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Full text of "The California Farmer (1855)"

lllllllllllllllill RARY. 
D EQD7 lEDllS? 5 

California Stale Library 

Accessions M)Q * '^Received 

Class- .i.L.MOS.Lty. 



f 



I 



VOL. 3. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, JANUARY 4, 1855. - 



NO. 1. 



(Tlic California Jfarnur 

AND ' JOUIIXAI. OP USEFUL SCIENCES. 

PUBLISHED EVF.HV THURSDAY MORNING. 

BY WARREN Ic SON. 

Office i ' Building, Montgomery street. 

Tisms. — Eigbttlollara perannum, in advance; or delivered 

by car:i^ ; lur per inmitli. Fur a club of live tuM 

B ■ ' 

1 ! * . rted at fait rate*. 



AGENTS. 
Messrs Adams Se. C«. atnl! their offices throughout the United 

States or Europe. 
v: - Wells, Fargo l\ Co., at their offices throughout the 

Country. 
Mb. O. H Hamilton, Travelling Agent for Sacramento City 

and County 
Messrs. Langton St. Co. for Dotcnicville, Foster's Bar, Good- 

I ■ . ' 
Messrs. Adams & Co. — Humboldt Boy, Trinidad, Crescent City, 
Port Or/urd, TJmpgua City, Scollsburg, and tlie entire northern 
coast. 
ateasra Leland & McCoombe- Crescent City, Port Orford, 

Unifsioirn, Eureka, and Bucksport, 
Suxlivan's new -paper -innd, No. 5 Post Office Building ; Kim- 
ball's. Noisy Carriers Hall, Long wharf — San Francisco, 



Stiles &. Dodds, l.!' nicia, tfor 
tinez, .V. 

P. Freer, TtidwelVs, Butte Co. 

D. G.WnldroncSc Co. Coloma. 

Treadwell & Co., MarysmUc 

James Llovd, " 

James &. Co., Napa. 

A. W. Potter, Nevada. 

KaUi & Davis, FlaccroiUc. 

Dr. Clias Ulnt-o.lo.mjr, " 

C. O. Burton, Stoc 

Senor Pedro Volasquex, So- 
noma. 

Dr. Thomas J. Harvey, P. M., 
San Lois Obispo. 

Cram, Rogers & Co., Yrelta, 

Parker & Roman. " 

We desire our Agents to report to us on the let of every 

month, the increase of names and the prospects, together with 

the amount due the office. 



Howard & Chamberlain, Union 
City, and Mission San Jose. 

A. Hunnewell, P. M., Columbia. 
I. Coffin, Mokelumne Hilt. 
Gen. M. M. McCarver. Mount 

Form, O. T. 
Dudley &. Co., Napa City. 
Hiram" Downing, " 
Gardiner At Kirk, Sacramento. 
Baker & Hamilton, " 
Taney & Roberts, Sonora. 

B. F. Fincliley, Suisuu. 

a u. Murdoch, P. M., Union, 

llomholdl Boy. 
J. M. Thorburn tt Co. New Tori, 
City, N. Y. 



PLANT YOUR MOIST LAND. 

The long continued dry season, and the prospect 
of its coiilimmnee, is a matter of serious moment 
to every cultivator of.tlio soil. 

It is now the month of January — a time when 
thousands of acres of high land should have 
been planted with grain, and if the present weath- 
er continues much longer, such lands cannot he 
planted at all— for experience begins to convince 
men that it will not do to plant grains upon high 
lands late in the season. Should we havo rains 
within one month, these high lands can be plant- 
ed to peas, beans, turnips, buckwheat, melons, 
and such crops, but not to grains liko wheat and 
barley, for the dry, hot sun, will strike the grain 
during the season when it is in the milk, and a 
shriveled kernel and a consequent short crop, will 
be tho result. 

Plant then, your moist lands, for tho risk of 
injury by reason of rains, is not so great as that 
of an entire failure on dry lands from want of rain. 
Again, then, we say, plant grain in all the lands 
you can now cultivate. If rain should come so as 
to enable you to plaut your highlands within ten 
or fifteen days, do so by all means, but it is not 
safe to delay seeding the lowlands. A neglect to 
do so, may cost you your entire crop of grain — 
should rains come and 'drown it out," you will 
bo repaid by the benefit done the uplands which 
will then lilted for the seed. Plant your moist 
grounds then with grain without delay. We 
urge this step from a serious conviction that if the 
present dry weather continues much longer, its 
Influence upon the value of breadstufts in this 
State, will be one of deep import, and to be count- 
ed by millions of dollars. 

We trust ami hope our grain-growers, one and 
all, will not despair at tie prospect. Take cour- 
age. Let county m eonvened where an 
interchange of opinions upon this and other topics 
of interest to the farmers anil State, may be had. 
statistical (acts presented, and practical views ex- 
led and much, very much, good may result 
therefrom. 

tin would we urge ti|>on every grain-grower 
throughout our State, to delay not the work of 
sewiin .s with grain. Set the 

plow 11 rk. and should ihc rains 

overtake you in the meadows, flee to the uplands 
where a rich harvest will then be sure to crown 
your i : perseverance. Industry is ever 

. and plant. 

The man who to the utmost of his power aug- 
iividual hap- 



fFor the California Farner.l 
WINDMILLS— A HINT. 

San Luis Obispo, Cal., Dec. 15, 1S54. 

Col. Warren: Enclosed I send an article on 
Windruilling, a subject that has not received all 
the attention it is worthy of. In many parts of 
Californi^therc is ample wind power for all the 
phimoses for which steam or water power is gen- 
erally used ; while it must be cheapest. The 
great difficulty has been heretofore the irregularity 
or unsteadiness of the power ; but if the annexed 
statement be correct, that difficulty has been over- 
come, and Mr. Halliday's name deserves to be 
registered with Franklin and Professor Morse. 
Now, for the price of a single horse, thousands in 
California can harness the wind and make it work 
as gentle, and do more of it than any horse living ; 
besides the board of the horse is all saved. I am 
decidedly of opinion that it is necessary to be 
cautious how we tap those powerful veins or sub- 
tcraneous streams of water that course beneath 
us, lest we might have too much of a good thing. 
San Jose Valley, for instance, might be rendered 
somewhat sickly, by having a superabundance of 
water exposed to the rays of a summer's sun ; 
and there might be such a thing as a much larger 
stream than is wanted, bursting up through one 
of those artesian augur holes. Not that I would 
say aught against the artesian fever, that seems 
to be becoming prevalent — provided proper calcu- 
lations arc made as to future consequences, and 
provided also that wind power cannot be had. 
But where there is plenty of wind I would prefer 
pumping for irrigation from a common well or 
stream, so that I could stop it when I pleased. 
and make the same cheap horse do many other 
turns necessary to be done on a farm. 

In the Scientific American there are some val- 
uable articles on Windinilling. Th> 
engraving of a mill and pump in this paper, all 
complete, which is offered for sale for S 30, boxed 
up and sent to order to any part of the world. 
And there thottld be a depot or manufactory for 
all such things jn California. 

Daniel Halliday. of Ellington, CL, has invented 
and put in successful Operation a self-adjusting 
windmill, which furls its own sails m the proper 
time, stops when the witoi is t. )( , high, :\u<\ starts 
upon its steady round again when it returns t,. 
the approximate degree of force. It has been in 
operation six months without requiring a hand to 
regulate the sails; has run fifteen da] 
consecutively without stopping; has drawn 
from a well twenty-eight feet deep, and one hun- 
dred feet distant, forcing it into a reservoir in the 
upper part of a barn, in sufficient quantit 
faun and garden irrigation, and cost but fifty dol- 
lars. 

A word for the Farmer. Though I am not a 
farmer, I am the farmer's friend ; and though not 
an editor, I am not a stranger to the business. 1 1 
have heard long since, that it is the delight of . 
some folks to find fault with others; while they i 
are the least inclined to perfection or pood works 
themselves. Some say they will not pray, because I 
they pay a man to pray for them ; an 
an editor for his paper, and expect him to > 
pate their views and want*, and write to please 
them ; while they never write an article to please 
the editor, tl r any one 

Colonel, you. as well as other editors, have some j 
of those kind of subscribers, and. lest they be tooi 
hard on you, and become so rabid as bite ofl 
noses to spite their face, suffer me to drop them a 
hint. It is not an edit, to write all 

■i the greater part of what he gives wings 
to. but show his taste and wisdom in selecting 
from what oMr-.< have wrote, or may wnte; and 
let those find fault that may, when they practi- 
cally teach the ictler way. 

T. J. Harvet. 



climate, or the water, which is so peculiarly 
healthy for men and animals, should militate 
against the health of fowls — the cause must be in 
the food ! And I can think of nothing coupled 
with so much promise as the Sunflower; it has 
been a favorite in our family, not only for fouls, 
but as an ornamental plant, long before the birth 
of my memory, anij I ImWrO TtTOMrTiF W Cali- 
fornia, when I can obtain seed. 

Culture of the Sunflower. — A "Concstoga" 
correspondent of the Germantown Telegraph 
says : — " I do not think there is sufficient attention 
paid to the cultivation of this plant. The Sun- 
flower is a native of South America, but is easily 
cultivated in any common soil, either by sowing 
the seed early in spring, or by slips or offsetsfrom 
roots. It is now a common and well known pro- 
duction, having long since become naturalized 
throughout the United States, The manner of 
planting and cultivating it, is not dissimilar to 
that adopted in growing/Indian corn, and its acre- 
able product exceeds that of the most prolific ce- 
reals. The principal uses to which the seed of the 
Sunflower is ordinarily applied, arc the manufac- 
ture of oil, for painting and burning, and the feed- 
ing of horses, sheep, beeves and swine. The oil is 
clear, thin and inodorous when burnt, though of 
an agreeable taste. For painting, it is said to lie 
preferable to any other oil now in use. As a feed 
for hens, it is highly prized. Being of an oily na- 
ture, it aiirnximatcs more nearly to the character 
of animal food than any grain that can be I 
them, and supplies toa considerable extent a very 
efficient substitute for meat. The Sunflower re- 
quires good soil, and maybe changed in the same 
manner as Indian corn, when grown on soils that 
arc friable, rich and moist." 

I have not seen a sick horse or horned animal 
in California, but what was the result of mal- 
treatment, and they can stand even more mal- 
treatment here than in any part of the world with 
which I am acquainted ; all of which makes me 
more curious to know the cause of the fatality 
among domestic fowls. Can you or your nume- 
rous correspondents enlighten us on tho subject ? 
As ever yours, T. .1. Harvey. 

In answer to our coirespondent's inquiry for 
information, in relation !■ i of fowls, we 

re-publish tho following communication on this 
subject, from I'r. Phinney, which was publ 
in vol. 1., No. 1- of the Farmer. We should bo 
happy to hear from any one who can give us fur 
thcr informati-- 

Mi aa :— It may surprise you that 

■rtake to preeribe for 

anything but human beings; but those of us who 

take an interest in our profession are apt to notice 

The mortality amongst poultry has long at 
attention, and. knowing their great 
value try, I was. on 

the matter by repealed diasec- 

r have died. I found they all 

had in '-ages ulceration of 

the crops ai nflammation may 

■ and attract little notice, but 

resscd so as to penetrate 

the rr aersja, the fool dies almost in- 

-■i-'ii'-.-'i. Having ascertained tins. 1 next 

wished to know what would cure such a state, 

and I its of copper (blue 

isM of from one-twelfth to one-twen- 

iin twice a day. The medicine may 

a pill, with bread, and either led to 

r ed down iu throat, Hoping I 

may have given some useful information to the 

; your valuable journal, 

I remain, Ac 

J. B. Pbisjiet. 



the low resorts of meanness, or the hazardous 
schemes of reckless villiany, which contaminate 
and curse the very atmosphere of " those places 
where men most do congregate" for the purposes 
of trade, traffic and hazardous speculation. From 
tlie-e great " sores upon tho body politic," wo turn 
to the home of the Intelligent Farmer, or that of 
the enlightened temperate and industrious arti- 
san, and there find jieacc contentment and uadur- 

; lia] p m s; . "' in evi i yu In i i pei hap , foi 
there are exceptions to all general rules, and sor- 
row and anxiety are common to all classes; but 
if the rule does not always hold good, other 
things, extraneous to these modes of life, must 
cause the difficulty. 

The Home of the farmer, where industry, di- 
rected by intelligence/secures thrift — wdiere thrift 
secures plenty, and plenty brings contentment — 
where cheerfulness produces happiness, and joy 
springs spontaneously from an exuberance of 
gratitude to the Giver of mercies— there you may 
see the influence which a noble employment ex- 
erts upon the social interests of the people. 

But we arc not to stop here. From these fire- 
side sanctuaries goes out a redeeming influence, 
wdiich is embodied in the cival laws and institu- 
tions of the State and of the Nation. 

Virtue and vice are confined to no one class of 
mankind. But we arc free to say that the virtues 
of patriotism, sincerity, integrity and practical 
honesty, are more congenial with rural pursuits 
than with any other. Law — what is it but an 
embodiment of a moral sentiment — an expression 
of the prevailing sense of right? Hence, the im- 
portance of having our civil laws emanate from a 
pure and wholesomo public sentiment. And 
where shall we look for an influence, powerful, as 
an clement of improvement — an influence, adapted 
to the genius of our social and political institu- 
tions, and the wants and emergencies of our civil- 
ization, if not among the independent cultivators 
of the soil? From those I, , the virtues 

are not only taught but exemplified — away from 
the haunts of dissipation and prodigality — there 
must, we repca*. go out a redeeming principle, 
that shall purify the high a 
Power, and scatter, broi the blessings and 

lality and Justice. 

But here we come in contact with a standing 
complaint — not altogether unfounded — and yet 
originating in a glaring fault; for which tho in- 
dustria poniible, It 

and perhaps truly, that the essential inter- 
ullure and the Mechanic Arts, have 
duly represented in our Na- 
tional and State Legislatures; and that, while 
other interests have been duly protected, and en- 
couraged, hy special legislation, ours have been 
irttefully negl 

Admitted — and what then? Whose fault is 
it ? The true answer to this inquiry places us 
in almost a ridiculous po Ohio, as a 

sample of all the members of tl 
acy, answer it. Hero we arc, a State with more 
than a quarter of a million of farmers, and a host 
of mechanics — a large and overwhelming majority 
over all other classes combined. And we call 
ourselves the We have under 

cultivation, nine millions, eight hundred and 
one thousand, four hurt' three 

acres of land lun- 

1. And still we claim that ire are not 

f the 
and complainingly assert that our educa- 
tional and other interests are not properly cared 

Whose fault is it 7 It is your own fault ; yon 
have neglected your own bu- hare 

not qualified yourselves for high and responsible 
position*. You are conscious of the bet, end do 
not as a class, feel competent take the keeping of 
your own interests and i; oyourown 

hands. You therefore select others to do this 
luminal for you ; and still yon complain of the 
unfaithfulness of your c h os en •errant* .' Whose 
Cult is it 1 With your broad acres of fruitful 
fields — with markets at your doors, and prices 
that would make Jeshuram " grow fat and 



(For rae CaaSjiaW Final 
SUNFLOWER FOR FOWLS. 

Warren : I 'ear Sir — I send you a slip 

i paper, which I ass of opinion 

is worthy a place in the Farmer ; and more par- 

part KTtlar ly so, as domestic fowls are unhealthy 

forma, and I am bard to believe that the 



INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURE 
Upon the General Interests of the People 

The intrinsic and comparative importance of kirk — " with the schoolmaster abroad, and in 
agriculture and kindred pursuits will be more I year midst — with s Press laboriag to give oller- 
justly appreciated, when the generosity of think- ance to the grand results of scientific inve st iga 
ing men shall have duly considered its influence tions — with sons sod daughters rising up arooad 
upon the Social. Civil and Pecuniary interests of you. to call yoa blessed, and who- 
the American people. you " for useful knowledge, sow still com 

The cultivation of the soil is eminently peace- plain afmeftttt. sad wait to be lifted oat of thi 
ful. and tranquilinng. in its efleeti— conducing qoag-mire of voluntary degradation and despond - 
I to the development of physical strength, to aV 
promotion of health, and' to the augmentation 
of happiness. Of coarse this is said in iduiau. 
to those who know bow to /Ain*. how to labor. 

and how to esnow. But we can never raabae the [a naara'susaprahawsiro ss^ervsnoo of ihr 
peaceful inflvwnre of rural emplovmenta, until we , interests and at! r aim to aid 

have been sbroad, into the great boar world, te fall extent of oar aln 
observe the riorre coofbets of antaeonUtic inter- desirable a Mate of things. Let ern 
eats, the stern gins pirns, of mind with assad. the 1 these gnat interests t itimi aao-warfcar 
,veof gam the petty tricks of trade, laudable andertaking — Oaio /arw- 



plain nfsvrl'" and wa 

qaag mirr of voluntary degradation and despond- 
ence! This should sot be so. And H hi believed 
that the time is near at bar*t when men and wr- 

msn ra p gi i t inrbi f ' • ' «■.— -ai-i— 

la the plane of a decent ad s ^ en y s t t, aad cxareawi 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER 



■ijj* California farmer. 



WAEHE.V b SON, EDITORS AKD PBOPBIETOBS. 



SAN FBANCISCO, THURSDAY, JAN, 4, 1855. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

REDUCTION OF PRICE. 

Thz heavy losses upon the Farming interests of the State 
the past year, the general depression o( that interest, and the 
discouragements resulting to all, we tatow* hfl^ jsf^verited' 
many who are encaged in Agriculture {Tcm cTUb-^fcrnbing t6 ou; - 
journal the past year. Feeling desirous to meet their wante as 



THE NEW YEAR. 

One year siuce our craft was launched upon 
the ocean of public favor — one year since the 
California farmer was sent forth as the advo- 
cate of the Agricultural Interest of California, 
With a few zealous friends to support, who felt the 
necessity of such a journal, the California Far- 
mer was sent forth. Hope, earnest hope, inspired 
those who were its projectors, and confident that 
rthe caf.se/ it .Va's pledged to advocate was worthy 
of the-* support and encouragement of every 



ftr as is in our power, we now offpr the. CALIFORNIA, FAR- j we n wisher of the best interest of our State its 
'%*£?££ 0LLJ ** FEn ^^J^WH prop^WTeifsSjguine of success . 

T».,.i.*u . »;. _i_.i ,1 a_ -_._■_ 



We trust this effort on our part to meet such circumstances 
will be met on the part of those engaged in the cultivation of 
the soil with a corresponding feeling, and that all will do us 
service by sending in a goodly list of subscribers and the amount 
for the same. We have made the price thus low, that our 
subscribers and friends may at once send us the proof of their 
good will. 

With this issue we publish three thousand copies, and 
trust the FARMER will find a welcome reception. Induce- 
ments for the furmntton of clubs will be found under the proper 
head. 



Clubs Formed— Premiums to Subscribers. 

With the third volume, with the opening year, we would 
offer to our friends stronger inducements than heretofore to 
make up CLUBS for the FARMER. It will be seen by our 
"special notice," that we shall commence with a reduction of 
the price of the" Farmer." The price will now be six dol- 
lars per year, always in advance. No subscriptions re 
eeived unless accompanied by the amount 

To those who are disposed to form CLUBS, when we can 
send all to one address, we shall send SIX COPIES for FIVE 
NAMES, TWELVE for TEN, and TWENTY-FIVE COPIES 
for the names and amount of twenty subscriptions. 

To those, or any of our friends who will interest themselves, 
we believe this will be some satisfaction, besides promoting the 
cause of Agriculture. We hope to sjee good results to all from 
this proposition. 



TO AGENTS. 

We would ask of our Agents to whom we send the CALI- 
FORNIA FARMER, to communicate with us and to remit full 
accounts to the close of the year. We shall send them extra 
numbers for distribution. We call their attention to the Re- 
duction in price of our journal ; this we hope will give satis- 
faction to all, so as to enable our agents to enlarge our lists, 
and also afford an increased reward to them. 

We can offer inducements to Agents in all the large cities as 
Carriers, and to Booksellers and Newspaper Stores also, for 
Papers in quantities. 

THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 

We have many inquiries, doily, from our friends in the coun- 
t "y, who write us, desirous to make up clubs for the Fabmeb, 
and send us produce for the amount We always do our ut- 

lost to facUitate the cultivator of the soil, and we will assure 
onr friends that if they will make up clubs of five, ten or 
t vssty, they can send their Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, or speci- 
mens of extra quality, and we will allow them the full market 
price in the payment of the Fabmeb. Our friends that are in 
u -rears can send us the amount thus due, and add the coram" 
vilume, and we will forward receipts for the same. So send 
along your wheat and good products. We do not mean — any- 
thing—but those articles that have a value, and we will take 
them. 

S PECIAL AGENTS FOR THE FARMER, Sic. 

Axx the messengers of Adams & Co., and Wells, Fargo Se Co. 
are duly authorized by us to receive subscriptions for the Cali- 
F ienia Fabmeb, and receipt the same; also, to receive orders 
for Fruit Trees, Seeds, &c., and any and all business with us. 
.Ml such business committed to either of these messengers will 
-i-3 promptly responded to by us. WARREN & SON. 

OAKLAND. 

Dub friends at Oakland are invited to call on MR. CHARLES 
3 1'E WART, and subscribe for the California) Fabmeb ; be 
>3 authorized to receive subscriptions and we will cheerfully 
did the farmer in his employment, We ore willing to receive 
Wheat, Rye, Oats, &c., or any valuable products of first quality 
en payment, as we do wish our frienda to enjoy our sheet, and 
conveniently too. 

AGENTS WANTED. 

We want Agents in all the Principal towns and cities, for 
fce CALIFORNIA FARMER. To good, acti»e and prompt 
men, we can offer good inducements. None need apply who 
cannot give guarantee of strict performance of duty. 

Cotton and 'Wheat at Shanghai 

.A^jong the many interesting facts gathered 
from our friend Dr. Green, of the U. S. steamer 
Mississippi, we present the following : 

At the time of sowing their wheat, they scatter 
the seed of cotton also; the wheat grows and 
shades the cotton so that it does not appear and 
grow till the wheat is harvested, when it is care- 
fully cultivated and a full crop obtained, 

It should be understood that at Shanghai they 
universally plant in rows; they sow the seed in 
beds, and then transplant them. In this way 
they cultivate well between the rows, and the re- 
sult is two crops — one of wheat and one of cotton. 

We simply suggest this plan to our friends in 
California — and for planting wheat in drills, we 
most cheerfully recommend Gatlin's Grain Drill, 
manufactured by L. Henderson, of Santa Clara, 
advertised in our columns, and approved of by 
many of our best cultivators. May we not hope 
our cultivators will try the experiment? 

Windmills, Disease of Fowls, &c. — Ever 
pleased to receive frdm our friends communica- 
tions upon subjects touching matters of interest 
connected with agriculture and home industry and 
comfort, we are pleased to call particular attention 
to the communications of our valued correspon- 
dent from San Louis Obispo. The subjects spoken 
of are important and we hope to hear frequently 
from the same source. 



Thut'the cause* it was pledged to maintain was 
a noble one, we rejoice to know is now beginning 
to be more fully and freely admitted. Agricul 
ture and its kindred sciences now stand before 
the world as the great pillars that support and 
sustain our mercantile and commercial interests. 
The products of the soil 611 the warehouses of 
the merchant, the world over. The products of 
the soil load the ships whose sails whiten every 
sea. The products of the soil fill the granaries 
that feed the hungry millions that cover the 
earth's surface. It is the product of the soil that 
meet, us at our social board, at the morning, 
noon, and evening meal. It is the products of 
the soil that "garland our homes," that scatter 
the sweetest flowers and the richest and most 
luscious fruit in our path through life. 

The bright flowers that spring from the earth, 
and the ripe fruit we pluck from the bending 
bongh, are the mementos of the " early paradise" 
that will be again enjoyed upon earth when man 
recognizes the "true dignity" of man's first and 
best employment, the tilling of the earth. The 
flowers that bloom upon earth are esteemed as 
the purest emblem and the most fitting testimo- 
nial for the " Birthday," the "Bridal," and the 
"Grave,"— the triune of life— where life should 
be purest and brightest— its advent to earth— the 
newly wedded life— and when it passes into the 
spiritual, the eternal life, The fruits of the earth 
are emblematical of man's labor—" As we sow so 
shall we reap ;" if we sow sparingly, we shall 
reap sparingly; if we sow bountifully, we shall 
reap bountifully. 

Like the flowers and fruits of this fair earth, 
we are the humble advocates of this noble science. 
We have endeavored to perform our duty to the 
best of our ability. We have endeavored to scat- 
ter flowers and fruits by their " type " with a lib- 
eral hand, by the various subjects wc have laid 
before our readers during the past year. With 
the opening address of the California Farmer, 
in its first issue, the following course of action 
was promised as the guide for the future; those 
who have been its readers will know how well and 
truly that course has been pursued ; no better 
promise could we make than to reiterate the 
same at the opening of the present year : 

"That which contributes most directly to the 
substantial happiness of mankind, that which 
really advances and elevates the science of Hus- 
bandry, of all pursuits the most productive; that 
which holds in constant revelation the purest 
comminglings of life and nature; that which is 
most honest and unaffected in its teachings is 
the kind of information — the kind of literature 
or science which is received and cherished bv a 
competent farmer. And this is the kind of in- 
formation which we desire to communicate. To 
collect and present in agreeable portraiture the 
ever varying suggestions of science— to record 
the progressive developments of Agriculture, and 
submit them to the consideration of our Califor- 
nia Farmers, is. or should be, the object of our 
work. This is at any rate the course wc shall 
adopt. Eschewing all partyisms in politics, all 
the affectations of society, and all the cant of re- 
ligion, we shall devote ourselves to the improve- 
ment of Agriculture, to the embellishment of 
Homes, and to the elevation of Human Character." 
How well and how steadily we have pursued this 
course, we leave for our friends, for those whoso 
interests we have advocated and upon whose jus- 
tice we rely, to decide. 

Amid a thousand severe and trying discourage- 
ments we have endeavored to pursue our way, 
having an eye single to the cause of Agriculture 
and its kindred sciences ; laying aside political, 
sectarian, or personal feelings, we have endeavored 
to perform our duty regardless of personal, phys- 
ical, mental, or pecuniary suffering, and having a 
firm reliance on the excellence and nobleness of 
our cause; and with a firm faith in a kind 
Providence, we have been sustained and carried 
through all suffering to the close of one and the 
opening of another year, and with a confident 
hope that a brighter and a more cheering pros- 
pect is before us, and before those who are iden- 
tified with the most valuable, most important in- 
terest of mankind — for so we have and shall ever 
esteem the cause of Agriculture. 

The pledges wc made at our commencement 



were made upon the following conditions, and we 
believe we have redeemed in a good degree ours. 
We repeat those conditions and ask those who 
remember that pledge, if we have not done so — 
and we ask them in return, have others redeemed 
theirs as well ? If we have come short, to whose 
account shall it be laid 1 The following were our 
words : 

" But to redeem such a pledge, we must receive 
the liberal support of those who feel an interest 
in any of the departments of the science of Agri- 
culture. In no country are there more intelligent 
farmers than in California, and it is from these 
that we expect a most essential support ; not from 
subscriptions and advertisements alone, but from 
the innumerable and thrilling sources of informa- 
tion which are opened to individuals, and which 
when recorded and published, beoome of invalu- 
able benefit to the masses. 

"If the votaries of faming will take a little 
trouble upon themselves in affording this kind of 
support, we will engage to furnish a weekly jour- 
nal that will be a credit to the cause, and an in- 
teresting visitant to every household in the Com- 
monwealth." 

Such have been our aims the past year — and 
with the same high purpose we pledge our best 
energies again as we present oursekes at the open- 
ing of this our New Year. 

To the cultivators of the soil of California we 
appeal. To the merchant and the ship owner, 
to the manufacturer, the mechanic, the artizan, to 
all we appeal for their interest in behalf of our 
Journal for it is their cause we advocate. Each 
and all are identified with the great interests of 
" agriculture ;" it is interwoven with every branch 
of trade and commerce, when prosperous it shines 
on al! — when adverse fortune rests on it, it in- 
jures all, it affects the entire community and 
should ever be recognised and encouraged by an 
entire community. The past year has been one 
of uncommon disaster and depression upon this 
great interest and its influence now overshadows 
the land. But amid the clouds that darken the 
sky there is "one break of blue in the clouds" 
and to that wc turn in hope. It is this: our peo- 
ple are now awake to the importance of a better 
recognition of these interests — and this will save 
our state. • Subjects like the "settlement of titles" 
the importance of " permanent settlers" and an 
"increase of population" — are upon the public 
mind. The value of the agriculture of Califor- 
nia is being felt and this is our main hope: 

We tender our sincere and grateful thanks to 
those who have cheered and encouraged us in our 
efforts, labors and trials. We ask their kind in- 
dulgence and gentle judgment upon our short com- 
ing, and for the many errors we may have com- 
mitted in our labors. We have tried. to do some 
good and we will try to do more ; we seek a kind 
and continued smile from every subscriber, and 
rom all who have aided us by their word, pen, 
and subscription — renew and increase these, and 
this will renew and increase our strength and 
ability to labor, for that labor shall be given in 
truthful earnestness to make the California 
Farmer worthy the patronage and support of 
every citizen. 

To the Press, we owe much — for many of our 
"cotemporaries" we have a remembrance laid up 
in our hearts that shall never be forgotten. We 
remember kindness — that is all we wish to re- 
member. We wish all our brethren of the Press 
success and will aid as we have an opportunity. 
We ask a kindly word now and then as we may 
deserve ; jor the cause we advocate we ask it, not 
for ourselves alone. Upon this our new year we 
tender to our friends, our patrons, our correspon • 
dents, our cotemporaries ; to all we tender the best 
and kindest wishes of the season, and most ear- 
nestly pray that this new year may be to them a 
most happy one, that each and all may be "Blest 
in Basket and in Store." 



Agricultural Influence at the Capital 
It is all-important that the interests of Agri- 
culture should have a voice in our halls of legis- 
lation, and those who have this interest at heart 
should look to this matter in season, for the Agri- 
culture of California should be kept before the 
minds of our people. 

When at Sacramento a few days since, we had 
the pleasure to meet W. W, Stowe, Esq., the able 
representative of Santa Cruz. To this gentleman 
the cultivators of our State owe much, for his 
care of their interests the past year, and we re- 
joice to know he is again placed where he can so 
ably serve these interests and those of the State. 

Our Prosperous CoTEMponARiES.-Surely and 
truthfully we wish our brethren of the Chronicle 
and Pioneer a most earnest " Happy New Tear" 
— although we see they have already taken meas- 
ures to secure it without the wish. Happy, happy 
may they bo forever. 



Steamer Combinations. 

The steamers upon the waters ijf the Sacra- 
mento river, and the San Joaquin, exert a great 
influence upon the mercantile and commercial 
business of California, but their inluence npon 
the agricultural interests is also of g cat moment, 
and it is for this that we have so oft n presented 
the subject of "steamers" to our re: Jars. Com- 
munications between portions of obr State and 
the seaport, are like the arteries t>( the body, 
leading blood to and from the heard; disarrange 
them and the whole system is diseased ; — and wo 
have ever kept an eye upon these arteries, and 
wished to see the blood flow freely and purely 
from the heart to the cxtrcmeties, and back again 
for purification. And when the "steamer combi- 
nation" was formed, we approved, for wc believed 
great good would result from it— and so it has. 
First, all the old and worthless boats were with- 
drawn, and none but the very best were placed 
in use; life and property were safe; speed, com- 
fort and safety were the watchwords, the com- 
munity seemed pleased, and the price tken paid, 
($8,) though it seemed too high, was cheerfully 
paid, and it was only just — for it was like an in- 
surance fur safety to life and property. Then 
the combination had full power, full control. We 
then suggested that the company should meet 
the wants of the public and try the plan which 
we then proposed — (we now republish the article 
for reference) — for we truly believed it should 
have been done. But instead of this the price 
was increased, and it became a burden too heavy 
to be borne, and the consequence was new lines as 
competitors for public favor. 

The agriculturists that travel upon our rivers 
are many — their name is not Legion, but it will 
be — and the cattle and other stock, jrrain, fruits, 
&c. is immense ; the farmers travel, and they felt 
this heavy burden, for they were poor and needed 
consideration. The result has been just as 
we expected, just as wc predicted. The Combi- 
nation were not alive to the future consequences 
of their acts, and the burden became too heavy 
to be borne longer, and necessity has created 
the present lines that now compete for the trade 
and travel of our rivers. 

Never had a company so glorious a' chance for 
a splendid fortune, never had a company so fair a 
chance for public favor and approbation — but the 
Rubicon is passed, others are in that field to reap 
the golden harvest, and the public will decide 
who can serve them best. We ever regret to sec 
such opportunities lost, but progress is the word, 
the deed is done, and now the field is open. We 
have enjoyed the courtesies of each and of all, 
and wish success and prosperity to all. We have 
uttered our own opinions fearlessly, but we can- 
not hut ask the friends of our old favorite line 
and the stockholders to acknowledge that we 
were in the right in May last, and that our sug- 
gestions were those of the true friend. 

(f mm the California Former of May ll.J 
Steamboat Monopoly. — It is most gratifying 
to us to note the promptness with which this 
great monopoly meet the wishes of their patrons. 
It is the best assurance that we were right in the 
views we advanced. The "high pressures" were 
supplanted this day (Monday.) by the excellcut 
steamer Wilson G. Hunt, Capt. Pool, and it was 
pleasant to make a trip upon this favorite steamer 
again and meet familiar friends. If any ono 
doubts the benefit of this combination, let them 
visit Sacramento and look across the river and 
sec a dozen old boats laid up, and then bear in 
mind the safety in travelling only upon the very 
best boats with case, comfort, rapidity, and no 
racing. No reasonable man will wish to go back 
to the old unsteady and unsafe fashions again. 

[From the California Farmer of May 11.] 
A Hint for the Steamer Combination, — 
What say you gentlemen; in these times, that men 
call so awfully dull, and when the bravest of our 
business men get the blues, and ready to steal 
away anywhere — would it not be a wise plan to 
offer an inducement to travel 1 Would it not be 
better to carry up river 200 passengers regularly 
and 200 down regularly at six dollars, than to 
average only 100 at ten dollars. The passago 
money would be thus increased §200, besides the 
profits of berths and suppers. This is a matter of 
dollars and cents, gentlemen, and although we 
have always advocated No. 1 boats and fair libe- 
ral prices, yet now, in the present very depressed 
state of trade, if more money can be made to flow 
into your pockets, and the community be induced 
to travel more, and be made to feel that you do 
desire to accommodate it, is it not worth while 
trying ? You know you hold the power — you 
can try it — if it don't work well, you can abandon 
it, for it must be as you say. There are many 
cases where persons will not travel in the boats if 
they can avoid it. We saw one person yesterday 
go to the telegraph oflio and do his business in 
that way, at an expense of $7 or S8, although he 
would much rather have had a visit had the Ian 
been S$0 or S$8 even. Two othors declined 
on account of the cost — which with thi 
penses there, amount to about $i0. It bear; 
heavy upon those who are compelled to travel ' 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



and especially those whose business is so much take and garner the loving heart that clusters 



crippled, or lost, that they have no $40 a trip, 
and thev content themselves by remaining at 
home. All this is lost to the company. We 
can only say. " A hint to the wise is sufficient." 



The Homeless. 
How the feeling heart is touched with sadness 
at the thought, that a fellow being is homeless. 
How quick every generous impulse of our better 
nature is brought into requisition, that we may 
offer aid and sympathy to that creature who 
seems marked as unfortunate — as peculiarly so, for 
to be homeless is the darkest and most fearful of 
all evils than can befal the human heart. 

How much effort has been made, how much 
sympathy has been excited in behalf of the desti- 
tute and suffering in all the relations of life ; and 
how often do we see real duties of the household 
neglected by those who are in affluent circum- 
stances, that they may go from house to house 
and call a gathering of co-workers to relieve those 
who need such aid. All this effort to relieve the 
suffering is well, for it is commanded of us to 
"feed the hungry," "clothe the naked," and 
" relieve the distressed." This tonds to make 
wretched homes happier and brighter ; but we 
would ask, if sometimes there is not too much a 
show of charity, a desire of outside display of good 
works, if man)' who are thus notorious at all 
" charitable meetings" have not by their desire to 
make themselves famous as charitable and ben- 
evolent, neglected their own homes ? Does not 
every day's experience teach us that much of this 
display of charity, much of this love of fame is 
bought at a high and fearful price — the price of 
happiness in one's home ? 

Do we not often see that many of those little 
nameless comforts, those delicate attentions, those 
favors that cost nothing but reflection, arc too 
frequently disregarded on account of the time 
wanted for charitable meetings and benevolent 
duties abroad ? We rejoice to see the broadest 
humanity, the widest charity, for " it hidcth a 
multitudo of sins ; " but when it is so broad that 
it leads those whom " God gave to man," to "ne- 
glect their own household," then they are indeed 
worse than an infidel, and the cloak of charity 
will not cover the sin. 

The New Year has come upon us in a new land, 
and the prosperity of that land, and the families 
that shall make their dwelling place here, depends 
almost entirely upon those whoso influence is so 
potent in the circle of home ; and it is riot those 
only who are poor or sick, or those who are or- 
phans, or childless, or friendless, or alone in the 
world, that are homeless, But there arc many 
who arc surrounded by all that should mako life 
desirable — wealth, kindred, troops of friends 
that we could number among the most destitute, 
abject, homeless souls that we have ever met 
Some by nature have no heart for home, and 
neither wealth nor friends could make one for 
them. Others, have all its most sacred associa- 
tions, yet they are forgotten and perverted, and 
the word "home" is but a word for fashion, friv- 
olity and worldly pleasure; and its members 
seek in the world without for those blessings 
which can only be found within the sacred circle 
of home. 

When borne is thus perverted from a sacred to 
a common use. 'tis then we see its members out 
in the world pursuing some phantom that will 
ovcrcllude their grasp. The head, he whose duty 
it is to direct, may have a heart to make a 

home of peace happiness for earth, a home 

where the heart can >laco and comfort in 

the hour of sorrow and sickness ; and he flies to 
it as a bird to its nest, when the day is done ; but 
if the " mate bird" is flown, if the nest is d. 
though weary ever so much, he will seek for rest 
in some other nest, so long as his own fades 
But, when all he seeks is there, when, the mate 
bird comes in graceful flight to court him to his 
own home, then the heart is prompted to perform 
all those is of kindness 

and affection due to loved objects, and these call 
out reciprocal response, and the altar of home is 
made to born with a divine flame. But, when 
those who direct, labor in vain, when the head 
plans what the heart prompts, and the in 
laid upon the altar, when that altar is J . 
tor fashionable rounds of pleasure, and the most 
sacred of duties, and the most tender tics and the 
sweetest attentions are neglected or forgot i 
then the affectionate heart feels widowed 



around the altar of home. 0, woman, how mighty 
thy influence! how fearful thy responsibility! 
How many homes, once happy and blest, havo 
been lost forevor, broken up, loving hearts sepa- 
rated, parents and children estranged— all result- 
ing from a neglect of those little attentions at 
first, which ever seem as a connecting link to 
bind fond hearts. 

Ho*v potent are the little things of home, the 
slipper and the chair for father when he returns, 
the greeting at the door for the husband, the 
salute of the sister to a brother. The coldest 
heart can be subdued by affection, and the sin- 
ing, erring one, won back from error by love. 
Wives, sisters, daughters, remember, whilo you 
meet to plan deeds of benevolence and charity for 
the widow and orphan, for the destitute and 
homeless, remember that if the highest, holiest, 
purest duties of home have been neglected for 
11 outward charity" or love of the world, there are 
those who should be nearer and dearer that may 
feel that there is such a thing as to be sheltered, 
clothed, fed, and riot in luxury, even, and yet be 
" Homeless." 

It is not much the world can give, 

With all ita subtle art ; 
4nd gold and gems are not the things 

To eatiefy the heart ; 
But O, if those who cluster round 

The altar and the hearth, 
Have gentle words and loving smiles, 



still the good that has fallen upon the Agricul- 
tural interests of our State, upon all the interests 
of California, is beyond calculation. So much 
good is perceptible, however, that men wore smil- 
ing faces, and all seemed to know the good that 
would result from it. 



Cone Burr of the Arbor Vitse. 
The Cone of the Arbor Vitas of Calaveras 
weighs when full grown not more than from one 
and a half to two ounces avoirdupois and is two 
and a half inches long by one and a half broad. 
When fresh it is of a greenish brown color and 
as hard as a stone ; but alter eight or nine days 
from its falling, the lobes open and the seeds fall 
out with the least shaking. The seeds are nearly 
the size, shape and color as those of the common 
parsnips; one hundred and forty of them.are con- 
tained in each burr. 

This burr is a perfect Cone, and is most elegant 
in its proportions and appearance. The seeds are 
found between the lobes next to the stem of the 
burr, and are surrounded by a curious deposit ol 
deep purplish gum which is -ncarl) thi same in 
its characteristics as the Gum Kino of druggists. 
This Gum is astringent, is readily soluble in water 
and stains cotton cloth of a deep purplish brown. 
Doubtless it will be found to possess valuable 
medicinal properties, and it certainly deserves a 
trial from California physicians. T. op M. 



How beautiful is earth 1 



man the choice between the devil and the an 

If ho prefer the latter, he will generally f'u 
in the guise of a gcntlo wife. 

I believe half the worthlessness, idlene 
uncnergy of bachelorism are products of in 
ence and prevention of early marriages. 

An early marriage is not necessarily an impru- 
dent one any more than the greybeard's last wed- 
lock is a wise one. 

The divine instincts of youth will guideus more 
correctly in the choice of a companion than our 
world-wisdom, that we in our corruption, call 
maturer j udgment. 

Neither are parental or guardian terrors al- 
ways well founded. 

A young man is objected to because he is poor; 
because ho is quick, careless of opinion, inclined 
to delay harsh judgments — a disposition which 
prudent old ladies call recklessnes ; and which is 
as natural to generous youth, as scandal is to 
prudent old ladies. 

A young man without positively fixed vices, 
who has three qualities, generosity of feeling, sf- 
fectedness and honor, may be safely trusted with 
the welfare of the woman he loves; my word for 
it, he will secure it morn certainly than he who 
buys a wife for two carriage horses, a sofa atthe- 
opera. aud an entrance into Mrs. Fungus's set. — 
Donald MacLeod's Bloodstone. 



Legislative Ball at Sacramento City. 
The dedication of the new State House (County 
Court House,) opened for the grand Inaugural 
Ball, in honor of the members of the Legislature, 
came off on Friday evening last/, at Sacramento 
city. Without flattery to the citizens of that 
city, or to the managers, we can safely say it was 
one of the most splendid affairs, perhaps the very 
best, ever planned and carried out in California, 
Nothing could exceed the elegance of the whole 
affair. The magnificent suites of rooms, the deli- 
rious strains of music, the hundreds of richly- 
dressed, beautiful women, and genteelly attired 
parties of gentlemen ; the quadrille, waltz, schot- 
tische, mazourka and polka, were all enlivcncl 
by a joyous spirit that was universal amid this 
vast throng; for it was estimated there were over 
one thousand present, of whom near four hun- 
dred uerc ladi 

The Senate and Assembly chambers, the gal- 
leries of each, with all the rooms attached, were 

furnished superbly, richly, drapcried and decor- 
ated in excellent taste. The refreshments, the 

admirable meat supper at midnight, and the 

grand banquet of cakes, jellies, creams, Ac, at 2 

o'clock a. M.. were all so excellently got up and 

so finely carried out, that wc may safely say they 

could not be excelled. 

The dancing commenced at 9 p. m.. and con- 
tinued with unabated interest till 4 a. M. Tho 

only objections raised, that we heard, was the 

i jam" — there was not space enough to dance with 

comfort or grace in such a thronged assembly. 
A very full attendance of the Senators and 

Representatives, and ladies and gentlemen from 

San Francisco, Benicia and other parts of the - 

the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor. Senator 

Gwin. General Wool, olliecrs of the army with 

ladies of their families, and many distinguished 

strangers was present. The whole affair was 

truly grand as a festive scene, and reflects the 
Bt credit upon the eiliiens and managers, 

upon the " Queen City of the Plains," and the 

whole State. 

The Storm. 
The spell is at last broken, the flood gates of 

heaven are open, and the clouds have dropped 

1 lis houses are well stocked 



Essex Institute. 

Salem, Oct. 3d, 1854. 
Messrs. Warren & Son : We acknowledge the 
acceptable present of samples of Californian field 
seeds, viz : Wheat, Oats and Barley, illustrative 
of the productsof your soil. The Essex Institute 
is a Society of Natural and Civil History, and 
Horticulture is recognised as a branch of the for- 
mer of these. 

The Herbarium of the Institute, contemplates 
the collecting and preserving all kinds ot seeds, 
for future reference, as well as to mark the pro 
gress of horticultural experiment. 

Your present becomes available at once, to 
such an Institution. 

We would gladly avail ourselves of the promise 
in your Circular " to forward from time to time 
all important information and such new and val- 
uable seeds Ac. as can be safely transmitted." 

Specimens of the seeds of the native plants : the 

cones, nuts, acorns, Ac. Ac. of native trees; the 

s Ac., found growing upon the 

trunks ol forest trees, or of the orchard, would be 

very acceptable. 

The latter when thoroughly dried could be used 
for packing other and larger seeds than those 
which require paper envelopes, and would not be 
injured by thi- 

We hardly know what return to make to you 
for such and similar favors, but whatever is in our 
power or at our means, wc should bo most happy 
to supply. 

With wishes for your success and prosperity 
wc remain gentlemen, vcr . ly. Ac. 

ms Russell. Curator 
of Botany Ac, to the F.ssex Institute. 



Gapes in Chickens. — It is my aim never to 
publish anything which I have not thoroughly 
proved to be both true and useful ; but as there 
has been so much guess work and humbug pub- 
lished upon the diseaso in chickens called the 
gapes, I will publish, if you think proper, my ex- 
perience in that disease. I have lost over one 
hundred and fifty chickens with the gapes, in 
the course of the summer, and have dissected 
many — examined them thoroughly, and found 
nothing to justify the conclusion that the disease 
is caused by worms in the wind-pipe, throat or 
crop, as some writers pretend, nor have I found 
any remedy to cure or prevent the disease, in all 
that I have read. On the contrary I tried all the 
remedies published in the Cultivator, and many 
more, without any good effect. I do not believe 
that there ever was a cure performed by any re- 
medy I have tried. But I have observed that they 
were not affected with the disease in the spring 
when the weather was cool, nor in the fall, but 
only in hot weather — that the most of them took 
the disease in the morning, after being brooded 
all night. I therefore concluded it was caused 
by too much brooding in warm weather. I pro- 
cured a headless barrel which I set upon a grass- 
plat — took the chicks from tho hen at a fortnight 
old ; put them in and fed them, sins which I have 
lost no more with tho gapes. YoW are welcome 
to my expeiiencc. Let others tr> 

A Magnificent Farm ano Farmer.— A Ver- 
mont paper says : Among the r men in 

the Vermont Legislature is Mr. 1). Q. lirigham, 
of Fairfield. He owns and colli i acres 

of land. Among his barn-yard items are two 
hundred anil twenty cows, twenty horses, and 
kc of oxen. In his dairy he makes butter 
only. The average yield of butter from the milk 
of each cow is one hundred ami fifty pounds. 
Two huge "dasher" churns are set in motion by 
horse-powers," and the butter is " worked" 
by the old-fashioned "paddle." His stock of 
cattle consume about five hnnd of hay 

annual I > bushels of 

BOO 

■ is'h 
of potatoes, are among his early | 
Man of I'*," in hi- lo bct- 

_nt up 
with a breadth of beam, and in a style of magni- 
ficence proportionate to the ex ten issess- 
. rioultural product*- lie ling six 
his booU. an i ,ne of 
-ely. 



Fwvrtiti, Brioht Flowebs. — Among tho mi 
tokens of kindly remembrance we receive.) 

• Happy New Year," and which add so mi; lnW pate nt balances 

the pleasurable scenes of " Home," was a hand- 
■ssaseVautal ■ • i", .weraaraa the gardens of \\ 
-1 , on the Mission road. Mr. Walk- 
. are now so extensively stocked with 
every variety of plants and flowers that those 



orrespondent 

cr and party a: 
and are at present ei 
on the left bank of 
fortunat 



y garden*, or parlor cons- upon the Deae 

■ay have their taste fally gratified ..ply of water. 

at a moderate rat* ker has re ill be comm< 
1 from a visit to the East, among the pr 



-fill hearts 
have been cheered, and the song of praise and 
gratitude has ascended to the c 
and the latter rain," for the earth has been re- 
freshed, and I - to life anew, and whis- 
pers of " seed time and hai 

The rain storm, at Ihe going oat of the old year 

and the coming in of the new, was ushered in 

)>v a gale of great violence. Those who hare 

ifornia have not known 

a gale of greater - I commenced a few 

minutes after midnight, and continued till morn- 

Srveral buildings wen blown over, uthuj 

i rehouses more or less injured. The 



. damage, fir . m torrents a part of the 

bereft : s then n I is away to seek in I i JT -., *T 

, . . »_ . re that during the storm 

rooms - 'in, orgamblr. ; *"" ~* , . 

forsomen soma, ; tfa then the I ocks of » earthqu^t W 

I"-* •*•»»' r^and^r**^^ 

no thought so bitter, fee such a heart knows • n . /lt thus cause brick and atone to 
home should be, what it mfeht be, what ;h i -hake. 
would make it ; and woe be to those who fail to < However much we may regret the injury done. 



.- we refer our friends — if they will 
it the gardens, they will see that we have only 
pointed the way to them. The gardens will 
speak stra nger than our pen to all who lore the 

beautiful. 

Roc so Volumes. — Volume I. of the Faama 

can be had at the Ofice neatly bound at 8 

Volume II. will be ready id a short time ; and a 

complete volume, two volumes in one. w: 

ready with complete index about the 1 5th of the i the 

I month— price of double » >*■» S1X50. This vol- ten and obtained shoo; - 
; wane will be fcund of great value to stud to the 
. States as the best proof of the agricultural wealth 
|*fCa**f**an* 



1 'ego Herald wri- 
S 

pposjte the 

They 

ist as they 

y of the Boundary 
'-..mni.nci.-l in t few days. fSirvrrhe 
rvey was made in h of the 

is advanced to the westward about fire or 
-,dred yards; so th>- •. ■ .m its 

junction with the Colorado In 
near 8a ' 

bank of the U * utpanacross the parade 
groan 1 " 'oowqutte 

low, and still felling. Few emigrants are passing 
st this time __ 

The Los Angeles &ar has the following sad in- 
telligence from Salt Luke: By lb* Salt Lake mail 
which arrieud last evening. «r» ha**- the /* 

that the Indians robbed the C. 8. Mail on the 
rout* from Great Salt Lake 



Early Marriage*. 
I am a great advocate fer early _ 
' Then h no cheek like nu triuaatrt far th* errant 

[■ii|iinmliia if jnng — ' — ' > « 
I what an inlaw! th* yean of aanarstiun arithout 
annate ana of then- parens*, and then ihr first 

ilea. 



I Tn» Snestw Tssaserss.— To* Stnvssner I 
grim arrived on Monday from tbs wrack of th* 
Vankm Blade, bringing two men bona* of th* 

«rr ken tna*ure,«otitinimg $34.00(1. This makrs 
-,t*t *,!.■■>.•■' that ha* been recovered, leaving a 
balance --.ft.-.: r- f >l Ihn .'• 

amuunl the pat«t boat Dan r wl 

Point Argurtln ha iinsnai < 
two itHvtiwal I 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



^ortintltral $£jrartmwt 



PAKKS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS 
for the Farmer. 

The present is a time of agricultural improve- 
ment and progress without a parallel in this coun- 
try. Improved implements, improved stock, bet- 
ter cultivation, better fences and buildings, meet 
us everywhere in the country ; and farmers are 
growing " rich," in the common acceptation of 
that term. We rejoice at this, and so must every 
man who feels a lively interest in our national 
welfare, because agriculture is our main stay. If 
it fails to prosper, we can have no prosperity. It 
is the produce of our farms— the fruits of farm in- 
dustry — that animate- trade and commerce, that 
build up cities and villages, construct railroads 
and canals, and cover our lakes and rivers and the 
broad seas with fleets of vessels. What a calam- 
ity — what an universal panic and prostration of 
business would the failure of even one crop over 
the whole country, bring upon us ! 

Agricultural progress and prosperity, then, are 
subjects that no man, whatever may be his call- 
ing, can regard with indifference ; and the agri- 
cultural classes themselves, as a body, by their 
intelligence, industry, energy, and manly indepen- 
dence, command universal admiration and respect. 
These are our honest sentiments — not the fulsome 
flattery of a stump speech or holiday oration. 
Our sympathies are, and ever have been, and will 
be, with the tillers of the soil. Our own life, so 
far, has been spent in the country, and we have 
earned our bread by the cultivation of the soil. 
We can speak of both its toils and pleasures from 
actual experience. We know that some regard it 
as a vulgar and plodding pursuit, fit only for 
strong, rough, and uneducated men ; but the 
number of those who think so are diminishing 
rapidly. Men of taste and intelligence, are now 
ambitious of being agriculturists ; and schools 
and colleges for training the sons of farmers, are 
beginning to attract attention, and will soon work 
a change in public sentiment in regard to the re- 
spectability and importance of agricultural pro- 
fession. 

This brings us to the point on which we pro- 
posed to make a few suggestions, when we took 
up our pen. We wish to see the farmer's home— 
the farmer's life — made more attractive, Hitherto, 
as a general thing, the improvements which have 
made are of the useful kind, having reference 
mainly to the supply of man's physical wants. 
Most of our farms must be regarded as mere man- 
ufactories of food and clothing ; very little has 
been done to gratify the intellect, taste, or feel- 
ings — the hijber and nobler attributes of our 
nature, Andnhis is one reason, beyond a doubt, 
whv many young persons who have, by means of 
education, reading, and society, acquired a certain 
degree of refinement, become dissatisfied with ag- 
ricultural life, and have sought the city. Intelli- 
gent, educated men, cannot surely remain satisfied 
with being mere growers of grain and breeders of 
stock, — they must love their homes ; and to merit 
their love and attachment, that home must pos- 
sess something of beauty, for the love of the beau- 
tiful is an instinct of man's nature. A large por- 
tion of the population is continually on the move ; 
the old home has no hold on their affections — or 
at least not enough to overcome the novelty of a 
new one. We see the population diminishing in 
the very heart of the finest agricultural district 
in America, where nothing is so much needed as 
human beings. It is at certain seasons impossi- 
ble to procure laborers enough to do the work. 
This state of things is unfavorable to the perfect 
development of the country's resources, and equal- 
ly unfavorable to the attainment of a higher and 
happier social condition. 

It is not unreasonable, we trust, to expect, and 
even to urge, some reform on this point. Make 
home attractive ; cultivate the taste, and feelings, 
and affections, as well as you do your fields. Why 
should a wealthy farmer, with his fifty, one, or 
two, or three hundred acres of land, content him- 
self with a rod or two of door-yard, and a dozen 
of shade trees, shaped and managed after the pre- 
cise fashion of a village plot 1 Why can he not, 
just as well, have a park and pleasure-ground of 
several acres around his house, broad glades of 
lawn, and groups of trees, separated from the cul- 
tivated portions of the farm by green hedges ? 
This, with a well-stocked orchard and good ample 
kitchen-garden, would come np to our ideas of a 
country home; and it would be impossible for 
children to grow up in such a home without be- 
coming attached to it, and having their tastes ex- 
panded, their feelings refined, or without appreci- 
ating the comforts and blessings of a country life. 
A rod or two of door-yard for a farm-house ! — 
what a mockery ! There is something incongru- 
ous in the very look of it that cannot fail to strike 
every observing person ; it wants what the la- 
mented Downing called " local truth" itf architec- 
ture, which he explains in this way : 

"Local truth in architecture is one which can 
never be neglected without greatly injuring the 
effect of country houses. And yet, such is the 
influence of fashion and false taste, and so little 
do the majority of citizens trouble themselves to 
think on this subject, that nothing is more com- 
• mon in some parts of the country, than to see the 
cockneyism of three-story town houses violating 
the beauty and simplicity of country life. In our 
own neighborhood there is a brick house standing 
in the midst of gardens and orchard, which has a 
front and rear pierced with windows, but only 
blank wall at the sides ; looking, in fact, precisely 
as if lifted out of a three-story row in a well-pack- 
ed city street, and suddenly dropped in the midst 
of a gicen field in the country, full of wonder and 
contempt, like a true cockney, at the strangeness 
and dullness of all around it. During a drive on 



Long Island, last autumn, we saw with pain and 
mortification, the suburban villa of a wealthy 
citizen, a narrow, unmistakable 'six-story brick,' 
which seemed, in its forlornness and utter want 
of harmony with all about it, as if it had strayed 
out of town, in a fit of insanity, and had lost the 
power of getting back. 

" To give an expression of local truth to a 
country house, it should always show a tendency 
to spread out and extend itself on the ground, 
rather than to run up in the air. There is space 
enough in the country ; and because aoitizen has 
lived in town, where land is sold by the square 
foot, and where, in consequence, he has to moun 1 ' 
four pair of stairs daily, it is surely no reason 
why he should compel himself to do the same 
thing in the country. Indeed, economy in the 
first cost of a house (that is to say, the lessened 
expense of building two stories under the same 
roof and over the same foundation) is the princi- 
pal reason why most country houses are not still 
more ample, extended, and rambling on the sur- 
face, than they usually are." 

The same principle holds true in regard to the 
arrangement of grounds about country houses. 
" The cockneyism of three-story town house," is 
no more out of place in the country, than is the 
village door-yard before a farm-house. 

But some careful farmer will ask us, "How can 
we afford to lay out parks and pleasure-grounds, 
and keep them in fine condition 1 It would cost 
us mo.-e than the whole labor of our farms. Only 
think of what an expenditure of money and labor 
this hedging, and planting, and mowing this 
pleasure-ground would involve. It would be all 
very well if we could afford it; but that we can 
not, and we must leave it to retired gentlemen 
who have made their, fortunes in town, and come 
out into the country to spend them." 

But we reply, You can carry out our plan with- 
out iucurring a heavy expense. Hundreds of 
farmers in our own county of Monroe, can make 
such a park as wc propose, without feeling the 
cost. Fence off, with Osage orange or buckthorn, 
at a cost of about twenty to twenty-five cents a 
rod, five to ten acres of land immediately around 
your dwelling. Seed it down, and it will produce 
good crops of hay. You can get plenty of young 
maples, elms, tulip trees, basswoods, ash, and 
other native trees, in the woods, which can be 
taken up and planted at leisure intervals in the 
fall, when farm labor is over, and early in spring, 
before it commences, and even during winter, in 
mild weather. Until the trees are well establish- 
ed, it will be necessary to cultivate the soil around 
them. It will not be necessary to cover the 
whole ground with trees, but merely to scatter 
them here and there in gneups, and singly, to give 
it a park-like character which will distinguish it 
at once from cultivated fields. A little can be done 
now, and a little again, as leisure affords; and in 
a few years the work will show. Meantime the 
land is cropped profitably ; for hay is always a 
paying crop, and an indispensable one. -The 
ground nearest the house may be planted with 
some rarer trees — a portion of them evergreens. A 
small portion of the ground near the house might 
be separated from the main body of the park by 
a wire fence, or moveable hurdle fence, and kept 
mowed ; and if embellished with a few flowering 
shrubs, and a few beds of flowers, all the better. 
But these, for economy's sake, can very well be 
dispensed with. When planting is finished, and 
the trees fairly established, the park might be 
pastured with sheep, as many parks arc in Europe; 
and thus it would always have a closely cut sur- 
face without the expense of mowing, and the 
sheep would be an interesting feature in its scen- 
ery. When forest trees are not within reach, we 
would recommend the raising of them from seed, 
or small plants can be purchased at nurseries for 
12 or $3 per hundred, which, with a couple of 
years' growth in nursery rows, will be fit for final 
planting out. Only go about it, and the means 
will not be wanting. 

Those who wish to have a plan sketched out 
for their guidance, can procure it at a trifling ex- 
pense, from Messrs. Meehan & Saunders, Messrs. 
Copeland & Cleveland, Mr. Munn, Mr. Leuchars, 
Mr. Hepp, Mr. Graef, Mr. Cook, and several other 
gentlemen who devote themselves to the practice 
of landscape gardening, and whose cards will be 
found in our advertising pages. We wish some 
of these gentlemen would favor us with their 
views on this subject. We desire to push im- 
provements into the country ; it must not remain, 
as now, confined to the precincts of cities and vil- 
lages. But we must offer to country people prac- 
ticable and inexpensive plans. We wish our ag- 
ricultural societies would recognize the importance 
of the subject, and encourage some efforts by 
offering prizes. Their main object is to elevate 
the farming pursuit, and we know of no other 
way, at present, in which it can be done more 
effectually, in the older States, than by creating 
and fostering a taste for the embellishment of the 
homestead. — New York Horticulturist. 



THE TULIP. 

There is no spring flower in cultivation, that 
will rank with the tulip, in the general beauty of 
its form, the wealth and splendor of its colors, the 
endless variety and brilliancy of its tints, as they 
stand in bold contrast to each other in a single 
flower, or blend almost imperceptibly their hues; 
or in the cleanness, purity, and peerless elegance 
of its stem and leaf, in every stage of growth. 

These are very high qualities to award to any 
plant, or flower, but the tulip claims and owns 
them all. Indeed, thero is no floral display, no 
picture of a single spot of earth whatever in a 
northern climate, which can be made so perfectly 
beautiful — one which fills the eye with such in- 
tense fulness — as a bed of choicely-selected tulips. 
They are so easily obtained and propagated, that 



the humblest cottager in town or country, can 
enjoy them ; and it is said that the Spitalfields 
weavers of London, on little spots of earth, often 
enclosed in boxes, rear and exhibit, at the London 
Tulip shows, flowers of wondrous magnificence, 
admired by the nobility, and coveted even by 
royalty itself. 

When the green leaf of the bulb has entirely 
faded, a few weeks after flowering, the functions 
of the plant, for the season, are suspended ; it has 
gone to rest. Then is the time to take them up, 
and make selections for new beds. Those who 
admire tulips— and who does not?— should, if 
possible, select their varieties themselves, when 
in the height of their bloom. This is usually 
more satisfactory, when one knows what and how 
to select, than to leave the selection to the gar- 
deners ; who, although they may give you choice, 
rare, and new kinds, many of them at high prices, 
too will not so much please you as some that are 
more common and long cultivated. In planting 
them, they should be so arranged in the bed that 
the colors should show in striking contrast, giv- 
ing to it as bizarre an effect as possible. This 
arrangement of color in a tulip bed has quite as 
striking an effect as the individual character of 
the tulips themselves. We have known very 
common bulbs, by a tasteful method of planting, 
look more beautiful in the mass than the finest 
and most costly flowers when promiscuously 
thrown together. A Parisian sewing-girl, with a 
few pati-colored remnants, will, in a few hours, 
stitch together a more brilliant and attractive 
dress for the Boulevards, than the costliest robe 
got up for a court presentation. It is so with a 
tulip bed. The bulbs should not only be choice 
in themselves, but the arrangement of colors and 
sizes should be equally tasteful. Then, their 
effect is unequalled by any thing else that blooms. 

There are several kinds of tulip, as the parot, 
or fringed, the full rose tulip, and the scmi-bouble. 
They arc, however, all inferior to the upright, 
cupped, single flower which, when right, is the 
only perfect thing of its kind, and the only one 
we should be anxious to cultivate. 

Tulips sometimes suffer from being kept too 
long out of tho ground. They should, after their 
summer drying, be put into the ground as early 
as the 1st of October— or if earlier, no matter. 
Fresh-rotted sod mold is the best covering for 
them. Three inches below the surface, is their 
proper depth in a moderately dry situation, and a 
light covering of clean litter should be thrown 
over them for the winter. When the frost is 
effectually out of the ground in the spring, this 
litter can be removed ; they will then spring up, 
and flower strongly and beautifully Planting 
should never bo delayed till spring, if possible to 
get them down in the fall. Spring planted, they 
seldom bloom, and if they do, the flowers are 
small and less brilliant. A removal once in two 
years, is amply sufficient for their best propaga- 
tion and show ; and if left in the earth for three 
or four years, if they do not get too much crowd- 
ed, and the beds are kept clean and rich, they will 
not harm. Indeed, their whole cultivation is 
simple and easy. Hyacinths may be treated like 
tulips, both in arrangement and cultivation ; while 
crocus, narcissus, jonquils, daffodils, and the like 
hardy flowers, need less attention, and may stand 
for years unmoved, and bloom in great luxuriance, 
their only wrong tendency being to overcrowd, 
each other by multiplication. 

Every body who has a piece of ground large 
enough, should cultivate a bed of tulips, and other 
bulbs, as opportunity offers. — American Agricul- 
turist. 

Grapes Ripening Earlier than Formerly. 

Method of Cultivation mart important than Climatr. 

In a recent conversation with Dr. Underbill 
says the New York American Agriculturist, of 
Croton Point, he informed us that both the Isa- 
bella and Catawba, are evidently ripening earlier, 
from year to year. Ten to twelve years since, 
the earliest bunches of Isabellas, were ready for 
market about the first of October. The past sea- 
son they were equally forward on the 12th of 
September. This season has, however, been a re- 
markable one, and some allowance is to be made 
on that account ; but last year, and the year be- 
fore, the grapes were as maturo about the 18th 
of September, as formerly at the end of that 
month. 

Dr. U. thinks the Isabolla may be cultivated 
much farther north than has generally been sup- 
posed, by reducing the amount of fruit to the vine, 
so that there may be a greater flow of sap, and 
by this means an earlier growth and maturity, 
secured. He thinks much more depends upon 
the method of manuring, pruning, and the general 
plan of cultivation, than upon climate, since they 
often ripen poorly even in Virginia and Maryland, 
when improperly managed, and yet, in the same 
season, ripen well in Massachusetts. 

Who will Make a Goon Wife. — When 
you see a young woman who rises early, sets the 
table and prepares her father's breadfast cheer- 
fully, depend upon it she will make a good wife. 
You may rely upon it that she possesses a good 
disposition and kind heart. When you see a 
young woman just out of bed at 9 o'clock, with 
her elbow upon the tablo, gasping and sighing, 
''Oh how dreadfully I feel," rely upon it she will 
not make a good wife. She must be lazy and 
mopish. When you sec a girl with a broom in 
her hand sweeping the floor, with a rubbing board 
or clothes line in her hand, you may put it down 
that she is industrious, and will make a good 
wife for somebodj'. When you see a girl with ;i 
novel in her left hand and a fan in her right. 
shedding tears, you may be sure that she is unfit 
for a wife. Happiness and misery are boforc you, 
which will you choose'? 



fl'ahuiulc Ga-trarta. 



Profitable Farming. 

Mr. Coming, in his address before theConncc- 
River Agricultural Society, says: Farmers will in 
future time come to understand that the earth and 
the air are both full of wealth to them. They 
will understand that the deeply bedded clay and 
the hard pan which is hidden far down in the 
ground are worth something more than merely to 
hold the world together. They will be found 
opening deep and broad drains, in the operation 
of which they will obtain valuable material for 
top-dressing on their upland, and at the same time 
make their lowlands of much greater value by 
relieving them of surplus water. They will dis- 
card the idea of cultivating much land with the 
tise of a little manure, as requiring much labor 
and tending to penury. High cultivation, with- 
out fancy farming, will be in the way of the suc- 
cessful farmer of future time. 

The importance of thoroughly pulverizing the 
soil will be better understood, and the value of 
the subsoil. Men who know little or nothing, 
by experience, about the use of plows, and other 
farming implements, and men who can under- 
stand no principle of science, will not much longer 
be trusted and credited in making and recom- 
mending such implements. Farmers will have 
all these things tested by science and by experi- 
ment. The plowman will also come under new 
orders. He will learn that his object is no longer 
to be the plowing over as much ground as possi- 
ble in a day ; but, to thoroughly plow and pulver- 
ize every inch of ground he goes over. 

The conditions of respectability will be some- 
what changed. The young man will not think 
it a dishonor to him to work on a farm. The 
young woman will no more think herself degrad- 
ed by familiarity with the kitchen. Intelligence, 
industry, usefulness, will measure merit and es- 
tablish a title to respect. These things we ought 
to consider now. 

Advantages of Under-Draining. — Waring, 
in his " Elements of Agriculture," states that the 
advantages of under-draining are many and im- 
portant, and enumerates the following : 

1. It entirely prevents drouth. 

2. It furnishes an increased supply of atmos- 
pheric fertilizers. 

3. It warms the lower portions of the soil. 

4. It hastens the decomposition of roots and 
other organic matter. 

5. It accelerates the disintegration of mineral 
matters in the soil. 

6. It causes a more even distribution of nutri- 
tious matter among those parts of soil traversed 
by roots. 

7. It improves the mechanical texture of the soil. 

8. It causes the poisonous excrcmentitious 
matter of plants to be carried out of tho reach of 
their roots. 

9. It prevents grasses from running out. 

10. It enables us to deepen the surface soil, by 
removing excess of water. 

11. It renders soil earlier in the spring. 

12. It prevents the throwing out of grain in 
winter. 

13. It allows us to work sooner after rains, 

14. It keeps off the effects of cold weather 
longer in tho fall. 

15. It prevents the formation of acetic and 
other organic acids, which induce the growth of 
sorrel and other similar weeds. 

1G. It hastens the decay of vegetable matter, 
and the finer comminution of the earthy parts of 
the soil. 

17. It prevents in a great measure, the evapor- 
ation of water, and the consequent abstraction of 
heat from the soil. 

18. It admits fresh quantities of water from 
rains, &c., which are always more or less imbued 
with the fertilizing gases of the atmosphere to be 
deposited among the absorbent parts of soil and 
given up to the necessities of plants. 

19. It prevents the formation of so hard a crust 
on the surface of the soil as is customary on heavy 
lands. 

Setting Hens. — In setting hens, thirteen eggs 
are enough to give them ; a large hen might 
cover more, but a few stronger, well-hatched 
chickens arc better than a- large brood of weak- 
lings, that have been delayed in the shell per- 
haps twelve hours over the time, from insufficient 
warmth. At the end of a week, it is usual, with 
setting turkeys, to add two or three fowl's eggs, 
" to teach the young turkeys to pick." The plan 
is not a bad one; the activity of the chickens 
does stir up some emulation in their larger breth- 
ren. The eggs take but little room in the nest, 
and will produce two or three very fine fowls. — 
Cultivator. 

A Large Yield of Corn. — The Elkton (Mrl) 
Democrat says that at Battle Swamp, G. J. 
Fisher, Esq., has raised 1,600 bushels of corn, on 
a sixteen acre lot, in that neighborhood, which 
two years ago was a sedge field. Tho lot had 
guano applied to it three times in that period ; 
the first application was 200 lbs., the second 150, 
the third 400 lbs., to the acre, making in all 750 
lbs. The corn was a white gourd seed, planted 
two and a half and three feet apart, with four 
stocks in a hill, and matured early. 

To Get Rid of Grain Weevils.— The agri- 
culturist who wishes to get rid of weevils has 
nothing to do but, as soon as he is aware of their 
presence to pitch the surface of some old boards 
and place them in his granaries ; the pitch must 
of course be renewed several times in tho year, in 
order to keep the insects away. Tho more fumes 
of tho pitch is disagreeable to tho weevils and it 
will provo fatal if long inhaled. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



.istcIUtnn. 



DOMESTIC DIALOGUE. 

Between Farmer Asbfield and bis Wife, 

Mrs. Dorcas Ashfield. 

(The following is principally taken from the 

Ohio Farmer. Wo substitute the name of our 

own paper for theirs:) 

Scene — The living room of a neat and sub- 
stantial cottage. Time — An evetiing in No- 
vember. The farmer and his wife are seen 
sitting on opposite sides of the table; the 
farmer with the last issue of the California 
Farmer, fn his hatid; while Mrs. Ashfield is 
engaged with her kitting work. 
Farmer Ashfield. — Well, really, this is com- 
fortable. Our crops, though somewhat lighter 
than usual, are all gathered in, the cattle and 
sheep are well provided for, and with a good 
shelter over our heads, and a supply of all the 
necessaries, and many of the luxuries of life, we 
have, indeed, much to be thankful for. Our chil- 
dren, dear wife, owing to the lessons and exam- 
ples of their excellent mother, are strongly at- 
tached to their humble home, and seem to be 
imbued with a love of those great'moral princi- 
ples, which constitute the best guuarantee of hap- 
piness. For several years past, our labors have 
been well rewarded ; wo owe nothing that we 
cannot pay ; and if we continue to be favored 
with health, I think we can reasonably expect 
our full share of enjoyment through the approach- 
ing winter. 

Mrs. Asnfield. — But then, you know that our 
childeen need, and must have a chance to obtain 
at least a good common education ; and the girls 
are now at an age when they require such arti- 
cles of dress and ornament as will enable them 
to appear as well as others in society. Reason- 
able indulgence, under proper direction, is no 
more than they are entitled to, and I think it will 
cause them to love home all the better. 

Farmer Ashfield. — Yes, yes — I know it. But 
these indulgences, and these "articles of dress 
and ornament," as you call them, cost money: 
and this year we have less to sell than usual ; 
and I thought of proposing to the school com- 
mittee to employ Jim Gawky, who will teach our 
school for seven dollars a month, and hire him 
for only two months and a half, to save expense. 
Mrs. Ashfield. — Husband, how you talk ! Hire 
Jim Gawky for two months and a half, to teach 
our children ! That would be "economy indeed." 
Why, our John knows more than he does, and 
little Mary, young as she is, could learn nothing 
of such an ignoramus. I would rather knit stock- 
ings at sixpence a knot, than have our children 
deprived of the benefits of a good school, for at 
least four months. And a teacher fit to have the 
care of children as good as ours, ought to be paid 
liberally for his services. 

Farmer Ashfield. — Well, I know there is reason 
in what you say ; but the times are hard — the 
banks arc breaking — taxes are high — and we have 
a long and hard winter before us. Wc must in 
some way reduce our expenses, or we shall not 
be able to lay aside a single dollar. 

Mrs. Ashfield. — There it is again ! You arc 
always for laying up something to guard against 
want in the future, and something for the chil- 
dren. This, as you very well know, I approve of, 
to a considerable extent; but if money is to be 
saved at the oxpense of education, or even the 
innocent enjoyments of life, then I say, let tin- 
money go, and let us live, as we go along, and 
enjoy the good of our labor. 

Farmer Ashfield. — But we must economize. 
Mrs Ashfield. — Certainly. But let us be care- 
ful not to become "penny wise and pound foolish." 
In other words, let us not, in our eagerness to add 
to what we alrpady possess, rob ourselves and 
Our dear children of the inheritance of knowl- 
edge, or deny ourselves those innocent and need- 
ful pleasures which afford us relief from the mo- 
notony of our mode of life, and prepare us for 
the more cheerful performance of our duties. 

Farmer Ashfield. — Well, Dorcas, you talk like 
a book ! You arc generally in the right; but as 
it is my business to provide for the family, I must 
insist upon reducing our expenses, 
make up for the loss of that bogus five dollar 
piece, which I took for three bushels of potatoes. 
snd which is not worth a bungtown copper 
me see. How mam 

Mrs. Ashfield.— ihc Humbug Advocate, The 
Herald of Moonshine, the .Mirror of Fashion, the 
Dollar Weekly, and the California Farmer. 

Farmer Ashfield. — Too many, too many for 
the* I ■■ ! Some of them must I 

continued. The California Farmer is the 
most expensive of any, and I think I will not re- 
new m\ sul '. That will make 
up for the loss of those three bushels of pink 
' | rind although I like the paper, I must con- 
trive to get along without it. 

Mrs. 1- . i along without it?" That 

Would be a fine pic cause 

you have lost a live dollar piece, you think you 
must discontinue the only week Ij ; Miahed 

in the State, that is ex.' 
interests, and the most elegant, most 
and moat valuable |>ublication we have ever had 
in the hon 

Ki> in. r 1. Art, /./.—But it coats more than anv 
Other. 

Mrs. I I. t<r lenittinc 

i -jdi of 

kerhio, table?) 

to docs a bus) >i more than a I . 

of turnips! 

/ 1 ■ - '■ ., n vcurself. 

Mrs I- ~ I— 1 • k H 1—1 ■ 

on this page, you hare, betides the original matter 



from the pen of the editor, some valuable articles 
on horticulture ; the same concerning the arts and 
sciences ; and a great variety of reading on all 
sorts of subjects. And here is the Farmer's Fire- 
side reading! I sometimes think that the editor 
has looked in upon our own little cozy room, and 
made himself familiar with our affairs — and then, 
here is the Ladies' Department, and the Chil- 
drens, and Domestic Economy, and lots of choice 
sayings, and anecdotes for the boys to read and 
laugh at. And then, on the inside ! here is all 
Hi us we irant— a world of information about 
cattle, horses, sheep, swine. &c, the Market Re- 
ports — and suggestions about the best way of 
doing things — why, how can we get along with- 
out it? 

Farmer Ashfield, — But only think of thejjrice, 
Five dollars don't grow on every bush, 

Mrs. Ashfield. — No — nor does the California 
Farmer grow on every bush! I have wondered 
a thousand times, how the publisher could afford 
it at so low a price. Sooner than do without it, 
I would go all winter without new trimmings for 
my bonnet, and spin stocking yarn after the rest 
of the folks are in bed and asleep. 

Farmer Ashfield. — I guess we can get along 
without your doing that. The price is the only 
objection ; but let me see, 0, 1 have just thought 
of a plan, The publisher of the Farmer offers 
his paper at a liberal discount to clubs. To- 
morrow I will start out, with the prospectus he 
sent me, and urge all my neighbors to sub- 
scribe for it ! In that way I will save at least 
a dollar on our own subscription, and perhaps 
more. And besides, I think, myself, that such a 
paper will be of great service to all who read it. 

Mrs. Ashfield. — That is a first rate plan ! And 
1 can assure you, that if you were to spend a 
week in doing it, the boys and girls will cheer- 
fully do all the work, and thank you a thousand 
times beside. 

Farmer Ashfield. — I will do it! 

Mrs. Ashfield. — That's right. And when you 
send on a long list of names, don't forget to pre- 
sent my kind regards to the editor, and tell him 
that his arduous endeavors to benefit and enter- 
tain us, entitle him to our thanks and kind wish- 
es, in addition to the " price " of his elegant and 
valuable publication. 

Rome-The Eternal City. 

Ages since, on the banks of the Italian Tiber, 
there was a little city of no importance politically 
or commercially — a city built by a second Cain, 
and peopled by David's band regalhcred "every 
one that was in distress, and every one that was 
in debt, and every one that was discontented." 
Their monarchy was trivial — their authority un- 
acknowledged — their bravery of small account. 
A horde of men worse off than David's were — for 
ho had one wife when he slew Nabal to get anoth- 
er; they had none at all, and with more justice 
than he. carried off all the sweet Abigails from 
their Sabine spouses, without perpetrating his 
crime upon their husbands. How they espoused 
these wives — how the earlier and later con 
of the Roman ladies warred and wen reconciled, 
history relates. If we turn the leaves and over- 
look events that happened in the succeeding cen- 
tury or two, we shall find Rome — a state— 
ing a wide influence upon her neighbors — pos- 
sessed of an enriching commerce — " carrying war 
against the proud, and assisting the u 
should find her career as mistress ol the world, 
beginning — we should find stern laws following 
her invincible Unions, and both pursuing their 
.th, east ami west — we should 
find matrons of almost Spartan patriotism, youth 
prudent as well as bold and virtuous, and aged 
senators whose experienced minds were fully able 
to guide the rising state onward and upward, — 
all these joined to one another I 
ties,. and together forming a state of unparellclcd 
importance. 

It is characteristic of man. though he may not 
acknowledge it, to place a higher estimate upon 
qualities 
which he fin 

were so >oc the me-' 

often uniting in the closest friendship, as we do 7 
Why should we find man, his bad* mortal, striv- 
ing to make his deeds* immortal ? It is on ac- 
count of this feeling of his heart Because he is 
himself soon to die, he loves to dream of undying 
celebrity — he is fond of imagining that his wealth, 
his deeds, his talents, shall make so deep an im- 
pression upon mankind, that their fame shall be 
eternal. Thus was it with ancient Rome. The 
star of her empire had risen. Far and wide it 
shone in the noonday brightness of its stem and 
unyielding power. With the world almost wholly 
within the radiance of its beams — shining down 
upon all the former majesties of earth, and igno- 
rant that a western horiron was as ready to re- 
ceive it as an eastern had been to giv. 
who would have dared to proclaim within the 
universe of its dominion, or to whisper 
ear, of earth's constant changes. They called their 
power indestructible and their city eternal 
both at length were undermined. The republic 
gave way to the empire, and the golden sceptre 
i iry took the place of the iron one that an 
Augustus swayed. Rome sunk, and her domin- 
ion was no n 

Though her temporal dominion ceased, 

and the foreigner usurped her power — still Rome 

\e -Eternal' 

■ hieh Roman pride 

th games and triumph — not in 

armtes and fleets— hut in and with the still, small 

voice of intellectual ability. Her Cicero yet Iires 

eloquence of his orations — her Virgil and 

at he forth the inborn fire of* 

roe poet — her Tacitus, st 

sad careful delineator of Roman wars and Roman 



sages, and a narrator of the tyranical times that 
" tried the souls " of free-born Romans. Her 
laws still form the basis of our own — her patriots 
an example the world should follow. Though 
unable to go forth conquering and to conquer with 
brave armies and unequalled generals — her histo- 
rians still relate a Caesar's victories — her writers 
tell of Carthage overthrown — of Greece bowing 
at her feet — of a world in submission to her de- 
crees. The star of hor dominion truly sank, but 
the sun of her fame rose to its zenith only to re- 
main there forever. Time and the Fates might 
not grant eternal power, but they have bestowed 
upon her an undying renown — a substitute which 
nations will honor, if they do not fear — will re- 
spect, if they do not dread. — Omnibus. 



f afrits' f cprtment. 



[From the Home Journal.] 
Mrs. Judson— Fanny Forester. 
A mind more gifted, a temperament more sen- 
sitive, and a heart more wondrously tried by all 
that could bind the crown of thorns which shines 
brightest in heaven, never passed from tho earth, 
we may well believe, than in the death of her, 
whose names (by which she is known to the 
world) we have here written. Of the two lives 
that she lived successfully, while a tenant of the 
fragile frame whose pulses are now still — the first, 
a brilliant and brief one of literary success, and 
the last a slow and painful martyrdom of sacri- 
fices and sorrow — genius and an almost unparal- 
leled sensibility deepened, a thousand-fold, the 
varied experience. Few will have, ever gone to 
the right hand of God, we reverently feel, with 
more about which tho angels will gather, to read 
the record in eyes tearful no Iongor. She was of 
that heavenly purity and self-sacrificing and 
humble goodness, which, it is the mystery of an 
inscrutable Providence should be selected for such 
trial on earth. To those who knew her she was, 
in every sense, sainted ; yet none who knew her 
well, and what she changefully suffered, would 
believe there was erer another lot so apparently 
deepened but to be filled with bitterness. Before 
saying tho few words by which we would recall 
the points of her varied life to our readers, let us 
give one of the drops of agony wrung from this 
heaven-child while here on trial — a poem written 
for her mother's eye only, and. certainly the m 
manifest, first breath of a soul's utterance, that 
we have even seen in human language. It was 
sent to us some years ago, by one of our friends, 
under a seal of privacy which we presume is re- 
moved by her death. She wrote it while at Maul- 
main, the missionary station in India at which 
she had been left by her dying husband. Dr. jud- 
son, when ho embarked on a nearly hopeless voy- 
age for health. At the date of this poem ho had 
four months dead, although it was ten days 
before the sad news was communicated to her. 
SWEET MOTHER, 
The wil.l south-west monsoon bat riMg 
With broad, gray wing* of (loon), 

'..in out my dreary prison, 

I In! «- from a tomb — sis* I 
My heart another tomb. 

be low, thatched roof, tfae rain 
>-< ascleee patter fill* ; 
My choicest trcaaurea bear ha atabu ; 
Moult] gathers on the waBa ; — would heaven 
Twero only on the walla I 

Sweet mot h er, I am here alone. 

In sorrow sod in pain ; 
The suoabtnc frwwj wy await ha* flows ; 

II IMs the driving rain— ah, ma I 
The chill, and mould, and rain. 



Foar UirvanJ month* hare wheeled their round, 

Since lore upon It im lied. 
And ererylbm*; of earth has frowned 

On dry poor smcler, thru, sweet friend. 

Thy weary, « i (wi r in g child. 

f.i watrh^l my loved .me t>i,-ht and day, 
Scare* brawtbasf when ha step*. 




wac a* assssi that day,- 



aswr, bis Cbarary t 
Oar I iff t fair boy. 

With say own Bather's a 
•atahl h« 11 ■*»! no joy— any sssM 
» ii nal » l I 1 a . aa-aa>ia.. 

IBs afctW (rave I cannot a**. 



And wMsawred. - Be is Sand I •— Mother 1 
TVs lnatfsl to ha assail 
I da an* asaa. far one ate was- 



asasVrsrj natal 



• •■be 



Oal 
Mean 

Toh 



Oh, SB 



a'e anas aha 



And when for one loved far, far more, 

Como thickly gathering tears, 
My star of faith is clouded o'er, 

I sink beneath my fears, sweet friend, 

My heavy weight of fears. 

Oh, but to fcol thy fond arms twine 

Around me once again I 
It almost seems those lips of thine 

Might kiss away the porji— might soothe 

This dull, cold, heavy pain. 

But, gontle mother, through life's storms, 

I may not lean on thee, 
For helpless, cowering little forms 

Cling trustingly to me — poor babes 

To have no guide but me. 

With weary foot, and broken wing, 

With bleeding heart and sore, 
Thy dove looks backwards sorrowing, 

But seeks the ark no more — thy breast 

Seeks never, never more. 

Sweet mother, for thy wanderer pray, 

That loftier faith be given ; 
Her broken reeds all swept away, 

That she may lean on Heaven — her heart 

Grow strong in Christ and Heaven. 

Once, whon young Hope's fresh morning dew 

Lay sparkling on my breast, 
My bounding heart thought but to do, 

To work at Heaven's behest— my pains 

Come at the same behest I 

All fearfully, all tearfully- 
Alone and sorrowing, 

My dim eye lifted to the sky, 
Fast to the Cross I c'ing — Oh, Christ I 
To thy dear cross I cling. 
Maulmain, August 7, 1850. 

Of the hymns in human language for the sold 
only — few and holy and full of meaning as the 
commandments — this is one. 

Our readers — those who have kept with us 
through years gone by — will remember our re- 
ception and first announcement of tho writings 
of " Fanny Forester," She was at that time a 
schoolteacher in Utica, and with ono or two in-- 
timate and most talented friends among her 
pupils. Knowing nothing of her real name, or 
her circumstances, we were exceedingly captivated 
by the off-hand brilliancy of her style, and its 
undercurrent of good sense never out of sight ; 
and she and tho friends she wrote of (and who 
wrote with her) became soon, to the public as 
well to us, tho nucleus of a new kind of literary 
interest. It was tho beginning of a new school of 
female authorship — immediate and familiar ex- 
pression, made sacred and rose-coloured by the 
personal-ness of woman. Byewritiqg as if she 
were talking, sho secured the respectand attention 
that would be given to her presence, She cmbol- 
lished our journal for awhile, and then appeared 
as an authoress, with "Aderbrook" and other 
volumes. 

We had never seen " Fanny Forester" till she 
came to New York with Dr. Judson, having de- 
voted herself to missionary life, and about to em- 
bark with her husband for India, to share his 
exile of Apostle-ship and his many and dangerous 
cares. Looking npon her, we saw, at once, that 
it was a spirit which had already outworn its 
frame — a slight, pale, delicate and transparent 
creature, every thought and feeling shining 
through, and every word anil movement tremu- 
lous with fragality of mortal tenure. We said 
farewell with no thought that she would ever re- 
turn — hardly a hope sho would reach her far-off 
aid arrive thi > r. The 

poem above tells in deathless tears what was one 
hour of the years she suffered tt .turn- 

ed, utterly bereaved and a wreck in health, two 
rears since, and, in the ret ther's 

humble home, sank gradually to 

Mrs. Judson, by her genius, is ii illy one 

of the world's memorable ones. To a religious 
class, also, of which her husband was a tin; 
prophc there 

arc those who look : iiesamong th' 

grims on the ; ; " world um 

the soul-sore and heart-wrung, with the higher 
sensibilities that are alive to an angel's scope of 
agony. She will be, by those, recog n ised and re- 
membered. Sacred be the spot where rests what 
has so suffer. 

As as evidence wbat the rills can do if the* 
have a mind, a Cincinnati paper states that three 
years sgo a poor orphan girl applied and was per- 
mitted to set type for that [.* rued 
two years, during which time she earned g 

Kwrarlfof the facilities U 
office atfovrted, acquired a good iaa f i- 
now an aiB>tiate editress of a popular paper, asd is 
c ngaged to be married to one of the smartest law- 
yers in i • aad 
eclipse tens of thousands who are educated in the 
lap of luxury and taught all ■ plisb- 
menu" of a boarding school. Such a via* will 

tent !•■'«■- 
coasts*. 



be a jewel to ber hosbantl, an 
and an botsor to her sei aad 



Cai». ~ •> — \ ''rwpadeatof thai 

* the Mlowiag lasaipt for saap 
making, aad adds th aa. 

fhmissari ooalara in the hands of a srlflah person, 
aad the world have to aat» the puns sCriag to 

It her. It l« free gn 

Takesfeassuh«.ofaot»afc, - 

F^.r prml*. of l«rd - - » 

One-fourth pound of roajn • -a* 



*. ■• 

I of I 



... .- 



AM 

foataptl 

tut ISH'e hW f • ' 

taaapaHua eaU ' 
>o( soap Jcir S 



to 

rr I 



all ti 
a pat 
water 



«d 



(he 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER 



FROM THE EAST. 

;mship Sonora, arrived Saturday night, 

lates from New York to Dec. 5th — eight 

days later ; and from New Orleans to Dec. 6th— 

seven days later. The dates from Liveepool are 

to Nov. 18th— three days later. 

Congress met on the 4th of December. Mr. 
Atchison, of Missouri, has resigned his seat as 
President of the Senate. He has remained at 
home to secure his election, which is endangered 
by a coalition of the. friends of Benton and the 
Whigs. Mr. Cass was chosen President pro tern. 
of the Senator 

Theodore Parker has been indicted for taking 
part in the Anthony Burns Slave Riot. 

The Know Nothings gained a victory in New 
Orleans, on the 27th November, in an election for 
members of the Legislature. 

Intelligence has been received from Lake Su- 
perior, that Dr. Kane's party, of the Advance, sent 
out by Mr. Grinnell, has discovered the bodies of 
Sir John Franklin and his companions. They 
were completely frozen and in a perfect state of 
preservation. 

On December 5th, the steamer " Grand Tower" 
struck upon a rock near Cairo, and sunk in 
twenty-three feet water. The passengers were 
rescued with difficulty. The boat and freight is 
a total loss. The steamer " Pacific" was snagged 
and sunk on the 23d of the same month. 

By a recent order from Washington, the en- 
listment of foreigners into the Marine corps, now 
siationed at the Charlestown Navy Yard, is to 
cease. It is believed that the same order has 
been sent to all our military posts. 

Mayor Smith, of Boston, has been nominated for 
re-election by the Know Nothing party. 

On the 4th of Dec. New York was visited by a 
heavy snow storm. At Rochester, snow fell to 
the depth of 30 inches in one day. On the Lakes 
a number of vessels were wrecked. A collision 
occurred on the Albany and Buffalo Railroad on 
the morning of Dec. 4th, owing to the snow fal- 
ling so thickly as to obstruct the view. 

The President's Message seems a very quiet, un- 
satisfactory document. The' Town Talk makes 
the following synopsis; which gives a good idea 
of the production ; 

President Pioico is thankful for our national 
prosperity, and in that feeling we participate, 
lie is in favor of non-intervention, or simply de- 
siir.i that the policy should be pursued of letting 
other nations aione, and insisting upon the same 
right for ourselves. He contents for the right of 
neutrals, the righ^of privateering which Prussia 
desired our Government to renounce, and com- 
ments on the reciprocity treaty with Great Britain 
in a congratulatory tone. The boundary line be- 
tween Washington territory and the British pos- 
sessions is in dispute, and he recommends the 
speedy adjustment of the question. The arrest of 
Consul Dillon is disavowed as any intended insult 
to France, and the latter Government has ex- 
pressed much the same in relation to the Soule 
affair. Spain is treated very gently in the mat- 
ter of her offensive action towards our Govern- 
ment. The abolishment of the tolls paid Den- 
mark, by our ships passing through the sound, is 
advised. The treaty with Japan is referred to 
with considerable commendation. The assaults 
upon Mexico by hostile expeditions is condemned, 
and the fact stated that by thorn our troubled re- 
lations with Mexico have become more troubled. 
The river La Plata has been opened to us, but the 
Amazon remains closed. The old troubles with 
Great Britain in Central America remain unset- 
tled, and is still a subject of negotiation. The Clay- 
ton treaty is found to have not accomplished the 
object for which it was entered into. The action 
of the Government in the Greytown affair is 
properly justified, and Mr. Borland and Captain 
Hollis vindicated. 

Our Govornment appears to be in a very com- 
fortable condition as regards finances. The re- 
ceipts next year aro expected to exceed our ex- 
penses $15,000,000 ; he therefore recommends a 
reduction of duties on imports. Attention is called 
to the necessity of stringent laws to protect the 
records and papers of the Government from frau- 
dulent use. The increase of the army on the fron- 
tier and the pay of the army officers is advocated; 
also the increase of the navy and the better dis- 
cipline and improvement of seamen. Post office 
expenditures during the year ending June 30, 
$8,710,907 ; receipts, $6,055,586. No increase in 
its revenue hoped for. The Public Lands is the 
next topic. Curing the fiscal year, 11,070,935 
acres have been surveyed. Brought into market 
8,190,017 acres ; sold, 7,035,732 acres ; receipts 
therefor, $9,282,533, He opposes grants of lands 
for railroad purposes, and recommends that they 
be left entirely to private enterprise. He expres- 
ses a belief, also, that the excessive desire to real- 
ize large dividents from splendid railroad schemes, 
has been productive of bankruptcy to many in 
both fortune and character. He has no wish to 
augment this by encouraging hopes of sudden 
wealth, dependent on the action of Congress, Ho 
urges religious toleration, fealty to the Union, the 
reserved rights of the States, friendship towards 
other nations, economy in the administration of 
Government, determined defence by war when 
necessary, and ends with invoking the blessing of 
Almighty God upon the labors of the present Con- 
gress. 

Fhom Europe.— Nothing additional of impor- 
tance seems to have happened in the Crimea. 
Sobastopol is not yet taken, and it seems problem 
atical whether that fortress is really being be- 
sieged by the Allies, or whether the Allies are 
not in I i-t besieged by the Russians. Afewmore 
such victories by the Allies as have already taken 
place, and they would want men to enter and oc- 



cupy the place, if even it were open and inviting. 
The additional news from the Crimea relates 
chiefly to the engagement of the 5th November, 
which event appears to have been of a desperate 
and terrible character. Since then no operation 
of importiance seems to have been attempted on 
either side. 

The Istbmds. — During the last fortnight we 
have been favored with extraordinarily fine weath- 
er, for this season of the year, more resembling 
the dry weather of March and April than the 
rainy season. In consequence, the general health 
has been exceedingly good. The railroad works 
have rapidly progressed, and all look forward to 
its speedy termination. 

Of late no outrages have taken place on the 
road. The Runnel's guard still continue to exer- 
cise the greatest vigilance ; and in Aspinwall the 
police force, under Mr. Duckworth, preserve the 
greatest order. 

There have been no local occurrences of interest 
during the prst fortnight. — Panama Star and 
Herald of the Uth 

To Our Subscribers. 

With the close of the year it is all important 
that we should call upon those who are indebted 
to us. Though the sums may bo small from each, 
yet the aggregate is large and of moment to us, as 
we wish to fulfil our own obligations and improve 
our paper, thus giving back again more value to 
our readers. 

We have fbrwarded our bills through Messrs. 
Adams & Co., and Wells, Fargo & Co.'s messen- 
gers, and we trust those to whom they are sent 
will cheerfully respond and aid us in the work 
we have before us. 

Our agents will please distribute the extras we 
send them, and we trust our friends will peruse 
the circular which we re-issue the present week. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. 

rr^* Our New Office. — We invite our friends to our new 
office in the " Masonic Hull," on Mimtj,'(nnory etrcct, opposite 
Le Count & Strongs. We con show them many wonderful 
specimens, luch as are rarely seen, and *.« o»pr n-i iilly inviu> 
them to call and examine the various schedule and invoices we 
have to offer for sale. Trcee, Seeds, Plants, ("Jrain*, Houses, 
Lands, Inventions, Works of Art of all kinds, these we are 
happy to show, and can interest our friend* if tlii-v will tmt rail 
auaVeeus. WAEREN le SON. 



I3F 3 Native Fines, Oaks, &c. — Cones of the Native 
Pines, Acorns from our Mountain Oaks, Seed of all our Moun- 
tain Shrubs, and of every species of Vuluable Tree or Shrub : 
for Uumo the full price will be paid, if satisfactorily labelled, 
classified and arranged, at the 

Office of the " CALiponNtA Fabmeb," 

13 Masonic Ilnll Bunding, Montgomery street. 



\jfr* Wanted. — All the varieties of Caliioruia Clover Seed, 
for which the highest price will be paid at the 

Office of the " CAUronNtA Fahmeii," 
13 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street. 



I^ 3 "A Thing of Beauty is a Joy Forever." — Why 
will people endure pimples on "the humun face divine," or 
eruptions ot any kind, when it is a fact so well known, that Dn. 
GtrvsoTT's Yellow Dock and Sabsapabilla cleanses the 
skin from all impurity, removing Pimples, Sores and Blotches 
leaving the affected parts as healthy, smooth and soft OS the 
flesh of a babe. It is really priceless to all who wk»h the rosy 
beauty of childhood. 

It causes all sores and poisonous wounds to discbarge all in 
fected matter, and eradicntea every Impurity from the 
It does its work mildly but effectually, giving conscious beauty 
and blooming health in the place of ugliness and soul-rfickeniug 
disease. 

Scrofula, Ssthilis, Mercuhtai. CoMrLAiNTS, and a vast 
variety of other disagreeable and dangerous diseases arc speed- 
ily and perfectly cured by the use of this medicine. 

Purchasers wiU place bo careful to ask for, and take none 
other but Dr. Guysott's Improved Extract of Yellow Dock and 
Sarsaparilln. All others in comparison are worthless. 

For sale at all the principal Drug Stores in the State Park 
& White, Sole Agents, to whom all orders must be addressed. 
Office No. 94 Merchant ftreet, 3d door above Montgomery. 13 



SAN FRANCISCO MARINE LIST. 



ARRIVALS. 

Dec 28 — Schr Iown, Gregg. Pajaro, 3 daya ; produce. 
Dec. 29 — Schr S D Bailey, Carson, San Pedro; mdse. 
Dec. 30 — P M Steamship Sonora, Whiting, Panama, 14 days, 
with the mails, pane en eg re, etc. 

Clipper schr Vamiero, Newell, Honolulu, 1(3 days; mdBC, etc. 

Clipporechr Golden Gate, Schander, Honolulu, 18 days; mdae, 

Schr Queen of the West, Copeland, Santa Cruz, 30 hrs; lime. 

Schr Francisco, Miller, Pajaro, 3fi hours ; produce. 

Schr Horace, Koy«w, Tonwltw, iluyo | projiufo. 

Schr Odd Fellow, Auetln, Santa Cruz, 3ft hours ; produce. 

Schr Olivia, Thomas, Monterey, 2 days; produce, 
Dec 31 — Steamer Goliah, Erekine, Snn Diego, 3 days; mdse, 

Schr J M Ryereon, McCarthy, Pajaro, 19 hours ; produce. 

Schr Ortolon, Robinson, Soqucl, 12 hours ; produce. 
Jan. 1 — Clipper ship Challenge, Kenney, New York, 118 days, 
with mdse. 

Russian ship Nicholas 1st, KHnkoflarom, Sitka, 27 ds; timber. 

Clipper bark J A Folkhiburg, Fulkinburg, Boston, 115 days ; 
with mdpe. 

Br brig Pranklyn, Abbott, Glasgow, 180 days, via Falkland 
Islands 90 days ; mdae. 

Schr Pilgrim, Phillipe, Point Aquila, 9 day ; $34,000 In specie. 

Schr Ada, Joseelyn, Monterey, 1 day ; produce. 
Jan. 2— Stmr Humboldr, Fisher, Humboldt Bay, 35 bis; lumber. 

Clipper ship Antelope, Moore, New York, 135 days ; mdse. 

Brig North Bend, Lent, Humboldt Bay, 2 days ; lumber. 

Schr Mary W, Gould, Humboldt Bay, 3 day* ; lumber. ' 

Schr Huntress, Hincs, Bodega, 2 days ; potatoes. 

CLEAIUWCES. 
Deo. 28— Ship John M Mayo, Lincoln, for Calcutta; bark 
Powhatton, Present t, Fort Simpson. 
Dec. 29— Ship Wild Duck, Hamilton, for Shanghae. 



Dec. 30 — Steamships Golden A(»c, Watklns, for Panama ; 

Diego; N G ship Coronation, Nichol, ports 

in the Pacific; Fr burk Nadir, Carnutt, Sydney; brig F Copo- 



America, Haley, San Diego; N G ship Coronation, Nichol, 
in the Pacific; Fr bark Nadir, C 
land &. Co, Jackson, San Pedro, 

Jan. 2 — Steamship Sonora, Whiting, for Benicia ; bark Path- 
finder, , Hong Kong. 



OFFICIAL EDITION OF STATE LAWS. 
FOR 1854, 

LAW BOUND, NOW READY AND FOR SALE 



GEO. W. MURRAY & OO. 

MONTOOMEHV BLOCK. 



S, 



To the Headers of the California Farmer. 

The annexed communication, with the names 
attached, has heen kindiy tendered to us. We 
would only ask of our friends to read and judge 
for themselves, as to the importance of the subject 
named therein. 

We are deeply grateful for every testimonial of 
favor and encouragement in our labors, and we 
shall speak our mind more fully with the next 
number, in our "New Year's" wish to them. 

We shall also add other names which were 
kindly tendered, and shall be heartily grateful 
for every approving word and token from every 
source. — 

TO THE FRIENDS OF 

Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture. 

" Knowledge is power," is a truth nowhere 
more fully illustrated than in the field of your 
enterprise ; and on no part of that field more im- 
portant than in our State. In other States and 
different climates, the experience of ages is con- 
densed into books ; and the son inherits the prac- 
tical knowledge of his father. Their books are 
their general guide, and their periodicals contain 
the result of their continued improvements. But 
with us the case is different. Here we have a 
climate to which the instructions of no book are 
adapted, a soil peculiarly unlike any to the de- 
velopment of which science has been applied, and 
almost an entire want of experience in any de- 
partment. Here no father has learned more than 
a few of the first principles of agriculture, much 
less has he had time to transmit even the moiety 
he has learned to a son. Our first generation of 
agriculturists is yet in its merest youth. 

If no books adapted to our circumstances are 
yet written, and no man has sufficient experience 
to write one ; and if the periodicals published else- 
where entirely fail to meet our wants, we are shut 
np to a single choice between two courses— we 
must either grape our way in the dark, feeling 
and experimenting each for himself, for all those 
facts and principleswhich are peculiar to oursoil, 
climate and productions, (and this will reach 
nearly the whole range of our operations) thus 
advancing by a process so slow as to be entirely 
unsatisfactory to every one ; or we must sustain a 
periodical, which shall be a general reservoir for 
the reception and diffusion of the experience of 
all — an instrument whose columns shall be a con- 
stant reflector of all the light which our thousand 
intelligent cultivators of the soil can elicit from 
their "watch and toil," Which shall be our 
choice, cannot admit of a question. 

Such a periodical we find in our midst. The 
California Farmer we believe capable of meet- 
ing our every want. The Messrs. Warren have 
evinced an energy in, and devotion to, the work 
which is worthy of all praise, and is a sufficient 
guaranty for the future. Shall the Farmer 
receive that countenance and encouragement it 
deserves ? Will the growers of grain and veg-e 
tables, fruits and flowers, in this State, treat them- 
selves to a weekly repast in the perusal of its 
columns, (the annual subscription price bears no 
comparison with the value of what you get,) and 
make an energetic effort to induce their neighbors 
to do the same ? But even this will not be 
enough. No one man. nor company of men, from 
any one department of knowledge, or section of 
the'eountry, can make the columns of the Farmer 
what they should be. — what they must be to 
answer their wants. It must combine the experi- 
ence of every class, and represent peculiar charac 
tcristics of every part of the State. We ask 
therefore, the attention of thoso whom wo address 
to the furnishing of materials for the columns, as 
well as subscription to the "material aid" of the 
paper. 

We say thus much because we deem it duo to 
the present proprietors of the paper, and because 
we feel the deepest interest in the cause it advo- 
cates. Wo have no pecuniary interest in the 
California Farmer, and yet we most heartily 
recommend it to the pecuniary, the statistical and 
the literary support of all who have at heart the 
real well being of our State — the development of 
her agricultural resources. 

F. W. Macondray, San Francisco, 

David Chambers, " 

Julius K. Rose, " 

Wm. Neely Thompson, " 

0. C Wheeler, Sacramento, 

C. I. Hutchinson, " 

Angus Frierson. " 

John M. Horner, Union City. 

E. L. Beard, Mission San Jose. 

J. L, Sanfohd, 

H. Chan.ning Beai.s, 

Tilden & Little, 

Davis & Co., 

WaDSWORTH & MlESEGAES, 

Sim & Co., 

W. S. Chrysler & Co., 

S. H. Meeker. 



MARRIED. 



On the 1st Jan., in this city, nt Grace Church, by Right Rev. 
Wm. Ingrahfim Kip, Ferdinand C. Ewer and Sophie Mandell 
Congdou. 

[As pretty birds from boush to bough 

Make night while ew. < 
Bo the yottng maiden, e'er that vow, 

Fast round one liLQrt is clinftint: : 
'Tie then ehe says, no song or dance, 

For others have I, never. 
For Irom my heart shall brightly glance 
The love that's " Ewers" loreve'r.] 
Also, on the evening of the 1st, by the name clergyman, Frank 
Soule and Eunice Froetena Soule. 

[Tia said, when heart meets kindred heart, 

A teuder vow they plight ; 
That kindred minds should never part, 

But both in one unite ; 
But great the bliss that must control 
That life, when "Soule" meets kindred "Soule."| 
On the 25th Dec, in Marysville, Mr. John Lowery and Miss 
Bridget Cunningham. 

On the 26th Dec., at Nevada, Thomas Wainwright Colbran, 
of Boston, Mass., and Miss Louise Elizabeth Mather, of Albanv, 
N. Y. 

On the 27th Dec., at the residence of Dr. Wm. M. Gwin, Hon. 
I. S. K. Oyier, Judge of the U.S. Court o! the Southern District 
of California, and Miss Anna Keiger, of this city. 



DIED. 



On the 25th Dec., in this city, J. A Nature, formerly of New 
Orleans, La, 

On the 21st Dec, in Marysville, John Fonton, aged 14 years. 

On the 23d Dec, in Marysville, D. E. Rolls, late of Lawrence, 
Macon county. 111., aged about 10 years. 

On the 24th Dec., at Mud Springs, of typhoid fever, George 
C. Lunt, of Freeport, Maine, aged 24, 



MARKET REPORTS. 

San Francisco, January 3, 1855. 



JOBBING FBICES 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLE- 
MENTS— nomiuul— 
Shovels, 
Ames' L h. bright$14 00© 

do e.h ©10 00 

Fi.-l.U', I. h 13 0". 

nd'a.L ii.. .12 00a 1-1 oo 
s. h... 9 — a 10 oo 

King's, I. ti 14 00®' 

.bright c. 8.15 00© It* 00 

do iron 8 00©10 00 

Coal and Grain Scoops, c. 8. 
12 00®— 

do do iron. -© 8 CHJ 

Axes, Collins', a. h.22 0O»24 0C 

do Hunts', do ©15 00 

Picks, Collins', 4Vfe to 6- It, solid 
8 00® 10 00 

do other brands. 5 00® 7 00 

Helves, heavy hickory jiirk. 

turned 2 503 4 00 

do axe 8 9M 

Plows, beat make . 1 1 — 

do steel 24 00®40 00 

Threshing Machines and BorSG 

power — 

Hull 6c Pitts' do sale. 

Other makers' — ® — 

Emmery's, with thresher, septv 

nitor.n'tid fan mil].. — 

Straw Gotten, - • $16®25 

Rakes, horse and revol i 1 1 

do hand, wood — 00© — 00 
do do steel — 00®— 00 

Pitchforks. ^ doz ® 

Scythes, best . . . . ® 

Hoes, steel, g. n... 6 00® 9 00 
bare-as.*? lb- 10© - ti 

Floor Mill-, n«jv«^'$500® — 

do Hi-own'*, 30 in.450© 

FLOUR— 

12 ooaia so 

12 00913 00 

Chile S W® 9 00 

Repacked — © 

Horner's Mills,... 9 00®- 

Benkia Mills, 9 00a00 00 

Meal, in bbls G 000 

do >4 bbls.... 3 25© 3 5u 

Bran, $> 16 

GRAIN— 

Corn, Eastern, V lb 2 © 2"^ 
.. — ® 

do Chili ® Ufa 

Buckwheat, flour... 7 •© 
Outs, California 2 ® 3^ 

do Oregon, none in mk't 

4o Eastern 2 © BVi 



Wheat, Chili 2 © 2V& 

do Cu]iforni-..2!£© 

BE! — nominal— 

Timber, Oregon Pine, sq, ^ M 
25 00© 

Plank nndSc't'g..25 00® 35 00 

Plank E. w. p. cl-60 00®70 00 
do E. oa 80 00® 100 

Boards, E.cl. let q.65 00® 

do l!do,.45 00®55 00 

do G. y. p. Hoor65 00®75 00 
do 0.iuije,roue;h25 0O©30 00 
do redwood, Mendocino, gang 

sawed 30 oo©35 oo 

v&Bohnafc25 0O©27 00 

Floor Joist 25 00©30 00 

Shingles, E. boot . 7 00® 8 00 
ClupboHrds, No. 1 -30 00©36 00 
Laths, Eastern ... 6 00© 8 00 
do California.. 5 00® 6 00 
Doore, Eastern!).. 2 50© 5 00 
indow .. 2 50® 5 00 
PROVISIONS— 
BeeT, Mesa. 4? bbl 17 00©18 00 

do ^ bbl ex.fora ®12 50 

Bacon, ex. clear aides, ^ IB 

14© 16 
do Mess, nominal 12© — — 

20© 25 

do California 20© 25 

rhCal.^dz-90® 1 00 

Butter, choice, & lb .30© 40 

do (,'fnnl ordinary 16® 25 

do California 00© 25 

Hams, ordinary .12© h 

do extra it® io 

Lard, in kegs H® 16 

do tins 10-&...17© — 
do 15—20 do - . 16® 17 

Pork, clear, -|> bbl 17 JK)®18 00 
do do l^bbl— ^-©10 00 
do mess, 4? bbl 13 00 «. 15 00 



»4 do © e 00 



do do 
RICE— 

Carolina,.* ubls^ibS^.® 
China, No. 1, in mats — ® 

do No. 2, do — © 

Manila 3Mf® 

VEGETABLES— 
Beans, Chili Bayos .6^® 

do CaUforma. -.3 

do Am. white.. 

u 5 © - 

Bert*. 'P" ton 20 00® 

Carrots 40 00® 

i> rime, 4* ft 7 © 8 

Turnips, f ton.. .30 00© 

Potatoes, per sack 50 a 75 
do new, i> lb. 2V&© 3 



© 4 



MARKET. 

37 

Leeka, ^Moz 1 oo 

Horseradish 1 00 

Tomatoes, f m 12 

Green Peas 8 

^>duz 1 00 

1 00 

Parsnips ..1 00 

Cranberries, 4? gal 1 25 

1 00 

PicPlant,^ IB 20 

Asparagus, f doz bdla ...3 OO 

Cacnmbera, ^> doz 25 

Btrlng Beans 6 

Okra 25 

Banberm, f>;lB....> 1 50 

CiJ . Grapes, tine, ty IB . . . 75 

Grapes, loreign 1 50 

Apples, do 25® 50 

do extra size, each. .25® 50 

Quinces, 47 IB 50 

rries, 4? » 50 

Nectarines, do 1 00 



RETAIL 

Cabbages,^ head 37 

do Savoy, 4? doz none. 

Beets, V doz 1 00 

Turnips .1 00 

Carrots 1 00 

Summer squashes & 

Celery, V doz 3 

Cauliflowers, 4> doz 6 

Radishes, f Joz 50 

Sweet Potatoes,? IB.... 12 

Potatoes, new 4 

Onions, prime 10 

Now Corn, <? doz 75 

Egg Plant 37 

Squash 50 

Strawberries, $> lb 1 50 

Peaches, each, i^5i> 

do extra, each,. .75®1 00 

Gooseberries, do 1 00 

Peare, sugar, do 25 

no extra, each 25©50 

Wbortlebe Ties, *> &....1 00 
Apricots, do 

Agricultural Implement*. 

T71RF.NCH Burr Mill Stoues, three and four feet diameter, 
JC with all the Irons ; 

Smith's Patent Premium Smut Machines ; 

Power and Hand Corn Mill* ; 

Com Shelters ; 

Anchor Brand Bolting Cloth; 

Brass and Iron Wire Cloth ; 
n Btee) Plows, Nee. 6 and 7, 

IVora " " " 5, 5' v an 

Clipper " ■ " 5^4, C, 16 and 18; 

Trojan and Eagle Cast Plows, all sizes ; 
Extra Points for cast Plows ; 
Straw Cutters and Fan Mills ; 
Thermometer Churns ; 
Garden Rakes and Hoes ; 
Kr.-ph Garden and Field Seeds; 
Garden and Coal Barrows ; 
Hand saws, claw hammers, hatchets, butcher's saws and 
cleavers, planes, Ames 1 long and i-hort handled ebovcls and 

spades, Collins' long handled axes, picks, mattocks, harrow 
teeth, two and lour horse farm wagons, grub and plantation 
hoen, fix and eight tined manurr « yoke* 

and chains, Ketchum'a mowing mm-iiiiu^, Seymour 6t Morgan's 
reaping machines. For sale by 

H. McNAI.LY, 
85 Washington street, between Batten- and Front 
3-1 (Opposite the Now Merchant's Exchange.) 



HINRV POLLS Y, D. S. NIC1I JL9. SCTH 1L GAMl'lKLD. 

P0LLEY & CO., 

BAY STATE MILLS. 

W street, between Front sunt Second. 

BAY STATE LOWER MILLS. 

Corner of Front and It etrwU, Snernmento, 

MANUFACTURE the cetabrati Floor known as 

the"Bav State Lower Mills," wtuch can alwayi 

r..re, No. *iy K •trcct. Alio, ftosh ground Ituekwheat 

ami Graham Flour, fresh grouml Corn Meat, Midolings, Bran, 

iuud Barley, &c.. which I- disponed at the lOwvlt prices. 

Barley, Wheat and Corn Ground t« I 



O-l 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



GARDEN SEEDS, 
Growth or 18 5*. 

FXSH and GENUINE, per " Eiprera."— Just rccetved and 

5<X> m-- Yellow Onion Sod, 
1011 " R.>l 
60 '• Whir 
M0 n< forects. 

Fruit:- isM; Peach, Apple, rium, Cherry, Fear, 

Locust, Whim Birch, Elm, ■ > ",''"' 

with a complete aaaortiiient of - i and California Garden 
Seed*. .1 Calilbruian and Eastern. 

Wholesale and Retail, by 

MORRILL, Drum 
And agent for the sale of the New Lebanon Shaker Seeds, 
Botanical Uerbe ana E\ 

K itreet, cor. Third, pacrnnipnt.,. 
v 3.i Branch atore, P. street, cor. Third. 



HOTELS. 



Baswtto House. 

F&ancisco CAL. 

sC** THIS HOTKI luoementa to persons visiting 

B & San 1 :i'>y any on the Pacific Const. 

(T-ii'i.Tr. : i .:"'_\i with ringle rooms.or ftmi- 

1 i: >. new, built of brick ; sll the rooms are 

i in liitherto unknown in the Hotels 

■ cnpable of accommodating over 

fivo hundred bonrdcr*. 99 3m 



HOWARD, BOBRADAILE & CO., 

Wholesale Dealers, in Drugs, Medicines. Paints, Oils, 

Camphene, Perfumery and Fancy Articles, 

■ ■ . -.--■. j/rcr..*, SaCTOm 

WE would respectfully announce that wc hnve opened a 
new Drus Store (it the above place, when- Physicians. 
Druggi?.* and Merchants will And ■ largo and well selected 
stock of nil articles in our line, and at price* that would suit tlie 
limes. Our goods are all fresh nnd pure, having received them 
by recent unportations. 

Orders from the country respectfully solicited, v3-l 



Murrav's Fifty-cent Western House. 

Cornn oj Sreend and I) ttruts, MaRYSVILLE. 

«*P% THIS HOUSE la entirely devoted to the wants of the 
Bi-j travelling public and to all who will favor us with a call, 
en tiro satisfaction will be given. [171 **• J - MURRAY. 



PURE MEDICINES! 

LITTLE «fc COLE, Apothecaries, 
139 Montgomery street, 

Between I I 'ommercial street*. 

Pay particular attention to the preparation ot 

Physicians' Prescriptions, 

and the dispensing of Family Medicinoe. The public can rely 
upon all articles purchased at this establishment as being of the 

Purest and Best Quality, 
and at reasonable prices. 

MEDICINES AT MIDNIGHT. 

Medicines can be obtained at all hours of the Night. 
f^P* French, German, Spanish and Italian spoken. 6 



First Premium Daguerreotypes. 

EH. VANCE juet awarded the FIRST PREMIUM for the 
# beet Daguerreotypes exhibited at the Caliiomia State 
Fair. Mr. V. would be happy to wait upon any one wishing a 
PERFECT LIKENESS. The arrangement ot his RoomB and 
Lights are superior to any in the State. 

Jtooms— New Building corner of Sacramento and Montgom- 
ery streets, entrance on Montgomery street, next door to 
Austin's. 16 



Jewelry and Silverware. 

OUR immense stock of Watches, Jewelry, Diamonds 
and Silver Ware, ha* been imported by ourselves, for a 
Regular Customer Trade, and ia of the moBtly coBtly and supe- 
rior deBCription, but owing to the depressed state of the market 
at nresent, we are disposing of them at New York prices. 
r BARRETT & SHERWOOD, 

City Observatory, 135 Montgomery street 
N.B.— Quartz Jewelry of our own manufacture, at greatly 
reduced prices. ' 



Gatllng'g Pre ml tun Grain Drill. 

THIS excellent machine, which has gone into extensive use 
in the Atlantic States, is now for theirs! Cams offered to the 
Farmers of California This Drill answers three desirable ends : 
the saving of labor; the avoiding wastage ; and rendering the 
greatest return for capital expended. 

Simple and durable in its construction, it rarely needs reprur- 
ins, which, when necessary, the most ordinary mechanic can 
easily perform. For particulars see hand-bill accompanying 

That this is the result of its operation tho subjoined certificates 
will abundantly show : 

Santa Clara, Sept. 4th, 1854. 

! hereby certify that I used R. J. Gatllng's Premium Grain 
Prill (the property of J. HendorBOD of this place), to put in 
seventy-five acres of wheat. The machine operated ver* 
factorily: preferable to broad-cast sowing;, In producing mor 

bushels per acre with less lubor ; also inputting in ail the grain. 

neatly, not losing any, subject to the consumption of birds or 
squirrels. Result of right acres, part of seventy-five acres, was 
$kcnty bushes per acre, LEMUEL ROBINSON. 

Santa Clara, Sept. 7th, 1 
I hereby certify thsilused R J. Catling's Premium Grain 
Drill (the property of J. Henderson, of Santa Clara), to 
twenty acres of wheat, I wat very much pleased wnu Its op 
ation, and consider it a great saving of labor, putting n 
in neatly— nothing liable to waste— while the , 
was one-third more than the broad-cast sowing UongsUi 
same field. P.J.DAVIS. 

Santa Clara, Sept. 11th, 1854. 
I certify that I used It. J. Gatlinj Premium I 
the purpose of putting in ten acres of wheat, and can .stare with 

confidence that ll I - Bod, sodprod 

the acre, with less labor than the broad-cast cowing. I would 
«1bo state that 1 sowed broad-cast and drilled at the same time 

upon the same kind of laud, and the yield waft muofa 
upon the drilled ground. I give the Drill 



to the broad-cost sowing 



FELIX RETNEY. 



"3. HENDERSON, propi I*- 

and Agent for sale of Mill-. 



Downs* Revolving Clothes Rack. 

THE Proprietor, Inventor and Patentee ol this new nnd 
moat useful and valuable H.uim hold Utensil, would ask the 

attention of the public to hi» li i 

The proprietor can " ens, to fa initio*, I 

and all public buildings where "clothes drying" is required. 

By this machini -**■ required by clothes 

.,;■■■.....■ 

I single upright pi 
neroi it, and 
hundred and iurj 

upon the lines iu ;i small space, and Iht-Ti 
..'. ; . . . re th 
quantify of clothes 
saved, nut the the reach ol ii. 

fond the reach of piMsvere also, as 

i as from dirt and ; ii 

Thin machine will b « tho Fair, where all can 

. .■■■ il :.■;.'■ ■ 

Tlie necessary documents have been taken on' 

and all persons are cautioned against 

::..■■■ in] .: ■ : . Bl 

one having seen it, win attest to it* Terr 

'■'*« seen U bespeak its 

The Inventor i '" reser to the following 

i^«rs, and Henry Halght, 

Munined the aw 

The machines will be < -I tee exhibition at the Fair 

t *? 3 Orders received at the SHOP ol 



Forma for S»K Small Farms. 

TMM1' ■ OTHERS dsisrotia of sec^urtaf a Valos- 

weU located, ars invited so ri.it the Ss- 
Tb* property stored for sale 

- . ■ .-. 



American Hotel 

NAPA CITY, .' CALIFORNIA. 

L. A. vfe W. W. CHAPMAN, Proprietors. 
sSJPI GOOD in v. ■■: i i itions tor familiep, and on reasonable 
mfc term*. Saddle and buggy Horses kept for hire. Horses 
kept OB board, bj the day or week, and well taken care of. * 26 



A Valuable Farming and Stock Ranch for Sale, 

C3 SITUATED in the County of Monterey, about one mile 
.IHj] from the Mission of San Joan Bauttsta. Said Ranch consists 
oi about one bundled and fifty acres Of valuable farming land, 
running back to the hilts, which are covered with clover and 
oats. Tlie Ranch and hills are heavily timbered. There is also 
a Stream Oi never failing mountain water, running through the 
entire place. Either for Agricultural purposes or for Stock 
Raising, tins is certainly one ol the heat uituations south of San 
Francisco. 
A good title will be given, it being Government land. — Price 

P.S. — The improvements upon eaid Ranch consists of a toler- 
able good Dwelling House, with lumber sufficient to erect a 
large one ; also about twenty-five acres enclosed under a good 
fence. Address, ALEXANDER COOPER, 

San Juan Bautista, Cal. 
Refer to JAMES McMAHON, Esq., Sou Juan 



AARON LYONS, Esq., > -, . „_ 
CHAS. G. HARRON, {Monterey City. 



STEAMERS. 



Californ a. Steam Navigation Company. 

ARRANGEMENT FOR 

OCTOBER, 1S54. 

Departure ft ivn Vallejo street wharf, at 4 and 5 o'clock, P. M. 

FOR SACRAMENTO. 

Steamer NEW WORLD, dipt. Seymour; 
Steamer ANTELOI'K, D. Van Pelt, master; 

Mnmlaye, Wednesdays and Fridays. 
Steamer W. G. HUNT, E. A. Poole, master ; 

Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays 
The W. G. HUNT will leave Sundays, at 10 Jl. m. 

FOR STOCKTON. 

TOUCHIM1 AT MARTINEZ, KENICIA, AND MARSH'S 
LANDING. 
Steamer CORNELIA, E. Concklin. master; 
Steamer H. T. CLAY, S. Barroll, Master; 

Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridaye. 
Steamer AMERICAN EAGLE, E. Polk master - 
Steamer SOPHIE, £. C. M. Chadwick. master : 

Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. 

FOR MARYSVILLE. 

Steamer J. BRAGDON, Thomas Seely, master — Mondays and 

Thuifii 
Steamer ELLEN HEN8LEY, E. C. M. Chadwick, master— 
Wednesdays and Saturdays. 
FOR SAN JOSE. ALVISO AND SANTA CLARA. 
Steamer G0ADALOUPE, 3. Card, master — will leave every 
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, from Vallejo street whnri, at 
9 o'clock a. u, Returning alternate days leaving Ban Jose at 
3 o'clock, a. m., Santa Clara 3^i, and Alviso 9^ o'clock, a. m. 

FOR COLUSL RED BLUFFS, AND INTER- 
MEDIATE LANDINGS. 

The si. uner'l i »PATRA, Capt Win. H. Taylor, will leave 
■ I 'J o'clock M., for lied Bluffs and 
;l i' Antelope. Rctununi:, 

will lenv • lied II u ■ day morning. 

The Stcan Henry t.ilnmn, wffl leave Sacra- 

I I ■ ■ 
ten 

-<v,Uy anilThurvday m.-mmcat 9 o'lk. 
e Sacra* 
mentot.. ■ ry Thursday, at 13 o'clock, «.-, return* 

i. day. 

For particulars apply at tin' ol rnpsny, Jackson 

[ween Battery and Fran 

R. CHENERY, IV 
II. N. PQ,iri*E. V 20 if 



Sl» umlnml 1,1 in of Oiimlhiio* •*. 

TDK Pi 
made arran.r»iio-i)i« wi'h tho prop 
u s will, on »nd s 



One or i 

-. and take 

Pawerurcr* taken 



it uB the arrival of 

- to am II : r 

t of the City, oetween Broadway 
iw mockiaa street, for the same 

u#t below Kontsemery, opposite 
MAKT 

Proprietor. 



>\li,t. auid Minora. 

G0OHWIN MKK Ki 

i (latiArvaa acrwc, — ("Mr Fr . ./ armt.) 

IMrOKTERd and Wt,..i~.le Dmlora in FoRarn and Do 
Liquort, hare now on hand, and for anVa, — 
tli cnaka Domestic Brandy, 
' nomnhria WWItT, 
hla rerr Jin.' Old Bonrbon WkMrr, 
.^lihtli oaka am- pal* Palprrokui Brao.lT. 
SO o&e-«iirhth rask. A Seunettn do, 

40 on^^chth caaka line Cbampngno do, 
IS onMtgbta enaka Loni* l.e rWu.n, do, UtS 
S pnnebeooa pare tVoteh WUatT, 
I-- Impoml Caite and 9wmn Oa. 
no^ghtn eoaka Port Win-. 
100 ea.ka bulbar'. Bottled Ale and Porter, 
100 cnaka TrnMttt'a do do do, 

90 cue. Bokrr'a Bam (trnnlnr; 
100 eMoa Own, Brrn'a ffcrniaoaM Oder, 
SO baakro H'lrla.ark fbai,n»», 
100 boaketa fane. Braaala, pint, and an 

eoantru hi iilaaim of U llinji, Abatun. Oaraeos. 
of wkKk wfll b> sold at tke kiwoat 
prieox 81 Uo 



, la proof odrhkktbe 
TtajWadof bari.A 
; tfe. bat |lrin, l& lOJO 2*4 mjoat 



■Mhe ho* 
- s»bmitt» 
.i orcr 100 bwabcfe per ac 
buahels per acre, and took tbe pre 
oraailr. . heatcrODof tbcpraaeal 

n tbe °*ate, ykrwaw 00 1 
and aom. 

tbe Staoo Fair la airen to Ike un.kr.i__ 
Tbe taontiea for aondint to roarket aro rood, and tba axnea-a. 
; produce in Son Fwaciaeo trom tbe Farm at p i taw a t 
la t. ul | '.'-■ per t.n. Two line, of .Dura paae dady -r m So II 

and atrrunboaaj. troan H..M - II olatre ■OSE 

Offlce. - r peraooa TI»o», Frmit and 



t TTENTlOll of tbe fobbe ia mrtad by tbe 

_• V the Pure I'.tir.'.?.!. > T.acM now mana^a 

Theomntyofir r imla l i m tta rtt-oytb. pr-ty ai 

ateajabelilaaa^ilianllyiiaBiaaMnitwitkanryrst-aTb 

any part ofonr eotanrry aaad tbe nroptwaor 




AGRICULTURAL. &c. 



TTu-eahers, Separators, sutil Clcsuicrs. 
ITT-9 EIGHT HORSE POWER, ^plett^-h cxtima.- 

— . ,?."}■ 1,,M \ \ made lo bo .. , ■;.,. H,|,imoro 

andRicl mond I lea . ' i .,. . ,. , i; .,. 

l-«dand \ m -.; B I I ..| ,, , . 

1 shippotj anew York to Cafifornla, andi. im, 

' "'■, v ' :ii ' " r ' [3 ■' I;: ; " ■■" ac] 

'■ '' Ipn '■'■'■' ■' ' on l! '- i , ,,, i.,, | 

are mx whi el ■ oui n r the ■ i iai tutor ■ v.., | „.., ,., . 

Also, EMERY'S Threshers and Separators, of Two Horse 

Power. 

We faavaalso on the Golden Fleece, ol n ALL'S (Roch- 
ester,) Latest Improved Threshers, Sep%nttors and Cleaners 
Eight Hortse PowerSj all complete, 

Also, four of Hussa v'8 Reapers and Mowers, all combined 
For sale by COIT & BKAL3, 

9 tf 94 Battery street, olllcc up stairs. 



Harvesting Implements. 

HARVESTING IMPLEMENTS— 
1 McCormick Reaper; 
2 hTuaeeys Do. ; 

1 Manny's Do. ; 

2 Bur rill's Patent Reapers, 

1, 3, 6 and 8 horse Threshing Machines. 
ALSO — Steam and Water Tower Flouring Mills. 
For sale by BRYANT &, CO., 

Agricultural Warehouse, 
24-lm Corner of Battery and Richmond streets. 



BUSINESS CARDS. 



Fan Mills! Hay Cutters 1 1 

WE have tbe very beat Fan Mills in the Country, with flll the 
new improvements for cleaning perfectly, and worthy 

particular attention of Grain growers. 

Tlie Straw Cutters are of new pattern, of extra quality and 
working power. BAKER &, HAMILTON,, 

7 11 J street, Sacramento City. 



TEEADWELL & C 

COBNEB OP FIRST STREET AND M 

KABTSVILLE. 

CORNER OP CALIFORNIA AND BATH 

BAN FRANCISCO. 

NO. 56 FEDERAL STHI 

,„ , BOSTON. 
IxroKTKas of Hardware, Iron, Steel, Cordage; Point., Oila, 
Varnuh nnd Window Glaia, direct from the Atlantic State, and 

ivlth a COKFUm JMOaTMENT Or TOOLS AMD Mli'LI 

MCtrra Inr Farmm, AMnrrr, Caijwuerr, Coopcrr, Cautterr and 
•-kiUUti, Turner., Hamu, Smith.- , Pain/err, U'aiirr.., 

WLLIAM BAILEY, 

OIL AND CAMMENE MANUFACTURER, 

B™. n ISTPOBITKR AND DJCALKB IS 

bperm, Polar, Elephant and Blaekflah OUa. 

Also— Camphene and IluaNiNQ Flctd. 
"Q i Battery utrect, betw een Pine and Buah. 21 

GIBSON & KING, 

Groe'c r .?/, TJ S S A !*? WHOLESiALE DEALERS IN 
t»rocirtea, Pro.lalon., ForcUro and Uoiucatle 
« n . „„ Splilta, and Win,., 

i5 No s . 24, 26 and 28 Battery areet, near eorner of Pino, 
. San Francisco. 

„,„„,„« NEELY THOMPSON, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAL DEALER IN LUMBER. 

1>„..? *»KET STEItET, BETWEEN FKONT AND DAVIS. 

d„w. S ? 'S' 11 " 6 ' F1 °? r , J" 1 «'.8»«hnnd Panel Door., Win 
dowa nnd Building materials of all kinds constantly on hand 54 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 
New England Agricultural Warehouse and Seed Store, 

IT J street, Sacramento City, (nenr tbe Levee). 

(1HOICE FIELD nnd GARDEN SEEDS, selected fresh every 
J year l»y experienced Seedsmen in the Eastern States, and 
warranted, always for sale by 

BAKER it HAMILTON, 
* 5 Successors to Wabren & Sow. 



Grass Seed. 

BBL8. Herd's Grass, Clover aud Red Top, of the very 
best quality. For sale low, if applied for immediately 
Orders left with Warren &. Son will be promptly attended to 
10 GEO. N SHAW &. CO., Battery street Wharf. 



30 



Seed Wheat for Sole. 

WHEAT from " Hill's Farm," Salinas, Monterey county, 
which* obtained the^rst premium at the State Fair — Cali- 
fornia growth trom Chili Seed — crop average yield 60 bushels 
per ncrc. Also, pure Chile Wheat. Apply to 

WADSWORTH & MIESEGAES, 
15-lm Brokers, 137 Front street, San Francisco. 



Splendid Hyacinths, Jonquils, Narcissus, *3ec< 

LARGE mid tine bulbs of these beautiful and fragrant gems 
may now be bad at our rooms — " California FAJtMKB " 
Office, opposite LeCount & Strong; 

Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street. 
16 WARREN & SON. 



Extra Samples Grain, etc. 

GRAIN GROWERS who have extra quality of WHEAT, 
baulky .. r oath, rim god casta purchasers for the 

same bj ■■ dngl a at our o 

Sampli 10 Fellow Con ities : also specimen 

1 ■ i l.i Peas and Means will find ready sale by appli- 
cation at our oiii< ink G. ii , Montgomery street, 
17 WARKfiN Sl SON. 



Agricultural Implements. 

A GENERAL assortment i tmplemea ti adopted to the cul 
■ ■ i 

19 BRYANT & CO., 68 Buttery street. 



Plow Points. 
LA ROE assertms for «alc by 

19 BRYANT A CO., 8€ 



Uarden, Field and Grass Seeds. 

A FULL and ■ nnt Of Choice quality. 

For ssle by 
19 BRYANT & CO., 68 Batlcry street 



Plows and Hsrrowi. 

A GREAT vahrty from the best msiiufseturcrs. 
. V For tsJe by 
19 IlltYANT &. c< ). 6d Battery street. 



Boltli.K (loth, die. 

BOLTING Cloth sn I For «lo by 

BRYANT A ry street. 



India II.iI.Ih. BelUnsr, Ac- 

INDIA Rublinr lU'ltiua «n«l i < *e, of vsrious 

libs snd sties. Fsr sal 
W Bfl . G6 Bsucry street. 



Mill- and Mill IsssbIiusi 

GRAIN'. M.W SI --de by 

■ - Battery itreet. 



SjSJSJ Pnwrn. Ac. 
OTEAM, Water snd Horse Power*, of vsrious kinds. 

o 

13 BRTANT A CO. 68 Badery itreet. 



FL( TURING MILLS. 



Happy Valley Haar Mills, 
CWarr «f Fwm add XUil - ■ srnsts, Smu /Vssjrises, 

Cocomrags Bona* Iadastry and Hem* Frost action. 

I »rtt«dcs,of s> ^ er*si>d L o u s is siiii ofrv>sTWrespsr< 

X hiiiv mvftesl oAlw flsrpsviar AmrU- ■■■■ ■> 1 1 ■ i il m thv 
-tsBnshsnwnt, troco dunms. Whsa«o« ui*jrrowts of 
u-A uaA p ie p aisd wuh tbe t r-s u** em. Tfaess N J Is 
hs*e St*eo in sssjcessrW opessclDci Inr nnu^y two y**«r», dnnssj 
srhich time tbe proprietors hsvw r se ss ted wh isslsfcrtory ss> 
•urmacts frou tnnsw who have srssed the qaJhy c**tsssr FV-qt, 
that tbey esn uu sas j es rt ry is usasas snd fc ss hssssj faaly etrasJ to 
any brand in tbe smrfcet. Amoas; tba assay rsiJ— ess <•* the 
•sperior *vt*s*anc* of tbs Tkmr ississsssisrid try tftsssa, the 
pmp tm tM B wossd dirsrt sOsssods. to tW nbMssiUnl s u ssp l - 
sasaas reosiml «t tbe two lss« Aassssl sfmrtsajs -f dW Sot* 
AsrlrustarsJ aSoriefy. prneisans have hesn ewsrded st hoth 
Fairs for lb* ss H sersae s i is asus iSMi ot Floor from tbsse WBa 

IT u u>— tn Tli ii ' w»»iw srrseto aw far*. 4j a s*,— - 
Bsssajred arosa seseaDssl V>i«t^ eissstaac sopply slwsya oh 
oa ttmi at ti. Mm. or a< tke Depot of BW rroprMora, 3i Sac- 

1 > BROOK - 
or Growad cat dkt ■ 



Flmrl Wheat:: Bari 
rpHE SAW KIAaUDI FLOCK tDLLBySTOCKTOn— Art 
X a«r eoBtpkrard and reaeWtt. frla. whvaaaal hnity k. 

raial'jIPkwi 



ba.ia. . 



i- b t ID 




I Irat araaaiam awarded bj 



• Srrawbarrr Plaata . I 
,- aay part o7 the ceaatry' Tract. < 
Laad frora 40 to l«r> acres, wU a* aoal for eaaa, aaa oa Bw, 



AVE ahrara «» haaal aad lor -Ac, 0>e h. tia . c ofc tt la.af 

chotre SOtHa a> In "»• 4 in the c*an, Aho. G ape 

' i . Tree, in arcat variat* ; 

ha rr at V ti, Ihtiaaa .a iala . af at. 



aarflorflboea .< 
Par tarther panlcaiara, apply to 



1 BUT AN" 

: -■■ i- 
a* W « \ : - « V, Tl I .1 v - . , . 
allln.li I 




SIM & CO., 

PRODUCE COMMISSION MERCHANTS 
■„,_ t. 12 ,S la ? " reel wharf, 
between East andDrum streets,, San Foancisco. 

Hf u " 8| i advances made on consignments in store. 
Reler to Messrs Flint, Pealiody &. to.; h C. Woods, Esq , at 
Messrs. Adams & Co's. nflf 



SAMDM. A. CHAPIK. OrtS. V. SiWYt. 

CHAPIN & SAWYER, 

1MPOF.TEB9 AND 10BBEBS.0P 

Hardware and Lent Her, 

Saddlery, Shoe Findings, Nets. Seines, &c, ftc. 

24 127 Sansome st, near Washington, Son Francisco 



TREADWELL & CO. 

IMFORTEB.S AND DEALERS IN 

Hardware, Farming, Mechanic and Mining Tools, 

Corner of California and Battery it i 

22 3m San Francisco. 



JOSEPH M. BROWN & Co., 

95 Sacramento and 81 Battery strtctr, San Frnnci«cc, 

IMPORTERS AND DEALKRS IN 

Hardware, lUhiliifrtnnd A&rrlcultrnl Implement*. 

Brown's, Arnes' and Rust's Shovels; Tut l< Unkos; 

Collins' heavy and light Pickfj ; Plouglis of all sind 
Fan Mills, Straw Cutters ; Bnildur'a Hardware, in great variety; 
Carpenter's Tools '>l evi ry desi pi 
We invite the trade to call and examine this extensive stock. 
i i in i^'u of tho Golden Anvil. 
B JOSEPH M. BROWN & CO. 



DR. THURSTON, 
Office, Room No. 20, Hillman'* 1 see Sou 

MARTHA N. THURSTON, M. II., 
Office, Room No. 21, Hi1.man'-< i mpi ranoi House, 

■ BO I ■ ■ i '■■■'■ . ' ■■■ 

E3P* Mrs. T., Physician for Wonn i i tx >n. 93 



HORTICULTURAL, &e. 



Strawberry Vines. 

LARUE and vigorous Vines of the various kinds of Straw- 
kind :■ ■■ ati ■ ■ ■■■!■... ■ ■ ■ ■.. ■ 

r, am ■ ■■ ■ ■ 

following are nm Unvi 

Hudson's, British Queen, Bluck I'i u 

n.;.. AUo many kinds of Fruit it 

-low by LAW i . i 

86 



30,000 Fruit Trees. 

COMMERCIAL NURSERIES, near tho Artrsbm Pons 
■ . 
Trees, consisting ot Apple, Pe.tr. Cher v 
Feach. Tbase 

. . . 

are ol the very best varieties knownn inssry of 

•t Inlr 



■ 

' .u» nti-in, where wo should be slad to sea |iniihsssn 

■ 

1 90 
Large quantities win v- ofered at pries* to ssst the ssaw* 

and circuiiiftsncr* of the purcbaa c r. 

LEY 
Wc esn fvnnsh Sdrrn- rruable 

than lift y kin-U. in loss lo »uir ■ ■ f 30 



w 



Kl.ium Frmlt Tf ■ 
E can offer for aale Pro* Tre^- 
hrireal fatea. Having theater,. .1 nurfi 

lea we art eaabtad 10 roakr Una for aaj afalra more than ara- 
allr hvoraMe. 

We hav. an extra lot of 10,000 yoaaf Wera fm iy raaeb Tree*, 
at. very haw ma, road* Cor pl a nting 



aajaart ( oCton Waod Ti,m. 

F Cotton Wood Trrna of M aaaa, lor aala Tb 
be act and warranted at a Bar pricn. I 
thrr can be farahhad at low ran. WARI 

tD Maawdr Haii BatkHai, Ban Pianetatw. 



B^aja tr.nh.v~rr \ I 

J-. Itevada," a ta l a ai Bd aatortawsM 
at traaa Cfaanarrr v ,, ~. ia [- r 

WAkKF-. A .-.O", 

to 




\l ..verre^Tad lh hi f taa d id O i.iat i . 1 I T»ae.nn« wanld 
TV 11 rilhtntbnw 



hwn erf- 



WAHIIrJt A SOX 



Dtwaata* Wlr. W' 
, , ■ R3 eaacatad hv WawCtota h 
\J y . - aad TWaahtm. A». aW 
rawn •' 

-r pat ap at the beat 
ranrtaf, an atwd. 



■ --V- 1 

«->-ription af 



■r- • -. - 
awatandw-ra-awapth. h i I , 



I" 



wadnaia b thaw.- ■ 

WAJUUbl A - 




THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



Uaridua 



—Three things to love— courage, gen- 
:tionateness. 
i Kings to admire — intellectual power, 
dignity, gracefulness. 

Three things to hats— cruelty, arrogance, In- 
gratitude, 

Three things to reverence— religion, justice, 
self-denial. 

Three things to delight in— beauty, frankness, 
freedom. 

Three things to wish for — health, friends, a 
cheerful spirit. 

Three things to like, cordiality, good humor, 
uirthfulness. 

Three things to suspect — flattery, puritanism, 
sudden affection. 

Three things to avoid —idleness, loquacity, flip- 
pant jesting. 

Three things to cultivate — good books, good 
friends, good humor. 

Three things to contend for — honor, country, 
friends. 

Three things to govern — temper, impulse, the 
tongue. 

Three things to be prepared for — change, decay, 
death. 

Golden Rules for the Guidance op the 
Green. — If you require a person to become se- 
curity for you, don't ask the man who promised 
he would do anything for you when he knew you 
did not want anything done. If you happen to 
know an author, don't own it; one half of the 
world wont believe you, and the other half won't 
think much of it if they do. Don't say you 
neyer take suppers, excepting where you know 
they never give any. If you don't know what 
everybody else knows, you had better hold your 
tongue, and if you know something that every- 
boby else knows, you had better hold your toguue, 
too. If you happen to say something in society 
which causes a painful sensation, you had better 
take a walk for five minutes. If you intend to 
do a good thing, don't change your mind ; and if 
you possess a five pound note, don't change that. 
These, and a few other golden rules which we 
don't exactly remember, should be learned by 
heart, as they will prevent your appearing green, 
and other people looking blue. — Diogenes. 

Turnpike Road in Sierra Coontv. — A meet- 
ing of the citizens of Sierra county was held in 
Downieville on the 20th inst., for the purpose of 
building a turnpike road in that county. The 
following gentlemen were elected officers of the 
company, the capital stock of which was fixed at 
$50,000— viz: R. II. Taylor, President; Gustavus 
B. Wright, Secretary ; and B. M, Fetter, Treasur- 
er. The books for subscriptions to the capital 
stock are to be opened at Marysville, Foster's Bar, 
Goodyear's Bar and Downieville, on the 5th of 
January, and a committee of three appointed to 
employ an Engineer to survey the route of the 
road. 

A Sharp African. — A friend of ours once 
had a good-for-nothing little black fellow, some 
twelve or fourteen years old, as a waiter boy, and 
after enduring his pranks and mischief for some 
year or so, was at length obliged to send him 
adrift to look after himself in the world. Not a 
great while after parting with little cuffy, his 
former master having occasion to go to Albany, 
met him on board the steamboat, where he was 
employed in the capacity of steward's assistant, 
and addressing him, he said: "Well, Tom, are 
you as bad as ever 1 " i: O, no," answered the 
young rascal, with a grin that brought into bold 
reliof every ono of his white grinders, l: I'se got 
no bad examples now, sir." 

At a large fire, at a celebrated piano forte 
maker's, an instrument, worth two hundred 
guineas, was burnt ; it was inlaid with mother- 
of-pearl, and other costly decorations. " Dear 
me," said a gentleman to the proprietor, "how 
was it they could not contrive to save that splen- 
did instrument ? " " Why," replied the proprie- 
tor, who, being insured, could afford the joke, 
" the reason was that the engines could not play 
upon it, I am told." 

Happiness is only evident to us in this life 
by deliverance from evil ; we have not real and 
positive good, Happy is he who sees the day ! 
said a blind man ; but a man who sees clearly 
does not say so. Happy is he who is healthy ! 
said anvalid; when ho is well he does not feel 
the happiness of health. 



HORTICULTURAL, &c. 



To Fruit Growers In California. 

HOVEY Si. CO., Seed and Nurserymen, No. 7 Merchants 
Row, Boston, Mass., invite the attention of Cultivators ot 
Fruit in California, to their very extensive collection of Fruit 
Trees of all kinds, particularly of Pears : embracing every var 
ety worthy of cultivation, to be obtained either in this country 
or in Europe. They offer for sale — 

100,000 Pear Trees, of all the choicest kinds both upon 

Pear and Quince stocks, dwarfs and standards ; 
50,000 Apple Trees, in 50 varieties ; 
25,000 Plum Trees, in 30 varieties ; 
20,000 Peach. Trees, in 25 varieties ; 
Also, — Quince and Cherry Trees ; 40 varieties of the finest 
Grapes; 12 varieties Currants; 10 varieties Raspberries; 10 
varieties choicest English Gooseberries; and 50 varieties Straw- 
berries, including our Hovey's Seedling, which has not yet been 
equalled for size and productiveness. 

Also,— 100,000 Asparagus, and 20,000 Giant Rhubard Roots. 
An immense collection ot Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Roses, 
Greenhouse Plants, &c., &c. Agricultural and Garden Seeds 
of every description, and of the best quality, constantly for sale. 
Catalogues gratis to post-paid applicants. 
Messrs. HOVEY St CO. would remark that their mode ol 
packing trees for California, has met with the greatest success, 
and they feel confident of being able to give satisfaction to those 
who may favor them with their orders. 

Address, HOVEY & CO., No. 7 Merchants' Row, 
8 Boston, Mass. 



Power or Association. — We all recollect 
the anecdote of a proud boj, who boasted that 
his father had a horse, when his companion, of 
poorer parentage, replied exultingly, ''And roy 
father has a horse and saw too." 

Love flits into rhyme as natural!}' as peas into 
a pod — in fact, rhyme without love in it would 
be pods without peas, or in other words, mere 
husks without any marrow— fact. 

' It is a Jaw which God himself has made, that 
the arrow which is shot from the persecutor's 
bow shall rebound and pierce the persecutor's 
heart. 



The difference between a carriage horse and a 
carriage wheel is this — one goes best when it is 
tired, and the other do'n't. 

When a man owns himself to be in an error, 
he does but tell you iu other words that he is 
wiser than he was. 



Faults committed in public should be publicly 
reproved. 



San Jose Nursery. 

WE arc prepared to supply the trade with the best varieties 
of Fruit Trees, Grapes Vine, Roses, Plants, &c, in all 
their varieties ; and are disposed to sell at a low price, that we 
may suit the times. Our Trees are cultivated with great per- 
sonal care. Those who desire to make Nurseries and Gardens 
will do well to visit and ascertain for themselves our ability to 
supply what we advertise. Trees will be carefully labelled and 
packed fur any Beasoo or distance. 
The following Trees we offer this season 



BANKERS. 



Peach Trees, 44 varieties: 
do 
do 
do 

do 

do 
do 



Strawberries, 7 varieties ; 
Fig Trees ; 
Pomegranates ; 
Walnuts; 

Chestnuts ; 

Locust Trees, very large ; 

O„ os e Orange; } &" Ms«- 



Pear do " 44 

Apple do 54 
Plum do 15 
Apricots i 

Almonds 2 

Quinces do 2 
Cherry do many do 
Grapes, 12 do 

In addition to our Fruit and Ornamontal Trees, we offer ten 
thousand finest Ruses, comprising moro than one hundred vari- 
eties, all of the best known kinds. Our plants are too numerous 
to specify in an advertisement. Hoping visitors will come and 
see us, we refer them to our agent in San Francisco, Mn. Djb- 
labigne, 121 Saneome street, where wo shall have a collection 
of plants in me season as samples. The nursery is situated in 
the city of San Jose, immediately above the City Mills. 

We are uleo permitted to refer to Warren & Hon, who have 
examined our grounds, and who can testify of the character of 
our nursery, and who will receive and forward orders to us. 

Every order promptly and speedily attended to. 

8 istf L. PRKVOST & CO. 



Smith's Pomological Gardens, 

Banks of the American River, two and a half miles from 

Sacramento city, 

riTHE proprietor of the Gardens would respectfully invite all 

I who are eugaged in " Nursery and Gardening " to visit his 

grounds. He will be happy to show to them, ready for sale, 

this fill, as line Q collection of 

Fruit Trt<s, Ornamental Trees, Grape Vine*, Shrubs, 
FlouHTttttt Plant*, and Green JJnu** Plants, 
as can be round in ail the greet Sacramento Valley. 

The proprietor would call particular attention to his collec- 
tion of Peaches, believing that the specimens exhibited by 
him in Sacramento and San Francisco markets have been un- 
surpassed in size, quality, or flavor. 

The collections of Pear Trees will equal any in the country ; 
these, with all the new varieties, will be offered this autumn. 

The undersigned believes his collection worthy a visit to his 
grounds of all who ore interested in Gardening and Orcharding. 

The suoBCriber will offer this autumn Five Tons Vegeta- 
ble Garden Seeds, that have been raised upon bis own 
grounds. These seeds have been grown with cure and will be 
sold at wholesale for the present, »t the Gardens. 

Persons in wont are invited to coll upon us, aud we will make 
reasonable terms. 

Fruits, Boqueta, &c., will always be furnished at ehort notice 
at the Gardens. 

The proprietor returns his thanks for the bberal patronuge 
of the past, and hopes for a continuance of such favors. 

10 A. P. SMITH, Proprietor. 



Golden Gate Nursery, 

Corner of Folsom and Fourth streets, San Francisco. 
OFFICE— NO. 170 WASHINGTON STREET. 

THE attention of the public is requested to a large collection 
of the flowering Plants, now for sale at this Establishment, 
embracing the most extensive assortment in the State; among 
which may be found — 

Camelia Japonicae, in seventy varieties; 
Perpetual blooming Roses, of all the classes ; 
Mii-t and climbing Boons, do do ; 

Fuflchias', a choice collection ; Heliotropes, in variety ; 
Rose and Lemon Geranium* ; 
Lemon-scented Verbenas, Flowering do, ArbutUhmiSi Azaleas, 
Orlemnler*, PaMtftmu, Honeysuckles, Carnations, Dahlias, 
Bulbous Roots, Sec, Sec; and a general collection ol Green- 
house plants and Ornamental ShruDbory. 

Catalogues for 1855 will be ready on the 1st of December, 
and will be forwarded on application, 

Orders for any part of the State, will be promptly attended 
to, on application to I), Nelson, No. 170 Washington street— or 
to the proprietor. (7-3m) W, C. WALKER. 



Fruit Trees t Fruit Trees I ! 

WE have for sale at our Nursery at the Mission San Jose- 
Five Thousand large Apple Treea : two thousand ot 
them of extra size. Many of them will bear fruit the next year. 
Two Thousand Peach Treea, choicest kind— largeand hand- 
some trees. 
Pear Trees on the Quince as well as Pear. 
Fifteen Hundred Cherry Trees from two to four feet high. 
Grape, Fig, Quince, Apricot, Nectarine and Almond Trees 
in less quantities. Ail the above we guarantee In quality, and 
we warrant them what they should be, and will sell at prices 
to suit the times, 

Apple Trees frorr $100 to $2 50 

Peach, Pear, Coerry, from 150 to 2 50 

Extra sized treoB in proportion. 

BEARD St LEWELLEN, Mission Son Jose. 
Orders with Warren St Son, corner of Montgomery and 
Cel'fjrnia street*, will be promptly attended to. 18 0m 



Fresh Onion Heed I 

JUST received, per Adams St Co.'s Express, 3 cases Fresh 
Onion Seed, for summer planting; also, tine varieties ol 
Melon and other kinds ot Bced. 
Orders by Exprcaa will meet with prompt attention. All seed 

warranted fresh. For side by 

BAKER &. HAMILTON, 
4-lm Successors to Warren & Son. 



Fruit and Ornamental Trees and Plants, 

INCLUDING everything necessary to the Garden, Green 
house, Nursery, and Orchard, with all the recent introduc. 
tions, at very low rates. Descriptive price Catalogues gratis- 
Carriuge paid to New York. Ornamental and other planting 
done in any part of the country. Address B. M. WATSON, 
Old Colony Nurseries, Plymouth, Muss. 
Plants packed for California with extra cara 16 ly 



Strawl>erry Plant*. 

ALPINE Monthly Strawberry Vines, at $4 per dozen; Black 
Prince $4 per doz ; Hovcy s $4 per doz, and Elten $4 per 
doz or $25 per hundred, strong plants. Plants will be carefully 
packed and forwarded according to direction, to parties that 
torward the amount of their order to us. Now is the time. 
Directions for planting with the plants. 
25 WARREN St SON, Masonic Hall Building. 



The Upland Boll Cranberry. 

WE have just received, per last steamor, the famed "Upland 
Bell Cranberry," to which we call particular attention of 
the cultivators of California. They are put up In parcels of 1U0 
and 2U0, ut $10 per hundred. Only a tew arc received, and an 
early call only can secure them. Please notice the chnracterut 
them, as described in an article in another part of thin paper. 
WARREN & SON, 
23 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street 



Ornngc, Fig and Pomegranate Trees. 

JUST received, a few good sized Orange, Fig and Pomegran- 
ate Trees, which we enn offer in perfect order. 
26 WARREN St SON. 



DREXEL, SATHER & CHURCH, 

BANKERS, corner of Commercial and Montgomery streets 
draw at sight, hi sums to suit, on 

Ocean Bank New York, 

Bank ot North America Boston. 

Mechanics' and Farmers' Bunk Albany 

Drexel &. Co Philadelphia. 

Josioh Lee & Co Baltimore. 

J. B. Morton, Esq Richmond. Va. 

Gen. Win. Larimer Pittsburg, Pa; 

A. J. Wheeler, Esq Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A. D. Hunt, Esq; Louisville, Ky. 

J R. Mncmurdo &. Co New Orleans. 

Also, on Detroit, Mich.; Memphis and Nashville, Tenn., Co- 
lumbus, Ohio : Norfolk, Va and Charleston, South Carolina. 
1 



ADAMS & CO., 

BANKERS, Montgomery street, San Francisco. Bills of 
Exchange drawn on any of our Houses in New York, 

Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimare, Washington, Cincinnati, New 

Orleans, St. Louis and London. 

Also payable at the following Bonks — 

Merchants' aud Farmers' Bank Albany 

Utica City Bunk Utica 

Bank of Syracuse Syracuse 

Bank of Auburn Auburn. 

Bank of Attica Buffalo 

Rochester City Bank Rocheste;. 

George Smith & Co Chicago. 

Alex. Mitchell, Fire and Marine lus. Co Milwaukie. 

Michigan State Bank Detriot. 

Com. "Branch Bank of the State of Ohio Cleveland. 

Clinton Bank Columbus, Ohio. 

I^P" Money and Gold Dust received in Special Deposits, and 

General Deposits, received from merchants, mechanics, and 

Others. 3 ADAMS St CO 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Daniel D. Page, I David Chambers, 1 Francis W. Page, 
Henry D. Bacon, Henry Height, Sacramento City 

St. Louie, J San Francisco. | 

PAGE, BACON, & CO., 

BANKERS, Montgomery, corner of Californio street, Sun 
Francisco, drain at tight, in sums to suit, on — 

Geo. Peabody & Co London. 

F. Hutu <fc Co London 

American Exchange Bunk New York. 

Duncan, Sherman & Co New York 

Atlantic Bank Boston. 

Philadelphia Bank Philadelphia. 

Joeinh Lee St Co Baltii 1 

Loniaiania State Bank New Orleans. 

Page & Bacon S(. Louis, 

Hutchings St, Co Louisville. 

T. S. Goodman St Co Cincinnati. 

B, June- & Co Pittsburg. 

Gold Dust and Exchange purchased at current rate*. . 12 



Tin Pacific Loan and Security IJmtk. 

MONEY will be received on deposit iu sums of Ten 
Dollars and upwards, for which Certificates of Deposit 
will be issued, bearing date the first or fifteenth or the 
month, payable on demand, or at specified times, at the option 
of the depositors, If payable on demand, they will be without 
, unless the money remain on deposit one month, in 
which ease they will draw interest of onfper cunt, per month, but 
no interest for fractional parts of a month. If deposited for 
specified times, certificates will be issued bearing "in and a ha(f 
jnr cur. pir month interest for euch time. Interest will cease 
at mflfcurUyj so that it' depositors desire to continue their de- 
posits after their certificates fall due, they must be presented 
lor payment and renewal ; otherwise interest cm 

The money deposited is used only in ham guaranteed by us 
and in all cases amply secured by Mortgages, State, County 
and City .Stocks, Merchandise, and Other safe collaterals, taken 
in the name of " MARRIOTT & WHEELER, Trustees for 
Depositors, with Pacific Loan and Security Bank." 

A register i- ] kept at all times open to depositors for inspec- 
tion, in which appear their names, the number of certificates of 
deposit issued, and the securities upon which the money fle- 
positedhaa been placed. Depositors thus not only have the 
personal security offered by all banks, but in addition have the 
benefit of the securities taken and guaranteed by us, and the 
facility of knowing what deposition has been made of their 
deposit FREDERICK MARRIOTT, 

ALFRED WHEELER. 

No. 98 Merchant street, San Francisco. 19 



THEODORE PAYNE. SQUIRE F. LEWKV. 

THEODORE PAYNE & CO., 
REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AUCTIONEERS. 

OFFICE AND SALES-BOOM CORNER CALIFORNIA AND MONT* 
GOMERY STREETS. 



THEODORE PAYNE AUCTIONEER. 



[^* Messrs. PAYNE St. CO. respectfully inform the public 
that they have established themselves as above, for the purpose 
of transacting the 

Real Estate business, in all its branches, 

For the conducting of which they esteem themselves* pecubarly 
qualified, by having riven it their special attention for over two 
rears ps Land Ivea familiar with all questions 

.; ntles, StC. &c. 

T],. 'v will (rive their especial attention to the public sales of 

entitle, by Administrators, Asshj rem, Mortgagees, 

&.C., carefully complying with the tonne of law. 

A Register for Property, at either public or private sale 
always open at their otiice 20 fin 



To Former* and Gartlciicrs. 

W1CKERSHAMS 

CelebratedPatentWrougatlronFarmFence 

FC R. sale — Wickcrsham's far-turned Patent Wrought Iron 
Fence, for enclosing and sud-dividinn lands. It can be fun 

ni-lied at but little above the Cost of ditching, and in much more 
prcfernblo, because it does not require a heavy annual expend- 
iture to keep 'it In repair; it cannot be destroyed by the fires 
which bo constantly sweep over prairie and mountain, requiring 

wooden fences to be renewed, nor carried away by flood from 

the overflow of the low lands; it is free from decay, which 
places it beyond comparison with wood or any other material 

now in use; it is valm-d the most highly when:- it has been 

tried the moat thoroughly ; it la light and graceful, yet strong, 
and cannot be broken down by horses or cattle. The testimony 
which has been given by those who have used it in the Atlantic 
Stat';-", Is autlicieut to recommend it to the fanning public of 
California. 

A complete model is now an exhibition at the State Agricul- 
tural Fair, at Musical Hall, Bush Street, near Montgoraeiy, 
where a full description may be seen, with the testimony of 
those who have erected it Id the Atlantic States, 

Farmers are invited BO examine this fence, as there hns never 
been any of the same kind in this country previous to the ur 
rival oi this lot, and from its peculiar construction there is nol 
the least doubt but that it will be I II e.l in thifl State. 

J. T. He-ton has now on bond, and will be constantly recetv 
tug Supplies from the manufacturer, which will enable biui to 
till orders to almost any amount, 
For particulars address J. T. HE8TON, 

At Warren's Agricultural Booms; 
Or, P. COGGINS, cor. Sacramento and Pike streets 
October 8, 1854. 15 




COLLINS & CO., 
PRACTICAL HATTERS, 

(premium hat store,) 
157 Commercial street, San Francisco, 

THE undersigned would take this opportunity to return their 
thanks to their friends and the public generally lorthe very 
liberal share ot patronage which they have received. They take 
pleasure in now announcing that they are determined that no 
one shall surpass them in the beauty, or finish, or quality of a 
Hat ; that no gent shall wear a finer Hat than can be found nt 
Collins & Co.'s Warehouse. 

The proprietors of this establishment exert themselves to 
manufacture to order the latest styles and most approved pat- 
terns. The stock of HATS and CAPS, of every kind, now 
on hand, cannot be surpassed in this city. 

17 COLLINS & CO. 



San Francisco ahead of the World ! 



Ever on, on apace with the Age and Times' 



Artesian Well Boring. 
~\\t E would respectfully inform the public that we are fully 
W prepared to take contracts in the above operations iu a 
manner to guarantee satisfaction or no charge will be made. 

Hmitii St Van Dyne having aesocioted themselves with an 
old and experienced operator from the East, who challenges the 
world to compete with him la all the branches connected with 
the above business, are fully confident to guarantee success in 
all contracts that we may undertake, and warrant the work for 
one year. We have also implements for boring through stone 
to any depth, and all work uono on the most reasonable terras. 

For the satisfaction of those wanting anything iu the above 
line, we would reler to I. C. Woods, of Adams St, CoVs £ 
J. W. 0.->born, Napa City; Rufus S. EelK ot Haworth St Sells ; 
M. A. Sullivan, New Custom House; Wight St Co., 137 Jack- 
eon street, &c, &c. 

We can do work cheaper than any other operators, for two 
reasons ; 

1st. Because wo are prepared to work on a most extensive 
scalo 

2d. Because we understand all branches connected with the 
above business, and are, therefore, able to work with certainty. 

All orders left at the What Cheer House will be promptly at- 
tended to. SMITH & VAN DYNE, Contractors. 

N. B. — We also reler to Warren A. Son, publishers of the 
" California Farmer," who have scon and known the character 
of the work dona 7 







Hunnh for Aniict's utw Dngiicm-nM Gallery! 

Largest Light in the World, (over 500 feet Glass.) 

JVfio Building, cor. Sacramento and Montgomery streets. 

WHY should every one go to Vance's who wishes 
PERFECT LIKENESSES? Because he has now the 
best arranged Gallery on the Pacific Coast, and not to be sur- 
passed by any in the world. Instruments containing lenses 
more perfect, and with greater power than any ever before 
used in this country. 

2d. Because he has the largest light in the. world, from which 
he can Ibrm three distinct lights— top, side, aud half side lights 
—that now enables liim to overcome the great difficulty which 
every artist in this city has to contend with — namely : In order 
to obtain perfect likeneesess, different formed features require 
differently arranged lights. 

3d. Having the largest light, he is enabled to make pictures 
in half the time of any other establishment in the city ; there- 
fore they must be more perfect, for it is well known, the shorter 
the time the more natural the earpn 

4th. Because every plate is carefully prepared with a coating 
ol pure silver which produces the clear, bold and lusting picture 
that is so much admired, and which cannot he produced on the 
common plates, as they are now used by other artists. 

5th. Because hehas Of late, after much ex penmen ting brought 
his chemical preparations to perfection, u-ini; compounds en- 
tirely different from anything erei , in the art, which 
enables him to produce perfect iifenesBee, at every sitting, with 
that clear, soft und beautiful tone, so much admired in all his 
picnires. 

All those wishing perfect likenesses will do well to call before 
sitting elsewhere, and judge tor themselves. 

55P Prices as reasonable, and work superior to any in the 
city. 

Don't forget the place. 

tiT* New BuildiDe comer of Sacramento, and Montgomery 
streets, entrance on Montgomery, next door to Austin's. 17 



ADAMS & CO.'S 

CALIFORNIA AXD ATLANTIC EXPRESS. 

OUR Atlantic States Express will leave Sun Francisco on the 
1st and 15th of each month, by the Pacific Hail Steamship 
Company's Steamers, and the Treasure crosses the isthmus 
under the charge of a strong guard. The Treasure forwarded 
by us to the Philadelphia Mint, is always deposited there previ- 
ous to that sent by aoy other conveyance. Our rates an; lower 
than tlioeo ofleredby any other House, with the same security. 
We also forward Treasure on the \&\ and 15th of every month 
To England, by the P. M. S. S. Co.'s steamers to Panama, and 
from A*pinwall by the West India Mall steai 

We draw Bills of Exchange on any of our Houses In the fol- 
lowlng places : 

Boaton, New York, Plillndclphlo, 

Hn Minion-, Washington, Bt, l,mili, 

Clnclnnntl, Pittsburg, I.nuts vllle. 

Now Oi'lcr.na, London, &c, t &c 

Also, payable at any of the following Batiks: 

Mechanics' and Fanners 1 Rank Albany, 

Alex. Mitchell, Fire and Marine Insurance Co MQwa 

rcial Branch Bank of State of Ohio Clei eland 

1 Cily Bank Utica. Bank of Syracuse.. .Syracuec- 

Butik of Auburn Auburn. Bunk of Attica -Buffalo. 

Koche* tor City B'k.. Rochester. Geo. rtnuth & Co Chicago. 

in State ii'k Detroit. Clinton Bunk... Columbus, O. 

l^&~ In the Northern Minks we run Expresses, in our own 
name, always accompanied by faithful Messengers, to and from 
the lollowing places: 

San Francisco, Sacramento, Maryfvtile, 

Grass Valley, tfcrada, 

Coloma, Placerville, or Mormon Islands, 

Georgetown, Hang town, Salmon Falls, 

Crccnwood, SfUMta City, Auburn, >V".. V- 

Aud every other pnrt of El Dorada, Placer and Shasta counties. 
Through Lakotoh St Bao.'s Yuba Expbkss, to and from the 
following places in Yuba, Sierra and Nevada counties : 
Long Bar, Deer Creek Crossing, Park's Bar, 

Bieara's Bar, ■ Bridgeport, 3. Sub*, French Corral, 

Kennebec Bar, 
Union Bar, 
Rose's Bar, 
Foster's Bur, 
Winslow's Bar, 

Oak Valley, 

Indian Valley, 
Slolgbvillet 

Cox'a Bar, 



Bweetlaqd'aj 

Iloyat's DigeiDGS, 
* Con ' 



Boston Bar, 
Hunt's Ranch, 
Bai ton's Bar, 
Wornbow'a Bar, 
Slate Range. 

Nevada House, 
Empire Ranch, 
Downlei 

Kanaka C'eek, 



Cherokee Corral, 

tossing, N.Yuba, 

Slate Ran: 

Junction House, 

Frenchman's Bar, 

Bid lard's Bar, 

Minesota Diggings, 
Goodyear's Bar, and Enicry's Crossing, Middle Yuba. 
Sacramento and Stockton, 
Via Benlola in theSoirrHKBN Mines, we run an Exprowi In •nr 
own name, always accompanied by lalthlul Messengers, to and 
from Ban Francisco, Stockton, Bonora, Mokelumne Hill, Col- 
uiuliia, Mariposa, &.c, by Bbown's Express, from Stockton to 
all the Camps in the Southern Mines. 

Our Bills of Exchange 

can be procured at, and Treasure forwarded to us for shipment, 
from any of the above places. Iu all of the above places we 
have flricft Vaults and />■ iityof Treasure 

entrusted to us, and on board of 66 1 any oftho above 

routes, we have fmn Safes for the security ot idl valuable pack- 
ages transported by us. 

Insurance. — Wo havo made arrangements for insurance to 
the oxteot of One MQtton ine shipment, and 

are empowered to insure for other parties on Gold Dust, liars. 
Coin and Merchandise to and from New York and this city, by 
endorsements on Bills of Lading, at the time of shipment 

7 ADAMS St CO, 



Boaton Clipper Steel Plow, 

Manufactured by Iluggle*, Tftmrte tr Maion. 

THIS splendid Plow Is made after the style aud form of the 
famous Eaglo Plough, sounlvi ■ a. JFhtsformoJ 

Plow in all its parni bos been enn 

invented, having taken premium* in every Slate in the Uoion; 
also at the World'n Fair, 

The present Plow has been manufactured by Mc#sj 
gles, Kourao &Masou, with great 1 

stylo, of the very be«t steel, and considered the 

highest finish ODO most complete Plow ; and the undersigned 

1 'alUornl* to call and examine the same 

at tbeh place ol bn .■ TREADWELL A I 1 

Cor. of Battery and California streets, Hun Fin 
24 TREADWELL it CO., Marysville. 



31 jj:u 3).U3^ii!jJ ©2 



vol. in. 



SsatM afwarcsss. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, JANUARY 11, 1855. 



NO. 2. 



Or California jfarnur 

AND JOURNAL. OF USEFUL SCIENCES. 

PUBLISHKD EVERY THURSDAY MORNING. 
BY WARREN & SON. 

i ' ■ nic Hnll Buiitline, Montgomery street. 

r "*"., ^■„ ,, ;V^^■^:■:■:::■:.'r..::^"i , . ,-.::'■ :;...v- :' >- -■-- to .- ycari,, you yc ha, 

crfbers, we will fend a sixth copy gratia. 

•il Dumber of Advertisements inserted at fair rates. 



by 



AGENTS. 
Messrs Adams <fc Co. at a!, their offices throughout the United 

: Europe. 
Mcs-rs. Wells, Fargo A Co., at their offices throughout the 

I'.trv. 

Ma. O. H Hamilton, Travelling Ageat for Sacramento Citv 

and Coui 
Me4*rs. Langton A Co. for Dtnonieville, Foster's Bar, Good- 

.' . . ■ ■ 

Messrs. Adams .v. Co. — Humboldt Bay, Trtnidad, Crescent City, 

Port (J tnpqua City, Scollsburg, and Hit entire northern 

coast. 
Messrs. Lklakd St. McCoombe- Orescent City, Port Orford, 

Eureka, and Bucksport. 
Sullivan's newspapor Btand, No. 5 Post Office Building ; Kim- 

ball'.'-. C i iers Hall, Long wharf— San Francisco 



. ;|. \ ! I |dl • , , 

P. Freer, Bidw ■ < i a. 

D G.Waldron& Co 

TreadweU &. Co,, MarysviUc, 

James Lloyd, " 

James it Co., rVerpa 

A. W. I'.,?, r, 

Nash & Davis I to 

Dr. Chas On 

C. O. Burton, Stoi 

Senor Pedro VaUwruox, 

noma. 
Dr.Tfeonuu .1. Harvey, I'. M., 

Son Luis "'" ' 
Cram, Rogers & Co., I ' ' 
Parker &. Roman, , 

WeiIi : it-s to report to us on the 1st of every 

month, n. .... names and the prospects, together with 

the amount due the offiee. 



Howard &. Chamberlain, Union 
C'tif, and ftffosfon San Just. 

A. ZZunaOWCll, P. M., Columbia. 
I. Coffin, alohr.iv.mjir I/ill. 
Gen. M. M. McCarver. Mount 

Fnnn, O. T. 
Dudley &. Co., Napa City. 
Hiram Downing, " 
Gardiner Se Kirk, Sacramento. 
Baker & Hamilton, " 
Taney &Kubeits, Sonara. 

B. K. Finchley, Sttuftm 

A. H. Murdoch, P. M„ tHin)n, 

Humboldt Hoy. 
J. M. Thorhuni le Co. Nan York 

City, Pi. >'. 



summing up 10,000 animals sacrificed daily for 
beast and bird. This may bo rather largo, as the 
bear cats berries, acorns and bugs ; the cavotc, 
wolf, wild cat, mice, squirrels, &c, when they 
cannot get other things. But if you cut down 

animals destroyed daily, or 2,920.000 yearly. 

I am scared! I intended to have written on 
several pages yet ; but I am astonished at my own 
figuring, and durst not write more to-night. 
When I get over my astonishment I will finish 
the subject. Your j truly, 

John M. Horner. 



PROTECTION OF GAME AND STOCK. 

San Miguel Ranciio, Jan. 2d, 1855. 

Editor or Farmer: As the time has now 
arrived for the people of the State to call the 
attention of their public servants to such objects 
as shall conduce to the public good ; and ono of 
most important laws that could bo passed by the 
present legislature, is an act for the Protection of 
Game and Stock. It is a subject that has been 
heavily upon my mind for several past years, and 
the more I think about it, the more I am con- 
vinced that something should be done. I am 
aware the subject is not well understood by our 
lawmakers. I have spoken to several members 
elect upon the subject, and think they will give 
it their support. Lest it should be neglected, 
however, 1 have thought proper to address you 
this letter, hoping you will call attention to the 
subject, I will give you my idea of the matter. 
I think the protection would be most effectual in 
in the shape of a bounty offered by the State upon 
the heads of wild animals. The damage done to 
stock and game by wild animate almost astonishes 
one. when it is brought down to calculations. 

Having been on somoof the frontier farms, and 
traveled in the country, and observed much in 
relation to this subject, I will give you a few ideas 
of the matter. I assert, without fear of contra- 
diction, that there are more earn iverous wild ani- 
mals than there are tame in Upper California. 
Another fa.i hey are always fat, and 

neither eat grass, vegetables or grain j but live 
wholly upon the flesh of such animals :i 
been ordained for the use of man. vix. : cattle, 
sheep, hogs, elk. deer, antelope, hares, rabbits. 
turket From a pro- 

cess of I would say the natural course 

of things would make more carnivcrous than of 
■II classes of domestic animals put together, 
from this fact : th. 

One another for food, neither are they preyed 
upon '. isses of animals. The gramin- 

ivorous animals generally breed sir 
preyed upon both by beast and bird. Bat let 
that stand as it may. it is enough for me to say 
that 400,000 wild animals are fed daily li 
forma, with that meat which should be protected 
for the use of its ei: mi ^ A 

<nt for the daily food of each animal 
the daily consumption would I* - 
mad allowing the average woight of each animal 
i be 100 pounds, ten pounds of which 
is bones and uneatable even to those animals, and 
mother tenth, at least, of all destroyed il eoav 
is flocks of vultures, bot- 
aarda. crows. Ac, it leaves only eighty pounds of 
the an ic stomach of the s 



LONDON VEGETABLE MARKETS. 

We have received from our attentive corres- 
pondent at Liverpool, a copy of the London Jour- 
nal, in which we find the following table, giving 
an account of the kinds and quantities of vege- 
tables sold at several of the markets in that city. 
The article was prepared for the Morning Chron- 
icle, and we presume gives the amount sold for a 
year, although it is not so stated in tho returns. — 
JV. E Farmer. 

We present the annexed schedule from the 
markets of London, that our readers may form 
some conception of the value of the vegetable 
markets of tho great metropolis of the world. 
Having wandered through thoeo markato person- 
ally, and having seen and been familiar with those 
connected with them, and having visited many of 
the grounds and seen the very crops while under 
cultivation, we know these statements are reliable, 
although they seem exaggerated. 

By a reference to these statistics any ono can 
see the particular varieties most consumed. It 
will lie seen that the almost incredible nun 
seventy -three millions, of cabbages, arc consumed 
in one year from their markets; eighteen million 
heads' in one market alone ; fourteen 

millions of cauliflower and brocoli; and thirty 
millions of asparagus. These are important data, 
for in London agriculture is looked upon as of 
some account, and we commend these facts to our 
readers with the simple remark, that when 
facts are appreciated we shall ever have an inter- 
est awakened. May we find it so here. 
all of home produce : 

Apples — 360,000 



Tarringlnn Market: 

Potatoes— 14,000 tone. 

Peas— 7,000 sacks. 

Beans — 1,200 sacks. 

French Beans and Scarlet Runners — 3,000 bushels. 

Cabbages— 3,500 loadB of 200 dozen each, or 8,400,000 cab- 
bages. 

Brocoli— 1,300 loads, or 5,320,000 heads. 

Turnips and Carrots. — 700 loads, averaging 50 dozen a load, 
or 504,000 hill | a I cm roui 



Currants — 5,1)00 bw hols 

Chen-iee— 12,000 bushels.. 

Plums— 3.000 bushels. 

Apples— 35,000 bushels. 

Pears— 20,000 bushels. 

Strawberries— 450 bushels. 

Watercrasses — 46,800 hampers, or 58,500 ewt. 

There are also 60,000 flowers roots sold in a year. 



AGRICULTURE IN NORTH CAROLINA 

We havo beforo us (says the New England 
Farmer) an address delivered by the Hon. Ken- 
neth Rayner, of Hertford, beforo the North Caro- 
lina State Agricultural Society, in October last. 
Mr. Bayner was for several years a member of 
Congress from that State, and was an active poli- 
tician. We are glad to find that he has turned 
his attention to the development of the agricul- 
tural resources of the " Old North State," and 
hope that through the influence of the State So- 
ciety, thousands of the acres of oondai.i 



It will not bo thought an' unwarrantable as- 
sumption to say that the California Farmer 
is devoted to the great interests of Aohidultcre, 
rens within her borders may be brought into a »>^ the arts which stand related to it. Its aims 



or 93,000 bushels; three half- 

white, 3,800 ; black, 45,000, or 
i .1 O busbas, as 6 
buabat on an aver 
- 

-love. 

'SSI mcts-, or 22.5O0 bushels 
I b — 20,000 baskets, eac I 

I.. 150 to 300 dozen each, or 33,600,000 

OB loads, ISO dozen each, or ia,*orj,000 turnips. 
«.!.. 200 doitn each, or IX.iaa.iin carrot*. 
Onion— 

,.ling csuliflowers— 1.000 loads, ISO dozen each, 
or 1,800,000 heads. 
Pea— 1.0, i>>i -«r k. A sack la ram ha shell 
Bean— 50,000 

■ «' rolls of 12 each, or 18.000,000 bands of 

A'pararua — 400,000 bundle* of ISO each, or 30,U99U300 bads. 
-1 50,000 acoree, 
Iran— 1 40.000 buabeav 

—21,000 hampers or 25.325 ,-wt. each ■*■■!! 

I the return* ■eaattaowet*'" are tnrladsd 
under rise head ■ nrocoh. n 
C a! .!.*,;r— e.OOO loads, 900 dozen In a lead, 1*300,000 c*b- 
barea. 

— 2 onOloada, of 200 dozen each, or 4^00,000 raratp* 
- s loads, of 200 dozen earn, or 3,781, 030 heads of 

Carrots— 441 lead*. 300 doaea each, or UT1.SO 

P.<ai.- »'■ KM tnsaa, 

Faas—dSoOOO •acka. 

saeca 

Currants — 30,000 noslsfav 



me products ot agricul- 
oarably identified in in- 

ns ot suosistance — out 



roads, but the veins and arteries, through which 
the products of agriculture, either in their crude 
state, or as fashioued in the workshop, circulate 
in seeking the market of commerce? Whilst rail- 
roads are dependent upon the products of agricul- 
ture, yet tho two are inseparably identified in 
tcrest. They act and react < 
upon the productions ol th 
shop that ih>. rail I.,*. 
of freight, the very means 
then again the construction of the railroad by 
the benefits conferred, in contiguity to market 
cheapening the cost of transportation, increased 
convenience in procuring the comforts and lux- 
uries of life, affords a stimulus to the land-owner, 
to improve his land to its highest capability of 
production ; and as the products of the land are 
increased, the railroad finds increased employ- 
ment, and enhanced profits, 

FARMERS, WRITE FOR YOUR PAPER. 

We find in the Ohio Farmer a valuable article 
on this subject, which we apply to our own case, 
as follows : 



Strawberries— MUM0 b naz a te, 
Oooa.be ra»— 35.000 satrea. 
Apples ry OOO b ailili 



Baaas— 3,000 sack*. 



kaxw ta a teed, or laOSMOO eaV 

Tarata— «■» load*. SOO doaea to a lead, er 4^00,000 
XS30dcaa*tnakiad. 

roaaaaak 
Ar e a . tVI .OOO b a.bsli 
rear— *3.000 Issask 




state of beauty and fertility. Below are extracts 
from the address, all we have room for at present : 
EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT, 
It is our good fortune to live in an age of won- 

Uertlll IDVentl uo i*s*4i M n, dovflnn- 

ment It is emphatically the age of rapid pro- 
ne improvement. The striking pecularity 
of the knowledge of the age is its direction and 
application to useful and practical ends; in min- 
istering to th ,s. the comforts and lux- 
of man In fact it is the demand for that 
species of knowledge, that is whetting invention, 
stimulating ingenuity, and taxing intellect for its 
uionts. Geology, mineralogy, 
chemistry, botany, zoology, and natural philoso- 
phy, are not now cultivated, as the mere avoca- 
earcb, or to satisfy the 
, but 
na [he .vhich man is to subdue 
the in. i lo his control, and apply the 
immui 1 nature to the Batisfyiri 

A minute knowledge and classification of 
prime. in the disintegration o( which 

lno Boi n " arrived at 

from an acquaintance with the various strata and 

the earth—:. 
aminaf its of all ma- 

terial nature, their rclaii I repul- 

. h other — an lh the 

structure and vegetable pi into and 

■ ; and the principle of their 
n— an understand- 
s and capacities of 
aninvi. or °f crawl- 

ing ,, iss laws of motion. 

i verse— all these branches 
pursued with a vigor and ten- 
■ fie votary of ancient le.. 
and to answer the purposes of pri 
TbeT are made to serrs th* purposes, and 
the course of the miner in hi* search for m 

wels of the earth ; and in ran- 
_- the r.al-lield4 which nature has laid aside 
hoaac for the nee of man. after 
the forests hare fallen beforo a redundant , 
1 data by which the pli 
to human safferin. 
which the manufacturer imparts the tints of 
• which the cutler temp- 
edge oi th* implements of labor. 

.•inear as he drives bis ear carserinc 
over the land— or propels his ship against wind 

s or sailboabb ox agbiccltcrb. 
most striking msnitsststiocs of the 
erprise of the ire is in the straggle 
man is nosr engaged in, with the obstacles pre- 
sented by nature— in opening channels of eosa- 
monu-stion. in laying down the path way* of trade 
and eomaaeree, in pioneering the way for the i run 
rail and steanvenrine. The vast stores of the Ia- 
eas of Pern dwiudic into in lignitVinnr compared 
with the hundreds of millioas that bars L- 
rjemted in these moaamenU of human industry in 
nitod States, in England, in France; and 
their march is onward towards th* steppes of 
la th;;r coaawrnction man has scaiersd 
victories over the eaesnenta. of which Archi m ed e s 
neeerdresmL Itwasthe boastof Nat»Json, that 
whilst Hannibal had scaled the Alps, be had 
turned Hvm-but the sn gisioa r has oVaas smto 
ska- either of these grest eQanfacror 
tunaelled tbesa not for the carer, of 
armies, but f •' products of th* 

sasrawu of peace— for th* cssaseyaawe 

cawfort and ssarty b 
aTaJaacbe absw* 



are high, and its ,.i~. ;,. rum n rc hensivo ; em- 
bracing not only what science Trns *» J-..uiizh. 
physical things, but those social and moral con- 
cerns, which constitute the end, to be secured, 
through the long scries of efforts, and interme- 
diate auaiuracnto, of a life-time. Agriculture is 
rapidly assuming the form, and character— not 
of a science, merely — but of a grand mode of 
life, of which all sciences, and all arts, and all 
other callings, even, are but mere adjuncts. It is 
not merely a source of wealth ; it is lilt source, 
from which the hungry are fed. tl.e miL,..! ,-!i,ihuJ. 
and a supply drawn for all the drones of the 
great social hive. Not only is it the foundation, 
on which the lofty superstructure of our nation's 

greatness is reared, but from its 

scrvatories ai. .awn forth all that can 

that greatness attractive it one 

in ten, of those now engaged in this honorable 
avocation, have learned the fact, that there is, in 
California, a paper like this, now asking for ayof- 

. commensurate with its . i, iivors 

to aid in securing their unlimited prosp . Ity, 

We do not hesitate to say, that the physical 
and intellectual labor required, to make this papor 
what it is^ — or at any rate, what it ought to be — 
is greater, by far, than that which is generally 

ad upon any other publication, whether 

. or daily, in the State. Tho truth is, 
neither one man. nor a dozen, can furnish the al- 
most infinite variety required, to satisfy tho va- 
rious wants, and various tastes of our thousands 
of readers. And it is for this reason, that we are 
anxious all, who are capable of doing it, 

to write down their thoughts, and place them at 
our (lisp. 

we could not agree, beforehand, to 
publish all that might be sent to us; for the duty 

ling npon tho merits of articles, intended 
ii. .vn not be neglected. But it is 
d, that there are hundreds, and even 
unong the readers of the I'akmi.h, 
who are well qualified to write valuable commu- 
nications for its columns, who seldom, if ever. 
make the attempt to eoi -'hts to 

paper. The sooner they set about it the bettor. 
It may be said that Agriculture has s Idlera- 
\ teat as it derives its aid from 
all departments of learning, much of that n ! 
of right belongs to it, is yet to be gathered from 
the great Republic of Letters, and rendered avail- 
able in the work before us. Hence, nothing ootaea 
amiss. Facts are wonted. Embellaumsnta of 
style are good enough, in their plaeas; bat plain 
truths, told in a plsin wsy, will better - r .. the 
hiterasis of owr readers. Nor do we care half as 
mack about theories, or eren the abstrusities of 
arieace, as we do about the resi. '••"■ 

tation. The best modes of r 
and rendering il prodnr' "i-n. 

to be d isro vere- 1 by the e. r ■ ■ la n 

practical men. And wo want the mi s t o ano of 



M o» ran b* a sat- 
is a I.'id- 



■rt eJase ub ser ra t i n g no oi 
caaafsl farmer. And there k not 
dred. who csrefolir obsarras what >- .- - 

aroand asm, who • not canablr '"" 

the rasalot ■ ' - *" 

very things sre 



, sn 1 were 



cold 



• ■ » 



Ulijrwr 



14 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



FROM THE EAST, 
rival of the steamer Sierra Nevada, at 
. Saturday evening last, we have Now 
.- to the 12th December, and from New 
^^rlean.- to the 14th. We have intelligence from 
Liverpool to the 2d Deeember, which was trans- 
mitted by telegraph to New Orleans. 

The reports of the battle of the Inkerman are 
fully corroborated. The Russian force engaged is 
stated to have been seventy thousand, while that 
of the Allies did not exceed thrity thousand. The 
Russians are reported to have lost nearly fifteen 
thousand men in that engagement. 

Reinforcements, at the rate of a thousand a day, 
are reaching the Allies. Forty thousand Turks 
have been ordered to the Crimea. The Russians 
are likewise receiving large additions to their for- 
ces. Everything seems to show that there will 
be much more and desperate fighting before Se- 
bastopol, before either the fortress be taken or the 
allies compelled to withdraw. 

Constantinople advices of the 20th Nov., are to 
the effect that thirty-two English transports were 
lost in the Black Sea, during a gale on the 14th 
November. The Prince and Sea Nymph foundered, 
and allon board were lost. The Sanspareil was 
driven ashore on * ; Fore Britaria," and at the last 
accoufKs had five feet of water in the hold. The 
Agamemnon (screw ship-of-the-line) was also 
stranded, but after great exertions was got off. 
The Samson's machinery was badly damaged. 
The Retribution was saved by throwing over- 
board her lower deck guns. The Henty IV. and 
Pluto were totally lost. In addition to the above, 
three mail steamers were stranded. 

Menschikoff informs the Emperor that the in- 
jury done Sebastupol by the besiegers will be 
speedily repaired. The garrison, he also says, is 
in a good condition for service. 

The Allied troops continue to fortify their right 
flank in the strongest possible manner. 

It was rumored at Kiel that a portion of the 
Russian fleet had left the Russian forts in the Gulf 
of Finland, and captured two British cruisers. 

The Czar's answer to the Prussian note ex- 
presses his willingness to treat for peace. Eng- 
land and France, it is stated, have come to th» 
resolution that they, will „„c now treat with 
Russia "» **•* basts of the four points proposed by 
Austria, and in the first instance rejected by Rus- 
sia, who now proposes to accept them. 

The New York Courier and Enquirer states 
that the entire repeal of the usury k™ in droit 
Britain .was accomplished at the recent session of 
Parliament. The act by which this was affected 
is known as ch . 90, 17 and 18 Victoria, and is 
now in operation. It is now lawful in Great 
Britain to loan money at any rate of interest, and 
on any description of property real or otherwise. 

On the 5th December, W. Taylor, (Whig.) of 
Tennessee, in the House of Representatives, gave 
notice of his intention to introduce a bill to modi- 
fy or repeal the naturalization laws; and Mr. 
Sollers, (Whig.) of Maryland, gave notice of a bill 
to prevent the enlistment of persons of foreign 
birth in the army and navy. Also, to prevent the 
emigration to this country of foreign paupers 
and convicts, and to increase the revenue of the 
government. 

Gen. Whitefield, the pro-slavery candidate, is 
elected Delegate to Congress, from Kansas, by a 
majority of 1,900 out of 4,000 votes cast. 

The Know Nothings re-elected their Mayor (J 
V. C. Smith) in Boston by a majority of 1,253 
over all others. In Worcester, the Know Noth- 
ings made a clean sweep, electing the Mayor and 
the entire Council. In Roxbury, also, the Know 
Nothings had a victory, electing James Ritchie 
for Mayor. In Lynn the same thing took place 
— Andrew Breed, Know Nothing being chosen. 
In Charlestown they met with a defeat — Timothy 
T. Sawyer, the citizens' candidate, having 358 
plurality over the Know Nothing nominee. 

The official vote in New York for Governor, 
gives Clark 309 plurality. 

There is not one applicant lor the Governorship 
of Deseret. It is supposed that Col. Steptoe will 
be appointed. 

J. H. Adams has been elected Governor of 
Sonth Carolina. 

Messrs. J. W. Blodgett & Co., dry goods 
merchants, doing business in Pearl street, Boston, 
and probably the heaviest house in the trade in 
New England, failed on the 11th December. 
Their liabilities are fully $2,000,000, 

The Navy Department despairs of hearing from 
the missing sloop-of-war Albany. It is generally 
thought that the ship and all of her crew have 
gone to their destruction. 

The city of Columbus, S. C, was scourged by 
fire on the night of the 6th December. The loss 
is estimated at $100,000. 

The Indians in Western Texas are very trouble- 
some. Five companies of Rangers are to let loose 
at them. 



FROM THE SOUTH. 
Forefather's Day was celebrated at San Di- 
ego on the 22d ult.,by a grand dinner at the house 
of Chas. H. Poole, Esq. 

Military. — Some 40 wagons and 100 mules 
had been dispatched with supplies for Camp Yuma. 
Thirty-five men, including carpenters, masons, 
and laborers, accompanied the train, which went 
out under the superintendence of Mr. D. B Kurtz, 
to construct the now buildings which Maj. Mc- 
Kinstry is authorized by the Gevernraent to 
have erected at that point. Camp Yuma is now 
to become a permanent post. 

New Stage Line. — Mr. J. W. Smith, agent of 
the California Stage Company, has been at Los 
Angeles for the purpose of making arrangements 
for the establishment of a tri-weekly stage line 
between San Pedro and San Bernardino via Los 
Angeles, San Gabriel, Lexington and San Jose. 
The stages and teams will be down in readiness 
to start the line by the 1st of February. 

This is the commencement of the great over- 
land stage route, by the way of Salt Lake City, 
which will be very soon established. 

News from the Gila. — Our old friend and 
fellow citizen. Captain R. Sackett, arrived in town 
night before last, after three months absence on a 
prospecting tour oirthe Gila. He brings with him 
some most beautiful specimens of copper ore, upon 
which appear in no small quantities pure virgin 
gold and a great deal of gold fused with copper. 
The main body of the specimens before us are 
composed of the red oxido of copper, which, upon 
assay, give seventy-five per cent, pure copper, and 
for every one hundred pounds of ore one ounce 
and a half of pure gold. There is also a small in- 
gredient of silver, the exact proportion of which 
has not been ascertained. 

Captain S, informs us that he procured these 
specimens at a point about forty miles distant 
from the Gila River, and about eighty miles from 
Fort Yuma, on the Colorado. 

It is estimated, that copper can be taken Irom 
these mines, smelted and delivered in New York 
at an expense of ten cents per pound ; and this 
too, with n moderate investment of capital. — L*os 
Angeles Star. 



The shipments from the Atlantic ports for San 
Francisco, during the month of November, great- 
ly exceeded the amount forwarded in the two 
previous months, and as a result, more ships have 
departed within that time than at any period 
since last winter. The number of ships which 
sailed in November was twenty-one, and of this 
fleet one vessel was from St. Johns, N. B., with 
an entire cargo of salt fish. The others were 
filled with the usual assortment of merchandise. 
Since the commencement of the present month, 
however, there has not been so much freight of- 
fering, owing probably to the stringency of the 
money market. Rates at Boston range from 35 
to 40 cents per foot in clippers, and 30 and 35 
cents in half clippers. 



Gold in Arkansas. — We were shown recent- 
ly a beautiful specimen of quartz rock, procured 
in Arkansas, which has been pronounced by old 
and experienced Californian miners, who have ex- 
amined it, to be equal in richness to any of the 
gold-bearing quartz in the Eureka State. We 
understand the owner of it will have it analyzed 
by Professor Riddell, and should it have the pure 
stuff in it, we may look for a rush to the Arkan- 
sas gold diggings. — iV. O. Delta, 



The schooner Julius Pringle, from Cocos Is- 
land, via Point Arenas, arrived at San Juan, Dec. 
24th. Her Company express the fullest confi- 
dence in tbe success of their enterprise, having re- 
ceived additional information, on which they place 
the fullest reliance. The Pringle was to return to 
the Island immediately after procuring supplies. 



The Storm in El Dorado. — The Miner's Ad- 
vocate says that the stornon New Year's Eve was 
the most destructive ever known in that section 
of oomttij. Dot aitogerner tne most disastrous 
effects of the storm have been visited upon the 
flumes belonging to ditch companies. Our in- 
formation on this point is incomplete, but we give 
such items as we have been placed in possession 
of: — Bradley, Borden & Co.'s flume across Mis- 
souri Flat, (35 or 30 feet high,) and many rods in 
length, was blown to the ground ; the rebuilding 
of which must cause a heavy expenditure, and re- 
quire considerable time. We also learn that 170 
feet of the main flume of this company on the 
Cosumnes was destroyed, which interrupts the 
supply of water in all the various arteries of the 
ditch. Two hundred and forty feet of flume. 36 
feet high, on the main truck line of the Eureka 
Ditch, across Ringgold divide, was blown down. 
It was considered one of the most substantial 
portions of the entire work. Workmen were 
promptly dispatched to rebuild the flume, in a 
manner that will defy future storms, and will 
have it completed in the course of four or five 
days. The Eureka line suffered no other damage. 
The North Weber Ditch Company, (Messrs. 
Clapp, Tuttle&Co.,) lost no less than 1,200 yards 
of flume in the neighborhood of New Town- 
vory serious disaster. A large portion of the 
Deer Creek flume, in this county and contiguous 
to the Sacramento line was destroyed. The 
Michigan Bar Company, in this county and south 
of the Cosumnes, lost, we understand, the greater 
portion of their flume. It is also rumored that 
the Notama Ditch Company lost their entire 
flume in the neighborhood of Prairie City, Sacra- 
mento county. The storm was very severe on 
Hydraulic works constructed by the miners. On 
Coon Hill, we learn that they were scattered in 
every direction. From all We can learn, the storm 
was general throughout the State ; and if as severe 
elsewhere as in this county, a large amount of 
money will be required to repair the damage that 
has been sustained. 



The Winter Snows. — From the up-river pa- 
pers we learn that snow has fallen to a consider- 
able depth over the whole interior districts. The 
Sacramento Union says that the horizon is now 
bounded by an unbroken snowy belt. Not only 
the summits of the range of the Sierra are buried 
in their wintry mantle, but the snow extends 
down to the tops of the lowest foot-hills. No 
green spot thereabouts will be seen again before 
the advent of the vernal season. 

In the North, the Weaverville and Yreka trails 
are covered with snow to the depth of from three 
to five feet. Around the towns and claims in 
Placer county and other mining quarters the snow 
covers the ground to the depth of from six inches 
to three feet. 



Collision on the Steamers " Eclipse" and 
''New World."— Both these fine steamers, says 
the Daily Statesman, (Sacramento.) started at 
the usual time on Sunday last from their respec- 
tive berths at Sacramento. They proceeded very 
near together to a point a short distance below 
Sutterville, when the Eclipse was run against the 
bank, and in rounding off the rivals came in col- 
lision. The New World was not damaged any, 
but the starboard wheel of the Eclipse was so 
much injured as to compel her to return to Sacra- 
mento for repairs. The necessary repairs having 
been mado, the Eclipse is now making her regular 
trips. 



Death of King Kamehameha. — Dates from 
the Sandwich Islands of the 16th December, an- 
nounce the death of King Kamehameha, who ex- 
pired on the 15th ult. after a serious illness of 
five or six days, at the age of forty-one years and 
nine months. As soon as the news spread, the 
flags on shore and afloat were set at half mast, 
and places of business closed. Minute guns were 
fired by the various naval vessels in port. Prince 
Alexander Liholiho is now proclaimed King of 
the Hawaiian Islands, under the style of Kame- 
hameha IV. 



Solidified Milk. — This highly esteemed lux- 
ury, we are pleased to learn, can be found at 
Bingham & Reynolds of this city. We called the 
attention of our readers to this subject some weeks 
since, and we felt a pleasure in knowing that it 
was a valuable article, when tested. We were 
grateful to the lady for the interest manifested and 
the information where the milk could be found. 



MAHRIED. 



On the 4th Jan., by Justice Orrin Bniley, John Kennedy and 
Miss Mary Cardie, both ofthu city. 

On the 5th Jan., in this city, Senor Joee Para y Alvarez, eon 
ot Gen. Alvarez, of Mexico, and Mademoiselle Adela Buides, of 
this city. 

On the 3d Jan., in this city, Win. J. O. Bryant and Mrs. Fran- 
ces Campbell, both of this city. 

On the 1st Jan., in this city, Benjamin P. Griffin and Mrs. Ad- 
elaide Gordon Griffith?, both of this city. 

On the 1st Jan, at the Monte, Los Angeles county, John Mc- 
Cultum and Mies Melinda CrnndaM, both" of Los Angeles, 

On the 2d Jan., in Wiishinu'ton, Yolo county, Samuel Ander- 
son, of Placer county, and Mir>r> Surah McDonald. 



DIED. 



On l he 2d Jan., at Mokehimne Hill, S. D. Ball, aged about 40. 

On the 4th Jan., m this city, Joanna Fish, wife of Wm. H. 
Fish, uged about 22 years. 

On the 2d Jan., in Sacramento, Mr*. Mary Jane Mouser, wife 
of Dr. S. M. Mouser, aged 27 years. 

On the 2d Jan., in Sacramento, Mre. Mary Ann Lardner, wife 
ofF. S. Lardner. 

On the 4th Jan., at the Floshner House, on the San Jose road, 
Honora, wife of Marcus Flo*hner, aged 23 years. 

On the 6th Jan., in Marywville, James May Jones, of Reading, 
Pa., aged 35 years. 

On the 6th Jan., n Mnrysvtlle, Mrs. Josephcne Chamber*, 
(formerly Hirchey), a native of Hanover, aged 41 years. 



SAN FRANCISCO MARINE LIST. 



Threatened Difficulties. — There has been 
trouble brewing for some time past between the 
miners and farmers near Grass Valley. The mi 
ners express their determination to dig for gold on 
any mineral land, even though it be claimed for 
farming purposes. The farmers assert that when 
they claim United States land for farming pur- 
poses, the land becomes their property against all 
claimants except the Government. Both miners 
and farmers have formed associations, for the im- 
plied purpose of enforcing their demands by arms, 

Pioneer Ball — The Annual Ball of the Pio- 
neer Society on Monday night, was a very pleas- 
ant affair. The weather out of doors was forbid- 
ding, rainy, muddy, and disagreeable. But this 
did not prevent a large company from assembling. 
The evening passed off agreeably, and to a late 
hour the company timed to the music, and the 
joyous dance went on. 

The Shasta Courier says: Now that the miners 
are supplied with water from the recent rains, 
large lumps and big strikes are becoming almost 
too common in this country to warrant chroni- 
cling. We were shown by Mr. Tracy, of Adams 
& Co.'s express, a very beautiful specimen, weigh- 
in 23 ounces of pure gold. It was taken from the 
claim of Hoge & Co.. on East Fork of Clear Creek. 



The telegraph line between Columbia and So- 
nora was completed on Saturday, and was put in 
operation. So says the Clipper. 

Rain. — Rain fell copiously during the past 
week in Calaveras county. The miners are hearti- 
ly rejoicing. 

The shipment of treasure, Jan. 9. per Nicara- 
gua Steamer Uncle Sam, amounted to $642,000. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. 



£^" Calvary Presbyterian Church, on Bush Street— 
Rev. Db, Scott, Pastor.— ThU Church will be opened for 
divine service, Next Sabbath, 14th inst. 

DEDICATION SERMON in the morning, ut 11 o'clock, by 
Dr. Scott Services in the Evening at, 7 o'clock. 

%* The public at cordially invited to attend. v3-2 



C3F 3 Native Pines, Oaks, Sec. — Cones of tho Native 
Pines, Acorns from our Mountain Oaks, Seed of all our Moun- 
tain Shrubs, and of every*8pecies of Valuable Tree or Shrub ; 
for these the full price will be paid, if satisfactorily labelled, 
classified and arranged, at the 

Office of the " California Farmer," 

13 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street, 

13?" Wanted.— All the varieties of Calilornia Clover Seed, 
for which the highest price will be paid at the 

# Office of the " California Farmer," , 

13 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street. 

I3P* "A Thing of Beauty is a Joy Forever."— Why 
will people endure pimples on "the human face divine," or 
eruptions of any kind, when it is a fact so well known, that Dn. 
Guysott's Yellow Dock and Sahsapabilla cleanses the 
skin from all impurity, removing Pimples, Sores and Blotches, 
leaving the affected parts as healthy, smooth and soft as the 
flesh of a babe. It is really priceless to all who wish the roey 
beauty of childhood. 

It causes all sores and poisonous wounds to discharge all in 
fected matter, and eradicates every impurity from the system. 
It does ita work mildly but effectually, giving conscious beauty 
and blooming health in the place of ugliness and soul -sickening 
disease. 

Scrofula, Syphilis;, Mercurial Complaints, and a vast 
variety of other disagreeable and dangerous diseases are speed- 
ily and perfectly cured by the use of this medicine. 

Purchasers will place be careful to ask for, and take nono 
Other but Dr. Guysott's Improved Extract of Yellow Dock and 
Sorsaparilla. All others in comparison are worthless. 

For sale at all the principal Drug Stores in the State. Park 
& White, Sole Agents, to whom all orders must be addressed. ' 
OH'.ct No. 94 Merchant street, 3d door above Montgomery. 13 ; 



ARRIVALS. 
Jan. 3 — Brig Kingsbury, Friend, Humboldt Bay,4dnys; lumber. 
Schi Page, Morehouse, Tombez (Peru), 40 days; 1000 bbls 
sweet potatoes. 
Jan. 4— H B M frigate Pique, Capt Sir F E W Nicholson, Hon- 
olulu, 15 days. 
Ship Dalmatia, Slocum, Cape Ormny, 26 days ; ice. 
Chil shin America, Luize, Bordeaux, 170 days, via Valparaiso 

44 days ; mdse. 
Br Bhip Esther, Smith, London, 215 days, via Panama, 66 

days, with mdse. 
Bnrk Iwauowna, Dryden, Vancouver Island, 18 days; coal. 
Schr Far West, Ba-hop, Baltimore, 185 days, via Talcohuano 
50 days, with coal and bricks. 
Jan. 5— Bark America, Libby, Humboldt Bay, 5 days ; lumber. 
Jan. 6 — Steamship Sierra Nevada, Blethen, Sau Juan, 12 days ; 
with mdse and passengers. 
Pilot boat Dancing Feather, Hutchinga, Point Aquilla, 4 days, 

in ballast. 
Schr Henry, Redlield, Bollnas, 19 hours ; potatoes. 
Jan, 7 — Fr corvette La Moselle, Commander Page, Tahiti. 
Stxnr America, Haley, San Dieje, 3 duy ■ mdse, 
Schr A M Simpson, Hanson, BodBga, 16 hours ; potatoes. 
Jan. 9 — Clipper ship Hornet) Benson, Philadelphia, 1 26* days, 
with md*e. 

CLEARANCES, 

Jan. 2— Bark Ork, Oakes, for Sydney, via Humboldt Bay. 

Jan. 4 — Bark Columbia, Hunter, for Sydney, via Humboldt 
Bay; brig Susan Soule, Baker, San Bias; schr T H Allen, 
Waitt, Honolulu. 

Jan. 5— Bntks Ala, Sanders, for Callao ; In dependent (Peru v), 
Lander, Mnzsllan ; schr E L Frost, Hempstead. Honolulu. 

Jan. C— Stmr Golish, Erekine, tor San Diego; ehip Flying 
Eagle, Bates, Callao ; barks Susannah (Humb), Schmidt, Valpa- 
raiso ; Chalcedony, Loveear, New Archangel ; Frances Palmer, 
Paly, Honolulu; brig J B Lunt, Richardson, Portland; schr J 
R Whiting, Blair. Columbia River. 

Jan. 8 — Stmr Uncle Sam, Baldwin, for San, Juan. 

Jan. 9— Ship Herald, Derrick, lor the North Pacific Ocean, 
via Honolulu ; schr Ann G Doyle, Phillips, Santa Barbara. 



MARKET REPORTS. 

San Francisco, Jannary 10, 1855. 
The rains have set the wheels o( business in motion, although 
the full effects of good that has fallen upon the earth have not yet 
begun to be felt Miners, larmers and merchants, all will and 
should rejoice. The miners are busy and doing well; the plow 
is at work, and everything looks cheerful and prosperous. The 
effect of the rain has caused Grain of all kinds to be much firm- 
er. Wheat is now selling at 3@4c, and some of extra quality at 
a higher figure ; Barley, 2®2^c ; Oats, 3®3l<jc; and Potatoes 
1^©1 7 /bc — other crops firm. Flour ia firm and adnancing ; pro- 
visions abundant, some kinds firm. 

JOBBING PRICES. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLE 

MEN TS— nominal- 
Shovels, 
Ames' I. h. bright$13 00® 

do s. h ©10 00 

Fields', I. h 12 00®10 00 

Rowland's, 1. h 00@— 00 

do s. h... 9 — ■St 10 00 

King's,!, h 14 00®. 

Spades, bright c. e.\5 00-5 18 00 

do iron 8 00®10 00 

Coal and Grain Scoops, e. s. 

12 00® 

do do iron. ® 8 00 

Axes, ColliiiB', a. h.22 006-24 00 

do Hunts', do ©15 00 

Pick.-, Collin*', 4Vlt to titti, solid 



eve 10 003)12 OC 

do other brands . 00® — 00 
Helves, heavy hickory 

turned 50© 2 50 

do axe.... 2 50® 4 50 

Plows, best make. 14 — ®30 

do stool :.24 00®40 00 

Threshing Machines and Horte 

powei — 

Hall Sc Pitts' no sale. 

Other makers'.... — ® — 
Emmery's, with thresher, aepfi' 
rator.and fan mill . . — ® — 

Straw Cutters, . - $ — © — 

Rakes, horse und revolving, 
no sale. 

do hand, wood — 00®— 00 
" do do steel — 00®— 00 

Pitchforks, $* doz ® 

Scythe-, best ® 

Hoes, steel, g. n... 6 00® 9 Of 
Crowbars, c. s.^ lb- 10® - IS 
Flour Mills, Noyes' $500® — 

do Brown's, 30in.450® — 
FLOUR— 

Gallego — 00® 14 5( 

Haxall — 00® 11 5t 

Chile 8 00® 9 0( 

Repacked 'a> 

Horner's Mills,... 9 00®. 

Benicia Mills, 9 00®00 00 

Meal, in bbls 6 00® 6 50 

do \k bbls 3 25® 3 50 





I 1 


GRAIN— 




Corn, Eastern, ^ lb 2 © 


av 


Barley, Calilornia.. © 


2i- 




fj 


Buckwheat, flour ...9 ® 





Oats, California 2 © 


3 


do Oregon, none in mVt. 




sv* 



Wheat, Chili 2 ® 2Vfc 

do C(iliforni...2^® 

LUMBER— nominal- 
Timber, Oregon Pine, sq, ty M 

25 00® 

Plank and Sc't'g--25 00® 35 00 
Plank E,w.p. cl.60 00® 70 00 

do E. on 80 00®100 

Boards, E.cl.Ut q.G5 00® 

do Sdq.45 00®55 00 

do G. y. p. floor— 00®— 00 
do 0.pine,rougol6 00®18 00 
do redwood, Mendocino, gang 

sawed 30 00®36 00 

do Bav&Bolinw25 00®27 00 

ffloor Joist 18 00®20 00 

Shingles, E. best . 7 00® 8 00 
Clapboard?, No. 1 .35 00® 30 00 
Laths, Eastern •• ■ 6 00® 8 00 
do California.- 5 00® 6 00 
Doors, Eastern...— 00®— 00 

Bashes, window 00® — 00 

PROVISIONS— 

Beef; Mess, <* bbl 18 00@23 00 

do V* bbl ex.tam ®13 50 

Bacon, ex. clear sides, V TQ 

12® J3 
do Mess, nominal — ® — — 

Cheese 20® 85 

do Cnli'brnia 20® 25 

Egcp.irephCal.'P'dz.PO® 1 00 
Butter, choice, f> lb .30® 40 
do good ordinary 16® 

do California — © 

Hams, ordinary 12® 

do extra 15® 

Lard, in kegs 13® 

do tins 10-lb...l(i® 
do 15— 20 do ..14® 
ork, clear, ¥ bbl 17 00®18 00 

do do Vfe bhl ®10 00 

do mess, 3p bbl 13 00® 15 00 

do do Vfc do ® 8 00 

RICE— 

r'arolma, in bbl^lb7 © 7Vi 
China, No. 1, in mats — ® 10 
do No. 2, do — ® eVfe 

Manila 8Vi® 4 

VEGETABLES— 
Beans, Chili Bayos .8^® - 
do California. ..8^--9 4 
do Am. white.. 8Mi® - 

Split Pen« 5 ® - i 

Beets, ty ton 20 00® 

Carrota .40 00® 

Onions, prime,^ lb 7 © 6 

Turnips, ^ ton . . .30 00® 

Potatoes, per sack 50® 100 
do new, W lb. IVi® 



25 



14 
16 



15 



OFFICIAL EDITION OF STATE LAWS. 

F O n 18 5 4, 

LAW BOUND, NOW READY AND FOR SALE 

AT 

GEO. W. MURRAY & OO. 'S, 
5 Montgomery Block. 



ISP* Our New Office.— We invite our friends to our new 
office in tho " Masonic Hall," on Montgomery street, opposite 
Lo Count it Strongs. We can show them many wonderful 
specimens, such as are rarely scon, and we especially invito 
thorn to call and examino the various schedule and invoices we 
have to ofler lor Kiln. Trees, Seeds, Plants, Grains, Houses, 
Lands, Inventions, Works of Art of all kinds, these we are 
happy to show, and can interest our friend* if thev will but rail 
andBceus. WARREN &. SON. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Orleans Hotel, 

Second, bttwcn J and K ttrttt*, Sacramento. 

4*> THE h' ; | .it 85 bv 150 fort, 

Jj-J. in llio mart emu ml -/art ol tho cily, built of brick and 
three •torior. hicb, otb'r* iuducemfmu tu travelers nut nurpftRsed 
by any l : ■ in the StMe. 

The izr.uiii'i rluur i- »et apart for Dining Rooni. Reading 
Room, Billwrd Room ami Bar R 

The Table will be fuuud at all time* jupplicd withthochoice 
of the market. 

At the Reading Room can always be found tho daily papcra 
ol thi ilea Ironi the Atlantic ami Europe. 

The Billiard Saloon U furnished with five excellent tablot, 
superintended hv n comoetent km] 

The Bar will be aupulied with tho beat Liquora and Wine*. 

Thoaecond and third stories of the building arc net apart for 
Parlor, Family Room* and Chamber*, comfortably furnished. 

We have also teamed the large brick building corner of and K 
and Front street* (formerly known n» SackeuVt Hotel) let (.part 
for Lodging Apartment*, winch tre. famished in a luperloi 
manner, which, added to the Hotel, will afford ample accommo* 
datinut-. 

The "Orlcana" ia nUo the Depot and Office of the California 
Stage Co., from which plane Stages leave daily for all parts 
of the State. 

-3-U HARDENBQRGH *fc CORSE, Proprietors. 



For Sacramento mid MnryavlIIr. 
jr^a» s THEnewandBplendideteninerQUEEN CITY, 
i^fiT ' TT77 ■ c - R - Barclay, master, will leave Pacific wharf, 
overy Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at 4 o'clock, r. M., con- 
n cetfng with the steamer ENTERPRISE for Mary. . 
ry* Freight to Sacramento 93 per ton, until further notice. 
For further particulars, apply to 
T3-2 E. CHAPMAN, Agent 



Freights to Sacramento, $10 per Ton. 

r fcdCh FREIGHTS by the QUEEN CITY, will be 
muA&uSaLt Ten Dollars per Ton, until further notice. 
v3-2 E. CHAPMAN, Agent. 



Pottery! Pottery M 

-VTOW ready nnd lor sale at the SACRAMENTO POTTERY, 
jj( on J street, nenr Sutter's Fort, a large assortment of Plain 
and Fancy Flower Pots; Butter, Preserve, Bread and Cake 
Jars, with covers ; Cream Pots, Churns, Milk Paiif, Juga and 
Stovepipe Sales, of superior quality ; with everything else in 
the line. Wares made to order. Dealers are particularly sol- 
icited to call and purchase. Orders to be left at the Pottery, or 
No. 264 J street. 
v3-2 T. R. FREER, Agent. 



(JHAS. A. PITCHER, 

COMMISSION MERCHANT, 

Washington street Wharf, 

Between Davis and Drumm streets, 

Sail Francisco. 
iy Liberal advances mndo on consignments. v3-2 



BUSINESS CARDS. 



TREADWELL & CO., 

CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND MAIDEN LANE 

MARYSVILLE. 

CORNER OF CALIFORNIA AND BATTERY STREETS, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

NO. 50 FEDERAL STREET. 

BOSTON. 

Importers of Hardware, Iron, Steel, Cordage, Painta, Oils, 
Varnish and Window Glass, direct from the Atlantic State* and 
Europe, with a complete assortment op tools and imple- 
ments for Fanners, Miners, Carpenter*, Cooper*, Coulken and 
Gravers, Saddler*, Turners, Maeon*, Smith?, painter*, (jiazhrs, 
Ship Carpenter*, fVJteelterfjjfu*, Millwrights, Cabinet Makers, 
and other*. SMWra 

WLUAM BAILEY. 

OIL AM' CAMP HE NB MANUFACTURER, 

IMPuRTEB AND DKAXER IN 

Sperm, Polar, Dlcphant mid Blnckfiah Oils, 

ALSO — CAMPHKNE AND ItURNINO FLUID. 

No u Battery street, between Pine and Hush. 21 



GIBSON & KING, 

IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

Groceries, PiovMona, Porcjbrn and Uome.llc 

Spirits, and WlnM, 

Nos. 24, 26 and 28 Battery street, fear corner (if I'iu", 

15 San Pi am i 



WM. NEELY THOMPSON, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAL DEALER W LIMBER, 

MARKET 8T11KKT, DRTWEKN PAONT AND DAVIS. 

Boards, Scantling, Flooi Joist, Sash and Panel Doors. Win 
down and Building material!) of al Ind istanttj on hand. 24 

SIM & CO., 

PRODUCE COMMISSION M KUCHA NTS, 

12 Clay street wharf, 

between East and Dru ' ■ s A s Francisco. 

[y('n-!i;i :.!■■■ id i uu i .ment* in store. 

Rarer to Messrs. Flint, Peiibody & Co.-. I. C. WimhK Esq., at 
Messrs. Adams « ' 24 tf 



SAMVKL A. CHAPIN. 



OTIS. V. SiWVKl 



CHAP IN A SAWYER, 

IMPORTKHS AND JOBBEM OP 

Hardware and Lent lie r. 

Saddlery, Shoe Findings, Nets, Seines, ftc.. Ac., 
24 12» 8n 



TREADWELL & CO. 

IMPORTERS AND DBALKRS IN 

Hardware, Farming, Mechanic and Mining Tools, 

Corner of California and Bal 
32 3m San Fnw 



JOSEPH M. BROWN A ( 

95 Smcramtnt" and 81 Battery ttreets, San Frttmeitco. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

IlardwaiT, Mli-lug «■■<■ ^ilniilin! Im|tlrntrnta. 

Browu's, Ame- ^ Hakes; 

; . . . . 

Fan Mili>. <' variety; 

Weim exwnsive ttock, 

* ■ 
a * ill M. BROWN 



DR. THURSTON, 

Office, Room N i •-' ranee House ; 

MARTHA N. THI RSTON, M.D., 

Office, r 

■ - 

ty* Mr- ' 



A 



i\ K\ '1" 
Ibe 1'urt 

part ..i 



» nl Hut nln M»\tch. 



- h RMnun>erored 
ntiy and the pr\>p'n*Hor cballenfM com- 



olwcriber to 

■.rfd hy nun. 



Tin* new Culiton. a 
en>l in neat packave* 



The trade sunnWed 



"home- nMnuneiii 

i voushSs eaoh, at alow rata. 



OlIN K.I - ■ Manu I**- ruror. 

1 >«vn Mason and TyVr, 

nuKfae* 



It -■-■-. - ■ „ ;-..,,!•-. 
• mhtnm be ssa«Us> asaei 
andum srufa us. Wo alwmya h*T« raoee or hsss ssocK on h*».i 
lor •• f ■ ■ 

Wurno taiXEDiATtLi wwIVIumB..;. 

six 81km { Morfasi Bsood) ; 
H , Bsstt*. 

■ .v.-*.*' riWl. pOSC OUd ■ -AOod |» 

F--O..U. » WAsLBtKK * 



HORTICULTURAL, &c. 



Paellle Xuraery, 

SnSSION DOLORES AND ALAMEDA, 

HAVE sjwav* on hand and lor mi <• iltcctionof 

hi tho State. AW.. Grape 
Vines, Frnit nnd Ornamental Trees in (Trent variety ; 
.VX),0t»ii Strawberry Plants, Including thirteen varieties ot all 
Id lots to unit purchasers. 
All or. l i ! n Dolores, or at our Nor* 

«ery at Al mi with Warren &, Son, at the office of this 

.. promptly attended to. 

.i ■-. f)t market rates, and everything 

sold fully' warranted to he correct. 
18 II. A. SONNTAG &. CO. 



StxKwbenrr Vines. 

JARGK and rig Vines ol the various kinds of Straw- 

l .!..' , ; ie boat kinds In cultivation, can always be found 
i 1 the l lardens ol the lubscriber, and »t h reasonable price, 

T i ■ followinjt are among the varieties: Hovoy'g 3ea i in ■. 

nTudson's, ISriii.-li Queen, Bluck Prince, and several other aew 

seodllnas, Also many kinds of Fruit Trees of the best binds, 

ollfoi i Ie low by LAWRENCE LEHE1N, 

-<> Mission Dolores. 



FresH Onion Sued I 

JUST received, per Adams &. Co.'s Expresp, 3 casca Freah 
Onion Seed, for summer planting; also, liur varieties of 
Melon nnd other kinds of seed. 

Orders by Express will meet with prompt attention. All seed 
warranted fresh. For sale by 

BAKER &. HAMILTON, 
4-lm Successors to Warren &. Son. 



Fruit and Ornamental Trees and Plants. 

INCLUDING everything necessary to the Garden, Green 
house, Nursery, nnd Orchard, with all the recent introduc. 
tions, at very low rutes. Descriptive price Cntalogue3 eratie- 
Carriage paid to New York, Ornamental and other planting 
done in any part of the country. Address B. M. WATSON, 
Old Colony Nurseries, Plyomutn, Maes. 
Plants packed for California with extra care. 16 ly 



Strawberry Plants. 

ALPINE Monthly Strawberry Vines, at $4 por dozen; Black 
Prince $4 per doz ; Hovey'e $4 per doz, and Elten $4 per 
doz or $25 per hundred, atrone plants. Plants will be carefully 
packed nnd forwarded according to direction, to parties that 
torwnrd the nmouut of their order to us. Now is the tims. 
Directions for planting with the plants. 
85 WARREN &. SON, Masonic Hull Building. 



The Upland Bell Cranberry. 

WE have just received, per last eteomer, the famed "Upland 
Bell Cranberry," to which we cnll particular nttention ol 
the cultivators of California. They are put up in parcels of 100 
and i!0O, at $10 per hundred. Only a lew nre received, and an 
early cnll only Can secure them. Plenac notice the churaeterot 
them, as described in no article in another part of this ,.nper. 
WARREN & SON, 
23 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street 



Orange, Pig and Pomegranate Trees.. 

JUST received, a lew good sized Orange, Fig nnd Pomegran- 
i. Trees, which we can offer in penect or. in 
'-!6 WARREN &. SON. 



10,000 Prnit Trees. 

WE can offer for anle Fruit Trees of the best kinds at the 
lowest rates. Having tbc agency of the very best nurser- 
ies we nro enabled to miikr. terms for quantities more thai 
ally favorable, 

vVe have an extra lot of 10,000 young Seedling Peach Trees, 
at n very low rate, ready for planting. 

WARREN Si SON, 
20 Miwnnic Hall Building. San Francisco. 



3.-7,000 Cotton Wood Trees. 

FINE Cotton Wood Trees of all sizes, for rate. They will 
be set and warranto! at a tair price. In targe quantities 

thej can be furnished ■) low rates WARREN ft Si i 

20 Masonic Hull Building, San Francisco, 



3,000 Cranberry Vines. 

JUST received per "Sierra Nevada," a splendid asimrtnirnl 
ol fresh Cranberry Vines, in perfect order. For salr by 
WARREN A 
20 -lie Hall Building, San r> \ 



I Imlie 



4 FULL assortment of Freak Is, just receiveu, 

. \ via l~tlanus. 



'it III! 



BRYANT 



I Battery street 



The Pride of tbina. 

WE hnve received this sph . nnd would 

commend It to those who de-i 

lawn or truit yard. WARUKN A 



FLOUKlN<r MILLS. 



I1KNRV TOLLET. 



srni ii. OAarirxo. 



S. NIC I: 

P0LLEY A CO., 
BAY STATE MILLS, 

IV street, between Front and Second. 

1JAY STATE LOWER Mil, is 

Corner of Front and 11 «trt< l«, Snrramr 

Ml Brand of Floor ki 
■ n ahnm t 

at our »l 

and Graham Flou 

Barley, Wheat ami C rn Gnau 



i to, 

rmnxl Burkwhtmt 
it*j Brmn. 
• *t prices, 
der. *3-l 



Happy Valley Flonr Mill*, 

Coma- of F&wt add MeUne etrtett^ San Ireaeucv. 



Encourage Honi Industry and ! 



' Prod action. 



T'O of draler* and coa wu aers of Flow Is respec t - 
i«l r Arocte snanunKturrd si the 

-tabhshment, froen CaJhornh Wheat ol the * r 
1854, MSseted and prepared with the create** rare. TV 
bare been in s a ecawsluJ operation for nearly two years, dorhtf 
which utue the proprioturs bare receirefl nsch saissasctory sa- 
suranees from those who have teated the qaanty • 
that they can confidently le na n u wo d it sa bein> fnlry «, 
any brand in the market. Amon* the asany eTidesKw "ot the 
the Flour maaufacrured by them, the 
proprietors wooM dueet atteabosi to the nbatsaituu eontpb- 
iin'iiii rreeirnl at ttm two but Aiin»al Meesmea of the 0saM 
'■nrouos ka»e been awarded 
r the vaperior speeasseae ol FVar rrosn the>e Mdl*. 
Dome^C Flour -A ea|MSior .mrlr to, rmmity «M. nanv- 
fm ime.1 trum - t»ot 'apply sjwaj* oa 

on band ;<ot of the Proprietors* 35 8ac- 

nunento atresX. 
py A bberal aflowaace mna, 



AGRICULTURAL, &<j. 



Agile nl tnrnl Implementa. 

FRF.NCH Burr Mill Stones, three and four feet diameter 
with all the lions ; 
Smith's Patonl I'l-oiuium Smut. Machines; 
Power and Hand Corn MIIIh ; 
Corn 9beUen ; 
Anchor Brand It dting Cloth ; 
Brass and Iron Wire Cloth ; 
Rover Steel Plowa, Nos. 6 and 7 j 
1'eora " " " 5, 5 Mi and 6; 

Clipper ' 5Mi, 6. 16 and 18 ; 

Trojan and Eagle cast Plows, all sizes ; 
Extra Points for cast Plow* ; 
Straw Cutters nnd Fan Mill? ; 
Thermometer Churns; 
Garden Rakes nod Uoes ; 
Fresh Garden and Field Seeds; 
Garden and Coal Barrows; 
Hand saws, claw hammers, hatched, butcher's saws and 
cleavers, pianos, Ann'.*' long nnd short handled shovels and 
pades, Collins' long bandied axes, picks, mnttocke, hnrrow 
teeth, two and lour horse farm wagons, grub nnd plantation 
hne.-*, auc and* eight Hned manure forks, whiffle tree?, ox yokes 
and chains, Ketcnum's mowing machines, Seymour &. Morgan's 
reiminK machine*. For sale by 

H. McNALLY, 
85 Washington street, between Battery and Front, 
3-1 (Opposite the New Merchant's Exchange.) 



Tlureshers, Separators, and Cleaners. 

PITT'S EIGHT HORSE POWER, cnmpletf , with extraa. 
This machine was made to he exhibitef ^t the Baltimore 
and Richmond Agricultural Fairs, held respectively lor Mary- 
land and Virginia. It in superior In ev^ry respect to any ol the 
sort ever shipped from New York to California, and ia intrinsi 
rnlly worth nearly double that uf any other machine. (Ex 
Golden Fleece.) In addition t j the parts usually sent, there 
ore six wheels — lour for the* eparator, two tor the power, &c. 

Also, EMERY'S Threshers nnd Separators, of Two Horse 
Power. 

We have also on the*Golden Fleece, two of HALL'S (Roch- 
ester,) Latest Improved Threshers, Separators and Cleaners. 
Eight Horse Powers, all complete. 

Also, four ol Hussev's Reapkbs and MowEns, nil combined. 
For sale by COIT & BEALS, 

9 tf 94 Battery street, olfice up stairs. 



Harvesting Implements. 

HARVESTING IMPLEMENTS— 
1 McConnick Reaper; 
2 Hussey's Do. ; 

1 Manny's Do. ; 

2 Burrill's Patent Reapers; 

1, 2, 6 and 8 horse Threshing Machines. 
ALSO— Steam and Water Power Flouring Mills. 
For sole by BRYANT & CO., 

Agricultural Warehouse, 
24-lm Corner of Battery and Richmond streets. 



Fnn Mills! Hay Cutters It 

WE have the very best Fan Mills in the Country, with all the 
new improvements for cleaning periectly, and worthy 
particular attention ol Crnin grow 

The Strew Cutters arc of new pattern, of extra quality and 
workingpower. BAKER &. HAMILTON, 

7 1 1 .1 street, Sacramento l ii 



BAKER i HAMILTON, 

New England Agricultural Warehouse and Seed Store, 

IT J street, Sacramento C 

CI HO ICE FIELD nnd CARPI - In-very 

d the Eastern Sinn 
warranted, always for sale by 

BAKER &. HAMILTON, 
5 Successors to Worsen A .Son. 



tirnas !mc<I. 
BBLS. Herd's Grans, Clover and Red Top, of the very 
Fur sale low, it applied for Immi 
will be promptly atti 
10 GEO. N ft I AW A CO., Battery street Wharf. 



30 



^\ 



cl Win nt lot | 






^ountv, 



per acre 

WADSWORTH & >i 
l.Vlm Broker*. 137 Fi 



>|ili-ndlfl ll> arlntha, Jonqtslla, Vart Imuk, iSu-. 

Lai;i;f. ami bese beauiiful and 

— CsLirOBMA FABMKB" 

Office, opposite ! 
16 WARRkN A 



(i 



Kmtra Samplrt Uraln, Ate. 

RAIN "- in ha»or*tra quality of WHEAT. 

.-ly oale by appll- 
WARRKN m 



_ i l< nlturnl Imjilf inr nt«. 

V-n-nu adapted to the cul- 
tivation ofcrai 

- Battery street. 



Plow Pulnt-. 
LARGE assoruneoi of the vanona makes. For sale by 

v a-rect. 



A 



I 1. 1.1 and ... 
taj fraeml tmonmct* of chaiem qtwlitj. 

BRVaNT * TO, W Butrrj 



AGRi v 
Tor- 

F.KVAM * 



I 

I b 






i ia n.rs-T M 
"I" 1 "> 1 wiitli. .r..l ../-. 



RabbiT Bekiat ud CoMhakaj Bon, of nriow 






I I 



raradokr 

>*u-y .:r~ t. 






If wioii ;•..-.- i . 



: Wkitlll Butorlii 
rpHE 8AS JOAQl'm FLOUR KILLS. BTOCKTOB— Ar. 
X »■ '" cumuli*.! «ad raadj to fiM \ V Mot mi R. ri^ la 
• n v i«.»wi~ Tkf •>■>»» MJHa on ooc Mrpaand kj oaj la 

loo A tloonc B o Mt o. aornMr oH aW *■ a lino aiaalii far 

aW aaaaaartaro o< tar aM Foanij rVaar. aa^ara maaaa, at 
taraaat oat 190 bama> prr day. 

A ana insproof Woraaoaaa far km laaraie of Gram, - 
ataamaMo tar > 

miM to tha fact of ftmeaaaa aeiag am 
dapot far w« okmbt/ of tbc Soatbern Mbmo, aaj taerafara u a Tua 
~ m araaat rroweta lo aais Ibafr (tam aV 



STEAM. Watrr aad Honr Powrra. of rarioa. kuala. 
• o»ar 
1* BRTAJCT * CO. t» lotaary «mat. 



OUR amaiai i mack of w*ram. iwwwajrr, Pt.wovd, 
aad - 1 l i »» 'A .ar. am bam aamtraal by omaalim, fcar a 
Rrcdaf Caaomrr Traar, aod ai of tar moady eaatfy ba d aapr- 

Ory Ubaarratory. U5 Moacroaaary aaar t . 
IU.-Qmn Jrwalry of o 



ORDEItB caaeaam far »> Cfaaa far rmcr 
-mam. Afaa, far array dmr r ial l aa al 

w irr rracmr aankaim! aaaaaar. maaim far 
Faamar. aakaad. 



15 



HOTELS. 



Kaaette House. 

San Francisco 

THIS HOTE1, oilers in I cemi al 

B[8nn FranclroOi vnequalloil by nnj lie I 

ruiitleinon enn bo HccouimouHteiJ with tinglo rouuu.or fnmi- 
Ilea with suitcH of rooms. 

The M..u-e u rntiroly new, built of brick ; all the room, are 
lui-nUhed in a style of comfort hitherto unknown in the Hotel, 
ol California, mid the House ie cojiable of accommodatinr over 
Ire hundreu boardei 22 3m 



Murray's Fifty-cent Western House. 

M" r <i'i'i, "J S, '"" d a,f,i D »lrrrt!t, MARY3V1I.LC. 
1 UKS HOUSE U entirely devoted to the want* of the 
travelling public and to all who will favor u« with acnll, 
entire aatufaction will be given. (17J R. J. MURRAY 



American Hotel 
napa cm ... cAtiromNiA. 

am r-r^n- & W ' ^ cl!Ai '«^», Proprietor.. 
■S OUOl) accomraodationa lor families, and on reasonable 
Jfc, term.. Saddle and buf t T Hiirses kept for hire. Horvea 
kept on board, by the day or week, and well taken care of. ' 2« 



A Valuable Farming and Stock Kanch for Sale, 

M SITUATED in the County of Monterey, about one mile 
from the Mission of San Junn Bautista. Said Ranch consists 
ul about one hundred and fifty ocrea of valuable larminr land, 
runnu.c back to the hills, which nre covered with clover and 
oats. The Ranch and hilla are 1j , . , limbered. Thcroisalso 
a stream ol never lading mountain water, running throuuh the 
ire place. Either for Agricultural purposes or for "Stock 
Raising, this Is certainly one ol the best situations south of Sen 
r rancisco. 
* P" ,ci "Ho "111 be given, it being Government laud.— Price 

P.S. — The improvements upon enid Ranch consists of a toler- 
able good Dwelling House, with lumber sufficient to erect n 

large one ; also about twenty-Hv, r enclosed under a goor 1 

lence. Address, ALEXANDER COOPER, 

' luuu Cautista, Cal. 
Refer to JAMES McMAHON, Esq., San JuBn ■ 

AARON LYONS, E-q., }., . ' 

(i 3in CHAS. G. HARMON, j "'"'"erey City. 



STEAMERS. 



Californ a Steam Navigation Company, 

^ARRAiVt; i U FOR 

E OCTOBER, 

Departure ft im Vallcjo street teharf, at 4 o'clock, P. Af. 

FOU SACRAMENTO. 

Steamer NEW WORLD, Cant. Seymour: 
Steamer ANTELOPE, D. Van Pelt, master; 

Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 
Steamer W. G. HUNT. E. A. Poolo, master' 

.,-, ,,. r- miw l " «, Thursdays and Saturday, 

The W. G. HUNT mil leave am~ ,,' in a. at 

FOR STOCKTON. 

TOUCHIXO AT MARTINEZ, BBIHCU, AND MARSH'S 
I l W1N< 
earner CORNELIA, E. CemcRlln. master: 
mer H. T. CLAY, S. Bnrroll. Masts 

M :i ioesdays and Fridays. 

Steamer ailemcan r..-.. i i ,. ,,,_,, ' 

Steamer SOPHIE, E. C. M. Chadv 

Tuesday i i ', and Saturdays. 

FOR MARYSVILLE. 

■■ J. BRACJDON, Thomas ., —Mondays and 

Thursdays. 
Steamer ELLEN HEN8LEY, E. C. M. Chadwick, master— 
Wt^nesdny. and Satuni 
FOR s CLARA 

i LDALOUPE, 8. Card, imutei ,, 'every 

i u day i laturdai nVi i waarf, at 

I o lot i Ret : alt ■. ng San Jose at 

,, A. M,. Santa Clara3'4, and Alvl I I lot k, A. X. 

FOR C0LTJSI. RED BLUFFS, AND IXTER- 
MKDIATE LANDING 

The.t-^ ..ill leave 

.< Ii Ii.rl.and 

■ : ftiromioe, 






let 



*tr«.:t, t.-twei-i 



i Sacra- 
:: ! Hlunsaud in- 
going, will 
■■■it 9 oik. 
are Secra- 
1 ik, M.; return- 

I'llvery. 

ly at the [ojtany, Jackson 






. CUEKERY, IV. 

20 tf 



SteamlMMit Line of Onmlbu.. .. 

."' having 

't'-rafon- 





the Boats, and I 






earriralof 



■ i'.roadway 
:kiou street, far the same 



n to aay pai 

OAeein Merchant street, Inst 
AdamaA MARTIN T. CHAMI'NET. 

K Prop, 



VA'Inao and I.liianra. 

MEKKER, 
- •-'"«,) 

Ind Do 
Liqiort, bare anw on band, and for ..if,— 
•n r.-k. I> . una t ic Brandy, 
2.VJ M.I. M'.a.«kfat«M. ■ 
» bUs «ry It,. Whisky. 

1W oaaaajlilk easka iae pale PeOroaaa Sraady, 
at) anvettkab casts A Betgaatte da, 

40 car salkth casks B. 

U oasis a jatb casks I do, UN 

a paaaaasoaa para Seoerh Wiasit. 
IS pipes Imperial Eade ai I - . .a 'on. 
100 one^earbta 
ino caskiikaaar-i R..n:.-i Am. aad POrtv, 

saska Taaaaat's da do do, 

W am Bob 

%^a (am Byrn'. CSanrpegae Catar, 
SO aaaksas aVafarark Cmmtaaraa. 
100 baskets faacy IraaaV, atna. aad eaarta. 
Abo— a e- m, i-« nanaral of Syrrjjia, A v-.a tl.. C 
f wkk* will be aokl at am 



Caraars/a'aadamal afrasts, »» ■ m a m , 
W ' woaai iiap a tlM rl aaanaan tbal wa basr apsjaed a 
' 1 sas Laraa mare . i**m». 

Pi MUSI aad ■sraaaaaawm aad a U ■«■«■! 

aaadt of al aramm m ear kaa, aad as prlrm mat -• aaanMUka 
liaat a ' .^d pare, aarkaj rerarrad maal 

*Omm?fS'p»Tyr.'.. , *By m-ms*. +* 




I'IKE lf£DlCINXSt 

LITTLI m COLE. Aftasbeearlee. 
US «l l| i ry atmart, 

r"^a .iS Cammimml araau, 

til ami ari — *~ ' t^aaral 

• ■ •. 

- -am —7 
asaakaf afam 



AT J»jr.'/«»T. 

■ Was 



12 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



iiatltnral Sqrarfntrat. 



California 'Wine. 
We desire to keep before our citizens the im- 
portance of this subject— this truth cannot be 
kept out of sight, that the vine is dying out in. 
the old countries. Every steamer brings us more 
and more confirmation of the statements we have 
made that California is destined to become a great 
vine growing country— it may be " the Vineyard_ 
of the World," 

We most earnestly invoke attention to the 
facts that are constantly being developed touching 
this important matter. We desire to see the 
general prevalence of temperance, morality, and 
universal prosperity, and we feel convinced that 
the extensive cultivation of the Grape and the 
manufacture of pure wine will be the cause of 
the abandonment of dram drinking and the 
closing of those places that -are now the haunts 
of vice, ruin, and degradation. California pos- 
sesses a soil and climate for the growth of the 
Grape equal to any country in the world — and 
we do not hesitate to say, that within ten years, 
cargoes of wine will be frequently shipped from 
the port of San Francisco. 

Cultivators of California ! Plant ynur vine- 
yards. Begin now. Look to the condition and 
prospects of Europe, and learn a lesson. Com- 
mence in season and you will be wise. Whatever 
you do, do well. No better investment can be 
made than Planting a Vineyard. 

The Grape Blight in Europe. 

From numerous sources we learn that there is 
reason to fear an almost total destruction of the 
vineyards throughout the greater part of middle 
and southern Europe. The disease spread over 
the country nearly a month earlier the present 
season than in any former year, and the grapes 
being younger, were less able to resist the attacks. 
A recent correspondent of the Evening Post, 
under date of London, October 31sc, thus writes 
in regard to the cause of the disease : 

The first attack I conceive to have been from 
without, and to have fallen upon the leaves and 
fruit in the form of very minute and (to the 
naked oyo) invisible sporules or seeds, of a pe- 
culiar fungus or mycelium, formerly either un- 
known to, or not noticed by botanists, perhaps 
because its blasting and destructive powers were 
never before called into action. The vine being 
thus covered with these small fungi, the stomata, 
or breathing-holes, which arc the lungs of the 
plant, have sucked in the sporules, which have 
been thus introduced into the sap vessels, and on 
the fall of the sap, in the autumn and winter, 
have with it been carried into the very roots of 
the tree, as well as lodged in the sap vessels of 
the new shoots and old wood. 

The following spring, on the rising of the sap 
—that juice being full of the seeds of the fungi — 
the disease has shown itself in the new shoots 
and in the bloom-heads, and every infected vine 
has, in course, spread ruin around ifin every di- 
rection, the spores or seed-pods ripening rapidly, 
and shedding thousands and millions of sporules, 
which, wafted by every breeze, settle on the neigh- 
boring vines ; those which had escaped the first 
invasion of the disease now becoming its victims. 
Thus from year to year the evil goes on increas- 
ing, until the ruin and destruction become uni- 
versal. The more frequently a vine has under- 
gone the dire and weakening effects of the blight, 
the less capable does it appear of bringing its 
fruit to maturity — indeed, much of the bloom 
never sets. 

After the most laborious experiments and in- 
vestigations, in which I have had the assistance 
of clever and intelligent practical botanists and 
chemists, I cannot refer the first attack to any- 
thing but atmospheric influences and disturban- 
ces, causing an unhealthy state of the vines, thus 
rendering them a fit prey to this fungus, (the 
seeds of which are floating in the air,) unable to 
resist its insiduous attacks. 

It would require that I should write a volume 
rather than a letter, were I to give a complete 
history of my experiments. I see in my brother's 
preseut letter a coufirmation of my own expe- 
riences as to the new shoots and bloom-heads ab- 
solutely bursting forth covered with oidium. and 
as to the unnatural exuberance as well as un- 
timeliness of the shoots, which 1 also attribute to 
the peculiarities of the weather and seasons, and 
consider to be symptoms of the disease — indeed, 
symptoms not only dangerous, but harassing, as 
they tend to mislead — to create false and fleeting 
hopes, which, in a few weeks, must be dispelled 
by a sad reality. 

A young shoot snapped off and exuding a drop 
of sap, that sap, falling on the ground, has been 
found full of the fungi. In order to elucidate my 
ideas of the progress of the disease through the 
shoots, wood, and roots of the vine, I beg leave 
to inclose a plate taken from drawings sent to me 
from Oporto, to which I have the pleasure to refer 
you. 

A very few words will suffice to sum up the 
probable result of the progress of the disease in 
vineyards, unless some effectual and cheap remedy 
should be discovered easily applicable to vines so 
grown, (in hot or greenhouses several remedies 
have proved more or less successful,) or that cer- 
tain atmospheric changes and improvements 



should enable the vines to throw off the disease, 
viz: The quantity of wine produced must go on 
rapidly diminishing every season, and the vine 
must gradually be exterminated. The farmer, 
when he finds himself year by year laboring in 
vain in his vineyard, will root up his vines and 
turn his attention to the cultivation of other 
things, (as is already the case at Madeira,) for he 
will clearly see that while he waite for such a 
change as I have mentioned, his capital will be 
dwindled away, if rich, and if podr, his family 
ruined and starved. 

The blight has now at length attacked Spain, 
and arguing from analogy, its course will no doubt 
be the same. Already has the French govern- 
ment wisely permitted the entry of all wine into 
France duty free ; thus the small stocks of other 
countries will be drawn into France. It is not 
long since a very nice, delicate old wine, or good, 
stout young port wine, could be shipped for .£18 
per pipe on board ; now the same wine could not 
be shipped under £38 to £40 if young, or £50 if 
old. The shipment this year, to the end of Sep- 
tember, is considerably less than in 1853 to the 
samo period. Consumption going on and produc- 
tion diminishing, the result is clear — enormous 
prices, which can awiiy be limited by their rising 
so high as to lessen the consumption very greatly. 
I have the pleasure to draw your attention to 
Mr. H, Harris' prices, assuring you that his stock, 
both at Oporto and here, is of a very superior 
quality, consisting of old wines for bottling, 1847's 
(now very rare to be met with,) 1851's, and a 
variety of other classes of wines. 

There cannot be a stronger proof of the im- 
policy of looking on when wines are rapidly 
rising, and there is no reasonable hope, indeed, 
scarcely a bare possibility, of any decline in price, 
than the fact, that those who have hesitated lor 
the last few months, and now really require a 
supply, will have to pay fully £8 to £10 per pipe 
more, aud my decided opinion is, that prices must 
continue to advance for a long period, even under 
the most favorable circumstances to which the 
most sanguine can look forward. 

Your faithful, humble servants, 

Quarles Harris. 



French Gardening Implements-Stone-Labor. 
I sometimes wonder that anything grows in 
France, the tools used in gardening and in agri- 
culture are so uncouth and imtianciy. The hoc, 
an instrument of constant use, has a handle but 
two feet long, so that the hoer is obliged to bend 
into the very earth, in order to reach the object 
of his care. He thus has his back continually 
horizontal — a position as laborious and painful 
as it is degrading, for it gives to a man the ap- 
pearance of a beast of the field, crawling on all 
fours. The French spade is even worse. The 
handle is straight, like the American hoe; it is 
not furnished with a hand-piece at the end, which 
at home is thought to increase its efficiency two- 
fold. The tool is a monstrous misapplication of 
strength to labor, and, as might be supposed, per- 
forms very small days' work. In fact, the spade 
and the shovel are both one, whereas they ought 
to be as distinct as poker and tongs. The rake, 
au ornamental instrument at best, is furnished 
with nails in the place of teeth ; but as it is often 
double, being a rake on both sides, it is a toler- 
ably vigorous utensil. The water-pot, on the 
other hand, is a superior article. It is constructed 
on mechanical principles. The two handles — the 
carrying and the watering handles — form but one 
handle, passing along the top to the side. The 
gardener thus slides his hand from the one posi- 
tion to the other, and may hold a watering-pot 
in each. The wheelbarrow is an ill-built affair, 
and usually creaks, The mortar used in the con- 
struction of stone walls is the best in the world. 
In two hours it is harder than the stones it ce- 
ments, and never, at any age, does it crumble to 
pieces. It is expensive, and even the wealthiest 
proprietors resort to the following expedient to 
diminish their consumption of it, At every twenty 
feet of the wall to be built, a fragment of it — say 
a portion two feet wide— is made with mortar, 
the rest is cemented with mud — the commonest 
mud, made upon the spot, with any earth that 
happens to be at hand. The whole wall is then 
faced with mortar, thus assuming a similar ap- 
pearance in its whole length. The result is a 
wall that will last for centuries, there being no 
frosts powerful enough to upheave or disjoint it. 
I said the mortar was stronger than the stone. 
No one who has ever seen French building-stone, 
in the neighborhood of Paris, can form even a 
remote idea of what it is. The masons snip it, 
shape it, edge it as if each lump were a pine- 
apple cheese. I have seen the adze penetrate a 
block as it would have penetrated a ripe water- 
melon. This quality, which adds to the facility 
with which it is adapted, is in no way disadvan- 
tageous. The stone will bear any weight, and 
never splits or chips of its own accord. With 
time its color changes from a rich cream color to 
a dingy brown, but a scrape every five years re- 
stores it. Its softness is in fact as great an ad- 
vantage as malleability is to a metal ; for while 
it is as easily fashioned as cheese, it is as durable 
as granite. 

I told you that I once hired an old woman to 
weed a gravel path and strawberry bed. I am 
happy to state that this venerable creature is now 
well provided for. She and her good man are 
engaged as husbandmen upon a neighboring farm. 
They work twelve hours a day, steadily, and she 
performs the same labors, and quito as much 
labor as he. She digs, weeds, plants, "snatches" 
potatoes, trains grape-vines, mounts drays, as- 
cends ladders, gets into trenches, sinks wells, like 
the verist male of them all. I sat the other day 
upon a hay-cock of her making. She is richly 
bronzed, and her limbs — which she exposes with 



an agricultural freedom — are gnarled and knotted 
to a degree quite unusual with her sex. The two 
are boarded and lodged by their employer, and 
the wages they get are proportionately reduced. 
Still, the smallness of the figure will astonish you 
as it did me. They earn, together, $180 a year 
— being thirty cents a day for him, and nineteen 
cents a day for her. They lay by' $100 a-,year, 
and when they are too old to work, will be able 
to keep them out of the poor-house and avoid the 
hospital, even though saddled with sickness in 
addition to poverty. — N. Y. Times. 

Autumn Plowing. 
A correspondent of the New England Farmer 
says: I am surprised at the remarks of our friend 
H. S. Perrin, of Orfordville, N. H., in relation to 
fall plowing. It appears to me that no farmer, 
however inexperienced in cultivating the soil of 
New England, can fail to see that fall or autumn 
plowing is a benefit to the soil. In the first place, 
Mr. P. thinks that one-fifth of the manure applied 
is lost; this I conceive to be an error in which 
many persons indulge, but I cannot for my life 
sec how the fertilizing qualities of the manures 
can escape by the simple process of turning under 
what remains upon the surface, after the crops 
are harvested. I find that lands plowed in the 
fall is not so liable to drought as those plowed in 
the spring. Fall plowing also serves to destroy 
those insects which deposit their eggs in the 
ground, and in the spring rise up by thousands 
and destroy the crops. If Mr. P. will take two 
acres of land, side by side, plow one in the fall 
and the other in the spring, equally manure both, 
I think he will find the result to be in favor of 
fall plowing. 

A Noble Woman. — The following interestin 
history of Miss Florence Nightingale, an English 
lady, who has lately gone out with some forty 
nurses to administer to the comfort and relief of 
the wounded soldiers in the East, is from the 
London Examiner : — 

Miss Nightingale is the youngest daughter and 
presumptive co-heiress ofher father, William Shore 
Nightingale, of Embly-park, Hampshire, and the 
Lea Hurst, Derbyshire. She is, moreover, a young 
lady of singular endowments both natural and 
acquired. In a knowledge of theancient languages 
and of the higher branches of mathematics, in 
general art, science and literature, her attainments 
arc extraordinary. There is scarcely a modern 
language which she does not understand, and she 
speaks French, German, and Italian as fluently as 
her native English. She has visited and studied 
the various nations of Europe, and has ascended 
the Nile to its remotest cataract. 

She has a happy hope, which 6he adorns, and 
why quit all this to be a nurse ? Her sympathy 
with the weak, the oppressed, the destitute, the 
suffering, and the desolate. She was the main 
support of an hospital in London for sick gover- 
nesses, to which she devoted all her time and for- 
tune. While her friends missed her at assem- 
blies, lectures, concerts, exhibitions, and all the 
entertainments for taste and intellect with which 
London in its season abounds, she, whose powers 
could have best appreciated there, was sitting be- 
side the bed and soothing the last complaint of 
some poor, dying, homeless, querulous governess. 
She had taken an interest in all philanthropic 
movements, and has spent six months of her time 
as a nurse for the care and reformation of the lost 
and infirm. 



Flowers and Perfumery. — Some idea of the 
importance of perfumery as an article of com- 
merce may be formed, when it is stated that one 
of the large perfumers of Grassc, in France, cm- 
ploys annually 10,000 lbs. of orange blossoms. 
60,000 lbs. of cassic flowers, 54,000 lbs. of violet 
flowers, 20,000 lbs, of tuberoses, 16,000 lbs, of li- 
lac flowers, besides rosemary, mint, lavender, 
thyme, lemon, orange, and other odorous plants, 
in like proportion. Flowers yield perfumes in 
all climates, but those growing in the warmer la- 
titudes are, it seems, the most prolific in their 
odor, while those from the colder are sweeter. 
Though many of the finest perfumes come from 
the East Indies, Ceylon, Mexico and Peru, the 
south of Europe is, the only real garden of utility 
to the perfumer. Grasse and Nice are the piiu- 
cipal seats of the art. From their geographical 
position, the grower, within comparatively short 
distances, has at command that change of climate 
most applicable to bring to perfection the plants 
required for his trade. On the seacoast his cas- 
sic grows without fear of frost, one night of which 
would destroy all the plants for a season ; while 
nearer the Alps, his violets are found sweeter than 
if grown in the warmer situations where the 
orange tree and mignonette bloom to perfection. 
England, however, can claim the superiority in 
the growth of lavender and pepermint ; the essen- 
tial oils extracted from these plants grown at 
Mitcham, in Surrey, realise eight times the price 
in the market of those produced in France or else- 
where, and are fully worth the difference for deli- 
cacy of odor. 

The Plains of Chaldea. — Layard says that 
these plains produce some of the finest fruits in 
the world. A very delicious peach has lately 
been introduced into England, which has created 
a good deal of excitement among nurserymen. 
The plains, in the spring of the year, aro covered 
with gorgeous flowers. Truffles grow there in 
great abundance, and arc quite extensively used 
as an article of food. 

The hanging gardens of Babylon, Layard says 
were no fiction. He has found pictured rcprcscnta 
tions of them in his researches. 



POULTRY YARD. 

To Make Hens Lay Perpetually. — We find 
the following in an English paper, and transfer it 
to our paper without vouching for its correctness. 

Keep no roosters ; give the hens fresh meat, 
chopped up like sausage meat, once a day — a very 
small portion, say half an ounce a day, to each 
hen — in winter, or from the time insects disap- 
pear in the fall till they appear again in the 
spring. Never allow any eggs to remain in the 
nest for what are called nest eggs. When the 
roosters do not run with the hens and no nest 
eggs are left in the nest, the hens will not cease 
laying after the production of twelve or fifteen 
eggs, as they always do when roosters and nest 
eggs are allowed, but continue laying perpetually. 
If the above plan were generally adopted, eggs 
would be as plenty in winter as in summer. One 
reason why hens do not lay in winleras freely as 
in summer is the want of animal food which they 
get in summer in abundance m the form of in- 
sects. 

New Feed for Sheep. — Whilst I wasat Gene- 
va. I observed every one collecting carefully the 
fruit of the horse-chesnnt, and on inquiry I learnt 
that the butchers and holders of grazing stock 
bought it readily at a certain price per bushel. I 
inquired of my butcher, and he told me it was 
given to those sheep in particular that were fat- 
tening. The horse-chesnuts were well crushed ; 
something in the way, so I understood, that ap- 
ples are, previous to cider being made. They are 
crushed or cut up in a machine kept solely in 
Switzerland for that purpose; then about two 
pounds' weight is given to each sheep, morning 
and evening. It must be portioned out to sheep, 
as too much would disagree with them, being of 
a very heating nature. The butcher told me 
that it gave an excellent rich flavor to the meat. 
The Geneva mutton is noted for being as highly 
flavored as any in England or Wales. — E. D., in 
Agricultural Gazelle. 

Feeding Poultry. — Professor Gregory, of 
Aberdeen, in a letter to a friend, observes : — "As 
1 suppose you keep poultry, I may tell you that 
it has been ascertained that if you mix with their 
food a sufficient quantity of eggshells or chalk, 
which they eat greedily, they will lay twice or 
thrice as many eggs as before. A well-fed fowl 
is disposed to lay a large number of eggs, but 
cannot do so without the materials of the shells, 
however nourishing in other respects her food 
may be ; indeed, a fowl fed on food and water, 
free from carbonate of lime, and not finding any 
in the soil, or in the shape of mortar, which they 
often eat on the walls, would lay no eggs at all 
with the best will in the world." 



Mechanics. — Mechanics are the palace build- 
ers of the world. Not a stick was hewn, not a 
stone is shaped, in the all lordly dwellings of the 
rich, that does not owe its beauty and fitness to 
the mechanic's skill. The spires that rise their 
giddy heights among the clouds, depend upon the 
mechanic's art for strength and symmetry ; the 
thousands of noble ships that cover the seas of 
the world ; the magnificent steamers that plow 
the Northern Lakes and Western Rivers; the 
swift locomotives that traverse through the States 
with the rapidity of lightning, are all the con- 
struction of that noblest of human being — the 
mechanic. 

Not an edifice for devotion, for business, for 
comfort, but beara the impress of their handi- 
work. How exalting is their calling — how noble 
their pursuit— how sublime thoir avocation ! Who 
dares to sneer at such a fraternity of noble, high- 
minded men 1 Who dares to cast odium on such 
an eminent and patriotic race ? Their path is one 
of glory, ambition and honor, and it is their own 
fault if it does not lead them to tho highest fame 
aiid renown. 



Animal Attachment. — The Alabama Senti- 
nel gives the following remarkable instance of 
animal attachment: Our young friend and towns- 
man, Robert M. Waddell, informed us the other 
day of a gather singular instance of an attach- 
ment from a pig to a horse. Mr. Waddell, in- 
formed us that while leaving town and going to 
his work on the Alabama and Mississippi Rivor 
Railroad, that near the edge of a town a pig some 
three or four months old, commenced following 
him on his horse, and continued to do so until he 
arrived at home, some twelve miles from town. 
As he would increase the speed of his horse, so 
would the little squealer increase his speed, and 
when he arrived at the Cahawba River and led 
his horse into the flat, tho little pig boldly charged 
into the flat and took his position between the 
horse's feet. On arriving at home, and placing 
the horse in the stable, nothing would satisfy tho 
pig but he must be admitted into the stable too, 
When he caught his horse and started off again, 
he shut the bars to keep the pig in the lot, but 
that would not do. The little squealer made a 
terrible noise, and nothing short of letting him 
out would do. He again commenced following 
his horse. Wherever the horse goes the pig will 
go ; when the horse stops the pig stops. The pig 
will pay no attention to any other horse, nor even 
to any person. This is the most remarkablo case 
of attachment existing between two animals of so 
distinctive species as is the horse and the hog, 
that we ever heard of, and is an incident well 
worthy the naturalist. Certainly it would be con- 
sidered ominous by some, and were tho attach- 
ment of the pig for Mr. Waddell instead of his 
horse, we predict that it indicated that he was 
not to suffer soon for bacon. 



It is a sage infant who is intimately acquainted 
with his own parental relative. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



13 



istrlliinu. 



EXTRACT PROM "THE ANDES." 

XS UNTCBL13HXD POfX, BV C. W. B. 

NO. IT. 

WmrN first I reached this wond'rous 
Eleration, beyond the height that Humboldt's 
Daring foot e'er clomb, on Chlmborazo, 
Confused, and diizr, on the clouded world 
Beneath, and tho unfathomable hr : 
I gazed, 'till thoughts unutterable, grand 
And glorious, glow'd, star-like, in my heart, 
And linked my exalted soul, with tboea 
s tj a mik nui harmonies, gUked vtaloa 
See., in nature's perfect plan. 
Standing, as now, upon the mightiest 
Monuments, that God has built on earth, 
I think of man — bis destiny, his doom. 
How quick before the breath of Time, his works 
Are scattered — whilst ever, the oft'spring 
Of his busy mind, — striving impotent. 
Against inexorable decay,— become, 
At last, themselves, their own tomb builders — 
Aa central fires, that heap the lavas up, 
Are hid, extineuish'd in tbeir very birth. 
Ala* I in air, the eagle leaves no trace ; 
Nor wounded wave, whore pass'd the vessel's keel ; 
The vapor canvas, where the rainbow bung ; 
And his sbaddows, mirror'd in a brook ; 
Or meteor's senr, upou the brow of night — 
Are emblems all, of vain, and transient man. 

When gazing down these vistas measureless, 

Where twilight dim, is lost in denser gloom, 

Phantasmal worlds, grow from the formless thoughts, 

That o'er me sweep ; and when ebon night reigns, 

And the stars come up, from the depths ol space, 

Revealing, unasked, secrets of their birth, 

And man's — the music of Eternity, 

In broken echoes, trembles thro' the solemn night. 

Forgotten are life's sad realities, 

And the phantoms of unsubstantial dreams, 

Crowd the glimmering visions of the mini 

'Tis here, one feels the vastness of creation : 

The earth seems drifting down a shoreless stream, 

Where other worlds are passing swiftly by, 

And other systems, islands are, resting 

On Die smooth surface of an azure main. 

Here too, one feels inscribed upon the heart 

Anew, the records sages wrote, of Him 

Who launched the bark, and guides its course, and told 

Us of its final wreck. 



The Art of Living with Others. 

The fireside jars, the tea-table tempests, and 
the cvery-day laborings in too many family cir- 
cles, are proofs that the art of living with others 
is imperfectly understood, and still more imper- 
fectly practiced. The evolutions of patience and 
temper, the constant manceuverings of affections 
and jealousy, kindness and coldness, humility 
and pride, in the miniature precincts of a home, 
are worthy to be compared to the best examples 
of military tactics. The heart is ever prone to 
lovo, while the mind continually endeavors to as- 
sert its own supremacy, and domineer over every 
mind with which it is brought into contact. Thus 
arise the thousand differences which disturb the 
peace of families and wreck the highest hopes of 
earth. Jt is idle to argue the possibily of realiz- 
ing a perfectly ideal state of social existence, but 
there is no harm in inquiring whether there arc 
any methods of making the social relations more 
harmonious than now. For some of the thoughts 
here presented, we are indebted to an essay in the 
" Friends in Council," an anonymous volume, pub- 
lished by James Munroe, Boston. 

In the first place, if people are to live happily 
together, they must not fancy that, because they 
arc together, all their lives have been exactly simi- 
lar, and that they are to be of the same mind for 
all the future. We are not to expect a single per- 
son to agree with us in all points, and we must 
not be vexed if we fail to drive our own tastes and 
opinions into those we live with. In order to 
live on intimate terms with any one, we must en- 
tertain a proper respect for him, and be willing in 
some instances to waive our own preferences when 
they conflict with those of our friends. Diver- 
sities, from the nature of mind itself, must arise, 
and wo might as well complain, when gazing 
into the clear evening sky, '' why all 
vf hy not all one star !" as to And fault that every 
mind is not the exact correlate to our own 
ly derived from this general principle are the fol- 
lowing rules : Never interfere unreasonably with 
others ; never ridicule their tastes ; never ques- 
tion and requestion their resolves ; do not indulge 
in perpetual comment on their procec 
set topics of dispute, around which angry ■ 
fester till a rank quarrel breaks out ; and do not 
hold too much to logic and suppose that 
thing is to 1 >y a sufficient reason. Dr. 

Johnson saw this clearly with regard to married 
people, when be said '"wretched would be the pair 
above all names of wretchedness, who should be 
doomed to adjust by reason every morning, all the 
minute details of a domestic day. 

If you would be loved as a companion, ignore 
all unnecessary criticism upon your asso 
The number of those who have taken out i 
patents, is very lai g 

a most prosperous business. But no one chooses 
to live between the glasses of a microscope, even 
though a fool be looking in. Oi 
atious kinds oi , 

ty which com n cvs ■ 
those: " Had I been eons 

ed to me," "yon always would have v our own 
way," -i.. ik' . | rcssioas which 

arc not - : to soothe a pcrt»,r!*i . 

Ano; - • .i !;■ ■ - . f.t 

swallow up courtesy. There is no place where 
real pol 1 1 f more value than where we arc 

apt to regard it superfluous. We ought m 
trifle with th ->. or to on. 



delicate attentions in daily intercourse which we 
lavish upon strangers and thoso whose favor we 
would win. It is proper to speak to our associates 
more plainly, but not less kindly than to strang- 
ei Again, we tnUBt not expect too much frofn 
the society of our friends. They do not live for 
us alone, any more than we do exclusively for 
them, and we cannot command them at all times 
to do our pleasure, Ilazlitt says — " In travelling 
along at night wo catch a glimpse into cheerful 
looking rooms with light blazing in them, and 
we conclude, involuntarily, bow happy the in- 
mates must be ;" but there is no Eden of happi- 
ness in those rooms. VVe have at all times need 
of forgiveness and that charity which covereth a 
multitude of sins. 

Perhaps some objector to the spirit of these com- 
ments may say that some persons have such sour 
tempers and uncontrollable passions, that there is 
no living peacefully with them, But to cut off 
the causes of bad temper, is to make that temper 
what it should be. The lion undisturbed is as 
peaceful as a lamb. The unkindness and fretful- 
ness which arouse anger, aro as reprehensible as 
anger itself, and we questien whether there is not 
more suffering in social life from these provoca- 
tions than from anger itself. Calm self possession 
and a pleasant impassiveness, are sovereign reme- 
dies for irritable dispositions, but when two sen- 
sitive persons are shut up together, and go on 
vexing each other with a reproductive instabili- 
ty, there is no end to unrest and misery. 

A golden maxim in this golden art is that 
friends and relations should be careful when they 
go out into the world, or admit others into their 
own circle, they do not expose to the disadvan- 
tage of each other the faults of which they have 
gained a knowledge in intimacy. Nothing is 
more common than this, and whether it proceeds 
from carelessness or maliciousness, it is alike un- 
generous and unpardonable. The weakness of a 
person ought never to be learned from his bosom 
friends. We should shield them from the public 
view as religiously as we hide our own. 

We might go on citing little rules and precau- 
tions without number, but if the great principle 
of love and good will to all mankind were the 
ruling power in life, all these would be needless. 
To live happily with others we must first learn 
to live happy with ourselves. lie who rules his 
own spirit well, can so adapt himself to the shifting 
phases in the life of his friends as never to be 
drawn into harshness, never to do violence to the 
feelings or tastes of those who are bound to him 
by the sacred ties of friendship and love. 

The great law of social life is " Do unto others 
as you would they should do to you." Study in 
all things to conciliate, and cherish continually 
that charity and forgiving spirit which you would 
have exercised toward you. Cheerfully acknowl- 
edge merit in others, and in turn you will al- 
ways receive that kind consideration which you 
desire. When you cannot consistently praise, by 
all means remain silent, unless there be a mani- 
fest wrong, deserving censure. 

As a general rule it will be found that our 
greatest sources of unhappincss are within our- 
selves, and if wo fail to live harmoniously with 
Others n shall act more wisely to set about 
rccting our own faults than to pick flaws in their 
character. Make the fountain pure and the stream 
will ilow clearly along, even though it tnusl 
dark forests, lonely chasms, and rough shores. 



Hard Work. 
Mr. A. — 1; Good morning, Mr. B.; I called to 
if you wanted a clerk. I should like to 
put my son into your store for a while." 

Mr. H. — " Indeed, I thought you needed him on 
your farm." 

" So I do need him — but I don't want my chil- 
dren to have to work as hard as I have to 
gin; and delving. I tell you it's too hat 
[airly worn all out." 

'• Ah ! but you look more hale and hearty than 
the most of us. and yet you must be quite as old." 
v I itn turned of 70. Hut I grow lame 
I'. and its alt from hard work."' 

1 I am but till, and my part- 
still — vet see our prav I 
"W -about that, 

But do vou want mv b 
sir." 

" Because you want to put him here to live 
eaty, and he'll be good for nothing, as clerk or 
merchant either, in that way. We mcr 
i work hard if we would gain ant ll 
and we have to work a great many more hours 
ar than you do." 
as, yea, more hours perhaps— but the work 
isn't half so hard. Here you arc in a cool room 
in summer and a warm one in winter, we are ex- 
> heat and cold, wet and 
•■ I know it look - But now do yon 

go into a room and spend all one long day walk- 
to side, dodging this way and 
that, and see if long before night you do not 
to get out of your prison; see if you are 
red enough before supper time to be glad to 
mi in the evening with your family and 
newspaper. But no. you must go back to 
toot prison, and d- imp all the evening 

harder than i when bed-time comes, 

you auat port books." 

it all on your side. But suppose it 



quit work and tried to bo a gentleman, and no 
wonder he smashed — it was good enough for him 
— ho might have kept to work like other folks.' " 

'• I know such things were said, but we did'nt 
know you heard of them ! But now just look at 
the poor farmer's crops this season— half dried 
up. Just think ot such losses after all our 
labor." 

'■ Yes, and the day laborers too, who are out of 
employment in consequence of the unfavorable 
season, will all fall upon me to knock off 'just a 
little of their store accounts, because everything 
they buy of the farmer comes so high '—and I 
must do it too, or be ' such a stingy tight Jew 
they'll never go there to trade again,' to say no- 
thing of those that go off without paying at all." 

" Well, I suppose merchants do have losses as 
well as farmers. But it seems as if you did'nt 
have half so many vexations — showers coming 
up — tools breaking— cattle in the corn, and what 
not." 

" Vexations ! You know nothing about it. 
Come here and wait upon ungoverned children — 
try to satisfy an old wo nan that a ten cent calico 
won't fade —lower the price of a pair of shoes or 
a plug of tobacco to suit an Irishman — find some- 
thing nice enough for a fashionable young lady — 
grave enough for a qualcer— ^ay enough for a 
darkec— stylish enough for a dandy — and can't 
suit one of them till they have 'looked some- 
where else ' — and you may fold up and pile up 
your goods to be ready for the next unsatisfyable 
set. Mr. B., you know nothing about vexations. 
No wonder we grow bald and grey before our 
time." 

'• And so you are sure merchants have the hard- 
est of it. But I don't know what to do with my 
boy. He thinks farming to hard, and he don't 
like to go to a trade— feels — well, I don't know." 

" / know, my friend. You have taught him to 
feel that a trade is too low, and farming too hard, 
and now he is half spoilt for being successful in 
anything." 

"I wish I could get him into a bank with a 
salary — he'd like that. I tried hard for it last 
week ; but they ask such an awful sum for bonds; 
I don't see what that's for." 

" Mr. B., you sometimes pray for yourself and 
your children, 'Lead us not into temptation' — but 
here you are, trying to get your only son into a 
situation where the temptations and the facilities 

fur rlLshoneety aro uo groat tliut those best ac- 
quainted with the business find it necessary to 
put every one under heavy bonds before he can 
lie trusted with it. Now, my good friend, take 
my advice and keep your son with you. He need 
not 'dig and delve ' as hard as yon say you have 
done, and make such haste to be rich, for you 
have made a large property ; but learn him to 
work reasonably and take the comfort of it as he 
ilong; not put off enjoying it till old age. 
That is the secret of happiness. 'A little with 
/went is great gain ; ' just as good as great 
wealth."— PiU 



i'liuif'j' Drpartinrnt. 



her bracelets, "0, it don't signify, i 
patience with him, he's so tiresomo w 
tions. I've bought him heaps of toys 
wants to play, and is forever asking old 

fashioned questions. Keep him am 
when you liko, but take my word for it, you'll re- 
pent your bargain 1" and she tripped gaily down 
to dinner. Poor little Charlie ! Time in plenty 
to adjust all those silken ringlets; time to em- 
broider all those little gay dresses; time to linger 
till midnight over the last new novel ; but for the 
soul that looked forth from those deep blue eyes, 
no time to sow the good seed — no time to watch 
lest the enemy should " sow tares." 

From that time Charlie and I were inseparable. 
The thoughtless mother, well content to pass her 
time devouring all sorts of trashy literature, or in 
idle gossip with her drawing room companions. 
The young father, weary with business troubles, 
eontenting himself with a quiet " good night " and 
closing the day by a visit to the theatre or con- 
cert-room. Poor Charlie, meanwhile, put to bed 
for safe keeping, would lie hours, tojsing restless, 
from side to side, " with nothing but his head," as 
he innocently said to me. What a joy to sit by 
his side, and beguile the lonely hours ! There I 
learned to understand our Saviour's words " For 
of such is the kingdom of heaven." In his clear, 
silvery tones, he would repeat after me, "Our 
Father," asking me the meaning of every petition; 
then he would say " Why don't you tell Lizzie ? 
Lizzie don't know any prayers 1" 

One night I sang him these lines — 
" Sweet fields beyond the swelling flood, 
Stand dressed in living green :" 

he raised himself in bed, while the tears trembled 
on his long lashes, and said, •' 0, sing that again 
— it seems as though I saw a beautiful picture ! " 
Then, taking my guitar, I would sit by his bed- 
side, and watch the blue eyes droop and grow 
heavy with slumber, as I sang him to sleep. And 
she, whose duty, joy and pride it should have 
been to lead those little feet to Him who biddeth 
" little children come." was indolently and con- 
tentedly bound in flowery feathers of her own 
weaving, unmindful that an angel's destiny was 
entrusted to her keeping. ****** 

Little Charlie lay tossing in his little bed, with 
a high fever. It is needless to tell of the hold lie 
had upon my heart and services. His childish 
mother, either unable or unwilling to sec his 
danger, had left me in charge of him — drawn from 
his skic by tho attractions of a great military ball. 
I changed his heated pillows, gave him tho cool- 
ing drink ; bathed his feverish temples, and linal- 
ly, at his request, rocked him gently to quiet his 
restlessness. He placed his little arms carelessly 
about my neck, and said meekly " sing to me of 
heaven." When I finished, ho looked languidly 
up.saying. "Where's Lizzie 1 I must kiss Lizzie!" 
and as the words died upon his lips his eyes 
drooped, his heart fluttered like a prisoned bird, 
and little Charlie was counted one of the heaven- 
ly fold. As I closed his eyes, and crossed the 
dimpled hands peacefully upon his little breast, 
-t words rang fearfully in mycars — "Where's 
Lizzie ?" 



The Kitchen. 
We give to intellect, to morality, to religion, 
and to all the virtues, the honor that belongs to 
them. And still, it may be boldly affirmed, that 
economy, taste, skill and neatness, in the kitchen, 
have a great deal to do in making life happy and 
is it indtspei 'ssary 

that a house should be filled with luxuries. All 
the qualifications for good house-keeping can be 
displayed as well on a small scale as on a large 
one. A small house can be more easily kept 
clean, than a palace. Economy is most needed in 
the absence of an abundance. Taste is as well 



Little Charlie. 
W« pick up the following reproof to careless 
mothers, from fanny Fern. It is one of the 
most touching loaves that has dropped from her 
pen: — 

I am oue of that persecuted class, denominated 

it the world, 
. taking caro not to jostle my neighbors, or bit 
t any of their rough angles, 1 manage to be 
tented and happy. In my multitu- 
i some opportunity 
man nature. Lately. I have become 
inmate of a < ayed in placing the dishes on a pine table, as 

My little room has already begun to look quite ' in arranging the folds of a damask curtain. And 
home ; iiad expanded the; skillful cooking isas readily discovered in a nicely 

fragrau' II to nurture ; my ; baked potato, or in a respectable johnny-cake, as 

canary ■ gayer song than in a nut-brown sir-loin, or a brace of canvass- 

ever; and in;. i"Hjks and guitar, drive . back. The charm of good house-keeping is in 

"dull care away," and beguile many a pleasant onomy, and taste displayed in atten- 

hour. And now, my heart has found a new ob- ; lion to little thing " little things have 

ject of inter, need on the stair case, ; a wonderful influence. A dirty kitchen, and bad 

and in the hall and lobby, a lovely child, who cooking have driven many a one from home, to 
seemed wandering about at his own sweet will ; ' seek for comfort and happiness somewhere else. 
sometimes sitting wearily on the stairs, almost Domestic economy is a Science — a theory of life, 

loor, watch-! which all sensible women ought to study, and 
. ing the operations of the cook ; then peeping in practice. None of our excellent girls are fit to be 

married, until they are thoroughly educated in 

» rule of 'he bou- the deep, and profound mysU: kitchen. 

at the table" it was some time b» to it, all ye who are m yourdaught- 

could ascertain who claimed lhi.4 little s'.rav waif ers are all •'accon.. nmental 

One morning attracted by the carol of my canary, knowledge of good house-kee] 



To Bo 



he ventured bo rnrt bis little curly bead Ironic my 

door, ne needed little urging to enter, for he 

read with a child's quick instinct, his welcome in ' ***** <* ' h T P™ 

my &ce. An animated conversation soon ensued t^arlS U"^" 

about birds, flowers, and pictures — his large ' "* clr * T , 

eyes growing bright, and his cheek flushed 

plea.- r I* he cat on 

my knee. At length I said 

won't mammabeanxioosaboetyou. if vooway so 

zxie don't care." 

y mamma ! She don't care if IV 
only out of the 
dress." said he. bold inc 



sreublc 



v in you can. I thought 

i do once, and tried it, I thought I could 
onfinemeut and labor, and only oter- 
ier. But this did not give me ease or lersu- 
I got a bead clerk and ' retired.' as you call — and 
was the resu 
m and everybody <:-» say 1 Wh. 



and we 
very go 

nner bell s ound ing , a gaily dressed 
thing voerferetrd in a tone 



u may 

rill be 



kernel will then have a pear 

be pot into boiling water 

has been thrown, and allowed to boil fifteen or 

seventeen minutes. The water should than be 

drained off— and the kettle «et 1., 

lent beat of the fire — when it has steam 

-rb-rtly 

IMt will 

las* a* 

I* U.' ~l in 

f • " - oi 

lurnMnw; ■ ■■<•» %em>h* mcoa- 

a* 1 1 • m . *. that «J n»o«t e* cry U ■ i y la ' i . ■ i r •■ : n t . • n t 



made me this pretty ' * oft \ * T T7. .*T T" ■!?£ 
■ up hi. mwtty ambrSfer-i '*- * '^TS^JH^S 
on't knoVanr stones, and , »—"* T—»- A pmt a/ new may 



i rwtd young 

autOiiD* botttiusira. 
en I . 
she mud. care)* a. 



» Poverty i 
she rearrammd'awSs •* the wmsWw. 



•eaps 



10 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



sacredly devoted to your interests; and it 
ir interest to sustain it. It is the me- 
»ugh which much valuable information 
micated toyou. Your families are bene- 
fitted i a perusal of it, and your actual profits 
are enhanced by its influence. It is not the in 
strument of the petty demagogue, nor the organ 
of the unprincipled politician. It does not come 
to you and yours, loaded with moral contamina- 
tion, or redolent with the odor of sleek-faced 
villany. It is the fanner's paper, and you ought 
to write for it. 

Write for your own paper — Because, if others 
contribute their thoughts for your benefit, you 
ought so far to observe the golden rule as to do 
the same for them. As the saying is, "you are 
nobody's fool." You cau write, if you try. Or 
if you are not qualified to do it, now is the time 
to begin. You can tell neighbor Jenkins how 
you contrived to raise a fine crop ol corn, not- 
withstanding the drouth ; or how you fixed your 
barn and stables, to make them' so snug and com- 
fortable. Why not tell ten or twenty thousand 
Jenkinses all about it? They will do you as 
good a turn. 

Write for your own paper — Because, by doing 
so, you will assist in the work of enlightening 
the minds of your fellow-laborers, and raise your- 
self to the high position which God and Nature 
designed you to occupy. If you would be re- 
spected and honored, by your fellow-men, you 
must qualify yourself for extensive usefulness. 
By listening to these suggestions, you will throw 
into a common fund a vast amount of useful 
knowledge ; and in the very act of doing it, you 
will become better and better qualified, to dis- 
charge the weightier obligations of men, and citi- 
zens of a free and progressive country. Here is 
a school for mutual improvement, where all may 
become at once, both teachers and pupils. 

We shall continue to indulge the hope, that our 
new volume, which commenced on the first of 
January, will be greatly enriched by the contri- 
butions of a host of intelligent correspondents. 
Such favors, with those already engaged, will 
render the Farmer a Model Paper. This will 
not only afford the proprietor a great deal of sat- 
isfaction, and encouragement, but will doubtless 
gratify and please the thousands of its readers. 
As the spirit saith unto the churches — " Write. ' : 



%\t California .farmer. 



WABREN k SON, EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS. 



SAN KBANCISCO, THURSDAY, JANUARY 11, 1855 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

REDUCTION OFPRiOB 

The heavy losses upon tbe Farming interests of the State 
the post rear, the general depression ot that interest, and the 
discouragements resulting to all, we know have prevented 
many who are engaged in Agriculture from subscribing to our 
journal the past year. FccliDg desirous to meet their wonts as 
far aa is in our power, we now oner the CALIFORNIA FAR- 
MER at SIX DOLLARS PER YEAR, PAYABLE ALWAYS 
IN ADVANCE, 

We mist this effort on our part to meet such circurrstances 
will be met ou tbe part ot those engaged in the cultivation of 
the soil with a corresponding feeling, and that all will do us 
sen-ice by sending iua goodly list of subscribera and the amount 
for tbe same. We have made the price thus LOW, that our 
subscribers and friends may at once send us the proof of their 
good will. 

With this issue we publish three thousand copies, and 
trust tbe FARMER will find a welcome reception. Induce- 
ments for the formation of clubs will be found under the proper 



Clubs Formed— Premiums to Subscribers. 

With the third volume, with tbe opening year, we would 
offer to our friends stronger inducements than heretofore to 
make up CLUBS for the FARMER. It will be seen by our 
"special notice," that we shall commence with a reduction of 
the price of the " Farmer." The price will now be six dol- 
lars per year, always in advance. No subscriptions re 
eeired unless accompanied by the amount. 

To those who are disposed to form CLUBS, when we can 
send all to one addrar, wo shall send SIX COPIES for FIVE 
NAMES, TWELVE for TEN, and TWENTYFIVE COPIES 
for the names and amount of twenty subscriptions. 

To those, or any of our friends who will interest themselves, 
we believe this will be some satisfaction, besides promoting the 
cause of Agriculture We hope to tee good results to all from 
this proposition. 

TO AGENTS. 

We would ask of our Agents to whom we send the CALL 
FORNIA FARMER, to communicate with us and to remit full 
accounts to the close of the year. We shall send them extra 
numbers for distribution. We call their attention to the Re- 
duction m price of our journal ; this we hope will give satis- 
faction to all, so as to enable our agents to enlarge our lists, 
and also afford an increased reward to them. 

We can offer inducements to Agents in all the large cities as 
Carriers, and to Booksellers and Newspaper Stores also, for 
Papers in quantities. 

THE CALIFORNIA PARMER. 

We have many inquiries, daily, from our friends in the coun- 
try, who write us, desirous to make up clubs for tbe Farmer, 
and send us produce for the amount Wo always do our ut- 
most to facilitate the cultivator of the soil, and we will assure 
our friends that if they will make up clubs of five, ten or 
twenty, they can send their Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, or speci- 
mens of extra quality, end we will allow them tbe full market 
price in the payment of the Farmer. Our friends that arc in 
arrears can send ns the amount thus due, and add the coming 
volume, and we will forward receipts for the same. So send 
a'ong your wheat and good products. We do not mean — any- 
thing — but those articles that have a value, and we will take 
them. 



SPECIAL AGENTS FOR THE FARMER, Ac. 

All the messengers of Adams &. Co., and Wells, Fargo it. Co. 
are duly authorized by us to receive subscriptions for tbe Cali- 
fornia Farmer, and receipt the same ; also, to receive orders 
for Fruit Trees, Seeds, ice, and any and all business with us. 
All such business committed to either of these messengers will 
be promptly responded to by us. WARREN & SON, 

OAKLAND. 

Our friends at Oakland are invited to call on MR. CHARLES 
STEWART, and subscribe for the California Farmer ; he 
is luthorized to receive subscriptions and we will cheerfully 
al I the farmer in his employment, Wo arc willing to receive 
W\ta% Rvr, Of , A;c., or any valuable products of first quality 
in payment, as v. e do wish our friends to enjoy our sheet, and 
conveniently to 



THE PRESENT LEGISLATURE. 

The present session of our Legislature will be 
one of great importance to our State, and of more 
moment to our people than any preceding one. 
Our citizens, the whole people, are alive to the 
importance of immediate action upon all matters 
that affect the public interest. 

The great Pacific Eailroad; the great Wagon 
Road over the Plains ; Birches Stage Route for 
the conveyance of passengers from Salt Lake ; 
Adams & Co.'s new express route ; the line of 
Telegraph from New York to San Francisco ; new 
steamers ; new mail facilities — all these are evi- 
dences that the people are waking up to a realiz- 
ing sense of the importance of some immediate 
and positive action for the welfare of California. 
The many questions of minor importance must be 
laid aside for those that affect the present pros- 
perity of California. And it is not the great 
questions alone that are now being presented ; 
there are others, though not so prominent, yet of 
importance enough to affect the prosperity of 
thousands, that now present themselves. They 
spring up before us, all over our State, like the 
boulders of quartz rock, and to many may appear 
as valueless, who know them not, or know not 
the value they contain ; but they will be found to 
contain within them much of the "pure gold," 
only requiring to bo brought to the action of the 
light of scientific and truthful mind, and there 
will be found in many of these subjects, exhaust- 
less wealth, whose influence is as boundless as 
any of those other themes that now engross the 
public mind, and to which we allude in the open- 
ing of this subject. 
The particular subjects to which we now alludeare 
those matters that affect the Agrin.nl turcl districts, 
and interests which are connected with the thous- 
ands of families who have established themselves 
in our State, and have become its permanent citi- 
zens. To these we would call the particular at- 
tention of our legislators. 

That the Agriculture of California is of vast im- 
portance to this Slate, all must readily admit ; 
and that the great number of people now engaged 
in it should have a due portion of the attention of 
legislative thought, will be readily yielded ; and 
we believe that there are the present year, in 
both houses, those who see the necessity of giving 
this "right arm of the State" a just portion of 
regard. At the present moment those engaged 
in Agricultural pursuits are laboring under great 
embarrassments ; many of them by reason of 
circumstances over which they had no control ; 
others for want of a just and true conception of 
the business in which they were engaged, and all 
for want of a proper co-operation, and concert of 
action and knowledge of what was most needed 
to make so grand an enterprise prosperous. 

What is needed now by those who have all at 
stake, is that protection and encouragement from 
tbe State, so absolutely necessary to save them 
from further danger and loss ; such laws as shall 
'protect," such "bounties" as shall encourage 
Wild beasts destroy tho labcrs of thousands, and 
reckless and lawless men destroy much more. 
Millions of acres of wild lands, besides our vast 
tulc lands, remain uncultivated for want of that 
encouragement which should be given, and which 
could be made a source of wealth to our State. 
Laws relating to enclosures, stray cattle, settle- 
ment of lands, security of title's, and many other 
important themes, to which it is not necessary 
for us to revert, but which the wisdom of our 
legislators make them the better judges. 

Thousands of our best and most worthy citizens 
of this State, those who have permanent homes, arc 
now in deep anxiety, pondering upon the future, 
and they turn to the action of the Legislature for 
relief from some of the difficulties which surround 
them. We trust they will not look in vain. Most 
earnestly would we commend this great interest 
to the consideration of the legislators of Califor- 
nia. We shall from time to time make it our 
special duty to lay before them, through the col- 
umns of our journal, the thoughts and wishes of 
those who are identified with the Agriculture of 
our State, and we now particularly desire of each 
and all to make known their wishes upon the 
most important matters and we will communicate 
them. 

Profitable Season. — The Calaveras Chronicle 
says that the Filibuster Mining Company, at the 
close of the season, find that they have cleared 
$22,500 out of their claim in the Moquelumne 
river. 



Agriculture vs. Railroads. 

We have received from I. C. Woods, Esq., 
copies of the Chief Engineer's Report of the Pa- 
cific and Atlantic Railroad Coinpaliy — or more 
directly the San Jose Railroad Company. This 
Report should be in the hands of all our citizens 
and should be carefully preserved by all, for it 
will most materially affect the interests of all. 

All " Internal Improvements," railroads, river 
steamers, sailing vessels, stages, expresses, all 
means of communication with the interior of a 
State, all means of bringing the products of the 
soil from the extremctics of a State to the seaport, 
and of conveying the manufactures and the com- 
mercial products of the metropolis to the interior, 
in return, must ever tend to the general prosper- 
ity of the people of that State. It needs no ar- 
gument from us to prove this, for all the facts of 
the past — the history of railroads prove it, in 
almost every instance ; and they prove this also, 
that however much other interests are affected, 
no interest in the country is so much or so di- 
rectly affected, and that too prosperously, as that 
of Agriculture. 

The pamphlet before us is full of important 
data, and is worthy an attentive perusal. The 
establishment of such a railroad would enhance 
the value of real estate, call into market thou- 
sands of acres of land now waste, increase the 
products of the soil by an increase of cultivation, 
and yet at the same time it would increase the 
price of every article produced. Railroads and all 
other Ticans of improvement and intercourse tend 
as surely to a healthy action, as the flowing of 
the blood in the veins of the body ; the centre 
(the heart) sends the blood coursing through all 
the system, imparting health and strength — so 
these means of communication between city and 
county. We hope no impediment will interfere 
to interrupt its commencement and speedy com- 
pletion. We feel confident that tens of thousands 
of acres of now uncultivated and waste land will 
be brought into market and made a source of 
wealth and prosperity to our citizens and to the 
State. Besides the impetus it will give to labor, 
it will increase the value of the products of the 
soil, as well as the soil itself, and no class of our 
citizens will be more benefitted by the railroad 
than the farmers of tho valleys connected along 
the entire route. 

The Agricultural interest will be benefitted 
by internal improvements, and we trust our far- 
mers will bear this in mind ; and those who may 
be so fortunate as to have escaped the disasters 
of the past year, and have means, can have no 
safer investment than this railroad, nor a way in 
which a greater return can be had for the amount 
invested. We believe it will pay a greater per 
cent, than any railroad in our country. 

Commence with the Tear. 

Those who intend to engage in the cultivation 
of the soil, most surely should be desirous of 
making themselves acquainted with the leading 
features of a business that so materially affects 
their prosperity. 

The California Farmer will present, from 
week to week, matters of importance to every 
cultivator of the State. It will contain the prac- 
tical results of some of our best farmers, and their 
suggestions ; also, the seasons of planting, the con- 
dition and success of crops, with all important 
matters of interest, abroad and at home. 

We trust ever}' one of our subscribers will feel 
so deep and true an interest in tho cause as to 
prompt them to remember how important it is to 
Agriculture to aid tho publication of a journal 
devoted to their interests, and we hope no other 
word need come from us to induce those indebted 
to us to remit at once, and also to remit for the 
new year, and to induce their friends to do the 
same. We wish all to understand that we can- 
not send our paper, unless we have pay in ad- 
vance — for this reason, we have reduced the price. 
We therefore hope our wishes will bo complied 
with at once, and that our friends will commence 
with the new year. 

Our Paper Abroad. — Believing our paper 
will convey very important intellingence upon 
local matters and such as will interest those con- 
nected with California, we invite those who wish 
to have our paper forwarded to their friends upon 
the coast, or in the Atlantic States, to send us six 
dollars and it will be mailed to each address they 
shall direct. Messrs. Adams & Co, and Wells, 
Fargo & Co. will receive subscriptions at any of 
their offices and forward to us. 



Snow. — There is a deep snow lying on the 
mountains in Sierra county. Several men have 
been severely frost-bitten, and it is supposed that 
one roan froze to death. 



r For the California Farmer., 

Moral Bearings of Agriculture. 

Messrs. Editor.;: Some one of your corres- 
pondents, a few weeks since, wrote a short article 
upon the moral bearings of Agriculture. He 
seemed to me to have given only an introductory 
and I have been anxiously looking for him to 
pursue the subject. But he is so slow in his 
movements and it is so uncertain whether his de- 
sign would cover all the ground, I venture, even 
at the risk of being regarded as an intruder, to 
express a thought or two upon one branch of hit; 
subject. 

The whole civilized world acknowledges tho 
■' dignity of labor " and accords to the cultivator 
of the soil a place second in rank to no other. 
He who cultivates the soil comes so near direct 
and personal co-operation with Nature's God, that 
the thought of wrong from him, or an immoral 
act in his life can scarcely be entertained. And 
yet I fear that recent developments indicate a 
want of clear conception of moral right, on the 
part of some members of the honorable profes- 
sion of which I am now writing. 

The cultivation of grains and grasses for ordi- 
nary consumption, the growing of fruit trees for 
market or fruits for the table, or the culture of 
flowers, to refine our better nature, each has a 
proper rank assigned it, and all should be above 
conflict with that moral law which demands 
such treatment to the neighbor as would be de- 
sired from him. Now we wish to propound a 
few questions to certain gentlemen of this profes- 
sion, who we fear have not given some of their 
recent acts due premeditation. 

First. Suppose, gentlemen, (for you will know 
yourselves without being named.) you had come 
to this State to live, and were attempting, with 
limited means, to sustain your family by culti- 
vating a small piece of ground, in nursery ; and 
after some two or three years of toil and priva- 
tion, you had just matured your first growth suf- 
ficiently for the market, and upon their sale, at a 
fair price, were depending the discharge of indebt- 
edness already incurred for the sustenance of your 
family, as well as means to procure food for them 
in the future, and to prosecute your legitimate 
and honorable business. But just at this mo- 
ment, a man of your own business, worth his 
tens of thousands and able from his ample purse 
and broad acres to flood his own market, comes 
from a different portion of the State, with " an 
immense stock " aud advertises " theirs* sale of 
the season " — " the largest sale of the season," 
—"the third semi-monthly sale," Ac. 4c.; and 
then and there throws upon the market a large 
lot of trash, (such as would ruin the credit of any 
regular nurseryman in a few years,) and sells it 
at prices at which you cannot afford. Would 
you think that man morally rightl 

Second. Is it right for you gentlemen, to send 
your flaming handbills, your immense, gilded 
card-boards, and your enticing advertisements 
all through the country, announcing, " Apples, 50 
varieties; Peach, 15 ; Pear, 20; Cherry, 12; Plum, 
C; Grape, 14," thus calling farmers from their 
homes. 5, 10, or 20 miles distant, to your sale, 
and then present them with less than a tithe of 
what you promised them ? 

Third. Is it right for you to bring trees into 
auction here, from which you have taken so many 
roots (for grafting) that you know (if you under- 
stand your business) they are ruined, for at least 
one whole year, and then as you hold them tip, 
under the auctioneer's exciting hammer, declare 
"they will bear you fruit this very year," when 
if they live at all it will take them a whole year 
to recover from the shock received by the loss of 
their roots? 

But wo pauae for a reply before propounding a 
few more questions. We do not ask you whether- 
this course is your "lawful right," or whether 
" it is tho way others do," or whether you will 
continue it; — you are in a business which has to 
do with moral right, — with the prosperity or ad- 
versity of your neighbor. Is it right (or you thus 
to proceed, in order to "close out" (with a few 
extra thousands) "and go home in the spring"? 

Is IT MORALLY RIGHT? 

Yours very truly, Golden Role. 

Sacramento, Jan., 1855. 

Note. — The abovo communication wo have re- 
ceived from the highest authority ; it comes from 
our sister city, and treats upon a subject of great 
moment to all who arc engaged in the legitimate 
business of nurserymen, We arc very glad to 
receive the communication from such a source. 
We have often heard severe complaints of these 
trash sales, from not only thoso engaged in tho 
business, but from those who come from a dis- 
tance as purchasers, and many who buy have 
after reflection confessed the folly of their pur- 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



n 



chases. We »re aware that all such sales very 
seriously injure all regular trade. It seriously 
injures the purchasers also, for no purchaser ever 
commenced buying who did not increase his pur- 
chases beyond his intentions, and buy much that 



ley, (where extensive legislative powers reside in 
separate towns, which enables each to adept such 
egulations as best comport with their own in- 
terests.) no animals arc permitted to go on to the 
field until autumn, and the crops aro required to 



he did not intend to and did not need — they will ; bo removed at a designated time, when each oc- 
always buy lots for the sake of petting one or tiro cupant is at liberty to turn on to tho common 
of a variety they desire, and such lots arc gener- premises, a number of cattle proportionate to his 
ally intentionally arranged of two or three good standing forage, which is accurately ascertained 
with three times the number of worthless; and by a supervisory board." 

thus hundreds of lots are forced off, involving Would not such a plan suit portions of this 
the purchaser in tho cost of tho trees and the cost ] State ? I hope the legislature will consider the 
of setting them out.- the majority of which are ! question. Such a law would do no harm ; if tho 



not worth tho setting, and can never result in any 
thing but loss- and disappointment. Such pur- 
chasers will have their own way and must learn 
by experience. In our intercourse with such we 
have ever found they did not wish any advice, 
for "they always know best," and they never 
found they were mistaken until it was too late to 
rectify the error. 

We do not see as there is any way to rectify 
the difficulty complained of. We have ''licensed 
auctioneers," they want business and will sell all 
that is given to sell, for they want their commis- 
sions— and we don't blame them. And the seller 
— well, we cannot say we blame him either, for 
if he has got a " lot of trash on hand, that no- 
body will buy at private tale," and ho is pushed 
for money, the man should sell it at auction! and 
it is to be expected that the poorer it is the more 
it should bo trumpeted. " Good articles praise 
themselves." We think a great portion of the 
blame that is attached to such sales and the in- 
jury that arises from them, is to be layed directly 
to the account of those who attend and counten- 
ance such sales, for as the old adage has it, — 
"Where the carcase is, there will the crows be;" 
and it generally turns out that all such sales are 
mere skeletons or carcases. 

We wish our remarks to be very clearly under- 
stood. We do not mean to say that all public 
sales are sales of trash, for there are executors' 
sales, sales made for the true and lawful purpose 
of closing business, shippers' sales, and the like ; 
but we allude to the kind of sales that are mere 
clap-traps, made by parties who neither know or 
can describe what they are selling, nor do they 
know or can describe its name or character — sales 
made expressly to get rid of trash. It is such 
sales, sales of the same character as those to 
which our correspondent alludes, that are an in 
jury to a whole country, and they will always 
have an injurious result, both pecuniarily and 
morally, and we hope will be looked upon with 
the contempt they deserve ; this is the most ef- 
fectual remedy. 

We hope to hear from our friend again. — Ed. 

[For tho California Farmer.) 
Regulations with regard to Fences. 

Colusa Co. Due 33, IBM. 

Messrs. Editors : Some months ago I saw a 
correspondence in your paper, proposing to shut 
up tho stock during certain seasons of the year, 
or at lease to give each county a right to make 
its own regulations with regard to fences — but I 
have heard nothing of tho matter since. 

I think the following extract from Allen's 
•'American Agriculture" to be worthy of consid- 
eration : " In many countries which havo a 
dense population and little timber, as in China 
and other parts of Asia, Italy, France, Belgium, 
Holland, and all other parte of Europe, fences arc 
seldom seen. In certain sections of the older 
settled portions of the New England States also, 
a similar arrangement prevails, This is especial- 
ly the case over the wide interval of bottom land 
which skirts the Connecticut river, where period- 
ical inundations would anually sweep them away. 
Wherever this system is adopted, cultivators pro- 
ceed without obstruction, and a great saving is 
made, not only in their original cost, but in the 
interest, repairs, and renewal; all the land is 
available for crops ; no. weeds or bushes are per- 



people did notwant it, they would reject it. 

Yours, &c, W. S. Green. 

Note. — The suggestion of our correspondent is 
worthy of consideration, and we feel assured our 
legislature will take all such matters into consid- 
eration. — Ed. 



Bounty for Destroying 'Wild Animals. 

We call attention to the valuable communica- 
tion of J. M. Horner, Esq., one of our earliest and 
most extensive cultivators. The name of Horner, 
is identified with the early agriculture of the 
State, and to him and to E. L. Beard, Esq., the 
firm of Beard & Horner, were accorded the credit 
and honor of being the largest and most influ- 
ential cultivators in California ; and we may say 
that the number of acres they have cultivated and 
the crops they have raised, have been the largest 
ever produced by any one firm in the world. 

We are glad to receive communications from 
such sources, for it is an assurance that an interest 
of the right kind' is being felt for agriculture. 
We trust the appeal to our legislators will be 
cheerfully met, and not only this subject, but 
every subject that affects this great interest will 
receive the prompt attention of our Legislature. 
We also trust that other large cultivators, those 
who have interests at stake, will communicate 
with us and thus present their views, and wc will 
most cheerfully lay them before tho people, for in 
this way great good to all will be accomplished. 



Fopulousnesa of China. 

Everything relating to China is of moment, 
and its history is of great importance to us. Let 
us learn the great features of that mighty and 
populous nation, and wc shall know the character 
of those that arc to be affected and moulded by 
our institutions. Our institutions and our laws 
must be kept inviolate, and while wc teach obedi- 
ence to them, wc must so exhibit them to this 
and to every nation, as to win a reverence for 
them. 

Tho tens of thousands, and we may say the 
hundreds of thousands of the Chinee, that will 
flock to our country may bo influenced for good 
and become a benefit to the nation, if we will but 
throw a proper safeguard around our great "bul- 
wark of liberty," our constitution, and the laws 
necessary to protect and preserve it. 

Wo never need fear for our country so long as 
we arc true to it ourselves; and the opening of the 
vast territories of China and Japan will prove a 
blessing to us, if we will only seek for the good 
that is ofTered by this opening. The agricultural 
knowledge and wealth, alone, is beyond price, and 
this should interest us all. 

We take the following article upon the popu- 
M of China from the N. Y. Tribune : 

An exaggerated estimate of the density of pop- 
ulation in China has got possession of the public 
mind. This conies from adopting without suffi- 
\amination the census of 1812 which makes 
the popular i. According to this 

same census the province of Kiang-su has, on an 
area of 44,600 square miles, a population - ; 

0, wanting a fraction — that is. 850 and one- 
third toasqtiare mile. The same density of pop- 
ulation would cive to Illinois the enor 
number of 44,000,000, and to France I 
Virginia, which is certiinly not surpassed in fer- 
tility by China, taken as a whole, would, at the 
same rate, have 5 Can any one believe 

mited to send their annoying roots, or scatter in such astonishing populousness ? From A. D. 
thoir seed over the ground; no safe border is 1 13 ' J3 t0 *"• P"*"" lime there are more than a 

dona censuses lef fa lod to in Chinese authorities. 
made for mice, rats or other vermin ; the trouble . ^ which m , kes the p,.^,,,..*, only 

and expense of keeping up bars and gates are chest goes up to 362.000- 
avoided ; and a free course is allowed by the con- .rand ulferly the lowest and re- 
ceded roads or by-paths, for the removal of crops ->>' thc high*** ' The u 

, -uses can be depended on — for. 

and carrjmg on manures, and the nccossery pass-| ^ ^ togclher „„ „» M lxmsisXnt 

ingto and fro in their cultivation. These are wilh ^^ ol h CT . and so at war with what we 
important advantages, wkich it would be Weil e the condition and cap*' 

for every community to consider, and secure to >«* ws »™ forced to reject them all. 

the full extent of their circumstances. The in- ,m * ^j^^tmmm 

conven,. this arrangement are try ATu^akes f^po^tmnof one <* toe- largo* 

When cattle or sheep are pastured in Europe, of the eighteen provinces only fifty-one to the 
where fences are wanting, they arc placed under square mile, while the aggregate of the nine East 
the guidance of a shepherd, who with the aid ot < rn proeiaeea. •** an area of 'about 

j° hi . . . . _.., „_«^isquarc I " 'o the square 

a dog. .,11 keep a large herd ot cattle in perfect . e uke a. are! of the aws» s!ae in 

subjection within th .nuts, or^ selecting its most fertile and 

"In the unfencCTl part- nccticut Val-J populous countries — Franca, Belgium, Holland. 



Hanover, Austria, Lombardy— we find tho popu- 
lation of the whole is not quite 78.000,000. Yet 
the population of tho samo area in China has, ac- 
cording to the census 230,000.000, making the 
population throe times as dense, as in tho very 
garden of Europe. In regard to Chinese agricul- 
ture, Barrow, one of tho best authorities on China. 
who traveled in the country before the great agri- 
cultural improvements, and consequent increase 
of population in Europe, says that, "as horticul- 
turists, they may perhaps be allowed a consider- 
able share of merit, but on the great scale of agri- 
culture they are certainly not to be mentioned 
with many European nations," He says, further, 
that the careful cultivation is mostly in the vicin- 
ity of cities and towns, and that much of the open 
country is infested with robbers, thinly inhabited 
and poorly cultivated. The testimony of Davis 
is to the same effect, and so is that of Williams. 
The land, then, cannot feed and clothe the vast 
population of tho books. Evidently the census 
must be rejected, and we are left to form our esti- 
mate of the populousness of the country as we do 
that of other countries whore no trustworthy cen- 
sus has ever been taken. Malte Brun estimates 
the population at 150,000,000, and that is pro- 
bably high enough. 

Chinese authority is not of much value. It is 
often of a pioce with a statement gravely made by 
one of their greatest statesmen, that the closing of 
the Chinese ports " would stop the supply of rhu- 
bard, and thus cause the English and other out- 
side barbarians to die of constipation ! " 

The population of Chinese cities is over-rated. 
Canton, for instance, is put down in most of the 
books at a million and a-half, and never lower 
than a million. Yet the number probably does 
not exceed half, a million. One may walk round 
the walls (which enclose two-thirds or more of 
the inhabitants) in less than two hours. The 
number of people crowded into a given area in 
China is not so large as in the cities of Europe 
and America — for, though the streets are much 
narrower, the houses are much lower, seldom 
more than a story and a half, and without cellars. 
In these low houses (most of which are shops 
with lofts overhead for families) it is impossible 
to stow away a quarter of the number often found, 
from cellar to garret, in the lofty houses of our 
cities. 



To the Headers of the Californi 

The annexed communication, with 
attached, has been kindiy tendered to We 

would only ask of our friends to read and judge 
for themselves, as to the importance of the subject 
named therein. 

We arc deeply grateful for every testimonial of 
favor and encouragement in our labors, and we 
shall speak our mind more fully with tho next 
number, in our "New Year's" wish to them. 

We shall also add other names which were 
kindly tendered, and shall be heartily grateful 
for every approving word and token from every 
source. — 

TO THE FRIENDS OF 

Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture. 

" Knowledge is^iowor," is a truth nowhere 
more fully illustrated than in the field of your 
enterprise ; and on no part of that field more im- 
portant than in our State. In other States and 
different climates, the experience of ages is con- 
densed into books; and the son inherits the prac- 
tical knowledge of his father. Their books ara 
their general guide, and their periodicals contain 
the result of their continued improvements. But 
with us the case is different. Here we have a 
climate to which the instructions of no book are 
adapted, a soil peculiarly unlike auy to the de- 
velopment of which science has been applied, and 
almost an entire want of experience in any de- 
partment, Here no father has learned more than 
a few of the first principles of agriculture, much 
less has he had time to transmit oven the moiety 
he has learned to a son. Our first generation of 
agriculturists is yet in its merest youth. 

If no books adapted to our circumstances are 
yet written, and no man has sufficient experience 
to write one ; and if the periodicals published else- 
where entirely fail to meet our wants, wcaro shut 
up to a single choice between two courses — wc 
must either grape our way in the dark, feeling 
and experimenting each for himself, for all those 
facts and principles which are peculiar to our soil, 
climate and productions, (and this will reach 



Agriculture of tue State. — In relation to 
agriculture, Governor Bigler's message contains 
the following: 

The products of the year 1854 are generally be- nearly the whole range of our operations) thus 



lieved to be amply sufficient for the supply of the 
home market. I have no data before me, upon 
which to base an estimate of the amount of corn 
and oats produced. Of wheat not lees than three 
millions of bushels have been raised, and more 
than four million of bushels of barley. Of pota- 
toes, more than will suffice for home consumption 
have been produced ; such is also the case as re- 
gards vegetables of all kinds, the yield during the 
year having been unusually large. 

In the southern counties, the grape and pear 
crops have been exceedingly abundant, and other 
fruits extensively and profitably cultivated. I am 
also assuicd that extensive preparations are there 
being made for the manufaclury of wine of vari- 
ous qualities and flavor. 

In fifteen counties, being less than one half of 
tin- State, the beef cattle number three hundred 
and twenty thousand, four hundred and seven, 
..iT.) 

The number which arrived within the last year 
by the overland route, is as follows : 

Through N is, twenty-four thousand 

and twenty, (34,020) ; Beekwilh's, ton thousand 

one hundred and fifty-one. ( ln.l'il) ; Gilaroutc, 

nine thousand and seventy-five, ^onora 

live thousand one hundred and six, (5 

. twelve thousand nine hundred 
and ten. (12.010) ; whole number, sixty-one thou- 
sand, four hundred and sixty-two, (01 

Orleans Hotel, Sacramento. — This large 
and fine Hotel at the capital is now full to over- 
flowing. The proprietors, Messrs. Hardenburg 
k Corse, are ever attentive to the wants of their 
patrons, and by the appearance of pleasure in 
those we meet there, there can be no doubt they 
are " at home," and fare well too. The restaurant 
connected with the hotel is A No. 1 ; a poor ap- 
petite will surely be tempted to eat, and a good 
one is sure to be satisfied. A spacious reading 
room, with papers from all sections of the State, 
affords interest to the patrons of this hotel. A 
large, pleasant, and handsome billiard room at- 



advancing by a process to slow as to be entirely 
unsatisfactory to every one ; or we must sustain a 
periodical, which shall be a general reservoir for 
the reception and diffusion of the experience of 
all — an instrument whose columns shall be a con- 
stant reflector of all the light which our thousand 
intelligent cultivators of the soil can elicit from 
their " watch and toil," Which shall bo our 
choice, cannot admit of a question. 

Such a periodical we find in our midst. The 
California Farmer we believe capable of meet- 
ing our every want. The Messrs. Warren have 
evinced an energy in, and devotion to, the work 
which is worthy of all praise, and is a sufficient 
guaranty for the future. Shall the Farmer 
receive that countenance and encouragement it 
deserves 7 Will the growers of grain and veg-e 
tables, fruits mi. I flowers, in this State, treat them- 
selves to a weekly repast in the perusal of its 
columns, (the annual subset iption price bears no 
comparison with the value of what you get,) and 
make an energetic effort to induce their neighbors 
to do the same? But even this will not be 
enough. No one man, nor company of men, from 
any one department of knowledge, or section of 
the country, can make the columns of tho Farmer 
what they should be. — what they must be to 
answer their wants. It must combine the experi- 
ence of every class, and represent peculiar charac- 
teristics of every part of the Slate. We ask. 
therefore, the attention of those whom we address 
to the furnishing of materials for the columns, as 
well as subscription to the ''material aid" of the 
paper. 

We say thus much because wc deem it due to 
the present proprietors of the paper, and because 
we foal the deepest interest in the caose it advo- 
We have no pecuniary interest in the 



tached, affords recreation. Birch's famous and CaLirosNtA Farmer, and yet we most heartily 
successful line of coaches makes ha principal recommend it to the pecuniary, the statistical and 
-«_ .. .1.1. n— i .w„_i: . ; .„ the literary support of all who have at heart the 



office at this Hotel, affording great convenience to 
. the public The * Orleans " is the grand centre, 
we may say the " exchange," where " men most 
do congregate. " and such hotels, conducted with 
j the energy of the Orleans under its present pro- 
prietors, are of public benefit. 

J. C —Every geaeroas mind will re- 

joice to see ckmds break away from the horizon 
jof a fellow being 1 ! existence, and to rejoice in the 
prosperity of his brother man. Men should ever 
strive to build op— not poll down — and when ( 
they thaw act, eaa fld ence will be l es t as sd and j 
r.e upn our land. We do rejoice 
to know that * Duncan's la u eis m " is again to be 
opened, and iu enterprising proprietor on the way 
to prosperity 



literary support < 
real well bang of oar Stats — the development of 
ber agricultural resources, 

F. W. Macondsat, San Francisco. 
David Chamsi.ro. 
ds K. Ross, 

W«. NtSLT TnOMFSON. 

WnasLsa, Sacramento. 
C. I. Ilrrcsimos, 
Ajrot • 1 mms .v 
Jonif SIH.k I ' 'ity. 

K. I.. Bsaao, Mission Sao Jons. 
J. L. SAnroso, 
11. Cbassimo Bcals, 
TiuMtn A l.i r; 
Datis A C 
Waaanrwrra * Mil 
tm A C 
W. S Ca«T« is » ' 

a. a nwu •*••» 



16 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



9itiitUi. 



[From;the Telegraph.] 
WRITTEN FOR A YOUNG LADY. 

O tell me not of faithful hearts, 

That ever beat so kind and true, 
The constant bliss that love imparts, 

The buoyant hope? forever new. 
O tell me not of days gone by, 

When nil my thoughts were not my own, 
But let their memory ever fly, 

As all my happiness has flown. 
Speak not the name that once to me, 

Was dearer than all other names, 
For now it only grief can be," 

And thus my injured heart inflames. 
O tell me then, where is the balm, 

To soothe this troubled heart of mine, 
The peaceful fountain which can calm, 

And quell these thoughts that would repine. 
'Tis not among the mirthful throng 

That dazzle in the giddy dance, 
Nor can the dulcet strains of song, 

The joye of one Bhort hour enhance. 
'Tis not where fashions gayest plumes, 

Adorn the beautiful and fair, 
For even there the heart assumes 

The happiness it does not wear. 
But reason is the shield of might, 

That can these burning thoughts subdue, 
Reason the never failing light, 

To mark the way we should pursue. 
Then let my thoughts be (irmly placed, 

On useful and substantial things, 
Till every passion is effaced, 

That poison to my bosom brings. 



"Bimelech," said Mr. Slow, solemnly extend- 
ing his arm like a pump handle, "you are now 
old enough to understand the words of wisdom 
—being eleven and a half, in other words half 
past eleven — and I wish to advise you never to 
interfere with nobody, nor to interfere with no- 
thing that don't belong to you. Shut yourself up 
like a good eagle in your pocket book, and don't 
get spent in too much concerns for others. If 
people is inclined to go to ruin, let 'em go if 
thryVe a mind to — what business is it of yourV? 
Let 'em fight it out. Why should you risk your 
precious head in trying to save theirs? When 
you trade allers look to your side of the bargain 
and leave the one you are trading with to look 
arlcr his. If he gets bit 'taint your fault. Take 
keer of number one is scriptor, the real golden 
rule, and he that acts unto it can never die poor. 
Never have anything to do with sympathy. Sym- 
pathy doesn't pay. 'Taint worth one per cent. 
But if you must be sympathetic because its pop- 
'lar, be sure before you begin that it ain't agoin 
to cost you anything, and then p'raps 'twill do to 
invest in it. Nobody never lost anything by not 
being generous, so lay by for yourself what folks 
expect you to give to poor people and other vaga- 
bonds, and when you are old 'twill not depart 
from you. You will have something to count on 
to make you happy, pay your doctor's bills, con- 
found a hospital, and buy a grave stone full of 
exalted virtoos. Be careful, Bimelech; allers 
look arter the main chance and beware of sym- 
pathy." — Boston Post. 

After a Wedding. — "I like to tend wed- 
dings," said Mrs. Partington, as she came back 
from a neighboring church, where one had been 
celebrated, and hung up her shawl, and replaced 
the black bonnet in the long-preserved band-box. 
" I like to see young people come together with 
the promise to love, cherish and nourish each 
other. But it is a solemn thing, is matrimony — 
a very solemn thing — where the pasture comes 
into the chancery, with a surplus on and goes 
through with the cerement of making 'em man 
and wife. I declare I shall never forget how I 
felt when I had the nuptual ring put upon my 
finger, when Paul said, ' with my goods I thee 
endow.' He kept a dry-goods store then, and I 
thought he was going to give me all there was in 
it. 1 was young and simple, and did not know 
till arterwards that it only meant one calico gound 
in a year. It is a lovely sight to see the young 
people plighting their trough, and coming up to 
consume their vows." 



HOKTICULTUEAL, &c. 



GARDEN SEEDS, 
Growth of 1854. 

FRESH and GENUINE, per " Express."— Just received and 
constantly arriving — 

5U0 IBs. Yellow Onion Seed, 
100 " Red " " 

60 " White " 
200 " Top Onions for sets. 
Fruit Seeds, &c, of 1854 ; Peach, Ap*ple, Plum, Cherry, Pear, 
Locust, White Birch, Elm, Osnge Orange, Raspberry ; together 
with a complete assortment or Shaker and California Garden 
Seeds. Also, Flower Seeds, CaUfornian and Eastern. 
Wholesale and Retail, by 

C. MORRILL, Druggist, 
And agent for the sale of the New Lebanon Shaker Seeds, 
Botanical Herbs and Extracts. 

K street, cor. Third, Sacramento. 
v3-l Branch store, P. Btreet, cor. Third. 



Smith's Pomological Gardens, 
Banks of the American River, two and a half miles from 
Sacramento city. 
mHE proprietor of the Gardens? would respectfully invite all 
| who are engaged in " Nursery and Gardening " to visit his 
grounds. He will be happy to show to them, ready for sale, 
this fall, as line a collection of 

Fmit Trees, Ornamental Trees, Grape Vines, Shrubs, 
Flowering Plants, and Green House Plants, 
as can be found in all the great Sacramento Valley. 

The proprietor would call particular attention to his collec- 
tion of Peaches, believing that the specimens exhibited by 
him in Sacramento and San Francisco markets have been un- 
surpassed in size, quality, or flavor. 

The collections of Pear Trees will equal any in the country ; 
these, with all the new varieties, will be ottered this autumn. 

The undersigned believes bis collection worthy a visit to his 
grounds of all who are interested in Gardening and Orcharding. 
The suoecriber will otter this autumn Five Tons Vegeta- 
ble Garden Seeds, dint have been raised upon his own 
grounds. These seeds have been grown with care and will be 
sold at wh 'lesale for the present, at the Gardens. 

Persons m want are invited to call upon us, and wo will make 
reasonable terms. 

Fruit*, Boqueta, &c., will always be furnished at short notice 
at the Gardens. 

The proprietor returns his thanks for the liberal pntronuge 
of the past, and hopes for u continuance of such furors. 

10 A. P. SMITH, Proprietor. 



To Krult Growers lii California. 

HOVEY & CO., Seed and Nurserymen, No. 7 Merchants 
Row, Boston, Mass., invite the attention of Cultivators ol 
Fruit iu California, to their very extensive collection of Fruit 
Trees of all kind", particularly of Pears : embracing every vor 
ety worthy of cultivation, to be obtained either in thiB country 
or in Europe. They offer for sale — 

100,000 Pear Trees, of ull the choicest kinds both upon 

Pear and Quince stocks, dwarfs and standards ; 
50,000 Apple Trees, in 50 varieties ; 
25,000 Plum Trees, In 30 varieties ; 
20,000 Peach Trees, in 25 varieties ; 
Also, — Quince and Cherry Trees; 40 varieties of the finest 
Grapes; 13 varieties Currants; 10 varieties Raspberries; 10 
varieties choicest English Gooseberries; and 50 varieties Straw- 
berries, including our Hovey's Seedling, which has not yet been 
equalled for size and productiveness. 

Al- o,—100,000 Asparagus, and 20,000 Giant Rhnhnrd Roots. 
An immense collection ol Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, I 
Greenhouse Plants, Ax., &c. Agricultural ami Garden Seeds 
of every description, and of the best quality, constantly for sale. 
Catalogues gratis to post-paid applicant-. 
Messrs. HOVEY <fc CO. would remark iliut their mode oi 
packing trees for California, has met with die greatest BW 
and they feel confident of being able to give sulisfactiim to those 
who may favor them with their orders. 

Address, HOVEY &. CO,, No. 7 Merchants' Row, 
8 Boston, Mass. 



San Jose Nursery. 

WE are prepared to supply the trade with the best varieties 
of Fruit Tree*, Grapes Vine, Roses, Plants, Sec, in all 
their varieties ; and are disposed to sell at a low price, that we 
may suit the times. Our Trees are cultivated with great per- 
sonal enre. Those who desire to make Nurseries and Gardens 
will do well to visit and ascertain for themselves our ability to 
supply what we advertise. Trees will be carefully labelled and 
packed for any season or distance. 
The following Trees we offer this season 



Strawberries, 7 varieties ; 

Fig Trees ; 

Pomegranates ; 

Walnuts ; 

Chestnuts ; 

Locust Trees, very large ; 



Peach Trees, 44 varieties 
Pear do 44 do 
Apple do 54 do 
Plum do 15 do 
Apricots 6 do 

Almonds S do 

Quinces do 2 do 
Cherry do many do 
Grapes, 12 do 

In addition to our Fruit and Ornamental Trees, we offer ten 
id finest Roses, comprising more than one hundred vari- 
eties, all Of the best known kinds. Our plants are too numerous 
to specify in an advertisement. Hoping visitors will come and 
see us, wo refer them to our agent in Sun Francisco, Ma. De- 
labigne, 121 SaiiMome Btreet, where we shall have a collection 
of plants in the season as samples. The nursery U aituated in 
the city of San Jose, immetlintcly above the City Mills. 

We are also permitted to rnler to Warren & Sun, who have 
examined our grounds, and who can testify of the character of 
our nursery". <md who will receive and forward orders to us. 

Every order promptly and speedily attended to, 

8 Utf ■".*-» L PKKVOST &. CO. 



An Honest Prayer. — A chaplain of the In- 
diana Legislature, a man with a right appreciation 
of what is mean and ungodly, whether in high 
station or low, thus prayed at a recent opening 
session of his charge : " And, O Lord have mercy 
On our legislators. Be with them and bless them, 
even if they know thee not. Spare their lives 
and teach them to glorify thy name. Hasten 
them to their homes where they may direct their 
attention to good works and general usefulness 
among their families and neighbors. May the 
people resolve to keep them there, and in future 
elect men of sound morals and temperate habits, 
so that good may hereafter result from legislation. 
Save the good people of the State from the dis- 
grace which must follow if the same should come 
here to make laws. Hear us, Lord, and grant our 
prayer. — Amen. 

"We had rather do anything than acknowledge 
the merit of another, if we can help it. We can- 
not bear a superior or an equal. Hence ridicule 
is sure to prevail over truth, for the malice of 
mankind, thrown into the scale, gives the casting 
weight. — Hazlitt. 

A Dutchman related a misfortune in the fol- 
lowing manner: "Hans, he bit himself with a 
rattlesnake, and was sick into his bed for six 
weeks in the month of August, and his cry was 
' vater ! vater ! ' and he could cat nothing till he 
could stand upon his elbow and cat a little tea." 



Golden Gate Nursery, 

Corner of Folsom and Fourth streets, San Francisco. 
OFFICE — NO. 171) WASHINGTON STBXET. 

THE attention of the public i« requested to a targe collection 
of the flowering Plants, now for sale at this Establishment, 
embracing the most extensive assortment in the State ; among 
which may be found— 

Caroelia Japonic a*, in seventy varieties; 
Perpetual bloominc Rosea, of all the clasaes ; 
Moss and climbing Rosea, do do; 

Fuschiss', a choice collection ; Heliotropes, in variety ; 
Ruso and Lemon Geraniums ; 
Lemon-scented Verbenas, Flowering do, Arbu till urns, Azaleas, 
Orleanders, Pasnttluras, Honeysuckle,-', Carnation*, Dahlias, 
Bulbous Roots, &c., &-c. ; and a general collection of Green- 
house plants and ornamental shrubbery. 

Catalogues for 1855 will be ready on the 1st of December, 
and will be forwnrded on application. 

Orders for any part of the State, will be promptly attended 
to, on application to D. Nelson, No. 170 Washington Btreet — or 
to the proprietor. (7-3m) ' 



W. C. WALKER. 



Fruit Trees ! Fruit Trees 1 1 

TTrE have for sale at our Nursery at the Mission San Jos< 

VV Five Thousand largo Apple Trees: two thousand oi 

them of extra size. Many unburn will boar fruit tliu m:\-tyi.nr. 

Two Thousand Peach Trees, choicest kind — largoand hand- 

some trees. 

Fear Trees on the Quince as well as Pear. 

Fifteen Hundred Cherry Trees from two to four feet high. 

Grape, Fig, Quince, Apricot, Nectarine and Almond Trees 

in less quantities. Ad the above we guarantee in quality, and 

we warrant them what they should be, and will sell at prices 

to euit the times. 

Apple Trees ftnr $100 to $2 50 

Peuch, Pear, Cnerry, from 150 to 2 50 

Extra sized treos in proportli >n. 

BEARD & LEWELLEN Mission San Jose. 
Orders with Warren 6c. Son, corner of Montgomery and 
CFri'jrnin streets, will be promptly attended to. 18 Cm 



30,000 Fruit Trees. 

COMMERCIAL NURSERIES, near the Artesian Fountains ; 
also, in San Jose City. — The undersigned otfers the above 
lot of fine Fruit Trees, consisting of Apple, Pear, Cherry and 
Peach. Those trees have been introduced into this country 
from Genesee County, N. Y., by the undersigned himself, and 
are ol the very best varieties known in New York ; many of 
them are new kinds, and among the Apples are the best late 
varieties for keeping. 

Orders for Fruit Trees of any kind may be left with Warren 
St, Son, who will give all needed information, will be promptly 
attended to. Orders can also be forwarded to the Nursery. In 
all cases, orders received at the Nursery will receive very 
prompt attention, when) we should be glad to see purchasers. 

Apple Trees, from three to six feet $1 25 

Pear, Cherry and Peach, do. 1 50 

Large quantities will bo offered at prices to suit the times 
and circumstances of the purchaser. 

GEO. W. LE VALLEY. 
P. 8. We can furnish Scions of the Fruit Treos, of reliablo 
varieties, of more than fifty kinds, in lots to suit orders. 20 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



San Francisco ahead of the World ! 

Ever on, on apace with the Age and Times ' 




HiuthIi for Yanci's new Dngueriian Gallery I 

Largest Light in the World, (over 500 feet Glass.) 

New Building, cor. Sacramento and Montgomery Btrcett. 

"\TTHY should every one* so to Vance's who wishes 
VV PERFECT LIKENESSES? Because he has now the 
best arranged Gallery on the Pacific Coast, and not lo be Fur- 
passed by any in the world. Instruments containing lenses 
more perfect, and with greater power than any ever before 
used in this country. 

2cL Because he has the largest light in the world, from which 
he can form three distinct lights — top, side, and half side lights 
— that now enables him to overcomo the LTCat difficulty which 
every artist in this city has to contend with — namely: In order 
to obtain perfect likeiieeeess, different formed features require 
differently arranged lights. 

3d. Having the largest light, he is enabled to make pictures 
in half the tune of auy other establishment in the city ; there- 
fore they muet be more perfect, for it is well known, the shorter 
the time the more natural the expression. 

4th. Because every plate is carefully prepared with a coating 
of pure silver which produces the clear, bold and las-tin;: picture 
that Ls so much admired, and which cannot be produced on the 
common plates, as they are now u*ed by other artists. 

5th. Because he tin* ul late, after iniiche\periiiirn tin? brought 

his chemical preparations to perfection, using compounds en- 
tirely different from anything ever before used la thaart,wiii6h 
him to produce perfect lifenessee, at every rifting, jwith 

that clear, soft and beautilul tone, bo much admired in all his 
pictures. 

All those wishing perfect likenesses will do well to call before 
sitting elsewhere, and judge lor themselves. 

t^° Prices as reasonable, and work suporior to uny in the 
city. 

Don't forget the place. 

13?" New Building corner of Sacramento and Montgomery 
streets, entrance on Montgomery, next door to Austin's. 17 




COLLINS & CO., 
PRACTICAL HATTERS, 

(PREMIUM HAT STOKE,) 
157 Commercial strrrt, San PYa 

THE undersigned would rake this opportunity to return their 
thank* to their friends and the public generally rorthe very 
liberal share ol patronagewhich they hove received. They take 
pleasure in now announcing that they are determined that no 
ime shall surpass them in the beauty, or finish, or quality of a 
Hat ; that no gent shall wear a finer Hat than can be found at 
Collins & Co.'s Warehouse. 

The proprietors of this establishment exert themselves to 
mauufacture to order the latest styles and most approved pat- 
terns. The stock of HATS and CAPS, of every kind, now 
On hand, cannot be surpassed In this city. 

17 COLLINS & CO. 



BANKERS. 



VAN VLECK, READ & DREXEL, 

BANKERS, corner of Commercial and Montgomery streets 
draw at sight, in sums to suit, on 

Ocean Bank New York. 

Bank ot North America BoBton. 

Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank Albunr 

Drexel &, Co Philadelphia. 

Josiah Lee & Co Baltimore. 

J. B. Morton, Esq Richmond. Va. 

Gen. Wni. Larimer Pitteburgj Pa; 

A. J. Wheeler, Esq Chi ■ 

A. I), Hunt, Esq; Louisville, Ky. 

J It. Macmurdo & Co New I ■ 

Also, on Detroit, Mich. ; Memphis and Nashville, Teun., Co- 
lumbus, Ohio: Norfolk, Va and Charleston, South Carolina. 
1 



ADAMS &, CO., 

BANKERS, Montgomery street, San Francisco. Bills ol 
Exchange drawn on any ol our Houses in New York, 

Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimare, Washington, Cincinnati, New 

Orleans, St. Louis and London. 

Also payable at the following Bunks — 

Merchants' and Farmers' Bank Albany 

Utica City Bank Utlca 

Bank of Syracuse Syracuse 

Bank of Auburn Auburn. 

Bank of Attica Buffalo 

Rochester City Bank Rocheste;. 

George Smith & Co Chicago. 

Alex. Mitchell, Fire and Marine Ins. Co Milwaukie, 

Micluean State Bank Detriot. 

Own. "Branch Bank of the State of Ohio Cleveland. 

Clinton Bank Columbus, Ohio. 

15P Money and Gold Dust received in Special Deposits, and 

General Deposits, received from merchants, mechanics, and 

others. 3 ADAMS &, CO 



Daniel D. Page, I David Chambers, 1 Francis W. Pace, 

Henry D. Bacon, Henry Hnight, Sacramento City, 

St. Louis, | San Francisco. | 

PAGE, BACON, & CO., 

BANKERS, Montgomery, corner of California street, San 
Francisco, draw at sight, in sums to suit, on — 

Geo. Pcabody & Co London. 

F. Huth & Co Loudon 

American Exchange Bunk New York. 

Duncan, Sherman & Co New York 

Atlantic Bank Boston- 
Philadelphia Bank Philadelphia, 

Jo&iab Lee & Co Baltimore, 

Louisiauia State Bank New Orleans. 

Page & Bacon St. Louie. 

Hutching* &. Co Louisville. 

T. S. Goodman & Co Cincinnati. 

S. Jones & Co Pittsburg. 

Gold Dust and Exchange purchased at current rates. 12 



ADAMS & CO.'S 

CALIFORNIA AND ATLANTIC EXPRESS. 

OUR Atlantic States Express will leave San Francisco on the 
1st and 15th of each month, by the Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company's Steamers, and the Treasure crosses the Isthmus 
under the charge of a strong guard. The Treasure forwarded 
by us to the Philadelphia Mint, is always deposited there previ- 
ous to that eent by any other conveyance. Our rates are lower 
than those offered" by any other House, with the same security. 
We also forward Treasure on the 1st and 15th of every month 
To England, by the P. M. 6. S. Co.'s steamers to Punama, and 
from AflpmwttU by the West India Mail Steomera 

We draw Bills of Exchange on any of our Houses in the fol- 
lowing places: 

BoMton, New York, Philadelphia, 

Bnltlmorc, AVn*hlnc4cm, St. Louis, 

Cincinnati, PltUburgr, Lottl*vlllc, 

IVew Orleans, London, &C M «S»c.. 

Also, payable at any of the following Banks : ' 

Mechanics and Farmers' Bank Albany 

Alex. Mitchell, Fin- anil Marine Insurance Co Milwaukie. 

Commercial Branch Banknt State of Ohio Cleveland. 



DtlCfl City Bunk Utica. 

Bank of Auburn Auburn. 

Rochester City B'k.. Rochester. 
Michigan State B'k Detroit. 



Bank of Syracuse. ..Syracuse. 

Dunk ui Attica Buffalo. 

Geo. Smith & Co. ...Chicago. 
Clinton Bank... Columbus, O. 



^^* In the Northern Mines we run Expresses, in our own 
name, always accompanied by faithful Messengers, to and from 
the following places : 

San Francisco, Sacramento, Mary sr lite, 

Bcniria, ail Valley, Nerada, 

Coloma, FtocervillCj or Mormon Islands, 

■•<uwn, Ifangtomi, Saltnon Falls, 

mcood, i" City, Auburn, ((C, r s>c 

And every other part of El Dorada, Placer and Shasta counties, 
Through LANQTon & Bao.'a Ydba Express, to and from th« 
following place- in Metro end Nevada OOUUdM I 

Long Hnr, Deer Creok Crossing, Park's Bar, 

Slcard's Bar, Bridgeport) S. Tuba, French Corral, 

hnr, SwectlattdV, BOBtOD Bar, 

Union Bar, Hnyut's Di^-tings, Hunt's Ranch, 

Rose'm Bar, Cherokee Corral Barton's Bar, 

Foster's Bir, Hess' Crossing, N. Yuba, Wombow's Bar, 

VVinslow's Bar, Slate Range, Slate Range. 

Oak Valley, Junction House, Nevada House, 

Indian Valley, Frenchman's Bar, Empire Ranch, 

HleiL-hville, Bullards Bar, Duwniovillo, 

Cox's Bur, Minesota Diggings, Kanaka Creek, 

Goodyear'fl Bar, and Emory's Crossing, Middle Yuba. 
Sacramento and Stockton, 
via Bcnicia in the Southern Mines, we nin nn Express in onr 
own name, always accompanied hy luithful Messengers, to and 
from San Francisco, Stockton, Sonorn, Mokelumuc Hill, Col- 
umbia, Mariposa, Sec, by Brown's Express, from Stockton to 
oil the Camps in the Southern Mines. 

Out Bills of Exchange 

can be procured at, and Treasure forwarded to us for shipment, 
from any of the above places. In all of the above places we 
have Brick Vaults and Iron Safes for the security of Treasure 
encrusted to us, and on board of steamboats on any of the above 
routes, we have Iron Safes foe the security ol all valuable pack- 
age.- transported by us. 

Insurance. — We have made oir»n§ ements for insurance to 
the extent of One Million Dollars, oa any one shipmont, and 
are empowered to insure for other parties on Gold Dust, Bars, 
Coin and Merchandise to and from New York and this city, by 
endorsements on Bills of Lading, at the tune ofablprneot. 

7 ADAMS &. CO. 



Boston Clipper Steel Plow, 

Manufactured fry Buggies, Noursa .y Mason. 
npHIS iplendid Plow is made after the style and form of the 
_L famous Eagle Plough, so universally known. This form of 
Plow in all its ports has boon considered tho most perfect yet 
invented, having taken premiums in every Suite in the Union ; 
also at the World's Fair. 

The present Plow has been manufactured by Messrs. Rug- 
glMj Nourso & Mason, with great care, and in the moetflnlibed 
style, of the very best steel, and may now be considered the 
hi^'he^t finish and most complete Plo W ; and the undersigned 
wi/Hh the cultivators of California to call and examine the name 
at their place of business. TAEADWELl, & CO., 

Cor. of Battery and California streets, Sua Francisco 

24 TREADWELL & CO., Marysvilto 



Tin- Pacific Loan and Security Bank.. 

MONEY will be received on deposit in sums of Ten 
Dehors and upwards, for which Certitiratea of Deposit 
will be Issued, bearing date the first or fifteenth ol the 
month, payable on demand, or nt sttecified times, at the option 
of the depositors. If payable on demand, they will be without 
inienM, unless the money remain on deposit one month, in 
which case they will draw Lntereel fit. per Month, hut 

no Interest for fractional porta of a month. If deposited for 
specified times, certificates, will bo issued bearing out and a half 
I".r ant, per month interest for Buch time. Interest will cease 
at maturity; so that if depositors desire to continue their de- 

Siosits after their certificates fall due, they must he presented 
tor payment and renewal ; otherwise interest ceases. 

The money deposited is used only iii loans guaranteed hy us 
and in all cases amply secured by Mortgagee! State, County 
and Ciiv Stock?, Merchandise, and other safe coUatarab\ taken 
in the name of "MARRIOTT ft WHEELER, Trustees for 
Depositors with Pacific Loan and Secuiitv Bank." 

a register in kept at all times open to depositors For inspec- 
tion, In which appear their name-, the Dumber of certificates of 
deposit issued, and the- securities upon which the money de- 
posited has been placed. Depositors thus not only have the 
personal security offered by all banks, but in addition have the 
benefit of the securities taken and guaranteed by us, and the 

facility of knowing what disposition has 1 D made of their 

deposit FREDERICK MARRIOTT, 

ALFRED WHEELER, 

No. 98 Merchant street, San Francisco. 10 



THEODORE PAYNE. SQUIRE P. DEWEV. 

THEODORE PAYNE & CO., 
REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AUCTIONEERS. 

OFFICE AND SALES-ROOM CORNER CALIFORNIA AND MONT- 
GOMERY STREETS. 



THEODORE PAYNE AUCTIONEER. 



13^ Messrs. PAYNE &, CO. respectfully inform the public 
thai they have established themselves as above, for the purpose 
of transacting the 

Real Estate business, in all its branches, 
Fur the conducting of which they esteem themselves peculiarly 
qualified, by having ghm it thru- spoctal attention for over two 
years past, and made themselves familiar with all questions 
affecting title.-, Aic. dec. 

They will ffive their especial attention to the public sales of 
estate, by Administrators, Assign [vera, Mortgagees, 

ifcc, carefully complying with the lorms of law. 

A Register for Property, at either public or private sale 
always opeu at their office 20 6m 

To Farmer* nnd Gni-dcnera. 
WICKERSHAM S 

Celebrated Patent WroughtlronFarmFence. 

FCR bbIc^ — Wickcrsham'e far-lamed Patent Wrought Iron 
Fence, for enclosing and cud-dividing lands. It can bo fur- 
nished at but little above the cost of ditching, and is much more 
preferable, because it does not require a heavy annual expend- 
iture to keep it in repair ; it cannot be destroyed by the fires 
which so constantly sweepover prairie and mountain, requiring 
wooden fences to be renewed, nor carried away by flood from 
the overflow of the low lands; it is free from decay, which 
places it beyond comparison with wood or any other material 
now in use; it is valued the most highly whang it has been 
tried the most thoroughly; it is light and graceful, yet strong, 
and cannot be broken down by horses or cattle. The testimony 
which baa been given by those who have aeed it In the Atlantic 
Slate?, u milnclent to recommend it to the (arming public of 
California. 

A complete model is now an exhibition at the State Agricul- 
tural Fuir, at Musical Hall, Hush street, near Montgomery, 
where o full description may bo seen, with tho testimony ot 
those who have erected it in the Atlantic States. 

Farmers are invited to examine this fence, as there has never 
been any of the same kind in this country previous to the ar 
rival ol this lot, and Irom its peculiar conitructJoD there Is not 
the least doubt but tbnt it will be QSMistvely used in thin State. 

J. T. IJeston has now on hand, and will be coutOjmtly receiv- 
ing supplies from the manufacturer, which will enable him to 
till orders to almost any amount. 

For particulars address J. T. HE3TON, 

At Warren's Agricultural Rooms ; 
Or, P. COGG1N8, cor. Sacramento and Pike streets 

October 8, 1954. 15 



Ai-tt'Himi 'Well Borliijg. 

"IT/ E would respectfully Inform the public that wo are fully 
TT prepared to take contracts In the above pa Ions in a 
manner to guarantee satisfaction or no charge will bo made. 

Smith & Van Dyne having ansociai' with an 

old und experienced operator from the East, who challemres the 
world to compete with him in all the branches connected with 
tho abovo business, are fully confident to guarantee success In 
all contracts that we may undertake, and warrant tho work for 
one year. We have also Implements for boring through stone 
to any depth, and all work done on the most reasonable terms. 

For tlie satisfaction of those wanting anything In tin 

line, we would reler to I. C. Woods, of Adams St &o.*i Kxnresw; 
J. W. Osborn, Napa City ; Rufus S. Eells, ol Hawortfi A Fell* ; 
M A. Sullivan, New Custom House; Wight &■ Co., 137 Jack- 
son street, &c., &c. 

We can do work cheaper than any other operators, for two 
reasons : 

1st. Because we are prepared to work on a most extensive 
scale 

2d. Because we understand all branches conn. vte.1 with the 
above business, and are, therefore, able to work with certainty, 

mi orders left at tho What Cboar House will be promptly «** 
tended to, smith A van DYNE, Con ti 

N. H— We also refer to Warren ft Son, publishers c4 tlie 
" Csliloruis Farmer," who havo soen and knowu the character 

of the work done. 7 



31 jJ.U D 088 8UJ lift i? 



UsstM l^r&ims. 



vol. m. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, JANUARY 18, 1855. 



NO. 3. 



vT 1) c California farmer 

AMI JOURNAL. OF ISKKII. SCIENCES. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY MORNING. 

BY WARREN Ic SOW. 

Office in Masonic Halt Building, Montgomery street. 

Trims — Six di.lli.rs per annum, in advnnee; or delivered 

by carrier at .• n imiotli. Foraclubp] five 

nrw :■'--■ i '■'" ■■■ • ■■ ill end B ' i copj ■■: "' 

illmit- ' imenl Inserted at fair rates. 

AGENTS. 
Meearfl Adams & On. ntn. their office! throughout the United 

States or Europe. 
Kcs*rri. Wells, Farqo & Co., at th.jir oflicua throughout the 

Country. 
Ma. O. H Hamilton, Travelling Agont for Sacramento City 

mid County 
Messrs, Langton & Co. for Dotenicville, Foster's Bar, Good- 
lier, Minrnola. 
Mc?prn. Adams «!t Co. — Humboldt Bay, Trtnidad, Crcsrrnl City, 

Fort Orfard, Vtnpijua City, Scottsburg, and tltc entire northern 

C'ia*t. 
Messrs. Leland & McCooMHK- Crescent City, Port Or/ord, 

i Eureka ,.■„,' Bneksport. 
Sullivav's newspaper stand. No. 5 Post Office Building ; KlM- 

UALL's, Noisy Curriers Hull, Long wharf — San Fran 
Stiles * Dodde, Iti'ii'in, Mar- " 

i,i„:, fee 
P. Freer, indwell'*, Butte Co. 
D. G.Waldronifc Co. Cotoma. 
Treadwell &. Co., Marysville. 
James Lloyd, " 

Jnmcs &. Co., Napa. 
A. W. Pottnr, Nevada. 
Naah &. Davis, Pitti i 

Dr. Chaa Orltenduurer, " 
C. O. Burton, Stockton. 
Seuor Pedro Vulnsquex, So- 
noma, 

Dr.Thomas J. Harvey, P. M., 

a f.ttte Obispo 
Cram, Rogers &. Co., Yrelta. 
Parker & Roman. " 

We desire our Agents to report to us on the 1st of every 
monllt, the increase of names and the prospects, together with 
the amount due the olhce. 



Howard & Chnmberlain, Uninn 
City, and Mission San Josr. 

A. Hunnewell, P. M., Columbia. 
I. Collin, Moliilumile Hill. 
Gen. M. M. McCnrver. Mount 

Farm, t). T. 
Dudley it. Co., Napa City. 
Hiram Downimr, " 
Gardiner $e Kirk, Sac.ram. ■ntn. 
Baiter 6c Hamilton, " 
Taney & Roberts, Sonera. 

B. P. Fincbley, Suisutt, 

A. II. Murdoch, P. M., Union, 

linmhnldt Itn,/. 
J. M. Thorburn &Co. New York 
City.N. y. 



cultivated the plant successfully for the past three 
3'ears. The two preceding crops were irrigated, 
the last was not, and I have found but little dif- 
ference in favor of the former. 

I planted in tho alluvial soil of the Sacramento 
River, generally about the 10th of April. From 
the 1st to tho 15th of August, the bowls com- 
menced opening, and continued until after the 
frost. 

On examining tho staple, you will find it in 
texture finer and more silky than the upland cot- 
ton of Mississippi and Alabama, equally as strong, 
but somewhat shorter. It should be taken into 
consideration, [however, that the same kind of 
seed has been cultivated on the same soil for three 
successive years. This, you are aware, tends to 
deteriorate the plant. Cotton planters prefer to 
change the seed every second year. 

From my experience in three years cultivation, 
the plant will. I believe, under ordinary culture, 
produce about 400 lbs. of clean or ginned cotton 
to the acre, which is equal to the uplands of the 
Southern Atlantic States. 

You will bear in mind the lattitude of my 
ranch, being nearly within one and a half degrees 
of the Oregon line. 

I am, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant. 

P. B, Heading. 

To Hon, Solomon Heydenfeldt. 



COTTON IN CALIFORNIA. 

We place beforo our renders tho following letter 
from Col. P. B. Reading, of Cottonwood, upon 
the culture of cotton. It has appeared in some of 
our journals, and was addressed to Judge Heyden- 
feldt. The arguments are forcible and lucid and 
cannot but carry conviction to tho mind of the 
reader, of tho ultimate success of this groat staple 
production of this State. 

Col, Reading is so well and favorably known, 
and his influence in favor of everything that tends 
to advance the interests of the State, so well tin 
derstood, that his statements will carry weight 
wherever and whenever presented. We trust 
they will not only turn the attention of tho culti 
vators of tho soil to the importance of the subject 
treated, but also cause our legislators to consider 
how and in what manner they can so legislate as 
to give encouragement to, and assist forward to a 
speedy introduction of. this and other new and 
important products into the State. We trust the 
public will hear often from Col. R. and other 
public spirited men, upon such subjects as may 
be presented from time to time. 

We alio append a letter from Judge Heyden- 
feldt, to the editors of the Sacramento Union, in 
which Judge II. refers to the "sample of cotton 
which has been deposited in the office oi the Sec- 
retary of the State," end to this we also refer with 

pleasure. — 

Benii-ia. January 10th, 1865. 

Meb9 Editor you for publica- 

tion a letter from Col. 1'. B. Reading, containing 
an account of his experiments in raising cotton. 
The sample "I the raw material which boo 
nied V. jh the permiss 

General D dept ten 

retat\ of ,-tion of thos 

arc interested in the progi agriculture. 

I will add, for the information ol i 
quainU-d with cotton planting, that one hand. 

ii annual supply of proi 
, .■■, . ■ 

pounds, which 
at tho . Si 

to the 
upland ' 

■ 
won l - ' * 

11',''' .".'.,. 
- i ■ i and I I ' ■■ ■ 

will stamp Col. K : truest ben- 

•ors. 

SFELDT. 

CoTTomr, od, Shasta County, Dec, Uc IS54. 
Dkak Sir : Aware of tl ike in 

the development ol the agricultural resource* of 

i repeat- 
ing \ . 

■ i ^.' . 

ppi. I have 



FATTENING ANIMALS. 

There are certain principles which apply to the 
feeding of all animals, which we will briefly 
notice. 

1. The breed is of great importance. A well 
bred animal not only afibrds less waste, but has 
the meat in the right places, the fiber is tender 
and juicy, and the fat is put on just where it is 
wanted. Compare the hind leg of a full-bloom 
Durham ox, and a common one. The bone at the 
base of the tail extends much further in the for- 
mer, affording more room for flesh, and the thigh 
swells out of convex or circular shape ; while in 
the common ox it falls in, dishing and hollow. 
Now the " round " is the most valuable cut, and 
is only found in perfection in high-bred 
The same is the case over the whole bod] 
well do eastern butchers understand this that their 
arc regulated by the breed, even where tuo 
animals are equally fat. They know that in a 
Durham or Hereford ox. not only will there be 
less offal in proportion to weight. "but the greatest 
quantity of meat « ill be where it brings the high 
est price when retailed, and will be of a richer 
flavor, and more tender fibre, The same is the 
case with hogs. A large hog may chance to make 
more meat on a given quantity of food than a 
small one, but the meat of the first will be coarse 
and tasteless compared with the other ; and in 
the east, flavor and tenderness, greatly regulate 
prices. Consequently, moderate sized, short-leg- 
imall-headed hogs, always, in the long run. 
beat large breeds out of favor. In preparing for 
a market, "fashion and taste," must be as much 
considered by the farmer as by the tailor. This 
' nt revolutionizing the Knglish 
breed of sheep. The aristocracy always pai 
for small Scotch and Welch mutton ; but the 
great consumers, the mechanics, preferred large 
fat joints. The taste is now changed. In .\lau- 
r, and other > large joints 

have become unsal 1 of the 

breeder are now tui 
luring earlv. with comparatively lit! 






easily when it has fine bone, and fine soft clastic 
skin, with thin or silky hair ; the head and legs 
short, the " barrel " large, but chest and lungs 
small ; and when it is quiet, sleopy, and easy in 
temper. ~ An unquiet, restless, quick-tempered 
animal, is generally a bad feeder, and unprofit- 
able. 

Much depends in fattening on outward and 
mechanical management. Fat is car'oon, or the 
coal which supplies the body with heat. If we 
are exposed to cold, it is burnt up in our lungs, as 
fast as it is deposited by the blood ; but if we are 
kept warm, by shelter or clothing, it is deposited 
throughout the body, as a supply on hand when 
needed. Warm stables and pens are a great as- 
sistance in fattening, and should never be neglect- 
ed. So also quiet and peacefulncss arc important. 
Every excited action consumes some part of the 
body which has to be supplied by the food, and 
detracts from the fat. In the climate of Michigan, 
warm stables, regular feeding at fixed hours, and 
kind treatment, with perfect cleanliness, save 
many a bushel of grain. Animals fed at irregular 
times are always uneasy and fretting. 

3. Ground and cooked food, fatten much more 
profitably than raw food. Mr. Ellsworth found 
that hogs made as much flesh on ono pound of 
corn ground and boiled to mush, as on two pounds 
raw unground corn ; though the first did not fat- 
ten quite as rapidly, as they could not consume as 
much food in the twenty-four hours. By grind- 
ing and smoking, ten hogs will each gain 100 lbs 
in weight, on the same food that five would do if 
it were raw. 

4. A change of food helps in fattening. Thus 
an ox fed entirely on corn and hay, will not fat- 
ten as fast, or well, as one which has roots, pump- 
kins, ground oats or buckwheat, 4c, fed to it at 
regular periods. The latter may contain inlrin 
sically less nourishing matter than the corn, but 
the change produces some unknown effect on the 
stomach and system, that adds to the capability 
of depositing fat. The best feeders change the 
food very frequently, and find that they make a 

l prolit by BO doing. Salt should be given 



I believe it is now generally conceded, by most 
good farmers, that horse power and labor-saving 
machines may be introduced with advantage and 
profit. The farmer and agricultural implement 
maker are mutually bound together by tho stron- 
gest ties of interest, and the same stimulus which 
promotes the advancement of the one, operates 
equally to the advantage of the other. It is this 
stimulus which has brought to so high a state of 
perfection the various kinds of machinery and 
implements now employed on tho farm. 

The plow is the most important implement used 
on the farm, and great improvements havo been 
made in this aiticle within a few years, especially 
in the draft, and in its adaptation to subsoiling. 
The double, or sod and subsoil plow, as it is call- 
ed, I consider one of tho best implements now in 
use, and I think that any farmer who has wit- 
nessed its operation, cannot but be convinced of 
its great utility and importance. 

Another indespensablo implement upon the 
farm, and one of great utility, is the harrow. 
This naturally follows the plow, and perhaps 
ranks the scond in importance. There are many 
forms of this implement. Having occasion to pur- 
chase ono recently for my own use, I have exam- 
ined somewhat carefully their various merits, and 
have come to the conclusion that there are none 
in use better than the square and improved hinge 
harrows. 

The roller I consider a very valuable article, 
especially on light soil. Among the advantages 
to be derived from its use, are, that on sowing 
down to grass, it smoothes tho land by forcing 
sods and small stones into the soft ground, pul- 
verizes the lumps of earth, and, by pressing the 
light, loose soil around the seeds sowed, tl.ey will 
be more likely to germinate ; by making the earth 
compact, also, at the surface, insects will lie. in a 
measure deprived of their shelter. Rollers are 
constructed of both wood and iron, and arc made 
in from one to six sections. For common uso, I 
should select ono madcof wood, with two sections 
of about two and a half feet each, and about three 
feet iu diameter. 



with every meal to cattle— say , in its various lias proved 

and'prcvents torpor of [ t ■ i ., . , ini 



ihe liver to which all fattening animals are sub- 
ject. This torpor, or disease, is to a certain ex- 
tent conducive to fat; but carried too far, the 
animal sinks under it. 

1. In cattle the skin should be particularly at- 
tended to. A fat animal is in an unnatural stato 
and consequently easily subject to disease. Tak- 
ing ii<< it has not its usuul power of 
throwing off poisons out of the system; and if the 
skin is foul, the whole labor is thrown on the 
kidneys. It is found by experience that oxen, 
regularly curried and cleaned daily, fatten better 
and faster than when left to themselves ; and if 
I with (lung, as is too often the 
seriously injures the animal. 

6. Too much rich food is injurious. The stom- 
ach can only assimulatc a certain quantity at 
once. Thus au ox will prosper better on 
of com and >b ground together, daily, 

than o xtures 

arc also valuable and saving of , rs when 

first put in the pen. If an animal loses its ap- 
petite, the food should at ouce be changed, and if 
itnpkina, or steamed hay, may 

xen will fatten better if the bay or stalks 
are cut for them, hut care must be taken i 

\n inch in length is about the 

r oxen, and half or three-quarters of 

an inch for horses. — Farmer's Con. 



that .11 

fashion together, make up 
that while Durhal 

ito for prival 
; but the meat ha 
ly found in n 
the proportionate « 

and the 

■ 



thing more certain than that one kind of animal 

y anolh- 

-le of selling oar grain and grass, those 

animal . .ich come to msto- 

mest. and fatten on the least 

nee in hogs is very great and important. 

some breeds moat be fed for two. or cm 

three winters, others are full grown and fatt e n ed, 

at ten months old ; and the difference in pr 

enormous. We canaot go into r*rt«.uUrs, baa 

; rule* may be considered as applying 

to all : Aa animal may be expected to 



hinerand a good horse-rake, it would seem that 
the laborious task of haying, might be converted 
into a pleasant amusement. 

There are many other implements which have 
been recently introduced, and which promise to 
bo valuable aids to the farmer. Among these arc 
the reaper, horse-drill, horse-hoe. . 

Valuable improvements have also been niado in 
many of the smaller and riore common imple- 
ments, such as shovels, forks, hoes, 4c. It is 
probably safe to say that double the amount of 
labor can be performed, in a given time, with 
such tools as we now have atcouimand, than with 
•'1 in by-gone days. 
The-whole subject of farm implements, in all 
its various bearings upon the labors of the farm, 
■ hould be, ono of much interest to every 
firmer. No farmer or mechanic can perform a 
good piece of work without good tools, therefore 
parsimony in this matter is bad economy. 

In no way can a farmer contribute more to his 
1 1 fort, or success, than by a liberal and 
; onditure for implements. — /V. E. 
farmer. 



TO MAKE A COW OIVB DOWN MILK. 

The inquiry in the Araeri, liurist, 

* what will make a cow give down her milk r 
reminded me of an incident in my own experi- 



ence. 



We have a fine cow, which goes by the name of 



»unt of I She gives a 

milk, and of superior quality. 

I ha I • ■ r I , i nt. ■ I ■ ■ ; . ' 

tto look out f 

ass 
ler 
he 

I 
it; 



v.dt 



AGRICULTURAL. IMPLEMENTS. 

a communication to the large 
Concord Far- 

the mother of the arts, and the chief reliance ol 
civilised man for the means of subsistence, an : 

operations having been, in a great degree, depend- rights, and has no idea of sub; 
ent uj- -ation of muscular atren. ^inent, to the control of man and 

has Bd .red that ma iet down the bars of the pastor 

ios baa been more or leas engaged, during the last if there are no precautions tak 

id the improvement of machinery. I and if the fence is not " legal." she does not ooa- 
aodall the implemenu of larm husbandry. aider it worthy her regard. She und ers tands the 

In oar country this spirit of improvement ries of latches and books ; and. if she has a 

constan ■ better, hi- 

haps been more apparent than in any other >. n a sofBcient portioo of hei - nour- 

of the world, and has been attended with belli r 

and lavpwier remits. One of the evidences of this Bridget had be '• ■ 

is, that during the last year one asaenW ami 
fourteen patents have beeo granted for agr 



ti.ra! implement* twenty-seven of which were fo 
harvesters, power reapers, mowers, we. 

Agricaharal organisations and cattle shows, 
to awaken the attention of farmers la the 
neceifitj of employ iag all the aids which mechan- 
ical sk :f ly. and thereby 
iaereaas the demand for that at 
arnica the Utter can oantnaat* to the 
prosperity of the 



One 
i me, and aasd that Whiuy would 
I for eoane 
s "sap." I bad knosra 
that I hul learned if she was 




a—a* 
So I told Bridget V As wnul 



slop* the cow 



18 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



uld have no difficulty. She went out, and 
fter returned. 

have you succeeded this time'?" I in- 
specting her to show a pail of foaming 

ua'am," she answered, dolorously, "I 
sloppud her all about the barn-yard, and could 
get nary a drop." 

"Slopped her about the barn-yard? What 
does she mean ?" I said to myself. I inquired 
into the matter, and found she had been " bating " 
the cow. 

« Why did you do that V I asked. " I have 
often told you never to strike her." 

" But you said, ma'am, if I would slop her, she 
would give down her milk." 

So poor Whiley had a beating, and Bridget had 
nef milk, because I had used an expression which 
I had frequently heard, but which she entirely 
misunderstood. If I had told her to give the 
cow a " mash," she would probably have known 
what I meant. 

After suitable explanations, Bridget tried a 
third time, and with much better success. She 
prepared some food which the cow liked, and as 
Mooly was not slapped, she stood still, and gave 
down her milk, Bridget wisely concluding that 
the way a cow's heart, as to a child's, is through 
the mouth. — American Agriculturist. 



Best Vegetable fob Mich Cows. — A cor- 
respondent of the Northern Farmer, says : " The 
vegetable which I wish to recommend as the best, 
all things considered, for milch cows in winter, is 
white flat turnips. Some perhaps, will object to 
the turnip, because it will affect the taste of the 
milk and butter. So it does if fed raw ; this can 
be avoided by boiling. For each cow boil half a 
bushel of turnips soft; while hot, add five or six 
quarts of shorts, which will swell and you will 
get the full worth of it. A mess like this fed to 
a cow once a day, will produce more milk of a 
good quality, than any other feed at the same cost 
Turnips fed in this way do not taint either the 
milk or butter. One thing in favor of turnips as 
feed for cows is, they can be sown in August, or 
as late as the first of September. I sowed some 
as late as September last year, which were very 
fine, Turnips are also very profitable feed for 
pigs, when boiled in the same way as for cows." 



(ilje California fanner. 



WARREN a SON, EDITORS AND PROFRIETORS. 



SAN FBANCISCO, THUBSDAY, JANUARY 18, 1855. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

REDUCTION OF PRICE. 

The heavy losses upon the Forming interests or the State 
the past year, the genera] depression or thnt interest, and the 
discouragements resulting to all, we know have prevented 
many who are engaged in Agriculture from subscribing to our 
journal the past year. Feeling desirous to meet their wants as 
fin- oa Is in our power, we now offer the CALIFORNIA FAR- 
MER at SIX DOLLARS TER YEAH, PAYABLE ALWAYS 
IN ADVAM £, 

We trust this effort on our part to meet such circumstances 
will be met on the part of those engaged in the cultivation of 
the soil with a corresponding feeling, and that all will do us 
service by sending iua goodly list of subscribers and the amount 
for the same. We have made the price thus tow, that our 
subscribers and friends may at once send us the proof of then- 
good win. 

With this issue we publish THREE thousand copies, and 
trust the FARMER will find a welcome reception. Induce- 
ments for the formation of clubs will be found under the proper 
head. 

Clubs Formed — Premiums to Subscribers. 

With the third volume, with the opening year, we would 
offer to our friends stronger inducements thnu heretofore to 
make up CLUBS for the FARMER. It will be seen by our 
' 'special notice," that we shall commence with a reduction of 
lis pries of Ike " Farmer." Tiie price will now be six dol- 
lars per year, always in advance. No subscriptions re 
ceived unless accompanied by the amount. 

To those who are disposed to form CLUBS, when wc can 
send all to on, ««*.<•, wc shall send SIX COPIES for FIVE 
NAMES, TWELVE for TEN, and TWENTY-FIVE COPIES 
for the names and amount of twenty subscriptions. 

To those, or any of our friends who will interest themselves, 
we believe this will be some satisfaction, besides promoting the 
cause of Agriculture. We hope to see good results to all from 
this proposition. 

TO AGENTS. 

We would ask of our Agents to whom we send the CALI- 
FORNIA FARMER, to communicate with us and to remit full 
accounts to the close of the year. We shall send them extra 
numbers for distribution. We call their attention to the Re- 
duction in price of our journal ; this wc hope will give satis- 
faction to all. so as to enable our agents to enlarge our lists, 
and also afford an increased reward to 1 1 

We can offer inducements to Agents in all the large cities as 
Carriers, and to Booksellers and Newspaper Stores also, for 
Papers in quantities. 

THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 

We have many inquiries, daily, from our friends in the coun. 
try, who write us, desirous to make up clubs for the Fashes. 
and send us produce for the amount. We always do our ut- 
most to facilitate the cultivator of the soil, and we will assure 
our friends that if they will make up clubs of five, ten or 
twenty, they can send their Wheat, Rye, Oots, Barley, or speci- 
mens of extra quality, and we will alluw them the full market 
price in the payment of the Farmer. Our friends that are in 
a Tears can send us the amount thus due, and add the coming 
vjlume, and we will forward receipts for the same. So send 
along your wheat and good products. We do not mean — any- 
thing—but those articles that have a value, and we will take 



SPECIAL AGENTS FOR THE FARMER, &c. 

All the messengers of Adams & Co., and Wells, Fargo it Co. 
aro duly authorized by us to receive subscriptions for the Cali- 
roBNLi Fashes, and receipt the same ; also, to receive orders 
for Fruit Trees, Seeds, Ax., BDd any ami nil business with US. 
All such business committed to cither of these messengers will 
be promptly responded to by us. WARREN &~80N. 



OAKXAND. 

Ovm friends at Oakland are invited to call on MR. CHARLES 
STEWART, and subscribe for the California Farmer ; he 
is luthorized to receive subscription, and wc will cheerfully 
at 1 the farmer in his employment. We are willing to receive 
Bam/, B , or any valuable products of first quality 

in payiiK vilh our friends to cujoy our sheet, and 

coavenicM 



Reader ! 

Do you feel an interest in the permanency of 
California ? Do you desire to see an increase of 
population — more families coming to our shores — 
more houses built — more farms cultivated — more 
manufactories and workshops reared? Do you 
wish to see the mechanic, merchant, and farmer, 
cheerful, contented and prosperous? Do you 
wish to see churches and schools established, and 
the whole population under an influence that 
speaks only for good ? 

If you wish all this, then you must take meas- 
ures to effect it, and thejirst step is, to enlighten 
the people in the old States as to the real condi- 
tion, prospects, resources and capabilities, of 
California. 

When the people of the old Stctes are cor- 
rectly informed upon these matters, then we shall 
have an increase of population and of the right 
kind too. We shall have eastern families, and 
the most intelligent — we shall have more "homes" 
built — mo-e farms cultivated — and better too. 
We shall have our manufactories, workshops, and 
warehouses — and they will be made prosperous. 
The increase of families, will demand churches, 
schools, lyceums, and lecture rooms, and these in 
turn will enlighten and make our people proser- 
ous and happy, 

But reader, yon ask. how shall this be done ? 
"We answer as before, by conveying the true kind 
of knowledge to those we desire shall come here. 
This can be easily done by our citizens feeling 
and evincing a true interest in the welfare and 
permanent prosperity of California. By a con- 
stant correspondence abroad, revealing to the dis- 
tant friend or friends all that shall tend to show 
our condition and prospects. Show them the im- 
mense advantages possessed by our State over 
every other in her mineral and agricultural re- 
sources. Tell them of the salubrity of our climate 
and our productions — of our contiguity to China 
and Japan, and the islands of the sea, from whence 
the wealth of so many merchant princes have 
been derived. Above all fail not to tell them of 
our climate — a more beautiful and healthy one, the 
sun shines not upon. 

Should the reader of these lines find no time to 
write these and kindred descriptions, we humblv 
suggest that an easy and safe way is now placed 
before him, by which they can send all these facts 
and many more, to their friends in any State of 
the Union. It is simply by sending to each friend 
a copy of the "California Farmer," by each 
steamer. It ever has been and ever will be, our 
aim to present these important facts in all their 
forms from week to week, so that our journal 
shall not only prove an interesting family visitor 
wherever found, but also a true exponent of the 
truest and best interests of our State, the hom c 
interests of California. We therefore ask all who 
desire to spread such information, to use their in- 
fluence to extend the circulation of this our sheet, 
so that these truths may become widely known. 



California vs. New York Grain Market 

That one may form a true estimate of the val- 
ue of grain in California, or the price it will soon 
command, the value in the eastern markets should 
serve as some guide. 

For this purpose wc place before our readers 
the simple data per last steamer from the east, of 
the price of wheat and flour of the best quality, 
in the New York market, — best Geeesee white 
wheat, $2.45 per bushel. Allowing the bushel 
to weigh CO lbs., it is over four cents per pound. 
Best brands of flour, $11.25 and $12 00. 

This is the present price there, and with the 
market firm and largely increasing exports to 
foreign markets, can it reasonably be expected 
that flour will be sent to California from the east? 

The present advance in grains in California is a 
real and immediate benefit to tho producer, and a 
permanent gain to the State. It keeps our money 
at home instead of going abroad, and thereby adds 
so much to the wealth of our State. We consider 
the true police of the farmer and grain grower to 
be, to hold their produce themselves if possible. 
The signs indicate a further advance before long. 
We do not need foreign flour and wheat. Let us 
use our own products, and keep our money at 
home. The higher the prices wc pay for our own 
products, the better ; for, as the farmer — the pro- 
ducer — prospers, so will all other interests thrive 
and prosper. These are our sentiments, because 
it is a well known fact that when the farmer re- 
ceives high prices for his products, he is in return. 



liberal in [his expenditures. His homestead is 
then improved. The house is added to or in some 
way remodeled. His fences renewed— carriages 
and improved agricultural implements bought — 
and luxuries indulged in — all of which expendi- 
tures go directly to aid and give impulse to the 
mechanical and commercial community, through 
whose hands it is again passed into the pockets 
of the other branches of industry. Thus are we 
one and all benefited by the high prices obtained 
by the farmer for his crops. 

Wc wish our citizens generally, would regard 
the interests of agriculture with a more enlarged 
view, and not consider it an isolated interest, for 
it is not; but is rather one so closely allied with 
the interests of all as to seriously affect all. 

Farmers! think of this — when j'ou think more 
highly of your calling, and give to it that dig- 
nity and importance to which it is entitled, then 
and not until then, will others be led to a proper 
estimate of its character. 



Artesian Wells. 

"Deep Artesian Well. — George II. Beach 
Esq., of Marysville, has dug a well 210 feet with- 
out striking water. He was about abandoning 
the experiment, but the citizens there propose to 
raise .§1,000 more to continue it until water is 
obtained. We hope they will not let such an en 
terprise fail for the want of a little money, as if 
water is reached and flows in sufficient quantities 
the city and each of its inhabitants will be bene- 
fitted twenty times the cost of the well." 

Wc clip the above from one of our exchanges, 
and, over feeling a deep interest in all that apper- 
tains to this subject, we have made some inquiry, 
and learn that there is a prospect of finding water. 
The party that commenced the well, Messrs. 
Smith & Tan Dyne, bored some 100 feet, and 
were then superceded by other parties, who, it 
seems, have also abandoned it for a time. This 
is to be regretted, for such efforts should never 
cease. Persevere is the word, for the water is 
below. It is always best, however, for those who 
begin, to continue the work, and wc hope Messrs. 
Smith and Van Dyne will be called upon to take 
up the work again and finish it, for these gentle- 
men are much esteemed and well qualified for the 
work, having been very successful in securing 
good wells for a large number of persons in vari- 
ous portions of our State. 

Marysville will, we trust, soon boast of having 
as fine wells as San Jose, and we know the citi- 
zens are ever ready for public enterprise that 
shall benefit the mass of the people, and what 
enterprise more worthy than that which shall 
give them " pure water." 

Yuba county has done much to show her capa- 
bilities and resources in horticulture and floricul- 
ture; and with "artesian wells" she will become 
a perfect garden, That Marysville will rapidly 
improve in the beautiful science of floriculture, we 
feel assured, for we learn with much pleasure 
that the ladies have taken the matter in hand, 
and are determined that every cottage home shall 
have its garden, thus using their influence to 
make their homes more beautiful. This is as it 
should be, for too long have dwellings of California 
looked desolate without a garden, and thousands 
of neat and pretty cottages, with a very little care 
and expense, can be made to become not only 
beautiful, but more valuable ; and if the ladies 
take the matter in hand, the work will surely be 
done. 

Tea in Ohio. 

We copy the following from our exchanges and 
make the inquiry of our own readers — If Tea 
can be cultivated successfully in Ohio, why can 
it not be cultivated in California? The soil and 
climate, the atmosphere, seasons, temperature — 
all are much more congenial and favorable than 
Ohio, and we suggest to our readers to ask them- 
selves and neighbors the question we propound. 
We wait a reply. 

"The horticulturists of Southern Ohio, are 
among the most enterprising and successful in 
the country. They have brought the grape to a 
perfection no where else equalled. Their wines, 
"Sparkling Catawba," &c, are widely exported. 
The culture of tea has attracted attention. It is 
stated in the Cincinnati Columbian, that a num- 
ber of Chinese are now engaged in that pursuit, 
in the neighborhood of that city." 

The Sacramento Valley Railroad Co., has pe- 
titioned the council of that city for the right of 
running cars by steam through the city to the 
levee ; also, for an exemption from taxation on 
such property as they may own within the lim- 
its of the city. The Union learns that tho grad- 
ing, filling, lie, from Sacramento to Negro Bar, 
have all been sub-contracted by the original con- 
tractors, and that the parties arc only awaiting 
orders from the directors to begin operations. 
The latter will probably not move until the city 
council acts upon their petition. 



[For the California Farmer.] 

PROTECTION OF GAME AND STOCK. 

3aiv Miguel Rancho, Jun. 9th, 1855, 

Messrs. Editors: — Upon mature considera- 
tion and calculation, I am constrained to stick to 
my former figures, and would sooner double them 
than take one head therefrom. 

I recollect, about six or seven j'ears ago, when 
I was doing only a small business at fanning and 
unable to protect my stock, I was robbed yearly 
of some GOO head of pigs and chickens, and I 
never thought that there were more than six cay- 
otes concerned in the robbery. At that rate 100 
head per year, was devoured by each animal, and 
a scant supply it was too. 

I am informed by one our frontier rancheroSj 
that he has known 15 cows destroyed by one 
grizzly bear. What the number of smaller deli- 
cacies devoured by his bearship to fill up his yeart 
supply was, was not known. Bruin was after- 
ward killed, and eight inches of clear fat was cut 
from his ribs, proving conclusively that he had 
lived on the " fat of tho land." Some of the largo 
rancheros have from 500 to 700 head of calves 
alone, destroyed yearly. It may be asked, why 
do they not kill off the wild animals from their 
farms ? Should they make such an attempt, 
their efforts would meet with about as much suc- 
cess as would a traveler encamped on the banks 
of the Sacramento in the month of August, in an 
attempt to exterminate the musquitoes, Should 
they succcd in killing thousands even, their places 
would be speedily supplied by new recruits from 
the mountains and valleys. 

If wc value pigs, lambs, chickens, rabbits and 
hares worth only one dollar each — colts and 
calves, four dollars each — elk, deer and antolope, 
two dollars each, and of each an equal quantity, 
the avarage value of each animal at the time is 
was slain, would be near two dollars, and the sum 
of $5,840,000 would be the actual value of one 
year's supply of meat for tho wild animals. By 
destroying these wild animals we should add at 
least two thirds of this amount to the taxable pro- 
perty of our State the first year. The second 
year's revenue would be the same, with the in- 
crease of the animals saved from the first added — 
the colt with the year's growth, would be worth 
twenty dollars ; the calf ten; the pig with its in- 
crease, five; the lamb, elk, deer, and antelope, 
five each; the chichen, rabbit and haro, with 
their increase, two each ; making an avarage value 
of each head to be six dollars one year after their 
preservation from tho jaws of tho destroyer. The 
second year would present an increase of wealth 
to the State of $17,520,000 saved the first year 
with the second year's increase thereon, and $5 - 
840,000 saved from destruction the second year 
making the sum added to the wealth of the State 
at the end of the second year $23,6GO,000, and 
$40,880,000 would include the first year with 
two years increase thereon— $23,600,000 would 
be the savings from the second year with one 
year's increase, and $5,840,000 saved the third 
year, summing up $70,380,000 added to wealth of 
the State at the end of the third year, by the des- 
truction of tho wild animals. 

A few more years at these rates, and none will 
deny the ability of California to supply not only 
herself, but Oregon, and some of the eastern States 
if necessary, with beef, instead of importing as 
she now does, 100,000 head of the various kinds 
of stock yearly at an avarage cost of $30 per 
head, making $3,000,000 at least paid by her cit- 
izens for stock which can be raised here at less 
less expense than in any other quarter of the 
world with which I have becomeacquainted.pro- 
vided the wild animals are destroyed. 

Our Legislature has wisely passed laws to 
prevent man from killing game at certain seasons, 
but unwisely left the wild animals, who destroy 
ten times the quantity that man would, to help 
themselves undisturbed. Laws are justly passed 
to prevent man from stealing and robbing, and 
yet the wild beasts are permitted to enter my en- 
closure and destroy my horses, cattle, sheep, hogs 
&c., with impunity. Laws are enacted to pre- 
vent man killing his brother man, but none are 
passed to protect our lives and property from 
wild animals. The cases are of frequent occur- 
where our citizens have fallen victims to these 
wild and savage boasts. A Mr. Torry was killed 
by them on the San Jouquin. In the Santa Cruz 
.Mountains and other sections. of tho State have 
our citizens been attacked and killed by them, 
while 'assaults with intent to kill." arc ol almost 
daily occurrence, yet in no instance has any of 
our county sheriffs ordered out a " posse " to 
arrest the murderers; neither has the governor 
offered a reward for their apprehension. I do not 
suppose Gen. Estell has even one of these precious 
rogues confined at Corte Madera, notwithstanding 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



19 



their numerous murders and crimes. No. they 
are not men, but animals, and consequently arc 
not amenable to our criminal or civil laws. 

I thought of saying much more upon this im- 
portant subject, but not wishing to intrude my- 
self too much upon your valuable space with the 
discussion uf one subject. I will leave it to work 
out its own salvation in the hands of others. 

Your fellow laborer in the cause of agriculture. 
John M. Horner. 



of the American continent — may bo garnered up 
for the instruction and benefit of posterity. This 
ought to be done very early in the history of this 

mnwealth, and no time would be more 

ibl i be In the work than during the prcsenl 
Legislature. Very respectfully, 

Yours ! WtNst.ow. 

Pan FrwdKO, Jan. IV II 

Commerce of Shoalwater Bay. 
The annexed statement lias been carefullj | 
pared by Capt. Russell, of Shoalwater Hay. at the 
i in 'st of Government. It shows the importance 
and value of the trade that is springing up in 
that quarter and finding its way into our ports ; 
this is but the beginning. Capt. Russell is one 
of our early and most enterprising shipmasters, 
and his energy, porseveranco, and trials among 
the Indian tribes in that quarter, would form a 
romantic history. He has accomplished much, 
as will hereafter bo shown : 

COMMERCE OF SHOALWATER BAY FOR THE YEARS 
1850— '51— '5S— '53 AND '54. 

Date, Name and Captain. Tons. Cargo and volu,. 

185(1. Schr Spftfford, Jenkins ...lBO.mistnltenforColuni. river. 

Dec'r. Bark Undine 250. " " 

" .Schr Ann Sophia, Tuttlc. 80. oysters 1400 bush. .$8,400 
" ScuTwo Brothers, HnlsteiidlOO .oysters 1400 bushels 8,400 






To the Readers of the Californir 

The annexed communication, wit! 
attached, has been kindiy tendered 
would only ask of our friends to r< 
for themselves, as to the importance 
named therein. 

We are deeply grateful for every testimonial of 
favor and encouragement in our labors, and we 
shall speak our mind more fully with the next 
number, in our " New Year's" wish to them. 



$10,800 
1851. 

Jan'y.Brie; Quadratus, Means.. .200. mistaken for Colum. river 
MarehSohr Tarlatan, Morgan ... 80. oysters 1400 bushels 8,400 

April -Schr Columbia, Phillips. ..Kill. oysters 1000 bushel- li.HIIO 

" .Schr Iowu, Lane. 80. oysters lijoo bushels G.IJOO 

Dec'r.Schr Robert Bruce, Terry. UP • horned in Ihe Buy. 
Oct'r.SchrSen Serpent, Miller.. 80. oysters 1400 bushels 8,400 



Total value, 1851. ...$28,800 
1852. 

Feb. to Sep. 

Schr Son Serpent, Miller(7 trips)560. oysters 8630 bush. $45,780 
April and June, 

SchrRialto, Boiml(3 r.rips)3Q0. oysters 3500 bueh. 21,000 
" .Schr Tarleton, Morgan... 80. oysters 1400 bush. 8,400 

" .Schr Pomona. Terry 80. oybters 1400 bush. 8,400 

Ang.Z7.Brig Sophia, Bund 150. piles 15000 feet... 1,300 

Sep.lO.U 9 etmr Active, Atden. .700. survey in-. 

Nov.14 . Brig Oriental, Hill 200 .piles 5000 leet .... 1,000 

March to August, 
Schr Loo Choo, Nelson(6 trips)480. oysters 8325 bush. 49,950 



Total exports, 1852. $135,830 

1853.Schr Maryland,Davi6(G tripp)560. oysters 11400 bush.$84,000 

" .Schr Potter, , (3 tripsin. oysters 3500 bush. 15,000 

" .Schr Sophia, West 8.',. oyster.. 1000 bu 

Mar.15.nrii: Merchant, 8aywood.S00. goods Imp'd, $3,000 

Jan.29.Baik Samo0! Cowell 203.pilea 12000 feet h.'i'w 

June 10. Bark Sophia, Sours ....800. piles 18000 feet.... 5,000 

" 80. Bark Palm, Shalti 300. piles 15000 feet.... 7,500 

Aug.8. Bark Sophia, Sears 800 piles 12000 feet-- •• 8,000 

Sop.lS do do JOO.piles 19000 feet.... 6,000 

" .Bark Potomac, SI. ..no.. ..205.piloa 18000 leet.... 8,000 
"SI .Arimn, A.ikins 366. piles 15000 leet — 9,000 

"SO.Brigfalofl, Shult/. 300. wrecked at tin, ml ol 



1851. 



Total value of exports, 1853.. $145,500 
; n. $05,400 

Schr Mary Tn rl i 

. 
May 5. Bark W G ..750 

"25.8 700 

-I nr Ann G Doj TOO bu»h . 10.200 



An Indian Mummy. 

Tn tie Editor of the California Farmer : 

Dear Sir: Puring my recent geological ex- 
plorations in Washington Territory, I visited an 
Indian graveyard, on the claim of Capt. Russell, 
Shoalwater Bay, where my attention was called 
to the body of an Indian in an extraordinary 
state of preservation. It was enclosed in a small 
covered canoe, inside a larger one ; the outside 
canoe in a state of decay, showing the great length 
of time that had elapsed since its burial. 

It was very evident that the body had not been 
disturbed since its interment. 

Full reliance may be placed in any statement 
Capt. Russell may make on the subject. 

Respectfully, John Evans, 

U. S. Geologist. 

At the invitation of Capt, Russell, we have ex- 
amined the body of the Indian he has brought 
from Shoalwater Bay, Washington Territory, and 
have full confidence in the veracity of his state- 
ments. The remarkable preservation of the speci- 
men renders it an object of great interest and 
value, as it illustrates far more impressively to 
the mind than any written description the great 
veneration of the Indians for their dead, and 
gives a singular insight into the habits and reli- 
gion of a tribe now lost. 

The mode of preservation is unknown. No 
traces of any embalming material were found, and 
the viscera exist, though in a shrunken state, in 
their natural situations. Lest change of climate, 
introduction of larcso, or other accident, should 
occasion decomposition, wc recommended Capt. 
Russell to cover the body with an arsenical 
preparation and apply a coat of copal varnish, 
which has been done without materially altering 
the original aspect of the specimen. The materials 
which lined the canoe have been removed to dry 
them and replaced as nearly as possible in their 
original layers. Among them were found re- 
mains of two skeletons, one being of a child, the 
other of a youth ; some bits of bone, said to be 
Indian money, and a roll of leather marked with 
the holes of stitches and metal buttons. 

The body has been replaced as nearly as possi- 
ble as it was (irst discovered. 

Arthur B. Stoot, M. D. 

Henry M. Quay, M. D. 

Chas. W. Brinck, M. D. 

San Francisco, Jan. II, 1S55. 

Mr. Warren : Dear Sir — I have read the paper 
signed by Doctors Stout and Gray, and likewise 
scon the Indian mummy referred to in their state- 
ment. I consider it an object of great curiosity, 
nnd well worthy of the most careful preservation, 
inasmuch as the encroachments of our christian 
civilization will soon change the habits of the 
aborigines of this portion of the American con- 
tinent, and their ancient arts and manners and 
religioi. obliterated. 

The habits of pn serving remarkable persons 
in the abort; of the N. W. toast, have 

been long known, but pot ha] men of 

their mummies bas 

ized communities. It is | i ration 

may be effected by the si 
tion. or expo 

of the body. But the human body will often be 
preserved in a similar - mummy by 

long ex and as then 

appeal il art having 

been applied . it may have 

been the result of a How- 

object of great int. ( iXm ^ 

, . . ... 

in an ethie 

had time. . ., 

: the public 
and I I 

iat I could Wc have received the first 

not ace sent at the a Chinese journal, 

Speer, and published by 

at the examination of iL< 

languages. 

an Academy We artecm this a valuable publication, nse- 

and to 

of this State — and attm ! i i ii what ig 

d upon many 



$171,550 

• This vessel lay 15 days oft the mouth of tfio river, waiting 
liirapi] ilc, and was piloted in by the 

loni 

Combination Again. 
We have often spoken of combinations and 
their influences, and have seen them beneficial to 
a people, and have seen them otherwise. Wc 
now have upon our mind a new and ttsrfitt com- 
bination — one that, as far as it has developed 
itself, has most generally proved useful, ami is 
highly approved of by our entire community. 
We allude to the Sacramento Stage Company, 
under the control of their able and efficient 
dent and manager, Jas. -Birch, Esq, The whole 
operations of this company havo been completely 
-fill from the beginning, Although having 
control of many extensive routes — absolute | 
as it were— that power was im 1, not 

to " make a pile" to-day, and lose it to-morrow ; 
but with a wise foresight, a looking to the future, 
tnpany met the wants of the public, sought 
to win their approbation and confidence by a 
us and libel of ad- 

vancing the 

means they have won p 

the confidence of all. coti » i I fear 

of opp" I that 

It is gratilying to recall such instances of wise 
it praise should be 
,ved where it belot 



appropriate as the present for such a paper, or a 
"u so well qualified to conduct It as its pi 
editor. Everything connected with it seems 
peculiarly providential and happy, and we trust a 
liberal community b ill duly appreciate and gen- 
erou ! sustain it, Wc want light upon every- 
thing connected wi:h the history, manners and 
ins of this mighty nation ; and in our own 
sphere of action we know that tho influenco and 
interest of Agriculture will bo greatly advanced 
by the knowledge wo shall derive from this 
; nation. AVc make the following extracts from this 
paper, of matter of much interest : 

THE CHINESE TALLOW TREE. 

A very curious and valuable, yet hardy plant, 
well known in China, and found along the whole 
coast, from Macao to Shanghai, is the Kau-muh, 
or tallow-tree, known to botanists as SliUingia 
«■ hi/era. It is one which may be grown probably 
with success in tho climate of California. Fre- 
quent notices of it are found in the journal of 
Martini and other Jesuit missionaries, as well as 
in more modern works. The following account 
is compiled from a description by Dr. S. W. Wil- 
liams in tho Chinese Repository. To it we only 
add that the oil is sometimes also expressed, by 
means of two pieces of wood, brought together 
with great power by a lever to which a buffalo is 
attached. 

"The leaves of this specimen of the Euphorhia- 
ceous family resemble in shape and contour those 
of the aspen or populus tremula, but arc smaller, 
and without that expansion in the leaf-stalk so 
remarkable in that favorite tree. To those who 
are not acquainted with the aspen we may say 
that the leaves are rhomboidal, or like the dia- 
mond panes of glass in the cottager's window. 
They are of a pale and delicate green, and have 
two corners of the rhombus or diamond rounded 
off. There is something light and elegafit about 
its aspect, whether it meets you in the diffusive 
form of a bush, or whether it rises to the 
height and consideration of a tree. The spikes 
of flowers, which terminate the branches, are thin 
and pliant, and remind us of tho barren flowers 
in some of the amentaceous family, such for ex- 
ample as the poplar and the aspen. Being small 
and of greenish yellow, they do not attract the 
eye at first, but when looked at with a love for 
nature, there appears something extremely neat 
and interesting in their figure.' Upon this spike 
the flowers are ranged in clusters, consisting of 
fivo, six. or more individuals. Each minute clus- 
ter is bosomed in a small involucre or ruff of about 
five leaves or sepals, and is adorned on each side 
with a little knop or kidney-shaped gland. 

The fruit is a drupe, or nut, surrounded with a 
fleshy covering. This, covering splits into three 
valves when the nuts are ripe, which turn back 
in the shape of rays, and expose the white nuts 
in their centre. The nuts have that additional 
orihv in the euphorbiaceous 
family, which in consistence and color resembles 
tallo>v. and burns freely when ignited, though 
held at a distance from the flame. The shell is 
hard and the nut oily, both of which kindle and 
burn with great retail 

This beautiful as well as highly useful tree is 
one that vouches lor the 

who. while lie draw's around us the curtains of 
night, that the burden may be taken from our 
lias afforded to inventive man various means 
-Men the gloom and cheer the nielan 

ion way of obtaining tho materials 
for this light is. to put tl into water, 

which, in the pre ' ig. melts the si 

it up "hen rool in tho form of 

to be 

sure ai ind one, like many other 

I require much art 



Belgium Agricultural Society. 

Mural Exhibition of 






II COvrr 

i the n ' 



apartments. 



TO THE FRIENDS OF 

Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture. 

" Knowledge is power," is a truth nowhere 
more fully illustrated than in the field of your 
enterprise ; and on no part of that field more im- 
portant than in our State. In other States and 
different climates, the experience of oges is con- 
densed into books; and the son inherits the prac- 
tical knowledge of his father. Their books are 
their general guide, and their periodicals contain 
the result of their continued improvements. But 
with us the case is different. Here we havo a 
climate to which the" instructions of no book are 
adapted, a soil peculiarly unlike any to the de- 
velopment of which science has been applied, and 
almost an entire want of experience in any de- 
partment. Here no father has learned more than 
a few of tho first principles of agriculture, much 
less has he had time to transmit even the moiety 
he has learned to a son. Our first generation ol 
agriculturists is yet in its merest youth. 

If no books adapted to our circumstances are 
yet written, and no man has sufficient experience 
to write one ; and if the periodicals published else- 
where entirely fail to meet our wants, we are shut 
up to a single choice between two courses — we 
must either grape our way in the dark, feeling 
and experimenting each for himself, for all thost 
facts and principles which are peculiar to our soil 
climate and productions, (and this will reach 
nearly the whole range of our operations) thuf 
advancing by a process to slow as to be entirety 
unsatisfactory to every one ; or wo must sustain o 
periodical, which shall be a general reservoir foi 
the reception and diffusion of the experience o 
all — an instrument whose columns shall be a con- 
stant reflector of all the light which our thousand 
intelligent cultivators of the soil can elicit fron- 
their "watch and toil," Which shall be oui 

choice, cannot admit of a quesl 

Such a periodical we find in our midst. Th< 
California Farmer we believe capable of meet 
ing our every want. The Messrs. Warren havi 
evinced an energy in, and devotion to, the worl 
which is worthy of all praise, and is a sufficien 
guaranty for the future. Shall the Farmei 
receive that countenance and encouragement i 
I Will the growers of grain and veg- 
tables, fruits and flowers, in this State, treat them 
i a weekly repast in the perusal of ii 
columns, (the annual subscription price bears n 
comparison with the value of what you get,) an 
make an energetic effort to induce their neighbor 
to do the same ? But even this will not 
enough. No one man, nor company of men, fror 

department of knowledge, or section 
the Country, can make the columns of the Farm e 
what they should be. — what they must be 
heir wants. It must combine the exper 
cry class, and represent peculiar charai 
: -lie* of every part of the State. Wc asl 
the attention of those whom we addrci 
.[-, be columns, 

rial aid" of tl 
i*e observe ti 
meodati ... thus much because we deem it due 

>r "',. '"''.' [J the proest proprietors of the paper, and baasni 

_ cause it advi 

Wo have no pecun st in 

■ iimeh. and yet we most bcarti 

statistical an 

of all who have at heart tt 

—the development 

r agricultural resources. 

breadth eb > hat, San Fraacieo 

. Hs. 

were placed out- 



Thecom 

impieme: 



- tlope and there could not be found a period of time a - 



- were decorated 
flage, : The city w« 

: the anniversary ( ' 
:«rated Beigiam froi 

ing -h- try, rabbit*, j 

inimala, and 
.;.e .meat d< 
menu were offered in premiums. Tbe con. 
tion was for the ar e country • 

• 
from any eou- ranoport by - 

cium. was tree m e.i 

courage foreigners implements 

enmeadvanu. 
and a ' 



,.iM. l:.:.nCit>. 
m Joee. 

r: ca La, 

.ii n.E. 

■ Mil.SI -^ 1.4 



TSSADWILL I CO. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



horticultural grprtmcnt. 



Planting Trees. 

he season for transplanting trees now de" 

ir attention, a fen- practical hints derived 

xpcriment may not be without profit to 

the interested. The inquiry is frequently made 

by our friends, '• How do you transplant a fruit 

tree to make it live? I cannot make half my 

fruit trees live." 

In the first place, it is very easy to make a fruit 
tree live, if you understand how. Many persons 
imagine that there is but little difference between 
the planting of a tree and a stake ; until they are 
taught by two or three lessons of disappointment. 
A case in point will show that knowledge is in- 
dispensable to success. 

A farmer not more than thirty miles from the 
city of Boston, had an orchard of trees to plant. 
and wishing to have them live and thrive, em- 
ployed or engaged the services of an experienced 
gardener to transplant his trees. The gardener 
prepared the soil, and set out on the first day ten 
trees only, (the trees were of large size for nurse- 
ry trees.) out of one hundred and twenty-five 
which were to be planted. The owner of the 
trees was sadly disappointed, at nightfall, in find- 
ing " but ten trees out of the lot, set out ; " and 
more so at the price charged by the gardener 
(two dollars and fifty cents per day) for his work. 
Accordingly he discharged him, and concluded to 
set out the trees himself. Now mark the result. 
Ten years afterwards, the same man was at 
work in the same orchard, when a gentleman 
riding past, stopped to examine the trees. After 
attentively looking at them for a few moments, 
he asked the owner why he did not plant the 
whole orchard at the time he planted this row of 
large and thrifty, full-bearing trees near the wall, 
which were large and vigorous, the others being 
small and spindling ; observing, " had you plant- 
ed your whole orchard at that time, you would 
have been much benefitted thereby." " These 
trees," said the owner, " were all planted at the 
same time ; but I employed a competent gardener 
to plant out the ten that you admire, while the 
rest were put out by myself, because I thought 
him too slow, and charged too much ; but if I 
had given him his price — yes. even doubled it. 
for ten days, I should have been greatly the gain- 
er ; for. of these ten trees, any one of them would 
have more than repaid the whole expense." The 
stranger smiled as he observed, " 1 am the gard- 
ener who set out those trees for you ; and I thought 
you would learn, sooner or later, that it required 
more knowledge to set out an apple tree, and to 
have it grow, and bear well, than it did to plant 
a post ; or. in other words, that whatever is worth 
doing at all, is worth doing well." 

To set out, or transplant a fruit tree, with the 
expectation of having the same live and thrive, 
requires only a little care and a little knowledge ; 
but that little constitutes the whole matter, and 
is all important. 

The following method has been successfully 
pursued by myself for some considerable length 
of time, and I think, can be adhered to with a 
good degree of confidence, as to a favorable result. 
First, the hole for a moderate sized tree, should 
be made of from three to five feet in diameter, 
and of sufficient depth to receive all the roots 
and rootlets, without cramping or bending the 
same; give them, as nearly as possible, their 
original position and inclination. It is better to 
deprive the tree of a portion of its roots, than to 
cramp or bend them. Place the tree in the same 
position in the hole that it occupied in the nurse- 
ry, but not too deep. Many inexperienced per- 
sons lose their trees from too deep setting, and do 
not know the true reason. A tree should be set 
no deeper than when in its original position in 
the nursery. If any of the roots are bruised or 
broken, saw or cut them off smoothly with a sliarp 
knife; balancing the tops by removing the largest 
shoots. 

Use good food compost as a manure in setting 
out and fill in finely pulverized mold closely about 
the roots. To make sure there are no hollows 
around the roots, it is best to use the hand to in- 
duce the fine earth around the small fibrous roots, 
gently shaking the tree until it becomes quite 
firm of itself. Any neglect at this stage of trans- 
planting is an error, which will be sure to be seen 
in the after-growth of the tree. 

As a general thing, I have not used water in 
transplanting trees, and do not recommend its 
use, except when setting out quite a large tree; 
then I use water — say one pailful when the tree 
is partly set out, or the hole a little more than 
half filled up with earth. I wait until the water 
has dried in or become absorbed, before filling up; 
but never make a "mud puddling" by throwing 
in the earth immediately after the water. I have 
found, by experience, that too frequent watering 
applied to the surface tends to harden the earth. 
and proves injurious to the tree. In frosty loca- 
tions, if you fear lifting of the tree, a small 
mound rising in the fall around the stem of the 
tree will remedy this evil. Remember to remove 
this earth in the spring. 

In very wet, black soil, such as lands bordering 
upon meadows where there may be annual over- 
flows of water, a quantity of stones plaoed upon 
the bottom of the holes before setting the trees 
will be beneficial, and often of much consequence 
to the future thrift of the tree. Again in very 
gravelly or rocky soil, it is best to dip out — say 
one or two cart loads of the earth, and remove it; 
filling its place with rich garden mold ; and our 
word for it, you will be much benefitted thereby. 
True, there is some labor attending this operation; 
but you are planting a tree, perhaps, for future 
generations, the fruit of which you may never 
taste ; but they who come after you will bless the 



labors of your hands, while they regale them- 
selves with the fruit of your industry. 

By attending to the above general hints, you ' 
can ensure to yourself not only a pleasant shade 
tree, but a profitable bearer; and if so you will 
be of our mind (so far as fruit trees are concerned.) 
that when the tree is transplanted well, "it is 
(Innc. if well done ; " if not. why you will soon 
find it out — The Soil of the South. 



Cuttings of Fruit Trees. 
Cuttings, says the Albany Cultivator, should 
be made in autumn after growth has ceased, or 
early in winter — they may be preserved by fast- 
ening them in a box by slats running across, and 
then placing the open side of the box downwards 
with its contents in the bottom of a pit dug for 
the purpose, on a dry spot of ground, and bury- 
ing it with earth, The slats' keep the cuttings 
from coming in contact with the earth below, and 
they are preserved in a proper moist condition. 
Or, they may be packed in slightly damp moss in 
a large box, placed in a cellar. Very early in 
the spring they should be set out. Every cutting 
should be cut off just above a bud at the upper 
end. and just below one at the lower end. Taken 
off closely to the old wood, with a base attached, 
they are more sure of growth. They should be 
set out in a trench, in a rich mellow soil, which 
is to be packed or trodden closely about them as 
the trench is filled, and afterwards a mellow sur- 
face made by drawing on a little more earth. The 
length of the cutting should be eight inches to a 
foot, and two-thirds to nine-tenths buried. 
Shading the cuttings of any deciduous trees, (in- 
cluding all fruit trees.) is of little or no advan- 
tage, but it is important to keep the ground uni- 
formly moist: if this is done by watering, the 
surface should be preserved from crusting or crack- 
ing by mulch. This is the mode of raisingquince 
trees, currants and gooseberry bushes, grapes, 4c., 
but will not answer for the larger fruits generally, 
in the Northern States — it is cheaper to bud and 
graft than to procure the few which may be ob- 
tained among many failures in this way. 

On Planting Shrubberies. 

If there is one thing mure than another, which 
adds to the embellishment of the grounds, it is 
the proper distribution of small trees and flower- 
ing shrubs around the homestead. It is not quan- 
tity which constitutes the charm, as in nine cases 
out of ten, double the number is planted that 
thould be. Every plant should have enough space 
to keep it from crowding down others ; and to 
shis end, before ever a shrub is set out, the nature, 
size, and habit of growth of each kind, as far as 
possible, should be ascertained. Without this, 
there is danger of placing those most dwarf and 
conspicuous farthest from the eye, while the strong 
growing are placed nearly at the outside. An- 
other frequent error is to plant single specimens 
on the lawn far too near the edge. • This arises 
from want of perception as to what the effect 
will be, when it has arrived at its full growth. 
There should always be. if the lawn is of any 
size, at least two feet of grass intervening between 
the shrub and walk. 

Another essential is color and time of flowering, 
for a great deal can be done in giving effect, by a 
judicious distribution of colors, so that no two 
plants having the same color, and opening at the 
same time, should be planted side by side. The 
general character of the shrub or tree may also 
be taken into the account ; whether dense and 
compact as in the Lilacs; thin and drooping as 
in the Forsythia viridissima; or upright as in the 
African Tamarisk. Some look best trained to 
single stems as miniature trees, which may be in- 
terspersed among the others, as the thorns and 
Euonymus or spindle tree. 

If the whole is being newly made, a thorough 
preparation of the soil is amply repaid by the 
future growth of the shrubs, as once planted no- 
thing further than top dressing and digging can 
be performed. If the soil is naturally wet, it 
should be drained, as but few shrubs will succeed 
in such a place. It should then be well spaded 
up two spades deep if possible, working in any 
quantity of leaves or decayed vegetable matter, 
as the very best manure for such a purpose. Ex- 
cept the soil be nothing better than clay, such a 
preparation will answer, wiih perhaps a barrow 
load of good soil to some of the choice kinds of 
shrubs. If it is composed solely of clay, as much 
loose, friable stuff of any kind, street earth, sand, 
saw-dust, tan and the like, should be worked in. 
In addition to this every plant should receive some 
good soil for the roots to commence work in. 

In forming the outlines of the shrubberies, all 
stiff and formal figures and sharp angles should 
be avoided ; choosiog the circle, and the multi- 
tudinous undulations of which it is susceptible, 
as the grand fundamental principle to work by. 

Having proceeded thus far, that is, having got 
all in readiness, a quantity of stakes of various 
lengths should be stuck in various directions, to 
ascertain the, most conspicuous positions from the 
windows, walks. &c, in which to place any strik- 
ing object, choosing only those for this purpose 
that have a uniformly beautiful habit of growth. 
Having these all planted, the remainder can be 
filled up with whatever is intended to plant. 
Towards the outside, enough room can be left be- 
tween the shrubs, to grow a few summer flowers, 
which help to enliven the whole, and by choosing 
the hardy perennial kinds, with here and there a 
batch of annuals, the whole is in perfect harmony. 
— E. Sanders in Country Gentleman. 



Gas Tar in Horticulture. 
A discovery which is likely to be of gTcat ad- 
vantage to Agriculture, has just been reported to 
Agricultural Society, atClermont,Ohio. A garden- 
er whose frames and hot-houses required painting, 



decided on making them black, as likely to at- 
tract the heat better, and from a principle of econ- 
omy, he made use of gas tor instead of paint. 
The work was performed during the winter, and 
upon the approach of spring the gardener was 
surprised to find that all the spiders, and insects 
which usually infested his hot-house, had disap- 
peared, and also that a vine which for the last 
two years had so fallen off, that he intended to 
replace it by another, had acquired fresh force 
and vigor, and gave every sign of producing a 
large crop of grapes. He afterwards used the 
same substance on the posts and trellis-works 
which supported the trees in the open air, and 
met with the same result, all the caterpillars and 
other insects completely disappearing. Galig 
hani's Messenger states that similar experiments 
have been made in some of the vineyards of the 
Gironde, with similar results. 

Forest Trees. 

At a recent sitting of the French Academy of 
Sciences, held in the city of Paris, M. Chcvaudier 
developed a portion of the results of five years' 
study and experiments upon the manuring of 
forests, and the augmentation of their annual 
yield. This question has an interest in France 
which can hardly be understood in America, 
where the difficulty is rather to clear the ground 
of its woody growth, than to stimulate it to 
greater fruilfulncss. M. Chcvaudier commenced 
his experiments in 1847, believing it as possible 
to assist trees in their growth, as flowers, grass, 
and animal plants. Why could not art interfere 
to restore to the soil the mineral substances with- 
drawn from it by the roots of the trees, and by 
them conveyed to their trunks and branches. 
Because woods spring up of themselves, and ap- 
pear to flourish without the aid of man, was it 
not nevertheless probable that a system of ameli- 
oration of the soil might urge them to a more 
luxuriant vegetation ? The great difficulty in the 
way of such attempts was the length of time 
necessary to devote to them. 

When Franklin wished to convince his fellow 
citizens of the good effects of plaster of Paris 
upon a soil deficient in lime, he simply sprinkled 
in the midst of a meadow, a quantity of powdered 
plaster, tracing several words in huge letters. A 
few weeks afterwards the lime had sunk into the 
soil, but the words traced upon the meadow stood 
out from the rest by the richer color and the 
double hight of the vegetation. But in order to 
convince one's self in sylvaculture, that such or 
such a manure, or substance acts favorably or 
otherwise, study for whole years, and application 
of the system to a very large extent of land, were 
indispensable. After five years' steady devotion 
to this especially, M. Chevaudier communicated 
the substance of his discoveries to the Academy. 
He commenced his experiments by choosing 
among the substances that their cheapness ren- 
dered accessible, such as could restore to the soil 
the elements of the azote or salt withdrawn from 
it for the support of the lorest. As sources of 
azote, he emplo}'ed the salts of ammonium ; as 
sources of mineral substances, he used wood ashes, 
which contain the whole mineral portion of the 
wood before its combustion. He also tried lime, 
the salts of potash and soda, the phosphate of 
bone lime, plaster, and the sulphate of iron ; and 
earthy substances, the residue of factories, or salts 
of potash and soda, (oxy-sulphuret of calcium,) 
which had already been, and with advantage, 
tried in the valleys of the Vosges. 

It would be impossible to describe the tabular 
view drawn up by M. Chevaudier, which gives 
the individual history, and the bill of health of 
five thousand five hundred and thirty subjects — 
pines, cedars, oaks, beeches, larches, etc., etc. I 
have only room for the general conclusions, which 
may be divided into four categories : 1st, Sub- 
stances whose fertilizing effect was more or less 
marked. These were, the oxy-sulphuret of cal- 
cium, the chlorydratc of ammonia, plaster of Paris; 
wood ashes, sulphato of ammonia, lime, non-cal- 
cined bonosand poudrctte. 2d. Substances whose 
fertilizing effect was slightly marked, or doubtful. 
These were, the carbonate of coagulated blood, 
calcined bones, an equal mixture of nitrate of 
potash, non-calcined bones, sulphate of iron, and 
carbonate of lime, and an equal mixture of nitrate 
of potash and non-calcined bones. 3d. Sub- 
stances which seemed to have no effect at all — 
the carbonate of potash, the nitrate of soda, and 
scasalt. 4th. Substances which seem to have 
had an injurious effect — the sulphate of iron, and 
equal mixtures of sulphate of iron with lime. 
The residuum of soda and potash works, known 
by the name of oxy-sulphuret of calcium, gener- 
ally supposed to be utterly useless, has been 
proved, by M. Chevaudier's experiments, to be 
the most wonderful substance over employed for 
fertilizing purposes. It augments the growth of 
forest trees over one hundred per cent. In the 
neighborhood of soda-works, there are huge piles 
of it, the accumulation of years. At Marseilles 
it is thrown into the sea, while there are ; through- 
out the department, vast pine plantations upon 
which it might be applied with great advantage. 



Valuable Crtrarts. 



Large or Small Seed Potatoes. — By an 
experiment carefully conducted at the North 
American Phalanx, the following results were ob- 
tained : 

1. Liirge whole Sled, 29 It 14 oz„ produced 174 lb. 

2. Larce potatoes cut in halves, 15 lb 15 oz., produced 124. 

3. Large potatoes cut in quarter*, 7 tb, produced OS lb. 

4. Medium potatoes whole, 19 tb 3 07., produced 1-16 lb. 

5. Medium potatoes cut in halves, 9 lb 6 oz., produced 88M2 lb. 

6. Medium potatoes cut in quarters, 4 lb produced 07 lb. 

7. ^inall potatoes whole, S'jS lb, produced 117 lb. 

8. Small potatoes cut in halves, 6 tb, prodbced 81 lb. 

The percentage of small potatoes to the seed 
nsed, was greatest in the quartered large potatoes. 
Repetitions of the experiment have all been in 
favor of large uncut potatoes for seed. 



Valuable Discovery of Gum. 

A few weeks ago we noticed the discovery of 
great fields of gypsum, and great supplies of gum 
arabic, at the head waters of Red Brazos, by the 
expedition of Captain Marcy. Since that period, 
the Washington Star has published some corres- 
pondence of Thomas L. Drew, Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs, and Dr. Shumard, physician to the 
expedition, describing the gum. Dr. Shumard 
says, in relation to it, " This gum, for which I 
propose the name of gum mezquite, is believed to 
occur in inexhaustible quantities, and will no 
doubt prove a valuable source of revenue to the 
Slate of Texas, New Mexico, and the adjacent 
Indian territory, besides affording employment to 
the different tribes of Indians now roving upon 
the plains, many of whom would no doubt be 
glad to gather and deliver it to the different fron- 
tier posts for a very small compensation. 

The mezquite tree, from which this gum is ob- 
tained, is by far the most abundant tree of the 
Plains, covering thousands of miles of the surface, 
and always flourishes most luxuriantly in elevated 
and dry regions. The gum exudes spontaneously 
in a semi-fluid state from the bark of the trunk 
and branches, and soon hardens by exposure to 
the atmosphere, forming more or less rounded 
and variously colored masses, each weighing from 
a few grains to several ounces. These soon bleach, 
and whiten upon exposure to the light of the sun, 
finally becoming nearly colorless, semi-transpar- 
ent, and often filled with minute fissures. Speci- 
mens collected from the trunks of tho trees were 
generally found to be less pure and more highly 
colored than when obtained from the branches. 

The guru may be collected during the months 
of July, August and September ; but the most 
favorable period for that purpose is in the latter 
part of August when it may be obtained in the 
greatest abundance, and with but very little 
trouble. The quantity yielded by each tree I 
found to vary from an ounce to three pounds ; but 
incisions in the bark not only greatly facilitated 
its exudation, but causes the tree to yield a much 
greater amount. As it is, a good hand will pro- 
bably be able to collect from ten to twenty pounds 
in a day. Were incisions resorted to, probably 
double the amount may be obtained" 

Mr. Drew says respecting it, l: The remarkable 
similarity of taste, appearance, and mucilaginous 
qualities of this gum to that of gumb arabic, in- 
duced Dr. Shumard, to make some experiments, 
the result of which proving satisfactory, he caused 
some twenty pounds to be gathered, which was 
brought home on his return some ten days past. 

Upon diluting one ounce of this gum in two 
ounces of cold water, I had a fine glutinous paste, 
which I have used in scaling envelopes and other 
packages. I have also caused it to be mixed with 
starch in the application to linen, and in both in- 
stances have no hesitation in saying that it is 
equal to the article for which it must soon become 
a popular substitute. In its first form, the Indian 
Department, you will perceive, is permitted tho 
privilege of its first official use. It will be seen 
that its adhesive or glutinous qualities cannot be 
excelled, as I have sealed up the box with it and 
will use it on the outward envelop." 

Our constant readers will remember that we 
have oftentimes urged travelers and exploring 
geologists to search for a few natural products in 
our forests, asserting while we did so, that new 
gums, resins, substitutes for gutta pcrcha and In- 
dia rubber, might be discovered. The new gum 
is the first .fruits of such explorations, and per- 
haps, by the Rider process of vulcanizing gutta 
percha, it may be adapted for making water-proof 
fabrics. Not one titho of the natural riches of 
our country have been developed yet. — Scientific 
American. 

How to Cure Hams. 

The following are the recipes for curing hams, 
furnished by the competitors to whom premiums 
were awarded for hams exhibited at the Maryland 
State Fair, held at Baltimore the past week. 

No. 1. — For 1,000 lbs. of meat, which has hung 
for several days after killing, tako 3 pecks of 
Liverpool salt, 1 1-2 lbs. salpetrc, 3 pints of mol- 
asses, 3 lbs. brown sugar, and 1-4 lb. cayenne 
pepper. Mix these ingredients together and rub 
the mixture on the meat well and thoroughly, 
both on the skin and flesh. Let it lie in tho salt 
for about 5 or weeks, hang up, and smoke with 
green hickory wood J. Carroll Walsh. 

No. 2.— For 1,000 lbs. meat, tako 1-2 bushel 
fine salt, 1-2 gallon best molasses, 3 lbs. brown 
sugar, 2 1-12 lbs. saltpetre, pounded very fine, 
mix all the ingredients together in a large wash- 
ing tub, and rub the meat therewith until you 
absorb the whole quantity ; the meat must be 
taken out of the cask once a week and rubbed 
with tho pickle it makes ; the two first times you 
take it out add at each time a plate full of alum- 
salt; it ought to remain in pickle 5 or 6 week.", 
or according to the size of the meat. 

. W. H. Marriott. 

No. 3.— To 1,500 lbs. of pork take 1-2 bushel 
G. A. salt, 1-4 bushel fine salt, 2 lbs. saltpetre, 4 
lbs. brown sugar, 1-2 gallon sugar house syrup, 1-4 
lb. Cayenne pepper, well mixed and thoroughly 
rubbed on, especially about hocks, packed away 
in a box or cask, with opening for brine to pass 
off, turned in 3 weeks, and at end of sixth week 
hung up and smoked with green hickory wood. 
Middlings, shoulders and hams all cured by same 
recipe. Mrs. Geo. Y. Wokthinoton, 



We may judge of men by their conversation 
towards God, but never by Qod's dispensations 
towards them. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



21 



i s c r 1 1 a n u . 



[OafODMS]. 
W II gill MOTOR. 

BT SAMIT-L NEWTD.V. 

A BT*B buret on the gloom of years ; 

It came u with ii« meteor light. 
To soothe a nation '■ doubt* and feara — 

Tii viudicate, of men, the right 

Before that meteor star up innine , 
The world acetned void of law or ruth ; 

But toit a ruling glory clung 
Honor and freedom, right and truth. 

It pawed, but nevermore can fado 

The memory of its peerless light. 
The dazzling glory it displayed 

When in ita splendor, beaming bright. 

Before it came, all waa dismay ; 

No li^ht, to bless tlie nation*, loom 
Now a world bails, of hope, the ray, 

That sprung to birth with Washington I 

[From the Boston Cultivator.] 
A Legend of the Red Men. 
A TRADITIONARY TALE. 
A little over a century ago, there dwelt on 
the shores of the St. Lawrence a bold and warlike 
tribe o( Indians called the Chippeways. They 
were noted for their kindness and hospitality to 
strangers, their great prudence and judgment in 
battle, with the influence they exerted over the 
surrounding tribes. Wayunga was their chief. 
He was a bold and warlike man, possessing all 
the virtues of a savage race, and but few of the 
vices that arc commonly found lurking in the 
bosom of the untutored Indian, He had a fair 
and lovely daughter, the only remnant of a once 
numerous family, and she was the ideal of perfec- 
tion ! Possessed of a kind and loving heart, she 
won the affections of all her race. When the dark 
brow of her father was clouded, when the strange 
whisperings of revenge came forth from his in- 
most soul, would she hasten to his side, there to 
comfort arid console him. She would point him 
toward the spirit land, where dwelt her sainted 
mother, and where her kind brothers and loving 
sisters were at rest. Then would the brow of the 
old man soften, and the tears of sorrow would 
trace each other down his furrowed cheeks. Mo 
tioning Niona from him, he would sit for hours 
in silent meditation, while strange feelings of 
calmness and revenge were struggling for the 
mastery of his bosom. 

These were Niona's hardest trials, during which 
she would wander forth, and on the rugged banks 
of the Oswegatchie, would she seek for the wild- 
est flowers, that she mights twine them into a 
wreath for her father. At other times she would 
sit upon the same grassy mound that overlooked 
her native village, and muse upon the past scenes 
of her countrymen. Once, their hunting grounds 
extended from the great St. Lawrence back to the 
Mohawk river, now thoy are encompassed on all 
sides. What once contained thousands of acres 
had been reduced to hundreds. The hunting 
grounds of her father vanished beforo her eyes as 
a mist before the summer's sun, and need I say 
that fair Niona wept — wept not for herself, but 
for her own loved people. 

Bays and months passed by, and still there 
was no change ; save that Niona's cheek grew 
paler, and her father grew more sorrowful. Bay 
after day they went forth upon their hunting ex- 
cursions, and at night returned heavily laden with 
the spoils of the chase; one in which all would 
be engaged, even the women and children. Great 
preparations were being made. Food was pre- 
pared and placed in their respective sacks. Ar- 
rows were pointed and bows were tried. Knives 
were sharpened, and tomahawks examined pre- 
paratory to use. All being ready, each repaired 
to his humble roof, to pass tho remainder of the 
night in rest or revelry, as they respectively chose. 
At the earliest dawn tho little village was awake 
and stirring. All seemed joyful, save Niona, and 
she, for the sake of her father, would fain be so. 
At his permission she was allowed to remain at 
home, while all the rest went forth in high antici- 
pations of pleasure and success. How well they 
succeeded we know not, for tradition does not in- 
form us, but this we do know, that they had a 
different enemy to cope with than those of the 
beasts of the forest. 

Upon a little mound that projected itself far 
into the forest, had Niona builta bower and with 
her own hands twined the myrtle and ivy, and 
planted the wild rose that bloomed at eai 
spring. During her lonely hours would she seek 
this favored retreat to pass away her time in sol- 
itude, and thither. had she retired so soon as her 
father's company had passed the borders of the 
village. For sometime she was occupied in ar- 
ranging the different flowers anil vines that crept 
around this bower of maiden innocence, and at 
last she broke forth into the following strain : 

THE INDIAN MAII'l t 
The flowers are awvetiy btoombag. 

The lulls and values o'er; 
Their fragrant sweet* are shedding— 

For me they Dtoom no more t 

My home la on tbe BaowntaiB, 

My aptrit'a on the nam ; 
I drink p-om out the fouotain 

ThatSoweta 



I wander in the lorrst. 

And elms the flowers of spring ; 
I inil trum them the aarei 

And BO my lather brmg. 

He aanOaa upon bia daofhtajr l 
Though aajv is on Bam bow, 

.lied 
With scot* upon hie brew 1 



His warriors they are fading, 

His kindred swept away, 
1 am his 

B ■ mQi al hrmel 

Scarcely had her voice died away on the still 
air, when she was aroused by the confused mur- 
mur of distant voices. Supposing that her father 
had forgotten something, or abandoned his object, 
she was about to rush out and meet him, when 
upon a second thought she resolved to await his 
arrival. She had not long to wait, for on their 
turning an angle round the hill so as to avoid the 
village, they burst upon her sight. A party of 
seven or eight hundred Algonyums, one of the 
most powerful tribes then inhabiting a large tract 
of land lying west of Albany, actuated by feelings 
of resentment, had sworn tho extirpation of the 
Chinpeway nation. 

Niona, knowing tho purport of their visit, 
watched with intent interest their proceedings. 
After having discovered all that it was necessary, 
she crept stealthily out from her hiding place, and 
with eager steps sought her father's company. 
Knowing the direction they had taken, she had 
but little difficulty in following them, though it 
was through an unbroken wilderness, so dense in 
many parts as scarcely to admit the rays of the 
sun ; but her heart was bold, and she knew that 
the safety of her people depended on this under- 
taking. Swiftly she flew over the broken ground, 
nor did she falter in her course, till she saw the 
smoke ascending from her father's fires, which 
had been kindled to prepare their noonday meal. 
This was about fifteen miles from their village, 
and at the head of a large body of water, and 
known as the Black Lake. 

The sun had already sunk far in the western 
horizon before Wayunga and his warriors were 
prepared to return and meet their foes. With 
five hundred able men, well armed and experi- 
enced in the art of war, Wayunga felt confident 
of success. In a short speech he told them of 
their sufferings, how their hunting grounds had 
taken from them, and how they had been driven 
from the burying grounds of their fathers, never 
to visit them more ! Had you seen the fearless 
scorn impressed on their dark features as he 
spoke, you would have said, it had its effect; — 
whether it had or not, the sequel will show. 

Darkness had long since encompassed the face 
of the earth, before they reached tho skirt of wood 
bordering their village on the west. Hero they 
separated, and all that were too old and infirm to 
engage in the approaching contest, were ordered 
with their women and children, to seek shelter 
on the dark waters of the St. Lawrence. Way- 
unga, rising to tho summit of a knoll, saw in the 
distance tho flames of fire and smoke ascending 
from their village. 

" Now," said he, turning to his warriors, " is 
the time for revenge ; while engaged in their 
drunken debauchery they will become an easy 
prey. Sparc none for the spirit of a loved wife 
and murdered children, call to mo for revenge !" 

With stealthy and noiseless tread they ap- 
proached the smoking ruins of their village which 
they a few hours befote had left in seeming se- 
curity. When within about twenty rods of the 
enemy, they arose, gavo the war-whoop and 
plunged info the ranks of the Algonyums, who, 
though taken by surprise, soon rallied, and like 
brave men withstood the charge. Now com- 
menced a dark and bloody scene ! The swift 
winged arrows of death, sped like lightning from 
side to side, and the tomahawk p learned widly in 
the midnight air, while the groans of the dying 
were mingled with tho shouts of tin 
as thev pressed closer upon their foes. The forms 
of dusky warriors were stretched along the earth, 
and beside them lay the reeking scalps of each 
murdered victim. 

The voice of Wayunga was heard cheering and 
shouting to his braves, and his form was seen in 
the thickest part of the fight, where his arm, 
though palsied with age, dealt death to 
blow. 

The Algonyums arc unable tho withstand so 
fierce a charge, and full back to gain protection of 
the hill, where, aided by the <i 
again permitted to form and once more advance 
10 the bloody affray. In I 

Mr an instant 1 other, and 

then Omega the Algoaj 

" Wayunga 
that flees when no 
when there is no n< 

Omepi ■ a serpent that lays in the 

path of the brave ; he hisses with his forked 
tongue, and the Great Spirit is angry with him. 
Wayunga soars like an eagle, and is not afr.. 
meetth rill meet him hi 

The next instant their tomahawks gleamed 
. unga was to quick for 
'1 one heavy blow he laid 
et, and in a moment his 
scalp was dangling by his side, yet reeking with 
gory blood. 

1 he death of their chief was the last blow to 
Lronyums, and they fled with dismay. Of 
! 1 undred warriors who left their homes with 
1 determination to extirpate the 

i-d ; the rest 
that memorable night. But Way- 
unga, though victorious, paid dearly for his rk- 
ve score of the bravest warriors had 
fallen, and many more had received severe and 
fatal wounds. 

Again 'tis morning, but how unlike the joyous 
one of the previous day. Distracted mothers and 
sot-rowing daughters are flying from side to side. 
and searching for their fallen friends. Niona pre- 
sides as a iruankaji spirit ministering to the wants 
wounded braves, and cheering the broken- 
hearted mourners. A group of dark form* are 



scon by the side of the valley, where, with tearless 
eyes and stained hands, thev arc preparing the 
last resting-place for tho dead. Friends and foes 
arc placed in the same pit. and their bloody wea- 
pons aro laid by their sides. No prayer is raised 
for the departed ones, but the Clrcat Spirit is in- 
voked, and then tho earth is piled high over their 
bloody forms. 

Wayunga never built his village again, butwith 
the rest of his tribe went farther west, where with 
his daughter he passed the remainder of his days 
in peace and quietude, being persuaded that he 
had his revenge. The descendents of that tribe 
aro now beyond tho Rocky Mountains, where, 
with fondness they still cherish the remembrance 
of Wayunga and Niona, his lovely daughter, 

Young Men and Woman of the Present Age 

We commend tho following from tho Sprinfield 
Republican. Read, refloct and practice accord- 
ingly :— 

There are subjects which, to touch upon with 
point and candor, would give pain and offence, 
and which need touching upon in the exact pro- 
portion that such pain would be given. Our only 
wish, in speaking of "our young peoplo," is to 
excite a profitable course of thought, and to do 
good. So far as our observation extends, the 
young men of our acquaintance do not at all ap- 
preciate the age in which they live, or the duties 
which are soon to devolve upon them. We meet 
them in the street, we see them at church, we 
talk with them across tho counter, we come in 
contact with them in occasional conversation, and 
the principal impression left upon us is a nicely 
fitting coat, a clean pair of boots, easy manners 
and a contented frame of mind. We go into 
their rooms, and find a novel, which they declare 
to be very good or very stupid. The Bible is out 
of sight, and the history and tho book of travels 
are not upon their tables. If we speak of politics 
they " don't care anything about politics, and are 
not posted ;" if of religion, they think " it pretty 
much as a man thinks ; if of any great question 
agitating the world abroad, they don't pretend to 
keep track of foreign affairs." As for thoroughly 
digested and well informed views of the literature 
of their own language, they have none. Notions 
they have in plenty — opinions with them are 
scarce. 

This condition of things grows out of a mistaken 
idoo. of life and its true ends. Business is the one 
subject that rises above everything else. On this, 
they are well informed. Here, they are perfectly 
at home, and it is this establishment in their 
minds of what was intended to be secondary and 
subsidiary, as the grand end of life, which prosti- 
tutes their energies, and dwarfs their whole being. 
God never made mankind with the intention that 
selling dry-goods, and counting money, and dig- 
ging potatoes, should be the great ends of its pur- 
suit. These arc all simply the means of sustain- 
ing animal life, and securing personal and social 
necessities and comforts. A true manhood is the 
grand object of life, — that development of the in- 
tellect and the heart, that symmetrical and sturdy 
growth of character, which makes a man a man, 
which lifts him above the accidents of fortune, 
and give him power, influence, self-reliance, intel- 
ligence, energy, and, above all, a feeling of equality 
and self-respect, worth more than all the wealth 
of the Indies. 

Tried by the standard suggested by this view, 
how many of our young men arc men or are 
growing to be men ? We leave it for them to an- 
swer how, in the time to come, when they take the 
place of their employers, they aro fitted to meet 
the responsibilities of society. What kind of tone 
do they propose to impart to their own circle 7 
What beneficent movements arc they to lead in. 
and be the supporters of ? These are serious 

their every- 
day life and he in future 
what ; ■ en and young women, make it. 

■red, and shal- 
toned. 



are questions in which we feel a grcate 
than we can express, for we know, an. 
profoundly feel, that upon their decisi 
tho future usefulness, respectability ami 
of many a young man and woman. 



lilies' iqrarttiunt. 



■pa* 

fear 



is as a wiiu deer 

and hides 

He is afraid to 



Shall it be frivolous, shallow-! 

low-hearted, or shall it be int< 

pure and ennobling, as becomes true manhood and 

true womanhood 7 

arc aware that (here aro discouragements 

way. We arc met with the statement that 
there is no use in trying to get into good society 
unless you have money. We answer that society 
that measures its members by money is not good 
society, and is not worth getting into, and would 
be a curse to yon if you were to go into it. Make 
your own society good, and then you will have 
good society. What to you are those poor speci- 
mens of humanity who estimate your importance 
by the corpulency of your purse 7 They do not 
call for a thought — and if you have true solf-re- 
■ give them one. Tom Carlyle 
maintains tl hat every man. by a law 

of nature, will find his own level, and be is right 
i 1 - We can select young men 
in Springfield who imagine that no one thinks of 
ng their schemes of self- 
k they are unobserved. 1 

-. knows and measures them all, and their 
good name is abroad. When they come to make 
an independent movement for themselves, they 
will meet it Tbe world is coming anon and 
more, every day, to eatimato men for what they 
are. and what they do and can do. 

are led to these remarks by the advent of 
that time of year wheat at if-irn proiemen t is more 
easily pursue- 1 than any other, and when scheme* 
for this object are usually devised and cootnva- 
mated. W bat are yon going to do the conving 
Fall and Winter 7 Are yon going to form reading 
and debating dubs 7 Are you going to form cir- 
cles for cultivation in coinnosition 7 Are yon 
going to lay out for yourself, or onder tbe a 
of friends, a cours 

you only cavarnlating on sosm private 
parties, or a few pabiic ootiDon parlies 7 



Mr. Jefferson and his Daughter Martha. 

In the superb new work soon to be issued by 
tho Appletons, under the title of the " Republican 
Court, or American Society in the Days of Wash- 
ington," by Rtifus W. Griswold, we find an inter- 
esting letter from Mr. Jefferson to his eldest 
daughter, addressed to her when she was at 
school, in Philadelphia. This daughter was af- 
terwards married to tho Hon. Thomas Mann Ran- 
dolph, of Tuckahoe, who became Governor of 
Virginia. Dr. Griswold says of her: 

,, ... r _ "AmtaroLU, Nov. 18,1783. 

Martha Jefferson was born on the twenty- 
seventh of September, 1772, and was therefore 
now a little more than seventeen years of age. 
John Randolph said she was "the sweetest young 
cfcaturo in Virginia." Mr. Adams, to whose 
care she had been entrusted some time in Paris, 
refers to her with the most affectionate expres- 
sions; and Mrs. Smith, the daughter of Airs. 
Adams, says, " delicacy and sensibility are read 
in her every feature, and her manners are in uni- 
son with all that is amiable and lovely." While 
Miss Jefferson, in 1783, was at school in Phila- 
delphia, boarding with Mr. Trist, (grandmother 
of Mr. Nicholas P. Trist, who is now the husband 
of the grand-daughter of Mr. Jefferson,) her 
father addressed to her the following letter, which 
has never hitherto been published and is very 
interesting as an illustration of his domestic char- 
acter, and his views of tho education of women : 

My Dear Patsy : After four days' journey, 
I arrived hero without any accident, and in as 
good health as when I left Philadelphia. The 
conviction that you would be more improved in 
the situation where I have placed you than if still 
with me, has solaced me on my parting with you, 
which my love for you has rendered a difficult 
thing. The acquirements which I hope you will 
make under the tutors I have provided for you 
will render you more worthy of my love ; and if 
thoy cannot increase it, they will prevent its dim- 
inution. Consider the good lady who has taken 
you under her roof, who has undertaken to see 
that you perform all your exercises and to ad- 
monish you in all those wanderings from what is 
right, or what is clever, to which your inexperi- 
ence would expose you — consider her. I say, as 
the only person to whom, since the loss with which 
Heaven has been pleased to afflict you, you can 
now look up ; and that her displeasure or disap- 
probation, on any occasion, will be an immense 
misfortune, which, should you be so unhappy as 
to incur by any unguarded act, think no concession 
too much to regain her good will. 

With respect to the distribution of your time, 
the following is what I should approve: — From 
8 to 10. practice music. From 10 to 1, dance one 
day and draw another. From 1 to 2, draw on tho 
day you dance, and write a letter next day. From 
;! In I, read French. From 4 to 5, exercise your- 
self in music. From 5 till bed-time, read Kng- 
lish. write, &c. Communicate this plan to Mrs. 
Hopkinson, and if she approves of it, pursue it. 
As long as Mrs. Trist remains :n Philadelphia, 
eultlvate her affection. She has been a valuable 
friend to you, and her good sen m end ;ood heart 
make her valued by all who know her, and by 
nobody on earth more than me. I expect you to 
write to me by every post. Inform me what 
books you read, what tune you learn, and inclose 
me your best copy of every lesson in drawing. 
Write also one letter every week, either to your 
Aunt Eppes. your Aunt Shipwith. your Aunt 
Carr, or the little lady from whom I now enclose 
a letter, and always put the letter you so write 
under cover to me. 

Take care that you never spell a word wrong. 
Always, before you write a wor ■ r how 

it is spelt, and, if you do not remember it, turn 
to a dictionary. It produces great praise to a 
lady to spell well. I have placed my happiness 
on seeing you good and md no 

distress which this world can now bring on me 

hopes. 
i e to be good under every 
n, and to all living creatures, and to ac- 
quire those a. nta which I have put in 
yon power, and which wilt go far towards ensor- 
ine yon the warmest lore of your nil donate 

• 1 I I. ikon. 

3. Keep my letters and read them at t 
that you will always hare present in your n 
those things that will endear yon to ase." 

An admirable portrait of Miss Jefferson strongly 
resembles her illustrious father, and j-,- f : i - the 
traditional fame of her graceful beaoty. — .V. Y. 
Evening Pott. 

To make deaf persons hear the pisno forte tbe 
instrument should be opened, and a rod of deal 
wood provided about half an inch thick, three- 
quarters wide, and long enough 1 
bridge of the sounding board to the mouth of the 
deaf person. If one end of this rod be made to 
rest firmly on tbe bridge, and th 1 be 

held firmly between » <unds 

t is said, be distinctly oommanicsted. 



Ioliniss is a distssr that dm- ■.'■-! 
but I woold not advise a rigid a par- 
>r plan of study f : hai r per- 
sisted in any plan for t« a . : . : - \ man 

_.■■.••.. - i. ::.. lioatii a ■ : - h a tat 
i he reads as a tank will * good. 



22 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



FROM THE EAST, 
the arrival of the P. M. S. John L. Ste 
. at this port on Saturday last, we have 
dates to the 20th December from the Eastern 
States. 

The weather was intensely cold in the eastern 
and middle States, on the 20th ult 

It was expected that passengers from New York 
by the 20th January, would come through from 
A'spinwall to Panama by railroad. 

It is stated that the sudden closing of naviga- 
tion has locked up about 186,000 of corn and 
wheat in the Welland Canal. 

In the Senate, on the 19th Dec, Mr. Broad- 
head's resolution for sending a steamer to the 
Arctic seas in search of Dr. Kane, was adopted. 

The correspondent of the Herald says : — The 
Pacific Kailroad bill having been again postponed 
by Mr. McDougall until the second week in Jan- 
uary, will probably be taken up at that time ; but 
it will not pass. When it has become perfectly 
apparent that the Railway Bill must fail, the 
delegation are prepared to bring forward, and 
urge the immediate passage of a bill to make a 
"Wagon Road across the Plains, and to protect it 
by Military Posts. 

Dr. H. H. Toland has been appointed Surgeon 
of the Marine Hospital at San Francisco, in the 
place of Dr. McMillen, who resigned in favor of 
the new appointee. 

Post Master General Campbell has notified the 
Pacific Mail Steamship Company, that unless they 
will give a weekly mail service to California for 
the sum of $750,000 per annum, the same they 
now receive for semi-monthly service, he will use 
all his influence to get the contract repealed by 
Congress at its present session. Present appear- 
ances are that the company will not yield to this 
demand. 

The nousc, on Mr. Latham's motion, adopted 
an amendment appropriating §225,000 in the In- 
dian Appropriation Bill for California Indian 
purposes — to remove the Indians, settle and civil- 
ize them. 

Governor Tease, of Texas, has issued a procla- 
mation again, offering the contract to construct 
the Mississippi and Pacific Railroad to responsible 
bidders. 

The sloop-of-war Albany has been heard from 
at Carthagena, on the 10th November— all well. 
This, however, only adds slightly to the hopes of 
her safety, as, without accident, she would still 
have been home long ere this. 

Lieut. Col. Steptoe, U. S Army, has been nom- 
inated to the Senate as Governor of Utah, in place 
of Brigham Young. He is already at Salt Lake 
City, in command of a detachment of U. S. troops, 
destined for service in California or Oregon. 

The celebrated abolitionist, Wendell Phillips, 
has been indicted in Boston, charged with resist- 
ing the U. S. Marshal, at the time of tho rendition 
of the slave Burns, 

Louis Napoleon has offered the directors of the 
Collins' line, in cash, £450,000 sterling, or $2.- 
250.000 for their three steamers, or $750,000 for 
any one of them, Should Congress conclude to 
change the contract now existing between the 0. 
S. Government and the line, then it is understood 
the company will prefer selling their ships to 
running them at losing rates. 

In New York, on the 20th ult., a fire broke out 
on Broadway, consuming the City Assembly 
Rooms and Christy and Wood's Minstrel Hall. 
Among the other sufferers were McKinstry's 
Carriage manufactory, Lyon's Powder Depot, 
Duscombe's Saddlery, the building formerly 
known as Mitchell's Olympic. Mix's Coach Fac- 
tory, &c. The fire extended through to Crosby 
street. A ball was in progress in the Assembly 
Rooms when the fire broke out. One man is 
known to have been killed, and several ladies are 
said to be missing. Six firemen were killed by 
the falling of a wall, and a policcmCD named Pat- 
rick McVay, and fourteen other persons, were 
seriously injured from the same cause. 

Destructive fires occurred in Philadelphia on 
the night of the 14th December, destroying pro- 
perty to the amount of half a million. The lire- 
men were kept at work all night, there being four 
fires raging nearly at the same time in different 
sections of the city. The most extensive of these 
broke out about 11 o'clock at night, in a large 
brown stone building on Chesnut street above 
Fifth, the property of Geo. Edward, from which 
it spread to Fifth street on the east, and Minor 
street on the north, destroying property to the 
amount of $439,000, about one-half of which was 
insured. The fire would in all probability have 
been confined to the building in which it origin- 
ated had the walls been of the proper strength. 
As it was the walls fell out and launched a flood 
of fire upon the adjoining buildings, which were 
much lower, causing the fire to spread to the 
extent it did. Another destauctive fire occurred 
in the same city on the morning of the 18th De- 
cember, which destroyed the workshop or factory 
belonging to the House of Refuge, valued at 
$65,000. 

On the night of tho 19th ult., as the steamer 
Washington was on her voyage from New York 
to Bremen, when in the English channel, between 
Dover and Calais, she was run into by a brig 
with such force that it buried its bowsprit in her 
hull, and made two immense holes, but which 
were fortunately high above her water line. The 
officers did not lose their presence of mind ; and 
the first thing done was to post a watch near the 
boats, armed with loaded pistols, to shoot any one 
who should try to seize upon them without an 
order from the captain, who was himself suspend- 
ed on ropes above the water for four hours, super- 
intcn nq the repair of the damage that had been 
done. 1 1 is not known what became of the brig, 
as she instantly disappeared in the darkness. 



It is said that the election in Kansas for Dele- 
gate to Congress, was entirely controlled by resi- 
dents of Missouri. Gov. Reeder of that Territory 
says in his message : — 

" It may be very desirable for gentlemen to 
live among the comforts of the States, with all 
the accumulated conveniences and luxuries of an 
old home, and make an occasional expedition into 
our territory, to arrange our affairs, instruct our 
people and public officers, and control our gov- 
ernment ; but it does not suit us, and I much 
mistake the people of this territor}' if they sub- 
mit to it. One thing I am certain of, that having 
sworn to perform the duties of the office of gov 
ernor with fidelity, I shall renounce or resist it in 
friend or foe, and without regard to the locality, 
the party, the faction, or the ism from which it 
comes." 

FROM EUROPE. 

By the West India mail, news from Europe is 
four days later. From the seat of war we have 
dates to the 22d November. On the 13th the 
Russians made a sortie, in which they were re- 
pulsed with a loss of 400 — the French lost only 
40. On the night of the 21st an encounter took 
place between a Russian party and the English 
rifles, in which the latter had the advantage. The 
last St. Petersburg dispatch is to the 24th. It 
states that up to that date no change had taken 
place. The seige was progressing, and fire of the 
beseiger^; slack, The Duke of Cambridge and 
Sir De Lacy Evans had left the army, invalided. 

Messrs. Petro, Brassy & Co., tho railroad con- 
tractors, had undertaken to lay down a railroad 
from Balaklava Bay to the siege works, for the 
purpose of bringing up amunitions, provisions, 
Ac, the whole to be executed by them and hand- 
ed over to the government at cost 

The loss of the ailed fleet in the late storm is 
less than was reported. The stranded vessels 
were burnt to prevent their falling into the hands 
of the enemy. 

Omcr Pacha is forthwith to enter Moldavia 
with 08,000 men. Achmet Pacha, with 30,000, 
will occupy Baladagh. The avante garde of 
5,000 men had already entered Dobroutscha. 

On the 2d, a treaty of alliance was signed at 
Vienna, by the Plenipotentiaries of Austria, Eng- 
land and Franco, The effect of this will be that 
Russia will be compelled to keep a large force to 
act on her frontiers towards, Eohcmin Gallncia 
and the Danubian Provinces. 

Spain. — The Paris correspondent of the Lon- 
don Times says : — A telegraphich dispatch from 
Madrid, of the 28th, announces that Espartero 
has been named President of the Cortes, and 
General O'Donnell first Vice-President. I have 
reason to believe that a well laid scheme has been 
formed to employ all means, good and bad, to 
overthrow Espartero in favor of O'Donnell. 
Should the plot succeed, Narvaez would be pro- 
claimed Dictator under the nominal government 
of the Queen. 



From Australia. — We have advices from 
Sydney to the 12th October. The Sydney Em- 
pire says that there are now unmistakable signs 
of a general and apparently permanent reduction 
in the rates of wages, both with reference to the 
mechanic and the workingraan, 

The return of gold exports from Sydney from 
January 1st to September 30th, of the present 
year, shows a falling oil' compared with the same 
period in 1853, of 224,130 oz. 2 pwt. 12 grs. The 
value of the gold exported during the same period 
in 1853, at 6 51 per ounce, was £1,371,347 18s. 
4 l-2d„ and in 1854, for the same period only 
£651,049 10s. 11 l-2d. 



FROM OREGON. 

The steamer Columbia, which arrived Tuesday 
from Portland - , Oregon, brings accounts of the 
loss of the steamer called the •' Southerner," for- 
merly the old "Isthmus." She struck on the 
bar at the mouth of Columbia river, and although 
backed off, was found so badly strained that she 
could not go in. She was put to sea, though 
leaking badly, and headed for Puget Sound, but 
to prevent foundering was beached about 00 miles 
above Cape Flattery. Some apprehensions are 
entertained for the safety of those on board. They 
were all landed to the number of thirty, on a 
part of the coast where the Indians are very 
hostile. The mails and freight are a total loss. 

A new steamboat called the " Jenny Clark," 
has been launched at Milwaukie, by Messrs. Ains- 
wortll. Katiini & Co. She is 1 18 feet in length. 
Is: feet beam, aud 4 feet depth of hold, with a 
stem u heel, very light draught, and has been 
built expressly for the Portland and Oregon city 
trade. 

A salt spring has recently been discovered near 
St. Helens. The water has been analyzed by Dr. 
Panlon, and found to contain a large quantity of 
pule salt, 

There had been quite a fall of snow in Oregon, 
which gives tho people a chance to sleigh-ride, 
and sportsmen a fine opportunity to hunt deer, 
liear and other game. The snow in the timber 
K about a foot deep. 

A tire occurred at Portland on the night of the 
1Mb ult. destroying the buildings belonging to 
the Portland Milling Company. 

In relation to trade, the Oregon Times, Port- 
land, says it has nothing new to report. Every- 
thing is dull, and but little mcrcandise has been 
►old. Codec and raw sugars have somewhat dc- 
elined in prico. Salt still firm at 4 1-2 to5 cents. 
But little produce has come in during the week, 
farmers still holding on, trusting there will soon 
ne an advance, 



The Oregonian remarks : Business is said to be 
improving throughout the country. Several gen- 
tlemen from up the Willamette valley have as- 
sured us that money is becoming plenty. The 
farmers are sending their surplus produce to the 
southern mines and receiving a fair price for it f 
It seems to be the opinion of those best informed, 
that the Rubicon is passed with Oregon, so far as 
its financial interests are concerned. Let our far- 
mers and mechanics produce more and purchase 
less, and Oregon will be all right. 

The Standard publishes a letter from the mis- 
sionary in charge of the Colville Indians, by which 
it appears that the Indian difficulties had been 
fomented by a man named Garry, employed as 
Indian Interpreter by Governor Stevens. 



Mun Geyser near Fort Yuma. — An officer 
of the U. S. Army, at one time stationed at Fort 
Yuma, described in our presence (says the Chron- 
icle) a wonderful spring, or Geyser, of hot mud, 
about sixty miles south of Fort Yuma. The 
spring is situated on a vast plain, which extends 
eighty miles south from the Gila, The soil of 
the plain is a dry mud, which was apparently at 
one time the bed of a lake, or sea The land- 
scape is of the most dreary, barren and monot- 
onous character. The Geyser covers fifteen or 
twenty acres. About the edges there is a warm, 
soft mud, with pools of water here and there. In 
the centre the mud bubbles like boiling Indian 
pudding, and a great body of steam is constantly 
rising, and is visible at a great distance. The 
mud and muddy water are frequently thrown 
more than a hundred and fifty feet high; and at 
these times the Geyser often makes a rumbling 
noise, distinct from that of the fall of the mud. 



The Southern California!! Extra, received by 
the Goliah, reports great excitement at Los An- 
geles, consequent on the receipt of a respite from 
hanging in favor of Brown for the mi.rder of Clif- 
ford, while the sentence of Alvitre, who was like- 
wise condemned to be hung, was ordered to be 
carried out. At the latest accounts, Alvitre had 
been hung by the sheriff! and the mob u-cic 
breaking down the jail with the intention of per- 
forming the same service for Brown. 



On Sunday last, the Calvary Presbyterian 
Church, on Bush street, was dedicated. The 
llev. Wm. A. Seott, D. D., is pastor, who also 
preached the dedication sermon in the morning. 

During 1854, about 2,800,000 oranges were im- 
ported lo this city. Of these probably three-fifths 
(1,080,000) were sent to the interior, and two- 
lifths (1,120,000) eaten here. Estimating our 
population at 00.000, that would give only eight- 
een a piece to man, woman and child in San 
Francisco. 

We would call attention to the advertisement 
of Southwick A Co. in anothea column. The 
Dairy is well known in Sacramento, and the 
scheme is recomended by reliable citizens. 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 

l-jr™ Native Pines, Oaks, &c. — Conra of the Native 
Pines, AcornB from our Mountain Onke, Seed of all our Moun- 
tain Shrubs, and of every specioe of ValuBble Tree or Shrub : 
for these the full price will be paid, it satisfactorily labelled, 
classified nod arranged, at the 

Office of the "California FAnrurit," 

13 HJSODDte Hall Building, Mi>nt:.'cinii-i-y etreot. 

Gp" Wanted. — All the variedes of California. Clover Beed, 
for which the highest price will be paid at the 

Office of the " Camtornia Pauses," 
13 Masonic Hull Building, Montgomery street 



I5P" Our New Office. — We invite our Mends to our new 

OUiceiothc M Masonic Hall," on Montgomery stmt, opposite 

Lo Count &. Strongs, We can show litem many wonderful 

Hens, such as arc rarely seen, ami we especially invite 

them to call and examine the various schedule end Invoii 
bave in offer fin- ml,-. Trees, Seeds, Plants, Grains, Houses, 
LandB, Inventions, Works ol Art 01 all kinds, thesewe nre 
nappy to show, and can interest out- friends il tla-v will Init call 
anil see us. WARREN .t SON. 



f^ 3 "A Thing of Beauty is a Joy Forever." — Why 

will people end pimples on ""the human face dlvini 

eruptions el any kind, when it is a foci sn well known, that Dn. 
Gctsott's Yellow Dock and Sarsafamlla clean 
skin from all impurity, removing Pimples, Siin-s and Blotches, 
leaving the affected pari- as healthy, smooth and soft aB the 
BesD ill a bsjbe, It is really priceless tr, all who wish the rosy 
heauty of childhood. 

It causes all sores and poisonous wounds to dischsrge all in 
leered matter, and eradicates every impurity from the system. 
It does its work mildly but effectually, giving conscious beauty 
and blooming health in tho place of ugliness and BQul-sickening 

Scrofula, Syphilis, Mercurial CoMr-LAiNTS, and a vast 
variety of other disagreeable and daDgerous diseases an; suued- 
ily and porfeelly cured by the use el this medicine. 

Purchasers will place be careful to ask for, and take none 
other but Dr. Ouysott's Improved Extract of Yellow Dock and 
Sarsaparilla. All others in comparison are worthless. 

For sale at nil the principal Drim Stores in the State. Park 
&. White, Sole Agents, to whom all order.- must he addressee! 
Office No. 94 Merchant street, 3d door above Montgomery. 13 



MARRIED. 



On the 0th Jan., in this city, b; Rev. Mr. Wyatt, Wm. Branch 
and Miss Ellen Welch. 

On the 15rh Jan., in this city, by Rev. Frederick Buel, Mr. 
John Green and Miss Amanda J. Nichols, an oj tin cirj 

On the 12th Jan., in this city, by Rev. Mr. MoOshabB, Dr. 
Med. Beinimsn anil Miss Maryurcthn Strueliin, liuth tuiun il, 

of Switzerland. 

On tiie slth Jan., in this city, by Rev. Wm Spoer, Mr. Henry 
Lanmsn and Mies Sarah BlUndeD, both ol New York 
On the 1 1 til Jan., by lit. Rev. Bishop Allemanv, Jno. A. Lan- 
— , of this city. 



ders, ol Sacramento, ami Dorathe Watso 

On the l'Jth Del., at Ilnltnken. N. J.. A. ('. Me. serve. Esq, 
San Francisco, and Mi-s Isahella fc)., second daughter ol Chas. 

I | ., ,,! Hoboken. 

On the ISth flee, in New Tnrk, Qeorge A. Van llnkkolcn, of 

Han Francisco, and Mis- Mary I'. Miller, of Now York. 

On the llth Jan., in Bei icia, irge Watson, of San Joaquin 
Valley, and Miss Maria C. Raven, formerly of Cope:. 
Denmark. 



DIED. 



On the 10th Jan., in this city, Edward Lochlen LindsOy, aged 
17 years, son of the late Cnpt. Lindsay, ol Hobrat Town. 

On the 7th Jan. in Columbia, George A. Cowsert, aged 32 
years, a native ol South Caroline. 

On the 6th Jan., in Todd's Valley, A. L. Carson, of consump- 
tion. 

On the 6th Jan., in Los Angeles, Mr. John Foster, formerly a 
member of the Los Angeles Rane/crft 

On the 12th Jan., in Jackson, T r E. Johnson, aged about 30 
years, formerly from Arkansas. 



SAN FRANCISCO MARINE LIST. 



ARRIVALS. 

Jan. 10 — Clipper ship Flying Fish, Nickel*, Boston, 113 days, 

with mdse. 

Schr Matthew Vassar, Dodge, San Pedro, 8 days; C tons com. 

Jan. II — Clipper ship Haven, Hanson, Now Yo k, 124 days, via 

Rio Janeiro 84 day*. vrith TiGOO Imrjfl coflee. 
Jan. 12 — Schr Kaluna, Candage, HuO,23 day ; produce. 

Schr J K F Mansfield, Clarke, Albion River, 7 days ; lumber. 
Schr Adeline, Huttnn, Bodega, 1 day ; produce. 
Jan. 13 — Steamship John L Stephens, rcareon, Panama, 13 
days, with pansenr-cn?, mails, etc. 
Brig Glencoe, Carlton, Port Discovery, 3f>dnys; piles. 
Schr Queen ol' tho West, Dame, Banta Cruz," 30 hours ; lime. 
Jan. 14 — Brig Contort, MeGitvery, Port Madison, 14 days; piles. 
Schr Olivia, Thomas, Monterey, daye ; produce. 
Schr Joseph Hewett, Allen, Tumslcs, 1 day; produce, 
Jan. 15 — Stmr Golioh, Erskine, San Diego, 2^ daye, via in- 
termediate port?, with muse ami paasengera. 
Brig Coneort, Froy, Cape Cla-eet, 23 daye ; lumber. 
Clipper ecbr Restless, Brown, Honolulu, 20 days; mdse — 27 

passengers. 
Schr L P Foster, Wiggins, Tekalet (P S), 12 days; lumber. 

Jan. 10— Stmr Columbia, Dall, Oregon. 4 days; passengers, eta 

Schr Ortolon, Robinson, Pajaro, 3 days ; produce. 

CLEARANCES. 
Jan. 11 — Brig Frances, Chester, on a whaling cruise ; schr 
Maria, Godbee, for ports in Pacific. 
Jan. 12— Br brie Frauklin, Abbot, for ports in Pacific. 
Jan. 13 — Ships Thomas Watson, Lylc, for New York ; Ante- 
lope. Hooerc, Bhanghae, 
Jan. 15 — Steamnliips Sonorn, Whiting, for Panama; John L 
m , Pearson, Benicia; BcbrVaqucro, Harris, fbr Honolulu. 
Jan. in — Fr fhip St Joseph, Cszuld, lor Song Kong, 



MARKET REPORTS. 

San Francisco, January 17, 1855. 



JOBBING 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLE- 
MENTS— nominal— 
Shoveld) 

Amen' 1, I], bright$13 00® 

do s. h •& 10 00 

FifflaV, 1. h 12 0OS13 00 

Rowland's, 1. d 00®— 00 

do 6. h... 9 — ®10 00 

King'p, 1. h 8 00@— 

,Urightc.8.10 00«— On 

du iron no Bale. 

Coal and Grain Scoops, c. s. 
12 lie, 

do do iron — — % 
Axes, Collins', a. h. a 1 .""> 01 \ 

do HumV, do ®15 OX) 

Pick*, Collins*, i l - to 8-Zb.aoUd 
eye lo 00® 12 ix 

do oiIht brands. OO® — 01.' 
Helves, heavy luekorv ph . 
turned 50 5< \i 50 

do axe @ — 

Tlowp, beet muke.M — r . 

do Btaal 24 oo@4o oo 

Threshing Machines and Horse 

power — 

Hall &. Pitts' no sale. 

Other makers' — % — 

Emmery's, with thresher, sepa 
rator,and fan mill.. — ® — 

Straw Cutter*,-- $—2> — 

Rake?, horec and rcvolvin_', 

do hand, wood — 00a — tx 
do do flteel.— 003 

PitchforkB, $> do?. -® 

Scythes, best w 

Hoes, steel, g. d... 6 00® 9 ot 
Crowbars, c. ?.#■ In- 10® - 1- 

Flour Mills Nove»'$o00® 

do Brown's, 30in.450® 

FLDUR— 

GoUego — 00® M a 

BaxaU — 00® 14 54 

Chile 8 005 'J Ol 

Repacked ® 

Horner'* Muls,... 9 00® 

Benicia Mills l j 00500 in 

Meal, in obis.... fi 00® f, 51 

do l4j bbls 3 25® 3 5u 

Bran, y IB ® 1', 

GRAIN— 

Corn, Eastern, V Hi 2 
■ Mituniiii.. — 

do Chdili — 

Buckwheat) flour.. .2 
Oats, California 2 

do Oregon, none in iiiiVt. 

do Eastern 2 ® 2M> 



® 3 

-® 2L, 
-® 2 

3 



PRICES. 

Wheat, Chili 2 ® 2Mt 

Californi—S ® 3^ 
LUMBER— nominal— 

■ ■ ' Iregon Pine, en, ^ M 
25 on;; 

Plank and Sc'fg..25 00®35 00 

E v.: p. cl.60 00® 

do Jv <H 00 00®100 

Boards, E.cl. 1st q.oo 00® 

do 2d (J 45 00®55 00 

<!., G. v. p. tloor— 00®— 00 

do 0.pme,ronenl6 00*18 00 

■ ■-■ ood, Bfendi cino, pang 

^awed 30 00® 36 00 

do Bayt&BotinasS5 00937 00 

...18 00®20 00 

Shingles, E, best . 7 00® 6 00 

Clapboards, No, 1.25 00®30 00 

Laths. Eastern ... 7 00® 8 00 

do Cnllfornln.. 5 00® G 00 

00®— 00 

Sashes, window .. — 00® — 00 
PROVISIONS— 

[1 ,*> bh] 17 00®20 00 

Lblex.fam ®14 00 

Bacon, ex. clear sides, ^f to 

12® 13 
do Mr."s, nominal 9511 — 

Cbee e 20® 25 

do California — ® — 

: l>dz.90® 1 00 
Butter, choice, V lb .40® 45 
do food ordinary 28® 

do Oilifornia — ® 

Hams, ordinary 12® 

ill extra 15® 

'.mil, in kegs. 13® 

do tins lo.m...io® 

ili 15— 20do -.14® 

'or*, rl.-iir, ^ bbl 19 00®18 00 

So ,1,, i„ bw— — ®n 00 
do men, \ y bbl n; 110515 00 

do -to Vi do ® 8 00 

LUCE— 

"arolnm, in bble-flO? ® 7^ 
HO, 1, in inots— ® 10 
do No. 2, do — ® eVfe 

Manila 7 ® 7& 

VEGETABLES— 
Beans, Chili Bhvob .S'.j® - 
do California. -•— ® 4 
do Am. white.. 8^® - 

Poaa 5 ® - 

Beet*, y ton 20 00®— — 

40 00® 

Onions, prime, I* lb — ® — 

Turnips, *> ton - . .30 00® 

sack 50® 100- 
do oew, fy ». Us® 



31 



14 

18 



15 



SOUTHWICK & CO. 1 '■ 

GRAND RAFFLE. 

$30,000 for on© Dollar 

X£T THE FIRST GRAND PRIZE L?, probably, the best 
paying property in Sacramento county, viz. : 

The Well Knovn Dairy! 

Owned and conducted t>y Benjamin Bonthwick nmd Southwick 
& Co., for the last four year-', cnmJstiag of 183 of the best 
MILCH COWS in thecounrry ; also, THREK HORSES, Milk 
Wagon, Cans, Pans, Household Furniture. Good Will of tho- 

same, &c. ; likewise, Stable* Sufficient to inclose the whole. 
The Dairy is now paying about $1,000 per month, exclusive of 
raising the Calve.*. The whole will be transferred in perfect 
order, as the business will bo continued up to the time it is 
known who is the luckly one. Tne above described property 
makes up the 

First Grand Prize $30,000 

2d Grand Prize, 20 Slugs : 1.000 

•Til Brand Pri^e, 10 Slugs 500 

4th, A Match spun of Sorrel Horece, 1,000- 

5th, 1 Bav Buggy Mare 300" 

6th, ] Grey Pony 100 

7th tolGth'inelu-ive, TKN LOTS, Ininting on Y ut., 
each containing five acres, aud valued at % 1,500 

■ach 15,000 

17th, 1 heavy Gold Hunting Watch :... 200 

18th, 1 heavy (fold Hunting Watch 175 

19th, 1 boavy Gold Hunting Watch 150 

20th, 1 heavy Gold Ilimtini; Waleh find fob chain.. 183 

GRAIW TOTAL ttF PRIZES, **w,r,40. 
The Lots ult front on V ttMOt, Sacmottnto, «Jid an* inclosed 
and under cultivation. SutteW tille, and possession glvan. 
Taxes nil paid. The subscribers U wall BS the proper^ 

well know to the people < ito and vicinity, to whom 

they would rospectiully refer. 

siH'TflWICK & CO. 
Wo the nudertiL'ncd, besBfl well artpinuitcd with the Propri- 
oiors of thenbm-e RaiHe, and the Properly otiered to the nuhlic 
in mo same, have much pleasure lu rwomniending the Scheme 
io their iiivorniiie notice, and wo confidence In IU 

being conducted with Integrity, and ultt consider the Proporty 

put up at a I'uir valuation : 

W. S COTHR1N A CO., ft W, A- R R. BlfRKE, 

JNO. M. RHODES, o BIMMON8 \ CO., 

J H. HAADKNBURGH, WN B ROCHESTER, 

OTH & CO., JOHN KIRK. 

Qr~ Ta-kei« lor Sale mid Kttl'V ..;,, and Flailing, 

at "Hie principal rid street, opposite Well-, Fargo 

&. Co. s Banking House; y£3 



I 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



23 



BUSINESS CAEDS. 



CHAS. A. 1'ITCUER, 
C O M il 1 S S I O X U £ It C H A H T, 

Washington street Wharf; 
i .mil Drumm etro •!*, 

Son FrtlneUro. 
py* Liberal advance* made on comlrnmenu. 



WLLIAM BAIL! 
OIL A.SD CAMPHSJfE MANUFACTURER, 

IXFOBTE* AND DEAZ.1CH IN 

Spcnn, Polar, Elephant nntl Ulnrkii.Ii Oils, 
Ai.*o~('amphkne and Burning Fldio. 
N<> ■_' R Bush. 21 



GIBBON & KING, 

IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

Groceries, Provisions, Foreign and Domestic 

Spirit*, and «!..<«, 

Nob. 24, 26 and v Bar aernfPine, 

15 ; S'rancisco. 



WM. NKK1.V THOMPSON. 

WHOLESALE AND TtSTAL HEALER IN LUMBER, 

MARKKT IT11KKT, BETWEEN FRONT AND DAVI3. 

Boards, Bcanthng, Floor Joist, Sash and Panel Door?, Win 

dowa and Build u* of all kind* constantly on hand. vt 



SIM & CO., 

PRODUCE COMMISSIO N U E R CHANTS, 

12 Ola/ strcot wharf, 

between East and Drum ft rect;-, San Francisco. 

C^* Cash advances made on consignments in store 

Refer to Messrs. Flint, Peabody &, Co.; I. C. Woods, Esq., at 

Messrs. Adams & Co's. 24 tf 



OTIS. V. 3AWYEB 

SAWYER, 



SAXUKX, A, CHAP IN. 

CHAP IX & 

IMPORTERS AND JOBBERS OF 

Hardware and Leather 

Saddlery. Shoe Findings, Nets. Seines, &c, &c, 



'->. 



127 Sansouio «t, near Wusbington, San Francisco. 



'L' K E A DWELL & CO. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

Hardware, Farming, Mechanic and Mining Tools. 

Corner of California and Battery streets, 
22 3in San Francisco. 



JOSEPH M. BROWN & Co., 

95 Sacramento and 81 Battery strrctfl, San Francisco. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

Hardware, Mining and Agrlcultrnl Implement*. 

Brown's, Ames' and Rust's Shovels; Tuttle'e Sluice Rakes; 

Collins' heavy and lijfht Picks ; Ploughs of all kind e; 

Fan Mills, Straw Cutters; Builder's Hardware, in great variety; 

Carpenter's Tools of every deecription. 

We invite the trade to cnll and examine this extensive stock. 

At the sien of the Golden Anvil. 

8 JOSEPH M. BROWN & CO. 



DR. THURSTON, 

Office, Room No. 20, Hillman's Temperance House; 

MARTHA N. THURSTON, M.D., 

Office, Room No. 21, Hillman's Temperance House, 

No. 80 Davis street, San Francisco, Cat. 
E^ Mrs. T., Physicim-i for Women and Children. 22 

TREADWELL & CO., 

CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND MAIDEN LANE 

MABYSVILLE. 

CORNER OF CALIFORNIA AND BATTERY STREETS. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

NO. 50 FEDERAL STREET, 

BOSTON. 

IMPORTERS Of Hardware, Iron, Nlrel, Cordage, Paints, Oils, 

Vnrnish aud Window Glass, direct from the Atlantic States ana 
Europe, with a compiktk assortment of tools and imple- 
ments for Farmers, Miners, Ca.rpenters t Cooper*, Caul I. > 
Graver^ Saddler*, Turner*, Masa Paint. . Glaziers, 

Ship Carjjontirn, tVhceltrright*, Millwrights, Cabinet fcfa ., 
and others. 22-.ini 



PURE MEDICINES! 

LITTLE & COLE, Apothecaries, 
130 Montgomery street, 

Riiwirii Clay and Qmmsrcf si streets, 
Pay particular attention to the preparation ot 

Physicians' Prescriptions, 
and the dispensing of Family Medicines, Tin- pnblio can rely 
upon all arUoles purchased at thi-. sstabllshnaent as being of the 

Purest and Beat Quality, 
and at reasonable prli 

MEDICINES AT MWNIQUT. 

Mtdirinrs Mfl In obtained at all hour* of the Night, 
|!^* French, German, Spanish and Italian spoken. 6 

Wines and Liquor*. 

GOODWIN ft CO., & MEEKER, 

Jto, M California strut, — {near Front stretl,) 

IMPORTERS and Wholesale Dealers In Foreign and Do 
"•■ Liquors, nave now on hand, and for sa 

500 om :; indy, 

950 tibl- Mom a '■■. hisfcy, 

50 bbl« ver> OneOldBoi 9 Ms-re, 

100 oil ■ -- 1 'Itin Brandy, 

50 one-eighth ca-k> a - .. do, 

4,0 one • do, 

15 one lirlith n, do, 1605 

5 puncheons purr Sco 

15 pipe* Imircrial E;, Glu, 

100 one-eighth c**k* Port Wli 
100 ca i Me and Porter, 

100 ci ' 

50 can 
100 en 

50 ba 

100 ba ket- lancy Rrn 
AI*o— acnmi ("uracoe. 

Bitters, Ac.. ,s 



HOWARD, BOBRADAIU 

Wholesale Dealers, in Drugs. Medicines Paints, Oils, 
Camphene. Perfumery and Fancy Articles, 



1 [OTKLS. 



i .... 

by any <■■; 

Ttio rrr 
Room, Ril 

TlteTa 
of the mat 



Orleans Hotel, 

t.*, Sacramento. 

; '. i : 

lilt of brick 

■ ! rucnl ' ei not surpu i 

... . 

in net aj)nrt for Dining Room. Reading 
n (i tut Bar & 

■ i nil times supplied 



ie Reading Room can nlwaya be I ndthe !-i\- papers 
lai ■■ i . Ltlav ' ■■. ■■ i ■■■■ 
The Billiard Saloon ic furniahed with five excellent tables, 
r a competent k< «n . 
• Tho Bar will be suppfied with the beat Liquors and Wtee 
The second and third si rl< ■ < [hebultdiD are ■ ■ apart for 

Parlor, Family n ' i comfortably furnished. 

Weiur ■ leased 1 ehu b brick buUdlog corner of and K 

and Front ■ . Sackctts Hotel) sot apart 

1 Igii '■ ;i : .i h ■ i h . ■■ furnished in a bu] e li 

manner, which, added to the Hotel, will afford ample occommo. 
dati ii 

The "Ol also the Depot and Office of the California 

Stage Oo., from which place Stages leave daily for nil parts 
i ;i ■ State. 
v3-g HARDENBURGH &. CORSE, Proprietors. 



Rassette House. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

rt*t THIS HOTEL offers Inducements to persons visiting 
J^iLSan Francisco, unequalled by any on the Pacific Const. 

Gentlemen can be accommodated with single rooms, or fami- 
lies with suites of rooms, 

The House U entirely new, built "f brick ; all the rooms are 
furnished in n style of comfort hitherto unknown in the Hotels 
of California, and the House is capable of accommodating over 
five bundled boarders. 23 3m 



Murrav's Fifty-cent Western House. 

Corna of Second and D streets, Mahysville. 

3j THIS' hoiisf. Is entirely devoted to the wants of the 
.^JlL travelling public and to all who will favor us with a coll, 
entire satis taction will he given. [17] R. J. MURRAY. 



American Hotel 

NAPA CITV, _. CALIFORNIA. 

L. A. &. W. W. CHAPMAN, Proprietors. 
Sjj? GOOD accommodations for families, and on reasonable 
.Kjl terms. Saddle and buggy Horses kept for hire. Horses 
kept ou board, by the day or week, and well taken enre of. ' 26 



A Valuable Farming and Stock Ranch for Sale, 

M SITUATED in the County of Monterey, about one mile 
from the Mission of San Juan Bautisto. Said Ranch consists 
oi about one hundred mid fifty acres of valuable farming land, 

running hack to the hills, which are covered with clover and 
oats. The Ranch and hills are heavily timbered. There iaalso 
a stream of never lailin^ mountain water, running through the 
entire place. Either for Agricultural purposes or for Stock 

If-m.-ijiLi, this is cerfctinly one ot the best situations south of Son 
Francisco. 
A good title will be given, it being Government land.— Price 

P.S.— The improvements upon said Ranch consists of a toler- 
able good Dwelling House, with lumber sufficient to erect a 
large one; also about twenty-iive acres enclosed under a good 
fence. Address, ALEXANDER. COOPER, 

San Juan Bautista, Cal 
Refer to JAMES McMAIION, Esq., H dn Juan • 

AARON LYONS, Esq., ?„r , „., 
6 3m CHAS. Q. HAKRON, } Mon tercy City. 



STEAMERS. 



Californ a Steam Navigation Company. 

■ fv /> mm Vallrjo street wharf, at i o'clock, I'. M. 

FOR SACRAMENTO. 

Bteamoi NEW WORLD, Cunt. Seymour: 
Btenmer ANTKi.oi'K, D. v«n v. li, m, 

'i vi and Fridn v.. 
6teamor W. O. HUNT, E. A. Pools, nu 

,'><lnv. .n(19atunlay. 
Tho W. O. HUNT « • ■ .. ai 10 a. «. 

Kill! STOCKTON. 
TOUCH IN (I AT M.l r irl.i, .i.v/. \liRslTf 

I.AM 
ioi CORNKI.U, K. Conckllo. mi 
Staunor II. T. CLAV. :< Ban 

I and Frklayf. 
Stcam.T AMKItirAS KAfil 

. mid Saturday*. 

FOB MARYSVILLK. 

I. BRAODON, Tbomaj Sooly. maalor— Momlay. and 

Tinn 

M Chadwick, muter— 
Wedooiidayfl and Batun 

CLARA. 

Summer CUADALUITK, S («r.l. niaator— will Iran 

i Thumlay arid : i, art, at 

a u 

I 

MEDIATE I.AMMV 

The ft.-ajner CLEOPATRA. I : .vtor. will Irare 

r Red Btutfsaad 
-nrning, 

'man, will leave Sacrav- 

d Biurt« and ln- 

Remnunir, will 

i tx{ Ttiurvday moming,at 9 oik. 

Sacra- 

reran)- 

• iiivt \+ p*:.l fori-in 

■c.-ut U.-r Coanpany, -lactuoo 

K.' CBEXERT, PreakfanL 
90 tf 






m nuanilo sml Mar) 



rj^" Fmjtbt to Sacracv 
For fun 



r particulars, apply to 



<*l«cttd 

i!,.,( , 1 niit the 


Orders trcm the 


r.*p«tfany sobrited. v3-l 


A TTFN nN 

A til. ! 

*■- ■ 


t -•Ufta.niln "Uirh. 

t tbe sub*criber to 

>T i»iii now n*n M'iftutnl by bun. 
■xMtatemz 


,' ■.■ ■ ■ 

in any \>-\ . 
petit sou. 


itty coaipami wtil 

i or cfaalN-nffee com- 

via prodvet nf - h.-tw niaaafacture" t* of- 



(- 



Knight.- to Satraintnlo, $H> prr ' 



ImrfrTV 1 



Ten DolU: - 



win be 

rther nouesk 

Utost 



I .. .. .i.. 



ouudj each, at a low ran. 



North B«ch, 



-n.rmlTxW. 
SanFmnc*- 



Stork Womtii, 

r^ kt.wi pCrTtgrw. 

■ v Wvinr a net 
v\ r« more or )— • atorh on band 

for sale. 

WamtkS) Imncni rtn -*• ThtrhamBoP*; 

•:t Short 11. -m Oi»»t»— 'Wa; eue t- p- r r . M -^. f . . 
■ (Nv tnr v 

Communroafiors anaiL poaS>pSps\ wSH Bs> nasaeestsdl 
""£« »: SUM 



•■•"•'•j 



.... v , 



Stcamhoat Unr of Owsalliwiia. 

THE PropriKorof tS* above Use brriw 
'notvoT 

1 it h. run Oumubvmb W caawf P***enc*r» 
'r- rartr«t> fetmsjhmmtm. 
Ooe or norf Oiaiiitim wiO bo oa the dock •■ the arrival of 
She Beesa. aa4 take Pa*-«nfer« to 



r*- 



ifaaieapen to any Hore 
O > t 

Sera takea t • any part of th*- ( 
m etie tS r, atad bcSow fll n ck s oe screet, for she Ma 
heyoadlri»e . rr. 

e»Miirkael etwet, jns< W toe iSoaSjgensry, egjesSM 
MARTIN T. C HAM 



\ '• reedy i 
^.l oo J m ee t . 

and Faix-y FVwrr 
J » "". with i 




II 

AMEXTO TO- 
■v,.. rmr. 
Be i T ii F ii wrr ir Breae aed Cake 
Fbta, Cheraa, ISBk Paem, Jeje ae4 
■■Hi; wish itiijiklea ehwha 
Vra an* peroirv: 
Otd hr atof aft - 

T. BL FXEEK, Ageat 



AGRICULTURAL, &o. 



AsrrlcaltnurnJ. Implciuenta. 

FRENCH Burr Mill Stones, three and four feet diameter, 
.-. i til th< Irons ; 
Smith' Patent Pi solium Smut Machines; 
, : . d Hand I > ■< M il 

Corn Shi lie 

-i choi Bra dB Itii ■ (Moth; 
i mid Iron Wire Cloth; 

rerSteall ov. Ho . 6 and 7; 

Pe ire 5^ and 0; 

.;.. . . i : i-i i. nd IS; 

Trojan and Eagle east Plows, ull BUUM ; 

Extra Points for cast Plows; 
I -i !■.■. I . i ■ i . ■ i i .'i Pan Mills; 
'thermometer Churns j 
Garden Rakes and Bog 
Fresh I lardcn and Field .Heeds; 
i Farden and Coal Barrows ; 
Hand taws, claw hammers, hatchets, butcher's mw* and 

.1 ■■:. ■, . pit •■■, Ames' long and short handled "hovels and 

pade i Ci IHns' long hondlea axes, picks, mattocks, barrow 

■ i: two and tour horec tarui WllSjOns, grub and plantation 

hoed, she and eight tmed manure forks, whiffletrees, os yokes 
and chump, Ketchum's mowing machines, Seymour &. Morgan's 
raapisa machinea, For sale by 

II. McNALLY. 
85 Washington Btreet, between Battery and Front. 
3-1 (Opposite the New Mcrchan i change.) 



Tlvrenhei-s, Sepurnloi-H, null ClORtierki 

PITT'S EIGHT HORSE POWER, complet. , with extras.— 
This mdchlne was mode to beexldbitef lit the Baltimore 

and Richmond Agricultural Fairs, held r'^pechvely lor Mary- 
land and Virginia. It is superior in every respeoi to any ol the 

.-(ort. ever snipped from New York to California, and in uitrlns. 
cally worth nearly double that of any other machine. (Ex 
Golden Fleece.) In addition t j the ports usually sent, there 
are six wheels — lour for thei operator, two tor the power, &.c. 

Also, EMERY'S Threshers and Separutore, of Two Horse 
Power. 

We have alao on the Golden Fleece, two of HALL'S (Roch- 
ester,) Late.-t Improved Threshers, Separators and Cleaners. 
Eight Horso Powers, all complete. 

Also, lour ot Hussev/'s Reapers and Mowers, all combined. 
For safe by COIT &. BEALS. 

9 tf 94 Battery street, oltice up stairs. 



Harvesting Implements. 

HARVESTING IMPLEMENTS— 
1 McCormick Reaper; 
3 Huesey's Do. ; 

1 Manny's Do. ; 

2 Burrill's Patent Reapers; 

1, 2, 6 and 8 horse Threshing Machines. 
ALSO— Steam and Wutcr Power Flouring Mills. 
For sale by BRYANT & CO., 

Agricultural Warehouse, 

24-lm Corner of Battery and Richmond streets. 



Pan Mills. liny Cutters II 

WE have the very best Kan Mills in the Country, with all the 
new improvement-" tor cleaning perfectly, and worthy 
particular attention of Grain growers. 

The Straw Cutters are of new pattern, of extra quality and 
working power. RAKER &, HAMILTON, 

7 11 J street, Sacramento City. 



BAKEK & HAMILTON, 
New England Agricultural Warehouse and Seed Store, 

lY J str. -i , ■ ..■■:■ ( : (near the Levee). 

(1HOICE FIELD and GARDEN SEEDS leloctcdl e 
linen m the Eastern States, anti 
tinted, always for solo by 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 
. r » Succocaors to VVaaaEN & BoM. 



Oroaa Seed). ^ 

Of\ BBLS. Herd's Gi 

Ow best quality. For sole low, If applied for immed i 
Orders left with warren 6c Sou will be promptly attend 
10 GEO. N SHAW & CO.. Battery street Wharf. 



Seed Wheat for Sole. 

WHEAT from "11 

Also 



15-lm 



Broken", 137 Pr >\ 



Splendid Ilynrlntli.. .IoihiiiIIx, Vnirhxiu, *fcc. 

[rant gem» 
j may now be bad at oar room*—" Camfobnu Farmf r " 

16 WAR1 



HORTICULTURAL 



Pacific Narser>'i 

MISSION DOLOEES AND alaMkda. 

HAVE always on hand and lor dale, the In: i- 
choice ROSES to be found in the State 
Vines. Fruit mul Ornamental Trees in 
500,000 Strawberry Plants, including ?h, i n ,,i : u 

the be I known kinds. For safe cheap, in lot* u* tmit purchasers. 
All orders left with us at the Mi-sion Dolores, or at our Nur- 
fery at Alameda, or with Warren tfc Son, at the office of this 
pani i will be promptly attended to. 

uarontecd al the lowest market rotes, and everything 
Bold lully warranted to be correct. 

'3 H. A. SONNTAQ & CO. 



Strawberry Vine*.* 

LARGE and vigorous Vines of the various kinds of Strow- 
berrie*, the best kinds In cultivation, can always he found 
at the Gardens ot the subscriber, and at a reasonable price. 

Ihe following are among the varieties: Hovcy's Seedling, 
Hudson s, British Queen, Black Prince, aud sevcrut other new 
BeedllngB. ANo many kinds uf Fruit Trees of the best kinds, 
all tor sale low by LAWRENCE LEHE1N, 

"" Mission Dolores. 



Preart Onion Secdl 

JUST received, per Adams St, Co.'s Express, 3 cases Fresh 
Onion Seed, for summer planting; also, tine varieties of 
Melon and other kinds ot aeed. 

Orders by Express will meet with prompt attention. Allseed 
warranted fresh. Fur bale by 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 
* -1 "i Successors to Warren & Son. 



Fruit and Ornamental Trees and Plants. 

INCLUDING everything nccetnary to the Garden, Green 
house, Nursery, and Orchard, with all the recent introduc. 
tions. ot very low rates. Descriptive price Catalogues gratis- 

Carriage paid to New York. Ornamental and other planting 
done in any part of too country. Address B. M. WATSON, 
Old Colony Nurseries, Plyomutli, Mass. 
Plants packed for California with extra care. 16 ly 



Strawberry Plants. 

ALPINE Monthly Strawberry Vines, at $4 per dozen; Black 
Prince $4 per doz ; Hovcy's $4 per dos, and Elten $4 per 
doz or $25 per hundred, strong plants. Plants will be carefully 
packed and forwarded according to direction, to parlies that 
torward the amount of their order to us. Now is the lima 
Directions for planting with the plants. 
25 WARREN & SON, Masonic Hall Building. 



The Upland BeU Cranberry. 

WE have just received, per last steamer, the famed "Upland 
Bell Cranberry," to which we call particular attention ol 

the cultivators of California. They are put up in parcels of 100 
and -2U0, at $10 per hundred. Only a few are received, nod an 
early call only can secure them. Please notice the character ot 
them, us described in an article in another part of this paper 
WARREN & SON, 
23 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street 



Orange, Fig and Pomegranate Trees. 

JUST received, a few K'jud sijed Orange, Fig and Pomegran- 
ate Trees, which we con offer in perfect order. 
SB H LRREN & SON. 



10,000 Fruit Trees. 

"\T r E caii offer for sale Fruit TrCOaof the I SSl kinds St the 

\ \ lowest rates Hovi the agency of th rj b w aw ar- 

B ore enabled to make "terms 'lor quoi titles wore tsu- 

ullv favorable. 

We have an extra lot of 10,000 young Seedling Peach Trees, 
at a very low rate, ready lor planon 

WARREN &. SON, 
20 Masonic Hall Building, San Pruned cc 



a&yOOO Cotton Wood Trees. 

FINE Cotton Wood T nil al - ole Th ■■, k ,il 
let and warranted at a Air price. In larc 

tuahfldatlow rate*. WARKl : 

20 M i onic Hall Building, Sai Pran 



5,(KHI Cranberry Vines. 

J received per M 8lerraNei radids 'itmcat 

h ^h Cranberry V 

■. .i 
20 ■ ! Franol 

Choice Nerds. 
k FULL aiisortroeat of Frojh Garden Seeds, just recrinn, 

\ i Ocnus. 

BRYANT A. ( i , 



GRAIN* 



17 



Eilrn Snniplf 4 <>rnln, «fbe. 

WHEAT, 
- for Ihe 






The Pride of < hlna. 

\ V 

vl -to those who dV 

WA1 



■ ■ ii 
■ ■ 



FLOURING MILLS. 



Aarrtrnltnral Implements, 

Adapted to the cul- 
Ic by 
BRYANT dt CO.. 68 Battery street. 






Plow Points. 

be variou* make*. For «eie by 
BRYANT A CO., (SB Battery street. 



Garden, Field and Urmse Seeds. 



FULL i 



I seneral aaiuiuumt of choice qeallty. 



lE.var rr.Li.Kr, a t. sftcuou. sktu h. Garfield, 

P0LLEY * CO.. 

BAY 3TATE Mil,! 

\ street, between Front and K»-<omt. 

BAY STATE LOWER Mil i 

Corner of Front and It streets, Sacramento, 

known as 
the "Bay Stale Lower MilU," ■•■. ■ 

. ■ . i , 
and Oral - , Bran, 

rley, Ac which i 

■ 



I 



Barley, Wheat and C> m 



■ 



v3-l 



BRYANT it CO., 



fi*" fUtt'-rr *trec*. 






Encoarage Horn. Industry and Horn. Prodnctioa. 



M 



OI.T1KO ClnOi and fcrVmi Wire For al. by 

1ST * CO., «8 Bamry «n»t. 



Il.ppy Vnllry Floar Mills, 

[ aAJ MeUma ttmt; 8u* FrmttMat. 
P1..V.. .nd Harrow.. 

Av from th- box aawmta 
For» 

i.RVA ST * CO., 08 Battery •T-rr. rpHK ■ r,t:,, D ot dValcrs nd c u mi m ai r. ol 

I fully tnv.fd lo^h. fl. u r. hi l Artid. mwiufwiurcd al th. 

r'nllMiMIIII,, fmm Clin., nia What ,,l Hie rr<mta at 

r—«:,il operar- 
India Kakbrr 11' ' wmeb. napt the irroprlcaor. bar. lecared raea aatarawaory m- 

V T, :$£S?J?" T '?£tr i °* H, ~' " ''^luSXy^rS^rSoma^rX': 
I. BRYAXT i CO, (8 Battrrr «r««t ! a»y braod hi H» a»rm«. AaKior die many mdrw~af OV 

'•ooo of the Flrmr murafaftui 

mrota rrcWred at rao ram ma Annual Meetin. 



nd Mill 

G-uiaxk-aod Ula 



aalaby 



ST1AH, Warrr aad Hun. rowrra, of ranoaa Mada. 
Jcbr 
1* BRV.WT * CO. *8 mmery atratt. 



o 

Recvdar 



Jrwrtrr and SBrmrart. 

k of WaTcarn, ImuT, Duaratm 
, for. 



a But km bar* Uuuo im d by am nana, 
Mr Catomr Trade, aai a of aa amady omtly and 
m » ^ l nmi a>ba«owaMmti»» m, ia»ila»m<<larm 



Agracaaaral Soeiety, . 

?b# aupenor ■norimer,. 
Dotnettic Flour. — a .apcrior *n< 
aalared from - 1- •-! Wheat — a rnratant nin 
aabaadMlaclIiB,orui>aOaoalor Ike Prop 
nrartTito »trr<t_ 

r> A liberal aBomaace made to Ok 

l.V RfllKiK... I 

[7* Wbaat Pailaand or (In and aa ike 



Pr->rjrv-tor. 

at 



r /uya'e K.w y^.-k prtem. 
BARBCTT At 8HEHWOOD, 
U Bfoatgomery areet. 
W.B. — Qauts Jewelry of oar i 



BAH JO< 



., •■-! aad ready ■ 
mry oamaaAm. Tbe an 
tb. l.i.arBtawa, karma all the 



KTUX-Ar. 
too ftarlf-y tn 




R ; " *ia «kr 
. bm, P aa a i wia a i a m aammbad m m. CAaamam Stme 



* w **_^Bnma^Bnmi 
■ atraaa. *aa Praaeara. 



T. 



24 



THE CALIFOFNIA FARMER. 



©arietta. 



"LET ME IN." 

Br FLOBENCE FERCT. 

"When the summer evening's shadows 

Veiled the earth's calm bosom o'er, 
Came a young child fiiiot and weary, 

Topping at a cottage door ; 
" Wandering through the winding wood-paths, 

My worn feet too long have been, 
Let me in, O, gentle mother, 

Let me in ! " 
Years passed on, — his eager spirit 

Gladly watched the flying houra; 
" J will be a child no longer. 

Finding bliss in birds and Sowers ; 
I will seek the bands of pleasure, 

I will join their merry din ; 
Let me in to joy and gladness, 

Let me in ! " 
Years sped on — yet vainly yearning, 

Murmuring still the restless heart— 
" I am tired of heartless folly, 

Let the glittering cheat depart ; 
I have found in worldly pleasure 

Nought to happiness akin, 
Let me in to love's warm presence, 

"Let me in I " 
Years fled on ; — the restless spirit, 
Never found the bliss it sought ; 
Answered hopes and granted blessings 

Only new aspirings brought ; 
" I am tired of earth's vain glory, 

I am tired of grief and sin, 
Let me in to rest eternal, 

Let me in I " 
Thus the unquiet, yearning spirit, 

Taunted by a vague unrest. 
Knocks and calls at every gateway, 

In a vm'n and fruitless quest; 
Ever striving some new blessing, 
Some new happiness to win, — 
At some portal ever saying, 

" Let me in t " — Portland Transcript. 



"Monopolization of Breadstuff's, the greatest 
oppression, 1 ' is the heading to a communication in 
the Koston Cultivator, which continues: "And 
why? because it falls most heavily on the poor 
and laboring classes, who are forced to obtain 
their daily subsistence by the sweat of their face. 
At present, it is a problem which puzzles the 
greater part of the community (which it is not 
easy for the politician to solve) to explain why 
such high prices on breadstufts should continue 
and increase, when such abundance has been 
raised the present season ? If the crops have 
fallen short in a few of the States, owing to the 
drought, yet they have been abundant east, west, 
north, and south. It is evident it is not the 
scarcity of the article that causes the present 
high prices. Then what is it? I am incompe- 
tent to answer the question, but will venture to 
express an opinion. It is this: the affluent mer- 
chant and large capitalist are buying up and keep- 
ing the " staff of life," that they may, by and by, 
fill their coffers at the expense of the poor laborer 
and mechanic. "These things ought not to be 
so," but how shall they be remedied? This ques- 
tion is as hard to answer as the preceding, in re- 
gard to the increasing high prices of provisions. 
It cannot be ruled while human nature remains 
as it is, except there could be a law passed by the 
Executive, that prices should not exceed a certain 
ratio. In this land of professed Republicanism, 
is not Aristocracy springing up and growing lux- 
uriantly all over the Union ? Ignoramus." 

The Portland Advertiser gives an account of a 
mammoth lumbering establishment recently com- 
pleted by C. S. Clark & Co. of that city, on the 
St. Francis River, Canada East. These mills, it 
is said, will saw in a season (working day and 
night) 20,000,000 (twenty million) feet of long 
lumber, and two trains a a*ay will be required to 
get the lumber to Portland, whence it will be 
shipped to all parts of the world. To accommo- 
date this business the proprietors have leased a 
large wharf in Portland, capable of allowing ten 
vessels to load at one time. 

"The baby is sick, my dear." " Well, give it 
castor oil. Dennis, bring up the castor oil." "It's 
all gone, sir — divil a drop is left." " Gone ! why 
we have not yet opened the bottle/ 1 "Sure you 
have had it every day, and I have seen you use 
it myself upon youi salad." "Why, you scoun- 
drel ! you don't mean , to say I've been eating 
castor oil every day during the salad season?" 
"Sure you have, sir." "Did you not see the 
bottle was labelled castor oil?" "Sure and I 
did, sir; and didn't I put it in the castor every 
day?" 

Baby Wishom. — A little girl, about five years 
old, one day heard a preacher praying most lus- 
tily, till the roof rang with the 'strength of his 
supplication. Turning to her mother, and beck- 
oning the maternal ear down to a speaking dis- 
tance, she whispered, " Mother, don't you think 
that if he lived nearer to God, he wouldn't have 
to talk so loud?" 

Republican Principles. — An Irishman about 
to enter the array was asked by one of the re- 
cruiting officers, " Well, sir, when you get into 
battle will you fight or run?" " By my faith," 
replied the Hibernian, with a comic twist of coun- 
tenance, "I'll be after doin*,yer honor, as the ma- 
jority of ye does." 

Buss, to kiss; rebuss, to kiss again ; pluribus, 
kiss without regard to sex ; sillybuss, to kiss the 
hand instead of the lips ; blunderbuss, to kiss the 
wroii- person ; omnibuss, to kiss all the persons 
in tin room j erubuss, to kiss in the grave-yard 
or in the dark ; buss the boiler, to kiss the cook ! 



HORTICULTURAL, &c. 



GARDEN SEEDS, 
Growth of 1854. 

FRESH and GENUINE, per " Express."— Just received and 
constantly arriving — 

500 H>8. Yellow Onion Seed, 
100 « Red 
00 *' White " 
200 " Top Onions for sets. 
Fruit Seeds, &c, of 1854 ; Peach, Apple, Plum, Cherry, Pear, 
Locust, White Birch, Elm, O^nge Orange, Raspberry ; together 
with a complete assortment of Shaker and California Garden 
Seeds. Also, Flower Seede, Calilbrnian and Eastern. 
Wholesale and Retail, by 

C. MORRILL, Druggist, 
And agent for the Bale of the New Lebanon Shaker Seeds, 
Botanical Herbs aud Extracts. 

K street, cor. Third, Sacramento. 
vfl-1 Branch store, P. street, cor. Third. 



Smith's Pomological Gardens, 

Banks of the American River, two and a half miles from 

Sacramento city, 

THE proprietor of the Gardens would respectfully invite all 
who are engaged in " Nursery and Gardening " to visit hie 
grounds. He will be happy to show to them, ready for sale, 
this iall, as line a collection of 

Fruit Trees, Ornamental Trees, Grape Vines, Shrubs, 
Ftoiccring Plants, and Green House Plants, 
as can be found in all the great Sacramento Valley. 

The proprietor would call particular attention to his collec- 
tion of Peaches, believing that the specimens -exhibited by 
him in Sacramento and San Francisco markets have been un- 
surpassed in si2C, quality, or Savor. 

The collections of Pear Trees will equal any in the country ; 
these, with all the new varieties, will be offered this autumn. 

The undersigned believe- bu collection worthy a visit to his 
grounds of all who are interested in Gardening and Orcharding. 

The auoscriber will offer this autumn Five Tons Vegeta- 
ble Garden Seeds, that have been raised upon his own 
grounds. These seeds have been grown with care and will be 
sold at wholesale for the present, at the Gardens. 

Persons ; n want are invited to call upon us, and we will make 
reasonable terms. 

Fruits, Boquets, Stc, will always be furnished at short notice 
ot the Gardens. 

The proprietor returns bis thanks for the liberal patronage 
of the past, and hopes for a continuance ot" such favors. 

10 A. P. SMITH, Proprietor. 



BANKERS. 



To Fruit Growers In California. 

HOVEY & CO., Seed ttnd Nurserymen, No. 7 Merchants 
Row, Boston, Mass., invite the attention of Cultivators oj 
Fruit in California, to their very extensive collection of Fruit 
Trees of all kinds, particularly of Pears : embracing every var 
cty worthy of cultivation, to 08 obtained either in this country 
or in Europe. They oner for sale — 

100,000 Pear Trees, of all the choicest kinds both upon 

Pear and Quince stocks, dwarfs and standards ; 
50,000 Apple Trees, in 50 varieties : 
25,000 Plum Trees, in 30 varieties ; 
20,000 Peach Trees, in 35 varieties ; 
Also, — Quince and Cherry Trees ; 40 varieties of the finest 

Grapes; 13 varieties Currants; 10 varieties Raspberries; 10 
varieties choicest English Gooseberries ; and 3U varieties Straw- 
berries, bctadJng our Hbvey'e Seedling, which bas not yet been 
equalled for size and productiven 

Also,— 100,000 Asparagus, and 30,000 Giant iUmhnrd Roots. 
An immense collection ol Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Roses, 
Greenhouse Plants, Sic., Sic. Agricultural and Garden Seeds 
of every description, and ol the Best quality, constantly for sale. 

Catalognut gratis to post-paid applicants. 

Messrs. HOVEY & CO. would remark that their mode ol 
packing trees for California, bas met with the greatest success, 
and they feel confident of being able to give satisfaction to those 
who may favor them with their orders, 

Address, HOVEY St CO., No. 7 Merchant* - Row, 

8 Boston, Mass. 



San Jose Nursery. 

WE are prepared to supply the trade with the best varieties 
of Fruit Trees, Grapes Vine, Rosea, Plants, Sic., in all 
their varieties; aud are disposed to sell ut a low price, that we 
may suit the times. Our Trees are cultivated with great per- 
sonal care. Those who desire to make Nurseries and Gardens 
will do well to visit and ascertain lor themselves our ability to 
supply what we advertise. Trees will be carefully labelled and 
packed for any season or distance. 
The following Trees we offer this season 



Peach Trees, 4i varieties ; 
Pear do 44 do 



r.4 


<ln 


IS 


ill) 


6 


do 


9 


do 


3 


do 



Strawberries, 7 varieties ; 

Fig Trees; 

Pomegranates ; 

Walnuts; 

Chestnuts; 

Locust Trees, very large ; 

Rose Acaciase, 1 e__ l_j„„ 

Osage Orange; } lorh *d6«- 



Apple do 

Plum do 

Apricots 

Almonds 

Quinces do 

Cherry do many do 

Grapes, 12 do 

lu addition to our Fruit and Ornamental Trees, we offer ten 
nl finest Rout, comprising more than one hundred vari- 
eties, all of the best known kind.-. Our plants are too numerous 
to specify in an advertisement. Hoping visitors tvill come nnd 
see us, wo refer them to our agent in San Francisco, Ma, De- 
labignk, 121 Sausome .-tree!, where we shall have a collection 
of plants in the season as samples. The nursery is situated in 
the city of San Jose, immediately above the City Mills. 

We are also permitted to reler to Warren Si Son, who have 
examined our grounds, and who can testily of the character of 
our nursery, and who will receive and forward orders to us. 

Every order promptly and speedily attended to. 

8utl' L, PRKVOST St. CO. 



Golden tiate Nursery, 

Corner of Futsom and Fourth streets, San Francisco. 
OYFICR — NO. 170 WASHINGTON STBKET. 

THE attention of the public is requested to a large collection 
of the flowering Plants, now for sale at this Establishment, 
embracing the most extensive assortment in the Suite; among 
which may be found — 

Camclia Japonicaa, in seventy varieties; 
Perpetual blooming Roses, of all the classes ; 
Moss and climbing Raises, do do ; 

Fuscbia*', a choice collection ; Heliotropes, in vnriety ; 
Rose and Lemon Geraniums ; 
Lemon-scented Verbena", Flowering do, Arbutillums, Azaleas, 
Orleanders, Pussitiora.*, Honeysuckles, Carnations, Dahlias, 
Bulbous Roots, Stc, Sic; and a general Collection ol Green- 
house plants and ornamental shrubbery. 

Catalogues tor 1855 will be ready on the 1st of Decembor, 
and will be forwarded on application. 

Orders for any part of the State, will he promptly attended 
to, on application to l>. Nelson, No. 170 Washington etreei — Dr 
to the proprietor. (7-3m) W. C. WALKER. 



Fruit Tins I Fruit Trees 1 1 

WE have for sale at our Nursery at the Mission San Jose- 
Five Thousand large Apple Treea : two thousand ol 
them of extra size. Many of them will bear fruit the next year. 
Two Thousand Peach Trees, choicest kind — large and hand- 
some trees. 

Pear Trees on the Quince as well as Pear. 
Fifteen Hundred Cherry Trees from two to four feet high. 
* Grape, Fig, Quince, Apricot, Nectarine uud Almond Treed 
in less quantities. Ail the above we guarantee in quality, and 
we warrant them what they should be, and will sell at prices 
to suit the times. 

Apple Trees froir $100 to $2 50 

Peach, Pear, Cncuy, from 150 to 2 50 

Extra sized tr»*cs in proportion. 

BEARD &. LEWELLEN, Mission San Jose. 
Orders with Warren Si Son, corner it Montgomery and 
Cfl'fjrnia streets, will be promptly attended to. 18 6m 



30,000 Fruit Treea. 

COMMERCIAL NURSERIES, near the Artesian Fountains ; 
also, in San Jure City. — The undersigned offers the above 
lot of tine Fruit Trees, consisting ot Apple, PeaX, Cherry and 
Peach. These trees have been introduced into this country 
from Genesee County, N. Y., by the undesigned himself, and 
are ot the very best varieties known in New York ; many of 
them ore new kinds, and among the Apples are the beet "lute 
varieties for keeping. 

Orders for Fruit Trees of any kind may be left with Warren 
St Son, who will give all Deeded Information, will be promptly 
attended to. Orders can also he forwarded to the Nursery. In 
all cases, orders received at the Nursery will receive very 
prompt attention, where wo should he glad to see purchasers, 

Apple Treea, from three to six feet $1 25 

Poor, Chorry and Peach, do. 150 

Large quantities wHI he ottered at prices to suit the times 
and circumstances of the purchaser. 

GEO. W. LE VALLEY. 
P. S. We ran furnish Scions of the Fruit Trees, of reliable 
varieties, of more than fifty kinds, in lots to suit orders. 20 



VAN VLECK, READ & DREXEL, 

BANKERS, corner of Commercial and Montgomery streets 
draw at sight, in eunis to suit, on 

Ocean Bank New York. 

Bank of North America Boston. 

Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank Albany 

Drexel & Co Philadelphia. 

Josiah Lee & Co Baltimore. 

J. B. Morton, Esq Richmond. Va, 

Gen. Wm. Larimer Pittsbure, Pa; 

A. J. Wheeler, Esq Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A. D. Hunt, Esq; Louisville, Ky. 

J R. Macmurdo St Co New Orleans, 

Also, on Detroit, Mich.; Memphis and Nashville, Tenn., Co 
lumbus, Ohio : Norfolk, Va and Charleston, South Carolina. 
1 



ADAMS & CO., 

BANKERS, Montgomery street, San Francisco. Bills of 
Exchange drawn on "any of our Houses in New York, 

Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimare, Washington, Cincinnati, New 

Orleans, St. Louis and London. 

Also payable at the following Bonks — 

Merchants' and Farmers' Bank Albany 

Utica City Bank Utica 

Bank of Syracuse _ Syracuse 

Bank of Auburn Auburn. 

Bank of Attica Buffalo 

Rochester City Bonk Rochester. 

George Smith &. Co Chicago. 

Alex. Mitchell, Fire and Marine Ins. Co Milwaukee. 

Michigan State Bauk Detriot. 

Com. Branch Bank of the State of Ohio Cleveland. 

Clinton Bank Columbus, Ohio. 

|3P Money and Gold Dust received in Special Deposits, and 

General Deposits, received from merchants, mechanics, and 

others. 3 ADAMS St, CO 



Daniel D. Page, 



David Chambers, I F nine is W. Page, 



Henry D. Bacon, Uenry Height, Sacramento City, 

St. Louis, I San Francisco. | 

PAGE, BACON, & CO.. 

BANKERS, Montgomkry, comer of California street, San 
Francisco, draw ot sight, in sums to suit, on — 

Geo. Peabody Si Co London. 

F. Huth& Co London 

American Exchange Bank New York. 

Duncan, Sherman St Co New York 

Atlantic Bank BoBton. 

Philadelphia Bank Philadelphia. 

Joeiah Lee At Co Baltimore. 

Louisiania State Bank New Orleans. 

Tage Si Bacon St. Louis. 

Hutchings Si Co Louisville. 

T. S. Goodman at Co Cincinnati. 

S. Jones Si Co Pittsburg. 

Gold Dust and Exchange purchased at current rates. 12 



Tin- Pacific Loun and Security Bank. 

MONEY will be received on deposit in sums of Ten 
Dollars and upwards, for which Certificates of Th posit 
will be issued, bearing date the first or fifteenth <>r the 
mouth, payable on demand, or at epeoined nines, at the option 

of the depositors. If payable on demand, they will be Without 
interest, uules* the money remain on deposit one month, In 
which case they will draw interest of onept r cent. permonth,bltt 

no interest for fractional pnrts of a month. If deposited for 

Hpecirird times, certificates will be issued bearing one ami a half 
per cent, per month interest for such time. Interest will cease 
at maturity; so that if depositors desire to continue their de- 
posits niter their certificates fall due, they must be presented 
lor payment and renewal ; otherwise interest ceases. 

The money deposited is used only in loans guaranteed by us 
and in all ru.-i'-' amply secured by Mortgages, Stale, County 

and City Stocks. Uerebandise, and other safe collateral . ■ 
in the name of "MARRIOTT Si WHEELER, TniBlC 
• with Pacific Loan and Security Bank." 
A register i- kept at all times open to depositors for inspec- 
tion, in which appear their name.--, the number of certificates of 
deposit issued, aud the securities upon which the money de- 
posited has been placed. Depositors thus not only have the 
Cersonal security offered by all banks, but in addition have the 
onentof the securities taken and guaranteed by us, and the 

facility of knowing what disposition has been made of their 
deposit. FREDERICK MARRIOTT, 

ALFRED WHEELER. 
No. 98 Merchant street, San Francisco. 19 



MISCELLANEOUS. 




COLLINS & CO., 
PRACTICAL HATTERS, 

(pREMrtna hat stobe,) 
357 Commercial street Sua Francisco. 

THE undersigned would take this opportunity to return their 
thanks to their friends and the public generally for the very 
liberal share ot patronage which they have received. They take 
pleasure in now announcing that they are determined that no 
one shall surpass them in the beauty, or finish, or quality of a 
Hat ; that no gent shall wear a finer Hat than can be found at 
Collins St Co.'s Warehouse. 

The proprietors of this establishment exert themselves to 
manufacture to order the latest styles and most approved pat- 
terns. The stock of HATS and CAPS, of every kind, now 
on hand, cannot be surpassed in this city. 

17 COLLINS & CO. 

San Francisco ahead of the World ! 



Ever on, on apace with the Age and Times' 




THEODORE PAYNE. SQUIRE P. DEUTXY. 

THEODORE PAYNE & CO., 

REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AUCTIONEERS. 

OFFICE AND SALES-BOOM COHNKIl CALIFORNIA AND MONT- 
GOMERY STBEETS. 



THEODORE PAYNE AUCTIONEER. 

E5P Messrs. PAYNE Si CO. respectfully inform the publi 
that they have established themselves as above, for the purpose 
of transacting the 

Real Estate business, in all its branches, 
For the conducting of which they esteem i [■■culiarly 

qualified, by having given it their special attention for over two 

years past, and made themselves familiar with aTl questions 

affecting titles*, Stc. Sic. 

They will pive their especial attention to the public sales of 
estate) by Ajhnlnistratott, Assignees, Receivers, Mortgagees; 

Sic, carefully complying with the tnrms ul law. 

A Register for Property, at either public or private sale 

always open at their office 20 Gtj 



To Farmer* mid Gardeners. 
W1CKER3IIAMS 

CelebratedPatentWroughtlronFannFence. 

FC ft sale — Wickers barn's far-lamed Patent Wrought Iron 
Fence, for enclosing and sud-dirldina lands. It can benir- 
Dished at but little above the cost of ditching, and is much more 
preferable, because it does not require a heavy annual expend- 
iture to keep Ll In repair; it cannot be destroyed by the Bros 

■ ■ 10 constantly sweep over prairie and mountain, n,, 
wooden fences to be renewed, nor carried away by flood from 
the overflow of the low lauds; it Is (roe from decay, which 
pieces il beyond comparison with wood or any other material 

now in use; it is valued tlie most highly where it has hern 
tried the most thoroughly; it is light and graceful, yet strong, 
mil cannot be broken down by horses or cattle. The testimony 
which has been given by those who have used it iu the Atlantic 
States, is sufficient to recommend it to the tanning public ol 

California. 

A complete model is now an exhibition nt the State Agricul- 
tural Fair, at Musical Hall, Bush street, near -Montgomery, 
where a full description may be seen, with the testimony of 
thoso who have erected it in the Atluutic States. 

Farmers are invited to examine this fence, as there has never 

myol the same kind in this country previous to tho ar 

rival ol this lot, and tram it? peculiar construction there is not 

the least doubt but that it will be extensively used in tin 

J, T. Beaton has now on hand, and will be constantly receiv 
ing supplies from the manufacturer, which will enable him to 
till orders t<> almost any amount. 
For particulars address J. T. HESTON, 

At Warren's Agricultural Hu.ims; 
Or, P. COGGIN3, cor. Sacramento aud Pike streets 
October 8, 1854. 15 



Artesian Well Boring. 
"II / E would respectfully inform the public that we are fully 
W prepared to take contracts in the ubovc operations in a 
manner to guarantee satisfaction or no charge will be made. 

Smith St Van Dvnb having associated themselves with an 
old and experienced operator from the En* t, who challenges the 
world to compete with him in all the branches connected with 
the above business, nre fully confident to guaranten success in 
all contracts that we may undertake, and warrant the work for 
one year. We have also implements for boring through stone 
to any depth, and all work done on the most reasonable terms. 

Fur the satisfaction of those wanting anything in the above 
line, we would refer to Thomas Fallon, 3an Jnsp ;. Rulus 9. 
Eella, of Haworth &■ Ealll ; M. A. Sullivan, New Custom Houso; 
WiL'ht &. Co., i:i7 Jackson street, &c, Stc. 

We can do work cheaper than any other operators, for two 
reasons : 

Ut. Because we nro prepared to work on a most extensive 
scale 

2d. Because we understand all branchew connected with the 
above business, and arc, therefore, able hi work With certainty. 

Ail orders left at the What Cheer Boose will be promptly at- 
tended to. SMITH & VAN DYNE, Contractors, 

N. H — We also reler to Warren Si Son, publishers ol" the 
" California Farmer," who have eoen and known the character 
of tho work done. 1 



Ilunah for Vriici'h ni-w Daguerrcau Gallery! 

Largest Light in the World, (over 500 feet Glass.) 

New Building, cor. Sacramento and Montgomery streets. 

TT7"IIY should every one co to Vance's who wishes 
VT PERFECT LIKENESSES? Because he has now the 
best arranged Gallery on the Pacific Coast, and not to be sur- 
passed by any in the world. Instruments containing lenses 
more perfect, and with greater power than any ever before 
used in this country. 

2d. Became he has the largest light in the VOrld, from which 
be can term three distinct lights— top, side, nnd half Fide lights 
— that now enables him to overcome the great diffleulty which 

every artist In this city has to contend with— namely: In order 

to obtain perfect likenoaseBB, dhTerent Formed features require 
differently arranged lights. 

3d. Having the largest liaht, he i* enabled to make pictures 
in half the time of any other estabn«hment in the city ; there- 
fore they must be more perfect, for it is well known, the shorter 
the time the more natural the aspr< 

4th. Because every plate is carefully prepared with a coating 
of pure silver which produces the clear, bold and lasting picture 
that is so much admired, and which cannot !«■ produced on the* 
common plates, as they are now used by other artists. 

5th. Because he has ol late, after much exjierimentin<* brought 
his chemical preparations to perfection, using compounds en- 
tirely different from anything ev.T before USeC in the art, which 
enables him to produce perfect Iffenesses, at every sitting, with 
that clear, soft and beautllul tono, so mucli admired in 'all his 
pictures. 

All those wishing perfect likenesses will do well to call before 
sitting el se-iv here, and judge lor themselves. 

l3r J*ricc8 as reasonable, and work superior to any in tho 
city. 

Don't forget the place. 

Id? New Building corner of Sacramento and Montgomery 
streets, entrance on Montgomery, next door to Austin's. IT 



ADAMS & CO.'S 

CALdTPORNIA AND ATLANTIC EXPRESS. 

OUR Atlantic States Express will leave San Francisco on the 
1st and 15th of each month, by the Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company's Steamers, and the Treasure crosses tin 1-thmtw 
under the charge of a strong puard. The Treasure forwarded 
by us to the Philadelphia Mint, is always deposited there previ- 
ous to that sent by any other conveyance. Chir rates arc lower 
than those offered by any other House, with the same security. 
We also forward Treasure on the 1st and 15th of every month 
To England, by the P. M. S. S. Co.'s steamers to Panama, and 
from Aspinwal) by the West India Mail steamers. 

We draw Bills of Exchange on any of our Houses in the fol- 
lowing places : 

Boston, New Yorlc, Phtlndt -lphln, 

Baltimore, Waahlnirtoii, St. Loula, 

tlndimnti, PltUburg, l*oul*vUlo, 

Now OrlcniiM, Loudon, &C., «&c^ 

Also, payable at any of the following Banks : 

Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank Albany 

Alex. Mitchell, Fire and Marino Insurance Co Mihvaukie 

Commercial Branch Bank ot State ol Ohio Cleveland 



Utica City Bank Utica 

Bank of Auburn Auburn. 

Rochester City Bit.. Rochester. 
Michigan Slate B'k Detroit. 



Bank of Syracuse. . .Syracuse. 

Bunk of Attica Buffalo. 

Geo. Smith St Co. . . .Chicago. 
Clinton Bank. -.Columbus, O. 



f5^" I" the Nobthekn Mines we run Expresses, in uur own 
name, always accompanied by faithful Messengers, to and from 
the following places: 
San Francisco, Sacramento, Mwytvlile, 

Bcnicia, Grass Valley, IVa-nda, 

ColomOy Flaecrville, or Mormon Islands, 

Georgetown, Hangtown, Salmon Falls, 

Qremvooa\ Shasta City, Auburn, t\r., t\c. 

And every other part of El Dorada, Fiacer and Shasta counties. 
Through Langtom St Bao.'s Ydua Exraxss, to and from tho 
following places in Yuba, Sierra and Nevada counties ! 
Long Bar, Deer Creek Crossing, Park'M Bur, 

Sicard's Bar, Bridgeport) S. Yuba, French Corral, 

Kennebec Bar, Sweetland's, Boston Bar, 

Union Bar, Hoyat's Diggings, Hunt's Ranch, 

Ruse'* Bar, Cherokee Corral, Burton's Bar, 

Foster's Bar. Hess' Crossing, N. Yuba, Wombow's Bnr» 

VVinslow's Bar, Slate Ranse, Sltte Eu 

Oak Valley, Junction House, Nevada B 

Indian Valley, Frenchman's Bar, l , Itanch, 

Sleigh villc, Bullard's Bar, Dowiuer&le, 

Cox's Bar, Minesotn Diggings, Kanaka Creek, 

Ooodyoar's Bar, and Emery's Crossing, Middle Yuba. 
Sacramento and Stockton, 
Via Benicla in the Southern Mines, we run an Express In our 
own name, always accompanied by buthful Mei-enccrs, to and 
from San Francisco, Stockton, Sonora, Hokolumne Hill, Col- 
umbia, Mariposa, Stc, by Bbown's Express, from Stockton to 
all the Camps in the Southern BDnaa 

Our Bills of Exchange 

can bo procured at, and Treasure forwarded to ue for shipment, 
from any of tho above places. In all of the above places we 
have Brick Vaults and Iron Safes for the security of Treasure 
entrusted to us, and on board of steamboats on any of the above 
routes, wo have Iron Safes for tho security ol nil valuable pack- 
ages transported by us. 

Insubanck. — We have mode arrangements for insurance to 
tho extent of One Million Dollars, on any one shipment, and 
are empowered to insure for other parties OD Gold Dust, Ban», 
Coin and Merchandise to and from flew York and this city, by 
endorsements on Bills of Lading, at the time of shipment 

7 ADAMS &. CO. 



Boston Clipper Steel Plow, 

Manufactured hy Buggies, Ptourse \ Mason. 

npH13 BjiletidU Plow is made after the stylo nnd form of the 

X famous Englo Plough, so universally known. This formof 

Plow In all Ua |iarts bus boon considered tho moil perfect >. t 

invented, having taken premiums in ovary State in the Union ; 
also at the World's Fair. 

Tho present Plow has been manufactured hy Mcasrs. Rug- 
glea, tfouraO A. Mimon, with great care, and In the moat finished 

style) of the very bout steel, and may now bo considered the 

■ finish and most cumplote Plow ; and the undersigned 

wish the cultivators of California to call and examine the linuir 

at their place of business, TRKADVYKI.l. * CO 

Cor. of Battery and California Streets, San Prune! 

24 TREADWEL1. & CO., Mary«.*Me. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, JANUARY 25, 1855. 



<i\}t California Jarmtr 

AM> JOURNAL OP ISKI.TI, SCIKVCBS. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY MORNING 

BY WAHREN It SON. 

'omcry ,t,„t. 

•••.. i i delivered 



NO. 4. 



A PLACE FOR EVERY TOOL. 

BY S. EDWARDS TODD. 



AGENTS. 
,t 0„. at a. [hcirolficmhroughout Ihe United 

Wells, Fasoo a Co., at their office, throughout the 

'II "II.iM.LT0N, Travelling Agent f„ r Sacramento City 

'' ' ' ,:"■:: .'J,, R, MW >, „,„. Q , 

Adam ,t Co.— Hmiboldl Bay, Trinidad, Crcsetmt Cltu 

........ , . 

H I. ELAND SC McCOU.IIIUt- Cmrcil City, Port OrtoTll 

SratlTA- .land. No. :. !•„., Office Buildin"- Kim 

||'.. . ore Hull, Lena wharl-Stn VrmfchST 

I limnawell, P.M., Columbia. 
I. puitln, MoktlUMM Hill. 

Gen. M. M. McCarver. A/oimm 

Form, r 
Dudley & Co,, Napa City. 
Hiram Dawning-, 
Kirk & Brother, Sacramento. 

Elatn i, " 

' . i . ,. Roberts, Sonora. 

A. II. Murdoch, r. jl., Union. 

Humboldt Bay. 
J. M. Thdrburn&Co. A r cw York 
■ 
report in us on the Let of every 
month, i ncreaseol niunea and the prospect*, manlier with 

. nut ilur tin" Office. 



li ■ '.. I I' . . . , , .... 

Tri ■. r ell & Co., Man 

.1 
A. W. Potti 

i • i . ■ .. • , 
C. if Burto 
Dr.ThomiK .1 Harvey, P. M„ 

. .. | 
Cram, Rogers A: *;:,,., Yrekus 
Parker A- Roman. " 

Howard&ChamberlaiD, f/w'fl 
. - i. 

We desire our Agents tr, 



if tin 



[Fur tin- California Farroer.] 
THE MOON AND VEGETABLES. 

COMMA Co. Jan. 6, 1855. 

Mlsshs. Editobs: There i.s, perhaps, no 
demonstrative question or principle, which has 

been so long in dispute, as that of the influence I ■»"<>' farm, which is pracl 

of tlic moon on vegetables. Some people, if they ll0t a ,, ." n ' Iri '' 1 miles distant from the residence of 
happ n to plant a crop of turnips, or other rool 



ll 



by lln 
take -ft 

moon; others laugh at thi er try it 

themselves. 

Now this is a question which can be easily 
settled forever, if all our farmers who are not 
prejudiced either way, will but sow thcii 
both on the increase ami decrease of the moi 
make a report of their results to the California 
Farmer, we shall see the question fairly set- 
tled. I therefore hope that our fanners will very 
generally make the trial. It will coal thsm hot 
a few hours work at most, and yon. Messrs. Edi- 
tors, the trouble of reading their communications, 
ami reporting the result of the experiment, which 
task would lie pronounced "no trouble at all," by 
men of your stamp, who never hesitate at time or 
expense in forwarding the interests of the farm- 
'ininunily. W, S. Green. 



"In vain the search : 
Nor hoe, nor spade, in its own place Is found." 

Edwards. 
■ I who is any body, like I 
nil order displayed in the various operations 
farm ; and even the rrtost careless and neg- 
ligent, admire, and approve the practice of "him 
who has an appropriate place for every tool, and 
who strenuously insists on keeping them there, 
'• A place for every thing, and everv thing in its 
place," is a maxim coeval with the art of printing 
for aught I know ; and we find, many times, that 
those who often insist on having this precept car- 
ried into practice, come the farthest short of keep- 
ing this precept ; and in time lost, patience tested, 
and the many hindrances whieh results there- 
from, they are often obliged to suffer a mortifying 
penalty. J 6 

Ask Mr. A. where he keeps his handsaw, or 
his augurs, or pick, crowbar. &o. " Well, lot mo 
think— where did T use them last ? Look in the 
wood house. If they are not there, look in the 
carriage house ; and if they are not to be found 
there, let us see if they are not some where about 
the barn, or in the stable." 

Mr. Ii. says. ■ 1 usually keep my tools either at 
the house, or barn, or in the path that leads from 
one to the other. When I am „ th a tool 
it is thrown in the path that leads from the house 
to the bam ; and it. generally gets carried to one 
place or the other." 

There being generally, such a destitution of 
order in reference to keeping tools in their appro- 
priate plaee, it is deemed a matter of no impropri- 
ety to speak of the order and arrangement, in the 
disposition of the \ i Is of the work shop. 

fanner, 
sidei 

the writer, 

Ask hi, 



do so, who could not work one or two minutes 
later at night to redeem thoso lost moments? 
And, besides, when tools arc laid down here and 
there, thinking to return them when it is more 
convenient, they are often forgotten, and score if 
minutes are lost in search for them, even ivh 
' : ' ' " a ' ' at« ' : .'.i •■■ There is alwaj 
1 ' ' . " ' one needs a certain I n 
in having the assurance that the band can be laid 
directly on it. even in the dark. 

Those farmers who succeed best In their opera- 
tions, are noted for their strict adherence to sys- 
tem and order; and those who set at naught all 
order and system, are always in a hurry— never 
know where to find any thing— never" have a 
place for anything, except somewhere on the 
farm— and they never accomplish hut little in 
comparison to what they might, were system and 
order their watchword.— Country Gentleman. 






his hand 



INQUIRY AND OBSERVATION. 

It is not expected that the farmer shall have 
an exact knowledge of the construction of the 
trees and plants which he cultivates with so much 
care, or of the anatomy and physiology of the 
animals which he rears. lie cannot learn the 
precise habits of the insects which destroys his 
crops— their periods of coming and retiring— or 
the office which it is designed they shall till in 
economy of nature. Yet a general knowledge of 
the laws whieh govern them, and a constant ob- 
servation of their habits, will divest us of much 
or the repugnance felt towards them, and lead us 
to a profound contemplation of the wisdom and 
goodness of the Great Architect of all. 

We plant the seed, and behold the germ springs 

light and air. What wonderful operations 

ill carried on ! The tree assumes the most 

' Id forms— the buds, the 

"ins. and fruit, appear, surpassing in 

beauty all art of the most skilfull hands. Itlur- 

1 "nee, and of- 

1 heats, 



oi- 



in such a pari 

or nail, or standing, or lying in 

on such a shelf. There hang the augt 

in its appropriate place; and on the pre! 

they are allowed no other place. There h 

half di and if one of them i 

down but for a moment's work, its Brat ai 

resting place is. its own 

with an apai raws, one for riv 

half dozen different sizes, one for washer 

all Sizes, one lor nails of .1 fl 
and so on. In one corner is a shallow ho . 

are a lot of carriage holts, and other holts. 
and where every thing in the bolt line is 1, 
f a break down. There bung a num 
extra plow handles, in ca! 

1 time, a half day need n 

eral miles to have it rep 

of bai ' on out or bt 

re at a 
my thing that i. wn 
break down 

full, to tint 
be there. Tl 

into a 

I. There bung the chain': (not on the 



hi>' trees 1 






id 



Wr. publish th Mnmtloication, with 

pleasure, and shall ulwa\ I to hear from 

our In inching 

it ridi- 
cule th. moon's influence upon \ 

tion, or its results upon I lhc , _ ' 

they will bul carefully in< 

■ 

other form 1 

hard truth, will not end in 



i it. and 
grain, which he has caused to grow, 
and looks upon thorn as the rc-uit of a mere me- 
chanical operation. He that wonder- 
ful and mysterious agency which prepares the 
and semis it to the farth- 
1 and leaf of a monarch of the forest or the 
minutest tendril of the tiny vine. He plov. 
plant and hoe in a Ion 
Mm that, in a fine tilth, there are millions 

more mouth M plant 

requires than in a iil ; that theflfl 

months catch fertilizing 

'i in from the cooi- 
ine; dews and genial showers. He forgets that 
the clay land, has 
found potash in li 

raw of 

and heaulitV 

tud bring them to 
iw this 






demn as "hook farming," as if facts recorded in a 
book or newspaper were not as valuable as though 
declared by the tongue. To be consistent, the 
scoffer at "book farming." should reject many of 

' best practices of the farmer now, becauso Vir- 
gil wrote of them ; or Cato, or Collumella, or Je- 
thro 1 ell, commended them. 

The nscot race has its part to fill in the great 
plan, and that part is undoubtedly an important 
one. ttc accuse them of encroachments when 

,(, ct, as their favorite food, the plants we 

arc cultivating for our own pleasure or profit. It 
may be, that in their deliberations and conven- 
tions, if they hold any, they look upon us as the 
aggressors. They feed on the common bounty as 
well as ourselves, enjoy their brief existence and 
die. Our domestic animals do the same; but we 
I. i hem subserve our purposes, and are content. 
W e have not .yoked the insect race to our imple- 
ments for practical purposes; but having this de- 
cided advantage of them, the possession of reason 
it is the part of wisdom to study their habits with' 
patient care, until we become as well convinced 
of their usefulness, as we are of that of the ox and 
cow, and that an cntelligent Being placed them 
here for our good. 

Many of the beetles live on plants not only of 
little use to man, but some of them poisonous 
and in a state of decay often offensive ; they are 
therefore to be reckoned among our friends. 
Some live on the juices of animals, and by this 
means destroy a great number of noxious insects. 
Others are of service in the arts, affording us the 
■ lineal, scarlet grain, lac and manna. 

'i I " and some others, subsist upon plant 

ice, and thus become our active proteel I 

THE TEA OF ASAM. 

MIL A. II. Danforth, a missionary at Gowa- 
hati, Asam, under date of .July 6th i ■' writes 
to the New Vnrk Recorder, an "interesting account 
of the productions of Asam, particularly that of 

tea. He i 

It is generally cipected that communications 

--: i;n . i 

lines occasionally, re'-, ' ' "" '" - 



n 






on that ho- 
-sea, ea 






is or Grain 



and beetl--- 
nmetimes prove exceedingly deetru 



and productions of the country may not be unin- 
teresting lo your readers. 

in has but recently come under liritish 
rule ; hence its resources have as yet scarcely be- 
gun to be developed. The exports of the natives 
are very limited. There is but little enterprise 
among them. Europeans, however, are entering 
rovinoe; and with a sufficient amount of 
I ami labor expended hot am lor the 

ilue of her pro:: , • , . , ,,. i,. found 

behind the best provinces in India. The coal 
worked a little, and some at- 
tempts at cultivating indigo have been made, but 
with little success. There are two large 
which are doing good business. 
ien or twelve hundred maunds (cigbty 
i of India rubber were manufactured 
ir. lint the article whi' id to 

distinguish Asam, is the tea. The plant is indi- 
to the soil, and the climate, being very 
damp, is peculiarly favorable to il 

There in any quantity of land tscul- 

I opens an inviting field for 

ary to 

-te.l and the tardi lirst return, 

The 

■d for 

-t crop can be reali 

- profits are re are 

n 

i- that 

y was 

'ha capital of Bat 

after a > (gemot, it 

'vcred 
i ho most flourishing oot- 

I tea is manufactured, and all 
.red in cop- 



I black 
.( when 
■ taken 
a, when 
r hours, 
. a hot 
7, bat 
en out, 
.1. with 
a it un- 
it sifted 
it very 
of taav. 
^ wond 
e finest 



he tea, « 
K-cession of sic 
vtams only th 



, 45 lbs. 



ap sec 



. ■ j ■ . 
he tree* UierrUi saved - tact waa learn 

if ..Juan e c lo a work on 
nit what it has beeoeae too fashionable to coo-iraedy far the market. 



26 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

DUOTION OF PRTCE. 

.y losses upon the Farming interests of the State 
r, the general depression ol that interest, and the 
-.:■ 'incnts resulting to all, we know have prevented 
many who are engaged in Agriculture from subscribing to our 
journal the past year. Feeling desirous to meet their wante n^ 
for as is in our power, we now offer the CALIFORNIA FAR- 
MER at SIX DOLLARS PER YEAR, PAYABLE ALWAYS 
IN ADVANCE, 

We trust this effort on our part to meet such circutr stance* 
will be met on the part of those engaged in the cultivation of 
the soil with a corresponding feeling, and that nil will do us 
service by sending in a goodly list of subscribers and the amount 
for the same Wo have made the price thus low, that our 
subscribers and friends may at once send us the proof of their 

good will. 
Inducements for the formation of clubs will be found under 



another head. 

Clubs Formed—Premiums to Subscribers. 

With the third volume, with the opening year, we would 
offer to our friends stronger inducements than heretofore to 
make up CLUBS for the FARMER. It will be seen by our 
"special notice," that we shall commence with a. reduction of 
the pries of the " Farmer." The price will now be six dol- 
lars per year, always in advance. No subscriptions re 
ceived unless accompanied by the amount. 

To those who are disposed to form CLUBr*, when we con 
eemd ell to one addrcsv, we shall send SIX COPIES for FIVE 
NAMES, TWELVE for TEN, and TWENTY-FIVE COPIES 
for the names and amount of twenty subscriptions. 

To those, or any of our friends who will interest themselves, 
we believe this will be some satisfaction, besides prumoting the 
cause of Agriculture. We hope to see good results to all from 
this proposition. 

TO AGENTS. 

We would ask of our Agents to whom we send the CALI- 
FORNIA FARMER, to communicate with us ami to remit full 
accounts to the close of the year. We shall send thou exj ra 
numbers for distribution. We call their attention to the Jfr- 
duciion in price of our journal ; this we hope will give satis- 
faction to all, so as to enable our agents to enlarge our lists, 
and also afford an increased reward to them. 

We can offer inducements to Agents in all the large cities as 
Carriers, and to Booksellers and Newspaper Stores also, for 
Papers in quantities. 

THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 

Wr have many inquiries, daily, from our friends, in the coun- 
try, who write us, desirous to make up clubs for the Fabbleb, 
and send us produce for the amount. We always do our ut- 
most to facilitate the cultivator of the soil, and we will nssure 
our friends that it* they will make up clubs of five, ten or 
twenty, they can send their Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, or speci- 
mens of extra quality, and we will allow them the full market 
price in the paymeut of the Farmer. Our friends that are in 
a rreare can send us the amount thus due, and add the coming 
vjlume, and we will forward receipts for the same. So send 
a'ong your wheat and good products. We do not mean- 
thing — but those articles that have a value, und we will 



C|* California janwr. 



WAIIIIKN It SON, EDITORS AND PBOPRlETOfiB. 



SAK FKMJ CISCO, THITRSDAY, JANUARY 25, 1855 




SPECIAL AGENTS FOR THE FARMER? &c. 

All the messengers of Adams & Co., and Wells, Fyrgo &. Co. 
are duly authorized by us to receive nibseriririons &br the Cali- 
roRHiA Farmer, and receipt the- sum ive orders 

for Fruit Trees, Seeds, &c, and any add all bu.-ine.-s with us. 
AlWucli business cotniniu.d to enlior c,f tlie*r- rnc-sengew will 

OAKLAND. 

Our friends at Oakland are invited to call on MR. CHAIILES 
STEWART, and subscribe for the California Farhkr ; he 
is luthorized to receive subscription* and we will cheerfully 
ail the farmer in hie employment, We are willing to receive 
IVheat, Ryr, Oats, &c., or any valuable products of first quality 
Id payment, as we do wish our friends to enjoy our sheet, and 
conveniently too. 

Cabbages. — There are more ways to cook a 
fine cabbage than to boil it with a bacon side, anil 
yet few seem to comprehend that there can be any 
loss in cooking it. even in this simple way. Two 
thirds of the cooks place the cabbage in cold wa- 
ter arid start it to boiling; this extracts all the 
best juices, and makes the pot liquor a soup. The 
cabbage head, after having been washed and quar- 
tered, should be dropped into boiling water, with 
no more meat than will just season it. Cabbage 
may be cooked to equal brocoli or cauliflower. 
Take a firm sweet head, cut it into .shieds. lav it 
in salt and water for six hours. Now place it in 
boiling water until it become tender — turn the 
water off, and add sweet milk when thoroughly 
done — take it up in a aolander and drain. Now 
season with butter and pepper, a glass of good 
wine, and a little nutmeg grated over, and you 
will have a dish little resembling what are gener- 
ally called greens. 

AaPARAGis.— This delicious vegetable, is not 
yet appreciated in the up country of the South. 
Tie the stalks in small bundles, and drop them 

into boiling water, with a good portion of salt 

ten or fifteen minutes boiling is enough. Place 
some slices of soft toast in a deep dish, and take 
the asparagus up on the toast : saturate the whole 
with sweet butter, and pepper to taste. 



What can our Legislature do to Relieve our 
State from its present Embarrassments? 
The State can provide a fund for the passage 
of emigrants to our shores — an Emigrant Com- 
pany, the object of which shall be to induce the 
better part of those citizens that desire to come, 
to make California their permanent home, and to 
induce families to emigrate. Many would come, 
but are prevented for want of the means, and 
Government could aid readily and the result of 
such a population would in a brief time add to 
the wealth of the State more than double the 
cost of the aid rendered. 

We would have a bounty tendered to families. 
The man that brings a good wife should have a 
bounty; her jmssage. should be free ; and our 
State should not let this matter go too long. The 
emigration plan only can save this State from 
greater embarrassments and worse depression, 
and it will be a patriotic act in the members of 
our Legislature to give this matter their earliest 
attention. 

We are much grateful to see the Senator from 
San Francisco acting promptly. We trust he 
will set his face as a " Flint " against all opposi- 
tion to these important measures, and not cease 
until they arc accomplished. We trust most 
earnestly he will "know nothing" else but Emi- 
gration ! Emigration ! ! until our our State is 
again prosperous and happy, and to him will be 
the honor of moving first iu the matter. 

The plan of a bounty, iva like, and every good 
wife that comes is worth a bounty. Meeting a 
friend a few days since, who spoke of this plan — 
'■ Yes," said he "that is right ; every citizen ofCali- 
fornia that goes home, should not come back 
without a wife. 1 am going home soon, and if I 
n win a bounty. I will bring one — and, finally," 
id he, " I will bring one any how." 



The Mummy. 

The recent discovery of the Indian Chief, so 
remarkably well preserved — found, as it will be 
seen by referring to the statements of Dr. Evans, 
U. S. Geologist, at Shoahvater Bay, Washington 
Territory, by Capt. C. J. W. Russell,— will prove 
a matter of the greatest moment to our citizens 
and to all who feel any interest relative to the 
earlier history of our State, to the aborigines of 
California, or to the manners, customs or religion 
of the Red man, or to aught that appertains to 
science. It not necessary for us to speak a word 
in behalf of this present wonderful .specimen of 
preserved humanity, for the certificates of such 
men as those whose names appear will be a cer- 
tain guarantee that the present ■'mummy" is in- 
deed a reality. We would call the attention of 
our citizens to it; they can now have an oppor- 
tunity of judging for themselves. 

Capt. Russell, upon whose farm the mummy 
was found, is one of the early settlers and traders 
of California. His life is full of incident, enough 
to make a romance. Capt R. has made many 
voyages from Washington Territory to this port, 
was the pioneer in the 'oyster trade," from him 
we received the reports published from thence, 
and all his statements can be relied upon. 

We have taken an interest in this ''Indian 
Chief," that it might be brought before the public 
as a matter of the history of earlier times, and 
which should be of interest to us now. We trust 
our citizens will take sufficient notice of it to 
show they value all that belongs to California, 
and thus induce those who appreciate, to carry 
forward measures that shall retain in our State 
this specimen, and all others, for the establish- 
ment of a museum under the patronage of the 
State. 

This celebrated Chief will be on exhibition at 
the office of the California Farmer. See ad- 
vertisement. 



Cabbage as is Cabbage. — The Yreka Herald 
says that Mr. Cyrus H. Pickens of Horse Creek 
Ranch, five miles above the mouth of Scott River, 
informed us that he raised from a piece of ground 
less than one acre, thirty tons of eabbage. Some 
of the largest heads weighed 45 lbs. The seed 
vas sown the last of May or the first of June. 
Mr. P. thinks if the seed had been sown early, he 
would havo had ," some cabbage." 

Extensive Mising Operations. — Under the 
above caption, the Marysville Express says: We 
have just learned with much satisfaction that the 
ditch running from Dry Creek in this county to 
Park's, Barton's and Rose's Bars, an undertaking 
by Messrs. McQueen & Whiteside has been com- 
pleted. A new impetus will thus be given to 
mining operations in those rich, gold-y iclding dis- 
tricts. The work was finished on last Saturday. 

Any one may do a casual act of good nature ; 
but a continuation of them shows it a part of the 
tempcrameii t . Sterne. 



Agricultural Legislation. 

There can be no better evidence of the pros 
perity of a State than to see its Representatives 
earnest in their efforts to awaken the industry of 
the people. 

We have noticed with great satisfaction, that 
thus early in the session, there is a willingness, 

working representatives, to bring forward bills 
that are most intimately connected with the active 
industry of our citizens. This looks like progres- 
sion. It speaks well for our State, and shows 
that we have men who are not so altogether ab- 
sorbed in politics as to forget the interest of their 
constituents or the paramount good of the State. 
Questions touching railroads, emigration, tule 
lands, and agriculture in general, these and kin- 
dred interests, must demand, and we feel confident 
will receive, the attention of our Representatives 
in both branches of the Legislature. 

As conductors of the Organ of Agriculture in 
California, we feel proud to see the regard paid to 
this noble science by those who have expressed 
favorably their interest in its behalf; and most 
gratefully do we acknowledge the favors shown 
us in the courteous reception of our Journal by 
the entire Senate, and the liberality shown it in 
the Assembly. 

We shall strive to our utmost to do our duty 
to this science, and hope to be esteemed justly 
worthy the kindness extended us; for while we 
advocate this cause we shall ever do it with an 
eye single to its permanent prosperity. 

When the political horizon has cleared, we shall, 
as opportunities ofi'er, present subjects which we 
trust may be considered worthy the thought and 
attention of those who speak and act as the rep- 
resentatives of the glorious Euicka State. 



Solidified Milk.— We cannot urge too stron 
ly the virtue of this most excellent commodity, to 
our citizens, for it has been repeatedly tried and 
has never failed to give entire satisfaction. We 
refer our readers to the advertisement in our col- 
umns of Messrs. Bingham & Reynolds, who are 
the importers. The recommendations are genu- 
ine and to be relied on. To steamboat owners, 
hotel keepers and others who may unexpectedly 
want milk, this article is beyond price. We say 
to all, try it. 

Favors Received.— We are under obligations 
to our delegates in Congress, for repeated favors. 
particularly to Don. 11. S. Latham, for public doc- 
uments and papers of value and interest, relating 
directly to questions touching the real interests 
and to the advancing the permanent welfare of 
our country. 



Wells, Fargo & Co. — Improvement is the 
order of the day, and ready, onward, the watch- 
words of this able, efficient and widely known Ex- 
press and Banking House. The daily increasing 
business which crowns their efforts is the surest 
evidence of the faithfulness and dispatch with 
which all business matters are transacted, and of 
their influence, prosperity and popularity. Their 
office in this city has recently been enlarged by 
appropriating the entire floor of the building to 

their use. thus arMine several fine rooms. For 
a i citu c ctu ' iiii - u a autyi^oiK lity 61 structure, com- 
modious apportionment ami elegance of finish, this 
building has few superiors in the United States. 
Col. Pardee, under whose superintendence this 
House has advanced to its present commanding 
position, is we are happy to learn, fast recovering 
from the serious injury recently sustained from a 
fall into one of those villainous man-traps that 
disgrace our city. 

When such firms as Wells, Fargo & Co. or 
Adams & Co., are matters of remark, it is too fre 
quently the case that their influence is only con 
ceived in a circumscribed form as express men 
letter carriers, &c, completely losing sight of the 
fact that the business of each of these Houses 
amounts to a sum almost beyond the conception of 
the community in general— that its aggregate 
would swell far beyond the banking capital of 
many of our large cities, and may be reckoned by 
millions of dollars. The immense sums annu- 
ally expended in the ordinary business transac- 
tions of their several offices— diffused among hun- 
dreds of our most active and intelligent young 
men — cost of office rent, horses and carriages 
freights and travel upon steamers and stages, <fcc, 
we must not forget, for it is this general diffusion 
of business and money which tells immensely for 
the prosperity of California. And again, what 
would our merchants and business men do with- 
out such Houses ? Such facts and inquiries reveal 
at once their importance, and we rejoico to see 
that their prosperity is commensurate with their 
deserts. 



saloons to the table. We confess our own appe- 
tite was craving, but there was enough and to 
spare, three tables being spread most liberally. 
Capt. Poole with his usual courtesy yielded the 
chair to the honorable the President of the 
Senate, Gov. Purdy, who was assisted by the able 
commander of the Antelope. Capt. Van Pelt, at 
the opposite of the table, and the honors of the 
repast were faithfully performed, -V very large 
number of ladies were at the tables— so many 
that we fain believe Capt. I', must be an especial 
favorite, fur no commander can make greater 
efforts for the comfort and pleasure of bis passen- 
gers than the commander of the fleet and most 
comfortable steamer W. G. 11. But amid all this 
numerous and happy group, we must not forget 
one who is always " round." having an eye to the 
real pleasure of all friends alike- -we mean our 
friend Baldwin, everywhere — on the Confidence, 
Antelope, or Hunt, here, there, everywhere — just 
the same ; his cheerful smile comes to you like the 
ripe side of a golden pippin, and he, kind fellow 
with his hat just so, is indeed like the pippin, 
(peeping) out from the verdant boughs (bows) 
above, The W. G. made a splendid trip, much 
to the satisfaction of her numerous passengers, 
and arrived at the Levee City at 12 1-2 o'clock 
in good time. 

Congratulatory. — We clip the following 
kind notice of our journal, from the California 
Express. Coming as it docs from a press which 
has ever been a bold and able advocate of every 
measure presented which has fur its object tho 
advancement of the farmer's interest and the 
prosperity of our State generally, we feel doubly 
grateful. 

AGRICULTURE. — We notice with pleasure that 
the Senate of this State has passed a resolution or. 
dering two copies for each .Senator, of the Califor- 
nia Farmer. This is an exceedingly well con- 
ducted journal, containing a vast fund of solid 
information in regard to the most important of 
all the branches of human industry, anil our Leg- 
islators do well to instruct themselves, from this 
and every other source, in the great interests of 
the State. 

We are also indebted to that excellent family 
journal, the Golden Era, for the flattering mention 
it is pleased to make of our efforts and success in 
the cause in which we are engaged. It says: 

'I'm; California Farmer. — We are indeed 
gratified to observe that this most excellent agri- 
cultural journal is beginning to work itself into 
that support and favor will' the public which it 
nas over merited. It has reached a circulation of 
3,000 copies, which at once establishes it upon a 
firm and prosperous basis. Its editor, Col. War- 
hen, is a thorough agriculturist, both practically 
and theoretically, and the interest which he has 
lor the past live years evinced in this important 
branch of our State industry, entitles him to the 
wannest patronage of our fanners. The terms of 
the paper have been reduced to $G a year, and 
§3.50 for six months. 

To those friends in the Legislature who have 
manifested such an interest in forwarding this 
important branch of industry to Ihis State, we 
would likewise return our sincrc thanks. 



Wil»om G. Hd«t.— This favorite steamer was 
handsomely complimented on Monday evening 
last. A large and valuablo freight and a very 
full list of passengers, numbering over three hun- 
dred, gave a very lively and pleasant time of it 
up river. Among the passengers were many of 
our Senators and Representatives, with a goodly 
array of the prominent citizens of San Francisco, 
on their way to the capital to note the progress 
of the Senatorial election, The weather was re- 
markably pleasant— passengers very agreeable— 
a goodly group of the fairer part of creation— 
and the prospect of a quick trip— these all gave 
a zest to the feelings which caused a very agreea- 
ble and pleasing sensation as the supper bell an- 
nounced the odjournment from tho decks and 



The Dairy Prize.— Messrs. Southworth & 
Co. appear iu our columns with an advertisement 
for a Raffle. 'The Grand Prize announced is a 
Dairy of one hundred and twenty-two cows, with 
milk, carts, cans, ic, together with tho entire 
business, good will, &c, of the proprietors— the 
past income of which is stated at $1,000 per 
month. In many of these rallies it is indeed a 
lottery— more blanks than prizes— and often the 
parties utterly irresponsible. Thero are some 
cases, however, where there is every show of fair- 
ness, and a good chance for a prize if '• luck will 
have it." In this present Raffle, we feel called 
upon to say that wo know the proprietors per- 
sonally — we know the dairy, the stock, the cus- 
tomers and business, and it is all it is represented 
to Be. The names of those gentlemen attached 
to the advertisement ore also additional assuranco 
that the Raffle will be conducted fairly. The 
dairy is adjoining our own residence, one wo have 
occupied for nearly two years past, and the lands 
offered as prizes are really valuable and of high 
character— they are fit for cultivation and will 
soon increase in value. Whoever shall win tho 
grand prize and shall take that business, has his 
fortune made at once, for we should esteem the 
income worth more than estimated. We know 
the property, and to those who desire any infor- 
mation, we should be happy to give it. Tickets 
arc selling rapidly, and the drawing will take 
place in about six weeks; parties wishing tickets 
can be furnished by us. 

To Corhesi'onuents.— Wa received several 
valuable communications too lata for insertion 
this week, which will appear in our next. The 
'■'uying those from Humboldt 
and Sacramento, woro in good order, and we shall 
make further mention of them. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



11 



CALVARY PrESii , , 

catcd to ih' on Sabbath morning, 

January 14th. by a scnnon by the pastor, Rev. 
Dr. Si ' 15th ohapler and 2d verse : 

"The Lord and lie is be- 

come my salvation: he God, and I will 

prepare him on habi God, And 

I will exalt him." The Rev. Win. Speer ami 
Rev. Fi rick Bni 1 and took part in 

the excrcis hich were of a solemn and inter- 
esting character. The church was crowded to 
overflowing. ' persons being present. 

i he pews of the church were sold in part, at 
public auction on the evening of the 22d inst. A 
number of ladies and gentlemen were in at- 
tendance and the bidding was quite spirited. 
Fifty pews were sold in all. the aggregate value 
of which exceeded the sum of $37,000. The first 
and second choice brought w 2imi each. Fourteen 
pews valued at 81,000 each, were taken at premi- 
ums of from §200 down to JJ25 curb — two sold for 
$1,2 i0 each ; seven for $1,100 do.; two for $1,050 
do.; one for §1,035; one for $1,025; two for 
$1,010 each. Seven more sold for $050, $910, 
$810, $850, $825, $810, $710, each; and the 
balance ranged from §050 to $200 do. The total 
sale of the pews was sufficient to cover the first 
cost of the church edifice, leaving unsold about 
one hundred pews down stairs and fifty up stairs, 
to bo sold or rented hereafter as may be deemed 
advisable. 

State of Trade in San Francisco. — We 
make the following extract from the Price Cur- 
rent's review of the market for the week ending 
Jan. 23d : 

" Tho demand from the interior has been almost 
nothing, and the complaint of the absolute stag- 
nation in business, prevails not only here but 
throughout the entire State. 

The' fact is that there is no money to be had. 
The miner is idle for want of water, the last rains 
having proved of but little benefit; and until the 
dust begins to bo taken out in large quantities, we 
may expert, no stir of any kind in trade. 

The traders in the mountains cannot effect sales 
except on credit, ami under such circumstances, 
prefer holding their goods. The city merchants 
meet with no demand, and consequently cannot 
sell. Everything is dull to a degree, and the ten- 
dency to speculation which was beginning to 
manifest itself ill some articles, is rapidly dying 
out. . 

We do not, however, look upon this state of 
affairs as by any means permanently injurious to 
any interest of the State. Every such lull c: 

parties to cconomi: : ind more, and places 

trade on a surer and more certain basis, In a 
short time business will revive, and the experi- 
ence gained in periods of depression such as the 
present, will be turned tOBoeount. Meanwhile we 
have to await the chances of the season." 



Plagiarism.— We do not wish to complain of 
our neighbors or say they are not justly com Icons, 
but we do wish to ask our friends of the States- 
man and of the Stale Journal, of Sacramento, 
whether it is "just the thing " for them to take 
-statistical tables" or original mailer, and neg- 
lect to give the usual credit. We And the tables 
of the ''oyster trade,'' and the report upon the 
'• Indian Mummy," as published by us from orig- 
inal letters and documents, in the columns of these 
cotcinporarics. and no mention made of the sourco 
from whence Ihcy came. Was it not so neigh- 
bora 7 _____ 

Errors Will Happen.— In the article headed 
"Reader." in oui - paper, third para- 

graph and fourth line, tho coniposil 
to say, 'wo shall have eastern families, and the 
most" intelligent.' 1 It should have read, -we 
shall have i iterially 

altering the phase sn0,,W 

never for ft moment be culture 

has any sectional I 






\\ r.ATTIER AT - V— what is. 

his Mrtn'ct— the of./f.-i inhabit 
sap he mentor that 

great ritv. - 

... . . 

iMoftV 

blue.:- he tem- 

per— in I 

- ' ■ 

writii 

i hi of rathe i 
I kno 

in Uid two 



Prom Shoalwater Bay. 
Wr, cheerfully give 

Weekly Times.) I">r the following com 

from Capt-I '■ of Shoalwater Uaj 

It will be found an intern acription of i 

journcj la issisting 

to open a trail iroui ! r Hay to Ills mpia, 

iso for the purpose of exploring the country 
lying between these two points, t'apt. it-: 
an enterprising and energetic man. and oill read- 
ers may depend upon his account of that ne 
of country as being coir,: 

BUOALWATSB Bay, W. T., Sept. a. IH'.l. 

Mn. Editor : Knowing the interest that you 
take in the welfare of Emigrants who annually 
arrive in these Territories by thousands, and, 
thinking that perhaps I might be able to assist 
them also, by showing them where they can ob- 
tain goods laud claims, I have taken the liberty 
of writing you an account of a journey which 1 
have lately been upon for the purpose of opening 
a trail from Shoalwater Hay to Olympia, and lo 
explore the country to the Northward. It has 
appeared strange to me that the peoplo of this 
country have not entertained curiosity enough to 
visit the different portions of the Territory for 
exploration purposes. At present, many portions 
of the Territory are as little known as the interior 
of Africa. 

In the North-cast corner of this bay, a river, 
called the Willapa, empties its waters — one of the 
most healthful streams I have ever seen. I had 
previously arrived at the conclusion that there 
must be an abundance of excellent prairie land at 
the head of this river, which would be eagerly 
taken by immigrants if they only knew of its ex- 
istence in that locality. My belief was based upon 
reports of the Indians ; and Dr. James G. Cooper, 
who was formerly connected with the Northern 
Pacific Railroad Survey, and myself, had already 
made preparations lo explore it, and were on the 
point of leaving, when we were much surprised, 
on the 7th July, to learn that a party (Edward 
D. Warbass, Michael Shafer, Christian Giesy. 
Andrew Koundlree. Joseph Knight, and an old 
Canadian half-breed named Pear sail Langlev, as 
guide) had arrived in the bay, who had come from 
the Cowlitz Landing by the identical route that 
we had intended to have taken. They left tho 
Cowlitz Landing on the 7th July, and arrived at 
the head waters of the Willapa on the 10th, where 
they made a canoe, in which they descended to 
the bay, which they reached on the 17th — having 
been ten days on their journey. They told us 
that it was their intention to return immediately, 
anil Or. Cooper and myself concluded to accom- 
pany them. 

After packing up a few provisions, we pulled in 
a skill up to the house or a Mr. Woodward, who 
lives upon the north bank of the Willapa, some 18 
miles from its month. There we found the rest of 
the party, who had left the bay before us. A 
party of Indians who had Ci h with them 

left (or their homes; but the old guide still re- 
mained. a 

Early in the morning of the 18th, having been 
joined 'by Seth Billiard, Daniel Hush. II. K. 
Woodward and Wm.Cushing, we proceeded four 
miles further up the river, to the house of Mr. Job 
Milliard, who kindly loaned us a horse to carry 
our blankets and provisions. At half-past ten 
ommenced our journey, on root, and 
at night encamped ill the woods, on the north 
branch of the Willapa, having traveled about 
twenty miles since leal ing Woodward's Here 
mav lie considered the bead of steam nav; 
on "this river. 

July 19th.— At six. in the morning, re- 
cur journey, ami bv night had traveled ten 
further to' the eastward, and reached what we 
called Elk Prairie, from the great number of elk 
that appeared to make this prairie I 
There these animals had roamed uni 
man for many years. The country, tor 
around ,1 and rccrosscd with their 

many of which vr ■ 
Indian trail in the country. Mr Warbass and 
party killed five of these animals 

. the smallest of which 

» o met our i 
in smoking and <i 
elk which thi 
nntneri 

which 
that v. 

— the I 
7m/ 



Prairie. 








■M 


^rd of 

r the Boi 


Elk 

-{ fit 



anxiously looking for him, but the night passed 
away and nothil seen of him. 

July 22(/— Earlv in the morning we commenced 
work again, and Kept at it until late in the after- 
noon, when suddenly we heard a faint "halloo" 
in the distance, which was answered by three 
cheers from our party ; and in a short time we 
had the satisfaction of seeing Mr. Koundtrce and 
an Indian making way towards us with soma pro- 
• thai had b.eu prepared and sent by his 

ii her, - God bless the ladies!" came from my 
heart - a .sentiment that was responded to by all 
ol the party. Ill a very short time we had con- 
sumed all of the food that had been brought, and 
then went to work with renewed courage. At 
night we encamped within four miles of lioisfaut 
Prairie, without cither provisions or water. In 
the neighborhood were large numbers of goose- 
berries, apparently as large as the largest English 
goosebeiry, that is so highly prized in the States. 
These might be made a source of great profit to 
any person who would collect and preserve them. 
Before going to sleep, I noticed an immense fire to 
the westward of us that was burning fearfully. 
It had evidently proceeded from a small one 
which we had built at noon. Sinco my return to 
the bay, I have learned that all the dead timber 
through which we had cut, had been consumed, 
leaving a large tract of country perfectly cleared 
and ready for cultivation. 

July 2'iil. — About ten in the forenoon we 
reached the Boisfaut Prairie, and were received 
in the kindest manner by the inhabitants, who 
threw open their doors and bade us welcome. In 
a short time their tables were covered with good 
old farmer's fare, which we did ample justice to. 
All of the settlers, Mr Roundtree and his exccl- 
cnt lady in particular, we are under a great obli- 
gation to for their kindness and hospitality — may 
prosperity attend them in all their undertakings, 

This prairie is occupied by nine families who 
have a large quantity of stock, and some of the 
finest farms in the country. 

Jn the morning, Dr. Cooper, Mr. Knight and 
myself started for Puget's Sound — the remainder 
of the party went to the Cowlitz Landing from 
whence they returned home. After traveling 
about fifteen miles, the principal part of which 
was through prairies of a gravelh' nature, we ar- 
rived at the house of Mr. Lewis II. Davit, who 
troated us with great attention and kindness. We 
stopped here until one o'clock when wo left and 
proceeded on six miles farther, passing through 
three more prairies, making eleven in all that we 
had pa- I through since morning. These were 
all very gravelly, and many of them we were told 
were overflown in the Winter. It being near 
night and feeling very tired, we stopped at the 
of a Mr. Coster, whose lady furnished us 
with an excellent supper and bed. both of which 
were very acceptable. 

Al seven in the morning we proceeded on 

iiit .nmducod 

half an hour 

at the house of a Mr. lioodal). and then continued 

on and bade"' within eleven miles of Olympia 

when night overtook us. We then stopped at a 

kept bv a mulatto named Bosh. 

All the afternoon we had been travel ing through 
prairies covered with mounds from two I 
leet In height. Th ' ' «f gravel, 

with stones from a lew inches to a loot in diame- 
ter between them. Tin red abont in 
hem with such regularity 
that' tin & to W the work of art. 
had. undoubtedly, at some remote ]>erioil 
formed bv the action of water. 

In the morning - and rude the rest 

r tn ,. npia. which we reached 

ftbont Ju| y -'»"• >' 

travel, ' 1rh ' ftI "' ivn ,n ''''* 

i,d a-half when we scparatcd- 






falla Walla, two 
unlry from Mis- 



ng attache* men 
I part 



TburV 

Fran <wa b*V»' 



The r. 



I had to perform alone. 



th the 



arposc of gel 
opposite side 



at through 
d we 



.cen soceeaaful m the N 
and thr program of the rebr! 

irgcnts have also been I 
a Imperialist*, who are rapidly aco 
nee. The Chilian baik Calder*. 
r, bound from Hong Koi 

piundend, and burned 
rates in the China Sea on the 
crew and passenger saved. There are nmneroni 
. accounts of desperate engagaawnU between pirat- 
jical fleets and raseets of th 
| in which the pirates were su mma rily hro n W 

The 

I apeck depends the 

iniaeai. Wha 
system rem» «*"« 

I that which is separated nnmedintrly die*. 



To the Readers of the Calif orm 

Tun annexed communication, will 
attached, has been kindiy tendered i We 

would only ask of our friends to rend and judge 
for themselves, as to the importance of the subject 
named therein. 

We are deeply grateful for every testimonial of 
favor and encouragement in our labors, and 
for every approving word and token from every 

source. 

TO THE FRIENDS OP 

Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture. 

" Knowledge is power," is a truth nowhere 
more fully illustrated than in the field of your 
enterprise ; and on no part of that field more im- 
portant than in our State. In other States and 
different climates, the experience of ages is con- 
densed into books ; and the son inherits the prac- 
tical knowledge of his father. Their books are 
their general guide, and their periodicals contain 
the result of their continued improvements. But 
with us the case is different. Here we have a 
climate to which the instructions of no book arc 
adapted, a soil peculiarly unlike any to the de- 
velopment of which science has been applied, and 
almost an entire want of experience in any de- 
partment. Here no father has learned more than 
a few of the first principles of agriculture, much 
less has he had time to transmit even the moiety 
he has learned to a son. Our first generation of 
agriculturists is yet in its merest youth. 

If no books adapted to our circumstances are 
yet written, and no man has sufficient experience 
to write one ; and if the periodicals published else- 
where entirely fail to meet our wants, we arc shut 
up to a single choice between two courses — we . 
must either grape our way in the dark, feeling 
and experimenting each for himself, for all thoso 
facts and principles which are peculiar to our soil, 
climate and productions, (and this will reach 
nearly the whole range of our operations) thus 
advancing by a process to slow as to be entirely 
unsatisfactory to every one ; or wo must sustain a 
periodical, which shall be a general reservoir for 
the reception and diffusion of tho experience o( 
all— an instrument whose Columns shall beacon- 
stant reflector of all the light which our thousand 
intelligent cultivators of the soil can elicit from 
their " watch and toil," Which shall be our 
choice, cannot admit of a question. 

Such a periodical we find in our midst. Tho 
ing our every want. The vVarron have 

1 an energy in, and devotion to. tho work 

which is worthy of all praise, and is a sufficient 

guaranty for the future. Shall the Farmer 

that countenance and encouragement it 

Will the growers of grain and veg-e 

Iruits and flowers, in this State, treat them- 

!o a weekly repast in the perusal of its 
columns, (the annual subscrip.ioii price bears no 
comparison with the value of what you get,) and 
make an energetic effort to induce their neighbors 
to do the samo? But even this will not be 
enough. No one man. nor company of men, from 
any our department of knowledge, or section of 

ntrv.can make the columns of the Farmer 

what they should be.— what they must bo to 

answer their wants. It must combine the experi- 

class, and represent peculiar charac- 

part of the State. We ask, 

attention of those whom wc address 

I materials for the columns, as 

well aa subscription to the "material aid" oflhe 

paper. 

iy thus much because wo deem it doe to 
the present proprietors of the paper, and because 
we feel the deepest inter, I advo- 

cates. We have no pecuniar;, in the 

, Farmer, and yet we most heartily 
recommend it to the pecuniary, the statistical and 
,i I who have at heart the 
real well being of our State — the development of 
her agricultural reso 

f. V\ in Francisco. 



Riaan. Hieaon San Jo* 

.1. L - 

ILS, 

f:L i •« .t Little. 
Hath * C 

, k MlUMAIS, 

- M I CO., 

W. S ' i«r*Lta I Cx. 

*. II MlKIl, 

.'■ ■•-,( >LHc»«T, 

.' V OlLLWII 

J. R*or. 

Joscra M. Be"*** 4 Co, 

IlHMIU 4 C'V 



28 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER 



litultural $f,partment. 



Disease of the Grape. 

Sonoma, January ' n *. 1855. 

Dear Sir: I receive your paper i-egularlytand 
peruse each succeeding number with increasing 
interest. I wish you all the success your laud- 
able enterprise deserves at the the hands of all 
California planters. As you have repeatedly 
urged your country friends to communicate with 
you on any subject of interest or importance. I 
do so now without further preface. 

In your paper of the 11 thins'... there is an inter- 
esting article on the " Grape Blight in Europe." 
I read the communication on the subject, carefully-] 
because for the past season or two I have taken 
some little interest in whatever concerns the 
grape, its culture or manufacture. During the 
past season, I have observed the fruits on a few 
Tines in a vineyard here, to become hard, when 
about half grown, and finally wilt away. On 
some bunches, of two-thirds formed grapes, I ob- 
served a substance — a small speck, of a red color, 
covering the fruit — the fruit so affected was worth- 
less and never ripened. Not knowing what this 
may he, I have thought that as the grape so ex- 
tensively cultivated here, originally came from 
Spain, an infected country, that this might he the 
first symptoms of the same disease, which may 
break out here. I sincerely hope that we may 
be spared this blight, and will be pleased to hear 
from you, that my fears proceed alone from my 
ignorance of the disease as it exists in Europe. 
I recollect well that the disease, or insect rather, 
which, year after year, even to the present time, 
I believe, destroyed the orange crop of Florida, 
was introduced from Sicily on some of the fruit 
shipped to the States. Last season a large lot of 
vines imported from France were in the market 
for sale, and I presume are now in the ground 
somewhere. These should be destroyed, and all 
importations o( vines, from the affected countries, 
stopped. If we have not the disease already, we 
can prevent our having it introduced amongst us. 
The late rains have started the larniers to work. 
We willwork this season in hopes of fair prices 
for grain next August — not next January. 
Your obedient servant, 

The above communication will be read with 
interest by all engaged in the culture of the vine. 
Every inquiry, every suggustion, every discovery 

i n Urn mnilr pf niU i mtifiiW h i li i iD li ' i ii i n I ' l liTH 



-grapes ? In regard to the Concord, it is declared 
by some to be only 5th rate; as to the Diana, a 
dish of the same were exhibited at our County 
Agricultural Fair; the size of the berries and 
bunches were not more than one-third as large as 
Catawba grapes by their side. I purchased one 
bunch of them, which were divided among several 
goods judges of grapes, and they were tried with 
the Catawba and declared to be inferior in size, 
and flavor, and evidently they were no riper. I 
would say also that Mr. W. S. King, of Boston, 
decided t'hev were the true Diana. 

The Charter Oak Grape is raised by a gentle- 
man of my acquaintance, and is declared to be 
valuable only for preserving ; the berries, however, 
are of enormous size. The Sage grapes I have 
tasted and although of large size, it has the sharp, 
foxy flavor of the wild native grapes. 

Now, sir, if I am incorrect or mistaken in any 
of these varieties, I hope to be corrected, and I 
desire your opinion, for I believe that farmers are 
the last class to be humbugged, and these grapes 
have obtained a high reputation by the descrip- 
tion given in agricultural and horticultural jour- 
nals." My opinion is that the Catawba Grape, for 
a hardy out-door grape (if well cared for) is de- 
cidedly the best grape.— / 3 . M. Augur, in 2V. E. 
Farmer. 



tivation of them in this position is by no means 
difficult. Immediately when the bulbs go to rest 
in the autumn is the proper time to repot them. 
By no means destroy the old roots, but carefully 
place them amongst the fresh soil. If large ex- 
amples for particular display are required, argc 
pots may be employed, and half a dozen large 
flowering bulbs placed in each pot. Ihe soil I 
use is rough peat. The pots should be wel 
drained, and the crowns of the bulbs just covered 
with the soil ; when potted they should bej? laced 
n a cold pit or frame, in order to prev 



natural fjistoo. 

Sketches of the Natural History of California 



BY ALEX. 3. TAYLOR. 

T0E PELICAN OF CALIFORNIA. 
This bird, called by the Spaniards Alcatraz, is 
very abundant on the Pacilic Coasts of North 
and South America. The variety inhabiting the 
t the soil | shores of California is found from Acapulco to 
fr'om""freezing, although frost will not injure the tne Columbia river, and is migratory in its habits, 
bulbs. Where room under glass is an object in | The m ^ c , jird vve ; g i is between ten and twelve 
winter, they may be plunged in the open air in ^ measurcs 4 ;J . 4 , t .,, t f,. om the beak to 

coal ashes, in a manner similar to potted Wya- 1_ ^ 

large number in 



1. 



Insects in Frdit. — One great advantage in 
the cultivation of fruit in Calfornia and Oregon, 
is that thus far we have never seen any indications 
of insects penetrating such fruit as apples, pears, 
peaches, cherries, plums. Ac. Up to the present 
time we have never seen a single specimen wormy 
or affected. This is an important matter, and it 
will be well to notice it anil to know the causes 
of this security, and be prepared to enjoy such an 
exemption from the evil forever. Will our fruit 
growers give thought to the subject and favor us 
with the results of their experience? It is too 
important to be passed over. 

Facts in Grape Culture. 
E. A. McKay, of Naples, N. V.. gives, through 
the Horticulturist, some inlcresting facts in re- 
gard to the mode adopted by him in the cultiva- 
tion of an acre of Isabella grape vines. The vines 
were planted five years ago last spring, one vine 
to a square rod. The holes are dug to about two 
feet deep and six to eight feet across. In the 
bottom of each of these holes was placed half the 
carcass of an ox— a drove of eighty oxen having 
died in the neighborhood while on their way to 
market. The holes were then half filled with 
good surface soil. Sixteen loads of leather 
shavings, which had been accumulating at a cur- 
rier's shop, were then divided equally among the 
ICO holes, which were then filled with surface 
soil, mixed with the leather. A bushel of well- 
rotted stable manure, mixed with the same quan- 
tor- trie vinos. 



cinths. I have at this time 
flower, which have never been under glass until 
within these few days ; they have sustained no 
injury from exposure. There is scarcely any 
plant which is so much benefited by liquid man- 
ure as the Lily, more especially before expanding 
its flowers. C used in a clear state, and consider- 
ably diluted, this water alone may be applied for 
at least a month before it comes into flower. If 
the object should be out-door cultivation entirely 
I should recommend them to be planted in beds 
their effect is exceedingly grand. Excavate the 
soil 18 inches deep, and fill in the bottom a foot 
deep with very coarse peat, intermixed with one- 
fifth of decayed manure or leaf-mould. The re- 
maining six inches may be entirely peat. 1 



the end of the tail. The wings when stretched 
out, measure, including across the breast, 7 3-4 
feet. One of the wings measures 3 1-3 feet, and 
across the breast 7 1-2 inches. From base of 
neck to vent 15 inches— the neck is 21 inches 
long. The upper mandible is 13 1-2 inches long 
and 1 1-4 inches broad; it shuts down mostly 
within the lower mandible, and has three mid- 
parallel ridges running along the roof of the 
mouth, two of which arc grooved in their centre, 
and hard and sharp near to the beak. The beak 
is marked black and yellow, and longitudinally 
■atcd ; acutely curved, very sharp, hard, 



great influence on the future upon this subject. 

These inquiries we trust will lead to others, 
and we hope to see a full and free discussion upon 
this and all kindred subjects. Our columns are 
open and we solicit the friends to communicate. 

The 'shrivelling of the grape," to which our 
correspondent alludes, wo should not denominate 
disease — certainly not the disease that is destroy- 
ing the vine in Europe — but it was the result of 
shallow cultivation. Unless the soil iscultivatc-d 
deep and made rich for the roots to feed upon at 
the time the " berries swell," they will ^grow- 
hard," become "spotted." dry, shrivelled and 
worthless. The deeper and richer the soil, the 
larger and more luscious the berries, and more 
abundant the crop; and all experience teaches 
that the best cultivation is the cheapest. 

We do not think there is any indications of the 
European disease, yet, among the vines of Cali- 
fornia ; neither do we think it attached to the 
young vines that have been imported, and yet the 
suggestion of our correspondent is a good one' 
that those vines usually thrown upon our mar- 
ket in quantities had better be burned, for we 
verily believe that such quantities oj trash will 
never pay the setting out. We are sorry to see 
so many persons half doing the work of, viner- 
ies. Many are planting the grape who pay 
no regard to its nature or wants, and the result 
must be a total failure, and each experiment will 
retard the general success. We hope our friend 
J. will communicate often, and we should like bis 
address that we may communicate to him.— Ed. 

The Catawba Grape. 
We sincerely esteem the Catawba Grape one 
of the very best varieties for cultivation in Cali- 
fornia. Longworth, of Ohio, whose famous Ca- 
tawba Champagne is now esteemed equal to any 
wine imported, says it is the very finest wine 
grape known, and for a table grape, we believe, 
when properly grown, will be found far superior 
to our California grape. We earnestly urge our 
sultivators to give the Catawba a careful trial. 

WHAT ARE THE BEST CRAPES? 



tfe states that most ol 
measured last spring, a foot in circumference, 
some of them fifteen inches, and one seventeen 
inches. He permitted them to bear considerably 
the past season, and the quality of the fruit was 
so superior as to command fourteen cents a pound 
when most grapes of the same kind brought at 
same place but twelve and a half cents per pound. 
Ihe crop of the present season he estimated at 
20 pounds to the vine, or 3000 pounds to the 
acre. He states that he has repeatedly dug down 
to the bones, and found them "completely sur- 
rounded with a net-work of living, fibrous roots." 



Grape Celture and Wine Manufacture in 
Ohio. — The Cincinnati Gazette contains a long 
and interesting article on the grape culture and 
wine manufacture in that vicinity. It appears 
that in 1840 there were 83 vineyards in the 
neighborhood of Cincinnati, containing 248 acres 
under cultivation, and 114 bearing, and although 
the crop the preceding yc.ir was but a partial one 
240,000 gallons was the yield. In 1852. 1.200 
acres were in cultivation, 750 bearing ; the annual 
vicld was supposed to be 500,000 gallons, and the 
sparkling wine alone $175,000. A bushel of 
grapes will make from 3 to 3 1-2 gallons of juice. 
Mr. Buchanan commenced planting his vineyard 
in 1843; in 1850 from three acres he realized, 
beside the cuttings, 1,040 gallons wine. In 1853 
he obtained from five acres 4,320 gallons, or 8G7 
gallons per acre. In particular spots there have 
been obtained 800 gallons from an acre, but 050 
gallons is considered a large yield. The demand 
for Catawba wine is far ahead of the supply, and 
the quality is constantly being improved, both by 
the cultivators and those who prepare it for 
market. 



Mr. Editor : I wish, sir, to make some inquir- 
ies of you in relation to grapes. Are the Con- 
cord, Diana, Charter Oak, Sage, and some other 

varieties of grape loudly puffed up in agricultural Isand intermixed with it ; thus treated, the bulbs 
papers equal in value to the Isabella or Catawba I will soon grow large enough to flower The cul- 



Japan Lilies. 
Few plants arc more useful than the different 
varieties of Japan Lilies. They came into bloom 
at a time when our New Holland plants are over, 
and when an actual paucity of flowering plants 
exists, wherewith to decorate the conservatory 
and greenhouse ; and what really can be more 
suitable? They produce a gorgeous display 
cither in-doors or out; and as they are quite 
hardy they may be liberally planted in the open 
borders; they thus constitute one of our best 
autumnal flower garden plants. Their propoga- 
tion is simple and certain. The bulbs may be 
separated, and each scale will eventually form a 
a new bulb. This separation should be effected 
when the flower stems are withered ; the scales 
should be stuck into pans of silver sand, and 
placed in a cold frame or pit. After remaining 
one season in this position, they should be planted 
in a prepared bed of peat soil, and a little silver 



bulbs arc large enough to bloom, plant them 
twelve inches apart every way. and if beds of each 
kind are well contrasted one with the other the 
effect will be magnificent.— S. in Gard. Chron, 

Study of Botany. 
Why is not botany studied more? There is 
scarcely a school or college in the United Slates 
in which botany is taught, and very few in which 
thorough instruction in it is given. By thorough 
teaching, we mean where the instructor has a 
good knowledge of all the plants and trees grow- 
in" in the vicinity of the school,— not only know- 
ing their names, but also their classes, orders and 
properties. Under such a teacher, if the students 
form herbariums for themselves, they will scarcely 
fail to gain knowledge which will be both useful 
and practical. Useful, because it will add much 
to their happiness whenever they go into the gar- 
i. Ids. or woods; and practical, because they 
can'then deal understanding!}- with the vegeta- 
tion with which this beautiful earth is clothed, 
and without which it would be a barren, uninha- 
bited waste. In some of our academies and 
schools, a few young ladies, and perhaps gentle- 
men, recite a few lessons and analyze a few plants 
under a teacher who docs not know and ca 
tell the names of one-half of the plants growing 
within five miles of the school. Indeed, we be- 
lieve there is not one of the nine colleges in this 
State in which botany forms a prominent study ; 

colleges has a good botanist for a professor. Yale 
College has no professor of botany, anefwe know- 
but one college in the United States which has a 
separate professor for that study — the University 
of Cambridge, near Boston, which has a botanic 
garden under the supervision of Professor Cray. 
who is undoubtedly the best botanist in this 
country. In the abuve statement we by no means 
include the medical colleges, which unquestion- 
ably number several distinguished botanists 
among their professors, but with them little or no 
knowledge of botany is required for a degree. One 
great reason that botany is so little studied, is the 
want of competent teachers, and because its know- 
ledge is not required to get a degree — that great 
aim of a large portion of students. Suppose the 
time required for Creek were given to botany, and 
other branches of natural science, which would 
be the most useful, especially to any who ever 
visit the country or garden? With a knowledge 
of botany, the world will appear brighter and 
more beautiful. We would by no means banish 
the study of Greek from our colleges. We have 
devoted many hours to its study, in order to oh 
tain a degree — not worth one cent. Wc cannot 
now read a Greek work without the aid of a dic- 
tionary, nor do we think that one out of every 
ten graduates in the country can ; still, it is of 
great use in affording a better knowledge of the 
English language, especially of scientific terms. 
But wc think a knowledge of botany to be worth 
more than all the dead languages. Then why 
should so much time he given to their study, to 
the neglect of the things by which we are sur- 
rounded, and among which we move and have 
our being. There are realities worth knowing 
and the better we are acquainted with them, the 
greater will be our fund from which to derive 
happiness. — <S. U. Buckley, in Horticulturist. 



Vegetable Soups. — All vegetables that arc 
put into soups, should be put into cold water and 
gradually brought up to the boiling point. This 
will cause the vegetable to diffuse its flavor 
throughout the whole mass. Irish potatoes bad 
ought never to be put in soups until they are first 
cut up in hot water; this extracts their bitterness 
and renders them lit to mingle in the other vege- 
table mass. The meats to flavor vegetable soups, 
may be beef, veal, mutton, or chicken, and like 
the vegetables, should be put into the cold water. 
There are fewer good soups made in the country, 
than almost any other dish, and the reason is 
vious : it takes more time to cook them. An c-kra 
gumbo soup should boil incessantly six hours, 
when the flavor of tho meat, vegetables and con- 
diments is so intimately and delicately blended 
that they all seem one delicious mass. Salt har- 
dens water and flesh, and should not be put into 
soups until the mass is well done. 



and slightly nicked, and is 1 3-4 inch long by 3-8 
of an inch thick and broad. The lower mandi- 
ble is as long as the upper, but is 2 inches broad 
and which can easily be stretched to 8, — to it is 
woven into and attached the pouch, which, by 
measurement of one a few weeks ago, I found to 
be capable of containing over five gallons of water 
— the lower beak is of the size of a filbert and 
very hard. The edges of the mandibles and of 
the upper beak are sharp and fine. The head is 
4 1-2 inches long by 3 inches thick and broad, 
and shaped triangular. The eye is surrounded 
with bare skin and is 5-8 of an inch ; the color 
oftheirisin the male is of a gay, silvery steel —that 
of the female is of a dull pinkish brown— tho 
ear is situated 2 inches from the eye. The bill of 
the male is oval, ridged, spoon shaped, and fleshed 
of a red color ; that of the female of the same 
form and of a dulled white. The nasal organ is 
only a slit at the base of bill — the nasal groove 
tends to the beak — the tongue is a small grizzly 
elongation on the point of the triangular bone 
of the trachea. The skin of the pouch is of dirty- 
lead color, entirely bare of feathers, marked with 
lines and extremely clastic and soft ; the trachea 
is in the middle of it, immediately under the ter- 
mination of the jaw bones. The legs are of a 
lead color, 8 inches in length ; the palm of the 
foot is C inches long and measurcs 1-2 inches 
across the end of the toes, which are armed with 
blackish nails. 

The tail of the bird has 24 feathers, is of a 
rounded fan shape, and 6 inches long. 

The bones arc all air-celled, and very light; the 
skeleton weighs only 2 1-4 pounds; the wing 
bones of each wing, although 30 1-2 inches in 
length, weigh only 2 1-4 ounces. The oil sack is 
very large, and weighs nearly half an ounce — its 
covering is of long white fcathercts which are 
always charged with oil. 

The plumage of tho male is in color distinct 
from that of the female. The head of the male 
and upper portion of its heck is covered with long, 
close, plushy featherets, of a beautiful yellow 
color ; tho lower edge of the neck at the breast 
has a band of the same color. Both birds have 
a long crest down the base of the head and along 
the upper part of the neck. The breast and belly 
of both is downy white. " The wings and back 
of the male bird are of a white and silvery steel 
color intermingled in elegant stripes and mottles. 
The female is about one-sixth smaller and gener- 
ally weighs 8 pounds. The color of its plumage 
is of a dull heavy lead caste, and she is much 
more stupid and slow than the male. The stomach 
of the male is covered with a large quantity of 
hard, deep, orange-colored fat, within which is 
the gizzard, of a long oval figure ; within the 
mass of fat, (which weighs one and a half 
pounds,) the gut is found in long convolutions 
intermingled throughout its substance. This is 
entirely wanting in the female so far as I have 
seen ; both being examined at the same time and 
season. The meat of the male is brownish red, 
and of a much finer texture than that of tho 
other, and is more abundant in quantity. The 
primary wing feathers of both are about 18 inch- 
es long and of a dull black— the breadth of wing 
is 10 inches. The general features of both birds 
are alike except the color of the plumage and 
mandibles— the bill is straight, and is Battened 
near the beak. Tho skin of the bird is covered 
with a mass of flocculcnt cells highly air-chargvd. 
None of the figures or descriptions of this Peli- 
can, as delineated ill Whitelaw's Goldsmith uf 
1840— Milne F.dwards of Paris 1834— Carpenter's 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



29 



Zoology of 1 - : Cuvicr of Lon- 

don 1849, agree with (he particular features, when 
closely observed, of (lie California variety of this 
bird. The figure in Carpenter's Zoology, pp. 521, 
vol. 1, is nearly like the bird we attempt 
scribe. The! ill confound the sea with 

the land Pelican. 

The egg of our pelican is of alight given color, 
marked with blackish brown splotches, and its 
surface is roughened lished like that 

of the nlinary land birds. The sub' 

stance of tin- encased in a tough calcar 

pellicle nearly as thick as a fowl II. The 

albumen of the egg when boiled is of a transpar- 
ent milky color. The size of the egg is three and 
a half inches in length, and two inches in diame- 
ter — it is long in figure and sharply peaked, meas- 
uring only one-fourth of an inch at the apex ; it 
weighs nearly three ounces. Great numbers of 
these eggs are brought to the market of San Fran- 
cisco from the Farrnloncs islands and the neigh- 
boring rocks and islets of that part of our coast, 
and form an important article of food : many 
persons prefer them to fowl's eggs. In January, 
1852, a sloop of 25 tons, loaded with bird's eggs 
from the Farralones, was cast ashore on Monterey 
beach. 

The Pelican of our coasts lays its. eggs and 
hatches its young on all the solitary islands and 
rocky islets from the Gulf and Ocean shores of 
Lower California up to Vancouver Island, as I 
am informed by old sailors. It lays from four to 
six of a season, beginning to hatch and bring 
forth their young in March and April— the young 
arc able to fly in September ot the same year. 

The California Pelican is said to be found on 
the Pacific Coasts from Valdivia in Chili, to Van- 
couver Island. There is a smaller variety of the 
species found on the same southern coasts, and 
those of the Gallipagos Islands (where they are 
very numerous) which arc also said to be similar 
in color to ours, though one quarter smaller in 
size. An old whaler informs me that on the 
shores of Behring Straits and the N. W. Arctic, 
a variety of white Pelican, the size of a common 
duck, is found in great numbers. 

It will be seen that the Ocean Pelican of Cali- 
fornia is very different from that of the Great 
White Pelican of the Lagoons of the Salinas, 
Sacramento, and Tulare valleys of oui State. 
This bird, which we have not yet seen, is stated 
to us by old settlers and hunters, to be nearly 
double the size of the Sea Pelican when standing 
— it is entirely white except the ends of the outer 
wing feathers which are black. This Pelican 
never visits or feeds on the sea coasts, 

The California Pelican begins to arrive in the 
Bay of Monterey about the first of September, 
following the schools of innumerable sardines, 
herring and mackerel which visit us then — and 
leave about the first of February. The pursuit 
of their prey is the most lively and sprightly 
habit of the bird. During this period they 
■abound in great numbers, chasing the fish with 
great pertinacity and greediness in fellowship 
with the most astonishing companies of all kind 
of our sea fowl. 

In a clear day when the small fish arc plentiful, 
they may bo seen close to the shore in numbers 
of fifty and a hundred, circling with flc 
gulls at an elevation of twenty to thirty yards 
above the sea. This appears to be done with a 
view of scaring the fish into a close body, (or as 
the Spanish say, corraling them.) when the Peli- 
can descends with thev61ocity of a shot ka-plunck 
into the water, scooping up into its extended 
lower mandible and pouch the stunned and 
frightened small fry ; when they rebound like a 
cork to the surface. The sight of twenty and 
thirty of these huge birds falling at once like a 
living cataract, from the air, and splashing the 
water into spraying fountains, with the shrieks 
and quarrels of the gulls and shags snatching the 
fish fr -"■^-'r birds, is as it is 

striking and novel, and forms one of the 
animated features in the fall months of the beau- 
tiful Hay of Monterey. They often continue this 
manoeuvre from "night to morn and morn till 
an infernal clatter 
and racket, with tho bleatings and bars 
sea lions and others, intent on the same errand, 
as to | irts, that old 

ocean was giving up its i 
sand y 'ho Pelican 

lick spiral m 1 plunges its 

who'. the >• it. . with its wings close 

shut to its 



the oilier, Insm-ely and solemnly wending their 
to their rocky or sandy barracks hard by 
the ore a 

In the fall of 1852, the Pelican arrived in our 
bay in numbers incredible. In the afternoon and 
night they could always be found on our first 
a. sitting lazily on the ground, or perched on 
tho tiees overhanging the water, sleeping or dozing 
with the bills and heads under the wings. When 
on land it can be easily approached, and is a 
stupid, lazy, dirty creature, and generally full of 
whacking bird-lice. It is a heavy melancholy 
looking animal, with the eyes and leer of an ogre. 
When gorged they can be easily approached and 
killed with a stick: their only weapons are their 
wings and beaks, and it is rather unpleasant 
when you get your fingers shut down upon by 
its scissors-like mandibles. 

The Indians of Tobasco, Campeachy, and Yu- 
catan, arc said by the old Jesuit Fathers, to train 
these birds so well, as to catch fish for their own- 
ers, like the Cormorants of the Chinese. The 
Spanish ladies of those countries and simple days, 
are stated by the same creditable authorities, to 
cure the pouch skins so well as to make elegant 
work-bags and other ornamental paraphernalia. 
The Indians thereaway also use them for tobacco 
bags. We have read in some late account of out- 
landish parts that they are used for making gloves, 
and that they take dye-stuffs of brilliant colors 
remarkably well. 

These birds were particularly noticed by the 
early discoverers and navigators of Lower and 
Upper California, by the Jesuit Fathers, and 
more particularly in the Bay of Monterey in the 
voyage of Vizcaino in 1002. 

Monterev, Jan. 13, 1B55. 



.isnllani). 



TIIE MOTHER'S HAND. 

A wandering orphan child wns I — 

But meitnly, at tile beet, attired ; 
For .p]i ! my mother scarce could buy 

The common food each week required ; 
But when the anxious tiny lout tied. 

It seemed to ba her dourest joy, 
To proas tier pale hand on my bend, 

And pray that God would jniido tier boy. 

But more, each winter, more nod more 

Stern Buffering brought her to decay; 
And then an An pa < door, 

And bore her lingering soul nwny I 
But oh I they know not what in grief. 

Who ne'er kni 
All othei . 

Save Unit which weep, a mother dead. 

A seaman 1 ! life was soon my lot, 

'Mid reekloaa deedi — and desperate men t 

But still I never quite ft 

Tho prayer 1 ne'er should hear aeain, 
And oft, when half Induced to tread 

I've felt her soil hsnd [.res Bay bead, 
And tint soft tOUOh hiilh saved tier boy. 

Though hard iheir mockery to i 

Who ' stris'o, 

i in on earth I ill 

I could not — would i. . ..veil ; 

And thus from many an aelion dread, 

To., dark for human ryes to scan ; 
Tho sne :.n my bead 

That blesaed the boy— hath saved the man I 



[From the Pioneer for January.) 

The Lilly of the Valley. 
it sraruEN c suasstt. 
In the month of May, 1858, I passed a 

two days in one of the little villages near the 
banks of Lake l.eman; and you shall know how 

with " 7". 

The 
Northern Europe. I 

ion. I was in 
nate enough to meet with a I 
good old Saxon, the Ik. ; 
the pretty little village inn at which 1 i 
Here, as in other lands, the children hnv. 

and though I was not 
.as in 
fragrance 
time to tell you of the exquisite bcauti 

inc fr. 

si ami sparkled on 

.We I.cman '. The 

breeze was crisping the wares. so that 

danced and geatly tossed about the liny beets, 

vritli i »t glided 00 its surface. 

A ■ ■■ „.., 



distant from the far-famed Zurich, whose waters 
have been immortalized in story and song, I ob- 
, as I thought, an unusual gaiety and live- 
among the people, and was about remark- 
ing to my companion that I imagined it was 
fete day, when be informed mo we had arrived 
just in ti e to ce the last of the Swiss May Fes 
tival. Children's sports are to nic always inter- 
esting, and so we proceeded on, through innumer- 
able grouping of lads and lasses, and vineyards, 
bowers and gardens of surpassing beauty, the air 
.seemingly laden with the perfumes of a thousand 
exotics, when, suddenly, in the distance tho well 
known May Pole was seen. But the dance hud 
il; the little twinkling feet that so lately 
had trodden on the spring blossoms, had disap- 
peared ; but the Lily-of-the- Valley was there, and 
its fragrance was beyond description. 

A little blue-eyed girl, of some seven summers, 
had just plucked the flower, and placing it in her 
bosom, began to cry. This attracted my atten- 
tion, and I went to her and asked her to tell me 
i cause of her grief. She said that her little 
sister, whom they used to call tho "Lily of the 
Valley," had been taken from them, and she was 
going to send this flower with her to Heaven, to 
be planted there ! I need not say I became much 
interested, and followed the little stranger for 
some distance; but, in the throng of children, I 
soon lost her. 

The little ones that, on my arrival, were grouped 
together in the very height of glee and excite- 
ment, as I fancied, were speaking in subdued 
tones, while the peasants looked sad and gloomy. 

Musingly I strolled to the inn of the village, 
where I learned the cause of the ceasing of the 
festivities. Here, also, bad they a " May Queen"; 
and though its little head was bent in sickness, 
the genial sunshine, it was thought, would revive, 
and the merry-making and excitement prove 
beneficial, rather than injurious. And so they 
placed her upon her floral throne. 

The shoutings of a hundred tender voices went 
up; processions were formed, and garlands, 
wreathed by little hands, were tossed in the air. 
All eyes were turned towards the throne of roses, 
and her crown of pure white lilies, that she loved 
to wear, was placed upon her brow. She looked 
so lovely there, in her dress of buds and blossoms: 
but she was vary pale, and her eye looked up to 
Heaven ! Could she have heard them calling her 
away ? She smiled so sweetly she could not be 
in pain ; and then she tried to raise herself, but 
the exertion was too much for her, and just waiv^ 
ing her little hand. 

" She fell, tn her saint-like beauty, 
Asleep by the Gates of Light " 

The color returned not to her cheek, and thus 
this tender floweret, in tho very height of its 
May Day glory, was taken to bo transplanted 
i, nly nursery ! 
The May Day dance was over. Garlands and 
wreaths of (lowers dropped from slender hands. 
that in their glee had held them — and 

1 like rain ; ana, wliei. 
laughter, and the joyous strains of music floated 
in the air. »0W were heard, and re- 

nt an end. 

I thought it was a glorious way to die. — ere 

the young heart had grown familiar with the 

paths of sin. While e'en the spring flowers 

budded, bloomed and blossomed on her very 

i —while the shoutings of innocent I 

her— her spirit passed silently away. 

This is the story that they told me; and now 

I will tell yon, my reader, \thal 1 

the night of the dav that I arrived, the 
funeral .if the little " .May" Queen " took | 
mgly the imp 
I of death, divested, as it 
loom and terror, 
no pall — no raven plu 
-none of the trappings and sombre li 
grave, seen there ; — but upon two pieces 

with 

garmrnt of plain white, with a single f 

n the 1 



fiiuifs' grprtiim.' 



Harmony of Colors. 
Reo Drapery. — Hose-red cannol 
contact with the rosiest complexions without 
causing them to lose some of their freshness. 
Dark red is less objectionable for certain com- 
plexions than rose-red. because being higher than 
the latter, it tends to impart ndiiteness to them 
in consequence of contrast of tone. 

Green Drapery. — A delicate green is, on the 
contrary, favorable to all fair complexions which 
arc deficient in rose, and which may have more 
imparted to them without inconvenience. But it 
is not as favorable to complexions that are more 
red than rosy, nor to those that have a tint of 
range mixed with the brown, because the red 
they add to this tint will be of brick red hue. In 
the latter case a dark green will be less objection- 
able than a delicate green. 

Yellow Drapery.— Yellow imparts violet to 
a fair skin, and in this view it is less favorable 
than the delicate green. To those skins which 
ate more yellow than orange it imparts white ; 
but this combination is very dull and heavy for a 
fair complexion. When the skin is tinted more 
wuh orange than yellow, we can make it roseate 
by neutralizing the yellow. It produces this ef- 
fect upon the black-haired type, and it is thus 
that it suits brunettes. 

Violet Drapery. — Violet, the complimentary 
of yellow, produces contrary effects; thus it im- 
parts some greenish-yellow to fair complexions. 
It augments the yellow tint of yellow and orange 
skins. Tho little blue there may be in a com- 
plexion it makes green. Violet, then, is one of 
the least favorable colors to the skin, at least, 
when it is sufficiently deep to whiten it by con- 
trast of tone. 

Blue Drapery, — Blue imparts orange, which 
is susceptible of allying itself favorably to whito 
and the light flesh tints of their complexions, 
which have already a more or less determined 
tint of this color. Blue is, then, suitable to most 
blondes, and in this case justifies its reputation. 
It will not suit brunettes, since they have already 
too much of the orange. 

Orange Drapery. — Orange is too brilliant to 
be elegant; it makes fair complexions blue, whit- 
ens thoso who have an orange tint, and gives a 
green hue to those of a yellow tint. 

White Drapery. — Drapery of a lustreless 
white, such as cambric muslin, assorts well with 
a fresh complexion, of which it relieves the rose 
color; but it is unsuitable to complexions which 
have a disagreeable tint because white always ex- 
alts all colors by raising their tone ; consequently 
it is uusuitnble to those skins which, without 
having this disagree: ble tint, very nearly approach 
it. Very light white draperies, such as muslin 
plaited or point lace, have an entirely different 
aspect. 

Black Drapery. — Black draperies, lowering 

|| v i • . . ... 

taposition, whiten the skin, but if the vcnnillion 
or rosy parts . \ certain point distant from 

i|iery, it will follow that, although lowered 
in tone, they appear relatively to the white parts 
of the skin contiguous to this same drapery, red- 
der than if the contiguity of tho black did not 
exist. — M. I'. 



them t and one sax 

her— bi 
to be a ' 

and its distinct ed 



-miled when 
had gone t 



The True Woman. — The true woman, for 
ambition a husband's love, and her child- 
ren's adoration, are sufficient, who applies her mil- 
itary instincts to the discipline of her household, 
and her legislative faculties in making laws for 
her nursery ; whose intellect ha- i ough tDt 
her in communion with her husband, anil whose 
heart asks no other honors than his love and ad- 
miration ; a woman who does not think it a 
weakness to attend to her toilet, and who does 

in the 

. virtue"! hei -rand well-fitting gowns, 

ind who esch and raveled edges, slip- 

and audacious make-ups ; a woman 

i<:-aks low, and does not speak much ; who 

llcctual and industrious, 

' 

ith a smile; a woman who is 
le we have dreamed of oi lives 

and who is ' we still worship in the 

i.a. harass 1 IsstfJBM of ike Met) nek a arosaaa as 
IbsitWH n...r. fur l.umin nature and more for 
in all the sea. 
i I era and n. it to- 

.od-blessed as she 
Dickens. 



Id 



has 






a beet 
v hand, 
the best 
>p them 
Most 
nd place 
skin off, 
irt with 



2 



I dales. 
When it rises bu 
the sea it uses its wings as paddles, and flaj of thankfulness to » trees. 

i.ire it can sail away into the air. Tou ^"^ Ca« «a»rfa!itwas one rest panorama of 

e seen in stt . idese baaHit - 

liasaof ten and fifteen, one following close b< name of which 1 hew forgotten, as* eery 



' 'ever oe aone, as in 

it lawful to keep a dog which 

barks. I 
i Ulr<ul r good vinegar ore t ' .many 

■don't m.nd a perpetoa prefer. 

! of a hundred and twenty reports per minute up __,__» _-it- r mr < ■ ml Ann osjia- 

in the morning say, i hot atWtbe*, J^^oT e^T&os, It tL p^ioTof 

.short. Ihav >£~nlo 

0MI 



courtship cannot be i 



loftbe 'g**^^J£'mT&jmm\~**>* 

« with ™ ' ..-.w ^ Uie be:. 

, h.,«K r neaehbor- jom use your baoomsr net as neater, 



I most Ian 

ho-vd srem determined to bare the night also — 

Exchanet. BtTTTis: Biah*..— Haroag .!,<■-! yew beat 

* • • s ■■_ var. ,- i bem into eo'.d watr — * 

V^. „ZmL . — ~— •«.! .U dor., am 

. :th melted 



ihag St 
I evenings siavce. — Eo. 



30 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



FROM THE EAST. 

Nicaragua steamship Cortes, arrived at 

about one o'clock Sunday morning, with 

:ii the Atlantic States one week later, 

, Europe to 9th December. She brought 

107 ■ - -ngers, and 189 packages express freight. 

The Isthmus of Nicaragua is represented as very 

healthy and crossing pleasant; passengers from 

New York were only forty-eight hours from ship 

to ship. 

The treaty entered into between Gen. Cazneau 
and the Dominican Republic, yielding the port 
of Samana to the United States as a naval depot, 
has not yet been signed, in consequence of the 
interference of the French and English Consuls. 

A fire occurred in Boston on the night of the 
23d of December, at No. 22 School street, known 
as the Newspaper Exchange: and occupied by 
Geo. J. Bemis; Moore, Riddle & Co.; John Wil- 
son & Son, and other printers. The newspaper 
offices burnt out or damaged are the New Eng- 
land Farmer. Massachusetts Ploughman. Chris- 
tian Register, True Flag, Puritan and Recorder, and 
Youth's Companion ; loss $15,000. On the same 
date a destructive tire occurred in Ellsworth, Me. 

Ill Congress, the House Committee on Foreign 
Relations have reported in favor of a resolution 
tendering the mediation of the United States in 
the pending European war. 

David L. Yulee has been re-elected U. S. Sen- 
ator from Florida. 

Lt. Col. Steptoe, U. S. A., has been confirmed 
as Governor of Yutah. 

A large shipment of paupers had arrived at 
New York from Antwerp, principally soldiers 
who had served their country, and having become 
enfeebled for longer service, were sent to the 
United States. 

Col. Kinney's expedition for the colonization 
of Centra! America, composed of three hundred 
men. was nearly ready to start for the scene of 
the enterprise. 

The packet ship St. Patrick, from Liverpool 
for New York, with 400 passengers, went ashore 
at Barncg.it. Dec. 19. The ship was a total loss. 
Passengers saved. 



MARKET REPORTS. 

San Francisco, January 24. 1855. 
The Grain market ia firm, and tendency upwards. Flour is 
steady and gaining. Tlie articles of Wheat, Barley, Oats, Meal 
&.C., are fully up to the ecale of our quotations. Provisions 
vary, according to the amount eold and the urgency of the sale- 
There is every reason to look for r better state of trade soon- 
The country is feeling the benefit of the advance in the value 
of the Produce oi the country, and when thia is the case, pros' 
perity begins. 

JOBBING PItlCES. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLE- 

MEN TS — nominal — 
Shovels, 
Ames' L h. bright$13 00® 

do e.h ®10 00 

Fields', 1. h 12 OOcKi ou 

Rowland's, 1. ft 00@12 00 

do s. h-.. 9 — a 10 00 

King's, 1. h 8 00® 

Spades, bright c. s.10 00®— 00 

do irou no sale. 

Coal and Grain .Scoops, c. e. 
12 00®— 

do do iron ®— 00 

Axes, Collins', a. b. 5)15 00 

do Huut=', do ®15 00 

Ticks, Collins', 4 l .» to 6-lti, solid 
eye 10 00®12 OC 

do other brands. 00®— Of 

Helves, heavy hickory pu « 

turned ' 505> 2 50 

do axe ® — 

Plows, best make. 14 — 

do steel 24 00®40 00 

Threshing Machines and Horse 

power — 

Hall & Pitts* uo sale, 

Other makers' — ® — 

Emmery's, with thresher, sepft' 
i and ran mill.. — ® — 

Straw Cutters, — ® 

Rukee, horse and re' 

home 

do band, wood — 00 u — 01 I 

do do steel — 00®— 00 

Pitchforks, V doz ® 

Scythe*, best ® 

Hoes, steel, g. n... 6 DC 
; Crowbars, c. -.\ y K>- I 

Flour Mill-, Nu V e,'$. p >00® 

do Brown's, 30 in.450® 

I FLOUR— 

iGallego — 0i! 

Ilaxall — (Hi,? 1-1 



FROM EUROPE. 

The report that a treaty of alliance between 
Austria and the Western Powers had been con- 
cluded is confirm 

AfT.;!rs before .SlV>;;-1o;jo1 are without much 
chan;.''. The total of English reinforcements al- 
ready sent is 15,300. After the battle of the In- 
kermnu it is sad the whole available British 
force did not exceed 16,000 men. But this num- 
ber, with the reinforcements, would form an army 
of 31,000 men ; whilst the French reinforcements 
will soon raise the total French force 10 50 or 
00,000 men — sufficient to defend their position 
against 150.000 Russians. The latest dispatch 
from Gen. Canrobeit states that the rain has 
ceased, and the weather is improving; reinforce- 
ments continue to arrive; the enemy still shows 
no signs of activity, but continues to protect the 

town Kj' orxtrjmeKnn»".i-^ 

In England, it is said the Royal Yacht Squad- 
ron is sending out two or three of their finest 
yachts full of luxuries, provisions, clothing, &c. 
to Balaklava. Money is pouring in from all 
quarters to the Patriotic Fund. Parliament will 
be opened by the Queen in person on the 12th. 

LATER FROM THE NORTH. 

By th? arrival of the steamship Humboldt, 
Capt. Fisher, we have files of the Hurabodt Times 
to Jan. 13th. 

The weather during the week ending January 
13, with the exception of Oie 9th. was remarkably 
fine — warm and clear, doing without fires, except 
morning and evening. 

Platina has been found in great abundance on 
the New River, frequently in pieces weighing 
half an ounce. 

A general advance has taken place in prices of 
goods at Union City and other places on the Bay. 

The Times says, — the miner? in this section of 
the county have heretofore skimmed olf the sur- 
face, as was done in '49 and '50 in Tuolumne, El 
Dorado, Placer and the low counties, believing 
that only the surface would pay, have lately gone 
through the cement a foot or two above the ledge, 
and find the dirt unusually rich. In instances 
tried about Bestville, in old holes, the dirt has 
been found to pay as high as §>8 to the bucket. 
A friend informs us that since the discovery, old 
claims, heretofore considered worked out. arc be- 
ing rapidly taken up. We want a few thousand 
miners from the middle and southern mines, to 
develope the wealth of the gold fields of this dis- 
trict. Water is abundant, and the prospect of 
the miner is daily brightening. 

The long apprehended outbreak among the dif- 
ferent tribes of Indians, appears to have been well 
founded. Information reached Humboldt Bay on 
the 15th, that the Klamath Indians had murder- 
ed five white men near Orleans Bar, two days 
previously. Two of murdered men's names were 
Wheeler, of the firm of Wheeler & Pierce's Ranch, 
and a Mr. O'Neil. Col. Buchanan immediately 
dispatched a detachment of 25 U. S. troops, under 
command of H. W. Judah, to the scene of attack. 
A party of volunteers from Union, had also left. 
Serious difficulty is apprehended, as it is said the 
Indians are well supplied with rifles and revolvers 
obtained from unscrupulous whites. and that they 
had sent their squaws and children into the inte- 
rior. There is much cause to apprend the loss of 
many lives before quiet is restored. 

Accounts from Los Angeles, in continuation 
of those previously received, state that the mob 
succeeded in forcing their way into the jail, from 
which they took Brown, and hung him, thus 
setting aside the order of Judge Murray staying 
the execution The action of the people in this 
case appears to be generally approved. 



50 

Chile 3 00® 9 (UK\<iro1ma,inbbIH'Mb7 

Repacked 

Horner's Mills,...— 009 

Berncia Mill-. — 001 

Meal, in bbls. G QOu 

do Vfc bbls 3 25® 3 50 

Bran, |* lb Q> IV* 

GRAIN— 

Corn, Eastern, f U> 2 •» 3 

Barley, Caliloniiu.. 3> 13q 

do Chili ■ — ■& 1=1., 

Buckwheat, tb.ur.--2 3 
Out-, California 2 

do Oregon, none in mk't. 

do Eastern 2 



Wheat, Chili — © 

flo Californi.. .2 ' @ 

LUMBER— nominal— 

Timber, Oregon Pine, sq, ty M 
25 00® 

Plank aiidSc";'L'..2o OOa.io 00 

Plank E.w.p. cl.60 00© 

do E. oa 80 00®100 

Boarde, E.cl. 1st t|.G0 00©— ■ 
do 2d q 45 00®55 00 
do G. y. p. Boor— 00®— 00 
do Ojnn^rougbJ.6 00®18 00 
do redwood, Mendocino, gi 
sawed — 00®— 00 

do Bny&Bolina.— 00© 

Floor Joist 18 00«>20 00 

Shingles, E. best . 7 00® 8 00 
Clapboards, No. 1 -25 00®30 00 
Latins, Eastern ... 7 00® 8 00 

do California.. 5 00® 6 00 
Doore, 40 pr et on prime cost. 
Windows, 100 pr ct on Coet. 
PROVISIONS— 
Beef, Mess, |» bl.l 17 00®20 00 

do h» bb) ex.fain « 1 1 00 

Bacon, ex. clear side?, ty lb 

12© 13 

do Mess, 9® 11 

Cheese 20© 27 

du California 

I, pdz.903 1 00 
Batter, choice, V lb .401 

flu good ordinary 28® 

do California . . . . — 3 
ordinary 129 

do extra ..15© 

Lard, in kegs 13® 

do tins 10-10.. .16® 
la -.14® 
Pork, clear, ¥ bbl 10 00®— 00 

do do febbl ®ll oo 

do mess, $> bbl 16 00©— 00 

do do 1,4 do ® 8 00 

RICE— 

71, 
China, No. l.in mote — © 10 

do No. 2, do — © 8Mi 

Manila 7 © 7Vfc 

VEGETABLES— 

Beans, Chili Bayos .8M;© - 

do California. -.8^.® 4 

do Am. white.. — © - 

Split Peas 5 © - 

Beets,? ton 20 oo®— - 

10 00® 

, prime,? lb 

Turnips V ton-.. 30 003 

Potatoes, per rack 505> 100 
do new, & lb. 1U.1© 



31 



IS 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 

I3P 1 Onr Letters. — We would request all our cORtapoitd* 

ent* to direct Letters and Papers to us at SAN FRANCISCO, 

ONLY. They will, with such direction, reach us immediately. 

Letters directed to us at Sacramento, fall to reach ua regularly. 

4 v3 WARREN & SON. 



I3? 3 Native Pines, Oaks, &c. — Cones of the Native 
Pine*, Acoms from our Mountain Oaks, Seed of nil our Moun- 
tain aimiDF, and oi every" BpecTee 6T Valuable Tree or Shrub ; 
lor these the lull price will be paid, if satisfactorily labelled; 
classified and arranged, at the 

Office of the " California Fabmkb," 

13 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street. 



|y Wanted.— AH the varieties of California Clover Seed, 
for which the highest price will be paid nt the 

Office of the "California Farmer," 
13 Masonic Hal! Building Montgomery street. 



13?" Oar New Office. — We invite our friends to our new 

In the " Masonic Hull," on Montgomery Btreet, o 
Lc Ctmm A. Strongs. We can show them many wonderful 
specimens, such as arc rarely seen, and we especially invite 
them to call and examine mid invoices we 

have to offer for ^ale. Trees, Seeds, Plants, Grains, Bouses, 
Lands, Inventions, Works of Art of all kind-, these we am 
happy to show, and can interest our friends if they will but call 
and see us. WARREN & SON. 



fSr** "A Thing of Beauty is a Joy Forevor." — Why 
will people endure pimples on "the human fuco divine," or 
eruptions <»l any kind, when it i* n foci so well known, thai Dr. 
(Juysott's Yellow Dock and Sarsaparilla clean 
skin from nil impurity, removing Pimples, Sores and Blotches, 
leaving the affected parts oa healthy, smooth and soft as the 
■ i.i all who wish che rosy 
beauty of childhood. 

It causes ull sores and potaOttOUfl wounds to discharge all In 

manor, end eradicates every impurity from the 
It doss its work mildly but efiectually, giving coi 
aud blooming health in the. place of ugliness and soul-siel 

■ 

ScnonjLA, Syphilis, Mercurial Complaints, and a vast 
ol other disagreeable and dangerous diseases are speed- 
ily and perfectly cured by the D i Heine. 

Purchasers, will place be careful to ask for, nnd take none 
other but Dr. Guyaott's Improved Extract of Yellow Dock and 
Baraaparilla, All others In comparison are wortiili 

For Bale nt all the principal Drug Stores in the State. Park 
& White, Bole Agents, to whom all orders must be addressed. 
Office No. 94 Merchant street, 3d duur above Montgomery. 13 



MARRIED. 



On the 18th Jan., in this city, by R*v. Dr. Scott, Mr. Henry 
Carlton, Jr., of the firm of Wm, T Coleman &. Co., and Miss 
Kate A Uslmc, daughter of Dr. S. R. Harris, formerly of New 
York. 

On theSSd Jan., in this city, by Rev. S. H. Willey, Mr. Asa 
Allen and Miss Susannah Ma h, all ol tlii- city. 

On the 21st Jan., in this city, by O. Bailey, Esq., Justice of 
tee, Mr. J. Freeman nnd Miss E, Pipen, all of this city. 

On the M'h Jan., at Weber Creek, by Rev. Mr. Davie*, Mr. 
Du-.aU D. PhiUpps and Mrs. M. McCloud, of the former place. 

On the 91st Jan., in Maryaville, Mr. John B. Wise, of Yuba 

COUIItr, and HilB Amelia 1'arue. 

Ontheiath Jan., at Gold Hill, El Dorado county, Alfred 
Thoman and Miss Eliza TorrU, both of Mud Sprlnj 



DIED. 



On the SO; h Jan., in Sacramento, Agnes McGregor, youngest 
daugh er ol the late Alex. McGrs 

On the L8 ii Jan., in Los Angeles, Kifaelita, daughter of Win. 
WoofskUl, Esq., aged :t years and 5 months. 

On the L9tb Jan., in Shasta, Elizabeth, wife of W. G. Woody, 
aged 38 yearn. 

the I7tb Jan., in Columbia, Barauel Arnold, aged<5 years. 

On the 12th Jan., in Jackson, T. E. Johnson, ngod about 30 
years, formerly from Arkansas. 



SAN FRANCISCO MARINE LIST. 



ARRIVALS. 
Jan. 17 — Bark Chaa Devon?, Headly, Oregon, 14 days; lumber. 

Brig Qoddy Belle. Hatch, Oregon, 15 day b ; lumber. 

Briii Hodgdon, Wade, Oregon, 16 day* ; lumber. 

Schr Quadratue, Finlcy, Columbia River, 14 days ; lumber. 

ScUr Francisco, Miller, Pajaro, 2 days ; produce. 
Jan. 18— Brig Charlotte, Hasty, Humboldt Bay, 4 days; lumber. 

Brig jE'dian, Briard, Humboldt Bay, 3 days; lumber. 

Schr Rambler, Woodbury, TumaleB, 1 day ; produce, 

Schr A M Simpson, Bodega, 1 dav ; produce. 
Jan. 19 — Schr Odd Fellow.Austin, Santa Cruz, 30 bis; produce. 
Jan. 20— Stmr Humboldt, Fisher, Humboldt Bay, 32 hours; 
with lumber. 

Clipper bark G E Webster, Folger, Hong Kong, 63 dsj mdss. 

Clipper bark Is,ibelita Ilyne, Calbnun, Manila, 79 day?; rddse. 

Bri^; Wyandot, Wondley, Humboldt Bay, 2 days ; lumber. 

Sehr Snvcn-i^u, Waterman, Pajaro, 2duye; produce. 

Schr J Fnmklin. HuM", Hall-Moon Bny, 2 days ; lumber. 
Jan. 21 — Steamship porW, Burn*, Ban Juan, 12 days : pass, etc. 

Clipper ship Osbom Howe?, Kelly, Boston, 153 daysj mdse. 

Bark RuaeeU, Leary, Seattle (i 1 85, 14 days ; lumber. 

Schr Laura Sevan, Morton, Sun Pedro, 10 days ; lumber. 
Jan. 32 — Bars: Desdemonn, Farley. Oregon, 7 day.* ; lumber. 

Schr Mount Vernon, Blake, Santa Cruz, 2 days ; produce. 

Schr John Dunlap, Ellis, Monterey, 3 days; produce. 

Schr Iowa, Gregg, Pajaro, 2 day? ; produce. 

Schr Horace, Keyes, romales.SO hours ; produce. 

Schr Teresa, Gamble, Bodega, lb hours ; produce. 
Jan. 24 — Schr Gazelle, Hurd, Honolulu, 28 day e ; i 

Schr Queen ol the West, Dame, Santa Cruz, 3U hour? ; lime. 

U S revenue cuttftZ W L Marcy, Cornell, from a cruise, 

U S schr Argus, Hyde, from air 

CLEARANCES. 

Jan. 17 — Bark Equator, Morton, for port? in the Pacific ; schr 
L P Foster, Wiggin, Hilo, or ports in the Pacific. 
Jan. 18— Brig E D Wolfe, Cooke, for Oregon; echr Ada, 

Josselyn, Montej ■ 

Jan. 19 — Ship* Semiramis (Ham), Adorn, for Cullao; Chal- 
lenge, Cenny, «'bina ; bark J A Falkinberg, port* in the Pacific. 

Jan. 20 — DtmrGolion, Erekine, for San Diego; brig Dudley, 
Staples, Valparaiso ; rchrs San Diego (N Gj, Webster, Port 
Philip; Forward, Chapman, Tahiti. 

Jan. 22— Ship Flyinq Fish, Nichols, tor Manila; schr SeaSer- 
■ i b, .^an Lul.- Ol > 

Jan. 23— -Steamship sierra Nevada, Blethen, for San Juan ; 
schr Kaluua, Candage, Teekalette (W T). 



INDIAN HI I HI 31 Y . 

ONE of the u. 
ity Is now open tor exhibition at tbcofflceof the Califor- 
nia Fabmek, The certificate of Dr. Evans, U. S. Ge 
fin oishes sufficient date V n bemicity nnd valu 

catesoi five of our most distinguished medical men furnish 
fact* that should nwaken a general interest In our community 

tn pee this vain.;: prOOl of the emlier race- of the 

oi CaUTomia, 

The Mommy now exhibited is supposed to be a highly dis- 
o| the ''Flat-Head Indians. 1 ' This 
;! tribes have no know! 
edge of the nice of which this i* « representative. Capt, Rus- 
sell, the discoverer, is familiar with the Indians of tin 
vicinity, speaks their language, and baa been yearn with them ; 
vet neither they nor himself can find any trace by si hie i 
cover the hiatoT] oftheprceenl relic 

The C'biei now measures S feet "> Inches in length — nil size — 
the feet arc 9 Inc ebody presents a nut nnd nppear- 

nd| as it lay-- 1 In the canoe, surrounded by the n 
osuaUy deposited vriu chiefs, together with > I 
sknlla found with the Mummy, it is Indeed a m 
ipecimen. 

Captain Russell has expended much in bringing this specimen 
to the city nnd preparing it tor the States, and it in oon 
lor exhibition in hopes that a sufficient nun can be raised to 
retain it here, na it is a record ol the earjj history ol < leJlfornla. 

The Mummy will be exhibited at the office ol the Calipoenu 
Fakmer, for a short time Admission 50 ct*. ; Children hoB> 

prica Trie Pre.-.--, Medienl nod Scientific men, and Gift] . 
are invited Free, as the object i- diffusion ol knon Ii 
v3-4 C. J. W. RUSSELL, Proprietor. 



SOLIDIFIED MILK. 

MANUFACTURED BY - 

S1MT7EL T. BLATCHFORD. 

FOR SALK HV 

BINGHAN & REYNOLDS, 

iiu SatiHonic street. 

TIIK PRESERVED MILK is made from PURE PRE8H 
MILK, combined with crushed sugar, and when redm ed 
to liquid, at Mated in tin- I lor all pvirpoKcs 

for tvhlcD Milk e used, as it is Burmly Pore Milk and Sugar. 
Tne Tablt equal to Bve pints of pure 

nnlk. Tin' proprietor recommends « Kn confidence the article 
properties of self-preservation 
having been rally tested during the hut eighteen months. To 
the WHALING Interests a- value Is Inestimable, and to travel- 
era by land or sea, (especially when accompanied by young 
children) it recommends itself by Us partBbleneea un'd the 
facility with which it may be used 

Certificates. 
The proprietor would call tin* attention of the public to the 
following certificates : 

New York, April 4, 1854. 
Mr, S T. BUitcMord— 

Dear Sa iu •• the pre. 

paration of Solidified or Preserved Milk, having used It on my 

ln.-t voyage to San Fraijei-eo, I eno with the utnio-t confidence 
recommend it to sea-fiuril ■■■: the bell article of tiie 

kind 1 have ever seen or used, rotninlu I ie taste 

and flavor of fresh nulk. Yours, &-c„ 

O. R MUMFORJD, 
Master of Clipper Bhip "Torn 

Extract from a letter from a CaUrbrnlnn, ( 
Dated May 31, I 
"In regnnl to the Solidified Milk which you entru ted tome 
for the purpose oi testing the merit of the preparation, I can 

with Confidence say that it has proved entirely fati-lactory. I 

have a pot remaining In as good condition u when 

v -iu gave It to mo, Hud ii will, I have no doubt, keep foi ■ 

The preparation will be a neat luxury to the Bailor, as it will 

enable blm io enjoy an article ol food that has hitherto been 
supposed could only be bad en shore. 

Very re^pcctlully, yours, Ac EARL BARTLETT." 

Extract of » letter from Rev. M, Wllllan 

Dated ' 53. j 

"But the Tablet.* of Milk prepared by S, T. Blatehford & Co. 

were the climax of comiort I would ray, let no one go to see 
without them. I ba e a few now loll in my room us ported as 

when first made." 

April, IS53, 
Mr. Samuel T. P.latchford— 

DkabSxb: Some twelve mouths hucc I beard ol your pre- 

a of Milk and procured a sample, b port! 3 which l 

tried in the time and found il good. When pnaparing for sea 

lasi December, 1 tried the boTauco, wbji 

good as months before, I procured several pound.-, and during 

Ige l id from Europe, have bad the milk on the table 

every day, and have found it OXCOllcnL 

I have need several preparations of milk, and have do boalta< 
tion in pronouncing yours the beet I consider it Just the thin:,'. 
In luture voyages i shnll endeavor to have a supply ol it, 
Vours, very respectfully. RICH. 3. CORNING, 

v3-4 Master ol Clipper Ship " Rapid." 



BUSINESS CARDS. 



CIIAS. A. PITCIIRU. 

C O .1/ M I S 8 / O v M e R c a .1 .V T, 

Washington street Wharf, 

■ in Enst nnd Dmmm £lr«?t^, 

S<tn Vriiuc'ucK. 
tjir* Litjernl advances innds on colulgDments. v3-2 



WLLIAM BAILEY. 

OIL AM> CAUPHEXE MANUFACTURER, 

IMPOKTRR AND DUAL EH IN 

Sperm, Polar, Elephant and Hint. At iish Oils, 

Also — Camphkni: and BumfiHO Fluid. 

No y Battery street, between Pine and Bosh, 21 



GIBSON & KIM!. 

IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

Groceries, Provisions, Foreign and Dointstlc 

Spirits, and Wim-.s, 

Nob. 24, 2C and 28 Battery street, near corner of Pine, 
15 San Francisco. 



WM. NEELY THOMPSON. 

WHOLESALE AND UF.TAL HEALER LN LUMBER, 
MAHKET STREET, BETWEEN FRONT AND DAVIS. 

Boards, Scantling, Moor Joist, Sash and Panel Door?, Win 
dows and Building materials of all kinds constantly on band. 24 



SIM & CO.. 

PRODUCE COMMISSION MERCHANT S , 

12 Clay street wharf, 

between East and Drum Btreete, Saw Fbancisco. 

j^g^' Cash advances made on consignments in store. 

ket'er to Messrs. Flint. Peabody Al Co.; I. C. Woods, E*q., at 

Messrs. auenu i. Cu's. 24 tf 



BAUDSL A. CIIAI'IN. OTIS. V. SAWVEB 

CUAPIN & SAWYER, 



Saddlery, Shoe Findings, NetSj Seines, &c., &c, 
2-1 127 Sansome et, near Washington, Son Pram 

TBEADWELL i CO. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

Hardware, Farming, Mechanic and Mining Tools. 
Corner of California and Battery - 
22 3m San Francisco. 



JOSEPH M. BROWN & Co., 

95 Saerc 

IMTORTEIIS AND DEALERS IN 

Mnrdwarc, BDnlrur and AgVlcoltrnJ Iinplt uicnb. 

Bron l Turtle's .Sluiee Hake."; 

■ ' heavy nnd light Picks; 

Fan Mills, Straw Cutters; Builder's Bard variety; 

< Carpenter's Tool 

We invite the trade to eall and examine this extensive stock. 

:i oi tiie Golden Anvil. 
8 JOSEPH M. BROWN & CO. 

DU. THUKSTO 

Office, Room No. 20, Hillman'- 'lumperance Honsc ; 

MARTHA N. THURSTON, M.D., 

Office, Room No. 21, Hillm mnce House, 

No. BO . ' 'al. 

Ijf Mrs. T., Phyraeian lor Women and Cbildreo. 92 



TREADWELL & CO., 

CORNER OF FIRST STREET AM) MAIDEN LANE 

MABYSVILLE. 

CORNER OF CALIFORNIA A.N'l) BATTERY STREETS. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

NO. 56 FEDERAL STREET, 
BOSTON. 
Importers of Hardware, Iron, Shool, Cordage, Paints, Oils, 
; "nd Window Glass, direct from the Atlantic Stab 
Europe, with a complete assortment oj* tools and imple- 
ments lor Fartiwrs, Affm ■ ■. Cauthen and 

i , aiitrt. 

Ship C'lrprnlcm, illieeitcrightt. Millwright/, C- 

nnd Other*. 3&-3m 



Potury* Pottery II 

TWTOW ready Bndlorsatcatthe SACRAMENTO I'OTTERV, 
i_i on J street, near Slitter's Fort,* la il Plain 

and Fancy Flower PoCb; Butter. Preserve, Bread and Cake 
Jars, with covers ; Cream Pots, Churns, Milk Pons, Jugs and 
Stovepipe Safes, of superior quality; with everything eh..- in 
tin- line. Wares made to order. Dealers are parttcubi I 
iclted to mil and purchase. Orders to be left at the Pottery, or 
No. 964 J etrcet. 
v3-2 T. R. FREER. Agent 



17,000 Premium Stra^v hi ii j- Plauta : 
JVoffl thr Shell Mound flWseri <;ardctw t 

Near Bon Antonio, Ala a 
'E oti.T rorwle the following Li-t of Plan 



AV 



$?d per L00 

35 " - 

35 " " 

35 « '• 

IS " " 

15 « " 

15 " " 

15 " " 
15 



l.Dih) Boston Pino, 
■ Ftritisfa Queen. 
Burr's New Pine ' 
500 Rival Hudson, 
5,000 Large Early Scarlet, 
Seedling, 

1,000 Proline Hautboy, 

1,000 Black Prince, 

500 Crimson Cone, 

Plants from "Shell Mound" recelredapreoalumetthelate 

the California ^tate Agricultural society. Severalof 

the varieties above named are behovad to be remarkable for 

then* faithful quatittet, having been cultivated for several yean 

by Mr. Banrbra, at bio garden* in Wayne country, N. Y., with 
■ -■ n.-.r to the production "f fruit. 

Ordora tved for any number of plants, {nnt lcs& than 100) 

and promptly executed. On invoices of 85UU, and ovenadJs* 

count ol prices will bo ullowc^l. 

Address, J. L BAN FORD, Cultivator. 

Shell Mund, near San Antonio; 

or. R, W. WASHBURN. Proprietor, 

v3-4 of Wells, Fargo &. Co., San Francisco. 



Grnln ! Grain ! 1 

HOLDERS of GRAIN will do well by leaving samples of 
[heir crops nt our office, with tbo weight per bushel, price 

and quantity for sale. 

We can always effect ■ Grain or the best qunl- 

[ties, and we oaH the attention ol the raisers ol Grain to this 

WAUKEN & SON. 

v3-l Masonic ll»ll Building, Montgomery street 



Garden Seeds. 

WE have received several valuable invoices of Garden, 
ptabtaand Pleld Seeds, on consignment, tube sold at 
wholesalo, to which we cell the attention of the trade. I a 
them are New and Valuable GutDIN Seeds, 

from Prane*. of the bishesl charaotar, particularly worthy of 
Dttention. WARREN A SON, 

V:j- 1 Masonic Hull Building, Montgomery street. 



JOHN M11KNBY. JAS. O. TOWNSKND. lIin.VM. C. CLABK. 

MoHBNRY, TOWNSKND & CLARK, 
Attorneys and Counsellors at Law, 

San Francisco, Cal, 
ty Office, N.». C MerehaaaVs Exchange, corner of Battery 
and Washington street. — entrance oa Washington. v3-4 



Cnllfontla Stage Coiupnny. 
Office at thr Orttan* Rote/, Saeramento. 

v -vn— J*Sft STAGES leave re-uhirly for the following 

j-'C^-^ rS places : Nevada, Ophir, Auburn, Yankee 

■ ■■ * ^ -.>r ^"^u' % Jhh'h, Georgatovi o, Plaoervllle, Mormon 
Island, Coloma, Dj-ytown, Jackson, Mohelumne Hill, Slucktuu, 
Sonora, Harysville and Shasta, nnd all parts of the Northern 

and Southern Mine-, even,' morning, Bl follows : 

Nevada and intermediate places, at 5Vj o'clock A. M. 
Georgetown " " <i " 

All other places GMt " " 

AccMiniii'Mliitioii line for Mormon I-tntid, Hfc o'clock P. M. 

All passengers will be called tor at the! and me 

Utmost iittentiiin and care paid to them nnd their b I 

arrive In tone every day for the San Francisco boats. 
JAS. iIawuktii, President C. a Co. 
J. P. Deighan, Secretary. \-3-Jtl 



C. MOHHI LL, 

Importer and Dealer, at Wholesale nnd Retail, in 

Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, Faints, Oils and 
Fancy Goods. 
C5* 3 MANUFACTURER OF CAMPHENE AND OILJ& 
v3-4 K wtrctt, corner of Th 



WYMAN Be OO.'S 

SUPERFINE CLOTHING! 

WM. MANSFIELD & CO., 
151 Montgomery street, 
■■ .i- Large and Elegant Brock of 

FALL AND WINTER CLOTHING, 

or the Latk-t 8n ' 
AT GREATLY REDUCED PRICES, 
In order r,, for an entire new *iock for the 

and Sum r Bi ■ 

ALSO, 

Every description Fine Purnlshtng Goods; Fine CalT, Pataoi 
mi and Water-Proof H 

Jjr* W, M. & I 

ind tie city generajly to call aud aaamirm their stoolr. *U-*tt 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



31 



FLOUIUNd MILLS. 






STEAMERS. 



HEMItr FOLLST. B. a. XICHOIS. STTII H. OAKTlKLD. 

POLLEY ft CO., 
KAY STATE MILLS. 

!• kfml, bsttjiuui Front mid Second, 

BAY STATE LOWER MILLS. 

Comer of Front mid It streets, Nnrrnmniln, 

M' '■ ■ ■ ur known »v 

: ■ : ■ I .'.-.. 

at our M . ,, - , Buckwheat 

andGra M 

'■■■■'- 

.... 



■ 



Happy Volley Flour Mills, 

Corn'- 

Enconrage Home Industry and Homo Production. 

rpilC attention iimersof Flour is respect- 

X Kitty Invfci dto'tbc ■ ,.,, nl the 

■ ifbrnia Wheal ol hi 
1854, selected mill prepared writl T lose Mills 

have been tn met iv-sduriny 

which time the proprii toi 

#urnmv> n bo have tested th-- quality of their Flour, 

thai they con confident!] i being u '■■. ■ |ual ■■ 

any brand iii the mark' rfdenceo of the 

■uperior axcellen i ■ snufactured by them, the 

proprietor* would diicc n to me substantial compli- 

manti ro sin d ai i ia two last annual Meetings ol the State 
Agricultural Society, premium* nave been awarded .■»» both 
Fair* tor the superior specimens ol Flour From these Mills. 

Domestic Flour.— A superior article tor family use, manu- 
factured rrom selected Wheal — a constant supply always on 
on hand at tho Mill, or at the Depot of the Proprietors, 35 Sac- 
imento street 
13?" A liberal allowance made to the trade. 

J. N. BROOKS, > „ 
F. C. HALL, \ Proprietor* 
fj^* Wheat Purchased or Ground on the most favorable 
teruw. 19 

Flour! Wltoatll Barley I II 

THE SAN JOAQUIN FLOUR MILLS, STOCKTON— Are 
X now completed and ready to grind Wheat and Barley in 
any quantities. The above Mills are not surpassed by any in 
the Atlantic States, having all the modern improvements tor 
the manufiirture of the finest Family Flour, ami are capable ol 
turning out 250 barrel* per day. 

A large fire-proof Warehouse for the storage of Grain, is 
attached to the Mill. 

Particular attention is called to the fact of Stockton being the 
depot for the supply ol the Southern Mine.-, and therefore offers 
superior inducements to wheat growers to ship their grain di- 
rect to Stockton, for milling. 

Liberal advnnces made on consignments of Wheat. 

For particulars a-< to terms, &e., apply at the MILLS — or to 
Messrs. PAIGE & WEBSTER, Union Block, corner of Battery 
and Union streets, San Francisco. 6 



Wines mid Liquors. 

GOODWIN & CO., & MEEKER, 

No, 64 California stret't, — (near Front street,) 

IMPORTERS and Wholesale Dealers in Foreign and Do 
mestic Liquor?, have, now On hand, and for sale, — 
500 one-ei»hth casks Domestic Brandy, 
250 bble Monongahela Whisky, 
50 bbls very fine old Bourbon Whisky, 
100 one-eighth conks tine pale Pellevolsin Brandy, 
50 one-eighth casks A. Seignetto do, 

• 40 one-eighth casks tine Champagne do, 

15 one-eighth casks Louis Le Berton, do, 1805 
5 puncheons pure Scotch Whlsity, 
15 pipes Imperial Eagle and Swan Gin, 
100 one-eighth casks Tort Wine, 
100 casks Dunbar's Bottled Ale and Porter, 
100 casks Tennant's do da do, 

50 neev BokirV Bitters, genuine; 
100 cases Owen Bynvs Champagne Cider, 
50 baskets Heidseick Champagne, 

1,00 baskets fancy Brand-, — pints ami quarto. 
Also — a complete assortment ol Syrups, Absinth. Curacoa, 
Bitters, &c., &C. j all of which will be sold at the lowest 
prlCQi 21 Im 



PURE MEDICINES! 

LITTLE & COLE, A pot liccarl r«, 
139 Montgomery street, 

Prrtrcr" Clay and Commcretnl nrui* x 
Pay particular attention to tho preparation ol 

Physicians' Prescriptions, 
and the dispensing "l Family Medicines. The public can rely 

npou all articles purchased »i this establish at u« being of the 

Purest and Best Quality, 
and at reasonable prices. 

MEDICINES AT MintUOHT. 

\j[f French, German, Spanish and Italian spoil 



SOUTIUVIC'It & CO.' i 

GRAND RAFFLE. 

$30,000 for one Dollar 

ty THK PiRST GRAND PRIZE i«, probably, tl 
paying property iii Sacramento county, 

Tho Well Known Dairy! 
Owned and conducted b] Ink and Southsrlch 

&■ Co., for tlit> lust fin. Uavof 191 of 

MILCH COWS in thocountrj ; also, THREE BORS1 
Wagon, Can., Pans, H.iu f elii.M Furoltl , ill ot tho 

same, &c. ; likn 

Tlie Dairy' is now Jiayui- about $l,*>> 
ratsllar the Carres, The whole win be bransfei 
order, a- . ...1 up to ilie time it i- 

known a ly one. Toe above described property 

makes up the 

First Grand _Pri»e $30. 00 

'son 



Caiilbm a Steam Navigation Company. 

'■f il l ' .'!': -" fflff^ T 

• flrta wharf, at 1 

for Sacramento. 

.Hour; 
I) ■ ■ ■ ' i Pelt, m 

1 ' W i ii lays anil Fridaya, 

i \V. (I. HUNT, E A. Poole, ml 

1 ' ' iiml Hitiirdays 
The W. G. III . ,„{ hi».m. 

KOK STOCKTON. 
MUG AT ma:: HCIA. AXD M.HiSlts 

' ■. i . i; Concklin, imi.t.-r; 
lor II. T. CI. AY. a Harm". Master; 

M indays, Wndnosdays and Friilayp. 
. iner AMERICAN EAGLE. E, Polk master; 

'SOPHIJ^K. C, M. Condwlck, maste 

IHitudaya, Thursdays, and Saturdays. 
FOR MARYSVILLB. 
Steamer .1. BRAGDON, Thomas Seely, master— Mondays and 

Thnrsdi i ' 

Steamer ELLEN HENSLEY. E. C. M. Chadwick, master— 

Wednesdays and Saturdays. 

FOR s,t.\ JOSE, ALV1SO AND SANTA CLARA, 

Steamer OUaiDALOUPE, S, Card, maabar— .will leave every 

TueedaVi Thursday and Saturday, Irom Vallejo street wharf, at 

9 o'clock a. m. Returning alternate days leaving Son Jose at 

3 O'clock, A. M., Simla Clara .'{I,, imd Al'viao yi,:i o'clock, A. M. 

FOR COLUSl, RED BLUFFS, AND INTER- 
MEDIATE LANDINGS. 
TheBteamei CLEOPATRA, Capt Wra. II. Taylor, will leave 
Sacrament.) every Tuesday, at 12 o'clock M., tor Red Blurts and 

intermediate landings, from store.«hip Antelope. Returning, 
wili leav ■ Red Blurts every Friday morning. 

The steamer BELLE, Cnpt Henry Oilman, \\-ill leave Sacra* 
mento every Saturday at i-j o'clock "M., lur Red Bluli'e and in- 
termediate landings Irom Btoreship Antelope. Returning, will 
leave Red Bluils every Tue day and Thursday rnorning,at 9 oik. 

The steamer ORIENT, Capt. Carpentei', will leave Sacra- 
mento tu- Red BluttS every Tliur.-day, at 13 o'clock, M.; return- 
ing, leaves Red Bluitfs every Sunday. 

t^ Freight by the above boats must he paid fiSr on delivery. 
For particulars apply at the office ol the Company, Jackson 

street, l.ietueen Battery and Front, to 

R, CIIENERY, President. 
H. N, Squire, Vice President. SO tf 



2d Grand Prize 20 Sings 

3d (lia,. 

4th. AM: 

■ : ; ■ , ■. I ■ ; 

6tb, 1 Gi 
7th to 

each conl ;d valued at |l,50O 

each ... 
17th, 1 heavy CI Id Hi 
lUth, I 

,, . 
«0ll). 1 

■i ■ 
and ui.ih 
[axe 

•-ranicnto and 

. ■ 

\\V '1 



100 



15,000 









R. 



ir.»=t rm.MUM^i 

at the CaJUoreia >u 



For Sacramento mid MaxysvUle* 

v^ THE new nnd splendid steamer QUEEN CITY, 

L^ C. It. Barclay, master, will leave Pacific wharf) 

every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at A u'clock, p.a., con- 
nectinq with the steamer ENTERPRISE for Marysvilla 

Freight to Sacramento $3 per ton, until lurther notice. 
For further particulars, apply to 
v3-2 E. CHAPMAN, Agent 



Freights to Sneraiuento, $10 per Ton. 

FREIGHTS by the QUEEN CITY, will be 
Ten Dollurri per Ton, until further notice, 

E. CHAPMAN, Agent 



Steamboat Line or Omnibuses. 

THE Proprietor of the above Line having 
tggglfc made arrangements with the proprletoretn 
the principal Hotels, will, on and after Mon- 
day, December 16th, run Omnibnves to convey Passeagi 
/ ii and from ttit variou* Stcamboi 
One or mure Omnibuses, will be im the dock un the arrival of 
the Boats, and take Pai engen to any Hotel lor 
X K DOLL A H. 
l'n--( 'ii; .'.'.:■■ taken to any part of Che City, lift ween Broadway 
and Mission streets, and below Stockton screer, for the same 
syond those limits %\ 50. 
Office in Merchant itreet, ju«t below Montgomery, opposite 
Adams JtCo.'a MARTIN T. CHAMPNEY, 

86 iprietor. 



HOTELS. 



Orleans Hotel, 

MTIIE ii •, 150fect, 

in the tn brick ami 

.i iia.-1-ed 

Keading 
Room, Bil 

Tlie Table will be found at all times " 

At the Reading Room can always be found the daily paper* 
nl' the Statu and 

The Billiard Saloon 
superintended by n c " 

Tne Bar will 

- i at>art 



1., 



iot and Office of the California 
Stage Co., In s;agr« leave daily for all parta 

-'ate. 

II UtDENBl'RGU A 



Re ette House. 

■turr,».-n(i 
|uaI)<i) by ear on 






a* viMting 






y 

M » RT«V!L t r 

#•; •■ wai.u trf the 

1 favnr u« witn a rail, 
[IT] K J. Ml KR AY 



American Hotel 



fF OOOD *< itiat-U 



3E9L 



\x 



•m6H Fruit 
''E ran .<frT : 

- 



a* fur qaaatroe* snore i 

•■»t af 10,000 5 



apoa any i 
emeu of ii 



v , h m1 Ttw*. 
nd warnuimi at a lair pnee. In Ur.f e,as urt atsas 



akeW 
mSYAKT A co 4 SB I 



teesaaaesAo and Mratgom- 
mn stnec, next door kit 

*m ' m 



,v: 



■".->■•- ii 



AGiirci'i/riitAL, &c. 



Agricultural Iiiiph-nuait. 

FRENCH Burr Mill and four feet dhu 

with all the Iroi 

'■I ■■■; ■;:. 

P ii and ' j ind Corn Milln ; 

;■ ■ , . ■ 

r Brand Boltinp Cloth 

and Iron Wire Cloth ; 
Eton i Steel Plows, Nos. r> and 7; 

I I " " " . r i, ,'iL.. and G; 

Clipper " " " .'■'. nd 18; 

Trojan and Eagle i 

i Etra Polni r ci I Plows ; 

Straw Cutters end Fan Milln; 

Tdfinii. meter Chi I Q 

Garden ttakes and lines ; 
Fresh Garden and Field . : ' i A 

Gin ,i. Q and Coal Barn iM 
Hand saws, chtw hammers, hatchets, butcher's Fawn anil 

cleavers, planes, Ames 1 long and Bhort handled ahovels and 
spades, Collins' long handled axes, picks, mattocks, harrow 
teeth, two and lour horse farm wagonf, grub and plantation 
hoes, six and eight fined manure forks, wbjftletrees, ox yokes 
and chains, Ketouum's mowing machines, Seymour & Morgan'i 
machines. For sale by 

H. McNALLY, 
85 Washington street, between Buttery sud Front 
3-1 (Opposite the New Merchant's Exehangi 



HORTICULTURAl 



Harvesting Implements. 

HARVESTING IMPLEMENTS— 
1 MoCormjck Reaper; 
'j Huseey'a Do. ; 

1 Manny's Do. ; 

2 BurriU's Patent Reapers; 

1, 2, <> and 6 horse Threshing Machines. 
ALSO — Steam and Water Power Flouring Mills. 
For sale by BRYANT &. CO., 

Agricultural Warehouse, 
24-lm Corner of Battery and Richmond street;'. 



San tJoae \uvsrry. 

WE are prepared to supply the ti,i I' 
ruil Trees, Grapes Vine, l\ iam call 

rietiosi and are diapos<Ni te si a i low .rice, that we 
suit the times. Our Trees are cultivated with great per- 
r-..i-e who desire to make Nurseries ana Gardens 
will do well to visit and ascertain Jbr themselves our ability to 
advertUe. Ticca will be carefully labelled and 
packed for i nj eaaon i r distance, 
T ifl ■■ Hi v Tt ■ d .'■:■ offer thw season : 

Strawberries, 7 varieties ; 
Fig Trees ; 
Pomegranates ; 
Wn ai ti 

Ch« I 

Locust Trees, very large; 

''■' e acaciose, i,, irhiMlMt . 
Jlorhedges, 

Ornamental Trees, we offer ten 
Utoii*andJi\ Roses, comprising more than one hundred vari- 
eties, all of the best known kind.-. Our plant* are to i numerow 
to specify in an advertisement. Hoping visitors .vill come and 
sec us, we refer them to our agent in San Francisco, Ma. Dx- 
labiqne, 1^! Sansome street, where we shall have a collection 
of plants in the season as samples The nursery in .-ituated in 
the city ofSan Jose, immediately above the City Mills. 

We BTC alEO permitted to refer to Warren &. Son, who have 

examined our grounds, and who con testify of the character of 

our nursery, and who will receive and forward order* to us. 
Every order promptly and speedily attended to. 
8i»n L. PREVOST &. CO. 



Peaeli Trei ■■■■'■ 


uii tic : 


Pear do U 


.:,. 


Apple da 5*1 


,: i 


Plum do 15 


do 


Loricate ti 


do 


Almonds 2 


do 


tuinca do S 


do 


Cherry do ninny h 


3rnpes, 12 


do 


In addition to our Fruit and 



Fnu Mills! Hay Cutters!! 

WE have the very best Fan Mills m tho Country, with all the 
new improvements for cleaning perfectly, and worthy 
particular attention ol' Grain growers. 

The Straw Cutters are of new pattern, of extra quality and 
working power. BAKER & HAMILTON, 

7 11 J street, Sacramento City. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 
New England Agricultural Warehouse and Seed Store, 

IT J street, Sacramento City, (near the Levee), 

C CHOICE FIELD and GARDEN SEEDS, selected fre-h every 
j year by experienced Seedsmen in the Eastern States, and 
warranted, always for eule by 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 
5 Successors to Wahben & Son. 



Grass Seed. 

QA BBLS. Herd's Grass, Clover and Red Top, of the very 

O VJ be s t quality. For wale low, If applied for immediately 

Orders left with Warren acSon will be promptly attended to 

10 GEO. N SHAW &, CO., Battery Btreet Wharf 



Seed Wheal for Sole. 

WHEAT, from "Hill's Farm," Salinas, Monterey county, 
which obtained the/rrM premium at the State Fair — < !an> 
i lis growth Irom Chili seed — crop average yield 60 bushels 
per acre. Also, pure Chile Wheat, Apply to 

WADSWORTH ft MIESEGAES, 
15-lm Brokers, 137 Frontstrect, San Fronci 



Splctidld Hyacinths, Jonquils, Sarcissiu, &Oa 

LARGE and lino bulbs of the ad fragxant gems 

may now be bad at our room- — " CALIFORNIA I'AK.ilEa " 

Oliicc, opp onl ft Strong, 

■ anie Hall Building, Montcomery Btre 
16 WARRi.N i SON, 



Kxtrn Snmplcs Grain, Ac, 

GRAIN GROWERS who have extra quality of WHEAT, 
BARLEY or Oi ,.urchaier» lor the 

Sampli 

cation at our offl 

17 WARREN \ 



\t;il< nit in ni IntpK im nl-. 
i GENERAL assortment 1 Minuted to the cut* 

l\_ tiva-.i. 
19 BRYANT 



H 



To Vrult Growers In California* 

OVEY ft CO., Seed and Nurserymen, No, 7 Merchants 
_ Row, Boston, Mess., invite the atteniton of Cultivators of 
Fruit in California, to their very extensive collection of Fruit 
Trees of all kind-, particularly of Pears : embracing every vox 
ety worthy of cultivation, to be obtained either in this country 
or in Europe. They offer for sole — 

100,000 Peor Trees, of all the choicest kinds both upon 

Pear and Quince stocks, dwarf's and standards ; 
50,000 Apple Trees, in 150 varieties ; 
25,000 Plum Trees, in \i0 varieties j 
30,000 Peach Trees, in 25 varieties ; 
Also,— Quince and Cherry Trees; 40 varieties of the finest 

Grapes; I-* varieties Currants; 10 varieties Raspberries; 10 
varieties choicest English Gooseberries; and 30 varieties Straw- 
berries, including our Hovey's Seedling, which has not yet been 
equalled tor rize tm d productiveness 

Also,— 100(000 Asparagus, and 20,000 Giant Rhubard Roots. 
An immense collection ol Orniuneiit.il Tn i and Shi ube, Roeea, 
Greenhouse Plants, &e., ftc, Agricultural and Garden Seeds 
of every description, and of the best quality, constantly for sale, 

Caialogncs ftratis to poafrpaid appltcanl 

Messrs. HOVEY ft CO. would remark that their mode of 
packing trees for California, has met with the greatest •'access, 
and they feel confident of being ableto give seiulacacn to those 
who may favor them with their orders. 

Address, HOVEY ft CO., No. 7 Merchants' Row, 

8 Boston, Miw«8. 



20,000 Fruit Trees. 

(10MMERCIAL NURSERIES, near the Artesian Fountains; 
1 .-, in San Jose City. — The undersigned otters the above 
lot of tine Fruit Trees, consisting ol Apple, Pear, Cherry and 
Peach. These trees hove been Introduced Into this country 
from Genesee County, N. Y., by the undowigned himself, and 
arc ui the very best varieties known in New York; manyof 
them are new kinds, and amongthe Apples are the beetlate 
tic for keeping. 
Orders for Fruit Trees of any kind may be left, with Warren 
ft Son, who will give ill needed information, will be promptly 
attended to. Orders can iilsc be forwarded to the Nursery u 
irdei received at the Nuraei will n eive very 
prompt attention, ivhen ■ lould bi glad to see pu T/iawirs. 
Apple Trees, from thre $l its 

Pear, Cherry and Peach, do. 150 

quantities will be offered at prices to suit thetimes 
tnstanc m ihasei 

GEO W. LE VALLEY, 

isfa of the! ft .'. 

than kinds, I EN 



Plow Points. 

LARGE assortn 
i:i BRYANT ft 



GasTuYn, Kh'ltl and Gnu 
4 FULL and . uatttr. 

\ 

19 BRVANT ft CO., 68 Battery rtreot. 



Plan* mid Harrow ■. 
1 nianularturers. 

V 

■- Bati^ry street. 



H 



BollluK * I. .tli, rt* . 
OLTING « ale by 

UfT ft CO.. C8 B*tfery slrept. 



Inula HubiM-r It. it l.. t . ete< 

INDIA Rubf [<>••, of various 

width* and idzca, I 

CO, 66 B^rry street. 



■ittl 

GRAIN, ,S.w. Shina^ ■ »le by 

j rtreet. 



(>AH1)K.% SKKOn, 
O r o w l h or I V, 4 . 

FH nod GENU1N * ed and 

scni n i 

i 

" 

rry, Pear, 

I 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ : 

I ■ 

And i*. Shaker Seeds, 

Botanical Herbs and Extract*. 

K ■.!•■ 1 

vXl Third 



Padfle Vtn 

mission noLoaas and ai. amt.ua, 

HAVE 
, Grape 
Fruit and Ornamental Trc< 
strawberry Plants, In. 






I of thin 
-• , and rTcrytbing 

II. A. SONNTAG ft CO. 



IV 



His t \» i>' n j \ im m. 



Straw- 
••- tound 



- 

St «nd II -r— - Power*, of rmrkm* kinda. 
For sole by 
19 BRYANT ft CO. 68 Bedfry itreec 



' <ri.la Miirrh. 
» T I ENTloN of • 
XV tbe Purr < ALir. ■ ** i » >t *arn aow manQtetiired by nun. 
The ajaodSry of is c n-i-t* sb it* Mreocth. pansy and wksteaten; 
U can be trtaearAaawJy p sa np ar e i l artehoay & m tn wawse fc i f rw d 
ia My part of omr oo— try and the proprietor cbaJI—f es eom- 

That new CkBforaSa f sedai t t of *>keaM oantoWrar*- 
ered in awat uckM» of mx aad urn pcanft each, el a low rase. 
The trade — p in tado* b 

Itii qaifiw, 
Waaa-icreM, ts^w» wi Mnmhi and T- 
14 N«rtk Beach, flu PraawVeo 



Pnniliim Shrt p r.-.r Sale. 

* arir Strep that attrartrd 
tferrd tor 

iaoaoo aaadM, atx 
- ■*:!! Bveatl ;r.t ■rm»'t ,n and r'ur- 
ck. acriaa for tho owner 



WihtH. 

alway* OS 
susdum Willi aa. We a. ■» »t- ti 

lor *» Jr . 

»\ ixTts IsnoztMATSxr. T *o rtf thrvr «&/• [>m > im B>i" 
i • — ' • x:: * i eat* aeasre CoSj (Moraaua Koad 



Id bavaag vaseaaee stoefc. of k a <w a pvoatree, i 
> iadawtarfcet far the aasne br Uorsaa a aaeai 
k ea. We always have aeor* or lea* Mot* oa hi 



':.' arc amnng to- 
si) for -ale low by 



MawtoD Oolorea. 



b rraJi (a.lou * - 

Jl, per Adams ft Co.'s Express, 3 caaes rreah 
aer planting, -:es of 

IMOBaad other kinds of 

Allseed 



y Kxprcsa will msst witti prompt 
arrant ed fresh. 

BAKER ft 



HAMILTON, 
■ * arret) at OOO. 



. Una 
ifc ln naa. fnsllar 






f iai nr i a .l aad 
done ia Bay nart tA ta« cnaatrr. A.t jr. — B M WATSOaT, 



ii' ia any nart tA taw cnaatrr. A.t ir- .. B M 

i »:.-- padi 



Mt 



ssaaV ai n a a aa al . <■ 

■ 



tinfaallV 
scasaafMa. 



ORBEaflsiaiaaaalaW WanCaaak tar ►«• ■ 
ten. as T>iasaiiira. Hmo, (or mrt imaakwttm al 
Fucy Wlw « 

Foacaa vaa •» aa ah. saaa aaaassar. aksdas -a. 



MiawWnj Pi«MU. 
i 

A. fro 

par BuswJrad. ^r«ac pai 
,1 fei wa jj ca a.a inasaa 



■ -. . ■ 1 

'Hr« 

jeaatja, 
B^B^B^B^B^Ba^Ba^B^Bajclaaa, 



wifjiK.x * 



as BSasta 

MiX, Ma 



« of BMCaar- 
Lr. am aaaal aari tar MSa kr ska Aaaajaa. 

> a saaaaaaa. asraal 



\> .. .- <^ v.i [,Uia 

id p.r»H. U WS) 



Bsailais, ia Sntja, St* in—, raivta. Oils, 

raraphanr. F g fa jtny ui riaci krzt.c*. i 

'^;....<wi m, •> 

\\ amrfastj aaaaaaaasr aWa ».>»., op. 

» > vw Braat «ss». 




^ .4-RRFJI A ?<.>>l 



» , ■ . , . ~ ,: ■:* »>■▼» p***, »n^r. - 

r>-»tjtl Si aaat Ibntaaasa -,a *■ K4XSXSa I 

^•a, aaal at arteaa aaaatanaaM «t an lata «ST 

Sao. •►..- ; .. ...... ...--.. ,-.-. .*..», rar-r... .> ^ 

ay ii SaiiiMataa-. " 

O-aar. treats i n nj I , It i lj nli l it ,J.l ' km artrsSyaraL 



32 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



i) w x i f 1 1 e s . 



LADY JANE). 

(The following beautiful verses, on a favorite LTjree, were 
written by the lato Mrs. Frances 8. Osgood :| 

O, saw yc e'er creature so queenly, so fine, 
As this dainty, atrial 'Jailing of mine ! 
With a toss of her mane, that is t;!o=sy as jet, 
With a riance and a prance, and a frolic curvet, 
She is dffl She is stepping superbly away I 
Her dark, speaking eye full of pride and of play. 

O, she spurns the dull earth with a graceful disdain, 
My fearless, my peerless, my loved Lady Jane I 

Her silken ears lifted when danger is ni:,'h, 
How kindles the light in her resolute eye 1 
How stately she paces, as if to th e sound 
Of a proud, martial melody playing around, 
Now pauses at once, 'mid a light caracole. » 

To turn her mild glance on me heami ng with eoul ; 
Now fleet ns a fairy, she speeds o'er the plain. 
My darling, my treasure, my own Lady Jane I 

Give her rein 1 let her go ! Like a shaft from the how, 
Like a bird on the wing, she is speeding, 1 trow — 
Light of heart, lithe of limb, with a spirit all tire, 
Yet swayed and subdued by my idlest desire — 
Though darling, yet docile, and sportive but true, 
Her nature's the noblest that ever I knew, 
How she flings back her head, in her dainty disdain 1 
My beauty 1 my graceful, my gay Lady Jane I 



Cure for the Toothache. 

Beauty has charms. So it has, almost equal 
to music. It may soothe a savage breast. It did 
soothe, or charm, a German music teacher one 
day iast*week. He was charmed with the beauty 
of a lady, bright as a star, lovely as those who 
dwell beyond, or in the shining orbs. He saw 
and she conquered. He saw her in the street, 
and followed. Other poodles have done the same. 
She entered a store — so did he. Not because he 
wanted to buy goods, but he thought an oppor- 
tunity might occur for him to speak music to her. 
or hear the music of her speech, 

Oh, what a voice !— more sweet than his own 
fiddle; and its tunes vibrated lo the very bottom 
of his lager beer barrel. And her smile — itstruck 
him to the heart, for he thought she smiled upon 
him. Perhaps she did. We smiled at a bigger 
fool in the circus the other night. She looked at 
silks — lie tried to suit himself with a new pair of 
gloves. Both were haul to suit, and time sped. 
At length she left, and look a stage for her home 
up town. Ho took the same mode of getting 
away from his home, anil went up by the same 
conveyance, without any definite place in view at 
which he should pull lite strap. He waited pa- 
tientl}' for the lady to give the first pull. She got 
Out, and entered a brown stone front. He noted 
the spot, and ended his tide at the next corner, 
and came back and looked up at the cold walls, 
and thought — yes, he thought of the warm heart 
within, and the sweet face that smiled— was it at 
or for him ? 

" Hope told u flattering tale," 

and he thought if he could only enter that portal, 
he couldwin the citadel. But how? whatexcuse 
should he make, or who inquire for, when the 
door was opened? Fortune came to his aid, and 
showed him a dentist's sign. 

"Ah. true," said he, "1 have a decayed tooth;" 
and walked boldly up and rang the bell. Fortune 
favored him again. The lady herself opened the 
door. Had she watched him from the window 
as he watched the house, and. unwilling to let 
him be seen by a servant, flown herself to the 
door? Perhaps; we have seen such things before. 

" Is the doctor at home ?" 

" No ; but walk iu — you can wait for him." 

"Oh yes. certainly, in yourcompany any length 
of time — if he should not come till night — or 
morning." 

The lady led the way to the parlor. Both 
were seated upon the sofa, and time went off on 
the wings of — love 1 Well, he thought so. He 
thought that every woman that smiled upon him 
was made to love. Perhaps he offered his to her 
acceptance. She did not accept, but that only 
served to make his the stronger. So flew time, 
till a loud ring at the door bell marked a period. 

The lady ran to open the door, and stopped for 
a few hasty words with the new comer, and then 
came in and said : " My husband — the doctor." 

Her visitor wanted to see one just as much as 
the other. He would very gladly have given the 
room to either, hut the two in one stood in the 
door. He looked anxiously toward the fatal 
charmer who had enticed him into a snare, and 
she smiled, and showed her beautiful teeth, and 
vanished. The teeth reminded him of fiis own. 

The doctor looked stern, and said sternly ; 
"Did you wish to see me professionally, sir?" 
Of course he did. What else could he say he 
was there for? He thought of the decayed tooth, 
and thought he would have that out to get out 
himself. It was not exactly a tooth for a tooth, 
but it soon will be. 

He took his seat, and the doctor applied the 
nippers and — drew the wrong tooth— a perfectly 
sound one, upon one side of the other. 

Of course it was a mistake — a bloody mistake 
— but easily remedied by pulling another. That 
would be a tooth for a tooth. The doctor would 
take no excuse, and applied the instrument again 
and drew — another sound tooth. The decayed 
one now stood alone, and the doctor thought, 
might perhaps get well ; he was tolerably sure 
that he had cured the musical gentleman of his 
toothache, and very kindly told him to pay him 
five dollars, and if his troublesome tooth should 
ever plague him again, all he had to do was to 
follow h is wife home and lie would pull all the 
teeth out 'if his head.— New York Tribune. 

Rich i are but the baggage of virtue. 



HOETICULTUBAL, &c. 



Smith's Fomological Gardens, 
Banks of the American River, (too nud a half miles from 

Sacramc ntn eittf. 

THE proprietor of the Gardens would respectfully invite all 
who are engaged in " Nursery and Gardening " to visit bis 
grounds. He will be happy to ehow to them, ready fur sale, 
this lull, as tine a collection of 

Fruit Trees, Ornamental Trees, Grape Vines, Shrubs, 
Flowering plants, and Green House Plants, 
as can be found in all [he ureal .Sacramento Valley. 

The proprietor would call particular attention to hifl collec- 
tion of Peaches, believing that the specimens exhibited by 
him in Sacramento and San Francisco markets have been un- 
surpassed in size, quality, or flavor, 

The collections of Pear Tree.* will equal any in the country ; 
these, with all the new varieties, will lie offered this autunin. 

The undersigned believer his collection worthy a visit to his 
grounds of all who are interested in Gardening and Orcharding. 

The subscriber will otter tliia autumn Five Tons Vegeta- 
ble Garden Seeds, that have been raised upon his own 
grounds. These seeds buve been grown with care and will be 
eold at wholesale for the present, at the Gardens, 

Persons in want are invited to call upon us, and wcwill make 
reasonable terms. 

Fruit?, Boquets, <fcc, will always be furnished at Bhort notice 
at the Gardens. 

The proprietor returns his thanks for the liberal patronage 
of the past, iind hopes for a continuance of such ft 

10 A. 1'. SMITH, Proprietor. 



Golden Gate Nursery. 

Corner of Folsom and Fourth streets. Sob Fra?icisco. 

Ol-FICE — NO. 170 WASHINGTON STREET. 

THE attention of the public is requested to a large collection 
of the dowering Plants, now for side at this E&etabli&hinent, 
embrucing the moet ext'i ian( in tho State j among 

which may be found— 

Cornelia .in; ioni 

Peipetual blooming Roses, of all the classes; 

MOBS mid climbing Roses, do do; 

Fuschia-', a choice collection ; Heliotrope.-, in variety ; 

Rose and Lemon Geraniums; 
Lenaon-sceuteil Verbena-. Flowering do, Arbunlhun.s Azaleas, 
Orleanders, Paseitioras, Honeysuckles, Carnations, Dahlias, 
Bulbous Roots, Stc., &c ; and a *6neral collection ol Green- 
house plants and ornamental shrubbery. 

Catalog wifj he ready on the 1st of December, 

and will be forwarded on application. 

Orders for any part of the State, will be promptly attended 
to, on application to D. Nelson, No. 17U Washington St 
to the prop ri (7-3m) W. C. WALKER. 



Fruit Treeg ! Fruit Trei s : I 

W7C Inr tale at our Nursery Jil the Mission Si 
Five Thousand large Apple Trees: two thousand ol 
them of extra size Many of them will bear fruit the next year. 
Two Thousand Peach Trees, choicest kind — largeand hand- 
some trees. 

Fear Trees on the Quince as well as Pear. 
Fifteen Hundred Cherry Trees Irom two to four feet high. 
Grape, Fig, Quince, Apricot, Necbuin - Trees 

quantities. Ail tin* above we guarantee in quality, and 

we warrant them what they should he, and will .-ell at prices 

to suit the times. 

Apple Trees f-w SI 00 to $2 50 

Peach, Fear. Cneny, from 150 to 2 SO 

Extra sized tr-- I m proportion. 

ttD .v LEWELLEN, Mission San Josa 

firs with Warren &. Son, corner of Montgomery mid 

. will be promptly attended to, 18 Cm 



Xtu Invention! 
BVUKLEY'S STEAM DRY KJ1",S. 

THE undereiirned takc-^ this opportunity to offer to the citi- 
Oregon ami Washington Tea ritory, the 
valuable ii .. . rum ed. One 

Wants ot California and vieimt\ . 

of preserving her products 80 as to have a continued supply 
the late months. The vegetable prod net- to an immense 

amount are annually lost at the approach of tb 

it-- ion- continuance, ami the exposure thai necessarily results 

■ ■ products from the season ; anil tin; VBBl quantities that 
posed ami ae cumulated in WUrehou . 
demanded some method of preserving die and valu- 

able crops, that otherwise would he a RMS to the prodai 
to the State. Tin- loss of the Potato and Onion crop last ye«r 
would count almost a million of money, and the Iobs thepresenl 
year will he heavy, without preservation. 

The undersigned, holding the "Patent Right of the Steam 
Dry Kiln," oflers this Invention with the confident assurance 
that it is the very thing needed — that it if the ru plus ulna for 

ry want. It lias been thoroughly tried anil appi 

for these product-, and for 'irnin also. It bai been tried for 

Lumber, to which it has been more particularly applied in the 

Stat"-*, for then' the Vegetable products do not require so much 

■ i:cre. To shippers of (.iraiu this invention removes all 

iider the 
of this valuable Invention our Grain growers 
Bin to New York with BnlOty. 
The proprietor needs only fc i g certifi- 

cate. The name ol Henry L. Elhworth. Esq . C 

that is convincing to mtcUlgent men, and the other evi 
* satisfactory. 

The model machine will soon he placed on exhibition nt 
the office of Warren & Son, where all information can be had. 
JOSHUA BUTTS, Proprietor of Patent. 

A Diploma and Silver Medal 
Was awarded to the inventor ai the la-t New York State Agri- 
cultural Fair, held at K< > lupenor 

merits. 

Letters from Hon. H. L. Ellsworth. 

Lafayette, January 7, 1953, 

Dear Sir : I congratulate you on the Completion of your 

Dryer. 1 have for a long time u ■ tance of extract- 

ing the moisture from grain and Qourbe t, to pre- 

vent fermentation. Your plan will obviate the ditriciiltic- 

hitherto experienced. There can no longer be any doubt that 

18 pounds of water can he taken from a I 

pounds from a barrel offlOUr >■■ [| be or ap- 

pearance ol' tin* some, Experiments ai Lafaj 
Nor Is it a lesj gratifying circumstance that when tie- .. 
meal is cooked, it re-absorb-, proportionately more water, thus 

savin:.' freight and the purity ol the article. If the moisture is 
extracted, it CDUSt be obvious this meal will keep lor fong voy- 

■ he hottest climates. To the Navy, your 
Ixoprovem liable The world ;■ lumewhat 

skeptical on the subject of patent rights. The simplicity and 
compactness of your machinery enables you to exhibit a work- 
in ■; model, to remove in o moment any doubts a- to your ability 

to sustain your patent ami prove it--' utility. One feature in 

your plan deserves particular qi i this constitutes 

your main claim, viz., not drying by common steam, or by 

lire boated pane, as has been done hitherto, but by using 
steam. Few persons arc aware i>i 

ami how eaauy.it can be heated to u high temperatun 
little confinement. You will bo n oam to tho 

point ol igniton, say 60S or 700 degrees, though a flu le 

will answer Si] your purposes. I will only say that European 
prejudice against Indian coin is fasi dying away, and we may 
anticipate large ultipmentfl both for man and beast. The irroit 

lertility of the West, anl the reduction ol frobxhta both inland 
and on the ocean, justifies this anticipation. Wishing you suc- 
cess, I remain, yours respocfully, 

Henry L. Ellsworth, late Commissioner of Patents. 
To Henry Ci. liulkley, Esq., Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Lafayette, March 20, 1853. 
Dear Sin — I am highly plcaned with your Dryer for lumber 
by heated steam, it. Beetns almost Lncredlblo bow soon even 

green lumber can he prepared lor use, Twenty- tour h i 

all that Le required, dteam has hitherto bi u3 rentage, 

hut heated iMoam has not been applied for this p 

i: nt.-. Every manufacturer nt lumber would find 
it profitable to erect a cheap dryer on your plan. Full one- 
third ol the weight of some kind* of lumber ifl removed bv dry- 
ing: tho saving in cartage will more than repay the . 
of an In*;, Win n ■!■■■.. 

soned lumber Is considered, do one who regards g i work will 

regret the trilling expense of prepai I ig tb 

Yours respectfully, Hsnuw L. Ellsworth. 

To IL G. Bulkley, Esq., Kalamazoo, Mich'. 

IlAaiuanuRO, Pa., July 18, 1853, 
I hereby certify that I have had charge of one of W. O. Hie- 
kok's ulioiio where the most ot his wood work in done, that I 
[nit up and have used n G, liuiki Vh Patent Kiln, and heartily 
approve of everything W. O. Hickok baa said about it, and am 
certain that no rccom nendati m c ■ rons In praise of 

e-dd kiln. [L7] W. H. Sl'LLBNDEKGBB. 



BANKERS. 



ADAMS & CO., 

BANKERS, Montgomery street, San Francisco. Bills of 
Exchange drawn on any ot our Houses in New York, 
Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimare, Washington, Cincinnati, New 
Orleans, St. Louis and Loudon. 

Also payable at the following Banks — 

Merchants' and Farmers' Eauk Albany 

Utica City Bank Utica 

Bank of Syracuse Syracuse 

Bank of Auburn Auburn. 

Bank of Attica Buffalo 

Rochester City Bank. Roeh. 

irge Smith & Co Chicago, 

Alex. Mitchell, Fire and Marine Ins. Co Milwaukie. 

Michigan Stale Bank Del ■ 

Com. Branch Bank of the State of Ohio Cleveland. 

Clinton Bank Columbus, Ohio. 

fTp 5 " Money and Gold Du^t received in Special Deposits, and 
General Deposits, received from merchants, mechanics, and 
others. 3 ADAMS &. CO 

Daniel D. Pace, l David Chambers, l Francis w. Page, 

Henry D. Bacon, Henry Btajght, Sacramento City, 

St. Louis, | San Francisco. | 

PAGE, BACON, & CO.. 

BANKERS, Montgomery, corner of California Street, San 
Francisco, draw at Bight, in sums to .suit, on — 

Geo. Peabody &. Co...t London, 

F. Huth & Co London 

American Exchange Bank New York. 

Duncan, Sherman &. Co New York 

Atlantic Bank Boston. 

Philadelphia Bank Philadelphia. 

Josioh Lee & Co Baltimore. 

Louisiania State Bank New Orleans. 

Page & Bacon St. Louis. 

HutobingB ft Co Louisville. 

T. B. Goodman St Co.. Cincinnati. 

S. Jones A; Co Pittsburg. 

Cold Dust and Exchange purchased at current ratoa 12 

VAN VLECK, READ & DREXEL, 

BANKERS, co streets 

draw at Bight, in Sums to suit, Ou 

Ocean Bank New York. 

■ '. Ii ■-. ton, 

ties' and Farmers 1 Bank Albany 

Drexel & Co. Philadelphia. 

Jo.iiah Lee i Co Bid ti mure. 

J. B. Morton, Esq Richmond. Va. 

: Emer Pitt »bui 

A. J. Wheeler, Esq I 

A, D. Hunt. Esq; Louisville, Ky. 

J R. Macmnrdo & Co New ■ i 

Also, on Detroit, Mich. ; Memphis and Nash' 
Iambus, Ohio : Norfolk, Va and Charleston, South Carolina, 
1 

The Pacific Lonn ami Security Rank. 

MONEY v una of Ten 

Dollars and upwards, for which Certificates of Deposil 
will be issued, the first or fifteenth 

month, Dayable ■ at specified times, at tho option 

of tho depositors, if payable on demand, they uill be without 

one mouth, in 

I will draw interest of one pi r 1 1 nt. n r month, but 

no intej < ■ ited for 

Bpecifled times, certificates will b 'id a half 

■■■:'■ i \i ill cease 
at mat n : il i beir de- 

poaita after thoi til due, they must be p 

lor pay i in -nt and renewal ; other wi-e it:* 

The money deposited is used only In 
and in all cases amply secured by M n . County 

and Cii'. 

iu the name ol " MARRIOTT & \\ HI 
■;:.(■ Loan and B 
isnr is kepi ai all timet open to tr inspec- 

tion, in which ajipear their nam of certificates of 

deposil issued, and the n which the money de- 

posited bos been placed. Depositor* thus not only to 
personal a banks, but in addition bavethe 

, and the 

of knowing what disposition hns hern 

FREDERICK MARRIOTT, 
ALFRED WHEELER, 
Bth?rchant Street, San Francisco. 10 



THEODORE PAYNE. SQCIBE P. DKWKr. 

THEODORE PAYNE & CO., 
REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AUCTIONEERS. 

OFFICE AND S.VLES-iinriM COBNXB CALIFOHNIA AND IflONT- 
GOMEKY STREETS. 

AUCTIONEER, 



THEODORE PAYNE . 



gjg 63 Ma^n*. PAYNE & co - respectfully inform the public 
that they have established purpose 

ol tniieaoting the 

Beal~ Estate business, in all its braucheB, 
ionductino; ol which the; eculiarly 

qualified, by having given it then- special attention lor over two 

questions 
affecting titles, &c, itc. 
They will ■_ t. i 

tore, AasignooB, Receivera, Mori 

Of law. 

A Be . ■ public or prlvt I 

"i at their ollice 20 6m 



To Faurmcjras nud GeurdUuiers< 

WICKERSHAM'S 

Celebrated Patent Wrought Iron Farm Fence . 

FC R. i^air.' — Wickershom's Ear-tamed Pawn! Wrought Iron 
Pence, fi lands, it can be fur- 

nished al but little above the COS I ol ditehitu', and if much more 

preferable, because it does not require a hoary annual expend- 
iture to keep it in repair ; it cannot be destroyed by the fires 
h hid i bo constantly Bweep over pralrleand mountain, n 
wooden fences to be renewed, nor carried away by Hood from 
..'.- lands; it if free from decay, which 
beyond comparison with wood or any other material 
now in asn; it b valued tho most highly where it has been 
tiled tho most thoroughly -. it u light and Graceful, yet strong, 
a I'd ei m not be broken down by horses or cattle. Tho testimony 
winch has been I Ii In the Atlantic 

States, is anfficlonl to recommend it to the tanning public of 
■ 

A eon.;. litionat I '"■ Btate Agricul- 

tural Pan 

where b mil dose imony ot 

those win i 

Farm i dune has never 

been any ol tin- same kind in thi- country previous to the or 

i in- lot, and Irom Its peculiar construction theri 
the leasl d 

J, T. Beaton baa now on hand, end will bo coi 

m the iniinuliieturei', which will .■nable bun to 

[ill orders tm almosi any amount. 
for particulars address J. T. HESTON, 

Ar Warren's Agricultural Roo i 
Or, P, 0OAOLN8, cor. Sacramento and Pike streets 
October*. 1854. 15 



A. lesion WciJ lioiioi;- 

"l T ; E would respectfully inform the public that we arc fully 

W prepared to [uke contract- in the above operations in a 

munner to guarantee satisfaction or no charge wul be made. 

Smith &■ Van Dy.nk having associated themselves with an 
old and experienced operator hum the East, who challenges the 
world to compete wirh him in aH ■ ■ connected with 

the above business, are fully confident Co ■uecossin 

Oil contract- that we may undertake, nud warrant the work for 

■o. Wo have also ii tor boring through stone 

to any depth, and all work dune on ihe most res unable tenu*. 

Por the satisfaction of those wanting any thing In the above 
line, we would reier to Thomas Pallon, San Jose; Rums S. 

Hells, ot Haworth St EclU | M. A. Sullivan, New Custom Uousc; 
Wlzht &■ Co., 137 Jaek-ou ,-treet, Sk„ StC. 

We con do work cheaper than, any other oporators, for two 

l-t. Because wo ore prepared to work ou a most extensive 

■ 
Sd. Because wc understand all branohej oonnected with the 
therefore, able to work with certainty. 
All orders left nt the What ciu-er Hou-e win bo promptly at- 
tended to. SMITH &, VAN DYNE, Contractors. 
N. H. — We also refer to Wan-en <t Son, publisher 

who have aeon uud known tho character 
ol the work done. 7 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



San Francisco ahead of the World ! 

Ever on, on apace with the Age and Times' 




Iluriali for Vance's new DagufriTiiw Gallery! 

Largest Light in the "World, (over 500 feet Glass.) 

IVtw Building 1 , car. Sacramento and Montgomery ttreets, 

TTTHY Bhould every one jro to Vance's who wishes 
VV PERFECT LIKENESSES? Beci now the 

*anged Gallery on the Faoific Coast, and nottobeaur- 
by any in the world. Instruments containing 
perfect, and with {.-renter power than any ever "before 
H bis country. 

2d. Because he has the largest light in the world, from which 

not lights—top, side de tights 

— that now enables him to overcome the great difficulty which 

every artist in this city has to contend with — namely : In order 

ii perfect Ukenessees, different fbi require 

differently arranged lights. 

:sd. Having the largest light, bo is enabl pictures 

i be time of any other establishment In the city ; there- 
fore they must be more perfect, for it is well known, the sha 

the time the more natural the BXpre 

4tli. Because every plate is mrafully prepared with ti coating 

ot pure silver which produces the clear, bold and tasting picture 

that is eu much admired, and which cannot be produced on the 

i they are now nsed by other O] 

i -■ Uas ot into, after '"ought 

■ i ■!!, ustns compoimd d 

■ in Cheill t, which 

■ -, at every sitting, with 
that clear, soft and beautiloj tona,somucb admbred in nil ins 

All thost .■ iil do well to call before 

■ 
tdBr** Pi i idde, and work superior to any in the 

city. 

Don't forget the plnce. 
1^* new liuildinc corner of (gomery 

■ door to Austin's. 17 




COLLINS & CO., 
P B A T I C A L II A T T E R S, 

(PREMIUM hat stork.) 
157 Ci "I. 

THE m uld take thisopTi i urn their 

■ ir friend- and the publil I I be very 

Thej take 
ii cms flaal thoj ori ed tlmt no 

ii the beaiit_\ , -I, [ity Of n 

Hat j thai no gent shall wear a B bund at 

i'm. ins St Co.'a Warchoura 

ilishmcut exert themselves to 

id pat- 

The stock of HATS and CAPS, of eery kind, now 

■■■.I Ol i::i cil j 

17 COLLINS & CO. 



ADAMS & CO.'S 

CAT.IKORMA A\B ATLANTIC KXPltESS. 

OUR Atlantic Si ■ on the 

l-t am tunahip 

Company'* 

warded 
by us to the Philadelphia Mint, is always deposited there 
ous to that sen! by any other com ej once. Our rates are lower 
than those ofterod by any other i 1 curity. 

Wo also forward Treasu month 

To Ekolakd, by the P. ML 9. r. • una, nod 

awall by tho Weal India Moil .- u 
Wo draw Bills of Exchange on any of our Houses in the fol- 
lowing plai 

Host on, bTevv VorU, Phi lutle I ph in, 

Bn It I iixii i . A\ iishln^tmi, St. IjCitiln, 

Cincinnati, Plttebarsr, Louisville, 

\e\v Orlcnnti, Londflii, «!W*r., &c^ 

Also, payable at any of the folio 

I Pnrmera' Bank. Albany 

Ales, Mitchell, fire and Marine tnau .J. ..Milwaukie. 
i !oinmorcial Branch Hank of State of Ohio Cleveland. 



Utii o City Bank Utica. 

. . .Auburn. 

Michigan State B'k Detroit, 



Rank ol 

f Buffalo. 

■ 
Clinton Hank. . .Columl d 



in the Northern Minks we run Expresses, In our own 
iccumpanied by htithfol Mo and from 

the following places : 

Sacramento, Marysrlilr, 

Onus 

PlaeermUs, »r Mormon folandt, 
'"jm, Hangtown, Salmon Fails, 

Auburn, f\r,, tfc, 
i va Domda, Ptei bi ooimtiee. 

n Lancton & BAO.'S TuBA Expiiess, to and Irom tho 
.■ places in Yuba, ■■ 
i 
Sicard's Bar, Bridgeport, 8, Yuba, French Corral, 

Kennebec Ikir, Sweetiand'e, Boston 

Bar, Iloyat'.-i Di^ginga, Bunt's Ranch, 

liar, Cborokee Corral, n'a Bar, 

Poster's Bar, ag, N.Yuba, Wombow's Bar, 

Winslow'a liar, Slate Range, Slate R 

Junci ton < : ■ ■ N'i". ado 1 1 

Indian Valley, Frenchman's Bur, 
Slelghville, Bollard's Bar, Downloyillc, 

Cox's liar. Minesota Diggings, Kanaka Cn 

Qoodyear^s Bar, and Em Dg, Middle Yutiu. 

Sacramento and Stockton, 
/■('" Beniclo In the Bodthsbh Minks, we run an Bxpross In our 
own name, bIm ... companied , to and 

from San i, Hokeluns.no Hill, Col- 

Umbla, MaripOSa, Ae., by Brown's Exrajesa, from Stockton to 

all the Camps In the Southern M 

Our Bills of Exchange 
can be procured at, and Treasure ipmentt 

from any ol the above places. In nfl of the al 

: 

and on board oTsf 

■ .'/■■•ti Safes for the security ol all valuable pttck- 
agei transported by us. 

Insi/kance. — We have made 

■it, and 
i. Han', 

i .i Merchandise to and from wow 
■ ■ nt- on Bdla ofLadinc, ai tho tuno ol alii 
7 DA MS Jc CO. 



Boston Clipper BtecH Plow, 

Manufactured hy RuggUs, 

Ti i Plow is made hi 

i form of 

Plow iii all i net yet 

Invented] I i Union ; 

also at the World's Fair. 

The pre- eiit Plow ha* been manuln 

?ryle, ol i 

. 

TR1 ■ ; ". 

Cor, ot Battery and Call 
94 TBEADWEl.l. ft CD, MaTj 



ShlSJ 3).UiUi?iMii 



vol. hi. 



i&ssim ^^^s«««s< 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1855. 



NO. 5. 



Or California farmer 

AND JOURNAL OP CSHFUL SOIKXCES. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY MORNING. 

BY WARREN & SOW. 

Offiff in 

Terms. — Six dollar* per iinnum, in advance; or delivered 

by carriei - 1 month. For a club oi five 

new subccrlhor*, wo will send it rixth copy crnti*. 

A liiaited number of Advcrti-' I i rtcd at fair rates. 

AGENTS. 

He i*r* Adams Sc Co. utu th-'i: - ... lughout the United 

~- ■ :■ :.in].e. 

Het.i ■■ WitLL?, Fargo a Co., at their nillce* ■.■■:■.,,■ ..,■ 



M« 






M \.:TnN* Co. /or !>•.■<.■■■ ..-.',.■. ,',.■. .....; 

... 
M - Adaxi A: Co. — Humboldt Bay, TYtnidnd, Orescent ('itij, 

r , i ; . .. S.„ttxvurg, and the nttir, , 

■ 
'; I. ei. and Sc McCooMBB- Crctcent City, Port Orfard, 

. and h'icksport. 
Bot.LtVAN'snewenaper stand. No. 5 Poet Office Building; Kim- 
ball's. Noisy Carriers Hnll, Lone wharf— San 



A, Hunnewell, P. M., Columbia, 
I. Coffin, Mokdumne Hilt. 
Gen, M, M. McCnrvcr, Mount 

Farm, O. T. 
Dudley A^ Co., iV(7//a C&y. 
Hiram Downing, " 
Kirk & Brother, Sacramento. 
Baker & Hamilton, " 
Taney & Rtibeite, S^nara, 
A. II. Murdoch, P. M., tTn/wrt, 

Humboldt Hay. 

J. m. Thorburn&Co. *Vew Kojft 
CTty, iV. l'. 

Ws dealre our Agents to report to ua on the 1st of every 
month, the increase ol named and the prospects, together with 
the amount due the Office, 



;■ '-. Butte Or. 

D Q.WaldronA Co, i 
1 : ell \- I ' ... 

James & Co., Napa. 
A. W. IV i. 

Nash & Duvis, Plaecrvftle, 
C. O. Barton. Stockton, 
Dr.Thomas J. Harvey, P, M.. 

Obifpo. 
Cram. Rogers & Co., Yrelra, 
Parker 6t Roman. " 

Howard &Chamberlain, Un'ii 

I '.'.■■, and Mixtion San Jose. 



PROSPERITY. 
Wooed the farmers of our State desire pros- 
perity ? then lot tliem take the proper measures 
to secure it. When questions of State arc agi- 
tated, politicians me engaged heart and soul to 
secure success and triumph to their cause — and 
shall the cultivator of the soil esteem his profes- 
sion less noble than politics? — and yet. compare 
the interest and enthusiasm manifested at political 
meetings, in contrast to that of the agriculturists'! 
We rejoice however to note the right feeling in 
some poi lions of our land, and when such feel- 
ings. are awakened, prosperity will follow. 

In the great State of Ohio, at their late 
Agricultural Meeting, sixty enmities were fully 
represented hy delegates, nearly 300 being present. 
This was a large number of delegates, and the 

whole proceedings of the Convention 

four and a half columns of the Ohio Farmer, one 
of the largest sheets published in the West. 

The meeting was one of great interest. Some 
of the most prominent and distinguished men of 
the State took deep interest in the Convention. 
Hon. R. W. Miisgiavc, the President of the 
" Board of Agriculture of the State." presided at 
the Convention. Among the numerous valuable 
resolutions adopted were the following: 

Resolved, That the host interests of the State, 
as well as of Agriculture, would be promoted by 
In establishment of Agriculture 

Prof. Mather offered a resolution I 

an appropriation of 20 4 of laud 

lor the endowment "f an Agricultural Calli 

Mr. heath offered a resolution recommending 
Agricultural so. lion ol 

fori trees, and It ivation of art 

'lite president laid before the Convention an 
exliit-i lelilion of tl of the 

Hoard, as fold 

PI on hand. - - - - §1 
Other i .. hand, - - -1.7 

Approp 
Cash on 

99,631 10 

The I. 
lures of I Fair held at Newark : 

Newark sub* 

s 

K x pense of Fair, e v 

Balance at Newark. 

Mr. Oorwio otlered the folio* h was 

adopted: 

llaolred That we recommend to the fa 
of Ohio, tie 
plant for In ■■ ■• k>r i 

. has yet be* 
in Ohio f.-r ecoi ■ ■ -ins? (paces. 

Mr. \k ■ .1 Ihe k>!|..w lie; 

B,»ilrrd. That l •■■wmrn.il,, 

the I.. . U-i N. 

add -■ ! ' , live. . ■ . .- ■ 

t requesting : 



their utmost endeavors to secure a liberal appro- 
priation by Congress for the establishment of a 
National Agricultural Bureau, to be placed upon 
a permanent basis, under such management as 
will disseminate practical agricultural knowledge 
throughout the entire Union, thereby promoting 
the general interest of tho age. 

Mr. Musgravc moved to amend by substituting 
•'Department" for llureau. Other interests had 
their Departments, and Agriculture, an interest 
of greater importance than any other, should also 
have its Department, 

Mr. MoGrew accepted the amendment as a 
modification of his resolution, which was then 
unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Goff, of Logan county, offered the following 
resolution, which was adopted : 

Ilesolved, That the State Hoard are desired to 
furnish to the President of each County Agricul- 
tural Society, blank Petitions, for circulation, 
praying Congress for the donation of lund to 
carry out the plan of our Agricultural College ; 
and that each President of each Society forward 
the same to their member of Congress, for the 
action of that body. 

On motion of Dr. Cone, the Convention then 
adjourned sine die. 

This largo Convention was in session three 
days and evenings, discussing the most import- 
ant subjects appertaining to the farming interest. 
The above are but a small portion of the resolu 
tionS adopted, but they show the character of the 
meeting. The greatest enthusiasm prevailed and 
the action will be felt. 

When the agriculturists of California shall evince 
but a tithe of such earnest offorts for their own 
interest, then and not till then will there appear 
the dawning of a prosperous result to their labors. 
All other great interests of our State are ever 
ready to watch and guard with care everything 
that affects their welfare, and the legislature is 
invoked by petition for the requisite pro- 
ami aid ; and shall not tho Agricultural in 
do the same < A thousand subjects demand their 
attention, and will not the fat til their 

nes and take hold of the matter? The 
prosperity of these interests are indicated by the 
wealth of their treasury; these resources still 
used to increase more and more their sure. 

We ask of those who are now desponding, to 
ask themselves if a great portion of the di 
and loss of the past year was not the result of a 
sad neglect of these interests ? We ask if these 
evils might not have been averted by union, dis- 
cussion and co operation, one with another, thus 
causing a diffusion of useful knowledge. 

W« invoke a better feeling, a deeper interest 
the coming year, and trust our farmers, ram 
stock raisers, will all take thought lot 
things, and make their influence felt. 

IF.t ■ .rmer-l 

MORALS IN AGRICULTURE. 
Mus-ns. Editors : Havi; I from 

two or three 'he altove topic, you will 

perhaps, allow another to ofTer a few 
t am h by recent tr.u 

-nice, at an auction sale in this I 
were under ihc hammer, and the 
inquiry was made by numbers of hoe- 
wished trees for their i 
are tin - I anil knowir 

of the nursery itoon; a v.-r 

\ " — and th- 
the a : 

ily of the pi 

prietnr know tha. 

re the name of a variety of the pearH 
thc name of a ra r 
e that it was th* name of a 

car. since - 
tar farce was enact 



right at the absudity. .Then ho feels that his 
friend, neighbor, brother man, is being deluded 
and absolutely deceived. Yet he cannot interfere, 
for he will be trespassing upon the rights of an- 
other. Therefore he is obliged to stand by and 
see the whole fraternity of fruit growers and 
regular dealers injured by an unworthy mistake 
on the part of those who flood the markets and 
degrade the business by an illegitimate course. 
I buy only of regular dealers and established 
nurserymen. JTrom such there is little danger of 
deception. 

I would by no means impugn the motives of 
those on whose courso I animadvert : I only infer 
that they arc nut so thoroughly conversant with 
their business as they should be. Junius. 

Sacramento, Jan. S3, 1855. 

Note. — The above communication we received 
from a source to be relied on. We often note the 
ignorance of venders of trees, &c, as to character 
and history, or names and synonyms, that is per- 
fectly amusing; yet it often results in a serious 
loss to purchasers. — Ed. 



- iffired :.. reenrnm- 
impulse of a sprcalaiot 
» lacau* facts, it, of course, to laugh Owt- 



[For the California Farmer.] 

SPECIMEN PLANTS. 

Humboldt, Jan. 15, 1835. 

Colonel Warren : Thinking you might feel 
pleased at receiving a few specimens of our 
growth, I yesterday went out with a pick and 
grubbed up some. There arc at least one hun- 
dred different varieties of fruit-bearing bushes, 
shrubs and trees, in Humboldt county, which I 
have never seen described elsewhere. Many of 
which I never heard of before. I send a bundle 
to you by Mr. K. L. James, the gentlemanly and 
inodating purser of the steamer Humboldt. 
No. 1. Is a monster Current, larger than the 
cranberry, and of exquisite flavor, 
try. 

i White Salmon llerry, a gigan- 
rry. 

No. I. Two hushes, called by some spice, others 

olive, and others laurel. It is an evergreen, sugar 

leaved in shape, and hears a fruit resembling an 

olive, which the Indians use as an article of flood 

after roasting, ami is said to be very nutritious 

The leaves must be poisonous. If you will hut 

squeeze one between the fingers and apply it to 

the nose, in a few moments it will produce pain 

in the cerebellum, and. if retained at the nose a 

h of lime, will it is said produce temporary 

■in- bundle is a most beautiful 

uckle. 

We have the service berry, several varieties ol 

the cherry and plum, and many varieties of the 

t raspberry, Ac. We also have 

auliful varieties of the magnolia ; the blos- 

bes in 
• white aud the other scarlet. 
If j tj in May or June 

ah it. 
In I. . 

, Earnest Amati 

e. — Wc have received the accoiiip 

roes and shrubs in txc- 
.r iii, -ud at Humboldt, by the hands 
zcutletjianlv purser of the steamer, to whom we 
this act of coartesy 
• ful to our friend for th- 
ug into notice these 
»g specimens of our new coon- 
Allhough he assumes to be an amateur, be 
known and recognisedas a troe friend 
:■ shall examine the specimens 
and report. — Eo. 

I For tk» CWMuuti Tmmtt.] 
CALIFORNIA PEA-NUTS 

Me. si s Editors: 1 bate bow before SM 

mi notice its coolants. 

I have this day left < n Messrs. Baker A Baaa- 

• sack of pea-nota, to. be forwarded to yon. 

I planted quarter of an acre, sod gatbeied abowt 

I should here remark 

v. ! , aa pea, aery old. am: 

astaad. The inai 



fies me that our sagdy soil will produce 100 
bushels per acre, or 3,000 lbs.— at the lowest 
prico of African nuts now in market, say 25 cts., 
will yield $750 per acre. Tho time to plant is 
about the 1st to 10th April. In ground well 
broke and levelled, lay off with a drill rows 4 
feet apart and drop one kernel in the drill about 
24 inches apart, and cover about 3 inches deep. 
When the vines begin to run, say 6 to 8 inches, . 
and blossom, then commence to cover about 2 
inches with the soil from between the rows, al- 
ways leaving the end of the vine free. 

The nuts 1 send you were dried in the shade 
expressly for seed. Wc arc keeping over most of 
ours for seed. I have only about one bushel of 
the Carolina, but plenty are to be had of Baker 
it Hamilton, Sacramento city. 

Yours respectfully, J. S. Curtis. 

Note. — We have received the above sample 
bag, and are gratified to hear of the success that 
has attended the first experiment in our State. 
It will be remembered that Dr. Curtis took the 
premium at the State Fair for the first-peanuts 
grown in California. 

Most undoubtedly this nut can be successfully 
grown, for the soil of any of our sandy slopes 
w ill give a large yield. We would call the par- 
ticular attention of our readers to this sample, 
which can be seen at our office, and where the 
nut can bo had. — Ed. 



[For the California Farmer. | 
FARMING IN SIERRA COUNTS'. 
Oak Ranch, Sierra county, Jan. 20, 1B55, 
Messrs. Editors: I receive about ten Cali- 
fornia papers weekly, and being an agriculturist 
in a small way, the Farmer is of more value to 
me than all the others. Every person in this 
State engaged in that pursuit, or its kindreds, 
such as arc treated of in the Farmer, should take 
that paper. They would gain dollars, ten times 
' only docs it contain a mass of most 
valuable practical information, but being wiitten 
in a pleasing and graceful style, it entertains 
while it instructs. 

Mine is a little barren patch up in the most 
rugged and apparently worthless of the Sierras, 
in latitude 41" N. and an altitude of about 5,000 
1 "jve the level of the sea. I raise nearly all 
kinds of garden vegetables, and about twenty-five 
tons of potatoes, on six acres of ground, and sell 
potatoes for 12 cents per pound, cabbage 20 cents 
per pound, turnips 12 cents, beets 16 cents. I 
planted about three-fourths of an acre of corn 
the past season, and had a fine crop ; but as I 
sold nearly all of it when green, I have no 
data by which the amount can be given correctly. 
I allowed some to ripen for seed. 

I send you a copy of my Meteorological Table, 
i. e. so far as the thermometer is concerned. I 
don't suppose it will be of general interest enough 
for an it it may be of some to you. to 

cempare it with other parts of the Slate, and note 
the difference. lours, Ac, 

C. Cooper. 

Note. — We hare pleasure in acknowldging the 
kind letter of our friend above, together wllh the 
tables accompanying the same, which are of value 
and we are grateful for them, and will cheerfully 
| . space for a continosnee of them, confident 
they will afford instruction to our numerous read- 
me shall be happy to hear from our 
esteemed friend often. — K». 



OLD COLONY SWEET CORN 
The editor of the Granite Parmer, who ban 
this superior corn s fair trial, pronounees 
in its faror as follow*: 

We bavs cultivated, the stasaat •saaon. 
a F.vergreen. far .. - 

•■( !•.-. % . Ertra 

.i it ia a good variety, bat 

ootcrfraear *-- ; - '■ "*- Planted 

.- other, it i> in rating 

u Umrsbsc tun' To '- sura, we bav, w •» 

on ttx t»!ne Brat, t-c».i»e we planted it in 

out ganirn too weeks psfbapi btfwt the otbar 

rt h it > eipli a ---■ 

We planted Stewell'stves giw . araeft 



34 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



jriosity as anything. We wished to see if it 
1 keep green forever. We had formed the 
'ii that it was not a first rate table corn. 
: was large and coarse, with not a delicate 
But in this we have been happily disap- 
1. It is a prime table corn; its appearance 
is handsome, the ears arc large with full deep 
grains. We tried it after having eaten sevcra 
meals of Darling's extra early. It was unani- 
mously pronounced the best corn ; it was further 
said, by several who tried it. to be the best sweet 
corn they had ever eaten. We congratulated our- 
selves upon the acquisition, and vowed a spot in 
our garden to it ever after. 

But we had not then tried the Old Colony 
Sweet. This »e tried upon the strength of its 
being the ,; sweetest and best table corn evei cul- 
tivated," and it has fully borne out that reputa- 
tion. We gave it a full trial. It was first cooked 
with some of the Evergreen Sweet. This latter 
was eaten first, and as it had come to be a favor- 
ite corn, it received its due meed of praise. But 
when the Old Colony came on in its turn, there 
was an unanmions exclamation of its superiority. 
The test was a fair one and somewhat extend- 
ed. No hasty conclusion was formed; ear after 
ear was tried, until all at the table were im- 
pressed with the fact that the Old Colony led the 
list. Still the trial has been adjourned from day 
to day. but with no changes in the result. 

Asa table corn, we give the palm to the Old 
Colony. We shall try to save from the grinders. 
which are neither few nor slow, some seed to 
supply our friends if desired. 



vil)c California Jfamter. 



WARREN k SON, EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS. 



SAN FEANCISCO, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1855. 



Stale Breah. — M. Boussingault, the greal 
chemist, says that the common belief of the cause 
of the conversion of new into stale bread is, that 
it gets dry, or. in other words, that it loses water. 
He. however, took a loaf weighing 8 lbs., out of 
the oven, being then, in its interior, at a temper- 
ature of about 207 degrees. This loaf he suspend- 
ed in a room of 61 to 00 degrees, and the loss of 
heat carefully noted. After 25 hours, the tem- 
perature of the bread had sunk to that of the 
room, and the loaf had lost 0.008 per cent, of its 
weight — water of course. It was now half stale, 
and the crust no longer hard. At the end of the 
sixth day, the bread was thoroughly stale, al- 
though it had lost only one ten-thousandth of its 
weight by drying. Boussingault, therefore, re- 
gards staleness in bread as due to a gradual 
change in its molecular condition, and not to a 
loss of water. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

REDUCTION OF PRICE 

The heavy losses upnn the Pfenning interests of the Stale 
the post year, the general depression 01 that interest, and the 
discouragement- resulting to all, we knuiv have prevented 
many who are engaged in Agriculture from subscribing to ou; 
journal the past year. Feeling desirous to meet their wants us 
far as U in our power, we now offer the CALIFORNIA FAR- 
MER at SIX DOLI.A US r£R YE Alt, PA YABLE AL WA YS 
W ADVANCE, 

We trust this effort on our part to meet such circutrstances 
will be met on tne part of those engaged in the cultivation ol" 
the soil with a corresponding feeling, aod that all will do ns 
service by sending in a goodly list of subscribers and the amount 
for the same. We have made the price thus low, that our 
subscribers and friends may at once send us the proof of their 
good will. 

Inducements for the formation of clubs will be found under 
another head. 



Clubs Formed— Premiums to Subscribers. 

With the third Volume, with tlie opening year, we would 
offer to our friends stronger inducements than heretofore to 
makeup CLUHS lor the i-'AHMER. It will be seen by oui 
"special notice," that we ahull commence with areata 
Ms pries of tin " I oritur." The price will now he six dol- 
lars per year, always in advance. No subscriptions re 
ceired unless nce..uiiwiuied by the amount 

To those who are disposed to form CLUBS, when we can 
send all to en, ill Bond SIX COPIES for FIVE 

NAMES, TWELVE for TEN, and TWENTY-FIVE COPIES 
for the names and amount of twenty subscriptions. 

To those, or soy of our friends who will interest themselves, 
we believe this will be some satisfaction, besides promoting the 
cause of Agriculture. We hope to see good results to all from 
this proposition. 

TO ACSKMTS. 

We would ask of our Agents to whom we send the CALI- 
FORNIA FARMER, to communicate with us and to remit hill 
accounts to the close of the year. We shaU send them extra 
numbers for distribution. We call their attention to the Iter 
duaion in prirr of our journal ; this we hope will give satis- 
faction to all, so as to enable our agents to enlarge our lists, 
and also afford an increased reward to I i 

We can offer inducements to Agents in all the large cities as 
Carriers, and to Booksellers and Newspaper Stores also, for 
Papers in quuuuii.-. 

THE CAXAFORNIA PARMER. 

We have many inquiries, daily, from our friends in the coun- 
ts*/, who write us. desirous to make up clubs for the Farmer, 
aod send us produce tor the amount. We always do our ut- 
most to facilitate the cultivator of the soil, and we will assure 
our friends that if they will make up clubs of five, .en or 
.twenty, they tan send their Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, or speci- 
mens of extra quality, and we w ill allow them the full market 
price in the payment of the Farmer, Our friends that are in 
arrears can send u- the amount thus due, and add the coming 
vilume, and we will forward receipts for the same. So send 
a'ong your wlie.it and good products. We do not mean — any- 
thing — but those articles that have a value, and we will take 
them. 

SPECIAL. AGENTS FOR THE FARMER, etc. 
All the messenge-rsoi Adams & Co., and Wells, Fargo At Co. 
are duly authorized by us to receive subscriptions for the Cali 
fobnia Farm par, ninl receipt the bbuic; also, to receive orders 
(or Fruit Trees, Beeda, &c., and any and all business with us. 
All such business committed to either of these messengers will 
be promptly responded to by ne. 

OAKLAND. 

Don friends at Oakland are invited to call on MR. CIIARLE3 
STEWART, and *uu-cribe for the California Farmer; he 
is luthorued to reoelfe subscriptions and we will co- 
ol 1 the farmer in his employment. Wear* willing to receive 
srasfl.', or any valuable products of first qutility 

in paym . as we do wish our Iricuds to enjoy our el" 
eoaven: 



California Agriculture. 

A\ b copy the following from our coternporary 
the Evening Journal, and we rejoice in the hope 
that our daily and weekly journals throughout 
the State are beginning to look at the Agricul- 
tural interest in its true light. We hail this as a 
new and glorious era, when our local journals 
shall be willing to accord to this branch of our 
nation's wealth its high position. We have read 
with pleasure the leader of the Evening Journal, 
and are familiar with the truths: thus expressed. 
for they are but the condensed arguments we 
have been using the entire year ; and our readers 
will readily recognize the various themes touched 
upon. There is no one branch of agriculture or 
its kindred subjects, in this well condensed leader 
of our coternporary, that we have not been urging 
upon our readers the past year, and this fact 
makes it the moro interesting to us, fur we feel 
assured and encouraged to labor on when we see 
a new and increasing interest, and of a character 
that promises permanency. 

"Agriculture is the basis of a nation's wealth," 
and California must so recognize it before- the 
country can be permanently prosperous. Kick 
as arc our mines, of what value are they to Cali- 
fornia without a permanent population of en- 
lightened and cultivated citizens /—without those 
safe-guards to society, law, order, churches, 
and homes? ' Had there been no other resources 
but the mines, what woufn have been the present 
population and condition of California ? We need 
not answer, for its early history is known. Be- 
fore the valuable resources of agriculture were 
known, men lived and toiled for gold only. Gold 
was their god — one object ouly, to accumulate 
and go home; for there appeared no prospect, 
then, of homes in California. Home was far 
away, and men cared not how they lived ; they 
were fast going back to a savage state, both in 
habits and manners ; but when agriculture began 
to be developed, then came the thoughts of home 
and its comforts, and with this came the first 
guarantee of the permanency of the golden State. 
and from that first year of our agricultural labors 
to the present time, a steady, onward progress 
has been made in the arts and sciences — these 
revealing their kindred of manufactures and 
giving a stimulus to commercial and mercantile 
trade. For each and all of these great interests. 
Agriculture is the basis, and when our citizens 
shall unite in earnest for the up-building of our 
State, by establishing the emigrant roads, rail 
roads, and all other means to increase the popu 
lation of our Slate, it will be found that the great 
interest of California is that which converts our 
barren wastes into fruitful gardens; which 
changes our wild prairies into fields of waving 
grain ; and the cattle upon our hills and plains 
will then be esteemed of as much value as the 
gold that lies hidden beneath, lint the theme is 
endless, and we pause and refer to our able co- 
temporary : 

THE AGRICULTURAL INTEREST. 

Tqe history of gold producing countries, in all 
ages, warns us that despite the frequent discover- 
ies of the precious metai, our State can never sup- 
port the position it should in the Union without 
great attention is paid to agriculture. The Span- 
ish El Dorados, to which have been attributed 
the decay of the formerly flourishing institutions 
of Spain and Portugal, were without doubt, des- 
troyed by the want of agricultural communities. 
California must be a farming country. Hitherto 
we have raised, throughout the whole length and 
breadth of a State six times as large as New York, 
hardly bread enough for one-fourth of our people. 
The market of the United States and Chile, have 
supplied us with the Cereal grains, at a price 
which has absorbed nearly the one-half the gold 
taken out in our placers. One of the greatest 
difficulties has been the want of that class of men 
who possess sufficient knowledge and energy to 
adopt the style of farming best adapted to Cali- 
fornia. The heavy soil, changeable seasons, and 
peculiar growth of vegetation of this State, re- 
quire not only intelligent but practical men, suit- 
able to the emergency of the times, to represent 
the agricultural districts. Insecurity of title, ex- 
travagant prices of labor, and want of water dur- 
ing the dry months, have been up to this time, 
the greatest drawbacks our farmers have experi- 
enced. From a careful trial of the qualities of 
the soil, it is certain that both the staples of the 
Northern and Southern sections of the Union, can 
be raised here in perfection. Tuolumne and El 
Dorado counties have produced tobacco pronounc- 
ed by judges, equal to the best growth of the cel- 
ebrated Vuelta Abago of Cuba. Upland cotton 
of superior quality, has been raised on one of our 
Northern Hanchos; the Tulo lands, which are 
property of the State, are without doubt, suscep- 
tible of being cultivated with rice, and through 
the labors of our Chinese population, this crop 



will be produced in sufficient quantity to warrant 
exportation. The Southern counties ol the State, 
to which but little attention has hitherto been 
paid, are well worthy of notice. The vast extent 
of unoccupied land in this region, should induce 
the owners of the soil to encourage immigration. 
Southern California, from Monterey to San Diego, 
may be made a vine-raising country, equal to the 
wine-making portions of France or the valleys of 
Italy. Sheltered by the Coast Kange from the 
winds of the north, possessed of a soil equal in 
fertility to the valley of the Nile, this portion of 
the State lacks only the attention of those skilled 
in the culture of the grape, to become the place 
which shall supply the Atlantic States with their 
Champagne. Burgundy, Madeira and all the light- 
er products of the vintage. Those who hold the 
titles of leagues of productive, yet uncultivated 
land, would do woll to encourage the emigration 
of an industrious agricultural population, both by- 
grants of land and assistance in gifts or n 
and stock. The unprofitable acres, which they 
now possess, under the influence of a thrifty, work- 
ing people, would soon repay them in the increas- 
ed value of the land, for whatever outlay might 
at first be requisite. The want of water during 
the first five or six months of dry weather, which 
is generally experienced through the summer, 
must in a measure be overcome by irrigation 
either from ditches or from artesian wells. The 
great success of the latter in many instances, is an 
assurance that our farmers may depend with cer- 
tainty upon them as a reliable means of irriga 
tion. From the fertility of the soil and the statis- 
tics of the previous yield of land, it is well ascer 
taincd that sixty bushels of grain can be raised 
in California, with the same amount of labor 
which is rebuired to produce twenty-five in the 
Atlantic States. Farming must ultimate); be the 
main stay of California, independent of. or rather 
as consequent upon, the gold discoveries The 
of men needed here must be progressive en- 
ergetic and intelligent; adapting themselves to 
the exigency of the times, the nature of the soil, 
the peculiarities of the climate and the demand of 
the market, With such a people to dcvelope her 
resources, California will soon take her true po- 
sition. 

(Translated from the French lor the California Fanner.] 

Holcus Saccharatus, 

' sucri.) 

BY LOUIS VILMORIK, MEMBER OF THE CENTRAL 8. OF AG. 



An article contained in the " Moniteur Univer- 
sal," of January Hist, by noticing in a very inac- 
curate manner a presentation that I had made to 
the Central Society of Agriculture, during its ses- 
sion of the 18th of January, has prematurely at 
tracted public attention to this plant by attribu 
ting to it — through an error in figures— qualities 
which, did it really possess, would sufficiently ex- 
plain the rapidity with which this article has 
been circulated amongst a large number of journ- 
als. It is in order that these false notions may 
not be further extended, that I am obliged to re- 
turn at once to this plant, of which I had intend- 
ed not to make any fresh, public mention until I 
should have more fully studied it. 

The plant which I presented to the Agricultural 
Society, in the name of one of our correspondents 
— M. Kantonnet, of llyeres, — is called Holcus 
saccharatus. Sorgho .mere. It is known of old 
and in fact, was cultivated in Italy at the com- 
mencement of the present century. But whether 
the process of extraction was not sufficiently well 
known at that period in order to pursue it with 
advantage, or whether the new stock in our pos- 
session be richer, its culture has been abandoned. 
Four years ago, M. de Montigny, French Con- 
sul at Shanghai, China, forwarded to the Geo- 
graphical Society, a collection of various kinds of 
grain, amongst which there was a parcel labelled. 
'• Sugar Cane, from the north of China." This 
seed was largely distributed, by the Geographical 
Society, and this year I had under cultivation a 
small lot of it, which I received from one of my 
correspondents of Champagne, M. Ponsard, of 
Omey. 

This plant is, botanically, identical with the 
IJolcus saccharatus formerly cultivated by L. 
Arduino, and the letter of M. Kantonnct, who 
charged me with its presentation, in his name, to 
the Agricultural Society, put me upon the track 
of the source of this new introduction, which 
must be referred to the packet sent by M, dc 
Montigny. 

The origin of these plants being established, as 
traced to the importation aforesaid, I will proceed 
to give the result of the limited experiments to 
which I subjected them. 

One stalk of it. weighing -151) grammes,* gave 
me on my first experiment, October 13th, lot) 
grammes of a clear limpid juice, without an; fla- 
vor save that of sugared water. The juice obtain- 
ed from the whole .stalk, yielded 10.8 of sugar for 
100 of its own weight. 

' Another experiment, made November the 28th, 
with the saccharimctrc, gave figures varying from 
1 -J.fi to 13.8 of sugar for every LOO. 1 also ascer- 
tained that the proportion of sugar decreased in 



the successive joints of the stalk on going up- 
wards, those of the middle, and below it, being 
the sweetest. 

I had only a few square metres^ of ground plant- 
ed witli our Sorgho, in a garden plot not by any 
means rich, and in the vicinity of trees, which 
must have been detrimental to the development 
of the plants. According to the actual circum- 
stances there were, nevertheless, about twenty 
stalks— of average equal to the one weighed, as 
dbove noticed, and from which the juice or sap 
was extracted,— to the square metre. If theri, we 
adopt that yield as a standard— say I'. kilogram- 
mes} of sap to the square metre, and 30,000 kilo- 
grammes per hectare §— and estimate the sap at 
Hi per 100, it will give 8,000 kilogrammes of su- 
gar to the hectare, which it will be seen is a much 
greater yield than the average of the Sugar Beet. 

Thus, from this first calculation, there appears 
a probability that something advantageous may 
be made of the plant under consideration. But 
doubtless it will require some years more of ex- 
perience before we shall be enabled to pronounce 
its introduction an event in the produce of indus- 
try. At all events, it appears to us that it is' 
more likely to furnish an abundance of Alcohol 
(devoid of unpleasant flavor) than to rival the 
Beet in the production of Sugar. 

'Ibis plant bears the greatest analogy to the 
maize (Indian corn) and may be similarly culti- 
sowing it cither in drills or broad-cast, be- 
tween the loth of April and the end of March. 
Provisionally, on account of the small quantity of 
seed disposable, it might be raised in a nursery- 
plot or in flower pots, to be transplanted in the 
month of May. — Revue Ilorticole, Feb. \st., 1854, 

M Gramme is about 23 English groins, 

1 I French Meti Inches. 

J 1 Kihicraruoic is l.'XNJ rrsmn 

§ 1 Ileeture, or 100 Ares, is about 2 English acres. 

Seeds of the above described plant, have just 
been received at the office of the California 
Farmer, direct front Paris. 

Emigrant Road. 

' We havo received the following Circular from 

the Committee on the Emigrant Koad. which we 

cheerfully lay before our readers, bespeaking for 

it an attentive perusal: 

EMIGRANT ROAD TO CALIFORNIA. 

San Francisco, Deeemher 29th, 1854. 

Dkar Sir: The undersigned, a Special Com- 
mittee of a larger Committee, appointed by a 
Public Meeting of the Citizens of San Francisco, 
in favor of an Emigrant Koad across the Plains, 
between California and the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi, are at present engaged in collecting infor- 
mation and statistics on that subject. 

We invite your friendly co-operation, and re- 
quest you, at your very earliest convenience, to 
furnish written answers, as far as you can, to the 
subjoined "Inquiries," making them as minute 
and full as possible. 

Address " Eugene Casscrly, Adams & Co.'s Ex- 
press San Francisco." 

We are, dear sir, respectfully, 

EUOENE CaSSERLY, 

I. C. Woods, 
John T. Doyle, 

GhOROE B. TlNCiLEY. 

Special Committee, $c. 

INQUIRIES : 

1.— If your have, within the past six years, 
crossed the Plains, to or from California, once or 
oftener, stale by what route, and at what season 
of the year, and what was the average length of 
your trips; and if by different routes, state the 
time of the year, and the length of your trip by 
each route. State, also, through what Pass of 
the Kocky Mountains, or the Sierra Nevada, your 
route lay in each case. 

2. — State, so far as you can, the number of emi- 
grants and the amount of live stock that havo 
come across the Plains by any ol the routes with 
which you arc acquainted, within the past six 
years (including the year 1854.) or in any year 
of the six, and by what route. 

3. — State what rotito has been most traveled 
within your observation, and by what proportion 
of the emigrants in tho respective years above 
mentioned, or any of thcin, and state also which, 
in your judgment, is the most practicable route 
for an easy, expeditious and safe Emigrant Koad, 
between California and the Mississippi Valley. 

4. — State the general character of such most 
practicable route, as to soil, levels, grass, water, 
distance from its eastern toits western terminus, 
and the number and character of the stations, at 
which supplies for men and cattle can be obtained, 
with their locations and distances from each oth- 
er. Give a description of the of the route between 
each of its chief points, with the distance in miles 
as nearly as you can, from point to point. 

5. — State what is necessary ami what first to 
be done to convert such route into an Emigrant 
Koad of the character I, having reference 

especially to digging wells, to bridges or Icrrics 
over streams, &c. Stale what months of the year 
it could be made practicable for travel. 

(i. — If on any considerable portion ol such route 

a want of wood for fuel or building pur- 

i.. state at what points and for what 

length in miles. State if ou such portion the 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



wont of wood can be supplied by adobes or other- 
a i and how the want of fuel is to be supplied. 
7. — Slate your opinion as to the practicability 
of estal 



dishing and continuing along such route, I, ., 
at intervals of say twenty miles, static ,,.,'" 
plies for men and rattle; and in this vicu ite 
the 11*11 .liter and location of the s 



ments listing alo^g the roul 

the poi ' such stations 

i i tnd 01 Mich portion the 

practicability of such stations during the 

■ 

8. — If the route which you regard as the most 
availabl is other than that which i^ mo 

traveled, state fully and particularly your reasons 
for preferring it. 

9. — State the practicability of such a road with- 
out a line of military posts, established by the D. 
Stal nnnient; and if surh a line is, in your 

nt, location of those posts, 

their distances apart from each other, with the 
number of men and the defences requisite for 
each. 

10. — State anything else you can to throw 
light upon this subject, or which has any bearing 
upon it.. Slate fully and particularly. 

Number your answers to the above Inquiries. 
"1," according to the number of 

the Inquiry to which each answer relates. 

We sincerely hope that all those who may 
read the above Circular, and have crossed the 
Plains;, will feel a personal interest and responsi- 
bility in the matter, and cheerfully return early 
answers touching any or all of the subjects refer- 
red to. 

There are thousands of our citizens in various 
parts of the Slate who can render essential service 
to this all-important public enterprise by a nar- 
ration of some of the many interesting details ami 
facts, having adirect bearing upon this subject, of 
their trip from the Valley of the Mississippi to 
California. It is really to be hoped then that all 
such will not neglect doing so at the earlist posi- 
ble moment. Every month, week or day even, 
that action is delayed in regard to measures that 
shall induce an increase to our population, tends 
to retard emigration and will prove disastrous to 
the best interests of the country. 

California demands a large increase in her emi- 
gration to save herself from losses arising from 
the present depressed state of trade. To ensure 
this increase of emigration to our shores, it is the 
duty of every well-wisher of our State to 080 his 
utmost endeavors in forwarding the object of the 
above Circular. H we would add to our popula- 
tion, we must push forward any and every move- 
ment which will aid in cheapening and shorten- 
ing the communication between this and tin- older 
Stales of our Union, The early construction of a 
good stage road across the Plains, is, unquestion- 
ably, one of the surest and readiest methods of aid- 
ing and encouraging the emigration of families 
from the east to our State. Let us then, one and 
all, came forward and lend our aid in hastening 
forward this important enterprise. It is a mat- 
ter in which all air interested, ami consequently 
one that demands the attention and assistance 
of every citizen of California. — Ed. 

Sdrveyoh General's Report. — A copy of 

the Annual Report of the Surveyor General has 
been received from that office. From a cursorary 
glance, wo note many subjects of great interest to 
the people of this Slate; matters that we trust 
will receive the attention of our legislators. 
The report is made to the governor, according 
to (lie net establishing the office, and it is . 
ed all important matters will thence be n 
to the Legislature Our legislators, however, 
having that report in, will al oi. 

what i 1 we hope they will give 

it their earlie I Morlette has 

shown him- lifted fur .he duties ol his 

oftice by his able and w 

tions like tin belong to the 

by the I for : Boundaries, County 

v. Mi\p of thi 
Missouri 1 

Rl 

• re all matters 
of the ndoubtcdly re- 

ceive .! i whom 

they are 

Thk funer« < was 

killed at the 
Sabbath afternoon 
the largest ever witnessed in 

on foot 1? on 
Mr. Murray was 
his h , 
Verba He i .i i ,ii.> ;or». 



John Tabor. 

lizen to 



carrying int.. of our 

hear tl 

and be ready to join in the prayer that ma; 
made fa > tho ,vho may. 

by bein fulhj rro 

as if the full penalty of the law was enforced. We 
are for law. and yet we are for mercy ; and when 

tho hi tory of the unfortunate Tabor, 
connected with the melancholy event which now 
demands his life as atonement, we confess we 
lean to i! if mere; 

By the evidence which has been adduced of his 
character and diposition, there are circumsta 
that demand mercy in the case, and that m n 
we trust will not be invoked in vain. We learn 
that recently, petitions most numerously signed, 
bearing the names of our best citizens, are now 
in preparation to forward to tho executive, and 
from the universal expression of the will of those 
who are best acquainted with all matters apper- 
taining to it, we feel assured that the "still small 
voice" will at last rectify all error, and justice 
will satisfy the law. 



Eastern Papers are Jealous op Califor- 
nia. —It is a curious fact, that we may be amused 
at the gross ignorance that is manifested in the 
old States of our Union relative to our Agricul- 
tural and Mineral resources, as well as the Man- 
ufactures of California. This ignorance may in 
,somo degree be owing to a spirit of jealousy 
towards our Eureka State, lest the truth being 
told, it would tend to tho injury of their State by 
taking from them the population we need. For 
this reason we often see the public papers have 
important articles altered or changed so as to 
meet the views of the intended knowing ones ; 
facts and data are published without crediting 
the sourco whence they came. We have often 
seen articles (bat were taken from our own jour- 
nal without credit, but this we could gladly bear, 
if they would only take more and make known 
the real condition and wealth of our State; we 
think they avoid this, lest, as we said, it should 
encourage emigration to our shores; this they 
want to check, while it is the very thing that 
would benefit both the old and new States equal- 
ly alike. 

Commissioners to Pabis, — We publish with 
pleasure in this number, a communication from 
die Chairman of the Commissioners for the Paris 
Exhibition, to Got. Bigler, and while we i 
to know there is an it manifested 

to have California represented, we most earnestly 
hopo that tin ' ill not send 

mens that shall not be a ere. lit to thl 
mere fact that a long lis' . I ; ward, 

though witli eclat and herald n idely, 

will not advantage California, unless 

■ character to elevate her in the 
■•'. the world. California slami ■ 
world, in her agricultural and mineral 
unequalled, and that position must not be al 
by any representations of persona or th 
the tlreat Exhibitions of Europe. B 

lenled at all than not be represented well, 
and we regret exceedingly that 
made liberal appropriations so that 

ale commensurate with her resources 
and character. 



Ear luvit'AKE — \* e Ira 

T< n 









last « 








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,i,,iu- lrom.1 am. to 3 m. llllli. 
Fnir. 
.1 
Pair; fl am eti , i n we twnrd. 

! ' .'HI 5 AM. to 5 PM. not lli'ln 

In ' ■ - i; cl 

ill '.'mi .Minis. [cloud* I &ln. 

Fair. 
' 

do 
,lo 
do 
Cloudy mill windy 

Fair. 

do 

Rainy, 
Fnir. 

do 

,1,, 

do 

do «nd liigli winds. 

do 

Jo 

do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 

ilo 

do 

,1,. 

do 

Rainy. 
CI, radyi first anow 214 o'clock PM. thei\39° 
Fair. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Cloudy with very high winds. 
Siiiiw'D inclies deep. 
Cloudy ; snowing mid windy. 
Cloudy; enow 37 inches'. 
Cloudy till 19 m. then fair. 
Fnir. 
do 

Rainy. 
Fair. Snow reduced to 25 inches. 
do do do 22Vy inches. 

do do do 21 inches. 

Fair, 
do 
do 

dl, 

do 

,1,, 

Cloudy. Snow lil incl 

Fnir most id" day. 



Ff.ari'1'lStkamiiOat Explosion. — The steam- 
er Pearl of the Combination line, just as 
passed the conflux of the .Sacramento and Ameri- 
can rivers on Saturday last, exploded, and sent 
ilia moment from forty to sixty human 1, 
into eternity. It appears that the Entcrpi i 

iiizen's line, and l'earl were racing from 
Marysville to Sacramen as the lallor 

was Hearing the wharf the boilers burst, result- 
ing as above. Most of the pa 
forward part of the boat, near the 
usual on the lauding of the boa e than 

two-thirds were 

■ Iron n 

with their anus and legs blown off, and other- 
terribly mutilated. The pilot, although 
thrown several feet in the air, escaped wilh little 
injury, and also tii 

rally blown into I 

mailied of th 

and moored alongside of a sioreship at thi 

-i of the killed and Mounded, uninjun 



Maine; 



is. Ma 
II I lie k b 






Ml ..HAM 

features of the times — a feature that mark- 
mutual benefits a 

■owof (treat 



Mud or IJ 



men w 
; total of bo< 






A. Gilman, 



Fai -ray 1 

1 e received it --us parcel of pam- 

phlets and periodicals, foreign and doaaestK. 

Boa. Washington, njoal 
eels and rolumes. 
I From UWr. 

. Ihioaath t) nutc m manger s. 



FROM THE EAST. 

Tin: P. SI. steamship Golden Age 
this port Monday morning. We have 
New York nine days later, and from 
fifteen days later than previous advices. 

I. ill to extend the time of the L T . S Land 
iM mi ill California, has passed both Houses 
of Congress, and will doubtless be approved by 
Presid n( Pii rce. 

'I'he House of Representatives voted down the 
amendment to the post oflice appropriation bill 
to provide lor earning the mails from Indepen- 
dence to San Francisco in coaches. An amend- 
ment for camels was ruled out of order. 

The Congress of the Dominican Republic has 
rejected the Cazneau treaty by a large vote. 

N. B. Weldings, anti-Douglass man. has been 
elected the Dclcgato to Congress from Nebraska, 
by 100 majority Total vote 1,000, 

Hard times press severely on all classes in the 
Eastern States. Meetings are being held in New- 
York for the purpose of aiding the mechanics 
who are out of work. 

It is stated as a certainty that Dr. Bcale has 
received a pardon from the Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, and that he will be set at liberty in a few 
days. Three of the Supremo Judges gave written 
opinions as to tho illegality of the jury. 

The New Legislature of Missouri was organ- 
ized at Jefferson City, Hoc. 28th. No party has 
a majority ; the whigs and anti-Bentons being 
about equal,. and each outnumbering the Benton- 
ians. The whigs helped the anti Bentons elect 
their Clerk, and then the Bentonians helped the 
whigs elect their Speaker. 

The steamboat inspectors of Boston and 
Charlcstown have reported upon tho collision be- 
tween the Canada and the steamer Ocean, in 
Boston harbor. The officers of the Canada are 
acquitted of fill bhtme, and the licenses of the 
captain and pilots of the Ocean are revoked. 

During 1854 there tffrived at New York 15,924 
passengers from California, and 331,809 from for- 
eign ports. 

A large fire occurred at Toronto, Canada, Dec. 
27, in the cabinet manufactory of Jacques & 
Hayes. Loss $200,1100. 

The sloop of war Albany is given up as lost, 
and it is presumed the names of her officers and 
crew will shortly be struck from the roll of the 
navy. Her untimely, fate, calls to mind that of 
the Hornet, which undoubtedly foundered during 
one of those desolating gales that so frequently 
sweep the Carribbean Sea. 

FROM EUROPE. 
Accounts from the Crimea to 13th December, 

say that the siege operations seem to have made 
but little way, and the stati forced inactivity 
to which the besiegers were reduced by the ex- 
haustion of their previa ins-to have 
'urncd to account by the Russians, in the 
further strengthening of their ii, The re- 
ig oil' of their supplies of am-. 
munition arc belied by the fact that from the 23d 

iibcr, during 
which they made a of vigorous sorties, 

the firing from their batteri <i>i upalmost 

Hilly. The Grand Duke Michael was ou- 
traging by hi the ef- 
forts of tin- Supplies of provisions 
,u the town. From 
the preparations made for arming some of tho 
i the harbor, it was thought 
that they were about to put to sea with a view 
i he allies; and in 
tatedtbat they arc again ven- 
turing out of their ports in that quarter. 

icha was alwut departing for the 

forty vessels by a 
hurrie.ii 

In England, a bill to enlist German mercena- 
ries has passed in ih i .y majority of 38. 

Horse Tbi it.— Two scoundrels by 

to the 

.bath, while Mr. John Kelsey, 

was attending church, that they 

- valuable horse to better advantage 

be could, and r drove him 

were caught 

possession, 

nd conveyed to jai - ion on 

'ucsday. Since writing the above we learn that 

party of men from the I. n yesterday 

i morning about 5 o'clock, took 

n near the 

. •■. Parker made a confession 

tk land, and 

Jter wum-ssing tl. 

—The proprie .rriert 

r late East- 

' t their Store, 77 

,.• Eastern 

the day. 

.hernia 
led most of Ik* 



and popular ::._,. 



Rain 
commenced i ■ 
time op to Wedneada 



', -■.•ii. , 
per ted. 



Marshal of Oakland 
ry an oM aeqoaintaace 
Lge. 



lit on of salt — 

i 
or good -•"■■ 
at, but tbey an only 



str 

ith th* 
■■tatt- 
ed >u'. 

■ 

. - a 



»f 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



rtintlttiral $lfj}artmnit. 



[For the California Farmer.] 

Culture of the Raspberry Plant. 

Madrono Ranch, Napa, Jan. 15th, 1855. 
Messrs. Editors : Judging from the tone of 
your paper your readiness to impart information 
whenever desired on the subject of agriculture 
and horticulture, and your ability so to do, I take 
the liberty to address you a few lines in the style 
of an inquirer. Although I have a nay of my 
own, I always seek to know the best. 

Now what I want to know is, what is the best 
mode of treatment of Raspberry Plants 1 I have 
some 500 Oregon plants that were set last year* 
They did not bear any fruit — were trained up to 
stikes four feet high, three shoots to a stake 
this is their present condition. Now is it best to 
cut the shoots down to the ground and train up 
three or more new ones, or let the old ones remain? 
The plants are very strong and thrifty, and some 
of the shoots are nine feet in length. 

I also wish information on planting the grape 
vine— I mean the distance the rows ought to be 
set apart, and also the space necessary between 
each plant in the row. It rather takes me aback 
(to use a nautical phrase) the way they train 
grape vines in this State, The general mode here 
is to let the vines take a regular stampede on the 
ground instead of training to stakes or treliscs. I 
was always taught to believe that the grape re- 
quired a plenty of sun and air ; but possibly they 
have too much of a good thing in this country 
unless they are allowed to lay upon the ground, 
as alluded to. « 

I may trouble your patience again at some 
future time, but no more at present. 
Yours truly, 

A Constant Reader. 



In answer to our correspondent, we would re- 
mind him that the raspberry being biennial in 
part, i. e., the growth of one year only bearing 
the next, all old shoots should be cut away every 
spring and the new shoots pruned and straitened, 
and the main vine, in this country headed in to 
three or four feet, according to size — all small 
laterals cut off close, and the strong side shoots 
pruned in short. 

In order to secure a full crop of fruit, the earth 
should be. enriched, well and finely dug with a 
spade, and highly cultivated during the entire 
season. 

Plants of the raspberry should be grown about 
four feet apart, and strong stakes given to each to 
support the main stock. Two or three vines to a 
hill is an abundance — all over this, remove. 

For the cultivation of the grape, if our corres- 
pondent is "a constant reader 1 ' of the Farmer, 
he will find our opinion of the best mode of cul- 
tivation in recent numbers, to which we refer 
him. — Ed. 

The Concord Grape. 
No horticultural production has excited a 
greater interest of late years among pomologists. 
than this new seedling grape. Its hardiness, pro- 
ductiveness, large size, and reputed earliness of 
ripening, — nearly a month before the Isabella, — 
have given it very strong claims, at least for a 
thorough trial. 

In consequence of the repeated inquiries which 
have been made of us as to its quality, we recently 
made application for a specimen of the fruit, and 
have been politely furnished by E. W, Bull, its 
originator, with a box of beautiful bunches, which 
came in fine condition, notwithstanding a railway 
ride of several hundred miles. 

Although the largest bunches had been previ- 
ously selected for the different horticultural exhi- 
bitions, and the drouth of the season had sensibly 
affected their growth, these n^ere the most showy 
of any native grape we have met with. The ber- 
ries measured about throe fourth of an inch in di- 
ameter, and were almost perfect spheres; the 
bunches were nearly as large as the one already 
figured in the horticultural journals, sufficiently 
compact, and handsomely shouldered, — nearly re- 
sembling a well ripened bunch of the Black Ham- 
burgh externally. We have been informed by 
some of our cautious friends, that they had seen 
bunches at the exhibitions this season, that were 
decidedly larger than the figured representation. 

The dense bloom which covers the berries, adds 
much to the showy appearance of this grape. 

Of the quality and flavor, we cannot speak so 
highly. We consider it as rather inferior to the 
Isabella, so far as we could judge from specimens 
conveyed a long distance in a close box. The 
skin is remarkably thin and tender, and the exte- 
rior portion of the berry more juicy and freer of 
pulp than the Isabella, but the central portion or 
core holding the seeds, is larger than in the Isa- 
bella. Diana, and most other American sorts. The 
flavor is good, but not of the highest quality. Of 
the time of ripening, we cannot judge of course, 
although it is reputed to be much earlier than 
even the Diana. 

As to the real merits of this variety, we are in- 
clined to consider it a valuable acquisition, al- 
though esteem fine flavor when placed against 
fine appearance, much more highly than many 



pomologists. As a hardy vine, and an early, large 
and showy fruit for market, we shall not probably 
find anything to compete at the north with the 
Concord grape ; but those who desire a sweet, 
delicately flavored variety, for home use, without 
regard to size, appearance, or productiveness will 
choose the Diana; which is only about one fourth 
the size of the Concord, in berry and bunch. — N. 
Y. Cultivator. 



Double Flowers. 

The London Horticultural Cabinet of 1847, as 
quoted in Hovey's Magazine, says that merely 
planting the •fresh seeds of double flowers, does 
not at all insure double flowers again, nor even 
increase the liability over any other seed similar- 
ly used. But that, to obtain them, the seed must 
be kept several years, or the extreme verge of 
vitality, when their vegetating power or vital 
force has become nearly expended, and that thjs 
will result in those imperfect or unnatural pro- 
ductions known as double flowers. In the words 
of the article alluded to, — 

: ' If, after having gathered the seeds of malco- 
mia annua, or ten-weeks' stock, we sow them im- 
mediately afterwards, the greatest number of the 
seedlings will produce single flowers, whilst, on 
the contrary, if we preserve these same seeds for 
three or four years, and then sow them, we shall 
find double flowers upon nearly every one of the 
plants. To explain this phenomenon, we say that 
in keepii g a seed for several years, we fatigue it 
and weaken it. Then, when we place it in a suit- 
able soil, we change its natural state, and from a 
wild plant we make it a cultivated one. What 
proves our position is, that plants, in a wild state, 
shedding their seeds naturally, and sowing them 
as soon as they fall to the ground, yet in a long 
succession of time scarcely ever produce plants 
with double flowers. We think then, after what 
we have said, that whenever a gardener wishes to 
obtain double flowers, he ought not to sow the 
seeds till after having kept them for as long a pe- 
riod as possible. 

This practice ought to be observed with all 
plants that we wish should produce double flowers', 
for all varieties of the brompton stocks, ten-week 
stocks, and others of the same kind, there is no 
doubt that to flower them well, they should be 
sown in autumn, in well-worked soil, and taken 
up when the cold weather comes, and kept under 
a frame during the winter. In the spring, they 
may be planted out again, when they will flower 
magnificently, and yield an abundant harvest of 
seeds. If you have not a frame at your disposal, 
you may obtain the same result, by sowing the 
seeds at the end of February, under a south wall, 
for example. 

The principles that we have admitted above are 
just as applicable to melons, and all plants of that 
family. VVe admit, like many other observers, 
that melon plants obtained from seeds the preced- 
ing year ought to produce, and do produce, reall3' 
vigorous shoots, with much foliage ; but very few 
fruitful flowers appear on such plants; whilst, on 
the other hand, when we sow old seeds, we obtain 
an abundance of very large fruit. In fact, in all 
varieties of the melon the seeds should always be 
kept from three to eight years, before being sown, 
if we would obtain fine fruit, and plenty of it." 

Can any of our skillful and observant gardeners 
vouch for the truth of this statement? It would 
be an easy thing to give it a fair trial. If true 
with regard to melons and cucumbers, it ought to 
be known more widely, ami it may be easily prov- 
ed by trying the experiment with a few repeti- 
tions with old and new seeds, planted in equal 
quantities and under similar circumstances in all 
respects. — Country Gentleman. 

Live Braces for Fruit Trees. — In the 
weekly Journal of the 10th inst., we published, 
(says the Louisville Journal.) the method practic- 
ed by Mr. Elihu Cross, of Hoosick, N. Y., for pre- 
venting forked fruit trees from splitting under the 
weight of fruit. The brace of Mr. Cross is form- 
ed by uniting a small branch from each of the two 
main limbs he wished to support, very much after 
the method adopted by gardeners in what is call- 
ed, grafting by approach. 

Mr. Isaac Lewis, of Hopkinsville, Kentucky, 
has since given us his plan, which is more simple 
if not quite so scientific, and may be performed by 
any one, 

•• My plan," writes Mr. Lewis, " which I have 
followed for thirty years, is this; when I find a 
forked tree that is likely to split, I look for a small 
limb on each fork, and clean them of leaves and 
lateral branches, for the most of their length. I 
then carefully bring them together and wind 
them around each other from one main branch to 
the other. In twelve months they will have uni- 
ted, and in two years the ends can be cut ofl". 
This brace will grow as fast as any other part of 
the tree and is a perfect security from splitting. 
I have them now of all sizes, and I scarcely ever 
knew one to fail to grow." 

Mr. Lewis has our thanks for his suggestions. 
We are always glad to receive from our subscri- 
bers any facts calculated to promote the science 
of horticulture, agriculture, or the mechanic arts. 

One or two gentleman recently conversing 
about the Natural Bridge of Virginia, remarked 
that there was an extraordinary incident con- 
nected with it, for that General Washington once 
threw a doljar completely over it, an achievement 
which has not been performed since. " No won- 
der," rcpl ied his companion, " for a dollar in those 
day* could be made to go a great deal farther 
than at the present time." 

Wuen ill news comes too late to be .serviceable 
to your neighbor, keep it to yourself.— Zimmer- 
man. 



fltable (Extracts. 



Nomenclature of Fowls. 

The principle on which poultry nomenclature 
is founded is mainly that of their original geo- 
graphical dispersion. In several classes this is 
sufficiently authenticated ; but in others from the 
little attention, in former days, bestowed upon the 
subject, and the difficulty of recognizing present 
rates iri the usually vague and indistinct accounts 
of the few early writers on this branch of natural 
history, great uncertainty necessarily prevails. 
Malays, and other Asiatic fowls, Bantams ami 
Shanghnes, we are enabled to trace satisfactorily 
from their primitive habits; hence, indeed, our 
often expressed unwillingless to accept the errone- 
ous designation of " Cochin-China," a district 
from which few, if any, specimens of the last- 
named fowls appear to have been derived, while 
Shanghae is clearly the head -quarters of the 
breed. The same reasoning sanctions the employ- 
ment of the term Dorking to the five-clawed 
fowls that had their origin in the districts around 
that town, or were at least, those first brought 
into genoral reputation. Hamburghs, again, in 
the " Pancillcd " variety, are fairly referable to 
that locality, though far, we must acknowledge, 
from being so exclusively ; more especially in re- 
cent years, when our main supply has been re- 
eived from Holland, The "Spangled" Ham- 
burghs however, are justified in claiming that title 
solely from certain features common to them with 
the pencilled birds. But, at the same time, the 
various synonymes that arc suggested in lieu of 
their present generally received designation, aro 
all and each of them, open to equal, if not greater. 
objections than that they now bear. Regarded 
in this light, the Polish fowl has a still worse 
case, and the principle of an original geographical 
position, is here unsupported by any trustworthy 
evidence. If usage, therefore, be considered as 
insufficient authority fertile name they now bear, 
we must confess our inability to afford any clue 
to a better designation founded on the same 
ground. So that, if we depart from the present 
system, to style them simply " tufted fowls," 
seems the only alternative left to us. 

Game fowls were emphatically called, by no 
less an authority than Buft'on, the celebrated 
French naturalist, the English fowl, and, indeed, 
if an uniform geographical system be insisted on 
we do not see how they could be better described, 
although the derivation would here proceed from 
the circumstance of their having been brought to 
the highest state of perfection, not from having 
been the aboriginal fowl in this country. 

Lastly, as respects Spanish, the type of that 
breed is pre-eminent in Spain, though common. 
in a greater or less degree, throughout various re- 
gions on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. 

The various alleged distinct breeds that make 
appearance in the "miscellaneous" class, may, 
for tho present, be omitted in the inquiry now 
before us. Those already mentioned arc, confes- 
sedly, the great divisions of the species ; and if 
we are not mistaken, the remainder, Silk fowls. 
and one or two others, at the utmost, alone ex- 
cepted, it will be difficult to make out their claim 
to any distinct and separate origin. 

Polish and the Spangled Hamburghs arc, there- 
fore, the cases where the principle of geographical 
disposition fails to warrant the names of our 
fowls. Many and labored have been the efforts 
to assign the primitive abode of the former ; but, 
however plausible and ingenious, none have hith- 
erto carried conviction to our own mind; and a 
majority of those who have turned their thoughts 
to the same subject are probably of the like opin- 
ion. But the main object of any namo applied to 
any object, animate or inanimate, is to specify and 
distinguish it from others; if, indeed, the name 
so given has a manifest tendency to mislead to 
important erroneous conclusions, a grave objection 
is at once evident, and proof of a more accurate 
designation should at once cause the disuse of the 
misnomer. But as before stated, unless we sub- 
stitute 'tufted fowls" for Polish, and, perhaps, 
" rose-combed, spangled fowls," for the present 
Spangled Hamburghs, we sec no solutiou for our 
difficulty ; and if this be done, geographical dispo- 
sition ceases to be our guide. 

An accurate designation of a specios, either ani- 
mate or inanimate, has frequently been unattain- 
able till after many changes and revisions. Bot- 
any, and other sciences, afford us many instances 
of such alterations ; we need not, therefore, be 
surprised if the l; nomenclature of fowls," a subject 
on which general attention has only so recently 
been bestowed, should as yet labor under the 
same difficulty. 

Efforts, however have been made of late to re- 
duce the previously confused and contradictory 
system to some degree of order, and the assent of 
an overwhelmingmajorityof Poultry Societies, has 
been accorded to the classification promulgated at 
Birmingham. Nor do we see how any better ex- 
ample could have been followed. 

Our decided impression, from all that has been 
advanced on the subject, points to the retention 
of the present system, founded on geographical 
disposition as the basis for the nomenclature of 
fowls; some modifications, it is true, may he de- 
sirable, ami in certain cases, the eviden :e may not 
be altogether satisfactory as to tho original local- 
ity. We look around, however, in vain for any 
other better principles of classification, and, furth- 
ermore, confidently anticipate that the care that 
is now being bestowed on the points of merit of 
the different breeds, will also conduce to the most 
correct nomenclature, for which authorities may 
bo attainable. — London Cottage Gard. 



The friendships of the world arc oft confeder- 
acies in vice, or leagues of pleasure. 



Commissioners to the Exhibition at Paris. 

The following letter, addressed to Gov. Bigler. 
will show that the Commissioners have been in- 
dustrious in obtaining specimens of the various 
products of California, to be forwarded to the Ex- 
hibition at Paris. It appears to us that the Com- 
missioners have pursued the proper course. The 
plan they have adopted, if fully carried into effect, 
will do more to give the people of Europe a cor- 
rect impression of the vast resources of our Stale, 
than volume upon volume of books of travel : 

San Francisco, 1-t mo., 18,h, 1855. 

Respected Friend: The Commissioners for 
the Paris Exhibition, notice that a Hill has been 
introduced to the Legislature, authorizing the 
appointment of an indefinite number of persons 
to attend that Exhibition, &c. They beg leave 
to call thy attention to the fact that the duty of 
Commissioners appointed to attend the World's 
Fair, is to aid the managers in classifying the pro- 
ducts lrom their section, as well as to attend in 
general to the interests of the country they repre- 
sent ; and that not only would two or three be 
amply sufficient, but a larger number might only 
confuse and embarrass. They also suggest, with 
deference, that advantage might result from com- 
municating with them before making any ap- 
pointments. 

The Commissioners are desirous further, to 
apprize thee of what they have done : — 

First — They have obtained from the news- 
papers the gratuitous publication of advertise- 
ments, i;c. 

Second — They have forwarded to Paris a list 
of the contributors already known, and the pro- 
ducts to be exhibited, embracing agricultural and 
horticultural products illustrating tho soil and 
climate, a large variety of mineral specimens of 
great value, and daguerreotype views of the prin- 
cipal buildings, cities and mining districts. 

One of the Commissioners, M. Antoine, |bas 
made arrangements to visit some of the mines 
and obtain daguerreotype sketches, at his own 
expense, for this purpose. He also intends wait- 
ing on thee in the course of the coming week, to 
exhibit some of the most valuable mineral speci- 
mens intended to be sent. 

The principal obstacle to a better show of the 
capacities of our country, consists in the heavy 
expense of transportation, and tho great cost of 
almost everything in California. The expenses 
of the Commissioners, as yet, have been but 
trifling, and they are entirely willing to bear 
them. But they cannot do justice to the State, 
by presenting a proper illustration of her vast 
resources, without incurring liabilities beyond a 
reasonable limit. Perhaps the Governor would 
think well of recommending a small appropriation 
for tho purpose. The rival Gold Field of Aus- 
tralia has appropriated $25,000, in order " to 
make a creditable show." 

With great respect, I subscribe myself thy 
friend, II. G1BI50NS, 

Chairman of Commissioners, &c. 

To Jxo. Bigler. Governor State of California. 



Benefit of Railroads to Farmers. — We 
find in the report of the Michigan Central Kail- . 
road for 1853, the following list of farm products 
carried upon that road last year : 



Apples, hh]s 25,012" 

Barley, bush 21,42(1 

Beans, baah 1,064 



Grass and clov. seed, 

tons 

Suit, bbls. 



Bran, dec., tons 1,091) Won), tons 



Beef, bbls 6,872 

Butter, tons 206 

Pork, hill- 11,613 

Pork, in hnds, tons 2,104 



\Vh at, bush SH7.707 Oaf, hush. 



394 

13,936 

593 

4,0ia 

1,045 

391 

224 

115,295 
2,613 

212 

584 

12,432 

Lumber, font 12,377,534 



Cntilo, alive 

Garden root*, tons. 

Hams, &e., tons 

Hides, tuns 



1'lnstcr, tuns.... 
Pelts, >fcc., tons. 




lib. 



Cini, bush 2C0,0:il 

US 

Cranberries, bote 

Dried fruh\ tons 

Flour, 1,1,1-, 416,663 

At a rough estimate this would make upwards 
of 80,000 such loads as a common road wagon in 
Michigan usually takes to market, drawn by two 
horses, at an average, going and coining, of 
twenty-five miles it day, and would probably 
average six days for each load ; say four hundred 
ami eighty thousand days, or the labor of one 
thousand three hundred and fifteen men and 
teams every day for ono year, to say nothing of 
back loads and transporation of live stock. — 
Louisville Journal. 



Potatoes in Haste. — A very nice little dish 
may be made of cold boiled potatoes in a very 
few minutes. Having pealed, cut them in slices, 
half an inch tick, put them in a stew pan, pour 
boiling water over them ; cover the stew pan, 
and set it over the fire for ten minutes ; then drain 
off all the water, add a small bit of butter, shake 
pepper over, and serve hot. Or, having cut the 
potatoes in slices, put them in a stew pan, cover 
them with milk ; cover the stew pan and set it 
over the fire for five minutes. Work a large tca- 
spoonfull of butter with a small one of flour, and 
put it to the potatoes ; shake a little pepper over, 
and add a little parsley, cut fine, if liked. Cover 
the stew pan for ten minutes, then turn tho pota- 
toes into a deep dish. Potatoes may bo pared 
and cut into slices and boiled in water, with a lit- 
tle salt, for twenty minutes, then served with but- 
ter and pepper over ; or work a teasp0onfb.ll of 
flour with a small bit of butter, and put it to the 
potatoes a few minutes before they are done; then 
shake a little pepper over, and serve. 

What is fame to a heart yearning for affection 
ami finding it not? It is like the victor's wreath 
to him who is parched with fever, and longing 
for the one cooling draught — the cup of cola 
water. 



He who loves to that degree that he wishes ho 
were able to lovo a thousand times more than ho 
docs, yields in love to none but to him who lovos 
mbro than he would wish. — Jiruyere. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



37 



P i a c f 1 1 it n u . 



BITHUT KJIOW "TIIR AWDBS." 

M'l'DLISHFD POEM, IV C. W. B. 
NO. V. 

Antral 

J-lCAp, 

Numb oimI impasMve, *ave when wino** career 
Id cloudy chariots, wnkina tremulous 
Echoe- : r, or thunders 

Break t: i Irosen sleep. 

Hi* lire ii 

Thalic r aged crags 

To greet their low : 

And wl:. ill is n'er them wav'it, 

i : aai reel i in tbelri ■ leap 

Moveltta, aud voicele**, to preci] 

i unts these lofty palace*. 
Nor Flora, with Iter gut*, dare hrre in: mi dta 
The pine tree, crowns the Appcnine and Alp*, 
And llchem rlinit, to summits, where these die — 
But here! what that hiith vitality can live? 
For lowcrl »|y tiiyli, 

in-, gnze serenely down 
rjponftn in nit, hut death! 

And yet that realm is heitutitul I the snow 
Untrodden and unstnin'il, spread o'er all, 
Concessit d lormity, and jagged 

Pinnacle* appear, like nun bio monsters, 
Smoothly chiseled, by mi artist's hand. 
Thousands of winter*, here have sbed their snows, 
That stumpers sun, in vain, baa shone upon ; 
The Ice of aj:e*, gathered and grown old, 
Unmovtd, till rucks beneath, wearied, have fallen 
Down, startling the vnljeys — or earthquakes 
Shook the thundering avalanche Irom its 
Native precipice. 

The lightnincs strike nnd shatter flinty rocka 
Which — falling in the embrace of enowe — lie 
Buried till the sun'a summer raye blaze down. 
And with alternate frosts, from glaciers — 
These, when the/inomitain's tremble, or by weight 
Enormous, gravitating to the centre, 
Fall, and in valleys strew their freight of rocka — 
Or islands, and beneath a distant sea, 
Remote from regiune, where they bad their birth. 
The thousand winged winds, thut sweep the ocean, 
Fan them in summer, and when winter reigns, 
Rush like wave* ofthe vexed deep, against 
Their rocky sides, dashing misty clouds like spray : 
An Clouds, tlint, like the trailing wavOB of some 
Vast spirit, sweep silently along, arc torn 
Against thejdgged crags, and the mad winds 
Bear away the fragments on their giant wings. 
And health dwell- within their crystal palaces: 
Nor sick gale, puieon'd by the charnol breath 
Of pestilence, ne'er visits tlieir icy halls: 
Nor scared are their solitudes, as cities, 
By groans of dying linn ; the air is still, 
And cold, as though 'twere tluid glass. 
For belnw, me dusky mantled heights 
That loom like phantoms, In their shrouds of mist 

And Ihrther down, ore ravines, and gorges. 
Whose deep teriilie gloomj no sunny ray 
Hasc'ur lit-, where, on their bed of rock, 
Whitening the bones of perished men, and beasts, 
As m Golgotha ileo li stb urestrown. 
From unseen duuenee, oft come voices up, 
Of Muleteers, borne upon the sighing wind : 
And muffled music — strange, and spirit-like — 
Struck from eternal reeks, where fall and crush 
The torrents ; mid where the spray that forms, 
Falls in the flushing Sunlight, like fragments 
Iris-hued, of a heaven-born bowl 



lecture of Hon. Thoniaa H. Benton on the 
Pacific Railroad. 

The fifth of tbe series of lectures before the 
Mercantile Library Association, was delivered in 
the Trement Temple, l>y th,e Hon. Thomas II. 
Benton, of Missouri. The doors of the building 
were thrown open at half-past six o'clock, and 
tbe hall was speedily crowded to overflowing by 
gentlemen and Indies assembled to listen to the 
words of the illustrious statesman. The seats in 
the body of the house, in the galleries, and upon 
the stage, wore Riled with human beings, and the 
aisles were thronged with people — including some 
ladies — in a standing position. 

i in the platform, immediately in the rear of 
the speaker, were seated, among other gentlemen 
Of distinction, the venerable Josiah Quincy, 
Hon. Abboit Lawrence, Hon. Kobt. 0. Winthrop. 
Governor Washburn. Lieut. Got. Plunkett, Judge' 
Sha-.v. Judge Wildes, Mayor Smith, our tie 
elect, Henry -I. Gardner, Win. M Sturgis. and 
Richard 11. Dana, .lr. Among the gentlemen 
occupying the is in the body of the hall. 

•urrenortci i nor Boutwcll, 

Hon. llcnrv Wilson, nnd the Hon. Marshall P. 
'Wilder. 

Col. Benton was received, upon entering, with 
repealed cheers and shouts of applause. After 
some preliminary remarks, hv entered upoi 
subject which he had chosen for bis 
the ,, bjecl which few men a 

bablj better 

profit to his nan himself. I 

country bt 

physical get mil its adaplati 

inent, cult' 
railroad to the 

published » sumni i 

lectura. as printed m 

now take pleasure in lat W °i r 

our readers. 

inel Benton said that the whole ofthe vast and pram 
ing Ulttwit the wt - 
Missouri :,'i.:. - In I ,' ■ I ' 



two States, of over fifty thousand square miles 
each. A ion of tl ky Mountains, em- 

bracing the Three Parks, and taking in the head 
waters of the .South Platte Arkansas, Mel Norte 
and other ri\ would make the third, which 
would r itairi ty thousand miles. The valley 
of the upper Colorado, from the western base of 
Mountains to the western base of the 
Wahsatch and Anterria ranges, two hundred 
miles square, would form tbe fourth State, and 
the fifth would com] ri ■ ill the remainder of Utah 
from the Wahsatch to California. 
' .Speaking of the adaptation of theso proposed 
States to the construction of a railroad, Colonel 
Benton then said In- w ould hi gin with a descrip- 
tion of the Territory of Kansas. The length of 
this territory was three limes its breadth, and it 
was conveniently divisible into two States by a 
line half way to the mountains, which form its 
present western boundary. In case of its divis- 
ion into two Slates, the first would have upon its 
north side the Kansas river, and its four long 
branches extending parallel to each other east 
and west, and making after their junction two 
hundred miles of steamboat navigation before 
their united waters reach the Missouri river. The 
land drained by these streams is termed the val- 
ley of the Kansas, and is well diversified with 
wood and prairie, abundantly watered by springs 
and streams, and its bosom is filled with building 
stone, coal and iron of excellent quality. Fre- 
mont says that this section of the country might 
be made one rich continuous cornfield, two hun- 
dred miles in length. The southern section of the 
first proposed State would include the wholo body 
ofthe Arkansas river, a twin sister of the Kansas, 
flowing parallel with it and no high grounds be- 
tween them. It has tributaries on each side af- 
fording lines of wood and water. On the south 
is the Salt Fork of the Arkansas, with its salt 
plains of rock salt, rendering the water of the 
main river nndrinkable in the dry season. All of 
this country is fertile. The centre of the pro- 
posed State, between the two sides above describ- 
ed, is a rich expanded prairie, well watered and 
enlivened at the proper season with herds of 
countless buffaloes. It is a great pastoral region. 
The grass is remarkably nutritious. Coal may 
be easily procured, and trees will grow when the 
annual devastating fires arc stopped. 

Mr. Benton then proceeded to describe the 
second proposed State, including the western half 
ofthe present Territory of Kansas. The northern 
side of it, he said, was admirably adapted to agri- 
cultural purposes, and would support a largo 
population. But the valley of tne Upper Arkan- 
sas on the southern side would form its great 
strength. This section of the country is well 
adapted to the cultivation of the vegetables and 
grains common to the latitude. Numerous rich 
minor valleys open into the chief valley of the 
river, and the climate throughout this elevated 
and mountainous region is very mild, and the 
winters pass off with scarcely any snow. In 
some sections, cattle are left in the range the win- 
ter through. The country boidering on the sides 
of the mountains and the valleys in their I 
ses, are unequalled in loveliness and richtn 
vegetation, and offer every inducement as homes 
for the settler. Both of these prop 
East and West Kansas, will probabl 
with unexampled rapidity. The agricultural and 
pastoral attractions, the pre-emption law. and the 
political advantages which hai n them, 

will combine to draw- settlers, and even tin 
petition for excess of settlers between the slnve 
nnd free States will have a good effect in tilling 
it with people. And lastly, the Pacific railroad, 
for the construction of which the geographical 
position and features of k facility, 

and which she will certainly build, will have a 
great effect in i "on. 

The third ' would em- 

brace a mountain" I miles 

in extreme length, north and south. It would 
include htfully 

warm, beautiful ai 
them of thin 

ty, and all well sheltered 
of surrounding mountains. Bulla 
antcluj dem- 

also an endless labyrinth of little valleys 
and basins, abounding in cool water and sweet 



country the moat Ta 
nine, ant 
ground, w 
the Rocky Mountaias- 

country. 

remember how t 

Ground." bora : 



i hunt the 



hat ne 



tho construction and maintenance of the railroad, 
and arc solid foundations on which to build the 
future prosperity ol the rapidly increasing State. 
The part thioiigh which the railroad will pase 
when built is rich in vegetation, though many of 
the mountain peaks arc always white with snow. 
The more northern region, though not so fertile, 
is sufficiently so to give assurance that the State 
will be as populous and rich as any publie inter- 
est could require. 

Mr. Benton remarked, after concluding his de- 
scription of the five States which he had pro- 
posed, that he bail said enough to show that they 
were well adapted to settlement and cultivation, 
and he would next proceed to demonstrate that 
they were as well suited to tho construction of a 
railway. In the first place, his route was a direct 
route. " When Fremont traveled through the 
country in the winter of 1853-4, his course did not 
at any time vary between the parallels of 38 and 
39, until he got beyond the Great Salt Lake, 
when he made a slight deflection to the south 
and entered California. In this journey he found 
no snow on the Kansas and upper Arkansas 
rivers, but little near the eastern base of the 
Rocky Mountains, and west of them scarcely any. 
In the Anterria, Wahsatch and Sierra Nevada 
ranges, the passes were all free — there being 
sometimes several incl.es of snow on the ground, 
and sometimes none at all. And these facts dis- 
pose ofthe objections of snow on the route which 
have proved so forcible in tho imaginations of 
many individuals. 

• Smoothness of ground is the next consideration 
for a railroad, and here Fremont found the reality 
to far exceed his expectations. The Huerfano 
river, from one of its head springs in the pass of 
tho Sierra Blanca, has not a fall in its whole 
course to the ocean — a distance of seven hundred 
miles. The other side of the route is also very 
level — sufficiently so for all purposes, and the 
passes in the mountain ranges are so numerous 
that the only difficulty arising on that score, 
would be as to which one to choose. Though a 
great elevation would be attained by the road, the 
length of the line would be such that the ascent 
would be almost imperceptible. 

Another advantage of the central route is, that 
the railroad would have to cross no rivers of im- 
portance, all the large streams running parallel 
with it. 

As this country possesses all the resources ne- 
cessary for the construction and maintenance of a 
road, Col. Benton had no doubt that it would soon 
be made by individual enterprise. The tempta- 
tion was irresistablo to reach the golden Califor- 
nia, and connect Europe and Asia through Amer- 
ica. Settlements would promote the road ; the 
road would aggrandize settlements, and soon 
there would be a lino across to tbe Pacific of 
towns, cities, villages and farms. One-half of the 
road on this side of the Mississippi is already 
completed, and branches, diverging from the main 
track, spread fan-like over all sections of the east- 
ern tinted States. It is in shape a fan, complete 
ry respect but the handle, and that must 
ere long he attached to it by the action of our 
enterprising people. Although he, the lecturer, 
had lived to an age beyond that allotted to the 
psalmist as the age of man, yet, barring accidents, 
he hoped and expected to live until that great 
work was accomplished. 

Col I that the construction of this 
great railroad was an object to tho advancement 
of which he had devoted all his powers, and he 
wished the solid men of Boston, to assist him. 
He did not want their money, but merely their 
countenance and good will. He wished them to 
ler well the subject which he had placed be- 
fore them, and to lend him their influence by 
r names to a petition to Congn 
re occupied about two hours and a 
quarter in il to with 

deep it iugh the audience in the distant 
f the hall were unable to catch all the 
iker. It abounded in incident 
et, and his 
m re generally greeted with applause. 
■ al. 

Tub Bcllet that Killed (its. Wahbeh. — 



cCaiiies' Deprtment 



Fanny Fern. 

We should be glad to give the ti 
this authoress. But she prefers still to tin 

her incognito, and a proper deference for tho ob- 
ligations of courtesy (which are as binding in lit- 
erary as in social life) forbids our doing what 
would otherwise be an equal gratification to our 
readers and ourselves. With regard to the per- 
sonal history of Fanny Fern, we feel a similar 
constraint. We shall, therefore, only touch, and 
that lightly, upon such points as, under the cir- 
cumstances, may bo referred to without the 
slightest violation of propriety. 

Not many years since. Fanny Fern was living — 
no matter where — in affluence. No homo need 
be more lovely, no family more happy, than hers. 
Ample wealth, devoted love, cultivated intellect, 
refined taste, and ft fervid religious spirit, com- 
bined to make that home whatever could be de- 
sired on earth, and excited the respect and admi- 
ration of all admittctl to the happy circle. But 
suddenly a bolt fell. Death came, and tho hus- 
band and father was smitten down. The widow- 
ed mother and half-orphan children were left to 
fight the battle of life alone. Adversity succeeded 
adversity. Poverty followed in the dismal train, 
and illness and want had the afflicted family at 
their mercy. The mother struggled on as best 
she could ; but we all know how hard it is for a 
lady to find employment which will enable her to 
obtain a livelihood even for herself, much less for 
a family of children, The female teacher general- 
ly receives only a meagre salary ; the copyist pur- 
sues an uncertain calling ; the seamstress can at 
best earn but a miserable pittance. And so, at 
last, after bitter years, the widowed mother, from 
sheer desperation, took to her pen : and another 
and a bright star was added to our literary 
galaxy. 

Fanny Fern's first article was written and pub- 
lished in July, 1851. It was immediately copied 
far and wide. Each successive piece met with 
similar favor ; until most of the newspapers of 
this country, and many British periodicals, were 
regularly enriched with her articles. But while 
she was thus furnishing amusement and instruc- 
tion to the public, she was not receiving an ade- 
quate reward. Whenever a woman is obliged to 
go into the world and earn her own living, she 
has to undergo trials and difficulties of which a 
man can, perhaps, form no just idea. A delicate, 
sensitive lady can not, for instance, call at news- 
paper offices to solicit employment, or offer an 
article for sale, without being exposed to annoy- 
ances which to her are painful, but which a man 
might not observe. A refined lady can ill brook 
the inquiring gaze and impertinent stare of hang- 
ers-on ; nor can she bai .nil for a proper remuner- 
ation, nor call again and again, if need be, in foul 
as well as fair weather. Anil then it is often as- 
sumed that a woman should be paid less for her 
labor than a man for his, though hers be equally 
valuable; and it is only after si: acquired a 

commanding repaU shi hi ordinarily 

obtain a just equivalent for her productions. And 
thus, for many months, the compensation which 
Fanny Fern received for her writings was not at 
all commensurate with their value. For articles 
which were worth fifty dollars, nnd which would 
have command i ntnhad h oel ter 

how to sell them, she often i but a tenth 

of that sum ; and during this time her income 
<r from being sufficient to maintain hoi II 
and her children cqmfortably. But with unyield- 
ing per and her trust in God unshaken, 
orked on until she triump] 
lined a name of which she may well be 
- d an ample fortune, and won the in- 
d respect and love of those who knew her 
It is. pcrhup i irk that she 
now commands the highest prices paid to writers 
in this conn': 
In examining Panny Fern's writings even the 

■ lence 



The bt 



Joetpb Warren was 

ounce bt Alcxan- 

an oration at 
which be ex- 
is the one, fellow-citizens, whit I 
nn- hand ! The carinder-paper. which 
t. is stained, as yon see, with the 



brarv 






capable 
might be ad\ar 

Stat. S. 

Ohio, Indiana 
tide, and well a 

siructu.n of ai 
OTerv sea 
niaioed 



M iri on the other 
very respect to the con- 

roads, travers . 

• >ry of Kansas. 
M comprise the first 



genial chmv- and i-.'vr i/nrnations of wood 
ne than the others. 

omprise the remainder 
lie great an.i 
., mild be a mac 

country in 

the Wi r 

- most 
"is to man — rrasa, wood, 

timber -al. stone 1 

IU mountain - 
and coal, « h*h would be at ir.dt-pensal * as* in 



pw deposited in tl. 
I the Dated State - 
i with the original affidav 
| tague. formerly pastor m 

S Boston, wbo made an oath that bo obtara- 
> ed tbe ball in London, of Arthur Sarago, once an 
i officer of tho Customs of tbe port of Boston, who 
ague this account of the ball : 
ug of the lfSlh of Joo» 
after the ba 

; a number of ffjeer*. 

among whom was General B.- 
Boston to Caarleatown battle 
Among Lb* fallen we mood the r 
*ph Warren, with whoa I had been per- 
•naally aeqoaintad. When be fell, be fell aooaw 
■ from hi* body ; and as 1 
Boaton again 
you to take to America, » « be valuable 
asarelicofyatTr rasTrolntion.'' 

Barron ' i oanee* of grated loaf 

•agar, six onnen of feeab bat -neo of 

apice. tod tw« gnaioo of Toh lilr salt*, 
mix the whom with two agga. 



that she can do certain tl. r than 

- 



ihe ex her own art 

a mi-lake I, 



contained generally only *-l 

and admirably deeeloped idea « "r-ls were 

wasted. Tbe idea, or fa' 
be presented, was 
worked op in every attra 

.ren worke«i ■ ■■ of a 

and then tbe art 

ii prao- 



!:..'•■ l- ut 
r confidence seemed to 
struck out into bo 

■ 
(lights and continued loi 

embairaaame 
ed one* more with the cot 

j -eater tread 
artidet a polish which w 
I posaseaa. Her tale- 



■ 1 



nit are mod- 

/ ■ . /' ut 



ROC* 1 !. ,'■:.' . 

■ t , 

g»r, balf a pound currants, oaw ouex 
sod throe egg' 

u ix. and mot 

in a , a" 



loffn 
end I 



38 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



' FROM THE SOUTH, 
i i zcns of Los Angeles have j ust completed 
■iew school house and appointed a lady 
!cman teachers. 

San Diego Correspondent of the Herald 
says: Complaint is made of the want of rain in 
this part of the country, but our farmers and 
rancheros are busy putting in large crops of grain, 
and much more will be raised the coming season 
than in anv previous year. New ground is being 
plowed up in every direction, and with but little 
labor the land may be made to produce an abun- 
dant harvest. 

For several days past, says the Star, we have 
enjoyed the most beautiful summer weather, the 
thermometer raging at noon as high as 83 degrees 
Fahrenheit. Wo have had asyct no very severe 
frosts, as we notice the peach leaves are still green 
in many locations. 

Mr. D. W. Alexander, assisted by his vaqueros, 
lassoed a wild boar of enormous size, who it is 
believed has been running wild on the plains for 
years. His tusks were from six to eight inches 
long, the potency of which was fully tested by a 
frightful gore in one of the horses used in his 
capture. 

Late arrivals from Kern River represent the 
miners as doing remarkably well, frorn $15 to 
$30 per day to the hand being the unusual yield. 
Teams are leaving Los Angeles daily for the river, 
and a line of stages will be put on the route by 
the 1st February. 

Abfuval op Eighteen Thousand Sheep.— 
Mr. .1. F. Chavis, who was with the late F. X 
Aubrey on his last trip to this country, arrived 
in Los Angeles a few days since, from New Mex- 
ico, by the Zuni route to the Pimos villages, and 
from thence down the Gila. Mr. Chavis, says the 
California!!, started from the Bio Grande on the 
15th October, with about eighteen thousand head 
of sheep, crossing the Sierra Blanco on the 2d of 
November, he experienced quite a heavy fall of 
snow ; on the 24ih of the same month he arrived 
at the Fimos. and reached the Colorado on the 
18th December. On the 2d December, while on 
the Gila, a tremendous rain fell, deluging the 
whole country, swelling the Gila into a mighty 
stream. It will be recollected that this same 
storm extended al! along the Pacilic coast, and 
throughout the entire country. Mr. Chavis de- 
siTibes the route us abounding in splendid grass, 
v ith the exception of the Colorado desert. This 
ban been the testimony of all the immigrants who 
have come through the past year. His sheep are 
in fine order, and are now moving up the country. 
Mr. Chavis himself goes up in this week's steamer. 



MARKET REPORTS. 

San Francisco, January 31, 1855. 
TaAXJE continues dull, and though we have had some rain, 
it will not much effect business unless it continues for some 
time, for at least two weeks of rain is needed Prices of grain 
and other produce remain without much change, and but small 
sales. 

JOBBING FHICES. 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 

f^* Our Lottors. — Wc would request all our correspond' 
enta to direct Letters and Papers to us ut SAN FRANCISCO, 
ONLY. They will, with such direction, reach us immediately, 
Letters directed to us at Sacramento, fall to reach us regularly, 

4.v3 WARKEN 6c SON. 



J3F 3 Native Pines, Oaks, &c. — Cones of the Native 

Pine?, Acorns from our Mountain Oaks, Seed of all our Mouu- 
tflin Shrubs, and of every species of Valuable Tree or Shrub ; 
lor these (he lull plica will bB paid, if satisfactorily labelled, 
classified and arranged, nt tho 

Office of the " California Farmer," 
13 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street. 



I^ 3 Wanted. — All the varieties of California Clover Seed, 
for which the highest price will be paid at the 

Office of tho "California Farmer," 
13 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street, 



E^ 1 Our New Office. — We invite our friends to our new 
office in the " Masonic Hall," on Montgomery street, opposite 
I.e Count & Strongs, We can show them many wonderful 
specimens, such as are rarely seen, and wo especially invite 
them to call and examine tho various schedule and Itri Olci 
have to oiler for pale. Trees, Seeds, Plants, Grains, Houses, 
Lands, Inventions, Works of Art of all kind?, these we are 
happy to show, and can interc.-t our friend, iltliev will but col] 
WARREN & SON. 



and aee us. 



t^* "A Thing of Beauty is a Joy Forever." — Why 
will people endure pimples on " the human face divine," or 
eruptions ol any kind, when it is a fact so welt known, that Dr. 
Guysott's Yellow Dock and Sarsapabilla cleanses the 

skin from nil impurity, removing Pimples, Sures and Blotches, 
leaving the atfectcd parts ss healthy, smooth and soft as the 
flesh of a babo. It is really priceless to all who wish the rosy 
beauty of childhood. 

It causes all sores and poisonous wounds to discharge all in 
fected matter, and eradicates every impurity from the system. 
It does iti work mildly hut effectually, giving conscious beauty 
and blooming health in the placo of ugliness and soul-sickening 
disease. 

Sceofdla, Syphilis, Mercurial Complaints, and a vast 
variety of other disagreeable and dangerous diseases are speed- 
ily and perfectly cured by the use of this medicine. 

Purchasers will place be careful to a-k for, nnd dike none 
other but Dr. Ouysort's Improved Extract of Yellow Dock and 
Sarsapai-illa. All others in comparison are worthless. 

For sale nt all the principal Drug Stores in the State, Park 
& White, Sole agents, to whom all orders must be addressed. 
Olllce No. 94 Merchont street, 3d dour above Montgomery. Ill 



MARRIED. 



On the 27'h Jan., in this city, by Rev. F. Moonbake, Fred- 
erick Boehnoe and MUs Clara Tittel. 

On the 25th Jan., in thbj city, by Rev, Mr. Moo.=hake, Wm. 
W. Hnnnea, of S-jnoino, and Miss Johanna Seemann, of Son 
Francinco. 

On the 23d Jan., in Sacnimento, Win. Phillip,", of Muripoea, 
and Mrrj. Ma - y Harris, of Siicmmontu. 

On the 35th Jan., by Rev. H. II. Rricrv, A C. Neil, of Sacra- 
moiito, and Mi*u Virginia. E. Surluci-, u!" Dry Creek, El Dorado 
county. 

On the 2.1th Jan., by Juitlce W. Singer, John G. Williams 
and Miaa Margaret A. Kirkpatrick, both ol Yubn county. 



DIED. 



On the 2tith Jan., in tbla city, Samuel Ressegine, a native of 
Wi coniin, need 55 yrnr*. 

Op the 24th Jan., at Forest City, A. Greenwaldt, aged 28 
yearn, a native of Germany, 

On Efao 26th Jan., nt the r*>*idonco of Dr. J. Marks, at Negro 
Hill, of typhoid (ever, Dr. A. A. Juiionh, a native) of Charleston, 
3. C. 

On the 25th Jan., in this city, Mary, wife of J. J. Pcniiypuckcr. 

On the 34th Jan., in Siieramyuto, Clement W. Coutc, hit*: 
City Surveyor. -i-rd 35 years. 

Oh the 37th Jan., in dicramonto, Alexander Anderson, late 
Attorney at La/ in Nevada. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLE- 

MENTIS— nominal- 
Shovels, 

Ames' 1. h. bright$13 00® 

do e.h -aiO 00 

Fields', 1. h 12 00©13 DO 

Rowland's,], n 00S12 00 

do e. h... 9 — &10 00 

Kinc's, 1. h 8 00® 

Spades, bright c. 8.10 00@— 00 

do iron no tule. 

Coal and Grain Scoops, c. s. 

12 00® 

do do iron. ©— 00 

Axes, Collins', a. b. &15 0(1 

do Hunts', do ®15 00 

Picke, Collins", 4V*j to 6- Hi, si.liti 

eye 10 00®12 0(.: 

do other brands. 00®— 0" 
Helves, heavy hickory picL 

turned 50 S 2 50 

do axe @ — 

Plows, best make. 14 — ®30 

do steel 24 00® 40 00 

Tlireshing Machines and Horse 
power — 

Hall &. Pitts" no *ale. 

Other makers' — ® — 

Emmery's, with thresher, sepn^ 
ratur,nnd fan mill . . — ® — 

Straw Cutters .— ® 

Rakes, horse and revolving;, 
hcimecorxt. 
do hand, wood— 00®— 00 
do do steel — 00®— 00 

Pitchforks, & thy/. ® 

Scythes, bee' 

Hoes, steel, g. n... 6 00® 9 00 

Crowbar**, c. ?.%>■ lb- 10® - I'. 1 

Flour Mill-, Noye-' $500® 

do Brown's, 30 in. 450® 

FLOUR— 

Gallego.- — 00®14 5( 

Haxall — OOq-14 5i 

Chile 8 00® 9 0( 

Repacked W 

Horner's Mills,...— 00® 

Bcnicia Hills, — 00® 00 oo 

Meal, in bbls. 6 On® 6 51 

do V; bbls.... 3 25® 3 



® 1V 4 



Bran, 4j> Hi 

GRAIN 

Com, Eastern, V lb 2 ® 3 

Barley, California.. ® 1^ 

do Chili — © 1 ; 

Buckwheat, Hour-- .2 ® 

Oats, California 2 ® 3 

do Oregon, none in mk't 

do Eastern 2 ® 31$ 



Wheat, Chili — ® — 

do Calilbrni.. .2 ® 3.; 
LUMBER— nominal- 
Timber, Oregon Pine, eq, ty M 

25 00® 

Plank and Sc't'g.. 25 00®35 00 

Plank E.w.p. el. 60 00® 

do E. oa 80 00®100 

Boards, E.cl. 1st q.GO 00® 

do 2dq 45 00® 55 00 

do G. y. p. floor— 00®— 00 
doO-J»m'V'ouL'lil6 00® 18 00 
do redwood, Mendocino, gens 

sawed — 00®— 00 

do Bay&BuHnas— 00®— 00 

Floor Joist 18 005-20 00 

Sliinglcrf, E. best . 7 00® 8 00 
Clapboards, No. 1.25 00®30 00 
Laths, Eastern ... 7 00® B 00 
do California.. 5 00® 6 00 
Doors, 40 pr ot on prime cost. 
Windows, 100 pr et on cost. 
PROVISIONS— 
Beet, Mess, ty iibl 17 00®20 00 

do \->, bblex.fam ®I4 00 

Bacon, ex. clear sides, ^ lb 

12® 13 

do Mess, 9® 11 

Cheese 20® 27 

do California — -® — 

Eggs, EreshCnI.4r v dz.90® 1 00 
Butter, choice, f lb .40® 45 
do good ordinary 28® 
do California'. .". . — ® 

Sams, ordinary 17® 

do extra ® 

Lard, in kegs 13® 

do tins lO-th.. .16® 

do 13— 20 do.. 14 d> 

Pork, clear, ty hbl 19 00®— 00 

do do M, hbl ®11 00 

do mess, 4j> bid 16 00®— 00 
do do Vj do ® 8 00 

RICE— 

1 iaroline, in hbl^lb ® 61$ 

China, No. 1, in mate — ® 10 
do No. 2, do — ® S\§ 

Manila 7 ® V& 

VEGETABLES— 

Beans, Chili Bayos -SVj® - 
do California-. -8V»j® 4 

do A in. white. — ® - 

Pens 5 ® - 

Beets, ty ton 20 00® 

Carrot* 40 00® 

Onions, prime,^ th — ® — 

Turnips, f> ton.. .30 00® 

Potatoes, per sack 50S 100 
do new, f~ tb. Yty' 



31 



35 



SAN FBAXCJSCO MARINE LIST. 



ARRIVALS. 

Jan. 24 — Hamb bark Congo, Dinse, Hone Knur, 55 days; mdse. 
Jan. 85— Br hmk Bankeide, Hullin, London, 163 days; rndsa 

Schr Olivia, Thomas, M tnterey, 3 days ; produce, 
Jan. 26 — Clipper ship Wild Ranger, Sears, New York, 124 

days ; rml e. 

Schr Loo Choo, Smith, Santa Cruz, 36 hours ; produce. 

Sloop Col. Collier, Elves, Halt-Moon Bay, 2 days ; produce, 
Jan. 27 — Ham bri» Mninlust, Nat on, Hamburg, 206 days, viu 
Valparaiso 47 day-t ; mdee. 

Schr Gen Pierce, Comn, Honolnlo, 27 days ; mdse, etc. 

Schr Ada, Josselyn, Monterey, 2 days ; produce, 

Schr Francisco, Miller, Pajnro, 2 daj ■ ; pri duce, 

Schr Ortolon, Robinson, Pajaro, 2 1 .. daye ; produce. 
Jan. 28 — Stmr Gulfah, Erekine, Snn Diego, 2Vfi days; mdse, etc. 

Mex brig Cornelia, Nye, Muzathm, '.H tiny.-, via San Jose del 
Cabo, 32 fitiy- ; End :e. 

Schr Henry, R«dBetd, Bodega, 16 hours ; produce. 

Schr Jot Hewett, Loper, Tomales, 1 day; produce. 

Schr Warsaw, Holman, San Pedro, 10 days, in ballnfit. 

Schr Mt Vernun, Blake, Santo Cruz, 3 days ; lime, etc. 

CLEARANCES, 

Jan. 24 — Ship Horner, Benson, for Valparaiso; barkE Corn- 
in*r, Grores, New York; nclir Restless, Brown, Honolulu. 

Jak. 25— Ships Esther (fit), Smith, for Callno; Wm Penn, 
Coip, do; bark G ilden Fleece, Hong Kong. 

Ja.ii. 27 — Ship Raven, Crocker, for Singapore : bark Isabelita 
Hyne, Calhoun, Wbampoa ; Men brig Arizona, Newman, Ma2- 
atlan \ Mes schr Aleito, Arnold, Guaymas, 

Jan. 30 — Bark Chas Devens, Haley, for Portland; aclir Laura 

Bi-van, Morton, San Pedro. 



Xllgluun'a Improved Smut MuctilntM. 
rrUIESf: Machine! combine all the apparatus necessary to 
JL cleanse Grain, rendering li unnecessary to have any other 
machinery for that pnrpoBe En the null. They are portable and 
occupy about four feet enuore t;n the floor, by eight and a 
half feet in heighi ; and will clean the worst samples ol Smutty 
Grain, ftl.no remove short straws, white caps, suds and other 
foul substances in the most perfect manure. All of the offal 
worth saving is collected hi a reservoir, *while the smut and 
light dust ore passed out of the mill, allowing the machine to 
be put on the Bflmp Boor with the flour chests 01 (vhereever 
most convenient, without bring enclosed, lr. is g California im- 
provement ton! d lsigned to meet the wants of this country; 
eastern machines having been found to be 'inadequate to that 
purpose. It hns received the bieheet recommendation from 
nil mine them, among whom arc Pettit i H idvekins, Brighton 
Milif, Snenooouto; Brooks & Hull, Happy Valley Mills, San 
Pranciscn; Wm. Sharp, American MIUp, Sun Francisco; Bab- 
bit A-.Hr.1e, Sierra Nevada Mill.-, San Francisco; H. 8, Hill, 
Wasbinyton Mill", San Francisco. 

Thorn huildtng Mill- can mi vi.- expense and room by usinf! 
this machine, OS they will avoid all the machinery ordinarily 
u ed for thnt purpose. 

Orders tilled on short notice. SHOP on L street, between 
Front and Second, Sacramento. H. B. INGHAM. 

N. B. — All information given, and orders Jolt at Wakken &. 
Son, San Francisco, will be attended to. 

The following certificate la among the number received ; 
Others can be referred to In quantise : 

This is to certify (hot I have one of II. B. Ingham'a Improved 
Smut Machines, and believe it to be superior to any other. 1 
need no other fixture for cleansing crrnui, except the machine 
itself; It makes no dirt in the mill; occupies hut little rooin; 
requires \c-t power, and does the work more perfectly than 
any other I have ever seen or o>e<l before. 

WM. SHARP, Agent American Mills, 
Pine street, San Francuco, 

San Frnncieco, Jan. 11, 1855. v3-5 



Valuable Newspaper Raotrs, 

WE have several very valuable Newspaper Routes for sale. 
Enquire at the office "1 California Fabmer, 
v3-5 Masonic Hal) Bulldim;, Montgomery street. 



H. H. TIB BITS. 
California Boot and Shoe Store. 

Ladies', Misses', Gents', B >ys' and Childrens' 
Boots, Shoes niid Gaiters, 

WHOLESALE AND BF.TAIL, 

No, 117 Socrnmenw utrttt, San Francisco, v3-5 



WHEELKIt & bKUOKS, 

EXCELSIOR NURSERY, 

\0ch etrceJ-, between F mid G, 

Sacramento City. 

Frait and Ornamental Trees, Vines and Shrubbery 

OF ALL KINDfl. v35 



OFFICIAL EDITION OF STATE LAWS. 

FOR 1»5*, 
LAW BOUND, NOW READY AND FOR SALE 

AT 

GEO W. MtJRHAV & OO. '3, 
S MoNTGOMBitv Block. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



TKEADWEI 




FLOURING MILLS. 



HENRY r-OLLEY, B, S. NICHOLS. 



5ETII II. GABFrELD 



CORNER OP CALIFORNIA AND BATTERY STREETS 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

IMPORTERS, JOBBERS AND RKTAlLEnS OF 

Hardware ninl Mining Tools; bIbo, Agricultural Implements, 
Field and Garden Beads of nil descriptions, from tne cele- 
brated House of MeSflTS. Rtlggles, Nourne, Mtison & Co,, 

Boston. 
Field nnd Garden Seeds of all rarii e 
Ploughs, Harrows, Cultivators, Seed Sowers, of all ktudw ; 
Threshers, Reapers. Mowers, Fun Mills, Straw Cutters, Com 
Shelters, Vegetable Cutter-, Corn and Flour Mills, Suueogo 
Cutters and StufFers, Horse Powers. Smut Mills, 
Wheat Drills, Churn-', Ox Yokes, Bow?, Horse 
Rake.* — together with all the small tools and 
implements appertaining to cultivation. 
N. B. — Branch House at Mitryavilla All orders promptly 
attended to. v3-5 



TREADWELL 




CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND MAIDEN LANE, 

MARYSVILLE. 

Corner of California and Battery xtrcrtt, San Francisco. 

,\n. f>ij F,di rot street, Boiton, 
Importer3 of Hn rfHvfi re, Iron, Steel, Cordage, Paints, Oils, 
Varnish (Hid Window Glass, dirocl from the Atlantic States and 
Europe, with o compete assortment oftools and imple- 
ments lor Farmer.-, Mtner$, Carpenter*, 

lere, "Parnter$, Masons, Smiths, Pa 
Ship Carpenters, Wkeduright*, Millwrights, Cabinet Makers, 

v3-S 



Southwick & Co.'s Grand Raffle! 
848,5401! 

FmST GRAND PRIZE §30,000*11 

THE Proprietors ol the above Raffle, having sold a sufficient 
number of their Tickets to justify them in fixing the 
" Day of Drawing" for Saturday, Ltfrh day of March tu nt, 
have much plea-urc in infoi tnini; their friends and the public 
generally, that the drawing "ill be by wheel, In which the 
numbers cf everj Ticket which has been issued will he de 
posited, and the nrst twenty drawing nnmbei 
the fortunate holders of which will receive the Prizes immedi- 
ntely alter the drawing, or they will be held in trust fbi 
at a distance by a Committee ol Ticket Hi tdi 
those present at the drawing, and who will superintend the 
land fully represent all Ticket holdera who may nut be 
able to atteml the ai 

Tickets Sohi and Raffled for day and night op to the hour ol 
drawing, at the principal office to Snoramento, or can 
cured by application to the various Agent* m »ll jjnrt^ of the 
. .nil] Southern mines, San Proud ci 
|^" Remember \— Saturday, 10th day of March next, 
Becure your Tickets without delay. v;i-."i 



P0LLEY & CO., 
BAY STATE MILLS, 

N street, between Front nntl .Second. 

BAY STATE LOWER MILLS, 

Corner or Front mid R Streets, Sarrnminto, 

MANUFACTURE the celebrated Brand of Flour known as 
the "Buy State Lower Mill.-," which can always be found 
at our etorc, No. 49 K afreet. Also," fresh ground "Buckwheat 
and Graham Flour, fresh ground Cum Meal, Middlings, Bran, 
ninl ground Barley, Sec,, -winch is disposed at the lowest prices. 
Burley, Wheat and Ci rn Ground to Order. v3-l 



Happy Valley Flour Mills, 

Coma- of Fir*/ add Mellub streets, San Francisco. 

Encourage Home Industry and Home Production. 

THE attention of denier.-, and com omers of Floor ie respect- 
fully invited to'the Superior Article manufactured nx the 
above establishment, from California Wheat ol tbegrowtb of 
1854, selected and prepared with the greatest care, These Mills 
have been in successful operation Un- nearly two year , during 
which time the proprietors have received such satisfactory as- 
: urancee from those who have tested the quality of their Flour, 
thai they can confidently recommend it as being fully equal to 
any brand in the market. Among the many evidences of the 
superior excellence of the Flour manufactured hv them, the 
proprietors would direct attention to the substantial compli- 
ments received at the two lost Annual Mcotings ol the State 
Agricultural Society, premiums have been awarded at both 
Fairs for the snperior specimens ol Flour fro 

Domestic Flour.— a superior article for family use, manu- 
(lictured from selected Wheats— a ■ ipply always on 

on hand at the Mill, or ut the Depot of the Proprietors, 35 Sac- 
tc street, 
53?^ ^ Hbeml allowance made to the trade. 

.1. N. BROOKS, ? n 
F, C. HALL, j Proprietor* 
£5?" Wheat Purchased or Ground on the moat favorable 

19 



Flour I When* 1 1 Barley I ! I 

THE SAN JOAQUIN FLOUR MILLS. STOCKTON— Are 
now completed and ready to grind Wheat and Barley in 
any quantities. The above Milli by any in 

the Atlantic States, having all the oprovements for 

the manufacture ol the finest Family Flour, ana are capable ot 
turning out 250 barrels per day. • 

rge fire-prooJ Warehouse for the storage of Grain, is 
attached to the Mill. 
Particular attention la called to the (act of Stockton bains the 

depot for the supply of the Southern Mine* I then hue offers 

|i their grain di- 
rect to Stockton, for milling, 
Liberul advance i ate of Wheat. 

For particulars as to terms, Stc., apply at the MILLS — or to 
Messrs. PAIGE &■ WEBSTER, Union Block, comer ot Battery 
and Union atrceU, San Francisco. (J 



BUSINESS CARDS. 



0. M OH RILL, 

Importer and Dealer, and Retail, in 

Drugs, Medicines* Chemicals, Paints, Oils and 

Fancy Goods, 
fotm VAC7 i '■■■'■■■ ■ <ZL «£2 

vM J and Third, and K nm! 7 /< nmio. 



JOHN M HEN BY. JA8. B. TOWNSEND. iMRAM, C. CLABK. 

MoHENRY, TOWNSEND & CLARK, 
Attorneya and Counsellors at Law, 

San Francisco, c.-.i. 
JtS* 3 Offlee, No. 6 .Merchant's Exchange, corner of Buttery 
and Washington Btreeta — entranci \^n v;j-4 

CHAS. A. PITCHER, 

COM M 1 S 8 I y M E r: r // A n T, 
Waahineton street Wharf, 

Between hast und Druinin streets, 

San Francisco. 

55P" Liberal advances mod v3-2 



'Wanted. 

INTELLIGENCE AND COMMISSION OFFICE, 
No. 53 Montgomery Blacky (Third I a 
Corner of Mortgomoiy nnd Washington stre 

ORDERS for ALL KINDS OF HELP, will be furnished 
without delay . Private Fa mi lie-, Merchants, Contractors, 
Farmei -, lintel -, Maohanicp, Milliners, Dre amakers, and others 
wanting help of any kind, may rest assured of being supplied 
freeof charge, Bj pusuing an honorable oourse towardsboth 
employer and employee, we hope to merit a share of public 
patronage. 

Orders from the Country promptly attended to. 

Those in wont of r-ituationo can be supplied by calling nt our 

Office, 

[v331m| W. U. IIALK & OO 



ISew ami Rare Scvdsji 

WE have re^cired Irooi Patis, by last steamer, en Invoice 
New and Rare Garden Beed — varieties never before In- 
troduced here. Market gardeners will Hod thes'i very desi 
able. WARREN & HON. 



liydraulle Puni|w. 
N Invoice of new patterns of Hydraulic Pumps, juntre 
L eeived at our office. WARREN & SON. 



WYMAN Sc CO.'S 

SUPERFINE CEO T II I N G! 

WM. MANSFIELD & CO., 
151 Montgomery street, 
Offer their Large and Eleganl Stock of 

FALL AND WINTER CLOTHING, 

ok the Late t Styles, 
AT OKEATLY REDUCED PRICES, 
In ordor to make room for an entire new stock for the 
Spring and Summer Season. 

ALSO, 

Every description Fine Fund hhig Goods; Fine Calf, Patent 

Leather and Water-Proof 1! lots. 

(Ly W. M. &. (JO., wovld al-n invite dealers In the country 
tind the city generally to call and examine their Stock. v3-4tf 



PURE jMEDICINES! 

LITTLE & COLE, Apathccarlci, 
130 Montgomery street, 

Between Clay and Commercial .-trcets, 
Pay particular attention to the preparation ot 

Physicians' Prescriptions, 

and tho dispensing of Family Medicines. The public can rely 

upon all articles purchased a't tin-, establishment as being of tha 

Purest and Best Quality, 
and at reasonable prices. 

MEDICINES AT MIDNIGHT. 

Median™ can be obtained at all hnurt fifths bight. 
^5 |P French, German, Spanish and Italian spokou. G 



WLLIAM BAILEX. 

OIL AND CAMP Hi I flBfy 

[TB AKD DBAX.SB IN 
Sjh nil, Polar, Kit pliaul ami Rliu k(i«h Oils, 

Also— Camphknk and Burning Fluid, 
Nu m Battery stre . Pine and lkn-h. 21 



GIBSON & KING, 

IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE HEALERS IN 

Groceries, Provision*, f7oreisni attdl Domestic 

Spirits, and Wlins, 

Noa. 24, 26 and 28 Ball. ■:■■ . nfPlne, 

15 San Francisco. 



WM. NKELY THOMPSON. 
WHOLESALE AND RET A L DEALER IN LUMBER, ■ 

MARKET STBEET, BETWEIN FHONT AND DAVIS. 

Boards, Scantling, Floor Joist, inel DoorStWui 

down and Building materials ol all kindi ■ q hand. 24 



SIM & CO.. 

FRODUCE COMMISSli),\ M F. R CHANTS, 

12 Olay street wharf, 

between East and Drum streets, San Fhancisco. 

IH^ CaBh advances made on con I 

Rater to Messrs. Flint, Peabodv ft Co.; I. c. Woods, Esq^ at 

Messrs. Adams &. Co'n. 24 tf 



SAMUEL A. CHAI'IN. OTI3. V. SAWVBa 

CHAPTN & SAWYB 11, 

IMrOBTEKS AND JOI1HCB9 OF 

Harihvuri' and Leather, 

Saddlery Shoe Findings, Nets, Seines, &c, &e. t 

24 ISTSau ■ anclsco. 



JOSEPH M. BROWN & Co., 

93 Sacramento andSi Battery ttreets, San Frar. 

rMrOBTKKS AND BxAXBBS IN 

Hardware, Dlliiliia and Af^klcuiUnl Implement** 

BrownV, Ame-i' and Eust's Shovels: Tuttle's Sluice Babes; 

Collins' heavy and light Plcki ; Ploughs of all kinds; 

Fan Mills, Straw Cutter-; Builder's Hardware, In gieat variety; 

CarpenterV Tool ol every descripdi 

We invite the trade t" call and examine Lnls extensive stock. 

At the sign of the Golden Anvil, 
8 JOSEPH M. BROWN & CO. 



DR. THURSTON, 

Office, Room No. 20, Hiltmnnle Temperance House; 

MARTHA N. THURSTON, M.D.. 

Office, Room No. 21, Hillmaii'ti Temperance House, 

No. B0 ■■■■■■■■ r ( 'ai 

f5P* Mrs. T., Physician for Womj ■ pen. as 



Wlnea and tlqoom* 

GOODWIN & CO., & MEEKER, 

No, 64 California ttrtet,—{neat Front 

IMPORTERS and Wholesale Dealers in Poroicn and Do- 
iTir.ti.: Liquors, have n 

500 one-etffbth. casks Dnmestie B 
£50 bbls Monongahela Wuisky, 
50 bbls very tino Old Bourbon Wlilalry, 
100 one-eighth casks Hue pale Pellevolsin Brandy. 
• r <i> oni . \. Seignette do, 

40 one*eigntb casks Bno I loam 
15 one-eighth casks Loi ,(,,, 1805 

5 punoheons pure Scotch VVhl 
15 pipes Imperial Eagle aud Swan Gio, 
10(1 ono*elghth en b i Pori W 
HH) ooaks Dunbar's Bottled a 
10O caaks Tennant'i do do do, 

50 case Bokor 1 ! Bitl srs, genuine , 
luu ensei Owen 
50 baskets bTeidtelcli I 
100 buskoj . id ,— iduin and quaita, 

^ Also— a complete assortmonl ol Srrups, Abolatli, Curacoa, 

Blttiers, dEC,, \c; nil Of winch will la* sold Mt tho hnvert 

prices. ai lin 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER 



39 



HOKTICTLTURAL, &•<•. 



w 



I7,ixk* Premium Strawberry Plant*! 

from tkt 

■ .■-. 
■ 
.it $70 per 100 

I ■ ; ■ 



■ 



■ 
IS " 



PI* 
Fair- 



'.i . . u»ty, N. Y„ with 

■■ 

ii * tlia.ii 100) 

add prow 

I ■ 
.1. 1„ SAN FORD, CuIUti 

■ ■ ■ Lutoi 
. ■. 
v3-4 ,i,i rancfeco, 



San Joae \iusciy. 

W trade with the bee) ■■■■ ■ Letk 

of Pruil . Plant*, &e., in all 

their Mr. to ell at a low mice, that wo 

may pint ■ ultii ■■■ I b ■<■■■■ al !■■■ 

sonal c*r f Hui ad Gardens 

will do a i ■■ ■ ' ability to 

supply wl ■■ in in- carefiiUy labelled and 

packed tor ace 

The t". ' season ! 



Peach Ti> 

Pear do 14 do 



!H 


.In 




.1.1 




rfo 


9 


rto 


a 


do 



awl) met, 7 varieties ; 
Fig Tree* ; 
; '. ..I-. ranatBs; 
Walnuts; 
Chestnuts; 

Locuat Trees, very large 
RoseAeaclaae, j forhed 
Oauye Orange, ) ° 



Apple do 

Plum do 
Apricot* 

"-I ii 

Quince* do 

Cherry do many do 

Grapet», 12 do 

Inadiiii; i oui Fruit «inl Ornamental Trees, we offer ten 
thousand ■ comprising more tlnin one hundred vari- 

eties, all of the best known kind*. Our plants are tOO numerous 
to specify in an advertisement. Hoping visitor? .sill come and 
nee us, we refer them to our ayeut in San Francisco, Mb. De- 
labignk, LSI Sansome street, whom we shall have a collection 
of plant* in the season as samples. The nursery is situated in 
the city ol Shu Jobc immediately above the (Jity Mills, 

We are also permitted to refer to Warren & Son, who hove 
examined our grounds, and who can testily of the character of 
our nursery, nnd who will receive and forward orders to ue. 

Every order promptly ami speedily attended to. 

Biarf L- PRF.VOST & CO. 



GARDEN SEEDS, 
Growth of 1854. 

FRESH and GENUINE, per " Express."— Just received and 
constantly arriving — 
5110 th*. Yellow i 
100 " Red 
60 « White " « 
200 " Top Onions for seta. 
Fruit Seeds tfec., ul 1854 : Peach, Apple, Plum, •Cherry, Pear, 
Locust, White Birch, Elm, Osage * (range, Raspberry ; together 
with a complete aesortmenl of Shaker and California Garden 
Seeds. Also, Slower Seeds; Californian and Eastern. 
Wholesale and Retail, by 

0. MORRILL, Dniggbt, 
And agent for the sale of the New Lebanon Shaker Seeds, 
Botanical Herbs and Extracts. 

K Btreeti COr. Third, Sacramento. 

v3-l Branch store, P. street, cor. Third. 



Pacific Nursery, 

MISSION DOLORES AND ALAMED1, 

HAVE always on hand and lor sale, the largest collection of 
Choice ROSES t" be found in the State. Also, Grape 
Vines, Fruit and Ornamental Trees in groat variety ; 
500,000 Strawberry Plants, including thirteen varieties of all 
the best known kuids. For sale cheap, in Iota to rait purchasers, 
All orders lofl with us al the Mission Dolores, or at our Nur- 
sery ut Alameda, or with Warren & Son, at the office of this 

paper, will be promptly attended to. 

Prices guaranteed at the lowest market rates, and everything 
sold fully warranted to be correct. 
18 II- A. SONNTAG & CO. 



Strawberry Vines* 

LARGE and vigorous Vine- of the various kinds of Straw- 
bsrrii the ad ■■ ; 

at the Gardens ot the subscriber, and at a reasonable price. 

The fbUnwtno are among the varied 
Hudson's, British Queeu, Blaoli Pri ■ 
seedlings. ANo many kinds of Fruit Trees ol the best kinds, 

all liu-Mde low bj LAWRENCE LEHE1N, 

26 

Fresh Union Beed I 

JUST received, pei Adams &. Co.'s Express, 3 cases Freeh 
Onion Seed, for summer plantings also, flne vsriel 
Melon and other kinds oi 

Order b prompt attention. Allseed 

warranted [reel Pot sale by 

1 ■., i TON, 
4-lm lore to Warren 



Strawberry Plants. 

ALPINE Month en; Black 

Prince $1 per doa -, Horry s M p 1 
doz or $'«[T» per hundred 
packed am 

forward ineomuu 

: ■ 

25 WARP 



w 



The Uplsttid Hill tiu.iin.ty. 

nil particular ait. 



tho culi i 

., I ',!■ ., | |fl 
■:i I' , , . ■ 

them, ti: d 
83 



W E vJ 
wholesale, 

■ ■ ■ 
I 

attention. 



■ 




Garden III rani 









"N 



1(1,1. 



TE can 



allvlav. ■ 

''' 
si a verj I 



F. 
beset 
they can * 

- - 11 (in 

J VST r.-- 
ol u-> 



AGRICULTURAL, &c. 



Agricultural ImplcmcntM. 

FRENCH Bui and (fa 

. 

i bines; 

! I, M.I I 

■, 

. ■ 

i: ■ md 7; 

.', ■...-■ ,...; | 

Clipper 18 ind 18; 

n 

■ 

. ., . .i ■ . 
i ■ ' 

* ■ i: . I ■ 

. ;■ . . : 
i . . 
i ■ | itchets, but ihei i nws and 

Lme ii. i short bandied bi n i nnd 

i i .■ , mattock kuu 
. . i ■■ ■ . ■■ ■ ad plantation 

■ i ■ . . ■ || ! ■ . ■ . :1 M ■■■ i.\ yokes 

l:l H ■■ ,-. I . r :. ;n . ■■ S '' ! ■ 8 

■ i ,; ■ ■ :■..,■■ 

H. McNAU.Y, 



3-1 



85 Washington street bei ween Battery and Front 
(Opposii i ■ ' Exchange.) 



Harvesting Implements. 

HARVESTING IMPLEMENTS— 
l McCormick Re ipei 
2 Huasoy'a Do. ; 
1 Manny's Do, ; 
9 Burrlfl'fl Patent Reapers; 
1, 2, G and 8 horse Threshing Machines. 
ALSO— Steam and Water Power Flouring Mills 
For sale ij BRYANT &. CO., 

Agricultural Warehouse, 
24-lm Corner of Battery and Richmond streets, 



Fan Mills! Hoy Cutters: I 

WE have the very best Fan Mills in the Country, with all the 
new improvements for cleaning perleclly, and worthy 
particular attention oi Grain growers, 

The Straw Cutters ate ot new pattern, of extra qualify and 
workingpower. BAKER &. HAMILTON, 

7 11 J street, Sacramento City. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 
New England Agricultural Warehouse and Seed Store, 

IT J street, Saei-iiment.fi City, (near the Levee). 

C1HOICJE FIELD and GARDEN SEEDS, selected fresheverj 
i year by experienced Seedsmen in the Eastern States, and 
warranted, always for Bale by 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 
5 i - .us to Waaken & Son. 



Gross Seed. 
BBLS. Herd's Grass, Clover and Red Top, of the very 
quality. For sale low, i! applied for immediately 
Orders left with Warren & Son will be promptly attended to 
10 GEO. N SHAW & CO., Battery street Wharf. 



30 



Splendid Hyacinths, Jonquil*, Vai-rlssus, &C* 

LARGE and hue bulba of these beautiful and fragrsn. pema 
may now be bad at our room* — "California Fabmeb" 

Office, opposite LeC t A Strong, 

Masonic Hall Building, Montejoi 
16 WARREN A. SON. 



m Extra Samples Gtrolll, 4lCi 

GRAIN GROWERS who have extra quality ..I' WHEAT, 
BARLE1 or OATS, can nnd ■ ars tor the 

pinoe iiy ir>,i\ inn tlioir samples al our office, 

Sampl Corn 

samples of Fiel IP by appli- 

cation at oui ofll 

17 , 



Agrlcnitural Iiiiplcmrnts. 

IS BRY V N 



Plow Point-. 

LARGE assortment of tl ■ 
BRVA' 






Gartltn, Field nnd &HMS s. ul-.. 






I*lotvn nnd llnrrovrs. 

A GREAT variety Irom the Itent manufacturers. 
For en 
\9 BRYANT ft CO., 69Batti , 



UoNlnir (loth. oV. 

BOLTING CI. i Vby 



liulln Kut. in t BsJUns;, «W< 
19 G9 Bsttery rtreet. 



>I1II« aiitl Ml 

GRAIN, S«w. Shineln and L< 






aW* 
^TEAM, 
^ For m 

BRYANT &. Ca & Batirry stress. 



i TTENTION ot 
\ 



■xhi wfaheness; 

inplwntl y cankpsrw with M>y Sturh tiMtutfcictured 

■>"7 savl th« propnetor chsJkngap eoai- 

1 i»w rate. 

Wtirrrtrr- 



r 



< hsvtn^ t«Iu«' : res, wfll 

find s v ;n«- br teavtoa: ■ oaenMr- 

|an«ium v*uh u*. We always h»rc onora or hsw Hack os hand 
• rro UtvtruTrir Two or three fl»- 

Ratns. 

msfl, post-ps, ,.terl to 

pmmjto T) 



\\*E I'"' 
liwn or n. 

VFUU 



- 


!!«•■.■ \». ■. n hi 




'■ - 


sARP' 

\ " M - *--i Thrssbars. A- 










Fmtey ^^ 






Feariatf pas up in the beat asswm i 


tStapkBs tor 




Prating, 0a hand. 






-n«, Mm 






*c . osi ksass and for -*J e by 1 1 • \ 




tolTrw^sadwvniM 
















\KRKN A eoN 


■ - ■ 




kesjds, jast ncciw. 




*"" Rj» ■ V ■ 














i pwchssja. Or 





Grain ! Grain ! 1 

HOLDERS of GRAIN will do well by leaving samples of 
their cro] ! ashvl, price 

ind u : ■■ .. ■ 

We ran atwoj hes| fiual- 

ul the attention ot the nusers o| Uium to tiiis 
WARREN & 
v;m onlc Halt Building, 



STEAMERS. 

Califom a Steam Navigation Company. 

X- 1 .' .TJT', 

itiire ft >m VoUqo Mmt Kharf, at 4 o*eta 

K()l{ SAORAMBNTO. 

r NEW WOULD, CuOl 

Si ■ N I D. v.m p.-it, >,,:, i. 

Mi.ik1.ivh, Wednesdays and Fridnya. 

• ...r W. O. HUNT. E. A. Toole 

Ti i : an I hirdiivs 

The W. G. HUNT will Iranre Sundnj ... i .. ■■ 

FOK STOCKTON. 

HWO AT MARTINEZ, BEMCIA, AXD MARSIfS 
: I \ I )I»0. 

r CORNELIA. K. Coiicklin. matter; 
ateamer II. T. CLAY, S, BarroU, Hosier: 

Uondnvs, Wednosdaya and rVidaya. 
8laamer AMKIIICAN EAGLE, B. Polk master ; 
Steamer SOl'HIK, K. C. M. Chudwlek, muter : 

Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. 

FOR MAHYSVILLE. 
nmerJ. BRAGDON, Thomas Seely, master— Mondays and 

Thuredaya. 
Steamer ELLEN HENSLEY, E. C. M. Chadwick, tnaetei 
Wcdnetdaya and smurdayH. 
I l R .S i'Y JOSE. ALV190 AND S.lXT.-l CLARA. 
Steamer GUADALOUPE, s. Curd, master— will ioavo every 
Tuesday, Thursday nod Saturday, from Vallejo street wharf, at 
9 o'clock a. m. Returning alternate daya leaving San Jobo at 
3 o'clock, A. m., Santa Clara 3>4, and Alvtso 91 1 o^clock, a. m. 

FOK COLUSr, RED BLUFFS, AND INTER- 
MKOIATE LANDINGS. 

Tlie steamer CLEOPATRA, Copt Wm. II. Taylor, will leave 
Sacramento every Tuesday, at 12 o'clock M., for Red Blurts and 
intermediate landinga, from Btoreship Antelope, Rouuninj, 
will leav i Red Blutfa every Friday morning. 

The steamer BELLE, Copt Henry Oilman, will leave Sucrn- 
mento eveiy Saturday at 12 o'clock M., for Red Blulft and In- 
termedinte landings from storeehip Antelope. Returning, will 
leave li^l HKuls every Tuesday and Thursday morning,ot 9 oik, 

The Btenmer ORIENT, dipt. Carpenter, win leave Sacra- 
mento far Red Blutia every Thursday, at 12 o'clock, m.; return- 
in:.', leaves Red BlutFa every Sunday. 

t3p Freight by the above boats must be paid for on delivery. 

For particulars apply at the office of the Company, Jackson 
street, between Battery and Front, to 

R, CHENERY, President. 

H. N, S0.01RK, Vice President SO tf 



For Sncrnmeiilo ami IVInrysvtllc. 

~ w THE new and splendid steamer QUEEN CITY, 
L^ C. R. Bahclay, master, will leave Pacific wharf, 

- Puebday, Thurtduy and Saturday 'it -4 o'clock, p.m., con- 

with the ateamer ENTERPRISE for Moryeville. 
■ Freight to Sacramento $3 per ton, until further notice. 
For further particulars, apply to 
v3-9 E. CHAPMAN, Agent 



Freights to Sacramento, #10 per Ton. 

f ...g-i r^K FREIGHTS by the QUEEN CITY, will be 
tsiiTi- Un ^tf Ten Dullni'B per Ton, until lurther nol 
vd -J E. i:iIAPMAN. Agent 



Sttuiiilxmt Line of Omnibuses. 

THE Proprietorof the above Line bavin 
made 1 1 <■■ cmenta with the proprietors ol 
! ■■ principal Hotels, will, on and alter Uon- 
ilnv. December lBth, run I Imnibaaea to convey Pai 
■ ■ 
■0 more Ommbusi tbed Drrlvalof 

■ ■ . ■ . .!iv Hotel for 

. ken to any part of the City, between Broad> 

tton street, for the ■ ■ 

■ ■ ! ', $1 SO. 

in Merchant mreet, juft below Montgomery, opposite 
I Co.'s MAUT1N T. CHAHP1S 
?& Propi 1 



Cnllfomtn Stagr < ompnny. 

imcntn. 
HTAl ularly for the followuii! 

■ a, Yankee 

• Northern 
k A M. 



J. I*. Ditto. ian, 



HOTELS. 



Orleans Hotel, 



ng Boom era 1 



nek mikI 

Room. Reading 
f u p pU-.l with the choice 



'■■<iii.ii ar« set sport lur 
- 'ly fivawbad, 
«r a also leased ■ and K 

fur Lodgins: Aportmeai*, srluch are :um: ImiI in 1 > 
I tamDaer, which, added to th- Hotel, will sjford asapss sACoamso- 

•Ur 1. ■ ti* 
I The ' Orl.^11-" 1- as»o the Depot and OAectV theOsJlforaU 
Stags Co. , : r. ta whtdi pmtcm Staga katva daily ht all pons 
-rate. 

ftora. 






> peraosw 

MBaaOdMSns] with t<ic^}« :■■■--.-.: funi- 



bvr handred boardefs. 



Mirriv't Fifrr-eest Western Ha 






it- J. MURRAY 



»*r. en 

fP ■-.-- .— . - ||f ,, m riTJ*iTi 

ML t«r Uonss 

«rd, bythffday .rwtrtioi wrfl tahtan car* ol "3ft 



& 



PtTinlaot Mstwfl for Mrs!** 

: nVst ■ttrtotsal 
a>SBaa*n or 

TV ■ m a<rS*-i vdl rive all infctrwMOc-B and f%r- 



•r-v«.-*ntv*Al oi him 
r A,-»t«- 



MISCELLANEOl 



SOLIDIFIED M K 

MAN»;KACTOHKn BT 

31MUEL T. BLATOHPOR- 

rOR 8ALK BV 

BINGHAN & REYNOLDS, 
»Oi San 

THE PRESERVED MILK Is made from PURE FRESH 
MILK, combined with crushed sucar, and when reduced 
tollqi i, 1 1 :.! t ;d in the directions, can 00 iwed tor all purposes 
■" ■! Milk isuseii, aa it b ■Imply Pure Milk and Sugar. 
1111 Iflblo [ha one pound onob equal to five plots of pure 
nulk. The j>roprietor recommends with confidence tho article 
[° ' ' r>oi - n 1 -..ii, iw propcrtiea of «elf>preservadon 
huv " l: ; heen . l! 1 ted during the lo*t eighteen month*. To 
the WHALINCi interests ita value is inuetimable, and to travel- 
ers by laud or eea, (especially when uccomprmied by young 
chUdron) it recommends iUolf by ita portablcnciu and the 
Incdity with which it may be , ■ 1 

-,. Certificates. 

lhe proprietor would call Uie attention of Uic public to the 
following ccrtiluMi 

New York, April 4, 1W4. 
Mr, S. T. DUitckford— 

Dear Sir: In answer to your inquiries relative to the pre- 
paration of Solidified or Preserved Milk, having used it on my 
last voyage to San Francisco, I can with the utmost confidence 
recommend it to Eea-foring men aa being the be»t article of the 
kind I have over seen or used, retaining, as it docs, the taste 
and flavor of fresh milk. Yours, &c,, 

, O. R. MUMFORD, 

Master of Clipper Ship "Tornado." 

Extract from a letter from a Californian, ) 
Datctl May 31, 1854. j 
" In regard to the Solidified Milk which you entrusted to me 
for tho purpose of testing the merit of the preparation, I can 
with confidence Bay that it. bas proved entirely satisfactory. I 
have a port ion of it yet remaining in as good condition us when 
yiiu pave it to me, and it will, I have no douht, keep for years. 
The preparation will be n great luxury to the sailor, as it will 
enable bun to enjoy an article ot food that has hitherto been 
supposed could only be had on shore. 

Very respectfully, yours, Ac EARL BARTLETT." 

Extract of a letter from Rev. M. Willinme, ( 
Dated Valparaiso, Aug. 9, 1853. j 

" But the Tablets of Milk prepared by S. T. Blatchford & Co. 
were the climax of comtort, I would say, let no one ^o to KB 
without them. I have a lew now left m my room us perfect at* 

when first made." 

April, 1853. ; 
Mr. Samuel T. nialchfora-~ 

DeakSir: Home twelve months since I heard of your pre- 
paration ot Milk and procured a sample, a portion ol which I 
tried at the time and found it good, When pi pa ::; lor ticil 

last December, l tried the balance, which proving equally an 

good as months before, I procured several pounds, and during 
the voyage to and from Europe, have had the milk on the table 
every day, mid have found it excellent. 

I have used several preparations of milk, and have no lictit.n- 
tion in pronouncing yours tho heat I consider it Just the thing. 
In future voyages I anal! endeavor to have a supply 1 

Yours, very respectfully, RICH. 3. CORNING, 

v3-4 Master oi Clipper Ship " Rapid/' 

SOUTH WICK Si CO. 1 i 

GRAND RAFFLE. 

$30,000 for one Dollar 

ly THE FIRST GRAND PRIZE is, probably, tho best 
paying property in Sacramento county, fU 

The Well Known Dairy! 

Owned nnd Conducted by Henjiimin Southwick and Sautbwick 
<t Co., for the Inst four years, consisting of 139 of the best 
MILCH COWS in the country -.obo, THREE HORSES, Milk 
Wagon, Cons, Pans, Household Furniture, Good Will ol the 
some, >ftc; hi ...'... ent ti iclosi wot to 

f ■ 1 ■ . ■ 1 mi .4i t oio per month, ixcmsii 

whole win be transferred in perfect 
order, asdic business will bo continued up to 
known who is the luckly one. Tbe above doacribed property 
mukee up the 

First Orand Prize 930,000 

2d (Jr.. I 1 LOGO 

500 

4th. A 1,000 

300 
«lh, 1 * 100 

HI 

each ' , .ml viilu'-d 11 r $l,;.i«i 

15,000 

17llt, 1 heavy Gold Hunting Watch.. . 200 

18th, 1 heavy ' ■ 

19th, I 150 

30th, I henvy 1. 125 

r (/. OF PHIZES, «*M,-,H). 
Tbe I. .1;: i' ■ ■ ■ 

1 . 1 Ion i;i vi ■» 

;. . 

■ 1 . ,■ 

they would r>-.-|. 

POUTHWICK h. CO. 
We t'" Propri- 

,.-. . ■' , 

in the •aaaa,ba-V' 

■ .1. .- in u> 

btanf oosnniej I ■ •-.- md d •. : ■■ Property 

W. 8. COTHRIM a; H W. ' itKX, 

., 

J It WM lid, 

JOHN I 
iod Rilffled for c. 
■tujep i Dtreet, oppose • 

v3-X 
i'Kt--fih' ■< 1 ■■■rra," 

IID1A I ^1 1 m '■( -. 

Oaaaaav 

1 ■ ■ 

ntetsthsc should awaken a g»aerat nv 

to mm tho* vbJwsW* and r--nj»e proof ol 0»t rm>*t r%- . 

ansmtjiwi 

■ 

tir,.-ui- ' 

race have brt no rocord, nnd thn pnasvc inbss novo on know. 



Ihey norhhan^aT ran ftnd aoy 1 
fin «r the hsw ni ii of w proent rofta. 
That Chanf sow •wavort* 

hlOM ~ 



aore, and, as it 

nsnnfiy Amytmttai wioh rti.afc, u.^-u>'tt wt«b ■■*.*■ homm aad 

tar isMhWia m hnpes toss s isnliiiit 
rmmmywummmitmmrmxiHt v 

runs a. - r • b<>rt can. Admtmmm 50 ct». 



HOVVAKD BUBKAL»AILa* A CO., 
.***!• D-*>«. in Drufo, lUHiMI, lSiajM. I 
.-■ - y ansl wamsy ArtialM, 



\\ 



WA&uai * sox. 



•n 



Mrstf. acas 4oor aa|^T 



«"H 



40 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER 



Uariitu's. 



THE PRESS. 

BY WM. OLAND BOTTRNB. 



A million tongues are thine, and they ore heard 
Speaking of hope to nations in the prime 
Of Freedom's day, to hapten on the time 

When the wide world of spirit shall be stirred 

With higher aims than now— when mun shall call 
Each man hia brother— each shall tell to each 
His tale of love— and pure and holy speech 

Be music for the soul's high festival ! 

Thy gentle notes are heard like choral waves, 
Reaching the mountain, plain, and quiet vale — 
Thy thunder-tones are like to sweeping gale, 

Bidding the tribes of men no more be slaves ; 

And earth's remotest island hears the sound 
That floats on ether wings the world around 1 

Of all the Devils avoid the Bloes. — Re- 
member this is a comical world, given to ealcala- 
tion— therefore, if you would thrive and have 
" tallow covered kidneys," you must tickle the 
community and cut melancholy. Nobody wants 
to listen to distress if he can pogsibly avoid it — 
in a word, misery is a "dent bore" and won't be 
tolerated, A comedian can extract his hundred 
dollars a night, from almost any community — a 
beggar is doing a deuced good business if he 
raises two loaves of bread. For children to com- 
plain is all very well, Mr. Ferguson, but for a 
man with good sense to go about like a dog with 
a scorbutic cranium — is a ridiculous waste of 
good grunting, that might better be kept for the 
cholic. Even the character of Cicero is lessened 
by the complaints he suffered to escape him ; and 
who can read the sad things written by the ban- 
ished Ovid, without despising the man whose 
misfortunes debased, whereas they should have 
txalted his mind. Men who have experienced 
evils which are really of a trivial nature, should 
bo in haste to forget them. These things are im- 
important to themselves ; but why should they 
suppose them sufficiently interesting to engage 
the attention of others? Again, we say. if you 
have trouble, just keep it to yourself; a jolly fel- 
low can raise a half eagle at any time, a dismal 
individual could noL effect a loan of one and nine- 
pence if his soul depended on it. He cheerful, 
therefore, for your own interest. Or. to condense 
the whole sermon into one line, "laugh and grow 
fat." " Everybody does it." who has any expec- 
tation of rising iii the world.— Albany Knick. 

Pdmpkixs in Paris. — There was lately exhib- 
ited in Paws a pumpkin weighing 478 pounds. 
We understand, says our resident correspondent, 
that as soon as the Empress Eugenie heard of it, 
she instantly sent for a slice, and had it made 
into a pie for her private delectation. Louis 
Napoleon coming in a few moments alter, scented 
the delicacy preparing in the kitchen, for he was 
well acquainted with the article, having in by 
gone days, when in New York, often bought a, 
three-penny slice at the street corner. After the 
pie had been duly baked, the Empress proceeded 
to taste it, and was so delighted with it, that shi 
made way with the whole of it, leaving her royal 
consort with his mouth watering for the delicacy. 
He instantly set out with his staff to the place 
where the pumpkin was exhibited, and found the 
streets in its vicinity crowded with such a dense 
mass of Frenchmen, who were quarreling will: 
each other for precedence in obtaining slices, that 
to see it was impossible. He instantly ordered 
out a regiment to drive away those surrounding 
it, seize the pumpkin, and bear it to the Ro) al 
Palace, where a small portion of it is yet remain- 
ing under the care of a file of soldiers. A few 
daring spirits attempted to cut slices in defiance 
of the sentry, but being threatened with the guil- 
lotine, they have since desisted. 

Louis Napoleon fearing the crowds who maybe 
drawn to such exhibitions would become ungov- 
ernable, and by association of ideas (connecting 
pumpkins with thoughts and Yankee freedom) 
be led to convert these monsters into barricades. 
has ordered that pumpkins shall no longer grow 
to that enormous size, but shall be limited to a 
weight of 100 pounds. — New York Picayune. 

A Treasure Costing no Money. — Which 
will you do— smile and make your household 
happy, or be crabbed, and make all those young 
ones gloomy, and the elder ones miserable? The 
amount of happiness you can produce is incal- 
culable if you but show a smiling face and a kind 
heart, and speak pleasant words. Wear a pleas- 
ant counteance; let joy beam in your eyes and 
love glow on your forehead. There is no joy like 
that which springs from a kind act or a pleasant 
deed, and you will feel it at night when you rest. 
at morning when you rise, and through the day 
when about your business. 

When Philip Henry, the father of the cele- 
brated commentator, sought the hand of the onlv 
daughter and heiress of Mathews in marriage, an 
objection was made by her father, who admitted 
that he was a gentleman, a scholar, and an excel- 
lent preacher, but he was a stranger, and " thev 
did not even know where he came from!" "True," 
said the daughter, who had well weighed the ex- 
cellent qualities and graces of the stranger, ■' but 
I know where he is going, and I should like to 
go with him;" and they walked life's pilgrimage 
together. 

"Sally Mauder safe?" said Mrs. Partington 
as her eyes fell upon an advertisement. " Do tell 
mo, Isaac, who this Sally Marnier is, and what 
she's been doing, that they've got got her sufc ? " 
"I don't know what she's been a doing," said 
Ike, " but I guess she's a sister to Jerry." " Jer- 
ry who, Isaac?" "Why, Jerry Mauder," said 
Ike." 



BANKERS. 



Daniel D. Page, | David Chambers, 1 Francis W. Page, 
Henry D. Bacon, Henry Haight, I Sacruraento City, 

St. Louis, | San Francisco. | 

PAGE, BACON, & CO.. 

BANKERS, Montgomery, corner of California street, San 
Francisco, draw at eight, in sums to suit, on — 

Geo. Peabody &. Co London. 

F. Huth & Co London 

American Exchange Bank New York. 

Duncan, Sherman &. Co New York, 

Atlantic Bank Boston. 

Philadelphia Bank Philadelpliia. 

Josiah Lee &. Co Baltimore. 

Louisiania State Bank New Orleans. 

Page & Bacon St. Louis. 

Hutching^ & Co Louisville. 

T. S. Goodman & Co Cincinnati. 

S. Jones & Co Pittsburg. 

Gold Dust and Exchange purchased at current rates. 12 

VAN VLECK, READ & BREXEL, 

BANKERS, corner of Commercial and Montgomery streets 
draw at sight, in sums to suit, on 

Ocean Bank New York. 

Bank oi North America Boston. 

Mechanics" and Farmers' Bank Albany 

Drexcl & Co Philadelphia. 

Josiah Lee & Co Baltimore. 

J. B. Morton, Esq Richmond. Va. 

Gen. Win. Larimer Pitt-burg, Pa; 

A. J. Wheeler, Esq Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A. D. Hunt, Esq; LouL-ville, Ky. 

J R, Macmurdo & Co New Orleans. 

Also, on Detroit, Mich/; Memphis and Nashville, Tenn., Co 
lumbus, Ohio : Norfolk, Va and Charleston, South Carolina. 
_l ________^__^_ 

ADAMS & CO., 

BANKERS, Montgomery street, San Francisco. Bills oi 
Exchange drawn on any oi our Houses in New York, 

Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Washington, Cincinnati, New 

Orleans, St. Louis and London. 

Also payable at the following Banks — 

Merchants' and Furaicrs' Bank Alhnny 

Utica City Bank U tica 

Bank ol Syracuse Syracuse 

Bank of Auburn Auburn. 

Bank of Attica Buffalo 

Rochester City Bank Rochester, 

George Smith Si, Co. Cliicatio. 

Alex. Mitchell, Fire and Marine Iua. Co. Milwaukie. 

Michigan State Bank Detriot. 

Com. branch Bunk of the State of Ohio Cleveland. 

Clinton Bank ...Columbus, Ohio.' 

13^ Money and Gold Dust received in Special Deposits, and 

General Deposits, received from merchants, mechanics, and 

others. 3 ADAMS &. CO 

Tlic Pacific Loan autl Security Bank. 

MONEY will be received on deposit in sums of Ten 
Dollars and upwards, for which Cerriticate-i of Deposit 
will be issued, bearing date the first or fifteenth of the 
month, uayable on demand, or fit specified time?, at the option 
of the depositors. If payable on demand, they wilt be Without 
i?iicre.sr, unless the money remain on deposit one month, in 
which case they will draw interest of one per cmt.permonth, hut 
no interest for fractional parts of a month. !f deposited for 
specified limes, certificates will be issued bearing init and a half 
per tent, per month interest for such time. Interest will cease 
at maturity; so that if depositors desire to continue their de- 
posits after their certificates tall due, they must be presented 
for pavment and renewal ; otherwise intercut cOBSes. 

The money deposited is used only in luana guaranteed by us 
and in all cases amply secured by Mortgagefi, Smte, County 
and City Stocks, M^rchandiee. mid other nu!'e collaterals, taken 
in the name of " MARRIOTT & WHEELER, Trustees for 
Depositors with Paciric Loan and Security Bnnk." 

A register is kept at all times open to depositors for inspec- 
tion, in which appear their name-, the number of certiricatea of 
deposit Usued, and the fccuritics upon which the money de- 
posited has been placed. Depositors thus not only have the 
personal security offered by nil banks, but in addition have the 
benefit of the securities taken and guaranteed byus, and the 
facility of knowing what disposition has been made of their 
deposit. FREDERICK MARRIOTT, 

ALFRED WHEELER. 

No. 08 Merchant street, San Francisco. 19 



HORTICULTURAL, &e. 



THEODORE PAYNE. SQUIRE P. DEWRY. 

THEODOBE PAYNE & CO., 

REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AUCTIONEERS. 

OFFICE AND SALES-BOOM CORNER CALIFOBNIA AND MONT- 
GOMERY STREETS. 



THEODORE PAYNE AUCTIONEER. 



f^p 3 Messrs. PAYNE &. CO. respectfully inform the public 
thut they have established themselves as above, for the purpose 
of transacting the 

Real Estate business, in all its branches, 
For the conducting of which they esteem themselves peculiarly 
qualified, by having given it their special attention tor over two 
yearn past, and made themselves familiar with all questions 
ati'ecting titles, &c. &c. 

They will give tnelr especial attention to the public sales of 
e-tatc, by Administrators, Assignees, Receivers, Mortgagees, 
&.C., carefully cumplying with the torms of law. 

A Register for Property, nt either public or private sale 
always open at their ollice 20 6u 



To Farmers and Gardeners. . 

WICKERSHAM'S 

Celebrated Patent WroughtlronFarmFence. 

FC R sale — Wickersham's far-famed Patent Wrought Iron 
Fence, for enclosinc and sud-dividiiu; lands. It canbefur- 
nished at but little above the cost of ditching, and is much more 
preferable, because it does not require u heavy annual expend- 
iture to keep it in repair; it cannot be destroyed by the tires 
which so constantly sweep over prairie and mountain, requiring 
wooden leucoa to be renewed, nor curried awtiy by Hood from 
the overflow of the low lands ; it is free from decay, which 
places it beyond comparison with wood or any other material 
now in u*e ; it is valued the most highly Where it DOS been 
tried the most thoroughly; it i» light and graceful, yet strong, 
nnd cuimot be broken down by horses or cattle. The testimony 
which has been given by those who have used it In the Atlantic 
State?, is sufficient to recommend it to the iarming public of 
California. 

A complete model is now an exhibition at the State Agricul- 
tural Fair, at Musical Hall, Bush street, near Montgomery, 
where a full description may be seen, with the testimony ol 
those who iiave erected it in the Atlantic Suite*. 

Farmers are invited to examine this fence, as there has never 
been any ol the same kind in this country previous to the ar 
rival ol thU lot, and from its peculiar construction there i» not 
the least doubt but that it will be extensively used in this State. 

J. T, Beaton bos now on hand, and will be constantly receiv 
ing supplier from the manufacturer, which will enable him to 
nil orders t*> almost any amount. 

For particulars address J. T. HESTON, 

At Warren's Agricultural Rooms; 
Or, P. COCGINS, car. Sacramento and Pike streets 

October 9, 1354. 15 



Artesln.it Well Boring. 

WE would respectfully inform the public that we are fully 
prepared to take contracts in the above operations in a 
manner to guarantee Hiitiafaetion or no charge will be made. 

Smith &. Van Dyne having associated themselves with an 
old and experienced operator from the East, who challenges the 
world to compete with hirn in all the brunches connected witli 
the above business, are fully confident to guarantee success in 
nil contract* that we may undertake, and wan-ant the work for 
one year. We have alao implements for boring through stone 
to any depth, and all work done on the most reasonable terms. 

For the satisfaction of those wanting anything in the above 
Hop, we would refer to Thomas Fallon, San Jose; Rufus S. 
Eella, ot Haworth & Belli ; M. A, Sullivan, New Custom House; 
Wteht <fc Co., 137 Jueknon street, &c., &e. 

We can do work cheaper thun any other operators, for two 
reasons : 

1 t. Because we are prepared to work on a most extensive 
scale 

2d. Because we understand all branches connected with the 
above business, mid nre, therefore, able to work with certainty. 

All orders left at the What Cheer Souse will be promptly at- 
tended to, SMITH & VAN DYNE, Contractors. 

N. B, — We also refer to Warren St Son, publishers of the 
" California Fanner," who have seen and known the character 
i of the work done. 7 



Smith's Pomological Gardens, 

Banks of the American Rivtr, two and a half mites from 
Sacramento city. 

THE proprietor of the Gardens would respectfully invite all 
who are engaged in "Nursery and Gardening" tu visit his 
grounds. He will be happy to show to them, ready for sale, 
this loll, as tine a collection of 

Fruit Trees, Ornamental Trees, Grape Vines, Shrubs, 
Flowering Plants, and Green Haute Plan's, 
as can be found in all the great Sacramento Valley. 

The proprietor would call particular attention to his collec- 
tion of Peaches, believing that the specimens exhibited by 
him in Sacramento and San Francisco markets have been un- 
surpassed in size, quality, or flavor. 

The collections of Pear Trees will equal any in the country ; 
theee, with nil the new varieties, will he offered this autumn. 

The undersigned believes his collection worthy a visit to his 
grounds of all who are interested in Gardening and Orcharding. 

The subscriber will oner this autumn Five Tons Vegeta- 
ble Garden Seeds, that have been raised upon his own 
grounds. These seeds have been grown with care and will be 
sold at wholesale for the present, at the Gardens. 

Persons in want are invited to eall upon us, and we will make 
reasonable term-.' 

Fruits, Boquets, &c, will always be furnished at short notice 
at the Gardens. 

The proprietor returns his thanks for the liberal patronage 
of the past, and hopes for a continuance of such favors. 

10 A P. SMITH, Proprietor. 

Golden Gntc Nursery, 

Corner of FoUom and Fourth streets, San Francisco. 

OFFICE — NO. 170 WASHINGTON STREET. 

THE attention of the public is requested to a large collection 
of the flowering Plant*, now for sale at this Establishment, 
embracing the most extensive assortment in the State; among 
which may be found — 

Camelia JapOniCHS, in seventy varieties; 
Perpetual blooming Roses, of all the classes; 
Mues and climbing Ruses, do do; 

FuSChias', a choice collection ; Heliotropes, in variety ; 
Rose and Lemon Geraniums ; 
Lemon-scented Verbenas, Flowering do, Arbutillums, Azaleas, 
Orleanders, Passifloras, Honeysuckles, Carnations, Dahlias, 
Bulbous Roots, &c, &c; and a general collection ol Green- 
house plants and ornamental shrubbery. 

Catalogues lor 1955 will be ready on the 1st of December, 
nmi will tie forwarded on application. 

Orders for any part of the Suite, will he promptly attended 
to, on application to IX NeCsov, No. 171) Washington stree: — or 
to the proprietor. (T-'Jin) W. C. WALKER. 



Fruit Trees .* Fruit Trees ! : 

WE have for sale at our Nursery at the Mission San Jose- 
Five Thousand large Apple Trees : two thousand ol 
them of extra size Many of them will hear fruit the next year. 
Two Thousand Peach Trees, choicest kind — large and hand- 
some trees, 

Pear Trees on the Quince as well as Pear. 

Fifteen Hundred Cherry Trees from two to four feet high. 

Grape, Fig, Quince, Apricot, Nectarine mid Almond Trees 

in less quantities. All the above we guarantee in quality, and 

we warrant them what they should he, and will sell at prices 

to suit the times. 

Apple Trees f>w $100 to #2 50 

Peach, Pear, Cntrny, from 150 to 3 50 

Extra sized tr»' _s in proportion, 

BEARD & LEWEI.LF.N, Mission San Jose. 
Orders with Warren &. Son, cornel ol Montgomery and 
Ci-l'i .una streets, will be promptly attended to. 19 6m 



MISCELLANEOUS. 




COLLINS & CO., 
P R A C T I A L HATTERS, 

(PREMICM 1IAT STORE,) 

157 Commercial street, San Francisco. 

THE undersigned would take this opportunity to return their 
thanks to their friends and the public generally torthe very 
liberal share ol patronage Which they have received. They take 
pleasure in now announcing that t-gey are determined that no 
one shall surpass them in the beauty, or finish, or quality of a 
Hat; that no gent shall wear n liner Hut than can be found at 
Ci'Lliks & Co. 's Warehouse. 

The proprietors of this establishment exert themselves to 
manufacture to order the latest styles and most approved pat- 
terns. The stock of HATS and CAPS, of every kind, now 
on hand, cannot be surpassed in this city. 

17 COLLINS A CO. 



San Francisco ahead of the World I 



Ever on, on apac 

antf 




flfew Invent Ion! 
BU1J£IJ2Y*S STEAM DRY KIL..V. 

THE undersigned tnkes this opportunity to oiler to the ciri- 
zens ot California, Oregon and Washington Territory,. the 
valuable invention hereby announced. One oi the greatest 

wants of California and vicinity, for year--, has been the means 

of preserving her products bo as to have a continued supply 

during the late months. The vegetable product-- to mi immense 

amount are annually lost at the- approach of the rainy season, 

its long continuance, and the exposure that necessarily results 
to those products from the season ; and the vast quantities that 

are exposed and accumulated in warehouses and Dlew here, have 
demanded some method of preserving these Irnmense and valu- 
able crops, that otherwise would be a loss to the producer and 
to the State. The los* of the- Potato and Onion crop last year 
would Count ahnoHt a million of money, and the loss the present 
year will be heavy, wii*out preservation. 

The undersigned, holding the •■ Patent Right of the Steam 
Dry Kiln," oflers tins Invention with the confident a 
that it is the very thing needed — that it i* the "< pltt4 "lira for 
this very want. It has been thoroughly tried and approved, 
for these products, and for 'irain also, it has bees tried for 
Lumber, to which it has been more particularly applied in the 
States, for there the Vegetable nroductsdo not require bo much 
care ns here. To shippers of Grain this invention removes all 
the difficulty in sending Grain on long voyages, and under the 
drying process of this valuable invention our Grain growers 
can now send their Grain to New York with safety. 

The proprietor need.- only to append the following certifi- 
cates. The name oi Henry i- Ellsworth, Esq., carries a weight 
that is convincing to intelligent men, and the other evidences 

should be 

The model DOS OOn be placet! on exhibition at 

the office of Warren &. Son, whe»e all Information can be bad, 
JO-SHUA BUTTS, Proprietor of Patent. 

A Diploma and Silver Medai 
Wag awarded to the inventor at the last New York State Agri- 
cultural Fair, held ut Rochester, u a co Eunonial ol its superior 
merits. 

Letters from Hon. H. L. Ellsworth. 

Lafayette, January 7, 1853. 
DraaSir: I congratulate you on the completion of your 
Dryer. I have for a long time urged the Lmpoi tunce of extract- 
ing the moists re from grain and flour before shipment, to pre- 
vent fermentation. Your phm will obviate the difficulties 

hitherto experienced. There can no longer be any doubt that 
18 pounds of water can tie taken from a barrel of meal, and IS 
pounds from a barrel of flour without effecting the taste or ap- 
pearance of the pame. Experiments at Lafayette show this, 
ffor is it a less gratifying circumstance that when the dour or 

meal is cooked, it reabsorbs proportionately more water, tliUM 

saving freight and the purity ot the article. If the moisture is 
extracted, il must be obvious this meal will seep lor long voy- 
ages, passing through the hottest climates. To the Navy, your 
improvement is invaluable. The world has become somewhat 
skeptical on the subject of patent rights, Tue simplicity and 

compactness of your machinery enables you to exhibit a work? 

ing model, to remove in a moment any doubts as to your ability 
to sustain your patent, and prove it- utility. One feature in 
your plan deserves particular notice; in fact, this constitutes 
your main claim, viz., not drying by common ateam, or by 
fire heated pans, as has heen done hitherto, but by u-ing heated 
steam. Few persona are aware of the small expansion ofsteaoi, 
nnd how easily it can be heated to a Wgh temperature with 

little confinement. You will be able to raises stream to the 
point ol igniton, soy 600 or 700 degrees, though a Sir less bent 
will answer all your purposes. I will only say that European 

prejudice against Indian corn Is that dying away, and we may 
anticipate large ahipinanta both for mun nnd hen-t. The great 
fertility of the Wfiat, and tin- reduction ot freights both inland 
nnd on the ocean, justifies this anticipation. Wishing you suc- 
cess, I remain, yonrs reepectuUy, 

Henby L. Ellswdatu, late Commissioner of Patents, 
To Henry G. Bulkley, Edq., Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Lafayette, March 90, 1853. 
Dear Sin— I am highly pleased with your Dryer for lumber 

by liuitcd steam. It seeirw almost incredible how BOOI1 even 

green lumber can be prepared for use, Twentf-four hours Is 
all that is required. £[eam boa hitherto been used to advantage, 
bat heated Bteam has not been applied for thu purpose before 

your improvements. Every manufacturer ot lumber would find 
it profitable to erect a cheap dryer on your plan. Full nne- 

tlurd of the weight of some kinds of lumiter is removed by dry- 
ing; the saving In cartage will more than repay he expenses 
of drying. When the difference between seasoned and unsea- 
soned lumber [a considered, no one who regards good work will 
regret the trifling expense of preparing the raw material. 

Yours respectfully, Henry L. Ei,L8WonTH. 

To U. G. Bulkley, Esq., Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

lUaniSBuao, Pa., July 12, lH r >:!, 

I hereby certify that I have had charge of one ot W. (), Hie- 

kok'a Hhops where the most ol his wood work u done, that I 

put up and have used H, G. Uulkley'n Patent, Kiln, and heartily 

approve of everything W. O. Hii-kok has said about it, and am 

certain that no recommendation can be too strong in praise of 

B uid kiln [17] W. H. Sui-LENBKaoEB. 



IIurrn.li for Vance's new Dngnerreau Gallery I 

Largest Light in the "World, (over 500 feet Glass.) 

JVeio Building, cor. Sacramento and Montgomery streets, 

WJ"HY should every one go to Vance's who wishes 
W PERFECT LIKENESSES? Because he has now the 
beat arranged Gallery on the Pacific Coast, nnd not to be Bur- 
passed by any in the world. Inxtrummts containing lenses 
more perfect, and with greater power than any ever before 
used in this country. 

2d. Because he has thr. largest light in the u>Orld\ from which 
he can form three distinct lights — top, Bide, and half i-ide lights 
— that now enables him to he great difficulty which 

every artist in this city baa to contend with — namely : In order 
to obtain perfect likenesses*, different formed features require 
differently arranged lights. 

3d. Having the largest light, hi > make pictures 

in half the time of any other establishment in the city ; there- 
fore they must be more perfect, forit is well known, the shorter 
the time the more natural the express! in. 

4th. Because every plnte is carefully prepared with a coating 
of pure silver which produces the cl< ad tasting picture 

that is so much admired, and which cannot lie produced on the 
common plates, ;l- | ■ used by other artllts. 

5th. Because he has oi lai Kpenroentirjg brought 

his chemical preparations to perfection, using compounds en- 
tirely different from anything ei lis the art, which 

enables him to produce |. i - : fit every sitting, with 

that clear, soft and beautiful tone, so much admired jn all his 
picmrea. 

All thuce wishing perfect likenesses will do well to callbeforsr 
sitting elsewhere, 'and judge lor themselves. 

t-jr*" Prices as reasonable, and work superior to any in thsr 
city. 

Don't forget the place. 

fjr* New BuiMinc corner of Sacramento and Montgomery 
streets, entrance on Montgomery, next door to Auntin's. 17 



ADAMS & CO.'S 

CALIFORNIA AND ATLANTIC EXPRESS. 

OUB- Atlantic States Em - San I nmcisco on the 

1st and (Sth of each month, by the Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company'* Steamers, end IS6S the isthmus 

under the oharge of a strong guard. The Treasure forwarded 
by u- to the Philadelphia Mint, i« always deposited there previ- 
ous to that sent by any other conveyance. Our rates are lower 
than those ottered by any other House, with the same security. 
We also forward Treasure on the 1st and liith of every month 
To England, by tin; P. H. S, S. Co.'s steamers to Pennine, and 
from Aspinwall by the West India Mail steamers* 

We draw Bills of Exchange on any of our Houses in the fot 
lowing places: 

Boston, New York, Plkllnrtelplila, 

Baltimore, Washington, St. houb, 

Cincinnati, Pittsburg, LonUvlUr, 

New Orleans, London, oLc, &c n 

Also, payable at any of the following Banks : 

Mechanics' and Partners' Bank Albany 

Alex. Mitchell, Fire and Marine Insurance Co Milwaukie. 

ounercisj Branch Bank oi Suite of Ohio Cleveland- 

Utica City Bank Utica. Bank of Syracuse. ..Syracuse. 

Bank of Auburn Auburn, Bank of Attica. Buffalo. 

Rochester City B'k- .Rochester. Geo. Smith &. Co Chicago. 

M ichiga n State B'k Detroit. Clinton Bank. ..Golnmhua, O. 

l^r** In the Northern Minks we run Expressesvin our own- 
name, always accompanied by faithful Messengers, to and froirr 

the following places: 

San Francisco, Sacramento, Marysrlilc, 

Benicia, Grots Valla/, rYerada, 

Columo, PlactrvitU, or Mormon hhmds, 

Georgetown, Hangtntrn, Salmon Falls, 

Greenwood, City, Auburn, ^r., ^t 

And every other part of El Dorada, Placer and Shasta counties. 
Through Langton St Boo.'s Ycba Express, to uud from the 
following places in Yuba, Sierra and Nevada counties : 
Long Bar, Deer Creek Crossing, Park's Bar, 

Bridgeport) 8, Yuba, 
Sweettand's, 
Hoyat"fl Diggings, 
Cherokee Coi 

ii ssjngi-N.Yuba, Wumhowa Baa, 

Slate Range, Slate Range, 

Junction II Nevada limine, 

Frenchman*,* liar, gnvpire Ranch, 

Bullard'w Bar, Downicvilte, 

Mtnesota Diggings, Kanaka Creek, 

Goodyeor's Bar, and Emery's Crossing, Middle Yuba. 
Sacramento and Stockton, 
eta Benicia in theSouriiKRN Mines, we run an Kxprees :r. our 
own name, always accompanied by lolthful Messengers, to and 
from San Francisco, Stockton, Bonora, Mokehimac Hill, Col- 
umbia, Mariposa, 4c„ by Brown's Kxprkss, from Stockton to 
all the Camps in the Southern Mine-. 

Our Bills of Exchange 
can be procured at, and Treasure forwarded U> us for shipment, 
from any of the above ptaces. In all of th<* above places wo 
liave Brick Vault* awl Iron Sofcsfot the .security of Treasure 
entrusted to us»and on board of steamboats on any of the uhove 

routes, we have Iron So/U for the security ot nil valuable pack* 
ages transported by us. 

Ixsuranck. — We have made arrangements for insurance to 
the extent of One Million Dollar*, on any one shimsent, and 
are empowered to insure for othiM* parlies on Gold Hint, Bare, 
Coin and Merchandise to nnd from New York and this city, by 
endorsements on Billa of Lading, at the tune of shipment 

7 ADAMS & CO. 



Sicard's Bar, 
Kennebec Bar, 
Union Bar, 
RiiecV Bar, 
Foster's Bar, 
Wiuslow's Bar, 
Oak Valley, 
Indian Valley, 
Slelghville, 
Cox's Bar, 



French Corral, 
Boston Bar, 
Hunt's Kancb, 
Barton'o Bar, 



Boston Clipper Strc-1 Plow, 

Manufactured by R>tgglet, tfouret Sf Mason. 

THIS splendid Plow i« made after the style and form «f the 
famous Eagle Plough, bo universally known. This form of 
Plow in all its parte has been considered the most perfect yet 
Invented, having taken premiums in every State in the Union ; 
also at the World's Fair. 

The present Plow baa [octured by Messrs. Rug- 

gle?, Nonrse &. Mason, with ■ I luiished 

style, of the very best steel, and may now no considered the 
highest finish ana moat complete Plow: and the anderalgned 
wi-ii the Dnltiniora ol California to eail and examine the Nunc 
at their place of business. TRBADWELL A ft), 

Cor. of Battnry and California streets, San Pran 
3-1 TKEADWELL & CO., Mary B »illa 



2).mt :?)!!! i 



VOL. IU. 



S-3;difiil £>H.n! .*.*§< 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1855. 



NO. 6. 



Of California farmtr 

AND JOURNAL OK ISKFll SCIENCES. 
PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY MORNING. 

BY WARREN U SON. 
Offirr [n 
Tbbm^ toll i ; ir.ie. For u club 

Of five ■ -..->: I • 

A limited number of A cd i air rates, 

AGENTS. 

- throughout the United 

-: 

M . 

KlO ! ' 10 ocnto City 

mid County 
Messrs. Lanoton & Co.for DotcnicriUe, Foetcr's Bar, Good- 



ildi Bay, Trtnidad, Crescent City, 
Port Or, i UrreT, and the entire northern 

i i- T, eland & MoCoomdb- Crwrcn* Cii,/, Port Orford, 

'ii'': ■ ' . ' "i ■ ■■ 1st "'■ Building ; KTir- 

BALI.' 



' " ■ 
D. G \, ' ' ' I 

' " [well & Co., ' 
James & Civ. Vi 
A. W. PoO 
Niuih & D 
C. O. Burton. N/fli 

Dr.Thoi -I Hurvey, P. M.. 

i 1 i 
Cram, R/>gei ' ' 

Parher A Roman. 

HuiMtiilA Chiitrili.'ilniii.r.i'/i 

.',.'. ion San Janr. 

We desire our Aironte io 
month, tli' inon 
tlie nmounl due the office, 



A. t! iev?ell, r. M., Columbia. 

1. C illin, Wofrrfuswe Hill 
Gen, M, M. Mc&trver. Mount 

Fan,,, 0. T. 
Dudley & Ci 

1 ' ' : 

Kirk St Brother, Sacramento. 
Bilker & Hamilton, " 

Ti s .v Robeite, Sonera. 

A. Ill Murdoch, t'- U., 1 

.1. ll, TUorburnA Co. W ■ 
■ 

to us mi ti-- l-i "l every 
mid iiie prospects, together with 



LETTERS FROM ROVING JACK. 

MO. V. 
Tho Corner that Is Left Out — Legislation for the Far- 
mer Needed— Conflict n; Intorest of the Stock-raiser 
and Farmer — A New County Wantod, &c. 

Mbrced Riveh, Jan. 27. 1855. 

Editors Parmer: The clodhopper in this" vi- 
cinity, from his peculiar situation in reference to 
locality, is perhaps more justifiable in being 
skeptical and not easily fulling in with tin 
ion of others that ;- > by the 

present Legislature for this corner of God's moral 
vineyard. I say corner, from the faet that is a 
comer, and one that has been most generally left 
out. We would most humbly ask what w 
done that we should lie D 

crcd out of the pale of Government, not by any 
means in a tax-paying point, but in refer ei 
the benefits of Legislation. The fanner, 'lis a 
melanchoh fact, has in a measure been wholly 
forgotten l.\ the California Legislature, and- more 
particularly have the citizens of the \l 
River, in their pel il inns Io that honorable body, 
been entirely disregarded. We I.' 
that such will not ho the ease with the present 
Legislature; but judging from the past, thai hope 
beeotnes as it were ' in a gloomy mist of 

doubts ami fears. That there arc some founda- 
tions for these fears I shall by a bri 
of facts attempt to prove : 

For tv isidered our connec- 

tion with the iniii 

duclive of no good; we hum 1 \ i >o t i - 

of our State the liberty 
of tin ii Itural county, 

and ii there 

in tin- True, the 

miner- county 

reinon- i . He has 

osod t 

i at that tun 

ind tha 

cultun 

and no 
have a htau 

pursued to count 

debt was. t ■ nc dollar an 

ten ■ • 

to t! ■■ 



gun 
ttav. 



This winter we have attain petitioned to tho 
Legislature for a division of our comity ; the pe- 
tition is now before the Legislature, or should be. 
We want an Agricultural County; we think we 
can organize a county the government of which 
will answer the same purpose that tho present 
one does, and will not cost more than half the 
money. If the Legislature will try us, 1 think 
that wc will prove ourselves capable of self-gov- 
ernment. 

And then there is a system now in practice 
very injurious anil deleterious to the best inter- 
ests of the farming population, which practice is 
that of bringing large droves of stock into a set- 
tlement where (arming is the only occupation fol- 
lowed, and the dependence for bread — and in 
twelve hours perhaps they will destroy whole 
crops of grain, and the farmer must be the loser, 
for he has not a lawful fence. One of two things 
must be done in California — the farming interest 
of California must bo protected by legislation 
against the evils arising from destruction by 
stock of all kinds, or else we must quit farming 
and all pitch into stock-raising, every one of us. 
Hut 1 fancy that the farming interest in this 
State is only second to the mining interest, and 1 
am not, sore thai, it is i , :o id— but grant 

that it is, shoal of the farmer 

be protected according to the benefit that the 
State is to derive from it. the merchant, the law- 
yer, doctor, miner and the stock-raiser being de- 
i:i upon the farmer for bread? Suppose 
not, then he must send to 
ioiiiii m IbJ bread, and by that means send a vast 
deal o( eapilal out of the country, which if paid 
farmer will lie invested in such a manner 
iis to mill '."iiily to the comfort, wealth and 
beauty of California, and will prole* 

iid farming cannot exist 
together. Vours respectfully. 

ino Jack. 



five millions ol agriculturists appeal iu vain for 
so small a boon. 

" Represented through their societies, organized 
throughout almost every county in the Union, 
with State associations, and a national associa- 
tion, their annual gatherings already constituting 
the great national gala days of the country, with 
an agricultural .press already read by a half mil- 
lion of voters — paying the taxes of the country — 
constituting three-fourths of the people of the 
country, ami . > I I mgn ! jives to agriculture 

i ■ — no departuienl no i I < ti of kain 

_■ in' in hi ns tax us 

"In the moral world a just retribution is visit- 
ed upon acts of omission, as well as upon acts ol 
commission. The agriculturists have but to com- 
bine to punish such slighting of their claims — 
snch overlooking of themselves ami their inter- 
ests, ami insure from more faithful servants more 
faithful work. The dav of reckoning may be at 
hand." 



■WASHINGTON 3 FARM. 

Tni: following from the Maine Fanner. n 
nouncc good, and say that for spunk, l'oun-Kasi 
will carry oil the palm : 

EVERY son and daughter in the 
heard of Mount Vernon, the ho 
Ington. Itis a place to which ma' 

that gnat to . to the memory of Amer 

A move has been made in I 

men might 

and ngrienl'i 

little attend, 

haracter. Ii 



Ol iced is more preferable to harrowing in. tor 
the reason that the depths to which it is sown are-'< 
more regular, but drilling in seems preferable i 
either. 

Professor Nesbit in a lecture on Manures b 
fore an English Farmers' Club, speaks of i 
Mr. Smith, of Northamptoi I re, 
sued the practice of growing v in 
yi ars withonl the ap] ! , 
as Prof. Nesbit :- . . i . ■; 
thority. it niav h inlen . in 



■WHEAT. 

We find some valuable information relating to 
wheat culture in the Working Farmer, furnished 
to that publication by J. Payne Lowe: 

Selection or Seed. — It is of superlative im- 
portance that the best varieties of wlreat should 
lie used for seed ; and this faet, becomes still more 
apparent if there be any truth in the old and 
hackneyed phrase, that " Like begets like," It is 
supposed by many growers that the peculiarities 
of dttlcrent kinds of wheat are retained lor ' tni 
years, whin sown in localities other than i 
"to whii Care should be 

heat be free from thi 
other plants, and also that grains of inferior 
quality, rendered so by disease or the attack 

be not used. It is also of much im- 
portance that the varieties suited to the particular 
climate in which it is intend mi. be 

■ i end in those da-. id travel the 

oi distant places within a short 

Sri Seed — Although t- 

:ener- 

in eon .-.'inly, yet almost every wheat 

■ 

■ntive "f stuiil and lomoii 

univer- 
sally pursued is to wash the wheat with water, 
il'lcr which a brine is in 

then the « i ped in 

upon a iloor and as much newly 
n. It 






and Manner oi - 



thoroughly digging ami 

sows his wheal in se Ihree I 'Ct apart, 

each set consisting of threi ... i foot apart. 

At the proper time, after the arrives at ma- 

turity and has bean i i dr. Stni Ii dibbles Tils 
seed for the next cr tp, n i ding to the manner 
already described, in those ■ i paces which 

had been at rest dun Lite growth of the pre- 
vious crop, and so continued his operations for 
several years. In addition to these facts Prof. 
Nesbit goes on to state that '• During tho last 
four or live years, he has taken on an average 
from 30 to 3-f bushels per acre from his land, 
without the addition of any manure whatever, in 
the shape of guano or dung, or any other visible 
matter, lie has been manuring, however, all the 
lime; because by his constant stirring there has 
been a powerful absorption of materials from the 
air. nitre beds have been formed, and the result 
produced is the same as would follow from an 
absolute dressing o( nitral Prof. Ne 

oil also oning his remarks, that Mr. 

Smith's soil was rich in morgan i' ials; thus 

it can readily he understood, that the soil in 
taking eanionic aeid and ammonia from the at- 

; lu-rc. had a rich supply m inic ma- 

' necessary to d hence 

that by frequent and exacl admixture 

of the soil, thus facilitating chemical action by 

admission of atmosphere, that his crops of 

wheat could obtain lie ;m for 

:ioi\ lb. and Lhu ace ii in 

but after so, h titn i rate bis 

soil as already star nstitu- 

i - uco - i, 

or any 

other plant, eanuoi 

sary for its i- ical experi- 

ment fully J i .f deep 

disintegration. Mai > in the 

habit oi i i their wheat, at the rate 

of from one-half to bushel 

trance 

Ich to the 

wheat, thus liotll being 

winter killed, lb . be, ex- 

lention of wheat 

that ii the soil be 

! I ho imme- 

■» pass 
iiano* 
: thus the inter- 
ie free 



.11, on 

s IIB- 



tlu- snow »»' "-ab- 

by mulch- 

>own, 



".a the 
Id. and 

I . !'<T 



have; they arc .i 

,:' - , 

noLst - tier a I 

time. 



a usufbras a 
faet* ri 



cultural . -ess patoavja. ; 



•i in :and a 



er wbtob 
fc> bath 
Kaheaid 



»t i-.e 

:c*. frill 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



;in of wheat contains within itself the 
■ component parts of the germ and of the fibres of 
the radicle. These component parts are starch 
and gluten ; and it is evident that neither of them 
alone, but that both simultaneously assist in the 
formation of the root, for they both suffer changes 
under the action of air. moisture, and a suitable 
temperature. The starch is converted into sugar, 
and the gluten also assumes a new form, and both 
being conveyed to every part of the plant. Both 
the starch and the gluten arc completely con- 
sumed in the formation of the first part of Un- 
roots and leaves ; an excess of cither could not 
be used in the formation of leaves, or in any 
other way. 

"The conversion of starch into sugar during 
the germation of grain is ascribed to a vegetable 
principle called diastase, which is generated 
during the act of commencing germination. But 
this mode of transformation can also be effected 
by gluten, although it requires a longtime. Seeds. 
which have germinated, always contain much 
more diastase than is necessary for the conversion 
of their starch into sugar, for five parts by weight 
of starch can he converted into sugar by one 
weight of malted barley. This excess of diastase 
can by no means be regarded as accidental, for. 
like tire starch, it aids in the formation of the 
first organs of the young plant, and disappears 
with the sugar." 

Important Decision.— In lire U.S. Supreme 
Court, says the N. Y. Herald. Mr. Justice Curtis 
delivered the opinion of the Court irr the 
Alexander Lawrence et al. vs. Charles Minturn. 
The Court decided a vessel seaworthy, when the 
cargo was slowed below the deck, would he con- 
sidered seaworthy with a cargo on deck, if placed 
there by the consent of the shippers; and in the 
event of the deck cargo being thrown overboard 
in stress of weather, the shippers were not enti- 
tled to an average, nor were the owners liable on 
a charge of the unseaworthiness of their vessel. 
The judgment of the Court below, giving - 
damages, was reversed, and the libel ordered to 
be dismissed with costs. 

Something New.— The N. E. Farmer, says 
that at the Farmer's Club in Boston, there was 
exhibited lately an artificial cow, constructed for 
the purpose of weaning the calf ! — a sham brindlc, 
with sham teats, yielding milk and water ! But 
what's to be done in the matter of weaning the 
cow herself, who mourns the loss of her darling 
as if she was gifted with reason? 

The abolition of the feudal tenure in Canada, 
has been very quietly submitted to by the owners 

of estates. 



C|* California fanner. 



WAEREN b SON, EDITOBS AND PROPRIETORS. 



SAK FRaNCISCO, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1855. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

REDUCTION OF PETCE 

The henvy looses upuu the Fnruiing interests of Uie Suite 
the past year, the eenerul tlepressiun or thru interest, and the 
difcouragBmRnta resulting to all, wo know have prevented 
many who are engaged in Agriculture from subscribing to ou. 
journal the past year. Feeling desirous to meet Uieir wants as 
far as is in our power, we now offer the CALIFORNIA FAR- 
MER at SIX DOLLARS PER YEAR, PAYABLE ALHA YS 
JN ADVANCE, 

We trust this effort on our part to meet sueli eircturatancee 
will be met on tin- part of those engaged in the cultiva 
the soil with a corresponding feeling, and that all will do us 
service by sendingina goodly list of subscribers and the mm mm 
for Uie Bame. We have madeHlie price thus low, that our 
subscribers ami friends may at once send us the proof of their 
good will. 

Indies ion of clubs will be found under 

another head. 



Clubs Formed — Premiums to Subscribers. 

With the third volume, with tha opening year, we would 
offer to our friends stronger inducements than heretofore to 
makeup CLUIIS lor the FARMER. It will he .-sen by our 
"special notice, 1 ' that we shall commence with a reduction oj 
the price o/ the" ■Former." The price will now be six dol- 
lars per year, ulways in advance. No subscriptions re 
orived unless accompanied by the amount. 

To those who are disposed to form CLUBS, when we can 
send all to one address, we shall send SIX COPIES for FIVE 
NAMES, TWELVE for TEN, and TWENTY-FIVE COPIES 
for the names and amount of twenty subscriptions. 

To those, or any of our friends who will interest thru 
webcUeve this will be some satisfaction, besides promoting the 
cause of Agriculture. We hope to see good results to all from 
his proposition. 

TIIE CALIFORNIA F.UUIER. 
We have many inquiries, daily, from our friends in the coun- 
try, who tn Lte vis, desirous to make up clubs for the Farmer, 
and send us produce Tor the amount. We always do our ut- 
most to facilitate the cultivator of the soil, and wo will assure 
our friends that if they will make up clubs of five, ten or 
twenty, they can Bend their Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, or speci- 
mens of extra quality, and wo w ill allow them the full market 
price in Uie payment of the Farmer. Our friends that are iii 
arrears can send us the amount thus due, and add tbecominc 
vjlume, and wo will forward receipts for the same. . 
alougyou I good products. We do notmean — any- 

thing — but those articles that have a value, and we will take 
them. 

TO AGENTS, KOOKSELLKUS, &c. 
Wrrit a desire to extend as widely as possible the circulation 
of the Farmer, and hy this means make known all the Agri- 
cultural information wo obtain, we shall offer to Agents, Book- 
sellers, and all who desire our paper in quantifies, a price for 
copies by the hundred that will leave them a haudsomc margin. 

SPECIAL ACiENTS FOR THE FARMER, die. 
All the messengers of Adtuna 4. Co., and Wells, Fargo A Oo. 
are duly authorized by ua to receive subscriptions for the Cam 
formia Pjuut] i :i (he same; also, to receive orders 

for Fin. Ae., aud any and all businr-ss with us. 

All such business committed to either of these messengers will 
be promts i to by us. 



OAICLAMJ. 

Dor i land arc invited to call on MR. CHARLES 

STEW. Bribe for the CALWOttNlA Fabmer; he 

U luth 1 e sukcriptions and we will cheerfully 

all the I mjiloyinont. We are willing tO n-eiiVe 

rrTual, '. i.e any valuable productaol Oral quality 

in payiti M-ish our friends to enjoy our sle 
roaventenily coo. 



When We are Absent. — Duties appertain- 
ing to the great interests we serve require that 
we should be frequently absent from our office; 
this is now imperative, that we may obtain the 
most interesting and valuable data, with which 
tn servo those for whom wc speak. When ab- 
sent from our desk, we commend our friend. Mr. 
i. 51. Blooo, formerly connected with the Press 
in Connecticut, and for some time with one in 
this city. Mr. B. will receive communications 
for our p,apcr, and be ready to receive subscrip- 
tions and advance the interest of the California 
Farmer, in all its departments. 



■What Constitutes a State ? 

Tn tho inaugural address of Gov. Grimes, of 
Iowa, we recognize that tone which, when felt 
more generally throughout the Commonwealth, 
will give a. character to all our institutions and 
raise us in reputation and influence at home and 
abroad. 

When the Chief Magistrates of every sovereign 
State shall be imbued with a desire to improve 
the condition of the whole State, regardless of 
sectional or party influence ; when they shall re- 
solve to leave an impress of their labors, that 
shall be remembered for good only — then, and 
not till then, shall we see and feel all the best 
and lasting influence which our republican insti- 
tutions are calculated to exert, or were intended 
to exert by the patriot founders of that glorious 
chart of liberty to which we look for peace, pros- 
perity, and happiness. 

"Educate the people." is a watchword that 
should be heralded from one portion of our land 
to another. Educate them by every means in 
the power of each and every form of Govern- 
ment, from the primary school of a country vil- 
lage, to the richly endowed college of the sciences, 
established, encouraged and supported by the 
liberality of the nation's purse. The United 
States are now far behind every other nation, on 
the subject of education, as fostered by the Na- 
tional or State Governments. 

'Tis true, the cause of education is progressing, 
but not so rapidly as it should, or would, if the 
legislators were reminded more frequently of the 
"wants of the State." But we will not forestall 
the most excellent appeal of Governor Grimes, to 
which we have alluded ; we give a portion of his 
own words, and hope they will not be forgotten 
by any one. but acted upon, not only in Iowa, but 
in every State of our glorious Union'; and most 
especially would we commend them to those who 
regard the best interests of our own noble Eu- 
reka State. The Governor, in speaking of the 
wants of the State, says: 

"She wants educated farmers and mechanics, 
engineers, architects, metallurgists and geologists. 
She needs men engaged in the practical duties of 
life, who have conquered their professions, and 
who are able to impart their knowledge to others. 
She wants farmers who shall be familiar with the 
principles of chemistry as applied to agriculture ; 
architects and mechanics who will adorn her with 
edifices worthy of so fair a land; and engineers 
and geologists who will devclope her resources, 
and thus augment the wealth and happiness of 
her citizens. These wants can only be supplied 
by the establishment of a school of applied 
sciences. 1 have no hesitation, therefore, in re- 
commending that a University fund be appro- 
priated to establish a practical scientific or poly- 
technic school." 

Agricultural Warehouse. — It is always a 
source of pleasure to every purchaser to enter a 
warehouse where every impression you receive 
carries conviction that you are doing business at 
''head quarters;" that you are receiving the best 
quality, and at fair prices. A purchaser is al- 
ways better pleased to make a stlcction from a 
large and well assorted stock of a regular im- 
porter, than to go to those who have bought at 
second or third hand. We have now in our mind 
one warehouse at which we believe purchasers can 
be satisfied with a slock to select from, that ought 
to suit, as to the quantity, quality and price. For 
as to quantity, no one stock in our city can exceed 
it; and tho quality speaks itself No. 1 — tbc price 
being regular importers prices, purchasers can 
rely upon their being fair and equitable. We 
have been speaking of an agricultural warehouse 
known widely as Trcadwell & Co., corner of 
Battery and California streets ; and also known 
up-river as Trcadwell &■ Co., of Marysville. A 
house of this character and standing should be 
widely known as possible, for they arc evidences 
of prosperity in themselves. We wish our read- 
ers would visit their extensive warehouses, and 
we are sure they will be pleased in doing so. 



State Agricultural Society. 

The Quarterly .Meeting of the Board of Man- 
agers of the California State Agricultural Society, 
met in convention at Sacramento, on the 2d inst. 
The following named gentlemen were present, — 

C. I. Huchinson. President. 

W. W. Stowe. Vice President, 

J. L. L. F, Warren, Corresponding Secretary. 

0. C. Wheeler, Recording Secretary. 

A. Frierson, Treasurer. 

E. L. Beard, Vice President, (by proxy.) 

Oh motion of Mr. Stowe, the Recording Si 
tary was directed to procure a suitable book lor 
the records of the Society. 

Voted, That the Secretary be requested to pre- 
pare a Memorial to the Committees on Agricul- 
ture of the Senate and Assembly. 

Voted, That a Committee of three be appointed 
to prepare a List of Premiums to be submitted to 
to this board on Wednesday evening next. 

Messrs. Stowe, Frierson, and Wheeler were ap- 
pointed this Committee. On motion, the Presi- 
dent was added to the number. 

On motion of Mr, Wheeler, tho following reso- 
lution was adopted. 

Resolved, That tire California Fau.mi.ii be 
the organ of this Society, and that til 
the same, with all notices of its meetings, be pub- 
lished therein. 

On motion of Mr. Stowe, it was 

Resolved, That Hon. C. W. Cook bo elected 
an honorary member of this Society. 

On motion, adjourned to Wednesday evening, 
7th inst.. at 7 o'clock. 

0. C. Wheeler. Recording Secretary. 



Patent Office Seeda. 

Sacramento, Jan. 27, Is:,.",. 
Messrs. Editors: Having just received from 
the Patent Office at Washington, a small assort- 
ment of seeds, selected in England by the agent 
of the office. I shall be happy to distribute the 
lo such professional and amateur gardeners 
as may wish to test their value in our interesting 
soil and climate. A small quantity of the cele- 
brated "Soule Wheat" is among the collection. 
Communications (post-paid,) or personal calls at 
Tenth street, between F and G, will be received 
and answered with promptness and pleasure. 
Yours very truly, 

0. C. Wheeler. 

Note. — We commend the above kind notice to 
all our readers. It is worthy their attention, as 
emanating from the right spirit. We have re- 
ceived some of the same kind from the patent 
office, and know them to be worthy the trial. 
We also received somo through the politeness of 
Mr. W.. and recommend our friends to go and 
visit this gentleman. That will he much better 
than sending, besides seeing a fine and well culti- 
vated nursery and gardens, made so by untiring 
industry and attention. They will find pleasure 
and profit, and receive instructions from one of 
our best amateur cultivators in the country. For 
we can say, with truth, that the grounds of Rev. 
Mr. Wheeler give evidence of what can be done : 
besides, it is worth a ride of many miles to obtain 
such trees and other articles as can be fount! in 
that Excelsior Nursery, to which card we refer 
our readers. — Ed. 

1 

Dr. Gibbon's Lecture at Sacramento. — 

Well may every citizen of our State be glad to 
note the advance making toward a belter condi- 
tion of society. In our cities, schools, lyceums. 
lectures, and libraries, are rapidly springing up, 
and education, improvement, and progress, is the 
watchword. This is well. We' also notice, and 
with increased pleasure too, that our public men 
— our scientific men, and professional men of all 
classes, readily step forward to aid in all these 
public measures, and to their honor bo it spoken. 
The Pioneer Society of Sacramento, are now 
making rapid progress. They have able and ef- 
ficient officers — are rapidly collecting a library 
and museum — have established a course of lec- 
tures of a high order. Already have lectures been 
delivered by Col. E. D. Baker, Dr. Winslow, and 
Dr. Henry Gibbons, to large and appreciating 
audiences. Each lecturer by his knowledge and 
influence, has awakened an interest that gives as- 
surance of permanence. It will ever be < ur pleasure 
to aid forward all such valuable auxiliaries to the 
permanence and prosperity of our cities, towns, 
ami Stale. 

Maine Law,— We understand the ladies in 
Calevaras Co. are circulating petitions I'm. aud 
advocating the passage of a law similar to the 
Maine law, for the suppression of the liquor traf- 
fic in this State. If the ladies throughout the 
Stale move in this matter and demand of the Leg- 
islature such a law, we pity the Rcpresentati 
Senator that dares to vote against it. 



California Bacon, Hams and Pork. 

How few arc aware of ihe rapid progress that 
is now in operation for the entire independence 
of California. Our forefathers Fought, hied and 
died to win their own independence from British 
tyranny and sway ; hut from that day we have 
been paying an annual sum of "tribute money" 
to the same British tyranny. We may talk as 
much as wc please of independence, but there is no 
freedom so long as we loo); to them or receive of 
them what are esteemed as the nceessaries of life, 
or rather called necessaries, although properly 
named extravagancies; and what was true of our 
forefathers irr their efforts for independent 
true now as applied to ourselves in California, 
We need not talk of independence so long as we 
are so dependent upon other Stairs for what we 
could easily raise or manufacture within our own 
borders. 

Wc rejoice to know the struggle for independ- 
ence is commencing in earnest. Many new and 
valuable kinds of products are daily brought to 
light, also new inventions, and important discov- 
eries—all tending to independence. Among those 
recently brought to view we note bacon sides, 
hams and salted pork and beef. 

On our last trip to Sacramento we called at the 
Phcenix Market, carried on by John Rosier, and 
were requested to notice the samples of very fine 
- smoked hams, bacon sides, salt pork, beef, &c," 
all cured by this gentleman at Sacramento. Mr. 
B. also showed os the finest pork we have over 
seen in California — a splendid hog, only ten 
months old, and weighing when dressed 330 lbs., 
raised near the city by him. The sides were very 
deep, thick, hard and fat ; and those " spare ribs !" 
the very thoughts of one roasted, with cranberry 
-unci to match, seemed delicious. Well what is 
California coming to? We answer to her true 
position. Independence, when she shall raise, 
produce, and manufacture enough for all her 
wants, and keep her gold dust at home to build 
up the State. 

Festivities at Sacrameuto. 

Although San Francisco is the metropolis of 

our State, it is not the capital — and although the 

commercial emporium, yet Sacramento can and 

tier opportunities of a social nature equal 

if not superior, to any city in our State. 

We do not fear contradiction when we assert 
that the extent and influence of social I if., and en- 
joyments are more widely felt at Sacramento than 
elsewhere in California. Fashionable life, eti- 
quette, wealth, and fashion, may have a groatcr 
preponderance at the " Bay City," but the '■ Queen 
City of the Plains." will wear the crown in all 
the widely extended influences of refined social 
life. The family circle, the pleasant intercourse 
of neighborhoods, and the charms of social parties 
of pleasure, here present a degree of rational en- 
joyment no where else to be found upon the Pa- 
cific coast. 

When wc speak of the public gatherings, and 
the literary and scientific meetings, wc cannot but 
remark that they are encouraged and graced by 
the society of large numbers of intelligent women. 
To the large public halls and parties of Sacra- 
mento also, one can go without that fear to check 
the enjoyment, which is too frequently engender- 
ed in most such assemblages elsewhere, for in no 
place of the same number of inhabitants can a 
public ball be conducted with such full assurance 
of pleasure 

Under these features it is pleasant to notice the 
■Citizen's Ball " announced for the 8th inst. It 
will most assuredly be one of the most interest- 
ing assemblies of pleasure yet presented lo the 
citizens of this favored city. The managers are 
composed of some of the first citizens of the piece, 
and all the arrangements are of the highest and 
most refined character j am) there can lie no ques- 
tion but all who attend will enjoy themselves. 

California Tobacco. — Some time sinco we 
received fine samples of tobacco from S. S. Tur- 
ner, Esq., grown at Sonoia. This tobacco is of 
excellent quality, and is said by judges to be of 
extra quality. Recently we have received a par- 
cel of very handsome cigars, manufactured from 
the leaf by H. L. ( lassert. These cigars have been 
seen and tested and pronounced of very superior ' 
quality. Samples of tobacco anil cigars cm be 
seen at our otliee. 



'Tame Pigeons. — A large number of these do- 
mestic birds are now offered lor sale at $2 25 per 
pair. It is said to be very easy to raise these 
birds in this country, and they find ready gale. 
Wo would advise our friends the fanners to think 

of tlli.S. 

W E are under obligations to our friends o£ the 
Noisy Carrier's Hall, for the N. V. i'ributi 
Herald, and the Boston Journal, received by ihc 
Sam. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



43 



The Climate of California. 

T«s: fornia, especi- 

ally li . was never more i 

thou il ilie present season. II 

lor June, with the 
breath breathed a sweeter breeze 

than is now enjoyed in the central portions of our 
raiuonto valley, with her balmy 
atmosphere and her bright moonlight, steins to 
rival the vales of Italy with all their fabled 
beauty ;— but we refrain further words. 

Wc were on the prairies of Sacramento a few 
days since, and had enjoyed the delicious weatl 
there, and felt inclined to speak in the falni 
our admiration of it. when our eye fell upon the 
following beautiful thoughts, as expressed by a 
correspondent of the Sacramento Union. Their 
beauty, truthfulness and originality, so quickly 
obliterated our own humble description, that we 
laid down our pen, and quickly catching the in- 
spiration, became convinced that wo were not 
touching our own thoughts with too high a color- 
ing. Wc feel confident our renders will enjoy, as 
we have. the "pencilings" here copied, and feel as- 
sured that however gloomy the world may appear 
to them, though the '■ rafters shall bo.a great way 
off." when they begin to read, they will not fail 
to say they are nearer heaven than when they 
began ; for unless the heart be too cold they will 
see the " blue break of beauty," peering through 
the raftei 

ll is cur of the lovliest days that ever strayed 
out of heaven ! A breath of Paradise was never 
purer than the atmosphere that now rests upon 
the valley of Sacramento. The mildness of this 
delightful day has wooed me forth, and I have 
enjoyed an unusual lengthy stroll upon the banks 
of as lovely a river as ever slumbered beneath the 
skies of Scotia. Beautiful aquatic palaces glide 
along its swelling bosom, richly freighted with 
the wealth of kingdoms, and noble hearts, who 
have come to plant their standard in this Eden of 
the west. See ! here is one just passing, her decks 
are swarming with manhood in all its confidence, 
strength and pride, woman in all the dignity of 
matronly virtue, ami childhood before whom is 
only the unclouded brightness of life's early dawn. 
The piercing whistle, which but a moment ago 
heralded its approach, has died away in the dis- 
tance. ..nil the phantom of the ,l Flying Dutch- 
man" loom's up before the mind's eye. The 
snow-capped Sierra. Ncvadaswith the setting sun 
pouring a golden flood upon their dappled sides, 
Stretches tar away m the distance, their gigantic, 
cone-like peaks, pointing heavenward, as if in 
adoration of the Being who called them forth. 
They are no less objects of interest to me than 
these graceful sea gulls, dipping their tiny wings 
in the silvery wave. The same hand that fash- 
ioned and sways the universe, takes cognizance of 
birds and flowers, and the meanest of created 
things claims the same affinity with the Father 

i urselvcs. 

. The "Castle Of Indolence." to which I always 
move in the spring, lias already claimed me for an 
occupant. How can 1 work within doors, or shut 
myself up in a gloomy study, when there i 
many nooksand crevices in dame Nature's domin- 
ions unexplored ; SO many kind friends to show 
me this and that [dace of interest; such a vast 
expanse of blue sky, unbroken by a single cloud ; 
above me, the mellow moonlight with its rich 
B nri hai 

and the balmy sprii With them come 

old memories, and sacred. The past, with it? 
■t and hitter i 1 lack, and de- 

lightful associations cluster around the In 
my spirit's hark hounds buck o'er the oci 
memory, and It' in some little 

Strand at my mother's knee. The sweliin 
c assailed it 
many i t ton ; nor wave, nor rip- 

ple mi: the little shallop glides 

1 live in her 
nil the many 
isetul im her 
lips. The of girl- 
fa 

that it 
» 

middle round 
in the 

r as on such a day 
as this— its I 

and bye, ll 

iy and I 
dl be looking ! 
I 
I 

him. or the 
music < 

write. lot the 

i 



What Papers do You Send Home ? 

It ■ 

that our li 
may know how wc Ing along here. I 

• to write, and I must therefor. 
Hut what papers shall I 
Father r is a whig !— then 

and brothers are " Know Nothings," while 
ill love music, paintings, and flowers ! I 
have it ! I'll send the "CALIFORNIA 1 
Politics ain't of much ace ti and i I rw they 
had all much rather know how we live— hoc 
prosper — what we have to eat and drink— how 
our homes look, and where all attend church— 
who is married — who is dead, &c, This kind of 
news will prove much more acceptable t" them 
than all the politics, recorder's court proceedings, 
sheriffs' sales, 4c., in the world. 

Yes, what our eastern friends want to know- 
about is, human progress, improvement, home 
comforts, and such like, and I will therefore go 
and buy twenty copies of the*" California Far- 
mrr," and mail to them — these will show them 
the real comforts, capabilities, and interest, of 
California. Johnson. 

Wise man that — we like such. — Ed. 

Happy Valley Flour Mills. — Wc have 
found much of interest and pleasure in an hour 
or so occasionally spent in examining the progress 
made in the various kinds of machinery adapted 
to the mills of this State. We like the spirit of 
rivalry now springing up among the various 
establishments of our State in regard to ma- 
chinery. Such rivalry will be of great benefit to 
all, for the best machinery will produce the best 
flour, and at the least cost — and this benefits the 
consumer. Among the various kinds of im- 
provements recently introduced into our milling 
establishments, are the improved smut mills of 
Ingham's make. They are now esteemed among 
the greatest improvements yet known in this de- 
partment, and at this mill one is in succe 
operation. The Happy Valley Mills have very 
important and valuable improvements in each 
branch of their business, and the Hour from these 
mills is taking high rank. In addition to flour- 
ing, they have introduced a now mill for pre- 
paring Indian corn into hominy, grits, Indian 
meal, &c, and also various kinds of family meals. 
To all who feel interested, it will be very inter- 
esting to visit these mills; Mr. Hall, the intelli- 
gent and gentlemanly miller, will lake p! 
in showing every department. M. 
..v. Langley arc the prnprii 

The Sabbath at Sacramento.— We learn 
that a most honorable effort has been mad 
the merchants and business men of that c 

i proper observance of the Sabbath, and 
that over two hundred signatures were obtained 
of the principal and most influential merchants, 
and that many of the Jew merchants al,„ cheer- 
fully signed it. in order to have the noblii 
observed. This petition, we are inform. 
laid upon the table of (he common council, and 
although effort has been made to bring tl 
ter up for action it cannot be effected. Mo 
cerely do we regret to learn this, foi 
had hojied, would more readily and cheerfully 
sustain a proper regard fur the Sabbath than 
Sacramento. We fain would hope thai 

portan and if 

wish of It 
nnllilh make it known, and then wc 

citizens will 
it. for . their 

Mill — On 

of Mr. Ingham, to examine his new I 

- valuable im 
square on th 
probably one 
day. I 

1 have one. 



rtisements.— We have, on a 

11 .lied the attention of our friends 

in the old State, to the advantage that would ac- 

lo them by having their business cards or 

advertisements, inserted in the columns of the 

California F irhes. 

Our journal now goes into every county in this 

1 ui and Washington Territ" i 

it is also circulated in all the leading towns and 
cities. All manufacturers of agricultural imple- 
ments, inventors of patent rights, proprietors of 
seed w alehouses,!)!' nurseries, in short of all branch- 
es of business of importance, should not fail to have 
their business advertised in our paper — the ,; Pet 
Paper" ol California, as our neighbors of the 
State Journal, are pleased to term it, — and what 
the Journal says must be true. The Journal be- 
ing the favorite of so large a portion of the State, 
to be considered by it the " Pet Paper," adds to 
the compliment paid us, as dclicato a flavor as does 
the " Redding Sauce" to an epicure's dinner, 

From these statements, all can readily sec the 
inducements which our journal presents as an 
advci Using medium. 



Favors Received and Continued. — Con- 
stantly and continually we are under obligations 
to friends, personal friends, and friends of the 
great interest we advocate, to whom, although 
strangers to us, we feel grateful. 

To several gentlemen who have in our absence 
left samples of the products of California, at our 
office, we have been much and kindly indebted. 

To our delegation in Congress wc arc under 
many obligations for favors of great value. 

It is so common to name the attentive messen- 
gers of our two famous express, that it would 
seem stereotyped, were it not for the fact that 
they are still continuing to confer favors, and al- 
ways have something new. There is our friend 
Haskell, of Adams & Co., like Biddlo of the old 
U. S. Bank, "smiling as a summer's morning ;" 
always ready, up or down river, with a word or 
a smile, and a bit of news. Then there is How- 
ard, of Wells, Fargo & Co., a lineal descendant of 
the '• benevolent man," and like him, he is ah 
ready. For the kindness we have received of 
each we are grateful. 

1' im- Garments. — We frequently notice dash- 
ing advertisements and laudatory pud's of fash- 
ionable and splendid styles of clothing, something 
superior to anything ever seen before, but as the 
times are said to be haTd. and money scarce, and 
h rfrlj fashionable 

nts, and as wc are for everything that tends 
inre our agricultural brethren, both in ap 
pearance and interest — and as we wish them to 
II as any other class in the commu- 
nity, wc do advise them to go to M< 
<fc Co. 'swell furnished rooms corner J and Second 
. and they will find gar- 
ments of every kind and quality, and whicl 
in trot nts — and when we 

speak of such we mean what we s*y. No estab- 
lishment in I hihit a more corn- 

yle than can 

roento ; and when 

are not how genteel a 

i.e. if he is a gentleman of taste 

can suit him 'in every article of a 



mat an 

. 

ll is Heaven al 
farther away 1 

Discovery or Chalk irC«*r 
v ei * very large amount 

i 
ol » I 

i -t lewd Oik part 
I of chalk, while the otbei 
is the common roi clav. 



- a vibrating riddle and falls 

- a — then again into a troagh three 
i heavy seni 

. :aponal in form, p 

times per minote. In the bottom 

.it areenn- 

. tutted res. r yoi r ; here the air 

i particle ol 

g the wheal pure and c. 

pis then blown if »p-." 

I can be seen al the manufactory in Sac ramento , 



— By relerence to the 
il journals of 
it will 1 that grea' :' It in 

1 1 of i"i'itnti Jor 
IS all important, and ■ 
t 

ariety of our 



. re we I 

no thought to these and kindred subjects. 

i an act 

move t - 'he State than to offer a 

10 the farmer who 

shoal. i prodace the 

best Ihrve nrsstia of potatoes from seed. 



Very Apropos — Love and Ba 
had just enjoyed the luxury of a go | 1( 

catching up a morning paper we r< a ot 

ing happy hit: 

" Lme and Bathing. — Somebody once said — it 
lakes no odds whom, for it is a pretty simile 
and perhaps quite true — that he had often re- 
marked that young ladies took love as they take 
tiling; some timidly put in one foot; then, 
with a shiver and a look of apprehension, put in 
nd; then, as they no more than make a 
trembling courtesy in the water, the element 
111 ! scarcely reaching the region of the heart ; 
and then with a squeal, they run to dry land as 
soon as possible, and shivering cry, " how cold it 
is ! " Others again, shutting their seraphic eyes 
to the deed, souse in head and ears, and rising 
with Naiad's glow upon their faces, declare the 
sea "delicious !" 

liy the way, reader, have you ever visited the 
Metropolitan Baths on J street, near Jones' 
Hotel, Sacramento'? If not, and you are at that 
city, do not fail to go and luxuriate, for we aver, 
that it has no equal in this country; overy ar- 
rangement is on the most finished scale — the 
finest bathing tubs that money can command — 
spacious rooms neatly furnished— dressing ap- 
paratus, even to fine cologne and hair oil — in fact 
nothing is wanted to make the bath luxurious. 
In addition to the gentlemen's, there are suits 
of rooms for ladies, and splendidly furnished 
fine largo double rooms, having every comfort 
and convenience. We feel that this fine estab- 
lishment should have preference for its cleanli- 
ness and elegance ; cold, and shower baths, and 
tepid and hot baths, with every comfort needed 
and with courteous attention, render these baths 
■' par excellence." 

The San Francisco Mint. — We take the fol- 
lowing statement of the business done at the U. 
S. Branch Mint in this city for the month end- 
ing on the 31st, ult:, from the Evening News; 

AMOUNT OP DEPOSITS — BEFORE MELTING. 

For Coin 40.530 .42 oz. 

" Riird '..'1,561 ,02oz. 

" CaUloraln Coin 19 .51 oz. 

, AMOUNT OP DEPOSITS— APTEA MELTINO. 

4l.I81.59oz. 

211,887 .60 oz. 

i nil Coiti l9.51oz, 

.I vntue Gold Coinage. 1796,000 00 

" Bars 349,404 19 

$1,141,404 12 

| ii 7,679 78 

" nun 156 

Col. Fremont's Explorations.— The N. 0. 

Picayune says that both Mouses of Congress have 

red to he printed the reporl remont, 

on his voluntary explorations last winter, over 

mtinent from Missouri to California. The 

Naiional Intelligencer pronoun ument 

which will be read with There 

incidents connected with the trip which in- 

lio and determined spirit, not only on 

the part of the leader, but also of the men, one of 

whom died in bis saddle. 

AN iphise. — The bark Eimly Ban- 

ning, of Wilmington, Delaware, at New Vork, is 
i three of the Submsr 

rinc C pi:. apparatus, ftc. She is 

destined for the Pai fishing 

'ted up 

and in a thorough manner, by 

rprising gentleman, and with crews, 

rsons as to 

iicccss in tic- 

ationof the 
some 
ui the 
ee cor- 
■ edit- 
nt end 
>>'ll got 
,-ious) 

Where is he 1- n, who 

1 smp- 

' he was in 

1, and 






blest 

need 

five 

>the 



entire -at, 



Cm 



■ -ii irnty. 

iscotcrv — world 

tallr interns:..-! jt this moment lu 
. e lor 
i of sugar and 
kkL 



cents ; p o tal aaa a 
50 a ha 



' 
a and eighteen yenre 



tienssv 



li oanle. 



n* to the 
■Uroction, 
t«-eeu the 



reek 

iUm 



44 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



: Readers of the California Farmer. 

nexed communication, with the names 

Las been fsindiy tendered to ns. We 

u-uuiJ only ask of our friends to read and judge 

for .themselves, as to tho importance of the subject 

named therein. 

We arc deeply grateful lor every testimonial of 
favor and encouragement in our labors, and 
for every approving word and token from every 
source. — _ 

TO THE FRIENDS OP 

Agriculture, Horticulture, anil Floriculture. 

" Knowledge is power," is a truth nowhere 
more fully illustrated than in the field of your 
enterprise; and on no part of that field more im- 
portant than in our Stato". In oilier Slates and 
different climates, the experience of ages is con- 
densed into bonks; and the son inherits the prac- 
tical knowledge of his father. Their books are 
their general guide, and their periodicals contain 
the result of their continued improvements. But 
with us the rise is different. Here we have a 
climate to which the instructions of no book are 
adapted, a soil peculiarly unlike any to the de- 
velopment of which science has been applied, and 
almost an entire want uf experience' in any de- 
partment. Here no father has learned more than 
a few of the first principles of agriculture, much 
less has he had time to transmit even the moiety 
he has learned to a son. Our first generation of 
agriculturists is yet in its merest youth. 

If no books adapted to our circumstances are 
yet written, and no man has sufficient experience 
to write one ; and if the periodicals published else- 
where entirely fail to meet our wants, we are shut 
up to a single choice between two courses — we 
must either grape our way in the dark, feeling 
and experimenting each for himself, for all those 
facts and principles which are peculiar to our soil, 
c'imate and productions, (and this will reach 
nearly the whole range of our operations) thus 
advancing by a process so slow as to be entirely 
unsatisfactory to every one ; or we must sustain a 
periodical, which shall be a general reservoir for 
the reception and diffusion of the experience of 
all — an instrument whose columns shall be a con- 
stant reflector of all the light which our thousand 
intelligent cultivators of the soil can elicit from 
their "watch and toil." Which shall be our 
choice, cannot admit of a question. 

Such a periodica] we find in our midst. The 
California Farmer we believe capable of meet- 
ing our every want. The Messrs. Warren haw 
evinced an energy in, and devotion to, the work 
which is woi thy of all praise, and is a sufficient 
guaranty for the future. Shall the Farmer 
receive that countenance and encouragement it 
deserves? Will the growers of grain and vege- 
tables, fruits and (lowers, in this State, treat them- 
selves to a weekly repast in the perusal of iLs 
columns, (the annual subscription price bears no 
comparison - 1 1 ue of what you get,) and 

make an energetic effort to induce their neighbors 
to do the same ? But even this will not be 
enough. No one man, nor company of men. from 
any one department of knowledge, or section of 
the country, can make the columns of the Farmer 
what they should be.— what they must be to 
answer their wants. It must combine the experi- 
ence of every class, and represent peculiar charac- 
teristics of every part of the State. We ask, 
therefore, the attention of those whom we address 
to the furnishing of materials for the columns, as 
well as subscription to the "material aid" of the 
paper. 

We say thus much because we deem it due to 
the present proprietors of the paper, and because 
we feel the deepest interest in the cause it advo- 
cates. We have no pecuniary interest in the 
California Farmer, and yet we mopt heartily 
recommend it to the pecuniary, the statistical and 
the literary support of all who have at heart the 
real well being of our State — the development of 
her agricultural resources. 

I ■'. W. Maconoray, San Francisco 

David Chambers, •' 

Julius K.. Rose, " 

Wii" Neei.v Thompson. " 

0. 0. Wheeler, Sacramento. 

0. 1 Hutchinson, " 

Angus Fpieiison, " 

John M. Horner, Union City. 

E. h. Beard, Mission San Jose. 

.J. I., Sanford, 

II. Cramming Beals, 

TlLOEN & LlTTLB, 

1>avis .v. Co., 

WaOSWORTH & MlESEQAES 

Sim ,t Co., 

W. S. Chrysler & Co., 
S. 11. Meeker, 
Judge McIIenrt, 
C. V. Gillespie, 
J. Hoot, 

Joseph M. Brown 4 Co., 
Treadwell & Co. 
li. Uksi.no. 



fj&rtiraltarai iqrartmeitt. 



s 



Examine your Fruit Trees. 

THE TREES IN CONVENTION. 

Wi: are persuaded that more trees die of the 
lazine of their owners than from 

all other cinses united. Were they gifted with 
tongues, and assembled in convention, we think 
there would be indignant remonstrance at their 
untimely l: taking off*," and the cause of their 
death would almost invariably be laid at the 
grower's door. Whether such a convention has 
actually been held or not, we do not presume to 
affirm ; but we find among our editorial notes, 
reports of speeches said to have been delivered at 
such a tree meeting. It seems the orchard and 
garden trees took a hint from the "Joint-worm 
Convention" held sometime this last summer, 
down South, which they saw reported in the 
papers, and thought if the field insects could 
muster a gathering, it was fair for them to he up 
and doing. So a meeting was called at Pomolo- 
gical Hall, to protest against death's doings, and 
to devise ways and means to promote the lon- 
givity of the race. The notes state that the meet- 
ing was unusually full, and that the natives of 
the orchard were all astonished at their own 
strength and numbers. The chief speakers were 
invalids, who bore in their persons unequivocal 
evidence of harsh usage and neglect. A venei 
gentleman, by the name of Apple, was among the 
first to address the chair. There was a tei 
stoop in his shoulders, and a sad crook in his 
limbs, occasioned by the heavy burdens be bad 
borne. His collar was perforated with holes, and 
little piles of saw-dust lay about him as if he 
were about to make a saw-dust pudding, instead 
of a speech. 

" Vou sec, gentlemen," said he. " that if this 
convention had been held a little later. I should 
not have been here to attend it. This is rnj 
speech, as it happens to be my first. I speak 
from the horrorsofthe grave, and trust, tin; 
that my words will be heeded. You see in me 
the marks of premature age. that 1 am honei - 
combed by the borer, and am soon to go the way 
of all trees. I might have continued my useful 
labors for generations to come, had 1 not 
over-tasked with burdens, and had my friends 
seasonably guarded me against my enemies. Bat 
not a finger did they lift to rout the caterpillars 
from their nests, or to save me from the ravages 
of the canker-worm. Year after year violence 
was done to my taste in dress, and instead of the 
beautiful green I most delighted in, I was forced 
to put on russet and dingy brown in mid-sum- 
mer. The borers seized loe by the collar and 
plied me with their instruments of death, and not 
a soul of the bipeds that thrived on the fruits of 
my toil thought it worth while to knock out their 
teeth. I cannot stand it much longer. I n 
you sir. that we appoint a committee to draw up 
a remonstrance, in view of our common grievances. 
A short-legged genileinan next arise, and was 
introduced to the audience as Mr. Tear. Some 
cal'ed him a dwarf, but he did not relish the 
name, and always feigned younguess to account 
for the lack of length in his perpendiculars. His 
coat was a pepper-and-salt hue. and some called 
him a scaly fellow. 

" I rise," said he, " to second the motion of my 
friend. Mr. Apple, and 1 do it all the more cheer- 
fully, because I have certain grievances of my own 
that call for relief. It is enough to bring blight 
and mildew upon my body, that has the suscep- 
tible soul of a pear within him. to lie treated as 1 
am. Because 1 happen to be a modest gentleman. 
and am trilling to take lodgings with my country 
friend Mr. Quince, I am treated as a person of 
small consequence, and am jammed into quarters 
close enough to breed distempers of all kinds 
Instead of the great ado men make about the 
blight, the only wonder is that the race was not 
all blighted long ago. I am a wonder to m\ self 
when I remember the usage I have survived. At 
first I was over-fed, and dosed with stimulants. 
that I might grow rapidly and gratify my own- 
er's cupidity with a large crop of fruit. My limbs 
had no opportunity to harden, and the first kill- 
ing frost sloughed them off every winter. Then 
I began to bear, and that was the end of my stuff- 
ing. I can now scarce get nourishment enough 
to make fruit, and as to making wood, it is im- 
possible as a new creation. I am prematurely 
old, mossy, hide-hound, and to top all. covered, 
with scale-bugs, that arc sapping my life. Not 
one of the ingratcs whom I have annually feasted 
with my dainties, has hadthe manliness to touch 
me with potash or soda, and rout these enemies. 
1 shall go for the motion." 

Mr. l'eaeh was on his feet in a twinkling, am! 
said that. " the grievances presented by the 
gentlemen that preceded him, were milk-and- 
water tales in comparison with the abuse which 
had been heaped upon him. If the age of mar- 
tyrs was not already passed, he would readily 
pass as the John Rogers of his race, save that, to 
make the case parallel, the wife and all the chil- 
dren should have been tortured with him." Here 
he gave a hectic cough by way of emphasis, and 
which showed that he was dealing with realities. 
" The abuse begins in my case previous to birth. 
We are bred as promiscuously as the fish, and the 
result of this low state of morals is, that the 
honor of the family is inyieacAed, and every wo- 
man among us gets jealous and dies oil' with the 
yellows. When we were young, and had vigorous 
constitutions, we could get along with almost any 
fare and do good service. Our very hardiness 
invoked neglect, and that treatment has become 
so chronic, that multitudes of us perish under the 
regimen. You see the worms have anticipated 
the feast of the grave in my case. I am attacked 
above ground, and my life-blood is flowing out 



through their deadly wounds. No one thinks to 

be after these wretches with a stick or a " 

Here he was taken with a fit of coughing, and 
ruptured a blood vessel, which broke up tho 
meeting. 

The convention was timely, and the discussion 
was on home topics, as we discovered the first 
time wc visited our own garden. There were the 
saw-dust piles about our tipples and quinces. We 
took a sharp-pointed knife, and a piece of wire: 
and were immediately upon the track of these 
animal augurs, auguring so ill for their future 
usefulness. The white-livered wretches caught 
it for once, so that we shall have a clean con- 
SCil nee when the remonstrance of the convention 
comes to town. The pears, some of them, were 
covered with the white scale insects, which we 
soon scattered with ■ ecoction of soft soap 

Buds and a coarse brush. Tie: peach trees we 
cleaned around the collar, cutting out the white 
worms that clustered under the oozing gum. and 
treating the wounds with a good covering of wood 
ashes. We saw. in a very short examination, 
that the speakers at the convention were mani- 
lestly dealing in home truths in their remarks. 
Possibly some of our readers may find their own 
gardens an illustration of the same truthfulness. 
At all events, it will be perfectly safe to examine 
your trees without delay — do not let them die of 
neglect. — .I/ii. Agriculturist, 



The Castor-Oil Plant 

Tin: castor-oil plant. (JRicinis communis,) be- 
to the Natural Order Euphorbiacoae, which 

tld her- 
ns plants, abounding with an acrid, milky 
juice. The plants of this order grow in warn, 
regions, especially in equinoctial America, and 
the interior of Africa, where they occur as trees 
or bushes or lactescent herbs, and often present 
the appearance of Cactuses, from which they are 
at once distinguished by their milky juice. 

The castor-oil plant grows spontaneously in 
the F.ast and West Indies, in Africa, and the 
i in parts of Europe. In the temperate and 
more northern counties of Europe and America it 
is a herbaceous annual, with a primrose or mealy 
stem, peltati .1 simple unisexual 

flowers, the male anil female being present on the 
same plant. The fruit consists of numerous 
clusters of thorny three-seeded capsules. The 
plant grows from three to eight feet in height, 
hot the first frosts of autumn destroy it. In more 
southern latitudes, where the climate is warmer, 
the stem of the castor-oil plant is ligneous and 
it assumes a shrubby and sometimes even an ar- 
borescent growth, attaining to a height of from 
twenty to thirty feet. 

At Villc-franche, near Nice, there were, in 1818, 
specimens in the open air about thirty feet high, 
which were the only arborescent species at thai 
time growing in Europe. In the happy regions 
within the tropics, where the beams of the sun 
forever shine, the castor-oil plant takes its highest 
form ol development; amongst the stately palms 
and arborescent ferns, it grows into a powerful 
and lofty tree, covering with an -ample canopy of 
shade the browsing elephant, or the beautiful and 
ferocious tiger, the principal inhabitants of the 
woodland solitude. 

The entire plant is possessed of active proper- 
ties; but its medicinal virtues arc chiefly con- 
tained in its seeds. These seeds, of which three 
are found in each capsule, are about the size of a 
small bean, obtuse at both ends, with a smooth, 
shining, marbled surface. The castor-oil is ex- 
tracted from them. — Arthur's lima,' Magazine. 



these line edged leaves, these delicate lineations, 
these exquisite hues and shades of color, these 
matchless . forms and symmetries, whatever is 
superlative in fineness, delicacy, variety, profusion, 
gorgeous richness, now lyii if undistin- 

guisltahlo decay and loathsomeness. The (lank 
smell of decomposing vegetation drives you from 
your garden as from a grave-yard. The brilliant 
generous verbenas, the pensile and graceful fuch- 
sias, the geraniums, the maurandyas, the tufted 
ageratum. and the ol which blossom all 

the summer I n bored 

hundreds of bunches of dowers, to cheer your 
parlor, to inspire your pen while writing, to fur- 
nish you silent loving compute, a you walked 
about among frigid men or barren things, they 
have here all gone to corruption before your eyes. 
— Henri/ Ward Beeclier. 



Trees and Flowers. 

We feel the irremediable destruction of flowers 
more than we do the stripping of trees and 
bs because tbeseappeal inure than they to 
our protection and to our fondu 

We look up to trees as superiors, in whom re- 
side guardianship and protection. They teach us 
patience, endurance, and unwearied hope. Wc 
see them beaten bare by autumn storms, and per- 
fectly content to stand bare. The moment the 
winter relents, they spring forth again, and all 
the summer long you hear them singing, but 
never do you hear a tree rehearse its wrongs. It 
forgets the past. It lives outwardly so long as it 
can. and then retreats within itself, patient to 
wait for better times. And we feel also, in -the 
case of trees, something of the veneration which 
antiquity always inspires. They arc old chron- 
Ologers. They are older than the oldest living 
men. That old oak was an old oak when that 
crippled old man yonder was a boy, and it was 
an old tree in the days of his fathers. Thesl 
that grimly hang upon our walls — the portraits 
of shadowy ancestors that long since have i 
to make a noise in the world — these very old 
faces, in generations gone by, used to look up into 
these fresh and hearty trees that carry themselves 
ithfully. and marvel how high they were, 
and wonder that little birds were not afraid of 
falling down otf from their perilously high 
branches. The annual changes of trees are there- 
fore devoid of the sense of death. Leaves die. 
We pity them. But trees do not die. They 
undress". They Bleep in naked majesty.* What 
time they will", when the south wind hi iws its 
horn among the hills, they rouse themselves and 
put on again their robes, and go forth as at other 
times. 

It is not so with flowers. They are like little 
infant children. '1 hey look up to us for pi 
tion. They have no life that lasts. When they 
are stricken they make no resistance. They ut- 
terlv die. And it is a real pain that we do not 
choose to encounter, to go out after the final Irost 
stroke, and see all the plants which we have 
nursed and fondled, not gone, hut lying there in 
I colors so disgraceful to their former beauty. All 



Experiments in "Wheat Culture. 

A well known English agricultural writer. 
Outhbert W. Johnson, in an article on the AVheat 
Crop, in the September number of the Fanner's 
Magazine, says: 

Now there arc one or two facts which have 
been produced within the last two or three 5*ears, 
which are well worthy of the farmer's attention — 
not as o tain rules for our imitation on 

all soils and in every situation, but as affording 
valuable suggestions for new experimental courses 
of inquiry.. It is pretty certain that the best 
stab- to which the soil should be brought for the 
ei of the seed-wheat, is nut in all cases 
well determined. At the July gathering at Mr. 
Meelii's farm. specimens of wheat ears 

were produced by Mr. Piper, of Culue Kngaine. 
grown on land which had not been plowed for 
several years, and yet had, with the aid of top- 
dressings of soot and oher artificial manures, 
produced good crops of wheat every year: hero 
was the result from an uie oil. On the 

other hand, we have the equally successful, yet 
opposite practice of Mr. Smith, of Lois Wccdon, 
who fallows for wheat every other year — still 
growing wheat and wheat only, year after year. 
His practice he briefly describi : "I 

divide my held into lands live feet wide. In the 
Of each land 1 drop or drill my seed in 
triple rows, one foot apart, thus leaving a fallow 
interval of three feet between each triple row. 
When the plant is up. 1 trench the intervals with 
the fork easily, hiking my Spits about three inches 
from the wheat ; and at spring and during sum- 
mer I clean them with the blades of the sharp- 
cutting horse-hoe. and keep them open with the 
tines of the scultlcr. Every year, in short, I 
trench and cultivate two and a half feet of the 
five for the succeeding crop, and leave the other 
two and a half for that which is growing. Hue 
moiety of each acre is thus in wheat, and the 
other moiety fallow ; and the average yield of 
that half acre is thirty-four bushels, surpa! 
the average yield of a whole acre on the common 
plan." Why wheat .should be thus grown for a 
series of years on the same land with success in 
Essex and in Northamptonshire, and in one place 
by constantly stirring the soil, and in the other 
locality by never plowing, but by merely hoeing 
1 fn, and hoeing it afterwards for the re- 
moval of weeds, certainly seems to be phenomena 
worthy of our careful study, when we are con- 
sidering the stale of the soil the best adapted for 
the growth of wheat. 

Agriculture the Only Real Source of "Wealth. 

A writer in the Mark-Lane Express, main- 
tains the position that commerce and manufac- 
tures must ever be secondary to the cultivation 
of the soil, and that ihe latter is not only the 
most important of all the industrial pursuits of 
man. but also the only real source of wealth. In 
I the truth of this position he compares Ihe 
nature and results of other industrial pursuits 
with that of the cultivation of the soil. It may 
tend to elevate the business of the farmer, both 
in his own estimate and in that of others, to con- 
sider some of the principal points and leaturcs in 
this comparison, for this purpose we present a 
brief outline of them to the American reader. 

First, as to comnu rre. There is nothing pro- 
duced by commerce, its office being merely the 
barter of commodities. And whether this barter 
takes place between one country and another, or 
between individuals of the same country, it is but 
an exchange of equivalents. Hence it is to be re- 
garded as a mere medium for the distribution or 
circulation of we'alth. and not as in any way con- 
tributing to its existence or production. Thi 
to manufactures, there is no matter produced 
which did not previously exist, their office being 
only to convert material previously existing into 
forms of greater utility or convenience. Mining. 
at first sight, may appear to have a greater claim 
to the production of wealth, but does not, in re- 
ality, produce anything which did not beforo ex- 
ist, every pound of coal, iron, silver or gold, having 
previously existed in the bowels of the earth be- 
fore being taken from them. Agriculture alone 
affords an increase of matter; and the surplus of 
over the coast ol production constitutes the only 
increase of real wealth or capital. But however 
true this may be. it must be remembered that 
ice by the exchange of commodities, and 
manufactures by giving to the matters produced 
by agriculture a more useful form, are greatly 
conducive to the aggrandizement ol nations; and 
to the convenience and comfort of their population. 

Theology in a NoTSHBLL'— A very young 
child, whose kind and pious mother had early 
taught him the being and power of God. was 
asked, "How many Hods are there?" "One.' 1 
said the little boy. " How do you know that?" 
inquired his sister. " Because," replied he. "there 
is no room for any more, for He Jills every Where." 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



45 



1$ t s 1 1 U a n it . 



BE IIUIVE. 

[Wiich HercuW went lo uutilnil Prorm Ihm-. the aneientu 

Etcher.] 

Br<>': i art, 

Frvm 

i it d'ltb nhow. 
GoilliL i u trail, 

Thatea 
Brra i I h tattered Mil, 

i adversity — 
Know that tril 
Hin) who courage -till poKsosaee, 

Wlion Tit? norm hml preased Ha 

Ami thi 
Fearles 

tarn and irenr ; 
Warily direei thy helm, 

(in.. : band ; 

Feati. ' In-lm, 

Titniil one'e oe'er cncli the lauil ; 
Keep thine eye undimmed by (ear, 
Thou shnlt Bale to harbor steer. 

Duon Llte'l dreary const. 

All thy fortune wrecked and gone — 
All lhat inmle thy mniihiiiid'fl bonat 

Vnniehod like tie dew* of diiwu — 
Friend* that feasted at thy board, 

Eyea that looked with love on thee — 
Thank thy late Unit *uch a horde 

Fled tin.- with prosperity. 
Now thou luiow'st their value well, 
And t; rom lat-o canst telL 

Whrn tin- pods' aroused ire 

Bound Prometheus to bis rock. 
In revenge for tLe'.t of tire 

lStoeil him to ench pturm'a rude shock, 
And to add diegTflce to puin, 

Tltat hia boul inislit feel tlie emnrr, 
Bcniml him wiili tin' felon's chain — 

Set vulture grief to gnaw his liourt; 
All their oinlice proved but naught, 
Resolution lived in thought. 

ThuE, though sorrows hnrrass life, 

Still the bravrt will with them cope , 
Hearts and nrniR -row strung with strife, 

And, though bou d, gain wider scope. 
When Atitn us tmci.ed the ground, 

Wrestling with the demi-god, 
He arose to each rebound 

Fresher from hi- mother sod ; 
Though his fill ohood did not thrive, 
Let ii tern I true to strive; 

Lor them thus from every fall 

With renew nd vigor rise. 

Till nt la.'i they winipiish nil 
That dispute the wished for prize. 



■ THE ONE ACRE FARM ; 

on, 
A Cure for Hard Times. 

nY IC1IA1IOD HOE. 

"How much land have you got here in your 
lot. Mr. Brigj 

" I have one acre." 

"One acre ! ami here you are taking the New 
England Farmer, the Cultivator, Hovey'a Maga- 
zine, and the Horticulturist, and all because yon 
have one aero of ground ! How many such pa- 
pers would you have to take if you had a hundred 
acres ?" 

"1 shouldn't probabjy need more than I take 
now; you know. Mr. Chapman, one can 'go 
through with all the notions' on one acre as 
well as on a hundred." 

"A man can throw away money without any. 
if lie has a mind to. Tor all I 
from such periodicals, you m'ghl as well, probably, 
throw the n ; they 

arc nothing but humbug 

" I pay two dollars for the New England Fann- 
er, one dollar for lite Cultivator, three dollars for 
the Horticulturist, aid, two dollars for II 
\i me — in all ci 

.ugh to buy a 'tip-top' 
barrel of Hour, and ; and then if 

you read Uu 

amount of the money spent, in the time of read- 
ing them." 

do usually read or hear road, almost even- 
word there is in them ; my boys and 1 ukc 
turns in nailing, and one reads aloud while the 

i iork." 

: r shop 
don't turn out anj is in a day, than it 

"Perhaps ' work 

some days, a 

that in the course of I e turn out as 

many. number of lu 

"1 lu i 
ret your I 
fruit (i 
ago, and said 
fruit trees. . 
w how i 



yon lit besides the lime 

thrown awa) Lhem out and taking care 

of them." 

ent ill si i ling them out. or 
taking careol then, splay- 

all, wicket, or anything else. While we 

lino to 

get in \ to Mr. Moody's, where ho 

said was in l time playing ball; and 1 

Jiave no doubt your hoys spend just as much 
time playing, as mine do with our trees ami so 
forth; and then something isdonc. but in playing 
the strength is all laid nut for nothing." 

" Well, it don't rust any thing to play ball, but 
recBi ley." 

The foregoing conversation occurred in the 
shop, between two neighbors, both boot-makers, 
in a town not more than thirty miles from 
Boston. 

Mr, Briggs, in whose shop the conversation 
took place, was a man of more than ordinary in- 
telligence for one of his advantages and circum- 
stances in life. He had been a poor boy, arid by 
industry, observation and economy, had worked 
bis way on in life anil reared and well educated a 
family of children, who. like himself, were indus- 
trious and steady. For the few years past, he 
had become interested in horticulture, and both 
for exercise and amusement, had turned his atten- 
tion to cultivating his " one acre farm." His at- 
tention was first called to this, by means of a 
"back number" of the New England Fanner, 
which was put round some tilings bought at the 
store. Mr. Briggs found this so interesting, that 
ho purchased another number at the periodical 
depot, and then he became a regular subscriber. 
His sons soon became interested in tiie same di- 
rection, and the interest of the father and sons 
increased to the pitch indicated in the foregoing 
conversation. 

In time, every inch of that acre of ground was 
"brought under the spade," and almost every 
"best" variety of fruits had a placo there, anil 
the father and sons found pleasure and profit in 
the garden after being shut up in the shop till the 
''stent" was done, and the exercise was far more 
profitable than the spasmodic, violent exercise 
taken in games: 

Mr. Chapman, the other neighbor, was a man 
of the common stamp. He looked upon every 
tiling new or uncoitinton, ;is folly and linn > 
and was ready to sneer at every one who stepped 
aside from the common track. It looked simply 
silly to him to see a man stay at home from mus- 
ter, or training, or show, spend his time in CI 
fating a garden ; or, instead of loitering away the 
evening at the store, smoking, and hearing or 
telling a deal of nothing or worse, to spend the 
evenings at home, reading such ''nonsense" as 
tin- Farmer and Horticulturist afford. 

isSj and Mr. Briggs' " one acre farm " 
shows that he and bis bo\ s have not read the pa- 
pers in vain. They have learned to set out a 
tree, and how to Lake care of it after it wa 
out. Every thing showed it received the right 
kind of food and care, and stri 
bring forth fruits meet lor good cultivation. In 
a short time the wants of the family wen 
than supplied, and the surplus found a ready 
i with the neighbors at good pi 

Those early app nd tempting, when 

all other apples were so green and bard 
then such peats; they w (he sun and 

could ripen liiem. at three, foi.r and live 
Then such clusters of rich 
grapes— too templing lor the 
without a watering mouth. Mr. 
family were among the 
tempting fruit — first having learned their 
y the liberality of Mr. I 

bor. 

The fifth season came, and it pfl 
fruitful year. Ap| h, plum. and 

were loaded with I 
ition with M 
had dil 
worth of frt. 

. little work, and ier» — 



of moi i sona 

, had a 
their i 

iptuan. who was short applied 
to Mr. 

lis. 
_-gs, '• a ' half ' or a ' whole, 



dollar I 



products ot t! It will come" 

just now." 

"Don't be loo fast neighbor. I am afraid it 

won't 'conic very handy just now.' That was 

what I was dunning you for that twenty-five 

" What ! you don't pretend to say we have had 
twenty-five dollars worth of stuff from your gar- 
den I" 

" More than that from that very twenty-five 
dollars worth of trees and other things. Here is 
an account of every tiling you have bought ami 
paid for; of course it don't include what I have 
sent you gratis." 

" And you certainly have not been stingy. 
Why, this bill amounts to thirty-seven dollars ! 
It is not possible!" 

" It is just so; you have had over twenty bush- 
els of apples, and three bushels of pears, and these 
alone come to twenty-five dollars." 

"I own up the 'corn;' draw the note for sev- 
enty-live dollars." 

"No, I guess we will let that twenty-fivo go. 
I only mention it to show you that there may lie 
good sense in new things, sometimes. Now I'll 
bet the twenty-live dollars over again, that my 
stoic bill lias not been, the past season, half as 
large as yours, though I have had one the more 
in my family." 

" If I had not been so badly taken in before, I 
would stand you ; but I guess it won't be safe." 

" We have raised our own potatoes, corn, peas, 
beans, and all other garden vegetables. Our eggs 
are always fresh and in abundance from the nest, 
and for more than two years we have not been 
without ripe fresh fruit." 

" How can that be?" 

" Well, by the first of June, we have strawber- 
ries ripe, soon after, cherries; then raspberries, 
currants, gooseberries, and so forth ; and long be- 
fore these are gone, the early apples, pears and 
peaches ; then grapes, later pears and apples ; and 
these continue all winter, and apples until July, 
when the early fruits again connect the luscious 
circle." 

" Well, I declare, that is something I never 
thought of; but it takes so much time and bother 
to get these tilings started — then it is an ever- 
lasting job to take care of them." 

'■ If needs no more time and money than you 
throw away on things that amount to nothing at 
all, and with abundance of fruit, you sate the ex 
[tense of a heavy meat hill, which diet is not at 
all healthy in bot weather. No doctor has been 
called to step foot into my door for over four 
years past. Fresh, ripe fruits, are sure remedies 
for all ailments, and they arc not bard to take." 

Mr Chapman put the fitly into his "weasel 
skin." and left with "a Ilea in bis ear." — A". B. 



%tib'm' irfpartmrnt. 



The Love of Woman. 

Man is tie ind ambition. 

His nature leads him forth into the 

■llish- 
uient of his early life, or a song piped in the inter- 
vals of the acta He geeks lor fame, for fortune, 
for apace in the v .lit. and dominion 

over his fellow-men. But a . le life 

of the affecti iieart is her 

world ; it is there her ambition strive., for I 
— it is there her I 

tires. She sends forth her sympathies on adven- 
mqI in the traffic 

- 1|0]H,'- 

less — I 
man Ll 

but 1 

full of painful a>- 
ode at will, and. 



and 



I il malady that had previously sa 

i th, and made her so easy a pi 
spoiler. She is like somo tender tree 
and beauty of the grove; graceful 
bright in its foliage, but with a worm pi , , 
its heart. ' We find it suddenly withering, when 
it should be most fresh and luxuriant. We see it 
drooping its branches to the earth, and shedding 
leaf by leaf; until wasted and perisbedaway.it 
falls even in the stillness of the forest ; and as we 
muse over the beautiful ruin, wo strive in vain to 
recollect the blast or thunderbolt that could have 
smitten it with decay.— Washington Irving. 

The Charms of a Married Life. 

If in that chair yonder, not the one your feet 
lie upon, but the other beside you, closer yet, were 
seated a sweet-fuced girl, with a pretty little foot 
lying out upon the hearth, a bit of lace running 
round the swelling throat, the hair parted to a 
charm over a forehead fairasany of yourdrcams; 
and if you could reach an arm round that chair 
back, without fear of giving offense, and suffer 
your fingers to play idly with those curls that es- 
cape down the neck, and if you could clasp with 
your other band those little white taper fingers 
of hers, which lie so temptingly within reach, and 
so, talk softly and low in the presence of the blaze, 
while the hours slip without knowledge, and the 
winter winds whistle tmcared for; if, in short, 
you were no bachelor, but the husband of some 
such sweet image (dream call it. rather), would 
it not be far pleasanter than a cold, single night- 
sitting, counting the sticks, reckoning the length 
of the blaze, and the height of the falling snow. 

Surely imagination would be stronger and pur- 
er, if it could have the playful fancies of dawning 
womanhood to delight it. All toil would be torn 
from mind-labor, if but another heart grew into 
this present soul, quickening it. warming it, cheer- 
ing it, bidding it ever God-speed. 

Her face would make a halo, rich as a rainbow, 
a-top of all such noisome things us wc lonely 
souls call trouble. Her smiles would illuminate 
the blackest of crowded cares, and darkness that 
now seats you despondent in- your solitary chair, 
for days together, weaving bitter fancies, "dream- 
ing bitter dreams, would grow light 'and thin, 
and spread and float away, chased by lhat devot- 
ed smile. 

Your friend, poor follow ! dies— never mind ; 
that gentle clasp of her lingers, as she steal- I 
hind you. telling you not to weep — it is worth 
ten friends! 

Your sister, sweet one, is dead — buried. The 
worms arc busy with all their fairness. How it 
makes you think earth nothing but a spot-to dig 
graves upon ! 

It is more : she says she will he a sister; and 
the waving curls, as she leans upon your shoul- 
der, touch your cheek, and your wot eyes turn to 
i hose other eyes— God has sent his angel, 
surely ! 

Your mother, alas, she too is gone I Is there 
any bitterness to a youth, alone and lion, 
like this? 

Hut you are not homeless ; you are not alone; 
she is there ; her tears softening 
lighting yours, her grief killing d you 

live again to i row of hers. 

Then, these children, rosy, fair-haired ; no, they 

do not disturb you with prattle now — they are 

yours. Toss away there, on it ward; 

mind the hyacinth, the sne pa. or the 

ici one of 

their healthful lips is worth all the (lowers of the 

world. No need now to gather wild bouquets to 

gun, are all dead 

things livelier hold your 

Ami she, the mother, sweetest and fairest of 
all. watching. rig, till your 

own In ousy; 

and cu \ ith loving. 

ow of a cold lecture to 
teach i , your heart is full of it. 

taking leaf, ai ight kindly 









wings to its aide, and 

■ 

uttded affecti. 

ecatwly breathes it to 
,«e, sbe buries t 
there let 
bcr peav 

has Ceiled, the gnal 
1 an end. She aMgleeu 
loch gladden the spir- 



— because unspeakable — thank-offerings.- ' 
MarveL 



Oeaal CmW. .-■ -I I' m ' '. L r"W 

Aa wbeaaaeeda, wheal ; aad barley, barley aboaa. 

a eoew Wirt 
A aMwaat, eheate, asd aa obedieot wn* 

Lifta ber poor hatband to a kingly throne ■ 
What taoafb the 8«e long day wkh toil* 

The agkaee of ai- rare* at night 'a bia own. 
If abe be aeodtrt, and bar w. . r d. be Bad, 

Mark not ber beaaty or ber wane of (race 
Tne anreat weaaan, a* < 

Wil ha lay k 
Pai laa i m Kden'a baaaty as tl 

lawarwatdlbnaiaaal.bar a>M areata. 
aaaaar a. aaarava. baaad eta. eaaaa, i 

Tbaa aaark at aaaae a waa af naaaaaaj aaaa. 

< ■liitt.iii' 
. r apoa faaf aaawAsa t 



fi' 

trait 



qr-fiv* dollais 



■ .':.vi boa> 
;»n.-'. •:> drin.- : -dry*MT<: -uitch of wo:- ' 

' I aaW e nJeat k. auak fnw a aajiiaah pi 

' . • ; - - 

..•1 lou All - it at any price. 1 

-<ria(5 thai e r bat and no nana ow 

.• .■■ i -d emii 

,. mi Ju «»ai. ... n.»n iki ..■:.•■ 

■e latalf-ktt J ' V 3 " wwl at 

js M.1 Ui tie Kir iLt 'uue,l!„t W ii ;'.". til aj *; ii,»ili.ciWl>» 



hear a 
did a 
:aanc4 
9 roar 



r BTt d. 

re haw a bet between as 

trees I bov. 



46 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 



FROM THE EAST. 

steamship Uncle Sam arrived at this port 

v afternoon, bringing advices from New 

York to Jan. 12, and 500 passengers. The time 

made is only 33 days 6 hours from Europe, 23 

days from New York, and 20 from New Orleans. 

In Congress. Hon. M. S. Latham made a lengthy 
and elaborate speech on the Pacific Railroad bill 
in the House of Representatives, Jan. 9, which is 
commended as very able and eloquent. In the 
Senate, Jan. 11, the bill was referred to a special 
committee, and ordered printed. 

The bill for a telegraph to the Pacific is before 
the House, reported from Lhe committee on terri 
tories. 

James Harlan, whig, has been elected t T . S. 
Senator Iowa, to succeed Gen. A. C. Dodge. 

W. II. Barras has been appointed District At- 
torney of Orogon Territory, and Samuel Dexter, 
of Maryland, Marshall of Kanzas Territory. 

Gardner, the Know Nothing Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, in his inaaugural message, made a full 
enunciation of the principles of the party which 
elected him. 

The steamer Ben Franklin was fired into by 
the commander of the fort at St. Thomas on the 
21st Dec. She had been chartered by the British 
ilail Steamship Company to convey mails and 
passengers to Barliadoes. The outrage called 
forth a firm protest Irom the American Consul 
Hajor Helm, to Gov. Berg. 

Late accounts from Mexico state that a large 
trade is being carried on in mother of pearl shell, 
at La Paz. Lower California. A Hamburg bark 
had left with a full cargo. 

Anson P. Morrell was on the 5th Jan. elected 
Governor of Maine by the Legislature. He re- 
ceived the unanimous vote of the Senate. 



DIED. 



On the 3d Feb., in this city, Mrs. Begge, aged 28 years, a na- 
tive ofcounrv Mauaehan, Ireland. 

On the 4th Feb., in this city, at the International Hotel, Kate 
Mullury, daughter of F. M. and Frances A. M. Case, aged 14 
months. 

On the 25th Jan., in Grass Valley, of consumption, Elias 
Cochran, ased 24 years. 

On the 30th Jan., in Stockton, Henry S. Morton, of consump- 
tion, in the 36th year of his au'e. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



FROM EUROPE. 

No chnnge has tnken place at Sevastopol. Kcin- 
forocments, amounting in nil to 18.000 men, had 
been received by the allies by December 18. and 
d landed at Enpatoria. The 
French had mounted their batteries on the third 
parallel.- On the night ol the Gth, the Russians 
evacuated the redoubts at Balaklava, carrying 
\\ ith them eighty -five piecesof artillery. By the 
15th the damage done by the rain to the allies 5 
vv.irks had been repaired. It is said that the 
li ESSianS have removed part of their artillery to 
ships, twenty-two of which are equipped for 
sea, Sorties took place frequently, but the Rus- 
sians were generally repulsed. Gen. Menschikoff 
was .sick, and the commend had devolved on Os- 
ten Sacken. The Czar's sons have returned to 
St. Petersburg. 

The Czar is concentrating troops round Moscow 
and on the Austrian frontier — looking, it is said, 
to the possibility of a decided rupture with Aus- 
tria. 

A high diplomatic conference was to be held 
on the 28th of December, at Lord Westmoreland's 
office in Vienna. The ambassadors of England, 
France. Austria, Prussia and Russia (Prince 
GortscliakoiT.) were to takepartin the discussion. 
The conference is to be ''of a positive character." 

The Cunard steamer Arabia sailed from Mar- 
seilles on the 21st Dec. with 1.G40 men of the 
18th French regiment of the line", for the Crimea. 
The Arabia attracted much attention at Marseilles. 

The event of the week is the speech of the Em- 
peror of France, which makes no allusion to anv 
prospect of peace, and is followed up by a loan of 
five hundred millions of francs. There has been 
an important diplomatic conference at Vienna. 
The Prussian mission to England proves to have 
been of no importance. The bill for the enlist- 
ment of foreigners into the IJritish service has 
passed into law. Parliament has adjourned. 

The very latest dates from the Crimea (Dec. 
20.) state that it is confidently asserted that the 
resolution has been adopted to storm Sebastopol 
as soon as the Turkish reinforcements come up. 
The French, it is said, are to storm, while the 
British and Turks attack Menschikoff, 

The late report of the Grand Jury states that 
San Francisco contains 60.000 persons, and prop- 
erty to the amount of $00,000,000 ; equal to 
$1,000 to every man, woman, and child. 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 

E^p* Our Letters. — We would request all our correspond 
ents to direct Letters and Papers to ue at SAN FRANCISCO, j 
ONLY. They wilt, with such direction, reach ua immediately. 
Letters directed to ufl at Sacramento, foil to reach us regularly, j 

4-v3 WARREN & SON. j 



SAN FRANCISCO MARINE LIST. 



ARRIVALS. 
Jan. 31 — Unrn bark Herman, Banning, Hamburg, 150 days, 

via Valparaiso 44 day*, with mdre. 
Br bark Muehfteon, Putt, Rio Janeiro, 124 duya ; mdse 
Fr bank Hiroin, Be^edo, Bordeaux, 165 d»yt< ; nidte. 
Scot Exuct, Duulmm, Purl Queriton, 16 days ; mdse. 
Feb. 1 — S.eamship Columbia, DuD, Oregon, 60 hr.-; [nise, etc. 
Clipper Ecbr Wanderer, Virgin, Punta Arenas, 46 days, with 
cedar und mahogany. 
Feb. 5— Nic steamship Uncle 3am, Baldwin, San Juan. 12 days; 

with passengers* nuLe, etc. 
Feb. 6— Brig J S Cabot, West, Humboldt Bay, 11 days; lumber. 

Scbr Adeline, Hutton, HodejB, 36 hours; produca 
Feb. 6 — Brig Suran Ahugail, Corno, Honolulu, 20 days ; mdse, 
and 15 pa.-scngere. 
Schr 3ea Serpent, Fish, San LuU Obispo, vfa Montery, 2 

dayg; with granite. 
Schr Olivia, Thomas, Monterey, 2 days ; 903 sacks potatoes. 

CLEARA.\CES. 

Jao. 31 — Steam-hips John L Stephens, Person, for Panama; 
Golden Aye, Watkins, Be.uicia- 

Feb. 1 — Steamship America, Haley, for San Diego ; Chll ship 
America, Montano, Palcnhuano. 

Fkb. % '.i, 5, and 6. no cloarances. 

Feb. 6 — Sailed — Clipper shipOaborne Howes, Kelty, Callao; 
schr Wanderer, Virgin, porta in the Pacific. 



MARRIED. 



13? 3 Native Pines, Oaks, &c. — Cones of the Native, 
Pines, Acom3 from our Mountain Oaks, Seed of all our Muun- ; 
tain Shrubs, and of every species of Valuable Tree or Shrub ; j 
tor these the lull price will be paid, if eatL-factorily labelled, I 
classified and arranged, at the 

Office of the "California Farmer," 

13 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street. 



l^* Wanted. — All the varieties of California Clover Seed, 
for which the highest price will be paid at the 

Offlce of the "California Farmer," 
13 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street. 



E^* Our New Office. — We invite our friends to our new 
office in the " Masonic Hull," on Montgomery street, opposite 
Le Count & Strongs. We can show them many wonderful 
specimens, such as are rarely seen, mid we especially Invite 
them to call and examine the various schedule and invoices we 
have to otfer for tale. Trees, Seeds, Plants, c;;niii-, Houses, 

Lands, Inventions. Works of Art of all kinds, the.-e we are 
happy to show, and enn interest our friend- if thev will but tall 
and see ua. WARREN &. SON. 



£^* "A Thing of Beauty is a Joy Forever."— Why 
will people endure pimples on "the human face divine." or 
eruptions ol any kind, when it is a fact so well known, that Dr. 
(Iuvsott's Yellow Dock and Sarsafarilla cleanses the 
skin from all impurity, removing Pimples, Sores and Bl 
leaving the affected parts as healthy, smooth and 60ft as the 
flesh of a babe. It is really priceless to all who wish the rosy 
beauty of childhood. 

It causes all sores and poisonous wounds to discharge all in 
fected matter, and eradicates every impurity from tiie sy.-tcm. 
It does its work mQdly but effect lious beauty 

and blooming health in the place of ugliness and BOttl-dckening 
■ ■ 

Scrofula, Syphilis, Mercurial Complaints, and a vast 
ariety of other disagreeable and dangerous diseases are speed- 
ily and perfectly cured by the use of this medicine. 

Purchasers will place be careful to ask for, end take 
olheT but Dr. fluysort's Improved Extract of Yellow Duck and 
Sarsaparilla. All others in comparison are word l< 

Fur sale at all the principal Drn_' Stores in the State. Park 
& White, Bole Agents, to whom all orders must tie add ■ 

Otilce No. 94 Merchant street, 3d door nb'^e Montgomery. 13 



MAKING ROOM FOR A SPLENDID STOCK 
o F 

Fashionable Spring Clothing, 

AT THE 

BRANCH OP KEYES & GO'S 

GOLDEN GATE CLOTHING WAREHOUSE, 

Corner of J and Second streets, (El Dorado linildhig,) 
Sacrum 

CLOSING out Winter Stock at peat redv 
1 comprifins the ^reiite^t variety and the best styles of the 
hie Sourtout Over Coat, decidedly the ton in New 
York ; Paletot, Talmas, Cloaks, Winter Frock*-, Opera Clunks ; 
with our usual targe and elegant assortment ol Dre*a Frocks, 
Black and Fancy C.-^thnere Pants, rich Velvet and Silk I 
with a splendid assortment el Gentlemen's Fnrni.-diinL' G 

We are al-o receiving, by every steamer, invoices of Fashion- 
Bble Cassuneres and Verting*, Bfolcy and Simon's Clothes and 
■i -., tor our custom department. 

i "ill's made to order at the shortest notice, in the latest 
New York styles Brunei! KEYF.S &. CO., 

v3*6 Corner .T und Second streets, Sacramento. 



On the 28th Jan., at Michigan Bar, Joseph W. Houetain and 
Mws Sarah E. Junes, both Irom Dover, Maine. 

On the 29th Jan., by Rev. E. Merchant, Flkanah Payne and 
Miss Matilda C. Robinson, both of Sacramento. 

On the 30.h Jan., by Rev. E. Merchant, J. Soron Moore, of 
San Jo*c Mission, and Miss EWirdaT. Peugb, ol Sacrament - 

On the 31st Jan., in 0;,klani ", Charles Watrous, Esq., ol New 
London, Conn., and Miss Ruth A. Wlllaon. of Glens Full.-, N.Y. 

On (i . -i.., in this city, at St. Mary's Cathedral, by Rev. 

Father C . iiyhar, Garret J. Byrne and Misn Annie ttcLuud. 

Onti icramento, by Rev. Mr. Shuck, Lewis 

V. II. Jl ell, ot San Francisco, and Miss Albinia E. Wolker, 
of the former place. 



Seed* ! Seeds ! ! Seeds 1 1 1 

WE are constantly receiving the most complete assortment 
of Garden Seeds to be lound in the State, received by 
express, flmoni; which are— 

CHOICE ONION SEED— of all the var] 

BEET— Fine Lone Bed and Early Turnip ; 

RADISH — Scarlet, Long and Turnip; also, Domi Rive iunl 

Black Spanish ; 
CARROT— Early Horn, Long Yellow, Long White and Al- 

tmgham ; 
CABBAGE— ull the varieties; 
LETTUCE— all varieties; 
PARSNIP— White Hollow Crown; 
TURNIP— White Flat, Garden Stone, Snow Ball, and other 

varieties: 
GREEN ANTICHOKE; and all other varieties of German 

Seed-, too numerous to mention in an advertisement. 

Also Received. 
Ttmontby seed; White and Red Clover seed ; Kentucky Blue 
- .-■!-: a large variety ol Peas and Beam ; 

Long Island Corn; SHAKER HERBS, such as Wormwood, 
Gulden Seal, and numerouH other kinds. 
For sale wholesale and retail, by 

J. M. MOORE 4 CO., 
t3-6 Corner California and Leidesdortf etreets. 



PURE MEDICINES! 

LITTLE & COLE, Apothecaries, 
13J> Mont4*onu-ry street, 
Batwssa Clay ami Gommmvial streets, 
Pay particular attention to the preparation of 

Physicians' Prescriptions, 

and the dispensing; ol 4 Family Medicines The public can rely 
upon all Articles purcoBEed at this establishment as being of the 

Purest and Best Quality, 
and at reasonable prices, 

MEDICINES AT MIDNIGHT. 

Medicines ran bt obtained at all ftrtur* "J~ lite Night. 

E3P* French, German, Spanish and Italian spoken. 6 



Wanted. 

INTELLIGENCE AND COMMISSION OFFICE, 

No. 53 Montgomery Black, (Third Floor,) 
Cerner jf Montgomery and Washington Btreets. 

ORDERS for ALL'KINDS OF HELP, will be furnished 
wilhniit delay. PriVBf Familie-, Merchant.--, Contractors, 
Farmers, Hotel-, Uechanics, Milliners, Dje-smaker^, and others 
wanting help of any kind, may rest assured of being supplied 
free of charge. By pusuing an honorable course towards both 
employer and employee, we hope lo merit a share of public 

patronage* 

Orders from the Country promptly attended to. 

Those in want of situations can be supplied by calling at our 

Office. 

[v3.51ra| W. H. HALE Se. CO. 



_\4iv und Bare Secda. 

WE have received from 1'aii.-, by last steamer, an invoice 
New and Rare Garden Seed — varieties never belore in- 
troduced here. Market gardeners will rind the-.' very desir- 
able. WARREN & SON, 



Hydraulic Pumps. 

N invoice of new patterns of Hydraulic Pumps", just re- 

i. eeived at our office. WARREN 4. SON. 



Vaiuiihir Newspaper tl-iul. ■«. 
TXTE have several very valuable Newspaper Routes for Bale. 

IT V Enquire at the office ot Califobnia Fahmeb, 

v3-5 Masonic Hall Building, Montgomery street. 



InjrHnm's Improved Smut Machines. 

THESE Machines combine all the apparatus uCCESetuy to 
cleau.-e Grain, renderini: it unnecessary to have any other 
machinery for that purpose in the mill. They are portable and 
occupy about four feet square on the floor, by eight and a 
halt leet in height ; and will clean the worst samples of Smutty 
Grain, al=o remove short straws, white caps, suds and other 
foul substances in the most perfect manure. All of the offal 
worth saving is collected in a reservoir, while the smut and 
light dust arc passed out of the mill, allowing the machine to 
be put on the same floor with the flour cheats- or whereeyer 
moat convenient, without being enclosed. It is a California im- 
provement and d signed to meet the want- of this country; 
eastern machines having been found to be inadequate to that 
purpose. It baa received the lushest recommendation from 
all usine them, among 1 whom arc Pettit & H ideekina, Brighton 
Mills, Sacramento; Brooks &. Hull, Happy Valley Mills, San 
Francisco; Wra. Sharp, American Mills, San Francisco; Bab- 
bit &. Hale, Sierra Nevada Mills, San FraueUco ; H. S. Hill, 
Washington Mills, Ban Francisco. 

Those building Mills can save expense and room by using 
this machine, as they will avoid all the machinery ordinarhy 
used for that purpose. 

Orders tilled on short notice. 8H01' on L street, between 

Front and Second, Sacramento, H. B. INGHAM. 

N. B. — All information given, and orders left at Wabren &. 
Son, San Francisco, will be attended to. 

The following certificate is among the number received : 
others can be referred to in auantiee : 

This is to certify that I have one of H. B. Ingham's Improved 
Smut Machine*, and believe it to be superior to any other. I 

need no other fixture fo jnv&Ul, except the machine 

itself; it mokes no dirt in the mill; occupies but little room; 
requires less power, and does the work more perfectly than 
any other 1 have ever seen or ueed I 

WM. SHARP, Agent American Mills, 
Pine street, San Francisco. 
San Francisco, Jan. 11, 1855. v3-5 



To Fni'inirs nnd Gardeners. 
WICKERSHAM'S 

CelebratedPatentWrouglitlronFaniiFence. 

FC R. sale — Wlckeraham's Ear-uunad Patent Wrought Iron 
Fence, For enclosing and Bud-dividine lands. It can befiir- 
m-hci at but little nbove die cost of ditChmg, and is much more 
preferal : ■ does not reeuirea heavy annual <■ 

■tore to keep it in repair ; it cannot be destroyed by the tires 
which to j cimstantly sweep over prairie and mountain, req 
wooden fences Co !"■ renewed) nor curried away by flood from 
the overflow of the low lands; it is tree irom decay, which 
ii beyond comparison with wood or any other material 
now in use ; it i- valued the most highly where it ban been 
tried the most thoroughly; h U light and praceiul, yel strong, 
and cannot be broken dav e mnony 

which ban heeng ave used it in the Atlantic 

States, Is sufficient to recommend it to the [arming public of 

California. 

Acomplitte model is now an exhibition at thi 
tund Fair, at Musical Hall, Bu-h street, near Mont) 
where a mony ol 

Btates, 

Farmi 
been any oi the eauie kind in this country pnr 
rival ol thjg lot, and Irom ere is not 

the least doubi b this State. 

J. T. t ; i t 1 1 1 : 1 y reeeiv 

tuxeri which will enable him to 
amount. 
For particular.- address J. T. HESTOW, 

At Warren's Agricull 

Or, P. COOG1NS, cor, Sacramento and Pike streets 
Octobers, 1854, 15 



Avleslun "\\ ell Boring. 

AT: E would respectfully inform the public thai we are fully 

VV prepared to take controete in the above operations in a 

manner to guaVantee sansfaciion or do cl made. 

Smith & Van Dvnk having with an 

old and Ltorfrom the Bast whocbaJlengea the 

world to compete with him in all the branches connect) ■ 

the above business, are fully confident to guarantee success in 

nil contracts that we may undertake, and warrant the work lor 

ir. We have also implements foi boring through atone 

to any depth, und all work done on the most reasonable terms. 

For the satisfaction of those wanting anything in, the above 

would refer to Thomas Pallon, Sab - 1 

I if HnWOrth &■ Eells : M. A, Sullivan, New Custom Houte 
Wifiht 6c Co., 137 Jack-on street, &c., &lc. 
We can do work cheaper than any other operators, for two 
■ 

1st. Because we are prepared to work ou a most extensive 
scale 

2d. Because we understand all branches connected with the 

above business, and are, therefore) able to work with certainty. 
Ail orders left at the What Cheei House will bo promptly at- 
SMiTfi & VAN DYNE, Contractors. 

N. B.— i to Warren &. Son, publishers* of the 

>■ seen and known the character 
of the work done. 7 



Southwick & Co.'s Grand Raffle! 
S48,5401! 

FIRST GRAND PRIZE $30,000111 

THE Propriel ■ i ■ officient 

[hem in fixing the 

" Day of Drawing*' lOtb day of March next. 

have much pleasure Tin ii r Irienda and th< 

ihy, that lhe drawing will be by wheel, in which the 

numbers of every Ticket which mod "'ill be de 

. and the r'im twenty dre ■ will be Prizes, 

Hie fortunate holders of which will receive the Prize- ■.■ 

atety alter the drawing, or they will be held in trust ;■ 

at a distance by a Committee ol Ticket Hidden?, elected by 

present at the drawing, and who will superintend the 

and .luiiy represent all Ticket holders who may not be 

able to attend The drawing. 

Tickets Sold and Rallied \'fr day and flight Up to the hour of 

og, at the principal office in Sacramento, or can 
i.\ application to the variou* Agents m all parts of the 
iid Southern mines, San Frand co, i 1 "-. 
aemember i— Saturday, 10th day ol March next. 

Without delay. v3-S 



THEODORE PAYNE. SQUIIIE P. DEWKV. 

THE0D0EE PAYNE & CO., 
REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AUCTIONEERS. 

OFFICE AND SALES-UOOM COltNER CAJ.IFOILMA AND MONT- 
QOUSRV STItEETS. 



FLOURING MILLS. 



HENRY POLLEY. 



B. S. NICH'iLS. 



SETII H. CAiinrLD. 



P0LLEY & CO., 

BAY STATE MILLS, 

N street, between Front ami Bce#nc|< 

BAS STATE LOWER MILLS, 

Corner of Front and It streets, Sacramento, 

MANUFACTURE the ci old of Floor known a» 

the "Bay State Lower MUHit," which ran iduays be founcf 
at our store, N O. 49 K street. Also, freeh ground Buckwheat 
und Graham Flour, Ires ;e, Bran r 

and ground Barley, &c.. which i- dispose t prices. 

Barley, Wheat and ni Ground to Older. v3-l 



THEODORE PAYNE AUCTIONEER. 



Happy Valley Flour 31111s, 

Corner of First add .i.< risco. 

Encourage Home Industry and Home Production. 

rpHE attention of dealers and consumers of Flnnr is respect- 
J_ fully invited to'thc Superior Article manufactunid at the 
above establishment, from Oaliibrnia Wheat ot the growth of 
1854, selected Bnd prepare reateat care. These Mills 

have been in successful operation for nearly two years, during 
which tune the proprietors haw . -;itis(iietory as- 

surances from those who have tested the quality of their Flour, 
that they can confidently recommend it a_- being fully equal to 
any brand in the market. Anion- the many evidences of the 
superior excellence of the Flour manufactured by them, the 
proprietors woidd direct attention to the substantial compli- 
ments received at the two last Annual Meetings of the State 
Agricultural Society, premiums have been awarded at both 
Fairs for the superior specimens of Flour from thc-e Mills. 

Domestic Flour. — a superior article tor family use, manu- 
factured from selected Wheal — a constant supply always on 
on hand at the Mill, or at the Depot of the Proprietors, 35 Sac- 
ramento street. 

fS^* A liberal allowance made to the trade. 

J. N. BROOKS, } „ 

F. C. HALL, } Proprietors. 
fjp* Wheat Purchased or Ground on the most favorable 
tcims. 19 



Flour ! AVhent ! I Barley ! ! r 

THE SAN JOAQUIN FLOUR MILLS. STOCKTON— Are 
now completed and ready to grind wheal and Barley in 
any quantities. The ahi ■■, any in 

the Atlantic States, having all the modern improvements for 
the manufacture Of the finest Family Flour, and arc capable of 
turning Out 250 barrel- per day. 

A large fire-proof Warehouse Tor the storage of Grain, hi 
attached to the Mill 

Particular attention Is called to I ^"-ingthe 

depot for the supply of the Southern Mines ore oners 

superior inducements to grain di- 

rect to Stockton, for milling. 

Liberal advances made ■ Wheat 

For particulars as to ten MILLS— or to 

Messrs. PAIGE & WEBSTER, Onion Block; corner of Battery 
and Union streets, Ban Frai " 6 



BUSINESS CARDS. 



R. II. TIBBITS, 

California Boot and Shoe Store. 

Ladies', Misses', Geuta', Boys' and Childress' 



Boots, sliot s mid Oiiiu )■*, 

WHOLESALE A«D RETAIL, 
jVo. 117 v 



v3-5 



WilEELISK & BKOOKS, 
EXCELSIOE NURSEKY, 

lo.'/i rtn 

t Sacramentd City. 

Fruit and Ornamental Tree«, Vines and Shrubbery 

OF ALL KINDS. v3-5 



0& 0,'WOH K I l,L, 

6b7 Importer and Dealer, at v. holesalp and Retail, in 

^* Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, Paints, Oils and 

Fancy Goods. 

■^T MANUFAC > tMPHENE AND ufLJgl 

v3-4 ' J a mi Third, ■■ ■ ■■■■ nto. 

JOHN m'henbv. JAS B. TOW'NSESD. HIIIAM. c. clabk. 

McHBNBY, IDWXSEXD & CLARK, 
Attorneys and Counsellors at Law, 

SCO, CaL 

corner of Battery 

v.1-4 



P^* Office, No. 6 Merchant' 

and Wiuhin^ton streets — entrance on V, . 



WLliIAM BAILEY, 

OIL AND <■ | FACTUJUtR, 

IMP OBTE a AND DSA2.E R I H 

Sperm, Polar, F,U pliant mid IJlnrkflah Oils, 

Also^ — Campmknk and Stoning Plutix 
No y ii tan. 21 



GIBSON & KING, 

IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE UEALBOB IN 

Gioi'esrlts, Provision^ ITori-lcni uml lhmnsdt- 

Splrlta, nnd Winca, 

Mos, 21, 26 and 28 Battel of Pine, 

IS 



WM. N.EELV THOMPSON. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAL LUMBER, 

MARKET 8TKEET, BETM'CHN FIIONT AND DAVIS. 

Boards, 3cantting, Flooi i i Doors, Win 

down and Jiuitdin . tly on hand. 24 



SJM & CO.. 

PRODUCE COMMISSI N M ERCHA NTS t 
12 Clay street wharf, 

On East and Drum -tree:!, SAN FBANriSCO. 

P5*^ Cash udvances made on in store. 

Refer to Messrs. Flint, Peabody $t Co.; I. C. Woods, Esfl^al 

Messrs. Adaui* &. Co'?. 24 tf 



|?y Meaaw. PAYKE & CO. reapecthuly inform the public 

thatxhey bave established <- above, (or the purpose 

i tng the 

Keal" Estate business, in all its branches, 

Fur the conducting of which they esteem themselves peculiarly 

over two 
elves (annliar with all questions 

_ Miles d&C Aie. 

They will give their especial attention to the public 
estate, by Adnuniatratore, Aaaigfueea, Reeeivere, Mortgagee^ 
■' ully complying with thi torm 

A It.- _;;.-L' ; r lor Pmperty, at either public or private sale 
always open nt their otlice 20 fir.i 



W'ltita and LlqUora. 

GOODWIN & CO., & MEEKER, 

i asltfomia :!nir,—(i/<ar Fr.mt ttrtrt,) 

IMPORTERS and W,, nnd Do 

mesne Liquors, have now on hand, and tor sale,— 
500 one-eighth casks Domestic Brandy, 
350 bbla laonongnhela Whisky, 
50 bbla very fim Old Bourbon Whisky, 
ion one-eUjetb caalu Bne pah' Pellevolnxi Brandy, 
50 one-eighth casks A. Seignette do, 

40 oue-eiyhtli casks fine Champagne do, 

15 ono-elghtfa casks Louie Le lleiton, do, 1605 

5 punch Scotch WbiaKy. 

15 pipes Imperial Eagloend Bwan Gha, 

100 ooc-ekdith citeks Port Wine, 
UK) casks Dunbar'i Buttled Ale and Portor, 
100 ca>.ks Tennnnia do do do, 

50 cases BokerV Bitters, genuine; 
100 caw CI unpagne Cider, 

I i 

luO baskets nmcy Brands, — pliti and quarts. 
Also—;.. n ol Syrups, Absinth, Caracoa, 

Bitters, &c. dec.; all of which wdl bo sold at the 



SAMUEL A. CHAI-IN. OTI9. V. SAWYZa 

CIIAPIN & SAWYER, 

IMPORTEKS AND JOHBEttS OF 

Hardware and Leather. 

Saddlery, Shoe Findings, Nets, Seines, Ac., &o., 
24 laYSatiaome nt, near Washington, San Fmncisco. 



JOSKPH M. BROWN * ' 

95 Sarramoito onafol ' "''"' Francisco. 

IMPOHTKI1S AND DEALRRS IN 

IInr<1>vnrt-, Mining ami Agilealtxa) Iitiplcmcnts- 

Brown's, Ames* and Bu s Bakes; 

Crillms' heavy and li : ;ht Picks : Ploughs of all kinds; 

Pan Mills, Straw Cutter*; Builder's Ehudwure > ingteatvaiiety; 

■ ■ i teHs Toole of evi 

Wc invite the trad'; to Call and examine this eXtenstTe stock. 
At the B)gu of Uie Golden Anvil. 
8 JOSEPH M. HHOWN Sl CO. 



DR. THURSTON, 

Office, Room No. 20, Hillman's 'iemperance House-, 

MARTHA N. THURSTON, M. 1)., 

Omce, Loom No. -;l. Huunaa' o ffonse, 

No. ■-" ■ 

\dfr* Mrs. T., Physician for bo, 22 



WYMAN 

S UP E R FI N /: 



& CO.'S 

C L O T II I N G! 



WM. MANSFIELD & CO., 
151 Montgomery street, 

Offer their Laree and Bl 

FAIL AND WiNTER CLOTHING, 

ov tiie Latk t Brnw, 

AT GREATLY REDUCED PRICES, 

In order to maki an entire new etock for the 

Spring 

Every ih > ; Fine Cidf, Patent 

Leath er and Water Prool B 

VST W. M. it t:tj„ wm dd ni oonbry 

and the city t;enenilly to call in- l lock. v3-ltf 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



mis< i.i.i,axi;< >rs. 




STEAMERS. 



CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND MAIDEN LANE, 

MAEYSVILLE. 
Corner BQUery strsett, San Francisco, 

. ■■' street, Boston, 
Importers of Hardware, Iron, Steel, Cordage, Painte, Oils, 
Varnish and Window Gli rom the Atlani States ana 

Europe, with a COMPISTX assortment of tools and imple- 
ments Inr f'anrti prr*, Caulkers and 
Gravers, ■ ■ \{a ions, Smith*, Painters, Glaziers, 
Skip Car; Wheelwrights, Millwright.*, Cabinet Makers, 
and others. v3-5 




COLLINS & CO., 
PRACTICAL HATTERS, 

(premium hat store,) 
157 Commercial street, San Francisco. 

THE undersigned would take this opportunity to return their 
thanks ti» their friends and the public generally (or the very 
liberal share ol patronage which they hoVo received. They take. 
pleasure in now announcing mat they are determined that no 
one shall surpass them in the beauty, or finish, or quality of e 
Hut; that no -mi shell wear a finer Hut than can be found at 
Collins & Oo.'s Worehou e. 

The proprietors Ol thia i^t^blJHhment exert themselves to 
manufactnri' to ordei ' ■ ■ style* and raoBt approved pat 
terne. Tho stock of HATS and CAPS, of every kind, now 
on hand, cun i mi boeui passed in thieeity. 

17 COLLINS & CO. 

SOUTHWICK. & CO.* i 

GRAND RAFFLE. 

$30,000 for one Dollar 

t&> THE Fllt.ST GRAND PRIZE is, probably, the beat 

paying propoi'ty in Sacramento county, viz. : 
The Well Known Dairy! 
Owned and conducted by Benjamin Southwick and Southwick 
<fc Co., for the la i tingol 199 of the boat 

M1LCII Cc>U Py ; also, THREE HORSES, Milk 

Wagon, Cans, Pans, Household Furniture, Good Will 
same, &,!■.; likewi a, Stables sufficient to inclose the 
The Dairy Is now paying ahoul $1,uih) por month, axora 
raiding the Calve*. The whole will be transferred Ln ] 
order, as tb< ■■ will ba continued up to the Cunt It la 
known who is the luckly one. The above de Bribed propci 
makes up tin- 
First Grand Prize $30,000 

2d Grand Prize, 20 Shiga 1.000 

3d Grand Prize, 10 Slugs 500 

4th, A Mulch span ol Sorrel Horace, i I 

5th, 1 Ba; Buggy Mara 3<n> 

6th, 1 Grej Pon 100 

IUlt0l6thlnclu ive.TEN LOTS, fronting on Y st., 
Bach Ci uiid valued at $1,500 

each 15,000 

17th, l hoai • ■ i Watch 

18th, 1 heavy Gold Hunting Wiitck 

10th, l hi v rChdi ' Watch 

20th, l beavj i Watch tad fob chain.. li'i 

PRIZES, »*S\*40. 

The 1 
and uii' I. r 
Taxes all paid. The si 

well know to the] ,,.-.■■ 

they wouli 

-i ; W1CJ ■ 

We the i 
ciors of tl 
in the sai 
to then 

com 
put up nt n t..i ■ i 

W. B 

JNO. M. Rill 

J. K. RGB 

JOHN 

15?" ' 
at ttic pi 

i. 

*,* / ■ ORNIA FiUMKR, 

' 

I \ l) I \ \ ■ U M HI 

0: amen 
NIA FARMER, 



Californ a Steam Navigation Company. 

, /'. .w. 

FOR SACRAMENTO, 

Steam, rmour; 

. ; LOPK, I>. Van Pelt, ma i 

Mnndai , Wcdn lai nni F ■ Idaj 

I | ... 

, Thnreds iturdaya 

TheW. O, HUN1 0*. at 

FOR STOCKTON. 

■ U IRSffS 

■ wrm. 

CORNRLI v E C mcklin, master; 

■ i . i i . '', 8. Barroll, Mastei 

'■ ■ and i Yitluytf. 

'■■ II E, E. Polk BM '■■ 

Steamer SOPHJ I M Chadwick, master ; 

i . i and ! iturdaya, 

FOR MARYSVILLE. 
Steamer J. BRAGDON, Thomas Seely, master— Mondays and 

Thursda ■ 
Steamer ELLEN HENSLEY, E. C. M. Chodwlck, raMtcr— 
Wednesdays and Satuidaye. 
FOR SAN JOSE, ALVISQ AND SANTA CLARA. 
Steamer QUAD ALOUPE, S Curd, master— will leav&every 
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, from Vallejo street wharf, at 
9 o'clock a, at, Returning alternate days leaving San Jose at 
3 o'clock, a. at., Santo Clara 3^, and Alviso 91^ o'clock, a. m. 

FOR COLU.SI, RED BLUFFS, AND INTER- 
MEDIATE LANDINGS. 

The steamer CLEOPATRA, Capt. Wm. II. Taylor, will leave 
Sacramento every Tuesday, at 12 o'clock M,, for Red Bluffs mid 
IntRrmediate landings, from Btoreship Antalopo. Returning, 
will leav i Red Bluffs every Friday morning. 

Theete&mer BELLE, Capt, Henry Oilman, will leave Sacra* 
mento eveiy Saturday at IS o'clock M., for Red Bluffs and in- 
termediate landings from Btoresbip Antelope. Returning, will 
leave Red Bruits every Tuesday and Thursday raorniog,at9 o'lk. 

The steamer ORIENT, Capt. Carpenter, will leave Sacra- 
mento fir Red Blufljs everjj, Thursday, at 12 o'clock, m.; return' 
ing, leaves Red Bluffs every Sunday. 

g^gr Freight by the above limits mustbepoid for on delivery. 

For particulars apply at the office of the Company, Jackson 

street, between Battery and Front, to 

R. CHENERY, President 
H. N. Squmie, Vice President SOtf 



For Sacramento and MnvysvII'c. 

_ _^IT^'s THEncw and splendid steamer QUEEN CITY, 
^t. j?* 3 ; .^—7 r. it nAirr-i.^v muster, will leave Pacini ■ 
every Tuesday, Tliuc-dnv and Saturday at 4 u'clock, p. U 
nectfng with the steamer ENTERPRISE for Haryevilie, 
J^ 3 Freigbl to Sacramento |3 per ton, until lurtliei w 
For further particulars, apply to 

V3-2 E. CHAPMAN, Agent. 



Freights <<» Sacramento, $10 prr Ton, 

r -tTT^n FREIGHTS by the QUEEN CITY, will be 

aFhffrii'i iITnr ii Ten Do1!iu'h per Ton, until lurtl or notice, 
v3-2 E. CHAPMAN, A?cnt 



SfeuiniMiut Mite <»f OmiilliiiMs. 
wv_r^-d_ gyf rr< THE Proprietor of the abovi 
r ^ %g ^, made arrangements with the prupriei 

■" " the principal Hul 

day, December I8tb, run Omnlbu 
■ 
One or more Omnlbusea will be on the ^>'<:k on thearrrfnl "f 
the Bent.", and tnk< to any Hotel lor 

■ 
Paasemjera takes to any pan ol the < 'i 
and Mission tri ad 

■ i , $ 1 50. 

MARTIN J i 

26 Prop: 



California Sto^c Company. 
STAi 

rcetown. I'i 



Nevada and Inf A. M. 

Qeoroetown " " 6 " " 

All utnei 

Accommodation line for M t p. M. 

All |>r, 

JAS. HAWORTU, Pn 
J. P. Dnoiuif, Bocrrtary, vMtf 



HOTELS. 



Orleans Hotel, 



e Co. , : 
' dUXr, 

TUI.^ 



>j.:i 






lloU'l'K'.ri/rURAL, &o. 



17,000 Pmnlnin Strawberry PlnntMi 

Fron ;■ ■■:■■■ hfo ■ lurstrlt* and FtuU ' .'■. 
an la ''■unity. 

WEoffoi vaald following List of PI al 
000 Bosl nt $70 pur 100 

5,000 B :!■■ !, i .■ ■ ■ n. ■' 39 ■■ 

1,000 Bun i ino " 3o " " 

m EU ■ i lud on, " 3.'. " " 

5,000 In >im Scarlet, " 15 " " 

■'.- ovi . s dling l r» •■ •■ 

1,000 Prolific btautboy, " IS " " 

1,000 Black Prince, " 15 

500 1 moon Cone, " 15 " " 

Plants from "Shell Mound " received a premiu ■■ the lati 
Pair of the Calltorida State Agricultural Society, Several of 
thevarieties above named are believed to be remarkable for 
their fruitful Qualities, having been cultivated for several years 
by Mr. Saofora, at his gardens in Wayne county, N. Y., with 
to the prod \ offruit. 
Orders received for any number of plants, (not lens than 100) 
. i.i promptly executed. On invoices of |500, and over, q di-- 
count of ■■■...'. from the above prices is il! be allowed. 

Addrese, J. L. SANFORD, Cultivator, 

Shell Mound, near San Antonio ; 
or, R. W. WASHBURN, Proprietor, 
* v3-4 Care of Wells, Fargo & Co., San Francisco. 



Snn Jose Nursery. 

WE are prepared to supply the trade with the best varieties 
of Fruit Trees, Grapes Vine, Roses, Plants, dtc., in all 
their varieties : and ore disposed ta sell at a lowAricc, that ws 
may suit the times. Our Trees are cultivated with great v^y- 

BOnaJ core. Those who desire tO muke Nurseries :md Gardenfl 

will do well to visit and ascertain for themselves our ability to 
supply wind we advertise. Trees will be carefully labelled and 
packed tor any season or distance. 
The following Trees we offer tins season 



Strawberries, 7 varieties ; 

Fig Trees ; 

Pomegranates; 

Walnuts; 

Chestnuts ; 

Locust Trees, very large 

Rose Acaciase, ) , , , 

OaageOrnnsc, J '"r hedges. 



Peach Trees, fl varieties; 

Pear do 4i do 

Apple do 54 do 

Plum do 15 do 

Apricots ti do 

Almonds 2 do 

Quinces do 2 do 

Cherry do many do 
Grapec, 12 do 

In addition to our Fruit and Ornamental Trees, we offer fe» 
Uiousand finest. Roses, comprising more than one hundred vari- 
eties, all of the beat known kinds. Our plants are too numerous 
to specify in an advertisement Hoping visitors vvill come and 
see us, we refer them to our agent in San Froncisco, Ma. De- 

ladigne, l^l Sonaome street, where we shall have a collection 

of plants in the season as samples. The nursery is situated in 
the city of San Jose, immediately above the City Mills. 

We "are also permitted to refer to Warren Si Son, who have 
examined our grounds, and who can testify ol the character of 
our nursery, and who will receive and forward orders to us. 

Every order promptly and cpeedily attended to. 

Mistf L. PREVOST Sl CO. 



GARDEN SEEDS, 
Growth of 1H54. 

FRESH und GENUINK, per " Express."— Just received and 
■ i I antly arriving — 
olio lbs. Yellow Onion 

Hill •' Red 

CO " White " 
900 " Top Onii 

Fruit 8 K 9t» Pom I pple, Plnm, Chen ■. . 

Locust, White Birch, Elm, 0*age Orange, Rnepbi 

with a con d California I lardeo 

Seeds. Also, Flower Seed 

* Wholesale and Retai 

■ 
And agent f-" or Seeds, 

Botauiotd I ; 

i ■ .: . Third, Sacramento. 

v3l 



Pari lie Nursery, 

MISSION not.ORR3 AND ALAMEDA, 

HAVE alv. collectionof 

Llao, Grape 
Vines, Fruit and Ornamental Trees in 



ery at A 

II. A. PONNTAG .'■ 



AGRICULTURAL, 



A^rUul tin nt ImpltaiiMts. 

FRENCH Burr Mill Stones, three and four i 
wiiii all the Iron 
Smii ■ " t Pi tnlum Smut Machinei 

■ i ; 'i ri Mills ; 

i : . . ''■. , 

Anchor Brawl Bi Iting Cloth; 

Brass on I Iron Wire Cloth; 

Rover Steel ] ■ i Mid 7; 

Pei rn 5, 5>4and6; 

Clipper" '■ " 5 1 ';, 0. 16 and 18; 

'i i |i Irj le ■■ ■ i .' i, all nixes; 

Extra Poini for cast PI iw 
Straw CutteTfl and Fun Mills; 
Thermometer ' !hui at ■, 

Garden RjikeH un.l Hoes ; 

Fresh Garden and Field Beodi 
Garden and Coal Barrows j 
Hand saws, claw hammer*, hatchet-, bul awe and 

cleavers, plan.-,, Ames' long and nhort handled bi eli and 

spades, Collins' Ion;; handled axes, picks, mattock*, harrow 

teeth, two and four hoi m wagons, grul anrj pi itlon 

boes, bix and eight fined manure forks, wbjfllctrei . ox yokes 
and chains, Ketclmni's mowing machines, Seymour & Morgan's 
reaping machines. For sale by 

H. McNALLY, 
85 Washington street, between Battery and Front 
3-1 (Opposite the New Merchant's Exchange.) 



Harvesting Implements. 

HARVESTING IMPLEMENTS— 
1 McCormick Reaper; 
2 Hussey's Do.; 
f Manny's Do. ; 
2 Burrill' Paten Reapers j 
1, 3, fj and H horse Threshing Machines. 
ALSO — Steam and Water Power Flouring Mille. 
"Foreulehy BRYANT & CO., 

Agricultural Warehouse, 
24-lm Corner of Buttery and Richmond si eett 



Pan 9II1U! Hay CuttorsI! 

WE have the very best Fan Mills in the Country, with al! tho 
new improvements for cleaning perfectly, and worthy 
pnrticular attention ol Grain growers. 

The Straw Cutters are of uew pattern, of extra quality and 
working power. BAKER & HAMILTON, 

7 11 J street. Sacramento City. 



BAKER & HAMILTON. 

New England Agricultural Warehouse and Seed Store, 

II J etreel Ss :i im -oi ; City, ca r tl i .m ■ ■ 

C CHOICE FIELD and GARDEN HEEDS, selected trash every 
j year by experienced Seedaman in the Eastern States, and 
warranted, always for sale by 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 
5 ii dossers to Warbb.n ic Son. 

Graas Seed. 

BBLS. Herd's Grans, Clover and Red Top, of tho very 
best quality. For sale low, if applied for immediately 
Orders lefl with worron &Son will he promptly attended to 
10 GEO, N SHAW & CO., Battery street Wharf. 



30 



Splendid Hyacinth*. Jonquils, NarclMtu, *t<-. 

LAltOE and tine bulbe these beautilul o ■ 

may now he hud atOU !■■:;■ " I'^LIKOBMA FARMER " 

Office, opposite LcCount & 

Masonic Hull Rulldlng, Montcomery 8tn i 
16 WARREN de SON. 



Extra Samples Grain, &C, 

GRAIN GROWERS who have extra quality of WHEAT, 
BARLEY or 0AT8, rim and cash t the 

., ■ ■ .■',-.... i . , : .. ■ 

. . mp ■■ ol I II ■ am thei ■■■>■ -■ tie ■■ ■■ ■ » dmen 

■ :. : .. !■ : id p ■; ..... Bcai ■■ ill i ."i i ■■■ . ilobj appll 
cation at our ollii o, Maaonlc Hall Buildi ttt«n streel 

WARREN i ON 



Stn«w Imti y Vlneaw 



Grnln 1 Ginlii !! 

HOLDERS ol CHAIN wilt do well by leavin 
. ■ , ' ; i ■ :. ■ : ■ 

, ■ . ... I , ■■■■::.:. 

... I I tO till 

WARRI 

vj-l Maaonl 



• U Kllnral Iinptemcnt*. 

A. ■■.,. 

. 

HltYANT A CO., ■ street 






.1' 









i rata < mi - 

- 



VI riNi: MomhjT f xiiw b mi Vinr^ai >; 
- 4 — r dux. sad - 
•i or 9S5 per hu»l - 

; ftruea that 
rwmrd the amovat of their order to u*. Now is the mm 
rhrectiona tor i.Ur.tm; with tt.*> rlanU. 



w 



1 1)* I 

-)rnrT, ll»e fiune- 1 

•*rt*rn'nr +ttn>u»n o) 
put opin parrr!. 

i .'t a tew mt+ i 

tae*o,a« " 
S3 



Plow Point*. 
i LARGE 'swot- ■ ■ >r sale by 

\ mt\ ■ 

eanrden, PleM ami Ghtaua t* 

i FULL mm 
, V 

19 BRYANT A CO., 68 Banvry street 



Ptowa and Harrow*. 
& QREA I Ifce beitt manufacturers. 

V For aali 

19 atreat. 



B 



HoitluK Clotli, dUC. 
OLTING - ^nleby 

street. 

India Kutalitr Ik-ltln K . 

INDIA I of wiaw 

widUu and sixe*. Fur vale by 

*treoL 



l en article bj ■»»■ ti.'-r nan <• 



«, * urn^i 

jgctber wnh • \U r boare oad 

it lc :ii.i> ■ m a ii. -: 



i ruuchinb 



v on the Pactfie Coast, 

.ccmmxlAtr-d with sib. 

rick j all the rooms are 
tnJbrt hitherto unknown in the Hotel* 
rota, and the House w capable of accctjaeaoatatn*; over 
nrebandrad bt*u>i' r- t3 3rd 

Murriv s Fifty^ent Westcra Honse 

(•-—•• 0j s - « i <f M»muui. 

mw catiTTtT AWotnl to tae * »at» of the 
traTeUf&g |T«a*lae aaal as ail who will tavor aa wma a ealL 
iuu<e*atMactaoa wiflbe^TCD. [IT] R 






•*-. . r»J **JawMe taTotraa of Uarora, 
■■ ...l.l at 
wholesale, to wWeh we rail the attcnuoo ot \hr trad.- 
them are m*oace« of New aari Vjj.caBLB Gardx* 

rn,,H tfcc lu.r*r-t character. i*rtml*tty wurthy ol 



1 

( N.Paw.simiates 


RtJI • i . , ■ ■ , . . , 
ad Lath' ' 


QTEAM 

■ 


Po ra, .w. . 
tYANT A CO. CBBaticr, 


C ..;if..ri.la Htareta. 
» 

\ ' • aot bow avoi u 
Tae o«"itfi of if t ■ r, ;. u ta aa atrfjajoh, purrty aao * . i 

*•— "W— «■* -■ t "'*Tffl— lflH *»tri 1ITT aw**** .-■ ,....i~rT.ir.rl 



»M 



Hall 






E can off 

ktweat rate*. Hanr. . 1 

lea we ar* <^wbl**d to n.-**, term* i 
rahfa, 

>i«u extra lot of IttVODO v*>a; 
at a rery low rat>, rca<i - 




In any parT 



Tbia new California prodact of '* aeone aiaiwiactnre " la of- 
i ten poand* each, *t a to* rate. 



Water atreea, I 



PEX0O1I9 haiia« rolaa Mrj .- 
aadana arkh a*. We always ha i 



IK. , , \k M 

-TViaDCatS a«a«BM< AaT W ■ ■ 
t f Jaata at 

1 1 ran pa 



HOV 

Wbclesalc Deaien, 



A\ r 




Tk> P. ki» mt < hi. ■ « . 
\1 i ln «I Oj M li l TlM,«h<- 



a |^a| i. r - ■-.'<• \ 



WAH8KK k. SUM 






I cui.inf rrcn.ro r 



.f^-Ohlly 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



flarutits*. 

A DOLLAR OR TWO. 

With cautious Btep, we trend our way through 
This intricate world tia other folks do, 
May we still on ourjourMy be able to view 
The benevolent face of a dollar or two ; 

| 

Is n dollar 01 two, 

No friend ia 80 true 

As a dollar or two ; 

Through country or I 

A. we psss up and down, 

No prospect 80 good 

A3 a dollar or two I 

Would you read journal out the bachelor crew 
And the hand of a pretty young female sue, 
You must always be ready tlie hBudeodle to do, 
Although it will cost you n dollar or two. 

Love's arrows are ripped 

With ft dollar or two, 

And afFections are gained 

With a dollar or two ; 

The best aid you can meet 

In advancing your suit. 

Is a dollar o: two 1 

Would wujh yonr*existcnce with faith to imbuo. 
And enroll in the ranks of the sanctified few ^ 
To enjoy ft good name ; a well cushioned pew, 
Yoa must freely down with ft dollar or two. 

The gospel is preached 

For a dollar or two ; 

And salvation is reached 

By a dollar or two ; 

Ycu may sin sometimes, 

But the worst of all Crimea 

Is, to find yourself short 

Of ft dollar or two. 



Celebrated English Oaks. — An English 
publication gives the following accounts of the 
mosl celebrated oaks in England : The oldest oak 
in England is supposed to be the Parliament Oak 
(from the tradition of Edward I. holding a par- 
liament under i's branches) in Climpstone Park, 
belonging to the Duke of Portland, the park 
being also the mo>t ancient in the Island ; it was 
a park before the Conquest, and was seized as 
Bucb by the conqueror. The tree is supposed to 
be 1500 years old. The tallest oak in England 
was believed to be the property of the same no- 
b'l-man; it was called the ''Duke's Walking 
Stick," was higher than Westminster Abbey, and 
stood till of late years. The largest oak in ths 
country is called "the Calthiop Oak, Yorkshire ; 
it measured seventy-eight feet in circumference 
where the tiunU meets the ground. The "Three 
Shire Oak," at Worksop, is so called from its 
covering part of the counties of York, Notting- 
ham and Derby. It had the greatest expanse of 
any recorded in this island, dropping over 707 
square yards. The most productive oak was that 
of Gelonos, in Monmouthshire, felled in 1810. 
Its bark brought £'200, and its timber £070. In 
the mansion of Tredegar Park, Monmouthshire. 
there is said to be a room 42 feet broad, and 227 
feet long, the floor and wainscots of which were 
the production of a single oak tree, grown on the 
estate. 

Anecdote of Mn. Choate. — A£ the trial of 
the salvage case of the bark Missouri, at Boston, 
the case in which a ffart of the cargo was embez- 
zled by the masters of the two vessels on the 
Coast of Sumatra one of the masters was exam 
ined as a witness, and disclosed the plan of em- 
bezzlement, and stated the inducements that were 
offered to him by the other master. He said that 
he objected at lirst, and told his comrade they 
would be found out and convicted, but was over- 
borne with the assurances given him. Mr. 
Choate cross-examined him strictly and particu- 
larly as to what the inducements and assurances 
were. The witness had the appearance of hold- 
ing back a little, but at last he said : '• Well, sir. 
he told me that if we were found out. he could 
get Mr. Choate to defend us. and he would get 
us off if we were caught with the money in our 
boots." It was not rive minutes nor ten minutes 
that it required to bring the audience back to a 
sober countenance. The counsel on the other 
side paid a tribute, in his closing argument, to 
the genius of Mr. Choate, the fame of which, ex 
tending to the antipodes, was relied upon as 
stronger than the law and the evidence. 

In 1817 Lady Franklin produced and published 
a poem, from which the following is extracted. 
It is said that this poem brought about her ac- 
quiantance and final marriage with Sir John. 
There appears a strange agreement between his 
ultimate sad fate and the ideas expressed in the 
production : 

" Oh has their aight 
Been strained o'er growing realms of dreary white. 
While each clear iceberg floating o'er the main, 
Seemed a whito sail and waxened hope again ; 

Till fancied outcaats both of heaven and in 

E'en to their hearts the piercing colduesa run ; 
O'er blasted fields they rolled their Buffering eyos, 
And sank the victims of the unpitying skies." 



HORTICULTURAL, &e. 



Smith's Pomological Gardens, 

Banks of the American Hirer, iwo ami a half n ilea from 

Surra mnito city. 

rpHE proprietor of the Gardens would respectfully invite all 

JL ""ho are engaged in -Nursery and Gardening*! to visit his 
grounds. He mil be happy to show to them, ready for sale, 
thin .all, us line a collection of # 

Fruil y, ■■„: Tr"*, Gmpc Vine*, Shrubs, 

■ }ng PUintft, ami Green h 
■ :.:..! in nil the great Sacramento Vail v. . 

The proprietor would cull particular atte ntohwc 

Cion ofF caches, believing that the spei 
iiiin iii Sacramento and San'Franeisco i been un- 

surpassed in Bize, rjualii v. <>r flavor. 

The collections of Peai Tree- will equal any in the country ; 
these, with all the new varieties, will b ■ tumn. 

The underpinned believe- trie collection worthy r« vi,-it to hi* 
,- of all who areinterested in Gardening and Orcharding. 

The jfuoecriber will otfer this autumn Five Tons Vegeta- 
ble Garden Seeds, that hove been raised upon bis own 
"rounds. These eceda have been grown with cure and will be 

sold at wholesale for the present, at the Gardens. 

■ ai iii want are invited to call upon us, and nrewill make 
reasonable terms. 

Fruits, Buquetti, &c, will always he furnished at short notice 
at the Gardens. 

The proprietor returns his thanks for the liberal patronage 
of tin- past, and hopes for a continuance of Bucb favors. 

10 A. P. SMITH. Proprietor. 



Golden Gate Nursery, 

Corner of Folsom and Fourth streets, San Francisco. 

OFFICE — NO. 170 WASHINGTON STREKT. 

THE attention of the public is requested to a large collection 
of the dowering Plants, now for sale*! this Establishment, 
embracing the mi ssortment in the State; among 

which may be found — 
Camel 

Perpctuul blooiniiiu Rosea, of all the clu 

do do ; 
■■inn; Heliotropes, In variety ; 
Rose and Lemon Geraniums ; 

LeiKon- ' ' '. Arbutillunv, Azaleas, 

Orleanders, Pasaifloraa, Honeysuckles, Carnations, Dahlia?, 
Bulboi.- Roots, &c., Sec; and a general coDecdon oi Green- 
house plants and ornamental shrabbery. 

Catalogues for 1855 will be ready on the 1st of December, 
and will be forwarded on application. 

Order hate, will be promptly attended 

to, ou application to D. Nelson, No. 170 Wiianlngton rti 
to the pn | . (*-:iiu) W. C. WALKER. 



JFrult Trees ! Fruit Trees : : 

WE have for sale 'it our Nursery a( the Mission San Jose- 
Five Thousand large Apple Troes : twoth 

them oi ■ ly of them will bear fruit the next year. 

Two Thousand Peach Trees, choicest kind— large and hand- 

■ ■■ 
Pear Trees on the Quince a^ well as Tear. 

Cherry Trees from two to four feet high. 

Grape, Pig, Quince, Apricot, Nectarine and Almond Trees 

in leaa quantities Ail the above we guarantee in quality, and 

irrsnl them what they should be, and will sell at price? 

to suit the times. 

Apple Trees fcnr $100 to $2 50 

from 150 to 2 50 

Extra sized tie t in proportion. 

BEARD & LEWKLLKN, Mission .San Jose. 
Orders with Warren St 9 Montgomery and 

. will be promptly attended to. IB 6m 



BANKERS. 



It was Napoleon who said, " Strange as it may 
appear, when 1 want any good head work done, I 
choose a man, provided his education has been 
suitable, with a long nose. His breathing is bold 
and free, and his brain, as well as his lungs and 
heart, cool and free. In my observations of men, 
I have almost invariably found a long nose and 
head go together." 

Just Like Him. — The man " who is too poor 

to tak< paper," has bought a slabsidcd dog, an 

old sbo guo, and a twenty shilling gold watch. 

Ik' educ a his children in the street, and boards 

on his neighbors. 



Hew Invention] 

BrU£XEY\S STEAM DRV KILN. 

THE undersigned takes this opportunity to offer to the citi- 
zens of California, < Iregon ana '■'■ erfttory, the 
aluuble invention hereby anno 
rants of California and vicinity, for yean, has i 
of preaer tratinued supply 
during the late months. The vegetable products to an inn 
amount are annually lost at the approach Ol th 
;■] me exposure that n c 
to those products from the season ; and the vast quantii 

are exposed and accumulated, in B ire, have 

demanded some method of preserving these Immense and valu- 
able crops, that otherwise would be a loss to the producer and 
to the State. The loss of the Potato and Onion crap last year 
would count almost a million of money, and the 
year wilt be heavy, without preservation, 

The undersigned, holding the '-Patent Right of the Steam 
Dry Kiln," oftei ii with the confident as 

that it is the very thing needed — lhatltbthe ne phis ultra for 
this very want It has been thoroughly tried and ap] 
for these product--, and for Grain also. It has been tried for 
Lumber, to which it has ed in the 

■ SO much 

care as here, 'i' ' iraln this Invention removes all 

the difficulty in ■ -, and under the 

valuable invent! ■ growers 

can now fend their Brain to New fork with sail 

proprietor needs only to append the following carna* 
cate». The name ol Benry L. Ellsworth, Esq., carries a weight 
that ia convincing to intelligent men, and tin- other e. 

should be satislur : 

Tne model machine will soon be placed on exhibition at 
the office of Warren A: " information can bo bad. 

JOSHUA BUTTS, Proprietor ol Pi 

A Diploma and Silver Medal 
Was awarded to the inventor at the last New York State Agri- 
cultural Fair, held nt Rochester, BJ a testimonial ut Us I 
merits. 

letters from Hon. H. L. Ellsworth. 

Lafayette, January 7, 1P53. 
Dear ?ib : I congratulate you on the completion of your 
Dryer. 1 have for a long time ori irtanceol extract- 

ing the moisture from Train and Sour before shipment, to pre- 
vent. fei '■' mr plan will obviate the d . 
hitherto e can no longer beany doubt that 
18 pound in. taken from a barrel of meal) and ir» 

pounds from a barrel of flour without at ■ or up- 

bow this. 
Nor is it e Li \ circumstance thai when the flour or 

meal Ut cooked, it re-absorbe prop 

Bavmg fil I purity Ol the article, !, ! 

extracted, it mu-t he obvioue this meal will keep (or long voy* 

el climate*. To the N" 
im pr ovement Is invaluable. The world has become somewhat 

skeptical on the subject of patent rights, The simplicity and 
compactness of your machinery enables you to exhibit a work- 
ing model, to remove in a moment any double U to your ability 

stain your patent and prove its utility. One feature in 

your plan deserves particular notice; 

your main claim, viz., not dryn DO Steam, or by 

tire healed pahs, as has been done hitherto, but by using 
steam. Few parsons are aware ol the Bmall expansion nl'etenm, 

and how easily It can be heated i" n hi 

little confinement. You wlllbeable to m to the 

point ol i-nilon, SOUafiOD 

will answer all youMrorposes, I will only say that European 
prejudice against Indian corn Is fast dying away, and we may 
anticipate 

fertility o i the reduction ol frehrhu both inland 

and on the ocean, justiflos this anticipation. Wishing you suc- 
I remain, yOUTS re.-peclully, 

Henby L Ellsworth, late Commissioner of Patents. 

To Henry (i. Uulkley, Esq., Kalnmazoo, Alicllignn. 

LAKAViiTTE, March 20, 1853. 
Deah Sib — 1 am highly pleased I 'ryer for lumber 

stsd mam. It Beeuia almost incredible how soon even 
green lumber cau he prepared for nsr. Twenty*four hours is 
all that is requii i 

but heated hteani luiH not been applied for this purpose before 
your improvement--. Every manufacturer ot lumber would End 
& profitable to erect a cheap dryer on your phux Full one- 
thud ot the weight ofsome fande of luml i i by dry- 
ing; the saving in entage will more than rapa] 
ofdryiog. Wnea (he din'erencfi i nod and unsea- 

■ & good work will 
expense of preparing the raw uu 
You: llKNav L. Ellsworth, 

To IL G. Bulklcy, Esq., Kalamazoo, Midi, 

HAaaisBOao, Pa., July 12, 1853. 
I hereby ccrtily that I . o. Hie 

kok'» shona whei ol bis wood work la done, that I 

put up and have used II G. Bulkley's Potent Kiln, mid heartilv 
approvo of every tbinit VV, O. EDeltok has said about It, and am 
certain that no recommendation cae bo too strong la pi 
eaid kiln. [17] W. II, SuLXKNBEuasa, 



Daniel D. Page, l David Chambers, l Francis W. Page, 
Henry D. Bacon. Henry Ebight, Sacramento City, 

St. Louis, | Son Pr 

PAGE, BACON, & CO., 

BANKERS, Montgomerv, cornei' of California street, San 
Francisco, draw at Bight, in Bums K' suit, on — 

Geo. Peabody &• Co--/ London. 

F. LIuth &, CO London 

■ uk New York. 

ii. Sherman &. Co New York 

Atlantic Bonk Boston. 

Philadelphia Bank Philadelphia. 

Co Bald 

Louiahuiia State Bank New Orleans. 

Pago St Bacon. St. Louis. 

Loui-ville. 

T. S. Goodman &. Co Cincinnati. 

Pitt-burg. 

Gold Dust and Exchange purchased at current rates. 12 



VAX VLECK, BEAD & DREXEL, 

BANKERS, e 
draw at Bight, in rum- to cuit, on 

Ocean Bunk New York. 

Bank ol North America B 

Mechanics' ami Fanner.-' Bank Albany 

Drexel St Co PhiJad 

Josiali Lee iCo Baltimore. 

J. B. Morton. Esq Richmond. Va. 

Gen. Wm. Larimer Phtsburg, Pa; 

A. J. Wheel. t. L'-i] Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A. D. Bunt,£sq; LomsviUe, Ky. 

J R, Macmurdo & Co New Orleans. 

Also, on Detroit, Mich.; Memphis and Nashville, Tenn., Co 
lumbus, Ohio : Norfolk, Va and Charleston, South Carolina. 
1 



ADAMS .t CO., 

BANKERS, W hi FianciscD. Bills ol 

Etxcban ■ iif Houses in New York, 

re, Washington, Cincinnati, New 
- noil Loudon. 
(tyahle a] the following Banks — 

Merchants' and r aimers 1 Bank Albany 

Utien City Bank. Utica 

Bank ■ Syracuse 

Bonk of Auburn Auburn. 

Bank of Anna Buffalo 

Rocln Boca 

Chi* 

Co Mtlwoukie. 

Michigan Stutn Bunk Detrint. 

'ne of Ohio Cleveland, 

on Bank Columbus, Ohio. 

. . .Mid Gold Dust )' 

in merchant.-, 
others. 3 ADAMS & CO 

The Pat-lfit; Lnnn ami Strijrlly Itauk. 

MON EY win be received on 
Dollars 

■ iiei-ritb ol the 
month, i 

It payable i ■ 

nOflth, in 

.-.'/', but 

per a nt, . 

at Diatunrnj bo that if deposil their de- 
posits a! II due, they must be proeenied 
lor pavmenl nod renew al ; othci 

The mon ""'' by us 

ami in all cases amply Becured by M , County 

and City Stocks, Marcfi >. collaterals, taken 

[n the name ol "MARRIOTT A WHEELER, Trustees for 

kept m all times opon to depositors for 

lio„, in winch a] 

on which the money do- 

■i placed, Deposttoi - I have the 

personal ■ i bj all banks, but in addition have ilie 

ii anleed by u.«. and the 

facility of knowing what dlspi 

deposit DERICK MARRIOTT, 

ALFRED WHEELER. 
No. 98 Merchant street, San Franciscoi 19 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



TKEADWELL & CO., 




CORNER OP CALIFORNIA AMD BATTERY STREETS, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

iMPORTEns, joitnnas anii nitTAiLnas or 
ire and Mining 1 ral Imnlements, 

Field and Garden Beeds of all descriptions, from the cele- 
brated Hoi, : fgles, Nourse, Mason Ic Co., 
Boston. 

Field and Garden Seeds ol 'all rai 

Ploughp, Harrows, Cultivator", Seed S iwers, of nB kinds; 
i ■-, Reapers, Mowers, Fan Mills, Straw Cutters, Corn 
fcmblc Cuttei -, ■ ' 

Ut Mill-", 

Wheal i Horae 

Rake — all the small boi li 

ation. 
N. B.— Branch House at Blaiyanlla All orders promptly 
attended to. v3-5 



San Francisco ahead of the World I 

Ever on, on apace with the Age and Times' 




80LI.D III E 1) M ILK. 

BfAtAnvacTnaxn a* 

S'VMUEL T. BLATOHFORD. 

roa sale nv 

BINGHAN & KEYN0LDS, 

•^01 SntiMonic street. 

THE PRESERVED MILK is made from l'URE FRESH 
MILK, ' 

tor all purposes 
for which Milk. Pure Milk and Sugar. 

■ pints of pure 
milk. Toe proprietor > ■ deuce the article 

to all persons going ha i eservation 

having been fully te*te ' ■'■>i~. To 

the wHALINl I ■■. and to travel- 

firs by i ■■ wl '-a accompanied by young 

ode iteolf by Its portahlenass and the 

facility with which ll 

Certiticates. 
The proprietor would call the attention ol the public to the 
EbUowlne certiflcatOB: 

New Yoax, April 4, 1854. 
ftfr, & T. Blatchford— 
Dear Bra : ' adve to the pre- 

furatioD "i Solid en ed Milk, batdnsj used it on my 
ml vo-. cleco, I can with the utmost confidence 
recommend ii i ag the best ortich 

kind I have evet the t«^t^ 

and Bavoi i i ■ . »c., 

O. R. MUMI'i 
Maal ' Ihip "Tornado." 

Extract from a lettej from n Callfbrnhin, I 

"In regard to the Solidified Milk whli ted to me 

for the purpose of testing the merit ot the preparation. 1 can 

r It ha proved entire!] satisfactory, l 

have a portion ofil yel romahui indltion us when 

. 
The preparation will be a ereat luxury to the sailor, aa it wiD 
enable blra t-i 1 1 lerto been 

■ i could only be ■ 
Very respectfully, yours, &e EARL BARTLETT." 

Extrncl 

53, j 
"But the Tahl ird & Co. 

were the climax of com i go to pea 

■ i IW loll m my room SB pe 

when hr.-t madi 

April, 1853. ,' 

Mr. Samuel '/'. Blateh/ora — 

DxaaSin: Home twelve monthe tlaee I board ot your pre- 

: a aample, a portion ol n 

oeand found i] good. When preparisi; for sea 

i.,-i d icembi r, I tried the boTonce, which provmg equally as 

;,:i during 
ii,,. voyoj . ■ anlh on The table 

■ ■ 
I hare used ■everol preparations ol mill;, tad have DO I ■ 
Him in pre the thing. 

In future voyages iVimii n y lj ofit 

;,, KICIL fl. CORNING, 

v3..j i Hipper 9hlp " Rapid." 



Ilnrrali for Vnnn'.'. in w Dn^iurnuu Gallery! 

Largest Light in the World, (over 500 feet Glass.) 

j\tw Building, cor. :•■■ r« "tery streets. 

TT^IIY should every V*akcb*$ who wishes 

y\ PERFECT LIK1 be has now the 

best arranged G 

v any in the world. I DtaiOJOg lenses 

j renter power than any ever before 

used in fl] 

2d. Because ho hog tAs largest light in the world, from which 

■ i in three distinci ide, and hiilt fide Ihrhts 

— that noi i;iliculty which 

every urlift in thu city ha- to contend wl 

■■ i ■ require 

3d. H. i ■ ibled to make pictures 

in half the lime ol anyothoi establl liment in the city ; there- 
fore they tnu-t I if- more perlOCt, fori] is v. .11 [,,,. .wn, theahorter 

the time thu 
4th. Bacaose every plal prepared with o coating 

ol pure Silver which products the dear, hold and lasting picture 

:ir:ii which cannot be produced on the 
common plaosa, aa they a 

■niiri!.' brought 

ileal preparations to perfection, u ing co 

in the art., which 
■ 
LT r eoItond bom'. I nich admired in ■■ 

All tin' rtlldo w -11 to call before 

■ 
fy Prices as reasonable, uud work superior to any in the 
city^ 

Don't forget the place. 
f^* New Building corner of Sacramento and Montgomery 

Btreete, entrance on Hon door to Austin's. 17 



Boston Cllpiwr Stejol Plow, 

Afanb/actursd town* fr Mason. 

THIS splendl i Plow u tame after the Btyle and form of the 
town. This formol 
Plow iii all its parts but been i 

oted, having token premiumi in every State in the Union; 
id's Fair. 
The present Plow has a Je ■ tit 

and in the mostflntshod. 
uid may now be considered the 
■ 
wi-h the cultivators "i California i" call 
at their plsc TREAD WELL ft CO., 

Cor. of Buttery and Cftllfomln rtreets, S.oi 1 
24 TKEADWELL & CO., Marysvllte. 



ADAMS & DCS 
CALIFOUMA AM) ATh\.\T!C F.XTRESS. 

Oil leave ■ kJ ."i Prancieco on tht* 
■ 

■ . u 
under the ".vurded 

tea there prei i 

by any other COE rates arc lower 

vurily. 

and ISthof every o 

LAND, by the P. M.S. 8. 1 r n Panama, and 

from Aspinwall by the West India Mail - 

We draw Bills of Excbi : our Houses in the fol 

Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 

ituiiiuiort , Waahington, St. Louis, 
ClnHnnaAL Plltehoor|C» irfolavlllp, 

>.w Orleans, I.oh.Iihi, &c*, <Su-. r 

Banks: 

Mecl ■ ■ Albany 

Alex. Mite ice Co. MUwaukie. 

rclal Branch Bank of Stat Cleveland. 



Utica City Bank Ulica. 

Rochestei City Bt . 

■ 



Hunk ofSyracuee.. .Syracusa 

1 Aaico "Bufialo. 

i th & Co Cm 

Columbus, O. 



In the Northithn Minks we run p;\]ue^e>, in ■ 
name, always accompanied by laithlul Messengers, to and from 
■ 

■ 
.\nada. 

Mormon Islands, 
Salmon Falls, 
Auburn, .V-, V- 

And every ■ ■ ■ ! El Dorada, Placer and Bheatft odunfelee. 

, LOMOTOM -V BlO.'fl Vi li a i:\riiv.sH. to and from the 

foUowug places In Yuba, Sl< rra and Nevada counties : 

i'urk'a Bar, 
Slcard's Bar, Bi Idgeport, 8. Vnua, Kreucn Corral, 

Bar, Bweetli Boston Bar, 

Union Har. Hunt*S Ibinch, 

ral. Barton's Bar. 

., N. Ynhii, W'oinbow'p Bar, 

'■ Bar, Slate R ■ 
Oak Valley, Junctii d I Nevada Hoaee, 

Indian Valley, Frencbmatfa Bar, Empire Knoch, 

Bullard 
Cos^ Bar, Mine 

Goodyenr's liar, and Bra r, Middle Yubit. 

Sacramento and Stockton, 

p{d Beoicla in the Southern Minks, w* run ho Expross In our 

own ti'im .to and 

from Ban irane Ball, Col 

Bnoww*s r.xniKss. from Stockton to 

all the Campc in . 

Our Bills of Exchange 

can be procured at, nnd i '■- I'T shipment, 

have flrf. ■ 

entrusted to u>,Qud on board oi Kosinln 
portod by us. 

l.VSUKS ti 

are emi 
Coin ami M 

eiidorsomeuU ou LEilbt ut Lading, at the i 
7 






~ A CO. 




vol. in. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 15, 1855. 



NO. 7. 



(iljc California farmer 

AlfD JOURNAL OP USEFUL 8CEBWCBS. 

rUBLlSUKD EVERY THURSDAY MORNING. 

BT WARREN & SON. 

Ofiee in liOMmic //>"// Building, M'atifomrry itrett. 

Traws. — Sir dotlnrs per tuinnm, En advance. For a club 

of five new sub-cribcr*, we will wnd a sixth n-opy gratis. 

A limited number of Advertit ma inserted at narrates, 

AGENTS. 
Messrs Adams &. Co. at all theiiotncenthroughout the United 

riUil ■■ Europe. 
Uft-r.t Wti .1.8, Fa»oo A Co., *t their offices throughout the 

TrA'..\!i:i2 .1 rent for Sacrament* Clti 



, i) II IIamilt 
and C 



Messrs. Langton & Co. for Dovmieville, Foster's Bar, Good- 
year'.' Bt ■ 
Hewrs. Adams &. Co.— Humboldt Bay, Trtnidad, Crescent City, 
Port Orfvrd, Umpi/ua City, Scottsburg, and tlie entire northern 
coast. 
Messrs. Lkland & McCoombk- Crescent City, Port Or/ord, 

b'niontaw" , EtiTckn, and BtiCksvort, 
Sox.i.IVan'8 newspaper stand, No. . r > Post Office Building;; Kim- 
ball's, Noisy Camera Hull, Lonaj wharf— Jon Francisco, 



A. Himnewell, P. M., Columbia. 
I. Collin, Mukrhimne Hill. 
Gen. M. M. McCnrver. Mount 

Farm, O. T. 
Dudley &> Co., Napa City. 
Hiram Downing, " 
Kirk & Brother, Sacramento. 
Baker & Hamilton, " 
Taney ■& Unboita, Sonora. 
A. II. Murdoch, T. M., Union, 

Hinitbuidt Bum. 
J. M. Thurlmrn&Cu. Ncto York 
City, y. Y. 

Wk deaire our Agents to report to us on the let of every 
mouth, the increase ot numea and the prospccLs, together with 
the amount due the pffice. 



P. Freer, Wdvil'*, Butte Co. 

D. G.Waldronii Co. Coloma. 
TreaJwel! &. Co., ManjsriU>\ 
Jfuiie* &. Co., Napa, 
A. \V. Potter, Nevada. 

Nash it. Davia, PlaemiilU, 

C. O. Burton, Stockton. 

Dr. Thomas J. Harvey, P. M.. 

San I.fis Obispo. 
Cram, Rogers &Co., Yreka. 
Pnrker & Roman. " 

Howards Chamberlain, r/«'fl 

City, and Mission Sam .Tote. 



NEW SUBSTITUTE FOR THE POTATO. 

In the garden of the Horticultural Society at 
Chiswick are growing two plants of a Chinese 
jam, which is expected to prove an excellent sub- 
stitute for the potato. They have been obtained 
from the Jardm des l'lantes at Paris, where 
they have been made the subject of experiments 
that leave no doubt that it will become a plant 
of real importance in cultivation. " If," says M. 
Decaisne. who has paid much attention to matters 
of this kind, " a new plant has a chance of be- 
coming useful in rural economy, it must fulfill 
certain conditions, in the absence of which its 
cultivation cannot be profitable. In tlio first 
place, it must have been domesticated in some 
measure, and must suit, the climate; moreover, it 
must in a few months go through all tbo stages 
of development, so as not to interfere with the 
ordinary and regular course of cropping; and, 
finally, its produce must have a market value in 
one form or another. If the plant is intended 
for the food of man, it is also indispensable that 
it shall not offend the tastes or the culinary habits 
of the persona among whom it is introduced. 
To this may be added, that almost all the old 
perennial plants of the kitchen garden have been 
abandoned in favor of annuals, wherever the latter 
could be found with similar properties. Thus, 
lathyrus tubemsus, ledum telejnum, &c, have 
given way before potatoes, spinach, and the like. 
Now, the Chinese yam satisfies every one ot these 
conditions. It has been domesticated from time 
immemorial, it is perfectly hardy in this climate 
(Paris), its roots are bulky, rich in nutritive mat- 
ter, eatable when raw, easily cooked— either by 
boiling or roasting — and then having no other 
taste than that of llower (/< rule). It is as I 
a ready-made bread as the potato, and it is belter 
than theoafoAia 101 i tsto. Horticulturists 

should, therefore, provide the nrith the 

new arrival, and try experiments with it in the 
different climates and soils of Frag If they 

bring to their ta.sk. whit it public im- 

portance, the requisite amount of perseverance 
and intelligence, I have a firm belief that the 

S»tato yam (igname batatas) will, like its pre- 
sccssoi the | ■ my i 

more especially alleviate the distress ot the 
classc- ■ i people." Such is M. Deca - 
account of this new food plant, which is now in 
actual cultivation at Chiswick ; and judging from 
tbo si^' ol he 10 plants 

had sprung, dent that the tubers 

all the requisites for profilahii 
has been planted undei other in the 

open air, and at present both appear to be thriv- 
ing equally well. The species has been called 

climbing plant, bea 
to our common b!.iek 

-idered how e.. 
the yams, the pre.l ■■■• i-: raer be- 

cd among us. receives support. 
Whether, however, it realises all th.i 
ay of it or not, the trial of it in this country 
cannot prove otherwise than i. ■ sting and 
Worthy of th 

of introducing it. 1*1 «s hope, ho u 
may ti. : - be, " a 

.-..,. .. ... 

equal to that rait . 

Inn 1 I not extract the visual 

organ* of their kind. 



ADVANTAGE OF CUT FEED. 

We copy the following from the Wool Grower, 
showing in the most satisfactory manner the ad- 
vantage of cut over uncut hay in feeding fatten- 
ing cattle, milch cows, and working oxen. In 
feeding work horses it is still more important 
that their feed be cut, for it is a barbarous custom 
to compel a horse, after working all day, to con- 
sume the whole night in grinding the hay which 
is tn - in him through another day's lal or. 
Working oxen do not so thoroughly masticate 
their food before it is first swallowed, and they 
lay at rest v hile the process of rumination is 
going on : 

It is generally admitted to be good economy to 
cut hay for cattle, if it is of an inferior quality, 
much less being wasted by tho animal ; and it 
affords an excellent opportunity of mixing meal 
or shorts with it, by way of seasoning, making 
it more palatable as well as more nutritious. But 
many fanners have their doubts whether it pays 
to cut good hay — whether much benefit is de- 
rived from the operation in the way of rendering 
it more easy of digestion, &c. With a view to 
settle the question, the Worcester county Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural Society offered two pre- 
miums of $;I0 and $20 . }r tho best experiments 
on the subject, laying down the rules according 
to which the experiments should bo conducted, 
which were briefly as follows: 

The trial to be made with at least two animals, 
as near alike in condition, age, &c, as possible, 
the time of trial to be at least eight weeks,' di- 
vided into periods of two weeks each. One ani- 
mal to be fed with cut, while tho other is fed 
with uncut bay ; the feed (if each to be reversed 
at tbo expiration of two weeks, and so on alter- 
nately each two weeks during the trial. If any 
other food except hay be given (such as roots or 
meal) the same quantity to be given to each, that 
the result in relation to cutting the hay be not 
affected by other food, The animals to be kept 
in the same stable and at the same temperature. 
Each animal to be weighed at the comn 
ment of each two Weeks, and at the 
experiment. The same kind of hay (what is 
usually called English hay) to be used dun' 
whole time. The time of giving food and drink 
to be regular, and also of milking. The lime of 
weighing to be in the morning, and before the 
animal has been allowed to drink. 

There were four competitors for the premiums: 
Messrs. Dcmond, Dodge, Lincoln, and Hawes. 

Mr. Deinond's experiments were on two 
seven years old. dried off the l^th of December. 
18, r )l. The experiment commenced January 1. 
1852, and lasted eight weeks. In addition to the 
hay, each cow was half peck of tut 

per day. or seven bushel - 
experiment, which are considered cquiva 
09 pounds of hay. 

Mr. Podge's experiments were with two steers, 

both tv 

Kach steer, in addition to n two 

quarts of meal per day, which 

mils of hay for each steer during the eight 

Mr. Uncoil i milch 

t 14th 
and thi Trial 

commenced !)lh of Jan 

to th. ;. Minds of carrots, 

' hay. 
Mi, Haw. two working 

. 



quantity of milk is small, but in favor of the cut 
food. It is, in our opinion, to be regretted that 
the same animal was not kept on the same food 
during tho whole length of the experiment, and 
not have changed them every two weeks ; for in 
such short periods it is very doubtful if the scales 
will at all indicate correctly the actual gain in 
fat or flesh of the animal. There is no doubt, 
however that the experiments were conducted 
with great care and accuracy, anil the results are 
so uniform as to comfrm the opinion of those wjio 
think it good erOiioiny to cut even, £QpJ hay- 
Mi Haw es makes tll'i following remarks in his 
statement to the committee : 

'! A great advantage in cutting hay, at least for 
working stock, was very obvious during the 
whole of this experiment ; before the ox feeding 
on uncut hay had gotten one-half through with 
his allowance, the ox fed on cut feed had eaten 
up all given him, and was lying down taking his 
rest; and this, at noon when but little time is 
permitted for eating and rest, must be an advan- 
tage of no small importance." 

Mr. W. S. Lincoln says: "Somo time before 
commencing this experiment 1 was feeding to 
my stock what could be called poor stock hay, 
and roots. I commenced cutting this hay for all 
my stock, young and old (1G head), occupying 
me an hour and a half daily. Almost simulta- 
neously with feeding the cut hay was an increase 
of milk, very perceptible as it was milked in the 
pail. From day to day the milk increased so. 
from the stock I have described, as to require the 
substitution of six-quart for four-quart pans as 
previously used. I think I am within bounds in 
saying the increase was over a pint daily per cow, 
occasioned, to the best of my knowledge, solely 
by the use of cut hay." 

The first premium was given to Mr. Lincoln 
and the second to Mr. Hawes. 

BARLEY FOR HORSES. 

Tnr following remarks on the value of Barley 
from the pen of J. Harris, agri- 
cultural editor of the Kural New Yorker, who 
has bad an excellent opportunity of witnessing 
the feeding economy of farmers, both in England 
and in this countr. 

lions on this subji |>oint. 

however, in relation to the value of the barley 
a hich should not be omitted— its great su- 
periority to either corn or oats in a rotation, as a 
predecessor of wheat. Whatever theory ma;. 
the practice of many of our most skillful farmers 
'he preference greatly to b mpersjd 

to oat-, -lion of the land is 

cerncd; and nc all know that very good wheat 
crops have been obtained aft' ce the 

advent of the weevil has rendered it necessary to 
sow as earlv as the first of autumn, in order to 
i ond the reach of 
ilry (Jentteman. 

an excellent food for I 
much ' than corn. It i 

That barley is an 

all Ur 

grain ' irmcrs give 

barley as oat 
light land farm*, the "work " horses seldom get 
a feed of oats.— barley, bran, ruta baga- 
being used as a 



food for horses as oats or barley. We believe 
this is true, and probably owing to such a large 
quantity of available carbonaceous matter, such 
as starch, oil, sugar, &o. If this be so. a highly 
nitrogenous food, such as peas or oil-cake, mixed 
in small quantity with the corn meal, would 
greatly improve it. The woody fibre, or chaffy 
matter of the oats or barley, could be well sup- 
plied by chaff and cut straw, mixed with the corn 
and pea or oil-cake 

We feel sure, therefore, that while 

:XCc|!ilit food fjf liiirses. it i.-t not 

:h'eappr'" than corn and when corn is J 

fed, as we have suggested, it m:i. be quest 
whether it is " better even." 



the eight wo iment. They 

given nothing but h 

The following exhibits the final results 
experiments : 

C. B. DEMOND— Dmr Cows 

WrirM of h.v cammed is & wcrb 1 171 

Gain in weight of aafaml dories 9 w«eka M 

Knux^Kil uin»l. *3t ••. 

BARTEY PODGF—Smsa 

1 \V. uht of hay c n-^nusi to. S weeks SIC 

<a SO 

•ton m.« of .n.™: 1 1 
W. S 

WeMjatof li| i»i— n«l»8we». IISS 

i of mmowJ dam, 6 ot. > 
. l ied la 8 emeka 
I Meet weight of ■■iewl, tot ft. 

A. W 
Wweaoofaayi n ai iliaawe*. 

Gooi w. ■«■,»! ol I fn up f -- ■" 

ataa wtajai -■ «nai»I. ■ *-. *. 



iigor until the bar- 
It should be 
' hile hot and mixed with 
raw. hay. .!■'.. and the addition 
of a little salt makes it more palatab!>- 
know of nothing that appears to fatten a horse 
keep him in better health, than thi* 
- 
because boiled >■ 
food than oats in England. -! 

best and cheapest mod that we cava saw I 
(or the pro ng growing 

season and cool summer of the British lalea are 

v* « can rane 
Setter whea: S*u*. but the beat 

barley we ever sax 

aUrMd un;<; : - mail ng paTjyaejSi :n Kri^larid. 
while for Indian o iteiaaUUu; 

be d' - 



FLAX, AND MR. MAPES. 

In another number, says the Prairie Farmer, 
will bo found a criticism upon a flax speech of 
Mr. Mapes, before the N. Y. Farmers's Club, by 
Geo. Anderson, Esq. Mr. Mapes comes to the 
rescue of his reputation with a denial that he is 
correctly reported in tho article criticised, and 
gives the following as true statements mnde by 
him. They certainly look more sensible: 

" The treatment and manufacture of flax is fast 
becoming of great importance to the American 
people, and particularly of that portion which is 
now wasted, from flax grown for tho purpose of 
saving the seed. Thousands of tons of tangled 
llax straw are annually burned in somo single 
counties in Ohio, and until the present time it 
been nearly or quite valueless, except as a 
manure for land. Improvements of all kinds 
followed the discovery of i process, and 

among others. Mr. A. II. Caryl, of Ohio, has in- 
vented a machine for manufacturing the tangled 
straw, and many other of the now wasted pro- 
ducts of flax and hemp manufacture, into mer- 
chantable articles, and so large i« our flax crop 
that this machine becomes one of the most im- 
portant inventions of the day. Its operation on 
tangled flax straw may 1m ribed: 

"It breaks the straw, in- fibre from 

the woody portion, and i lor market. 

The machine will pounds of 

straw per En a finished 

and requirin • of two men 

anil thi' n raw is worth, in 

after having been i to $10 per 

\ ton will proline nds of clean 

llax when rotted, anil if treat"' by the machine 
before being roll The rotted flax 

when cleared by this machine is worth $140 a 
a ton. and instead of the product being in the 
form of tow. it is the whole body of flax. Scutched 
tow may lie cleaned by this machine so as to ren- 
der it sood flax for spinning. As the flax is now 
spun, the ditterence between straw and tangled 
flax is but small, tho tangled llax being worth, 
« iihin a few cents per pound, as much as the 
it flax. The new style 
..ghlen 
ili\as delivered from Carey's mi- 
j uning. 
pron, and is 
Icrs. to 
of feed 
. coarse card- eth l«ing 

prevent the 
,to the machine 

in diameter, 

i to thirty- 

f these bars 

the bars 

i iarurs of an inch 

i lie tlax np to the cards 

ne permitting the dirt to fall 






is a row 
are rods 
apart, wl 



-ive thi: 
wide and thi 
the Hi i by t 

carried wpward and over 



mrds three 

-roch 
I'll is 
pye e i W the 
iinder 
-. and 
iw the 

brush, 

. -si the 

.. ,. »rd 

_ es the I 

t uc'.h Wl'l l 

. it half 



roww with u e u sidei shle preeH ; bet Uiis is 
s for maltis« purposes fcr 

i 



•tea ro ,,. 



round iLwlt, where it is ■ 
from at 
rouuos of ll> 
ftwaa Us »..n. 
aad sailed for m.n 
Flax-ered rawed 

■ ■ '■ 



[ipuaite to the 

it -tnpaad 

the market, 

carding n< til. 

arioualy 



[ th an from the oacat bay ; 



difference in the i 



iat it ■ 



>ra a I mere in* 

i a bea. -. . 



-i ...- u are 

-.:.■ •>■* 

revrksd 



50 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



The invention of Mr. Caryl, however, 
d the necessary means, and will this 
■■: t 40,000 tons of straw into merchant- 
uid possibly a much larger amount. 
■' The principal growing States, many of which 
do it principally for the seed, are Kentucky, Mis- 
souri, Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin. 
Iowa, Arkansas, Michigan, Texas, Mississippi. 
and indeed in most of the States it forms one of 
the products, although not so largely as in those 
named. There is probably sold in the city of 
New York for the use of upholsterers and other 
purposes, of rotted and unrotted tow, not less 
than 5 000 bales per annum, in addition to that 
used in rope-making, cordage, &c; and all of 
which if required, may be converted into an arti- 
cle for spinning by the help of Mr. Caryl's in- 
vention." 

California Nutmeg. — Our readers have 
doubtless seen accounts going the rounds of the 
papers, of a California tree producing an aromatic 
fruit like the Nutmeg. Indeed, some of the 
writers have announced this nutmeg-like fruit, 
as the true Nutmeg of commerce; and it is there- 
fore presumed, that those of our friends who hap- 
pen to knoiv the difference, in climate and natural 
productions, between the Moluccas, and the Sier- 
ras of Upper California, may have a curiosity to 
know what the " California Nutmeg" really is. 

: he tree belongs to the new f iireya, 

of which, besides this California species. tb( 
one found in Japan, and another in Middle Flori-' 
da. The TontiEYA California! is a beautiful 
evergreen conifer, more like the Hemlock or Yew 
than the Nutmeg tree of the East, though the 
fruit, or nut, has considerable resemblance to the 
Eastern spice, except in flavor ; which, as it shoud 
be, is that of the terehinthinate Coniferae, in gen- 
eral.— Chicago, III., Prairie Farmer, 

Zimmerman Wheat. — The St. Charles (Mo.) 
Reporter, notices as follows this new wheat, of 
which something was said in the Pike County 
Notes: ''The Zimmerman wheat introduced in 
St. Charles county, by one of the best farmers 
from Maryland, about seven years ago. has proved 
to be the host variety of grain in the valley of the 
Mississippi. It is, when perfect, of a bright gold- 
en color, short, round grain, weighing from six 
to sixty-five pounds per bushel. It is said to be 
of strong straw, waiting longer on the farmer in 
harvest than any other variety. It produces flour 
of a rich cream color, free from specs, and always 
passes for extra. Upwards of forty thousand 
bushels have already been shipped from this 
county since harvest. One house alone in this 
city, Jlessrs. Yosti & Orrick, have shipped 22,000 
bushels since the 20th July. Of corn, the sama 
house has purchased and partly shipped 20.000 
bushels." 



SPECIAL, NOTICE. 

REDUCTION OF PBJCE 

The heavy losses upon the Farming interests of the State 
the past year, the general depression ot that interest, and tin* 
discouragements resulting to all, we know have prevented 
many who are engaged in Agriculture from subscribing to ou: 
journal the past year. Feeling dcairoua to meet their wnnts as 
for as U in our power, we now offer the CALIFORNIA FAR- 
MER at SIX DOLLARS PER YEAR, PAYABLE AL H'A 1'S 
hr ADVANCE, 

We trust this effort on our part to meet such circuxrstanccs 
will be met on the part of those engaged in the cultivation of 
the soil with a corresponding feeling, and that all will do us 
service by sending in a goodly list of subecriliern and the amount 
for the same. We have made the price thus low, that our 
subscribers aud friends may at once send us the proof of their 
good will. 

Inducements for the formation of clubs will be found under 
another head. 



Cj[* California Jwuttr, 



WARREN h SON, EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS. 



S&N FEANCISCO, THUESDAY, FEBRUARY 15, 1855. 



Clubs Formed— Premiums to Subscribers, 

With tuo third volume, with the opening year, we would 
offer to our friends stronger inducements than heretofore to 
makeup CLUBS lor the FARMER. It will be seen hy our 
1 'special Dotice," that we shall commence with a reduction "/ 
the price of the " Farmer." The price will now be six dol- 
lars per year, always in advance. Mo subscriptions ro 
ceived unless accompanied by the amount 

To those who are disposed to form CLUBS, when we con 
■end nil to mm adirtu, we shall send SIX COPIES lor FIVE 
NAMES, TWELVE for TEN, and TWENTY-FIVE COPIES 
for the names and amount of twenty subscriptions. 

To those, or any of our friends who will interest themselves, 
wo believe this will be some satisfaction, besides promoting tho 
cause of Agriculture. We hope to see good results to all from 
his proposition. 

THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 

We have many inquiries, daily, from our friends in tho coun- 
try, who write up, desirous to make up clubs for the Farmer, 
and Bend us produce for the amount We always do our ut- 
most to facilitate the cultivator of the soil, and we will assure 
our friends that if they will make up clubs of five, ten or 
twenty, they can send their Wheat, Rye, OntH, Barley, or speci- 
mens of extra quality, and we will Bllow them the full market 
price iu the payment of the FARMER. Gur friends thai a 
arrears can send us the amount thus due, and add the c 
V Dlume, and we will forward receipts fertile same. So sene 
<along your wheat and good products. Wo do not moan — any- 
thing — but those articles that have a value, and we will take 
them. 

TO AGENTS, BOOKSELLERS, &c. 

With a desire to extend as widely as possible the circulation 
cl the Farmer, and hy this menus moke known all the Agri- 
cultural information we obtain, wo shall oner to Agents, Book- 
sellers, and all who desire our paper in quantities, a price for 
copies by the hundred that will leave them a handsome margin. 

SPECIAL. AGENTS FOR THE FARMER, Ax. 

Ai/l the messengers of Adams &■ Co., and Wells, Fargo &. Co. 
arc duly authorized hy us to receive subscriptions for the Cali 
fornia Farmer, and receipt the same; also, to receive orders 
for Fruit Trees, Seeds, &c., and any and all business Willi us. 
All such bu-iuess committed to either of these messengers will 
be promptly responded to by us. . 

OAKLAND. 

Otjr friends at Oakland are invited to call on MR. CHARLES 
STEWART, and subscribe for the California Farmer ; h< 
Is authorized to rccoivo subscriptions and wo will cheerfully 
all the, .i in his employment, We are wullna to receive 
Wheal, Ir , t hue, tee., or any valuable products of first quality 
in paymi'i as we do wish our friends to enjoy our sheet, and 
ccavenici.ii/ too. 



THE "WAY 'TIS DONE. 
"Men do not gather grapes of thorns, nor 
figs of thistles," and yet it is as reasonable to 
expect to do this, as to anticipate success in 
our Agricultural pursuit while it is enveloped in 
such ignorance of its first principles. All intelli- 
gent minds readily admit the correctness of the 
parable of the sower, and no farmer would expect 
much of a crop from the " stony ground," nor from 
the seed that had not much "depth of earth," 
nor a harvest if the " birds of the air came and 
gathered it u"p"; yet why would it not be as 
reasonable to expect great results from these, as 
to look for a good harvest from the present sys- 
tem of farming? 

We are told that the seed that fell where there 
was not much depth of earth, withered away; 
and yet. how deep an impression does this truth 
make upon the farmer ? Go examine their sys- 
tems of plowing, and see the shajlow earth upon 
which the grain is cast, and do we wonder there 
is no better result? When the summer sun 
pours upt n it, it withers away, and yet with all 
the experience of season and clime, cultivators 
will not be advised, they will not sec that the 
parable says some fell upon " good ground " (a 
deep soil) and it sprung up and brought forth, 
some sixty, and some an hundred fold ; and thus 
when our cultivators will learn of the importance 
and value of deep cultere, of having everything 
that is done, done well, then may we look for 
some permanence and prosperity to our Agricul- 
ture. 

We aro now particularly impressed with the 
importance of urging a better knowledge of Agri- 
culture and Horticulture from the many facts 
that daily come to us as we meet and mingle 
with those who call themselves farmers, culti- 
vators, and gardeners. Standing a day or two 
since at a seed store in Sacramento where trees 
were sold, a man was purchasing grape vine cut- 
tings; ho seemed to understand all about the 
culture, and as another person came up, this 
farmer was inquired of as to the probability of 
grapes growing in this country! — when the far- 
mer or gardener answered, O yes, 'tis the easiest 
thing in the world to grow them, they grow them- 
selves — all you have to do is, just make a hole 
with a crow-bar, stick in the cutting, fill up the 
hole with sand and water, and your work is done. 
Here is a treatise upon grape culture that puts 
the famous work of ''Clement Hoar" to the blush, 
for if all Hoar's advice as to the importance of 
good culture be of no consequence, if " a crow-bar 
and sand and water" is all that is required, the 
sooner we know it the better, for we should have 
a great saving of labor and expense. This is but 
one specimen of the " the way 'tis done" in Cali 
fornia. The great object seems to be, do some- 
thing, without at all looking forward to the re- 
sults. Any person with common sense would as 
quickly expect to gather his "grapes of thorns" 
as to find a crop of grapes upon vines planted 
with a "crow-bar; but we are convinced that 
some of our cultivators have not any too much 
common sense to spare, if we should judge them 
by their system of cultivation. 

About the same system is adopted in the plant- 
ing of fruit trees ; not one tree in one hundred 
that is set out has the care bestowed upon it that 
it should have. Wo have seen wen planting 
trees, as they called it — a small round hole was 
made some six by ten inches and the tree set in, 
the roots coilod round it, the hole filled in — and 
this is "the way 'tis done." Tho tree is "stuck 
in," not planted, and it is as impossible to expect 
fruit from this tree, as to gather " figs of thistles." 
That which is worth doing at all is worth doing 
well, and until our farmers and gardoners will 
make effort to enlighten one another, form clubs, 
talk of their own profession and build it up, we 
cannot, must not expect a general prosperity upon 
the business. 

We might enlarge, but enough is said for our 
readers to understand our meaning, The abom 
inable bungling manner in which half our farming 
and gardening is done, results in loss, this deters 
others from engaging in the business, and the 
mass of the people arc losers. Such things ought 
not to continue longer. It is too enlightened an 
age for tho " Science of Agriculture " to bo thus 
darkened, and we hope effort will bo mado in all 
our counties to arouse a proper spirit of inquiry 
as to all that relates to Agriculture. 



Kate Hayes realized £7 ,0110 clear profits, it is 
said, from nine concerts in Sydney. 



Santa Clara County Agricultural Society. 

It is a pleasure to note the interest that is 
awakening in various parts of our State, in rela- 
tion to the necessity of Agricultural infor- 
mation. There is that kind of interest being 
felt that gives promise of a goodly future. Those 
who are now fixtures of this State, those who 
arc occupying lands where the titles are settled, 
are feeling, the absolute demands of Agricultural 
Organizations for the diffusion of that kind of 
knowledge that belongs to the profession. This 
is right ! this is the guarantee of the future, and 
it is the best kind of an endorsement. Napa 
Valley was No. 1 in the establishment of County 
Agricultural Societies, and has done good. 

Santa Clara county followed quickly, and 
formed No. 2, at San Jose and has also done 
good. We hear with increased pleasure that a 
meeting of this Society has been called the present 
week, on Saturday, at San Jose, and that there 
is an increased interest among the members ; that 
they will take immediate measures for enlarging 
the influences of the Society, and that prepara- 
tion will be made for an Exhibition in that county 
the coming autumn. Santa Clara county is one 
of our largest agricultural counties, and we can 
say truly, that it contains sorao of our most in- 
telligent, influential, and prosperous agriculturists. 
The farms, gardens, and nurseries of this county 
arc the best assurances that the spirit of improve- 
ment is abroad. The Horticulture of Santa Clara 
is undoubtedly as far advanced as any part of tho 
State, perhaps more so. 

We regret that the duties of our office have 
not permitted us more opportunity to visit this 
section of our State ere this, but our friends we 
trust will not misjudge us too hardly in any 
part, for it is our wish to visit every part of Cal- 
ifornia and thoroughly examine its resources and 
present condition. The past autumn and "winter 
we had hoped to have done so, but we feel assured 
by the evidences from all quarters that the far- 
mers, gardeners and fruit growers are all pre- 
paring for a better effort the coming year, and 
among the mass«s we are satisfied Santa Clara 
will take high rank in every department of this 
science, 

Some little time since, in our remarks touching 
the removal of the " Capital," our friends in San 
Jose were a little jealous that we were partial 
to the city of Sacramento, and our neighbors of 
the Telegraph and Tribune touched us gently re- 
specting it. We take this opportunity to say to 
our friends in that quarter, in all sincerity and 
truth, we know no sectional lines, nor havo wo 
any partialities for the cultivators of one county 
over another ; we love them and their interests 
and labors, all alike, and they shall ever find it 
so. We have received a generous and hospitable 
treatment from Santa Clara county, and are ready 
to declare her merits and interests alike with all 
other sections. That we have spoken of Sacra-, 
mento often is true ; our facilities of communica- 
tion with that place are rapid and bring us there 
on matters of business oftener than to any other 
place, while it is difficult to visit other places 
short of days absence. This is the only reason 
why before this we have not visited our friends 
of Santa Clara, Alameda and other counties, but 
we will make amend for the past, and ask most 
kindly of our friends in all quarters to forgive 
what may have seemed neglect and to forget 
what has appeared erroneous, untill we meet 
them, when we will personally make confession, 
and hope to receive absolution. 

With the hope and confidence that Santa Clara 
will, by her generous spirit and noble example. 
arouse her sister counties to action, we bid them 
God-speed in their good work. 

Agriculture vs. the Statute Book. 

By reference to the bound volumes of the Stat- 
utes of California, the singular (act will appear 
that tho word "agriculture" does not appear in 
the index to that work. Previous to the year 
1854, agriculture, ranches, farms, gardens, &c, 
were not deemed themes of sufficient moment by 
our Legislators to call for their especial notice 
and action. 

A better spirit, however, now prevails through- 
out the entire State Government. A wise Legis- 
lation marks the age ; and our law-makers are 
beginning to look to, aud act upon, the real wants 
of the people. By such a course of action are 
they nobly proving themselves to bo the friends of 
the people and their representatives instead of the 
mere instruments of party. 

It is certainly cheering to note tho various and 
important bills that have been introduced during 
tho present session, howover much time has been 
consumed in the " great unsettled " question of 



lation shall be for the requirements of the peoplo 
aud the best interests of the State, is, that tho 
voice of the people shall be made known, and 
that speedily too. Many and severe arc the evils 
which our people are subjected to that can and 
may bo obviated by Legislative action during the 
present session, if the proper steps are but taken. 
Let the yeomanry give voice to their wishes by 
the circulation of memorials touching each and 
every grievance endured. Let such memorials be 
generally circulated, and let all classes — the far- 
mer, the mechanic, tho manufacturer, and the mer- 
chant, each and all give his name and influence to 
the work, and soon the evils complained of, will 
be overcome and disappear as mist btfore the 6un, 
for we do believe the present Legislature to be 
composed of as able and liberal minded men as 
can be found in the State — men who arc fully in- 
clined to do the State good service in spite of pol- 
itics. 



State Fair of 1855. 

Farmers, Gardeners, and Stock-Kaisers, 
should bear in mind the importance of an early 
preparation for the State Exhibition o/1855. 

Commence in Season ! — Farmers and Gardon- 
ers should remember this when they put in their 
seed, and cultivate with regard to it. 

New and valuable varieties of Grains, Vegeta- 
bles, and Fruits, should have especial care that 
they are fairly tested in our climate. 

The agricultural products of California, are the 
proudest heralds of her future fame and greatness. 
The sheaves of " golden grain," — the vine with 
its "purple clustors." — the fig and the olives — 
these, and all her luscious fruits, shall ere long, 
far, far outweigh in the means of conferring health, 
wealth, happiness, and permanent prosperity, all 
the other sources of wealth that have won for this 
commonwealth the title of the " Golden State." 



the day. 

What is now required in order that our Lcgis- 



Letter from the South. 

San Luis Osisro, Cat, Jan. 13, 1854. 
Col. Warren: By request of one of your 
subscribers I write to request you to send him 
Nos. 7 and 19 of the Farmer, being all the num- 
bers he is lacking up to date. Considering our 
imperfect mail facilities, I must say your paper 
has come remarkably regular, more so than any 
other paper that comes. This friend is one of 
those singularly punctual men, and requires me to 
furnish him with every number of your paper; 
but he is equally as punctual in paying up. Some 
papers come so irregularly that I had to com- 
promise with the subscribers and take half price, 
in consequence of the lame mail arrangement pe- 
culiar to our case. 

Now, if justice was done, Uncle Sam should 
pay the editor the minus half, and deduct tho 
amount from the salary of the Postmaster Gene- 
ral, for making an "if practicable" contract with 
the Pacific Mail Company, in regard to San Luis, 
While they are bound unreservedly to servo 
Santa Barbara, San Pedro, &c, regularly, they 
are to serve San Luis, also, if practicable ; and in 
consequence of this if practicable with the com- 
pany, discontinued the land route and left this 
county entirely without mail facilities. If the 
company, out of pity, deems it right occasionally 
to call into our port, either on their upward or 
downward trips, they only land the mail at the 
beach — nine miles from this or any other post- 
office — leaving us to get it, or not, as best we can, 
there being no arrangement made by government 
for any better service. Now, if this is not an 
outrage on this community, then I go in for 
changing the meaning of the term. To think that 
the United States, who deem the right to monop- 
olise all the letter carrying in the United States, 
should thus withdraw from the citizens of a w hole 
county, and bordering on the Pacific coast too, 
proper mail facilities, is an item of the times that 
needs exposition ; since wo havo asked and pe- 
titioned for relief, as yet to no purpose. Such 
has been our condition since the 1st of July last. 
If convenient, publish enough of tho above to 
let our condition be known, and to whom the 
blame attaches. I do not blame the Pacific Mail 
Company; if they can get the advantage of Uncle 
Sam in a written contract, then they have the 
right to use it. But if tho company were ever so 
punctual in coming in, they would not be bound 
to take the mails nine miles back from the coast, 
so the department is censurable is spite of any 
construction. Yours, 44c, II, 

Cucumbers. — Spring seems to be upon us not- 
withstanding the names of the months or the 
number of days thereof. Cucumbers lit fur tho 
table may be seen in the garden of Mr. Smith, OB 
the American river, and acres of peas growing 
in the open air, are already there in full bloom. 

FuLL complements of tooll and implements of 
husbandry are intimately connected with the suc- 
cess of the husbandman. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



51 



[For ll»o California Fnnsrr.] 

Enactments relating to Fences. 

Amiammh Vallxv, Martinet, Feb. 13, 185&. 

Messrs. Editors : Whereas there have appear- 
ed in the Farmer several communications crying 
for protection of the agricultural interest from 
the stock grower, with the avowed intention of 
preventing lawful cnactious concerning fin I 
submit the following propositions to be ruminated 
over for the elucidation of the subject. 

That the division of the State into agricultural 
and stock growing regions is utterly inadmissabfe. 
as tho whole of it is beautifully diversified into 
lands fit only for pasturage, adjoining compara- 
tively small patches or valleys of farming land. 
That an Anglo Saxon stock grower, (not a stock 
drover) is not of a nomadic disposition, and even 
a Greaser likes and cultivates bis patch of corn 
and melons. 

That farming, combined with stock raising, is 
generally practiced by tho American farmer, and 
both occupations combined arc only profitable to 
the cultivator and to the country, as tending to 
diversify the productions of the soil, inducing the 
converting of surplus or waste material into man- 
ure, by which process the exhaustion of the soil 
is prevented, and for succeeding generations the 
blessed prospect secured of seeing the valleys 
blooming like a rose, instead of barren and ex- 
hausted wastes covered with bramble and cockle. 

That the protection of tho roving fanner, by 
burdensome enactions to the permanent settler, 
who cultivates his soil, faithfully returning to it 
as much as he exhausted, treating it alike to his 
faithful ''sucky," getting enough of milk, and not 
starving the calf — would be invidious to tho best 
interests of the country. But as the farmers are 
suffering and everybody else complaining and 
asking relief from our honorable legislature, let it 
be enacted — whereas, it would cost more to fence 
our stock than our tillage land, let it be provided 
that our farmers congregate and live in villages 
and close communities — this would facilitate and 
make possible the herding of their swine and 
kine. 

That following the example of tho viceroy of 
Egypt and other worthies, our State government 
purchase all the grain raised, paying the farmer 
a premium price in cash, and have the entire 
control of the supply of our flour and bread, se- 
curing their quality by a goodly number of flour 
and bread inspectors. The surplus of grain, if 
not exported to the starving East, could be 
converted into starch, and this into sugar, which 
last article would find a ready sale and give em- 
ployment to a goodly number of officials. To 
furnish every bachelor with a wife free of cost, 
and to convey at tho expense of the State, from 
all the corners of the globe, our loving ones — the 
wife to her husband, the child to its parent — this 
would imbue with action our shipping interest. 
The balance of unprovided individuals could be 
honorably employed by the erection of useful 
public works. And lastly, not forgetting the 
stock drover, let it be incumbent on him to herd 
his cattle or other stock, and subject him to a 
penalty for damages done by his unruly cattle; 
not forgetting in that respect that bad fences 
make bad neighbors. 

If 1 was not too modest I would like some en- 
actment against the importation of fruit trees and 
their unlawful vending out, as lean furnish seed- 
ling peach trees, free from the yollows ; and my 
I.os Angeles grapevines arc free from the prevail- 
ing blight. Yours respectfully, Str. 

We cheerfully publish the above as we wish 
every voice to be hoard, for in the multitude of 
counsel there is salety. Wo say to our farmers — 
Write, write, write. — Ed. 

Valuable Pottery. — We lately paid a hur- 
ried visit to the extensive pottery near Sutter's 
Fort, Sacramento. This large and interesting 
manufactory is in full operation — orders in 
ing — and we esteem those works of nearly as 
much value as the gold mines, for they not only 
give employment to the laboring classes, but they 
retain the gold within our State that would 
otherwise go abroad for the very articles here 
manufactured. We do not think ourciliaens are 
aware how extensive and how numerous arc the 
articles now made at our potteries. Beside- 
variety of florists' pottery, there arc now made 
churns, milk pans, water coolers, drainage pipes. 
beer bottles, *c. This estsblishme- 
by Dr. Oatmau, and is one of the largest and 
most prosperous in the State, and worth ■ 
by all who arc in the county of Sacrament o 

can now be filled to any amount. See sd- 
v isemcot in our columns. 

ments. — We are under 
many and repeated obligations to membe- 
Senate and A 

data. Speaker, Hon. <". W. 

and Hon. 11 B, Meredith, we return many 
thanks. 



To Grain -. — It is important that 

the grain growers ol California should make ex- 
: I -iits with all the different varieties ol grain 
upon all the various kinds of soil in our State. 
The experiments should be carefully and separ- 
ately conducted, so that the different varietie 
may be kept distinct and pure. Tim 
duct such experiments, should keep a correct rec- 
ord of the kind of grain sown, and the time of 
planting, the character of the soil, tho space of 
ground occupied, amount of seed sown, when the 
crop is harvested, and the quantity weighed and 
measured. The great interests of the Slate de- 
mands such experiments, and it is to he hoped 
that many of our wealthy and practical cultiva- 
tors — those who can easily afford the time and 
money — will most cheerfully do this for the gen- 
eral good. . It is also all-important that sheaves 
of tho grain be preserved for the Exhibition, as 
well as the clean grain. 



Smutty Wheat. — One of the most important 
subjects that demands the attention of our grain 
growers is the cause and remedy for " smutty 
wheat." Whatever causes produce it elsewhere, 
or whatever means are used to remove it — how- 
ever able the dissertations and experiments may 
have been in other States, we want the opinions 
and the practical experiments of California agri- 
culturists ; we want the proof of our own seed, soil, 
climate and cultivation ; in short, we want the 
"results in California." We desire, for the good 
of all, that the wheat growers of California would 
do each and all a good service by giving us the 
results of their knowledge and labors. Their 
several experiments will be of immense good, and 
we shall be glad to lay them before our readers. 
Communications will be cheerfully published, 
and every inquiry responded to as far as practi- 
cable. 

We clip tho following from the Marysville Ex- 
press, We most heartily rejoice in being able to 
record these evidences of the advancing greatness 
and prosperity of our State. While we claim for 
the science we advocate, a high place in the minds 
of men, we cannot and will not forget that in the 
highly cultivated mind we find the surest and 
best guarantee that our favorite science will be 
safe. 

YOUNG MEN'S ASSOCIATION. 

The success which has attended the efforts of 
the young men of Marysville in organizing an as- 
sociation having for its object the establishment 
of a library, lyceum and cabinet of curiosities, will 
not fail to prove gratifying to all the well-wishers 
of our city. There was a time when our citizens 
were spoken of as gentlemen of magnificent fan- 
cies, but lacking in the great essentia] — liberality 
— in carrying out their projects. At that time, 
there was much justice in wlial traa Urged against 
us ; but a healthy change has come o'er our citi- 
zen's, and now, instead of magniliceut jtuper pro- 
jects, to will is to execute. 

'the formation and organization of this associa- 
tion has been the labor of but few days. On 
Wednesday evening last, a meeting was had and 
committees appointed to solicit subscribers and 
report permanent officers. On Saturday last, both 
committees were prepared with their reports. The 
officers elected were 

Col. Edwards Woodruff, President. 

Hr. I>. \V. C Hue. Vice President, 

Pr. John T. McLean. Corrcsp'dng Secretary. 

F, II. Woodward. Recording Secretary. 

Mark Bhimagim. Treasurer. 

Directors — John S. Eckman. J. E. Gallowav, 
Rev. D. A. Drvden, Warren P. Miller, Wm. K. 
Hudson, Wm. ila« ley, T. B. Keardan, D. C. Ben- 
ham and A. A. Yautme. 

The I l.scribers, &■ 

life inn - ' ; 138 

stockholders, subscription 825 each, 8-1 4se 
11) members, sid- 
ing a total ' - , three 
It was stated that a large uoin- 
me* were not 

-i I so. that a number more life members and 
stockholders were confidently expected. 

-t heartily do we congratulate our J 
men upon the success which has attended their 

omitted to mention that, on calling for 
n and by-laws, sixty -one 
came forward ami enrolled their names. It is 
known that a number who bad subscribed were 
not present, or the number of signers would have 
been greater. 

- Works or Sac«amknto. — These large 
and valuable works are rapidly approaching com- 
; be an honor to the city. The 
are a CTedit to the whole 
State. These works, in their plans, progression 
Mid completion, daring a time of such Jtu iSasna u 
upon all : ' ' gbest credit upon 

-mtendent, Angus 1 
«on. Esq., without whose untiring seal and devo- 
tion, we venture to say they could not hare been 
like the present. 



From the Sandwich Islands. — Tho Frances 
Palmer brings advices from the Sandwich Islands 
to tho 29 h ! ' , iary. On the 24th, Mr. Gregg. 
U. S. Commissioner, received a dispatch from 
Mr. Wyllie, the Minister of Foreign Relations, 
slating that the latter had been ordered by the 
King to discontinue the negotiations for the an- 
nexation of the I -lands to tho Untied States, com- 
menced and can icd on by his late Majesty Kam- 
ohamcha III. 

On January 25th, Commander Bailey, of the 
1°. S. sloop of war St. Marys, entered a strong 
protest, through the Commissioner, to the Ha- 
waiian government, against the language of the 
King's Proclamation of December 28th, which 
states "that the naval force of the United States 
would be employed in protecting the King's sov- 
ereignty." 

The new King, Kamchamcha IV., held a court 
on Tuesday, tho ICth of January, to receive the 
Representatives and Consuls of foreign nations, 
and the commanders and officers of foreign ships 
of war in port. 

The Polynesian states that tho schooner E. E. 
Fnotc has been chartered to convey Mr. Read 
and family, and Mr. Dougherty, to Japan, where 
they design to take up their residence and engage 
in business. They expect to sail about tho 10th 
of February, and will arrive in time to take ad- 
vantage of the late treaty, by which the ports 
were to be opened in one year. Mrs. Head, so 
far as we are informed, will be the first foreign 
lady to take up her residence at Japan, and sh* 
will no doubt be an object of much scrutiny and 
interest to that inquisitive and amiable people.. 

Publication of the Engineer's Reports 
on the Pacific Railroad. — The reports, with 
accompanying plans, profiles and maps of the va- 
rious Engineer Expeditions sent out by Govern- 
ment to survey the routes across the continent, 
with a view to the construction of the great Pa- 
cific Roailroad, have at last been printed and sent 
in to Congress. There in longer then any excuse 
for delay in deciding upon this great measure, on 
the ground of insufficient information. It is sta- 
ted that the route surveyed by Lieut. Beckwith. 
in continuation of the work commenced by the 
lamented Capt. Gunnison, is particularly favora- 
ble. There is not an obstruction one hundred 
feet high along the whole line, while abundance 
of water and grass was found at intervals of twen- 
ty miles. This route it will be remembered, ex- 
tends from Great Salt Lake City around the 
southern extremity of Salt Lake to Noble's Pass, 
and avoids altogether the old bed of tho Lake, 
which is now the desert so much dreaded by em- 
igrants from Salt Lake City to Noble's Pass. The 
distance is about four hundred miles. 



The Calaveras Chronicle says tho claim of 
Woolzy 4 Co., on Jackass Gulch, has turned out 
a snug sum daring the past few months. There 
; 'it two in the company, and they have been 
quietly working in their tunnel, no one suppos- 
ing they were doing more than h making grub 
money." It hascome out however, that the 
of 815,000 has been dug by this company out of 
their tunnel. 

The Mountain Messenger says: We have just 
been shown a lump of pure gold weighing sixty- 
three ounces, taken from the claims of Henry 
Chattel & Co. The company also took out $700 
in fine gold, making Sl^OOinone day's washing. 

Steamer Surprise. — This beautiful steamer. 

the Evening News, recently brought around 

the Horn by Capt. Wakeman. and intended for 

the Sacramento trade, will cost nearly $1". 

by the time the improvements now being made 

to her are completed. It is expected she will 

prove bv far the swiftest river steamer in Califor- 

has low pressure engines, is very 

rfnllj buil