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Libraries Stanford university LIBRARIES STANFORD 



















y/i z , &(s/^ yc^ij ^^ 







APRIL 1, 1781, TO DECEMBER 31, 1781 




Wm. p. Palmer, M. D., of Virginia, 

Under authority of the Logislaturo of Virginia. 



Sherwin McRae, 

Under authority of the Library Committoo. 







•>-*. • • . * ' i •" -,. 





Entered according to an Act of Congnu, 

Bt ths commonwealth OF VIRGINIA, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congras at Washington. 

APR 25 1898 


In eighteen hundred and seventy-two, Dr. Wm. P. Palmer was appointed 
by the General Assembly of Virginia to prepare a Calendar of the Historical 
Manuscripts in the capitol building, to be printed under the direction of the 
Committee on the Library. Dr. Palmer promptly entered on the discharge of 
this duty, and calendared the papers from December the 6th, 1652 (the earliest 
paper found in the archives), to the 31st of May, 1791, when the fiind provi- 
ded by the Legislature for the execution of the Calendar having been exhausted, 
and the health of Dr. Palmer failing from intense application to his duties, 
the work was discontinued. That so much was accomplished is fortunate, and 
that the work was confided to so competent a hand is not less fortunate. In 
1875 the Committee on the Library directed the first volume of the Calendar, 
as arranged and edited by Dr. Palmer, to be printed under his supervision. 

In eighteen hundred and eighty, the Committee on the Library directed 
the Libarian to appoint some suitable person to prepare for publication other 
volumes of the calendared manuscript. The second volume of the Calendar 
has been prepared for publication under this authority. The second volume of 
the Calendar extends, chronologically, from the first day of April, 1781, to 
the 31st day of December, 1781, embracing the most eventful period in Amer- 
ican history — indeed the history of the world — for within this period the 
problem of free government in its widest scope, consistent with stability, 
reached its solution. 

The papers contained in this volume and a part of the first, almost exclu- 
sively apply to the great crisis which immediately preceded the establishment 
of independence, and show in regular gradation the progress of events. These 
papers are original, and were written by persons who were actors in the great 
drama, the closing scene of which was the surrender of Lord Comwallis at 
York Town. 

On the 4th of July, 1776, the thirteen United States of America declared 
their independence — war was the struggle to maintain it — the capture of 
Comwallis established it, and thenceforward an independent people began the 
inarch of a century to eminence, and now stand in the front rank of nations. 


A period in which such events happened must form one of the great 
epochs in the world's history, and their record must ever chsJllenge the atten- 
tion of mankind. 

The Calendar being chronological, the preservation of iU unity recjuired 
that all the papers of 1781 not calendared in the first volume should be inclu- 
ded in the second. The accomplishment of this has swelled the second volume 
beyond its prescribed limits. 

The index, which has been prepared by the writer, it may be assumed, will 
not only prove to be useful, but indispensable. 

That this volume is a valuable contribution to American history will be 
readily seen. Indeed, no full and reliable history of Virginia and the United 
States can be written without a resort to these historical papers. 

The value of a work like this, depends on the degree of its accuracy. The 

perfect work demands the exact reproduction of the originals or their sul>- 

stance. Ordinarily there is no test of this requirement but time. In this 

case, in addition to the name of the editor, the critical revision to which this 

volume has been subjected, justiiies the writer in pronouncing it exceptionally 

accurate. The publication of this volume will, it is hoped, prove the value of 

these papers, and thus cause the speedy publication of the remaining part of 

the Calendar. 



On page 699, under the bead " CALLIS, COL. W. O.'', for what is therein printed, read: 

Tranaports went to Portsmouth, 2 days ago, and returned to mouth of Elizabeth river last 
evening; landed all their troops, and will return to New York; Col. Curie and 
H. Carter, prisoners on board 1 

On page 701, under head << CLARKE, QEN'L GEO. BOOERS," for << exploration" read 
*' expedition." 

7 7^.5 
V ?0 



John Tyler to Gov: Jefferson. 1781. 

" Sir, April Ist 

I bog leave to inform you that in consequence of being solicited to Charlos City 
ix^present this County again^ and my consent thereto, I have declin'd 
taking a seat in Council. I confess this determination discovers a degree Declines a 
of versatility in me; but since I have not withdrawn my small services (j^uyJcil^ ^ 
from the public, I hope you will not think me reprehensible. I have 
many goo<l reasons in addition to the above (which perhai)s have no 
right to a place here) that induce me to make this resignation of my 
scat in Council — 

I am with due respect — 

Yr: Excellency's most obedient servt." 

CoL: W. O. Callis to Brig: Genl G. Wbedon at Wmsburu. April ist 

" Sir, 

Since my last no material movement of the Enemy's Fleet has taken Hampton 
place. The Transports went up to Portsmouth two days ago, and Movements 
returned to the mouth of Elizabeth Kiver last evening. They landed ®^ *^® enemy 
all their troops and are now waiting for a fair wind (it is said on board 
the Flag ship) to sail for New York. Mr. Goodrich was coming on 
shore yesterday with a Flag. I happened to be on board of the Flag ship 
as he passed and informed him that no message whatever, from either 
the Army or Navy would be rec*d on this side: the business of the Flag 
wa.s to inform Col: Carter A Colo. Curios' Family that the Prisoners were 
immediately to be sent to New York & that Colo. Curie & Mr. II. Carter 
were much distressed for cash. The accompanying Letter is to inform 
Mr. Carter of the distressed situation of his son, which if you will be so 
obliging as to forward, you will confer an obligation on both — 

I have the honor to be with great 



1781. Capt: Ro: Gamble to Col: Da vies. 

April Ist " Doar Col, 

^^ ^n ^H ^^ ^^ 

Chesterfield "I am happy to hear your poHt is more iiuiepoudciit than was imag- 
ined, since t'will be in your power to render more essential service to 
your Country, than could be effected, was every order and regulation 
however trifling to be debated in Council and their approbation 
obtained, previous to its being executed. 

Loss of OfB- Of the very few Officers reported to be in the Southern Army, there 
*^®" is absent at Pr. Ed: with the Baggage 2 Lieuts. sickj absent, & gone to 
Virga., &c: 1. Capt: & 10 Subalterns. Several of which has the tour of 
Virga. to take, then to continue some months at the Sweet Springs pre- 
vious to their returning into sei-vice — 1. Capt: & 1. Sub. Pay M. now in 
Virga. & has been several weeks — 2 Subs, with Cavalry at Staunton — 
1. Capt: 1. Sub killed — This reduction is so great from the few reported 
in the S. A: that there cannot be more than J of Officers sufficient to 
command their Detachments" ; * * * * * 

With great esteem I am Dr. Sir — 

Yr: most Hum Servt." 

April Ist John Fitzgerald informs Gov: Jefferson he has received the letter 
Alexandria enclosing the Tobacco Notes by Mr. Custis, and has made the purchase 
of the Encyclopedic as desired. He will have a box maile in a few days 
and will take the first opportunity to forward them to Mr. Hunter. 

April Ist Majr. Genl Steuben to the Governor. 

Chesterfield He has just received a letter from Col: Banister informing him, that 

^' ^' the times of service of the Riflemen and other Troops under Gcnl : 

Muhlenburg will expire in ten days, and requesting him to take steps 

to send out a "relief" for them, if the present military force in tiiat 

quarter, is to be maintained. 

April 2nd LiEUT: Absolom Pollard to Gov: Jefferson. 

Hoods Requesting to know whether he is to be relieved from Command at 

that place, as the "term of duty" of his men will expire on the ninth 
instant; and as there is little use for these men, and the Carpenters 
working on the Fortifications will need the Barracks. 


Majr. Ricud. Claiborne to the Governor. 


Ho ha8 juBt received a peremptory order from Baron Steuben, to sup- April 2nd 
ply saddles and accoutrements for three hundred horse, and to lay in "a 
large Magazine of Forage at Petersburg'*. As this cannot by any means 
in his possession, be done, begs for a warrant on the Treasury for the 
sum needed for his Department — Money is absolutely wanted for "every 
operation'', and his V)usineBs must entirely fail unless it be supplied. 

Francis S. Lee refuses to qualify as County Lieutenant, and LeRoy April 2nd 
Peachey recommende<l by the Co. ("ourt, in his stead — Walker Tomlin Richmond 
chosen Colonel, an<l Geo. Glasscock 2nd Lieut: Col — V. Hodman, Major — County 

Major Claiborne to the Executive. 

April 2nd 

ti mates 


I have looked over my estimates, which I transmitted some time Bichmond 
since to the Assistant Quarter Master General, and find that th^y amount 
to Two hundred and thirty eight thousand, one hundred and twenty 
eight Pounds, five shillings, specie, or other money equivalent — This is 
for supplies required for the Southern Army. The pay of persons 
employed, — waggon hire and contingent expenses in this State for the 
Campaign of 1781. Whether the Estimates have been ma<le out in the 
same manner for the other branches, by which the proportions can be 
suscertained I submit to your Excellency. 

For immediate relief, the demands of this department requires for Financial es- 
Transportation, £3000. 

Wages, 2000. 

Manufacturee, 3000. 

Cavalry accoutrements, 3000. 
Forage, 2000. 

Contingences, 7000. 


Your Excellency will be pleased to observe that the fiemands of the 
Field business, is not included in the abov<» estimate, whi<di will at least 
amount to Ten Thousand Pounds. 

I have the honor to be, 

with the highest respect, &c." 


1781. Copy op a Communication prom the Va. Delegates to . 

April 2nd <sSir, 

Philadelphia The underwritten Delegates from the State of Virginia, have been 

informed that there are among the refugees taken by Capt: Tilly, com- 
manding hifl M. C. Majesty's ship "L'Eviello," on his return to new 
Port from Chesapeake Bay, a considerable number, who were formerly 

Disaffected inhabitants of Virginia — As some of these persons, according to the 
persons |^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ State, fall under the description of Traitorous Citizens, and 
consequently are not proper subjects of exchange, and others, although 
they do not fall under that description, may, if exchanged or released 
be very prejudicial to the State during the operations against it, by giv- 
ing information & counsel to the Enemy, and by their seductions among 
the people, the Delegates above mentioned wish that no steps may be 
taken for exchanging or releasing them, untill the fact shall liave been 
communicated to his Excellency the Governor of Virginia. With this 
view, they ask the favor of you Sir, to intimate this circuiristancc to the 
Commander of his M. C. Majesty's Squadron at new Port, and to obtain 
from him a list of the names of such of his Captives as were formerly 
inhabitants of Virginia. ****** 

April 2nd Brig: Genl: G. Weeden to the Governor — by Mr. Armstead, who 

waits upon his Excellency to arrange for the exchange of certain 

Williamsb'g He has sent a "Flag" to the Enemy, proposing an exchange of the 
Volunteers taken at Charles City Co. House, for an equal number of 
marines captured in Warwick Co. — Has also granted a "Flag" from 
Hampton requesting the delay of the Ship for New Nork, on board of 
which is Col: Curie, 'till the pleasure of the Executive is known, "respect- 
ing an Exchange of him, for Col: Allegood." 

April 2nd Doctor Nath : Pope, represents to the Executive, the difficulty he has 
Pay of Med. in making out his accounts against the Public Auditors for his services 
Officors j^g Medical Officer, and for those of his Apothecary; owing to the mul- 
tiplicity and variety of Orders he has from time to time received from 
the Gov: & Council. Although feeling authorized to charge at the 
rate of "350 Pounds of Tobacco pr: day" being more than he expects 
or desires, he agrees to receive "150 Ponds, of Toba. pr: day" with 
rations and forage: and that the State pay his Apothecary, or allow him 
"250 Ponds, of Tobacco, and he pay that officer out of the same, for his 


Major Godfrey Linitot to Col: Slaughter, at Falls of Ohio. 1781. 

(In French.) April 2nd 

He feels compelled, for the good of the State, to send Sergeant Simon 8t.Vincennp8 
Fletcher, express, to inform him of the condition of that Country, and 
the disposition of the Indians, in order that some remedy may be 
applied — The expedition to Detroit was a failure, and aid is now needed 
to keep their Indian allies faithful. He must rely upon Col: Slaughter's 
known generosity and friendship, to interest himself in behalf of a 
people and Country threatened with dire calamity unless promptly 
saccoared. He trusts his Express will meet with due compensation at 
his hands for the service he renders. lie awaits with anxiety an answer; 
and begs leave to add his grateful remembrances to Mrs. Slaughter, and 
to the gentlemen at the Falls, as he can never forget the kind offices 
done him, &c: 

J as: Barbour to the Governor. 

April 2nd 



I this day rec*d your orders to march our militia — we are now Culpeper Co. 
paraded & and shall march — I must once more beg leave to Trouble your 
Excellency, not for myself, but for some' of the "Divisions,'* who think 
themselves entitled to a discharge, for these Reasons — The Law for 
raising our quota of men for the Continental Army, directed all those 
of the militia that marched to Carolinia, tho' not returned, should be 
Clas'd — Several of our militia, who marched to the South, t hen engaged 
in Col: Washington's Regt. for the War. Now these Divisions that hold 
one of these men say that their Division have furnished a man, which 
is all tho Law required of them, tho* they have been drafted, I have not 
ordered those of that Description to march, until 1 can get your Excel- 
lencj'^s opinion, which shall govern. 

With great regard, your mo : obedient Servt." 

George Muter, Col: S. Garrison Reot., to Col: Wm. Da vies. 

April 2nd 

By the death of Lt: Colonel Porterfield, which occurred in Januarj' Richmond 
Iwt, a vac?ancy wat* occasioned in the State Garrison Regiment. The 
OflSeers of the regiment think they are entitled to the j)romotion conse- Promotion 
qaent upon that "unfortunate event/' (much himente<l by them all,)" 
from the time of its ocrcurrencc: Major Magill now in turn has made 
his application to him, which he trusts, together with the claims of the 
other Officers, may be considered by the Executive. 


1781. Brig: Genl: Phillips, to Maj: Genl: Phillips, Comdo: at Portsmouth. 

April 2nd 
Williamsb'g Requesting that the ship with American Prisonei^s about to sail for 

New York, may bo detained a few (hiys, ho exj>eeting authority for their 



Vinconnos The Commission granted him on account of his sincere attachment to 
the cause of the United States by his Excellency, has enabled him to 
carry out the policy of maintaining friendly relations with the "Ore- 
bache" Indians and other tribes: but for the future maintenance of this 
state of things the transmission of goods, powder and other articles 
Western will be necessary. These Allies now remain true and faithful, but unless 
ndians ^j^^^jj. ^yants are supplied, the English, who may afford them relief will 
succeed in engaging them on their side — The attachment of his Excel- 
lency to Virginia and her honour and interests should not permit those 
people to remain daily exposed to massacre on account of their fidelity 
to the State, for want of the necessaries of life, arms, powder &c: — On 
this account he earnestly prays, in behalf of them, and the honor of the 
State, that they may not be left to a cruel and uncertain fate. 

April 8rd Wm. Mann, C. M. Stores, TO Major John Pryor, Field Com. Mil. Stores. 

Now Gostlo Urges the necessity of a guard for the stores just arrived and on the 
way to that place, which he finds ^-deficient of every thing necessary" — 
Provisions exceedingly scarce and living very high — All the vessels 
employed greatl}^ in need. J)esires instructions as to whether he shall 
discharge them — 


" May it please your Excellency,*' 
Fairfax When the Enemy's vessels were cruise- 

ing up & down Potomac, the defenseless situation of the Town of Alex- 
andria, induced me, at the particular request of the Inhabitant^?* of the 
said Town k County, to aj)ply to the Governor of Maryland for the 
Application loan of some arms & ammunition. His Excellency was pleased to lend 
for means for ^^ ^^^,^ barrels of Gun powder, and two nine pounders, wiiich we have 
Alexandria got from Anapolis by land at the expence of a few individuals. We 
had before two twleve pounders at Alexandria belonging to this State. 


from the detorminod spirit of the people to defend the Town, I am 1781. 
satisfied that if these Cannon were put into proper Order, that we April 3rd 
should he able to prevent any of the small vessels doing any damage at 
Alexandria, and as it is proposed to have the Cannon fixed on travelling 
Carriages, we shall be able to move them to some place of safety, if a 
superior force should come up — The wheels for the Carriages are made 
to the Iron work, which will be completed this week — As it is impossible 
to get men to work without money, and it falling very heavy on a few 
by subscription, I am advised to apply to your Excellency for a sum of 
money from the Treasury to enable us to Ijarrj' this useful work into 
Execution. I have sent by the bearer Ralph Longdon, my Bond, with 
security for applying what money you may please to send by him, to 
the use of the publick — I have appointed a Company of Artillery at Co. of anil- 
Alexandria, which will chiefly consist of men that are exempt from ^^^^ 
militia duty. The Officers are Capt: Conway, Taylor, Ilarper & Rob- 
ertson, which I hope will meet with your approbation. 

On the 19th of March our Draught took place, for furnishing our Difficultiei of 
quota of men. Among others three classes were drafled. the men drafting 
cauie in the next day, and they appeared to me to be Invalids, and alto- 
gether unfit to do the duty of Soldiers. I did not receive the men, and 
accordingly drafled the three classes over again, the men whose lot in 
these fell on to go were dissatisfied at my proceedings, as they stood the 
Draft the evening before, they employed counsel and prevailed on a 
Court Martial which I had ordered to try some deserters, to determine 
the matter, the court were of opinion, that the second Draught was 
illegal. I have therefore submitted the matter to you, whether I shall 
send on the Invalids that were first drafled, or whether I had a right to 
proceed to the second Draft" — ♦ * * ♦ * 

'*On Monday morning last, before Day a small vessel came up to Alex- Capture of a 
andria, and attempted to cut out of the Harbour, a Baltimore vessel ^^**°*» *^- 
lying there loaded with Tobacco, they boarded the vessell and had 
confineil the men, but being discovered by another vessel in the Harbour, 
the Town was alarmed, which prevented the Enemy from cariying off 
llwj vesHcll they had boarded — they took a Boat alongside and got into 
their own vessel and proceeded down the River — A Schooner well armed 
4 man'd was sent after her, and I am this moment informed they over 
took her at Boyd's hole; took her and most of the men — some made 
their escape by getting ashore. The Enemy on Saturday morning last 
l>ttnit Mr. Stephen Stuart's House on West River, Marj'land — also a 
twenty gun ship on the stocks nearly finished. 

I am yr: Excellency's most obed: 

IPble Servt." 


1781. Capt: R. Gamble to Col: Da vies. 

April 3rd In regard to the "three boys ordered to the Laboratory, John Owens 
of Gloucester, Stubble Bowls of King & Queen, and John Carap of Bruns- 
wick — whom he overtook six miles from Chesterfield to register their 


Winchester The German Troops arrived there on the 5th ult:, and Col: Wood set 
out the same evening for Philadelphia, from which place he has not 
returned. The Guard Wagons &c: ordered in Maryland were furnished 
by the Co. Lieut: of Frederick, and he was about to march, but received 
orders from Col: Wood from Fredericktown to remain at Winchester, as 
the German Troops are to remain there. He has not discharged any of 
the Soldiei*s of the State Guard Regt: as he intended on his return from 
German the Potomac. As the Germans are to remain in the State, and the 

prisoners, &c ^^,.QQpy enlisted to serve only in Albemarle must be discharged, thus 
reducing the regiment to much less than a hundred men, thinks the 
whole had better be discharged — The Germans who are very orderly 
and easily governed will require only a small militia guard — lie will 
store the arms of the discharged men at Winchester, and proceed to 
Albemarle to arrange for their pay, clothing and shoes, for want of 
which, they are suffering very much. 


Camp His feelings for the sufferings of his men require him to represent the 

Deep Kiver "distressed situation" of his Command, for want of Clothing — When he 

Great want of marched from Virginia, his men were furnished only, with one shirt, and 

clothing QjjQ pj^jp Q^ over alls apiece made of oznaburgs, which lasted a short 

time — They are now so needy that Genl: Greene has consented to allow 

him to send Capt: Edmunds, with special orders to obtain clothing and 

he hopes his Excellency will take the matter into consideration. 


Philadelphia We have been favord with your Excellencys, enclosing a state of 

the affairs between Mr. Nathan and the Commonwealth of Virginia, 
which we are endeavoring to put in train for a decision, on the princi- 
ples you have been pleased to direct, the event of which yr: Excellency 
shall be informed of as soon as 'tis decided. The unfortunate consc* 


queuces which liave attended the naval engagement of Che8apeake on 1781. 

the ICth ult : we feel with unspeakable regret, as they have snatched April 8rd 

from us the pleasing proHj)eets we had cherished for some time past, of Effect ot na- 

frustrating the sanguine project of the enemy (of subjugating most ^^^rn I^^f 

the Southern States this CampaigiO and thrown our Country into a situ- Bay, &o. 

ation, which must require hor utmost exertions, with all the aid that 

can be sent her, to extricate her from. This we shall leave no means 

unessayeil to efl'ect, on our parts. The same unhapp}' event has deprived 

us of the use of the arms ami stores which were to have gone fi*om 

Rhode Island (the cargoe of the Comi're) on board a french frigate, but 

we have the satisfaction to Inform 3'r: Excellency, that they are safe 

arrived at this place in the Frigate which was to have carried them to 

Virginia. We have ordered them to be landed and have taken the 

necessary steps to forward them with all possible dispatch by a safe 

Route to Virginia — having committed them to the care of Col: Febiger 

under the direction of the Board of War. but it is with much concern 

that we find on this, as well as on many other occasions where we might 

yield considerable service to our country on pixjssing emergencies, the 

want of small sums of -money is frequently an insurmountable obstacle 

to a speedy execution of our intention — and the important matters which 

engage our attention in Congress interfere with the necessarj- attention 

required by such objects, when the ready means of executing them are 

not in our hands. Remedies to these inconveniences wo leave to the 

wisilom of Yr: Excellency and the Legislature. We have the Honor 

to be, 

Yr: Excellys. Most Obedt. Sei-vts:" 

Capt: Jas: Maxwell to the Ciovernor. April 4th 

" Sir, Sut6 

I l>eg leave to inform Your Excellency, that I hope by the latter ' ®^*P y^^^ 
end of this week all the publick stores will be removed from this place Disposition 

U> a store of Col: Dandridixes, distance by water from the Yard about ^^ *^® ^**^®** 

, - armed vossels 

13 miles, and since the late reinforcement of the Enemy have ordered 

the Ship Tempest k Brig Jeffei'scm up James River to Joyn those 
private arm'd Vessels that are taken into publick service, the boat 
Patriot and Lewis Gaily are stationed by Genl: Weden's directions 
between Hami)ton Road Jk Burwell's ferry to give signals to our Army 
or any Naval force of the Enemy's coming up James River — the ships 
Thetis, Tartar and Dragon are not yet got quite to their place of desti- 
nation — Since my arrival here we have lost our Builder by Death, and 
have employed another who apears to be equally capabell — 

# :|e 4c 4c 4c 

I have the Hohor to be most respectfully, &c:" 


1781. Major Richd. Claiborne to the Governor. 

April 4th "Sir, 

Richmond The great demands which are made upon me for things to bo fur- 

nished from this Department, both for the Southern Army, and the 
Troops within this State, alarm me more and more, as I have not the 
PerilousBtate means to answer any purpose whatsoever. I am called upon by the 
nenUl Ouar- ^^i^"^iftsary General of Purchases, and the Commissary General of 
ter Master's Military Stores for wagons & horses daily, to transport their stores, and 
Department j^j^y^ |^ j^q^^ |jj ,^^y power to procure any. The preparations which the 

Baron directed me to make for the Cavalry & Infantry to bo equiped 
in this State, cannot be done, as I have not money to purchase, and can 
not get credit for an article. I am altogether disappointed in the wagons 
to come from the Counties agreable to the late law, and get no assist- 
ance from Mr. Brown's Commissioners — In short, Sir, I plainly foresee, 
that unless I have great aid from some near resource, the operations of 
the whole department will stop in a few days — It is with great concern 
that I am obliged to mention this to your Excellency, but as timely rep- 
resentations are necessary for the public Interest, and my own reputa- 
tion, I am induced to do it. If Government will do anything to support 
mo, I intreat that it may bo done immediately, but should this applica- 
tion be unsuccessful, and the disagreablo consequences follow which I 
have every reason to expect, I hope Your Excellency & Council will bear 
witness that I have spared no time or pains to answer everything required 
of me, so far as it was in my power. 
Resigns his I take this early opportunity to inform Your Excellency, that 1 have 
^ ^® resigned the Appointment of Quarter Master for the Troops in this 
State. I accepted it merely to serve the Army and the States, but as 
the difficulties in public business increase hourly, I am sensible the Task 
would be too great for me. It seems very probable, that the Army will 
increase, rather than decrease; therefore it is highly requisite that an 
Officer should be immediately appointed to this duty. In hopes that I 
cou'd fill both Offices, I made out full Instructions for such pei*8ons as I 
proposed to appoint, and have them now ready. I have informed Colo. 
Carrington and Baron Steuben of this, and requested that a person may 
be appointed immediately, to whom I will give every information my 
exj)erience has taught me. I am sensible that a large sum of money 
will be necessary for this Department, and wou'd beg leave to recommend 
it to the Consideration of Your Excellency & Council. Mr. Elliott, 1 
believe, will return to his Post, as Assistant Deputy Quarter Master. 

I have the honor to be 

with the highest res[)ect 

Your Excellency's 

most obt hble servant." 


Robert Andhkws to Gov. Jefferson. 1781. 

"Sir, April 4th 

Your Favour of the 3lHt ult: addressed to Mr. Madison & myself, I Williamsb'g 

received ^^esterda}', & shall be prepared to tenter on the Business you 

have been pleased to propose as soon as the necessary Preliminaries arc 

.settled. I think no objection can be made to your mode of locating the C(»mTni.csion 

lioundary, as it is the only one which, without infinite Pains & Trouble l?^ « i^lv 
•^ ' •' ' tho Vti. & Va. 

can be in any Degree accui*ate. Before we set out, it will be proper to boundary 
know at what time tlie ('ommissioners of Pennsylvania will meet us at 
Pittsburg — & wo would request Your Excellency to inform President 
Koid, that the Time fixed on by them shall be observed by us. 

The lot having decided that I should go to Philadelphia, I shall have 
occasion only for two Horses, He must depend on the Public for them, 
having none fit for such a Journe}', or which I could venture to deprive 
my F'amily of at this Time. Mr. Ileade the (Quarter Master at this Post, 
on being properly authorized will undertake to furnish them. 
1 am Sir, with the greatest respect & esteem 

Your mo: obedt. & very hble ser\^t." 

Col: Arthur Campbell to Gov: Jefferson. April 4th 

For want of money to pay the men, he has with great difficulty sue- Co. 

eccded in patrolling PowePs Valley — this is due to the non-payment of Powell's 

the militia for their fonner services. Requests, that one month's pay for Valley 

these men may be sent by the bearer Capt: Kinsaid, who will give every 

security for the proper use of the money entrusted to him. 

George Rick, i}. Master, to (tov: Jefferson. ApriMth 

Earnestly appealing to the Executive for an advance of money to pay FeveriBh 

his del)t8 duo to the people of Albemarle Co. on account of 8upi)lies fur. 8^^.<>f ^he 

* * ' * public mind 

Dished tho Barracks by them. They hear of the new emission, and are m Albemarle 
now hopeful of receiving their long delayed payment, and a refusal will ^^• 
be considere<l tantamount to an absolute denial of their just claims. The 
effect of this upon the minds of a people, who have cheerfully done so 
much, and patiently awaited the action of the Government must neces- 
sarily be very disastrous in their present excited state of mind. Added 
to this is the threatened Collection of the Taxes; and the same strin- 
gency is ti) be visited upon them, as upon Counties heretofore declared 
<lelin<|uent, although they have ])arted cheei*fully with their wagons, 
forage and every arti(^le they couhl spare for the use of the Post, on the 
most mo<lcrate terms — More than this: when it was i'ound that the vol- 


1781. untary Contributions thus made would not meet the wants of the post, 
April 4th the polic}' of impressment was adopted by the Government; and they 
were left to encounter the most serious difficulties & losses, while others 
from whom little or nothing had been drawn, have had their Certificates 
either paid off at the Treasury or made receivable in Taxes. The imprt^s- 
sion that the post at the Barracks was under the immediate direction of 
the Executive, and that Congress itself would provide for the payment 
of all claims due the people for supplies, had established more than onli- 
nary Confidence in the Government, on their part. Under this influence, 
they have relied upon the Justice and honor of the Executive, and not 
upon any remote relief in the uncertain future. 

lie trusts his Excellency will excuse the zeal with which he urges 
this matter — Takes occasion to say that in the employment and hiring 
of the transportation, the wagons were assessed contrary "to the usage 
of every other mihtary post"; and the owners are now called on for the 
Tax upon such assessment, and " to the disgrace of this Oflice and the 
Iluin of Public Credit," he is not able to pay them that Pittance, or as 
much as will discharge the Smiths' account for shoeing their horses — 
As a consequence of all this the people are now offering to sell their Cer- 
tificates for cash, at a discount of fifty pr: cent. Their minds are in so 
excited a state, that were He to call on them " in the extremest want to 
supply me with waggons or any thing else," they would consider it an 
Trouble an- insult and refuse with disdain — Indeed he anticipates trouble in the Col- 
^o/f^t^ *" lection of Taxes, unless "the Publick set the example of payment" — In 
the taxes a word, unless he is afforded the means of paying off these debts, he will 
be forced to change his Residence, and leave them to some other mode 
of application — The sum of Four Hundred Thousand Pounds will be 
required: which if allowed him, he will at once set to work to adjust 
and pay these claims, and hold any ballance that may remain, subject to 
the orders of the Executive — Should his request be granted, he begs the 
WaiTant upon the Treasurer be given some preference, in view of the 
great demands upon that Officer. He cannot delay longer, as he has to 
remove the Baggage of the Germans, and to provide for equipping Colo: 
Whites Regiment of horse for field Service. 

April 4th CoL: Thos. Read to the Governor. 

Charlotte Co. 

Great scarei- He finds it impossible to arm the one hundred and fifty -six militia just 
ty of arms QI.J^Jp^»(^ [^y i^jj. Excellency to be sent to Genl: Greene — Not more than 
arms enough for a Sergeant's guard can be gotten in the entire County, 
because they were given to the militia who went to (ienl: Greene on the 
20th February last. The number of men too will be deficient, unless it 
is proposed to send off all remaining in the County, or require those now 
returning from service in the Southern Army to go back at once. The 


militia of Charlotte have ever been as prompt to respond to the call of 1781. 
duty as those of any of their neighboring Counties, but all the J'oung April 4th 
and unmarried men "have turned out voluntarily" and those left must Voluntocrp, 
remain to cultivate the lands '/for a prospect of bread the ensuing 
year" — Subjoins the following estimate to show the strength of the 
County at this date &c : 
^'Militia 565. Rank & file. 
342. now on duty. 


70 Volunteers with Genl: Lawson as Cavahy. 

153 Remainder. 

156 To be ordered to the Southward — 3 short." 

CoL: A. W. White, to the Governor, in reply to his request to have April 6th 
one, Epaphroditus Rudder arrested on complaint of Colo: Buford, for 
"some malversation as to a horse; publick property," and desiring 
him to countermand the Orders to persons impressing horses in the 

State, for the Ist & 3d Regiments of Light Dragoons. 


It would give him gi-eat pleasure to comply, but Rudder and the other Arrest of an 
Officers engaged in this business "have their orders from Genl: Greene, officer 
Commander in Chief of the Southern Army," and should any infenor 
Officer take such a liberty, ho would suffer the consequences ; and the 
precedent, he thinks, would be fatal to the Army in matters of perhaps 
a more serious nature. 

If Rudder has offended against the laws of the Country, or acted con- 
trary to instructions, or "deviated in the least from the character of an 
officer or a gentleman" his Excellency is assured, upon application being 
made to the Com: in Chief of the So: Army, due notice will be taken 
of it. 

Chas: Dick to the Governor, by Capt: Minor — applying for a War- April 5th 
rant for "One Hundred Thousand Pounds" for the use of the Gun 


Frederic 'ab'g 

"This sum sounds high, but it is not near equal to one thousand pound Wants of the 
in goo<l Times"— Workman's wages are from £15. to £35. pr. day, and ^"" factory 
could scarcely be gotten, except that they are exempt from all militaiy 
iluty. — Concludes — " I eou'd wish Your Excellency wou'd order a Letter 
to be wrot^j to the undertakers of the public Magazine, pressing them 
to finish it — It is now above 4 ycai^H since it was begun, and the upper 
part de-riign'd for Arms wouM Ikj of great ser\Mce to us in holding our old 
k new Anns as finished off, untill callM for." 


1781. Wm. Call Lieut of Prince George Co. to the Executive. 

April fith 

Richmond The Militia of Prince George County in the service are petitionin«r to 

Men needed be relieve*! by the 15tli, in order to plant their corn — One tliird of the 
t<> p ant corn ^^^^.^1^,^ force of the County is in the field; and have l>oen ever 8incc 
the present invasion began — Suggests that the proportion be reduced to 
one fourth, and that these be relieved once everj^ six weeks, instead of 
every three montlis as at j)resent, thus affording great convenience to 
the people, and not too mu<di diminishing the strength of the Ami}'. 

April 6th Major Rd: Claiborn TO toe Governor. 

Richmond "Sir, 
The Cont. Q. 1 yesterday received a Warrant from the Au<litor's Office, on the 

M. gets relief rpj.^j^^„,.y of this State, for two Millions of Pounds. 

1 beg leave to return Your Excellency and Council my particular 
thaidcs, for this additional instance of their attention to my department, 
and to assure them that every method shall bo taken, to dispose of the 
money with the greatest economy and Justice — 

I have the honor to be, 

with the highest respect 

Your Excellency's 

most obedient & limbic Servt." 


War Office 

The Estimates lately ma<le by Mr. Koss enclosed — Some think them 

too small. Requests directions in regard to Mr. Clark's proposals for 
Pt. of Fork the brick work at the Point of Fork — Col: White applies for clothing — 
He has not as yot executed the oinlers, directing the removal of the can- 
non at South Quay, but has engaged three teams in that neigh bo rlioo<l, 
and corresponded with Mr. Baker at that place, who thinks they can bo 

April 6th Maj: Gkn: W. Philips, by Saml: H. lladford, Aid de Camp, to Bruj 

Gen Weedon. 

Portsmouth "Sir, 

Policy of the The two "Flags," by Lt: Col: Mathews & Major Callis have been 

British Gen'l j^jjjiitted into this place & your Letters received by them, & I hope 3'ou 
will be convinced fi'om these Gentlemen's re])ort of my convei^sation 
with them, that I mean to pursue, during my stay in Virginia a conduct 
of the strictest liberality & humanity, & I do assure 3'ou, that nothing 
shall turn mo aside from such benevolent principles, but the rash & 


violent conduct, I have reason to fear may be taken up by your Gov- 1781. 
crnor, Council & Ilouse of Delegates. I hav^o rec'd on my arrival here, April 6th 
a Letter* signed by Mr. Jefferson, of so barbarous, excuse me for saying, Mr. Jeffer- 
Sir, insolent a nature, that it would bo unbecoming my Kank & situation, leuerrmi^'he 
to give any answer to it. I will, however declare to you Sir, that should resolutions of 
any part of the Savage threats, contained in that Letter, and the reso- neleirat«r 
lutions of your House of Delegates be put in execution, I shall consider 
Virginia as intending to carry on a peculiar War, abstracted from the 
General unhappy one, & I will trcHit the Colony accordingly — 

I enclose to you Sir, the copy of a Letter I writ some days ago to 
Genl : Muhlenberg res[)ecting an exchange of Prisonei's. & have rec'd for 
answer, that he must take the Commands of Major Genl: Steuben upon 
it — I will freely owmi to have looked upon this, as an evasive answer, & 
ha<i directed the jUMsoners to be sent to New York; but Major Callis 
delivering me your Letter, I immediately stopped the prosecution of the 
orders, which 1 hope will persuade you of the respect & regard I hold 
for you, and how much I (le])en(i on your honour. 

1 request you to undei-stand that by an exchange of Prisoners I mean Prisoners 

those American Prisoners of War, who are actually within our Lines & ^""j®*^^ ^^ 

' "^ exchange 

such as have been taken in Arms, gave Paroles to Brig: Genl: Arnold, 
to be opposed in Exchange, against all such British ^ Germans as may 
now be within the Province of Virginia Prisoners of War, comprehend- 
ing among others, some Dragoons, who were cast away on the coast; 
the men taken at Port St. Vincennes, with Lt: Governor Hamilton, such 
of the British & German Troops of Convention, as may be in any of the 
Goals of the Province, & to oppose Cols: Curio & Elligood for an exchange 
against each other. 

♦This refers to a letter from Gov: Jefferson to "the Commanding Officer of the 
British force at PorUmouth," dated " In Council March 24th, 1781." as follows: 


Some of the Citizens of this State taken prisoners when not in Arms and enlarged 
on parole have re|>ort€Hl the C<*ommanding Officer as affirming to them that they 
should be punished with death if found in Arms. This has given occasion to the 
inclosed resolution of the General A«senibly of this State. It suffices to observe at 
preijcnt that by the laws of nations, a breach of parole (even when the validity of 
the parole is unquestioned) can only be punished by strict Confinement. No usage 
has permitted the putting U) Death a prisoner for this Cause — 

I would willingly suppose that no British Officer had. ever expressed a contrary 
Purpose. It has however become my Duty to declare that should such a Threat be 
carried into Execution, it will be deemed as putting Prisoners to Death in Cold 
^lood, and shall be followed up by the Execution of so many British Prisoners in 
our pi»ssiession. I trust however that this horrid necessity will not be introduced by 
you, and that you will on the contrary concur with us in endeavouring as far as pos- 
sible to alleviate the inevitable miseries of war by treating Captives as Humanity 
and natural honour requires. The event of this Contest will hardly be effected by 
the fate of a few miserable Captives in War. 

I have the honor to be &c." 


1781. Respecting the Marines in your possession, I will enter upon an exchange 

April Cth for them, but the transaction must not he esteemed a precedent to pur- 
Marinos sue hereafter, as the Corps of Marines belong to the Navy, & exchanges 
must operate in future in that Department — 
Officers to bo I will moreover consent on my part, that all Oflicers, which hereafter 
pare ea may he nuule Prisoners of War, on either Side, shall he reciprocally per- 
mitted to return to their Friends on [)arole till exchanged. I am to 
request your immediate Answer to this Letter, & I refer to Major Callis 
to explain to you, my Sense of a number of civilities I have formerly 
rec'd in Virginia, <fe from you Sir, in particular. 

I am Sir, 

Your mo: obt., most Humble 


Want of ar- Urging the employment, at an}- cost of "Tin men" and "artistj^** 

tillery am- familiar with the prepanition of artillery ammunition, for which ho is 
munition ^ * "^ ' 

"pressed on all sides." The estimates made for carrying on the Labora- 
tory, of the highest importance, and no time should be lost in supplying 

April 6th Brio: Genl: G. Weedon to Maj: Genl: Puillips. 

Williamgb'g **Dr. Sir, 

PruptwitionB I had the honor of addressing you the 2d Inst:, since which 

for ozcbango ijavc been furnished with a list of British Prisoners now in Eichmond, 
who I would willingly exchange for an equal number of Americans; 
Soldier for Soldier, Seaman for Seaman, & Citizen for Citizen — Mr. Moss 
Armstead, who will deliver you this is authorised to ratify on my part, 
the Exchange of any number in said list, you may please to agree to. 

The Executive of the State have in many instances granted great 
indulgences to the Captive Officers of the British Army. An<l I would 
wish favors of a similar nature might be extended to such as are objects 
of eidargement on Parole — I moan those who are infirm and by the 
chance of war now separated from their Families. 

I have the honor to be with all Personal 
respect, yr: mo: obt Servt." 

April 6th DaVID lioSS TO CoL: Wm. DaVIES. 

Kichmond An Estimate for the equipment of the Virginia line, 4500 men is just 
put into his hands: Supposes it is intended for their complete fitting out 
for the next winter, and not for the present campaign. But as he thinks 


cksfante. aoctnina«nMa>7» Slid ni^>«riikibxKrr«»ay»u«'7M«Mi»tuTTf>«iaKk' 17^3. 
JIB tibc xrrtepiF of Tirrim& k* tftkf* the- £<i1a ii.i$ cunpuxriL <tffi<v;iiUhr ibc^ Xjftnl fkk 

•Kv«%iia£ihr- The ^jiitkii5^4>Q iKmditacaL erf liw Tnft»j«rr joia xhc ^^^\!!^^^^^ 

TCi^nire ihaA ih&ft eRsnaat^ W \m»t!td uoire XEpctt m^ua cun V )i*4. i^uoi ^>^^^<*<)f*^ 
«pi» vim is ucsxshdijr no&dM — H^^ i3uiik«^ '^ fixifi»zii i^Micain^ ^co* <!M)Tm«js 
fikoTK «aifts 4 vef3;Sv. -villi ^tiiriM ^aif«<» it <m1h> wovJi ndikv* aan ^usrcnMc 

Bust ocvne &c«izi tbc Xc«n^t;-rzi S^Uia<%v jo/d Uk- i«aft$«ciiL £ft^ ^^noK^Tu^ vk> 
time i5> to be ki^ — C^ ild> jkKV^azit Ti»<- <i$33T&4i3<t5^ sbvv&)d bo <)(«1 in M 

Jsi>: FioTi* TV* Ova: Ok^: SiJirt«vmL A|«i)Til^ 

The 0<>iiimi?tsk>iKTS Appi>i&t<?vi lo cxain:T>o ii^lo iho <VM»d«ict <^ OftfK;^ ln^^Mti^ 
Wm. S1UUUK41. %nd Jsjsti'S^ FruKis Mot^i>\ mv to nM^ ai IK>wxMeV Swi- Sic**^?^**** 
tloD on Sah River. — ^ whk-h juqt witiMiitjNSigi he mav waul :s^HiKt ;mw!«ii- <«w« 
ble. The T^pon of the trul to he 5iiMit to GifMil : Cburke j^ :skx^ ;ih$ |X«tf;l- 
ble : but jks thjii Offiix^r i^aikh ^t out ior the PaU» of Ohio belV^rv IM 
June, then? will (<e time to assemble the OommimoDei^ any i^imr of 
whvm can act. 

Col: Geo: Slaugher rvpliei^ to John Floyd, that h« cmnnoi ^t hi» wit- A|«il Tth 
neeses by the time specified, Ji>»eph Liiid«ay of Lexington^ Mr. l[a»liM^^ Lotti»Tillti 
son <^ BooDsborg and Col: Stephen Tri^ of Lincoln being too nunote 
to receive the notice — On this account deainw the tnal to be put olT 
until the 20th, 4 to be held at that place, when all his chief witne«K<s 
and as Capt: Robu Todd expects to leave as bean&r of an Exproaa to 
Fort Pitt. 

CoL: Thomas Rkad to the GovKaNoa. Aftf^l 

Giving the opinion of the Court Martial, resiKvting the maix'hinj^ of CharloHi Ci> 
the Militia ordered t*> join Gcnl: Itivone and asking Airt her ordorn in the 
premises — He begs to add, that at the late approai^h of Lord Cornwalliis AoUtIIj^ of 
the whole of the militia ordered had marched ; many of whom wore ^ »llit»*» 
^thout arms, because the}- could not be gotten — As Genl: Gn^eno could 
^ot supply them, many were sent back to their homes, so that the entir\> 
force of the Countj-, including those near Portsmouth had '•performed a 
^^'Ttt of duty*' in the field — Nevertheless should the order for sending 
^^ "156 men to the Southward" be repeateii, it shall be obeyed. 



1781. Capt: Edmund Bead, informs the Governor, that by a letter received 

April 7th from Col: Skinker of King George Co. this morning, he learns that two 

Port Boyal, large Sloops and three email vessels of the Enemy had come up to Hooe's 

Caroline Co. perry, landed first on the Maryland Shore and did much mischeif, then 

Depredations crossed the river, and burned all Mr. Hooe's Houses, carrying off his 

of the enemy negroes and stock — TJndor these circumstances, he has determined to 

march at once to the assistance of the people, although his horses are 

very poor, hoping with the aid of "Gentlemen volunteers" of that place 

to drive off the plunderers. 

April 7th Wm. Campbell Aid db Camp, TO Gov: Jbfferson. 

Camp near " Sir, 

°^ I am honor'd with yours in Council of the 30th ulto. relative to the 

relief of the Militia, which I sincerely wish was arrived, — as it will be 
impossible to detain these in the field above a few days longer with our 
DeBertions utmost endeavors ; they already begin to be much dissatisfied, and deser- 
tion prevails apace — 

A number of the enemy's transports sailed yesterday & the day befoi'e. 
*tis said they are gone for New York to take on board a further rein- 
forcement to be commanded by Sr. Henry Clinton in person — ^thoy are 
Bnemy at indefatigable in strengthening & augmenting their works at Portsm'h, 
Portamoath ^^^ from every information I can gain, their intention is to make it a 

place of arms, & transferr the seat of War to this State. 
Nelson's dra- this will be delivered by Lieut: Armstead of Nelson^s D'goons, who 
SO^^'^ goes up to sollicit a supply of Cloathing & necessaries for the Corps, which 
they are in the utmost want of, notwithstanding they were ordered in 
by Genl: Greene from the Southward to refitt. — they have never as yett 
received any Boots or Breeches, and although very unfitt to take the 
field, they have been doing very severe duty with the utmost chearful- 
Genl: Muhlenburg's indisposition prevents him from writing." 

I have the Honor to be (by his com'd) 
- your Excy's most obt Servant. 

April 8th J' Prentis to Gov: Jefferson. 

WilUamsb'g "Dear Sir, 

Besigns his The great inconvenience that has arisen to my private avoca- 

MMt in the ^iQ^g from a daily attendance at the Council Board, has impelled me to 

resign the Appointment — I must therefore request the favor of Your 

Excellency to transmit the enclosed Letter of resignation to the Speaker 

of the House of Delegates — Permit me to tender my respects to yourself 

and the Gentlemen of the Board, and to assure you, that I am with 

great respect, 

Yr: Excelly*s most obt & most humble Servt — " 


Col: J. H. Brooks to the Goversojl 1781. 

April 8th 
The draft for the Continental Service is over, and all the men collected, Fauquier Go. 

delivered to Major Willis — Some still remaining in the County who were 

sick, but will be sent down as soon as possible— others will require to be 

compelled to march — The Beef, Clothing and Waggons required of the 

County will be duly delivered — Lieut : Col : John Blackwcll, appointed 

Deputy under Mr. Brown, will attend to delivering the Cattle; will send 

the wagon to the Q. Master at Fredericksburg and take charge of the 


Wx. Davsnport to Gsnl: Wksden. April 8ih 

"Dr. Sir, Newport 

I find that the Eegulation of the Troops of this post will be ^^"^ 

attended with some Confution Except some person can in writing, orders, 
have the whole direction. Capt: Kelly's orders only mentions that the 
detachments from the diferent Countys shall act in conjunction with 
him. Capt Wells of Warwick County, has marched his men within Insubordina- 
Three miles of Camp, and Eefuses to march them any lower, unless he ^^° 
thinks proper, or can see some orders to Comm'd him. I sent to him 
this morning and ordered his Cavalry to Join mine, and his In&ntry to 
Join Capt: Kelley — he sent me for answer, that if my Orders ware in 
writing from you, he should obey them, and not otherwise. 

A Small Sloop left Portsmouth last night, and came Two, of the point 
this morning, got under way and stood up James River, the Patroit at 
the same time was standing down, the latter gave chase and soon come 
up with the Sloop. They Amediately Ingaged, and was fighting upwards 
of Two Ours — 

The Patriot Twise attempted to Bord the Sloop, but fell Through in Capture of 
his attempt, the sloop cut away his main halliards and his Main Sail ^ ®**^® p 
fell to the deck, the patriot cut a way the sloops peek tey. the sloop triot 
Run a long side the Patriot and fired a Broad Side in her. She Amedi- 
ately struck, and the men from the Sloop Borded her. they are now at 
anker of Francis James and seem very Bissey fiitting their Sales, the 
men on bord the Patriot behaved very spirited — the Sloop has a large 
number of men on bord. 

There is a small Yessle in a Creek opposit to the place that they now Watching 
lay— they sent a boat allmost to the mouth of the Creek, and it has *^® enemy 
Returned. Should they attempt to send in for her, I will send them up 
prisoners to you before day, or shall be much disceaved — 

I will thank you to give the bearer an Order for some paper, as it is 
out of my power, to get a sheet at this place — 

I am with Respect Yr: Obt: Sorvt:" 


1781. P. S. "I think it would be necessary for to Receive my Countersines 

April 8th from you, in case I should send to you in the night — half a dozen at the 
time if you think proper." 

April 8th Brio: Genl: G. Wkeden TO Gov: Jefferson. 

Williamsb'g "Dr. Sir, 

Movements I am honored with a resolution of Council of 4th Inst: & your 

o T^ooips pj.cviou8 Letter directing the disposal of the Militia, & have lodged 
orders at Ilanover Court House, for the Commanding Officers, who are 
directed to cross James River at Sandy Point & join Genl : Muhlenberg. 
The men from Frederick & Berkeley have ordered to join me, as from 
frequent application, have been obliged to discharge those men drawn 
out from this part of the Country, as also those from Gloster — " * * ^r 
Character of " When I wrote to the British Genl. at Portsmouth on the subject of 
to'tfe^ritUh Exchange, I did not particularize, or even CQmmunicate a wish in favor of 
General in any Individual, as your Board may see by my Letter 2nd Inst: & Copy 
c^ees ^*' ^^ which is inclosed, leaving the List for exchange entirely to the execu- 
tive; nor can I with any propriety ask any enlargement for any particu- 


lar person, without incurring the displeasure of those who would remain ; 
as a request of that sort would not only carry marks of partiality with 
it, but might, if granted, be considered by the British Commander as an 
obligation. I therefore, in my letter of the 6th Inst:, which accompanied 
Armstead's Flag, only hinted at the justness of such a favor; it having 
been in many instances, granted the British Prisoners, leaving Mr. Arm- 
stead to mention Col: Curie, as the object of the Hint — ^Nor could I dic- 
tate a Parole to Col. Curie. I am persuaded, he will sigh nothing deroga- 
tory to his Honor, or the Laws of the State. I yesterday rec'd from 
Major Genl : Phillips, answer to my Letters of 2nd by Major Callis — 
Copy of which I have the honor to enclose. It would seem by Genl : 
Phillips' Letters, as well as by the resolution of the Executive, that I 
had officially proposed Col: Curie against Col: Allegood — I beg your 
Excellency however to be satisfied, this was not the case, & further that 
I have not, nor will I concern with matters of this sort, but on a just & 
liberal Scale, first authorized by the Executive or Commdg. Officer. 

I would wish at the same time to encourage the reciprocal advantages 
arising to each Side, in Liberal exchanges, it also seems to bo the desire 
of Genl : Phillips, and as the List sent in by Mr. Armstead will not lib- 
erate the whole of our prisoners in their Hands, can I not be authorized 
to assure the British Genl: that on sending the whole of them out, that 
were taken in arms, an equal number shall be sent him, as soon as they 
can be marched from the Back Country? 
The enemy The Enemy are making the greatest preparations for a move. It is 
aboatto ^^^ ^ Junction w'th Ld: Comwallis is the Object, if so, the doubt is, 




whether they will attempt it, by the Great Bridge, Cape Fear, or up 1781. 
James River & by Petersburg — April 8th 

All their ships are gone out, except a few that lay in Elizabeth River. 
I have the Honor, to be with high Esteem 
yr: Exeelleneies Most ob Servant. 

Ro: Wooding County Lieut: to the Governor. April 8th 

Halifax Oo, 
As soon as he was put in Command of that County, he enquired into CommiBsionfl 

the Condition of the militia, and finds the greater part of the Officers ^^^^^ 
were serving under recommendations and appointments merely, but 
without Commissions — Under this state of things they would not be 
liable to punishment, if derilect in duty. He therefore begs to be sup- 
plied with a number of Blank Commissions, especially as the Order for 
Marching a reinforcement to Genl : Greene will be put into execution at 
once — ^He is greatly in want of paper. 


"Mr. Blair will be pleased to inclose two dozen blank Commissions to 
Colo: Wooding. 


Ed: Butleb to Col: Da vies. April 8th 

He has sent a wagon and team as ordered to Mr. Southall, but he Hanover Co. 
returns " her as insuficient " — no better one can be gotten in the County. 

Saml: Huntington, Preset of Congress, to Gov: Jkfpkrson op Va. April 9th 

Enclosing Act of Congress of 8th Instant, recommending to the Execu- Expected in- 

tives of Delaware, Maryland & Virginia to take immediate steps to remove v*«»on.<)i ma- 
all public stores, provisions, forage public & private, except what may be ginia, &c. 
necessary for the inhabitants, from the Peninsula between the Delaware 
and Chesapeake Bays, to prevent their falling into the hands of the 
Enemy — Horses should be added — This is occasioned by the intelligence 
from New York, threatening a move on the part of the Enemy upon the 
above mentioned Country. 

HsNRT LsE Co: Lieut: to Gov: Jefferson. April 9th 


On the first Instant, a small schooner Vessel, tender to the Trimer Prince Wm. 
privateer belonging to Groodrichs Company with 21 men, commanded by 


1781. #>ne iMckAon went op to AlezAiwiruk &iid in the night mnemffUd to cut 

ApifM ^th f^t before the Town x vemtl belonging to Baltimore, fiortmutfelj tikej 
Cufiae^ of » were dtACorered JUkd the wind efaanging. presented their soeceedin^. 
Y«i4»^ mmI ^^^y imrned lately made off down the rirer. and were pursued by two 
Imt fMOi ArmHfl VfovkeU, and owing to a faToorable north west wind was taken 
Yfeifrm they got to the Trimer wx-h with the -^Sapprise" and another 
ftloop of War laid at Cedar point, belonging to the same Company — As 
Aoon %n the Schooner found she most be taken, the men took to their 
(K>atA and landed on the Virginia side of the Biver. 16 of them were 
taken by the inhabitants, 8 of whom were sent to Fred'sborg, from 
whence I hear they are sent to Winchester, the others were sent up in 
the vessel that pnrsaed them, to Alexandria and are confined in that 
Th«ir depre- JoaK Among them is Dickson. The Privateers as they came op, took 
th5 wsT*^ thirty negroes and the overseer, from a Plantation of Consellor Carters, 
at Coles* Point in Westmoreland, and have Plundered the Houses of 
MfTSsres Gerard Hooe, John Washington, and many other persons of all 
their furniture k other valuable Effects, and taken off some negroes. 
On Friday last in the night (we had an acc't yesterday from a man from 
Mafyland) they went up Port Tobacco Creek, and there did great dam- 
age: Plundered the houses of Mr. Walter Hanson, Mr. Neale--carried 
Mr. Neale off and also a son of Mr. Hanson — Plundered the house of 
the i'riest and many others. Mr. George Dent's houses, they burnt, 
and a fine stallion and two chair horses suffered in the flames. Mr. Law> 
son, Manager to Colo: Tayloe's Neabsco Iron Works near me, lost also 
a vessel loade^l with 100 barrels of com : was taken from Nanjamy. On 
receiving official notice from the County Lieutenant of Stafford that the 
Enemy were making up the River, and the Town of Dumfries with the 
Warehouses on Quantico Creek might be their object, and that the 
BtSM uken Inhabitants might be secured ag'st these Plunderers, I immediately 
to vhwsrt onlerod ^11 the militia that could be armed, to rendezvous at the mouth 
of Quantico, and them having been there two days about forty then on 
duty — if the Enemy do not appear on the shifting of the wind, which 
being this two days at North west and ag'st them — I shall only keep a 
few look outs, if the Enemy had succeeded at Alexandria they intended, 
Mount Ver- one of the Prisoners says, to have burnt Grcnl: Washington's Houses, 

nonandGun- plundered Colo. Mason and myself, and endeavoured to have made me a 

lion Hall . * ,*..*,, . 

ibresUnod prisoner — As the Act of Assembly impowers you to raise any number 

of horse, it would bo advineablo to order a few horse to bo raised in the 

difforent Countys on Potomac, and Constantly Keep in pay to give notice 

of tlio inovoniontH of the Enemy from time to time, w'ch would bo of 

nnuiKing utility and Quiet the Inhabitants in their Possessions, and save 

many famiiyH from being Plundered — I hope to receive your Answer by 

the roturn of the Post with such orders as you may Please to give, w'ch 

nhnll 1)0 implleitly obeyed by 

Yr: Excellency's most obt. Servt." 


Col : Davios recommends to the Executive, that, as there is a good deal 1781. 

of work done at Dinwiddle Co. House " for the public," and as a good April 9th 

Blacksmith is much wanting there to complete the wagons, Mr. Harda- War Office 
way can be employed to do that work at 4 shillings pr. day. 

Majr. Rd: Claiborne to the Governor, — enclosing exti'act of letter April 9th 

from M. Lafayette. 

I have received the extract from the Marquis' letter respecting Bichmond 
wagons to transport ammunition, with an order affixed from your Excel- 
lency to take measures to answer the demand. 

However easy it was for your Excellency to Issue such an order, the Failure to 
businesses attended with so many difficulties that I am very fearful it Fp^^p*-. 
will not be in my power to comply with it. I beg leave to recommend tion 
to your ExceUency my situation — I have failed in all my endeavours 
towards obtaining the wagons, agreable to the late provision law, that 
were to have been in actual service long before this! I am disappointed 
in the Waggons that were to be Brigaded by the County Commissioners 
agreable to the orders of the Executive, and I have not a farthing of 
money! It is true that I have obtained a Warrant upon the State 
Treasury for a sum, but it has availed me nothing: I have made 
daily and almost hourly applications, but without success. Thus cir- 
cumstanced, and having no public Waggons in the State, but what are 
already appropriated, and that very necessarily: I ask Government for 
aid, or I must decline the attempt, as I have no possible prospect of 
accomplishing the business. 

I have the honor to be 

with the highest respect & esteem, &c" 

Extract &c. 
Annapolis April 4th 1781 — 

^'I hear that Genl: Greene is in want of ammunition, and am going to Artillery for 
send on four field pieces to him, with twelve hundred rounds, and near ^°* ^'®®'^® 
one hundred thousand Cartridges — Gov : Lee has promised to have them 
forwarded to Fredericksburg, where I hope they will meet horses and 
Waggons provided, as their speedy arrival at the Southern Army may 
prove to be of essential service." 

In Council April 9th 1781. 

Major Claiborne will be pleased to take measures for the transporta- 
tion of the above — 


(A. Copy) 


1781. . Col: Henry Towles, to the Executive. 

April 9th 
Lancaster Co Recommonding, that Mr. Wm. Chowning bo exempt from pa3rment of 

the "specific Tax," inasmuch as he has lately been plundered by the 

enemy — 

AprillOth CoL: Da VIES TO THE Executive. 

War Office Drawing attention to the inxsgularities of the pay department, by 
Pay Depart- which many discharged soldiers have not received their dues — Suggests 
™®**^ that a stipulated sum be placed in the hands of a good officer to pay off 
these arrearages, and recommends Capt: Hamilton for this duty. 

April 10th Col: Wm. Christian to the Governor of Virga. 

Mon^omery "Sir, 

^' About the first of March Major Martin called on me, on his way from 

Genl : Greene's Camp, to the Great Island, and delivered me a Commis- 
sion signed by the General, a copy of which I now enclose to Your 
Indian affairs Excellency. Major Martin requested me to write to the Warriors upon 
the subject; which I did, and we concluded that it would be well for 
Colonels Arthur Campbell, Col : Shilby, Col : Severe, and Major Martin, 
who all live convenient, to endeavour to put the Business in motion. I 
have lately received a letter informing me, that they met at the Island 
on the 24th of March, wrote a letter to the Cheifs, and sent off an Indian 
with their Letter and mine; an answer to which is expected the latter 
end of this month. They also wrote to the Chickasaws, and desired an 
Answer in four months, but report says we can expect no Peace with 
Col. Sevier that Nation while we maintain the Post at the Iron Bank. Col: Severe 
^^C^lu^.* with about 180 Men on Horseback from Washington in Carolina, made 
saws an Incursion into the middle Cherokee settlements early in March ; sur- 

prised one Village, at which he tilled & took some of their People, and 
plundered two other Villages, which the People evacuated. With the 
Prisoners, perhaps twenty women & Children, Some Horses and Goods 
he hastened back, before the Warriors could Assemble. About 100 
Cherokee Families is said to be subsisted in Georgia. People of all ranks 
appear to have a desire to encroach upon the Indian Lands: this will 
throw great obstacles in the way of a Treaty. They have been iUtreated 
on the one Hand, and caressed on the other, so that I have very little 
hopes any thing can be done with them. The only great Inducements, 
the Indians can have for treating : are for us to do them Justice respect- 
ing their Land, and to subsist their Families this Summer. As to the 
Land, Virginia is but little concerned. 


Last night Your Excellency's Letter was delivered me, and I appre- 1781. 
hend some Difficulties may arise in the two Appointments, if the Indians April 10th 
should meet at the end of this Month. If a Meeting is brought about, 
great Expence will attend it, and I cant see what will be done without 
money, unless Your Excellency has ordered some to be sent up. For Loss of State 
should but Twenty Indians meet, they can't be subsisted a Day upon the ^' * 
credit of the State. 

1 am Your Excellency's most ob Servant." 

Col: Wm. Pbbston to Gov: Jefferson. April loth 

He had. received, on the day before, his Excellency's letter and other Montgomery 

Papers by the hands of "Wheeling the Messenger": and was then on ^* 

his return from Montgomery Co. House, where he had been engaged Inglisi' 
with the Magistrates and Militia Officers, in laying off the County into Ferry 

Districts, preparatory to raising the quota of Troops for the Continenal 
service: and at the same time had given the Orders for raising the men 
required for Genl: Green's Army. He is however apprehensive of great Difficulty of 
difficulty in carrying out those measures, because "the Officers & men J^^"^ °^^' 
have been so harrassed with hard duty for near a year past *' that they 
complain for want of time to provide for their families — 

Should the Cherokees be inclined to treat, which he doubts, "the great 
distance to the Big Island ", his infirm health, and engrossing care of the 
Militia at this juncture, will he hopes excuse him from "attending on 
that business.'' 

With the "Return" of the strength of the Militia of Montgomery, 
which he will soon forward, he will send to his Excellency a Justification 
of his conduct in carrying the Militia to North Carolina, in February 
last; as he hears "illiberal reflections" have been made against him by 
gentlemen down the Country, who perhaps are as ignorant of the facts, 
as they are of the duties of a Militia Officer. 

Capt: Edmd. Read to Gov: Jefferson. April loth 


Since my arrival on this River, the Enemy has not attempted to Boyd's Hole 
hand on the Virginia Shoar. they did great damage in many places on *° I^otomac 
the Maryland Side of the River — burnt and Destroyed wharever they Enemy's 
'^ent, took off the whole of the Tobacco at Ceeder point, opposite Hooe's f ^'^Jl **l^d 
Ferry. On Sunday evening the Enemy's vessels fell down from Ceeder 
Point about 30 miles, they this morning appeared against Mr. Hooe's, 
^hare I was posted with my Dragoons & some few Militia, and I followed 
^^m along shoar to this place whare the Militia of this County (King 
^rge) ia Posted. The whole of the Fleete amounted to two twenty 




1781. four Gun Ships, two Eighteen & six Transports & Tenders — they seem 

April 10th to be crowded with men. the made no stop at this place, but stood up 

Strength of the River for Eilexandery. I think it my Duty to Lend every Assist- 

foKie*^™^ * ance to the militia on this River, and shall continue with them (in as 

poor order as my horses are in) untill they arc disbanded, or your orders 

to the contrary. The militia Imbodyed at this place is abt two hundred 

& 60 only that has armes. 

I have the honor to be Your Excellency's 
mo: obt. hble servant." 

April loth Major Alex : Dick to the Governor. 

Camp Ever- He had received a letter from Col: Muter, saying the **threc State 
^^^ Regiments wore to be consolidated into one, the oldest Commissioned, 

Officers to remain in Command. Ho is thus entitled to a Command, 
AflkB for pay, should this arrangement take place — Begs for a duplicate order on the 

Cont*l Paymaster for his pay, having lost the original when the Enemy 

came to Richmond. His expenccs more than double his pay, at the 

present rate of depreciation of the Currency. 

April 10th RoBT. Walton TO Gov: Jefferson. 

Prince £d- Sending him a Draft, drawn by Genl : Greene in his favor, for one hun- 
ward Ck). ^^^^ ^^^^ twenty six thousand pounds James River Tobacco, for horses 
delivered by him "for the use of the Legion," which were horses pur- 
chased by him for the Continental Delegates of the State of Georgia," 
who he expects will soon bo on "to endeavor to have themselves re-elected 
in their own State" and will expect to receive of him their horses. A 
cash draft on the Treasury will answer, as he intends laying out the 
money at once in horses. 

April 11th J. Skinker TO Gov: Jefferson. 


Boyd's Hole I rec'd your Excellency's Letter by Express Thursday morning 

last, directing mo to send 114 men from this County to Williamsburg to 

perform a Term of Duty, late the same Evening I rec'd a Letter from 

Col: Stith on Potomack informing me that 3 largo Schooners and some 

smaller Vessels of the Enemy were opposite Hooe's Ferry, they came 

Depredations too, and about 8-o-clock at night, landed at Mr. Garrard Hooes, plun- 

^^ * th ^^^ dered his House, and what they could not carry away, they uttterly 

ginia side destroyed, they also took off 4 of his negroes and set fire to his House, 

w*ch the Capt: of the Gang permitted the overseer to extinguish, they 

y'n proceeded a few miles up the river to Mr. Eobt. Washington's, where 


the same horrid scene was again renewed with every agravating cir- 1781. 
cumstance that can be conceived, they carried off 4 of his negroes and April 11th 
destroyed almost every article of his Furniture that Gent: was possessed 
of; they y'n returned on board, and the next day landed on the Mary- On the Mary- 
land Shore, and proceeded to Mr. Dents where (as we heard a good deal ^^ 
of firing) they were opposed, but without effect, as we soon discovered 
all that Gent's fine buildings in flames, their next object was the Roman 
Prints House, w*ch they robbed of every thing they could carry off, 
and y*n went to Mrs. Hansen's, whom they also plundered. Their Ves- 
sels y'n returned down the River and came too, off Cedar Point, they 
landed and were opposed by a small party of militia, tho' I apprehend 
without much effect, as I am informed they took of the Tobacco that 
was in the Warehouses at that place. Sunday morning they proceeded 
down the River, and was in hopes that I sh*d be able to discharge the 
militia and comply with your requisition, but before that took place, I 
rec*d an Express from Colo. Washington, informing me that several large 
ships were coming up Potomack. in a few hours after we could distin- 
guish 3 lying at Anchor, where they continued, as the wind was strong 
agst: them 'til yesterday morning, when they got under way and pro- 
ceeded up the River, they consist of 4 ships, none less y'n 20 Guns, Strength of 
two Brigs and two Tenders. As the wind was fair I do imagine they ^t^ndji 
would get up as high as Dumfries yt. Evening, it is generally conjee- prehensions 
tured Alexandria is their object — On their return, I am apprehensive we w**"*™"^ 
shall receive a visit from them, and am really sorry to inform your Excel- 
lency, that not a third of my militia have arms fit for service — it has 
never been in my power to procure the 150 Guns, you sent me an order 
for on the Managers of the Factory at Fredericksburg — ^As the scitua- Necessity of 
tion of the Inhabitants of Potomk. is very alarming & distressing and f^^"*S^ 
we have near 30 miles of County to protect from the depredations of &c. 
these Pirates. I beg your Excellency & the Council w'd take the matter 
under consideration & countermafad the order for sending 114 men with 
Guns, (w*ch is impossible to spare) from this County. I am now encamp'd 
at this place & shall continue 'til the ships return down, we are endeav- 
oring to secure the public Tob. w'ch is very considerable, and I think in 
great danger, as the Houses are on the edge of the bank, and their ves- 
sels can come within 150 yards of the shore. I am under the greatest Capt. Read's 
obligations to Capt Read and his Troop of Horse, who on informing him ca^^l'y 
of my scituation immediately Join'd and is now with me, and I do expect 
if the Enemy sh'd land, will render us very essential service. I shall be 
highly obliged to your Excellency to write to me by the return of the 
Express — 

I am Sir, with great Esteem yr: Excellency's 

mo: obt: & Hble Servant." 


IT^l. CfpL: jAMn CaLLAWAT to the GOTKKSOft. 

Apr:": Ildi 
tiMiwfi In f^k^Unwte to hMtmetioeM from the Execatire, has ordered out the 

thTfw hont-ired aad «tehtj men to join the Soathem Annj ; hot as informa- 

tioR KaA r^ttehed him that GenJ : Greeike » so far Sooth, that It wiU be 

Wmt^tMM %ka^0it impoiwibfe tiyr them to reaeh him in time, he hegK to ffoggest that 

tk^ ttif^ he idlfpirtA to remain at home at this ii^rticiilariy important 

I>etv>d of the j^sa^, *» ^^f*^ to attend to their crope^ Ac. — Bj Col: Lynch, 

who M jtMt from Genl: Greened Hd: Qoarters at Deep Rirer, about one 

rAwn-wtHi'm hniAnA and fortj milen d^dant, he learui that Ld: ComwalUa ''had 

paAd : CrrMML*reek on hL» waj to Wilmingt#»i.'' before he left there. Mr. 

Efrinj^ the '^Exprem'' -^nds himself a hor«e and pajrff his own expeneefl/' 

Hopeft he wiD reeerre adequate paj for his serriees — 

Afvfl lllh CoL: Wm. Davus to thx (tOTI&SOB. 

War Ofce Asking instmetions as to recorering an amoant of powder lent the 
Continental Service, now needed for the use of a Prirateer. 

Afirfl llth Wm. Haj informs Col: Davies he has despatched an Express to tra- 

KehsMHl Terse the Coantry about the Lead Mines in search of that article^ bat 

Wsat^kad as he has not retnmed, does not know how much can be gotten. He 

has two thoosand poonds of Powder in Manchester, which should be 

sent to Westham— other articles also, R4^>e, Fhnts Ac — all which should 

be handed over to the Commissary of Mil: Stores. 

April llth W. Bbown S. C. M. Stoees to Col: Datibs. 

ffrAnmhctt^ Urging the removal of the Stores from New Castle, and derfring Capt : 
'^' Pryor to send some one to take charge of them — ^There are fifteen can- 
non at South Quay, but no other stores — He sent a return of the Mus- 
kets at Dinwiddle Co. House, as also an aceC of the work done at that 

April llth Garmt YhMxtke Col: CoMa TO Gov: JxFrKBSOir. 

Hsnmhire He has just received his Excellency's letters of the 26th k 27th ult: 
requiring two hundred and forty two of the County Militia to march at 
once to WUliamsburg, but apprehends difficulty in executing this order. 
Continues ^ I am sorry to inform your Excellency, that a dangerous insur- 
rection has lately arrisen in this County, occasioned by the execution of 

(MiiEKTiAl, or fTTATF "PaT^RI^S ^ 

ieeuTT of tat Ttac. mxiir Uii Inrmrr Ac\ tm- **m«i <vf^TM>^ps' h ih^ Vrt^rvt ^^> ^,^,»^^>. 
tiflK; of m*- TnrTf «i»c iia- hf»w ohlijrf^: 1< 4ih»t<». fWn» ^»t)\ <^iTii^/^: r^?^^ t^ v tV 

dnrr u lav Uii;^ uatte^ KMon TOiir TixfV'U/»inc\ «t^. ^<>TM ^*i»At w>ff««>^^ 

G«n Bird, imc- of tiwr OranniiwMnvwiv ir r«oli<sn(t itvr ^sj*«w»»^ 'Nx ^r^ K^t*'. ittV. 

nhaJl isndh xhouc- eiUM» whr- -fiwi tlwtr imUti 1^ fhr <%Uk llx^ H^f^P^ 

qummiiA doe :&niii thom. Vt "Wm nWwnini: » <kf}Ult^ 4V%inii>r^iMx«r 
soaed a unmher of ntfttic mnd imdccr iqq^vimi^ ttvf«lJrt)ol4^«ii^ IW>iVn Vv 

CV*.: Pea: T^rum f^ troT: JiennuM^K. X^^ V«*>» 

Wlieo Col: Wood w«arMd on ili^ !Nli m5<| : W oryk^iv4 a Wo^^J i%f \V(H. W<^^M*fr 
oers to aaoemble. Jkod tk<'Sd^ as to t)io ri^t t^f tW w^«i <^Um^) <x> M^f^v 
at Albemarle Barracka to their duichaT^po — .\^ a tsvM^w^<^ ikix^ OiM^- 
panies liave been diaeliai^g^: ncaify all tlio ^>l.h<vr^ M4. ii|^ t^<^ Nin\^ l>l«iAi«hy\ff(y>iA 
claim, and «) manj have de«terl<Hi, Ikhxhum^ of tho jUiXMit 4i*N^iU<Wt^!Jov\ JJjJJ^ ^^''^ 
on this hand, that in a short time dcarrvly met) onoiq^h will W \^t\. io tlo 
the necessary goard doty: and thecK^ are nearly nakei). Ue thtnkii ihi\v 
should all be discharged, and the OfltoerK rt^lircH): thinks \\k\<^ \\\\W\\vM 
men to be raised in that County will 8u(R<h> a» a gnarxl — tH\hohid<^ 'M Inj^tMIt^^ 
am sorry to mention again to your Rxcellenoy tho )i\juiiU<H^ or (U^rUKlIt^* ^mttH 

with which our officers have been trcatinl by not )>ein|;t i^l^>wod to 
have the depreciation of their |)ay, in common with othom. Tho yf^i 
em Battalion had not been more than half the time in servicoi whon iho 



1781. resolution was made, and the officers belonging to it, have received their 
April 12th money for depreciation." Requests that their case be brought before 
the next Genl: Assembly. 

April 12th 



Major Claiborne to the Governor. 

Respecting the horses lately impressed & purchased for the expedition 
to Portsmouth, now collected at Petersburg by orders of Baron Steuben. 
Many of the owners are willing to take them back and give np their 
certificates — He has directed Capt: Holmes, who succeeded Mr. Elliott, 
to receive these; and to send all the horses remaining, up to pasturage 
near Carters Ferry. 

April 12th 

War Office 


Relief for 
and how to 

Want of 
arms and 

WiLLM. Grayson, to Grov: Jefferson of Va. 

In answer to your Excellency's letter of March 31st, referred to 
the Board by Congress, they beg leave to observe that they think it will 
be proper for the flag vessel to proceed round from James River to Poto- 
mack & land their cloathing, refreshments, money &c : designed for the 
prisoners at George Town, in the State of Maryland ; then to be rec'd 
by two officers of the Convention Troops and conveyed to the Post of 
Winchester and Fort Frederick, at their own expence. The Board are 
of opinion, that at this particular CriMs, there aught not to be the least 
communication between the flag vessel and the Officers of the Convention 
Troops; the former aught to depart immediately after the goods are 
landed. The Board have wrote to Colo. Wood to send forward y'r oflft- 
cers, who are to receive the goods and money for the prisoners, in com- 
pany with an American Officer, and it may be expected that they will 
be at George Town, by the time of the arrival of the flag Vessel at that 
Post. The Board are very sensible of the want of Arms in your State, 
and will use their utmost endeavors to foward on those which have come 
from Rhode Island ; their is no other impediment to their moving imme- 
diately, but the extreme want of money; there is the same objection to 
Genl : Wayne's departure with the Penna. Line ; he is in perfect readi- 
ness as to every thing else — With respect to the Marquis la Fayette, and 
the Detachment under his command, it is at present uncertain whether 
they will proceed to the Southward or not; this a matter however, which 
will altogether depend on the Commander in Chief — 

I have the honor to be 
yr: Excellency's 

Most: obt Servt." 
** By order of the Board." 


Col: Sbnf to the Governor. 1781. 

April 12th 
Urging the sending of "Hands" to Hoods as soon as possible. He will Richmond 

be there himself to receive them, put them to work and keep account 
thereof— The tools needed can be carried down in a row boat — Asks for Hoods 
a Warrant, by which he can hire wagons, oxen, Horses &c., giving cer- 
tificates for the same, as vouchers. 

LiNDSY Opie and James Ball to the Executive. April 12th 

Asking for permission to go under Flag of truce, on board certain of Northum- 
the Enemy's armed vessels, the "Trimmer" Capt: Phillips, and the "Sur- ^'^*°<1 ^• 
prise" Capt Boss, in search of absconded slaves said to be in those ves- 
sels. They have lost so many, and the people generally have been robbed Lom of prop- 
of so much property of late by British plunderers, that it is necessary ^'^^ ^y ^® 
to recover these "valuable fellows" if possible — The want of arms and 
ammunition very much felt — Col: Gaskins' house was burnt by the 
enemy the morning before— 

Brio: Genl W. Wssden to Majr: Genl: Phillips. April 12th 


I am honored with your polite Letter of the 6th Inst:, and shou'd WilliamBb'g 
have paid earlier respect to it, but from some circumstances which una- 
voidably occasioned delay — I am now to thank you for your particular 
attention to my two Flags, bore by Col: Mathews and Major Callis, of 
which I retain a grateftil Sense. And also approve your liberal proposals Agrees to his 
respecting exchange and paroles, and do on my part close with you, so P''<>P<>**1«> ^ 
far 86 my authority may in any case extend, and that we may the better 
understand each other, shall be explicit in what I mean as the line of 
my conduct, while commanding here. I will with great chearfulness, 
contribute as far as in my Power, to render the circumstances of the 
War, as little aflicting as possible, more especially by encouraging 
exchanges on just Principles and giving Paroles where exchanges are 
not subject to my Will — With respect to Officers, the right of turn in Principles of 
exchange, I consider as sacred, and cannot consent to anything by which *^® exchange 
these Gentlemen shall be postponed, who have been the longest in cap- 
tivity, but I freely agree to paroling them on both Sides 'till exchanged 
by regular turn. With respect to privates, I think myself right, when 
I say I cannot consider any Prisoners of War, but such as are taken 
actually in Arms, or are in the service of the States. Any Prisoners 
taken by our militia, while no Continental Troops are acting with them 
are subject to the separate disposal of the State, untill delivered over to 
the Continental Commissary of Prisoners, the number of these at pres- 


1781. ent with us I do not know, they may or may not increase. I consent 
April X2th chearftilly, as far as they extend, or shall extend to exchange them for 
snch of our militia as has been, or shall be takai in Arms. As to those 
which have been put into possession of the Continental Commissary of 
Prisoners, they can be only exchanged or enlarged nnder Continental 
Authority; in which case the Commanding Officer in the State most be 
consulted — I will certainly do every thing in my power to promote it in 
The Ciril the fullest Latitude, whenever I may have the Honor to Command. Ton 
^partmento ^^^ ^ ^^^ informed of the profession of arms, not to know, the Mili- 
tary are by no means answerable for the Eesolution of the civil; and I 
should be sorry to see the rigour of War extended to the innocent on 
acc*t of any thing done by them, that may or may not be approved — 
this far however I think 1 can venture to say that whUe a liberal and 
just conduct is observed on your part, the Authority of this State will 
not be wanting in similar professions. 

I have the Honor to be, with sentiments of personal Esteem 

and Regard, 

Your most obt Servt.** 


War OiBce I was desired by the Baron, before his leaving town to lay before your 

Excellency, an extract of a letter from Genl: Greene, which uninten- 
tionally he omitted to present to you yesterday, altho' I think he said 
he had conversed with you on the subject. His great anxiety for an 
immediate supply of ammunition to be fowarded to Genl: Greene has 
induced him to press the matter with so much importunity upon yovL 
Absolate 1 cannot well tell what to expect frt>m Major Claiborne, with respect to the 
Dortation*"** transportation of the Ammunition at Fredericksburg, as he Sometimes 
tells me his deputy there can collect what number of waggons he ohuses, 
from the great estimation he is held in by the people, and at other times, 
that nothing can be done for want of money, altho' he confesses that 
waggons have been received from three or four adjoining Counties to 
Wantof lesd that place. As to the article of Lead, will it not be proper to direct the 
immediate purchase of all that can be got in this part of the country. 
There is some at Manchester & probably there may be some in this 
town, and no doubt in many other places in the State — It is of essential 
moment, and even if Mr. Boss should succeed in procuring a quantity in 
the neighborhood of the mines, Still the lead can always be sold and the 
State no loser. As to the means of transporting it, we had better take 
the direction of it, in a great measure to ourselves, as the Continontal 
Quarter-Master's department in this State is too much governed by 
punctilio and nicety ever to effect much — 


. If wo could establish a Saddler's Shop, enlarge the number of hands 1781. 
of the Carpenter's business, and build log houses near Westham for their April 12th 
temporary accommodation, 'till these nicer buildings projected by Colo. Westham 
Senf, can be executed, we should soon feel the advantage. I have pre- ^i c fse f 
vailed upon Barron Steuben to consent to my getting a number of hands 
for this purpose, from Chesterfield; and if the Government have no 
objection I will take measures for beginning the business next Monday. 

I have the honor to be Sir, 

Your Excellency's most hble Servant." 

EoBT. MiTCUELL TO Gov: Jefferson. April 12th 


Yest^irday, on my arrival at Alexandria, I found the town in much Georgetown, 
confusion, occasioned by a Small Fleet that appeared off the town — say, 
three Ships appears to me to be of 18 Guiis each, the other I could not 
make out what number of Guns she mounted, but believe her to be a 

The Lieutenant of. the County, expecting a sufficient number of militia Excitement 
from the country (before the shipping could get up) to defend the Town, "1^*^ ^**®- V" 
had the Colours hoisteil in the Fort, but finding the militia did not come enemy's fleet 
In so fast as he had reason to expect, by the persuation of the Inhab- 
itants the Colours were taken dowiv Shortly afler, two Ships, one Brig 
& a Schooner came to anchor, under French Colours near the Fort — the 
Ship which was behind, coming up, got ashore, which occasioned those 
that were at anchor opposite the Town, to get under way to her assist- 
ance — in doing which the Brig run ashore. Colo. Fitzgerald intended 
getting one of the two twelve pounders from the Fort to a point opposite 
the Brig for to play on her. had there been any Boats at the Town she 
might have been taken — to-d^iy there has been no news rec'd from Alex- 
audria, further than the militia are turning out well — numbers have gone 
from this place. 

The Pennsylvania Line, consisting of 1,200, is expected here to-mor- The Penn- 
row — four pieces of their Artillery, and a large q'ty of ammunition is ^/^^°"* 
already arrived. 

I have the honour to be 

your Excellency's most ob Hb Servant." 

P. S. "Since writing the above, a Gentleman has arrived from Balti'o Embarka- 
who says there is certain accounts there, of an embarkation taken place y^"j*^ ^®^ 
at New York of 50f>0 men, under Sir Henry Clinton, intended to take 
post at the Head of Chesapeake Bay, between that and the Delaware." 



1781. F. Webb, Com: Treas'y, to the Governor. 

April 12th "Sir, 
Treasury Wo have no Continental money on hand, and do not think any can 

^™^® be procured — There stil remains 950 DoUai-s, 1 for 40 — I imagine specie 
Scarcity of could be pui*ehaHed if you chuse to have it done. 
™<^°«y , lam&c:" 

April 12th 

Capt: John Pryor to Col: Davies. 

Bichmond Recommending the purchase of a quantity of Lead, Powder, flints, — 
coarse blue cloth, and white; a large quantity of linncn or canvass Suit- 
able for Tents, in the possession of Mr. Mo: Banks. Flints & files ho 
wants to send off at once,. Mr. Smith has gone to take a receipt for the 
military stores sent to Hood's — As soon as the supposed loss is known, 
he will make report. 

April 13th 

Valley Sta- 


Banging in 
Valley, &c. 

Aaron Lewis to Col: Arthur Campbell, Washington Co. 

Informing him that he arrived at that place on the 28th March, and 
awaited the arrival of the "Sulivan Militia six days ; but hearing nothing 
of them, and supposing they were not coming; with the advice of Capt : 
Nevill and othore he determined to '^range down the Valley" in search 
of Indians — After a march of some thirty miles below the Gap in pur- 
suit of a party of Indians the time of Capt : Nevill's men expired, and 
they would not go any farther. Finding a large body of Indians had 
passed behind them, returned ; but found they had done no damago — 
He is sorry to hoar that Colo. Martin has disapproved of this expedition. 

April 13th 

Col: Wm. Preston to Gov: Jefferson. 


Montgomery Enclosed, I have sent your Excellency a return of the militia of 

^^' this County, according to the lists delivered by the Captains a few days 

People com- past. I expect the number will increase fast, as many people have 

*°^nt°^ removed and are removing from the troubles of the Southern States, to 

take shelter here for a time, until the storm blows over. This induces 

me to hope that your Excellency will order this militia to be divided into 

two battalions & send the Commissions accordingly ; as it would be a 

great ease to the officers & men in a county so broken with mountains 

& so extensive as this. A number of blank Commissions is much wanted ; 

as many officers have been recommended by court, & have done duty, 

for whom I have no Commission to fill. 


Sometime ago, I made application to Mr. Rowlaiui Madison for the 1781. 
quantity of powder and the number of FlintB, which your Excellency April I3th 
had informed me had been ordereil up the Country b}' him for the U80 Want of 
of this County. His answer was that he received none but what was ^JJ,*' *** 
for the use of the Western Expedition ; which laid me under the noeos- 
sity of purchasing powder at a very high price to supply the militia who 
were ordered to Carolina. At present we have none, & should the 
Draughts now ordered to join Gen'l Greene be raised, I am doubtf\il 
their march will be prevented for want of that neces8ar3'' Article. 

I am very apprehensive that the number of men demanded on this Fwurt in ro- 
oecasion cannot be raised. It is the general opinion of the Officers, as f^ ^y^^ ^^^^ 
well as my own opinion, that nearly one half of our own militia are dis- requirod, on 
affected, & therefore cannot be drawn into the service either by threats S^wSfeotlon 
or otherwise; & should they be punished according to Law, they would Ac. 
either withdraw to the mountains, or embody and disturb the peace of 
the County. This consideration has prevented the Court Martial fVom 
putting the Law in execution against them. Add to this, that five com- Rx[voKod 
panics make a frontier of more than eighty miles, who cannot be drawn *^" ^^ 
out at this season of the year, without leaving their families exposed to 
the Savages, who have already committed depredations amongst the 
Frontier inhabitants. Thus the defection of many, and the exposed sit- 
uation of others have laid the whole Burthen of the Service on loss than 
half the militia, who have suffered therein, both in their persons and 
property. This Sir, is a just representation, as far as I am able to judge. 

On the 8th of February last, I called a number of the Officers together Stopn taken 
to consult on a plan for raising a body of men on the Frontiers, for the fZ,5 ?h«^ " 
defence of the country against the Common Enemy ; at which time country 
intelligence was brought, that the British Troops under Lord Comwallis 
were marching up the Country towards the Moravian Settlements, & 
that it was more than probable a party would be detached to destroy 
the Lead Mines, as the distance was not great, & the confusitm of the 
Country beyond description. Having such early intelligence of the 
approaching danger, I believed it my duty to order out ail the militia 1 
could raise, without waiting any other call, than that of the danger to 
which the Country stood exposed — In this I was seconded, by every 
Officer present, & in onler to encourage old & young to go, who were fit 
to bear arms, I not onl}' proj>osed to go myself, but sent for my son, just 
tamed of sixteen, from a school in another County — I wont to the Lead 
Mines, where the militia were to rendezvous & continued there & in the 
neighborhood until the 18th, when I marched with about 350 riflemen, 
mostly on horseback; with them I procce<led by long marches, until I joined Jolnn G«n. 
GenI: Pickens, by Gcnl: Grecne'H Onler, at no gri»iit dintaiice from Hills- ^^^*^^* 
thorough, & within three miles r»f Tarllon's Legion, who had repassed 
Haw River. The dinaffected At Af^mi* othcrn whom I had drawn out, 
deserted- With the remainder we did hani duty under GenI: Pickens, 




April 13th 

and desertion 
of his men 

Did as well 
as any that 
went from 
over the 

State ot the 
lead mines 
and necessity 
of protecting 

twelve or fourteen days on the Enemy's lines, greatly straitened for 
provisions. Part of the men were in one action, & the whole in a sec- 
ond ; in both overpowered by numbers, & in the last broken & dispei^sed 
with the loss of their blankets. After which no arguments that could 
be made use of, by myself or the other officers could induce the remain- 
ing few to continue another week, the time Gen'l Greene requested — 
After staying a few days at the Moravian Towns, to have the wounded 
taken care of Colo. Crocket and myself came home, accompanied by only 
two or three young men. It gave me great pain, that our militia 
returned so soon ; but 1 will venture to say, they did duty on the Enemy's 
lines, as long as any other that went from behind the mount^iins, & much 
longer than some — I obeyed every order, that I received from Genl: 
Greene or Genl: Pickens, or Colo. Williams of the Maryland Lino & 
underwent the same fatigue, watching, lasting & Danger, that any other 
MiHtia Officer did while I was on dutj". 

I beg Sir, you will pardon the trouble of this detail of facts, which I 
lay before your Excellency to remove any impressions that might be 
made on your mind, or that of the Honourable Board, by idle rumours, 
propagated, I suppose by the unthinking & inactive part of mankind — 

I beg leave to observe that it is not in my power to get militia to 
guard the mines. That they are in some danger from the disaffected. 
That the Workmen & Managers are in great distress for want of moat 
& that they inform me there is the fairest prospect of ore they have had 
a long time; which they beleive will turn to a considerable advantage 
to the State, could they be protected and supported. Such was their 
distress lately, that I was affraid the business would be retarded & there- 
fore advised Col: Lynch's assistant to purchase a little bacon with lead 
for the present, until Colo. Lynch would return or some steps be taken 
to get a supply. 

I am your Excellency's most obt & very 
hble Servant." 

April 13th 


state of the 
people of 

John Paoe to Gov: Jefij^erson. 

Earnestly desiring him to suspend the execution of the Assessment 
and Recruiting Act, until the Ist day of May, in consideration of the 
alarming and distressed state of the County, occasioned by the con- 
tinued depredations of the enemy upon an exposed and defenceless 


Col: Wm. Davies to the Governor. 1781. 

**Sir, April 18th 

As it would be proper for us, I suppoHe, to make use of the same War Office 
kind of parole that the British require of U8, which in very restricted in 
its tonns, I will be obliged to your Excellency to favor me with a copy, 
or the original parole signed by Govn. Hamilton." 

I am &c: — " 

M. Delieurieux to Gov: Jefferson of Va. April 13th 

(In French.) 

L. Marye, a merchant of that City who sends to Virginia his Brigan- Port au 
tine, the Darth, Capt: Davis under Commission of the Colony proposes -Prince 

to load on his return with Corn and Salt Meats; begs this favor may be 
allowed, as it will be an essential service rendered; especially when it is 
remembered, what aid had been supplied the Colony when in such utter 
want — The vessel is consigned to M. David Ross & Co., who he prays 
may be engaged to foward such a cargo of the above mentioned provi- 
sions, which will place him under lasting obligations, &c: — 

Major Ro: Claiborne to the Governor. April 1 8th 

Desiring to borrow a small supply of oil from Capt: Thomas at War- Wanteof the 

wick, as the Continental Commissary of Hides has none — Mr. Marks has ^^^' Q- M. 

*^ Department 

gone to Phdadelphia for supplies for his Department, and will return it 
when he gets back — Asks also for an order for all the Grain to bo col- 
lected in the Counties composing the Districts of Charlottesville, Canton 
Ferry & Boyd's Ferry, as he wishes to collect it into "Magazines," that 
its transportation may regularly go on, to the Southern Army. 

Col: Joseph Holmes to the Governor. April I8th 

Acknowledging receipt by Express of sundry orders to the County Winchester 
Lieut^snant, in whose absence, the business falls upon himself. He will 
cause a draft to be had as soon as possible, but apprehends difficulty in 
raising the men required. Very few marched to the Westward, but he 
has ha<l to furnish heavy guards to the Prisonei's of War, sent, thro* Guards fur- 
Mar34and to Pennsylvania as far as Lancaster and Philadelphia — The ^^^^^ 
Convention Troops are still in Barracks near Winchester, and he has to 
furnish guard over them, as all those from Albemarle are discharged — 
The demand upon Frederick County in this way has been very great. 




1781. and he begs his Excellency will distribute this duty more generally. 

April 18th Sixty additional Cabins are needed to accommodate the increasing num- 

Demands ber of prisoners; and he would continue to build them, but has no money 

upon the ^ p^y ^^^ those already finished — He had to erect a large "shingled 

roof House" for their Quarter Master's Department, and is constantly 

harrassed for the money to pay for it. 

April 18th Major Claiborne encloses to the Executive, information from Mr. 

Richmond Young his Assistant at Fredericksburg of the 10th inst that "sixteen 
Wagon wagons loaded with Military Stores &c passed thro' town this evening & 

PhHadeiohia ^^ ^^^^^ ^J^l ^^ here, with stores & cavalry accoutrements — 14 more will 
arrive in a few days, all from Philadelphia." 

April 13th 

Major Thos: Hamilton to the Governor. 

Richmond In accordance with his Orders, has allowed the Prisoners of war men- 
tioned, the "libert}^ of the Town" — Among those left in Prison, who 
desire the same privilege, is "a Capt: Carre & one Davis" in Irons. He 
does not know what Charges are against them. 

April 18th 

Col: Geo: Slaughter to Gov: Jefferson. 

Louisvillo Enclosing Copy of the proceeding of a Court of Enquiry in the case 
of Capt: James Francis Moore, charged with irregular <& dishonest con- 
duct in his department; acknowledges he has not proved the accusations 
and in justice to the accused desires to make any reparation required at 
his hands. He has trusted too much to the reports of other persons. 

April 18th 

berland Co. 

Col: Thos: Gaskins to the Governor. 

He has enlisted only three men enlisted for the war, viz Thos: Giles, 
Michael Taylor & Thomas Harding, and forty for the pi*esent Drafl — 
Adds "we have great distruction in and about our place by the Barberous 
& Cruel Pirating Vessells, by stealing our negroes &c — I had my Dwell- 
ing house Burnt to ashes on Wednesday morning, with considerable loss, 
w*ch you may be fully informed by the Bearer Mr. Jessee Crowder." 


Jas. Mercer to Gov: Jefferson. 1781, 

'* Dear Sir, April 14th 

It would bo an affront to your Excellency's underetanding Frederic 'sb'g 
was I to make an apology to the first Magistrate of this State lor com- 
municating any Facts or even Hints that might contribute to your bet- 
ter Information in your public Character. I shall therefore without 
appoUogy proceed to inform your Excellency, that from my own knowl- 
edge of the County & the uniform opinion of all I have conversed with 
on the subject, there is not in this State a place more deserving of public 
attention than this Town and its appendage Mr. Hunter's Iron Works — 
I am sure I need not tell you, that it is from Mr. Hunter's Works that 
every Camp Kettle has been supply ed for the Continental & all other 
Troops employed in this State & to the Southward this year past — that 
all the Anchors for this State & Maryland & some for the Continent have 
been procured from the same works; that without these works we have 
no other resource for those articles, and that without the assistance of the 
Bar Iron made there, even the planters hereabouts & to the South wai'd 
of this place w^ou'd not be able to make Bread to eat — As to the Town 
itself, I need not inform you that the public manufactory of Arms is here — 
that without it, all our Arms, however so little injured wou'd be useless 
to us; besides the number of new muskets & bayonets made there, ren- 
ders that an object worthy our preserving & the Enemy's destruction — 
To this however, I may add that there is not one spot in the State so 
generally usefuU in our military' operations — full one-third of all new 
Levies rendezvous here; ail the Troops from North & South & South to 
North must pass through this Town, where wagons are repaired, horses 
shoed & many other &c as which they could not proceed on without, 
the Troops get provisions hero to the next Stage, & no place is so conve- 
nient to a very extensive & productive Country for the reception of 
Grain & other Articles of Provision. If this state of facts is admitted, 
can it be doubted but that the Enemy will consider it as one of their 
first objects to deprive us of so many advantages to their prejudice — 
The Foundary was thought an object worthy their attention & this from 
information only — But now far more certain that this place will be 
thought so when Genl : Phillips has himself been an eye witness that 
there are such advantages hero & has so often seen the conveniences 
drawn from this place by all our Troops both regulars & militia. I will 
not sjvy more, but to tell you that yesterday's experience produced proofs 
of our very alarming situation. Six Armed Vessells went up Potomack 
River on Wednesday night ; on thursday they were said to be nine & 
more, with about five hundred Troops. Colo. Towles, the Commanding 
OflScer, not doubting this to be an object, set himself about its defence 
with as much vigour as possible, but behold not more than eighty mus- 
kets cou'd be procured (and these repaired arms & without bayonets) — 
abt. 60 more guns of all sorts compose the whole; and where are the 



1781. rest? with our militia before Portsmouth & at Williamsburg! Even 
April 14th men are wanting, there being now two Drafts of militia from Stafford & 
Prince William & Fairfax, now the scone of war & this County as vul- 
nerable of at Williamsburg & other places not near the conse- 
quence to this State as this place is — Colo. Towles, writing by the same 
opportunity will make it unnecessary for me to say any thing abt. the 
want of flints &c ca. I write at his desire, and am at all times, and with 
great Esteem & respect, your Excellency's 

most obedt & very humble servt." 


Hampshire Enclosing "Return " of Two Battalions in that county — Instructions 
County jjjj^j come from Genl: Clarke not to march the militia until further 
Orders — He has issued the order for the full number required by the 
Draft, but, adds, "I am afraid they will not be complyed with, by Eeason 
of the disaffected people amongst us. (A Collector of one of the Divi- 
sions for making up the Cloathes and Beef was Interrupted in the exe- 
cution of his office). A certain John Claypole said if all the men wore 
of his mind, they would not make up any Cloathes, Beef or Men, and all 
that would join him shuld turn out. Upon which he got all the men 
present, to five or six and Got Liquor and Drank King George the third's 
health, and Damnation to Congress,) upon which Complaint was made 
- to three Magistrates. Upon which there was a warrant Issued for sev- 
eral of them, and Guard of Fifty men with the Sheriff. When they 
came to the place they found sixty or seventy men embodied, with 
arms — After some time they capitulated, the Sheriff served the pre- 
cept on the said John Claypole, but he refused to come with him or give 
up his arms j but agreed to come such a time, which time is Passt — 
Inclosed you have a Copy of a Letter they sent me, and the answer I 
sent them — I was Informed thci*e was one hundred and fifty of them to 
Get her the next Day. I am informed there are several Deserters 
amongst those people, Some from the English Prisoners. Some Eighteen 
Months men, and some Eifjht Months men, which they support and con- 
ceal." Refers his Excellency to Mr. Woodson the bearer for further par- 

The letter enclosed, with reply — 
" Sir, 

Having consulted the Majority, it is the Desire of the, that their 
Conduct that has past Lately may be forgiven, as a great part of it was 
occasioned by Liquor, and as there is things that is Laid to the Charge 
of Sum, that is clear of the Charge, but moreover we acknowledge our 
, behaviour was not Discreet, if you would Please to pass it by, we will 
submit to pay our Tax as the Law directs ; and are willing to pay our 


District tax of Beef & Clothing if they can bo purchased, and likewise to 1781. 
bo Complyablo to the Laws of the State, as far as our ability will allow. April 14th 
At the Request of the majority I have hereunto set my hand-r— 

From Sir, yr : humble Servant 

To Colo. VanMeter— April 3d 1781. 


April 4th 1781. 

I rec'd yourn dated the third Inst: and am very Glad to hear the 
Mutineers Begin to see their Folly, they may Depend 1 shall shew them 
all the Lenity the circumstance of the Case will admit of, but those 
chargable with bi*eaking the Law I cannot clear, as I am but an Indi- 
vidual, unless they who are in the warrant Comes in and Clears them- 
selves — from your friend, while you are friends to yourselves and the 
United States. 

To Josiah Osburn — 

Brio: Genl: G. Weeden to Govr. Jefferson. April 14th 

''Dear Sir, 

I am honor'd with the resolution of Council 10th Inst: & as Williamsb'g 
Genl: Philips' Letter dated 6th demanded an answer from me, have con- 
fined it chiefly to the very words of the Council, Copy of which have 
the llonor to ench>se. I am desirous of cultivating the Liberal Ideas 
held out by the Biitish Genl : to those who are unfortunate ; as nothing 
but reciprocal advantages can result irom it, & I am happy to find the 
Honble. Executive will authorize these Officers to nourish it on just & 
equitable Grounds — I was in hopes of getting such as were not exchanged, 
enlargeiJ on parole, by promising that an equal number should bo sent 
in, as soon as they could be marchM from Winchester, & requested in 
my laAt Letter on the Subject, leave to make the overture; but as the 
Executive have not made any reply to that part, could not say to the 
British Commander that it should be done. 

I am just setting oft* to Potomac by order of the Baron, & shall pass 
through the North wanl Neck, will take the earliest opportunity of 
advising your -Excellency of ever}' Hostile Occurence in that Quarter. 
3iajor Bradfoixi, my Aid de Camp, will have the Honor of delivering 
you this & will infoiTa you particularly of any thing you may wish to 
enquire about in this quarter, to whom I refer you — I would thank your 
Excellency for a warrant for about 7 or 8000 Pounds on acct. of my Pay. 
I have drawn none for upwards of two Years & am in want of a supply. 

I have the Honor to be &c.*' 


1781. Major Rd: Claiborne to the Executive. 

April 14th 

Richmond Enclosing extract of a letter from Capt: Holmes, his Asst: Dept: 

Quarter Master at Petersburg, in which he is informed, that all his 

workmen, tailors &c have deserted because they have been drafted, and 

Baron Steuben refuses to exempt them from military duty in the field — 

All his operations cease on this account — Asks for instructions in the 


April 14th CoL: Georqe Skillen TO Gov : Jefferson. 

BotetourtCo. Before the Orders of the 15th inst: were received, he had ordered 
draft of three hundred and fifty men to go to the aid of Genl: Greene; 
and upon the continued approach of the Enemy had turned out the 
entire force of the County, who were just about marching, when his 
Excellency's Orders for only one fourth of the militia, arrived — Of those 
who marched nearly two hundred and forty returned without orders; 
this number so great, to attempt a trial of them by Court Martial would 
have been hazardous. Some excuse may be made for these men, ip as 
much as they were hurried off from home entirely unprepared for such 
a long march, and the time of the year being so important to the plant- 
ing and sowing their crops, by which alone their families are to be sup- 
ported, especially as "they have not a creature to act for them'* but 
their wives and children — The return of so many men from Genl: 
Greene's Army, he admits is inexcusable; but begs to assure his Excel- 
lency, it is not *'from any Coolness in the Cause; as they have alwaj^s 
discovered the gi'catest alacrity & zeal ;" and he is convinced they will, 
"on any pressing Emergency turn out to a man," but is solely due to the 
apprehensions they had of the utter ruin and Starvation of their fami- 
lies — On this account and upon consultations with all the other Field 
Officers of the County, they join him in the earnest wish, that the Gov- 
ernor will for the present suspend the execution of the Draft. 

April 14th Col: Wm. Call informs the Governor, he has assembled the people of 
Prince the County, and submitted his proposition of the 12th Inst: to them, 

George Co. [ooking to the relief for Genl : Muhlenburg — One fourth part are now 
going down to him; one third are already there; and those remaining, 
being necessary to the planting of the Corn &c, puts it entirely out 
of their power to comply, "however desirous they might be of accepting 
of the proposition" — 

CALEXDJlC of state rAPRRS. 45 

*- To lii*i ExoeUencT Thfniufr .lof)lu>iwv& Enqr, G(ivenutr of Tirpniji — 17S1. 

The Fitjld Offi{^orh k. Oaptaiiis of tbe >U4fcffofrd ICilitift ropr<^!8CTit t-^ VMir April 14(I» 
ExeeIl€-DfT. HikX a*« a unmlKiT of the EiK^Tnyfi Ship?; arc "Rft^iurinfi:. h«m- ^^ffoM iVv. 
in^ k I»estr(»\iiiir iLe propertv of all i^k- r<^p}<- Sitaiat^ <m t^^ VTnt'Crs, 
llua we hare tbooglit il AdrisuhV t^ ^k^lAiTi tho Mililin t-o W i^<?*»Tsimfr in 
repelling 'em, hoping il ^*ill ro<%(^ with voht KxooDcfncioii appri^Kjui^vn. 
^ould it not yon will pSc^iiV' adriyie n>; m which m'o ^ih^ll ho ven I'^nr- 
tieuljur in Exerating — 

We ape jonr Excellenoitts Veiy llnmhle Serrmntji 

JOHN ItRU^f^. M-- 
t.RiX lU RROriUIS OArr 
KmVAKM> OAttY.* 

Baron Stkubkn to tiir (Iovrrnor. Aj^rU lAih 

Informing him be had ''ap|>ointiHl Mr. Kohinnon 1>opt : (N>my: of Chnnii^rtli^hl 
Stores" and hopes that Dopartmont will 8(H>n ho pn>pcrly armngiMl — Ho ^* "' 
has given orders to Capt: Pryor to romovo tho Military S(on»n at P. 
Georg Co. House to Chest orfiold Co. Houso — (tonl: Muhlonhurg by lottor 
dated the 14th informs him ''tho Knomy havo nearly rotnploatod 25 
Boats, to contain each 100 men, & that it is roportod thoy wait only 
for them, to begin their operations.*' 

David Ross to the Governor. April Iftlh 


The bearer, Mr. George Nicolson is engaged to go to the North- Klrhitinntl 
ward to trj' & procure some of the Stores, wanted for the Army — 1 have 
also dispatched an agent to South Quay, KdenU>n A Newburn, to pick 
up what can be procurer] in that Quarter. An there is a continued 
demand for coarse linnens I have employed f>eople in the \twk (/oun- 
try to purchase all that can l>e got there, also thread, t am exceed- 
ingly distressed for the means of making paym<;nt U) the N/»rtbd A shall 
be glad that your Excellency will be pleascMl Uy wriU^ to our l>etegates 
in Congress to assist Mr. Nicolsr>n in money matUirs, as much as in their 



1781. I have sent out to the back Country to have a return made of the 

April 16th Hemp collected for the Specific, & 2 pr: cent tax — this is an article very 
much in demand in Philadelphia & a valuable Fund as far as it will go, 
tho* a very unweildy one, but it must be used — I shall be glad of an 
order to Mr. Brown to receive the cargo of the '^Washington," as I am 
just now writing to the Captain to obey Capt: Maxwell's Instructions — 
the Cargo Consists of Pork, Flour, Pease, Shipbread, Some Bacon & a 
little Lard — 

I would not be troublesome to you to day, but am unfortunately 
obliged to be 50 miles from hence tomorrow about 12-o-clock, by a pre- 
vious engagement — 

Mr. Nicolson will wait on you tomon*ow for your dispatches. 

Your most hum: Servant." 

April 16th John Taylor County Lieut: sends return of the militia of the County, 
Lancaster especially those raised to serve in the Continental Army — They are in 
County gp^jj^^ need of Ammunition, and constantly exposed to invasion. 

Aprill6th CoL: JoHN ToDD JUR: TO GoV: JeFPERSON. 

Lexington, " May it please your Excellency" 

y* Your letter of the 24 Dec : as also that 

of the 19th Jany: last inclosing sundry papers came safely to hand a few 
days ago. By the last Accounts I can procure from Jefferson & Lincoln, 
the Militia of the whole three Counties at present amount to about 
1050 — Fayette 156 — Lincolon 600 — ^Jefferson 300 — I have just made a 
Draft of 78 from this County for Col : Clark, & if the other Counties draft 
proportionally your demand will be fully satisfied — 

I hear nothing as yet of Col: Clark, but I conceive I have just cause 
of expostulating with him on accunt of this County, its true state being 
probably unknown to your Excellency when the Draft was required to 
be proportioned to the militia — Exposed at every Fort, & weakened by 
daily removals of its Strength to the South Side of Kentucky, we ai'o 
scarcely able to keep our Forts. Should Colo. Clark take his Rout by 
the Shawnese Nation, all cause of complaint must cease, as the Enemy 
will thereby be drawn off from our Forts. 

Being unable just now to spare Labourers & Guards at a distance 
from our Forts, for making Canoes, T have sent Mr. Lindsay to Lincoln 
for Assistance, which I make no doubt of procuring — I fear I shall meet 
with some difficulties in conveying the Stores at Lexington & Bryants 
to the Canoes, for want of Horses, oui-s being nearly all taken by the 
Indians & Col : Bowman does not prove so friendly as I think he ougiit 
to be in giving me necessary Assistance — 


Our circumstances have received so material a change within twelve 1781. 
months that a Draft of 18 Militia for the Continental Army at present April 15th 
w'd be singularly oppressive upon Fayette or Jetterson. Ilapp}' sh'd 
we be & readily would we spare them, if our situation were but as the 
Legislature expected. There is scarce one fort in the county but once 
a month seems upon the eve of breaking for want of men to defend it — 
Such residents as had most property- and llorses to remove their effects, 
have retreated to Lincoln. One half of the remainder are unable to 
Remove. We have no tax Commissioner in the County & almost nothing 
to tax. All which circumstances plead I hope in Excuse sufficiently for 
the Militia at present. Whenever our circumstances will admit of it, 
the people will, I'm satisfied enlist voluntarily in the Continental Army, 
from a genius they possess for war, as well as the greatness of the 
Bounty." ***** 

"I inclose you a letter from Mr. Pollock — I still receive complaints 
from the Ilinois. that department suffera I fear through the Avarice & 
Prodagality of our Officers; they all vent complaints against each 
other — I beleive our French friends have the justest grounds of dissat- 
isfaction — 

1 have the Honor to be, with the greatest Respect 
Your Excellency's most obedient 

and very humble Servant." 

Col: Da vies to the Governor. April I6th 

The badness of the weather has prevented his return to Richmond. Chesterfield 
He is so persuaded of the intended movement of the Enemy "up the 
rivers," that he is constrained to urge the immediate removal of all the 
Stores at Petei-sburg and Chesterfield, "at least 150 waggon loads". 
The Cannon at New Castle also should be carried to a place of safety — 
Capt: Young should at on(;e be ordered, to impress waggons, and push 
this business — 

Major Tnos: Posey to Col: Da vies. April ieth 

He hears the Baron is displeased with the Officer receiving the new Staunton 
recruits, because they do not make prompt reports to him — So far as he 
is concerned, his Orders were to report to Col: Davics, and has been 
under the impression the reports were then fo>\-arded to the Baron — 
He had however written to that Officer by Coh White giving an accunt 
of his operations — Requests Col: Davies to make explanations to the 
Baron on this head, as he is ever ready to execute any orders he may be 
honord with from him — Concludes, " Y'ou observe to me that you were 
appointed Commissioner to the War Office — I can assure you (as to my 




1781. {mrticular pari) I am very }ia[i]>y U> find that Govemineiii ha^ so much 
April J«;th judgment in their choice of a Coniniissioncr to the War Office; for I am 
p<5rHUa<hMJ (without any flattery; that tlicre is no j»ersi»n in the State. 
wouM fill that place with half the prr»priety. And aH to mi-etin^ with 
the ajiprohation of the (^fficri-H of the Line. I am well assured there is 
not one, tutfrreiii an enemy to their Countrj'. ai* not to l»e well j»lease<l with 
your aii|>^>intment, until a prr^jier regulation in that Department will 
take pla/'C." 

dun ImiiM 
by Baron 

A|#ril lOtb "To prevent a wawto of public Stores, and to e^itahlish re<^ilarit3% 
Oencfml Or- Major (feneral Baron de SteulK*n, thinks it ne<-eBsary to dire<rt that in 
future^ no Ikhuc of Prfivi.sion nhall Ikj made for more than three or four 
dayn at a time, without a special Order immediately from some Com- 
manding General or field officer, and on jiarticular occasirms only. That 
a return Hhall Ikj made on or before the fillcenth day of next month by 
all CommiHHaricH at the different postfl, of all their Indues nince the begin- 
ning of thiM month & of the HtorcH that may be then on hand. And 
that afler the fifteenth day of next month, no person shall presume to 
Act an iHHuing Commissar}' at any post or Station, who is not properly 
Authorized for that purpose by Mr. John Tiobertson, who is directed to 
acjt as Deputy Commissar}' rrcneral of Issues in this State, till a person 
shall be appointed to that OflUce by the Commissary General himself — 
An<l whereas it is necessary that great economy should be observed in 
the issues of Spirituous Liquor to the troops, it is therefore to be <lrawn 
on Hucdi occasions only, as fatigues, hard marches, or wet weather. 

All Sui»emumeraiy Officers are to observe that they are no longer 
entitled to forage or provision, from the public, and the Issuing Com- 
missaries are directed to take notice accordingly — " 

April lOih 

Major Tin: Claiborne to Col: Da vies. 

Richmoml His favor of the 14th just received. Repeats his willingness to aid in 
every possible way in removing the stores from Petersburg, but has not 
the means of transportation : had requested Capt: Holmes some days 
since to send the superfluous stores to Carter's Ferry, but he has not 
been able to get wagons — Thinks Carter's Ferry or Prince Edward Co. 
House will be safe places for them. 

April 10th 

CoL: Rd: Carrington to Col: Wm. Davies. 


Camn Mayii' "My dear Sir, 

**" Aflor expressing to you my pleasure at hearing of your 

Appointment to the Head of the War Department in Virginia, & my 


ooii£rrftULi&uon> u* all pcTRon- wIkwo hn*;iT»rfR> may hi fowardc^l iin<ior 17^1. 

tile- infiueiK^ oi 14 (tapahU aini <liiixr«^i»t hjUMi iii that pofii. 1 hnvt- to A].'-i. isth 

reqaesi u dm- projiortion ol your Att-ention to «K»h St^tt' irrfslnu-tions 8*i 

M^jor Claihomi i^ depoiidaTii oi*. tir>r Xhv <inffos> ot hi> hiT<iiTit>5s — ho 

-will shoTT Tou till' aTTaairojneTit rmwh- hol'wooii h\ni K nivsolt' for Oriran 

iziru; & ojwratiuxr hi> depart-meTii . hut whcii money i> wanlmi; >vt^ an- 

left dependant oii ecrtaiii Lawr*. thi- hcm^fii whcrt'tof i<» h<- dotivoil fVom 

tbf exerLiolJ^ oi tHjmr (ivil oih(n»Tv. \vh(» tili their C>ff!ee^ wiihom ever 

0up)Nifiiiu: it infuinJ»eni on thoiii u^ tiischar^i the duties thereoi*— t^r 

Tnuj^Kjrtiu^ supplies from Tiririiiui thi Le-ifrNlatur* dev^us] u monswrc 

i'oT "retliiur 11 iiuinlK»r o1 wu^^^^ins fnmi tht- tliflereni eoiintio^ (hrouijh the 

CountT Crturif' — ^Tbev ultk« direct luJ that tht* Kxeentivi' should make 

pr<>j»cr re^rulalioih- ion- iririiur ws thi- ai<l oi' ^mNTit^ prop<>rty, waijijonx 

wLeii iifce»*«ar\' — Bv Liu Aei. tlu- duties of the Count v Oonrts wetv^ 

• • • 

eTidem — ut 1113* request tiie Exeeutivi* diroct^l Mr. Brown t^ havi' all 
the jjrivaii' wa£^c>ll^ Tlciritiiered Sc 8<» arrauir^^d as to he at our TH*r\'iee 
urbeu called on. 

Neitbi^ oi' tboHt' duties liave Imwui d<ine — Prav i> there no moans 0I" 
hTHTtgiTip to ])uni29Lineut «omi' of tbi'Si' ]w»jile who ahu7«<* the pnhlie, bv 
Derrleetiiig tbe duties iiieundH^iit <»ii them — ^I nhall he mueh ohljiji^d to 
TOu to eouverHf with Major Claihome k afford him ovei^ «.^i>*t4inei» in 
your power. 

I am in bast^^ 

Yr: friend A'-c' 

J NO: FliOYP TO lTt»V. JkkFKIUION.'^ Xp^l \^xh 

AIh>ui ibe lirsi of Januar\' last i\>mmi>*s?ons weiv doliveix^l me. one ^^ 
app(»iutiug me Colo, of the Militia ot thi^ County, one other ap|>i>intin^ iVmmfwton- 
Isaac Cox Lieutenant C^>lo., al>H> a Major «<\>mmi!*Mon t^>r William liV«: ^*^«*'^''» *^ 
five Capi: Commiat^ions to^rtMher with the iNmitit'n t>f the IVa^v, i^e. 
dire<tc<i to tVmr of the said Offi^vrs, who an^ Inhahitanta of the t\>tmt.\\ 
and to three others, one of them Ikmu^ also ap)>t>int\Ml »SheHff» the other 
two being in very distant Countys Si who have not luHMt in thia ainee 
their Appointment — I had some time hefort^ the iveeipt of tluH^e t^om- 
miaeiona, beard of the Ap|M>intments Jk fon^seeing the Kvil whieb muRt. 
ariae from their not being MagistnUes in (ho County to (puiHlV tho 
Militia Officers, wn)te to Your Kxeelleney rtMpieating ntoiv Juatieea to 
be added to the Commiasion of the peiiee Jk that Itlank Militia ( 'OtutniH 
aions might be sent me — And I repeated this recpieat Hoi»n alVei* the 

«Thi8 li'tler ih roniHrkablo for tho iH^iiuty nf \{$ rhirui;rHplty- i<nflM<it*(l with lltji \n 
another letter of dat«i of Apr!) 24th from wnttin \Anv^, rnilffirfiting (Itn ■ulifl(iiti(*« of 
this one, and expretaini^ the bofie that Oenl : Clarko'H |in«parnil(inii at Port f Ifi wnitM 
prevent the aeitlement from threatened destruction, dM*. 

^rx •4' l*^'Vin. 1 ffS -AT^ T«^?*TT^! It'll* »*ltrr« HSIrr" j«^ li:l Z 

.•- T- ;,jj. r.r !:::*' TT'.-L.rr-. r zk — 7 i * t.c- 3ir i-ir 7"»5i laiL -a:x 
lb r-;.!* •^ Ti^ii;-rr: ■::!=-* "iir"r«-r 3«^^zm c Lje- 'I'TTr:*. .r tiiA» 

• '^^ tr^: — -ri^ii ii»? Uii >•» • — f. lis- "Sfli*-. jE»i :.jaLi '^'Wr Z-ifTic-r -'mtt la 
<*tia4l i<>r /<^r iit- . •rnnuMiE. 'ill liiir n iixr ^imnkrr' lOai Tnal Tnin juao- 

wH^.^ fmmi^ *.iti-'l t 'iur^-n »7 "a»^ '^xr^iT-^. !i*r-Hl»*?» a i»iin»*»tr ■¥'Mini>r*t -►.•li*-- J A3 j 

tw^^m^Mj yft^^u^^ rA r.hf. InoAr-itiuit.*. ir^ tt^ip,.;-ie iii.ii,«rn!: WSkw- ± Orphans. 
fh^A^, vi^* rt^9e £n#^.ap*^:, isahj uxe ii>»w all tii«ir ^ocks. ^zi«i Lire not 


any Land of their own, nor where withal to purchji^o — Our (io|H>ndanco 178L 
to support our familys is upon getting wild meat & this is pnKunni with AptU 16lh 
great difficulty & danger; and should it fall to the liott of some in this 
County who are thus Situated to serve as Regular Soldiers aeeonling to 
Law, their familys must inevitably starve. 

Our Garrison at the Falls is made sufficient to stand an att-ack with i\mdiUon of 
light Cannon, but our numbers which will risk themselves in it, will by JJJhJfS^Uof 
no means bo sufficient to defend it from an Army which we are (Vo- Ohio 
qucntly threatened with from Detroit — Our Inhabitants being so dis- 
persed that they could not be collected to any one place in the County 
in less than fifteen days — The confidence of tbe reoj>le here have in Confldonoo 
General Clarke's vigilance; his enteq)rising Spirit & other Military Vir- {Ji^^i^" 
tues, together with their inability to remove, have been barely sufficient 
to keep this County from being led entii*ely desolate — Major Slaughter Mi\|. Hlaugh- 
at the Falls of Ohio, has about 500 pds: of powder & Lead in proportion, ^^^^ *-^"*' 
which is all the Public Ammunition in this County; none of that deliv- FaIU 
ered to Col: Bowman last Winter, having been sent me, and there is 
very little in the county of private property — 

There is not at this time, I am informed & believe, more than filly rrovltionii, 
thousand Lbs. of Beef in this County, Fayette & Lincoln ; upwanls of ^* 
one hundred thousand Weight of that laid up in this County being 
entirely rotten & lost — Com is plenty in Lincoln Sc Fayette but there is 
no flour in any of these Counties. The men you order for Oenl: (Uarko's Hon for 
Expedition will be raised without much difficulty, notwithstanding all ^m**'* ^^' 
the disadvantages the County is under — The Canoes also shall be ready 

in time, tho' one fourth of the Militia must guard while they are on 
hand — Salt may be had here sufficient for an army of two thousand Ml abund- 
men Six months, and perhaps more — •'^^ 

I am Your Excellency's most Obt. 

Ilumb Servt. 


UsNBY Skipwitu TO Gov : Jkkfkeson. April l(Kb 


Re<rommcnding Mr. John Chapman of Amelia and his sons, who pro- Cumberland 
po»e to undertake the reparing of public Arms — Of Mr. Cha[inian ho ^• 
says -I, from a several years acquaintance, can not only venture to mon- 
tioD him as an honest, independant Freeholder, but as an uncommon 
meehmDieal genius, fully equal t^> the task of either reparing or making 
Giiim: and as a man in whom the Executive may repose the stricteiit 
tonfidence A expect the most faithful & rigid execution of bis duty/' 



C. H. 

1781. Baron Steuben to Gov: Jefferson. 

April 17th "Sir, 

Chwterfield Major Mitchell will present to your Excellency a List of the Men 

now with Gonl : Muhlenberg & will inform you of the number of those 
who are on the point of leaving him. 

He will also communicate to your Excellency, my plan for defensive 
operations — which will require at least the number of men I have already 
asked for — and I must again request that this force may be on foot, 
before the enemy begin their operations — 

Colo. Armand's Corps having retired, Genl: Muhlenberg is now almost 
without Cavalry. 

I have the honor to be with respect 

your Excellency's 

most Obed hum Servt — " 

April 17th Stephen Southall, A. Q. M. Genl: informs Col: Davics, he shall deliver 
the Stores to the Continental Q. Master as Ordei-ed, and take receipts 
therefor — charging "the Continent" with the same — Expresses surjmso 
at Col. Claiborne's refusal to receive them, as he should have known it 
was his duty to do so— 

April 17th CoL: J AS: Wood to the Executive. 

Charlottes- Asking remuneration for advances made to the British Officers, to the 
amount of £78. Sterling, while at Albemarle Barracks; and asking 
instructions as to the disposal of the public property at that place. 

April 17th Andrew 'Eied, Clerk, certifies that the Books of the Commissioners of 
Rockbridge the Land Tax, were destroyed " by the Hats cutting a hole through the 
back part of a Desk and destroying" them. 

April 17th J. Madison Jub: Theo. Bland and Mr. Smith, Delegates to Govr, 

Philadelphia The inclosed* resolution of Congress answers your Excellency's 

letter of the 26th ulto., relating to the appointment of Col : Davies to 
the War Office of Virginia. You will observe that it determines his 
rank in the Army alone, to be the bar to his acceptance of a civil office. 
Should Col: Davies be willing to give up that, and his place be supplied 

♦None of the enclosures referred to, are to be found. 


bj one of the supernumerary Colonels, So that no additional exponce 1781. 
would accrue to the United States, Congress wo bcleive would not hesi- April 17th 
tate to let him retire, without forfeiting any of the emoluments to which 
he is at present entitled. General McDougal was lately appointed by 
Congress to a civil Office under the like circumstances with Col: Davies, 
and as he did not chuse to part with his rank in the Army, the appoint- 
ment was annulled — 

We have been favored with 3'our Excellency's two letters of the 6th 
& 7th instant — The steps already taken by us & of which you will have 
l>een informed, will, we flatter ourselves accomplish 3'our wishes with 
regard to the Refugees taken on bOard the Romulus. 

Your Excellency will also have seen, by our late letters, tliat we have 
not been unmindful of the distresset! state of Virga., for want of the 
stores latel3' brought hither by the French Frigate — We wish however, 
that our efforts to foward them had been more successful — Our first plan 
for the purpose, was the one suggested by your letter. The probable 
emptiness of your Treasury, and the impossibility of our making our 
requisite advance to the Waggoners here, led us to substitute the other 
plan of placing the Stores in the (Quarter Masters Channel, and procur- 
ing from Congress a warrant for the money necessary for the pur|>ose. 
He at the same time engaged the attention of Colo. Pebiger to the busi- 
ness, who has been very alert in expediting the supplies for the Southern 
Service. Notwithstanding these precautions we have the mortification 
to find, that the stores are not yet on their way. Since the receipt of 
your letter, we have determined to recur to our first plan. 

The Q. Master & Colo. Febiger assure us that every exertion shall bo 
used to execute it. They say however, it will be several days, before 
the waggons can possibly be on the road — According to an estimate of 
the Q. Master, we shall be obliged to draw on your Excellency for near 
£500 specie or, as much paper as will be equal to it, at the current 
exchange, to be paid on the arrival of the waggons. The only paper 
they will receive is the old Continental bills. The Exchange here is 150 
for 1; and the depreciation progressive. Your Excellency's other 
requests relating to the debts left by Col : Finnic in his department, and 
the accommodation of Mr. Ross with funds in this place, shall have all 
the attention we can give them. 

The Extract* of a letter from Gonl: Washington, herewith enclosed, 
contains all the Authentic information received since our last, on the 
subject of another embarkation from N. York. For some days of late 
the report has died away into a general disbelief — Some persons just 
come out of N. York have revived it, with this variation, that it has a 
Southern object. 

We are extremely concerned to inform your Excellency, that the 
detachment of the Pennsylvania Line, on which our expectations have 

* None of the enclosure* referred to, are to be found. 


17m I. \M>i>n »o long fixed, are still detained by the want of money. Every 
A|iril I7ih px|KHlient within our invention has been tried, without avail, to remove 
the obstacles to their march ; and we have no encouragement that the 
roHources of the State will put them in motion, in less than 8 or 10 days, 
at the nearest. The detachment under the Marquis de la Fayette, is, 
wo understand, again moving Southward, but we have great reason to 
apprehend, that the general cause of our embarrassment will at least 
retard their progress. The Extract above referred to, will give an idea, 
how far the Commander in Cheif is likely to be in a condition to spare 
other detachments from the Troops immediately under him. By a 
return lately transmitted to Congress, it appears that he had not rec*d five 
hundred effective recruits from all the States whose levies were assigned 
to the Northern Department. 

It is pretty certain we believe that the British fleet under Arbuthnot 
is arrived at N. York from Chesapeak — That of our Ally has certainly 
returned into N. Port. 

On receipt of yr: Excellency*s letter of the 8th ult: respecting a plan 
to be concerted with the States of Maryland & Delaware, for the trans- 
portation of supplies to the Southward, we communicated the matter to 
the Delegates from those States, but they have never been furnished 
with any power or instructions relative to it — 

The Acts* of this State, taking off the embargo, are under the same 
cover with this. 

We have the honor to be, with sentiments of the highest respect, 
Yr: Excellency's obt and hble Servants — '* 

April 18th Ro: WooDiNG Co. LiEUT: TO THB Governor. 

llalifax Ck>. Informing him, that Genl : Green had lately sent a number of British 
prisoners into that County "directed to the Sheriff" with orders that 
they be conducted to any post in the State appointed for their recep- 
tion — In consequence of this the Sheriff has summoned sundry men in 
his Bailiwick to assist him in guarding the prisoners to Albemarle 
County. These men claim this as a "term of duty", but as he knows 
of no law authorizing it, he desires Oniors from his Excellency, " which 
shall be a law" to him, and will give general satisfaction. 

April 18th Col: Jas: Innes to Gov: Jefferson. 

Williamsb'g Informing him, he had just reeeivetl by Express, a message from Capt: 

^ °'^M ^^^^y stationed a little above Newport News, that eleven vessels of the 

enemy, Cheifly Square-rigged had passed N. Port News Point up the 

* None of the encloeuret referred to, are to be found. 


River, This was at 10-o-clock this morning, and the wind being fair 1781. 
from the S. East, they can reach Burwell's Ferry by the evening. lie is April 18th 
preparing to give them a reception ; and has ordered the stores to be 
removed at once — Having but lately taken Command at that Place, he 
is uncertain as to his force, Some of which is Stationed as low down as 
Newport News — Every intelligence shall be promptly sent to him. 

P. S. — Since writing the above, the officer at BurwelTs Ferry reports 
the van of the fleet in sight. 

Saml: Huntington to Gov: Jefferson of Va., enclosing Act of Con- April I8th 
gress in regard to Col: Davies' appointment as Commissioner of War 
of Virginia &c — to wit, 

" By the United States in Congress assembled, April 16th, 1781." Philadelphia 

"The Committee to whom was refen'ed the letter of the 26th March 

last from the Govr. of Virginia, delivered in a report, whereupon — 
Ordered, That Gov: Jeflbrson be informed, in answer to his letter of 

the 26th March last, that it is incompatible with the rules established by 

the United States, in Congress Assembled, for Col Davies to exercise a 

civil appointment, whilst he retains his rank in the Army — 
Extract from the minutes. 


Elear. Shbed to the Executive. April I8th 

Praying for permission to go in the " Flag boaV intended to convey 
Mrs. Allegood down the Country; she desires to join her husband Dr. 
Sheed who resides in the West Indies, and begs to be allowed to take a 
few Hogsheads of Tobacco with her, "as the currency of the State will 
not yield her subsistence elsewhere.'' 

Litt: Mosby informs the Governor he has, in accordance with Orders, April 18th 
enlisted, so far thirty six men, and expects to add to the number. The Powhatan 
County has been so often pillaged of Arms, that it will be impossible to ^' 
famish them — Hopes to get- these at Petersburg where he will be with 
his Men on Monday next. 

Capt: John Peyton to Col: Davies. April isth 

He is fowarding Stores to Powhatan Co. House as fast as possible & Oheeterfield 
has sent Capt: Towles to prepare houses for their reception, — and for ^' ^* 
the Tailors and Shoe makers to work in — Thinks it important to keep 



1781. them at work and therefore removes them to that place during the 
April 18th Invasion. Many of them are idle for want of Leather. Linnon wanted 
for shirts and overalls — 

April 19th 

Blunt'8 Pt. 

Thady: Kelly to Col: Innes by Express. 

this morning I Discovered a brigg & schooner, and as well as I can 
make out, between Newport News & the ships laying oposit Day's point 
upwards of twenty flat Bottomed Boats — there was a signal Gun fierd 
from the Commodore — the boats crowded Sail & comes up fast — I sent 
to Newport News before day & only wait for their return & the boats 
cuming up to the ships — the men will set ofl^ from this post in less than 
an hower — I shal wate myself to sec what movements they make. 

I am Sir &c. 

April 19th 

Mr. Robertson D. C. G. Issues to Col: Davies. 

Petersburg He has examined the stores in possession of Mr. Hector McNeil, and 
finds there 13 hhds: rum, 2" pipes of wine <& too teirces of Rice — Wag- 
gons cannot be gotten to remove them — Recommends they bo sent to 
Mr. Ricd. Lambs, Q. Master, in Brunswick forty five miles on the way 
to Taylor's Ferry — The Stores will be removed as fast as possible — 

April 19th 


Col: Senp to the Governor. 


He has been at this place since Saturday last, but has heard nothing 
of Col : Call — Has rec'd four negroes from the neighbors and expects 
six more tomorrow — The fifteen hired negroes who were there, went 
home "to hold their Holydays*', and having no soldiera there, ho could 
not prevent it — all returned except four — The Carpenters who went to 
Richmond to settle their accounts have never returned, and others drafted 
and sent to Genl : Muhlenberg — "Wants a guard for the provisions and 
tools, until the Garrison arrives — Shells to burn into Lime very much 
wanted — he hears they can be gotten at Manchester, "Warwick and on 
Appomattox River. 

April 19th 

Col: J. Innes to the Governor. 

Williamsb'jj He is just informed by the Officer at Burwcll's Ferry that nine **flat- 

6 o'clock bottomed Boats full manned, two armed Ships, a brig and a schooner 

more" are in sight — adds **I am preparing to take the most expedient 


me&gnres my poor Judgement dictates, for the bouoT and «ierrico of the ITSl. 
State I will not fail to account of oveiy material contingency." April 19th 

I am with cTery Sentiment of Respect kcS 

SiUiL: McDowell to Gov: Jefferson. April acWi 


I received vour ExtvUencv's Order of the 21Hh March lasl^ and Rockbndg« 
ordered the DraiiL accc^rdingly. The Draft is made and the liay of Ran- 
divouxie is the 26th Inst : — But it must Ruin a number of those whose 
lot it is to march at this time. As most of them were drawn last fall 
when G«nl: Lesley invaded this State, by which they were preventod 
from sowing full crops: And by going to Join Genl: CHix^ene at this time, 
they will not be able to Raise Spring Crops, and therefore their familys 
and stocks must suffer, as they (mostly) have not any person behind 
them when they arc gon from home, to work their small farms. 

They likewise are of opinion. If your Excellency and Ck>unctel knew 
the Duty this County has done since last October, you would excuse 
them at this time, and call for men from the counties which have done 
less,' ♦*♦*** 

'•This County had in October last Capt Jame^ Gilmer and forty odd 
men in Carolina under Genl : Moi^n for near four months, and was at 
Tarleton's Defeat at the Cow Pens in South Can>lina: And there were 
also throe Companies down (when Lesley invaded the Stated: their 
numbers were about 180 men — On Amold^s Invasion Colo. John Bowyer 
marched with alx>ut 200 men, down the Countr}' And when Gonl: Greene 
Retreated into Virginia, it was believed in these Parts that Ld: Corn- 
Wallace was in Virginia, I marched near 200 men from this County to Join 
Genl: Green. When we got to Bedford we were informed that Com- 
Wallace had gon up from Hillsborough to Guilford — I with dificualty per- 
suaded the men to cross the Dan into Carolinia, and Joined Genl : Green 
some time before the Battle at Guilford Courthouse: Continued with 
him 'till after the Batl: the 15th of Marc^h' last, had 1 Capt: and 4 Pri- 
vates Killed; two Capts: one Ensign and seven Privets Woundeti, and 
Major Stuart and four Privets taken Prisoners — From these different 
calls all the men in this County have been on hard service Each a term, 
since October last, and nearly two thirds of them at the same time. If 
Your Excellency and the Honourable Councel could Excuse the men of 
this County at this time, it would much oblige them : and they would l>e 
able to raise Bread for their families, for I assure 3'ou Sir, few of them 
have any Person, when they are from home to do any work on their 
farms/' ♦****» 
Your Excellency's most obt & mo hble Servt — " 


1781. Capt: IIarby Dudley to Col: Davies. 

Apnl *20th 

New Castle Informing him of his having repaired to that place as ordere<l — There 

are '*13* Cannon on the River Shore k a number of Shelfi & Shott" and 

there is no way of getting them up the hill — Col: Syme says he can give 

no assistance — Desires to know how he shall dispot^o of the *' Flat! and 

Sloop there'' after they have discharged their loads? 

April 20ih L. Mosby informs the Governor, he should have called the Court Mar- 
PowliAtan tial to tr^' the few delinquents in the County who refused to march when 

calleil upon under the Invasion Law, but all the Militia being caUed out 

he was unable to be present — 


April 20th CoL: J. SyIIE TO THE GOVERNOR. 

New Castle Wagons are so scarce, that there are few to be impressed, and none to 
hire; the price given by the -'Publick" so much lower than that given 
by individuals — Expresses great anxiety respecting "^this Train of Artil- 
ler}% an object of much Importance for its Value at any time, more 
especially at this Crisis" — 

April 20th Com: Jas. Barron to the Comm'dino Officer at Wmsburg. 

Blunt's Pt. The Vessells which ware bound up Jas: Kiver, are now at Anchore 

off the mouth of Peggen Creek, Consisten of five Ships, two Brigs, two 
Schooners & three Sloopes, with thirty flatt Bottom boats a steam, the 
fowcy 24 Gun Ship in BurwcU's Bay and a Brig at Anchor — ^Whato 
their intentions are I know not, but it may be proble they intend up in 
the night to supprise Williamsburg — was their intention to land at 
Smithfield, should have thought they would done it some hours past, as 
they anchored there at one-o-clock to day — two Sloops & a Schooner are 
• horsemen. 

I am Sir, with great respect 

Your most humble Servnt." 

* These are doubtless the French Brass Pieces, that were afterwards transported by 
water ap to Taylor's Ferry on Pamonky, were found there by Tarltoa, some spiked 
& others rolled into the Biver ; six were left, and subsequently carried up to Rich- 
mond and were to be s«en in the Armory Grounds up to the War of 1861 — Had they 
been small Guns, they could have been easily **carridd up the hill," at K. Castle. 


O. TowLEs Lt; Col: 5th Va. Kbot. to the Governor. 1781. 

April 20lh 
Sending Cupt Fcild with six prisoners under guard to Eiebmond taken Frederic'sb'g 

in King George Co — They belonged to '*tho Bintish piratical crew" that 

had been plundering up the Potomac, and had escaped from a vessel 

caUed *Tho little Trimmer— ' 

J as: Habersham to John Hamilton. April 20th 

Eoquesting him '*to apply to the Governor & Council on my behaU^ Charlotte Co. 
for leave to dispose of the undermentioned negroes — 
London ^ 

Boatswain V fellows, these three to be sold April 26th 1781. 
Queme ) 
Venus 1 

Rinah V Wenches. 

Cinda i 

Hetty 1 

V- y Children, 

^anny j 

Tho: Read. Clerk of the County certifies that these negroes had been 

brought from Georgia and duly registered in Charlotte according to Law. 

Caft: Ro: Gamble Sth Va. to Col: Da vies. April aoih 

Enclosing certificate in tavor of the bearer a Tailor who wishes to be Chesterfield 
employed — adds — ^'The latest aci*t. at this place, is that the £nemy ar\} 
no higher up the River than Burwell's Ferry, being detained with con- 
trary winds and tidesw" 

Col: John Stme to Gov: Jeffs&son. April 30th 

He will hold the Court Martial for delinquents as ordered — His Oifi- New Cactle 
cers have ma*Je no return:^ for n^-ariv twelve months, or since he went 
to the Springs — Aci'«.»rding to the last returns, the Militia of Hanover 
were ••greatly »hort of two Battlns^" hence there is no uae lor 9»> many 
Field Office n>- — Ad«L? — **A <.x'nain Thomas Birch Hulctt. bv Dirvetions 
of Mr. Wm. Fontaine t a^^ I understand 1 lieizM two ph^w Horbe» of mine, 
not long since in the plows k carrie«i them otT. for abt. a wtr^k. Doing 

them much injury k then return *d them. This furnishing my 

Teams !V»r Hailing the Artillery, .Store*, ke e: Hor!«e» for my 

in the Militia Hor^r S^rrvk-v k «>th^i> aU^ut a fonnis^ht before that, for 
the JOragoon ServicTir, i» rather too much, whtrn other people in the Coty. 
do nothing at all in that way — Had I been at home 1 Certainly taken the 


ff^ CALR^I/'Ait OP -Tj.rZ }^^'L^- 

p^i^^r -nan < rf."»r-*r i; i.r- 'l;, — 

April "i^rv f- Vf. -a? r raa «-n'i':'ia.'«« a. 

Mr Afi'lrew VI'/^/tJroA. ytUrft »frU-r^ •jr-rre rvr*-viv<ii :"..r Lim to marv-h 
with Ml': ffiilitia oH'r*yl ^wi-i'*' — \ot'*ith*carvi;Ei:^ :h>. Lv •icicnniiic!^ to 
^iv« hirn ft furlofij^h of xwfruly 'lay- i#j iro'i'^wn to c-^j-riler wiih h\< Exeel- 
l«?f i^y on wiv'^ml mafU-n — Thr Com mi.*-! oner? of the Tax send by him 
for th<- fhottf'.y fi*:f'.i\t'4\ to pay the ^K^unti<r;« to chv •iraiu-«i men. in as much 
tv* IJm'. Iat<" ifMUrn-'-fioiiH hav<r proveriUHl the Ci»!le«.-t"rs lri>m "exwuiiu^ 
ih<!ir 'luty " — Th'ty rannol even U*ll what p*ura will be wanting, but any 
••x''ep«H will he n*liirn'''J to the TnfaHury — Ad«ls — "Since my letter of the 
I'Mh wiiH wrolo, I have ha^l no further aeeounts of the rioters?, but have 
iniieh r«'fiHon to fear r whatever they may prfimisc to the contrar)-) they 
will flf.ill fttiui'l in oppoNltion iinlill aHiiffieient force i^ sent against them. 
I have wiihin theH«» Twenty four JIourH, received authentick information, 
t'hiit a very eormMleruhle niiinlxir have artHcmhled in another part of the 
(■oiinly, delf^rniined to ntand in oppoHition to every meaHure of Goveru- 
inenl, and endeavorini^ to p<;i*Htiafle every one in their neighborhood to 
Join them in their TreaMonahIo and dentructive meauures — for this pur- 
pone (hh I am told) they Hwear tidolity to ea(;h other. Their principal 
iihjeet Ih U> he clear of I'axcH and Dmughts. These things Sir, are truly 
iihirniin^, hut I utn happy in one consolation, that we have a majority of 
KHetidM III our happy ( 'onntitution, aiul will spare no pains nor hazard 
when calliMl on, U> r«Hi«ler (heir country what serx'ices in their power. 

It- huM Just. iM'cunHMl to me, thai y«Mir Kxcellency may probably judge 
it. expodiiMit to onler nome i'avalry U^ he raised in thiw County — Should 
r«urh a nieiiHuri^ he adapted, 1 inn humbly of opinion it might be attended 
with ViM'V hnppy shoulti it lKMinloiv<l, 1 wouhl beg leave 
tn ii>i*itnunen<l tf« your Kxreili'ui'y ('apt William Vaure, a very active 
brave olMeer, at pivhont a Hupcrnumorary — Mr. Soloman Vanvemeter, 


and the bearer Mr. Andrew Wodrow, who has also served some time in 1781. 
the Continental Army — All these Gentlemen have distinguished the April 20th 
most laudable zeal and attachment to their Country's cause, and I hope 
will discharge any trust reposed in them with honour and reputation — 
this last Gentleman's being draughted is a singular disadvantage to us, 
as he does the whole publiek business of the County as a Clerk; and has 
always conducted himself, both in his publiek capacity and otherwise as 
a good citizen — " * * * * * 

4c « 4e * « :K « 

Only fifty seven men have been draughte<i as some of the militia are 
now in North Carolina, enlisted for the war — 

Whatever measures his Excellency may recommend, shall be complied 
with, "for the interest of the Publiek as far as pittcticablc." 

7 o'clock 

Col: Jas: Innbs to the Governor. April 20th 


Fourt<?en flatt-bottomed Boats, a ship, two brigs, two sloops and Williamsb'g 
one schooner heavily manned, have just arrived at Burwell's Ferry — 
from every appearance I think they mean to Land, as they have halted 
with a favorable Tide — I believe they wait for nothing but the arrival 
of two schooners^ which have their cavalry on board — these vessels, I am 
at this moment informed have just turned MuUberry Island point — I 
moved out all the stores at this post last evening — 

I have the honor to be respectfully &c." 

Information from the same source, thro' Capt: Davenport that "five April 20th 
ships, five briggs, three sloops, four schooners, six and twenty flat Bot- 
tom Botes'* are ofl^ Hog Island, "standing up the Rivei*'' — They may 
annoy him at Wmsburg, but ho is confident their intention is to proceed 
higher up James River — 

Col : Innes, sends further intelligence that sixteen fiat bottomed boats April 20th 
had gone above James Town. — He will immediately march the troops Williamsb'g 
up the New Kent Road, and take such a position as will enable him to 
operate vigorously witht. exposing his rear & flank. 

CoL: Innes to the Governor. April 20th 

"Sir, Allen »8 0rdi- 

This Day at two-o-ckK-ke, the Enemy attempted and made good f^m^WU- ^ 
their Landing at Burwell's Perr}- ; at the same time several armed ves- liamsburg 


1781. Bells and 16 flatt bottomed Boats proceeded up to James Town, where 1 

April 20th have been informed they have since Landed — As soon as I found the 

Designs of the Enemy to circumvent me, 1 moved the Troops to this 

place, which is the nearest position to the town, that can be taken with 

safety while the enemy are masters of the water — 

There was some slight skirmishing between the advance of the Enemy 
and our Guards of Observation at Burwell's Ferry — We have sustained 
no loss ; all our Guards have joined the main Body — By several persons 
just from Williamsburg, I am informed that the British Troops were in 
a mile of the Town — Some Hospital Stores, about fifteen sick men una- 
ble to move, and some stores belonging to the Commissary's Department, 
to transport which, waggons could not be obtained, I have been obliged 
to leave behind me — The Troops under my Command are extremely 
haiTassed, having laid upon their arms for upwards of fifty hours; <iur- 
ing which time they have rcc'd no sustinance — They discover however 
a good Countenance, and I have my hopes that when I can give the 
Enemy action on fair terms, we shall acquit ourselves honourably — We 
suffer extremely for want of provisions — I write again so soon as 1 have 
leisure — 

I have the honor to be respectfully" 

April 2l8i Col: J as: Innes to the Governoe. 

" Sir, 
Hickory About 3-o-clock 3'esterday, the Enemy landed at BurwelPs Ferry 

H^^ila '^^^ 500 Infantry 50 Horse & 4 pieces of Artillery, which with seeming 
above Wil- intention of landing in force at Jamestown, or on some part of the 
8 o^loci?' Rivor above us, obliged us to evacuate the Town & move up to Allen's 
Ordinary six miles above — About 12-o-clock in the night. Major Arm- 
stead with 150 men & Capt: Keely with 50 lliflemen were ordered down 
& had a skirmish with the enemy, which terminated rather in our 
favour — 

We have just now received information that they arc above Jamestown 
with 14 square-rigged Vessells & 16 flat-bottomed Boats are now in 
Chickahominy River within 3 miles of the Ship- Yard, & in our present 
situation, I think there is no probability of our obviating their Inten- 
tions, without risqueing every thing — 

I am Sir, yr. Excellency's obent. Servant — " 

**P. S. Since writing the above, wo have received information that 
the Enemy are in possession of the Ship Yard." 


Mr. Wm. Hay to the Governor. 1781. 

April 2l8t 
He has a letter just from «Fre(ieriek8burg from Mr. Nicholson contain- Richmond 

ing the following "Extract" "By a Gentleman immediately fi'om 

Philada. wo have the Agreeable Information of the arrival of the second 

Division of the French Fleet, off the Capes of Delaware consisting of 9 

Sail of the Line & 7 Frigates — they were spoke with by a Brig which 

is arrived at Philadelphia." 

Major Ben: Walker Aid de Camp, writes to Col: Davis, that the Baron April 2l8t 
desires an Officer shall go in the *• Flag" with the necessaries for the Chosterfield 
Convention Troops. Capt: Cad: Jones has been thought of, but as his 
whereabouts is uncertain, suggests a State Officer be selected — 

Col: J. Syme writes to the Governor in reply, that he is ordering out April 2l8t 
his militia as fast as possible, in accordance with his orders — A part will New Castle 
be with his Excellency this day — Has a troublesome Job on his hands 
again, with the Artillery which he and Col: Davies agree must be sent 
further up the river "as High up as possible" — He shall need a good 
many men about it — While folding his letter the Postmaster informed 
him the Enemy are at Williamsburg — 

Col: J. Syme to Col: Davies, in reply. April 2l8t 

He is pushing his first plan of sending the Cannon up the river — New Castle 
Mason is out after flat-bottomed boats — If they Can't bo had, asks if it 
will not be best ^^to run the Flatts as high up as possible & let the^ 
remain on Board, or land them in Difft. & obscure places"? — Evor}*^ man 
of his Militia is onlered to Richmond, and he wants Hands — How is he 
to get them? And is Capt. Dudley or Mason to take charge of the 
business — Has just heanl the Enemy are in Williamsburg — 

Capt: H. Dudlc}' writes to Col: Davies, ho is "removing the Cannon April 2Ui 
up tho Kiver as fast as possiable in flats," and as the shot and mortar New Castle 
beds are the least valuable, shall leave them for the last — Has taken 
eighteen soldiers for the purpose — hears the British troops are in Wms- 
burg — Desires to know upon what terms ho is to pay the men or whether 
this service is to be considered "a term of duty" — 


17%1. Wm. Hat tc» th« Grt>TEE50E. 

Apnl 2ln 
Uitrhm^md Apr>loinziDg f^^'f annovib:^ him at thU '-Cmi«-ai Ptfn«>i." but hastens to 

a^k that Mr. Xicbol^son t*e p^mnittol t'» &tten*i at hi* hnithers St«>iv. he 
being ill. and "'bL? two lads^" draAe«i iDt«» the -i^rric-e. an«l under march- 
ing onien*. ieave« a lanje and valuable quantitT ••l" i;i>-i< -at the mercv 
of the nejfrries." 

April 2\Mi Major Cha>: Dick rr> Gov: JErrER5*!f. 

Fred«ric'ib's About 3 week?* airo. I wrote vour Excellencv for a sum of money 

to J>e brouirht me for the use of the Faet'»r}'. by Capl: Peter Minor, who 
has been sometime returned, and brinsrs me no answer al»out it. Mv 
Cn.'dil. Wonl. Honour and every tbin^r mortal c-an do. will not hold out 
longer with the [>eople unle<^ I am supporte*! with money — And it is 
amazing the quantity of arms old and new have been drawn from this 
Pla^-e. Hince Jany. last — Wc still continue to do our l.»est. but failing in 
payments is a great prejudice — 

Capt Abraham Maury waits on Your Excellency with this, and beg 
you will semi the Same sum by him, of £1<M\0im>. that ^^huld have come 
by ('apt: Minor. 

And am Hes|>eotfully 

Your Excellency's 


mo: obt hbl Servnt," 

April 21it Col: Wm. Da vies to the Governor. 


WarOfice I need not represent to your Excellency the insecurity of this 

place. Wc never can proceed with any degree of certainty in an3' of 
our public; works, while the enemy command the rivers — The state of 
our arms rerpiires security to the workmen from alarms and I am confi- 
dent we shull never be able to get them repaired, unless some buildings 
are prepared for them in a safe place above the falls — I have conveived 
with Mr. Ford and Mr. Anderson, and they think the han<ls can begin 
to work in ten or twelve days from this time Should they be Sent up to 
the point of Fork, where Mr. Anderson is very desirous to go. Mr. Gil- 
bert wishes to remove thither too, if his hands can be usefully emplo^'cd 
there, as I have no doubt the^' can be: but of this I shall make enquiry, 
and shall consult the ii, M. Genl: on it — ^I have not spoken to Moody, 
but I think his hands will be of sei'vicc then, if he himself should not. 
Upon the whole, the defence at Hood's and at Westham, ought to be 
first built, before anything more is attempted at the founder}' — The 
buildings that are there may serve for occasional purposes: but at pres- 



eut, from the new position the onomy have taken, there can he no safely 1781. 
in this placH?: unless a conflidorable force shall be constantly kept up April 2l8t 
between Biehraond and Wiinamsbnrfij — May 1 hope therefore for the 
Appr<»bation of the Executive, in directing all the hands employed on 
the public works in this neighborhood, to remove immediat^^ly to the 
jKiint of Fork, except only such a number of Artificers to be detained at 
certain places as the Quarter Master General shall direct for the neces- 
sary purposes of the Trooj>s? 

Enclost»d 1 submit to Your Excellency a memorandum of Articles pur- 
chased by this State for the use of the Southern Army. Ropeat4?d 
unsuccessful applications have l»een made to Major Claiborne for wag- 
gons, but none are yet obtained, or likely to be obtained. This is one of 
the ill consequences of the Stat^i's depriving itself of the means of trans- 
portation, as it subjects us to the hazard of losing very valuable stores, 
meri'ly hKjcause the Continental Officers, who have got almost all our 
waggons, chuse to remove stores of little value that hai'^c been dolivorcd 
to them, iu preferencjc to those of great worth which have not been actu- 
ally deliveri'd to them, altho* purchased expressly and solely for Conti- 
nental puqK>ses — 

1 have the honor to be Sir &c>. 


*In Council Apr; 21st 1781. 

The Bean! apjiroves of the ]>roposition to remove all the hands 

employed in the public wxirks in this neigh borhooii, to the fork of James 



"At the request of His Excellency Thomas Jefferson Ksqr. Governor April 2Ut 
of Virginia I have examined Charles Lee Esqr. touching his capacity, 
abilities and fitness to practice as an Attorney in the County Courts and 
do find him fitly qualified to practice in such Courts." 

Certified under my hand this 21st day of April 1781. 


Col: Wm. Davies to the Governor. April 2Ut 

Requesting him to apply to Col: Th: M. Randolph for a 'Marge flat or Richmond 
lighter" which he says can go sixteen miles above his house, and which 
can carry a great man}' Stores — 

Unless it ean be gotten many stores may be lost. He would apply 
him^^lf for it, but has little acqiuuntance with that gentleman. 




"Dear Sir, 
Long Island I returned to this plaee on friday last, after a Tour of 19 

Days — it happened very fortunate our Going out at the Time we did, as 
there was a large Body of Indians Collected in powell's valley, which 
we should most Certainly have fallen in with, if Maj Lewis had not 
alarmed them. I was at one Camp whearo there could not bo less then 
a Hundred — Several other traces of Smaller parties, all making towards 
the mouth of powell's Kiver, only one partie which Seemed the freshost 
which we followed about thirty miles below Cumberland Gap. Camo 
up with them In campt. Surrounded them undiscovered, But the Camp 
being so close, we could not discover them before they run out. Wo 
fired about thirty Guns on them — Sevei"al of them Seemed to be badly 
Wounded — the Cain was so thick they could not be persued on horse- 
back — We got five guns. Blankets, shot pouches &c — one of their horses 
was wrote in full John Brown — the sd. Brown was Killed in Cumber- 
land Gap, which Induces me to believe it is the party that always 
watches that place. 

By such a Body as was Collecting, it appears that they either Intended 
to attact the Stations or strike a heavy blow on our frontiers — I made 
no stay at the Camp, but pushed on as fast as possible for about seventy 
miles further, being still on fresh sign, when the men Stopt & refused to 
go any further. Saying I was taking them to Chickamogga, that we was 
To weak — their provisions near out & their horses Tyerd — I did every 
thing in my power to prevail on them to Go about ten miles further, but 
Could not — 1 am Convinced we was a few miles from some Town, as 
I saw whear they Took in meat on horseback, the blood not dry on the 
Bushes, they have taken a number of horses that way this Spring — 
Should write more particular, but Mr. price will deliver this to you, who 
will give you a particular act. of the whole, in the mean time I beg 
leave to inform you, I am very Desirous of going to the end of the Path 
we left, if men & provisions Can be had at any rate, as our frontiers 
must Expect great distress from that quarter, if they are not Broke up. 

Mr. Price says if he meets with your approbation, he can Eaise 50 
men at any time, he has behaved very well on this Tour, being one of 
the spies — Our whole stock of provisions at setting out fix)m the Cove- 
was 2i lbs. of Bacon & half Bushel of Corn pr; man — Our Strength 65 
men Including Officers — 

I am Sir, with great regard 

Your most obt Servant 

P. S. The Body of Indians broke on our approach, as we saw sign 
of several Small parties makeing home — I Can't hear whether Col: 
Sevier went to meet the Messenger was sent to the nation or not. I am 


told there was a- woman & Child killd on lick Creek last week — Should 1781. 

any news arrive from the Nation shall send you Immediately — I am April 22d 

very Desirous of hearing the news from Cornwallace — beg you will 

write us by the first oportunity." 

J. M. 

Col: John Syme to the Governor. April 22d 

Mason and others are after wagons — In case these cannot be had, he New Castle 
will get ox-carts — The Salt should be left, twenty or thirty miles from 
that place in careful hands — " The Brass Cannon are now on Floats — 
Expect all will be so to-day." Mr. Dudly and himself do not understand 
each other, he therefore begs to save the expence of his services by hav- 
ing him discharged, as he is dissatisfied with his Orders ^^& totally unac- 
quainted with things" there. 

The Cannon are so heavy, it takes a number of Hands to move them, 
consequently their place of deposite will be known to the enemy if they 
come. They should be carried on carriges up to the fork of James Eiver 
if possible, otherwise it were better they remain on the boats to be 
removed as occasion may require. 

Col: Jas: Innes to Gov: Jefferson. April 22d 


The movements of the Enemy on the Western Side of Chicka- Franke's 
hominy River, of which 1 apprized you yesterday by Express, has ren- ^'j^'^fJI «| 
dered it expedient for me to take my present position, which I think a Williamgb'g 
very defensible one: from which too I can file otf towards Richmond J^^ ^ ^ 
with't exposing my fianks or liear to annoyance — They possessed them- 
selves of the Ship Yard, about 4-o-clock yesterday, and I am apprehen- 
sive from the fire discovered in that Quarter last night, they have totally 
destroyed it — The Troops by intense fatigues and vigilance and scarcity 
of provisions are much worn down — These circumstances increase our 
number of Invalids daily — I am determined to halt at this place until 
the men can be comfortably rec^reated. 

I am sorry to inform you, I have in vain called for the aid of the adja- 
cent Counties — I am at present almost totally with't Ilorse. If I had 
the power of impressing I should be al)le to form a very useful corps of 
observation — I will immediately onler a "Return" of my Strength and 
Stores, and in close it by the next Express. I am in want of waggons, 
provisions, and allmost everj' necessary — When I get an hours sleep, 
which I have not enjoyed for upwards of sixty hours, I will write you 
more fully. 

I am most respectfully, 

Yr: Excellency's mos ob Servt." 


1781. Capt: Henry Young, A. D. Q. Master, to Col. Davies. 

April 28rd 

Richmond Recommending an officer be sent to remove the Hospital stores farther 

up the River; that Capt: Bohannan should not be allowed to leave 

Westham ; his services being essential — Mr. E. Baker late Q. Master on 

the Frontier informs him he has thirty horses at Powell's Valley, four 

hundred miles off, to deliver up — As they cannot be wanted in that 

County, or by Col : Slaughter at the Falls of Ohio only one hundred and 

fifty miles off, ho asks for instructions what to do. 


"Dear Sir, 
New Castle I have written you so often of late that I am ashamed of it. 

Nothing but the Salvation of the Stores to induce me to be thus Trouble- 
some: Capt: Dudley will by no means answer this Bussiness, for reasons 
innumerable and too tedious to raention-r— For particulars, I refer you to 
this Gent, Wm. Bradford Esqr, who comes Express to inform you of it. 
I can get men here acquainted with the River, the people & that can 
write. I beg my dear Sir, you will let me conduct this matter. 
I am with great regard & much haste & perplexity, , 

Your obedient Servant." 

April 28rd Major Genl : Baron Steuben TO Col : Davies. 

"Dear Col, 
FeterBburg As I am unacquainted with Officers commanding the Militia 

at Richmond, and it being my desire that of those that are armed one 
half shall march immediately to Turkey Island, and the other to the 
Long bridge on Chickahominy — I have enclosed the Order which 1 
request you to Communicate. 

I only wait the arrival of Col : Senf, to visit Hood's and Bland's ordin- 
ary, when I intend making the Dispositions to op])oso the Enemy 
should ho come this side the River. 

I am dear Colo, with much esteem 

Your most obod't humble Servt." 

April 28rd Ed: Simpson TO Capt: Edmd: Read at Port Royal. 

Frederic'sb'g Complains bitterly of his not having been paid a shilling even, for nine 
months either for the work he has done for the U. States or for Virginia, 
or for the materials furnished — He will undertake to repair the Arms so 
much wanted to enable him, Capt: Read, to take the field, provided he 
will become responsible for his pay, to be made in "hard money" or in 
tobacco at the present valuation, as soon as the arms are delivered — 


Col: J. Symo writes to Col: DavioH, that Capt: Dudley has gone up to 1781. 
see him to make complaints — The bearer Capt: Stanley will enlighten April 28rd 
him in this matter — The truth is Capt: Dudley "wants to Coraand me" — New Castle 
Anks for news — He is "putting the hist of the Cannon on Board" and 
will go up to Richmond soon if he can — 

Col: Davies to the Governor. April 28rd 

Thinks it impossible Col: Innes is in want of provisions; but if as War OflSce 
reported ho has crossed at Rufllns, any thing for him should be sent to 
New Castle— Continues "At present we are in great distress for want of 
Waggons. Every one of the Public Offices almost; the treasury, the 
land office, the Auditor's the Hopital having waggons waiting and 
eotirely idle. This is really injurious, and I beg your Excellency's 
directions either that the waggons may immediately take from the 
public offices what ever can bo spared, or that the (Quarter Master may 
have the liberty of employing them otherwise; some of them have been 
idle two days — 

It is necessary Somebody should go up to the Counties in the neigh- 
borhood of the Barracks, to collect the Arms, and take them to the Point 
of Fork. I beg to know your Excellency's opinion about the provision 
and quantity to be sent to Col Innes. 

I am your Excellency's &c. 

"In Council April 23, 1781. 

Colo. Innes' information being that the Army under his Command is 
in the utmost distress for provisiong we must suppose it fact, and there- 
fore shl'd think it necessary to send him the four waggons of provisions, 
as promised him: & the rather because of our having promised it — it 
does not seem credible he should have crossed at Ruffins — 

We approve of sending a pei'son to collect the arms about the barracks 
& that money be furnished. 

Expecting every moment to hear of the movements of the Enemy & 
that this will determine whether the removal of the public papers will 
l>e necessary, we postpone givmg any orders about the waggons at the 
Several Offices. 


^ •JAl.idXU-i^ iP tTjLlH ?Ai?Sa?. 

n<r w inanritir ii" iroTPs* le j:&b*ii lajiu. niwiaeti :br*hr .S»«ttitfm 'Tttm 
lliHiriirai. in»i -wFui-a le niornL? ne. "iie 'TirnUeiiieTi »i 'he '^riarr*rr Vuc^ 

:iilWrnuuion :o Mr. BQtr. rfaju L liil *ii»r -irnpvr person ^o :ii»«?eiv?i -.htiin. 
r •an Ui lothiiuf .noTT* ^iuui iirnet "he .aipik-aiion. vht^i Ji "iie ULnii^* •>£ 
die Ai-^wtiuit 'IT' Masu^-r »r ^om iictriKrr? .Lpp«*iniLti *y iLunr ♦ naii>«»i3ie. 

Pi-nm 'he -yMTt^m if niitr •^narttr MafcCer- Dfrpaxnnt^ r * -iearry tntiir 
•iiity '•> rweir*? :iil pnhiic pmwiry "vherher ornvidtri '^y 'his- "rtan.*. .)r 
•i*^T rVnm iiav itht^r :^tac& -i* ^nrende-L ±»r the Siuihrsi Armv Tbu 
ArtHMaiit '^niirrer Mavtent. ir ^tirc Kcttn^Ts- ;ipi>»intL-*i .»y riie 'Ser-.*n2i 
D*^piif7 '^nartt*r ]Ca«(i3L*i?t> :n riie S»iithi-m 'HaU'S. ±r»' iira«-tL**i 'jy^ rhe ure 
.uTantr!*rattnt 'ir' rhe rummiwHfcry Dttpamnent "i» nake 'heir Senim^ -it 
rnminiflMirr .*r4irp» zu me munthiv .« tinTant 'hvm n -iui-h nanner •.!» t 
mar rin«i at*fM^2*!»arr. x. 'her ^n* the mir ? jr!«»iu? m ^ht»ni rnur Stuce 
^VominirtWTT or irher p»Ts«in ttio pi7>cun» rhv "ipe«_'iiit*> r»?*iiiin^l br 
0>inrrps*». -thniilii ieiivir rhfm; rf»r 't rhi?v at** rt-^-trivj-ii ;>v sut tther 
P»*rwfi. r -thail nor bn thmiMit^t ^rrrh :in ±fif»mt •»!' diem, lor hart* it in 
my potr**r r4> makis rhe aef»et»rHirr remm?^ 'tt rhe *.*oininan«ier *n' the 
.%>nt.hem Armr — r dnii 3Cr. Siuthall hat* lert: Mait»r *.'Iaib»»rae ^ -finpioy. 
therr'^rnrft rhe -♦u>rw in dih* piaet: • cannot be rt»eeir>i-i ontii a new appjint- 
rnKfic rakt*?* piai*e — whii^h E tixpei-*t will lie to morT»»^ morainir 

Thofie at Wr^sftfaam. E hiTpe joa 'will •iir»set to be -sent 3p to Carters 
WtiTTj by -^iLi&T ZAi Xr. Drew ufae Aaei^tt: '-^r. Miii^ter. who -ihall reeerre 
my *>rrien &> tSirward chem on without 'ieiay. E wiiHi uus^ to take phun^ 
b«^*anf«e Major •'.Taihome haa no ai.*cuiir pep*on at W-^tham — The :^Cor»*ti 
ac P'M>rr»hiir:r will b« p««eiv»t4l by Cape. H*»imert. who lurta* at- Aj?trij*t. •-^. 
Manrer ac that Siatii*n — 

r <4hall at all times be happy t*> aid the Aj:<fnt£<^ *}i thii» State to the 
atmi>«t of my p#>wer. and E wii»h muirh that the Spe^-'idi.-?* re^iuireii by 
ConirniMfl were cr>nline«i to one per>4>n t»> pnx^ure. at leajt«t, tbat they 
■^hoaltl all f^.ome nniler hiif 'iinieuoa — thi& E be tie re [if oot the cae^ at 
preMffit. AM I hare wrote repeat«hlly uy Xr. J«»hn Brown, the per«4:>a 
whom hit4 Ex/^eilen^v the <7oremor Lnlbrmetl me wac» «jrhi&r!£e4i with thi:«^ 
dnty. hat he hai» nerer &rord me with any mii>rmatioa — 
I am *iear Sir. with the ^n'eate«t ei<teenu 

Yoar rerv humble Servant. * 


Mrs. Sarah McIntosh to Gov: Jefferson. 1781. 

April 23rd 
Thanking him for his "very polite letter'' and for the "Ten Thousand Mecklen- 

poiinds" sent by Colo. Russell for the relief of herself and numerous ^^^ ^' 

family — She will use "all possible economy in its expenditure." 

Col: Jas: Innes to Gov: Jefferson. April 23rd 

'^Dear Sir, 

Having received Intelligence last Evening, that the Enemy Camp Ruf- 
were moving up Chickahominy River Road, with an Intention to attempt ^ ^ ^"^'^ 
a Stroke at the Party under my Command and had actually advanced 
so far up as to be able to compel me to give them action on the most 
disa<lvantageous terms, should I endeavour to retreat by the way of New 
Kent Court House. In this Situation, encumbered as my Line was by 
upwards of one hundred sick and wounded, without Hospital Stores or 
Surgeons, burtlicned too with twenty waggons loaded with the public 
Stores, which 1 had ordered from Williamsburg and its Environs, Consid- 
ering the fatal Consequences that must result from a Defeat of my Party, 
by the loss of the public arms in their Hands & the ten Field Pieces 
annexed to it; Knowing too the superiority of the Enemy's numbers & 
the advantage they must derive from having a Body of Cavalry and 
fresh Troops in acting against my Detachment without one well-equip- 
ped Horse & almosst worn down with Fatigue & Hunger; influenced by 
these considerations & the advice of all the Field Officers, I determined 
to run no Hazard at such a critical Juncture as the present. I accord- 
ingly changed my Route and filing oft* to the Right, passed all the stores & 
Troops over Pamunkey River at this Place, where I found, according to 
Information, a very welcome supply of Provisions. I shall now have it 
in my power to dispose of the Invalids, give the Troops a little Refresh- 
ment, send the Baggage & Stores oft* to a Pla(^e of Safety & either march 
lip towards Richmond with the Troops light, disencumbered k refreshed 
by re<;ro88ing the River & falling into the Road through N. Kent or by 
continuing up on this side & crossing the River at Page's Warehouses, 
which 1 am told makes only the difference of 7 miles. 

I have sent out to discover the real Designs of the Enemy, and the 
moment I receive authentic Information, I shall put the Troops in 
motion. Last night they destroyed the Vessels & Buildings M the Ship- 
Yard & some Naval Stores at Diascon Bridge. I am also informed, tho* 
not officially, that the Party which moved up the Chickahominy Road 
have burnt Holt's Forgo & are moving in three columns toward N. Kent 
Co. House. In a few Hours I shall know the Truth of these Reports — 
At all events, I think it would be proper to stop the Provisions you have 
ordered down on the Road to N. Kent Co. House. 
I am dear Sir, with the greatest Respect 

Your mo: obed: & very humble Servnt." 


1781. Major Rd: Claiborne to Col: Davies. 

April 23rd 

Richmond Informing him, that by letter from Mr. Ried. Young at Fredricksburg 

he learned a number of Waggons, with Military Stores were then on 

their way to the Southern Army. Thirty or more " had crossed at this 

Feriy" last Monday under the direction of Doct: Skinner, and are 

ordered to Prince Edward Co. House "by the Baron." Fourteen went 

by the upper route over Carter's Ferry. 

April 24th Raleioh Colston TO Gov: Jefperson. 

Cape Fran- Offering to supply the State with woolen goods, well adapted to the 
9^*^ wants of soldiers, a quantity of "blanketing stuff" &c on moderate 
terms — If a vessel could be despatched with a cargo of the best super- 
fine flour, "in neat casks of 180 or 190 lbs net," it would be very profit- 
able to the State, that article "commanding 250 Livres pr: barrel" — 
Thinks it his duty to offer these articles; also a quantity of Russia 
Drill, for summer clothing — should have addressed the Board of Trade, 
were he certain of its existence at this time. 

April 24th Jas: Madison jur. AND Theod. Bland TO GovR. Jefferson. 


Philadelphia We were yesterday Honord with your Excellei\cy*8 of the 13th 

Inst: with its enclosures. You may be assured that our utmost endeav- 
ors have been exerted in fowarding the Arms and Stores mentioned in 
our last, but insurmountable difficulties have prevented their seting off 
untill now — But we are happy to inform you that the first of them will 
go on to day, as the Qr. Master assures us. 

We have anticipated the circumstance mentioned in the Extract of 
Genl: Greene's letter to the Baron, by urging the Board of War with 
every argument for the necessity of speedy supply which they are 
taking measures to procure, but I fear with little prospect of immediate 
effect, neither theirs nor our own exertions will be slackened on that 
head, but we cannot advise a reliance on the success — Your desire con- 
cerning the Prisoners, has been communicated to the Minister of Franco, 
who has expressed his fears that such a step could not be Justified on 
the common principles adopted by European nations at War, but at the 
same time, thinks there will bo no difficulty of complying with your 
desire signified in your last letter (13th) now before us. A late letter 
from the Commander in Chief gives us some reason to think that the 
Brftish have a serious intention of making a descent in Delaware Bay, 
at least to forage, and secure all the Provision they can on the Penin- 



fiula that lays bolow Now Castle and the head of Elk if possible — in 1781. 
consequence of which, measures have been taken to remove all the April 24th 
flower, cattle and short forage on that Peninsula, cnll'd the Eastern 
Shore, out of their Reach, and also from the Jersey Shore, Bordering 
on Delaware Bay ; for which purpose, the Board of War are vested with 
powers by Congress, and the executives of Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, Maryland and Virginia are request to lend their assistance to aid 
in the execution of their necessary measure — 

Authentic Accounts have arrived here, that Don Galvey has entered 
the Bay of Pensacola with a considerable sea and land force, has made 
good his landing, and been Joined by a large body of Troops on the 25th 
March, and there is little doubt but that important will soon be in the 
bands of Spain — by the same account, we are informed that a detach- 
ment of Rodney's fleet, consisting of seven ships, were seen standing 
towards that place, and immediately the Spanish Admiral put to sea 
from the Havannah with sixteen (16) sail of men of war of the line, and 
five or six thousand land forces to intercept the British and secure suc- 
cess to the Assailants — 

A report prevails here, which gains credit, that the fleet from Corke 
consisting of two or three men of war and 120 ships under their convoy, 
bad fallen in with a french Squadron of twelve or fourteen ships of the 
line, and that very few of the Convoy escaped falling into the hands of 
our Ally — and a vessel irom Cadiz inlbrms us, that war was declared by 
that nation against the British — & that a Manifesto had been published by 
Holland at that Port, authorizing the Dutch to make reprisals on the 
English Nation,, before he left Cadiz. 

We h&vo the honor to be with Sentiments 
of the highest respect & Esteem 

Yr: Excellcy's most ob & hble Servants. 

P. S. — We are happy to inform yr: Exy. that a large Detachment of 
of the Pennyva. Line are at length in motion towards Virginia, & we 
hope will arrive in time to check the Progress of the Enemy in that 
State. We have accts. that the Confederacy is taken b}'' the Roebuck & 
Orpheus off this Coast." 

Col: Jas: Innes to the Governor. April 24th 

''Dr. Sir, 

I have this moment arrived at this place, and shall lose no time. Camp 2 miles 

1 beg to receive yr: Ordei-s, as I am Ignorant of the situation of Rich- 7 o^j ^^1* 

mond — I would write more explicitly, but for prudential Reasons, which night 

yr: Excellency will easily conceive. 

I am most respectfully 

Yr : Excellency's most ob. Servt." 

'*P. S. — I hope to hear from you by the Dawn of Day.'* 


1781. Col: Arthur Campbell informs Col: Davies, that Col: E. Clarke had 

April 24th sent the prisonere taken in South Carolina on the 23d March to his care, 
Washington and that he has fewarded them on to Winchester, not knowing who is 
the Commissary of Prisoners in this State — Enquires whether any reply 
has come from Congress, respecting the establishing a Post on the Ten- 


April 24th Geo. EllIOTT TO CoL: DaVIES. 

Petersburg One of the wagons referred to has been sent to Richmond, the other 
"to Roanoke for fish," but has not returned. 

April 24th Capt. Edmd: Read TO THE Governor. 

Port Royal, He returned, with his Troop to this place two days before, from the 
Caroline Co. P()^Q,jja(j T^^* enemy's Ships had all gone down the river — Since he 

left Boyd's Hole, a small boat had gone there and the houses had been 
burnt; except the warehouses — Calls attention to his having received in 
February last a Warrant for Ten thousand five hundred pounds for the 
purpose of getting boots for his men in Frederick, Maryland, but having 
to return suddenly to Virginia, did not get them. Ho has tried to pro- 
cure them there and at Fredncksburg, but cannot get them made for 
less than *'five hundred and fifty pounds a pair" owing to the rapid 
depreciation of the money — This very much increases the cost; but begs 
for a further supply of money to pay for them — Refers to the proposi- 
tion of Mr. Simpson in respect to doing the necessary repairs to his sad- 
dles and accoutrements — His horses' backs all sore; Unless Simpson be 
employed, he will not be able to take the field even after his horses shall 
have recruited. 

April 26th Col: Arthur Campbell to Gov: Jefferson. 

Washington Refers to his having sent Col : Martin and Major Lewis to drive the 
^^* Indians from their haunts near Cumberland Gap — He has no hopes the 

Cherokees will sue for peace, as long as Augusta Georgia is in the hands 
of the British, who furnish them all the supplies they need — 

Col : Elijah, sent by him to stnke a blow in that quarter had been 
foiled in the attempt by "Major Dunlop and his Cori)s of Partizans on 
this side the Savannah River" — 

"The Northward Indians" have been troubling the people very much 
this spring, in Small parties; killing "captivating" and wounding. They 
came up Sandy River generally, and on the last occasion, penetrated as 
far as "the settlement on Holstein" carrying off a son of Capt: Bledsoe — 
These continued troubles have induced the Officers to beg that the Exec- 


utive will countermand the call of the 29th March, lor two hundred 1781. 
militia for the Souther|i Army — It will bo next to impossible for those April 26th 
men to fit themselves out for so distant a march, having as yet received 
uo pay for their services the past year. He hopes some steps will be 
taken to provide for the Company of Rangers that guard PowePs Val- 
ley — Mr. Martin's proposal to penetrate that region with a good force 
would do good, if carried out; but he thinks it impracticable at present, 
in view of the importance of sending men to the support of Genl: 
Greene, the defeat of whom would suddenly overwhelm the Country — 

Brio Genl: G. Weeden to Gov. Jeffekson. April 25th 

Dear Sir, 

* * * * * 

"Genl: Phillips seems from the complexion of his Letter, to complain 
of an infringement on the Sacred i-ules of Flags of Ti-uco & mentions 
that borne by Mr, Armistead. In Justification of myself 1 enclose to 
your Excellency copy of Mr. Armistead's credentials. My letter to the 
British Genl : on this Subject had the honor of transmitting you a copy 
of^ dated 6th Inst — 1 know not who Mr. Armstead has taken with him, 
under the Sanction of his Mission aud have therefore enclosed Genl: 
Pbillii)s copy of my Flag, with the persons' names & Business they went 

On perusing the List of Prisoners, your Excellency will judge how 
far an Exchange for them can be carried into Execution with propriety. 
I could only add, that if we have any not already given up to the Con- 
tinental Commissary of Prisoners, I think they had better be ordered to 
a convenient place for Exchange — It would give contentment to the 
Militia and would be a means of stimulating them to more ready Exer- 
tions, when they found the attention of the Executive not wanting to 
serve them." * * ♦ ♦ ♦ 

** Wo have a number of Prisoners that are I fear little attended to & 
flhould for my own for liberating as many of our Countrymen 
with them as the just rules of war would authorize. 

The Marquis is now crossing the River — I understand the Frederick 
& Berkeley men were to march last Monday j they are not however yet 

I am, with perfect esteem & Respect, 

Yr: Excellencies most ob Servant." 





April 25th 


Lieut: Col: R. Lindsay to Col: Davies. 

Ho has received the Orders of the 4th & 18th Insts:, in consequenco 
of which he at once gave directions to the differontr Militia Officers, to 
collect all the public arms in the County, in their several districts; but 
fears this has not been pi*operly done, as ho has so far received only 
seventeen. The Captains think there are many more, though unfit for 
use. All the best, only fifteen in number, he delivered to the Officers in 
Command of the Militia who went down the Country, many of whom 
were without arms. Assures him he will use every effort to collect the 
arms, and send them to the Point of Fork as ordered — After every 
enquiiy, he can get no canoes or batteaux that will "answer the public 
purposes" Living so remote, (at least 30 miles) from the River, he is a 
sti*angcr in that part of the County ; and therefore recommends for that 
particular business, the selection of some one who is more familiar with 
the river from Richmond to Bedford — * 

The resignation of Col: Coles, late County Lieutenant delays his 
sending a complete Return of the Militia — 

April 25th 


LiuT. Col: R. Lindsay to Gov: Jefferson. 


Your favor of the 16th Instant, came to hand covering the Inclosed 
Commission, and one for Major Charles L. Lewis, the receipt of which 
I most thankfully acknowledge, but being conscious of my inability to 
execute an Office of that importance at present, must beg leave to return 
the Commission. That fill'd up for Major Lewis I have delivered him, 
which he told me he would qualify too the first opportunity — *' * * 

I am Sir with much respect 

your very humbl Servant — " 

April 26th 

Capn: J as. Maxwell to the Governor. 

Richmond "A List of the Arm'd Vessels at Coxes dale, with their Force and pres- 
ent Complement of men." 


16 Six-pounders 






14 four pds 





16 Six " 





18 Six " ■ 




Willing Lass, 

12 four " 





12 do. 





8 four & Six p( 

is: 3 





















No: of Men wanted, 

American Fabius, pierced for 18 guns, 
Morning Star, " " 12 " 




In conjunction with the Capts. of the Vessels, have fixM on the above 
place, an<l this day expect they will be ranged in a Semi ciixjlc, haveing 
a marsh on the So. Shore, and an extensive plain on the No. Shore, 
which their canon will command, an<l they being in want of cartridge 
paper & som other stores which I shall immediately send them, and 
Baron Steuben being at Head (iuartei*s, have sent a copy of the above 
Arrangement to him this moniing from Osbornes by an Officer. 
I have the honour of being 

Your Excellency's most obedt. 

ITumble Servant." 

April 26th 

Gov. Tuos: S. Lee &c. to (rov: Jkffkrson of Va. 

April 27th 


Genl: Hamilton infonned us that a F'lag with Cloatbing and Money Annapolis, 
for the late (.Convention Troops stationed in Virginia and Marj'land has ^^ Council. 
arrived at Hampton, and requested j)ermi8sion to land them at George 
Town in Maryland; which we have gninted, so far as concerns the 
Troops in Maiyland, under sertain ili'strictions ; and referred him to 
your Excellency as to the necessaries for the Troops in Virginia." 
* * ♦ ♦ * 

We have the honor to be, 

With Sentiment of highest respect and Esteem, 
Yr: Excy's most obt & most hble Servants — " 

Copy of a Contract made between Ebenezer Cowell of Phila. and Jas: April 27th 
Madison Jur:, Theo. Bland and M. Smith, Delegates from Virga. by Philadelphia 
which the said Cowell engages to furnish two thousand "Rampart Mus- 
kets," "cut and put in good repair" in the same manner and of the same 
length as those now shewn in the War Office", at the rate of seven 
shillings and six pence Hard money," or its equivalent in paper, at the 
time of payment. The said Cowell to furnish twelve hundred in four- 
teen days, ready for transportation to Virginia, and the residue before 
the day of payment — 

The Delegates agree to pay the above sum in sixty days from date — 
else, the remaining eight hundre<l muskets, to be sold to satisfy the 
demand of said Cowell &c. 


1781. Major Rd: Claiborne to Col: Da vies. 

April 27th "Dear Sir, 

Richmond I have just received your letter of this day, informing me 

that you have directed the State Wagons to be withdrawn from giving 
aid to the Continental Service; and that the Supplies for that line 
devolve upon me to be furnished. The reasons which you have given 
are no doubt sufficient; therefore 1 shall endeavor to supply the defi- 
ciency by doing all in my power. 

I have the honor to bo 

With great respect & regard 
Dear Sir &c." 

April 28th CoL: Thos: Read to the Governor. 

Charlotte Co. Enclosing a resolution passed by the Militia Officers of the County — 
viz — "Thos: Read, Co Lieutenant, Lt: Col: Watkins, Lt: Col. Morton, — 
Captains, W. Morton-White, Rarksdill, Jas: Morton, Gaines, Spencer, 
Halloway, Wallace, & Jameson, tendering their immediate services, with 
one hundred men, notwithstanding the militia have just returned from 
a "tour of duty," to repel the enemy, who they hear are at Petersburg. 
He is also directed to represent to his Excellency the difficulty of get- 
ting arms and ammunition the supply of those having been exhausted 
at the time reinforcements went to Gcnl: Greene. Lieut: Madison, the 
bearer, will bring back any orders from the Executive. 

April 28th B. Ed: JoEL TO THE GOVERNOR. 

"I have this instant received notice, that the Enemy appears to be 
again in motion at Osbomes. I have dispatcht a vidette to recoinortre 
them, and am collecting some negroes to hew down trees, and be ready 
to take up the different Bridges in their rout, there is no Officer on this 
side but myself and 1 desire to know if you have any commands." 

I am Sir &c." 

April 29th Jno: Roqers TO Gov: Jepferson. 

Hoodsburg Since his arrival at the Falls of Ohio, is surprised to hear of the asper- 
sions against him, in regard to his conduct while in command "at the 
Illinois last winter." Richd. Winston and Richd. McCarthy the authors — 
men .of doubtful character — McCarthy under arrest for Treason over 
since September last, and the former, when Dept: County Lieutenant of 


Illinois prevented the people frora furnishing food to his men, when they 1781. 
were actually starving, although ho made the most urgent appeals to April 29th 
him. When Col: Montgomery left that county, many of his sick men 
caniQ under his own care; and ho was at last driven to the necessity of 
killing a beast for their support altho* the County aboundec^ in meat. 
But for the Kind and prompt Assistance of Mr. Bently a merchant at 
Karkar's he could never have reestablished the health of his men. This 
gentleman is now on his way to Virginia, and in consideration of the 
great services he has rendered the State, in cheerfully furnishing sup- 
plies and influencing the Inhabitants to aid him, he hopes for the favor 
of the Executive in his behalf. lie had even pledged his personal secu- 
rity for the payment in Hard money of all demands of the people: but 
the abovementioned persons had so prejudiced the minds of the Inhabit- 
ants, with the view of driving him, Rogers, out of the County, tbat ho 
failed in this — Concludes — "The Expedition under Brig: Gonl Clarke 
being on foot prevents my waiting on you at this time, in order to clear 
up any thing that can have been laid to my charge, & I doubt not you 
will anticipate my Innocence, as was the case with regard to Col : Callo- 
way's charge in 1779. I am informed they charge me with having shott 
down & barbiqued the Cattle on the Commons." To refute this he 
encloses the affidavits of Officers and Inhabitants, and his correspond- 
ence with Winston & others. Concludes "I cannot conclude without 
informing you that 'tis my positive opinion the people of the Illinois & 
Port Yincennes have been in an absolute state of Rebellion for these 
several months past & ought to have no further Indulgence shewn them, 
& such is the nature of these people, the more they are indulged, the 
more turbulent they grow — & I look upon it that Winston & McCarty 
have been the principle Instruments to bring them to the Pitch they are 
now at." 

Liut: Churchill Gibbs informs the Governor, that on friday the 27th April 29th 

Inst: five prisoners under his charge, made their escape; and he has Powhatan 

reason to believe the sentinels on duty at the time were "privy to it" — ^' 
He has arrested them & will have them tried — 

Col: V. Brooking encloses to the Govomer, a Return of the Militia April 29th 
and Arms sent to Genl: Greene's Army in Feb'y last — viz. 3 Capts: 9 Amelia Oo. 
Lints: 3 Drummers, 3 Fifors, 3 wagons & teams — 204 Rank & file — 204 
gnns — 21 pds: powder, 24 lbs of lead — 34 bayonets — 





April 30th 

BoLLiNG Starke to Gov: Jefferson. 
"Honble. Sir, 

It ifl probable your Excellency may have heard that I 
reached Cumberland OKI Ct. House, on Wednesday hist with the books 
& papers belonging to yours & the other public boards; where I judged 
they would be perfectly secure from the enemy; but on Saturday we 
were alarmed with an account of their having penetrated the Country 
a8 far as Chesterfield Ct. House; at which place, the}' had destroyed 
every house &c. c. — that GenI: Muhlenberg, conscious of his inferiority 
was retreating before them — this disagreeable piece of intelligence deter- 
mined me to I'ecross James River, and thinking the paper's would be 
more secure at a private than sl public house, 1 have taken the liberty of 
throwing myself & them upon the hands of my old acquaintance & rela- 
tion Col: John Boiling, where they will remain until it bocomea safe to 
return them to Richmond. — unless your p]xcellency thinks it necessary 
to remove them to some other place — 

We receive every day, vague reports of the Conduct of our cruel foe, 
but can't tell what degree of credit to give thereto. H' you can spare 
so much time, I should be extremely obliged in receiving from your 
Excellency, by the return of the bearer, an account of the present sit- 
uation of both armies, the strength of each — the probable designs of 
the Enemy — our loss in the Action on Appomattox — the particular 
depredations & injury done at & in the vicinity of Petersburg & at 
Osbornes, and in short, every other interesting circumstance — for I had 
rather know the worst that can have liappened, than continue any 
longer in a state of suspense and uncertainty. Mrs. Jefferson and your 
little family wore very well yesterday at Elk Hill, and were endeavouring 
to procure a vessel to cross over the river to Mr. C. Harrison's, but I 
doubt they would find it difficult, for the Qr. Mastei*s had the day 
before collected all the canoes in the neighbourhood & sent them down 
the river loaded with grain for the use of the Army. 

I am with the most perfect Esteem 
your Excellency's 

obedient, humble Servant." 

April 80th 

Capt: Henry Young to Col: Davies — at Point of Fork. 

Richmond He approves Mr. Ross* plan for building the shops. The warehouses 
on the other side the river now on fire; but the enemy do not appear to 
be in force at Manchester, tho* it is hard to determine. He will send 
the best Boats by night up to Westham. Eight prisoners, taken by a 
party of militia on the other si<]e, are just brought in — Concludes "I 
think we only want Arms to make the defence of this place secure." 


Major Rd: Claiborne to Gov. Jefferson. 17S1. 

Mav l8t 

He has this day received orders from the Marquis de La Fayette to Richmond 

pui\-hase sixty horses to mount Major Nelson's tH>rps, and the Field Offi- 
cers of the Continental detachment from the North — has given the 
necessary instructions and contractini for their immeiiiate purehase. 
Uf»on the lowest calculation he can make, h:ised u|H>n the quality of the 
horses, they will cost *'at least Four hundreii thoussind Pounds'*. He 
finds it nwcssary also to inform his Exivllenry, that the Quarter Mas- 
ter's Department will require in addition to the above, the sum of six 
hundred thousand {rounds; a million in all. This is a reasonable demand, 
in proportion to the wants of the Department. Concludes **1 find it 
necessary to inform your Excellency likewise, that the unsafe Situation 
of my Manulactories at the Towns u}K)n Navigation, and the manner in 
which they have l>een unfixed in consequence of the enemy; h:u« obliged 
me to look out for s<ime retired part within the State, where such busi- 
ness may be conducte<i with ea^e. 

I fixed upon the Point of Fork, and acquainted your Excellency with 
my intentions; which was requisite from a principle of respect, and pub- 
lic peace, as I would not do a thing which would proiiuco any disagroo- 
able consequences; but your Excellency was pleased to decline that 
approbation which I was in great hoj>es to have had — However as I 
have reconsidercni the matter, and cannot find that the duties of the Con- 
tinent or Stale will by any means interfere; agrei^able to the opinion of 
Mr. Ross, the proprietor of the land and many others, 1 have written to 
Major Drew my Assistant in that district to get some rc8i>ectablo Gen- 
tlemen to examine and make rej>orts in writing. These I shall lay before 
your Excellency, and hope that their opinions will not be disagreeable 
to you. as the principle u[>on which I have acted is ciindid, and to facili- 
tate the business of the Department under my direction." 
I have the honor to be 

with the highest respect & esteem," 

&c., &c. 

Brig: Genl: Ro: Lawson to Gov: Jefferson. May Ist 


It gives me great concern to find that the militia from many coun- Princo Kd- 
ties go forth to join General Greene's Army with the greatest reluctance; ^* ^^* 
indeed there are many counties very deficient in the quota call'd foi* — 
Some of them send none at all." 

Expresses serious apprehensions, from the fact that so many refuse to 
go who should, under so many and various pretences — Regrets the neces- 
sity which takes them &om their farms at this important season, but the 


1781. armies must be kept equal to the task of resisting the Enemy, else "our 
May let efforts have been & will be in vain" — Asks for information from Gcnl: 
Greene's and the Army near home — An impression prevails among the 
militia that altho' they may go to the Southern Army, they will bo inclu- 
ded in the drafl for the eighleeii-months' men, on their return. Takes 
tlA; liberty of suggesting to his Excellency, that the indulgence granted 
to the militia of some counties is attended with bad consequences, by 
encouraging others to set up claims of the like character. 

May l»t J. DixoN TO THE Governor. 

Gloucester His Excellency's request of the 12th ult : in regard to raising Cavalry 
^* for the Baron Steuben received ; and he was anxious to have complied 

therewith, but his plan for raising a Troop of Horse not being approved, 
has prevented the Gentlemen from carrying out their desire to serve in 
that capacity — A few have, from necessity been acting as Light Horse- 
men, — and have been, for some weeks, on duty, endeavoring to put a 
stop to the daily ravages of the Enemy, committed since the arms were 
taken from the militia — 

May ist J. Madison jur: Tuedo. Bland and M. Smith, to Gov: Jeffsbson. 

^r ^r ^r V ^ 

Philadelphia **Mr. Nicholson, Agent for Mr. Ross arrived here yesterday. We fear 
it will not be possible for him to get some of the most essential articlce, 
even if an exchange of his funds can be negotiated; and that the diffi- 
culty of such an exchange will be a great obstacle to his getting such 
articles as are to be had — As far as our efforts can avail him, they will 
not be spared — We had previous to his coming taken some measures 
which we flatter ourselves will yield about 2000 good muskets, in about 
two weeks." * * * * "The 1100 stand belonging 

to the State have at length gone foward, with most of the other articles 
brought hither with them. The 8th of this month is the day fixed, we 
understand, for the march of the Pennsylvania Line from York Town 

The Report from N. York is that Clinton is disembarking his troops — 
We also enclose herewith an extract* of a letter from Genl: Washington) 
which needs no comment. • 

We have the honor to be 

with the highest respect & regard 

yr: Excellency's ob & hble Servants. 

* Not found. 

Cvr.ff?^3ik3> ^Ji? :<^rvCS l^Vt^Kt;;:^ :;<Jt 

Colli. BttoibiMr jaii Mj:; D. &aaj. ^ud^'vvnii ^/(tU^^K^ UhiA >^<»(!i hv^ ^^^^v^* 

ivonnuL And uh.«» Bartcmii a^( h«?rM vVttM)ti^ i>v%r. >«rv w^ ^ %!»4 ijny^i 
tlisaur. biEC by mj \>wu utijpcuvL^acv I ti^U im^v ^W«xr b^Mi^h^ vb^ mv-v^ ^X- 
Toa k]u>w I mtfwr 5t^<«Hi the Jl^wwciAti^^ii^ :v»4 bv^)*^ Uj^^vv >k^ vtvvv^ v;^^ 
Anns :i£:ii]igt zbmtL. I w;kf ui bLv>{^«w^ wt^b ^b^nti (4;v^ ^ ^y v vH^if 'VV'b^vvvv 
wlikli w:k» in eke Wv^^kiMfeKM'— wi^b (KU Ytu^ bs'|H^ I vvu^^^Vst ^v^v <ik^ 
Town, and w^$ soon surrvHiixd^ wUb Artu^t mv^ >m^v^ ^(bi^i«v4 M^ 
demanded mj h^>r$e. and ttiMd ni%> wrv rvHA^v t^ul sUd ^s^ «^^hI^v^ I 
begged to be carried to the Ueneral. aud >«hvu \ k^^^ Ik4<^v k^^u\, Kvv 
iLsed me verv kind. at» did tW rwt \>l' (he t%ei\ltv«us>^ ih^Hl wim» |^\^«v^i 
ther very kindly aaked me in the hvHutei |(ave mo « oh«^U\ Alu) ^^s>^lvs( 
me with wine — After thi» I Xk^\\ him mv IhiAiuet^k i^iut %\\t^^ a^ \ mwv^v 
was in Arms, I hoped he would ^nv me a jH^rudt lo i»avv uv^v ^\^havHH^ \\s 
them War&hoQBcav which he wouUl not |m^mtH\\ hul itavo mv^ a w \i\{\\^ 
CD the back of a printed deeiaration to natiftt)' \\\^ wh^v h^ \h>«liH\Y^Hl Ih^^ 
Tobacco, ho also gave me a priH^lamaltoii and d^^li^n) m^ lo ivad \^^S\\ 
at my lieeare, and they would luiticdie me lu ev0i\y(hlu|i( I dtMiiiH»di hui 
in the time, he told me I wan a prixonor, %t olfbr^Ml ptHitvM^iUm or |miMdi)< 
I said I did not chooeo either of thoin mm I dhl not* (mmui^ (<t htm Air t Imi 
purpose, but begged a permit to go homo, which ho would uoi grHUI* i 
then said, I was in his power k munt dUp<mo of mc an ho phmMtMl, |t|i|i|| 
which he gave me a pass to Mr. John Hnlrd'n A then (o (MMiihMMt 'llll 
fiirther orders — the next morning bo marched oft with all hU f hMi|mi 
and I suppose forgot to concent with mo any more, hi the IflvMuhitf I 
went to Town, and conHultc<l what was hcHt Ibr mc t<i do, attd I Iim ihu 
tlemen advised mo to go home and take care not Ui Ikll Into their hafMli* 
again. I followed this advice, k came fiome dtNtatice A met. a <^MM|mMy 
of oar Hen in Arms, who askixl me the newn. I, not IiimiwImk Iharn 
was any harm in what I ba^l done, ti»ld them voliintartly the wh^iln 
story as above, they said I ha^l done wrong k carrleil mn huDire a Jms 
ti<:-e, who has taken on him Ut send me iinder a Oiiard Ut Ifea^l (/Marf^^M, 
tho' I^made it appear that I voluntarily gave fip the itHiHtm Uf th4< Arprt 
C<«npany I see and the whole st/iry t/# them I UtM, uM. MuK loiamlff^d 
ahofit it. which I think might bav#; tthiif^H^t him, that I htUi fto MrMrfft 
tn mak« any yrirnt^ ose of th«m. Hhotild t fm f/fftt^f^M k WMi WH 
as yoQ know that f hare ch^^erfblly cy/mplM with ^my ih^hn tfc#i 



1781. has been required of me, the Oath only excepted, I hope you'l take 
May 2nd some pains to make it appear what Character I boar" &c — 

Yr: sincere friend & humble Servant" 

May 2nd Capt John Peyton informs Col : Davies, he has loaded the waggons 
Cumberland with stores and orderd them to the Point of Fork under care of Mr. 
Old C. H. Hu^jgon, with his (Davies) own baggage wagon — The wagons will return 
at once, to carry off the rest, in case the enemy should make a move in 
this direction. Accounts are just received that the enemy are going 
down James Eiver. Should this be true, he thinks it best to detain the 
tailors and shoemakers, with a sufficiency of material to keep them at 
work, until proper Houses can be built for them at the Fork, the quar- 
ters at the Co. House being well adapted to this purpose — Asks that 
Mr. Boss be informed, he should soon need linnen & Leather. 

Jas: Babboub to the GtOvernob. 
May 2nd From the many Applications, I make free to address your Excel- 

Gulpeper Co. lency once more in behalf of the Detachment of Militia from this county 
now on a Tour of duty, who are very uneasie, as well on acct of a Shock- 
ing Fever now Eaging in this county, as the Planting their Crops, 
twenty persons have Died in about ten days, within five miles of my 
home, but very fortunate they are mostly such as are no Loss to the 
Publick. I have done all in my Power to get the crops of Corn planted 
of those men on duty, but we have such a number of poor distressed 
Familys in this Coty : that I fear we shall not be able to accomplish it. 
Could they with Propriety be relieved with drafts of other militia, I 
should be very glad, & I'm the more inclined to solicit in favour of them, 
as I hear they have had an Action & behaved well. 

I am Humble Sir, 

Your most ob & huble Servnt." 

May 2nd The Depositions of Capts: John Harris, Jno: Thomas, Thos: WillianiB 
& Geo: Batty, sworn to and taken before W. Foushee, Justice of the 
Peace, in substance, as follows: 

Bichmond That, in the Engagement at or near "Coxosdale," or "Coxendale," or 
Cocke's & Dales" on James Eiver, on the 27th April 1781, between the 
British forces, and the Fleet of armed vessels of the State of Virginia, 
Capt: Edward Woneycott of the "Alert" Brig, a Flag of Truce vessel, 
chartered by the State and then loaded with one hundred and twenty 
hhds: of Tobacco for the relief of the Virginia Officers & soldiers pris- 



oners of war at Charleston So. Carolina, bad behaved, and conducted 
himself in every respect agreable to the Eules prescribed for Flags — 
Although frequently applied to before and during the action by some of 
these officers to grant sundry favors, he invariably declined to do any- 
thing which might compromise his position. 

Mr. James Maury part owner of the Brig "Alert '* deposed, that on 
the 8th of April 1781, he chartered the vessel to David Eoss, Esqr, Com- 
mercial Agent of Virginia, for the purpose of proceeding und. flag of 
trace to Charleston, with tobacco for the Va. officers & soldiers in cap- 
tivity there; that on the same day he went to Four Mile creek and 
required Capt Woneycott to " unship all the arms & military Stores & 
send them to Kichmond." On the 14th April these, namely, 8 four- 
pounders with their carriages, musquets, powder, ball &c., arrived at 
Kichmond — one or two muskets & some powder being left on board " for 
the purpose of Kindling fires." He has been informed by several Cap- 
tains of Vessels and by persons lately come from Coxendale, where the 
vessel laid, that "notwithstanding her Flag" she has been taken by the 
British Troops under Major Genl: Phillips and carried away with the 
other vessels captured by them. 

May 2nd 

Circular, issued to A. Deputy Quarter Masters, by Berry Green, A. D, 
Q. Master, by order of Major Rich. Claiborne, giving instructions respect- 
ing the injustice done by the irregular depreciation of the currency at 
the different stations in the Stale, with directions accordingly; that two 
or more disinterested men, competent judges be selected near each Post 
to settle and certify to said depreciation, at the end of every month, the 
payment to be governed by the same for that month. 

May 2nd 

"The Deposition- of George Sisson of the County of Richmond &c. 
declares, That he was captured on the fifteenth day of February past in 
Currytoman River, by the Comwallis Brig, Capt: Downey, in company 
with the Sloop Hybemia, Jno. Disney, The Trimmer Schooner, Phillips, 
and another Schooner, Commanded by a Capt: Thomas. I was on board 
the Brig only about half an Hour, then sent on board the Hybemia, 
where I continued until the fourteenth of March. The next day after 
I was made prisoner, the Hybernia and Trimmer in Company attacked 
a Baltimore Brig of fourteen or sixteen guns off the mouth of Rappa- 
hannock, the Action Continued a Considerable time veiy Sharp and 
Bloody before they quited her and run. during the whole, myself and 
other prisoners on board, were forced upon the quarter Deck, and then 
ordered to take up arms against our Countrymen — We begged and 
intreated the Capt: to excuse us from a Service of this Sort, but all in 
vain. He answered it was what all the prisoners should doe, taken by 




1781. him, but it so happened none of us got hurt, the Brig fairly drubbed 
May 8d them both & Chased us almost into Hampton Eoads. we proceeded 
afterwards to Portsmouth — Then up the Bay again as far as the mouth 
of Peanketank, when we fell in with a small schooner Boat, loaded with 
Alum, Salt and Sugar — this vessel as I understand was the property of 
one of my Countrymen, whose name I cou'd not learn, employed by 
Genl : Arnold, and bound up Eappck. as far as Port Royal, to purchase 
Flour and freeh Provisions — ^the Skipper showed his pass from General 
Arnold and then went off — The plan of Traiding with the Inhabitants 
I understood, was greatly practized in divers places, and that the Enemy 
got great Plenty of Provisions of almost every kind— during our Stay 
at Portsmouth, and on a Cruize up the Bay, I saw George Keeble son 
of Walter Keeble, who appeared an Active man, and acted in Character 
of a first Lieutenant on board a Whale Boat — " 

J. Peyton to Gov: Jefferson. 


May 8d In consequence of our exposed situation, I have to beg our draught 

Gloucester may bo suspended, this County haveing upwards of two hundred 

^' miles navigal water courses, altho* our guards are small, yet it takes a 

number of men to act as guards, and in spight of all our efforts, the 

enemy take the Inhabitants, even out of their beds. A Capt: of the 


militia & a man who was active in collecting the guards to the CapVs. 
assistance was taken off last night, they have been once at my house 
upon the same business, but fortunately I happened from homo — I make 
this petition Sir, not in behalf of myself, but for my County & the pub- 
lic good, 

Who most Eespectfully am, 
Your Obedt. Hble Servant" 


"Our numerous & much desired Convoy has at length arrived, under 
Circumstances the most fortunate & flattering. To have a passage but 
of 37 days from Brest, without losing a single vessel of the Convoy, to 
find the Enemy at the Port, ready to oppose the Entrance of it, to 
engage them, force them to fly & then pursue them, are Events which 
cannot but be glorious to the Count de Grasse — 

The active spirit of our General impells him to the field. Orders are 
given for the Embarkation of 40 large cannon, 12 mortars, & all the 
Apparatus for a Siege, with all kinds of Ammunition — 900 of the regi- 

* No autograph or address attached to this letter. 


ment of will embark tomorrow & the rest immediately follow — 1781. 

The iDtended Expedition is against St: Lucia, where there remains but May 3d 
a Garrison of 1200 men, the Fleet having taken on board 800 to eom- 
pleat its Compliment. The English Squadron was stationed at that 
Island to cover & protect it, but our Fleet, from a happy manoeuvre has 
deprived them of this Advantage. It was expected they would have 
arrived by the Dominicia Channel, where the English waited to receive 
them, but to their great Disappointment they came the contrary way & 
drove the English from their Station. 

Rodney is now at Statia, dividing the spoil of the poor Dutch & 
Americans, and Hood, who Commanded the English Fleet is gone down 

to him of his miscarriage & make him tremble for the Fate of 

his Capture — This Island is garrisoned by 1300 men, under the Com- 
mand of General Yaughan, who have fortified the Hill in such a manner 
that it is now deemed impregnable — It is expected the lower Town will 
be set fire to— The Division of Mons: de Barras, consisting of 5 Ships 
of the Line, with 14 Battalions, left this Fleet in the Latitude of the 
Western Islands, destined for America, to reinforce the Army on that 
Station, May 8th — Count de Grasse has returned from his Pursuit of the 
Enemy. It was not consistent with the intended operations of the 
Fleet to continue the Chace, from the Difficulty & Delay that would 
attend the beating up to Windward — 

The Troops destined for the Attack of St. Lucia are all embarked, & 
got under way yesterday Evening. They consist of 4000 men. The 
Fleet take their Departure this morning. May Heaven ensure the suc- 
cess of this Expedition. If Abilities as a General & Merit as a Man, 
can command it, we have nothing to fear for our brave Commander. 

It is expected that Rodney will soon make his appearance, with his 
whole Fleet, in Order to attempt the Salvation of St. Lucie — " 

Major Rd: Claiborne to ths Gtovirnor. MaySd 

Enclosing a letter from Mr. Wm. Claiborne "one of the Gentlemen Kichmond 
employed to purchase horses for the use of the Continent** urging the 
poWcy of advancing the money to pay for his purchases, from the 
Treasur}" of Virginia, in cash — The people will not receive Certificates, 
on account of the delay in their liquidation and the consequent depre- 
ciation of their value; which retards the purchases very seriously — As 
evidence of this, says he can buy twelve very fine horses of gentlemen 
near him, if he had the funds in hand — 

%^ ^ALEVlAii OF rrlATZ PAxZiiS. 

• * » « 

a: K of F"rk- Til- ir._ -c;:^-*-. ^•i£ 9:4ipr "ShZ. t-r t-*r«rtt fr:«i t^ 

May ftJk JaME/» I^/TSriE. AJriD Wiixv. THOVr^'*!C TO <iOV: J 

C. fl. 

Tli^y Are pnXfttvn <4 w^r oo («rf>2e: T«-n; t^k^^ in Hampton Ra'Aiis. 
xtA Lav*; tjeirEi k«irpt <:Tcr •4iK'<: io ei*.««r •LV'CiniJrii^eQt- Tbc-y nequr^^ their 
p^rr^en u> Ur eit^cD-ltni to k*Tr Vj 20 to y%w Yi:»rk hj way of Port^ 
m^Hitb. wL*:re tti^tr £unili«>« are. Thev weiv CAptAios of Privaue^fTS — 
Tb«rv nuike tbl* r^ao^ bec-«a£«r they aiv infonocvL in«jt»t ^^f the Offic'^rs 
taken by GenL*: FbilHpi» k Ani«>l\i have ivo&ive<i ^Der&i paroletft to go 
where they ple«ne. Their aituAtk-n La partioalArly bad: having no 
friends, and d^jmrrrely any el«Ahing exc-^e^ what is -on their backs" — 

"to be paroled to Port**moath." 

TH: J. 

May fAh Col: Pea: Tatlob to the Goverxoe. 

Wiotfrb^ttr l^fore receipt of his Letter of the 11th April, he had discharged, part 
of the regiment of Guards, and delivered their Arms to the Quarter 
Master, rnoHt of which need repairs. The Albemarle Militia hail drawn 
fk>me; »<ome were delivered to the Q. Master at the Barracks, and about 
four hundred were delivered to Col: Muter lae^t October. He thinks the 
German Troops can safely be allowed to hire themselves to the Farmers 
& others in the neighborhood, as it would save the expenee of a guard, 
the cost of provihions. and be of benefit to the people, who need their 
labor much — 

The Regiment has just received their pay ''at forty for one/* but it is 
of no use to them, as no one will receive the money for goods, or at less 
than "three hundred or more to one" — Public Credit is destroyed, but 
he hopes the Legislature will do something to restore it — 



From the Same* to Col: Davies. 

Giving same account of disposition of Arms, as above. 

M«y 5th 

Gborob Muter Col: State Guard Eegt: to Col: Da vies. 

M«y 6th 


As I have at present no Command, nor likely to have one soon, and Richmond 
the enemy having gone down the river again, I intend up the country 
for some time — 

I beg leave to inform you, that I shall goe from hence to the Point of 
Fork, & thence to Col: Jno: Coles' in Albemarle, where I shall princi- 
pally reside; and that I shall with pleasure render my best Sei'vices to 
my CountT}', whenever I am honored with a Command — 

I am Sir, 

With great respect, 

your most obt. hble Servant" 

Col: George Muter informs the Governor, that his application to the ]f«y 6Ui 
Baron Steuben for a command having failed, and the enemy having Richmond 
^ne down the river, he should go to the upper County for a time — 
Repeats the substance of the letter to Col : Da vies. 

David Ross to the Governor. 



* 'Mr. Maury has just called upon me, and am sorry to learn Point Fork 

the fate of his vesselL It would appear from Mr. Phillips* letters & con- 
duct in other respects, that he is somewhat intoxicated with the Booty 
he's got, & the small opposition he met with — ^perhaps on reflection he 
will see the particular circumstances of this vessell in a different point of 
view — Mr. Maury is very anxious to apply himself, if he can be indulged 
with a Flag. 

I am persuaded your Exc**liency feels very sensibly for our prisoners 
at Chariestown. and the embarrassments in your way of relieving them 
is most vexatious — 

Mr. Maury mentions his going to Charlestown with a Flag, in order 
to have this matter put upon a proper footing — I am of opinion the 
matter must be finally adjusted at N. Y*k with Sir H. Clinton, at the 
•ame time I think it had better ori^nate at Charlestown, where the 
Commandant is in some measure engaged to the Traders who have 

* BevB hAndftome impreHion in w«x, of beaiuful priTaie aeal. 


1781. credited oar prisoners, in expectation of being paid by remittances in 
M«j 5th Tobacco. Now if a Pilot Boat could be sent to Charlestown, and the 
Agent fully authorized to proceed from thence to N. York, in order to 
have the matter fully settled, we should then be upon a certainty and 
either have it in our power to send supplys to our pnsoners, or know 
tbat they could not be supplyed in that way at all. So far as it would 
fkll within my province to employ Mr. Maury, I should think him unex- 
ceptionable, & tbat his misfortunes entitle him to countenance. 

3|e * * ♦ ♦ 

I am with the greatest respect 

Your most obedient Servant" 


Philadelphia Your Excelly's Favours of the 17th & 18th ult, have been duly 

received & claim our particular acknowledgements, as well for the Beadi- 
ness, which has been shewn in concurring with our Proposition of run- 
ning the Line, as the friendly Sentiments expressed towards this State, 
which I am happy in assuring your Excelly: are perfectly reciprocal. 

A Family Event having last Fall estrang'd me from publick Business 
for some Time, I fear a Mistake has happened in not fowarding the 
Accession of this State to the Terms proposed by Virginia in their 
Bcsolvcs of the 23d June last, or it has miscarried — I have now the 
Honour to inclose it, & make no Doubt it will be perfectly satisfactory. 

This Opportunity just presenting itself, I am obliged to defer answer- 
ing the Particulars of your Excolly's Letter, which respect the Mode of 
running the Lino, as I had no Oppy. to confer with the Gentlemen here 
on the subject — But I shall do myself the Honour of writing again by 
the next Post — In the moan time, as the season is fast advancing, 1 
would submit to your Consideration, whether we may not fix on the 
12th Juno, as the Time of the Commissioners* Meeting on the Business, 
& the Detail may bo adjusted in tho intermediate space — 
I am with much Bospect & Begard, 

Your Bxcelln's most obet: Hblo Sorvt" 

May 7th Jas: Hendricks to Gov: Jeffe&bon. 

Alexandria I had the honour of your Excellency's letter of the 12th ult:, on 

the Subject of Building a Fort and Blockhouse at this Place, and am 
instructed by the Comon Council to inform you that a considerable part 
of the work, which they conceive necessary towards the Completion of 
the Battery is already executed, and one nine & two Twelve pounders 
mounted on travelling Carriages at tho expence of a few of the inhabit- 


ants, who voluntarily advanced their money for that Service, expecting 1781. 
to bo reimburs'd by Government; we intended to have made a Platform May 7th 
with Plank, and to have mounted another nine* Pounder, but cou'd not 
carry this design into execution for want of more Cash. We thank you 
for your proposal of Sending Colo. Senf to examine our situation, and 
wo have not a doubt, but wo shall be able to furnish the necessary num- 
ber of Workmen, Carriages &c. for to accomplish this design. 

I would not wish to enlarge upon our distressed situation at present. 
I shall only observe that our Militia are now on duty below ; that we 
have cheerfully contributed on all occasions towards the common cause, 
and that in addition to this, we hav(J been oblig'd to keep a constant 
guard in our Town, for these several weeks past, to protect the ammu- 
nition we have collected, and guns mounted at our own expencc, with- 
out which some designing person might, in a few minutes destroy what 
we have with so much labour and expence, been collecting, this service 
operates extremely Severe, on the few, who have voluntarily turn'd out 
on this Occasion. 

This picture we are induced to think, will turn your Excellency's 
attention towards us. relying on this Assurance, we shall expect Colo. 
Senf, as soon as he can call upon us, and if it were possible, a few thou- 
sands wou*d be well apply'd in finishing what we have begun. 
I have the Honour to bo wth. much Respct &c" 

Col: Davies to the Governor. May 8th 


One of the Assistants of the Quarter Master GenI: is going over to War Office 
the Eastern Shore. It appears to me an opportunity which ought not 
to be neglected, of disposing and securing the public stores of every 
kind that are there. 

A great deal has been lost, a great deal more is in danger, and I sub- 
mit it to the decision of your Excellency whether it will not be proper 
to Sell what cannot be immediately secured — 

I have the honor to be, most respectfully &c &c 


"If Colo. Davies will be pleased to originate instructions for the above 

I will countersign them, there have been some partial orders given on 

the subject, so that the new inwtructions should be so framed as not to 

interfere with them. 




i . .1 

» ii ..— ' — s 1 I'- : ^ 


M-^^ JbiU ^ uiit^i'AiM*3tr. uul v^cu \if Ciuu^^i ^iis:«H. raJi^L *liiL^ ulnu- ^ 

'^^v^-. -*.«! '/^> Mf 4 If wru.'.vit out i**il*;»iriijr ihuuc iinsHian — 

CI;THIjEKT BUELETT. An.v«^: fjc 

M»l '^ f>AVfO \Uttm TO Wm. Da vies. 

I'd n9 ¥t*fk tiMifrtimt*M murftnm Ut Utant tha \rmA, thought hj the GoTemor to be 
nu ili4flr wny from the north waH Mome wcekB ago, are now to be sent 
for Th^i llMiiip in the ha«;k Cfiuntry he \a reserving to be used in pay- 
ing \'nr KriMim hoiight in Philadelphia, for the oBe of the Army. He 
hiiM nil liiong \hu^u aware of the impoBsibility of getting wagons to trana- 
pffi't It, until the iUivu in all planted *'and the fields drest over" — ^Not- 
williMtfinflinp^ thix, he will at once send one of his clerks to the upper 
(iniinllimi k to Augujtta to net the business in motion with the utmost 
•u|m(lltion, an the lirin^ing Toward the amis is of the greatest importance 
at tliU tlino. ('On(*hi(leH — 'M cannot help being much chagrined that 
iiur l*nntiMylvania lirnthrun will not do uh this friendly office at present^ 
itn|HMiially an thny are In a Statu of peace & ti*anquility compared to our 
ullnaflon." ♦ ♦ * * ♦ 



CAt>T: H. Young to Col: Da vies. 1781. 

May 9th 
Complaing of the extravagant and wanton waste of forage at the Kichmond 

Point of Fork — ^groat want of proviHions there also: hoth of which 

evils may be remedied by sending up a Commissary of Issues. 


"We set on the trial of Billy a mulatto Slave belonging to John May llth 

Tayloe Esqr., who was convicted and condomod by the Court, for High Princo Wm. 

Treason, by four of the Judges — We w^ero agst. his condemnation 

because a Slave in our opinion cannot commit Treason agst. the State, 

not being admitted to the Privilcdges of a Citizen, owes the State no 

Allegiance, and that the Act declaring what shall be treason, cannot be 

intended by the Legislature to include slaves who have neither lands 

or other property to forfeit, and there was no Positive Proof before 

the Court that the said Slave went voluntarily on board of the 

Enemys* Vessel and took up arms: there was Proof that he was 

taken in Company of Part of the Crew of the said Vessel on shore, 

who made their escape on being pursued by an Armed Vessel from 

Alexandria. On his defence he says he was taken in an oyster boat 

and forced on board agst. his will, and that he never took up arms 

»g8t. the Countiy, and no Positive Proof that he certainly did aid or 

assist the Enemy, of his own free will. 

11. LEE- 

Brio: Gen: Eo: Lawson to Gov: Jefferson. May llth 


4e ♦ * 4( ♦ 

'*The farther instance which your Ilonble: board has been plpas'd Prince 
to hold out to me, of their Confidence Still in my poor exertions to ^ 
Serve my Country', excites my most grateful acknowledgements; and 
Heaven knows how much it is my fix*d <letermination to do all in my 
power to prevent our Enemys from carrying into execution, their 
borrid designs against the liberty & Independence) of America. 

The prospect of a certain junction of Comw^allis' forces w^ith those 
of PhillipB in this State, I own is to me alarming; because we cannot 
immediately collect a force equal to the task of curbing their licentious 
Cnielty to the unhappy friends to liberty, who fall within their power. 
Bat I am nevertheless consoled with an opinion, that a short time will 
produce Such a force in the field, as will confine them to narrow bounds, 
if not expell them from this State. I am tndy Sensible of the honor 
done me, by your Ilonble l)oard, in confi<ling to me the recommenda- 
tiww of my oflRcers, and I assure your Excellency, that respect to the 


1781. small reputation I have acquired in the military line, added to the 
May 11th great inclination I have to obtain into my Brigade, good Officers, will 
prevent me from recommending any Gentlemen, but those I have much 
cause to hope well of — 

I have the honor to be with the greatest respect 

Your Excellencys* 

most obet & much obliged ser't'* 

May 12th Wm. Lanqborn, Aid de Camp to M. de Lafayette, to Gov: Jefferson. 

Tuckaho I arrived here last evening, in hopes of having the honor of seeing 

your Excellency — The reinforcements that you expected we should 
receive from Fredericksburg, and the Counties adjacent have not 
arrived, nor have we reason to expect but a very small part of them, 
shortly, from Genl: Wheedon's letter, which I inclose — The Marquis 
requests that you would please inform him of the number called in, 
the riflemen, the deficiency of arms, when you think they may arrive, 
what number of mounted militia — All the reinforcements, the Genl: 
requests may be immediately ordered by your Excellency to ren- 
dezvous at Eichmond — I think it necessary to forward a letter which 
was yesterday received from Genl: Nelson — In consequence of it, the 
Marquis would beg leave to suggest to your Excellency, the propriety 
and necessity there is, for having immediately brought in, all horses 
that can possibly fall into the Enemies hands, he is informed that the 
Country exposed to the Enemy on the South side of Appomattox 
abounds in the best horses of this Country — Should all these fall into 
their hands, they will have Cavalry almost equal to our little Army. 
I have directed Major Claiborne to hold in readiness four Quarter 
Masters, who will be furnished with a small force of Cavalry, and 
proceed on that business as soon as they can procure your Excellencys' 

The Boats which was directed to be built, arc not yet about. — I 
doubt not but your Excellency is sensible of the importance of them, 
and have given every necessary order relative to them. 

Tools seem to be wanting — I am informed that there are many men 
with Tools at the Point of Fork, who are engaged to build store houses, 
these men could be of infinite service to us at this critical time — should 
your Excellency think so. we may promise ourselves a speedy supply of 
Boats & many other conveniences which we cannot do without — 

Our Army are at present near Eingsland — the Enemy from the latest 
accounts remain at Petersburg, except a small party that advanced up 
the river for six or seven miles. 


Genl : Nelson's Brigade of Militia will very soon expire & will go home, 1781. 
unless they can have assurances of a relief. May 12th 

I have the Honor to be 

Yr: Excellency's most obt Servt — " 

Col: Le Mairs to Gov: Jefferson. May I2th 

Having met with severe misfortunes he returns a second time, since Boston 
his departure from Virginia, to present his petition to the Governor and 
Council of the State, that they will cause an Act of the Legislature to 
be passed Confirming his title to the two thousand Acres of land, 
allowed him by the Governor and Council Nov: 9th, 1779, in considera- 
tion of the services rendered the State by him — This act will be ])articu- 
larly advantageous to him at the Court of FVance, as attesting "the 
honor, satisfaction & gallantry" with which he has ser\'ed in the American 
Cause; and will secure the same approbation of the King, which he 
accords to those French Officers who serve within the limits of his 
own Realms — 

Mann Page to Gov: Jefferson. May 13th 

As Execuk)r of the late Col : John Tayloe he solicits the pardon of Mannsfield 
a Slave called "Billy" condemned to death for High Treason, especially 
as the decision of the Court was clearly illegal — If the pardon cannot 
be granted, requests he may be reprieved — 


*-A reprieve to the last day of June to be made out." 

TH. J. 

Capt: Nath: Reid to Col: . May 13th 

" Dea Col : 

Since my arivel at this place I have had a very easy time of Now London 

it, not more than Seven soldiers has been delivered to mo, and two of 

them has deserted." ♦ ♦ * * * 

**The tell me that Arnold & his crew has burnt all the Hutts at 

Chesterfield C. House, and I am afraid has took my portmantow & 

cl^>atbs, which I left at Mr. Balls, if the are gon T wish the fii*st man 

that puts any of them on may brake his neck. I wish I know'd whether 

the enemy was at Mr. BalPs or not." ♦ ♦ ♦ 

* * "Capt: Lovely went through this Town to the 

Sweet Springs, he was very unwell at the time — I expect he is dead 

s» I have heard nothing of him since he went away" — 

I am dear Colo, with Esteem &c" 


1781. Capt: H. Youno to Col: Wm. Davis. 

May 13th Dear Sir, 

Richmond I have concluded to build insted of Hafts, two scows — I have 

.secured hands that understand this business well, so that they can be 

com pleated in a short time & may be serviceable to us hereafter: I 

proj>o8e that they shall be narrow & long — " * * 

"There is at the Foundry two hundred busheU of Coales, which I 
intend to send to the point of fork, if a conveyance by water can be 
provided — It appears to me that the stores will never be remov'd 
from this place — Yesterday I was informed that there was at Warwick, 
upwarrls of one hundred bushels of Salt, the property of the State. I 
do think 'tis very imprudent to make purchases at this time — particu- 
larly at this place — " * * * ♦ 

"Will 3'ou be pleas'd to inform me the terms on which the Brick- 
layer is en^a^'d at the Point of Fork, and whether another person may 
not be admitted into the service of the Public without coming under 
liis direr-tion — I wish you cou'd be with us whun the Governor does not 
stay here, your presence is much wanted. I cant think of the Point of 
fork with patience; was it a place of security, I wou'd be willing to 
gratify Mr. Ross at the expense of every public advantage — I am very 
diffident & dont like to give my opinion until I have herd the opinions 
of others — then His too late, because differing in opinion is a kind of 
censure on the judgment of the person differed with — grefft folks dont 
like it — There is not a man in high office in this State, (yourself 
excepted) that 1 wou*d unfold my self so freely to— 

The Point of Fork is an improper place (because tis insecure) for us 
to risque every thing at — let us then do right for once & center our 
grand views at Stanton; because tis a secure one, wo shall find ten 
thousand advantages arising from that single circumstance alone, for 
niy part I do not conceive that there is one advantage at the Fork, that 
wo shall bo deprived of at Stiinton, the single article of Pit Coals 
excepted, which 1 conceive to be mearly ideal, because those that have 
been used to work with Char Colo prefer it — Shou'd the Enemy take 
port at Alexandria as *tis probable they will, the Rout from North to 
South will be Stanton, because 'tis most convenient it shou'd be so. — 

The Governor is the best man in the world & if I mistake not open 
to conviction. Were you to use your influence with him, I think ho 
might be prevailed on to give up the Point of Fork, that will one day 
damn the exertions of the State — 

Phillips has taken post at Petersburg with his Army — ho has 
detaclie<l a party, to Amelia — they have burnt several mills & stolen 
a number of Horses & sheep — Another party consisting of Six Com- 
panies have taken post at Randolphs' on this side of Appomattox — 
The Marquis for the purpose of surprising this party Detaeh*d the 
good Muhlenberg with all the Cavaliy & seven hundred Infantry — A 



very heavy fire was hei-d here near Petersburg one our K^fore day this 1781. 
morning — I have detained the bearer two liours to give you the result May 13th 
of this afTair. but the particulai's have not transpired — As lor other 
intelligence I know of nothing that can be depended upon from North 
or South, but that Cornwallace was at Halifax last Monday — 1 four the 
consequences of this expedition to Randolphs, as the intentions of the 
party was talked of by the Children in this place. 

Suppose the Enemy had got information of Muhlenburg's design, 
which may be the case if there is one man that is their frd. within 
twenty miles of this place, cou*d not they throw over the Appamutox, 
the whole of their force — 

Do you think 'tis possible that Walker can be forgiven for his ill timed 

visit — 

I am yr. Obet. Servant — " 

P. S. "I fear this navigation Colo, will induce you to be reconcil'd 
to this Point of fork — let me ask you one question, to convince you that 
the navigation even above the falls has been of disadvantage to us. 
Dont you think since the first alarm, that with the means we had in 
our power, we cou'd have removed the greatest part of our stores to 
Staunton, had we not depended on the navigation above the falls. If 
the truth cou'd be known, we have lost as many stores by attempting 
to convey them by water, as would have purchased twenty wagons & 
Teams — I dont know why this may not be in some measure always the 
case, as the navigation is very uncertain particularly upwards — delays 
& halts are inevitable — 

Excuse blotting, ten persons are in the room — " 

RiCHD. Jaues to Col: Da vies. May 18th 

He will finish the Batteati immediately, according to the directions. Muddy 

as to size &c — If the enemy do not interfere, he will have her in the 
water in three days. — Will set about another at once — Wishes the 
flour in his mills was removed — 


Jos: Reid, Prkst. of Penna. to Gov: Jefferson of Va. — In Council. May 14th 


Since I bad the honor of addressing your Excellency on the Sixth Philadelphia 
Instant, we have conferred with the Commissioners, who Settled the 
agreement entered into at Baltimore in August 1779. And we fully 
concur in the method proposed by your Excellency of Settling the extent 
of the five degrees of Longitude by Astronomical Observations, not only 
as determining the present Question with more Certainty, but as it tends 


1781. to solve a problem both useful and curious to the Learned world. But 
May 14th as we are sorry to find that it is the opinion of our Gentlemen of Science, 
that the Season will be too far advanced before the obsei'vations can 
commence, and more especially as the principal Astronomical Instru- 
ments in this City, are so Scattered and out of Kepair, as to require a 
Considerable time to put them in order. For these reasons, tho' with 
great reluctance we have thought it best after expressing our full acqui- 
escence in the mode suggested by your excellency, to propose the first 
of May next, to run the line by Astronomical Obsei*vations — But in the 
mean time, for the Sake of Settling the minds of the People, and pro- 
venting disputes among the borderere, to have a temporary line i*un by 
Common Surveyors from the termination of Mason and Dixon's line to 
the Ohio, or if that should not be agreeable, to extend it twenty three 
Miles from the End of Mason and Dixon's line, that being the extent of 
five Degrees, according to common computation — In this case we only 
propose to mark the trees, avoiding as much as possible unnecessary 
expence — We hope this last proposition, in which we have no other 
intentions than to quiet the minds of the People, and compel Militia 
Services, will be acceptable to your Excellency, as the best and indeed 
the only expedient which can now be adopted. 

I am with great Consideration and Respect 

Your Excellency's most obedient and very humble 
Servant — " 

May 14th JoHN Tayloe TO CoL: Wm. Davies. 

Caroline Co. Recommending in strong terms Jos: Jones, who is willing "to contract 
for the repairing of Arms & making Bayonetts &c." — Adds — "He is 
himself a person of property, and is son to a Gentleman in very good 
circumstances — I mention this to inform you that he hath been led to 
this branch of business from a peculiar strength of mechanical genius, 
and not from any motive of necessity." 

May 15th Capt: H. Youno TO CoL: Wm. Davies. 

"Dear Sir, 

Richmond We have no certain accounts that Corn Wallace has crossed 

the Roanoak — Phillips is at Petersburg; his army dispos'd from thence 
to City Point. The Marquis is seven miles below this. Yesterday the 
Enemy made an attempt to land some where. Major Dick fell in with 
them, took a Boat with twelve Prisoners. On the 25th of last month 
Rodden (Rawden) sallied on Greene, our men were washing & cooking — 
Colo. Washingtons* extra ordinary exertions on this occasion prevented 
very serious consequences — he charged twice or thrice with success — 


Our loss one hundi*od and fifty in killed, wounded & missing, made 1781. 
prisoners by us, fifty odd rank and file, twelve officei-s and five sur- May 15th 
gcons — The faculty sufTered — This acct. may be depended upon — I 
have it from under the hand of Singleton, who says wo ran from 

The Carriages that was at West-ham, by Order of the Marquis will 
have guns put on them — Our Horses are all lost as soon as wo got 
them — Mr. Southall will go with Capt: Brown to Hanover Ct. House 
to assist in removing the brass Cannon. I have directed that they bo 
sent to some landing near Goochland Ct. House. 

The only method that I can devise for removing these heavy pieces 
is to swing them at the Britch & let the Muzzle trail on the ground — 
Mr. Til man at Hanover Ct. House has a carry log & an excellent ox 
team, these may be had — Shou'd the plan propos'd not answer, ho, Mr. 
Southall, will if in his power devise a better & one that will — 

I proposed to the Governor to order twelve Militia men from hanover 
to assist in removing the Cannon — I have received no answer; recourse 
must be had to hire, which is difficult and expensive — I have Orders 
for assisting in the Building a number of Boats — they are to be light 
and to move with the Army. 

I am yr: obct: Hblo Servant — " 


James Arbuckle, Ciias: Bagwell and D. Bowman, Commissioners May 15th 

FOR TUE Collection op Taxes, to Gov: Jefferson — 

May it plejise your Excellency — 
We the Commisrs. for the Collection of the Taxes in this County, Accomack 
"tbink it our duty to inform your Excellency of the disorder & confu- 
sion which at this time prevail here, which impedes if not totally pre- 
'V'^-nts the collection of the Said Taxes, which we do, as well to justify 
*'»tJi'8clves & to make it appear that we have not been remiss in our 
*^*"ily, as to give timely information to your Excellency that Some 
^I>e<;dy & etTectuul remedy if possible may be applied to put a stop to 
^uid disorders. 

With respect to the 00 pr: Ont Tax laid last May Session, a sus- 

V^'nding clause prevente<l the operations thereof until your Excellency 

^baving receivwl advice that a majority of the other States had 

acceded to that resolution of Congress) should issue a proclamation 

Commanding the Same to be put in execution — 

This County being at so great a distance from the seat of Govern- 
'^^Dt and the enemy last fall infesting the bay in such a manner that 
^^ Representatives could not attend the Assembly, we never received 
iDtelligenco whether such proclamation had issued or not, until the 3d 


Sf^ CJlLETDjJBL O^ *TLL1!S papsbs. 

rr^L ttity ni Dee Ioal die iHiinimmii*<t3fmn. becw^eoL m&ft ^uaofi hesiL alnuHC 

Ea <wiiiH!«{nfinefi 'if cfae iidbniuitiiiii metsi^TwL die i Lj i uagia ia' wer*) inums- 
<iiaceiy *miiimtined lu a£Utnit and a nuMituic ^^^Fae heiii 'm die «2Zii *iAj 
•if niie «une mtiiitii. die aflDn g oo ia nuairrw 'if die drac pi^ymeiic w«re' 
made t» m an die 3HiL iif Janmunfr tfailuwuur; aoii ai>c beliTrcL Wti dien 
heid a. frotin: Ibr die piirp«]Mi «]lf radroflBnur <^ev:iDce» ai»sfirdiiur Q» 
ILaw. and die Clerk wae ncdixred tu reeovri die ihusm and 'itaw^ o^ & Uat 
Ibr die Sierhf t» mniBB h» CoiliiciaaiL by: 

Be^EQ dii» (ionld be thnriied^ aiMrac cbe Mbh «]r CTt^ 'if F<a<nr. che Aet 
of JL«effliiiv cjune oi hanit l&yfnc an addiiauDai Tax (if Cwd pr: C«dil 
en ail property taxed in ^^peeie^ We thiai drderoti did irUirk oi nuikc 
up ( a» speeiiiif as posHble ttvim. die AaMmMirs rocome lists <jf die Two- 
pir Cenc ens: wftiek were tliiiriied* lO^en inco die t<rolIef!ixrr» imndBw 4 
Bi)nd» caken aecorrgnc ta Eaw by die ^^tii 'iay of Xari^h ItmtL wiiiie we 
in eeignninaan wtdi die fimr ^mior JtupBCaSM^ «k tieid Odluersw on die 
aeisond^ diirti. tittk Jk ssth. daivs of sme mondL tiiaiiHed die KficDh — Tktt 
basnese preven o a tt die ^am tit* die iSat psymenc <if die <Mnt9sd Tax 
frmn. bein^ :^ ready tbr die Sunriif nncEl diu lOth <jf Xardi — ¥!ie €ol> 
Iet!^r» wiire InunediaiCkiLy «ipierfid <)n die dxet!iiti2ini 'if dieiir *i€bB» ^ luvtj 
(iaj% die acmiMC limioft tbr dbar cs1iiini» tu be auide in — ThidY prvi<!ee«ieii 
ac tfrsc withaoi; imaormptian* and aitheujfh die people t^ompiainiMi cbafi 
diey wens nut tftpiaUy tDreafied widi die resfC «if die :5t2i&i!. aoc baraic ^ 
in duiir opciun no paj die prmexpal. prrjduuti ef dieir iiuniB- i^ui wit Con 
Jk Ous» \ in (iLaebarieii of dieir Taxiisiw yet fiiir pnjiniiM» were grv^en^ aad 
no tibsiirautian tir oppoffldan cu die Ljkw wae apprehuntieti — 

In !mi*ii a Simainon w^s« oar aflbir» w^en a Set «jf zmaL in the Cooncj 
of ]!$<irduinipttin nndisuiok no «}ppaHe the Dtal!L» whiidL diey «slfii«:t«fL 
from that time if iii>t b^ilbre;. a anmher <}f people in vhm Conmrr had ct 
isoncrimpiatian to iippoMe che ioine hiire. and coDsiH|iiimtIy chtnucht it 
annectsswary Ui pay the Tax. On che :S«i *it ApriL t^he •lay appDotted 
va put the Draft Ai?t in execution, there ai»i!inbii!ii at ^he Onirt hiweev 
to the amount of I5a> or :!0O men. armtni with Clobi^ oo opp«)t$e it. 
Geor:^ Corbin Erii^^ who acttui ae County Liiiatdnunt <ndea^j«xred 
itrenuaueiy Co appease the peopJe by the moiit io«>diin|^ and puwecfiii 
argnmenia. but could not aliktr dieir inCiintiiimK Coio^ Corbin ort^oc^ 
the CIiB^k UJ lo«)k on die Ihft tbr a Chk»^ who dien app«fantd and pniK 
iimmd to hinL a man himd li»r the War. Vhile die Chirk in che Ci 
houee wae searchinc die het 4 having tbund the ChuBk iacd t»he Im 
the cable belbre hinu one of the mob snaoirhed up die iix»c Jk put che 
in hs» po«!kttt. celling die others who by due dme hxui •.'r«iw<iiid into tft» 
Court htiuee. that if they approved of what watf^ «iiine. co Mioufy tbe 
same by thrve ch«!er^ which wxie aATtrociinzriy compiiiid with. C«3^ 
Corbin endea-vouz^d ia> prevail on diem, tio cetum the liift. but in tub. 
and haavy threatening wer« «l«ioum!ed by di«im ^ouid anx siet of 


men mttempt to draw lotSw the C<do., together with the other Gentle- 1781* 
men who presided over the busineet^ having held a consultation & think- Maj 15lk 
ing it impoeaible to carry the law into execution that day, but suppoeing 
they might do so at some future opportunity when men had time to 
reflect cooly on the consequences of opposing the laws of their Countr)% 
they thought it most prudent to postpone the same until the Thursday 
following, the CleHc having taken care to preserve a duplicate of the 
list which the mob had deprived him of Thursday, the same set of 
men appeared (some few excepted, who pretended they were convinced 
by the Gentlemen's arguments, and being men of property did appa- 
rently head the mob, but were generally beleived to act behind the 
Scene) armed with clubs, swords, guns & pistols, and took possession of 
the Court house, at the door of which they plased a centinel with his 
musket. Colo. Corbin went k talked to them moderately, endeavouring 
to dissuade them firom such an unlawftU act, but they all unanimously 
declared they were determined to oppose the Draft at the haiard of 
their lives, Jk that it was in vain for him to attempt to alter their reso- 
lution, the Colo, told them he should be obliged to take an account of 
their names & ordered the Clerk who stood by him to note them down 
accordinj^y. This did not at all intimidate them, neither was it possible 
to carry the Law into execution — next day a Court Martial was sum- 
moned k held at Onancock, when those who appeared to the said Court 
Martial^ the most culpable were deemed Soldiers for the time prescribed 
by Law, whose names will doubtless be transmitted to your Excellency 
ofllciaUy by Colo. Corbin. 

These lawless proceedings have thrown the County into the greatest 
conftision imaginable, people begin to publish, propagate & avow the 
most dangerous doctrines, sentiments & opinions. Gentlemen fVom 
whom better things might be expected, have gone so far as to tell the 
people they have no occasion to pay the Two pr: Cent Tax. Some of 
the Collectors themselves have very large sums of money in their hands, 
which they will not pay to the Commissioners, but declare to the people 
they will return them their money. One set of Collectors have already 
settled with us, others have paid about one half, one third &c — Those 
people who have already paid, complain that they are hardly dealt with, 
some having paid and others not. — Some Collectors dont chuse to collect 
& others are threatened if they attempt it, and Anarchy, Conf\ision & 
disorder reigns triumphant amongst us. We understand there is a peti- 
tion on foot, to be sent to the Assembly, praying to be exempted fVom a 
draft, we know not what may be the event of that petition, nor do we 
know how to conduct ourselves in this dilemma. It is not in our power 
to enforce the collection in the situation our affairs are at this present, 
we know there is a positive Act of Assembly requiring the same, but 
we want the ability, not the inclination to put the same in execution' — 


1781. We hope & humbly beg your Excellency will take the matter into 

May 16th consideration & condescend to inform us in what manner to act in this 
very singular and extraordinary occasion — 

We are 

Yr: Excellency's 
Most obt. hble Servants — " 

"P. S. We have transmitted to yr: Excellency Tobo. Notes to the 
Amt: 30.122. N. which is all we have as yet collected — " 

May 16th Copy of Search Warrant, granted to Abel West, by Col: de. Fucks, 
Portsmouth British Commdt., and signed by M. Houseal, Capt: Amor. Legion, to 
recover property taken from him by one Robertson, Master of a Barge 
&c — and one Stephen Mister with order for arrest of the latter; with 
instructions to all "his Majesty's leigc Subjects and others" to assist 
said West in the recovery of his goods &c — 

May 16th A "Return" of Colo. Taylor's Regt: of Guards — of seven companies, 
WincheBter commanded by Capts: Burnley, White, Purvis, Porter, Pettus, Meri- 
wether and Kennedy respectively — Officers present 1. Colonel, 1. Major, 
4 Captains — 2 Lieutenants & 3 Ensigns. 2 Fifcrs — 
Privates present, & entitled to discharge 98 — 

Discharged 74. 

Deserted 31. 

May 16th Briq: Genl: Lawson to the Governor. 


Prince Ed- You were pleas'd in your favor of the 11th Inst: from Colo. Skip- 

ward Co. ^rj^|j»p^ iQ inform me that altho' the Executive could not constitutionally 
repeat the instance of sepcrating from their authority the right of 
appointing the Officers for the respective Commands in the Militia; that 
they would nevertheless do me the honor to attend to the recommenda- 
tions I might make, of such Gentlemen as 1 wish'd to have as my Field 

I have taken the liberty therefore of recommending agreeably to the 
inclosed list — , and shall think myself very happy in having those Gen- 
tlemen in my command, — the whole of whom, three excepted, were out 
with me on the fonner occasion, and a few instances excepted, held rank 
consistent with what I now wish your honorable board to confer. 

Some of these officers, when appointed, must be sent on to take charge 
of the militia already marched to Salisbury', as no Field Officers have 
yet been sent to that post. This is undoubtedly necessary, whether those 


militia advance farther into the South or return to this State, as General 
Greene shall order. From your Excellency's assurance to me, I have 
ventured to tell all of those Gentlemen, that they would receive appoint- 
ments, agreeably to the rank respective!}^ annex'd to their names. 
I have the honor to be with the greatest respect &c." 


May 16th 

Col: Fra: Taylor to the Governor. 

May 16th 

A Board of Officers assembled by order of Col: Wood, have just deci- Winchester 
ded that all the Soldiere belonging to the Regt: of State Guards, now 
under his command are entitled to their discharge, except a few belong- 
ing to Capt: Purvis' Company. This results from the fact that the men 
were enlisted to ser\'e only in Albemarle at the Barracks, during the 
stay of the Convention Prisoners at that place. Col : Wood has applied 
to the Lieut: of Frederick Co. for fifty men to act in place of these 
guards. The arms of the discharged men will be turned over to the 
Quartermaster at this Post — Regrets they are in such bad order; more 
than half of them were in this condition when received — The Guard of 
Militia is to be only for two weeks, when it is supposed Ordere will come 
from the Executive, giving directions for guarding the Troops in future. 

Beuben Mitchell to the Governor. 

This is the Sixteenth day that I have been confined in the Provost 
Guard, without any kind of tryal (except before Gcnl : Nelson, who said 
my case did not come under his cognizance), and as a free man and citi- 
zen of the State, who has complyed with every Law and regulation 
from the beginning of the War; I think I have a right at least to a hear- 
ing before I am condemned to an imprisonment in the same House, with 
a parcel of Murderers and Felons, which to a man of common feelings 
must be worse than an honourable death. 

I have never yet been able to got a copy of the charge lodged agst : 
me, Tho* have been inform'd the first charge was, that I gave the Enemy 
intelligence at Petersburg. At which time I can prove by many wit- 
nesses, that I was on board my Brigantine (the Wilkes) endeavoring to 
save her from the Enemy. The circumstances of my suddenly going 
from Richmond, and that in a very unseasonable hour, 1 must own, gave 
too great a handle to the malicious and ill dispos'd to injure my char- 
acter; and as your Excellency has perhaps never had the particulars 
from any but my accusers, I must beg leave to transgress so far on your 
Excellency's patience as to trouble you with a concise narrative of my 
proceedings in that affair. 

May IBth 

C. H. 


17^1. On ^t-Auh^l^y the 25th ult:. in the evening, a Mr. Sa«ller from Wmr- 

Mi.y l';th wkk j'fifonn'd rne that the riaiioi> had all left the Bri^^e. Wilke?*. and that 
Hh#: wa- /»lilijre to nnnain at 0.n^Kime« for want of hands to work her — 
and at the «ame timi,' he offered me a pannage aM far as Warwick in Capt: 
John-on'rt \UpuX, whifrh I excepted. Went immediately and ^ve my 
Kevi to Mfm. ^raiJtier ('Ah nhe Hwore ^>efore Genl: Nelson; and went down 
to Warwir-k that night, afler dark in Cap: Johnson's Boat, (he in eom- 
\9'Auy J when; I rttay'd all night — and in the morning set off down to look 
for my Brige. with hix hands that Capt: Johnson was so good as" to lend 
me, to get her up to Wan^'ick: when I intended to strip her, cany her 
wails and rigging into the Country, land her cargo, & sink the Hull — 
between the hours of 12 & 1. o-clock, I got to the Fleet at Cox & Dales: 
and found by enquiry, that my Brig lay opposite Mrs. Coxes new build- 
ings, bctw4?en the Fleet and Osbomes. And as I was on the south side 
of Ihii Uiver, which was the worst way, 1 got a put over the River, and 
went down to Mrs. Coxes, where I found the Goochland and Henrico 
Militia, and after talking with a number of my acquaintances from both 
Criunties, f went on Board; but as there was a smart current in the 
Uiv<?r and th^j Wind right ahead, I never got under way until late in the 
afl<!rnoon, after a Thunder Storm, when the wind swerved — I got into 
the Fleet a little btsforu sunset, and as I had a fair wind, intended up to 
Warwick that night; but was not allowed to leave the Fleet, altho' three 
men A two boys was the whole of my Crew ; besides the six hands I had 
borrowed, which were to leave me as soon as I came to Anchor. 

On Friday morning I went up to llichmond again, with two hands to 
g(»t down a boat & some provisions, as we had none; and to got Wag- 
gons to g*'t the sails and rigging immediately away, but before I could 
pnxMiro eillu^r, heard of the attack and soon after, of the loss of the 
Fleet. Since then I remained at my store in llichmond, untill I was 
put in the (tiuird House by the accusation of a rascal, whose courage 
nevi'j* yet carried him in a hostile manner, in two Gun shot of the 
Kneniy, unless the Hiver was between him & them. 

I have only to beg your Kxccllency to bring me immediately to a tryal, 

when 1 have not a doubt of clearing up my character, &c. &c." * 

♦ ♦ * * * 

1 am with duo respect, 

Your Kxccllency's mo: ob & hubl Servt." 

Mny l«th l)AVin Ross to Gov: Jefferson. 

Richmond lU"^ is sorry to inform him that, by "the villiany of the waggon master 
Jk the lolly of one of our Light Horse" sent to conduct the goods from 
thoneo to Point of Fork, the whole of them have fallen into the hands 
of the Knemy. Hopes the oftenders will be punished — 



His agent at Philadelphia informs him "that 2000 stand of arms will 1781. 
be ready this week" — Ho has been obliged to use Hemp in payment, May 16th 
and Congress can do nothing for him financially. Tobacco worthless 
there; hemp only available — ,A man to be depended upon, has just 
informed him that Cornwallis "crossed the River on Saturday, 1500 foot, 
near 200 horse." Phillips he believes is dead — " 

^'Statetnents of the Oircuinstances attending the loss of the Goods at Peters- 


"Having a quantity of cloth, canvass & lead coming from So. Quay to 
Richmond, about the time of the Enemy's approach to Petei^sburg, a few 
hours after the action that happened there, I applied to Col. Call who com- 
manded the Light Dragoons for one of them to go down Express to 
South Quay, and conduct the waggons to the Fork, by the upper road. 
Col: Call referred to Genl: Muhlenberg — I applied to him and received 
for answer that the horsemen were much wanted, and that he did not 
think there was much danger of any thing at South Quay, having left 
400 men to cover that place, but on my insisting on the necessity of 
sending some person immediately, he desired me to send one of the 
Light Draggoons — I accordingly employed John Baird of Capt: Boiling's 
Company, a man of fair chai'acter who was well mounted & armed — I 
gave him his instructions that night, which was in substance, to proceed 
immediately to South Quay (unless he met the waggons with the goods) 
and conduct the said stores by the upper road to the Fork of James 
River, taking the utmost care to avoid the Enemy, and to apply to the 
Militia OflScers for assistance when necessiiry." 

^'Baird's account of the matter.'' 

"That he proceeded as far as Sussex and met the waggons, he con- 
ducted them to Dinwiddle Court house, and left one Lanier with them 
to conduct them to Namoseen Bridge, that he went on before in order 
to provide forage at that place, and to procure infonnation if the Enemy 
had any parties out on that road — that he waited there a sufficient time 
for the waggons, and as they did not arrive, he returned again to look 
after them — that he was informed by Lanier, one Bonner, owner of the 
waggons had come aft^r them, and contrary to his orders, had carried 
them to his own house 8 miles below Petersburg — that the goods 
remained safe there 'till General Phillips left that place and went down 
the river — The goods were then brought to Petersburg — application 
was made to Davis the (Quarter Mat^ter for waggons to remove the stores 
to the Fork, but he excused himself from furnishing any at that time, 
but promised to recommend the matter to Mr. Holmes his superior — 
Another of those under Quarter Masters sent him, the said Baird to So. 
Quay, for the shoes for the Marquisses Troops, promising to have the 
above stores removed, and in his absence, the Enemy returned and no 



Vf^ *f*U 

,?Vr 'n*i^^ **#• 

. J ^ 

W-'9\r>' yVPfVtV \ 

X»j*raBL T» '.iL- D vT'.flBr ST TTuimfUiiEK^ilti. 

t pit^ -.(V-;}* -fet-j **.:**fi <»T -Ji»t MAniiif -a FAT^t;c«» ■;♦:- ;&&c^t>i 

</ ^ » • 

;ir ^f'fr^t»i tt^i^^^i S^jT ^yf^ fi**^i^>A o€ "att -HJ^k aifirf w.:^iB?Se*l if we 

MfthUf*Krffi(, vf,/p 00** j^«»?M^tR. tha'. I kb-c-w fA t^f pL^^, Efc»>r hs*! I pi>wer 
Ut ^^V**.9i fA^<^% tt i ^'//riM Hud ^A^, at ^fueh 4isUakf:ft as tbey woold reeom- 
iftf'U^, \ft*f\t*'^r Pn ih*. \tnr\0^^'j — A eknrcrh wa$ mentioiKd near Gruand 
^\u)ff*'\ Ht'uiif^*', Of U$ thai r##ri^blirj«jrboryi. boi I am not aothorized to 
lf»fc^ ftft*' foiiVi t f^t$*i ffitft t'jtfuvt'.uurttl or one that would answer the pur- 
ffffti4x S fUurf'U fi\ou4i will not do; there mui«t he a House or two near 
H t ihfill Ui^ 4'.%lrf^in*i\y hapfiy and eftt<.*em it a favour will instruct me 
how Ut f$rfff'*u'*\ und m*.Uf\ iita nwU onJen an 3'ou ^ball think fit. I am to 
hi'(/ yttur VtHrt'lU'iwy'n ihr^tvi^ut'nn, if I trouble 3'ou still farther — I am left 
imrt* nloM«, or no oni! U9 in»»tnu't or direct me bow to proceed and deprived 
of MVMry iitmuf* of liXtwMitup^ tity office by the removal of all the public 
A|of'f»^, rUMl llfid ll' in vain to m!nd after them: indeed no one will obey 
Mfiy onhM'W IVotn fim, muIvhh fiiithorized by a higher power, or such power 
V»*n((u| )m mi(« I litn away from all tlie (renl: Ofi^cers, and if I was not, 
Ih tiiHtiy ttiMhifM'CM (hnir orfl(*rH wonld uvail nothing. I have taken the 
llhi'i'ly Mir, hi InrloMo yoii a IInI of nocfOHHaryH I am in immediate want of 
hir llin ll(in|i)(Hl lh«|iiir(tn(*ht, and knowing no other mode of obtaining 
ihoiM II1HM llil«, I hope I Hhiill bo cxciiHod. You Sir, can order the pack- 
H^MM (o \\v n|i(tiMHl, and I ho inotoHod articloH Hont down in a cart or wag- 
noil, whioh aro m\ nutoh wantod.and will giro ho much relief, not only to 
iho nWU and wonndod, lutt to, 

llon'blo Sir. 

Your nu>»t olwt * rt}«poctAil Sorvt." 


Majob Edmd. Massbd. Hyrne to Col. Wm. Davies. 1781. 

May 17th 
A Cartel between Gonl : Greene and Earl Cornwallis, to be carried Head Quar- 
into effect, "the beginning of July" having been agreed upon; and the ^® ^onga- 
place of Exchange being James River, he urges the appointment of an 
Assistant at once, to aid in the collecting the prisoners at that place — 
Requests his address as soon as he may be nominated, in order that a 
correspondence may be opened with him. 

Col: Holmes of Winchester, he is aware, acts in that Department, but 
he is ignorant of the character of that officers functions — 

Majob Rd: Claiborne to Grov: Jefpebson. May I8th 


I inclose to your Excellency a memoi*andum of what Major Genl, Richmond 

the Marquis de la Fayette, and Major Genl: the Baron de Steuben have 
required of me, and the stated periods for their delivery. As the 
resource from which I have derived my support ever since I have been 
in the department, is the only one to which I can have recourse in this 
matter, I beg feave to trouble your Excellency for the aid of Govern- 
ment again. • 

It is with much satisfaction, I acknowledge the receipt of the several 
Warrants for money from the Executive; but as I have been disap- 
pointed in obtaining the cash from the Treasury, in the ample manner, 
which the exigences of the Service required, owing to the manner in 
which that office, with all others in the lower parts have been drove 
about, I am fearful that it will still bo deficient, from the large draughts 
that will be made by the Several different departments, and therefore I 
am induced to propose, that the Wagons, horses, gears, drivers & oars- 
men, be procured in some manner different, from purchasing, or hireing 
for immediate payment, as your Excellency thinks best — 

With respect to the Boats, Carriages, Oars, Horse Accoutrements and 
Camp Equipage, I shall endeavour to furnish them with what money J 
may get from the Treasury, upon the Warrants which I have already in 
poesession; and when they are out, shall beg leave to ask for others. 

As your Excellency must be well informed of the necessity of dispatch 
in what I am directed to do, I beg leave to ask for an answer of precis- 
ion, that I may report accordingly ; but should it be too tedious to adopt 
a mode other than by purchasing, will your Excellency direct that money 
shall be immediately advanced, to enable me to comply with the requisi- 
tions? I have had no assistance, but from the Government of Virginia, 
neither do I expect any thing shortly. 
I have the honor to be 

with the highest esteem &^ respect 
Your Excellency's 

most obedient, humble Servant.. 

'^>H// IV/ '/4ff wilfc 'ei^iff t// tutifli>t litfrixi — 2S C'iurr.A.i^fA. with four 

Vftp H«j '/4fJ tfHtou HUcuSr^'J* — \^Hi'imi£tpt,Ufi horse- u> k^e porehased 
k, rfi$m,UiU.\y ft/'^otiinA wiiU Ha/H)<7», Jbr*, by the l^^tof Juije — l«iO. more, 
th ft^hUUtftt Ut lh*< aU/vi« 'A^'j.onXr^i iu:. hy Iht of July — Tenle, Camp 
K>H|/«^ A 4i «, lluf>'h<;U, iO Wfl^oiiH, with four hor»e** ea<:h. and drivers. 
(<HIO 'HtonUu i'uh\*'.*'U*^, Krmfma/;kf<, Ifavre-Sa^.-kH. BagK, and Portman- 
h-mm^ for li J<;hAi Imimtmi u> \h*. iU\\i\\H*A at AJhemarle Old Courthouse for 
\\ith ^nuiUt^ru Army Hy thij Ut of June/' 

l^t^j^ iNMf H LiMlmAy, fWKIfT: (UlU: (/OMMDO., TO CoL: Davies. 

(iliMfluiMM 'I'Im^ iiriMM |HM'rhiimu| hy (*ol: Kt^hi^nr for tlic State, about 1100 Stand, 

^^''*' iMtitnnlhi// Iff lliit wii^f^MiinrH iMM'duntH have arrived at this place, instead 

ol hitiit^ (wirrliHl (o Ulchinoiid—ThiH waH hy Genl: Weeden's verbal 

iirihiiH Hi Knuh^rhliNhiirff— *lln uhUh for iuHtruetioni:) an to how they are 

hi ho i|lH|i(imM| (if itf*. 

Mh.v IHMi iI.^mmm MiiiMnii TO '*Mu. Anuukw Ouanvford, Msrcut., '"Leeds." 

ISm^ H«i>h1| I btwo nhipM (ho «l hhdi^. ahd. tho Molly, as directed & paid 

i'Hv\u»u»» iS» WiuvhohHo 0K|u'hmNii UM uhdoruoath to yr. doht. There is also 3 Bars of 

\\\\\\^ \\\\W\\ you will oiHh^r llurrv to land at Uhuultiold for our friend 

UovoH\» Nvhv* in now up In Cul|H»|H>r — if tho Vi^twel doo^ not go so low 

\h»»u» >\»u wdl tako ohal>^Mxf it for him. 

Cnpr Uhvi\v Uhh Uvu ohal>^H) hi^iv with stealing negroes^ with an 
luloiU l\^ \^vi\Y Ihoiu U^ tho Kuou\y. tho follow I suppose love^ a Wencb 
sK hnd ^wou M\iuoof that Swx a )>a:!^6a^' in hi;;^ wis^^l, but his being 
ous|vJ\kyM hv a rvv\\\\ I'tii^wl a *u*|noi\nu vt K^? Ukoly lo leee kb good 
ol\avm**ov h\ u. h\A\ \su^ v^Ul vxnuio v^. I ktn^w ih>i — I und^r^tand you 
*^Vv Uv^WA^u^ssk \ I xup|yv>\^ \\Hi will tv waUixl tt(KH& by ^oteae Gentlemen 
^\\vu\ K\o^^ \s>N^Kv s»AK Uk- xns*>*\^i \ thsHt^hl |^ri»fer 5o srtv* yoa this 
us^Vis>\ vt^V \v^^ UAt,^^u tv i^v^HMXH.! R^ TjAtch a v*ȣi. 

\ c%W. 1\VAI Sit 


"Gibsons' Inspect. 2 hhds. Tax £32— 17SI. 

Roys' Do. 1 " Tax JL' rent 17.. Uk, M*> ISih 

Boat hire, 9.. — 

£58., u\r 

Capt: Saml: Patteson to Col: Daviks. M^^r I8ih 

"The arms from Philadelphia, purchased hy Col: Pobi^M* for tins State ('lmrl«>ttw- 
arrived here last night." The wagoners will not go ai)y farther, being 
great losers in the depreciation of Continental money, f<ir whieli they 
agreed to come — They say it has depreciated to "four and live hundred 
for one" within a few days — No wagons to be gotten at this i)laee; and 
if they could be, he knows not where to carry the arms. Mr. Anderson 
has as many as he can take care of, and they (-annot be stored at (^har 
lottesvdle "with any tolerable degree of security" — (Concludes "(\il: 
Lewis has agreed to take us into Iuh family, about half a mile from this 
place, ho has exceeding good pasturage and I am persuaded we shall 
have the best quarters in the neighbourhoo<l. We Hhall be very much 
pestered in Town, for of all places in this world, it iH the moHt <Hs' 

Return of the Militia, fowarded by Ben: Hlunt Co: Lieutenant. May IHth 

1. County Lieut: 1. Colo., 1. Lt: Colo., 1. Major — 15 ('aptn: 2i\ Lieu- HnitUmtfip- 
tenants, 11 Ensigns — Privates over 18 years of age 723 — Ditto, undor 18 ^*" ^^*' 

years, 71, total — Officers and Privates 850. 

Major Tnos: Poset to Col: Wm. Davif^. Msy IHih 

Dr. Col: 

The number of men which I have collected at this place, Cin HUntnUtu 
deserters k others) amount to twenty one. The draft for eighUsen 
monthers, has not yet taken place, in any of these hsit-k CoMnti<!S, neith<rr 
can I inform you at what particular time it will. The fx^ople miern rnu'di 
aversed to it in Augusta & Rockbridge, but it don't amount to a majority 
1 beleave. However, a considerable numlnsr met at the pla^;4.'S a|M/inted 
for laying of the Districtii, & in a very' Md & daring mhumir^ M;aiM;d the 
papers and destroyed them. I don't know where thiii may st/ip, if there 
i» not a timeona check, in Hanging a few, for examples Ut the ri:«it. The 
eloatbing, I anderstand, the different Couotie<f is pr^/viding, an fast a« 
pcmible, bot none as yet deliverer! Ut me— 

I have a deserter or two delivcre^l Uf me every five or *jx day«i— I 
5uppo!e I fthall have a compy. of tbern in a ntK^rt lime Up M;fid down. 


1781. Do my Dr. friend let me hoare from you by the first opportunity, for I 
May 19th dont know whether one of my lettera (which has consisted of very 
neare one Doz) has reached you. I assure you I cant help making 
myself a little unhappy about it, though I know & am conscious of dis- 
charging every tittle of my duty agreable to my orders; but I under- 
stand the Baron is displeased on acct: of the Officers not making proper 
reports from the different Rend evous — His orders was to make my 
reports to you, which I have punctually done. Do pray let mo have 
the pleasure of receiving a few lines from you, which will be much 

esteemed by, 

Your Obt. Humble Servnt— " 

May 19th Capt: Thos: W. Ewell TO CoL: Wm. Davies at Point of Fork. 

Bolling'8 Rec'd his letter by Mr. Furguson last night — Two Canoes have already 

®"^ gone up with coal, and he will send more as soon as they can bo got- 
ten. Made an effort to send the "Flatt laden with old arms" up, but 
not being able to get over the rocks, she had to return — Will attend 
promptly to orders. 

May 19th Maj: Rd: Claiborne to Gov: Jefferson, at Charlottesville. 

"Sir, • ' 

Major Genl : Baron de Steuben has made a requisition for twelve 
Wagons, with teams, harness and drivers complete, to attend his detach- 
ment to the Southern Army. As it is totally out of my power to pro- 
cure them to go further than the verge of the State, I beg leave to ask 
your Excellency for advice and authority in the case. The only step 
which I could take of myself in the matter, would be to hire, but such 
an attempt would only be a loss of time, as I find few will come out to 
the assistance of the Army, without being forced — 

I have the honor to be 

with the higest respect &c &c" 

May 20th Geo: Rooers Clarke to Genl: Washington — (Copy.) 

Fort Pitt "Reduced to the necessity of taking every step to carry my point the 
ensuing Campaign I hope your Excellency will excuse me in taking the 
Liberty of troublin'g you with this request, the Invasion in Virga. put 
it out of the power of the Governor to furnish me with the number of 
men propos'd for the enterprise to the West, but inform'd me he had 
obtained leave from the Baron Steuben, & agreable to your letters, for Colo. 
John Gibson & Regiment & Heth's Company to join my forces, an addition 
of men with them the militia we wore disappointed of On consulting 


Colo. Broadhead he could not conceive he was at Liberty to let them 1781. 
go, as your Instructions was pointed, respecting the stores & Troops to May 20th 
be furnished by him. from your Excellency's Letters to Colo. Broad- 
head I supposed him at Liberty to furnish what men he pleased. Con- 
vinced he did not think as I do, or otherwise he would have had no 
objections, as he appeared to wish to give the Enterprise every aid in 
his power. The hopes of obtaining a Grant of these troops has induced 
mo to address your Excellency myself, as it is too late to consult Gov- 
ernor Jefferson farther on the subject, wishing to set out on the Expedi- 
tion Early in June, as our Stores of Provisions is nearly compleat. If 
our force should be equal to the task propos'd I cannot conceive but that 
this post with every small Garrison even of Militia will be in any Danger, 
as it is attached to a popular Country, & During our time in the Enemies, 
Mcintosh & Whellin will be useless, or might allso be Garrisoned by 
Small parties of Militia — 

These I know to be your Excellency's Ideas — If you should approve 
of the Troops in this Department Joining our forces, tho' they are few 
the acquisition may bo attended with great and good Consequences, as 
two hundred only might turn the Scale in our favour — 

the advantages which must Derive to the States from our proving 
successful is of such importance that I think Deserved greater prepara- 
tions to insure it. But I have not yet lost sight of Detroit. Nothing 
seem to threaten us but the want of men, but even should be able to cut 
our way through the Indians & find that they have no Reinforcements at 
Detroit, we may probably have the assurance to attackt it, tho' our force 
may be much less than propos'd, which was two Thousand, as defeating 
the Indians with Inconsiderable loss on our Side would allmost ensure us 
Succe^^ — Should this be the case a valuable peace will probably ensue — 
. But on the contrary, if we fall through in our present plans & no 
expedition should take place, it is to be feared that the consequences 
will be fatal to the whole frontier, as every exertion will be made by 
the British party to Harrass them as much as possible — Disable them 
from giving any Succour to our Eastern or Southern forces. The Indian 
war is now more General than ever, any attempt to appease them will 
be fruitless — Capt Randolph waits on your Excellency for an answer to 
this letter, — which I flatter myself you will honor me with Imediately — 
Col: Gibson who commands in the absence of Col: Broadhead will keep 
the Troops in Readiness to move at an hours warning. Conducting 
myself as tho' this Request was Granted, Impatiently waiting for the 
happy order — " 

Yours &c — " 


1781. Majr. R. Claiborne to Gov: Jefferson, at Charlottesville. 

May 20th "Sir, 

Richmond The total disappointment which I have met with, in support from 

Philadelphia, obliges me to repeat to j^our Excellency, that my sole 
dependence is upon the Treasury of this State, for money for the Quar- 
ter Masters Department. I can affirm to your Excellency, that economy 
has been used in expending what I have received, & that none has been 
disbursed, excej)t in cases of the most necessary nature; but the public 
debts are increasing so fast, which demand paimeut from me, that I am 
fearful of the consequences, shuld there not be some speedy supply of 
cash furnished to prevent them. The difficulty of getting money upon 
the warrants which I have received, has occasioned me with all my 
Assistants, to run largely in debt on public account, by personal & pri- 
vate obligations, and have no hope for relief but from the resources of 
Government — 

We have absolutely remained without our pay, which we had a right 
upon every principle, to take monthly, rather than the service shuld be 
retarded, or the people not be compensated; but this seems to have 
answered little or no purpose, as we find daily that applications 
increase — Debts are not only made in the department by the persons 
engaged in it, but are heaped on, by impresses, which have been carried 
to an intolerable degree. Every one who furnishes a wagon, horse, or 
any thing ell=ie for Continental Service, and gets only a certificate for it 
calls on the Quarter Masters, who for want of means are obliged to 
evade the payments, and the person retires disappointed and discon- 
tented. The consequence is that all faith in the public Agents is lost & 
the citizen will do nothing without being compelled by military force. 
If impresses are to be established for the support of the Army, and 
nothing, else is to be depended on, it had better be communicated to the 
Commanding General in the State, and let him have an impress Master 
appointed, and proper persons to aid him; but on the contrary, 
money must be advanced to pay off old debts and the hire as it becomes 
due, or we shall most undoubtedly fail. The public is by far the greatest 
loser unless it is determined the people shall not be paid for their prop- 
erty; for long experience has taught me that not mpfe than two thirds 
of the things that are procured in this manner, are returned to the 
ownere, and because they have no public brand on them, they are lost — 
By frequent letters from my Assistants, they assure me the deprecia* 
tion increases so fast, and public credit is reduced so low, that it is a 
matter of doubt with them, whether the present currency in the State 
will pass much longer, or that the people will trust either the public or 
individual, as there is no trade, and no way by which they can profit 
better than by realizing and keeping what they have now on hand by 
them — 


I cjin assure your Excellcncj. that for what is now due. and what is 1781. 
iDdispensably neccasaiy to Ini procuivd immodiatoly. either by hire or May 3(Hh 
impress ^\c millions of Pounds is absolutely requisite; this would, I 
think, place us in a tolerable easy sphere, by enabling us to dis<*harire 
our duties towards the Army, and quiet the minds of the Pe*>pK^ — 

Colonel Hendricks, who is the Assistant Deputy Quarter Master at 
Alexandria, acquaints me that he can purchase in his district ten th<>u> 
sand yards of good Stuff for tents if he had TobacH-o — Will your Exivl- 
lency be pleased to give me an order in favor of the Continent, on the 
Counties of Fairfax, Prince William, Stafford, King George or Spin^iiyl- 
nia, for as much Toba4.*co as will make the This is an article 
of such material consequence, that it w^ould l>e a great loss not to pro> 
cure it — 

I have the honor to be, 

with the highest esteem and res|)ect &c.** 

May 2l8t 

David Ross, Coml. Agent orders the wagons that brought the Arms Pt of Fork 
from Philadelphia, having deliverod the same to the order of Baron 
Steuben, to proceed to this place, to receive return loads of Uemp; and 
those also, that brought clothing, to do likewise to receive hemp and 
Cordage for Philadelphia — 

Colo. Jambs Callaway to the Governor. May 2l8t 

He regrets to su}", that mstead of the "three hundred ^ eighty four Bedford Ck>. 
militia" requested to be sent to the aid of Genl : Greene, after the utmost 
endeavors he could make, only ''one hundred and thirty some odd men*' 
could be gotten — These have already marched — The busy season of the 
year, ''among the Common People" outweighs any idea of the necessity 
of Huming out", unless the enemy is threatening them. lie will 
endeavor to punish the delinquents — lie has no idea how many he can 
send to Maj : Genl : Marquis Lafayette, and is doubtiul if any consider- 
able number can be relied upon — 

Capt: H. Young to Col: Wm. Da vies at Point of Fork. May 2l8t 

**Dr. Sir, 

I am much surprised and very uneasie that Mr. Anderson has Richmond 
not had a supply of Coals — About the 15 or 16 instant I dispatched 
two Canoes from the Foundry with sixty bushels of Coales, to Point of 
Pork." ♦♦*♦»* 
'' We are in a fair way to remove the cannon near Hanover Court 
bouse — By virtue of your instructions to Capt: Roan, I advised him to 


1781. take the carriages fti contradiction of tbe Marquis' Orders. The Salt & 
May 2l8t Rum near Good Bridge is the property of the Continent & was removed 
from Petereburg on the Enemy's approach — * * * 

* * "I have lost my sorrel horse" — 

The people in this Country dont like people that they cant understand, 
so well as they used to do — I fear the Marquis may toose his credit — 
Desertera, — British — Clinging Dutchmen, & busy little Frenchmen swarm 
about lid. Quarters — The People do not love French men ; every person 
they cant understand they take for a French man — Our Army is in the 
neighborhood of this place — I dont understand the cause, of this move- 

I am yr: most Obedt. hble. Servt. 

" Is it not a matter of estonish to you that no certain accounts can bo 
had respecting Ld. Cornwallace & the movements of the Army under 
his Commd — From my Soul 1 believe that 'tis matter of doubt with our 
Genls. whether Cornwallace is at Petersburg or Halifax — A little follow 
by name Joell, & a deserter from the British with a full stock of impu- 
dence & with some little knowledge in drawing like Colo. Senf, has pro- 
cured himself the Command of the first Troops in Brent's Corps — I 
don't know what they call them, perhaps waisters of the public stores — 
This Joell will have the rank of Major — I think the time will shortly 
come, when it will be disgraceful to rank above a Captain — 

Major Mitchell & the Officei's taken at Petereburg are sent to Now 
York. Every person, in future captivated by the British, will be sent 
to the West Indies — this we have from under Arnold's hand — I saw it" — 

H. Y- 


"Commissary Graves will be at the Point of Fork to regulate that 

May2Ut Thomas Warman to Col: Davies. 

Albemarle Requesting instructions as to enlisting prisoners; some of whom 
^* have applied to him for that purpose — 

May2lBt Cr. WiLSON, Surgeon to Genl: Hospital. 

Beaverdnm Encloses to Col: Davies an Inventory of medical stores wanted; of 
Church, which he is totally destitute — The Vinegar, rice & molassas particularly 
needed — The Beef he gets, is "so very bad it affords little or no nourish- 
ment" — After examining the neighborhood of Goochland Court House, 
he has established the hospital at Beaverdam Church, a high and healthy 
place, where he thinks the sick will soon recover — 



W. North, Aid de Camp to Baron Steuben, to the Conductor of 1781. 

THE Wagon Train. May 22d 

OrJdering him to transport the Arms brought by him from Philadel- Pt. of Pork 
phia, to Albemarle Old Court House, with all possible dispatch. 

Capt: Wm. Lewis to Capt: James Maxwell at Richmond. May 22d 

The Vessels are in want of Powder, Match Rope, Cartridge paper and Renown, off 
Grape shot — , and have only one day's provisions on hand — Wishes the ^^ ®^ * 
Governor would appoint a Commissary for the fleet — He finds it very 
difficult to keep his own crew; but how much more is this the case with 
those of the otheV vessels, especially as they have not had a drop of 
spirits since they entered the service — Mrs. Reaves, he hears has rum 
for sale — Regrets to trouble \\\m about these matters, but unless they 
are better supplied, all the men will leave. 

Col: Elias Paston to the County Lieut: op Frederick — "pr: May 22d 

*'Doar Sir, 

We are under the disagreeable necessity of troubling you for HanapBhire 
your assistance immediately. I received an Express just now from the 
Commanding Officer of this County, for as many men as can be had, 
not at any Rate, less than three hundred from Frederick County. Col: 
Van meter recommends that they who can, be mounted, may immedi- 
ately mount & come on & the Foot to follow as quick as Possible. Wo 
look upon it, that our lives & Fortunes are in danger of being taken, wo 
don*t know how soon — Yesterday the militia of this county marched to 
Capt: Stumps; there made a halt, and sent a party of light Horse to see 
what Discoveries they could make about Jacob Brake's Mill on the South 
Fork, they were repuls'd by a fire & got off without any Loss, A 
brought with them two prisoners — they can't make any Discovery of 
the number of the Enemy. I understood by one Powel who came from 
Clapoles, on the Lost river (the Comander of the Tories) that he 
cxpc<'ted by last night to command one thousand men — Col : Vanmeter, 
in his Express, has left the proceedings in a great measure to my judg- 
ment, & I think the only sure Remmedy to apply, would be to prevail 
upon Genl : Morgan to take a Tower amongst them, which seems to be 
their chief Resin — they are daily dareing him. The People of this 
County, who are our Friends, are so much connected, as well as related, 
that they are, on these acets very bacward to turn out, so that the wel- 
fare of our wives & children seems greatly to depend upon your Loime- 


^u|i: l>«:ai. liiv insatv:. iUA^ m^j Uk Lupret^ ^ i:ai. inioriL von mori' 

d»j:^i )#uiii«9iiiiiciii. Jb^ujutiiii liiUiv! ii? -Nui>*»omaij(j jiunifuUiLriT rtf|irt«- 
iioiii>iiik ii a^ luu'.'ii jk- iii uvciirdiiJi: ii' a«rrui'iii«ui wi«- ic iuivt- fur- 
tiif^iicd iv ULr. f^iw . ui. allj'jv? ant: twtiht mcL ar ii irimrd. I»ui licrttr 
iHjiJi ii iiiai*— ^>u] . Walkor u* X>ii«wiudk aien- rtrfii»t;(j ii» InnmiL liiiird 
I*' I lb u ^uatti. — Artii^ wiion. tiit- X*cuiut.'! iiai? Ikhjl miir. a^ lit desire^ liif 
<jurr»ur iv «;<^tac aiid d!*v«>^ ii lur u»t ai iiiict^— Tiit liarou will jirubabiy 
aiivw iiiUi iv iiavi luaiij^' t>j liit GiniuiittuUL Aruiictirh. ii apjiiitKl Xb. 

JKi4iUiuwi4l M^' dittiouiUtst uiid iiiisic>rtiUiieb are uriiiiuui uimilier. I huTt 

I'^ot juiv jlvi'bu^. 1 itakT u*«'V wilJ lall iiiu* liit iiaDdi- ai liie Ediiidt, luxi 
wJUtU ie i^JJ wos-t^. J l^uT J<,»tJU. tuv iiLTtiiuIl SerTjuii will hliiLre tlie fouzie 

iJ'^i- ti*v rvijw^vaj <A' tJUt ^.'-aajJU'-'ii al Tavior'^ Fi^rry. Li^ want* are a.i ihis 
tJ Aii<e u«ai'J>' at ^>.iai a«> ail linsl — ^lL*r Caiiii'-'Xi a«f ai or near \h^ |iiace thcj 
w*.-/^ aX ltii>t — 1 li:^ar tJU*f/ m jJJ \m: lotfi — Mr. ScmiliaJJ i» at CLark^tUsrvilie 
lMk.4Ji/f'^c xhi^ Ufuk. I j^i^aiJ *!iel oiu ior tl»^ P'/Jui of Fork. a» sooii as I c^n 
U^^r t^Hti^hlhjf '4' iuy lUmi^^j lu ihi^ luiOku time. I have given $uch 
tiir^'J'ii^mif ali>'/Mt ih^' Ca^j'x-* a^ f lii</u;^Ll J^K^rt. — One ^Jaj' I recx^ive orders 
from U^u iMim^/hh, ih^s ij<-xt 'lay tb*^y are oi^uutemuiDded bv twenty — I 
^'«i' ltijj» rA^uiar ttoutumju (\i i uiAy \h: allowed the expre«6ioD; will end 
U^ tmr C/Hal mm— 

I'iM^rti Majf/ (i<Mf*Ui — I ^|>eak of that g«x^ man, with heart felt 
tuin$^mMti'^m — Yti^UirdsLy at n<xm, he waii &urpm'd near Osborne's — his 
{/arty r//i4«ii»i>^l of 150 meu, thirty of whom are Prisoners, except three 
that wt*i't9 kilhi/l— VVj4*» it not my dear Sir. cruel to post so good a man 
in lUti fiirj^hhorhood of the Knemy with a handfull of men^ and not allow 
Uim a wingJii vidi*t ihr security — The Enemy were conducted by a viUian 
thai Colo, (ioo/le ha<l pofited on the leading road from Peters Burg to his 

C\IKXPJlK of :?TArK IWrKiis Hi 

eiKABapiBieat. br which !a«»iJQus th« lS:k^ft* wvrv AV\.*tvK\L *avi ^hc |\fcr\v ITSl 

for 0>4»x Gixxi* — >is hi&ri W >livHjLld \xve ;jk wvil o«itti 4 rvj*u:*tk*t'^ 

This div :h« eoeniT izmNl^vi ^.^B'^I io itVMxrvx*'^ ;i^( Wcc^owv a ^-ai^jv^ 
detAehmeci ciAivh'd •iownwiu\i fh>m the* ^^Uvv, Uio ihb c\>?hu^^ I 
^miih the MAn|Ttis may noi K* prvm;jkture stt hi* nu^vvittoui.^ 1.4 l\>rtt 
wallaci^ has JvHQ'd Araoid: he b a sutlU* tvIK^w» sjiikI I t\>AV >fcUl K^ Uv 
manv for the Man^ai^ — 1 am not a i^^ttonL vet I thii^k vt l^ar ihv^ix^ i* 
dan^r that Cv>mwallace will j^^i alH^T\> the Marquis^ if *i^ the whwa^ 
qaences are &ial — 

Brown is seldom hear. I have talktnl with his Assistant ^n^ie thu\^ 
ago. and eaationed him to make his Wiuv^ in suoh s^ mauuor as lo Ju»lit>^ 
a ehai^ against the Continent — I will send up the l^Hr)vntei>i immifsh 
ately — ^The arriTal of the Arms you mention* is a ijrv^t thin^ I x^inh 
those eomeing on were hear A iienl: NYhyuo with thorn— I f\>^r th\>iK^ 
Irish Villians have again mutine^i — I hftve this instant iXHvivM a m\>M 
aage from Capt: Koane by l^n: Vallontim^ — I t^nd Uorn^vt, t^\>Hr«« Hud 
many other things are wanteii for the rxMuoval of the THUnoUx \\\M \ 
can*t, in a short time, furnish. I have dir\H't(Hi I'npt : l^^ino to hav^^ the 
Cannon sunk in the Riven and in sueh n manner ns we nu^N with eane^ 
get them up again — 1 have tiinn'ted thnt skiiiils ho put under thorn (o 
prevent their sinking in the San<! — 1 wish you uuty itppiNWo thin Htop 
it is the only one I cou\i devise to stM'Uiv the i^uinon, \\h Vulloutiho 
assured mo it wou\l take thriH^ months to ivmovo thoui to u pluoo ol 
security, provided they hnd every oonvonionoo — 

1 am your unshakon IVioiu!,** 

David Ross to Governou JcrFRRsoN, Alhonutrh*. Miiy UHil 


I am just now favored with your Letter of the 2 Int. I itxpo(«(iMl Pi. nf Kork 
the waggons would have como to IhiH plaoo, in <M»nHiM|uon('o of what 
your Excellency mentioned to mo, an<i the inHtrurtiouH whhh I hiul 
lodged at Prodericksburg for the waggoiu^rs — Onlers hn<l boon given by 
the Baron to deliver tho armH at the biirruokN, other or(bu*H to deliver 
them at the time, and laBtly to deliver them at the old ('Ourtlioum*. thin 
latter Station he fixoH upon, an<l hiu4 given onlern iKU'ordliigly ior tlio 
arms to be carried there to-morrow — The clout hi ng and «ithor MtoroM I 
think had better be stored hero, and I have dire(ded the bcturer to do no, 
unless you onJer it otherwise — I have engaged Mr. Klffhanl Matlilim to 
inspect, pack & prize the hemp in the m^veral (/OiintieH, and Up employ 
waggons, that it may be fowanied U) I'hiliMlelphia InimediaUdy. Tliif 
inspecting and prizing the ijemp is Vitry iiiNUMMury, and fan only t;e done 
by people of Home exjieriencx' in th** busineHM. WlMtreior*^ I think it will 
be best to loail those waggonn with the ro|ie yanin & hemp whiidi I 


1781. Havod from the Works at Warwick before the Enemy got there. 1 don't 

Mav 2M know but there in a Hiifft. quantity to load the whole of them with the 

hemp in thi« county. — if »o it will be beHt not to intei-fere with the ope- 

ratioriB of Mr. MathieH — I expect to engage all thene waggons to return 

here again, with the other armH which are now ready. 

Inclosed I wend you a short state of the case relative to the stores at 
INntersburg. This is a most provoking transaction, and I hope the sev- 
eral persons concerned in it will be punished for their conduct. 

I have this moment received your letter by Colo. Senf — I shall send to 
the most likely places for procuring saddles immediately, but am appre- 
hensive it will take some time to procure any considerable number of 

I do not know where Mr. Armstoad has carried his stores — I wish 
some place was appointe<l, where things should be collected — I fear there 
are many things lost, and others much wanted, and not known that they 
ai*e on hand. 

The I^aron wants Blankets, and many other articles for the equipment 
of the new ivcruits. lie also wants some stores for himself which he 
bogs nw, pi*ocure for him — I hinted that your order should be obtained 
for them — ho said he would give a warrant for the money, and seemed 
much hurt at my iH5quiring any other security — his demands are mode- 
rate, and I believe it will be best to comply with them. 
I am Sir, 

With groat resj>ect, 

Your vorj' humble Servant." 

MnySM Gknl: Itbo: RoiiEns Clarke to the Governor of Va. 


TolioMnla A few da^^'S |>ast T roooivo<i dispatches from the Illinois, Kantuck 

^* &c of a late date. 1 am sorry to inform your Kxcellencv that near 100.- 

000 Ib^ of Beof at the Kantuoky is spoilt by the persons who Engag'd 
to procure it. About the same quantity on hand Excellent good, and 
250 head of cattle promised by the inhabitants. The Indians have done 
considerable damage there. The Rnclo<»ed ci^pies are all that is worth 
your notice from the Illinois, but what von already knew of by former 
letters from that country. 

Yon will see the measures that have l>oen taken Bespociing Shannon 
and Moore and the Issue. Oolo. BroadhcAd would not agree to suffer 
Colo. Gibson *s Begiment to go on the Kxpedition, as he said be could 
not answer for it. 1 have wrote to Genl: Wa.<?bington in consequence 
as pr: Enclosed Copies. The OontinentAl Officers & Soldiers of this 
l>epart.roent to a man. is anxious for the Ex'pedition suppos'd against 
the Indians. The Oonntr^* in general wishing it to take ]ila(«, but loo 
few thinks of going, and so great a contrast lu'twec^n the pecqile of the 



two States in this Quarter that no Method can bo taken to force thein 1781. 
to war. We are taking Every Step in our power to Raise volunteers. May 23d 
What number we shall git I cant as yet Guess. I doubt too few. The 
disappointment of seven hundred men from Berkele}'^^ & Hampshire I 
am afraid is too great a stroke to recover, as in fact the greatest part of 
this Country is in subordination neither to Pennsylvania or Virga. Gerl : 
Washington informs me that he had received information that Col : Con- 
nelly had left New Nork with a design to make a divei*sion in the Coun- 
tries to be reinforced by Sir: John Johnson in Kanady. I doubt Sr. we 
shall as usual be obliged to play a desparate game this Champaign. If 
we had the 2000 men first proposed, such Intelligence would give me 
pleasure. The greatest part of our stores have come to hand, the 
Remainder I shortly expect. By the greatest Exertions and your timely 
supplies of money we have the boats and provisions Expected in this 
Quarter nearly compleat. I propose to leave this about the 15th of 
June, if we can Imbody a sufficient number of men by that time. I do 
not yet despair of seeing the proposed object on tolerable terms, although 
our circ^umstances is Rather gloomy. Colo. Crockett and Regt. ariv'd a 
few days past, who Informed me that a Company or two Volunteers 
might be expected from Frederick & Berkley — I am sorry we are so cir- 
cumstanced as to bo glad to Receive them. 

I have the Ilonr. 

to bo with great Esteem 

Your Devoted Servt — " 

J. Maury to David Ross at Point op Fork, by Mr. F. Maury. May 24th 

"Dear Sir, 

Not having been able to procure the money. Horse or Servant Richmond 
for my Journey to Hampton, I am still here. General Cornwallis too, 
in the Interim, having reached Petersburg, I am anxious of making 
another application for my Vesscll. It occurring to me also, that every 
obstacle to negociating for the permission of sending Tobaccoe to our 
prisoners, being now removed, the Governor would willingly endeavor 
to have it effected here, by which, much time, much trouble & much 
Expence would bo saved — No misunderstanding as yet, between the 
opposite Commanders — 

The Marquis sent in a Flag, the day before yesterday, with a passport 
from Congress for the Vcssell loaded with necessaries for the Convention 
Troops — Which Flag Lord Cornwallis admitted, notwithstanding it so 
80on followed afler the affronts received by his predecessor. We have 
now some Tobaccoe & some Vessells, which we can call our own — If you 

JJ^ ^ \LRV:)\.^ ''iP ^T.vr?. ?A?nH5i. 

17 ''1 thin?'' ;»« f fo pr^iv ir^r** 'h**^** •i'>n*i«l*'r»rionA .¥'fh [\i^ ELci-filt-nry i -H^mi 

Tr T^M^ hum hie '^»*rranr ' 

Hflny Wh fff/> Sii^y. TO ^>,T. fuvriw at Chariot ti^*v!ile. 

AlN<*m^f)'» Th^ rv^f,fi^4 /-ff R^i^'kKri'l/'*. R^*r^kin:rham. .Shi*nan«i»-ah. an«l AIN?- 
'^ • ^jifiA K?i'7^ /J^livAr^-'l rh^r waiCiTi-* an«i Tt^m:* to him at this piat-e. and 
hf* hfui, \fy ffffh'r f4 Major (',\%\ffprT\^.. ^•^nt. them to Ri<*hmon'L *>me time 
fi^o /'riJfK'j^^T CoTinfy ^^T»f it^ was^^fi to Frefit^ri'k.-ihnnr — <ireenbricr. 
Arrr>»/TMf.. OrHtfiff\ FlfivHUUA ar»^l Auj^ri-ta -^o tar a* he know*, have made 
ffft flf-yiyfry 'thf firrr»« rci't:rT<'*\ Uf. hy (!o\o. Taylor, were never re<-eived 
hy h'ltfi, h»if wf-rt' iHk*'.fi in t^hnri^f', hy i\u: Ft^ii^imental C^uarier Master. 


Mnf 'lti\h J. Sr.moj^, MAJttH Va. L. I)BAfKx>5s, Tf> Gov. Jefferson. 

Wiihnft^r The nwlm-od fiitimtion of my Coqw, haH induced the Marquis to 

|'»WM ordi^r ffM< fo HiIh l'hi«M% for the puqjoHC of recruiting the Horses & geting 
«>f|Mi|M'd MM fHMt HH poHnltiln: to ex|)edit<) wliich Oapt: Head will wait upon 
yniir Kxcnllnncy with a Htato of our wants, to obtain orders for what is 
tHM'PMHiify. Whnn I had the honor to scD your Excellency at Wilton, 
you told nto I should ho furnished with what I wanted; to prevent Loss 
of IMino upon this occupion, I made application to Mr. Ross in Rich- 
nuJtid, who l^irnishofl nio with two Hundred prs. of Over alls & one Hun- 
•I^mI Htiihle Waistcoats of Light Canvis, upon a promise from me to 
ohinin \\}\ Ohicv t^*om you for them; ho has also sent out Agents to pro- 
t'Uiv Hoots, Mpui'w ^ Curry (-omlm for us. 

As tt> owv Hadtllos iVi Hri<llos, they were never good for Any thing — 
tho' 1 r^hidl have as nuiuy rtttc^l up as possible, but it will bo better lo 
have a uew »Set }\>t\^\\^ complete, as what wo have, with all the Repairs 
we \'t\\\ give thorn, will not last long; & to lot you ktiow the tnio sitna- 
\\i>}y «>f the Uoi*st^. they wen^ never fit for l>ragt">ons k arc so mach 
wom down with \\a\\\ sorvico, thai 1 should dos|>air of geting many of 
them in t>iNlev in %Six Months, ^ when in the best Plights they are only 
t^t ti>r KxpivniH X' Waggon Horses — The Marquis has oniered some to be 
puiH»hs!^ed on tVntinental Ao<'t*' — ♦ * * « 

rapt : Utvid has not bivn able to purchase a single horse at the price 
bo w s?* bmit^si to."— Thoy have bec<>mo so scarce, that they are not to be 
bad under a givst prioo; in«K>o<l it is not a Time to think of what a 
t^orso «*i>stH, when the Knemy an^ outnumbering us so much in CaTafary. 


If your Excellency thinks proper to have the Horses purchased, & will 1781. 
send me either money or Instructions to get them, I will soon do it, as May 25th 
no one is so much interested in geting good ones as myself, & there is a 
saving to the Country in every Horse purchased by an Officer, as Indi- 
viduals expect to be paid for their Trouble. 

The Behaviour of Capt: Fearer, in absenting himself so long from 
service, without Leave, has determined all the Officers, never to serve 
with him — I must request therefore, that you will be pleased to send 
Lieut: Armstead a Captain's Commission & at the same time a Blank 
Comet's Commission for a very deserving young man." * * 

* * ♦ uj have writ to the Assembly for Per- 

mission to recruit one Hundred Infantry to be joined to my Coq>s, & 
hoi)e to have the Assistance of his Excellency, as I have it much at 
Heart to take the Field with a Corps that may render some service. — " 

♦ 4c * 4( 4( 

With great respect & esteem, I have the Honor 
to be, Sir, 

Yr: most obt. hble. Servant — " 

"P. S. — Since writing, I have been informed by the Officei*s that they 
will not draw their pay at forty for one — as the Quarter Masters & 
others have been paid at Eighty for one & some even higher." 

Benj: Clark of Lunenburg Co. and John Clark of Caroline Co. bailed May 26th 
in the ]»enalty of the payment of Twenty Thousand pounds of Tobacco, Richmond 
to appear before the Executive Council of Virginia, when called on, &c &c. 

David Ross to Col: Da vies at Albemarle Old Court House. May 26th 

Writes to inform him, Capt: Peyton can be furnished with leather^ Pt. of Fork 
and that he sends off Mr. Burton for the shoe thread — The French Can- 
vas of which he has a large supply, and which he thought would suit 
for "Frocks" proves too thick" — Recommends, in view of the great 
scarcity of goods, that it be made into "whort coats" for the men; he 
has some *'blue frize" which will do for facings — Concludes "Tarlton 
surprised the Chesterfield Militia on the 23d & took a number of them, 
some reports say 200, k others about half that number — Colo. Goode is 
not taken" — 

Capt: John Petton to Col: Davies, Charlottesville. May 26th 

In accordance with his orders, sends up his Marquee; presented the Alhemarle 
order to Capt: Russell for the thin duck to mend it, which he refused to ^^^ ^' ^' 


1781. deliver without the Baroirs Order — The latter arrived here yesterday 
May 26th and is much displeased with the situation, and has sent Capts: Fenly 
and Kirkpatnck to reconnoitre a place eight miles up the river where ho 
intends moving the Troops, if they report favorably — Desires to know 
whether lie is to move with the Troops, as he is getting tired of that 
employment," and is anxious to be settled where he can get to work. 

May 26th Capt: II. YouNG TO CoL: Wm. Davies at Charlottesville. 

*a)r. Sir, 
Mr. Boiling's I left Richmond the evenitig before the last — Our army was 

then in motion ; and intended to take post on the hights beyorul Win- 
ston's bridge — 11, miles above Richmond. 

I am totally ignonuit with respect to the movements of the Enemy 
and I wish it may not be the case at lid. Quartei^s — I have herd that 
the Enemy march'd into Richmond yesterday; whether Horse or foot, 
1 can't learn, but I suppose Horse — as I have also understood that Corn- 
wallace has taken a right hand road near Westover, that leads by Han- 
over Courthouse. 

I think the militia are as much intimidatea as ever I saw a routed 
army. Should the Marquis even attempt to skirmish with the Enemy 
wo are ruined, as their superiority in Cavalry will consequently fourco 
him to a general action — I think it may be depended upon, that Rodden 
(Rawden) has evacuated Camden — Lee & Sumpter are in his front & 
G. Greene in his rear — people are very sanguine, and suppose 'tis 
impossible that Rodden can make good his Retreat. We have a gi-eat 
deal of Uropean intelligence — ^^'ou will judge of its authenticity — Lid. 
G. Gordon is at the head of a Rebblo Army in Scotland — Genl: Clinton 
has evacuated New York & has orders to repair to Scotland with his 
army, to oppose the rebbles there. Gibraltar has fallen; this acct. conies 
by a Letter to Mr. Cooper from his correspt. either in Europe or the 
West Indies — I shall be at the Point of Fork this evening, where I shall 
remain until the stores are remov'd from thence — I shall be glad of 3'our 
advice in the fulest manner relative to the stores, & whether you do not 
think it will be advisable that Andereon, with his men remain at the 
Point as long as possible, as arms are much wanted, and as his removal 
will put it out of his power to render any service for a considerable 
time — A few canoes may be kept at the Point to take off Mr. Anderson's 
Tools & the Arms that will be kept to repair." * * :^ 

'*I found my horse in King- William, and the fellow who had him 
refused to give him up — I wish I was Dictator for 1. day, I would pro- 
scribe every person in the State of suspicious caracter — I am not a rash 
man, but should my horse fall into the hands of the Enemy by means of 
his being detained by that villian, if God spares me, I will assassinate 


him, if I can't Bati»laction by law, which I don*t expect. Colo. Bland 1781. 
is and shall bo our next Governor, let the Assembly know my determi- May 26Ui 

I am my Dr. Sir, your steady frd. & Sorvt — " 

David Ross sends to Col : Davies, at Albemarle Old C. House, a speci- May 26Ui 
men canvas coat; which he thinks will do very well for the troops but Pt. of Fork 
thinks "the make of it may be improved upon." 

David Ross to the Governor at Charlottesville. 

He encloses the letter from Mr. James Maury by the bearer his May 26th 
brother, for his Excellency's perusal — Every thing necessary for his Pt. of Fork 
embarking has been furnished him, and he will sail from the Eastern 
Shore, if there is any trouble about his getting off from Hampton — he 
has received £10,000 to pay his expences and lay in provisions for the 
voyage — 

A letter from the Marquis requires his going at once to Richmond, 
but he will return in two days — The greatest part of the Powder belong- 
ing to the State is now at Point of Fork under Guard of Seven men — 

Mr. Anderson can now repair about one hundred muskets a week, 
but in a few days, this number will be increased to one hundred and fifty. 

Major John Pryor, C. Genl: Mil* Stores — to Col: Davies. May 26Ui 

After making proper ap{>ointmonts of Field Commissaries of Mil: Col. Cabell's 
Stores in the Marquis Army, and leaving Mr. Smith his Deputy at Rich- 
mond, he set out with a Field Comy: of Mil: Stores for Genl: Greene's 
Army, by way of Point of Fork, and the Old Court House to Prince 
Edward, in order to prepare a supply of Ammunition &c to be taken to 
Genl: Greene by the Comy: of MU: Stores; and to have the Laboratory 
& Magazine at that place, removed, for fear of the Enemy's partisan 
corps, there being no force in that quarter to resist them. He has fre- 
quently ordered Mr. Porter to remove the stores in his charge at Car- 
ter's Ferry to Point of Fork, but it had not been done, and ho found at 
*'the Old Co. House some ammunition he had directed him to send down 
immediately to the Army. The Continental and State Military Stores 
are »o mixed that it is impossible to discriminate between them, but 
upon his return, he will suggest measures to have them seperated and 
collected at fewer points, in charge of a requisite number of Officers. 


^'Jf^ CALRNfiAft OP ATaT?. ?A?Ra.S. 

H^^hfnrtn4 Th«^ r'«f,nm« '>f f h« mr».n r'nminir from thi^ 'liiferpnt Coiinries. I 

h»vrt rt/">f, yrtti/ Iwm ahl«^ !/> ohtAin. rw ^oon an they ani miule 'Mil, I ^hall 
Kjiv/^ f,h#^ h^nor ^vf in^lo^nn*/ nh«»m. 

P^^/rtnl: r#iiw<^n'.4 kffi^r h^.rewith -^^nt, your Exceil»in<»y will loam 

" hikfftfi drt .^tAiiKi^n inforWH m^ that only two men had been employed 
ir» frty^ftiriAi^ f h^ 'lamaiaffvl Arm^. Xo doubt thin matter^ on being repre- 
4M>t.^/| by f,bA Hufoti haM been enquired into, and every man sett to work, 
who ^/rti'd p^m^My be prrx-^nred. 

TbA TirriAn of f.bft Militia expirei* daily, and they are dwcharged, but 
v(^ry fftw rYitriA in t/* unpply tbeir place— one Company of Riflemen only 
bavn AfrivVl, thf^ tb^y rni^bt F>€ very usefully employed. 

Vtsry f^w ffornAfi have fieen impretwed — I hope your Excellency, and 
fbA (UfiiuoMl will ^ivA Romo Orders on thirt head. 

f'nfd: havAfijKirt who jfj«t now retuma from Amelia & Brunswick, 
n^uff^n rrio that, by irnpntMin^ every fourth Horse, wc shou'd be able to 
rnlw* 200 \n lh^m4^ (UtuuiU'n — We arc in the utmoHt want of Cavalry, the 
Viiwiuy'n ^rnat «ii|H»rionty in Homo, ^ving them such advantage over 
un, tbnt tbny havo it alm<mt in thoir jiower to over run the County, in 
wfil^ht of fill our ofTortK — 

YiMi will olmorvo by (!olo. White's memo, inclosed, that there are 50 
of thn \ni \U^iii, at Htaunton. Cou'd wc mount those and Nelson's 
i-nv\m, who tiro lit Hanover, jotting Clouthing made up, it wou'd be a 
Iji'imt iMM|uUltloni UM our whole force in Cavalry at present is about 60, 
imhI I ho Kiiomy hnvo 500 llorso — the mountoii militia are all gone home, 
oi|(>o|it ('H|it: Uoyull wIiomo tlnio Is out next thursday — notwithstandinj 
|Hmltivo immIoi*!* to tlio contrary, they have carried of their Accoutre-— 
niohtu, whioh ban in(*upU(*itntod us ft*om mounting others." * * ^^ 
♦ ♦ ♦ "LonI Cornwallis arrived at Petersbo. the 20th — tk ^ 
tf!ld i\A: Tarlotuh, with liOO IIoi*ho of his Legion, profiting by the ver-^ 
hoHVV rain, which nnulortul the Continolls* arms unfitt to fire, and ha^*^ 
\\\fi \u{\>\v\>\\U^[ tho VidottH, surprised a party of militia in ChestcrfieL ^ 
about S) mlU^ S» W. i»f (\»l: (^iry's Mill — thoy kilkni six, and took abo^ms 
40 lVimM\oiii— 34tb» Iho HHtish ovacuatoil Poterebo. and destroyed lIb^ 
Urt\l^> Ou\Y had vH^uHtructiHl on Ap)H>mattox. thoy marched to Mayco^. 
a«vl oinv»«»\hI alnnit llHHI Mon» that Kveninj; to Westovor — tho next davv 
tb%\v XV ^Mv K»mploy%Hl \\\ crt^HHiug tho n^t of their Army — Same ni|i^< 
w%v|^^ n%^ut *^fT our Stoi\^ A IVa^ijijagw Had i«enl: Wayne joined m^ 
y\Hh\^ ^i*^t%v* ^Mb tV\MW York town that ho wvmld manh the 23d) X 
*b\mbJ wHaiwi^v haw di^^puttxl tho boights^ of HiohmoiML with Ibem, 
bul t^ ii\\' i^roc^ma MluatKn\. I daro hanily ri;^ tho :^nall<i^ matter, oar 
NS|^|x>«Mil^^ HiH^t h^ \M\l,v !^\ivk as wtU ckook I^. Oomwallk;. wiikoit 



giving him ^n opcv. of inpi^o^ u:!^ ^nlier thjui We wu^Il or iImoi pru> I7S1. 
deuce will jo^i^ — Mr. I>aT. A. Q. M. jkS Wmsborvr writeei< intorming ot' Mat dM 
a Fleet h^Tii^: |A»t^ Jjls: Town, the ±2J, but ot* this your KxivlieiH y 
will have the fullest intelligenee fK^m Mr. Tn^vers< wIk> viewed them 
himself — 

The Marquis sett off at noon, to reconnoitre Brook V Brid^' — as lie 
has sent in Orders to move on the Troops to that placw I take the HK 
ertv of sending vvmr Exov. this rou«;h Copv. as it mav afford some little 
intelligence — the Iikcloisured mentioned are not to be come at — We Warn 
from Phila. and &am Gnl: Wave's letter, that 10 Sail of the line and 
3000 Troops sailed finom Sandy Hook about the I3th — Genl: Sumner 
writes, that report says Ld. Rawden evacuated Camden/* 

I have the Honor to be 

with the Highest respect 

vour Exev's most Hble Servt — 

Col: F&a: Tatlob to Gov: Jkffulsox, in Albemarle Co. Mi^r Sfiih 

He had written on the I6th inst: in regard to the Board of OffiiH>rs, WiiicliMt^r 
ordered by Colo. Wood, to act upon the case of the State guards. These 
are now all discharged, and only a small body of militia an> now on 
duty at the Barracks near that place. A very few men and all the 
officers of the State Regiment, remain at Winchester, who should be at 
once discharged — ^The arms of the men were sent to Albemarle Barracks 
by order of Capt: Porter; but one hundred and sixty stand are leA^ one 
liundred & forty of which, be has allowed the County Lieutenant of Froil> 
^rick to take, to arm some of the Militia who are to march against a 
fcody of Tories in Hampshire; to bo returned when the oxpeilitiou is 
nded — 

He will send a return of clothing drawn by the men as soon as |x>ssi- 
'le — Col: Wood has gone to Maryland, and will probably not n»turn 
«fore the arrival of an Express, sent by him to Congress — 

David Ross to Col: Wm. Da vies. Mi^ 27ih 

He thinks a large part of the powder at this place should bo removed, Pt. of Fork 
^t once, as the risk is too great to have so much at one point ^'in an 
insufficient house & only a guard of seven men" — The Quarter Master 
^ collecting canoes and wagons, and application is made to the neighbor- 
^^g Counties for all the aid they can furnish — 

Mr. Price & Capt: Davenport are entrusted with the duty of taking 
off the powder, with strict injunctions as to caution and care— 


1781. Mr. Dyer will furnish an account of the ready made clothing &c — The 

May 27th cloth coats issued to the soldiers will all he worn out before the fall or 
lost — 'He gave out the day before Canvass enough to make a short coat 
"for a tryal, with some blue frize to face it" — Had it boiled in lye and 
washed to soften and shrink it, before being made up — it will be too 
thick for the Season, but more agreable than woolen cloth — A supply of 
leather can be had here, and shoe thread from the back Country — has 
ordered plank to be gotten to box up what may be left in the Public 
Store — and the spirits "to be filled up; there has l)een great abuses in this 
article" — Continues "If 3'^ou think the middle Country cannot be 
defended, 'tis highly proper to have the Stores removed beyond the 
Mountains — I have recommended to your people here to make their 
movements with as little noise, & all the discretion in their power — the 
people at present are really panic struck, and have lost much of their 
military ardor — I need not tell you the force of imagination ; if an idea 
goes abroad that we are not able to oppose the British, it will have an 
unhappy effect, indeed this seems too much the case already. My 
brother writes to me fi-om Bedford, that a pretty general consternation 
has seized the people there — I have expected the waggons that brought 
the arms & other articles from Philadelphia to have been here 10 days 
ago, in order to have canned off the Cordage at Harris's barn to Phila- 
delphia — by their repeatedly stopping the Canoes & employing them 
otherwise, I have been prevented from geting it brought here — I expect 
it will soon be lost — Pray send these waggons off immediately to this 
place if they have not already started. — the contradictory orders which 
they have received has distracted & detained them exceedingly — 

I am sent for to Richmond, by the Marquis, & cannot go, til these 
waggons comes — I shall write you the news on my return — 

I am Sir, 

Your most obt." 

May 27th Stephen Southall, A. Q. Master — to Col: Wm. Davies at Alb: Old 

Co. House. 
"Dear Colo: 


Charlottes- "I think as you with respect to the danger of our Stores at the Point 
ville q£ Fork, and other places below that, and wrote Mr. Price, on this sub- 
ject, desiring his immediate attention to the removal of them up the 
river as far as Bent. Henderson's* — I have wrote up to a certain McDon- 
noflf, who lives 20 miles distant from this place, at the foot of the Moun- 
tain, but have not received his answer as yet — however when the stores 
comes I shall go up myself and procure good Quarters for them — 

♦Six miles South West of Charlottesville. 


Agreable to your letter I did myself the pleasure to wait on Mr. Pat- 1781. 
teson, but he not being at home (I openeil the letter directed to him) May 27th 
therefore cou'd not go by his advice, but am sorr}' that my long Expe- 
rience in life has taught me no Wisdom with respect to my duty — 

I amediately turned out on the arrival of your letter, tho' I had used 
every exertion in my power to procure Waggons, by writing Ur the 
principal men in the County, for their aid, & to Mr. Key the Commn., 
whose answer I have not received. I however made out to pro<'ure 
three Waggons without the assistance of Mr. Palteson, and shall imme> 
diately have them loaded, with orders to wait on you, for further 
Orders — I have it in thought to onler them from the Court house, to 
the Point of Fork, to bring their loads to this place, therefore be pleased 
to Order w^hat will be most adviseable to be brought. I think Powder, 
as they have two good Covers — I think the arms might bo the last 
article brought up, as Mr. Anderson will be Idle in this case — there 
being a number of valuable stores at Goochland Court house, I yester- 
day dispatched six waggons, with orders to bring them up to this place, 
as they were the lowest down I thought it most desirable to send for 
them first"— * ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

* ♦ ♦ Hi . Ht 

"I am entirely at a loss how to procure the means of transportation 
from Henderson's to the Mountain, being entirely unacquainted with 
Country or people — however I am agoing to a meeting I understand is 
to be above here to day, when I mean to make your Exemption known — 
rely on my best endeavours to promote the publick good — I wish we 
had a Commissar}* of Military Stores, that they might do their own 
business. I have sent Wyatt to have the waggons loaded. 

I am. 

Dr. Colo., with groat regard, 
Yr: very Hub. Servant." 

Capt: Thos: W. Ewell, informs Col: Davies, his delay was due to the Mty 27th 
Canoes not coming — To morrow all the stores will be gone from this Boiling's 
place — The leather has been at the Point of Fork some time, and the landing 
Rum was up the River before he left — Every care shall be taken not to 
waste the powder. 

Samitel Pattison to Col: Davies, at Albemarle Old Co. House. May 27th 


Agreeable to your Instructions, I have sent on four hundred Stand of Hendertont 
Arms, the waggon that brought your Marque to Col: Lewis went off, 
before I received your letter which was this morning. Carver lost two 


tSB VtUjSirijf.u '^^ -?E:^'r:!H: ?JLFSSi- 

.4*^ y ,ia j»% w » i w jtiir ittsfic - -4» w^^T^r Jz. . ^fHicJLail ir^iirTti vsi^Hitt :&r 

T^,.**^ jr»i -*•* 4txt-9 -^ •^ jui. .> ns Li^ jean x: ii>ol^ •or Irtle 
niiir*- **;i .-r-»n;r :>r.m li*Hr **fxuc -eat jo*«i ^ -»- :iut- **t?H: ^ tu^mi 

'f'fftEt^^fine *^ "^'*i- rrrrc*t4rct Oit-: 'toft aL Im- -fidtn&iKiii ^^m»- ^{M»aiii 

7«'^*-F»Tiwv I -iii»^ jjb» iaiHrfotaffr b -Iji*- ^nau^ je- ,3anp- ■«• & trrtfar 

"|»^ '*'>ivn^i .i«r»* MMwiMi k ^Ptwftiimf4i ~tadi :i£ tar ^^jret*- -OLaHiiX >v^ -^ni: 
fp 'h^ svpfVL rvr^^ tnri I wr»ma vtjMi nrw^ -fiKSLi :k^ lassn jit^m -iian 

4i#vf |«s inf. 1^ .1^ ^ilflf^tfTw^r It' ^fn!» IT HLffcUrfwqt > TO • ibur :lii? 3iii»ny- -^ 

jpB*9f nai^nry :n .iiii|nMa. 

jr-il ^ ■:vr7 ;|nsas — C jt3in<v •ii' aiy iwn rca^nmffUf^ ctittm ij- run £f»t9&f«^ 

-Hiail rie '.It 1. ia*i -ticaasifia irdi saaiptiits -xi 'lur -stavBt, •wjfikkvsa: j^^a Jtdiiw^ 
f 41411 iirsi«'4l xJ^AVX Jl!t«r TmintiiwL. tki^ ^ umni. imkL jiul ^rmc ti«r T^ror 

— am 

'* f iMM^e ^KvMul Mj bi^W9ft. bkif flca^ ttatier ibtiii«ii loii ivre boi^ksiti' — 

Miiy Ml^ MaMM CtfjiJi: Mjuanx to Ccc: Dateb ^ Cbitf^xtiesTilk:. 


Wr^mwinr f Mf ^^^'^ ^ ^« T«if«miig % "^Rcuvm" «# tke vmecwK rcvKtvJ by Cob- 
UmffM </r. M*K^>^r»— Frr/m btii Mrtmt <m«prji««r«l oT Ffv^rick, Berkeir 
H^ lf«Mi^fcrir« 0>i%: ke kaji reeerrcd tvo. fteiiWr of vbieli vouM be 
f#M<'^f/i Pff. }mt§f^ um%% Uff MTTk-tr, and Fnbderiek Co: b^^ -ievTed a sum 
1// pfift-Uiffm # w%fypm^'^ \nit owing u> tbe r»pid d^pnrcauoo of ili<f cor- 



Hay 28th 

Sending by Schooner Nightingale six barrels of flour, "five exeedg. Frederic'sb'g 
good" which cost **100£ & Cask 75 Doll." — to be disposed of either in 
sugar salt, or dry-goods — Thoy are "so miich alarmed with apprehensions 
of the Enemy Every hour" that they "only catch a moment to give 
these few lines," and are huriying off all their goods and effects. 

David Ross to the Governor. Hay 28th 

Informing him, his Agent in Philadelphia up to date had furnished Pt of Fork 
two thousand Stand of Arms — The whole number, in addition to those 
Mr. Anderson can repair, "over and above what the Baron has taken for 
his men," may be estimated at four thousand stand more than are in 
the hands of the people at this time, so that he thinks there will bo no 
scarcity in future. Concludes — "Neither our Delegates in Congress, nor 
the Generosity of our Northern friends have as yet given any assistance 
to my agent — The repairs of the arms, the purchase of Bayonets & the 
advance of Specie to the Waggoners has been done by loans from pri- 
vate people. The bearer, Mr. Maury will give you the news — he thinks 
there is a fair prospect now, of negotiating matters with Lord Com- 
wallis, for Sending Tobacco to Chas-town — he wishes to be sent in with 
a Flag, on this business." 

Anthony to Jonathan Dsnison. May 28th 

Expressing regret he had not purchased Salt on the Eastern Shore— rMr. Falmouth 
Johnston's Salt and other goods brought there, were had on good terms — 
He now sends five barrels of flour and five Hhds: Tobacco, which he 
begs he will not dispose of, except for goods and Salt — Can't get too 
much of the latter. Will not risk his Tobaw'O for cash — does not want 
it— Tobao. worth "from 95 to 100£— flour £120, & both scarce"— The 
enemy expected every day — 

Wm. Price informs Col : Davies, that, in the absence of Mr. Redwood, May 28th 
ordered to superintend the receiving the stores at Bennet Hendersons, Pt. of Fork 
he had sent up Mr. Howell Lewis for this purpose; he being recom- 
mended by Mr. Ross, as a man to be depended on — Two hundred and 
fifly-seven barrels of powder have been sent up to-day, and more will 
go in the Evening — Every exertion in his power shall be made to carry 
out his orders^ 


17^1. HfiAf)f%j:7Xoitti, a4^win$( the Execntive to wnoe Wwrxnt to the ^Hon 

M^y Wtik Ma^y>r Onl: M. <Je Ijafayfttte," SMithorizing him ti> impre** 3u«:h horseis 

iiK he tfULj nfieA for th* n^e of the Armj, ia the Cocmtiei* ci>atigaoii24 

Uf the march of the Kn^my — 
Hfifttm (A Ifomeji to \i^ vsilned hy two Field Officers; & to he jwud for in Specie, 

iMl4»^tM or itA eqrfrvftlcnt — f mpreM wamukts to be LfMiied to Commissioned OflB- 
i'A'T% only ; t/* Ik? prridijc<:d when the impre^A is made — 

'^Stftd Honiefii") and tho^ie aetually employed in moving families and 
their e/fr^^tn not tr/ l>e taken — The Marqoid require* J to make exact 
reiumA Xaj the h\\(\\XoT of the State. iA the names iA the owners, the 
valfie of eaeh Honie, and the usert to which af»propnated ; together with 
ccrtiflcfttefi to the owners, expreiwing the^e facts — 


'' Hy an amendment, brr>od maren arc not to Ix) impressed unless the 
owner fftiln on reasonable notice, to remove them out of the way of the 
enemy, in whi(;li case Htud horses are also to lie subject to impress." 

TH: J " 

Uhy 2»th H. Dykr to Col: Davies at Albemarle Old Co. House. 

IH. of Kiifk f^vln^ lnvont<jry of Htores in his possession — The remainder have 
come from Boiling's but several of the packages of dry-goods are much 
abused — thirUH)n ready made coats k ten pairs buckskin breeches miss- 
ing IVotn the boxu« — The stores cannot be properly removed unless ho is 
nirnlMliecl with workmen to make proper '^packages to secure them." 

Mii,v Unth Col Andivw Honnally informs the Governor, he has held a Couii; Mar- 
(lri»Phhrlor tial to oncpiire Into the dolinquences in the Militia, but very few have 
^^' IKIUmI to perform their "Term of Duty." Requests instructions as to 
sending down those ordered, as no one will undertake it under the pres- 
ent terms— 

May SiHli Martin (\irkhurn and Richanl Chichester, Commr: of Specif: Tax, 
I'^iitffWk Cn. report in pari upon the Amount collected in that County last Spring — 
The Wheal, Hye&Oats, and three thousand four hundnxl and ninety 
m^ven bushels of i»t>rn» they have delivereii to Mr. James Lawrason of 
Alexandria — The n^mainder« one hundivd and seventy-one Bushels was 
Itlven out to the Ti\H>p« under the Marquis de la Fayette, when they 
paMieit through Colcheal«r — 


Lt: Colo. Chas: Dabnsy to Col: Wm. Dayies. 1781. 

" Dear Col : May 80th 

We arc now under marching orders to Cross the North fork Camp near 
of Pamunkey River, the route loading to Fredericksburg. The enemy ^".^<*'^**'* 
from the last accounts are at New Castle and Page's Warehouse. The 
Warehouses at both places they have burnt. About one hundred and 
fifty of their Light Horse advanced twenty miles from Page's yesterday ; 
they took two of our light Horse men prisoners, and several of the 
inhabitants — I believe it is the Marquis' intention to avoid an action 'till 
6enl: Waine joins us, whose arrival is Dayly expected — " * * 

4E 4c « 3|K ♦ 

I am Dr. Sir, 

Yr: Obed: Servt." 

Wm. Grayson to Gov: Jefferson of Va. May 80th 


The board do themselves the honor to transmit to you a resolution War Offico, 
of Congress of the 23d instant, also a resolution of the 11th of April P*^"»d«lpl>i» 
last; by which you will discover that they depend upon the arrears of 
Spedfic supplies for the last Campaign, which have not yet been fur- 
nished by the different States, to make good their engagements with the 
Court of France — 

As the honor and faith of the United States is so materially concerned, 
there is every reason to expect the most decided exertions in the States, 
to enable Congress to comply with their contracts. 

The board request you will be pleased to acquaint them with your 
expectations on this head, and what they may probably depend on. 
I have the honor to be with the highest respect. Sir, 
Yr: most obedt. & very hble Servnt." 

J no: Walker to the Governor. May soth 

Enquiring in what manner the horses to be impressed for public Ser- Belvoir* 
vice, are to be equiped with Saddles, bridles. Harness &c — ^Unless this 
be done, they will be useless — Asks for news from below — Will set out 
for Camp, as soon as his horses are fit to take the road — 

* Family Seat of the Nelsons, about seven teen miles Bast of Charlottesville. 



f^ la^UChA^JL 19 Wf T? 3 V.Tl^f 

i>Aii<inr«<^ J -Mtf^t -me jum; tout -u ariciffivCMCit^ smesL of ?>. iSoDoalvnF Jjpnor nf 

Urn; l^lt' lutf; . i» !!j«rtMiL vru IM* SjnHk Jt s^ndbmc ai Jaimr teoL s 

it iiiKV% jufi^ .1^ jufaeaBiifl 1^ -CitfibBK. 

^ $Mt$fy vuutir miixtii^ ^impi* vol IikuC ior likii^ SmnitrtffT k, '^s& 
AUUUlt #:«jMtfiUi£ -iT* ltt«tr Idtti^ iiohc UJmOL ^iiil last^ Jki praBom I 

U^Hm Jf>M; 1^/; Ci^lMsn 99 Col: Dato* at ^llwmwV Old C 

^Ai^. Mil*' Um¥itHi miy fffj4Um mftoloB GNfee j«0«Hbj, it kv aot Iimb ib ki» 
^tmih*W44 ¥^*^ ^ MMWiMT kk UMen; hzwrng bcoi |MW > mi vitk boHMn at Ricb- 
4^tm0U4$m^ mmA (^ %km Army^ umUl tbt ZItk oMt:— Tbe coa&Md alwtina of thm 
^'^ mtf^HMfttM k iimr nlburm will requiie mvA tisae to coDaci sad lanuA 

r#i#nii# ^ Ub# traijMHi 10 lie aopplied bj the diiiMqa Conpliee — ^It 

m\\ im Aiftm m mtm an praetieabie— 

Davij» Row to Col: Datdeb. 

UikffMk ASfitui i\m 20tb laat numtb be waa informed tbat all tbe public 
9%t 9i9 VttfU hriifii'Aifm \n VAehnumA wtire ordered and were actoallj on tbeir way to 
iliiM ptai$4»*-Beirig blronelf obliged to go to Richmond, not a white man 
would bavo been left on bia estate; and no one to provide for the recep- 
tion, fiNxling and quartering these men, (whoee services were then 
«iKif4Niilin|{ly valuable,) until a Commissary should be appointed — ^Under 
tli0iM« ciircumstancei, he had taken the liberty of detaining John Wil- 
mcirton & James Liddle two reliable men of the Goochland Militia for 
this purpose, and to act as guard Ac — He had stated these &cts to Col: 
Morris, tholr Oommdg: Offioor, & to Capt: Richardson— ^He is astonished 
now Ui liear tbat these two men are by the Court Martial put upon the 
liante thotiuK with those who wilf\illy reflise to serve the Country. 
A Itboughi by bis authority they have been doing ess^iitial 
trusts thtitr ease will meet with &vorable consideration — 



Ck)L: John Gibson Ck)MDT. at Fort Pitt, to Gov: Jbffsbson. 1781. 

ugiP May 80th 

This will be delivered to your Excellency by Ens. Tannehill, Pay- Fort Pitt 
master to the 7th Yirga. Regt., whom I have sent Express to Richmond 
in order to procure the 4 months pay allowed by the Hon: the Assem- 
bly of YiTga. towards the Depreciation of their former pay, Ac — I hope 
when your Excellency is Assured that they have not received a single 
shilling for these twenty months past, you will interest yourself in their 
Behalf Ac— ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Inclosed is also my Acct: Expenses in fowarding the Powder from 
Carlisle to this place for G^nl: Clarke Ac. * ♦ ♦ 

Oenl: Clarke will write your Excellency by this oi)portunity, and I 
make no doubt give you every information relative to the intended 
Expedition — I am much afraid he will not be able to get many of the 
militia from this quarter, as I have just heard that three hundred men 
from the Counties of Monongahela and Ohio, have crossed the Ohio at 
Wheeling, and are gone to cut of the Moravian Indian towns; if so tkey 
will hardly turn-out on their return — ^Indeed it appears to me they have 
done this, in order to evade going with Genl: Clarke — ^the Moravians 
have always given the most convincing proofs of their attachment to 
the Caose of America, by always giving in Intelligence of every party 
that came against the frontiers; and on the late expedition, they fur- 
niahad Colo. Broadhead and his party with a large quantity of provi- 
sions when they were starving — For the news of this post^ permit me 
to refer Tour Excellency to tl^e Bearer Ens. Tannehill — 
I have the honour to be Tour Excellency's 
most obedient Humble Servt., 


Comd. F. Pitt— 

Capt: Saml: Jonss to Capt: H. Touno. MaySUt 


From information just received, I greatly feared that Mr. Moody has Pt. of Fork 
acted very indiscreetly while in service of the State — It appears that 
Blanketts A Cloathing drawn by him for the Artificers and State 
Negroes under his care, are now offered for sale by a Miss of his at or 
near ground Squirrel bridge. 

Farther it is reported that a Qty of Salt A provisions carried to the Misconduct 
flame plaoe far aecurity is in the same situation — ^It is certain, that sev- ^^ i^^ 
end negroes belonging to the State are now employed by his Miss; and in seryice of 
whether he has hired them of the State or not, is a doubt with many. ^® ^^^' ^ 
Tools of various kinds are now in the hands of Mr. Moody, which the 
Artifieers assert are the property of the State-— Add to these a general 

^££^j^^^- fc- *'-JL!!. t:^ 

4 ■ — ■ . ..^.r^M^. .. ...-^ *^ 

••X ^ ■ ^^'O*' 

» * * ^ 

%..' .4ft^ ;^«4. ^„«^ A*tKfwf.M^/ii^ 'M, tut'Stivn if 3kBiifffiwt: iir'sn Stt^m. 

r « - ff*^/, /'/.»*/4 .v»«Mi» '»#i ^jftOit 9!tM;}i. C dhfoitfsn; sfim •tilgfhHfc. tihoK 

iO{'Uif*iV^ hff^M'f M^fhro, ^liftfi liu rimrcili'il with the Troops onder Col: 

fW t II (infill H(M Ifili HriM( iiiM (Hy whut rul(5 of |irf»|iri<)ty I leave yoa to judge) 
l)1r*>(iiy Mvt* iiifibi I'Wo Uiinin of Uioui vt^ry ImU c*llllec^ — without the least 
Hif*MM<« Ml Hiv |Hiwoi' Mt ulluvluUi ihuir dintreiiMeii — Some of them without 
MIhkUi'U ilio.y MHi Ht(i(ir0(l III iwu very bad uegro Quarters — I have 
^niM* I^H |iu4>i(ii (iillimirM on Uio HuhJiK^, denirtng him to take into his 
MUii Mo* utMHuiHld laiMMialilo lieiugn — which i nhaLl aeud to him in three 


or iamr days— I andiHstaiiii he hafr no ri^ht W nH.*«iv« Cimuu^tttiii 17^. 
Troops — I hop« joa'l point out to bim, tht» Hutiuittity ;uhi u^K'^Mtii^ M^y dlnl 
that duins D» d}r rwMiTii^t thmw — I hav« no wa&rt^ uor Candid, ih^iv- 
fore exeuise the l«ttiMr beiimp onmrnlnil — 

I am Dr. Colo.^ with tho gr^nikt^st r^gani <fe r^)i»|KK't 
Tour Most Oito. S^rvat. ' 

S r a r m c i Soimuix Assr: Q. VtAStMM — ^to Col: l>AVia» at F. of lf\>rk, Mv ^^^ 

""Bear CoioDeL 

1 wrot« joa four ilay^ s^ pr: th« Capt: who ^nun^ up CbMrU>il«iK 
for the Gons^ mj situatioa and my proi»p%H.*t in g^tin^ ot* a houi»i> at th^ 
Foot of the mountain. I also tUnuah^ him with a ^uttci^ut uum^r 
of waggons the next morning to tram^port the whole oi hx» »tor^ to 
the Court House — from thence I ordered the waggons to the Point ot 
Fork and bring their Ioadt» up from there — I have t»ace sent down four 
waggons more with letter to BIr. Price to load them and (»end lnvoi^*e(» 
of each Load — ^I did on Monday last adTertu»e for wt^g{on» or boaUi — I 
have in consequence of it> procured six canoes and three hands tVom 
Colo. Joseph Cabellf and am to have several waggons to morrow^ which 
shall be dispatched immediately down 'to the Fork — The (Governor told 
me yesterday he had consulted the members of the Aiisembly, and It 
wss their universal Opinion, that the stores shou'd be sent to Albemnrie 
Old Court House, evwi the stores now st Henderson^s. 1 sm in ooi^s^ 
quence at a loss what to be st I shewed the Governor your letter 
respecting the stores being carried to the Mountainis snd he observe<l| 
when the stores were on nsvigstion, we not only hsd the name oppor^ 
tunity to remove by land, but the water slso-»I then urge<l the tiecHirity 
of the Mountains, but he still persisted — pray write me by this Kxpress 
respecting that matter — 

I shall however order the loads that now lie at Hondemony U^ the 
mountains, at which place, I fear I must attend mj'self, not having any 
person that I could depend on to procure good houses. 

There were two hundred and fifty six barrels of powder, that (^ame 
to Mr. Henderson's yesterday — I went down last night to see what num- 
ber of Stores were there & the situation they were in^-1 found them 
stored, but to my great surprise in bad order — the (>anoeH not being 
clamped together, the barrels were put in the bottoms of the oanoes, 
and by some means, or rather the canoes were near half ftill of water, 
some of them, tho' the tops of the barrels were kept dry, and one barrel 
fen short of the invoice brought up. now from the Governor's direc- 
tion to me, I shou'd suppose no more of the stores will come here, but 
in the case more powder comes, pray order the canoes to be olanipod, as 
we must inevitable be ruin'd with such management. I should be 
exceedingly obliged to you to Order up a Commissary here, as the pro- 



1781. viding and Issuing provisions falls on me, and I can by no means do it, 
May 8l8t and add to this my having to do with the darned Indians, who pester 
me amazing — I am this day to lay in a number of Goods — as I am con- 
stituted Commy. of Stores — Work enough but no pay — Pray if you can 
hear of Capt : Young inform me. I really am afraid the Capt must be 
lost, or deserted to Essex, cannot tell which. I want much to see you 
and him also. I think it would bo adviseable to give orders to the per- 
son having direction of the stores to send Bills of parcels, and the 
order they are in, — as we might from that Judge who was liable for so 
many misdemeanours. 

I am in haste 

with much regard your Hbl Servant." 

May Slat CoL: George Corbin TO Gov: Jefferson, by Capt: Levin Walker. 

Accomac The danger and difficulty of sending across the Bay have pre- 

vented me from informing before this, the particular situation of affairs 
in this County — 

Our draft was appointed the 23d ult:, but the disaflfected (encouraged 
by the example of Northampton) about two hundred in number appeared 
in order to prevent it by force ; being informed of their design I was 
prepared to meet them on their own ground, having previously ordered 
out a party of chosen men with a field piece to attend near the place 
appointed for the draft. But upon consideration I was of opinion that 
it would be impolitic to make use of force, as I found by enquiry, many 
men who had always been accounted honest, good citizens, mislead by 
fjEdse representations from the disaffected, might by cool reasoning be 
set right again. I therefore postponed the draft for two days, and 
promised myself, with the assistance of others, that the people might 
be reasoned to their duty; however good that reason, altho' it quieted 
the minds of the greater part of the rioters who appeared th^ first day, 
yet a considerable number were still determined the second day to 
oppose it, at the risque of their lives; therefore I thought it prudent to 
inform the people, that I would a second time put off the draft, but was 
under a necessity of returning those soldiers for the War, who had 
opposed it, and requested them to give in their names to a person 
appointed to list them ; which a number of them to the amount of 
twenty or upwards, accordingly did; these with a few others, equally 
guilty were adjudged the day following by a Court Martial to be soldiers 
during the War — Several others have since been discovered, who were 
concerned but concealed their afms in the woods to prevent suspicion. 
Those who appeared to head the mob the first day were John Curtis 
(Sea side) and William Garrison, but upon reasoning with them, they 


left ihe mob, and seemed oony for what ihey had done; however peni* 1781. 
tent they might be, I yet view thorn as the most dangerous persons May Slti 
concerned, being the only persons of property amongst thom. I was 
induced to adopt mildness, rather than force for the following reasons. 
Prom the detached situation of this County, aid or supplies of any kind 
could not be expected from the State; nor could we expect it fh>m our 
neighbours, the Marylanders, who would generally rejoice at our dis> 
trees, and many of them rather plunder than assist us — with the 
Bnemy's barges continually hovering around our Sea and Bay coastSi 
threatening to 'bum and plunder all who should oppose their wicked 
designs. The disaffected daily increasing by their clandestine trade 
with the british at Portsmouth, their threats thrown out against aU 
who shall £bu1 to apply for protection and accept the profored meroy, in 
the british Proclamations, which have been very industriously and art- 
fully circulated.and enforced; and I may add the exhausted state of our 
Magawnes. For these reasons, I forced moderation on the fHends of the 
State, tho' much against the inclination of many of them, least the con* 
trary should be productive of tho general ruin of both without gaining 
the least advantage to our independence — 

Several inhabitants of this County, living near the water have been 
lately plundered even to the cloths on their backs, and their houses 
burnt to ashes; this has occasioned an address from the principle inhab* 
itants of this Shore, to the commanding officer of the Continental forces, 
desiring his influence to prevent a mode of war so cruel and inhuman, 
as we are taught to believe that these barge gentry who are the authors 
of this mischeif have no such commission, being confined to high water 
mark; we think by a representation of facts (established by affidavits) 
through a pn^r Chanel to the british Commanding officer, to whom 
they are amenable, might prevent in Aiture, such acts of cruelty — ^The 
Field Officers <^ this Shore have also requested, if it can be consistent 
with the good of the State, to order the men raised by their Counties, 
under a prc^>er Officer ^ be stationed for their defence; This guard tho' 
small aided by V<riunteers, and a barge of fifty feet long, mountg. one 
six, and two four-pound cannon, with swivels & muskets and fifty men, 
which I hope will be eompieat in fifteen days, will be sufficient to pro- 
tect us against the insults wo are daily experiencing, should we get 
assistance from no other quarter. 

Since the Enemy came last to this Bay, have been obliged to station 
guards on the inlets on the bay coast, and am under the necessity of 
aakiiig £^r the public money and stores in the County, for their support, 
as public credit with us is certainly dead, and our paper currency almost 
m the same condition — ^The Military Storee of the Accomack and IXiti- 
genee Galliee are not sold, it being the opinion of the Gent: Commia- 
sionerB and myself, that they would be more nseftil to the State than 
produce in money if sold — Some of these, I must b^ the liberty 


1781. of eqiziping the barge with — ^I have also taken the liberty of lending to 
M*7 SUt the State of Maryland, one <^ the large gona, belonging to the Acco- 
mack, and the two nine ponnders firom the fort on WoUop's Island^ to 
arm a barge bnildiog at Snow-Hill ; which m 66 feet streight — this and 
(mrn are to cmize in consort for the protection of the eastern Shore of 
Maryland and Virga. — Tho' I hope the liberty I have, and must take, 
with the public money and stores will be folly authorized by necosraty. 

The Crentlemen who have generally undertaken the Barge, desire, if 
it is not inconsistent, that the necessary Commissions and Bonds blank, 
for the Capt: and two Lieutenants may be inclosed to me, or the Com- 
manding Officer of the County, with directions for the due execution 
thereof, with what fees, if any, should be taken, as soon as possible — 

Tou will please observe, firom the Clerk's Certificate inclosed, that sev- 
eral vacancies have happened in the militia, and that Commisnions are 
desired for those recommended; the appointment of Col: Cropper as 
County Lieut:, meets not only mme, but the entire approbation of every 
field officer of the County; as he is warmly attached to his Country, 
and had the experience of two years services and upwards in the Con- 
tinental Army — 

Perhaps your Excellency will wonder why I have not inclosed my 
Commission as County Lieut:, having resigned; you will please be 
informed, that on the death of Col : J. Simpson, which happened in the 
beginning of the year 1777, the Court was pleased to recommend me, but 
as I was of a weak constitution, and by no means capable of filling so 
important a Commission, I would not suffer my recommendation to be 
sent over, but was determined to serve the County to the best of my 
ability, untill some person, more equal to the task should be proposed 
by the Court; this I flatterered myself would happen soon, but to my 
great disappointment, did not take place untill Mar: last, so have not, nor 
never had any Commission as County Lieut:, but acted under the Court's 
recommendation, and the Commission I then had, as Colonel to the first 
Battalion — We have had several late arrivals on our Shore fi-om the 
West Indies, but no news by them — ^Pardon me for having called your 
attention so long firom matters of greater importance — 

I am Tour most obedt. humbL Servt." 

Ks7 81ft Col: Gsobgx Slauohtxb, Comdo. at Falls of Ohio, to Gov: Jkffxbson. 

Louitville, Having never received any kind of Clothing or pay, requests that the 
^7' bearer Mr. Chapman Austin may draw, his own, and that also of Capt: 
Benjamin Boberts and Ensign Wm. Boberts. 


SuRGSON Math: Pops to Grov: Jxffsbson, at Charlottesyille. 1781. 

"Hon'ble Sir, 

Doctor Wilson, who has the Suporin tendance of the Con- May Slsi 
tincntal medical department in this State, informs me that the medicines, Henrico Ck>. 
that were coming on from Rhode Island, (and belonging to this State) 
have been taken for the use of the Continental Army, owing, he tells 
me, to their being no directions on them : this Sir, is a double misfortune 
at this juncture, for the State is almost without every useful medicine, 
and what is to be done I know not, if some method is not fallen u])on to 
recover them, or others in lieu of them — Such treatment as this surely 
deserves the highest censure, and I shuld think corporal punishment on 
the offenders." ♦ ♦ * » ♦ 

* * * "Having been lately much with 

the Army, 1 have seen how they suffer, and what difficulties they labour 
under for almost every thing they want, and what great discontent pre- 
vails amongst all ranks of People, and I must say, I think with great 
cause; and unless some mode is fallen upon to satisfie the people and 
supply the Army better, 1 see little prospect of our supporting it long. 
The remedy is easy and very expeditiously to be accomplished; and in 
a manner whereby impressing necessarys &c which so exasperated the 
people at lai^, may be avoided, and I hope. Sir, you have influence 
enough to effect so desirable an end. If the Assembly will allow such 
a price, as one neighbour gives to another, or the market price for every 
necessary the Army stands in need of, or if they will allow the person 
authorized to provide the necessarys for the Army, to give certificates 
to be paid in kind, or as much money as will replace the commodity 
when paid, I am fully convinced the Army would be well supplied, and 
a number of waggons might be dispensed with — the people would bring 
in the different articles the Army stand in need of, and both Army and peo- 
ple contented and happy — I would have the same mode adopted, with 
respect to Waggons, Carts or Horses — ^You will pardon the liberty I 
have taken ; leaving you Sir, to improve on the hint, and earnestly to 
recommend it to the Assembly to be instantly adopted : I do not think 
there is any time to lose. 

I am Bony to inform your Excellency, I have never yet received the 
necessarys I wrote for by Colo. Scnf — Col : Davies nor Quarter Master 
was to be found — I have since inclosed the memorandum by Major Clai- 
borne to Colo. Davies — I must beg the favour of you Sir, to write to 
Col: Davies, desiring the Articles may be sent on to the General Hos- 
pital, which at this moment is at Allen's Creek Church in Hanover, 
where it may be tomorrow I know not, as we keep moving with the 
Army, transporting all our Medicines and Stores with the Hospital, 
fearing that list may miscarry 1 have inclosed another, and must beg 
your fizeellency will order Colo. Davies to procure such articles as b» 



1781. has not, especially Oznaburgs for Bedding, for should we have an action, 
Hay Slst we have no Bods to lay our wounded men on.'' * * 

I beg my most respect^ compliments to your Lady and am, with the 
highest Esteem and Begard, 

Your Excellency's most obnt and BespectAU Servt." 

May— "Bbtubn" of the Militia of Spotsylvania County — ^Made by Bev: 

Y. Winslow, County Lieutenant. 

1. County Lieut: 1. Colo. — 1. Lt: Colo., 1. Maj. — 12 Capts: — 11 Lieuts: 
6 2nd Lieuts: 12 Ensigns — & 48 Sergeants — ^Privates above 18 yrs: old 
462— Privates under 18 yrs: old 56— Total 611. 

May— Doct: Wbking Cole to Col: Wm. Davies — at the "Fork." 

"Dear Sir, 

You seemed not to be determined with respect to inoculating 
the new recruits — I beg pardon for having mentioned it in the public 
manner I did — it was owing to ray being off my guard — ^if you shou'd 
think proper that they shou'd receive the infection, I will most chear- 
fuUy give it, & pay every attention that a man can possibly do— My 
acquaintance with Colo. Davies, I hope will be a full< testimony of my 
abilities, whether I am Capable of undertaking the charge or not." * 

* * itc * * 

I have the honor to be Dr. Sir, 

Your very hble Servant." 

May -> Thomas Watts, one of the Justices of the Peace for this County, hav- 
Bedford Go. ing been charged with High Treason, and ordered for further trial, by 
Court i]^Q Court, it is recommended, that the Governor issue a new Commis- 
sion for the County, and the said Watts be left out. 
Signed by Jas: Steptoe, Clerk. 

June Ist Bail Bond of John Ellyson, in the penalty of Twenty Thousand 
weight of Merchantable Tobacco" — to appear before the Governor and 
Council when called for; and obliging him "not to go within Ten miles 
of any post, encampment or party, of the Enemy." Signed, Sealed and 
delivered in presence of Foster Webb and John Bryan. 


Col: Pra: Taylor to Gov: Jsffsbaon. 1781. 

June Ist 
Reminding him of his letters of the 16th and 26th May, in which he Winchester 

stated that the Board of Officers had discharged nearly all the men of 

the State Guard Regiment — Only one Corporal and four privates remain. 

The Officers still there, at expence to the State and themselves. Begs for 

instructions as to how the latter shall be disposed of. 

Ro: WooDiNO Co. Likut: to thb Governor. Jane ut 

Giving strength of the Militia of his County, as follows — "20 Cap- Halifax Co. 
tains, 40 Lieuts: 20 Ensigns, and 1004 Rank and Pile— Eighty-eight of 
which are under 18 years of age— of the remaining part about 350 at 
this time in Actual Service in this State & Carolinia" — ^Expresses great 
regret and concern that the men of his County who " would be glad to 
une their arms upon every proper occasion against the Common Enemy," 
have neither guns, ammunition ; or even " a flint to put into a gun " — 
Begs to be furnished with a supply of arms and ammunition — ^The Court 
Martial has found only forty men Delinquent, and are on this account 
drafted to serve" six months in this State. They shall be sent down at 

Col: Fra: Taylor to Col: Daviis at Charlottesville. Jane Ist 

Accounting for the arms of the discharged Soldiers of the S. Guard — WincheBtor 
He, upon the application of the County Lieutenant of Frederick, bad 
let him have one hundred and forty, for the use of the Militia going 
against the Tories in Hampshire County. 

Sajcl: HuHnHaTOH, Prist, of Cohorsss to Gov: JsmRSON. JaneSnd 

Referring to his letter of the day before, containing important Intel- Philadelphia 
ligence, which was necessary to be known to the Executives of the 
respective States; but was of such a nature that it should be kept pro- 
foundly secret — He therefore requests that effectual means be taken by 
his Excellency to prevent copies, or extracts of his letter of the 1st Inst: 
from being taken or published. 

JOHH CaBRIM to THS GoYRRHOR* Jll]ie2lld 

to be released from confinement where, altho* a prisoner of Charlottaa- 
war, be is kept in Irons, and among mnrderers and other felons — ^has ^^ 


1781. married in Richmond; never taken part in the war on either side, and 
June 2nd was arrested by Col : Davies merely on suspicion ; never has had a trial 
or any investigation of his case, altho' three years have passed since he 
was first made a prisoner. 

June 2nd CoL: Davies TO CoLO. Jos: Holmes. 

War Office, Desiring to be informed as to the nature of his Appointment, and 
Oha^lott«^-^^ powers as Commissary of Prisoners; in as much as an Exchange is to 
take place 1st July, on James River. 


Yohogano Informing him, that the provisions required for the Western Bxpedi- 
^' tion are all ready, and will be at Fort Pitt; with boats ready to trans- 
port them by the 15th Inst : — But the cost has far exceeded his expecta- 
tions, and having found it necessary to pledge his private credit to com- 
plete the purchases, begs for an additional sum of £400.000 Pounds to 
meet his obligations. 

JuneSd Theod. Bland TO Gov: Jefferson. 

Philadelphia The letter from the delegation to yr: Excellency, will apprize you of 
the situation of Public AfiPairs at this time, and of our endeavours to 
promote every thing that can give energy to the exertions of the Army 
in defense of our distressed Country. I sh'd not therefore have troubled 
yr. Excellency with the perusal of this, which relates to myself did not 
my owii peculiar situation render it necessary & had I not reason to con- 
jecture from the several late ineffectual applications, I have been driven 
through dire necessity to make, that my letters may have miscarried — 
I can hardly suppose them to have passed unnoticed. The long 
expected, and long wished for, remittance which was to have come 
through the hands of Mr. Braxton, has afforded us no relief, & has evap- 
orated into Smoke. My Finances are, as well as my credit, entirely 
exhausted; my Private resources in Virginia cut off by the Enemy, and 
I am at this moment without the means of buying a dinner, or of pro- 
curing money, even to purchase a bait of oats for my horses — ^I have 
even offered my Horses for sale (but cannot meet with a Purchaser) in 
order to procure a present subsistence for my family — The money I have 
borrowed, with the most Solemn Assurances to repay, and which I am 
disappointed in doing, is this day exhausted to the last shilling, the 
anxiety I fi^el in this situation (new to me) is insupportable, espeotaily 
aa it inpapacit^^ me in somfi degree, firaim taming my thoughts^ with 


that ^[>piicatioQ I w'd wish to do, to those important concorns, whfch I 1781. 
would wish to engross my whole attention — ^the subject is such an one, Jane 8d 
as I cannot, but with the utmost sense of pain commit to Paper — ^and 
with feelings which I cannot so well describe as yr: Excellency may con- 
ceive, I must therefore cease to prosecute it further by assuring you, I 

Yr: Excellency's obedt. Servt." 


G. Hasoh to Gsobqb Mason Junb., Esqr., (in France.)* June 8d 

"Dear George, 

Your Brother William writes you by this opportunity. GunstonHall 
He returned some time ago, from South Carolina, where he commanded 
a Company of Volunteers (75 five young fellows fVom this Country). 
He had a rough Campaign of it, and has acquired the Reputation of a 
vigilant & good officer, and I think is greatly improved by the Expedi- 
tion — Your Brother Thomas has lately returned fVom a Tour of Militia 
Duty upon James River. He commanded a Platoon, in a pretty close 
action at Williamsburg & behaved with proper coolness & Intrepidity : 
He is now from, home, or wou'd have wrote to you. I have written you 
very fully lately upon domestic subjects ; but I am not able to give you 
any agreeable public news. Our affairs have been for some time grow- 
ing from bad to worse. The Enemy's Fleet commands our Rivers, & 
puts it in their power to remove their Troops from place to place, when, 
and where they please, without opposition; So that we no sooner collect 
a Force sufficient to counteract them in one part of the Country, but 
they shift to another, ravaging, plundering and destroying everything 
before them. Our militia turn out with great spirit, & have in several 
late actions behaved bravely; but they are badly armed and appointed. 
General Green, with about 1200 regular Troops & some militia, is in 
South Carolina; where he has taken all the Enemy's Posts, except 
Charlestown. The Enemy's capital object, at this time, seems to be Vir- 
ginia. General Phillips died lately in Petersburg: upon which the Com- 
mand of the British Troops there devolved upon Arnold. But Ld: Com- 
wallis quitting North Carolina, has since join'd Arnold, with about 1200 
Infantry & 300 cavalry & taken the chief command of their Army in 
Virginia, now consisting of about 5000 men : They have crossed James 
River, and by the latest accounts, were at Westover: their light horse 
having advanced as far as Hanover Court House. 

They have bum'd Page's Warehouses, where the greatest part of the 
York River Tobacco was collected ; they had before bum'd most of the 
Tobacco, upon James River, and have plunder'd ^reat part of the adja- 
cent country. The Marquis de la Fiyrette is abt. twenty miles below 

* The original of this paper in pott : of Y a. Hist : Society. 


1781. Froderiekt^burg, with about 1200 regoliirB et 3000 militia, waiting the 
June 3d arrival of General Waioe with abt. 1500 regular Troops of the Pensjl- 
vania Line. We have had various accounts of the sailing of a French 
Fleet) with a Body of Land-Forces, for America. Should they really 
arrive, it wou*d quickly change the Face of our affairs, A infuse fresh 
Spirits & Confidence; but it has been so long expected in vain, that lit- 
tle credit is now given to Beports concerning it. 

You know, from your own acquaintance in this Part of Virginia, that 
the Bulk of the People here are staunch Whigs, strongly attached to 
the American Cause and well affected to the French Alliance: yet they 
grow uneasy &. restless, and begin to think that our Allies are spinning 
out the War, in order to weaken America, as well as Great Britain, and 
thereby leave us at the End of it, as dependent as possible upon them- 

However unjust this opinion may be, it is natural enough, for the 
Planters & Farmers, burdened with heavy Taxes, & frequently dragM 
from their Familys upon Military Duty, on the continual alarms occa- 
sioned by the superiority of the British Fleet. They see their Property 
daily exposed to Destruction, they see with what Facility the British 
Troops are removed from one part of the Continent to another, and with 
what infinite charge & Fatigue, ours are, too late, obliged to. follow; and 
they see too very plainly, that a strong French Fleet would have pre- 
vented all this. 

If our Allies had a superior Fleet here, I shou'd have no Doubt of a 
favourable Issue to the War, but without it, I fear we are deceiving both 
them & ourselves, in expecting we shall be able to keep our People much 
longer firm, in so unequal an Opposition to Great Britain. 

France surely intends the separation of these States, for ever, from 
Great Britain — It is highly her Interest to accomplish this; but by 
drawing out the Thread too fine & long, it may unexpectedly break in 
her Hands. 

God bless you, my dear child I and grant that we may again meet in 
your native country, as Freemen; otherwise, that we may never see 
each other more, is the Prayer of, 

Your Affectionate Father." 

&c &c. 

Endorsed in G, Mason's* Autograph: 

*<Copy of my Father's Letter, date Gunston Hall, June 3d 1781. The 
original, Dr. Franklin put into the hands of the Count de Yergennes.'* 

* O. Mftfton Jur : commanded a company in the regular Army, but from seriouB 
rheumatiim, contracted or increased in the service, waa obliged to resign, and go to 
Europe fbr a change of climate. 



Grrin^ intfrnnatxaii* that intiBaeng!Qi» aiint by ' Uut^ Warriorcs' ^^^ ther^ 1#oih( l&IiUMi 
are three imndrqit Fniiiain^ <jii thtiir wny to afitttod :it tht) propotknl Ti*%?tit^. 
The nii?nnwi|jg!iir ha itrnt to thmn ittiiM«iii them hy ^tng: through t;ht» woiAii^ 
hmriii^ fbmid oat ha would be waj-laid in the roiid — When Xurpbv th^ 
M esBen^er kft» wven (anoiMy with women and childeen wt$r^ ou their 
waj: the othos wiU come bj land Sag:giMt» the policy <^ dt^Uhiuiug 
these imtil the TceatT^ :»hail tshall hare been periidcted; but cecomniLetiijbi 
a ConuBisaaKj be aent to provide lor their maLntenancv^ aii be hiit^ OBoither 
eoniy meal or flaonej. He haif sent to Col: SeTier, by £xpjrvi»0> (o attentd, 
and Col: Bkdaoe now with hinu earntftftly r«qne«t» that he. Oj^utpbeUif 
will make it CoHveaieat to be at the CoaJJereaee. The aiarta {»(Ntve^ by 
Crawford is withoot iMudatioa; bat hac» had the el&vt olf drawia^ to 
the frootier a rmiiiiltfmbfai force. 

CoL: Aaraira CAXtBMLL to €k>v: Jsmi£W>». Ju»#<lih 


This day your Onkrs of the SSlh oi M^ eame to haad^ and 1 aia vr«»hiii^|g« 

▼eiy Bony our sitnatioB at present is such that 1 kaYO but a »maU proi^ ^"^ 

peel €i fowarding the aid required — The murmuring and du»ln^«»l»tH» uix^a- 

sioned by the miscottdoet d Commissaries^ and the want ot' \Miky tW 

Militia Serriees performed last year; together with the dread a man 

commonly has to leare his Family exposed to the danger of being 

destroyed by the Indians before his return, are objections not easily 

answered — If the militia were paid off, I believe I should suiH^eed well 

in complying with your Excollency*s orders of the I'^h (4' April last; 

and to this I have hopes to add one Troop of llorse. 

Our firontier is now threatened with an Invasion iVom ike (^^eok 

Indians, Cherokees, Tories, & Co. By a Letter flrom Colo, Sevier to Oolu. 

Isaac Shelby which he favored me with the perusal, a certain OrawUirit 

just made his escape fVom the Cherokees, says, that the British Agent, uome 

Tories, and a large Body of Indians were preparing to come in, in order 

to give a blow to confound the project of a Treaty. The aouount ia mo 

fiur believed in Carolinia, that part of their militia are embodied. To 

me, it is doubtAil, on account of the want of proviHionii; and information 

I have from Georgia, that Governor GalviH (Galves) hss HUDOuuduil 

against Pensacola, treated with the Creek Indians in behslf of Aniuritts, 

as well as the Spainards, and that General PiekonH at Ninety Six, and 

Colo. Clarke at Augusta were in a fair way to reiluco those poHts. (itin- 

eral Greene's Head Quarters at Orangeburg — Sumpter at Uonks' C'ornur, 

and Marian carrying off a picquet from the Quarter-House. 

I am Sir, 

Tour most obedient 

Humble Servant." 

''P. 8. We are in want of ammunition/' 


1781. Jambs Callaway, Co. Lieut: to Gov: Jefferson. 

June 4th ** Sir, 
Bedford Co. It has not boon in my Power to march from this County, more 

than two Companies of Militia, in consequence of your Instructions of 
the 8th of May last — Notwithstanding, as many men have been called 
upon, as it was thought arms could be Procured for — the men that have 
marched are part of those who have just finished a Tour of three months 
at Portsmouth ; in whose absence, the whole Balance of our militia (that 
could be commanded) servd. & are serving Towers to the Southward; 
so that it Properly became their Turns to serve again on the Present 
call.'' Under these circumstances he has promised to relieve them in 
six weeks, and hopes his conduct will be approved — These men are very 
poor, and their families depend upon their labor for subsistence. 

He has not been able to get into the Field any of the militia con- 
demned to six months service by a Court Martial — ^Those caught, have 
broke jail or escaped from their guard — They will not serve except by 
compulsion : and are very troublesotne in as much as " thode Disaffected 
& Disobedient Wretches, reside much together," harbor deserters and 
secret them. Nearly forty of the eighteen months men have lately 
deserted and are protected by them. Suggests the policy of granting to 
every man, who will arrest one of those outlaws and deliver him up at 
the general Rendezvous credit for his term of military service, in lieu 
of bounty money. Thinks this will soon cleat* the County of them. 

June 6th Saml: Huntinqton, Pbest: of Congress to (jOV: Jefferson. 

Philadelphia Enclosing resolution of Congress of the 2nd Inst :, directing that all 
Bills issued in the respective States, in Pursuance of the Resolution of 
18th of March 1780, after the expiration of one year from the time the 
Interest begins to be computed, be stamped with the words or characters 
"Int pd. one (or 1.) year" — That such of the said Bills as have already 
been issued, whenever the Interest is paid, be stamped in like manner, 
'Ho prevent the necessity & expence of exchanging them" — Also that 
the several States, suspend, as far as possible the Issuing of such Part 
of their respective quotas of such Bills as remain to be issued. 

June 6th Wm. FLEMING, Lieut: Governor, to Col: Jab: Wood. 

Staunton Enclosing resolutions of Congress of May 23d 1781, and instructions 
from the U. S. Board of War, requiring the removal of the "Convention 
Troops" to Rutland in Mass: Bay — the Commissioned Officers to East 
Windsor in Connecticut — requesting also, Virginia to furnish forty or 
fifty head of cattle, and a guard of militia as far as York, in Pensyb 


Considering the difficulty of inducing the militia to go, at this juncture, 1781. 
so far out of the State, and not being informed what Counties had been June Gth 
called on to furnish the Marquis de la Fayette with Troops, Col : Wood 
is requested to apply to the County Lieutenants along the line of march, 
to furnish this guard as far as York, if not, at least to Frederick Town 
in Maryland — He is authorized to call on any of the State Commissa- 
ries for the beeves, which, unless otherwise provided, are to be impressed. 
The Prisoners now at Winchester, who were taken in the Southern 
Department, are also to be removed to Frederick, Maryland. 

Edwin Conway Co. Lieut: to the Governor. June 6th 

Enclosing "Return" of the militia as ordered viz: "258, above 18 years Lancaster Co 
of age, & under fifty" years of age — and "24 under the age of eighteen 
years" — adds "The depredations of the Enemy is very Rapid" — the 
militia almost without ammunition, and the greater part called out to 
guard the numerous posts. 

Statement of Charges made against "Fauntleroy Dye," formerly June 7th 
Inspector of Tobacco in Richmond County, and Capt: of Militia, certi- 
fied to, as being true, by Richard Henry Lee Esqr. and Richd: 
Parker Esqr. — to wit. 

That In the year 1779, he commenced a merchant, and going with a WeBtmorerd 
Load of Tobacco towards Baltimore he fell into the hands of the Enemy, 
but soon after, was dismissed and he returned to his family with a con- 
siderable quantity of specie — This circun\stance created a suspicion 
amongst his neighbours of his having concocted a trading scheme with 
the Enemy, it being a known fact, that before this Trip he had not one 
farthing of specie in the world. He not long afterwards was taken up 
and examined in Coiul for forging Inspector's notes, and altho' the 
Proof was not sufficient for his conviction, there was not a man, who 
heard his examination, but was fully convinced of his guilt: The asso- 
ciate with T>yey who sold the forged notes, now declares that Dye and 
he, if their scheme of selling them had succeeded, were to have purchased 
a vessel, loaded her with Tobacco taken out of the Warehouse where 
Dye was Inspector & also with Negroes, and to have gone over to the 
Enemy : this it is asserted, the man will now swear. 

After the Forging was detected, Dye went out of this State to North 
Carolina, with his slaves and Stocks, where he staid but a short time; 
for being detected, as it is said, in corresponding with the Enemy, ho / 

was obliged to fiy from thence to the County of Richmond, where he 
had formerly lived. Here he lives retired, refusing to do Militia Duty 
is ebftrged with using every means in his Power to prevent others firom sub, 



June 7th 


mitting to the Laws, & with having private meetings at his house, of th9 
Disaffected, some of whom declare, they will, if draughted, gp over to 
the Enemy: These meetings are conducted with so much privacy, that 
it is difficult to procure full proof against him. But it is agreed on all 
hands, that he is a very Dangerous, artful man, and will do great Dam- 
age, if the Enemy come into this Part of the country. It is moRt earn- 
estly requested by all good People of Bichmond & Westmoreland, that 
his Excellency will exercise the Powers he is vested with to secure this 
man whilst the Enemy is in the State.'' 



Stephen Southall to Col: Davies, at Point of Fork. 

Expresses his intense concern, at hearing the Enemy are at Charlottes- 
ville, and that of consequence his papers must be all lost; but was 
delighted to hear Col: Davies had safely brought off these, and especially 
his Iron Chest containing the most importiant and valuable of his books 
&c — He is especially thankful for " this great delivery " Knowing well 
"the prejudices against Quarter Masters" — and that the late charge of 
their losing the Arms Ordered for members of the Assembly would 
"have been fixed"; adding "After they were arrived behold there was 
not a single man that would handle one of them, they lost them, and 
some of the members thinks right that the Quarter Masters are blama- 
ble." He is tired of acting as Q. Master, being censured; let him act, 
never so cautiously — Some "meddlesome fellow " is always starting false 

June 8th CoL: Jamss Wood to the Govebnob ob any Membeb of the Council. 


Enclosing copies of Besolutions of Congress, and Letter from the 
Board of War, relative to the removal of the "Convention Troops" &c. 
By advice of the Marquis la Fayette the German Troops have been 
removed to Shepherd's Town on the Potomack, there to remain until 
he can procure guard, waggons, provisions Ac. The Board of War 
have authorised him to call for a guard of six hundred men, but he 
thinks two hundred and fifly from this State will suffice — He therefore 
requests, that number of the Militia of Frederick, Berkely, Hampshire 
or Shenandoah be ordered on this duty — and asks for warrants for 
impressing wagons, and at least fifly beeves ; without which it will be 
useless to move — ^He is just from Maryland, where he " could not upon 
any Terms procure a single beef," and he is informed none are to be 
had in Pensylvania. Should he be armed with those powers, he will 
"make the Burthen fall on the Disaffected" — Asks to be furnished with 
about three hundred Dollars of the "New Emission," which will be of 
the utmost consequence to him, "on this long and disagreeable march." 



Wm. Flkmino, Liiut: (toysbnor, to Col: Jas: Wood, in reply to 1781. 

^•>^^^- June 9th 

After referring to the Resolves of Congress and Letter of Board of Staunton 
War; gives aathority to call out the Militia, impress beeves and wagons, 
and encloses Orders to the County Lieutenants of Rockingham, and 
other Counties along the proposed line of march to furnish proper 
guards at the Passes in the Mountains — ^vi£ ''Fifty men at Swift Run 
Gap," and ''Thirty at Wood's Gap," — Some of these to be mounted, so 
as to discover in time the approach of the enemy. 

Stcphxn Southall to Col: Da vies. Somewhere on James River. June 9th 

"Dear Sir, 

I wrote you three days ago respecting my Iron Chest, in Staunton 
whieh is deposited my most valuable papers, that wou'd utterly involve 
me in ruin were they to be lost. I must therefore beg the favour of 
yon to take care of this Chest, as I am vastly uneasy for fear of its fall- 
ing into the enemies hands; the conclusion of the people then would be, 
I lost them for fear of Settlement, and as I trust my conduct, never as 
yet has given cause of suspicion, and I wou'd not for the Universe be 
de&med. My character is too near to me. I must entreat you to be so 
obliging as to bring this Iron Chest with you. it was very unfortunate 
that I was obliged to come up in pursuit of Store houses, otherwise I 
wou'd have secured my books and papers, and if lost will be a ruinous 
Stroke to me — Oh ! the severity of a reflection being cast on me, for the 
loss of these books wou'd be so galding I should not long exist — Many 
of Capt: Young's papers are deposited there. I have sent down to Char- 
lottesville for a Bed for you, and you will be accommodated with Capt: 
Young & myself; both or either will make your situation as agreeable 
as possible. 

I have got about Two hundred and Eighty barrels of powder well 
stored, some dry-goods, together with some Bridles & Saddles; all the 
Stores we have here, except some few old Guns — Pray write me the first 
Oppy. about my chest, as you cannot concieve my anxiety. 

I am, very respectfully 
Dr. Colo. 

Yr: very hble Servnt." 

Chas: Russkll, D. Q. Mabtbr to Col: Daviks. 

June 9th 

Having received no Orders from Baron Steuben or Maj: Claiborne, in Maj. Penn^B, 
regard to the Stores at "Albemarie glebe, and Irvings," he has thought -^™^®"* ^- 


1781. it best to remove them to this place, as there were no troops to prevent 

Juno 9th the enemy from moving up and destroying them. He has written to the 

Baron, but has no reply — The Express is ordered to Prince Edward Co. 

House, where ho hears the Baron is, and supposes Col : Davies may be 

with him. 

June 9th James Madison Jur: to Govr. Jefferson. 


Philadelphia. The inclosed extract of a letter from Genl: Washington, No 1, will 

give your Excellency a more particular account of the late embarkation 
from N. York, than has been before obtained. 

On Thursday last Congress were informed by General Potter & Col: 
Johnston who came Expresses for the purpose, that a general mutiny 
of the Pennsylvania Line stationed near Morris Town, apart from the 
rest of the Army, had broken out on the morning of New Year's day. 
Every effort was made by the Officers to stifle it on its first appearance, 
but without effect. Several of them fell victims to the mutineers. The 
next information came from Genl : Wayne who wrote from Princeton, 
whither the troops had marched in regular order on their way to Phil- 
ada., as they gave out not to lay down their arms nor return to their 
obedience *till their grievances should be redressed. They did not suffer 
any of their officers to remain with them except Genl : Wayne, and Cols : 
Stewart & Butler, and these they kept under a close guard, but in every 
other respect, treated with the utmost decorum- The greivancea com- 
plained of were principally a detention of. many in service, beyond the 
term of enlistment, & the sufferings of all from a deficient supply of 
cloathing & subsistance, & long arrearage of pay. Several propositions 
& replies on the subject of redress passed between a deputation of Ser- 
geants on the part of the Troops & General Wayne, but without any 
certain tendency to a favorable issue. The affair at length took a very 
serious aspect, and as a great proportion of that line are foreigners and 
not a few deserters from the British Army, and as they showed a dispo- 
sition to continue at Prineton, from whence a refuge with the Enemy, 
who it was said were coming out in force to avail themselves of the sit- 
uation of things, was very practicable, it was thought necessary to 
depute a Committee of Congress with flowers to employ every expedient 
for putting a speedy end to it. The President of the State with a num- 
ber of Gentlemen from this place also, went up to interpose their influ- 
ence. The inclosed Copy of a Letter from the Committee No 2, with 
the paper No 3, referred to inMt, are the last accounts received of the 
matter. The manner in which the offers & emissary of Clinton were 
received & treated, is a very auspicious circumstance, & will probably in 
its impression on the Enemy fully balance the joy & encouragement 
which this event tended to give them. 

Coi: Bland being one of the Committee does not join me in this. 
I have the honor to be, with great respect & Esteem 

Yr: ExceUy's obt. Servt. 



^^ Extract of a Letter from GerU: Washington, 1781. 

N. Windsor, 2nd Jany., 1781. 

"I have at length, through a channel on which I can depend, gained 
an account, as accurate as circumstances will admit, of the embarkation 
which saiPd from N. York on the 20th ulto. It consisted of about 1600 
men, and was cheifly composed of detachments from the British, Ger- 
man & Provincial Corps. The Queen's Rangers is said to be the only 
entire corps Arnold commands, which, my informant says, gives disgust 
to many of the other Officers. The destination was not reduced to a 
certainty, but from the preparations & the Refugees who embarked in 
the fleet, it was generally thought to be to the Southward." 

No 2. 

Trenton, Jany. 7th 1781. lO-o-clock. 

"The Committee arrived here last night & met with Mr. President 

Reed, who had been near Princeton & sent a letter to Genl : Wayne by 

two of his Light Horse. They were suffered to proceed to the General 

with the letter unopened. He at the request of the sergeants showed it 

to them and it was to be read to the whole this morning. There were 

symptons that they would be content with the proposals and make the 

matter up. It appears from all accounts that they have behaved with 

surprising regularity in all respects (their revolt excepted) and seemed 

disappointed that Mr. Reed did not proceed & trust himself to them. He 

is this morning gone back, and we are happy to inform you that Dr. 

Sheilds is just come in and says that a person from Genl : Clinton with 

another for his guide, had come to their encampment and made them the 

proposals, of which the inclosed is a copy. They received it with so much 

indignation, that they not only rejected the proposals, but seized the two 

Agents & delivered them to Genl Wayne, who sent them under a guard 

& delivered them to Blair McClanahan & Alex : Nesbit, who have them 

now in custody. The Committee are immediately to write to Genl: 

Reed, and expect a speedy & happy Issue of this affair. 

Signed in behalf of the Committee 


"P. S. That you may not think the above is only reports — Genl: 
Reed saw & read the paper & sent it on to us, & kept the prisoners with 
himself — Dr. Sheilds saw them in custody.'* 

No 3. 

" It having been reported at N. York, that the Pennsylva. troops 
and others having been defrauded by Congress of their pay, cloathing 
& provisions, and assembled for a redress of their grievances, & also that 
notwithstanding the terms of their enlistments are expired, they have 

June 9th 


1781. been forcibly detained in the service where they have sofTered every 
Jane 9th kind of injury and oppression. They are now offered to be taken under 
the protection of the British Government, to have their rights restored, 
a free pardon for all former offences, and that pay due to them firom Con- 
gress, faithfully paid to them without any expectation of military ser- 
vice, except it may be voluntary, upon laying down their arms & return- 
ing to their allegiance, for which purposes, if they will send Commis- 
sioners to Amboy, they will there be met by people empowered to treat 
with them, and faith shall be pledged for their security. 

It is recommended to them, for their own safety, to move behind 
South River, and whenever they request it, a Body of British troops 
shall protect them. It is needless to point out the inability as well as 
want of inclination in Congress to releive them, or to tell them the sever- 
ities that will be used by the Rebel leaders toward them, should they 
think of returning to their former servitude. It will be proved to the 
Commissioners they choose to send, that the authority from whence this 
comes is sufficient to ensure the performance of the above proposals. 

To the Person appointed by the Pennsylvania Troops to lead them in 
the present struggle for their liberties and Rights." 

June 9th J. Parkeb, ACTING Colo. Comq., to thi Hon: Speaker of the 

"Dear Sir," 

Quarters A few days since, I wrote Mr. Jefferson, respecting my pecu- 

® *Mills ^^^^ situation, being in the Field with a few men from Isle of Wyght & 
Nancomond, and from a request of the Marquis de la Fayette, to embody 
as many of the Militia as I could, down James River below the Enemy: 
in consequence of which, in addition to the men before mentioned, have 
ordered from Southampton 200 & from Surry 100 men. the last County 
has sent nearly their number, but the former, contrary to their common 
custom has only f\imish'd a small proportion, as you will discover by a 
" return " of the force here collected. You will find but few from Nanoe- 
mond, and without rigid discipline and greater force, or martial law, I 
shall expect but few more, they being much overawed by the Enemy 
which is very strong at Portsmouth, — & its vicinity, as you will discover 
by the enclosed list which you may depend on as within a hundred of their 
force — As to the number with Lord Comwallis, presume the Mai^uiss 
can best inform you as to his strength & situation — In addition to those 
thai marched to Petersburg with Comwallis and Phillips, is the 43d 
Regt: and near half the 17th & 150 Jagers — ^these came with the last 
reinforcements from New York — I shou'd, in consequence of the Marquiss' 
request, have ordered men from the adjacent Counties of Surry & South- 
ampton, but feared the want of arms; but as they have not turned out, 


equal to my expectations, can arm near two hundred more. I also at 1781. 
the request of Genl: Lafayette, have collected about sixty of the best June 9th 
Horses below, fearing they sbou'd &11 into the Enemy's hands; but they 
are valued much over the lawfuil allowance, this I fear will bring me 
into difficulties as well as procuring supplies of every thing, in all the 
different departments from the inhabitants, without sufficient powers, or 
having any established Staff Officers — ^indeed I have employed Smiths to 
repair the Arms, to make horseman's swords; & mechanicks of different 
sorts, in the different branches without sufficient authority — which may 
probably ruin me without even the approbation of my Country, and for 
what? to expose my person, my property, my family and all — 'tis a hor- 
rid situation, and altho' I have wrote the Governor on the subject, he 
treats it with contempt, and does not deign to answer me — I fear, my 
dear Sir, the root of our Springs of Government is rotten, and I dread 
the consequence. Nothing but my zeal cou'd induce me to write thus 
fi-oeiy. I am foolishly fond of my Country, and cannot bear to see her 
neglected — be assured Sir, exertions must be made in this quarter, our 
very existence depends on it; from whence can we derive our supplies, 
if the navigation of the Southern Waters are stoped — if they stretch a 
a line from Cape Fear to Petersburg, they stop our commerce — the peo- 
ple will easily come into it from an advantage of the trade with them, 
they allready court it, and wish to familiarize themselves by these means. 
In order to strengthen us here I shou'd order men from Sussex & Greens- 
viUe bearing arms to equip near a fourth of their militia, but find it 
wou'd be useless, as Genl: Lawson has ordered Colo. Downman to order 
these, as well as the So. Hampton men now here to join under Col : Down- 
man, and form a Camp near Petersburg — you may best know for what — 
And I shall be glad to know what Counties are to march here, or 
whether a Camp is to be kept up at all ; and you will indemnify me for 
what supplies has been used, and empower me, or some other, to con- 
tinue these supplies, and send money to pay of those debts allready con- 
tracted — if this is not done, I shall quit the field — You will give me leave 
to tell you, that I have acted without Commission, during the different 
Invasions, at the request of the difft : Commanding Officers, without ever 
haveing the sanction of the Governor for doing so, and without ever 
charging the publick for my services, or those of my domesticks, & 
should ever continue happy in doing so, cou'd I see that they wou'd be 
serviceable. You will excuse my being so prolix, and allow me to tell 
you that some things point themselves to me, that deserves your con- 
sideration — Many people in the lower country go frequently to the 
enemy, and doubtless carry information — many go under the Auspices 
of Fiaggs of Ct. Lieuts, where no men are embodyed, attended with the 
same or worse consequences, the civil law is not sufficient in these 
relaxed times to punish sufficiently, our prisoners is an object of atten- 
tion; they might be releived by some of theirs in our possession, and I 



1781. am sorry to tell you that there is more danger to be dreaded of a reli- 
Juoe 9th gious nature than either of the others. A certain sett of Preachers, 
called Methodists are preaching the doctrine of passive obedience, and 
point out the horrors of war in so alarming a manner, that it has caused 
many to declare they wou'd suffer death rather than kill even an enemy — 
this is a new doctrine and inculcated by some sensible preachers from 
England, which I am told is payed by the Ministry through Wesley for this 
purpose — it must be discountenanced, or all torys will plead religion as 
excuse, and get license to preach, there are many men paroPd from 
request, in the lower Counties. I have hitherto thought it best to evade 
the Act of Assembly for sending them to the Enemy as many wou*d be 
usefiil to them. I think confinement to a County over the Mountains 
wou'd best suit them. You will honor me with your opinion upon the 
above subjects, and lot me know what I am to expect, as it may be a 
means of regulating my future conduct — This will be delivered you by 
Capt: Pierce — he can well inform you of our situation here. With 
much re8X)ect and very great regard, 

I have the honor to be, Dear Sir, 

Your most Obt Servant." 

Enclosed is the return of his command viz 

" Brigade of Militia Commanded by Colo, Josiah Parker dbc.'' 

Infantry— Field Officers 2, Capts: 9, Lieuts 13. Ensigns 6. — 386— 
Cavalry— Capts : 2, Lieuts: 2. Ensigns 1. Total Kank & File 46. 
Artillery Capts 1, " " " " 10 



Two pieces of Artillery — " 1 12-pdr. Cannonade, 1. 3-pdr. double for- 

June 9th Capt: H. Young TO CoL: Wm. Da VIES. 

" Dr. Sir, 

StauntoD The Iron chest that was put in your Waggon contains a num- 

ber of Papers of consequence : you will be pleased to take it with you 
to this place. We have reason to apprehend that the Enemy are within 
twelve miles of Charlottesville — I apprehended two days ago a Deserter 
on suspicion of his being a Spie : circumstances are strong against him, 
but no positive proof, he says that the Enemy will be hear in a day or 
two — some confidence is reposed in his assei*tion by many, for ray part 
I give no credit to any thing that he says. 

Two days ago Mr. Nicholas gave notice, that he should this day, move 
to have a Dictator appointed* — Gcnl: Washington & Genl: Greene are 

*Tbe enomies of Patrick Henry have asserted that his name was also mentioned 
in this connection, and that he did not manifest such disapprobation of the proposi- 
tion as became one so prominent in the cause of Republican Liberty — Had this been 
true, the fact would not have escaped the attention of as intelligent a correspondent 
as Oapt : Henry Young. 


talked of. I dare to say your knowledge of these worthy Gentlemen, 1781. 
will be sufficient to convince you, that neither of them will, or ought to June 9th 
accept of such an appointment — Genl : Wayn join'd the Marquis yester- 
day with a very respectable Corps — perhaps it might be the day before, 
Accts. differ. 

We have but a thin House of Delegates, but they are zealous I think, 
in the cause of virtue — I want to see you much. I think this Session of 
Assembly will be very short. 

I am yr. unshaken frd : '* 

Gso: RoGsas Clabkk to the Governor of Virginia. JunelOth 


Capt Bentley of the Illinois attends on me with a number of bills Yohogania 
on government for flimitures made to our troops in that country. Those 
that I have countersign'd, appear by the accts. annex'd and different 
letters from Gt^nls. to be sufficiently authenticated for payment. lie has 
other Bills drawn by Col. Montgomery that I cannot with propriety 
credit untill I am made sensible of the Justness of them by the Accts: 
of that Country : but they probably may be Just. Your Excellency will 
do as you please Respecting them. I am informed that Mr. Charles 
Gratiot hath also Bills on their way to you. Some of them I know 
must be Just, as that Gentle, as well as Capt: Bentley have taken great 
Pains to subsist our Troops in that Departmt., Particularly paying of 
the Expence of an Expedition up the Illinois River which . promised 
good Consequences." * * * * 

"Capt: Bently appears desirous to undertake the supplying Fort Jeffer- 
son with provisions for a garrison of 100 men. If it should be your 
pleasure to make such contract, I dont know any person more likely to 
accomplish such a task. He has a universal good character as a gentle- 
man & hath suffered much on acct. of the present contest. 
I have the Honor To be your very 

Humble & obedt Servt." 

Robert Morris to Grov: Jefferson. Junellth 


No doubt you have seen in the Publick Papers, the plan of Estab- Philadelphia 
lishing a National Bank, the necessity of which every body sees, that 
allow themselves the least time for reflection in the present state of Pub- 
lie Credit. All the Publick Bodies in America, have more or less lost 
the confidence of the world as to money matters, by applying Expedients 
to stop a course of depreciation which original errors had fixed too deep 
to admit of any radical cure. It is in vain to think of carrying on War 
any longer, by means of such depreciating medium, and at the same 



1781. time an Efficient circulation of Paper, that cannot depreciate, is abeo- 
June 11th lutoly necessary to Anticipate the Revenues of America — A National 
Bank is not only the most certain ; but will prove the most usefiill & 
Economical mode of doing so. It is therefore, of the utmost Import- 
ance, that this first Essay, confined as it is in point of Capital, should 
be brought into action with the greatest Expedition: 

I am sensible that Plans of Publick Utility, however Promising and 
pleasing they may be on their first Appearance, soon grow languid, 
unless it be the Particular Business of some man or set of men to urge 
them foward. This may be said to be my duty in the present instance; 
but as I cannot be every where, I must apply for support to Gentlemen 
of your character and zeal for the service of their Country, requesting 
in the most ernest manner, you will urge your Friends & Fellow Citizens 
to become Proprietors of this Bank Stock. Every Subscriber will find 
his own Interest benefitted, in proportion to the capital he deposites. 
And I dare say few will find the other parts of their Fortunes, to yield 
them so large or so certain an income as the Stock they have in the 
Bank. And at the same time, they will have the Satisfaction to be Con- 
sidered for Ever, as promotei's of an Institution, which has been found 
beneficial to other Countries, and inevitably must be so in the high- 
est degree to this. An institution that most probably will continue as 
long as the United States, and that will probably become as useful! to 
commerce & agriculture in the days of Peace, as it must be to Govern- 
ment during the War. 

The Capital proposed is but small, when the Extent & Riches of the 
United States are considered, but when put in Motion, the Benefits flow- 
ing from it will be so perceptible, that all difficulty about Encreasing the 
Capital will vanish. And we shall only have to Appeal to the interest of 
Mankind, which in most cases will do more than Patriotism — but there 
have been, and will continue to be instances where Interests have been 
sacrificed to Patriotism, and in that belief, I ask you to devote some of 
your time to Promote this infant Plan, which, as it gathers Strength, 
may in the end, prove the means of saving the Liberties, Lives and 
property of the Virtuous part of America. My good opinion of you is 
an excuse for giving you this interruption. 

I am Sir, 

Your most Obedt. Servt." 

June 11th Message prom the Senate, by Mr. Harrison, informing the H. of Del- 
gates that they had agreed to the Resolution of the 2nd June, viz — 

House of "Resolved that his Excellency the Governour be desired to call for the 

Delegates immediate Assistance of Brigadier General Morgan, to take the Com- 

mand of such Volunteers, Militia or others, as he may be able, Speedily 



to embody and march to join the Army undor the command of the 1781. 

Honble. Major General Marquia la Lafayette; that this Assembly have June 1 1th 

the utmost confidence in the active exertions of General Morgan in the Oen. Morgan 

present emergency; and that the Govemour do transmit to the said |^pyice*'&c 

General so many proper Commissions as may bo necessary for the Field 

Officers, Captains, Subalterns and others to be by him appointed: And 

the said resolution being read a second time, was, on the question put 

thereupon agreed to by the House — 

Ordered that Mr. Henry do carry the Resolution to the Senate and 

desire their concurrence." 


Resolution calling upon the Commcwial Agent to purchase, without June 11th 
delay, such arms, ammunition and Stores, as are needed, and pledging House of 
the resources of the State for the prompt payment for the same — Delegates 
Agreed to by the Senate — Juno 13th. 

Gilbert Pielee gives receipt to Col : John Crappee, for Three Thousand June 11th 
Pounds, paper money, on account, for materials purchased for the ^'Dili- 
gence " Galley, by said Crappee &c. 

B. Ed: Jocl, Majr. Lt: Intt. to Colo. Wm. Nslson. 

In obedience to your orders, I marched at 10, last Evening, with 
Major Redman, and a party of mounted Volluntrs. for Richmond County, 
to seise on the suspected persons and deserters. After taking one Tiffie, 
a most notorious promoter of sedition, I proceeded to the house of Faun- 
tleroy Die, who had last week, assem'blod a party of Torys, and entered 
into an engagement, sooner to die than perform their tour of duty : on 
surrounding the house, I found a party of men in the lofl, who on being 
sumoned to surrender, call'd out, "Come on, wo will have life for life by 
God — We have arms plenty '* — but on my giving orders for the house to 
be fired, if they did not submit, they calPd out for quarter & gave up — 
They were the Sons of old Die (who is gone off, suppos'd to the Enemy) 
and one Wilson, a deserter from the Eighteen months men — they had 
their Musketts loaded, & Bayonets fixt in Bed with them, inclosed is a 
return* of the rest we have apprehended & the causes for that step — 
These men have in open contempt to the laws of their Country, bid 
defiance to their County Lieut: & held constant meetings of the disaf- 
fected. Old Die is suppos'd by the neighbours to have gone to the 
Enemy, in order to bring up a vessel to plunder the County. 

I am your Obt." 

* Not found. 

June 12th 



1781. EoBolution passed, desiring the Executive to purchase for Gtsnl: 

Juno V2ih Edward Stephens, an elegant Gelding, to replace the one lost by him in 

House of the battle of Guilford Court house — Also "a set of furniture."* 

June 13th Gko: Rick TO Capt: Henry Young. 

Barracks, Upon hearing there were some public stores hid in the woods near 
Q^ Capt : Bennett Henderson^s, he at once procured a wagon and has recov- 

ered three loads, cheifly powder — This is much exposed, the casks being 
open — has stored it in the house in which he lives for security, but begs 
it be sent for, as he is afraid even "to have a candle in the room." 


June 13th MAJOR JoHN Pryor Com: Gknl. M. Stores, to Col: Daviks, at 


Charlottes- On account of the larire reinforcements of Riflemen which have, and 


are to join the Marquis, it will be necessary largely to increase the sup- 
ply of loose Ammunition — Asks, that he will at once send down one 
thousand weight of the best powder, and fifteen hundred of lead — The 
latter article exceedingly scarce — He has sent out "by Expresses to 
every probaMb House, within 40 miles extent along the S. W. Mountains, 
to collect what can be found in the windows^ and elsewhere." The 
powder was sent off by mistake of the Conductor of Mil : Stores — The 
want of Musket and Cannon ammunition will be much felt, by reason of 
the stoppage of the Laboratories — That at Bedford is "of the first 
importance, as the Operations of Genl : Greene, entirely depend upon its 
supplies.'' Since the arrest of Capt: Irish it had been discontinued, but 
he has sent Capt : Grear up to " undertake the business " there— He has 
written and complained itntil he is tired, of the importance of sending 
to the mines for lead — He now sends himself a person to bring a supply, 
Some for New London, Stanton, and for Winchester, where he proposes 
to establish a Magazine and Laboratory. 

He is informed, the powder at Seven Islands was destroyed by the 
enemy on Saturday last; but thinks some must have been saved, as he 
had sent down on Thursday twenty men of the Buckingham Militia 
under Officers to remove it — Concludes "The Enemy now lay at Elk 
Island — Some of their Lt. Troops about the Bird Ordy. — Our army lays 
at Mr. Allegries — I think we shall touch them up tomoiTow — ^pray dis- 
patch the powder & lead." 

* Out-fit for the horse, 
f Lead was used in fixing the panes of glass in the Sashes at this date & before the 
introduction of the use of Putty. 


Major J. Pbyor to Col; Davies. 1781. 

June 14th 
Since writing last night so urgently in regard to the want of powder Charlottes- 

and lead, ho has found a supply of the former, but the latter "amazingly 
wanted in camp"; and hopes not a moment of time will be lost in send- 
ing it— concludes — "It seems the Enemy are moving down — our army 
pretty strong, and after them in high spirits — pray God they may over- 
take them, I think a good acet. may be rendered of them. The Mar- 
quis is very desirous of ascertaining the losses that have been sustained" 
in the moving stores &c &c. 

RicHD. Easton to Brio: Genl: Morgan. Junel4ih 

He is frequently called upon to Aimish provisions and forage for the Winchester 
Post at this place, but the people not being willing to sell what they 
have at the low prices fixed by the last act of Assembly is at a loss what 
to do — The business cannot be carried on without money, of which he 
has never been furnished "with one shilling by the Publick" — He has 
been obliged to advance cash for driving cattle Ac — Mr. John Thomas, 
he hears has a large sum of the Public money in his hands — With this 
he can furnish all the supplies needed. 

Major LANOBORinB, Aid de Camp to Marquis db le Lafatette & June 14th 
Q. M. Genl &g. to Major Richd: Claiborne — (Extract.) 

"Unless Sir you furnish the Wagons &c that you promised, it will be 
impossible to move the Army. We now shall advance nearly the route 
the enemy has been — they have destroyed all our Stores, and broke up 
our magazines, and unless we can have Wagons sufficient to supply the 
Army, thirty or forty miles off, wo shall be destitute of every necessary. 
I request that you will not fail sending the Wagons without delay, other- 
wise the whole blame will fall on you, on you only I have the least 

" Whereas the irregular manner in which the Quarter Master's Depart- June 14th 
ment for the State of Virginia has hitherto been conducted, has been 
attended with many delays and inconveniences, both to the people and 
to the public service: and it being expedient that a new disposition 
should be made to remove these difficulties agreable to the late system 
for the Quarter Masters Department, established by Congress ; and the 
duties of the Officers to be employed, and their districts and posts be 
more clearly understood — it is therefore proposed — 



1781. That there be niue ABsiatant deputy Quarter Masters, who shall have 

Juoe 14th charge of the principle posts to be established in the State, as the gov- 
erning places to which the stores and supplies are to be drawn, and that 
a certain District be given to each — 

That as the great line of Communication from Philadelphia to the 
'Southern Army through this State, will be from Alexandria to some 
part of Staunton or Dan Rivers, there be one principle post at Alexan- 
dria, one at Fredericksburg, one at Carter*s Ferry on James River, and 
one at some convenient place on Dan or Staunton which will be gov- 
erned by the navigation up the river Dan. 

That as Richmond is the Seat of Government, and a place where the 
principal Factories for the Southern Department are established, it be a 
principle post. 

Williamsburg, being a place where the supplies from the lower Coun- 
ties should be collected, it is necessary to establish it as a principle post, 
for that purpose. 

That Charlottesville, be continued as a principle post for the accom- 
modation of the Convention Troops — 

Winchester, being a place where good Wagons and Horses, may be 
procured with great ease, that it be a principle post for that purpose, 
and to comprehend as much of that Country as supplies can be drawn 
from with convenience. 

That as Petersburg is allways a post of convenience, in case of inva- 
sions in the lower parts of the State, and a place to which the supplies 
from the Counties below the falls of Ronoke, and others convenient for 
the navigation of the Appomattox River should be collected, that it be 
held a principle post — 

That the District of Alexandria comprehend the Counties of — 
Prince William, 
Loudon — 

The District of Fredericksburg, the Counties of 
Northumberland Fauquier 

Lancaster Spotsylvania 

Richmond Caroline 

Westmoreland J^ing & Queen 

King George, Essex 

Stafford — Middlesex 

The District of Carter's Ferry, the Counties of 
Louisa Prince Edward — 




The District of the Rivers, Dan & Stanton, the Counties of 
Mecklinburg Hallifax 

Lunenbnrg Pittsylvania 

Charlotte Henry, 


The District of Richmond, the Counties of — 
Hanover New Kent, 

Henrico Charles City 

King William Chesterfield — 

The District of Williamsburg, the Counties of 
James City Norfolk 

Warwick Nansemond 

Elizabeth City Isle of Wyght 

York. . Northampton 

Gloucester Accomack. 

Princess Ann. 

The District of Charlottesville, the Counties of 
Culpeper Fluvannah 

Orange Amherst 

Albemarle Augusta. 

The District of Petersburg, the Counties of 
Surry Brunswick 

Prince George, Greonesville 

Dinwiddle Amelia — 


That there be so many depending posts within the different Districts, 
as shall be found necessary for the purpose of collecting supplies, and 
that the direction be given to a Store Keeper. 

That it is expected the supplies beyond the blue Ridge, to the South- 
ward of the Winchester District, are used for the support of the Troops 
in that Quarter, and are under the direction of proper persons, they are 
omitted in this arrangement — but should it be found necessary hereafler 
to comprehend them, they will be added to one or more of the districts 
already pointed out, or formed into other districts as may be convenient. 

That as the supplies within the districts are to come from the Coun- 
ties forming them in proper proportions. It is proposed that the Assist- 
ant Deputy Quarter Masters for the District shall be authorized by the 
Executive, to call on the Civil authority to furnish them from time to 
time, with the necessary means of transportation for the supplies com- 
ing from each respective County, so that each County will regularly do 
its own Separate duty — 

That the transportation from one post to another, shall be made by 
the public Wagons or Boats, as far as we shall have them to answer the 
purpose — and that where we shall want the aid of private property, the 

June 14th 


1781. Quarter Master from whoso district the stores are to go, in the first 
June 14th instance, shall have power to call on the civil authority within the dis- 
trict, for such aid ; and that the private Wagons or Boats so furnished, 
shall be discharged at the next post, from whence the stores are to be 
fowarded, by the same means from that district — timely information 
being given from post to post, by the Quarter Masters, of the coming of 
such a number of Boats or Wagons — 

This is a system proposed in consequence of our having experienced 
the good effects of Similar ones to the northward, both in public and 
private points of view. 


for the S. Army. 
Ist January 1781. 


D. Q. Mr. S. Virginia— 

His Excellency Governor Jefferaon & Council.* 

February 15th 1781. 

An Order from Colo. Carrington advising the appi*oach of the Army 
under the Command of Lord Cornwallace to Boyd's ferry and the neces- 
sity of sending all the heavy Baggage of General Greene's Army to 
Prince Edward Court house, rendered an alteration in the arrangement, 
indispensable. Capt: Charles Russell is therefore retired to Prince 
Edward Court house, and take charge of the Stores — To the post of 
Prince Edward Court house are given the Counties of Prince Edward, 
Charlotte, Lunenburg, Mecklinburg, Bedford — which are to be taken 
from the District of Carter's ferry and Boyd's ferry — 

March 11th 1781. 

The Enemy having retired from Dan river, Mr. Wm. McCraw is 
appointed to that Station, and to keep his principal post at Wimbishes 
Stores in Peytonsburg. 

April 2d 1781. 

The Prisoners having marched to Winchester from Charlottesville) 
that place is to be discontinued as a principal post: the Counties of Albe- 
marle, Orange, Fluvannah, Amherat & Augusta to be given to Carter's 
Ferry; and the County of Culpeper to Fredericksburg District — Capt: 
Rice to settle his accounts as soon as possible — 

*Thig Document is a Copy of tho original, not elsewhere found; together with the 
several alterations made at different dates, consequent upon a change in the events of 
the war. This *^ Plan," was suggested January 1st 1781 ^ and should have been placed 
at that date; but that connected with it are to be found entries of other consequetive 
dates, and occurrences, down to June 14th 1781: hence this is properly the date of 
the Copy. 


May 10th 1781. 1781. 

The honorable Major Genl : Baron Steuben, having directed that Char- June 14th 
lottesville be the place of General Rendezvous, for the equipment of the 
Troops now raising in this State for the Continental service, and as a 
large number of Wagons, horses & drivers, are to be procured for the 
Army under the Command of the Marquis de la Fayette, makes it neces- 
sary that it again be established a principal post; Capt: Rice is restored 
to the full possession of his former District, and to be stationed at that 
place as Assistant Deputy Qr. Master — 

Capt: Charles Russell being appointed to superintend the receiving & 
delivery of the stores, which are to be collected at Albemarle Old 
Court house, as a place of security from the incursions of the Enemy, 
the post of Prince Edward Courthouse, which was under his direction 
is discontinued, and the Counties comprehended with it, are annexed 
to their original districts of the Rivers Dan & Stanton & Carter's ferry 
on James River — 

The Enemy having taken possession of the post of Petersburg, and 
made prisoner Capt: Holmes, who was Assistant Deputy Quarter 
Master at that place, the District is discontinued, and the Counties are 
to be annexed to the adjoining districts, as may hereafter, be found con- 
venient. Mr. Daniel Teasdell, Clerk to Capt: Holmes, is to settle the 
accounts as soon as possible^ 

14th June 1781. 

The Enemy having got possession of the lower parts of the State and 
the public stores being directed to be sent beyond the Mountains, that 
Staunton in Augusta be a principal post for that purpose, and to influ- 
ence the Counties of Augusta, Rockingham, Rockbridge and Greenbrier, 
and the direction of it be given to Capt Thomas Hamilton. This altera- 
tion is agreeable to an order from Colo. Edward Carrington, Deputy 
Quarter Master General for the Southern Army, dated 23d May 1781. 

Final Action of the Genl: Assembly — on the motion made on the 12th June 16th 
June, 'Hhat the Executive be desired to present to Captain John Jouett House of 
an elegant sword, and pair of pistols, as a memorial of the high sense. Delegates 
which the General assembly entertain ; of his activity, and enterprize in 
watching the motions of the Enemy's Cavalry on their late incursion to 
Charlottesville, and conveying to the Assembly timely information of 
their approach, whereby the designs of the Enemy were frustrated, and 
many valuable stores preserved.'' 



1781. Major John Pkyor to Colo. Daviks, at Staunton. 

June 16th 
Charlottes- From the ^^ amazing scarcity of muskot cartridges in Camp" the Mar- 
^* ® quis has requested him to erect at this place a temporary Laboratory— 
To do this he detains ^' the moulds, paper, formers &o " also some strag- 
glers of the State Garrison Begt. lately employed at Hendersons, who 
will be put to work at once^Hopes to collect "a considerable quantity 
of lead fVom the windows'' — has about one hundred pounds which he 
got "at & near this'' — What is collected below he has ordered to Camp 
for the Riflemen — ^He has again sent to the mines for a supply, and has 
written to Colo. Calloway, who lives near them to give his aid and to 
urge "all good citizens & friends to America" to render assistance "in 
transporting this important article" — ^He hears "our Army has moved 
down, low as the Bird Ordnry." but does not know where the Enemy are. 

June 16th Brio: Genl: Danl: Morgan, to i*he Hon: Speaker of the H. of 


Winchester I wrote you the other day that I gladly accepted the power the 

Honbe. the Assembly was pleased to invest me with, and at that time 
had no doubt it would be in my power to raise the volunteers requested : 
Some local circumstances have since happened, which have altered the 
face of affairs; this particular time of Harvest has operated much upon 
the people, otherwise not unwilling, and the inadequacy of the law to 
equip and provide for the Army, I am raising, made it necessary for me 
to call on the best aid I could possibly get — So circumstanced, I wrote 
to the Grentlemen* who I esteem of most influence, who were good 
enough to meet to-day, and I have the honour to enclose their delibera- 
tions : if the Assembly thmk proper to do anything eflectual, I can only 

* The Gentlemen referred to were Maj : Genl Horatio Gates, Danl : Morgan — Col : 
Wm. Darke, Major Nelson, John Smith Co. Lieut: of Frederick, Col: John Morrow 
of Berkeley, Col: David Kenedy of Frederick — Major Geo: Scott of Berkely, Capt: 
Fra: Willis Lt. Horse and Chas: M. Thurston — They resolved themselves into a 
** Convention ** to consider of the most speedy and proper method of carrying oat 
the late Act of Assembly empowering Genl : Morgan to raise volunteers Ac Ac — 
To this end, they recommended that Depots of supplies be established ; pledge them- 
selves to aid in procuring all manner of ^Mmplements of war''; horses, for the dra- 
goons, wagons and teams — recommend that Genl : Morgan be empowered to employ 
artificers, and that his Quarter Masters & Commissaries have full authority to exe- 
cute his Orders — In as much as the particular season of the year prevents the people 
from volunteering as they might otherwise do, they appeal to the Militia of Berkeley, 
Frederick, Hampshire, Loudon, Fauquier and Shenandoah, who are drafted to relieve 
those already in service, to join Morgan's Corps — George Rootes £sqr chosen to 
wait upon the assembly to urge these measures to receive any further instructions, 
and to be the bearer of a letter from Genl : Morgan himself—- 

/IT <fM;^ r^m^fN !|(q(«^ 

im^ fsimr littk- iimt mpr u "Kdlr»^ 
1 Jirnnwffnaak' onfiiiimi: Tmiifwiuii 

fcr m SttiM bouse of itoivrr iii4>ixy-* 

me b€!nft, and Vy bbt 3<iiiira OoJci. K^>iM<^ >m^>» ^^iI^^^iAn^ ^^ t^^^^^NNVN ifV^f>» 
to lam I reftr jyw for wy m^^mMll^^«^ l^<^ M.viiW.> ^^.^ .\?**^nhsM\ i^aX 
fiu-Uier wmnt — hw tkt^rouj^ ii<^uiuni4^i)«v \^uh %\w hswws \\i\\^ vn^ i^>\ 
vmlley, mud kui mhilitm lo infiMnm^ will, I <»nU%>r ^v> w^U ^v^>U ^^^^ Hm\ 
full — ^ftt>m kim you win collect ih^ \%\in\\U^,^\\\xA\ \w\\u\\ \\\^\s \ s^\\ ^^HnvMS 
you by way of letter. I have m> dowb^ \\\\\ \\\%\ \\%\s\\\\x\ \\\s\ ^m>^^SS\\\\ 
will provide for his oxponmM and diii|mii'h him wiih IM«lVM»^«>U^ii h\ 

Toar moat olHMil^nt, hiiinl) HorvaiU. 

OAunr Vanm iTKB Co Liiijt; to •♦Tim UovMHNim n^ V4 Hi WMmhImm ' Iuhh IhMi 

In Moaeqoeiioe of a li9Ui$r I rmmt^fml mmt^mti ngM, tmn hMi W#>'>^< thimhh>' 
leocy GotrcTBor jBtbtrmm, i^laUv# 0/ a laUi l$mH¥f»u^iUm Ui ih\0 * ht^h^^ ' 

I onterad oat a Company of my fiilJiUa um H^hti^t l^^¥^<4>, I>/|aa^M/m 
with Three Conpaaiea of Ko^H, m Um liUAM^M k^i *jmMlu4 iU^^^^isi^, 
and the Doinbeni Twy «i^miilUUnkAy \$yL'.itmm^ i)u ihM ikM^m^^U a^ hh^ 
men t^ th^ plaoe wtMn? %h^ t^A^im kuA immmhU4, ih^f mi^^Bif^ nUh 
predpl tet i o n o nl y a Hfcm e«rr%Nu4^v4, itdA a ^w Wm^ ^'Uv^m^i* Hi>^i 
end mem cf li im i i Itair^ aumiiiAvr^ kLcma;: Wi^ov^j^ 44m^ ^I'ltM^i^^ ^/^tt 
aoi a iiutubor i^ tiMur <UiU4«j4 Mivw«M# iiUii ium^ a/im, f iii^^^ 
A liai W liMsiv lirgiii tUi; Wit aiiIW'44amUma' I 4^aiJ ^i>/<uvi4 iu<;^ 
e nl>«Mt . it tg y«iir JirjL^i^lkMMiy # f i t m iauii «^L4*< liUj^ )^«M i***^ i^ 

U^ Ur IAm: flUMft iimfiitp; kUAA^ri huuUj 'fUv^AMr li>Uy'i./ ^^ui 
Jfofllilfer tKitr U«r prtijii;«pi|! VH«itpui9U/«r ^i^vw^^ ^i><y ^^^4 i^j t 
%u tit^ uumis^ i^ ¥a^\0^ ti*v ii^'» ^M^' 4^/4Uiiu^ji.^ 
iMifunr alK <jiiiiiifur YJtfiHn iM«C Ut4M> ^ u^i*«#' m* Vi^^Ai^MU l// i^^^^^ ^ 


1781. our next Grand Jury Court, and a fow acquitted — ^these last were cheifly 
June 16th Deserters whom I have sent to join the Army — 

I presume your Excellency will think it necessary to Issue a Commis- 
sion of Oyer and Terminer, for the Trial of those who are ruled to a 
further Trial, agreeahle to the Act of Assembly of October 1780 — I shall 
continue the Company of Mounted Infantry some time longer in service, 
as I expect they will apprehend the Cheif of those who yet stay out. 
For further particulars, I refer your Excellency to the bearer Mr. Andrew 

I am very respectfully, 

Your very obedt Servant." 

June 16th MAJOR Rd: Claiborns to the Honble Speaker of the H. of 

Staunton The situation to which the Quarter Master^s department, in the 

Continental line of this State is reduced, and the fatal consequences 
which may attend a further delay, induces me to make a representation 
of it to you, & to request that you will be pleased to submit it to the 
consideration of the Hon : House of Delegates. 

The want of money and the loss of credit in consequence, has obliged 
me to decline all purchases & contracts on public account, & to request 
the Gentlemen engaged with me to do the same, so that at present there is 
a total stop put to business throughout the State — My prospects, until 
the Enemy got possession of the lower counties & destroyed the arrange- 
ment which I had made, were good, because I had considerable warrants 
from the Governor on the Treasury, & upon the faith of my promises, 
founded on them, procured large supplies, & induced the people to give 
their aid ; but now there is such a visible alteration, that few or none 
will trust or serve us — Indeed, I am so disappointed in the support I 
expected, that when I propose a contract I cannot with the least confi- 
dence promise a single person when he shall be paid. 

I have a long time since, given the Quarter Master General & the 
Commanding Generals in this State, full information respecting the evils 
which have happened, & the indispensable necessity of adopting some 
mode; or furnishing me the means to prevent them; but I have had no 
assistance, except from the Government of Virginia, nor do I expect any 
other. In justice to myself therefore, & to enable me to answer the 
demands that are made, I beg leave to inform you Sir, that your atten- 
tion was never so necessary towards the department, as at this time. 

If money cannot be had to answer the immediate purposes, let some 
plan be fallen on, either by enforcing the laws that are already past, or 
by fixing upon something new, that will make up the deficiency — 


It is with much concom, that I find myself obligod to repeat the 1781. 
defect in the number of Wagons required by the law of October Session, June 16th 
for Continental purposes; for the want of these, to foward provisions & 
stores, & to answer the purposes of the Southern Army, for which they 
were designed, I have been. obliged to hire & keep engaged in that busi- 
ness, the means of transportation which should have been reserved for 
the use of the Army among us. The loss of them has been attended 
with such an additional expence, that it has been one principal means of 
my inability to comply with the requisitions made by Major General, 
the Baron Steuben & Major General, the Marquis de la Fayette, Com- 
manding Generals in the State, for the same articles — Had I the money 
which has been expended to make up the deficiency, I should now have 
it in my power to supply the Army, without delay, as there are a num- 
ber of Waggons and teams to be had in this part of the Country, at a 
moment's warning; but as I am destitute of the money to induce them 
to torn out, the consequence, I am afraid, will be bad to the Army, as 
you will find by the inclosed Copy of a letter from Major Langbom, 
Aid-de-Camp to the Marquis de la Fayette & Deputy Quarter Master 
Crenl: to the Troops. As to any blame that may fall on me, as is 
observed by Major Langbom, respecting the Wagons required, I have 
ready & sufficient reasons to prove that I do not merit it. 

In addition to the wagons called for by the law, for Continental use, 
the Executive while in Office in Richmond, gave orders to the commis- 
sioners, to appoint a Deputy in each County, to collect the specifics, & 
that they should brigade all the wagons & carts within their respective 
Counties, & upon the application of the Continental Quarter Masters to 
call them into service in regular rotation ; but I have been disappointed 
in this matter likewise, as the people in many instances have refused to 
conform to the plan * 

I inclose, for the more particular information of the House, Copies of 
the €rovemor's directions to the Commissioner — perhaps they may find 
it necessary that some such regulation should be passed into a Law, 
which will diffuse itself more generally & be better attended to — 

To dnter into a detail of things generally, that respects the depart- 
ment, would take up more time than your discernment & decision wou'd 
require, therefore. Sir, I beg leave to ask, without money or credit, how 
am I to obtain the means of transportation, the necessary supplies of For- 
age & Camp Equipage, the conveyances of dispatches, or to keep the 
persons already employ'd in their several stations? 

I beg leave to assure you Sir, that whatever yourself, with your Hon- 
arable House shall determine upon for the good of the public service, so 
far as respects the department in which I am engaged I will most cheer- 
fhDy join in the measures, and contribute to their success, with as much 
diligence & dispatch as possible — 

I have the honor to be &c &c." 

i^ <.xLXSfuJjL "Vr .^fEJLlK PjLfSSS. 

^'t¥Mpfmi TmmAM Hmrrm, h. C Mil: Sfou» 10 Col: BATm^ ^ Staonioii. 

t$ifw l/viMt^ f^ 4if»!^itM^m ^4 UMJffr i. Vrjnr^ W hsd j^oee to that place to recMd^ 
Mt th^, tj^ff/ntUpryf Up meet ibe deouuMb of tlie Soalhen Armj; but 
fi##4* itMP itt^mtm #>f ^safTjing oot lldA Terj InpoftAiii design elmofll 
w#l#r^/ w$it9%inf( — D^ffirm to be mfomied si once, wbetber be cttn be 
•fif#f9iM iritfc Tin, (ynrtridfi^ p^P^^^ <uid oiber neeeflasiy MiUtary Stores 
fr//f#f HuuittUfftf mp ibsi be msj immedistely ondertaike tbe 

SnmiMk Vol: Wm. Davw to tbe Exbcdtivk. 

^H«NiMl//ft An ibo Anseinbly si their last session requested that some plan for 

iks mtMhlMitnifini of the War Office, should be prepared for tbeir con- 
nUUin^i\o$if I have taken the liberty to submit my thoughts on tbis sub- 
jwit, U; your honorable board, conceiving that from the nature of my 
\irimmi a|f point men t, as well as from a constant experience for almost 
mIx ytiarN, In a variety of military departments, I might possibly be able 
Ut ^lv« Nome information respecting the duties of an office, which has 
military tiiatUim solely for its object. Should you agree with me in sen- 
tlMutht, with ruNpoct to the propriety of the plan, I have now the honor 
Ui propose, I trust you will not think it amiss, to lay this representation 
ImiiiiHi the Logislaturo, with such observations as you may judge it 
propiu' Ui make — 

It Is evident that iVoquent examination, is the way to make men dill- 
KiMit iMi well as honest; without it, fraud and negligence would soon 
uxltuuiti the rlehes of a country much more wealthy than ours — From 
iltU (^liUMo ohiofly, originate the complaints which so generally prevail, 
of niUMiana|(emont In the several military departments. With an infi- 
iiUe variety of huslntms on the hands of the Executive, it will always be 
ImptmMlhlo l\)r thorn to attend to scrutinies of this kind; and of course 
\\\^y will never he able to obtain a just knowledge of the real state or 


application of the stores and resources of the country. This then is ono 1781. 
of the great doties of the War Office, to prepare for the inspootion of Jun« l;Hh 
government^ such docaments as will enable them to form proper ideas of 
the state of the public supplies, and of the conduct of thoir sorvant^ in 
the discharge of the duties of their several appointments — For this pur< 
pose it is necessary that the Ck>mmi8sioner should by law l>o vestcil >vith 
an inquisitorial power, and have authority to demand fVom the dif- 
ferent military departments exact returns of their receipts and issues, 
and of all other matters incident to their offices, accordmg to the nature 
of their respective employments — 

From the quarter Master (xeneral should be required, periixiicul 
returns of all the articles belonging to his department, such as teams, 
waggons, boats and the necessary appendages belonging to them: ho 
should report at stated intervals, the quantity of forage collected by him 
or his agents in the different counties under the various laws, with the 
deficiencies still due: the places where the magazines are fixed, with the 
quantity, and kind in each, he should render regular accounts of ail 
his transfers and issues to Continental agents, or for Continental pur- 

As matters stand at present, nobody knows the quantity of forage 
collected or issued, nor can it be ascertained when the State has Aimishcd 
its quota of the Continental specific requisitions — 

The Forage of this Country is an article of great value, and of the 
utmost consequence to our operations; yet the distresses we are iVo- 
quently reduced to, and the violence and depredations committed on the 
property of the inhabitants, are full proof of the want of management 
in that department, and the necessity of other arrangements than have 
heretofore been observed. 

The article of provi8ion,js another matter of the greatest moment. 
Much has been wasted, much has been lost, and a great deal may have 
been misapplied. A large portion of what has been consumed, has been 
issued in so irregular a manner, and with such insufficient vouchors, as 
can never make the continent properly chargeable; nor has the person 
now at the head of the department, notwithstanding iVequent applU^a- 
tions from the War Office, ever been able or willing to give any aa^ount 
of the state of his department, of the amount of his stores, the quanti- 
ties furnished by the counties, what have been the issues, or what thoir 
application. These returns are absolutely necessary, and government 
can never judge without them, what parts of the State have complied 
with the law, nor when the State itself has fumishe<l the quota of pro- 
vision required by Congress; nor indeed, can they otherwise, form any 
weD founded opinion of the conduct of their Commissary; nor have they 
any cheek upon his application of the stores that pass through his hands. 

The Cloathing department is intimately connected with the i^jtnforU 
able state of the troops in the field — 


1781. To form a just idea of thoir situation, the Sub, or State Cloathier 

June 18th should make frequent returns to the War Office, of all that ho receives, 
and all that he issues, distinguishing the supplies furnished by the Con- 
tinent, from those by the State, and specifying also the articles sent in 
from the Counties, and what may still be due from them — 

Returns should bo frequently required from the Commissary of Mili- 
tary Stores, who should also superintend the laboratory and magazines 
of munition, and should pay particular attention to the recovery of 
arms, occasionally lent to the Continent: a matter of considerable 
moment to the safety of the State. 

As the invasion law has authorized the impressment and appropria- 
tion of a variety of articles within some one of the before-mentioned 
departments, which are paid for by the State, altho' of right chargeable 
to the continent, it is requisite that returns of these articles should be 


made, if possible, from the Auditor's Office, where they have been set- 
tled, that they may be entered upon the returns, and included as part of 
the quota furnished by the State to the Continent — This is the more 
necessary, as it will, at the same time furnish government with a gene- 
ral view of the great abuses practised under this law, and enable them 
to put a stop to them. 

To the Commissioner of War, should also be allotted the duties of the 
Adjutant General's department — 

All orders from the Executive the different military departments 
should issue thro' this office, and be recorded in it. This regulation, of 
itself would be productive of great good effects, and will prevent much 
contradiction and confusion in Orders, which have, and always will fol- 
low, from any other arrangement — In this office should be kept a roster 
for the regulation of militia duty thro' the State — Here should be made 
stated returns of the strength of the Yirginia Continental Hne, of the 
strength of the militia in the several counties, with the number and con- 
dition of their arms and accoutrements — Here should be lodged discrip- 
tive lists of the new levies from the Counties respectively, and of all 
deserters from the Army belonging to the State, as well as the militia 
delinquents condemned to six months service. 

In this office too, should be registered the names and rank of the mili- 
tia Officers, and the rank roll of the Continentals, that warrants may be 
issued without delay, upon the occurrence of vacancies, agreeably to the 
resolutions of Congress — Here should be lodged, returns from the 
proper Officers in the different Counties, of the specifics raised in their 
respective Counties, and delivered by them to the Orders of the differ- 
ent departments under the direction of the quarter masters, Commissa- 
ries, and Commercial Agent. It should be the Commissioner's duty, to 
prepare the estimates of military supplies, for the consideration, and final 
Order of the Executive, and if approved, communicate them to the Com- 
mercial Agent, that the purchase may be made. Her^ should be lodged, 


all plans for public military works, which may bo projected by the engi- 1781. 
Deer or others, and approved by the Executive — The Commissioner June 18th 
should attend to the establishment of Magazines, to the regularity of 
issues of every kind, and pay the greatest attention to economy in the 
different departments under his inspection — He should at all times be 
responsible to the Executive for his conduct, and controulable by them ; 
yet it will be wrong to subject him to the delay of taking their opinion in 
every step he may think necessary for the public good, and of having 
their previous approbation as a prerequisite, before he can do any thing, 
as is the case at preset. It is sufficient that the Executive can interfere 
when they please, and give him such orders as they think proper. A 
prudent Commissioner however, will, for his own security crave their 
advice and directions on every matter of importance in his department : 
the officer should be displaced that would not — It should also be the Com- 
missioners duty to prepare all the various returns from the different 
departments beforementioned, and digest them into general abstracts, 
that the Legislature may at every session, be fhmished with a compre- 
hensive view of the strength of the country, and of the State, applica- 
tion and amount of the supplies of every kind that may be raised. 

A War Office thus constituted may be of essential service to the State: 
u|)on its present footing, it has not the power to be of much use — For 
this variety of business, the Commissioner should b^ a man of known 
fidelity to his Country, diligent and attentive to his duty, and of a stock 
of knowledge acquired from actual experience in military arrangements. 
His business will be constant, difficult and extensive ; it will, however, 
if properly executed, be found to be economical, satisfactory and instruc- 
tive — ^A few clerks will be necessary, with one who should be a first 
clerk or kind of Secretary, dictating letters, and doing the ordinary 
duties of the office, should unavoidable necessity or urgent public busi- 
ness oocasion the Commissioner to be absent for a short time. 

A reasonable compensation for the services, the Assembly will cheer- 
fully bestow ; and when the utility of this arrangement is seen, for which 
the course of a year will probably be sufficient, there cannot be a doubt 
of their libenJity in making the emoluments bear a proportion to the 
labors of the office, and the advantages derived to the public. 
I have the honor to be Sir with the highest respect 

Your most obedient and very humble servant.*' 

"At a General Court Martial, held at Leeds Town, by order of Col : June 18th 
Wm. Nelson, Commandant, the 18th day of June 1781, for the Trial of Leeds Town 
Fauntleroy Dye, charg'd with aiding and assisting the Enemies of this 
Commonwealth during an invasion, with encouraging Desertion from 
the Army, with dissuading and discouraging the militia from opposing 
the Enemy and for giving Intelligence to the Enemy, contrary to an Act 



^Mombers of the Court 

1781. of Assembly passed Id May Session 1780, entitled << an Act for giving 
June 18Ui further Powers to the Grovemor and Council, and for other Purposes** 
and also for Sundry other crimes and misdemeanors — " 

Major Redmann President 

Major Nelson, Lieut: Robertson 

Capt: Edwards, Lieut: Jackson 

Capt Harrison Lieut: Eelsick 

Capt: Mitchell Lieut Hungerford 

Capt: Monroe Ensign Butler 

Capt : Harper Ensign Moore 

Lieut: Berkeley Ensign Deane 

Richard Parker, Judge Advocate — 

After the Examination of numerous witnesses for and against the 
accused and due consideration of the Testimony the court unanimously 
declared him guilty, and 'decreed and ordered that the said Fauntleroy 
Dye be confined and imprisoned during the continuance of the present 
war, without Bail or main prize" — Which sentence was signed by Vin- 
cent Redman Maj : Prest. and approved by 

WM. NELSON Colo. Commandant." 

June 18th AcoouNT OF THE CAPTURE of a schoonor called the "Hero's Revenge** 

by a Baltimore armed vessel, without resistance on the part of the 

Her crew deserted the vessel, and with their arms escaped to the 
shore — The gentlemen of the county went in pursuit, and after a 
chase of twenty miles, came up with and captured the whole of them — 
This schooner had been taken from one Hughs of Gloucester Co., by the 
Enemy and it appeared he had volunteered on board with them to repair 
his loss — The Commander is one Robert Bulfell Capre, who lately had 
escaped from Powhatan Co House Jail — most of the Prisoners were 
Deserters from the American Army — The negroes found and taken 
with them, belonged to John Page Esq, Isaac Smith of Accomac, to gen- 
tlemen in Somerset Co. Md: to Mr. Tayloe of Richmond and to Mrs. 
Mary Webb of Essex Co. 

The writer of this account requests of the Executive instructions as 
to how he shall dispose of the prisoners, they being composed of desert- 
ers, British and negroes. 


Major Rd: Claiboritb to ths Hon: Spkakir of ths Assemblt. 1781. 

g|p June 18tb 

Since writing my Letter to yoa, of the 16th I find it necessary to SUanton 
beg your Attention to some things which require to be done without 

The Post of Staunton is destitute of Forage & Provisions — in conse- 
quence of which, both men & horses in the service of the public, that 
are stationed here, are suffering much. I have made application to the 
Commissioner of the provision Law of Augusta County, but cannot 
obtain any thing — He informs me that all the Specifics are consumed, & 
that the people will not part with their property upon his promises. I 
have likewise written to the County Commissioners of Rockbridge, 
Rockingham, & Greenbrier, who should have been long since in office, 
but am informed that no such persons are appointed; neither can I learn 
that there is either provisions or forage to be had, of any consequence, 
in those counties — As it is of great importance, that the appointments 
of the Commissioners shuld be complete throughout the State, as there 
are many wanting, perhaps the honble the Gentlemen of the House of 
Assembly will be so obliging as to see that it is done, when they return 
from the present Session — And as forage & provisions for the consump- 
tion of this Post cannot be procured by any power or means which I 
am possessed of, I beg that some way may be adopted to enable me to 
obtain an immediate supply. 

I beg leave likewise Sir, to mention again the application of Maj : 
Langbome for wagons, to be kept as a moving magazine; and my great 
anxiety that they should be procured as soon as possible — At least fifty 
will be necessary — Eleven for the ammunition — Nine for the Quarter 
Mastr. Stores — ^fifteen for the Forage Master — and Fifteen for the Com- 
missary — Others should be had in different parts of the country to col- 
lect supplies as the Commissioners or Continental Q. Mast, may require. 
Ton must be well informed Sir, that there are wagons. Provisions & 
Forage to be had in the Country in the greatest plenty, so that nothing 
is wanted, but ways & means to obtain them. 
I have the honor to be Sir, 

With the highest Esteem & respect &c" 

Salpb WoftxLKY Jim: TO Missas. Walkkr & Dknibon Portsmouth. Juneisth 

" Gentlemen, 

We have waited here for the return of the Swift, till we 
can, with propriety wait no longer. We are ourselves tired, and have 
tired all our friends — ^the anxiety, uneasiness and inconveniences wo have 
labored under, are inexpressible ; at length we have determined to leave 
this place in search of you. If we should miss you, impute it not to 


1781. design: we are under a necessity of going: the garrison even, does not 
June 18th approve of our long continuance, and the. government may likewise cen- 
sure us when we do not deserve censure, for remaining here so long. 

The day you went away, we found your cruise wou*d be of none effect, 
for a letter came up by some of Mr. Wormeley's negroes to Mr. Boss' 
Agent, which acquainted us, that the schooner privateer was the Sur- 
prize Capt: Ross, the owner Mr. Frederic Rhinelander of New York: 
he sailed for N. York 9th inst: — if we should miss you, whatever 
expencos you incur shall be paid; if you should be landed at Hampton, 
hire horses there to Yoik, from York to young Mr. Lewis' & in Mr. 
Wormeley's name desire him to lend you his chair & horses to Rosegill, 
which we are sure he will do — ^in taking the step we do, we are unhappy; 
but perhaps you may be gone to New York, and we might be detained 
here a month, or ordered away — ^in short wo are so distressed, that we 
judge the step we take to be the properest, & that there is every proba- 
bility of you being within the Capes, of our meeting with you in Hamp- 
ton Road, or in the bay. we are under the greatest & heaviest concern 


Your most obdt. Servant 

"Mr. Wormeley has written to Capt: Graves concerning you, and 
hopes no difficulties will overtake you, by our going away, even if 
we miss you, he hath spoken to Colo. Hamilton concerning you, should 
you come up to Portsmouth." 

June 18th David Ross TO PATRICK HsNRT EsQR. Stauntou. 


Pt. of Fork I take the liberty of recommending the bearer James Rice to your 

notice, he is one of ten Pensylvania Waggoners, that brought arms from 
Philadelphia to this place, and were, by contradictory orders of our Gen- 
eral Officers, detained 16 days after their arrival at Fredericksburg — 
this detention, he alledges was the cause of himself & two others being 
taken by Colo. Tarlton, by which means they lost their waggons & 
teams & some other property, and thinks it highly reasonable that the 
Assembly should consider his case & render him such relief as they think 
proper — From motives of humanity & justice you'll do him all the ser- 
vice in your power. 

You have no doubt heard of our proceedings at this place — We have 
obtained no great credit, & suffd. very great loss — I have suffered greatly. 
I am trying to get my plantations in the way of making a little bread — 
the whole Army were encampt on my Estate & subsisted upon it whilst 
here, besides this they destroyed every thing in their power — I shall 
be at Staunton in a few days & have much to say to you, in the mean- 
time I am Sir, 

You most humble Servant." 

Calendar op state papers. 


Abraham Psnn Co. Likut. to Hon: Wm. Flbming,* Staunton. 1781. 

June 18th 
Has received his by Express, and regrets so many of the militia of Henry Co. 

his county are called out at this important season — but the enemy he 

supposes will not wait "till we sow or reap" — Has no arms having sent 

one hundred with the men to Genl : Greene, and another hundred with 

those who went to G^nl : Lawson — and desires to know whether he shall 

send the men unarmed, and whether they they can be furnished below — 

An Express has just arrived from Baron Steuben calling for men, but he is 

at a loss how to obey the order — A number of delinquents, condemned 

to six months service in the regular army are at large, impeding the 

march of others — ^Having no Jail in which to confine them, asks for 

instructions to have them and deserters arrested by mounted patrols and 

carried to Camp; the latter to be credited with a "Tour of Duty" on 

account of this service. He thinks by thiB means, he may ^'get rid of 

those Dastardly fellows who are a burrlen to us." 

MicHAKL James to Bey: Randolph Esqr. at Richmond. 

He has examined the condition of the Boat "Liberty," and finds her 
in a much better condition than he expected — Expects to have her ready 
for service in a few weeks. The Boat "Patriot" sailed for Portsmouth 
on the twelfth. 

June 19th 


Sampson Mathews, magistrate for Augusta County, certifies, that he June 19th 
has administered " the oaths prescribed by Law to be taken by a privy Staunton 
Councillor" to Samuel McDowell Esqr. 

Sampson Mathews, a magistrate for Augusta County, certifies that he 
has administered "the Oaths prescribed by Law, to be taken by a Gov- 
ernor" unto Thomas Nelson junr. Esquire" — also to Saml: Hardy Esqr:, 
as member of the Privy Council. 

* Colo. Wm. Fleming of Botetourt as oldest & presiding member of the Council 
acted as Governor until €knl: Nelson was chosen. 

June 19ih 


1781. J. Petton to Gknl: Wkbdon pr: Majr. Joel. 

June 19th u d^^j. g^^, 

Glouceeter By Majr. Joel I rec*(l your favor of the 16th and shou'd be 

happy in being able to render that Gentleman any aasistance in the 
present or any future occasion — ^you must have been misinform*d as to 
the enemy taking post on Gwyn's Island — Some little time past the 
Bonotta was stationed off the mouth of Peanetank, with three other 
smaller Vessels — they landed about 60 men, who carried off three 
Beeves — upon my being informed of it, sent on some militia & drove all 
the Stock to the main ; since have not heard of their being there. Some 
of their vessels are continually in the mouth of that river and I am con- 
vinced from many circumstances, hold a correspondence with one or 
more of the inhabitants of Gwyn*s Island and Middlesex, to the latter 
their boats are frequently seen to pass and repass, the inhabitants in 
general disaffected — You have, (I dont doubt) heard of the enemy plun- 
dering Wormley, Grimes, Robinson, and the inhabitants of Urbanna— 
I say fortunately, for really the circumstances are something extraor. 
dinary. After plundering the houses of Wormley & Eobinson, they, a 
few days passed, with some other Tories assembled at Grimes', I sup- 
pose to condole, or rather consult a plan of recovery, that night the 
enemy went seven or eight miles up a very narrow River, and plundered 
them a second time, without landmg at any other house. Since, I am 
told they obtained a flag, of the County Lt :, went down to Portsmouth, 
was rec'd as friends, sent back in a sixteen gun Brig, with directions to 
take their property wherever found. I am further told, after laying in 
provisions &c proceeded in quest of the plunderers: this I think worthy 
of notice, nothing has happened in this county except a number of 
negroes going to them — nothing I believe has saved us from sharing the 
fate of the Tories but the vigilence of our Guards, have only to con- 
clude, I am respectfully, 

Dear Sir, your obedt Hble Servt." 

^ June Idth Court Martial held for the trial of Edward Wright, charged with the 

like offences, and as being concerned with Fauntleroy Dye. 

Leeds Town The court composed of the same Officers as those recorded in the trial 
of Dye. The accused found guilty and sentenced to imprisonment during 
the continuance of the war without bail &c. 


CJoLO. John Taylor to Thos: Nelson jur: Govsrnor &c. 1781. 

If June 19th 

By the command of General Spotswood, P am to make several Staunton 
plications to the Execative respecting the Legions raising for the 
fence of this State. The General, long since furnished the Commercial 
^nt with an abstract of the Cloathing and equipments necessary to 
procured, but is not yet informed of the progress made therein — ho 
I me urge the great utility of having these in the progress of the 
suiting business, as a few well dressed Legionaries would tempt others 
o the Corps — ^with respect to the equipments, caps are indispensably 
cessary to the whole corps, not only as the infantry in legions are 
i^asinally to act mounted, but also to keep up an uniformity with the 
valry. In the form of these caps, he would wish them to be some- 
lat of a conical shape, and each to be covered with a slip of boars- 
in : this would so add apparently to the stature of the men, as to 
Deive the eye of an Enemy, and probably draw their shott, and strokes, 
> high to do execution. 

Another matter, which may appear trivial, tho' is really of considera- 
) importance, which he bid me press, was the procuring of a plume for 
sh Legionary, the allurements of show, are more efficatious in the 
Mooring of recruits, than any solid advantages, and such an ornament, 
B price of which is inconsiderable, will he thinks be really an economy 
this score — besides it will give his Corps a martial look, which may 
t want its impression on an Enemy in the day of Battle — he would 
sh these plumes to be made of black feathers with a white tufb at the 
3, to Keep up an uniformity with the cockade." 

The General also wants two hundred pair of boots — two French horns 
St and second, four clarionets, one Bassoon and one ** Houtboy," as 
cessary to the "harmony and discipline*' of the corps — He hopes 
Misures have been duly taken to procure the arms for the cavalry — So 
', the Officers have been very successfVil in recruiting, having secured 
out two hundred men "for the war" — Those enlisted are anxious to 
3eive their bounty money, and he urges the payment of this as an 
lucement to others to join — He is ready to give his Excellency any 
rbal information required in regard to the prospects of the corps, and 
particularly anxious to forward the business, so as " to go below and 
xe the present favorable crisis for recruiting" — In conclusion, he has 
ly to apply to his Excellency for the Commissions of the Field Offi> 
rs, for Genl : Spotswoods, and for the requisite number of blanks, for 
e subalterns &c. 

The Executive urged by Joint Resolution, to use every means to make June 20th 
mittances to the Delegates in Congress, for their private allowances. General 
ihor by sending them Tobacco and Hemp, or by adopting such other Aitembly 
eans aa they may see fit. 





James Mills to Archibald Ritchis at Tappahnk. 

"Dear Sir," 

I have bad no opportunity of writing yon since my last, or 
I shou'd not have omitted, convinc'd as I am of your real regard for us, 
tho' very sloly, yet I think 1 have mended every day since I last wrote, 
thin excepted, by the loss of my last nights sleep, occasioned by Genl: 
Weeden's Aid de Cam, and a Capt: Mnnro-— they lodged with me and 
went early this morning to pine top, for which service the pressed horses 
from Mr. Wormeloy and left there's, so that I doubt they'l be back, 
when we meet, we will talk these matters over, they greatly condemn 
our sending a Flag &c — Mr. Probant tells me you saw the letter he 
bniught down for S. F. ho is not returned, puts me to a great loss 
how to answer — 1 understand Carre wants a supply of money, at this 
Inst: I am not master of 50 Dollars — 1 understand when he was in Rich- 
mond Goal, ho was supplied on his drafl, that it was honoured — If you 
think it prudent, 1^11 risque 2 or £300, and beg you*l advance it. I 
will repay it directly when I hear, but I wou'd not choose to undergoe 
any suspicion, as I mean only to assist prisoners in distress — I can't explain 
my .moaning otherways, and wish I had more in my power — Be their 
intention what it will, I greatly rejoice in your happy escape from 
Depredations and Airthor fears, tho' I can't help thinking, but their 
design was plunder, for a Brig has been committing, for three days past 
every horrid scene of cruelty, down this River and all up Pianetank — I 
just hear they have carried Coll: Churchhill off with them (in anger for 
being fired on) I received Mr. Beverly's letters safe, and only wait the 
return of our Friends, to bless my eyes once more, with the sight of you 
all — indeed 1 long for it more than ever — excuse incorrectness, for I aid 
greatly hurried, as the Aid de Camp is just come to the door wth. Ander- 
son their prisoner, he once lived in Essex. 

Believe me with the greatest affection Ever Yours &c." 

*^Tour hhead Tobo is safe out at Mr. Roan's house — was moved 

June 21at Joint Resolution passed, desiring the Executive to take such steps, by 
Oenermi offering a pardon or otherwise, as may effectually suppress certain 
AM««nbly it Insurgents and their associates in the Western and Northwestern 
Frontiers &c. 

For "reforming Clark's and Crockett's regiments, and Slaughter's 

Calling to aocount, all Officers, Agents, Commissaries, Quarter Mas- 
ters and Contractors, or other persons concerned in the disbursements 
of public monies in the Western Country, belonging to Yirginift, for 

CALSIfDsa. OF ST-itS FA.?*Sii:s ^n 

viiiittt inr :hac gur p t iL 

Majoa R EsajLA Jon. n> Bmi^: Gexl: Wuu^ch. avm^^M 

'^Mj dear GenenJ, 

In obedience lo ycmr Oi\ier!i» on niinu)»Y 1^1 I 5*ol U>>^\ Us^* 
oat for GwTn*8 Island. A few milea fW>m Loe^bk 1 roiNMViH) ln|olHg\MUH> 
of several vesBels bein^ in Piankitjuik; this induiHHl mo lo jniish ou« Hiu) 
tho* 75 miles distante, I arriveii that Svening at Sir John IVvtou'^i — 
I found you had been totally misinfbrm*d. that the Knon^y ha%i I4i4 
taken poet on the Island, but only landed to seiio i»omo stui^k, Tho iioxi 
morning, Sir John & myself rode down to reooinlrtre Mohjaok Hay ami 
Gwin's Island, of both which plat'os, I have Uikoii a 8iH)toh, whirh 1 
shall send yon. while wo were on tho boaoh a Brig oamo roumi Plank i- 
tank Point, and anchored under tho Middlesex shore — l)n my arrival at 
Urbanna in the Eveng. I was infomie<i that tho Kiiomy had la|ulod at 
one Ander8on*s, on the bay, & had brought cannon on shore with thorn. 
I instantly dispatcht an Express, who returned at 4 in tho morning with 
an account that the Enemy were on shore — Capt Monroe who ac(*ompu- 
nied me as a dragoon, and myself, inntantly sot otf for pino top, on liomes 
we borrowed of Mr. Wormeley, determined to attack thorn. On our 
arrival, we found the boats Just got on board with Colo. Churchill, whoso 
house they had plundered & taken him off. From tho account of young 
Churchill, I bad reason to expect thoy intended landing under covor ol' 
a Flag, again at Andersons, this Flag I was dotermiuod to detain, as it 
is expressly forbid in their own Code of naval laws, carrying on any 
correspondence b}- flag, from private vessoln of war, to the Knomy - 
And I ordered the Militia down on the bank, to opposes tho landing of 
the other U/ats; whi<-h ihvy obsrrving. Halut4^<l uh with H or *J hIiU., gol 
under way, and run over for the- Bay. I bavc sei/Zd Andorson 6l or<l*^rod 
him up to this place, from there to be convey'd with tho British hoamon 

*iiow call«d Tappahiuiuocic. 



1781. who were lately taken to Leeds, there to wait your Orders. The crimes. 
June 2l8t of which Anderson is accused, are of the blackest dye, holding a corres- 
pondence, trading with, and continually going on board the Enemy are 
the least part of his villany. Sir John Peyton having mentioned an 
Extraordinary Flag's being sent from Urbanna, I thought it my duty to 
enquire into the particulars & I waited on Mr. Wormloy, & relying on 
your indulgence & to give greater weight to my appearance, announced 
myself as your supernumerary Aid — I demanded by whose authority the 
Flag had gone, & who were the persons that went in her. I received the 
following account, that the flag was granted by the County Lieut: Mon- 
tague, & that the persons who accompanied it, were Mr. Ralph Wormley 
Jur : Mr. P. Grimes, Mr. Simon Frazier, Mr. Walker & Denizon — that 
the two last had returned in a King's Brig, which after victualling at 
Urbanna, had proceeded with them in search of the Brig, which had 
taken their property. This step has with great Justice given umbrage 
to every friend of this country. To behold (after the declaration of the 
Enemy that ^^none but such as had not taken an active part should 
recover their property) a County Lieut: granting a flag of truce to per- 
sons who have ever been suspected of nefarious practices, and as thickt 
adherers to the British cause: that Flag received with the utmost polite- 
ness at Portsmouth, and a King's vessel dispatcht to recover their effects, 
must surely be grating to every friend of Independence, whose property 
has been carried off, without the most distant prospect of a recovery. 
In the name of those friends, I solicit, an enquiry may be made into the 
affair. And now Sir, permit me to point out the true state of the neck 
between Rappahannock and Piankitank. Behold the disaffected hold- 
ing an uninterrupted commerce with the Enemy — The militia giving 
way to every lawless inclination, turning out with reluctance to defend 
their own coasts, or refusing to do so att all — The laws useless and dis- 
regarded for want of proper persons to carry them into execution — The 
County Lieut: condemned & despised by all. the militia unprovided 
with powder, ball or flints, and the coasts for want of a few necessary 
Guards open to the ravages of the Enemy, of which the plunder of 
Urbanna by 15 men, is a sufficient proof. Sir John Peyton agrees with 
me in opinion, that an active intelligent officer, appointed to superintend 
the defence of Rappahanock, Piankitank & the adjacent shore, with 
authority to mount 40 or 50 men, which would easily be done, as not a 
horse has yet been taken from Middlesex, would infallibly prevent these 
depredations of the Enemy, & what is of more consequence, their cor- 
respondence with the inhabitants. But while the present system is pur- 
sued in this neck, while applications are made to the masters of priva- 
teers, instead of defiance & the language of Soldiers, all will remain in 
anarchy & confusion — I could meet with cannon of no Kind — Sir John 
Peyton has very prudently mounted one on a field carriage, which may 
be of great service: Indeed X have found, on minute observation the 


Gloaster Militia better proyided & their coast guardA better posted 1781. 
thmn any other county. Let me flatter myself you will approve my June 2lsi 
0tep8 Sl the expedition I have made & beleive me to be 

With unfeigned regard 

Your obliged.'' 

B. Edgar Joil to Brig Ginl 6. WitnoN. June 2Sd 

"I was just going, my dear Sir, to send off the foregoing, yesterday, Leeds 
when Col: Boan the C. Lieut: of Essex waited on mo & informed me of 
some circumstances, I take to be of consequence, let me hope, my dear 
General, Providence has given us a clue to this nest of vipers, it is our 
part to make use of it the night before last, the British prisoners 
requested permission to send a Letter to Simon Frazier of Urbanna 
(whom they did not know was gone down in Montague's flag) for a sup- 
ply of money, & chose a free mulatto to carry it — in the evening one 
Probart, a man of most notorious character, and who has ever been sus- 
pected of giving intelligence to the Enemy, demanded leave to carry the 
letter, which Col: Boan positively refused, & ordered him on no account 
to quit the town. Notwithstanding, he undertook to convey a letter 
firom the Prisoner to the sd: Frazier, and went off unknown fVom Hob's 
Hole — Col: Boan getting notice of it sent a guani down to Piscataway 
Ferry to seize & search him on his return — they found only the enclosed 
letter* on him to B(r. Bitchie, which in my opinion, is of an extraordi- 
nary nature, his knowledge of the letter to Frazier, his uncertainty 
how to act, his fears &c &c all point out some secret connections — and it 
seems Mr. Bitchie knowns the design of this vessel was not plunder, 
however Colo. Boan & myself thought it proper to wait on Mr. Ritchie 
and in the most polite manner seal up his papers untill we oould receive 
further directions. Can we, my dear Sir, hope to succeed while such 
scoundrels in our very bosoms are attempting our destruction? 

The county of Middlesex is well known for its disaffection, and the 
names of Wormeley, Beverly, Frazer & Bitchie is ever Joln'd to that of 
Tory — let me conjure you Sir to take some steps to unravell this connec- 
tion, for my part I declare without Hyperbole, I would sooner bring 
these internal enemies to Justice, than be again restored to my Friends 
and Fortune — As a Vessell had again appeared in the offing, and as hob's 
hole is such a sink of Toriism, I ordered the Prisoners to march last 
night, they are just arrived & shall wait at this place for your orders 
for their destination — ^you will agree with me no place on the water can 
be proper for such daring Fellows — Inclosed No 1,* is a copy of a letter 
found on board the vessell which was taken & which Capt : Carre com- 
manded, from him to Earl Comwallis, (no doubt to be fo warded by Mr. 

* Not found. 



Juno 22d 


Frazer or his connections. No 2* is a letter from Colo. Roan to the Mar- 
quis, he desires his compliments, and assures you had he known of 
your being at Fredericksburg you should have had early intelligence. 
I am with sincere respect 

Yo: obliged &c." 

Juno 22d The Governor authorized by Joint Eesolution, Uf appoint a Secretary, 
Friday "to be allowed at the rate of thirty thousand pounds of Tobacco pr: 

June 22d 

Beig: Genl G. Webdon to the (tovsrnob. 

Froderic'sb'g In i-egard to the apprehension, trial and condemnation of the two 
prisoners, Dye & Wright, by Col: Wm. Nelson, who under his orders is 
in command of the " Four lower counties of the Northern Neck — Refers 
the future disposal of these men to Executive authority. 

June 22d 

"An Act to Regulate the Department of the War Office."! 

June 22d 


Petition of Daniel Clabk to Gtovebnob Nelson. 

He is a resident of N. Orleans and a subject of his Catholic Majesty: 
has on various occasions shewn his attachment to the Cause of America, 
to the detriment of his private fortune — Importuned by Mr. Oliver Pol- 
lock, the Agent of Virginia at N. Orleans, he had advanced to the State 
" Forty Thousand Mexican Dollars," to meet the wants of the Detach- 
ments on the Mississippi undpr Col: Clark & Lt: Col: Montgomery. He 
had no doubt of Mr. Pollock's having been empowered by Virginia to 
be her Agent in that Quarter — This was shown by the fact that Gov: 
Galvcz of New Orleans was of the same opinion, and always encouraged 
the few wealthy Americans who resided there to aid Mr. Pollock, by 
taking his Bills on Virginia — The official correspondence between Pol- 
lock and the Executive, in which his conduct was from time to time 
approved, and in which his purchases were accredited to Virginia and 
not to Congress was further evidence of this fact. 

Under these circumstances, and tnistrng to the "Honor of the Ancient 
Colony of Virginia for which she was so deservedly famed thro* out 
America," and thro* "zeal for her cause" "without Interest or view of 

♦Not found, 
f This appears in full in **Henning's Statutes at Large," as haying been enacted in 
May 1781. It was not passed until at this date. 


gain " and without hope of any reward, he had cheerfully lent his entire 1781. 
fortune for the support of her service — He cannot then believe, himself June 22d 
and family will be allowed to be reduced to beggery, in return for such 
disinterested services — He should not be held responsible for the " frauds 
or peculations" of the Servants of Virginia, or bo brought to ruin 
because they have been '< corrupt ai)d scandalous" — He humbly prays 
the Executive will duly take into consideration the merits of his claim, 
and grant him the redress and relief to which he feels himself so justly 

John Hay to Eobt. Williams, State's Atty: for Pittsylvania June 22d 

" Sir, 

Arriving here yesterday on my way to North Carolina, with pub- Robepte| 
lie Despatches, a person named Chas: Lynch Adams, accompanied by '"^^^ 

two persons called Thos. Tonsill and Ned Tonsill assuming the authority 
of Magistrates did by force of arms seize upon me and my public des- 
patches, with my private papers, all on lawful and necessary business. 
Adams, a justice of the peace breaking open or causing to be broken 
open despatches from Congress to the Governor & other public Officers 
of North Carolina." * * ♦ ♦ 

"By this event I have been delayed here eighteen hours, and forcibly 
detained ; and whilst this inconvenience has been suffered, some matters 
of the utmost importance which in confidence of secrecy in the Execu- 
tive of Carolina, had been imparted by Congress, are thus exposed to 
common ears." These facts can be proved by Joseph Roberts Danl: 
Roberts and Jacob Williams &c — Hopes a judicial investigation will at 
once be instituted, in order to punish the offenders, and that an account 
of this outrage be sent to the Executive at Staunton. 

fiesolution of the Genl: Assembly fixing the first Monday in October June 2ad 
the day on which they will meet and in the town of Richmond, pur- Staunton 
suant to adjournment — ^But in case the movements of the enemy, in the 
opinion of the Executive, shall interfere with this determination, the 
said meeting of the Assembly may be either at Fredericksburg or Win- 
chester, or at such other place as the Executive may determine upon. 


1781. Rd: Claiborne to Gov. Nelson. 

June 24th 

Staunton Enclosing copy* of " the arrangement for the Quarter Master's Depart- 
ment in the Continental Line" made by Col: Ed: Carrington, approved 
by the Executive and adopted by himself: with the names of the Asst: 
Dept. Q. Masters at the different Posts viz 

^'Col: James Hendricks at Alexandria 

Major Charles Magill at Winchester 

Capt: George Bice at Charlottesville 

Capt: Thomas Hamilton, Staunton 

Mr. Richard Young, Fredericksburg — 

Major Benjamin Bay, at Williamsburg 

Major Thomas H Drew at Carter's Perry, and 

Mr. William McCraw at Peytonsburg — " 

The District of Richmond being broken up by the Enemy Capt: Ham- 
ilton retired to Staunton, and Petersburg being in the same situation, 
and "Capt: Holmes Captured, is of no consequence in the arrangement.'* 

Refers to his letters to the Speaker of the H. of Delegates, which as 
yet have not been answered — Upon reading them any suggestions to be 
made by the Executive he. will be happy to entertain, and carry out 
their orders accordingly — ♦ ♦ * » 

By the plan for providing for the depreciation of the currency in 
paper No. 4,"*" contrary to his expectation disagreeable consequences 
have occurred — " The people finding it is to be determined by reference, 
withold their property and cry it up to more than they had been satis- 
fied with from the Dettors" — Contracts made and the articles used, set- 
tlements may be made upon the basis of the depreciation fixed by the 
Grand Jury. But in cases where persons are employed, it becomes 
optional with them whether they will serve or retire to private life. — 
Continues "If I pay a person his wages at 200 for one, he will not serve 
because it is not equal to what ho must give. If it is to be determined 
by the opinions of men, they will decide from report, which originates 
with men interested in crying it up — And if the public Agents fix it, 
calumny will say their private emolument is a prevailing motive. The 
price fixed on by the late State Quarter Master and n\yself for the hire 
of wagoners, will not induce people to engage in that employ, many 
having left the service — It is two shillings and six pence specia pr: day, 
or other money equivalent*' Begs to be informed whether this shall be' 
changed — 

June 24th Rob't B. Carre, James Pope, Jno. Jaram and Dan: Grandison, "in con- 
Leeda sequence of being indulged to march unconfined," give their paroles of 
honor, that they will not make any attempt to escape— 

*Kot found. 


Affidavits of B. Harper, Wm. Saunders and John Washington accusing 1781. 
Capt: W. Holland of treasonable designs &c. and for replying, when June 26th 
asked his reasons why ho would not turn out to act as guard, "that the 
people in Boston, New York & Phil : that staj^'d by their property res- 
cued it, & those that flew into the Country & took up arms lost it totally 
& swore by Grod if the enemy came upon the spott, bo would not take 
up arms in defence of his country, but would stay by his property & 
would make the best terms he could.'' 

Col: Wm. Davies to Governor Nelson. June 25th 


Mr. Ford, who was the undertaker of the works at point of fork Staunton 
now waits on your Excellency, to be directed by the determination of 
the Executive, whether he shall prosecute or abandon the public designs 
at that place. The enemy destroyed the barracks that had been erected 
there, but left the blacksmiths* shops untouched, as well as the frame of 
the Armoury which was raised and ready for covering in — 

The place has many advantages of situation, except the single circum- 
stance of its being possible that the enemy may visit it, tho' I think not 
probable, especially as the buildings cannot for a while be very exten- 
sive — 

I have the honor to be most respectfully &c 

Col: Georos Skillern to Gov. Nelson. June26ih' 

In accordance with orders from Honbl. Wm. Fleming, requiring one Botetourt Co. 
half the militia of the County, exclusive of all former demands, to ren- 
dezvous at once, he had ordered the draft, and they were to have assem- 
bled the day before at Anderson's Ferry — But some person of credit just 
from Staunton had "propagated a report'' that the militia of many of 
the Counties below, bad received permission to remain at home until 
they had finished their harvest — The report being believed, ho fears the 
attempt to draft the necessary number of men will fail. Ho makes this 
statement to exculpate himself from all blame, and is ready to enforce 
any measures which may be adopted. 

Asks for instructions as to how he is to dispose of the eighteen months 
men left in the County. Assures his Excellency, that the people of the 
County will, as they always have done, "turn out with the greatest 
spirit & allacrity " could they be allowed to remain at home until harvest 
is over — There are very strong rcasonH why thiH should be granted — 
Continues "about four years agoe Capt: Lapsley, a Continental Officer 
recruited in this county one Solomon Carpenter, Amos Carpenter & Sam- 
uel Lyons, at the time of their Enlistment he told them that they were 


1781. to serve as Life guard to General Washington k to receive 2. | 6' pr: day. 
Jane 26th Ailer they were marchd. to head quarters k foand that they ware not 
Imployed in that service, they deserted k have laid in the mountains for 
a long time, this party at this time, I have reason to believe is about 
forty or fifty — I have used my best endeavours to Disperse the Party k 
have the Leader apprehended, but every measure has proved ineffectual, 
the men above-mentioned are now at my house, under the sanction oS a 
Flag — they propose that they will serve two years with the militia of 
this county, whenever called for, or Join Greneral Clark for the same 
Term. I would only observe that Solomon Carpenter, the Leader of the 
party was captivated by the Indians when young k remained with them 
a number of years, that he is a Bold, daring, active man k intimates 
that if his terms are not complied with he will seek refuge among the 
Indians — His Party consists of active woodsmen, well armed with Rifles 
k might become very Dangerous — I think it's advisable to reclaim him 
k his party on the best terms we can k if these or any other terms ware 
offered, that ware satisfactory, I believe his Influence is great enough to 
bring in the party. I can assure you as there are men of credit now 
here who affirms it that they ware Deceived by the recruiting officer — 
there are parties of Toreys k Deserters lying in Montgomery k Wash- 
ington k they no Doubt have correspondence with Each Other k should 
they embody, might become very Dangerous to the Back Country. 
But whatever orders, your Excellency may please to send I will 
Indeavour punctually to comply with." 

Jane 27th Jno: Magill TO Alex: Whits, Dolphin Drew k Philip Pendleton 


Gill Hall Sending the Commission of Oyer k Terminer, received by Col: Van- 
tneter; informing them of their appointment, and suggesting that a 
meeting should be held previous to going to Romney — ^Unless this can 
be done, proposes their meeting at '* House's on Tiqiber Kidge on Sun- 
day Evening the 8th of next month." 

June 27th Major Wm. Nelson to Col: Davies. 

Winchester The unsettled situation of the Country for some time past, has pre- 
vented his applying for many articles needed by his Corps — Cheif of 
these are swords, without which Horsemen are useless, — but boots are 
almoHt as useful and as much wanted — A better set of men and horses 
have not been seen since the war began, than are to march with him on 
the morrow to join the Marquis. But he is under the necessity of leav- 
ing Capt: Armand with nearly forty men, who have good horses^ but 


no accoutremoDts. About thirty five of his men will bo entitled totbeir 1781. 
disoh&rgo very shortly, having enlisted for only two years — If he had June 27th 
the recroiting money, their plaees eould soon be supplied, and many of 
them retained to serve during the war. 

June 27th 

Autograph Lbtteb of Gbml: Nathl. Greene to Gov: Jefferson Gamp near 

"*^ ^^* between 

Broad Biver 
and Catawba 

Major John Prtor, Com: Genl: Mil Stores, to Col: Wm. Davies. June 27th 

"Dear Sir, 

Yours of the 24th was just now handed to me — I thank you Charlottes- 
for the agreeable pieee of Intelligence respecting our Southern opera- 
tions. I hope every thing will go well yet — Ld. Comwallis was last 
Saturday retreating rather precipitately, and the Marquis pursuing below 
Bottoms' Bridge — Majr. Thomas Massie just from Winchester, says that 
Grenl : Morgan is on his march with 3000 Eiflemen — with this addition. 
If they arrive in time, I think our Lads will have the fingering some of 
his Ld. ships Baggage & plunder at least. 

Being fully sensible of the scarcity of Ammunition in Camp I lost no 
time in erecting a Laboratory at this place for a supply, the want of 
lead and hands at first, was truly alarming, which you must have seen 
from my Letter to you on the subject. I left no stone unturned to pro- 
cure both, and at best, went on but feebly 'till you sent down the balance 
of the Laboratory men from Staunton a few days ago, and the arrival 
of 1500 lbs. Lead from Ross' works wch. I sent for — however, I have 
already sent down upwards of 12.000 musket Cartridges, and some of 
my Artificers wch. are daily dropping into me, making Ammn.-boxes to 
contain the cartridges wch. are making at the rate of about 3 or 4000 
pr: day — likewise Arms chests wch. have been so long wanted — a few 
days ago 90 muskits arrived here from the North'd — addressed to David 
Boss Esqr — they were new F. muskets — I have sent them down to the 
Marquis in chests, as I had orders to send all I could raise down to the 

I must think that the Marquis has a sufficiency of loose powder & lead 
in camp, or I should have had requisitions from Mr. McRobert, Field C. 
M. Stores, whose business it is to apply to me for supplies — I sent down 
Twenty odd barrels of Powder not long since & all the lead collected 
from the windows below, was to bo sent to camp wch. I supposed wou'd 
be suilieient for the Rifle Men. — The Marquiti has applied to me to have 
a few 18-pounder8 mounted as soon as possible — I immediately sent u 

* Appean in full in the Appendix to the Life of Greene, by Oeo. Washington 
Greene— pabliihed in 1867. 



1781. person down to Hanvr. Co House to enquire about the cannon & carriages 
June 27th wch. wore sent over to remove them, in that quarter: from thence he 
was to go over to Eichmond, and to make every inquiry about the can- 
non, carriages, Arms put out to repair &c &c, that way, and If the two 
carriages could be found wch. Capt Eoan had over towards Kano., two 
18-pounders were instantly to be mounted — this person is to make every 
enquiry into the cannon, arms &c. all up James Eiver, and bring me a 
report as expeditiously as possibie^ — I never heard of any cannon being 
at Carter's Ferry at all. Capt: Bohannan, who called on me, said it waa 
your desire that the Laboratory should be removed to Irvine's Store. 
We concluded it would be inelligible to remove it now, as Ammun. was 
so much wanted and a stagnation to preparing it might be fatal ; but as 
soon as an ample supply could be made, your plan mightr be adopted, 
wch. I hope will meet yr. approbation — amongst the artificers I have 
recruited, are sundry Armourers, Gun Stockers &c wch. I shall send to 
the Armoury you propose establishing at Irvines together wth. all the 
damaged Arms from camp, the supply of Lead is not enough — ^but 
hope my men will succeed, whom I have sent to the mines — I am sorry 
you declined sending Mr. Smith the cartridge paper to Bedford Co Ho., 
as I think it is of the first moment that that Laboratory should go on 
wth. vigour, Genl. Greene's dependence being totally on its supplies — I 
expect a large supply of cartridge paper on shortly from the Northd. — 
I mention'd to you in my Letter respecting my sending for lead, to the 
mines, that I had order'd a proportion to Staunton, under the Idea that 
you meant to establish a Laboratory at that place^ — now it seems you 
intend Irvin's shall be the place. You have never desired me to counter- 
mand that order. 

I have the honor to be 

with the highest respect & Esteem 
Dr Sir, yours Sincerely." 

Jane 27th G. WiLSON, SuBON. G. Hosp: TO CoL: Wm. Davies At Staunton. 

Charlottes- I had the honor of addressing you some time ago, respecting the 

ville ^an^ of the general Hospital in Virginia, but never had the pleasure of 
receiving an answer, probably the letter may not have reached you. 
Since that period the situation of the Hospital has been equally wretched 
and fluctuating — At present, by the Marquis' orders, it is fixed here — 
and consists of seventy patients, entirely destitute of every article, 
except a few pounds of Rice, that can render them comfortable, or hasten 
their recovery — I have wrote repeatedly to Philadelphia for cash, or 
Stores & assistance, but have had the mortification to see my applica- 
tions, and the department neglected. 


Sensibly impressed with the sufferings of the sick, and desirous to 1781. 
remove th^m, if possible, I have inclosed for your inspection an Inven- June 27th 
tory* of Stores which, for the sake of the poor languishing soldiers, I 
must beg you to patronise^ — If they cannot be procured in Staunton, I 
could wish a sum of money, adequate to the Inventory, might be granted 

I believe I could purchase all, or the most essential of them. Vinegar, 
sugar or molasses, and linnen are absolutely necessary — indeed 'tis impos- 
sible, without the loss of some lives to do without them. I have with 
great trouble & distress supplied the Regimental Surgeons with a small 
■assortment of Bandages, some lint and tow — These I procured fVom the 
inhabitants by begging, borrowing, stealing or rather forcibly taking — 
However, I am quite tired of such practices, and am determined for my 
own reputation, rather to want them, than practice or countcneance 
such methods any more — Should an action take place, I am confident 
the wounded must suffer beyond conception — I should be happy of an 
answer as soon as possible. I remain. 

With perfect esteem 

Sir, yr: most obet, hble Servant." 

Saml: Huntington, Pass: of Congriss to the Governor of Virginia. June27ih 

The Eegiment of Invalids, at the desire of the Commander in Cheif, Philadelphia 
being about to be removed from Phila. to garrison West Point on North 
River, Congress has passed a resolution, recommending the States of 
Delaware, Maryland & Virginia, to settle with the officers and men, citi- 
zens of those States respectively, on certificates from the Commanding 
Officer, without requiring their personal attendance, to liquidate their 
accounts for Depreciation of the currency. 

David Ross to Col: Wm. Davies at Staunton. June 28th 


Your favours of the 15th & 26th are now before me, tbey came to Pt. of Fork 
hand nearly abt the same time. 

The last information which I had from Oxford Works, mentnd. that 
there was three tons of Lead arrived at that place. I hope you have 
got a supply from thence — I mentnd. often in presence of Major Pryor, 
that I had ordered the Lead to that place & to be detained there 'till 
further orders — I am sorry to see by a letter just received fVom him, 
that he has forgot it — I have sent him an order for a ton.'' * 

* * ♦ » "Finding 

that our Executive are to be met with at Charlottesville, I will wait 

♦ Not found. 


tlHi. nym tk^rm ^/n HffftdMy, Wert jtm not so much engmgcd si present 
Auf>^7!^ fnnktn(( jfmr Mrtrenil ftmukgintd. si Stsanton, I wouM be hsppj^in meet- 
M»(( with y^/a St Clisriott«STille. 

f 4'/m\t\ Msy ma^b erf my oim dtstreas A miafortaiies, but thst <^ our 
O/tjfitry in si jnnstttnt slsmifng A obiKiires sll privsie Iosms. People will 
liav#; thdr r/wn opinir/iM in msttera. the Bsron is moch blamed this 
wsy, Ui^n frumVi by imen, women A chOdren.*' * * 

^ ^ * ^FindiDg no ssBistanee 

tumhl \hs olitaine^l frr>m the militsiy in ssving the 84, pks: of canvsas, I 
brot two C'snocH down the River, thst night after our Troops went awsy 
A los^le^J them, one with canvass and the other with Bacon of my own. 
I have save<l alKiut 70 odd pgs: of canvass A its* delvd. to Mr. Jones. 

I mivo<l a considerable qaantity of iron at fliis place, nail rod, 6uo 
bftrrels A gun Uxikn — a number of Old arms, spades, shovels, pick axes A 
Home rsanvass A Brimstone has been got out of the River, of all the 
powder left on Cobb's hill, 15 or 16 blls is saved — I think the Country 
people stole as much or more than the British destroy'd, >nd had the 
Kriemy continued 10 days longer amongst us, I have reason to beleive a 
number of our people would have broke in upon their neighbours' 

You've no doubt heard that all the stores at J. Ware's was destroy'd — 
this \h a disagreable situation, for amongst other evils, the small pox has 
broke out in difft parts of my Estate. 

I am yours 

most affectionately." 

JunnSIAih <^ov: NiLSON TO Marquis ni la Faysttx. 

Ulohinoiul lu (Miusequcnee of your first requisition of militia to join Grenl: 

Wayno A to pnweod to So. Caro,, the Executive directed a seventh part 
of the militia of several counties nearest the borders of Carolina to ren- 
doavouH in\modiately — these it was supposed would amount to about 
1000 or 1200 men. Aflerwanls when you desired the number to be sng- 
montiHi to 3000, the same counties were called on to increase their nnm- 
In^rs to one tburth web. would produce more than you required — ^No 
Part of the British Army having gone Southwardly, as wss spprehended 
when the latter Koquisition was rnado. a Doubt has arisen whether you 
u\«^Y now think 9000 more necessary fbr the Southern service. What 
r\nulerH the mnuliug a gr^Hiter number of men on this £xpedlti<m, tbsn 
the m^rvuH> aotualiy rvquires, a matter of more moment than it other- 
witK^ would U\ i» the tH.^ari^Uv of public arms A the Probability there is 
that we shall waul as mau>* as we i^an colleei, in other Quarteia. The 
Kx\H^ullvv wish to have your {^^utiments on this subject. 

I am Ac*'* 


J«Pa&ksr, ActiNO Colo. Comdg,, to Gov: Nelson. 1781. 

Jane 29th 
"Permit me my dear Sir, to congratulate you in the most warm man- Camp Babbs 

ner on*your appointment to the Government of us. The 9th instant, I 
wrote the Speaker of the Assembly, which is now enclosed for your 
perusal." ♦ ♦ ♦ " Since that date 

I was honored with yours empowering me to call on certain counties, 
which your Excellency must be sensible is not sufficient to answer the 
purposes of a camp so near so powerfull an Enemy as is now at Ports- 
mouth & its vicinity, especially as I am informed that General Gregory 
was routed the day before yesterday. I fear it is too true, as Capt Briss- 
coe crossed the Swampy last Evening, and reports that he was at the 
upper pass where numbers came to him & informed that the camp was 
routed, but I still have a hope its not true, but that a few timid 
wretches fled from the approach of the Enemy. Should it be the case 
you must be but to sensible of our situation, we have not a man above Surry 
with us. PHncess Anne ft Norfolk, and all Nancemond below Suffolk 
has taken protection from the Enemy, and are very dangerous Enemies. 
poor Nott has fiEdlen by them, he would not attend camp for Orders, 
bat Kept scouting about, doing the Enemy little injuries, 'till the morn- 
ing before last, when five of his county men laid a trap for and shott 
him afler they got him in it. not satisfied with puting a ball through 
his bowels, they put him in a cart and was jolting him down with haste 
to the British post at Ivy's, near which they were overtaken by Lt: 
Blunt with Ten Dragoons, who retook poor Nott & the rascally Serjeant 
which commanded the party — Nott died yesterday morning and the Sar- 
jent accompanys this, not thinking him safe here, as he is one of the 
most vile rascals in this part of the County, I should have disposed of 
him, but could not execute him without your approbation agreable to 
Law. he deserted from us in his tour of duty, has been arraigned at the 
Bar, for counterfeiting money, lives in Nancemond county and called 
Dempsey Butler. You have his pasport & parole inclosed, he is in 
high Esteem with the British, they having allready sent a Flagg in 
quest of him, and denounce vengeance against all in their power if he is 

I have informed them, that I despise their threats & that I have sent 
him up the country, where he will doubtless meet his deserts, that Eas- 
calls & Villains of every sort, will never meet with any protection or 
lenity from me — Unless something decissive is done with these peo- 
ple below Suffolk, my station must be very disagreablo. indeed I think 
it would be better to remove them over the mountains, I consider them 
much more dangerous than the public Enemy. I am well informed 
theree not one below Jericho, that has not gone in for protection, my 
impotency will cause this contagion to spread and by these means they 
will increase not only their strength, & weaken us, but extend their 


178L ytjvXii, baviDg nothing to feau* from thoee amongst them, indeed it 
JuM 29Ui diiipiriU the few good counties about us, to find the adjacent ones Idle. 
Vou haire a retun^ of the few men I have and from the counties, they 
are well disciplined and wofUd be well aiTn*d« if thej had bayonets, bat 
when the small stock of stores are expended I do not know where to 
procure more: indeed I am obliged to procure all, even provisions come 
under my care, and we have never had a shilling of money to pay of the 
del4s already contracted — I have directed my Commissary to have eveiy 
thing valued in specie, that the people may not loose by depreciation, 
and I most earnestly request that some person may be sent with money 
to pay of the debts and to remain here for the purpose of purchasing 
Hupplies of different sorts. If a wheel of my Iron pieces gives way, I 
must press, k my sick wants for small things, indeed you must feel for 
my situation as well as the number of good men we have in this part of 
the Country, and I doubt not but you will give the necessary directions; 
tho' indeed the civil power is to feeble so near the Enemy to act with 
that spirit which they ought — indeed I think that those who remain 
with the Enemy ought to pay the losses of the well affectecf. I am with- 
out Tents, but I cannot tire you any more on the subject. About four- 
teen days since, arrived near forty sail of vessels mostly from the Sonth- 
wanl, not long since from England* I beleive they have landed some men : 
from tho best accounts they are troops from Wilnungton. my intelli> 
gence is worse than ever it has been, as we have to many Enemies 
betwixt us and the advanced post, and I have not money to pay proper 
spies, had I money I could procure Carpenters to build &8t rowing 
boats, which would be very serviceable — I must request your Excellency 
will send me a few Commissions for privateers, as I have already two 
large whale boats done which will go cruizing in the bay in a day or 
two, and untill I can procure proper Corns, must give Brevets — about 
two hundred good Bifle men would be very serviceable, and if the coun- 
ties below Chesterfield were ordered down, it would make a respectable 
force, but I am told the most of these counties are in a most torpid state, 
indeed we ought io be reinforced from Carolina. I have wrote Grenl: 
Jones on tho subject, but if for want of men, they have lost the North 
West River Bridge, especially as I requested when I took Command 
here it might bo reinforced, it would appear we have little to expect 
from them, if it is the case, it is to be hoped the Enemy will make 
them pay for their inattention. I have reflected it wou'd take more of 
my men than I can spare at this time to send Butler to you, have there- 
fore confin'd him in So. Hampton Goal *till your orders shall be known. 

♦ Return, 

1 Colo. 2 Lt Coles. 1 Major. 18 Capts: 19 Lteuts: 10 Ensigns. 1. Aid de Camp — 
1. Urig: Inspector 1. Q. Master — 8 Sergt. Majors, 46 Sorgeants. Drams & Fifes 4. — 
Effectives 422— On f\irlough 26— 8ick present 6— Sick absent 20— Total Bank & File 


do honor mo with an answer to this, and bcloivo mo to bo with overy 1781. 
sentiment of respect and Esteom, Juno 29th 

Your Excellency's 
most obedient 

and very humble Servant. 

P. S. Many men act here without Commissions, by my appointment. 
pray send me some blanks, as it would releive their fears — Eoports from 
Portsmouth say a Congress is siting at Vienna, the Emperor of Germany 
presides. Bets is five to one at Portsmouth that a peace takes place 
before Christmas &c." 

Major Genl: Nath: Greeni to Gov: Jefferson. June 29th 


The importance of Partisan Corps as well as the necessity for aug- Head Quitr- 
menting our Cavalry is more and more felt every day. Capt: Budulph cpoM^RoadS* 
belonging to Jjt: Colo Lee*s Legion comes to Virginia with a view of 
augmenting that useAiU and necessary Corps. Whither the circumstances 
of the other Corps of Cavalry and the peculiar situation of Virginia 
will admit of enlarging this Corps, Tour Excellency will judge and 
direct accordingly — I have only to observe that whatever aid is given to 
this business will essentially promote the service, and the force so formed 
shall be employed in Virginia, while the State continues to be oppressed. 
I have the honor to be, with great respect, 
Your Excellency's 

most Obedt. Humble Servant." 

Col : James Callaway sends to Col: Davies, for five men enlisted for Juno 29th 
eighteen months, 20.000 Dollars, bounty money, each to receive 4.000 Bedford Co. 

Chas Russell, D. Q. M — ^recommends to Col: Davies, the policy of dis- June 29th 
tilling whiskey, now so necessary to the Army, from the super abundant Amhorvt, 
supply of Rye on hand in this and the adjacent Counties, and the pros- ^^^^''^'■•g^'^ 
poets for an unusually large crop. 

CoL: Rd: Jarmes to Col: Davies at Charlottesville. June 29th 

He will set about building the boats ordered, in a few tlays; agrees Cumberland 
with him in regard to the dimensions — The Knemy did not cross the 
river, by which fortunate circumstance, they escaped the plunders — 
hopes it will not soon be in their power to make another such excursion. 


1781. Math: Pope, Subgn. G. Hospital to Hon: Benj: Harrison at 
June 30th Staunton. 

" I have wrote the late Governor Mr. Jefferson respecting the medi- 
cine belonging to this State from R. Island, being seized by the Conti- 
nental Beptmt. — ^this Sir is a fatal stroke to us, and more particularly so 
just now as we have lost all our medicines and stores, Colo Tarlton over- 
took them in Louisa, and burnt both waggons & medicines — I am now 
setting off from Camp in order to procure medicine for the use of the 
Army." ♦ ♦ * * ♦ 

*'I hope in the mean time proper steps will be fallen upon to recover 
those or others, according to lists in the hands of Mr. Jefferson, So 
cruelly and unjustly taken from us " &c. 

JuneSOih Major John Prtor to Col: Davies. 

Charlottes- Urging him to make provision for supplying the Artificers under him; 
and who all 
they be fed. 

^' ^ and who although essential to the service, must be discharged unless 




Yincennee " The undersigned have the honour to present to your Excellency, the 
very serious greivances to which they have been exposed, since the 
arrival of Virginia Troops in this Country: and especially since Capt 
(Col : ) Clark left this town have we experienced most horrible treatment 
from a people who professed to be friends, and who were generously 
received as such. But things have totally changed since the departure 
of that Officer. He left in command Col : Montgomery, who with his 
Officers have failed to carry out his friendly policy. We have with 
promptitude furnished provisions and goods as &r as was in our power. 
Col: Clark drew bills on the Treasurerof Virginia which remain unpaid. 
The accredited Officers of finance and others have assured us that Con- 
tinental money was of equal value with coin, and we accepted the same 
in good faith. When the Virginians gave us cause to be suspicious of 
their money, we remonstrated with Col : Clark and the Officers of the 
Garrison, who, notwithstanding this fact, claimed for this money its 
value in Spanish Coin. Mr. John Todd in accord with Capt: Leonard 
. Helm, commanding the Fort at this town, has required by public order 
that this money be received as of equal value with Specie, threatening 
punishment of all who re^ed it. As soon as we had furnished provi- 


sious & goods for this nione}', the Virginians appeared to think they 1781. 
could take by force our property, our supplies, and even the little we Juno 30th 
had reserved to keep ourselves alive. 

Your Excellency must also be informed, that in addition to these 
annoyances, they have perpetrated others of a more serious character, 
[by Killing our Cattle in the fields, and our hogs in our yards, taking our 
flour from the mills, and the com in our Gamers, with arms in their 
hands threatening all who should resist them, and the destruction of the 
fort we built at our own cost. When they lefl the town they carried off 
the artillery, powder and Balls, thereby depriving us of the onl^' means 
of defending ourselves against the fury of the Savages, whom they have 
excited against us. This you perceive is the conduct Virginians have 
pursued in this Country. Your Excellency may be assured this is the 
exact truth, and Mr. Vaucheres is charged with the duty of represent- 
ing the matter to your Excellency, of demanding the satisfaction due 
to us as Citizens and friends of the States, and to make adequate return 
for the money we have received as of the value of Specie. 

We l>cseech your Excellency to require the troops to put an end to 
the troubles they continue to produce; we are unwilling longer to sub- 
mit to the exactions incident to their lawless proceedings, it being appa- 
rent to his Excellency that the Virginians have entirely ruined us already. 
If it bo thus you treat your friends, pray what have you in reserve for 
your Enemies? We must insist that your Excellency put an end to our 
misfortunes, and render us the Justice our patience deserves. 
Assuring you of our pi'ofound Respect, 
We have the honor to be Ac 








Col: Christian Febioer to Col: Wm. Davies — at Staunton — June 30th 

" Dr. Colo., Camp 

I have been on a Tory Expedition since I came to Virginia; Quaint letter 
1 afterwards joined the army and commanded a mutinous Brigade, 
untill the Baron arriv'd with the new Levies, of whom I took command. 
But Lord have mercy upon us, a mwlest army of Women on examining 
Any Thing lower than the navel, would instantly take to their Scrapers 



1781. on tlio Appcaranco of »o many nakod Clubs in . The fact ifi the 

JunedOtb men arc literally naked, Hhirta and BlankottH oxceptod — I must there- 
Men naked fore earneHtly requent the Favour of you to givo your special and per- 
sonal asHistanco to Major Poulson, in procuring &c a sufficiency of shoes 
Overalls and Hatts" &c — or the men "will from real nakedness, be com- 
pelled te quitt the Feild — many are now lefl about the Country, with 
their Feet half worn off, and I do not think there is more than 20 prs: 
of good shoes in the Regiment.'^ ♦ * ♦ 

The Baron ♦ ♦ ♦ * u rjxy^^ Baron 

Uke^ohargo^ wants mo to take charge of the Station when fixed — I prefer the Field 
of the 8ta- especially when active. But should the Enemy, retire yet further I 
^^^ ^' beleive I will accept — pray give me your advice on this point — I have 
ruined myself by being in Command to Philadelphia — Can I send for 
Madam and maintain her at the Station or here — have I a Commissary 
of my own — will the public give me as much as I can eat and drink, 
will thoy permit me to give a hungry man a Dinner — may I keep one 
horse extra as Comdt — pray satisfy me on these points, and beleive me 
to be with real Esteem 

Dr. Colo, your most obedient &c. 

July Ut W. PiCKKRiNQ Q. M. GsN£&AL TO Major Ed: Claiborne. 

"My dear Sir, 
Camp at Your favours of May 30th & Juno 8th both arrived to day. 

* * 1 am gmveil that my long silence should have given you pain from an 
appivhouaion that 1 was dissatisfied with your conduct. Far from this, I 
have i-ather woudoixxl under the innumerabell embarrassments in your 
district that you did so well. 1 have not heard a Syllable to your dis- 
advantage, or that of your assts. If I had, my candour and the friend- 
ship 1 bear you, would have induced me to tell yo so. — the accounts of 
your management of Business given in your letters I have read with great 
pleasure, most of them describe your distress, and if it had been pos- 
sible for me to have releived you I would gladly have done it, but for 
want of money my hands are tied. All public credit is at an end here, 
as well as with you. Money is the universal cry, with that I can get any 
thing and at a cheap rate. 

You mention the want of Leather, I suppose for Horse Harness- 
There is a considerable quantity of Harness ready made in Pensylvania. 
Write to Colo. Miles for as many sets as you must be supply *d with — I 
will write him by the first conveyance, also aller I can find a moments 

I have long intended to notice m a long letter, all the letters you have 
iavoured me with ; but the volumes I am obliged to write on business 
essential to the main Army have prevented. At your distance, I know 


my interference could not materially help you. you have ollen awkoci I7H1. 
for money. I can scarcely get enough to support my own expenoos & July Int 
am every day running in debt to my friends for my own support. 

I beg you to beleive that my silence (should I be silent hereafter) will 
not spring from inattention to you, but from my unwoildy load of Busi- 
ness & my inability to help you. 
I am Dear Sir 

With great Esteem 

Your most Obet Ser\a." 

Thomas Smith D. C. Ginl: M. Stores to Col: Davieb, at Staunton.* July lit 

Expressing great concern at the situation "of our Publico uiutterH'* Now LKindim 
and regrets the Continental and State affairs have become so blundiid as to 
involve both in common difficulties — He has however manager] to remove 
all the stores from Prince Edwanl C. House, alter great trouble — will 
send return of them soon, and hopes to be prepare<l to render all ntices- 
sary assistance to the State. 

Major John Prtor to Col: Wm. Davibs at "Colo, Le win's/' July in 

Since he has been in charge of the Department over which he pn;- ChwUtiUm' 
sides, experience has demonstrated the injury resulting fn>m attempting ^'''^ 

to maintain for the Continental and State services sei>arate arrange- 
ments for their Military Stores — This is shown by the trcjuble he has, in 
collecting & Keeping separate at places desigfiate<J by onJers, the sf ires 
of each department; by the power of State officials to break up or int4;r- 
fere with works established by him for the preparation of Ammunition, 
and disposing of magazines upon which he deficnds for imnje<Jiate suii- 
plies, thereby risking the delay of these, when calle^J for by the (Unn- 
manders in the field — Being the only person, upon whom the Command- 
ers of the Armies or Corps in the Southern Department, depend, in the 
now thoroughly invaded States, he propOM?<« that they deli%'er OY*:r the 
whole of thifir Military Stores to the Commissar)' (itul : of Militar>' 
Stores or his Deputy, for the common defence; ea/rh Statt; t/i \Mi t:r*AiuA 
with such as shall be earned out of her l/oubdfi. ittA Xph a/.^y/un«^i ihr 
by a subsequent Mttiement with the Contin^rntaJ ti^rru-^^—H^: 'Um^ n^/t 
doubt Capt: Bohannan't cafi^^'ity or actirity a<> tL«r C^mt: of Nil: iiu^r*» 
of Vin^nia. but ¥^e^^%f^ tLi* plan a- fy/iiducjn;^ u*A *Hi\y t/> the prcv^rn- 
tion of delajfe, n«^k« ax»d %^.^:A*:ti\.^. but aW/ \4j \\»^ r^yJu'rJfjjr th«f «rxprM^ 
of having many Siatt OlB^^r^ t^A aW/lutely wuuu^i If I« ffK4jv«r i^^r 
sagg«9Stin^ tiit# thiOts*: ipniig«> a2'^>«r fn^m atj aijxi'^u* d^Aunr t// tb«:A;l \L^ 
wanOi of tbe Armj. *^.* Hw a^ '-obotrii*' Li^ i>«f#art4u«fft. 


1781. Col: Jamos Callaway informs Col: Davies, that the Wagon and team 

July 2nd required of the County is ready, and that the amount of Clothing will 
Bedford Co. be, in a few days. 

July 2nd Majoe B. Ed: Joel TO Beig: Genl: Weedon. 

"Dr. General, 
Leeds Inclosed is a letter* I have met with from a noted scoun- 

drell in Port Royal to Mr. A. Crawford of this place, who has likewise 
laid under suspicions for this long time. You may rest assured Mr. Mil- 
ler is a principle link in the chain of Torys which runs thro' these Coun- 
V^' y^^ ^*^^ likewise receive depositions of the Capts Harper & Bris- 
coe and of Mr. Willm. Saunders of this place against a certain Capt. 
Holland, — whose character has long been equivocal — I have many mere 
evidences against him, but think these sufficient to foward, your orders 
to me to apprehend them, and not permit at this critical juncture these 
vipers to crawl about unnoticed and unregarded — there has been a con- 
stant run of letter past from Port-royal to this town, and from hence to 
Hob*s Hole & Urbanna this day or two. — the flag sent down by Monta- 
gue is returned, but the Enemy has permitted Mr. Walker & Denizon to 
proceed to New York to look afler their property — these are the blessed 
advantages of being Torys: a true Whig would find a great diflference 
in their conduct, was he to condescend to apply for his property. I pre- 
sume not to pass my sentiments on these dark transactions & on the con- 
duct of the Rascalls — permit me only to observe, that until! coercive 
measures are taken, they will triumph in their crimes, and pursue their 
correspondence with the British unmolested — I shall wait here to celebrate 
our glorious Independence on Wednesday, for which great preparations 
are making!!! — I have just receiv'd Intelligence of the return of one 
Lewit Stevens (a capital Pilot for the Bay & these rivers) to Urbanna 
from the Enemy — he was lately wounded on board one of their vessels, 
in cutting the Jolly Robin out of Curatoman — he has a private signal 
for going on board them. Tho' 70 miles from here, I wait impatiently 
for your order to apprehend him — he is of the most dangerous sort. I 
dispatch t an Express to Frazers, and Tod's Bridge to look out for that 
rascal Care, & likewise one to the Brig at the mouth of the River. I 
have been obliged to supply them with money for their expenees — which 
as my finances are not extensive has greatly reduced them. I should 
esteem it as a singular favor if you would oblige me with the use of 1000 
or 1500 dollars untill I return to fredericksburg — Col: Jott and Skinker 
desires their respects. 

I am with sincere esteem and respect 

Your obliged." — 

♦ Not found. 




Saml: Lyli to Col: Daviks. 1781. 

July 2nd 
Accepting the appointment of CommiBsioncr of the Provision Law — Rockbridge 

The principal articles to bo had in the County are Flour, Corn, and 

Oats — Some little whisky. There is a large quantity of flour made 

from the wheat collected in the specific tax, to be fowarded to the army, 

but great difficulty in procuring waggons & teams for the purpose. 

Wm. Gratson to the Gov: of Vieqinia. July 2nd 


The Board have the honor to inform you, that they have furnished War Office, 
Capt: Sigogne, commanding officer of Colonel Armaitd's Legion, with U»»^8t**«« 
clothing and accoutrements for that Corps, with an intention that they 
might act with effect in the army commanded by the Marquis La-Fay- 
ette — They find it absolutely impracticable to furnish them with the 
additional number of horses necessary; the whole amount of the Legion 
is »ixiy nine, for whom there are only twenty five horses; if your Excel- 
lency could furnish them with a sufficient number to mount the whole on 
Continental account, it would be doing a very essential service; indeed 
if you are in such a situation as to be able to mount any of the other 
Continental Corps, it will be productive of the best consequences. 
I have the honor to be with the highest 

respect, yr: Excelly's most obt Servt." 

Major R, Claiborne informs Col : Davics, that the subjects of his late July 8rd 
communicationH had niet the entire approbation of the Assistant Deputy Cbarlottes- 
Q. Masters, especially that of making the County Commissioners of the ^'''® 

provision law perform their duties — a thing they have by no means done 

Major Pryor informs Col: Davies, that Mr. Ben: Colvard, whom he July 8rd 
bad sent to the Lead mines for lead, has procured Six thousand pounds — Charlottes- 
18t)0 lbs. sent to Bedford Co. House — the remainder sent to Staunton. ^"'® 


1781. Petition op numerous Citizens Militia, late in the expedition to Genl: 
July 3rd Greene'H army, praying the Executive of Va. to be allowed this term 
of service as a "tour of duty" notwithstanding they had returned to 
their homes before their time had expired. 

BotctourtCo. They state that out of about half the county two thirds of the militia 
were taken, and the entire strength of the other half — After they had 
marched, it was found that only one fourth had been ordered — By the 
time they reached N. Carolina they were near to starvation, having 
to pass through a country desolated by both the main armies; and were 
exposed to cold rains and several severe skirmishes with the enemy — 
Being seriously reduced by these exposures, both in Officers and men, 
and being unfit for military duty, many of them officers & men volun- 
taril}'' returned to their homes — They beg also to represent, that after 
their return a Court Martial was held for the trial of the Officers, who 
were promptly acquitted, but that the privates not only failed to get a 
trial, but were peremptorily ordered into active service again. Many 
who have since returned have rec/d their discharges — Under these cir- 
cumstances they invoke the favorable consideration of the government, 
solemnly averring their willingness ever to turn out, when called upon, 
to repel the invasion of their Country by the Common Enemy. 

July 4th Col: Jas: Barbour to Gov: Nelson. 

Oulpepor Co. The Warrant granted for impressing horses, confined the impressing 
Officers to the Counties contiguous to the march of the Enemy, conse- 
quently very few have been gotten — Mr. French Strother informs him, 
that by Act of Assembly they may be taken any where — If his Excel- 
lency will now foward Warrants, he will undertake to procure some very 
good horses — When he had the pleasure of seeing him with Jhe Army 
in Louisa, orders were given to releivc the Culpeper Militia then in ser- 
vice, at the end of two months — lie has ordered this i-eleif to march on 
the 20th inst. 

July4ih Brig: Gbnl: G. Weedon to the Governor. 

" Dr. Sir, 
Fre<]oric'ib'g This will be handed to you by Mr. Gray, who goes to Char- 

lottesville to look after the negroes taken by the Essex militia, with that 
scoundrel (-anx). It seems the negroes ai^e to be considered as prize to 
the Militia; a circumstance I was ignorant of when they were sent 
away, it appears but just and no doubt will be admitted, Carre and his 
Officers being paroled below, I did not care to put them under guanl 
when they arrived here, tho' having my doubts respecting their honor 


had placed four spies over them, they found nieauri to elude them, and 1781. 
the same night that they were brought up here, broak their parole and July 4th 
made their escape. I should have advised your Excellency of this before, 
but had hopes that some of my parties would retake them — they are all 
come in without gaining the smallest Intelligence of them." * 

^p ^p ^^ ^^ ^^ 

Am with perfect respect & Esteem 

Yr: Escellencies most ob Servant." 

Col: Wm. Christian to the Governor op Virginia. July 6th 


About February lant Genl: Gi"een appointed a number of persons Hahanaim 
in this State and North Carolina, to wit, William Christian, William 
Preston, Arthur Campbell, Joseph Martin, Robert Lanier, Evan Shelby, 
Joseph Wdliams and John Severe Commissioners, to treat with the 
Cherokee Indians, and I sent a copy of the Commission to the Execu- 
tive of Virginia, As a negociation of that kind could not be carried on 
without money, I have made several applications for some : all which 
have been so unluckey as to pass unnoticed — On the 24th of March, 
Cols: Campbell, Martin, Shelby and Severe met at Fort P. Henry, and 
sent off one of the Indian Prisoners to the Cheif of their nation propos- 
ing a Treaty, and to meet for that end on the 10th of June, at the Great 
Island of Holston. These gentlemen afterwards prolonged the time to 
the 20th of this Instant, expecting that I could attend then, and be able 
to procure money to carry it on. I have not hitherto been so anxious 
about succeeding as I am now, because it was rather doubtful whether 
the nation would send their Kepresentatives to meet or not. But now 
finding they are actually coming, I trust your Excelly. will pardon me 
for troubling the Board once more. I have nothing official from either 
of the Commissioners, but yesterday two men from Washington in No. 
Carolina told me that about a week ago 150 Indians were at Lick Creek 
on their way to the Island, and that Col: Severe had sent a party of 
men to Guard them in. Lick Creek is about 30 miles from the Island — 
To day People from Sullivan County, and othci^s from Washington in 
Virginia, brings an account that a large Body of them were near the 
Island, that 600 are to be there on the 20th, and that Col: Shelby had 
ordered out the militia of Sullivan to protect them — All these Reports 
are convincing to me that they mean to attend. And as it is 130 miles 
from here to Staunton & from here again to the Island 130 miles, I con- 
elude there is no time to be lost betwixt this day and the 20th Instant, 
I do not wish in our prusent situation to recommend giving the Indians 
either Arms, Ammunition or importe<l go(Mi>, or even Liquor: hut if we 
mean to negociate at all, we ought to provide Provisions for all that 
may come, So long as they choose to stay: and it may be necessary to 
give a few Presenta in Horses, or such Things as the neighbourhood 


1781. may afforrJ. At the Treaty at the ^ame Place in 1777 came more than 
July &th 400 men, women and children attended, and I doubt not but at least as 
many will now come, and I cant think they will wish to go away before 
the middle or la>tt of August, when they may expect something to eat 
out of their new crops; the last year's being all destroyed. Contingent 
charges will be high. Upon this view I am of opinion, not less than 
£200.000 would answer the Purpose ; and I submit to your llonbl. Board 
whether a Warrant can, with Propriety be ordered. Indeed supposing 
it to be going out of the Common Road, may it not be supposed that 
Virginia, when she is advancing millions upon millions for the Conti- 
nent, will advance this small sum, to be charged with the Rest, rather 
than suffer a Business of such exceeding great Importance to fail. Allow 
mo to observe to your Excellency, that supplies for an Aifair so Delicate 
as an Indian Trdaty in that Part of the Country cannot be procured by 
impressing, nor fixing certain Prices upon them. If there is no money 
ready in the Treasury to be spared : the sum the Board chooses to order 
may be divided in several Warrants, and some of these probably 
exchanged with sheriffs who have collected public money, and others 
passed to People who can give large supplies of Provisions: but the 
ready money would bo a great saving — I expect money is better in the 
neighbourhood of the Island, than in any other Part of this State, and 
that Things will bo got for about 200 for one. Col. Lanier, the first 
named of the Carolina Commissioners applied to Genl: Gi*een for money 
k ho wrote to him to apply to the Continental Treasury Office in Vir- 
ginia for £150, in specie; an Extract of that Letter was sent to me, but 
I could got no money upon it — I shall make no Remarks upon his idea 
of such Business. 

I entreat your Excellency and the Honble: the Council to consider 
what will bo the consequence, if the Indians are now Disappointed & 
hurried off for want of Provisions; and without money is ordered, I see 
nothing the Commissioners can do, but tell them to go Home as speedily 
as possible, having no way to procure any Thing for them to subsist on 
among the white People. If I was certain our affairs were fiourishing 
in South Carolina, I might be loss anxious, but of that we have no cer- 
tainty hero. Much depends upon the Fate of Ninety Six, and there is 
no Account in this Part of the Country, of its Fall. 

I am doubtful the North Carolina Commrs. have made no Provision 
for the Treaty: indeed their money will scarcely pass in their own State — 
ours will, as well as in our own State, (in these two Countys on this side 
of tho mountains), but if they havo, the Virginia Commrs. will be as 
saving as possible, and use all the Economy the service will admit of — 
as it is very difficult to get an Express to go any Distance, Capt: Mac- 
corklo tho Bearer, has been Kind Enough to offer his service to go down 
for mo: he wants no reward, but if tho Auditors will give him a War- 
rant for his Expences, it will be well Enough. I have now only to beg 
that your Excellency will not let him be delayed. 

I am with much deference & Respect your ob Senrt.*' 


Datid Ross ro Col; Paviks. 178L 

*-Sir, July Mh 

Since I had ihe pleasure of seeing you, have met Mr. James Maur\\ 1^^ *^f FVrk 
and find Lord Comwallis has agreed to grant |)ass}.H>rts tV>r the sate vH>n- 
vevanee of 400 hhds: of Toba, to Charleston, lor the pur|Hise of joying 
the debts contracted there by the prisoners of the Virginia line, and 
promises to grant passports for a further quantity if this is tound insuf- 
ficient — hia Lordship annexes the following iH^nditions — That none of 
the Tobo. to be sent, shall go from James or York Uivers — thai )>ass- 
pons will not be granted to Vessels within their reach — this last expres- 
sion is rather vague, and may be extended to vessels up any large liivera 
where the British Ships of War can gi>, — hut I cannot think that is his 
meaning. For several reasons, which I shall communicate when I come 
down, I wish to send a larger quantity of Tobacco to Churlestown — 
L'pon the whole, this business is now u|>on a pretty good footing.** * 

♦ 3|( 3^ 4l ♦ 

I am with the greatest respect Ac.*' 

W. Porter Jnr: Com. Mil Stores to Col: Davieh. July 6th 

He has bcei^ informed by Capt Cocke, that he is much blamed for the Broad Waior 
loss of the Military Stores at Carter's Ferry, and that he letl that Post 
without giving duo notice — lie had authority from Major Pryor by let- 
ter to go to Broadwater, and leave the stores in the hands of a reliable 
person. This he had done and taken his receipt — He then proeee<lo<i to 
Broadwater to have the stores removoii, in accordance with iiiHtructions, 
but could not get transportation for the ])urposi>— Had this been feaHible, 
it would have been impossible to have carried them up the country, in as 
much as the Enemy was at Petersburg — Cornwallis was between him 
and Charlottesville, and after repeated attempts, he foun<l it impoHsiblo 
to go himself without great danger of being captured — Under these 
circumstances ho had retired to Col: Parker's Camp, and done service 
there, untill ho could communicate with Major Pryor. On the day 
before he had received Orders from that Officer — He is rowly to account 
for all the Military Stores under his charge, sinco he had an api)ointment 
in the Department. 

Robert Morriss to the Governor op Viroinia. Jtiljoth 

" Sir, 

I do myself the honor to enclose the Copy of an Act of (.^ongress Pbilsdslpbis 
of the 28th of June 1781, from which your Excellency will perceive 
that I am directed to press a Compliance with the several Ker|uisitions 
of Congress upon your State. Immediately upon the Keceipt of this 



1781. RcHolution, I wrote to the Treasury Board, the Commissary General and 
July 6th Quarter Master General for returns, by which to determino the several 
Balances due. Whenever I shall have received them, I will do myself 
the honour of addressing your Excellency again on the Subject, and am 
to pray that in the Interim, measures may be taken within your State, 
to comply with these several Requisitions as far as they may hitherto 
have been uncomplied with, the Object of my present Letter is to give 
you Early notice of that Resolution and further to inform you as the 
Balance of these Requisitions is the only Fund, from which the Expendi- 
tures of the Campaign are to be drawn, I must urge the most speedy 
and punctual Compliance on the Part of the Several States. Your 
Excellency's good sense will render it unnecessary for me to dwell on 
this Subject, and your Regard for the Publick Interest will, I am Confi> 
dent interest you most deeply in the facilitating a Compliance with this 
Essential demand. 

With the greatest respect 

I have the honor to be 

Your Excellency's 

Most obt hbl. Servant." 

July 6th Major Rd: Claiborne to Col Davies. 

CharlotteB- Among the number of impossibilities in the Quarter Master's Depart- 

^*^^® ment, in its present state, tho' indispensably necessary to be done : that 
Great diffi- of procuring forage is one. It is generally the case, and I should bo 
culty of pro- gjj^^ ^f your influence and authority with the County Commissioners, to 
forage, Ac. deliver it, whenever the Assistant Deputy Quarter Masters may call for 
it: but I have reference particularly to the post at Staunton. Captain 
Hamilton writes to me in the most distressing terms, that he cannot 
obtain a grain, and that a considerable number of Cavalry and Wagon 
horses there, are now almost perishing — The Express who waits upon 
you with this, will receive & carry such orders you may think most 
effectual to Issue upon this occasion. 

I think Sir, it may not be amiss to mention to you, that as the Assist- 
ant Deputy Quarter Masters have so willingly undertaken to render 
their assistance in such points as you have requested, you cannot oblige 
them more, than by making the County Commissioners furnish the 
means of transportation and forage, whenever they may be required. 
I have the honor to be 

with great respect & esteem 
Sir your obedient Servant. 


Major John Peyoe to Col: Wm. Davies. 1781. 

Dear Sir, July 6th 

With this, I beg leave to trouble you with a Letter to his Excel- Charlottes- 


lency the Governor, requesting a supply of money to discharge the 
arrearages of the department, I have been acting in ; that is, I mean 
money borrowed and advanced ; as to pay it is out of the question — 

I begin to feel myself greatly releived in being informed that the Great scarci- 
Hhnble Board of War has appointed another person to the post I have ^j'^fficuUies^f 
been acting in, previous to my appointment from the Baron — as he was his poflition, 
appointed some time in the winter, 1 think it is almost time that we 
should begin to expect him, or at least his plenipo — the Lord prosper & 
make it easy to him say I — 

My man being in great want of a pair of shoes, I should be most 
obliged to you for an order to Capt: Peyton for a pair. 

I am 

Dr. Sir 

Your most obt 
and very 

J. Patillo, a. Com: of Issuis — to Col: Davies. July 6th 

Dr. Colo., 

When a man is destitute of money, cloaths and friends: he is Near New 
in my oppinion an object of pity — whether this may be my case or not, I asgow 

will leave it you to judge, when I tell you that I am realy destitute of the Characteris- 
two former, and if I don't find the latter in you, I am absolutely lacking ft!^nf*^'offi- 
of the whole — My dear Sir, you was an eye witness to the hard duty I cer for cloth- 
perform'd at Chesterfield & you may well know likewise that I have ^^* 
never drawn a farthing of pay since I have been in service: & when 
cloathing was to be had, I wou'd get nothing but a shirt&apr: of 
shoes — ^The cloathing I brought from home is now worn out & I can 
scarce hide my nakedness, and as you are the only person that can 
befriend me in this case, I most humbly request you to give me an order 
for such necessarys, as you may think proper, as you are well acquainted 
with my circumstances, as also with what cloathing I have already 
drawn — if you are Kind enough to give me an order please to send it by 
Capt: Darby, as I shall have an opportunity of seeing Capt: Peyton 

I am Dr. Colo., with all due respect 

Your very humble Servt. 




July 6th 


Urgent re- 
quest for 
funds to meet 
expenses of 
of the South, 

Major John Pbyor to Gov: Nelson. 

Since I undertook to act as Commissary Genl of Military Stores for 
the Southern department, a vor^' considerable expence has attended my 
operations — I represented this matter to the Marquis de Lafayette, who 
gave me the inclosM order on the Treasury of this State, I suppose not 
considering the impropnety of the matter, and not having yet been fur- 
nished wth money, whilst the Expenses are growing too great for my cir- 
cumstances or credit, to support much longer, I have to request that you 
would be pleased to procure me an order for the sum of one hundred & 
Twenty Thousand dollars on the Treasury to enable me to satisfy the 
loans that have been made me, and other monies advanced for my depart- 
ment, for which I will account. 

I have the honor to be with every sentiment of Respect and Esteem, 
Your Excellency*s 

Most obedient 

and very Hble Servt. 

July 7th 

near Char- 

Capt Jno: Peyton to Col: Davies. 

Urging the necessity of employing and sending at once a certain num- 
ber of experienced curriers, and tailors to that place — Col Febiger in 
command of the Virga. Troops might furnish them — Should this bo done, 
he can suppl}' the Virginia Line, with the necessary shoes and clothing. 

July 7th Mr. Henry Tazewell to Gov: Nelson — enclosing letter of Gov: 
Greensville Jefferson to Major Wall, in regard to Mr. Jno: Wickham.* 

Co. Sir, 
Case of Mr. In November last Mr. Jo. Wickham, a young gentleman who is a 

ham, &c. 

John vvick- njii^jy^ Qf Long Island, came to Virginia from New York with his undo 

* Sabine, in his *' Biographical Sket9he8 of Loyalists of the American Revolution'', 
Vol II, p. 427, says, Mr. John Wickham, <* entered the Queen's Rangers as an 
ensign, and at the peace was a captain — and further states that Lieut: Col: Simcoe, 
the noted commander of that Corps, ** speaks of him a.s an officer of quickness and 
courage" — 

These statements do not accord with the facts given in the letters recorded above — 
The Queen's Rangers, a corps of Loyalists at the time referred to by Sabine, 1777, 
were operating in New York and Pennsylvania, and were not transferred to Vir- 
ginia until 1780— 

Mr. John Wickham, wo find was a minor living with his uncle in Virginia in 
1 781 — It is not probable therefore, that nearly four years before that time, he could have 
been a prominent officer in an active partizan corps; and should have left that corps, 
with the prospect of preferment before him — The Wickham mentioned by Sabine, 

Calendar o^ state papers. ' 2O6 

Edmund Fanning with a view of making this country his place of Resi- 1781. 
dence after he had qualified himself for the practice of the Law & of July 7th 
living here during his minority under the directions of his uncle the 
Rev: William Fanning. But on his arrival at Portsmouth he failed to 
observe the precautions in coming out, which since, he has found was 
necessary — He was therefore apprehended in the neighborhood of Genl: 
Muhlenberg's camp, which was at that time in Nansemond & examined 
before a Court Martial who came not to a decision as I have been 
informed, in consequence of Genl: Muhlenberg's orders — ^Afber this the 
Papers & Letters relating to Mr. Wickham were transmitted to Gover- 
nor Jefferson who in Council came to the determination contained in 
the inclosed Paper to which I beg leave to refer you. 

"December 21st 1780"— 

I laid before the Council the Rev : Mr. Fanning's Letter to Mr. Letter en- 
Tazewell together with the Letters and other Papers found on Mr. TazeweS to 
Wickham — The general Expectations of remaining in this country, with Gov. Nelson 
which the Enemy (and probably) this young Gentleman came into it, [hig ^enSe-*^ 
the political character of the Gentleman under whose Auspices he came, man 
his not leaving the Enemy *till they were obliged to retire, and the com- 
plexion of his own Journals and Letters, are circumstances which place 
him, in their Belief, among the Enemies of this Country. Nothing 
appears which even leads to a suspicion that a Difference in political sen- 
timent was among the motives which led him from his connections with 
the Enemy to seek a union with this Countr}% The manner of his 
effecting his Transition from the one Party to the other, was not likely 
to produce any other than a hostile Reception — he comes an Enemy 
from an Enemy, in the midst of our Country, with arms in their Hands, 
attempts to pass without application to, or Leave from, any officer civil 
or military, and to bear Letters, negotiating an Interview between an 
officer high in the adverse command, and citizens of this State. Under 
these unfavourable circumstances, the Board cannot but deem him an 
Enemy, and (being within our Power) a Prisoner of War — They are at 

was afterwards promoted to a Lieutenancy, and at the peace in 1783 was a Captain, 
whereas Mr. John Wickham, whose case wo find so much absorbing the attention of 
Mr. Henry Tazewell, was a mere youth in 1781, not in the military service in any 
capacity but entertaining the purpose to prepare himself for the legal profession, as 
a citizen of Virginia — It is therefore impossible he could have been a Captain in the 
British service at the peace several years later. In addition to this, Simcoe in the 
journal kept of his very active operations in Virginia down to the surrender of his 
Corps at York town, makes no mention of Lieutenant or Captain Wickham — ^The 
latter had been put in command of a body of picked men attached to the Rangers, 
just previous to their arrival in Virginia, and it is not to be supposed, a young and 
ambitious officer would have left such a command at such a crisis — The attempt there- 
fore to identify the Wickham, officer of the Queen's Rangers, with the John Wick- 
ham, afterwards a distinguished lawyer of Virginia cannot be maintained — 


1781. the same time as thoroughly satisfied of the decided principles of Whig- 
July 7th ism, which have distinguished the character of the Reverend Mr. Fan- 
ning, that they shall think this 3^oung Gentleman perfectly safe under 
his care, so long as he stays in this State; to him, therefore, they remit 
him until a flag, daily expected from New York into Potowmack River, 
shall be returning to that Place, when they shall expect him to take his 
passage back, first calling on the Commissioner of the War Office to 
give a Proper Parole — 

I am Sir with great Respect 

Your most obedient & humble Servant, 

Major Wall. 

Failure of Your Excellency will perceive by this, that a Flag was at that time 

arrive^nd expected into Potowmack River from New York, in which it M'as 
theconse- intended Mr. Wickham should return to New York. The situation 
veniences^to ^^^^^^^ ^^ public affairs, or some other cause, having prevented the 
Mr. Wick- arrival of this Flag, Mr. Wickham has ever since been detained here by Mr. 
™ Fanning as a Prisoner of War. In this situation he is prevented from 

pursuing the study he intended, for the want of Books and some proper 
person to instruct him, his parole in some degree tying him down to the 
neighborhood of his confinement — Besides the disadvantage to which at 
this time of Life this subjects him, your Excellency will easily conceive 
how disagreeable his situation must be, while it not only cuts him off from 
any public Academical Instruction in the way of his study, but in a manner 
forbids the intercourse which he otherwise might have with those persu- 
ing the same study with himself, greatly to his disadvantage — notwith- 
standing all these things however, if the releascment of this young gen- 
tlemen, or an extension of his Parole could in any wise injure the Com- 
monwealth, I hope I should be among the last who would solicit for 
either — It appearing from the enclosed paper to have been the design of 
the Executive to permit Mr. Wickham to return to New York and my 
being thoroughly satisfied that no evil can result from it, I must beg the 
favour of you to lay the matter before the Council, if you yourself be 
not vested with sufficient powers to decide on the subject and obtain a 
grant leave, if it be not thought inconsistent with the public Interest, 
for Mr. Wickham to return to New York to his relatives & connections 
on Parole — Possibly on his way he may effect his Exchange in Ports- 
mouth for some of our prisoners in the Enemys hands at that place — 
Altho* he has considered himself a prisoner on Parole ever since the 
inclosed determination, yet he never has signed any particular parole, 
so that if leave should be granted him to return, he will be considerably 
releived by having Colo. Parker or some other officer, on this side the 
River, authorized to take his parole — I sometime ago delivered the par- 
ticulars of this case to one of the Council to which & to Colo. Mason 
the bearer hereof, I refer you for any further particulars you may wish 


to know I'cspocting this matter — We have a report prevailing in this 1781. 
part of the country that Genl: Greene has reduced Augusta & Ninety July 7th 
Six, and that the Enemy have evacuated Savannah — whether it is true 
or not, time will discover — After congratulating you on your late hon- 
orable appointment, and beging pardon for having so far troubled you 
as this letter probably will, I must beg your Excellency to return mo an 
answer by Colo. Mason. 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest regard 
& Esteem, your most obt. Sevt., 

Greensville July 7th 1781. 

Samp: Mathews to Thos: Nelson Esq Gov. July 7tb 


Agreeable to your orders, I sent an officer to offer the insurgents the Staunton 
terms on which your Excellency would grant them Pardon — those insur- 
gents in this county & Rockingham cheifly assembled where the officer 
I sent & an officer from Rockingham attended — they appeared very sub- In regard to 
missive & Delivered up their officers, viz Capt: Wm. Ward & Lieut: J"* ^^g*?" 
Lewis Baker, who were both brought to this Place on the 5th Instant Augusta and 
& uppon being Exammed before mo & upon the Testimoney of Several '"^ *™ 
Witnesses, it apear'd to me that they had been guilty of Treason agt. 
the State & accordingly their are Both committed to close goal & an 
Examining Court ordered on Friday, the 13th Instant — in the course of 
the Testimony aduced I was obliged to admitt as Evidence, two of the 
insurgents on beehalf of the Commonwealth, who were very Backward 
in giving in their Testimoney, but by Cross Examining them the Truth 
came out — they as well as several others of the witnesses are in very 
Low circumstances & not able to support themselves to Travel to 
Richmond to prosecute the Prisoners — there are two or three more of 
the Principles I Expect in daily & I am Doubtful! that the witness will 
fail to attend to prosecute, & if the do attend & no one at the Trial that 
knows all the circumstances of the matter & that is personaly aquinted 
with them, they will Evade the matter as much as possible & by that 
means the Insurgents may escape punishment; which will be produc- 
tive of the worst consequences — in Speaking of the witnesses, I mean 
these two Insurgents admitted on behalfo of the Commonwealth, who 
are the only ones that can Give the facts — Should your Excellency & 
the Council think Propper to appoint Judges & a Court of oyer, to be 
held here on the third Tuesday in August next, it would save Expence 
& the Ring Leaders of the Insurgents would Receive their Deserts — 
Please give the messenger, Mr. Owens, Dispatch, as it will be necessary 
that he Return here at or before the Call Court, in order that the wit- 
nesses may be Bound to Prosecute at tha Place apointed — I have the 
Honor to be with Respect A esteem 

Sir, your obdt ft humble Servt. 


1781. "N. B. Please give the Express an Order To the Auditon*' to allow 

July 7th him hire for himself & horse & finding both 120 miles going & the same 

Dr. Sir, 
July 7tb The arms you mention in your favor 24th ult: roc'd this Morn- 

Frederic'sb'g ing, amounting to near 800, were contrary to my orders stored at Fau- 
quier Ct; House, the Marquis having communicated to me his want of 
them, I sent waggons from hence & they have been delivered into bis 
Park, full 14 days ago. 

July 7th Genl: Weedon to Col: Wm. Davies. 

In regard to By advice from the Board of War Phila., upwards of 4000 stand have 

and d^BPosU ^^®^ ^^^^ ^^^™ ^^*^ place for the use of the State since April last, their 
tion of them, Rout by Noland*s Ferry where an Officer has been stationed to receive 

^^^It^Zi & foward as directed, he is to remain there on that duty 'til the 10th 
money, «c. *^ 

of the Month. My last Orders were to store all such as were not par- 
ticularly desired to another point of destination, at Fauquier Ct* Houbo, 
from whence they may be disposed off, as the Board may please to 
direct. The Northern Neck, being almost drained in the first of the 
Invasion, it will be proper to supply the exposed counties with some. 
Fairfax county, for instance, has only forty stand at present in it, & Prince 
William but 83 Guns, including Eveiy Kind — Westmoreland, Richmond, 
Lancaster & Northumberland are also feeble in point of defence. 800 
stand is absolutely necessary for the immediate supply of those coun- 
ties'—our greatest fear from his Lordship now is his penetrating up 
Potowmack — I have full hopes of an ample supply of arms for all our 
purposes, by the vigilence & activity of our Friend Grayson — he writes 
me, 26th ult; that Swords & Pistols (for which I had wrote him) would 
be immediately sent foward — I had also se«5n the loss of Ammunition 
for want of Cartouch Boxes & well knowing the evil could not speedily 
be removed from a supply in the State, wrote to him to think of us on 
that score also, he tells me 1000 are screwed out, for our use & will 
shortly be here — also 200.000 M. Cartridges which are sent off * 

* At ^ ^ * 

With respect to Boats, I have used every method in my power to got 6 

Built at this Place & Alexandria & had actually agreed upon terms five 

weeks ago, but for want of money have not got them finished, nor is 

there the least probability without the ready cash, the credit of the 

country being so very low it utterly impossible to engage the most tri- 

Pledged his fiing article upon trust, tho' I pledged my own Estate for the payment 

private ee- Qf four that were acnreed for at Alexandria & two at this place — This 
tate, &c. 

necessary Business may be renewed, if money is sent to Enable the 

workmen to go on. Since sitting down to write have received a Letter 


rom the Officer stationed at Poland's Pony, Copy of which is enclosed — 1781. 
!'ou had better give some directions respecting the supplies coming from July 7th 
be Northward — ^I think Winchester a secure place for your principle Nowland's 
lagazincs, but must beg you to permit 800 Stand to come here; they -vvlnchester 
rill be convenient to send to the Marquis should he want a further sup- 
]y, or if the Enemy move up Potowmac, they will be also convenient 
>r immediate Service. 
Grayson's report 1st June is as follows — 

Sent on \ ^^^ property of the State from R. Island 

J 1000 do: arms repaired 

1000 do ready | ^^ ^^.^ pj^^ pj^.j^ 

500 Continental i 

1000 do, on their way from West Point 

4600 in all ' 

I am your mo: obt Servant. 

P. S. Thanks to you for your Southern Intelligence, I hope ore this Postscript 

lat the second edition from "96" is ready for publication. Our affairs 

I that Quarter are of the most pleasing , And I have not a doubt 

at the old Dominion will Extricate Herself with equal Honor, notwith- 

jinding her neighbors have sett with folded Arms while she was so 

ruelly pressed; but whose afhtid? — the more danger, the more fionor — 

teady & spirited Exertions for a few months longer will do our Busi- 


Your Aflfec: 

G. W. 

Letter referred to above. 

"Noland Ferry 29th June 1781. 
Dear Genl: 

In my last letter to you dated the 26th Inst, I gave an 

3COunt of the People's unwillingness to assist in fowarding the Military 

tores for the use of the Southern Army — I had rec'd but 355 musk & 

). Bayonets — Since I have rec'd 266 musk. 189 Bayts. 475 mus — & 132 

•ay," sent by l£r. Nicholson for this State — * * 

^p ^^ ^p ^p ^p ^^ 

have ordered Benjn Walker to the Marquises' Camp, his rout by Fredg., 

) will appear by his note of directions — His Load 127 muskt. with Bay 

76 Cartouch Boxes loose— I have this day rec'd 46 Boxes of Cartgs. 

linta Ac. which I have stored at Leesburg untill I can get Waggons &c." 

* * I am &c. 



1781. David Ross to Col: Wm. Da vies. 

July 7th Sir, 

Richmond I shall be much obliged to you for the Acts of Assembly of the Oct: 

Dehtfi due in Session & the Journals of Congress from Octbr till April last — ^I think 

how lobe ^^^ several Claimants against this State for debts duo in the Western 

paid Country must apply to Congress for paymt — I think it was on these 

terms that Country was relinquished to the United States. 

I am Sir 

Your most obt. 

July 7th Major Bd: Claiborne to Gov: Nblson. 

" Sir, 
Charlottes- I did myself the honor to address your Excellency by letter on the 

26th of June, transmitting at the same time, inclosed my arrangement 
for the Quarter Masters Department upon the Continental Establishment 
in this State, with Copies of sundry Papers laid before the honorable 
the house of assembly, requesting their attention and decision as early 
as possible, but have not been honored with a reply. 

A particular instance of the necessity of having the wagons mentioned 
by me to your Excellency, for the Commissary's Department, is repre- 
sented by Mr. John Brown, Commissioner of the Provision law for this 
State. He proposes to have a large Magazine of provisions at Rich- 
mond. It is very well known that there are no wagons in that country, 
so that unless they can be furnished from some other post, the provisions 
cannot be transported. Perhaps Mr. Brown may be fortunate enough 
to procure a Brigade or two, by virtue of the orders given by Governor 
Jefferson to the County Commissioners, but it will be a tedious piece of 
business and consequently of little effect. 

I find it necessary to acquaint your Excellency that the former Coun- 
cil at Eichmond (as some of the honorable members who act in the 
present must remember) promised to Col : Carrington and myself, who 
made the arrangement for the Quarter Master's department in this State 
and obtained their approbation, that they would support it — As I have 
not been furnished with a farthing of money or an article of stores from 
the northward, and as I do not much expect any, my only dependence 
is still on the government of Virginia. Therefore I hope your Excel- 
lency will consider that the former promise is as necessary at this time, 
and adopt such measures as you think best. 

Without an immediate sum of money, the greater part of the men in 
the department will leave me. the Officers may remain, as few of them 
are dependant upon the public for support, but the workmen will not, 
because they subsist upon their wages and cannot do without. What 
money is due from the Treasury upon the Warrants, I have obtained. 


will not pay up what is now owing to the Artificers, and unless more 1781. 
attention is paid to the press, by the person whose business it is, than July 7th 
has been the case for some time past, we need not pretend to make a 
contract for money. The Printer is yet delay'd for want of Oyl, and 
cannot furnish himself in any part of this country. 

I beg your Excellency for Orders of Five hundred thousand & two 
hundred thousand pounds each to the amount of Six Millions of pounds. 
This sum, if obtained early will enable me to pay off a considerable part 
of the debts already due in the department and to set the business in 
motion; but if it is not done in a short time, double the sum will not be 
sufficient, as the depreciation increases very rappidly. 
I have the honor to be 

with the highest respect 

Your Excellency's most obet, 
Humble Servant.'' 

Major Christian Holmer to Gov. Nelson July 7th 

Congratulating him on his late Election — Is a stranger here; had lost Richmond 

two horses in the service & has had no pay for ten months — has been 

absent from Virginia three years — has spent his little fortune in the 

army, having served six years, and should never be fit for field service 

again — Is now ^^Bliest to sell one thing alter a other to maintain me 

with" but rejoices in his present condition, ^^for all the whole Town is Small-pox 

full of Small Pox" — Ac — Begs once more for his pay. 

Capt Thos: W. Ewell to Col: Davies. July 8th 

Has arrived at that Post, as ordered, but finds himself surrounded by Pt. of Fork 
the Small Pox — many of the men had not had the disease, and therefore Small-pox 
begs ("as there is a Doctor belonging to the Regiment") that innocula- f^tfoiT'^^"' 
tion be allowed &c. 

Letter tbom Georqb Nicholson, by order of David Ross (Com mis- July 8tb 
sioner of Arms for State of Virga) to Brio: Genl: Danl: Morgan. 

Advising him of his proposed shipment of arms and accoutrements for Philadelphia 
one hundred Cavaby to Winchester, from Philadelphia — That all neces- 
sary military supplies inight be procured at that place excepfcaps but 
for the want of money. Will send steel sufficient to make 200 swords, 
which he is informed can be manufactured at Winchester. 




July 9th 

Capt Thos. Martin, 5th Va. Rkgt., to Col: Dayiis. 

Requesting the return to him, of certain descriptive lists of men 
received at that Place, carried off by mistake &c. 

July 9th Col Turnbr South all to Col: Dayixs. 

On behalf of seven men of the militia, ordered by Court Martial to 
serve six months in the army ; who had made every effort to do their 
duty, but from ignorance, and distressed condition of their families had 
subjected themselves to trial &c. 

July 9th 

Capt: Levin Walkkr to Col: Wm. Daviks at Charlottesville. 

James City Making application for his pay &c. 

July 9th 

Letter of de- 
fence against 
charges of 
shown the 
enemy the 
public stores. 

J. Waeb to Capt: Samuel J6nKb, Point of Fork. 

It gives me much Pain & uneasiness to learn that my conduct k 
behaviour during the time the Brittish was at my house has been 
censured — I am informed it is reported that immediately after the 
Enemy came to my house, I told them where the public Stores lay, and 
very officiously offer'd to show them — The enemy had not the smallest 
occasion of this Information from me, for he, the Commander had 
learned every circumstance relative to the public stores before he came 
to my house — He knew they were first lodg*d in my mill and afterwards 
removed on the opposite side of the river to a Tobacco house of John 
Douglas's & from thence removed to an Island belonging to Douglas 
adjacent thereto. All these things, I say he knew and told me & askd 
me whether it was hot So — I told him I had heard it was, but did not 
know certainly as I had never seen them — ^He then got possession of 
three Canoes, ordered them to be filled with Soldiers & demanded I 
should go with them to the Place where I thought the stores lay — I 
objected to this, and urged the Danger of being shot at or wounded by 
our guard — He then proposed to prevent any Effusion of Blood, that I 
would go alone to the guard and let them know he was at my house 
with a Considerable Body of Horse and three hundred foot, laying a 
small distance off, & give up the Powder, or stay till he came with his 
men and take Paroles — That if these proposals were refused, he was 
determined to bring up his men. Cross the River & invest the Place on 
every side, which he might have done — Now Sir, it must be obvious to 


you & to every one else, leting our men have previous notice of the 1781. 
Enemy's coming must have been attended with considerable advantage July dth 
to the Guard, as they would had time to have posted themselves in the 
best manner — Had I have not gone, the two young men would have 
been infallibly killed or taken, and had there been a sufficient guard to 
have made any opposition, they might have done it, with every possible 
advantage their situation & the circumstances would have admitted, by 
having previous notice of the Enemy's coming — 

The two young men, thinking it more advisable to give up the Powder 
& go off, insisted I would certify the truth of the matter, as least they 
should be taken up as Deserters, which 1 did — Now if there is anything 
in this conduct of mine blameable, it really is incomprehensible to me, 
& must be imputed to wrong Judgment of matters — 

I am Sir, your most Obt Hble 

Col: 6so: Skillsrn to Gov'e NxlsoK. July lOth 


There is about forty or fifty of the Militia of this County who was BotetourtCo. 
formerly ordered to the Ade of the Marquis in Virginia, there to con- 
tinue two months in the field, who has faiPd to march & are by the 
Sentence of a Court Marshill, Judged to serve six months, as the Law 
Directs, for Disobedience of Orders, but as there is no recruiting Officer 
in this County, would request your Excellency's Instructions respecting 
what IS to be done with them — There is also sum Soldiers enlisted for 
Eighteen months, three years and During the ware, in consequence of 
the eighteen months Drafts, but as the Draft has not Bon put in Prose- 
cution, would want to know how they are to get their Bounty & what 
is to be done with them — 

With respect to the provisions and spirits to be Collected by the Com- 
missioners of this County, I have called upon them, who sent mo a state 
of- their accts: which I Send herewith — ^Last April Botetourt Court 
1781, William Hclenachan gentlm, was recommended to his Excellency 
governor Jefferson as a fit person to Execute the office of a Major of 
the Militia in this County, but the Confusion the State was in at that 
time & the great Seal being taken away by the Clark, No Commision 
was sent, and as he will probably be Ordered on Duty before Long 
would request your Excellency to Send his Commision by the Bearer — 
I shall use every Efforts in my power to have the Deserters in this 
County aprehended as soon as I can — Aney orders your Excellency may 
please to Send, Respecting the above, I will Indeavour punctually to 

I have the honor to be your Excellency's 
Most obt & very Humble Servt — 



1781. Col: Geo: Skillebn to Col: Wm. Davies. 

July lOth 
Botetourt Co He has sent as required, a wagon, team and appendages — will collect 

the clothing for the troops as soon as he can — No Lead has been lodged 
at Crows Feny, or he should have sent it down — On account of an 
alarm from Bedford Ct House Col: Wm. Calloway had sent off the pub- 
lic stores to Crow's Ferry in that county Ac. 

July 10th Kichd Graham informs Col: Davies, the specific tax for Prince William 
Dumfries Co. has been paid in com (maize) and delivered as ordered by Mr. Brown. 

July 11th Capt: Saml: Jones to Capt H. Young (Q. M.) at Richmond. 

Garter's The artificers arranged and furnished with every thing necessary to 

^^^^ building boats — ^the necessity of procuring oakhum, Tar &c: — may be 
gotten by burning a tar Kiln, and asking for three thousand pounds to 
replace a sum he was obliged to borrow. 

July 11th Saml: Jones to Col: Davies. 


Carter's Your approbation of my conduct gives me great pleasure. I can 

^' ^ assure you I shall endeavour to merit it in future — Every method to 

In regard to recover the plundered stores has been ineffectual — When I requested the 

i^by"'^ State Regiment to be sent to the Point of Fork, I had formed a design of 

plunderers, searching every suspected place, in so short a time as not to spread an 

alarm — this 1 Kept a profound secret & waited the arrival of the Troops 

to put my scheme in Execution — the building of boats obliged me to 

leave the Fork — Capt Ewell arrived in my absence & proceeded to search 

one or two places without my knowledge or even letting me know he 

was ordered on that business — this step of his totally abolished my 

former plans — we made a search, but it had become so publick that very 

little was collected — One of the Principal Plundei^ers happens to come 

under the martial law — I have confined him — he was very impertinent 

for a day or two, but has since offered to discover his associates and 

show us a large quantity of stores, provided he can obtain his liberty — 

1 think he may be of essential service if properly mannaged — Your 

a<lvico on this head will be necessary. I shall leave this place in a few 

days — Capt: Woodson has taken care of the stores recovered hitherto, 

and appears willing to use his best endeavours to recover as many as 

possible — this is a blotted scrawl, which you will please to excuse k 

beleive me, 

With great respect & Esteem 

Your most obt Sevt. 


Brio: Genl: Danl: Morgan to the Governor. 1781. 

Sir, July 12th 

Col : White of the first Regiment of light Dragoons will have the Camp 
honoar of handing yon this: he has nearly Horses and Men enough to 
conipleat his Regiment, hut will not he ahlo to hring his men into the . 
field so as to render their services useful until they are eloathed. I must 
therefore request you will be so obliging as to give the necessary orders 
to accomplish this business without loss of time — The Honble Major 
General Marquis de la Fayette has thought proper to put the Cavalry 
under my command, and I need not suggest to your Excellency that 
they are much wanted in the field to prevent the depredations of the 
Enemy — 

I have the Honour to be 

with respect and Esteem 
.Your Excellency's most 

obt, humbl Servt. 

P. S. Many impositions respecting this State being daily talked of in 
camp: I have desired Col: White to give your Excellency a detail of 
them, together with my sentiments. 

Jno: Magill to Gov: Nelson. July 12th 


The inclosed Letter"" addressed to the Gentlemen nominated in the Gill Hall 
Commission in conjunction with myself, will in part inform You of the 
steps taken by me to carry it into Execution — At the Same time I wrote 
the County Lieut: of Hampshire, that I should attend, & inclosed him 
a Precept to the Sheriff to summons Jurys accordingly. Tho* I was 
well aware there cou'd not be fifteen Days clear between its Teste & 
Return, which according to the established Practice in England there 
ought to have been, nor cou'd I find any Rule relative thereto laid down 
in any of our Acts of Assembly — Pursuant to my Letter, I proceeded 
to Houses' Ordinary on Sundays' Evening and waited there untill next 
morning at 9-o<;lock, when, on finding not one of the other Gentlm to 
appear & knowing it cou'd answer no Purpose what ever, to go up alone, 
I embraced the Opportunity of a Residenter in Hampshire, who was 
accidently returning home, to acquaint Col: Vanmeter by Letter, that 
he need not expect me for these and other Reasons therein mentioned & 
accordingly returned to my Residence — 

Your Excellency must excuse me, when I assure you, I was far from 
being Sorry that the Purpose of the Comm'n was defeated, more parti- 
cularly when it was owing to no Default of mine, as Nothing but the 
Duty which I thought I owed my Country, and that high Respect which 

*Kot found. 


1781. ought to be paid to You as the supremo execute Magistrate thereof, 
July 12^ cou'd possibly have induced mo to act theroiu, tho* on receiving it, I at 
once determined So to do, notwithstanding the Inconvenience of the 
Season, being the Middle of Harvest. The extream Disagreeableness of 
the office & being So totally out of the Line of my Practice, as of all the 
Four mentioned in the Commn, I am the only Lawyer, who at present 
attends Hampshire Court. 

Your Excellency, I hope will pardon me, when I take the Liberty of 
^yiDg) that in my opinion, the Judges of the General Court & they only 
ought to Act on matters so nice, so delicate, nay, so arduous, difficult & 
disagreeable as a Commn of Over & Terminer. It is Strictly their Office 
& by Study & Practice they have made themselves Masters of it — Theirs 
is the Honour, Theirs the Emoluments, and why shou'd they not take 
whatever may be troublesome or disagreeable therein — ^No man of Sen- 
sibility, ever pronounced the Common and ordinary Sentence of Death, 
much more than' the Solemn Judgment in Treason, even upon the most 
notorious offender, but where a due Sense of the Duty he owed his 
Country & of a proper Execution of the Office he filled, called aloud 
upon him so to do. 

The Act of Parliament of the 8th R 2. enacts, that no Man of the 
Law, shall from thence forth be Justice of Assize, or of the Common 
Deliverance of Goals, in his own County. & the 33d H. 8. enacts that no 
Justice or other Man, learned in the Law, shou*d exercise the Office of 
Justice of Assize within any County where he was born or inhabited, 
upon pain to forfeit £100 — And these Statutes have always been con- 
strued to extend to Justices of Oyer & Terminer — I am well aware that 
the Stat: of the 12th Geo: 2. has taken away the Penalty, but every 
Gentlem of the Law, who has been in England knows the general Prac- 
tice to conform to the old Law. This needs no Comment — Your own 
good Sense will & must furnish better than any I can offer — 

I have too long troubled your Excellency, but can't conclude without 
observing that tho* the Act of Ass*y impowers You to nominate three or 
more Gent'n learned in the Law &c. The present Common is directed to 
four of us by name, without saying "or any three," for which reason, 
unless we all had attended I shou'd have been of the Opinion, wo cou'd 
not have proceeded, as all delegated authority must be construed strictly. 
This with the Hint thrown out in the beginning of this Letter, relative 
to the Precept to the Sheriff may perhaps merit your consideration, as 
giving orders to make out a future Commn. 

These Hints, if I had not thought them material, as also that my 
Duty required it, I shou'd not have taken the Liberty of troubling Your 
Excellency with. If they are not, my Judgement, not Will has erred. 
For be assured, I Am, with the highest sentiments of Eespect, 

& Esteem, 

your Excellency's 

most obt & Very Hble Servt— " 


Capt: Lbonard Cooper to the Executive of Virginia. 1781. 

July 12th 
He entered the service, in the Virginia Line as an officer in Jany : Philadelphia 

1776, and rose to the Command of a Company in the 4th Regt: Col: ^»"^" 

Nevil — ^Lost his leg in Oct: 1779, which has transferred him to the 

Invalid Begt; his thigh being cut off so high as to require the use of 

Crutches — ^He therefore begs to be allowed a horse and forrage, as is 

allowed by other States in similar cases. 

CoL : Turner Southall to Col : Davies. July I2th 


I received yours by Express, mentioning Guards to be furnished 
to night — ^I fear the day is too far advanced to accomplish it; and as to 
a guard at Bichmond, it will not be possible on account of the Small 
pox — & when the guards are got, they have neither Arms or Ammu- 
nition they having been all that could be collected, sent to the Army 

before — 

I am, 

your most obt &c" 

CiRCUULR, firom Thos: M. Kean Prest. of Congress, enclosing to the July 12th 
Executive of Virginia, Resolutions of Congress, requiring all French 
Seamen, employed in the service of the States or any Citizen thereof, 
to be delivered up at once, to the Count de Barras, ''or any person 
appointed by him to receive the same" — 

This having become necessary to the proper manning of the Squadron Philadelphia 
under his command — Commissioned Officers of the American Forces, 
enjoined under severe penalties, to observe this Order, and the State 
authorities requested to aid in ita prompt execution — 

Major Bd: Claiborne informs Col: Davis of his inability to have the July 18th 
carriages for the boats made — harness is made at Staunton. Gharlotte»- 

Capt: Hamilton is Seriously in want of forage; his horses starving, 
and he cannot carry on the transportation. 

Capt: H. Young to Col: Davies. July 18th 

All his wagons have gone off fifteen miles for flour: he will send up 
'< Junk sufficient to caulk the Boats — Tar must be burnt" — &c. 



1781. John Webb to the Executive. 

July 14th 

£A8ex (kr. In regard to claim of Mrs. Webb for her negro Slave "Robins," car- 
ried off by Capt: Carre and his crew, who were afterwards captnred by 
a party of volnnteers nnder Webb's Command — ^Among the prisoners 
were three men from the Eastern Shore of Maryland, one Stringfield 
**& most infamous Character" and five other negroes brought from Porte- 
mouth by Carre by permission of Oenl: Leslie, all bearing 

Jaly I4(b William Davi*s to "the LrtUTtoANT GotEENOR." 


War Office It is evident from daily complaint from the Marquis and others, 

that there is great mismanagement in the department of Commissary of 
provision. There seems great reason to believe that Mr. Brown does 
not kiiow where the public Stores are lodged, what they consist of, or 
what quantitys are collected — ^The distress and oppression of the inhabi- 
tants in the vicinity of our Camp, in consequence of the Commissary's 
deficiency, is too painful to be recited — ^Alienlition of the affections of 
the people, famine and ruin are the consequence. The Marquis' Army 
has been frequently compelled to seize the cattle of the inhabitants for 
their sustenance, while the troops under Col : Parker on the South side 
of the river, have had no other support at all, than by these oppres^ve 
and ruinous seizures. I have made repeated applications to Mr. Brown 
for a return of the general state, situation and quantity of his Stores, 
but have never received the least information from him. Almost every 
deputy of his in the counties that I have Seen, complain to me that they 
can never obtain a Single line from him, notwithstanding repeated let- 
ters to him on business. 

Under all these circumstances, I must Solicit an Order f^m the 
Executive addressed to me officially to obtain from Mr. Brown, a gene- 
ral return of the quantity of his Stores, and th« places where they are 
lodged ; and as it may possibly be judged expedient by government to 
remove him from his appointment. Should the present complaints con- 
tinue, which might probably, for a short time, subject the Army to want, 
till his successor could put matters in a proper train, 1 would therefore 
respectftdly submit it to government, whether it will not be highly 
pioper to Beiid three or four persons into different quarters of the Coun- 
try, to enquire into the state and Situation of his Stores — ^It will give 
government much information, and will enable them to take such 
measures occasionally, for the security of the public stores, as to them 
shall seem best, and in Some measures put out of the enemy and others, 
to destroy or pilfer the public supplies, with impunity — 

I have the honor to be, with great Esteem 

yout most obedient & very hble Ser^ttnt. 


WiLUAM Dayibs to the Honbls Lieut: Governor, David Jamiesok. 1781. 
" Sir, Joly l^th 

Th« great necessity there is for Cavalry for the protection of the War Office 
State, induces me to Solicit the attention of government to the following 
plan, which I think will be productive of much advantage to our opera- 
tions of defence, and I hope will be found neither disagreeable nor 
burthensome to the people in the execution. From the returns of the 
militia on this side the Allegany, there appears to be near 50,000 fighting 
men ; a great number of those would prefer serving on horseback, and 
would equip themselves accordingly, could they have any assurance that 
they should always act as cavalry when called out, and that they 
should not be subject to longer tours of duty than are required 
from other militia. Should government think proper to order that one 
man in a hundred should be allotted to this service, it would form a 
body of near 500 men, or of a thousand should the requisition be made 
£br one fiftieth man. Altho' the^number may appear large in the gross, 
yet when i4)portioned to the different counties, as in the inclosed list, I 
am persuaded it will appear inconsiderable^ — The necessary weapons 
such as swords or Spears, and perhaps pistols too, might with much 
more care be procured in their different counties by the men themselves, 
than by the public, and as probably the corps would consist chiefly of 
men of property, it should be lefl to their option either to hold their 
equipments as their own, or to deliver them up to the public, upon an 
engagement to pay the value. As for their horses, they ought to be 
secured against every thing but negligence. There might possibly be 
some difficulty in the appointment of the Officers, as few Counties would 
be able to furnish a troop individually — The field Officers should be 
appointed by government itself, the Captains and Subalterns might be 
recommended by a meeting of field Officers from Such Counties or dis- 
tricts respectively, as are to make up a Troop, giving preference in 
their recommendations to persons of experience. The house of dele- 
gates, at their late Session passed a bill with a Clause in it for selecting 
every tenth man, for the purpose of forming a Corps of Militia Cavalry: 
but the number of 5,000 which it would amount to, was So much beyond 
the abilities of the Country to equip or support, that the Clause was 
struck out by the Senate, on that principle — 

The urgency of the Marquis' requisitions on this head, seem to demand 
the attention of government to it^ and even if government should not 
conceive themselves authorized to establish this, as a permanent systein 
yet the present situation of the Country, and the mode of warfare the 
enemy have adopted seem strongly to warrant it: at any rate there can- 
not be many objections why the proposal might not go forth in the form 
of a recommendation, with an engagement, which I think will effec- 
tually ensure the success of it, that the horse of every trooper, (which 

2Sf9p CxIJtSL±3;. or SIXSOL FaPSBS. 

50uyl ii«i»Kb 

i<»l7 IMk JoMjr BuuK Tf> Got: Xsl«&x. 

WiSimmtH/^ B#t^pEM9ith»|^ f ^ r miwy /tt to obtohi % ^ ^^^^^ ^or tlie purpose oi endea- 
^fmf%t$% Up Tfifrfntsr tike alMKCUkdiDg Slsres of Mis. Tasewefl jt widoWy 
Im; \t^n^^ ^fhf: fA tbe £x«^?nujm c^ lier Hoeliduid's WiD — ^Tih^cb the indiil- 
p^0sh0:ii wffl he f^naie^ *^H being tbe case of m woithj widow, reduced 
Uf * /y/KMiider»hle degree of IHfftrmi ly am fthnost toCjd Deaertioii of ber 
F*fnify Hennuitii.'' 

Su\f \Mt MAJcm Job 9 Pbtoe to Col: Wm. Datixb. 

** \hM Hjr, 
< /linf Iz/iUw- Youm of the 12th Came to lumd jesteitUy, by BxpreaB. I 

^' '^ thftnk you for your approbation of my Conduct in my dqiartment. I 
have ofjiy to lament that my endeavours have not been crowned with 
that NiJcceMi 1 could have wish'd for. from the ruinous punctillio in the 
Q. M. not fomiffhing the necemary materiala for the Artifioen their num- 
hifrH have increased to near 20, and now all standing Idle, & the Head 
man wishing to decline the business, thinking his dependence very unr 
certain, the men also growing uneasy. I am afraid I shall loose the 
wli(»lu r>f them. 1 have wrote to Capt: Bohannan to come over, k will 
turn tliom all over to him, who I expect can be f\imished with materials. 
I don't know when I found myself more mortified, than in this affair. 
I know I have acted strictly conformable to my appointment and the 
nature of my inHtructions fW>m Baron de Steuben, to whom I have fiilly 
roproMontod the whole of this roflisal in Claiborne k, who pays no atten- 
tion to it. I shall continue unwoariodly to promote the department 'till 
tlio 1). K« 0. M. St. Comes on, when I am determined to take a little 
riiNpltc. [f you will recommend the Office of Com: Prisoners to me & 
think mo capable of filling it, and no indelicacies could be offered to the 
Pnmont Person in that post, rather than to be Idle, I would act, should 
it bo thought proper to bo conferred on me — previous to your informa> 
tlon nmpooting the Rnomy Mr. D. Boss sent me an Express wth an 
aoiHiuiit that thoy were at Amelia Co House on Thursday Evening. I 


immediately sent off an Officer Express to New London, to have the 1781. 
whole of the Military Stores removed over the Kidge, from that place. July 16th 
I sent an Express to Capt: Bohahnan also, and have calPd upon Major 
Claiborne, without success for waggons to be in readiness to remove the 
stores from this place — The Marquis has directed me to Send 300 Stand 
of Arms to General Lawson — If it was to save life, waggons could not 
be procured within a week — ^I am sick of the whole world." * 

♦ ♦ ♦ 4c 4c 

I have the honor to be Dr Colo 

yours respectfully." 

Samuel Eddins, Capt: of Artillery to Qoy: Nelson. July 16th 

He rec'd orders from the Marquis some time ago, to remove one of Gloucester 

his " French 18 pounders" away, but has brought it back to this place — ^^^ 
The battery is Complete, but he wants powder — ^A Pilot Boat seized 
some time ago by order of the Baron, belonging to a gentleman in Mary- 
land, "is sunk in Sarah's Creek," and might be sold advantageously. 
Commodore Barron has lent him '<a large Whale Boat built for the use 
of this State," and should he get any intelligence will be enabled to 
send it, if he remains near this Post. 

Bobt : Morris to the Gtovernor of Yirginia. July 16th 


I had the honor to inform your Excellency on the 6th inst: of an Philadelphia 
Act of Congress of the 28th June last, directing me to presp a Com- 
pliance with the several Requisitions of Congress, on your State. I am 
not yet in Condition to State the Account of Specific supplies, but I 
enclose you a certified Copy of the account of your State for money ; by 
which it appears that there is due to the United States 36,416,659 25-100 
Dollars of the old Emission, and 1,958,963 of the new, exclusive of thei 
4.10th due by the Beeolution of the 18th March 1780. Your Excellency 
will be able to determine how much has been paid, as also how much of 
the specific Supplies has been furnished — ^the remainder of those sup- 
plies forms an additional Balance due to the United States, which it is 
my duty to urge the Payment of. I am therefore to request that you 
will be pleased to lay these matters before the Legislature of your State, 
and intreat their Compliance with the Bequisitions of Congress — ^Tour 
Excellency must be sensible of the Impracticability of carrying on the 
War, unless the State Cheerfully furnish the means. Whatever they 
grant, will I trust be faithfully applied, so as to produce the greatest 
good to the whole; but if the means be withheld, those, and those only 
who are instrumental in it, must be chargeable with the Consequence. 


1781. Having the most thorough Eeliance on Yoar Excelleojey's Dlspoeition 

July 16th to promote the Publick Cause, I earnestly recommend to you, this very 
important Object. 

With every Sentiment of Kespect, I have the 
honor to be 

your Excellency's 

nuost obedt Humble Servt/' 

July 16th David Ross to Col: Davies. 

Richmond Received his of the 13th on yesterday at " the Pork" — A report pre- 
vailing a few days that the Enemy was about to pay another visit to that 
neighborhood on the South side, had detained him there a few days — 
Encloses estimate of arms **rec'd since the 1100" — ^Has procured Sad- 
dles and other accoutrements Complete for '* 100 horse." 

July 16th Maj'r Wm. Campbell, Inspector of Militia Division to Gov: NELsoif. 

Gamp Mai- Excusing himself for not sooner sending returns of the two Militia 
vera 1 18 Brigades, "with the dates they join'd the Army & Countries to which 
they severally belong"— owing to the scarcity of paper. 

July 16th Bbio: Genl: G. Weedon to Col. Davies. 

"Dr. Sir, 
Frederic'Bb'g Your &vor reached me last night — a small Magazine of Arms 

here would run no risque of falling into the hands of the Enemy, as they 
never could point this way, but the Militia in the Northern Neck could 
be caird out & armed — this part of the State has ever been considered 
as an object worthy of the attention of the Foe — ^it surely ought to have 
),he means of defence, without which it is Subject to bo struck by every 
Small force from Potomack as the arms that government tliought proper 
to lodge in the Counties for the protection of that River, were mostly 
taken down in the first of the Invasion — ^The Marquis thinks the secu- 
rity of this place & the defence of Potomac of so much consequence to 
the public that he will not suffer me to join Him, and must therefore 
insist upon having as many Arms as may be necessary for that Service. 
Should the Enemy point up Potomac, they would immediately be put 
into the Hands of the Militia who are allotted for the defence of that 
Eiver. I have however wrote government upon the subject & make no 
doubt they will see the propriety of having the Counties in the North- 
ern Neck armed as before the Invasion. Since my last to you, the 4 
Boats contracted for at Alexandria are finished — the next thing is Car- 


riages to transport them on. Col: Hendricks writes me it is utterly 1781. 
impossible to procure them — would it not be proper to obtain a Warrant July 16th 
from government authorizing Him to make use of military impress, or 
fiimish Him with money to procure them.** * * 

* * "Some immediate Steps should be taken with 

the Stores at Fauquier Co House, Leesburg & Noland's Ferry. Mr. 
Summers, the Officer Stationed there to receive & Store them writes me 
they are Sent on in a very irregular manner, Some of which have no 
invoice, others, a number of Loads included in one, and others undoubt- 
edly pilfered, as no Guard Gomes on with them. 

I am Dr Col: 

Your obedt Servt &c." 

JohnLightfoot, Asst: C. H. — represents to Col: Davies, the impossi- July 17th 
bility of furnishing leather for the Quarter M. Department — He hopes Albemarle 
Capt : John Peyton the Clothier GonPs suggestion that Curriers bo Sent 
up from the Marquis' Army — where there are many who know how to 
dress leather. 


Jno. Bobsrtson, Issuing Commissary, to Col: Davibs. July 17th 

"Dr Colonel, 

At last I have got as much time as to let you know my Camp at 
Situation, wch I must needs Say is almost deplorable. The Issumg g^jg^**"^ " 
department in the field is in Such confusion that words cannot express. 
I am however, happy to find the difft Posts in the State regulate them- 
selves agreeable to your Orders, and my appointment. 

The Issuing departnt in the field has been headed (I must not say 
Govemd) by one who dont know an Assistant's doty himself. 

Repeated applications have been made to me by George Elliott who 
is Commissn Genl : of Issues, to take and Settle his accompts — they are 
in Such confusion, that mortal man can never find right or lefl of them — 
I have rec'd from those Issuing Commrs that I appointed myself, at the 
difft Posts, proper and regular returns, but here in Camp is no regu> 
larity, waste of Stores, no accts kept, nor Proper Rec'ts taken. 

Since I joined the Army I have acted for Mr. Brown, in conjunction 
with Mr. Pierce and Kept all the accts for the State against the Conti- 
nent, wch return you may see as soon as you please to call for it — it will 
be an entire conflision of business in the Issuing departnt of two per- 
sons Act, one for the Posts & another in the field. 

I do not chuse to be govem'd by a person or persons, that are necessi- 
tated every day to apply to me for instructions; moreover I am sensible 
that not an acct in the field, in the Issuing department will ever be Set- 
tled by those who have undertaken to do the business. 


i^HU A ThotJMinci Imitancoff of their waste and misconduct, I could men- 

Ju\y nth iioUf which arc contrary to the Resolves of Congress & even reason 

itiMiJf/' ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

'^ Should be glad yon would be kind enough to put the present affair 

in a proper System — I am ready and willing, with good, Sufficient 

CAisrkH to do any part of duty that I may be appointed to." 

I am dear Colo, with real esteem 

your most obt Hble Servant." 

July I7ih Col: Wm. Davies to the Govkenor, 

WsrOfBos (*alling attention to the conduct of "Mr. Armstead, who abandoned 
the cJiargo of the public Store, more than nine weeks ago. The loss at 
the Fqrk is partly to bo ascribed to him, and it is difficult to tell of what 
UHc a purHon can bo to the public when ho will desert his trust at the 
time h\n pi*08onco is most wanted, and who has paid no attention to 
hlM business sinco, nor has ho answered, as Mr. Dyer tells me, a Single 
application that has been made to him." 

July 17th ProcoodingH of a Brigade Court Martial, in the trial of a Prisoner, by 
Oamp Wars namo William PiUspatrick, a Soldier of the 1st Penn: Reg't "for 
OhitDTflcId «wft^»w<'iw«-" The Court consisted of— 

^* Major Hamilton Prest: 

Captains, Bartholomew Lieuts: Lodge 

" Davis " Feltman 

•* Seoly • " Hammond 

Bond " Collier 

'* Booker Ensigns Gilchrist 

** Henderson Reed 

Lieutenant McMiehail, Judge Advocate 

Tho tosUmony proved he had gone to the residence of a citizen and 
demanttoii liquor; had been given a small quantity and dismissed — ^Had 
tiikt^n advantage of the proprietor's absence and robbed him of clothing 
&e aiui when detected had resisted the search prdered by his oiBoers — 
Found guilty and condemned to death. 

July lluli David Ross to Govm. Nklsoei. 

llk^iNi««4 In olM^iiem^e to the Onlers of the Kxeciitive^ he has examined the 
|)ia|><Miii and accvmnts produced by Capt : John Djpdge rdative lohis timiis- 
at^iMis in %h» IlHttois Ocmnury, as ^Indian and Comm«neial Agent** fcr 
Un^ SttM ckf Ta—^Br neommeiidaiMMi of HoiiU Jolm P^ Limt: Got 


of Va. dated Aug: 6th 1779 to Col: John Todd, Dodge had been 1781. 
appointed Indian Agent by him — had been also appointed by him at a July 18th 
subsequent period Agent to supply the Troops in the Illinois Country — 
To earry out instructions given him by Todd, he had purchased large 
supplies of merchandize at New Orleans, and from certain traders — 
With these goods he had purchased lead and provisions from the Indians, 
for the support of the Army, and had delivered to Officers in charge of 
garrisons many of those articles at the prices paid for them in New 
Orieans — Some had been employed in paying friendly Tribes of Indians 
to reinforce stations threatened by hostile savages and others — On the 
whole, and upon the investigation he is enabled to make, he can find no 
cause of complaint against Capt : Dodge for mal practice or neglect in 
the performance of his duties — The apparent irregularities which may 
appear, are due to orders issued to him by Superior Officers in that 
Country. Capt: Dodge prays his Salary may be paid in accordance 
with his services rendered, and that he may be allowed to depart ''with 
the Indians under his care as they are uneasy at their stay here, & living 
at a considerable expense." 

Gov: Ths. Burki to thx Couiitt Lixut: of BauNswicK Co Va. July I8th 


The movements of the enemy in your State indicate Something State of 
that fore bodes a rapid march by cavalry to S. Carolina — I have given ^^'^ Caro- 
orders for a number of Bifle men to march towards the passes on Stan- 
ton, Dan & Boanoke, in order to dispute them with the enemy. 

I request you Sir, to take measures for cooperating with our people on 
those waters, to keep out people who can give veiy eariy notice of the 
enemy's Movements and to communicate to me on the Nut-bush in 
Granville County, all the intelligence you can collect, in order that I 
may take the most effectual measures for counteracting the designs of 

the enemy. 

I am your very Obet. St." 

J. Scott Ju'r: asks permission of Col: Davies, to visit his home to July 18Ui 
know what damage the enemy had done as they passed — has lost his Penns- 
negroes, and as '•they went by his Mill & sight of the House," he horoogh 
cannot rest until he knows their condition. 

Capt: John Bodulph applies to Gov. Nelson for an order on the Treas- Jalj 19tli 
wry for Forty thousand dollars, being obliged to be detained several 
weeks on paUic busineas — He will account either to Major Grenl : Greene 
or to tba Sta^ tor the amount. 



1781. GoYE Thos: Burks to Gov: Nelson of Va. 

July 19th "Dr. Sir, 

Nutbush, Altho' I have no certain Knowledge that you are appointed 

"^^N^C^ Governor of your State, yet I venture to write to you on that presump- 

On my arrival in my own Country, I found myself elected to that 
most arduous dignity there, and tho' nothing could have to me, more 
inoonvenient or ineligeable, Such appeared the situation of public affiurs, 
that neither my honor nor my Patriotism would permit me to decline it. 
To give you Hn adequate Idea of our derangements, would require much 
more time, than you or I can, at present spare, and the picture would be 
very disagreeable, as the drawing would be unprofitable. I will not 
attempt it at present; tho' if I shall be able to effect such reformation as 
may afford an agreeable contrast, on some future day, I may perhaps 
present you with the sketches. 

The Excursions of the Enemy through your Counties to the South- 
ward of James Eiver and as far West as Charlotte, have somewhat 
alarmed us. their burning mills, and other parts of their proceedings 
Indicate that they are sensible of their Inferiority, and want to procure 
saftty by milking the stibsistaiice 6f our armies difficult and precarious. 
Should Lord Comwallis meditate a retreat from Virginia, it is probably 
with a view of succoring New Yoi'k, of avoiding the Effects of Marine 
Superiority, or of prosecuting the war more Southwardly, where the 
force of the Country is feeble and utterly unprepared — If the first be 
his design, his cavalry, would in a great measure be useless, and it is 
probable tiiat he would order them to more rapidly to join his Troops to 
the Southward and thereby give a decided superiority over G^enl: Greene, 
by which he might be overpowered before he could have any assistance. 
Should the second be in contemplation, I beleive he would consider the 
lower parts of this State as affording him the most secure and eligeable 
positions — ^The many deep rivers which empty into the Sound afford 
Posts, very strong by tature, and easily defended against approaches by 
land. Supplies are abundant, and could be brought to him by water, 
and nothing of any force could approach him from the Ocean — Should 
the third be his view, the present is a fkvorable season — the Wheat Har- 
vests are saved, the cattle in the woods are good beef, and therefore sub- 
sistance would not be difficult — ^the People in the far greater part of the 
State are unarmed, and destitute of every warlike requisite, he may 
easily conclude that the heavy force of Virginia, with which he is now 
pressed, would not pursue him out of the State, and he, in that case, 
would only have to calculate on the regular forces, with which Genl: 
Green might oppose him, and to which his united forces would be far 
superior. In any of the cases, it seems to me, necessary that this State 
be put iiniiiediately in the best posture possible for efficient operations — 
And even should none of them happen, being prepared, Will etiib}4 iia 


to add our force, if necessaiy to the common arms, and if unnecessary, 1781. 
will secure us at home, from Insults and ravages — these considerations July 19th 
co-operating powerfully with the policy of heing always ready in time 
of war, have determined me to use my utmost Endeavours for putting 
this State in the hest military order which my powers may be equal to. 
and cheifly for that purpose, I am here now, ready for a conference with 
the Council of State, but the want of Arms and military stores must 
ij^evitably retard us very much, por do I see any early prospect of sup- 
plies. fhfiX I migjit however, make every attempt posf^ibl^ f^gainst the 
Enemy, I have ordered all our Rifle Ifen from the sev^r&l Counties 
where that species of arms is used, to march towards t^e passes op Stan- 
Um, Dan and ^^oapoke, in order that if his Lordship's cayalry attempt 
them, we may give them some opposition, and if his whole force attempts 
them, we may cause some delay, which might enable the Marquis to 
come up with hiip. The habit of neglect and disobedience is so prevf^ 
lent among our People, that I am affraid those orders may no^ be exe- 
cuted with that promptness which I wish, however I thopght it my 
duty to make the experiment — if it succeeds the Effect may be very 
advantageous, if not, no evil is increased By the attempt. 

I have .wntten to the Comn^nding Offioera of your Counties of Bruns- 
wick, Mecklenburgh, Halifax, Charlotte, Pittsylvania and Henry, request- 
ing them to watch the Enemy's motions, and to take measures for 
eo-operating with our People, should they attempt the passage of the 

We shall probably have frequent Occasion for concert and co-operation 
ii| our measures, and I hope a tree and frequent communication of sen- 
timents with me, will not be disagreeable to you — for this purpose a 
Line of correspondence must be formed, and I will take it up at what- 
ever part of your State you think proper, and continue it through this. 
I hope it may not be useless to the public, nor possibly is it any disad- 
vantage to both States that their Governors are men who know and ^ 
Estimate each other as I am persuaded you and I do. 

I wish you Sir, all the success that your generous Patriotism merits, 
and all the happiness of which- human nature is capable — which ought 
to be the reward of your virtues. 
I have the honor to be, 

with most sincere Esteem and Regard, 
Dr Sir, your most obet Servt." 

Wm . Ming to Mb. Frakk Willis Jur. joiy I9th 

In reply to enquiry as to the number of Caps for Light ELorse, he has Frederick 
on hand, says, those made for the Frederick town Troop al^ gone: but Town 
if lie will wait about twelve days and will take them without "Bear- 


178L fikin covers," he can famish a supply for Good Tobacco at two dollars 
July mb harrl monej, pr: handred: the price of the Cape being three dolls: each. 
Can b\m} famish Saddles, bridles, holsters Ac. 

July 19ib Major Rd: Claibornk to Col: Dayiss at Hiehmond. 

OharloitM- Sickness has prevented his replying to his of the 12th antil now. He 
^ ^ has in vain tried to find ''a good penman" to recommend — has foond it 
one of the most difficult things, since he undertook business in Yirginia 
to olrtain such a man. 

Desires to know what is to be done for Horses for the Boats? He 
iias in vain communicated with the Governor on the subject, and thinks 
impressment the only chance of getting them. The carriages for the 
Boats cannot soon be made, in as much as the material had to be gotten 
out of the woods green, and to be seasoned, after the matter had been 
mentioned to him. 

July lOih Major Ad: Claibornk to Gov: Nelson, Bichmond. 

Oharlottos- His Excellency is doubtless informed of the Boats building, to be 
mounted on carriages for the use of the Marquis de la Fayette — ^These 
are in course of construction ; but the horses cannot be procured at once, 
oven with money, and if Impressment is to bo used, it is time authority 
was given — They should be gotten where the Harness and Carriages are 
making, viz at Stanton, Winchester and Albemarle Barracks — ^Eighty 
horsos will bo necessary for twenty Boats; and in addition to the sum 
alroady granted. Twelve Hundred thousand pounds will be needed to 
purchase thorn — He is still so reduced by late sickness that he cannot 
leave his bod. 

July 19th David Ross to the Executive. 


Hlohmond The sovoral claimants from the Western Country are extremely 

anxious to bo dispatched, and complain much of loss of time as well as 
the heavy expenses they are subjected to. 

r have examined all the papers that I can find belonging to the Board 
of Trade, which are but few, in order to obtain some information relative 
to the vast demands against this Stato from the Illinois Country. 
Although many of these papors are wanting, from such as are left, and 
herewith sent, it appears that Mr. Oliver Pollock was considered as 
Agent for this State at New Orleans, and encouraged to take up the 
Bills of our Officers in the Illinois Country, in order to support the 
Troops with oloathing Ac Ac — It appears by the Minutes of the Board 


of Trade, the 29th of October 1779, that they highly approved of Mr. 1781. 

Pollock's conduct, in the advances that he had made: and by an Order July 19Ui 

of Council 6th Novr. following, the mode of payment is pointed out and 

carried into execution — It does not appear that any limits were set to 

Mr. Pollock's advances, or the proper persons pointed out to him, who 

had a right to draw Bills upon the State, and whose draughts only, he 

was to honor, so that from his former transactions being recognized, he 

was in some measure lefl to judge for himself, how far Mr. Pollock 

may have abused the confidence reposed in him I will not presume to 

say : bat it appears to me that there must have been abuses committed 

in some of the departments in that country, and calls for immediate 


It is very extraordinary that the officers of a small Garrison, should 
at once purchase a Cargo of Goods to the amount of 237,320 pds — which 
is equal to £53,397 Sterling — Surely Mr. Pollock must have known that 
this sum was too large to be negotiated by a Captain, and that such 
advances could not be supported by the State, nor is it possible such 
supplies could Be necessary for that post. Besides Bills of Exchange, 
which Mr. Pollock was ordered to draw upon Penet & Co. of France for 
65,814{ pds : I am informed he has received a very large sum of money 
from the Governor of New Orleans, upon the credit of the State, but 
this does not appear by any papers before me. 

I am informed that considerable transactions are still going on in the 
Illinois Country upon the credit of the State, and bills negotiated to a 
considerable amount, drawn by the Officers there upon the Treasurer: 
these bills are become a kind of speculation : I have reason to believe 
they are obtained in the first instance for a small value, and ultimately 
fall into the hands of Traders at New Orleans — this may be attended 
with very serious consequences to this Country, as no doubt the Spanish 
Government will make a point, that their subjects shall be paid the fUll 
amount of the Bills drawn by our Commanding Officers, which will 
involve Virginia in a short time, in a heavier debt than all the expences 
of the war besides — I therefore take t|^e liberty of recommending to 
your Honb*l Board, that Commissioners be sent to the Illinois Country 
in order to adjust and settle the debts actually due by the State, and to 
obtain satisfactory returns of the expenditures of the Goods, for which 
such large sums have been drawn. 

That the Spanish Grovemment may not complain of deception on the 
part of the State, it would be necessary to inform *the people of Orleans, 
that a number of bills have been drawn by men not properly author- 
'ized ; that the payment of those bills would be suspended until their 
accounts are investigated: at the same time Mr. Pollock's accounts may 
be settled, and some mode fallen upon for the support of that country 
Jk the negotiation of money matters not liable to such abuses, pro- 
vided it remain part of Virginia. 


Yim . j all) j^rijMtiy at a l€Nifi wind cud be done is Jfr. daii^ k Hr. Beiitlj*B 

^uU ikUi <;iMM«? ; liMn' likKi^ tiiat tiiw iiave itfinuiottd linur moii€<T iqioik tiie credit 

<il tW Hltfie luid from mulivet of' FrifflidHhi]^ — TiiiU ii*ey are raiuad if 

liUl reUiAliuriMXi.*' * • * * ^ 

I am w iiL gmsl j«Hpecst 

Your vmmA di^el Serraal." 

Jul/ l^iOi Col: Q. CAXUJKiTCiS ru €»l: Datisb. 

CuttiUrliiAd He bent Xht ^*»tate of the nulitia^ br a gentleman on hi« way to Char- 
ioitwrllk; to be fowarded to 5taiurUnu bm in \he eonfiison of tlie times 
it wa« loel. <i«nj : Lawoon had informcud bim tbe militia on dntr then 
with LJui «h<Miid be rel««Tad in two months, consequent! j he had not 
a waiited tbe Order of tbe Exacatire : but bad sent the laiid company, and 
«b^/uld 'x>ntinue to do m> antii further orders, or by request to tbe con- 
trary fr^^m Geo I : Greene. 

When tbe militia were ordered oat in Feby, April k May, all the arms 
fit for ttervice were impreeeed by Exe(^ative Orders, and bat few have 
heefi retume«l. cooflequently the men are very badly supplied at this 

The Court Martial has been in session, and condemned certain delin- 
quentii to six months service— a few more remain to be tried — 

He lias delivered to Mr. Drew Q. Master at Carter's Ferry the clothing 

collec'te^l for tbe Troops — County Lieut: Skipwith when he went 

into the service received eleven suits, which will be accounted for to Mr. 
Drew — The business of collecting clothing has been retarded by the con- 
stant calls upon the militia — ^The wagon to be furnished by the County 
was delivered to Mr. Drew some months past. 

The draft in the County has been suspended by the order of the Exec- 
utive, on account of the absence of so many of the militia on duty in 
tliii Held — A number of eighteen months' men are ready to be delivered. 
Can thwy not be ree'd by a rectuting officer at one of the Posts? 

July 10th David Boss to Gov: Nelson. 

Klohiiumd Desiring instructions, as he is about to write to Philadelphia — He is 
advJHod iliat one Mr. Nathan a Jew in that city has attached the goods 
belonging to Virginia, arrived in tbe Franklin, for a debt he says the 
State owes bim. He tbinks Congress or tbe Executive of Pennsylvania 
will A*ee the goo<ls fVom this detention — Concludes ^^our Delegates in 
OongresM having been in the utmost distress for money, Mr. Nicholson 
has uegutiated a loan for £400 for their present support." 



Capt: a. Bohannon to Col: Da\ies. 1781. 

July 2001 
Reporting condition of the military stores in his charge — the muskets Irvin's Store 

mach broken to pieces; two thirds of them needing new stocks, for 
which he is getting timber. Thinks, if allowed to do so, he will put the 
arms out into the private shops, a number of which are in that Country, 
by which means he can get six or seven hundred repaired at once — Has 
applied to Capt: Pryor for a settlement of the Stat's acct: with the Con- 
tinent for military stores, but this cannot be done ho says, until he 
receives a return of the mil : stores now with the Army. He has removed 
the stores from New London, twenty miles farther up the country, being 
apprehensive of the coming of the enemy to that post. As soon as he 
has arranged his af&urs at this Post, he will direct his whole attention 
to the heavy Artillery. 

Capt: H. Young to Col: Daviks. 

July 20ih 

Asking for authority to engage Express Riders from the militia, as the Richmond 
only means of procuring them and what wages they are to be paid ? It 
is impossible to furnish them with forage, they must be paid their 
expences. Col: James has demanded of him twenty thousand pounds 
on account of building the boats — Encloses some sample ''certificates," 
''to show in what manner the good people of this Country are treated/' 

Saml: Beall informs Gov: Nelson he had written to him on the 28th 
June on the subject of procuring a Horse for Genl: Morgan, but has not 
received an answer — Genl : Morgan being in real want of a Horse " he 
has purchased one for him of Mr. Robert Throgmorton, and left the val- 
uation of him to Col: John Smith of Frederick, and to Maj: Francis 
WilllB of Berkeley — ^He trusts this procedure on his part will be agree- 
able to his Excellency and desires to know whether the animal is to be 
considered "public or private property.*' Hopes his Excellency will be 
satisfied he has had nothing more in view " than to reward real merit." 

July 20th 

Major N. Mitciuell to Gov: Nelson. 


Praying for relief; having when captured at Petersburg lost two good Bfchmond 
horsee with bridles & saddles in the service of the State and is not able 
to replay them — adds "I am on foot and thr^ hundred and fifty miles 
firom home." 


1781. ^J. Pbentis to Gov: Nelson. 

July2(Hh "Dear Sir, 
Williamsb'g During Lord Cornwallifl' continuance in this place and its 

neighborhood, I unfortun'ately became their captive, and when in their 
possession was compelled either to take a parole, or to suffer a loathsome 
and probably a rigorous confinement — The lesser evil would have been 
chosen by every man, and the parole (which they stile an act of clemency) 
as the least irksome was accepted. 

Thus circumstanced, your Excellency must suppose my situation 
exceedingly disagreeable, and consequently sollicitous to use every effort 
to effect an exchange. 

Their late scheme of paroling private citizens, not taken in arms, with 
a view of procuring an exchange for British Prisoners not similarly cir- 
cumstanced, or with the hope of disarming the individual, will probably 
be discountenanced; but according to my Idea, I cannot be considered 
in that predicament. 

My Duty, as well as inclination pressed me to have attended the 
Assembly on their adjournment to Stanton, but Domestic matters totally 
prevented me; but even in that character, how an exchange on equal 
principles can be effected, I cannot determine. 

Your Excellency's opinion respecting my situation, perhaps may be 
different, and if my enlargement can be brought about, by placing me 
in any character, it will afford me the very pleasing reflection of once 
more devoting my person and abilities to the Service of my Conntry." 

You will accept my Sincere wishes for your happiness and permit me 

to assure you that I am 

Yr: mo: Hble Sevt." 

July 2l8t Capt: H. Young requests of Col: Davies authority to enlist Express 
Richmond Riders and the terms on which they are to be engaged — The late 
Governor had given him verbal orders "to be governed by Claiborne 
with respect to this matter'' — ^thinks this order should be confirmed 
&c— continues " I am tiar'd out of my life for Forage by a parcel of 
Frenchmen that I dont know, nor will not know — If I refuse to comply 
with their requisitions, they will obtain an order from the Governor — 
Will you be pleas'd to order me not to make Issues to any person unless 
he is in the service of the State. The Governor will not countermand 
your Orders'' 

JdlySlBt Col: B. Wooding to Col: Davtes. 

Hali&x Go. Yours of the 15th Inst: pr: Express came to hand advising that 

Executive think it necessary one 7th of our Militia, officered and Equipt, 


should Join Genl: Wayne on his March to the Southward: to Equip 1781. 
them will be Impossible, because our County are in a manner disarmed July 2l8t 
by the frequent Impressing of Armes to put in the hands of those who 
were called out on former Occasions: which commenced with the 
Minuet service— Of the truth of which you will judge when I tell you 
that we had but 14 -Guns (such as they were) in the field at our Genl: 
Muster in April last. I was really surprised to see so few, and accord- 
ingly had those who appeared without Guns, cited before a Court Mar- 
tial the next day, when the whole wore acquited, Some proving that 
their Guns had been Impressed and others too poor to buy them. Since 
then I was ordered to Reinforce Genl : Greene with 285 men, Officered 
and Equipt Either by Impressing or otherwise. Accordingly I detached 
good men with orders to make the strictest enquiry for, and impress 
every Gun that was in the least degree fit for Service — When done I 
could flimish not more than one-third of the Number with Even a 
ToUerable Gun, and the greatest part were public Guns, found in the 
hands of Individuals, and the most of those Guns were without flints: 
in this Situation the men marched through a Dangerous Country infested 
with Tories &c — however they Joined Genl: Greene at 96, when I am 
told they were supplyd with arms: and if Genl Wayne can supply Arms 
and Ammunition the Men shall be Ready, otherwise you will perhaps 
think with me that it will avail but little to send the Men. these are 
&ct8 saflcient to show Government the impropriety of calhng for Men 
Equipt Ready for the Field: we are not only without Guns, as I have 
said, bat we are also without Ammunition, Tents, Camp Kettles flints 
Ac. I beleive (however) we have many good men who would freely 
Buy Arms and Ammunition and would use them in the Defence of their 
Country as fVeely, but alass those are articles not to be had in this Quar- 
ter — ^I also beleive we have a few good Guns in the County private 
property, but the owners I am told secrete them and Say they will do 
it for their own Defence against Insurrections of Slaves or Tories — 
Reasons that seem to carry weight (with me at least)— fVom what has 
been said you may form an Idea of our present Situation with respect 
to Arms and Ammunition*' — Suggests the policy of putting Arms into 
the hands of the Militia, and relying upon them for their preservation 
which would prevent their being destroyed in Magazines, as has so often 
happened — This too would keep the men always ready to defend the 
country — Dwells upon the folly of the Government calling for equipped 
men, upon the idea that the Militia arc always armed and accoutred as ' 
the Law directs — The criminal neglect of the Law in some quarter hal^ 
caused the present condition of things, by which the Militia so necessary 
at this crisis, are powerless — Begs to bo pardoned for the freedom with 
which he speaks, but nothing can more concern him than the present 
condition of his Country — Gives a rough statement of the strength of 
the Country; the w4io]e consisting of about 1004 men, of whom "88 



1781. are under 18 years of age, 200 fit for Station Duty, and perhaps 100 fit 
July 21st for no duty at all, and about 40 condemned to six months service, mostly 
runaways to Carolina Washington and Kentucky Counties, those Recep- 
tacles of Yillians, which reduces the real Strength of Militia to about 
670, including those under 18 : 300 of which is now on Duty under the 
command of Maj : Grenl : Greene and Brig Genl : Lawson, and an hun- 
dred men under marching orders to releive those under G^nl Lawson, 
which would have been done before now had not their March been 
Retarded by the late movements of Colo Tarlton" — ^Recommends 
strongly the adoption of his plan, of allowing a "tour of duty" to every 
man who will arrest and deliver at the proper Post, all delinquents who 
are there to serve for six months — By this means the services of those 
men are secured for six months, instead of the two months usually 
expected of the militia man — No mode heretofore adopted has suc- 
ceeded as well as this — No reward will act as well — It makes every man 
exert himself— Adds " It will make a man take his Brother or Even his 
Father, or a father his Son — for says he if I dont take him, somebody 
else will — this I have known to be the case, where not long since, the 
taking a Deserter would Screene a Man from his Tour of 18 Months in 
the Continental Service" — The policy of sending "an Officer with a 
Select number of men" for the Sole business of arresting delinquents 
will not do— -He has tried it; and finds the Officers and men soon 


become "tired and lazy;" and the delinquent and his friends have only 
to watch the movements of the officer and his party, give the culprit 
notice, and he escapes — All the public stores in the County have long 
been removed to Peytonsburg in Pittsylvania. 

Ju]y2lBt John Wilson to Col. Davies. 

Pittsylyania Giving report of the militia in that County — They are now ^'reduced 
^- to about 600 men except the Officers"— "181 ordered to the South, 160 
below in our State which makes half now in Sarvice & Run away which 
will Distress our County very much." 

July22d James Shields to Gov: Nelson. 

Williamsb'g Mr. Pierce has appointed him to supply the troops returned from 
Charlestown ; but he finds it almost impossible to procure supplies in 
the neighboring County so lately desolated by the Enemy. What pro- 
visions he has obtained so far, have been the cattle "that stray'd from 
the Enemy" — Only two wagons are left in the neighborhood, which he 
is employing to collect meal from the mills, and has four men on horse- 
back collecting the cattle where the Enemy have net been — ^has recrived 
nothing from the County Commissioners. 


Capt: Browns Price, C. Mil. Stores, to Major J. Pryor. 1781. 

Having learned the Enemy had certainly returned down the Country, New London 

and knowing the great expense of hiring wagons to remove the stores, 
he has determined to remain where he is until further orders — has col- 
lected all the material and put the men to work again. The stores not 
damaged by the weather, and none lost except a few swords, and about 
forty pounds of powder, owing to the barrels giving way when removed. 
Desires to know whether the Laboratory is to be moved and ^^ where to'' 
Mr. Clarke's time will expire on the 1st August ; knows not what will 
be done for so useful a man in the Armorer's shop — The men will cer^ 
tainly go off if money is not fUmished them, as they have none, and 
*'can get no credit in this part of the world": has used every persuasion 
he can — ^'Capt: Grice is not able to buy himself a chicken." 


David Ross to the Exeoutive. July22d 


^^I have also thrown together a few observations upon the present Richmond 
value of our circulating medium, and confess, the more I considered the 
subject, the more I was embarrassed to fix on an Exchange that would 
do equal justice to all, or continue fix'd for any length of time. 

For some time before the Invasion, and for a short time afterwards 
Tobacco was considered the standard of our money, and its value deter- 
mined by the current price of that article, reckoning the average price 
at twenty shillings specie per hundred. 

When the demand for Tobacco was checkt & in a great measure stopt, 
by reason of our ports being blockt up, and the risk of its being destroyed 
by the enemy at the several warehouses, it ceased to be the true stand- 
ard of our money, and the price continued the same, whilst the exchange 
upon specie advanced gradually, as the want of imported articles began 
to be more sensibly felt. 

The articles which we, before the Invasion, imported with our Tobacco, 
could now be only procured with our specie, from the Northern States, 
and thus the Exchange upon hard money grew to 150 for 1, in the 
months of March k April. 

Paper money being of no intrinsic value in itself, and having no cur- 
rency fiuther than the laws of that Country which emits it extends, it 
can only be estimated according to the articles it represents in that 
Country, or the commodities it will purchase. 

For instance, if the common price of Com be £50, paper money pr: 
busl:, the usual price of which was 10. S. specie, the Exchange upon 
that article is 100 for 1. — However as a large crop of one article, and a 


1781. short crop of another, or a greater demand for one article than another, 
July 22d will enhance the value of some & reduce the price of other articles, ii 
will be proper to take the average prices of the principle articles of pro- 
duce, and from thence produce an Exchange that will be of genenl 

I think in the months of March & April, the Excha. in the porchase 
of the native commodities of the State, taking one article with another 
and calculated upon former hard money prices — ^may be said to have 
been 180 for 1. which is above the exchange then given f5r specie— 
hence the observation so often made that hard money had depreciated. 

Since May last several causes have combined to injure the credit ft 
lessen the value of our money. 

The measures adopted by the Northern States, destroying the credit 
of the old Continental money, has had a fatal effect upon our money, 
and must injure the credit of all paper money — The people can have no 
confidence in a currency liable to such sudden & unexpected changes, as 
to bo reduced in one night to l-6th or l-7th of its value, or perhaps ren- 
dered of no value at all. 

The Quantity of paper money is greatly increased in this State by two 
late emissions — no additional taxes laid upon the people, to call part of 
it out of circulation, and to make the demand for it universal all over 
the Country, that Kind of property for which money is a medium 
greatly lessened, consequently the real value of the money circulating, 
will be in proportion to the real value of the property it represents, or 
in other words the articles which are to be bought & sold in that currency. 

The quantity of transferable property is not only lessened, but our 
demands for merchandize & a variety of articles from the North'd dayly 
increasing. Consequently the price of specie raised, and the deprecia- 
tion of the paper money increased — The same causes will continue to 
produce the same effects — The expenditures of the Commonwealth great, 
the Income but small — ^Whilst the war continues & our Ports blockt up, 
Emissions of paper must succeed to Emissions, untill the value of it is 
reduced to a state, which may be better conceived than described — 
Although the beforemention*d causes are good reasons for a very great 
depreciation — I cannot help thinking that the Exchange given in many 
parts of the Country is too high, and not the consequential effects of the 
beforementioned causes. The fears of some, and the interested views of 
others have fixt the exchange in several places at 500, & 600 for 1 — ^I 
conceive this to be beyond the natural depreciation, considered on the 
principles which I have laid down — that is to say, if the Exchange in 
March & April last, was 180 for 1, the increase of money and the decrease 
of property with the other circumstances already mentioned, are not 
sufficient to produce such a violent depreciation as above mentioned. 

There is at this time, such a variation in the prices of commodities in 
different parts of the country, that the Exchange cannot be calculated 


by taking the average prices at present — The Exchange at this time 1781. 
ought to bear the same proportion to the exchange in March & April, as July 22d 
the money in circulation now bears to the money in circulation at that 
time, compared with the transferable property in the State in March & 
April & the property now in the State. 

For instance, if the property to be purchased now with paper money, 
is not more than one half in proportion to the money in circulation as 
there was in March & April last, in proportion to the money then in cir- 
culation, the exchange of course would be now, or in a short time 360 
for 1, & so on in the aforesaid proportion. 

In settling the Exchange, in order to ascertain the just and equitable 
prices to be paid for articles purchased, or labour to be performed, the 
prices of native commodities are to be sure, the principal objects to bo 
attended to, — ^yet there are some important articles, such as Salt, medi- 
eines, steel Ac, essentially necessary for the use of man, and although 
too high to calculate depreciation upon, as they make up but a small 
part of the necessaries of life, the advanced price of them will, never- 
theless have some influence in the scale — For the prices paid the Hus- 
band man, the mechanic, & the day labourer must be such as will enable 
them to live by their several occupations. 

It would be happy for the State, if the Exchange fixt upon by the 
Executive be such as meets .with the approbation of the people at large — 
if too high an Exchange, it will add to the depreciation, and the prices 
of all commodities will be regulated thereby — if too low an exchange be 
fixt upon, the public purchasers cannot give so much as the private 
purchasers — ^the articles wanted for the Army will be secreted and 
withheld — Force must be introduced to seize them, which is a disagree- 
able alternative, and the injury falls upon the industrious, who deserve 
encouragement — it is also the most expensive mode of procuring sup- 
plies, for when the article seized is to be valued, the appraisers will take 
the violence of the measure into the account. 

One of the greatest evils attending the depreciation of money is the 
injury done to the honest creditor, who, upon the day of payment 
receives but a half or a third of the value of his contract, although he 
receives the nominal sum bargained for — this evil demands the attention 
of Government, so far as they can interfere. 

Upon the whole, I am well satisfied, that it exceeds the wisdom of 
man, to settle such an Exchange at present as will do equal justice to 
all, or continue fixt, for any considerable time, but all matters considered, 
I am of opinion, that an Exchange of Three Hundred & fifly for one, 
would at this time be just & reasonable/' 

This I am sure will appear too high to many, but upon mature delibe- 
ration, it will be found moderate enough — if you purchase from an 
individual, 'tis right to buy as cheap as you can, the Seller has one half 
of the bargain-making — if you seize from a man contrary to his will, the 


1781. pablick make the whole bargain. In doing this, fhll regard should be 
July 22d had to justice, and if we look round, we shall not find the person whoee 
commodity is seized, can lay out his money & be a gainer, if com k 
wheat is taken fh)m a man, who wishes to buy a horse for the money, 
he will find the Exchange full low — ^it will be the same thing if he wants 
cattle or sheep — should he want imported goods it will be still much 
worse — if he employs mechanics to do work for him, it will not be much 

The Exchange appeared high to myself— I have been at much pains 
to find a plausible reason to reduce it, but in vain — If what I have said 
upon this subject shall be of any use to you in fixing an adequate 
Exchange, that will give general satisfaction, I shall be well pleased. 

Upon Saturdiyy evening, I transmitted to Messrs: Clark & Bentley the 
respective orders in Council, made in their business — I am sorry to find 
that they are far from being satisfactory." * * ♦ 

"As we have so many demands pressing hard upon us, I sincerely 
wish that we could send those claimants, with propriety, to Congress for 

I have the honor to be with great regard — 

your most obedient Servant." 

Jaly22d T. Bbntlby to David Soss. 

Riohmond Acknowledges receipt of the Resolution of the Executive Council 
in regard to his claim. Begs he will represent to them the extreme 
hardships to which their determination exposes him: to which he is 
keenly alive when he considers how much he has merited treatment of 
the opposite character: and especially when the fact is notorious that 
he had Sacrificed his own fortunes to support the Credit of the State in 
the Illinois Country — The open letter of Genl : Clarke enclosed with 
his papers, should have sufficed to prove to the Council the justice and 
fairness of his claim, and of the services he had rendered: The ^illibe- 
ral suggestion with regard to his signature" he leaves to time to show 
its absurdity and to place *Hhe blot where it appertains" — He acoms 
the insinuation of being ^^an Imposter" and is confident that a man of 
Genl : Clarke's honorable character will sustain him — Genl Clarke knew 
the prices of the articles and the value of the currency with which they 
were purchased, as well as any one, and would never have countersigned 
his accounts, unless he knew they were correct. If the statements of 
Genl : Clarke do not give satisfaction, he appeals to the written testi- 
mony of Colo Montgomery and Capt: Dodge, of his having <* Satisfied 
the clamors of the People who threatened to drive your Troops out of 
the Country" — These papers will afford confirmation of his privations, 
and show the melancholy situation of his affairs, ^'exposed to a merci- 


leas set of ignorant, bigotted people supported in their Injustice by a 1781. 
Law established by Colo Todd, to justify their unprecedented proceed- July 22d 
ings, by declaring their shall be no appeal from their judgement. They had 
repeatedly entered into combinations to ruin him and latterly, on account 
of his having supported the Va Troops when they wished to starve them 
out — Begs to be excused for his urgency and prolixity, but when ruin 
stares him in the face, owing to his "ill timed credulity and tenacious 
seal to serve the State" he cannot fail to give utterance to the poignancy 
of his feelings. As a last resort, he shall appeal to Genl : Clarke for 
protection, but insists that the true policy for this and all the other 
States of the Confederation, should alone be that of ^'Justice & Libe- 

John Harmanson and Wm. Scott, Commbs. of Provision Law, to Col: July 22d 


His Letter ordering the public grain to be sold, was received some Northamp- 
time ago, and they have disposed of all the corn, except 724 bushels — ^^ 

the Bacon was consumed in supporting the guards for the county. They 
have a large quantity of Salt on band, which it is very desirable should 
be gotten away lest the enemy destroy it. It may be sent even in ves- 
sels if insured at considerable risk, to the Rappahannock, or any other 
post desired — A large quantity of oats are also on hand, tho* they are 
in part supporting a troop of horse on it — Desire instruT^tions particu- 
larly in regard to the salt; which is selling at "£100 pr: bushel for 
exportation to the Western shore:" freight pr: bushel £25, but they can 
afford to send it to Fredericksburg for £15, Com for £1. and Oats for 
£4. pr: bush! — They urge some decisive step to remove the Com, Oats, 
Salt &c from the Peninsula, in as much as the people are constantly 
apprehensive of losing all by the enemy's coming. 

Thos: Mathsws to Gov: Nelson. July28d 

Dear. Genl: 

Yesterday morning the Enemy landed about three hundred WilliamBb'g 
men at Mill Creek, from on board their Fleet in Hampton road, and are 
now plundering the inhabitants in that quarter. Vessels daily join the 
Fleet in the road, from Portsmouth, and I expect, they wait for nothing 
but a favourable wind — A Captain from Bermuda with prisoners, informs 
that the Island of Tobago is taken by the French, he likewise says that 
a report was circulated in Bermuda, that St. Lucia had also fallen into 
their hands. A gentleman from Philadelphia brings the same acct. 

Col: Innea has not yet arrived. I expect he is collecting Provisions 
and Brandy on the other aide the River. 


1781. I am obliged to depend on chaneo for a conveyaneo of any intelli- 

July 23d genco, as no Horsemen or oxpi-eBses are to be had at this place. 

I am with the greatest respect 
Dr. Genl: 

Your most obet Servt." 

July 23d Major John Pbyoe to Col: Da vies. 

Charlottes- Thanks him for having mentioned his name for the Post which was 
the subject of his last conversation: received a letter from the Marquis 
a day or two ago desiring to see him at once, and will leave as soon 
as his successor Mr. Jones arrives. Hopes it concerns the Office 
referred to — and trusts it has **no dcpendance on Quarter Masters'* as 
he has taken formal & final leave of ^Hhe whole class, on Pablick Mat- 
ters" — He has furloughed all the workmen for want of provisions, and 
has sent up the Laboratory, men. Powder, paper & lead agreeable to 
Capt: Bohannan^s request, and shall send the arms to Irvins. 

Begs for a Warrant for 121.000 dolls: for the C. G. Mil: Stores Depart- 
mcnt, as he has borrowed a large amount on public and private credit, 
and as no more can be had, he is much ^Mistressed for money." 

July 23d Jno. Robertson to Col: Davies. 

Camp Sends copies of Returns — Mr. Browne is not at camp — He saw his 

Excellency the Governor come into camp last evening, but has not had 
the opportunity of speaking to him. He has given his orders to the 
Issuing Commissary and has undertaken to commatid them, but another 
assumes the control — The troops at Wmsburg he hears have rec'd a sup- 
ply of Bacon & flour — The Marquis has ordered him to send the first 
Liquor that comes, to his camp, and shall send a supply the next day ; 
but Mr. Pierce the Asst : Com : Genl is down there providing for them. 
Plenty of provisions now in camp. He is very desirous of having his 
office in Richmond, and have a chief assistant in the Field. 

July 28d David Ga&land to Govr Nelson. 


Lunenburg 1 think it the duty of every good citizen, not only to pay a strict 

^' obedience to the Laws of the State, but to giye every intelligence thtt 
may be subservient too & enable the Executive the better to execute bis 
office. If I am mistaken, impute it to Ignorance & a zeal for my Coun- 
try, and not a desire of being troublesome — Let me then inform you. 
Col : Tarleton with his Legion came through this County last week, and 


considering hiB rapid march (thirty or forty miles a day) has done con- 1781. 
siderable damage in destroying the public grain &c, as also wounding July 28d 
three persons & carrying off some others as Prisoners — He threatens to 
return immediately after the 16th of next month, when he assures us 
that he will carry the sword & fire through the Land, not sparing any 
persons but such as hath or may take Parrole before that time — As there 
is not one man in twenty that has a gun &c in this County (they having 
at three several times Impressed into the Countries' Service and not 
returned), and no army between this and the Enemies Camp at Ports- 
mouth, & only three days march (as Tarleton goes) the People are much 
alarmed, not Knowing what to do, provided Tarleton, or any other of 
the British forces should come among us. I am apprehensive if that 
should be the case, the consequences would be disagreeable, as the peo- 
ple would be obliged to submit. This would not be the case if they had 
arms & ammunition. If there is any to be spared, you'l be a Judge 
whether it's proper to arm such militia as above described — Would it not 
be of good account to Issue your Orders to all Commanding Officers of 
the militia on the South Side of James River, to Imbody or have in 
readiness, every militia man that can raise a Gun to prevent the Enemy 
(in case they should come) going about in small parties to Plunder &cr." 
''I am Sir, with the highest regard: your 
fhost obet Servant." 

P. S. I heard Col: Hobson the Commanding Officer of this County 
say, that the draft of Militia ordered to Genl : Green could not go, for 
want of arms." 

Col: Tubnib Southall to Gov: Nelson. July 24th 

He, the day before, had received orders from the Commissioner of Henrico 
War to continue one fourth of the militia of the County in service by 
regular rotation, but finds it impossible to carry out these instructions, 
owing to the various devices, by which men are allowed to avoid doing 
military duty. Some are engaged with Saml: Williamson collecting 
horses left by the enemy which he hears is to exempt them from duty 
for one year I And others in like manner are engaged under the Quarter 
Masters, as Express Riders &c — Thus they make a show of being in the 
public service, until the men march, and "then they rest quietly at 
home: this kind of manoeuvering has never been countenanced in this 
County" — Express Riders should be enrolled to serve for twelve months. 
The invalids of whom there are many should be employed in these 
duties. He hopes his Excellency will give such directions as may in 
future put a stop to these cunning practices— concludes " I should have 
waited on your Excelly: but am prevented by the Small pox being in 




1781. Genl: Danl: Morgan to Gov : Nelson at Bichmond. 

July 24th "Sir, 

Camp I received your Excellency's favor of the 20th, and return you my 

^^^^^ sincere thanks for the very obliging manner, in which you intend to 

carry into Execution the Resolution of the Assembly. As I am directed 

to rejoin the Marquis de la Fayette, I will do myself the honor of calling 

on your Excellency and conversing with you on the Subject. 

In the mean time 

I have the Honour to be 
with great esteem 

your Excellency's obt hubl Servt." 

July 24th GsoROE North, B. Qr. Master to Genl: Watne. 

Goode^B Giving condition of the Stores at Colo Edward Friends in Chester- 

Bridge g^i^ — ^|j^ barrels containing Shoes had been opened and robbed — Two 
men who said they wore under orders from Col: Febiger to contract with 
the inhabitants for Shoos, had been there and carried off some of the 
articles. There is also a quantity of flour, armsJkc without a guard or 
even a lock or door to protect thom. 

July24ih Thos: Newton Jr: TO THE Governor. 


Bichmond By desire of Colo Parker, I was commissioned by Genls : Muhlen- 

berg & Lawson to provide necessaries for the Troops under his com* 
mand — ^with the assistance of Mr. Burke, Provisions, Spirits and forage 
were with much fatigue procured. G^nl: Gregory supply'd us with 
some ammunition Aic &c — he rendered us every assistance in his power 
during our Stay at Edmunds' Hill (near the Great Bridge— we were 
under the necessity of Keeping hunting parties out to procure beef, 
which ran wild in the woods." * * ♦ 

" We were reduced to the necessity of employing the paroPd G^ntlem 
to grind at the hand mills, for meal, which very sparingly supply'd 

Ug »» * * 4k 4s * « 

*' The Grovemor and Council having promised mo that any supplies of 
provisions &c should be allowed in payment of taxes, through them I 
made the same promise to the inhabitants below, they with the greatest 
chearfulness spared all they cou'd and now the sheriff refuses to take 
certificates, & demands a Warrant fW>m the Auditor, which is out of the 
power of the poor man to get, as it wou'd cost him more than it's worth 
to travel here for it. * * * ♦ 


"I shall be exceedingly oblig'd if your Excellency & Councill wou'd 1781. 
direct the sheriflB to receive them, the peculiar situation of the people July 24th 
below is such that they cannot pay without it, as every thing they had 
to spare has been either taken by the Enemy or our own troops from 
them. I need not inform you of their distress, as you are well acquainted 
with it, but this you may rely on that no part of Virginia is more wil- 
ling than they are, to assist with what they have lefl. I cannot omit 
informing your Excellency that Oenl : Gregory received with open arms 
the distressed inhabitants who were obliged to fly for safety, he did 
every thing in his power to aleviate their distress." 

I am, Tr: Excelly most obt Hbl Servf 

Col: Jamks Innbs to Gov: Nslson, Eichmond. July 24th 

"Dear Sir, 

I repaired immediately after the Koc*t of yr : Letter to this WilliamsVg 
miserable place — where there is not one necessary supply to bo procured. 
The OflScers & Soldiers are really in a most distressed situation. No 
liiquor of any kind can be had — and nothing issued out to them, but 
very indifferent beef and Indian Bread. Doctor Tucker, the Director 
General of the Southeiai Hospital, has just waited on me, to inform me 
that there are ninety sick men under his charge, for whom he can pro- 
cure neither Bedding, Blankets, Straw, Medicines, Wine, Spirits nor any 
other necessary — The Officers who have liberty to go to their respective 
homes, cannot, for want of the means of transporting their Baggage, 
which to most of them, is their little all. Neither waggons nor carts 
can be had here— ^Every thing of that nature the Enemy have either 
taken away or destroyed — Add to all this, the Staff Departments hero 
are so unhinged that there are no persons, the Commissioners excepted, 
who think they are obliged to obey orders. In this Situation am I 
Surrounded by a number of necessitous claimants who expect much 
from me. To execute properly the object of my being called to this 
place, it would require at least Twenty thousand pounds cash — 15 wag- 
gons and as many horses — Had I money, I might be able to purchase 
poultry, mutton, and possibly some spirits for the sick — without it 
nothing can be had — I have call'd upon the Commissioners of Gloster 
for supplies & do expect some beef from thence." * * 

* 4: * * * 

"Forty sail of Transports are riding in Hampton Boad: they have on 
board all the pilots acquainted with the navigation of the upper part of 
the Chesapeake, in which Quarter, from every appearance, they mean 
netxt to operate — four hundred british landed at hampton old fort yes- 
•Herday, where they remained until the Evening surveying the Grounds. 
They have said it is their intention to rebuild fort G^eorge. 
I have the honor to be, most respectfully 
Dear Sir, yr: obt Servt." 


1781. Jab: Maxwell to Gov: Nelson. 

July 24th " Sir, 

Nayy Office I beg leave to inform your Excellency, ^hat Lieut: Chandeler and 

about Thirty Seamen are prisoners with the Enemy at Portsmouth, and 
were taken in the Patriot, & from the Liberty in Back river — they were 
the best men wo had in our service, and many of them Commodore 
Barron informs me were at the capturing of above 500 men — these peo- 
ple ho also ads, are suffering all the calamities of war, and from their ill- 
usage many have been obliged to enter into the Enemy's service, and it 
is to be fear*d the remaining part will be reduced to the same necessity 
except an Exchange can be procured, or assurance at least given them, 
that they are not forgotten by their Country — Also on the 27th of April, 
at the capturing of the Tempest, Capt: Markham, Lieut: Steel & a 
midshm wore made prisoners & paroled, which also pray to be 
exchanged as soon as possible. 

I have the Honour to be, with the greatest respect, 

Your Excellency's most obt 
& most Humble Servt." 

July 24th Henry Tazewell certifies, that, Mr. Nivison, having been by the Gov- 
ernor, referred to Mr. Barker & himself ^^to be examined as to his fitness 
to practice the law " that he has asked him the necessary questions, and 
finds him very well acquainted with the Theory. 

*^ Young Gentlemen educated in public Academies in the Law, have 
not an opportunity of becoming intimately acquainted'* with the prac- 
tical parts of their profession. 

July 24th Capt: H. Youno to Col: Daviss. 

Richmond ('ailing attention to Major Claiborne's determination to pay the Bxpress 
RiderH at the rate of nine shillings specie or its equivalent, pr: day 
requiring them to find themselves everything and to bear their own 
exponees — Bequests an order for the stores at Friend's in Chesterfield. 
Ho will not be able to procure wagons to transport the officers' Baggage 
at Wmsburg, unless he has power to impress them, and is furnished with 
men to guard them afterwards. As the Enemy are on board their ships, 
he suggests that it will be inexpedient to engage too many '^Expresses" 
until their destination be known. 


Beig: Gkbil: Edwaed Stivs^is to liov: Nelson. HSl. 

July ^th 
Major Hardeman of the militia, ^^an exceeiiing aetivo, goini i>llicor'' Camp Midl- 
and who is "arranged in je State Regiment under Ool: I>abuey/* but ^^** 
with inferior rank^ can do more liierviee in his present (H^nition — Ho 
therefore hopes he may not be depriveil of his sorvitHw — coutiuuiV'* — Tho 
Militia is exceedingly Badlj off for musiok. there is not a l>nuu among 
them. And it is almost impossible to do duty without, not only that, 
bat at times gives fVesh spirits to Troops, and spurs up an omulati(»u 
among them, which is always productive of much gixni in an Anuy — 
If we could be furnished with only half a doxen for yo present it Wi)uM 
be of infinite service, — If a Travelling Forge could bo priH^uiHul Ibr yo 
use of ye militia, it would be exceeding Borvieoablo, by having yo Anus 
of ye militia Keeped in repair as yo most tritUing dofoot in a Looko 
renders it unfitt for service " &c. 

With sentiments of Respect I am, Sir, 

Your most obt and voiy humble Sorvt. 

N. HoBsoN Co. Lixut: & others to Col: Wm. Davikh — in reply to July 94ih 

his Circular Loiter of the 15th. 

They find it impossible to arm one seventh of the Militia; huc^Ii have Lunenburg 
been the draughts of arms, that there are not remaining ^^ton firo-lockM 
fit for use in the County; nor are there as many pounds of ammunition 
of any Kind — They have repeatedly had the mortification to make tliiH 
apology for not complying with the demands of the Kxocutive — The 
force of the County, by last returns, ''amounts to 382 militia, of whom 
86 are now in service, and a relief of 34, just marched" — They have on 
hand a considerable quantity of grain collectc^J, and thirty beeves, which 
will soon be consumed by the Troops on their march Kouthward, going 
that way. Col: Brown had sent ninety of their beeves to the Army — 
Their largest " magasine of grain was destroyed by (Jol : TurUiUm " — 
The di£Bcalty of making a correct return of the provisions vAAimUni, 
arises from the fact that one of the Co. ^>>mnussaries is a yirimmisv with 
the enemy having refused to take a parole, and the other de^rlines U; give 
informaUon, because he is paroled by them — <Jol: Brr> wn should l>e 
informed of this state of things. 


TO Gove Nevsoe. 

Althoagh your appointment to the office oi' Ohieif Magistrate of the Philadelphia 
State has DOt been olftciaiij announoed, private ooiiuuuuicatioiis wiii uot 


1781. allow U8 to doubt the fact, or any longer delay presenting your Exoel- 
July 24th lency our congratulations on the occasion, and to assure you, we shall 
be happy in contributing what lies in our power towards rendering your 
administration agreeable to yourself and beneficial to the public — With 
this view and that you may be fully and regularly informed of public 
transactions and occurrences, wo have determined to make a weekly 
communication, as well of the proceedings of (Congress necessary for 
your information, as of such foreign and domestic intelligence as may 
deserve attention, and we shall be at liberty to divulge — In return we 
request a similar correspondence on the part of the Executive, not 
merely for our private gratification,' but principally to enable us more 
effectually to execute the duties of our Appointment. 

The offer of the Empress of Russia, to settle the disputes between the 
States of Holland and Great Britain has been rejected on the part of the 
Court of London, and referred over to a general pacification. 

No doubt you have heard of the extraordinary capitulation agreed to 
by the Spanish Commander, on the reduction of Pensacola, whereby the 
Prisoners captured there, were allowed to be sent to any British Post, 
Jamaica and St. Augustine excepted, and that General Campbell has 
made choice of New York — , at which place a part of them, we are 
informed, have already arrived, and will no doubt be employed in defence 
of that Port. 

Mr. Boudinot, a member from the State of N. Jersey, read us a Letter 
yesterday, received from a fViend in Elizabeth Town dated the 20th 
instant, informing him that Adml Digby had arrived at the Hook, with 
five ships of the line, and it was said had captured a Fifty-Gun Ship and 
Frigate of the French. In this Squadron, it is said the 3d son of Greorge 
the 3d is arrived in the character of Midshipman, and that a House was 
taken for him in Now York and preparing for his reception — We give 
you this as private intelligence to Mr. Boudinot, not yet authenticated. 

Some intercepted Letters transmitted us by our Minister at the Court 
of Yersailles are ordered to be published — Some of them are interesting, 
and others show the continued delusion and folley of the British Minis- 
try — the enclosed papers contains part of them, and may serve to amuse 

We request to be informed of the important transactions of the last 

Session of Assembly as soon as possible, and in particular what sum of 

the new emission of the 10th of March 1780 has been issued, and on 

what terms in proportion of value to the old Bills — ^We are respectfully 

Sir, yr: obed: Servants." 


John Watson to the Govirnoa, in bshalt of Mb. Willm. Liqon. 1781. 

July 26th 
Appointed a "Deputy Commissioner of Provisions" for Amelia Co, a Prince 
man of character, and who has exerted himself in procuring Bacon and Bdward 
other provisions, for which is has became responsible, but who having 
been drafted to serve in the Militia, by reason of his appointment, had 
fisuled to attend, and was therefore condemned to six months service as 
a delinquent — Begs the necessary relief be furnished so true and valu- 
able a man. 

Douglas Wilkins to the Governor. July 26th 

By the Act of Assembly by which Brunswick was divided into two Greeneville 
Counties, one of which is Greenevilie, there are no Commissioned Offi- 
cers left, except Col : Fisher, who being captured and paroled cannot 
act — He therefore asks for two Colonels' Commissions, one Major's, six 
Captains, twelve Lieutenants and six Ensigns — There are many men 
who refuse to do military duty, and they cannot be tried, because of the 
want of Com'd Officers to form a Court Martial — They declare they will 
not serve unless forced to do so, and others are discontented because 
they are not arrested. He desires to know to whom these men shall be 
sent, when apprehended — The people are very much incensed, because 
their horses are taken, without being paid for, and many swear they 
will "lose their lives before they ever will suffer their horses to be 
taken" — They complain, that it falls too hard upon individuals. They 
are willing to give up their horses, if the Captain of a Company be em- 
powered to raise the number required out of his own men. If a man 
gives up his horse, the others should be taxed to pay for him ; and when 
the Grovemment pays for the horse so taken, the money should be 
refunded to those who had been taxed for his purchase — This method 
will BO satisfy the people, that many horses may be gotten — He has two 
hundred & eighty men enrolled, but of those only about two hundred 
and thirty fit for duty. Under the Law, he is required to make a return 
of the number of Regular Soldiers in the Country, wounded and unfit 
for duty; but he cannot find one such — Desires to know how the people 
are to get their pay for the " many guns taken out of the County for 
the publick" as they are ever after him for the money. 

Col: Beverly Winslow to Col: Davibs. July 26th 

The reason why part of the Militia are not in the field, is that he Spotsylvania 
thought it best to execute the "Draught for the Continental Service," ^' 
as it is the only time the Militia have been altogether in the county 


1781. since early in March. That duty being over, he will send oif one fourth 
July 26th of them on Monday next to join the Army. 

Having heard that Troops were to be stationed at Fredericksburg and 
in the peninsula between the Potomac and Rappahannock, to oppose 
any attempt of the enemy in that quarter, requests that these be 
assigned to this service — Owing to the late confusion &c, very little 
clothing has been collected — What has been rec'd was given to the Army 
on its late retreat thro the country. 

The Governor endorses the above. "The Militia from Spotsylvania 

must join the Marquis'*' — The County Lieutenants ought to be direct^ 

not to deliver cloathing but by particular order of the Commissioner of 

the War Office, by whose orders alone, Military Stores of any kind are 

to be delivered. 


July 26th Bev: Winslow TO Gov: Nelson, in behalf of two men, who bad been 

sentenced by Court Martial to sei*ve six months as having been delin- 

Spotsylvania He had sent one of them to haul flour from Jordone's Mill to Haccoon 
^®' Ford, when the Army at that place was out of meal; and the other had 
been sent by Genl: Weedon with the guard o^er prisoners conducted to 
Staunton — On this account they should not be punished, and as "the 
power of remitting fines and penaltys is lodg'd with him alone," he hopes 
he may be excused for making this appeal. 

July 25th John Brown, C. Genl: Peovisions, to Gov: Nelson — Bichmond. 

Camp Mai- The Honourable Major General, the Marquis De la Fayette informs 

vern Hills ^^^^ j^^ shall shortly move from this place down the Country, wch will 
increase the difficulty of conveying Provisions to the Army, and will in 
consequence require a greater number of waggons, than have hitherto 
been had for that purpose, which the Marquis desired me to inform you 
of — I am certain forty waggons will be as small a number as will answer 
for that purpose ; our dependence for meal being entirely over, as the 
Mills are almost dry, and our Flour Lies in the Counties of Amelia, 
Dinwiddle, Chesterfield, Powhattan, Prince Edward, Cumberland and 
Goochland, and will require at least fifty Barrells pr: Day: from which 
your Excellency may readily see what number of Waggons will be 
wanting for that purpose — It will take at least ton waggons for the pur- 
pose of transporting the article of spirits alone. 

^Thenat "Malvern Hills" below Richmond. 



The business of waggoning, I consider as part of the Quarter Master 1781. 
General for the Continents* duty, and of consequence foreign to mine: July 26th 
I have made application to Major Claiborne, relative thereto, who prom- 
ised he would look into it — The State will loose considerably, as I can- 
not charge the Continent with Waggonage — The enemy destroyed a 
quantity of flour and wheat at Daniel Jones' Mill, which is all the Com- 
missioner informs me, he knows of. The Bacon and Spints on the South 
Sid« of the Kiver have all escaped. 

My not having had the small pox, prevents my waiting pereonally on 
you, but as soon as I can with safety, I will. 
I am Sir, Your Excellencies' 
Most obedient, very humble 


David Boss to Col: Wm. Davies. July 26th 

Soon after the Law passed for raising two Legions for Genl: Spots- Richmond 
wood, he received by Mr. Jefferson, a letter from the Genl: relative to 
the Clothing the Legions. He assured the Genl : he would do all in his 
power for him — The clothing purchased at South Quay, and the supply 
that came from Philadelphia with the arms, would more than have suf- 
ficed, but the former was destroyed, and the latter lodged at Hendersons, 
has been so often removed, that he fears most of it is lost. He has lately 
had several very pressing letters from the Genl : and is at a loss how to 
answer them. 

Has directed Mr. Nicolson to call on him on his way to Philadelphia, 
and had written to him, that all applications for clothing must come 
through the Board of War, — and be approved by the Executive — The 
Genl: had also written him urgently, in regard to cloth, Blankets & 
tents ko — wants his accoutrements from the northd, where he is going 
himself, and wants the clothing made up under his own eye. He wishes 
sincerely all such applications were made through the proper channel. 
As it is necessary to reply to his letters, desires instructions how his 
demands are to be met. * * * * 

Capt: Peyton is much in want of funds to pay his tailors and other 
mrtificers; and to pay the women in the neighborhood for making shirts. 
Major Pryor informs him by letter, he had sent 300 stand of arms to 
Carolina by orders of the Marquis, but does not say whether they "the 
State or Continental property." 



1781. William Black to thb Govkbnob. 

July 26th 

Richmond Requesting a "Flag of truce" to go to Portsmouth, in order to settle 
an account for wheat furnished, with "a certain Hecter McAllaster*' 
who had been a merchant there, but had gone off with Ld : Dunmore, 
and is now Commissary of Prisoners in the British Army — McAllaster 
had agreed to Settle with him in hard money &c. 

July 26th Francs Willis Jd'b: Major, Va L. Dragoons to Brio Genl: Morgan. 

He thinks his men will soon be ready, if an order can be gotten for 
the accoutrements when they are received at Winchester. As Mr. 
Nicolson could not furnish the caps, he has written to Fredericktown, 
Maryland for them, — and has become personally responsible for the 
amount of tobacco required to purchase them — Hopes the Executive 
will indemnify him — But he sends an Express now for a special purpose, 
to inform him of a late peice of ." attrocious conduct" &c. "The history 
of the matter is this, a Stallion was impressed, amongst others, the'pro- 
perty of a Mrs Hannah — he had been for som'e days in the possession 
of Lieut : Throckmorton, after midnight a party came down, some 
armed and some not, and took the Horse out of Mr Throckmorton's 
stable, no person on the plantation being awake ; if such behaviour goes 
unpunished, no further orders for supplies need be sent to this county. 
I should not have hesitated a moment to have demanded to administer 
the punishment so justly merited, but the County Lieutenant, after 
giveing Capt: Armstrong orders to impress, imbibed the doubts of some 
leading men in the upper part of the county and some few in the lower, 
whether the powers conveyed in the Governor's letter wou'd justify him 
in the measure — This being industriously spread among the people, and 
Major Hunter's attempting to raise a Volunteer Troop of Horse, has I 
beleive been the occasion of this and many other disorders of this 
nature. Capt: Armstrong has been pursued with arms and clubs — he 
has made way as yet, sometimes by disarming and drubing his opposers, 
at other times when the balance of power has been unfavourable, by an 
honorable retreat. I will not venture to say, tho' its generally beleived, , 
that Migor Hunter encourages this disorder, by declaring the Grover- 
nor never intended, by his instructions to the County Lieut: to have 
Horses impressed — Colo Pendleton frequently suggests the same, and 
the Co Lieutenant seems to be alarmed, in supposition that he has gone 
too far." Wo have nearly all our horses and only wait for the accoutre- 
ments — A line from the Governor to proceed and strengthen our hands 
with undoubted authority will soon bring us to you in a condition, I 
hope to be serviceable." 

I have the honor to be, with the highest respect &c." 


David Ross to the Governor. 1781. 

July 25th 
About two weeks ago, he had sent Mr Maury to the Northern Tobacco Richmond 
Inspectors, with orders to ship 400 Hhds : to Charlostown, from those 
most exposed to the enemy's depredations. And to have all the other 
Tobaccoes removed to a safer place, Suggests the propriety of ordering 
all the County Lieutenants "where there are publick Tobaccos," to give 
his agents assistance in removing it. Sends him 'Hwelve sheets of 
paper money amtg: to £20160," a little more than is mentioned in his 

William Da vies to the Governor. July 25th 


I beg leave to lay before your Excellency the inclosed Letter from War Office 
Mr. Ross, as far as relates to General Spotswood's cloathing, the Saddles 
ke — The wants of the Continental Cavalry, the nakedness of the infan- 
try, -and destitute situation of the State corps under Dabney and Nelson, 
added to the scarcity, which losses we have Sustained, will occasion, all 
dispose me to give the preference to the men who now are and will con- 
tinue to be in the field — But at all events the irregularity of the mode, 
by which General Spotswood proposes to provide for his men, is such 
that for my part I never can consent to it. If every Officer is allowed 
to take cloth here, blankets there, and Saddles from another place, with- 
out regard to the wants and necessities of other corps, there is an end 
to every expectation I had formed of supplying them regularly and 

In the corps of Cavalry, by this management, one officer has got all 
the boots for his men, another has the breeches, and a third the saddles. 
The same confusion will continue forever to prevail, if Genl: Spotts- 
wood's mode of supply is to be adopted or authorized — I must therefore 
solicit the authority of government to justify me in directing Mr. Boss 
to make no appropriation of the clothing or materials for cloathing, 
intended for the supply of the Troops without an express order from 
this office, or from the Executive through it — Indeed, it does not appear 
to be Mr. Eoss' business at all, to have anything to do with Genl: Spotts- 
wood in this affair — ^Materials and supplies of cloathing go regularly 
into Mr. Armstead's hands, Military stores into Oapt: Bohannon's, and 
so of the other departments; the Commercial Agent may purchase the 
whole and put them into the possession of proper persons, but the gov- 
ernment directs the application. If General Spottswood chuses a par- 
ticular fashion for his uniform, it may be adopted either by the artificers 
at Charlottesville, or of others at prices and under the regulations which 
Mr. Armsiead may think necessary. 


1781. Upon the whole, I submit it to government whether it will not be 

July 26th proper that I should officially request from Genl: Spottswood, an exact 
state of his legion, that such directions may be given as will do him jus- 
tice and injure nobody else — and eventually promote the public benefit, 
which otherwise will infallibly suffer." 
I have the honor to be 

Your Excellency's most 

Obedt Servt." 

July 25th Thos. M. Ksan Pass: of Congress to the Governor of Virginia. 

Philadelphia Enclosing Act of Congress of the 23d Inst: and another of the 24th, 
for the purpose of procuring a loan of thirty thousand dollars, for "dis- 
tressed citizens of S. Carolina & Georgia who have been driven from 
their Country and possessions by the enemy " and lately arrived in Phil- 
adelphia. The money to be returned by the Legislatures of these States, 
so soon as they are in a condition for so doing — Charitable donations 
also to be i*eceived. 

July 26th Lt: Col: R. Lindsay to Govr Nelson. 

Head He has informed the Marquis that the term of service of the Albe- 

QuarterB ^^^^^1^ Militia has this day expired. They were ordered to the Field by 
the late Governor to serve two months — ^Any laws or regulations which 
may have come in force since that time should not prevent their being 
discharged at once — He is convinced Albemarle will not send out a releif 
until he shall return — Since the 17th May last that county has had out 
" 204 men, and a reinforcement of 223 ;" since which a reinforcement of 
80 men has been ordered — The whole effective force according to the 
last return is 738, thus 507 men have been ordered out, when there were 
actually 204 in the field — Undpr the circumstances he does not think a 
" releif should at this time be required of them. 

July 26th Brig: Genl: Ro: Lawson to Gov: Nelson. 

Prince Ed- The orders which have reached this County for one fourth of the 

ward Co. jf iHtia to march to General Greene's army, came to hand the 24th Inst 
only. I find from those Orders that Government expects that the 
County Lieutenants will be able to arm & equip the men order'd out on 
this occasion. 

As I am strongly impressed with the sound policy of supporting the 
General's operations in that quarter, and which cannot well be done 


without a speedy reinforcement from this State, and as I find that this 1781. 
reinforcement must go from the Southern Counties, I beg leave to state July 26th 
to your Excellency some difficulties at present inseparable from this 
business, and which will certainly retard, if not destroy the under- * 
taking — ^provided early measures are not taken to remove them as effec- 
tually as possible. 

It is not practicable for the Commanding Officers of the Militia to 
arm & equip the number of men called for, under the greatest exertions 
they may make — The arms are not attainable through this channel — 
The Individuals formerly possessing arms have been so repeatedly called 
upon to deliver them up on sudden & great emergencies of the State; 
& complying with those demands are truly (a few instances excepted) 
without private arms, for when they were taken out of the possession 
of the owners, and put into the hands of different men, it has happened 
too frequently that they have never been returned, and thus the Indi- 
vidual, as well as the publick sustains a manifest injury. I venture not 
this opinion on vague report — ^the reality of the thing itself is strongly 
impressed on my recollection. 

When Grovemment cali'd for the Militia from these Counties, to join 
the Marquis, at the time Comwallis form*d the junction with Phillips, it 
became my duty to hasten their march, and to get into the field the 
quota caird for from each county — but not more than id march'd; and 
this was owing to the actual want of arms to put into their hands. I 
hope it is in the power of Government to remove this difficulty by 
fbmishing arms &c — but even then I fear the number expect'd will not 
March in a short time. 

At the particular request of the Marquis, I have taken some pains to 
sound the disposition of the People in this quarter on the occasion & 
have endeavored to accelerate their march but I find from very good 
information that the idea of such a lengthy march dlHtrcsses tbem 
f^reatly. They also complain of inequality in performing this service — 
indeed I must own to your Excellency that I conceive too much justice 
in this objection. They are caird upon, it's true to serve only two 
months from the time of their joining the Southern Army — but the fact 
is so striking that it will take them more than four months to get there 
& back to their Homes, that the conclusion drawn is this — that they 
have credit only for performing a tour of duty with the bulk of the 
militia, altho' it takes them five months nearly to perform it in, when 
those who stay within the State perform their tour within the compass 
of three months at most — ^many in much less time — The circumstance 
of their pay has not the supposed weight in removing this objection — 
indeed few go out with the militia, that make the pay any way an object. 
I am confident that if something could be done to make them conceive 
this service more equal, it would have a happy effect — I presume not to 
suggest to Your Excellency the mode of effecting this. 


1781* It is a fact which I think it wrong to conceal from your Excellency, 

July 26th that several of the militia who are calPd upon, have openly avow'd it as 
their determination to serve as six months' men within the State, rather 
than perform this service. The horrors of the Southern climate are so 
strongly magnify'd & the fatigues of marching so seriously impressed 
on their minds, that few considerations could induce them to engage in 
the undertaking with alacrity. 

I have too much cause to fear that these are unquestionable facts, 
which it is probable would have reach'd the Executive, when the evil 
had existed too long to be remedied in such time as to preserve the idea 
of supporting General Green." * * » 

"It is also necessary to observe to your Excellency, that several of these 
Counties have sent down the greater part of their men designed to releif 
those who have been already in the field. & the commanding officers 
would gladly know how to act in such case. 

Punishments would bo more frequently impos'd on the delinquent 
militia by the sentences of the County Courts Martial were the late act 
of Assembly published & sent to the respective counties. 

I trust Sir, you'll be so good as to excuse me for troubling you WMth 
these remarks — ^as I am fully confident that you are not a stranger to 
the motive that actuates me on the subject. 

I wish also to remark, that the Southern Counties have sent their 
militia to South Carolina on four different occasions, & have nevertheless 
done equal duty in the State with these Northern Counties, who have 
not been thus calPd upon. 

I have the honor to be, with the highest 
Sentiments of respect — Sir, 

Yr: Excellency's mo: obct: & very 
humble Servant. 

July 26th Capt: Hamilton to . 

" I am sorry to hear that the want of the carriages for the Boats is 
likely to prove fatal to the operations of the Army & wish sincerely that 
it was in my power to furnish them, but from what I have told you 
repeatedly in my letters on this subject, you could not expect them to 
be ready for service 'til the fall." * * ♦ 

" I have not only confided in what the Superiutendant of Artifices has 
^ told me, but have made enquiry of people who have a knowledge of the 

business & they all agree that it would be entirely useless to attempt the 
making of any until the wood be sufficiently seasoned." . 



Thos : Clayton informs the Governor, of his appointment under Mr. 1781. 
Nicholas Payne, to collect and foward beeves ; but his assistant having July 26th 
been drafted in the militia, he can do little without other help &c. Spotsylvania 

Col: Wm. Preston to Col: Wm. Da vies. 

July 26th 

His Letter by Express, of the 15th inst:, requiring a seventh part of Montgomery 
the militia of that County under proper Officers to march to the assist- 
ance of Genl: Greene, was rec*d the day before — Orders were immedi- 
ately given for the Officers and men to rendezvous at or near the Lead 
Mines on the tenth of next month fully prcparM for that duty. But he 
is sorry to inform him that from the present situation of the county the 
number of men required will not probably be raised — continues "There 
are four or five Companies along our Frontier that lays so much exposed 
to the Incursions of the Savages, that I cannot attempt to draw a man 
from thence, as the Indians seldom fail to come in about the season these 
men will be absent: Add to this that more than one half of our Militia 
are disaffected, and can by no means be drawn out to serve against the 
Common Enemy, and those who wishes well to the American Cause 
have been harrassed with Duty, while numbers of the others have been 
skulking in the mountains; and indeed were those drawn off, there is 
but too much reason to apprehend an Insurrection. It is what I have 
long dreaded. However nothing in my person shall be wanting to send 
out the number demanded." * ♦ ♦ 

I am with very great Esteem, Sir, your 
most Obed : & very hble Servt." 

GovR Nelson to the Ya Delegates in Conqbes. July 26th 

** Gentlemen, 

I^vrote to you on the 21st Instant, since when, the Enemy Richmond 
have embark'd part of their Troops, and have fallen down to Hampton 
Road. Whether they mean to operate up Chesapeake and its Rivers is 
uncertain, but I am rather inclined to think they will proceed to New 
York, the winds having been fair for them to have gone up the Bay, 
which they have hitherto declin'd — A party landed at Old Point Com- 
fort, where they remained only a few hours — It is to be fear'd they may 
attempt to repair that Fort, which, should they effect it (and without 
naval assistance we cannot prevent it) will be to this State a ruinous 
measure, as by having a p(mi there, with a ship or two, they will effec- 
tually keep possession of this River and Fork, and prevent any ships 
rendering assistance to our Troops, should an attack on Portsmouth be 
thought practicable. You are the best Judges whether naval assistance 
can be obtained. It is impossible to prevent their effecting this work 


1781. because our Troops will be oblig'd to pass along a naiTOw sand beach, 
July 26th that ma}*^ be guarded on one side by their Ships and on the other by 
their Gun boats and Gallies. 

The more I reflect on the Resolve of Congress, respecting the Bermu- 
dians, the greater my concern is, well knowing that from them we had 
the only prospect of supplying this Stat« with the necessary article of 
Salt. The distresses that some Individuals have lately experienced by 
the ravages of the Enemy, when joined to the impossibility of procu- 
ring so essential an article, will I fear, create great uneasiness in some 
parts of this State. Our Situation is very different from Eastern and 
Northern States. Their trade free, busy and extensive, they can pro- 
cure that article with certainty — Our Ports are totally blockt up : Were 
they even at this time open, we should have but few advantages from 
Trade, all the vessels in the State having been destroyed by the Enemy, 
So that unless Salt can be brought to us, which we expected the Bermu- 
dians would do for Com, we shall be in horrid distress. 

But it is needless to enlarge further on this Subject to you who from 
your knowledge of our situation, must be fully sensible of all the bad 
consequences of this determination of Congress." 

July 26th GovB Nelson TO CoL: JosiAH Parker.* 

"Dear Sir, 

Richmond When your Letter came to Richmond I was absent and it 

being mixt with many others that I had not time to look over, I did not, 
when Mr. Pierce went from hence know that there was one from you. 
The late very critical Season of the year has prevented the Marquis 
reinforcing you, as could have been wish'd — I felt much for you, and the 
Country under your immediate command, bUt circumstances rendered 
support impracticable. Were the means of defendingthe Country equal 
to my inclinations to protect it, not a spot should be subject to British 
depredations, but We must make use of the abilities we have, and lament 
that they are not more adequate to the purpose. 

I am sincerely concerned at the unhappy misfoi*tunes that has befallen 
Capt: Nott. He was a firm Whig, and an active, spirited officer, whose 
death will be severely felt by the friends of America, in that part of the 
Country. The Villian who murdered him, I hope, will meet with a pun- 
ishment equal to the horrid crime he committed. By a Law pass'd the 
last Session of Assembly, the Commanding Officer was impowered to 
declare Martial Law, agreeable to the Continental Articles of War, 
within 20 miles of our camp, and within the same distance of the Ene- 
my's — The Marquis was furnished with this Law, and proclaimed it in 
general Orders, which I shall transmit to you. 

* This letter ig in the rough draft, not signed by the Gk>yernor, but evidently in 
reply to Col: Parker's of the 29th June 1781. 


I am well jilisa^'d with vouraiifswcr to the foohlc* monju^oss r»f tho Rnomy ITSl. 
re^tectiiig Butior. Pprt seod me the n&mcis of the «iisaffo('t<>d in tho t^uK SBUi 
Counties beloir. that premier meftnircs mux he adopiod t^ prevent their 
dcnng foTtiier mjnrieB to the Stioc. The OomiDiwuiT^' General m-ill he 
directed u» paj proper ai:t«sitinn t^» your Troop*; u> keep them well sup- 
plied with proTTfiaaiMi — I fihonld approve <if Mr. Picflx^ muc^h. to a^-t in 
the departnieiit of Oommisfiary. and will reeomnnend him. hut we must, 
have ooe princdpal to loc^ tiO. and he has hitherto^ made t.he appoint^ 
mentfi. A« soon a£^ we can proc*nre a fiapply of movioy frcstn OhaT4ott«»- 
ville, from wkoDoe we have not yet romovd the Troaflnrr, Tonr Qaart^v* 
Master shall he supplied with a fmm for current e.rii;encie& 

Yoar letter of the 34th was delivered to me to day, hy Oapt: Bri">m*ii, 
I am greatly cooceni'd at your lofvies this invasion, and am sony to hoar 
that yon propose to leave ns. Much as I wish you to oontinno in the 
field. I caziDOt insist on a measure that may interfere 90 groat^y ^A-ith 
yoar private Interest. At the same time I aasare yon that yonr County 
will senaUy feel tiie want of your services in the field/* 

Col: Wm. Daviss to . ialy^M 


The critical atnation of the Coantiee of the Northern Neck, es|xs War Ottc« 
cially at this period when there is some roason to apprehend a mov<s 
ment of the Enemy up Potomac has induced Government to direct the 
whole of their militia, helow the ridge, to hold themselves in constant 
readiness for an immediate call ; nor is there to be any draft from them 
for the Marquis' Army, except only from the Counties of Culpeper, Fau* 
quier, and Loudon, who are required by regular rotation to Koop a 
fourth of their militia under him, till further Orders. In a letter fVont 
Colo Lee pf Westmoreland, enclosing a representation of the Field Odi* 
cerB, he suggests a request that you might bo entrusted with the iH>m- 
mand in that part of the Country, so long as there is cause of appre- 
hension of a visit from the enemy. Having no authority to direct tho 
duties of Brigadier General Weedon, who acts under the orders of tho 
Marquis, and being desirous to concur with the wishes of the people, tho 
government agree to the request, and I have it in Command fVom his 
Excellency the Grovemor in Council, to signify to you his desire that 
you accordingly take the charge of the defence and military conduct of 
the militia of the Northern Neck, as far as government has directed 
them be called forth, subject however to the orders of such Senior offi- 
cers, as may be hereaflcr appointed to the Command, Should it so hap- 
pen. For the better, and more effectual defence of that part of tho Coun- 
try the government are willing that one thousand stand of the arnm 
lately arrived from Philadelphia should be appropriated, and so much 
ammunition as may be necessary. 



1781. I observe in a return of the State Arms coming on from Philadelphia, 

July 26th that 275 muskets and 104 bayonets are lodged at Fredericksburg, and 
841 Muskets and 465 Bayonets at Fauquier Court House. This would 
make more than the number allowed by 116 — At Noland's there are 920 
muskets and 486 bayonets. Those added to the 275 at Fredericksburg 
are too many by 195 — ^As those at Fauquier are so much farther ad- 
vanced into the country than those at Noland's, I would prefer the allot- 
ment of the latter, for the use of the Northern Neck, as it will be a 
great means of getting them brought fo wards. Those at Fauquier as 
well as the 195 surplus must then move below the ridge towards James 
River" &c — I have wrote to Capt Bohannon, State Commissary of Mili- 
tary Stores, particularly on the subject." 

July 26th Ben: C. Waller to Col: James Ihnes. 

Williamsb'g In accordance with the orders of the Governor, "the Militia of this 
City have respectively boon warned in," but only four or five have 
appeared. The "present situation of the Place with respect to the 
Small Pox" has caused this small number to meet, and many of the 
Inhabitants who have boon inoculated will not be fit for service for some 
time. All the militia of the city have been paroled by the enemy except 
about ten or twelve — ^the privates consider themselves in the same cate- 
gory with the officers who are paroled, and as those will not act, they 
observe the same course. The Proclamation in regard to paroles cannot 
bo carried into efTect, but it should be attempted at once — ^As Col: Dixon 
refVises to act, Major Southall being absent and Capt: Harwood also 
refbsing to act, he is taking steps to carry out the Governor's orders, 
but when Major Southall returns, he of course will take rank. 

July 27th Governor Thos. Nelson Jub: to Genl Washington." 

"Dear Sir, 
Kichmond As a bad apology would be worse than none, I will not 

attempt to make any for my long silence, but rely on your goodness to 
pardon it. It is probable that you may have heard of the high honor 
my Country have confor'd on me, by electing me to govern them, at this 
critical period. To have declined the appointment might have indicated 

* There is no address to this letter and it is without signature: but the reference 
made in it to the sending of the Marquis, establishes the fact that it is addressed to 
the Commander in Chief by whose order Lafayette was sent to Virginia early in 
1781 ; and the autograph must be Nelson's, in as much as he speaks of himself as 
haying just been made Gk>yernor of Virginia. 


timidity. I therefore accepted it» with a detenmnatioQ to exert every 1781, 
power that I poeaees'dy to give energy to Government, and security to July 27th 
the Inhabitants of the State. 

The very extraordinary manavre of Lord Cornwallis into this coun- 
try, and his mning up & down thro* different parts of it, will I suppose 
make a great noise in Europe. BuU when the Geography of the Coun- 
try, and its circomstancee are known, I flatter myself the British Com- 
manders will not have acquired so much military fame, nor we shall suf- 
fer so much disgrace as may at first be attributed to both. At the begin- 
ning of every Invasion our force is inconsiderable, but rather than make 
no ^^waranoe of opposition, we take the field with the few we can coU 
lect. The enemy, superior to us in appointment and numbers, with the 
assistance of their ships, make good their landing where they please. 
Seldom at the place where they expect opposition, generally above us, 
which obligee us to move after them, either to avoid our retreat being 
cut off, or to hang on their rear, or flanks — ^if they expect the latter they 
may land on the opposite side of the river, fVom which t^e force, tho* 
small, is collected — They never have indicated an inclination to fight, 
not even Lord Cornwallis — ^Tarlton, by sudden incursions into those 
parts of the country that he knew were not in arms, has collected a 
number of Horses, that have enabled him to run about, paroling citisens, 
whom he has taken in their Beds — Lord Cornwallis has march'd thro* 
the Carolinas, and part of Virginia, which may give hitn great eclat, but 
as soon as we collected such a force as would enable us to oppose him, 
he &ced about, and retreated with the greatest precipitation — Th^t they 
have done great mjury both public and private, is certain, but I have 
this consolation, that he is further from the Conquest of Virginia than 
when he entered it. I do not beleive ten men have join*d him, which 
must mortify him not a little — They have made Whigs, of Tories. 

You could not have made the Militia of Virginia happier than by 
sending the Marquis to take the command here ; they have great confi- 
dence in his bravery and conduct. The private citisens are no less 
pleas'd with his affability and great regard for their civil rights, and 
attention to the preservation of their property. His character is held 
in the highest estimation by the Inhabitants of this State*' — '*' 
must be a mortification to him. The spirit of the people is higher than 
it has been some months past I will not' engage more of your time, 
than to assure you, that the greatest happiness of my life will be to con- 
tribute towards " 

Col: Chb Sknv to Qoy Nklson. July 27th 


As probably our Army will move in such a Part of the Country Riohmond 
where a great deal of Pioneer worck will be wanted and the few regu- 
lar Soldiers will have much Duty, and the Militia not very fond of such 


1781. a kind of Worck, it will become necessary that Fifty or Sixty Negroes 

July 27th should be provided as Pioniers for the Army during such a time — ^And 

as the Pub is at present not provided with the necessary tools, every 

negro who is to go, may come provided from his Plantation with one 

Ax and one Spade, Hoe or Shovel." ♦ ♦ * 

''And as in a few days these negroes will be wanted, the most expe- 
ditious Way, in my humble Opinion, would be to send an Order to the 
Comanding Officers of the Militia from the nearest Counties, which are 
at present in Gamp, to join, to propose to their men, that those who 
furnish a Negro, is to have fourlogh from Camp as many Days as the 
Negroe is employed as Pionier. And as all ways a covering Party will be 
with the Negroes when at Worck, there will be no danger of their run- 
ning away. 

The Marquis Fayette is likewise very desirous of having two 18- 
pounder Cannon got ready to be placed at Hoods, for the first Beginning, 
as soon as the Army will be able to move. 

Of Course the Worck of Hoods should bo continued, for which the 
Labourers as soon as possible, should be ordered from the County of 
Prince George, and come likewise provided with the tools, as above 
mentioned, and the more Labourers, the sooner the Worck will be 
finished — One of the Mortars and two of the Brass Eight-pounders, if to 
be found, would be of very great service with the Army. 

If no Artillery Officer is present to take the Inspection over these 
Canons, to see them put in Order, I willfully, will do any thing what 
lays in my Power to see it done, for which I wait for Your Bxcelly's 

As soon as any Batteaux are finished, the Marquis wishes to have them 
transported in waggons near to the Army. 

I have the honor to be, with perfect Eespect 

and the highest Estime &c" 

July27Ui T. Bentley to the (jOVERNOR. 

Richmond Urging the settlement of his claim : is willing to take Tobacco at pre- 
sent prices, having goods which he cannot redeem in any other way. 
As his stay in Eichmond is attended with great expense, begs Mr. Ross 
may receive such orders from the Executive as will enable him to go to 
Philadelphia, where alone he can make such negotiations with the 
Tobacco, as will afford him relief. 


Col: John Jonss to Gov: Nelson. 1781. 

July 27th 
Informing him of a message received from Gov : Burke of N. Carolina, Brunswick 

desiring his co-operation with the militia of the County, in defending ^' 

the Fords of the Dan and Stanton Rivers against the Enemy — Also of 

Orders from Col : Davies, to send one fourth the militia to the field at 

once. Adds "Col: Tarlton pass'd through our County last week on his 

return to Portsmouth, and distressed the inhabitants greatly " — He has 

upwards of six hundred militia, but not fifty guns in the County, they 

having been impressed from time to time for public use. If be can get 

a few arms he can "prevent the enemy from plundering as they pass*' — 

He will send out the " one fourth '* the militia as soon as practicable, and 

assures him, if they can get arms they will behave well." 

Col: Christen Fkbiqer to Col: Wm. Davies. July 27th 

From Richmond, he went to Goochland C. House, but found upon Garter's 
examination, the situation would not answer the purpose intended. He ®"^ 

and Capt: Drew have been down to reconnoitre the "old Courthouse" 
and find buildings sufficient for Commissary, Quarter Masters and other 
Stores, and "about 400 from it, fronting James River there is an Airy 
Ridge of Land well timbered which will answer for Barracks" — Water 
is plenty and good — ^It is not a good military position, but can be made 
a good place of rendezvous, and post of defence — Provisions and Grain 
plenty in the Country, but grass rather scarce — There are now employed 
at Col: Jamee' upwards of thirty Artificers building boats — ^Hopes when 
they are done, they may be employed to put up some Log-barracks for 
the Officers, and repair a house and bam for a hospital. Asks for a plan 
of the post at Chesterfield C. House — also for instructions in regard to 
the drafting and recruiting services &c. The Baron had first ordered 
him from Malvern Hills to Richmond; since that time he has been riding 
every Day, and now calls him to Charlottesville for further orders. As 
this mode of life is not only very fatiguing but very expensive, he desires 
to know how he can some pay for himself and a few men with him. On 
his return last night, was seized with fever and is now " oblig'd to go to 
Bed" — On the 31st by post-cript he writes from Cumberland Old Ct. 
House, that he had gotten laid in some beef and Flour; the men in tents 
on the hill referred to above, and he quartered at the Ct. House. Thinks 
it impossible to "fix Heth off unless Call will take some steps in the 
matter" — Artillery men much wanted in the Southern Army, and Bags- 
dell should go on as soon as possible — He has written to Peyton to pro- 
vide clothing for them — ^Asks the news, and concludes " health & happi- 
ness attend you, I am yett very unwell." 


1781. Garrxt Yanmeter to Gov: Nelson. 

July 28th 

Hampshire Upon receipt of his Letter by Mr. Wodrow, he had sent by Express 

^^* the Commission of Oyer & Terminer to the gentlemen named in it, but 
as it has '* fallen through*' by their failure to attend at the time and 
place designated, his Excellency will now judge what is best to be done. 
He has discharged the Troop of Horse, and as their services have been 
eonfliderabie, gives them credit for a ^^tour of Duty" in accordance with 
the instructions from Gov : Jefferson — Apologizes for not having sooner 
answered his letter" of the 22d & 23d ult:," but the people were so busy 
in their harvest, that it was impossible to '^get any person to ride 
Express so far, there being no other mode of conveying intelligence 
from this quarter" — The want of a Commissioner under the Provision 
Law prevents his giving any idea of "the amount of Provisions in the 
County belonging to the public " — There is only flour and wheat, the 
latter taken for the Specific Tax, and the beeves have been consumed by 
the militia. The people would by no means agree to go with their 
Wagons, else he should have sent several Loads of flour to the Army — 
Some have agreed to go, afler harvest is ended, " but they are reluctant, 
not knowing what compensation they are to have for their trouble and 
loss of time." 

Concludes "with respect to the unhappy people who have been con- 
cerned in the late insurrection, I did, in consequence of your letter of 
the 23d ult: send two Gentlemen of character to meet some others from 
the Counties of Augusta and Rockingham, who as I was informed had 
similar instructions from you, to communicate the mild intentions of the 
Executive towards these deluded people — ^I am happy in informing you 
that they have cheifly, all (except a few of the ring-leaders) availed 
themselves of your gracious offers of Pardon, and have promised to con- 
duet themselves hereafter as good citizens, a considerable number of 
them have joined the Army, and those who are at home, have faithfully 
promised to assist in apprehending the others who yet remain obstinate. 
I feere this will be difficult as they have fled to the mountains and 
cannot be easily taken. As the Commission has fell through and as 
it is to be feared a very considerable difficulty may arise in geting them 
who were found Guilty by the County Court, Tried, could wish that a 
General Indemnity might be granted to the whole that have surrendered, 
including not only those who were set for further Trial, but those who 
were bound to the Grand Jury Court, as there will be a very striking 
impropriety in subjecting the latter to heavy fine & perhaps imprison- 
ment, when they are in all probability not near so guilty as some of those 
who have availed themselves of your offers contained in your letter to 
me of June 23d. I have therefore recommended to them to send a Peti- 
tion to your Excellency for that purpose, & I hope it will merit your 


As to those who remain obstinate, I submit it to your Excellency's 1781. 
wisdom, what you think most proper to be done with them." Joly 28th 

I am your Excellency's most obet. Servt." 

Col: Wh. Daviss to the Governor. JUI728U1 

Having heard that some of the States stores wore at Col : Friends in War Office 
Chesterfield, and fearing Tarieton then on his return from Prince Ed- 
ward Co might capture them, he had ordered the Quarter Master to 
send wagons immediately for them, but, adds ''to my surprise was 
informed on the return of the wagons that the whole of them had been 
taken by order of Crenl : Wayne." » » * 

''I have just now received the inclosed papers from Mr. Ross, and 
must beg the interposition of government to put a stop to such prac- 
tices. There is a battalion of Virginia Troops now suffering for shoes ; 
there are constant calls for boots for our cavalry, and if any officer of 
any rank whatever has the right to appropriate the stores of the State 
at his pleasure, at a time when our troops are in want of them, I think 
our situation must be truly deplorable." 

Capt: a. Bohannan C. M. Stores, to Col: Davies. July 28th 

As ordered, he is about to take the shortest rout to Noland Ferry in Charlottes- 
order to secure the mil stores at that place & will return by way of Fau- 
quier Co House to Fredericksburg — Thinks Penn*s Tavern the best 
place for a magazine, on account of the number of houses there. Encloses 
a list of articles needed for the Laboratory — Scissors and "Culloc" 
knives much wanted — ^He had been obliged to borrow from Mr. Foster 
Webb £2940, for the use of his Department — Hopes a Warrant will be 
at once transmitted to that gentleman, for this amount. 

Gov: Nelson to ''His Excellency Thos: M. Kean Prest of Congress. July 28th 

" Sir, 

I am honor'd with your Excellency's Letter of the 12th Inst: Richmond 
enclosing an Act of Congress respecting French Sea-men, to which you 
may be assured particular attention shall be paid — But from the total 
obstruction of our Trade by the British, I conceive there are but very 
few in this State — Before I eoncluile, permit me to congratulate you on 
your late appointment. 

I have the honor to be &c. 


1781. Tuos: Nelson Ju'b: Gov'b to Maj'r: Claiborne Q. Mas: Genl. 

July 28th a gjp 

Richmond The largo sums of money that have been advanced to your depart- 

ment and a requisition still for farther advances induce the Board to 
wish for a settlement of your accounts, that they may judge of the 
expenditures. Mr. Brown the Commissary General has made a demand 
for several waggons for the purpose of transporting Provisions. How 
these waggons are to be procured, but by impress, unless you can furnish 
hmi I know not. It will be proper that the Executive be furnished with 
returns of the waggons you have received from the Counties, that they 
may call on the delinquent counties — There is an absolute necessity that 
either yourself or one of your assistants should attend here — We are 
greatly at a loss frequently for the want of one or the other. 

I am Sir, 

Your obt. Scrvt." 

July 28th Browne Price, C. Mil: Stores — to Col: Daviss. 

New London lie will have as many arms put i^ order for the militia to march, as he 
can; but is in great want of musket cartridge paper — Major Masuret 
calls on him for all the fixed ammunition he has, to be forwarded to 
Halifax old Court House, amounting to 10 or 12 wagon loads. Desires 
to be informed, in regard to the rumored removal of the Laboratory 
over the mountains to Crow's Ferry ; which place has been mentioned 
by Col: Callaway, altho' all the houses would have to be built. 

July 28th CoL : Wm. Preston to Govr Nelson. 

'* Sir, 

♦ ♦ « « 4e 

MonU:omery "This day I was honoured with a Letter from your Excellency and an 
^* official order from Col : Davies, making a requisition of one fourth of the 
militia of this County to march to the assistance of Genl : Green, and to 
continue two months on duty after they arrive at Head Quarters. 

I shall issue oi*ders to the Officers this day, and shall do every thing 
within the compass of my Power to comply with the Demand; but I am 
fully convinced it is impossible. In Feby: last, when the Enemy were 
within a Day's Hide of the licad Mines, I endeavoured all I could to 
draw out a Body of men to oppose them & could only raise about a third 
of our militia, at that slack season of the year and on a short Tour of 
Duty. In April, I rec*d orders from the late Governor to send 187 men 
to the aid of General Greene, from which time to the 15th of May, the 


other Officers and myself laboured to raise these raen, but to no purpose. 1781. 
late in May, I rec'd another Order to send these men, in case they had July 28th 
not marched Southardly, down the Country to oppose the Enemy in this 
State — ^I gave immediate Orders for this purpose, & then took a ride 
through the County to enforce the orders and encourage the men to 
turn out, and all to as little purpose as the former. From these repeated 
attempts to raise men this summer, your Excellency may readily Judge 
the poorness of the prospect I have, of getting any men to march to 
the Southern at this time. 

The backwardness of our militia arises, in my opinion, from two 
causes. The first is, the Dissaffection of more than one half of the Peo- 
ple, which appears to me to be gaining Ground every day. It was so 
great last year, that beside what good men I could raise in this County, 
I was obliged to call for assistance from the neighbouring Counties to 
suppress an Insurrection that fully appeared to be impending; and hav- 
ing effected it at that time, after spending above a month in the Busi- 
ness, I don't beleive that one Proselyte was gained — and I have many 
reasons to beleive, that the same part will be to act over, before the end 
of the Campaign. The Tories cannot be drawn into the service by any 
means whatever, and the Whigs who would render any service, are 
afraid to leave their property and Connexions to the mercy of the 

The second reason that prevents our men from going out, is the 
exposed situation of our frontier, to 'the Savages, Not less than five Com- 
panies of Militia, live beyond the Mountains to the No'ward of the prin- 
cipal settlement. Those are, scattered amongst the mountains at least 
Eighty miles, and seldom fail to be visited by Indians, two or three times 
every year. These Sir, are Facts, which some worthy gentlemen of 
your Hon*bl. Board are no strangers to; and under these unhappy cir- 
cumstances, I am certain it is impossible for me to comply with the 
Requisition, and indeed, could such as are real Friends to the Liberties 
of America, be prevailed on to go into this service, out of course, for it 
is they only that have done Duty, I am convinced t^heir Families & 
Property would suffer. This has been often Threatened, and these men 
often insulted without having it in their Power to get redress, unless we 
come to blows & get assistance from other Counties. 

It gives me pain to detain your Excellency so long on such a disagree- 
able subject, & therefore shall conclude with assuring you, that I shall 
use every Exertion in Power to send all, or part of the men demanded, 
to General Greene, at the same time I have not the most distant hopes 
of success. 

I am, with great Esteem, your Exeellency's most obt. 

& very humble Servt." 



1781. Col: Wm. Preston to Col: Wm. Davies. 

July 28th « Sir, 

Montgomery I wrote to you two or three Days ago, by Lieut: Bwing & enclosed 

a retui*n of the strength of the Militia of this County. I then promised 
that I would by the return of the Express, inform you what cloathing 
had been collected in this County, for the Continental Army, but Mr. 
Calhoune returning sooner than he intended, I am not yet enabled to 
make any report of the matter. 

Mr. Calhoune delivered your letters to me last Wednesday & without 
loss of time prosecuted his Journey to Washington : After traveling 
about fifteen miles, he was informed at Colo Ingle's that Col: Arthur 
Campbell, the Lieut: of Washington had passed that place some hours 
before on his way home. He then crossed Now River in the night, and 
after travelling eight or ton miles, came to a very rapid stream called 
Peck Creek & not being acquainted with the Ford, his horse got amongst 
the Rocks and throw both himself and his rider — The Saddle girth & 
the strap that fastened bags, broke & the bags wherein was your Letter 
and many papers of Mr Calhounes, was carried of by the Stream — ^Next 
day he found the bags in the Creek, but his pocket book was lost. He 
then returned to my house, and made oath to the above particulars, 
upon which I inclosed a copy of your Letter to me, with the above nar- 
rative & sent it off to Col : Campbell, recommending to him to go on with 
the draught of the seventh part of his Militia without waiting until 
you could send another Express to him on this Business. 

There are a number of Deserters lurking in these Mountains which, 
it has not been in my power to have taken, though I have tried every 
method I could for that purpose. 1 am told that some of them would 
come in, only they dread the punishment. 

Perhaps the Commanding Officer in Virginia might at this Critical 
Juncture, think it necessary and indeed prudent to publish a pardon to 
such as would come & behave well for the future." ♦ * 

"P. S. Since writing the above, I am favoured with yours of the 17th 
Instant, demanding a fourth part of the Militia of Montgomery to 
March to the Southard, and continue them two months on Duty. 
From the reasons I gave you in my last letter, I am fully convinced, 
that wore every Officer in this County to turn out on the Occasion & to 
exert his whole Influence the fourth of this Militia could not be drawn 
out to serve in So Carolina — Indeed I might venture to add as my 
Opinion, that such is the Temper and Situation of the People, that if 
the Fate of the United States was to depend on this draught being 
complied with on the part of the Private men of our Militia, they would 
not go." 

I am Sir, your hble Servt." 

•4:Aai»SliW^ aM' s^-^n^ ^^1^»>fv i^ 

IXetermiiuitioii of iho .-^KvwjK >»u w*^> U^^v^n ^\s\Hs ^^^v \MV^U^ Sl)\y,\S • 
Indeed wcro ih« p^HvpIo v^t^UtH^ifn), il^uiv ^^^v ^v^l^l^^H ^\M\^ Hv^ ♦^H^SUU^HIV^I 
to put into their It iuid«>-rnl«^ I Hm )^^«|t^HU m^^uw^vhJ \\\ S\\y \)'\S\ 
mand to which I hiivo Inum onUmt, I \)%\^ U) >)\\\^\\\ \\, ^\\'\my''h\\\ W, 
rotiro. Capt; Wrlj^ht, who will iluliviM ym ihl^, \\\i\\\^ U\\v\) h>'H! \\\y 
neighborhood of PortMttioulh, will gisti \^m kkW ihn )mIv||i^vm>v I|v|)} 
that Quarter. 

I have the honor to hu mi<h*I yn^n^t^iiuU^ 

About two nkuuth« bet'viv, uii uapiiinKUij/ puil^ IVoiii Aiii^ur iNt:l;>iiii :^ i lutjiiiil^ 
eorpK had goittMi iM)v«9fttl ikKH't^it in Uii^t ooij^iilii^i'lM^iMl »ouJ y^wi.n * 1 1 li^i 
e&teto to tb^f owners — Thoii*' j<oiiiiiiUtt-.ii 04/vv cic^iiii C«i l>ii</vv yvlji;L|ii / lit^^ 
ikrt to receive pttvment at the 'i'ii^AAUi^y 4>j wl^oUiu Uic^ ^^i in h^ iiuJ 
recover tbetr horM»« wh«;«>; Vol ti^i;^ oi^ji lijtii Ui<.ui. 'iiii> iMi>t iranM J 

that tb^ ^.^ p«fW4M' O^t tiMato< Hi*pigi»OM> V\i^ (i<;u)yUt4i 'ii'' <«/i)<<:l<ii 

of' tbt- hpe«.*tti<- Tajc aiiufiur hiiji iLi^t U>cii ;^4 ' 1 (><><) l/ti«)igl. vi <uiii 
<ilN» (it uau> witij ti tf^uautiu ol mtucja' LJik«;i' b.v tii< < 'yu^inj. .:*"/«.• >.- Ja>( 

• • • 

w'ttL It. Tb4- wb«at hbiHil«i U ^ivuii*-' ;&U(J lii< K'jih auii vv»i>' >^^'i> >><" 

•r»n**mjii«sii' |rtiy tii'' lii♦-^ luuv «i" *>< it j/wi'.' ji pui' '>^ 11 = ' i-v** '■ I' 
wouit; b*- hmn.' i<* aiioM ttti". uut on«\ l*- a;k\« tii< i^^^^*' '-'^^ '" j'^' >^'i' 

*'tbt IJ' ltt^^rM■n^t»il^ W|ii<:l lt»« ^«|$u' <^* tbcr>t jv.-i>^^>^ lii«Al«M - <^i ti i hi" 

^rraii' ■•^eunfi 4t'*/ii Jklj-. Oiiiit*. . wii*.i. 1 tv'iiLii.v.v- ^if .». =.• » • "m. j-.'.-j.m . 

UOOlftMNl^ tf%>^i«Afib^: <• lit*. •JVlliUh*V>l- •-*! li«*- l.liU^ ,.y-«.r. •'.•J J^ic.iir * '/(i- 

T i»*.* i-ewrt- 1 o* Uaj* 44ik^ Uk^'-- fc,ui^ij^. cm '• III' ^^L'*j'i» .t; '-.-^i'j;'. .' -I 

V* If-* li«r A<<eM *■ Hvl>> Lii' iL4*Jv|u. . li«> t^uOu* ii.'«> « ...1 h ' - iV- .:ii< nil 


^fjf^ •-.JlLRNuaA 09 rT^rS. ? 

I'll-/ Jft^h 
^.Vwn P'-trrt ff ,« ?^:f^>r'^«« >"!v**7^-*ft — U -"irrj ji nrom aim Jus ■▼a** **^-*w pi"jjoat*r a: 

Army itov a^r%A( ^»m»»^ ^a-^^ *\ti/in •'oauiiiTn^iti in re^.^tf-i ^> aontbi. 

f^MvrVvM*' ^/Ti f*/:^ip<l ^4 K;>* le«CAr. ii«t irrriC* v> TApn: HjjeI1Vj«. in the mo^ 

A* th^ ^^uf¥fA K^ flr^i<ti^n ?r>?R tirsi. ^i■t^ fcr ;ib*«r>:xi-»€a what he w now 
V/ ^W— 11*1 -mnit^i Uf H^jt fr^ALfjf^Tb^ •>& the srkhj*:*:^ b«i -he i* very 
m^'.k At ^'arUrr* Ferry jun^ t* iikrly v* CMitiuTje 5»> for *>ine lime," As 
MuyfT f,\%\\9fffi%*z'n ifift^n^ pr«rsr«tiit* hi-* ^-ommani^-ating with Col: Dmries 
M h^ hw\ e^f^^rUyJ, Muypr Ma^ll at WiiK- hester and 0>l : Hendricks at 
Alexar»/lna w^k^ aW^ are engaged in this bii«ine!#, hare been written to 

An\fWnh (iov: NKi^>2i TO CoL: Jab: Ijt^es at WiUiamsbiirg. 

^ l>uar Sir, 
H>/*bmf/n«l An I imagine it ih 8till andesirable to make Wmsburg the 

lUmfltfZVOun of the Militia onlercs^J to be embodied under your Command 
for the VrifUn'itou of the lower part of this Neek, you will appoint such 
pliK^o an your Judgment nhall direct for that Purpose. The bad conse- 
i|tieni;ef« of Mprea«iing the Small Pox, will not eiK^ape you, bo that I shall 
Mugi^ent no caution U> you on that Hcore. Should any of the Militia per- 
nint III ph^ailifig their ParoleH an an exeuHe for not performing military 
wfrvire, whif^li I hope no one will be ho ignorant or unmindful of his 
l)i|ty iiA to do, it m iioreHBary that he be procee<led against, according to 
the Prortlainiitioii isHue<l by the late (lovcmor, which Proclamation has 
r«!c*fiivnd the Hiiiiction of the General Assembly. A strict adherence to 
thin Order of (i)ovcrnm«mt may in some cases bear an appearance of 
i^ruolly, but the inHi<IiouH Arts of the Enemy & the general welfare 
ntiifier it iiidiHpuiiNable. It is however, my Desire, that no Person be 
rigorously doiilt with, when there is a Prospect of bringing back to a 
better sense ol' what is due to his Country. 

I am &c. 




Got: NKLgon to thb TRKASumia. 


The IncoDTenienced which result tfrom the great Di>tuQtx^ lvtw<e<en 
the fieat of Government k Public TKasurv have indui^Ml the Gxecutive 
to determine that the Treasunr ^hall be immediately brought l<ack again 
to this Pbk^e. I am therefore to requcisi that you will take such stepe^ 
as will be most likely to effect a speedy Removal of it hither, & that vxmi 
will leave werv thini^ behind whii-h is not al^solutelv neoeissarv." 

I am ^c 

Gov: Nklsos to *-Th« An>iTOBS op Ptbuc AooorxTs." 




" Gentlemea. 

The great obstructions which public business meets with« RadrnKaid 

from the separation of the different Boards of Government^ make it 

adviseable to recal them immediatelv to this Place. 1 must thervibr^ 

Request that you will lo^e as little Time as possible in returning hither, 

as every Day most strongly evinces the necessity of your attemlance. 

The Executive are of opinion, that no more of the public Books & Pa|^r» 

be brought back at this Time, than are requisite for the proceeding on 


I am kcr 

Col: Cbn Skcf to Col: Davibs. 
" Sir, 

The Major Genl: the Marquis Fayette has ordered me again to 
remind Government of the necessity to have all Canons, which arc tit 
for service, collected, and without the least Loss of time, mounte<l. 

And as likewise not a Single Ax. nor any kind of Intrenching tools 
arc with the Army, nor in Store, immediate Steps may be taken to pro- 
cure them by some means or other. You, as a militar}' man, will tind 
the necessity, that the Canons should l»e mounted and Intrenching tix^ls 
found — Suppose we should have an opportunity to coo|>erate with our 
Allies, we would be in want of all these Articles — And if we should 
have no occasion for the offensive, still they will be necessary* for Qur 
immediate ]>elence. 

'' Any Service, I can render to the State in this wtL}\ I shall always 
think it my Duty to comply with it immediately^; but cannot help 
expressing my uneasiness to you, in case anything in my Department 
should be wanted, when I have not the least Prospect to command a 
Single Tool. 

I have the Honour to be, with due Respect and high Esteem 

Your most obt: humble Servant.'* 


^0 '.Ai.KX.JAil OP HTaTE PAx^SHS. 

Af'^k'i^Tt- T'u* or^Mr tor '>n« rVnirf h rhe 3Ciiitia u* 'he <JiHintv 'o murr*h zn :aie 

pfti^ ihf numh#?r rlrs«t n^qiiirM — Th« men ;rill o»- r*niT»ile#l jLati -iifiiittn^L 
}»Mt if. \*ill r»« ^^•tr»|i)t»'iy im{>Of«MihiK u* arm r,h»*ni. Thr? rpr»i|iienL impres^c^ 
in**nt .>f' \ rriiM tVom T.h« p«v)plK nan ■;v»?il aijjh liwarmeii the <^)iiiny — He 
'Ir^^ nr»t think rtv** m«n ''an !>« •iiippheii ^th looii .rnn** — The p*^>pte 
hi'l*^ fhi^ir amriM. an#t -lay i\u*y w'\\\ riHk r.heir liv^*^. rather than ^r*'^*^ up 
-«rhai lew remain, ffrt therpttore <ieftirR» nii know .vbether he 'i» uy -Hsnii 
(hrt m«m -.vifhoiit arniN. 

If**, ban rcx*mvM from Mr. ^r<v»rjre N^if^holaM. a ti«Mreipt tor thirtetrn 
lK,r<'«>4 imprr-jwwl in f.hft 0»iint.y ttf». 

JitifMHh Kff. 7Aaftar>roR Cosin to Col: Davks. 

fMAwi^lA Fff. hftK fe/'-ftiv<'^l thft inHtni^tlonH, with the Order in CounciL nespet-t- 
irij( thf. f'0\\e/'l,\ni( an«l *<'./:iirinj[^ the estray hors^is and cattle left by the 
ViUt^my in tb^ County. The people having "g^t intelligence of this, 
havft (V!/rr«t^/l many, d^ny they have them orinniat that thone they have 
wfTfft Mf/il#rn from th^mi by the Knemy Afr — **The horses are held by peo- 
pU^ wh/; would take fiVfity a/Jvanta^, and nome of them for a small 
ffrf4\t^ woidd f'Utiht of Independence, if they could.*' Althoogh 
fffill itTi^a^^^l in thofw) diitie^i, he ia ho mach annoyed, that be thinks 
UfiU^rm **mmni miraMuren \rt! taken with these wretchetf" who are really 
l^ffilty tri' li/»rw;(^M!(a)ing, nothing can Im done. RerrommendH that some 
of fhitrri bii carried iu Richmond and ma4le examples of, so to deter 


•filly With (Jait: II. YoiiNii TO Col: Davim. 

tilotiffintirt |l(t liiiM not y«ft Immhi ahU) to establish *^a chain of Expresses from 
Immico III tint tMi|gliliorli(K)d of the Kneniy" by the way of Petersburg. 
T\w doniand lor KxproNsos so groat, that they cannot bo furnished for 
llin ICxnciillvo or liis olllco — Miiiiy mon would agree to act, but they 
iliInU llin Knoniy will soon loavo the State, consequently their services 
will lint bo noiulod long, lie (*annot possibly engage any workmen to 
Miount. tlio Ciuinou, unloss ho can pay thoiu in hard money or the cur- 
hMii Kxobungo. ir tlio Kxocutivo would establish some satisfactory 
mio of Kxoltaitgts ho vtmUl ilo much, which must now be neglected. 


Col: G. Yanmet^r informs Col: Wm. Davies. that the wagon fumishiHl 1781, 

by his County for public use has been delivered at Winche«»ter. He has July SOih 

twenty three suits of clothing ready to be delivennl ; the three remain- Ham{«bir« 

ing to make up the number required will soon be ready. ^* 

CoL: Chas: M. Thrfston to the Governor. July SOih 

Giving reasons why no beef cattle can be furnished from the County Fr«(1«rickCo 
as required — Winchester having been for a long time the general ri»ii- 
dezvoiis for the militia of that Count v, and the "Convention" and other 
captive Troops having been quartenMl there so long, all the cattle of the 
surrounding Country had been consumeil by them &c. 

Major Rd: Claiborne to Col: Wm. Davies. July aoth 

'' Dear Sir, 

I received your two favours of the 2'M & 27th of this month. Mr. Carior 
my ill state of health continues — ^am still an entire helpless person in H*"'wo» « 

Your observations respecting Carriages that might be drawn from the 
different Posts, I cannot reply to with precision, but will make the 
attempt. It gives me much concern, that the Reports of the County 
Lieutenants, and the Asst: Deputy Quarter Masters differ so mateinally. 
I will endeavour to find out any mistake that may bo among the Q. Mas- 
ters k correct them. 

I have issued a Circular Order that all the clothing (as fast as it is 
received) at the different Posts (so as to make a Load) be sent to Capt: 
Peyton without loss of time. 

I shall be ready at all times to rei-eive such stores as belong to the 
Quarter Masters department (that the State may have, to supply tho 
Continent with) & have them issued to the (Quarter Masters of tho 
Array. Capt: Russell will (I hope) be in charge of the Richmond Dis- 
trict in a few days, his orders and receipts shall be good for anything, 
or if the State Quarter Master will issue to the Q. Master to the Army, 
taking duplicate receipts in Capt : Rcfsseirs name, they shall l>e gooil.** 
♦ ♦♦♦.♦ 

" What reply to give 3'ou respecting the waggc)ns wanted for the Mar- 
quis* Army I really am at a loss for. Impressing is out of the Question 
with me, because I have no force, and to attempt to purchase at so late 
a period & without money would be chimerical — I have made frequent 
attempts to hire, but with no success at all. The people entertain so 
detestable an opinion of the Army, that they cannot be prevailed on to 
serve with it, with property so liable to be lost & destroyed — When his 
Excellency, the Governor was at Stanton, I transmitted to him a full 


IIHI, repreM'iiUtticHi uf tLe nitu&tioti of tiri; di^iarimf^l. I meDlJOiied lio him 
Ju:% aou. |#itni«.:uiariv ii>t ii^jt-eftfeiitv oi iiuriii^ mcn'iijg lui&gajdiieh. witL the Ajidt. 
4 otLvr n ikj^ojif 4 t42iuii»> to '/oll&'/t i^'um ihe Conutiy 4 enpphr thezD ; Inn 
V-> iLih I bavt r»j«^jr^d iio autwer — UiJe** I have the aid of GoTemment, 
I »»lialJ u*A bv aWtr vj do aiiytLiug. I have receired a letter from the «^. 
M. <jefi</nkl. whereiij Le <;aiidid)v owu^ that he caiiuot a^^l^t me — thi§ is 
III V »»ituatiou a«; to XonLeru pnH^M^Ofc- — I hare rwieired nfflhing. itor do 
J Ix^U'ivv J ^hall. of eh her moiiev. arti^-let rt^adv for use, or materials. 

Vou <'aii 1*4/1 oldige me more thau W meiitioijiiig to the Execative thi$ 
matter. re^^fMx.-tirig the wa;rgODfei ^k fiud what tbej ]»tirfKiK to do iD it. 

J tbaiik you i'*/r tiie ftf/u'.tem wLifL 3'ou ex}irea« at my illDes^. & good 
wi>*h«A jor my reeover}-. G*jd grant I eould \m: reiilore^J to a state of 
af-tiofj tliii? dav — I would be with vou iu liiehmoud a6 4*oon ai* the low 
ehtate 'A' mv l^'^Jv would i>ermit me 10 i.^e carried — The decrees of Fate 
mu»jl >>e i*ubmitt4xi t/>. aud our greate^jt virtues consist in receiving A 
Ix'arifjg tbem witb a becoming dignity; but notwithfstauding 1 consider 
aJl tbii!^, my feelings; are much hurt, tbat I am rendered bo helpless a per- 
hiMi at tbi»!> time. 

Ah it ii* not in my j^iwer Uj CM>me down, I have directed Mr. Green to 
return witb the Office immediatelv — he i» a Gentleman, whom vou will 
find aiftive k cleaver — You cannot lay me under a greater obligation than 
by giving him all the a4t»i»$tance in your power. 

I ho|>e the exe<.'utive will Ix; pleat^ to eomsider my Rituation k rest 
aiMurtxJ that the moment it is in my |)Ower, 1 will join my office.'* 
I am with eveiy Sentiment 
of esteem k regard 

Dear Sir, your 

Obedt. Hble Servt." 

P. S« A gentleman has done me the favour to write while I dictated 
this Loiter. 

July Wi\\ Commodore J. Barron to . 

Mill (JreolCf I huvo the Honor to inform you thai this morning early 40 sail of 

Fort ^^^*' ^^^^ weighed from Hampton road, having on board a number of 

JlorHO k Troops, with 12 large Barges full of men, & stood down towards 
the Cape — Having got in the proper channel, endeavoured to stand up 
the Bay, but the wind & tide being ahead, have anchored near the Cape. 
From every movement, I think they are bound up the Bay. they have 
left 10 sail in the Roa<l & two men of war — this fleet must contain near 
Thrue thousand troops, as they were very full. The wind has just 
shlfled Fair to goe up the Bay — Shall be able to informe you by my 
next what course they take. One of the Transports is aground on 


WilUby (Willoughby) Point Tho' I cant think, if thoy wero bound to 1781. 
Sea, they wou'd wait for her. July 80th 

I have the Honour to be Sir &c." 
"A copy of hiB Letter." 

Col: Ssnf to Col: Daviis, enclosing momd. of Leslie's force at Ports- July ZUi 


If the State at present could procure the following number of Powhatan 
Intrenching Tocls^ it may be sufficient in our present circumstances. ^^^ 

200 Axes, 

400 Spades, With Handles, and for the 

200 Shovels, convoniency of transporting. 

100 Hoes, The Handles may be tied 
50 Pick axes, ( together in Bundles, and can 
100 Fashine Knifes or Small Hatchets, always be fix'd when neces- 

4 Croes-Cut Saws, saiy. 

6 Hand Saws. 

Besides this, whenever convenient^ the same number of Tools or more, 
in the same proportion may be procured, in case the above mentioned 
Tools should be lost. 

Some Wheel and Hand-Barrows, and Carpenters Tools of all kinds, at 
least for twelve Carpenters, will be necessary. 

fThe Artillery, what can be collected, will be best to mount all Brass 
Cannon in Travelling Carriages, and two or three of the Iron 18-pound- 
era. All Iran Canons on Battery or Ship Carriages, except the Six- 
pounders and those of less calibre, on travelling Carriages. For the 
Transportation of the Canons and Mortars, three or four Carry Logs 
will be wanted, and some strong Ammunition Waggons for the Artillery. 

Four 18-pounder new Carriages — the checks for three Bight-pounder 
travelling Carriages, and a quantity of good seasoned Wood, ready pre- 
pared for Carriage Wheels remain yet at the old public work-shop in 
Richmond, which may'd be very usefldl. 

I am with due Respect 

your mo: hblo Servnt" 

" Gefd: Leslie's Force at Portsmouth, 

Detachment of the 17th at Ivy's, 12 miles this side of Portsmouth, 

Lieut: Col: Johnson 200 1 Fortifying a Strong 

2. Companies 76th at ditto 120 j pass. 

2. Battii of AnspackB ) «^o»°8 <*"*y ^^ 

y at G. Bridge 260 

1 do Heedan. Col : De Tucke j j^^^^^ ^ Portsmouth 




Jaly 8l8t 




1630 effectives 
Out of the above is 60 mounted. 

Royall Artillery 70 

Genl: Arnold with Bobortson's Eegt: the whole only 63, rank & file 

gone to New York. 

No ships of force and very few fi^gates." 

July Sl8t 


July SUt 


Gov: Nelson to Col: Davibs.* 

The Marquis has urged so strongly the mounting several Pieces of 
heavy Cannon on travelling Carriages, that I must desire you to give 
the most pointed Orders for carrying this Business into immediate exe- 
cution. The delay of a few days may produce the most unhappy 
consequences. I am sensible that the public are not possessed of mate- 
rials for this work ; for which Beason, it will be necessary, disagreeable 
as impressing is, that Artificers, Tools, and every thing requisite be 
taken wherever they are to be found, if not to be procured by any other 

I am &c. 

"Circular TO the County Lieutenants" from Gova Nelson.* • 


The Harvest being over, I hope the Militia, which have been 
ordered into Service from your County, will take the field with the 
greatest alacrity. There never was a Time, when vigorous measures 
were more necessary, or when they promised greater advantages. 
Every Exertion will be made by the Enemy, if not to subdue, to gain 
Posts in this Country; and a successful opposition on our Part, which 
the strength of this State is very capable of making, by frustrating 
their Expectations, will in all Probability, together with this Campaign 
put a happy Period to the War. 

I am &c. 

July Sl8t 

Jno: Bobertson to Col: 

Dr. Col : 

Camp Mai- "I have sent an Issuing Commissary to Boyd's Ferry with aj^point- 

boum Hills ment & Instructions — Mr. Browne has likewise ordered the County 

Commissioners of Halifax to deliver the necessary supplies — Grenl: 

Muhlenburg march'd last evening with a Eegt: of the L. Infantry 

* These are signed *<T. N." 

cjllsxtlls v>f srjiTc rjirsiis;. ;8$ 


I liad tke iKMMMir to reeieiTY T\xir Rxnrfl<Nim» AirxMir kMT iW S$lli OiiH#r>» 
of JoIt jcettfdmT, in tbe d«<cli»e «f tb^ mft^niocM^ wti^r^n i^ whmiiKmimkI VVft^ 

that lar^ sums of moner bav^ be^ii adrmae^d to Ui« ^^uarliNr )la»l«^r^ll 
IXepaTtmeiit in tk» Su^ wHli lJb« dmnn^ of Uh^ Boai^ tbal a m4U^ 
meat of mv aceonats buit Ke aiade. tbal tib^jr mi^ jwi^irf' <^ ^^ «X|iMb 
ditureB — ^What«Tnr nugbt be ib« opiaioa of Ibe Boards t coaftMi aiy»«lf 
not a Kttiesoipmed at tbeir ohMtratioQifi nMipectin|t tlie »um»of movM^y 
adTanced k tbeir wisb for a wttkineat of lb« acc^ouats — t b«g Kmkt« to 
aak, to wbat do tlieae large sumsamottaV wbea reduced totlieirialnnrio 
value? — Oakulato tbe depreeiatioa. witb tbe distant periods at whk'H I 
reoelred money from tbe Treaaarj, and it will be fbund, tbal by Ibe 
time it was received and paid oat by tbe Assistant Deputy Quaiter It as« 
ten, tbe value was in a great measure lost — 

Contracts in ibis department an» not made in tbe present eurrt^ney 
(unless we bave money to disebarge tbe debt immediately^ but In s)>ecie : 
so tbat tbe creditor may bave justice done bim In an equivalency in 
paper money, at tbe time of payment, as specie Is out of the question—' 

Congress resolved tbat tbe current depreciation should be |>aid upon 
all spede contracts, a copy of wblch resolution Is now In my OAoe— > 
This considered, and compared with what money I have reoelvedi I 
think the Board will not find the sums advanced to me so large as they 
imagined — 

With respect to the settlement of my accounts, I am at a loss fi>r the 
real meaning of the Board — If they expect an Examination of them, t 
beg leave to inform them, that fVom the instructions which I have 
received, I can only render my accounts to one person, that is the Quar* 
ter Master General. 

The Aooomptant in my Office has been for a long time, A now Is^ 
closely OTQployed in settling the accounts St I have no doubt but that 
they will be satisfactory. As to the Board, judging of the expenditures, I 


1781. b«g leave vo infono them, thst the mlee which I hsve Teoaved from 
Julv aut Coiignsiii!, aud the (^imner Master GwiL tcigether with mj knowled^ of 
the duties of the departinent, coDriuoe me. that the diabiisMiiifiiitE are 
Ittif^r, iwlium aonie ahoaid dariate from those mkfi, which hae not ya 
been the ca^e. I only kuneDt that ao little juatioe has been done t» 
tboiM; ill the departineut and their credita». Instead of monej being 
advaueed to yny them for their aenrioee. and to enable them to dwjfffaarge 
their public debtee, tbey have trauaaeted the buaiueaE iudependaat of that 
eoiujieuiiation whicb they had a rij^t to receive, k diavppainted Ihoae 
j^ood citi£em> who jiarted with their property on the fiutfa of liMir 
prouiiaei», lounded on tbat of the Public. If the Board think tiie ezpen- 
dituree are j^reat. let me assure them, that were they Posaest wziii a 
knowled^ of the Business, they would think veiy differently. 

If the sums already advanced are considered large, what wiD tite 
Board think, when 1 affirm to them, that three Mi'lions of Pounds wiQ 
scarcely pay oi the persons emploj^ed, and the debts that are doe in the 
department at this time. Did the Board mean not to advanee any 
money until! a settlement of my accounts could be made ? 

If so, I flatter myself they meant to answer the consequences, A not 
tiiai any blame should be throws on me in caae of a failure in businesi. 
I consent to no such thing, but ask for means to pay off the debts 4 
cajry on the buainetis of the department — If 1 recoUeet n^t, I think I 
have informed your Excellency, that my only dq^endanee was iqion the 
Govemnieoi of Virginia for support to die departmeot, k forthe means 
necessary to carry on the business of it; but lest I may be miitf.aketi, I 
beg leave now to do it — k that you may be the more folly ocmvinoed of 
my situation, I enclose to your £xceUency a CSopy of a letter which I 
yesterday received from the Quarter Master Greneral — ^By this yon will 
find he has totally left me to myself to do as well as I can. 

Am to the Wagons call'd for by the Commissary General I am at a 
great loss to know how they will be furnished, as your Excellency can 
possibly be. I have endeavoured to hire, which was the <mly way, I 
bad U} obtain any, but the attempts have been entirely unsuccessfhl, as 
tio one will go near the Army with his waggons k Teams, that can pos- 
sibly avoid it. Those Waggons which were to have been Brigaded in 
tbe different Counties, I expected great asustance from, but have been 
totally disappointed. 

Experience has taught that under such a regulation, which is so little 
attended to by the people, we shall seldom or never be benefitted by it 
Tbe Waggons tbat were called for by the law of the October Session 
bave been sexually as deficient. Tour Excellency has desired a return of 
those which have been received; perhaps Colo Davies has this already, 
k can give you early information; but if he has not, I will write imme- 
diately to tbe Asst: Deputy Quarter Masters, k have a return made out 
as soon as possible. 


I am firequflotlj called apon in Tery preesiiig terms for Waggons fbr 1781. 
the Army in this State, bat it is well known tliat of myself^ I cannot Julj Slst 
fomifili a single <Mie — I beg leave to ask yoar Excellency whether you 
haTe taken into consideration my proposial which I transmitted to you 
when at Stanton, req^ecting Waggons, for Army Magaiines & Collectors^ 
This was a r^;alation always Kept up in the Northern Army & I con- 
sidered it would have been of the same advantage here. 

HoweTer, should this be thought unnecessary, how are waggons to be 
obtained for other purposes for the Army? I have not the direction of 
the means of Government, nor can I do more than to ask for them. I 
leave it to the Executive, to determine by what ways k means, they are 
to be obtained; but most certain it is they must be had — I have directed 
an assistant Deputy Quarter Master, to take charge of the Ilichmond 
District, as soon as possible, which I hope will not be many days first. 
I have also written for my Office to be removed to Bichmond without 
loss of time. 

Mr. Berryman Green is the Gentleman who transacts the business in 
my absence — ^I beg leave to recommend him to your Excellencies atten- 

I have been so unfortunate as to be confined to my Bed, at Mr. Carter 
Harri8on*s (ever since the 24th of this month) with a Fever, and violent 
Kheumatic pain in my left Hip— When I left Charlottesville, I had been 
only three days out of my Bed from a considerable spell of sickness 
which I had there, but my anxiety to see the Executive, induced me to 
set out at aU Bisks— I b^ leave to assure your Excellency, that the 
moment I am restored to a state of action, I shall be with my office with- 
out delay, as no anxiety can exceed that of mine, to answer the trust 
reposed in me k the demands of the service, as fiur I have it in my power. 
I have the honour to be, with the 
greatest Esteem k Bespect, 

Tour ExceRencies most obt Hble Servt.'* 

Wm. Fanninq to Gov'r Nklson. July 8Ut 


A cartel for the Exchange of the militia Prisoners having lately GreenesTille 
been agreed on, at Charles Town, under the auspices of Lord Cornwallis ^' 
k Major Grenend Greene, aud notified to the Publiok by the Commissary 
of Prisoners, I beg leave to apply for a Passport to Portsmouth for Mr. Application 
John Wickham. He comes within the Description of the Cartel as you ^ J?**?^ 
will observe by his case stated in a Letter of the late Governor to Mi\jor Wiokkam, 
Ware, a copy whereof, has lately been transmitted to you by Mr. Taze- ^^ 
welL Should a Passport be thought necessary, still permit mo to entreat 
your Excellency for one Line, which may be shown by Mr. Wickham to 
Col: Parker to prevent any Interruption, and to fiMilitate his Journey 

^^ tALdlSM^AE Uf ISI^T£ >AKES{t 

i mm 

tfttMiMife, tLni t4Min; iif UK ubiKiiitif; uwi^mmt}' iifr imatiHsr irkrk. It k wzts 
KT^Mit /artiM4niNit J iMik A, Mid if it m^pomUtd ijnim u dtmrt <jf hsmfommg 
my vwAf iifiyiilkiilMi^ J dUuuid tliiuk mjuDlf' jiinUj vsitMied w » ntfauL 

tmmm§ t miMSH ih^ tmrns* *A ^u% it; m from m w«U rtfpihutd turraMkgtntaL, 
^'**'*^ jMjtd fr^^uwi »yii«i<MrtMii» mW lin? difliiawiit dtyartipepti ity>esUid to tiie 
4soip4xmkm *4 tiui» <iftM>, I li»v4» * iiOfi« tfaai usyfKirtftM adraiitAg<e# aaj 
liM 4^if^^4^^ii mMf tMfm^fw Im my fp^^M a^itSurUum U> fiui in mj ezpee- 
UKi'/MM- '1 mt^y tm tmbMffy ittoaipb to b* «xfMiM»d to the oeaMot) of 
my ^U^m^iryfmm from m rtufU^f of oatowmd evfrnu, whieb it migiit not 
b# ill my ytfmw to pnrr#iii— I ir<mid viib therefore to hmve tlie meMUi 
'^ iuMik*m/Uim : Hi p rwu y p t J bsre it not, m I liAve oot baeo able to have 
'i^/j/tMi tdb^fi t^ mur^ tloMi 49i|(kt or Um ii€ lattem Mooe I hare been in the 
iMi'M'f mt4 Mi prmmA siv ummw jmriicolmriy ^smlmmamed from Mr. Pat- 
Umm'i$ tkoi baviriK tuid tb« HmAtl Votl 

TU^ tbiH C'Urk w<^ld 1i*t« been allowed bj the laat AjMiemblj, bat a 
gmiibtfiiaii UfiarM|uainted with the btu^newi, ol^served to the houae, that 
altl^/ it wnild undoubtedly be neoeMaiy at the next Seaaion to make 
iNiifb an ap|M;intmeut, yet aa the btinineiM wan not yet put into a proper 
'ibaiifial %nrmtA>\y to Ui« proponed arrangementn, it wan not then neces- 
iiary ; not reflaoting that it waa a matter of more difficulty to get thiDgs 
ifiUi one regular channel than to control them afterwards. I shall be 
happy Ui Imi (kvour'd with an early an answer as your business will per- 
niltf and Imve the honor to be with the greatest respect, your Excellen- 
cy's nuMit obe<lt Hervt. 

*ThU leiUr l« rtnordsd slmofi at length, on sooount uf the moriu, of thii Bxcd- 
Unt UAneri who bsd luoosedsd to the difBcultlei of a f>ofitioa, from which hU pre- 
Umimiif hsd bsen removed for IneffloUnoy. 

IldXmni^i. (VT ^fflSVTT T^HTHtfc^ 

* Tin. 

iJD7 ifr ioiimm — Shit miiM^Biiv: iuhmhi^ >miua. u-n f^^ym tmr^, ^mrn >^m. 
neisitiiiii niamitiBm^itr: aobki uau mci — 4b^ «n turn i^Im wtiixMk ^t^Hv^^fi^ 
imif — inn* £ji«|iBt 7m«7uus> -U -^i ificntciL n: '^ ?Mlinl. IVimjv «t *hfs 

mmatv*vom £Kaaliaiim nwnw 'iwt dmtiK imk. If k V :}y««iihl^. '^Hm 

W* hmpi -euaififwi: s like* iff yt 7%niiiiif ii/»ir h: 5^ IftMifikiiri 4( "HiM^ 
»&df«d Tin- Onmisitf ^^im. 'vriiotim n^irr -^ptqtn ^Mtia ir. K/^y^ tAuM xv^m* 

T^'fiBT mnn idm Stflroui^ 


this Order moK Imt* 




Archibald Ritchie 

Hobs hole 

July — 

Phill: Grymes 
James Miles 


Geo: Larimar 
Simon Frazer 

, TJrbanna 


Ralph Wormley Sen: 



& Jar: 


David Briggs 


The whole to be seized and Sealed up on the Inst: and at 

the same hour, by confidential persons appointed and authorized by the 
Executive for that purpose, who must make faithful reports in writing, 
transmitting to the Board any original papers tending to nefarious prac- 
tices, so that the laws in such cases may be carried into full execution. 

Montague's conduct respecting the Flag should be investigated by a 
Court of Enquiry, and notice taken of those who furnished provisions 
to the Enemy's Ships of War at TJrbanna." 

August Ist 

Maj'b Chas: Diok to Gov: Nelson. 

Frederic'sb'g Sending for the amount of Two Warrants on the Treasury to be paid 
for the use of the Gun Factory, and urging the speedy payment of the 
money, as it has been with the greatest difficulty ever since April last, 
that the workmen have been retained — His own Credit has been 
^^ pawned as far as possible" — With all the confusion and trouble, more 
work has been done than could have been expected, ^Mn making k 
repairing arras &c" — The lowest depreciation at Fredericksburg "is now 
500 for 1." The wages of the workmen from 3s. to 6 shillings pr: day, 
in hard money — at this rate the two warrants are a trifle — concludes 
"I fear the corruptness of the people in general, will soon put a stop to 
its circulation altogether." 

August 1st 

David Ross to Col: Davibs. 

Bichmond In regard to the implements &c wanted by the Marquis — ^A consider- 
able number of spades & shovels and pick-axes can be gotten at the 
Fork, by taking them "out of the river" — Anderson's people can make 
the Facine knives, Mr. Hunter the axes and hoes: but the saws must 
be purchased. The carpenters tools he cannot get. 

The high opinion he entertains of Genl : Spotswood as an officer and 
a man, shall always command his best exertions to aid him, and he sin- 
cerely regrets "the situation of our affairs" forbids it at present. 



MiMOBiAL or GioBOK Hanoook lats or South Cabolina to ths Ezxcu- 1781. 


Eepresenting his having been obliged to take refuge in this State with Powatan Go. 
his property, composed in part of " sixty three slaves" duly registered 
in the County of Henry — Prom "the exorbitant prices of every neces- 
sary of life" his money is exhausted, and he therefore. prays for leave to 
dispose "of the following slaves for the support of himself and family 
viz Dick a fellow 28 years of age — Portugese 19 — Primus 30 — Abraham 
36— Sylvina 30, & Peter 7— in all six." 

John Bbownb, Com: Gsnl: to Col: Davibs. 

August Ist 

For want of wagons, two days provisions have failed to reach the Malbourn 
army, consequently the troops must suffer greatly — Both the Governor 
and Major Claiborne have been addressed upon this most important sub- 
ject — Can it be remedied? Unless wagons are immediately sent, the 
army cannot be fed. 

David Eoss to thb Govxbnor. 

AogoBt Ist 

In regard to the late Order in Council respecting the collecting and Richmond 
securing estray horses and cattle left by the Enemy &c — ^He is interested 
somewhat in this matter, and will cheerfolly comply with the directions 
of the Executive; but begs leave to say, that upon every principle of 
right, and the privileges of Landholders, he is justly entitled to such of 
these animals as were left upon his estates in Fluvanna and Groochland 
counties — ^The expence of curing and pasturage of them "bears a great 
proportion to their value," in as much as they were left miserably poor, 
with sore backs; and by no means as valuable as those carried off by 
the Enemy fit>m the same Estates. 

The facts are these— When the Enemy left his Estates, which they 
had occupied ten days, they left a number of horses in his enclosures, 
most of which were seized upon by the people and carried off before he 
could get to his plantations — He considered those left under these cir- 
cumstances as estray, the enemy losing their right in them as soon as 
they were out of their power, and not being recovered, they are not the 
property of any one; the sole right of "taking up & posting" being 
thereby vested in him "agreeable to law & custom" — Under these cir- 
cumstances and to give owners an opportunity of recovering their 
property, he had requested that the horses taken away should be 
returned — Some persons complied, but many still keep the most valu- 
able of them. Those returned have been appraised "by two respectable 



1781. Preeholders" advertised by description Ac at the Court Houses and 
Angosi Ist public places a month ago, and copies taken to be inserted in ''the 
Gazette when there shall be one in the State." 

The Order in Council of July 19th was intended to remedy the evils 
consequent upon the habit of peoples' taking up horses &c as ''free 
plunder/' without right thereto. The measiires which he has adopted 
with regard to those left in his enclosures, he urges are right, and 
" fully warranted' by the Law of the Land," and that a delivery to the 
Quarter Master of a copy of the descriptions of the horses &c. to be 
entered on his list, will be answering the salutary purposes intended by 
that Order. 

August Ist "Forms" of "returns" made under the Law levying Specific Tax in 
grain &c — by Commissioners — County from which collected; by whom, 
and for which service, Continental or State — Grain, — Com, Oats, Bye, 
Barley — Spirits rect. — Bum, Brandy & Whisky — ^Amount received — 
amt. Issued and amount on hand — ^Amount commuted — &c. 

August 1st Gov: Nelson to Co. Lisut of Accomack Co. 


Bichmond It being of the greatest Importance that Government receive the 

earliest Intelligence of every thing material on the Sea Coast, which 

your situation gives you an opportunity of observing, I most earnestly 

request that you will adopt the best method which your judgment shall 

point out, of communicating to me whatever of moment you shall learn 

or discover. 

I am &c. 

August Ist Gov: Nelson to "Colo. Sie John Peyton Bab:" 


Richmond The Government having Occasion for some swift sailing Boats for 

the Purpose of crossing the Bay, your Situation, Influence & constant 

Attention to the Interests of your Country, induce me to apply to you 

& to request that you will procure two Boats of the kind mentioned, & 

have them always ready for the orders of the Public. You will excuse 

the trouble I give you, & inform me whether it will be in your Power to 

comply with this Bequisition. 

I am &c. 

August 1st Gov'r Nelson to Commodore Barron. 


Richmond As it is of the greatest consequence that we have the earliest infor- 

mation of the Enemy's movements in your Quarter, especially those on 


the water, you will be pleased to eontiiiue your attention most closely 1781. 
to them, & with as much Dispatch as possible convey most minutely to August lit 
us, what you observe, or can gain any knowledge of — You are not to bo 
told of what Importance it is to Government, in Times like these, to 
have good Intelligence, & we think it a particular Piece of good Fortune, 
that a Gentleman in whom we can place the Mlest confidence, is so situ- 
ated, as to be able to do us the most essential Service in this Eespect. 
Orders have been given that you be furnished with the proper means of 


I am Sir &c. 

Govb: Nslson to Brio: Gbnl: Stbvsns. August lit 


The assembly having resolved that you be presented by the Pub- Richmond 
lie with a Horse Ac, I shall take the greatest Pleasure in having these 
Besolutions executed : and that it may be done in a way, which will 
make this mark of the approbation of your country most acceptable to 
you, I wish to be informed whether you know of any Horse which will 
particularly suit you, and I will give orders to have him purchased. 

I am &c. 



I have just received Information from the Bay Side, that a Fleet Richmond 
of British Transports, in which are supposed to be embarked about 3000 
men, has &llen down from Hampton Road into the Bay — ^The Wind & 
Tide were both unfavourable for their standing up, A they had oome to: 
firom which we have Reason to apprehend that their object is up the 
Bay — ^I hope^ should their Intention be to attack any Port of your 
State, that you will have time to make some Preparations for their 
Reception. The Marquis has moved upwards, since receiving Intelli- 
gence of this Movement of the Enemy, and is now only two miles below 
this Place. 
I have the Honour to be. Sir, with the greatest Bsteem & Respect, 

Your most obed't and very hble Servt." 

Col: Gboros Gibson to Gov: Nilson. Auguit lit 

S^dosing Copy of a highly commendatory letter dated Feby 6th Penn'a, 
1781 from Gov: Jefferson to himself expressing a desire to retain him ^^^unbwland 
in his command, upon the reorganisation of the Virginia State Forces. 

CiA : Gibson proceeds to give his reasons for not aceepting this offer 
at that time— Although he had been five years in the army, andihad 


1781. determined to serve during the war, he could not remain without doing 
Aagost Ist violence to his feelings : having served since 1777 under every disad- 
vantage, resulting from unjust promotions of others over himself and 
brother officers, against which he had remonstrated in vain. To have 
continued to serve under those circumstances would have been pusil- 
lanimus, and he with others had quitted a service rendered <' disgusting" 
both to men and Officers — He had therefore become a supemumery in 
the State Establishment, and left a State of which he considered him- 
self a "subject" and to which his was strongly attached — With all this, 
his heart has often "ached" to seethe Enemy rapidly and unchecked 
marching over the country, and altho' an obscure and possibly long for- 
gotten individual, he again tenders his services to Virginia, and begs 
not to be exempted, at this critical time, from the advantages accruing 
to Officers retiring "cum priviligio" from active military duty. 

Aqgi28t2iid Benj: HABRfsoN JuB: Continsntal Pat Master of Yibga. to the 


Sichmond Eequesting him to order any money that may be designed for his use, 
from the Virginia Treasury, to be paid to Mr Bassett Stith, whose 
receipt shall be acknowledged by him Ac, 


Atiguit2Dd Peter Hoa to 6ov: Nelson. 


Bocklngluun I have the honour to enclose to your Excellency a petition from 

John Olaypole and others, concerned in the late Insurrection in Hamp- 
shire County; which I wish from motives of good policy, as well as 
humanity may have the desired effect. As I apprehend it would be 
attended with pernicious consequences to hold out pardon to those who 
denied to surrender themselves to Justice, or delayed to submit to the 
Laws of their Country, untill they were sure of escaping punishment; 
and at the same time to prosecute those who readily submitted the 
Investigation and punishment of their crimes, to the Laws of the Land: 
since it would certainly operate as an Encouragement to future offenders 
to stand out untill they were assured of Indemnity. 

Another political reason I beg leave to assign, is the many relations A 
connexions that the Claypole Family have m that part of the Coantiy: 
as there is the Father & 5 sons, with many grand children, who by inter- 
marriages are connected with the most considerable Families on those 
waters, and the strongest fHends to our present Constitution, and to 
prosecute' him with rigour, whilst the ringleaders have evaded Justice 
by flight, and those in similar circumstances of Guilt are pardoned, 


would probably sour the minds of his numerous connexions, and per- 1781. 
haps be reguarded by them as pointed and partial. August 2Dd 

I must also add, that he has a Letter from Genl : Morgan engaging to 
procure his pardon, on his returning to his Duty — ^Humanity also pleads 
strongly in their behalf, for on my attending the intended Court of Oyer 
the 10th ult: for the Trial of those Miscreants, as directed by your 
Excellencies Letter, I had the opportunity of viewing the distressing 
Scenes of aged mothers, wives, & children crowding to the Court house 
to take the last Leave of their unhappy Sons, husbands & fathers, appre- 
hending that Execution would be immediate on the Sentence of Death, 
which, in spite of all my aversion to Tories, strongly affected my feel- 
ings — ^I need not mention to a Gentleman of your approved Goodness of 
Heart, the maxim of a celebrated Writer '^ that it is the Enormity, or 
dangerous Tendency of a Crime that alone can warrant any Earthly 
Legislature in putting him to Death, that commits it." And tho' the 
crime of the petitioners was of the most dangerous Tendency, yet they 
transgressed more thro Ignorance than Design; and their offence pro- 
ceeded rather from Error & prejudice, than any deliberate Intention of 
injuring the State, or disturbing Government: from all which consider- 
ations I would humbly presume that the honble Board vnll extend the 
Act of Indemnity, as well to the petitioners herein referred to, as to all 
those, who were by the Examining Court, bound over to be indicted at 

the next grand Jury for the County" &c &c. 

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

I have the honour to be, Tour Exoelly's 

most obt & very humble Servt." 

Thos: LiQAU TO THX Exxoxmvx of Yiroinia. August 2nd 

"Circumstanced as I am, at a vast distance from my family, and an Rlchinond 
Order Issued by our Enemies for their removal from our State, I cannot 
but be very anxious to get to the Southern Army as soon as possible: 
when I can take the necessary measures to prevent a very great addi- 
tion to our present mutual sufferings and distresses — ^This must be my 
apology for the trouble I give your Excellency by this." He had rec'd 
assurances of assistance from the Executive, and begs to enquire whe- 
ther the Council have consented to grant it — ^Has no claim as an Officer 
in any capacity whatever, but merely as a citizen suffering the total loss 
of every means of support of himself or the "Common Cause" — 
Desires only a loan, which shall be returned "if South Carolina is ever 
recovered frt>m the British Army" — If Gov: Butledge has gone to So 
Carolina to establish Civil Grovemment there it is important that as 
many of the Genl: Assembly of the State (of which he is a member) 
should meet him as can do so — Should this application be granted^ 


ami saiiiiLtt wiH be ranedL lo bfsj 
BariinHWBf wiO. ksv« sazce cwM^k xa 
Be0 kiB Kyrgjlwgy will Tfxmsrm. % 
h» ri]UHif» ftR bnr. 

AllwaMHe Xr. fena had 


-m Coc: Datdb. 

m «BpVi J oiT fiw9 ttoiffwrf jsnls of finBOi 
^ jTMii rceaiTOl — 1» aorrr to aaj. cb^t miea* 
witk ix&AtaA (km«L tib* uzlofs wili be iiile. 

' tf'AflKl^lvflk^y aAwI^I^^ ^^^A 

Jon G. 

T» Got: ^^iLflos. 

f left the Amj of tUs CoaBtnr, to which the critieAl affurs hed 
4r»wii Bie, when the ■■■wwiii c e of Ld: Comwmlfis demonstrmtad his 
fCftl iyitea to be ao looger pointed to a Gcnefal Aetioii with the Ameri- 
etok Tioopt, sad Bttle dnandng that a G e a e ia l 4 Arm j, to which their 
CooBtrf look op finr the conqneat of States, would fiagrace themsdres 
iato Piefcaroons. 

The maaofiiTre vp the Baj, caa oalj^ be, with the iateation of patting 
thefr threats of Bepredatioa iato exeeotion. Should it be thoaght 
proper to guard agst these more than probable events, I beg leave to 
make aa otter to raise a Body of Gentlemen, firom whom real service 
may be expected; indeed they are not to be, bat already raised, waiting 
only orders. 

With a most Sincere regard A high veneration for yoar Person A 


I have the honor to be mo : respectfally. 

P. S. I shoold be happy to receive yoor Orders, the terms on which 
yon woald wish men embodyed A what encooragements woold be 
allowed — ^I woold promise that the men I brooght into the field woald 
fbmish their Horses A Uniforms, A march where ordered, in or oat tbe 
State A stay as long as I Staid myself" 


MAJoa Bd: Call to Col: DAvns. 

l>onfMMSi Informing him, Colo White has two hundred men at this place, and 
he has ninety-three at Charlottesville, for whom clothing is absolutely 
iraalfaig Ac. 


David Boss to . 1781. 

« 3]r August 2iid 

The articles belonging to the Public, and seized by Grenl: Wayne, Richmond 
are 16 pair of boots — 237 pair men's shoes, 20 pieces of Oznaburgs, about 
2000 yards/' Wishes credit may be gotten in Philadelphia, for them, 
rather than they should be included ''in that vast mass, the Continental 
debts/' His Agent at South Quay informs him no loss had been sus- 
tained there: everything was removed to "Pitch" landing. * * 
* Salt provisions are " salutary at this season to use with the fresh 

CoL: JosiAH Pabker to Col: Wm. Da vies. August 3d 

" Dear Davies, 

I am favoured with yours of the 27th, and happy to hear Camp Col. 
that the last Assembly have divested themselves of many powers, which ^ q^^!^ 
I am convinced they were not in bulk, able to execute themselves, and 
from your known abilities, I confess I am happy in thinking they will 
in your department receive every advantage that our impoverished state 
of finance will afford. 

My situation has not been enviable, but a most unhappy one. Called 
into the field by men whom I sincerely loved^ (without arms, money, 
men or resources, but what my feeble interest could procure) added to 
my own personal safety, I was compelled to exert every faculty to get a 
small body together, people with menaces of a powerfull enemy in their 
neighborhood does not deserve little credit in embodying before their 
foes allmost: and as the best of principles induced them to take the field, 
so they nobly braved every difficulty in remaining with me. the arms 
I was obliged to procure in an invalid state. Mechanicks was to hire to 
put them in order, and without Bayonets. I was obliged to act* horse- 
men was to equip & I must find materials to make the Swords & influ- 
ence Smiths to do the work. Neither Powder, Ball or Cartridge paper 
was found me, but by force of arms was compelled to seize it where it 
could be found : & as to provision, I supplyM my men on the same terms — 
tho' to the everlasting credit of Isle of Wight Cty, whieh has served the 
Troops since Leslies invasion, not a man has murmered, notwithstanding 
they have never received a Shilling, even of nominal money. About 12 
have taken up arms & refuge with the Enemy from Nancemond, & none 
of Isle of Wight. They are now turning out to a man required, and 
we have no arms to put into their hands — ^About seventy which was left 
at the shop to be repaired, was destroyed by Lord Comwallis. they 
were ordered to be removed, but the timidity of my C. of Military Stores 
got the better of his duty & he left them. My stock of powder is not 

*Tbe GoTemor and Marqni«. 


if^jLLEfl-JbJi VSF ¥1jJ3. Jm^SS^ 

1^ i«r Mn mttmim, J idi^^ flBuuMic lit ait OHueir jusBf^ 

tit<i tm iAfV^ u^nuauamfC -u ^ 'U Faottit jl sue irsa. wmtf 

'itfwC iP^iSit Mir iftMiUMfr 'BUfi son- jwobt flfB-rifft-M' nrr 

vwiiiiMiiKsiui<ir tHiC ipr wtttfr ific f^ 'xfe mOiOMrr iinfc. bd^ odh 

«Uli vwAi 'W# tiii^ JMfr Viidimmiit jmtsh I 

^(m^ $Kjr dvetj, vMMEMtf floii wmaimmi. fg y ij i mifr «• bit 

vr t'vv '^ iu'.^vvtf «MHft Iff: fipft&fid. tl« Bnub nf«A iuas maM 

i fc»T« ftK> «Mifit piper, bvt «■ 

fUcmtf C GftATV TO Col: Datib. 

If JM i^::«fr4}4 the otd^»' fiirooUeetiiiglKirMs 4e — Ims reoorered ilur^ — 
Miiiiy floor* furti mpcreud by the people, bat he meaos to find them ; and 
Hemnm Ut know bow to proceed jigminrt those who will not delirer them 
uy — lUm n^M applicAtioD from the woanded Officers at Cambcrland for 
mf^erul lu/rven^ naddlei and bridles, who have Orders from the Marquis 
4m the H, Ma«ter tienl: for them, hot he declined to deliver any with- 
out the Order (jf the BxecotiTe or Capt: Toong. Beqaeets instmctions 
an to what he shall do in this matter. 


VAUSWBARiiroKir Ct: Liaur: to Gov: Nblson. 

Hsf kslsy Oo» The Onlom U> assist the Commissioner of the County in forwarding 
flour to the Army were duly received; and he found on hand, about 
"Twnnty Ton of Flour in the County" — Mr. McAlister, former Commr 
ha<l pronoodud to transport this flour to Alexandria as ordered, but the 
wagons lid bad employed at his own cost, had been impressed into the 
Army, lie NUp(trco<lod by another oflicor, and so the business stopped. 

Mr. MnAlUtor however assures him wagons may be gotten to deliver 
tliu flour, provided any assurance is given, that they will be paid for, 
and will be iVoe fVom Impressment. 


Col: Davies to the Govsbnob. 1781. 

u g^f August 8d 

The Executive passed a resolation for apprehending and appro- War Office 
priating of 'strays, and authorized me to attend to the execution. I 
directed the Commissioners of provision, who were best acquainted with 
the public cattle, to enforce the order — In some places from the improper 
characters employed by Brown, there have been abuses. 

But, Sir, I find this morning, to my surprise, that some of the Quar- i 

ter Masters of the Army have exercised the privilege of taking up 
'strays, particularly horses, and pretend to have your Excellency's 
authority for it. 

As I think the measure attended with great inconvenience to the 
inhabitants, who will be deprived of an opportunity of proving their 
property, and as the State, at all events will not have credit for them, 
I think it my duty to submit to your Excellency, whether it will not be 
proper for all such horses to be forthwith delivered to the State quarter 
master General, that the owners may get them again, or that the Con- 
tinental quarter masters should pass proper receipts for them. Should 
they be wanting for the use of the Army. 
I have the honor to be, your 

Excellency's most hble Servt." 

Maj: Nelson* to the Governor. August 8d 

" Dr Sir, 

The Bearer Mr. Tinsley, having served as a Volunteer Horse- Horn Quar- 
man, Since this invasion, & having acquired a Fondness for the service, ^^ 
is desirous of a Commission; he is well recommended by Grenl: Muhlen- 
burg, & others — I must therefore request that you will bo pleased to 
give him a Comet's Commission, with Instructions to join my corps with- 
out Loss of Time, as we are in want of Officers. 

Capt: Armand has just got down from Winchester with the remainder 
of my men: they are tolerably mounted & clothed, tho' destitute of 
every Elind of Arms, a number of which are still in the hands of Volun- 
teers, & I may venture to say, they would be of as much service, could 
they be collected & put into the hands of these men, who are enlisted 
for the war; & I am sure there will soon be a necessity to arm every 
Dragoon, if as we hear, the Enemy have landed in Oloster. 
I have the honor to be Dr Sir 

Your obedt, hble Servt." 

* Handsome impreiiioii of Seal, in wax. 



1781. Henry Belong writes to the Governor, that Eichard Meanly a good 

August 8d gun-smith has been, by the Co. Court Martial, excused from a 'Hower of 

Mecklen- Duty in the Militia to Southward," provided he would set about making 

burg Oo. gmjg fQ,. the public — This was determined upon on account of the 

defenceless state of the Inhabitants — He has furnished him with '^one 

or two hundred weight of Iron and some steel " to begin with — It is 

proposed to dispose of the arms he makes to the people of the County : 

but will work entirely for the Country if needed — ^Ho has a British 

deserter, a gun-smith, working with him. 

August 4th Lieut Biddolph, So. Carolina Dragoons, to Gov: Nelson. 

"May it please your Excellency" 
Richmond An unfortunate officer, late of South 

Carolina Dragoons raised by the said State, who not only lost all his 
Estate real & personal, in Georgia was taken prisoner about a month 
before the Surrender of Charlestown; when his Commission, by the 
wantonness of some Highlanders of the 71st regiment, was taken from 
him & by them tore to peices, addresses himself to your Excellency, 
praying for releif in his unhappy circumstances, intending for Philadel- 
phia to state his case to the Honble the Congress: as also either to get 
a commission to raise volunteers to return to the Southward, or tiy his 
Luck in the navy, prays likewise, Your Exccll'y will be pleased to grant 
him a Pass for that purpose, and such other releif, as in his poor circum- 
stances, Your Excelly's great wisdom shall seem meet to alleviate his 
Distress; he being in pennury, a Stranger to the Country, weak in Body 
by the sufferings of fifteen months close confinement. 
And your Excelly's Petitioner as in Duty bound shall ever pray. 

August 4ih Capt: E. Head applies to Col: Davies for a warrant for Twenty two 
thousand dollars, with which to recruit twenty two men for the war to 
fill up his Troop : that sum being the amount necessary for this pur- 
pose — ^Also for a wan*ant to pay off both officers and men of Major Nel- 
son's corps, who have not received any pay for fourteen months. 

August 4th Capt: D. Baqsdalb to Grov: Nelson. 

Carter's Upon his arrival he finds much to his suprise, ten boats ready for use, 

^»^^t^^ and eight more nearly completed, but has no means of transporting 
night them. He has *^ waited on Mr. Claiborne who lies very ill in this neigh- 

borhood," and informed him he was expected to furnish the carriages for 
the boats; and that the Marquis is very urgent in his instructions for 



them — ^Major Claibom not having any prepared, he has ifent the boats 1781. 
by water down to Westham, which saves forty miles of bad land car- August 4ih 
riage. They will be at Westham "by 12-o-clock a Monday," and the 
array quarter master should be called upon at once to furnish transpor- 
tation for them to the Army, until Major Claiborne can have the proper 
carriages constructed — ^The Marquis has been informed of the difficulties 
in the way, and that the boats will reach him as soon as practicable. 

David Ross to Col: Davies. 

August 4th 

Mr. Crew waits upon him for orders to receive and dispose of the Richmond 
grain &g collected in Northampton & Accomac, and the money to be 
laid out in Salt for the State, now so much needed — He has instructions 
to purchase all he can, and to adopt the most vigorous measures to run 
it across the Bay. 

David Eoss to Col: Davies. 

August 4th 

He is surprised at the discontent exhibited by the Officers returned Richmond 
from captivity at Charleston in regard to the "remittance now making 
for the purpose of discharging their debts. 

Continues, "Although I consider the duty of my department as dis- 
tinct from the Military Line, yet sentiments founded upon a sincere 
regard for the virtues of so respectable a body of men, who have Braved 
every danger and difficulty in defence of their Country has inspired 
me with a desire of serving them when it was in my power. When 
our Officers & Soldiers were in captivity at Charlestown, I was at much 
pains to foward Tobacco for their support, and it was accordingly pre- 
pared. Grovemor Jefferson informed me that Passports could not be 
obtained from Geni: Phillips, and thus the matter rested untill Ld: Com- 
wallis came to this State. The application for passports was again 
renewed and granted, for 400 hhds Tobacco. An Exchange of Prisoners 
took place, still it was said to be necessary to pay off both the publick 
& private debts. 

I have charterd vessels to carry this Tobacco — ^I have informed the 
Executive of it — Genl: Scott and Colo. Heath have been also made 
acquainted with it, & requested to give me proper information how it 
was to be appropriated when it arrived at Charlestown, that my Agent 
might know how to act — ^here my duty & interference ends in this trans- 
action — So far from having a wish to injure or offend any one of them I 
was well pleased to have it in my power to promote a measure, which I 
tho't would reflect honour upon the Country, t credit to the troops, by 
a panctoal discharge of debts contraoted in the time of distress with an 


1781. enemy — this is my idea of the matter & I flatter myself that you'll do 
August 4th mo justice shuld any of them be mistaken in the part I act upon this 


August 4th Col: Chas: Dabnet to Col: Wm. Davies. 

Goochland He is collecting the remnant of the State Regiment, and the six- 
^* months' men, and will send them with Officers to Petersburg, Fred- 

ericksburg and Prince Edward Co House — He has "enquired of 
Roberts the Tavern Keeper at this place, after the Pipe of Wine left in 
his care" who informs him he has saved about ten gallons; the remainder 
having been taken by the Enemy. He has sent Orders to all Officers 
belonging to the State Regiment to repair to his head-quarters at once. 

August 4th Samuel Dyer to Col: Davies. 

Alhemarle He has collected the Stores left near Albemarle Old Ct House, and 
Barracks d^qqq ^ij^t were at Staunton. Throe Expresses have been sent to Bed- 
ford to have them brought over but on account of the incursions of the 
enemy, he supposes, has heard nothing from them. The medicines 
shall be all sent to Dr. Pope as soon as they are gotten together — ^He 
will attend closely to his duties as long as he remains at the Post, but 
this cannot be long, in as much as his pay (owing to the rapid depre- 
ciation) does not support him, altho' he lives in the most frugal manner. 

August 4th RoBT. Forsyth, Dep: Com: Genl: &c. to Col: Wm. Davies, Va. 

"Dear Sir, 
High Hills of I am favoured with your Letter of the 26th June, which did 

Santee ^^^ reach Camp until two days ago. I am extremely sorry that the 
Business of my Office at present is such, as to prevent my answering it 
so particularly as I wished ; however every thing 1 can, shall be com- 
municated now, and the Return you wish shall be transmitted, the 
moment I have time to make it out. 

Inclosed, you have the late adopted System of the Commissaries 
Department,'^ which is by no means suited to the operations of this 
Army: for instead of subsisting by the deliveries of the State Agents, I 
have to feed it by purchases from the Inhabitants ; and with Respect to 
Bread, my Assistants have generally been obliged to reap & thrash the 
Wheat, an^ always to superintend the Mills, where the Grain has been 
sent, in order to get it manufactured. 

* Not found. 


I think with you, that it is of real importance to the State of Yir- 1781. 
ginia, as well as some others, to have full credit for the supplies they August 4th 
furnish ; but I think also, that it will be a very difficult piece of Busi- 
ness to effect, for the stupidity of your Commissary, and Commissioners, 
their total want of method, and great inattention, together with the 
number of Continental Commissaries, acting contrary to a direct Eesolve 
of Congress, will put it out of the power of any person to do the Conti- 
nent & State justice. Mr. Robinson does not make Returns to me, of 
what he receives from the State Commissary or Commissioners, nor am 
I authorized to call on him for such. If he is regularly appointed, I 
should imagine his Receipt is a very sufficient Voucher, to be produced 
on a general settlement in my Office, or, whenever the State may render 
an acct: of the deliveries to the Continent. 

Mr. Brown ought to pay particular attention to the Receipts he and 
his Commissioners take for the Provisions they may deliver Issuing Com- 
missaries, and those ought, monthly to be delivered Mr. Robinson, and a 
general Receipt for the whole taken. If this is not done, the Commis- 
sioners will be liable to many Errors; and may deliver their supplies to 
Tom, Dick t Harry, who five months afterwards may not be known. 
By Mr. Brown's delivering ii^ the detached vouchers monthly, he will 
not only get rid of a very troublesome number of papers, which will 
expedite a future settlement, but will put it in Mr. Robinson's power to 
check the Accounts of his Assistants. As early as last February, I 
pointed out the proper mode of delivery to Mr. Brown by Letter, & 
begged his attention thereto : however to that, and every other Letter 
wrote him on pubUc Business, I have never been favoured with an answer. 

Militia, acting with Continental Troops draw, or ought to draw from 
the Continental Commissaries; but in their counties, and from thence, 
to join the Army, and on their Return Home, they should be furnished 
by the County Commissioners, or Assistant State Commissaries. How 
these supplies are to be settled with the Continent, I know not; for I 
have seen no Resolutions of Congress on the Subject. 

The inclosed Resolutions'^ will point out to you how far I am con- 
nected with the Quarter Master's Department You will find that the 
Assistants or Store-keepers of that Department are subject to my direc- 
tions so far as respects provisions Ac; and from these people I am fur- 
nished monthly, or ought to be, with Returns, which point out the 
specific supplies delivered within the Month, at the Several Posts — By a 
Resolution of Congress, annexed to the Quarter Master's System, there 
are to be no Issuing Posts established at the expense of the United 
States, except immediately with the Army, or where Troops are sta- 
tioned. All the temporary Issues on the line of Communication; to 
Waggoners, Marching Troops &o are to be made by the Store-keepers 
appointed by the Quarter Masters, who are duly instructed to account 

* Not found. 


17^1* for die Same : aiii«ed ail deii^eruifl co die Conirinenftii Codubl] 
Ao^nat -iKli &> 20 zkmufA duiir iuuuiii. 'o«i«aaiie cney (naicd nus Becamdt. ami ue Coe&- 
niaBaruM )ii) aoc Tliitt matri*r woaiii tukv** beea maiie ^asv. if die HtMibJe 
die G)a<ereaa hati dinii^c it prmienc &> ailii^ me an AjMMaat b>r "iacfi 
^case — I dum ^nwiii aaii oae wicii die yLur^aim Araij. vbo wixiJii 
iia.7e aoemiefi parneolariy u> die ^cate ^oppdea. ail ^ wtixeii wooid 
ka.T* gone dirrMi^ hia Hamia &> die Litain^ Commhsaarj, 

Mj FrieiuL joa <*aaiio€ ptMwiblj ^^xpiKt dias aaj '^c' die Smail qnaojCitj 
aif S^nzA twixt dua Amij 4 Vir^nhk «;aA be r^p«rai &> die Mar|iuia' 
Amv. Mr. Brown kaa 'itLLrev^i ai)iie o€ die Se^encv duxusaBti Gai- 
Imia re«(iiiT«fi by die C>ci4cr«!si»: iyr ail !ihe SpLfitt as PeyttxiabiKrs^ A Xev 
^pbttNCDv I bail ^ent ifroa FvetierrekihiErx iaift F^thruarj k Marck — I 
maiie iii> •itMxhc die Marv^nitia' Athlt vaa if^j ^npplieti witk Rkbi. Kj 
Tirziai^ A MaiyiaoiL aoii nodiiii;; bac die Trans •:k^ Traaspijrtasioa pr«^ 
7<acevi 81 J <teflMiadui;e W^m%j dbooaajbi ^jaiLoiie 5)r diia Araij. W^i^m 1 

aereeil b» aet oader tbe iaeitMeti Sjrfteoi, I bad ii«> Lle:a Uttfi oaj Co»- 

iCaat tftTi^mftant ca tbe Sooxbem Caa^p wooiti b^re bee& 
M J viak iraa fio be ca tke p«b& Scrviee. box •^MLfiaed ft«> dae Scale of 
Wrsgm^A^ irkare 1 aooid b* aear mj FaoKcly. b*>w«T>er. I fiati m j atsem- 
trai 40 ii^i'i'iwary visk ckai Anay as preaeniL ULat I <ajuM» piMRbH- sec 
t<> dMC Scasa; viwra I ihrwifai be bdkppy so ieori jtmi oa j e^^ery 


Gmami Gb>: Emou Clabkb 10 rmm Gona^im or Tibgzsia. 

I Bddca M> dodbt b«t it vai§ alarm ^ ji^xi tbas I bad noc 1^ tiiis 
WlM3«Tcr vadertaktfs to Easse aa Anaj ca tkii Qoarter vill 
ftad bhfcfiri-f ^Mapfwctttad Exeepc tbie Iav» wais okT greaser force, and not 
depcndia^ oa tbe wiIEa o^ tke pcpoIaeeL T^2§ Ojomstt <a& aiood for an 
Bxpeditioft. wiibia^ me to pan h en ExccstaxL bczt 40 sCraageiy Inlato- 
at«d tkat an tiae Metb*>iia I bare beea able to parsae viK »ot dnw tliem 
into tke field, we kaTe waAt draogkta to w> pcrpoie. Gorenor Beed 
kare alio wrole to tkeai. b«t to no EtfiKt. From tke time I fomd 1 
to ke dinf|Miiated en tke troops ordered by Gc^eranKsc be^gan to si 
peet tke waart of sen. wkkk k now tke caae wken ereiy tkin^ dae is 

I eoold BioC gel Colo. Gibeona 
gone lon^ finee. biEt kad to 
finding tkat no arpzB^sla are 
ing no stone imtnm'd, by wkick 

To aare tke garmon of 
obliged to ^lare tkcm a 
Enoogk to do aoaecking deaTt 

Remanent, ockcrway I skociU kave been 
op tke defioe&ry ky Tolonteersv bot 
I determined to Qut tkem leaT- 

from being ETncsated. I kare been 
quantity of fiower, bat yec kave 
kad 1 men. 1 kare Beiinq^iked my 


Sxpetc^fttkn rebUare to the pbais berfitafore laid, and shall drop down ITSl. 
tike JEtirer witii w^m noi I have jaD<nmiaii|r to aKmt Fonr Himdred. Ai^om Mi 
ciopfafging of Crockett's Bcgt^ Craig s Artalleinr, YolmttociTB A ca. If I 
fiod a froeped of C'Ompleaxaiig idt foirciaK in ant* other C-onnnr I shall 
do it. and make my Strc^eis aooording to cdrcnm^itanoosk — If I £nd it oot 
of mj power to do anything of Importanoe, I fihall di<^Kieie <«f the PnK 
bck Stonw to the gnmtesx advantage, and Qait all forthor thoughts of 
l&terprae in this l^narter. 

I do not yei oondenn myself for nndertaking the expedition again$^ 
Iktroit. I yet think had I near the nnmber of men £rA pKfKiood, 
should have earned it. I may yet make some sutike among the Indians 
before the ekiee of the Campaign — hot at present Realy to Ke donlvted. 
I have been at so mnch pains to finaMe ns to prosecnte the first plaa, 
tliat tJie I>isappointm«int is donbhr mortifying to me, and I iM for the 
draadfiii oonssqneDoee that will Ensue thronghoot the fitwitier if noihing 
is done. This C<mntnr already be^n to soipecl it A to bivite me tiO 
Execute soow plans of their own, hut I shaD no longer tmst them. I 
shall hcreaAer transmit to your Bxoellency oopies of all the pnbhck 
LeClen sent Ac:, Beeerred Bei ye cting the Expedition, by which yon will 
see the veiy great pains that have been taken with the InhahitantB of 
this Coontiy to little pozpose. The nnsettied stat« of the Gov^imment 
is vexy hnrtinll to pnbfick measures among them. I have ipared to 
C<^: Hsrrison £I26^L.17s. to enable him to go on with hisbiisine«s 
which he is to settle with the anditors. be p l eased to order me credit 
for it on their books — I think C'Ol: Harrison has done himself Honour 
in condocting his bnfinem. 

I have the Honoor to be yoor 

Obedt and veiy HnmU Sent— ^ 

SuBonos Thob: Trifx: Tttkbl, to Got: Nklsoh. Ai^sstMi 

Having just received information that the Enemy had **the day 
before Yesterday "* sent a Flag into WilliamslMug requiring the sick to 
be immediately removed, he thinks it neoeasaiy he should retain with- 
out delay to the Mnrquis to get his instmctions aeoordingly — As soon 
as this affiur will allow, he will wait upon his Excellency '*to rsqneei 
thnt assistanoe to oor suffering Peo[^" which his humanity may die^ 

Catt: BaxwrnT RAonnAiJi to Col: Datisb. Ai^iwiiih 

In regard to the hosts intended itxr the Marquis, two of which he has OMter"^ 
sent to Westham — He does not like the plan upon which they are made: Vwry 

they will not carry horses across the RiverB; and the Seats are so 
arranged that it will be diffienlt for the men to row — ^As ten mors are 
to be buih^ he recommends tUs defect be looked inta 

2(^ CALyOSfi^XSi 09 

\T<\ Hmtm^: KjLJKLmn D. '^ Ma. n Col. Jjx-^ 

Ky W^ ^^tum .^Umrhail ju>« 'iaar%%r Matf&ir, tu die 24iii l^ril laA. 
f^fz-tm nhiit "Iftix AIM '.raiiMSi^tinnji h^^tcn. anil he sends x nsCarxi of his 
f^^^A rv>th at ft4/»,hnir>fi«l .uul .^^tanncoii. Ebs aev«r received an articie 
/•*< ^lof.hirtj^ fr»r nh*^ Army — a«l«iM *Tlie people who t7aciej» to ve ^^orth'Td 
ff/^m h<^^., diwitmy* the ^n^vlit of onr paper •turrv. an they will hoc p^n 
With har'ily anTthinii^ Knt ihr 4pef:ie, ' 

AiipwiMh 7tn: Frntiatrjt^ ^^ Xajit; Gsan:: to lf.uo& Rd: Claibob^s. 

f'^imp H TKa MuperinVsik'kMrt of FinaiK% haii ^Ie«i apon him for retmnift of 
rKilif#lHt/f ^j^i^ fnminhed the T, 8, Qnarter Xjurtera Dept: by tiie seTend States, 
frfimnaiki to the re^fiinitionii of Con^ip^fle of Feby: 2&th 1780. 

Thm f^^^m exdnmvely to Por%f^; bat by the reqiii«itioiis of ^the 
f '//mmittee of ('rmf^nmn lant Campcign " horses k wagons and foimge had 
fptitm f^fdfjm^ and from other Htatei^-^He reqo€«ts to be famished with 
r^nrrm iW4'^frt\tn((]y, taking eare to keep separate the forage and other 
srtf/;l#Ni— They are to be laid before the Soperintendant. 

Atfgtmi^ Coh: Jamm Innw to ''His John Psttoh, Bart: at Camp Whiting's 

" Dr. Mir, 

l$rrtn\ny f (iXfNx^tefl to hare cross'd last night, but was prevented by the 

JwlIJi WfWi ^^'^U^^ ^'^' * Ieit4?r from the Marquis: I have however sent off an express 
iUfWk If/rtiMi urging ih() nec^ossity of reinforcing the Gloster Militia with the men 
iiridor my command immediately, and expect either to hear irom or see 
lilm vnry shortly, as I Imagine be may possibly be at New Kent Court 
Itoiisn tills ovorig: You will please to despatch an express giving me the 
Aillitsi aoots. you possess of the enemy's depredations and manoeuvres in 
(tlosinr, ihai \ m^y bo enabled to transmit them immediately to the 

It In Ndinotlmns absolutely necessary and politic to make use of small 
dnoftptlon and flnessis yott may therefore circulate in Gloster, that the 
Miif(|uiN ban (mms'd 5000 men over at Rtiffin's Ferry to sustain your lit- 
tlo arttmtnont and annoy the enemy; that he is marching down on this 
sido In porson, with 8000 men, and that ho will be as far advanced as 
Nftw Knnt (\mrt house this oveng: 

Koop your light partltMi continually on the enemy's lines; you will by 
ihut moAns curtail their limits, and blind them to our advantage. If you 
ihtMild want to writi« to the Marquis, by sending your letter to me, I 
shult b«^ ablo to transmit it to him in the most expeditious manner. 

I am Siri with great Esteem 
Yn: Aa 


Col: Sioh'd T. Morris to Grov: Nslson. 1781. 

Auguf 1 6ih 
He was &om home very sick, when his Excellency's letter requiring a Chi^loitM- 

settlement of the accounts of the Commissioners of the Provision Law, ^ ^ 

came— He has always supposed these officers wore to come to his house 
and arrange their accts: — but he has lately boon to Fredericksburg and 
Alexandria to settle the accts: of the agents of the Specific tax and 
endeavored to obtain a settlement from all the Commissioners in the Coun- 
ties contiguous to his rout, but owing to the conflicting Orders removing 
some officers and appointing others; to the confUsion growing out of the 
removal of stores from point to point, and the remote distances at which 
many of the Commissioners live from each other, he had not boon able 
to obtain the required returns. Suggests that the Governor issue an 
Order requiring all the Commissioners in each County to convene at 
some point, to make their reports; and the agents of the Specific tax to 
do likewise— He vnll attend and require a settleuKsnt, but unless this 
be done, it is needless to make further efforts to this end. 

Having been informed there would be a vacancy in the Auditor's 
Office by the resignation of Mr. Archer, he became a candidate for the 
place during the Session of the Assembly; but no election having been 
made, and should Mr. Archer still determine not to serve, ho begs to be 
considered an applicant to the Executive, who he is told will make the 
appointment in that contingency. 

Col: Christian Febioer to Col: Davies. Augoiteth 

He has no officer capable of discharging the duties of Paymaster, but Cumberland 
expects one every moment — His first object is to Aimish **Ilagsdale ^IdC. H. 
with a good Company" which he can do, if Clothing can be gotten. The 
next object is to recruit the ninety men needed for Call. He has made 
return of what tools are necessary to begin Barracks "to Claybum,'* 
bnt he says there are none in his Department, which seems to be much 
out of order. Asks where the different "Kendesvous" are— thinks all 
the counties South of James River, as well as Amherst, Albemarle, 
Louisa, Goochland Hanover t Henrico should send their men to his 
Post — Begs that Kagsdale's Company may be provided vrith clothing 
for the coming winter — He will have plenty of Beef, Bread, and forage, 
*' but no Spirits of any kind" — Asks if there is not a Surgeon for the 


%^ ^.\L9:^:^xdL \9 ^A?H P-Lpnaa 

JT^ ^Htrnwr? ^rrm A. ?*rvAifnBt 'Wan*. ^ '^v: Ymjoh. 


Hff^^i^^¥ f fifff\'904 Mr^ fKin ^(VAninii^ with> wnniuii!4 firom CumlHTrian'i. 

fvM AfV i%44'%ti^^ ^ Uftt>y ^^k — { dnri ir impomihU on m^iiy aeeoontA to 
pffff^^A vf ifh f Mi>M» f/i» f.h^ Con ft Korii«e. portkniarij chat olf aecomjiio- 
/ffk#/f<m«i. ( hiv^^ tW^ff^iff^., with th#^ XarqnMii' a{>9robatioii fixed the 
M/y^M Mtta. TKa w/#rm4^ har^ h^en. jukd utiR sa^ destitute of eveiy 
ntfrf^'U^ ^i>f f*^mrUfhm^ffif%, «dr/te^ fvmifmfm Hmiloim^ I maat therefore beg 
;f ^^ wUI ffvit^^ifilr yfffimfsH in hartn^ th«r irarr»ot I left in jour hands, 
\fffn9^}^My MpmpU^ with, in nnUr Uf enaUe me lo proTide for their 

M/rrHH#fir i*>%\fi%\Uf on^ ftf the MarqainA' Atdn, waitA on joa and the 
M4#K(fiMvM (t^y b^pi puriU^nlur d#mire) for that pnrpoee, as well as to pro- 
Ntri* H ** V\n^'' Ur trarmfK/rt the woumlod from James Town to Hieh- 
fufrwi. Th^^y nri^ MiiffrtririK at thin time, and cannot be releived in any 
ifiUf*r iiii^niwr, A Hiir^MOfi from thin place iihall attend the Flag, if yon 
will |»l(*a<>io Ut \uihrin nio when It will ho rca<iy. 

MnunU^ur (/ftptalri will rocoiro your anMWcr and trannmit it to me. 

1 am Hir, liefti)ectfuliy, 

Yr: hble Servant &c." 

AuMUMlY^h I^M* TitoMAN Walkxr to Oovr. Nelson. 


UmMh MttI* Ynur l^avur cnivorlnK tint Ilo8olution of Assembly, & appointment 

\%f tSitninliMiloht^r io mHtle & liquidHto all aoots. of Disbursements & 
(MhIh^a \\\ tlu^ WiNiiorn partu of this State, bearing date July the 20th, 
I tvi^t^tvi^d .* bui hoi till iou or twolvo days afler its date. It gives me 
tHH^I oom^i^nu tlm( \\\y a^^^t InHnnitios render me in my own opini<m, 
UHnbU^ %\\ \\^HW\\\ ihU 8«)^n'kH\ whon probably my knowledge of the 
l^tUmH^Mm uf Ibv" dilYV^iviil iHWti^ (hi^ navigaUon &c might have been ii8e> 
M \\\ \\w im^H'Mliwu \\f \\%\n Uitmn«H!ks. ll mno' ^v {M>me^ be urged, thai 
HV> U«l 'V\'\\^ \>> tbo \Vixi|«^n\ iVuntrv wasi attondtHl with more hardslups 
\\m^\\ \\\\i^ )v^^^Ml^v XH^mU) b«>: in aiu^wor 1 say, that it would iiot« had 

«m^VM^l(jr IK^ M«44iMiiv>f v>r IW ll\>a. Whu C Ritw^ ia AlWottrla 


tbe BQBiiie» lennmsutc jk> 1 bad T^itAoti u^ oKpcicv A ^ hit iw^m ivk^t^ ^^hI. 
than iwf> ynttxf^ mdar xhaij wboi. 1 :«u mj; oti t4uu Trip — ThAw ^'l>^ Ki^iw ^^ 
hxve exparienoftd iL. mill mQkiiow)4idi«9c tlua iwo y^^r^ i»>ft4^ « m^i) vs 
ftdr^ftured ofrnfridwrabh- heroDC liif^ ^rruid f^hma<^i«ri( tnust milled' ^r^MK 
diftimicie. aii weE iit bii^ mauxa] «$^ iwdih* a)iilitM» — 

Tikis \teaxkg nrr SitnaximL Tour l^onlUoK-v. will. 1 lor. fmr^c^ lu^i ^Icc ft 

mj Sofmnnnnr: lie ii-a fnxuk^ir t-o riic A m^isq of T/uir HAnoirnhk^ B^ivi. 
but not lo me. !»<• iiT«d wnL xdc £vi- ^^Mur^ m^:^^ «iy OoIVm^kik^ ^ iVm- 

diligent: aciqiuhiziicid witb ibc sitomxioxk oil \he diif^Tcsnx ^^%k«nh, A <>h^ 
naTi^mtiob of that pftrt of xtM* Camiitix. jis w<kll iBfs. 

Toot £x<xiIkaKTV 

Mas9 olili4?(^ bimkv. ScmaXv" 

Cola. Johh Pagk to Iiotil Xila^n nt KiohmtM^). Xi^t^m t^>i 

"Dear Sr, 

I wiot* yoo ahoQi a ire«k pasts a Ix^tt^r in An^w^r tx> j'W^iw^ ^Vwin i^^t 
& made an apology for being » tardy; abiding ii*>m<* f>^<l<»otioni^ t\f w\y "«wi»^** 
own on the sitnatien of onr Oonntrv, which vow had indinnyl m^ tt\ dt\ 
by kindly desiring to know what I would wwh to havt^ do«^. I wHtt* 
now in the abeence of Col: Peyton, who i« gi>nc down to Kingston, A 
who I believe has o^litt4i^d. through hurr}* of bumno^M^ to giN^^ ;^*x\u i^n 
Account of the operations of the Rnemy in our Quart K^r %^ of th^ 8ti^|>M 
we have taken to counteract their I>^gns — ni>ft>rt' thin, you u\ui(| 1^ 
as well informed of the Strength A Position of tho Kuou\y» wlu^u Nvt^ 
were obliged to retreat from Gloster Court ltf>uso» an ouo tmo» A th^*iv 
fore I shall only observe that by souio unknown oaum\ your t>riioiii to 
the County Lieut, to enib*Kly a fourth Part of tho Militia did not ivwoh 
him till 7 days after tho date of it, when I found It hy iin niM^ldpnt, 
opened it A sent it on by Bxpress ; that by muno unlurky i'li*tMiiimlnni*i^« 
the Orders issued by the Field OfHcorH for emhodyltig tin* wholo of I he 
militia, on the appearance of the KnoinyV Ploot In York Itlvor, wiifi uot 
executed as well as could have boon winhod, that tlH«t*i«fni*«i, hHim* iliM 
Enemy had ]ande<l about 700 of their Troops at (]loufM«stor Town, A wn 
had waited in vain, til 10^-clock at nigtit for Uoltifbrc^MmotilM of mtlltia, 
we retreated with 102 men, oxclusivo of Offlnnrn, cltlnfly Mm inlllMn of 
Ware A Petsworth, Keeping the lioiMl whioti leads to King A' C^iimMif 
hoping to meet Detachmtsof militia fVom tliatC/ouiity on wIiIpIi wm bad 
called for assistance. We took with us all tho nrniH, anuntinltlon Ht I'fo- 
vision we had at the Court House, A tho Flold plwui, whl(«h wo bml Miontifiid 
whilst the Enemy were in Willmsburg — Wo rotroat'Od t^n fkr a« f Mivwllw, 
before we halted, where we nMUul about an hour A tbon pr/N'oodod on 
to the Hill on the King A Quoon sido of Whiting's Mill, wlinr^f wm 


1781. encamped & determined to wait for Reinforcement*, taking every Pre- 
August 7th caution to guard against a Surprise. — hero we were joined by Capt: 
Eddins & that Part of the Small party of Artillerists & militia who had 
stuck by him on his Retreat from his Post at Gloster Town — In Justice 
to him, I must observe that he appears to have acted with Spirit, vigi- 
lance & activity — he maintained his Post with an old 12-lber, 'till the 
Enemy were near the shore in 10 of their flat-Bottomed Boats, he hav- 
ing previously removed the 2 french 18-lbers, 1. in a Boat up the River, 
the other on a carry-log into the County where I believe it is still safe. 
Colo. Peyton, as soon as it was cei*tain that the Enemy's ships were 
standing into York, ordered all the horses below the Court House to be 
removed & brought to his Compy, but we were able to get but few out 
of the way of the Enemy, had they pressed on. However, as soon as 
we were joined by a Part of the Kingston Militia, we were enabled to 
remove many from that Parish & Ware, & by sending down a small 
Party of light Infantry & of Dixon's Horse, the day after we retreated, 
the Enemy, who appear cautious, have been prevented from collecting 
many horses, or from foraging above Mr. Whitings Quarters, except on 
the morning before they got down, when they had been as far as Mr. 
Burwell's Church-Quarter, from whence, & Colo Lewis' adjoining it, they 
drove off all the Stock and took off a few negroes — ^Notwithstanding 
the Enemy have not been 3 miles above Gloster Town, except on the 
Morning after their landing, which was on the 1st Inst : those unhappy, 
deluded People are continually going over to them, to the ruin of 
many of ps, & the Enemy continue their diabolical Practice, I am just 
informed, of sending out amongst us Persons infected with the Small 
Pox — As soon as it was in our Power, we began to remove the public 
Grain & the records of the County. We have not been able to spare 
men to drive off stocks of Cattle, but as several Gents: have set the 
example, I hope many will be removed, unless the Enemy should come 
out in force — You know Sir, how our County is intersected by water 
Courses, navigable by their flat bottomed Boats, which enabled them to 
have got on our Flanks & Rear in a single night, had we remained at 
the Court House — We therefore thought it imprudent & impolitic to 
risk the loss of the Stores & of the precious few who had nobly assembled 
in good Time, & who showed a spirit that would have done honour to 
the most virtuous citizens of the ancient Commonwealths — ^their readi- 
ness to stay & oppose the Enemy or to march out of their County, 
leaving their wives, their children & their all behind them, at the mercy 
of their cruel k revengeful Enemy, despising every thing in comparison 
of their country, & executing every order with cheerfulness & alacrity, 
showed that they were well worth our endeavours to preserve them for 
some more favorable opportunity of gratifying their Desire of serving 
their Country more effectually than they could at that time. I must 
however remark in Justice to that Part of the Militia who did not join 


us 'till a Day or two after our Retreat, that they showed a noble 1781. 
undaunted Spirit, and do assure you, that it has been proposed by sev- August 7th 
eral of those Officers and their Men, to go down & oppose the Enemy at 
all Events ; others declare if the Country will not support them, they 
will go down & sacrifice themselves in Defence of their County. 

K there be a County in Virginia, worthy of the Assistance ot, the 
State, & which can be an object of the Enemy, I venture without vanity 
or Partiality to say, it is Gloster. But I was much distressed last night 
to find that afler we had been promised assistance from the Marquiss, & 
Col: Innes had intended to have joined us with 400 men, that we are 
put off with a Bequest to amuse the People with a finesse. 

I enclose you the Colos Letter. Col:. Baytop who received it whilst 
Colo Peyton & myself ware out of Camp, was willing to comply with 
the Requisitions, & therefore read the tantalizing clause — but judge. Sir, 
what will be the People's sentiments, when they shall, as they soon 
must, discover that it was all a Delusion ! I wish for my part, never to 
deceive them : if they desire that we shall reproach our Country by 
making a Sacrifice of ourselves, I shall blush not to follow their example, 
& join them in reviving the ancient & true Spirit of Patriotism. 

I should have observed that about 150 Militia of King & Queen County 
embodyed the day before yesterday, & encamped within a Mile of us, 
but as many of them are without Arms, their Colo proposes to discharge 
them. I would wish however that they should not be discharged untill 
a sufficient number of our Militia come in to take off all our spare Arms; 
because should the Enemy come out before this Event may happen, we 
could furnish the King & Queen Troops with those Arms — Wi yesterday 
Evening, moved down to a more healthy situation, about a mile below- 
our former Encampment, with Hubard's Mill in Front We have about 
50 Light Lafantry & about 10 Horsemen on the Enemy's lines, with post 
Riders Stationed every 3 miles up on the Road. But every precaution 
will avail us little, if the Enemy seriously mean to attack us, as we have 
but few Bayonets & Cartouch Boxes, k have not Six Rounds of Car- 
tridges & most of them much injured — It is said that a considerable Part 
of the Enemy's Ships & Vessels are gone down into the Bay as if to 
Portsmouth, possibly for more Troops, and it is said they have not more 
than 1500 at York & Gloster inclusively. 

I am, dr Sir, with great Respt : & Esteem yrs." 

Wm. McCraw, Dip: Q. Mastkr, to Gov: Nelson. AuguatTth 

He has a number of men in the Public Service at this Post, wagoners, Peytonsburg 
Express Riders, Canteen makers &c, for whom he has promised to procure 
credit "for a Tower of duty" provided they will work £Euthflilly; other- 
wise it would be impossible to carry on the business of bis Department. 


1781. The Court Martial of Pittsylvania County threaten to declare these men 
AuguBt 7th liable to six months service in the Army, which is destructive to his 
business. He therefore begs for some protection in this matter, as it is 
impossible to engage men to work for the Government, unless they are 
exempt from field service — The Southern Army is seriously sufibring for 
horse shoes & canteens, which he cannot supply if deprived of the work 
of these men. 

Wagons cannot be obtained, except by promising the owners that the 
drivers and team shall be exempt from impressment: hence he has not 
been able to foward the Commissary stores to the Southward, especially 
as the Commissioners under the Provision Law have never furnished 
him with a Brigaded wagon, — although called urgently upon to do so. 
Beg9, Some mode be adopted, by which he may be supplied with forage, 
of which he is in great need. 

August 8t& Capt: H. Young to Col: Da vies. 

Richmond Asking for a guard from Col: Dabney's command to take charge of 
the Boats at Westham ; which he suggests should at once be removed up 
to Woodson's Ferry near Goochland Court House for security. 

August 8th Major Kiohd. Call to Col: Da vies. 

Mr. Walker '8 I presented your order to Capt Tibbs (Capt: Peyton being oat of 

CbMTl^^^ the way)— he cannot furnish the Cloaths immediately— 60 hands will 
ville stop working after to-day, for want of thread and buttons — When these 

are f\imished he can turn oif 200 Suits in 14 days" — The shirts cannot 
be made for want of money. The Conductor of Mil : Stores has just 
returned from Leesburg without having found any accoutrements there, 
and could hear nothing of them. Only thirty-four sets have been col- 
lected, & they out of repair, "stripped of cruppers & straps Ac by the 
volunteers who used them" — Col: White has only twenty sets in his 
Begiment, so that unless arms and accoutrements are supplied from 
Bichmond, the men and horses will be entirely useless to the State. 

* 4c ♦ 4e ♦ 

He will leave that place in a day or two with his command for Manakin 
Town, which the " Baron" has informed him is the intended point of 
Rendezvous for the Cavalry. 


Bichmond He arrived only the night before, and has occupied Majr. Claiboroe*8 
old office, but is not prepared for business — will make every effort to 



fowBrd the ^Bost buaiiieaa.^ but ms jel there is not a District Qiuurt<^r 17Sl« 
Master here^ nor a single artieie of Stores — Major Claiborne ha» Wen AHiEttii ^li 
maeh deceiTed in regard to the fkmishing the carriages and has orvien^ 
Capt: Drew at Carters ^ Ferry" to dismount the bodies of five or 
Six Continental Wagons" and to send them down to transport the 
Boats, together with their teams. He has sent the like instructions to 
Capt Hendricks at Alexandria, who has not made the carriages and no 
prospect of its being done — ^By this means he hopes to have m a fbw 
days "eight or ten mounted & foward to the Army.** 

As to the horses impressed, he is aware that many have been Uwt ; 
but maDV have also been returned to their owners — M:^or Claiborne did 
not think himself justifiable, without authority from the Executive^ in 
branding private horses impressed for a special service, and where they 
were to be returned as scH>n as the demand for them ceased — Haii this 
been ordered, it would have saved much expence to the Continent, and 
less trouble to him. 

Col: J. Banister to (tovb Nklson. 
"Dear Sir, 

Agreeable to a letter from Mr. Davies, I have ordereii out, 
& by every exertion, attempted to collect one fourth part of the Militia, 
but in vain, having only been able to assemble a Company of about 
seventy, instead of one hundred & fifty — With this Company I have 
attempted to apprehend the Delinquents, which ought at all events to 
be effected, as an Example in future — I never knew so groat a change 
among men in my life, since the Enemy have been posted at Peters- 
burg — No doubt it is owing to their practices thro' the mediation of 
Tories — If you approve of my keeping this Company a few daies longer 
to enforce the orders I have given, you will please to signify it by return 
of the Bearer." * * * * ♦ 

"The leaving the So. Side of Jas: Elver without Troops to make a 
defence against the incursions of the Enemy has produced worse effects 
than the ruin of individuals — " » * * ♦ 

" There are not wanting Instances of great impropriety of politioal 
conduct here, and I wish to know what may bo done with them. I have 
not seen any of the Laws. 

Your Excellency's mo: obed & mo: 

hble Sei-vt." 

August 8th 


E. Simpson to ths GroviERNOR. 

Auguft 8ih 

Praying for exemption from military duty certain artisans, employed SpoUylvsnis 
with him by Genl: Spotswood in making the necessary accoutrements 
Ac for his Legions. 


178L JoHsr DouiuB to Got: Ncuaos. 


Kicbmood Applying for £54,000 in cturencj to enable him and John Evans, 
Isaac White and Daniel Jacobfi, citizens of South Carolina landed at 
Jamestown from a Cartel vessel, to purchase horses, by which to return 
to their homes — ^This large sum is necessary on account of ^ the high 
prices to which horses have risen.'' 

Aoguitikb Col: Wm. Daviks to tub Exscutivk. 


War Ofics I have been conversing with Mr. Anderson, upon the Subject of a 

Corps of Artificers. We seem to agree in opinion that the following 
plan, or some thing similar may be proper. The prices are not exactly 
ascertained, as in some of the branches, Mr. Anderson does not recollect 
the old prices. 

1. Captain — ^James Anderson. 
1. Capt: Lieut: — @ 11. S. a day. 
1. First Lieut : '' 10. S. a day. 
1. Second Lieut: " 9. S. " " 
1 Third " 8. S. " " 

12. Gunsmiths good @ 5. S. pr: day — according to their work. 

6. 6unstck;kers " 5. 8. " " " 
24. Blacksmiths " 4. 8. 

1. Striker " 2. 8. 

7. Nailers " 4. 8. 
12. Carpenters " 4. 8. 
12. Sadlers k harness makers " 4. 8. 
10. Wheelwrights " 4. 8. 
24. Shoemakers *' 3. S. pr: day. 
24. Taylors " 3. S. " " 

132, in the total — There may be one or two more trades, not now thought 
of, which may be hereafter included. 

Mr. Anderson depends for a further allowance (in addition to his pres- 
ent pay) upon the advantages which in the course of a year the govern- 
ment finds to result from the Establishment. 

This circumstance is in our &vour, and will I hope prove a stimulus 
to his exertions — The point of fork will be a good place for an interme- 
diate magazine; it is not as yet safe enough for any extensive design to 
be attempted att. We have therefore thought of fixing our Artificen 
between New London and the Biver, where provisions can be procured 
with more ease, and the stores readily sent down by water, bemdes the 

a « it 

« u u 

ti u u 

ti u u 

« c( « 



advantagee to be derived from the neighborhood of Mr. Eoss' works. If 1781. 
the government approve, I will take immediate measures for the Execu- August 8th 
tion of the design.'' 

I have honor to be 

Tour Excellency's mo : obt Servt. 

Major Alsxd. Dick to Gov: Nelson. 

August 8th 

He is ordered by Col : Dabney to this place of Eendezvous, and finds Frederic'sb'g 
a number of six months men unfit for any military duty, and who would 
be a disgrace to the Country. Genl: Weedon thinks if four of them are 
allowed to procure "a Soldier for the War" the regiments may be filled 
up. Concludes, "It is my wish to command men, with whom I could 

storm , Portsmouth if Ordered — I hope to march with the first 

Battalion by the first of next month, when if you will permit me to go 
on the South Side of James Elver, I think with Colo. Parker's assist- 
ance, I shall scour Princess Ann & Norfolk Counties & not allow them 
to put their noses out of Portsmouth." 

Capt: Hsnry Young to Col: Daviss. 

August 8th 

Enclosing Col: James account, with enquiry as to its payment — Capt: Richmond 
Eoane desires him to inform Col: Davies ''that the Enemy have not left a 
single eighteen pounder in the State " — He is about to have the carriages 
for the boats built. 

'^At a Court martial held in Accomack August 8th 1781 for the Trial August 8th 
of The Eev: John Lyon, on a charge Exhibited against him by Collo. AocomacCo. 
John Mapp, setting forth " that the said John Lyon had given aid and 
comfort to the Enemy in the late Invasion, by serving them with pro- 
visions, giving intelligence and by voluntarily going on board a British 
Barge commanded by "a certain Eobertson &c, and that he was an 
enemy to the Independence of the United States, &c, testimony was duly 
taken upon said charges, by the Court, composed as follows 

Coll: John Cropper President. 
Coll: Wm. Parramore Capt: Eobt. Coleburn 

Maj Henry Custis " Wm. Snead 

Capts: Wm. Polk " Zorobabel Eodgers 

" John Custis " Alex : Stokely 

Lieut: John Dix — Thos Burton, Ensign 

Thos: Lillarton, Ensign Benj: Peck '' 

George Corbin Esquire, Judge Advocate. 



P)0^ (1rXZJ[^^.\^ %9 ^xT3L 7Jt21SSk 

X»Tsp^'1^ ^'AP^ Tflwir^** WAiwr4.f la Tjt. 2«v7 51 m •^^~b9»hi. 

♦V¥V« fe*^ 'N^ fiEf4^iM«n% /»i«i%4 w ♦%r3f* «:km( j-mw: ia 3F<7T«Hab«r fi>l- 
¥mfff^ nt llM fMivt4/if^ /^ f /'iTt WMhto^fWEi vm ^ak^& pvaoacr and 

ntfHffif^ ffi th^ 7'ffifif^yM iAf^.r Knrt kM a-!^*r rs^rd pAj. cirAhiAg or moj 
/^f^f p*ff^f9mfm f/f wh^.h ^WW^^T^ ai^ 4»tHI«i4 U>. Ia jMidhioo to this. 
wh^f^ ^Itpi^f^ h^ UM fm ffhiir^ <;<KMtA ext^nffimg tht ekything on his 
^'1r, }tt^ff4ffii( H ^^fh'Mm'Mt^Uf wm^mui f4 speeie; and has saeiifieed his 
pnii^fhmff 9h itf^ f^^rrrt^A //f hi» O/aniry — Licmteiuuits Finncj', Pendle- 
Oftt k tUi^tuum f4 ihn fmmn f'^fmm%tt^ wert cmptored at the same time 
Uh'V^ HffpU*f^i uttfi f<Kj^r«^J full relief ftrt* their losses — ^He therefi>re now 
hhn^n Ui h¥i n\\ffi(n¥\ r^ritinerati'/fi tor bis Umte^^ having doe regard to the 
iip^fth4'^HiUfU tff ibe f'urrfm4^f ti{K/ri the same footing on which those 
iimiiimmn Wfffe Itidtilge^l Ae« 

AdMHNilHh CJAirr; lUitfSftT PottTSftyixLD TO Gov: Nelson. 

K)^hmHf«rf Hspl.f Kmntsll of tho Va. Lino and himself have just arrived: are 
(mt'tilml pHMotmrs IVf»m ( Hiarloston, entirely without money, and desire 
InftffnmMifn »«« in how (hoy can obtain relief 

C'ttpl,: PnH.i*i*fl«lfl pontlnuoB "I beg leave to mention to your Excel- 
lnMi»y ft ilf»bt of Iblny Qttinens, l>orrowod by my late brother Lt: Colo. 
h)K.ot*(ti^li| of fiotni ttawden^ which, as well as all other debts contracted 
\sy bim, t buve mucti^ mysf^lf answerable for. But in a particular man- 
Wf" ti> ibHi (^t^nilemnn, whoso great degree of humanity & Politeness to 
my !^»*nfboii* Mu\ othetn, while III, not only claims every exertion in my 
|><uvi*v io H>m|ily wit h my j>romlse for the payment of the above debt, 
Wnt iW\M\^ \\\^ I^H^nt<shlp of every gooii man.*' Tie therefore requests 
fbsi Mv. Mlmons the mereht in i^harleston who supplied the offiooiB, be 
lnsi\i\oioi< "1o \M^^r that debt to his liordsbip out of the Tobacco sent by 

V^Hik Af i^l^fft AtVev iviV»n'fhg t^ \h^ ntioeti^itivy of oommunioation, by the mitear 
Y^h^ SYid ftv<)nent inter(>e|>tio^ of Letters. addi%, *' The idtnatloB of ay 
hitle vV>rfw at t^is f^liiee M prssenv ii^ lTM)y deplamUe; deAataoAs cf 


litUe or no proiisioBS i k a»e ikreie iM>ntL$ ]MkS<s ftM^ 4^^^ ^Tie ikKiWi- A<^IS«a Mi 

sii{^>iMB of ckicLia^ 4 |«vfrisk»is jli>^ obtju«^4. 1 «kUi ^vm^um^ llii;j& l\^ — 

G«iil: Cfatfk for sack a leB^rtli of uhmv. ikM p^iMK^ i$ »hMi«\^ ;M Mi 
end — IB abort Sir, ibe Serrice must K^ pBiBl^) and 4ijci^^!;tv«MM^ U^ Miy 
maa of Senabihtj^ 4ic. 

Xajob Joh3i PftrMt i>» 1\>l: I>AT1«^ Al||tW4Mll 

In TOgmrd to tbe ^Hotm AcooQtnMiieiili^ ju«l bitit^ bI WiiK4M«4i^r: HmmI ^)wi^ 
of wbidi be bms inibimed Ool: WbiUv by onW of 1)^1: We^^lon. ^^|^^ 

He had requested Oapt: Bobmnnan to af^Mut wmie ob^ at W«»tliam ;^ii|t 
to receive tbe damaged arms WBt op fW^m tbe ani\T« IKhix timi^ to t4m«s 
thence to be carried by irater to Irnne^e ittoi>\ tbu« nivin^ ^t.b<^ an^aa* 
ing troable of Waggonage*' — **Ono King'* at that place had »<>nt back 
to tbe Army all tbeee arms — It is thor^foro highly n^vcaisary that »ome 
person should be appointed to i>»c<iTe the arms at Westham fi>r the 
reason above mentioned — The Manjuis is very urgent to be Aimisbed 
with as many arms as poasible* 

Arm chests are very mocb needed, to prevent the damage done upon 
the dischai^ of Militia, by throwing their guns loose into Wagons — 
This however is "a Continental look-out** — Innes is not in camp^ nor 
can we hear anything of him. 

B. Abchbr to thb Govbbnob. AuguiiM 

"Honorable Sir, 

The exposed situation of my family, together with the Rlclimon«l 
great distance I live fVom the Seat of Government, are roasons why I 
cannot, with justice to the publick, or convenience to myself, any longer 
continue to at the Board of Auditors. I therefore wish your KxtH>llency 
to consider me as having now resigned my Appointment as a member 

I have the honor to be with much esteem &a" 

Capt: D. Baqsdalx to Col: Daviis (Private). August 9Ui 

"Dear Colo., 

I am ililly satisfied of tbe truth of your obsorvation respoot- Oumbitrlsnd 
ing the confusion Prevailing among our Publick affairs, and the cause ^" ^* ''* 
iVom whence it arises. 

This Evil I am afraid is creaping in the line of our Army, that is, that 
part which is employed in this State — You say only 4 Boats are to be 


1781. Hent down — This order came to band too late, for Ten had been sent, and 
Augunt iHh the other Eight would have set out in one hour after the rec't of yours, 
ha^J not that Prevented it. Just as I had set out from Richmond, Mr. 
Washington came afler me with the Inclosed note,* w'ch I own to jou 
surfirisefi me much. However as I conceived such employment out of the 
line of my Duty, I thought such a requisition could not be made by the 
Commg: Genl: without absolute necessity; and on that acct, I deter- 
mine<i to give every aid in my Power towards Expediting the Transpor- 
tation of the Boats Ac" * ♦ * * 
*^ These Orders were directed to me, but as I was entirely Ignorant of 
the mode and manner of Impressing not having been Honoured with so 
agreeable an appointment before, I cut the Direction off k Intended 
directing it to some one whose mind had already been reconeil'd to the 
Distresses of his country, for instance one of the Quarter Masters — &c.*' 

I am w'th respect 

your De'r Friend." 

Augiift9th Capt: a. Bohannan to Col: Wm. Davies. 

"Dr. Colo., 

Fauquier I have this moment retum'd from Leesburg — the stores that 

0. H. were there k at Noland's Ferry are now on their way to this place: it 
was with the greatest difficulty, that I cou'd procure — waggons in the 
neighborhood of Leesburg for the Transportation of them ; in short I 
cou'd not have done it, had I not promis'd to pay them when they arrived 
at this place k discharge them, it is useless to pretend to impress wag- 
gons in this part of the Country, as you will seldom see a waggon on 
any plantation but what either wants a wheel or Geer. the Inhabitants 
say they are willing to work for the public, provided they cou'd get paid 
for their Services, they are willing to take what the Q. M. Grenl: allows, 
tho' it shu'd be less than they cou*d got from private persons." * 

« 4c 4t 4c 3|c 

The Commanding Officer of the militia agrees to get wagons if the 
money can bo had to pay the ow.nors; he therefore sends an Express, 
with a request for "Fifteen or Twenty Thousand Pounds" which it will 
cost to remove the Stores — Desires some pay for himself, being without 
a shilling and not having received any money for eighteen months. 

August 9th Kev: Archibald MoEoberts to Col: Davibs. 

Providence, About the middle of the last month Col : Tarleton passed through 
^^' that part of the Country, encamped at his house, and among other 

« Order from Lafayette Signed by 6. A. Washington Aid de Gamp, to obtain by 
impreisment the means of sending the Boats to the Army. 


things carried off five valuable iiegroee> and all his horsos — Ho lofl in 178U 
place of the latter some worn out animals^ one of which ha^ Innni Auguit )Hh 
claimed by the owner and carried away — He i.H>ntond8 ho ha^ a 
right to retain theee horsee to save his crop and do the noi'ossary tUnn 
woi^y bat shall have them registereii as esirays and await the iHinse* 
quences, in as much as he does not think the late Order of the Kxei'Utive 
in Council is legal. He reveres the Laws of his Country but flatters 
himself these horses are as safe in his hands as in their owners — He has 
refused to deliver them to Gapt: Morton, who has done his duty by 
applying for them, and who can satisfy his Excellency & the Council of 
the good standing and patriotism of the writer; and he hopes no censure 
will fall upon that officer — He would not have thus given him tix>uble» 
but finds Capt: Morton*s Instructions are fVom him (Col: Davios) and 
he therefore addresses this letter to him. 

Capt: John Pstton to Col: Wm. Daviks. Augu«i 10th 

Sends Betum of Issues as required — ^Also of ready made clothing on Albemarle 
hand. Has made application to the County Lieutenants for the quota Barraokt 
of clothing required by Act of Assembly, but has only received *<a part 
from the Co. of Fauquier" — ^Begrets to find those officers so negligent of 
their duties — ^He has not as yet, been able to employ any ** Artificers 
from the Country", notwithstanding he has ridden through several 
Counties and used every exertion for this purpose-— The trademon 
beleiving '^he enemy will soon leave the State, will not engage on aoct. 
of an exemption from military duty" and say the pay and credit of the 
State is so uncertain that they will not work for it — Those discharged 
and those left still at work are clamorous for their pay, not having roc'd 
a shilling for work done, or as soldiers since they enlisted — Bogs for the 
means of paying them off, as they are seriously suffering — He has 
written Mr. D. Boss for materials for the Soldiers' clothing, but has 
never had a line from him, and unless soon supplied the men will be idle. 
The Articles most wanting, arc coarse linnon, coarse thread & buttons, 
not a coat made having a button on it; Serge, light colored cloth for 
vests, breeches or over-alls — Shoe-makers tools, and linnen for shirts, 
which can be made in the neighborhood, the people constantly applying 
for work of this kind — 

Mr. Dyer has just informed him of the arrival at his Store of several 
hundred Bearskins fVom Peytonsburg, which may do for the Vests and 
over-alls— desires to know which are best for the soldiers ^'breeches or 
over-alls" — The wagon load of leather fVom Bichmond just arrived, but 
he fears it will not make good boots, being badly dressed — He hears the 
Enemy has not yet left the State, and hopes timely notice may always 
be given of their approach so that he may remove his stores. 

fSv- .-f-*^^ci ..^ , ji ^vmv . v:^ 

*<r- •• r~iB|| aCTDU. 

*' •* ' J>##» •'-•»^-# '. *^^- 'J^ :j;uJ .-«l V 4IM# 

^ .-..^^ ;«^«#' jfiMi^^ t«^<Mw«t^ ^0wiimtuf. ^vMmmikxr 

' ■ X'w •-.'>♦ i*-* >lir*»- UkP^ •ArfiffC^M'* I i x^ wj i. •Tt: lit 

^f V .'///.'/f'iV/, ^ ///W <M^ ^^,lm ^^^m4 ^$4Nrm j^^i^ 

iilHi / >/ ^/ HHttmiM^. // Aw^^AA^ ^Mi4 rAHRpp-^i^, I k#ri( tte buMMir to be 

mftn^ *4m4Umi k niry hum : Bern." 

II; ! I :ll!|':|| ll 'Hll liH M<U )III(I»hH| |m iIIMImmmInIi Him HiMa HioroN (Vom the Con- 

lllllllj Mil Mi'HMliMl hI II«h MM«tnmlM»i MM.i«iMlliif( tlioir dolivory at that 

|! U Tln« fllUllhM llHU* mHiloMl hII ih^PHIHuI linuN U. a Mr. Price is in 

\\\W\ \\\\\\\\\y' HH tH tit^llVuMUH Mu« ^lumm'kiHl Hrmn up to tho State, leet 

|\\.\ \\\\m\\\ \\\\\\\\\^ ks^ \\\\y \\\\\{\\\)^S\\^\ NlWY(«H^ Iml i^ Hoi^rmtiug them, 

m\ \\\\\ HA\^ ^^V^M^ ^^^^^^^ H^V «MA A^l «Mi ^^^li^l> 


W^^5RW^ ^A^t*i«5. ij^l 

1 ijpMii till TTi tm - iwm%n w k \ »- «iw^-^ii<f ^ ^»^>*^ <^w^ ^ ^(^.-"^MbriKH '^M 

•it. *%!•«*. -^#rt«- -^ih w*^>«^ "^i*r- 

SUA jiv3iiiancKft r9 *iH«B m-**- i*-*»l«^ tilin^ ^ >naHi^ *-h, ^^k*^ 
wrf?E:*,/3iiiir Tiirlisar ii oi' '!> lit* %Uu Hi. <» -ji*M%>» ^^.*^«^^f ^f. 

£ tatt OAA' UHi 3t «-CMir^ IIMnm *9 (SMV • ttti >S^«xv *^ V -Hi}< ^S«*|; 4t 

izScnoi iiimii "lliim ' lii !3^*«in. ^u^Mmi ^siit- ^<tM ^n^: ^ ,^^v«^ «M«kK* k 


j^<r Mfr tttK ilnpt aiButviL wn^.* tMiSkiiii^ni Hi *^u. i4d<>^ ^^* i^\ y<i.^^v 

of -Silt wmeBaKh'txtmi^ mA ilr )brm^ t?^tr|^NNPK» ^KtU: ^nn^t^s ^f^m^ 

Ium% Wimmrtm m> Om. Vii tiSKXtM^ V'^^^h^ HNv 

-I ^ajbi- nh» 'i^wiflmuspt r» ndOsmi jtvtn ^Ik^ s^<«^ mJliii ^f^xHi^Vif. lKli> ^N% Vnhh 

will 5tarTv ia tW owne ^ a ifirw ^x 4k «^^ >i(^i^^'#^ ^xv^ >^V<t| WJ^"^ V^ 
hand — I have inR^naMii k«^ Rxv<i^tW«i(k\r iki^ ^isHV>v l^wj^^ ^ v^^W *v^V^ 
MS Comj ABT M^irer 4 iv^»(«i !9«mm<^ |«iNr«ii<4^ «iiM\x W >m^I Hh ^k^^ ^y 

I am Sr, TT>iir t^mjt HM« S^roMit^ 

^1^ a^LBNDAft OP WaTR PAPEaa 

f»v'r*»Ir«, A'*/=''>«in»m<f for ^hA -ftrjrw* in r»iii p#vw«^mion — thi^Ae item Bed&rri 
AIKrtmflnF?#i jurfivM. an#1 K#», hftn 2»ll '^nlli^rf^vl ^xc^Dt thft '^nvaii ftnm Point «if Fork. 
Tho, t^fivn\ry a^'^'vjt rmn*»m»i •»:rp*!**t«vl from N'olanii'^ Ferrv have aoc*Tom€. 
.^•»Sfl^«»aitJi \\^ Important"/* '>f heinsf ftimi»hrtrt with % ^niBcieiic aamb«r of 
^»jfr^« rtrt ^'»|>f ; P*»rytAn .«. trt '^airy off hin .^Ojr«*« in '^auie oi che Ene- 
my' 4 3|^r<vft^h, » th^ K«iv<^ not yet. I«rtl the 5*tat-ft. 

ff#ir l^tfh^Mt Ufii h«»< ''li^/'bftfjifM th#% militia, or«JftTed to the 5k»nih, in m mach as 
f.h/*^^ fr/'»m fhA Adjji/'4vnt ^>>fintie« ha^e bt>en: bnt ordered them to hold 
fh^m^^l^A^ »r» r^.ft/linA4» t/# marr^h at a moment'if warning. The wagon 
f^(nirA/I hw ^K-^^n ^I^liver^d to the f/ept: C/, Manter in Amherst Capt: 
('hn^: Hn^n^U, ^rrit aH th^ clothing han not been received — ^Thanka him 
for ih^ /'v/mpfifriATit fr^id i// the militia rA^ Bedford, and aasorefl him if 
ih^ ViUMt^y (i^ar tMiki^ it ne/'^ewiary, they will entitle themselvea to credit. 
Tbo /il//fJ»f?« /^/fllwit*?/! Are 8ft Mhirtu — 14 over-alln — 40 Hatts — 82 pair 
^4H'k\u$t,f^ — i2 pr: HhtHm — Due Mtill 9 Shirtfl 3 pr: oTer-alls, 7. Hatts — 12 
pr, HUft'.U\nf^f^, fi pr: Mhf/^^ff. 

Affiett'ii ifhh Mtrn. M. Hriii;* to . 

Iturt'ttnf Mr MoiiUmll wnU^ on you, to inform you of my situation, with 

rim\im^i to f'otir Itormw now In my pOKSoHsion, & to take your directions 
i'i»fi|MM>tlnK Miern— 

An I htivn ImIimmUhI on your loisuro, Hir, pomiit mo to engage your 
iiHiMitlon n llMln Irnigor. I am groutly injured; to you I beg leave to 
ii|i|ily, \hv Hn op|iortniii(y of lining rodrcHHod. this claim I surely have 
li rl^lit (t) iniik«« lis n IVnniilo, iis tho paront of eight children, as a virtuous 
I'HIsoii, as a fVlond to my C'Ountry, A lis a person, who never violated 
I hi» laws nf hor i 'ouniry, olthcr by mistake, or intentionally. No person 
Willi prltH*iplos III* li(inoi\ or any other virtue that can grace humane 
imhnv« will eunt radict my assertloii. I am told that I have some enemys 
b*l\. if I have, I know them woU «or am 1 known by them, no person 
who knows me can be my enemy, for I am at K>ast an inoffensive per- 
son. I wish not III to the meanest ort^aturo on earth, if I were con- 
vhieed t hat \-xMir ear had lHH>n abusetl with respect to me, I would imme- 
diately wait on j^rni * f>i\tivinee yon, that I am as inocent of the charges 

« Xh^ <ea^ saH f<i>*l<» ef ihU iMitt in^tiKW the opinion, it wai nddrasMd to Gov: 
N^li^n y sIthiMigh ih^ Msrqtiifi do tis Psy^tt^ w*s in command of the Army in the 
T\t!Ui «nd Mill in thlR neighborho«>d. 


m&de against me, as yon are yourself — ^I owe too much to tny houor to 17$1. 
betray my Couutiy. ]So person breaths wbosie ropuuiiou is doaror to August 10th 
them than mine is to me. You have boon so good Sir, as to assure me, 
it would give you the great<?st ploasure to grant mo a flag — 1 ho]V it is 
now convenient ; I have lost 49 of my people, 3 tine Horses & two fine 
Ferry Boat&, all of which Lord Oomwailis promise^i me should be 
returned me. Other people have had flags granted them; the l^ron 
assured me I should have one, whenever the enemy were inclined to 
deliver me my people. 

I flatter myself you will excuse my being thus troublesome. 1 hear 
repeatedly of the death of my people, some who wisheii much to iv*tum; 
others are gone to New Yoric — if I do not recover my people, my family 
arc ruined, and this, worthy Sir, you have the i>ower of preventing. 
Shall it be said, because I am a stranger in the Country, that I am not 
to have justice in any line. I have sent my Soldier, who had Id^t his 
life in the Service of my Country — I have paid my taxes A have not 
been Personally, or Virtually represented. My property is taken ftx>m 
me & I have no redress. 

I have the honor to be Sir, 

your most obedient humble Servant.** 

Colo John Montqomebt to thi Governor or Virginia. August toth 


I had the honor of addressing a Letter to Govr Jefferson, dated Falls of Ohio 
from New Orleans January 8th 1781, to which I bog leave to refer you: 
Since when, after a dangerous & disagreeable voyage up the Mississippi, 
I arrived at Fort Jefferson on the Ist of May last, when 1 found the 
Troops in a very low and Starving Condition, nor was there any goods 
or any Property wherewith to purchase. From the IllinoiH nothing 
could be expected, the credit of the State being long siuco lost thorn k 
no supplies coming from this place, occasioned an Evacuation of that 
Post, which for want of Provisions, took place on the 8th Juno last. 

Since my arrival here, I find things in the same Condition — not a 
mouthful for the Troops to eat, nor money to purchase it with, A' I have 
just reason to believe the credit of Government is wore threa<ibaro hero 
also — The Counties of Lincoln Sc Fayette particularly, tho' abl« to sup- 
ply us, refuse granting any relief without the cash to purchase with on 
the spot. — I am constrained to Billet the Troops thro' the Country In 
small parties, for want of necessaries, except a small Guard I keep in 
Garrison, so that unless supplies soon arrive, I fear the (consequences will 
be fatal. 

I am sorry to hear, since my Iteturn that sundry malicious aspersions 
have been ma^le to my discredit; but as 1 am conscious of the fiecUtude 
of my own conduct. I despise the Efforts of such k only beg leave to 

40 i 


17^L rfyqueMSt your Exoelk^cj would eiiLer order me to Gavemmciit far an 
Ai^uBi lOdb £xjaaixiii>UoiJL or elbe nfjpoiiit ii ^^ulikbk number of ref^peeuble &eziljfr» 
m^u iii tlji*» CoactxT to ixjreiaig&te mj. ooDduct, bo tbit such ME^er^oat 
thidl WA Lsve further weigiii with mv Country. 

I Lave been in Louriy exp^/tAtion of Genl: Clark, sinee my Arxtrml 
Lere else would iiave the Honor to address your Excellency before, but 
my appreheoMoniJire now reiJh' L»€Hx/me great, seeing no reinlbrcemefitt 
nor suppliett; especially a» I learu from Dr. Troit that they are reiy 
Strong k Prepairing against ua — The Enclosed copy of a 0eposrtioti 
will explain the matter more fully — I have only iurther to request your 
Ex<>elleucy would be pleaaed to give me a^ speedy an answer as possible, 
with full Inatructions how to proceed, a« I am at the greatest Loas under 
my present diistress'd circumstances. 

I have the Honor to be, 

your ExceUency's mo: obedt Hb Servt- 

DepomtUm referrtd to ahcet^ 

James Ballinger, Soldr in Colo Slaughters Corps, taken prisoner on 
the 9th March 1781, by the Tawa Indians, 

Deposeth, and aaith, that on the Day above mentioned, he was taken 
prisoner by the Tawa Indians at the &11 of Ohio and carried to Detroit 
and Examined by the Commandr Major DePastor, respecting this place, 
to which he the deponent Reply 'd that there were at the Falls of the 
Ohio about 100 Regulars and plenty of Provisions k Volunteers enough 
might be BLad in the Country in case of an Invasion. The Deponant 
saith he was frequently without the Stockades that include the principal 
part of the town, but was not suffered to go within the Fort, but was 
often around it and Saw the outside h Saith it appeared to be very 
Strong, that all the men Prisoners, or Captives taken from us were 
Obliged to work hard to stockade a greater part of the town h that the 
Commat interrogated him Concerning an Expedition expected against 
Detroit — and who was to Command it, k when Col: Clark went to 
Govern mt, to which the Deponant replied that he Expected an Expedi- 
tion k that Col : Clark should have the Command k that he went to 
Govemnt Last Fall. 

Ho Airther saith that sundry of the Prisoners inform'd him that an 
Expedition would have been Carried on by the British against Ken- 
tucky, had it not been that the Enemy expected Colo Clark in their 
own Country — and further saith that all the Indian warriours are 
liberally Rewarded for every trip thoy make against us — k that all the 
SquawH k Children receive plenty of clothing from them k Rations, 
when at Detroit — k that almost every one whom he convers'd with 
while at Detroit and with the Indians, expected that if Colonel Clarke 
did not apear in their Country soon, that very formidable army of Bng- 
lihh k Indians would come Quickly into ours, and that every Prepara- 
tion was making for that purpose k fhrther sayeth not." 


"The said Ballinger made his escape from the Tawas, after being at 1781. 
Detroit, and made Oath as above, this 6th of Augt 1781, before mo. Auguit 10th 


By an Express from Capt : John Baylie, from Port St Vincent we are 
assured that the Natchez is in the hands of the Enemy, and been taken 
by stratagem. Governor (xalvas was Bet back from Peneecrola with 
Loss, he himself was wounded in two Differt places of bin Body at 
the time Natchez was taken, there was a large convoy of Batteauxs 
Bound for the lUinois, that fell into the Enemies Hands, which is a great 
Loss to Illinois, as their whole dependance was on these Boats. — the«5 
with the indifferent Situation we are now in at this time I leave your 
Excellency to Judge. 
Should we get no Succour k that 5)oon what the consequences must be — 
I am Your Excellency's most Obedt 

Hble Servt 

JNO: MONTGKY Lt: Col/#," 

Colo. Jobs Mostooxikt to Gotsesok Nnjiosr or Va. Aa^pmd Wk 


As i need not be making §o many Re^thlowi of oar HufTrgji saA F«Ib«f OW« 
Greivances k ca^ whi^^h I have wrote to yoar Exceilnrn^ry in my L^tUrn, 
I hare tlioiigfat it ab«ofitte{y n<ceMary to ien^J somit one u» G^/v«nkaM«t 
that was well acquaintai wfth oqt Sttuation. AfUr M«Mr iMtifMrrmtioft, 
together with the vowca o( th<r 01B/xt% PnuKuC w« art f^ ofitki/m thai 
major Thosu Quirk wa« th« Prop^tn^K Perwtt to Efr«^ rL from Km kaowi^ 

edge of the snee rte l:«^c BaMft*i lu b^/w spxa^ o© thnt^ y^*f* 

hare Drawn ■« pay in t^»« paru. aor <i«lj «^ar»:«r OxKIaj? C'yr tlwt 
Troops, whieh » the Eeaii«*'>«. ^.-^ m^uLj <4 dwt B«»< of ^f^r AMra '^wrr^Ja^ 
erery day. and 'd th«»« iA s*.- 3i*^tii/>£ JkLica orpMb t// pKt a tc/^r co .t. I # 

know not what wiH he •«* *n«««»t*ix«i#*it — dbi^*^ » iw> K«triik.«i»K w »r».^- 

of the <aa fe«t *xpiWi>:d \ajKr^'»x^, '.i tiu% ^Mtu^va. Hyfjikid %fA K^ta^ 

some by w»t o^ For: F-s. -»■* «li.: -•► '.i a ^E^v^nAiit WraiaOit^jtk. 

If there w»» a ^jimgkACj^-j \i vmiriar aA.T «V4iJ:Juage: %%m/^ ^.^/^ 
woaki ke a T^try fi F4n«;a. v. jEaCiTuic. i/'X ".ai^ 'Jur Oy^aiUk j^ \^. 'uut 
pay of the UttscmL \^ -£ j'jc ZxtJulAtu^ naiAdr ^mf^r v» vttkt j; ".nr. f 
would aoc taJce n^w. atj^eiff v. jrA:At: '.ne v« yvur &fj;Mr /ffigesn- ^ ^«ta 

our nr^pest t4iMfw 3i«t v. /^« li.'Tjif*:? ui liuc i^^c *jua I vviuc i«i- 

aad for the Scmkiw- i*in>T» ^>a — vi^'-'V ^^ i^"*^ 7 vuf £x*jid'/ 
as ttcc't of ajty -^^ji2rr%af»:<»i» '.dstc nii/dr. m^fmi tc ':ku» f'viR^ — ^ rWa 
I re£er — I aat T4«r Zxtied.*7'<t juiac; vac 



FLjlkdeipbJft I Laid the honor Xo -^rnXe Uj you on the l€th InstADl. iDcloping a 

r;-ertified copy of the Accjouiit of vour State a» it j^taods in the Treasury 
Booki$ of the Uniu^d States. I now praj leave to recall TOur atteDtion 
Uj it. It givefK me reiy great pain u> learn that there is a pemlcioiiB 
Idea prevalent among some of the States that their acoounts are not to 
f>e adjusted with the Continent. Such an Idea cannot fail to spread 
lii^tlf^Hs Languor over all our operations. To ^oppose this expensive war 
carj be carried on without joint and Ftrenuous Efforts, is beneath the 
Wisdom of those who are called to the high offices of Legislation. Those 
who inculcate maxims which tend to relax these Efforts most certainly 
injure the common cause, whatever may be the motives which Inspire 
their conduct. If once an opinion is admitted, that those States who do 
least and charge most, will derive the greatest benefit, and endure the 
smallest Evils, your Excellency will perceive that shameless inactivity 
must take the place of that noble Emulation which ought to pervade 
and animate the whole Union. It is my particular duty Sir, while I 
remind my fellow citizens of these Tasks, which it is incumbent on them 
to perform, to remove if I can, every Impediment which lies in the way, 
or which may have been raised by Disaffection, self-interest, or mistake. 
I take therefore this early opportunity to assure you that all the accounts 
of the several States with the United States shall be speedily liquidated, 
if I can possibly effect it, and my Efforts for that purpose shall be unceas- 
ing — I make this assurance in the most solemn manner, and I intreat that 
the consequences of a contrary assertion may be most seriously weighed 
and considered, before it is made or believed — 

These accounts naturally divide themselves into two considerable 
branches, viz, those which are previous and those which are subsequent 
to the Resolutions of Congress of the 18th March 1780. The former must 
be adjusted as soon as proper officers can be found and appointed for the 
purpose, and proper principles Established, so as that they may be liqui- 
* dated in an equitable manner. I say in an equitable manner, for I am 
determined that Justice shall be the Rule of my conduct as far as the 
Measure of Abilities, which the Almighty has been pleased to bestow 
shall enable me to distinguish between Right and Wrong. 

I shall never permit a doubt, that the States will do what is right; 
Neither will I ever believe that any one of them can expect to derive 
advantage from doing what is wrong. It is by being just to Individuals, 
to each other, to the Union, to all : by generous grants of solid Revenue, 
and by adopting energetic methods to collect the Revenue; and not by 
Complainings, Vauntings or Recriminations, that these States must 

*This letter is dated July 25tb, 1781, but the poetflcript doubtless Usee the time 
about which it was received in Virginia and acted upon. 


expect GO dscabliiiiL their Duiependence and rifie ino^ pAW^^r. CAnm^ivm^!^ 17^. 
:iaii GrmniJBnr I ^emk co jour Exnellency with Prp«viofii, b#v*au«« it in Aiiflp)#t l^>i 
1x17 <iiiiy « to ^»peaiic and becaose I am ru>avinc^ Chat the lanqiid!^ ^ 
pLiin. i^ncttrity l» the only proper langnnge to the tlnvt 3fa«(i^r»t^ of it 
tz«e Gimmimity. 

The Jii2Cfmnt» I ha^B mentioned as .^nhneqnent U\ the R*>iaf«)liit«onM of 
tehe I^^th March I7S0. admit of an immediate settlement. The -fererr^l 
Status hare ail die aeecesBar^ matertalii. One -fide of '^»r(^(^nr^t ''on- 
•fiusts <]f <irananda made hy B^aointinnn of Conc^reMt Ienc( -iin#'e tbtrrtrtlffd^ - 
the otiuar mnsr < faunae 'if che Compiiam^esi wirb the^ie '(eman/U — Thiw^ 
latSfflr part U am nor In <^spacity xja -tcate. and tor tliat Rtf^suw^n f vm to 
nquest die -aariiea^ Ih^rxnation ^^ich tiie nature of r.hini^ -rfll permit. 
of the mcmiesu .'^nppiiea. Tnuuportati/)n ^ ^bi/*e have been paid. 
aAnramnsd. or rWrnahBd bnr ronr rotate, in Order tliat f mav Invntr ^>i^ to 
-y^Y on. and now :o io ^iqiiai Joacif^ co 'ihtfiMe -rbo bar^ •^timtHWrrferl ;Myd 
dune ^ftiD bare* avt: to diaae '▼ho baff« <*niftrihntefl ^ one p^rfed ;M»d 
dinae too hara » aiiribitt ed at aaotbcr. 

r i nrion a an acuuaui oc' dkc :l;iwii&e i^nfipliei* t^taanded of ronr -ItaiM^. 
aa •axCTBifted ritfm. dn* J^mznaia of CiHM^riMi. 'b^' vii:H«mt j«iy mefiiikm 
]f Thar 3ia iven iona- .a -cviiaaqmnce >W thene B » j i» tnt *efnii. r > ^i *a w w »»' af» 

a I .sBL 

t© Bcreaa .Sfr. rhas I tuw >e :kvninrf>d .^fH *7^wiieirof rfigr 

mr ^tatft; «raee -Im- liitb of ^iapv^v :7jn<^ :'er iNr 

aau limnfilisniE iOii^iaa or orher^idf*, '.^ 'He- rjnfc#»d 

:n. -viiicl»i"*neti urCa -laire- >i«»en ^sninired' 'K^ '^m^tt 

Mwn - uj i Lj a ai i ' :iir 'hem -a >fi#»f«Ke. uM k^ *Uv^im- 

pBnBOtnh — t naac akm yevf -a nm- nfUnrmmft *if'¥i* ^imefi' 

PrHifle-'.f -ninr ^ita«*. a» :-»laKMi ^^ 'lie affn^ .ummmn^ 

-ofiaccaiMr 'f Taa*«. J :.e^:.»a»e^ -flr ' O i mn v m rnnr Hhreetteaet^. 

•iftMyd <e ammart f * liMie^ - ninea. .UMt , all e H«» 'ilaMi ' ^mm -i^mtM 
TBcthBa-'C ja amnm r : ntnmomx^m. T/* oaii«aCi» >r -r«ti«HHil ymv ;^«(i» ,r 
tiafiriSftca .a.*^«ir ^•isziatiiiti '-aa ammmr ia jfywf MfFtw^ T\^ 
•ettnre • aav -tm - e- .-rnwt. V* -nfipr .liw* ^iPMwr *^a* 

•or imaaaiia -i eth. .;: « ^MM«mr^ Hat -a^ ^n^tffM ■ ^ ^i • .'Vf^^flL 
•jan !» if j iiai' uto ^a<» '^^nr -^^H .ii a* -^'^nrp** *»* ^wi .--rrMw^ /» -t^ ' 


311^ VAhKH^hAh or KTATE PAPEBfc 

^^1 J iiMl ji ti<urcHi|e:i c^uurietiot: tiist we nurr do mueL more iiiaii wir bsvir 
Am(u#*. JMi /«! CiUM:. ikUii wiiL fuMTt «giiii U' (mn»eiv4» iuill W4r iisvir j«t feh. prD- 
rki^xi W4r iMkifn tiMr proper luod^ <3/f litfvvniK' and £xpeDdniire. 

y<iur JSj(<)eUetiev> j^v^ iwutoe. will mitkapBU* nrr CHMcnvticiD am th^ 
$M3fjt:a^iiy ^ Uiiii^ iidonut^d witfst niouMK^ are ii.> jonr Tnaamrr. and 
irLtat iHmi« viru tfM^y^si vo idive ti^tftr at tikto 1i«e timfs br wbitdi liter 
ttiunt prcftttbiy bf ifTtni^lil ill. lit addhicfc U* lli» I moat pncv yon iic» 
«x#iiAiiAUiiH4iW iLtr M9ir«ral appropriatioia* — A nuafartiiiie pfMniliar to 
AiiM9rM4i. •r*i^mr^st' ttmx 1 iiftreat vour ExoeUeuiTr to imdertakr one nnirv 
Tank, vrliioij pttficapi^ u^ lar Irofii beinir ti«e least diffieuh. It '» Sir. that 
y<HJ will wrtUc r^sry lulir. a^ vo iIm: amounl of tiie mev^saJ pa^»er Cnrra^ 
4jM* ix^ar ijireulatini^ ifi jour HiJKUr. tlie proliabk- iuereaat or d^ifTfrnw* of 
««^^ ai»d iLe reiip^^y^ rates of iKspmc^atioii. 

UMr'mfc lAOw iteU»d tiMr itereraJ CkmunuaiaBtaOii^ winc^ are moA Ib^s- 
|Mi)iiNkUi^; 1^ IM; iiiU^at <if joor ExoelleiKy'e goodnesK, thax they maj 
tM; iMid4; a« upeedUy as poMttbk, to tk^ fsod lliat 1 maj be earir preparod 
ivlUi Ui<>m; pr^.fpotMlioci« irJbicJb, froa a riew of all C^3tmii«taiie» maj be 
MKwt iilual/ to ^xtiicate u« fron our preaeiDt difteohiee — ^I axa a2w> to 
wUtml ihMi you wUi lAlona fOfe wbeti jour Le^gpelatare is to meet — ^My 
iwaaoo for urnksn^ ihhi reqMketgi k. tliat aa j proponls to be made to ihem 
m^y imivif in mmmboo, for Uieir attefitare deliberalioii — 

I kiM/w U^ai I |pv« you mucb UouUe, but I alao know that it will be 
ylim^ui^ to yon^ bef;aaiie tbe time and the Imbor wfll be expended in the 
mrvUm //f your Country — If 8ir, my foeble, but honest ^forta should 
open to us the ^nmftod of Amerioao gtoty, If we should be enabled to 
look torwmrd to a period, when supported hf Solid Revenue and Beeource, 
this wmr should b*re no other duration than the wisdom of Congress 
mitg^i lUUpwi and when ita object should be the honour, and not the 
Indi^lAenden^; of our Country. If with these &ir Tiews, the States 
should be roused, exeited, animated in the pursuit, and unitedly deter- 
mining Ui be in thi^i bappy situation, find themselves placed there by 
the very determination: If Sir, those things should happen, and what 
is mors, if they should liappen soon: The Reflection that your Industry 
has principallv contributed to effect them, would bo the rich Reward of 
your Toils, and give to your best foeliiigH that amplest* gratification. 

I have the honor to bo 

Your Bxcellenoy's 

most obedient 

& humble Servant." 


OAen of Finance lOth AugUi»t» 17$L 17^. 

"'Sir. AugiMt lOll^ 

Havixi^ some Beasoa to believe that the Letter of which the albre- 

going i» a Copj hai» raidcarned^ I take the Liberty, in the Ab«eace of 

the Saperintendantf to transmit thi^ :i« his OiKcial A:$sistant. 

I have the Honor to be very respectfully, 

Toar ExceliencT's most obedient <i 

at « 

humble Servant — 

Hi» Excellencv 

The GoTemor of the State of Virginia. 

Jambs Hats to ths Govi&Mom. Augiul Uth 

Forwarding the Militia Law, and the Proclamations^ ordered to be Charloit^*- 
printed, bat Mr. Beckley being at the Springs^ he has not been able to 
procure other documents to be printed. 

Col: Wm. Davibs to Hon: David Jamison. Aufu«l Uth 

The Officera of the State Garrison Kegiment having ret\ised to aoiH>pt AVar OAo« 
their pay, for certain months in 1780 & 81, on aocount of not being 
allowed for full depreciation of the currency, and altho* the State has 
advanced considerably to them, he submits whether it will not l>e pro|>er 
to apply the money intended for them, to Capt : Bohannan*s pur|H>Ht^ in 
removing military stores &c. 


''The Commissioner of the War Office will bo pleased to aot in this 

matter, as he shall think proper. 


John Bbownb, C. 6bnl: & Comr or Virqa to Gov: Nilson. Auguit lUh 


I have several times informed Col: Davios & Major CMaihorno, the Osmp Now 
necessity of waggons being immediately sent to the Army, or the TiHN)}m ^*"* ^'' 
would suffer, but as yet not a waggon have come to hand, nor do 1 
hear of any on the way, and the difficulty of procuring niual greatly 
increased: from which I foresee the imposHibility of Hulmisting the Army 
any longer, and the blame of course fall on tho ('Ommissarien. in order 
to Extricate myself from tho diHagreeable Hituution that always InHues 
the want of provisions, I must beg leave to resign my a|)pointmont as 
Commissary General & CommiBsioner for this State. 

^^ • .vi-Mr.:-r. i •. li ' ^ T . r:^ * -^-^rliifc. 

!. ^v* '. ^ iT 1^ ■•••»■• • c jt\ i^'i'tu;*. ..ri' r ^ttir. ^ t — j. lie- •_fs*JT4rr 
»>rl.«»i>^<» l-.i*^' ,;i0.»- **«»ri -<t ^. .liiYixb JU-al. wT4i..-n. Jr • xrrat •ttnXiT 'ij 

/,*« Ml*/*' A«Hri« iWV'V .vt ^aii M •mpqiutfli — TT^iht^ m x jvrut •uxancsj of 

I^Ha M^n fUlP^% (Uv ^r^ uut 10.-7^ ';ii nm ±«ftii 3r»i«rj8t]iw alidtevciDisr: 

KK^r^'^ K^tin^ A«v fttt^mi v# Hit Id*! n ''Jute puntit — Btt!C¥ :[ias -"tifus aio«« 

A^n^rt** ^^<» hucarmAM fhuaat A. D. ^^, M— to Col. Datibl 

^f< ^W MA>»w l If A Km f^jt^t*^ thff^g^ » Tf^tTTaat* & pocket of bf^nk anpreM war- 
W»frU ikff4 fifftU, Ail\^ff$i % ii/llA^/i^ f4 luUprm^tifjitk" to <:oahl<r him u> comprehend 
^l!rlT\l^ '^*'*' ^^ ►/^f^ff'Up^l h^ <il^/fiUI do— he iOpfiOneM however, it is inteinied, 
m^lHtMfi fffr^f^f «^»//fil/l ^f^ ^'^t^l in 4//tik6 one, on Mrvere penalty of &iliire, to 
Uu\ffh0m M9^ Unt9'\r*'A an/J iwcmty waf^Hka; but aa they are not directed 
Ut Hftf «|Hi^4al f^f«K/n, alikz/fi^h he ia well aware of the great want of 
irnint\Hfrihi't*fU, U» cMtutfi undertake the biunneM — Had any ^neral 
orfi^r htMih fUfMiUi^l Ut Major Claiborne, aa Deputy Q. Master for the 
^*itui\ui^ui \u flfU«f« or ha/i one m»ijcij from the Marquis de Lafayette, 
m iUiiutu%u*\\u\f, Off\<i4ir in the Htate^ he should have felt guaranteed in 
««nd«>HVoiir)MK Ut iifTv.H M/m<;thing in the way of releif from 'Hhe present 
d)NfM*M4w| Ailimtioi^" doHinm further inHtnictionH, but if required to act 
MiMlfif IIm* vtmMi'iUtUH "ox|in^HM4Mj in the warruntrt" ho cannot, and will 
fiMf llii fftitJM lilrnady, "Mufticiionlly hound to <lo hiH duty"; if not, let 
v^liiif limy I'll hirllinr nocnHMftry, be required of him by his Superiors in 
Olljcit III! Mum " with |)alri" the OfHcerg in his Department treated with 


«aeli eAxrte iv> prooioto th^ inter^dto of the Sukcc> fts w^U ;)h!^ of ^' th< Avii|^uii4 lli^ 
Coadnent'^ — ^Mr. ^^*g^*»*^ refuM» to iAk« other th:ui c;i^ K>r the wheeltk Owtpliiafti s}i 
spoken ol^-th» he ki« not to give. ^SSS vl^ 


Cjlvt: Hismr C^ub to Col: Wm. Davis. A<i^:u»i llih 

A^ my sitiation ia this place ts :m NiaL 1 hope yoa will Rxcui^e me ^«w Lo«^kft 
in taking the hherty to inibrme jou me ami my men » Almoi»t ueackeit ^ 

tor want of ck>thing and this poast with any money which Render it i>aaiAl immI 
more di:9agreeahl# as we cannot pnfchitk But as ^ the men if it is ^^^L!|!![2|!f^ 
agn^eabie to yoa they Can be suplied by Coin. Callaway — 1 can asure you 
they ai« almost neacked and constantly mermenn^ A>r thejrv pn^' as they 
have not rec*d Any this Bight months, as for me I met with Great lot» 
at whear Capt: Bohannan and me Carried on the laboratory below Char* 
lottesTille. Bat I strove to save all the Stores which would Be Alected 
had Dot the barron left the point tork for I got two hundred Barrels 
powder in Caanoes in order to get pertoction Under the barron But he 
was gon — the enemy hearing of me fowled And took all thai but what SIo^m U^t* 
I got hid in the woods. Was all staved which I went back and sent it 
All to the Barracks, but there was two Waggon loa^l of Very Yalliable 
Btores left by me at Buck island Creek, such as bridles, axes« spurs And 
Camp Kittles which came from Fredricksburgh. I beleive if Capt Bohan- 
nan Has not forgot he may have got them — the man's name is I^ovly — 
I hope you will please to Concidcr my situation and Onlor as you think 
best and I am your obU Hum! Servt. 

Col: Chkistian FKBiQia TO Gov: Nelson. Augtwt i:itb 

The Legislature of this State were pleas*d at their last OotolH>r Scs- CumberUnd 
sion, to order four months pay to be advanceil to thoir Officers at the ^'^ ^' "• 
rate of 100 for one, in depreciation. At that time he was in PhiladoU 
phia on necessary public business by orders of Geul: Greene— and 
required to remain there by that Officer — By this means he was deprived 
of a personal application for the money due him, which at that time 
would have afforded him some releif — He wrote to Mi^. Pryor to reooive 
it, and if possible effect an Exchange for Philadelphia — this he could not 
do, and of course he did not suppose the money had been drawn. Ho 
had to resort to other means of subsistence, and on his return was sur- 
prised to receive a letter with the money enclosed, by accepting which 
he loses four hundred per cent of his pay. Ho therefore begs that the 
money may be received into the Treasury and his receipt for it returned, 
or that he may be allowed the amount of the depreciation up to 1st of 



1781. March last. He cannot suppose the Executive are willing that an officer 
August 12th whose duty compelled him to be absent, should on this account suffer so 
materially. Capt: Finley, "a gentleman of merit and Paymaster to this 
Station" waits on his Excellency with an estimate of the Funds neces- 
sary to the Wants of the Post he commands. He therefore begs it may 
be advanced to him, who will be held accountable for its prompt and 
proper disbursement, and with prompt returns thereof to the Auditor's 
Office— Ac. 

August 12th Col: Christian Fkbiqer, to Colo Wm. Davies. 

"Dear Colo, 
Cumberland What in the name of God will become of our paper money in 

a very little time — It certainly must, and will sink in the hands of the 
holders, in a very little Time ; however I have no fears on this head, as 
my Pocketts are pretty empty. I, as well as the poor Devills that are with 
me, must have a little of the Trash, for which purpose I have sent Capt: 
Finley (who is appointed Paymaster pro tempore to the Station) to 
Eichmond, with an Estimate of the sum wantmg, in which you are 
included for Six Months, as well as old Holmer. You can be included 
for more, if you please, and I will be much obliged to you for putting 
Capt : Finley in a Way to getting the Money without rtinning to Camp 
for a Warrant from those that know nothing of our Situation — The 
£9000, voted each Colonel, on account, last October Session, at 100 for 
one, was received for me by Major Pryor, a few days ago, in Bills emit- 
ted under an Act of 1st March last. Am I to lose the depreciation on 
money not in Existance? I have sent it back to the Treasury, with a 
letter to the Governor on the subject preferably untouched. 

I like this place much for a Bendezvous — Flour and Grain is to be 
had within 9 miles at most — there is Beef enough in this little County 
for 300 men for six weeks and I will take steps for a further supply. 

Should not Captain Peyton as Clothier, reside at or near the general 
Eendezvous, and I might know what 1 had to depend on — Bagsdell's 
Company is compleated in men, but naked in the literal sense of the 
word — 

I shall in a few Days, have things so regulated here, that Major Posey, 
who is with me, can with propriety transact the Business of the Poet. 
Provision and Forage is laid in for six weeks, and in a few Days 1*11 have 
much more, and then I propose to take a Trip post haste to Philadelphia, 
to fetch a certain Acquaintance of yours, whose Company I am remark- 
ably fond of — 

is it not absolutely necessary, as we cannot promise supplies for oar 
own Troops in this State, much more for the Southern Army, that some 
active person should allways be stationed in Philadelphia, for the porpoae 


of procuring and sending on stores of all kinds — ^I have had a surfeit of 1781. 
that Business, yett it is necessary. August 12th 

I thought Mr. Nicholson was there, but I am just told he has returned 
into the State — If there is any Business that would neither be attended 
with Expence or Delay (as I propose to stay in the City not more than 
3 or 4 Days, I shall transact it with Chearfulness. — it would be 40 miles 
out of my way to go by Richmond. But should my presence be want- 
ing on any Business of Consequence, before I start, I will call on my 

WQ-rr " ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

* * " 1*11 thank you for some Information on what 

Principle, Johnson of the Ist, Lovely of the 4th, Hoard of the 6th and 
Swearingham of the eight, were appointed Captains, and no notice the 
least was taken of the Resignations of the two Captains Harrison, and 
and by placing Higgins and Stith in my Regt., five of my Subalterns 
are once superceded by Fields and Subject to a Second Supercession by 

I have not the Resolution of Congress respecting a retrospective view 
to Rank, but am almost certain that some mistake has happened with 
Respect to the two Harrisons, as not a word is mentioned about them." 

I am my Dear Colonel yours 

"To his Excellency Thomas Nelson Esquire, Governor, or Cheif Magis- August 12th 
trate of the State of Virginia, and the Honorable the members of the 
Privy Council of the Same." 

"The Petition of the inhabitants of Lunenburg County humbly shew- Lunenburg 
eth, That in a late excursion of Col: Tarleton's Legion through this 
County, many citizens were greatly injured in their property; and com- 
pelled (in order to obtain their personal liberty) to sign such paroles as 
their Captors thought pi*oper to dictate. We know these paroles, by 
Law, are not binding on peacable citizens, thus taken from their own 
homes; But your Petitioners beg leave to represent to your Excellency 
and your Honors, the peculiar case of the Reverend James Craig, rector 
of Cumberland Parish in this County; a person eminently distinguished 
for his zeal & attachment to the cause of American liberty: a rule of 
conduct adopted in the very earliest period, and pertinaciously persisted 
in, through every vicissitude of the present contest: no less esteemed 
for his Charity, devotion, and exemplary piety in his public character, 
than respectable for his virtues in private life; equally alert in engaging 
in every scheme for the welfare of his Country and the success of its 
arms; and successfull in removing dangerous prejudices from the minds 
of the people, by drawing the proper line, and pointing out the true dis- 
tinctions, between resistance of Lawless power & Rebellion. This Geih- 


1781. tlcman, aflcr seeing the cruel vcngeaoce of the enemy, in the deetmc- 
AogiMt 12th tion of a very great part of hi8 property ; and himself treated with indig- 
nity and insult, tho' in a very low and precarious state of health ; Was 
detained as a Prisoner untill he subscribed an engagement ''not to take 
arms, be of Council^ or commit any other act that might militate against 
the success of the British Arms," and all this under a pretence, that in 
addition to his other crimes, -he had at that time a Public Magazine at 
his house. 

Your Petitioners consider it as a public misfortune to be deprived of 
the miniHterial office which has been exercised by Mr. Craig, since the 
declaration of independency, for a very small and precarious reward, no 
way ade<^uate to the trouble & fatigues attending it, but which he can 
now no longer execute in the manner directed by Congress, without 
exposing himself to dangers, from which his Country, in its present vul- 
nerable state, cannot protect him. 

Your Petitioners therefore pray that the Executive will consider how 
far Mr. Craig is bound by these Engagements; and as far as may be con- 
sistent with the Constitution and the Articles of Warr, endeavour to 
have him exchanged — And your Petitioners, as in duty bound will ever 
pray &c. 

D. STOKES Jnr Colo. BD'D BRODNAX L: Collo. 




And ninety two other signatures. 

August 12th Gova Thomas Burkb, to Govr Nblson of Yibqa. 

"Dear Sir, 

Williamibo* I have received your obliging favor of the 27th of last month. 

Or ill ^ thank you for your Congratulations, well knowing that you wish me, 

Co., N. 0. not only a successfully but also an agreeable Administration. Tou have 

however, too Just an Idea of our difficulties, to entertain much hope of 


Tho' I foresaw your difficulties, and anticipated your uneasiness, yet 
I could not but rejoice at your appointment, because I expected from 
thonco an advantage to our Common Country, and I well know that to 
bo an object very Interesting to you. 

Our open, unprepared Countries must every where, yield to the 
ravages of the Enemy for a time, when they move in any force, and 
Cavalry and Ships give them advantages far beyond our power to con- 
trol. I hope however, that in Cavalry, their advantage will not long 
continue, tho' the People with us, are so attached to their horses, for 
which they seem to have a fond affection ; that they are very onwilllng 
to spare thorn, even for their own defence. I shall not suffer so import- 


ant an object in this State, to be frustrated by the foly or parsimony of 1781. 
Individaals. And as I perceive some are preparing to send their horses August 12Ui 
into yoor State to avoid our laying hands on them, I request the favor 
of you to permit me to send and seize any fh>m this State, whioh may 
be carried into yours with that Intention. 

Orders were Issued to the Commissary Greneral of this State, to make 
Provision for the Militia, which you say are to march from yours to Join 
6enl: Greene, but as their rout is not known, the necessary prepara- 
tions cannot be perfected — I request you Sir, to inform me of the rout 
by which you intend they shall march, as early as possible — ^it will be 
requisite in order to prevent distress to them, and also to our Inhabit- 
ants, who have not yet recovered from the ravages of the Enemy, and 
could not supply any considerable body of Troops, without collecting 
contributions from a wide space around them. I have made touch 
arrangements that with sufficient notice, I hope wo shall be able to sup- 
ply such Troops as may March through the State, or act in it, with pro- 
visions, at least so far as the Country can afford, vrithout again suffering 
such abuses, as can scarcely be prevented, when no previous preparation 
is made and which yet cause great waste, and give great disgust — At 
present we want more time than I hope shall hereafler, when our Trans- 
portation business shall be better provided for. 

Among many of our wants, that of flints is not the least distressing— 
I recollect a supply to have been ordered from Congress for this State, 
but cannot find, that they ever arrived. I suppose them lodged some- 
where in Virginia, and must request the favor of you to order Enquiry 
to be made among the departments of your Military Stores — If there be 
none with your Commissaries for our account, I beg to know whether 
.you can supply us with a few thousand, which shall be replaced fVom 
the Northward. I am preparing a force for the Feild, but find scarcely 
one thing, which' an Army requires, in readiness. 

I have ordered Expresses to bo stationed from Taylors Ferry on 
Koanoke to Charlotte, near the Catawba. — from thence a Communica- 
tion is constantly kept up with Genl : Green. I have made an arrange- 
ment for transmitting to him every article of Intelligence without delay, 
and request you to give Orders for communicating what you may deem 
Important as early as possible.'* ♦ » ♦ 

I am Sir, with the most sincere 

Esteem and regard, 

Your very Obd : Servt." 

Major John Prtor, to Col: Daviis. August I2tb 

After dwelling at length upon the difficulty of collecting, accounting Richmond 
for and furnishing arms, and refers especially to the want of cavalry 
accoutrements, and the conflicting operations of the State and Conti- 

,iag CAii^^iSD.ia jF flT^ra ?.k^32a. 

mnm mmKUan li .-sir Utsmmayau, Uiwn -.«* raiiMA't :tie i^Tynmnefr if 

l»#f Mil il^ 1^. C f^. iCi: Thiirm ifir :Ua* iuEUs. I ua ihil^ 'nuvinRMl >tf 
'ius .-M ^jw ity .if -mu^H » yr nwt. juA jvio^. m? Uinmintf. 'iuu jon. mmj 
«^fi ni«iet rith J. 4mtal>lft t^iM^ :hr 'Ut» pnrptfiM^ — £ ^jl ui :ny:^eitf rbis 
nnmir yf jraitini^ in jon n '.b#? normntf. in Hrim*$ iiuiiiefl» irniii die 

Atf^Mt t«i Car*: TfBm- ^jktmiwk m Oil. Vm. Da? 

jinrOfipiii^ 04^ fi«r :|XV4)n ^niftnt <:;» nj^ra ciie «z moniii« m^i MTvatUsd — Many »it' 

***'*•** '^ tli^Yn nax^e aAnuMiy •miMCtsri In i Lmtdon f^dmsd n 'iie County by .ii»utr .if 
cita 3farr|niii-— HisHiy iMMTtent !fCiU as iarsB-. *iome nar^ {feti en d&e tuiitmy 
]ifi#l /idusffi hiKfe tall Che Connty The new Litvie:^, ami -rnhmtuteai iia^e 
itniimi^ tinr nhe ^ar hnt he bn» amerofi them 'ja htt emplayofi in Che 
Uftfpnn. rmtil mtkerwimrt 'liiipfMeri oil 

flis«T7 O. bi m^pad U% ^Ueetim^ enorxy '^stde and hnmiM — Tbers are iniy two 
<lir ChfV)e 0/ Che latter left Ln the Conn^ which '^an be jpitxan^ but are in 
p0mmMnnn nf peranaii whnne fiuniiiea ha^e the Smafl pox. Ebm ^eenred 
mily trmr /»atUe ami chini» there are not many more le^L 

A4np»i€ IMi Jt^' Xona oilbn hv% •tervif^ea an .i^nt of the State, to pmcore ArticLea 
tClng M i^A Roltimore or Philadelphia (Snr the Tmopit having <nu>e aetisd in that 
^•^*^ ^' #*:apaeity and ^ea ^atiathction. 

Aeipiit Mil C^i: JanuM Handriefcii inibrms Col: Dayiea, that it will be impoonble 
AUnmkMm^ to mount the Fonr Beatii he haa had boiit on carriages, with pm^per 
mf9tif!j, thin ^tnrrency having no ^aloe in that vicinity, hot he can *^do 
the biimncsaa'* wtth pohlic Tobacco — The Arme re&rreti to, are being 
r«cetved by Capt: Snmmeia at ^o(and'» Ferry, to be fowanietl to Fan- 
4|Bier Co, Hooae — It Boama ahgeting, Raven « Dnek. Dowiaaa Cheeks kc 
am wanted he can porehaae a large supply on vpnd termA with Tobchceo, 
hot not with paper money. 

lijLiiHsnikB. OP ^CiLM ? vj:»«i» jar 

iiur uiuiir iiiv iiumixva fiMunos- n -atiku ^vm uiik>m oiio^vLn Or our 
TiTTTttu nmosk itiic^ -uro now rwanv ^lsh)MllAM^ — CTuitmsjtfc^ 4^ viaui r^sv^vti 

riiiirxf 4 1 limn ;^.J — l^'^uiurit 41 M?ife>uu :HtAitft.^ :sik lituiuuct^chitij^ 4itu. 
3ii)iti A jivTniibyuk. jIel 


7i;uf«i ir jciittr. iir ^suiir ?t!ctipiiiun . ;ic »]i::^itMit& tai)«iC4 !if m/iM :ift ^U :iltii 

rfi;tfiTPf driOL difiinnc mcTu- it diiu Ciituifirr ic* i^ vttiMUNW««i^ *H^ u&«Mi^ 

Aicty W jft&i^&HL die liuar wiii«t — L vraa :ftwar^ wiir S^^riliro^v N,ftv«» 

expiib.'ifr >: liiti 5GfcSi£. liiAa loe &QfcbiiifaiiMflJ3 .*c Hi T^s^r^iwr :vt!ii «vtiL vvii^ 

be v^kcifxr ^' pp:infjce iu iinwunbiM- aa <ari. 

for enK^izLT aa H^»^njiL I asl nmiir is»> £>> a3^£ xx xHt ;& pcv^ir ifv<Q i^ 
xhMi pcrp>3tfiew whimtTtr jn?a will pMijtf u^ iSftrcKcr »i^ visik vvttr ooiiNi^ 
I kAT>e ihft HooANir to N^. 


1781. Col: Wm. Daviis to the Gtoyernor. 

August 14th In obedience to the Order of Council, I gave notice of the time and 

War OiBce place, to Mr. Brown, the Commiasary of provision, when I should be 
ready to proceed in the enquiry they had directed ; and with a view of 
affording him a full opportunity of vindication, I suggested to him sev- 
eral of the accusations to which he was exposed. I received from him 
an answer, that he had declined to act any longer, and that he desired 
government to appoint a person to succeed him. Whether this evasion 
of scrutiny is a circumstance of innocence, or any atonement for great 
misconduct, is a question easily decided. 

I congratulate my Country, however, upon the riddance, and trust 
that a successor can be found, whose long acquaintance with the army 
and this department in particular, will enable him to do justice to the 

The Commissariate being one of the departments, for the regulation 
of which, the orders of the government are required to be issued thro' 
this office, I hope to meet with the favorable indulgence of the Execu- 
tive, while I take the liberty of stating a few observations for their con- 

From many unavoidable circumstances, the expence of the war has 
fallen very heavy upon this State. Permit me, however, to suggest that 
much expence might have been saved, and many disputes avoided, that 
will infallibly arise in the settlement of the Continental accounts, had a 
more rigid attention been paid to the adoption of the Continental regu- 
lations. Indeed, Congress have some reason on their side, when they 
say to us "we only require from you certain supplies; We have various 
purposes to which we propose to appropriate these supplies, and have 
appointed proper officers, and established a regular system for this pur- 
pose; any interference therefore on your part, will only derange our sys- 
tem, and as, at any rate it is unnecessary, we cannot allow it." 

This Sir, is the language at this day in every Continental officer to the 
northward, and at the adjustment of our accounts, I fear will be urged 
fatally against us. 

To apply this observation to the department of Commissary of pro- 
visions, and to convince Government that we are pursuing totally a 
wrong system, a system very expensive to the State, and liable to great 
dispute in a settlement with Congress, I have taken the liberty to enclose 
the arrangement"^ of Congress on this subject. By that arrangement, 
we find a Commissary Greneral of purchases for the Southern depart- 
ment, is the only proper officer to attend to the supply of the Army; he 
is to make the purchases, he is to give the State credit for her supplies 
of provisions; he is to order it to be transported and delivered to the 

* Not found. 


issuing Commissaries; for these purposes Congress have established a 1781. 
number of assistants; as many as may be necessary for the department. August 14th 

At present however, we have taken this whole business into the hands 
of the State, to the very great expence of government; and not only 
that, but Mr. Brown undertook to appoint issuers, who acted for many 
months, and have not accounted for a particle, and never will — In con- 
versing with Major Forsythe, who is the proper Continental Commissary 
of purchases for the Southern department, and who was many months 
in the State, without being employed, he told me that the credits which 
the State had upon his book, did not amount to a fiftieth part of what 
they had supplied in fact, but that it was furnished in so irregular and 
immethodical manner and so totally out of the Continental Channel of 
business, that he had it not in his power to comprehend them in his 
accounts, and that he doubted whether they would be allowed at all. 
To impress more forcibly here, the consequence of a continuance in this 
deranged system, I beg leave to refer to the inclosed copy of a letter'*' 
from the Superintendant of Finance, with the resolution of Congress, by 
which it is evident that he depends entirely upon the credits which the 
State has upon the books of the Continental treasurer, Commissary gene- 
ral, and quarter master general, for a knowledge of the supplies fhr- 
nished by the State. Utter confusion must inevitably and forever be 
the consequence, when we, by arrangements of our own, raise large 
demands against the Continent, while according to theirs, which of 
right should supersede ours, in Continental matters, and are in fact much 
better, we are largely in their debt — Congress call, from time to time, 
upon the State for what is due upon the various requisitions: the State 
says, she has already contributed more than her proportion r Congress 
appeal to their books and we to ours, and the whole referred to the great 
mass of unadjusted claims. If this confusion was unavoidable ; if there 
were not regular channels to throw this business into, where, from the 
commencement of the transaction to the end of it, the nature of the 
debt and the person of the debtor would not be on both sides acknow- 
ledged, we should then have nothing more before us, but to bear it, as 
our unavoidable misfortune. 

The choice however, of a person well acquainted with the business of 
purchasing, of supplying the army, of arranging the department and 
throwing the business of it into a proper and uniform channel, will be 
productive of immense advantage to the public, and will releive govern- 
ment from a great number of very distressing embarrassments." 
* ♦ * ♦ ♦ 

** I beg leave to represent to the Executive, one thing more, which is 
intimately connected with the due administration of the Staff depart- 
ments of the State. By the law for regulating the war office, the 
quartermaster general is required to make returns of all the articles of 

*l)ot foand. 



1781. forage that is collected by the county commissioners: of course they 

August 14ih must be accountable to him, and subject to his orders ; and yet they are 

appointed entirely by the Commissary of provision, which subjects the 

quarter masters department to some inconvenience — It would be equally 

inconvenient on the Commissary, if the Quarter Master appointed. 

For these reasons, I would submit it, whether it would not be advan- 
tageous, that the Commissioner in each county should be appointed by 
the Executive, and the appointments communicated to them thro' this 
office. If we could once have those two departments brought into the 
regularity of which they are capable, I cannot but persuade myself, that 
afler furnishing our proportion of specifics, and reserving a sufficiency 
for the ordinary purposes of the State, we should find a valuable sur- 
plus of articles to be thrown into the hands of the commercial agent, as 
a fund for the purposes of his important department. I will close with 
one observation, which I think peculiarly interesting to us, altho' it did 
not strike me before; and that is, that by the State undertaking to supply 
• the Marquis' army, by our oum State officers, we actually preclude our- 
selves from any assistance from any other State. By the regulations of 
Congress, a certain number of States to the north of us, are allotted for 
the support of the forces operating in the Southern department. For- 
sythe being the only principal to whom they account, is the only person 
who knows what they have, or who has a right to call on them for 

His business being wholly assumed by Brown in this State, he has 
gone to the Southern army, without leaving even a deputy, as far as I 
can understand. Nobody out of the State, being subject in any manner 
to the call of Brown, we are therefore cut off by arrangements of our 
own, from every species of specific supplies from the adjacent States, as 
there is no person in this State at all authorized either to receive from 
them, or to settle with them. 

I must sincerely beg pardon for detaining the attention of the honor- 
able board so long. I should not have presumed to have done it, had I 
liot been convinced of the great importance of the subject I have ven- 
tured to discuss, and been encouraged by the condescending attention 
with which the Executive have been pleased occasionally to favor me. 
I have the honor to be with the greatest respect 

Your Excellency's most hble Servant," 

Aogufli 14th Jos: JoNEs and Thso. Bland to the Governor. 

" Sir, 

PhilAdelphia We have your favor of the 27th ulto — ^The Delegates moved in 

Congress for a resolution to furnish our State with some passports for 
Vessels to import Salt only from Bermuda, and load with Indian Com 
and flour in return — The motion meeting opposition was committed, and 


no Report is yet made — We shall hasten this business all we can, and 1781. 
use our best endeavours to support it. August 14th 

The allied army, under the command of Genl: Washington continues 
in the neighborhood of Dobb's Ferry, waiting events to commence 
operations agst New York. 

Prom Spain we have advices of a powerfiill armament preparing in 
that Kingdom for a secret expedition, supposed ag'st Minorca, and that 
it would be in action in the course of the last month — 8000 Troops, it is 
said were to be employed on this occasion — The celebrated Necker, being 
disgusted, and applying for his dismission, it was granted him — Whether 
bis retiring from office may affect the credit of the nation, time will dis- 
cover. It is to be lamented that any disagreement at this critical 
conjuncture which calls for vigorous and united efforts, should appear in 
the Councils of our good ally. 

It is with reluctance we request your Excellency to press the Agent 
to send foward supplies for our support — necessity alone could induce us 
again to mention it; but we feel for the honor of the State, as well as for 
ourselves, upon this occasion, and wish to avoid every mode of supply 
that may be disagreeable to either. 

We have the honor to be S'r 

Yr: most obedt Servts." 

MaJob Rich'd Call to Col: Daviis. AugoBt I4th 

He will send at once to Winchester for the Cavalry accoutrements at Cumberland 
that place. His officers have been collecting them from the Volunteers, 
but not with much success, because they refuse to give them up, secrete 
them, and contend they have a right to them — Unless some stringent 
measures be adopted to enforce obedience to orders, they will never be 

Col: E. Edmunds applies to the Governor for a number of Blank Com- AuguBt 14th 
missions for his County, the County Lieutenants and many Militia Offi- Fauquier Co. 
cers having resigned. 

Rob't Walton sends to the Governor a statement of Drafts on the August 16th 
State drawn by Maj : Grenl : Greene, but which were captured by the Prince Sd- 
British ; he informs him, so that their payment may bo stopped &c, ^^'^^ 


1781. Jno: Pierce to the Executive. 

August 16ih The deranged situation of affairs in the Commissary department 

during the present campaign, having oceationed the execution of that 
office so very disagreeable, difficult & troublesome, Mr. John Browne, in 
consequence thereof (& for the many abuses he has received from the 
Army & others) has requested the liberty to resign, & requests that some 
person may be appointed to succeed him immediately, that he may extri- 
cate himself from future troubles & abuses; it being obvious that the 
difficulties in future in supplying the Army will make the Office still 
more disagreeable, unless properly arranged ; but as there is the greatest 
probability of the Army*s Suffering should Mr. Browne's resignation be 
received, I flatter myself that I may be able to prevail on him to con- 
tinue in office could matters be arranged in the following order — 

1st. That a generous price be allowed for all future supplies obtained, 
that the Inhabitants may be encouraged to furnish freely & voluntarily. 

2ndly. That the Commissaries be assisted with every means of Trans- 
portation of supplies obtained; to have the same conveyed to some con- 
venient place of Storage if necessary & from thence to the Army as it 
may be required. 

3rdly. That particular directions be given, in what manner, the Com- 
missioners of the different Counties are to proceed under the last Act of 
Assembly to collect supplies, & that Mr. Browne bo allowed to appoint 
persons to inspect into the conduct of his deputies in the different Conn- 
ties, giving charge of as many to the persons so appointed, as may be 
convenient for them to take charge of — these persons to settle monthly 
with the deputies of those Counties assigned to them, & to make return 
in like manner to Mr. Brown, in order that the Stocks on hand may be 
known at any time he may be called on to report the same. 

4thly. That sufficient sums of money be furnished, when required to 
enable the Commissary to procure necessary assistance, & such supplies 
as cannot otherwise be obtained. 

I am Gents 

Yr: Most Obt Servt." 

Aogost I5th B. E. Henderson, John Eet, H'n Linbsat and James Markr, Mag- 
istrates — to Gov: Nelson. 
Albemarle The Court House of this County has been made use of as a Hos- 

^' pital for near three months past — which has effectually put a stop to the 
business of the Court. 

You must be senceable of the many great inconveniences as well as 
disadvantages attending the Inhabitants of the County, as well tm the 


publiCy by cod tinning the sick in that House; therefore we hope you will 1781. 
be pleased to direct that they be removed to some other Place. August 16tli 

We are senceable we have an undoubted right to Order them immedi* 
ately out of the Court House, but as we would not wish to do any thing 
rashly that might occation disputes between the civil ft military, have 
thought proper to Lay the matter before you — & most earnestly request 
that they may be removed between this and the Second Thursday in 
next month, that being the Day of our next Court. 
We are with due Eespect 
Your Excellency's 

Very Hble Servants.*' 

Thos: Andbrson D. C. Gxnl: to thb Oovbbnob. August 16ih 

In regard to the difficulties of procuring supplies — He was appointed Buckingham 
assistant, under the provision Law for that County by Mr. Browne — ^His 
first duty was to collect the estray cattle and get beef for the use of the 
Post under Capt : Bohannan and the army. He had employed sixteen 
men, exempts from military duty, to drive cattle for him and had gotten 
one hundred from that county and branded them, but the Co. Lieut: . 
Col: Cabell having decided these men should go to the field he is now 
without help, and the cattle will become dispersed over the country, 
unless he is f^imished with money to hire others to help him — There is a 
large quantity of wheat & com on hand in the county, which the people 
will be glad to sell — ^Has written to the Comm: Grenl: frequently on this 
subject, but gets no reply. ' 

Bbbbtman Grbbn a. D. Q. M. to Wm. F. Gains Bsqr. August 16ih 

Has received his Order for all Quarter Masters on the route to G^enl : Richmond 
Greene's army to fhmish fresh horses &c. 

He should be happy to comply with this requisition, but all the horses, 
except those actually in use, are at Carter's Ferry — ^In addition to this 
Major Claiborne requires him to attend solely to the Continental Office, 
and not to the District affairs — By applying at Carter's Ferry he may 
be fVimished. 

Govb Thos: Bubkb to (tovr Nblbon. August 16th 


I received last night, yours of the 10th Inst: with dispatches from State of N. 0, 
Congress enclosed. 

I shall with pleasure keep up the weekly correspondence you wish 
for, and more frequently as occurrences may arise. 



1781. I had early notice of the Enemy's directing their movements towards 

August 16th York River, and formed a conjecture which I do not yet entirely give 
up, that when they have attracted the attention of the collected force 
in Virginia, far to the Northward and Eastward, they will avail them- 
selves of their Water and Cavalry advantages for moving all of their 
forces which they shall not secure in Garrisons in Virginia, across the 
Country to annoy Genl : Greene ; but they must govern themselves by 
events, as well as we. 

Did I not know that private objects when compared with public, make 
but a small figure in the mind, I should bo much concerned for tho posi- 
tion at York, the once happy seat of your Family ; but I know that the 
effect it may have on your Country, is to you a matter of far greater 

I have already thought on the subject of Salt, which you propose to 
my attention, and have been meditating upon several measures for pro- 
curing a supply sufficient for both States and the Army. I clearly see 
that no means will be effectual, but such as may interest private com- 
mercial adventurers in the importation of it : Some ill judged acts of 
government in this State, have contrapy to all good policy, rendered the 
imported property of the merchant precarious, and thereby so depressed 
• the spirit of commerce, that we now feel great distress from want of her 
supplies; and it will require peculiar attention and encouragement to 
revive it to any degree of enterprise equal to our necessities — ^I have 
determined to stretch the hand of Government as powerfully and pru- 
dently as I can, for cherishing and protecting it, and for this purpose 
shall be obliged to dispense with some resolutions of Congress, that 
require the prohibiting the exportation of Provisions, and shall use a 
power with which I am entrusted by the assembly of permitting such 
exportation, entirely with a view of engaging importations of Salt & 
Military requisites : the mattep appears to me of great consequence, and 
therefore I have determined to visit the Sea-ports in order to convene 
the Mercantile Interest and to inspire them with confidence by personal 
promises of my favor and protection; & I flatter myself that my sacred 
Regard, politically as well as privately to the liberal fiiith of engage- 
ments, is so generally known amongst them, that I shall be able to 
produce some good effect. I doubt much whether the resources which 
can be spared from our State, will afford a remittance sufficiently ample 
for the supplies which are required for Both States, and therefore recom- 
mend to your attention the adopting of some plan for engaging some of 
your wealthy and experienced Merchants to carry on a Trade through 
our navigation, ¥nth the resources of your State, which I hope may be 
practicable, notwithstanding the great destruction of your Tobacco: 
you may Sir, assure them of every protection and assistance which this 
government can give, you may also depend upon unremitting attention 
to the subject, and my best endeavors for obtaining sufficient supplies. 



You will find inclosed some extracts from Letters which came to hand 1781. 

this morning Arom General Greene — I doubt give your best August 16Ui 

assistance in procuring for him the information he mentions, which he 
thinks of so much importance— 

I shall set out for the lower parts of the State, as soon as a Hurt 
which I have received by an unlucky accident will permit me to travel, 
which I hope will be in a few days ; but shall leave here a confidential 
Gentleman, in order to foward to General Greene all matters of import- 
ance ; to you, every thing that can be interesting here, and to me, what- 
ever may arrive — ^the line of Expresses therefore will still be the Channel 
of our Communication, tho' it will be sometime before I can take a Sta- 
tionary position — 

I am with very great esteem and regard 
Your very obodt. Servt." 

Extracts referred to above.— from Letter from Genl: Greene to Gov: Burke 

dated ''High Hills of Santee—Aug : 2d 1781. 

"Every information in that quarter is important to us at this time, as 
our operations here depend much on the movements of the Enemy in 
Virginia — I rely much on your industry to obtain a knowledge of the 
Enemy's situation and intentions, and by all moans I beg you to give 
me the most certain and authentic information from time to time — Our 
exertions here will be either feeble or strong, as our operations to the 
North are vigorous or successful — 

Without Reinforcement, we shall be unable to oppose the Enemy or 
give a check to their operations, in case they should move up, to estab- 
lish Posts of communication on the Congaree and Wateree Bivers, which 
plan I firmly beieive they have at this moment in contemplation, and 
which I am sure will be effected unless aid is immediately sent me from 
some quarter or other to prevent it — 

No circumstances in the military way have turned up since I last 
wrote you, except a few small strokes; one of which was made by Capt: 
Watts of Washington's Corps, a few days ago. He met with 20 of the 
Enemy's Dragoons some little distance from Orangeburg, charged them, 
killed two, wounded some, and brought off six, with a force exactly 
equal with his Antagonist — '' 

"High Hills of Santee, Aug 5th, 1781. 

Since writing the inclosed letter, the enemy have moved up to 
McCord's Ferry, where they now are." 


1781. Capt: John Pbyton to Col: Da vies. 

Auguflt 16th "Dear Colo, 

Ht * Hi * * 

Albemarle Gonl : Wayne has almost rained us by taking the coarse linnen which 
Barracka ^^ j^^ had— I am very fearfUl the Taylors will be idle for the want of 
it" — the cloth drawn for the vests will be worked up in two weeks — 
begs for a further supply as he wishes to have a thousand suits completed 
by November 1st. The Stockings he will try to barter off for material 
to make over-alls. If he could get a "return" of the Clothing drawn 
from the State by Wayne's and the Marquis* Troops, he might replace 
it out of the supply expected "from the northward, but they have been 
issued so irregularly, that he knows not where to get the information 
needed — Old "Glymps & his wife" shall be sent down by the next wag- 
gon to Richmond. Begs for the payment of his assistants, Capt: Fowler 
& Tibbs, who have never drawn any pay since they have been with him. 
Concludes " would it be possible to get a little spirits sent to this place 
for the use of the Store. I do assure you it is d — — d bad, being entirely 
without, & having nothing to purchase. I do not beleive the whole of 
us could raise as much cash as would purchase one Gallon, could it be 
got for money — " 

August 16th Col: Wm. Beownb to Col: Wm. Davibs. 

Surry Co. Encloses list of "Delinquents" in Surry, five of whom have gone to 
the Enemy," to wit, Rob*t Cunningham, Andrew Nimmo, Jno. Craw- 
ford, Arch'd Philips ft Jno: Barclay" — They were carried down to Ports- 
mouth by Arch'e Dunlap, Wm. Jones & Wm. Laughton — Jones got a 
"Flag" fi^m Col: Parker to go to Portsmouth, and carried off these 

August 16th Col: Wm. Davies sends out a circular to the Collectors of the Specific 
War Office Tax, authorized by the last Genl : Assembly, informing them, that quar- 
terly returns are required from them to his office, giving the articles 
received, those delivered or exchanged, with the names of the persons 
to whom delivered — The great misapplication of stores in some parte of 
the Country makes it necessary to put a stop to "such ruinous irregulari- 

August 16th Major Chas: Dick sends by "Mr. Grady" to the Executive for a aup- 
Frederic'sb'g ply of money "for the Factory" — It will take at least one thousand 
Pounds old money to pay off arrears, which at 500 for one, £500.000 — 
He has borrowed until he can get no more money to "Keep the Trades- 
men in temper." Bequests that no arms be sent up for repairs, "but 
what can be made fit to fight the Enemy." The magazine nearly 


GovR. Nelson to Caft: Warley. 1781. 

"Sir, August 17th 

I have received your Letter by Lieut: Doyley, & in answer cannot 
help observing that had my advice been followed, you would not have 
had the present Difficulties to contend with. When you arrived in this 
State, the government considered your situation, A was, to say no more, 
as liberal in its assistance as Circumstances would allow. If every Con- 
venience was not afforded you, the Distresses of the Country furnished 
a very satisfactory Reason for it — Our Demand for Waggons at this 
time is very great, & if there are any which the Citizens can spare for 
public use, the Necessities of the Army urge us indispensable to appro- 
priate them to its service. I hope therefore that you will excuse my 
not complying with your request. 

I am Sir, 

Tour Obd : Scrvt." 

Col: Wm. Da vies to the Governor. August l7th 

Recommending the appointment of Mr. Foster Webb, as Paymaster, War Office 
to discharge the claims of Officers and Soldiers of the State, '^whose sit* 
uation precludes them from being included in any pay roll", — which is 
approved by the Governor — 

Also drawing attention to the necessity of appointing "a field Com- 
missary of Military Stores for the State"— especially as the newly 
appointed ^'Continental Commissary Mr. Jones" is here, and desires to 
have the business arranged between them before he enters on the 
business of his Department. 

Col: George Slaughter to Gov: Nelson — ^ rec'd Oct: 10th. August 17th 


Inclos'd you'll receive the Duplicate of his Leters which just now Fort Nelson, 
came to hand by express, by which you will be acquainted with the ^ ii-*fohi 
news and situation of the Corps; to the Westward ; an additional greiv- 
ance to us, is that we are almost in the same situation as to provisions, 
and much worse as to clothing, my Corps I can with propriety say 
entirely naked — ^I have drawn a Bill on the Treasurer of this date, in 
favor of Capt: Benj: Price for Four Thousand Three hundred & Seven 
pounds. Ten Shillings, which I hope will be duly honored. 

& am Your Excellency's 

Mo: obt. h'mble Servant — 


1781. Copies referred to. 

AugoBt 17th 30th July, 1781. 


I had the pieasuro the day before yesterday of putting the match to 
thirteen Gannon, in rejoicing for the happy success of the Spanish Arms at 
Pensacola, under the command of the Govemor of Orleans, who reduced 
that strong place by a seige — the details of which I have not yet received 
from the Spanish Commanders — I will carry it myself in about Ave days 
hence, during or before the Seige of Pensacola, the inhabitants of 
Natchez assisted by some Savages, revolted and took the Fort, and 
three Batteaux — they sent all the prisoners to Orleans, only keeping the 
Goods — an army under the command of Colo Don Alvarez de Mira is 
gone to reduce them. I hope it may rise the price of hemp in that 
Country, there is a certain Lavaleth who I enlisted in March 1779 for 
one year, consequently his time was out in March 1780 and it is wrong- 
ing him to make him serve. 

I 4m Dr Sir, with respect &c. 

(Copy Signed) L. GHIAULT, Commd." 

Port Vincennes, Aug: 6th, 1781. 
"Dear Sir, 

I am sorry to inform you of the following News, the Boat 
commanded by Capt Coulson started from this, the 11th July, was 
defeated within 76 miles of the Falls of Ohio — ^the Captain was killed 
and three of his men, several others ' wounded — ^the remainder of the 
Company came back and gave me the unhappy News-^the retreated to 
the mouth of Wabache, lefl the boat & came by Land, the enemy being 
dose in the rear of them — four days ago, I received News from Detroit 
that they were much annoyed by the Americans coming against them, 
also that they were weak — about 100 men — ^provisions scarce and dear, 
and goods plenty — ^the Indians greatly exasperated against them not 
meeting with the treatment as they had formerly done — Sir, I must 
inform you once more that I cannot keep Garrison any longer, without 
some speedy relief from you. My men have been 15 days upon half 
allowance; there is plenty of provisiims here but no credit — ^I cannot 
press, being the weakest party — Some of the Gentlemen would help us, 
but their credit is as bad as ours^ thereforo if you hiave not provisions, 
send us Whisky which will answer as good an end — ^I hope, if my Ex- 
press gets in you will not detain him — ^Pray use the Indian well, having 
no other to send, I expect his return in twelve days fiiom the date, and 
for some one lAan to come with him to this post — it appears that the 
Communication is stopt between Gannady and Detroit, from the con- 
menoement of this year by account from thence. 

(Copy.) JNO. BAILBT Capt.** 


Col: George Muter to Col: Daviss. 1781. 

August 17th 
The arms that were thrown into the River at Westham were all Albemarle 

recovered but a small number, while he was in Office — and these were 

directed to be gotten out as soon as the water was low enough to allow 

it — Mr. Boush of the State Guard Regt. who had them thrown in, was 

charged with the duty of recovering them — This is all the information 

he can give at present. 

Col: D. Fisher to Col: Da vies. August 17th 

The orders respecting the six-months men, and sending one fourth the GreensYille 
Militia to the field were received, and attention should be paid to them, 
but the condition of the County will prevent his complying with them — 
There are no Commissioned Officers to form a Court Martial, and he 
cannot march off detachments, as the officers will not serve without 
Commissions — He had applied for those to Governor Jefferson, but they 
had never been received — ^Asks for Comms: for Colo Douglass Wilkins, 
Lieut: Colo Martin, and Major Bdmond Wilkins, and for twenty Capts: 
A subalterns — This delay however will not be felt much, in as much aa 
the whole force of the County does not exceed two hundred men. 

Col: Geo: Corbin to Col: Wm. Davibs. August 18th 

•*Dear Sir, 

I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your very Accomack 
agreeable ftvimr of the 23d ulto:, for which please accept my thanks, it 
being the only instance 6f firiendly attention in two years past, paid by 
the Executive to this Shore. A few days before which, a letter fh>m his 
BzcelleiK^, the Marquis came to hand, directing the substitutes from 
this Shore, to be marched immediately to head quarters, informing us 
that the joint request of the officers of this Shore, for the continuance 
of these troops for our defence could not be granted — ^this had almost 
convinced me that the defence of the Eastern Shore was considered as 
an object not worth notice at this time, the State being invaded, but I 
am happy to find the contrary, and am well satisfied that equal protec- 
tion will be extended to us, with our fellow citizens on the Western 
Shore, considering our different circumstances. — For the inattention of 
Government these two years to this Shore, we have suffered many evils — 
the disaffected amongst us beleiving that we should be soon reduced to 
british Government, and become an easy prey, began to rob privately, 
and proceeded at length to murder an active fHend to the Common- 
wealth — this horrid action happened about the first of last month, an 
immediate pursuit was made after the supposed murderers, and three 


1781. persons of bad charactera the day following were apprehended upon the 
August ISth information of a negro, who was known to have been of the party, and 
had surrendered himself — the people proposed marching them to the 
gallows, which was accordingly done, when after a short time, under an 
expectation of being executed, they confessed who were the authors of 
the murder, confessed they were in company at the time, and that a few 
nights afterwards several active citizens marked out as proper subjects 
for the halter, they were to have hanged. This confession carried con- 
viction of their guilt, and a proposition was made, and generally con- 
sented to, that the wretches should be immediately executed, after giv- 
ing them a few hours to settle their worldly affairs — which was at the 
expiration of the time given, cooly and deliberately done — Since which 
time we have remained in perfect peace and quiet, untill the 27th ulto: 
a Capt: Robinson, with four barges and one hundred men cheifly negroes 
landed on Pungoteague, plundered some of the inhabitants and fired on 
otbers; a few militia being alarmed, collected, and began to skirmish 
with them — one of the blacks being killed, the others retreated to their 
barges, and made their escape to Watt's Island, distant about five miles, 
two days afterwards, we pursued them with 150 men, in twenty five 
small crafts, and continued our pursuit four days and nights, we were 
not so fortunate as to catch Capt: Bobinson, he having gained intelli- 
gence of us, as we have since been informed, from the Islanders — how- 
ever wo recaptured two of his prizes, a Sloop and Schooner without 
opposition, which wo fell in with oif Hooper's Straights, both of which 
were carried into a safe harbour in the State of Maryland by the barge 
^'Protector," Capt: Zedechia Whalley, belonging to that State. This is 
the Barge mentioned in my last, for the arming and fitting of which, I 
made free to lend a part of the Gallies Military Stores, and am happy to 
find it meets the approbation of Government. 

I will only ask your attention from matters of greater importance, a 
few minutes, while I mention an aifair, in which a family of good char- 
acter, and warm friends to the State, are interested, and if it can bo 
consistent with your business make no doubt but you will render them 
every assistance tho public good will admit of — The Hov: John Lyon, 
Rector of St. George's Parish in this County, was lately brought before 
a Court Martial in this County, at which Colo Cropper presided — the 
charge against him, was for having furnished tho Enemy with pro- 
visions and other necessaries, giving thenx aid and comfort, and dissuading 
tho Militia from doing Duty in taking arms to defend the State — ^I had 
the honour to attend tho Court at tho trial, and acted as Judge Advo- 
cate. Many witnesses were produced agst Mr. Lyon, which were strictly 
examined by the Court and myself, the principle of which were reduced 
to writing in open Court, and will be sent over with the other proceed- 
ings on the trial. 

From which there remains no doubt with mo, but that Mr. Lyon is 
untHendly to American Independence, and as such, it is with some diffi- 


calty I can render him Justice — ^The principle action of Mr. Lyon, which 1781. 
occasioned his prosecution ; was his having been in the night, on board Aagnst ISth 
of Capt Bobinson, who commands a British Barge — the day following 
several houses were burnt — ^from this, it was conjectured that Mr. Lyon 
was privy to, if not the author of the mischief— However, I must, in 
justice to Mr. Lyon, acknowledge that the charge was cleared up entirely 
to my satisfiu^on, by two men (who are generally believed to be very 
friendly) who were prisoners on board Robinson's barge at the time Mr. 
Lyon was on board — they say that Lyon was brought along side by a 
small barge, which was sent by Robinson after him, that Lyon showed 
the utmost uneasiness at being taken, and beged earnestly to be dis- 
charged, which, at first was refbsed him, but after much entreaty was 
granted him — ^they heard nothing unfriendly from Mr. Lyon, nor did 
they see any thing which caused their suspicion, except that Robinson 
came into Mr. Lyon's craft, and remained about two minutes and seemed 
to be in private. The Gtonts: whose depositions are sent over, were 
long possessed of the information by those given, before the transaction 
above mention'd, and as I am well acquainted with their zeal for the 
Commonwealth, I conceive if they had imagined any thing prejudicial, 
would have happened from Mr. Lyon, they would, before this trial have 
informed — ^Now Sir, at the earnest request of Mrs. Lyon and her family, 
for whom I have not said too much, and at the particular desire of many 
of Mr. Lyon's Parish, to whom he is generally agreeable, I am induced 
to ask your assistance for Mr. Lyon : provided you should be of my 
opinion when the testimony shall come to your knowledge, that it is 
not sufficient to support the charge, pardon me for taking up so much 
of your time. 

I am Dr Sir, with esteem 

Your Humb Servt." 

Fragment — 
<' Extract krom Col: Balfour's lkttbr dated 18th August 1781." August 18th 

'^ I am sorry that the appeals you make to our Officers, for the human- 
ity of their treatment when prisoners, cannot be extended to those of 
the militia in the Same Situation, many of whom, especially those taken 
at Black Mingo, I am warranted to say are now languishing in the Goals 
of North Carolina, tho' in direct violation of that Cartel, for the rights 
of which you so warmly plead." 

Brio: Gsnl: G. Wekdon to , August 18th 

" DV Sir, 

A tour thro' the 6 lower Counties in the Northern Neck which Frederic'sb'g 
has employed me ten days, prevented my acknowledging the rec't of 


VlhL y^/wr b^r'r 3d loit: liU ikcnr — I cumot gire you just iii£Drmmlaon reqwct- 
Ampttii Idt^ iog iIm; Ajvyi faivu|pbt iiiu> tlM; BtJOfe. SncL nfi iiae been dfiiiTered at 
ibk (Kitt, mc'to ftK uJuaD for, 4 k j Id liie haoi^B of li^e Quarter IL. bat 
ittimy JbA/r« bMA moI on to tine Ajib j witboot hang storwi at any place. 
Sueh ibe KiaLd Cammiiwuy cf IL & vill ik> doubt be able u> reoder you 
Aioe*! of— OUmmhi bare bMsn aeut to CbarkytUasTilk — ^I sbuld aappoae the 
ttCNUt prvbabie wsy to get an exaet acc't of tbem, would be to write to 
tfae Q. MVy at tbe HSifsnmi posta, ordermg oopuv of tbdr Yoocbers, to 
be iteot yott. Tbe better u> enable aae to proportion tlie aima allotted by 
GoveraioeDt for tbe defepce of tbe Seek, I deLfOTDUked to make a aorrey 
of all tbe Cotmtiea 4 to enquire particularly into tbeir state, t only laat 
^reeling rei'd from reeonnoitering the d lower on<9a When I get back 
ffoio reviewing tbe other 3 afaall make yon a Gen'l return of tbe whole. 
IL Geofge, Westmoreland, Richmond, Lancaster k Xorthumbeiiand lay 
exceedingly exposed — many parts of the Neck above them not being 
more than Hix miles across, with good landings on both Flanks; in these 
Comities are not less than 36.000 Head of Cattle k other Stock in pro- 
portion — tbey hare about 2250 Militia B. k File, these men have not 
more than 1200 Bflective Guns, 660 Bayoneto 4^ 540 C. Boxes. 

It is proposed with these equipmento to form a system, that shall have 
for its object a [>osiUon sgainst any attempts that may be made by the 
Enemy on those Counties, untill assistance can come to them from other 
parts — to do this it is again proposed that one half of the whole, be con- 
stantly held in readiness to &ce the Enemy, that those that remain at 
borne U> protect tbe Counties from insurrections of Blacks k from pirat- 
kial depredations, in executing this plan the 1125 men facing the Enemy 
being well armed, will leave only a small number of Guns behind, k 
those unequally distributed. I do not, at the same time approve of 
risqulng many below, a small reinforcement however for tbe above pur- 
poses, may be necessary, k that the men who are considered for imme- 
diate defence, may at all times be found ready to act with effect, it is 
recommended to form themselves into Legions — Northumberland has 
one Troop of Horse, tolerably equipt, Richmond is raising one, ft so in 
Lancaster — Westmoreland ft King George may have one each, Commis- 
sions for tbe Horse Officers are necessary, as also the authority of Gov- 
ernment fhr instituting them. Ammunition is extremely wanting, ft 
Artillery there is none of— with respect to the Factory, I cannot give 
such infornmtion as to make an enquiry necessary, not Knowing a Single 
Brannh belong'g to it — I have found it of the greatest utility, since the 
State was invaded, in repairing numbers of mutilated Arms, with which 
the Militia have been equipt ft sent into the Feild — Calling on the Man- 
ager for Monthly Returns of ail his Expences ft work done might enable 
you to Judge how fbr Justice to the Public was observed. No doubt the 
striotest attention should be paid to Workos of this kind, ft I should not 
be nice In informing against any impositions that might oome to my 


^imaSDAB or iCLTB ?:!lP(fitt& ;||0, 

had am dm jtf|H3iiiii CosnuMi- iiawn -MpiMwi^ 'n»ii& \hk 

Coi.: TT. BttwKimi to niB i>wv«Miu& .V4^a«fc iti«^ 

He aaii Men & giaiiiiMEr«]i w«r jq pttiMlv Mv%ir :ulic«i l-Ub Xb^v luc^ .VimIm^v«V 
Anii oATinac sbiul x pubiiisiciim «ipMa by um ComituiJiMr%k sm' tfVfta^HKiU 

pcuT-uak haft JtsBToi oi knuw whuciiur il» hdi^ c^i%Miv^ Uhi ^^nm^JliMi sH' (liv 
£xet.*aci7«. in 'iriiff chac an mikv ttMucn hm triwiU^Mt ;iii vVuftUKWi^ir s4* 
Miiitiai^ b«iuuc ^^urr iniirsL <k aiM diitt ui viiachar^ Uh( IHi^m' sH' ^ 

The Terr An^nlttr booor vioae me^ by yvmr Lt^lU'Xv nokl ^b^ i^^k<^u^ | |»>\k i M>i^ 
ment^ in inekeed meiito my ukwc ^craietliU ;iickiK^>M U\t^MM\^(«k l^ust 
dceerves greater «enic«ik thaui am aArakI il i» iu m^v |K^>iir\>r Iv^ iX'MvKsv^ \ 
should be extremely sorry If my wbbing li> \lecUiH> ihUi |K^»I vybU'b >^^^ 
did me so mneh honor to tender in [v^r^on a 6>w d«^v« ^|^\ i^\^ukst V^m^ 
the most distant doubt of my P^triotiauu 1 mu«l ihxiUWm ||iv«^I vnubarm^ 
ment upon the occasion, and with dittlden^'e aci^o^kt Ibo ai^HMiUim^uVi AH\t 
hope that I shall be indulged wth the nominaliiig \\\y \^\kw%y m\^ 
ductors and be furnished with a sum of money e«|ual lo the uud%vi*ukiug 
in advance, to be accounted for — ami so mxwx an 1 umke Ihe iim^tisiiao' 
arrangements, must beg a small time of almoniHt to nUVimh m^sitU' \\s\\\\ 
the great fatigue of mind I have undergone iUr I bene oiglU moniliH imul^ 
in the other troublesome departmot: I aotoii In. 

I have the honor to be with evory ]H>iiiilhlii ilogiHiD 

of Respect A Kstocun. 

Sir your KxcHillonoltiM mo: uUi Htirvl" 

*ComiDiiMrj of Mil: SiorM for HUto of VIrgliiU- Orillisiiua OMfiar. 


1781. Btaa: GtHL: Eo: LAwaoit to **Hobi: Wm. DAvraa.' 

Aineli» Co. Since the rec't of his letter of the 2!>th alt: informing him, the Gover- 
nor had gone to conHalt with the Xarqnia on the subject of equipping 
and marching the Xilitia to the aid of Genl: Green, he has received a 
letter from Hie Ezceilencj dated the 2nd Injst. exprewing a doabt 
whether soeh a meaaore will be necefleary. and that he had instmcted 
the Co Lieotenanta to eoantermand the Orders for the marching of the 
Militia for the present. This state of things leaves him in suspense : 
and he begs to be informed as fiillj and as promptly as possible. In the 
matter, so that he may have time to carry oat his orders properly — ^The 
sickly season will soon pass, and the objef:tions on this head be remove<i. 
He hopes, if they are called oat, the troops will be well armed, in as 
mnch as it is mach better to have a thousand men well equipped, than 
twice that number with indifferent weapons — asks for information "^of 
onr A rmy k that of the Enemy" — as to the prospects of getting more 
Cavalry k Infitntry — Wliat about the designs against New York k pros* 
pects of success "In that quarter^ kc * ^ * 

AogDii Idih Capt: Nathah Eked to Col: Davixs. 

Hsw London Nothing of moment has transpired of late " but that Mr. Greer's wife 
IS dead, and I the pleasure of drinking part of two or three Bowls of 
excellent punch " — ^The Soldiers come in very slowly, and the Laboratory 
men idle for want of cartridge paper. 


Aafitfi IMh 6ao: Paekkb, Lsvih JorniSy J amis Arbuckls, Clkmt: Pa&kxb and 

Edm'd Cusns TO Gov'r Nslsoh. 

Aocomack We are induced to apply to your Excellency for a Remission or 

Mitigation of a Sentence passed on the Reverend John Lyon (by a Court 
Martial held in the County the 8th instant) to ^ve years imprisonment. 
From a Review of the Testimony^.we are led to think the sentence severe 
but are far from moaning to cast the slightest reflexion on the Court — 
As the people here are just now very irritated, as well as alarmed by 
the pltinderings and Burnings of the Barges, as well as the more aggra- 
vating circumstanceB of murder and Robberies committed among us by 
some of our most unworthy Countymen; but to do justice to him we 
petition for, wo must say that as far as we have heard him speak of such 
conduct it has boon with the greatest abhorance — Such an act of 
clemency would be the means of releiving a most worthy woman and 
Three children from real distress, their only dependance being on the 
Emoluments arising from his office as Rector of Saint George's Parish ; 


and we trust would not injape the txmajkim cause, Jis he might be put ITSL 
under suffieieni restrictioiis in roipacl to his iutxire bchaxioar; which we Almost ISih 
beleive he fully means shall be fiiendly and inoffensire, so as not to give 
the least cause fin* soepicion— or he would engage to leave the State, and 
go to New Sngland, the place of his nativity. Tho' we could wish his 
case would allow him to ccmtinue in his Faiish as nine tenths of the 
people in it, are of the Church of England, and we beloive a lai^ 
majority would wish him to continue their minister. 
We are with due re^Mct 

Your Excellency's 

Most obedient Senrants.^' 

MjUOm, Wx. Ceoohah to Col: Wx. Davibs. Augwt l^ih 

Dr Colonel, 

This week I piopos*d setting off to Join the Army, being Fort Pitt 
informed a General Exchange of prisoners had taken place, making no 
doubt of my being Exchanged, but Colonel John Nevill who arrived here 
a few days ago, Says I am not. I flatter myself no Injustice has been 
done me. but firom every Inibrmation I had was Injuced to believe there 
was more Majors of the British and Hessians in our hands than would 
have Exchanged me k all the Majors of our Army (prisoners^ whoso 
Commissions were oldefthan mine, not taken before the sunvnder of 
Charlestown. At any reat^ I prefer going to Richmond this Fall, but 
should I be Exchanged or otherways be necessary I should go down, by 
sending me a line to Fort Pitt, I will attend. 

A few days ago Genl: Clarke sett out from this Country by water 
with about four Hundred men, Including Officers & Colo. Crockett's 
Regiment, flattering himself he would be Join'd by some more fVom 
Kentucky & the Falls of the Ohio, about half way between this & the 
Falls — The General Bxpected 1500 men from this part of the Country & 
is much chagreened at his disappointment, having provisions, Ammuni- 
tion, Artillery, quarter masters' Stores, Boats &c., sufficient for upwards 
of 2000 men — had the country people turno^l out and wont with him, I 
have no doubt the people on this side the mountain in particular would 
be sencible of the advantage they must reap by being able to live at 
their plantations, without the dread of being scalped, which is far fVom 
being the case at present, few days passing without the Indians doing 
mischeif of this kind. 

I much fear the General will be disappointed in Geting men down the 
river from Kentucky & the Falls; if so the State is thrown into an 
Infinity of expence without any advantage, as the few men the General 
now has, is not more than might be necessary to guard the great num- 
ber of Boats, Stores &c he has with him. 



\mmA m viEMT I 'Jraifi tkcr ^.mmf^m0A%. Tut fffinrw lo fiev vcmi viik 
Uflb lir«Meii tA(j» f4a^ x k 4»wia^Vy tiie^aifcieiAati wl i iiiti heie beiwwa ifce 
Vioe^sMMii 4 PwxMTtTuiuM rHf»w:<iBr tfe tne bonds of the laner. 
jlibd iW 0«M!vml beubr & ytripmjjm vat oppwcd by the boa bou4 bcs 
lM!f^ of tL« PecnvrhruBajii Pwtj. TVe pwpfe here Wf ■ YirgiiuA tcvj 
iMfttd^ fi>r making tiM«i ft tk«ir bufdb-wkkrh Ipcyoftd a fthadov of a dovbt 
M finr MBt of xhe tn3« brwLidft c^ peuFriraBift} or«r to pciuuFTlTmiiia. And 
I Mm artMir'd fteritrr vill be CobtAnt antill tbe Trae fcoofids of peim<Tl- 
raftia i« ruD — ti* true tiMy are pMttg to itia vbai thej call a temporary 
booftdar^'. (/ut fko CDfyrfa lAJcutiee k <iooe to the State of Virginia A the 
psoffle vho are now io it, 4 bj this Scandaloas Impositiaii mil be fore'd 
tiito pe&fMTjrlraoia, that nothing bat Disorder will reign antil the bounds 
m run MipttitMtt to the Wf/rdt of the Charter of pennsylrania. 

I am hMppy in being iDfcnmed the Enemj hare left Virginia A hope 
ibejr will pay no more Tiaita to any part of the State. I am Informed 
Oeol: Waahington is Troableaome to Sir Henry, which is the cause of 
their leari Dg yoo to assist him. 

I am your most Homble A 

Obedient Servant.** 

Aocttti 19th Capt: Peislt Thoehtov to ths GoTxaifOK. 

Fftderfc'fb'g By virtue of his Warrant, he has been attempting '' the Impressing 
busiries** but the people secrete their horses, consequently has made little 
progress — Ue is not fitmiliar with the Laws, and would like to know if 
there Is no way of punishing persons who thus injure the public service. 
Desires to know whether every family is to be allowed a pair of carriage 
horMS, and each man a riding horse; and whether he is justifiable in 
breaking Locks to Search Stables &c. 

Aofuft 19th HAim Page to Gov: Nelson. 

Manafflsld As one of the Executors of Colo Tayloe's Estate, ho is induced to 
apply to his Excellency fbr information in the following facts — ^A Slave 
belonging to this Estate had been taken by a British Privateer: this 
vessel was afterwards attacked and captured by a Baltimore Privateer, 
a part of tbe crew however, the slave among the rest swam ashore and 
got Into Essex Co, where the Militia took them up, and carried them 
prisoners to Fredericksburg and then to Staunton — ^He desires to know 
how tbe Slave can be recovered, when identified? or whether it will be 
necessary that he be libelled before a Court of Admiralty? — If there is 
any other mode, he will be obliged to be informed thereof 


Jaius \MniiJiwwi TO Col: Patiss^ I7$I. 

As Mr. Boss is to undertdke the ^g^ltiiig the Gun Stocks'*— Ik^ d<eMT«s AikcikU IfU 
to inform him. "^thsl Uuree meii hmj get as nuoij stocks oat of iiMph\ 
bemch or Elm. and saw as much Planks and fonn as many stocks a wi^^ 
as win sto^ two kvndred muskets.** 

AxraBson 10 Col: Dayikl Ai:^^ IMk 

A great deal depends opon getting good, artificeis for officers to coo- Irria*^ Slwe 
trol and direct others — ^The latter will not respect their superiors in 
command, or regard their orders, if thej perceive they are not compe- 
tent to judge of their work. Men of this character are very scarce— 
Capt: Toimg is evidently averse to the plan proposed, becmnse tfaer^are 
neither shops nor material ready for use; and thinks he can get the men 
needed, when this is the case. But unless workmen are secured while 
the State is invaded, they will not be gotten in twelve months— Mr» 
Roes offers to furnish Five Thousand Gun Stocks immediately, to be 
delivered at the Point of Fork — He thinks this should be accepted at 
ODce, for "Heaven knows when there will be any muskets stocked** in 
the present condition of his business — The best way to procure good 
artificers, will be to give notice in each County that men, shall be 
exempted from military duty and receive their wages when due, who 
are good worionen and will engage for the service. 

When at the Point of Fork, a few dajrs ago, Mr. Boss informed him, 
"the negroes that were under Inoculation'* would be removed in a fow 
days, and Mr. Ford would then get the shops ready — Capt: Young had 
ordered him to the P. of Fork, but finding there was no prospect of get* 
ting to work there, he set out for Irvin*8 Store, whore he found all the 
Carpenters discharged, and the two log-houses not finisheii; but Mr, 
Price has collected some hands and he expects to begin work in a fow 
days — but there is neither flour, or Salt, on hand, and matters in bad 
condition generally. 

Col: John Tatloe to thi Goysbnob* August Uth 

Sending under guard by Order of Colo Innes, one John Warden, Csmp DUU- 
accused of being inimical to the State — The papers found upon his per- ^^ whU 
son go far to prove his intentions, but if they are not sufficient, ho is Ung'i Mill 
directed to inform the Grovernor, that Col: Wm. Boane and Capt: James 
Upshaw of Essex Co. can give much information on the subject &c. 


1781. Capt: D. Ragsdale expresses his apprehensions to Col: Davies in 

August 20th regard to the condaet of the "Volunteer Horse." A Mr. Smith of Cum- 
On the road, berland was Killed the day after the Battle of James Town — his horse 

/^l win. • 

i/um r ^^ brought up by two of his Company, who say they were made pris- 
oners and the horse was given to them by the Enemy, and detain him 
from the Heir at law, &c. 

August 20Ui Benjamin Jordan Com: Mil: Stores to Col: Davies. 

Irving's Complying with Orders by Capt: Allen, to send down at once all the 

^^ repaired arms at that place— also return of ammunition on hand — In 
the absence of Capt Bohannan he will strictly comply with any direc- 
tions sent him — Is in great distress for want of money to carry on the 
business of his Department. 

August 20th John Harmanson and Wm. Scott to Col: Davies. 

Nortbamp- They have sold the greater part of the corn and bacon, and applied 
° ^' the money to the support of guards — The oats and salt still on hand, 
and wish they were on the other side the Bay — have sold 400 bushels 
oats and fed a Troop of Horse with some — The com being old sold low, 
and 700 bushels have been on hand since the winter, which should be 
gotten rid of — 

They have another vessel ready to be launched, which if ensured, 
they will load with salt and oats; or those articles may be sent over in 
some other vessel — ^The freight on salt is £40 pr: bushel, but if this ves- 
sel were insured, it can be carried for £25 — Oats and corn can be carried 
in proportion. Fredericksburg seems to be the safest port at this time, 
but any other place will suit, if it be thought proper to order accord- 
ingly. They desire to know to whom these articles are to be sent in 
Fredericksburg, to avoid risk from the " Shallopers that comes over." 
The com sold, brought only £4 to £6 pr: bushel, but it has been selling 
for £7 — and oats at £5 — Salt now sells on that shore at £200 pr: Bushel. 

August 2l6t James Madison Jnr., Theod. Bland, M. Smith and Edm. Randolph, 

Delegates, to Gov'r Nelson. 
Philadeljft^ia We had the Honour, yesterday, of writing to your Excellency by 

Mr. Nicolson; Since which, no Intelligence of Importance has transpired. 
By some accident or other the mail from Virginia did not arrive y^- 
terday ; and we are not favoured with any accounts from that quarter. 
The inclosed Gazette will give the news of the day. 
We have the Honor to be with great 
Esteem, yr: Excellency's most obet 
& hble Servant." 


Col : Wm. ChriBtian informs Col : Davies, he has collected eleven horses, 1781. 
"supposed to be 'strays" and has sent them to Capt: Young Q. M. G. — August 2Ui 
He has been so ill, he has not searched the entire county over. Charles Oity 


Capt: Jno. Allbn to Colo Daviss. AugaBt21st 

The repaired arms, cartridges &c order shall be sent down as soon as Irvin's Store 
possible — Begs leave to give account of things at that place — Mr. Haw- 
kins superintendent of artificers informs him, the men he had, refused 
to do duty until they could receive their wages — Four of them came up 
on the 19th but brought no tools with them, and there are none to put 
into their hands. Hand-saws, hammers, & bench plains are wanted, and 
absolutely necessary to make army chests and boxes for cartridges — The 
carpenters engaged for six months have been discharged by order of 
Mr. Nathl Anderson, which has thrown every thing into confusion. 

The demand for wagons for private purposes is so great, and people 
give so much more than ''the public," that unless the Quarter Master is 
furnished with money or power to impress, he will not be able to trans- 
port the arms or cartridges from that place, or to bring from Charlottes- 
ville, a few articles necessary for the Laboratory. The Post is so much 
in want of Salt and good flour, that it will be impossible to keep it up 
longer unless these articles are furnished — He has borrowed all that can 
be gotten in the neighborhood, and the last has been consumed — Col : 
Dabney has ordered him to send all the men belonging to the State 
Troops to their regiments at Goochland C. House — Begs for some 
'' Physic" for the sick, "against the ague & feveur such as "Saults & 
Tarter;" and the Soldiers pray for a little Whiskey, which may be 
bought in the neighborhood — He has on hand only ^'eighteen hundred 
cartridges fit for service" — The evils here recited are not imaginary, but 
too real^ demanding prompt and serious attention. 

Col : Anthony Thornton informs Col : Davies, of the condition of the August 21st 
Militia &c in his county — He has so arranged the Muster Bolls, as to get 
rid of useless men, and to keep at least one fourth of his force always in 
the field — Mr. Higgins has sixty-five stand of arms repaired, and can 
have no more done, without Salt. He has always sent the six-months 
men to the field and the County now has only these, and the men who 
have served their time in the service— The clothing has been collected 
and delivered to Major Nelson. 

Capt: J. Pryor informs Col: Davies, he has appointed Mr. Beynolds Au^8t2l8t 
and Capt: Beard his assistants, as recommended — The former sets out Richmond 
at once to collect all the arms in private shops; and he will be glad if 


1781. Gapt Beard shall receive his orders as soon as possible — The paymaster 
AnguBt21it of the State should receive instructions in regard to Mr. Reynolds' 
wages — The pay of a Conductor is "Forty five Dolls: pr: month.'' 

AQga8t2l8t Mann Page Esqr: informs Col: Davies, ho will use every effort to 
Mannsfield procure the '< Traveling Forges" need, or will give due notice of their 
being ready. 

Auga8t2l8t John Ret to Col: Davies, in regard to his appointment as collector 

of estrays &c. 

Albemarle Has received only Sixteen horses and sent them to Capt : Young — 
^' They are all he could find, but will continue to search the County. 

AoguBt 22d Rev : John Lyon, petitions the Executive for remission of the sentence 

Onanoock, of the Court Martial lately held for his Trial ; giving in substance reasons 

Aooomac Co. heretofore recorded by Col: Corbin, why he should not be punished ; and 

offering to give any security demanded for his good behavior in the 

fViture, so that he may continue to discharge the Amotions of his offieey 

as desired by a large majority of his Parishioners &c. 

August 22d Jno. Robketson, D. C. Gbnl: Issues, to Col: Davu». 

Camp Man- Colo Febiger informs him he has no salt, and that Colo. Mayo in Man- 
oocke HilU ^I^Qg^P has some, which may be gotten upon an Order; for "use of 
the Continent" — That article, bread and spirits are scarce and the army 
is daily increasing, so that he trembles to think of the consequences 
unless he is supplied; or allowed money with which to meet the inces- 
sant demands from every Brigade and " Magazine." 

Aaga8t22d CoL: J. Holmbs to Col: Daviss. 

Winchester Requesting him to inform the Executive that he has already sent to 
Philadelphia, by order of the Commissary Genl : of Prisoners, all the 
naval prisoners, in his charge, "to the number of 118" — He was partic- 
ular in stating where they were taken, & by whom, so that the State 
should get full credit for them — Two boxes of cavalry swcmis & Pistols 
were sent to his care from Phila., but he had received no orders respect- 
ing them. 


BoBSRT Morris, to ths (jovxrnor of Virginia. 1781. 

"Sir, August 28d 

I am but just returned from the Head Quarters of the Commander OfSice of Fi- 
in Chief, where I have been for some days, in order to confer with him ^*^ce 
on the various military operations and arrangements, as far as they are 
connected with the duties of my department. Of consequence, the 
defence of that valuable part of Virginia now invaded, became much a 
subject of consideration; and I am happy to inform you that every 
measure will be pursued for its safety, which is consistent with the 
general objects of the War. 

The Force in Virginia ought to be very considerable, for Beasons 
which it is unnecessary to mention to you, who are so well acquainted 
with the country. But it is necessary to observe that the supplies to 
this Force must be proportionably great. I have already done myself 
the Honour to transmit to your Excellency an account of the specific 
supplies which have been required by Congress. Virginia stands debited 
for the whole, and it is not in my power, perhaps not in yours, to state 
the credit side of that account — Let, however the amount of the articles 
furnished, be what it may, this at least is certain, that I have the com- 
mand of no money from the several States, which will serve to maintain 
a Force in Virginia — ^Much therefore must depend on the Provisions and 
Forage, which that State can call forth — It is necessary for me to inform 
the General, what Beliance can be made on your Resources; and it is 
also necessliry that this information should be just. 

Your Excellency must perceive that his arrangements will greatly 
depend upon my Communications, and therefore you will need no Incite- 
ment to transmit as soon as possible, the Answers to my Enquiries. Let 
me then intreat Sir, to know, what quantity of Flour, Beef, and Pork 
both fresh and Salted, and what quantity of Hay and Indian Com, or 
other Forage, can be delivered by the State of Virginia; at what Places, 
and by what Times — I shall also be happy to be informed where the 
Tobacco required of your State is deposited, that I may take proper 
measures for the Disposal of it. 

With all possible respect, 

I have the Honor to be. 

Your Excellency's 

Most obedient & humble Servt." 

Capt: John Pryor informs Col: Davies, of his finding the arms left August 28d 
by Genl: Campbell, and which should have been carried to Bichmond Col. Parishes 
''up Col: Parish's Stairs in a most horrid condition" — Those fit for ser- 
vice will be sent to camp, the others to Mr. James' Armorer, living near 
by, to be repaired as soon as possible — He hopes to find a sufficient 


1781. number for the Marquis, at Fredericksburg, so that all collected '4n this 
August 22d quarter" had better be sent to the camp to be found on the South side 
James River — apprehends great difficulty in obtaining transportation 
for the arms at Fredericksburg. 

August 28d Col: J. Banister to the Governor. 

Dinwiddle Desiring instructions as to the treatment to be observed towards 
"delinquents" in his county — He thinks the lenient policy best, "the 
execution of penal Laws? contradicting the idea of republican Societies." 
It were better to secure a considerable body of Militia for two months 
only, in the field, than with every exertion, get a very small one for six — 
Desires to know where he is to march the Militia, about one hundred 
and three, and seven six months men — There are many more out at 
large, who he hopes to get in. 

August 28d Col: O. Towlss to Col: Wm. Daviss. 

Spotsylvania He is rejoiced to hear, there is a prospect of the Officers obtaining 
some relief, upon proper representations of their wants being made — 
This has been done so often before, and they have been kept, so con- 
stantly "visiting and attending on Governors, Auditors, Treasurers Ac 
Ac, without avail, that many "brave and worthy" men have been 
ruined, and become disgusted by the continued injustice done them. 
No service could be more beneficial than to afford relief to such. He 
then draws attention to his own particular case. "Ten months and 
more have elapsed" since he " fingered any of the public money," and 
the "scanty pittance" then received "was deficient several thousands," 
in defraying his necessary expenses — Begs to be informed how be can 
obtain a sum of money on account of his pay — Encloses return of the 
clothing furnished by the counties in the District, — and will at some 
future day lay before the Council a statement of the levies collected and 
fowarded to Fredericksburg — Concludes^ — "A correspondent from Lan- 
caster in Pennsylva, the 17th inst, writes me, that the Reports of that 
Place, are that his Excy: Genl : Washington is much more foi*midablc 
than he has ever been heretofore, and intends an attack upon New 
York — he adds that should it be the case, there is every reason to expect 
success from the great inferiority of the enemy in that quarter. That 
the Baltimoreans are making great preparations for the reception of the 
enemy (that at present infest us) havidg undoubted intelligence of their 
hostile intentions against that place — should you have any news in your 
quarter when this reaches you, be so kind to favor me with it." * * 
This goes by Express that is to return to me, and will take any letters 
you may have ready for this Quarter." 


Lists of Sixty three deserters, from ^^Capt: Hale's company'* and 1781. 
Capt: Haman Critz' Co. August 23d 

Col: Thos: Mathsws to Grov: Nelson. August 23d 

• • 


A Letter from the Marquis last Even'g determined me to move Byrds 
towards Williamsburg with my small party, in order to determine some 
matters of information, that appeared rather doubtfull. I accordingly 
moved down, and quartered my party at Allen's 6 miles on this side Wil- 
liamsburg — ^I had previously sent an officer & 20 men thro' the woods 
down to York, in order to alarm the Enemy, at the same time to act as 
a party of observation and to give the Enemy an Idea of a strong party 
being in the neighbourhood. A Pickett was advanced on every road 
leading to the encampment, and the strictest orders given to prevent 
surprise; but notwithstanding these precautions, the pickett on the 
road to Williamsburg, sufPer'd themselves to be surprised & the enemy 
to be on us without any previous notice — You must figure to yourself 
the confusion that prevailed amongst the men, for notwithstanding the 
exertions of the Officers, they flew with utmost precipitation to the 

At present, they come in fast to this place, and I have reason to 
beleive, I have not lost 20 men in Killd: Wounded k taken Prisoners — 
I shall give you a particular Acct: of our loss this Evening — Tarleton 
commanded the party ; they amounted to 400 Dragoons k 200 mounted 
Infantry. My Stay on the ground was rather long, as I was obliged to 
run the fire of 5 of them. 

I am with the greatest Respect 

Sir, your most obt Servt." 

Depontiere, Aid de Camp, to Baron Steuben, requests Col : August 28d 

Pavies, to order Capt: Peyton to furnish the Baron's attendants, with Albemarle 
clothing, they being about to set out for the South. Barracks 

Major Bd: Claibobns to Govr Nelson. August 28d 


Not only the helpless situation in which I am continued, from a Near 
severe spell of sickness, but the suspense in which I remain respecting "^'perrv 
what the Executive intend to do for the department of which I have 
charge, keep me continually in a state of uneasiness. I have made 
many representations to your Excellency, and written upon many sub- 
jects, but am unacquainted with your pleasure, and consequently know 



1781. not what to think, or how to act — The principles by which I have been 
August 28d actuated in every thing which I have said, or done, were to promote the 
public interests, and cannot but express the concern which I feel at the 
little weight which they seem to be of — I flatter myself I have proposed 
nothing but what was proper, nor said or done any thing which may 
have invited the least unfavorable sentiment in Council; but should it 
be the ease in either respect, I readily ask the pardon of the Board, and 
beg that it may not be construed to my prejudice, as done with design, 
but from no motive but that of serving the public. 

One error I acknowledge to, and am sorry that my want of informa- 
tion led me into it — that of submitting to the judgement of the Execu- 
tive, the Expenditures of the Quarter Master's Department. 

I have been made acquainted with this ; tho' not officially, and lament 
that I have been kept ignorant of a thing which so particularly required 
my attention, the direction of the Board in this instance, as well as in 
all others that I may receive, as far as the system under which I act 
will admit, shall be complied with, as far as lies in my power. Should 1 
again err from a want of the necessary instructions, .or in any other 
manner whatever, and your Excellency, or either of the Honourable 
Board will be pleased to make me sensible of it, I will remedy it imme- 
diately — ^As I am always open to conviction, I am sorry that I had not 
a friend in Council, who would inform me of the impropriety of my 
objection; that I might have recalled it, and complied with the request. 

I hope I have said sufficiently in the above paragraph to convince your 
Excellency how much it is my desire to discharge the duties required of 
me, and to act in such a manner as may give pleasure to my superiors 
and others with whom I may be concerned — ^At the same time, I beg 
leave to say something more, respecting the wish of the Board for an 
examination of my accounts, that the objections I made, may be con- 
sidered in their proper light. 

In the first place, I viewed such a thing tantimount to a suspicion of 
the propriety of my directions with respect to the cash I received — ^in 
the next place, that it carried the face of an objection to the issues of 
any more for the department, until the judgement was formed, as there 
was no mention made to the contrary — I hope this was not the case 
but while such were my thoughts, I should have been wrong not to have 
communicated them. It is true my answer might have been written in 
a more easy stile, but when the Board will be pleased to reflect that 
there was room for the constructions, and not knowing of the authority 
they had to require such an examination they will find but few, who 
would have wrote differently — because an honest and faithM agent can- 
not silently submit to an undue suspicion when he becomes acquainted 
with it — will not acquiesce to a thing which he might think would be 
prejudicial to his operations; nor do injustice to his principles, by 
exposing his accounts — These things I hope will account for my being 


so particular, and havo their due weight with your Excellency and 1781. 
Council. August 23d 

Altho' my health is restored, it is with difficulty, owing to the pains 
which I yet feel, that I am lifted from my Bed and Seated in a Chair. 
Notwithstanding this, I should have made a second attempt to get to 
Richmond, by being conveyed in a Carriage by Land, or in a Boat down 
the River, but the Physician who has attended me, and the Grentleman 
of the house where I am dissuade me, alleging, that should a fever be 
created again, it would perhaps be more dangerous than that from which 
I have recovered. 

I have the honor to bo 

with the highest respect 

your Excellency's most obt 

humble Servant.'* 

Col: Wm. Davies to "Hon: Mb. Jameson in Council. August 2lth 


As the necessity of attending more strictly to the continental War Office 
arrangements becomes every day more evident, and as it is of the utmost 
consequence to have our accounts speedily settled, which cannot be exe- 
cuted with justice and accuracy, without a thorough acquaintance with 
the various resolutions of Congress tbat particularly interest us, and as 
it will require some time and attention to select them from the Mass of 
unconnected resolutions, and cannot therefore be executed by Mr. Smith, 
without considerable delay to his other business, and as a selection of 
this kind, wiU be of the utmost utility to all the different branches of 
government, and enable them, with ease to become possessed of a knowl- 
edge of all the Continental regulations and rules for the various depart- 
ments; I am therefore induced, from a conviction of the great conse- 
quences of it, to request the sanction of government to an appointment 
of this kind. His pay shall be determined totally by his services — For 
my part, I am so well convinced of the immediate necessity of it, that 
should the appointment be left with me, I will be answerable, in the 
course of two or three months at the utmost, to havo the business accu- 
rately executed in a fair, legible hand ; and all the resolutions of Congress 
relating to any department, regularly and methodically arranged under 
proper heads. When a work of tbis kind is brought up to the present 
date, it can always be continued with great ease. Indeed, I could then 
have it done in this office, which would be much better than remaining 
in the dark. At present however, it will be impossible for me to do it, 
but should I be entrusted with the nomination, would afford every 
information in my power, and would ensure a speedy and skilfull execu- 
tion of it. 

I have the honor to be, 

with the highest respect 

Your very obedient Servt." 


1781. Major J. Duval informing Col: Holt Rlcheson, that sixty three men 

August 26th from Henry County, have deserted from the third Regiment, in the Sec- 
ond Brigade of Militia. On this account he is unable to make a proper 
report Ac. 

August 26th Col: LsRot Peachy to Gov: Nelson. 

Richmond Setting forth the reasons why the militia of his County should be 
well armed — The Enemy threatens them, and there are "very few fire 
locks of private property fit for field" — He has only received 120 Stand 
of Arms from the public stores and more than twenty of these were in 
bad order, — without cartouch boxes or bayonets — Genl: Weedon, in his 
tour of the Northern Neck, had informed him he had one thousand 
stand for distribution, but could not deliver them without an order from 
the Executive. He therefore entreats to bo supplied with about 180, 

* with ammunition &c; can turn out about three hundred men, "who 

would fight to defend their pi'oporty " — Asks for a warrant for balance 
of £7320, bounty money due to recruits, part of which he has become 
responsible for by advancing it. The clothing due from the County, has 
long since been delivered to the Q. Master at Fredericksburg. In regard 
to the "flag business" he will pay due attention, and desires instructions 
how one from the Enemy is to be received should it appear, as is com- 
mon below, upon trifling pretences — Becommends as recruiting officer, 
Joseph Davenport, a young officer late of the State Troops, who is will- 
ing to act, but will require money; tho' he begs leave to say "that a 
Hhd: of. paper money would not get a man in this Quarter" — The pub- 
lic arms sent him were in such bad order, that he desires authority to 
employ an Armorer, or impress private Smiths Shops to repair them. 

August 26th Col: J. Parker to Col: Daviss. 

"Dear Davies, 
Smithfleld I am honored with yours of the 18th — ^it met me on my 

way home from Camp, having retired from military Ihity, and never do 
intend to take up the same profession in this Country, having done her 
ample justice — I may now vaunt, because I never expect or will accept 
' of any thing from a Country which I have found ungratefoll — I shall 
ever think myself honored by a correspondence with you, ft shall be 
happy in a continuance of it. More so after I cross the Atlantic, which 
will be attempted in a few weeks — ^previous to which I hope for the 
pleasure of seeing my old Mess-Mate, at which time, I can say more in 
Confidence^ than I would choose to convey on paper. 

I can at present say, that when I leave Virginia, there will not one 
remain, who wishes it better than I do, and few who have done more to 
serve her, and none who could have been better rewarded for turning 


traitor, a character I conceive of monstrous shape, and horrid Idea — 1781. 
such as will never lay hold on me — all this to yourself. August 26th 

The Cannon, 12 in number, are left entire at South Quay — 8 — 18 & 4 
24-pounder8 — ^three others are at Meade's landing, spiked, and one on 
the road from South Quay to Milners — ^Norfolk k Portsmouth are mere 
heaps of rubish — ^there are a number of Horses in the lower Counties, 
left by the British k stolen from them, would it not be well to have 
persons in each County appointed to receive them. 

I have left Colo. Wilis in command 'till the Governor's pleasure is 
known — Will you signify to Colo. Willis, whether it is the Governor's 
pleasure he should continue, and empower him to grant certificates for 
supplies, or whether another person is to releive him. 

I have a monstrous cold and am very unwell, or should sett off imme- 
diately to the Marquis k return by Richmond — this will be done as soon 
as I recover, but I scarcely expect it will be soon, and you will think so 
to, when I tell you I have not slept without my coat. Hat k Boots since ^ 

Lord Comwallis crossed James River untill his Departure from Ports- 
mouth; my indisposition prevents my saying more, but that I am very 
Sincerely, your friend k hble Servant." 

J. Prtob, '< Field Com: Mil: Stores" fob Va ro Col: Datieb. August 26th 

The arms found at Parishes in Goochland Co were sent to Capt: Frederic'sb'g 
Toung at Richmond, and by him to Capt: Bourn, for the Camp on South 
side James River. He can supply the Marquis from those now on their 
way from Fauquier Co House — via Raccoon Ford — Six hundred of those 
rec'd from the Northward with 20,000 Cartridges are reserved for the 
Militia of Prince William, Loudon k Fauquier Counties: these with 
what the Militia now have amnt to 1700 muskets in the Ten Counties 
of Northern Neck — Genl : Weedon wishes the two 4-pounder8 at Buck- 
ingham sent over to these Militia. 

Major Rn: Anderson to the Gtoyernor. Auguat 26th 

The Marquis informs him Col : Parker has not more than two hundred Baffin's 
men under him from the whole eight Counties — The Enemy having left Ferry 

Portsmouth, Princess Ann and Norfolk Cos: may now join him; and 
that he has not more than twelve hundred Militia under his own com- 
mand, notwithstanding the number ordered out: he has not received 
boats or wagons, either from Capt: Young or Claiborne. '*' "^ 

Col : Mathews was a few days ago^surprised antl lost twelve or fifteen 
men : the particulars not yet known. 


1781. Capt: a. Bohannan to Col: Da vies. 

August 25th 
Culpepper He haft just time to write by Mr. Strother, that he this day arrived 

^' ' with the last of the stores from Faaquier — Has stored them at this place 

ander guard — He is about to go to look after those at Fredericksburg, 

but learns GenI : Weedon has issued them to the Militia — He should 

have had these arms removed long since, but after having with great 

difficulty collected wagons, he was obliged to give them up to carry 

stores constantly called for by the Marquis. 

He has issued the arms for the defence of the Northern Neck, as 

ordered — the remainder are with him; also meiJicines, clothing Ac — The 

box of files supposed to be lost, he has found. ^ 


August 26th Colo John Cropper Jur to Col: Wm. Dayies. 


" Dear Colonel, 
Accomack I have before me your affectionate letter to my uncle 

Corbin, and thank you for your favorable sentiments of me. It was 
with the greatest reluctance I quit the army, by the peculiar circum- 
stances of my family compelled me to it. 

Indeed you have two letters for his Excellency Governor Nelson and 
one for yourself from my uncle : after perusing those for his Excellency 
please Seal & deliver them if convenient. You'll see my sentiments with 
respect to Mr. Lyons' case, and notwithstanding my nucleus request in 
his letter, for your intercession in his behalf, was he to lay aside his 
excessive humanity & tenderness of heart (of which perhaps he has the 
greatest share of any person living) he would think that a halter was 
hardly too severe for the parson. In haste, I beg leave to refer you to 
Capt: Walker & the inclosed. 

Your very respectfull Hum Servt." 

Aoguf t 25th Col : Wm. Clayton informs Col : Davies, that as the^County has never 

Now Kent been *Maid off into Divisions" owing to the Militia being constantly in 

^^* the field during the late Invasions, and the Officers being unable on this 

account to perform this duty, he is not able to make proper return of 

the clothing &c due the State. 

August 26th Major Rioh'd McCall, 3d Rbgt: L. Dragoons to Col: Davies. 

Powhatan Giving the condition of such part of the 1st and 3d Eegts: Dragoons 
as are in Virginia, — also a report from Lt: Colo Washington in regard 
to those with the Southern Army. 'Unless furnished with clothing they 
cannot possibly take the field this Winter — They are deficient in men, 


but this should not preclude their being supplied with clothing, in as 1781. 
much as the Marquis, and Baron Steuben assure him they shall have August 26th 
men, as soon as horses and accoutrements &c are procured — He is 
informed by an Officer just fi*om Frederick Town Maryland, that the 
"Horse appointments" engaged there by Mr. Nicholson are nearly 
ready — Not more than ten saddles, twenty swords and as many caps of 
those carried off by the Volunteers, have been recovered — Col : White 
informs him, the three hundred sides of leather referred to, and brought 
in by the people, have been made into shoes, halters &c for his Begt. 

Archibald Eitchie to Gov: Nelson. August 26th 

"Honble Sir, 

A certain Mr. Joell was in this place the 21st June ultimo, Tappahan- 
a pretended Aid to General Weedon, when there was a certain Capt: ^ 

Carrey & his crew in this Goal, taken in a small Privateer from Ports- 
mouth, nigh this place — Carrey obtained Leave of the Officer of the 
Guard, to send a messenger to Urbanna with a Letter to Mr. Simon 
Fraser, by that same messenger, I wrote to my old friend Mr. James 
Mills a Letter, a Copy of which, I am informed has been before you & 
the Honble Council — Mr. Fraser not being at home Mr. Mills Wrote me 
of the 20th, which has been before you also — this Letter our Co. Lieut- 
enant asked me to show him, which I freely did^K)n the sight of it, he 
Loaded both Mr. Mills and myself with Invectives not becoming any 
Gentleman — this Letter he shewed to the foresaid Mr. Joell, who imme- 
diately proposed that all my papers should bo seized, to which the Colo, 
of the County Acquiesced & they were accordingly seized and sealed up; 
in which condition they now Lay — some of which I am much in want 
of & on that Account have apply 'd to the County Lieutenant, that some 
Gentlemen might be appointed to examine them — his reply was that he 
never had received any orders respecting them : Therefore I now apply 
to your Honour (for which I hope you will Excuse me for breaking in 
upon you, when you must at this time have affairs of much more conse- 
quence before you) to order some Gentleman to Examine my Papers, and 
return them to me, for as my character is in some degree affected, I do 
not wish to be possessed of them again, without their being looked into. 
I have the honor to be 
Your most obt Servt." 

Colo. John Cropper Jnr: to Gov: Nelson. August 25th 



My appointment to the Lieutenancy of this County (by order of Accomack 
your Excellency in Council, signified to me by letter from Colonel Wil- 


1781. liam Davies of 23d ultimo) makes it my duty to inform you of the fol- 
August 25th lowing partioularo — 

I iSnd that only twenty five, out of seventy four divisions have fiir- 
nished their men under the late law, and there is great complaint on the 
part of these, that the delinquent divisions are not compelled to furnish 
their men also; Col: Corbin, the late Lieutenant delayed the draft, 
and never compelled these delinquent divisions to furnish their men, 
which in my opinion, has been of great injury to the County, and if not 
done, will be a just cause of making the zealous citizens hereafter back- 
ward in the service of his Country, and the obedience of its laws. 

The acts of assembly for raising cloaths and provisions for the use of 
the Army have not yet reached this Shore, and perhaps no part of the 
State is more able, or more willing to comply with them — this Shore has 
long been kept in ignorance, and exposed to the designing reports of the 
disaffected, for want of a due promulgation of the Laws. 

Our militia are in the most undisciplined state ; many of our public 
guns and muskets have been sold, lent or stolen for the use of private 
commerce ; and the remaining few do not appear as if they were for the 
purpose of war — the. Ammunition has shared the same, or worse fate, 
for want of which the County is almost defenceless; therefore, if it was 
possible, I shou'd be glad to have by this opportunity, two or three bar- 
rels of powder, a proportion of lead for musketry, and a quantity of 
Cartridge Paper; for other warlike articles I would do the best in my 
power, by fitting up the Arms, and collecting the cannon shot from pri- 
vate families — there is scarcely a fishing canoe that does not carry two 
or three in her grapnel ; and the public property has been generally 
thought free & legal plunder. 

One of the field pieces was stolen from its carriage in the night and 
put on board a vessel belonging to one William Garrison, a man of con- 
siderable property in this County, and notwithstand'g repeated informa- 
tion was made the Lieutenant, the gun to bo come at, the identity easily 
proven, yet proceedings never were had on the matter, altho' almost 
every body were crying out "for shame" — 

Well wishers to the State hoped there would be some punishment of 
abuses committed upon the public property, particularly in plundering 
the gallies, when the three Commissioners were appointed to examine 
into the State of the Accomack and Diligence gallies, laying on our 
shore — but the only good purpose I can find they answered, was to lend 
out the arms and stores: some to the State of Maryland, and some to 
the individuals of this and other States for the protection of private 
trade, while a new barge, commissioned by the State for Capt: Ontten, 
laying at Onancock, cannot possibly get out, for want of these articles, 
which Colo Corbin was order'd by government to supply him with. 

Your Excellency will please to pardon me for making free with the 
reputed first gentlemen amongst us, and of my first fHends & relations, but 


such has been the conduct of public affairs in Accomack, therefore it 1781. 
becomes me to speak the truth, offend who it will. August 26th 

I am requested by the fHonds to government in this county, to testify 
to your Excellency, their sincere thanks for your kind attention to this 
shore, in obtaining permission for the Eighteen Months' Men, and other 
soldiers to remain here for their protection ; and to assure you further, 
that the news of your filling the first post of honour in their State, dif- 
fused a universal joy & satisfaction throughout Accomack County. 

I am, 
your Excellency's 

most respectfull, hum : Servant." 

John Babclat to Gov: Nelson; August 25th 

Offering his services as agent for the State of Virginia, Congress Philadelphia 
having appointed him to attend to certain commercial adventures in 
France, for which country he is about to embark &c. 

Col: John Cboppsb Jnb to Gov: Nelson, — by Capt: Levin Watkins. August 25th 


Previous to my coming into Office, the Late Lieutenant embodied, Accomack 
and stationed for the protection of the county what substitutes were ^' 
furnished, and put them under the command of Capt : Thomas Parker 
of the Army, a young gentleman of good character — also a volunteer 
Troop of horse have assembled under the command of Capt: Thomas 
Parramore — this corps is chiefly composed of single young gentlemen, 
and they are gentlemen of the first fortunes and characters among us: 
ever since their appointments they have been on constant duty, under 
which they have shewn a most cheerful obedience to the strictest disci- 
pline, and do in my opinion, render very essential service— They have 
bound themselves in honor to serve for a certain time, during whi^ph 
they are to do constant duty, they are mounted and equipt at their 
own expence. all they ask of the publick is provisions & forage while on 
duty, which indulgence I hope will meet your Excellency's approbation. 

I have consulted most of the principal gentlemen in this county and 
they join me in opinion, that fifty of the regular Soldiers will be suffi- 
cient for a stationed force in this County, and that the other twenty 
four, when raised, may be sent to the army, as our wish is to take as few 
as possible from its numbers. It is the opinion also that we can furnish 
the Army with all the beef required by Law." ♦ ♦ » 

"A physician lives convenient to Capt: Parker's Station, and has 
attended his men — he says he wou'd continue to do so at a moderate 
allowance." ♦ ♦ n^ ^c ^c ^c 



1781. As to the caae of the Rev: John Lyon, I beg leave to make the fol- 

An^aBt 26Ui lowing observations. There was not so much in testimony against him 
as was expected, but from character he is certainly a very bad man. 
He has undoubtedly long and constantly traded with the Enemy — a 
vessell of his in that trade, was taken and made prize of by a Philadel- 
phia barge, and I wou'd risque whatever property depends on me, that 
it might yet be proven that not long since, he himself delivered a cargo 
of oats & provisions to the British Commissary at Portsmouth — The 
disaffected of his neighborhood (the best acquainted with his political 
character) absolutely will not give testimony against him, and the 
inoffensive Whig, in the character of a peasant, is actually afraid of the 
parson's influence to destroy him. He has married into a good family, 
thro* which the few persons of good character have signed the petition 
drawn in his favor — Every body is sorry for the family but I beleive his 
greatest advocate cannot but acknowledge him, a man of very bad 
private, as well as publick character. I beg leave to offer it to your 
Excellency as my sincere and unprejudiced opinion, that the people will 
not, with their consent, permit Mr. Lyon to remain in their Parish, and 
at the same time, that they wish no further punishment, than for him 
never to be seen again in the county, after a reasonable time to settle 
his affairs." 

With great respect 

I am &cJ" 

August 26th Thos: Andsrson, Com: of Provisions, to Col: Davixs. 

BuckiDgham The Orders respecting the estrays have been executed, by due notice 
being, given to private persons, and public advertisements over the 
county. Many horses have been taken up, which he will send to Capt 
Young and due account thereof rendered — Desires fhrther instructions 
as to supplying Capt: Bohannan's men — As to employing Boatmen, he 
can hire a number of negroes, accustomed to the navigation of the 
Elver, cheaper than he can get white men, or those who propose to put 
in a negro and get exemption from military duty — Continues " If you 
approve of hiring or engaging negroe watermen, I would recommend to 
you, to have a large Canoe made for each hand & lay them off into 
Brigades of 10 or 12 each, & Imploy a good, Industrious white man to 
overlook them & take charge of their lading &c. These Canoes will 
answer the River Service, as high up as this, much better than Bat- 
teaux — for the many Kapid Falls between Point Fork & Irving's Store 
will render it very difficult for them to pass heavy Loaded, whereas the 
Canoes can go a trip from said Store to Westham & back again, every 
Ten days, & each Canoe and hand carry down 5000 lbs & bring in return 
up 2000 lbs, & may go where the Batteaux cannot for want of water — 
These Canoes may be made this way, very speedily, and if it is only to 


cany the Flower which is ordered to be procured in the upper Counties, X781. 
it will be worth while to have them done" &c — He encloses a list of Atigust 26tb 
proper '< Characters for Cattle Drovers," approved by the County 
Lieutenant, and asks that exemptions from mil: duty be issued for 
them, and inform him what their wages are to be — As Paper is very 
scarce, he begs for authority to draw some from Capt: Bohannan. 

Jno Pierce Asst: C. Genl: informing him he has sent his instructions August 26th 
to the Commissioner of Provisions of King & Queen Co to assist in pro- Camp 
curing all he can collect for the troops — Mr. Robertson has informed him 
that six hundred men are to assemble at once, near Petersburg. He 
has sent out directions to Commissioners of Dinwiddle, Prince George 
and Chesterfield to furnish subsistence for them. 

Ed: Ruitin Jnr: to Gov: Nelson. August 26th 

Colo Senf appears so anxious to complete the "Fortress at Hoods," Camp King 
and deeming it advantageous to employ the quota of the Prince George wiliiam 
Mihtia for this purpose, he urges that those now in the field whose terms 
will soon expire be allowed to do this work, in place of the service in the 
field — By this method the Fortress can be finished before the "hard frosts 
set in," — and as he lives but a few miles from the place, he will cheer- 
fully do all in his power to "promote the Business." 

Col: John Hickman to Chas: Russsll D. Q. M — &o. August 26th 

He has received his Express, requiring the County to furnish its quota King Wil- 
of clothing Ac — But he has orders from the Executive not to draft the **" ^* 

Militia or collect clothing untill Airthcf Orders, in view of the frequent 
invasions of the Enemy — The Enemy are close by, at this time, and he 
is obliged to furnish a double number of men. 

Jos. Spsnoeb to the Exboutiys. August 27th 

Praying for permission to send Tobacco by the "Flag" going to OrangftCo. 
Charleston, to pay debts contracted there by Genl: Scott on account of 
himself and the Continental Officers of the Ya. Line, while prisoners of 
war. He had been a prisoner at Edisto, was captured in the militia at 
Grates' defeat, but not being in the regular service Genl : Scott could not 
allow him the releif sent for the Continental troops— He had to apply 
to Gentlemen of that city therefor, and received aid, through their kind- 


1781. ness — This indebtedness he now desires to acknowledge and be allowed 
August 27th to remove — Having hoard of various slanders and reports detrimental to 
his conduct at the disastrous defeat of Gates, he earnestly desires to 
know what stops ho shall take to have the matter fully investigated. 

August 27th Col: Chas: Dabnet to Col: Da vies. 

Goochland He has collected one hundred and twenty four State Troops, and sev- 
enty one six months men at that place, but knows not how many there 
are at the other places of rendezvous. 

Hopes to get a large number of six months men — ^has enlisted seven 
men for the war — ^Asks for an Order for Over-alls and clothing for the 
State Troops, who are almost naked — Ho cannot drill the troops without 
arms, and is anxious to get enough for a regiment, so that they may be 
prepared soon to take the field. 

August 27th Chas: Thomas informs Col: Davies, the leather for the harness and 
"Warwick Collars will be ready in a few weeks. 

August 27th Col: J as: Babbour to Col: Davies. 

Culpcper He has delivered the wagon purchased by the County for the Army, 
to Q. Master Young at Fredericksburg; has sent the six months men to 
Capt: Peyton at Albemarle Barracks — He can send to the field three 
hundred and fifty two men, and desires to know whether the whole of 
these, or one fourth are now required. 

August 27th Capt: J. Pryor informs Col: Davies, the arms from the Northward 
Prederic*sb*g via Fauquier have at last arrived, — these with what he find? in the Fac- 
tory amount to 600 stand, and 50,000 Musket Cartridges, which will suf- 
fice for the Marquis — He has appointed Mr. Wm. Frazer Conductor of 
Mil : Stores and sent him to Fauquier Co House to report to Capt: 
Bohannan. This Officer will take charge of the residue of the arms 
over to Wesham to equip the Troops on the So: Side Jas: River — The 
extra amount of ammunition, cannon &c. from the North he has sent to 
Orange Ct House for safety, ^^this being a Continental matter" and Mr. 
Jones having requested him to do so. 

Angtut 27th Col: Turner Southall informs Mr. Chas: Russel D. Q. M., that he is 
Henrico not expected to Furnish the clothing required until it is collected; and 


this duty attaches to the first Justice of the County Isaac Young- 1781. 
hushand, who will doubtless, upon application to him, give proper reasons August 27th 
why it has not been done. 

Chas: Bussxll, D. Q. Mastib, to Col: Wm. Daviss. August 27th 

It is out of his power to forward supplies without transportation and Bichmond 
he has only two wagons, which are now engaged in hauling forage for 
this post, which employs them exclusively. He has been obliged to 
mount the Boats on Wagon Carriages; has sent Flour to General Wayne 
and two hundred thousand weight of Bacon ; will send the remainder to 
the Marquis — Has written to all the Commissioners in the district to 
furnish him wagons, but has heard nothing from them. 

Capt: John Ballard Jub: to Col: Dayixs. August 27th 

Reporting the number of horses he has collected, from those left by Lunenburg 
Col : Tarleton in the County — He could have gotten more, but the peo- 
pie having heard of the action of the Council had anticipated him, and 
gotten possession of many — Only seven so far secured — Many have been 
carried off and sold — ^Many citizens have horses left by Tarleton, in 
exchange for those he carried off, and they therefore are determined not 
to give them up — ^Rev: Mr. James Craig has several, which he begs to 
be allowed to retain, in as much as he lost nine — Asks for instructions, 
as to what he is to do to " the scoundrels*' who steal them and carry 
them off — also how he is to proceed against those who refuse to become 
accountable for them in their possession — ^He charges 300 Dolls: for his 

J. Boune gives reasons to Col: Da vies, why he has collected so few August 27tb 
arms — Farris delivered only thirty seven muskets, because he had to Goochland 
shoe Col : White's horses — James has delivered thirty two, and had ^* ^* 
already sent forty eight to Charlottesville — Gideon's men have all been 
sick, consequently not able to work on them. The Marquis will be dis- 
appointed at such small receipts. 

M. Chkvallis, to Gov: Henry op Va. August 27th 

Bringing letters of recommendation, with the view of pressing the New York 
claim of his fiiither, against the State of Virginia, as the agent of M. de 
Beaumarchais ; he having acted as supercargo in a vessel whose cargo 
was bought by the State, and paid for, in part with Tobacco— but leav- 
ing a balance still due of "5420 Pounds hard money" &c. 


1781. Jolly Parish incloses to Col : Davies a list of Horses collected by him, 

August 28th which are supposed to have belonged to the British — The people claim 

Goochland many of them; and refuse to give up those they have in posseesion — 

Some owners have proved their property in many and he felt obliged to 

surrender them. 

August 28th Jno: Lightfoot informs Col : Davies, that he has on hand a large quan- 
Albemarle tity of leather at the Public Tan Yard, but for want of a currier to dress 
*"*^ it, cannot make it available. 

August 28th Berryman Green TO CoL: Davies. 

Richroond In regard to furnishing Col : Dabney's Troops — By the last returns, 
there are on hand about one hundred and Sixty Tents, an equal number 
of Camp Kettles & about four or five hundred Knapsacks — Major Clai- 
borne has promised to forward the Kettles to the Southern Array, and 
most of the knap-sacks have been assigned to Col : Febiger's Troops — 
He is about to communicate with Major Claiborne upon other matters 
and will make further enquiries on this head — He has no Axes or other 
Camp equippage, on hand — Mr. Hunter's Works are the only dopend- 
ance for these latter, and but few to be gotten there. 

August 28th Archibald Campbell M. D. to Col: Davies. 

— Point Bequests to be allowed to keep, for a time, a horse he took up alter 

the British left that place — He has suffered seriously himself in this mat- 
ter, having two of his horses in the cavalry and one taken by Tarleton, 
and is obliged to put his riding horse to the Plough — Having been 
appointed by the Surgeon Genl: to take charge of the sick and wounded 
in his neighborhood, he considers himself in the service, and feel^ war- 
ranted in making this request — The last horse taken from him, was a 
very valuable one: was taken by Col: Parker's men, without giving him 
either "certificate or valuation" — The horse he desires to keep was 
** brought from Ninety-Six." 

August 28th Major Bd: McCall to Col: Wm. Davies. 

Powhatan Tour favour of the 26th Inst: rec'd & thank you for communicating 

your observations on the Dress of the Dragoon who carried my dis- 
patches, as it affords me an opportunity of explaining what undoubtedly 
appeared as a glaring instance of neglect & likewise of asscribing causes 
why errors happened, should there be any. 


The Dragoon had on, instead of a coat, what among Cavalry is called 1781. 
a stable-jacket; it being exactly of the very length & shape, with proper August 28th 
Cuff & Cape for Stable Dress: under that Column was 44 good & 8 bad 
of the Third Regt., 16 of those returned good, would I really boleive by 
most other officers have been returned unfit for Service, being originally 
made out of a coarse Kind of Shalloon or Serge, itre now mostly thread- 
bare & will not hold together much longer." * » ♦ 
"With respect to the man Mr. Thornton sent, I do not know whether 
his was a coat or Stable Jacket, he being on Command at the time I 
made out the return, as well ^ 20 others, all which I returned fully 
cloathed except those whom I knew destitute of some few articles " — 

* * "it was my most ardent wish as well 
as my duty to lay before government a just & true representation of the 
Regt. — "It is a maxim with mo to hide from Public view, as much as 
possible the wants or wretched appearance of the Regt:, for which reason, 
whenever Commands or Expresses are sent out (especially in the latter 
case) to take such men as make the most decent appearance, & although 
I had objects of distress, without any other covering than a cap & shirt, 
the latter torn in several places, yet 1 should have thought myself guilty 
of great indelicacy & indeed presumptive ostentation to present at the 
State House, with public dispatches such a spectacle. 

The Waistcoat which my Dragoon had on, was not Regimental or 
public property— one which he, by some means had procured for him- 
self — of such there are several in the party, as well as some few articles 
among the waiters, furnished them by the Officers they attend — which 
not being public property, were not included in the Return. 

I believe that Bridles, Halters, Stirrup Irons and Curry Combs might 
shortly be got of Mr. Hunter at Fredericksburg, & part of almost all the 
articles wanted, might be made at Winchester, provided the workmen 
could have any certain prospect of getting speedy payment — & all the 
other articles might be made in two or three months at Phila & Lan- 
caster, or the other manufacturing Towns in Pennsylvania & Maryland.'' 

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ « 

" The Light Infantry acting with Colo Washington at present, are a 
detachment from the Lino. In the Regulations for the Army published 
last year by Congress, each Regt : of Cavalry is to become Legionary 
Corps, consisting of 4 Troops horse of 60 Rank & file each, & two Com- 
panies, Light Infantry of the same strength." ♦ ♦ ♦ 

" I am unfeignedly thankful for your advice & shall always entertain 
a grateful remembrance of whatever you may hereafler please to bestow; 
as it is my wish to do that which is wright, tho most certain way of 
approaching it is, by being informed when I am wrong. With increased 
regard & perfect respect, I am, 


Yr: most obt Servt." 


C. H. 

1781. Col: Chas. Dabney to Col: Wm. Dayies. 

August 29th 
Goochland He has two hundred men already collected ready for service, but the 

State Troops are so badly provided with Clothes they are not fit for the 
field — Thinks it best not to draw their winter clothing, but wishes to 
get shirts, over-alls & shoes for them — Would be glad to get money suffi- 
cient to enlist about one hundred men by the Fall — and will retain the 
funds in his own hands, to be paid out as the men are enlisted, and not 
given to the Officers. 

August 29th Capt: Leyin Joynes to Col: Wm. Dayies. 

Accomack Requesting to be furnished with an Order for Five thousand pounds 
of Tobacco ; that amount having been voted each of the Officers who 
were then Prisoners with the Enemy, by the Genl: Assembly, and he 
having never received his — although application had been made for it 
through Mr. Henry Armistead. 

August 29th Rd: Yarborough informs Col: Davies he has collected fifty two horses, 
Dinwiddle and there remain about twelve more secreted — ^Asks for instructions in 
^^' this matter — ^He has delivered the horses to Capt Young, ftimished him 
a register of them and taken receipts — ^The Expense of this duty belongs 
to the Quarter Master's department; and he will submit to any allow- 
ance thought sufficient for his services. 

August 29th James McHenry informs Col: Davies "the General has no objection 
BufBn's to granting a warrant for carrying on the tannery at Albemarle" pro- 
Ferry yided the State of the Treasury will allow it, and the shoes, in a proper 
proportion, be subject to his control. 

August 29th Jerman Baker to "Honble Mr. Jamison." 

Chesterfield Introducing Mr. Duncan, who goes to Richmond to obtain compensa- 
tion for horses improperly taken from him — ^He is glad of this opportu- 
nity of affording him the pleasure of "removing a just cause of com- 
plaint, the frequency of which has given more real disgust to the people 
at large, than any other Act, which necessity has compelled the Grovem- 
ment to adopt, & which has generally proceeded from the licentious & 
insulting conduct, two generally practiced by the military." 


Col: D« Fishsb to Col: Wm. Davisb. 1781. 

August 29th 
He has lately rec'd a number of papers, with the covers broken, which GreensTille 

had evidently been opened and read. He mentions this, that measures 
may be taken to prevent this "inordinate practice" much increasing — 
The orders referring to the recovering the public arms, &c — the letter in 
regard to the private arms; the instructions to appoint assistants to the 
Commissioners of the Provision Law, he will give attention to at once — 
But he cannot carry out the demand for the clothing in as much as the 
County of Brunswick being four times the strength of Greenesville, 
claims the controlling power in this matter and in raising the State's 
quota for the Continental Line — Col : Mason who will deliver this, will 
be glad to receive instructions, as to the necessity of the two Counties 
acting as one. 

RoB'T Crew to Col: Wm. Davibs. August 80th 

He got over to Pungoteage on the 20th, but was so unfortunate as to Accomack 
lose all his papers and letters at the entrance of the harbor, owing to his 
having been chased by two barges and a sloop from Baltimore. He and 
other passengers put their effects into one canoe, with a man to take 
them ashore, but it was unfortunately upset, and the papers being ^< fixed 
for sinking" were unavoidably lost. 

He has however seen most of the gentlemen to whom the letters were 
addressed, and they assure him he shall have every assistance in expe- 
diting the business he is charged with, so that the loss of the papers will 
not cause much delay. 

Colo. Cropper, the Co. Lieutenant sent a man with letters of his own 
who will carry this — He has written to Mr. Ross by way of Hobshole — 
The Afbirs in this county and Northampton are in a much better situa- 
tion than they have been for some time — Capt Parker commands a small 
company of regulars, and there is a Troop of Horse in each County — ^No 
person now dares to resist the drafts, or the collection of taxes — The 
generosity of the people are well disposed, and the late disturbances 
arose from the feeble manner in which the late officers have acted, and 
*' from their neglecting to suppress in time, a few factious men who had 
influence with the lower set of people " — A vessel is just arrived, whoso 
Captain says he sailed out of ''Cape Francois on the 6th or 7th August, 
in company with a Fleet of French Ships, of ''25 Sail of the line, and 
transports with 10,000 Troops," said to be bound to Havanna — &c. 


Ai^M*t 4iinii hu]^ I^(/i« ill t4ifi4^- 4 MH^ ol X«ir— Hil wiutsii in will j^Bcr^i nc- jxmcii 
iiMiiiiiMMid a*r AUixi U iMMiciuci. lur ^ijt urn iHi tiit J^uqiOttk, suid citNurfl(^ %d knvw hsm 

AMi^iMt Mill ^;Ai>' i\^m: j&jJU-MMTjjflLf. 9t> lf.A^Qii OLAJscaaa — lOopr.) 

Xvu «^v ^ ii^v^r lUi tiiUi^ -UiiAe Uoifi aitf^ Sit EkaboKwd «aa down u> 

|fMi^# V^trrf. ll7J(4l UUr 4KUIM4III 4lw|ilHUAL If li^ GtBi Boot is BOC gol 

ajIa^A^a^ lliMx^Aut> f>«liiijr«MAf, irW '^Uttm* tidtt ti^ej ouij be sent down 

1 iUHR. your HiimUe Serrmnt.^ 

AM§ml^ mk Capt: i. Pktoe to Col: Davibs. 

MM^Mf f iiforiiiiiig liiio of bk biiving gotten so fiu* on bis way to Camp, and 

Tmitm ri^i/tji^itiiig iUii ^uiQuui htifore given of tbo diiipotsition of the arms sent 

from Vnmiuiar Co, Iloune, including the Six bundred stand for the Mar- 

<|Mitt, UiHiHi for thu Cam|i Ui be found on So: Side James Biver, and those 

Ittit ^l (Jartei'*** Ferry. 

4MgM«^ ^iU iiwu: Ito: Lawhon to Colo Daviss. 

** iHm' Hir, 

IV- l6«iw<irU Krtnu your tUvor of the 20th Inst:, I am sorry to find that 

(iuiil; (heeii muut bo strongly roiuforoed IVom this State or N. Carolina 
tu uimble htm {o retain passu oi' a Country, which he has regained with 
su umuti toil Jt pei*severan(!e — Tho* at the i^me time you omit to inform 
me whuthm* the Militia heretofoi'e ordered out> will actually marcher 

I ^hui^Vmii the suspeuee gives me some anxiety; as I certainly should 
have beeu in camp loAg siucH» had it not been owing to the Leiters 
veevdv'd t\\uu Uoverument, that 1 thought it my du1;y to wait — ^I most 
uow euti'eat you to be explicit ou this head — I should suppose as the 
weather is uuw more &vorable to such a march, than when the orders 
tlvst came out, the objection ou that account would subside: ** * 

Ilk « « * :|c 

Most oi' the i'ouuties Urder*d*out have li\iruisbed men to complete my 
tti'igade below, which 1 dud is exceedingly diminished in conseqniuice of 
their being ordered to Uenl: tireene — I must beg you once a^un to &vor 


I ^T« IW boAor lo b^v 

Willi gnMil r«i|MM>l« l>r. Sir. 




GoT*ft Thomas BrnKC Tiib Uuy*ii N«uk>k or Ya. Av\8u»i aiCHIi 

In my last, whioh wiua lUt^l the 15th af thia month. I infonu^U H^Ufi^i^, 
you of my Intention to viait the Seii Porta of thia St^te in orvlor to euoou^ ^* ^' 
age the Importation of Salt, I have been at Bdonton, tVom where I um 
Just returned, and have given the Mercantile People auch aaaurauceB of 
protection and punctual payment aa has restored their ooutiiieuee in the 
Public, and they have assured roe, that they will in iUture direct their 
commerce towards ftimishing the necessary supplies. The time which 
I could spare, was so short, that they could not digest particular plans 
and Engagements, but such as are to be transmitted tq me without 

Free and liberal principles are alone such as will revive our commerce 
and give us supplies in abundance. The property of the (Commercial adven- 
turer must not be wrested from him by power, nor must the payments 
be refused or delayed — the former renders profits and property so preca- 
rious as to destroy the spirit of adventure, the latter renders the mer- 
chant unable to prosecute his adventures by witholding the means — 
Ck>nvinced of this, I have assured the Merchants that no Impressments 
shall be suffered, and that they shall be paid in produce for whatever 
they shall furnish to the publick — Your merchants may be assured of the 
same Protection as ours, and if ours can supply your wants, I shall most 
cheerfully assist by every means in mypower — I shall immediately give 
orders for purchasing all the Halt which can be found in Such Ports of 
this State as can be secured from the Enemy; but while they ai*c among 
us, and are able to supply and put in motion so UAny disatfccted, no one 
place is secure, and no works can be carried on — ^They have lately visited 
Sewbem, from wheoce large supplies of Bait were usually drawn, and 
it is mnch to be feared that they intend destroying our Bait works on 
the Sea Coast. 

I expect General Wayne here every day, and if I can prevail on him 
to assist us for a little time, I make no doubt of destroying our Internal 
Enemies root and branch : this will be an essential service, because it will 
leave this State then at full hberty to employ all her exertions in the 
common cause, which must otherwise be diverted against those mis. 
ereants — In truth Sir, our Sea Ports which are at present so important, 
will be rendered almost useless, unless we can be freed from this pest — 
and so entirely unprepmred are we, that we cannot suppress them with- 


1781. out much lapse of time, if left to our own efforts altogether. I have 
August 80th had no letter from you since I left Nutbush, and as I have left a Grentle- 
man there to transmit any that might arrive, I suppose none have 

This will be delivered by Mr. Hawkins, one of our Delegates, who is 
on his way to Congress — he will inform you of the progress of the 
Enemy, and every thing which is current in this State, and I have at 
present no particular Intelligence. 

I am Sir, with the highest Esteem and 

regard, Your very Obedt Servt." 

AufcuBtdist Eich: Banks to thb Govbbnor. 

Hobbs' Hole Interceding for *'Thos: Probert a prisoner at Hanover Ct House, sent 
there by Col : Wm. Roane with Capt Carey and others from this place, 
for merely carrying a letter from Mr. Bitchie to Mr. Mills, and on his 
return from Urbana, bringing a reply to the same. 

August Slat Thos: Clements, Comm: P. Law, — to Col: Davibs. 

Southampt'n He has complied with the Orders in regard to collecting estray horses 
and cattle belonging tp the Enemy, and after a diligent search has not 
found any in his district — Will continue the search — Asks for a few 
more assistants, because of the extent of his District. 

August 8i8t Bebrtman Green to Col: Davies. 

Richmond Promising him every assistance from his Department in complying 
with the Marquis' requisitions. By the next day at noon, Expresses 
will be ready to communicate with all the Posts in the Department, and 
he is preparing a Circular to his Assistants urging every effort on their 
part towards fowarding supplies to the Army — &c. The want of funds 
obliges him to ask for an Order on Colo Southall for a party of Militia, 
say twenty four men, to report to Capt: Bussell for the purpose of cany* 
ing six boats to Minge's Ferry by Order of the Marquis — These boats 
may take with them a considerable supply of provisions. Unless this 
be done the business cannot be executed. These men may be kept 
employed, and thereby be allowed credit for a term of duty. 



Col* Thos: Oaskins to Col: Wm. Dayies. 

He has been awaiting the arrival of the linnen and shoes — Mr. 
Stokely will give his rec't for "106 pr: shoes'' all he got. The linnen 
was left at Mr. Binald (By land) Randolphs — subject to orders — The 
wagon sent, was taken by Doctor Monro to remove the sick, left at Mal- 
vern Hills, to the Hospital at Hanover Town. Begs the linnen may be 
made up at once " into shirts & over-alls " as the men are greatly in want 
of clothing, the greatest part of the Regiment so ragged, that "many of 
the soldiers are almost reduced to a state of nature'' — ^He should have 
represented this state of things long ago, but has been depending upon 
Col : Febiger's promises to give him releif. 


August Slst 


Major D. Stbvbnson 6th Ya. Rbqt: to Col: Daviss. 

Sept. Ist 


I have been informed that Government has agreed to pay off the Bichmond 
debts contracted by the Officers while in captivity in South Carolina, 
particularly that for which Oenl: Scott was security. 

As I am sure Gk)vemment designs no partiality to her officers, I have 
collected the amount of the accounts of a number of them, which I take 
the liberty of transmitting to you, in order to let you see, that unless some 
adequate allowance is made, injustice will be done to those who have con- 
tracted but small debts, as well as to those who have contracted none 
(of which last number I am one) — I must also inform you that a consid- 
erable part of the Bills sent by the State for the immediate releif of the 
prisoners, was applied to the credit of the account for which Genl: Scott 
was security, altho' several of them had received no part of it — I have 
now to request you to represent the matter to Government, and have 
their opinion on it, as soon as possible, as it will by no means suit me to 
continue long in Town." 

I have the honor to be Ac.'* 

Berry: Green, informs Col: Davies, that the Military Stores referred Sept. Ut 
to a few days before had not been appropriated as he supposed. "The Bichmond 
tents: Knapsacks, camp Kettles and 1200 Havre Sacks" could be at once 
furnished to the Marquis' Troops. 

Jno. Allen sends by Peter Turner in a canoe 11796 cartridges, eight Sept Ist 
barrels k three boxes; 12 cartridges In a package— I will send 15000 Irvin's Btora 
more by the first opportunity — ^The repaired arms to be sent as soon as 
the boxes to contain them are ready. 


1781. David Boss to Gov: Nelson. 

Sept. Irt "Sir, 

Eichmond Agreeablo to your Excellency's desire, I have wrote to Mr. Browo, 

respecting sale of provisions, and sent him a copy of the Estimate, which 
is but a rough calculation — You'll observe the supplies proposed to be 
drawn from the several Countys, of Flour alone, exceeds the supposed 
consumption of the Fleet & Army — I am pretty well convinced, such 
quantities cannot be procured at once, the demand is so sudden and unex- 
pected. I would therefore recommend to your Excellency to make use 
of Indian Meal, at least as much as I have calculated upon — ^this will be 
readily procured very agreeable to our militia and many of the Conti- 
nental Troops. 

I am satisfied it will be in the power of the Country Mills to find a suf- 
ficient number of barrels in time— I think it would be well to permit 
them to use hhds: where they cannot procure blls: especially for meal. 

I would also advise all the Flour & Meal to be Inspected at the land- 
ings by men of Integrity, which will be the best security to prevent bad 
flour, false packing & short weight. 

The present demand is so great, that it will recquirer the utmost exer- 
tions to comply with it in due time, and I think very much depends on 
the peoples having confidence in Govemt. making them adequate pay- 
ment. Many of them have suffered exceedingly already, and I take the 
liberty of advising you to give them the most ample satisfaction on this 
head, if the people exert themselves you may expect great matters — 
but if the mills are to be impressed and grain impressed, I fear it will be 
attended with great expence, great delays and create a kind of sham 
employment for a number of idle men that might be better employed. 
I suppose the French will pay for all the Flour & Provisions they have. 
We shall want Bills of Exchange very much to remit to Mr. Ponet for 
the public debts due there — if your Excellency can with propriety order 
matters so with the French Consul that the supplies go through the pub- 
lick, we may secure the Bills, which will be a great convenience to us at 
this time— I will wait upon the French Consul if necessary. 
I am with the greatest respect 

Your very humble Servant 
Ac Ac." 

Sept 1st Thos: Anderson to Col: Davibs, by the Canoe carrying down ammu- 

Bnckingbain Informing him that buildings cannot be gotten in that neighborhood 
at once for the reception of Public Stores. The houses formerly used 
for storing tobacco are all pulled to pieces. He has, almost completed, 


several large houBee, which he will cheerfully let the Grovernment use, 1781. 
provided his Brick-layer be not ordered off in the militia and he can get Sept. let 
a few nails, which he can pay for in Iron or Meal, and which cannot be 
gotten at all in that County — These houses are situated on a Hill 
within a few hundred yards of a good landing on the Biver, half a 
mile from the Main Boad and two miles from Irving's Store, ''where 
the Ferry across James Biver & Bock Fish Biver is" — 

He should expect strict regulations to be enforced at this Post, so that 
his surrounding property should not be depredated upon — Invites Col : 
Davies up to see the premises for himself. 

Col: Tubnxb Southall to Col: Davies, in reply. Sept let 

He had never objected to the militias being employed in the Q. Mas- 
ter's department, provided the County from which they go has credit 
for them — Is satisfied his County has furnished its full quota, but will 
order out the one fourth men required, and he may be relied upon to 
keep the number up to requirements. 

Majr: B Claiborne to Col: Davies. Sept. ist 

He will furnish the Beturn of the articles furnished the Infantry and Bichmond 
Cavalry raised in the State, as soon as possible. The Quarter Master of 
the Army, with whom he keeps his accounts, disposes of all articles 
delivered to him, consequently he will be delayed in rendering the 

account desired, until that officer can fiirnish him the data necessary. 

♦ ♦ ♦ « ♦ 

He will continue to exert every possible endeavour towards securing 
the success of any measure of Government. But Agents who have "no 
means and consequently little or no credit'' cannot be expected to do, 
what they would otherwise cheei*fully attempt He makes this remark 
in justice to himself and officers and to the Country. 

Caft: John Prtor to Col: Davies. Sept ist 

**Dear Sir, 

Your small letter in answer to mine from Jolly Parish' I just Head Quar- 
received. The letter 1 wrote you by Capt Lawson, I presume must w'!!?^ * 
have given you some light into Genl : Weedon's regulations, the 1000 
men with arms the Marquis means to call from the Northn Neck will 
leave no more than the quota you proposed for that district. 

What arms or other military stores were sent on by Capt : Bohannan 
and detained by Genl : Weedon I know not. I was apprehensive that 


1781. Issaes had been made from Fredericksburg by order of Genl: Weedon, 

SepL Ut aa for instance some arms sent to Leed's Town which I suppose are 

those mentioned to be received by Col : Lee at Westmoreland." * ♦ 

" I could wish most sincerely that a certain mode was adopted and 
made generally known to prevent those interferences you mention. As 
the arrival of Military Stores from the Northward for this State have 
been so irregular from their not being brought farther on than the Virga 
lino & then left liable to many accidents and interfering orders: suppose 
that a line of communication was settled on, and a Com'r Mil: Stores 
stationed at a certain post to receive k forward them on agreeable to 
particular orders he might have, & to no others ? 

The Marquis requesting that Richmond should become a Magazine I 
must appoint a person to attend there— those muskets & cannon cart- 
ridges wch I directed to Orange C. Ho, I must beg that Capt Young 
would send for them, and at the same time facilitate the arrival of the 
arms under care of Mr. Frazer, wch are much wanted — ^Powder and 
Lead being much wanted for the Rifle Men, I have sent Mr. Maupin to 
Charlottesville to hurry it down — I understand that some lead is at 
Richmond, amongst it some damagd cartridges, from which the balls 
may bo separated and sent down with the lead. Capt Toung I hope will 
have this done, and sent down with the greatest expedition — I congratu- 
late you on the arrival of the French Fleet." 

I am Dr Sir, with the highest respect &c. 

P. S. Last three letters just rec'd — He has written to Capt : Bohan- 
nan, at Fauquier Co House to got some one to take charge of the 600 
arms there; to send Frazer to Westham with the balance — The spare 
arms at Orange Co H. to be sent to Richmond. A vessel might be got- 
ten in which Frazer could bring them down to supply the Militia camps 
at Black-water & elsewhere — The 300 stand of arms for Col : Dabney to 
be detained until a special conductor be sent to take charge of them. 

Sept. lat Capt: J. Pbyoe to Col: Bavies. 

"Dear Sir, , 

Head Qaar- I arrived in camp last Evening, and on a conference with the 

ton Holt's Marquis, he wishes to have all the arms that can be collected, as well as 
those which I mentioned to you that I had directed to West Ham from 
Fauquier Co Ho to be immediately brought down to Shirley, and If by 
water the better as they might proceed lower as they might be wanting. 
I have not seen Capt Bowno or beard from Mr. Reynolds (C. M. Stores) 
nor can I answer the Marquis wth respect to the collection of those 
arms sent for to the several counties — Inclosed I send you a return of 
the arms in the Northn Neck counties. 

caCbnbak op state papers. 377 

The Harqais talks of calling on 1000 of those Militia to Join him. 1781. 
6000 is the number of Militia he wishes to have in the Field — he counts Sept. Ist 
upon not more now in camp than 1000 — he expects 1000 Riflemen — 
Capt: Bohannan must be push'd as to the repairs of arms, or I don't 
know what I shall do — The Marquis wishes all the musket cartridges as 
fieist as made, and in short all military stores of every kind to be col- 
lected at Richmond as soon as possible, & fVom thence to be brought 
down the River." ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

I am Dear Sir 

Yours very Respectfully 

&c &c. 

Col: John Syme to John Browne Esqb C. 6. of Supplies &o. Sept. ist 

**Dear Sir, 

From what Mr. Hawes related to me, that passed between Bockey Mills 
You k Him on the Subject of Flour, Have pushed Treading out my 
Wheat above, where Water is plenty. But you must immediately write 
me Tour Terms (for that is best, indeed quite necessary) & if generous 
will close with them. J assure you on my honor that more than two 
merchts at Richmond, have importuned me to take money in hand last 
Week, at an Estimated price & make it up hereaflcr the Highest price. 
I expect You'll send me some cash, for Can got not one Hhilllng from the 
Treasurer & am quite out. Harry went after you last week for some, 
but could not find you. You must contrive it to me for I am really in 
want at present I Directed him to get the Pasturage Acct. Settled, 
web now may be done, seeing there are very few cattle Remaining, I 
am told by Mr. Graves. I hope you can make it convenient to take 

them — pray Don't forget my memo as to Boswell &c. * ♦ * 

Your mo: Obed: Servt. 

&c &c. 

Col: Chas: Dabney to Col: Davies. Sept. Ist 

" Dear Col, 

Lieut : Harper waits on you for the Arms and Cloathing for Goochland 
my Regiment. 1 am much obliged to you for the Order you have ^* ^* 
obtained of the Marquis for the necessary Articles of Camp Equipage 
for the Rogt: please to deliver it to Mr. Harper. 

I can assure you the Marquis cannot be more anxious for my tak'g the 
field than I am. I have ordcrd the Officers at the different posts to send 
in the Men immediately to this place, and hope to have them collected 
in a few days." * * * . * * 

I am Sir, 

yr: obed Servant 

&c &c. 


178L Cavt: Cmami Bmu. A. D. Q. M. to K&jcol 

Wkm onkted to re|Mir to tkas pUee wm» a£ K«v Glsi^ v m Amkent 
IB elkmrge of * ^omiiutj of Q.lbtten k ConuBissuj Scoksl He ajniT«d 
oo the 23d mod iauod no supplies mad do mesne of tiafi«portiB^ sbj to 
thMl port. Tlie vagone he hahd ased in forwrniding the boetiS £v the 
ICerqnia. instead of collecting proristoK^ with them. The Cosanus- 
siooers in that District cannot foniadb him with siipplie& as they have 
had no instmetMns £rom Mr. Brown the State Commiai<ioner. under 
whom thcj aie aadng. He id applied to as an Execntire Officer con- 
tinnaUj. lor sopphes. hot cannot answer any of these demands No 
public mannfiietiires carried on thene. no money to porehase materials, 
or to hire any one to do an hon^s work: to think of m a king porrhases 
or engaging persons to work on the iaith of the State is Tan — as the 
people say they can no longer sobsiat nnless paid fixr their serrices, or 
assured of receiving their money whem dne — ^The public may give over 
all hopes in the intnre of engaging men, onleas for numeyy none of which 

SMt. Sad Majo& & (XAiBoan to Gov: Xklsul 


ttiehmood I do myself the honor to acquaint yoar Excellency, that I arrived 

in town the evening before last, tho' am &r finom being recovered to nj 
former strength. I however commence in bnsineaB^ and hope not to meet 
with so severe an intemiption again. # ^ « 

I beg leave to mention to your Excellency that the Quarter Master at 
this post has the orders of Major General the Marquis do Lafi^yette to 
forward all the Boata at this place without delay to Miage's Feny ^ — 
This he cannot possibly do without men and as be has not the means to 
induce them to give their assistance, I b^ an Order from Your Excel- 
lency, that may be effectual in this case, as the County Lieutenant, to 
whom an application was made, declined to do anything in it. 

A non-eommisnoned Officer 4 twenty men will be sufficient, and not 
less, as there is a Gun-Boat to be got up, that is Sunk in the fiivsr, and 
Sent down at the same time: in all eight boats and will be loaded with 
provirioas. The Order is from the Marquis and dated four days ones, 
4 seemingly little done ki obedience to it, nor can there be in proper 
time, unless Tour Excellency will be pleased to dirsot the Md requiied, 
as it would be attended with too much delay to procure ntrnk from the 

I hope that my requesting the attention of your ExceHenqy to public 
business on the Sabbath may not be disagreeable to yoo. 

I have the honor to be 

with the highest respect 

Ac Ac. 
*Kow Wcjyaaoke Landing. 



Gov: NELaoif to Capt: Piiroi, Smithfiold. 

The armament lately arrived will roquiro largo cmppHoH of vlno^r A 
vegetables, both which articles abounding in ThIo of Wyght Co\ hu tuktm 
occasion to request his aid in procuring tliem — monoy will ho ndvuntuMi 
to him if needed — The articlos should bo doHvorod at llog InIhuiIi whoru 
they can be distributed to the fleet &c. 

He^il. 9i\il 

Gov: Nelson to John Brown Esqr. CoMiiiHHAuy (}«ni<. 



The very large supplies of Provisions nooossary fbr the ammniont 
lately arriyd and fbr the Troops expected from the Northward require 
Ae most vigorous and unremitting exertions. 

Your attention must be immediately turned towards Alexandria, from 
thence thro* that neck of Land to Prederieksburg U^ Otoster A to tiie 
Marquis' Camp — For the French Troops the supplies may mor^ easily 
be drawn from James River and its waters. This will be an extensive 
business and will demand many able and s/dive men to exef;ute it^-Ofs- 
appeintment will be attended with the most IkUtl conseqaefK^es — J have 
written to the County LieuteDaats to urge the Commissioners Uf alac- 
rity in their department, and also to procure all the wai^ous iU^y |m>ss1- 
bly can« Let me recommend to you again the closest application t// wards 
fhmiriiing an immediate supply.^ 

I am 4c." 


Gov: NxLsox 70 Gov: Lax or ILamylamu, 



On the 31fct of August ti^ Frenci^ Fleet, couunjuuded by tUe <>/U4>i tUchmAMoA 
de Graswft, coiksistjbbg of 28 fi>hi{w i4' tJUe Lmm;.. sakI six Fii^«.tus, witJb 
3O00 Laad Forces, ajrired in Ciiei«}AeSike Bay. Tii^y bav^ uusid^ sui^b 
Dtfjposiiioiis as will pm'eiit thit Britisb Army iiow at Yi^A, bvm cross- 
'mg James i^er lieiow tiie Falls, stAOuld \h»y itM^iom^ W eeosbpe Uj tUe 
fvintiiward: k J Lrust w« siitkli. iu conjuuctiou with 1^ Fi^euiUi 'j^t^jn^, 
be ai*k* to oppose lo liftem su<tli a Furut; a« will keep tibeio fiviu peueti'a- 
liii|: wesusrir. in order vo crust- the oouutry lii^iAer up. Jju tJJ buuoMJ 
prciliabiihT Lord C/orDwaUM* has ueariy tinislked his career k will shoi*tiy 
recie'iTf iiif Keward. 

l^t art makiitjc: tiiff irreatest £&ertiull^ tv procure abutiiUkiit k per- 
muiieut sujijiIiM- of Prtn'isiuiit« lor the Fiuei of our AlUefei k our oumbiuod 
Fcir^ef . k ahhouidi our Prospects are ^rood. yet so at>xioui« aiu J that 
thert should be Ui» l^eficieui'^v uii tbih 8coi*e. i wisb u^ U* have iKHUe otLor 
I>t^>tiuUeu*.H thai, ibe su|i))Ueh of thi^ Hlule. Flour Lt^ an articU- M'hiob 
we mar pruiiabU' must waut. purUoularly lor the pruseut A: it is one 


1781. with which your State I imagine can easily & plentifully furnish us. I 
Sept. 2nd would therefore take the Liberty of recommending it to your consider- 
ation, whether it will not be advisable to have considerable quantities of 
it immediately sent down the Bay? 

I am Sir, with the greatest Esteem & Elespect 

Your mo: obedt & very humb Servant" 

Sept. 2nd Gov: Nelson TO THE CouNT DE Grasse — Comdg: French Fleet &c Ac. 

Richmond The arrival of his most Christian Majesty's Fleet, under your com- 

mand, in Chesapeake Bay, was yesterday announced to me while in the 
Marquis de la Fayette's Camp — I take the earliest opportunity of con- 
gratulating you on your Safe arrival & of acknowledging this Signal 
Proof of the attention of our very great & generous ally, & the alacrity 
with which you Sir, and the other Officers of his Fleet & Army execu- 
ted his Intentions in our Favour. An armament so powerful & compe- 
tent to every Purpose will not only give a fortunate Turn to our Mili- 
tary operations, but will convince the incredulous & disaffected, who may 
still lurk amongst us, that his most Christian Majesty is both sincerely 
determined & fully able to support the American United States, in vin- 
dicating their Rights & maintaining their Independence. It will be my 
greatest happiness to contribute every thing in my Power towards the 
speedy & successful accomplishment of the object we have in view; and 
. to render the Service in this State agreeable to the Officers & Men of 
his most Christian Majesty's Fleet & Army." 

Sept. 2nd Gov : Nelson to Mr. Pierce. 


Richmond, I am this moment informed by the Honle Major General Marquis 

8o»clockPM j^^ Fayette that the French Troops are landing at James Town. I 

desire you will immediately repair thither and adopt every measure in 

your power to supply them with whatever they may want, that comes 

within your department." 

Sept. 2nd Gov: Nelson to "President op Congress." 


Richmond It is with great Pleasure I inform you of the arrival of the Count 

De Grasse in Chesapeake Bay, with a veiy powerful armament. We 

are making every Exertion to improve this favourable opportunity of 

. striking a Blow, which will not only for the present relieve this State 

from the Ravages of war, but will have the strongest Tendency to bring 

our just Contest to a speedy & happy conclusion." 

I am &c. 


Gk)v: Nelson to Lord Gornwallis. 1781. 

" My Lord, 

From the assurance given me in a Letter I received from Sept. 8d 
you of Augt 5th, that all such Persons as I described Messrs. Archer & 
Ryall to be, were ordered to be released, I rested satisfied that those 
Gentlemen had obtained their Liberty: But I am just informed that 
they are still in Confinement on Board of one of your Lordship's Prison 
Ships: which from your Letter, I must suppose to be a circumstance, 
with which you are not acquainted. I am therefore again to desire 
your attention to those Gentlemen, & assure myself that you will order 
them to be released. 

I am 

Your Lordship's mo: obed & mo: hum: Servt. 

Gov: NiLSON to Grov: Burkb op N. Carolina. Sept. 8d 

" Sir, 

Your letter of the 15th last month was received here at a Time Bichmond 
when I was on a visit to Camp, which detained me till the Day before 
Yesterday. At present I shall beg leave to wave any answer to its con- 
tents, but hasten to inform you of an Event, which will give you more 
Pleasure than a thousand Observations on the Matters which lately 
engaged our attention. The Count De Grasse arrived in our Bay three 
days ago, with a Fleet of 28 Ships of the Line & six Frigates, together 
with three thousand land Forces. By a letter from the Marquis la Fay- 
ette received last night, I am informed that the French Troops had 
begun to land at James Town. This friendly armament is so formid- 
able, that I flatter myself no hostile one can arrive which will venture 
to attack them or be able to snatch from us our Prey — Your own Feel- 
ings on this occasion will enable you to judge of ours — As we ought to 
provide against everything which can possibly happen to disappoint our 
high wrought expectations, will it not be well for you to keep a watch- 
ful Eye on the movements of the Southern Foe, as I believe you have 
nothing to apprehend from' this Quarter ? The Enemy will not lose 
such an Army as Comwallis's without the greatest Exertions on all 
sides. But what raises our Hopes & Joys to the most exalted Pitch & 
which 1 have reserved to the last to crown the political Feast, which 
this Letter will afford you, is a Movement of our great General, who on 
the 27th of the last Month was at Chatham with all the French Troops 
of the Northern Army & a Body of Continentals, on his march for Vir- 

I am &c. 


1781. Major Rd. Claiborne applies to Gov: Nelson for "money for the Quar- 

Sepi. 3d termaster's Department in tJnis St«^'' — Hi^Exoelleikoy had given prom- 
ises that his draft should be honored. He cannot do with less than six 
millions of pounds^ in> consideration of the "rapid depreciation" and 
danger of loea of credit. Bequests that Mr. Francis Tate may be fdr- 
Qiflhed with proper ordera for warrants to thi& amount — He should do 
hiLmaelf the bonor to wait upon the Grov : k Council in peiBon but for his 
contiiraed feebleness from hia " late spell of sickness." 

Sept. 8d Majr. Claiborne to Col. Davies — In reply to his delivered by Mr. 


Richmond In accordance with his instructions, orders will at once be issued 
respecting the deposites of Forage to be made on the road from George- 
town to Hanover Court House — Georgetown, Colchester, Dumfries, 
Fredericksburg, Bowling Green, Lynch's Tavern, and Hanover Court 
House had been chosen for this purpose. Col: Hendricks at Alexandria 
and Mr. Young on this side of Rappahannock will attend to the busi- 
ness — Their agents will act under Continental regulations. * * * 
WHgons for the Marquis' Army about to come in from different parts of 
the Country, he desires to know whether they shall be detained here or 
or sent on to the Army. — Desires prompt information, that his depart- 
ment may render proper service. 

Sept. 8d MlyorClailH>PBe encloses to Col: Davies letter from Capt: Bussell one 
Richmond of his assistants showing the great difficulties in procuring transporta- 
tiMi* in this Distrtet, Hanover Co. Hduse and upw4»^6. 

Sept 8d Col: George Skillen to Grov: Nelson. 

Botetourt Co in conseq^ence of your former Bequisition to me I have, ordered 

the fourth part of the militia of this County to march to head Quarters 
in Virginia, but as there is no Commissary, in this County neither are 
there a!ney publick stores, I was under the necessity of Riding about to 
p;rocure waggons & teams, provisions and other necessarys such as the 
men ware absolutely in want of on their march — this Sir has gave me a 
great Dail of trouble, the more so as the people are very unwilling to 
credit the publick, who complains that they have not been paid for their 
fbnner Service, that the publick has been Indebted to them of a Long 
Standing; and should them Debts be pay'd now, by reason of the Depre- 
siasion of the money, it would not purchis one half of the property they 
first sold or was linpres'd from them — This complaint I am sorry to say 


IB not altogether without reason — You well know Sir, that to perform 1781. 
the duty of County Lieut: at this time, is a full proportion of Fatague Sept. *8d 
for one person, without being concerned with that of a Commissary.'* 
* * * * "I would not undertake to Dictate to you Sir, on 
this occasion, but the publick good, togefther with the necssaty of have- 
ing Immediately stores provided in my County presses me to offer my 
sentiments — were it your pleasure it might be best to have sum person 
appointed as Commissary that lives hero as being acquainted with the 
people would the better enable him to Furnish such Stores as he might 
want, except Lead, Kettles ft Salt which are scarce artikles here.'' — He 
has sent off twenty of the six months men and deserters and will send 
the remainder "as soon as they can be got" — has not been able to co