quantity of vjork 
left in me" for nev;' matter; is preparing a book on advantages of 
crossing, vrhich will be a sort of complement to his Orchid book [ The 
Various Contrivances by vfhich Orchids are Fertilized by Insects |; 
[Sir Joseph] Hooker is absorbed in routine work; [postscript in 
Darvvdn's handv/riting. ] Gray is to tell Mrs. Gray that in a back- 
gammon tournair.ent v/ith: his wife she won 2490 games while he won 2V95„ 

L S 4 pp, 20 cm X 13 cm. No _ 111 [72] 

Down, Beckenham, Kent, 

Has been at work on Pinguicula and finds it proves an "excellent 
digester of fibrin, albumin, and meat"; has been interested to find 
that if a row of flies be placed near the margin, the edge of the 
leaf in 2 or 3 hours turns over so as to bring the secreting and 
absorbing glands into contact with the upper as vrell as the lower 
surface of the flies; the point which interested him most is that 
the leaves certainly absorb nutricious matter from little leaves and 
seeds which are blown onto them, hence the plant is not only in- 
sectivorous, but graminivorous and granivorous; has had several 
leaves sent him from "N Wales" j and it is extremely rare to find a 
single leaf without more than 1 captured insect; found also that each 
had more than 1 leaf, on an average, of some other plant adhering to 
it, and 2 seed capsules; asks if Pinguicula grovre near Gray, and, 
if it does, v/ishes Gray would look at a number of leaves and tell him 
v/hether he finds any seeds or leaves of other plants adhering to them; 
"This would be valuable, It will amuse me much to make a good case 
about the omnivorous habits of this plant o" 

L S 3 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No.. 108 [73] 

Doi/m, Beckenham, Kent, 

Has Just received Dan'jiniana , [l876, by Asa Gray], and is much 
obliged for it; is "uncommonly glad" Gray has been urged to compile 
his iTTitings not only on his [Darv/in's] account but for the public 
good, for every one of the articles seem to him excellent; he xvill 
read the \7h0le soon but will not be able to resist reading the 2 
new articles first; sees by the Table of Contents that Gray has 
discussed one subject - the meaning of sex - on which he himself has 
entered in a new book nov; gone to press, [The Effects of Cross and 
Self Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom ]; this will complete 
al-l he vrill ever do on the subject; is, however, preparing a New 
Edition of his Orchid book [The Various .Contrivances bj which Orchids 
are Fertilized by Insects ] and this has led him to review several of 
4 short notices on this subject; so much has been published he has 
been able to give only the briefest abstract of what has been done; 


as it is, he has had to cut up the book immensely; both books v/ill 
be sent Gray when they are published; asks if Gray had time to 
glance at his son Frank's [Francis'] paper on Stipa; he [Francis] 
makes out nicely that the twisting depends on the twisting of each 
separate cell. "He has ncv; made a fine discovery, but it is too 
long a story." 

A L S 4 pp 20 cm X 13 cm No 112 [74] 

Oct, 28 

[IS] 76 
Nov. 27 



Down, Beckenham, Kent ,- 

Is sending all the clean sheets [of The Effects of Cross and 
Self Fertilization in the VegMSkiS Ki ngdom 1 as yet printed and 
others v/ithin a fortnight; "Please observe that the 6 first chapters 
are not readable, and the 6 last very dull Still I believe the 
results are valuable." He will be curious to see what Gray thinks 
of the book, as he cares more for Gray's judgment than for that of 
almost any one else; "You will speak the truth vfhether you approve 
or disapprove. Very few vrill take the trouble to read the book, and 
I do not expect you to read the whole, but I hope you will read the 
latter chapters >" Appleton v/ill publish this and his Orchid book 
[The Various Contrivances b^ which Orchids are Fertilized by Insects ] 
in America; "I am so sick of correcting proof and licking my horrid "1 
bad style into intelligible English," J 

A- L. S, 3 pp- 20 cm x 13 cm No 113 [75] 

Down, Beckenliam, Kent,. 

Thanlcs Gray for correcting a "stupid blunder", hopes he has 
received by this time a nearly complete set of sheets [of The Effects 
of Cross and Self Fertilizati on in the Vegetable Kingdom ] , but^ in 
case they should have failed, is sending another sfet vath the excep- 
tion of a few last pages and the title nage which will be sent very 
soon; will be delighted to send sheets in advance of the Orchid 
book [The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilized by 
Insects ] which he has written for today; only yesterday he discovered 
he had ovorlooKed one of Gray's papers on Platanthera, from which 
he could have extracted 2 or 3 good facts, and this hag "vexed" 
him; finds it very difficult to keep references distinct for various 

L S 3 pp, 20 cm X 13 cm,, No, 114 [76] 

Down, Beckenham, Kent 

Is going to republish his "Dimorphic Papers", v/ith additions; 
has become convinced that plants of this class cannot be recognized 
merely by the varying lengths of pistils and stamens in a few speci- 
mens; it is necessary to compare size of pollen grains and state of 
stigma; therefore he wants Gray to send him one or two flowers of 
both forms of Leucosmia and Drymispermura (.mentioned in American 
Journal of Science , Vol. 39, page 104) if not very rare and precious; 
asks for rather young flovrers, otherwise the pollen will have been 
shed or lost; his object is to see plants in as many natural families 
as possible, and he would be very much obliged if Gray could spare 
him flov/ers of any dimorphic plant not included in the Primulaceae, 


Lincae, Oxalidae, Gentianeae, Verbenaceae, Borragineae, Rubiaceae, and 
Lythraceae; asks if any of the dimorpliic plants knovm to Gray inhabit 
v/ater or marshes. 

L, S- 3 pp= 20 cm x 13 cm„ No. 115 [77] 


Dec, 20 Down, Beckenham, Kent. 

Thanks Gray for information about Hottonia; refers to Gray's 
having mentioned Forsythia in the American Naturalist ; he has just 
examined dried flovrers from Kevf, finds that F[orsythia] suspensa is 
beautifully dimorphic, and so he has a nevj family; has been think- 
ing about Gray's proposed new terms, he cannot "for very shame" 
change again; has used this term in 2 or 3 printed articles, and it 
is used by several German and Haitian vrriters; "Kahn objected to the 
term on the same ground as you do; but no one objects to Vertebrata, 
because it includes an animal without vertebrae " Moreover, "hetero- 
styled" seems to hin more definite than "heterogone" , as the latter 
would apply to di- and monoecious and to polygainous plants; he is, 
of course, not able to appreciate and difficulty of working in the 
terra in systematic v/orks, but says [George Henry KendrickJ Thwaites 
speaks of "forma stylosa" , and asks wty a species may not be called 
"heterostylosa" ; "Mov/ever this m.ay be it really would be too ridicu- 
lous for me to change again," 

L- S. 3 pp, 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 116 [ 78j 

1S77 Down, BeckeiihEin, Kent. 

Jan, 3 Appreciates Gray's vrillingness to send such rare specimens, but 
could not think of accepting the offer on t?ie mere chance of making 
out vfhether the plants are heterostyled; moreover, feels the chance 
would be very small T/ithout better specimens, as with dead plants no 
evidence is sufficient except difference in size of pollen-grains; 
has given Kew so much trouble lately he has vOTred he villi give them 
no more for some time, but will find out later v/hether they can spare 
any of the plants in question; is very glad of the notice about the 
black pigs; "My faith in [Jeffries] Wyman is so great that I have not 
been shaken by [Alfred Russoll] Wallace who founds his speculation on a 
very feeble basis." Asks whether Primula mistassinica, Linum virginia- 
num, and Bootii [Boottia?] are dimorphic. 

L, S. 3 pp. 20 cm X 13 cm. No, 118 [79] 

L8]77 Down, Beckenham, Kent. 

m. 23 Thanks Gray for his card about Pontederia; refers to Gray's 

letter of Nov, 21, 1870, vfhich says that Phlox subulata presents 2 
forms which have been named as species but which Gray is inclined to 
think is a case of di- or tri-morphism; Gray has spoken of this as a 
common species; asks, if that is so, that he send 2 or 5 dried flovrers 
of the different forms for comparison of pollen- grains and stigmas; 
Gray also has mentioned Gilia aggregata (ptilchella) with stamens and 
pistils varying much in length; asks, if this is not a rare plant, that 
specimens of the 2 forms be sent for examination 

L,. So 3 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 120 [SO] 


Down, Beckenhcm, Kent- 

"Your abstract of iny book [ The Effects 

of Cross and Self F^rti- 

lisation in the Vegetable KingdOTi] is inimitably good. You have 
given everything = - . „ By Jove I ought to 0Y;e you a grudge'. In 
earnest it could not in ay opinion be improved," Thanks G-ray for 
the specimens and for not "hating" him for "bothering" him so much; 
will examine them with greatest interest in about a week's time; is 
sending his son, Franlc [Francis], to Kev7 to look at specimens of 
Leucosmia and Polemoniaceae; longs to get this old work off his hands 
and so will publish too soon to profit by sovfing seeds of Gilia; has 
sent title of Orchid book | The Various Contrivances by which Orchids 
are Fertilized by Insects ] and has v.Titten Murray to send a complete 
copy; some of Gray's criticisms and suggestions in his 2 reviews are 
very good; [gives directions for correction of manuscript], 

A, L, S 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 122 [8lJ 

[lSj77 Doi»m, Beckenham, Kent, 

Har. 8 Judges from length and positions of stamens and pistils, but 
more especially from stigmas of the two forms, that Leucosmia 
Burnettiana is in all probability dimorphic; the pollen-grains do not 
differ in size, vmich is the best evidence; tvro forms of Gilia 
pulchella differ in their stigmas but not in their pollen-grains, and 
the case was left quite doubtful had not Gilia micrantha expanded in 
exactly the same measure in the stigna and moreover in the diameter 
of the pollen-grains; therefore he does not doubt that both Gilias and 
the others to v/hich Gray alludes are truly hetero-styled; " Phlox 
Gubulata is a devil incarnate and as bad as Rhamnus; perhaps it vjas 
once heterostyled, with the short-styled forms since rendered more 
fem.inine in nature," Knows altogether of 39 genera, in 14 families, 
which include heterostyled species; this pleases him; finds it 
"doubtful work making out anything about dried flovv'ers; I never look 
at one vathout feeling profound pity for all botanists, but I suppose 
you are used to it like ells to be skinned alive," 

A, L, S. 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 117 [B2j 

[1B"7J Dovra, Beckenham, Kent, 

June 4 Prof. [Charles Edwin?] Eessey's case has come too late, as the 
sheets on this subject are printed; had it come earlier he would not 
have knovra v;hat to do v/ith it; "The pollen-grains and stigmas ought 
to be compared. The case seems to be well worth careful investiga- 
tion and I would have given my eyes for seeds formerly; but nov/ I 
have done v;ith the subject." Suggests, if Becaey likes experimental 
work, he might raise seedliiigs and fertilize short and long pistils 
with pollen from long and short stamens from distinct plants and on 
the same plant, counting the proportion of flovrers which set fruit 
when fertilized in the various vrays, and the number of seeds per 
fruit; Bessey's diagram shows the nature and difference between the 
flowers excellently; will send him his book v;hen published in 4 or 
5 weeks, v/hich will show him how to experiment on the plants; thinks 
the case may be one merely of great variability or it may be one of 
incipient heterostylism, and under this point of view he v;ould 


formerly have investigated it most carefully; "When you receive my 
little book, you ■.■.''ill see -that I have done an audacious deed vnth 
respect to you." Is now trying to "make out" the use or function of 
"bloom" or the waxy secretion on leaves and fruit of plants, but is 
very doubtful v;hether he will succeed; asks if Gray can give him any 
light as to whether such plants are commoner in -.varm than in colder 
climates; he asks because he often walks out in heavy rain and sees 
leaves of a very few wild dicotyledons with drops of water "rolling 
off them like quicksilver", whereas in his garden, greenhouse, and 
hothouses there are several; asks if bloom- protected plants are 
common on the western plains of the United States; Sir Joseph Hooker 
thinks they are common at Cape of Good Hope, but it would be a 
"puzzle" to him if they are common in verj.' dry climates; finds bloom 
Yevj comm.on on Acacias and Eucalypti of Australia; some of the 
liucalypti vAich do not appear to be covered with bloom have the 
BTjidermis protected by a layer of some substance which dissolves in 
boiling alcohol; asks if there are any bloom-protected leaves or 
fruit in the Artie regions, 

A, L. S„ 6 pp, 20 cm x 13 cm. No„ 119 [S3] 

L L 


Has received Gray's reviews on his [The Different ] Forms of 
Flowers [ on Plants of the Same Species ] which pleased and instructed 
him; yjas especially pleased that Gray approved of the suggestion of 
giving names to subdivisions of polygamous plants; expresses thanks 
for the review of Mr-, Cook, v/hich he supposes Gray vnrote; [Thomas?] 
Carlyle's letter about him [Darv;in] was a forgery or "an infernaj. 
lie" - Suggests Gray get some your-g man to experiment on grades of 
fertility of Epigaea and Rhamnus ; Herman Muller describes Valeriana 
dioica as consisting of 4 analogous forms, and attributes these 
cases primarily to the existence of 2 forms - one //ith longer and 
one viith shorter corolla, such as he has shovm exist in other cases; 
but Miiller's German was too "obscure" for him to follow; is not sure 
of the uses of bloom or waxy secretion on leaves and stems of plants; 
asks whether glaucous plants are more or less comm.on in arid countries 
to the west or in humid districts on the Atlantic; expresses delight 
at his son's having married an American lady. 

A L, S, 4 pp. 20 cm X 13 cm. No. 123 [84] 

Down, Beckenham, Kent, 

Asks Gray to send seeds of Echinocystis lobata to Dr.. Hugo De 
Vries, Professor of Botany at Amsterdam, v;ho has done such excellent 
work on plants and who wishes, at his [Darv/in's] sug- 
gestion, to make som.e observa-Mons on its tendrils; "I see we pvn 
both elected Corr[esponding] 'Members of the Institute [of Franco?]. 
It is rather a good joke that I should be elected in the Botanical 
section, as the extent of my knowledge is little more than that 
a dmisy is a Compositous plant and a pea a Leguminous one." [Letter^ 
contains 4 pages on the construction and fertilization of Spiranthes 
autumnalis, and 2 diagrams]. 

A L, S 7 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 124 [OS] 



[I8j79 Down, Beckenham, Kent. 

Oct= 24 Has procured and read the New Edition of Gray's Text-Book of - 

Botany [6th edition of Botanical Text-Bock , 1879, entitled Structural 
Botany or Organography on the basis of Morphology | which has been 
greatly developed since old times, and finds at pages 21 and 22 a 
curious account of some seedlings; asks if it is possible for G-ray 
to send him a few seeds of Ipomoea leptophylla and Megarrhisa 
calif ornica; has procured Delphinium nudicaule from a nurseryman; 
has attended somewhat to the manner in which seedlir^gs break through 
the ground and it is for this object he vrants the seeds; has ivritten 
a rather big book - "more is the pity" - on the Movements of Plants 
[ The Povfer of Movement in Plants | , and is novf just beginning to go 
over the manuscript the second time, "v;hich is a horrid bore". 

A,. Lc S 3 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 125 [36] 

1879 Down, Beckenham, Kent. 

Doc. 16 Thanks Gray for having taken "so much trouble about the seeds" 
but feels "rather guilty", for though he was very "curious " to see 
them germinate yet the points in question vrere not of much importance; 
Ipomoea leptophj'-lla has not yet germinated, but he has a good many 
seeds to sov; again in early spring if these already sown do not 
germinate; has often suspected that some kinds of seeds have "an 
obstinate habit" of dying if sown in the winter; has just put 5 
Megarrhiza seeds to soak, only 1 sinks, and that "alarms" him; wishes 
very much to see vrhether the 'curious heel-like projection at the base 
of the hypollytrum stem Avhich splits the seed-coats so beautifully in 
other cucurbitas is here absent, as he hopes, and as ought to be the 
case, as the cotyledons are not withdrawn from the seed-coats; asks 
for a few more seeds of the common cotton which he cannot get in 
England; the cotyledons "behave oddly at night, for vihen old and 
only when old, they sink downwards" and he did not investigate the 
point sufficiently when he had seedlings. 

A. L, So 4 pp. 20 cm x 15 cm. No no. [87] 

[lG]eO Down, Beckenham, Kent. 

Jan,. 19 Has been greatly interested with the Megarrhiza seeds Gray sent; 
Gray has been misinformed about their germination and thinks he can- 
not have watched the whole process; he placed some seeds on the sur- 
face, others half an inch beneath, and others deeper, but none of the 
cotyledons vrere lifted up; one seed on the surface was a little 
tilted by the root not penetrating the ground, but this often occurs 
with all kinds of seeds; "The petioles of ;my specimens vrere not stiff 
enough to boar the vraight of the soed, What takes place is that the 
radicle bends down and penetrates the ground, but grows only to a 
length of about half an inch or less (length rather doubtful as I 
did not vdsh to kill specimens by making sections). When of this 
length its growth is arrested, and the lov;er ends of the tubular 
petioles grow quickly and penetrate the ground just like a root to 
a depth of nearly 2 1/2 inches; then their grovrth ceases, and now 
the radicle takes up the game and groves very quickly. In every case 


the base of the radicle lay 2 1/2 inches beneath the surface. You 
probably know that if ordinary seedlings are placed in solution of 
permanganate of potassiunij the radicle is coloured brown Vi^hilst the 
hypocotyl and cotyledons are left uncoloured„ Now when a seedling 
liegarrhiza with the plumule just reaching the surface was thus 
treated, the whole radicle (and hypocotyl) and the v;hole of the 
tubular petioles (densely covered with root hairs) beca.i;e brovm vrhilst 
the plumule was quite \incoloured.. Thei'efore I think it certain that 
the tubular petioles act functionally like a root and that the 
cotyledons are hypogaean. The sole use of this wonderful manner of 
growth which n^^^nrs to ir.e is to'hido the enlarged root, at least 
first, beneath 2 1/2 inches of ' soil as a protection against enemies. 
When ray plants are t¥;o or three weeks old I will cut a slice 
fron the root, and taste it and test it for starch J' Asks whether 
the plant is an annual or perennial, if the root comes to the surface 
when it has become large, and if it is then hard and bitter; wonders 
whether it is attacked by beasts, birds, insects, or slugs in 
California; it has been a "great grief" that not one of the seeds of 
Ipomoea leptophylla has germinated; his gardener opened some and 
found them rotten, 

Lo S 6 pp= 20 cm x 13 cm- No 126 [88] 

Down, Beckenham, Kent, 

Drawings on page 21 of Gray's textbook [6th edition of 
Botanical Text -Book , 1879, entitled Structural Botany or Organogra- 
phy on the basis of Ilorphology l , showing that the seed had been down 
at 1/2 inch depth, represent perfectly all that he has seen; thinks 
Gray may like to hear that the first true leaves break out through a 
split at the base of the confluent petioles of Delphinium nudicaule 
precisely as in Megarrhiza where the seedling of the plum.ules 
bursts the tube, and then the bowing downv/ard of the tip of the 
plumule forces it laterally out of the tube; the bov/ing down of the 
tip, which is at first straight, is a comm.on movement v;ith seedlings, 
but here it plays a neiv part; quotes [Profo Thomas?] Meehan, in a 
paper lately "xea-d before the "Philadephia Society" , as saying that a 
single plant of Linum perenne, brought from Colorado to him, was 
quite fertile v/ith him, whereas he [Darwin] thought it was absolutely 
sterile with its own pollen; Meehan does not state v/hether his plant 
was long-styled or short, but, as it came from. Colorado, he imagines 
it v;as endem.ic; asks if Linum perenne grows in Colorado; Dr- Alefold 
says none of the true American species are heterostyled ; thinks, if 
Meehan has mistaken the species, it would be "too bad" to doubt on 
another man's accuracy without taking the smallest pains to be 
accurate himself; was tempted to write to the Philadelphia Society 
to inquire how the case really stands, but has decided not to, as 
[F] Hildebrand has fully confirmed Meehan' s statement; Meehan in 
accuracy seems to him to be "impervious to Science"-. Has just 
spent a delightful 2 hours at Kevc and heard prodigies of Gray's 
strength and activity that "[word illegible] me up a mountain like 
a cat . " 

A, L, S„ 7 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm,. No, 127 [89] 


[1S]80 Dovm, Beckenhan, Kent. 

j'eb. !'• "If W letter opened your eyes, your£3 has opened mine much 

vddero It is very strange that plants, if they belong to the same 
species, should behave so differently." His seeds vrere laid on the 
surface or buried in a mixture of peat, sand, and coimnon soil, and 
this may have yielded. nor e jasily than Gray's soil; believes, from 
the extraordinary intermission in the grov/th of the true radicle, 
from the root-hairs, and from the petiole staining brown v;ith 
permanganate of potash, that the normal function is to bury itself; 
his plants are grovfing very vigorously and should they flower he 
will send some dried, v;ith leaves, for the chance of Gray's being 
able to name them; "I suppose v/hen the petioles grov,-- in the air 
they are stiffer than when hypogaean, for mine could not support 
the weight of the cotyledons. One seed germinated abnormally; one 
alone of the 2 cotyledons emitted its petiole which v;as a hollow 
1/2 cylinder as in sketch," Some of the seeds received last were a 
little flattened and evidently different; they vrere sown separately, 
but not one germinated; [2 pp. i^ another handvrriting] . 

A, L, S. 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. "No. 128 [90J 

Encloses small sketch of petiol'^ 

1B81 Down, Beckenham, Kent. 

Jan. 29 Expresses thanirs for Gray's reviev/s in the [American] Journal 

[of Science, "C, Darivinand F. Darv/in, 'Pcuvcr of I'bvemenfc in Plants' ",111, 
XXE, 245] and the Nation ; they pleacod him greatly because there is 
hardly any one in the vrorld v;hose approbation he values more highly 
than he does Gray's; "That v;as a stupid blunder about Opium, but 
you cannot put yourself in my frame of mind. . . . Nothing in your 
Review pleased me more than your opening sentence about Frank 
[Francis Darv/in]. If you knev/ him v;ell, you vrould knovf that such 
an idea as being offended with you never coidd cross his mind. In 
fact I wish I could infuse a fev; [vrord illegible] of vanity and 
self-conceit into his veins, for he never will value in the least 
v;hat he does, "therefore I am certain that the notion or wish that 
you would speak in his praise v/ould never have occurred to him." Hopes 
when Gray and Mrs. iray come back to the continent they may find 
time to pay a little visit at Dovm, 

A L, S- 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No no. [9l] 

•Tan. 2 Thanks Gray for two letters and for box v/ith plants; Mitchella 
looked as fresh as if dug up the day before; "What a pretty little 
creeper it is v/ith its scarlet berries." Plopes the Cypripedium vdll 
flower; has decided to put live insects in by stopping up the end 
of the stopper and catching them as they come out of the lateral 
orifices; if they are smeared vdth pollen he vrill put them in again, 
and so make them go to vrork and then examine the stigma; has just 
finished a paper for the Linum Society on dimorphism of Linum- "a 
much better case than Primula". Tlenchon finds the L[inum] Lewisii 
bears on the same plant flowers with pistils longer and shorter than, 
and equal to, the anthers; vdshes he could get seed of the Arctic 
plant for he would like to see this new case; has Amsinckia and 


Mitchella growing vrell in his garden; v;ill send hit; Linum paper 
when it is published; was glad, to receive a notfi 'T'-m [James Dwight] 
Dana giving a moderately good accourLt of himself, asks Gray to weigh 
in grains one of his wild Fragei ia virginiana; would be glad to add 
to his large and valuable collection of facts on variability any cases 
Gray might send on bud variations- among garden plants; [Sir Joseph] 
Hooker has f ji^ished Welwitschia ["On WelTatschia"-, Linnean Society 
TrangactiorLG , 1863] and has gone to Paris; hears that Cinchona is 
dinorphic and lias vjritten [George Henry Kendrick] Tivaites in 
Ceylon to cry the pollen; "I wish to Heaven the north did not hate us 
so. . . o I doubt the vrar being justifiable." Asks, if flowers of an 
oak or beech tree had five grand well-colored corollae and calyx, 
would they be still classed as low in the vegetable kingdom. 

A. L. S. 8 pp. EO cm x 13 cm. No. 56 [92] 

22 Expresses interest in conditions in the United States and thanlcs 
Gray for the new cases of dimorphism; nevf cases are "tumbling in" 
almost daily, but he has no time to vrork a quarter of them; has sent 
his Primula paper; influenza has delayed his Orchid book [The Various 
Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilized by Insects ] for 3 weeks; 
asks Gray's reactions on the Primula paper; the results m.ay be of no 
general use but are worth while to himself; is glad of the nevra about 
[James Dwight] Dana whom he respects; has forrrarded Gray's letters to 
[Francis] Boott and [Sir Joseph] Hooker; Hooker Jokingly writes that 
his [Darv/in's] book on Natural Selection [ Origin of Species? ] has 
made him an aristocrat and that he thinks the high breeding of the 
aristocracy of highest importance; regrets their different views on 
political matters and deplores recent speeches and actions of 
America's leading man - [Capt. Charles] ¥ilkes' having been made a 
hero for boarding an unarmed vessel, the judge's advice to him, and 
Massachusetts' governor triumphing at a shot being fired, right or 
wrong, across the bov/ of a British vessel; siaggests it would be well 
for the peace of the world for the United States to split up into 
2 or 3 nations, but, on the other hand, he cannot bear slavery to 
triumph and thinks a division of North and South, vjith armies and 
fortifications and custom houses without end, fearful; feels he has 
"done for" himself in Gray's and Mrs. Gray's eyes; charges difference 
of opinion to "that confounded Longitude"; expresses affection for 
the Grays; has finished looking through "9 big volumes" of Lecog's 
Botanical Geography - " a horrid, dull book", but has ''stumbled" on 
a fevf good facts and on several cases of dimorphism in Borraginea 
and Lobirota; Lythrum seems to him a very curious case, as 2 or 3 
kinds of flov/ers occur on the same plant; is experimenting with 
Melastomas and suspects that the 2 sets of anthers have different 
functions; says Hottonia is dimorphic, like Primula. 

A L, S. 6 pp. 20 cm X 16 cm. No. 74 [93] 


Jan, 26 Thaniis Gray for 2 pleasant letters, the former about revieviTS in 
the Athenaeum and many other points, and the second ;Tith ansvrers to 
several questions; "In the latter you seem cruelly overvrorked . Al- 
though it is one of my pleasures to v/rite to you and a very great 
pleasure to receive a letter from you; I earnestly beg you never to 
write to me vjhen so busy; if I did not hear for six months or tvrelve 
months , I should understand the cause , Remember what a number of 
valuable and most interesting letters I have received from youo So 
pray do not v;rite unless you heve a little leisure, which seems rare 
with youo" Has "little or nothing" to say, for he sees no one and 
hears from no one except "dear" [Sir Joseph] Hooker; "Hov; curious 
the lie about Ohio marriages'. I find it a dreadful evil in my 
compiling work, not knowing v;hat to trust." Thanks Gray for refer- 
ences about Phyllotaxis; has been "half -mad" over it, but is having 
a lull; has made no end of diagrams, but all his attempts have 
^ "signally failed", as might have been expected; has received Gray's 
reviev; on [Alphonse Louis Pierre] de Condolle; hopes Gray has 
received [George] Bentham's address "which has pleased me much, more 
than I understand why; it will do a world of good for our side." 
What Gray says about Phlox sounds "very suspicious"; has been look- 
ing at his P[hlox] Drummondii which is not dimorphic; Euonymus is 
dimorphic like Thyme, with hermaphrodite and female plants; Mitchella 
has only 2 flov/er buds, but he has just found out it is uiihealthy 
because he has given the plants too much v/ater; seeds of Sicyos did 
not germinate, and only 1 plant of Echinocystis has cone up; has 
been looking at its tendrils and has seen "with great interest their 
irritability; it is a very pretty little discovery of yours." Is 
observing the plant in another respect - "the incessant rotary move- 
ment of the leading shoots, which bring the tendrils into contact 
with any body within a circle of a foot or 20 inches in diameter. 
If I can make out anything clear about this movement, and do not 
find that i+ is knovm, I will perhaps v/rite a letter to you for the 
jiliaiiae of its being worth inserting in Sillinan['s Journal of Science] 
or elsevrtiere," 

A. L. S. 4 pp, 20 cm X 16 cm. No. 82 [94] 

Feb. 1 Is glad there is to be a Reprint [of Origin of Species ], but 

especially hopes Gray's review will appear in it; suggests the edi- 
tion be entitled "Reprinted from corrected Second Edition [lS60] 
T/ith additional corrections"; is sending additions today, and in a 
fortnight will send Preface giving a short history of opinion on 
The Origin of Species ; has a letter from Murray, the publisher, 
saying that vihatever benefit may arise from the Reprint in the 
United States Gray is entitled to, and Murray vail claim nothing; 
"Perhaps you v/ould like me to stand in Murray's position and take 
1/3 of the profits vrtiatever they may be. Nothing vrould pain me so 
much as to take all the profit, as I v;holly and absolutely shall 
owe all to you; and if you x¥ill print your Review it vnll be a 
joint publication." 

A L. S, 2 pp. 28 cm x 20 cm. No. 44 [95] 


. 5 Dovm, Beokenhcin, Kent. 

Enclosseg a queation requesting that it be forv;arded for an 
ans?;er to the percon in charge of Laura Bridginan; [Dr. Francis] 
Lieber's paper states that vfhen Miss Bridgsian is astonished she raises 
both hands with fingers apart and open palms directed toward the 
person causing the astonislunent ; this has led hin to inquire about 
gestures of importance, such as the shrugging of shoulders; has 
finished his book on Descent of Man , and its publication is delayed 
only by the Index; will send Gray a copy, although he does not 
know that he 7/ill "care about it", as parts of it, like that on the 
moral sense, viill probably "aggravate"him; "If I hear from, you, I 
shall probably receive a f ev; stabs from your polished stiletto of a 
pen," Is hard at work on his essay on Expression, [lb enclosure]. 

A L. S. 3 pp. 20 cm X 13 cm. No. 36 [96] 

IV Is sincerely sorry to hear of the accident to Gray's thttmb; '.Till 
send his note to [Sir Joseph] Hooker soon, that he may hoar of it; is 
glad to hear of the 250 copies [of Gray's pamphlet] now at Triibner's; 
wrote Trubner today about a few advertisements and copies for dis- 
tribution; hopes that Murray and [Sir Charles] Lyell vail not prove 
entirely true; that it is impossible to circulate a pamphlet in 
Er^land; fears that conditions in the United States must stop all 
interest in everything not political; v7ill inquire of his banlcers hov7 
he can repay Gray the t 7, and 'wishes he would let hirr. pay the v/hole 
L 15; has asked Trubner to forward C[hauncey] Wright's article; 
printers have been very slew with his Nov; Edition of The Origin 
[ of gpecies ], so that he has been able to insert notice of Gray's 
pamphlet v.dth title in full, for which he is especially glad; "The 
other day a very clever lady v;as staying here and read your Revievfs; 
and remarked, 'how extraordinary if such a writer has v/ritten only 
on Science.'"' Gray was right with respect to Pur/iilo; "I knew nothing 
vmatever on the subject, but I looked at the seeds to amuse myself, 
and asked Hooker, . . . and he thought [John] Lindley vrould like an -- 
account for the G[ardeners'] Chronicle. It was foolish of Lindley to 
put it so conspicuous; in my note to him I said that he might like 
to use it some time just to fill up space. It strikes m.e, however, as 
pretty case of adaptation for the ignorant, like myself." His daughter'; 
illness, though very severe, lasted only 4 days; suggests that Gray 
put the minutest atom, under a lens, on any one single extreme margin- 
al gland of a Drosera leaf, v/hich has all the hairs eo^ually expanded, 
and 'watch it or look again in 10 minutes; or put a fragment of a hair 
of his head and look in an hour's time; intends to try many more 
experiments this sumraor and then publish; is doubtful on manj;- points; 
"But the v;orst is that my health is failing much. I literally can- 
not listen to a novel for 1/2 hour without fatigue.. My good dear 
'.Tife declares I must go vrith our v/hole family (if my girl can be moved) 
for 2 months to Water Cure; and I fear I miUst , but it vvill be quits to 
all ■::iy experiments." Remembers having read Gray's extremely curious 
observations on tendrils, but thanks him for '.'.Titing about them.; "With 
respect to Design etc., you say that you suppose that I have 'not 
brought forward my real objections against your views'. I have no 


real objections, nor any real foundation, nor any clear viexu. As I 
before said, I flounder hopelessly in the mud." Is amused by Gray's 
account of Agassis denying the community of descent of allied lan- 
guages, and of [I'l'^ncisJ Bov/en denying heredity; "I cannot believe 
that Bovren is a stro:ig man. lifhat an odd and foolish fancy he must 
think it that all breeders of Race-Horses, Cattle and Pigs etc. should 
keep pedigrees, and v/ould certainly prefer breeding from a poor animal 
of good pedigree than from, the finest of bad pedigree. These men in 
fact 7rork on r^^ (I vrish I could say our ) side." 

A. L. S. 8 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. !To. 54 [97] 

reb. IV Down, Beckenham, Kent. 

Thanlcs Gray for his pleasant letter of Feb. 8; he told [Sir 
JdsephJ Hooker about Linum perenne; Hooker -.vas interested, looked to 
his Colorado speciraens, finds the American form is less strongly 
heterostj^led than the European, that the stamens and styles are even 
equal in some specimens, but also fj.uds variability in length in the 
European specimens; "If I vras forced to v/ager I vrould bet that the 
American form would prove at least functionally a distinct species. - 
If you could get and send me seed of the Colorado form, I vrould grow 
both forms and see if they could be intercrossed artificially, and I 
vrould try whether the hbmostylod individuals 7;ere self-fertile.'.' 

A. L. S. 4 pp. 20 cm x 15 cm. No. 129 [98] 

?eb. 24 Remiaining sheets of Gray's reviev; 7:hich have been for-.v-ardod to 
[Sir JosephJ Hooker, to go to Dr. [ErancisJ Boott and then to [Sir 
Charles] Lyell, confirm his [Danvin's] opinion that it is by far the 
"most able" 77hich has appeared and will do the subject "infinite 
service"; Lyell agrees v;ith him; has sent Gray's letter to Hooker, 
as it contains "such curious botanical facts"; hopes, as a "punish- 
ment" to himself, that he may be proved "egregiously v.Tong about the 
warmer period subsequent to the Glacial Epoch"; very much more has to 
be "made out" about the latest geological periods; is glad the greater 
resemblance of Northeast America than that of Northvrest America to 
Asia in its plants is not quite so great an anomaly as at first ap- 
pears; is interested in Gray's theological remarks in the review, 
but must reconsider them; "It has alxvays seemed to me that for an 
Omnipotent and Omniscient Creator to foresee is the same as to pre- 
ordain. ... I get into an uncom.fortable puzzle something analogous 
ViTith 'Necessity and Free-will' or the 'origin of evil', or other 
such subject quite beyond the scope of the human intellect." Has 
been reading a book on [Sir Isaac] Nevrton and gravity; [Baron Gott- 
fried Wilhelm von] Leibnitz "attacked" the Lav/ of Gravity, and 
"attacked" Nevrton for having used gravity, " an occult quality ", to 
explain motions of the planets; Nevrfcon "answered" that it is philosophy 
to explain movements of v/heels of a clock though the cause of descent 
of the vreight coiild not be explained; feels this bears on v/hat Gray 
says about natural selection not being proved as "vera causa" ; thinks 
Gray lays "rather too much stress on nev; organs appearing in the animal 
kirigdom.; at best, it is most difficult to shovf any number of nevj- organs: 
Edv;ards has tried vfith very little 

success. "One should never forgGb such transitions or at least such 
gradations, as a svfira-bladder into a Lung. - So even v/ith the Eye, 
as numerous fine gradations can be shovm to exist, the perfecting 
this vrondrous organ by NatLural] Selection I must look at as a 
difficulty to our imagination and not to our reason." Had he Icnoivn 
there would be a second American Edition he would have sent a few 
additions and corrections. 

A. L, G. 7 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. IJo. 23 [99] 

26 AuCCording to the banl:ers, this is "the only way" to transmit the 
money; hopes it v.dll not be "troublesome" to Gray; Messrs.. Trubner 
have been most liberal and kind and say they r/ill make no charge for 
all their trouble; has settled about a fevj advertisements, and 
Trubner v;ill "gratuitously" insert one in his ovm periodical; suggests 
Gray ViTite and thaiit: him; has agreed to tho price Trubner reco:nm.ended; 
has distributed 100 copies to men of science, revievjers, and libraries; 
believes Gray's pamphlet v.dll do Natural Selection "right good 
service"; thinks the title very good; ".wishes the type had been rether 
larger, yet this vrould have cost m.ore; has told Trubner he v/ill be 
responsible for cost of freight box and the advertisement, but hopes 
the sale will cover this; every one tells him that the pam.phlet i-'ill 
not sell, but, if it should, he V7ill ir^''orm Gray on the chance of 
more copies being sent over; "I wish heartily it would sell for your 
sake and that some profit might be sen.t bo you." 

A L. G. 2 pp. 25 cm :■: 20 cm. No, 57-A [lOO] 

2 Has had a slight touch of pleurisy; hopes to send v;ithin a week a 
few more rather important additions and expansions for The Origin 
[ of Specios ]; will be glad if Gray can manage to get them inserted; 
a fev; of the most "obj'ectionable parts" are expanded a little 

A L S, 2 pp. 25 cm x 20 cm. Wo, 57-A [lOl] 

8 Is sending some more manuscripts and hopes they are not too 

late for the [American] Edition [of The Origin of Species ] ; "If the 
long addition for p. 126 is too late, that at p. 336 cannot be in- 
serted, as they hang together - unless indeed the m,Su for p, 125 
vjere given as a supplement. These additions seem to ae, judging 
from number of letters xvhich I have received on the subject of some 
llLi"le importance. - I will for future keep to ray resolution of not 
wasting more time on the Origin. So that you need not fear niy 
giving more trouble." Thanks Gray for his "generous kindness 
and interest'' about the book; "If there be any profit I am not so 
foolish as to despise it, but you are perfectly right that I care 
more for a good and corrected American Edition; and it is the simple 
truth that I should be infinitely pleased to share profits with you; 
and this would be fair in many ways." Hopes the publishers will 
agree that Gray's "truly admirable" review v;ould make a "most useful" 
prefix; has not yet been able to road "cooly a second time" Gray's 
review, he has had to lend it to so many persons; has had a long 
letter from Dr. [Francis] Boott , "full of the most noble love of 


truth and candour. He goes far with :;ie but cannot a^jtallovf all,, Ro 
one could until he had enlarged his gullet by years of practice, as 
in my own case." Replies to Gray's question about Zoononia Dar-,vin 
L Zoon oaia, 1794-96, by Erasmus Darv/in, grandfather of Charles DarvTinJ 
that he [Charles Dai-winJ is his [Erasnus Darwin's] grandson; "How 
extraordinary is the state of mind of Agassiz; it is, as you say a 
case of 'science run nad' , [Sir RichardJ Owen after much sliuffling 
and secrecy, with bitter sneers to some and modified very slight 
praise to others, has just spoken out that he rejects my views on 
the ground of the imperfection of the geological record. Now this 
is just the subject en which ho knows nothing ; for in his life he 
has never examined a sirgle stratum. I can count in England 4 
geological converts and 8 or 9 ohher naturalists," Hears tliat 
[G-eorge Henry KendrickJ Thvraites, of Ceylon, is one; asks if Gray 
savj [William Henry J Harvey's article versus The Origin ; considers 
the article "rather vreak" , and [Sir Joseph] Hooker's answer "ad- 
mirably good"; since writing "the above", has received Appleton's 
Istber to Gray; fears the additions herex'dth sent v;ill be too late; 
asks Gray to tell the Appletons he means to leave all future editionE 
of The Origin "in its present state with the additions nov; sent," 
A, L. S. 2 pp. 26 cm x 21 cm. Ho, 51 [102] 

Mar., 12 Has received [ChaunceyJ Wright's article "this morning", but hac 
hardly glanced at it; v;ill give it to [Thomas Henry] Huxley Vvlio is 
coming in a few days and who v/ill decide about it [for his Hatural 
History Revievj ]; "If it does not suit him., what on earth shall I do 
v;ith it?" Tharlcs Gray for sending the 4 volumes of Journal of 
Aj. aerican Academy ; appreciates Gray's allowir^ him. to bear his "small 
risk of publication. I am surprised and pleased at sale of nex? 
Edit[ion] of Origin [of Species] in j'\mericG." Grain's pamphlet "will 
do the subject very groat good, whether or not it sells.." Quotes 
from, many complimentary letters he has received about the pamphlet; 
has sent copies to [Henahaw] Uard, [James?] Martineau, [Dean?] 
Hansen, [Sir Joseph; Hooker, [George] Bentham., Huxley, and flsaac 
Bajrley] Balfour; asks if any of Cypripediura is common with 
Gray, and if the pollen-masses are removed by insects; ■."ould like 
Gray to procure for him a pamphlet published in Charleston entitled 
Letter to J_.. Bach-man on the Question of Hybridity in Animals , by 
G.. D, 1-lorton; "I knovr his paper in['s Journal of Science] 
(and poor it is) ." 

A L,. S., 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 52 [103] 

liar. 15 Dovm, BeckerJiam, Kent. 

Thanl-cs Gray and Mrs. Gray for their letters and enclosures; 
feels sure if Mrs. Gray ever learns anything authentic about the 
hursiiig of her dog she will inform! him.; Mrs- Dar^/an read him a pas- 
sage from Hiss Kistford's life, minutely describing a dog which had 
been nursed by a cat, and v;hich "licked its pav/s'. But a.?, this is a 
second-hand account, it will not . do to quote; and the description 
of the cat-like habit.'-j of this dog -..t.s too much even for ray capaciouE 
gullet." Asks Gray to thanl: Agassiz for the kind message and infcrme 
tion vfhich he feared would prove negative; vjishes he could feel he 


deserveG what Agassiz says of iiir.i; has just returned fron a week in 
London where the family went for a rest, as he vms "pretty v/ell 
worn outo" Has just moved Gray's Droseras into the greenhouse, but 
does not knovi v/hother they are dead or alive. 

A- L. S, 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. Ho. 91 [l04] 

34 Dovm, Beckenharri, Kent. 

Thanks Gray for the 2 seeds of Megarrhiza and hopes they may 
germinate, for he would Yevy much like to see a longitudinal section 
of the proportion of the parts v/hen the root is only one half or one 
third of an inch out of the seed-coats; "You must not suppose that 
vrtiat is obvious to you is so to me; for as the confluent petioles 
of the cotLyledonJs of the Delphinium are not tubular at first, I 
was aStonisho^l to seo the young leaves coming out of a hole or 
slit at their base." Thanks Gray for all the information about 
the Kegarrhiza, the germination of which has interested him greatly; 
"I was much amused by your little article on the Philadephia 
lav;yer. You are a first-rate hand in touching up a fact. The 
lav/yer is a cool man in trying to make i:ie out a rogue; but this 
seems the fashion and according to Mr. S[amuel] Butler in the 
Athenaeum I am a rogue of the deepest dye, because I forgot to state 
that Dr. [Ernst] Krause had altered his article on Erasmus Darijvin 
before sending it to England for translation," 

A L., S= 4 pp. 20 cm x IZ cm. No. 150 [l05j 

15 Thanics Gray for taking "so much trouble" about the Expression 
"queries"; wishes he had thought earlier of having them, printed, for 
he might have sent a dozen to each of his fev; correspondents; as it is, 
he can think of no one to whom to send them, so does not want any 
more; v;ill send a couple to [George Henry Kendrick] Thwaites, in 
Ceylon, hovrever; has been gettin^g out and looking over his old notes 
on Expression, and fears he v/ill not make so much of his "hobby- 
horse" as he thought he could; nevertheless, it seems to him a 
"curious subject, -.vhich has been strangely neglected"; has seen no 
one for months and has no news, but rejoices to say that [^ir Joseph] 
Hooker will be there next Saturday; is "plodding on heavily correct- 
ing, and trying to m.ake s.n atrociously bad style a little better", 
in his book on The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication ; 
would offer to seuu clean sheets, but does not thinl-: Gi'ay would care 
to receive them, as there is not much about plants, and what there is 
is "almost all mere com.pilation it will be a fearfully big book in 
two vol[ume]s and I shall be the next 5 or 6 months merely correcting 
the press; it is enough to make one curse one's fate in being an 
author." Ilanages to "get a little amusement" by some of his experi- 
nents; has found that the trimorphic species of Oxalis behave in 
exactly the same "complicated manner" regardir^g their fertilization 
as Lythrum; :is going on with his trials of the grovrth of plants 
raised from self-fertilized and crossed seeds, and begins now to 
suspect that the wonderful difference in grov/th and constitutional 
vigour occurs only vjith exotic plants which have been raised by 
seed during many generations in England but v;hlch are not properly 


visited by insects, and so have been rarely crossed; has just heard 
of a case which has interested him "hugely" and which he is inclined 
to believe is true - that by cutting the tubers of differently 
colored potatoes through the eye, and joining them, you can make a 
hybrid or "mongrel"; is repeating this experiment on a large scale, 
for it seems to him, if true, a wonderful physiological fact, 

A L S 5 ppo 20 cm x 13 cm. No, 97 [l06] 

Apr,, 16 Thanks Gray for second article on climbing plants; has been ill 
with influenza for a week; [Sir Joseph] Hooker visited him for a day, 
was vrell and in good spirits, and v;as going soon to v/rite a paper on 
St., Helena Flora from Burchell's collections; received a letter from Fritz 
Muller, in Brazil, full of curious observations; one case which Mtiller 
is to publish in Germany concerns a plant with a long tubular corolla 
and with its stigma in the middle, and vj-hen an insect or any object 
touches the filaments of the stamens they suddenly and violently bend 
and eject pollen, vaiich lias been collected into a ball between the 
anthers, against the intruding object; the same movement closes the 
tube of the corolla so that the insect cannot fertilize the floirer; 
in about 3 hours the tube opens and then the insect, dusted v/ith 
ejected pollen from a distinct flovrer, can do the work of fertiliza- 
tion; vras v;ell at work on his new book when Murray required a nexv 
edition of The Origin [" of Species ! ; has been "correcting and adding 
matter of some im.portance ever since"; feels the amount of time spent 
is compensated for by the fact that the work v;ill serve for a new 
German Edition -which is vranted; regrets that the American Edition 
was stereotyped, as alteration in stereotype is impossible; presumes 
the sale has stopped, and even if it has not, it would be useless to 
ask publishers to bring out an amended edition; will send Gray a copy; 
asks if Gray has any new facts on direct influence of pollen on fruit 
borne by mother-plant, and, also, if he knows of ar^ cases of bud 
with blended character produced at junction of stock and graft; has 
been reading a paper by Carfery on the subject; hopes nothing will cause 
"more "crouble and hatred" between Ai:ierica and England; is glad that 
slavery in America is abolished; he vrorks 2 to 3 hours and vralks 3 to 
4 miles daily, jet never escapes physical discomjforto 

A„ L. Go 8 ppo 20 cm :■: 15 cm. No. 96 [lOV] 

Apr. 21 He would greatly prefer Gray's not returning any of Trubner's 

remittance, but insists he must not return more .than half, as other- 
wise he [Darvdn] would have gained an "imraense advantage" in having 
given away many copies of Gray's pamphlet; "So add to all your kindness 
by letting matters remain as they are," Would like a fe\'i copies to 
give W'lay; vras asked for one yesterday; "I have never met one person 
who was not delighted with your vjritir^,," Will send half of his edition 
on Orchids [ The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilized 
by Insects I in a few days, and the rest will soon follovj, fears it can 
never be popular, but asks Gray not to judge too severely by the first 
half, "for, if I do not deceive myself the two last chapters are better " 
Believes he has been very foolish to publish in popular foriTi; Murray 
has thought of some arrangement for an American republication, as 



[Sir Charles] Lyell's new book is to appear in America; but with "my 
less important book" it seeras "quite out of the question"; "The North 
seems going on generally victorious; and thank God there is distinct 
ground broken as to Slavery question; but we stupid English cannot 
yet be: leve that you v;ill ever be a single Union again," Hopes Gray 
vfill ask his pupils to look carefully to gradation in sexes in 
American Hollies; feels he is virong about some of the Melastomes; it 
would be good, if a Rhexia grew in a garden, to cover up a plant v;ith 
net and see if it seeded as vrell as uncovered plants; thanks Gray for 
[John Stuart] Mill's pamphlet; "[Sir Joseph] Hooker has been here 
for 3 days and vie had lots of pleasant talks. I am always full of 
admiration and love for him.," 

A L S 4 pp, 20 cm X 13 cm- No. 65 [lOe] 

Thanivs Gray for 2 notes, one of which was "very savage against 
England, I cannot help feeling that we shall drift into war; what a 
curse it will be to us anyhow; for you seem to bo getting to like 
war. - I wish I had knov/n when I read the correspondence that Mr. 
[Charles G,] Loring was your father- in- law , I should have read it, 
if possible, with still greater interest. We must keep to Science, 
I fear, for v;e both seem to be getting to think each other's country['s] 
conduct worse and vrorse. But I should like td know whether General 
[Benjamin Franklin] Butler is in your honest opinion, a bad mano" 
Gray's remarks from [Jeffries] Wyman about the Incas came "very 
appropriately", for he is at present summing up all facts on this 
subject and gives facts on both sides; regrets now that he has always 
intentionally evaded the case of man, but has put in a note on such 
facts as he has heard of; has sent two copies of his Linum paper; 
hopes the case may interest Gray, as it has him; Amsinckia turns out 
with him variable only in length of pistil; forgot to ask about inter- 
marriage; has heard, from statistical returns, that Ohio has legislated 
against cousins marrying; asks if this is true; asks if Gray ever 
formed any theory why, in a spire of leaves, the angles go 1/2, 1/3, 
2/5, 3/8, and not 1/4 or 1/5; "This seems to me most marvellous. 
There must be some explanation." His "good friend" [Hugh] Falconer 
has been "tv;itting" him that these angles go by as fixed a law as 
that of gravity, and never vary; fancies that the packing of organs 
in the very early bud may cause general alternation in the parts of 
the flov/er and consequent interruption in the species; was very sorry 
to see Falconer's letter in the Athenaoum which vras "s^ violent toxirard 
[Sir Charles] Lyell., We have had lately sharp spamr^ ±n the 
Athenaeum Did you see the article on Heterogeny . . . v/ritten I 
believe, certainly by [Sir Richard] Owen! 1 it was in Review on [William 
Benjamin] Carpenter, v;ho seems to have been silli.' vexed at Ovren 
calling me Carpenter's master; it was like his clever malignity. Under 
the cloak of a fling at Heterogeny I have sent a letter to Athenaevun 
in defence of myself, and I take sly advantage to quote Lyell's amended 
verdict on the Origin [of Species]." Hopes Gray will have time to 
look at rostellurn of Gymnadenia this summer because, in the Botanical 
Garden at Edinburgh, a Mr. J[ohn] Scott has been experimenting on 
foreign genera and finds that the rostellurn stimulates some kinds to 


protrude their tubes, but that these tubes only creep along its sur- 
face to the stigma and never penetrate the rostellum; Scott has 
written asking for Gray's detailed observations; has lately found 
some Primroses vrith 3 pistils, but vraited so that he could "peep" 
into the ovarimTi; put in pollen and afterward found the tubes ex- 
serted, and attached to, and apparently penetrating, the ovules, 
"but never by the micropylel" Has now no doubt that Gray was 
perfectly right about fertilization of Gypripedi\im; a friend lent him 
a plant of C[ypripedium] , he put a very minute bee into the labelliim 
and covered the orifice with wet paper; this precaution was super- 
fluous, for the edges of the orifice of labellum were folded over 
GO the bee could not crav;l out; watched the bee cravfl out by one of 
the "windovfs opposite the anthers" and with his back tovrard them, 
against which he firmly pressed it, owing to the "elastic wool" 
opposite the anthers; "It v;as pretty to see under lens how the 
whole thorax and base of wings -'^nr smeared with pollen- I mit him 
back into the labellum five times and fives tlr.iesl saw his back smeared As you 
knov; he must pass under the stigma (with its spires directed to- 
wards the apex as you describe), for there is no other passage; and 
as I expected 7.-hen I cut open the flov;er I found the stigma vrell 
smeared with pollen. It was beautiful o" 

A L S 6 pp. 25 cm X 17 cm, No. 51 [l09] 

Thani:s Gray for sending the new part of his "Statistics" which 
he has taken a lively interest in reading; asks a question about 
the note at page 387 - to how many genera the 49 species belong - 
because he vjants to know how large the proportion of monotypic 
genera is, in the disjoined species, to the vjhole Flora; he began to 
vrork out this point in all the cases he met of much disjoined species, 
but "failed from v;ant of knowledge"; tried, also, to "make out" 
vjhether the disjoined species vrould not on average belong to small 
Families, but again failed for "want of knowledge", though the cases 
in Vv'hich he could find out something confirmed his expectation that ' 
species having disjoined ranges vrould belong to small genera; "Your 
list of the trees made rny mouth rather water to knov*- what propor- 
tion had sexes in some degree separated, - on T;hich subject I v/rote 
you a ridiculously long letter some v/eeks ago„" Is glad Gray is 
going to attack introduced plants in the next number; "I may 
mention that two or three years ago I compared the proportions of 
the British introduced species to the native Flora and it v/as in 
several cases ridiculously close; I then took your first Edition 
and did the same, but the proportions here were very different; but 
I think this point would be just worth looking to, for chance of 
some result," Has just looked at his "old useless" notes and sees 
he made oub in Gray's Manual [ of the Botany of the Northern U S] 
206 introduced plants, and of them compositae form 1/8, and so do, 
as he thought, Gray ' s indigenous compositae; gives [Hewett Cottrell] 
Watson's list of proportions of introduced and indigenous Compositae, 
Umbelliferae, Labiatae and Leguminosae for Britain; "I happened to 
stumble on these results first , and v;as inclined to think som.ething 
of than; but I suppose all v/as chance or errors." Thinks the 
standard proportion ought to be for the vrorld in the same latitude, 
and not the standard of the individual country; "Thoiigh why I shovild 
trouble you with an old exploded notion of mine, I know not," 

A, L. S. 8 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 9 [llO] 


May 18 Returns Appleton's letter; "It is provoking that" Appleton "does 
not publish 2d Edit[ion of The Origxu ur Species? U • „ • wnax a 
battle you do seen to have been fighting on the Origin of Species, , . 
Whatever amount of truth zny book may contain, the saving of it » . . 
v/ill surely bo wholly due to a very small body of men. Had it not 
been for [Sir Charles] Lyell, [Sir Joseph] Hooker, yourself and two 
or three others, ... my book and the v/hole subject would have been 
mere flash in the pan. For the attacks are nov; being incessant and 
very bitter." [Adam] Sedgwick and Prof. Clarke attacked him "savagely 
at Cambridge Phil[osophical] Soc[iety] but "dear old [John Stevens] 
Henslow (though he goes but little vray with mo) stood up manfully 
for the subject as legitimately v/ithin bounds of science, and pro- 
duced excellent effect »" Prof, [John] Phillips has lectured at 
Cambridge and A[ndrev/] iiurray has read a paper at Royal Society of 
Edinburgh, botn against him; "And thus I coiold go on for many morel I 
But the effect on me is that I will buckle on mj^ armour and fight 
my best. You seem to have done so already in grand style. And I 
believe Hooker will, as certainly will Lyell and [Thomas Henry] 
Huxley. But it will be a long fight. By myself I should be power- 
less." Feels his v;eak health "acutely", as he cannot vrork hard; so 
bitter is the feeling of some that neither [William Heniy] Harvey 
nor [Isaac Bayley] Balfour have ever read Hooker's "Australian Essay"; 
"Is this not incredibly paltry?" Makes him "savage" to thinlc of the 
"slighting v/ay In vrhich [Sir Richard] Owen alludes to Hooker's essay 
in Edinburgh Reviev/; Lyell is working hard at geological history of 
Man, and it is really marvelous how rapidly curious facts are turning 
up." Expects Lyell's essay, discussing The Origin of Species , vdll 
make a great "commotion"; hopes most sincerely Cray may publish his 
"stunner of an ansvrer to Bovren, Agassis, & Co,". 

A, L. S, 6 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 14 [ill] 

May 30 Down, Beckenham, Kent. 

Asks Gray to send seeds of Wosaea verticillata; wishes to raise 
seedlings from "illegitimate unions" to see if seedlings are sterile 
like true Hybrids and like the "illegitimate offspring" of Lythrum; 
the fact seems "all important" to him. 

A L S. 1 p. 20 cm X 13 cm„ No, 121 [ll2] 

June 18 Thanks Gray for his "valuable" letters; "I am quite conscious 
that lT^y■ speculations run quite beyond the bounds of true science." 
Has not received the last part of Gray's Silliman [ ' s_ Journal of 
Science ] papers, [Sir Joseph] Hooker has, and will lend him his if 
Gray has not another copy; Gray's remarks on the head will be of 
real use when he returns to the subject; "A man must be blind not - 
to see how cautious a reasoner you are," Expresses thanks for Gray's 
remarks on disjoined species; "I daresay I may be quite in error. I 
saw so much difficulty even theoretically and so much impossibility 
practically from ray ignorance, that I had given up notion till I 
read your note to your article. ^ had only just copied out a few 
striking cases out of Hooker's Him[alayan] Journal and turned to 


[Ernest G-ottlieb] Steudel to see what the genera vieve. The notion 
was grounded on the belief that disjoined species had suffered much 
local extinction and therefore » . . I inferred that Genera and 
Families with very few species (i.e. from Extinction) would be apt 
(not necessarily always) to have narrov; ranfi;es and disjoined ranges. 
You TiTill not perceive, perhaps, i^hat I am driving at and it is not 
vrorth enlarging on, - but I look at Extinction as common cause of 
small genera and disjoined ranges, and therefore they ought, if 
they behaved properly and as nature does not lie, to go together I 

1 have not the least doubt that the proportions of British naturalized 
plants were due to simple chance; but I thought it T;as just vrorth 
mentioning to you; I had from your former Edition of Manual [of the 
Botany of the Northern US] quite given up idea." Thanl:s Gray for 
telling him about the trees; "nov; with your facts, and those from 
Britain, N[ew] Zealand, and Tasmania, I shall have fair material 

for Judging." Thinks Gray's fraction of 95/132 a "striking coin- 
cidence"; "I thank you m.uch for your remarks about ray crossir^ 
notions, to which I may add, I was led by exactly the same idea as 
yours, viz that the crossing must be one means of eliminatir^ varia- 
tion, and then I wished to make out how far in animals and vegetables 
this vras possible ." Papilionaceous flowers are "almost dead flowers" 
to him and he cannot experiment, as castration alone often produces 
sterility; is surprised at v/hat Gray says about Compositae and 
Gramineae; from what he has seen of the latter they seemed favorable 
for crossing, and from observations by several scientists on the 
adhesive pollen he had concluded that the Compositae -were likely to 
be crossed; will be glad to hear of any observations Gray makes on 
the early fertilization of plants in these 2 orders, as they would 
save him from "great blunders"; it has seemed to him, from several 
published remarks on this subject in various genera, that early 
fertilization has been "inferred" from the early shedding of the 
pollen, T7hich he thinks is clearly a "false inference"; thinks another 
cause of the belief of fertilization in the bud is the "not-rare 
abnormal early maturity of the pistil", as described in Gartner [?I ; 
has hitherto failed in "meeting v/ith" detailed account of regular 
and normal impregnation in the bud; Podostemon, Subularia, and 
Leguminosae under v.'ater are the strongest cases against him, as far 
as he knovra; "It is really pretty to see hov/ effectual insects are; 
a short time ago I found a f emale Holly 60 measured yards from any . 
other Holly and I cut off some tvags and tooxz by chance aO stigmas, 
cut off their tops and put them under microscope; there was pollen 
on every one and in profusion on most!. VJeather cloudy and stormy 
and unfavorable, vand in vnrong direction to have brought any." Is 
delighted to see that "vie now absolutely agree" on Furaariaceae, for 
he never supposed the structure of their flowers to do more than 
prove an occasional cross, perhaps only once in several f^enerations ; 
"But have you attended to one point:, plant a cabbage or radish of 

2 distinct varieties moderately near each other, and the proportion 
of mongrelised plants is iminense; indeed sometimes hardly any come 
from seed raised under rmch circumstances. I have counted propor- 
tions - how the stigraa of each flower is surrounded not only by its 
ovrn . r'-i-^i- nollRn ,r.h>;d as soon as flowers are open, but by 

a multitude of othciT fl'.nvrars 'with pollen of the same variety; and 
yet this morigrelising takis place to an enormous extent I be- 
lieve a cross is so beneficial, that the pollen of a distant variety 

has a perpstual action over the plant's own pollen. You will see the 
inference which I should drav/ in regard to Fumariacea," Will send 
Gray a copy of his abstract when it is published next winter, though 
he will not give abstract on facts in regard to crossing, for they 
are too manj^ . 

A. L S IS pp. 20 era x 13 cm,. No. 9 - A [ll3j 30 Dovm, Beckenhaia, Kent - 

Has received Gray's 2 letters, and has forvrardcd "the enclosure, 
v/ith the page inserted", to Kature with the hope the editor will 
publish it; thanks Gray for sending the Sarracenia v;hich he soaked, 
then stuffed' v.rith cotton vrool, so that now he has an excellent idea 
of the plant; "It is as wonderful a case as any Orchid Drosera or 
Dionaea and I cannot aaj nore in honoiir- of a planx " Notices that 
the bud is brightly co] ored to attract insects; has read v/ith 
interest Gray's senji-theological revievr and has got the book; thinks 
the reviev/ will be satisfactory; "The :aore I reflect on the subject 
the more perplexed I grow." Asks Gray to observe Pinguicula; the 
margins of its leaves have povrer of movement v/hen excited by solid 
objects such as bits of glass or nutritious fluids, but best of all 
by the 2 stimulants coEbinod; believes the purpose of this movement, 
although he is not yet sure, is to push flies further onto the leaf, 
when vrashed by rain into the narrov; channel formed lij the naturally 
involuted edge; tpostscript in Darwin's handler i t ing : ] "I do not 
think -that I Yrrote a bit too strongly about your article on me," 

L S 3 pp. 20 cm X 13 cm. No. 109 [114] 

ruly 1 Has been "baddish for 2 or 5 weeks", but is better, and means 
to "amuse" him.self by "scribblirig" a fev; lines on Orchids; has 
received Gray's note on Platanthera Hookeri and on diversity of forms 
of Cypripedlum; v/ishes Gray could spare tim.e to write a paper on the 
latter; Platanthera Hookeri is really beautiful and quite a new case; 
"It is almost laughable the viscid discs getting so far apart that 
the [word illegiblej of the flower has to be divided into t'/ro bridal 
chambers'" Has added a note to the German Edition about this, and 
a few T/ords on Cypripedium. on Gray's authority; has vjritten Trubner 
to send Gray the 6 copies; "I wish you would let me pay for them; 
but you are so punctilious that you would fling without permission 
first granted, the money across the Atlantic in the same shameful 
manner in which you did the 3 t," His son, George, who is an 
entomologist, has been watching Orchids with "enthusiasm and in- 
domitable patience", and has made out clearly that it is a fly which 
fertilizes o[rchis] m.aculata; "It was pretty to see the pollinia 
affixed to their spherical eyes, and after the act of depression 
parallel to and . . . above t>:e proboscidss. But the most remarkable 
case is that of Herminium llonorchis; he has brought me 24 species 
of very minute Hymenoptera with pollinia attached to a]l, and always 
to the same exact spot, viz. to the exterior base of femur of front 
legs. Nothing has given me such an idea of close adaptation of form 
of whole flower; the labellum hangs obliq uely dovmwards and the 
minute insects enter betv/een its edges and the large viscid disc on 


one side; and, in retreating they hit their rjroininant femurs against 
the under side of the disc. So closely fitted is the flovrer to the 
insect that my son savj- several times insects after entering in a 
wrong position cuine out, change their position and re-enter." Is 
astonished at the success of his book vrlth botanists; [l-LJ.] 
Berkeley haa. received it in London K[eview ?J "rather egregiously" , 
and [Sir Joseph] Hooker v/rites "strongly"; has done little lately 
except some crossing of plants; has made a great series of crosses 
on the peloric flovrers of Pelargonium, but doubts whether he will 
get such good results as he at first hoped v/ith respect to sterility 
of hybrids; [Charles] Naudin vrrites he is going to publish on this 
subject this autumn and his papers give him [Darwin] the idea he 
does not knov; what has been done in Germany; finds Rhexia glandulosa 
requires insect agency to set seed, but sees as yet no probability 
of dimorphism; G-ray mentioned some genus in which he found 2 forms 
like Primula, and a third form with both pistil and stamens short; 
asks whether all flovrers on the specimen v:cro thus classified; wishes 
much to know because Lythrum is trimorpiiic, 

A. L. S. 5 pp. 20 cm x 16 cm. Ho. 69 [115] 

July G Dorm, SeckerJiam, Kent. 

ThanJcs G-raj^ for sending his book, How Plants Behave ; "it is a 
capital idea, capitally executed. - It has in many ways delighted 
me, and I am even more delighted to hear that you thinlc of publish- 
inr, ... on the subject." Asks if Gray can "support" his idea 
that tendrils become spiral after* clasping an object from stimulus 
from contact, inasmuch as they become spiral when they have clasped 
nothing; is novj correcting proofs of his small book on LT]ie] Expression 
[of the Emotions in rlan and Animals ! and when that is done hopes to 
bOfiin on Drosora; i?: thinking of republishing all his "quasi-botanical 
papers" with 2 or 3 nevT ones; hopes it v;'ill be in time for Grry; is 
astonished at Mrs. Gray's "spirit and audacity in going all the -jay 
to California, though to be sure this is not much after the Nile. It 
makes my blood run cold to think of such expeditions." ThanJ-cs Gray 
for the engraving of the ape-ruan, which he is glad to possess, though 
he is surprised it was thought worth painting and engraving; he saw 
in Nature that Dr. L-A..S, j Packard was in London, v.Tote to him, care 
of the editor, but heard he had left for Paris; whether he ever 
received his invitation to Down, he does not kTiow. 

A. L- S. 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 107 [llSj 

July 14- His son is ill agaiji with scarlet fever; "With respect to Pogonia, 
it v/ould be a very curiously anomaly, if insects open the a.nthsr for 
nectar. You. say nothing about the rostellijm; from vanilla I should 
expect tho.t viscid matter would be forced under lip of anther. In- 
sects ought to be watched at work. . . . Ought not these cases to 
make one very cautious when one doubts about the uses of all parts." 
Believe':! structure of all singular flovrers is governed in relation 
to insects; asks how Gray v/ould have "worked" the North American 
Orchids; is glad Gray's "harassing" lectures are over; [Sir Joseph] 


Hooker is very anxious about I'irs , Hooker and lias started on a health ' 
tour to Switzerland; has heard today of the sudden death of Prof 
[e.g.] Bronn, just as he had finished translating his [Darwin's] 
Orchid book [ The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilized 
by Insects ]; has iust made an observation v>7hich has surprised him and 
y.rhich he vri.ll have to repeat aevexal times bo prove its accuracj^; he 
stated in his Primula paper that the long-styled forn of Linuja grandi- 
florura vfos utterly sterile v;i bh its ovm pollen; has lately been putting 
pollen of the 2 forms on the division of the stigna of the same flower, 
and it strikes him as "truly vronderful" that the stigma "distinguishes" 
the pollen and is penetrated by the tubes of the one and not of that 
of the other', nor- are the tubes exserted; the stigma of the one form 
acts on and is 'fecte'd by"pollen wh.ich produces not the best effect on 
the stigma of the other form; concludes that the 2 forms of this one 
npecies may be said to l)e generically distinct , 

A, L S , 4 pp, go cm x 16 cm. No, 70 [ll?] 

"u-ly 16 Dovrxi, Beckenham, Kent. 

Asks if G-ray will allow his tv/o sons, George and Francis, to call 
on him when they come to Boston toward the latter part of their visit 
to the United States; they already have a good many letters of in- 
troduction, but if Gray should know of any "pleasant and good natured 
persons" to '.Thorn he could give them letters of introduction he would 
appreciate it; has received a delightful notice of his Descent of Man 
which .must have been va-itten by Grajr 

A-. L„ S., 3 pp. go cm x 13 cm. No-, 101 [1.1 a] 

uly gl Torquay. Devon. 

.Is " at the sea" for his daughter's sake; thanis Gray for 3 hybrid 
pamphlets and for his "pleasant and useful" note, is novv" writing his 
Orchid paper; is glad to hear vriiat Gvey says about Cypripedium and that 
he will look at Spiranthes; suggests he look at a flower just opened 
and not visited by a moth; hopes [Sir Joseph] Hooker v/ill send Arethusa; 
is astonished at Drosera filiformis "misbehaving"; his own experiments 
were all tried in the late f.'umi.ier ; asks if Gray expected rapid or visible 
movement; the minutest atom of raw meat placed on a single gland which 
is covered with viscid secretion shoY/s motion best, but if the gland 
is dry no movement takes place ; hopes to finish observations on Drosera 
this autumn; from v/hat he has seen of Cypripedium insigne his difficulty 
is to know what induces an insect to place its head so far back tin the 
flower; asks Gray to v.'atch for a little time for the bare chance of an 
■ insect's visit; [makes diagrams of 2 forms of Primula]; v.-ould be 
particularly obliged, if Gray knov.^s of analogous cases, if he would 
name them and allow him [Danvin] to quote him, and if they are hardy 
plants and good seeders he would experim-ent on them; as no one has 
aided the subject of natural selection and the knovrledge of his book so 
much, as Gray, he m.ust tell him something pleasant after the many attacks 
for neglecting "Indviction" , "Baconian philosophy", and other subjects - 
that John Stuart Mill, held' in England as the "highest authority on 
such subjects", said lately to a friend that the "reasoning throughout 
is in the most exact accordance with the strict principles of logic". 


and tliG "mettLod of investigation . , , followed is the only one proper 
to such a subject". Is glad of the state of Gray's country; never 
doubted the North v.'ould conquer the South after carefully reading 
[Frederick Law] Olmsted's last book; vronders what is to follow; cannot 
believe, frora letters, in the Times, the South would ever have "fellow- 
feeliing" enough v/ith the North to'allow a government in conmon; asks 
if the North could endure a Southern president; considers the vrhole 
affair a great Kisfortune in the progress of the vrorld, but v/ould not 
regret it so xauch if he could persuade himself that slave-j:y would be 
annihilated; "your president [Abraham Lincoln] does not even mention 
the vrord in his address. I sometimes wish the contest would grov/ so 
desperate that the North vrould be led to declare freedom as a diversion 
against the euemj'^. In 50 or 100 years your posterity'- would bless the 
act." Hooker is "overworking himself", and he seldom hears from hiin. 
[Includes diagrjims of g forms of]. 

A. L. S. S pp. 16 cm x 13 cm. No. 61 [ll9] 

July 21 Dovm, Farnboro\.T<2-i> Kent. 

Thar_ks Gray for acceding to his request about marking the close 
species; dons not quite understand from [Sir Joseph] Hooker's note 
vrfiether the sheets have arrived, but fancies not; Hooker read over 
Gray's letter and seems to have been "as much struck with it" as he 
has been; it shovfs in a most "strikir^g manner" the geographical affini- 
ties of Gpeciea and the diffictilty of ascertaining what are species; 
"Your discussion on^connocting and separating forms seems to me so 
philosophical, that I much hope that someday you will be as good as 
your word and v/rite an 'Essay on Species', I hope, also, before end 
of year to hear that you have found time to write on the geographi- 
cal distribution of the United States plants; and if my letter caused 
you to do this some year or tvro before you otherwise would have done 
. it , I shall congratulate myself in private, at haviiag done good 
Botanical work." Some of his imir.ersed seeds of radishes, beets, capsi- 
cum, oats, rhubarb, lettuce, carrots, celerjr, and onions have com.e up 
after 82 zo 85 days' imjiersion. 

A. L. S, 4 pp. 20 cm x 15 cr.= No. 3 [l20] 

Augo 15 Nov; that he can do notliir^, he "maunders" over old subjects, and 

Gray's approbation of his "Climbing Paper" gives him "great satisfaction"; 
made his observations vihen he could do nothing else and much enjoyed 
it, but always doubted whether they were worth publishing; "I 
demur to it not being necessary to explain in detail about the spires 
in caught tendrils running in opposite directions; for the fact for a 
long time confounded m.e and I have found It difficult enough to ex- 
plain the cause to 2 or 3 persons. One botanist has published that 
he could detect a difference of structure in the tendrils at the 
points of reversal of the spire I" Thanlcs Gray for Specularia seed; 
"We continue to be deeply interested in American affairs; indeed I 
caro for nothing else in the Times. Hov; egregiously -;.T0iig we English 
vrere in thinking that you could not hold the South after conquering it. 
Hov7 well I remember thinl-cing that Slavery would flourish for centuries 
in your Southern States. 1^ women read much about [it] to me." 


Suggest£3 loooks for G-ray to react, this is a longer note than he 
has vnritten for we-?ks; is trj^ing a system of cure - "eatiiog very- 
little of anything, and that almost exclusively bread and meat." 

Ao Lo So 4 pp, 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 87 [iSl] 

\ug, 24 Down, Farnborough , Kent. 

Has forwarded Gray's recent letter to [Sir Joseph] Hooker, v;ho 
has since started yath Dr. [John] Lindley's eldest son, on a tour 
in Germany; is sorry Gray had such trouble about the Dy-tiscus; ap- 
preciates list of close species G-ray sent; has read that species of 
larger genera are more closely related to each other than are species 
of smaller genera; a very good entomologist and Hooker and [George] 
Bentham do not believe in this, but several facts m-ako him think 
there might be some truth in it; concluded from Gray's list and Manual 
[ of the Botany of tlio Northern U S - ] that where manj,' organic form.s 
are allied, making ?;hat is called a genus, some of them are apt to 
be more closely allied than are 'the species, in the smaller genera; 
arrives at the same conclusion from II[e7rett] CCottrell] Watson's 
marked list of Brihisa Flora; Eooker thinks very well of [Alphonse 
Louis Pierre] de Candolle's new vrork on geographic distribution 
[Geographic botanique raisonnee, 1855]; " I have met several (chiefly 
amo^igst animals) cases, so man^^ that I can hardly thinli it purely 
accidental, in vrhich, v.'hen the species of a genus differed in some 
organ or part, which is usually constant in the species of the same 
genus, then that one or more of the species individually varied in 
some degree in this same organ or character.-" [Gives exam.ples in 
plant and animal kir-gdoms]. 

A L. S 6 pp.. 20 cm x 13 cm. No.. 10 [l22] 

Sep.. 4 Cliff Cottage, Bournemouth, Kent = 

"My poor Boy (whose vmxen face blushed up to the eyes at the 
tliought of v/riting to a live Professor) has this day made a marked 
step and has ttiken several. v;alks of a feur hundred yards; and m^ wife 
is recovering well and her skin well peeling. - We have taken tyro 
houses here, so I hope and trust this dreadful fever v.'ill not spread.." 
Is glad Gray intends to publish some separate notes on Orchids which 
he has so "capitally worked out"; is pleased to hear about Goodyera 
and Gymnadia tridentata; Gray's account makes him. thinJi cne latter 
in like Bonatea speciosa, "and often and often have I speculated 
what on earth could be meaning of its wonderful horn-like stigmas and 
projectirig anthers." Suspects its structure may have been arrived 
at by a process somewhat analogous to that which apparently has 
produced the "vfonc'rous nectary of Angraecura sesquipedale; "It 
would appear that self-Pertiliaation is commoner than I thought; 
since publishing I have found that Neottia nidus-avis fertilizes 
itself, _if insects fail to do the ;'ob," Thani^s Gray for Houstonia 
seed; is glad to hear, but disappointed, about the Specularia pollen- 
tubes; "I cannot resist sending you a diagram about Ly thrum." Finds 
It has 5 kinds of stigmas and 3 kinds of pollen, with the stamens of 
the Gam.e height on S of the 3 forms produciiig the sarae sort of 
pollen, and ho cannot doubt they are fitted to fertilise the stigma 


of that height; "I conclude so from watching the Beea; but hope to 
prove it by iny crosses- So that we have 3 hermaphrodite forms each 
depending on half the stamens of either one of the two other forms." 
This strikes him as a "very curious" case; the 3 forms co-exist in 
about etiual numbers; believes that [John] Lindley, in Vegetable 
Kingdom , describes certain structures of flov;ers - the so- 
called calyx, with its 12 bundles of spiral sepals, appear.'.; tc con- 
sist of 6 narrov/ sepals and 6 modified petals, all cohering, and the 
colored petals belong to an inner v/horl and are modified stamens; asks 
if Oray can tell him of anj^ flowers with fertile anthers of different 
colors; believes this would be a pretty sure guide to dimorphism or 
trimorphism; "All my semi -botanical work, as you know, has been con- 
nected vfith insects, and now I ajn almost sure (but I find it a dis- 
gusting truth that vath me first observations are generally all a 
blunder) that flovrers have led me to a curious little discovery with 
respect to the best-known insect in the viorld, the Hive Bee, I saw 
the other day to iny dismaj'- (see Origin [of Species]) Hive Bees 
sucking the common red clover, but it was a second crop, which I am 
told produces shorter flov;ers; but many of the Bees never attempted 
this,' but alvrays inserted their heads betvreen the flov/ers and sucked 
at holes bitten through the corolla. - The same bee always followed 
the same practice. And apparently those vfhich suck at the mouth of 
the flower have a longer proboscis than the other bees, which suck 
through the holes „ . . , Since vnriting the above by Jove I have 
found I have as usual at first blundered about the proboscis j but if 
you had seen the Bees, the blunder v;as almost excusable -■" [Encloses 
diagrams of long-styled, mid-styled, and short-styled Lythrum 

A. L.. S 7 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 68 [l23] 

Sep, 16 Asks for information on cases of dimorphism like that of Primula; 
[makes diagrsun of anthers and stigmas of 2 forms of Primula]; the 
individual plants are divided into 2 sets or bodies, like males and 
females in Liuadrupeds, but both in Primula are hermaphrodite; would 
be glad to know of other analogous cases; asks if the 2 forms are 
ever borne on the same plant; Thyme is different, as the one form is 
simply female; [makes diagram of anthers and stigmas of Linumi; is 
almost sure pollen of one kind of Linum is sterile on its own stigma 
but good on the stigma of another plant, and pollen of another icmd 
of Linum is good on its ovm stigma; hopes further study of this sub- 
ject v;ill throw light on Hybridisctirai; has some seeds of Primiila 
raised in scanty nuinbers from stigmas fertilized by homomorphous 
union - jDy pollen from plant of sarae f orm; asks if Gray has looked at 
Spirantnes; nis species is different; he v;atched bees fertilize them 
at Torquay; has almost finished his paper on Orchids and will then 
go back to vrork on cocks and hens, fov;ls, and rabbits; has just been 
looking at Dionaea in aid of his Drosera work; "Hoiy curious it is to 
see a fly caught and how beautiful are the adaptations compared with 

A L, S. 4 pp. 20 cm x 16 cm. Wo. 73 [l24] 


16 Expresses thanks for 2 letters and some pages of Silliraan [ ' s 

Journal of Science] viith several notices he was glad to see; Lythrum 
Salicaria is/'coming out so clear" he does not care much for the 
other species, but will be very glad of seed of Nesaea; is disapr)ointed 
with "those odious Melastomatads" , yet feels "sure there is something 
very curious to be made out about them"; has looked at [J Trimble] 
Rothrock's observations on Houstonia; they are "capital" in some 
respects, but not sufficient about reciprocal Latitudation; v/ith a 
fev/ experiments of his own he feels he could give all the facts; is 
at home again and working steadily on Variation under Domestication 
[ The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication ] , but 
"pottering over plants is much better sport"; vrorked at Bournemouth 
a bit at "my old friend Drosera", testing all sorts of fluids that 
do not act on ordinary organic compounds but do act on nervous systems 
of animals; declares he is coming to the conclusion that some plants 
must have something closely analogous to nervous matter, as acetate 
of strychnine stopped all movement and acetate of morphia greatly 
dulled and retarded movement", is interested in such a number of natural 
hybrids being found between 2 species of Verbascum ana linlcing 
V[erbasctim] Thapsus and Lychnitis closely together; [Sir Joseph] 
Hooker was horrified when he told him this; thanlcs Gray for sending an 
article from the Daily Nev/s vihich v.-as "read aloud in family conclave"; 
verdict vras that- the North vras fully justified for going to war with 
the South, but that as soon as it -.vas plain there was no majority in 
the South for reunion, the North might have made peace and agreed to a 
"divorce" after the victories in Kentucky and Tennessee; thinks it is 
curious there is belief in the United States. in annexation of the South, 
while in England it is the almost universal opinion that this is 
utterly impossible; deplores the war and says that already it has 
fostered widespread feeling in favor of aristocracy and monarchism; 
"no one in England v;ill speak for years in favor of the people govern- 
ing themselves"; asks Gray not to be "indignant", and not let Mrs. 
G-ray be "more indignant than she can help"; inquires about a Mr. Flag, 
of Nevf York, who has cultivated vnld Maize. 

A L S, 6 pp, 20 cm X 16 cm. No. 81 [125] 

19 "I received yesterday your article on Climbers and it has pleased 
me in an extraordinary and even silly manner. You pay me a superb 
compliment, and as I have Just said to my wife I think my friends must 
perceive that I like praise, they give me such hearty doses. I always 
admire your skill in reviev/s or abstracts, and you have done this 
article excellently and given the whole essence of w paper. I dare- 
say you are right about the climbing roses; I never thought about spring 
shoots behaving differently from others." Has had a letter from FLritz] 
Milller, in S. Brazil, who has been "stirred up" to observe climbers and 
gives him some curious cases of Branch-climbers in v;hich branches are 
converted into tendrils and then continue to grow and throv; out leaves 
and new branches, after v;hich they lose their tendril character; his 
health is better, has not vomited for about 5 vreeks, due to not having 
eaten anything but toast and meat for the last 2 months, but cannot 
recover mental strength and does no regular work; has had some flovrers 
crossed for him this summer and has lately been counting the seeds; 


Gray might like to know that llitchella "behaves" exactly like the 
Cowslip; asks if he told Gray a year or tv;o ago that Pulnonaria offers 
a curious case - the long-styled form being absolutely sterile with 
its own pollen, '.Yhile the short-styled is almost perfect v;ith its 
own pollen; has also ascertained that plants raised from dimorphic 
species fertilized by their own pollen, are themselves generally 
sterile and are often dwarfs, so that they offer the closest analogy 
v;ith Hybrids - the first cross and the product both being more or 
less sterile; this seems to him a very curious fact; does not know 
when he v/ill be able to publish any of these results, for he has 
resolved whenever able to do anything, to publish his next book; has 
not heard very lately from [Sir Joseph] Hooker whi^ returns tomorrow 
to Kew; Hooker's illness has been very serious; 'Td me the loss of 
his correspondence has been very great." His [Darwin's] wife has 
read aloud to him Stephens' tvro books on Central America; "What a 
remarkably pleasant v;riter he isi and hov; singularly deficient in the 
spirit of a naturalist. Who is he and is he still alive? You are 
enough to stimulate a dead man to work," [2 pp. are in another 

A, L. S, 4 pp. 20 cm x 13 cm. No, 93 [126] 

Oct, 19 Is pleased Prof. Henry goes so far with the Darii'/inian theories; 
does not think the Atl a ntic | Monthly larticlo ivill be made to appear 
as if from Gray; feels it must be nov; eitner rejected or printed, as 
so much time has elapsed; is thinking of the larger scheme of getting 
all 3 articles published with Gray's name, but is a poor judge of such 
things himself because of mixing so little with people, and [Sir 
Joseph] Hooker is away and [Thomas Henry] Huxley is in distress; is 
writing [Sir Charles] Lyell, who admires Gray's articles, and v/ho is 
a good judge in all publishing affairs, and if he thinks there is any 
chance of a sale he [Darviin] vjill consult Murray; he will tell Murray 
of a book and 2 other brochures, "all poor", which have appeared 
against The Origin [ of Species | ; thinks a pamphlet on their ovm side 
might sell; feels it v;ould be indispensible to have Gray's name and 
titles on the title page, and very advisable to have some remark on 
the title showing its bearing on Natural Theology or Design; is afraid 
it is "ten to one" against Gray's articles succeeding; asks Gray to 
send a title, subject to Murray's approval; fears there is no chance of 
Gray's having time to add some criticisms on [William] Hopkins; all 
3 articles together might be too long; seem much too good to be almost 
lost in a periodical; "Murray says the Origin goes on selling vrell. I 
had a letter a v/eek ago from [George Henry Kendrick] Thwaites of Ceylon; 
he was at first much opposed to us, " and novi approves; "Even [William 
Heniy] Harvey ... is not nearly so savage against me as . , , wlien 
he published his foolish pamphlet. Such cases give me much confidence 
that Natural Selection is not very far from truth." Thinks it might 
be "worth v/hile" for Gray to send title and say whether he vrould add 
any criticisms, as in this case he would delay publication, "if it is 
ever to take place." 

A. Lo S. 4 pp. 21 cm x 16 cm. No. 32 [127] 


Nov. 4 [Down], Beckeiiham, [Kent J, 

"I send by this post rest of sheets, some not pressed but cor- 
rected „ Title & Index shall be sent hereafter o" 

A. Postal card,S- 1 p, 8 cm x 6 cm No no. [128] 

\JoT, IS Is anxious for information vfhich possibly may be gained in 

Southern United States; old writers often insist that differences of 
constitution go v;ith complexion, and wishes to know whether there is 
any truth in this; "It has occurred to me that liability to such disease 
as yelloxv-fever vrould answer my question in the best possible vray,. " 
Asks if G-ray knovvs of any one of a "scientific mind" to whom to 
apply to ask. v-rtietber any observations have ever been made or published 
on Europeans, without any cross with negro blood, of dark complexion 
and black hair, being more liable, ,or leas, to be attacked with yellow 
fever than persons of light complexion: he has just published a little 
notice in G-ardenors ' Chronicle on the fertilization of Leguminous 
plants which rather bears on "our" Fujiiariaceous description,, 

A L S. 4 ppo 20 cm x 13 cm. No. 19 [129] 

Dv. 23 Thanks Gray for stojups sent his son, Leonard, and for Nesaea 
seeds; has not received the first notice on the Orchid book [f The 
Various Gontrivances b^. which Orchids are Fertilized by Insects | , 
alt:iough Gray v/rites he has sent the second one to Silliman['_s 
Journal of, Science 1 ; an article on "Supernaturalists" by the Dul:e 
of Argyll, in the last Edinburgh Review , which brings in Orchids, 
is "clever", but he does not soe thtit it really revieT/s any of the 
difficulties of Theology; considers a reviev; on Hax Muller - on the 
origin of language ~ by his [Darwin's] brother-in-law, H[ensleigh] 
¥edgvrood, and his daughter, in the last Kacmillan f ' s Magazine ] , and 
[llenry VJalter] Bates' paper on "Butterflies of Amazonia" are "well 
vrorth readii:ig"; no one has brought so clearly before his mind as has 
Bates the process of segregation of varieties into species; [Sir 
Charles] Lyell's book "is not yet out", but Murray Rold 4,000 copies 
recently at auction; has nearly finished a long chapter on the simple 
facts of the, variation of a fev; cultivated plants and would be very 
much obliged if Gray vrould tell him whether the fruit of wild 
Eragaria virginiana is much larger than that of Fragaria vesca, vrhether 
he knov;3 anything of the Fragaria grandiflora, and how far south the 
Fragaria virginiana ranges; believes his son, Horace, is a "prophetic 
type of future naturalists, as Agassiz would say", because he expresses 
"pity for the poor people vrho formerly believed in" no variation in 
species of animals and plants. "Read in Times today the great ne?/s of 
[George B.] McClellan's dismissal from the armj% Good God what vdll 
be the end of all?" 

A L, S 3 pp. 26 cm :•: 21 cm. Wo. 49 [130] 

Nov,, 24 Gray's facts on Northern Range astonish him and will be pre- 
eminently useful for his purpose; is delighted Gray intends to attack 
naturalized plants; "The last sentence' in your letter at first 
surprised me and trotibled ne, . . . viz. 'that a considerable part 
of our Alpine plants are not known in our Arctic continental regions',. 


I did not perceive that you had added out are connected vjith 
Scandinavia t;irougii La'brador , etc. - And this made ne happy again. 
But looking at the Globe is it not rather a forced expression to ex- 
clude Labrador froc yovir 'Arctic continental regions'? . . . You may 
confound sone or.e else as you did me. . . . You say that only method 
to nalcG ycu Troriv is 'to s;iov; j'^ou the i/ay', . . . The very best work- 
man sees blemishes in his vrori: T/hich other and poorer ".vorkraen can- 
not ever perceive. . . . If I had vri-itten a paper half as good as 
yours hov: conceited I should have been!" lie cannot "get over" his 
surprise at Gray's naturalized and agrGriF.n plants not being 
variable, and aslcs Gray to please Iceep this point in mind. 

A. L. S. 4 pp. 20 cm'x 13 cm. *!Io. 5 [l3l] 

Is hastenir.g to say he will gladly pay half of the cost of 
Gray's pamphlet, v/ill distribute some copies, and leave others in the 
agents' hands; vfill put a fevi advertisementE in nevrspapers , and see 
vmat he can do to get it noticed in a fev; periodicals, "but I am 
a bad man for that, as I live so retired." Hust hear, someho:/, to 
T.'hom the corisignment of copies tths sent, and Gray can tell exact sum 
to repay him; fears it v-rill be impossible to get the pamphlet known 
in England so as to sell many; if Gray, upon reflection, would not 
like to go to the expense, he must not consider himself bound; 
"Just to exemplify use cf your panplilet. Bishop of London v;as asking 
[Sir CharlesJ Lyell ?/hat he tho\::ght of the Reviev^ in i^uarterly 
[Journal of Science], and Lyell 's ans-.Tsr ".vas, Read 'Asa Gray's in 
Atlantic [licnthlyj' ." Will I'/rite [Thomas H^nryJ Huxley- about [Chaixneey] 
Wright's article, but has "no hope", as Euxley said a "good strong 
anti-Bar?:inian article as T:hat he wanted." EnoT:s nothing abou" 
paj-ment, but v/iil ii-quirs and let Gray krovf; heartily acauiesces 
either in better or cheaper editions; is sure [Sir JcsephJ Hooker 
rriil help in gettiiig ^^'S^-?--^''^ knoTm, 

A. L. S. 4 pp. SO en x 15 cm. No= 3S [132] 

Sends Graj- a note from [Thomas Heiiryj Huxley which says Ilu^-ley 
v;ill be glad cf [ChaunceyJ Wright's article, if approved of; he 
[DaiTvinJ believes no other publication would accept it, for all 
have treated of The Origin [of Speciss]: feels Siire the [ Natural 
Hi story J Review Trill have "great merit" and "be ■vrorthy" of '.-'right's 
article; thinks it would be a ^great pity" if it vrere not published, 
for, as Graj" has said, it is so good; calls attention to the fact 
that Euxley asks r.-hether Gra>- -^ould ever contribute to his RevieiT 
[ Uatural History Review J but fears Gray is pledged to Silli~an's 
I Jouriial of Science j: is anxious to hear Gray's final decision on 
the manner of publi3hi:ig his 3 articles; S:till thinks No. 2 the 
best, though he believes most readers -rrould prefer No. 3; I'.-ould 
like to see [William Henry] Harvey's letter, for he has had much 
pleasant correspondence 7rith him;. is returning the Ticknorand 
Fields letters, as Gray might wish to refer to them; there is a 
"nice, but too flattering", article on The Origin by a yo^jng man 
of whom many think most highly. 

A= L. S. 2 pp. 2G cm x 13 cm. No. 39 [l53] 

Lo-t'':er v.-lll be brief c-occuGe liis iau^'itor i:.- ver;.- .'.11; is glad 
Sray has docide'l to publish, and insists that he [Dai-^Tin] bear vmole 
risk of lo:.;s; Lancloses list of navies of those to '.Thon he ".-/culcl 
distribute copies J; lias ;-ast receiTed a letter from Prof . ['Jeffries'' 
Mysium; has not read it, but sees it is prof ouizdl;/ interesting; 

For Reviews 

^fiaslne j of :ia"u-&l tiistor: 

Sdin[ burgh] I-Tew Philo r soghigall .Tournal 


Sat-'or-la:- P.eTie-.;- [ of Politics . Literature , Science and Art 

Garieners' Ghroniale 

l.atural r^istor^" P.eTiew 
Geological Society 
Royal Society 
Linnaean Society 
Athenaeum Club 
Plerdan (a Revievr) [?] 

S[anuel] ?[ichvrorth] Wood7:ard 

H[epett] C[ottrell] iJatson 

[sir Joseph] Hooker 

[George] Benthas 

[VJillian: Benjarsin] Carpenter 

[Thonas Eem^r] Huicle:^ 

[Sir John Uillian] Lubbock 


[John Stevens] rlenslo?; 

[AdarJ Sedg-.vick 

[Willian] Hopkins 

B[ishop] of Oxford 

[Sanuel yilbsrforce] 
[Sir John Frederick Villianj 

ivhendall [?] 
[Sir Charles] Lyell 
Cj_harles] Kingsley 

A. L. S. 2 m. 20 en x 13 en. 


R[obert] Chambers 
[Thomas Vernon] Ivollaston 
Sir E[enry] Holland 
[Hugh] Falconer 
[William Plenr^-] Harvey 
I'Irs. Darrock [?] 
Lfeonarc] Horner 
[John] Phillips 
H[enr-^] D[ar';7in] Rogers 
Trot nick [?] 
Al[phonse Louis Pierre] 

de Candolle 
Os[7.'ald] Heer 
Thuran "of Calcutta" 
[Sdv;ard] Blythe "of do." 
[George Henr^'^ Kendrick] 

Th'jaites "of Ceylon" 
Ho. 12 


n.-d. [Place of rrriting uTikno-.'ni; first r^age missing]. 

Appletons have sent him L 50 for "ariation [of Animals and Plants ] 
under Domestication Tmich he thinks "ver^'' handsome" anii v/nicn r*e ov/es 
to Gre 


; has not heard from [Sir Joseph] Hooker, but read in the 
3rs ' ] Chronicle that vrhen he vras elected President for next 

is received v;ith great applause; has seen hardly a soul 

for a long time "except the [Thomas Henr;;,'] Huxley's and tiro detachi.'ents 


[Prof. Charles Eliot] Nortons. I then verified a grand generaliza- 
tion, vfhich I once propounded to you, that all persons from the 
U[nited] States are perfectly charming, ... I often think --vith 
pleasure of your visit here." Asks G-ray to observe v;hether the 
beards of Gernans , v;hen differing in tint from hair of the head, are 
of a lighter or redder tint, and if they often differ in tint. 

A L. S 2 pp. 20 cm z 13 cm. Incomplete. 1st p. or pp. 
-.:iissii^. No no, [135] 

n.d. Is glad Gray v;ill look at Rubiaceae and hopes ho T;ill find time to 
make a fevx experiments; taaiivs him for notes about his Hollies and 
hopes he vjill "look a little to them. There is to me incomparably 
more interest in observing than in vrriting; but I feel quite guilty 
in trespassing on these subjects, and not sticking to varieties 
of the confounded Cocks, Hens and Ducks." He hears [Sir Charles] 
LyeJ.l is "savage" at him; knovjs he will not be able to resist Linum 
next summer; "Ivhat you say about our keeping in our intrenchj:ients and 
firing long shots about Design has m^ade me laugh, I suspect I am 
more covrardly than you, as I ought to be, as I do not feel sure of my 
ground. Here is my answering long shot about the cream- ji:ig-nose: I 
should believe it to have been designed , . . until I sav; a. way of 
its being formed v;ithout design, and at the same time saw in its 
v;hole structure . . . evidence, of its having been produced in a 
quite distinct manner, i.e. by descent from another creai:i-.:ug \7h0se 
nose possessed, perhaps some quite distinct use. When I think of my 
beloved OrchidSj vfith rudirrients of five anthers, v.'ith one pistil con- 
verted into a rojteiiiM, with all the cohesion of parts, it really 
seems to me incredibly monstrous to look at an Orchid as created as 
WG nov," see it. Every part reveals modification on modification," 
¥ill send Gray his Orchid opusculum, 

A L. S- 2 pp. 25 cm x 21 cm. Incomplete, pp. 1-4 missing. 
No, 51-A * [136] 

n.d. "Closely is president of Section D at iiontreal." [Letter and 
signature in another handv/riting]. 

1 p. 20 cm X 13 cm. No no. [l3V] 

1G60 Asa GRAY, [Cambridge, Mass.]. To Charles DARWIN, 

Feb. 20 [Do'v/n, Brnmley, Kent, England?]. 

Encloses letter received from D, Appleton & Co.; is sending 
Appleton sheets of Edition 2 [of Origin of Species ] with Darv/in's 
additions; has delivered to Appleton the "Historical Paper" he 
promised them, "trusting to their promise of 5 prints and to their 
honor for more if they are not molested by reprinters which we shall 
keep off. The offer of check for 50 L (v7hich I might send to Mrs. 
Darvrin for pin-money since you scorn jt) tempts me, but I think it 
wise to wait & hope for more." Has mailed a copy of his review; has 
sent it to Agassiz who is "childishly apt to be offended at any opposi- 
tion, but I have, as you see, been very- careful to avoid all cause of 
personal offence." 

A., L. S, No. 37 " [138] 


Enclosure: Letter from D. Appleton & Co., New York, N. Y, , Feb. 17, 
1060, to [Asa Gray], Cambridge, Mass., "We can't say vjhat w6 v;ill do 
respecting the notes & additions till vie see them, but we shall be 
anxious to make our edition conform to any future English Edition"; 
no one can hold an American copyright unless he be a citizen of the 
United States; propose to pay 5^ on retail price, as Gray has suggested, 
"as there is no reason vjhy a work without any legal rights should pay 
the same as one that is secured by law"; desire to act liberally; 
regret there is no protection for foreign authors, "think it a monstrous 
shame", but must take things as they exist; are vv'illing to send Darwin 
50L, "and very likely that would be as much as he could receive by the 

Enclosures: 2j- pp. of notes and corrections [on Origin of Species? ! . 

Enclosure: Printed form filled in by hand, statement, from [D, 
Appleton & Co., N.Y.] to Asa Gray "for Mr. Darwin", of sale of Origin 
of 3pecies to May 1, 1860, shows "1750 sold, at 5% on fl.25 - |109.37 



Agassiz, Alexander, 1B35~1910., Son of Louis; American naturalist and capitalist; 
developed Calumet and Hecla copper mines, bringing him great wecilth which he 
devoted to zoological research and to Gndov/rnent of Harvard Husema-aT Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge, Mass-, author of soolcgical v.'orks , mostly on deep sea 
animals - 

Agassiz, Louis Jean Rodolphe, 1807-73- Sv;iss-American naturalist; professor of 
natural history, Neufchatel and Harvard; founder of Harvard .Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge, Kass,; authov of zoological works, 

Argyll, Duke of, 1823-1900.- English author and statesman; member of Gladstone's 
cabinet; liberalist; defender of theism; author of religious, political, and 
scientific works, 

Baer, Karl Ernst von, 1792-1876. Russian naturalist; founder of modern embryology; 
professor at University of Konigsberg; author of scientific works. 

Bates, Henry VJalter, 1825-92. British naturalist and explorer; gave plausible 
explanation for protective coloring of animals and insects; explored upper 
Amazon, bringing back some 8,000 new species; Alfred Russell V/allace vfith him 
part of time; portion of his valuable collections in British Museum; his rare 
beetles bought by Renee Oberthun, of Rennes, Prance; assistant secretary of 
Royal Geographical Society; author of scientific works, 

Bentham, George, 1800-1884, English botanist; author of handbooks on Flora and a 
work with Hooker = 

Berkeley, Miles Joseph, 1803-89. English botanist and authority on fungi and 

plant pathology; contributed much to knov/ledge of fungus pests of crop plants, 

Bessey, Charles Edwin, 1845-1915, American botanist; professor of botany, Iowa 
State College and University of Nebraska; president of Society for Promotion of 
Agricultural Science; president of Nebraska Academy of Sciences; acting chan- 
cellor of University of Nebraska; Fellow of -American Association for Advance- 
ment of Science; among first to use laboratory methods in teaching botany; 
author of textbooks and miscellaneous articles. 

Bishop of Oxford, see VJilberforce. 

Blyth, Edward, 1810-73, English zoologist., 

Boott, Francis, 1792-1363, English physician^ 

Bov/en, Francis, 1811-90, -American philosopher; professor of political economy, 
and Alvord professor of natural reli.'rion, moral philosophy and civil polity. 
Harvard; owned and edited North Ariierican Review; author of many works on history, 
biography, political science, logic, relj.gion, and philosophy. 

Biographical Notes 

Brace, Charles Loring, 1826-90. American philanthropist; social vrorker in miSGions 
at Five Points and on BlactiYells Island, N. Y.; founded Children's Aid Society 
and the first newsboys' lodging house; traveled Europe, studying reform schools 
and prisons; author of several vrorks. 

Bridgman, Laura, 1829-89. American tlind mute; attended Perkins Institute for the 
Blind, at Boston, Mass., where Dr. Samuel G. Howe undertook her education; learned 
to read raised letters, interchange thoughts v;ith others, and to associate vrords • 
with objects; studied geography, history, and algebra; played piano, and sewed; 
received and answered letters from all parts of the vrorld; became skillful 
teacher of the blind and deaf and dumb; thoijght deeply about religious matters , 
and reasoned with discrimination. 

Bronn, Heinrich George, 1800-1862. German geologist; professor of natural history, 
Heidelberg; author of scientific works; translated into German The Various 
Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilized by Insects , by Darwin. 

Bro-.ra, Robert, 1773-185B. Scottish botanist ; naturalist onFlinderc' surveying- 
expedition to Australia; discoverer of Brovmian Movement - rapid vibrator^" move- 
m.ents of minute particles suspended in fluid; author of first British botanical 
V7ork to treat of plant arrangement in philosophical manner. 

Buckle, Henry Thomas, 1821-62. English historian; chief work. History of Civili - 
zation , of v;hich only two volumes were completed; died, v;hile traveling, in 

Burchell, William John, 1782-1863. English explorer and scientist; schoolmaster at 
St. Helena; explored Africa, v/here he collected 63,000 natural objects and much 
astronomical and m,eteorological material; explored Brazil, m.any and plant 
species, discovered by him^, bear his nam.e. 

Butler, Benjamin Franklin, lSlB-93. American lavjyer, soldier, and statesman; served 
in both houses of Massachusetts state legislature; major general in Union Army 
during Civil War in United States; governor of Massachusetts. 

Butler, Samuel, 1S35-1902. English philosopher, artist, archaeologist, and mis- 
cellaneous writer, exhibited at Royal Academy; wrote several books controversial 
to theories of Dar,';in, his friend; his one novel v/as posthuiTiously published. 

Cairns, John Elliot, 1823-75. Irish economist; his Slave Power (1862), a defciuc o.; 
the North in Civil War in United States, made great im^pression in England; t.ieore-j- 
ical economist of school of John Stuart Mill; author of many worVn on economics., 

Candolle, Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus de, 1806-93, Son of Augustine, Swiss botan- 
ist, whose work he continued. 

Carlyle, Thomas, 1795-1881. Scottish essayist, philosopher, and historian; au:hor 
of many vrorks, mostly of a historical character. 


Biographical Notes 

Carpenter, William BenjEunin, 1813-85. English naturalist, physiologist , vzriter, and 
editor; lecturer and professor at various institutions; made three voyages to 
North i^tlantic and Mediterranean in study of biology; author of many v/orks on 

Chambers, Robert, 1302-71, Scottish publisher and author of many vrorkSo 

Colenso, John William, 1814-83, Bishop of Natal, South Africa; mastered Zulu 

language, prepared grammar and dictionary, and translated Prayer-book and part 
of Bible ; became convinced of improbability of many statements in Bi ble ; deposed 
from his Sae as result of The Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua Critically 
Examined 1,7 parts, 1862-79); visited England, conferred viith Archoisnop or 
Canterbury, and pleaded cause of dispossessed Zulu chief; author of works in 
algebra and arithmetic, and many of religious character. 

Cooke, Josiah Parsons, 1827-94- American chemist and mineralogist; professor of 
chemistry and mineralogy, and founder and director cf chemical laboratory, 
Harvard; first instructor in America to use laboratory- in undergraduate course; 
worked out atomic v/eight of antimory , 

Cooper, Susan Fenimore, 1815-94, Daughter of Jaraes Fenimore; American miscellaneous 

Dana, James DT,Tight , 1813-95. American naturalist; scientific observer on United 
States exploring expedition, under Charles Wilkes, visiting Antarctic and 
Pacific oceans; associate editor of /jnerican Journal of Science ; professor of 
natural history and geology, Yale; author of several .rorks . 

Darxvin, Erasmus, 1731-180?,,, Grandfather of Charles Robert; English physician 
and poet; evolutionary theories expressed in Zoonomia , 

Darv/in, Sir Francis, 1848-1925, Son of Charles Robert Danvin; English botanist; 
assistant to his father; reader in botany, Cambridge, Eng. ; foreign secretary 
of Rcyal Society: -oresident of British Association; edited """ dfq arif^ T.ot+.Rrs of 
Charles and I'^ore Letters of Charles Darwin; authror' of botar-nical vrorks , 

Darwin, Sir George Howard, 1845-1912, Son of Charles Robert Danvin; English 

astronomer and mathematician; Pluraian professor of astronomy and experimiental 
philosophy, Cambridge, Eng,; president of British Association; recognized as 
authority on cosmogony; author of several vrorks, 

Darwin, Sir Horace, 1851-1928, Son of Charles Robert Darvfin; English civil engineer; 
chairman of Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co,; F 3llow of Royal Society. 

Darv^in, Leonard, 1850-? Son of Charles Robert Darv;in; English economist and eugenist; 
major in Royal engineers. 


Biographical Notes 

Daubeny, Charles Giles Bridle, 1795-1S67, English cheraist and botanist; professor 
of cheraistry and botany, Oxford; author of v;orks on volcanoes and atomic theory ^ 

Draper, John William, 1?11--8E- American chemist, physiologist, and v,Titer; born in 
England; professor of chem.istry and physiology, Hampton- Sydney College, Virginia, 
and University of City of Nev; York, m.ade important discoveries in spectrttm 
analysis and photography, author of many ;vorks of scientific and historical 

Du Bois-Reymond, Emil Heinrick, 1G18 96 Physiologist, born in Berlin, Germany, 
son of French parents; results of years of research, including theory of elec- 
trical nature of mAascle acxdon; '..'ore publishod, uG';elGp(;d riothods and apparatus 
for studs'- of physiology 

Falconer, Hugh, 1808-65 English palaeontologist, botanist, and physician to East 
Indian Company in Bengal; superintendent of botanical gardens in India; steadily 
carried on research -.York v;hich resulted in remarkable discoveries of fossil Fauna 
and Flora; continued researches in Europe after retirement; edited nine parts of 
an illustrated work- 

Forbes, Edv/ard, 3 815-54, English zoologist; research wnrk in ocean lifi? ad- 
vanced science of palaeoutolog;' ; professor of botany. King s College, 
London, curator of Geological Cocie-cy nusoum; palaeontologis-t; vath British 
Geological Survey; vacations spent in deep sea dredging, making notable discov- 
eries in fossils; his valuable collections are in College Museura, Edinburgh, 
v;here he was professor of natural history; author of many scientific v;orks . 

Gartner, Rudolf, 1817-80- German publisher. 

Gray, John Edward, 1800-1875, English naturalist. Fellow of Royal Society, 

Harvey, William Henry , 1811-66. Irish botanist; authority on algae; spent several 
years in South Africa, author of several scientific works.. 

Haughton, Scumuel, 1821-97, Irish scientist, Fellov; of Royal Society,. 

Heer, Oswald, 1309-83., Swiss geologist and naturalist; pioneer in palaeobotany; 
distinguished for researches on Miocene Flora; professor of botany. University 
of Zurich; directed attention to Tertiary plants and insects of Switzerland; 
director of Botanical Garden, Zurich; author of m.any works. 

Henslovj-, John Stevens, 1796-1S61 . English botanist and geologist; during tour in 
Isle of Wight, with Adam Sedg^;/ick, developed interest in geology; professor of 
mineralogy and botany, Cambridge, Eng , , took holy orders; introduced Darv;in to 
Capt Fitzroy, of H H S Beagle , author of many v/orks 

Horschel, Sir John Frederick William, 1792-1871. Son of Sir William.; English 
astronomer; spent four years at Cape of Good Hope, charting southern heavens, 
president of Royal Astronomical Society; made valuable contributions to develop- 
ment of photography; author of several works on astronomy. 


Biographical Notes 

Plochstettor, Ferdinand Christian von, 1829-84,, Austrian geologist „ 

Holland, Sir Henry, 1788-1873, English physician; Fellow of Royal Society; physi- 
cian in ordinary to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert: author of many scientific 
v/orks . 

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, 1817-1911, English botanist and traveler; assistant 
surgeon on Sir James Ross' Antarctic expedition; journeyed to India, Palestine, 
Morocco, and ^ nited States; director of Kew Gardens, London; president of Royal 
Society; together with Lyell, first induced Darwin to make public his views on 
origin of species; author of many works- 

Hopkins, William, 1793-1866, English mathematician and geologist- 

Horner, Leonard, 1785-1864„ Scottish geologist and educationist; Fellow of Royal 

Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825-95, English scientist; assistant -surgeon in Royal Navy; 
studied deep sea life near Australia and Nev; Guinea; collected and classified 
marine life on basis hitherto unused; professor of natural history. Royal School 
of Mines, London; introduced laboratory method in study of biology; zealous 
advocate of Darwin's views on evolution; author of many vrorks on scientific re- 

Jukes, Joseph Beete, 1811-69= English geologist; naturalist on H M. S.. Fly ,. on 
expedition to Torres Strait; New Guinea, and east coast of Australia; served on 
geological surveys of Great Britain and Ireland; professor of geology-. Royal 
College of Science, Dublin, Ireland; author of many vrorks. 

Kant, ImjTianuel, 1724-1804. German philosopher; championed liberty and progress; 
'author of many works. 

Kingsley, Charles, 1819-75. English clergyman and ;vTiter; canon of Westminster; 
chaplain to Q,ueen Victoria; one of initiators of Broad Church Movement; zealous 
advocate of various schemes for improvement of conditions of English working 
classes; author of many novels, poems, and seimons. 

Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de, 1744-1829, French 
naturalist, conchologist , meteorologist, and evolutionist; keeper of herbariura, 
Jardin des Plantes, Paris; professor of zoology, Museum of Natural History, 
Paris; supported doctrine of derivation of species from other species; first 
to grasp theory of organic evolution in its entirety; work important as fore- 
runner to that of Danvin; author of many works, 

Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Paul Emile, 1838-1912. French chemist; known for pioneer 
work in spectroscopy, through v/hich he discovered samarium and dysprosium, 
vfhich he isolated. 

Lodebour, Karl Friedrich von, 1785-1851, German botanist and traveler; author of 
book on plants of Russia, 


Biographical Notes 

Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm von, 1646-1716. German philosopher and scholar; at- 
tained great eminence in science of mathematics; declined professorship at 
university in Nuremburg; custodian of public library, Hanover; in addition to 
law, science, and philosophy, gave much attention to theological questions, 
seeking earnestly, and ;7ithout success, to iinite Protestant and Roman Catholic 
churches, and Litheran and Reformed churches of Prussia; discovered differential 
calculus; made his discovery public earlier (1584) than did Newton, 

Lieber Francis, 1800-1872 o German- American political philosopher; twice imprisoned 
in Germany for liberal sentiments; originated and edited Encyclopedia Americana ; 
professor of historj'-, political economy, and co'^stitutional histoiy, South 
Carolina College, and Columbia University, New York, N, Y.. ; author of many works 
of political character. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-65. Sixteenth President of United States; served in Illinois 
state legislature; practised law; served in United States Congress; stoutly 
opposed policies of Stephen A. Douglas; Civil War President; assassinated by 
John Wilkes Booths 

Lindley, John, 1799-1365. English botanist, viviter, and editor of botanical and 
horticultural journals; organised first flov^er shows held in England; v/as in- 
fluential in having Royal Gardens at Kev7 preserved when Parliament sought to 
abolish theia; attempted several schemes of natural classification of plants; 
author of many botanical works , 

Lubbock, Sir John VJilliam, 1803-65. English astronomer and mathematician; member 
of Royal Astronomical Society; given medal by Royal Society for investigation 
of tides; studied lunar theory; developed method for calculating orbits of comets 
and planets; took part in establishing; British Almanac ; anrilied theory of prob- 
ability to life-insurance problems; author of many scientific vforks 

Lyell, Si: Charles, 1797-1875, English geologist; devoted time and fortune to 
geological research; made scientific tours over Europe and United States; sum- 
marized evidence in favor of theory that the race of man v;as much older than was 
currently believed; together v;ith Hooker, first induced Darwin to make public 
his views on origin of species; author of many scientific xrarks . 

McClellan, George B, , 1826-85. American general ; served in Mexican War; major 
general and commander-in-chief of Union Army during Civil War in United States; 
governor of New Jersey. 

Mansell, Henry Longueville, 1820-71. English philosopher; carried further Kant's 
and Hamilton's theories; reader on moral and metaphysical theology, Bampton 
lecturer, Waynflete professor of moral and mental philosophy, professor of 
ecclesiastical history, Oxford; Dean of St. PaiLL's, London; author of many works, 


Biographical Notes 

Martineau, James, 1805-1900, English philosopher and theologian; follower of Bent- 
ham and disciple of Kant; materialist; exponent of doctrine of Christian Theism; 
professor of philosophy, Manchester New College, and principal of same; author 
of many works on philosphical and religious themes ^ 

Mason, James ^'i- , 1798-1871, American jurist and statesman; served in Virginia house 
of delegates and in federal Congress; withdrevv' from Senate at outbreak of Civil 
War in United States, and cast his lot with Confederacy; appointed Confederate 
manister to England; seized, on high seas, together vjith John Slidell, by Com- 
mander Charles Wilkes, of U. 3, Navy, while on British steamer, Trent ; on vray 
to Europe; held prisoner by Federal authorities until released at demand of 

Heehan, Thomas, 1826-1901, American botanist , nurseyman, v/riter, and editor; hy- 
bridized fuchsia and produced ne\7 race, at age of thirteen; at fifteen, made and 
published his scientific discovery relating to stamens of portulaca. 

Mill, John Stuart, 1805-73,, English philosopher, political economist, and v:riter; 
editor of Westminpter Re-'^iew, in which many of his own articles appeared; leader 
in movement for vroman's suffrage in England; served as member of Parliament; 
moving spirit in discussion groups which v;ere considered radical, but many of 
v/hose suggestions have since been adopted and are now regarded as conservative; 
author of manjr works of a political character, 

Moseley, Henry Nottidge, 1844-91. English naturalist; Fellow of Royal Society 

Miiller, Hermann, 1829-83. German naturalist, 

Muller, Max, 1823-1900,. German philologist; brought philologj^ and mythology to 
public attention; edited fifty-one volumes of translations of sacred books of 
the East; leading exponent of symbolic interpretation of mythology; made literary 
contrubutions to philology, 

Hurchison, Sir Roderick Impey , 1792-1871,, Scottish geologist and geographer; found 
' clew to discovery of Silurian system; explored several parts of Europe; carriea out 
^■Pological survey of Russian empire; foretold discovery of gold in Australia, en- 
couraged P-eogra^hical science, and kindled spirit of adventure among tho-e engaged 
in A-cic exploktion and African discovery; director of geological surve:, oi Poyal 
School of Mines, and of Museum of Practical Geology, London; author of sclmtific-worKS 

Murray, Andrew, 1812-78. Scottish naturalist. 

Nageli, Karl Wilhelm von, 1817-91. Svdss Botanist; contributed to knovjledge of 
functions of various plant parts; author of m.any scientific works, 

Newton, Sir Isaac, 1642-1727.. English mathematician and philosopher; made notable 
contributions to calculus; broke up v;hite light into colors of specti-um; in- 
vented a reflecting telescope; formulated law of universal gravitation and laws 
of motion; professor of mathematics, Cambridge, Eng.; president of Royal Society; 
author of several scientific works. 


Biographical Notes 

Norton, Charles Eliot, 1827-1908 American vn-iter, editor, and educator; joint 

editor, v/ith James Russell Lov;ell, of North American Reviev; ; professor of history 
of art, Plarvard; president of Archaeological Institute of America; author and 
editor of many vrorks 

Olmsted, Frederick Lav:/, 1822-1903,, American landscape architect; in cooperation 
vdth Calvert Vaux, prepared design for Central Park, New York, K. Y„ , and for 
United States Capitol grounds and terrace; designed park systems of many cities 
in United States, and acted as commissioner of Yosemite National Park; planned 
laying out of Jackson Park, Chicago, for Columbian Exposition; appointed by 
President Lincoln on commission to inquire into sanitary condition of United 
States Army during Civil l/ar in United States. 

0;ven, Sir Richard, 1804—92 English naturalist and comparative anatomist; superin- 
tendent of natural history department, Bri'^'ish Iiuseum; organized Museum of 
Natural History, South Kensington; made acquaintance of Cuvier, in Paris, v;ith 
whose name Ov/en's is connected in science of zoology; research vrork embraced 
classes of animals from sponge to man; author of many works on living and fossil 
animals ., 

Oxford, Bishop of, see Wilberforce 

Packard, Alpheus Spring, 1839-1905 American naturalist, entomologist, and zoologist; 
assistant to Agassiz, at Harvard; took part in several scientific expeditions; 
state entomologist of Massachusetts; professor of zoology and geology. Brown 
University, Providence, R I , classified insects; founder and chief editor of 
American Na': uralist ; author of many works 

Parsons, Theophilus, 1797-1882. Professor of lav;, Harvard; author of many works 
on law and religion 

Phillips, John, 1800-1874 English geologist; Fellow of Royal Society, 

Pictet de la Rive, Francois Jules, 1809-72 Svriss zoologist and palaeontologist „ 

Rogers, Henry Darv;in, 1808-66, AiTierican geologist; professor of chemistry and 
natural philosophy, Dickinson College, Pa.; engaged in. state surveys of 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey; togf^ther v/ith his brother, brought before Associa- 
tion of American Geologists and Naturalists conclusions on physical structure 
of Appalachian chain and on elevation of great m.ountain chains; researches in- 
cluded general count of geology of United States and of coal fields of North 
Aiaerica and Great Britain; professor of natural history and geology, Glasgow, 
Scotland; author of scientific works. 

Royer, Clemence, 1829-1902, French political economist, philosopher, archaeologist, 
and anthropologist; advocate of women's rights 

Sedgvjick, Adam, 1785-1873. English geologist; professor of geology, Camibridge, Eng , ; 
studied rock formation of Devonshire, 


Biographical Notes 

Silliman, Benjamin, 1779-1864o American scientist and editor; professor of 
chemistry, Yale; first president of Araerican Association of Geologists and 
Naturalists; founder and editor of American J ournal of Science , known as Sill.i,- 
man's J ournal; one of founders of National Acaden^ of Science; author of works 
on chemistry and travels 

Slidell, John, 1793-1871:. American la\i;yer and statesman; state congressman, 
Louisiana; minister to Mexico; mem^ber of United States Senate, from v;hich he 
withdrev; during Civil War in United States; appointed Confederate minister to 
France; seized, on high seas, together with James M.. Mason, by Commander Charles 
Wilkes, of U- S Navy, v;hile on British steamer, Trent , on way to Europe; held 
prisoner by Federal authorities until released at demand of England; negotiated 
French loan for Confederacy 

Spencer, Herbert, lSP.0-1903- English philosopher; projected a scheme of philosophy 
based on principle of evolution in its relation to life, mind, society, and 
morals; author of many philosophical works,, 

Sprengel, Christian Conrad, 1750-181G, G-erman botanist and educationict , 

Thwaites, George Henry Kendrick, 1811-82, English botanist and entomologist; Fellov/ 
of Royal Society 

Vries, Hugo de, 1848-?. Dutch botanist; professor at University of Amsterdam; his 
mutation theory opened up nev,' period in history of evolution; author of works 
expounding his theoiy. 

Wagner, Rudolph, 1805-64, German anatomist and physiologist; studied under Cuvier; 
professor of zoology and comparative anatoiny in ^riangen and Gottingen; discovered 
germinal vesicle of human ovutn; studied nerves and brains of human beings; author 
of many scientific works, 

Wahlenberg, George, 1784-1814, German botanist, 

Wallace, Alfred Russell, 1823-1913, English naturalist; spent many years in travel- 
ing, especially in South America, v/ith Henry Walter Bates, and to Asiatic islands; 
his observations of animals and plant life led him on the track of natural selec- 
tion; exponent of evolution; received gold medals of Royal Geographical and 
Linnaean societies, and first Danvin medal of Royal Society; author of mai^r 
scientific v/orks, 

Walsh, Benjamin Dann, 1803-69- English entomologist, 

Watson, Hevrett Cottrell, 1804-81, English botanist and phrenologist, 

Wedgwood, Hensleigh, 1803-91, Brother in-law of Charles Robert Darwin; English 
philologist , 


JJiographical Notes 

Wilberforce, Samuel, 1805- 73^ English prelate; Dean of Westminster; Bishop of 

Oxford; Bishop of Winchester; although a High Churclman, did not support Oxford 
Movement; advocate of moderation; active and influential in House of Lords; 
established theological colleges; author of many v7orks, mostly of religious 

Wilkes, Charles, 1001-77. American naval officer; attached to depot of charts and 
instruments, Washington, D, C; set up first fixed astronomical instruments for 
observations; carried on research work in islands of southern Pacific; explored 
Antarctic and Fijii Islands; as Commander of U, S= steamer San Jacinto , seized 
Confederate commissioners, James i'l^ Mason and John Slidell, on board British 
steamer Trent ; published account of exploring expedition. 

Wollaston, Thomas Vernon, 1822-78. English entomologist and conchologist ,, 

Woodv/ard, Samuel Pickworth, 1821-55. English naturalist. 

Wright, Charles, collector for Asa Gray. 

Wright, Chauncey, 1830-75, American mathematician and philosopher. 

Wjonan, Jeffries, 1814-74. American physician; lectured on anatomy at 
Lovirell Institute; professor of anatomy. Harvard; collected specimens for his 
museum on numerous expeditions to various parts of vrorld; author of many treatises 
on anatomy of animals. 


Noto- References are made in the index to the niunbered entries of the text 
and not to page numbers The Introduction and Biographical Notes 
have not bean covered in the j.ndex 

Aboriginal plants, see Indigenous 

Aboriginal state, hermaphrodite, 48 

by Darwin, 11, 57, 115 

by Wagner, S9 
Acacia, bloom on, 83 
Accuracy, 42 
AcGi'as, leads closely into Orchis 

hircina, 43 
Acorn, European, 59 
Adaptation, 4, 26, 29, 34, 38, 52, 117 

A.Tclepias, 8 

Balsaminae, 48 

Broom, 52 

Dionaea., compared vdth Drosera, 124 

Drosera^ compared with Dionaea, 124 

Herminium Monorchia . " ">- 5 

kept Danvin longest scientifically 
orthodox, 8 

Mistletoe, 8 

Orchids, 48 

produced by climate, 8 

Pumilo, 97 

woodpecker , 8 

by Bentham, 94 

by Gray, 68 
Dubuque , 66 
Adlumia, 10, 15 

cirrhosa, 8 
Affinities, 4 

effect of cliiiate upon, 6 

genera of Ar^ierica and Eastern Asia, 
3, 6 

genera of America and Western Europe, 3 

gQOgraphical, of species, 120 

in relation to descent with modifica- 
tions, 33 

Hurchison quoted as judpe of, 29 

variation of species due to facts in, 8 
Afec-ssiz 13, 20, 21, 22, 23, 55, 59, 68, 

102, 104, 130, 138 

articles by , 29 

Darwin bliinders about , 22 

Darwin cannot understand, 35 

Darwin on reasoning powers of, 

19, 29 
denif^s descent of allied lan- 
guages, 97 
Essay on Classification, V/agne.t 

on, 29 
Gray answers, 29, IJJ 
on AjTiat^cnian G-lacier, 59 
on speciTS 
domestic, 29 
natural, 29 
on varieties 
domestic, 29 
natural , 29 
quoted by Lyell, 7 
theory on creation of 

SaiirlaLS, 7 
views of, contrasted with 

Darwin s Gray on, 21 
Wagner on, 29 
Agassiz, Louis -Jean Rodolphe, 53 
Agassiz, I'feie 

letter to Lyell, 59 
Agrarian plants, variability of, 5, 

131, Watson on, 5 
Agriculturists, study of v;ork 

of, 4 
Aleford, Dr , on self-fertiliza- 
tion of Linum perenne, 89 
Allied species, _sce Species 
Alpine America, see America 
Arctic, see Arctic- 
Collections ■from Japan, 11 
E\rrope, see Europe 
Flora, se g Floras 
forms, little change in, 18 
genera, see Genera- 
plaats, 1, 2r 131 

Forbexiau doctrine written 
pre-viously by Darvdn, 18 
Gray differs from Darwin 

or 9 
line of connection throijgh 
Greenland, Gray differs from 
Darwin on, 7 
summits, 2 


Arae - Arc 

Ainuzonia, bees and Lepidoptcra do not visit 

Konochaetuin in, Bates says, 49 
Anazonian Glacier, Agassiz on, 59 

^'/''finitics of genera of, vdth genera of 

Eastern Asia, and Western Europe, 3 
Alpine, 2 
Artie, 1, 33 

Alpine sumnits of, S 

Evxo-/ean plants of, 2 

ex';laded in cornparinon x^ith other parts 

of the v."orld, 3 
J.ndigenous plants of, 2 
northv;ard range of plants' of, -5 
Central, Stephens' books on, 126 
doctrine of n-jgration 'into, by Gray, 15 
Eastern, 19 
genera coiicr.on to Arierica, Europe, and rest 

of v/orld, 3 
hatred between Er^land and, 107 
migration in, 11 

continuous v;ith Siberia during Pliocene 

/>-ge, 11 
European plants in, conpared v;ith those 

in Tierra del Euego, 3 
European species in, 11 
Fauna and Flora of, in Pliocene Age, 11 
Flora of, 2 

generic affinity v;ith East A'sia, 5, 6 
identical' species in Eastern and 

Western, 19' 
Ly thrum in, 45 
trees of, see Tress 
Northeastern, resemblance to Asia in 

plants, 99 
Northern, 2, '19 
NorthvTestern, less resenblahco to Asia 

in plants than Northeastern, ' 99 
proportion of genera of, to Japanese 

genera , 3 
South, 11 

fossil cattle in, '30" 
Southern, genera of, compared v;ith 

European, 6 
species in, see Species 
trees in, see Trees 
Western, 2, 6, 19 
wild fruits in, see Fruits 
/Uiieri can Academy , 28 
/merican Academy of Science, 50 
American editions and publications, 14, 
17, 20, 22, 25, 35-35, 42, 59, 61, 75, 
95, 99, 101-103, 107, 108, 111, 135 

American Flora, see Floras 
American genera, see Genera 
American Journal of Science and Art£ 
21, 57, 72, 77, 91 
See also Silliman's Journal of 
Ai-nerican Naturalist , 78 
American Quarterly of Science, 91 
Amphicarpaea, sterility of wild, 56 
Aansinckia, 39, 92 
dimorphism of, 
doub'bcd, 51 
ercperiments on, 41 
variation in, 64, 109 
Amsterdam, Hugo de Vries, Prof of 

Botany at , 05 
A.ngles of divergence of leaves in 

spire , see Phyllotaxy 
Angraecum, Diike of Argyll attacks 
Darwin's case of, 48 
sesiuipedale, 123 
Animals, food of large, 18 
Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, 21, 32, 34, 134 
Anthropological Review, 56 
Ape-man, engraving of, 116 
Apocynum, 35 

androsaemif olium 
bees on, 34 
captures flies, 34 
captures flies, 35 
movements of, 53 
Appleton, D, & Co,, 25, 59, 75 
102, 111, 155 
letter to Asa Gray, 138 
statement of sale of Origin of 
Species, 138 
A-qiiatic plants 

British genera of 

compared with terrestrial, 

De" Candolle on, 48 
Linnean classes of Mono- and 
Dioecia, 48 
separation of sexes in, 48 
Aquilegia grandiflora, 10 

Alpine, excluded in comparison 
with other parts of 
world , 3 
Asia, 1 
Europe ,1,5 
genera, see Genera 


Aire - Becf 

Arctic - coriL 'd 
plant, 92 

migration during Glacial Period, 11 
migration up mountains after Glacial 
Period, 11 
regions, 43, 131 

bloom-protected plants in, G3 

range of European and American plants 

to, 5 
uniform Fauna and Flora in, 11 
Arethusa, 119 

structure like Vanilla, 42 
unlike other Orchids , 42 
Argyll, Duke of 

attacks Dar".7in's case of Angraecum, 40 
on Orchids, 130 
Supernaturalists , 130 
Aristocracy, England in favor of, 125 
Articles, 27, 72, 125, 127, 130, 133 
anti-Darv;inian T/antod, 132 
by Darv/in, 73 
See also Agassiz, Argyll, 

Gray, Harvey, Hopkins, Huxley, 
Krause, Ovron, Wallace, Wright 
Artificial selection, see Selection 
Asclepias, adaptation of, 8 

Arctic, see Arctic 

generic affinity with /merica, 3, 5 

plants of, 2 

proportion of genera of, to Japanese 

genera , 3 
temperate plants in, 3 
genera of, compared with European, 6 
resemblance of plants of Northeastern 

America to those of, 99 
species cominon to, 2 

Bowen on, 34 
observation with no 
Atheism, 25 
Athenaeun, 28-30, 94, 

letter to, 109 
Athenaeum Club, 134 
Atlantic Monthly, 27-30, 

127, 132 

bloom on plants of, 83 

single conclusion. 

105, 154 

53, 34, 59, 

i), 1^ 

distribution of plants. Hooker on, 19 
Australian Essay, see Hooker 
Australian gardener, see Hacarthur 
Autumns, American, 47 
Babel, Tower of, Max Milller on, 47 
Backgammon, 69, 72 
Baconian philosophy, Darv/in attacked 

for neglecting, 119 
Baer, Karl Ernst von, 

agrees with Darv;in, 29, 

considered an authority, 22 

on Guinea Pigs, 31 
Balfour, Isaac Bayley, 103 

refuses to read Hooker's Australian 
Essay, 111 

adaptation to insects, 48 

fertilization of, 48 
Bambury, (firgt naine unknown 

crossing of, 16 

hermaphrodites, 15 
Barton, (first name unknown 

trees, 3 
Bates, Henry Walter 

approves of Darwin' s view; 

bees and Lepidoptera do not visit 
Ilonochaetum in Amazonia, 49 

Butterflies of Am^azonia, 130 

on segregation of varieties into 
species, 130 

papers by, 48, 51, 53, 130 

reviewed by Gray, 53 

Travels inAmazo'^ia, 41, 51 
Beards of Germans 

difference in tint from hair of 
head, 135 
Beckenliam, Kent, 63-67, 69-83 

96, 98, 10 

lis, 128 
Bee Ophry 

13, 24, 52 

on U S 


85- 91 , 

105, 112, 114, 116, 
crossing of, 43 

to Red Clover, 123 

cells of 
Hive , 


visits to Dicentra, 10 

visits to Kidney Bean, 4 

visits to Lobelia f ulgens , 16 
no visits to Monochaetum in Amazonia, 

Bates on, 49 
visits to Apocynum lAndrosaemif olium, 34 
visits to Aa_uilegia grandiflora, 10 
visits to blue Lobelia, 8 


Bees - Bri 

Bees - cont'd 

visits to Broom, 4, 52 

visits to CatasetuRi, Criiger on, 51, 54 

visits to Cypripediurn, 109 

visits to Fumaria, 16 

visits to Lytliruiii, 123 

visits to Melastomaceae, Cruger on, 51 

visits to Rhexia, 41 

visits to Robinias, 9 

visits to, 38, 124 

visits to trees, 9 
Beets, 120 
Begonia, 55, G-eorge, 40, 43, 103, 134 

address .by, 94 

against species of larger genera being 
more closely related than smaller, 122 

approves of Darvj'in'G Primula Paper, 39 

approves of Various Contrivances by which 
Orchids are Fertilized by Insects, by 
Darvfin, 42 

list of dimorphous Oxalis, 39 

on fertilisation of trees, 9 
Berkeley, H ",, on Dan'irin's book, 115 
Bessey, Prof , experiment s\:iggested for, 

Bibliotheque Universelle of Geneva, 23 
Bignonia capreolata, tendrils of, 56 

oceanic vfingless, 43 

Owen on, 43 
Bishop of London, 132 
Bishop of Oxford, see Wilberforce, 

Black pigs, see Pigs, Black 
Bladder, swim- , gradations of, into 

lung, 99 

function of, C3, 84 

on Acacias, 83 

on Eucalypti , 83 

-protected plants 

at Cape of Good Hope, 83 
habitat of, 83, 84 
Hooker on, 83 
31unders, 38, 76 

about Agasciz, 22 

in first observations, 123 
Blyth, Edward, of Calcutta, 134 
3onatea speciosa, like gymnadenia 

tridentata, 123 

Bootia, 79 

Boott, Francis, 93, 99 

adopts English opinion of American 
Civil War, 39 

agrees with Darv/in, 102 
Borragineae, 38, 77 

dimorphism in 
Orny on, 39 
Lecoq on, 93 

sterility in, 38 
Bos, in Madagascar, 59 
Boston, Massachusetts, 58 

G-eorge and Francis Darwin to 
visit, lis 
Botanical Geography, see Lecoq 
Botanical geography, problems in, 5 
Botanical Textbook, see Gray, Asa 
Botany compared with zoology, 5 
Bournemouth, 45, 123, 125 
Bowen, Francis 

alludes slightingly to Hooker's 
essay. 111 

Danirin on, 34, 35, 97 

denies heredity, 97 

Fourth Memoir, 34 

Gray answers , 29 , 111 

Gray on, 34 

omits selection, 34 

on astronomy, 34 

on geology, 34 

on metaphysics, 34 

on reason in animals, 34 

on variation, 34 

paper on hereditariness, 35 

revieviT by, 34 
Brace, Charles Loring, book on 

Hungary , 53 
Branch-climbers of Brazil, see 

Climbing plants 

Muller, Fritz, in, 107, 126 

Organ Mts , European forms on, 11 
Breeding from good pedigrees, 97 
Bridgman, Laura, expression of 

emotions by, 96 
Britain, see Great Britain 
British Association at Oxford, 28 

heated discussion of Darvdn's 
views, 27 

Hooker, president of, 62 
British Flora, see Floras 


Bri - Cha 

British Hucetcn, -Tohn Ecl-;crd. Gray of, 31 
Bronn, H G- . 

death of, 117 

on Darvrin, 23 

translation into G-or]T^an of Various 
Contrivances by v/hich Orchids are 
Fertilized by Insects, by Dar".7in, 
20, 117 
Broom, adaptation to insects, 4, 52 
Brown, Robert, 2 

DariYin's regard for, 69 
Buckle, Eeiiry Thomas, 39 

blended character at junction of 
' and graft , 107 

fertilisation in, 4, 9, 113 

paper by Carfery on, 107 

stigma of Plantago in, 43 

variation, s ee Variation 
Burchell, (first narae uniinovrn] , Hooker to 

'.,'rite paper on St- Helena Flora from 

collections of, 107 
Bushes, Hooker on classes of , 7 
Butler, G-en Benjamin J^ranklin, U S» 

Army, 109 
Butler, Samuel, charges Dar^.rin vath 

falsehood, 105 
Butterflies, 49 

Butterflies of Amazonia, see Bates 
Cabbage, 115 
Cairns, T E , lecture. The Slave 

Pov;er, by, 50 

Blyth of, 134 

Thuran of, 134 

enemies of Ilegarrhisa in, 88 

Ilrs Gray in, 116 
Cambridge, Eng , 25, 111 
Cambridge, Mass , 23, 58, 138 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, 111 
Campanula carpatica, sterility of, 48 

perfoliata, 51, 52, 56 
Canada, 57, 65 
Candolle, Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus 

de, 134 

advises exclusion of naturalized plants in 
comparisons, 3 

aquatic and terrestrial plants compared 
by, 40 

errs in attempting to v;ork out 
range of orders instead of 
genera, 6 

Geographic botanique raisonnne, Hooker 
approves of,' 122 

Gray reviews, 52, 94 

on change of species, 42 

on natural selection, wants direct 
proof of, 42 

on oaks , 52 

Gray revievfs, 52 

on Prim.ula, 42 

on relation of size of families 
to average range of individual 
species, 3 

on social plants, 3 

on varieties, in naturalized plants, 

Prodromus , 12 
Canlay, Canby, or Cov/ley, llr , 67 
Cape of Good Hope, bloom.- protected 

plants at, 83 
Capsicum, 120 
Carfery, (first name uni:n.ovm) , paper 

on blended Gh> 'acter of bud at 

junction of graft, 107 
Carlyle, Thomas, letter about Darviin, 

Carpenter, Williami Benjairdn, 134 

convert to Daniin's viev.'s, 18 

Darvj'in indebted to, 28 

revie¥7 of Origin of Species, 25 

revievred by Ov/en, 109 

vexed at Ovjen, 109 
Carrots, 120 

Castration, sterility caused by, 113 
Cat, 25 

nurses dog, 104 

Cr'uger on, 51, 54 

tridentatum, male, 39 
Caterpillars, 25 
Cattle, fossil, in S .Amor , 30 
Cattleya, of Trindad, Cruger on, 51 
Cpiery, 120 

European forms on, 11 

Thwaites in, 92, 102, 106, 127, 134 
Chambers, Robert, Vestiges of the 

Natural History of Creation, 8 




Charles Darwin, ggo G-ray , Asa 
Charles Dar\-;in and Francis Darwin, 

Povrer of Moirenent in Plants, see 

Gray , Asa 
Charleston, S Car , 103 

joined to Japan, 11 

inigration in, before, during, and 
after Glacial Period, 11 

temperate plants in, 3 
Christianity, I-Ille Clenence Roycr on, 


dimorphism of, Thvraites, in Ceylon, 
to test for, 92 
Civil VJar in the U S , 35 , 37-39, 41-45, 

46, 47, 49, 50, 53-57, 92, 93, 97, 108, 

119, 121, 125, 130 
Clark, James Henry, opposed to Origin of 

Species, 25, 111 
Classif 3 cation, 23 

Clergymen approve of Dan'^an's views, 21 
Cliff Cottage, Bournemouth, Kent, 123 

adaptations produced by, C 

changes of, 4, 11 

Dana on, 13 

effect upon affinities, 5 

Hooker requests Gray's opinion on, 18 

period of embed:,ient of elephants, 1" 

subsequent to Glacial Period, 13 
Climbing plants 

Apocyneac , 53 

Bignonia capreolata, 56 

branch- climbers of Brazil, Fritz 
Kuller on, 126 

Climbirg Plants Paper, by Darwin, 
55, 58, 121 

Darwin's son on, 74 

Eccremocarpus scaber, 56 

Gray on, 107, 126 

movements of, 53, 54 

movements of upper interncdes, 53 
-. roses, Gray on, 125 

Vries, Hugo de, of Amsterdam, on, 85 

See also Tendrils 
^Clover, Red, hive bees on, 123 
5 Cocks, 124 
Colenso, John Williaj.i, book on Old 

Testaraent, 47 

College of Surgeons, Ovren's position 

af, 26 

flowers of, 98 

Linum perenne from, 89 
Columbine, stigmas of, 10 
Commonwealth of Plants, 50 

and tendency to jellovf fever, 15, 129 

constitution dependant upon, 129 

difference in tint of hair of head 
and beards , of Germans , 135 
Compos itae 

crossii;ig of, 113 

Daisy, 85 

early fertilization of, 113 

Gray on, 113 

in Great Britain, Watson's list for, 

in introduced plants, 110 

indigenous, found in introduced plants, 

introduced, in Great Britain, 2 

¥atson's list for Great Britain, 110 
Confervae, sex of, 48 

Darwin's lack of, 69 

grovrfch of. in natural selection, 127 

in change of species, 58 
Conjugation of Confervae, see" Confervae 
Construction of flovfers in relation to 

visits of insects, see Structure of 

flowers in relation to visit of insects 
Construction of plants 

Spiranthes .autumnalis , 85 

§£§. also Structure of flowers in 
relation to visits of insects 

for fertilization,- 42 

for fertilization of Orchids, 26, 27 

for preventing self-fertilization, 8 

of Spiranthera, 33 

See also Various Contrivances by v/hich 
Orchids are Fertilized by Insects, 
by DaCTfin 
Controversies, attitude tov/ard, 8, 17, 

20, 23-29, 35, 42, 43, 50, 69, 96, 97, 

102, 111, 127., 136 
Cook, Mr , review of, 84 
Cooke, Josiali Parsons, 23 


Coo - Dar 

Coopor , Susan Fenniriore , 

"ournal of a Hatiuralict , 47 
Copyriglib, American, right to, 138 
Cordilleras, European plants on, 11 
Coryanthes, Crliger on, 54 
Corydalis lutea, 10 
Cotton, SV 

not responsible for England's doubts 
of U, S, , 38, 59 

seeds not procurable in Eng , C7 
Cov7slip _ . 

behaves like Ilitchella', 126 

fertility of, 29 

gradation fron hermaphrodite to 
unisexual condition, 26 

male and fenale plants in equal 
numbers , 26 

nale plants fertile, 26 

Oxlip,a hybrid between Primrose and, 59 

pollen grains in male and female, size 
of, 26 

Scott on red, 57 
Creation viev;s, 4, 18, 36, 52 

(^ray on, 18 
Creationists, 52 
Cross-fertilisation, 48, 59, 68, 126 

allied species, sterility caused by, 38 

advantages of, 8, 113 

agrees vrith Gray on, 48 

barnacles, 16 

Bee-Ophrys , 43 

book on advantages of, 72 
■ Compositae, 113 

Dicentra, 10 

experir.:ents on, 59, 83 

Eragaria vesca and Eragaria virginiana, 


Lecoq on, 16 

Funiariaceae , 113 

Gramineae, 113 

grasses, 4 

Gray on, 43, 71, 113 ■ 

growth of plants from, 105 

Hooker on, 48 

individuals, 16 
necessary, 9 

intercrossing and longevity of varieties; 
Gray on, 71 

Kidney Bean. 8, 16 

Lecoq on, 16 

Leguminosae, 9 

Lythrum, 45, 47, 53, 54, 123 

papilionaceous plants, 9 
no facts to show, 4 
prevention of, 9 

Pelargonium, peloric flowers of, 115 

trees, 9 

obstacles to, 9 

variation attributed to, 9 

variation eliminated by, 113 
Cruger, Hermann 

death of, 56 

on bees' visibs to Catasetuin, 51 

on bees' visits to ilelastomaceae, 51 

on Cattleya of Trinidad, 51 

paper by , 54 
Crustacean producing true fish, 29 
Cucurbitas, 37 

Cultivation, sterility under, 52 
Cumberland Hts-, 16 
Cypripedium, 103 

acaule, 52 

diversity of forms of, Gray on, 115 

fertilization of 

experiments on, 37, 47, 92, 109 
Gray on, 52 

Gray on, 42, 48 

hirsutissimum, fertilization of, 42 

insigne, position of insect on, 119 

note on, added to German Edition, on 
Gray's authority, 115 

position of insect on, 119 

spectabiles, fertilization of, 43 
Daily News, 125 

Mrs Dan'jin changes Times for, 58 
Daisy, 35 
Dana, laiues Dwight , 39, 92, 93 

arguments of, doubted by Darwin, 15 

health, 19, 22 

on climate, 18 

review oiij 57 
Darrock, Mrs,, 154 
Darwin, Emma (Mrs. Charles Robert), 43, 

63, 68, 97, 104, 125, 138 

backgammon, 69, 72 

changes Times for Daily News, 58 

reads aloud to Dfirvfin, 126 

scarlet fever, 46, 123 

to give up Times, 50 


Dar Die 

Darv/in, Eracnus 

Krause's article on, 105 

Zoonomia , 102 
Darv:iri, ji'raiicis, 91 

paper on Stipa, 74 

to call upon G-ray, on visit to U S., 

to study Leucosnia and Polenoniaceae 
at KevT, ai 
Darvfin, George 

Eynenoptera Gti.idied by, 115 

on Pliyllotaxy, 35 

Orchids studied by, 115 

Orchis maeulata fertilized by flies, 

to call upon Gray, on visit to U. S., 


Darvjin, Horace, on variation of species, 

Carviin, Leonard 

staiap collectionj 42, 51 
thanks G-ray for sendi:Tg stamps, ■'b4-46, 
53, 59, 130 
Darv/in family, 10, 4t3 , 58, 69, 104, 121, 
daughter of Charles Robert, 26-29, 52-34, 

97, 119, 134 ' " 
son of Charles Robert , 

examines pollen of Rhamnus , 59 
illness of, 46, 123- 
illness of youngest, 36 
married to an Amsrioan, 84 
photograph of oldest, 35 
Danvinian theories 
converts to; 102 
Henry, Prof agrees vjith, 127 
lack of confidence in, 59 
rpv--ps -f-nc. a convert to. 102 
Darxirinian, see Gray, Asa 
Dau^eii^-, unar-tes Giles Bridle, shaken by 

Dar'.uin's theories, 2S 
Deduction, 9 
Deer, IS 

Delphinium, germination of, 105 
Delphinium nudicaule, germination of, 

86, 89 
Democratic goverm-aent , England looks 
upon vrith disfavor, 125 
; Derivation of species 
Gray on, 52 

language an illustration of, 50 

Descent of Man and Selection in 

Relation to Sex, by Darwin, 69, 96 

Gray's notice of, 118 
Descent theory, 4, 33, 36, 136 

birds, Owen on, 43 
Descent vj-ith modification theory 

affinities in relation to, 33 

difficulties against, 15 
Design, 4, 23, 25, 27, 31, 34, 37-39, 

127, 136 

black pigs, 23 

bladder, 39 

cat, 25 

caterpillars, 25 

Dari'vin differs from Gray on, 34, 
37, 97 

eye, 23, 25 

Gray on, 31, 34, 36-30, 127, 136 

Gray's pamphlet on, 127 

Herschel cautious about, 37 

Ichneimionidae, 25 

Lyell on, 38 

mammae, rudimentary, 39 

man, ■ 39 

mice, 25 

no clear view on, 97, 136 

nose, 33, 39, 136 

Orchids, 136 

peacock's feather, 23 

pigeons, 34, 38 

stars and planets, 31 

IJedgwood on, 30 
Diagnostic Characters of Nevi Species 

of Phaenogamous Plants collected 

in Japan by Charles V/right 

with Observations upon the Relations 

of the Japanese Flora to that of 

North America and of other parts 

of the Northern Temperate Zone, see 

Gray, Asa 
Dialogue , see Gray , A^sa 
Dicentra, 10 
Dichogamous plants 

female, Plantago lanceolata, 36 

f empale dichogamous monoecious. 
Euphorbia amygdaloides, 36 

monoecious, 35, 51 

frequent in herm.aphrodites, 48 

Sprer^el's meaning of tern;.'; 48, 


Die - Dora 

Dicotyledons, function of bloom on vdld 

and cultivated, C3 
Dictionary, see Wedgvrood 
Different Forns of FloTrerc; on' Plants of 

the Sane Species, by Dari'iin, 84 
Difficulties against doctrines, 8, 15 
Digestive povrers in plants 
Drosera, 33, 69 


by Darrjin, 

45, 51, 79 


Pinguicula, 69 
Dimorphic Papers 
Dimorphic plants 

Amsinckia, 64 

Borragineae, Gray on, 39 

Cinchona, Thvraites, in Ceylon 
tost for dimorphism, 92 

Drymispemum, 77 

Euonymus , 94 

Forsythia suspensa, 78 

Holly, 56 

Hottonia, ■ 93 

Leucosmia, 77 


Leucosmia Burnettiane 
Linum, 92 


Ly thrum, 45 

Lythrum Salicaria, 44 

Mentha, 39 

Monochaetum, 40 

new sub-class of, 56 

Kolana prostrata, 64 

Oxalis, 39 

Phlox, 64 

Phlox Drummondii not dimorphic, 94 

Phlox subulata, 80 

Plantago, 55 

Primula, 37, 39, 44, 59, 93, 124 ■ 

reciprocally dimorphic. Primula, 55 

Rhajnnus , Darviin questions, 59 

self-fertilised, analogous to hybrids, 

sterility of self-fertilized, 126 
Thyme, 55, 94 
Dimorphism, 37, 44, 48, 64, 124 
Amsinckia spectabilis, 5i 
Borragineae, Lecoq on, 93 
Darv7in's paper on, 77 
G-ray on, 39 

Cray's new case of, 93 
guide to, 123 
Lobirota, Lecoq on, 93 
nev; case of , 55 

plants with different kinds of 
anthers , 40 

Rhexia glandulosa, absent in, 115 
Dioeciodiffiorphisn, dislike of tern, 48 
Dioeciodimorphous flov/ers, G-ray on, 29 
Dioecious flov/ers, 78 

British genera of aquatic plants 

belonging to Linnean classes of, 48 

British genera of terrestrial plants 
belonging to Linnean classes of, 48 

Euphorbia araygdaloides , 36 

Holly, English, 38 

Ilex, 33 

Linaceae not, 48 

of trees, 7, 9 

Primula, 51 

Primulaceae not , 48 

Rhamnus tending to become, Darv/in 
questions, 59 

term misleading, 48 

unequal fertility a step toward, 48 
Dionaea, 31, 66, 114 

adaptations of, compared viith Drosera, 

flies captured by, 124 

sensitiveness of, 64 

size of insects captured by, 67 
Dipt era 

visit Monochaetum, 49 

visit Orchids, 49 

See also Flies 
Disjoined "'^anges , see Ranges 
Disjoined species, see Species 

Australian plants, by Hooker, 19 

doubts Dana's views on, 15 

doubts Gray's views on, 15 
Divergence, 26 

principle of, 16 

cat-like habits of, doubted, 104 

nursed by cat , 104 
Domestic productions, gradation in, 29 
Domestic varieties, 29 

sterility under, 52 

variation under, 37 
Dominant groups 

extinction of less, 26 

increase of, 26 



Grays invited to visit, 52, 91 

Grays' visit to, renenbered 
pleasantly, 135 
Draper, John William, 27 
Drosera, 33, 57, 68, 104, 114, 

115, 119 

adaptations of, compared with 
Dionaea, 124 

Darvrin's book on, 69 

digestion of animal food, ZZ 

digestive process in, 59 

effect of fluids on movements 
of, 125 

experiments on, 31, 54, 3G, 53, 

gradations in, 31 

movements of,-- 31, 34 

nerves of, 66, 125 

sensitiveness ofi 51, 54, 55, 97 
Drosera filiformis, 3G, 56 

movements of, 119 

Treat, Mrs.,, of Vineland, to 
observe, 57 
Drosera rotundifolia, flics captured 

by, 38 
Dr joai s p e rmum , 7 7 
Du Bois-Reymond, Emil Heinrich, 

agrees rrith Darv;in, '34 
Dublin Natural History "Review, 26 
Dubuque Address, see Gray, Asa 

variation of, 27 

varieties of, 136 
Dur^, plants germinated from locust, 60 
Dutch edition, 41 
D;7arfs, self-fertilized dimorphic 

species, 125 
Dytiscus, 122 

Ears, sketch of, by Dr.- Rood, 69 
Eastbourne, 32, 33 

Eccremocarpus scaber, tendrils of, 55 
Echinocystis, tendrils of, 94 
Echinocystis lobata, Hugo Do Vries, of 

Amsterdam, to observe tendrils of, 85 
Echium vulgare , 45 

Botanical Garden at , 109 

Royal Society of, 37, 111 
Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 134 

Edinburgh paper, 51 

Edinburgh Revievf, 24, 111, 130 

Edv,'ards , Mr , tried unseccessfully to 

discover new organisms appearing in 

animal kingdom., 99 
Effects of Gross and Self Fertilisation 

in the Vegetable Kingdom, by Dan'/in, 

74-76, 81 
Egji-pt , Grays in, 63 

climate at period of embedment of, 18 

fossil, Falconer on, 15 
Embryolog:/-, variation of species due to 

facts in, 8, 30 
Embryos, resemblance of, explained by 

no variation in early age, 30 
Endemic plants 

Linum perenne, 89 

non-flovxering and non-seeding, 59 
England, 8, 18, 25, 27, 30, 33-35, 47, 

57, 97, 119, 132 

abuse of, by U S , 53 

cotton seeds not procurable 

cotton situation, doubts of U. 
not due to, 38 

Eastern Counties, 59 

hatred betvreen America and, 

lack of enthusiasm for U S 
of, 38 

manuals of plants of, 2 

Natural Selection progresses in, 41 

on American Civil Uar, 37, 41, 108, 

plants of, 2 

sympathy of, for New England, 38 

translation of Krause's article on 
Erasmus Darv/in in, 105 

trees of, 113 

Gray savage against , 109 
English editions or publications 

33, 138 
English Flora, see Floras 
Epigaea, grades of fertility of, 
Erythrina, fertilization of , in N S 

Wales, Macarthur on, 9 
Essay on Classification, see Agassiz 

by Darwin, on expression, 96 

See also Agassiz, Gray, Hildebrand, 
Hooker, Lyell, Parsons 

in. 87 


, cause 




Eth - Exp 

Ether, 21 

Eucalyptus, G3 

Euclid, gorillG set to learn, 39 

Euonyinun, dimorphic, 94 

Euphorbia amygdaloides, 35 


affinity of American genera 
with genera of Western, 3 
Alpine, 1 
Arctic, 1, 27 
Flora of, 2, 7 
genera comnon to ATierica, rest 

of world, and, 3 
genera of, compared vdth Asiatic 

and Southern American, 6 
migration of animals and plants 

in, 11 
mountains of, 1 ■ ■ 

Natural Selection progresses in, 41 
period subsequent to Glacial 

Period, 27 
plants of, 2, 7, 59, 98 
in America, 2 
in North America, 3' 
in Tierradel Fuego, 3, 11 
on Ceylon, 11 
on Cordilleras, 11 
on Himalayas , 11 
on Java, 11 
on Nilgherries , 11 
on Organ Mts, of Brazil, 11 ' 
range of plants common to U S. and. 

Gray on, 5 
raiigo of plants of, 6 

comnon to, 2 

identical and allied, of U. S, 

and Europe, Gray to discuss, 9 
northern range of. Gray to work 

out , 6 
of, in North Auerica, 11 
trees of, 42 
Western, 2 
genera of, 3 
Europeans, dark complexioned, tendency 

of, to yellov; fever, 129 
Everglades, black pigs in, 23 
Acetosella, 48 
Amsinckia, 64 

Amsinckia spectabilis, 41 

cocks, 124 

Cowslip, 26 

Cypripedium, 37, 47, 92, 109 

Dionaea, 64, 67 

Drosera, 31, 34, 53, 64, 65, 69, 

97, 125 
Drosera filiformis. 66. T i Q 
Drosera rotundifolia, 38 
Epigaea, 84 
fertilization, cross- and self- , 8, 

27, 59, 83, 106, 109 
fovas, 124 
germination, 59, 88 
Gymnadenia, foreign genera of, 109 
hens, 124 
Houstonia, 125 
Kidney Bean, 8 
Linuxa grandiflorum, 44, 117 
Linum Lewisii , 49 
Linuni perenne, 98 
Lobelia f ulgens , 16 
Ly thrum, 45, 47, 106, 123 
riaize, 50 

Hegarrhiza, 88, 105 
Kelastoma, 40, 42, 93 
Molastomatads, 40 
Mitchella, 44 
lionochaetum, 41 
nervous systems of animals and 

plants, 125 
Nesaea verticillata, 112 
Nolana prostrata, 64 
Oxalis, 106 

papilionaceous flov/ers, 113 
Pelargonium, 115 
Pinguicula, 69, 75 
Potatoes, 106 
Primroses, 26, 109 
Primula, 37, 46, 124 
rabbits, 124 
Rhamnus, 59, 84 
Rhexia, 41, 42, 108 
Rhexia glandulosa, 42 
Rubiaceae, 38, 136 
sea water on seeds, 2 
self-fertilizing plants, crossing 

of, 58 
Spiranthes , 35 
tendrils, 47 

ExTD - Fei- 


ExpGriir.onts - cont'd 

vegetables , degeneration of culinary. 
Hooker to attempt ,■ 24 
ExpresGion' of emotionc, 63, 106 

Bridgman, iaura, £6 

Gray on, 55 

Gray, HrSo, on, 53 

head shaking for negation, 63 

negroes, 53 

shoulder shrugging, 63, 96 
ExT)re3sion of the Emotions' in Han and 

Animals, by C- R, Darvan, 116 
Extinction, 4 

cause of disjoined ranges, 113 

cause of narrow ranges, 113 

cause of small genera, 113 

Gray on, 4 

of less dominant groups, 26 

preservation from, 15 
Eye, 23, 25, 87 

attachment of pollinia to, 50 

gradations of, 99 

perfected by natural selection, 99 
Falconer, Hugh, 134 

Gray answers, on Phyllotax;/, 52 

letter, in Athenaeum, against 
Lyell, 109 

on fossil elephants, 15 

on Phyllotaxy, 109 

opposed to Darvj'in's views, 8 
Fall from horse , 53 
Families, 2, 7, 9, 15, 110 • 

disjoined ranges of small, 113 

fourteen which include heterostyled 
species, 82 

narrow ranges of small, -113 

ne»7, Forsythia suspensa, 73 

relation of size of, to average 
range of individual species, 
de Candolle on, 3 
Family, Darwin, se£ Banff in 
Farnborough, Kent, 1, 2, 120, 122 
Felis, in Madagascar, 69 
Female plants, see Sex 

Amsinckia, 64 

Covjslip, 29 

Epigaea, grades of, 84 

half-bloods , exact , ■ 31 

homorphic seedlings, 53 

hybrids, 27, 31 

gradation from sterility to 
fertility, Hopkins on, 27 
Linum, 124 

Linum perenne, Heehan on, 89 
Maize, 50 

Nolana prostrata, 54 
peloric flovrers, 53 
Pulmonaria, one form of, 125 
Rhamnus , grades of, 84 
Specularia speculum, when en- 
closed, 48 
strongest marked varieties, 22 

Linum, 48 

Primula, 48 

step tovmrd dioecious 
condition, 48 
von Melah on, 56 

Amphicarpaea, v/ild, 56 
Amsinckia, 41 
Balsaminae, 48 
Broom, 52 
bud, 4, 9, 113 
Clover, Red, 123 
Compositae, early, 113 
Gypripedium, 47, 109 

experiment on, 92 

Gray on, 48, 52 
Gypripedium hirsutissimum, 42 
Gypripedium spectabilis, 43 
early, 4, 113 

experiments on, 41, 59, 83, 108 
Gramineae, early, 113 
Herminium Honorchis, 115 
Holly, 113 
Kidney Bean, 16 
Leguminous plants, 129 
Linum, 124 

Linum grandiflorima, 117 
Linum perenne, 98 
Lobelia fulgens, 16 
Lythrum, 45, 47, 106, 123 
Melastomatads , 40 
Monochaetum, 41 

Muller on curious case of, 107 
Neottia Nidus- avis, 48, 123 
Orchids, 27, 37, 48, 52 


Fer - Fre 

Fertilization - cont'd. 

Orchi.o niaculata fertilized by flies, 

George Darv;in discovers, 115 
Oxalis, 52, 106 
Peao, IG 

Plantago, v;ind fertilization uf, lju 
Platanthera, by moths, 48 • • 
precocious, dislike of term, 48 
Primrose , 109 
Primula, 124 

iTind fertilization of, 55 
Pulmonaria, 126 
Rhexia, 41, 100 
Spiranthes, 33, 124 
Spiranthes autumnalis, 85 
sterility of self-ferti-lized 

dimorphic plants, 126 
trees, Bentham on, 9 
Viola, 52 
Viola canina, 40 
■ Plantago , 55 

Plantago lanceolata, 36 

Primula, 55 
See also Cross-fertilization and Self- 
Field (first name uni:normJ 

correspondence v;ith Lorir^, 50 
See also Ticknor and Fields 

Ganoid, 37 

produced by true Crustacean, 29 
Flag, (first name unlcnov/n) ■ of Nev; York, 

cultivator of v/ild maize, 12'5 
Flemian, 154 

Apocynum androsaemifoliun captures, 34 

Apocynimi captures, 35 

Dionaea capture, 124 

Drosera rotundifolia capture, 33 

on Pinguicula, 73, 114 

Orchis maculata fertilized by, George 

Danvin discovors, 115 
See als o Dipt era 
Alpine, 1 

of U,, S. , 1 
/jnerican, 19 

North, 2 

British, 2, 5, 7, 13, 16, 110, 
113, 122 
Watson's list of, 122 

Europe , 2 

Ledebour, 16 

local, 12 

St Helena, Hooker to ivTite naper 
on, from Burchell's collec- 
tions, 107 

United States, 3, 8 
Northern, Gray on, 7 
Florence, Italy, Dana in, 19 
Food of large animals , 18 
Forbes, Edward, theory of, vncltten 

four years previously by Darwin, 

11, 18 
Forma stylosa, term used by - 

Thwaites, 78 
Forsythia suspensa 

dimorphic , 78 

nevr family, 78 

cattle in S Amor , 30 

deer, 18 

elephants, IS 
Falconer on, 15 

musk ox, 13 

shells, 4, 11 
Fowls, 124 

Fragaria grandiflora, 130 
Fragaria vesca 

crossed with Fragaria, 
virginiana, 48 

fruit of, 130 
Fragaria virginiana, vrild, 92 

crossed viith Fragaria vesca, 48 

fruit of, 130 

range of, 130 

natural selection views to triur.r^h 
in, Saporta says, 52 

on Primula Paper, 43 
Fraser's Magazine, 26-28, 30 
French editions or publications, 41 

Origin of Species, by Darwin, 

translated by Clemence Royer, 42 

Various Contrivances by which Orchids 
are Fertilized by Insects, 63 
Fresh Water, rate of change and 

extinction in, 37 

Fre - Geo 


Freshwater, Isle of ITight , 52 
Fribis, (first name iinknovm) , 14 

American villd, variability of, 20 
borne by mother plant, influence 
of pollen on, 107 

Lecoq on crossing of, 16 
structure of, 10 
Furnariaceae, 129 

occasional crossing of, 115 
structure of, 10 
Galiaceae, visited by moths, 44 
G-alium cruciatum, male and hermaph- 
rodite flowers of, 38 
Ganoid fishes, see Fishec 
Gardeners' Chronicle, 2, 16, 26, 

35, 97, 129, 134, 135 
Gartner, (first name unknov/n; 

on early maturity of pistil, 113 
on fertilization of peas, 16 
Geese, variation of, 37 

affinity betvreen /imerican and 

VJestern Asiatic, 3 
affinity betvfeen American and 

Western European, 3 
Alpine, 5 
American, 3, 9 
aquatic, 40 
Artie, 3 
closely allied species in large, 

Gray's list of, 13 
common or continuous area of 
species of same genus. Gray 
on, 4 
common to America, Europe, and 

rest of world, 3 
comparison vfith species in ^ew 

Zealand, 3 
disjoined ranges of small, 113 
disjoined species belonging to 

small, 110 
European, compared with Asiatic 

and Southern American, 6 
firsed species of, 9 
foreign, of Gymnadenia, 109 
Gray on v.'ide range of large, 7 
Gray to vrork out range of species 
in regard to mmiber of species 
in genus, 6 

Gray's list of closely allied species 

in large , 13 
Gymnadenia, foreign, 109 
introduced plants belonging to total 

number of, 6 
large , 8 

Gray on v.'ide range of, 7 

present most varieties, 16 
monotypic in Japan and N America, 19 
more species vrith varieties in . 

larger , 13 
more varieties in varying species of 

larger, 13 
narrov;- ranges of small, 113 
New World, species belonging to, 2 
non- indigenous, 6 
Old World, 3 
indigenous species of New World 

belonging to, 2 
Plantarum, 24 
proportion of American and Eastern 

Asiatic, to Japanese, 3 
proportion of monotypic in disjoined 

species, to "hole Flora, 110 
proportion of, to species, 2 
proportion of United States, to all 

American, 3 
Protean, 7 

variability of, 9 
relation of, important in geographical 

distribution, 3 
small , 8 

caused by extinction, 113 
species of larger, more closely re- 
lated than of smaller, 122 

Bentham does not believe, 122 

Hooker does not believe, 122 
thirty-nine, which include heterostyled 

species, 82 
United States 

division into three classes with pro- 
portions, . 3 

division into varieties, 8 
variable species of, 9 
varieties in large or small, 

recorded, 12, 13 
Generalization, urges Gra;^ to general- 
ize from completed work, 9 
Geneva, Sv/itzorland, 23 
Gentianeae, 77 
Geographical affinities, see Affinities 


Geo - Gla 

Geographic 0.1 distribution, 5, 4-, 15, 

Z-'. 120 

Geograpiie botanique raisomice, soo 

Gray on, 2, 5, 6 

Hooker on, 5, 24 

relation of genera important in, 3 

variation of species due to facts 
in, G 
Geographic botanique raisonnee, see 

Geography, Botanical, see Lecoq 
Geography, botanical see Botanical 

Geological Evidence of the Antiquity 

of Man, see Lyell ' 
Geological formations, gaps between, 23 
Geological history, 8 
Geological periods, 11, 99 

changes in, 4 
Geological record, 11' 

imperfection of, 15, 23 

Ov/en rejects- Darv.dn's viev;s on 
grounds of, 102 
Geological Society, 134 
Geology, 23, 50 

Bowen on, 34 

changes in, 4 

Darv'dn cannot understand Gray's, 19 

variation of species due to facts 
in, C 
German editions or publications, 28, 

29, 41, 107, 115 

Various Contrivances oj vmich Orchids 
are Fertilised by Insects, by 
Darwdn, translated by H, G, 
Bronn, 117 
German v/r iter 3 use Dan-dn's terms, 73 
Germans, difference in tint between 

beards and hair of head, 135 

abstract of Agassiz's essay published 
in, by R- I'agner, 29 

Hooker tours, v/ith Lindley's son, .122 

Lyell in, 30 

progress of Darv;in's viev/s in, 28 

vrork on hybridity in, 115 
Germination, 87, 90 

Delphinium, 105 

Delphinum nudicaule, 86, 69 

experiments on, 59, 88 

grasses from locust dung, 60 
Gray on, 90 

Iponoea leptophylla, 07 
liegarrhiza, 83, 89 
Gilia, 31 

hermaphrodite, 38 
male , 30 
Gilia aggregate 80 
Gilia micrantha, heterostyled, 82 
Gilia pulchella, heterostyled, 80, 

Glacial action, Hooker finds traces 

of, on Lebanon, 34 
Glacial Period 

China before, during, after, 11 
Gray's arguments not suffi- 
cient, 18 
Japan before, during, after, 11 
Lyell on, 50 

liegatherium and Ilylodon, relative 
position of, V'dth respect to 
glacial deposits, 18 
migration during, 11, 18 
migration since, up mountains, 11 
Kylodon and Megatherium, relative 
position of, v/ith x-espect to 
glacial deposits, 18 
natural selection of temperate 

intruders since, 11 
period preceding, 15 
period subsequent to, 11, 15, 99 
climate, extinct mammals no- in- 
dication of, 18 
Hippopotamus, Lyell to investi- 
gate reported cases of, 27 
intermigration betvreen Old and 

Ilev; v.'orlds checked durihis, 18 
land lovfer during, 18 
modified forms introduced into 

Nevf and Old World, 18 
Old World forms introduced 

into New World, 18 

Darwin doubts, 18 
Lyell doubts, 18 
water, greater extent of, 18 
whale, 18 
temperate forms during, 11 
tropical productions during, 11 
United States, before, during, 
after, 11 
Glaciers, 59 

See also Amrzonian Glacier 


Gla - Gra 

GlaucouG plants, sec Bloom 

Goodj^era, 125 

Gorilla set to learn Euclid, 39 

Gourds, Gray on, 47 


Drosora, 51 

eye, 22, 99 

liybrids, sterility to fertility, 
Hopkins on, 27 

Ilex, 33 

sex in Cowslip, 26 

sex in Priimrose, 26 

shells, 29 

sterility lo fertility, hvbrids, 
Hopkins on, 27 

swim- bladder into lung, 99 

bud vrith blended character at 
junction of, 107 

paper by Carfory on, 107 

early fertilisation of, 115 

favorable for crossing, 115 

Gray on, 113 
Graminivorous plants, Piiiguicula, 73 
Granivorous plants, Pinguicula, 75 

crossing of, 4 

gerinination from locust dung, 60 
Gravitation, 21 
Gravity, law of, attacked by 

Leibnitz, 99 
Gray, Asa 

abstracts by, 81, 126 

accident to thumb, 97 

Agassis' s and Darwin's viev/s 
contrasted by, 21 

answers Agassis and Bowen, 29, 111 

aiiGvrers Falconer on Phyllotasy, 52 

articles by 19, 23, 26-28, 30, 33, 
61, 69-71, 74, 105, 107, 115, 114, 
125, 127 

backgammon with,' 69 

Botanical Text-Book, 86, 89 

Charles Darwin, by, 70 

Charles Darwin and Francis Dar\"7in, 
Power of Movement in Plants, by, 91 

Darv/in differs from, on Design, 54 

Dar-win indebted to, 28, 31, 119 

Darwin to quote, 119 

Darvfin urges, to generalize from 
completed work, 9 

Darv/iniana, 21, 74 

Danivin's and Agassiz's views con- 
trasted by, 21 

derivation of species, language an 
illustration gf , 5G 

Diagnostic Characters of Nevf Species 
of Phaenogamous Plants collected 
in Japan by Charles Wright . , , 
vrith Observations upon the Re- , 
lations of the Japanese Flora to 
that of North America and of other 
parts of the Northern Temperate 
Zone, 9, 15, 18, 19 

Dialogue, "^1 

dimorphism., nev; cases of, 93 


invitation to visit, 62, 91 
visit to, remembered pleasantly, 

Dubuque Address, 66, 68 

essajrs by, 3, 18, 35, 37, 51, 72, 120 

Europe, coming to, 62, 91 

European species, northern range of, 
to Y/ork out , 6 

First Lessons in Botany and Vege- 
table Physiology, S, 34 

genera, list of Anerican, 9 

generalisation from completed vrork, 
Darwin urges, 9 

Greenland, agrees v;ith on, 44 

Harvey influenced by article by, 26 

Herbarium, 55, 56 

Hooker on, 28 

Hooker requests opinion of, on 
climate, 18 

Hooker urges, to finish Flora, 9 

How Plants Behave, 116 

Huxley asks for contributions of, 
for Natural History Review, 133 

hypothesis and theor:>-, distinction 
between, 21 

in Egypt, 63, 116 

Institute of France, elected member 
of, 85 

introduced to Darvrin, 1 

invites Darwin to visit U S , 5 ' 

Japan Flora, see Diagnostic 
Characters of New Species of 
Phaenogamous Plants collected in 
Japan by Charles Wright, etc. 

Japan liemoir, 18, 19 



Gray, Asa, cont'd 

language an ilxustration of derivation 

of species, 50 
legacy , 53 

letter to, from D, Appleton & Co,, 138 
letter to Mr, Fribis, 14 
list of close species, 16, 122 
Lyell admires articles by, 127 
Lyell agrees mtli, 30 
Lyell praises review by, 99, 132 
Lyell quotes, 50 
Manual of the Botany of Northern U S,, 

2, 110, 113, 122 
migration into Aracrica, doctrine of, 15 
Natural Selection, objects to term', 16 
natural selection subject aided by, 119 
naturalised plants, to V70rk on, 131 
new oi-gans appearing in aniinal kingdom, 

stresses too much, 99 
notices by, 25, 44, 47, 118 
Observations upon the Relations of the 

Japanese Flora to that of Northern 

America and of other parts of the 

Nm-f-hppTi T'eTnT^nT^^r'tp T-nnp . nee DiaG;n< s- 

tic Characters of New Species of 

Phaenogamous r'lan^j joiiecueci xu 

Japan by Charles IJright , etc. 
on Alpine plants 

contrary to Darv/in's theories, 9 

migration of, through Greenland, 7 
Darvian opposed to, 7 
on Black Pigs in the Everglades, 

Darv;in doubts, 23 

Borragineae, dimorphism in, 39 

Boy/en, 34 

change of species, 42 

climbing plants, 107, 126 

Gompositae, 113 

Creation, 18 

single centers of, 19 

crossing, 113 

Darwin agrees with, 43 

Cypripediura, 42, 48 

diversity of forms of, 115 
fertilisation of, 52 

Darv;in, 16 

approves of Paper by, 121 

de Candolle, 52 

derivation of species, 52 

design, 31, 34, 36-38 
DarviTin differs from, 34 
Lyell agrees with, 38 

dimorphism in Borragineae:, 39 
dioeciodimorphous flowers., 29 
disjoined species., 113 
distribution, Darv/in doubts, 15 
European plants, proportion of, 

.i.ji: ranging-- to extreme north, 6 
expression, 63 
extinction, 4 
genera, 7 

geographical distribution, 2, 5., 6 
geology, Darv/in cannot understand, 

germination, 90 
Goxirds, 47 
Gramineae , 113 
head, the, 113 
Hopkins, 127 
Ilex, Ajnerican, 38, 136 
introduced plants, 110 

variability of, 5 
language, 36, 50 
migration of Alpine plants through 

Greenland, 7 

Darwin opposed to, 7 
natural selection, 52 
northern range, 131 
Orchids, 47, 4.3 
Pangenesis, 61 
papilionaceous flov/ers, 4 
Phlox, 94 
Phyliotaxy, 36 

ansvrers Falconer on, 52 
Platanthera , 76 

Eookeri , 115 

hyperborea , 44 
pollen, 46 

range,, of species with 
" large genera., 7 
ranges 'of identical and a_,lied 

U. S, and E-uropean specie.... 9 
Rhexia, 46 

roses, spring shoots of, 126 
seedlings, 86 
seeds, diversified means of 

dispersal of, 72 
Sequoia, 66 

sex, meaning of, 74 «| 

social plants, 6 "T 

species, 9 

change of, 42 

Darvjin disagrees with, 36 

derivation of, 52 


G-ra - G-re 

Gray, Aca -- cont'd 
QO. STjecies - cont'd 
disjoined, 113 

language an illustration of deri- 
vation of, 50 
limited belief in nodif ication.' 

of, 31 
list of close, 16, 122 
wide range of species 7;ith large 
genera, 7 
Teleology;-, 70 

tenrils, spiral v;inding of, 66, 97 
trees , 110 - 

variability of introduced plants, 5 
variation, 34 
variation, designed, 34 
varieties, connection betv^een longev- 
ity or duration of, arid inter- 
crossing, 71 
Various Contrivances by vmich Orchids 
are Fertilized by Insects, by 
Darwin, 42 
varying plants, 6 
Voandseia, sterility of, '56 
warmer period inU, S; subsequent to 
Glacial Period, argnnents for, not 
sufficient, IS 
opinions of, valued by -Darwin, 22, S9 
Orchids, to publish on^ 123' " 
pamphlet, 32, 34, 41, 42, 50, 97, IOC, 

103, IOC, 127, 132 
papers by, 7, 9, IC, 52, 76, 113, 131 
photograph of, 35 ■ 
political views of, 5=?, 39, 43, 55, 

93, 109 
Proceedirigs , 35 

pupil of, Darv;in presents book to, 45 
range, northern,- of European species, 

to work out , 6 
range of species in regard to nuniber 

of species in. genus, to work out, 6 
ranges, relative, of identical and 
allied U S and European species, 
to discuss, 9 
Review of Reviev/s, 2C' 
reviews by, 20-23, 27, 20, 32-34, 37, 
44, 48, 49, 52, 53, 55, 60, SI, 34, 
91, 94, 95, 97, 99, 102, 114, 126, 
127, 132, 133, 130 
Rhexia, see no nectar in, 49 

savage against England, 109 

School and Field Book of Botany, 3'j: 

Scientific Papers of, 52 


European, northern range of, to 
•work out , 6 

limited belief in modification 
of 31, 

list of close, 16, 122 

range of, in regard to number 
of in genus, to v/ork out, 6 

relative rai:iges of identical and 
allied U S and European, to 
discuss, 9 
stamps sent to Leonard Darv;in, 

44-46, 53, 59, 130 
statistics of the Flora of the 

Northern U S , 6, 7, 110 
Structural Botany- or Organography 

on the Basis of Morphology, 86, 89 
theological vie'ws, 99, 114 

Darwin differc with, 60 
theory and hypotnesis, distinction 

betvieen, 21 
to publish, 134 
trip up the Nile, 63, 116 
Watson's notes sent to, 9 
Gray, Jane Loring (Krs - Asa), 47, 
93, 125 

backgaimion with, 69 
coming to Europe, 62 
in California, 116 
in Egypt , 63, 116 
invited to visit Down, 62, 91 
message to, about backgammon, 72 
on expression of emotions, 63 
on niffsing of dog, 104 
trip up the Nile, 63, 116 
visit of, to Dov7n remembered 

pleasantly, 135 
Gray, John Edvrard, on Selection, 31 
Great Britain 

agrarian plants, Watson on 

variability of, 5 
indigenous Flora of, 2 
introduced Compositae in, 2 
species ranging north-ward of, 5 
trees of, 9 
Green Hts , 2 


are - Eot 

G-reeiiland, 2 

Gray agrees V7ith Darr/in on, 44 

migration of Alpine plants through, Gray- 
on, 7 

Darwin opposed to Gray's theory on, 7 
Guinea pigs, Baer on, 31 

conopsea, 2 7 

Scott experiments on foreign genera 
of, 109 

tridentate, 48 

like Bonatea speciosa. 1"5 

comparison of congeneric vrith- divergent 
congeneric species in U S. , 7 

comparison of Euro^nnan v/ith native 
species in U , S, , 7 

difference in tint betv;een that of head 
and beards, in Germans, 155 
Haitian writers 

use of Darvvin's terms, 7S' 
Half-bloods, fertility of, 31 
Handv/riting, illegibility of, 67 
Hares and rabbits, hybrids, 31 
Hart field, Sussex, 28- 
Harvey, William Henry, 56, 134 

approves' of -natural selection to certain 
extent, 26 

article versus Origin o-f Species, 102 

Haughton a friend of, 26 

influenced by Gray article; 26 

less savage against Darwii., 127 

letter versus Origin of Species, 31 

on Holly, 3S 

pamphlet by , 127 

pleasant correspondence vdth, 133 

refuses' to read Hooker's Australian 
Essay, 111 
Hai:ighton, Samuel 

DariTin on, 25 

friend of Earvey, 2G 

review by, 26 
Plead, Gray on, 113 
Health, 5, 13, 15, 18, 22, 27, 2G, 36, 38, 

51, 54, 56-58, 62, 66, 72, 93, 97, 101 

104, 107, 111, 115, 121, 126 
Heer, Oswald, 134 

doctrine of sudden changes, 53 

demonstrated against, by Orchids, 52 

Henry, Prof,, agrees vfith Darvfinian 

theories, 127 
Hens, 124 

varieties of, 136 
Henslow, John Stevens, 134 

approves slightly of Darv/in' s 
views, 21 

death of, 35 

defends Darwin's views bounds of 
science, 111 

shaken by Danvin's theories, 28 

visits Darwin, 21, 107 
Herbaceous plants, Hooker on classes 

of, 7 
Herbari-UL'ii, Gray, 55, 56 

denied by Bovien, 97 

paper by Bowen on, 35 
Hermaphrodit es 

aboriginals, 48 

barnacles, 16 

dichogamy frequent in, 48 

Euonymus , 94 

fertilization of, 4, 123 

galium cruciatura, 38 

Hollies, American, 56 

Ly thrum, 53, 123 

Myanthus barbatus, 39 

Primula, 124 

reciprocal action of, 45 

trees, 9 

See also Sex 
Herminium Honor ch-is 

adaptation of, 115 

fertilization of, 115 
Herschel, Sir John Frederick 

William, 134 

agrees v/ith Origin of Species to 
limited extent, 37 

cautious about design, 37 

Darvirin quotes, 9 

Physical Geography, 37 
Heterocentron, 46 
Heterogeny, Ov;en on, 109 
Heterogone, term not approved of by 

Darwin, 78 
Heterostyled, term approved by 

Ttarvrin, 78 
Heterostyled plants, 79, 83 

Gilia micrantha, 82 

Gilia pulchella, 82 


Het - Hoo 

Heterostyled plants, cont'd 
Linixi perenne, American 

less heterostyled than Suropoan, 90 
not, Dr„ Aleford says, 89 
Phlox subulata, once, 82 
Heterostyled species, 82 
Heterostylism, incipient, 83 
Heterostylcsa, tera suggested by 

Darv/in, 78 
Hieracium, 7 
Hildebrand, F. 
essay on dispersal of seeds, 72 
on self-fertilization of Linum 
perenne , 09 

European plants on, 11 
Rubus of, Hooker on, 7 
Salix of, Hooker on, 7 
Hippopotamus, subseauent to Glacial Epoch, 
Lyell to investigate reported cases 
of, 27 
Historical Paper, delivered to Appleton 

by Gray, 138 
Hochstetter, Ferdinand Christian von, on 

progress of Darv/in's views in Germany , 20 
Holland, Sir Henry, 134 

American, 42 

female flowers of, 38 
gradation in sex of, 103 
Gray on, 30, 136 
male flovrers of, 36 
sex in, 56 
dioecious, condition, steps tov/ard, 30 

dioecious, 30 
Harvey on, 38 
male trees, 33 
female flowers of, 38 
fertilization of, 113 
male flovrers of, 38 
steps tovrard dioecious condition, 38 
Homologies, 20 

Homomorphous , union, Primula, 45, 124 
Homorphic seedlings 
fertility of, 53 
sterility of, 45 
Homostyled individuals, Linum perenne, 

self-fertilization of, 93 
Hooker, Sir Joseph, 2, 3, 8, 10, 12, 15 
18, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27, 28, 36, 40, 46 
50, 51, 54, 71, 72, 93, 94, 97, 99, 103, 
119, 120, 127, 132, 134 
advances Darvan's theories at British 

Association at Oxford, 28 
answers Harvey's article versus Origin 
of Species , 102 

approves of Geographie botanigue, 

by de Candolle, 122 
approves of Primula Paper by 

Darwin, 39 
attacked by Owen, in Edinburgh 

Review, 24 
Australian Essay 

Harvey and Balfour refuse to 

read, 111 
Owen slights in Edinburgh 
Review, 111 
believes all seeds killed by sea 
water till Darv;in proves the 
contrary, 44 
convert to Dan^nn's viev/s, 11 
convert to modification of 

species, 31 
Darvirin indebted to, 28, 31 
differs from Gray on recording 

varieties in smaller genera, 13 
does not believe species of larger 
genera more closely related than 
of smaller, 122 
essay by, praised by Ovren, 24 
essays, 6, 24, 111 
expedition to Syria, 30 
finds traces of glacial action on 

Lebanon, 34 
goes to Paris, France, 92 
horrified when told Yerbascura 
Thapsus and Lychnitis are 
closely linked, 125 
illness of, 126 
Journal, 113 
New Zealand Essay, 6 
On bloom- protected plants, 03 
On bushes, classes of, 7 
On com^parison of genera and species 

in Nevj- Zealand, 3 
On crossing, 48 
On DanTln's book, 93, 115 
On Darv/in's vievi on permanence of 

species, 4 
On distribution of Australian 

plants, 19 
On geographical distribution, 6, 24 
On Gray, 28 
On herbaceous plants, classes 

of, 7 
On Himalayan Rubus and Salix, 7 
On Linum perenne, 90 
On separation of sexes in 

Primula , 48 
On trees, classes of, 7 
On ¥elwitschia, 92 
opinions of, valued by Darwin, 39 


IIoo - Hyb 

Hookor - cont'd 

on Listeria, 27 

on St, Helena Flora, 107 
president of British Association, G2 
T)resident of next Gongross, 15G 
requests O-ray's opinion on clinate, 10 
returns from continental trip, 6 
returns to Kevj, 126 
Reviev; of Orchids, 48 
spontaneous movements of tendrils and 

upper internodos, knovra nothing 
about 1 53 
to ascend Lebanon, 30 
to attempt to degenerate culinarj'- 

vegetables, 24 
to tabulate ITev; Zealand trees, 7 
to tabulate Tasiaanian trees, bushes, 

and herbaceous plants, 7 
to vjTite paper on St, Helena Flora, 

f rom Burchell ' s collections, 107 
tour to Switzerland for Mrs, Hooker's 

health > 117 
touxs Germany, 122 
underrates occasional means of 

transport , 44 
urges Gray to finish Flora, 9 
uses expressions to which Darv/in 

demurs , 31 
visits Down, 106, 100 
v/ith Henslow v;hen latter is dying, 55 
Hooker, Mrs. (Lady) 
death of, 71 

health tour to Svatzorland, 117 
illness of, 46 
Hopkins, William, 134 
articles by, 26, 27, 30 
Danjin on, 26, 20 
does not appreciate differonco in 

views of Darwin and Lamarck, 26 
Gray on, 127 - 
on DariTin, 26 
on hybridity, omits gradations from 

sterility to fertility, 27 
on Lamarck, 26 
reviews Dan';-in, 26, 2C 
reviews Laraarck, 26 

second article in Fr&ser's Magazine, 30 
Horner, Leonard, 134 
Horse-radish, European, 59 

Horticultural Society of London, Sec 

of, see Murray, Andrew 
Horticulturists, study of vrorks of, 4 
Hottonia, 45, 7S 

dimorphism of, 93 
Houstonia, 39, 42, 123 

RothrocE observes, 43, 46, 125 

visited by moths, 44 
How Plants Behave, by Asa Gray, see 

Gray, Asa 
Huiuble-bee, see Bees 
Hungaiy, book on, by C, L. Brace, 53 
Huxley, Thomas Henry, 35, 103, 111, 

127, 132, 134. 135 

advances Darvrin's theories at British 
Association at Oxford, 2P 

article by, in Natural Plistory Review, 58 

asks Gray to contributed to Natural 
History Reviev;, 133 

book on man and monkey, 46 

convert to Danulnian views, 18 

Darwin approves of article by, 58 

Darwin indebted to, 28, 31 

discussion on Darwin at British 
Association at Oxford, S7 

Natural History Review, 48, 58, 103, 
135, 134 

Owen misrepresen"3s, and is unfair 
to 26 

revieV'i on all reviev/s of Origin of 
Species, 25 

to publish Wright's article, 133 
Hybridisctum, 124 
Hybridity, 45 

Hopkins on, 27 

v/ork in Germany on, 115 
Hybrids, 53, 106 

analagous to self-fertilized dimorphic 
species, 3-26 

exact half-bloods, fertility of, 31 

fertility of some, 27 

hare and rabbit, 31 

natural, between 2 species of 
Verbascum, 125 

Oxlip, 59 

paiaphlets on, 119 

rabbit and hare, 31 

sterility of, 112, 115 
Naudin on, 115 


Hym - Jou 


Darwin, George, studies, 115 

visits to Konochaetuni, 49 

visits to Orchids, 49 
Hypogaean cotyledons, 80 
IchneuiTionidae , 25 
Identical f orns , 29 
Identical species, see Gpeclec 
Ilex, 38, 42, t ^^ . 113, 136 

Gee also 11' lly 
Illinois, VJalsii of, 5C 
Incas , y^/Tian on, 109 

Darv/in pays Scott's passage to, 57 

Scott in, 55 
Indian Corn, 49 
Indigenous CoKipositae found in 

introduced plants, 110 
Indigenous Gompositae in Great Britain, 

Watson's list of, 110 
Indigenous Flora of Great Britain, 2 
Indigenous New World species belonging 

to Old World genera, 2 
Indigenous plants of America j 2 
Individuals, 29 

crossing of, see Grossing 
Induction, Darwin attacked for 

neglecting, 119 
Inheritance Reversion, Darv/in i7riting 

chapter on, 51 
Insectivorous plants, Pinguicula, 73 
Insects, 4, 5, B, 27, 37, 42-44, 47-49, 

51, 52, 5f^. 67, G9, 92, 103, 106, 107, 

113, 114. 117, 119, 123 

captured by Piiigiiicula, 73 

Darv;in, George, studies, 115 

visits to Leguininosae, 9 
Instinct, 13, 24 
Institute of France, Darwin and Gray 

elected meinbers of, 85 
Inter- breeding, close, 50 
Intercrossing, Anerican and European 

LinuiTi perenne, 9S 
Intermarriage- in Ohio, legislation 

against, 94, 109 
Intorraediate varieties, Wollaston on 

rarity of, 5' 
Intormigration, New and -Old- Worlds , IG 
Internodes, spontaneous movements of upper, 

Hooker and Oliver know nothing about, 53 

Introduced Gompositae in Great 
Britain, 2 

Watson's list of, 110 
Introduced plants, 2, 3 
Gompositae found in, 110 
genera au'^ orders of, 6 

non- indigenous genera included 
in, 6 
Gray on, 110 

indigenous Gompositae found in, 110 
variability of, Gray on, 5 
Introduced species, proportion of, 

to native Flora, 110 
Introduced to Gray, 1 . 
Ipomoea leptophylla, 86, 88 

germination of, 87 
Ireland, 55 
Irish Geological Survey, head of, 

see Jukes 
Irish in Ne;v York, 53 
Irritability in plants, tendrils of 

Echinocystis, 94 
Isle of Wight, 11, 62 

Alpine collections from, 11 
Diagnostic Gharacters of New Species 
of Phaenogamous Plants collected in 
Japan by Gharles Wright ?/ith 
Observations upon the Relations of 
the Japanese Flora to that of North 
America and of other parts of the 
Northern Temperate Zone, 
Gray, Asa 
joined to China, 11 
migration in, before, during, and 

after Glacial Period, 11 
monotypic genera in, 19 
proportion of genera of, to i\merican 

and Eastern Asiatic. 3 
temperate plants in, 3 
Japan Flora, . see Gray, Asa 
Japan memoir, see Gray, Asa 
Japanese Flora, 19 

Java, European forms on sumiait of, 11 
Jenyns, Rev L , approves of Darwin's 

viev/s, 21 
Journal , see Hooker 
Journal of a Naturalist, see Cooper 
Journal of American Acade^iy, 103 
Journal of Researches, by Darwin, 13 


'uk - Ljn 

objects to terra 

66, 78, 79, 31, 89, 126 

in relation to visitc 

J\il<:GS, J' Beete 

approves of DanTin's Tiows on denudation 
during Wealden Period, 25 

head of Irish Geological Survey, 23 
Julian, (first nane unlcnovai] q.uoted by 

St Hilaire, 40 
Kahn, (first name uriknovml 

used by Darvrin, 78 
Kant, Iiffliianuel, 27 
Kentucky, 125 
Kev/, 1, 24, 51, 
Kidney Boan, 8 

construction of 
of bees , 4 

crossing of, 16 
Kir^sley, Charles, 134 

Krause, Ernst, article on Erasrius Darv;in, 105 
Labiatae in Great Britain, Watson's list of 

introduced and indigenous, 110 
Labrador, Alpine plants connected v;ith 

Scandinavia through, 131 
Lainarc]:, Jean de, reviev/ed by Hopkins, ?6 
Laraarckian habit, adaptations produced 

by, 8 
Lancashire, 38 

descent of allied, denied by Agassiz, 97 

Gray on, 36, 50 

illustrate derivation of species, 50 

Lectures on the Science of Language, by 
Max Mull-r, 47 
revievjed by vJedg^.TOod, 150 
Latitudation, 125 

Latitude, proportions in same, 110 

Hooker finds traces of glacial action 
on, 34 

Hooker to ascend, 30 
Lecoq, (first narae unknovm) 

Botanical Geog'raphy, 93 

on crossing of Funaria, 16 

on dimorphism in Borraginea and 
Lobirota, 93 

by Cairns , 50 . 

by Owen, 43 

by Phillips, 111 
Lectures on the Science of Language, 

see Muller, Max 

Letter to J 

Ledebour, Karl Eriedrich, von. 

Flora by, 16 
Leersia, 56 
Legur.iinosae, 4, 9, 113 

in Great Britain, VJatson's list 
of introduced and indigenous, 110 

no crossing of, 9 
Leguminous plants 

fertilization of, 129 

pea , ^5 
Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm von, 

attacks Sir Isaac Ne"*vton and 

his Lav7 of Gravity, 99 
Lepidoptera, do not visit 

Monochaetum in Amazonia, Bates 

Bachman on the 

Question of Hybridity in Animals, 

see iiorton 

by Agassiz, I'luie , 59 

by Carlyle, about Larv/in^ 84 

by D Appleton & Co , to 
Asa Gray, 138 

by I)ar?;in, to Athenaeum, 109 

by Filconer, in the Athenaeum, 
against Lyell, 109 

by Saporta. on natuxal selec- 
tion, 52 

by Wright , on Orchids , 55 

by Ticknor and Fields, 135 
Letter of credit , 35 
Lettuce, 120 
Leucosmia, 77, 01 

Leueosmiia Burnettiana, dimorphic, 82 
Lichens , filamentous , Bignonia 

caproolata adhering to, 56 
Lieber, Dr Francis, on expressions 

of emotion by Laura Bridgman, 96 
Life on the Earth, see PhilJ.ips 
Light, undulatory theory of, 21 
Linaceae, not dioecious, 48 
Lincoln, Abraham, 119 

fiat against slavery, 49 
Lindley, John, 97 

describes structures of flowers 
vnrongly, 123 

Hooker tours Germ.any with son 
of, 122 

Vegetable Kingdom, 123 


Lin - Lye 

Linnaean Society, 154 

paper by Darvrin, on Natural Selection, 
read before, 10 

Transactions, 92 
Linneae, 77 
Linnoan classes, nono- and dioecia, 

British genera of aquatic and 

terrestrial plants beloi;iging 

to, 43 
Linnean Journal , 54 
Linuin, 50, 52, 109, 156 

Arctic plant, 92 

dimorphis:u of, Darv;in on, 92 

fertilization of, 124 

like Rubiaceae, 38 

sterility of, 124 

unequal fertility suspected, 48 
Liniuii grandiflorum 

experiment on, 44 

fertilization of, 117 

two forms generically distinct, 117 
Linuin Lex'/isii, 50 

experiments on, 49 

Tlenchon, 92 
Liniffii Paper, by Darv/in, 50, 52, 92, 109 
Linum perenne 

Aleford on self-fertilization of, G9 

/merican form distinct species, 98 

American form less strongljr heterostyled 
than European, 98 

Darv.dn on self-fertilization of, 89 

Hooker on, 98 

Hooker on Aip.erican form of, 98 

Hildebrand on self-fertilisation of, 89 

intercrossing of American and European 
form.s, 98 

Meehan on self-fertilization of, 89 

self-fertilization of homostyled, 98 
Linum Society, 92 
Linum virginianum, 79 
Listeria, Hooker on, 27 
Lobelia, Blue, 8 
Lobelia fulgens, 8 

experiment on, 16 

fertilization of, 16 

visits of Humble-bee to, 16 

visits of moth to, 16 

Lecoq on dimorphism in, 93 

sterility in, 3R 

Locust, plants germinated from 

dung of, 60 
London, 18, 84 

Bishop of, 132 

Dar'.'jin visits, 68 

Darv/in' s visit, 104 

Packard in, 116 
London Review, 115 
London Times, 42, 50, 57, 119, 

121, 130 

Mrs Darwin changes, for 
Daily News , 58 
Loring, Charles G , 109 

correspondence x/ith Field, 50 
Lubbock, Sir John William, 134 

advances Darvnn's theories at 

British Association at Oxford, 28 
Lungs, gradation from svj'im-bladder 

into, 99 
Lychnitis, linked with A/"erbascum 

ThapuGUS, Hooker horrified when 

told, lli'O 
Lyell, Sir Charles, 10, 20, 21, 24, 

25, 27, 28, 32, 36, 97, 99, 111, 154 

admires Gray's articles, 127 

agrees with Gray , 50 

agrees with Gray on designed 
variation, 38 

approves of geological chapters 
in Origin of Species, 15 

attacked by Falconer in the 
Athenaeum, 109 

belief in change fluctuates, 51 

book by, 51, 103, 130 

caution of , 50 

c cnvert t o , Dan'ri ni an vi ews , 18 

convert to modification of 
species, 51 

Danvin indebted to, 31 

Darv/in on, 28, 51 

doubts vrarmer period in U S 

subsequent to Glacial Period, 18 

essay on Origin of Species, 111 

Geological Evidences of the 
Antinuity of Han, 39, 50, 111 

in Germany, 30 

letLiii' "CO, from time Agaosiz ^9 

nearly a convert to Darwin's 
views, 15 

on Glacial Period, 50 

on Life on the Earth, by Phillips, 37 

on permanence of species, 39 


Lye - liem 

Lyell, Sir Charles - cont'd 

on relative position of Megatherium 
and I^lodon with respect to 
glacial deposits, 18 

opinions of, valued by Darv;in, 39 

praises Gray's review, 99, 132 

quoted by DanTin, 109 

quotes Agassiz, 7 

quotes G-ray, 50 

savage at Dan'/in, 136 

shirks question of variation, 53 

to publish Geological Evidences of 
the Antiquity of Han, 39 

uses expressions to •7hich Darwin 
demurs , 31 

visits Down, 50 
Lyell, Lady 

suggests medicine, 53 

visits Dovm, 50 
Lythraceae, 77 
Ly thrum, 46, 55, 56 

crosses of, 54 

crosses, one hundred thirty-four, 53 

crossing of, 47 

different kinds of flowers on same 
plant, 93 

dimorphic, 45 

experiments on, 45 

fertilization of, 47, 105 

sterility of illegitimate offspring 
of, 112 

trimorphic, 45, 115 

three forms not connected with 
separation of sexes, 48 

three hermaphrodite forms, 123 
Ly thrum Paper, 55, 56 
Lythrum Salicaria, 123, 125 

dimorphic, 44 

third form of, 44 
Macarthur, Sir William, on fertilization 

of Erythrinas in N. S. Wales, 9 
McClellan, George B., dismissal of, 

from U, S. Army, 130 
Hacmillan' s Magazine, 130 
Madagascar, squib on, 69 

American, 47 

mutual fertility of varieties of, 50 

variation in, 48 

v/ild, cultivated by Flag, of 
New York, 125 

Male flowers , 26 

Catasetum tridentatum, 39 

Galium cruciatum, 38 

IleX; 30 

See also Sex 
Maminalia of shallow seas, 11 
Mammals, extinct species of, 18 

case of, evaded by Darwin, 109 

complexion, 15 

Hui:ley's book on, 46 
Hansen, Dean, 103 
Hanual of the Botany of the Northern 

U, S„, see Gray, Asa 
Marine productions, history of, 11 
Marshes, dimorphic plants inhabiting, 77 
Martineau, James, 103 
Maryland, slaves of, not freed, 53 
Hason, James M= , 39 

R'^-'^ions of governor of, deplored, 93 

flowers of, 40 

noble enthusiasm of, 37 

noble men of, 33 

Rhexia in, 40 
Maurandia, 72 
Mecham, (first name unknov/n) , paper on 

parallel differences in trees of 

North America and Europe, 42 
Heehan, Thomas, on self-fertilization 

of Linum perenne, 89 
Hegarrhiza, 87 

experiments on germination of, 88 

germination of, 89, 105 
Hegarrhiza calif ornica, 86 
Megatherium, relative position of 

Mylodon and, v;ith respect to glacial 

deposits, 18 
Melah, von (first name unknown) 

on imperfect self-fertile flowers, 56 

quotes Gray on sterility of 

Voandzeia, 56 
Melastomaceae, Cruger on, 51 
Helastomas, 49, 56, 103 

experiments on, 40, 42, 93 

no honey on, 46 
Melastomatads, 40, 125 

by Gray , see Gray , Asa 

Fourth, see Bowen, Francis 
Memoirs of the American Acadeiry of 

Arts and Sciences, 34 

Men - Mov 


Mentha, 7 

diraorrhiGKi of, 59 
Mertenoia, 39 

Geology and Astronoiny are Metaphysics, 
according to Bovren, Gray's article 
says, 34 
Gray muddled by reading, 57 
Meteorology, insufficient for deduction 
that land -.ras lovrer subsequent to 
Glacial Period, 18 
Mice, 25 
Migration, 2 

Alpine plants through Greenland, 
Gray on, 7 

Darv/in opposed to Gray's theory 
on, 7 
during Glacial Period, 11 
during Pliocene Age, 11 
effects of changes of climate on, 11 
European plants through North /u'aerica 

to Tierra del Fuogo, 3 
Forbes' theory/ of, 11 
Forbes' thoar;>^ r.Titten previously 

by Darv/in, 11 
in China, before, during, and after 

Glacial Period, 11 
in Japan, before, during, and after 

Glacial Period, 11 
in United States, before, during, and 

after Glacial Period, 11 
into America, doctrine of, by Gray, 15 
since Glacial Period, up mountains, 

11, 16 
since Pliocene Age, 11 
Mill, John Stuart 

approves of Darwin, 119 
pamphlet by, 100 
Mistford, Miss, 104 
Mistletoe, adaptation of, 3 
MJtchella, 45, 47, 51, 52, 56, 92, 94 
behaves like Cowslip, 126 
experiment on, 44 
Modesty, 20, 22, 24, 52, 35, 115 
Modification, Orchids, 136 
Modification of species, see Species 
Monachanuhus viridis, female, 59 
Monarchism, England in favor of, 125 

Huxley's book on, 46 

means of comjiiunication of, 47 

Monochaetum, 40, 41 

Bates says bees and Lepidoptera do 
not visit, in Amazonia, 49 

change in position of pistils and 
stamens as flov/ers grov; old, 40 

dimorphism of, 40 

diptera or small hymenoptera 
visit, 49 

movements of pistil and stamens, 41 

no nectar in, 49 
Monoecious flowers, 36, 78 

British genera of aquatic plants 

belonging to Linnean classes of, 48 

British genera of terrestrial plants 
belonging to Linnean classes of, 48 

dichogamouG , 51 

of trees, 7, 9 
Monotypic genera ■ • 

in Japan, 19 

in Worth America, 19 

proportion, in disjoined species, 
to v/hole Flora, 110 

sterility of, 29 

transmission of peculiarities, 29 

Dar;';in against sudden, arising, 29 

Heer's view of species arising, by, 
demonstrated against by Orchids, 52 
Montreal, Canada, 137 
Mormodes , 42 
Mo-ton, G D . 

Letter to J- Bachiaan on the Question 
of Hybridity in Animals, 105 

paper by, 103 
Moseley, H N , 137 
Moss, Bignonia capreolata adhering 

to, 56 
Moths, 119 

fertilize Platantheras , 48 

visits to Galiaceae, 44 

visits tc Houstonia, 44 

visits to Lobelia fulgens, 16 

of tropics, north temperate plants 
on, 11 

remnants of Glacial Period Fauna 
and Flora on, 11 
Movements in plants, 48, 86, 107 

Apocyneae , 53 

climbing plants, 55, 54 


Kov - Neg 

Ko vene nt g i n. pi a nt g , c ont ' d. 

Drosera, 31, 34, 66 

effected by fluids, 1S5 

Drosora filifornin, 119 

Drosera rotundifolia, 38 

Echinocystic, tendrils of, 94 

intern-Odes , upper, 53 

Hooker knovcc nothing about , 53 
Oliver knov:s nothing about , 53 

Monochaetun, 41 

Orchis pyranidalis, 33 

Pinguicula, 73, 114 

seedlings, 09 

tendrils, 47, 53 

Hooker knov/s nothing about , 53 
Oliver knov/s nothing about , 53 

tendrils of Gourds, 47 
Huller, Fritz 

on climbing plants of Brazil, 126 

on curious case of fertilization, 107 
Iluller, Hermann, on Valeriana dioica, 84 
Kuller, i'lax 

afraid of not being thought orthodox, 47 

Xiecturcs on the Science of Language, 47 

reviev;ed by Kensleigh Hedgvrood, 130 

sneers at Darwin, 47 
liurchison. Sir Roderick Impey, ciuoted as 

judge of affinities of animals, 29 
Hurray , Andrevf 

reads paper, at Royal Society of 

Edinburgh, against Darv;in's views. 111 

reviev;s Origin of Spocies hostilly, at 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, 37 
Murray, John, 3d, 14, 20, 25, 50, 32, 34, 

42, 45, 59, ol, 95, 97, 107, IOC, 

127, 150 
Murray's Home and Colonial Library, 18 
Musk ox, 18 

riyanthuG barbatus, hermaphrodite, 39 
Hylodon, relative position of Megatherium 

and, 7;ith respect to glacial deposits, 18 
Myosotis, 7 

Nageli, Karl Wilhelm von, on Phyllotaxy, 52 
ilatal , locust dung from, 50 
Nation, The, 60, 61, 72, 91 
Native Flora, proportion of introduced 

spocies to, 110 
Natural crossing, 16 
Natural history, 30 
Natural History Reviev;, seo Huxley 

Natural Preservation, as a tern, 31 
Natural selection, 36-38, 53, 61, 100 

Bovren omits, 34 

De Candolle on, 42 

wants direct proof of, 42 

eye perfected by, 99 

France favors, 52 

Gray aids subject of, 119 

Gray on, 52 

Gray, John Edward, against, 31 

groirth of confidence in, 127 

Harvey admits to, to certain 
erctent , 26 

notions about, 8, 10 

progresG made in Europe, 41 

Royer on, 42 

Saporta favors, 52 

sheep, 16 

Six Principles of, by Darviin, 8 

temperate intruders Gince Glacial 
Period, 11 

theory of, 18 

useless variation not preserved 
in process of, 16 
Natural Selection as a term, 31 

Gray objects to, 16 
Natural Selection of Kan, 

see Wallace 
Natural Theology, Gray's pamphlet 

on, 127 
Natural varieties , 29 
Naturalized plants 

British, proportions of, 113 

De Candolle on, 3 

Gray to vrork on, 131 

non-flowering and non-seeding, 59 

not variable, 131 

social in U S, , 3 

stunted or unhealthy at southern 
limits, 3 

to be excluded in comparison, 3 

variabilitv nf, 7 

variable in U, 3,, 3 
Nature, 68-70, 114, 116 
Naudin, Charles 

on differences in position of 
pistil, 40 

on sterility of hybrids, 115 
Nectarines, 47 
Negro, expressions of emotions of, 63 



Neottie Nidus-avis, self-fertilization 

of, 43, 123 
Nervotis systena of plants, 125 

Drosera, 66, 125 
Nesaoa, 47, 56, 125, 130 
Nesaea Terticillata 

seedliiigs raised fron illegitimate 
urions, 1Z2 

trinorphic , 45 
New England, Dar-zrln approves of, 53 
Hew Guinea, Wallace eicplores, 10 
New Haven, Conn. , 47 
New South Wales, fertilization of 

Erv/thriiias in, I-Iacarthur on, 9 
lievi World 

indigenous species oelorigiEg to 
Old World genera, 2 

introduction of Old World forr.3 

into, subseouent to Glacial Period, IS 

modified foms in, IC 

rai^e of plants of, 5 

species, 2 

species cormon to Old World, 2 
Nev7 York 

Flag, of, 125 

Irisr. in, 53 

mountains of, 1, 2 
Nev/ York City, 133 
Hew York TLmes , 24, 27 
lie-;;- Zealand 

comparison of genera of, -rith. species, 3 

Hooker to tabulate trees of, 7 

tabulation of Hooker's Flora of, 3 

trees of, 9, 115 
New Zealand Essay, see Hooker 
New Zealand Flora, 3, 7 
Newton, Sir Isaac, 25 

attacked by Leibnitz, 99 
Nile River, Grays' trip up, 63, 116 
Nilgnerries, European foms on, 11 
Nolar^ prostrata, variation in, 64 
No n- indigenous genera, 6, 47 
North America, see America, North 

Notices, 74, 125, 130 

by Darvrin, 16, 26, 97, 129 

by Gray, 2, 25, 44, 47, 113 

by Sedgwick, 23 

on black pigs, 79 
Nuts, red, asks nane of, 23 
Oaks , see Trees 
Oats, 120 

Ohio, legislation against inter- 
marriage, 94, 109 
Old Testament, book on, by Colenso, 47 
Old World 

forms, introduction of, to Nev; 
World subsequent to Glacial 
Period, IC 

genera , 3 

modified forms in, 18 

Hew World indigenous species 

belonging to genera fo\ind in, 2 

Nev; World species coramon to, 2 

range of plants of, 5 

species, 3 
Oliver, W V 

approves of Various Contrivances 
by v/hich Orchids are Fertilized 
by Insect:;, by Dar;*;in, 42 

on separation of sexes in lov;ly 
organized plants, 48 

on separation of sexes in Primula, 48 

quotes Naudin on differences in 
position of pistil, 40 

spontaneous movements of tendrils 
and upper internodes, knows nothing 
about , 53 
Olmsted, Frederick Lav; 

Darwin reads book by, 119 

studied by Darv;in, 38 
Omnivorous plants, 73 
Onions, 120 
On the functions and structure of the 

reproductive organs in the 

Primulaceae^ see Scott 
On Welv;itschia, see Hooker 
Ophrys apifera, contradiction in 

structure offorod by, 26 
Oclu;,:, 91 
Opposition, attitude tovrard, 8, 17, 20, 

^l'~;:?, 3", 'kZ; 43. 5C, GO, 9G, 97, 

102, 111, 127, 136, 


Oru - 0:cc 

OpuGCulv. , orcMclG, by Darv;in 13S 
Orchid Paper, by Darv/ln, 119, 1?4 
Orchids, 45, 44, 46, 51, 53, 114, 
119, 124 

adaptation to insects, 48, 52 
Arethusa uiiliko in structuro, 4S 
contrivances for fortiliEation, 

26, 27 
r>arv;in, Georgo , studios, 115 
dei!ionstrate against User's view 
of species arisine suddeiilj^ by 
monstrosities, 52 
diptera and hyir.enoptera visit, 49 
Duko of Argyll on, 150 
fertilization of, 57 
Gray on, 47, 48 
Graj- to publish on, 123 
modification of, 136 
North Aiaerican, 117 
opusculuui, hj Darwin, 136 
solf-fertilization of, 43 
Wrig?it on, 56 

See also Various Contrivences by 
which Orchids are Fertilized by 
Insects, by Darv.'in 
Orchis hircina, Aceras loads closely 

into, 43 
Orchis liiaculata, .fertilized by flics, 

George Darwin discovers, 115 
Orchis pyranilalis, rioveiaonts of, 33 
Orchis spoctabilis, 42 

Do Candoilc errs in atte.T.pting to 
v;ork out range of, instead cf 
for genera , 6 
introduced plants belonging !:■?, 6 
Organ Mts., of Brazil, , European 

forms on, 11 

gradations of 
eye, 99 

swim-bladder into lur^, 99 
nevr, appearing in animal kingdom 
Edvrards tried unsuccessfully to 

discover, 91) 
few, 99 
Gray stresses too much, 99 

Clrigin of Species, ' j- '.■ rwin, '4, ^:>. 
;iQ, fi5. 24. 27, 2V,, i,o . 52 [ 55^ 59* 
60. 63, 95, 97. 101. 103. 10", L09, 
123, 1E7, 125 

ibnsrican edition uf, 17 

/iHierican reprint of, 54 

Clarke opposed to, 25, 111 

discussion of, at British Associa- 
tion at Oxford, 27 

French translation of, by Royer, 42 

Harvey versus, 31, 102 

Herschel agrees with to limit 
extent, 37 

Hooker on, 93 

Ilurraj-, Andrev;, reviews hostilly, 57 

reviev7 of, oj Jra^", 55 

revievr of, by Owou, 26 
Origin of species, 22 

nineteen years' Vfork on, 4 
Ovules, variability in, 64 
Owen, Sir ]Richard 

article by, 109 

at College of Surgeons , 26 

attacks Darvrin, in Edinburgh Review, 24 

attacks Hooker, in Edinburgh HevieTv, 
24, 111 

Carpenter vexed at, 109 

Darv.dn on, 109 

lectures on birds by, 43 

misrepresents and is unfair tc 
Huxley, 26 

no followers of, 26 

on Carpenter, 109 

on hoterogens-, 109 

opposes Darv;in, at British Association 
at Oxford, 27 

praises Hooker's esnr^j'", 24 

rejects Darvfin's views on grounds of 
imperfection of geological 
record, 102 

reviews by, 25, 26, 28, 109 

sneers at Darwin, 45 
Oxalidao, 77 
Oxalis, 39, 42, 45 

dimorphous, Bentham's list, 39 

forti.l ization of perfect flovrers of, 52 

fertilization of trimorphic species, 106 

Oxa - Phy 


Ozalis AcGtocella, to experinent on, 43 
Oxford, Bishop of, see VJilberforco' 
Oxford, British Association at, 27, 2C 
Oxlip, English, hybrid betvreon Priinrose 

and Cowslip, 59 
Packard, A, S. 

in London, 116 

in Paris, 116 

invited to Dov:n, 116 

by Gray, see Gray, Asa 

by PIarvey,127 

by Hill,' 100- 

by Morton, 103 

on hybrids," 119 
Pangenesis, 60 

Gray on, 61 

by Bates, 48, 51, 53, 130 

by BoYfen, 35 

by Carfery, 107 

by Cruger, 54' 

by Darvvin, 39, 43, 4C-50, 52, 55, 56, 
53, 77, -92, 109, 117, 119, 121, 124 

by Darv/in, Francis, 74 

by Gray , see Gray , Asa 

by Hooker, 3 7, 107 

by Lieber, 96 

by Me Cham, 42 

by Meehan, 89 

by Morton, 103 

by Murray, Andrev;', 111 

by Scott, 57 

by Scudder , 52 

by Walsh,- 52 ■ ■ 

by Watson, 8,. 9 

Historical, 13B 

on Phyllotaxy, 36 
Papilionaceous flov;ers, 113 

crossing of varieties of, no facts to 
show, 4 

crossing prevented, 9 

Gray on, 4 

of trees, 9 

essay by, 29 

Paris, Prance 

Hooker visits, 92 

Packard in, 116 
Parsons, Theophilus, 
Parthenogensis , 16 

Parthenon, praises Gray's pamphlet, 50 
Peaches, 47 
Peacock, 39 
Peacock's feather, 23 
Pea-hen, 39 
Peas, 85 

Gartner on fertilization of, 16 
Pelargonium, crossing of peloric 

flowers of, 115 
Peloric flowers 

fertility of, 53 

Pelargonium, crcnsing of, 115 
Perplexed state cf mind, 4, 27, 31, 

34, 38, 39, 114, 135 
Philadelphia Society, Meehan reads 

paper before, 89 
Phillips, John, 16, 37, 134 

defines species, 16 

Gray reviev;s Life on the Earth . 37 

lectures at Cambridge, Eng„, 
against Darv/in' s views. 111 

Life on the Earth, 37 
Philosophical Society at Cambridge, 

Eng , Dar";;in attacked at. 111 
Phlox, 64 

Gray on, 94 

variation in, 64 
Phlox Drummondii, not dimorphic, 94 
Phlox subulata 

dimorphic or trimorphic, 

once heterostyled, 82 
Photographs, 35, 56 
Phyllotaxy, 94 

Darv/in, George, on, 36 

Falconer on, 109 
■ fluctuating or variable, 

Gray ansvrers Falconer on, 

Gray on, 36 

Mgell on, 52 

paper on, 36 




Phy - Pri 



Phy£3ical Geography, see Herschel 
Pictet, Francois Jules, 30 

review by, opposed to Darv;in's viev;s, 23 

review of Origin of Species, 25 
Pigeons, 34, 61 

variation of, 57, 38, 53 
Pigs, Black 

in the Everglades, doubts Gray's story 
of, 23 

notice on, 79 

See also Guinea Pigs 

digestive povrers of, 59, 73 

insects captured by, 73 

movements of, 73, 114 
Planets, see Stars and motion of planetary 

Plant ago 

stigma in bud, 4S 

v/ind fertilization of, 
Plantago lanceolata 

female dichogamous, 36 

wind fertilization of, 
Platanthera, 49 

diversity in, 43 

fertilized by moths, 43 

Gray on, 75 

hyperborea. Gray on, 44 
Platanthera Hookeri 

Danvin adds note to German Edition on, 115 

Gray en, 115 
Platanthera hyperborea, 43 

Gray on, 44 
Platanthera psycodes, 48 
Pliocene Age 

migration since, 11 

modification of species since, '11' 

ranges of plants and animals during, 11 

species during, 11 
Podostenon, 113 
Pogonia, 117 

paper on, by Scudder, 52 

two always growing together, 44 
Polemoniaceae, 81 
Political vievjs, 38, 39, 50, 53, 57, 

93, 109, 125 

Gray on, 46 

tvro kinds in same species, 45 

secretion of 



Pollinia, 54 

Scudder on, 50 
Polygala, irregul 

honey , 46 
Polygamous flower 

of trees, 7 

subdivisions named, 84 
Pontederia, 80 
Potatoes, experim.ent on, 
Potomac, Ari^y of, 43 
Po'wer of Movement in Plants, by 

Danvin, 86 
Precocious fertilization, dislike 

of term, 48 
Preordainraent , 61 
Presents book to Gray's pupil, 45 
Preservation from extinction, 16 

equal number of male and female 
plants, 26 

experiment on fertilization 
of, 109 

gradation from hermaphrodite to 
unisexual condition, 26 

male plants fertile, 26 

Oxlip, a hybrid between Cowslip 
and, 59 

size of pollen grains in male and 
female , 26 
Primiila, 43, 45, 92, 115, 117, 119 

De Gandolle on, 42 

dimorphism of, 37, 39, 44, 59, 93 

dioecious in function, 

experiment on, 46 

hermaphrodite, 124 

like Rubiaceae, 38 

reciprccally dimorphic 

seedi."' Irom homomorphous union, 

separation of sexes, Hooker on, 

separation of sexes, Oliver on, 

sterility of homomorphic grand- 
children of, 45 

unequal fertility in two forms, 

wind fertilization of, 55 
Primula elatior, 59 
Primula mistassinica, 79 
Primula Paper, by Darv/in, 43, 48, 

93, 117 








Primula Paper, cont'd 

Bentham approves of, 35 

Hooker approves of, 39 
Primulaceae, 77 

not dioecious, 48 

Scott on, 55 
Proboscis, attachment of pollinia to, 50 
Proceedings, by Gray, 35 

De Candolle's, 12 

varieties in large or small genera 
recorded in, 12 
Proportions, 2, 8 

American genera, to those of other parts 
of v/orld, 3 

British naturalized plants, 113 

European plants not ranging to extreme 
north, Gray on, 6 

in same latitude, 110 

introduced and indigenous Compositae 
Labiatae, Leguininosae and Umbelliferae 
in Great Britain, Uatson's list, 110 

introduced species compared with 
native, 110 

U S genera, to those of other parts 
of -world, 3 
Protea, 9 
Protean genera and species 

comparison of, 7 

protean species in Hieracium, Mentha, 
I'Jyosotis, Rosa, Rubus, Salix, 
Saxifraga, 7 

shells, troublesome, 7 

variability of, 9 
Pulmonaria, fertility and sterility 

of, 126 
Pumilo, adaptation of, 97 
Quarterly Journal of Science, 28, 30, 132 
Rabbits, 124 

hybrids of hares and, 31 
Radish, 113, 120 
Range, 1, 2 

animals, 5 

De Candolle on, 3 

disjoined, 110 

disjoined, caused by extinction, 113 

during Pliocene Age, 11 

Fragaria virginiana, 130 

Gray on European plants, 6 

Gray on northern range, 131 

Gray on v/ide range of species luith 
large genera , 7 

Gray to discuss identical and allied 
U 3 and European species, 9 

Gray to work out northern, of 
European species, 6 

Gray to vrork out range of species 
in regard to number of species 
in genus , 5 

narrow, caused by extinction, 113 

species of sane genus, 4 

varieties, in comparison v;ith species 
to vrhich they belong, 12 
Reading, 54, 56, 58 
Reason, Bovren on, 34 
Reciprocally dimorphic plants, see 

Dimorphic plants 
Red Clover, see Clover 

Reproductive system, easily affected, 22 
Resemblance of embryos, see Embryos 
Reviev; of Orchids, see Hooker 
Reviev7 of Reviev/s, see Gray, Asa 
Reviev;s, 24, 30, 61, 134 

by Bov/en, 34 

by Carpenter, 25 

by Darv7in, 74 

by Gray, 20-23, 27, 28, 32-34, 37, 
44, 48, 49, b2, 53, 55, 60, 81, 
84, 91, 94, 95, 97, 99, 102, 114, 
126, 127, 132, 133, 138 

by Haughton, 26 

by Hooker, 40 

by Hopkins, 26, 28 

by Huxley , 25 

by Murray, Andrevj, 37 

by Owen, 25, 26, 20, 109 

by Pictet, 25, 25 

by Sedgwick, 23 

by ¥edg¥rood and daughter, 130 

by Wilberforce, aided by Ov;en, 28 

by Wollaston, 21 

by Wright, 35 

on Dana, 57 

on Spencer, 57 
Rhamnus, 82 

dimorphism of, Darwin questions, 59 

dioeciousness of, Darv;in questions, 59 

grades of fertility, 84 




bees' visits to, 41 

differences in position of pistil 
in, 40, 41 

differences in position of stanens 
in, 41 

experiments on, 41, 42, 108 

Gray on, 46 

Gray sees no nectar in, 49 

in Massachusetts, 40 
Rhexia glandulosa, 45 

dimorphism absent, 115 

experiments on, 42 

fertilization of, 115 
Rhubarb, 120 • 
Richmond, Va^, 55 
Robinia, bees on, 9 
Rocky Mts, , 19 

plants vrest of, 2 
Rogers, Henry Darv/in, 154 

approves of Dar-inn's viev;s, 20 
Rood, Dr„ , sketch of ears, 69 
Rosa, 7 
Roses, climbing, Gray on spring shoots 

of, 126 
Rothrock, J Trimble, observes Houstonia, 

43, 46, 125 
Royal Society, 134 

Royal Society of Edinburgh, 37, 111 
Royer, Clemence 

French translation. Origin of Species, 42 

on Christianity, 42 

on natural selection, 42 
Rubiaceae, 77 

experiments on, 58, 136 

like Linum, 38 

like Primula, 38 

sterility in, 38 
Rubus, Himalayan, Hooker on, 7 
Rudimentary organs, variation of species due 

to facts regarding, 8 
St-, Helena Flora, Hooker to write on, from 

Burchell's collections, 107 
St „ Hilaire, Auguste Prouvencale de, quotes 

Julian, 48 
Salix, Himalayan, Hooker on, V 
Salt water, see Sea water 
Saporta, G , 1'Iarq.uis de, letter from, 

favoring natural selection, 52 

Sarracenia, bud colored to attract 

insects, 114 
Saturday Review of Politics, 

Literature, Science and Art , 

25, 32, 134 

on Design, 31 
Saurians, Agassiz's theory on 

creation of, 7 
Sazifraga, 7 
Scandinavia, Alpine plants connected 

with, through Labrador, 131 
School and Field Book of Botany, 

see Gray , Asa 
Scientific Papers of Asa Gray, 

see Gray , Asa 
Scotland, 41 
Scott, John 

Darvj-in pays passage of, to 
India, 57 

Darv/in's abstract of Red Gov;slip 
Paper by, 57 

experiments on foreign genera of 
Gymnadenia, 109 

on Red Cowslip, 57 

On the Functions and Structure 
of the Reproductive Organs 
in the Primulaceae, 55 

paper by, 57 
Scudder, Horace 

on pollinia, 50 

paper on Pogonia, 52 
Sea water. Hooker maintains seeds 

killed by, 44 
Secluded life, 43, 58, 127, 

132, 135 
Sedgwick, Adam, 134 

opposed to Darvdn's views, 25, 111 

reviews Darwin' s book savagely 
and unfairly, 23 

Darv/in observes, 86, 87 

Gray on, 86 
Seeds, 29, 87 

dispersal of, Gray's essay on 
diversified m.eans of, 72 

dispersal of, Hildebrand's 
essay on, 72 

dispersal of. Hooker underrates 
occasional means of, 44 


See - Soc 

Seeds, cont'd 

Hooker maintains killed by sea 

vrater, 44 
salt water experiment on, 2 
Selection, artificial, 34, E3, 61 
Selection, natural, see Natural selection 
Self-fertile flowers, von Melah on, 56 
Self-fertilization, 68 
experiments on, 59, 03 
grov/'th of plants from, 106 
Kidney Bean, 8 
Linum perenne, 09, 98 
Neottia Nidus-avis . 123 
perpetual, not found, 9 
Self-government , England against , 125 
Sensitiveness in plants 
Dionaea, 64 
Drosera, 54, 66, 97 
diversified, in allied plants, 64 
Sequoia, Gray on, 66 

Confervae, 40 

contrast in, between plants and 

cinmals, 48 
Cowslip, 26 
Darv;in on, 74 
female, 26, 39, 56, 124 

dichogamous, Plantago lanceolata, 36 
dichogamous monoecious, Euphobia 

amygdaloides , 36 
Euonymus ,94 
Ilex, 38 

Monactianthus viridis, 39 
Phlox subulata, 82 
Thyme, 124 
Giliun, 38 
gradation of, 26 

in American Hollies, IDS 
I in English Hollies, 38 
" G-ray on, 74 

hermaphrodite, 9, 16, 39, 46, 43, 53, 
55, 123, 124 
Euonymus , 94 

American, 56 
gradation of 

sex in Anerican, 
gradation of sex in English, 
male, 26, 39, 124 
Giliiffii, 30 
Ilex, 38 


Primrose, 26 
separation of 

in aquatic plants, 48 

in lo\7ly organized plants, Oliver 

on, 48 
in Primula, Hooker on, 48 
in Primula, Oliver on, 48 
in trees, 9, 110 
three forms in Lythrum not con- 
nected with, 48 
trees, 9, 110 
unisexual condition, 25 
Sexual arrangements, plants and 
animals, contrast between, 48 
Sheep, natural selection in, 16 

fossil, 4, 11 
gradation in, 29 
Pliocene Age, 11 
Protean genera of, 7 
Short -Horn, 34 
Siberia, 2 

continuous v;ith North America 

during Pliocene Age, 11 
Eauna and Flora in Pliocene Age, 11 
Sicyos, 94 

Silliman's Journal of Science, 6, 7, 
25, 20, 31, 48, 94, 103, 125, 
130, 133 

See also Araerican Journal of Science 
and Art 
Singular flov;ers, 117 
Six Principles of Natural Selection, 

by Dar\*;in, 8 
Slave Povrer, see Cairns 
Slavery, 37-39, 50, 53, 55, 57, 93, 
107, 108, 119, 121 

President Lincoln's flat against, 49 
Slidell, John, 39 
Slox'mess in giving up old beliefs, 
8, 22 

adaptation kept Darv;in longest 
orthodox, 8 
Social plants 

De Candolle on, 3 

Gray on, 6 

naturalized, in U S , 3 

social at extreme limits of range, 3 

social in confined range, 3 


jou - Site 

Southampton, Eng., 45 
Species, 43 

Agassiz on, 29 

allied U. S. and European, G-ray to 

discuss, 9 
American, 3, 42 

Gray on, 42 

in Europe, 11 
as an entity, 17 
change of 

De Candolle on, 42 

full conviction of, 5S 

Gray on, 42 

Heer's doctrine of, 53 

Walsh believes in, 50 
close, 2, 13, 16, 120, 122 

most frequent in smaller genera, S 
comparison of congeneric, v/ith divergent 

congeneric in U- S., 7 
comparison of habitat of European lYith 

native in U. S , 7 
comparison of variability of same, in 

Europe and U , S , 3 
comparison with genera in New Zealand, 3 
congeneric, 7 

Danvan disagrees with Gray on, 36 
De Candolle on relation of size of 

families to average range of individual, 3 
definition of, 16 
derivation of, 30, 50 

Gray on, 52 
difficulty of ascertaining, 120 
dimorphic, 126 
discrimination of, foundation of all 

good vrork, 9 

belonging to small genera, 110 

Gray on, 113 

local extinction of, 113 

proportion of monotypic genera to v;holG 
Flora, 110 
distinct, 2 

divergent congeneric, 7 
domestic, Agassiz on, 29 
essay on, 130 
European, 7 

Gray to vrork out northern range of, 6 

Gray to work out range of, in regard 
to number of species in genus, 6 

in America , 11 

extinct mammals, 18 

fixed, 9 

geographical affinities of, 120 

Gray's list of close, 16, 122 

Heer's view of species arising 

suddenly by monstrosities 

demonstrated against by 

Orchids, 52 
heterostyled, 82 

and allied U S= and European, 
Gray on ranges of, 9 

in Eastern and Western 
America, 19 

U. S, and European, Gray to 
discuss, 9 
modification of 

Gray's limited belief in, 31 

Hooker a convert to, 31 

Lyell a convert to, 31 

since Pliocene Age, 11, 18 
more closely related in larger 

genera than in smaller 

Bentham does not believe, 122 

Hooker does not believe, 122 
more variable in different parts 

of U. S-, 3 
more variable in south than in 

extreme north, Wahlenberg on, 3 
more variable in U- S, than in 

other countries, 3 
more -,7ith varieties in larger 

genera, 13 
mountains of New York, 1 
natural , 34 

Agassiz on, 29 
New World 

common to Old World, 2 

indigenous, belonging to Old 
World genera, 2 
Old World, 3 
origin of, 4, 22 
permanence of 

Hooker on, 4 

Lyell on, 39 
Phillips defines, 15 
Pliocene Age, 11 
proportion of introduced, to 

native Flora, 110 
proportion of, to genera, 2 



Species - cont'd 

Protean, 7 

range of, in comparicson with varieties 
belonging to, 12 

range of species of sane genus, 4 

ran£ing northv/ard of Great Britain, 5 

segregation of varieties into. Bates 
on, 130 

social at limits of range, 3 

social in confined range, 3 

sterility caused by crossing closely 
allied, 33 

strongly defined varieties, 4 

subdivision of, 2, 8 

two pollen in sarae, 46 

United States, division of, into large 
and small genera, 

variation of, 2-4, 0, 9, 29, 35, 42, 
45, 51, 50, 122, 130 

varying, more varieties in species of 
larger genera, 13 

vievj-s on, 2, 4, 8 

VJhite Mts. , 1 

Viith larger genera. Gray on v/ide 
range of, 7 
Spectator, The, 23 

Specularia, 42, 43, 40, 53, 121, 123 
Specularia perfoliata, 48 
Specularia Speculum 
. fertility of, 43 

frequent crossing of, 40 
Spencer, Herbert, review on, 57 
Spermatozoa, 16, 42 
Spiranthera, contrivances for 

fertilisation, 53 
Spiranthes, 34, 119 

curious construction of English, 37 

experiment on, 35 
. fertilization of, 38, 124 
Spiranthes autumnalis 

construction of, 85 

fertilization of , 85 
Spires, 121 
Sprengel, Christian Conrad, meaning of 

dichogamy, 43, 51 
Spring shoots, climbing roses, 126 
Stars and motion of planetary system, proof 

of first cause, 31 
Statement by D Appleton & Co., of sale of 

Origin of Species, 138 

Statistics of the Flora of the 

Northern U S . , see Gray , Asa 
Stephens, (first name unlcnovm), books 

on Central America, 126 
Sterility, 22 

Amphicarpaea, wild, 56 
Borragineae, 30 
Campanula carpatica, v/hen 

enclosed, 40 
castration, 113 
causes of, under domestication 

and cultivation, 22, 48, 52, 

113, 117 
crossed allied species, 38 
dimorphic self-fertilized 

species, 126 
homomorphic grandchildren of 

Primula , 45 
Hopkins on, 27 
hybrids, 112, 126 

gradation from sterility to 
fertility, Hopkins on, 27 

Naudin on, 115 
Linum, 124 
Linum perenne , 89 
Lobirota, 38 
Ly thrum, 48 

illegitimate offspring of, 112 
m.onstcrs, 29 
Nesaea verticillata, illegitimate 

union of, 112 
Primula, homomorphic seedings 

of, 45 
Pulmonaria, one form of, 126 
Rubiaceae, 38 
self-fertilized dimorphic 

species, 126 
Verbascum, 27 
Viola canina, 48 
VoandzBia, von lielah quotes Gray 

on, 56 
Steudel, Ernest Gottlieb, 113 
Stipa, paper on, by Francis 

Darwin, 74 
Structural Botany or Organography 
on the basis of Morphology, see 
Gray, Asa 
Structixpe of flowers in relation 
to visits of insects, 10, 59, 117 
Balsaminae> 48 




Structure of flov;ers - cont'd 

Broom, 4 

Fui^icria, 16 

Kidney Bean, 4 

Lindley describes vrrongly, 123 

Orchids, 43 

Spiranthes auturanalis, 85 
Sub-class of dimorphic plants, nev;, 56 
Subularia, 113 

Supernaturalists , see Argyll, Duke of 
Survival of fittest, 26 
Sussex, England, 29 
Swim-bladder, see Bladder 
Switzerland, Hookers tour, for 

Mrs, Hooker's health, 117 
Symes, (first name unknoi'm) , 5 
Syria, Hooker's expedition to, 30 

Gray's, 3 

Hooker's, 3 

Hooker to tabulate trees, bushes 
and herbaceous plants of, 7 

trees of, 113 
Teleology, Gray on, 70 
Temperate plants, list of, found in 

Eastern Asia, China, and Japan, 3 
Tendrils, 47, 121 

Bignonia capreolata, 56 

branches converted into, 126 

De Vries to observe Echinocystis 
lobata , C5 

Eccremocarpus scaber, 56 

Echinocystis, 94 

Gray on spiral v;inding of, 66, 97, 116 

reversed spiral curvature of, 66 

spontaneous movements of, 53 
Hooker knov/s nothing about , 53 
Oliver knows nothing about , 53 
Tennessee, 125 

Dannn objects to change of, 78 

forma stylosa used by Thwaites, 78 

Gray's suggested change, 78 

heterostyled more definite than 
heterogone, 78 

heterostylosa suggested by Darvan, 76 

Kahn's objections, 78 

Vertebrata not objected to, 73 

Terrestrial plants, British genera of 
compared with aquatic, De Candolle 

on, 48 
Linnean classes of mono- and 

dioecia, 48 
Theological views, 25 

difficulties of, 130 

Gray's 99, 114 

DanTin differs with, 60 
Theology, Natural, Gray on, 127 
Thuran, of Calcutta, India, 134 
Thv;aites, G-eorge Henry Kendrick, 25, 

106, 134 

convert to Dariuin's views, 102, 127 

forma stylosa, term used by, 78 

to tost Cinchona, in Ceylon, for 
dimorphism., 92 
Thyme, 39, 45, 55, 119 

dimorphic , 94 

female , 124 
Tichnor and Fields, 59 

letters by, 133 
Tierra del Fuego, European plants in, 

compared v/ith those in North 

/anerica, 3, 11 
Tillandsia, Bignonia capreolata 

adhering to, 56 
Tines , see London Times 

New York Times 
Tlenchon, (first name unknown) , on Lewisii , 92 
Tobacco, 27 
■ Torquay, Devon, 38, 119, 124 
ToT/er of Babel, Max Miiller on, 47 

French, by Royer of, Origin of 
Species, by Darvj-in, 42 

German, by Bronn, of Various 
Contrivances by which Orchids 
are Fertilized by Insects, by 
Darwin, 28, 117 

means of, 2 

occasional means of, 60 
Hooker underrates, 44 
Travels in Amazonia, se£ Bates 
Treat, Mrs., of Vineland 

Danvin doubts statements of, 71 

on Utricularia, 71 

to observe Drosera filiformis, 67 



Trees, 56 

Agassiz on, 68 

Barton on U S , , 3 

beech, classification of, 92 

bees' visits to, 9 

British, 9, 113 

crossing of, 9 
obstacles to, 9 

dioecious flowers of, 7, 9 

European, 42 

fertilization of, Bentham on, 9 

G-ray on, 110 

Gray's list of, 110 

hermaphrodite flovrers of, 9 

Hooker on classes of, 7 

Mecham on parallel difference in 
trees of North Araerica and 
Europe , 42 

monoecious flovrers of, 7, 9 

New Zealand, 9, 113 
Hooker to tabulate, 7 

North American, 42, 113 

Oaks, 50 

classification of, 92 
De Candolle on, 52 
Gray reviews, 52 

papilionaceous flovrers of, 9 

polygamous flovrers of, 7 

separate sexes of, 9, 110 

Tasmanian, 113 
Trent Affair, 50, 93 
Triiaorphic plants 

LythruDi, 45, 115 

Nesaea verticillata, 45 

Oxalis, 106 

Phlox subulata, SO 
Trimorphism, 45 

guide to, 123 

Cruger if, 54, 56 

Cruger on plants of, 51 
Trinity in Unity, orthodox belief 

in, 39 
Tropical productions during Glacial 

Period, 11 
Tropics, north temperate plants on 

mountains of, 11 
Trot nick, ( first name unknovm) , 134 
Trubner, Karl Jo, 37, 44, 45, 97, 

100, 102, 115 


in Great Britain, ¥atson's list of 

introduced and indi-'^enous , 110 
proportion of, in indigenous plants ^ 2 
Understood by fev/, 26 
United States, 27, 30, 125, 158 
Alpine Flora of, 1 

Darwin admires all persons from, 135 
division of genera of, into 3 classes ^ 

v;ith proportions, 3 
division of species of, into large' 

and small genera, S 
Flora of, 3, 7 
genera, 3 
geographical distribution of plants 

of, 120 
Gray invites Danvin to visit, 5 
identical and allied species of 

Europe and. Gray to discuss, 9 
indigenous Flora of, 2 
introduced Compositae in, 2 
migration in, before, during, and 

after Glacial Period, 11 
naturalized plants social in, 3 
range of plants of, 5 
same species more or less variable in, 

than in Europe, 3 
southern, 129 
species more variable in different 

parts rv-f, n 
species nort; variable in,tiian in 

ether countries, 3 
trees, Barton on, 3 
variation of species in, 3 
warm period in, subsequent to Glacial 

Period, 18 

Gray's arguments not sufficient, 18 

Lyell doubts, 18 
western, bloom- protected plants in, 83 
Utricularia, Mrs Treat, of Vineland, 

on, 71 
Valeriana dioica, Hermann Milller on, 84 
Yanda, two different flovrers on same 

spike , 46 
Vanilla, 117 

Arethusa like, in structure, 42 
Variability, 83 

agrarian plants, 131 
American agrarian plants, 5 


Var - Ver 

Variability, cont'd 

AmGrican v/ild fruits, 28 
British agrarian plants, Watson 

on, 5 
buds, 92 
conparison of sane species in 

Europe and U - S . , 3 
incipient dimorphism due to, 54 
introduced plants. Gray on, 5 
naturalized American plants, 7, 131 

De Candollo on, 3 
oTulos, 64 
Protean genera, 9 
Variation, 1, 5, 37, 43, 53, 57. 61, 
64, 98, 109, 122 • 
accumulative, 34 
/iiiisinckia, 64, 109 
attributed to crossing, 9 
basis for development of dimorphism, 64 
Bowen on, 34 
buds, 50, 92 
designed, 37, 38 

Gray on, 34 
eliminated by crossing, 113 
embiyological facts favor, 30 
Gray on, 34 
Laws of, 58 

Lyell shirks question of, 53 
Maize, 48 

Nclana prostrata, 54 
none in early age explains resemblance 

of embryos , 30 
of cultivated plants, 130 
of large genera, 15 
of species, 2, 8 

Horace Darv;in on, 130 
pigeons, 53 
Phlox, 54 

Phlox subulata, 82 
species more variable in different 

parts of Uo S. , 3 
species more variable in U. S. than 

in other countries, 3 
sudden, 29 

under doinoGtication, 34, 37 
undesigned, 37, 38 
useless, not preserved, 15 
Uahlenberg on same species more 

variable in south than in extreme 
north, 3 

Variation of Animals and Plants 
under Domestication, by Danvin, 
24, 51, 55, 57, 59, 60, 105, 
125, 135 
Varieties, 2-4, 15, 29, 43 
Agassiz on 

domestic, 29 

natural, 29 
cocks, 135 
crossing of, 4 
domestic, 29 
ducks, 135 

fertility of strongest marked, 22 
fleeting and trifling, 12 
greater number in var-z-ing species 

of larger genera, 13 
hens, 136 
in large or small genera, 

recorded, 12 
in larger genera with more 

species, 13 
in sm.aller genera, recorded, 13 
intermediate, l-Jollacton on rarity 

of, 5 
loTjgevity or duration of, Gray 

on, 71 
most presented by large genera, 16 
natural, 15, 29 
range of, in' comparison with 

species to v/hicli they belong, 12 
recording of, 12, 13 
segregation into species, Bates 

on, 130 
sterility of stron^esi' marked, 22 
United States, division of genera 

into, 8 
Various Contrivances hj which Orchids 
are Fertilized by Insects, by 
Darv/in, 39, 43, 44, 46, 53, 72, 
74-75, 81, 93, 108, 130 
Bentham approves of, 42 
Gray approves of, 42 
Oliver approves of, 42 
translated into German by Bronn, 117 
Varying plants. Gray on, 5 
Vegetable Kingdom, see Lindley 
Vegetables, degeneration of, 24 

natural hybrids found between two 

species of, 125 
sterility of, 27 
Verbascum Thapsus, linked v/ith 
Lj'chnitis, Hooker horrified when 
told, 125 


Ver - Wri 

Vorbenaceae, 77 

Vertebrata, term not objected to, 78 

Vestiges of the Natural History of 

Creation, sec 'Chambers 
Vineland, Mrs-, Treat of, 67 
Viola, 42, 43 

fertilization of, 52 

imperfect flowers of, 52 
Viola canina 

fertility of, 40 

parts of, 52 

sterility of, 43 
Voandzeia, sterility of, 55 
Vries, Hugo de, to observe tendrils 

of Echinocystis lobata, S5 
VJagner, R- , abstract on /igassiz 

Essay on Classification, 29 
Uahlenberg, George, sarae species more 

variable in south than in extreme 

north, 3 
Wales, North, 73 

Darv;ins to visit. 63 
yallace, Alfred Russell 

article in Anthropological Reviev; 
on Natural Selection of Han, 55 

paper on Natural Selection, 10 

speculation on feeble basis, 79 
Walsh, Benjamin l^ann 

believes in change of species, 5S 

paper by , 58 
War, possibility of, botv/een England and 

United States, 39 

See also Civil War in the U . S , 
Ward, Henshaw, 103 
Washington, D. C, , 30 

dimorphic plants inliabiting, 77 

See also Fresh v;ater 
Sea water 
Water cure, 10, 28 
Watson, Hevrett Cottrell, 134 

aids Dan7in, 16 

convert to Darwin's vievrs, 18 

Dariivin's high opinion of, 9 

Gray's list of American genera 
sent to, 9 

list of British Flora, 122 

list of proportions of introduced and 
indigenous Compositae, Labiatae, 
Leguminosae, and Umbelliferae for 
Britain, 110 

notes of, sent to Gray, 9 

on variability of British agrarian 
plants, 5 

papers by, 8, 9 

table by, 5 
Wealden Period, denudation during 

Darv'/in's views of, 23 

Juices on, 23 
Wedgvrood, Hensleigh 

Dictionary, 30 

on design, 30 

reviews Max Muller, 130 
Weeds, Cooper on, 47 
Wells, Fargo 8o Co , Pony Express, 

stamp of, desired by Leonard 
DanYin, 42 
Welv/itschia, Hooker on, 92 
Western America, see America 
i.fhale, 18 

Whendall , (first name unknov/n) , 134 
White Mts- ,1,2 
Wilberforce, Samuel, 134 

reviev/ by, 2S 

ridicules Dar\7in, at British 
Association at Oxford, 27 
Wilkes, Charles, 39 

actions of, deplored, 93 
Wilmington, 67 

Wind fertilization, see Fertilization 
Wollaston, Thomas Vernon, 134 

on rarity of intermediate varieties, 

review by, 21 
lifoodpecker , adaptation of, 
Woodward, Samuel PictaTOrth, 154 
Worms , 6 5 
Tvright , Charles, see Diagnostic 

Characters of Nevr Species of 

Phaenogamous Plants collected in 

Japan by Charles Wright =, , , with 

Observations upon the Relations of 

the Japanese Flora to that of Nortlj 

Aiaerica and of other parts of the 

Northern Temperate Zone, by Gray 
Wright, Chauncey 

articles by, 97, 103, 132, 133 

Huxley to publish article by, 133 

letter on Orchids, 56 

reviev/ by, 35 

difficulty of rrriting good English, 
64, 75, 106 


Wri - Zoo 

Writing - cont'd 

from memory, 22 

more interested in observing than 
in writing, -'ise 
Wyman, Jeffries, 23, 134 

compliment by, 20 

Darwin's faith in, 79 

Darvvin's high respect for, 22 

on the Incas, 109 
Yellow fever, complexion and tendency 

to, 15, 129 
Zoology , 30 

compared vrith Botany, 5 
Zoonomia, see Danvin, Erasmus 



American Portraits, 1620-1825, Found in ^Jassachuaetts, 2 volSo 

A Calendar of the General Henry Knox Papers in the Boston Public Library . 
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Calendar of the Letters of Charles Robert Darwin to Asa Gray , 1 vol. 

Diary and Journal. 1755-1807, of Seth Metcalf , 1 pamphlet- 

Description of the Manuscript Collections of the Massachusetts Diocesan 
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Guide to Manuscript Depositories in Massachusetts , 1 vol. 

Index to the Hampshire Ga:sette , 1786-1937, 3 vols. 

Index to the Proclamations of Massachusetts , 1620-1936, 2 vols. 

Index to the Records of the Inferiour Court of Pleas for Suffolk County , 
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