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Full text of "The California Farmer (1855)"

Accessions wo. . *." ...' ~"^Received 

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VOL. IV. 



SACRAMENTO, THURSDAY, JULY 5, 1855. 



NO. 1. 



8 lie California Jftimur 

AND JOURNAL, OP USEFUL SCIENCES. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY MORNING. 

BY WARREN & SON. 

OJfict—em Fourth strett, between J and K, Sacramento. 

Terms. — Sir dollar* per winum, in ad*anco. For a club 

of five new subscribers, we will scud a sixth copy gratis. 

A timited number of Advertisement* inserted at fair ratea. 

AGENTS. 
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Meaar*. Wells, Fargo &. Co.— At tkeir Offices throughout the 

Con firry. 
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Mes*™. Langton &- Co. for Downieville, Foster's Bar, Good- 

year's Bar, Atincsnta. 
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Farm, O. T. 

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City, N. Y. 

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\ for us. 

Wk desire our Agents to report to us on the 1st of every 
month, the increase of names and the prospects, together with 
the amount due the office. 



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City, and Mission ait Jose. 



AGRICOLA'S LETTERS.— NO. 6. 
On 'Watering of Plants — Continued. 
Editors Farmer : That there is an analogy 
between plants and animals, every one perceives ; 
but yet, with many points of resemblance, there 
is, among others, one striking particular in which 
they differ. Animals, at all times, inhale oxygen, 
and, at all times, exhale carbonic acid gas: while 
plants, by day, inhale carbonic acid gas, and 
exhale oxygen, Thus, the one is admirably con- 
trived to neutralize any disarrangement of the 
•.tmosp'ierio elements, which might otherwise 
havo taken place, had it existed alone. To make 
animals have an inherent heat in themselves, they 
are furnished with nhsnrhents and cnnrtuito, l>y 
means of which they take up carbon from their 
food, and through which it is carried and min- 
gled with their blood ; and the blood, so charged, 
coming into contact with the oxygen of the at- 
mosphere in the lungs, undergoes partial decom- 
position, produoing heat, and carbonic acid gas is 
thrown off as a necessary consequence. Plants, 
is wo have seen in last letter, are regulated by a 
chemical process entirely different, which enables 
them, during the day, to decompose carbonic 
acid gas and exhale oxygen. But when the sun 
finks below the horizon, and the coolness of eve- 
ning and the decrease of light, consequent on his 
departure, succeed, the plant, which, be it recol- 
lected, bad bean perspiring all day and conse- 
quently depending for the moisture it was thus 
deprived of on what it could obtain through its 
roots, relaxes its energy, which is now but little 
wanted, the sap soon gets saturated with carbon, 
and not being replaced by other of a more alka- 
line character, in the same vigorous manner as 
during the day, and the temperature being so 
much lower, the chemical decomposition which 
took place by day. cannot, under any circum- 
stances, take place now j and the plant being but 
partially able to resist the oxygen of the atmos- 
phere, a process similar to what takes place inani 



leaves, and, till such evaporation has taken place, 
they are thereby protected against the atmos- 
pheric oxygen. 

The same thing (or nearly so) takes place 
during rain by day, at any temperature. At 
such times, as all farmers know, when the rain is 
over, there is no drought. The clouds hang 
heavily around, as if unresolved whether to raiu 
or not ; and then too, as all housewives know, 
clothes hung out to dry, are suspended for a long 
time before they do so. F.von boforc the fall of 
rain, the air gets cool and vapory, and the tem- 
perature of plants is consequently being fast re- 
duced, and a preparation for a similar process as 
occurs at night, is being made. Only look at 
them on such occasions, how they fold their 
leaves together and hang down their heads, as if, 
in regret, they humbly confessed they were not 
on the same terms with Nature as generally. 

Let not the gardener, therefore, suppose that 
the evident analogy between plants and animals, 
is greater than it is ; and when, in a warm sum- 
mer day, he gets dry and feels all the advantage 
and comfort of a refreshing drink, if he see his 
plants look shrunk and dusty, that they want 
one too, and for exactly the same reason. It is 
very likely they do want it, but they must re- 
ceive it, as we havo seen, at the proper time ; and, 
when then applied, the benefits to bo derived 
from a necessary supply of water, are great and 
conspicuous, and the causes of its good effects 
easily accounted for. 

The water of chemists (II 0) is composed of 
one atom of hydrogen, and one atom of oxygen ; 
but the purest water which we find in nature 
contains, besides these elementary gases, a num- 
ber of adventitious ingredients, all of which enter 
into tbo composition of almost every plant which 
grows. Itnin water, the purest of any, contains 
carbonate of ammonia, ono of the most valuable 
of tbo constituents of guano. " It is worthy of 
observation," says Liebig, " that the ammonia 
contained in rain and snow water, possesses an 
offensive smell of perspiration and animal excre- 
ments, — a fact which leaves no doubt concerning 
its origin." But let me quote from Poreira: u A 
carbonaceous (sooty) substance, and traces of 
sulphates, chlorides, and calcareous matter, arc 
the usual impurities of the first rain water of a 
shower. Carbonate of lime, and, according to 
Bcrgmann, chloride of calcium, are constituents 
of rain water. Zimmerman found oxide of iron 
and chloride of potassium. Brandes detected 
various other inorganic substances, namely : 
chloride of sodium, chloride of magnesium, sul- 
phate and carbonate of magnesia, and sulphate 
of lime. Ho likewise mentions oxide of manga- 
nese. The putrefaction to which rain water is 
subject, shows that some organic matter is 
present." These are high authorities, and we 
have no reason to doubt their testimony, especial- , 
ly when we reflect that the fragrance of so many j in th 
plants is being exhaled into the atmosphere, and ! nutu 
that these salts and oxides enter into the compo 
siiion of almost every plant which grows. But 
as i said, rain water is the purest of any. The 



the moisture which has been evaporated from 
them in the form of perspiration ; nor merely a 
solvent capable of reducing the fragments of rocks 
and stones in the soil, so as to enable their roots 
to procure from them those salts and alkalies, so 
essential to their growth and existence; but we 
actually apply a liquid manure, already contain- 
ing the constituents of which they are composed. 
We must not, however, be misled by any false 
notion, that the more water we apply, the greater 
the benefit we must derive, as it is only so much 
that the plant requires and can make use of; and 
any more, in addition to what is necessary to pre- 
serve the soil in proper mechanical consistency, 
is, in land under cultivation, only injurious. 

Aghicola. 



P. S. — In last number, you make me undertake 
to say that on this occasion I would explain why 
it happens that it is so injurious to water plants 
during warm weather by day, when it is not only 
innocuous but beneficial to do so " in the coun- 
try." Of course every one will perceive that this 
was a misprint, and should have been "in the 
evening." A. 

[From tho Valley (Mo.) Former.] 
Virgil on Agriculture. 

Arkadia, Mo., March, 1855. 
Mr. Abbott — Sir: — At the suggestion of a 
friend, t havo translated some of Virgil's first 
Georgia, where he givos us his opinion or rather 
his system of cultivating land — not for adoption, 
of course, but for the gratification of those who 
wish to compare tho state of agriculture in the 
height of Roman prosperity, and the present. If 
you think it will do any good by familiarizing 
any of your readers with the science of their call 
ing (for I deem agriculture a science, and the 

lie to lie chosen for happ 
think it likely to do good and 

:i give it a pi 
ly useful periodical, i do not gin it as 01 
liant translation, but almost liEcraili and as iulcl- 
ligibly ns may be. After invoking tho several 
deities, Ac, he thus begins : 

" Very early in the spring when the melted 
snow flows from the hoary mountains, and the 
mellow earth crumbles at zephyrs — even then let 
my steers begin to groan at the plow, deep in the 
earth, and let the plowshare begin to grow bright 
in the furrow. That In- 
to the vows of the anxious farmer, which has 
twice felt the sua ami iwioe the cold, (i e. which 
has lain two years.) his immense harvest will al- 

• nr>t his b u it the plain, 



qualities are unV 
beacire to learn the winds and various nature 
of the climate, anil kM of our fathers, 

and the habits of ditl'ereul soils — » list each region 
will bear, au-1 what refuse- -there 

grains more luxuriantly grow — the 
trees elsewhere, and herbs spontaneous ■ 

After enumerating several instances, he thus 
concludes: 

" .Nature has imposed these laws and > : 
conditions on certain t " 

when first Puncalion threw stones npon theearth. I 
from which men sprang s hardy rn 
ioce the cr ■ me therefore, and early i 



ture is dried up, (if the land be wet.) Or again, 
the coloric opens more pores and the close pas- 
sages relax, through which the sap may reach the 
young plants, (as in close, stiff land.) Or lastly, 
the heat hardens the ground and closes the gap- 
ing veins, so that neither the fine rains nor the 
more efficacious power of the glowing sun, nor the 
penetrating cold of Boreas, can prove injurious. 
He will benefit his land who breaks the inert 
clods with harrow, or draws over it the Osier 
drags. Ceres, the goddess of the golden harvest 
beholds him not in vain from Olympus. He too, 
does well, who cleaves the ridges that rise in the 
field once broken, by plowing it again in an op- 
posite direction ; also he who gently exercises 
and governs his field. Let farmers pray for wet 
summers and dry winters. Sown grain is most 
fruitful, and the field by hibornian dust. Mysia 
exults more in no culture this kind of seasons, 
and Gergarusof Mt. Ida, admires his own harvest. 
What shall I say of him who follows his fields 
after the seed is sown and breaks down the clods 
and ridges of his barren land, and who moreover, 
conducts the flowing stream and enough of water 
into tho same ? also, when the field is scorched 
and the herbs are dying, behold I he leads the 
stream from tho brow of the craggy steep, which 
falling down smooth rocks, awakes the hoarse 
murmur and tempers the thirsty soil with its 
streams ? What of him who, lest the stalks bend 
with heavy cars, feeds the corn luxuricnt in ten- 
der herbs, when first the blades equal the furrows, 
and who draws from the soaking sand the collect- 
ed water of tho marsh, especially in the variable 
months when the abounding stream overflows 
and covers all things far and wide with slimy mud 
from which tho hollow dykes drain the water? 
Nevertheless, (after the exertions of men and oxen 
have been tried in cultivation,) still the wicked 
goose. Stramonian cranes, and succory with bitter 
may injure, or the shado may destroy. 
Father Jove himself, wished the way of cultiva- 
tion not to be easy, and mortal minds with cares, 
first preferred the fields to be cultivated through 
I art, not suffering his own kingdoms by heavy 
Sloth to grow torpid." 

The author here continues with the deeds of 
.lupoter. which are foreign to our end, and the 
•i— stating that— 

iri-l ...ii.t. urgVtlt In O'lTei-Lil'tj, 

conquered all things. * * * * But unless 
ir the earth to pieces witn assiduous har- 
rows, and frighten the birds with noise, restrain 
the shade with pruning knife, and invoke tho 
gentle shower with vows, alas! thou shalt gaze 
in vain at the ample pile of another, and be com- 
'-■' thy hunger in tho woods under 
':cn oak." 
He then mentions the utensils necessary for 
Garnet 

■' All of which, provided long before, he should 

lw mindful to store away, if a reward of the di- 

intry, worthy ol thee, remains for the in- 

II' then pro—Hi to five many ancient am- 
ines for planting, signs for different kinds 
of weather — oorae riooo enough, and 

mythological episodes, not necessary to give. 
Bespeclfully, O. W". Karrar, 



it will Biriwce to tar 
ith a light furrow even u lata as the i tsir 

r cose, ( 
, r ■ j ■ n_ in rich land, plow early and d 

water of springs and rivers necessarily contains. . weeds mov n ' 

abundance, the same ingredieuts; , , he j,,*.,. c^ ( il; 
from the fact that they abound in all soils, and that i low) lest tbe scanty oioistare desert the as. 
water is a solvent as well as an absorbent. The I sterile soil. Moreover, you aboald permit 

eT , rT I newly shorn lands to rest, alternate years, and the j ^^ „/ iijma* at* 
"" } , | idle plain to harden with sward, ere the year be- u r _ r . .jwi _i ., 
gallon about twenty grains of solid matter; and in , c ban«d sow yellow wheat cm the taod r" 
which has Worn, effrteand «k.usted, asm the ^ ^^ M ^ ^ ^.^ m ^ T ^ y whjch ^^ bx „ ^^ ^ ^ ^ 



Tut Advent 01 -mith, 

lerally well 

I tho subject, announces that tbe seventeen years' 

j ear on the » Imlc of the 

rn and western shores of Maryland, ceao- 

tnencing about five mile? from Baltimore, and ex- 

ndine to Carlisle. I'a. Tbey wdl appear, also, 

nail uuruiiers. Thejr 

■ 

irjb. and ext- 



ungs- 

itoMo, 

ewiae 



mors ensues, and carbonic scid gss Is evolved. It 

is no doubt to the advantage of the plant to get > ^ 

quit, in this manner, of any portion of itself 



!• »'t I flfV W 



case of animals; besides, it is thus enabled 
during night, to preserve a temperature which 
otherwise it could not have retained.* 

Thns we sec, that, when we water plants in 
the evening, they arc then very different from 
what they » occurs 

than what nature'aersclt 

no great revulsicn is occasioned, for they are fast 
getting towards the temperature of water 
re is not now heat enough in : 
to evaporate tho water applied to their 






Bearding to thei waiting pod or the tender orTsprMf of vetch i 
I rtotoooposiRg organic frogile "oiks of tlw ^e and aoua. 

: grove ; for a crop of flax and oats will 
tound in oil ( lUfi , n , tls0 . 

i a greater or less proportion. These jtop, Te t the ewHrratwm of these 

been subjected to different! every 'other year. It roust not shame thee 



._ „ .,1.1, 



at ni Hlern 
of salts in 



Dana pne of tho gwsa4os1 "rale dry sot lo with rich cotnpoot, nor to auow , fowio tho 2d dor c 
.. mellow ashes over the worn oat fields. Thus an ace the oaaao i 



Kwrm iri m*i 
earth of Use oil* of 
ban those are broken, fag 



iun f April 
>d o 
• 
end odd- M 

■ear*! of a p.. a 

i last l>ocrsobar. Tho ban load 



sts. estimates the qu 



osanj 



{ your land rests by 



ad vegetable matter, which , ,„ u»e mean time r> 
past Lowell, hy tbo M- ..: ■*• d i Uaoo. 



a i iO H ia v, «r aniahi 



Uw ariTrnvy t mam *T ^mimommrj ema- 

-i.*» iiillM^V, 

WtWhtaoOt 



mac Diver, in 1 vi-4 no ranching tho < 
amtunt of Pan|Paa > tons. 

Such being tho case, when wo apply 
oor pioo to, wo not only pstiaido o 



advaatago to bom i 
the ligfa 

kK»d of the land ( if is t«- boot,) or eeary boat as 
it/ a destroy ed by oho bes4JJoad the awclooi ax 



sport t. 



onm tAA.es ^oe . 









210 



■w 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



C|f* California Jfarmer. 



WARREN k SON, EDITORS. AND PBOPBIETOBS. 



SACBAMENTO, THURSDAY, JULY 5, 1858. 



The California Stale Agricultural Society's Exhibition Rooms 
are at the Hall on Fourth street, between J and K, City of 
Sacramento, where all are invited, free. 



The CALIFORNIA FARMER OFFICE is at the State 
Society's Rooms, where subscriptions and advertisements 
are received. 



Tm California Farmer in Boston, Mass.— Copies of the 
California Farmer may always be found at Reddinq &. Co.'s, 
State street, Boston. 



tjgr" Manufacturers of every branch, Nurserymen, Seeds- 
men, Florists, Booksellers and Publishers, and every branch of 
business connected with Calfiomia interests, should advertise 
in the California Fabmeb, if they wish to have their business 
known over the country. 

Circular. 

The Executive CommitLce of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, beg leave to say to the Agricul- 
turists of the State that as the time for holdinj 
the Annual Fair approaches the necessity for in 
creased and energetic action throughout the State 
becomes, daily, more apparent. 

The officers of the Society are giving their 
time, attention and money to the. furtherance of 
the work, but this will not suffice. Unless the 
Farmers, Merchants, Lawyers, Hotel Keepers and 
all others interested (and who is not?) come up 
to our aid, subscribe and pay their memberships 
and give countenance to the work, our approach 
ing Fair cannot be made what it should be — 
cannot be what the resources of our State call 
for, what the honor of this most prominent in 
tercst demands. 

The State has made commendable appropria- 
tions for premiums, and the Executive Committee 
has published a schedule for the approaching Ex- 
hibition, and it is hoped that we may be placed 
in circumstances to show full statistics of Farms, 
Orchards, Nurseries, Gardens, Vineyards, Ac. 

A competent and reliable Committee may be 
expected to visit and report upon every case in 
this department. Send in your propositions, that 
the Committee may know the amount of its work. 

The statute under which we are organized 
limits the terms of membership to ten dollars. 
Any Gentleman or Lady sending us this small 
sum will have subject to his or her order a cer- 
tificate of membership for one yoar. 

The question of the utility of the Fair depends 
very much upon the manner it is gotten up, and 
it cannot be what it should be without personal 
interest of a general character. 

Persons holding certificates of membership are, 
with their families, admitted to all the exhibi- 
tions of tt»o Sooloty fj-oo of chai gC. 

By order of the Executive Committee. 

C. I. Hucbinson, President. 
0. C. Wheeler, rice. Sec. 

Sacramento, June 23d. 1855. 

Notice. 
At a meeting of the Executive Committee of 
the State Agricultural Society held this day. it 
was resolved to extend the time for receiving 
proposals for Farms, Orchards, Vineyards, Nurse- 
ries, &C, for examination, to the 10th of July. 

0. C. Wheeler, Rec. Sec. 

kUeramento, June 22, 1855. 



Entrees for Premiums. 
To the President State Agricultural Society : 

The undersigned take this opportunity to no- 
tify the Executive of the State Society that we 
enter for the Premiums of the present year our 
plantation of Onions, and also of Sweet Potatoes, 
and shall be pleased to see the proper committee 
at 6ueh time as will please them. An early day 
is important, as harvesting will soon begin with 
ns. Kcspectfully yours, Hooker & Fern. 

Sacramento River, 4^ miles below the city. 

New Volume.— With this number commences 
Vol. IV. of the California Farmer, and it may 
not be amiss on this occasion to return our heart- 
felt thanks to those of our friends who from the 
commencement of its publication till this day, 
have so materially aided and strengthened us by 
their patronage, prompt payments, and words of 
excouragetnent. To all such we cannot but feel 
grateful. Theirs hove been "golden opinions" 
to us. In return, wo shall strive to so advocate 
the cause of Agriculture, urge its importance, its 
demands, its rights, its dignity, and advance its 
interests, as to retain their kind approval until 
the end. The Farmer will, as heretofore, contain 
from week to week, choice selections of poetical 
and prose composition, as well as agricultural, 
horticultural, and mechanical, making it not only 
an Agricultural paper, but one of the best Family 
journals in tho country. Progress ! is the watch- 
word of the age. Progress! in all things good, is 
our motto. May we not hope then kind reader 
that you, and may be some friend of yours, will 
with us ? We wish many such. Who 
add? Our books are not yet full. "Come 
•■ all !» 



The Grasshopper— Gryllida. 

Believing that everything relating to the his- 
tory, character and habits of this most destruct- 
ive animal will be interesting to our readers, we 
have taken some pains to gather from writers 
and from old records such data as may be relied 
upon ; and as our climate is of such a character 
as to be subject to these visitations, it is of great 
importance that we set about in earnest to pro- 
ride a remedy for this great and growing evil. 

The Locusts of Egypt, the Harvest Fly of 
France, and the Grasshopper of the United States 
are, if not the same insect, all alike in their char- 
acter, habits, and destructive properties. Equal- 
ly alike they flourish in a hot and dry climate; 
equally and alike avoid cold and damp latitudes, 
or if found there, it is for a short time, and only 
when driven by want of food from the latitudes 
in which they flourish. 

That among other trials to which the culti- 
vator of the soil in California may be subjected, 
the periodical visitation of this plague will be 
numbered, there can be no doubt. But as to 
every evil to which man is subject there is a 
remedy, so a remedy will be found for this. By 
a careful study of nature, by a knowledge of our 
seasons and our soils, the best periods of time for 
planting and harvesting, the time of the appear- 
ing of these insects termed plagues, we shall be 
enabled to eradicate many evils of which we now 
complain, or change the cloud to sunshine, the 
curse to a blessing. If those who are now en- 
gaged in cultivation will but note facts and im- 
prove upon them, all these evils will be removed 
— for has it not been said, " / will make thee 
lord of the creation" — and shall not man thus 
constituted, control the lower order of the animal 
creation, the thing created? 

The floods which swept the richest lands of 
California and buried the fertile banks of her 
fairest rivers, and which have caused so much 
loss in past years, were but nature's plans to 
destroy the myriads of insects that would 
otherwise have scourged us in former years. 
Tho burning sun, that eats up every tender 
thing upon our thousand hills, ripens the grain 
in all onr valleys, that man may be satisfied with 
bread. But sun and flood are both blessings when 
seen aright. To avoid the flood, man dams up 
the rivers and fences out the waters, — he culti- 
vates the earth, rears his crops, and they are de- 
voured by the insects that the floods would have 
destroyed. To avoid the sun, man flies from the 
beautiful mountains, and cultivates only the val- 
leys, leaving the hills to become barren for want 
of thot cultivation and protection which man, as 
the lord of creation, has the power to give. 'Tis 
time man should see his error, for when the sun 
comes burning up our hills, then comes those 
myriods of insects that, springing into life from 
the earth that once the floods covered, fly to the 
warm and dry atmosphere of our hills, but find- 
ing no food there they descend into our valleys 
and commence tho work of devastation that ceases 
not till man's hopes are blighted. 

From all these facts, may there not come les- 
sons of more value for the future, than all the 
losses of the past? Were nature's laws more 
closely observed, were our seasons more carefully 
noted, our hills, even to the tops, would be cover- 
ed with the early crops appropriate for the wants 
of man. These crops would be harvested before 
the return of these insects, and shielded by the 
foliage of trees, the power of the sun would in a 
measure, be made subservient to man's good, and 
a living green clothe the hills that now look sad 
and drear. And were the banks of our rivers 
used for those purposes and for those crops appro- 
priate and in season, as the banks of the Nile are 
used, then the floods would bo the greatest boon 
bestowed upon man. Then would mountain and 
hill-side, valley and river-bank, each and all be 
cultivated, each in their approprite season and for 
for their appropriate purpose, as God and nature 
designed them ; and man would sec that plans 
designed by Him, are wiser than those he would 
change. Then would the " desert places of our 
land blossom with the rose," "the hills and the 
mountains break forth into singing," and " the 
people shout for joy." 

With these views, we present the annexed 
sketches from the best historical writers of ancient 
and modern date — from " Goldsmith's Animated 
Nature ;" from Dr. Harris, whoso writing upon 
natural history, are a text book ; and from many 
others, and also from our own personal observa- 
tions. We are not able to say all we wish in this 
number, but shall, from time to time, continue 
such farther information as we obtain, and hope 
all who can, will aid us for the general good. 

(Gryllida.) — Belonging to the second order of 
insects, we find a tribe of little animals which, 



•though differing in size and color, strongly resem- 
ble each other in figure, appetites, nature, and 
transformation. But though they all appear of 
one family, yet man has been taught to hold in 
different estimation, for while some of this tribe 
amuse him with their chirpings, and banish soli- 
tude from the fields, others come in swarms, eat 
up every thing that is green, and in a single night 
convert the most delightful landscape into dreary 
waste. However, if these animals be separately 
considered, the devouring locust is not in the 
least more mischievous than the musical grass- 
hopper; the only difference is, that one species 
comes for food in a swarm, the other feeds singly. 
That animal which is called the grasshopper with 
us, differs greatly from cicada of antiquity, for as 
our insect is active enough in hopping through 
the long grass — from whence it has taken its 
name — the cicada had not this power, but either 
walked or flew. The little hissing note also of 
our grasshopper, is very different from the song 
of the cicada, which was louder and far more mu- 
sical. The manner in which this note is produced 
by the two animals, is very different, for the ci- 
cada makes it by a kind of buckler which the 
male has beneath its belly, the grasshopper by a 
a transparent membrane that covers a hole at the 
base of its wings. There is still a greater variety 
in all these with regard to the shape and color. 
Some are green, some black, some livid, and some 
variegated ; but many of them do not show all 
their colors till they fly. Some have long legs, 
some short, some with mure joints, others with 
fewer. Some sing, others are mute. Some are 
innocent, doing no damage to the husbandman, 
while others do such prodigious mischief that 
they are looked upon in some countries as one of 
the terrible scourges of the incensed Divinity. 

Towards the latter end of autumn the female 
prepares to deposit her burden, and her body is 
then seen greatly distended with her eggs, which 
she carries to the number of an hundred and fifty. 
In order to make a proper lodgment in the earth 
for them, nature has furnished her with an instru- 
ment, at the tail, somewhat resembling a two 
edged sword, which she can sheath and unsheath 
at pleasure. With this she pierces tho earth as 
deep as she is able, and into the hole which her 
instrument has made, she deposits her eggs one 
after the other. In this manner, they remain de- 
posited beneath the surface of the earth during 
the whole winter, till the genial return of spring 
begins to vivify and hatch them. The sun, with 
its warmth, beginning to animate all nature, the 
insect eggs feel its benign influence, and generally 
about the beginning of May, every egg produces 
an insect about the size of a flea. These at first, 
are of a whiteish color; at the end of two or three 
days they turn black, and soon after they become 
of a reddish brown. They appear from the be- 
ginning, like grasshoppers wanting wings, and 
hop among the grass as soon as excluded, with 
great agility ; yet still, are by no means arrived 
at their state of full perfection, although they bear 
a strong resemblance to the animal in perfect form. 
They want, or seem to want, the wings which 
they aro at last seen to assume, and can only hop 
among the grass without being able to fly. The 
wings, however, are not wanting, but are conceal- 
ed within four little bunches thnt scorn to deform 
the sides of the animal. There they lie rolled up 
in a most curious manner, occupying a smaller 
space than one could conceive who saw them ex- 
tended. Indeed,' all insects, whatever transforma- 
tions they seem to undergo, are yet brought forth 
with those very limbs, parts, and wings, which 
they afterwards seem to acquire. In the most 
helpless caterpillar there is still to be seen the 
rudiments of that beautiful plumage which it af- 
terwards expands when a butterfly, and though 
many new parts seem unfolded to the view, the 
animal acquires none but such as it was from the 
beginning possessed of. The grasshopper, there- 
fore, though seemingly without wings, is in reality 
from the first, possessed of those instruments, and 
only waits for sufficient force to break the bonds 
that hold them folded up and to give them their 
full expansion. 

The grasshopper, that for above twenty days 
from its exclusion, has continued without the use 
of its wings, which were folded up to its body, at 
length prepares for its emancipation and for a life 
of greater liberty and pleasure. To make the 
proper disposition for the approaching change, it 
ceases from grassy food, and seeks about for a 
convenient place beneath some thorn or thistle 
that may protect it from an accidental shower. 
Thesamc laborious writhingsand workings, heav- 
ings, and palpitations, which we have remarked 
in every other insect upon an approaching change, 
are exhibited in this. It swells up its head and 
neck, aud then seems to draw them in again ; and 
thus alternately for some time, it exerts its pow- 
ers to get free. At length the skin covering the 
head and breast is seen issuing oat first from the 
bursting skin, the efforts still continuing, the 
other parts follow successively, so that the little 
animal, with its long feelers, iegs and all, works 
its way from the old skin that remains fixed to 
tho thistle or the thorn. It is indeed inconceiva- 
ble how tho insect can thus extricate f:om so ex- 
act a sheath as that which covereth every part of 
its body. 

Such are tho habits and nature of those little 
vocal insects that swarm in our meadows, and en 
liven the landscape. , The larger kinds only differ 
from them in size, in rapidity of flight, and the 
powers of injuring mankind by swarming upon 
tho productions of the earth. The quantity of 
grass which a few grasshoppers that sport in tho 
fields can destroy, is trifling, but whon a swarm 
of locust two or three miles long and several yard 
deep, settle upon a field, the consequences are 
frightful. The annals of every country arc mark- 
ed with devastation which such a multitude of 



insects produces ; and though they seldom visit 
Europe in such dangerous swarms as formerly. 
yet in some of the southern kingdoms they are 
still formidable. Those which have at uncertain 
intervals visited Europe, in our memory, are sup- 
posed to have come from Africa, and the animal 
is called the Great Brown Locust. It was seen 
in several parts of England in the year 1748, and 
many dreadful consequences were apprehended 
from its appearance. This insect is about three 
inches long, and has two horns or feelers, an inch 
in length. The head and horns are of a brownish 
color — it is blue about the mouth, as it is also on 
the inside of the large legs. 

The destructive insects popularly known in the 
United States by the name of grasshoppers, but 
which in our version of the bible, and in other 
works in the English language, are called locust, 
and have from a period of very high antiquity 
attracted the attention of mankind by their ex- 
tensive and lamentable ravages. It should be 
remarked, observes Dr. Harris, that in America 
the name of locust is very improperly given to 
the cicada of the ancients, or tho harvest fly of 
the English writers. The name of locust will 
hero be restricted to certain kinds of grasshop- 
pers ; while the popularly named locust, which 
according to common belief appears only once in 
seventeen years, must drop this name and take 
tho more correct one of cicada or harvest fly. The 
very frequent misapplication of names by persons 
unacquainted with natural history is one of the 
greatest obstacles to progress of science, and 
shows how necessary it is that things should be 
called by their right names, if the observations 
communicated respecting them are to be of any 
service. Every intelligent farmer is capable 6f 
becoming a good observer and of making valuable 
discoveries in natural history ; but if he be ignor- 
ant of tho proper names of the objects examined, 
or if he give to them names which previously 
have been applied by other persons to entirely 
different objects, he will fail to make the result of 
his observation intelligible and useful to the com- 
munity. 

The young grasshopper comes from tho egg a 
wingless insect, and consequently unable to move 
from place to place, in any other way than by the 
use of its legs. As it grows larger it is soon ob- 
liged to cast off its skin, and after one or two 
moultings its body not only increases in size, but 
becomes proportionately longer than before, while 
little stump-like wings begin to make their ap- 
pearance on the top of the back. After this the 
grasshopper continues to eat voraciously, grows 
larger and larger, and hops about without any aid 
from its short and motionless wings, repeatedly 
casts off its outgrown skin, appearing each time 
with still longer wings and more perfectly formed 
limbs, till at length it ceases to grow, anil shed- 
ding its skin for the last time, it comes forth a 
perfectly formed and matured grasshopper, with 
the power of spreading its ample wings and of 
using them in flight. 

In tho South of France the people make a busi- 
ness, at certain seasons of the year of collecting 
locusts and their eggs, the latter being turned out 
of the ground in little masses, cemented and cov- 
ered with a sort of gum in which they («re envel- 
oped by the insects. Rewards are offered and 
paid for their collection, half a franc being given 
for a kilogramme, (about 2 lbs. 3 1-4 oz. avoirdu- 
pois,) of the insects, and a quarter of a franc for 
tho same weight of their eggs. At this rate 
20,000 francs were paid in Marseilles, and 25,000 
in Aries in the year 1613; in 1824-5, 542 francs, 
and in 1825,6,200 francs were paid in Marseilles. 
It is stated that an active boy can collect from six 
to seven kilogrammes, (or from 13 lbs. 3 oz. 13. 
22 dr., to 15 lbs. 7 oz. 3. 09 dr.) of eggs in one 
day. 

The Grasshopper Plague. 

The following facts can be relied upon, having 
received them from such sources as leave no ques- 
tion of their correctness. We hope cultivators in 
all parts of the State, and especially where these 
devastators have been felt this year, will examine 
the coming winter and see if the same thing oc- 
curs again. 

Remember ! Wherever the floods covered lite 
soil and remained a little time, no grasshoppers 
appear. 

Remember ! They rarely or never are found in 
shaded grounds, or damp and vet localities. 

Remember 1 They are destroyed by winter 
plowing — deep sub-soil plowing. Plow deep and 
bring up their eggs to the action of tho wintry 
storms, and you will lessen if not wholly destroy 
them. In many of the older States they havo 
been found embeded in clay below the surface, 
and around the trees, thus seeking shelter — while 
in the dormant state and the egg— from the se- 
verity of the storm, remaining thero until their 
time of re-appearing. 

We have made many inquiries, and from those 
who have seen and examined their habits, we 
gather the following : 

The grasshopper shell, or his decayed body, is 
found about ten or twclvo inches below the sur- 
face in the sandy soil in gardens and orchards. 
Those who plow early aud deep, find them turned 
up in large quantities, and also note that whero 
the soil is plowed deep and early they do not 
make such ravages. 

In the present condition of our country, every 
mind should be awake to tho importance of find- 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



2ii 



ing the best preventive for so dreadful a scourge, 
and every means that can be made use of to this 
result, should be hailed with joy and widely dis- 
seminated. 

From nearly every portion of oar State we hear 
of the destruction caused by this insect— from 
San Joaquin to tho Tulare ; along the Stanislaus, 
Merced, Mariposa and Tulare Valleys; at Salt 
Lake, and Carson and the adjacent Valleys be- 
tween the Scott and Shasta rivers ; at Colusi ; 
along the Putah, through Yuba and Sacramento 
counties — anil we presumo ere this they have 
made their way to the lower valleys, 

We would urge the importance of noting down 
the time of their appearance and departure, their 
habits, and every fact connected with them. We 
shall be very grateful for every item respecting 
them. 

We learn that irrigation at night, and shower- 
ing the trees and vines, have in many instances 
driven them away. Heavy shade and awnings 
serve to protect and save. Grounds that are low 
and damp, and such as, by constant cultivation, 
give forth a dew at night, this insect avoids. 

Shade and moisture they avoid ; a hot and dry 
location they select, and the hotter the day the 
more terrible their ravages ; the hottest days they 
move with more rapidity. 

Any one not familiar with their progress can 
have no conception of the immense quantities 
now in this vicinity. For the first three days 
of this week, the very air was full of them, flying 
over this city, resembling a dense snow storm — 
the myriads as they fly shining in the sun like 
snow flakes. So numerousarethey.it is believed 
that were all which are floating in the air above 
to drop upon this city for even twenty-four hours, 
everything animal or vegetable would cease to 
exist, unless sheltered in close rooms. 

Instances have occurred of animals being 
alarmed by the masses that light upon and bite 
them, and men traveling upon stages and other- 
wise have been much annoyed. They seem to 
be on the increase, and extending their ravages — 
large fields of wheat and oats have suffered in the 
vicinity of lone and other upper valleys. 

We most earnestly urge all to the frequent and 
free use of water, under and upon the vegetable 
— only let it be remembered to do this by night, 



[For the California Farmer.] 

Permanent Location of the California State 
Agricultural Society. 

Messrs. Editors: You may be aware that 
the recent effort to establish rooms, a museum, a 
library, head-quarters, a home, for the State Ag- 
ricultural Society, has created a fear that a design 
exists to "monopolise the whole thing, with its 
successive annual fairs, for Sacramento." 

Now, as one with whom tho idea originated, 
and who has labored second to none in its realiza- 
tion thus far, I wish most distinctly to disavow 
any such intention or wish. Nothing could bo 
further from the desires of tho present manage 
ment of the Society. I hesitato not to say that, 
thoro is not a single cultivator of tho soil, or friend 
of Agriculture in this valley, who would consent 
to such a thing. Every intelligent culturist 
knows that tho annual fairs of such a society 



The State Fair— Sacramento City. 

The communication which appears in our issue 
of this week, from Rev. 0. C. Wheeler, Recording 
Secretary of tho Stato Society, relative to tho 
coming Fair, should be read by every cultivator 
and citizen in California. The annual exhibition 
of the products of our State, tho specimens of our 
manufacturers, the skill of our mechanics and our 
artisans, are matters of public interest, and these 
exhibitions should elicit a public feeling; and we 
arc glad there is a little jealousy of Sacramento. 
For while we cheerfully join with the Secretary 
and say "so mote it be" to every word he has 
said, we know if citizens of other portions of our 
State arc beginning to be jealous of Sacramento, 
it is a sure sign they love the cause for which 
they are jealous. 

We can heartily attest to the truth of the sen- 
timents uttered in that letter, for we know that 
although the S((ite Society's Rooms are located 
at the capital, which all admit to be the best 
place, every friend of agriculture and its kindred 
interests desires to have the Annual Fair changed 
every season. We would not have it at all were 
it not so. San Jose, Santa Clara, Benicia, Yuba, 
Sonoma, Napa and Monterey, or any county that 
will make provisions for it and take an interest 
in sustaining it, are entitled to its benefits, and 
at each place these P«iro should be held in their 
turn. That city or county, however, which comes 
forward at the annual meeting, each October, and 
give the best assurance of an interest to sustain 
the Shows, should have preference in the order. 
This plan is adopted in the other States. 

It is hoped and expected that the city of Sacra- 
mento, seeing the benefits which must arise from 
an exhibition of such importance as the coming 
Fair, will with her accustomed public spirit pre- 
pare for it. We repeat — much as we glory in tho 
prosperity of our State and of the city of Sacra- 
mento, wo shall do all in our power to see that 
every section of the Stato that is proper shall 
have the benefits arising from the Annual Fair. 

Sacramento is indeed a proud city, and well 
may her citizens be proud of her, for her citizens 
are citizens. They belong to, and are a portion 
of the city. In the sketches we are preparing, 
wo find the cause of her success lies in the fact 
that a large portion of her population is ol those 
who have been with her through fire and flood, 
through good report and through evil report, 
and through adversity to the present high stato 
of prosperity ; and it is a fact known and admit- 
ted that while the citizens of Sacramento havo 
suffered more than any other city by fire and 
flood, and heavy taxations to build up the city of 
their adoption, there is no city in the Stato whose 
public and private credit stands higher, or whose 
prospects are so fair. And this results altogether 
from the facts recorded, that her people, the long 
tried, old residents of '49 and '50, are tho people 
that arc with bcr still. Firmly they havo braved 
everything, lighting manfully for their "homes." 
The merchants of Sacramento of '49 and '50 are 



Boston Department— New Books. 

"Woman in tho Nineteenth Century," is the 
Iftlo of a volume of miscellanies from the pen of 
Margaret Fuller Ossoli, and just published in 
beautiful form by J. P. Jewett * Co., Boston. It 
is edited by her brother, Arthur B. Fuller, with 
an introduction by Horace Greely. Few biogra- 
phies, have made an impression greater than that 
published in 1852, styled the " Memoirs of Mar- 
garet Fuller." This volume contains besides her 
" Woman in the Nineteenth Century," which has 
been published, several other papers which have 
appeared in the Tribune, in times past, and some 
which havo never before been published. Some 
private letters and papers are inserted in this vol- 
ume, which are very interesting, and are illustra- 
tive of her deep feeling in the various relations of 
life, Those who knew Margaret Fuller, feel that 
no pen can describe the eloquence of her lips, and 
her intellectual gifts and heroism of character are 
too widely known to bear comment. This volume 
is now before the world and it behooves each and 
all to peruse a work so deeply interesting. 

"The Missing Bride," by Mrs. Emma South- 
worth, which has been announced in press, has 
just been issued by T. B. Peterson, of Philadel- 
phia. This is the last work written by Mrs. 
Southworth,and has been pronounced superior to 
all ever before published from her pen. She is 
is a lady of great literary talent, genius, and orig- 
inality, and each new work adds new laurels to 
her fame. This work is finely written, and each 
character fully portrayed. Her scenes are life 
pictures, and each incident founded on facts. 
There is a chasteness and purity in all she writes 
which acts with a peculiar charm. Her works 
are among the most celebrated of the day, and 
enjoy an immense sale in America and oven in 
Europe. She is acknowledged to be tho best 
Americau writer of the age. Mrs. Southworth's 
name is a host in itself. 

The "Watchman," is just published by H. Long 
& Brother, New York, having been announced in 
press, for some months past. Not having perused 
it, we shall notice it in our next, at length. It is 
destined to be a companion to the " Lamplighter," 
and will have an extensive sale. 



Favors Reoeved.— From C. L. 
Secretary of tho Massachusetts Boat 
ture, full reports of the doings of tli 
lastyear; a valuable document.— From .Mc- 
Dongal. "Herndon's Valley of the Amazon," a 
work of acknowledged interest. — From tho Royal 
Hawaiian Agricultural Society, Sandwich Islands, 
[or a published report of the transactions at its 
fourth annual meeting ; a pamphlet of 173 pages, 
neatly executed, and containing many interesting 
facts, datas, and suggestions upon the subject of 
agriculture; as a whole, it is certainly highly 
creditable to the enterprise and ability of our 
agricultural friends at the Islands, and the liberal 
and judicious policy of the Government. — From, 
from our kind friends of Messrs. Wells, Fargo, & 
Co., and of the Pacific Express, for prompt deliv- 
ery of letters, papers, Ac. — For each and all of 
which favors, we return our thanks. 



Puoet Sound Courier. — Number one of this 
journal has just come to us and wo are most 
happy to welcome its advent; sincerely do we 
hope it will have a prosperous course. This 
journal is of good size, neatly printed on clear 
type, and the selections are of excellent charac- 
ter. We notice with much pleasure its aim seems 
to be particularly directed to fostering and en- 
couraging Home Industry, Agriculture, and the 
Mechanic Arts. This is what is noeded. The 
salutatory of Messrs. Affliek and Gunn. editors 
and proprietors, gives assurance of a determina- 
tion to succeed in well doing, and in this we 
commend them, with our most earnest wishes for 
their success. We shall look for the Puget Sound 
Courier with interest. 



must be held successively in different sections of 

the Stato, or the great objects of its organization the merchants of '55-and none stand higher in 

can never be obtained. Every part of the State our 

must have, in its turn, its respective share of the 

attentions and favors resulting from tho operations hence their prosperity 



of the Society. I could scarcely conceive of a 
greater calamity, a more certain ruin to the inter- 
ests of tho cause we wish to promote, than the 
fixing of our Annual Fairs at one and the same 
place. Such a thing never should— never can, be 
done. 

The simple object of what has been done hero, 
is. to have for the Society a home, a place, where 
friends of science from all parts of tho State, aye, 



Sacramento as their 
homes then, they hail it as their homes now, and 
While other cities have 
had changeable populations, the Sacramentans 
havo remained steady, firm and truo to their city. 
Our sketches of business houses, in our next num- 
ber will prove this. 

Received at the Society's Room*. 

Since our last issue there have been sent to 
the Society's rooms many specimens of Fruits, 
Flowers, Ac. Among them we note as follows: 
From 0. II. Myers. Alameda, a basket of * Bri- 
of the world, may carry or send their contribu- lish Q, lccn strawberries;" a box, with branches 
tions to the vegetable, mineral, animal, or literary bearing f ru j t „f the "Siberian Crab Apple;" cur- 
department of our Society's permanent Museum, ranfraad. almonds; also two young apple trees 
Every such contributor has his name registered in frujt> vith s4mp i c ft-uj^ f Early Bough, 
in a book kept for the purpose, so that, in after Ear , y ii, rTcsU Early June. Red Aslracan, Ac. 
years, our cabinet, our conservatory, and our A „ thcsc spccimcns indicate the early fruiting 
library, will each show to whose munificence it hM{s of trccs in Calu - orn j,. The specimens 
is indebted for each of its component parts. a ,, good 4nd it was gratifying to note the 

Trusting that the above is sufficient to entirely | jnlerest of nurserymen in thus sending to the 
remove the unhappy impression which has been rooms of the Soc j ctT their several specimens, 
made, I will merely add that we sincerely hope Slnip)es f the 'Figs from the * Woolfskill 
that the friends in various parts of the Slate, will R4nch „ were ual ^ ^ were nrJ gup erior, 
compete, with great spirit, for the next years (aolKed elsewhere.) 

Fair, and will assure them in advance, that at the A fine Bo,,™, ^ assorted floral gems, and a 
coming Fair, Sacramento intend* to come so near .. ... , ... j ;( r._„, „,;.,;„. „r ,k„ 

v ■ . i k <. ~-~ a.. » ik, i .v. ,,.ii Urge co lection of the different varieties of me 

having "glorv enough lor one dav,' that she will f- 

not enter the" list of competitors for the next one. Althea (Hollyhock), some very handsome and 
Yours, very truly. 0. O. Wheeler, 'double, were sent by Dr. B. B. Brown. 

Se*> <-"al. State Ag. Soc. A disn f t k, c remainder of tho " Great Feaet 

Sac*a»mto, J«iv as, lata. ^ Grasshoppers. ■ from Smith's Garden*,— 

To A s— Please look to oui-columns ; ^^ ^ fnek piu s h ow i ng th« 

for an medium. On the last page of — w- , M ^ .^ ^q, w lh— 

this paper, we publish a list of the place where it pirate*. 

circulates that you may the better realire the From Mrs. Boston of Monterey, a 
advantage our paper presents to you a* a medium t ful Wreath, made from Sea Mo****, and arranged 
I* make known your ' 



Woolfskill Broth Ens.— These brothers have 
four ranches. They arc among our earliest pio- 
neers in farming stock raising and orcharding. 
One large orchard and vineyard is situated at 
Los Angeles, under the care of Wm. Woolfskill, 
Esq., and one other brother. Another large 
ranch and fruit garden is on the Putah, under 
the care of John Woolfskill, Esq. One belong- 
ing to the brother Nutton, aud one to Matthew. 
All cultivate, fr.iii Inrer-ly. and they arc prao- 
tical cultivators, as tho fruits in our markets wm 
testify. The orchards of these brothers average 
about forty acres each, and consist of grapes, pears, 
peaches, figs, apricots and apples. Some few 
other fruits and vegetables arc grown ; but prin- 
cipally marketable fruits. If constant personal 
care and labor will bring success, then these 
brothers will deservedly secure it. Our State 
owes them much for what they have done. 
Quantities of apricots have been in our markets 
from these ranches ; and now tho lusckni 
soon the peach and pear ; and next the grape. 
Although their gardens on thu Putah — ; 
pally that of J. Woolfskill— have suffered to tho 
amount of seven or ten thousand dollars, yet they 
will send a fine lot of fruits to market yet. 

Independence Day.— Tho bells ring forth 
their joyous peal, tho cannons pour forth their 
thunders. The shouts of men, the joyous tones 
of women, and the merry sports of children, tell 
that this day can never cease to be reroemliered 
' while human blood circulates through the heart 
! of an American citizca How truthfully did the 
Elder Adams prophesy of what this day s hooM 
be. There is no day equal to it, no day that 
should have preference to it, save the 
Sabbath day f and the day should be kej 
will 



A New Remedy against Grasshoppers. 
Agricola, for reasons which he will state next 
week, recommends that diluted sulphuric acid 
applied to the leaves of plants, be tried experi- 
mentally, as a remedy against grasshoppers. He 
says that Professor Johnston recommends it as 
a manure, in tho proportion of two gallons of 
sulphuric acid to three or four hundred gallons 
of water, per acre. But he suggests to dilute it 
with at least three times that quantity of water, 
and to uso it for several successive evenings — say 
thrco or four hundred gallons per acre each eve- 
ning ; or two gallons per square rod. By doing 
so ho believes that no awnings will be required. 

Beautiful. — A very beautiful wreath of Sea 
Mosses, collected and prepared by Mrs. Boston, 
of Monterey, was presented to tho Society's 
Rooms on Monday last, by Mr. Gardiner, of the 
firm of Gardiner A Kirk, booksellers, of this city. 
The wreath is worthy of note and a visit to the 
rooms, reflecting high credit for a taste for the 
beautiful. We are much pleased to sec our friend 
Gardiner rethm so much tui|nvv*4 «. k«»uk *st*» 
his recent accident. 

The Mammoth: Ox.— This noble animal ha* 
changed ownership, but is still on exhibition. 
The present proprietor intends to give him a rest- 
ing spell soon, preparatory to tho State Fair. A 
few weeks rest adding a little more fat. will make 
him a fine show animal. Those who hare not 
seen him should surely go to Commercial street 
and see him. ^^ 

Extraordinary Well.— In an interesting 
letter to tho New York Courier and Enquirer, Mr. 
F. Meriaro. the mctcrologist. states that there I* 
in Lock port. N. Y., an artesian well four hundred 
feet In depth, fram the bottom of which rise* • 
vein of salt water, holding in combination a large 
l*r centage of dili'i vhich ming- 

ling with *»' » Instanla- 

'alization* of beautiful selenite, in 
lit sided prisms of abont an inch in 
width, and a sixteenth of an inch in thickness. 
The lamina? of these are so perfect that a single 
I may be divided by means of heat. Into two 
is. This well is peculiar m 
It i* accustomed to spout 
■jftwai moments at a time, and 

■ -.-,. W In- *rm» - > ■ ■■ ■ <p».-.- of an 

which It again begins 
forth in . 



km'n were afnking this well, the 

...Jaitai, a depth of two hundred and 

be kept as lb* Sabbath Da, of Amer suddenly about fourtae. feet. 

Patriot*. They labored for American Ir, lepeo- tm j re^^ tB< . bottom of a juM er ian aa n river, 



They labored for American In depen- 
dence ; they achieved it and rested from tber ra- ' flowing with to stromr a can eat aw to prodwee s 
born. Their works survive them, and to-day we trrece: e B PP er P»rt «*' "* ***■ 



, and reached the bottom of a 
i car 

1 upper part 



hallow their memories. Let Americans remem- of the auger. 
! bcr the holy trust confided to them, and kc 
liberty they have received. Bast Shows in f.< 



to ad'.;* I 
-a. t» odrng 



ma- 
lms already earn** out in 



t» prevent the grow**. *»»- 
a* miiXHtlsi >•"« w» be tak 



! Splendid Pt rple Figs.— A basket of 

' figs, "Lot Angeles PurpU," were presented to us eratioa iifciafc L. 
1** Monday, b, tot- Woo.Uk.lllEao. fro- hi. , ■£■£ £,£ £■» £^£1*2+ 
ranch oa Putah Creek. Than figs are as 6ne as lnd wtto ^m oa d saemed te-diseaaw ead prove 
any we have seen is theeoontrv. Mr. W. broafM the lariiaw cam of (hi* alleged degmMntiaa, 

the AiikaltR i*l Cwmmkla*. a* 



I mi f* r*»a, ww i»w 

I with exquisite taste. 



to market sixty pounds of the same Soch fruit 

is now particularly refreshing, and is healil. 

hot weather. Fig*, or*****, and grapes are noH 



palatable, end will 
U Mr. W. ha*e 



asmhUnment of aa 

credimj cloeosa, of : S- mv 
' *a thear- 
ba»t«mmml 



nth 



fjvmxe* 




212 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



horticultural $ ejrartnuitt. 



Study of PlowerB. 
It. is very common with men who think there 
is nothing rational that is not connected with dol- 
lars and cents, to ridicule the study of flowers. 
* What good can come out of it," they ask. "Will 
it improve a man's fortune, or advance his inter- 
est? Will it render him a shrewder calculator ? 
Will it earn him his bread or make him a for- 
tune ?" 

They are greatly mistaken who believe that no 
actual utility, in the common niggardly sense of 
the term, can be derived from the pursuits of taste. 
But granting that they will accomplish none of 
these useful purposes, we would eucourage such 
studies, as tending to fill up many hours of idle- 
ness with an interesting and agreeable employ- 
ment. Every new amusement which can be par- 
ticipated in without danger to the health or the 
morals, provides an additional means for the mor- 
al improvement of society, inasmuch as it serves 
to divert many minds from pleasures which are 
liable to be accompanied with vice. Though to a 
mere plodder in the common business of life it 
may seem almost ridiculous to be engaged with 
enthusiasm in naming and preserving a few insig- 
nificant wild flowers, yet this very zeal may pre- 
serve many a youth from corruption and ruin, 
whose passions might otherwise lead him to seek 
the haunts of vice. There are many pursuits 
which are useful in no other way than by con- 
tributing to our pleasures. Let plodding misers 
and conceited sensualists, ridicule them, because 
they neither fill one's coffers, nor spread his board 
— they forget that one distinguishing mark be- 
tween men and brutes, is. that the latter pursues 
only the useful, while the former are about equal- 
ly employed in the pursuit of the fanciful lb. 



State Patronage of Agriculture. 

The following action of the Maine Legislature 
is commendable. It exerts a double influence, 
modifying the character and arrangement of the 
courses of lectures on chemistry and vegetable 
physiology, thereby securing 'more attention to 
these departments, for the benefit of all the stu- 
dents, while the liberal endowment, conditionally 
offered, provides for the instruction of an entire 
class of young men. (and old ones, too, if they 
will,) thus far without valuable facilities of im- 
provement in these hitherto neglected sciences' 

The third section, however, is entirely too gen- 
eral. The obligation to analyze all soils, manures, 
plants and seeds, sent by any farmer of the State, 
might require the constant employment of a dozen 
experienced chemists. Had it been confined to 
the " Board of Agriculture," who may be sup- 
posed to be reasonable men, no special danger of 
•hat sort, might be apprehended. 



are less easily saturated than sterile ones. Here, 
too. is a fine field for study. 

The power of retaining water when exposed to 
the atmosphere, is also known to differ materially 
in the several earths. Schubler found, calculating 
the evaporation, as from 100 grains of water con- 
tained in the earth, that 200 grains of earth, 
spread on a surface of ten square inches, at a tem- 
perature of 65.3.4.0. evaporated in 4 hours as fol- 
lows: silicious sand, 88.4 grains; calcareous sand, 
75.9 ; gypsum powder, 71.7 ; sandy clay, 52 ; 
loamy clay, 45.7 ; stiff clay or brick earth, 34.9 ; 
pure grey clay, 31.9 ; fine lime, 28; garden mould, 
24.3 ; magnesia, 10.8. — Rural New Yorker. 



■Who are the Benefactora of Mankind ? 

Bean Swift, once remarked, that any one who 
should cause a blade of grass to grow where noth- 
iug grew before, was a benefactor to mankind. 
The object of the author of this remark, was to 
state in forcible terms, his opinion of the public 
benefitderived from all agricultural improvements. 
Thisaaying was figurative: but it might be liter- 
ally avered that every man who plants a tree is a 
public benefactor, whether the value of the tree 
consists in its fruit, or its flowers, its timber, or 
even its shade ; for, with regard to trees, it may 
be said that we often seek the substance for the 
sake of the shadow. We are acquainted with a 
single lady who makes the rational boast, that 
she has always planted a Iruit tree in every place 
in which she has resided. Whenever she takes 
lodgings in any new house, if there be a garden 
attached to it, she plants a fruit tree upon the 
spot. Such acts, upon her part, seem to be disin- 
terested, as her habit of moving from place to 
place, must prevent her from being the continual 
proprietor of these trees. Some one is benefited 
by them, and she enjoys the satisfaction of having 
done some good in the world. In these acts, she 
displays a true benevolence. 

We know a gentleman who lived to see the fol- 
ly of a different course of conduct. " On moving 
his young family into a house which was connect- 
ed a large garden, he u'ssjuiuj^ *.> r i«ut ri with 
fruit trees. He rejected the advice, and not own- 
ing the place, replied that he should plant no trees 
for other people's benefit. He lived there about 
thirty years; and during this space of time he 
might have raised an abundance of fruit for his 
own family, and have seen many of the trees of 
his own planting, perish of old age. There is per- 
haps no species of selfishness so foolish as that 
which prevents one from planting trees; sipcq 
their cost is but a trifle, and the labor of attend- 
ing to a few individuals is both wholesome and 
agreeable. And in this country, where property 
is so constantly changing hands, we can never 
predict when we plant another man's grounds, 
that these grounds may not become our own or 
those of our children. — Mass. Magazine of Hor- 
ticulture. 



An Act to endow the Chemical Professorships of Jtowdoin and 
Walcrrillc Colleges, on certain conditions. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in Leg- 
islature assembled, as follows .• 

Section 1. The State Treasurer is hereby au- 
thorized and directed to transfer the sum of thirty 
thousand dollars, in six per cent. State Stock, to 
the Board of Trustees of Bowdoin College, and 
the like sum of thirty thousand dollars, in six 
per cent. State Stock, to the Board of Trustees of 
Watervflie College, to be held in trust by them 
respectively, as endowments of the Chemical 
Professorships in these Colleges, of which they 
are Trustees, whenever said Board of Trustees 
shall severally certify to the State Treasurer, 
through their Secretaries, under oath, that they 
have enlarged the duties and means of instruction 
under said professorships, so as to embrace Agri- 
cultural Chemistry and Vegetable Physiology; 
and that they will comply with the requisitions 
hereinafter specified. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of said Board of 
Trustees, to cause instruction to be given without 
fee, to all persons, inhabitants of this State, not 
undergraduates in a regular college course of in- 
struction, who may resort to said institutions as 
students under the Professorships of Chemistry 
only ; they having the same privileges of the sev- 
eral libraries and on the same terms, and being 
subject to the same college laws, rules and regu- 
lations as other students, so far as they may be 
applicable to their position in said institutions ; 
and such students may attend, without charge, 
all the lectures in said colleges, under such res- 
trictions as may be imposed by said Boards of 
Trustees, and sanctioned by the Board of Agri- 
culture. 

Sec 3. It shall bo the duty of the Professors 
of Chemistry in each of these colleges, to analyze 
or cause to be analyzed, as speedily as may be, all 
soils, manures, plants and seeds sent to said col- 
leges for this purpose, hy the farmers of this State 
or the Board of Agriculture, without charge to 
the applicant, and report the result to him, with 
such suggestions as he may deem necessary in the 
premises; and annually, on or before the first 
Wednesday in January, report to the Secretary 
of the Board of Agriculture a full statementofhi's 
doings, with such other matter as he may deem 
suitable. 

Sec 4. A committee of three from the Board 
^r A 5r ;,.,iiure, elected at its annual meeting, shall 
constitute an examining committee, to visit, from 
time to time, the Chemical departments of said 
Colleges, to witness their instructions and doings, 
with special refeience to the interests of Agricul- 
tural Science ; and annually, on or before the first 
Wednesday in January, report to the Secretary 
of the Board of Agriculture a statement, so far as 
they are able, of the doings, conditions and pros- 
pects of these departments. 



'.\&zt[te\\%. 



SCATTER TB SEEDS. 

Scatter ye seeds, and flowers will spring ; 

Strew tbcm at broadcast o'er hill and glen ; 
Sow in your garden, and time will bring 

Bright flowers, with seeds to scatter again. 

Scnttcr ye seeds — nor think them lost, 

Though they fall amid lea res and are buried in earth ; 
Spring will awake them, though heedlessly tossed, 

And to beautiful flowers those seeds will give birth. 

Scatter ye seeds ; tire not, but toil ; 

'Tis the work of life, 'tis the lab jr of man ; 
In the bead, in the heart, and on earth's own soil, 

Sow, guthor and sow, through life's open span. 

Scatter ye seeds in the field of mind — 
seeds of flowers, with seeds of grain ; 

In the spring and wrann,, PwCCt carlnndc yo'll find. 

And in autumn ye'll reap rich fruits for your pain. 

Scatter ye seeds in the garden of heart, 
Seeds of ancctiou, of truth, and oflove; 

Cultivate carefully each hidden part, 
And Uiy flowers will be seen by angels above. 

Scatter ye seeds — the seeds of Hope ; 

Plant in yjur bosom the Tree of Life — 
Then the flowers here budding in Heaven shall ope, 

And in Heaven will ripen the fruits of strife. 

Then scatter ye seeds each passing year; 

Sow amid winds and storms of rain — 
Hope give thee courage, Faith cast out fear, 

God will requite thee with infinite gain. 



Camellia Coctdre at Kazan.— A letter from 
Bouterloff, Adjunct Professor of the Imperial 
University of Kazan. (Kazan is on the river 
Kazanka about four miles above its fall into the 
river Wolga, in lat. 55 deg. 47 min. 20 sec. north, 
long. 40 deg. 21 min. 9 sec. east.) 

I send you some information as to our method 
of cultivating the camellia. 

The composts which we use differ from those 
used by your Mon. Leguay— we have none of his 
heath soil, and we replace it by soil formed of 
pine leaves, well, mixed with sand. My experi- 
ence proves that the camellia roots well and 
promptly in a compost soil made of earth of 
leaves— muck and sand— night soil in solution is 
added. 

Camellias cannot be transferred to new pots 
successfully, except immediately after the flower- 
ing is over, and before the spring growth begins 
or towards the middle of summer, when the sap 
is stationary. 

We cultivate several varieties of the camellia 
here, and others of the temperate latitudes. They 
give us well developed flowers, but we never 
prune them as we should do. I regard it as a 
necessity, for this charming tree. I regret that 
Mr. Leguay. has not yet gone into the practice of 
budding the camellia, and other methods of mul- 
tiplying a plant so interesting to amateurs.— 
Revue Horticole, Paris. 

A patent has been granted by the French 
Government for making sugar from pumpkins. 
It is ' :■' ■' the quantity produced will be at least 
as gr- obtained from any equal weight of 

red n 



Moisture in Soils. 
It is known that soils which contain much 
humus or decayed vegetable matter, have great 
power in drawing moisture from the air. It might 
be supposed, therefore, that an application of peat 
— which contains much humus — would prove 
beneficial in a dry season on sandy soils. Has 
such been the case ? Clay, too. possesses this 
power to a great extent, but it should be well 
pulverized in order to allow the air to permeate 
through it. Pure sand does not possess the 
power at all ; and yet sandy soils which contain 
a little clay or humus, often suffer less from 
drouth than tenaccous clays, owing doubtless to 
their permeability. Sir Huropbiey Davy, says : 
" The soils which are most efficient in supplying 
the plant with water, by atmospheric absorption, 
arc those in which there is a due mixture of sand, 
finely divided clay, and carbonate of lime, with 
some animal or vegetable matter; and which are 
so loose and light as to be freely permeable to the 
atmosphere. With respect to this quality, car- 
bonate of lime and animal and vegetable mafter, 
are of great use in soils ; they give absorbent 
power to the soil without giving it tenacity. 
Sand, on the contrary, which also destroys ten- 
acity gives little absorbent power. 1 have com- 
pared the absorbent power of many soils with 
respect to atmospheric moisture, and J have al- 
ways found it greatest in the most fertile soils ; 
so that it affords one method of judging of the 
productiveness of land." There is a rich field 
open for investigation in this direction. 

The quantity of water required to thoroughly 
saturate the various earths, is a question of much 
importance. Schubler found that a cubic foot, 
when thoroughly saturated, contained of water as 
follows: — Silicious sand, 27.3 lbs. ; gypsum pow- 
der, 27.4 ; calcareous sand, 31.8 ; carbonate of 
lime, 47.5 ; fine slaty marl, 35.0 ; pure grey clay, 
48.3; stiff clay or brick earth. 45.4; garden mould, 
48.4. The fact that "garden mould" imbibed 
more water than any other soil, and the poor 
" silicious sand" the least; indicates that rich soils 



The Paris Morgue. 
Every one has heard of the Morgue, the place to 
which the bodies of unknown persons found dead 
are brought for recognition. I often pass it on 
my way to the Hotel Dieu, near which it is, and 
scarcely ever without seeing some corpse stretched 
there in the grim ghastliness of violent death, and 
surrounded by crowds of eager and curious ob- 
servers. It is a small building, containing a room 
with glazed doors, through which are visible half 
a dozen platforms for the reception of bodies. 
The rows nearest the wall have each a fassct to 
let cold water trickle over the corpse and keep it 
longer from decomposition. Some of the persons 
brought there arc the victims of suicide, others of 
murder, and in the case of the latter, the object of 
the display is to obtain a clue to the criminal. A 
curious instance of the care and perseverance with 
which the police will track the murderer, has re- 
cently transpired. A man who was found dead 
in the streets with marks of violence upon him, 
lay at the Morgue a week without recognition. A 
physician, in the presence of two j udicial function 
aries, then made the autopsy, and ascertained the 
cause of his death. Before burying the body, and 
with a view to further inquiries, a wax cast was 
taken of the head, and furnished with the identi- 
cal hair of the murdered man ; this, with a fen- 
slight clues, has at last enabled the police to lay 
hands on the probable murderer. 

All around the walls are hung various articles 
of clothing taken from the bodies'. Among the 
rest is a very genteel mantilla, obtained under 
these circumstances: a young girl, handsomely 
dressed, was noticed one morning running rapidly 
across one of the bridges. On reaching the mid- 
dle, she suddenly stopped, stood for a moment, as 
if deliberating, and then plunged into the river. 
The swift current soon bore her out of sight, and 
all that was recovered was the mantilla, which 
accidentally became detached. It was probably 
Hood's touching story over again — deception, 
shame, and disgust, closed, as I charitably believe, 
in all cases of suicide, with insanity. It is far 
from strange that in a city of a million of inhabi- 
tants, especially so impulsive both by nature and 
education, thcie should be so many suicides. 1 
think the theatres, with their false coloring of 
life, the Casinos, the balls, and the meretricious 
novels that Hood France, have much to answer for 
in this regard. The veriest trifle seems enough to 
overthrow the balance in these airy people. A 
boy of fifteen hung himself for fear of a whipping 
a couple of lovers suffocated themselves with a 
basin of charcoal, because obstacles were inter- 
posed to their union. In America, the boy would 
have said, "it will be all the same to-morrow;" 
and the amorous pair would have applied to some 
obliging parson — would have pushed out into the 
world with stout hearts and strong arms, ai;d 
worked their own way, unaided, towards compe- 
tence and station. — Paris Correspondent of the 
Newark Advertiser. 



Personal Experiences. 

A lady writer in the Albany Country Gentle- 
man, over the signature of " L," gives the follow- 
ing amusing narration of her experience among 
the Shanghais, and their kindred r 

" It is now about four years since, when, in a 
most exquisite state of verdency, and blissful ig- 
norance of it, in all its practical details, we com- 
menced farming. Some of our early experience 
was very amusing, and by your leave Mr. Editor, 
I will detail some of it. 

"It was with considerable pleasure I contem- 
plated the idea of living in the country, and the 
new pursuits that would open before me. The 
poultry department, I assumed as my charge. 
What a beautiful and lady-like employment, the 
care of chickens seemed to me, What an abun- 
dant outlet it would afford for all my spare sym- 
pathies and superfluous affections. What a grate- 
ful relief to the tedium of my leisure hours. How 
I meant to make them love me, and how they 
should thrive under my care. But I had not 
reckoned on the numerous causalities and diseases 
which chicken-kind are heir to. I soon found 
that the pip and the gape were among the sure 
and not very poetical necessities of their baby- 
hood. The first year I met with but little suc- 
cess ; the hens would not lay ; the eggs would not 
hatch ; the chickens would not thrive. I watch- 
ed over them with all the solicitude of a maternal 
hen. I set the eggs by the moon, and dieted the 
chickens on assafoetida and onions ; but it was to 
no purpose. However, time and experience have 
brought me wisdom, and I now think that I am 
competent to take the degree of M. D. in all mat- 
ters pertaining to fowls, and equal to the most 
complicated case of hen sickness. 

" Shortly after we moved to our present resi- 
dence, I was very much pleased by the promise of 
a pair of Shanghai fowls. Now of the personal 
appearance of Shanghais, I was in complete igno- 
rance. I had read of the large prices which they 
commanded, and had heard the magnificent crow 
of a neighboring cock, but further than this, I 
knew nothing. The day that I expected them to 
arrive, I was in a high state of excitement. Be- 
fore the waggon was in sight that carried them, 
clear and shrill as a burst of martial music, rose 
on the air as a most sonorous crow. What a no- 
ble fellow he must be, I thought — what a grace 
and ornament to the poultry yard ! The shock 
that my sensibilities received, when that unique 
production was placed before them, was tremen- 
dous. The hen was decent and matronly looking, 
but to the cock, 1 can't do justice. The family 
made a great deal of sport of them, but I said not 
a word. But when the peculiar idiosyncrasy of 
the matchless pair developed itself, how shall I 
paint the depths of my shame and mortification. 
Nests were an institution in the social economy 
of fowls, which the hen ignored and repudiated 
altogether; they were a sort of nonsense which 
she did not patronize at all, but she would persist 
in sitting upon the roost and dropping down her 
eggs with a most frantic disregard of all prece- 
dents. This little eccentricity of hers, of course 
was not indulged in without inflicting some injury 
to the eggs. As for the rooster, he was good for 
nothing, but to crow, and made himself a purfect 
nuisance. He would march into the kitchen with 
all the gravity of a judge, and without any appar- 
ent effort, reach a piece of bread off the tablo, and 
then with the same imperturbable serenity march 
out again with his prize. 

" The subject is a perfect inspiration to me. I 
could dilate endlessly on the theme; but out of 
regard for your patience, I forbear." 



The Moon.— It has been discovered by calcu- 
lation, and demonstrated by a geometrical fact, 
the moon's centre of form is eight miles nearer to 
us than her centre of gravity, through which, of 
course, her axis of revolution must pass; or, in 
other words, this side of the moon is sixteen miles 
higher than the other. We announce this dis- 
covery on the authority of the most eminent 
mathematicians and astronomers in the world. 
It will soon be formally declared in a scientific 
quarter. 



Artificial Proouction of Fish.— In the last 
setting of the Sociele Zoologique d' Acclimation, 
M. Millet, who is well known for his efforts in the 
artificial production of fish, detailed a series of 
experiments he had made in conveying fecundated 
eggs. The result was he said, that when eggs 
were wrapped up in wet cloths and placed in 
boxes with moss to prevent them from becoming 
dry and being jolted, may be safely conveyed not 
only during twenty or thirty, but for even more 
than sixty days either by the railway or diligence 
He added that ho had now in his possession eggs 
about to be hatched, which had been brought 
from the most distant parts of Scotland and Ger- 
many, and even from America. M. Millet then 
stated a fact which was much more curious — 
namely, fecundated eggs of different descriptions 
of salmon and trout, do not perish even when the 
cloths and moss in which they are wrapped, be- 
come frozen. He had even been able, ho said, to 
observe, by means of a microscope, that a fish just 
issuing from the egg and of which the heart was 
seen to beat, was not inconvenienced by being 
completely frozen up. This he explained by the 
fact that the animal heat of the fish even in the 
embryo state, is sufficient to preserve around it a 
certain quantity of moisture. 

Kemarkable Prophecy. — The following re- 
markable prediction was made by Friar Bacon, 
who was born in the year 1214, some six hundred 
and forty years ago : 

"Bridges unsupported by arches will be mado 
to spun the foaming current. Men shall descend 
to the bottom of the ocean, safely breathing, tread- 
ing with a firm step on the golden sands, never 
brightened by tho light of day. Call by the se- 
cret powers of Sol and Luna into action, and be- 
hold a single steersman sitting at the held guiding 
the vessel which divides the waves with greater 
rapidity than if she had been filled with a crew 
of mariners toiling at the oars; and tho loaded 
chariot, no longer encumbered by the panting 
steeds, shall dart on its course with resistless 
force and rapidity. Let the simple elements do 
thy labor ; bind the eternal elements and yoke 
them to the samo plow." 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



213 



Selfish Matthew. 
There arc a great many good children ; yet 
ouce in a while we meet those who, we aro sorry 
to say, do not belong to the class of those we love. 
Such a boy was Matthew. 

You would not have given a fig to play with 
him. He had carpenters* tools, and books, and 
checkers, and chess, and drawing materials, and 
balls, and kites, and ships, and skates, and snow- 
shovels, and sleds — oh. 1 could not tell you all he 
bad. 

Well, if you went on a Saturday afternoon to 
play with him, he would watch all these things 
as closely as a cat would a mouse ; and if you 
were within reach of them, he would sing out — 
"D-o-n-t; t-h-a-t's m-i-n-e." 

Of course, it was not much fun to go and see 
him. You had to play every thing he wanted, 
or he would pout and say he would not play 
at all. 

Then Matthew was such a baby! I love a 
brave boy. He would go screaming to his mother 
if he got a scratch, as if a wild tiger were after 
him ; and if you said any thing to him about it, 
he would pout and stick out his lips. 

It was like drawing teeth, to get him to go 
across the room to hand you a newspaper. He 
ought to have had a little world all to himself, he 
was so selfish. 

"When his mother was told of his faults, she 
would say, ''Oh, he will outgrow them by-and 
by." 

I knew that his selfishness would grow as fast 
as he did ; and that when he came to be a man 
he would be unfeeling to the poor, and make hard 
bargains with them, and wring the last penny 
out of their threadbare pockets. 

Oh. dear children, be generous. If you have 
but half an apple, give somebody a bite of it. 
Perhaps some child will say, ''But I have not any 
thiug to give." That is a mistake ; that boy or 
girl is not living who has nothing to give. Give 
your sympathy ; give pleasant words and beam- 
ing smiles, to the sad and weary-hearted. 

If a child goes to your school who is poorly 
clad, patched, darned, nay, even ragged ; if the 
tears start to his eyes when your schoolmates 
laugh, and shun, and refuse to play with him, 
just go right up and put your arms around his 
neck, and ask him to play with you. Love him ; 
for love sometimes is meat, and drink, and cloth- 
ing. You can love all the sad and sorrowful. 
Then never say, that you " have nothing to give." 



Offspring of Blood Uelations.— Tbe fol- 
lowing circular appears in the March number of 
the Western .Tournnl of Medicine and Surgery. 
with a request by the editors that it be copied 
into the other Medical Journals of the country. 
The subject is a most important one — it has boon 
frequently alluded to in the pages of this journal 
—and we cheerfully give place to Dr. Bartlett's 
circular, which we hope will receive the attention 
it deserves.— Boston Med. and Surg. Journal. 
, Circular. — My attention has recently been 
directed to the defects in tho offspring of parents 
related by consanguinity. So frequent and seri- 
ous have the ill results of tho intermarriage' of 
blood-relations been found, that I doem it philan- 
thropic to prepare a report on the subject, with a 
view to leading to legislative action on the sub- 
ject. That my report may be as full and satis- 
factory as possible, I have to beg of physicians or 
others the favor of sending me histories of such 
cases as may have fallen under their observation. 

The following questions, I believe, cover every 
point of interest in each case. To prevent eon- 
fusion, the names of the parties, or their initials, 
should be given, though, of course, these will be 
suppressed in the report : 

How many instances of intermarriage among 
blood-relations have you known 1 

In how many of these were the offsprine per- 
fect ? t & f 

What was the state of health of each parent ? 
Had the mother borne children previously 1 If 
so, were the first children of her relative inferior 
to the latter ones 1 

Did the paiems reoerrfrvTe one another? that is, 
had they the same peculiarity of form, manner, 
mode of thought, (complexion,) &c. 1 

Have the parents, in any case, been the offspring 
of blood-relations 1 

How many children followed the union > How 
many of them were idiotic, epileptic, rachitic, or 
deaf? If none were so, what is the absolute and 
relative cleverness (intelligence) of each? 

In cases where the offspring have grown up, is 
there any tendency to insanity, epilepsy, or any 
similar disorder ? 

Has the mother of imperfect offspring married 
again ? If so, what is the character of the chil- 
dren by this union ? 

John Bartlett, M. D. 

Louisville, Ky., March 10, 1S55, 



Mourning of the Plants, 

Why quivers the aspen when not a breath dis 
turbs the summer heat ? Whilst other trees are 
enjoying repose, and affording the blessings of 
shade, it aloue knows no rest 1 

Pride was its banc ! 

Atthatdread hourwhenour Redeemer suffered, 
the sun hid its light, and all nature quailed. 

The wild beasts of tho forest, cowered in their 

dens; not a bird twittered ; not an insect buzzed 

or chirped ; the voice of the breeze was hushed 

in the sultry air, and men awaited in alarm the 

\ great event. 

Tho trees, shrubs and flowers felt theawfulnoss 
of that hour, and sympathized with each other 
upon it in their own mysterious language. 

The lofty cedar of Lebanon (Pinus Cedrui) 
rustled forth a melancholy sound, and clothed its 
branches in deeper green, in sign of mourning. 

'Alas! all is now over!" gently murmured 
tho Sattx Babylonica, and swept the Euphrates 
with its mourning branches. 

The vine dresser in his vineyard, saw that the 
vine wept ; hence, when its fruit was gathered, he 
called the produce Ltichramai CkrUtx. 

A balmy fragrance arose on the Golgotha; the 
Hesptris Trislis (sweet-smelling night-stock) 
offered it up. to refresh the suffering Son of man. 

The Iris Susiana said to the cypress, "from 
this day will I attire myself in a garb of mourn- 
ing." " And I," replied the cypress, " will hence- 
forth take up my abode among the tombs, in 
memory of this hour." 

A form flitted through the gloom — it was At- 
taroth, the angel of death, on his way to the 
cross ; and when a voice was heard to exclaim — 
'• My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken 
me?" every branch, leaf and flower trembled. 

The Po/ndus alone, a tall, proud tree, stood 
unmoved on the Golgotha. 

" What are thy sufferings to us?" it cried, "we 
plants need no atonement ; we are not fallen !" 

But the angel of death who heard this boast, 
breathed upon tho haughty tree, and the unfor- 
tunate Populus was struck as with a palsy. 

Its leaves drooped ; never from that moment 
have its branches found rest : and it is called the 
Poputut Tre mulosa. or tho aspen, to this day. 



How to Trap Gophers.— Thomas Sivetcr, in 
a communication to the Genesee Farmer, gives the 
following method of trapping the gopher. He 
says: Where gophers arc at work and the hills 
recent, say made the previous night, open the hill 
and expose the burrow about a foot in length and 
wide enough to let in a common steel rat trap ; 
clean out the dirt nicely, and excavate a space at 
the bottom of the burrow deep enough to receive 
the trap, already finely set, so that the jaws and 
treadle will be slightly below tho phinc of the 
bottom of the burrow ; cover the trap very lightly 
with finely pulverized earth, so that the top of 
the earth over the trap and the bottom of the bur- 
row be on the same plane; cover the hole with a 
board, broad and long enough to prevent any 
other dirt from falling on the trap ; haul fine dirt 
all around the edge of the board to exclude all 
light. Teach the boys how to do it right, and 
give them a dimo for each gopher caught. I speak 
from experience, and this is the best way I know 
of. Other ways are, open the hole by the side of 
the hill, when the gopher will shortly bring dirt 
to stop it up — shoot him. When thecarth is full 
of water, they occupy chambers in their mounds — 
dig them out. Sink a jar glazed inside, one foot 
deep in the bottom of the burrow, in lien of a steel 
trap ; cover its mouth with a cabbage leaf or its 
equivalent, and finish as directed for steel trap. 
They will fall in. and can not get out without 
help. Dose apples or potatoes, Ac, with strych- 
nine, lay them in their burrows, and exclude the 
light 

Begin To-Pay. —Lord. I do discover a fallacy, 
wherein- I have long deceived myself; which is 
this: I have desired to begin my amendment 
from my birthday, or from some eminent festival, 
that so my repentance might bear some remark- 
able date. But when those days were come, I 
have adjourned my amendment to some other 
time. Thus, whilst I could not agree with my- 
■self when to start. I hare almost lost the running 
of the race. I am resolved thus to befool i 
no longer. I see no day but to-day; the instant 
time is always the fittest time. In Xehochad- 
nezxar's image the lower the members, the coarser 
the metal. The farther off the time the more 
unfit. To-day is the golden opportunity, to-mor- 
row will be the silver season, next day but the 
brazen one. and so on. till at last I shall come to 
s of clay, and be turned to dus«. Grant, 
therefore, that to-day I may hear Thy voice. Ami 
f this day he obscure in the calendar, and re- 
markable in iL«c:r for nothing else, give me to 
MM ii mom table m my son I, hereupon, by Thy 
ng the reformation of my life. 



Ret. Albert Barnes, says, it is the bubling 
spring that flows gently, the little rivulet that 
glides through the , aud which runs a 

long day and night, by the farm-house, that -^ make it 
useful, rather than the swelling flood, or the war- sssistane 
ring cataract. Niagara excites our wonder, and . 

-1 amazed at the power and greatm 

God, as he ' pours it from the hollow of his hand.' Why this insatiable craving (or riches ? Does 
But one Niagara is enough for the continent, or a man drink more when he drinks from a large 
world, while the same world requires thousands glass? Horn whence cornea that universal dread 
and tens of ll -ilvcr fountains and gent- of mediocrity, the fruitful mother of peace and 

ly flowing rivulets, that water every farm ami Vh ! there is the evil which, above 

meadow, and ■ lent and that shall flow every other, it should be the aim of both public 

on eve and private eduo pete ! If thai were 

bcautv rex-cos would ha spared, what 

!\ .: >e»JS avoided, whatachainof excess aadsrime 

food - is""bj the daily, que I be forever broken ! We award the pahn 

lues of lite — the christian tempter, the meek for- above all, let 

bearar of forgivenc leratioa. for il i> the great social 

r. the btath i <rs not create the others, 

friend, aud the neighbor — that good is to be done, it stands instead of them. 



dailies' $eprtat. 



[Ladv, r>Rir PARDON Ui.— Would wo could step back a 
few years; we su rely would take off our hat and make our 
bmtbow, and ask pardon lor tho errors that have crept into 
tho ton Botty Martin "sonnets." Mrs. Partington says errors 
will happen in the best of families, for they io happened once 
in her own. And so with the beautiful and graceful sonaota of 
Mi»» Botty— not errors of Miss Betty, but errors of tho printer) 
and the only atonement wo can make our fair correspondent is, 
to republish No. 2 of Rural Lays, and at the snmo time correct 
the error in No. 1, where wo converted "sprites" into "spirits," 
which destroyed the beauty and rythm of the 22d line. If Miss 
Betty will pardon us, wo will bo more careful in future, and 
pray Bhe may find 

Among the Fannera of qur golden land 

A noble suilor, worthy her fair hand ; 

Man could not ask a brighter, fairer charm, 

Than " Betty Martin " mistress of his farm.— Ed.) 

[For the California Farmer.) 
Rural L a y S — No, 2. 
OUR HOME IN THE COUNTRY- 
Nbar where the Feather River's Bhorea and tide 
The "banks and braes" on either hand divide, 
My uncle Robin, far from stir and strife, 
Enjoys the comforts of a country life ; 
His cottage home beside a mountain stream, 
Embowered in beauty such as poet's dream, 
For air-built castles costless may provide, 
But seldom seen in common country-side : 
The towering pine-clad hills by nature made, 
Alike for grandeur, shelter, and for shade, 
With grassy dells, and silver brooks between, 
Now 0|> orri ng freely, now aenin unseen, 
As through the trees, alive with love and song, ' 

They dance or dally as they pass along, 
Where fairies well might trip with nimble feet, 
And nymphs and nainds make the scene complete ; 
The opening vale extending all around, 
Whore buckeyes, bays and spreading oaks abound, 
Where busy farmers turn the generous soil, 
And bounteous crops reward them for their toil, 
And Uncle Robin, prudent as the best, 
'Tia said by some, surpasses all the rest. 

Ours is no cottage built for pride or boast, 
But neatly planned, and done at little cost— 
A sort of hybrid, of no common kind, 
. Of villa, cottage, farm-house all combined 
I rustic style— a farmer looking place. 
Where elegance unites with uselulness. 
Back from tho house, some lofty oaks between, 
(Besides our orchard-gardens intervene,) 
Stand tho out-buildings, neatly built and plain, 
But so contrived as makes my uncle vain ; 
Not straggling, non-doscript, and out of place— 

Their u-ue and proper motto " I transgress " 

But so arranged by geometric rule, 
As shows, at once, the builder was at school ; 
By whose be-houorei forethought, craft, and care, 
They form exactly three aides of a square. 
Front ol Uio bouse no poor parterre is seen — 
Unkept, unsightly, dry, and seldom green- 
But a broad lawn with " tall ancestral trees," 
Bolh patriarch* and aborigines ; 
Orown on the aoU, when knew nor white nor slave 
Ottrwei western wave. 

But monument*, by Nature raised, to show 
Ilor children where to build and where to sow. 

ly vale, though far remote, 
K ns i. 
We seek no phantom pleasures never found, 
But find our homca with ail we want abound. 

Barrr sLuvisr. 

Rural Lays— No. 3. 

PRKIARIM; rOM ItRKAKFAST. 
Boon as the Morning conies with timid pace, 
As If ashamed to show her lovely race. 
Or rather, when she scarce has raised her head 
Prom out her mother Might's dark drowsy bed. 
Proud ol my management, and gtad to anew 
Bow men I wish to practice what 1 snow, 
Alert I rise, no matter, k at heat 
To set e food example to the nan. 
And Una the breakfast oddy prepare, 
And lose DO time by nsjriesaij care. 
Our China John, and darkey Dinah, both, 
Soon rise to help me, fresh, and nothing loth,— 
Poor rnilcseas creatures, whom t tore the snore 
For aB they feat, and may have Ml before. 
When vulgar areoraace, or inmpoas pride, 

inpretendinf mce and Harm deride ; 
A» * the Ood, who made at all, neer knew 
80 much a> thaw, the savored, ralaw stw. 
Bat If they saw how well then- busy hands. 
And busy fret t 



Here, in this li 

not fiatr-nji ,. mi. 



Our darkey Dinah, and our Clone Jabs, 
I tr.mh ibat every one must needs ooa.'eas, 
I shoald not (or sech conduct, love Item lean 



A -•.■■- . - aaaari) I take. 

To sasoam me hair, and was* my dmty fare. 

And wipe my shoes, and reermtaje my deenr. 

(at sooa, with f r s sli is 1 1 looks, ra aaroa ahce, 

I coma afasa m art the aer-ram riant. 

And hare the dashes, each m proper place. 

Alike ■Weaamsan, earaatara, en.! 

la earner/ row. and Brans, learned at school. 

When taoght g eosnetry by strictest rat- 

(Great art, by watch oar lasp.sa. 1 and I 

Coald Vara to bai* a Vera, and place a pie) 

Bat inf. before 1 pat tbets oa 

Comas bnakly Dinah, tf aer o 

And spreads a cleth, at needy areased said am) 

Aa e'er mat Mastrre. Bendy DamaomTamji 

Taat east aad pattern of a farasar'a war. 

Trained ta Urn scheom af a 

Bo coat.'y damae*. made «.r a 

Bat only - tmeanm - afaoomm 

Tat amty cheered ; at he my I 



Ixteibstiwc to Ladhs— Tapes, with hooks 
and rings, s* arranged as to diss isii. with hooks 
and eyes, can now bs purchased. Ladies who do 

■-tar own sewing. wuU be triad to Je»m of Oris. 



Valuable Recipes. 

Washing Windows.— A corrcsi 
Americau Agriculturist, gives the , 
proved mode of washing windows, which although 
not wholly new to us, may be valuablo to many 
of our readers: "The nicest article for washing 
windows is deerskin, as no particles come off to 
adhere to the glass and make it look as if washed 
with feathers. There is no need of anything 
larger than a hand-basin for washiug windows. 
The great splashing some people make in the ex- 
ercise of their art is entirely useless, and is more- 
over deleterious. When the water is permitted 
to run down in great quantities upon the glass.it 
dissolves the putty and soon loosens the panes 
from their setting, and also stains the glass Two 
pieces of nice wash leather and a bowl of suds, 
are all that are necessary. Wipe the glass first 
with the wet cloth or leather, and after it has be- 
come dry, rub it with a clean cloth, and it will 
look clear, and far more so than if rinsed in a 
dozen pails of water." 

Nice Jelly or Sponge Oake.— A lady writer 
in the Ohio Cultivator, — "Sun Bonnet "—gives 
the following recipe as one suitable for either 
jelly or plain cake: One tea cup of sugar, three 
eggs well beaten to a foam, one teaspoonful of 
cream tartar, and half teaspoonful soda. This 
will make paste enough for two baking plates full, 
for jelly cake, or ono plain cake, which should, of 
course, be made thicker. For jelley cake, bake 
thin on plates, and while the cake is hot, spread 
the jelly over it, and then roll the cake into a 
kind of cylindrical coil. When wanted for use, 
cut it across, in slices. You will find this a quick 
made and palatable jelly cake. If you use this 
recipe for plain cake, add such spices as you like 
best, to the above. This is particularly conven- 
ient for people who cannot obtain milk at all 
times, for making up pastry. 

To Renovate Silk Dresses. — Take the water 
in which potatoes have been boiled, dip therein a 
clean sponge, rub carefully, then take a cloth and 
wipe evenly on the surface. Potatoe water not 
only renews the lustre of silks, but stiffens them 
as if starched. Gentlemen's cravats treated in 
this manner have all the appearance of now goods. 

Mildew stains are very difficult to remove 
from linen. The most effectual way is to rub 
soap on the spots, then chalf, and bleach tho gar- 
ment in the hot sun. 

Miss Sylvia Hardy, the Maine Giantess. 
— This woman's waist measures forty-three 
inches, chest forty-seven, and brain twenty-four ; 
yet it is not of tine texture, but is in harmony 
with the organization as a whole. Her mind is 
more general than special in its action. The pro- 
portions between tho body and mind are com- 
paratively good, and if the brain was uniformly 
developed, and the temperament favorable for 
mental manifestation, she would exhibit unusual 
comprehensiveness of mind ; but as it is, she will 
never have a highly susceptible organization, nor 
that balance of power necessary lo produce har- 
mony of mental action. 

Her phrenological developments arc reinark- 
t impossible i ■ of a 

Drain more unevenly development than her'gj 
some of tho organs are exceedingly small and 
have a limited influence in character, while others 
are immensely large and controlling. 

All the selfish faculties arc comparatively 
small ; is perfectly frank, open-hearted, and de- 
void of deception j has no ambition, fashion, or 
display. Hope, spirituality, sense of guilt, nucl de- 
votional feeling, are only moderate qualities. She 
is not able to mimic others, hut simply develops 
her own tone of mind. Attachment lo place aud 
love children is strong; has a comparatively af- 
fectionate disposition, but does not love the so- 
ciety of the gentlemen. 

is independent, quite persevering, and most 
decidedly kind and generous. 

Her intellectual capacity is comparatively good; 
not be ,nd bright, hut has gen- 
eral strength and soundness of mind. N. Y. 

Phrenological Journal. 

Think— Thought engenders thought. Place 
one idea on paper, another will follow it, and 

»ve written a page. You can- 
rot fathom your rnirid. There is a well of thought 
there which has no bottom. The more you draw 
the more clear and fruitful it wi'll be. If 

- peo- 

ill never know ■ 

and perseverance will 
polish them. Learn to 
yoo will learn to errite ; the more you thiol. 
better will you express yoor tdeaa. 

New Bay Psess.— A newly inrented bay preM 
is thus described by the New York Scientific 
American: 

The patent which has been granted his week 
to Pells Manny, of Wsttdacu | , „es 

to the lerer pram It »fm Mui toe bsles N 



sqoare form, and tho levers setso as to press (hem 
when mo. in* bosk font iris and back • ar.j . . 
it. so time is lost when one bale is prra»aw_^H 
tanking tbe followers in the point where 



;--ess in tbe box, s 
■ here they eoaaBaSmt 
There is ao time lost, tbert 
tho foUowerv aad hsii p m t ttv» ami 
done while tbe box is tjsrrng rule-! for 
me bale. With a proaas sanaal t of 
press east aeron.p.ah s great »&-.-■ 
a eery abort space of time 

When is meet* rtko w. araHis ? 
is two beats lo the -inn 



IB return. 



214 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



A Hurricane in Illinois. — A most terriffic 
hurricane and whirlwind, swept over the town of 
Jett'erson, Cook county, 111., and other places in 
the vicinity, on Tuesday, May 23d. On the after- 
noon of that day, a revolving, funnel shaped cloud, 
passed rapidly along near the ground. It des- 
cribed a small circle towards the southeast, twist- 
ing off large trees, and whirling them out of sight 
instanter. The cloud then broke in two and dis- 
appeared, but almost immediately formed again, 
and passed to the north and west with redoubled 
violence. It struck a heavy frame house, tearing 
the roof off instantly, and finally took it together 
with its contents up the spout. There were nine 
persons in the house at the time. They were 
carried a considerable distance, and four met in- 
stant death, and the others injured beyond a hope 
of recovery. The cloud then passed over a post 
and rail fence, leaving not even a vestige behind. 
It also took up a barn, throwing it upon the cat- 
tle and horses it contained, crushing them in a 
terrible manner. The house belonged to Mr. 
Page, whose wife, son, and two grand-children 
were killed. The timbers of the house and barn 
were thrown to the ground with such violence as 
to nearly bury them from sight. 

Grasshoppers. — The State Journal says that 
these animals that have caused so much trouble 
in Yolo and Solano counties, are now, in myriads, 
busily ravaging Rrighton township. The farms 
of Messrs. Whitesides, Beam, Bowles, and Norris, 
have suffered severely. Peach trees, grain, corn, 
grape vines, everything green, is being destroyed 
by these ruthless insects. Of one the farms men- 
tioned above, has already been damaged to the 
amount of some $4,00 or $5,000. 

MARR IED. 

On the 24th June, at Shaw's Flat, by Rev. 8. S. Harmon, Mr. 
Daniel H. Knodeaud Miss Mary E. Culder. 

On the 23d June, at Mississippi Bar, John Taylor and Miss 
Seraantha MLHixer. 

On the 30th June, in San Francisco, Robt. M. Gardner, for- 
merly of Cincinnati, Bnd Miss Anna Kiren, formerly of N. York. 

On the 26ch June, in Suisun Valley, Marvin M. Richardson, 
of Vallejo, and Caroline Burton, ol the former place. 



DIED. 



On the 20th June, at McOartysville, Santa Clara county, C. 
E. Bncknem, aped about 40 years, formerly of Mexico, Ind. 

On the 27th June, in this city, ..Michael Dugan, toruierly of 
Chicago, 111., aged 40 years. 

On the 1st July, in San Francisco, of typhoid fever, Henry 
D.inn, of Halifax, N. S., aged 36 years. 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 



53?*" California State Agricultural Society'* Rooms.— 
The Rooms of the State Agricultural Society are located on 
Fourth street, between J and K, where all who are inter- 
ested in Agriculture and kindred Sciences are invited to call. 

Several hundred specimens in all departments are on exhi- 
bition constantly, and it is the object of the Society to make 
these rooms a place of resort for our citizens. The rooms are 
open daily, (Sundays excepted,) and are free to all. They are 
under the charge of the Editor of the Califobnia Fahmeb, 
wbo will be pleased to render any information or assistance to 
further any interest connected with Bgriculture. 
By order of the President, 



T3-26 



C. I. HUTCHINSON. 



I3P 3 Opinions of Regular Physicians.— 

Exeter, Me., Sept. 30. 

IPhia rorrifioo *Ha* T hflvrt r<*/v%>»im/>n/lnd Hn« nUnC VVI^T A Tt'9. 

BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY for diseases of the Lungs, for 
two years prist, and many bottles, to my knowledge, have been 
used by my patients, all with benelicin! results. In two coses, 
where it was thought confirmed consumption had taken place, 
the Wild Cherry effected a cure. 

E. BOYDEN, Physician at Exeter Corner. 

Dr. William A. Shaw, of Washington, N. C, writes:— "As 
Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry is the only potent medicine to 
which 1 have ever given my public recommendution, I shall not 
be suspected by the candid of giving rash or precipitate testi- 
mony." 

Sold by all druggists. 

Agents for San Francisco, B. B. THAYER & CO. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



VALUABLE AGEICULTTTRAL BOOKS, 

PUBLISHED BY 

JOHN P. JEWETT & CO., Boston, 

And for sole by oil the Booksellers. 

Dadd's Modern Horse Doctor, 

By Geo. H. Dadd, 

The celebrated Veterinary Surgeon. 

Schenck'a Kitchen Gardener's Text Books. 

A complete guide for the cultivation of the Kitchen Garden. 

Cole on the Diseases of Animals, 
By T. W. Cole, 

Editor of the New England Fanner. 

Cole's American Fruit Book. 

The best book out for the Fruit Grower. 



Breck'a Book of Flowers, 

A complete Guide for the Florist 



Lenchard on the Hot House. 

Their Heating, Construction and Ventilation. 



Now is your Time to Buy Cheap Goods ! 

HAMBURGER & BROTHERS, who have been established 
in this city since 1850, ond well known all over this sec- 
tion of country, take pleasure to inform their friends and cus- 
tomers in general, that they have now in store, and receiving 
in addition by every clipper and steamship, from New York, a 
general assortment of Fancy and Staple Dry Goods, consisting 
of ploin black and brocade Silks j plain, changeable and plain 
colored Silke, full qualities; French ond American Lawn; 
white ond colored plain and embroidered 8 wis a Mucins ; 
Bareges and Silk Tissue of oil colors and prices J Needle 
Worked Bands, Collars, Sleeves, Cheraisetts and Linen C. 
Handkerchief; Swiss anilLace Curtains. 

A large assortment of all kinds of Bonnet Ribbon, Irish Lin- 
ons, Cotton Shirting and Shooting of nil Styles. Ladljs 
white nnd colored Cotton Hose; Kid, Silk and Lisle Thread 
Gloves. With a general assortment of Fancy Goods too numer- 
ous to mention, which we offer to sell at twenty-live per cent, 
cheaper than any other houBo in this city, as we are direct im- 
porters of our gooda. 

•A call is only necessary— you can judge for yourself. 

JTjrp' Ladies are particularly invited to call. 

Store, 91 J street, near Fourth, Sacramento. 

P. S. — We keep constantly on hand a full supply of Silk and 
Straw Bonnets, and nil kinds of Millinery Goods. v3-96. 



Latest Importation. 

WE would osain coll the attention of buyers, wholesale and 
retail, to the large and magnificent stock of 
STAPLE AND FANCY GOODS, 
which have been received direct from the manufacturers and 
importers the past week, per clipper shipB "Flying Cloud," 
" Samuel Russell " and " Red Rover," which, in addition to our 
former stock, makes it by tar the largest in the State out 
of San Francisco 1 And for quality and cheapness, we defy 
competition ; and we say, without fear ol contradiction, we keep 
the greatest variety to be found in any house in Culilbrnio. 
By the Two Last Steamers. 
200 ParasolB, new, rich and beautiful ; 
100 ps. latest style Bonnet Ribbons and Trimmings; 
50 ps. assorted colors, Baregas and Tissues ; 
85 patterns fancy Bareges and Tissues ; 
25 ps. plain ond dotted Swisses ; 
40 ps. plaid, striped and plain Jaconet; 
865 yds. Weah Lawns, $1 a Dress Pattern. 

Mens', Youths' and Boys' Summer Clothing. 

Manufactured by our House in New York, in the very best style. 

BONNETS :— Mispes' Flatts, Roys' Hats, Sec. 
Together with a great variety of other Fancy Goods, for the 
Fourth of July celebration, too numerous to mention. 

CHAS. CROCKER &. CO., 
v3-26 246 J street, between Eighth ond Ninth. 



IMMENSE SACRIFICE! 

THERE is no use in throwing 50 per cent, away these hard 
times, when you can purchase the some articles at 
50 per cent. Cheaper 
than in any other house in California. 

HILLER & ANDREWS. 

These well known Jewelers will commence selluur off their 

Diamonds, Fine Watches, 

Jewelry, Silverware, Sec, Szc., 

At New York cost. We do assure the public that thero is no 
humbug in this, and we are determined to close out our 

Immense Stock at Cost, 

and Invite the public to coll and examine for themselves, before 

purchasing elsewhere. We hove now, by lor the largest stock 

in the State, and it is necessary that we reduce our stock. 

Remember 59 J street, near the corner of 3d. v3-26 



I5P 3 Bleeding at the Lungs. — 

Seth W. Fowle, Esq. : 
Deor Sir,— Having been nttacked with homorrhage of the 
lungs, which left me with a troublesome cough ond the usual 
debility consequent upon such on attack; and having cured 
myself, by the u=e WIST AITS BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY, 
I feel it a pleasure and n duty, to testify to its merits. My gen- 
eral faith in patent medicines is small ; but for those who are 
suffering under pulmonary attacks, I am persuaded that the 
Balsam is on excellent preparation. 

Yours, very truly, JONA. R CHILDS, 

Editor Chicopee Telegraph. 
Chicopee, Mass., Feb. 20, 1854. 
*„* Be sure it is signed I. BUTTS on the wrapper. 

Agents for San Francisco, B. B. THAYER & CO. 
Sold by all Druggists. v3-26 

Cg" Persons purchasing articles advertised in our 
columns will confer a favor by saying they observed 
them advertised in the "CALIFORNIA FARMER." 



Olll Oil II Cainphene. > : I 

BRANCH of the Pacific Oil and Camphene Works In Sacra- 
mento. 

The undersigned respectfully informs his friends and custom- 
ers that he has cstoblished o depot nt 51 K Street, Sacramento, 
for the sale of Oil, Camphene, Ac, ond invites the attention of 
dealers to his stock, which consists of Polar, Sperm, Lard, Ele- 
phant, Neat"* Foot, Tanners', Black Fish, and Machinery Oil, 
Camphene, Turpentine and Alcohol, which he warrants pure 
genuine. 

The facilities which his extensive works afford, will enable 
him to keep on hand a laree stock, and supply dealers nt Son 
Francisco pricea. [v4-l] WILLIAM BAILEY. 



Hunch for Snle. 
JttEfc A finely located Ranch of three thousand acres, about 
JfflflS twelve miles below Oolufll. This is oneoftbofine.it plots 
■ rJn . ol land for grazing or Agricultural purposes in this State ; 
wall timbered, and all portions of it the best quality of soil. 

It will be sold ot a bargain, Plan-* of Che lot and all particu- 
lars given on inquiring at the office of California Farmer, 
on Fourth etroet, between J ond K. v41 



Notice of Removal. 

WE desire to notify our customers ond the public that we 
will remove to the new Bunking House, on the south- 
west corner of Clay and Buttery streets, on the 4th duy of July 
next : at which placn wo shall be prepared to transact business 
on Thursday mnrniniz, July 5th. 
vi 1 DREXEL SATHER 6c CHURCH, 



dlfARTZ! QUARTZ 1 1 
of Quartz Jowelry made to order by 

J. HOWELL St CO. 



Removal. 

WN. BRA1NARD, (successor to Morehouse &. Brainord) 
. has removed to No. 55 K sired, between Second and 
Third, and will be pleased to wait on his old customers, who 
may favor him with a call. 

A full assortment of California Produce alwnys on hand. 

Horner's Premium Flour, and other domestic brands : genuine 

Haxall and Gallego ; fresh ground Corn Meal and Buckwheat 

Flour ; Bran, Shorts and Middlings, Barley, Oats, Wheat, Sec. 

California Fresh Butter and Cheese. 

A libcrol discount made to the city trade. 

Sacramento, May 24th, 1855. v3-23 



Removal . 

THE Office of the Pacific Oil and Camphene works is removed 
to No. 79 Front street, between Clay and Commercial. 
Polar, Sperm, Lard, Neat's Foot and Tanner's Oil, Cam- 
phene, Turpentine and Burning Fluid constantly on bond and 
for sole at the lowest market price. 

WILLIAM BAILEY, 
Office, No. 79 Front street. 
Manufactory, Taylor street. North Beach. 
Son Francisco, May 9th, 1855, v3-25 



Snildlcrs, Attention I , 

C1HAS. R. SCHEUNER respectfully informs the manufac- 
) turers of Saddles that he is now prepared to do all kinds 
of stampings on Californion ond Mexican styles of saddles, ond 
he is confident that his style of workmanship cannot bo sur- 
passed in this State. 

Please call ond examine specimens. 

H^* Orders from the country promptly attended to. 

v&25 170 K street, Sacramento. 



California Butter and Cheese* 

£)£T AAA POUNDS new California Butter; 1,200 ditto 
£t) •\J\J\J Cheese, in store. Being supplied dully with 
Fresh Butter and Cheese, by five of the largest dairies in our 
vicinity, we shall hold out largo inducements to families and 
others to use this kind of butter, ond are selling it at a lower 
price than any in this State. 
v3-18 ■ BRADSHAW 4. CO. 



The Harder the Times, the Chcnpcr the Goods. 

WE are receiving goods by five different clippers from the 
States, which we selling nt prices less than they cost, 
giving a chance lor families ond others to supply themselves 
low. [v3 20] BRADSHAW &. CO. 



Ice! lee 1 1 Ice III 

THIS nrticle con be had at all time? at the Sitka Ico House, 
north of the bridge, from 6 A. ai to 7 p. in, Families will 
be supplied with Ice by leaving orders at Howell's Jewelry 
store, on J street. [v3-24) W. C. WATERS 



F' 



To Printers. 

OR SALE— One Second-hand Hoc s DOUBLE CYLINDER 
PRESS. Size of bed, 44 by 28. Apply to 
3-8-lm F. BLAKE, 138 Merchant street. 



Hive of Hers for Sale. 

AVALUABLL HIVE OF BEES, with Potent Cases The 
Hive is strong, full of Bees uud a very Hupcrior one. 
Apply at the " California Farmer" Ollice. v3-20 



VlttorlR Regla. 

A FEW copies of this magnificent work, in Colored Plates, 
for sale. Apply nt the office of the California 1'abmer, 
Bush etrct, San FrancUco, 
y3-2Q and Society's Rooms, Sucranionto. 



HOTELS. 



Orleans Hotel, 

Second, between J and K streets, Sacramento. 

MTHE above Hotel, occupying o apace of 85 by 150 feet, 
in the most central part of the city, built of brick and 
three stories high, offers inducements to travelers not surpassed 
by any establishment in the State. 

The ground floor is set apart for Dining Room, Reading 
Room, Billiard Room and Bar Room. 

Tiie Table will be found at all times supplied with the choice 
of the market. 

At the Reading Room can always be found the doily papers 
ot the State and the latest dotes from the Atlantic and Europe. 

The Billiard Saloon is furnished with five excellent tables, 
superintended by a competent keeper. 

The Bar will be supplied with the best Liquors ond Wines. 

The second ond thira stories of the building are set apart for 
Parlor, Family Rooms ond Chambers, comfortably furnished. 

We have also leased the large brick building corner of and K 
and Front streets (formerly knowji as Sackctt s Hotel) set apart 
for Lodging Apartments, which are furnished in a superior 
manner, which, added to the Hotel, will afford ample accommo- 
dations. 

The "Orleans" is also the Depot ond Office of the California 
Stage Co., from which place Stages leave daily for oil parta 
of the State. 

v-T-2 HARDENBURGH & CORSE, Proprietors. 



American Hotel, Benicia. 

MTHI3 HOUSE hoe been established Five Years, with- 
out interruption or change ot proprietorship, and is be- 
lieved by the traveling public to be one of the best conducted 
Hotels in the State. 

Large and well ventilated, and handsomely furnished rooms, 
for families travelling or for permament boarders, can always 
be obtained. 

A LIVERY STABLE is connected with the Hotel, eo that 
travelers can have their choice, either to take the steamers and 
stages, or a private carnage, to any of the beautiful valleys 
rtround. Stages leave this Hotul every morning for the different 
vulleys. 

The daily papers from various sections of the State are on 
file ot this Hotel, Everything will be done by the proprietor 
tJmt the patrons of this House may find their stay pleasant and 
saris factory. 

3v-16istt C. M. DAVIS, Proprietor. 



BUSINESS CAEDS. 



DUNCAN & CO. 

J. C. DUNCAN AUCTIONEER. 

REAL ESTATE AUCTION BOOMS, 

Not. 156 and 158 Montgomery street, 
(in Montgomery Block.) 
Having taken the above spacious rooms, wo shall devote our 
entire nttention to soles ol Real Estate, Stocks, Administrators' 
and Assignees' Sales, etc., etc. 

Intending to transact a strictly legitimate Commission Busi- 
ness, we solicit consignments from our friends and the public. 
Our rooms being well adapted tolargesalea of FURNITURE, 
consignments ol the same will be received. v3-16 



BOUND FOR THE STATES ! 

Merchants, Miners and others, bound home, are ndv ised to vjsit 

OAK HALL, Boston, Mass., 

where they can replenish their Wardrobes with complete 
outfits from one of the largest and best assortol stock* 

of Clothing, Furnishing Goods, &c., &o., in 

the United States. Also, every variety of 

Boy's Clotlilng. 

CS?* One Price, Cash System, giving all an equal chance. 

■^ G. W. SIMMONS. 

Oak Hall, North street, Boston, Mass. v3-16. 



JAMES FRENCH & CO., 

Publishers, Booksellers, 

IMF OUT EH 5 AND DEALERS IN 

STATIONERY, 

No. 78 Washington street, Boston, Mass. 

£^" Country Traders, Booksellers, Teachers, Clergymen, 

Banks, Railroads, Insurance, and other Companies, 



furnished on the best terms. 
■ Orders solicited for our new publications. 



v3-25 



See prospectus. 



Wilson's Exchange, 

By E e t a b r o o k tf James. 
dGft THIS popular and extensively known Hotel, which for 
jfll'jll the last few weeks has been under the management of 
W. W. Estabrook, has been painted throughout ; new Furni- 
ture has been added, and the house is now in complete order 
for the reception of the public, 

Mr. Estabrook has formed a connection in business with Mr. 
P. T. James, who hos been favorably known in the above 
[Intel, and recently at the International. 

Every possible exertion will be mode by the present pro- 
prietors to render the above establishment the most popular in 
the State. vJi-25 



. House. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

<«(* THIS HOTEL offers inducements to persons visiting 
[ffijjj San Francisco, unequalled by any on the Pacific Coast. 

Gentlemen can be accommodated with single rooms,or fami- 
lies with suites of rooms. 

The House is entirely new, built of brick ; all the rooms are 
furnished in a style of comfort hitherto unknown in the Hotels 
of California,, and the House is capable of accommodating over 
five hundred boarders. 22 3m 



Murray's Fifty-cent Western House. 

Cornet oj Second and D streets, Mabysville. 

MTHI3 HOUSE is entirely devoted to the wants of the 
travelling public aud to all who will favor us with o cull, 
entire satisfaction will be given. [17] R. J. MURRAY. 



American Hotel 

NAPA CITY, CALIFORNIA. 

L. A. Sl W. W. CHAPMAN, Proprietors. 
f&£ GOOD accommodations for families, and on reasonable 
H-" terms. Saddle and buggy Horses kept for hire. HorBes 
kept on board, by the day or week, and well taken care of. * 26 



To Formers, Hotel Keepers, Raiicheros *!t Oilier*. 

BRADSHAW & CO., having removed into their Now and 
Spacious Store, and being regularly supplied from the 
States by every clipper, enables them to have the largest and 
best stock of GROCERIES AND PROVISIONS in the State, 
and at Low Prices. 

Persons living at a distance con always hove their goods 
packed and shipped, free of expense. Remittances can be 
made through all the expresses or by mail. Our stock con- 
sists of 

Powdered and Crushed Loaf Sugar; 
Extra Green ond Black Tea ; 
Mesb and Clear Pork, in quarter ond holf barrets; 
No. 1 and 3 Mackerel, In kits, cjr. and half barrels; 
Sperm, Wax and Adamantine Candles; 
Sperm Oil, in 5 callon tine ; 
Stuart's Boston nnd New Orleans Syrups, In 5 and 10 gallon 
kegs; Spices of all kind; Assorted Herbs and Extracts; Java, 
Mocha, Mttnilla nnd Rio Coffee; Cheese in tin; Chocolate, 
prepared nnd cranked Cocoa, and Shells; Tub*, I'nilp, Brooms, 
Ground Rock Salt, Pickles, assorted Preserves, Jellies, Jams 
nnd Pie Fruit, 

N. B. Highest price pnld for California Butter ond Cheese, 
corner Calilornia and Battery streets, San Francisco. v3-18-t! 



Benlcln Female Seminary. 

THE Fourth year of this institution opens July 23, 1855, 
This is one of the oldest Female Seminaries in the State, 
and therefore well known. There is now a full corps of 
teachers, and those who are well qualified to fill their respective 
■departments. A German lady, nnd an artist in her profession, 
is teacher of Music; and a French lady, as skilled in Drawing, 
is teacher of French and Drawing. 

The School and Boarding Department ore entirely under the 
supervision of the Principal, 

Terms. — (Payable quarterly, invariably in advance,) 
For Board nnd Tuition in English branches, per week.. .$7 50 

Washing, per dozen 1 50 

Extra Charges. 

French, Spanish and Drawing, per month $ 3 00 

Music, with use of Piano, per month 10 00 

For further particulars, address 

v3-23 MARY ATKINS, Principal 



Benlela Iron Works., 

STEAM ENGINE, BOILER AND MACHINE SHOP.— This 
establishment is now in successful operation, and otters to 
the public facilities equal to any* in the Uni:ed States, for manu- 
facturing or repairing Steam Engines of the largest size, Boiler 
Wares, Brass Castings, Mill Geaiing of the most approved pat- 
terns, Bloom Iron, Cast Iron Columns, Window Caps or entire 
fronts. 

Contractors and others will do well by patronizing this estab- 
lishment, as their work will he executed with greater dispatch 
und at lower prices than any other manufactory in the State. 

The company have extended their Pier, and erected a large 
crane for the accommodation of their customers. 
For further particulars apply to 

FORBES &, BABCOCK, 
Agent P. M. S. Company, 
corner Leidesdorff and Sacramento streets, San Francisco; 
or to CHARLES FRENCH, 
v3-e8 Resident Engineer, Benicia Works 



Important to the Dairymen of California. 

HORACE GU8HEE, No. 51 Washington Market, wholesale 
and retail dealer in Fresh Butter, Cheese ond Eyss, hav- 
ing been engaged in the sale of the products of the dairy for 
the past two and a-half years in Sun Francisco, would take this 
opportunity to return his thanks to those who hove fa/orcd him 
with their business, and respectfully solicits a continuance of 
the sume. Consignments from any part of the State by any 
of the various packets or steamboats directed to me, will meet 
with prompt attention, and proceeds of sale forwarded as di- 
rected. Liberal advances made, if required. 

Dairymen, whenever in the city, ore iuvited to call nnd see 
the various kind* of Butter and Cheese which aro received 
daily from the ranches. v3-2G 



JKti-Ht Premium Daguerreotypes. 

RH. VANCE just awarded the FIRST PREMIUM for the 
• best Dtt^uerreotypes exhibited ot the California State 
Fair. Mr. V. would be happy to wait upon any one wishing n 
PERFECT LIKENESS. The arrangement of his Rooms and 
Lights are superior to any in the State. 

Rooms — New Building corner of Sacramento and Montgom- 
ery Htreets, entrance on Montgomery street, next door to 
Austin's. 16 



J. HOWELL & CO., 

46V& J street, between "ccond and Third, ~acramento, 

TAKE this opportunity of informing their friends and 
the public, that tbey have just received a new and 
choice selection of Wa tcltes nnd Jewelry, 
Among which will be found Watches of every description, 
from (the best makers^ — English and French. 

Also — Diamond Rings, Chains, Ear-Rings, Pins, Bracelets, 
Qunrtz, Jewelry, &c, &c, 

f^ Particular attention paid to DIAMOND SETTING. 
Watches carefully repaired and Wamij,ntbd. v3-20 



C. MORRILL, 

Importer and Dealer, at Wholesale and Retail, In 

Drags, Medicines, Chemicals, Faints, Oils and 

Fancy Goods. 

£5P MANUFACTURER OF CAMPHENE AND OIL Jg} 
v3-4 J and Third, and K and Third streets, ^acramento. 



P. B. CORNWALL,- 
Eeal Estate Broker, General Agent, &e. 

Office — East side of Second street, between J and K. 
The advertiser has been o resident of Sacramento, and en- 
gaged in Real Estate transactions since 1£48, ond having been 
personally acquainted with nearly all tho Real E«tate dealers 
who have operated here at different time?, and with their tram- 
actions in property, has peculiar facilities in his business. 23 



R. H. TIDBITS, 

California Boot and Shoe Store. 

Ladies', Misses', Gents', Boys' and Childrena* 

Boots, Shoes and Gaiters, 

WHOLESALE AND EETAIL, 

No. 117 Sacramento street, San Francisco. v3-5 



W. W. PRICE, 
Kotary Public and Conveyancer, 

No. 14 Read's Building. 
Deeds, Mortgnges, Leases and Powers of Attorney, written ; 
Oaths administered and acknowledgments taken. v3-22 



E. B. MASTICK, 
Attorney and Counsellor, 

Office, corner of Montgomery and Commercial streets, 

(overDroxel, Sathcr & Church's Banking House,) 
y3-19 San Francisco. 



BOOTH, CARROLL & CO., 
Wholesale Grocers and Provision Sealers, 

No. 63 J street, corner of Third, 
V3-26 Sacramento. 



KEYES & CO., 
G0LDEK SATE CLOTHING WAREHOUSE, 

Corner of J and Second streets, ~acramento, 
Having the largest and finest assortmcntjrf 

FASHIONABLE CLOTHING 
AND 
FURNISHING GOODS 
Ever Offered in California, 
and which we are belling at the lowest cash prices, we cheerfully 
Invite our friends and the public to cull ana exumineour exten- 
sive itock for themselves. 

Single cormentB or full suits, made to order ot tho shortest 
notice, and warranted to fit. 

New and Fashionable Goods 

received by every steamer. 

Call nt Branch of KEYES St, CO., 

v3-24 corner J and Second streets, Sacramento. 



RIVETT & CO. 

HATE OPENED A branch OF THEIB 

WELL KNOWN HOUSE, 

111 J STREET, 

where they intend to keep a large and varied assortment of 
Upholstery Goods, Paper Hangings, 

Oil Cloths. Matting, 

Mats ond Rugs, Damoska, 

Sdudes, Cornlcea, 

Curtain Bands, Tassels, 

Fringes, Gimpa, 

Lace nnd Muslin Curtains, Sic, ic 

At their Old Store, 28 K street, 

may be hud oil the above articles, together with one of tho 
largest assortments to be found in the Stale, of 

Window Glass, 
White Lead, 
Oils, 
Turn nntimo, 
Varnishes, 
Dry und Ground Points, 
and oil other Painter's supplies. 

Also, Sign Painting, as formerly; Gilt Mouldings and Mirror 
Plates ; Picture ond Mirror Frames mode ond re-gilt. 

Work in all tho above branches executed with our usual 
promptness. v3-23 



PURE MEDICINES! 

LITTLE & CO., Apothecaries, 
130 Montgomery street, 

Between Clay and Commercial streets, 
Pay particular attention to tho preporatlon ol 

Physicians' Prescriptions, 

and the dispensing of Family Medicines. Tin; public can rely 
upon all articles purchased ot thin MtnbUshmenI as being of the 

Puro»t and Best Quality, 
and at reasonable prices. 

MEDICINES AT MWNW/1T. 

Medicines can be obtained ,it all hours if the Night. 

15?' French, Gorman, Spanish and Italian spoken, 6 






THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



215 



HORTICULTURAL, &c. 



fruit and Ornamental Tree*. 
fTHHE -ub-cribers dot re to call the attention of planters fn 
J_ California to their inunrro a -tock i >f Fruit and Ornunental 
Tree*, Shrubs and Plant*. Tlirir Nur*erioi have been sixteen 
years c*t*l>lt-lit-d, ond now cow 300 acre- 1 of Land. 

The followin", among other articles, are cultivated on a most 
extensive scale and can bo impphed to dealers or amateurs at 
Che lowest market price*: 

Standard and Dwnrf Apples, of various sixes; 

do do do Pealg, do do 

do do do Cherries, do do 

do do do Plum-, do do 

Apricots, Peaches, Nwtarines, Curronta, Gooseberries, Straw- 

berriea and other fruits upually grown. 

Stocks and Seeds of nil kiuda for Nurserymen will besup- 
pHi*d in large or ^c- 11 quantities, If application, be made pre- 
vious to the rcptember. 

Oniatnciila) J * ■ ■ I -, ornamental Evergreen Trees, 

Flowerin &», Dahliaa, Greenhouse PlunL-, &c. 

1'arki . ••artful and skillful m mtm r, BO 

that purchasers have n re.'uronabU' guarantee of receiving their 
article-* in good order. 

The. ftrilowlng catalogue* will be sent gratis, prepaid, to all 
who apply km) enclose one stamp for each : 
No. 1. Descriptive Catalogue ol Fruits. 
No. a do do Ornamental Trees, &c. 

No. 3. do do Duhlms &. Green-houee Plnnts. 

No. 4. A Wholesale or Trade list lor Nurserymen nnd Dealers. 
Address, ELLWAUGER A. BARKY, 

r3-33 Mount Hojie Nurseries, Rochester, N. Y. 



AGRICULTURAL, &c. 



FloHcm I Flowers : r 
GOLDEN GATE NURSERY, 

Comrr Fourth and Folsom streets. 
-r-*ri»9'^ C . e *"°. Wafllnn >-t on street, San Francisco. 
T)ERc-ONS desirous ot embellishing their gardens or conser- 
X Vatorlc*, will rind Bt thin estfiblu-hmeut the largest stock 
and greatest variety of plants to be found on the Pacific coast 
Among which art: 

Caineliii JapOlttea*, in 70 varieties; Perpetual Roses of nil the 
classes j fragrant nnd funcy Geraniums; Paseiiloras, 
Heliotropes, Verbenas, lion eye uckles, Abutilona, 
Myrtles, Oleanders, Joss amines, Fuschiap, Da- 
phnes, Dnhlius, Bulbous Roots, Orna- 
mental Shrubbery ; and a general 
assortment of Green House ond 
Hardy Plants. 
Orders for shipment to any part of the State will be carefully 
executed by adilressinc D. Nelson, 170 Washington street, or 
the proprietor, Box 1,957 Post-office. 

v3-9-3m W. C. WALKER. 



Golden Gate Nursery, 

Corner of Folvom and Fourth stretts, San Francisco, 

OFFICE — NO. 170 WASHINGTON STREET. 

THE attention of the public is requested to a large collection 
of the flowering Plants, now for sale lit this Establishment, 
embracing the moet extensive assortment in the State; among 
which may be found — 

Camelia Japonicus, in seventy varieties; 
Perpetual Mooniiiur Roses, of all the cIosbcb; 
Moes and climbing Itoses, du do; 

Fuscbias', a choice collection ; Heliotropes, in variety ; 
Rose and Lemon Geraniums ; 
Lemon-scented Vei benns, Flowering do, Arbtitillums, Azaleas, 
Orleanders, Passirlorap, Honeysuckles, Carnations, Dahlias, 
Bulbous Root". &.C, Sec. ; nnd a general collection of Green- 
house nlnnis hihI ornamental .shrubbery. 

Catalogues for 1855 will he ready on the 1st of December, 
and will be forwarded on application. 

Orders for any part of thn State, will be promptly ottendrd 
to, on application to D, iVsJson. No. 170 Washington street— or 
to the proprietor. <7-3m) W. C. WALKER. 



Pitt's Double Pinion Klffht or Ten Horse Power. 

THIS Horse Power, as now manufactured by the subscriber, 
is nimlttad by those who ElBTQ purchased and u«ed it, to 
surpass, for strength, en-ie, durability and cheapness of repair, 
uv Power ever onored to the public 

Their fTOat ■uperlgrlty over other powers, consists in the 
plan ul construction. It will be seen that this Horse Power is 
JMSt (Loublo the Itrengtfa <>i any tingle geared power, and is the 
only real Double Pinion Power in existence. 

notwithstanding it Id sfefltolentty -trong and warranted to 
stand Lne lull strength of eight or ten horses, it is also warranted 
to give as much effective or useful power, when driven by one 
or two horses, as any other power, whether coustrucwif on the 
endless chain or lever principle. 

I have, for the lust eight years, manufactured and eold a large 
number of these powers, during which time they have been 
thoroughly tested, and gained a high reputation over all others: 
1 lAsrsjore challenge compstkio^ .' 

At the great trial of Horse Powers ot Geneva, in 1842, where 
it was thoroughly tested, it received the New York State Agri- 
cultural Society's First Premium, "for the best Horse Power 
for general purposes," At Cleveland, o., in Sept., 1852, it also 

received the State Society's First Premium. Also, at the great 
Agricultural State Fair held at Pittaburg, Pa., in 1853, it was 
awarded the First Premium. 

I decra it unnecessary to add any further testimonials to cor- 
roborate the high recommendations here given, as the best re- 
commend of its merits is a thorough trial 
The above machines are for sale by 

CASE, HEISER <fc CO., 
No. fiO Sansome street, San Francisco, Cal. 
who arc also prepared to furnish castings and extras tor repairs 
for said machines, and are appointed my Agents to receive or- 
ders or sell my machines in future in California and Oregon. 
JOHN A. PUTS. 
Buffalo, April 1st, 1855. v3-18 



ST EAME RS. 

California Steam Navigation Company. 

r *TT— %, ARRANGEMENT 

Departurt ft tm Vallejo street wharf, at 4 o'clock, P. Af. 

For Sacramento. 
VIA BENIC1A. 
Steamer SENATOR, Capt E. A. Poole, Master. 

Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. 
Steamer ANTELOPE, D. Van Pelt, master ; 
1 Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 



Harvesting Implements. 

WE invite the attention of the public to the following selec- 
tion of superior Harvesting Implements : 
Hussey's (Baltimore) Reapers: 

McCormieW. " 

Manny's " 

Hall's 8 horse Threshers ; 

Pin's " " 

Emery's 2 horse " 

Ketchum's Mowers ; 
Grant's 5 finger Wire Brace Grain Cradles ; 
Grape Vine " 

Barley Rakes ; 
Hay Rjikes and Forks ; 
Scythes and Snaithe ; 
Grant's Fan Mill?, &.c, &c. 

Received and for sale hy 

TREADWELL & CO., 
v3-13 corner California and Battery streets. 



Chill ShnwlKiiy. 

THE famous-Chili Strawberry, wbieb has elicited so much 
wonder arid which was exhibited at the Society's Rooi 
some two weeks since, has induced the proprietor of the plants 
to ofler a few for sale. 

Sumples of the same, with the condition, culture and price, 
may be had on application to the Editors of the California 
Farmer, at their office)) on Fourth street, between J ami K, 
tliev being sole agents tor the mine. 
v3-tf E. S. MARSH. 



TO B AC CO. 
Virginia Manufactured Tobacco Agency. 

GREENE, HEATH & ALLEN have removed from Califor- 
nia street to the COT. of Washington nnd Battery street*, 
where they offer loi gale tholargesl and beet assortment ol 
Manufactured Tobacco ever brought to this State. The selec- 
tion was made by Mr. Heath from the bent factories in Vir- 
ginia *, i*»d the trade Mnernlly Hre respectfully invited to call. 
Amongst the brands oflBfed are iiip Hollowing ; 
200 boxes Crumptou's Four Aces; 
75 half boxes no Medal; 
t 50 packages do BovoraJn oftbe Seas ; 
60 do do Bride ot the Pacific ; 

100 bOZtC UalaoVl Four A's ; 
100 do Smiu.'leiV Hnrry of the West; 
50 do James Boyd's Gold I 
50 do do Anna Bishop ; 

25 do A. Thotooo* Club House; 
50 do FcrjUton'a Star ol the West ; 
50 do MllleT* Crenshaw's Bluff Cttyj 
2(1 do Kuystcr's Miuyc Own; 

*n do do Invincible; 

100 do ThonttosV CBtitelop^j 
50 do DfchlnsoD'e Wltch'a Bye ; 
50 do Crosby & Wootten's M--trnpulitan. 
tn addition to the above, we have 9,000 paongeji of ordinary 

brands ; and n* we tell cxeJui iyely on Comtnis*ion for the Man- 
ufacturer* of Vu -initi, wo run furnish the tradt- with sny quan- 
tity or quality required, el tbe lowest rate.*. »3-IO 



1 



l>rti«rs ! Drug* t Drags I 

JUST received and lor *alo cheap for cash, by 
J. L POLHEMUS, D 

corner J and Scvcnln iteect*. 
10 barrels Alcohol ; * 
150 n^ !' ' ■ \\ package ;) 

I i tom Capsule* ; 

S i ,(o (', 
1000 n :irrantrd pure;) 

,1*1 nN- * ■ . niiatc; 

■ ■ - . ■ 

100 (;,„„ 

I, 

;.' Morphine; 
»H> tb- I 

i- :t% assorted; 

r 



rtratnl; 



3<>rt lb* T»| 
flOtHJ IT W 

500 n 

DS Putty; 10 packs ttoM LtW; 
SS fTuss Pi IK aswrtrd : 
5 rruea Sai-«p*nH»». astM^rtnl : 

90- v lilH; 

sll sis*d Castor O0s ; 
And iih*r Drue* and MedkiBes too ■ 
of which wiU be suM low, by 
^^4 J- L. POLHEMCS. 



Nsw Invention ' 
SfoM, fount Your ftilvkriis!! 

THE twdsrvif^Md b*y» Wt* to ofler to lb* nmbttc a vew and 
-t wacbiiie for h* 

eewlcl ,» bt wtm-h »t a Trry triage cxal iron 

femr M >'« <■ *« Wr, d »#<« can be eoanrtM . 

■ 

irteeii or twenty Aw, this i* rtM certain result ; and it 

- hut Irrrle ■rseisfluu uuls every twenty ■frnr hensrs— 

i . : i f aW aasl frwpeswnifitt baists; only mom tA 50 •» 93 

■! opersriesa at nW Sbste Pair M 

. rewbsr aeart, w b e » aflnal utw a- 

, , , ate. !■ 

tie Measatftnae biliiin|tbin «■ he obtaused at dkt otsee of ebe 

raiBnaaaaaaaaaaaam*jr bstters cam be a d dre m ri •—■-»: 9ast 

aM TWd atreeu Soaah l ai c b, bear Soaa* Park. 



Agricultural Tools nml Seeds. 

PARKER, WHITE &, GANNF.TT, 
■i~,n!' and 63 Blaoksfone street, Bos- 
ton, Mass,, manufacturers of PIowp, 
Ox Yokes, Store Trucks, Fan Mills, 
Born Powers. Mowing Machines, 

Reaping Maeliine.fi, Horce Powers, 
Churns and other farm DUBasBDry and tools; Sluice Forks, 
Grain Cradles, &•■, At. AImo. grOWOIB and importers of all 

kinds of Garden and Field Seeds end Trees. 

Thc-fie herd- are "I the very best quality, such as have always 
given satisfaction QD'OIuT cuttomer*, and are put up for ehip- 
mrnt In air tight cases. v3-ltf 




Patent Kiln Dryer for Grain, Vegetables «fcc. 

APATF.NT of great merit and Importance t> now offered, 
which will lectin the deetnbte. remlbi above named. The 
pwnera propose to raise b company to carry on tho work. It 

La certain in the results i ■■ 

Capitalists dc^iroui ol bec< "■ Interested will please ad* 

dress KILK DIlYKR. Box 9041 Poet Office, San Francisco 



California Steam Navigation Company. 

■ _ r --rT T^ c * w The splendid low pressure steamer* Senator 
■ ' . ■ . - g— nnd Antelope will I 



MISCELLANEo 



. ,._ . on alternate days for 

San Franei-cu, at two o'clock, r. .. „ trom the foot ol K street. 
The steamer Senator, E. A. Poole, master, will leave on 

Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. 
The steamer Antelope, D. Van Pelt, master, will leave on 

Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. 
The steamer Helen Henslev, E. C. M. Chad wick, master, 
every Sunday at o'clock, p. m. 
For Marysville and Intermediate Landings, daily, at 7 o'clock. 
A. m., from bark Orb. 

StcanJsjr Gov. Dana, W. H. Taylor, master, on Tuesday, 

Thursday and Saturday. 

For Culusi, Red Muff, and Intermediate Landings. 

The steamer Belle, W. H. Gilninn, master, nnd Pteamer 

Gem. M. Littleton, master, will leave ior the above named 

p!acc* on Tuesday;, Thursday and Saturday, at 6 o'clock, 

s, m.. Iron store?hip Antelope. 

For Red Blult'r.— The steamer Gem, M. Littleton, master, will 

leave at 10 o'clock, a. m. 

fcsr"* For freight or passage by any of the above boats apply 

■n board, or at the office of the California Steam Naviiratiou 



Company, on board brig Globe. 
v3-23 



Steam Navigatiou 
A. REDINGTON. 



Contra Costa Ferry Notice. 

Until Further Notice, 
ON and after WEDNESDAY, Nov. 29, the 
, Contra Costa Ferry will run as follows : 

SAN FHANCISCO. OAKLAND. SAN ANTONIO. 

At D>/& A. M. At 8 A. M. At 7Vj A. M. 

12"^ P. M. 11V& A. M. 11 A. M. 

4^5 P. «. 3 P. M. 2lfc P. M. 

CHARLES MINTURN, Agent, 

v31G-3m Cunningham's Wharf. 



For IV upa City, Sonoma and Marc Island. 

r_ ^-■rT T w ** > K THE new and beautiful steamer NAPA CITY, 
.fcSStaaiESi. Ca pt. Goodrich, hi now running tri-weekly to 



Napa City, touching tit Mare Inland and SiiscorFerry, ,md con- 
necting with stages for Sonoma, Russian River and the Sulphur 
Springs, 

Freights and passage at lew rates. 



v3-10 



R. C1IF.NF.RY, Agent. 



For SJnernmtiilo and Marysville. 

r -.atT T^"** ^ THE Citizen's Steam Navigation Company's 
ab4w«iC3- fteamer QUEEN CITY, Geo. K. Barclay, Mm 
ii commence her regular trips for the above place.", leav 
in- San Francisco every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday 
afternoons', at 4 o'clock. 
For freight or passage, npply on hoard. t3-12 



Frclgbt Kt-fiiif -rd. 

P tiT ^k FROM and after the In of June, the California 
J^aa^aUaaa« Stemn Navigation ('mnpaiiy will carry freights 
ind Sacramentu nl $'-i |m-i- ton, until further 
notice, rMI 8AM*I. J. UKN8LEY, President. 



COPAETNERSHIP NOTICE. 

THE undersigned have (bTmed a fopartneFshtp for the pnr- 
nofi and carrying on tl.»- Furniture 

Trade ■» Wholesale and Hiinll Denlers and Inip<jrter". in rhi« 
city ami Suen-ount-', under the name nnd ityle ot HOWES *c 

I'n. 

Resident Partner, Botton R. HOWBBj 

180 nnd i 
Resident Partner, San Fno>. 

. 
139 Jackson at 103 K it 

RjMiticnt Partner. Sacrawn1< II. C NKW( .'liMfi, 

"7 K street, Sacramento City. 
San Francisco, May 8, 16S5. 

To Our Friends and the Public. 

By uniting the above three (inns our capital is largely increas- 
ed nml our ezprntf§ reduced m<-re than eas-Jbaf/ 
which enables us to oner you a greater variety of Good* at 
IB to H |kt cent, leaa than our former rates. 
One of the jwrtnern will be In Boston nnd New York to pur- 
chase goods, and will tako advaota^o of the markets to obtain 
such goods as are desirable, at the 

Loftft CsuA Ram. 
Three years* experience will enable him to select stack that arfll 

Defy Competition In Quality and Price*. 
We are now before you with a large and 

IRABLE STOi'K OF NEW GOOODS, 
and shall endeavor to meitt *, •hare of your patronage. It will 
r pride to give 
Perfect Satisfaction, 
both in quslity, print, sad gvd trtaasasaf. 

I CO. 
77 and \oa K street. J 180 and I- Rare**, 

. ill. UTu. > 



FURMlTUHEt! FTTRKmTRE!!! 

AT REnurrn pi; 

\ K AV K I H M l\U \ t: \\ O O O D S . 

every thing snitabse for the PaHor. Chamber, D "aing 
i*Xrtj adsiM to oar 
-■-d berealkrw 
*:::.h. b agethcr wit^ 

• ad cuastaat add ttwsss by 
awry dipper ahsp. gliia as one 
of th« Urrex atocks •-- 

• rtdn. w# 
have rrdnced oar 
artcxs to oaa- 
farm a* (as 

1 tmtt, 

at leaa! S3 

per cent, as all 

Who WiU favor a* 

arah a call wdl be coa- 

vtaced.— By tne ad.i-.w-a at 

I*V • aks 

aancka, here aod ta fe Wr aaas au n, we 

earn serety say that ear stock m the atoat 

Mas' «ad aaayJar saar ejasad aa tat pataie, 

an d that we caanoc be MaowUbt aay am ta 

wan emsFdsoo, HaavassseBjaa, as* envewapre ua noss MaaVL 

ty <-"»:! u4 auont cmr utKk W fcut puirlml., ^ftj 

.3-1? ix' ul 1«« M 



Frrl^lH. to !.m rniiu-iito, NHI |mt Toll. 

f «-i r**»» , FRE10HT8 bv lira ul'K.r.N CITY, trill ba 

it i ii 1 1 ■!■ i' Ten Dollar, por i n, 
> :l - l-U'MAN. Aprnt. 



C 'allfornln Slni;r < <nii|>aii) . 
Oi\re at ihr (frleant Haul, Saeratntntrt, 



San Fra ncisco ahead of the World ! 

Erer on, on apace with the Age and Times ' ! 
riurralk for Vance's new Dagucrrean Gallery 1 

Largest Light in the World, (over 500 feet Glass, . 

iVets Building, cor. Sacramento and Montgomery ttreets. 

TTfHY should every one so to Vancr's who wlshe 
W PERFECT LIKENESSES! Because he has now the 

oest arranged Gallery on the Pacific Coast, and not to be sur- 
passed hy any in tho world. Instruments containing lenses 
more perfect, and wilh greater power than any ever before 
ueed in thin country. 

2d. Because he has the largest light in the world, from which 
he can form three distinct lights— top, eide, and hiilf eide lights 
—that now enables him to overcome the great difficulty which 
every artist in this city has to contend with— namely : In order 
to obtnin perfect likenesses*, different formed features require 
differently arranged lights. 

3d. Having the largest lieht, he is enabled to make pictures 
in hall the time of any other establi»hmeiit in tho city ; there- 
fore they must be more perlect, for it is well known, the shorter 
the time the more natural the expression. 

4th. Because every plnte is carefully prepared with a coating 
of pure silver which produces the clear, bold and lasting picrur* 
that is so much admired, and which cannot be produced on the 
common plates, as they are now used by other artists. 

5tb. Because he has of late, after much experimenting brought 
his chemical preparations to perfection, using compounds en- 
tirely dirterent from anything ever before used in the art, which 
enables him to produce perlect lifeuessee, at every fitting, with 
that clear, soft and beautiful tone, so much admired in all hie 
pictures. 

All those wishing perfect fikenesses will do well to call before 
sitting elsewhere, and judge for themselves, 

fitjgp Prices as rciigonuhle, and work superior to any in the 
city. J 

Don't forget the place. 

K3P 1 New Building corner of SRcramento and Montgomery 
streets, entrance on Montgomery, next door to Austin's. 17 



HM Northern 
»rk A H. 



Island, Cohan*. Drytoam, J-rk-.n. Most 
.-Iis-la, nml all Ii 

nnd Boathera Mine, r>\rrv morning, as a 
Nerndn «nil i 

■ -f'lwn " " (J 

All ».to,r j.lm-ra 6lft " " 

Ai-xniiMMrfnitton li^-for V.-„,.,r 1 k P w 

All piKferik-im will be callrtl lor at tl .,nd the 

ntmoatattei t their bass;age. 

Stages arrive in . ., \„ in i* 

JAS. HAWUHTIJ, Presiden* C. & CM 
J. P. Driohan, Socirtary. v3-*tf 



Fare Kcdarrd to Hfaaeta. 

Till ninny's Conches 

oa and alter thr- • 

leare tiieir ofRee, Orleaas llriaal. 2d street, 
"acreni' miaata Tin Maijsiaan. errry day at 6Vft 

o'clock, a. * . arrivtBf at Shasta rariy a«nu muroing. 

rraincnto to HUry»»tli. - • .*> 
IC 




Rcturnlnf trum the above places, the 



LITTLE A. ■ 

147 Mniitfijomcrr »tr«<l. Son Frnnrlseo. 

APOTHECARIES HALL. 

rpins i 

I WULUM a. 

1.ITTLE ,« & 

■ hi. I Apothrrary 
Coll. Pharmacy ■ V»iocia- 

Hahrnena, and ti to prices bare Warn iidaoail le mnifui i 

■ 



Travis .V \ i 



aar w aUeeial Hated sinnr. 

Ibe loter- 

■nr part 

The proprtetnra » ill. hi sll oasea. 




orders for the 

r aUended la Oar «tas*> may afsrayi be known, bar- 
- anv of la te f aa tlu nal U-tr\ o a the sides, ar 

■lfta urn'- .t win ht naj aai Uh um^m. TS-ifltf 



-'e**— 3,000 Flower Po**, 

HAYJCM i 
- street, bcL WaahiafU<n and Clay. 



HAY*!* a I.AU j 
■ street, aa*. Wsaajaetoa aaa Ckey. 



K»rry Kaatr*. 



R«t( I* rsl. 



PRFSTOITS 
Craaeernaa. 




. WsaaVeaca 

•sWaV 

WUD.-UAW.1.' CO. 




' W-iX< urXasdrow Ferry, " aboat nvo sad ooe-aaaf nJes Irons 

-J Asrrtmtw. « -KaUS. 



.May lo- 



Works In Pr*a«. 

By T. B. PETERSON, Philadelphia 

Tb pf n,a..t iijii.. ha 

e - Maura Cum tn Mr, Satttmi*. 
- L»t Betray" - Wiis' Ymarw - *c— cue 
W^erota^ .«:!, I. •.« i=ciU l-IIS 1% S^ V^"w? -ZZl' r" 



TBEADWELL 




coma* or c.»Lir'.R!ii» »>d hattfry smin 
SAK rRAJirlSCO 



PfcWaH Ov4n 9 « d » M Ml 4r- 

Sram 
TUU mi hfta .«— * tttB i. Ii Imi : 



W™ trtmomacm *J d Sm kw, nmi * ta M> rapertor R mm 
•«*■ . .cr i-iit ariara k, Iki. WMM tmrrtrm Mb 
r. n •* »T »»« • ■ •• rmr mit m, it rin.» j mi immtj t 
•*« "«rt : MM, ran, tmmtt b^aB mpmrnm tn 

- •"■ m* fandnl ,« liaTml -' 
tmrwtAj raaaaal _ TV* 







-■ « » " *■ TV »«-»•■»•• a* aa ra-ora » th. I K- . |~r ual ••« - 

' '»ra.aWj«.ba-aV»l.l»Taf arfliah.ciia ac Tlrt«,awb*»-ra«-< Mmmfr faa »n , hi a>* 
The i l l a-a» aaa a» aaa-aa,araa. T. - • • \\ . . Mi ,1..-. a raara-i aa aa i I a~ ti 

. aatktMkatMhia--. .1 *ra> 

KOraan-BsssVaai mm 
• a>4 pat-x, a mme trrlm wknai m Ht-raiarate-atrailan 
A ft* mi - m ; ;. • ft*, a da «a> 



« T.r a 

eaaai 





THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



To Advertisers. 
In order lhat our patrons may have some idea 
of the extent of our circulation in this country 
and abroad, and the benefit which may derived 
from advertising in our paper, we publish the fol- 
lowing list as comprising most of the principal 
places in which our journal circulates, showing 
them how useful it is to those who wish their 
business widely known. 

Agriculture is synonymous with the word 
" home." The cultivation of the earth is but a 
preparatory step for building up homes and the 
family circle; and here within this circle it is our 
desire and intention to have the California 
Farmer find its way. Advertisers, therefore, of 
everything that pertains to home comforts or 
luxuries, will perceive what advantages may be 
obtained from their advertising with us. Dry 
Goods Dealers, Shoe Dealers, Furniture Dealers, 
Crockery Warehouses. Family Groceries, Jewel- 
ers, Booksellers, in fact evory one who receives 
benefit from the patronage of the family circle, 
(and what trade can live without it?) we invite 
to reflect upon these suggestions. Our present 
list of advertisers will attest that this is being un- 
derstood and appreciated, and it will be our aim 
to present as early as possible an additional cover, 
prepared more especially for the display of such 
engraved plates and cards as require it. The fol- 
lowing are among the prominent places for our 
paper : 

Snn Francisco, Sacrnmento, Stockton, MarysviUe, Grass 
Valley, Rough and Ready, Nevada, Downieville, Yrekn, Shasta, 
Columbia, Jackson, Sonora, Colusa, Sonfma, San Juan, Mon- 
terey county ; Santa Clara, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, San Jose, 
Mission San Jose, Nupa, Nicholaus, Benicia, Petaluma, Placer- 
ville, Pujaro Valley, Oakland, Alameda, Union City, AK-nrodo, 
Auburn, Bodega, Uidwells, Butte oo. ; Hamilton, ionc Valley, 
Knight's Landing, Yolo county, Los Angeles, Monterey, Mar- 
tinez, Port Townseud, Oregon ; Uniontown, Humboldt Bay ; 
Salem, O. T. ; Oregon City, Portland, O. T. ; Washington Ter- 
ritory. To every Tost OQ'ice and Express Office- in this State, 
end to nearly every State and State Society in the Union. In 
ed Ution to this it is sent to many of the principal cities in Eng- 
land, Scotland, Ireland, France and Belgium. 



BANKERS. 



\ 



Valuable Discovery. — A large number of 
Greek and Latin MSS. have been found in the 
Ottoman Empire, by a company of gentlemen, 
who have been deputed by the French Govern- 
ment to make literary researches wherever oppor- 
tunity was afforded by the passage of the armies. 
The precise number of Oriental MSS. in all the 
libraries of Constantinople, has been ascertained, 
and the whereabouts of a valuable treatise on an- 
cient Egypt, by one Ald-al-Lathif, who lived in 
the middle ages, has been discovered. 



France and England. — The value of the ag- 
ricultural produce of France is, two hundred mill- 
ions sterling ; of the United Kingdom, a hundred 
rmd vixty millions: hut there ia » striking con 
trast in the proportion of the animal to the vege- 
table products which go to make up this enormous 
sum in the two countries. In France the animal 
products arc but £04.000.000, while the vegetable 
amount to £140,000,000 sterling. In the British 
Isles the two items are balanced, each being esti- 
mated at £80.000,000. 



WELLS. FAKGO & CO., 

BANKERS.— Bills of Exchange for sale on New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia and St. Louis. 

Also, on the following Eastern Cities : 
Adrian, Mich., Galena, III., Pottaville, Pa., 

Albany, N. Y„ Geneva, N. Y., Providence, R. I., 

Alton, 111., Hamilton, O., Racine, Wis., 

Ann Arbor, Mich., Jackson, Mich., Reading, Pa„ 

Ashtabula, O, Kalamazoo, Mich., Rochester, N. Y., 

Auburn, N. Y„ Kenoshn, Wis., Sundn-lty, O., 

Battle Creek, N. Y„ Lafulle, 111., Sheboygan, Wis , 

Binghamton, N. Y„ Loclcport, N. Y., Silver Creek, N. Y., 
Buffalo, N. Y., Louisville, Ky., South Bend, Ind., 

Cunandnigua, N. Y., Mansfield, O., Springfield, 0., 

Chicago, III., Mich. City, Ind., Springlield, III., 

Cincinnati, O., Milvvnukie, Wis,, Stonington, Conn., 

Cleveland, O., Monroe, Mich., Syracuse, N. Y., 

Columbus, O.. Mount Vernon, O., Tiffin, O., 

Corning, N. Y., Newark, O., Toledo, O., 

Dayton, O., Nilcs, Mich., Trov. N. Y., 

Detroit, Mich., Oswego, N. Y., Urica, N. Y., 

Dunkirk, N. Y., Owogo, N. Y., Wcsttield, N. Y., 

Elmira, N. Y., Paincsvillc, O., Xenis, O., 

Erie, Pa., Peoria, III., ZanesviUe, O., 

Dbafts on Canada dbawn on 
Montreal, Quebec, Hamilton and Toronto. 
Drafts on Europe drawn on 

Union Bank of London London. 

National Bank of Scotland Edinburgh. 

Royal Bank of Ireland - Dublin. 

Livingston, Wells Si. Co., (our house) Paris. 

V3-24 WELLS, FARGO &. CO. 



JOSRFH C. rALHCR, OE0RO8 W. WRIGHT, 

CI1ARLF W. COOK, EDWARD JONES. 

PALMER, COOK & CO., 

BANKERS, corner ot Washington and K'-arny streets, front- 
ina tho Plaza, Sun Finnciaco, California, buy and sen Ex- 
change un nil the principal Ea»tenT cities. Bullion, Certificates 
of Dnriosit, etc., bought at the highest market rates. 

Collections made and Money Truur-nilticd, and all business 
connected with hnnkinz trim* acted. 
tp 3 Agent in New York— 
V3-2-1 JOHN COOK, Jn„ 31 Broadway. 



Storage and Commission. 

THE sub-criber huvins; jj.iTchi.Fcd the entire interest ol 
Messrs. Tildcn Jc Little, in the Storage nnd Commission 
Bu-'iner'iT, heretofore conducted in tin,' Empihe Warkm iUSE, 
is now prepnied to continue tin; buaine.Tia in nil it» various 
branches, ut this old established and thoroughly Fiie-Proof 
Warehouse, on us reasonable terms as any uther Warehouse in 
this city ; will make cash advances on alt good*, when desired ; 
and hones to rctuin a contint/anceof the old business. 

HIRAM W. BEEBE. 
Befcrenc s — Messrs Cu?e, Heiser &. Co. : J. W. Britton ; 
James Doyle ; Barber <t Boyd. 

Notice. 

TJITIIEREAS certain impressions are gaining circulation 
TT connected with the in. -olvency of Meatus. Tilden & Little, 
Inte lessee* of the Empire Warehouse, which if Uncontradicted 
may cause unnecessary alarm, I feel it a duty to myself to as- 
sure thor-e having gond- stored Inhere, Hint all difficulties, which 
exUt, arc confined entirely to their connection with, aud the 
suspension of, the Eclipse Flour MUle, and that all other yood* 
now stored in this warehouse, win he duly receipted for by me, 

upon presentation of the old Receipt*. 

E.MPinE WaeeiiousS, 
v3-22 HIRAM VV. BEKBE. 



Bookseller's and StMioiu-r'a 
WHOLESALE A.\'JJ RETAIL WAREHOUSE. 

WE \><-A to colt nttentiun ta the following catalogue, which 
ci raprises In part our nock of book- and "tutioncry. 
By the recent arrival of Clipper?, our assortment of goods in 
this line has been made very complete^ nnd we feel sure tb»t 
trie public will find it to their interest to cull and examine our 
stock before making purchases el-ewhere. 
Blank Books..— Ledger,?, Journal*, Gush, Invoice, Day and 

Record Books, in Russia, Sheep and Muslin Bindinp. Copying 
Bgjpbs, Indexed and Plain Memorandums Bunk and "Pass Books, 
Ijjii les, &c., Ac. 

Paper.— Brief, Letter, Cap, Note, Eurelope, Tissue, Blotting 
and Filtering Papers. 

Stationary.— A complete assortment of Law, Counting 
II iusc nod Fancy Stationery. 

Bouud Books. — A huge nmi splendid a-soitinent ot Law, 
Standard, dehoo] and Mi-eelbmeoU' Uouks, including many In 
rich titiic y binding, suitable for pre-ent*. 

B';>n:"* — Lnw, .Shi]. piny nnd C:i -turn II ui-e Blanks. 

MlBC*:H.anCOU''.— Gold Pens. Razors and Razor Strops, 
rocket Cutlery. Tuilet Brushes ; Ca*h, Deed, Date, Post Office 
and Eiitf | ,,,,- ]>-,•;,•. ; Portable D^k^, Gem-' Dressing Cu-e*, 
Ladica'a Toilet and Work Cafes nnd Reticules, Port Munnies, 
Perlumory, Onorn Glasses, Fancy Articles, dfcc,, &c. 

U,-i ihc nuivid of each steamer wc receive a lull supply of nil 
toe- eviins Newspapers, PietoriaUi, Reviews and Mai{azlnca 

£ubUabed>n An»rlc ft aiid England, which wo can luriush to all 
i qunuune* to nuit. 

m i> ,, (iE .°-, VV - MURRAY 4- CO., Mongomery Block. 
N.B.— I nitkular a ttention paldtojiUtitg orUtrt, vB-19 



N 



Pottc»-j-i Pottwyfl 

' l"r 'i.l-«rih,. SACRAMENTO POTTERY, 

■■■;•■'• •"--". *""^- fo...« l,.r„:™-M,-,o,™ ol Pl„i„ 

v,r.; Cro,„nPot-, C\ lu ,-„,., Milk I'.,,., jug. ami 
m, ..l lupwlur irudlln . lv „ h or.rytbln, el.o Id 

I """lotoonlnr Del,,.,,,,. ,,„ r , lc „f„| y „,. 

d,a.e. Older, to 0., left n ,lt„ |.„ito?y,or 

CHARLIE TAYLOR, A B ««. 



DKEXEL. SATHEK & CHURCH, 

BANKERS, comer of Commercial and Montgomery streets, 
draw at sight, in sums to suit, on 
Van Vlcck, Rend i. Drcxel, £7 Wall St.... .New York. 

Bank ol North America Boston. 

Mechanics' aud Fanners' Bunk Albany 

Drexel &. Co Philadelphia. 

Johnston Bro. & Co Baltimore. 

J. B. Morton, Esq Richmond, Va. 

A. D. Jones, ehashier Pittsburg, Pa. 

A. J. Wheeler, Esq Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A. D. Hunt, Esq Louisville, K>. 

J It. Macmurdo & Co New Orleans. 

Also, on Detroit, Mich.; Memphis and Nashville, Tcnn., CoJ 
lumbus, Ohio: Norfolk, Vu., and Charleston, South Carolina. 
v3-9 

PACIFIC EXPRESS COMPANY. 

SR s&idSfi 

THE late employees ol Adams Sl Co., in consequence ot the 
disruption of that firm, have jrganlzttd themtflves into a 
joint stock company, under the above name and title, lor the 
purpose of conducting a General Express and Porwardtne 
buPinens in alt its branches, throughout Calitoruia, Oregon and 
the Pacific Coast generally. 

■ The business Will be strictly and solely a forwarding one, 
having no connection with banks and bankere, and will be con- 
ducted on sate and economical principles. 

The Expresses will leave the office at the north-west corner 
of Washinetonnnd Montgomery Streets, daily, at regular hours, 
for Sacramento and the" Northern Minos, "Stockton and the 
Southern Mines, dan JoB6) Sun Juan and Santa Cruz, Mon- 
terey, San Pedro and the Southern Coast generally, as well as 
to the Northern Coast of California and Oregon: 

We will also run a regular BxpresB for Freight, Small Par- 
cels and Letters to and Irom the Atlantic States by every 
eteamer. 

The parties who have organized thb company ore well 
known in the community an old and experienced express men, 
and hope it will be acknowledged generally, understand their 
businesH thoroughly. They think they arc not nyuui too much, 
■--i...„ tl>py ■ttnhiiiA "inch ot tiio .nauiifl of the late firm of 
Adams &. Co. in the express business to their exertions and 
personal energies. 

In conclusion they would solicit a fair share of the favors of 
the public, pledging themalra to exert their best endeavors to 
transact such business as may be entrusted to them in a prompt 
and Imsin ess-like manner. 

Collections ot all kinds will be promptly attended to at any 
of the point* mentioned above. 

R. G. NOYES, President. 

San Francisco, March Ut, 1855. v3-10. 



MEDICAL. 



WALWVIUGHT, RANDALL & CO., 
Beal Estate and Stock Auctioneers, 

No. 100 Merchant street, San Francisco, California. 

WE re-peetfully inform our friends and the public gener- 
ally, that we have connected with our other business 
that of House Biipkehage and General Dibectohy, 
and have imate cxien-ivc arrangement* fur conducting them 
ha; is fact only to all whu may favor ut with their patronage. 

As these new brunches pos-ess sonic novel lentuies, and not 
having been boretojbre introduced in this city, we deem it pro- 
per to make ma&Ucat their advantages, not only to our own 
citizens, hut to all who may visit our city. 
Iiounv Bmkuragf. 

This department is an agency for [easing and letting Dwelling 
Houses, Stores, Shops, Rooms and BjiitdJugs of every dasc rip 
tion, and will receive the attention which its importance de 
muiid". from the advantages dorived from the "Directory 
Deportment," and having made arrangements for receiving 
information immediately when premises are vacated, we shnu 
possess superior Ihpilittn for providing, at tin.- shortest notice, 
BousCS, Rooms and Places of Busiucss of nil kinds, in any part 
of the city where required. All persons who may have vacant 

iiremises will fmd Huh a desirable medium ot' obtaining tenants 
or the eamo, and their business is respectfully solicited. 

General Directory! 

• This department will include a rrghtnj, (already prepared,) 
of all person", (except Chinese,) within the limits ot the city, 
by reference to which we will he enabled to give the name nnd 
residence of all Merchants, Mechanics, Artists, Professional 
Men, Laborers, and thoi-e out ol business, which will be con- 
tiutiilly corrected, as they change tnenr residence, and will re- 
ceive additions from time to time, as new comers arrive. 

We consider the information which our register will afford 
to be of essential Importance, as well to our own community as 
to strangers, from the tiict of changes occurring so frequently 
among u«, and it having been demonstrated that published 
directories are nearly useless in a month or two niter being Is- 
sued. This with other information in our possession, enable* 
us to present a complete epitome ot the entire eftjr, which we 
(•hall keep '• posted up," to keep pace with the movements of its 
inhabitants. 

This department will he under the supervision of an agent 
who has had a large experience in this branch, here und else 
where. 

To give an idea of the extent of our Registry, we may men- 
tion that up tQ the present time i' contain* the name* and nd- 
dress of furiij-'hrce. thousand persons, with tho place ol their 
nativity, occupations, etc., which has required several months 
ol labor to Compile, 

Wr invite the attention of the public to our establishment. 

V3-18 WAINWRI iHT, RANDALL & CO. 



Great Bargain* I Selling ofTIt 

SAMUEL JELLY'S 

48 J xtrer.t, betwrtn Second and Third, Sacramtnto. 

A LA ROE assortment of fine English and Swiss Watches, 
with adjusted chronometer balances, selected by me from 
the best manufacturers, and warranted perfect time keepers, 
together with a well selected stock of 

Diamonds and Bich Jewelry, 

purchased by me fnr COOS, nnd for sale lower than tho samo 
good* have been ottered In this city. 

Diainnndi* set in any style Quartz-work made to order. 
Clocks, Watches and Jewelry repaired to order. 

Y3.23 BAMUKL JELLY,*48 J street. 




IT IS A FIXED FACT, 
CONSUMPTION CAN BE CURED! 

SIR JAMES CLARK, Physician to 
Queen Victoria, and one of the most 
learned and skillful men of the age, in 
his " Treatise" on Consumption, eays . 
"That Pulmonary Consumption admits 
of a cure, is no longer a matter of doubt; 
it has been clearly demonstrated by the 
researches of Lnmnec nnd other patholo- 
gists." Dk. Cabswkll, who investigated 
auch matters probably as thoroughly as 
any man, fays : " Pathological anatomy ha.*, perhaps, never af- 
forded more conclusive evidence in proof of the curability of a 
disease than it has in that of tubercular phthisis," (pulmonary 
consumption.) 

It Is no Fiction. 
These statements ore made by men who have demonstrated 
what they say, time after time, in the crowded hospital, and in 
the truth telling diseectini room. They are from men who 
hDve no possible motive for publishing what is untrue, or em- 
blazoning falsehoods. 

The Remrdy which vie offer 

Dr. Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry, 

lias cured hundreds of ctu-ca of 

Consumption of the Lungs, Liver Complaints, Coughs, 

Colds, Asthma, Bronchitis, Whooping Cough, 

Influenza, &c, 

Many ol them after every known remedy had failed to reach the 

disease. 

We can present a mass of evidence in proof of our assertion that 
Cannot I»o DlKcri-clltcfl. 

Da. Botden, a Physician in Maine, Piiyn : "I have recom- 
mended the use ot DR WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD 
CHERRY for dbeases of the lungs for two years past, and 
many bottlou to my knowledge have been used by my patients, 
all with beneficial results. In two cases, where it wim thought 
Confirmed Consumption hod tnken place, the Wild Cherry ci- 
lected a cure. 

Dr. A. H. Macanaib, of Tarboro, North Carolina, writes us, 
under d H te of Feb. 14, 1854, that he has use.] DR. WISTAR'3 
BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY in his practice the last eighteen 
mouth-, and OODsUierS it the best preparation of the kind lie 
ever saw, and knows of none so deserving the public patronage. 

Da. Wm. A. Shaw, of Washington, D. C, says; "I wish 
hearty success to your medicine, I cqnstder every case of ar- 
rest of the fatal symptoms of pulmonary disease as a direct 
tribute to suffering humanity. 

Sawcel A. WALKsn, Esq., a gentleman well known In this 
vicinity, writes as follows : " Having experienced results, of a 
satisfactory character, from the use of WISTAU'S BALSAM 
OF WILD CHERRY in cases of severe ooltU during tJ 
two years, I am induced to express the eratlfiaatwD I feel from 
the ntvornble attecta that followed, and uso the full faith I have 

in the renovating power of Wistar'a Balaam of Wild Cherry. 

Hon. Samuel S. Perkins soys: "For several days I had 
been suffering from the effects ot a severe oold, accompanied 

by a very sore throat and tick headache, which Completely in- 
capacitated me from business, 1 had taken but u very email 
portion of a single bottle of this Balaam, when 1 experienced 
immedinte relict! My cough was broken up at once, and my 
lungs entirely relieved from tlic pressure which had become so 
pain Oil. 

[From the Boston Journal.] 
Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry. 

" This medicine, coming Irom a respectable source, nnd care- 
fully prepared by an experienced and shOlral pbyVIclan, is 
received by the public with confidence. Its elliency bus been 
proved in many obdurate cases of disease, nnd its fume Iiiih 
rapidly extended." 

It is a powerful remedy for Asthma, as will be seen by the 
following cure : " Sir — Having been ntllfctcd for more than 
thirty years with the Asthma, at times so severely aa to m< n- 
pacitatc me from attendance to business, nnd having adopted 
many medicine^ without any but temporary rolioL I purchased 
several bottle) Of WISTAlOs BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY, 
Irom the clteets of which I obtained more rolieJ than Irom all 
tho medicine I had ever taken for that distressing disorder. I 
have, by the repeated use of your valuable Balsam, been more 
free of pressure for breath, and oppression on the luni:*, than I 
anticipated, and, indeed, conceive myself cured of the most dis- 
heartening malady. C. D. MAYNARD. 

Argus Ollice, Portland, March 26, 1850." 

Fifty Thousand Persons die annually in England of Con- 
sumption ! in the New England State* the proportion is one 
to four or five. In Boston, probably, one In tour. In the city 
of New York sixty-seven died in two weeks, in December, ol 
this disease. The mere tiict that euch ad OQffmlo, 

attested by such uatmpvaaaable authority, wlumld inspire hope 
and reanimutc failing courage in the heart of sutlerer from this 
disease. 

Beware of Countcrf/i-lls nnd Imltntloim — Syrups, 
and all uther preparations ot Wild Cherry. Remember, they 

imitate In name, without poMWrtng the Virtue-*. Buy none but 
the genuine 

Dr. Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry. 

Signed |. BL'TTS on the wrapper. 
SETH W. FOWLE. 

Proprietor, Boston, Mass. 

I'-flf Agents for San Francisco, 

B. B. THAYER &, CO., 

v&i6 MoiitL'i'ini'iy | troet 



Surgery. 

R. B. COTE, M. D., 

Late Lecturer on Surgery and the lUnranea of Women ; Late 
Member of tkt Board of Ctn$or$ pf tht San Wrai\ci$co Medi- 
cal Society; Member of the California Academy of Natural 
Science*, oi,d i 'amtpondtng Member of secerat Medical 
Societies i» //"■ SoutA and East. 

Office— Atheneum Building, 

South-east cunicr of Montgomery and (-iditurnla streets, 

opposite Wells, Fargo At. Co. 

DR. R. B. COLE, for many years a Medical Practitioner In 
tho city of Philadelphia, and tor the post three years in 
this city, would respectfully announce that, in consequence of 
a most serious injury received soma months since, with which 
this community are familiar, he will in future conliiie himself 
principally to hw Office, where be propose-* to treat all 

Surgical Diseases, 
feeling assured as be di.es that his former connection with 
Medical Schools and Hospital*, together with the extensive 
practice lie has enjoyed f»r tho past ten years, peculiarly 

qualify him for ill'' urr,. --tut practice of surgery. Of the ot- 

tectums to which Dr. Cole has devoted much ol bis attention, 
may be mentioned : Turmons and morbid growths, occurring 
on any part of tin; body, Disease uf the Spine, Chronic Ulcera- 
tions, Cancerous Affections, Dropsies, Diseases of the Bones 
and Joints, Di- eases of Eye, Ear and Skin, Affections of the 
Bladder, Urethra, Scrotum ami Testis (or In 'other words, nil 
disease* of the Ganitu^Urinary Apparatus) and Deformities, 
whether congenital or the result of aocMent, amongst which 
may he enumerated, Club-Foot, Badly-treated Fractures, Con- 
tractions ol the Limbs and loss of substance about the face, the 
result oF disease or accident. Dr. Cole has also for many yearn, 
nnd continue* "till to pay special attention to obstetrics aud the 
treatment ol all diseases peculiar to Female-'. 

Patients from the interior will bo provided -with suitable 
boarding houwes aud experienced and attentive nurse*. 

(Morning, From 10 till 1! 
OFFICE HOURS :{ Afternoon 

9. v3-12 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



cxperienceo, t 

{Morning, 
Altornoon, 
Evening, 



Simltllng's KiHi-mnry Hair Oil. 

Take tho sweetest of names and the faireet flowors, 
Combine them, und lo, what a treasure i» ours I 
For blooming in winter, when earth i* all dreary. 
We hail with delight the green fragrant Ru3KMAar. 

Its dark shaded leaves with an e^nence Is filled, 
Which, when from its secret recesses distilled, 
And combined with ah Oil ot a quality rare, 
(As by Spalding,) h ju«t the right thing for the hair. 

And Spalding esteem* it no more than a duty, 
Tlibi ottering to lay OK the toilet of Beauty, 

For baldness and Time's bud elracts all may foil, 
By tho use of his Castor and Rosemary Oil. 

Bold by LITTLE &. CO., 

T3-22 Montgomery street, Suu Fraucisco. 




Dr DEV1NES 

COMPOUND 

FORTHEjflpUREOF 

COUCKCOLDS 



&m, 



LITTLE & CO 

137 MONTGOMERY'S: 

SANFRANC1SCO. _. 



TO PREVENT COUNTERFEITS, EACH BOX OF GEH 
UlNE DEPUTES PITCH I.OZEAGEx will in lutur. 
bear the Written .Signature of "Jjlttle & Co." 

TIIIS CELEBRATED REMEDY 

Is offered to the WESTERN WORLD in full faith, as being 

The Only Certain Core ever Discovered 

For COLDS, COUGHS, 

SORE THROAT, CROUPS, 

ASTHMA, WHOOPING COUGH, 

BR ON CHIT IS, I NFL I r £ NZ A , 

HOARSENESS, Incipient CONSUMPTION, 
PAINS IN THE SIDE AND CHEST, AND ALL CURA- 
BLE CASES OF DISEASES OF THE LUNGS, 
They will he found tho best article In use for the RELIEF of 
tho Consumptive Patient when past all hope ol" recovery, and 
will in nny case where lungs sufficient are left to maintain life, 
check the ulceration and raise the patient t" health. 

Certificates of cures, to be relied on, can be found In the cir- 
culars left with the agents, nnd the public may be assured rlmt 
wc hhall never publish anything we do not believe entitled to 
the iullcst confidence, as truth, 

"Nothing buz the Truth." 
The world Is challeneedto produce such cures as are effect- 
ed by faithfully using this cheap and pleasant mediclno. 

This remedy is pronounced ny Clergymen, Orators and Vo- 
calists to be the best in use fur clearing the voice and relieving 
the irritation of the throat, so troublesome to public speakers. 
Price SO cent* a Box, or >'i Boxes for $1. 
UTTLE it CO., Apothecaries, 
137 Montgomery ntroct, 
Agents for California, Oregon and the Sandwich Islands, to 

wh om all orders must be addressed. 
X^fT" Observe that the written signarura of *' Little &. Co." is 
attached tc each box of Devine's Pitch Lozenges, without which 
nonecan be genuine. 
Agents for the sale ol Dr. Devine's Compound Pitch Lozenges : 

San Francisco - Little & Co. 

Sacramento C. Morrill. 

Mnrvsvilto Rice & Collin. 

Stockton E. 3. Holdenat Co. 

Benicia J. W, Jones. 

Nevada Dr. Alban. 

Downieville. Dr. R W. Carr. 

Agent* ore wanted for this Invaluable remedy in every city 
and town in the State. v'3-9 




COLLINS & CO., 
PRACTICAL HATTERS, 

(PREMIUM HAT SToBE,) 

157 Commercial street, San Francisco. 

TIIE undersigned would take this opportunity to return their 
thank* to their friends and the public generally torthc very 
liberal share nl patronagewhich they have recelvea. They take 
pleasure in now announcing that they are determined that no 
one shall surpass them in the beauty, or finish, or quality of a 
Bat ; that no L'eiit shall wear a finer HnUthon can Dc found ol 
Collins & Co.'s Warehouse. 

The proprietors of this establishment exert themselves to 
manufacture to order the latest styles and most approved pat- 
terns. The stock of HATS and 'CAPS, of every kind, now 
on hand, cannot be surpassed in this city. 

17 COLLINS &. CO. 



TREADWEIL 




CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND MAIDEN LANE, 

M ARYSVILLE. 

Corner of California and RaUcry streets, San Franciteo. 
No. 56 Federal street, Boston, 

IiwroiiTEBs of Hardware, Iron, Btee), Cordage, Paints, Oil 

Vnrnish and Window Gloss, direct from the Atlantic State* an 
Europe, with a complete assohtmext or tools AMD impl* 
ment3 for Farmer?, Miner*, Carpenwre, Oooptrt, Gaunhir* am 

(iracers. Saddler*, Turner*. Mason*, Smith*, Painters, Olaxirrs, 
Ship Carpenters, Wlieelttrights, Millwrights, Cabinet Makers, 
ana others. v3-5 



joiin m'okkook. OEO. hatch. 

D£JLlCIOV8 ICE CREAMS, 

OP VARIOUS FLAVORS, 

And the Finest Confectionery in the Country, 

CAN im HAD rvOM 

McGregor & hatch, 

No. 107 J street, between Fourth and Fifth itreet*. 
As they manufacture tho above articles on the premises them- 
selves, they can warrant them to ho nuulo from the purest nnd 

Boat Quality of Materials. 
And from Mr. MeGrogur'l lung experience in thl* branch they 
faol confident of builljj able lo mthtU all who finor them with a 
Coll Their Saloon will bo found tho coolest and most plea-ant 
in this sity. > 1 v4 




VOL. IV. 



SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, FRIDAY MORNING, JULY 13, 1855. 



NO. 2. 



(Tljf California farmer 

AND JOV RNA3U OP USEFUL S CEErSCB8. 

Br WAHREN & SON. 



fOBLISnKD EVERY THURSDAY MORNING. 
Office — oh Fourth stmt, between J and K, Sacramento. 
1 i .! 4 per Hnnum, in advance. For a club 

i ■ <■■ in! a lixth copy gratis, 

littxl iiLiiiiiir-r ol Mi i atl inserted at fair rates. 



Of I'n 



AGENTS. 
J. Q. A. WabrEN. Boston. — For alt the Eastern States. 

i . Wells, Fargo *fc Co. — At their Offices throughout tht 

Pacific Express Companv.— .fr all their Offices in the State. 
L. P. Fisher. tVa* r 

Havf.n A ilAKKR. — Napa City and County. 
Gardner & Kirk, ?-'rii<.*j"ipcr and /ioriksdlrrs, Sacramento. 
M ■ . LaNGTOM *fc Co. fur DoiDiiicvillCy Foster's Bar, Good- 

year** liar, Mini 
Messrs. Lsland & McCoombk— Crescent City, Fort Orford, 

Vninniotcn, Eureka, and Bncktpnrt. 
BraLiVAirtriewBpnparatand, No. 5 Post Office Building; Kim- 
ball's, Noisy Carriers Hall, Long wharf— San Franei 



A. Hunnewell, P. M., Columbia. 
I Coffin, MokduntJit Hill. 
Gen. M. M. McCnrver. Mount 

Farm, O. T. 
Dudley &■ Co., Napa City. 
Huker & Hamilton, Sanamento. 
Taney & Roberta, Sonora. 
A. H. Murdoch, P. M., Union, 

Humboldt Hay. 
Worth &. Sturgw, Martina, • 
Benj. J)odd, Benfefa, 
J. M. Thorburn &■ Co. Nno York 

i '%», n. y. 

%* Postmasters throughout tht State are kindly invited to act 
for us. 

Wb desire our Agents to report to us on the 1st of every 
month, the Itierenee of names nod the prospects, together with 
the amount due the office. 



p.l ■. hidweWf, Bvttt Co. 
D G.W(ddron&. Co. Cnlowa. 

Treadwell &• Co., MarytviUe, 

Juoea & Co., Napa, 

A. W. Potter, Nc\ 

Nash <fc Davis, Plaerrville. 

C. O. Burton, Stockton. 

Dr. Thomas J. Harvey, P. M., 

San J. uis Obi 
Cram, Robert) &£o., Yttka. 
Howard&ChamlierUon, Utt'n 

City, and Mission an M>se, 



AGRICOLA'S LETTERS.— NO. 7. 
On Grasshoppers. 

Editors Farmed : Being aware that jour 
wishes will be most effectually carried out, by 
taking special notice of any circumstance con- 
nected with Agriculture, which more imme- 
diately demands attention, I hope that no portion 
of your readers will blame me for devoting this 
letter to the subject of Grasshoppers, although 
the information I can furnish is but limited, and 
the conclusions, which 1 have drawn as natural 
inferences, rest on facts n 

to enable me to characterize them as othor than 
mere hints, scientific it may be, but based, on an 
uncertain foundation. 

The two families of Grasshoppers (Grillida). 
and Locusts ( Cicada), with all their sub-varie- 
ties, belong to the Order Orthaptera (i. c. straight- 
wings), of which the wings, when not in use. are 
folded length-wise in narrow plaits like a fan; 
and arc laid straight along the top or sides of the 
back. They are also covered by a pair of mem- 
branes like wings, which, in locusts and grass- 
hoppers, are long and narrow, and lie lengthwise 
on the sides of the body, sloping outwards, on 
each side, like the roof of a house. 

Although the ravages of these creatures are 
distressing, and the means of preventing such 
misfortunes as thev occasion, but limited in effect, 
their natural history, identical in character with 
that of winged insects generally, is very interesting. 
Tile lives of nil such insects during the term of 
their winged existence are but short, seldom ex- 
ceeding two or three weeks, or at the long 
as many months— one instance, the often men- 
tioned ephctneits. Iwing generally reputed to live 
as a fly for only :i fi or, at most, for one 

day. During this brief period they are princi- 
pally taken up, in propagating their spec 
selecting a proper place lor and depositing their 
t; and this grand object of their short lives. 
as Bin, inplislied. they soon af 

The r. "ousts and gr.is.-l, 

arc glued together in little clusters, ami dei 
under ground, » here they take only a short time 
to Ik- batched by the beat of I 
in wb. through the 

months, bui e roots of g 



and larger, and hops about without any aid 
from its short and motionless wings, repeatedly 
casts off its outgrown skin, appearing each time 
with still longer wings and more perfectly formed 
limbs, till at length it ceases to grow, and shed- 
ding its skin for tho last time, it comes out a 
perfectly forme and matured grasshopper, with 
the power of spreading its ample wings and of 
using them in flight." 

The grasshopper is now perfect, and the ravages 
which, in this condition, it commits, are too well 
known to require any description. I am glad 
however that some, although but limited, infor- 
mation as to the facts connected with their pro- 
gress in our State, has been already furnished, so 
as to enable us, in some measure, to consider tho 
matter, for the purpose of ascertaining how far 
we may call on experience or science to assist us, 
against this terrible opponent to our Agricul- 
tural prosperity. 

It appears, as mentioned by Mr. Warren and 
others, jn the Farmer of 28th June, that mois- 
ture and shade they carefully avoid, that they 
have no great attachment for gardens where cul- 
tivation has been constantly going on, that they 
seldom attack ripened grain, and that they do 
not encroach on land which has been overflowed. 
Mr. Horner also states, in the Chronicle, that 
they are not produced on land under cultivation. 
These facts are, it is true, but meagre ; but let us 
inquire what may be the reason of these likes 
and dislikes; and, if wo cannot add a page to 
former science, endeavor to throw out some hints 
which may enable others to do so. Such is every 
man's duty ; and if I can, by investigating the 
subject, throw such light on the matter as may- 
tend to modify the evil in future, or exert but a 
partial remedy at present, no farmer, I am confi- 
dent, will grudge tho time occupied in the perusal 
ol this letter. 



ous company of flies, like for bigness unto wasps 
and bumble bees. They came out of little holes 
in the ground, and did eat up the green things; 
ami made such a constant yelling as made the 
woods ring of them, and ready to deafen the 
hearers." In tho south of Franco, the people 
make a business, at certain seasons, of collecting 
locusts and their eggs, the latter being turned out 
of tho gound, cemented and covered with a sort 
of gum, in which they are enveloped by the in- 
sects. On such occasions, it is stated, a boy will 
collect as many as fourteen or fifteen pounds in a 
day. Now, whether in the state of eggs or of 

there is no doubt but an inundation or ir- 
rigation, laying the ground under water so long 
as would shut out the air. for only a limited time, 
must effectually kill them. Hence one reason 
why the creature is not found where such inun- 
dations have taken place; or only in very limited 
numbers, partly, because all tho young grubs 
have Iwcn necessarily destroyed, and partly, no 
doubt, because nature has furnished it with in- 
stincts strong enough to warn it flora aitoa 

.. ntly fatal to its race. The instinct of an- 
imals, however, docs not proceed from any act of 



to them such a liberal supply of moisture, as 
such a natural cause as inundation would have 
produced. This is corroborated by Mr. Warren, 
who, in an article in the Farmer already referred 
to, says: "In gardens where a constant cultiva- 
tion has beer, going on, and, the ground is moist, 
they pass over quickly— seeking dry soil." Now. 
if this be the case, let us see whether there is any 
difference, in plants on a dry soil, so very material, 
that would make it possible for us to find some 
remedy, by means of which we may bo enabled, 
so to alter the character of the plant, as to im- 
pose on these, merciless intruders ; or, if not to 
impose on them, to furnish them with provisions 
so unsavory to their palates, as must needs make 
them beat a retreat, before they have staid longer 
than merely to tasto them. Likewise let us see 
whether we may not thus solve the apparent 
enigma, why shading plants should be a means 
of preserving them from their inroads? In the 
letters written by me, in the two previous num- 
bers of the Farmer, I have endeavored to show 
the modus ojicrandi adopted by Nature, to pro- 
duce the growth of plants, and how, dining the 
day, their tissues are filled with sap of a more 
alkaline character than by night. If your read- 
ers are not satisfied on that point, from my pre- 
vious reasonings, I would refer to the testimony 
of Licbig: ''This chemical action." says he. "is 
shown very plainly in the leaves of the Cotyle- 
don calycinum, the Caculia ficoides, and others; 
for they are sour like sorrel in the morning, taste- 
less at noon, and bitter in the evening." This 
of course, takes place when the plants are suffi- 
ciently watered, to enable them to carry on the 
intentions of Nature with facility. When such 
a supply of water is not afforded, the natural 
consequence is, that the plant gets more and 
more alkaline in its character, there is no such 
supply of in 



This is exactly the indication of a warm, dry, and 
upland soil — the very place » here the grasshop- 
per has got to deposit its cg_ quenlly 
all that Nature, acting under her Great Governor, 
had to do, was to implant in the grasshopper and 
if not a love of the bitter, at least a dis- 
like to the tasteless, and an abhorrence of the 
sour, or anything containing a plentiful supply 
of oxygen, to make it avoid those very ; 
•here, in countries which it infests, it would in 
all probability be dangerous for it to deposit its 

This accounts for the benefits proceeding from 
an awning by day, and watering by night; as 
Nature is thus enabled to recover the balance in 
favor of oxygen, which had been altogether in 
favor of the inorganic alkalies of the plant, 
may we not do the same thing, by the applica- 
tion to their leaves of dilute! sulphuric acid 7 
tsor Johnston proposes it as a manure for 
grass, to be applied in the proportion of about 
two ga 1 to three or four hundred gal- 

lons of water per acre. This was where the soil 
was not so dry as with us; consequently wo 



to dilute such an application 

..but from some delicacy of pcrci , three or four limes the quantity of water 

ut lo guide them by the influence made on ; mentioned ; and apply it in successive evenings. 

ihe oigans of such perception. Now, if th I do not vouch for as a remedy, but merely 

tht soil, or of plants where it, and when I do so, I also recom- 

cover. or where they have been subjected to Ihe ' mend t-Ttrtme caution in ilt tut. 

influence of water, or even in well cultivated gar- As to the information of Mr. Horner, in-regard \ protects the dam-id-d part from the stimulus of 
those where it has been nat j to grasshoppers not being produced on cultivated the atmosphere. The writer has employed it in 
rallv ' re need not wonder, when the land, it is a fact which we might naturally expect practice for u p w a rd * of twenty \e»r«. and always 



ground, and tho grubs produced from them are 
burrowing among its roots, a great number would 
necessarily be destroyed, if they were not so en- 
tirely, wherever tho fire went. This it may be 
impossible to do, where tho country is more 
thickly settled; but how much of hill pasturage 
is there which might be so burned, very much to 
its advantogo otherwise, and without the least 
probability of any dangerous result 1 

Agricola. 

A Splendid Barn. 

Next to the comforts and conveniences of tho 
the dwelling for his family, a farmer should pride 
himself upon a barn for his stock, his granaries, 
and his produce. 

The Boston Cultivator comes to us this mail, 
embellished with engravings of the splendid barn 
of the Hon. B. V. French, of Braintree.one of the 
most distinguished and successful farmers in 
Massachusetts. The size of the barn is as fol- 
lows : the first story or manure collar, seventy 
feet by fifty-seven, laid in solid masonry ; a floor 
laid u-Jth cpli't atom,, of. eenrciti aiiur murine 
The second story. — with sheds for carts, wagons, 
&C, thirty feet by fifteen, together with bins 
for vegetables and grain, to be filled through 
scuttles from the third story, — is surround- 
ed by solid walls of masonry, and the whole 
floor equals an area of one hundred by fifty- 
seven feet. The third story is ono hundred foot 
by forty-two. In this story are ten bays for hay, 
on each side, ten feel by fifteen ; entrance for wag- 
ons, carts. &c, with hay scales, scale beam, &c. 

This barn is believed to be the finest in tho 
county of Norfolk, if not in the Slate. The sketch 
of it, in all the particulars, with the drawings, 
occupies one and a-half page's of the Cultivator, 
and is on file at the Booms of til where 

all who desire to see the plan may call and ex- 

mittee of tho 
Norfolk Society, who visited this ham. They 

say : " We cannot but notice great improvements 
in the construction of farm buildings in different 
parts of tho county. We regard this as an indi- 
cation of the increased interest as well as success 
in agriculture, and of more study and reflection, 
upon the best method of conducting its operations* 
Among those recently erected, we might specify 
tho barn of Hon. B. V. French, of Braintree, as 
for convenience and labor saving, an almost fault- 
less model. We would advise all of whatever 
means, who intend to build, to examine Mr. 
French's barn, because, in our opinion, it is ex- 
celled by none in the county." 

We have often referred to the importance of 
farm buildings in California— to sheds for stock, 
for shelter in the rainy as well as the dry season, 
and for the preservation of implements and tho 
pro-luce of the farm. Immense losses annually 
for the want of such building*, and to those 
who intend to build %firU rale barn, the barn of 
Mr. French we invite their attention to the plan of. 



REMEDY roll BURKS Aim SCALD*. 

Mess as. Editors: Wheat flour (Farina) as a 
local application to burned or scalded snrme**, 
and of kindred inflammatory action, iniijiii— ri 
with other treatment, is th* most soothing and 
valuable remedy known, probably owing to the 
pro— new of gtuttn. An > ids or skin, 

is irutantly formed aad maintain- -1 and which 



and other vegetal 


i-'h when in that 


cond 1 1 


uid mi 


place to pin- 


the use - 


Witht 




their conditi. 




- 




moult 




becomes prtq • monad , 








pearance on 





■J It*. 



i: B B. 



with favorable i 
Twsjjtt Tons or Hat rsa Acaa.— It is 



occupied In findi; . If the creature is endowed with an instinct, 

in which to deposit its eggs, that it should surBcre:,: to enable it to shun such plates, it does 

es ever quickly, anv place which it not deposit its eggs there; for the reason that, 

i look on with suspicion. But the ' where land is well and constantly cultivated, and " UtH b 7 Mr c,rd - »' ■» *» T * " 
r« arc always simple, and we may ' the ground clean and free of weeds, its young ^ Tn h T Hr - Med,t '" *"*' *•*?' 7 **' 
conclude that in every such instance the creature :ab!y perish, from want of sustenance tmm *f «°°» a*" hay had bssarsissd off a 

ascertains such places, or probabilities of such during winter. If it has no such instinct, then *"*> J«Sec<]aao, th* last season. It was Italisa 
from the character of the plants which they do perish lor the reason mentioned eonse- ^ ?""• wk **. r°? > * * r ^ M h ^ ht *" ** 
ally by their tasto and qacntly the effect is the same tithe r way. But tmmad ^ lma tm , / "UtT* ' *** ' 
t be great, aad most eflectoa] remedy, in my opin- j ^^^1^^ wtZtaL 
inK-h have been for some time exposed to ion, would be to horn the grass before winter. If e#tri catting, aa ihrwias.il at- 
sly, grows larger ' a a arm and dry ing sun, without having applied the grt ast w i pp i 1 1 have drpositsd their eggs m uWiaiai n was mads. 



10 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



-J)c California Jarnur. 



WARREN fe SON, EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS. 



SACBAMEKTO, FKLDAY, JULY 13, 1855. 



The California State Agricultural Society's Exhibit'*"" Rooms 
ttre at lite Hail on Fourth street, between J and K, City of 
SoeeametUo, ichcrt all art invited, free. 



The CALIFORNIA FARMER OFFICE is at tie Slate 
Society's Raotns, tchcre subscriptions and advertisements 
arc received. 



The Cadifobnia Farmkb in Boston, Mass.— Copies of the 
California Farmer may always be found at Redding &. Co.'s, 
State street, Boston. 



E^p* Manufacturers of every brancli, Nurserymen, Seeds- 
men, Florists, Booksellers and Publishers, nud every braueh of 
business connected with Calfiornia interests, should advertise 
in the California Fabmeb, if they wish to have their business 
known over the country. 



Circular. 

The Executive Committee of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, beg leave to say to the Agricul- 
turists of the State that as the time for holding 
the Annual Fair approaches the necessity lor in- 
creased and energetic action throughout the State 
becomes, daily, more apparent. 

The officers of the Society are giving their 
time, attention and money to the furtherance of 
the work, but this will not suffice. Unless the 
Farmers, Merchants, Lawyers. Hotel Keepers and 
all others interested (and who is not?) come up 
to our aid, subscribe and pay their memberships 
and give countenance to the work, our approach- 
ing Fair cannot be made what it should be — 
cannot be what the resources of our State call 
for, what the honor of this most prominent in- 
terest demands. 

The State has made commendable appropria- 
tions for premiums, and the Executive Committee 
has published a schedule for the approaching Ex- 
hibition, and it is hoped that we may be placed 
in circumstances to show full statistics of Farms, 
Orchards, Nurseries, Gardens, Vineyards, &c. 

A nnmrniTt i nt ami reliable Ontuniittee may be 
expected to visit and report upon every case in 
this department. Send in your propositions, that 
the Committee may know the amount of its work. 

The statute under which we are organized 
limits the terms of membership to ten dollars. 
Any Gentleman or Lady sending us this small 
sum will have subject to his or her order a cer- 
tificate of membership for one yoar. 

The question of the utility of the Fair depends 
very much upon the manner it is gotten up, and 
it cannot be what it should be without persona] 
interest of a general character. 

Persons holding certificates of membership arc. 
with their families, admitted to all the exhibi- 
tions of the Society free of charge. 

By order of the Executive Committee. 

C. I. Huchinson, President. 
0. C. Wheeler. Rcc Sec. 

Sacramento, June S3d. 1855. 

Error in Dairy Houses. 

From past experience in the dairy houses made 

nf rn/1 ivonil nnil similar nvAl*>«il»L-»t it. »,**... -»l-—r, 

evident they are not what they should be, and 
will not only result in losses to the dairymen, 
but will retard the enterprise. From many 
sources we learn of the difficulties arising from 
all wooden buildings for dairies. From Mr. Hor- 
ace Gushee, the well known dealer in dairy pro- 
duce in Washington Market, San Francisco, we 
also learn that those who have wooden buildings 
in the Petaluma and Sonoma Valleys are real- 
izing evils during this hot weather. In some 
cases the cream seems to melt upon the m ilk. 
But in the old adobe dairy rooms no difficulty is 
ever experienced. 

The dairy buildings of Gen. Vallcjo work to a 
charm, and it is found that an adobe of 12 by 16 
is the thing for a California dairy room ; here 
everything works to a charm, while in a wooden 
building butter cannot be made well, and when 
made neither looks well nor keeps well. 

These are important facts, and we shall be glad 
to have them carefully noted and facts sent to us, 
that others may be benefitted by tested results. 



The King op Grasshoppers. — On our pas- 
sage down the river on Sunday last, we were 
shown a grasshopper which was taken from a hill 
of corn in the garden of Gov. Bigler, r.t Sacra- 
mento, by C. P. Duane, Esq., while on a visit 
with the firemen last week. This monster in- 
sect was from three and a-half to four inches 
long, of a light green color, long legs, full bright 
eye, and closely filled one of the round match 
boxes commonly known as thelucifer box. This 
insect was in charge of Chas. Heiser, Esq.. who 
was taking it to San Francisco, for examination 
and experiment by Dr. A. B. Stout. We hope to 
receive a note from the doctor as to its species, &c. 

Death To the GrasshuPPEr. — On Saturday 
evening and Sunday morning last, the Bay of 
Suisun and the waters above were literally cov- 
ered with grasshoppers that had fallen from the 
masses that were passing across from land to 
land. Thus we aboil be relieved in some nieas- 
ould fain hope it may be the pre- 
' passing away." 



Tilt and Tournament. 
Tlie days of CMvalry come back again ! 
The order of creation, the laws of nature, and 
the wants and necessities 6f our being, all tell us 
of " day and night," '■ summer and winter," '• seed 
time and harvest," " labor and rest ;" and we are 
instructed that there is a time for all things — to 
'• laugh as well as cry," to " play as well as work." 
Conceiving it, therefore, in accordance with the 
laws of our nature and being, to enjoy all that 
appropriate recreation and pleasure necessary to 
give to mind and body a due relaxation from con- 
tinued wear by reason of too much and too inces- 
ant toil and care, and knowing too that from the 
nature of our climate and seasons and their effect 
upon our systems, that they create a more joyous 
and livelier temperament and enable us to endure 
more hardships and failures, to bear our losses 
and disappointments better, we feel it a duty in- 
cumbent upon us to promote such rational recre- 
ations and pleasures as shall give to our physical 
nature the ability better to bear and endure the 
great fatigue, labor and exposure to which many 
are called, and to give to the higher nature, the 
mind, that -elaxation and respite, and to add to 
it such a refreshing, as social entertaining pleas- 
ures always give, that it shall return to its duties 
with renewed vigor and increased power and 
strength. Believing thus, we would suggest to 
the Executive Committee of the State Agricultural 
Society, the importance of uniting a series of Fes- 
tival Sports during the coming State Fair and In- 
dustrial Exhibition, (under such regulations as 
shall secure the utmost order and docorum,) as 
shall give to the public, recreation, entertainment, 
knowledge and pleasure, and at the same time be 
free from that confusion and disorder, too often 
attendant upon field sports and races. 

While reflecting upon some plan, and recalling 
to mind the means at hand to accomplish what is 
most feasible, what would be most acceptable and 
what we have within our reach and at our com- 
mand, the sports named at the head of this ar- 
ticle strike us as most appropriate and useful, and 
we believe it may be successfully carried out. 

A Tilt add Tournament. — To accomplish it 
in a most desirable form, it should have the figure, 
or be represented in the form of human progress, 
as connected with the advance of science. The 
following we suggest as the brief outlines, which 
we hope may be the basis from which shall spring 
the best aud most appropriate series of entertain- 
ments: 

Within some inclosure or grove, the scries 
should commence with the Aborigines of this 
country. 

Vl~k. TL» noKrc luJI.iu, IVItll his bOW and 

arrow, bis spear and other weapons of war, in 
full costume, should go through and perform 
those feats of dexterity and skill for which he is 
so noted. 

Second. The Alcxican, with his well trained 
horse and his lasso, performing what no others 
can perform with like dexterity, and showing his 
knowledge of the horse, his own and the animal's 
skill. 

Third. The Spanish Cavalier, in full costume, 
gaily decked, " with spear in rest." and helmet 
and plume, ready to do battle for her whose scarf 
he wears. 

Fourth. The American citizen, in saddle, test- 
ing the speed and displaying the beauty of the 
noble horse. 

Fifth. Ladies in saddle, giving evidence of their 
skill and accomplishments, guarded by a suitable 
escort. 

These sports to be so arranged that suitable 
prizes shall be bestowed upon those most meri- 
torious. The prizes to be given or bestowed by 
those who alone can raise and exalt such sport, 
and give it a character and free it from any evils 
now connected with pleasures and pastimes. The 
closing scene to be a Festival Dinner, no gentle- 
man to attend without a lady. 

Thus it will be perceived would be represented 
the gradual rise and progress of civilization and 
human advancement to the present time. Thus 
would be presented as a beautiful diorama, the 
advance of our institutions, with their attend- 
ant blessings. The finale, the Social Feast; 
the table to be loaded with the "richest products 
of the earth." decked with the "brightest flowers" 
that ever bloomed, and honored by the presence 
of her whose presence restrains from excess or 
rudeness, whose smile of approbation nerves the 
arm and cheers the heart in the hour of trial, and 
for whose happiness it is the duty of man to 
labor. Thus would we have such a scene of en- 
joyment. Prizes bestowed by her fair hand, and 
her presence at our sports and social feasts. Ri- 
baldry and rudeness, drunkenness and blasphemy 
shrink away abashed ; and wo would have pre- 



sented such an entertainment, as while it shows 
the progress of our country and her institutions, 
will serve as a stimulus to still greater and higher 
achievements. 

With the hope that all who feel a desire for 
progress will give these suggestions force, and the 
hope that the press will speak, we lay these 
plans before the public, with our best wishes 
for human advancement. 

It will be remembered that these entertain- 
ments are proposed to be held at the time and 
during the Exhibition of agricultural products, 
manufactures, mechanical skill and works of art; 
ami also at the lime of the Cattle Show. Thus, 
visitors could have an opportunity of witnessing 
the evidences of our State's prosperity, and real- 
izing her real progress. 

Believing it the duty of every good citizen to 
encourage these, we look hopefully for a full real- 
ization of success to the great work of the Fair 
and its connecting influences. 

Grasshoppers at Sacramento. 

On Friday last we visited •■ Smith Gardens," 
for the purpose of an occular proof of the de- 
structive ravages of this scourge, and we were 
fully convinced of the utter impossibility of any 
one so to describe them in their work of destruc- 
tion as to convey any adequate idea of their num- 
bers and rapacity. 

Upon entering the gardens we saw a long line 
of men, some twenty or twenty-five, with large 
besoms in their hands, swinging them to and fro, 
brushing trees, plants and shrubs, the men all 
moving forward in a line and driving these in- 
sects before them, and such were their numbers 
that they formed a cloud before the men, extend- 
ing 20 to 40 feet in front and 10 to 15 feet high, 
in thick masses, thick- as they could fly. Such 
were the numbers at the gardens, that the men 
only had to return back to where they began, 
and a similar quantity were again at work, which 
in like manner were driven out. This labor has 
been continued for more than two weeks, the 
nnmber still coming in from the adjoining grain 
fields. This heavy bill of expense is to be added 
to the destruction of some sixty acres of as fine 
vegetables as were ever grown. And the loss 
docs not end here. In addition to all this, a fine 
flower garden is literally stripped of all beauty 
and comeliness, also strawberry grounds the most 
extensive in the country, as well as a fine nursery 
of many thousand young trees, grape vines, &c. 
liut the heaviest loss is the splendid peach or- 
chard, acknowledged to be the most fruitful and 
promising in the whole State. 

We passed through the whole jrrounds and or 
chards — we gathered quantities of the whitened 
pits from the peach trees that lay upon the ground 
and saw the stripped branches and cut limbs— 
we passed to the fine pear orchard, that was sup- 
posed to have escaped, but which had been left 
leafless by these remoiseless pilferers. In tl 
anxiety to save some five or six hundred fine and 
thrifty pear trees, drilling had been wrapped 
around them and jinnee/ up. Uufortunately the 
stakes that supported the trees prevented pinnin 
the cloth close to the bottom of the tree, and 
here the enemy entered and pillaged every leaf 
and tender branch. Had the trees been bagged 
close they would have been saved. 

When we look over this splendid garden — when 
we remember the large outlay that has been 
made — when we call to mind the close applica- 
tion and untiring zeal which the proprietor has 
manifested to make his grounds a credit to the 
city and county of Sacramento, as well as to the 
State— we feel that a loss of this kind is a public 
calamity; and every generous mind will yield a 
noble sympathy to Mr. Smith, for his loss cannot 
be made good by money — it is the labor of years, 
and the bright prospect of seeing the work of his 
hands prosper is of more value than gold. Al- 
though we esteem the loss more than $120,000. 
yet we rejoice to know even this retarding blow 
cannot prevent Mr. Smith from manifesting the 
same determination to go on and excel in the 
work he has undertaken. For this noble spirit 
he deserves well of our community. 

Injury to Grain. — We have been informed 
by those who have just passed through Petaluma. 
Bodega and Russian River grain fields, that the 
fanners have but slight hopes of harvesting any 
crop this year — the grain being almost a total loss. 
We feel convinced from other facts that many 
parts of the San Jose Valley and Alameda county 
will come short of an ordinary crop. Large tracts 
of land will not bo harvested at all — rust, smut 
and blight affecting the crops more or less. We 
trust, under these circumstances, if any riso is 
realized, the cultivator of the soil will reap tl.o 
benefit, and thus aid for past losses. 



Contra Costa Side.— San Antonio. 

Another trip across the Ray, gave us an op- 
portunity to visit " She'l Mound Ranch," the fine 
fruit grounds of J. L. Sanford, Esq. Theso 
grounds are about half a mile from the Ferry 
landing. A pleasant circular road brings you to 
the grounds, which form a promontory near the 
head of the bay. A neat cottage stands upon the 
apex of the mound, surrounded by a pretty collec- 
tion of roses and other flowers, now in bloom. 
From this mound, you have a view of the cntiro 
grounds, well stocked with nursery rows of trees 
of all kinds, fruit and ornamental. A large por- 
tion of the garden is devoted to strawberries, and 
we think from the extent of the grounds, the 
number of the varieties, and the quality of the 
fruit now ripe, that Mr. Sanford will rank well 
up the column. There was one feature of his 
strawberry -grounds that gave us much satisfac- 
tion — they were all clear and distinct varieties 
and each classed in separate collections. The fol- 
lowing varieties we thoroughly tested, and found 
them correctly named. We ate freely and with- 
out stint of each and all, and we aver the fruit as 
fine as any one could require. Berries from three 
to four and a half inches in circumference at this 
season, dry as it is, we esteem a remarkable fea- 
ture in strawberry culture. The rarities tested, 
were British Queen, Black Prince, Hovey's Seed- 
ling. Hovey's Pine, Burr's New Pine, Prince of 
Orange, Crimson Cone, Virginia, Moyomcnsing 
Pine, Hautbois, Columbus, and McAvory's Supe- 
rior, In addition to these kinds, there were sev- 
eral others — new vines just set out. The bearing 
beds, were in full fruit — ripe, green, and full blos- 
soms on them at the same time, and in abundance 
too. We learn that about one ami a half bushels 
of berries wore taken from these vihes "Fourth 
of July time," and we saw nearly half a bushel 
preparing for the market. 

The system of cultivation practiced by Mr. S., 
we think most excellent. The vines are in rows, 
from three to four feet apart; the ground highly 
cultivated between the rows; the vines freelv irri- 
gated, and after the water has been applied and 
the ground partially dried, the earth is cultivated 
finely. This prevents baking, and gives the earth 
a fine finish. 

One feature of tho landscape, and most promin- 
ent, was three large windmills, in constant move, 
pumpirg water into tanks, from which it is con- 
ducted through hose over the grounds. 

It was particularly gratifying to us to see 
the grounds so neat aud highly cultivated ; but 
what most attracted our nolico wus such a freedom 
front weeds, the presence of which so often dis- 
graces places called gardens. There can be no ex- 
cuse for auy one who permits his grounds to be 
overrun with noxious weeds, that leech-like, ab- 
stract the life from the soil and leave all else sick- 
ly and deteriorated. In these grounds, where cul- 
tivated, we scarcely saw a weed. 

Passing from the strawberry department, we 
entered the nursery, where we saw many thous- 
and very fine fruit trees — apple, pear, cherry, and 
plum, and all in as fii»e order and of as fine 
grow th, as any we have seen this season. Several 
of tho pear trees are in bearing. We observ- 
ed a large plantation of the Oicgon Raspberry, 
(the thimble-berry) but little or no fruit— we are 
disappointed in this fruit and do not think it 
worth cultivating, when compared with the noble 
Franconia. We noticed also, a fine lot of orna- 
mental trees, though young, yet very valuable; 
among them were, the elm, ash, maple, horse- 
chestnut, willow, &c, all of very good growth. 

We noticed upon one side of the mound, the 
proprietor had caused peas to be planted between 
the rows of treps. They shaded tho young 
trees, and checked their growth, aud thus they 
are nearly lost, for the check they received at 
first cannot be recovered. It is a very poor plan 
ever to plant vegetables or any thing between 
rows of fruit trees. It is certain they will cause 
great injury. Ground between fruit trees, should 
not be used for growing other crops. It cannot 
be done successfully. 

We regretted the absence of the proprietor 
himself, but we were shown through the grounds 
attentively by Mr. Dawson, who has charge, anil 
who seems familiar with his business and duties 
and displays an interest in the place, most com- 
mendable. It is of tho highest moment to all 
who have valuable grounds, that they should se- 
cure the services always of a proper person to 
take charge— one who cau and will, feel an inter- 
est in the success of the undertaking. Unc great 
drawback to success in gardening and horticul- 
ture in California, has been the need of those in 
whom such a prominent pro-requisite was to bo 
found ; tho mass of those engaged looking more 
to the amount received for services and the ptr" 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



Fruit. 



Currant, 



quisitcs they acquired, than to the success cf their 
employers, or the work of their hands. There 
have been a few most honorable exceptions to 
this rule, but in the mass of cases it is too true. 

The contiguity of the grounds of Mr. Sanford 
to the Hat marshes, presents a fine opportunity 
for experiments with the asparagus and the plum 
tree, both of these being favorably affected by the 
saline properties of these marshy groumls. 

We saw some very fine roses at Shell Mound, 
such as, Jean do liattailcs, Darorieun's, Eliza 
Sauvage, Triumph d' Luxembourge, &c. We also 
noticed many curious Indian relics, such as arrow- 
heads, stone chisels, drills, ornaments of bone, <£c, 
found at this mound. These were brought for 
us to look at, by the sprightly little daughter of 
Mr. Sandford. whose intelligence and amiable de- 
portment gave us much pleasure. Miss Anna led 
us to several fruit trees, pointing out the fruit by 
name, and promptly distinguishing the varieties 
of strawberries by shape, color, &c. She showed 
an intuitive lovo and knowledge of this science 
(horticulture and flouriculture) that was most in- 
teresting, naming flowers, their habits, &c. 

A large collection of domestic fowls, of all the 
varieties, numbering by hundreds, was seen with- 
in neat enclosures. We were gratified to note 
how promptly little Miss Anna, performed her 
pleasant task of calling the young chickens around 
her for their evening meal. They seemed to rec- 
ognize the hand that fed them, which is more 
than many humans do — they were grateful. 

We spent a few very pleasant hours at Shell 
Mound ; and, after a bounteous repast, prepared 
for us within the cottage by the lady and daugh- 
ter, greatly refreshed, we took our evening stroll 
from thence through Clinton, two and a half 
miles, to the city of oaks — Oakland. 

MONSIEUR BONNET'S GARDEN. 

It is gratifying to find new and increasing in- 
terest in horticulture. When at San Autonia we 
espied a neat plat of ground of about fifteen acres, 
a little distance from our route, and not wishing 
to pass it unseen, we .made for it, and was much 
pleased to find an old acquaintance and friend as 
the proprietor, Mons. Bonnet, formerly of the 
Mission Dolores. Although this garden was very 
dry, wo found a large collection of fruit and orna- 
mental trees under cultivation. Tho proprietor 
was busily engaged budding trees, when we call- 
ed, but promptly welcomed us, and showed us 
over his garden, pointing out many varieties of 
new and most valuable specimens. Wo noticed 
a largo invoice of Frcnfch fruit trees, jost received. 
Even at. this late season, Mons.. IS. was setting 
then out, and mulching them. Late as it is, we 
think with his care, they will be saved. 

The collection of pears trees in this garden, 
numbers 77; apples. 00; ornamental about 50. We 
6aw handsome specimens of fruit upon pear trees 
of the following kinds: Louis Bonne do Jersey, 
ISartlett, Vicar of Wakefield, English 1!":. 
tion, Ilcui-rc Did, &0. Of apples, very beautiful 
specimens of Winter Colville, Prince, Rcncitte M 
Canada, White Colville, Pippin, *c. For close 
application to business and constant industry and 
skill, Mons. 15. deserv es success, 

CAMrnELL's Smut Cleaner. — That there are 
no evils that cannot be remedied, is clearly dem- 
onstrated by tho invention to which we allude, 
for when the smut began to appear upon the 
grain crops of California, the farmer began to des- 
pair, and with reason too, tbr the labor of his 
hands seemed to be utterly lost Among the 
many inventions which have been pi 
there are many of a high character,) the one now 
noticed is worthy of high consideration, for it is 
tho application of the principles of Cm 
more than inechi »— plain and simple 

laws applied lo remove an o> il which a violation of 
the laws ol nature have produced. During our visit 
to the k«," wo had a pleasant call at the 

residence of Mr. Campbell, now Mayor o 
land, and learned from him the operation of his 
patent. We saw ibe " letters patent." just re- 
ceived from Washington l>. I"., bearing the Amer- 
ican eagle, thus granlii C. a protect; 



The Steamer Queen City, 
Leaving the Levee City with the thermometer 
at 100°, it is indeed rcfrcshihg to enter the spa- 
cious saloons of this magnificent floating palace. 
A fine breeze, a good company, a gentlemanly 
Commander, polite and courteous Purser, atten- 
tive and respectful Steward and waiters — these 
add very much to a trip down river. That tho 
Queen City has tho finest saloon and sets the 
finest table on the Sacramento, there can be but 
one opinion, and wo will say it, for it is true. 
Now wo do not say that all the other boats do 
not set good tables— oh no. They set enough 
and good enough, for anybody ; only tjie Queen 
City puts on tho extra touch. Just as we are 
writing, we see tho " Bill of Fare, of the Queen 
City, for to-day," and wo are disposed to put it 
down in black and white, and see who can beat it : 
ooooooooooooooooooooo 
o CITIZEN'S LINE. ° 

o STEAMER QUEEN CITY, 



CAPT. GEO. R. BARCLAY. 
TA1ILF. D'HOTE. 
FISH. 
Baked Cod, port wine enuce | Boiled Salmon. 

BOILED. 

Ham. I Tongue. 

Corned Beef. " n-ln-mode. 

Chicken, egg sauce. | Mutton, caner sauce. 

A-la-mode Beef, cold slough. 

ENTREES. 

Lamb Chops, breaded. I Calves Head, turtle style. 

Vol-au-Vfiuts, with oysters. Fricaeeed Chicken. 
Stewed Duck, with olives. | 

BOAST. 

Beef, Rough and Ready, I Pork. 
Pig. | Lamb. 

VEGETABLES. 

Varieties of the season. 

PUDDINGS. 

Plum, white sauce. 

CAKES. 



Sponpe. Leman. 

Cream. Ground. ' 

Jelly. ' Washington. 

Boston Cream. Little Plum. 

pies. 

| Puffs. 

Ice Milk. Coffee. 

PRESERVE?. 

Lemon. | Grape. 

O JELLIES. 

O Culves Foot. I Charlotte Russe. 

Blanc Mange. Prune Mnrange. 

Italian Cream. [ lliu i.luirne, and others. 

O WINES, LIO.HURS, it, 

q All kinds of Wines, Liquors, £tc, of superior brands, to 

order, 

The steamer Queen City leaves San Francisco every 
O Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, al 4 o'clock, nud leaves O 
O Sacramento every Sunday, Wednesday, and Friday. o 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

Well, reader, what do you think of it? Ex- 
cellent, you say. Well, it reads well, we say ; 
and here we suspend our judgment, for as tho 
'proof of the pudding is in tho eating." we are 
now determined to wait till we test that bill — if 
good, we will say aye ; if not, if upon trial we 
find anything wanting, then Mr. Steward yon 
must expect squalls, for wo are determined to call 
you to account. Here we lay down our pen till 
our judgment is satisfied — and our appetite too. 

***** Wall Steward, wo, art sati-fied 
— fully satisfied and content, and the first steamer 
wo havo the good fortune to own or be int. i 
in, we bespeak the aid of Steward Collins as the 
chief of caterers for a splendid set out. It is no 
disparagement to any line or any boat. I" 
thus flatteringly of tho manner in which the 
" Table d'Hote" of the Queen City was arranged 
— for the Steward hail the materials to work 
with, and he knows how to put them together. 
Every article named on the bill of fare was upon 
the table, with mony more; and we know wo 
ran be sustained by about one hundred passen- 
gers when we say, a finer tablo or one arra 
with more taste, or with more abundance, has 
never been upon a river boat. A beautiful satin 
ir was upon the centre of the table, bearing 
the name of the " Queen City." her commander, 
and the officers of the Company. 

We have said thus much of this popular boat, 
but not in any feeling of invidious compel 

feel sure those who know our feelings know 

ur old favorite line, the "low 

prefer 

the "lov pressure." and a better line of boats 

than the Steam Navigation C 

we speak of comma 

each and all- in may look 

in vain for their betters. Tho-c who have trav- 

ra as we have, and been as fully 

to oar 

raisin v. with 



ics, confections. Ac; ; ' and it is so handy to have 
it in tho house." as Mrs. Toodles says; and then 
Stewaril Collins does put up these matters fine — 
and tho napkins too, and ice water in a hot day, 
and iced milk (thermometer at 1001)— really, to 
look upon such a table, wo must give in. They 
will take the premium, for it is hard times; men 
are so constituted that they do love a good dinner. 

So we write down — 1st prizo to Queen City, 
Capt. Barclay, for best Dinners — not forgetting 
Steward Collins' taste and style, nor the ever 
courteous Purser W. Welsh, Esq., whose atten- 
tions give a zest to appetite. 

While wc thus speak of a matter which affects 
only the inner man, we cannot let this opportu- 
nity pass without referring to the great liberality 
of both lines of steamers on all public occasions. 
in the conveyance of public men, and under every 
circumstance manifesting a desire to advance the 
general good. The recent offer of aid to the 
State Agricultural Society is an evidence of pub- 
lic spirit worthy of all praise, and should be met 
by a corresponding liberality on the part of the 
public. Wc beg to call attention to it in another 
column. 

And now that we have finished most satisfac- 
torily our dinner, with many kind thanks to the 
Queen City's officers for their courtesy, wc leave 
the matter for the public to decide about the din- 
ner that is to be, at tho time of the State Fa in 



Public Spirit and Liberality. 

As public journalists we feel proud to record 
the following acts of generous public spirit and 
great liberality, manifested toward the State Ag- 
ricultural Society by the Steam Navigation fjo.i 
and the Citizens Lino of steamers, and by tin I :i] 
ifornia Stage Co., together with the Express Co.'s, 
as recorded below in the letter of the President of 
tho State Society. 

This generous act on the part of our public 
conveyances, should awaken all who are interest- 
ed, to great exertions to make the coming Fair 
what it can be made with due exertion ; it is also 
due the owners of these lines that such an intcr- 



A Pleasing Incident. — Nothing is more 
gratifying than tho exchange of those little cour- 
tesies which give life its sweetest taste., Among 
the passengers upon the Queen City, on Sunday 
last, were C. P. Duane, Esq., Chief Engineer of 
the San Francisco Fire Department, and C. E. 
Buckingham, Esq.; togother with several of the 
officers and other gentlemen from that city, who 
had remained for a few days as the guests of the 
Sacramento Department. On their leaving tfois 
city they were attended by a large number of the 
Sacramento members to the boat, and at parting 
were cheered on their way home. Wo like such 
courtesies, they unite men, they encourage men 
to do good, to aim to be good citizens, and to labor 
for the public weal. As an evidence of this we 
see the approbation bestowed upon the " Confi- 
dence men," of Sacramento city, and the " Yuba 
men," of Marysville, who were the guests at San 
Francisco. These courtesies and reciprocal at- 
tentions awaken the higher feelings of man and 
bid him resolve to do — to do well ; and we hope 
there will ever be exhibited among all the mem- 
bers of the fire department of the Pacific coast, a 
high, noble and generous strife to excel in acts of 
courtesy, courage and noble deeds. Never may 
we sec aught like what has been seen in many of 
our Eastern cities. We believe we can speak 
safely upon this point; for our firemen have al- 
ways courted the good will and friendship of each 
other. The recent noble efforts of tho Sacra- 
mento fire companies at the fires on K and on I 
streets, give a proof that they are the protectors 
and safeguards of our city : a band of as noble, 
daring and brave man ae onn be found the world 
over ; and our prayer is that they may be suc- 
cessful in all their efforts against our common 
enemy, and escape from danger themselves. 



English Potatoes. — Judge Musgravo was in 
New York a few days since, when a cargo of 
potatoes was landed, just from Liverpool. He 
bought a barrel for $10, for seed. Tho Judge's 
; irm will, we hope, yield him some big po- 
tatoes, and many in a hill next fall. We are 
promised a taste of them. Send them by express, 



I Judge !— 1 1. Country farmer. 
est for this Fair should be awakened, that the in- , B , _ , ,, ,,., ,,, ,. 

Potatoes from England! Who would believe 

that such an event could have ever occurred 



crease of travel to the exhibition shall prove that 
such acts of liberality will be appreciated by a 
discerning community. 

As the Steamboat Companies have most gener- 
ously Offered M convoy persons necessarily requir- 
ed to go forward with stock and produce, there 
cannot now be any excuse for those who ha\c 
valuable stock, daii 

to send, as the greatest expense of such prepara- 
tions will now be reduced. Every requisite pre- 
paration will be made for the exhibition of stock 
of all kinds. Suitable yards, buildings, ami bod, 
for stock will be prepared. Halls will also be fit- 
ted up for exhibiting the manufactures, works of 
art, mechanical ingenuity, — spcoimena of homi 
Industry — fruits, Bowers. 

and everything that contributors may send for- 
ward for tie- Pair .-Ic.can 
r warded now at any time by any of Ihese 
anres. to the 'State Society Room 
and they will be received and prepared for 
exhibition. 

It is earnestly hoped a universal interest will 

jbc manifested lo make the approaching Fair not 

only publicly useful to the State, but that for 

days it will be a place of happy resort of all who 

look to the State's perpetuity. 

FREE TRANSPORTATION TO THE STATE FAIR. 

11. nittce of the California 

State Agricultural Society, take pleasure in an- 



among our down casters. A few years since the 
market was glutted with potatoes, at twenty-fivo 
cents per bushel, anil now English gardeners 
1 in "r New York and bring a cargo 
of potatoes, and receive only ten dollars per bar- 

Californla like to get such a price ? Whoever 
wishes to ship potatoes to New York can do so 
with safety hv means of the Patent Kiln Dryer 
just invented and now offered in this State. — En, 

Pnoi.iric Sheep. — In our rambles over San 
Pablo Valley we met with a Mr. Shipley, who 
staled lo us that recently, of an afternoon, calling 
upon s friend who was shearing sheep, he gavo a 
helping hand, and that between 4 p. M. and sun- 
beared eleven sheep, with heavy fleeces, 
among the flock were two ewes that bad Tire 
lambs each. They were of tho Flat Tailed 
A-iatic species, the variety that was introduced 
into Napa Valley some time since by Capt. Ritchie. 
Mr. S. informed us that this species is improving, 
snd that a pair of this flock was recently sold 
il I also informed us that, re-riiy, one 
o( the tails of -. ould weigh ten pounds. 

A noble specimen of these sheep will be on ex- 
hibition at the State Fair 

ir of the Grape Vine in Foreign 

. tries. — By all the information received 
those interred, throughou- ^^ m ^ ^ ^^ ^ dimn9 mln _ 

State, that the California Stca , jn fnnnCT Jt)Ln h „ lgam lppemd ra 

Steamers, California ^ [-in ln<1 p or , ugi i , n d' eTe u assume* s more 

and the Pacific Expre-- a ^^ g^,, old ?iw) pmm few , 

i ineyarda. It should not 
, rice,o: be fonotten bv vine grower - 



sueh article* ss may be doijned for exhibition, 
lisaj stock and persons necessarily aceompa- 
'rre same. 



to his right of invention, or rather 

it should be called. Mr Campbell will visi .rave old pioneer Senator the s 

e im|>ortan lC l, xna S1L 

f his patent, and w e our farm 

ers mav.thn 



I uion ti. 









all nii|iiui;e> arc emoved 

I 



i 
ing aa we walke 



rough the bclds. 



teltpt. and the pel II 

such commanders, mates, pursers, 

. iine cannot be *x- 

I we do not say but that this line 

tie high prea- 

ike to see the trial; none cast 

We have no objection to being 

one of the judges, as we sre kt 

' of he mr manufactures. We believe one of the 

i causes ol the success of our crack high pressure 

I boats in their style of dinner- arises from the 

' (act that they prepare all oo board, pastries. ;el- 



from i n past years in many of the 

oldest and t» 

feared that the vine will die out; and we bar* 

urged again and again, attention to an increase of 
. of like liberality from our citizens, , the cultivation of the Vino every year in Cslifor- 

, in any portion of the State, will tend to render 

I the coming State Fair of crester interest 
1 make it worthy of the State and her people. 



ticxAxnm, J«rr se 



i ing work, and Bod much of tnteraat reli I 

-tory of this famed city. Toe a*s- 
' grsvings reflect great credit apon Mess r s . Barber 
& Baker the artists and publisher*. For 
•dory of Soeraoae-. 
,rngr> . d torn liar for**. 

I We trust th* work will b* d i 
they re worded for their '.i^or snd oust id] 



Plowing cr GasaaaorrE** in OAit.Asin.-r 
' In ad i masse* of these insects that 

I have floated across 10 Oak lend opoa the water, 
I we found at the ranch of Mr. Wilson, op the Son 

yomasv 
inaect torned ap hv th 



.-' : I 
load co pto wo ly *r 

'•eswfally wa nn ed his careen. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



jgjrrtaltaral §t$$ximmt 



The Strawberry. 

A gentleman of my acquaintance, with his 
wife, after having spent the winter in New Or- 
leans, and having been feasting on strawberries 
two or three weeks, left for the North, and passed 
up the Mississippi, and the Ohio to Cincinnati, 
eating freely of this delicious fruit, all the way. 
He stopped at the queen city a few days, aiid 
came on to Boston. Here he found it just com- 
ing into the market. What can be more refresh- 
ing or more grateful to the traveler, on such a 
journey, or contribute more to make him forget 
the fatigues and annoyances attendant upon it, 
than the cooling, fragrant, healthy strawberry. 
Perhaps there is no fruit so extensively found 
over the surface of the globe, as this. It is found 
from Hudson's Bay to Terra del Fuego. It creeps 
from the lowest valleys up the sides of the most 
rugged mountains to their very summits. It 
winds its way along the water courses, sprinkling 
their banks with pearly' flowers and scarlet fruit. 
It creeps over the meadows and prairies, checker- 
ing their surface with its beautiful foliage and fair 
flowers. In the old world it extends from Kanis- 
chatka to Spain, and upon the declivities of the 
Himalayas and the Alps, it opens its modest flow- 
ers along the edge of the melting snows. It re- 
tains its vitality under drifts of snow a hundred 
feet deep, in the mountain gorges, and resists the 
cold which splits the gnarled oak and the solid 
rock. From the joints of its runners, roots shoot 
into the earth, Its tiny seeds germinate in the 
soil upon which they fall. The birds scatter them 
through the forests, and carry them to islands of 
the sea. The breezes, freighted with the downy 
pollen of the male plants, deposit it upon the vis- 
cous summits of the buds of the female flowers, 
quickening them into new life and causing them 
to swell into juicy and delicious morsels. They 
need no hand of mim to plant them, for nature, 
everywhere present, ever active, and ever watch- 
ful over her progeny, has provided better and 
surer means for their propagation. When Down- 
ing said that " the strawberry properly belongs 
to the cold climate," he had not thought of its 
wonderful power of adapting itself to various cli- 
mates and soils and situations. What markets 
are better supplied with this fruit than Baltimore, 
Charleston and New Orleans? Where does it 
thrive more vigorously than on the steppes of 
Mexico? Indeed in the sunny south, where it 
meets with a sufficient supply of moisture either 
in the shape of dew or rain, or in the soil upon 
the borders of streams, it continues to yield suc- 
cessive crops of berries, four six and even eight 
months in the yeai. While in the north, with 
the best cultivation, it yields its fruit scarcely as 
many weeks. 

The cultivator should understand that there 
are three kinds of plants, the male, the female 
and the hermaphrodite, or double-sexed. The 
male plants are usually larger and stronger than 
me lernaie. Thi.ii fitrtrer stems .»je lunger, and 
their flowers larger and more showy. But the 
male or staminate flowersncver bear fruit. Their 
office is to furnish pollen, which is a light feathery 
powder, which falls upon the female or pistillate 
flowers. The buds or unopened calyxes of these 
latter flowers are covered with a gummy or ad- 
hesive substance which retains the pollen which 
falls upon them, and thus secures the impregna- 
tion of the flower. The hermaphrodite plants can 
impregnate their own flowers, and those of other 
pistillate plants. In setting a strawberry bed 
these facts should not be forgotten, but plants of, 
both sexes should be duly interspersed through- 
out the bed, One male plant is found sufficient 
for six or seven female plants, and they should be 
intermixed in about that proportion. The her- 
maphrodite often produces good fruit, but is not 
thought so sure a bearer, as the true pistillate. 
The character of the fruit seems to depend on the 
female plants. For instance, if the pistillate 
plants of Hovey's seedling are impregnated by 
the pollen of the early scarlet, the fruit is appar- 
ently the same in size and color and flavor, as 
though it had been impregnated by pollen from 
the staminate plant of its own variety. Hence the 
male plants of the early scarlet which is a strong 
grower and continuous bloomer, are preferred by 
some cultivators, for thfs purpose. A sandy 
.loam, plowed deeply, and made rich with vege- 
table manures, will yield the finest and largest 
quantity of fruit. A heavier soil, and animal 
manure will yield large vines and more foliage. 
Meadow mud, decayed leaves, sawdust, hay or 
straw cut fine and spread freely over the ground 
in the autumn, after the runners have been cut 
off with the hoe or spade, are the best manures 
for the strawberry, and at the same time answer 
for mulching, by which the roots are protected 
from the scalding sun, and the fruit kept clean. 
The secret by which the plants are kept in con- 
tinuous bearing for many weeks, appears to be 
the daily use of the watering pot garden engine. 
The kind of manure referred to, retains the water, 
and keeps the soil constantly moist. Sifting 
wood ashes over the vines early in the spring, 
applying it freely to the soil, will amply repay 
the labor and expense. — R., in tlte Country 
Journal. 

We publish the above interesting article upon 
the Strawberry, containing many good ideas and 
scientific truths correctly stated ; and, if practi- 
cally applied, would secure to our growers a bct- 
>rd for their labors. The writer found 
in this delicious fruit, and felt it a priv- 
njoy it so long a season — traveling from 
o North, and keeping all the time in the 
seasons of this fruit. Had he but traveled a little 



farther and visited California, he would have been 
gratified with this fruit from May to November, 
and from the same plantation and vines, too. 
Thus much can we say for California : no portion 
of the world can surpass us, no, nor equal us in 
the quantity, quality or size that can be raised 
upon a single acre. We challenge the world to a 
contest. If the correspondent of the, Country 
Journal will come to us we will prove it. 



North Carolina State Agricultural Fair. 

By the Carolina Cultivator, we find that great 
preparations are making for the State Fair which 
is to be holden at Raleigh, N. C, on the 16th 
17th, 18th and 19th, of October next. The list 
of premiums, embrace five branches or depart 
ments, as follows: 

The first includes every discription of animals 
yet domesticated. Tho second, grains, fruits, 
vegetables, dairies, preserved meats of all kinds, 
fish, all manufactured foods of every name and 
nature, classed under the head of " food and condi 
ments," ( i-here is the Wide West?) except "pep 
per and salt." The third, the mechanic arts 
through all their wide extent, embracing every 
branch of domestic manufactures, agricultural 
implements, cabinet work, shoes, hats, clothing, 
&c. The fourth, manufactures of woolen, linen, 
and cotton, or all mill fabrics. Tho fifth, experi- 
mental farming, such as plowing, various modes 
of cultivation of the soil, manures, food for stock, 
value of manures, essays upon improving soils, 
mineral substances, collections of minerals, <xe. 
household fabrics of every kind. 

To this very large and extensive list, presenting 
as it does the preparatory work for a Grand Indus- 
trial Exhibition of the State, we find connected a 
list of rules and regulations so thorough and com 
plctc that we publish them entire, that they may 
serve as assistance to all the counties of our State 
in their preparatory work for the guidance of 
committees in each department. However numer 
ous these rules, they are of the utmost importance 
to the conducting of such public enterprises, and 
when duly observed, the whole machinery moves 
on as smoothly and regularly as the chronometer ; 
but when disregarded, "confusion worse con 
founded," is the inevitable result: 

RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE FAIR. 

I. All members of the N. C. State Agricultural 
Society, will be furnished with a badge of mem- 
bership, upon payment of the annual tax of $3, 
and will be required to wear the same during the 
Fair. This badge will admit the ladies of his 
family and children under fifteen years of age, 

Z. Members of the Society and their families 
alone will be admitted on Tuesday, the day for 
examination and awardsby thejudges. All com-, 
petitors are expected to be present. The public 
will be admitted on and after Wednesday, at 10 
o'clock. Price of admission, 25 cents. Children 
and servants, 12 1-2 cents. Clergymen, Editors, 
and Pupils of charitable Institutions, admitted 
flee. 

3. Agricultural Societies and Institutions from 
other States, are invited to send Delegates. Such 
Delegates will be presented with a complimentary 
card. 

4. All Exhibitors who intend to compete for 
the Premiums of the Society, must become mem- 
bers of the same, and have their articles on the 
ground and entered at the Secretary's Office, in 
Reception Hall, at or before 5 o'clock on Monday 
evening, Oct. 15th, without fail, so that they may- 
be arranged in their respective departments, and 
in readiness for examination by the Judges on 
Tuesday morning at 10 o'clock. 

5. The regulations of the Society must be 
strictly observed by exhibitors, otherwise the 
Society will not be responsible for the omission 
of any article or animal not entered under its rules. 

6. No article or animal entered for a premium, 
can be removed or taken away before the close of 
the Exhibition. No premium will be paid on 
articles or animals removed in violation of this 
rule. 

7. All articles and animals entered for exhibi- 
tion, must have cards attached, with the number 
as entered at tho Secretary's Office; and exhibit- 
ors in all cases must obtain their cards previous 
to placing their articles or animals on the Fair 
grounds. 

8. Those who wish to offer animals or articles 
for sale during the Fair, must notify the Secretary 
of such intention at the time of entry. 

9. The Executive Committee will use every 
precaution in their power, for the safe preservation 
of all articles and stock on exhibition, and will 
be responsible only for loss or damage that may 
occur during the Fair. Exhibitors must give at- 
tention to their articles or animals during the 
Fair, and at the close of the Exhibition, attend to 
their removal. 

10. The Awarding Committees or Judges, se- 
lected for the next Fair, are earnestly requested 
to report themselves to the Chairman of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee at Reception Hall, upon the 
grounds of the Society, on Tuesday morning the 
16th day of October, 1855. 

II. In no case can the Judges award special or 
discretionary premiums; but will commend to 
the Executive Committee any articles in their 
class which they may deem worthy of special 
notice and for which a premium has not been 
offered. 



12. The Judges on animals, will have regard to I 
the symmetry, early maturing, thorough breed- 
ing, and characteristics of the breeds which they 
judge. They will make proper allowances for the 
age, feeding and condition of the animals, espec- 
ially in the breeding classes, and will not give 
encouragement to over-fed animals. 

13. No stock of inferior quality, will be admit- 
ted within the grounds ; a committee will be ap- 
pointed to rule out all below a medium grade. 

14. Animals to whom premiums have been 
awarded, must be paraded around the track, that 
visitors may see the prize animals. 

15. No person will lie allowed to interfere with 
the Judges during their adjudications. 

16. The several Superintending Committees 
will give particular direction to all articles in 
their departments, and see that all are arranged 
in the best order possible to lessen and facilitate 
the labors of the Judges in their examination. 

17. The Superintendents will attend each set 
of Judges in their respective departments and 
point out the different articles or animals to bo 
examined, will attach prize cards to the articles, 
offiags to the successful animals after the Judges' 
reports have been made up and delivered to the 
Chainnan of the Executive Committee. 

18. The Judges will withhold premiums on 
animals or articles in their opinion not worthy ; 
though there be no competition. 

19. Animal having received premiums of the 
Society at previous exhibitions, will not be allow- 
ed to compete for prizes again in the same class. 

20. Stock brought to the Fair for sale, will 
have an enclosed lot adjoining the Fair grounds 
assigned them, with water convenient, where they 
can be kept at the expense of the owner. 

21. Articles manufactured in the State, when 
brought in competition with foreign articles, will 
take precedence, other things being equal, and the 
foreign article be entitled to a second premium 

22. No vehioles or horsemen, will be allowed 
entrance on the Fair grounds, except the private 
carriage or horses of members, through the pri 
vate gate. 

23. The Chief Marshal, with efficient aids, will 
be in attendance during the hours of exhibition 
to keep proper order. 

24. No exhibitor will be permitted to enter 
more than one animal in each of the sub-classes. 

25. Animals, when duly entered, are well pro- 
vided for by the Society, without charge to owner, 
and cannot be removed from the grounds, except 
by permission of the Executive Committee. 

26. All machines, implements, or other pro- 
ducts of mechanical art, must be exhibited by 
their respective makers, or inventors, or improv- 
ers, or their assignors, to, or for whom, only pre- 
miums for such articles will be awarded. 

27. Every machine or implement offered for a 
premium, must be so designated or described, as 
will serve to identify it to future purchasers, and 
also the selling price of the article must bo stated 
and marked on the labels and in the published 
reports of premium articles. 

28. Efficiency, cheapness, and durability, will 
be regarded as chief excellencies in every machine 
or implement. 

29. The Chief Marshal will call the Judges at 
10 o'clock on Tuesday morning — assemble them 
at his tent on tho grounds— furnish them with 
the printed list of premiums, also with blank 
books in which to register their awards, and have 
the Judges conducted by the Assistant Marshals, 
to thoir respective departments of the Exhibition. 

30. The Marshal and his Aids, shall give par- 
ticular attention to the proper arrangement of all 
articles exhibited, in their respective departments; 
point out the articles or animals, to the Judges, 
and otherwise facilitate the examination by the 
Judges. 

31. The track will be open for the trial of har- 
ness and saddle horses, every day during the Fair. 

32. A band of music will be in attendance each 
day, during the hours of exhibition. 

33. An efficient police will take charge of the 
grounds during the night. 

The Grasshopper. 

Not having had room for all we desired to 
publish on this subject last week, we give below 
some additional extracts. Wo would call especial 
attention to the article of "Agricola" in this 
week's issue, relative to this destructive insect. 
It is worthy an attentive perusal. We are more 
and more convinced our theory is correct respect- 
ing shade and moisture, deep plowing and con- 
stant cultivation ; and we are also gratified to 
know from so experienced a mind as Agricola 
that our position is based upon scientific truth. 

In speaking of the brown locust, " Goldsmith's 
Animated Nature" says: 

" The shield that covers tho back is greenish, 
and the upper side of the body brown, spotted 
with black, and the under side purple. The up- 
per wings are brown, with small dusky spots, 
with one larger at the tips. The under wings are 
more transparent and of a light brown, tinctured 
with green ; but there is a dark cloud of spots 
near the tips. This is that insect that has threat- 
ened us often with its visitations, and that is so 
truly terrible in the countries wheic it is bred. 
There is no animal in the creation that multi- 
plies so fast as these, if the sun be warm and the 
soil in which their eggs are deposited be dry. 
Tho scripture, which was written in a country 
where the locust made a distinguished feature in 
the picture of nature, has given us several very 
striking images of this animal's numbers and ra- 
pacity. It compares an army, where the numbers 
aro almost infinite, to a swarm of locusts; it des- 
cribes them as arising out of the earth where they 



are produced, as pursuing a settled march to des- 
troy the fruits of the earth and co-operate with 
Divine indignation. 

In the year 1690, a cloud of locusts was, seen 
to enter Russia in three different places, and from 
thence to spread themselves ovev Poland and 
Lithuania, in such astonishing multitudes, that 
the air was darkened and the earth covered with 
their numbers. In some places they were seen 
lying dcad y heaped upon each other four feet 
deep. In others they covered the surface like a 
black cloth ; the trees bent beneath their weight, 
and the damage the country sustained exceeded 
computation. In Barbary their numbers are for- 
midable and their visits are frequent. In the 
year 1724, Dr. Shaw was a witness in that coun- 
try of their devastation. Their first appearance 
was about the latter end of March, when the wind 
had been southerly for some time. In the begin- 
ning of April their numbers were so vastly in- 
creased, that in the heat of the day they formed 
themselves into large swarms which appeared 
like clouds, and darkened the sun. 

In the middle of May they began to disappear, 
retiring into the plains to deposit their eggs. In 
the next month, being June, the young brood 
began to make their appearanoe, forming many 
compact bodies of several hundred yards square, 
which afterwards marches forward, climbing the 
trees, walks and houses, eating everything that 
was green in their way. The inhabitants, to slop 
their progrees, laid trenches all over their fields 
and gardens, filling them with water. Some 
placed large quantities of heath, stubble and such 
like combustible matter in rows, and set them on 
fire, on the approach of the locusts. But all this 
was to no purpose, for the trenches were quickly 
filled up and the fires put out by the vast num- 
ber of swarms that succeeded each other. A day 
or two after one of these was in motion, others 
that were just hatched came to glean after them, 
gnawing i off the young branches and the very 
bark of the trees. Having lived'nearly a month 
in this manner, they arrived at their full growth 
and threw off their worm-like state by casting 
their skins. To prepare themselves for this 
change they fixed their hinder feet to some bush, 
or twig, or corner of a stone, when immediately 
by an undulating motion used on this occasion, 
their heads would appear and soon after the rest 
of their bodies. The whole transformation was 
performed in seven or eight minutes time, after 
which they were a little while in a languishing 
condition ; but as soon as the sun and air had 
hardened their wings and dried up the moisture 
that remained after casting of their sloughs, they 
returned again to their former greediness with an 
addition both of strength and agility. But they 
did not continue long iu this state before they 
were entirely dispersed. After laying their eggs 
and directing their course northward, they pro- 
bably perished in the sea. It is said that the 
holes these animals make to deposit their eggs 
in are four feet deep in the ground. The eggs are 
about four score in number, of the size of caraway 
comfits, and bundled up together in clusters." 

In the American Encyclopedia, vre find the fol- 
lowing curious facts: 

" There is a locust in Tonquin, about the big- 
ness of the top of a man's linger, and as long as the 
first joint. It breeds in the earth in low grounds, 
and in the months of January and February, 
which is the season for taking them. They issue 
from the earth in vast swarms. At first they can 
hardiy fly, so that they often fall into the rivers 
in great numbers ; however, the natives in these 
months watch the rivers, and take them up in 
multitudes in small nets. They cither eat them 
fresh broiled on the coals, or pickle them for 
keeping. They are considered as a great delicacy 
in that part of the world, as well by the rich as 
the poor. In the countries where they arc eaten, 
they aro regularly brought to market and sold, as 
larks or quails in Europe. They must have been 
a common food with the Jews, as Moses, in tho 
Book of Leviticus, permits them to cat four dif- 
ferent kinds of this animal, which ho takes care 
to specify. This dish, however, has not yet mado 
its way into the kitchens of the luxurious in Eu- 
rope, and though we may admire the delicacies 
of the East, we aro as yet happily deprived of the 
power of imitation," 

J. M. Horner, Esq., in a communication to 
the San Francisco Chronicle, suggests the follow- 
ing in relation to the grasshopper visitation : 

I. Grasshoppers are not produced on cultivated 
land. 

II. I have not yet ascertained whether they 
have any instinctive faculty to guide them to food, 
if the same be at a distance. On the contrary, 
they float with the wind, If there be no wind, 
they will spring into the air and move perhaps a 
few rods ahead; next, they will spring to the 
right ; then, back ; then, to the left ; and so on. 
Throughout their active hours, they will move to 
every point of the compass, and perhaps stop at 
night within a few feet of their birth-place. 

III. They move upon the wing only a few hours 
each day; and during those hours they cat noth- 
ing. After they become still, they commit their 
depredations. 

IV. They seldom do any damage after they 
are full grown. In fact they cat only during a 
few days. 

Remedies: — 1st. Tho best practical method 
to protect one's crop is, to cultivate all the adjoin- 
ing land with grain, or other crops, sufficiently 
early, iu order that it may mature before tho 
grasshoppers make their appearance. This alone, 
will lessen the number of insects, an 1 will leave 
them at a distance from tho green crops. 

2d. On the windward side of tho crops, or. if 
there be no windward side, then ou all sides, sow 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 



13 



a atrip of late grain, or something else, expressly 
for the grasshoppers. Sow in May. and in such 
a way that it will be sure to grow after the grass- 
hoppers hare done with it. It will do for late 
pasture. 

3d. Small gardens have been protected by driv- 
ing the grasshoppers out every evening about the 
times they commence to cat. J his can be done 
by two boys taking hold of the ends of a long 
rope and dragging it over the garden, thereby 
causing the inserts to hop before it. 

I do not say that the above are the best plans 
of protection, but they aro the most effective 
which 1 have yet seen tried. Many other items 
in relation to this matter, could bo mentioned ; 
but I have been always objected to on account of 
the length of my newspaper articles, 1 will there- 
fore conclude here. 



^ItSfClllUlll. 



(For the California Farraer.l 
J.IXES ADDRESSED TO ROVING JACK. 

Why did you roam 
So Tar from homo f 
Wliy spend tliy precious hours 
In California's enchanted bowers 
Why port from friends you loved of old. 
To gather A pile of wasting gold I 
Then come back, come bock. 
Poor Roving Jack. 

Have you gone from home, 
To wander alone ? 
A father's counsel goes with thee; 
A mother's prayer is over the thee ; 
And with a tear in her gentle eye, 
She often sighs you'll come by-nnd-by. 
Then eume hack, come back, 
Poor Roving Jack. 

By your musings I see 
You're light-hearted and free : 
Does not memory, faithtul and true, 
Bring home and loved ones to view, 
And the zeyhyr of a sunny clime. 
Whisper thee of " Auld Lang Syne." 
Then come back, come hack, 
Poor Roving Jack. 



LIFE. 

DV A PUPII, AT BENICIA SEUINABr. 

And what is lifet Oh 1 know ye not J 
'Tis like the sparkling waters gay, 

When on the rocks they freely dash, 
Upon a bright and sunny day. 

And o'er Uie waters' dashing loam 
Doth sport a boat so light and gay, 

It qutveri on the waters dark, 

And o'er it tlics the whitening spray. 

Before it roars a cnteract : 
It hovers llghty on its brink — 

Oh 1 can so fair, so frail a thing — 
Oh 1 can it thus in darkness sink I 

A moment thus it stands transfixed, 
And then the waters flying o'er, 

That which was once so purr and foir, 
Is lost amid the deafening roar. 

Anil such is life I our bark so frail, 
Is sporting o'er life's mighty sea; 

But soon it gains the waters' brink, 
And sinks into cterntiy. 



THE WOIUvS OP <iOD. 

»V A PUPIL AT BENICIA SEWINAHT. 

Tis sunset hour: behind the western hills 

Is rinsing ' ' ' of day ; 

His lost gleam falling on the placid rtlll — 
To other realms lie'? wending Inst his woy. 

'Tis evening hour : the crescent moon is here ; 
Her beams of love are tailing from I 1 

While twtakUiia stars around her throno appear 

Like gumnl el mercy from Hod's throne OD high. 

'Tis morning hour : Uie violet wakes from its sleep , 

It teems an smb.'s, from the realm, el 

And when from i 

It shows God's mercy and his bouudlesj love. 



Grocnds auca't a Chinese Temple. — The 

following description of a Chinese garden s 
from the pen of Cnpt. Granville Loch. The tem- 
ple is at Wu-sung, near Shanghai : 

"In the center of a serpentine sheet of water, 
there is a rocky Island, and on it a large temple. 
of two stories, fitted up for the accommodation of 
the wealthy public. Pillars , 
port the roof; fretted groups i 
till up the narrow spaces; while moveable lattice 
blinds screen the occupants from the warmth of 
the noonday sun. Nothing can surpass the 
beauty and truth to naturc'of the most minutely 
carved Bowers and insects prodigally scattered 
over every screen and cornice. This is tl 
tral and largest temple. A numWr of otlu 

me form are 
perched upon the conn 
cipices, and npon odd little is 
fanciful wooden bi 

of the 
serpentine waters, so that each sequestered spat 
can be visited in turn. At a earsain pa»age of 
ran the main tern; 

he Urge masses of 
■ 

- 

; must have been 

seoms ol the trees 
most assiduous SM* Bad patient MMftaj A 



small branch of a forest tree is deprived of a ring 
of bark, and the bare placo covered round with 
prepared unctuous earth ; this is kopt moist, and 
when the radicals have pushed into the loam, tho 
branch is separated from the tree and planted in 
a trough or porcelain flower pot. The pot is then 
filled with bog earth, manure and clay, and water 
is applied according to the necessity of the plant. 
The branches are repressed by cutting and burn- 
ing, and bent into shapes resembling an old forest 
tree ; and even to the roughness of the bark and 
hollow knots of pruned and decayed branches, 
they are complete in resemblance. The rough- 
ness is produced by ants, attracted by smearing 
the bark with sweet substances. 

Torturous pathways lead to the top of the arti- 
ficial mountain, each turning formed with studied 
art to surprise and charm, by offering at every 
point fresh views and objects. Flowcrsand creep- 
ers sprout out from crevices; trees hang over the 
jutting crags; small pravilions, crested with the 
white stork, their emblem of purity, are seen from 
almost every vista, while grottoes and rocky re- 
cesses, shady bowers and labyrinths, are placed 
to trap the unwary, each with an appropriate 
motto, one inviting the wanderer to repose, an- 
other offering quiet and seclusion to the contem- 
plative philosopher." 

A Huge Pile of Serpents'. — In the Savan- 
nas of Izacubo, Guiana, I saw the most wonderful 
and terrible spectacle that can be seen ; and al- 
though it be not uncommon to the natives, no 
traveler has ever mentioned it. We were ten men 
on horseback, two of whom took the lead, in order 
to sound the passage, while I preferred to skirt 
the great forest. One of the men who formed 
the vanguard, returned at full gallop, and called 
to me — " Here, sir, come and see the serpents in 
a pile." He pointed to something elevated in the 
middle of the savanna or swamp, which appeared 
like a bundle of arms. One of my company said, 
"This is certainly one of the assemblies of serpents 
which heap themselves on each other after a vio- 
lent tempest. I have heard of these, but never 
saw any ; let us proceed cautiously, and not go 
too near them." When we were within twenty 
paces, the terror of our horses prevented our ap- 
proaching nearer, to which none of us were in- 
clined. On a sudden, the pyramid mass became 
agitated; a horrid hissing issued from it, thous- 
ands of serpents rolled spirally on each other, and 
shot forth out of the circle, their envenomed darts 
and (iery eyes to us. I own I was the first to 
draw back, but when I saw this formidable pha- 
lanx remain at its post, and appear to be more 
disposed to defend itself than attack us, I rode 
around in order to view its order of battle, which 
faced the enemy on every side. I then thought 
what could be design of this assemblage ; and I 
concluded that this species of serpent dreaded 
some colossal enemy, which might be the great 
serpent or caiman, and they rc-unite then- 
after seeing him, so as to resist tho enemy in a 
mass. — Union Hit m buhlt. 



At a time like the present, when the contrac- 
tion of national di ining general, the 
following statement 61 the debts by the principal 
States in the world, corrected up to a late period, 
is of some interest. It is contained in Ay re's edi- 
tion of" Fenn on the English and Foreign Funds." 
recently issued : — Austria, amount of debt. £211,- 

>0; Baden, ft Bavaria, XI 1.117.- 

Belgium, £.% Bolivia, £521 

Brasil, £12,1 

Chili, £1,784,000 ; Columbia, f 
£311,230; Denmark, El 
000; England,£77 

Granada, (New,) t 

nburg, £4,- 

0; Hanovei 
451.000; India, (I 

• 
1 22 ' » 
£17,152,000; Kus linia, 

I States of 
America, (Federal.) £1 Venezuela, 

Wurtemburg, £1,850,000; grand 
total. £1,736^29,550. 

Abolition or the Ni tamp Dcty 

in Englan 

SSI s. that in consequence o( the Govprnm. ■ 
on the newspaper stamp que- .-been 

ill, in future. 
re a cheap ; 
mav have it cheapened to the extent of the \ 
ally at* u the priv- 

to whom the postal privilege is essential, 
will find the alteration of the lew has produced 
iiige. and that almost the only 
of the measure is the much-needed disap- 
pearance of a great scandal — a law which it eras 

and which 
. defiance in 

as the to issue regularly 

,.ber at the old price of a single one, 
xpence (twelve cents.) 



-The Washington 



habits' Df-gartnunt 



[For the California rarmer.] 
Rural Lays— No, 4. 

ORDER OF BREAKFAST. 
Wnnia U tho farming man who cannot tell 
The pleasant jingling of the breakfast bell I 
If learned mon, in lofty verse, have told 
How "drowsy tinklings lull the distant fold;" 
And how en rapt, at summer evening's aloso, 
We love to liston to the bells on cows : 
'Tis very well for such who lie n-bed 
Till nearly noon, to dream of drowsy-head, 
And talk as if, like them, the very belli 
Were fit to send asleep, and nothing else. 
When John proclaims to us the welcome hour, 
How briskly all our lads around him pour I 
All thronging in, as hurriedly and fast, 
Ab if they played nt " Satnn take the last I" 
My Uncle, smart end ready with the rest, 
Assumes the place and rank which suits him best 
A monarch he, whoso military law 
And dread behests the whole of us o'er-awe ; 
No rule but this, which by himself was made: — 
" An order given muBt strictly be obeyed." 
But still as good a soul, and soft, and kind, 
As rankest democrat would wish to find. 
So he presides, I seated at his right, 
While John and Dinah, cleanly washed and bright, 
Wait on our wants, and soeeiily re-till 
The empty ten-cupB, or, with pliant will, 
Hand up and down, and round, each several plate, 
With pomp peculiar unto all who wait 
Our fifteen farming lads, in separate rows, 
With I, and Uncle, generally compose 
The whole at board ; but, when some city friend 
Comes here, with us e holiday to spend ; 
Or country farmer, early on the way, 
To catch my uncle on o market day, 
Comes round to Martinfield (our homestead's name), 
They sit with us, and with the boys the same ; 
Only the strangers always we exalt, 
To sit between my uncle and the salt.* 

Bbttt Mabtim. 

* [Betty and her uncle, it appears, follow the cestoms of the 
olden time. The privtlego of sitting above the salt was, among 
our simple forefathers in England, a mark of deference and 
distinction due to gentility and rank. In Scotland, the dii ma- 
jorum gentium occupied a raised dais, about a foot higher than 
the rest of the company.— En.] 



Home Pleasures — Duty of Mothers. 

It should bo the welcome privilege and dear 
delight of every mother, to niako home the hap- 
piest resting place, and the centre of joyousness. 
to the youthful hearts entrusted to her keeping. 
It should be her studied effort to win anil secure 
their confidence and ardent affection, that they 
may feel there is no heaven or refuge and consola- 
tion in their childhood's sorrow like unto a moth- 
er's sympathizing breast — no heart that partici- 
pates so fully in the joys of their gladsome hours 
— and no spot that beams so bright as that beside 
the domestic hearth, guarded by her watchfulness 
and love, 

The mothor should cheerfully Interest herself 
in the sports and amusements of her children, and 
lend her aid in aught that contributes to their 
happiness and innocent entertainment, as far as 
is consistent with her cares and duties. — and 
should mako any sacrifice or denial on her own 
|»rt, rather than that they should feel uncarcd 
for, unloved, or a burden on her time and atten- 
tion. They should be made to realize that they 
are cherished within her "heart of hearts," and 
that their comfort and well-being, arc the objects 
of her daily solicitude, the main-spring of all her 

little or no 

and as they 1 be protected in a 

great measure from the temptations of the world 
ami out-door life, and in long after years will look 
back upon the i: mess as the safe- 

guard from many sins. And if that mother should 
there will be a halo round her 
memory that will light them on through many a 
darksome path, incite them on to many good 
deeds, and keep them free from vice. 1 
therefore, be the pleasant task of the mo" 
keep the sunny br -od undimmed as 

far as lies within her power, fur clouds will come 
full soon enough to dark, ,ky. 

We can imagine no sadder scene, no greater 
object of pity, than a neglected, lonely child, un- 
cheered by caressing kiss or approving'smile, from 
its cold, disinterested mother. 



For the California fan 



A Fragment. 

Fob days and weeks, had we watched over our 
dear Rosa, as she was gradually fading from earth. 
There was something painfully beautiful in her 
leave-taking. So fair, so young, so- gentle, and 
affectionate, full of hopes and bright anticipations; 
the only daughter of her mother, and she a widow, 
thus at the close of her 'seventeenth summer to be 
laid aside, and in the quietude of her sick room, to 
prepare for her new and only home, was painful, 
"f was sad indeed, to think that one so essential 
te tho happiness of her mother and brother, should 
be taken from them. That she, who was best 
fitted to enjoy this life, who had only found roses 
in her path and no thorns, must bo translated to 
a world that she knew not of. It was a sublime 
sight to see her, so calmly, cheerfully, prepare for 
that new life. Every day as she grew weaker, 
she bade farewell to one loved object after another, 
and spoke her last word to some dear friend. 
Never shall I forget her mournful look, as sho 
handed me the last letter she ever wrote, and the 
calmness with which she said, ''I shall never 
write again." 

Daily she grew weaker, but more beautiful, 
till her countenance appeared heaven-lit, and the 
lustre of her largo blue eyes, seemed borrowed 
from the azure skies. Often did I feel, as she 
spoke those calm, quiet words of consolation, yet 
full of affection, to her mother and brother, that 
she was too pure, too holy, for earth. 

The last night came, and with it the last leave- 
taking ! With her hand clasped in her brother's, 
and the words, " Oh 1 brother !" dying on her 
lips, her spirit winged its way. 

Beautiful was her departure, but what agony 
did it bring to her friends ! That brother, who 
had been so cheerful for his sister's sake, could 
restrain the pent-up grief no longer, and crying, 
■'Oh Mother I she is gone!" he threw himself 
upon the sofa and lay speechless for hours. 'Twas 
terrible to see the strong man trembling »nd 
groaning with agony, while the feeble mother 
bent over him in anguish, fearing that he too 
would be taken away. 

That night is past with all its agony. The 
grief of the brother is over, and ^hough the mother 
soon joined the sister in tho spirit land, yet his 
countenance is cheerful, as if no shadow ever 
swept o'er his heart. Such is the power of the 
human soul. It can outlive all suffering, and rise 
above all sorrow. 



Fob tbs Uixr.nr or —We gi 

you a sure remedy. Procure a large sponge, wx 
it well, press it very dry ; by I will | 

leave the small cells open; lay it on the shelf 
where they arc most troublesome, sprinkle some 
fine white sugar on the sponge, (lightly or, 
two or three times, a day. take a Locket 
water to where the sponge is. can-fully drop the 
in the scalding water, and yon will slay I 
them by the thousands, and soon rid the house of 
those troublesome J.J. | 

I — When yon sqeeese the siioaas, vou will! 
be astonished at the ■einbn that had gone in the 



The Wife's Influence. 

A woman has her husband's fortune in her 
power, because she may or may not conform to 
his circumstance*. This is her first duty, and it 
ought to be her pride. No passion for ease or 
display ought to tempt her for a moment to de- 
viate in the least degree from this line of conduct. 
She will find her respectability in it. Any other 
course is wretchedness itself, and inevitably leads 
to ruin. Nothing can be more miserable, than 
the struggle to keep op appearances. If it could 
succeed, it would cost more tlian it is wortn ; as 
it never can. its failure involves the deepest mor- 
tificatinn. 

Some of the sublimcst exhibitions of human 
virtue have been mads by women who have been 
precipitated suddenly from wealth and splendor 
to absolute want. Then, a man's fortunes are in 
a manner in the hands of his wife, inasmuch as 
his own power of exertion depends upon her. His 
moral strength is inconceivably increased by her 
sympathy, her counsel, her aid. She can aid him 
much by relieving him of every care which she is 
capable of taking upon herself. His own employ- 
ments are usually such as to require his whole 
time and his whole mind. 

od wife will never suffer her husband's at- 
to be distracted by details to which her 
own time and talents are adequate. If she be 
prompted by true affection and good sense, she 
will perceive when his spirits are borne down and 
overwhelmed ; she, of all huma o best 

I nurs- 
; lite as sovereign • rporeal ills. 

If it be wear 
refreshment. If it be harrsssed and worn to a 

'■title tones steal oi 
with a soothing more potent than the most exquis- 
ite mn be dead, her pa- 
tience and f >ndle 
them in the heart, and be again goes forth to 
renew the encounter with the toils and troubles 



Otto of Boseu.— In I 
officer, we Bi 

- d in Caehu. 
dred w -,cbm 

by weight of the best otto ; it is, however a 
procurable anadolterated ; and that sold in the 
bazaars of India, owes iu scent main 
wood, from which a cheap oil is ess- 
The K ■•.•served in small bottles made 






i blessed thing for 
s poor man to have a car g wife— one 

who aid net wish to live ia a style beyond her j 
husband's income, just hinauaa her next 
neighbor dees o a s who can be happy in the love 
of her husband, her home, and its beaut 

■bout asking the world lor its ssailesor 
its favors. 






Thc words of a language an like the peaces of 

j setoff's dissected : the eloqoeaee and 

poetry and philosophy, are the pauar ea made by 
rig these to» 
:he words into their proper pieces. 



"that some booksellers advert 
tions for i I could gc 

my dear V asked the mother. - It- a., 

oo modest to ask ase to marry him ; and 
per h ap s if I cool i 

the ques ti o n , he might sign it " replied the anx- 
ious daughter. 

Nattsal. — A le 
for a manga, and as he re- 
a plate 



WrrsjocT feet 
as veil live ia a i 



THE CALIF0BW1A FARMER. 



Raise the Bread Stuffs. — Unless the war 
in Europe shall cease, we see no prospect of any 
diminution in the price of bread stuff's the ensu- 
ing year. The only chance for mitigating the 
approaching ( * starvation prices," is, in man's 
planting, if it is nothing more than an extra hill 
of potatoes, as food either for man or beast. Last 
year there was a great harvest in England; much 
bread stuff too, had come, before the war had ac- 
tually prevented it, from the shores of the Black 
Sea, for the support of the European population j 
and yet biead was in the old countries, and has 
been here in the New World, exceedingly high. It 
is hardly to be expected that crops will be so 
abundant in England another year, nor will any 
bread stuns leave the Black Sea. The immense 
armies and navies there, will require it all on the 
spot. And the producers in England have become 
very much diminished by her people going into 
the war. and by emigration to Australia, Ameri- 
ca, &c. Yet there are as many mouths to feed as 
ever. VTe are expecting that provisions in all 
Europe will be excecdinly high next year — if so, 
they must be even higher with us than they are 
now. 'What the poor are to do, it is difficult to 
say. At any rate, we repeat the solemn advice 
we have heretofore given, that every man who 
can. should sow or plant something. He need 
have no fears that bread will be so low as to ren- 
der it valueless; but high or low, every body 
must have something to eat, and the way to get 
it is, to raise it. 

The above we publish for our readers as a 
glance at the tone of our Eastern exchanges. We 
take it from ;; Drew's Rural Intelligencer," pub- 
lished at Augusta. Maine ; a journal devoted to 
home interests — a most excellent paper, and de- 
serving a generous support. If in the grain-grow- 
ing States, the cry is, "Raise Brcadstuffs !" now, 
what will be the cry by -and -by ? By referring 
to our leader of three or four months ago, it will be 
seen 4-hat we prophesied this voice would come. 
Listen to it, and remember ! 



Grasshoppeks at Oakland. — Thegrcat mass- 
es of this destroyer which were seen at Suisun 
Day last Sunday, ileated down to San Francisco 
dud portions over to the shores of Oakland. On 
j'uesiJay last they were seen in considerable 
quantities along the shore at Oakland, and some 
anxiety was felt at the knowledge of their ap- 
proach. It is hoped, however, that they arc not 
in sufficient numbers to do much harm. 



Sudden Death. — At San Antonio, very sud- 
denly, on Monday last, the wife of Gov. Footc. 
The deepest sympathy is felt for theafflicted fam- 
ily, for the loss is irreparable to them and to the 
community at large. 



Sacramento No. 1, and Alameda County 

AgrWlturo, with ovontc «vt Oakland, will appear 

in our next. 



Ship Adelaide. — From the San Francisco Jour- 
nal, we learn that this clipper, now on her passage 
to New York, has on hoard 75.000 lbs. of wool ; 
30 tons of rags; 25.000 bushels of grain; and 
2.000 bbis. flour, all California productions. This 
looks as if we are preparing to reverse the chan- 
nels of trade. 



MARRIED. 



On the 3d Jul}-, in thig city, James W. Hubler and Mi«a E. 
Laurent. 

On the 4th July, in this city, l>y Rer. J. T. Jones, Theodore 
F. Mil U and Miss Loretto Arabella Schurdenheimer. 

On the 4th July, in San Francinco, by Be?. K. 8. Lucy, David 
N. Hawley, of the firm ol J. M. Brown &. Co., and Grace Dun- 
bar, daughter of E. Billow, ol Charleston, Mii-c 

On [he 4th July, in Son Frauci-co, by Rev. E. S. Tracy, C. 
A. Hawley, ol the firm of Hawley Sl Co., and Lizzie, L., daugh- 
ter of G. B. Brodlord, all of that city. 

On the 6th July, in Sun Franci-co, by Rev. Dr. Scott, Frank- 
Lin II. Duy, aud Miss Hermione Bull. 

O/i the 2G:h June, in Shasta, Henry O'Ncil and Mrs. Mchitn- 
bel Snnford. 

On the 4Lh July, in Sonora, by Justice J. M. Stuart, Thomaa 
M. Willis and Miss Virginia A. Shirley, all of Jamestown. 

On the 5th July, in Auburn, John Comer and Mrs. Aheel. 



DIED. 



On the 2d July, in San Frunch-co, John P. Hill, of N. H., aged 
95 veers. 

On ihe 4th July, in San Francisco, Mrs. Eliza Berry, a native 
of Scotland, wile of Alex. Stott, need 44 years. 

On rlie 5ih July, in Sonora, William. V. Irfenf, of England, 
aged 30 yeans. 



Oft* Persons purchasing articles advertised in our 
columns will confer a favor by saying they observed 
them advertised in the " OALIFOENIA*FARMER." 



Campbell's New Smut Cleaner. 

TUE undersigned bavtep discovered a remedy for the injury 
to wheat Qtvtng from Smut, and a plan ol renovating the 
«amo, boa secured by a " Patent Right, bin title to the .*ame. 

From the experiments made by experienced miller*, the most 
saAstactory remits have been achievd. From well attested 
trials and repented proofs ol the capabilities of its power to 
clean the errtttt from the wheat, it ha.i been ascertained that ihe 
UOSt perfect purification takes pluce in the wheal, while at the 
inmo time a large saving of time, labor and cost accrues to the 
miller, and the Hour is as pure and white as lrom the finest 

wheat. 

Farmers who have crops of wheat, now unharrestnd, may 
yet save them, for they can easily be assured that their grain 
ecu be restored and the value nuved to them. 

Licences, with all particular* for the use of this Patent Ridit, 
Can be Obtained at the warehouse of the subscriber, on Clay 
■ ■ 

H-S CHARLES CAMPBELL. 



C. L. NORTH, 

MACHINE SEWING, 

143 Santomt Strut, brtwten Wanhiegtotl and Jackson, 

SAW FRANCISCO. 

ii .1 nil other descriptions ol Bags, constantly on 

i ordrr. Motsrawc*, Catling?, Tent*, and all 

i uisn, done with naatnen and dispatch. 

. r;HAIN BAGS for sale rery cheap fur Cash, 

' i.t North"* Sewing Factor)-, 145 Banaoma street, 

.Mngion and Juuksun it>, San Francisco. »49, 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 



£^* California State Agricultural Society'a Rooms.— 
The Rooms of the State Agricultural Society are located on 
Fourth street, between J and K, where all who are inter- 
ested in Agriculture and kindred Sciences are invited to call. 

Several hundred specimens in all departments are on exhi- 
bition constantly, and it is the object of the Society to make 
these rooms n plnce of resort for our citizens. The rooms ore 
open daily, (Sundays excepted,) and are free to all. They are 
under the charge of the Editor of the Califohma Farmer, 
who will be pleased to render any information or assistance to 
further any interest connected with agriculture. 



By order of the President, 
T3-26 



. HUTCHINSON. 



E^ 3 " Hope Never Dies."— Rend the following tribute 
to WlSTAR'S BALSAM from the Kinderhook (N. Y.) Senti- 
nel, dated July 21 : 

" A remarkable cure ol Consumption has recently been ef- 
fected by this medicine, in the town of Chatham, in this county, 
and which was related to us by Dr. Herrick, an eminent phy- 
sician of that town, to whom we have permission to refer. A 
young lady, who had long lobored under an affection of the 
lunge, was considered by her friends as beyond the reach of 
medicine, and ehe was informed by her medical attendant that 
she must die. She was induced to send for a bottle of WIS- 
TAR'S BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY, as a last resort. The 
young lady experienced great relief, and two more bortle> were 
successively procured and administered. She is now happy in 
the restoration of health." 

Sold by oil druggists. 

Agents for San Francisco, B. B. THAYER &. CO. 



Brookline, Feb. 5, 1851. 
To Seth W. Fowlb : 

My Dear Sir — Huving experienced results of a satisfactory 
character from the use of WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD 
CHERRY", in cases of severe colds, during the pott two year?, 
1 am induced to express the full faith I have in its renovating 
power. 

I was first induced to try this medicine as an experiment, 
about two years ago, In connection with the strong recom- 
mendation of a friend, who was well nigh gone with consump- 
tion, and whose relief from the use of it satisfied me of its great 
value in cases of colds and decline, and most clearly demon- 
strafing, to my mind, its great value as a restorative, that only 
needs a fair trial to insure a grateful demonstration from (be 
public. Your obedient servant, 

SAMUEL A WALKER. 
\* Be sure it is signed I. BUTTS on the wrapper. 

Agents for San Francisco, B. B. THAYER &, CO. 
Sold by all Druggist. v4-9 



f^" Religions Notice.— There will be Public fid 
held at toe " Hall of the Sona of Temperance," on Washington 
steeet, between Sansome and Montgomery, every Sabbath Day, 
viz : A Prayer Meeting at 10 o'clock, a. m., and Public Lecture 
at 3, p.m. NATII'L THURSTON. 



New Invention ! 
Xoiv, Count Your Chickens!! 

rIE undersigned begs 'cave to offer to the public a new and 
improved machine for batching the eggs 61 dome 
After a i ly experiments the proprietor lias suc- 

ceeded in perfecting a plan by which at a very trilling eosl from 
four tit five hinuirrrt eggs can be converted daily into youns 
Chickens, Duck., Qoahngs or Turkey*. After the fficel brood, 
i. e., nineteen or twenty days, this is the certain result ; and it 
requires but little attention — once every fwenty-four hour* — 

the cost ot fuel and preparation being only Botne §2 50 to S^ 
every twenty days. 

This invention will be in full operation at the State Fair at 

ihe city of Sacramento, in September next, when all Informa- 
tion will be presented. They will soon be offered For sale. In 
the meantime inlbrrnation can be obtained at the offioo«j tin 
Cinrnnxn P**offXfl ; oi lcticm can t»- addressed to me ut Sun 
Francisco. JOHN J. FULTON, 

\3 26 Third street, Soulh Beach, near South Park. 



on i oat: Cnmphciit.::: 

BRANCH of the Pucitiu Oil and Campbene Works In Sacra 
mento. 

The undersigned respectfully informs his friends and custom- 
ers that he bo* established a depot ut 51 K street, Sacramento, 
for the sale of Oil, Campbene, Ac, and Invites the atteel 
dealers to his stock, which consists ol Polar, Sperm, Lard, Ele- 
phant, NOAtVPont, Tanner**, Block Flan, ana Machinery Oil, 
Camphene, Turpentine and Alcohol, which be warrants pure 
genuine. 

The facilities which lib extenpivo works afford, will enable 
him to keep on hand a large stock, and nipply dealers Bt San 
Francisco prices. [v4-lj WILLIAM BAILEY. 



Removal. 

WN. BRAINARD, (successor to Morehouse dt Brainard) 
* has removed to Ifo. 55 A" ,-;m', >■ 
Tlard, and will bo pleased to wait on his old customers, who 
may favor him with a cull. 

A full assortment of Calilornin Produce always on hand. 
Horner's Premium Flour, and other domestic brand" - genuine 
Uaxall and Gallego"; fresh LTonnd Corn Meal and Buckwheat 
Flour ; Bran, Shorts and Middlings, Barley, Oats, Wheat, Ax. 

California Freih Butter and Cheese. 

A liberal discount made trj the city trade. 

Sacramento, May 84th, 1855. v3-23 



Removal. 

THE Office of the Pacific 0$1 and Campbene works Is rei 
to No. 70 Front street, between Clay and Commercial 
Polur, Spcim, Lard, Neat's Foot and Tanner's Oil, Cam- 
phene, Turpentine and Burning Fluid constantly on hand and 
for sale at the lowest market price. 

WILLIAM BAILEY, 
Office, No. 79 Front street. 
Manulrictruy, Taylor street, North Bench. 
San Francisco, May Uth, 1855, v3-S5 



Notice of Hcmoval. 

WE desire to notify our customers and the public that we 
will remove to the new Banking House, an [be south- 
west corner of Clay and Batterj streets, on the 4th day of July 
next ; at which finer we shall I e prepared to tnin.-act bOslntSi 
at y o'clock on Thursday morning, July 5lb. 

i 1 DKEXEL SATIIER A, CHURCH. 



Cnllibrnln Butter ami (lacsc, 
f)£ Ann POUNDS new Calilornin Butter; 1,900 dittn 
ijOivvv Cheese, in store. iJoin^ sttppUed daily with 
Fresh Butter and Chee-e, by five ol the Inrgeet dairief in our 
vicinity, we fhall hold out large Inducements tu famUicj mid 
iither» to u.^e (hi-t kind of butter, and are selling it ut a lower 
price than any in this State. 

3-2G BUADSHAW & CO. 



The Harder the Times, tUe Cheaper the (mwhK. 

WE are receiving goods by live different clippers from the 
StAtee, which Wfl selling at prices leas than they COvt, 
giving a chance lor famines and other- to rapply tbenwolvcs 
low^ Iv3-20J BKAUSUAW A- CO.-. 



Vlttorln. Hi's I », 

A FEW copies of thin magnificent work, in Colored Platen, 
for unle. Apply at the ollice of the CaxifokNU FaUIXR, 
Bn-h Btre* 1 !, Sun Franc! oo, 

and Society'^ Room-, Sacramento. 



Ice! Ice I! Ice II! 

THIS nrticle can be had at all times nt the Sitka Ice Home, 
north of the bridge, from 6 a. m to 7 p. >i J- '.,.. 
be supplied with Ice by leaving orders ni II iwollV Jewelry 
store, on J street [v3-iM) W. C WATERS 



To Printers. 

FOR SALE— OneSecond-bnnd Hoe fl DOUBLE CYLINDER 
PRESS. Size of bed, 4i by 28. Apply to 
va-B-lm F. BLAKE, 68 Merchant street. 



<tU ARTZ I Q,C A BTZ 1 1 

LLL kinds of Quartz Jewelry made t-i order by 
T3-23 J. HOWELL & CO. 



HOTELS. 



Orleans Hotel, 

Second, between J and K streetn, Sacramenta. 

MTHE above Hotel, occupying a .^jince of 85 by 150 feet, 
in the most central *iart of the city, built of brick and 
three stories hi™h, otters inducements to travelers not surpassed 
by any establishment in the State. 

The cround floor is pel apart for Dining Room, Reading 
Room, Billiard Room and Bar Room. 

The Table will be found at nil tunes supplied with the choice 
ol the market. 

At the Beading Room can always be found the daily paper? 
ot the State and the latest dates from the Atlantic and Europe. 

The Billiard Saloon is furnished with live excellent tables, 
superintended by a competent keeper. 

The Bar will be supplied with the beet Liquors and Wines. 

The second and third stories of the building are set apart for 
Parlor, Family Rooms and Chambers, comfortably furnished. 

Wc have also leased the large brick building corner of nnd K 
and Front streets (formerly known as Sacked'.- Hotel) Bet apart 
for Lodging Apartment^, which are furnished in a ruperior 
manner, which, added to the Hottl, will afford ample accommo- 
dations. 

The "Orleans" is also the Depot and Office of the California 
Stage Co., from which place Stages leave daily for all parts 
of the State. 

v3£ HARDENBURGU &. CORSE, Proprietors. 

American Hotel, Benicia. 

M THIS HOUSE has been established Ffre Tear*, with- 
out interruption or change of proprietorship, and is be- 
lieved by the traveling public to be one of the best conducted 
Hotels in the State. 

Large and well ventilated, and handsomely furnished room?, 
for families travelling or for narmatnant boardciv, can always 
be obtained. 

A LtVERT STABLE to Connected with the Hotel, bo that 
travelers can have their choice, either to take the steamers and 
stagci>, or a private carriage, to any of the beautiful valleys 
around, Stages leave thia Hotol every morning for the different 
valleys. 

The daily poptrs from various sections of the Slate nrc on 
file at this Hotel. Everything will bo done by the proprietor 
that the patrons of thin "House may find their stay pleasant and 

satisfactory. 
3v.lGistl C. M. DAVIS, Proprietor. 

Wilson's Exchange, 

By JZntabroolc tf J a m ex. 
Jp»i THIS popular and extensively known HoteL which for 
H'-ll the last few weeks ha.i been under the management of 
W. vV\ Esinbrook, has been painted throughout ; new Furni- 
ture hai> been added, nnd the house is now in complete order 
tor the reception Of the public, 

Mr. E-iabrook baa formed a connection in buiineeswith Mr. 
P. T. James, who USB been iBTOrnbly known in the above 

Hotel, and recently nt the international. 

Evory possible exertion will be made by the present pro. 
prieton to render the above establishment- the most popular in 
the Stnte. v;>2j 

Hassette House. 

San Francisco Cal. 

xfiii THIS HOTEL often inducements to pononi viaituuj 
Ijjiii Sun fmnclsco, unequalled by any on the Pacitic Coast. 

ainttemcD one be accommodated with single rounin p or fami- 
lies with suites of BOpma, 

Tin; House is entirely new, built of brick ; nil the rooms are 
furnished m n Ryle "t comfort hitiierto unknown in the Hotels 
oi California, and tile Hou^e w capable of accommodating over 
live bundled boarders, v4- 1 

Murrav's Fifty-cent Western House. 

■ a d nnd D streets, >L\RVSVILLE. 

4%$t THIS' HOUSE is entirely devoted to the wants of the 

H- i! trav-llini: put il ic and to nil who will favor uw with o cnll, 

entire satiefactton will be given, (17] R, J. MURRAY. 
American Hotel 

NAPA CITV CALIFOBNIA. 

L. A. A- W, \V. CUAl'MAN. PropiietUM. 

MGOOD accommodations lor families, and do reasonable 
terms. Saddle and buggy Horses kepi lor hire. Honneu 
kept .m board, by the day or wc-k, and w.'ii taken cue o£ ■ - ji 

To ForinerBf Hotel Ittepere, Ranilmos dfe OtbcrSi 

BRADSIIAW & CO., having removed Into their New and 
Specious Score, uid beins repuhirly supplied from tiro 
States by every clipper, enables them to liave the targcat and 

SROCER1ES AND PROVISIONS In i 
end at Low 1'ikus. 

Penonj living ut a distance can always have their pood 
peeked and Bhlpped) iVer- of expense. Remittances can hi 
made through oil the expresses or by mail. Our t>tock con- 
MBta of 

Pnwdored aud Cnjfhed Loaf Sugnr; 
Bxtra Green and Black Ten ; 
Mca* and Clear, Pork, in quarter and hall barrels ; 
No. 1 and -j Mackerel, In kit-, or, ond baif barrels; 
Bpenn, Was nnd Adamantine Uandles; 
Bpenn u ; i. In S gallon this; 
Stuart's Boston and Ni w Orleans Byrups, In S and 10 pallnn 
kegs; Bpicei ol all kind: Assorted Herbs and Extracts; Jnva, 

Mocha, Mniiilja and B.U) CutleC | ChftOSC iti tin ; Chocolate, 

preimrcd and •:,-!:<■:.• d Coc< :>, and Shull* : Tub-, Pnils, Brooms, 
Ground Rock Bait, Pickles, assorted Preserves, Jeluea, lam 
and Pis Fruit 

N, n. Highest price poid, for, California Butter nnd Cheesei 
corner California and Battery strccta, San Pram Isca 

Bc-nUla Ft'mnle Nciulitnry. 

rpnK Fourth year of this institution opens July 23, 1855, 
X ThUilaoneol the oldest Female Seminaries in the State, 
and therefore well known. T d full uorps oj 

t^churr, and there who are well qualified to nil their respective 
irrpnrtmonDj, a German lady, nod do atti-t in her profession, 
U teacher ol Music ; and n French lady, as skilled in Dnwing, 
i.-, teacher ol French and Drawing. 

The School and Buardlru] Department arc entirely under the 
supervision of the Principal. 

Tiivt-.-- (I'.'iyabli? quarterly, invai iably in ndratia,) 
For Board and Tuition in English branche.-', per week— -97 50 

Washing, per dozen 1 50 

Eitra (_' 

French, Spanish nnd Drawing, per month % 3 00 

Music,, with use ol Piano, per month lu 00 

For further particulars, addrc.-n 

V3-26 MARY ATKINS, Principal. 

lUnhia Iron Works,, 
QTEAM ENGINE, ROILEItAND MACHINE SHOP.— This 
O establishment is now ita successful operation, and oilers to 

the public facilities equal to any in the Um;ed Suite , for niunu- 

factoring or repntring Steam Enginej of the largest *izc, Boiler 
Wares, Brass Castings, Mill GeBrmQ el the moei approved pat* 

terns. Bloom Iron, Cant Iron Column-, Window- Capa or entire 
fronts. 

Contractor* nnd others will do well by patronizing this estab- 
lishment, U their work will be executed with greater di-patch 

and at Lowei pricej than any other nmnufactory. hi the State. 
The company have extended their Pier, nnd erected a large 

crane for tin- accommodation of their cUHtumers. 
For lurtber particulars apply Hi 

FOItRF.S &. BABPOCK, 

Agent P. M. S. Company, 
corner Leidesdorlf and Baorunento streets, San Frnnddoo; 

ur to CHARLES FRENCH. 
v3-c8 Resident Engineer, Benicia Works 

Inipnvtnnt to the Dnliynn-n of California* 

HORACE GUBHEE, No. 51 Washington Market, wholesale 
aud retail dealer In Fresh Butter, Cboaae and Eggs, huv- 
ing been engaged Lo the sale of the products of the dairy for 
the pa-t two and a-balf years in San Frnncieco, would take fhis 
opportunity to return his thanks to those who have favored him 
with their business, and respectfully solicits a cootmunnce of 
the bame. Consignments from any port of the State by any 
of the various packets or stenmboohi, directed to mo, will meet 

with prompt nttcntlou, and proceed' of sale forwarded as di- 

rectea. Liberal sflvances made, [fiepjuired. 

Dairymen, wbencver in the city, are invited to call and *w 
tli« various kind- ot Butter and Cheoe which are received 

daily lrom the ranches. v3-26 

trtret Premium Dftgnerreotypoe. 

RH. VANCE just awarded the FIRST PREMIUM for the 
, bout Daguerreotypes Ofcblbitad at the CnlUornle Btnte 
Fair. Mr, V. would be happy to wait upon any one wishing a 
PERFECT LIKENESS. The arrangement ol his Rooms and 

v in the Stnte. 

Room :— New Building corner of Sncramonto and Montgnm- 
treeM, entrance on Montgomery btrcet, next door to 

Austin's. vl-l 



STEAMERS. 



California Steam Navigation Company, 

^ A RH A N (i K ME NT FOR - *!T 

52 awri lass. ■ «i^*L_. 

Departure f/Jm Valltjo street wharf, at 4 o'clock, f. M. 

For Sacramento. 

VfA BENICIA. 

Steamer SENATOR, Capt E. A. I'oole, Master. 

Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. 
Steamer ANTELOPE, I). Van Pelt, master; 

Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 

For Marysville. 

VIA HENICIA. 

Daily, at 4 o'clock V. -V. 

By the Sacramento Steamers, connecting with the*Company's 

LIGHT DRAUGHT STEAMERS at Sacramento. 

f^p* Through Tickets Ljaued. 

For Stockton. 

VIA MARTINEZ. 
fitutii, in ■) o'rlock i'. M. 
Steamer CORNELlA,"E. Concklin. Master. 

MondnyS) Wednesdays and Fridays. 
Steamer UR1LDA, Clnrk, Master. 

Tuesdays, Thnrsdaya nnd Saturdays. 

For Colusi, Bed Bluffs and Intermediate Landings. 

Daily, at 4 o'clock P. M, 
By the Sacramento Steamers, connecting with the Company's 
LIGHT DRAUGHT STEAMERS, which leave Sacramento — 
Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, at 12 o'clock, M. 

E^ 5 FrolgOC by the above boats must be paid for on delivery. 
For particulars apply at the offioeoi the Company, Jackeon 
itreet, between Battery and Front, to 

HAM. J. HENSLEY, President. 
OhVe of the California Steam Nuvi-ation Co., } 

Son Riancisco, May, 1855, j vf 1 

California Steam Navigation Company. 

- fiT r" ! ^ Theeplendid low nresmre steamers Senator 
^ ^7 j .ii-L^J. r . and Antfloi-e will teave on alternate day." for 
ban Frunci-co, at two o'clock, r. .ii., from the foot of K 
The steamer Sbnatob, E. A. I'oole, master, will leave on 

Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 
The steamer Avteute, D. Vob Pelt, master, will leaveon 

Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. 
The steamer Helen IIenslev. E. C. M. Chadwick, master, 
every Sunday nt o'clock, r. m. 
For Marysville and Intermediate Landings, daily, at 7 o'clock, 
a. m., lrom baik Orb. 

Steamer Gov Dana, \V. H. Taylor, master, on Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday' 
For Coluei, Red Wutf, and Intermediate Landings. 
The steamer Helle, W. H. Oilman, master, and steamer 
Gem. M. Littleton, master, will leave for the above named 
places on Tuesday, Thurtdny and Saturduy, at 8 o'clock, 
a. m.. iron Btbreship Ann 
For ltcd Illulfr.— The fcteainei Gem, M. Littleton, mister, will 
leave n; III o'clock, A. M. 
f^gl* 3 For freight or passage by any of the above boats apply 
on board, or at the ollice ot the Calif, rniu Steam NAVlgatlOU 
Company, on board briy Globe. 

v-J I A. REDINGTON. 

Contra CoHtn PeiTy \otlcc. 
{; ,< in Furthor fl ■ 
r tICIN 0N nnd after WEDNESDAY, Nov. 2f>, the 
sF ■ p^^'j rriTw Contra Coeta Ferry will run as follows : 

SAN FKaNCISCO. OAKLAND. SAK ANTONIO. 

At 94ft a. m, At 8 a. M. At IVi a. m. 

134 r. tt 11'^ a. nc 11 a. m. 

4^t r. m. 3 r. m. 2M( p. m. 

CHARLES MINTURN, Agent, 

v3-lC-3m Cunningham's Wharf. 

For \apn Clly, Sonoma and Itlnrc Ishmrl. 

r *-T T tt> K T l IK new and beautiful steamer NAPA CITY, 

mZixzm+JstxiL* l ' M l ,t ' Cii'odiicli. in now running tri- weekly lo 

Nupu City, touching nt Mare Lilan I Perry, -md con- 

occting with ttayes for Sonoma, Ru^i an River and the Sulphur 
Bpl in--. 

ehts nnd pa^eugc nt lew ratr«i. 
v4 l SAM. J. HENSLEY, Prett 

For Sm-raiiiento mill MaryHVltle. 

r -jtIP *"** THE Citizen'i Steam Navigation Company's 
££^^£ Btenmer QtfEBM CITY, Geo. It. Barclay, Mas 
Cer, will commence bar regular tiijjM tbr the ■bove^Itces, Umv 
tjjc Ban FrnncUoo every Tuesday] Tiiuredoy und Saturday 
afternoons, at -i o'clock. 

For freight or juis.'a^e, apply on board. v4-l 

Freight JRednccd. 

■ ^-j r^^ S FROM and alter the lit ol June, the California 
r' j ^i t ' i-vrir Steam Navigation Company will carry infills 
t.i BtuctCDoU and Sacramento at S-'* I>*'»* t«>n, until funhor 
notice. v324 BAWL J. HKN8LEY, President 

( ullluiiiln Stage Conijiitny. 
Office at the Orleans lintel, SamWJtmtO. 

STAGES leave renilarly for the following 

S laces : Nevada, (Jphir, Auburn, Yankee 
iniV, Georgetown, Placerville, Mormon 

Island, Colomi, Dry town, Jackson, Mokehimue Hill. BtockD n, 
Sonora, UaryevQIe and Shuto, and oil parts of the Northern 
and Southern Mines, every morning, as loiiows: 

Nevada and ititennediute jdacea, at 5^ o'clock A. M. 

Georgetown " " 6 " " 

All other places fl's " " 

Accommodation line for Monnou Island^ V'> o'clock P. M. 
All passengers will be called for at their residences, and the 

Utmo»t attention and care paid to thrm nnd their b I 

Stages arrive in time every day lor the Sun Francisco boats 

JAS. HAWORTH, Preiidont C. 8. Co. 
J. P. Deighan, Secretary. v3-4tf 

Fail' Ki'fturi'il to Slia-tii. 
jW^S^^ItfV TI1F. Calilbriifal Btage Company's Conches 
L *_> •'^^'TiHy OD nnu ,,ll '- r ''"■ "■' ■" , ''">' (,t Jl "»p. '^^». will 

leave their olhce. Orleans Elotel, 3 i 
•Sacramento city, lor Shasra via Marysville, every duy at 6Vb 

o'clock, A. M., arriving at BbOStO eiiily next inornmL'. " 

From Sucramento to Marysville $ 5 

" " TelutmQ 16 

Shuta 20 

Returning from the above pluccs the lure- will be the some 
to Sucrumento. J. HAWl'UTH, 

T3-28 Pii-^i. Cal. Stage Co. 

Trnvle «Sh Vmae's li>teriiatIonal ii»ui Staire* 
^•^*A PASSENGERS will be taken to the Uiter- 

"^=--;.' national Hotel free ol charge nnd to any part 
oi the city iui i*ue Dollar. The proprietor! will, hi all caves, 
be responpible for buggage, after II i- pui In their charge. Any 
for the stnge left nt the International Hotel will be 
promptly attended to. Our stage niny ulwaye be known, hav- 
ing the name of International Hotel on the aides, and in tho 
nighl time it will be seen on rhe lamps. \3-10tf 

Flower Pots. 

JUST received ex " Spitfire"— 3,000 Flower Pots, 
sorted mzi-b. Porenle low 

HAVNJCH & LAWTON, 

122 Sansome street, bet. VYaahimiton and Clay. 
Stone UutUr Pot*. 

JUST received t-x " Spitfire," an Invoice of Butter, Cream 
nnd Cuke Pots. HAYNBS St LAWTOH, 

^ II 122 Bmimim street, bet. Wiifbiii^ton and Clay. 

llatich for Sole. 

#Bfc A finely loentcd Raneh of id acre-, about 

<§!»& twelve mile- below Colusi This is one of the hme*i plots 

" ol liLtel for BTazlng or A.'l'icnllnnil purposes In this S'nto; 

well timbered, nnd all pordoi 
It will bo told at a bargain, Plana of the lot n\'\A all | a 

lars given on Inquiring ut tl IRce of CaxiroaNU Faokm, 

etween J I K, \i i 

Sn.hUent, Attention I 

ttHAS. It. SCHF.UNKi .uorm* the mmiutnc- 

; tiuers of Saddles thai be Es now pi I kind* 

■ lines on Callfornian nnd Muxlcnj Idles, and 

font llinl his style or workmai besur- 

posaed in thla Stnte, 

cull nnd examine speclmans. 
l~y Orders from the country promptly attended to 

vH25 ' 17U k Biitt-t, tkuiiimcnto. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



15- 



BUSINESS CARDS. 



D U N A N ft C o. 

' DJ CAM AUCTIONEER 

SEAL ESTATE AUCTIOH BOOHS, 

Nos. 1 v" w fry Hr«/, 

" 

■-hMl devote our 



Bavin.* uken the , 

■ 
ami Assigi 

1 



::'.l-t!'Iltni'..' 

on Buki- 

i ■ ■ i' 

Our i. .: FURNITURE, 

!.e received. v4-l 



BOUND FOB THE STATES! 

Merchant*, Miner* and other*, bound hoi ed to visit 

OAK HALL, Boston, Mass., 

wfaere itacj can rcplenlafa their Wardrobes with complete 

outfit* t: and bt»t nseortel stocks' 

of Clothing, Furnishing Goods, &c, &c, in 

the United States, Also, every variety of 

Hoy's Clothing. 

Rt^" Oue Price, Cash System, irirint: nil nn equal c-hanco. 

(i. W. SIMMONS. 
Oak IIai-l, North street, Boston, Mass. v3-16. 



JAMES FUEXCH & CO., 
Publishers, Booksnlleri, 

IMPORTERS AND DEALKnS IN 

STATIONERY, 

No. 78 Washington street, Motion, Mas*. 

t|ajf- Country Traders, .Clergymen, 

Rank-, Railroad . Insurance, nnd other Companies, 

lehcd on the lx'.-r terms. 

*«* Orders solicited lor our new publication*, 

v -*-~"> Bee prospectus. 



J. IIOWELL & CO., 

■46Vi J street, between S evitd and Third, Sacramento, 

TAKE this opportunity of Informing their friends nnd 
.■3 the public, that they have just received a new mid 
jrcholce selection of Watonei nnd Jewelry. 
Anion" which will he found Watches of every description, 
from (die best makers — English nnd French. 

AUo — Diamond Rings, Chains, Ear-Ringe, Pins, Bracelets, 
Quartz, Jewelry, Sec, &c, 

ty Particular attention paid to DIAMOND SETTING. 
Watches carel'ully repaired and Warranted. v3*SJ0 



P. B. CORNWALL, 

Seal Estate Broker, General Agent, &c. 

Office— Eu?t side of Second street, between J and K 
The advertiser has been a resident of Sacramento, and en- 
gaged in Real Estate transactions since 1848, nnd having been 
personally acquainted with nearly all (he Ren] Estate dealers 
who have operated here at different time-, mid with their trans- 
actions hi property, hua peculiar facilities in hie business, 39 



R. II. TIBBITS, 

California Boot and Shoe Store. 

Ladies', Misses', Gents', Boys' and Childrens' 

Boots, Shoes ninl Gaiters, 

WHOLESALK AND RETAIL, 

No. 117 Sucramento Btreet, San Francisco. t3-5 



W. \V. PRICE, 

Notary Public and Conveyancer, 

No. 14 Read's BuUdivg. 

Deedo, Mortgages, Leases and Powers of Attorney, written; 

Oaths Bdmtnlsnred nnd acknowledgments taken. v 1 1 



E. B. MASTICK. 

Attorney and Counsellor, 

Office-, corner of Montgomery mid ('ommrrrial streets, 

(over Drexel, Bather &. Church's Banking Hoo 
v3-l!) Ban Francisco. 



BOOTH, CARROLL & CO., 
Wholesale Grocers and Provision Dealers, 

No. Gi J dim!, unn.r Oj l\ird, 

v3-26 .cramento. 



KKYES & CO., 
GOLDEN GATE CLOTHING WAREHOUSE, 

('■■i-iiir of J and tj . tmd ttt ■ 1 U 
Having the largest and finest assortment of 

FASHIONABLE CLOTHING 

AND 

Burnishing goods 

Ever Offered in California, 

nnd which we am telling at the lows*. < chcerfhlly 

Invite our frlonds nnd the public to call ami examlnoour extton* 

Hive nook for them 1 1 

Single garments or full raits, made to order at tho shortest 
notice, and warranted to tit. 

New and Fashionable Goods 
received by every Bteamcr. 

Cull at Branch ol KEYF.S & CO., 

\i-l coiner J and 



RIVKTT & CO. 

HAVE orKNKD A BRANCH Or THEIR 

WELL KNOWN HOUSE, 

A T 

111 J STREET, 

where ihry intend to keep ■ h d assortment of 

Upholstery Goods, Pap>- 

Oil Cli Mm;- 

Mm* and Rug*, Damiukt, 

Cornices, 
Curtain Bands, 

Prix Guup#. 

1 

At their Old Store, 28 £ street, 

may bo had all the ah .e of the 

largest aSAortmcuts to be 

Glass, 

Turpi 
I 

Hints, 
and all otl 

Also, e Mouldings and Minor 

Work tn all the above brm ur iwoal 

prumi ID 

VALUABLE AGRICULTURAL BOOKS, 

rVBLISHCD BT 

JOHN r. JEW 

r afci b T >U th« Bookn-Uen, 



Dadd'i Modern Horn Dc 

By Oxo H. Dai>d. 
Tbecdebn,: 



Scheuck'i Kitchen Gardener'. Text Books. 

A eomj'lrto gu*l <* for l»e ,-u Hi » «wi of th«* 1*111 ll.a (>»rden. 



Colo on Ui« Dikum of Animals, 



t En^Uud F.ruicr. 



Colc'i American Fr 
Tb« ba*t book < 



Xrtck't Book of Flown. 

tor lite Flora*. 

Ltocktrd on the Hot Hocjo 

Tfc ».i ■ i»mo tad Vn 



HORTICULTURAL, &e. 



Fruit nml Ornaiiiciifnl Trees. 

Tin: ru attention of plantei 

. ■: prull and Ornai ! 

and Plants. Their Nurseries have been sixte 
acres of land 

:nRlvatod on a most 

extensive nippUed to dealers or aimiteurs at 

i mnrket prices : 

ird and Dwarf Apples, of various nlzcs j 
* do do do do 

do do do Ctutrnes, do do 
do do d<> Plunu, do do 

\ ■■ ■ '.< I'i'i I'urrnnts, (.ooseherriee, Stmw- 

berries and other n-utta usually grown. 

Stocks nnd Seeds of nil hinds for Nurserymen will bosup- 
pHed in Inrgo or eraiill quandUes, if application be made pro- 
vious to the Iri oi ■ ■ .■ ■ abi 

Ornniii: :; ! : :, , nrnnmciitiil Evergreen Trees, 

Flowering Shi ubs, Rosos, Dimlia?, Green-house Plants, etc. 

■iv u done in the most rarrful andgkillful manner, s<> 
thai pufchneers hrtve o reasonable guarantee of receiving their 
articfos in good order. 

The following i-umiu-neH will i»f* sent gratis, prepaid, to all 
who apply and enclose one stomp for each : 
No. l. Descriptive Catalogue ol Fruits. 
No. 2. do do Ornamental Trees, etc. 

Nu. :(. do do Dunlin* &. Green-house Plants. 

No. 4. A Wholesale or Trade list for Nurserymen nnd Dealers. 
Address, Kl.LWAUGElt &. BARKY, 

v3-25 Mount Hope Nurseries, Rochester, N. Y. 



Flowers I Flowers I ! 
GOLDEN GATE NURSERY, 

Cornet Fourth and Fulsom streets. 
Office 170 Washington street, San" Francisco. 

PERSONS desirous ol embelhsbhig their gardens or conser- 
vntortes, will Hud at this establishment the largest stuck 
and great06i variety of plants to he tmmd on the Pucitic cause. 
Amung which me : 

Camclia Joponicas, in ~P varietlesi Perpetual RoBes of nil the 
classes; fragrant and limey Gcmiiiums; Pus»irioras, 
Heliotropes, Verbenas, Honeysuckles, Abutilons, 
Myrtles, Oleanders, Jnssaminep, Fuschias, Da- 
phnes, Dahlins, Bulboua Roots, Orna- 
mental Shrubbery ; and n general 
assortment of Green Hou^e and 
Hardy Plants, 
Orders for shipment to any part of the State will be carefully 
executed by addressing D. Nelson, 17U Washington street, or 
the proprietor, Box 1,957 Post-oihee. 
v;t-9-3ra W. C. WALKER. 



Golden pate Nursery, 

Corner of Fotsom and Fourth streets., Sew Francisco. 
OFFICE— NO. 170 WASHINGTON STREET. 

THE attention of the public i* requested to a hirge collection 
qf the flowering Plants, now for sale ut this Estabttfahment, 
embracing the most extensive assortment in the State; among 
which may be found — 

Cnmelin JaponicKS, in seventy varieties; 

Perpetual Edoomlns Roses, w till the classes ; 

Uoaa and chmhug Hoses, do do; 

i'" 1 1 chias', ii choii e o illectaoo ; Heliotropes, In vnriety ; 

Rose nnd Lemon (leniniuiiiH ; 

Lemon-scented Verbenas, Flowering do, Arbunllums, Azaleas, 
Orlcnnders, PassUloroSi Honeyeu 

Bolbous Knot-, Sec, .fee. ; and n general eollecdon ol Green- 
house plant.- and ornamental ahrubbery, 

Catntognea for 1855 will be ready on the 1st of Deo 
and will be forwarded on application. 

i irders for any pnri of the State, will he prom 
to, on application to 1>. Ni Isoa, No. 170 Washington street — or 
tothepio,M (7-3.ii) W. C. WALKER, 



Chill StrnwtKiiy. 

Till", famous Chili Strawberry, which 
wonder and which was exhibited ai 
some two has induced the proprietor of the plants 

In Oil'ei B I' B for >nlr. 

Samples ol the same, with me condition, culture and 
may be had on application to thi if ONtA 

FarukR, at their ofllce, on Fourth ttrcct, between J nnd h, 

they bolii une, 

P E. S. MARSH. 



COPARTNERSHIP NOTICE. 

Tiif. ii 
: .a tare 
Trade < 

eilv and ■ unrnO nnd ftyle 

CO. 

Rotident Partner, Boston. II HOV 

oil: 

180 ami liri atontgotnerj vtrrcL 

Resident Partner, Pan FrUclfCI DAVID MUORE, 

San Frav cisco, Sarramrnto t 
Kt> Jack-on H. 100 K St 

Resident Partner, Sacramento IV r.NKWTOMIt, 

77 K street, Sacramen' 
Sim Francisco, May 8, 1685. 

To Our Friends and the Public. 

ui- our rnnitHl u largely incrrw- 
e.l nnd our eijKnit* reduced more tkan one-half 
which ensliles us to offer yon a greater rariety of Goods at 
IS to ■£."» per rent, lei* than onr former rate*. 

■ :k to pur- 
I the maxkecs to obtain 
such giKjds as are drslrnblc, at the 

L-i*v*i Ckua snetsa. 
Three yes . to aelect cluck that will 

Defy Competition In Quality ud Prices. 

Wo are nn * ith a Urgo and 

NRW 0O00D9, 
and shall endearur to merit a share of your patronage. It will 
he our pride to pes 
Perfect Satisfaction, 
both lu o*ality, price*, **d food trtmtmmL 

BOWBfl A CO. 
77 ami 103 K street, \ 180 and I W Montgomery street, 

afpaatsa Itassa^osssai fsssatr*. 



S*cnun^mo, 



FURNITURE'! FTTRN1TURE ! ! ! 

AT KtDCCtU PB 
NEW FIRM A ■ D V y. \\ G O O D S . 
Our - 

a- :v added tu mar 

■ 



**r ei- 
in OdafjeiML W« 
nave i educed our 

f-Tt-l* S* en*- 
UJ Of 
time*, 
at l-m#t 95 



.. .1 aa S-.UOT.I... we 
can sutcry aay that our stocJ; » law mom 
. umtfjotu mrar wjcrvd M tkt jwAaac. 

in lawlisse ' 



r?- 



j and e *..:.. ■■ inr ■ 



r art Di « i tar Hssh 
Apply at taw "> 



mKT*Camt» Its 



AGRICULTURAL, &c. 



Pitt's Double Ptiilon Klp;Iit or Ten Home Power. 

THIS Horse Power, ns now manufactured ItT the lubscrlber, 
la admitted by those who hove purchused and used it, to 
■ ioss, for strength, easje, durability and cheapness of repair, 
any Power ever offered to the public. 

Their , ■■■■■ niv over other powers, consists in the 

plan oi construction, it will be teen that this Horse Power is 
j»-t double the strength "1 any tingle geared potaer, and Is the 
ID iblc Pii 'i> Powor In existence 
Notwithstanding it is sufficiently Btrong and warrrintod to 
stand the foil atreuath of eight or ten horse*, it is also warranted 
to give w much eKecdve or useful power, when driven by one 
or two horses, as any other power, whether constructed on the 

endless chain or lever principle. 

I have, for the last eight years, manufactured and sold a large 
number of these powers, during' which time they have been 
thoroughly tested, and gained a hiL'h lopnUUiunbver nil others: 
/ therefore challenge compctufon ! 

At the great trial of Horse Towers at Geneva, in lf^lO, where 
it was thoroughly tested, ii received the New York State Agri- 
cultural Society'ia First Premium, " for the best Horse Power 
for genornl pui'poses. 11 At Cleveland, <.>., in Sept., 1853, it also 
received the State Society's First Premium. Also, at the great 
Agricultural State Fair held at Pittsburg, Pa„ in 1853, it ; wae 
awarded the First Premium. 

I deem it iimieaeessry to add any further testimonials to cor- 
roborate the high recommendations here given, na the beit re- 
commend ofite merits is n thorough trial. 

The above machines are lor enle by 

CASE, HEISER & CO., 
No. <i() Sonsome street, San Francisco, Cnl. 
who are also prepared to lurni-h castings nnd extras tor repairs 
for said mtichmes, nnd are appointed my Agents to receive or- 
ders or sell my machines in future in California and Oregon. 
JOHN A. PITTS. 

Buffalo, April 1st, 1855. VJ-26 



Harvesting Implements. 

WE invite the attention of the public to the following selec- 
tion of superior Harvesting Implements: 
HuBsey's (Baltimore) Reapers; 
MeCormick'a " 

Manny's " 

Hall's* 8 horse Threshers ; 
Pitt's " " 

Emery's 2 horse " 

Kctclmm's Mowers ; 
Grant's 5 linger Wire Brace Grain Cradles ; 
Grape Vine " 

Barley Rakes ; 
Hay Hakes and Forks ; 
Scythes and Snniths ; 
Grant's Fan Mill.--, &.c, &c. 

Received and for snle by 

TREADWELL & CO., 
v3-13 corner California and Battery streets. 



Agricultural Tools nml Seeds;. 

PARKER. WHITE & GANNETT, 
47, 59 nnd 63 Blackstonc si i 

ton, MasKi njaaiufluJturttrsof Plows, 

^Ox Yoke-, Store Tracks, Kan Mill-, 

'' Horse Powers, Mowing Machines, 

■ lehlnes, Horee Powers, 

Churns and other farm maehineiy and tools; Sluice Forks. 
Grain Cradles, Ate., StO. Also, -rowers nnd importers of all 
kinds oi Garden and Field Seeds and Trees, 
These leeds are ol the very besi quality, such as have always 
o to our cuviuiuor*, and" arc put up fol 
meet in nir ti^'ht canes. v3-18 




Potent Kiln Dryer for Gintu, VSlSjrsutWw »U-. 

A PATENT of preat merit and importan 
which will secure the desirable results shoVe named. The 

'■ to raiiC a company to carry ou the work. It 
■ 

] will please ad- 
dress Kll.h DRYER, Box 3047 Post Office, Sao I 



Coiniiiiu^l Reaper nml Bfcrtrer* 

MipInQ nnd 



A\ 









Driii;* I Dru^i ! 
JUSTreccired and 

J. U Pol 



Drvsp : 



10 Ur 
150 ». 

1000 I • 

50 r>. 
»o tb» 

10 ft- 



ub hi vets. 



rrla, (original package ;) 
: 5 groaa Capsulei ; 



u\ (warranted pure;) 

ublniuOe ; 



MurpHr.e ; 



• ETtr«cU. i 

», (wtnutol pure 



- iDcentrst«d ; 
?»•- feBsJ sjaati poM »• Kaaajal OauWi 

sen R •*•; 

a P. P. ?*t rin<«w, $Ibm ; 
30n ft . Tuaa 

Vaslei 
3000 m« VfkJte Lead ; 
900 OV*— rt^l P*infs, ctt-utwI in M l; 
10 padu OoW Loaf ; 

- -Hkr-aparillas, — orfced ; 
dowGlaw; 
900 sVtren timli sttcal Cssfnr Oils ; 
d <«B«Drut«aiaJMcdaeiSH9BtootnH 
dWw.br 

J L. POLHUra. 



cocaprisew m y* k» and • :*rv eery. 

B« the recrnt arnraj erf 



rerr #tr 



wm 
I 
» * 

Bt the rrccsst armaj of csdpper*. oar •-*• rfwi.t Ol f uods na 
n. bees sasdV rrry complete, mad we he} - . 
the pahfic wftl Bud ht to their ■ ^1 exassiae our 

stock before naakiar pwrchas«a elsrwbeve. 

Bu« Fo. **_— L ■ . eoaee. Day a«d 

Rerurd H - ■%.-, in Ru****, Sbaap and M 
Book*, iDdexfdaud Fbaai IIcsskkvsuIuuVs zmmkmmdPt*. 
Vrntrwo. A 

r*[ , N ac. Cawalopc. Tuwue, Wertar, 
and PUteriiiB Paper k. 

- 
■ .. Bocua.— A karre aad ssalssafid sssostaaewt ■■ ! Law, 
StuadWrd, Sch «J mad sft-Mfcuaeow* li- a.-. inrlnJnag nuuiy io 
rich saury bioding. in rTa M p for awuseutaL 

MiacTii aaraoca.— Oo*d Pauu. aUaor* aad Rasa* fH ia j i. 
Pocasa CMlarr. T « ■ : nVwAea . Caas\ De l. Dace, Port 

• Tuwsaaual 

Pertataery, 

On twvrml at earfc ateuaucr we r 
the J'uding W i wi p auwr^ 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



TREADWELL 




CORNER OP CALIFORNIA AND BATTRRY STRKET8. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

IMPORTERS, JOBBERS AND RETAILERS OF 

Hardware nnd Mining Tools; also, Agricultural Implements, 
Field and Garden Seeds of all descriptions, from tnc cele- 
brated House of Messrs. Ruggles, Nouree, Muson /* Co., 
Boston. 
Field and Garden Seeds of all varieties ; 
Ploughs, HarrowSlCullivatorv, Seed Sowers, of all klndsj 
Thresherp, Reapers. Mowers, Fun Mills, Straw Cattcrs, Corn 
Shellers, Vegetable Cutters', Cor- and Flour Mill*, Sausage 
Cutters and Stuffers, Horee Powers. Smut Miltn, 
Wheat Drills, Churns, Ox Yokes, Bow*, Bore* 
Rakes — together with all the small tools and 
implements appertaining to cultivation. 
N. B. — Branch House at Marysville. All orders promptly 
attended to. ^3■5 



TOBACCO. 
Virginia Manufactured Tobacco Agency. 

G< REENE, HEATH & ALLEN have removed from Calilos- 
T nia street to the cor. of Washington nnd Buttery streets 
where they otfec for sale the largest and best assortment ol 
Manufactured Tobacco ever brought to this State. The selec- 
tion wasmadeby Mr. Heath from the besi factories in Vir- 
ginia; and the trade generally are respectfully invited to call. 

Amongst the brands ofl'ercd are the following ; 
200 boxes Cruninton'a Fonr Acea ; 
75 half boxes do Medal; 
50 packages do Sovereign of the Sens 
61 1 do ' do Bride ol the Pacific ; 
](iu boxes Ihilsey's Four A's; 
luo do Saunders' Harry of the West ; 
James Boyd's Gold Lent'; 

do Anna Bishop ; 

A. Thomas' ('Uib House; 
Ferguson's Starol the W« I 
Miller & Crenshaw's Bluff City; 
Royetor's Mary's Own; 

[nvmciulo; 
Thornton's (,'anteloj)' ; 

- Witch's Eye ; 
.. ten Metropolitan. 
Inaddu: . , we hiivc 2,000 paCMMgee of ordinary 

■ i -.,■■■ ■. ■ the Man- 
,'iiisli the trade »itli any minn- 
thy or quality required, al Ihi t3-I6 



so 


do 


so 


do 


•-'.', 


do 


so 


do 


, 


do 


'.'II 


,l,i 


•111 


dti 


111(1 


,lu 


so 


do 


.,11 


do 



Now is your Time to Suy Cheap ' Goods I 

HAMBURGER 4c BROTHERS, who have Lk> 



■ 
II qualitti 

■ inliroider 



■ 






Straw I'., i 



and | 

i ■ 

I 
i; ods t-*j i.umer- 

ItT to fell 

direct Un- 
Ije Ut yourself. 

near Fourth, Sacramento. 

i .Silk and 



W 






wMnhhSrivaWSSlSwSalvsli dir.xtlr.m the irwm 

iilpa "J 

WCt, mmkeju I - 
- msruc"! And for • 
1 we my, with"-. 
the greatest Tarkty to b* 

By the Two Last Steamers. 
900 Parufob, new, rich nod beaothal ; 

pa, UteFt attle Bonnet RiUk-b* and Trir 
Baresuu and Ti«*ues» 
W patternii fiu»ry Barere* and Twau ea ; 
US pa. pi«a and do-ud dunWas ; 

Ipedaad plain Jacooet; 
8G 

■ens', Ycu'.hi" and Boys/ Summer CI 
u«e m New York 
m--e- ■ HmlU. 1' 
Tofether with a freat variety of ether 
Fourth of July niisfcisdou, 

t3-» 



era and 



' kucp 



loo a 

3i6 2 ttrtxt. bttweea 



b-»t>^l«^ K ti» ol.l , 



. utfr and t omimM.,,. 

rpH£ ntHrrlar tmtiat prtkwl lk« eottre Kml of 

I 'ttlr, m Oi« Burnte > 

Cm* aoKdw-Kl to ib* Kmrtum W«MM^ 

i:.- fc ojBMw . (i 

M nd - 

. rm* mvtj on 

wB nfeeff,, 

■ad hope* w rcttte . ooctacv tun of tA. , M :n>- 
—r- 

»«nc»»Mi 0». BdKr * i ■ J >v I 
Iwmet Ooftf. kito i K ,4 

Win 
^EAS orruis i»ij.r< tathm 

Mrwlrtifc tn . t ii ij olM. M i.TUte... 
W Inn of tkr Bnatr. W«r^ 

■ «or*l fVrc, u •( ■« *- 



M* lilTfor i <->■* 

■kutdatdpr ho«r MJK Mai H« al «gBJ a BJ| 
- ■,'-l.; I r»-i;Kl 




Valht C 



16 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



flarutus 



Words that are often used together, become 
associated in the mind ; and unless we resist the 
force of verbal association, we shall often say 
something different from what we mean. 

Jean Paul says, men's feelings are always 
purest and most glowing in the hour of mectirg 
and farewell ; like the glaciers, which are trans- 
parent and rosy-hucd only at sunset, but through- 
out the day gray and cold. 

"Pop" on Pay. — It is reported that, in event 
of a war, the government intend making a tax on 
all bachelors. The only remedy for these unfor- 
tunates then will be for them to make attacks 
upon all spinsters. 

The End. — " Ven do you think de world will 
come to an end ?" asked a German, " Oh, proba- 
bly in about three months," answered the joker, 
"Ho, veil, I no care for dat" exclaimed Hause. 
With a smile of satisfaction, l! I pe going to Puffalo 
dis spring." 

An eminent rider has undertaken, for a heavy 
wager, to ride the well known horse Chestnut 
against the celebrated horse Radish. He will use 
a saddle of mutton, and the spurs of necessity, for 
the occasion. — Exchange. 

Pike asks if the trial will come off over the 
Course of Time. 

Nature and Art. — "Ah, Eliza," cried a 
Puritan preacher to a young lady who had just 
been making her hair into beautiful ringlets : 
"had God intended your locks to be curled, he 
would have curled them for you." When 1 was 
an infant," replied the damsel, "so he did; but 
now I am grown up, he thinks I am able to do it 
myself." 

Novel Bee Hiving. — A bee-hiving extrordin- 
ary came off in Houston, Texas, a short time ago. 
The swarm was passing over a train of cotton 
wagons, when they became confused by the noise. 
and descended, choosing as a setting place, the hat 
of the wagoner, on which they piled up after the 
style of an old grenadier's bear skin. The hat 
was then removed to a wagon and conveyed six 
or eight miles, and the bees securely hived. 

He Forgot Something. — "What did your 
mother say, my little man ? Did you give her my 
card ?" asked an inexperienced young gentleman 
of a little boy, whose mother had given him an 
invitation to call on her, and whose street door 
was accordingly opened to his untimely summons 
by the urchin aforesaid. " Yes. I gave it to her," 
was the innocent reply; "and she said if you 
wasn't a nat'ral fool, you would not come Monday 
morning, when every body was washing." At 
this juncture, mamma, with a sweet smile of wel- 
come, made her appearance at the end of the hall, 
when to her surprise, Mr. Verisopht, the visitor, 
bolted. " What docs the man mean?" inquired 
the mamma in astonishment. "I dunno, but 
guess he's forgot suthin," replies bub. 

Enough for One Bed. — Emigration in the 
State of Michigan was so great during the years 
of 1835-6, that every house was filled every night 
with travelers wanting lodging. Every traveler 
there, will remember the difficulty of obtaining a 
bed in the hotel, even if he had two or three 
strange bed-fellows. The Rev. Rosea Brown, an 
eccentric Methodist minister, stopped one night 
at one of the hotels in Ann Arbor, and inquired 
if he could have a room and bed to himself. The 
bar-keeper told him he could unless they should 
be so crowded as to render it necessary to put 
another in with him. At an early hour, the rev- 
erend gentleman went to his room, locked the 
door, retired to his bed, and was soon asleep. To- 
wards midnight, he was aroused from his slum- 
ber by a loud knocking at his door. " Hallo ! 
you there," he exclaimed, " what do you want 
now?" "You must take in another lodger, sir," 
replied the voice of the landlord. " What ! anoth- 
er yet?" "Why, yes; there is only one here, 
is there?" "One! Why, here is Mr. Brown, a 
methodist preacher, and myself, already, and I 
think that's enough for one bed. even in Michi- 
gan." The landlord seemed to think so too, and 
left them to their repose." 



MEDICAL. 




San Francisco ahead of the World ! 

Ever on, on apace with the Age and Times ' ! 
Hiirrnh for Vance's new Dnguerrean Gallery! 

Largest Light in the World, (over 500 feet Glass. ^ 

New Building, cor. Sacramento and Montgomery streets. 

\\J"HY should every one go to Vance's who wiehe 
YT PERFECT LlKEKJ33S£3i Because he has now the 
ocst arranged, Gallery on the Pacific Const, nnd not to be eur 
passed hy any in the world. Instruments containing lenses 
more perfect, and with grentor power than any ever before 
used in this country. 

2d. Because he has the largest tight in the imrld, from which 
he can lorm three distinct lights — top, side, ami half fide lights 
— thnt now enables him to overcome the groat difficulty which 

every artist la thin city has to contend with — namely : In order 

to obtain perfect likenesses*?, different formed features require 
differently arranged lights. 

3d. Hming the largest light, he is enabled to mnke pictures 
in half the tune of uny other establishment in the city ; there- 
fore they must be more pericct, for it is well known, the shorter 
the time the more naturul the expression. 

4th. Because every plate Is cnrehdly prepared wltb a coating 
ot pure silver which produces the clear, bold nnd lastmgplcturq 

th:d Ifl "i, much admired, ami which BDDIIOt be produced on the 
common plntc-H.aii they lire now used by Other WtlatS, 

5th. Because he baa oi lnt<\ after much experimenting brought 

his chemical preparations to perfection, using compound* en* 

dreg different from anything; ever before uscdintheart, which 

e him to produci- perfect Itfenesses, at. every sitting, with 
that clear, soil and buautii u ; tone, so much admired in all bis 
i . 
AH those whthing perfect likenesses will do well to call before 
ittlnceliowhere, andjudaeforthnnMelvot, 

-j ■ Prices as reasonable, and work superior to any in the' 

Don't forget the plncr, 

Zj?~ New Building corner oi Sacramento and Montgomery 
streets, entrance on Montgomery, next door to Austin's 17 



IT IS A FIXED FACT, 
CONSUMPTION CAN BE CURED! 

SIR JAMES CLARK, Physician to 
Queen Victoria, and one of the most 
learned and skillful men of the age, in 
his " Treatise" on Consumption, says : 
"That Pulmunary Consumption admits 
of a cure, is no longer a matter of doubt ; 
it has been clearly demonstrated by the 
researches of Lienncc and other patholo- 
gists." Da. Cabswkll, who investigated 
such matters probably as thoroughly as 
any man, says : " Pathological anatomy has, perhaps, never af- 
forded more conclusive evidence in proof of the curability of a 
disease than it has in that of tubercular phthisis," (pulmonary 
consumption.) _ 

It Is no Fiction. 
These statements are made by men who have demonstrated 
what they say, time after time, in the crowded hospital, and in 
the truth telling dissecting room. They are from men who 
have no possible motive lor publishing what is untrue, or em- 
blazoning falsehoods. 

The Remedy which we offer 

Dr. Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry, 

has cured hundreds of ca^ea of 

Consumption of the Lungs, Liver Complaints, Coughs, 

Colds, Asthma, Bronchitis, Whooping Cough, 

Influenza, &c. 

Many oi them after every known remedy had failed to reach the 

disease. 

We can present a mass of evidence in proof of our assertion thnt 
Cm i not be Discredited. 

Db. Boyoen, a Physician in Muine, env* r "I have recom- 
mended the u?e ot' DR. WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD 
CHERRY lor diseases of the lungs lor two yearn past, and 
many bottles to my knowledge have been used By my patient*, 
all with beneficial results. In two ca*ed, when- it was thought 
Confirmed Consumption had Uikcn place, the Wild Cherry ef- 
fected a cure. 

Dit. A. H. MaCanaib, of Tarboro, North Carolina, Writes \u>, 
under date of Feb. 14, 1854, that he has used DR. WISTAR'S 
BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY in his practice the la-it eighteen 
months, and considers it the best propnnition of the kind he 
ever saw, and knows of none eo deserving the public patronage. 

Db, War. A. Shaw, of Washington, D. C, says: "I wi-h 
hearty success to your medicine. I consider every case of ar- 
rest of the fatal symptoms of pulmonary disease as a direct 
tribute to suffering humanity. 

Samuel A. Walker, Esq.. a gentleman well known in tins 
vicinity, writes as follows : "Having experienced results of a 
satisfactory character, from the use of WISTAR'S BALSAM 
OF WILD CHERRY In cases of severe colds during the past 
two years, I am induced to express the gratification I feel trom 
the favorable effects that followed) end (klflO the lull faith I have 
in the renovating power of Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry. 

Hon. Samuel S. Pehkins says: "Fur several days I had 
been suffering from the effects ot' a severe cold, accompanied 
by a very sore throat and elok headache, which completely in- 
capacitated mo from business. 1 had taken but a very small 
portion of a sinsle bottle of this Balsam, when I experienced 
immediate relief. My cough was broken up nt once, and my 
iun«s entirely relieved from the pressure which had become so 
painful. 

[From the Boston Journal.] 
Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry. 

" This medicine, coming from a respectable source, and care- 
fully prepared by un experienced and skillful physician, is 
received by the public with confidence. Its elfieacy has been 
proved in many obdurate cases ot' disease, and its fame has 
rnpidly extended." 

It is a powerful remedy for Asthma, as will be seen by the 
following cure : " Sir — Having been uttlicted for more than 
thirty years with the Asthma, at times so severely as to inca- 
pacitate me from attendance to business, and having adopted 
many medicines without any but temporary relict, I purchased 
several bottle* of WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY, 
from the cflecta of which I obtained more relief than from all 
the medicine I had ever taken for that di-tres-ini; disorder. 1 
have, by the repeated use ol your valuable Balsam, been more 
free of pressure for breath, and oppression on the lungs, than 1 
anticipated, and, indeed, conceivo myself cured of the most dis- 
heartening malady. C. D. MAYNARD. 

Argus Office, Portland, March 20, 1850." 

Fifty Thousand Parsons die mutually in England of Con- 
sumption I In the New England CJtates the proportion I on« 
to four or five. In Boston, probably, one in four. In the city 
of New York Hixty-seven died in two wcelcs, in December, of 
tins disease. The more fact that riueh a disease Is •■■•<- curable, 
attested by such unimpeachable authority, should inspire hope 
and reanimate failing courage in the heart of sufferer from thin 
disease. 

Jit-wore of Counterfeits nml Imitations — Syrups, 
and all oilier preparations of Wild Cherry. Remember, they 
imitate in name, without possessing the virtues. Buy none but 
the genuine 

Dr. Wistar's BalBam of "Wild Cherry. 

Signed I. BUTTS on the wrapper. 
BETH W. FOWLE, 

Proprietor, Boston, Mass. 

53^* Agents for San Francisco, 



BANKERS. 



v3-16 



B. B. THAYER & CO., 
Montgomery street 



Surgery. 

E. B. COLE, M. D., 

Late Lecturer on Surgery and the Diseases of Women ; Late 
Member of the Board of Censor* of the Sun FrOMcUco Medi- 
cal Society; Member of the California Ar.adt.my of Natural 
Sricnce?, and Corresponding Member of several Medical 
Societies in the South am! /.'<..'. 

Office— Atheneum Building, 

South-east corner of Montgomery and California streets, 

opposite Wells, Fargo &, Co. 

DR. R. B. COLE, for many years a Medical Prnctitionor in 
the city of Philadelphia, and tor the past three years in 
this city, would re-'pecttully minouncc that, in consequence of 
a most serious injury received somu months finer, with which 
thiB community arc familiar, he will in future confine himself 
principally to his oifice, where he proposes to treat all 

Surgical Diseases, 

feeling assured as he does that his former connection with 
Medical Schools and Honpitah, together with the extensive 
practice he has enjoyed for the past ten years, peculiarly 
qualify him for the successful practice of surgery. Oi the of- 
lection* to which Dr. Cole has devoted much of his attention, 
may be mentioned : Turmors and morbid growths, occurring 
on any nart of the body, Disease of the Spine, Chronic Ulcera- 
tions, Cancerous AhVelionn, Dropsies, Diseases of the Bones 
and Joints, Diseases of Kye, Ear nnd Skin. Affections of the 
Bladder, Urethra, Scrotum and Testis (or in other words, all 
• of the Geni to-Urinary Appara'u-;) and Deformities, 
whether congenital or the result of accident, amongst which 
may be enumerated, Club-Font, Badlytreati d Fractures, Con- 
tractions of the Limbs and loss of substance about the face, the 
result of disease or accident. Dr. Cole has also for many years, 
and continues still to pay special attention to obstetrics and the 
treatment of all diseases peculiar to Females. 

Patients from the interior will be provided with suitable 
boarding houses and experienced and nttentive nurses. 

! Morning. From 10 till 12. 
Afternoon, " - 2 " 5. 

Evening, " 7 " 9. v3-12 



Great Bargains t Selling off 1 1 
SAMUEL ^JELLY'S 

48 J street, between Second and Third, Sacramento. 

ALARdK assortment of fine English um i Swiss Watches, 
with adjust. -d chronometer balances, selected by mo from 
me beet manufacturers, and warranted perfect time keepers, 
together with a well selected stock of 

Diamonds and Rich Jewelry, 

purchased by me for cash, mid lor sale lower than tho same 
goods have been offered In this city, 

Diamonds set in any style. Quartz-work mudo to order. 
Clocks, Wutchos uad Jewelry repaired to order. 

rSSS SAMUEL JELLY, 48 J street. 



. WELLS. FARGO & CO., 

BANKERS.— Bills of Exchange for sale on New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia and St. Louis. 

Also, on the following Eastern Cities : 

Adrian, Mich., Gnlona, 111., Pottsville, Pa., 

Albany, N. Y., Geneva, N. Y. ( Providence, R. L, 

Alton, 111., Hamilton, O., Racine, Wis., 

Ann Arbor, Mich., Jackson, Mich., Reading, Pa., 

Ashtabula, O., Kalamazoo, Mich., Rochester, N. T., 

Auburn, N. Y., Kenosha, Wis,, Sundnsky, O., 

Battle Creek, N. Y., Losolle, 111., Sheboygan, Wis , 

BinghamtOD, N. Y., Loclfcport, N. Y., Silver Creek, N. Y., 

Buffalo, N. Y., Louisville, Ky., South Bend, lod., 

Canandolgua, N. Y., Mansfield, O., Springfield, O., 

Chicago, III.. Mich. City, Ind., Springfield, 111., 

Cincinnati, O., Milwaukie, Wis,, Stonington, Conn., 

Cleveland, O., Monroe, Mich., . Syracuse, N. Y., 

Columbus, O.. Mount Vernon, O., Tiffin, O., 

Corning, N. Y., Newark, O., Toledo, O., 

Daytoni O., Miles, Mich., Troy, N. Y., 

Detroit, Mich., Oswego, N. Y., Ulicn, N.Y., 

Dunkirk, N. Y., Owego, N. Y„ Westfield, N. Y., 

Ehniro, N. Y., Pain esvi lie, O., Xcnia, O., 

Erie, Pa., Peoria, III., Znnesvijle, O., 
Dbatts on Canada deawn on 

Montreal, Quebec, Hamilton and Toronto. 

Drafts on Europe dhawn on 

Union Bank of London London. 

National Bank of Scotland Edinburgh. 

Royal Bank of Ireland Fu'iiin. 

Livingston, Wells & Co., (our house) Paris, 

v3-24 WELLS, FARGO &, CO. 

JOSEm C. PALMER, GEoRGK W. WR.K3BT, 

CHARLES W. COOK, BDWAKD JONES. 

PALMER, COOK & CO., 

BANKERS, comer ol Washington and Kearny streets, front- 
iiiL' the I'luza, San Francisco, California, buy and sell E\- 
changa on all the principal Eastern cities. Bullion, Certificates 
ol Deposit, etc, bought at the highest market rates. 

Collrctioiii. made arid Honey Transmitted, and all business 
connected with bankinir transacted. 
15^ Agent m New York— 
v3-23 JOHN COOK, Jn., 31 Broadway 

PllEXKL. SATIIER & CHURCH. 

BANKERS, corner of Commercial and Montgomery streets, 
draw ut Bight, In sums to suit, on 

Van Vleck, Read &. Drcxel, 27 Wall 6t New York. 

Bank of North America Boston. 

Mechanics' and Farmer**' Bank Albany 

Drcxel &. Co Philadelphia, 

Johnston Bro, &. Co * Baltimore. 

J. B, Morton, Esq Richmond. Va. 

A. D. Jones, chasnier. Pittsburg, Pa. 

A. J. Wheeler, Esq Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A. D. Hunt, Esq Loui-ville, Ky. 

J R, Mi.cmurdo 6c Co New Orleans. 

Also, on Detroit, otioh.; Memphis and Nashville, Tonn., Co 
Iambus, Ohio : NorfoUi, Va., and Charleston, South Carolina. 



NEW BOOKS. 

ANNA CLAYTON; or The Mother's Trial. I2rao., 
cloth. Price $1. (Two edition? in one week.) 
A well-conceived and finely written tale, of high mora 1 ex 
colleuce. — [Boston Courier. 

It is one of the most ert'ective works Issued during the past 
few years. — [Transcript, 
Ii Eg decidedly the best popular talc of the season, — [Bee. 

Second edition of ISurnham's History of the Hen Fever. 
12mo„ cloth. 81 25. 

The Boston Traveller says, "Tho sale of this book has al- 
ready been immense — amounting in two weeks, to 20,00(1. 

Burnham's now volume, the "History of the Hen Fever," 
Lb destined to have n great run. It is capitally written and il- 
lustrated, and is brim full of fun and spice. It will surely 
crente a sensation. — [Ballou's Pictorial. 

Turkey and the Turks. By Dr. J. V. C. Smith, Mayor of 
Boston. 320 pages. 12mo., cloth. 7S0. 

It in a most excellent work. It will have a large sale, for it 
embraces more real information about real Turks nnd their 
strange peculiarities than anything we have yet read.— [Post 

The MattsarJiutetts State Record. One or the most valuable 
American Statistical Works. 5 vols. 12mo., cloth. |5 

The X> "■ Hampshire FtMivaL A graphic account ol the As- 

sembloee ol the "Sons of New Hampshire," at Boston, Bon, 
Daniel "W' btter presiding. Illustrated. 6vo., cloth, pilt. 91 50. 
nd Frtttrai "nftlii: Sons of A sis Hampshire ." Illustrated 
with portraits of Webster, Wilder, Applctbn, and Ch lettering. 
8vo.,cratb, gilt. $1 SO. 

Festival. \l ?ols. in one. gvo., cloth, gilt $2. 

Eleanor; it, j, if Wlthtfttt tow, ISmo., cloth, 73 cents. 

EnglnuJ and America, Illustrated. LSmu., cloth. 75 cents. 

Sunshine and Shade; or, the Denham Family, lgtno., cloth. 
37 '.a cents. 

The Dream Fulfilled. 18030., cloth. 42 cents. 

Tnlmi'dir Mazim.*. Translated from the Hebrew. 18mo., 
clotb. 50 cents. 

ConsunijUiiin FuresiaUi-d and prevented, 18mo,, cloth. 37cts. 

VoMtion and <W/t Talcs, [6mo., cloth, 62 cent*. 

The Art of Conversing. Fourteenth edition. 32mo., cloth. 

gilt edges. ;i7 cents. 

Floral Gems; or, the Songs of Vie Flowers. 32mo., cloth. 
gilt adfiee. 

The Amethyst t or, j'nrtiral Gems. 33mo., gilt. 37 cents. 
Ziun. With Illustrative tltla 33ma 37 < 

Sunmis, By F.dwaid Muxon. SSmo. 31 cents. 

Gnu/s Eltgy, and other Forms. 32mo. 31 cents. 

Turnover. A Tale uf New Hampshire. Paper. 25 cents. 
Popular School Books. 

Foster's Book-Kaping. Twelfth cditiuu. 8to., cloth, extra. 
Price «l. 

Foster's Book-Keeping, by single entry, exemplified in two 
sets of books. Boards. 38 cents. 

French's System of Practical Penmanship. Twenty-seventh 
edition. 25 cents. 

This little treatise eecmswcll fitted torench everything which 
can be taught of tho theory oi Penmanship. — [Post 

Tlic best and mo.*t useful publication of the kind that we 
have leed.— [Transcript. 

Beauties of Writing. 75 cents. 

Boston Copy-Booh. 42 cents. 

Ladles Copy-Book. IT cents. 

Boston Elementary Copy-Bnoh. 12 cents. 

Cook's System of Penmanship, 37 cents. 

Tkz Art of Pen Drawing. 75 cents. 

Fn itch's A'nr Writing Book, with a fine engraved copy on 
each page. In four numbers, 

Nu. 1 con J aim the First Principles 10 cts. 

8 A tine Copy Hand 10 " 

3 A bold Business Hand Writing 10 " 

4 Bountiful Epistolary Writing for the Lady. 10 " 

A new nnd original system ol Writing Books, which cannot 
fail to meet with lavor. — [Bee. 

It Is easily acquired, practical and beautiful. — [Fitchburg 
Sentinel, 

We have no hesitation in pronouncingthem superior to any- 
thing of tho kind ever Issused. — [Star Spangled Banner. 

In Press. 

THF, SUnn ANCHOR. 

EQUAL RIGHTS OF THE RICH AND POOR. 

EXILES LAY, AND OTI1EK FOEMS. By the Border 
Minstrel. 

THE COOPKR'3 SON; OR, THB PRIZE OF VIRTUE. 

THE VACATION; OR, MRS. STANLEY AND HER 
CHILDREN. 

Till; SOCIABLE STORY TELLER. 

; #=' Sin id e copies scut free of postage upon tho receipt of 
the ratoU piici'. 

Orders solicited. 

JAMES FRENCH & CO., Publishers, 

No. 78 "Washington street, Baoton. 
Denlcrs In ull kinds of Stationery. v3-25tf 



Kerry Notice. 

"VT"OTICE U hereby given to all persons Interested, thnt the 
jji undersigned will ayply to the Board of Supervisors of 
Bacromonto county, on the IS h day of June, 1855, ii said board 
shall then bo m session ; If nut, then on the first day thereafter 
thnt thi'y ■-huh bo in session, ii>r a renown] "t bb Ucanse ti> keep 
two (si'rioi across the American river; one commonly known 
as " tioyt's I'Viry," near where 98th street ofSnorumentq CUy 
Intersects said liver; and tho other commonly known as the 
" Middle or Muldmw Forry," about twoand rma-half miles Irom 
said flacrameuto City. SAMUEL NOR1US. 1 

baciiuneiito, May 10th, 1855. v94M 



MISCELLANEOUS. 




COLLINS & CO., 
PRACTICAL HATTERS, 

(pKEantUM IIAT STOBJB,) 

157 Commercial 9trect l San Francisco. 

THE undersigned would take this opportunity to return their 
thanks to tBeir friends nnd the public geuerally for the very 
libera] share oi patronage which tiny have received. They take 
pleasure in now announcing that they are determined that no 
one shall surpass them in the beauty, or finish, or outiHty of a 
Hat ; that no gent shall, wear u finer Hat than can be found at 
Collins & Co.'s Warehouse. 

Tho proprietors of this establishment exert themselves to 
manufacture to order the latest style* and most approved pat- 
terns. The stock of HATS and CAPS, of every kind, now 
on hand, cannot be surpassed in this city. 

17 COLLINS A. CO. 



IREADWELI 




CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND MAIDEN LANE, 

MARYSVULE. 

Corner of California and Battery sirrr.t*, San Francisco. 

No. 56 Federal street, Boston. 

iMPonTEha of Hardware, Iron, Steel, Cordage, Paints, OU 

Varnish and Window GlOBS, direct from tin- Atlantic States nn 

Europe, with a complete assortment op tools and imd,i 

MENTS for Farnur.-, Miners, CarpentErs f Qoopers, Caulker* ant 

Gravers, Saddlers, Tvmers, Masons, Smiths-, Painters, Glaziers, 

Ship Carpenters, frlieelwrigfur, Millwrights, Cabinet Makers, 

and others. v3-5 



PACIFIC EXPRESS COMPANY. 



mm 



LdSi 



fTUlE late employees of Adams & Co., Inconsequence of the 
'\_ disruption «f that firm, hnvQ thomaatves into a 

joint stock company, under the above name and title, lor the 
purpose of conducting a General Express and Forwarding 
business in nil it3 branches, throughout California, Oregon and 
the Pacific Coast generally. 

The business wDI be strictly and nolcly a forwarding one, 
having no ooonectlon with banki and bonkers, and will bo con- 
junct! on sale nnd economical principles, 

Thfl Expresses will leave the office at the north-west corner 
of Washington and Montgomery streets, drily, ot regular hours, 

for Sacramento nnd the Northern Mines. Stockton and tho 
Southern Mines, San Jose, San Junn ami Sania Cruz, Mon- 
terey. Han I'edro and the Soutbei B| ally, un well as 

to the Northern Coast of California and Ore 

Wi; will also ran a TttUlar £ i lit, Small Par- 

eel-' and Letters to and lrom the Aliunde Suites by crcry 
steamer. 

The parties who have organized this compnny ore well 
known in the. community BB old and expeneneed express men, 

and hope it will be acknjowlodgcd generally, understand 

thoroughly. They think they are hQtMVblg too inueh. 
when tl iej much of tho enccn«N of the into firm of 

Adams & Co. in the express business to their exertions and 
personal energies. 

In conclusion tliey would solicit a fair chare of the favors of 
the public, pledging thOmelveS tO exert their lu:?t endeavora to 

transact such business as may lw entrusted to thctmnaprompt 
nnd busim-fls-iike manner, 

Collections ol nil kinds will be promptly attended to at any 
of the points mentioned above. 

R. G. NOYES, President 

San Francisco, March 1st, 165$, v3-10. 



WAINWRIGHT, RANDALL & CO., 
Real Estate and Stock Auctioneers, 

No, 100 Merchant street, Sari Francisco, California. 

WE respectfully inform our friendn and the public gener- 
ally, that we have connected with our other business 
that of House Bbokebaoe and GsnEBAL Directort, 
nnd have made extensive arrangements ibr conducting them 
Bntisiaccoruy to all who may favor u* with their patronage. 

As these new branches possess pome novel [catwea, and not 
having been heretofore Introduced in thli city, we deem it pro- 
per to make manliest their advantages, not only to our own 
citizens, but to all who may visit our city. 
House Brokerage. 
This department is an agency for leasing and letting Dwelling 
Houses, Stores, Shops, Rooms nnd Building* of every dose rip 
tion, and will receive the attention which Its Importance do 

mauds. Irom the advantages derived from the "Directory 

Department,*' fill( l having made arrangements for receiving" 
Information Immediately when premises are vacated, we shall 

fioseess superior facilities lor providing, at the shortest dpticc, 
[otises. Rooms and Places of Business of all kind-', in any purt 

Of the city where required. All persons who may have vacant 

premises will find thla a desirable medium of obtnliilng tenants 
for the same, nnd their business bj respeotfuuy BoliemxL 
GenerU Divcc-iory. 

This department will include a registry, (already prepared,) 
of ull persona, (except Chinese,) within the Limits 01 the city, 
by reference to which we will Uo enabled t" give the name and 
residence of all Merchants, Mechanics, Artists, Professional 

Men, Laborers, and those out ol I Icll will he con- 

tinually corrected, as they change their residence; and will re- 
ceive auditions from time to tune, nn new comers errii i . 

We consider the information which our reghterwlfl afford 
to be of tsseutial importance. OS well to our own community as 
to strangers, from the ractoi changes occurring so frequently 
among us, and it having beau demonstrated mat published 
directories are neaj ly useless In » month or two ■ 
sued. This with other information in our possession, enables 
us to present a complete epitome ol the entire city, which we 
shall keep ''posted up," to keep puce with the movsnaonta of ita 

inimljitniits. 

This department will he under tho snpsrviatoX of an agent 
who bos had a large experience in this branch, here and cUo 
where, 

To give an idm of the extent of OUT Registry, we mny men- 
tion that U]» to tint pri-riit time it conlaiut tln-'nimirn nnd ad- 
dresn of forlitfhrh thousand persons, with the place ol their 
nativity, occupation*, etc., which has required several months 
ol labor to compile. 

We Invite the attention of the public to our r*tahlUfim(tnh 
v3-18 WAINW1UUI1T, RANDALL & CO. 



Pottery! Pottery 1 1 

NOW ready and lor sale at the SACRAMENTO POTTEHY, 
on .1 street, near Sutter's l-'ort.n large ntsoitmcul ol Plain 
and Fancy Flower Pott; Ruttei id Cult 

Jam, with covers ; OreamPota, Ohums. MUr Pans, -■'■■ 
Stovepipe Safos, ol i*uporioi qualloi with ever] 
the line. Wares mode l> 
leltod to onll and purchtue. Orders to I 
No. *J0I J street. . 
TM CHARLES TAYLOR, AgcnL 




SJtn&i D(ptnirtfi(Sll ®$ 



UlssiS®! §rt&m$&> 



VOL. IV. 



SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, FRIDAY MORNING, JULY 20, 1855. 



NO. 3. 



(i Ijc (f •dUfomut Jamiir 

AMD JOtTRVAI, OF USEFUL SCIENCES. 



B7 WARREN & SON. 

POBLISnED EVERY F'iU I> A Y MORNIN... 

Ojfiee—an Fourth street, between J and K t Sarramenta. 

Tcbms. — Six dollars pCr winum, in ndrance. Par a club 

•f five new subscriber-., wc will send r pixth copy gratis. 

A limited number of Adverti3i*mentB inserted at lair rates. 

AGENTS. 
J. <!. A. Warren. Boston. — For all the Eastern States. 
Messrs. Wells, Fargo & Co. — At their Offices throughout the 
On -try: 

Pacific Express Company. — At all their Offira* in the State. 
L. P. Fisher, Newspaper Agent, San Francisco. 
Messrs. Haven -fc Baker. — Napa City and County. 
Gardner &. Kirk, Newspaper and Booksellers, Sacramento, 

Messrs. Lanoton &. Co. for Dawnict'dle, Foster's Bar, Good- 
year'* liar, Minesota. 

Messrs. Leland &■ McC.oombe — Crescent City, Port Orford, 
UiUnntoxn, Earcke+nnd Bucksport. 

Sullivan's newflpaper stand, No. 5 Post Office Building; Kim- 
ball's, Noisy Carriers HhII, J.onz wharl— San Francisco. 

P. Freer, BidmlVs, Hutu Co. * ' ' 

D G.\Vuldron& Co. Coloma, 

Trend well &. Co., Marysvxllc. 

Jnme* &. Co., Napa. 

A. W. Potter, Nevada. 

Nft«h & Davis, Plaeerville. 

C. O. Burton, Stockton. 

^r.Thomas J. Hnrvey, P. M.. 
San Luis Obispo. 

Cram, floors &■ Co., Yre.ka. 

HciwiudA-Chftmberlain, Vn'n 
City, and Mission an Jos?. 



A, Hunnewell, P. M., ColunJbit 
I Coffin, Mokrlumne Hill 
Gen. M. M. MuCnrver. Mount 

Farm, O. T. 
Dudley &■ Co., Napa City. 
Baker *fc Hamilton, Sacramento, 
Tunny & Roberts, Sovora. 
A. EL Murdoch, P. M., Union, 

H'imbiiUlt Bay. 
Worth Si SturgM, Martinez. 
Benj, Dodd, Benicia. 
J. M. Tluirlmrn&Co. New York 
City, N. Y. 

*.* Postmasters throughout the Stale are kindly invited to act 
/„r „,. 

We desire our Agents to report to us on the 1st of every 
monlb, the increase of names and the prospects, together with 
the amount due the oflice. 



they existed in a metallic state, or in the form of 
earths and oxides as they now do. But these 
inquiries, however interesting, are not called for 
on this occasion, and are therefore inadmissible. 
What we are chiefly to notice is, that except some 
such disarrangement, or contrivance, as now pre- 
vails had taken place, we could not have that 
mixture of soils, which is so essentially necessa- 
ry to the very existence of the plants, on which 
we principally depend for our subsistence. To 
show this more evidently, and also to enable us 
to adopt some rule by which the agricultural na- 
ture of soils may be ascertained, I adduce the 
following table: 



g OsBOOtB'fl'ii'flrgoo^to 
a'*, re >«« 2-3 ! I : E'^s » ; 

*&»&£-; f.8>j t : : K?l i 

lis; B i II; • i ;5s: : 



AGRICOLA'S LETTERS.— NO. 8. . 
On the Origin and Composition of Soils. 
Editors Farmer : It is well known to every 
one, that any soil, on which grass grows, contains, 
in greater or less abundance, all the constituents 
of a fertile soil, capable of growing all the crops 
which farmers generally cultivate : and, as a gen- 
eral rule, that the greater the quantity of grass 
which any given soil naturally produces ' 
•< i r its capability of yielding all kin 
crops; although this is not the rase in every in 
stance. But before fertility can be obtained, or 
even anything else than mere barrenness, it is 
necessary that the soil should contain a great 
number of different constituents, many of which, 
in most instances, are not to be found in the 
rocks over which it lies. But the Earth is so 
constituted that this apparent difficulty is ob- 
viated in a very simple manner. The rocks which 
overlie each other in regular strata, like tho leaves 
of a book, following each other as its successive 
pages, (only that a leaf here and there, and some- 
times more, are occasionally wanting,) have been 
as it would appear purposely disarranged, and (as is 
generally the case) the lower strata by some con- 
vulsion of nature pushed up at suitable intervals 
right through those that overlie them, leaving 
their edges exposed to the action of the attuos- 
pheric elements, tho lower strata frequently form- 
ing the tops of the prominences or mountains so 
produced; and the rain and springs, which flow 
from the mountain-sides, running down their 
slopes, and over the exposed edges of the several 
strata of which as we have seen they arc com- 
posed, so disintegrate, mix, and combine their 
Component |wrts, as to make, in ihe valleys be- 
low, soils possessed of all the requisites of terlil- 
ily, and all the constituents of cultivated plants. 
Consequently, as we ascend Ihe mountains, we 
not only find a less temperate climate, where the 
same plants as grow at their base decline 1 for want 
of warmth, but also a less genial soil, formed of 
grosser materials and in a less suitable commix- 
ture. 

It would be idle here to insinuate, as some do, 
that this beautiful and necessary arrangement, 
for growing the plants and vegetables on which 
we subsist, shows evidently that the Karlh. as 
now constituted, exhibits but the "vestiges* of 
some former and > in, when the several 

strata lay horizontally, one above the other in 
regular rotation ; each distinct stratum t! 
duct of a separate era. In the same way I might 
go specula:: 
came to be composed of so m 

i whether, at some previous lime, thesis 

» did noteach exist separately, arranged 

gravities. 

This would lead to another inquiry, as to whether 



op; ppppppMHotD-i 

w ifl • ©CO CI "— 'S '— ig Li Ul 13 
©TO. P^"Q ^^SOISJ.3 



From Nebstein, 
nenr Ulniutz, ill 
Moravia 



— i-* © p o p © o s 
'© \j o © © © © >— ■ 
-i 9 go - i- © t; to : 

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© © id oi -i 
'-i — iz r. '— 
~ © (i © 4- 



3 :T O © O — 10 — .1 



©© — ©©©aooo^*. 

§©to©*— AU«y»y 
© — "-©©©©— 



O^J.up-1 ~< 



• 5cojq>©tao od =cn-i 
■ ri©x~?.^ d "S© 




Fromttiebnnk 

of the Oliio, 

United Suites. 



From tti* polder 
of All- A ■ i 

ill ll.'lL'illlll 



Antien of Wheat 
mid etrnw. 

(flprwnealj 



A-lie* ui Wbjut 
.lid «trnw. 
(B.'il.-tiiKniilt.) 



£■ A.he. nf ll« 
tSpr«utolv 



' Cnrb. ol Mug. t Cftrti. el Lime. J (> '. r 

The above table is from the analyses ofSprwn- 
gol, as quoted by I,iebeg and Johnston, and of 
lloussingalt. one of the best of modern authori- 
ties — the relative proportions of ashes in numbers 
4. 5, and G being calculated from the data fur- 
nished by these chemists. This I did, to have 
the information they have afforded us, in a form, 
in which wc can more readily compare the inor- 
ganic constituents of our principal breadplant 
with those of some of tile most fertile soils, with 
which we sre scquainted. "Of these soils." I 
quote from Johnston, " the first had been cropped 
for 160 years, without cither manure or naked 
fallow. The second was s virgin soil, cclchratrd 
for its fertility. The third had not been manured 
for twelve years." This amasing fertility we arc 
not disposed to wonder at, when wc perceive 
that these soils bear so close a resemblance to the 
ashes of one of the principal grain crops, which 
may be taken as requiring one of the best of soils, 
for us perfect production. What will most strike 
any one. in the above table, is. that there should 
Booh vaiiation between Sprengel and Bous- 
singault. in regard to Ihe analysis of the same 
plant. This was no doubt owing to the different 
movies of analyzing adoptevl. While Davy found, 
in good English wheat, an amount of glutinous 
matter, varying from 10 to 24 per cent., i 
Mngault found, in that of the neighborhood of 
Paris, but 0.2. This was by mechanical analy- 
sis, which gave only 9.2 of raw gluten ; but the 
quantity t>f nitrogen, contained in the same wheat, 
indicated 14.4 per cent, of raw gluten. The dif- 
ference (6.3 per cent.) he ascribes to the Tegeta- 
i ble albumen and gluten, carried away by washing 
in the mechanical analysis. After all. this is an 
extraordinary difference from Dsvy ; and when 
I tin.: Pereira quoting Odessa hard wheat, which 
has more gluten in it than English wheat, or any 
1 am acquainted, as contamiag 
and French as W '»<'.. a statement, which, 
from my own experience, I know must approxi- 
mate to their relative propot tioas, I can only 
coiue to the conclusion which every one. «bo has 
paid the least at tention I* the agricultural anal t- 
sas of the best of cheats'*, mast do— that, sa 
each ha* a separate way of analyzing of his own. 



the result of their experiments, although it may- 
show the relative connection, position, or bearing, 
which the particular article analysed has to some 
other analysis by the same chemist, is not to be 
depended on, as positively containing all its con- 
stituents, and In exactly the proportions in 
which Nature or accident has conjoined them.* 
Let us therefore take the analysis of the ashes of 
wheat as made by Sprengel, who likewise anal- 
yzed the soils (Nos. 1, 2. and 3,) and observe how 
closely the constituents of the ashes resemble the 
earths of these soils. 

But let us proceed with the different items in 
the list successively: Silicia, (No. 1.) a little to 
spare; Alumina, more than three times the quan- 
tity wanted ; Oxides of iron, in excess, being but 
little wanted in the plant, although, in a certain 
state of oxidation, Iron may be useful for the de- 
composition of water, and may thus be the means 
of furnishing to the plant the gases, of which it 
is composed, in the manner in which it requires 
them ; Magnesia, more than is. wanted ; Lime, de- 
ficient; Potash and Soda, considerably deficient; 
Chlorine, deficient. Thus, this soil, which has 
grown crops for 100 years, without manure, and 
still fertile, is deficient in several of its constitu- 
ent properties — how happens this? How hap- 
pens it that a soil, having but 2-15 of the lime, 
1-9 of the potash and soda, 1-7 of phosphoric 
acid. 1-137 of sulphuric acid, and 1-80 of chlorine 
necessary to constitute perfection, is not only not 
barren, but so very productive ? To say that all 
the constituents of tho plant are contained in 
such a soil, is not answering the question satis- 
factorily ; and, as it includes a number of Inter- 
esting matters. I shall defer it. and any further 
investigation of this subject, which I may find it 
■ ss i ' n a r y to make, till neat wsek. Aomuxn.i. 

must not how«vrr oodtrr.te the lriT.lu«ble l.bor. of 

-, *- iri" conrttrutnu ut fl.nl- .re li.blc to cre.t T«rt». 

■vliich Ilia |. Inula li.vr ill 

pracurtni ana round thai the «.hu* of i 

crown on land dre-»-d with gvjaao, yielded 19.37 per cent, ul 
plumphoHc «cid; while bail bivn ma- 

nured wilh f.rm ynrd dune, only j l a U SS 7 7:1, 



A Letter from the Interior. 

CoTToNWuoo. Hh..u county, July 3. ISM. 

Messrs. Editors: Hiring had the pleasure 
of reading your valuable paper for several weeks 
past, and Deceiving that you have but little infor- 
mtaion from this section of the State, I thought it 
might be agreeable to your readers to learn some- 
thing in relation to the farming interest here, and 
therefore send you a few " notes by the way." 

Agriculture generally, is in an extremely pros- 
perous condition, bot has been subject to some of 
the drawbacks, incident to the late wet season 
and the ;«j/e of grasshoppers, which have brought 
injury to the crops, fruits and gardens. 

In relation to the grain, very much of it has 
been injured by smut, particularly that grown 
from Australia seed. Some farmers have not 
made more than half crops. From the Italian 
seed, M.ijor IV B. Reading (three miles from this) 
has a very fine crop, without the least smut, 



the grasshoppers have eaten a great deal of the 
fruit, and it is very doubtful if there will be a 
peach permitted to ripen. There are. also, upon 
tho same plat, one hundred and seventy peach 
trees of two years, growth, thirty of which an 
from pits selected by and given to Major Reading 
by his friends on his last visit to the Eastern 
States. Five of these trees, standing four and 
a-half feet in height, bore fruit this season ; and 
one tree, from a pit presented to Major R. by Sen- 
ator Wcller at Washington City,' planted in the 
spring of 1853, stands sixteen feet high, is very 
broad and in luxuriant leaf. There are, also, 
many apple, pear, cherry, English walnut and 
olive trees, pomegranates, grapes and osage or- 
ange — all were growing very finely until the 
grasshoppers arrived. The cherry trees were 
imported from Boston last January by Major S. 
J. Hensley, and were planted here in February : 
two of Liicnr standing four feet in height, had very 
line, large, ripe fruit upon them in the middle of 
May- pne of the olive trees is in very fine con- 
dition and luxuriant, and will bear next year. 
Cuttings of olives, set out last spring, are growing 
very well, and may be saved from the scourge. 

There are many thousands of grape vines — 
those of several years growth are loaded with 
fruit. Some of the cuttings of last year had 
grapes upon them, but they fell a prey to the 
ravages. Several hundreds of Locust, Pride of 
China and Cntnlpas, mostly of two years' growth, 
which had increased very much this season, hate 
been very much injured, leaves entirely stripped 
off; others, of smaller size, hsve been cut down to 
the parent stem, whilst s few have the back eaten 
entirely round the body. 

The grasshoppers made their appearance about 
'!"• 1st June .".I .11 once ale un nil M 
salads, melon vines, the tender leaves of root 
I'lauls. and then attacked the trees. 

Major Reading has tried every mode to get rid 
of them ; but though less in numbers, " their 
strength is legion still." He at first tried driving. 
A party of some thirty-five Indians, men, women 
and children, drove the grasshoppers before them 
wilh brush brooms, very successfully, into circlet 
and small pits, and collected bushels of them. 
Ibis was before they had wings: when disturbed 
now. they fill the air and merely change their 
location. All the small fruit trees have been 
w rapped with coarse bagging, which may save 
them from being killed, but probably will destroy 
the growth of this year. The grasshoppers being 
an article of choice food of the I nd ians, t hey are very 
happy to have the privilege to gather tbem : con- 
sequently, Major R. has a few women employed 
in picking them from the trees, in the hope of 
saving a lew peaches. It is quite impossible to 
shake them off, and they resist quite a strong 
wind. 

The theoi v you have advanced, in your last 
paper, in relation to this scourge, does not find 
sny support in this section. Upon the fine farm 
of Mr. 8. B, Sheldon, and also- npon the place of 



whilst acres of the Australian is very much in 

jured. The grasshoppers hare destroyed three j Mr. Love, upon the east bank of the river, near 



hundred seres of wbeat upon the ranch of Capt, 

i n the Sacramento, near Stoney Creek ; and 

one hundred acres of barley, raised by Mr. Hou- 

toun. in the same vicinity. In this county some 

j of the farmers have been obliged to cut their bar- 
ley and oats to save them from the tiesfe, which 

' has covered the fields in swarms in the coarse of 

[a few boors. The grain is nearly cut. and the 
harvest-home is just beginning 

To the fruit, gardens and young trees, the 

i grasshoppers have been and are a great calamity ; 
for they not only devour ihe fruit, rep 
young leaves and twigs, bot they eat the bark 
fiom the yoang trees-, the growth of one aad two 
i^tr*. and kaU aWam, Majat ahariaag !i», > <ei_. 
handsome and extensive garden plat upon the 
bank of the river, which is in a high state of eol- 

j ti ration Upon this be has furty-flvc peach trees. 

| three years old, that ware so heavy i,:. 
be was obliged la prep the lower limbs early in 

| May. It was snppssid they aaaaM yield seer 
sixty bushels of peaches of th* finest kind ; hat 



the mouth of Battle Creek, the grasshoppers are 
now devouring every young and tender lest 
The** farms, lying as they do at the confluence 
of two streams are almost entirely overflowed 
every spring for a short time ; causing tbe land to 
be very moist all the year. Mr. Sheldon was ob- 
liged to eat his barley before it was ripe, as taw 
giiajiiiippar. were doing it for him. not near th* 
grewmi, hat afoa* under the head of the grain. 
Mr. Lore's garden is now being d estro y ed. Th* 
jsoil is Tory wet, aad every morning th* dear 
•taad* upon th* plant, like rain, yet the pttte die* 
not leave anything untouched. 

Upoa none of the form* is this section I 
tharr ba any earn or p otatoes of aay coi-e . 
—the crop* are destroyed. TV 
j re *a*M as the (talk, aad th* viae* to 
ground. 

Upon th* form of Mem WHaon * S : 
eaght mile* above this, the, graaahoppers '. 
•ansa up 15.600 very large c afc h*** ptsat* of fan* 

to a tm- 



18 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



siderable extent. There is no place that has not 
suffered, and the loss of all young fruit and orna- 
mental trees and plants is the general expectation 

Improvements have been very general this sea- 
son. Major Reading has now over six thousand 
acres inclosed with board fencing, and other farms 
are being inclosed in the same manner. 

The health of this part of the country is very 
good. The weather has been \ery warm ; the 
thermometer ranging from 70 to 105 deg. At 
three o'clock, yesterday, it stood at 90 deg. The 
snow is fast disappearing from Shasta and Las- 
sen's Peaks, and the cool breeze from that direc- 
tion, at evening, is truly refreshing. 

The roads are in fine condition ; the stage com- 
panies and teamsters have fine stock upon them, 
thus holding put inducements to travel and 
freighting. A party of eight arrived from Yreka 
a few days since, at Slack's Ferry, on the Sacra- 
mento, having explored and found a very good 
wagon road from that place to the river, making 
the distance one hundred and forty miles, and no 
hills to obstruct the passage of freight wagons in 
any manner whatever. Itiscontemplated to open 
the road immediately, thus making it the more 
necessary to clear the Sacramento river of all ob- 
struction, to the head of navigation, twelve miles 
above this point. 

I have been particular in relating the ravages 
of the grasshopper, as it is the inquiry of even- 
one, and when you consider the very great yield 
of the land in this county, the scourge is really 
lamentable, and calls forth every suggestion to 
find means to prevent its recurrence. There is 
no part of the world where greater natural in 
ducements are held out to the farmer, nor where 
the land can be cultivated with less expense or 
labor; yet it is sadly discouraging to fe«r, even- 
year, a return of a plague worse than the locust. 
It is to be hoped, therefore, that some mode will 
soon be discovered to destroy them before they 
can do any damage. — More anon. 

Yours lie, Impromptu. 

We are truly obliged to our friend " Im- 
promptu" for his valuable and interesting letter; 
for his sketch of the condition of our up-river 
friends, their advance in Horticulture, and the 
ravages of the "pester" This earnest zeal for the 
general cause is an indication of a permanency to 
the good work, in spite of all the retarding influ- 
ences. The ravages of the grasshopper are indeed 
deplorable, and it is of the highest moment that 

every mode of eradicating them, their action, and 
their term of stay, should be carefully noted. 

"We notice the remark of our correspondent 
relative to our theory for the removal of the 
grasshopper. When he says ''it docs not apply 
to that section of the country," we presume he- 
means a part of our theory; for we notice apart 
is in successful practice there, and we hope with 
good result. We allude to the "bagging of trees." 

We have many parts to our theory for the re- 
moval of this 'pestc," it will be remembered, and 
we wish them thoroughly tested; when not good, 
utterly rejected, and this is the only way to 
advance. Close and rigid scrutiny of every plan, 
practical experiments, and oft repeated, will alone 
prove the value of any theory. Our theory for 
the evils of the grasshopper consists in three or 
four principles and some co-relations — viz. : the 
earliest possible winter plowing, to disturb their 
eggs and expose them to the action of the wet 
season. Deep subsoil plowing and constant high 
cultivation. These, in addition to early planting. 
will produce a constant moisture, and when the 
peste appears, freely irrigate the soil and shower 
the foliage. This, with occasional bagging of fruit 
trees and shading, will, in our humble opinion, 
remove from our State, in a great measure, not 
only this scourge, but many others in the shape 
of gophers, squirrels, moles, worms, ic. 

The oondition and location of the farms alluded 
to, where heavy dews were constant, arc certainly 
evidences that in these instances the plan did not 
work; but it will be recollected we said the 
grasshoppers would not eat the tomato, unless he 
was obliged to do so from want of any other food. 
So with the cottonwood. Now, recently we have 
found instances where he has eaten both, and 
from actual necessity. It was "eat or starve," 
and may it not be so with the farm alluded to? 
May not the destruction have been so great 
around, that the grasshopper was driven to the 
wet grounds ? We know of similar cases. We 
do know of cases where daily showering of water 

'one has successfully driven amay this pesle. 

We wish free discussion upon this and all like 
interesting points; and we will thank "Im- 
promptu" and all others to write freely. 

It is our wish to open a column for Questions 



and Answers, and to this we invite all to join. 
So. friends, send along your querries. This will 
draw out valuable facts, aud good will come out 
of it— Ed. 



€\}t California farmer. 



WARREN k SON, EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS. 



SACR4MENT0, FRIDAY, JULY 20, 1855. 



The California Stotr Agricultural Satiety's Exhibition Room: 
are. at the Hall on Fourth street, b'lirecn J and K, City of 
Sacramento, tchere all are incited, free. 



The CAL1FORXIA FARMER OFFICE is at the Stale 
.': Rooms, tettere subscription/ and advertisements 
are receired. 



The California Farmer in Boston, Mass. — Copies oj the 
California Farmer may always be found at Redding it. Co.'s, 
State street, Boston. 



f^* Manufacturers of every branch, Nurserymen, Seeds 
iii'.n. Florins, Booksellers and Publishers, and every branch of 
business connected with Calfiornia interests, should ndveziite 
in the California Farmer, if they wish to have their business 
tojuiTH over tb* country. 



Circular. 

The Executive Committee of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, beg leave to say to the Agricul- 
turists of the State that as the time for holding 
the Annual Fair approaches the necessity lor in- 
creased and energetic action throughout the State 
becomes, daily, more apparent. 

The officers of the Society are giving their 
time, attention and money to the furtherance of 
the work, but this will not suliiec. Unless the 
Farmers, Merchants, Lawyers. Hotel Keepers and 
all others interested (and who is not?) come up 
to our aid, subscribe and pay their memberships 
and give countenance to the work, our approach- 
ing Fair cannot be made what it should be — 
cannot be what the resources of our State call 
for, what the honor of this most prominent in- 
terest demands. 

The State has made commendable appropria- 
tions for premiums, and the Executive Committee 
has published a schedule for the approaching Ex- 
hibition, and it is hoped that we may be placed 
in circumstances to show full statistics of Fauns, 
Orchards, Nurseries, Gardens, Vineyards. &c. 

A competent and reliable Committee may be 
expected to visit and report upon even case in 
this department. Send in your propositions, that 
the Committee may know the amount of its work. 

The statute under which we are organized 
limits the terms of membership to ten dollars. 
Any Gentleman or Lady sending us this small 
sum will have subject to his or her order a cer- 
tificate of membership for one yoar. 

The question of the utility of the Fair depends 
very much upon the manner it is gotten up. and 
it cannot be what it should be without personal 

iubirnctaf a ^,-nnrn 1 e.li.'ii'oi-li>>* 

Persons holding certificates of membership are. 
with their families, admitted to all the exhibi- 
tions of the Society free of charge. 

By order of the Executive' Committee. 

C. I. Hutchinson, President. 
0. C. Wheeler. Rec. Sec. 

Sacramento, June 23d. 1855. 
FREE TRANSPORTATION TO THE STATE FAIR. 

The Executive Committee of the California 
State Agricultural Society, take pleasure in an- 
nouncing to those interested, throughout the 
State, that the California Steam Navigation Co., 
Citizens' Line of Steamers, California Stago Co.. 
Wells, Fargo & Co., and the Pacific Express Co., 
have liberally and gratuitously tendered the ser- 
vices of their respective conveyances for the trans- 
portation, to and from the approaching Fair, of 
such articles as may be designed for exhibition, 
including stock and persons necessarily accompa- 
nying the same. 

Everything of like liberality from our citizens, 
in any portion of the State, will tend to render 
the coming State Fair of greater interest, aud 
make it worthy of the State and her people. 
By order of the Executive Committee. 

C. I. Hutchinson. President. 

Sacramento, July 5ih, 1655. 



The public throughout the State and Agricul- 
turists in particular, are hereby notified that the 
Corresponding Secretary of the Society, J. L. L.. 
F. Warren, Esq., is now making the tour of 
the State, fur the purpose of presenting the gen- 
eral interests of Agriculture to those who are in- 
terested in its advancement, and gathering statis- 
tics for the Society, with the view of adding to the 
interest of the approaching Aunual Fair. 

It is not only desirable but indispensable, that 
the membership list of the Society must be large- 
ly increased beyond its present number, in order 
to make the Fair what it ought to be, considering 
the important position that California occupies 
among the Agricultural States of the Union. 

Col. Warren is furnished with Certificates of 
Membership, and is authorized to furnish them 
to those who may desire to become Members of 
the Society, and arc earnest in their endeavors to 
develop the Agricultural resources of the State. 
By order of the Executive Committee, 

C. 1. Hutchinson. President. 

O. C. Wheeler, Kec Sec'y. 



Mercantile and Commercial Prosperity — 

Manufacturing and Mechanical Industry 

—California Prosperity. 

The approaching Annual Fair of the Califor-. 
nia State Agricultural Society should awaken a 
general anxiety among all who arc interested in 
am' branch of Manufactures or the Mechanic 
Arts. Every artist in our State of every name 
and character should strive to present to the 
coming Industrial Exhibition a specimen of their 
skill. Liberal premiums have been offered and 
additional special premiums will be awarded to 
everything that shall lie esteemed of^public utility 
or that shall tend to improve the taste, advance 
the arts or increase the happiness or prosperity 
of the people. 

It should be universally understood that the 
State Fair is intended not only for an Exhibi- 
tion of the Agriculture of California, but to em- 
brace every branch of Home Industry, and 
Works of Art ; and it is expected that each and 
every citizen of the State will feel called upon to 
give it their best influence, their early and prompt 
attention, for every citizen is and must be affected 
by the general prosperity of all interested — for 
unless these interests arc fostered and cherished, 
unless the people became sensible of their identi- 
fication with them — California will not soon 
emerge from her present embarrassment. The 
depression of her Agriculture was immediately 
followed by a fall of real estate, this checked and 
and depressed mercantile interests, and the com- 
mercial soon felt the blow. Then the early bud- 
ding of the germs of manufactures was stayed, 
workshops, machine shops and mechanical rooms 
were closed, apathy seized Home Industry, and 
all now feel the blow. 

The history of the world will show that when- 
ever agricultural interests are depressed, whenever 
breadstuff's are below the cost of producing, bank- 
ruptcy and ruin march through the land, ships lay 
idly at the wharves, warehouses are closed, build- 
ings want tenants, and tenants want work. When 
the agricultural interest is depressed, a paralysis 
seizes the whole body and death ensues, unless a, 
speedy relief comes. The disregard which has 
been paid to these truths — the low esteem with 
which the businessmen of California have viewed 
the Agriculture of California — the unwillingness 
of men of wealth and influence to recognize it as 
the basis of our prosperity, and the jealousy of 
many lest Agriculture should supplant Mining, 
has hastened the crisis, and the evil is now being 
felt. It is not now the cultivators of the soil 
alone that are depressed and " bard run ;" H is 
pot now the farmers alone that are " short ;" it 
is not now this great interest alone that Hags; 
but everv interest throughout the State. There 
is no one branch of business that is not de- 
pressed and suffering, unless we except the sher- 
iffs and the law. and this arises from the abom- 
inations and curse of the "attachment laws," a 
blot to our statute book. The farmer in misfor- 
tune is at the mercy of the greedy shylock, and if 
in his struggles to free himself debt he hastes in 
his crop, the moment it falls, it falls into the 
hands of the merciless, who watch to catch it. 
Standing grain is safe, but if jt falls, it is often 
never to rise again for the hard working man 
who grew it. 

But it is now evident that this universal de- 
pression is being better understood, and the cause 
of it fully realized ; and we trust the agricultural 
interest will soon be properly appreciated. The 
present moment is the time to act. 

Farmers themselves must act, must look to 
their interests, their pursuits, their calling, as the 
most important interest of the Slate. 

Real estate owners must of necessity see 
that their onl}' hope lies in the returning pros- 
perity of this great interest. 

Merchants must and will see that their busi- 
ness is most materially affected by the condition 
of the agriculturists of our State. 
t Commercial men, too, are beginning to feel that 
their chief dependence lies here. How many 
ships would be wanted for the Pacific trade were 
there no agricultural products to convc?y ? Take 
away from the mercantile and commercial trans- 
actions of the day, the grain crop, flour, root 
crops, tea, sugar, rice, coffee, cotton, tobacco, fruits 
and spices, and w here would the business of the 
merchant and ship owner be? Take away from 
the manufacturer, cotton, tobacco, wool, hides, 
tallow, leather, flax, hemp, silk, &c, and where 
would the manufacturer and ship owner be ' 
Take away from the mechanic, the lumber, the 
iron, and other ores, the clay of our potteries 
and China manufactures, the clay of our brick 
yards, the granite and marble and slate of our 
mountains and hill sides, and where would be 
our mechanics and artisans? And do not all 



these spring directly from the soil? arc they not 
immediately drawn from or sustained by the 
soil? are they not agricultural productions? 
If it be so, and who can deny it ? then wo 
assert that Agriculture being the basis of all our 
prosperity, and the bnsis of all prosperity the 
world over, demands and should receive the uni- 
versal recognition, support, sympathy and foster- 
ing aid of all classes of our people. For these 
reasons we appeal to the citizens of this State for 
their prompt encouragement to the coming State 
Fair, as it is wcrthy their highest attention. 



The City of Oakland. 

There is probably no locality upon the Pacific 
coast for a beautiful city, superior to that of the 
sister city of our Commercial Emporium — Oak- 
land, or the " City of Oaks." Nature seems to 
have intended this location for a luxurious retreat 
of the business man^of a great commercial empo- 
rium, and we believe at no distant day, the mer- 
cantile and commercial men, bankers, and others, 
of San Francisco, will have their residences at 
Oakland. The soil is of the very best character, 
and susceptible of the highest cultivation. Among 
the many localities for beautiful homes, we have 
seen none that present greater or more favorable 
prospects of future permanence. It is deeply to 
be regretted that any delay in the settlement of 
land titles should retard the rising and improve- 
ment of this city, so highly favored by nature. 

We would most urgently cry out to all who 
have a love of the beautiful, " Woodman ! spare 
that tree!" and apply it to one and all. Those 
noble oaks, let them all stand. Nalure has design- 
ed them as bcautiliers and protectors of the soil, 
and it will be found that for the purposes of gar- 
dens they arc no hindrance to a high state of cul- 
tivation. By deep cultivation, an understanding 
of the seasons, soil, and climate, and with a gener- 
ous public spirit, Oakland can be made an Eden 
almost. 

While at Oakland, we had a delightful drive, 
some ten miles, on the San Pablo road— visiting 
the ranches of Messrs. Wilson, Plnmwell, and 
others, and the dairies of Messrs. Coggeshall, and 
Aldrich, and many very earnest and intelligent 
farmers; among Others, the residence of A. C. 
Brown, Esq., a splendid location upon an emin- 
ence commanding a view of the Golden Gate and 
the wholo bay and coast adjacent. We found 
pleasure in going over the grounds of Mr. B. , for 
by the evidences, we saw that his house, barns, 
grounds, and farm, were designed as a home, and 
hiu liberal outlays manifested his design to make 
that home permanent. This is what our citizens 
must do. Establish permanent homes and im- 
prove them to the utmost. We aluo visited the 
residence of M. Fallen. Esq., and although of but 
two years, everything in and around was in ap- 
pearance the work of years. Mr. F. has ono of 
the most picturesque locations upon that side of 
the Bay — surrounded by noble oaks, yet open to 
the Bay. His mansion and other buildings are 
all built and established, his gardens and grounds < 
laid out to comfort and convenience, yet all in 
keeping with the graceful style of modern archi- 
tecture. His fruit trees gave promise of some fine 
fruit. We hope that Oakland may be spared the 
devastation that has befallen other places. 

Wc were pleased to meet many of the business 
men of San Francisco, who are now but tempo- 
rarily there, but who we believe will become iden- 
tified with it yet. We also met the past and 
the present Mayors, — Mr. Oarpentie'r and Mr, 
Campbell — of Oakland, in both of which gentle- 
men we know she will find meu ever ready to do 
all in their power to advance her best interests. 

Among the many interesting features of our 
visit to that city, none atlbrded us more happiness 
than making the acquaintance of the highly gifted 
Mrs. Clark, late cdiircssof the Contra Costa 
and now connected with the Evening Journal 
of San Francisco. We worship flowers — we wor 
ship trees and plants — we worship all the beauti- 
ful things of earth, and the more they are cultiva- 
ted the more beautiful things become; but in a 
higher degree do we reverence a highly cultivated 
mind, fur in it we see trees, plants, and flowers 
that arc not only perrenial but eternal, yielding 
fruit delicious to the taste and odorous to tho 
senses, and these too, not only perpetual but 
deathless! When we see this mind in woman — 
when it not only makes home joyous ami beauti- 
ful, but from its never-failing resources, sends forth 
a stream from a living fountain to purify and ex- 
alt human nature, pleading human progress by 
means of the highest intellectual and moral re- 
nt — then wc worship and reverence mind 
as more durable and beautiful than all earthly 
things however pleasing, lb* we know by an in- 
jtercuurse with such minds all arc exalted aid 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



19 



made better. We look forward to the period — 
neafwe hope — when through the instrumentality 
of female education, our community shall bo as 
thickly gemmed with intellectual women as are 
the heavens above us, all brilliant, with stars. 

Buckneu Ranch — Stockton Road. 
On Saturday last, we took a trip on the Stock- 
ton road, to view the- several farms and ranches 
of that vicinity, and, at the request and invitation 
of Judge Buckncn and other agricultural friends, 
to have a social talk over tho intorests which this 
journal advocates. We drove directly to the res- 
idence of tho Judge, and in the evening met the 
farmers and ranch owners of that vicinity, and in 
the new building where the festivities of the 
4th of July were held, we advocated tho cause of 
Agriculture and the coming Slate Fair, and those 
kindred interests which grow out of them. We 
were pleased to meet so many that seemed to be 
truly interested in the cause. By request, we re 
raained over the Sabbath, to meet the citizons of 
that neighborhood and again addressed them at 
tho School House, on Sunday evening. Our theme 
being "the Beneficial Influence of Agriculture upon 
the Homes of California and the blessings it con- 
fers," we were gratified to have present so many 
ladies and children that recognized and felt the 
importance of making home beautiful by the art 
and science of Agriculture. 

During our visit, we called at "Elk Grove 
Hall," a public house connected with a large 
stock-farm, and situated in a fine oak grove, with 
a broad and beautiful prairie in front. We also 
visited the ranch of Mr. Perrin, very pleasantly 
located upon an open prairie and susceptible of 
great improvement, Our next call was at Smith's 
Ranch, near the Gosumnes River. This was a 
fine location — a very handsome residence, built 
of brick, with broad porticoes — well designed 
garden, and good out buildings, but when we rap- 
ped at the door, there was a hollow sound, and 
the echo that came back, said, '■ it is not good for 
man to be alone." The hollow sound — the closed 
windows, and the absence of those who alone 
can make even a palace a home — told us that our 
friend belonged to that class of citizens upon 
whom our legislators arc disposed to levy an extra 
tax. So fine a residence, we felt should be a hap- 
py home. We regretted the absence of the Pro- 
prietor, for we wished to say thus much to him 
personally. We thence crossed the farm-bridge 
of Mr. Hicks to the ranch on the opposite side, 
(described in another place.) and returning again 
collected many interesting facts on our way back 
to Bucknen's. This is the principal stage house 
upon the Stockton road, and travelers can always 
bo sure of tho kind personal attentions of those in 
charge of this house, for the Judge is indefatiga- 
ble in his efforts for the comfort of his patrons. 
We arc under many obligations to him and his 
family for their courteous hospitalities and atten- 
tions, and to the Judge for his particular atten- 
tions in striving to awaken a proper interest, and 
his aid to scatter intelligence of all needed infor- 
mation upon, tho subject of agriculture. 

We found upon our route much to interest. 
Upon many ranches, considerable stock, — dairy 
cows. Wheat crops, we found generally short of 
tho anticipations. The vegetable gardens upon 
the whole route, were cleanly swept by the grass- 
hoppers. 

We found a great want of water, over the en- 
tire route, and as we looked over these broad 
and beautiful prairies — composed as they arc gen- 
erally of good soil— we saw the necessity of Ar- 
tesian Wills. With these perpetual fertilizers, 
these noble plains would become a perfect and 
perpetual garden, and whosoever shall be the first 
to successfully introduce them along this road, 
has a snug fortune al hi* command. 

Here, as elsewhere over our State, we saw and 
heard of tho evil that results from the unsettled 
titles to land ■. preventing a> it docs, great improve- 
ments, it hangs like an incubus upon the people. 

For the interest displayed for our Calii- 



Hicks' Dairy Ranch. 

The value of our Dairies, their extent, or tho 
influence they are destined to exert upon our 
trade and commerce, cannot be estimated or con- 
ceived without a personal inspection. During our 
trip to tho Consilium's river and the neighboring 
Ranches the past and present week, we visited 
this famous and justly esteemed Ranch. 

Hick's Ranch is situated upon tho banks of the 
Oosuinnes river, about twenty miles from Sacra- 
mento city. Crossing tho river by a strong and 
handsome bridge erected by the public spirited 
proprietor of this ranch at his own cost, you 
emerge through a fino grove of oaks to the beau- 
tiful and fertile grounds that surround the resi- 
dence of the proprietor — a handsome mansion, 
full of tho comforts of life, convincing you that 
it was intended as a home. Around it is a well 
cultivated garden, containing a variety of the 
most desirable kinds of vegetables, fruits anil 
flowers, grape? and peaches in full bearing; and 
roses, dahlias, and other flowers beautify the en- 
trance to the mansion. 

A large water wheel, with buckets, carried 
by the current of the river, supplies an abun- 
dance of water, which is conveyed through 
troughs and irrigates a very large tract of culti- 
vated ground. By this means the dry season is 
not felt. This Ranch is the only ope we found 
that had escaped the devastating march of the 
grasshopper ; all other grounds near by had been 
swept. We were informed by Mr. Hicks, that 
at the time of their coming in great numbers 
there also came great quantities of blackbirds, 
and while the insects were upon the corn fields, 
the birds ate and drove them away. However 
numerous the birds may have been, or however 
many insects they may have destroyed, we think 
the constant flow of water upon the garden and 
fruit orchard, drove the grasshoppers to the corn- 
field, and saved the former portion of the grounds 
— for being so near the house, the birds did not 
come to it. 

After examining the gardens, Mr. Hicks showed 
us his dairy rooms, and here was a show worth 
seeing. Wo wish some of our fine dairymen of 
"Old Braintree," Mass., could just take a peep 
with us into friend Hicks' dairy. This is a fino 
two-story wooden building, entirely surrounded 
with largo oaks, and closely sheltered from the 
sun and hot air, Tho upper story is used for va- 
rious domestic purposes, and tho lower for the 
dairy, or cheese room, (for cheese only is made 
here.) We were as much surprised as delighted 
at what was before us — a large centre table and 
two sido tables running the whole length of the 
bouse (some 40 feet), covered with splendid 
cheeses ready for market weighing from 30 to 80 
pounds, and some cheeses are made here as heavy 
as IdO pounds. Wo counted (iro hundred and 
twenty-five cheeses at this time ready for market, 
and we were informed by Mr. II. that for about 
four months past, he had sent to Sacramento a 
ton of cheese per week. At tho present time, 
being the dry season, and milking a less quantity 
of stock, he sends only about 1000 pounds per 
(reek. Do our readers wish to know how this is 
done ? we say to them, Mr. 11. has three hun- 
dred coirs ; about one-half that number are now 
milked twice a day; some of the finest stock of 
I lie State is upon this ranch. There are three 
ind heail of stock of all kimh upon it. 



Sacramento No. 1. 
SaorambKTaHs : As conductors of a public 
journal, as conductors of tho only Agricultural 
Journal on Iho Pacific coast, as friends and advo- 
cates of •■home industry," embracing as it does 
the Agriculture, and its kindred interests, of our 
country ; these giving life and animation, vigor and 
success to manufacturers and tho mechanic arts 
and these again giving a healthful support to our 
mercantile and commercial interests — wo shall 
endeavor to show in succeeding numbers that the 
cause of the prosperity which now dawns upon 
this city results from this simple cause: the ad- 
vance of her Agricultural interests: for Sacra- 
mento stands No. 1 in the State in this respects. 
We shall endeavor to show conclusively, also, 
that our citizens are those who, in a great degree, 
have been indentified with all her history from 
the beginning, and that they have labored to build 
up and sustain the homes of their adoption ; that 
it is this untiring perseverance and industry, 
and consecration to this home, that has given 
them this renown, success and prosperity, in spite 
of all the calamities of fire and flood and disasters. 

Sacramento will have an opportunity the com- 
ing Autumn to manifest her Industry and her 
skill in the arts, and it is to be hoped that the 
citizens, oue and all, of both sexes, will feel an 
interest in the approaching Fair, and take an ac- 
tivo part in it, and do what they can to promote 
it. Their interests are identified with it. Every 
merchant and mechanic will be affected by it, and 
surely the Press will take up this matter as the 
great lever that can aid the city ift scattering in- 
telligence upon all matters affecting her citizens. 

We shall present in future numbers those 
bouses of mercantile, commercial and manufac- 
turing interests that have continued from '49 and 
'50, to the present time. 

Great preparations are in progress for the best 
interest of our city, and we know these redound 
to those of the State. 

Grasshoppers. 

This devastating scourge has generally swept 
the entire Sacramento valley of all garden vege- 
tables, and many surrounding counties have fared 
bad ; so much so that it will be difficult to supply 
readily the demand for vegetables. San Francis- 
co market will feel the influence of this in an in- 
creased demand for garden products. 

We have received information of much dam- 
age to the fine gardens and ranches in Yuba 
county, and as we intend to examine them per- 
sonally, we shall give a report of some. We know 
Messrs. Briggs, Brash, Sheppard, Wickersham. 
re and others, have suffered largely, and »i 
intend to examine particularly tho ravages and 
all appertaining them. 

In tho ''old countries" the people of the vil- 
lages turn out, and gathering all the tin pans and 
kettles, they drum them effectually out of their 
grounds. We have heard of experiments here of 
various kinds— fire crackers, pebbles, du^t, tc., 
and shall note all. 

Aghiciltcral Books. — Among the many 
aids to the agriculturist there are none more 
prominent than the valuable works that arc 
spreau mind in the form of a In 

book or paper. Each perform a glorious work to 
the thinking and reflecting mind. The familiar 
letter published in the " .ltural Jour 



New-Tork Department. 
J. C. Derby, New-York, has jusi 
the Star Papers; or, Experiences oj and 

Nature, by Henry Ward Beeeher. The articles 
from which this work is made up, first appeared 
in the colums of the New Y'ork Independent, over 
the signature of a star, and by way of designation 
called "Star Articles." They are now put in 
book form as the " Star Tapers," and cannot fail 
of being read with deep interest, especially the 
letters from Europe. Theso papers are brilliant, 
racy and entertaining, and full of striking thoughts, 
happily expressed. The book contains much val- 
uable information, which has already created for 
it a most extensive sale. 

NEW MUSIC. 

Wm. Hall & Son, Broadway, New-York, hare 
just published the following excellent pieces of 
new music, which we take pleasure in recom- 
mending to our friends : 

Tell me Some Fond Name — Ballad from Wal- 
lace's beautiful romance, the " Village Maiden's 
Song." 

Dinah is the Girl for Me— Song adapted to 
Wallaco's beautiful melody, ''Music Murmuring*," 
sung by Wood's Minstrels. 

7Vie Hazel Dell, with variations by Wurzel — 
a pleasing arrangement of this beautiful and pop- 
ular melody. 

The Whisper of Love— Schottische by F. H. 
Brown, composer of " Pride Polka," "Early Dawn 
Polka," &c. 

The Masonic Schottische— composed by J. A. 
Fowler. 

The Miner's Tribute Waltz— composed by J. 
A. Fowler. 

All the above pieces are by the best composers 
of the day. and will no doubt, have a wide circu- 
lation among our musical readers. 
— 

Horace Waters, the great music publisher, 
manufacturer and dealer in piano fortes, of 33S 
Broadway, New-York, has sent us tho following 
sheets of popular music, published by him, with 
Jogue of his new and popular works, for 
which we tender our thanks: 

Sparkling Polka— by Thomas Baker — cer- 
tainly one of the prettiest Polkas it has ever been 
our pleasure to examine or listen to. Tho titlo 
page is embellished with a beautiful illuminated 
vignette of tho interior of the Publisher's music 
establishment 

Lilly White Schottische— arranged from the 
air of the "Lilly White" song, as sung by the 
j i — by .lames liellak. 

'Tis Our Child in Beaten— by I. B. Wood- 
bury — a beautiful and affecting sung, into which 
this popular composer has infused a like character 
as to his other favorite productions. 

Our Hoys— Song, of the geruine Young Amcr- 
ioI— words by ('. I>. Stuart, Esq.; music 
by Thomas Baker ; both of which are charming. 
For the benefit of our readers in general, and Our 
lioys in particular, we copy tho words in full 
trusting they will buy the piece and learn the 
melody : 



1 nal. giving the practical results of an experiment 
After examining tho gardens and orchards ' by Mr. A. is read and acted upon by Mr. B.. and 
where we saw about five hundred fruit trees in I by him additional information is gained for the 
fine order, we were entertained most courteously | nC j[t reader. A brief treatise upon a plant, tree, 



I vine or shrub, calls into activity further practical 
| efforts, resulliiiz.contmually in the advancement. 
' The well digested and thoroughly tested histc 
| of animals, the results of new machinery, t 



pork, mutton and lamb, their game, butter and 
cheese, and fruits and vegetables, arc all the pro- 
duce of their own Ranch. This is what we call 
a tree independence. We enjoyed their kind 

Farmer, we are particularly thankful, and , lIUv h , d % p i casant Tisi , mn(} went on oar 

endeavor to keep our friends in this section 

-II ...1 „..-».,. I ~.. «ll iMlldN irlnVK ^fT.^-f tKo.r 



by Mr. and Mrs. Hicks, and enjoyed a dinner 

such as few could prepare, and claim it as a home 

production, and so elegantly and speed;: 

pared. Mr. Hicks and lady can truly be styled 

I' the Creation." Hiey "sit under t and value of the vi 

own vine and fig tree, with none to molest or I with all the various statistics necessary to com- 1 

make them afraid;" for their breadstufF, beef. I prise » volume, all are the lights that reveal the ( 

science in new forms, and the electricity that, 
stimulates to still greater advancement. In 
cause the publishers of valuable works or. 
cultural science are doing a great deal of good to , 



all oth ii all matters which affect their 

interest. 

Important— Male ok Kkaials Calves. — 
Count de Gourcy. a French stock raiser, in ex- 
perimenting with stock, found that theconnection 
of the bull and the cow. before milking, r 
in a large proportion of heifer calves. In a com- 
munication from B. V. 1 of Braintree. 

iie Prairie Farmer, dated Feb 
says : 
1 wa* 
this r 

and 9 -« are facta »or;hy the 

notice of the stock raisers of California. 



If our readers would like to see these 



fine 
not 



i«t call at the fine ware- 
house -'reet, near fourth, 
and your wish can be gratified. 

Entrees for Premiums 
To President State Agricultural Society : 
tk_ ander<MTOed would wish to enter for the 

irdens, 

at such time as may suit their p l eas u re, believing 
that a variety of craps hot lately cultivated in 
this countrv will give an interest to the exaaii— 

'Kc-spectf^;ly, J. 8. Cgbtiav. 

W**t Bank ii Lie Sacraiac--.;-* J~y A 



: our country, and should receive a just share of I 
j commendation and encouragement. 

publishers of such works none are 

nent 

, ton A Co. of Xt- whon 

, able works appear ia our advettiain 



Oca Yankee Boy» ! tlio world I* wide. 

Ami eenrch it as you will, 
Our Yankee Boy I 

-rurp = I »till ; 

Thn trneet anil the gallanrrat. 

Pot knnwledce, fan fpr fray, 
Anil wMe awake to) heat tho world. 

Whatever the world may *ay. 

Our Yankee Bjy*. lee 
Oir Yankee Boy* are free and lair. 

And kind of heart a* eras, 
And »tout of hand for peace or war 

A. >m nation knew; 
To rim the wrou*. defend the rijit. 

In truth and honor'* name, 
Otu- Yankee Bop* eontenml are, 

And aak no prouder fame. 

Our Yankre Bop*. Ac. 
Our Yankee B 7 « t MMtor •hore. 

Their trophy tpl nr S n r* rleaaa. 
They're aaaaat the world that Freedom to 

Mo poet** afie dream ; 
And wider mil, their Marry •** 

Of empire they aboil anas, 

■cr. T, wu. U>0 world of men, 

Aad ererj man 'a a kiac- 

r«, Ac 






The 



New Kiln Dryer— Inquiries. 

Wat 
-verT 
ie company yon spike of been organised 7 
As I as* oothinr m the paper in ralatjon to it, 
I presntae it is wot yet completed. I have re- 

a East are 

ihis drying 

branebe*, if roeo here are on- 

rprise that would 

most certainly y irid them s Urg 

aar other investment 
courteous treatment in ear personal isyseaxoaat, T . . 

and most tifteeraly wish our friend . ™ tr 7- ' [™ * " 

trip, a prosper .us journey, and safe return to h * | c an it not b» em.stc-d in a work pr 
post aad on; Urewardt 



Oct barker H. ! rf the 

ids, left on Monday last in the Uncle Sam 
..-aragua. His air stage aad hssimsa is en- 
tirely d'sconneeusd wHh the daqoirttne aj am tiew 

ring. We learn his abseuce » 
but '. 



:.t than 



20 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



horticultural Diriment 



up the trees. They may have been planted too 
deep — the rbots placed out of the reach of the 
genial and exciting warmth of the atmosphere, 
there to remain dormant for a season, and finally 
They may have been planted too shallow. 
properly in a few words, yet we are over and over | and thus too much exposed to the heat and dry- 
again requested to answer it within the limits of] ness of the atmosphere, or to the action of frost 



This 



la Pear Culture Profitable? 

is a question that cannot be answered i die. 



a brief letter. We propose, therefore, to devote a 
short chapter to the subject now, in order to avoid 
the necessity of frequent and unsatisfactory re- 
plies hereafter. 

Looking at the question in the abstract, we can 
say, without the slightest hesitation, that pear 
culture, for market, is profitable. Land of the 
finest quality for the purpose, situated in the 
finest fruit-growing districts of the United States. 
and of easy access to the best markets, can be 
purchased for from $50 to $100 per acre— vary- 
ing with the value of the improvements, in the 
way of buildings, condition of the land, contiguity 
to railway stations, &c. This is one great point 
settled, — good cheap land, in a favorable climate, 
and all desirable facilities for marketing the crops 
at any season of the year. 

As to the prices of pears, we need say but lit- 
tle ; they are so high as to be the subject of gen- 
eral remark. In our most abundant pear month 
of the year, October, good pears, such as Virga- 
lieus, sell readily at Rochester, in the orchard, at 
85 per bushel, and in New York for nearly twice 
as much. A few days ago, Messrs. Curtis & Lin- 
coln, of Boston, sent us a small box of Easter 
Beurres which, as they stated, sell readily in Bos- 
ton at $2 to $5 per dozen. And it is well known 
that pear-culture around Boston is, and has for 
years been, a sort of speciality with nearly every 
man who has land that pear trees can be grown 
upon. Neither is it at all likely tha.t prices will 
come down to a low figure in a great length of 
time j for the population, wealth, taste, and luxu- 
rious habits of living, are all increasing at such a 
rapid rate in every city, town, and village, in the 
country, that no moderate extension of culture 
can possibly keep pace * Then it takes at least 
twelve or fifteen years to bring pears or pear 
stocks to that condition when their fruit may be 
taken into account. It is perfectly safe, therefore, 
to assume that pear-culture is not only profitable 
at present, but is likely to remain so for — we can 
not say how long. 

It is altogether unnecessary to enter into any 
calculations respecting the cost of establishing and 
keeping orchards, or the probable produce of trees 
at a given age. This has often been done already, 
and the results, however they might vary accord- 
ing to circumstances, have invariably been en- 
couraging to the planter. Our principal object 
now is to draw attention to certain causes which 
have already led to disappointment, and arc likely 
to do so hereafter. 

During the last seven or eight years, a large 
number of persons have engaged in pretty exten- 
sive experiments in growing pears for market, 
without possessing the slightest degree of experi- 
ence in either that or any kindred branch of cul- 
tivation j and that too, without calling in the aid 
of any person having tb* requisite skill and expe- 
rience, or of devoting to it their own personal care 
or direction. Engaged in some other pursuit, 
they have taken this up as a sort of speculation 
ornnvestment, and have attempted to carry out 
their plans with such assistance as common field 
laborers are competent to give. It is scarcely 
possible that these persons could succeed in real- 
izing their expectations, for although the culture 
of the pear in our soil and climate is a very plain 
and simple matter, yet it cannot be done on an 
extensive scale, in such a manner as to be satis- 
factory and profitable, except under good and 
skillful management. This is certain. There are 
various considerations that require to be well 
weighed and studied by one who has had experi- 
ence. The soil must be suitable, the location eli- 
gible, varieties well adapted to the soil and other 
local circumstances, as well as to the markets for 
which they are grown. The trees must be prop 
•rly planted, and afterwards pruned and trained, 
and the soil must be kept in good heart and good 
tilth about the trees. Insects have to be watched 
ftad destroyed ; and a great variety of minor mat- 
iere accidents and incidents, must be encountered 
and provided for. 

A common laborer, who might be' a capital 
spademan or plowman, and who might very well 
take care of a crop of potatoes or corn, is no more 
competent to direct the management of an exten- 
sive orchard of pears, or an)- fruit trees, than he 
would be to conduct the machinery of one of the 
great cotton mills at Lowell. The planter may 
fancy that, being well read on the subject, he can 
in a short lecture, make it all plain to his laborer ; 
but he is misUik^n. We know from experience. 
that it is not an easy matter to make a good tree- 
cultivator with .mere words, however explicit and 
forcible they may be. To plant a tree well, is an 
easy matter, no doubt. We know many amateurs 
who, by little experience, have become most suc- 
cessful planters — their trees live if they have a 
spark of vitality left when planted; while we 
hear hundreds of people complain that they have 
"bad luck' in planting — their trees die, or they 
don't grow, or there is something wrong. Thou- 
sands of trees are annually lost through errors 
committed by inexperienced planters ; and in 
most cases it would be impossible for any one to 
discover where the error was, unless by pulling 

* Pi-ctUiim to 1650, the population or New York increased In 

five yeare, HM05; Boston, 22,500; Philadelphia, in ten years, 

150,725; Baltimore, in live yearn, 66,741; Brooklyn, in five 

years, 37,272; Williamsburg, in rive yeaiP, 11,138. Between 

1850 and 1855, the increase has undoubtedly been nti!l greater 

In proportion. The interior citieit and villages, an well aa the 

rural dUtricfcs, are increasintt In population at an Amazing rate. 

in ten years, between 1840 and 1850, increased 

"'''. "'id in the iftine period, Uilwrtukie t-prung up i'rom 

100, Rod Chicago from 4,000 to 30,000. See huw 

;n,w up, like Minnesota and Kansas In a few yearef 

bearing fruit tree. 



in winter. The roots may have been huddled in 
all curled and twisted in unnatural positions, and 
thus checked in their attempts to recover from 
the shock of removal ; or they may have been 
bruised and broken when taken up. and these 
mangled and decaying parts allowed to remain 
instead of being carefully removed with a sharp 
knife. The tops may have been branchy and full 
while the roots were meagre and defective, and 
yet no pruning given to restore the necessary bal 
ance. Then there are a multitude of little points 
that would appear to be scarcely worthy of notice, 
yet by no means unimportant to the future growth 
and vigor of the trees; but they can only be un 
derstood and appreciated after some degree of ex- 
perience, 

\V hat we have said in regard to planting, applies 
with equal force to pruning. This must be done 
at the proper time and in a proper manner. A 
person who has not studid the nature and habits 
of a tree somewhat, is as likely to injure as im- 
prove its condition by the application of the knife. 
Only a few of those who profess to be gardeners, 
have learred to use their knife at once wisely and 
well. The head needs to be trained as well as the 
hand. The good pruncr not only makes a clean, 
handsome, quick cut, but he cuts precisely what 
he»should, and nothing more} and that, too, at 
the right time. We would greatly prefer to open 
the gates of our orchard, and let in a drove of cat- 
tle to browse on the branches, than allow such 
men to prune them as we have known to be en- 
trusted with that duty. 

Then again the cultivation and cropping of the 
ground, requires good judgment, as well as great 
care. Some people suppose that if they grow 
root crops, or such as require clean and constant 
culture, among their trees, that it will be all right. 
And so it would, if it were done in a proper man- 
ner. We are satisfied, however, that in a multi- 
tude of cases the young trees are so starved and 
stunted by allowing the intervening rows of root 
crops to encroach upon them, that they are per- 
manently injured, if not ruined. We have known 
a very intelligent cultivator ruin an en tensive 
young pear orchard by cropping the spaces be- 
tween the rows, with corn. He took the precau- 
tion to leave an open space of several feet on each 
aide of the rows; yet the injury arising from the 
exclusion of air, &c, was quite obvious in com- 
paring the trees With others differently situated. 
We have seen others much injured by a crop of 
corrots: a small space was left between the roots 
and the trees ; yet the result was a rich harvest 
of carrots, and stunted trees. Other rows of trees 
in the same plot, having no carrots between, made 
a luxuriant growth. The fact is, these root crops 
gather food from a greater breadth of ground than 
people generally suppose; and when the feeders 
come into contact or rivalry with those of a fruit 
tree, they are sure to become successful usurpers. 
In this matter we speak not only from observa- 
tion, but experience. We sometimes plant straw- 
berries among our specimen trees, in some cases 
allowing them to cover the ground ; but during 
the drouth of last summer, and previous summers 
too, we found that where the strawberries had 
taken root thickly over the roots of fruit trees, 
that the leaves of the trees fell prematurely, and 
the fruit failed to reach perfect maturity. 

Our intention now is not to dwell upon these 
points minutely, or give any practical instructions, 
but to call attention to the necessity of skill and 
judgment in the direction of fruit tree plantations, 
and to warn those who are planting extensively, 
with a view to profit, against the dangerous notion 
that any smart laborer may manage their trees. 
We do not of course wish to be understood as 
urging that any man who engages in the culture 
of fruit trees, must possess experience j but unless 
he does, and can devote his time to it, then he 
should employ a competent assistant. Far better 
do this than lose his capital, and have the morti- 
fication of seeing his cherished project become a 
failure and a discouragement to himself and all 
who see it. and then to raise bitter complaints 
against this one and that one who deceived him, 
either by selling him bad trees or by giving him 
false counsel. — Rochester Horticulturist, 



The Jenny Lind Seedling Strawberry. 

Mr. Joseph Beck, of Boston, Mass., gives in a 
communication to the Rochester (N. Y..) Horti- 
culturist, the following information relative to 
this species of the strawberry : 

" There are so many new things constantly 
brought up before the horticultural world, and so 
much humbug about a great majority of them, 
that it is with some diffidence I present to the 
public a description of the Jenny Lind Seedling 
Strawberry. It has been exhibited for three suc- 
cessive seasons in the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society's rooms, and the writer, a member \>f the 
Fruit Committee, has had frequent opportunities 
to test it with other varieties. It is entirely dis- 
tinct from any other sort in cultivation here. It 
possesses many excellences, and, in my humble 
opinion, is worthy of general cultivation. One of 
our first confectioners, who deals largely in ice 
creams, and who has used this as well as other 
varieties of Strawberries to flavor them with, says 
it is the best sort grown for that purpose. This 
speaks well for its flavor. The Fruit Committee 
have repeatedly recommended it; and gentlemen 
who have seen it, speak in high terms of its ap- 
pearance, and would gladly have paid a high price 
to be in possession of it ; but as yet, the origina- 
tor .Mr. Isaac Fay, of Cumbridgeport, has kept it 



in his own hands. It will, however, be for sale 
this spring. 

The seed fiom which it was obtained, was from 
a cross of Mr. Fay's old seedling and the Early 
Virginia. Fay's old seedling was a large straw- 
berry but little known, and not considered equal 
to some other seedlings, and did not receive much 
attention, but possessed some good qualities, par- 
ticularly the size. The Jenny Lind does not come 
up in size to this seedling, but is larger than the 
Early Virginia, and a most abundant bearer, 
ripening full as early, and equal to it in sweetness, 
if not superior. Out of more than two thousand 
plants obtained from seed, sown five years since. 
this one alone produced fruit the following sum- 
mer; and it has continued to bear and increase 
in its good qualities ever since, flourishing equally 
in the shade as in the sun — some of the best fruit 
and plants having been under the thick foliage of 
fruit trees. 

The plant is very hardy, with luxuriant foliage, 
sending out strong, stout runners. The leaves are 
quite large, on tall stems, and more serrated than 
common varieties. The blossoms are staminate; 
nearly all set fruit, and form well developed ber- 
ries. The fruit averages well as to size, quite 
large, of a fine conical shape. The color is of a 
rich crimson. The surface of the fruit is smooth 
and glossy. Seed — considerably indented. Fla- 
vor — superior; good judges who have tested it. 
think it is not surpassed. It has ripened the 8th 
day of June for the last two years. 

This strawberry will commend itself by its 
earliness and hardiuess, by its beauty and hi 
flavor, by its being an extraordinary and piolific 
bearer, and on account of the size and evenness 
of its berries." 

Chinese and American Millet. 

Dr. J. S. Curtis, of Sacramento, has exhibited 
at the Society's Rooms specimens of the above 
varieties of millet, and from the specimens shown, 
the Chinese will produce double tlie quantity of 
grass. The American will yield about six tons 
to the acre, and the Doctor thinks the Chinese 
will give twelve tons. Dr. C. will, upon thresh- 
ing, weigh the seed of each crop, and this will test 
their relative value. 

The Chinese variety is of a bright green foliage, 
grains golden color, long pendant branches, and 
also throwing heads from numerous joints below 
the principal head. It is a beautiful tasselled 
head, and yields a large quantity of seed and thus 
gives nutrition of great value, which is a large 
consideration in the value of the grass. The 
American changes to a brown, and is a compact 
long round head, Milled with seed. Both samples 
can be seen at the Rooms. 

We append the following article on millet, from 
the Rural New-Yorker, showing the important 
feature in its cultivation which arises from the 
kind cultivated: 

"Messrs. Editors: In your paper of April 
7th, I have read an article, under the head of 
'Cultivation of Millet,' which, without an expla- 
nation, might lead some of your readers to em- 
bark in the cultivation of a crop in which they 
may bedisappointed. There are the three species 
of Panicum cultivated as millet, besides two or 
three species of the Sorghum under the same com- 
mon name. 

"Two of those species. Panicum Germanicum 
and Panicum Italicum, have round heads, much 
resembling what the farmers know as pigeon grass. 
I have cultivated these two varieties in Western 
New York, but did not find them profitable. The 
common or German millet grows with a stalk 
four or five feet high, as large as a wheat straw 
and coarser, as feed for stock. The Panicum 
Miliaceum grows about three feet high, with a 
broad leaf at each joint, the stalk terminating in 
a panicle, somewhat like a loose panicle of Poland 
oats. There arc two varieties of this species, one 
having brown and the other yellow buds. This 
species is found to be more profitable for cultiva- 
tion than the two first named. From the small 
size of the stalk and the great proportion of 
leaves, cattle and horses seem more fond of the 
straw of this species than they are of best timo- 
thy hay. 

"An acquaintance of mine, summer before last, 
raised one acre, from which he harvested and 
threshed thirty b«shel§ of seed, and the straw he 
considered equal to three tons of timothy hay. I 
conversed with a farmer the past week, who rais- 
ed it the last summer, who said 'his crop was 
considerably injured by the drought, yet he con- 
sidered it the most profitable crop he raised upon 
his farm, as both his cattle and horses were more 
fond of it than they were of his best hay.' From 
the above, you perceive that the profit of the cul- 
tivation of this crop depends upon the species 
cultivated." 



"Wheat Crop — Statistics and Distribution. 

As an article of commerco, wheat has been 
raised, in surplus, in several countries ; but, tak- 
ing the whole earth into view, the production of 
wheat has never equalled the damand for it. 
There have always been countries which, in pur- 
suit of greater gain from other crops, or, in conse- 
quence of natural deficiencies, have not raised 
enough for their own food; and, if we equalize 
the crop, we shall find there has never been 
enough. 

In giving the statistics of wheat in this country, 
we state, in advance, that the production of wheat 
in the interior of the United States, is of great 
consequence and interest to our western railways. 
A single fuct will place this in a striking point of 



view. In the year 1854, the wheat cropof Ohio- 
fell short of a fair average, 10.000,000 bushels* 
The whole of this was taken from the surplus — 
that which would have been carried to market. 
The consequence is. that a single railway fell 
short in its freight business to the extent of 70,- 
000 tons! 

The following- is a tabfe of wheat production in 
theTJnited States for 1852, being found by adding 
the average annual increase to the census of the 
crop for 1849, and substituting the crop of Ohio, 
as ascertained by the State Assessors. In 1854, 
the crop was not as large as in 1852, by probably 
25,000.000 bushels; a fact which has not been 
generally recognized in the noise which was made 
about the corn crop ; but which is amply proved 
in the high prices. If, in 1855, (as is very prob- 
able.) the wheat crop should be a good one, it will 
he larger than that of 1852, so that year is the 
proper one to compare by. 

Table of the Wheat Crop in 1852. 

Bushels to «tcb 
StAtee. Eushela. Inhabitant. 

Maine. - - - 350000 - - 3-4 

New Hampshire, - 230,000 - - 3-4 

Vermont, - - 600000 - - 2 

Massachusetts, - 220.000 - - 1-5 

Rhode Island, - 3.500 - - 1-4 

Connecticut, - - 50.000 - - 1-40 

New York, - - 15.000,000 - - 5 

New Jersey, - - 2.200.1 lOO - - 5 

Pennsylvania, - 17,81)0,000 - - 7 

Delaware, - - 350.000 - - 5 

Maryland, - - 5.200.000 - - 9 

Ohio, - - - 22,300,000 - - 11 

Indiana, - - 7.200.000 - - 8 

Illinois, - - - 11,000/)00 - - 11 

Michigan, - - 5,800,000 - - 12 

Wisconsin. - - 5,000.000 - - 15 

Iowa, - ' - - 1.800.000 - - 9 

Kentucky, - - 2.500,000 - - 21-2 

Missouri, - - 3.500.000 - - 5 

Tennessee, - - 2.500,000 - - 21-2 

Virginia, - - 13,000.000 - - 9 

North Carolina, - 2.500.000 - - 3 

South Carolina, - L200.000 - - 2 

Georgia, - - 1,300.000 - - 11-2 

Alabama, - - 350.000 - - 1-2 

Mississippi, - - 150.000 - - 1-4 

Florida, - - - 1,200 - - 1-40 

Louisiana, - - - 500 - - 1-1000 

Texas, - 50,000 - - 1-4 

Arkansas, - - - 250 000 - - 1 

California, - - 30.000 - - 1-3 



Aggregate, - 123,925,200 - - 5 

This may bo regarded as a full crop for tho 
year 1852 j and although, as in the States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee, the statement is in 
some instances low, on account of the basis in 
these States, the crop of 1849 being a deficient 
one, yet, in the main, it is very nearly correct. 

Now, the fair allowance to each person in tho 
United States, is five bushels, which is just tho 
amount ; but we have three millions of negroes in 
the South, and probably two millions of whites 
in the same region, whose bread-Stuff is almoiit 
exclusively Indian corn. The allowance for the 
five millions is twenty-jive millions, and suppos- 
ing the stock on hand to be sufficient for seed, 
this is all, even in a good year, we have for ex- 
port ; but, what can we have from such a crop as 
the last? Absolutely nothing. 

In the above are three classes of States, (as to 
the wheat crop,) divided as follows: 

1st. The surplus States. — These are, Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa. 

2d. Slates -which supply themselves. — Theso 
are, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Missouri, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee. The last two States 
are included here, for reasons stated above, be- 
cause their crops in the table are below their 
usual average. 

3d. Slates importing their bread. — These are, 
Maine, Now Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, 
Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and California. — six- 
teen States, or more than half tho American 
Union. These arc the manufacturing, cotton 
planting, sugar, and mining States. These States 
find it, as they think, more to their interest to 
buy other people's bread, than to make their 
own. 

In a common year, such as 1855, (with no 
blight on the harvest,) may be, the surplus States 
will export something like the following amounts 
of wheat, viz : 
Pennsylvania, - 
Maryland, - ' - 



Ohio, 

Indiana, 

Illinois, 

Michigan, 

Wisconsin, 

Iowa, 

Virginia, 



5,300.000 bushels, 

2,700,000 " 

11,300,000 " 

2.200,000 " 

6,000,000 " 

3,000,000 " 

3,000,000 " 

300.000 " 

5,500,000 " 



Total, - - - 39,300,000 
This is fourteen millions of bushels more than 
what can be afforded for foreign export ; but this 
fourteen millions is what tho manufacturers and 
planters eat, and enters only into the internal 
commerce; so docs the whole amount of what is 
carried to foreign countries, that must be carried 
to port. 

Of the above fourteen millions, about eight 
millions are consumed in New England, and tho 
residue in the South. 

We come now to the question, what is tho 
movement of wheat in commerce 7 And what is 
the railway movement? It is nut very difficult 
to ascertain this. We havo about (as above,) 
40,000,000 bushels exported from the producing 






THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



States. That must all be carried off. Then we 
have (ho consumption of wheat in the large cities 
and towns of the producing States, which must 
be transported from fifty to one hundred miles. 
The population of these cities and towns amounts 
to about one and a half millions; and require 
about seven and a half millions of bushels for 
their consumption. We have then, this result of 
the wheat commercial movement, viz: 
Foreign export, - - 25,000.000 bushels. 
Domestic export - - 15,000,000 " 
Consumption of cities and 

towns in producing States, 7,500,000 " 

Aggregate, - - 47,500,000 
This is equal to 1,600,000 tons of freight. It 
is very easy to see from the above statement, 
where the great ^ior<< for distribution of wheat 
are. The principal ones arc as follows : Philadel 
phia, Baltimore, Richmond, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, 
Sandusky, Toledo, Detroit, Mihvaukic, Chicago, 
St. Louis, and Cincinnati. In a common wheat 
year, such as 1852, 1853, and as we suppose, we 
shall soon have again, the shipments from these 
ports that will verify the above tables, in every 
particular. Boston,New York, New Orleans, &c, 
handle a great deal of wheat and flour, but they 
arc not original shipping ports of this article 
at all. 

In a short time, we expect to show the whole 
agricultural export of Ohio, for 1854. — Mans- 
fleloVs Railroad Record. 



4S£*llait£. 



1IIGHT. 

Sweet, sweet the hour of closing day 

When night comes on apace, 
And with its dork, and sombre veil, 

Enshrouds fair nature-* face ; 
White, one by one, the twinkling stars 

Come forth, so clear and bright ; 
And seem but one vast bed of pearls. 

Beneath the moon's soft light. 

Oh I then 1 love to wonder forth, 

And cast off worldly care, 
And catch upon my burning brow 

The cooling, midnight air, 
That comes through sceuted groves and bowers, 

With swift yet unseen wings, 
And from some bed of flowerets sweet. 

The choicest perfume brings. 

Yep, 'tis an hour 1 dearly love, 

When nature is at rest; 
For than sweet intercourse 1 hold, 

With thoughts within my breast ; 
Then, sorrows that nt times seem great, 

A form less hideous wear, 
And trials, thut each duy brings forth, 

Appear less hard to bear. 

Tis then I think of days gone by, 

When, foyoua as a bird, 
With gladsome shout, and merry laugh, 

In sports my voice was heard ; 
Oh I that I •mild those hours recall, 

With all the joy that's fled. 
The friends, too, of my youthful days. 

Now numbered with the dead. 

But no I those bright and blessful days 

I never more shall see ; 
The memory of their joyful hours 

Is nil that's left to me; 
But, when my nig/it of life draws near, 

And I from earth must part, 
The thoughts of friend* I hope to meet. 

Will ehear my drooping heart. 



England and America. 
The teuor of certain articles which have of late 
made their appearance in the Times, would seem 
to indicate that there exists across the Atlantic. 
in the breasts of our near relations, the inhabit- 
ants of the United States of America, a feeling of 
hostility to us. our institutions and undertakings, 
and a feeling of sympathy with our Russian an- 
tagonists, ffc do not believe it ; but, on the con- 
. traiv, we believe that blood is thicker than water, 
or in this case we m ight say than oil — that though 
the Yankees might have no objection to have a 
shot at us themselves, they wish no other people 
in the world to do so with success — that republi- 
can liberty can never sympathise with despotism 
— enlightened intelligence with hopeless ignor- 
ance — progress with obstruction — that the an- 
tagonism of qualities and races and institutions 
between Russia and the Stales is a gulf too 
stormy to be passed, and that the ties of kin- 
dred blood and kindred sentiment between the 
States and Great Britain are too strong to be 
easily or lightly severed. Should it ever be 
otherwise; should it ever unfortunately come to 
pass that this country shall be placed in a hostile 
position to America ; or should wc even witness 
the untoward event of American sympathy with 
our opponents, or its absence from ourselves, we 
cannot imagine a consummation more unpropili- 
ous. or more calculated to damage our influence 
and our cause in the eyes of the « hole civilired 
world. 

Will it be believed that wc. or at least the small 
fry who represent us. are doing their beat to 
bring about this state cf bitterness ; and that the 
rumor 

of s\ mpathy w uh our enemies, have their 
not in the at- in the con- 

temptuous slights and callous indiriercrrce of our- 1 repaired at F 
The promptings of an evil conscience | re 
rm us that we have ■ 
the existence of »hch we are beginning to as- 
sume ; and that a 

ce with which the friendly advances 
trausallani:> -com to be received, may I 

possibly at no distant period convert these rumors I 



into facts. Several instances of the species of 
conduct to which we allude have lotcly been 
brought under our notice ; but wc shall content 
ourselves for the present with the mention of two. 

The Morning Post can testify to the courtly 
career of every whiskered, bearded, bagxy-breech- 
ed aide-de-camp or envoy from Pumpernickel or 
Schl&ugenfat, whose business or whose pleasure 
leads him to visit the capital of England. A 
special train receives him at Folkestone; a court- 
carriage lit London bridge. He is presented to her 
.Majesty by the minister; his name is inserted in 
the Lord Chamberlain's album for royal banquet, 
concert and ball ; he appears at the receptions of 
secretaries; and, as a necessary sequence, he runs 
the gauntlet of aristocratic hospitality and osten- 
tation in crescent, lane and square, from St. Some- 
thing in the East to St. Somebody in the West, 
till a surfeit of soups, lobster sallads, and Lafittc, 
drives him back with an indigestion to the baths 
and Urunnens from whence he came. Wo find 
no fault with his reception — reception though it 
bo of the envoy or banger-on of a phantasms 
gorian kingdom or dukedum, whose treasury is a 
gambling house, whoso territory is a fisherman's 
walk, and whose army is an officer. V While we 
feast the great, let's ne'er forget the small." 
Great Britain can afford to allow Lilliput to stalk 
powdered and pigtailed across her palm. But 
while she rains hospitality :ind consideration on 
the smalt, ought she to reverse the caution of the 
song, and utterly despise, neglect and ignore the 
great? We think not. 

In the month of March last, three of the Amer- 
ican veteran officers of the Mexican campaign, in 
the three several departments, of engineers, artil- 
lery, and cavalry, selected from the gallant army 
of the United States by the President and his 
Cabinet, as worthy from their talents and services, 
to represent their countrymen, were directed by 
the Government of the States to proceed to the 
Crimea, for the purpose of studying the art of war. 
The uames of these efficers were, and are, Major 
Richard Delafield, of the Engineers ; Major Mor- 
decei, of the Artillery ; and Captain Maclellan, of 
the Cavalry. Did they proceed to the Russian 
lines, where the art of war can be studied quite 
as effectually as in our own, to which they would 
have received and would still receive, a hearty 
welcome — and with which nation they are falsely 
represented to sympathise? They did not. They 
arrived in England with letters from the British 
Minister at Washington, authenticating their mis- 
sion, and which were presented by them last 
month to the Foreign Secretary in London ; but 
beyond a civil reception — which we believe Lord 
Clarendon vouchsafes to all men, — an interview 
with Sir John Burgoyne, and letters of recogni- 
tion to the authorities in the Crima, no notice 
whatever was taken of them or their mission. 
No special train received them Liverpool ; no 
court carriage at Euston-square ; no presentation 
to Majesty ; no inscription in the chamberlain's 
open-sesame; no pasteboard for minister's recep- 
tion or aristocratic soiree, — and the only surfeit 
which they received, was a surfeit of neglect and 
disgust, which they have doubtless carried with 
then] to the.t'ourt of France, whither they have 
bent their steps, and which it will assuredly defy 
all the baths and Brunneiis of Pumpernickel to 
remove. 

Toward the end of last summer the United 
Slates sloop-of-war Preble, arrived at Spitbead. 
It is a rule in the American navy that all the na- 
val cadets, who compose the material out of which 
are fashioned afterwards the naval commanders 
of the Republic, shall serve their time before the 
mast ; and a good and wholesome rule it is, for 
reasons too obvious to descant npon. The Preble, 
a training-ship for this purpose, and manned al- 
most exclusively by young gentlemen from among 
the most respectable families in the States, to the 
amount of two hundred and upwards, came to 
Spiihead for the purpose of naval education. She 
happened to he the only man-of-war on the station 
at the time, and her presence on that account, and 
on account of the frequent opportunities which 
she had of saluting the Royal Yacht, was made 
more than usually conspicuous. She was left 
wholly unnoticed by the authorities of Portsmouth, 
her cadets were refused admission to the dock- 
yard, and she ultimately left the station, with two 
hundred young naval he.-iits, the future upholders 
of their country's naval fame, fully impressed 
with the nature of their reception in their father- 
land. 

These are two instances of the pains which are 
taken by our representatives Jo secure for Great 
Britain the sympathy of ihe Bnilcd States. We 
have others at command; but wc conceive the 
foregoing quite sufficient for our present purpose, 
and we pledge ourselves to the accuracy of the 
details. We can also tell our readers how her 
Majesty's Broop-of-war Pearl, sailed from Bermu- 
da, in the winter ol ith despatch- 
es entrusted to her gallant commander. Lord 
Clarence Paget, for the United States government ; 
how she experienced a succession of gales on her 
passage ; how she arrivid in the Chesapeake Bay 
with battered hulk and exhausted crew ; how the 
naval authorities of No- rtsmouth of 
the States, sent shipwrights and riggers on board ; 
how the good ship was refitted without charge or 
od of any kind; and how the British officers 
and crew were welcomed and feasted on shore. 
It is fresh, too, in the recollection of the public, 
how two Russian men-of-war were refitled and 



ation which has been started in England, having 
taken, as we think, a leaf from the book of her 
elder sister in Scotland — for putting the right 
men in the right places — to the reprehensible pro- 
ccedThgs, or rather the outrages on the common 
decencies which wc have detailed. Surely no 
Briton can approve them, no gentleman support 
them, no being outside of Bedlam adopt them. 
Wc cry shame upon the Yankees for their sup- 
posed sympathies with Russia. Let us look at 
home and blame ourselves for their origin. — Cale- 
donian Mercury. 

Want of Room.— What a little world this is 
of ours 1 How our elbows get bruised for want 
of room! No man owns a farm large enough, 
and as fast as the farmer accumulates means, be 
buys out his neighbor. Some even indulge the 
hope of buying all the land adjoining their's, in a 
few years. So of every thing. No steamboat 
was ever large enough to accommodate all the 
passengers, and the largest ones need more room 
the most. "Give us more room ! — more room !" 
is the expression in every one's mouth. Build- 
ings are torn down, and larger ones built, and if 
in this way it ever does happen that there is room 
enough inside the house, it is soon discovered 
there is a great deficiency without. Some try to 
avoid the inconvenience of being crowded, by 
taking the whole world for their house, but even 
they become dissatisfied, and the first opportunity 
commence building an addition. One addition 
calls for another, and the larger the house, the 
more chance for improvement. The United States 
form a great country, but there is no room to 
spare. California is said to be roomy, and a'way 
hasten thousands, pell mell, hoping to reach the 
land of promise before all the room is taken up. 
But it unfortunately happens, there is no room 
on the way — no room on steamboats — no room at 
the hotels, and a scarcity of " rooms to let." — Ex. 



cfabies' geprtmn 



21 



English Gardens in Russia. — In about a 
month's time there will be immense crops of 
English vegetables growing in the vicinity of the 
English hospitals in Turkey, and in the Crimen, 
for the use of the sick, as well as large crops of 
vegetables and grasses in the neighborhood of 
Balaklava and Sebastopol. Mr. Page, the seed 
merchant of Southampton, who has been selected 
by the government to stock the English posses- 
sions in the Crimea with herbage and vegetables, 
states that the whole of the immense stock of 
seeds he sent out in the Medway, will be up in 
about three weeks after they are planted. The 
seeds of those vegetables which grow quickest, 
were sent out in the largest quantities. A great 
many varieties of the following vegetables were 
sent out in the Medway, viz: Beans, peas, broc- 
coli, cauliflowers, cabbage, carrots, celery, cress, 
mustard, cucumber, endive, leek, lettuce onions. 
parsnips, turnips, and pot herbs. A very large 
quantity of Italian rye grass seed, was also sent 
out. that being one of the earliest and most pro- 
ductive of grasses, yielding enormous crops of 
quickly succeeding herbage. Seeds for perinan 
cut pasture, were also sent 



Dimensions of Heaven. — " And he measured 

the city with the reed, tw-clvc thousand furlongs. 

The length, and the breadth, anil the heighth of 

of it ate equal." — Rev. 21 : 10. Twelve thousand 

furlongs. 7,920,000 feet, which being cubed, is 

4'.l(',.7 f j;!,088.0OO,OOO,O0O,OO0 cubic feet. Half of 

this, we will reserve for the Throne of God, and 

the Court of Heaven, and half the balance for 

streets, leaving a remainder of 124.198,272,000,- 

000,000,000 cubic feet. Divide this by 4,090. the 

cubical feel in a room 10 feet square, and there 

will be 30.321.843,750,000,000 rooms. We will 

now suppose the world always did and' always 

will contain 900,000000 inhabitants, and that a 

generations lasts 33 1-2 years, makin; 

IKK) every cc'nturv. and that the wor: 
1 100,000 years, making in all 27 

inhabitants. Then suppose tin 

worlds equal to this, in number of inhabitants 1 sur f acc f the material a fresh and ncwappear- 
i and duration of years making a total of 87,000,- ancc. Velvet cannot be ironed on a table, for, 

000,000.000.000 persons. Then there would be a 



[For the California Fai r..cr.| 
Rural Lays— No, 5. 

BREAKFAST. 
Can feasts of Mayors or Aldermen afford 
Such unbought dainties as our country board!* 
Could silly simpletons, of such who prate, 
But breakfast here, they woutd not talk of state. 
Here stands a steak of tenderloin, ao nice 
An epicure might eat, nor care for spice; 
There ham and eggs the mutton chops beside; 
While tripe and salmon equal calls divide; 
With soft boiled eggs as many as you please ; 
And, at their proper season, lamb and peas ; 
And morning rolls ; and butter churned at night, 
All cool, and hard, and fresh, and worked aright: 
While tea and coffee, round and round, are served, 
Without the fear of thereby being unnerved. 
And still my Uncle laughs, and talks to me 

Of how, he thinks, such breakfasts can't agree 

With lads, who daily drudge, and do not know 
The proper order in which food should go ; 

Says, that in different strata, it must lie, 

In wise succession ranged, and how that I, 

By cnreless eating, may get plump and fat ; 

And teases so by such unmeaning chat, 

I sometimes wish, but that I need not say, 

Because I do not, Uncle were away. 

The lads all laugh ; and still he teases 80, 

That what to do, or say, 1 do not know. 

But this I know, I've often heard him boast 

Of glorious breakfasts, which did nothing cost; 

And sometimes, when he thought I did not hear. 

Say none could conk like me, or tar, or near; 

How eveiy thing I did was done so well, 

That how I did it baffled him to tell. 

To hear myself so praised, inspires a flame, 

By care in cooking to arrive at fame. 

You laugh, bur, really, brcakfuste nice and worm, 

In chilly morning, never yet did harm ; 

And many an old man thinks a thrifty wife, 

Who knows to cook, tbo greatest charm in life. 

You call mc vulgar, tell me not to say 

Such things as these, in such a common way ; 

But learn to mouth them, in unmeaning phrase, 

And mince, and choose, and copy, all my days, 

Like a big baby. That I ue'er will do, 

Though there are, doubtless, some who think with yon. 
But, while we speak, our lads are all away ; 

So let us talk of this some other day. 

BlTTT MlBTiV. 

* lit is probable this is a mere coincidence. Horace hae 
" rurti inempta dapef," but it is not likely that Betty reads 
Horace. — Ed.] 

Valuable Recipes. 

Butter Beans. — Having shelled them, drop 
them into cold water; as the water boils, add salt. 
Try with a spoon, and when done, servo np with 
melted butter. 

Beets. — No knife should ever touch a beet 
previous to boiling ; rub the leaves off by hand, 
for if there is a wound made in the beet, the best 
of its juices will be lost in boiling. Drop tho 
beets into boiling water, with a handful of salt. 
Most cooks take heels from the boiling kettle and 
place them in cold water, for tho case w ith which 
the skin peels ofT. This should never be done, 
as they part with one-half their flavor. When 
taken from the pot, let them drain, then peel and 
slice them, butter, pepper and salt them, or pour 
good vinegar over them, which many prefer. 

Cucumbers. —Who ever heard of cooking a 
cucumber? we hoar readers exclaim I Try it; 
and then tell your neighbors how well a poor 
man may live in this country. Take the cucum- 
ber just as it begins to turn yellow, peel and slice 
it into salt and water; drop it into cold water, 
and boil until tender. Season with salt and pep- 
per—mix with batter and fry. Few can tell it 
from egg plant. 

To Iron Velvet. — Having ripped the velvet 
apart, damp each piece separately, and holding it 
tightly in both hands, stretch it before the tiro, 
the wrong side of the velvet being towards the 
fire. This will remove the cresses, and give the 



room 1G feet high for each person, and yst there 
would be room. 



Infuence of Steam. — President Hitchcock 

says that there are in Great Britain at the present 
(day, 15,000 steam-engines driven by mean* of 

coal, with a power equal to that of - 
I men; and thus is put in operatic 
'equalling the unaided power of 300.000,0 

400,000.000 of men. The influence thus eroanst- |iour into an earthen vessel, into which has been 

ing reaches the remotest portion of tho globe, and previously put two drachms of tartaric acid and 



when spread out on a hard substance, the iron 
will not go smoothly over the pile. 

Wholesome Beverage. — Take of the best 
white Jamaica ginger root, (bruised) two ounces; 
cream of tartar, one ounce ; water, six quarts ; to 
be boiled for about five minutes, then strained ; 
to the strained liquor, add one pound of the best 
white sugar, and again put on the fire and keep 
ed until the sugar is perfectly dissolved ; then 



tends mightily to the civilization and happin 
of the race. 



Falls or Niagara. — The gross power of the 
j Falls of Niagara is, according to Blackwcll's ob 



the rind of one lemon, and let it remain until the 
heat is reduced to a luke-wanc temperature; 
then add a table-spoonful of yeast, stirring them 
well together, and then bottle for use, the corks of 
which must be well tied down. It will be in 



equal to that ol nearly seven millions | hih perf^jo,, in a fcw atJlm 
of horses ; others, from diaerent data, make it as I 



serrations, equal to that of nearly seven millions) 
of horses ; others, from different data, make it asj 

jhigh as ten or twelve millions and even more. Bcrtinq Bees for the Winter.— Enoch K. 

[ In fact, taking into account the constancy of its! Ralb. of Lottsville. Virginia, states that, hating a 
operation, the effort of this great cateract will SVJirm a ( bees, |»s t f»|| t w hich had no honey, and 
bear a comparison with that of the entire adult noi knowing if they would live over the winter, 
laboring population on the face of the globe. he buried them, air-tight, on the warm aide of » 

hill, in a case sufficient to keep all dampness not, 



The term Bat-relief > often mis-applied In ^ ^ ^ M ^ UDCOiered - (keIrl . this spring, 

k-° i s .k tn *r »«*- fo » rf l,fc » nd *>#"> •• d '***»*! -* 

.e ground or plane on winch they ^ -^ ^ m dojog fiDe ^"' 



sculpture it designates figures which do not 1 



yard thrown open to Russian pen< 

I here was a Prussian man of »ar (toe Gvboo) 

same period which was 
but then, to be sure, she was commanded by one 

\\ c would call the attention of the new associ- 



are formed. When figures do not protoberate ao 

1 ss to exhibit the entire body, they are said to be Lor._T»«j sweetest -a mother's lore; the 

done m relief; and when they are low, flat or j 0O| _ t _. brother's love; the strongest, a wo- 

nused from the plane, the work is said to ^^ Vmi the tjearesi— a man's let.; and ttia 

| be mjote, or .Wreli*/ When the fignres are mteU ^ jongat, strongest, deare.t " 

so raised as to be well distinguised, they are said ^ % bonnet"' 

to be in bold, strong: kigk, or alto-relief. — ; 

^' *^ " Fstssosnirs which arc 

Costixce a wise man of bis error, and be wil] are more firm and issting than U 

thank yea; convince a fool, aud he wiUnaanttyow. formed in bs fp fai i 



22 



THE CALIF0EJN1A FAfiMEIl. 



Gjain at the East. 

Great interest is being felt relative to the 
shipments of grain and produce from this coun- 
try; it will have the effect to open the eyes of 
people to our resources. 

By last accounts we note that the late rains in 
Kentucky and Georgia have given a more hope- 
ful prospect of a crop, while in New York and 
Pennsylvania an abundant harvest may be ex- 
pected. In other States the crops appear to have 
received some check. 

We notice, too, that in Yermont the caterpillar 
has committed sad havoc upon the apple, and in 
Massachusetts the frost has nearly ruined the 
peach. Io other places other crops are coming 
short ; yet withall the crops will be a general 
average. 

We have confidence still that the prices of 
grain will hold and rule high, and we hope the 
farmers will have the benefit of it. 

The ruling prices of Grain here nre aa follows : Wheat, best, 
3%e; Barley, new,'$l 153$1 20 & 100 tB ; Oats, 134c. Po- 
tatoes bring W^'&lVtC, according to quality. 

California Favors. — We have before us a 
very large and handsome collection of magazines, 



DIED. 



On the 12th July, in San Francisco, Joseph Coleman, of Nan- 
tucket, aged 52 years. 

On the 12th July, in San Francisco, Matthew Lindlcy, aged 
31 years. _ 



BUSINESS CARDS. 



HOTELS. 



fi^p" Persons purchasing articles advertised in oar 
columns will confer a favor by saying they observed 
them advertised in the " CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



C* M. SAXTON & CO., 

AGRICULTURAL BOOK PUBLISHERS. 

CM. SAXTON & CO., 152 Fulton street, New York, offer 
• for sate the following late and valuable publications : 

Downing's (A. J.) Landscape Gardening. A treatise on 
the theory and practice of landscape gardening. Adapted to 
North America, with a view to the improvement of countiy 
residences, comprising historical notices and general principles 
of the art. Directions foy laying out grounds and arranging 
plantations, the description and cultivation of hardy trees, dec- 
oration accompaniments to the house and' ground, the forma- 
tion of pieces of artificial water, flower garden?, etc., with re- 
remarks on rural architecture. Elegantly illustrated with a 
portrait of the author. By A. J. Downing. Price, $4. 

The Fbactical Fruit, Flower and Kitchen Garden- 
er's Companion, with a Calendar. By Patrick Neil!, LL.D. 
Adapted to the United States, from the tourth edition, revised 
and improved by the author. Edited by G. Emerson, M.D. 
With notes and additions by R. G. Pardee, author of " Manual 
of the Strawberry Culture." Wirh illustrations. Price, $1 25. 

Mtjnn's (B.) Practical Land-Dbainer; being n treatise on 
draining land, in which the most approved systems of drainage 
are explained; with full directions for the cutting and making 
of drains, and with many illustrations. By B. Munn, Landscape 
Gardener. Price 60 cents. 

Elliot's (F. R.) American Fruit- Grower's Guide in 

Orchard and Gaiden ; being a compend of the history, modes 

of propagation, culture, &c„ of fruit, trees and shrubs, with 

descriptions of nearly ell the varieties of fruits cultivated in this 

...... .(country; an' notes of their adaptation to localities, soiH and a 

patnpIetS, foreign and domestic pictorials, and j complete list of fruits worthy of cultivation. By F. R. Elliot, 

journals most kindly sent to us by Messrs. S. W. | ^"tVo* "^A^c c.txl, Docron; containing 

.Murray & Co., booksellers and Stationers. San i ^ c necessary information for preserving the health ard curing 

J ' j the disease* of oxen, cows, !-beep and ^wine, with a great vn- 

FrancisCO. We Can Only express Our grateful riety of original receipts and valuable information in reference 

. , 3 , j •;.* V i i i ■ ii. to farm and dairy manasement, whereby every man can bo his 

acknowledgements and say— "tbe liberal deviseth i owncattle dc , ctoI . By - a H , Dud d, m.d., Veterinary r,ac- 
liberal thin g s, and by liberal things &ey'Bb*U «« JftiVl^«P>i«»W 

We know the liberal hearted Will not 'tore; or, The Connection between Scirnce and the Art of 

' Practical Fannin;;. (Prize Essav of the New York State Agri- 
cultural Society.)" By John P. Norton, M.A., Professor of Sci- 
entific Agriculture in Yale College. Adapted to the use of 
School*. Price, 75 cents. 

Johnston's (James F. VV.) Catechism op Agricultural 
Chemistry and Geology. Adapted to the use of Schools. 
Price, 25 cents. 

Johnston's (James F. W.) Elements op Agricultural 
Chemistry and Geology. With a complete analytical nnd 
alphabetical index, and an American preface. By Hun. Simon 
Brown. Price, $1 25. 

Johnston's (James F. W.) Agricultural Chemistry. 



stand." 

forget the well known and fully supplied ware- 
house of Murray & Co., San Francisco. 

We are also obliged to the attentive messengers 
of Wells, Fargo & Co., and the Pacific Express 
Co., for a supply of exchange papers, packages, &c. 

Hunt's Forcing Pomp. — This new power is, 

most admirably adapted to this country, and We | Lectures on application of chemistry and geology to aaricul- 
would call the especial attention Of our readers to ture. New edition, with an appendix, containing the autbor'd 

the card of the proprietor. We should judge by 
the description, which is well authenticated, that it 
will be eagerly sought for here. Drawings, plans, 
&c, together with cost and other particulars, we 
shall be able to give after the next steamer. 



To Correspondents. — "Hard Times," was 
received too late for this issue. Also, 41 Destruc- 
tion to our Fields," with other matter, which will 
appear inour next. 

PRICES OP AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

Hall's 8-horse Threshers $900 

Pitt's do do onwheels 1,0110 

Emei-y's 2 horse do 400 

McCormick's Reapers and Mowers ) 400 

Hussey'a do do \ to 

Manny's do do ) 450 

Ketcbum's Mowers $175® 200 

Grant's five-finger wire frame Cradles. 90a 100 

Scythes and Snaiths 25® 50 

Hay Rakes, wood 6® 10 

Horse Rakes £0® 25 

Hot Fork. i, iiMjpruuge - 8® 10 

do do three prongs 12® 20 



experiments in practical agriculture. Price, SI 50. 

Smith's (C. H. J.) Landscape Gardening, Parks and 
Pleasure Grounds. With practical notes ou country resi- 
dences, villas, public parks and gardens. By Charles H. J. 
Smith, Landscape Gardener and Garden Architect, &c. With 
notes and additions by Lewis F. AlIeD, author of " Rural Archi- 
tecture," Sec. Price, $J 50. 

E^ 3 The above books will be eent to California /r« of post- 
age. v4-3 3t. 



HENRY WARD BEECHER'S NEW BOOK I - 
copies sold in four weeks. 

STAR PAPERS; 

oa, 

EXPERIENCES OF NATURE AND ART, 

2s VOW Ready. 

One elegant 12mo. Price, $1 25. 

CONTENTS. 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 



\JjJF* California Stale Agricultural Society's Booms. — 
The Rooms of the State Agricultural Society are located on 
Fourth street, between J and K, where all who are inter- 
ested in Agriculture and kindred Sciences are invited to call 

Several hundred specimens in all departments are on exhi- 
bition constantly, and it is the object of the Society to make 
these rooms a place of resort for our citizens. The rooms are 
open daily, (Sundays excepted,) and are free to alL They arc 
under the charge of the Editor of the California Farmer, 
who will be pleased to render any information or assistance to 
further any interest connected with pgriculrure. 



By order of the Presideut, 
v3-26 



C I. HUTCHINSON. 

Brookline, Feb. 5, 1851. 
To Skth W. Fowle : 

My Dear Sir — Having experienced results of n satisfactory 
character from the use of WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD 
CHERRY, in cases of severe colds, during the past two years, 
I am induced to express the full faith I have in its renovating 
power. 

I was first induced to try this medicine as an experiment, 
about two years ego, in connection with the strong recom- 
mendation of a friend, who was well nigh gone with consump- 
tion, and whose relief from the use of it satisfied me of its great 
value in cases of colds and decline, and most clearly demon- 
strating, to my mind, its great value as a restorative, that only 
needs a fair trial to insure a grateful demonstration from the 
public. Your obedient servant, 

SAMUEL A. WALKER. 
%* Be sure it is signed I. BUTTS on the wrapper. 

Agents for San Francisco, B. B. THAYER &. CO. 
Sold by all Druggists. v4-2 



l^" "Hope Never Dies."— Read the following tribute 
to WISTAR'S BALSAM from the Kinderhook (N. Y.) Senti- 
nel, dated July 21 : 

"A remarkable cure of Consumption has recently been ef- 
fected by this mediciue, in the town of Chatham, in this county, 
and which was related to us by Dr. Herrick, an eminent phy- 
sician of that town, to whom we have permission to refer. A 
young lady, who had long labored under an affection of the 
lung^, was considered by her friends as beyond the reach of 
medicine, and she was informed by ber medical attendant that 
she must die. She wns induced to send for n bottle of WIS- 
TAR'S BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY, as a last resort. The 
youn? lady experienced great relief, and two more bottles were 
successively procured ond administered. She is now happy in 
the restoration of health." 

Sold by all druggists. 

Agents for San Francisco, B. B. THAYER St, CO. 

MARRIED. 



On the 2d July, by Rev, Oscar P. Fitzgerald, Folix E. Drey- 
fous and ETinnall, all of Sonora. 
On the 1 1th July, in San Francisco, by Justice J. G. Pearson, 
■ :i<l M.-e Susan Sumo™, all of that city. 

July, InBonlcta, Fleming AmyX. of Tuolumne 
: MlH A. Aimtie D e Lome, p? Genoa, Switzerland. 

at Mokcliimno Hill, by Jiwtk-o Thompson, 
aLd Catharine Zahlor, all ol San Andres 



I. Letters from Europe. 
A Discourse of Flowers. 
Death ; n the Country. 
Inland vs. Seashore. 
New Enland Graveyards. 
Towns and Trees. 
TneFir^tBreathintbcCountry. Gone to the Country. 

Dream-Culture. 

A Wnlk among Trees. 



II. Experiences of Natubk. 
The Death of our Almanac. 
Fog in the Harbor. 
The Morals of Fishing. 
The Wanderings of a Star. 
Bookstores — Books. 



routing. 
A Ride. 

The Mountain Stream. 
A Country Bide. 
Farewell to the Country. 
School Reminiscence. 
The Value of Birds. 
A Bough Picture from Life. 
A Rideto Fort Hamilton. 
Sights from my Windjw. 



v4-3 



Building n House. 
The U.^e of the Beautiful. 
Mid-October Days. 
A Moist Letter. 
Fro.-t in the Window. 
Snow Storm Traveling. 
Nature a Minister of Happineas. 
Spring* and Solitudes. 
J. C. DERBY, Publisher, New York, 

And for sale by all Booksellers. 



New Patent 

Force and Lifting Pump and Fire Engine Combined. 

THE undersigned is now manu- 
facturing, and bus for sale a new 
PATENT PUMP, which, lor utility 
and power, surpaspcs anything of 
the kind ever offered to the public. 

For Ships, Railroad Stations, Pa- 
per Mills, Factories, and all other 
places where a large quantity of 
water U required to he raised, they 
are peculiarly adapted. 

Its construction is double acting, 
throwing a continuous stream of 
water, at the rate of from 200 to 400 
gallons per minute, (according to 
size) and can be used as a Lifting 
or Force Pump, and by the appli- 
cation of Hose can be operated as ft 
FireEngine ot the most efficient kind. 
It is simple, not liable to get out of order, can be operated by 
band, steam or water power, and need only be seen to be ap- 
preciated. N. HUNT, 

26 Devonshire street, New York. 
Also for sale — Best quality of Leateii Belting and superior 
Shuttle Sewing Machines. 
13?"* Orders for the above received at this office. v4-33ra. 




Agricultural and Horticultural Implements. 
Field and Garden Seeds. 

UPWARDS of one hundred different kinds of Plows, and all 
other implements in use on the Farm ond the Garden. 
Field Seed* of all kinds. Garden Seeds of all kinds. 
R. L. ALLEN, 
v4-3 3m. 189 and 191 Water street, New York. 



Carts, AVngoiLS, Trucks, Hay Presses, &c, 

CALIFORNIA OX, Horse, Mule nnd Hand C.irts ; 
do do do do Wagons. 

Trucks of all sizes for warehouses. 

Hay, Hemp, Tobacco and Wool Presses, Tncse will press 
bales from 100 to 400 pounds weight, either by hand or horse 
power. R. L. ALLEN, 

v4-3 3m 189 and 191 Water street, New York. 



Smldlers, Attention ! 

CHAS. R. SCHEUNER respectfully informB the manufac- 
turers of Saddles that he Is now prepared to do all kinds 
Of Stampings on Californian and Mexican styles of saddles, and 
he is confident that his style of workmanship cannot be sur- 
passed in this State. 
Please call nnd examine specimens. 
£^" Orders from the country promptly attended to. 
v3-25 170 K street, Sacramento. 



Victoria Regln. 

A FEW copies of this magnificent work, In Colored Plates, 
for sale. Apply at the office of the California Farmer, 
Bush street, Snn Francisco, 
v3-20 . and Society's Rooms, Sacramento. 



IccI Ice 1 1 Ice HI 

THIS article can be had at all times at the Sitka Ice House, 
north ol the bridge, from 6 A. m to 7 p. M. Families will 
be supplied with Ice by leaving ordors at Howell'* Jewelry 
(store, on J street. [v3-24| W. C. WATERS 



DUNCAN & CO. 

J, C DUNCAN AUCTIONEER. 

REAL ESTATE AUCTION BOOMS 

Nos. 156 and 158 Montgomery street, 

(in Montgomery Block.) 

Having taken the above spacious rooms, we shall devote our 
entire attention to sales of Real Estate, Stocks, Administrators' 
and Assignees' Sales, etc., etc. 

Intending to transact a strictly legitimate Commission Busi- 
ness, we solicit consignments from oar friends and the public. 

Our rooms being well adapted to largesales of FURNITURE, 
consignments ol the same will be received. v4-l 



' BOUND FOR THE STATES! 

Merchants, Miners and others, bound home, are advised to visit 

OAK HALL, Boston, Mass., 

where they can replenish their Wardrobes with complete 
outfits from one of the largest and best assorte 1 stocks 

of Clothing, Furnishing Goods, &c, &c., in 

the United States. Also, every variety of 

Boy's Clothing. 

k-jgr"' One Price, Cash System, giving all nn equal chance. 



Oak Hall, North street, Boston, Mass. 



G. W. SIMMONS. 



v3-16. 



JAMES FRENCH & CO., 

Publishers, BookaeUers, 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

STATIONERY, 

No. 78 Washington street, Boston, Mass, 

£2?* Country Traders, Booksellers, Teachers, Clergymen, 

Banks, Railroad?, Insurance, and other Companies, 

furnished on the best terms. 

*,* Orders solicited for our new publications. 

v3-25 See prospectus. 



J. HOWELL & CO., 

4614 J street^ between Sicond and Third, Sacramento, 
(V*7>. TAKE this opportunity of informing their friends and 
Yr;'i!.'riJtho public, that they have just received a new and 
Vagjjy choice select* on of AV atthes and Jewelry. 
Among which will be found Watches of every description, 
from (the best makers — English and French. 

Also — Diamond Rings, Chains, Ear-Rings, Pins, Bracelets, 
Quartz. Jewelry, &c, &c. 

[jg?" Particular attention paid to DIAMOND SETTING. 
Watches carefully repaired and Warranted. * v3-20 



C. L. NORTH, 

MACHINE SEWING, 

145 Sansome street, between Washington and Jackson, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

Flour, Grain and all other descriptions of Bags, constantly on 

hand and made to order. Mattresses, Ceilings, Tents, and ALL 

kinds of plain sewing, done with neatness and dispatch. 



W. W. PRICE. 
Notary Public and Conveyancer, 

Ao. 14 Read's Btitldhtp. 
Deeds, Mortgages, Leases and Powers of Attorney, written 
Oaths administered and acknowledgments taken. v4-l 



E. B. MASTICK, 
Attorney and Counsellor, 

Office, corner of Montgomery and Commercial streets, 

(over Drcxel, Sather &, Church's Banking House,) 
v3-19 San Francisco. 



BOOTH, CARROLL & CO., 

Wholesale Grocers and Provision Dealers, 

No. 62 J street, corner of Third, 
v3-26 Sacramento. 



KEYES & CO.,' 
GOLDEN GATE CLOTHING WAREHOUSE, 

Corner of J and Second streets, Sacramento, 
Having the largest and linest assortment of 

FASHIONABLE CLOTHING 

AND 
FURNISHING GOO^)S 
Ever Offered in California, 
and which we are bCUiog at the lowest rash prices, we cheerfully 
inviie our friends and the public to call and examineour exten- 
sive stock for themselves. 

Single parments or full suits, made to ordnr at the shortest 
notice, and warranted to tit. 

New and Fashionable Goods 
received by every steamer. 

Call at Branch i/ KEYES &. CO., 

v4*l corner J and Second streets, Sacramento. 



R1VETT & CO. 

HAVE OPENED A BUANCII OF T1IEI1L 

WELL KNOWN HOUSE, 

111 J STREET, 

where they intend to keep a large and varied assortment of 
Upholstery Goods, Paper Hangings, 

Oil Cloths. Matting, 

Mats and Rugs, Damasks, 

Sdades, Cornices, 

Curtain Bands, Tassels, 

Fringes, Gimps, 

Luce and Muslin Curtains, &c, ic. 

At their Old Store, 28 K street, 

may be had ull the above articles, together with one of the 
largest assortments to be tbund in the State, of 

Wuidow Glass, 
White Lead, 
Oils, 
Turpcutime, 
Varnishes, 
Dry and Ground Paints, 
and all other Painter's supplies. 

Also, Sign Painting, as formerly; Gilt Mouldings and Mirror 
Plates; Picture and Mirror Frames made and re-gilt, 

Work in all the above branches executed with our usual 
promptness. v3-23 



VALUABLE AiRIGUXTTTRAL BOOKS, 



TUBLISHED BY 



JOHN P. JEWETT & CO., Boston, 

And for sale by all the Booksellers. 



Badd's Modern Horse Doctor, 

By Geo. H. Dadd, 

The celebrated Veterinary Surgeon. 



Schenck's Kitchen Gardener's Text Books. 

A complete guide for the cultivation of the Kitchen Garden. 

Cole on the Biseases of Animals, 
By T. W. Cole, 

Editor of the New England Fanner. 

Cole's American Fruit Book. 

The heat book out for the Fruit Grower. 



Breck's Book of Flowers. 

A complete Guide for the Florist 



Leuchard on the Hot House, 

Their Heating, Construction and Ventilation. 



California, Butter and Cheese. 

f)fr AAA POUNDS new California Butter; 1,200 ditto 
£tJ »UUU Cheese, in store. Being supplied daily with 
Fresh Butter and Cheese, by five of the largest dairies in our 
vicinity, wo shall hold out large mdnoementfl tu lanulies and 
others to u»c this kind of butter, and are selling it at a lower 
price than any in tills State. 
v3-2G BRADSHAW A. CO. 



Orleans Hotel, 

Second, between J and K streets, Sacraviento. 

MTHE above Hotel, occupying a space of 85 by 150 feet, 
in the most central part of the city, built of brick and 
three stories high, oflers inducements to travelers not surpassed 
by any establishment in the State. 

The ground floor is set apart for Dining Room, Reading 
Room, Billiard Room and Bar SboHL 

The Table will be found ot all times supplied with the choice 
ol the market. 

At the Reading Room can always be found the daily papers 
ot the State and the latest dates trom the Atlantic und Europe. 

The Billiard Saloon is furnished with five excellent table*, 
superintended by a competent keeper. 

The Bar will be supplied with the best Liquors and Wines, 

The second and thira stories of the building are set apart for 
Parlor, Family Rooms and Chambers, comfortably furnished. 

We have also leased the large brick building corner of and K 
and Front streets (formerly known as Sackett's Hotel) set apart 
for Lodging Apartments, which are furnished in a superior 
manner, which, added to the Hotel, will afford ample accommo- 
dations. 

The "Orleans" is also the Depot and Office of the California 
Stage Co., from which place Staged leave daily fur all party 
of the State. 

v3-2 HARDENBURGH &. COR SE, Proprietors. 

American Hotel, Benicia. 

MTHI3 HOUSE has been established Five Years, with- 
out interruption or change oi proprietorship, and is be- 
lieved by the traveling public to be one of the best conducted 
Hotels in the State. 

Large and well ventilated, and handsomely furnished rooms, 
for families travelling or for permatnent bparders, can always 
be obtained, 

A LIVERY STABLE is connected with the Hotel, so that 
travelers can have their choice, either to take the steamers and 
stages, or a private carriage, to any of the beautiful valleys 
around. Stagea leave this ilutol every morning for the different 
valleys. 

The daily paptra from various sections of the State are on 
file at this Hotel. Everything will be done by the proprietor 
that the patrons of this House may find their stay pleasant aud 
satin factory. 

3v-lCisti C. M. DAVIS, Proprietor. 

Wilson's Exchange, 

By E s t ab r o o k tf James. 
flfSl THIS popular and extensively known Hotel, which for 
tl-jji the lart tew weeks has been under the management of 
W. W. Estabrook, has been painted throughout; new Furni- 
ture has been added, and the house is now in complete order 
for the reception of the public. 

Mr. Estabrook has formed a connection in business with Mr. 
P. T. James, who hos been favorably known in the above 
Hotel, and recently at the International. 

Every possible exertion will be made by the present pro- 
prietors to render the above establishment the most popular in 
the State. v3-25 

Hassette House. 

San Fhancisco, .Cal. 

^fti THIS HOTEL oflers inducements to persons visiting 
Pjjjl San Francisco, unequalled by any on the Pacific Coast 

Gentlemen can be accommodated with single rooms,or fami- 
lies with suites of rooms. 

The House is entirely new, built of brick ; aH the rooms are 
furniahed in a stylo of comfort hitherto unknown in the Hotels 
of California, and the House is capable of accommodating over 
five hundred boarders. v4-l 

Murray's Fifty-cent Western House. 

Cornet oj Second and D streets, Mahysyille. 

MTHIS HOUSE is entirely devoted to the wants of the 
travelling public and to all who will favor us with a call, 
entire satisfaction will be given. [17] R. J. MURRAY. 

American Hotel 

NAT-A CITV CALIFORNIA. 

L. A &. W. W. CHAPMAN, Proprietors. 
<•? GOOD accommodations for families, and on reasonable 
tJ"l terms. Saddle and buggy Horses kept for hire. Horses 
kept on board, by the day or week, and well taken core of, * 26 

To Farmer*, Hotel Keepers, Rniielitros & Others. 

BRADSHAW Si. CO., having removed into their New and 
Spacious Store, nnd being regularly supplied from the 
States by even' clipper, enables them to have the largest und 
best stock of GROCERIES AND PROVISIONS in the State, 
and at Low Prices. 

Persons living at a distance can always have their goods 
packed nnd shipped, free of expense. Remittances can be 
made through all the expresses or by mail. Our stock coo 

Hints of 

Powdered and Crushed Loaf Sugar ; 

Extra Green and Black Tee ; 

Mess and Clear Pork, in quarter and half barrels; 

No. 1 ond 2 Mackerel, in kit-, or. and half burrels; 

Sperm, Wax and Adamantine Cnudlcs; 

Sperm Oil, in 5 gallon tins ; 
Stuart's Boston and New Orleans Syrupy, in 5 and 10 gallon 
kegs; Spices of all kind ; Assorted Herbs and Extracts; Java, 
Mocha, Manilla and Rio Coffee; Cheese in tin; Chocolate, 
prepared aud cracked Cocoa, and Shells ; Tubs, Paile, Brooms, 
Ground Rock Salt, Pickles, assorted Preserves, Jellies, Jams 
nnd Pie Fruit 

N. B. Highest price paid for California Butter and Cheese, 
corner California and Battery streets, San Francisco. v3-26 

Benlcla Female Seminary. 

rpHE Fourth year of this institution opens July 23, 1655. 
I This is one of the oldest Female Seminaries ID the State, 
and therefore well Known. There is now a full corp3 of 
teachers, and those who are well qualified to fill their respective 
departments. A German lady, and an artist in her profession, 
Is teacher of Music ; and a French lady, as skilled in Drawing, 
is teacher of French and Drawing. 

Tho School and Boarding Department are entirely under the 
supervision of the Principal. 

Terms. — (Payable quarterly, invariably in advanrt,) 
For Board and Tuition in English branches, per week... $7 50 

Washing, per dozen ^ 1 50 

J-'.ftra Charges. 

French, Spanish and Drawing, per month $ 3 00 

Music, with use of Piano, per month 10 00 

For further particulars, address 

v3-26 MARY ATKINS, Principal. 

Benlcln Iron World*.. 

STEAM ENGINE, BOILER AND MACHINE SHOP.— This 
establishment is now in successful operation, and oilers to 
the public facilities equal to any in the Unixd States, for manu- 
facturing or repairing Steam Engines of the largest size, Boiler 
Wares, Brass Costing?, Mill Gearing of the most approved pat- 
terns, Bloom Iron, Cast iron Culuimif, Window Caps or entire 
fronts. 

Contractors and others will do well by patronizing this estab- 
lishment, as their work will he executed with greater dttpatch 
and at lower prices than any other nmuufactory in the State. 

The company have extended their Pier, and erected a larg* 
crane for the accommodation ol their customers. 
For iurthor particulars apply to 

FORBES & BARCOCK, 
Agent r. M. 8. Company, 
corner Leidesdorff and Sacramento BtrQets, San Francisco ; 

or to CHARLES FRENCH, 
v3-e8 Resident Engineer, Benicia Works 

Important to tin- Duiiyiueii of CalMbrnlu. 

HORACE GUSHEE, No. 5-1 Washington Market, wholesale 
and retail dealer in Fresh Butter, Cheese nml Eggs, hav- 
ing been engaged in the sale of the products of the dairy fur 
the past two und o-half veers' in San I' rnnclsoo, would take this 
opportunity to return his thanks to those who have favored ami 
with their business, and respectfully solicits a continuance of 
the same. Consignments trom any part of the State by any 
of the various packets or steamboats, directed to me, will meet 
with prompt attention, and proceeds of sale forwarded as di- 
rected. Liberal advances made, if lequirrd. 

Dairymen, whenever in the city, are invited to call and sen 
the various kinds of Butter and Cheese which are r> 
daily from the ranches. v3-26 

First Pi< iiiluni Dn)fui'mot)]Mn. 

KII, VANCE just.awardtHl the FIKST 1MIKM1UM for the 
• beet paguerreotypea exhibited at the" California State- 
Fair. Mr. V. would be happy to wait upon any one wishing a 
PERFECT LIKENESS. The arrangement ol his Rooms and 
Lights are superior to any In tho State. 

Rooms — New Building corner of Sacramento nnd Montgom- 
ery streets, entrance on Montgomery street, next door to 
Austin's. t41 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 



23 



STEAMERS. 



California Steam Navigation Company. 

*<*** fo* r -.Tit""*)* 



Departure ft m Vtileja strut tcharf, at 4 o'clock, 1'. M, 

For Sacramento. 
VIA BKN1CIA 
Steamer SENATOK 

Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. 
Steamer ANTELOPE, D. Van 

Monday!-, Wednesdays and Fridnye. 

For KarvBvillv. 

VIA BEN KM A. 

1 '. M. 
By the Sni-mitu i theJCompany'B 

LIGHT DRAUGHT ^TEAMEKS at Sacramento. 
Xjf* In 

For Stockton. 
VIA MABTINEZ. 

. I o'clock r, M, 
Steamer CORNELIA, E. Concklin, Master. 

Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 
Steamer URILDA, Clark, Master. 

Tue-dnys, Thursdays end Saturdays. 

For Colnsi, Red Bluffs and Intermediate Landings. 

Daily, if 4 o'clock P. .\f. 
By the Sacramento Steamers, connecting with the Company's 
LIGHT DUAUCHT STEAMERS, which leave Sacramento— 
Tuesday*, Thursdays and Saturday*, at 12 o'clock, M. 

KP Frei-n. by tin* above boats must he paid for on delivery 
For particulars apply at the office of the Company, Jackson 
street, between Batten and Front, to 

SAM. J. HENSLEY, President. 
Office of tlie California Steam Navigation Co., \ 

San Francisco, May, 1655. 5 v4 1 



California Steam Navigation Company. 

_ ^ •cjW ****' ' p fc The splendid low pleasure steamers Senator 

aSE^^iTrliiM "'"' Antelope wiilleave on alternate dnye lor 

Sun Frunct co, at two o'clock, p. at., Jrom the foot of K street. 

The steamer Sbnatob, E. A. Poole, master, will leave on 

Monday. VVednesduy, and Friday. 
The Bteamer Antelope, D. Van Pelt, master, will leave on 

Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. 
The 6teamer Helen Uknsley, E. C. M. Chadwick, master, 
every Sunday at o'clock, p. m. 
For Marytville ami Imenneduite Landings, daily, at 7 o'clock, 
A. m., from bark Orb. 

Steamer Gov. Dana, W. H. Taylor, maBter, on Tuesday, 
Thursday nnd Saturday. 
For Colusi, Red Blurt', and Intermediate Landings. 

The eteamcr Belle, W. H. Gilman, master, and steamer 
Gem. M. Littleton, master, "ill leave for the above named 
p!acea on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, at B o'clock, 
a. m., iron etoreehip Antelope. 
For Red Blurts. — The steamer Gem, M. Littleton, mister, will 
leave at "10 o'clock, a. m. 
(^P* For freight or p!trv-a:ie by any of the above boats apply 
on board, or at the office ot the Caufi rnia Steam Navigation 
Company, on board brig Globe. 

v4-i A. REDINGTON. 



Contra Costa Ferry IVotU-c 

V v 1 1 1 F art her N dtict, 
jT P-p*^ ON and alter WEDNESDAY, Nov. 20, the 
~~^ Contra Costa Ferry will run as follows: 

SAN FRANCISCO. OAKLAND. SAN ANTONIO. 

At 9Va A. M. At 8 A. M, At 7V& A. M. 

l2Vl P. M. II Mi A. M. 11 A. M. 

4W t, m. 3 r. m. 2^2 p. m. 

CHARLES MINTURN, A-.t.i, 
v3-lG3m CuXmingham'fl Wharf. 



For Sacramento and MaryerlBe, 

*TP we '< THE Ciii/i'iiV Steam Navigation Company's 
J>4f f " — "> Bteumci CiUEEH CITY, Geo. FL Ban I i; 
(er, w ill commence her regular trips for the ah 
big San Francltco every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday 
BJternoosBi nl ' o'clock. 
For freight or passage, apply Op boarft w 

Freight Reduced, 

_ -jfTTT^ifc FROM Rud after the Lai ol Juu< 

Jm^tWibI'mT s ' " Navigation Company will earn 

to Stockton and Sacramento at §:* per toil, until lurtnai 
notice. v3S4 SAM'L J. BKNSLEY, President 



ColUortda Stag* Company. 

Ojjia' hi the Orltern* Hotel, Saeramenlo. 
BTAGJ 

Nevada, fjphir, Auburn, ratikM 
' Jim's, Oeorgetow a, PlaonrviHe, 
Island. Colomn, Dryxown, Jnekeon, Moaelamne lMi, Stockton, 
morn, Murysvitle and Shasta, andallpmtl ni KM Northern 
mid Southern Mines, every morning, as A 

Nevada nnd intermediate places, at SVj o'clock A. M. 

Georgetown " " 6 " 

All out) ■ " " 

bn line for Mormoi '"flock P.M. 

All passengers will be called fbrattlmii residences, fend the 

Utmost attention and e»ra i ' to them and th< i 

Stages arrive ; > 

JAS. HAWORTH, Preeidt al i 
J. P. Dkuhian. Becr otary. v3-4tf 

blower Pots. 
just b"— 3,000 Plow. 

■ 

HAYNE9 St LAUTl'N. 
nd Clay. 



AGRICULTURAL, &e. 



Pitt's Dnublv Pinion Kl^'it or Ten Ilorte Power. 

THIS Boi Power, ti now manulactured bv the tubacrlber, 
b) admitted by thi I iva purchasoa and aaedlt,to 

, durability and cheappaaa of repair, 
any Powe ■ er o od to the public 

Their great superiority ovor olner poware, coneist.^ in the 

nlan oi construction, ii will be man thai this ^oree Power is 

double the strength ol boj ■ j'oatr, and is tho 

. r! Double Pinion n ence. 

Notwithstanding ii i Cton|| nnd warranted to 

■tend the full strength of eight or ton hoi i also ■■■ arranted 

to giro ri much olfectJve or tueful pow >i , when driven by one 

nr [wo horses, as any othoi pow er, whether const rut-ted on tho 

endless chain or lever principle. 

I have, fbtthe In t alghl years, manufactured and sold a large 
number flfThe*o powers, during which time they have been 
thoroughly tested, nnd gained n high reputetiob over all others i 
I therefore diallengx compctti 

At the great trial of Horse Tower- nt Geneva, in 1843, where 
it was thoroughly rested, it received rhe New Vork State A ..n- 
eulturnl Society's Firs! pTBraiuin, " for the bee) Boree Power 
for genera] purposes." At Clevalflud, O., in Sept, 1652, it also 
received the State Soeiety'n Firsl Premium. Also, nt the great 
Agricultural State Fair held »t ritUlmrc, Pa„ in 1833, it was 
awarded the Ffrsl Premium, 

I deem it aniieceissry to add any further testimonials to cor- 
roborate the bi^h recommendations here given, as the best re- 
commend of its merit* is n thorough trial, 
The above niarlum-M are for eulo by 

CASE, IIEISER & CO., 
No. RO Snnaome Btreet, Sun I-'ianii-co, Col. 
who are bIho prepared bo furnish castings and extras lor repairs 
for paid machine.", and are appointed my Agents to receive or- 
ders or sell my machines in future in California and Oregon. 
JOHN A. PITTS. 
Buffalo, April l"t, 1855. v3-86 



Harvesting Implements. 

WE invite the attention of the public to the following aelec- 
tion of superior Harvesting Implements : 
Hussey's (Baltimore) Reapers; 
McGormick's " 

Manny's " 

Hall's 8 horse Threshers ; 

Pitt's " 

Emery's 2 horse " 

Ketchum's Mowers; 
Grant's 5 linger Wire Brace Grain Cradles ; 
Grape Vine " 

Barley Rakes ; 
Hny Rakes and Forks ; 
Seythes and Siiaitba; 
Grant's Fan Mills, &c, &c. 

Received and for sale by 

TREADWELL & CO., 
v3-13 coiner California and Battery streets. 



Campbell 1 s Kew Sinut Cleaner. 

THE undersigned having discovered n remedy for the injury 
to wheat arUing from Smut, and a plun "I renovating the 
tame, ha? secured by a " Patent Right," his title to the same. 

From the experiments made by experienced miners, the most 
satMactory results have been aelnevd. l-'mm well attested 
trials and repeated prodi ol the capabilities of its power to 
clean the smut from the wheat, it has boon oscei'tameo that the 
most perfect purification ■ in the wheat, while at the 

name time a large avion of time^ labor and cost acernes to the 
miller, and tho dour is as pure and white as from the 6ncat 
wheat. 

Farmers who have cropB of wheat, now unbarvested, may 
yet save them, for they con matly be assured that their gram 
can he restored and r);.- i 

Licences, wiih all particular! P 
can be obtained ai the nrarehonse of the tuiweriber, on Claj 
etreet, near Sansomn, Han Pram 

v4-2 CHARLES CAMPBBLL. 



Agrlcultara] Toctl* nnd Bceds. 

PARKER. WHITE & GAHNETT, 

Rcanli 

■ 
■ 

ty, such m hove always 
d are put up t 

vn-iH 




Patent Kiln Dijrv for Crnla, Vrt;« tnlili ■< fte, 

k PATENT ' 

. \ ... - l> named. The 

i irry on the work. It 
\i certain in tin ■ 

I will please ad- 
dress KILK I'K^ Ii 



coinitiiieil itiiip.v iirni Blawari 
"ITT'E are now m the reeetpt of Mtnwg's Pateat Raping and 
>\ Mowing N :*raad and uu p iu s ed by Woods 

(with n loot cut i 

I our Calitomia r mu-utrd, nor 

..ok wc-,1, interti 

inn ■. 

We ■- 
right of the Prate 

■ 
the smase nenalnrv a* ntlicr parties are who violate the 



M«>n( Itntlt r Pott, 

JUST receive,] ri "Spitfire," an ii- Cream 

aodCaki HAVN 

T 4.] i - "P anti Clay. 

Itaneh tor Salt. 
ma* A finely located Ranch 

qMFtttelv,. ■ 
J»n ol land h i 

i if 



a J and K. 



^4 \ 



w. 






rltinovnl. 

-.innnl) 

m4 aid 



Drug) ! Dnm* ! Drug*! 
JUST received nnd for 

J. L. POLHi 

i J mid Serenu at e. 
10 barrels Alcohol ; 
150 IT- RnlMin Copavta. (original package 
rtjaa Capsolas ; 
■ rr ; 

. (warnuitcd pure ;) 
SO fes Corrosive Sobhnuue; 



-art*, assorted; 
«rrajated pure:) 



Removal 

TfeatatVBl 



lor kale at the lu 



Cam- 






Bnieh. 



sen m- t«;k^ : 



saa Satoi 



and in H ; 
Ad Leaf; 



ndowOka; 
of which will he sold k-w, by 






J. U POLHEVU?. 



Ntw Invtattea ! 
i*. tots*! \»nr tlaarkenatt 

"'lit: ur.ier-v_,.e.l b«M 00001 BttfJ I po Mfc O OO W OWJ 

cfainjr. tte era ot daoooooo fowla. 
- « a( etwerr caaoolaon: l 



W\ 



m mam urn* the pabfec tb»t •••■ 
■uktef H«a« on tlw »«th- 






TIIKR * < 



r 



.i ii-t lice* i% f *i. 

■ 



BisnCnatMnr>, * ood * goU» 

TtSJ BRAD^HAW * CO 



f—f t 

i ■ * 

t e ^ in, ■ ■• eertua reiah ; and k 

roooira but a«0> aBORboo— ooco every twe»ty-fo»r boors— 

-i baog tody *•>•..< $il 50 to $3 

-twin. L wflaetaMI up o ftu a at the dtare . 
ttyirfc, *■ all laJkrm*- 

•%o> oi oo oraMOtsaV ncotowvalkir «aie 1b 

ifcqii— lawi bt in—t ii e— Be iiliilaul at tho oaW- 

x«jasa;^lKaor*caabaia'lii lwa»aSrt 



i Ov.' '1 '* 
N:w,* WaahteCMi ood J- k* u •Ot, 3am FraacOica. »ti 



HORTICULTURAL, &c. 



Krult anil Ornaitientnl Trees. 

THE anbsorlbon desire. to aali the attention of planters in 
California to their Immense Btock "i Frull nnd Ornamental 
Treos, Shrubs add Plants. Their Nurseries have been sixteen 

Dltabiisbodi and now cover more than Hi 1(1 HCrOS of Intxt. 

The following, among other articles, are cultivated on a most 
extensive scale and can be supplied to dealers Or amateun at 

tho lowesl market nricSS l 

Standard and Dwarf Apples, of variouH rizos ; 

do do do Peare, do do 

do do do Cherries, do do 

do do do Plume, do do 

Apricots, Peaches, Nectarines, Currants, Gooseberries, Straw- 

berries and other fruits ufually grown. 

Stocks ami Soods of all kinds for Nurserymen will be sup- 
plied In large or small quantities, if application be made pre- 
vious to the l-t of September. 

Ornamental Deciduous Ti ' <■-. ornamental Evergreen Tree?, 
Flowering Shrubs, Roee , Dahuas, Green-house Plants, &c. 

Packing is dout in the moat careful and skillful manner, so 
that purchasers have a reasonable guarantee of receiving their 
articles in good order. 

The following catalogues will be sent gratis, prepaid, to all 
who apply nnd e'pclose one stamp for each : 
No. 1. Descriptive Catalogue of Fruits. 
No. 2. do do Ornamental Trees, &c. 

N". :'. do dn Dahlias &. Gieen-house Plants. 

No. 4. A Wholesale or Trade li.-t for Nnrsarymen and Deuler. 
Address, ELLWAU(iER & RAKKY, 

v3-25 Mount Hope Nurseries, Rochester, N. Y. 



Flowers I Flowers 1 1 

GOLDEN GATE NURSERY, 

Corner Fourth and Folsovi streets. 
OJTice 170 Washington etreet, San Francisco. 

PERSONS desirous ol embellishing their gardens or conser- 
vatories, will liinl at this establishment the largest stock 
and greatest variety of plants to be found on the Pacific const. 
Among which are : 
Cumelin Japonicas, in 70 varieties; Perpetual Roses of all the 
classes; fragrant and fancy Geraniums; Passiiloras, 
Heliotropes, Verbenas, Honeysuckles, Ahutiloae, 
Myrtles, Oleanders, jas.«nmine*, Fit.-eliiuu,*Da* 
phnes, Dahlias, Bulbous Roots\ Orna- 
meotul Hhruhliery ; and a general 
assortment of Green House and 
Hardy Plants. 
Orders for shipment to any part of the State will be carefully 
executed hy addressing TX Nelson, 170 Washington street, or 
the proprietor, Box 1,957 Post-office. 
v3-9-3m . W. C. WALKER. 



MISCELLANE( 




CORNER OF CALIFORNIA AND BATTERY STRKETS. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

IMPORTERS, JOBBERS AND RETAILERS OF 

Hardware and Mining Tools; also, Agricultural Implements, 
Field «nd Garden Seeds of all descriptions, from the cele- 
brated House of Messrs. Ruggles, Nourse, Mason ti, Co., 
Boston. 

Field and Garden Seeds ol all varieties ; 
Ploughs, Harrows, Cultivators, Seed Sowers, of nil kinds; 
Threshers, Reapers. Mowers, Fun Mills. Straw Cutters, Corn 
Shellers, Vegetable Cutters, Cora and Flour Mills, Sausage 

Cutters and Stutters, Horse Powers, Smut Mills, 
Wheat Drills, Churns, Ox Yokel, Bows, Horse 

Rjikes — together with all the small trails and 

implements appertaining to cultivation. 

N. B. — Branch House at Marysville. All orders promptly 
attended to. v3-5 



San Francisco ahead of the World 1 



Chili Strawberry. 

THE famous Chili Strawberry, which has elicited so much 
wonder and which was exhibited at the Society's Rooms, 
BOme two weeks qjnee, hue induced the proprietor of the plants 
tn otter a lew for sale 

Samples of the same, with the condition, culture and price, 

may be had on application to the Editors of the California 

Farmer, at their office, on Fourth street, between J and K, 

tin v being sole agents tor the same. 

vS-tl ^ E. S. MARSH. 



COPARTNERSHIP NOTICE. 

THE undersigned ban a formed a Copartnership for the pur- 
1 continuing and carrying on tho Furniture 
Trade as Wholesale ami Retail Dealers -.in this 

nrv and Sacramento, under the name and style ol HOWES A: 
CO. 

Idea*. Partner, Boston, R. HOWES, 

of the aid firm ol Efoww A Co., 
180 and 189 Montgomery street. 

Haddent Purtuer, Son Francisco DAVID H< 

San Franeueo, Sen p ■ 

139 Jackson it 103 K »t 

i. lent Partner, Sacramento B. 6, NEWCOMB, 

77 K street, Saonunento City. 
San Francisco, May 8, 1855. 

To Our Friends and the Fublic. 

By uniting the above, three firm*, our capital i* largely increas- 
ed and our erprrttrn reduced more than one-half 

I • At 
1". to £'i |M-r rrut. U-*t tlinn our former rnt« h. 
One uf the ("irinei « 

da, nnd will take mlvantnge of the markets to obtain 
such goods as are ih-.ir.iMi, ;i | the 

Lovnt Cash Hates, 
Three year*' r-r - ,ble him to select sti»ck that will 

Defy Competition in Quality and Prices. 

Wl- are m 

DESIRABLE STOCK OP NEW GO0OD3, 

and shall endeavor lo merit a «hnrc of your patronage. It will 

be our pride to give 

Perfect Satisfaction, 

both In aisalitif, priet*, and good treatment. 

77 and 100 K »trert, » fSO 

Sarraminto. > Off -.-•>!■•: o :;,ut Tnejitre. 




FUB.NITUHE ! ! FTJRNITURE ! ! ! 

AT REDUCED PK 
i K W F I K M A ■ U N i: \V G O O D S 

Our slock of Kurniiare is now complete-, comprising 
every thinir suitable for the P-- 

ham hMdy atMed*to -mr 



Mock, and constaot 
every clipper sbipy civns m on* 

fend in CaluVTtaa. We 

bate redated tur 

friea to m- 

fmrm tm Uu 

ri- 
al leacc 95 
per cent, as al 
who will favor na 
wa* a can w M be eaw- 
stred. m$ Bhs *\: ■■ a ot 
Mi era, Moore m\ Neweoanbe 
. t* and in Bsfraeseriln, we 
can safety say dnK oex stack at *e ssest 
■ 4 fompittt rrrr sdjertal ut uW p • '■tic. 
and that we cennss be mndsrmid by any Arm m 
Sao Fraacwro, ^ a ri w sf n , ms eni ■■ i s In tk*. acaan. 
• fy CaQ and ■--— '— omr stock before pure-basic^ -4F\ 
UOV. i - 
.4 1 UO sad 18* M.»la»»iij 



w 



Ever on, on apace with the Age and Times ' ! 
Hurrah for Vancu's ntw Dnguerrcau Gallery I 

Largest Light in the World, (over 500 feet Glass, > 

New Building, cor. Sacramento and Montgomery streets. 

THY should every one go to Vance's who wishe 
t PERFECT LIKENESSES 7 Bceuueo he has now the 
ocst arranged Gallery on the Pacific Coast, and not to be 8ur> 
pnesed by any In the world. Instruments containing lenses 
more perfect and with greater power than any ever before 
need in this country. 

3d. Because he hm the largest light in the world, from which 
he can form three distinct lights — top, tide, and half fide lights 
— that now enables him to overcome the great difficulty which 
:■■ n- 1 in tin • en y hah t<j contend with — namely ! In order 
to obtain perfect likenesses?, different formed features require 
differently arranged lights. 

3d, Having the largest light, be is enabled to make pictures 
in half the time of any oilier entobliriument in the city ; there- 
tore they must he more pei feet, toi il is well known, the .shorter 

the time the more natural thOOXpre 

4th. Because every [date is carefully prepared with a coating 
ot pure silver which produces the clear, bold and lasting picturs 
thai is km much admired, and winch cennoi be produced on the 
-I plates, as they are now used hy othui urtUts. 
i iftermucliex|ierimeiitingprought 

■ prepnrnl to pn lection, n.-inc coinpodndl en- 
tin i\ dilferent from anything evei before u r-d in the art. which 
■ .■■■■■. cry : ittibg, with 

and beautitul tone limied in all hia 

■ 

All tlu> ■■ ell tocallbefore 

sitting - ■ e 

fjp* Prices as reasonable, and work superior to any In the 
I r V. 

Don't forget the jdnrr, 
|y* New Building corner ol nnd Montgomery 

v J -l 



toi; \ ( ' i ' u . 
Virginia Manufactured Tobacco Agency. 

C-i REFNE, HEATH & AM CalUor- 

J( nt* .-ir.-.-l to the : 

- 

in Vir- 
uuiin : d to call. 

wing: 
Area; 

'50 pai 

80 do do Bridu ol Uie Pacirk ; 

100 boxes llals^'s Four A's : 
100 

50 do Jam 

50 do do Anna 1 

25 do A I 

50 do I 

50 do M 

20 di 

in do 

100 do T' 

so do 

In ad i 
branch ; and a« we aell excleslvely on Corrnni" - 

l a trade wnli any rruan- 

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rich laory bi»H: 
VLaras.— Law, Shrt.- 

MrSCELLAXC 



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1 iklcn * LttUr, in nW 9aora«ei anal Cininaliiin 
BevnMw, berecolbre ooadncted in the Earns Wanmnnvnx, 

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W-rr«;r: hftpressioaH are r*i=.in- <->■-. 
e *Drrt^-"tht--n.. rmrr, '«---. Tiklr-. L LtT 
lntr lna w.se ef the Esnoiie Wa reho ni e, wtach If neraearnnVaad .>j t— m 
may eananp enorrmweuy alnrnt, I Vr ■ fe a -eneefcer mk—wwwm 

*v«vthawhrriferMkiAf«rr-4 nWre, tin* aB i l* ok has wkaeb ! ^g^, aeaee.essdfcla 
e-det ^ee -■-■-: ■■■■■:-. *r> tlteh- co— rcone w-kh, at>t 
•m wf t m m r 

•■ • •tored tn rm> ■»-■ . <f ■■ c*f daly reentpted Inr k) 
jrK.a prr^B^a^a - ! 'Js- <*i Kecespr* 4 

i Vi.rnr.rfi \ 



etresa, nrar t 



24 



THE CALIFOBNIA FARMER. 



flarutus 



Why is a pretty girl like a steamboat? Be- 
cause she always has a swell after her, 

When is a pretty girl inclined to commit mur- 
der? When she is bound on a sleighing expedi- 
tion. 

Next to suicide or marrying an opera dancer, 
starting a newspaper is the most rash of human 
actions. 

Be slow to choose a friend and slower to change 
him, courteous to all. intimate with few ; scorn 
no man for his poverty ; honor no man for his 
wealth. 

Nearer Home. — How few of us realize that as 
we rise each morning, and commence our various 
avocations, that we are one day nearer our final 
borne. 

A /olly farmer returning home in his wagon, 
after delivering a load of corn, is a more certain 
sign of national prosperity, than a nobleman rid- 
ing in his chariot to the opera or the play-house. 

Whoever is apt to hope good from others, is 
dilligent to please them ; but he that believes his 
own powers strong enough to force their own 
way, commonly tries only to please himself. 

A cow was lately killed at Elgin, Scotland, and 
a shoemaker's awl found embedded in-her heart. 
The animal had been previously in good health, 
and gave the ordinary quantity of milk. 

The prize for the best essay "On Steam and 
Animal power" has been awarded by the Bath 
and West of England Agricultural Society to Mr. 
William Moreland, who is not yet 19 years of age. 

There are many who waste and lose affection 
by careless neglect. It is not a plant to grow un- 
nurtured ; the rude touch may destroy its delicate 
texture forever — the subtle chords of love are 
chilled and snapped asunder by neglect. 

A young person thinks it is enough to do right. 
As he grows older, he finds it necessary to satisfy 
others that he has done so, Much of the time 
that might be spent in doing well must be used 
in securing evidence that we have not done ill. 

Skneca says the greatest loss of time is delay 
and expectation which depends upon the future. 
We let go the present, which we have in our 
power, and look forward to that which depends 
upon chance — and so quit a certainty for an un 
certainty. 

One afternoon as the express train came near 
Mainville, Pa., a pugnacious bull who was on the 
track showed fight against the locomotive, but the 
"iron horse" came off victor, running over his 
bovino antagonist with ail the cars and killing 
him to pieces. 

Excerpts. — There is a medium between an 
excessive indifference and too universal a confi 
dence. If we have no foresight, we are surprised; 
if it is too nice, we are miserable. The appre 
hension of evil is many times worse than the evil 
itself; and the ills a man fears he shall suffer, be 
suffers in the very fear of them. 

The following from Prentioe, of the Louisville 
Journal, sustains his reputation: Two or three 
papers in the interior of Kentucky, are occasion 
ally attacking us, and a friendly correspondent 
asks why wedon't 'castigate them." The truth 
is, they are altogether too small. A woman once 
handed her crying baby to her husband, request- 
ing him to make it hush. It continued to cry 
till she got out of patience, and then she called 
to her husband, " I do wish you would spank 
that baby." " Yes," said he. He fumbled about 
for some time, and at length she angrily exclaimed 
— "Aint you going to spank the baby?" "I 
would." he replied, " but. indeed, wife, 1 can't 
find any place big enough to spank." 



Now is your Time to Buy Cheap Goods ! 

HAMBURGER & BROTHERS, who have been established 
in Lhie city aince 1650, and well knowu all ever tbis sec- 
tion of country, take pleasure to inform their friends and cus- 
tomers in general, that they have now in stoic, and receiving 
in addition by every clipper and steamship, from No* York, a 
general assortment of Fancy mid Staple Dry Goods, nonaUting 
of plain black and brocade Silks; plain, changeable arid plain 
colored Silks, fall qualities; French and American Lawn; 
white and colored plain and embroidered Swiss Muslins ; 
Bareges and Silk Tissue of all colors and prices ; Needle 
Worked Bands, Collars, Sleeves, Chemisetts and Linen U. 
Handkerchiefs; Swiss nndLaee Curtains. 

A large assortment of all kinds of Bonnet Ribbon, Irish Lin 
ens, Cotton ShirtinR and Sheetings of all styles. Lodiis 
white and colored Cotton Hose; Kid, Silk and Lisle Thread 
Gloves. With a general assortment of Fancy Goods too numer- 
ous to mention, which we otfer to Bell at twenty-five per cent, 
cheaper than any other house in this city, as we are direct im- 
port era of our goods. 

A call is only necessary — you can judge for yourself. 

15 s - Ladies are particularly invited to call. 

Store, 91 J atreet, near Fourth, Sacramento. 

P. 8. — We keep constantly on hand a full supply of Silk and 
Straw Bonnets, and all kinds of Millinery Goods. V&95. 



BANKERS. 



MEDICAL. 



WELLS. FARGO & CO., 

BANKERS.— Bills of Exchange for sale on New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia and St. Louis. 

Also, on the following Eastern Cities : 
Adrian, Mich., Gnlena, II!., Pottsville, Pa., 

Albany, N. Y., Geneva, N. Y., Providence, R, L, 

Alton, 111., Hamilton, O., Racine, Wis., 

Ann Arbor, Mick, Jackson, Mich., Reading, Ph., 

Ashtabula, O , Kalamazoo, Mich., Rochester, N. Y., 

Auburn, N. Y., Kenosha, Wis., Sundnskv, O., 

Battle Creek, N. Y., Labile, 111., Sheboyean, Wis , 

Binghamton, N. Y., Lockport, N. Y., Silver Creek, N. Y, 
Buffalo, N. Y., Louisville, Ky., South Bend, Ind., 

Canandohrua, N. Y., Mansfield, O., Springfield, O., 

Chicago, 111., Mich. City, Ind., Springfield, 111., 

Cincinnati, O., Milwaukee, Wis,, Stonington, Conn., 

Cleveland, O., Monroe, Mich., Syracuse, N. Y., 

Columbus, O.. Mount Vernon, O., Tiffin, O., 

Cornine, N. Y., Newark, O., Toledo. 0„ 

Dayton, O., Niles, Mich., Troy, N. Y., 

Detroit, Mich., Oswego, N. Y., U'ica, N. Y„ 

Dunkirk. N. Y., Owego, N. Y., Westticld, N. Y., 

Elmira, N. Y., Painesville, O., Xenia, O., 

Erie, Pa., Peoria, 111., Zanesville, O., 

Dbajts on Canada drawn on 

Montreal. Quebec, Hamilton and Toronto. 

Drafts on Europe drawn on 

Union Bank of London London. 

National Bank of Scotland Edinburgh. 

Royal Bank of Ireland "Dublin, 

Livingston, Wells &, Co., (our hou»e) Paris. 

V3-24 WELLS, FARGO <St CO. 




PALMER, COOK Sc CO.. 

BANKERS, corner of Washington and Kearny streets, front- 
inc the Plaza, San Francisco, California, buy and sell Ex- 
chance on all the principal Eastern cities. Bullion, Certificates 
of Deposit, etc., bought at the highest market rates. 

Collections made and Money Transmitted, and all business 
connected* with bankinc transacted. 
rp* Agent in New York — 
v3-25 JOHN COOK, Jn., 31 Broadway. 



DREXEL, SATHER & CHURCH, 

BANKERS, corner of Commercial and Montgomery streets, 
draw at sight, in sums to suit, on 
Van Vleck, Read dcDrexcl, 27 Wall sL.. ..New York. 

Bank of North America Boston. 

Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank Albany 

Drexel &. Co Philadelphia. 

Johnston Bro. &. Co Baltimore. 

J. B. Morton, Esq Richmond. Vu. 

A. D. Jones, chashier Pittsburg, IV 

A. J. Wheeler, Esq Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A. D. Hunt, Esq Louisville, K>. 

J R, Macmurdo 4. Co New Oilcans. 

Also, on Detroit, Mich.; Memphis and Nashville, Tenn., Co 
luinbus, Ohio : Norfolk, Vs., and Charleston, South Carolina. 
v3-9 



Latest Importation. 

WE would again call the nttcntion of buyers, wholesale and 
retail, to the large and magnificent stock of 
STAPLE AND FANCY GOODS, 
which have been received direct from the manufacturers and 
importers the past week, per clipper ships " Flying Cloud," 
"Samuel Russell" and "Red Rover," which, in addition to our 
former stack, makes it by tar the lahoest in the .State out 
OF San FkanciSOoI And for quality and cheapne-*, we defy 
competition ; and we say, without fear ot contradiction, We keep 
tho greatest variety to be found in any house in California, 
By the Two -Last Steamers. 
800 Para-ob, new, rich and beautiful ; 
100 ps. luteat Btylc Bonnet Ribbon* and Trimmings ; 
jO ps. aborted colon., Barega.- and Tiwues ; 
e5 patterns fancy Barnes and Tissues ; 
25 pe. plain anddutied Swisses; 
40 p., plaid, striped and plain Jaconet ; 
] . Wesh Lawns, $1 H Driws Pattern. 

Moos', Youths' and Boys' Summer Clothing. 

i fSSST H r ln - S. ow Y, : rk * ! " ,,ie re| 7 n*t «tyi 

■■ NLTB :— Mu*cV Flails, Roy, 1 Hats &c 
; agroat variety of other Wy Good-, for tho 
.ly celebration, too nutni;n»in to mention 

CIIAS. CROCKER &. CO 
246 J street, between Eighth and Ninth. 



XEAV BOOKS. 

ANNA CLAYTON; or The Mother's Trim.. 12mo., 
cloth. Price $1. (Two editions in one week.) 

A well-conceived and finely written tale, of high moral ex 
cellence. — [Boston Courier. 

It is one of the most effective works issued during the past 
few years. — [Transcript. 

It is decidedly the best popular tale of the season. — [Bee. 

Second edition of Burnham's History of the Hen Fever." 
12mo„ cloth. $1 25. 

The Boston Traveller says, "The salo of this book has al- 
ready been immense— amounting in two weeks, to 20,000, 

Burnham's new volume, the " History of the Hen "Fever," 
is destined to have a great run. It is capitally written and il- 
lustrated, und is brim full of fun and apicc. It will 6urely 
create a sensation. — [Ballou's Pictorial. 

Turkey and the Turku. By Dr. J. V. C. Smith, Mayor of 
Boston. 320 pages. 12mo., cloth. 75c 

It is a most excellent work. It will have a large sale, for it 
embraces more real information about real Tuiks and their 
strange peculiarities than anything we have yet resd. — [Post 

The Massachusetts State Record. One of the most valuable 
American Statistical Works. 5 vols. 12mo., cloth. $5. 

The New Hampshire Festival. A graphic account ol the As- 
semblage of the "Sons of New Hampshire," at Boston, Hon. 
Daniel Webster presiding. Illustrated, 8vo., cloth, gilt. $1 50. 

Second Festival " of the Sons of New Hampshire." Illustrated 
with portraits of Webster, Wilder, Appjeton, and Chickering. 
8vo., cloth, gilt. *l 50. 

Festival. 2 vols, in one. Bvo., cloth, gilt. $2. 

Eleanor; or, Life Without Lore. 12mo., cloth. 75 cents. 

England aud America. Illustrated. 12mo., cloth. 75 cents. 

Sttnjhine and Shade; or, the Denham Family, lflmo., cloth. 
37^ cents. 

The Drram Fulfilled. 18mo., cloth. 42 cents. 

Talmiidtc Maxim*. Translated from the Hebrew. 18rao., 
cloth. 50 cents. 

Consumption Forestalled and Prevented, lflmo., cloth. 37cts. 

Passion and other Tales. 16mo,, cloth. 62 cents. 

Thf Art of Conversing. Fourteenth edition. 32mo., cloth, 
gilt edge*. 37 cents. 

Floral Gems; or, the Songs of ttie Flowers. 32mo., cloth, 
gilt edces. 

Tlir Amethyst ; or, roedral Gems. 32mn., gilt, 37 cents. 

Zion. With illustrative title. 32mo. 37 cents. 

Sonnets. By Edward Moxon. 32mo. 31 cents. 

Gray's Elegy, and other Poems. 32mo. 31 cents. 

Turnover. A Tale of New Hampshire. Paper. 25 cents. 
Popular School Rooks. 

Foster's Book'Kecpiug. Twelfth edition. 8to., cloth, extra. 
Price $1. 

Foster's Book-Keeping, by single entry, exemplified in two 
sets of books. Boards. 38 cents. 

Frenclt's System of Practical Penmanship. Twenty-seventh 
edition. 25 cents. 

This little treatise Heemn well fitted to teach everything which 
can be tought of the theory ol Penmanship. — [Post. 

The bcot nnd most useful pubheution of the kind that we 
have seen. — [Transcript. 

Beant'ua uf Writing. 75 Cents. 

Boston Copy- Book. 42 cents. 

Ladies Copy-Book. 17 cents. 

Boston Elementary CopyBook. 12 cents. 

Cook's System of Penmanship. 37 cents. 

The Art of Pen Drawing. 75 cents. 

French's New Writing Hook, with a fine engraved 
each page. In lour numbers. 

No. 1 containn the First Principles 10 cts. 

2 A fine Copy Hand 10 " 

3 A bold Business Hand Writing 10 " 

4 Beautiful Epistolary Writing forthe Lady. 10 " 

A new and original system ol Writing Books, which cannot 
foil to meet with favor. — [Bee. 

It is easily acquired, practical and beautiful. — [Fitchburg 
Sentinel. 

We have no hesitation in pronouncing them superior to any- 
thing of the kind ever issuaeu. — [Star Spangled Banner. 

In Press. 

THE SURE ANCHOR. 

EQUAL RIGHTS OF THE RICH AND POOR. 

EXILES LAY, AND OTHER POEMS. By the Border 
Minstrel. 

THE COOPER'S SON; OR, THE PRIZE OF VIRTUE. 

THE VACATION; OR, MRS. STANLEY AND HER 
CHILDREN. 

THE SOCIABLE STORY TELLER 

£^* Single copies cent free of postage upon the receipt of 
the nHai) price. 

Orders solicited. 

JAMES FRENCH & CO., Publishers, 

No. 78 Washington street, Bsoton. 
Dealers in all kinds of Stationery. v3-25tf 



IT IS A FIXED FACT, 
CONSUMPTION CAN BE CUBED! 

SIR JAMES CLARK, Physician to 
Queen Victoria, and one of the most 
learned and skillful men of the age, in 
his " Treatise!' on Consumption, Fays : 
"That Pulmonary Consumption admits 
of a cure, is no longer a matter of doubt; 
it has been clearly demonstrated by the 
researches of Ltennec and other patholo- 
gists." Db. Cabswell, who investigated 
such matters probably as thoroughly as 
anv man, pays : " Pathological anatomy has, perhaps, never af- 
forded more conclusive evidence in proof of theV:urability of a 
disease than it has in that of tubercular phthisis," (pulmonary 
consumption.) 

It Is no Fiction. 
These statements are made by men who have demonstrated 
what they say, time after time, in the crowded hospital, and in 
the truth telling dissecting room. They are from men who 
have no possible motive lor publishing what is untrue, or em- 
blazoning falsehoods. 

The Remedy which we offer 

Dr. "Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry, 

has cured hundreds of cu-ea of 

Consumption of the Lunge, Liver Complaints, Coughs, 

Colds, Asthma, Bronchitis, Whooping Cough, 

Influenza, &c. 

Many ol them after every known remedy had failed to reach the 

disease, 

We can present a mass of evidence in proof of our assertion that 
Cannot be Discredited. 

Dn. Boyt>en, a Physician in Maine, enys : "I have recom- 
mended the use ol DR WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD 
CHERRY lor diseases of the lungs for two years past, and 
many bottles to my knowledge have been used by my patients, 
all with bpneficial results. In two coses, when* it wan thought 
Confirmed Consumption had taken place, the Wild Cherry ef- 
fected a cure. 

Da. A. H. Macanaih, of Tnrboro, North Carolina, writes u«, 
under dtite of Feb. 14, 1854, that he has used DR. WISTAR'S 
BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY in his practice the lust eighteen 
month-, and considers it the beat preparation of the kind he 
ever saw, and knows of none so deserving the public patronage. 

Da. Wm. A. Shaw, of Washington, D. C, snys : "I wish 
hearty success to your medicine. I consider every case of ar- 
rest of the fatal symptoms of pulmonary disease as a direct 
tribute to suffering bumnnity. 

Samuel A. Walker, Esq.. a gentleman well known in this 
vicinity, writer) as follows : " Having experienced results of u 
satisfactory choracter, from the use of WISTAR'S BALSAM 
OF WILD CHERRY in cases of severe colds during the post 
two year^, I am induced to express the gratification 1 feel from 
the favorable effects that followed, nnd also the full faith I hav<: 
in the renovating power of Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry, 

Hon. Samuel S. Perkins says : " Fur several days I had 
been Buffering from the effects of a severe cold, accompanied 
by a very sore throat and sick headache, which completely in- 
capacitated me from business. 1 had taken but a very small 
portion of a single bottle of this Balsam, when 1 experienced 
immediate relief My cough was broken up at once, and my 
lung* entirely relieved from the pressure which had become so 
painful. 

[From the Boston Journal.] 
Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry, 

" This medicine, coming from a respectable source, nnd care- 
fully prepared by an experienced and skillful physician, is 
received by the public with confidence. Its efficacy has been 
proved in many obdurate cases of disease, and its fame has 
rapidly extended." 

It is a powerful remedy for Asthma, as will bo seen by the 
following cure: "Sir — Having been afflicted for more than 
thirty years with the Asthma, at times SO severely aa to inca- 
pacitate me from attendance to business, and having adopted 
manv medicines without any but temporary relief, I purchased 
several bottles of WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY, 
from the effects of which I obtained more relief than from all 
the medicine I had ever taken for that distressing disorder. 1 
have, hy the repeated use of your valuable Balsam, been more 
free of pressure for breath, and oppression on the lungs, than I 
anticipated, and, indeed, conceive myself cured of the most dis- 
beartcnin™ malady. C. D. MAYNARD. 

Argus Office, Portland, March 26, 1850." 

Fifty Thousand Persona die annually In Englond of Con- 
sumption ! In the New England States the proportion Is one 
to four or five. In Boston, probably, one in four. In the city 
of New York sixty-seven died in two weeks, in December, of 
this disease. The mere liict that such a disease is ever curable, 
attested by such ununpcachublc authority, should inspire hope 
and reanimate failing eourago in the heart uf nutlurer from this 
disease. 

Biwnre of Counterfeit* and I nil tot Ion s— Sy nips, 
nnd all other preparations of Wild Cherry. Remember, they 
Imitate in name, without possessing the virtues. Buy none but 
the genuine 

Dr. "Wistar's Balsam of "Wild Cherry. 

Signed I. BUTTS on the wrapper. 
SETH W. F0WLE, 

Proprietor, Boston, Mass. 

JT^* Agents for San Francisco, 



copy on 



fcVrry Notice* 

"VJ'OTICE ia hereby given to all persons Interested, that the 
Xl undersigned will ajplv to the Board of Supervisors of 
Sacramento county, on the 12 h day of June. 1955, it said board 
shall then bo in aetidon ; if nut, then on the firnt day thereafter 
that they shull be in session, for a renewal of his license to keep 
two lerries across the American river; one commonly known 
ns " Hoyt's Ferry," near where 2flth street of Sacramento City 

intorsectt said river; and the other commonly known as the 

" Middle or Muldniw Ferry," about two und oae*half mlloi from 
Haid Sucrnmeutu City. SAMUEL NORRIS. 

Sacramento, May 10th, 1855. t3-24 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



tkeadwell 




CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND MAIDEN LANE, 

MAEYSVILLE. 

Corner of California and Battery streets, San Francisco. 
No. 56 Federal street, Boston. 
IsrrpoBTEas of Hardware, Iron, Steel, Cordage, Paints, Oil 
Varnish and Window Gloss, direct from the Atlantic States an 
Europe, with a complete assodtment of tools and impli 
ments for Farmers, Miners, Carpenters, Coopers, Caulkers ant 
Gravers, Saddlers, Turners, Masons, Smiths, Paiittern, Glaziers^ 
Ship Carpenters, Wheelwrights, Millwrights, Cabinet Makers f 
and others. v3-5 




COLLINS 4 CO., 
PRACTICAL HATTERS, 

(PREMIUM HAT 3TOBX.) 

157 Commercial street, San Francisco. 

THE undersigned would take this opportunity to return their 
thanks to their friends and the public generally tor the very 
libera] share of patronage which they have received. They take 
pleasure in now announcing that they are determined that no 
one shall surpass them in the beauty, or finish, or quality of a 
Hat ; that no gent "hull wear a finer Hat than can be found at 
Collins it. Co.'a Warehouse. 

The proprietors of this establishment exert themselves to 
manufacture to order the latest styles and most approved pat- 
terns. The stock of HATS and CAPS, of every kind, now 
on hand, cannot be surpassed in this city. 

v4-l COLLINS II CO. 



v3-16 



B. B. THAYER & CO., 

Montgomery street 



Snrgcry, 

R. B. COLE, M. D., 

Late Lecturer on Surgery and the Diseases of Women ; Late 
Member of the Board of Censors of the San Francisco Medi- 
cal Society ; Member of the California Academy of Natural 
Sciences, and Corresponding Member of ttveral Medical 
Societies in the South and East. 

Office — Atheneum Building, 

South-east corner of Montgomery and California streets, 

opposite Wells, Fargo Sl Co. 

DR. R. B. COLE, for many years a Medical Practitioner in 
tho city of Philadelphia, and tor the pnst three years in 
this city, would respectfully announce that, in consequence of 
a most hi'ii. in- injury received some months Bidce, with which 
this community are familiar, he will in future confine himself 
principally to bis office, where he proposes to treat all 

Surgical Dieeasen, 
feeling assured as he does that bis former connection with 
Medicnl Schools and Hospital*, together with the extensive 
practice he has enjoyed for the past ten years, peculiarly 
qualify him for tho succeseful practice of surgery. Of the af- 
fections to which Dr. Cole has devoted much of his attention, 
may be mentioned : Tunnors and morbid growtbe, occurring 
on nuy part of the body, Disease of the Spine, Chronic Ulcera- 
tions, Cancerous Affections, Dropsies, Diseases of the Bones 
and Joints, Diseases of Eye, Ear and Skin, Affections of the 
Bladder, Urethra, Scrotum and Testis (or in other words, all 
diseases of the Gcnito-Urinary Apparatus;) and Deformities, 
whether congenital or the result <»J accident, amongst which 
may be enumerated, Club-Fool, Badly-treated Fracture. 5 , Con- 
tractions of the Limbs and loss of substance about the tuce, the 
result of disease or accident. Dr. Cole hus also for many years, 
and continues still to pay special attention to obstetrics uud the 
treatment of all diseases peculiar to Females. 

Patients from the interior will be provided with suitnbl 
boarding houses and experienced and attentive nurses. 

SMoruing, From 10 till 12. 
Afternoon, " 2 " 5. 

Evening, " 7 " 9, v3-12 



Great Bargains 1 Selling off I! 

SAMUEL JELLY'S 

48 J street, between Second and Third, Sacramento. 

A LARGE assortment of tine English and Swiss Watches, 
with adjusted chronometer I.hIiukhm, .-elected by me from 
the beat manulacjlinjl. and warranted perlect time keepers, 
together with n well scleetdd stork of 

Diamonds and Rich Jewelry, 

purchased by me lor cash, and for sole lower than the same 
goods have been ottered In this city. 

Diionoiids set In any style. Quartz-work made to order. 
Clocks, Watches und Jewelry repaired to orden 

HI SAMUEL JELLY, 48 J street. 



PACIFIC EXPRESS COMPANY. 



THE late employees of Adams &. Co., in consequence of the 
disruption of that firm, have organized theniHctves into a 
joint stock company, under the above name and title, tor the 
purposo of conducting a General Express und Forwnrding 
liu-inf-s in all its branches, throughout Calilornia, Oregon and 
the Pacific Coast generally. 

The business wijl be etrictly and solely a forwarding one, 
having no connection with banks and bankers, and will be coo* 
ducted on sale and economical principles. 

The Expresses will leave the office at the nortb-wcflt corner 
of Washington and Montgomery streets, daily, at regular hours, 

for Sacramento and the Northern Mines, Stockton and tho 

Southern Mines, San Joso, San Juan and Santa Cruz, Mon- 
terey, San Pedro and the Southern Coast generally, as well as 
to the Northern Coast of California and Oregon 

We will also run b regular Express for Freight, Small Par- 
cels and Letters tu and from trie Atluntic Slates by every 
steamer. 

Tho parties who have organized tins company ore well 
known tu the community nx old and experienced express men, 
and hope it will be acknowledged generally, understand their 
business thoroughly. They think they are not saying too much, 
when they attribute much of the success of tee late firm of 
Adams & Co. in the express business to their exertions aud 
personal energies. 

In conclusion they would solicit « fair shnre of the favors of 
the public, pledging tliemelves to exert their bc«t endeavors to 
tmnsact sucfa busSneas as may be entrusted to uiemmaprompt 
and business-like DOanttU. 

Collections ol all kinds will be promptly attended to at any 
of the points mentioned above. 

R, G. NOYE3, President. 

Soh* Francisco, March 1st, 1855. v3-10. 



WAINWR1GHT, RANDALL & CO., 

Real Estate and Stock Auctioneers, 

No. 100 Merchant street, San Francisco, California. 

WE respectfully inform our friends and the public gener- 
ally, that we have connected with our other business 
that of Houss BaoKEBAOK and Genkiial Dikectout, 
and have made extensive arrangements for CAnduewng them 
satisfactorily to ull who may fuvor us with their patronage. 

Ah these new branches possess some novel features, and not 
having been heretofore introduced in this city, we deem it pro- 
per to make manile-t their advantages, not ouly to our own 
citizens, but to all who may visit our city. 
House lirokvrage. 

This department is an agency for leading and letting Dwelling 
House.-, Stores, Shops, Rooms and Buildingn of every de.se rip 
lion, and will receive the attention which it* importance de 
mauds, from the advantages derived from the "Directory 
Department," and having made arrangements for receiving 
Information immediately when premises are vacoted, we •.hall 

fjpssess Superior facilities for providing, at the (■hoite-t notice, 
louses, Rooms and Places of Business of all kinds, in any part 
of the city where required. All person* who may have vacant 

premises will Bad this a deairabla medium of obtaining tenants 
for the same, aud their business is respectfully solicited. 
General i)lr*Tiory. 
This department will include a rejbtru (already prepared,) 
of all person*, (except Chinese,) within the limits of the city, 
by reference to which wo will be enabled to rive the name and 
residence of all Merchants, Mediume?, Artists, Professional 

Men, Laborers, aud those out of business, which will he con- 
tinually corrected, us they change their residence, and will re- 
ceive additions from time to lime, as new coiners arrive. 

We consider the information which our register will afford 
to be of essentiul importance, us well to ourotm community as 

to strangers, from the fact of changes occurring so Ireouentiv 

union-,' u% and it having been demoii-trnted that published 
din-cli tries are nearly u.-ele*s in a nmiith or two .titer being is- 
sued. This with other information in our poweession, enables 

us to present a complete epitome ol the entire city, which wo 

bhnll keep " pooled up," to keep puce with the movements uf it* 
Inhabitants. 

Thin department will bo under the supervision ot an agent 
who has had a lurge experience in this branch, hero and else 
where. 

To give an idea of the extent of our Registry, we may men* 
tion that up to the present time 1 contains the numw and ad* 
dress of forty-three th-wfand ptrSCIW, witb tin: placet ol their 
iiHtivity, occupations, etc., which hat rss-uired several months 
of labor to compile, 

We invito thu attention of the public to our establishment. 

V3-18 WA1NWR1 .;HT, RANDALL & CO. 



Pottt-ryt Pottery It 

NOW rea.ly and tarsals at tbe SACRAMENTO POTTERY, 
on J street, aeai Sutter's Fort, a large assortiAent ol Plain 
and Fancy Flower 1'ot-.; Mutter, IV - ind Cak 

Jars, with covers ; Cream Pots, Churns. Milk Pans, Jugaond 
Stovepipe Safes, ■■! superior quality ; " I else m 

the lino. Wares made to order. Deafen are particularly »ol« 
lotted to call and purchase. Order- to bfl left at the I'ottery.or 

No. 804 J street. 
v;t --' CHARLES TAYLOR, Agent. 




VOL. IV. 



SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, FRIDAY MORNING, AUGUST 3, 1855. 



NO. 5. 



tflir California farmer 

AXD Jfll UWt. OF VSKPTT. S CIBNCES. 

By WARREN Be SON. 

PUBLISHED 'EVERY FRIDAY MORNING. 

Office — ■' J and K, Sticarnriifi', 

Terms. — Six dollar! per annum, in advance*. Fur a club 

■■ ' : b BOp>" gratis, 
A limited nun insci ted M liiir rates. 

AGENTS. 

J. Q. A. WARREN. Ri*ton. — For all the Eastern State*. 

Mr^i j. WELW>, Karoo & Co.— At tfuir Offfe* throughout the 

< 
PACIFIC F.kpress Company.— At all their Offices in the State. 
L. P. PiSHi ft, ■ '■ Agent, San Francitco, 

Mtvwn. Haven A Baker.—.V»/'" City and County, 
Gardner & Kirk, Nmtpaper and Booksellers, Sacramento. 
Messrs. Lanoton St, Co./or Duwnieville, Foster's Bar, Good' 

liar, Mhicsota. 
Messrs. Leland &. McC»ombe— Cresemt City, Port Orford, 
Vninntawii, Eureka, and R>'6kfipoft, 

SoLLlVA\-'stieu'*pu|iert=tmiit. N<>. 5 Post OlTire Building ; Kim- 
ball's, Noisy Carriers Hull, Lona ,vharl— San Fra, 



A. IIiiniiewe.11, P. M., Columbia. 
1 Coffin, Mo'.-rhfnno HUI. 
Qcn. M. M. McCftrver. Mount 

h'ar>", O. T. 
Dudley & Co., Napa City. 
Baker & Hamilton, Stirramcnto. 
Triney &■ R'»neitH, Salt or a, 
A. H. Murdoch, P. M.,* Union, 

fi'tmbnjtlt Bay. 
Worth Si Stmgis, Martina. 
Bern. D >dd, Benicla. 
j. M Tlioilmrn&Co. New York 

■ . y, N. Y. 

*,* Postmasters throughout the State are kindly inritedtoact 
for u*. 
\Vk desire our A'jents to report to tin on the Iff of every 

month, the increase ol namea and the praepecte, together with 
the amount due the ollice. 



P.Freor, liidmll'^ Batte Co. 
D G.Wuldron&Cn. Cofoma. 
Treadwell &. Co., ManpviUc. 
Jnme: & Co., Napa. 
A. vv. Pottor, Nevada, 
Na.-h & Davis, EUutrvUlt, 
C. O. Burton, fHaehton. 
Dr.Tliomaf J. Harvey, P. M., 

San t'titi Obittpn. 
Cram, Rogers ft Co., Yttktt, 
HowaVd&ChamberlaiB, fn'a 

City, nnd Mixtion mi Jove, 



AGRICOLA'S LETTERS.— NO. 10. 
On Stall-feeding of Animals. 

Editors Farmer: In Letter No. 4, I recom- 
mended Potatoes as a substitute for Turnips, in 
in Stall-feeding. I now return to the subject; 
but, before doing so, offer a feu- remarks on Ani- 
mal Physiology, to enable us to understand more 
perfectly what we have got to do. 

Rood, when taken into the stomach, is dissolved 
bv the gastric juice into "chyme") which ''after 
iving the pancreatic juice, the liile and in 

' m. " h 

oi- lacteals, take up the Huid part leaving the in- 
soluble portions. The ch) le, or absorbed Buid, is 
fiartlv conveyed into the abdominal veins, and 
partly wade to pass through numerous glands 
(in which process it loses its acid re-action, be- 
coming alkaline) from which it proceeds to (he 
thoracic duct, and is, with the lymph, poured 
into the vena cava, to mix with tire \ 
blood."* From the right ventricle of the heart 
the blood, collected from all parts of the body, 
passes with considerate force to the lungs ; where, 
meeting with the oxygen of the atmosphere, it is 
thereby purified, ami deprived of a large quantity 
of carbon, which it had acquired in its passage 
through the body ; and changes its color from a 
dark red to a blight crimson. The blood so 
changed leaves the lungs, and enters the left ten- 
tncleof the heart, whence it i~ forced along the 
arteries towards the capillaries at their extreme- 
ties, where it resumes its dark color from the ab 
sorption of carbon. At one time, the opinion 
prevailed among physiologists that animal heat 
was produced from some nervous effect on the 
nm-vics. which is now abandoned. Then, that 
it was produced entirely in the lungs, from the 
contact of atmospheric air with the element* of 
food in the blood. This opinion soon gave way 
to ■Bother, that it was entirely produced in the 
capillaries, where the blood un -hangc 

ot color. This opinion equally extreme is now 
at a discount, ami the more rational belief is 
generally entertained, that it is produced in dif- 
ferent parts of the body, but chiefly in the capil- 
- and lungs. Let us see how far this opin- 
ion is borne out by facts. There- is no doubt thai 
the carbon in the blood, by ■ 
tion is occasioned, 
ot the animal tissues in the capillar;. 

to whatever portion of it is tbi 
there, separated from tile cartwnaecous el 
of the fowl or fat. But »c n - I that 

the sk 

the lungs, and that, by means of an 
quantity of little | enabled to f 

the outer portion of the body, at all 
a sufficient quantity of oxygen to so far 



its carbon, wherever obtained, and thereby furnish 
it with heat. But after all. the air so furnished 
is but limited, and the place where the fluid is 
consumed very close, and we may naturally sup- 
pose that but a partial oxidation takes place ; and, 
that these partially oxidized atoms are carried 
along the veins towards the heart, and afterwards 
to the lungs, where they arc completely oxidised, 
and thrown off" in the form of carbonic acid gas. 
This is confirmed by the symptoms of a common 
cold. The pores of the skin get closed. The 
patient feels a shivering all over his body. The 
lungs get surcharged with a mucous matter.. .The 
whole system suffers and is affected. No wonder: 
the closing of the pores of the skin, and the pre- 
vention of the necessary supply of oxygen to the 
body, thereby produces!! these effects very simply. 
The carbon, which ought to have been partially 
oxydized, in this manner is left intact, and is thus 
carried to the lungs. Consequently, but little 
heat is produced on the surface of the body. But 
what can the prior overtasked lungs do with it? 
They try hard, and sometimes work so severely, 
when such colds are of longstanding, as to injure 
themselves permanently; hut all that they can 
do is but to produce partial relief. To oxidize 
completely, and at once, the blood which should 
have been half-oxidized before, they make more 
respirations, and throw off. by spasmodic efforts. 
those collections of mucous matter so rich in car- 
bon, which, it is impossible fur them to prevent 
from forming. The kidney s too work hard to 
relieve nature under her difficulty, and hence the 
alteration produced in their secretions, by the 
additional duties they endeavor to discharge. 

The "chyle," or fluid absorbed from the blood, 
contains that portion <>f the food which goes, to 
support nutrition and heat ; and it is specially. 
is we shall soon see, with 
phvstology that we have 
to do. How fir it undergoes a partial change, 
from its lirst contact with air in the lungs, it is 
not for me to say. although, from the nature of 
its metallic and alkaline constituents, we are led 
to presume that it is one reason of the change of 
color in the blood. Hut this we know. that. 
gradually. II becomes not only filled to serve as 
an clement in the nutrition of animals, but that 
the carbonaceous part of it is mure immediately 
adapted for the production of heat, and also the 
deposition of fat, where there is a sufficient quan- 
tity to supply both purposes. Now this is the 
very jaunt we want to arrive at. In stall-feeding 
animals, we generally » that are full- 

grown, when our prii. make 

them acquire a large quantity of f«l. in a short 
lime, rather than to furnish food to supply addi- 
tional muscle. What we have pit to do. there- 
fore is to select food rich in carbon, where Nature 
has already pcrfoimed half the task of asstmila 
tion. and try to put the animals under such modi- 
fied ciicutnsiances. as will enable tin m to get fat 
the most advantageously to the owner, that is, to 
lay on the greatest quantitv of fat po.-sil.le. in 
the shortest time, and with the least expenditure 
of food. 

Having selected the slock we wish to stall-feed, 
the lirst inquiry wheh meets es is how to ac 
commodate them while they are being fed. A- 1 
am not now aliout lo de-K-ribe such build 
arc mast suited for the accommodation of live 
stock, in all the several conditions, in which the 
farmer may have occasion to keep them. I 

t myself with a few brief • 
In the 

■re the temperature can 
and the light excluded a' 
lire a larger 
food, and tak 

lie rf£T»/n-/y fed. and ktpt clean, and veil proeiaW 

The raMBM of these observ*. : - "■- o v : 

. more 
.. beat are r 
producu of carbon, it follows that a lea* q . . 



of carbonaceous food will produce a given quan- 
tity of fat. at a moderate, than at a low tempera- 
ture, which may be accounted for thus: The car- 
bonaceous portion of the food, or a large por- 
tion of it, is separated by the absorbents into 
chyle, and carried along and mingled with the 
blood, as we have seen, and afterwards through 
the arteries to the capillaries, where it undergoes 
a change. Now, if there is a sufficient quantity 
of oxygen furnished to oxidize, but partially — 
say to convert into oxido of carbon — the whole 
of this carbon already, let us suppose, in a fatty 
state, then of course no fat is formed, but, if it 
cannot consume but a portion of it, then it is 
natural to conclude that this greasy material 
as it rubs along, leaves a portion of itself, which, 
from gradual accumulation, becomes a layer of 
fat. This we know to be a fact. But we also 
know, that the colder the temperature, the great- 
er the quantity of oxygen inhaled by the lungs 
or absorved by the skin, owing to the greater 
density of the atmosphere; and consequently, 
the greater the quantity of fatty matter consumed, 
which would otherwise be partly left in the. system. 
Tnis is a wise and necessary provision of Nature, 
in providing for the comfort of animals; but the 
prudent fanner looks for a cheaper substitute, to 
supply the place of a fuel which costs so much, 
and which, being already in the animal, can be 
used to so much belter account. 

But it is not heat alone which modifies the 
requisite quantity of food, or helps in the acquisi- 
tion of fat. Morton — as quoted by Johston — not 
only found, '' that the most profitable return of 
mutton, from the foot! consumed, is when the ani- 
mal is kept under cover, and in the dark." but 
that the quantity of turnips eaten was not one 
half, while the increase ol weight was greater. 
I his i» only what we might have cx|>ccted. as. in 
many cases, bodies, which in obscurity remain to- 
tally without action on one another, are brought 
into combination by exposure to light; the rapid- 
ity of their reaction being proportional to the bril- 
liancy of the light ; ami carbonic oxide — in con- 
tact with chlorine an element of the blood — is 
one of ihose on vv hich light has such an operation. 
So, that not only is the fattening of animals pro 
moted by their being shui up. out of sight of any 
objects which might excite or disturb ihem. hut 
the ehemieiil operation of the rays of light is 
thereby prevented from assisting in thedesompo- 

i hash 
have iieen luoigbt. by ibe lit' 
arteries, to the neighfmrhood of the skin ; and a 

In my i.ext. I shall endeavor to show the 
hleiic— of Potatoes tor Still-feeding, as enntain- 

nverl- 
il.le into animal fat. Auricula. 



What Food will Produce the most Wool. 

ing favor in 

this Mate, and as it is certainly destined to be a 

raising and wool growing Stale, and thai 

loo on a laigc scale, we feel that every practical 

truth connected with lb ■ of much inv 

l«naiice. and copy the annexed account from M "i- 

shepherd. The experiments can be easily 

fornia. at the present time, and 

prepare the . 'e speedy success. 

i ate based in truth and will be avpplicaole 

-■ale: 

Peas, be.v kc, are useful for the 



and phosphate of lime, and the oxides of iron and 
manganese. Hence it will readily appear that ibi d 
given to the sheep which will supply the greatest 
proportion of albumen, in the same ratio will in- 
crease the wool secretions, and. consequently, le 
productive of the most wool, provided, however, 
they also hold in suitable combination the inor- 
ganic substances of wool, without which they as- 
similate mostly for the formation of flesh or fat. 
This may be exemplified thus: a soil may be 
highly productive of corn, as well as a few of the 
cerenl grains, yet for the production of wheal i 
may lack the proper proportion of the phosphate 
and carbonate of lime, and consequently, the ber- 
ry will not only be deficient in quantity but also 
in quality. 

The following table exhibits the results of the 
experiments of the distinguished agriculturist. De 
ltaiimer. on the effects produced by an equal 
quantity of several substances in increasing the 
Hesh, tallow, and wool of sheep: 

locveamd weight Lbe. wool Lbs. tnllow 
of living animate, produced, produced. 

1.000 lbs. potfttoefl, raw, with tail, 46v^ 6"^ 12ti. . . 

do " do without do 44 6Mi... UVt- 

do " mnngcl wurtzel, raw 38V, 5v. 6 1 --. 

do " wheat, 155 14 59U... 

do " o»t« 146 10 421... 

do » bnrley, 130 HVs 60 

do " pem 134 I4vs 41 ... 

to " rye, withsolt 131 14 35 

do " rye, without Sdl 90 12V4 43 

do " nieHl, wet. 129 13V, .11t%. . 

do " buckwheat, 120 10 33 

The results are said to agree with those of Da 
Dombalc, and with those of a number of other 
agriculturists. 

It will he perceived bytheabove table, that 
wheat produces the greatest increase in the flesh 
of the sheep, though hut little greater than oats; 
that peas, wheat, and rye, produce the greatest 
increase of wool ; and that bailey and wheat canst 
the greatest increase of tallow. That, as an aver- 
age, grain generally gives about three limes the 
ise in the flesh, that roots do when in equal 
weight ; that grain produces about twice as much 
wool as is caused by an equal weight of roots, and 
several times the amount of tallow. 

The legitimate conclusion from the foregoing is, 
that the Hock-master, whose olject is wool only, 
must rely on good hay and some straw, whose 
constituents are admirably adapted for the growth 
and porfeciion of wool, with a moderate allowance 
daily, of ground |>cas and oats, and some potatoes 
as green food, for the greatest amount of wool; 
and those gross substances oil-cake, corn-meal, 
ruta bagas, may be turned over to the producers 
of fat mutton. This will presently be adverted 
lo again. 

A Grasshopper Remedy. 
Mbshrs. Editors : I have just noticed an ar- 
licle in that truly useful and well conducted jour- 
nal, the Scientific American, which all owners of 
fruit trees arid vines would do well to try now 
before the grasshopper season is over, to prevent 
'hem from devouring the leaves. 

■■ "I bored proportionable small holes, accord injr; 

RUM of the trees, through the sail wood six 

r. at different heights around 

nk. though at a short distance from the 

!. lbe holes were then packed two-tliiids 

full of sulphur and plugged up with soft pine or 

with a mixture of pitch 

essvsjE. I could not doubt for a moment 

ilphur exhalations were obnoxious lo tree 

- since from observations I know it to be 
the case with the red ant and some kind of v 

- while I think the view joe* set forth is 
well continued by the gradual 

the worm shortlv after the appl phur. 

sulphur is exhaled from the leave- josl a 
from the human body after being taken internally 
and absorb* tern, which adsorption is 

\<m the fob 

though the hole had nearly close.! up. 

taking -nlphor. soon becoanea blackened will) a 
[coating of sulphurate of . 

ca-ia to suppose that sulphur in sorno 
f .mi. could be detected ope* the leaves of lbs 

| Raiduc. P«_ Jjr-1 ISSSl' I II. P.iSOS. 

loregoias; is terv « . id presents 

ii something lo which oar bortieul: 
'woold doxell to Uke heed. That is. a tree 

in eh* manner described be treated « 






receive that valuable j ean il l , Of 
;-.-::■. -n Sf h t;.- I. -.f< .!.».- ■ ■ r; SMS ISial SBBSSjhSi «awn 
-am,- . iiaaaethaeg aught bare been ha 
merest (a goo. 
Tours n 



[ The chemical 

and their inorganic, silica, 






THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



£lje California farmer. 



WABBEN t SON- EDfTOas AND PBOPBIETOBS. 



SACE4HEKT0, FRIDAY, AUGUST 8, 1855. 



The California -State Agricultural Society's Erhihition Rooms 
nTr at the Hall on Fourth strict, between J and K, City of 
Sacramento, where all are invucd\ free. 



The CALIFORNIA FARMER OFFICE if at tiie State 
Soaetg'a Rooms, inhere subscriptions and advertisement" 
are received. 



The Califobnia Fabmkb in Bost n, Mass.— Copie« of the 
California Farmer may always be found at Redding & Co.'a, 
State etreet, Boston. 



J^p Manufacturers of every branch. Nurserymen, Seedp- 
men, Fl-iris e, Book-etlerc and Publishers, and every brnnch of 
bu=ine-p cnuneced with Culfiomia interest-, should ndverftVe 
n the California Fashes, if they with to have their biudneK 
known over the country. 



STATE FAIR. 

KEEP IT BEFORE THE WHOLE PEO 
PLE THAT THE GREAT INDUSTRIAL EX- 
HIBITION. EMBRACING AGRICULTURAL 
PRODUCTS OF THE WHOLE STATE MAN 
UFACTURES, MECHANICAL WORKS AND 
"WORKS OF ART AND TASTE. THE EX- 
HIBITION OF STOCK, THE FESTIVAL 
TOURNAMENT. WILL COMMENCE O.N 
THE 25TH SEPTEMBER NEXT. 

The Hull will open the 25th, in the city. 

The Cattle Show and Festival Entertainment* 
will he held at the Louisiana Race Course. 

Great preparations will be made to have a 
splendid Exhibition of Biood Stock, as well a> 
of the best Native. 

During the week, it is expected great trials ol 
Speed will be made of the finest coursers ill tin 
country. 

In order that the best results may be attained. 
give this an extensive circulation. 



A Call 
To every organized County Agricultural Society. 

I am instructed by (lie Executive Cummitiei 
of the Slate Agl'ion tural Society, to ask the ear 
nest co-operation <>f ever) County organization 
and to ask nf the Con esponding Secretary ol earl 
such inlo maliun of their several Societies as wii. 
make known to the Executive bow much then 
Cut niies will do to further the interests of tin 
Exhibition — what products, what stork and whai 
manufactures may he expected fiotn their severs 
counties; and to solicit an active co operation h 
this great work. It is also very desirable tha 
special delegations should be appointed to attem 
the Fair and to act in convention, and I bus aid ii 
promoting and advancing all the great and im 
portant interests involved. 

'I he SrcretaiicH or other officers of each County 
are particularly desired to reply to the call at tin 
eariie-t moment. 

Per order ul Exeru ive Committee. 

Jambs L. L. F. Warren. 
Corres. Sec. State Agricultural Society. 



The New County Society of Yuba. 

"We can most sincerely congratulate this coun- 
ty, and its people of every class, in the successful 
organization of their County Agricultural Society. 
As will be seen by their reports, we were present 
at their preliminary meetings, and the real inter- 
est then manifested ass-ired us there is abundant 
material for a most prosperous Society. 

We know it is very difficult in a new country 
like this, amid so many distinctive cases and dif 
Hculties as at present surround all interested, to 
call together all those who will finally become 
identified with this Society. At the present time 
there is quite a degree of political excitement; a 
depression too from losses caused by the grass- 
hopper — much, very much to deter men from 
immediate action upon a subject m> new as an 
organization of this kind. Yet we were truly 
pleased to see the meeting so well, we may say 
so largely attended, when we think of their con- 
flicting interests. 

We are sure, from our personal knowledge of 
<he gentlemen elected to office, and from those 
alio have so piomptly enrolled their names as 
members, that this Society will become a very 
efficient one. We also know they have a soil 
within tleir borders as a county, and men that 
know how to till it. of such a character that we 
may look forward to glorious results in the future. 
I'he people in this county hive evinced great in- 
erest in the coming Slate Fair, and will <\o their 
utmost to excel in whatever they send. We nave 
he assurance of a handsome delegation from 
Yuba and Sutter counties, who are to contribute 
much to this great work. 

We are very grateful for what we have experi- 
enced of a personal character, and the increase of 
our list of subscribers, and shall labor hard to 
deserve them all. We wish the Society and our 
tnends all a most abundant success. 



Feather River Road — Ranches, Grasshcp- Uhen made to keep time to the music of the — 
pers, Titles, etc. not pphercs, but the dance. Yes, reader, we 

Starting from Marysviile we passed up the c01lW not nc i p u. Had we not been so much a 



Agricultural Visiting Committee. 
We take pleasure in calling the attention of om 

readers to the appointment of a Special Commit 
tee to examine those Farms, Gardens Nurseries 
Orchards. Greenhouses, &c, that have been oi 
may I e entered fur the premiums of the State 
Society. The Committee is composed of gentle- 
'men well qualified for their duly, and we trust 
thev will unite promptly, examine minutely, and 
report in detail. Their reports should embrace 
important data. Their duties are as urgent as 
thev are ini|>ortant and valuable to the Slate, and 
we trust there will be no delay in the perform- 
ance of these duties — neither have them done 
hastily. 

We refer the reader to the doings of the Exec- 
etive meeting, held last week at the Society's 
Rooms : 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee of 
the Stale Agricultural Society, held this day. 
Gen. C. I II itchinson of Sacramento, Rev. A. Il 
Myers of A Inured*, Hon. Sherman Day of Santa 
Clara. Uon. W, W. Stow of Santa Cruz and Gen. 
Allen of Yuba, were elected a Committee for the 
examination of Farms. Orchards. Vineyards. 
Nurseries. &c., which may be entered for premi- 
ums at theemming Fair. Although the time for 
such entry has expired, yet the Committee is in- 
structed lo receive propositions for such entry 
until the 15th August, being bound t of course, to 
visit, ouiv those Which may be within their range. 
Special pains, ho.vever. will be taken to answer 
all special requests. 0. 0. Wheeler, R. Sec. 

State Agricultural Society's Raomf, July 27. 1855. 

Kahly Stock. — On our route up-river we 

called on farmer Simpson, one of the solid men of 

Yuba county — owier of a good farm and the ferry 

under his name, fine stacks of grain and hay. 

ir. in Mr. Simpson we learned that he had 

r on his farm that had given him a 

the heifer was less than a year old, 

young to bo a cow ! 



Our Farmer. — To all our kind friends who 
ave given us their niiuics as readers of our jour- 
nal in the counties we have just visited, we ten* 
ler our sincere thanks. We will lr\ and make 
t a paper I hat shall find a welcome in even family 
ll our land. To ihe Press of Marysviile, for 
heir geneiosity and kindness towards our jour- 
ial, we ate most giauful, and while we still in- 
voke those v ho yet V know us not." read us not, 
lye say. try u.- ; we desire y our countenance and 
-upport. not simply fur the pecuniary reward it 
nings. or i| : ;it iig may be more widely known, 
nit because we shall constantly strive lo present 
be Indusirv of the Country, the resources of our 
-late, and these truths we wish widely known. 
These facte if widely disseminated, will build up 
our State, will bring us an immigration of the 
right character, and thus bless us all wiih a gen- 
-i ul prosperity. We wish too, that those who 
desire lo induce an immigration, would send the 
/'(tuner to their friends in the States. We 
know it is Ihe truest exponent of California re- 
sources that can be sent home, and one that w.l 
lell for good. 

Eutrees for Premiums. 

State Agriccltcral 5 ■■ ciktv's ttooMS, } 

SttcnutfentOj July 27, 1S55. 5 
Editors Farmer: By letleis received I iuu 
inllioi ized lu announce that J. C. Davis, Esq. ol 
Putah. oilers his Grain and Stock Farm for the 
inspection ol the Committee, with a view to re- 
ceiving the h'rst premium at the ensuing Fair oi 
our Society. O. C. Wheeler, Rec. See. 

Mi-sion of San Jose, July 20. 1855. 

C. ]. Hutchinson, i'icsident ol Lai. Stale Ag»i- 
cuitural Society : 
The undersign* d offer their Orchard and Nurse- 
ry at the Mission of San Jose, for the tiist pre- 
mium. Respectfully yours, 

Beard and LEVELLING. 

American Rives, July 10, 1855. 

President State Agricunm.,1 Society : 

Sin: 1 offer njj Orchard, Nursery, Vegetable 
and Flower Garden. Hedge and Vineyard for the 
examination of your Committee and competition 
tor a premium. A. P. Smith. 

MartsvIllk, July 24, 1855. 

To the Secretary of State Agricultural bociuiy : 

We desire to enter \\>v II le State piemihai on 
best tield of Broom Coin, and should be glad to 
receive a vi-it from the Committee ul' Examina- 
tion when it may suit their pleasure. 

Respectfully, Chase & Taylor. 



Yuba, Sotted, and Butte Counties. — We 
announce these counties as co-workers in the 
reat enterprise of the Stale Fair. Very fine 
stock from many ranches will be brought to the 
Course, and we are happy to say members will 
Uc enrolled upon the Society's records as active 
laborers. These counties can do much, and we 
believe they will. 



Feather River Road, examining the several 
Ranches, their crops of grain, vegetables. &c. 
We were continually pained to witness the devas- 
tation of the grasshopper, but pleased to see the 
general fortitude displayed under the loss this 
peste has caused. Great as this evil is, it is no- 
thing compared lo the loss and hindrance to the 
general prosperity caused by the delay jn the 
settlement of titles. We passed manny fine 
Ranches, and noted their improvements. We 
called at the 

'■ Co vi llano Feather River Ranch."— 
We found here a line tract of land, with a neat 
residence upon the highland.-, a broad and beauti- 
ful opening to the river some miles from the 
house, and as rich bottom land as could be de- 
sired. Upon this land and in fact upon the whole 
of this Hue bottom, we have no doubt ere long 
we shall see tropical fruits as well as cotton, i ice, 
tobacco, and in the lower bottoms sugar cane 
will thrive. C. Co vi Maud, Esq., the owner of ibis 
and several other fine ranches, we found ready to 
treat liberally with those who have settled upon 
his land, and we trust every disposition of this 
kind will be met with a corresponding liberality 
on the part of settlers. 

We next called at the 

Cornell Kanoh— And here we saw many 
things to please us — a lauiily comfortably and 
happily situated, ready to make important 
improvements, but delayed by reason ol 
'no permanent title." Kindly entertained, we 
passed on. exanfiuing and culling at many places, 
until we came lo the 

PEGRAM «fc Wilkins Ranch.— It were im- 
possible to view this lovely spot without some 
feelings of envy, almost — situated as it is upon 
the high ground— a beautiful residence (cottage 
sivle) with 0'itbuildings,aud a fine space in fiont 
planted with peach trees which we regretted lo 
see needed a more scienlilic cultuie — (we really 
wanted to oil' coat and dig round them and im- 
prove thetn) — we leatn they will receive imne 
Care this fall. The magnificent oaks around tin 
cottage gave it a beautiful appearance. In front 
of the COttage, upon tha "river bottom," lay out- 
stretched like a park, a prairie a mile* Wide by 
one and a-half long. This reached to the slough 
next the river, the banks of the river being lined 
by proves of oaks. Over and high above ii-c the 
lowering Buttes. like black clouds piled up 
against the very heavens. '1 his line bottom land 
of many hundred acres can be made the most 
fertile and productive garden in the world. 

We were ino<t kindly regaled with a refreshing 
supper of luxuries from the Ranch — ' home pro 
rjtice" — chickens, eggs, mi.k melons, &c.; ami to 
Dr. I'egiam and Mr. and Mis. Will 



we an 
. Then 



Fine peaches are selling 
this city. 



for one bit each, in 



much indebted for a joyous reficshii 
we rode on. 

Evening drew on as we rode along the bank ol 
the Feather. We could not help looking forward 
with hope, and in imagination seeing this rich 
and fertile soil magnificently studded with happy 
homes and beautiful gardens, and the Funnel 
■'sitting under his own vine and lig tree, with 
none to molest or make him afraid " We rode 
on and stopped at the " Horn Cut Hotel," lo 
water our horse, and there learned of a festive 
scene a tew' miles beyond — some joyous gather- 
ing, some " Harvest Hume," Husking, or merry 
time. &.C So, rurally impressed, we could nut 
fail to be there. 

After a few miles we drew up to a fine mansion 
and alighted. There seemed a merry spirit ull 
around. A spacious pavilion, brightly illumin- 
ated stood 'neaili the tall oaks, and by the light 
we saw it was gaily decked and festooned within 
After a refreshing bath. &.C., we were tempted lo 
take a peep into this fairy temple; and reader 
if you had been there. y on would have been a- 
pleased as our humble self. You know all are 
sometimes mysteriously led, we know not how ; 
but in this instance we were drawn us by some 
gentle cord froni some powerful "'Derrick," and 
thus induced to draw "Ave" unto this scene, in 
tended for a joyous festivity among happy friend- 
with happy hearts. We had remained but a 
brief lime when the sound of music echoed 
through the temple; we turned, and there before 
us stood a merry group, youthful, gay, joyous, 
beautiful; anon, like spirits they were moving 
gaily before us. We know not exactly how we 
are constituted, or how much electricity there be 
in us, but we felt a moving of our feet, and on 
looking down we saw that — 

Think as wc would, wlmt».-Vr our will, 
Wo bad do powtr to keep our shoes still, 

and imperceptibly our shoes were drawn on by 
electric influence into a certain line or place, and 



stranger, we would record all we saw; but the 
little time we were there we could not but notice 
the lady-like appearance of Mrs. D., and Miss V., 
and Mrs. S.. and the sweet and joyous faces of 
the little fairies that glided among the throng. 
As to the other sex. though they were gentlemen 
all, yet when compared to the fairer sex, they 
were as widely dillercnt as are the •* Brewster " 
rocks we New Engenders go to see when wc ride 
down across Barnstable Beach to view the mer- 
maids, those fairies of the deep, that the Lord 
made to give man a conception of beauty. But 
reader, the movement and exercise of our shoes 
gave a new life to the soul, and from this scene 
we passed to the world without. and "came home 

The festive scene of which we have spoken was 
at the -Central Hotel." about 18 miles above 
Marysviile, and about half way to Bid well's. 
We would with pleasure call the attention of 
those who may be called this way. to this house, 
as deserving their patronage, .Mr. Derrick, the 
present proprietor. Imd been at great poffut and 
cost to prepare a Festive Scene, but by some mis- 
take it was not as well attended as it should have 
been. Every tiling had been prepared in first 
rate order — an extra supper, tine music, splendid 
rooms— but a lack of attend nice. We hope an- 
other time Mr. Derrick will be better rewarded. 
We suggest to him and to all Others, a ' Harvest 
Home" Hall, and let the room be decorated wirh 
sheaves of grain and other products of the earth ; 
then bring in ihe farmer and his wife, and his 
children, and be merry and happy together. This 
will tend to the happiness of all. 

To our friend Beach wc have been again in- 
debted for much information and for an introduc- 
tion to the cultivators of ihe county — lor many 
favors that wonts will but [Kiorly repay. 

Land Titles— Tii2ir Ssttlemsnt. 

Heme is a q rcstTCm of the greatest moment, 
and one of vital importance to the whole State, 
While the present slate of things lasts and titles 
are unsettled we bad not ought to expect au in- 
creased immigration. Kamilies will not come 
unless they can be insured a permanent home; 
and all laud owners should join to accomplish so 
desiiable an end. We believe ihe first thing to 
lie done is U> ''-bring those who differ togethurj' 
(Joud men can flu this. Politicians never can. 

• K i-ssed are the peacemakers;" and if some of 
our citizens, not identified with partizau warfare, 
nil only strive to unite men. a blessing will fall 
upon litem and their families. 

(iu it) lh\ brother and say "come let us reason 
ogetlnT." Wc know that ibis evil can be reme- 
died in no other way We have conversed with 
many land holdeis and settlers, and they all wish 
10 settle lhi< matter amicably — only a very few 
arc headstrong. The only thing that prevents ' 
ibis is those go-betweens that are continually fer- 
menting discord among men. and keeping them 
apr.rl by the intricacies of ihe law. By ami by 
the day of reckoning will come, and an Infamy 
|ustly due will rest upon those men who have so 
long labored to fatten upon the spoils of the labor- 
ing classes, by keeping them in the meshes of the 

law- 

Wc have met Messrs. Covilland, Simpson. Gen. 
Sutler and others, and they with one voice are 
ready and willing to act honorably and even gen- 
brouslv by the Settlers, But there are those who 
continually hoodwink and deceive, and thus stay 
pi ogress in this matter and keep back improve- 
ments that would be worth millions of dollars to 
our Slate and years of peace, happiness and pros- 
perity to our people. 

Let every good man, of every party, aid in the 
friendly settlement of this question and they will 
i.e sme of a glorious rewaid. 

Favors Received. — rt'e acknowledge with 
many th.tuks the reception of a large parcel from 



G. »V. Murray & Co., Montgomery Blo:k, San 
l-'raiicisco : comprising a select collection of maga- 
/..iies. periodicals, foreign and domestic papers 
and pictorials. 

from our correspondents in the East, valuable 
hooks — acknowledged in another column. 

From Arthur F. Page, Esq., package of the 
Northern Farmer — very acceptable. 

Fiom Wells. Fargo *fc Co., and the Pacific Ex- 
press Co., many favors in exchanges, letters and 
panels lo forward the enterprise in which we are 
engaged. To Wells, Fargo it Co., we have been 
particularly indebted while at Marysviile for 
prompt aid in transmission of matter to and from 
our office. 

To the gentlemanly directors, agents and as- 
sistanlsof the California Stage Company we have 
been under many obligations in our travels. 






THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



30 



Formation of an Agricultural Society for the 

Counties of Yuba and Sutter. 

A MRETING pursuant to adjournment, met at 

the City Hall, Marysvillo. on Monday evening, 

■ li in-l.. at half-past seven o'clock, to hear Ihe 

report of the committee appointed to draft a Con- 

s'ltutiun ami By-Laws fur tlic Society, and (or 

Other business. 

Gi ii. Jus. Allen, Chairman, called the meeting 
to order. 

The committee, through their chairman. Dr. 
E. Teegnrden, reported a constitution and by- 
lawn, which were read by the secretary. On 
motion, the same was received and adopted, and 
the committee discharged, 

tli* motion of II. II. lie.ich the books for mem- 
bership were opened, when, almost with excep- 
tion, every person present signed the constitution. 

On motion, the Chan man appointed a Nomin- 
ating Committee, w ho, alter a short consultation, 
reported the billowing names for permanent olli- 
ccrs : 

President— 3. S. Kirkpatrick. 
Vice-President — Geo. G. Briggs. 

Recording Secretary — G. II. Beach. 

Corresponding Secretary— R. W. Haskell. 

Treasurer— 0. H. Hedges. 

Btiunt of Directors — Dr. E. Teegorden. W. II 
Drum. li N. Turner. 1. 0. Sargent. Jno. Brophy 
J. Blanchurd, A. L. Gay, J. B. Hurlburt, S. R. 
Chandler Robert McQueen. 

On motion, the nominations were unanimously 
continued and the committee discharged 

In the absence of the committee, John Brophy, 
Esq.. offered the following resolution which was 
un.'inimorsly carried : 

Resulted. 'I hat having full and perfect confi- 
dence in the integrity and ability of Col. Warren, 
editor of the California Farmer, «e pledge 
Ourselves to use every reasonable influence to 
promote and extend the interest and circulation 
of his paper, so long as he lives and continues his 
devotion to it, and remains, as he now is, its or- 
nament. 

\\ bcieupon Col. Warren, being present, rose 
and responded in some elegant and appropriate 
remarks, and only ceased to charm the audience 
when the return of the Nominating Committee 
reminded him, by their presence, of business be- 
fore the meeting. 

On motion, Colonel Warren was unanimously 
voted an honorary member of this Society. 

In the course of tho evening, a letter was re- 
ceived from Gen. Sutler, saying he was unable to 
be with us on this occasion, but wished to be 
considered heart and hand with us, and would 
endeavor lo be present at the next meeting. 

It was moved and carried that this Society be 
constituted u committee of the whole to obtain 
members, 

ll'uc Col. Warren rose and informed the meet- 
ing lliut by an act of the Slate Society the Prcsi- 
dcnis of all County Societies became Viee-1'resi 
dents of that body. 

G N. Sweeny, Esq., moved that when we ad- 
journ, it be to meet again in this city at the same 
place, on the second Mommy in August. 12ih 
ilisl., at half-past seven o'clock, for the purpose 
of appointing the various committees and choos- 
ing delegates to the Stale Convention, lo be 
bullion at the city of Sacramento in September. 

Cut. Warren and G. N. Swcezy were success- 
ively called upon, and each in llieir turn made 
their stilject very intciesling, and only those 
present can know the loss of the absent, 

tin motion, the editors of the California Ex- 
press, and Jlarisville Herald, and California 
Farmer, were lequestcd to publish the proceed 
ings ol this meeting. 

It was moved Ibat the Secretary, in behalf of 
this Society, tender thanks to the editors of the 
Man sv, lie Press, as also of the California Fah- 
mir. for their zeal and aid in perfecting the or- 
ganization ol this Society. 

'Ihere being nu further business before tho So 
ciety, on motion, the meeting adjourned 

U, II. Beach. Roc. Scc'y. 

Broom Corn — 1) rooms. — Since visiting the 
county of Yuba and examining the lields of 
broom corn there, we find our own county has a 
fieid of bioom cm n of about tliiiti) acres, belong- 
ing to Lusk A Co. This Held is back on the 
American bottom, about three mites and a hall 
from this city. The bight varies from six to til- 
teen feet. It is well headed, the brush is ver\ 
long and straight, and (he pro-pect of a good re- 
turn very Haltering. Messrs. Lush A Co. have 
revived by the last steamer their machinery for 
the cleaning and making of their brooms, and 
they expect to have llieir woik in market in 
about ten ur fifteen days. Lusk & Co. expect lo 
manufacture fifieen to eighteen hundred dozen 
biuums of the best quality . They will lie a im- 
pel iturs for the premiums of the State Sociotv 
\Vc rij-'icv to see this, to knoiv of ihe pi 
of Home Msnufsctuics. Tins builds up our Slate. 

Tin: State Fair. — We feel called upon to urge 
upon all who wish well to our Stati — merchants, 
rs, manufacturers, mechanics, laborer: — all. 
equally with the agriculturist— and also every 1 
arlist and proles-ions! man. to give their minds 
ct, »id see w hat they can do to pro- ] 
mote tbe coming Fair. They should not only 
take part in it. and be present, but should have 
their families, theii (resent that these 

all may become inti » 

thai adds lo the wealth and of our' 

S 



New Books. 
Cone Cut Covers: The experience of a Con- 

seivaiive Family in Fanatical times. By Bcn- 

auley. Mason Brolheis. Publishers, 23 Park 

Row, New York. 450 pp 12ino. 

This is a singularly witty, satirical, and well 
written American romance, depicting lifelike (anil 
we suspect truthful) eccentricities of rural New 
Eiigland Society, which will be particularly in- 
teresting to every son and daughter of the land 
of steady habits who will not fail to recognize 
the accuracy of the portrait these exhibit, and 
indulge in hearty laughter at the fun interspersed 
throughout the book. Those, too. who have 
figured in, or are acquainted with fashionable 
society in New Y'ork, will be surprised to find 
skillfully drawn scenes of folly of the Gotham 
"upper ten" circles, which while they do not of- 
fend correct taste, will have a reformatory ten- 
dency upon all interested, and provoke only cheer- 
ful mirth in the reader. True the morbidly 
sensitive may. perhaps, feel somewhat wounded, 
but as the book inculcates an excellent moral, and 
seems to have been written for good, we can over- 
look the personalities, although they might have 
been better omitted. 

Mr. K. S. Bugglehale, of 317 Broadway, New 
York, we perceive by the New Yoik journals, 
has intimated an intention to prosecute the author 
and publishers for libel, in showing up the se- 
crets of his fine pure imported wines and bran- 
dies out of genuine domestic materials. We sus- 
pect, however, that if he is the shrewd business 
man we take him to be, that he will not aid in 
making the book more popular than it will be on 
its own merits. A libel suit woifld be certain to 
do this — but the Cone Cut Covers will find its 
way into every circle that has an appreciation of 
keen wit and satire. It will rank high as a liter- 
ary effort, and being the first production of Ben- 
auley, we may hope for still further works from 
the gifted pen of the same writer. 

Roth Hall: A Domestic Tale of the Present 
Time. By Funny Fein. Mason Brothers, 
New Y'ork. 

This book, although published in the early 
part of last winter still commands a large sale, 
and is regarded by the Book Trade of the East 
as the "most successful American romance." The 
bunk has intrinsic merits, and is hailed with joy 
by many oppressed widows and uther friend, ess 
women, who felt a thrill of exultant satisfaction 
at the success of a Ruth Hall in elevating herself 
from positive indigence lo prosperity and wealth. 
Ihere are those who say that the story of Km li 
Hall is a veritable biography of Fanny Fern, but 
we have no evidence of iis truth. The book, 
however, is one thai we like. We like ihe wo- 
manly heroism of Ruth as a mother, fur Ihe r»iir- 
age to retaliate upon her relatives, who treated 
her with marked iinkindnene and neglect, simply 
because she was llieir relatives and JHtor. Il is a 
lesson well taught, and one which the wealthy 
will do well lo study. 

Ihe Life of Horace Greeley. By James 
Parton. Marion Brolheis. New York. 

Who has not hcaid of Dorm Editor 

of the New York Tribune ? Who has not de- 
sired lo know more of the man than he now 
knows of him ] To all. then, who either do 
know, or want to know ihe gifted and eccentric 
head of the New York Tribu .incut, 

we would say procure his " Life" by Partem It 
is as entertaining as a runanoi showing the 
career of s laborious, energetic, and indefal 
New England youth lo eminence and disin 
without any of the adventitious aid- 
Even school bo\ should have the Iniok. and em- 
ulate the example of jroung Horace in his obe- 
dience to parental authority, his attention lo the 
instructions of his teachers and in his kind and 
cheeiful good will lo his school males. 

Mr Parlon. unlike ruosi biographers, gives us 
s correct view of all sides of his hero, proving 
conclusively that lireeley could have had nothing 
to do with getting up the b->uk — for iliere are 
some things in it we ihink he would have pre- 
ferred having omiiied. But in I have 
been ounlled without spoiling the ""Life" — now 
exhibited as he is. 

It is a work that will rank with the Lite of 
Frauklin. in teaching tooth le-suns of self denial, 
indu-stry. economy. Ac. and oi.e *e can . 
dently recommend to tbe parents of California. 
that may safely be put into the hands of their 
sons. 

Notices-July 5 

iward Livermore. New 
i new work on the Eastern War, 6n. 
lustrsied, called Suroue and the Allies of 
Past, and to day — by sn officer in Ihe British 
Army, who served ur.dt-r Wellington — with a 



complete history of iheoiigin and progress of the 
present Struggle in the East— with biographical 
sketches of the prominent heroes now figuring at 
the Crimea. In these days, when so nu eh trash 
is sold, works of real merit should command at- 
tention, and we can recommend this work as not 
only beautifully primed but carefully written, 
and must command a large sale. 

DotSTlCk's — A new work just published. This 
book will soon be found in every house. judging 
from the author's name uiid fame. 

The Star Papers just published by Derby, New 
Y'ork, we feel inclined to call attention to again, 
as there is a freshness and geniality about them 
that we like. And the inspiration that jireathes 
in them, cannot fail to reach the heart and do 
good, wherever read. 

James French & Co., Boston, have just pub- 
lished a very neat and attractive volume, called 
the '' Sure Anchor." or the Young Christian ad- 
monished, exhorted and encouraged, by Rev. U. 
P. Andrews. The book will doubtless have an 
extensive sale, as it is very well written, and ad- 
mirably adapted to the purpose the author had 
ill mind when the book was produced. It is 
written in an easy and flowing style, is well 
calculated for presents to the young, and copies 
should be placed in all our Sunday and Public 
Libraries. 



Petrifaction.— We have received from Mr. 
L. J. Keach, of Ihis place, the finest specimen of 
petrifaction we have ever had the pleasure of ex- 
amining. It isa small pieceof the limb of a tree 
somewhat resembling the laurel, about nine 
inches long, quite snarley, and jagged, where the 
smaller limbs or twigs were broken off. It is an 
hal f inch in diameter at the butt, and shows all 
the natural iudemat ons of the wood with the 
bark off. We intend sending this curiosity to 
Col. Warren of the California Farmer, to be 
deposited in his magnibcenl museum. 

Sometime in May last we saw the above article 
ill the Puget Sound Courier, together a kind 
notice of our journal. Last week we received a 
parcel from W. B Affleck. Esq . one of Ihe edit- 
ors of the Cornier, (by the hand of Capt. Diggs.) 
with the petrifaction named, and it is indeed 
beautiful. It is like a piece of cornelian, so per- 
fectly is it petrified We are indeed grateful, and 
those who desire to see il can call at the Society's 
Room's 011 Fouith street, Sacramento, where they 
w ill be gratified. 

Agricultural Implements —We would paj 
ticularly call thcatlcnl on of our readers to the va- 
rious agricultural establishment* in California, 
and als«i those in the E intern States, Itisim- 
poruut that emry Implement used upon the 
farm and garden should lie of the highest char- 
acter ; none others should ever be used ; the best 
are the cheapest, and this is true of all grains 
and seeds, trees and plains. We hope to sec the 
day when California will be exporter of the Lest 
of each ; fun so long as we miisi import, we lake 
pleasure in presenting the besi ho use to whom 
>»e can refer our readers. Among those at New- 
York to whom we c in reler such as desire lo im- 
port, we take pleasure in naming the HoiISS of K. 
L Allen A Co. 189 and I'M Waier street. This 
is an old and w n I its 

and iinplem -nts can be found in every 

county in California; and iLs van 

I in all the soil- of our I 
country. The new an! valu 
ol tin- house will constantly be advertised in our 
colour 

Exhibit* k — Louisiana Rare 

— Il is now settled lhat the Exhihi' 
Races. Fe-tivsl Lames. Ac., will be held 
at the l.ooi-iana Race Course, which has been 
tendered free lo Ihe Becivtj 1 - E-q 

the well L no a n head of the turf. To Mr 
the Society is indebted for the track, and we feel 
I that Mr. E. will do all in his power to 
promote the interest of ihe Eihihition. Inde- 
pendent of this we learn lhat .'• with 
ul liberality, propn-ed fro purses of fire 
kumtrtd duilars tack, which will he announced 
in lb.- - For all actsoT like liber- 
ality, we hope a reward uriil I* given. 



The Western Hotel (Muriiay- 
Meiichants' Hotel, of Marysvm 
are several good and substantial hotels at this 
city, each appropriately located and devoted to 
some calling as in other cities, or known by somo 
local name or association. We had only time to 
take a Cursory glance, and only visited two. 

The Merchants' is a large and splendid Hotel, 
built by one of Marysville's most wealthy and 
enterprising merchants, J. C. Fall, Esq. This 
Hotel is well conducted, and well sustained and 
liberally patronized as a mercantile and fashion- 
able House, Tho proprietors are Churchill A 
Stephenson. 

The Western Hotel (Murrays), the stage house, 
of the California Stage Company, is an immense 
structure and contains about one hundred rooms. 
Here the great masses of the People gather. We 
noticed the books give fifty, sixty, and more ar- 
riving every day. Here you meet even body. 
The Stage Company give a world of life and busi- 
ness, and this line are doing a grand business; 
they deserve it. for they are doing all in their 
power to meet the wants of the community. Mr. 
Murray, the proprietor of the Western, is one of 
the working men of the age. He established the 
Western more than two years ago. then a wooden 
Hotel. The fire of May, '52 swept it away. The 
The proprietor, nothing discouraged, although 
heavily losing, recommenced, and soon erected 
the present spacious Hotel, and which has since 
been well sustained. Mr. Murray's House is in 
excellent order, with fine and well furnished 
rooms, good waiters, excellent table, and clean 
linen. Hero order prevails, for Mr. M. is ever on 
his post and ready to plan and labor for the com- 
fort of his guests. He deserves, and we feel as- 
sured he will ever receive a generous support. 

Members to the State Society. — One of 
the plans to promote tho usefulness of the State 
Society, is to aid them by the value of member- 
ship, and this is one of the sure ways to prove 
your interest and your wish fur itssuccess. Gen- 
tlemen who desire to give this evidence of their 
wishes, can call at Ihe Rooms of the Society on 
Fourth street, between J and K, or address us, 
enclosing $10 by mail. This amount entitles 
them lo all the privileges of a member, and they 
and their immediate families to an admittance to 
the Society's Exhibitions. We hope many will 
come forward, voluntarily, and enroll themselves. 



What a CovnTsy I — Ur. Brown, of t 

lay left at the Agricuttu' 
-e\e<»l eerj fine peaches, some of tbem grown on 
trees but fourteen stos/Aa old from 
the balance on trees from sixteen to tl 
old. We shall give the varieties et< 

no Sarsr.— I»r 1 

xluevd into i ;.»ir of 

■siieep. of pure blood. Thr 
done this at great co- 
rk* he deserves the thank 



News of the Week — In this city the prin- 
cipal topic is Mr. Mesiek recording his deed for 
about half the city, purchased of "John A. Sut- 
ter, Jr., of Acapnlco," for the consideration of 
>omo fifty -odd thousand dollais. There are 
thought to be serious obstacles to Mr. Mesick's 
obtaining possession. — In San Francisco, the 
Crhonicle accused a reporter named Polla d < f 
meanness, when it ia said Pollard, supported by 
me and hi- friend Walton, visited ihe ed- 
itorial room, and the said cane hit Mr. Nisliet, 
one of the editors over the head; but Pollard 
having acquired a black eye, w as '' hustled " out, 
with his biend, by s compositor; snd Wslton 
got kicked on the street by Mr. Soule. the chief 
editor, which gives the Police court a job. 



IwroRTiso Vegetables.— It is not s great 

unit used to suppl 

.. with onions and othe. kinds 

til I and a 

frurn 

We are carta Whhi 

- 
I,,r sll v>1 ' are sa- 

il at 
Br 
- ,,- with eail> ptaloc- an I tenia- 
«s at 
the Es-l of li cb 

. • r ili R p • ity 






limit Race. — An exciting race Hi to rouse eeT 
oa Saturday next at the Coorse at Grove Hall. 
MsrysruV, between two (sat horses, in harness. 
The stakes wrll be rsw hundred mmif^tm aeeaf I 
a/AersM, valued at sessc tsaeaff 1> as ijaarf skaters. I 



rom Fra.ee. a 
1 111 all - 
port Ags freos 

K-.'W 



pro-iitoed ia sh lariann 1 ia soar ■ 

-naie*. As for eg 

uuch greater when they can be warranted fre-b, 

we should hardly think lhat itcould be praakeUe 

to import thesa tram shrosd. Peaches «■ 

saase; but weshsll not be surprised next M 

of acsrgooi' t bciasr waeorled 

from esses ssii hboi ing ©eenjary. reset" 

brought to en Cram Fran 

fssd, sad s cargo at ts ia lps w». U 

u Scotland, ft i« shout 
iw>*aa 10 as s olep easr syrssslsaaai 
nes. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. ' 



AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL 
FAIR; 

Cattle Show and Industrial Exhibition, 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA 

SM« ^grirultnral Sttirtjl 

TO BE HOLDEN AT 

Sacramento City, in September Next. 



PREMIUMS OFFERED FOR 1855. 

The following section from the Act of Incor- 
poration, by the Legislature, is the basis for the 
premiums announced below : 

"SEC.fi. There is hereby appropriated from any money in 
the Tr.'asary n »t otherwise appropriated, the .-um of Five 
Thousand Djllaifl annually, for the ^pace of four year?, to be 
paid in September each yeiir, to the Treasurer ot enid Society, 
on a requibitioii ul the Trea-uier of this Srate, tinned by tl" 
Pie-idem and Recoidiu;: Secretary of said S.,cieiy, which bui_ 
shall be used only lor the purpose of payiug premium?, and for 
no other purpotc whatsoever." 



FARMS, VINEYARDS. ORCHARDS. ETC. 
Competitors for premiums in this department aie requested 
togive mmidiait notice of their intention, to the Piesident or 
Coira-pondin;: Secretaiy, that the committee may wilil and 
examine at tt-e mutt lavumble time. Wo pticil nuiite will be 
expected to clmm the nttCQtion oJ cue cunmiit tee utiles received 
beiore the tij&i day ot Au^Uet. 

It is ol especial importance to Grain Gi t-were that they bear 
the above in inbiu. 

Best impioved Funrt {2(50 

3d do do .....100 

Best Vineya.d 75 

2d do BO 

Be^t Nur^cv 7."» 

2d do 50 

Be~-t Kinheu Garden 50 

2d do do -.'5 

Best Fli^wi r Garden 40 

2d do Uo 30 

Beet Nursery ul Timbcj Tiee- i"« 

2d d. "do do 15 

Best Nurs. iv ollled^e PlanM 25 

fid do do do 15 

Bi-st Fence Brfge 25 

Sd do do 20 

Best arraiiLLiI and lur_< -t Gieen-house 30 

3d do do do do 15 

GRAIN. 

Competitors for pnnium- i u Field Crop*, must deliver 
samples ul thi -"iicii tl,i i mmittce, on or before tlie 15rh ot 
September. T. «■ Fn id- .-i ml in- tneftmrerj by the mi payor oi 
ibe countj oi by two cunpeteut pereune wheie tiny are 
Iccnied, ■ r bj one <il the members ol tin- .-L,cic:\ : and thcii cei- 
tificuie .Ml., j o,. nnr , ltu.fi Hi all be.preveatMi tu ifee commlt- 
tee. and tl.c ciop i-holl be measured or weighed 1 '. - 
sou, who .-bail junk' nflidiivit ol the amount ol i ■ 

pre--iiii'd tu lie limrumw. In the estimate oi <_;■!. .■ ■ 
the committed will regard the number of acres, quantity mid 
quality. 

Be.-t ten acie? or more' i Wheat $100 



Be.t exbiliit ot Baldly - 10 

2d do do 5 

Best exhibit of ereen, Sweet Corn 10 

Best exhibit of Turnip? 10 

2d do do 5 

Be.-t exhibit of Tomatoes 10 

2d do do 5 

Best exhibit of Cabbage 10 

2d do do 5 

Be.-t exhibit of Broccoli - 10 

Beist exhibit of Egg Plants 10 

2d do do do 5 

Beet bushel ot Potatoes 10 

2d do do 5 

Best bushel of Sweet Potatoes. 10 

2d do do do 5 

Best six heads of Cauliflower...-- 10 

Be>t «ix heads Lettuce 5 

Beot specimen* ot Itbubarb . . - ., 10 

2d do do do 5 

Best exhibit of Celery 1° 

2d do do 5 

Best exhibit of Peanut* 10 

MANUFACTURES. AND HOME INDUSTRY. 

All crtnpetitor^ in this department must depoedte with the 

coimniitee, ^ati^lactoiy evidence, in writing, that the airicles 

exhibited were manuiacturcd by the exhibitor!- within tlii^- Suite. 

Bea Steam Ei^ine $75 



•Bi-st /'■ rjormmtr., of Fie Engine 

Best Hook and Laddei Truck 

Beat Hjte Cart 

Best specimens ot B mis and Shoes 

Be_-t r-et ol Parlor Furniture 

Be?t set of Chamber Furniture 

Beet rpecimen ol Tailors' woik 

Be t i-pecimeu ot H<1- aud Caps 

Be t specimen ot Milllneiy 

B at speci men of Mantuamqkioa 

Be^t f jjeciiripn ol Ni-edlcworli 

men ol Printing — 

Hot pecbuen ol Tin-wurk 

Rest Buecirasri <>i Mmble-wwk. 

iv-r specimen ol Silverware 

Best tpoclraon <>t BiHca>mM)-vrofk 10 

Be t Cooking «tovc 15 

Be-t Purhir S ove 15 

Best exhibit ol Potiftn 25 

d do do 15 

Beat exhibit ol Broi dob 5 

The F.i emnn ol any C j unj comuL-qag lor Lbis premium 

should be a member o. Cue Society. 



50 
U5 
10 
10 
60 



10 



15 



WORKS OF ART. 
Best specimens ol Embroidery 



.$» 





,1., 
do 
do 






Bki 






8d dt> 


do 


25 


Dct 


do 


do Our* 




Ed d.i 


do 


do 




Be*t five 


do 


do C M. 




do 


do 







MISCELLANEOUS. 

Be t five acres pi' mo: c <i 1'oti.luc §. e 

); -' hall acre cr more of Sweei Putaue 35 

lie- 1 live acre- 1 ol Oiiu.i 30 

B.':t lv i u Seed Com id 

2d do ,1 . d i do 5 

Rftel f • ecc ol Wool .10 

Be.-: spec itii' n and c u u, C Hon 20 

2d d do <l di in 

Be-t epeeiinen- and >■ ao 

2! .1 dn .1 ,l ■ 10 

Best wenty-nvo pou: d- o But o- 8T5 

2d d. ,1. d. 15 

Best nn< hui.dnd p u. it ol C ee-c OTi 

2d d do do du 15 

Be i fifi pound ol Laii ,u 

B-.a: c hiiut >>, S n| .-, 

1; i c.\hioi[ St Cam-lei 

Bee Bpecimene oi LaiOj Oil io 

IL< UH. 

Be ; ion ( ounds of Whau Fiour 

2J do <lo d 

Best 100 pound* of Bti kwueai Finn... 

2d d d.i d dr> 

Be-t iixi pouudsofCorn Meal 



...830 

-...l'ii 

....15 

10 

....15 



;-tu it. 
Competitors for premium m Fmi. 
Flower**, mu i deliver to tl e *'. minittrc i u oi be on 
day of September, tfcc craaii It) m quliw), with n tu emein tl ai 
the same nic ;niwn by the applicant within in" S.ate, i i..l 
wherever there may be in thi nj 

B lot i ji- cimi dh and largest Yurictj di Aj.nlee ?::ti 

2d d do d.. do do I.", 

Be.-: and largest variety "i Pear* 20 

A H,, .1,. rfn _ 



do 



.10 



I'D 

IU 

15 

15 

'-U 

10 

:i<> 

.. ...-15 

15 

15 

10 

20 



Best and largest rarie \ ol P. 

2d do d , ,; 

Bet ;. 

2J d.. do do 

Be?t Bpecimen ■ ol Ajiricof 

Bo ti i . r i iei 

Iir*.-t exhibit ul California Grapes-. ■• 

2d do do do 

Best exhibit ol !•"(. reivn G lines 

2d do do do 

Best exhibit ol Plums 

Be^t specimeoB of Alihond 

2d do do dn 

Be-t specimens of Uuince 

2d do do Jo 

Besr specimens ofOran-c 15 

B--I ^|■ecillleosol Lima- 10 

Best specimens of Leiu i, 15 

Be t Hpecimens of Pigt *. 20 

BAXspecimeuB ofC onbe ief in 

Beeti-ix Water-melouH 10 

2d do do 5 

Be^t r-ix Mu?k -melons 10 

2d do do 5 

FLOm i,|is 

Beet Floral DftsLii $25 

Be-t di^plny of Pel Plont 25 

Be t ci llection ot R -e> 10 

J: ■ r collection of D inlliu- 10 

Best pair of va-e bouquet) 10 

2d do do 5 

Best six hand bouquet* 10 ' 

2d do do 5 

' Best collection ol Native Flowei , presred 10 

Bs*t ErergrAn wreath fifty yard Ions SG 

Best Floral wreath thirty vaids long 2-5 

2J do do do 15 

* Tj be donated to the Socle y. 

VEGETABLES, 
Ben exhibit ol Garden V p««blc $40 

Beat exhibit of Pumpkins and Squa lies, not less 

thun plx 10 

*1 rl ■'' dfl (),, ,1„ jy 5 

r liibit of Onionn 15 

5 1 di do 5 

ti bit ol Bceti! 10 

do 5 

ibtt ol CorroU 10 

do 5 

of Parsnips 10 

*l do do f 



2.1 do do do 

Best specimens ni Wu-work 10 

2d d.. do d 5 

Be 1 8] eefmens "i Blgn and Oi namental Painting ■ - M 

Bert »p. Ciiin'iis Ol Ol Paining- S> 

* B^t specimens ol VYatpr-color Pauiun^i 20 

* Be t specimen- ul Wu< d cut 50 

* Best ti ecimens ol f fawmg for Pul n.-'u u-c 25 

Best i-pei'imens ol Diawinj; 10 

Beet apecimene ol Dentistry IS 

Best -1 ecimen* <.i Danuerieotj pa iti 

2d do do do "do 5 

* To be donated to s. cie y. 

NATIVE WINE. 
Beet Wine from giapes grown in tide Stale £25 

2d do do ' do" do d 15 

Bert Wine from CUrrauU grown in t!,i.- Stat IU 

jjd do do do do do 5 

AGHICUL'I URAL IMPLEMENTS. 

All mairafnctured nrticlenocd implement- must be ente'red 
mill placed on ore Uie I5:li day ol September, 

aud remain until tlie do e of the Fair. 

Bet Tbreftuttii! Mat blue $50 

3d do do 25 

Best Reaping Hncbine 40 

3d do ,dti 20 

Be-t Mowing Macbme •- •■ -'io 

Sd do do IS 

Be-t Steel Plow U0 

2d do do Id 

Best Cast Plow 15 

21 d 1 du IU 

Bed Grain Sower 15 

2d d 1 dn . v .l0 

Berl Fanning Mill ..15 

Be-t Harrow lu 

Be t lb re Raki 111 

B< -t Sti wl 10 

Best ix Hand linke* 5 

be 1 <i lib Cradle 10 

Bet lla-, P.. - 10 

Boi 1- Hhj Fok« 5 

Be ■ B •■ H v 10 

)■-- OxYke 10 

Best I- ■ . hi. i,< ■ t ol Biickffi 15 

Be t Net .., Willow Bm keu io 

Be 1 Chum io 

BsfPrew It; 

TU: t Tw i * n \ - - sn n 90 

Brt'jVn ion* Oariiage : I 

It' -t Om-lnoe VVftL'On IS 

Beat Ooe-hor eCnnia^e 20 

]*•■ t Dray 10 

Be tMi ■ 1 Team H new 25 

le-: ■ ■ ■■ ..I CiirmgeHarueai 25 

hr i Ru ):> 

B 'h ■ Hui ; ess — lit 

No ]l euiMOiii- will lie a\Miul.-ii lor iiiaouiiii tin e.l QitiC 

produced in Catiluimft, yet the Bociety will be happy to place 
■ 11. nil- ni the importers or exhibitors, 
on exhibl 



Ci'l'ILE SHOW". 
Tin- Cuttle Show will be held nenr Sacramento, and will 
take place on thatHiid and Imrrth dirts ol the Agricultural Fair. 
Comnetixon m premium ou snitnahi muit delivei a list '■! 
commj tee, uii or before 
. rj ol the Pair. 
Stuck must be an tLc gri und before l'» a. m. ol the tccoad 
b Fuir, when proper placefl will i-c •< •i^\-- .i them, 
and on the day* oi the Cattle 6uow must remain in tl 1 h places 
from in a. u. tu •! r. H. 

I ortcd ui American Stallion SI. "ill 

2.1 du do do do 75 

Best imported or Aiih-iicnii HuUfl . - ."iij 

2d it" do do 25 

Best California bred Stallion 50 

2d do du do 25 

Best California bred Mare . 25 

2d do do da ' 15 

Be?t breeding Maie with her Cyli 25 

2d do do do 15 

Beet apaa of matched Dramibl Hor«e> 25 

2d do do do do 15 

Best span of matched Barringe BorMi 25 

2d do do do do 15 

Best Saddle Bor*e 20 

2d do do 10 

Be.-t fait Hone (to be ebuwn livBdn) 20 

2d do do do do Hi 

Best Expreec Hur^r anil Wttgon ( hown li._i-tl.i_' ). 30 
2d do do do do do . IS 

Bc-t Cult over one anil under llnee years old.. . .. 20 
2d do do do do do Ill 

Best span of Mule. 20 

2d .Li dj Hi 

Be*t Bull 100 

2d do 50 

Bet Cow with in-r Calf 50 

2d do do 25 

Ei-w yearling Heifer 15 

Be- 1 si\ head young entile one j'fui under one, one 
pair under two, bud one pair under three yean 

old 30 

2d do do do do do 15 

Best yoke Working Oxen - 40 

2d do do do 20 

Best Buck 15 

2d do 10 

Best Ewe and Lamb 10 

2d do do 5 

Beat six Lambs under ouc year old 10 

2d do do do do 5 

Bc_-l Boar 20 

2d du 10 

Best brooding Sow with her pigs 20 

10 



2d do 



do 



do 



Best litter of Pigs under five months old 10 

2d do do do do 5 

Best pair of fat Swine 20 

2d do do 10 

Beet three Fowls (cock and pair of hens) 1 10 

Best pair of Turkeys >. . IU 

Best pair of Geese 10 

Best pair of Ducks 10 

Discretionary premiums will be awarded by 
the Society on articles or animals which they 
shall deem highly meritorious, although they may 
not he named in the list of premiums. 

Each Committee is authorized to recommend 
special premiums upon objects that properly be- 
long to the class assigned to them. 

The managers of the Society will be present 
during the Fair to give directions to all who may 
wish to enter animals or any articles for premium 
or exhibition, and forage will be furnished gratis 
fur all animals entered for premiums. 

The Society earnestly denre lo be informed, at 
the earliest possible moment; how far the different 
Farmers in the Slate can co-operate in this un- 
dertaking, and what specimens they intend to 
exhibii — >o that suitable provision may be made 
for their contributions. 

All communications upon the subject, will be 
prompt!) responded to. and all information cheer- 
fully rendered. 

The announcement of the awards, together with 
appropriate exercises, will take place on the last 
da\ ol the Fair. 

Addiess the President or tlie Corresponding 
Secretary, nt Sacramento. 

Circular. 

The Executive Committee of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, beg leave to say to the Agricul- 
turists of the State that as the time for holding 
tlie Annual Fair approaches the necessity lor in- 
creased and enefgetic action throughout tlie State 
becomes, daily, more apparent. 

'I he officers of the Society are giving their 
tme, attention nnd money Lo ihe furtherance Of 
the work but this » ill not suffice. Unless the 
Farmers', Merchant 4 *, Lawyers Hotel Keepers and 
all Others interested (and whn is not?) come up 
to o'or Hid, subscribe and pay their membership* 
and give countenance to the work, our approach- 
ing Fair cannot be made what it should be — 
cannot be what the resources of our State call 
for. what the honor of this most prominent in- 
terest demands. 

'1 he Stale has made commendable appropria- 
tions foi jn-riniitins. apd the FxeculiveCominiltee 
has published a schedule for the approaching Ex- 
Inl'i ion. and it is hoped that we may be placed 
in ciicuinslances lo show fid I statistics of Farms. 
Orchards, Nurseries, Gardens, Vineyards, Ac. 

A competent and reliable Committee may be 
expected to visit and report upon every ca<e in 
tins department. Send in your propositions, that 
the Committee may know the amount of its work. 

'I he statute under which we are organized 
limits the terms of membership to ten tlolkia. 
Any Gentleman or Lady sending us this small 
sum will have subjucl to his 01 her order a cer- 
tificate of membership for one yoar. 

'I be queslio 1 of the utility of the Fair depends 
ver\ much upon the manner it is gotten up, and 
it cannot be what it should be without personal 
interest of a general character. 

Persons holding certificates of membership are. 
with their families, admitted to all the exhibi- 
tions of the Society fiee of charge. 

By order of the Executive Committee. 

C. I Hutchinson. President. 
0. C. VVheeleb. Rcc. >«c. 

Sacramento, June 23d. [655; 
FREE TRANSPORTATION TO THE STATE FAIR. 

The Executive Committee of the California 
State Agricultural Society, take pleasure in an- 
nouncing to thoso interested, throughout the 
Stale, that th*? California Steam Navigation Co.. 
Citizens' Lir»< of Steamers. California Stage Co.. 
\\ ells Fargo ti Co.. and the Pacific Express Co.. 
have libeialtj and gratuitously tendered the ser- 
vices of their respective conveyances for the trans- 
portation, lo and from the approaching Fair, of 
such articles as may be designed for exhibition, 
in buliug slock and persons necessarily accompa- 
nying the samj. 

Every limit 1 , of like liberality from our citizens, 
in any portion of the State, will tend to render 
the coming Stale Fair of greater interest, and 
make it worthy of the Stale and her people. 
Uy order of tlie Executive Committee, 

C. I. Hutchinson, President. 

SAca*aiEN'TO, July 5th., l£- r i5. 

Why Doeh Land Produce Weeds? — Because 
there i- mure wild, or fibrous matter in the soil 
accumulated by ages of the growth ami decompo- 
sition of vegetation, 'ban there is of that property 
required for the ciops we wisb to raise. As we 
have often said. " burn a plant and the ashes 
will show what the soil is composed of." The 
ashes ue what is drawn from the earth. By the 
decomposition, what was drawn from the atmos- 
phere, has been liberated, and escaped in the form 
of gas. The ashed are mineral, and never exist, 
naturally, in the atmosphere. The ashes oi all 
plants, consist of the same substances, only in dif- 
ferent proportions. Like soap, which is grease. 
and alkali, but when properly combined, are 
neither, but a new compound. So with soils. If 
the compound is largely wild, or vegetables, it 
will produce weeds ; make an excess of phosphate 
of lime, and it will as naturally produce wheat ; 
give it an excess of alkali, and it will produce po- 
tatoes. A farmer should fit his crop to the soil, 
or his soil for his crop. 



Prizes for Mowing Machines. 

The Trustees of the Massachusetts Society for 
Promoting Agriculture, believing that the intro- 
duction of labor-saving machines in field opera- 
tions, especially those employed in mowing, prom- 
ises lo effect a most beneficial change in the agri- 
cultural economy of New-England, are desirous of 
bringing this subject to the earnest and immediate 
attention of the farmers of Massachusetts. For 
the purpose of forwarding the movement now be- 
ing made in this direction, they oiler the following 
premium : 

To the possessor of the mowing machine which 
shall cut during tlie present season, with the 
greatest economy and to the best advantage, not 
less than fifty acres of grass within the State, the 
machine to be worked by horse or ox-power, 
$600. 

All other things being equal, the greatest num- 
ber of acres cut by any one machine exceeding 
fifty, would entitle the competitor to the premium. 

Every competitor must give notice lo the Trus- 
tees of his intention to compete for the premium. 
on or befoie tlie 17th of June next. He tnu-t at 
ihe end of the season, or befoie the lOlh of Sep- 
tember next, furnish satisfactory proof of the 
number of acres cut by the machine during the 
season. He must also keep a record of each day's 
work ; the number of hours actually at work in 
each da_i ; the number and kind of animals em- 
ploy eil slating when any one of the same, if any, 
changed, and tlie reason therefor j the name of 
the maker of the machine; its cost ; if new this 
season; any accidents or breakages which have 
occurred in working it. and the nature of them, 
and how repaired, together with any suggestions 
which may seem useful in preventing a recurrence 
of them ; which record shall be submitted to the 
Trustees at the close of the working season of the 
machine. 

Competitors are not precluded from competing 
for auy similar premiums offered by County So- 
cieties or individuals, nor are ihey con lined lo 
mowing on their own land. It is also understodd, 
that all persons, procurers of a machine, whether 
as owner, lessor or maker, resident ol the Slate 
or otherwise, are entitled to compete for this 
premium. 

The Trustees reserve the right of dividing the 
premium among equal claimants or of withhold- 
ing it altogether, provided they are of opinion that 
no competitor has by his performance with his 
mowing machine made so great a saving ill labor 
and expense over the old method "f sc\ the mow- 
ing, as to enable them to recommend its general 
introduction and use in which case, the premium 
will be renewed for the succeeding year's compe- 
tition. 

As a further incentive to the skill and ingenuity 
of the manufacturers of mowing machines, the 
Trustees ofler another premium of $1,000 to the 
maker and exhibitor of the best mowing machine, 
to be a.vat'leil in the year 1H5G. 

To entitle any person to the premium, the ma- 
chine, with full particulars of its priuapleiHif con- 
struction, weight, and selling pi be en- 
tered for competition with the Trn^te - on or be- 
iore the 1st o| .June. 1856. A gem lid trial will 
be bad of all the competing machines due notice 
of which will be given, together with all needful 
particulars at the commencement of the season of 
1856. 

Il is to be hoped (hat there will be a large com- 
petition lor the premium offered this year, and 
that manufacturers who propose td compete for 
the one in 1856 will take pains to introduce their 
machines for this season's work. fbe Trustees 
in awarding the $\ 000 premium Will not confine 
themselves lo the single trial which will he afford- 
ed to competitors to exhibit the po *urs of their 
machines, but will also take into account the mer- 
its of each as displayed in competing for this 
year's premium, and in its ordinary working both 
for this and the coming year, whenever and wher- 
ever an opportunity is afforded of seeing it in op- 
eration, 

The County Agricultural Societies are earnestly 
invited tn appoint Committees to aid Ine Trustees 
in awarding the prize offered fur this year! who 
shall inspect the working ul competing machines 
in their several districts, and in repotting the re- 
sult of their observations lo tiie 1 ru>iees. One 
or more of the Trustees, will eudeiw.r to visit 
each county during the season lo see some por- 
tion of the work be performed by each machine, 
but from the necessity of the case, great reliance 
must be had upon tlie cordial and hearty co-oper- 
ation of the County Societies. 

ihe Trustees have adopted the follow ing Com- 
mittee to a lend to the details connected with the 
subject, viz: Tuos. Motley, Jh; 

G. W. Lyman. 
C. G. Luuing. 
Hicu'd S. Fay. 
W. S. Lincoln. 

All communications may be addressed to Thos. 
Motley. Jr., Jamaica Plains, or Klch'd. S. Fay, 
Boston. 

Boston. May 28th, 1855. 



Tobacco. — We have seen, (*a_\ s the Santa 
Barbara (Gazette.) within the past week, a quan- 
tity of tobacco, raised within the limits ol ibis 
city, which is now being cured. The qualiu of 
this lobacco is said by competent judges, «-|io 
have been engaged in the cultivation of ihe plant 
in the Atlantic Slates, to be equal lo that raised 
in the Island of Cuba. The climate here appears 
to be particularly favorable for curing the lobacco 
after it has attained its growth, ami at tin- same 
time the great difficulty which is experienced 
Irom the tobacco worm elsewhere is not met with 
in California. We trust that specimens of this 
tobacco will be forwarded to judges of the plant 
in the upper part of the State, in order that they 






THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



may have an opportunity of comparing the qual- 
ity of the article raised in this section of the 
country with that of the northern portions. The 
very great importance of the successful introduc- 
tion of this crop by the farmers of our neighbor- 
hood should he an inducement to those interested 
in the advancement of our county to engage in 
cultivation of the plant, ami in the diffusion of the 
information necessary among those who are other- 
wise unable to obtain it. Should, as we hope 
will be the case, an Agricultural Society be es- 
tablished in this county, there a ill bean excellent 
opportunity for our farmers to obtain information 
in regard to the cultivation of ninny crops which 
would undoubtedly prove extremely profitable, 
but which are neglected at present. 



Lime. Marble and Coal — Our patriotic and 
enterprising fellow citizen. Mr. Gwill, who has 
the lime depot on the Plaza, informs us that In 
has recently opened a magnificent quarry of mar 
ble near his limestone quarry on Feather river. 
We suv on Feather river, hut that is scarcely the 
fact; both qarries lying about eight miles from 
the river, and some thirty miles from Marvsville. 
These quarries lie six miles beyond the recently 
discovered coal mine, of which -ve have heretofore 
spoken, and which, Mr. Gwin assures us. will. 
when opened, prove very rich and very extensive. 
We are gratified to learn that arrangements have 
been perfected for the immediate development of 
this coal mine. The road from the lime and 
marble quarries to the river leads by the coal 
mine, and Mr. Gwin anticipates much benefit 
from the coal in calcining his limestone. At pre- 
sent Mr. Gwin is compelled to haul his lime the 
whole distance to Marysville, in wagons ; but he 
intends establishing an embarcadero on the river, 
near the coal mine, and using Hat boats for the 
supply of Marvsville and Sacramento with the 
three important articles of lime, marble, anil coal. 
The marble is beautifully variegated and suscep- 
tible of a very tine polish. lie is about construct- 
ing a mill on the ground, for the purpose ol 
making marble dust for the use of soda manufac- 
turers. Most cordially do we wish Mr. Gwin 
success in his enterprises. He is a social bene- 
factor and deserves success. — Marysville Herald. 

Silver Lake. — The following description of 
this beautiful sheet of water, is extracted from 
the Placerville American : 

"Directly west of that portion of the Sierras 
known as the Round Top, in the midst of pines, 
like great collosal columns, stand thick around, 
lies Silver Lake, so lifted up above the lower 
World that the birds there never sing; but we 
will speak of this and the reason for it presently. 
Silver Lake, so called from the extreme purity of 
its waters, is the source of the extreme southern 
fork of the South Fork of the American river. It 
lies to the right of the emigrant road, though a 
trail easily travarscd by pack animals, passes along 
its shores. It is one of those charming little lakes 
peculiar to the mountains of California full of life 
in its myriads of speckled trout, lint the trout 
only is found, while in other larger lakes as Lake 
Bigler, a variety of fishes abound. It is here that 
a small band of Digger Indians, from the lower 
country, pass the summer months, subsisting upon 
both running and swimming game, and mountain 
clover, which they greedily devour, after submit- 
ting it to a kind of steaming process, rendering it 
equally tender and juicy, and quite as palatable 
nslhedish their more civilized neighbors consume 
under the name of greens. This lake, unlike 
others upon the mountains much larger than it, 
never freezes. There is a Digger tradition, ac- 
counting for this peculiarity, which we will give 
in a future number, as also the reason Why the 
little birds around its shores, never sing." 



The Fremont Claim.— At a recent meeting of 
the settlers ami minors, held at .Mariposa. B. F. 
Morns, Chairman, and L, Vining, Secretory, after 
explaining the object of the meeting, the following 
resolution was passed : 

Restitvcd, That in the opinion of this meeting, 
that any attempt by the United States Surveyor. 
to survey' land of John 0, Freu.onl to locale the 
Alvarado grant to ten leagues of land upon the 
mountain lands and settlements of Mariposa 
county, lying easterly of the San Joaqnin plains 
would be illegal and an unauthorised eni aiion of 
the national law. and a wanton aggression and 
positive infringement of the rights of the - 
and mil ly in possession of and residents 

upon the aforesaid lands. 

Information Wanted. — Information is want- 
ed by an afflicted mother, of a son, a yo ng man, 
and named Thomas Lauiie. of Cambridge. He 
formerly resided in St. Louis; and in April, 1852 
in company with F.dward llecp. sailed for tali 
foruiri from New-York, by way of Panama. Since 
then, no intelligence has been bad of him. His 
mother, who is aged, resides in Coi.eord Avenue. 
Old Cambridge. Any communications in n 
to the matter, sent to her address, or this office, 
will be gratefully received. 



isrclUui£. 



union. 

[This ia tme poetry; It breathe* patriotism, and it will awake 
In every breast » greater love and a truer devotion to that an- 
chor of our liberties. We have Been this beautiful strain copied 
frequently. It was rend by Rev. Mr. Corwin in his addreea on 
the 4ih July, at Sail Jose, and we presume it waa original. It 
denotes a heart in the right place, whoever he may be, and it 
should be publiahed in every paper in our land. — Ed,1 

" You can't aever the Union, tor ye cannot undo, 

The relation of brother to brother ; 
Ye may coldly regard him and slander him too, 
But when sorrow o'ertakes him your heart will be true, 
To the love you once bore him when together ye grew, 

In peace, by the side of your mother. 

You can't sever the Union, for ye cannot untwine 

The numberless ties that have bound you, 
Like the thread of a beautiful and delicate vine, 
That haa silently spread iu the rain and the shine, 
Till, when you would buret them, each gossamer line, 

Turns to cord and cable around you. 

You can't sever the Union, for ye cannot forget 
Hjw your fathers stood shoulder to shoulder ; 

How, like one in privation, their stern hearrs were set; 

How, like one in the conflict, our foemen they met: 

How, like one they melted by sorrow, and yet 
Howr in danger, grew bolder and bolder 1 

You can't eever the Union, for you cannot divide 

The flag of our freedom and glory ; 
It waved o'er the field, where our forefathers died, 
Their children unfurl it with reverend pride, 
Hard, fluid, would the task be to throw it aside, < 

And tell the sad nations the story I 

What I sever the t'nion 1 who, who, then shall claim 

The grnve of our country's defender 1 
What, the North and the Soutli fan the fuel to flame, 
And fight o'er his ashes whose glorious name 
Is a watchword of Liberty, Justice and Fame ; 

We would all eoaner die than surrender ! 

No, we cherish the Union with heart and with hand, 

As we cherish our home and our altars ; 
Through Ihe length and the breadth of our wide spreading land, 
Alone by the eye of Omnipotence apanu'd, 
We rite in our strength, and the craven withstand, 

Who doubts, or dissembles, or falters." 



HIDDEN LIGHT. 

I must mistrust the voice 
That says all hearts are cold, 

That mere self-interest reigns, 
And all is bought and Bold. 

I mu«t mistrust the man 
Who will not strive to find 

Some latent virtue in 
The soul of all mankind. 

Yes 1 if you say the fount 
Is sealed and dry, I know 

It need- a winer hand 
To make the waters flow. 

If you would still appeal 

To evil lite in all, 
I know a demon-band 

Will answer to your call. 

But when the Lord was gone — 
Tin- Lunl wlm dune a save — 

Two angels fair and bright 
Sat watching by the grave. 

And from that blessed hour, 

With an Immortal mien, 
In every tomb of Good 

urge] -its uMeeo. 

The -pell to bring it forth! 

With I, wly, centie mind, 
Waii paiMQl 1' ve sod tnu 

Go seek — and yo .halt find. 



If «. ••. •( Wmrit 



»ss. — A new manufactory oi plate 
i exchange, has been commenced in 
ianishurg. (K. i.) where plates of g 
wide and twenty leet long will be nude. A plate 
ten lei - in be made so strong that it anil 

h and so clear that the linn prim 

n be readily read through a plate 
- thick. It i- i 
best hnglish plate glass ia mad. 



The following is a true copy of a sign upon an 
academy for teaching, in one o( the western - 

men A lluggs. School Teachers. Freeman 
teaches the boys, and Huggs the girls." 



The Old Monumental Bell and House. 
Tin: Sau Francisco Alia California, of July 11th. 
uy&: W'c briefly noticed, in a recent edition, the 
lemolition of the old lime honored house of the 
Monumental Engine Cumiunv. No. 6, situated on 
Brenham Place, at the head of the Plaza. There 
are, however, some interesting rcmilii- 
ciated with this old building, which should secure 
to tt more than a passil I n inti- 

mately connected with some of the moat exciting 
phases of the history of our city, that although 
our exhuming them el this moment mav not save 
ihem from the oblivion to which all things mortal 
nst pass, yet few will gainsay tfiat this venera- 
ble landmark i> unworthy the attention, and » hich 
ehly due the noble band of men attached to 
it. as tolheediliee itself. Ihe Company was form- 
ed as early as June. ISoO; but was not regularly 
organized and admitted until September 12 
at which lime there- were near three hundred 
members attached to it. In those day s, w hen the 
lesiruclive-clemcnt was not Wept within the nar- 
row limits to a Inch the efforts of the lrepartment 
now confine it. fr. . ■ a tire corn- 

. not to boa BjHamber, was rather lb* exception 
to the rule. Hence, there were few mercha 
property ovners in town, who at that time del 
not count it not only an honor to lie enrolled, bat 
had the additional i n goods and 

property. In a won ■ fewer while kid- 

aa can be boasted now-a 
: 

-t President 



ed iu the be,: ell was cast by Hooper, 

the celebrated bell founder of Tror. N. Y.. and 
Its weight is 271 lbs., aad it 
was the Brat bell ever erected in Califori . 
cepting. of course, toe aocieot Spanish bci 
tanbod to the Missions. Iu voice has toiled the 
requiem of the dead of the Company— at Daniel 



Webster, and of Henry Clay ; it has pealed its 
noisy clangor to celebrate the anniversary of In- 
dependence—the admission of the State into the 
Union, and the various celebrations of the Depart- 
ment. As the red glare of the Fire* King beamed 
across the city, this bell has been first to send 
forth its warning tones, and in those exciting days 
when the Vigilance Committee held their dread 
councils, they were summoned by the two solemn 
taps of the ■' Monumental Bell." For some time, 
indeed, this was the only bell in town, excepting 
that of the Prcsby terian Church, at the corner of 
Powell and Jackson streets. This, however, was 
not hung for some time, and was struck only sus- 
pended sufficiently above the ground to admit of 
its being sounded. 

The first fire for which the Monumental bell 
was rung was at the burning of the two steamers 
Santa Clara, and Hartford, at the end of Long 
Wharf, in 1850. It has now been suspended in a 
temporary belfry creeled over the house fronting 
on Dupont street, and where the engine will be 
housed until the new building is completed. Well 
may the Monumentals call the bell their "pet," 
and regard its " long tongue and empty head," 
with a peculiar affection. The house has been the 
scene of innumerable festivities and merry -meet- 
ings extraordinary. Here Bacchus has often 
reigned supreme: the grape-wreath encircling the 
brows of the jolly god only equalled as an hillan- 
ous emblem by the good humored faces so wont 
to throng the building. Nor have the smiles of 
Beauty been wanting to enhance these scenes 
Scarcely a celebration since the erection of the 
house but the occasion has been rendered doubly 
welcome by the attendance of many estimable 
ladies, whose gifts of wreaths and banners are yet 
retained by the Company as tokens of the appre- 
ciation in which they are held by the fair sex 
The Monumentals also have their list of sad recol- 
lections as an ollset to the remembrance of happy 
days. Since their organization, sixty -three mem- 
bers have died. In the cholera days of "50," 
eleven in one week were stricken down ; one ha 
been killed find three crippled, in the exercise of 
their duties. 

The new house is to be built under the super- 
intendence of a Committee* of the Company. It 
will be 68 feet 9 inches in depth by 21 "feet 9 
inches in front; to be constructed partly of Male 
kadel stone, from the Point of that name about 
two miles below Benicia. from the quarries of Mr. 
William Andrews. The front of the first story 
\i ill be of Chinese granite. The lower, or base- 
ment story, will compose an engine room and sit- 
ting room for the Company ; the second story, a 
room 20x20. for a library ; and the balance. 4.S 
feet, a meeting room for general business. Alto 
gether. it will be a creditable building, and, to 
judge from the plan which we have attentively 
examined, it will prove an ornament to the city 
It will be completed in about forty days. 



"1 thought," sais I, "you said I mi 
what 1 wanted at ten." 

'• Well, 1 have changed my mind," said he, "it 
is too low." 

' And so have I," sais I. "I won't trade with 
a man that acts that way." and I went on hoard, 
and the men cast off, and began to warp the ves- 
sel again up to her anchor. 

Lewis took off his cap and began scratching his 
head again; he had overreached himself. "Ex- 
pecting an immense profit on his wood, he had 
sold his fish very low; he saw 1 was in earnest, 
and jumped on board. 

" Captain, yon will have him at ten, so much as 
you want of him.,' 

" Well, measure me off half a cord." 

" But didn't you say you wanted twenty or 
thirty cords V 

" No," sais I. " You said that I might,have that 
much if I wanted it. but I don't want it; it is 
only worth three dollars, and yon have the mod- 
esty to ask ten. then ten and a half; but I will 
take half a cord to please you — so measure it off." 

He stormed, and raved, and swore, and threw 
his cap down on the deck and jumped on it. and 
stretched out his arm as if he was going to fight, 
and stretched out his wizzened face, as if to make 
halloaing easier, and foamed at the mouth like a 
boss that eat lobelia in his hay 



•faisies' §t$satmt\\t 



The Bloom op Age. — A good woman never 
grows old. Years may pass over her head, but if 
benevolence and virtue dwell in her heart, she is 
as cheerful as when the spring of life first opened 
to her view. When we look upon a good woman, 
we never think of her age ; she looks as charming 
as when the rose of youth first bloomed on her 
cheek. That rose has not faded yet ; it will never 
fade. In her neighborhood she is the friend and 
benefactor. Who does not respect and love the 
woman who has passed her days in acts of kind- 
ness and mercy 1 We repeal, such a woman can- 
not grow old. She will always be fresh and 
buoyant in spirits, and active in humble deeds of 
mercy and benevolence. If a young lady wishes 
to retain the bloom and beauty of youth, let her 
love truth and virtue, and to the close of life she 
will retain those feelings which now make life 
appear a garden of sweets — ever fresh and ever 
new. 



Sam Slick's Bargain. 

" Yot; will find," said the Doctor, 'the men (I 
except the other sex always.) are as acute as \ ou 
aie at a bargain. You are mure likely lo be hit 
ten than lo bite, if you try that game with them.' 

•'Bet yon a dollar." says 1 " I nil that old coon 
as easy as a clock. What! a Chesei. cooker 
match for a Yankee ! Come. I like that — that is 
good, lleie goes for a trial at any rate.'' 

" Mouiiseer." sais I, "have you miv wood to 
sell !"' We didn't need no wood, but it don't do 
io begin to ask fur what you want, or you can't 
do nothing. 

" Yes,"' said he. 

" » bat's the prk-e," said I, "cash down on the 

I knew the critter would see ''the point" of 

_' doan with the blunt. 
" It's ten dollars and a half." said he. "a cord 
at Halifax, and it don't cost me nothing to carry 
it theie lor I bats myo.tn shallop— out 1 will 
sell it lur ten dollars to oblige you." 

That was j .st st veu dollars more than it was 
' worth. 

" Well," sais I, "that's not high, only cash is 
If you will take mackerel 
'dollars a barrel (which aas two d 
than its value) praps we might trail; 
sell me twen 

- ma; be tacnty-tive." 
" And the mackerel,'' said I. 
*0 - worth only three 

dollars and a hall at Halifax 
even at that, i have sixtr barrels, number one 
I e," 
" If you will promise me to let me have all the 
; wood I want, more or hssa." says 1. - even 

- • little, of as 
dollars a curd, real rock maple, and y eiu»-» 
then 1 will lake all your ma. - e dol- 

lars and a half money down." 
">av four." sa.d he. 

"> threeiherea 

and a half at Halifax, and I won't beat yoa down 

buying ail your mackerel. \ ■ heard 

citing me hare all the wood I want" 1 of one 
-Oo. 

e aarpnl mto ihe wharf took the i'.-h on 
board, and paid him the money, and cleared fif- 
teen pounds by the operation. 

where is the wood 7" 

said he, pointing to a pSe. 
. ning about fifty cords. 
. i I hare it all' if I want it V said L 
He took off bit cap and scratched his head 
nag helps a man lo think aosatiugly. He 
•-bought be had better ask a little more Una lea 
n as I appeared ready to buy at any price. 

slid, 

S j ou may hare it all at tea and a half 



A Sweet Voice. — A sweet voice is indispen- 
sable to a woman, I do not think 1 can describe 
it. It can be and sometimes is cultivated. It is 
not inconsistent with great vivacity, but is ofleu 
the gift of the gentle and unobtrusive. Loudness 
or rapidity is incompatible with it. It is low but 
not gutteral, deliberate but not slow. Every 
syllable is distinctly heard, hot they follow each 
other likedrops from the fountain. It is like the 
- of a dove, not shrill, nor even clear, but 
littered u'lth that subdued and touching readi- 
ness, which every voice assumes in muinciils ol 
deep feeling or tenderness. It is a glorious gift 
in woman — I should be won by it more than 
beauty — more even than by talent, were it possi- 
ble to separate them. Hot I never heard a deep 
sweet voice from a weak woman. It is the organ 
ofstrorg feelings and of thoughts n Inch have lain 
in the bosom till their saciedncss almost hushes 
utterance. — Willis. 



A Faithfil GlBL. — A case of woman's love 
and devotion, says the Chicago Tribune, has re- 
cently been brought to our knowledge, which cer- 
tainly equals anything that we have e*er met 
with in the realms Tho circntftstan- 

ces occurred in this city, and are perfectly wel 
authenticated. While the small pox was raging 
here a few weeks ago. a young man employed ii 
a store on l«ake street, was seized with the dis' 
ease. It wa- improper for him to re 

main there, and the people with whom he Ii 
who were distant relatives of 1 to per- 

mit him to stay in their house. The result was 
- taken to II- It so happene 

that he was engager! to lie man t est- 

■at o 

■ t once lbs 

she wo :elcr*er»t vaccina 

•v had taken her betroth 

i atom 

by all the world. Anr 

iike a min:- wait 

fpain.-oo' roses 

and attending to his wants. He died — but bow 

Icouso!;- are been his last moments 

1 Though all the world had forsaken him, she 

' whom he loved better than all the world, remain 

thful lo the last. Her hand it was that 

I smoothed his pillow ; her eyes still beamed opoo 

(him with mournful but unabated affection; into 

I her ear he poured his 1. love, of sor- 

■ d ol hopes that in this world might never 

-ailed to our mind, when w. 

rds that Balwer pats in the mouth 

be watched and 

ve, who woold not walk blind 

orer the world. " 



lion, aro 
ed— to I 



Valuable 
An oi"s gall will set any color— silk, eottoa. or 
waottn I bare seen the colore of calico, which 
failed at one washing, fixed by iL 

A warn, mr pan. full of lire coals, or a ab- - 
the same heel over varnished furniture w 
mure white spots. The spot should 
bile 



An ounce of qnicksi I ver. heat op w 
of two eggs, and pat oa with . 



38 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 



E^" Sands' Sarsaparilla. — This preparation has now 
borne tlie tc-t for over fourteen years' experience, tince its first 
introduction to the public, and each succeeding year brings 
forward renewed testimony to its great value as a medicinal 
remedy. The unfortunaie victim of hereditary di-ea e, with 
swollen glands, contracted sinews, and bones hull carious, has 
been restored to health ad vigor. The scrofulous patient, cov- 
e ed with ulcere, loathsome to hint-eli' and to bis attendant-*, 
has been made whole. Hundreds of persons, who had groaned 
hopelessly lor years under cutaneous and glandular disoiders, 
chronic rheumatism, and many other complaints springing 
from a derangement 01 the secretive organs and the circulation, 
have been raided as it were from the rack of disease, and now, 
with le^eneraied constitutions, gladly testily to the efficacy ol 
this inestimable preparation. 

AgentF— HENRY JOHNSON & CO., 
v4-5 lm 146 Washington street, San Fiaucisco. 

f^" Doesticks, 1he Great American Humorist. — His 
new boot; L- publi bed, elegantly illui-tiated; 12mo„ brund in 
cloth, extra gilt ; and celling in every city, town and village in 
tie United States. 10,000 copies sold the first week ot publica- 
tion. Buy it. Read and lauL'li ! ' 

EDWARD L1VERMORE, Publisher, 

t4 5 Qw 20 Beekintm i-tieet, New York. 

grp 1 California State Agricultural Society's Rooms.— 
The Rooms of the State Agricultural Society are located on 
Fourth street, between J and K, wbe-e all who are inter- 
ested in Agriculture and kindied Sciences are invited to call. 

Several hundred specimens in all departments are on exhi- 
bition onetautly, and it t- the ibject of the Society to moke 
thfee rooms a place of resort for our citizens. The rooms me 
open daily, (Sundays excepted,) and are tree to all. They are 
under the charge of the Editor of the California Fabmeb, 
who will be plea-ed to render any information or assistance to 
further any interest connected wirh *ciiculiuie. 
Bv order of the Execu'ive Committee. 

V 3-26 C. 1. HUTCHINSON, Presidcut, 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



E^* The Editor oi the Boston Post says : We have 
not, until recently, been acquainted experimentally, with the 
true value of WISTAR'S BALAAM. From this truly valuable 
preparation we have received a present benefit, having recently 
ured it in a ea* e of severe cold and cuuyh, with entire success, 
and most cheerfully recommend it to those alike afflicted. It 
ib a fcieutific preparation, and worthy of confidence." 

This Balsam Is made from materials which Nature has placed 
In all northern latitudes, as an antidote for diseases caused by 
cold climates. 

" Nature is but the name for an effect 
Whoi-e cause Ie Gjd." 

Let us not neglect her plainest dictates. 

Suld by nil druggists. 

A-ents lor Sao Franci-co, B. B. THAYER & CO. 



PERUVIAN FEBRIFUGE, 

FOB THE PREVENTION AND CUBS OF 

FKVliR AND AGUE, 

Intermittent and Remittent Fevers, Liver Complaints, Jaundice, 

Dumb Ague, Dyspepsia, Nervous Headache, Enlargement of 
the Spleen, and all the dijft rent forms of Billons Diseases. 
T^HIS preparation is intended especially as a remedy for »ke 
-*■ prevention and cure of Fever and Ague, but it U equally 
adupted to other forms of dit-care, such as bilious, intennitrent 
and remittent fevers, dumb ague, &.c. Its combination being 
entirely new, it differs widely it its therapeutic effects and op- 
eration on the fj\-tem, (rem other pieparnttnns designed to re- 
move the dl-euee ; and such has been the unllorm ruccess in its 
administration, that no case is known where it has failed to cure 
when timely taken. A single tea-poonlul will often prevent an 
attack of chill;, and fever ; and while operatim: bo effectually is 
a palliative,' its permanency is enuully reliuble, and no fears 
need be entertained if any injury icculting from its use, as its 
component parts are all vegetable, and have been thoroughly 
te.-t.d by many eminent pbynicltms with the most sigual suc- 
cess. In all climates wheie biliou.. and remittent Severs prevail, 
this remedy will be found invhluable, and no person traveling 
through, or residing in infected districts, bhould be without it. 
Read the following Testimony. 

Broi klvn, N. V., A Uf r, 05, 185:). 

Messrs. A. B. & D. Sands — Gentlemen : H.iviii" been the 
pa.-tyear beveiely afflicted witli Fever and A^ue, and living in 
adi-inct. wheie I have br-en cotitatitly exposed to repeated 
aiDtcks, I tried the most approved lAmCuien lor the cure ot the 
complaint and among them took lour buttle* nl India Cbula- 
gonur, wt.hi.ut producing anything bu: a partial relief! By the 
advice ot a friend, I wa.- induced to try the Pei uviun Fein Uuge 
and am happy to >-ay the very first dobc did me much good, and 
less than one bottle entirely broke up the chills, restored my 
appetite, regulated my bowels, and effected an entire cure, it 
hlon cured one ol my children, affected toe Hmie its iny.-cll, and 
I bare enough le:t to cuie two or three more. A derire to le- 
lieve thuae suffering, as I nave done, uloue induce; me to make 
the above stutemenL Youts, very tmlv, 

EDWARD MEIIER. 

Price $1 50 per bot'lp. Prepared and si. Id, whole-ale and 
retail, by A. B. &. D. SANDS, D.u.'»i-to and Chemist>, No. 10U 
Fulton street, corner ol Wdbain, New Yoik. Sold also by 
Diugglsts generally. 

For sale by Henry Johnson & Co., 146 Washington street, 
San Francbco; S. T. Watts, Marysville; and HOWARD St, 
C\\, Sacramento. \4-5 am. 



13?* Religions Notice.— The "Pacific Baptist Church' 
i,Rev. O. C. Wheeler, Pa-tor) will hold Divine Service every. 
Sabbatb, at lOVj a. m., and 7Mj P. at., in "Temperance Hall," j 
corner of lOih and J streets. The public is respectfully invited I 
to attend. Seats free. v4-4 



E5P Persons purchasing articles advertised in onr 
columns will confer a favor by saying they observed 

them advertised in the "CALIFORNIA FARMER." 



W. C. JEWETT. 

(of THE FIBM OF JEWETT It MELHADO, IX 1849,) 

Auction and Commission Merchant, 

Fire Proof Building, corner Sansome and California streets. 
Real Estate Sale*.— MONDAYS, at 12 m 

Furniture, Hiin-e* and Ca riw;e-. it —TUESDAYS, at 10 a. m. 
Jewelry, Flowers, *c— WEDNESDAYS, at 10 a. m. 
Groceries aud Sundiie —THURSDAYS, to "0 a. m. 
G ene-n l M'ichandi-e, Fancy G id , etc— FRIDAYS, at^O a m. 
pjf* Liberal advance- made On eoiiMunrnci.i.-. v4-5 



SANDS' SARSAPARILLA. 

IN QUART BOTTLES. 
For Purifying the Blood, and tor llic Cure of 

Scrofula, Rheumatism, Stubborn Ulcers, lh}*pep»tn t Salt- 
Rh,um, Fever Sore?, Erysipelas, Pimples, Bilis, Mercu- 
rial Diseases, Cotanjtout Eruption*, Lirir Com- 
plaint. Bronchitis, Cnniumptiun, Ftmate Corn- 
plaints, Loss of Appttiti, General Debttty, 
4f., $■■•.. tfC 

IN this preparation all the re.-tointive properties of the root 
are concentrated in their utmost strength and efficacy ; bu - 
while Surstiparilla Root tor ms an imput unit part of its com- 
bination, it is, at the tame time, compounded with other vege- 
table remedies of great power, aud it h- in the pecaljar com- 
bination and scientific manner ol it- preparation, that its 
remaikuble t-uccesB in the cuie of dbease depends. It acts 
■liinultaueouely upon the stomach, the circulation and the 
HowcU ; and thus three processes, which are ordinarily the re- 
iult of the three dinerent kinds ol medicine, are carried on at 
the same time, through the instrumentality of Otis out remedial 
agent which gently etimulutes while it disinfect* and expels 
I'rom the stomach and bowels all thut is irriti.tiiiL', and itt the 
-time time restores their vigor and tone. Mmiy ottier prepar- 
ations imitate it in bearing the uame ol Sarsaparilla, und in that 
their rcseublance end*-, being olten prepared from worthless 
■tnd inert root-, aud of course poesc-s no healing or curative 
properties, aud patients in making choice ot which they will 
ose should take no other, but thut one entitled to their con ti- 
le nee, from the th>t Ij.-t ot cures it has effected on living wit- 
nesses, whose testimonial- and residence huve been published, 
tnd who ate still bearing daily testimony to its worth. 
Astonishing Cure. 

1'attkbhon, N. Y., July 20, 1651. 

Meters. A P. A. D. Sands: UeutitunOUi — Unviug witne?;ed 

the most beueticbil etl'cc.s [rum the u e oi juui SuL-apKrilla, it 

jive.- me pieapu.e toeeud y_»u thetbllowmg oUttement in regard 

n my e6n. lu the spring oi 1^48 bo touk » severe oold, and 

Ultet eight weeks ot seveie BuHei'iug' 1 the di i'u-c FKttlud in his 
eg and tu'it, which soon ewelled to ttte inin i, Too swelling 
was lanced by bis phy«iciHo, and discharged most profdselj ; 
After that QOiIchh thuu eleven ulcere tunned un me leg and loot 
it one time. We hud five duTei cut phy-ieiau-, but none re- 
lieved htm much ; and the last winter loimd liim so emaciated 
•md low that ne wib unable to leave but bed, sufierlug toe most 
;xcruco»ting pain. Duiiitj! this lima the hutie bud become ao 
much Hltectcd that piece alter piece came out, ot which lie ho* 
now in ire than twenty-live pre erved in r bottle, vai-ylng from 
ine-half u> one and n-hidf iuchea in length. We had uivnn up 
dl hope* of his recovery, bui bi tiii^ nun- we were induced to 
try your Sar.-aparilla, and with ita ute hi" health and ap petit! 
began iminodtately to improve, and so rapid was the chunga 
;hut lean than a dozen bottles etleeted a jiei leet cure. 
With gratitude, 1 remain truly voitrv, 

DARIUS BALLARD. 
We the uudcrcicned, neiuhbors of Mr. Ballard, clieerlully 
nub- cribe to the fact* o( the above stHtcnn nt. 

H. Si. R. S. Havt, A. M. Tuowdbidge, 

Geo. T. Dean, C. Eastwood. 

Vreonrcd and sold, wholesale and retail, by A. B. &. 0. 

D ugglete and Chemists, KW Fulton rtreet, corner ol 

:i New York Sold ubm by OcuftA*ui poaoraJly tbroucti< 

■ U.iited dtutes mul Canada!, Pticell oer bottle : *ix 

■ Henry J ihnson & Co., MR W.. 
. .; 8, T. Wutt-, Mary.vJIloi uud HOWARD &. 
\4 5 &n 



PKLNCE'6 PROTEAN F(»UNTAL\ PEN. 

[PATENTED JAN. 'Z\, 1855 .] 
T. a. Stearns, General Agent, 271 Broadway, 

C«r„froj Ln.iiiil,,!.- ntreet, jV. 1*. 

ADVANTAGES. — An incorrodible and durable ink reser- 
rotr, mode ol Protean, under Gjudyeui's Patent, filled 
with ease and rapidity, tupplyinir the pen lor fixoreighr hours, 
and saving about one-third ot the time. A Gold Penol the very 
be.-t quality, with a holder of the tnodt heau.ilul, li^iit. and 
els.- tic material. Its structure is simple, and not liable to get 
out oi order. 

DiaEC ions. — To (ill the reservoir with the Piston, remove 
the cap by turning it like a ecrew, in.-ert the pen in the iuk 
halt an inch or more, draw up the piston, then with the thumb 
and finger on the lower part ol tbe piston, draw it up tight into 
the bead of the tube that it may neither move nor allow any 
pressure o the air. Wipe the pen with a soft cloth or paper 
alter tilling and whenever the cap is removed. T.ie pi^tou is 
not to be pushed down until the ink is entirely exhausted. To 
pu»h it down place the thumb and the tiriuer ju>! abuve the 
tube, that the plrton may not be broken. Put the cap on liyht- 
iy when the pen is not in use, to preserve tfie ink Irom dryiiiL'; 
and .-crew it home to it? choulder wheu carried in the pocket. 

To till the reservoir by cuciioii, (the mode adapted to pocket 
pen*-,) loo- en the small sere ■■, at the upper end, but do not 
ruke it out ; losert the pun in ink, a.- above ; apply the lips to 
the email tcrew, exhauft the air by tuctlon, and while tlie pen 
remains in the ink, turn the screw until it is ctyht. Or, loosen 
theecrew, imeit the tube In a bo tie of ink, le;Tit remain until 
the ink has toutid ita level in theruhe, then turu theecrew uutU 
it in tight, and the pen la ready lor u e. 

The auction pens should be carried in the pocket with the cap 
upwards, the piston pen.- with the cap downwind-. 

U e Kood ink, free from edmient : Ht'udl.y &, Kit-Id's Araeri- 
euu Fluid, altio Bryan & Wilcox'-*, and Arnold's Fluid Ink, re- 
commended to tbe public, a- they will copy. v4-5 



A^ilcuUuriil W.t. . ii.,11,,-, 
193 Front strict, Jnu> Yurie. 

THE subscriber ofl'ers for fcale vn a-soHment of Amicultural 
Implements of the latent and mij«-t approved kinds, am- tic 
which are the celebrated Piemium Plow.-, which were swarded 
the hi.'he-r premium oi the American Institute in 1P-I6, 1843, 
1849, 1850. 1851, 1852 and I85J. AUo, Eagle, Centre D. aught, 
I*e riii, end nil other plows in general u e. 

PittV. Hall's and Smiths H..rse P ,wers and Threshers 
I'.niKiH'-, McCormickV, HusfeyV, Seymour &. MoryauV, and 
Ketchum's Mowiugand Reaping Manbinc j . Yankee - el ' -sharp- 
ening Straw Cuttert — the best article in uc: C< rn Shelle-s, 
Ponnmg Mill.-, Picks and Pick Handle , &c, &c. 

v4 5 JOHN MOORE, iyj Front Btreet. 



All— Tiff tit Pi<M'iv. Joi«. 

[myeb's patent, 1855.J 
An entire, nue artirie fur pr.s, rt i.t? Iriuls, I'tgetahlr*, 9(C. 

THIS jar is tlie only one among the many presented to and 
npproved ol by the Committee of the American In timieni 
New York. For further Information apply lo WARREN &, 
SON, Calipobnia Fabmeb Office, where may be »eeu draw- 
ings and p-iuiij.if- of the article. 

Made and sold excluwivelv by the N irth American Gutta 
Percha Company, 102 Broadway, New Y..ik. v4-5 3m. 



tnmlt h. 

GUM-DROPS, Jujube, Rock Candles nnd Lozenge?— Wee 
assortment. Known to be -uperior in quality, and to keep 
for California market, better 'ban nnv otbei. 

STEWART & BUSSING, 
v4 5 3m 316 Pearl streei, New York. 



hiu,l'< I btii^ t l>ruu^s I 
CSZ^ JUST received and for ^nle ehean for rn^h, by 
^ J. L. POLHEMUS, D u.-i r, 

t-^ comer J and Seventh ateeets. 

10 Warrels Alcohol ; 
150 lb BosHin Copavia, (orhdha) package ;) 

1 cask B'lth Brick : 5 u 'roas CapsulQU ; 
2'» do< Co n ure -.- Waorj 
10(H) tb.-i Cream Tartar, (warranted pure;) 
50 IB.-* Corro;=ive Sub'imotc; 

at h >*o* Castile Snap; 
1U0 tb- Gum Camphor; 
100 tb - Spanl h [ndlgo ; 

20 •■/ Sidphatfl M Tphine ; 
3i(0 tbs Irish M '-"; 

3 (TfOss Lubln's Extract-, o.'=orted ; 

50 lt> I Oil Lemon, (warranted mirir;) 

24 d zen Olive O.l; 

10 lb^ Id. PotSB-j 
l(«i lb- Spirits Hitre, concentrated; 
200il lbs Bal Soda; I00» tbj Ep.-om Salts; 
5lt0 lb- Sup. Curb. Soda; 

24 d izen P. P. Syringes, gloss; 
3(io lb Tapioca ?■ 

2i)0 eraap aworted Vials; 

2' OH lb- Wtiite Lend; 
500 ft aborted PFiints, trrnund in nil ; 

•j bona Putty; 10 pack* Gild Leal; 

25 proes Pills, aasoTtedi 

t 5rosi Bar niiaritlaj, assorted; 

2^0 boxes Window 81s b< 
200 doxen small sized Castor 0\U ; 
And other DrufTS and Medicines too numerous to mention, nil 
if which will be sold low, by 
t3-24 J. L. POLHEMUS. 



fc'lrst Premium OnKUrrrrotypeti. 

RII, VANCE just awarded the FIRST PREMIUM for the 
. best Duguer rooty goi exblbltad at the Calilornla State 
Fair. Mr, V. would be happy to wait upon any one wishing a 
PERFECT LIKENESS, Tno arrangement ut his Rooms and 
I .i :li' ■ are PUperlor to any in the 8 ate. 

Room. — Now Building corner of Hacramonto and Montgom- 
ery Mti'octa, entrance on Montgomery etreet, next door to 
AwJtlii'a. v4-l 



BUSINESS CARDS. 



i 



HOCND FOP, THE STATES! 

Merchant^, Miners and otlierp, bound home, a;e nd vised to visit 

OAK HALL, Boston, Mass., 

where they can replcni h their Wardrobes wirh complete 

outfits from one of the largest arid be-t assorte I stocks 

of Clothing, Furnith.n^ Good*, &c, fieq,, in 

the Uuiieil State?. Also, every variety of 

Boy'a Clothing. 

HS?" One Price, Cash System, irivinir all an equnl chnnce. 

G. W. SIMMONS. 
Oak Hall, N >rth street, BoBton, Mans. v3-16. 



AGRICULTURAL, &C- 



JA.MKS FRENCH <fc CO.. 
Publishers, Booksellers, 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

STATIONERY, 

No. 78 Washington etrtvt, P>$ton, Ma**. 

l^ST* Country Tinder-, B lokeller.-, Touchers, Clersymen, 

Ranba, Railroad^, [nsmanc^, nnd other Companies, 

furnished on the he t term-. 

%* Older? solicited for our new publican ■■n*. 

v3-25 See prospectus. 

j. lioWKu. & co.. 

46Mi J "'reft, between Sr/iod and Third, Sarrnmentn, 
q^*s*. TAKK thla opportunity of informing their friend? and 
Tt"'S-V nw I u " n(- * t'"" 'hey have just received a new and 
Vefej' choice telecr on of vl' a t c lit' h j\ii»1 ./ v w fir y. 
Among which will be found Watches of every description, 
from the l>e.-t maborE — Kiiji-h him) Fienoh. 

AUa — Diainmd Rnyjn, .Choino, Ear-fijnae, Pins, Brncelete, 
Quart?, Jowdlry, *fcc, "ic. 

r^" Particular attention paid to DIAMOND SETTING. 
Watcher cateiully repaired and Warrantkd. 



v3-30 



C. L. NOKTII. 
MACHINE SEWING, 

145 Sansome strm, between Wa«bineUm and Jackson, 
SAM FRANCISCO. 

Flour, Grain and all otsei ile eiipti. n- nfBagf, constantly on 
hand nt.d mnd" W onb-i. Mat tie- >e.-, Ceilinc , Tem-, and ALL 
kinds of plain sewing, done with nea|oettfi and die patch. 

W. \\\ PlilCEj 

Notary Public and Conveyancer, 

No. H Bead's Building. 
Deed", HoitgBgeP, Leamt nnd Pnwera of A-tomey, written ; 

Oatli!- ndmiobitered and Bcknowlcdtrraenbi tMken. v4-l 



E. It. AJASIICK, 
Attorney and Counsellor, 

Office, roriur of MtmtgOVtOry aud (_'< ,vim >r rial s'reets, 

(over Drexel, Slither &. Churcb'o Bentans Bon^e,) 
v3-iy Sim Fraucifco. 



BOOTH. CARROLL & Co.. 
Wholesale Grocers and Provision Dealers, 

Ao. 62 J street, corner of Third, 
v3-26 S.ieramento. 

KKYKS & CO. 
GOLDEN GATE CLOTHING WAREHOUSE, 

Crrnrr of J and Serawt ttreetA, Sacramento, 
Having the large- 1 and rinc.«t aasortmeot of 

FASHIONABLE CLOTHING- 

AND 
FURNISHING GOODS 
Ever Offered in California, 
and which we are elliiiL: at Ibe ImOaft bikcA prices t /ve rlieerfolly 
invite our friend- and the public to call and examine our exten- 
sive Ptocfc for theme olve.-«. 

Single ftnrmenti or lull f-uit?, made to order at the thonc-t 
notice, and warranted to tit. 

New and fashionable Goods 

received by every hteamcr. 

Oall at Biunrh of KEYES &, CO., 

v4-l corner J and Second Btreet , Sacramento, 



KIVKTT A CO. 

HAVE OPRNED A BRANCH Or THEIH 

WELL KNOWN HOUSE, 

A T 

' 111 J STREET, 

where they intend to keep a large and varied assortment of 
Upliohtei-y Goods, Paper Hinging, 

Oil Cloths. HaulnL', 

Mat» and Rugp, Datuwkp, 

Sdadc , Cornices, 

Curtnin Bands, Tawdi, 

Prinfee, Gimpa. 

Lace and Mu-lin Curtain)', e\c, Sic. 

At their Old Store, 28 K street, 

may be had all the above article?, together with one of the 

lui-'vi aaaortiucntf) to he found in ttte Pre 6, of 

vVuidow Glass, 
Whlw Lead, 
Oil*, 
Turpendme, 

Vi.nri-he-, 

Dry and Ground Tuitits, 
ond all other Painter*! Bunpltw. 

Also, Sign Painting, »- lonnorly; Gilt M mldlngs and Mirror 
Pla-ei-; Picture und Mirror Praine made und ie-zdt 

Work in all the above branches executed with our u B ual 
prom|>tnefs. v3-'23 

VALUABLE AGRTULTTTRAL BOOKS, 

I'L'ULIIMKD BV 

JOHN I*. .JK.^Eil & CO.. Hoston, 

And fur eale l.y »U the B iok olli -ra. 

Dadd's Modern Hor>e Djctor, 

By Geo. H. Dadd. 
' T ie celehrat >i V iterinary Surgeon. 

Schenek's Kitchen Uardener's xtxt Books. 

A complete guidt tor the cultivation of the Kitchen Garden. 

Cole -on the Diseases ol' Animals, 
By T. \V. C- lk. 
' Kdit ■>'■ oi the N-w Knyland Farmer. 

Cole's American Iru-l B^ok. 

Thebext book out lor the Fmit G'ower. 



Breck's Book of Flowers. 

A complete Guide tor the Floret. 

Lcuchard on the Hot House. 

Their Heating, Construction nnd Ventilation. 



v4-l 



W 



Harvesting I'mph nicits. 
E invite the attention of the public to the following eclcc- 
rion of sujicior Hurve tinu liuolemeuu*: 
Iluv-cy'- (Beltimore) lleapeiuj 
McCormick's " 

M O.IIV'K " 

HallVS horse Threshers ; 
Pltl'd " " 

Eme-y's 2 horse " 

KctchuinV MowerR; 
GrantV 5 linger Wire Brace Grain Cradles ; 
G ape Vine ." 

Barley itftkee ; 
Hav Bakes and Forks ; 
Scythe.- aud Snaiihs; 
Grant's Fan Mill , Sec, &c. 

Kcceiveil and or sale by 

TREADWELL Sc CO., 
3_13 comer California und Battery -i reefs. 



iiuiK>it.(..i u» flii.iiis ana Fui'tnei'f 

rpHE undersi»ned having d...c ivered a rem. dy tor the injury 
X to wheat arising Irom Smut, and a plan ol reuovuting the 
-aoie, ha-i secured by a " Patent lUght," hi title to tlie am* . 

Prom the experimentamnde by experienced miller ,ihe mo't 
eatiflnetury reaulv have been aohievai. From well atte ted 
trials and repeated proofs ol the capabilities of its power to 
lean the Binul from the wheat, it hto been a-ce, tamed that the 
mo t perfect purification take plBCe in the wheat, while 01 the 
i-ame time a large having oi time, labor and co-t acciue- to the 
miller, and the Hour is as pure aud white as Irom tbe finest 
wheat. 

Farmers who have crops of wheit, now unharvesterl, may 
yet save them, lor they can ea-ily he assured ttiut their yrain 
can be rcdloicd and the value saved to them. 

Licences, with all particular tor theuseofthi-' Patent Rurht, 
can be ohtained at the wareUouse of the fubscriher, ou Uluy 
utieet, between D.'um und E>i-t, S^n F a'lc'co. 

v4 .2 CHARLES (JAMI'BELL. 



A-iltu-tuml Too.s u *l Souls. 

PARKER. WHITE & GANNETT, 
47,51* and 6:t Bluelufons street. Bos- 
ton, Hum,, manu&ctmen ol Plows, 

Ux Yoke-, Stoit- Truck-, Fan Mills, 
Uoree Powen, Mowing Mnchines, 
Riaiptng Machine , H u e P iwprs, 
Churns and other fnrm mochineiy and tools; Sluice Folks, 
Grain Cradle.-, &c., &.c. Also, "rowers and importer of aU 
ods ot Garden and Field SetnLund Tree.-'. 

Tnete teed* are ol the very be-;t quality, such as have always . 
given satisfaction to our customers, and are put up for -hip- 
meni in air tisrht case.-. ' 




AfrrlcuUural ami lli.itlii.timu liupicuiouttt. 
I w i<i and Garden seeds. 

UPWARDS ot one bundled ditteient kinds ol Plow?, and all 
oilier implements In u-e on the Farm and tlie Garden, 
Field Seeds ol all kinds. Garden Seed* ol all kind*. 

R L. AI.LEN, 
4 3 3m. 189 and 191 Water street, Now Y >rk. 



Curls, Wu^ottS, iruiks Hay Prosves* iSeo, 

C1AL1KORNIA OX, Hone, Mule and Hand Carts; 
/ do do do do Wh-uiis. 

Truck- of oil -izes for war-ehoupe*. 

Hay, Sump, Tobacco and Wool P C9«e«. TbeM will press 
bales Irom 100 to 400 pounds weight, either by luuiil >r horeo 
power. 11- L, AL1.EN. 

^■l■^■^ l r l 189 and 1 91 Water rtreer. New York. 

Pan-it Kl.»i JJijvi lu. b-iuhi, UjitauiwtW. 

A PATENT of great merit and importance i= now tnTernd, 
wblcfa will eeeui'e toe de Irable ie,-ultH above named, The 
owners propose to rtiUe a company to carry on the work. It 
is certain in the re ults named. 
Capitals dc^lmus of bi*cotilng Interested will ple«-ead- 

diOSr KILK DRYER, B ,\ 8047 P S3l Olhcc, Sun Fiiil.cU-o 



BANKERS. 



DREXEL. SATHER &. CHURCH have removed to the 
new Bunking Hou.-c, e< u hwest comer of Battery and 
Clay Btreer.-. 

DUKXEL. SATHER A CUURril. 

B AN K E B S , 

Battery -,-m', corn.r »f Clay. 

Draw Bill ofEirebnnfte.at sk'ht or nn time, in Bum* to mi it, on 

Vim Vleck, Read & Drexel, 27 Wall hi New York. 

Bank ol North America Boston. 

MuuhanioV and Fanner?" Bank Albany 

On-x'-l & Co Philadelphia. 

Johnston Bro. Sc Co Baltimure. 

J. B. M irton, E q Biohm nd. Va. 

A. I). J men, chiirluer Pirtj-hurtr, Piu 

A. J. Wheeler, Esq Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A. I>. Hour. E-q I- ui-vilh-,K>. 

J R. Mitcruurdrj & Co. New Orleans. 

A'so, RxchBUBft on London ; 

Pranktorl on the Maine, and Ftrutfeait, Ge many. 
Punbase Certificaies ol Deposit and other Exchange ut cur- 
rent tate-, and transact a general Banking business. 

F. M. DIH'.XKL, Pniladdphla. 

P. PATHNH, »fl MB FrimeUrn 

E. W. CHURCH, i S " ,, * Tnn ™ cn - 



v4 5 



B 



WEU-S PARBO & 00;. 
ANKER-S._B.ils uf Exchsnce for sale on New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia and St. Louis. 

Also, on the toll wing Eastern Citie« : 



Ad'ian, M ; 
Albany, N. Y.,' 
Alton. 111., 
Ann A l> <r. Mich., 

A-hralmln, O, 
Auburn, N Y.. 



.lenu, 111., 
G-neva, N. Y., 
llonilt u. (J„ 
JackSOn, Mich., 
K ibeo'i/"", Mich., 
Ken aha, Wfe,, 



Battle Creek, N. Y., La-nlle, 111., 

Binehsjnton, N. Y., Lockport, N. Y„ 

B.ifli.h.. N. Y., Louisville, Kv ., 

CsnsndaizuB, N. Y., M.m Bold, o.. 



Removal. 

WN. BRAINARD, (suceQ -or n Mnch'i U -e& Braiuard) 
« ha- removed to to, 55 l\ nireii, >•"!,-.. n Second and 
Third, and Will be ,lea el to wait on hU old cu-tomers, who 
may favor him with a Bail, 

A lull n-i-nrnneii of California Produce always on hand. 
Horner'* Premium Flour, and other dbtawtic Diund* ■ eenotne 
Haxalland Qnlle^o; ftiosh ifround Oorn Maul and Buokwheat 
Flour; B,an, ri.iortj* and Middling*, Barley, O.iU, Wuctit, Sec. 

C-tUt'jrn-.a trj.ti Buiter and Uheose. 

A liberal discount m |do to rhe city trade. 

BaQramento, May 34 h, 1855. v3-23 



K( niovnl. 

ilic Oil and Can , 
.. 79 Front street, between '"lay and C onimeicial. 



rpiIE OTiee of the Pacific Oil and Camphonc works 's removed 
± toN.. 



Polar, Speim, Lurd, Neat's Foot and Tanner's Oil. Cam-* 
phene, Turpentine aud Burning Fluid constantly uu haud aud 
for sale at the lowest mm ket price, 

WILLIAM BAILEY, 
OTice, No. 79 Front t-treet. 
Mmiiliicioiy, Taylor street. North Bench 
San Franci=rn, M iv 9ili, I8S5. v3-25 



Siutuh-i-s, Attl-iillun 1 

C1HA9. R. SCHEUNER BBSneatfully infbffins the rnanulac- 
J tuiorf of Saddle* that be \* now prepared to di- idl kind 
of stampings on Culitorninn and Mexican Styles ofsaddli 
he is contideiit that his stylo ot workmauehip cannot bo sur- 

pHBBfid in tiit** State. 

Pleas e call and examine specimens. 

piV^ Orders from the country promptly attended to. 

v;i-25 17U K utieet, SacrunientO. 



Chicaiio, III.. Mich. City, Ind., 

Cinoluneti, O., Mllwaukte, Wia„ 

Cleveland, O., M mmF. M cb., 

Colnmbuf, O.. Mmiit Ve non, O. 

Comlnir, N. Y„ Newa-k, o, 

Dayton, O., Nile-s Mel.., r 

Detroit, Mleh,, O wqsio, N. V., 

Dunkirk, N. Y„ Owegr*, N, Y„ 

Elmira, N. Y., Paine-vlle, O., 

Erie, Pa., Peoria, III,, 

Drafts on Canada drawn on 

Montreal, Qnebeo, tiamilion n<id i'oronto. 

Drafts on Europe drawn on 

Union Bank of L ndon London. 

National Bmk of ricotiand Edit t rgh. 

R.val Bmk o' 1 eland. luhlin. 

Llvlns ton, WelL- &. Co., (our hoit >■) fart*. 

V 3^ WELLS, FABCO A CO. 



P 't-vil'e. Pa., 
Provident. It. I., 
Racine, Wi-, 

Reinliri..., P»„ 

Roc 1 ester, M. Y., 

Suudu ky, O , 

3 e i vjioi, Wi- , 
Silver Oreek, N. Y„ 
Boulb Bend, Ind., 
Siirin^rleid, O., 
aprlngfibld, III., 

S'oniri;toii, (' un., 

Syracn e, N. Y., 
Tiffin, o., 
Toled . o, 
T.ov. N Y., 
U itn, N. Y., 

Wr-lh' |, N. Y., 

Xanlo, 0., 

Ztneavdle, O., 



OB ROR W WRtnilT, 

EDWAHD JONUS. 



JOSKPH C PALMBU, 
CHA&XK» W. COOK, 

PALM hi U CUOK i< 00 

BANKERS COniOr Ol Wa-hinprun und K'-nniy -tre-i-. IV-nt- 
in- tbe Plaza, San F auric*, CalilbrnIn, hny and hell Ef 

cbanue on all the principal Ei rem rfde«. Bullion, Cerdfleatai 

ol Demi i', etc., bought at rhe Hgl e t market rates. 

Collections made uud Mmey Transmitted^ and all buatnaH 
co iinec red with banklnfftnm acted. 
tHr** A-eut in New York— 
v.'tu:, JOHN COOK, Jr , 31 Broadway. 



Ollf Oil It Campiifiii). til 

BRANCH of the Pacific Oil mid Ciiinphene Works in Snera- 
inento. 
Tim nhderalgned pflswctfully Informs blsfriendsand custom- 
era thm he Una estsbllsned a depot at ft K s:tre« t Saamnwnto 

for the side of Oil, Campliene, Ac, and Invites the aTtet tlnn o| 

dealers to his -lock, which < -i-t- ol Polar. Bpnim, Laid, Bla> 

jilinrit, N.'iitV Kofit, Tanner.-', Black Fish) nnd M«i-liine. > OU, 
Campnenft, Turpentine Uld-Alouhol, which he warranut pure 

genuine. 
The facllltJai wWch V\* ssten Ive work* niTord, srfll enable 

biio to keep on hand a large stork, and xupolv iiraVr* at Han 
o prices I il| WILLIAM BAH.EY. 

\ LctOilsi U. K*"- 

A FEW oopies of tin- maanidcenl wo k, In C lorod I' -mm. 

iV for sale. Apply at theoBuo nftho Calt? rnia t' arm km, 

lUi'h stra t, Ban Pi ini 

v3-20 and SociolyV Room , Sacramouto. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



STEAMERS. 

Cillfornia Steam Navigation Company. 

— |r ""-*^ Tim ipleadld low ores urc -teamen- Senator 
£j£^£^5L+ *""* Antrxok will leave on ahernale day* lor 
ba Prwuci co, at two o'clock, P. >., trumthc footol K 
T •■ .teamer Sknat a, E. A. Poole, matter, wil la 

■.. 
Tif i-it-Hiii -r Avtel pe, D. V;, it Pelt, ui^tcr, will leave on 

Tuesday, Thai day and 
Tue steamer Helen Hnifsi ,i . Chadwtck, master) 

ik, p. M. 

For Maryavllte and Inionnediate Landings, daily, at 7 o'clock, 
a. m., irom hark Orb, 

unci Gov Dana, W. 11. Taylor, tniutor, on Tuesday, 
Tnuri-day and Saturday. 
For Colut-I, lied Kturt. and Intermediate Landings. 

Bells, W, ll. Oilman, master, and -teamer 

(iEM. M ' |ei, will leave tor theahoi i named 

.ii-tlHv mul Saturday, aiSo'dock, 

a. m.. Iron woie bip Ao i 

Fur Red Bluft-.— The -ii.iiiht Gem, M. Littleton, mister, will 

1 iih' Hi HI ..\ lock, A, M. 

I^ 3 f ,r lie! : ofLbe above hnate apply 

on bun d, or at the mi the Calif ruin St. -urn Navigauou 
■ml bria Globe. 
v4 I A. RED1NGTON. 



(.oniin twain Firry Notice. 

V* il b'nrihir Vatfe*. 
fp** s ON and alter WEDNESDAY, Nov. 29, the 
nrT°" I "nTi' Contra Quota Ferry will run a* IbUi we : 



BAN FilANCISCO. 


OAKLAND. 8AN ANTONIO. 


A. !» * A. M. 


A. 8 A M. At 7-,*; A. M. 


P. M. 


II 1 ') A M. 11 A. M. 


4 ■•• r. m- 


3 P H. '-.''■ P. M, 




CHARLES MINTURN, A enr. 


«3-184hn 


Cunningham's Wharf, 



For •iiiuiiKiiiu antl lUmysvlli.*-. 

—tp" ' »% THE Citizen's S earn N kVigatinu Company'* 
I £ mi^l2 ■'""""■■' QOEJiN CITY, Geo. R. Barclay, Mas 
te , "in ui mine ice her re^uuu ti ips lor i tie above plsce , leav 
iiu Sun Ftauct.oo eveiy Tuesday, T.mr day aud Saturday 
aiif iioiiii.-, at 4 u'eluck. 
F .r Irehdit or pus age, apply on board, v4-l 



Fi'lI. lit liiunn il. 

i!" T ^*S FROM inui after [be Ut ui June, the California 
«Ls^-^ U ~SL St...ni N<i volition Company will carry freight* 
t. .•-;-. i,,.n hi.cI riticiuini i.iu in 5> ;i t J - » *« » uiml rurther 
notice. *3-24 . SAM'L J. HEN 8 LEY, Pifeideut 



California Stage Company. 

Ojjice ui tin- O tuns Hate/, tiatrran-enBh 
tl ,. ^- D STACKS Ittttve reuularly lor the following 

ft yj%;rM iduciia : N.-vada, Opliil, Auliui'll, Yankee 

r - ■- ,i.-i-^ai"-*r» j (in . ^ Georgetown, FiocemUe, MunnuB 
laland, o loom, Diytowu, Jnukuou, M jkehiinue Bill, Bcuokton, 
Bouuih, Maryoville aud Suo-tia. uod all pai'tn ul tue N.jrtheru 
ami s u neiu Uiuets eve,y moruiug, aa IdIIowm : 

Nevada and i n termed mi l- plou^b, «t 5^ o'clock A. M. 
tiu u^etowu " " b' " " 

All other plncen 6^t " " 

Aouutnuwdutioti line for Muriniu I land, l 1 ^ o'clock P. M. 
All pii--eiuci(* will he ualled toratthuir leaidence.-, and. the 
utin i t intention tAd on e uaid tu tliem and their bugijHye. 
S a^ea arrive in time every djy nu* tue S,m Frauoi oo boats 

JAS. HAWORTH, Pieaid lit C. S. Co. 
J. P. DEIOS&N, St'cietary. " v34tf 

llunc t f.*r Sale. 
4R&T- A finely locuteil R mcli oi three ihousand aereoj nbout 
•^huj^ welve niiliv- bo. >w (J iu«i. Tiiw Id oueoi rim line t plot" 
—a**- ,1 i„n;l lor jtraziugopAj'i'icuUui'ttl purppae m r.n Siatej 
w.t,i unb«jied, aud all po [idui i>i i tue lie^-l quality oi fio.il. 

I wi.l n.' old ut n bargain, ^miu o ill ■■ lot and all parricu- 
laro ^iveu.i.niuquli'hif;ai the olicoot' Cai.ifohnia Kahmkh, 
on P ii tii treet, betw^ en J and K. v4i 



TOBACCO. 
Virginia Manufactured Tobacco Agency. 

G< REENE, HEATH A ALLEN haze reiO iv sd from Caii jr- 
r in . I.'.', i i ui ■ .■dr. ut vv miimg mi ii 1 1 1} in. tv reeu 
w i r • i.i'v itl'' 1 iii.' "ne flu) nuve t i.id nut u>eirxmrut ui 
M ,n urmel T lm ■ <> cv.-r Ii OUj.lt C) tllUj S,,, .■. i . 

I,,,, lV > uiAie by M . flea.n rryuj tbo bjd bwtiriei la Vir* 
oiulii i 'iii.l .ii' 1 in 1.' ^i;i.'.hiv ii'T'M ivi ,iliv invited to call. 
A. L ii ,n ■ r tie b audi) uiiivi'il are 'be loll ■■■■ 
stl)0 no, i'. i" liur t iti'd Pour Ace ; 

7."> hall ii '--■■■ iln Modal ; 

. r iii piekagetj do s..vi>rei^ii of thefleai 

liil do do Br.de o tue Faoltic ; 

io. > boxea Mali ■>'« Four A'*: 

I. hi il i s u i.ter-' II in*v of the Weat; 

SU do J...I- B.yd' <i tld L-. : 

Till do il i Aium Hit top 1 

35 da A. Tn nun ' Club H"U r; 

50 do ForgU Ull'd Sim ol thiJ Wo r ; 

..ii da Miller A C eti b«w*B Blud CiQ \ 

'J I do R. yttOl'ttMn >V Own; 
40 do do liiViill i .i' | 

tun do Tii nut m'«Ci utelop* \ 
50 do Dickinson's Wiu u'a Bye 
80 do Ci'u lij & U otteu' Motroi 

lun.liii i ii to t it nbove, »e bnvvS.ua i 

bin i n I ; ii. d ii we fi-ii oxcttulvely on C i >- nm loi the Mau- 

u nctuH-r ot Virginia, we run in 

liiv oi i|ti lit> lequired, ai u e lowe i rate . •'■ : i" 

l.lil.st LUI|M*1 l..l(..tt. 

\\ E w. uld n-iiiii .nil U.o ntienrli n ui buyer*", wboleeaieand 
>\ retail, tii flie lai^e «nd anun t.ck ol 

S'l'M'i.l. -xi% u Pa NCY CuoDa 
which i mr been iccfivt-d drift Uiim tl l irera and 

lm ■ e pa i week, per i " i u,,* Cluud," 

•* Si inn. i Rus <-n" nod " Bid R vcr." whic< . in addlti ii to ■ u< 
fo ,, e i, | ., milk.- ii oy in the LAKQS8T IN thk State oit 
of San EitaKcncol Aud u» quahij . weo«-»j 

c< mj <• i I' n ; HI ' 

tin* ^i"« wt variety t" be fauna ba any l" uw '" » ! alitiTrnia 
By the Two Last Stsuof 
2tHi Panmoftj, new, ■■ b 

I. o pp. Intent ftvii- H. nui't R.hbon aud T imn 
50 j ■, ».-. i.n. .i i 
i-.'i j »t ei m lain y Ban ■ 
B5 i . i imn mid on ied Sw I 
40 j*. plaid, Mil | »l Mud plain J 

. |1 ■ D bm Pi 

Mtns', Yomhi' ar:d Bjy»' »u:ui.ior Clothing. 
Hi Dutac u - d bi a Hi i m b N' « i 

BONNETti ;— Mi e -' fkuis, Roy»' li 

. m,i niy ul uU • 

t\ nrtli ol July tele retioB, < nun* • 

CHAS. » Bu< 

t:* h 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



New Patent 

Force and T: fting Pump and Fire Engine Combined. 

THE umle fii-nnl i-. imw manu- 

le " NEW 

PATENT PUMP, which; lor utility 
ion) power, lurpaspon anythina of 
tlie kind ever nffered t'i the publie. 

For Sniji-. Rjiii'iiid Station^, IV 
poj m.ii , Ftu-toiie , and all ,othor 
places wbeie n large quantity of 
WRter If required to lie rained, they 
■re peculiarly 'uliti ted, 

h- construction in double acting, 
throwing n contlnuou Bt'eani of 
water, ut the rate of from "JOO to 400 
gnllone per minute, (nccoidlns to 
^i/t■) unit ran he u ed n.i h Lifting 
or Fohce Pump, and by the eppli* 
cntlno of H i-e can be one-nted as n 
Fin Engine ol t lie tno-i efficient kind. 
It is pirn e, iot liable to pet out of order, can be operated by 

hand, le m or water power, and need only he eo'i to lie ap. 
preciatid. " N. HUNT, 

26 Deviupliite - rii->r. New York. 

Also tor sale — rVet qimti-y o' Lkateb Belting und superior 
Shuttle Sewing Machines. 

pgf 3 0:de:-i> ■■■ ' the shove iece'ved at tliif office, v4-33na. 




TREADWELL & C,., 




COHNKH «iF CALIFnRNlA AND BATTERY BTHRET8 

' SAN FRANiUSCO 

IMP BTEBS, jobbers AND RETAILERS i F 

Hnrdwrne und Minim; Tool.- ; ills", A^ricultuiul Implements, 
Field and Garden Bred* i.f all de eil] tii m, 'nm rlie cele- 
brated Hou e ol Messrs, Rugglef, Nouren, Mason II Co., 
B i ti u. 
Field and Garden Sn-d-i of nil ifHiietie- ; 
PhjUlfhs, Hurrowf, Cul'lvatof 1 ', See*) H iwern, of all kind^; 
Tine her , Ren| ere. Mowers, Fun M;!l . Straw Cutten-, Corn 
Bheller , V.-_"'iu1il" Cutler,, C r. mid Floill Mill ,Snii-ii^e 
Couerr and S-utrar*, H.--.- P »■•• . Broiit Mill?, 
Whear D ill , Churnn, G\ Yoke , Bow-, II u ,■ 
Ra<ee — together with nil the bhihII ro< I- and 
implements appertntaiiifg 'o culdvaliuu, 
N. B. — B uucli HiitiFe at MiiryBville. All orders piumptly 
attended n . v.1-5 

San Francisco ahead oi the \Vond i 



Ever on, on ap<u.e wnn Hit Age «•>'' Times ' ! 
T-vuri'jxli for Vani'e'K new Uii^uiiniiu Onlleryl 

Largest Lij»Iit in the \\ nil«i. (uvei 5(Kiiivt (iluss. > 

iVoo Building, >-«r. : rata, 

\ITHY 'hi'ulri every one ^<i to Vanck'« who «■! ii*. 

YY PERFECT LIKENESSES t R I lis i 

llfl I ojaed <i..iiic v "ii ii"' V il ootlu be ttl 

passed bj on] lu the world, lu-ti uuiei,t- nuntnininu Inuro 
in re pei <■• . und with btHiut power titan i i 

ti I'tl ii> In- COUItl J . 

3d Hi'inu c be lm- i 
in' fun . 
—that now tiuiiii ■ bin I I dlflu alii wuJofa 

In imlei 
in ubtalii | <■! i« t 
ditfbi Butl} hi ' ringed 

3d, H'lMn.'ti.i 'iiabled to make ptetarta 

ui hull ihe time ol an) othe e>i ; then 

rin'\ niti : be moiapera , lorftL well kn 

lie time 'hi 'in 

4th. n. 

til pine -ilvi-r '.i Iii ptCIUM 

lint i- I if|i i.iimi G I, 

c unmon plate ,a> rhej are bow a»«d by other n ti-t . 

i 1 nr. nil", inn. | 

nil-Hi preimratlon M i •■■ .•"■"i | m,i 

I ,.|\ rl . 

blm i" produce pei ect i 
that clear, solt and benutlla! I kr nil bi> 

,.,.■•,.,.-. 

AH Hi will do well to rail bSJB f 

■ 

ij to the 
city. 

Don't fni !,•■ I the plucr. 
f^* "ew Bu 

v 4 I 



Now is your Time to Buy Caeap Goods! 

H 



■ 
■ 



Shoo, lri»h Lin- 



Ivl'W illVlll 

R*W, C ui ( \ . .1.1 Mliknti: 

a HE UB 
in pr x>»l iu ■ 

i . by w bu ti »v « 

■ 
■ 

- 

■ 

( ALItORM, 






Store. 91 J *ti« 
P. S - ■■: 
diniw Bouuet , and *h a. 

Stonier 

THE 



: J*t»e» D ■) le ; Berber h. Byi 



HOTELS. 



»v. b::ksc 






25.0UO! 



mmmrn • u • :. » ■ 



BRAPSHAW • 



50.00021 

vt*««n Wwiuie. 



CSrnln B*|ra« 



vu it*. S 



w 



RMy i-**.^ a—fc<« mrj alarm, 1 fi a * 
»u.«tbow Saving gauaV mdim tbere, Kbat all 4UK 
■• eonfinnl rttunriv to Omr cu n n we no n i 

.u->-a4Mrf,Li«f.-.. ! --F. l >, 

■taaintnatenlBaiaafei. 



t.1« 




r*a U 

AVALUABLL Hi *> O. 
bava m — n-f. ml of 9mm* ■•• ■ - 
Apply ai aha" Cumuu fuati' OaW 



Orleans Hotel, 

.^"Vftnrf, hritrriu J and A *tr<'tf>, Sarramwin, 

JS THE above Hotel, occupying a space of H. r i by 150 feet, 
in the UOOSt (ennui ;.ntt ol the city, built ui briek run! 

three utorlc biith, oilers inducements to travelers not surpassed 
by any establishment In tlie State. 

The ground floor i" set apart for Dining Room, Reading 
Rnt'iu, Billiard Room and Bur Room. 

The Tabic will be found at all tunes Bupplled with the choice 

i| tin* inui li,'!. 

At the Reading Room can nlwaya he found the dally pnpers 

ui tin' soiti- and tlie latest dates tram the Atlantic and Europe. 

The Billiard Saloon la furnished with live excellent tnbles, 

uoerintended by a competent keeper. 

The Bar will be supplied with the best Liquors and Wines. 

Tlie second and third stories of tlie buiyiiifi are set apart for 

Parlor, Family Rooms and Chambers, comfortably uijuisbed, 

We Iniv.. ulso b'li-eil the large brick buildine coiner of mid K 
md Front streets (formerly known as SuckettV Hotel) Bet apart 

lor Lod^inu A|iniFment-, which are iiirni hed in a Superior 
manner, which, udded to tlie H.jtcl, will aflbrd ample accommo- 
dations, , 

The "Orleans" ie also the Depot nnd Office of the California 
Stage Co., from which place Stages leave daily for nil parts 
Ol the State. 

v3-2 HARDENBURGH &. CORSE, Proprietors. 



Amir can Hotel, Ban.c.a. 
j| THIS HOUSE has been established Five Year*, with 
l[ out inteniiptiou or change ot proprietorship, find is be- 
lieved by the traveling public to be one of the best conducted 
II .tel- iii the State. 
Larue and well ventilated, and handsomely furnished room*, 
r tamilie.- travelling Or fur pennament boarders, can always 

be obtained. 

A iJi'EHY STstRLE is connected with the Hotel, so that 
travelers can have their choice, either to take the stenmers and 
tn.' , or n private carringevto any of the beautiful valleys 
around. Stages leuve [hi.- H:jtol every mOi uing lor the different 

alleys. 

Tne dailv pnptrc from various sections of the State are on 
file ut tin rlotel. Everything will be done by the proprietor 
that i '■ patrons of this Hou.-e. may find their stay pleasant and 
sati factory, 

:i Hii-t't C. M. DAVIS, Proprietor. 



Wikun'b XACLi.rike, 

l!y K h t a b r •> o k it Jatnrs, 
'* THIS popular and extensively known Hitel, which for 

|_ t"h«- hi-t lew weeks has beeu under the management of 

W. \V. E tahrdok, lm- been painted throughoU! ; new Furnt- 
ture bar been added, and the hou-r is now in complcto order 

i the reception ul the public. 

Mr. E- abrnok has funned a connection in bujinese with Mr. 
P. T. James, who no's been favorably known in the above 
ll tel, inui recently at the International. 

Every possible exertion will be made by the pre-ent pro- 
pfK "in> tu render the above establishment the most popular in 
the Stiit,-, v -25 



R.ia-ette House. 

San Francisco Cax. 

THIS HOTEL offer.* inducements io persons visiting 
■^Sim Fnuii'irL'o, auequalled by any on the 1'acitic Coast. 
tntloineu can bo accommodated with single room«,or farhi* 

ie- with Ultes ol rouin-. 

Tit- H ti •■ i- entirely new, built of brick ; nil the rooms are 
ii! ni. mil in H »tyle ui •■ iiiiort hitherto unknown in the Hotels 

il Ca il. rum, ami the House is capable of accouiumdalini.' over 
bve iiiuiili r<i boarders. \4-l 



HORTICULTURAL. 

B>olt mid Orimmentnl lir. -. 

THE pubscribers desire to call the attention ot planters in 
Calltbruia to their bnmenre stock of Fruit and Omumenta) 
Tree., Shrubs nnd Plants, Their Nurseries have been sixteen 
years established, and now cover more than .luu ncres of land. 
The following, among other articles, are cultivated on a most 
extensive scale and can bo supplied to dealers or amubmrs at 

the lowest murker price.- ; 

Stiuidiud and Dwarf Apples, of various sizes j 

do do do Pears, do do 

do do do Cherries, do do 

do do do Plum-, do do 

Apricots, Peaches, Nectarines, Currants, Gooseberries, Straw- 

bnrrle* and other fruits oeually grown. 

Stocks and Seeds of all kinds for Nurserymen will he sup- 
plied in large or curdl quantities, if application be made pre- 
vious to the i t ot September, 

Ornamenial Deciduous Trees, ornamental Evergreen Treoe, 
Flowering Sbrub,-, Ro.-es, Dahlias, Gieen-houie Plont-, &c. 

Packing ik d'luv in t'ri.- matt rar./ul and ,*k>il ui maimer, so 
that purchasers have a reasonable guarantee of receiving their 
article- in good oider. 

The following catalogues will be sent gratis, prepaid, to all 
who apply and enclose one stamp tor each : 

No. 1. Descriptive Cuta'ogue ol Fruits. 
No. 2. do do Ornamental Trees, &c. 

No. 3. do do Dilhlins & G een-lionse Plants. 

No. 4. A Wholesale or Trade list for Nu serymeii and Dealers. 
Address, ELLWAUGER'A- BARKY, 

v3-25 Mount Hope Nui>erie.s, Roche.- tor, N. Y, 



Flowers t Flowers! I 

GOLDEN GATE NURSERY, 

C rner Fourth and Fohom Mrvl*. 
Office 170 Washinston street, San Francisco. 

PERSONS desln iia ol embellishing their gardens or conser- 
vnturies, will find at this establishment the largest stock 
and greatest variety of plants to he found on the Pacific coast. 
Amona which are : 

Camelia Jnpnnicas, in 70 varieties : Peipetual Roees of all [he 

clas e> ; Irourant and limey Gtuaniumi-i PHaiitJorae, 

Heliotrope.", Verbenas, H.iueytuckles, Almtifuns, 

Myrtles, Oiehndeiv, JnK-iunines, Fu chin-, Du- 

phnes, D.ihliar, Bulbous Rood?, Oi na- 

incntal Shrubbery ; and a general 

assortment ol G ecu Uou^e and 

Hindy Plants. 

Ot'dere for shipment to any pai t of 'he State will he carefully 

executed by atldressine D. Nek 170 Washington street, or 

the prop- ietor, Bos 1,957 I'oM-i'liicc. 
v:i-9-3m W. C. WALKER. 



H 



ENRY WARD BEECHER'S NEW BOOK I— 20,000 
copies cold in f ui wicks. 

STAR PAPERS;' 



Murray's Fifty-cent Western Hmi's 

Comn ■■< S rtmH and £> aires '-», Marvsvillk. 

| this house Ui entirely devoted tu the warn* of the 

avellhig [nililii mid to all who will Invur as with a call, 

eutlre >a i lacSon will be given, [17) R. J. MURRAY. 



American Hotel 

NAPA CITV CALIFORNIA. 

L. A, & VV. W. CHAPMAN. Propria 

fGOOD Rccommodatlons for ramfflea, aud on reasonable 
teriuR, Saddle and buggy Dorses kept io biro, Hjiw 
kaul >m lata ui, by die day or we ak , and well ".ken care nf. 2*1 



COPARTNERSH'P NOTICE. 

'■"HE uiiiler-lgned ba< alp lor the pur- 

I " ■■ Furn'ture 

hi fhi- 

mi ityie oi Howes a; 
CO 

R^aleiit Partner, B SJCOll It BOVVS8, 

lWnnd 182 M 

..DAVID MOORE, 

San r't 

19 Jack -on «t. IICI K st 

RraUeat Partner, Saeramatltn f C REWCOMB, 

77 K utu Cily. 

To Our Friends and the Public. 

capital i« Ursoty inrrea. 1 

•in ,i n ,-h ai/ 
- 1- at 
18 to £'• I" r rent. 1. ■* than oar f.irnirr rate*. 

t the piirtner- will fv» In B -ton nnd N->v York io pur- 
■ ■!-, nnd will lake ad™ narktltl to obtain 

I. Bll :.'« . . 

Ca.- \ Rait: 

■ «Tiflt that wil' 

Defy Competition in Qual l> and Prices. 

I rh a Utct* and 
NMRAtU naw OOOOD8, 

and ahall rndr- ■. ■ nr patronage. It will 

lie ...ir ■ 
Perfect Saiisfactlon, 
i». .ill iu f *«/i:_r. prkxm, *«<d f**d " a 



EXPERIENCES OF NATURE AND ART, 
/." '. i it Ready, 
Oue elegant 12mo. Price, $1 25. 
RONTKN T S . 
I. Letters fbom Europe. II. Experiences of Natiihe. 
A Dec urseof Fl we 8. T..e Death oi uur Aitmmac 

Death n tie Cnuntry. Fuu in tlie Harbor, 

Inland va. Seashure. The M irah ol Fishing. 

New Biiland G aveyards. The Wandarlogs of a Star. 

Towns noil Tress, ' B tukstoret — Books. 

ThiFir iBieathlntheCountry, Gone to the Country, 
Tr nun.'. ' Dmtm*Cu1tui«, 

A Ri.lr. A Walk am in, 1 

The Mountain S:ream. rtuil I og m bTouae 

A Hountry Bide. Tne U eol the n-iuitiiul. 
Fareweil tu the Country. M d-Ootnber Daya. 

Srbo.ii Reminiaceuce. A Mui t Letta 

T io Vntueol lb .1 . F:.. t in the Window. 

A R iii.-h Plctarwfmm Ufa Bitow Sninn T avi I 

A Rtd> to P ut 11 iitnlioii. Nature n Miui-ter ol H«ppinea# 
BiKlita fruui my Wind »w. S riim and S .ir 

J. C. DERBY. I'uMi her, N w Y.rk, 

in a .d tor sale by all i: 



To Farmrn, Hotel K« rpcra, Rniirheroa Vb Other*. 
I jRADsiiaw ec CO., having ramovad Into their New and 
I ) - I - St .re. and being retfulaiiy supphed ir.im the 

S-ate by 

h ul GROCERIES AS*I> PRO VI8IOH 

hImI »* L u 

ran nln-ar* hare thHr goods 
pm-x.-d and shipped, ftn can be 

Oi by marl. Our ttock con- 

Powilei e.1 and (' nahed Loaf Sugar ; 

Entri BU nnd Black Ten ; 

Me - ainl Cleni P -rk, Ui qouier and hall bw 

N . i 

■oi. Wax and A 

Stu- |V Borti ti ami N R and 10 ™«.llnn 

Java, 

Jim* 

N. B llitbeat price ; 
corner Cnliiornla ai d B 

II- i I lit BVnute Haml my. 

r pHK Fo-i tb v*f -i 
1 

- 

Sjtr Ot U I 'awing, 



77 and 103 K -tn-et, ) 



180 and I 



FXTRNITUBE . ! FUKKlTTmE ! ! ! 

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Mat .■ •- ■ 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



Daoriittei 



MEDICAL. 



A wast of confidence has kept many a man silent. 
A" want of sense has made many persons talkative. 

With every act of life, we are building: up for 
ourselves the great, the endless future, as we con- 
struct it so it awaits us. 

The "heat crop of Oregon this year, will proba- 
' Iv be light from injury by smut. Man)' fields, 
it is said, will not be harvested at all. 

No man ever left his mark on the age in which 
he lived, who was not an enthusiast. No true 
work was ever accomplished without enthusi- 
asm. 

A Dead Shot. — A physician who resides in 
the southern portion of this city, upon visiting a 
patient in the extreme north., was asked by the 
sick man. "if he did not find it very inconvenient 
to come such a distance." '- Not at all. sir." re- 
plied the son of Esculapias, ( * for having another 
patient in the next street, I can kill two birds 
with one stone." " Can you. sir !" replied the in 
valid. " then you are too good a shot for me ;" 
and immediately dismissed him. 

Home and Country. — The'ties of Family and 
of Country were neyer intended to circumscribe 
the soul. Alan is connected at birth with a fcw 
beings that the spirit of humanity may be called 
forth by their tenderness; and whenever domes- 
lie or national attachments become exclusive, en- 
grossing, clannish, so as to shut out the general 
claims o( the human race, the highest end of Pro- 
vidence is frustrated, and home, instead of being 
the nursery, becomes the grave of the heart. — 
Charming. 

A celebrated comedian arranged with the green 
grocer, one Berry, to pay him quarterly ; but the 
grocer sent home his account long before it was 
due. The comedian in great wrath called upon 
the grocer, laboring under the impression that 
his credit was doubted, said: "J say here's a 
pretty mul. Berry ; you've sent in you bill. Berry, 
before it was due. Berry ; your father tlie elder 
Bum. wouldn't have been such a goose. Be • \ . 
But you need not look so black, Berry, for I don't 
care a straw. Berry, and shan't pay you till 
Christmas. Berry. 

Wooden Nutmegs Outdone. — There is a 
Parisian dandy, who, we think rather outdoes 
Connecticut: C had at his residence a com- 
plete costume of a groom. When offering an at- 
tention to one of the fair sex. he used to say, 
11 Permit me to send you a bouquet by my black 
servant." He then repaired to his garret, took 
out his black bottle, polished his face and hands, 
put on his livery, and knocked at the lady's door. 
'• Here," he said, "are some flowers by master to 
madame." He had spent bis last five francs in 
the purchase. Madame was so delighted with 
the present that she presented a [puis to the bear- 
er. That is a clear pocketing of three dollars, and 
a lady's favor into the bargain. 

" The best thing I have heard," writes K J. II. 
L." *'in exemplilication of the saying, ' Provi- 
dence smiled on me.M beard a Dutchman ^ive. 
(I'll give it to you in English j you, being a Knick- 
erbocker, must put the poli>h on.) " Uavc yuu 
got through harvest. Hans ? ' ' Yes ; me and mj 
boys worked like the devil all the time, yerj 
hard : had so much to do. did not know as we 
would get through before winter: out we did. 
1 Providence smiled on me.' and we have just fin- 
ished. 1 'How did Providence smile on you?' 
• Why. vou see He just blasted about forty or fifty 
acres of my wheat, so that it was not worth reap- 
ing, and so. you see, we have just finished!*" — 
Knickerbocker. 

u In this 'one horse town,'" writes a Mobile 
friend, '"as our New Orleans neighbors designate 
it, there resides one whom wc will call Tom for 
brevity He is a shrewd, plain-dealing tailor as 
one could wish to l trade with,* and a- our rivers 
have been low this season, and but little cotton 
in the market, Tom ventured in company with a 
friend ill purchasing a lottery ticket in the South- 
ern Military Academy Lottery, each sharing the 
cost and winnings, of course. The ticket was ob- 
tained, and Tom's name put on the agent's book 
fur that purpose. Time wore on, and in course 
of a few days the lottery was drawn ; and every 
one was on tiptoe to know who was (he lucky 
man. The agent received the list of prizes bom 
Montgomery ,aud sure as shooting, Tom Tightlit's 
name was coupled with the fifteen thousand dol- 
lar prize! Eureka! The agent sent his boy 
down to Tom's store to inform him of his good 
luck, and desiring him to bring up his ticket and 
get his check for the dimes. But alas! Turn's 
friend had the ticket in Itis pocket, and had 
started a few hours previous on a hunting trip, 
and Tom, not knowing the number on the ticket, 
took it for granted as 'all (J. K.' lie saunteied 
into his neighbor's store and very confidently 
whispered his good luck and requesting in a very 
neighborly manner to go along and liquidate. At 
the bar of course it was talked over, when one or 
two others were admitted into the secret. One 
treated, then another, and so on until Tom was 
toasted, tumbled, and toddied until his tongue 
tan fifteen to the dozen. A messenger was dis | 
patched to the woods to hunt up Smith, the ticket- 1 
hoider. One, two, three hours passed, and no 
Smith, and Tom's luck was the talk of the town. 

\\ hen ah-hem ! An engineer of one of our 

liver boats walked into the ticket-oflicc and pulled 
out of his pocket the lucky ticket, hit name (>< - 

i? Tommy Tight tit as well an the other) £et| 

iw a veil over Tommy's feelings during the 

t week of his life. lb- looks even now a*, if 

q n guilty of stealing ahecj) ! "— Km'ck- 

cfcer, 




IT IS A FIXED FACT, 
CONSUMPTION CAN BE CUBED! 

SIR JAMES CLARK, Physician to 

Qu- eii Victoria, and niic of the mosl 
learned mul -k;ii ui men of the age, in 
hi- "Treatise™ on Consumption, pay*: 
"Thar Pulmonary Consumption adrjl'ts 

of a core, is tio longer o matter of doubt; 

it lia- 1 11 clearly demon -trnted by the 

.-■- <■■ i,.i'iiii.T and other ; aihi lo- 
-]-:-." Dr. Cabbwell, who iova-iuiHted 
Buch matters probably as thoroughly n.* 
any man, pays : " Purhn] igical anatomy lm-, perhaps, never nl- 
frrded in -..-.-- conducive evi ! .>:c in ).:■-.. .- 3f ±i i ucftiihlt? :.; n 
dhea>e than it had in tint of tubercular phlliipi?,'' (pulmonary 
consumption.) 

' It Is no Fiction. 
The^e Ptatementfl are made by men who have demnn°tratcd 
what they env, time ai'ter time, in the crowded hospital, and in 
the troth telling dissecting room. They are from men who 
have no possible motive tor publishing what U untrue, or cm- 
blazoning falsehood-?. 

The Remedy trhirh ice ojf'r 

Dr. Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry, 

has cured hundreds of ca c*t of 

Consumption of the Lungs, Liver Complaints, Coughs, 

Colds, Asthma, Bronchitis. Whooping Cough, 

Influenza, &c. 

Many ol them after every known remedy had failed to reach the 

disease. 

We can present a mass of evidence in proof of our assertion that 
Cannot be- Discredited. 

Da. Bovden, n Physician in Milne, Bay?: "I have recom- 
mended t 1 e ui- of DR. WISTAR'fl BAL3AM OF WILD 
CHERRY for diseases of the liuiga for two rear* past, end 
many bottled to my knowledge have been u>ed by my patient*. 
r1! with beneficial result*. In two ca-es, whew it «■«• thought 
Confirm' -1 Consumption bod tukeu place, the Wild Cherry ef- 
fected a cure. 

Da. A. II. Macanair, ot Tiirboro, North Camlinn, writes UH, 
under late of Feb. 14, 1854, that he has u^ed DR. WISTAR'S 
BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY in hit practice iliela.-i eighteen 
month*, and consider* it tne best preparation ol the kind he 
ever saw, ondknowdof noneeo deservin«the public patronage. 

Db. Wm. A. Shaw, of Washington, 1>. C, aayaj "I wish 
hearty fuccess to your medicine, I consider every ca>e of nr- 
re?t of the latal symptom- of pulmonary disease an a direct 
tribute to turlenni: humanity. 

Samuel A. Walkkh, Esq.. a gentleman well known in this 
vicinity, writes' as tollows : "Haying experienced re-ulu of a 
eaxisiactory character, from the use of WISTAR'S BALSAM 
OF WILD CHERRY in cases ofaeverecold* during the nasi 
two year-, I am induced to expre-e the gratification 1 I'd from 
the favorable effect-* thai loll ■ wed, and abai tlie lull faith I have 
to the renovutioy power ol Wirtar'a Balaam ol Wild Cherry. 

Hon. Samuel S. Perkins eaya : "For several day« I had 
beer, tutlcruitj from the efihctB ol aBBverC Cold, accompanied 
by a very sore throat and -ick headache, which completely in- 
capacitated me from business. 1 had taken but a very email 
portion of a mo:;1c bottle of this BuL-um, when I experienced 
lmmediiite relief. My cough wits broken up at once, and my 
luii,'- entirely relieved from the pressure which hud become eo 
painful. 

[From tlie Boston Journal,] 
Wistar's Balaam of Wild Cherry. 

"This medicine, coming trotn a respectable fource, and care- 
fully prepared by an experienced and pkilliul physician, ir 
received by tlie public with confidence, ll» efficacy has been 
proved in many obdurate eases ot diseai-e, and iu lame ha- 
rapidly extended." 

It in a powerlul remedy for Asthma, as will be seen by the 
following cure: "Sir — Having been alflicted lor more than 
thirty years with the Asthma, at dmed eo severely oa to inca- 
pacitate mp from attendance to bu-iuess, and buvini; ndi.ptcd 
many inedicinea wirlioui any but temporary relle', l purchn-ed 
aeveral bottle- of WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY, 
Irora thp erlects ol whicb I ..b;aio'-d more relict tunn irooi nil 
the medicine I had ever taken tor that aVtrei ins disorder. I 
have, by the repeated u;-e ol your valuable Balsam, been more 
tree of pre-aure Ibr breath, and oppression OD the lutUj*, than I 
anticipated, and, indeed, conceive mysell cured ol the mosl dis- 
heartening malady. C. D. MAYNARO. 

Argun Olfice, Portland, March 26, 1650." 

Fifty Thousand Persons die annually in England of Con- 
sumption I Io the New England Stiite- the proportion it> one 
to lou i or Ere, In Boston, probably, one iu lour. In the city 
of New York r-ixty-seven died in two week**, in December, of 

this disease. Toe mete fact that cueh a di ease is ever curable, 

alte.-tcd by such unimpeachable authority, should inspire hope 
and reanimate tailing Courage in the heait of BUfi'ercr Irom toil 

diseuaa 

Ut-lVOfC Of Coimd'i T< Itn mill Iiiiltatlitns— Syrupy, 
and all other preparatiiwei of Wild Cherry. Benunnber, tney 
imtrnte in mime, without paaseaaing the virtues, Buy none but 
the genuine 

Dr. "Wistar's Balsam of 'Wild Cherry. 

Signed I. BUTTS on the wrapner. 
SEIH W. FOWTE, 

Proprietor, Boston, Mass. 

r jfr - A™ents for San FrunciflCo, 

B. B. THAYER &. CO., 
y3-1G M fticvomcry street. 



Surgery. 

R. B. CoTfi, M. D., 

Lnu Lecturer on Surgiry and th> BtsBtua of ft'nmrn ; Late 
Member «/ the Board of Censor* of the San Francisco Medi- 
cal Society ; Member •>/ the California Academy of Natural 
SdmceVf and Corresponding Member of general Medical 
Societiet in the South and fca*t. 

Office — Athencum Building, 

South-east comer of AI lutgomery and Cahlomia streets, 

oppo-ite W-ll:-. Fargo St. Co. 

DR. R, B. COLE, for many years a Medical Practitioner in 
the city of Pniladelpbia, mid lor the pad three yean iii 
this city, would ie-pect!uliy announce thai, in consequence "i 
a moet aerinus injuiy received some months since, with which 
tbip community arc lauiiliar, he will in luture confine himdeli 
principally to bis ollice, where he propoeC.^ to tre:it all 

Surgical Diseases, 
feeling neured n» tie does tlmt bja rbrmor connection with 
Medical Schools and Uoepitai*. together with the esten iv 

practice he ban enjoyed lor the pu^t ten year*, peculiarly 
quality hi in for the -urcr--Uil practice ol mi: yet y. Ol the al- 

leetiurif to which Dr. Cole baa devoted much ol hit* attention, 
may be mentioned : Turmore nnii morbid growths, orcurrinu 
on any part of the body, Disease 01 the Spine, Chronic Ulcerfl- 
tioiii-, CancerouH Alice, imc, Dropsies, Di. eases of the 1} 'lie. 
and Joint-, Di-ea-e- o] Ey, Ear and Skin, ASectioiu o! the 
Bladder, Drethra, Scrotum and Twthi (or In other words, nil 
dUcio-cs of tlie (Jeniti-Utiiiaty Ajiptiratu ;) and Deloimiiie.-, 

whether congenital or the result ol accident, aarjugst which 
may be enumeraEed, Club-Foot, B.idly-trejued Fractures. Con- 
traction.- ui the Limbs and toes of substance aboul the luce, the 
rerult of dieeaaa or accident Dr. Cole lm* also for many year-, 
and continues frill to pay special attention to obstetrics and the 
treatment of all diseases peculiar to Females. 

Patients from tlie tnf&rior Will be provided with suitable 
boarding houses and experienced and attentive nurecd. 

!M irnlng, From 10 tilt 12. 
A lernoou, " 2 » 5. 
Evening, *' 7 " 9. v3-12 



Grciit UnrgalnsI Selling olT! I 

^ami;el t jelly's 

4P J ttrett, between SerMnd and Third, Sacramento. 

4 l.ARCK assortment of fine English and Swiss Watches, 

l\_ with adjusted chronometer balances, selected by me (rom 

tho beat manuJacturonaj «"d warranted perfect time keepers, 

bOgWhdr tfilh u well selected stock of 

Diamonds and Rich Jewelry, 
i by mo (or caehi and for fale lower than the same 
goods bavi been offered ill this I't'V. 

lb. tonnln set in urty »tjlc. Uuartz-wnrk made to order, 
ClocltM, Watches' and Jcne'rj repaired to ordor. 
Ml eAMUEL ^ELLY, 48 S street 



NEAV BOOKS. 



C. M. SAXTON & CO., 

AGRICULTURAL BOOK PUBLISHERS. 

CM. 8AXTON & CO., 152 Fulwn etreer. New York, offer 
• for Mite the I'ollowiiiL' late and valuable publications : 

Downzko's (A. .1.) Landscape Gardening. A trtatipe on 
the theory and practice ol land caj e tMu doiilinj, Adapted i ; ' 
North America, with n view n the improvemeot ol cauni 5 
reridence-, comprising histui ical untie.-- and general prii 
ol (heart. Directions Ibr layinc out prounds and arranging 
plantati op, the do cription and uultivation of hardy tri e ; 
oration accompaniments to (he hou-n ai rl Lrround, tie foritm- 
1 1- 'ii of piece.- ol nrtilicial water, !)■ wer caiden-, etc., with re- 
rcmniltB 00 rural architecute. Elemmtly illurtrated with a 
portraitol the author. H> A. J. D iw»inu r . Price, $4, 

'J'nn Practical Fbuit, I'l wer and KiTcnsN Garden- 
eh'3 Companion, with a Calendar. By Pulriek Neil I, LL D. 
Adapted to the Uoiicl State?, tnin the lourtli edition, revi .-d 
and improved by (be author. Edited by (i. Emerson, M.D, 
With notes and adilitione bv R. 0. Pardee, author of "Manual j 
ol the Strawberry Culture " W.tb illuptrafinn?. Price, $l 2r>. ■ 

Munn's (B.) Pb^ctical Land-Dbainer ; iieinp a tri htire on 
draining land, in whtcb the mo*i approved ryeteme ul drainage 
ore explained; with full dlrectioaa fOTthe cutniii' noil niiikiiii: ' 
nidrainf, and with tuaiiy illutftratioiiB. Ey B. Alunu, LandBCape 
Gtodener. rf-ir 60 centa. 

ELLioT'e (F. It.) Amkiijcan Fiiuit-Gbower's Guide in 
Orchard and Gaiden ; heinn a conrpend ol the hh-tory, mddes 
of propagation, oultnre, (tc,, of fruit, tier- and ehrubs, with 
descripiions nl nnarly all the rnrletieaof ftnit- cultivated in thin 
country ; and uoto- of their adaptation to locaUrJea, -nil-, and a 
complete li^-t of fruits worthy ot cultivation. By F. R. Elliot, 
PunutlonaL Price, $1 50. 

Dado's (Geo. 11) American Cattle Doctor; containing 
the neceetary intoimation lor prevei^irrg the health ard curing 
tlie ditcu-e- of oxen, t:<<w: ■. i-hecp ond swine, with a irreat va- 
riety of orieinal roceipts and valuable information in reference' 
to farm and dairy maQafiemunt, whereby every man can be his 
own cattle doctor. By c. II. Dadd, M.D., veterinary Piac- 

Hcii'iier. Price $1 25. 

Norton's (John P.) Elements if Scientific Aoaicui.- 
ture; or, Tlie Cunnecrli u between Bch uce and the Am of 
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Bel k Price, 75 ■ 

Johnston's (James F. W.) Catechism of Agricultural 
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Brown, Price, $1 25. 

Johnston's (James F. W.) Agricultural Chemistrv. 
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experimenhi in practical agiicmrnie. Price, $1 50. 

Smith's (C H. J.) landscape Gardening, Parks and 
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Br 53 The above buokn will be cent to Ctftiomm free of /»•-/- 

flgr. v4^3 3u 

\EW HOOKS. 

ANNA CLAYTON; or The Mother's Trial. 12mo., 
cloth. Piice 81. (Two edilibna in one week.) 
A well-conceived and Hnely written tale, nf tdgb moral e x 

cellencc. — [Boston Courier. 

It is one "i the moat eflectfve works issued during the past 
lew yeni -. — [TrnnBci ipt, 

It [a decidi dly the he^t popular tale of the era^nn. — [Bee. 

Second edition ol In r 1, hum's History of tht Hen Ferir. 
12lOo., rlotll. $125. 

The Boston Traveller fayp, "The cale of this book has al- 
ready b'fii Immenae — amountine In two weckp, t«» 90,uuo. 

Bur&ham'a new roltune, the "Hf»toryo1 the Heo Fever," 
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lustrated, ami is brim lull of fun and t-picc. It will eurely 
Create a een&atioiX — ( iiidhm's Pictorial. 

Turkey at d ■■>■< Tat . By Dr. J. V. C. Smith, Mayor of 
Boston. 320 pagea Ifinio., cloth. 75c. 

It ii a mott excellent work. It will hnve a larce sale, for it 
embraces more real infbnnation about real Tuikaand their 
etrange peculiarities than anything we hare yet ra-d. — [Po t. 

T/u Mn m futettit >/"'. Hecord. One ot the moat valuable 
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The /"aw Hampnttire Fetittml. A graphic acoonnt ol the A-- 
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TREAJIWELL & C4>., 




I'Vuy A otlve. 
"V*"OTICE ifl hereby given to all person*" int'ie-tid, lhat thi> 

J^l Djiderehmed will typly x<> ihe Board <•* BunarrtaoFa oi 
Saoramen o county, on ton 12 h day of June. IBSS, 11 omd board 
ehull thou a i ii'n"t, than on the first day therealtar 

thai they Bhull be In Beaslon, for a renonal ofhli Iteensa to keep 

two lanies aero.- the Amadcan river; one Commonly known 

aa " iloytv Ferry," near where 2*th street oi Sacramento Oity 
IntOTsectB said riror ; and the other commonly known as the 
" HiddleorMuldrow I''err\." flht) rilleaJrOm 

aald Sacramento City, SAMHKL NOItRIH. 

foaoramento, M..v 'l0l.li, IBSS rWM 



CORNER OF Ml..- J .-il.'LLT AND MAIDEN LANE, 

MARYSVILLE. 

Corner of California m,d Buttery streets, Son fYaneisco, 

No. ~-G F'drml street, Boston. 

Impobtkrs of Hardware; Iron, Steel, Cordate, Paints. Oil 

Varnish and Window Glass, direct from the Atlantic States an 

Europe) with a complute sseoETnrsitT oktoolh and ihpii 

ments lor panne) , Wners, Carpenters, Coopers, Caulkert nns 

Gravers, Saddlers, Turners, Masons, Smiths, Painters, Glaziers, 

Skip Carpenters, Wkesltetight*, Millwrights, Cabinet Makers, 

and others, \-3-S 




COLLINS & CO., 
PRACTICAL HATTERS, 

(PRBMtUM HAT SToBB,) 

157 Commercial street, San brv 

THE undersigned would lake tlilit opportunity Ui return their 
thanks to their nVtends ahdthe punlic ^eneralty forthOTery 
ilberal ehare ol patronage which they have received. They tnk» 
pleasure In now annotmctng that they are determined that no 
one phall mrpaai them in the; beauty, or rmish, or quality of a 

Hat. ; that 00 cent shall wear a liner Hut than can be found at 
Collins & Co. 'a Warefitou e, 

Thf pti.p'i. tor- ol tlii- e^iabli^hmeut exert thenvelve* to 
manutae'ure to order the luie-t i-tyle- and most approved pat- 
tarns. The Stock ot HATS and'CAPS, of e^ery kind, now 
on hand, cannot he curpaoed in thla city. 

v-1-1 COLLINS &, CO. 



WAIN"WR!QHT, RANDALL & CO., 

Eeal Estate and Stock Auctioneers, 

Ah. 100 Nrrrhnut wtrcei, San Fran euro, CaHforni*. 

WE re-pectiuiiy inform our friends and the public gener- 
ally, thai wr have connected with our othftr business 
that of Housa Ba-KKftACK *nd Ornkral DiRKCTOar, 
and have made extensive ai'rau-eiot'ni - [or cuuductiug them 
sadsfactoi ily to all who may lavnr n- with their pntronaga 

A^ these new lo-anche- pOSSeBf -otne QOTel Peal toe-, and not 
having hem hen I ■ 11 ed i» (hit city, we deem it pro- 

per to make manliest their admntagea, not only to our own 
citizen^, hut to all who may risll om city, 
House l$iok«-iii„*'. 

This department 1,- an agency for leaping and letting Dwelling 
11 race ■ Store*, Shop , rXooin.1 and Buildugti of every de crrip 
uon, ami wol re ntiou whicfa it« importance de 

rnand-. i nun ihe advantages derived from the "Directory 
Department," nod having made arrangi-menta for receiving 
imoriiKiiion ioniie.Hately when premWt ate vncated, »'■ ball 
posteaB mperior facilities lor providing, nl the rhoi-teol nonce, 
Hou-es, R ionu and Pi iced of Burinesa ol mil kind-, in any part 
j where required, All persons who may have meant 
premise- v* i 1 1 find tin- a desirable medium ol obtaining 1 en nuts 
lor the game, and their Ui inc.-- i- respectfully solid 
General Ulniioiy. 

Tlii- departmenl will include a registry, (already prepared,) 
of all persons, (oxcept Cbiuoe,) within the limits ol the city, 
by reference to which we will be enabled to give tho name ana 
re idence ol nil HaTcbanta, M- ■clmiiic-, Arth>ta, Proleaalunal 
Men, Laborers, and tho*ooi*1 ol bu Iness, which vriM he con- 
tinualry coi reeled, a* thej change their re idence, and will re- 
ceive addition- In.m tiol" tO [one, '11- nCW i.tunn- iin irfi. 

We conidder the information which our regifter will afford 
to be ofestential hnportance, aa wall t^ our own ctimmnjihy aj 
to strangers, from the fectol changes occurring so frequently 
among u, and it haring been demonstrated thai publhhed 
nea are nearly u elesa In u month or two niter beine ia- 
med, Thla with other iBlormudon in our possession, enables 
us to present a complete eyhomeoi the entire city, which we 
ehall keep '■ postod up, M to keep puce with the movements of its 
inhabitants, 

Tbi* department will be under tlie eupervj ion ol an agent 
who has had a large expeilenon iu this branch, here and elsa 
where. 

To ■jive an idea of the extent of our Ttegifitry, we may men- 
tion that up to die pre eat time i contain the uoinei )'ml ad- 
dress of forty-'kre* thousand persons, with the place ol their 

nativity, OCCUj BQli o-, etc., which ha?* lequiieil aevera] montfaa 

ui labur to compile, 

We invito (he attention of the public t" "ur eatahlti hhl< 111 
v3-18 WAINWKI IHT, RANDALL &: CO. 

ftsuoltaeiu 1 'a and tttniluiier'a 

WHOLESALE AMI RETAIL WAREffOVSM. 
\\/"E beg to call attention to the following catalogue, which 
Vt comprises in part our stock ol bouhs and rtatiouery. 
By the roceiil arrival ol'cjlppera, our asaortmeni ol gooiL in 
this hue ims been made very complete, and we feel rure th«-t 
the public will lind it to their interest to call and examine our 
atock before making purcha e 1 olsewhei 0, 

Blank Bouxa --Ledgers, Journal*, Cash, Invoice, Day.a"nd 
Record Book-, m Ru ria, floHOp and Mu Iin Bindiii.'. Coj tying 

Book-, ludexedond Plain Hemorandum , Bankav 
Diarie-, dtu„ dtc, 
Papkh. — Brief, Letter, Cap, Note, Envelope, Ti-tuo, Blotting 

and Pilwrina Papere, 

Statiosjebt.— A complete BasOrtment of Law, Counting 
Buiuennd Panei Statiunery, 

Bound Books. — A rnrge and splendid a-eortment ol Law, 
Standard, Sell kll and HI i't'llane.iu- llooka, including many in 

rich lanes binding, aitabie for pi ■ 
Blanks.— Law, 8 lipnfng and Cu tom House Blunks, 

MlSCKLLANEotTH,— (J ild Pen-, Ha/in-- and Ka/or Mtropn, 

Pocket Cot Io. v, Toilet Bu bes; Gash, Deed, Date, P0.1O ftee 
and (Envelope 'Buxe ; Puruiblfl Daks, Gents' Drassfau Cs^ea, 
Ladies^ ToWot and Wo k r, .- and Reticules, Port Monalee, 
Perfumery, Opera Glasses, Fancy Article-, dte,, &c 

On tin- arrival ol each steamer wa reeerrn a lull sapply of all 
the leading Now paper . Pictorials, Review* and amgasfaiea 
pubhahed fn Amanea and Kngland, which we can lurnlsh to ull 

in quunlitif- to »uJ 

GEO. W, MURRAY & CO., Mongooiury Block. 
N. B. — Particular attentioo paid to fitting urtUr*. \-i-i 



I M .11 B \ S l ; S A t Klf'lLUI 

rpHEKK i- no use in throwing 50 per cent, away those laud 
I times, when you can purchase the same artii 
50 per cut. r-hmpnr 

than in toy other house in California, 

1111,1. Kll * ANDREWS. 
These well known Jewelers will commence selling off their 
immense- stock ol rich and valuable 

Dlami Fine Watches, 

Jewelr;. Silverware, Ate,, to., 

Al New York font. WO do a- ore llie public that the ID is SO 
humbug in this, and we aie dotcrnitDed U chtBQ out Our 

Immense Stock at Coat, 
and invite the public to call nndoxasnJne i"i themselves, before 
burchaalng olsuwbora We hnve now, by tar tho Uuye*l atoeh 

In the State, uml u i , 1 ,vr. ai y T l.tl WC rodiiee OU1 

Itc.'ucuilmr -VJ J itixjot, ucar tlie corner of '■id, t346 



SIjj:u 3}.uum«I 0H 



ttedftgll .SU.fca»a.w&« 



VOL. IV. 



SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, FRIDAY MORNING, AUGUST 10, 1855. 



NO. 6. 



&J}« California farmer 

AN1J JOIRWl. OK I'SEFII, SCIENCES. 



Br WARREN & SON. 
P ITSMSII t:!> EVEKY FRIDAY MORNING. 

■ msfrtta. 

Tcim- ir a club 

mi \ : i . i -,... inserted atfuirratcs. 

AGENTS. 
/. Q. A. Warren. R iMod. — For all the Eastern Srarrs. 

. Wblls, Faroo <fc Co. — At their Offices throughout the 
i. 
Pacific K.spress Company. — At all rluir Offices in (/*<• State. 

L. P. KisilEK. fV(1 I 

HavkN .t Baker. — tfapa City and CoVt ley. 
Gardneu ,t Kirk, Snespoper and Booksellers, Sacramento. 
Hessre. Lanqton & Cc/or Dtnonieville, Patter's liar, Good. 

Mcs*rr. I. eland & McCoombk— Crescent City, Port Orford, 

, ■<! Ititcltsport. 
Sullivan':; newspaper etnnd. No. 5 Post Olfiep Building ; Kim- 
b vll's, N ii -y Curricra Hull, Lnrur wharf— San Francisco. 



A. Honor-well, P. M., Columbia. 

1 Coffin, Voltclumne Hill. 
Gen. M. M. McCnrver. Mount 

Farm, O. T. 
Dudley & Co., Napa City. 
Baker & Hamilton, Sacramento. 
Taney & Roberts, Sonera. 

A. II. Murdoch, P. M., Union, 

llnatl.nl, I' linn. 

Worth & Sturgie, Martinez. 

lleoj. P idd, J'./niria. 

J. M Thorburn 4.C0. Sea Yorl, 
City, K. r. 
! postmasters tisrmtghout the Siate an: TdndHy invited to act 

far us. 

We desire our Agents to report to u« on the l*t of every 
month, tlie increase of names and the prospects, together with 
the amount due the office. 



p freer, ti.itrcll\ Ii. "> C" 
D G.W ddro.ut Co. Coloma. 
Trendwcll & Co., Murnsmlle. 
W.S. Force* Co., do 
James & Co., Nana. 
A. W. P iter, Netada. 
Nash & Darit, Placcrville. 
C. O. Burton, Stockton. 
rir.Theirm- .1. Harvey, P. M„ 

Snn f.hls ObifJIO. ' 
C'am. Pivjrr- & Co., ¥l lltt. 

r&wai-d&Chniube.i-liiin,oV 
Citu.altd Mission San Jose. 



Letters from Roving Jack.— No. 7. 

Rnsr May Scltaol Land Warrants — Information Respectfully 

Solicitcd—Tlie Subject partially Discusses}— And Open for 
Discussion . 

Merced Cguntv, July 2fi, 1855. 

Editors Farmer : Possessing as 1 do a degree 
of gallantry, I very certainly would Le guilty of 
perpetrating ait unpardonable error, and would 
Badly misrepresent my nature, did I neglect to 
dedicate a portion of this article to the fair Poet. 
©S9 who has wo kindly condescended to peer down 
from her lofty pegnssus and thus breathe her 
plaintive and sublime effusions, anil devote them 
to the gentle warning and desired reclamation of 
your humble and unworthy correspondent, over 
that lovely signature " Rose May." It matters 
not wdiether it be her true name, or simply a nOfl 
de plume; in either case it is the same Should 
it prove to be her real name, it is one of the 
sweetest in the world — and let it be a noil lie 
plume, it is prima facie, evidence of the lad} \ 
good taste in making Ihc selection. 

Permit me, my fair friend, to express in my 
offhand si\ le my sincere regret at nut being able 
to reply in the same sweet poetical strains. On 
the contrary, 1 must he frank to confess that I 
have no conception uf the rules and principles of 
Poesy, and shoi I I make the attempt, I much 
fear thai it would 1 ho something like the follow-in): 
(which 1 have somewhere seen, in my passage 
over the railroad uf life, at present cannot recol- 
lect where): 

*■ Dear Fam ■ iraeatt when 

Lavogel 

IVlree the btl .1 without atur pause. 

Roll.- awiw H 

One word more and I pass on. 1 am under 
many obligations to the authoress of the line- 
referred to. as I hey caused the sec. 1 
of by-gone days to pass once again before m\ 
mind's eye. reviving the innocent sports ol boy- 
hood, the hoop, the kite, and above all the kind 
Mother thai on her knee, that gently 

chid me '.'or nil disobed cnee lo lor reas 
and gentle laws. Site .--till live.-, and doubtless 
often sends an aujtiui s wish or thought after her 
roving sun u ho has huin nature become a 
wanderer ill a strange and uncongenial clime. * 

* * * I have looted by fir lnoie .-, 
this put of mj subject than enlion 

at tin 

apolo; ; but you ar. 

of mj 

A gi by many, at the 

nd V\ arraniN 
and in 
sued I 
wan 



il, 111 -til it has been offered at public sale and ren- 
dered subject to private entry ; and that if a 
settler shall lay a school warrant upon any of the 
public lands of this State, by placing it in the 
hands of the Register of any local land office, 
and receive from him a certificate of location, that 
Ihc. land will be sold at public sale the same as if 
no such location had been made. Another view 
(hat is had of the subject is, that school warrants 
cannot be laid upon Government lands, as school 
warrants are State property, and as a consequence 
cannot be used in the purchase of land from the 
U. S. Government. 

The whole argument, I contend, is incorrect, 
and of no force. My own opinion is. that Cali- 
ifbrnia School Land Warrants may be located 
upon any lands'in the State, and that the proper 
course to be pursued by settlers, is, to ascertain 
that lands have been surveyed, the maps and notes 
made out, and approved by the General Surveyor 
and placed upon file in the local land office; then 
if the tract sought is not claimed by pre-emption, 
the holder of a warrant must deliver the warrant 
into the hands of the Register, and he will re- 
ceive from under his hand a certificate of loca- 
tion. It will then be the duty of the Register of 
the laud office to retain the warrant in his office 
for a term of six months, during which time he 
will ascertain whether the tract of land upon 
which the warrant has been located is claimed 
by pre-emption or not; if not, it will be sent to 
the General Land Office. And after this has been 
done, I argue that land that has been thus 
located will never be offered at public sale. 
I however may he wrong ; if 1 am. I stand correct- 
ed, and most respectfully solicit the opinion of those 
learned in the law. 1 have partially di- 
Iho subject, and should like to see some gentle 
man discuss it more fully. The subject is one of 
vital importance to the farmers in this district, as 
many of them have laid school warrants, and if 
they arc valueless, have been sadly imposed upon. 
Will some gentleman possessing the desired in- 
formation, generously impart the same to settlers 
residing in a dark corner ? 

Respectfully. K.ing .Tack. 



The New Yuba and Sutter Society. 

Marys* illi:. A : an I I 1855 

Col. WannrN: Dear Sir — You have already 
been apprised of the fact, that the coun' 
Yuba and Sutter have united in forming an 
cultural and Horticultural Society, and it affords 
mo great pleasure as its official organ of corres- 
ucc to address the Psrenl ; . rough 

you. and claim a place beneath the shadow of her 
wing. 

Il will afford you increased happiness to know 
that in spite of all the which 

have attended the Agriculturi 
thus far, that they arc determined by 
vtlort to obey the great command, 
- aith the earth ttd -u 

It will afford ine heartfelt pleasure la - 

\ ou M - 

which I 

.in-l all favors received, in Ihc - 

the diffusion of agricultural ki 

much needed, or Seeds for careful experiment 

in culture, will be most gratefully received, and 

faithfully distributed. 

Mo;,t respectfully, your ob't - 
li. W. Haskell. 

Corre- retary 

of the Yuba and Sutler .\z and 1! 



Practical Agriculture. 

Give 11s special directions — more practical di- 
rections; give us regular rules fur the production 
of the various crops, so that we can raise our an- 
nual pioducts by them, as a carpenter builds his 
house by his plan. Such, we suppose, is what 
many people expect of a " first class" agricultural 
paper; and just so far as any file of weeklies or 
of monthlies comes short of this, just so far short 
it comes of its obligations. Are we right in thus 
describing at least the secret hopes of many read- 
ers of those useful journals, if not their actual 
expectations ? 

If so, we are perfectly willing, for one, at once 
and for all, directly and explicitly, to extinguish 
those hopes, and annihilate those expectations, so 
far as the expression of our views, and opinions, 
or expectations, may produce such a result; for 
we have no sort of confidence in any such plan 
of operations, and the louder any co- laborer 
should proclaim this as his definite object and 
expectation, just so far our own conviction of his 
unfitness for his place would be increased, and 
we should look upon him in the same degree as 
a charlatan. We are well aware that some of 
our ablest journals have now and then been so 
unwise as to give countenance to this notion. 
They have permitted themselves to go quite too 
far in holding up the idea that scientific farming 
might be reduced to such plain and practical 
rules, that an ignoramus might refer to them to 
learn what 10 do next, just as he would to the 
calendar pages of his almanac to know the day 
of the month. One who talks on quite u high 
key about this noble science, has more than once 
intimated that when we have advanced a little 
further with our model farms, we shall knowjust 
how much corn it takes lo make a pound of pork; 
and others may have erred (and ourself among 
the rest) in not being sufficiently guarded on this 
vital point. 

Rut why can we not reduce practical agricul- 
ture to a few simple rules, by which all farmers 
can he guided, and thereby become rich? One 
good and .sufficient reason is. that the circum 
the condition of the land, the 
elements of which il is composed, or which may 
fie wauling, the comparative value of the same 
crop at different places, or of different crop 
ol manures, operating differently on different 
soils, or in different seasons, and the ind 

: fining the soil for one or another kind ol 
li — all these and other particulars aie so 
various, so changing, and so wholly unknown to 
the conductor of a journal, that specific insirue 
lions requiring no .skiil.no science in their ap- 
ion, are nothing less than an absolute ini- 
ut little leas 
skill to apply than to construct the laws of agri- 
culture, though the kind of knowledge required 
for the different positions of teachers and of learn 
rs in iv be somewhat diverse. For example: 
The teacher mai niry important ei- 

[teiini to the cultivation of a 

crop and to do this «i- a pre- 

lilnem in the experimenter, but when all 
ues a knowledge of noil?, 
in the liruicr who won ■', y the 

- 
\ quali- 

1 1-. flit it is uoi certain that other 

1 to a different diet, or 

would 11m- 

w hen land 
-..-ruin kinds of cultiva- 



neauinc. we have onlv 



tiou of which there is an a 



A vkrt ciir 

N'amor 









duce them to be in earnest in becoming good far- 
mers, we shall 'do a great work. To do anything 
else, with many, is utterly useless. If there is 
one who exhibits a practical contempt for the 
fundamental principles of the science of manures, 
for example, how foolish it is to discuss, for hi$ 
sake, ihe comparative advantage of drills and 
sowing broadcast ; of guano aiuT poudrelte, etc., 
etc. lie will heed none of your advice ; but call 
you a fool, and a mere book-fanner, if you advise 
anything contrary to his own past practices. 

There are those who will be benefitted by any 
one solitary fact in the experience of a farmer. 
Lieing systematic in their views and their thoughts 
they know at once what to do with every state- 
ment of fact, properly authenticated, which is 
brought to their attention, and they work it into 
their system just as orderly and skillfully as a 
seamstress uses up the parts of a garment, or tho 
thread with which she unites those parts. These 
details are all useful to them, and chiefly to them 
alone. 

Probably an opinion the reverse of this would 
be given, at first thought, by many. They would 
say Ihe mere statement is within the comprehen- 
sion of the ignorant, while tho scientific man 
alone can comprehend principles and theories. 
But, after reflection, we are sure that all will 
agree with us. Who appreciates the fact that a 
given medicine produced certain symptoms, in a 
given case, but he who understands b6th the 
medicine and the disease? To receive the fact as 
true, merely, without reference lo tho lesson it 
teaches, is useful to no one. Such a receptiou of 
truth is unworthy the name of knowledge. 

But any child can understand a plain descrip- 
tion of the various chemical attractions and com- 
binations, and. in the light of such instruction, 
can see as at a glance, the bearing of any given 
fact ; and they can take an interest in such teach- 
ings, and will grow wiser under such instructors. 

Caliph, a Pure Arabian Horse. 

Sai.adin, a writer in the N. Y. Spirit of the 
Times, gives the following in relation to this 
horse that was recently imported from Egypt, 
and remarks on Arab horses in general : 

Mr. Editor : Perhaps you would confer a favor 
on the numerous correspondents and readers of 
\ 01, i- valuable p iper by disseminating the intelli- 
gence that there is. at this time, a beautiful Ara- 
bian horse (Caliph), now standing, on very mod- 
erate terms, at the stable of Mr John Case, in 
ihe town of I'leiningtun. Huntingdon county, 
New- Jersey, that can be reached in four hours 
New York by railroad. 

The history of Caliph is brief, and supported 
by documents that Mr. Case will exhibit cheer- 
fully. Caliph is ROW five years old. A few of 
his colK dropped within a week or two, are to 
1 a Short distance from his stand, lie was 
presented, when a colt of eighteen months, to an 
infiiit son of the late D. S. Consultienei.il in 
Kgypt, by ihe reigning Viceroy, selected out oC 
Ve and pure Arab stud. Circumstances 
enabled his pre-ent owner to acquire the po-ses- 
-ion and transport him in 1851 to the L'niletl 

\-.ib race of horse I. by living 

more hardily bred. Inai itc.anlMaU 

are known to geu- 

The race horse of England and Aiaeric* 

01 an 
I leg, 
and mallei 
with n pious 

■I caion demonstrate that art can as- 



Arab stock. ■ oas progeny 

luiiic 10 carry out the >pi 

A» EriDCHic among Hor- .- the- 

past season an unusual and severe epidemic is 
said to have ; 

some of tl and 

L anada. » inch has, in aorae cases, been attended 

-ay a : 
. 
as Ihe stun. 

practice, an -* of 

BMSsW ha 

... . -.-.---: ,.al- 



ihe 
at- 






:' we caa ia-'aalt- 



42 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



vilje California $armn\ 



WABREN fe SON, EDITOBS AND PBOPBIETOBS, 



SACRAMENTO, FRIDAY, AUGUST 10, 1855. 



The California State Agricultural Society's Exhibition Rooms 
are at the Hall on Fourth street, between J and K, City of 
Sacramento, where all are invited, free. 



The CALIFORNIA FARMER OFFICE is at the State 
Society's Rooms, where subscriptions and advertisements 
are received. 



The California Farmer in Boston, Mass. — Copies of the 
California Farmer may always be found at Redding & Co.'s, 
State street, Boston. / 



fcrffi^ Manufacturers of every branch, Nurserymen, Seeds- 
men, Floris:s, Booksellers and Publishers, and every branch of 
business connected with Calfiornia interests, should advertise 
n the California Farmer, if they wish to have their business 
known over the country. 



A Word for the California Farmer. — 

Who among our many readers will bear us in so kindly a re- 
membrance as to induce one, two, three orfioe ol their neighbors 
to become, like them, subscribers. We wish to enlarge our 
list, so as to make out paper better. What subscril .r-will 
speak to us first ? 



Official Correspondence. 

State Agricultural Societys' Rooms, \ 
Sacramento, July 25, 1855. 5 

Hon. Henry S. Foote, Sacramento: 

Sir : It is my pleasing duty to inform you, that 
the Executive Committee of the State Agricul- 
tural Society has unanimously selected you to 
deliver the Annual Address before the Society, 
at its regular Meeting and Exhibition, to be 
holden in this city, commencing on the 25th day 
of September next. 

I invite your acceptance of the same, and solicit 
a reply at your earliest convenience. 

Very respectfully, your ob't serv't 

C. I. Hutchinson, Prcs't. 

Sacramento, July 26, 1855, 
General C. I. Hutchinson, President, 4c, 4c; 
Sir : I have had the honor to receive your note 
of yesterda}-, inviting me, in behalf of the Exec- 
utive Committee of the State Agricultural Society, 
"to deliver the Annual Address before the reg- 
ular Meeting and Exhibition of the Society, to be 
holden in this city, commencing the 25th day of 
September next." I need not say, that this call 
is quite unexpected, and that other engagements 
will make it a little inconvenient for me to com- 
ply with the wish of the Committee; but feeling 
a deep interest in the success of the Society, and 
duly appreciating the personal compliment im- 
plied in the invitation to address them upon the 
occasion specified, have felt it to be my duty to 
state that I shaH experience much pleasure in 
executing the duty which lias been thus, as ] 
conceive, imposed on me. 

I am, most cordially and truly, your 

friend and obedient servant. 

Henry S. Foote. 



THE GREAT EXHIBITION. 
The Executive of the State Agricultural So- 
ciety will send out in a few days their Large 
Handbills, containing the full particulars of even 
plan, together with list of Premiums, and the 
Exhibition festival. These cards will be senl 
to Public Houses, Express Offices, and Post Offi- 
ces, and the Government ask a kindly attention 
to these hills, and the co-operation of all the 
citizens, that this Exhibition may be worthy 
this State. 

The Halls of Exhibition. — We are most 
happy to announce that the coming Exhibition 
of Agriculture, Horticulture, Floriculture, and 
Works of Art, will be held in the Assembly and 
Senate Chambers of the State House. These 
magnificent Kooms will soon be made to echo 
with joyous notes of California industry. It is 
an appropriate place and can be made beautiful. 
Manufactures of rich wares, and goods of all 
kinds, Paintings, Dagguerrean Art, Embroidery. 
4c, will find these halls magnificent show rooms. 



Entrees for Premiums. 

&OLANO Valley, July 30, 1855. 

To Col. Warren, Cor. Sec. State Ag. Society : 
Dear Sir: I wish to have my Peach Orchard 

presented to the Committee on Fruit. Orchards. 

&c, for the premium of the State Society. 

My fruit will be ripening in about ten days 

from this date, and should be pleased to receive 

the Committee at their most convenient time. 
Yours truly, Wm. McPherson Hill. 

Russian River, Mendocino, August .1, 1855. 
To Cor, Sec. Mate Agricultural Society : 

Dear Sir: We desire to enter our Cornfields 
for the State Society's premiums, and shall be 
glad to receive the Examining Committee at such 
time as may please them. 

Yours truly, Auld & Wilson. 



Our Politics. 

Party is the madman of many, for the gain of a few. — Swift. 

We are so often inquired of, relative to our 
"political creed;" so often called upon to open 
letters containing stirring political strains, linked 
with agricultural lore, that we are really troubled 
and vexed. Our journal is devoted to agriculture 
and its kindred sciences, to the promotion of those 
interests that tend to build up the State, and to 
make it the happy and prosperous home of an 
intellectual and happy people, and from this pur- 
pose we can never be drawn, driven or bribed by 
any pecuniary or political consideration, or hope 
of gain from these sources: our highest aim being 
the diffusion of that information which we believe 
tends to permanent prosperity and happiness. 
For this reason we feel called upon to declare 
anew our purpose and plans, and to present the 
political platform of the California Farmer; 
and from this time we trust no letter or com- 
munication will be addressed to us containing 
political or party matter, for it cannot be admitted 
into our columns, except by oversight. We re- 
spect the political feelings of all parties. We live 
in a free country, and a glorious one too, and 
while we accord the liberty to others to act as 
they see fit, politically, we claim the same liberty 
for ourselves, and that freedom we shall take by 
keeping free from all partisan warfare and po- 
litical strife. 

We, however, declare that we are "Know 
Nothing" of the old school, and give our leader — 

"I 'know nothing' which tends somuch tolhe 
glory and prosperity of a country, as the im- 
provement of its Agriculture." — Washington. 

These are the words of the Father of our coun- 
try. He who was " first in war, first in peace, 
and first in the hearts of his countrymen," was 
also first in promoting the glorious science of 
agriculture. His words, his works, his precepts 
anil his example he has left as a goodly heritage, 
and we pray these may never be forgotten. 

We, therefore. •' know nothing" but agricul- 
ture and its kindred sciences, that will tend to 
advance the interests or glory of our country. We 
'know nothing" which will tend so much to allay 
party strife and political warfare, as social inter- 
course among well instructed minds, engaged in 
the noble employment of agriculture, and to this 
end we labor, and for tins cause will our journal 
plead, and we shall look for an increase of sup- 
port and favor just as rapid as these principles 
prevail. We mark this in the names of good and 
true men that are daily sending in their names, 
their approval and support, which is more cheer- 
ing than all the fame or honor that political glory 
can give. 

Agricultural Addresses. — The Editor of 
this journal, in the course of his tour, being fre- 
quently called upon to labor for the advancement 
of Agriculture, will be most happy to aid in the 
formation of Societies and in familiar addresses, 
whenever good can be accomplished to the cause. 
Col. Warren will, by invitation of the friends of 
Agriculture, deliver an address in the Church of 
Rev. Mr. Briggs, at Marysville, on Sunday even- 
ing next, at 4 1-2 o'clock. Subject — "The moral 
influences of Agriculture, and the blessings it 
confers upon Home." On Monday Col. W. will 
be present at the meeting of the County Society, 
same city, at City Hall. Every friend of Agri- 
culture should now be ready to do all in his 
power to encourage the interests of Agriculture, 
as they are the foundations of all prosperity. 

Yuba County Society. — It will be seen that 
the members of the Yuba County Society have 
taken active steps to make it an efficient one. 
Another meeting is to be held at the City Hall, 
Marysvillc, on Monday evening, 13th inst., for the 
purpose of making a more complete organization, 
establishing committees and choosing delegates to 
the State Agricultural Fair, which is to take place 
in September next. It will be seen by their no- 
tice that the Rev. Mr. Briggs, of Marysville, will 
deliver an address on that evening before the So- 
ciety. The reverend gentleman is not, only a lover 
of the beautiful in nature, but he is w T cll qualilied 
to teach, by a practical knowledge of the science. 
It is hoped a full attendance will give the Society 
a new impetus. 



Humboldt Products?. — The Times speaks ol 

noticing on the wharf at Humboldt, a large 

amount of fresh butter, cheese, 4c, which was 

i Wccott and Salt river-i. in that county. 

pose it was intended for- export. 



Agricultral Oration. — By the correspond- 
ence jn our columns to-day, it will be gratify ing 
io see that Ex-Governor Foote has kindly con 
scntcd to deliver the Annual Oralion before the 
State Society. It were needless for us to say 
what may be expected, for the announcement of 
the orator's name will do this. 



The Artesian Well being dug for the city of 
San Jose, has reached a depth of 235 feet and 
discharges 75 gallons of water per minute. 



California Industry. 

There are now produced from the soil, raised 
and manufactured in this State, Grain and Flour 
enough to supply^ the State. Salt enough, not 
only to supply California, but resources suffi- 
cient for the whole Union, from material already 
prepared for use. Our dairies supply hundreds 
of tons, per month, of the best Butter and Cheese. 
Beef, Pork, Lard and Hams are now articles of 
large transactions, and will soon be had in quan- 
tities for shipment. Soap is manufactured in 
large quantities. Candles, also, of excellent qual-| 
ity, Oil manufactories are established, and the 
material is now furnished from whale ships fitted 
out from our own poits. Starch manufactories 
are in successful operation, and the character of 
the article made ranks high in the market. Pre- 
serves of many kinds, and some Spices are pre- 
pared. Confectioneries and all the fancy works 
arc of home products. Implements of Husbandry, 
such as appertain to the farm, to a great extent 
are the products of California. Iron Works, Ma- 
chinery of various kinds, from the most gigantic 
to the most minute, are now the result of Califor- 
nia enterprise ; also Brick enough to supply the 
State, and Granite and Marble of the very best 
finest quality. Slate is being quarried, and recent 
discoveries give proof that soon we shall be fully 
supplied from our own soil. 

No State in the Union can boast of greater me- 
chanical skill, or the genius needed for manufac- 
tures of every description, than California. Let 
but the proper sympathy and just attention be 
given to encourage "home manufactures;" let our 
citizens awake to this great matter, and California 
will soon take high rank. The coming Exhib- 
ition of the products and resources of California 
will give an evidence not to be mistaken. 

The City of Marysville. 

In the years past we well remember the appa- 
rent rivalry that existed between Marysville -and 
Sacramento; high words, hard words, went be- 
tween city and city — but it was in the " news- 
papers"; it was like a political warfare ; railroads, 
trade, steamboats, 4c, all influenced this kind of 
— game ; it was words, and we are very happy to 
see and know that even words have passed away 
and nothing but the kindliest feelings of frater- 
nity exist. 

It is some two years or more since we were in 
Marysville, until our present visit, and we find 
that Marysville, like Sacramento, bears the marks 
of progress and permanency. Both are goodly 
cities, and destined to be "great marts" of a pros- 
perous trade. 

Marysville is indeed a prosperous and beautiful 
city, and is daily becoming more so. Improve- 
ments of a solid and permanent kind are being 
made; her citizens, her merchants, her profes- 
sional men, "grow with her growth and strength- 
en with her strength." They are identified with 
her stability and character; they love her, for it 
is their Home; they will defend her, provide for 
her, build her up as a city of palaces — for she is 
like a pet child to them, and their affection is 
fastened to her. The people of Marysville love 
their city, and well they may. The sun may 
pour down his rays ever so hot, the people cling 
to their favorite, their home, with an affection 
equally warm and glowing; and it is this fidelity 
that has built up Marysville. and will build up 
any city. The trials that the citizens have passed 
through arc great, but they have nobly borne 
them ; and as we remembered years gone by, 
and called to mind the names familiar, that we 
once saw over the tent or the shanty, down on 
the banks of the Yuba, we to day. as we walk 
through the raised city, as we look up to the 
piles of brick and stone, we there read the names 
familiar to us iji by-gone days, names as perma- 
nent with the prosperity of the city as the gran- 
ite that bears them. We could not help notin; 
the names of— J. C. Fall, of Fall, Eckman & Co.; 
Wm. llawley & Co., of Eaton, Babb, & Hawlcy; 
Treadwell & Co.; Garst & Galloway ; Harring- 
ton 4 Hazeltine; Crafts, Farish 4 Co., of Farisl 
4 Adams; Decker 4 Co.; Jewett, Scott, and Val- 
entine ; Ireland 4 Co.; Cheesman 4 Co.; Eaton, 
Gibson 4 Co. There are many others that we 
know, old and permanent citizens, merchants- 
these however will show that merchants who arc 
firm and true, cannot long remain beneath the 
cloud of misfortune produced by calamity. In 
passing through these mercantile houses we were 
gratified to kuow, by what we saw, that their 
prosperity was not in appearance only — there 
was real business, profitable business — the loaded 
steamers coming to the levee, and the loaded teams 
and pack trains going from the city, told the 
story. We rejoice at this prosperity, in our 
hearts, and we do hope our mercantile frieuds 



will take a new interest to aid and build up the 
country — for when that is prosperous, then the 
merchant, manufacturer, and mechanic will be 
so too, and permanently. 



Weekly account of Fruits Exhibited at the 
Society's Rooms. 

From this time until the Annual Fair, a Com- 
mittee will attend at the Rooms, from day to day, 
to examine and record succinctly such data as 
will give to each exhibitor the same chance for 
a premium at the Fair, as though his fruit was 
there and then exhibited. 

The following is the data taken for the last 
week: 

One basket containing nine Peaches, free stone 
mammoth size, and splendid fruit: from the gar- 
den of J. R. Johnston, jr., Esq. Three "Morris 
White," largest measurement, short diameter 
eight and a quarter inches; long diameter, eight 
and three-quarter inches. Three "Melocoton" 
largest, short diameter, eight and a-half inches ; 
long diameter, eight and three quarter inches. 
Three "Crawford's Rare Ripe," short diameter, 
eight and a-half inches ; long diameter, eight and 
throe-quarter inches. Two of the largest weighed 
one pound. 

One basket containing nine Peaches, free stone, 
" Crawford's Rare Ripe:" from the garden of J. 
R. Johnston, jr., Esq. This fruit is highly cred- 
itable to the grower. Specimens a shade smaller 
than the above. 

One basket containing four specimens, (we 
suppose them to be " Red Heath,") measurement 
of the largest, short diameter, eight inches; long 
diameter, eight inches. Two of the largest weigh- 
ed three-quarters of a pound. This line fruit is 
from the garden of A. Runyon, Esq. 

One basket containing three varieties of Apri- 
cots, from the extensive gardens of Kuhlau & Co., 
near the Fort. Measurement of the largest, short 
diameter, six inches; long diameter, seven inches 
— weight four ounces. This is truly splendid 
fruit. 

One basket containing two varieties of early 
Grapes, wdiite and purple. 'These specimens are 
remarkably fine fur the season and highly credit- 
able to the grower. They are from the extensive 
gardens of John Woolfskill, Esq., on the Putah. 

Dr. Brown kindly sends us the following in 
relation to the peaches exhibited by him, and 
briefly referred to last week by us: 

Editors Farmer: Believing that it might not 
be wholly uninteresting to your numerous read- 
ers, I subjoin an account of the several trees, from 
which the- peaches were obtained, on exhibition 
at the rooms of the Agricultural Society on the 
29th of July : 

No. 1 — Salmon Heath. — Three specimens, 
largest, 10 inches short diameter, 10 1-4 inches 
long diameter ; smallest, 9 inches short diameter, 
9 and a fraction inches long diameter. Tree, 
three years old from the pit; circumference of 
but at the ground 14 3-4 inches, at the first fork 
15 inches, and 12 inches from the ground to the 
forks. The forks consist of two limbs, one tend- 
ing to the east, the other to the west ; the former 

9 1-2 inches in circumference, the hitler 10 inches; 
these soon fork again, and compose about fifty 
limbs. Bight 17 feet 7 inches, periphery of the 
branches 58 feet. The fruit are freestone, and 
begin to ripen about the 15th of July. Last 
year the first crop was produced, and which was ■ 
small ; the crop this year about 3 1-2 bushels. 

No. 2— Blush Heath and Brown's Seedling — 
About thirty -flne months old from the pit. Four 
specimens of the seedling fruit ; largest 9 inches 
short diameter, long diameter 9 and a fraction 
inches. Three specimen's of the Blush Heath, 
dimensions mislaid. Circumference of but, at 
the ground 14 3-4 inches, at the forks 12 3-4 
inches. Hight from the ground to forks 2 feet 

10 inches; they comprise three branches, which 
tend to the cast, west, and north ; the two former 
are the Seedling, and the latter, being in the 
bifurcation, is the bud, "Blush Heath." The 
east limb is in circumference 8 1-2 inches, the 
west branch is 8 3-4 inches. This tine seedling 
is derived from a White Heath pit. The bud 
branch is 9 inches in circumference; this branch 
comprises over 50 limbs. Hight 19 feet; peri- 
phery of branches 05 feet. This tree boro a 
small crop last year; crop this year, supposed to 
bo about four bushels; the fruit are freestone, 
and uniformly large, and begin to ripen about 
the 1st of August. 

No. Z-r-Bud, Salmon Ilea th. — Two specimens 
measure mislaid, fruit largo size. Hight of tree, 
10 feet 4 inches ; circumference at the ground 
3 inches, at tho first fork 4 inches, from ground 
to the fork 3 feet 10 inches; periphery of branches 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



19 feet 7 inches. Age from tho pit about IS 
months. Crop. 03 mammoth peaches, matured, 

No. 4 — Bud, Salmon Heath. — Two specimens. 
measure mislaid, fruit large size. Bight of tree 
8 feet; circumference at the ground 3 inches, al 
the fork 2 1-2 inches j from the ground to fork 
3 feet 3 inches; periphery of branches 18 feet. 
Crop, 57 mammoth poaches. Age from the pit 
about 16 mouths. I might add more examples, 
but this will suffice, to encourage fruit growers 
and amateurs to devote a brief space to Pomona. 

In conclusion I may add, that the fruit dis- 
posed of from No. 1 amounts in the aggregate to 
$115, at $4 to lj>5 per dozen, thereby enabling 
the retailer to realize a handsome profit. 

Vmivon tl.iLL. il -treer, SaBrjunento, B. B. B. 

Flouring Mills at Marysville. 
The people of Yuba county arc actively pre- 
paring to do their own work in the way of man- 
ufacturing flour. 

We have examined the " Buckeye Mill," owned 
by Messrs. Teegarden and Foster. This mill is 
now undergoing repairs, and much improvement 
will be made in every feature of the work. It 
has three run of stones, capable of turning out 
100 barrels per day. Smith's smnt cleaner is 
used at this mill; this cleaner revolves 1000 
times per minute. The grain is raised to the 
roof of the building to winnow, theuce down to 
smut, up again for a second winnowing, thence to 
a damper, and then (when sufficiently swelled) it 
passes to the stones. Wlier/ first ground, all the 
flour that passes the perfect bolting cloth is 
bagged ; that which passes to the second bolting 
cloth is again returned and ground over, until it 
is perfect enough to pass No. 1. The mill is 
moved by steam power ; a very fine engine does 
the work grandly, and at the small consumption 
of only three cords of wood per day. 

The Qoeen City Mill. — Here, too, energy, 
enterprise mark the place. Messrs. Soule, Bord- 
well & Co., are the proprietors of this mill, and 
their prospect for a fine business is flattering. 
They have now two largo run of stones of four 
feet, and one small stone for small grains. The 
mill can turn out 100 barrels per day ; 250 quar 
ter sacks, with other fancy kinds, can be made in 
a day.. They are preparing now for grinding 
buckwheat, which is much wanted. This mill 
uses Smith's smut-mill. They are now laying 
machinery and preparing to excel iu every de- 
partment. 

Feather River Mill. — This is a new mill. 
in a new location, near the toll-bridge ; it was the 
large saw mill, and is built very substantial. It 
will soon start with two run of stones, to which 
two more will be added, when 150 barrels per 
day will be turned out. They use Pease, Jr.'s, 
smut-mill, this being the second one of the kind 
in the country. The mill is carried by two 
engines ofJiO horse ich, and will be of the 

best construction and finish, intending to turn 
out A No. 1 Hour. F. Cunningham, is the pro- 
prietor. 

Special Notices, — We ask our readers to ex- 
amine the sketch from Sierra Valley, bj " Alice." 
in this week's issue. Wo republish this 
ing it will be acceptable to our readers. There is 
an easy grace in her stj le that wins, and we feel 
assured our readers will be happy to know that 
' "Alice" is to be a constant contributor to our 
columns. 

11 Rural Tom'' writes boldly, and "Betty Mar- 
tin" will no doubt carefully criticise her admirer. 
We miv expect an answer soon. 

"Ro is ever welcome. We shall 

give his requests early attention. 

The gratifying letter of our co-laborer, t! 
rcspo of Yuba County - 

shall receive early attention and his request 
plied u ith. 

» A 11, and '■ '49 " were both duly 

duly received. 

We ask the earnest and kind thoughts of all 
readers to the srn ire offi- 

cers of tlu v. In order that they may 

be enabled to a i State Exhibition, 

Hi. Vrablc time for the 

last ' indulgence fur any omis- 

sion of do 
errois that may have escaped rotice in our paper. 



Another (Murder. 
"On, thou in ivln,-, ii tlmu host no name to 

it ai ,„|| id,' — Jevil |" 

Another victim has given his addition to swell 
the awful eortegt of mortality ; led on by the in- 
flexible demon, drunkenness. The evidence ad- 
duced by the coroner's inquest, was that one John 
Van Arnam met his death from wounds given by 
some sharp instrument, in the hands of some per- 
son unknown. From outside information, gleaned 
from reliable authority, your reporter learns that 
the circumstances connected with the affray, 
which resulted in the death of the unfortunate 
man, as far as known, were substantially these: 
He was first seen running from a. house in Virgin 
Alley, with his hand to his side, exclaiming 
" Someone has struck me with a clapboard 1" A 
stream of. blood issuing from his side, and his face 
horribly mutilated, immediately attracted the at- 
tention of passers-by, by whom he was removed 
to the Western House, where he died 'the next 
day. From the few words which escaped him 
prior to dissolution, it appears that the author of 
the crime was a Mexican, with curly hair and 
whiskers ; but nothing was said of the provocation 
given, which induced a vengeance so summary 
and fatal. The supposition is, judging from de- 
ceased's character, that in a fit of drunken frenzy, 
he assailed some hot-blooded denizen of the quar- 
ter where it occurred, from whom he received a 
death wound. — Marysville Herald. 

We saw the mangled remains of the unfortu- 
nate man, as he was about to be placed in the 
coffin and borne away to his last resting place. 
Terrible as was his death, unhappy as must have 
been the life he thus led, it is not for us to cen- 
sure or condemn him now. lie has gone to his 
final account ; he has been suddenly called where 
every act of his life will be reviewed ; and 
where a merciful and just judge, from whom there 
is no appeal, would pass the final sentence. The 
mortal form was before us, soon to pass to the 
grave. The spirit had fled and returned to Him 
who gave it ; and as we gazed we could only think 
where the blow would fall heaviest. A death like 
this falls heaviest upon the living, and although a 
heartless world may be glad to hurry the unfor- 
tunate victims of intemperance from the earth, 
they forget that the living have affections not yet 
deadened by the poisonous cup, and they it is 
that suffer most keenly. For as the victim be- 
comes more and more lost to feel ing and affection, 
so the innocent suffer still the more keenly. 

As we stood gazing upon this new victim of 
outraged law, and looked forward and reflected 
who would mourn his fall, or come to follow him 
to his grave and weep ever it, we remembered he 
would soon go to that bourne alone, that those 
who would feel the blow the keenest were far, 
far away. We gave the tribute of a tear as we 
passed from the shrouded corse, and remembered 
he had sisters and a mother, where the barbed 
javelin would strike home tho poisonous wound. 
We could only Bay — 

Teacli me to feel another's woe, 

•rcy I to other* show, 
Time merer stow to ma," 



Grasshopper Traps. — In our rides in the 
passu 
deep 
the I 

tin about a bushel and a half, 
and we believe we saw Y"uh». 

fraee)aB**a jmiktta ■•: grasshoppers. The Ind ins 

'■ 



New Banking House. — Moor, Low t Co.— a 

linn composed of our f I : , r. > i - , ('has. It. M 

L. Low and F. F. Low — have just opened a new 

and extensive banking hOOSa on the corner of 

First and llieh s<r 

employed as the F.xprc- 

The weight of solid capital and the high financial 

capabilities enlisted in this ,, 

lishinent. must secure to il a Hi ;-erous 

existence. — Ma hftville I! 

We are happy to copy the above notice, and to 
add. that hr Mouse 

we know it is all that is represented. In tho 
partner wc recognise an eer of 

California. CajU. Maey was one of the earliest 
commanders upon the Sacramento. We recollect 
our first trip up-river in '49 was with Capt. M.. 
and wc then received much kin.! 
we now take pleasure to remember, 
him and his house complete success in their en- 

Thebe is also another new house ' 
kinson &• Co, gentlemen of experience and means, 
intending to do a legitimate banking business. 

Prince's Protean Fountain Pen. — We take 
great pleasure in recommend v and 

I valuable invention to all who h to be 

j troubled with constant recurrence to an inkstand 
to be annoyed with inky fingers. It can be used 
for hours w : The point of the 

pen is goll. and ll 

very light and graceful, and ■ • catty 

, in the pocket. • It can d when ex- 

1. and will 

.rfect- 
f order, and 
n lions of the 

vantages ~ 
* L«t r*ea» write «••. wt.o oevar *M» Mm 

A... u.,«e w ,] ifcetSf ^ : '"- w wn:< ; e nefr." 



Col. Bropy's Ranch. — This large and fine 
Ranch is situated upon the Yuba river, and con- 
tains about 5000 acres— a portion of it rich min- 
eral land, now being cut up in search of gold. 
We wcro courteously received by Col. B., and 
examined his crops of grain. We now present 
tho amount of his crops of the last and present 
years: In 1854 Col. B. planted 150 acres of his 
best land to grain, and tho amount raised was as 
follows : of barley 3400 bushels, oats 1400 bush- 
els, wheat 800 busels. The present year's crop, 
1855, is as follows : 25 acres volunteer, 125 acres 
cultivated, and the whole crop is only 1533 bush- 
els, making a difference of two-thirds crop, or 
over four thousand bushels of grain. This heavy 
difference arises from rust, smut, and the grass- 
hopper, and we find many farms that are losing 
heavily. We have in preparation schedules of 
the crops of Yuba and Sutter counties, which we 
hope to give in full. This is the reason why we 
do not particularize more now. 

We visited some thirty farms high up on the 
Yuba, nearly all changing hands, and their ap 
pearance was melancholy in many cases — no im- 
provement, all waiting to know who owns the 
land. We wish we could be assured that some 
measure could be devised by which that unhappy 
question could be settled. The whole country 
suffers. 

A Complete Agricultural Warehouse, — 
Among the many fine warehouses that add to the 
credit and prosperity of our principal cities, we 
must ever revert to those which take a promi 
nence in agricultural interests. Among those we 
know there are none that rank higher than those 
of Tread well & Co., of San Francisco and Marys- 
ville. Wo found much of interest and pleasure, 
during our visit to Yuba county, in examining 
their warehouse at Marysville. The end and aim 
of the proprietors of both these houses is to have 
everything complete, from the simplest pruning 
knife to the ten-horse power thresher. Every- 
thing that is to be considered useful or valuable 
in any department of agriculture, or tho ware 
needed for the mechanic that constructs our houses, 
always be found at Tread wel 1 & Co. It is 
interesting for any one to go through and exam- 
aminc these extensive warehouses. 



Destructive Fire— HonsEs BunM -We 
visited tho ruins of the stables at Marysville, 
which were burned on Tuesday evening last. Wc 
were awakened in the, night by the cry of fire, 
and we looked from our window and saw the 
bright light. Having learned the terrible disas- 
ter to life of so many noble animals, we visited 
the ruins, and never but once before did we be- 
hold so terrible a sight. Here were the carcases 
of twenty-nine horses and mules, some very large 
and valuable animals. We noticed six very large 
mules huddled together, their heads crossing one 
another, as they died in their agony. We were 
told by those who heard it, that the agonized 
yelling of the animals was like the blast of a 
trumpet. ■ One young man lost by this fire, two 
six-mule teams of much value, that he had earned 
by hard working. He had just completed the 
payments for them as they were burned. Others 
lost heavily, and not only animals, but hay, grain, 
wagons, harness, were burned. There woro forty- 
three horses and mules in the stable ; only four- 
teen were saved. The fire was undoubtedly the 
work of an incendiary, as the man that first saw 
it reports seeing a fire in the hay-mow about the 
size of a bushel basket, and he tried hard to con- 
quer it, but having little or no water, tho fire 
triumphed. We hope the incendiary may be 
soon caught, and his reward be commensurate 
with the evil intended. We cannot but remem- 
ber the contrast between '49-50 and the present 
time. Then, crime was punished, and thatprompfr- 
hj. Now, the criminal not only escapes, but be- 
comes bolder by believing he can always es;ape. 
We do not advocate lynch law, but a law that 
will deter men from crime ; for it is not the terror 
of the penalty that criminals fear, so much as 
the certainty that that penalty will be inflicted 
as soon as the/ are detected and proved guilty. 
'Vhen this certainty is felt, men will flee from 
crime— never till then. 



How to Did S iatoes. — A great 

error, as "ell as loss, annually occurs to farmers, 
from a want of kn D the most simple 

:.-. The sweet potato should not be har- 
vested like other potatoes, but when about ripe. 
the side of the hill should be opened and those 
that are full size should be carefully taken out 
and the earth covered over the .smaller ones again 
By lids means you may have two, three, and 

iocs four crops from the same vine. This 
plan has been tried iu the Islands successfully. 
and we ask cultivators to note by trials there- 
suits in this country. We earnestly a-k atten- 
tion to this, as of moment to California. 

New Market HoMI in Sacramento. — The 

New City Market House has just been opened, 

and it is a credit to our i Itoated on K 

near Fourth — a tine brick edilice with 

arched entrance. We passed through the market 

and wei i much at so early a day. 

i well filled stall of fruits and vegc- 1 

from the gardens of A. P . We 

handsome filled stall of E, I 
which is undoubtedly the finest stall in the 
mark. t. and speaks much for his laste and skill, and 
what is more, his choice meats are all spr-V 
at an early hour. It is to be hoped that the pub- 
lic will visit the market and bestow a 
patronage upon il. 

California Brooms — The great broom-corn 
npon the land of John A. Pjx' 
the Yuba, is now nearly harv Messrs. 

Chase & Taylor, who hare cultivated t 
are now sending their u broom's' 1 to markt: 
" a new broom sweeps clean," we call the alten- 
I lion of families to the fact that they mar encour- 
age. California manufactures. Chase & I 

i!le. and Lunk i. Co. of Sacra 
are no* in the market wi'h their produce 
sure and give preference to our own productions. 

s or Grain - 
a relia 
there will not be fifty acres of 

ad — not one-tenth 

aUo worthless, an i 
ler. I/waw eoeaeir 
i-. . . .- harvested and cl<in«i 



California Hotels. — To our friends who in- 
tend to risit California.— As journalists, we feel 
it a duty to speak a word occasionally for tho 
benefit of those who may be culled to our shores 
and are not fully advised of the best Hotels. 
We shall therefore, from time to time, give a word 
or two on these matters. 

San Francisco Hotels, No, 1. 

The Bessette, by .1. Rassetle; 

The Oriental, by Capt. Waggstaff; 

Wilson's I by Essterbrook ; 

The International, by Peck & Fisher : 

The St. Nicholas, by Armstrong & Kidgway. 

Sacramento /folds. Ml 1. 
The Orleans, by Hardenburg & Corse; 

The Jones Hotel, by Mrs. Clark; 

The Merchants' by Barney k Ladd ; 

The Dawson Hotel, by Dawson. 

Munjsvilte Hotels, No. 1. 

The Western Hotel, Murray's; 

The Merchants' Hotel Churchill & Co. 

The above wc know to be all first class Hotels, 
and worthy confidence and support. There aro 
others of excellence, but wo do not know them SO 
well. Those who may design to visit California 
will e d to drive to eithor of these, 

and they will feel at home. 



Whale Fishing at Humboldt Bay. — T4(r 

nit. says: The steamer Me«ry 
Ann captured another whale on Tuesday, 
are to be seen in immense numbers off the har- 

in finding them. Whal pes- 

nrgat 
ht last week 



on the Bay. 



Chinese Theatre 
' John " has become so numerous on O 






s ereric, 









The Grain Markets -uadily ad- 

We do Dot 
rive oar (all Market reports (his week, M the 






unions , ...vr.i against | 

esa from aiongha above 
i hey are cU . . 



44 



THE CALIF0EJN1A FARMER. 



&iate ^grimltitral ^arutg, 

OFF ICIAL NOTI CES. 

Circular. 

Tbe Executive Committee of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, beg leave to say to the Agricul- 
turists of the State that as the time for holding 
the Annual Fair approaches the necessity lor in- 
creased and energetic action throughout the State 
becomes, daily, more apparent. 

The officers of the Society are giving their 
time, attention and money to the furtherance of 
the work, but this will not suffice. Unless the 
Farmers, Merchants, Lawyers. Hotel Keepers and 
all others interested (and who is not?) come up 
to our aid, subscribe and pay their memberships 
and give countenance to the work, our approach- 
ing Fair cannot be made what it should be — 
cannot be what the resources of our State call 
for. what the honor of this most prominent in- 
terest demands. 

The State has made commendable appropria- 
tions for premiums, and the Executive Committee 
has published a schedule for the approaching Ex- 
hibition, and it is hoped that we may be placed 
in circumstances to show full statistics of-Farms, 
Orchards, Nurseries,- Gardens, Vineyards, &c. 

A competent and reliable Committee may be 
expected to visit and report upon every case in 
this department. Send in your propositions, that 
the Committee may know the amount of its work. 

The statute under which we are organized 
limits the terms of metnbership to ten dollars. 
Any Gentleman or Lady sending us this small 
Bum will have subject to his or her order a cer- 
tificate of membership for one year. 

The question of the utility of the Fair depends 
very much upon the manner it is gotten up, and 
it cannot be what it should be without personal 
interest of a general character. 

Persons holding certificates of membership are, 
with their families, admitted to all the exhibi- 
tions of the Society free of charge. 

By order of the Executive Committee. 

C. I. Hutchinson, President. 
0. C. "Wheeler. Kcc. Sec. 

Sacramento, June 23d. 1855, 

Agricultural Visiting Committee. 
At a meeting of the Executive Committee of 
the State Agricultural Society, held this day. 
Gen. C. I. Hutchinson of Sacramento. Rev. A. II. 
Myers of Alameda. Hon. Sherman Day of Santa 
Clara, Hon. W. W, Stow of Santa Cm/,, and Gen. 
Allen of Yuba, were elected a Committee for the 
examination of Farms, Orchards, Vineyards. 
Nurseries, Ac., which may be entered for premi- 
ums at the ensuing Fair. Although the time for 
such entry has expired, yet the Committee is in- 
structed to receive propositions for such entry 
until the 15th August, being bound, of course, to 
"visit only those which may be within their range. 
Special pains, however, will be taken to answer 
all special requests. 0. C. Wheeler. R. Sec. 

Stole Agriculture! Suciety'r Rooms, July "27, 1855. 
-A. OoJl 

To every organized County Agricultural Society. 

I am instructed by the Executive CoinmiWee 
of the Slate Agricultural Society, to ask the ear- 
nest co-operation of every County organization. 
and to ask of the Corresponding Secretary of each 
such infoimalion of their several Societies as will 
make known to the Executive how much their 
Counties will do to further the interests of the 
Exhibition — what products, what slock and what 
manufactures may be expected from their several 
counties j and to solicit an active co-operation in 
this great work. It is also very desirable that 
special delegations should be appointed to attend 
the Fair and to act in convention, and thus aid in 
promoting and advancing all the great and im- 
portant interests involved. 

'J he Secretaries or other officers of each County 
are particularly desired to reply to the call at the 
earliest moment. 

Per order of Executive Committee. 

James L. L. F, Warden, 
Corres. Sec. State Agricultural Society. 

PREE TRANSPORTATION TO THE 3TATE FAIR. 

The Executive Committee of the California 
State Agricultural Society, take pleasure in an- 
nouncing to those interested, throughout the 
State, that the California Steam Navigation Co.. 
Citizens' Lin* of Steamers, California Stage Co.. 
Wells. Fargo & Co.. and the Pacific Express Co. 
have liberally and gratuitously tendered the ser- 
vices of their respective conveyances for the trans- 
portation, to and from the approaching Fair, of 
such articles as may be designed for exhibition. 
including stuck and persons necessarily accompa. 
nying the same. 

E\cry thing of like liberality from our citizens- 
in any portion of the State, will tend to render 
the coming State Fair of greater interest, and 
make it worthy of the State and her people. 
By order of the Executive Committee. 

C. I. Hutchinson, President. 

Sackamekto, July 5th., 1855. 

Members to the State Society. — One of 
the plans to promote the usefulness of the State 
Society, is to aid them by the value of member- 
ship, and this is one of the sure ways to prove 
your interest and your wish for its success. Gen- 
tlemen who desire to give this evidence of their 
wishes, can call at the Rooms of the Society on 
h street, between J and K, or address us. 
ng #10 by mail. This amount entitles 
; ;esof a member, and thev 
ii iui 'lute families Lo an admittance to 
tj 'a Exhibitions. We hope many will 
forward, voluntarily, and enroll themselves. 




Grafting the Chestnut, etc. 

From an interesting letter published in the 
Cincinnati Gazette, from Mr. Sheldon I. Kellogg, 
to the Wine Growers' Association, dated Bor- 
deaux, France, we make the following extract. 
Mr. Kellogg says: 

'■ I have been much surprised in seeing the 
great dependence the poorer classes make upon 
the large chestnut for their daily food. It is cul- 
tivated in this neighborhood in great abundance 
for this purpose. All classes use them more or 
less; tbe rich having them daily brought upon 
their tables as a dessert, either boiled or roasted. 
It is often made into soup, which is highly 
esteemed. They are cooked in a multitude of 
wavs, and T know nothing of a farinaceous nature 
which is so ^Qry delicate and nourishing. 

"The marron, or large chestnut, is the produce 
of the wild chestnut after being engrafted. The 
wild tree, at three or four years of age- is cut 
square off. The stump is then split twice. The 
slits intersect at right angles at the centre of the 
stump. There is then inserted a good sized 
branch of the same tree in section of the splits, 
making four branches in each stump. Cure is 
always taken to make the bark of the branches, 
and the bark of the stump join each other as 
closely as possible. The graft is then surround- 
ed with clay and moss, to prevent the outflow of 
the sap. and it scarcely ever fails of success. The 
period celebrated in this climate For this opera- 
tion is the month of February. The produce of 
this graft, is usually a fine, large, beautifully col 
ored marron. about the size of our buckeyes. 
They are much more delicate in texture and 
tiavor than our wild chestnut. They are never 
eaten w ithout being cooked. The tree is a very 
beautiful one, being, though not so high as ours, 
much more dense in foliage, and shading a larger 
space of ground." 

Will not some of our horticulturists profit by 
the information given by Mr. Kellogg, not only 
as it regards the chesnut tree, but also by experi- 
menting on grafting fruit trees generally, in a 
similar manner to the one described? We are 
unable to see why a like favorable result will not 
follow the grafting of the apple, the peach or pear, 
or any other fruit tree. We think the superiority 
of the chestnut, as slated by Mr. K.. is owing to 
the tree being made to spread, by its peculiar 
grafting, more than the ordinary tree, without 
growing so high, and thereby causing the juices, 
for the formation of the fruit, to flow to their ter- 
mination more quickly and fully, than when they 
have to pass through a long trunk. Besides, we 
think, that any species of tree which is made to 
spread it- branches wider, and further, from the 
centre of the tree, will also extend its roots in a 
corresponding ratio, and thereby receive a pro- 
portionably greater amount of nourishment from 
the eai ih. for the production of its fruit : and that 
consequently, the size of the fruit will be in- 
creased, and its quality improved. 

W* are taught in the writings of the church 
that a tree corresponds to man. as lo will and un- 
derstanding. And in the degree that we become 
acquainted with botanical science we are enabled 
to see a beautiful correspondence as to all things 
in the various uses of a tree, to things in man. 
We see that the trunk and branches of a tree cor- 
respond, as to use, ft ith the understanding; and 
the roots in like manner lo the will. And this 
correspondence to be pet feet must enter into the 
whole organization and life of the. tree. There 
must be a perfect adaptedncss of the roots in their 
organization and structure to the performance of 
of all the uses required of them by the trunk and 
branches, that life may flow through the former 
into the latter, and both unite in the production 
of fruits. And hence wc conclude that when a 
now impetus is given to a tree, by which the 
spreading of its branches is increased, and a fa 
dility thereby given for greater productiveness, 
that a greater extention and spreading of the 
roots will consequently take place. 

To Presehve a Bouquet. — A florist of many 
years 1 experience gives the following receipt for 
preserving bouquets for an indefinite period, which 
may be useful to our readers: "When you receive 
a bouquet, sprinkle it lightly with fresh water. 
Then put it into a vessel containing some soap- 
suds; this will nutrify the roots, and keep the 
flowers bright as new. Take the bouquet out of 
the suds every morning, and lay it sideways (tbe 
sock entering first) into clean water; keep it 
ihere a minute or two. then take it out. and 
sprinkle the flowers lightly, by the hand, with 
water. Replace it in the soapsuds, and it will 
bloom as fresh as when first gathered. The soap- 
suds need changing every three or four days. By 
observing these rules, a bouquet can be kept 
bright and beautiful for at least a month, and will 
last still longer in a very passable state ; but at- 
tention to the fair, but frail creatures, as directed 
above, must be strictly observed, or all will 
perish*" 

One Receipt for Happiness. — Preserve the 
privacies of your house, married state, and heart, 
from father, mother, sister, brother, aunt, and all 
the world. You two, with God's help build your 
own quiet world ; every third or fourth one whom 
you draw into it with you, will form a party, and 
stand between you two. That should never be. 
Promise this to each other. Renew the vows at 
each temptation. You will find your account in 
it. 'Your souls will grow, as it were, together, 
and at lust they will become as one. Ah, if marly 
a young pair had, on their wedding day, known 
this secret, how many marriages were happier 
than — alas ! — they are ! 



[From the Sierra Citizen of N.jv. 16, 1834.] 

Sketches from Sierra Valley. 

BY ALICE. 

To-morrow I'm to bid good bye to our ingle 
nook, lock up the cabin, nail shingles across the 
window, and carry away the household gods from 
the dominions of the Storm King. The other 
day a flock of deer came down the hill behind 
our cabin, stopped at the brook, and seemed to 
be holding a council whether to leave their sum- 
mer haunts, or to remain and be hunted into the 
snow banks by their enemies the wolves. They 
were quite close to our cabin, and I fancied I 



The stranger coming into some of otir mining 
towns might suppose that there was no Hereafter, 
no God, no death, in the gold mines; and yet the 
miners are not a community of infidels. Now 
and then one hears some blasphemous wretch re- 
viling the name of his Creator, and ridiculing 
the story of the Cross, but it is revolting to tho 
better feelings that arc hidden in the hearts of 
the apparently reckless, and they secretly despise 
the miserable blasphemer. 

Snow has already fallen on the hills that I 
have to pass to-morrow, and they look as cold 
and bleak as Spitsbergen. * * * * 

Well, we have crossed the snowy hills that I 
looked at with apprehension two days ago. I 
could not help looking back with regret at the 



could see them turn their eyes apprehensively rude log hut where I hid passed so many picas 



towards the snow hills, as though they had heard 
the storm-spirit marshalling its forces in the glen. 
At last, one old fellow with great wide antlers, 
probably the patriarch of the tribe, started down 
the branch, and the whole flock soon disappeared 
among the trees. 

1 have already passed one winter here, shut 
out from the world, surrounded by great snow 
drifts, with no outlet save towards the sky, and 
oh ! how dreary were those long chilly months 
that I watched for the return of my husband, 
who had been storm-stayed; and how anxiously 
I marked the daily decrease of our little stock of 
provisions! I shuddered when the rude blast 
shook my dwelling and swayed the pine trees to 
and fro on the hill. Then I thought of the freez- 
ing traveler in the Alps, turning his glassy eyes 
heavenward, and trying to brush away the film 
of death. Then I imagined that my husband 
might be lost in the snow, and almost fancied 1 
could hear the wolves lighting at their dreadful 
carnival. ' How earnestly I invoked sleep, the 
brother of death ! then crept to the window to look 
for the well known form coming down the trail. 
But tbe clouds were gone — the wind stilled, and 
the brow of night sparkling with gems, and then 
1 repeated to myself the lines I learned at school 

" Aye cloriously thou standest Uiere, 

Beautiful, bonndlcsfl firmaneot, 
That swelling wide o'er cnrtli and uir, 

And round the horizon bent ! 
With thy briyht vault and eaphire wall 
Dj^t overhang and abetter all." 

You need not ask wc why wc built our hut in 
tins frozen valley ? You might as well ask the 
emigrant who shoulders his ax and rifle and 
drives his team into the deep forest, why he has 
left the paternal roof to dispute the soil with the 
savage. Alter all he is in pursuit of happiness; 
and though his children's feet tread painfully on 
a foreign shore, though the clouds of misfortune 
follow in his wake, he thinks that in the quiet 
woods, with a log cabin that he can call his own. 
with its rude table and stools, he may find that 
rest and quiet which he has sought for elsewhere 
in vain. 

I do not think that the young wife can fulfil a 
higher destiny than to bid adieu to her early 
home and all she loved, save one, and to follow 
him into the untrodden wilderness. How our 
hearts warm when we listen to tbe stories of our 
grandmothers, who lived in the liUlc stockade 
forts along the Ohio! Many a time, when a 
little girl, 1 sat cowering in the corner, treasuring 
up every word of the Indian .story told by the 
palsied old lady who lived the other side of the 
creek. Then slipping away to bed I covered up 
my head and dreamed about Indians chasing the 
Bet tiers from the clearing, and burning their cab- 
ins, until I awoke terrified, and heard nothing 
but the barking of the hoase-dog and the Bofl 
breathing of my sweet little sister who had laid 
her hand upon my cheek. I little thought then 
that 1 should ever journey so far toward the Oc- 
cident, or sit by an Artcmcsia lire, watching the 
lightning play round the crags of the Itocky 
Mountains, or listen to tho ringing of the settlers' 
ax in the .Sierra Nevada. 

A glorious life is the pioneer's — so full of wild 
adventure; sometimes gloomy enough, but then 
the clouds float away and let down a flood of 
sunshine. The emigrant's wife must "suffer and 
be strong." tread lightly life's pathway, skip over 
the thorns and briars, and not sit crying and 
lamenting her hard fate, while _her husband is 
swinging the ax in the forest, or following tbe 
plow. So did not the emigrant mothers of the 
West, when plying the spinning- wheel,. or pre 
paring the evening meal for the laborers 'vhen 
they returned tired from the cleaving. What 
cared they for the caprices of fortune ? Their 
children ran whooping the woods as joyous and 
independent as though they belonged to some 
feudal castle. 

But, there is one great objection to life in the 
mountains of California ; the Sabbath day is des- 
ecrated, and the teachings of religion, which wt 
have all been taught to respect, arc only spoken 
of as something with which people have nothing 
to do. This might be reasonable enough if Cal 
fornia were beyond the flight of the Angel of 
Death. But now and then we see a dozen or two 
people slowly ascending the hill from the river. 
collecting round a new made grave, taking off 
their hats and acknowleding the existence of a 
God. Some one sets up a board "in memory of 

," it may be the widow's son ! Yes. heap up 

the fresh earth and hurry away. -and ask ndt how 
or why he died. The s'ory is a melancholy one 
of guilt and shame — yonth, hope, dissipation, dis- 
pair and death ! Let the silence that broods over 
liis grave by the way-side protect his memory, 
and when the expressman brings the next letter 
to his cabin and linds it empty, let him return it, 
not with the intelligence that the owner fills a 
suicide's grave, but that they 

Buried him deep in Uie infinite sea, 
Aud made him a lunitleai grave. 



ant. as well as gloomy days. Nothing looks so 
melancholy to me as the smoke curling up slug- 
gishly from the chimney after the house has been 
abandoned, and I felt half inclined to go back 
and rekindle the fire that I had raked up on the 
hearth. Last night we slept in the snow. A 
roaring fire was built up against a big log; fir 
branches were spread down, and our little party 
corraled in front, and passed the night quite com- 
fortably, considering the accommodations. 

About midnight we were aft'akencd by a solo 
from a California lion, got up probably for hit) 
own amusement exclusively, or it may be on ac- 
count of the great scarcity of provisions in his 
territory. Few persons have passed the night high 
up in the Sierras without hearing the discordant 
howling of these animals; and few ever heard 
the sound without making a critical examination 
of the nearest tree. The sound is an hannonious 
blending of the bellowing of a young ox and the' 
yelling of a panther. At first it seemed to me 
hideous beyond description, but I soon got used 
to it, and had about as soon hear it now, as the 
spasmodic howling of a politician hall seas over. 
Some months ago I had the pleasure of hearing 
a duett performed by a California Lion and a 
large wolf, one on either side of the creek. The 
wolf was a very respectable amateur vocalist, 
but he gave up in despair when his antagonist 
became thoroughly warmed up. and •'echocon'd 
the doolfu' tale." 

Here endelh the : ' Sketches from Sierra Val- 
ley," and I suppose you and your readers are 
heartily glad of it. When winter's reign is over 
and the other denizens of the wood return to 
their old haunts, may be I may return to mine, 
where 

Wi' ema' to ee!l nnd less to huy, 
Aboon di^trc^g, below navy, 
O whu' would leave this bumble state, 
For a' the pride oi" »' tbe yrraitt 
Can they the ponce and pleasure feel, 
Of Bce^y al her spinning whrel t 



The Duties of a Guest. 

That the duties of a hostess are many and 
onerous, no one attempts to dispute. Guests have 
a way of thinking that none are owing in return. 
This being the season of innumerable country 
visitations, which fall with especial weight upon 
a hostess so situated. let us see what Mrs. Man- 
ners the highest authority in these matters, 
thinks should bo the duty of (he visitor : 

w To accommodate yourself to the habits and 
rules of the family, in regard to hours of rising or 
retiring^ and particularly the hours for meals, is 
the first duty "fa guest. Inform yoursell as soon 
,is possible when the meals occur — whether there 
will he a dressing-bell — at what time they meet 
f"i- prayers, and thus become acquainted with all 
the family regulations. // is always the better 
way for a jamibf to adhere strictly to all their 
usua' hu'iits ; it is a much simpler matter for one 
to leai u to conform to those than for half a dozen 
to be thrown out of a routine, which may be al- 
alinost indispensable to the fulfillment of their 
importunate di 

Of course, in the case of an invalid guest, or to 
accommodate any in arriving late, or leaving at 
an early hour, every one would willingly make 
any desirable change. I now refer lo an ordinary 
visit. It certainly must promote the happiness of 
any reasonable person to know that hi.s presence 
is no restraint, and no inconvenience. 

Your own good sense and delicacy will teach 
you the desirability of keeping your room tidy, 
and your articles of dress ami toilet us much in 
order as possible. If there is a eh.uuhei maid ora 
servant, whose duty it is to arrange the chambers, 
call upon her to do for you any extra service you 
may need. If you put her to great trouble, you 
know a trifle of money will reward her for it, if 
yonr pleasnnt smile and polite manner have not 
suiheed to insure yon good-natured anil prompt 
service. If there is a deficiency of servants, you 
would certainly not hesitate to make your own 
bed, and to do for yourself as much as possible, 
and for the family, all that was in your power. I 
never saw an elegant lady of ray ncu,ujiintancc 
appear to better advantage Lhan u lieu once per- 
forming a service which, under other circum- 
stances, might have been considered menial ; yet, 
in her own house, she was surrounded by ser- 
vants, and certainly she had never used a broom, 
or made a bed in her life." 



Lamps will have a less disagreeable smell, if 
you dip your wick-yarn in strong hot vinegar, aud 
dry it, before triming. 

Stove Polish. — Make a weak alum-water, and 
mix your British-lustre with it, perhaps two tea- 
spoonsful to a gill of alum-water; let the stove be 
cold, brush it with the mixture, then take a dry 
brush and rub the stove till it is perfectly dry. 
.Should any part, before polishing, become so dry 
us to look gray, moisten it with a wet brush, and 
proceed as before. 



I 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



45 



M i s r r I Uuuj . 



TO 



I For Uie California Farmer.] 
BETTY MARTIN. 



On a rich plain, near where Cusumnes flow, 
Where siant oak In stately grandeur crow. 
Where les-er -liruhs tM-deek the forest glade, 

Forming m . .- m^ shade — 

the col Unit my poor presence gruco: 
Bet,, monarch ofiu race; 

Anil wbili I boost no luxuries rare, 

It him b wealth aid share. 

Oh, bapplncse ! it i- not with tin- great, 

In funded hulls nl" tlmrf win vi- in state, 

Nor with the one win, sis-ks to t-tit the strife 

Fur 111 in v. in I., (filth* drag* ni lit-',) 

That till hi- heart, (in-tend of bwoM repose,) 

With nil the ills, the author til his woes. 

Yes, lure in in mi, when Au'rns glance is seen 

First iu the -ky, and then upon the green, 

The leathered songster carols lorth his lay, 

Jqyoos to greet the coming of the day. 

Thus Irom our slumber waked with notes of joy, 

We rise refreshed and lenl <mr spirit's buoy, 

Boning tlmt thus our life may e'er ghde on, 

Unt 1 at lust the iiniil goal is won. 

And yet we leel there's something wanting still, 

A vacancy is here, a void to rill ; 

And though my years now number twenty-eight. 

With comely laee, and form of faultless shape, 

I've lo jk'd iu vain, the happy one to find, 

To personate the picture in my mind. 

But now, again, an idea new beset me, 

To mount toy steed, and off to visit Betty, 

Anil il pel chance my vision should be true, 

It's bard to say what pDor frail man may do. 

Oft iu the silent watches of the night, 

When all our cares have ta'en their onward flight ; 

When sorrow, strife, and toil, are all forgot 

On that sweet pillow in my lonely cot, 

My sleeping fancy often turns to thee, 

Thy fancied charms to view with ecstacy; 

Ami if that hu in. which sleeping fancy drew, 

But proves the Fame, the counterpart of you, 

Theu will this tongue proclaim, with heartfelt praise, 

And bless the hand that penned the " rural lays." 

And yet we feel that this must surely be, , 

For nature so willed it in her just decree ; 

That where the soul an angel mission bear, 

The outwnld form angelic features wear. 

I've read thy lays from oue to number five, 

And look again with eager anxious eyes, 

Hoping to see no sorrow come to blight, 

While rurul cares are yielding thee delight. 

I, too, de-pise the city and its strife, 

Where men but live a money-getting life ; 

Where sorrow, trouble, poverty, and pain, 

Talto not one thought from filthy lucre gain ; 

Oh I rather give me some deep mountain glon, 

Far, far remote from this our race of men, 

With one true heart to cheer our lonely way, 

Ami sing lor me the happy rural lay. 

ituitAL Toat. 

Florence Emerson; or, tJie Young Widow. 

BY V1BGINIA DK FOHRBST. 

"Florence!" cried Jessie Lawson, bursting 
into her cousin's boudoir, one morning — " Flor- 
ence Emerson, Hurry says you are, engaged to 
George Langford !" 

" Well, cousin, if I were, have you any objec- 
tions?" 

» Objections ! Why, Floy, he is old enough"— 

" Jtt-t thirty-nine, cousin .Jessie." 

"Thirty-nine! ami a widower, with two chil- 
dren! But it is a mistake of Harry's) you are 
not really going lo marry him, ; 

" I expect so, s1 ''' Florence, quietly. 

'•Well. I give you up. Jfoo, Florence Emerson, 
the belle of the season, « illt a ! ■ ; you 

the beauty ami heiress, with lovers, ln-flti \ 
without end or number, to throw yourself away 
upon a poor widower with two children, and no 
fortune except in his profession. Oh I Floy. 1 

ii ght you had more sense. What are you 

thinking dl !" 

" Whv, .Jessie, you arc wasting your eloquence. 
George Langford is handsome!" 

" Granted." 

"Talented!" 

" Granted, again." 

"He loves me!" 

'■S.i .I. lift) .".liers." 

" Ami. last of all, inv strongest argument, I love 
him!" 

" Well. I suppose tou will marry him, in spite 
of my disapproval, so 1 wish too joy. and hope 
he'll never hold up Mrs. Langford iirst as a pat- 
tern io Mrs. Langford second. 

" If Mrs. Langford lii si was a model for me, I 
will follow iii her footsteps." 

" Well, well, there's one comfort Willie and 
Edith ate very pretty children, and too young to 
rebel al a new ioammn, I hclicvc. How old are 
they exacilj . 

"tt illie is lour. Edith three." 

" Keep t on bus) . the care of two such babies." 

Flotei.ee Emerson and .Ivs-to law son were 
cousins, and had, until Jessie's marriage, been al- 
most . w ho « as tw o J ears the 
elder lively blonde, vain, and pretty. 
Flore. all, .-lately beaut' 
dark hair, and features like a Greek 
statute'. .She was an orphan, and, as Jessie said, 
an her 

ing. 

his iii 

ho was thirty -nine, and a widower ! Jessie'saen- 

timents were echoed by all I 






Florence hail been married just two years, when 
it became necessary for Mr. Langford to go to 
Paris; his stay was to bo very short, so he con- 
cluded not to lake Florence. She was fond of 
home, bad won the love of both children, and in 
return loved them fondly, and with their society, 
her home duties, and a promised visit to Jessie, 
thought the time of her husband's absence might 
be made to pass pleasantly. Uut when the hour 
of departure came, when bis trunk stood waiting 
in the hall, and he came to say farewell, the whole 
aspect of things seemed changed. Florence felt 
that her dearest treasure was leaving her; all 
looked dark, and a vague presentiment of evil 
Idled her very soul. 

" Why, Florence, you are white as a corpse," 
cried George, in a frightful tone. " I thought you 
had arranged gnyelies without number lo occupy 
you while your grave old husband was away. 
Cheer up, Floy ; I shall be gone only a short 
time." 

" Oh, George, J did not realize it till now. 
What can I do without you ?" 

"You will visit Jessie, take Willie and Edith 
into the country, and — and — oh, you had a whole 
list of pleasures arranged. The carriage is here. 
Good-bye, Florence." 

Florence tried to speak, but the words died on 
her lips. She grasped his hand, while her eyes 
tilled with tears, and then let him go. 

All her pleasures were forgotten as she watched 
the carriage rolling from the door, and she only 
remembered bow lonely she would be without 
him ; she looked baek upon two years of such 
perfect happiness that it seemed less like reality 
than a pleasant dream. Long she stood at the 
window watching, as if she expected him to re- 
turn, but the voices of the children roused her, 
and she stifled her own grief, and went to amuse 
and comfort them. Willie thought papa was 
'• real unkind " not to take them ; while Edith 
clung close to Florence, and hoped papa would be 
safe on the "deep water." 

Jessie Lawson and Florence Langford were 
seated in the piazza of the pleasant country-house 
they had hired for the season, conversing. Edith 
and Willie were romping with Rover on the grass, 
while ever and atjon their clear, joyous laughter 
would make the ladies turn and smile. 

" 1 forgive you now, Floy, for marrying 
George," said Jessie, fondly. " I think that, if 
he had asked me, and 1 could have looked into 
the future, 1 should have done just as you did." 

At that instant. Jessie felt a hand laid on her 
shoulder, and, looking up, saw her husbaud ; his 
face was very grave, and hts whole manner be- 
tokened that something serious had troubled him, 

"Jessie," he said, in a low tone, 'come into the 
parlor; 1 want to speak with \ou." 

"He is jealous," whispered Jessie to Florence, 
as she rose to obey. "Now for a matrimonial 
lecture !" 

" Close the door, Jessie," said Henry, when 
they entered the parlor. " I do not wish Flor- 
ence lo hear what I have In say una. Poor Floy! 
we must break it gently to her !" 

" Why, Harry, what is the matter? George" — 

"Yes. 'The Eagle,' the vessel he sailed in, 
was wrecked, and but few aadpi d ; a vessel going 
to Calcutta took a few nl the passengers, but the 
rest were lost. George Langford's name is among 
the missing I" 

Harry had forgotten the open window and 
was startled to see Florence now standing in front 
of it. She was cold and pi le. her hands 

were tightly olenched, her teeth set, and ber 
whole frame t igid ami motionless. Harry sprang 
lo her side, and took her hand to lead her in. 
The touch broke her stupor, and. with a slight 
shndder, she (ell fainting to the ground. 

For weeks, Florence Langford lay between life 
and death; fever and deiirit I •! her 

death-like, trance, and hei life was d 
A .strong constitution, however, triumphed, and 
she recovered ; but oh. how altered ! The 
thin f.ae. seen now under a close widow's cap. 
w as so wan ami sad that few would have I 
ni/eil the once blooming Flore: 

Her sole comfort, now. seemed to lie in the 
children, his children. She would hardly allow 
them out of her sight, and her whole time was 
spent in instructing and amusing them. 

Florence Langford had been a widow just one 
rear. It was a tirighi summer's day. and she sat 
in the same little parlor where she had first heard 
of her husband's loss, Willie and Edith were 
seated on the Boor beside bet. blowing soap-bub- 
beir innocent de- 
light as Uie sun shone nn the pretty globes and 
reflected prismatic colors m them, and then her 
thoughts llew back over the last three years. 
Sadder and sadder grew the pale face, until " v 
noticed it, at :it softly to 

nth knell beside hiro. with he: 
laid cai Florence's hand. 

. us about papa," whisjicred Willie. 

'■ \\ hen is papa coming back 1" asked Edith. 
" He sta 

" Hush. Edith," said Willie. " Papa can never 
come baek ; he rs dead." 

But Edith shook her head. She had always 
maintained that, as papa went away in a carriage, 
. come back, and bring them 
could not be dead. 

iirow- 

hcr arm an about 

how much longer they no*. Id 

remained in that t tell. 

tupu-d ibein ; he e v.a.- 

afca « hisprrcd, kneeling on the stool 
1st her cousin's feet, and unt; iag her cap, " take 

' for a miin I 

vaeK ) " asked Florence ouflering her 



" Because it is stiff and unbecoming," said Jes- 
sie, who was loosening- Floy's hair, and twisting 
it over her fingers into its old curls' " You must 
never wear it again." 
Hear Florence, a widow's cap is needless now !" 

" Jessie," cried Florence, starting up, and look- 
ing eagerly into ber cousin's face, while she 
trembled violently. " what do you mean ?" 

" Can you bear tho best of news, Floy V said 
Jessie, softly. "George" — 

Jessie in answer threw open the door, and said. 
gttyly : " Come in !" and in another moment Flor- 
ence was in her husband's arms, and the two chil- 
dren were looking in a kind of joyful astonish- 
ment at their father. 

All was soon explained. George Langford had 
been among the passengers taken to Calcutta, anil 
had, from some mistake of the reporters, been put 
in the .list of missing. Cold and exposure had 
brought on an attack of brain fever, and he had 
been very ill. As soon as he was able, he had 
started for home, but the voyage had been several 
months ; and, after reaching England, he was de- 
tained some days before starting for America. 
He was there at last, and a happier party never 
met than the one that evening at Oak Lodge, Mr. 
Lawson's country seat, 

VANISHED HOURS. 

Bring not to mind those vanished hours, 

They're gone, and let their memory die, 
'Tis vain to weep o'er laded flowers, 

When fresh ones grow unheeded hy. 
Say not thy lot is dmk and drear. 

That pleasures leave thee one by one; 
O dost thou not thyitelf prepare 

The cloud that covers up the sun. 
Hope I — for the sun that 6inks at e'en 

Will rise to-morrow iair and bright ; 
Smile ! — for the trees and meadows green 

Laugh at the shower, aud scorn its might. 
Upward 1 'tis thither thou must teud, 

And " onward " must thy watchword be, 
Then shall thy spit it Icam to blend 

The finite with infinity. 



Don't Shoot the Birds. 
Oh, it is the deed of a noble heart, which can 
ruthlessly slaughter the little feathered songsters 
of our forest — those brightest Psalmists of Na 
ture, who are ever reiterating their' jubilant song: 
of praise and thanksgiving, and praise, and love— j 
whose harps are never unstrung— whose sweet. 
melodious voices come wafted like incense to us 
upon the Summer zephyrs, and floating onward 
and upward through the grand old woods, are 
caught, and re-echoed with new power, and new- 
beauty, and varying tones, by a myriad tuneful 
chorists, until the very air seems tilled with the 
essence of harmony, and the embowered branches 
of the o'erspreading trees are couvertcd into a 
grand orchestral temple. 

We love little birds. We delight, when suffer 
ing. and care, and sorrow, have left their ii 
upon our mind, or some dark shallow of Evil, or 
spirit of Gloom, or Genii >>( Despair, have i 
the brighter path of life, dimming our faculties, 
destroying our perception of enjoyment, and till- 
ing our very soul with the impress of Melancholy, 
II into tho woods, leaving the artificial 
world behind us, forsaking the hum and din, and 
turmoil of the city, turning our back, as it were. 
Upon "Ur fellow man. ami shutting ourselves up 
communion with the mysteries, and wou- 
nd beauties "f Nature. We love lo cast 
.is upon the velvety, emerald carpeting 
with which the bounteous hand of Provide: 

shly n'erspread the bosom of our common 
mother. Earth, hencath the shadow of some giant 

"niggle, and 
eh other, covered with brighl 
- that wave and flutter, to and ft 

<>f light, and forming a 

Kintr ■ i 

the trunk of 
■narch. until it seems no vagary 
■ weird wart 
gone ar, _• erect in all the pride of armor, 

ml vixer. and helmet, who in the lone 
woods, like a true knight errant, is await. 
approach of the fair lady-love, falling upon 

which hangs iu head in mod 

at be like a pearl 

rung up from amid the grand bright sea of 

merald. 

Look up into that branch, whose beauteous cur- 

' every brcath- 

\ ou that nierrr little robin. 



■ n to that niche 
he oak sepai 
the home of the r«> 

the fairy cattle, a faint, melodt 
young robin*, who are vainly en ■; 
compass the harmonious notes of their parent 
and the dame flies forth again from her neat. Stat 
has covered the floor of ber mansion with a tap 

with «bo-e briiltaocv and color, ar. . 

of material no hand of man can vie. It araa 
penciled and coriirgaied 

reel bird aoa a, of vrow- 

fir-.i1" BeeJisarof the l u ie—i 
ur, tSey art treble and water- 
ing, like the ditlant war-Hang of the Cetue knight 
upon the brink of the Dcaujbrook lake. Aoou, 
they become more full. decpasd powerful. Ihere 



is a rustle amid the leaves of the <■ 
bustling greeting of welcome from the dame 
robin, and her beautiful mate stands beside her 
upon tho branch— and the twain, together, pour 
forth such joyous strains of heart-felt melody, 
that we pause to wonder whether they can ever 
he less merry— whether sorrow can ever find a 
home-scat in their little feathered breasts. 

There is music in the very nature of the dark 
old woods. The rustling of the tiny leaves ; the 
surging to and fro of the cloud-capped boughs, as 
they seem, each bowing to his neighbor ; the dull 
heavy creaking of the trunk, as it is strained to 
more than its wonted tension by the wind ; the 
shrill whistling of the breeze over the spear-like 
tufts of grass — all combine in a grand anthem of 
harmony, which art may imitate, but never even 
remotely rival. And when to these we have 
superadded the ten thousand choral songs of the 
feathered warblers, in every varying tone of har- 
mony and power, from the shrill treble chirp of 
the wren, to the deep alto of the bob-o-link, or 
the sonorous basso of the flecker, it seems as if all 
about, above, around, — the very atmosphere itself 
— were alive with music in its sweetest form. 

And we are thankful for the birds. We feel 
that the woods without them would be like — 

" Some banquet ball deserted, 

Whose lamps are fled, whose glories are dead, 

And all hut Hope departed." 

We should miss them in the morning walk. 
We should miss their matin songs at even-tide. 
We should miss their sweet consolation for sor- 
row and despair in our rambles through the 
woods. We should miss them everywhere. 

Theu let us feel thankful for the — 

" Ten thousand choral birds — 
Some blue and some sun-dyed — 

Some white as the farm-wife's curds — 
Somo tipped with the moonlight-hue — 

Some red as the flame of war ; 
And on the crest of some, 

Seemeth a fallen star.'' 

Don't kill thebirds. Let them live tocontinue 
their songs of goodness. Let them live to bright- 
en our world of materiality and care, with their 
ideal poetry. Let them live to peal their morn- 
ing, noon, and evening anthems to the Giver of 
all Good. Let them live to implant in tin: minds 
of innocent children the first happy lessons of the 
true and beautiful Nature. Let them live to 
keep company with their co-partners of poetic 
beauty, the flowers. As you would manifest the 
refinement of your mind, the uprightness of your 
heart, the sensibility of your nature — don't kill 
the birds. — Troy Oaily Times. 



Atmospheric Effect ofthe Cannonade at 
Sebastopol. — A correspondent of the ' Post" 
stales that a French savant ascribes the unusual 
rains and atmospherical disturbances over a great 
part of Europe to the prolonged and terrible can- 
nonade in the Crimea. It is a little curious that 
we heard a few days ago K discussion upon the 
same topic here, by somo scientific gentlemen, and 
it was observed that this fact was strictly iu ac- 
cordance with the theory of Prof. Espy, and was 

■d to by Aragoand some of the most accur- 
ate meteorologists in Europe The cannonade at 
Sebastopol was succeeded, as late accounts show, 
by profuse rains, which tilled the trenches, and 
the same influence extended over regions thous- 
ands of miles distant. Hut it was rather in refer- 
ence to the late violent whirlwinds and tornadoes 
in various parts of ihc world that the mailer was 
here discussed, and it was admitted that the con- 
u of so continuous aud prodigious a retona- 
tion had also an immense cllect ii|H>n the great 
serial circulation. Much, however, may bo due 
to the action of liberated caloric from the flame ol 
the multitudinous discharges of heavy cannon, as 

. in the interfusion of extraneous gases with 
I he fatuous siege of Sebastopol 

f« to be a subject of interest lo men of 
ell as to men of war. In a conversa- 
tion with some gentlemen attached to the navy, 
we were informed that during the Mexican war. 
when a large number of armed ajbtaaa arrived at 
ahout the same time at the Pensacola navy yard. 
'ing as each came into the har- 
bor was succeeded by a tremendous whirlwind 
which did u i. fact 

attention of I. tent. Maury, w hose particular 
bo»in< look after the winds and the 

courses of the winds. — Boston Courier. 

Preservation or Milk— The following 

method is recommended for the preservation of 

... either at aea or in wat > Pro- 

. 
• 
cow into the bottles, and, as they are Blled on- 
ly cork them well up. and Cast' i 
with pack-thread or wire; Ihra apread a little 
straw on the bottom of a boiler, on which 
the bottles with straw between them, until 
the boiler contains • sutl . 

, cold water ; beat the ■- - sooa 

the 
whole cool gradually. When quilec 
the bottle* and pack thee* with strair or aawdust 
in hampers and «ow ihem , n the cuotert part * 

-h or I>an- 
ish vesMri at ■ on board, 

piieaevarl *> this manner Ii bad been earned 
twice to the West iodiea, and baek to Doasaark, 
and bad bees above eighteen — thi is botile* ; 
■everthtlran, it wax as sweet an • 
from tliecjw.— Ijon-itm N 

Da tbu safaject the e ; 
the May number, rrvaarki. at 

the Royal Ir.-t.t .tion ru; ■ 

bra's pl ow —, aad which i.» . i r 

the Abba Xoagae lo iir. Ba. 



46 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 



it in his lecture on preserved meats and vege- 
tnbii.'S. This milk was one year old, and was as 
sweet as when first drawn ; a considerable quan- 
tity uf cream had collected in the neck of the 
bottles." 



California Soap and Candles. — J. P.Dyer, 
Mason street, San Francisco, is now manufac- 
turing Soap and Candles, of an excellent quality. 
Some 25.000 pounds of soap are now made by 
him monthly. Candles will be made in large 
quantities very soon. 



The Mines. — We have notes taken of the great 
mining interest that we visited last week at 
Park's. Long's and Ousley's Bars, which will 
appear next week. To our friends there we are 
grateful for their kind attention to us. 



Extraordinary Wheat. — The San Jose Tele- 
graph says that Michael Marshall, living near 
Heed's Mill, adjoining San Jose, raised eighty 
seven bushels of wheat to the acre. He exhibited 
a cluster of wheat in tho straw, all the product of 
one grain of Chili wheat. There were ninety 
heads of wheat upon this cluster; each head aver- 
aged seventy-five grains, making in the whole the 
extraordinary yield of 6,750 grains of excellent 
wheat — the product of one single grain of Chili 
\\ heat. 



MAERIED. 



On the 2d Autrust, in Sun Francisco, by Rev. Dr. Scott, Ly- 
man Clark and Miss Elizabeth Phillips, 

On die 31 August, in San Francisco, by Rev. R. P. Cutter, 
G. H. Lorinj: and Miss C. M. Fraud*, of Boston. 

On the 2d August, in Flacerville, by Rev. J. L. 9andere, Mr. 
C. F. Irwin, formerly of Seneca county, N. Y., and Mies E. E. 
Garfield) ot Oakland, Michigan. 

On the 5th Auiru^f, in San Joaquin township, Sacramento 
county, by Justice Griintdiaw, Mr. Rockwell Young and Mre. 
Nancy Cotton, ul) of that place. 

On the 2d August at Clintm, by Rev. Samuel B. Bell, J. T. 
Pommy, Esq., ot Ranosha, Wis., and Mica F. M. Howren, of 
Charleston, S. C. 



DIED. 



Ou the 5th August, in San Francitco, Mrs. Catherine Rogers, 
vile of Jamea Rogers. 

On lit 1 31st July, in Shasta, of dropey, Joseph Bailey, for- 
nerly ol Hopkins county, Ky. 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 



13?* Sands' Sarsaparilla. — This preparation has now 
borne the test for over fourteen years' experience, since its first 
introduction to the public, and each succeeding year brings 
forward renewed testimony to its great value as a medicinal 
remedy. The unfortunate victim of hereditary disease, with 
swollen glands, contracted sinews, and bones hull carious, has 
been restored to health ad rigor. The scrofulous patient, cov- 
ered with ulcers, loathsome to him>plf and to bis attendants, 
has been made whole. Hundreds of iiereons, who had groaned 
hopelessly tor years under cutaneous and glandular disorders, 
chronic rheumatism, and many other complaints springing 
from a derangement of the i-ecretive organs and the circulation, 
have been raised as it were from the rack of disease, and now, 
with regenerated constitutions, gladly testify to the efficacy ot 
this inestimable preparation. 

Agents— HENRY JOHNSON & CO., 

v4-5 lm 146 Washington street, San Francisco, 

t^f 3 Doesticks, the Great American Humorist.— His 
now booh is published, elegantly ilhi-tn.t. .1 . K'uki., b> and in 
cloth, extra gilt ; and selling in every city, (Own and village in 
the United States. 10.OC0 copies sold the first week ot publica- 
tion. Buy it. Read and lriii^ti ! 

EDWARD LIVERMORE, Publisher, 

v4 5 2w 20 Bcekmnn etiect, New York. 



J3P California State Agricultural Society's Rooms. — 
The Rooms of the State Agricultural Society are located on 
I'ourth Btreet, between J and K. where nil who ore Inter- 
ested in Agriculture and kind ml Sciences are invited to call. 

Several hundred specimens in all departments arc on exhi- 
bition c. mstantly, and it is the object oi the Society, to make 
the>e rooms a plnce of resort for our citizens. The rooms arc 
open daily, (Sundays excepted,) and are free to all. They are 
under the charge of the Editor of the California Fabmkr, 
who will be pleaded to render any information or assistance to 
further any interest connected with iciicuhute. 
By order ol" the Executive Committee, 

r33q c. I. HUTCHINSON, President, 



Eg? 3 WISTAR'S BALSAM OK WILD CHERRY not only 
cures every sj cc ; ce of lun: c*m>p!ainle I ut it exerts a very 
power ul int'.ueico un a DisEAfED LrvER. In tiiie complaint 
it ba>, undoubtedly, provid more efficacious than any remedy 
iiitberto employed, and in Qumeryufi instances when patients 
had endured long und severe puttering from tlir disease, v. iii,- 
mt receiving tho least benefit From various remedies, and when 
mercury has been resorted to in vain, the use Of this Balsam 
iuts restored the Liver to a healthy action, and in many 
instances effected Permanent Cubes) after every known 
rerni dj bad failed to produce tin- detiied effect, 

\* Be sure it is wgned I. BUTTS on tl ■■• wrapper. 

Agents tor Snu Franekco, B. B, THAYER S: CO. 

Sold by all Druggists. v4 2 



g^- Religious Notice.— The "Pacific Baptist Church 1 
(Rev, O. C. Wheeler, Pastor) will hold Divine Service every 
Mahbuth, at lOVfi A. u., and 7'^ p.m., in "Temperance Hall," 
corner of 10;h and J streets. The public is respectfully invited 
to attend. Seats free. vl 4 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



California Brooms. 

" Enconrase Home Manufactures," 

THE undersigned are happy to an munce to the community 
that they will offer to tbem about the 10th of Augutt, 
Three Hundred Dozen California Brooms. 

These brooms are made from stockgrown is California. The 
broom brwh was raised in Sacramento cc-unty, (the queen of 
prairie land ;) the handles from timber fmm our own moun- 
tains ; and the work by our own citizens. We have, 'ti* true, 
imported machinery for the manufacture ol brooms; but hnj-e 
ere lonp that the genius of Culiiornia will produce machinery 
for t«ii the departments of labor. 

We shall have samples of our Brooms at the State Snciety's 
Rooms on Fourth street, and at our own store, when we trust 
our citizens will be happy to give preference to the home in- 
dustry of California. 

We shall commence immediately the work of manufacturing, 
and those who wirii our brooms should Send in their orders. 
They will be answered according to their dnte, a* we expect 
sale as fast as we can manufacture them. We intend they shall 
be as good, if not the best brooms ever offered lor sale in this 
Slate. LUSK & CO., 

v4-6 Corner of Fifteenth and O streets. 



jrc^^rt PHffiNIX STALLS, 

jiXJlTf"^' *" Sacramento Market. 

Jfc3M Nos. 7 and 8. 

New liricJc Building, K street, above Third, souUi side. 

The undersigned, in opening this new establishment, hope 
by giving unremitting attention to their customers, to merit a 
sbate of the favors or which they have heretofore been recipi- 
ents to such a libera! extent. Their stock will comprise a full 
selection ot the best Be.-', Mutton, Lamb, Pork, Veal, Domestic 
Sausages, surgar-cuied Corn Beef, dec., &c. 

They will also have a supply of nil kinds of Game and Vege- 
tables, in the! season. Purchasers can have their parcels sent 
to any part ot the city, free of charge. 

Orders attended to promptly. 

v4-6 E. J. BOSLER &, CO., Proprietors. 



WHEELER & BROOKS, 

EXCELSIOR NURSERY, 

10/A street, between F and 6, 

Sacramento City. 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Vines and Shrubbery 

of oil kinds. v4-6 



COPARTNERSHIP NOTICE. 

THE undersigned have formed a Copartnership for the pur- 
pose of continuing and carrying on the Furniture 
Trade as Wholesale and Retail Dealer* and Importers, in ihi- 
city and Sacramento, under the name and style ot HOWES & 
CO. 

Resident Partner, Boston, R. HOWES, 

of the old linn of Howe* & Co., *> 

180 and 382 Montgomery street. 
Resident Partner, San Francisco.. ..DAVID MOORE, 
San Franchco, Sacramento, 
139 Jackson st. 103 K st 

Resident Partner, Sacramento B. C. NEWCOMB, 

77 K street, Sacramento City. 
San Francisco, May 8, 1855. 

• To Our Friends and the Public. 

Byunitingthe above three firms our capital in largely increas- 
ed and our expenses reduced mure than om-half 
which euables us to offer you a greater variety of Goods at 

15 to "-■"> per cent, less than our former rates. 

One of the partners wiil be in Boston aud New York to pur- 
chn.-e goods, and will take advantage of the murkets to obtain 
euch goods ua are desirable, ut the 

Lowest Carh Rates. 
Three years' experience will enable him to select stock that will 

Defy Competition in Quality and Prices. 

We are now before you wiih a large and 

DESIHABLE STOCK OF NEW GOOODS, 

and shall endeavor to merit a tbarc of your patronage. It will 

be our pride to give 

Perfect Satisfaction, 

both iu quality, prices, and gaud treatment. 

HOWES •&, CO. 
77 and 103 K street, > ISO and IH:i M intgomsry street, 

Sacramento, y opposite Metropolitan Theatre, 



Si. >!;(-!■ ami Commission. 

THE fuhfciiher having purchased [be entire Interest ot 
Messrs. Ttlden &■ Little, in the Storage and Commhv-ion 
Businet*, heretofore conducted m the Empibb Warehouse, 
is now prepared (o continue tho business in all Its varloiu 
branched, at this old established and thoroughly Fire-Prool 
Wnrehouec, on as reasonable terms a- any other Warehouse in 
1 1 i city; will make cash advanci ■ on all good , when desired ; 
and hopOfl to relaiu a COUtmiinnCCOf the old boolneSP. 

HIRAM W. BEEBE. 
tie f— Messrs Ca.se, Heiecr Si. Co. j J. W. Bi ittuu ; 
James Doyle ; Barber &■ Buyd. 

Notice. 

WHEREAS certain impressions are gaining circulntlon 
connected with the insolvency ol Messrs- TiTderi & Lli le, 
<■<■- ni the Empire Warehouse, which 11 uncontradicted 
imiv cause unnecessary a In mi, I leel it a duty to iny«ell to a • 

Miii- tin i-i' 'iMviii_< •: f- .-tnn'il [here, that nil difficulties which 

i'M-t .in e confined entirety in their connection wltli and the 
u (pension of, the Eclipse Flour Mill*, and thai all other good 
now stored in this waiebou <■. v\ii) be duly receipted lor by me, 
upon pre I'ntali'in ot the old Roceipta. 

EsirmE WABEBtOTJSE, 
rt-32 HIRAM w. BEKBE. 



< ji'.Jtifi i in Batter and Cbeese. 
*M~ f\(\i\ POUNDS new Culitorata Butter i 1,200 ditti 
-0»VVV Cheese, in store. Being supplied daily wit) 
I'lcdi Buiier and Cheete, by five ol the inrged dairic in ou 

vicinity, we chiill I i lii i iii in i ■: i - ii.dui'i meiil! Io liunilier ant 

others to use this kind ol butter, and are Eellbag it at a lowe 
price than any in thU State. 
v3-2G BRADSHAW & CO. 



Removal, 

\\r N. BRAlNAltn, (successor to Morehouse & Bratnard 
»? a l.:i- removed to Ho. 55 A" strut, bcivwen Second <ui. 
Third, and will be , leaded, to wait on liid old customors, wh< 
may favor him witli a call. 

A lull assortment of California Produce always on hand 

Horner's Ptemoun Flour, and oilier domestic brands ■ geauini 

Hexallnnd Oallego; I'n-h ui-onnd Com Meal an. 1 Buc"liHb..-i. 

Fluurj Brim, Snon.- and Middlings, Barley, Oats, Wheat, &c, 

California Fra.-h Butter and Cheese, 

A liberal discount mdde to the city trade. 

Sacramento, May £4rh, I8."j5. v3-2.1 



BUSINESS CARDS. 



W. C. JEWETT, 

(OP THE FIBM OF JEWETT & MKLHADO, IN 1849,) 

Auction and Commission Merchant, 
Fire Proof Building, earner Sttneonuand California straeu, 
Real Estate Sales— MONDAYS, at 12 m. 

Furniture. Hordes and CarrinL-tv. &c— TUESDAYS, at 10 A. M. 
Jewelry, Flowers, &c— WEDNESDAYS, at 10 a. m. 
Groceries and Sundrie — THURSDAYS, at ^ a. m. 
General Merchandise, Fancy G- >od-, etc— FRIDAYS, at 10 a. m. 
JT^* Liberal advauees made on conH!.'mnent3. v4-5 



1JOUM) FUR THE STAtESl 

Merchant", Miners and others, hound home, are advised to visit 

OAK HALL, Boston, Mass., 

where they can replenish their Wnrdrobes with complete 

outfits trora one of the largest and beat aseorte 1 stocks 

of Clothing, Furnishing Goods, &c, &c, in 

the United States. Also, every variety of 

Boy's ClotlUng. 

VzP 3 One Price, Cash System, givinE all an erpial chance. 

G. W. SIMMONS. 
Oak Hall, North street, Boston, Mass. v3-16. 



JAMES FRENCH & CO., 
Publishers, Booksellers, 

UirOHTEBS AND DEALRRS IN 

STATIONERY, 

jY,>. 78 Washington street, Boston, Mass. 

\^ef^ Country Traders, Buok^ellers, Teachers, Clergymen, 

Banks, Railroads, Insurance, and other Companies, 

furnished on the be.-t terms. 

*»* Oiders solicited for our new publications. 

V3-25 See prospectus. 



J. 1IOWKLL cfc CO., 

46^| J ntree*, bsttaeen SttJOnd and Third, Sacramento, 
nsr^**. TAKK thin o|ipoilunity of informing their friends end 
tT.-" ^ Mhe public, that they have jn-t received a new and 
x\_- Vina, <■ relect on of Wo tclies mill Jewelry, 
Ainonc which will he found Watches of every description, 
from the best makers — Rnglish and French. 

Al.-o — Diamond Riugs, Chains, Ear-Rin-s, Pins, Bracelets, 
Quurtz. Juwelry, &c, &c. 

Cp- Particular attention paid to DIAMOND SETTING. 
Watches carefully repaired und Warranted. vS-30 



C. L. NORTH, 
MACHINE SEWING, 

145 Sansome street, between Washington and Jackson, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 
Flour, Grain and nil other deeiiption-' of Ba™s, constantly on 
hand and made to order. Mattresses, Ceilings, Tents, and all 
kinds of plain sewing, done with neatness and dispatch. 



E. B. MAS/TICK, 

Attorney and Counsellor, 

Ojjice, corner of Montgomery and Commercial streets, 

(over D reset, Suther & Church's Bonking House,) 
v3-19 Smi Francisco. 



BOOTH, CARROLL & CO.. 
Wholesale brocers and Provision Dealers, 

No. C2 J street, comer of Third, 



KEYKS & CO.. 
GOLDEN GATE CLOTHING WAREHOUSE, 

Corner of J and Second streets, Sacramento, 
Having the largest arid finest assortment of 

FASHIONABLE CLOTHING 

AND 
FURNISHING GOODS 
Ever Offered in California, 
and which we are telling at the lowest cash prices, we cheerfully 
invite our friends and the public to call and examine our exten- 
sive stock fur them i 

Single garments or lull suits, made to order at the Shortest 
notice, and warranted to tit. 

New and Fashionable Goods 
rccci"cd byevery steamer. 

Call at Branch of KEYES &. CO., 

v4-l corner J and Second Btreel . Sacramento. 



RIYETT & CO. 

I (AVE OPENED A BRANCH OF THEIR 

WELL KNOWN HOUSE, 

A T 

111 J STREET, 

where they intend to keep a large ond varied assortment of 
Upholstery Goods, Pnuer n ingings, 

Oil Cloths. Matting, 

Mul- anrl R.ugfl, Damasks, 

Sdade . Corn 

Curtain Bands, T i el . 

Fringe*, ' limps, 

Loco and hfaslln CartainSj &c., ic. 

At their Old Store, 28 K street, 

may be had ull the above article-, tOgetbOr uilli one of the 
largest asaorlmeiita to.be found in the Sfn e, "i 

Wmdow 'i!n-.-, 
Wl its Load, 
OilH. 
Torpenthns, 
Varnishes, 
Dry and Ground Paints, 
and all other Painter's supplios, 

Also, Sign Paintinir.aa lormerly; Gilt Mouldings and Mirror 
PIntosj Piciuto and Mirror Frame f 1 1 ■-■ ! ■ ■ and re-gilt, 

Work in ail the above brauohes executed with Dur usual 
|u ptness. v3-23 



MUaitAY'S WESTERN HOUSE, 

AND 

Glenrrnl Office of trie California Stne** Company, 

Cornet oj Second and D streets, Marysvillk. 

C^Open all Night. ^3 

MT1I1S lupberu Br4t*cJass Hotel in by lar the most capa- 
cious and elegant one in California, out ot San Francisco, 
■»nr! is excelled by none in that city. It in ol' brick, perfectly 
fire-proof, ftrar Btorles high, ond ironts 103 feet on Second 
street, and 80 leet on Dstreofc Two hundred persons can be 
■icciiiiimi dni.ed with enritc - n e, and in the moat comfortable 
ctyle. Particular attention is paid i" [he wants and comti rte oj 
PamiUoA, 

Irs location Is contra], and is the Uruent) Depot of Staging 
noil B camboating, 

Travelers can rely upon being 
Hta^c teaving iii- p : ciiv. 

•/;.■ i i who & frr, can entrust tlieir TP. d B \G 

■ 

Bates of Charges. 

i- •' ■■■ «•*'...... 81-j o:i 

■■/, i-ei Bveeh $\5 

■. pel doj (j ,10 

[tot tlu 43 23 

i I ,,-i i : ■ r afqhi 

a .(. HUHUAV.H tlo Proprietor. 



tflt&t Puiuiniii rJugufir* otjp4H. 

I> H. VANCE juat awarded the FIRST PHKSIIUMforthe 
1, beet Daguerreotypes esbibited at the CaUlornia State 

Fair. Mr. V. Wnutd be happy to wall ii]i"ii imv 

PERFECT LIKENESS. Tho nrrsngement of bis Rooms and 

Lights arc ra pei mi tn iiuy In the S ato, 

Room — New Buildiug cormr of Sacramento and Montgom- 
ery Erects, entrance on Uontgomery street, next door to 
A'lftin'rt. v4-l 



KniH'Ii for Sal<-, 
SStTS^ A finely located Ranch ol threo thousand acres aboul 
^Hp twelve miles bolow CofusL This i- one of the fines) plots 
-**—■ of land i'or crazing or Agricultural purpose* in this State; 
well timbered, mvl "11 portions ol it the be>t quality ol buU 

It will be sold at a borgoiri, Plana of the lot and all particu- 
lars given on inqutrinr; at the office of California Fahmkh, 
On E i iu I .'i Bin cr, between J and K. v4l 



Cnmllcs. 

Gi UM-DROPS, Jujube, Rock .Candies and Lozenges — large 
T assortment. Known to be superior in quality, and to keop, 
i nil murkot, better than any Other. 

STEWART & BUSSING, 
\.i 5 .>n 3:16 Pearl street, Now York. 



Ornln Bui's. 



Kf\ AAA CHAIN BACH for Bole very cheap for Cash. 
•J\J,')\f\J at Nortli'a Sewing Factory, 145 San-omo t-irnot, 
ii Washington und Jacksuu sts, San Francisco. vl.'. 



Now is your Time to Buy Cheap Goods ! 

HAMBURGER & BROTHERS, who have been i 
in tin:- city Bince 1850, nud well known all over this sec- 
tion oi country, lake plea ure t" inform thoU* friends and cua- 

re in general, thai i Ik y have DOwiiiBtorc, and rec 

■ i nddi ion by every eiipj ecnnd Bteamship, from Ne«v York, a 
general assortment ol Fancy and S;aule Dry *'• iods, consisting 
Of plain black and brocade Silks ; plain, changeable and plain 
c 'l trcd Silks, bill qualities ; French and Anioricau Lawn ; 
white and colored plain and embroidered Swi ^ MurOius ; 
i; . « and Silk Tissue of all colots and price ; Needle 
Worked Bands, Collars, Slneve-*, Cbemieetta and Linen C, 
Uandkerchiohit SwifB nndLace Curtains. 

A [urge assortment ol all kiuda of Bonnet Ribbon, Irish Lin- 
Bns, Cotton Suiri.ii.- and 8 icetings of uti BKfles. Ladijs 
white ami colored Cotton 11 if; Sid. Silk and Lisle Thread 
I ilove*. Willi ii general ussortmonl ul Fancy Goods too numer 

mi i". which we offer to sull at twenry-ttv.- per cent 

cheaper than any other house in t 1 1 i city, as we are direct im 
porters ol i >ui got ■\~- 

A call i.- only necessary — you oanjudgc lor yourself, 

j_^r- Ludias are particularly Invited to coll. 

Siore, 91 J street, near Fourth, Sacramento. 

p, s. — Wo keop constantly on I La rull supply ol Silk and 

Straw BomiOt*, and all kind's ol Millinery 'I I0(JUJ. v3-25, 



Great Bnrp;ntiiu: Selling oiflt 

SAMUEL T .JELLY'.S 

48 J street, between Second and Third, Sacramento, 

ALARCK assortment of fine English and Swica Watches 
with adjusted chronometer balances, selected by me from 
the best hanmihicturers, and warranted period time keepers, 
together with a well -elected etock of 

Diamonda and Eich Jewelry, 

purchftFed by run for cash, and for sale lower than the same 
goods have been offered in this city. 

Diamonds set in any style. Quartz-Work made to order. 
Clocks, Watches and Jewelry repaired to <>n\rv. 

v4-l 



SAMUEL JELLY, 48 J street 



Saddlers, Attention 1 

CI1AS. U. SCHEUNEfl ro peotrully Infonna the maiiulac- 
<ii" of Saddles that ho i« now prepared to do all kinds 

ofatompmes on California! '1 Mexican Btyles of saddles, and 

be is confident thai bis stylo ol worktannsblp cannot bosor- 
passed in i itii State. 
Pleas q call and ex unlne specimens, 
| ^f- Orders from the country promptly attended to. 
v ;j-25 170 h street, Booramento, 



AGRICULTURAL, &e. 



w 



Harvesting Iniplciiieiils. 

E invite the attention of the public to tho following selec- 
tion of superior Harvesting Implements: 
Huspey** (Baltimore) Reapers; 
MeC'innick's '* 

Manny's " 

Hall'd 8 horse Threshers ; 
Pitt's " " 

Emery's 2 horso " t 

Ketchum's Mowers; 
Grant's 5 linger Wire Bruce Grain Cradles ; 



Barlev ltakea ; 
Hay Rakes and Forks ; 
Scythe* and Snaithe ; 
Grant's Fan Mills, &.C, &c. 

Received and I'or pale by 

TREADWELL it CO., 
v 3-13 corner California and RatPery -ireet?. 



Important to Millers and Fnrnui-s. 

THE undersigned having discovered a remi fly for the injury 
to wheat arising from Smut, and a plan nl renovating the 

same, has secured by a " Patent Right,! 1 hi- title to the tunc. 

From the experiments made by experienced miller., the most 
satisfactory re.-ulrs have been achieved. Prom well aitn-ied 
trials and repeated proofs ol the capabilities of its power to 
clean the smut from the wheat, it hue been ascertained rhat the 
most perfect purification titke^ place in the w hear, while m the 
same time a large saving of time, labor and coal accrues fco the 
miller, and the flour is as pure and white as from the finest 
wheat 

Farmers who have crops of wheat, now unharvested, may 
yet save them, for they can easily be assured that their grain 

can be restored und the value saved t" them, 

Licences, with all particulars for the uscof this Patent Rleht, 
can be obtained at the warehouse of the subscriber, on Clay 
street, between Drum uud East, San Francisco, 

vl-J CHARLES CAMPflELL. 




jVgileiUturnl Too:* and Seeils. 

PARKER, WHITE & GANNETT, 
47,59 mul (i;i Blackstone street Bus- 
ton, Milss., manufacturers ol Plows, 

Ox Yokes, Store Trucks, Fan Mills, 
Horse Powers, Mowing Machines, 
Reaping Machines, Horse Powers, 
Churns and other farm machinery nnd tools; Sluice Forks, 
Grain Cradles, &c„ &.c. Also, irrowera and iiuput tors of all 
kinds ot Garden and Field Seeds ana Trees. 

These eeeds are ol the seiy beat quality, such as have always 
given satisfaction to our customers, and are put up lor ship- 
ment in air tight cases. v3-18 



Agrtcnltural Warehouse, 
193 Front street, New York. 

THE subscriber oilers for sale an assortment of ALTicultural 
Implements ol the latest and most approved kinds, among 
which ure the celebrated Premium Plows, which were awarded 
the highest premium of the American Institute in 1846, 1848, 
1849, 1650, 1851, 1852 and lc"53. Ah-o, Eagle, Centre Draught, 
Peoria, and nil other plows in eencrol un\ 

Pitt's, Hall's and Smith's Horse Powers and Threshers. 
Burrall's, McCormick's, Hustey's. Seymonr& Morgan's, and 
Ketchum's Mowing and Reaping Uachines. Yankee aU-sharp- 
enlng Straw Cutter — the best article Jn use: Corn Shcllers, 
Fanning Mills, Picks aud Pick Handle: , &c„ &c. 

v45 JOHN MOOIIE, 193 Front street. 



Alr-Tlght Preserve Jars. 

[wyi-ra'a PATSKT, 1855.1 
_-)>/ entire nor arttcti for preserving Jirutis, Vegetables, trc. 
flMjis jar is the only one among tl" 1 many presented to and 
JL approved "i by the Committee ol the American In Htuteol 
New York. For further Information apply to WARKEN Sc 
SON, California Fau.mkr Office, where may be seen draw- 
in-- and samples of the article. 

Made a nd e<>ld exclusively bv the N>rth American Gutta 
Perchn Company, 102 Broadway, New York. v4-58m. 



A^rrlcultarnl autl Multicultural Implements^ 
Field nntl Gniilen Seeds • 

UPWARDS »t one hundred different kinds ol Plow*, and all 
other implements in ucc on the Faira ond the G 
Field Seeds ol all kinds. Garden Seed^ nl all kinds. 
R. L. ALLEN, 
v-13 3m. 189 and 1'Jl Water strc.-, New York. 



Carts, Wagons, Tracks, Hay Presses, &e< 

CALIFORNIA OX, Horto, Mule and Hand Cut,; 
do do do do WogOXtS. 

Trucks <>i" all ires lor warehoi 

Hay, f! -mi:-. T ibucco and W II press 

bales from lou to 400 pmuui- weight, either bj Itntul or horse 

p it. L. ALLEN, 

v4-3 3m 189 and l'.U Water strcm, New York. 



BANKERS. 



Nod.. . 

DI'.r.XF.I.. FATHER St C11UKCII l^ovo rrmrvrd t.i tho 
new 1-l.ii.l.in- II un?, M>url,v.i>r corner ol BuLtorj urni 

Tiny ,-li 

DREXEL. SATIIKR & CHURfH. 

BANKERS, 

Haiti iij (tri ', i- rm r ".;' Clay, 

Draw Rill-' of Exchamzc, nl Bhjht or on time, in ruma roanit on 

Van Vfflck, Read & Drexel, 99 Wallet New v.nk. 

Hank ol jforth America Boston. 

Moehflnics 1 i Farmers' Bank Albany 

Drey.-I St, Co Philadelphia. 

Jobnitou Bro. & Co Bui 

J. B. Morton, K i| Biehim ml. Vo, 

A. D. JoneF, eii. i hier Pitfrburc, Pa, 

A. J. Wl ler. Esq Cincinnnit, Ohio. 

A. I). Hum, E*q I.. ..n ., 

. J R. Macmurdo & Co New Orleans, 

Alao, Ejcehanyo on London; 

Frankfort on the Maiue, I Struttgart, Germany, 

Purchase Certificates ol I > poali I other £ change at cur- 
rent late.-, and t run a act a general Bankine bu^h 

F. M. DREXEL, PbilucWnhJa. 

P. 8ATHKR, \ a n 

v4S E. W. CHURCH, r 1, "" lt 'lsco. 

WELLS, FARQO & CO., 

ANKERS.— Bills of Exchaneo for sale on New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia and St. Louis. 
Also, on the loll .win- i: i en Cttit 
Adrian, Mich., Galena, in., PuLb>ville, Ph., 

Albauy, N. Y„ fl meva, N. Y., Providt ncn, R. L, 

Alton, III., Hamilton, o, Racine, Wis,. 

Ann Aibor, Mich., Jackson, Mich., Reading Pa., 

A-httilnda, O, Kalamazoo, Mich., Rochester, M. Y,, 

Auburn, N. Y., Kenosha, Wis., Sundn>lty, O., 

Battl ■ Crock, N, Y., La-nllo, lil„ She i « !iui, Wla^ 

Binchamton, N. Y., Lockport, N. Y., Silver Creek, N. Y., 
Bud'ulo, N. Y., Louisville, Ky., South Bend, 1ml., 

Canandalguo, N. Y., Mowfield, o., Springlii 

Chicago, in.. Mich. City, Ind,, Springfield, 111., a 

Cincinnati, O., Milwankle, Wis,, 8toniiu>tou, Conn,! 

Cleveland, O., Monroe, Mich., Syracuse, N. Y., 

Colnmbue, O., Mount Vernon, O., Tiffin, 1 1., 

Corning, N. Y., Newark, O., Toledo. 0., 

Dayton, p., Niles, Mich., Troy, N. Y., 

Deiu.it, Mich., o weiro, N. Y„ Uricn, N.Y., 

Dunkirk, N. Y„ Owegoj N. Y„ W&tBleld, N. Y., 

Elmirn, N. Y., Palnesville, o., Xenia, o., 

Erie, Pa., Pcoiia, 111., illc, O., 

. Drafts on Canada drawn on 

' Montreal, Quebec, Hamilton and Toronto. 

Drafts on Europe drawn on 

Union Bank of London j' 

National Banh ol Scotland Edinburgh, 

Royal Rank of Ireland I 

Livingi-tun, Wolhi & Co., (ourhou«e) 

v:i-l'1 WELLS, F iRQO & CO. 



B 



01 IBOB \v U'Kn:iif, 
KDWAlll) JoNKS. 

PALMER, cook A CO,, 

BANKEllS. corner of Wasldngton and K .front- 

in.: the Plata, Ban Francisco, Callfoi i II Ex- 

.ii.' age on all the principal Eastern em, 
.■i D900 ii, etc., bought nl the bighosl markoi 

Collectiona made mul Money 'rtiuiMiiuie.i, and all bualnoss 
coi nooted with banking tmn acted, 
t^* ^gontln New York— 
▼3-95 JOHN COOK, Jn., 31 Broadway. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



47 



M I SCELLAX EOUS. 



\<\v Potent 

Force and T<'fting Pump and Fire Engine Combined. 

~~ THK u now iiiMiiii- 

1)0 S NKW 

PATENT PUMP, which, lor utility 

unit power, lUnMMM itn' 

tlir kind i-v.t offered (0 tbo public. 
StntMua. P«. 

: . : 

largo quantity of 

... 1. iej 
are peculiarly ad«j ted. 
1. ■ 
.1 
m 200 t'i 400 
lute, (according to 

*iz.'> iKid rim In' used M 'I I.IKTINfi 

or Poser. Pomp, nod by the appli- 

i can bo operated as n 

FireBoglueotthe most efficient kind. 

It is pimi c. .mi liable to pel out of order, can be operated by 
hand, steam or water power, and oeed only be seen i" be op- 

N. HUNT, 
26 Devonshire ptreet New York. 
Also for sale — Bent quality of Leateh Bblting and Superior 

Bbuttlb skwino lucinms. 

fjjr* Orders lor the above received at this office. v4-33m. 




TREADWELL 



CO., 




CORNER Uf CALIFORNIA AND BATTERY STREETS. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

IMPORTERS, JOBBERS AND RETAILERS OF 

Hardware and Mining Toole; also, Agricultural Implement?, 
Field and Ga d ■!! .Si eds of all descriptions, from tne cele- 
bruted IIou, c of Messrs. Ruggles, Nuurse, Mason It, Co., 
Boston. 
Field and Garden Seeds of all varieties ; 
Ploughs, Harrows, Cultivator?, Seed Sowers, of all kinds; 
Tlne-liiT-, Reapers, Mowers, Fan Mills, Straw Cutters, Corn 
Shelters, Vegetable Cutter?, Cors and Flour Mills, Sausage 
Cutters and Stutters, Horse Powers, Smut Mills, 
Wheat Drills, Churns, Ox Yokes, Bovjj, Horse 
Rakes — together with all the small tools and 
implements appertaining to cultivation. 
N. B. — Brunch House at Marysville, All orders promptly 
attended to. v3-5 



San Francisco ahead of the World ! 

Ever on, on apace with the Age and Times ' 



Hui-rah for Vance's new Dasruerreat-. Gallery 1 

Largest Light in the World, (over 500 feet Glass. 1 * 

ffew Building, cor, Sacramento and Montgomery streets. 

XX T HY should every one s° to Vance's who v \ be 
VV PERFECT LIKENESSES1 Becou e he has now thu 
Dcst arranged Gallery on tlir Pacific Cuant, and not to 
passed by any in the world. Instruments containing Icnset 
more perfect, and with greater power than any evei ■■■ 
used in ibis country. 

2d. Because lie has titr larae$t light in the uorld, from which 

ho can form thr li-tinit lights— top, aide, and half eido Hehte 

— that now enables him to overcome the groat difficulty which 

even "int in this city has to contend with — namely : 1 lei 

in obtain perfect likenessess, different formed features require 
differently arranged lights, 

3d, Baling the largest light, he'ie enabled to make pictures 
in linli the tune of any other eatabll hment in the citj ; there 
fore they must be more peridot, fbrii is well known, the 
the time the more natural the exprc ntm, 

4th. Because evorj ptate is carefully proriared with d 
of pure Bilver which produces tbe 1 loftr,b< fd and lastuij 
1 1 m 1 is bo much admired, and wldcb cnnnoi bo produceaou the 
common 1 Intes, at they are now used liy otliei ni tieta. 

5th, Because bo has <>i late, after 1 
his chemtenl propai otions to poi 

tii 1 lv dtlmreut trom anything evei before u cd in the Hrt, which 
enables blm to produce perfect! ting, with 

tliat clear, soft and beautiful ton dunired in all hit 

picture*, 

All those wishing perfect likenesses will do well to call before 
, 11.:. ■ el ■•■" here, and judj ■■ foi thenwelvea, 

[j^* I'ii.i' :: and work superior to an* In the 

city. 

Don 1 ! forge! Ilic ]i I n f f . 

J5^* Neu I. 

streets, entranci Montgomery, next d to Austin'* ■■ 1 i 

Sui'Kcry. 

a b. colk. at d.. 

Late Loetttrrr on Surgm 

(i 

cat So 
S 
i 

Office — Athcneum Building, 
Soutli :,nd Cnhioruia streets, 

& Co 



R. R R. ('(U.K. (brnuu P 



m 

a lUOet - :. which 

tblj a 

principal eat all 

Surgical Disease*, 
feeling ■ 
Me.ii.nl 
practii ■ 



STEAMERS. 



California Steam Navigation Company. 

~ st!F"?Ja. ARRA \ ■ i FOR _ -njp**^ 



Dtpmrtun ft im Valltjo street tckarfat 4 o'clock, P. M. 

For Sacramento. 
VIA BENICIA 
Steamer SENATOR. Capt E, A Poole, Mostw. 

Tuesdays, Thurrdav» and Saturdays. 
Steamer ANTELOPE, I). Van PelLnuutci , 

Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 

For Marysville. 

VIA BENICIA. 

Daily t at A o'clock P. M. 

By the Sacramento Steamers, connecting with the'Company's 

LIGHT DRAUGHT STEAMERS at Sacramento. 

£3?* Through Tickets Lwued. 

For Stockton. 

VIA MARTINEZ. 
Daily, at 1 o'clock P. M. 
Steamer CORNELIA, E. Concklln, Master. 

Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 
Steamer UR1LDA, Clark, Master. 

Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. 

For Colnsi, Bed Bluffs and Intermediate Landings. 

Daily, at 4 o'clock l\ M. 
liy the Sacramento Steamers, connecting with the Company's 
LIGHT DRAUGHT STEAMERS, which leave Sacramento— 
Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, at 12 o'clock, M. 

C^ 5 Frrdgiicby the above boats must he paid for on delivery. 
For particulars apply at the office of the Company, Jackson 
street, uetn een Battery and Front, to 

SAM. J. HENSLEY, President. 
Office of the California Steam Navigation Co., ( 

Sun Francisco, May, 1855. 5 v4 1 



California Steam Navigation Company. 

r ■s?|K','^*tfc T' 10 splendid low pressure steamers Senator 

J ^X-^u i—a^/.-, and Antelope will leave on alternate days lor 

Sun l-'iuuci-co, at two o'clock, P. an., from the foot of K street. 

The steamer Senator, E. A. Poole, master, wih leave on 

Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 
The steamer Antelope, D. Van Pelt, master, will leave on 

Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. 
The steamer Helen Henslev, E. C. M..Chadwick, master, 
every Sunday at o'clock, p. m. 
For Marysville and Intermediate Landings, daily, at 7 o'clock, 
a. m., from bark Orb, 

Steamer Gov. Dana, W. H. Taylor, master, on Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday. 
For Colusi, Red Blutt', and Intermediate Landings. 
The steamer Belle, W. H. GHman, master, and steamer 
Gem. M. Littleton, master, will leave for the above named 
p'aces on Tuesday, Thursday aud Saturday, at 8 o'clock, 
a. m., Iron Btoreship Antelope. 
For Red BluttV.— The steamer Gem, M. Littleton, master, will 
lea ve at 10 o'clock, a. m. 
13F 3 For freight or passage by any of the above honts apply 
on board, or at the ofhee ot the Califi rnia Steam Navigatiou 
Company, on board brig Globe. 

v4 I A. REDINGTON. 



Contra Costa Perry Notice. • 

f ntil F« rth e r ffo lien, 
tTT°^*S 0N " mI after WEDNESDAY, Nov. 29, the 
"•^Contra Costa Ferry will run as follows : 

OAKLAND. SAN ANTONIO. 

At 8 A. M. At 7Vi A. K. 

11 Mi A. M. 11 A. M. 

It P. M. 2'fl P. M. 

CHARLES MINTURN, Agent, 
1 gbam's Wharf 



BAN FRANCISCO. 
At 9'- 2 A. M. 

iavt p. m. 

4 ' a r. M. 
v31C-3m 



For Bacruncnto mid Uarysvllle. 

«-T?"^^w THE Cirtzon's Steam Navigation Company's 

£J3aSC h ' ay, Mas 

for, wui commence her regular 1 1 

j and Saturday 

. ill I ■■'rick. 

a bonnL v4-l 



Prei ; iu Reduced. 

r ^I TT^W ("'ROM and alter the I-t ol June, the California 

• mo at $:t per too* until further 
: HENSLEY, P 



JStr 

noil 



Cnllforitln Stage ('ontpnuy. 



my <jff. ■ j*i y STAG for the following 

■ 

Si M 

■ ■■ 

I o'clock A. M. 

., it ,; ., 

All 01 

in line for Mormon Han 

All pi!- T.-ii .!■■ 1 will be ca I d ■ 11 al I ■ 
utniD-t Mr 
. 

II AWUKTH, rn>,dm 

J. P. Di buy. 



•clock r. M. 



L*ntrNt Import a tlo». 

II *i: w< ;. : . whcle*«",e and 

l > 

BTAPLB AND PAH 

which In 1 ' 

or San I i> 

' :<'ir .j I ■ <>r.: 

raaa. 
By tho T - -aon. 

M4 Rtbbon* ami Tiunnaings; 



jfens*, Yojaihs' and Boys' 

! Manufac;: 

■ 






ner nothing. 

-s for tbo 



boanlitq; 
OFF It 






U r moral . 

Tl C^mphan* work* » rooaoved 
It Fr\>ot tnct, bctwvm Day and Comowtrial. 

^nj Tamer** Oil, Can- 

Cb i niiim Fluid cofMCancrr mi bond »n-l 
r oale ml lh« tuweat market pnc*. 

WrLLIAM BA 
ObVol No. 79 Ftom ftnec. 
aUautacrory. TarWr acrect, North Brw*. 
8«a Frmacaica, M«y PI t J--^5 



IXHBNSI SVCHIKH'BI 
'■piIFK; ran>wine; 50 per cent. mr»y th**e hard 

X tunes, when you can purchase toe amine arriclea at 

M |m r • ■ mi. i liraper 
than in any other boose in C^fornia. 

IIILLKK i ANURF. 

Thc*e well known J •« • ler- will ininaw— "«j aelliac off their 
imn.fn.e stock of rich and valuable 

Fine Watcbea, 

Silverware, A- 
t do afvure Ac pnboc that tbere w a« 
kuwtoug in tnas and w« ar* Aeteraauted to cloae out cur 

lamtni* Stock at Coat, 

and invite dwpablK ta *~" -— « *»— ^-* ***>ii— ■■!.■■ before 

parcbadnf ti a f wbf ui. We have now. by au- the atrraat stock 

the Stare, aod u m ■ecaaaarj Bkat at miner oar stock. 

Rrmeuu*- "« J *:.-- ^t. amr the coriH-r or Jd «MI 



HOTELS. 



Orleans Hotel, 

Second, between J and K ttretu, Sacramento. 

MTHE shovo Hotel, oecupylng a space of 65 by 150 feet, 
In the most central part of the cuy, built of brick and 
three stories high, oftorauiducementato travelers not surpassed 
by an; establishmein in the State. 

Tin- L'limtid iloor in ert apart for Dining Room, Reading 
Room, Billiard Room and Bar Room. 

The Table will bo found at all tunes supplied with the choice 
oi tin> market 

Ai the Reading Room can always be found the dally papera 
oi thr Btate anil the latest dates Irom the Atlantic and Europe. 

The Billiard Saloon is furnished witb five excellent tables, 
lupermtended by a competent keeper. 

The Bar will !»■ supplied with the best Liquors and Wines. 

The second and third stories of the building are set apart for 
Parlor, Family Rooms and Ghambere, comfortably furnished, 

We bare also leased the large brick building comer of and K 
and Pront streets (formerly known as Saeltett's Hotel) set apart 
for Lodging Apaitments, which are furnished in a superior 
manner, which, added to the Hotel, will afford ample accommo- 
dations. 

The "Orleans" is also the Depot and Office of the California 
Stage Co., from which place Stages leave daily for all parts 
of the State! 

v-1-2 HARDENBURGH & CORSE, Proprietors. 



f American Hotel, Benicia. 

'i THIS HOUSE has befcn established Five Years, with 
i out interruption or change ot proprietorship, and is be- 
lieved by the traveling public to be one of the best conducted 
Hotels in the State. 

Large and well ventilated, and handsomely furnished rooms, 
for families travelling or for permument bourders, can always 
be obtained. 

A LIVERY STABLE is connected with the Hotel, so that 
travelers can have their choice, either to take the steamere and 
stages, or a private carriage, to any of the beautiful valleys 
around. Stages leave this Hotol every morning for the different 
valleys. 

The daily paptrs from various sections of the State are on 
file tit thid Hotel. Everything will be done by the proprietor 
that tbe patrons of tbis House may find their stay pleasant and 
satislnctory, 

3v-lli istt C. M. DAVIS, Proprietor. 



Wilson's Exchange, 

By Extabroolt fr James. 

MTHIS popular and extensively known Hotel, which for 
the last few weeks has been under the management of 
W. W. E.stabrook, has been painted throughout; new Furni- 
ture lias been added, and tbe house is now in complete order 
lor the reception ol the public. 

Mr. E-Uahrook baa formed a connection in business with Mr. 
P. T. James, who has been favorably known in the above 
Hotel, and recently at the International. 

Every possible exertion will be made by the present pro- 
prietora to render the above establishment the must popular in 
the State. v.;-j;> 



Rassette House. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

jTpfti THIS HOTEL otters inducements to persons visiting 
Bjjil San Francisco, unequalled by any on the Pacific Coast. 

Gentlemen con bo accommodated with single rooms,or finni- 
licH with suites of rooms, 

Tbe House is entirely new, built of brick ; all the rooms are 
IbrniBhod In a style "i "comfort hitherto unknown In the BotnU 

of California, and the House is cupable of accommodating uver 
rive hundred boarders, \-4- 1 



American Hotel 

NAPA CITY CALIFORNIA. 

L. A. & w. W. chapman, Propria 

MGOOD lci ions for fanulies, and on reasonable 

terms. Saddle and bupgy Horses kept for bh 

kept nu board, by the day or week, and well taken 0X0 Of. 26 



NEW BOOKS, 

ANNA CLAYTON; or Tur. Mothbk's TniAX. 12rno., 
cloth. Price ft (Two editions in one week.) 

A wr!l-<*i'in-eived and finely written bale, of high moral ex 

1 «'ttccb>e works issued during the past 

liar tale of tbe laasOD. — I B 
n i>t l.tirnkam'f Hvtory of Ik* H. .. 
| 

or says, "The sale of thia book has al* 
two weeks, i" 80/ 
■v •■! the Hen I 
Bpbadl* written and Il- 
lustrated, and ;- It will vurely 
■ 

i Dr. J. V. C. Smith, Mayor of 
: 75c 
It in I D It Will bare n large aalr, fur it 

in about real Turks and their 
. 

1 1 liable 
ith, $5. 



1 . 

i ■ 
ad Aads; sr, ta* lH»hmm }am t y. lfri, 

bfesaaui Tranalaled from the Hebrew. lt?mo., 

.' t an.t Vrrr'i'rd. l*no..rl 
4*k*r Tales, ltiuxx. cl 

■ -*. Fourteentb edttion. 32u, 

\£ ; or, t\e Song* of IAV FU^rert. 33mn., cloth. 

Jmo^ fflt 37 cent*. 



BH 



on : i tampiHiu. :: 
tbe Pactbc Od and Caaapbeoe VTorks rn Sacra 

_ mento, 

era that he baa eats/awbed a depot at M X street. Sat runraCO 
utsms the acb«.Ooa at 
h eoo»u<e ol V. a: . Spersa, L i 
1 1» Taawsni'. Black F»b, aad Mat : 
■rptaKJBO and AkuboL wbuas bs> sinuu pmre 

if ihties whsrb ba* i» i trwar» e works sdNd, wfl! 
bam b» keep on bead a bwve atocfc, aad *app*v aVaksrs at daa 



■ '■ :». 



-hw. Paper. 

t Rooka. 

ediuun. dm , cloth, extra. 



T* r **>r<r. A Tabs oi Mei 
P-pular 

• Book-Kmtpnf. 1 

r'* Book-Kmefing, by atrurle entry, rxrmpufied In two 
aeta of books. Buarda. 3S cents. 

m •£ I ' r ~ ■'< ■'«* /'-aav«a»*->. Twenty -seventh 

-mswen itted to reach everything which 
can be tara*ht of the tbeory ot Pronsaaahsp.— (Poet. 

Tbe be»~t aod snost u-efol pubbcatiun of tbe kuaf that we 
have aeen. — ; Tranacript. 
Baaaraca a/ 

Baton Gopf-BooO, «9 cents. 
Lodm* Omffhemk, 17 eeasB. 
Jaaasa F.^memmry f-n-R-Jt. 13 rents. 
Oaafs Symttm of Pe*mm*thi». 37 cents. 

• cwta. 
FtfcA'i Sen- H~nti*r &»k, wttb a fine g J Bj XBS od copy on 
each parr In tour nombers. 

ntotns the Ftral Principles 10 eta. 

3 Abac Copy Haad.... lo » 

3 A r>. Ad P aai n aas Hand WritJng 10 - 

4 l^orifnl Epaarolary Wruiae fur tbe Lady 10 ■ 
A n^rm- aad orunaaJ ry-tem 

6bU to neet wnb tavor.— (Bee. 

It u eaady acoairad. practical aad beaut. 

.-) <a hi r--e-Tiyuarib^r. raprr> r M aaj 
r I saat A — jStar H sssa jlB d Baaawr 



HORTICULTURAI 



Fruit anil Ornamental Trc< 

THE subscribers desire tocaU the attent 
California to their Unmenso stock of Fruit and On lontal 

Trees, Shrubs and Pianta. Their Nurseries have been sixteen 
years established, and now cover more than 300 acre.- of land. 
Phe foliowlrur, among other articles, ore cultivoted on a most 
extensive scale and can ba supplied to dealers or amateurs at 
the lowest market prices j 

Standard and Dwarf Apples, of various size? ; 

do do do Pears, do do 

do do do Cherries, do do 
da do do Plums, do do 

Apricots, Peaches, Nectarines, Currants, Gooseberries, Straw- 
berries and other fruits usually grown. 

Stocks and Seeds of all kinds for Nurserymen will be sup- 
plied in large or small quantities, if application bo made pre- 
vious to the l-t of September. 

Ornamental Deciduous Trees, ornamental Evergreen Tree), 
Flowering Shrubs, Roses, Dahlias, Green-house Plants, &c. 

Packing ts done in the must •■artful and skillful maimer, *Q 
that purchasers have a reasonable guarantee of receiving their 
articles in good ardor. 

The following catalogues will be sent gratis, prepaid, to all 
who apply and enclose one stamp for each : 
No. 1. Descriptive Catalogue ot Fruits, 
N". 2. do do Ornamental Trees, &c. 

No. 3. do do Dahlias &, Green-house Plants. 

No. 4. A Wholesale or Trade list for Nurserymen and Dealers. 
Address, ELLWAUOER. & BARKY, 

v3-S5 Mount Hope Nurseries, Rochester, N. Y. 



Flowers ! I- lowers I ! 

GOLDEN GATE NURSERY, 

Comer Fourth and Folsom street*. 

Office 170 Washington street, San Francisco. 

PERSONS desirous ot embellishing their gardens or conser- 
vatories, will find at this eetablwhinent the largest etock 
and greatest variety of plorjts to be found on the Pacific COOtiC 
Among which are : 
Cumelio Japonicas, in 70 varieties; Perpetual Roses of all the 
classes; fragrant and fancy Geraniums; Passidoras, 
Heliotropes, Verbenas, Honeysuckles, Abutilons, 
Myrtles, Oleanders, Jessamines, Fuschias, Du- 
phhes, Dahlias, Bulbous Roots', Orna- 
mental Shrubbery ; and a general 
assortment of Green House and 
Hardy Thiols. 
Orders for shipment lo any part of the State will be carefully 
executed by addressing 1). NelBon, 170 Washington street, or 
the proprietor, Box 1,957 Post-office. 
v3-9-3m W. C. WALKER. 



Bookseller's ami Stationer's 

WHOLESALE .t\l> RETAIL WAREHOUSE, 

WE beg to call attention to the following catalogue, which 
comprises in part our stock oi'bouks nod stationery. 
Bv the recent arrival of clippers, our assortment of goods in 
this line has been mode very complete, and we feel sure th»t 
the public will find it to their interest to call and examine our 
stuck before making purchases elsewhere. 

Blank Books. — Ledgers, Journals, Cash. Invoice, Day and 
Record Books, in Russia, Sheep and Muslin Binding. Copying 
Books, indexed and Pluin Memorandums, Bank and Pass Bucks, 
Diaries, Sec, &c. 

Paper. — Brief, Letter, Cap, Note, Envelope, Tissue, Blotting 
and Filtering Papers, 

Stationery, — A complete assovtment of Law, Counting 
House and Fancy Stationery, 

BotfNn Books. — A large and splendid assortment of Law, 
Standard, School and Miscellaneous Books, including ninny Id 
rich fancy binding, suitable fin presents. 
Blanks.— Law, Shipping ana Cu«tora House Blanks, 
Miscellaneous,— Gold Pens, Razors and Elasor Strops, 
■ i '. tilery, Toilet Brusl l |! d, Date, t t Office 
jitnl Envelope Boxes ; Portable Dork", < lents 1 Dn Cs 

Toilol and Worh Cs '■■ and Retieuio , Porl Uonaios, 
Glasses, Fancy Articles, dux, &c. 
On the mi Iva] of each steamer we receive n lull Bupply of all 
■ . i'i.-i -i lo] . R ". lev ■ and Magazines 

fed hi America and England, which wo can luntteb so all 
ii quantities to suit. 

GEO. W. MURRAY A- CO, M>. memory Block. 
N. B. — Particular atteul ing orders. v4-l 



To Fttriin'i**, li.»t*l KeepesTt, Rsmeheroei dc Otsseie* 

BDSHAW \, CO., having wred Into their New and 
ni the 

IVISIONS in tiii 

■ can alwav* bat 

irougballtbo oxpreatei «»r by noeiL Our steak oon* 
dsts of 

i Crashed Loaf Suj;«r ; 

Tea | 

Mesa and Clear Pork. In quartet sod half barrel"; 

I half barrels; 

■ 

■ 

■ 

N. B. i 

■ 

it i. it in PetnaJe Hemlnsu y. 

HE I 



T'xf 



.- •--..-. t i * M .- mi : 'i I r- r.-n tidy, n- skilled in Diawinp, 

tnrtment are entirely under the 

Term- ■■ raruibly in adrane/,) 

-.. Enclian branetMv, per week.. #7 50 
Wadua?. t *-r d"itn... '^ 

Freaeb, Spanish and Drawuu. per im I 3 00 

10 OJ 

. i k*a . • 

MARY ATKINS, Priudiial 

i, Irosi Wa 

S'-TWa 
i-rs to 
tbe pub: i r rn«na>- 

■ 
WV-". Braas Caathaaa. " -1 pat- 

tem*. Bloom boa. Cm 'Vinduw Caps or eatira 

Coatraetora and other* wui do well by patronirinc tbla aatab- 
haanaeat, aa tbr • Termed with greater dwpateb 

and at lower prfeee than any Ptl 

Tbe eonapany have e^ts rated tfadr Pier, and erected a largo 
crane for tb<t aceomaaodlariop nf tbof 
apply to 



eoeMr Ianalaaaaarff aaal Saaaaaaaaa aweeSjaSai *■ ■-< 

Ri---.iT. f:r, m '■ ■ r>r.;< ">'■ ri* 



H 



linpnrl.i.l lo lh. lhli,w> ol I «>I... .!». 

I W..y. t T.. Ifarta. wfauJ— k 

•ad r«fml dAsler u fmh B«tt«r, Cbnse ud t'.:z: ba.- 

tk* air o< Ike j>mdac*> of ro» imkrj tat 



• or ««ox--«- *"""! 10.D-. 'illwi 






THE RICH JUTB fOOB. 
OTHES K>CMA Bj tb> Bordi-r 

»: OR, THE PRIZE OF Til. 
OK, MK- .HI) Hti 

3RY TELLER, 

* freaof paaufe i y o»a» ned 



n-ry**-. ■■■» ■ '■■ -*» ■ 

tfci".».«,» b>l. i ■ Rwarr •»• Che. 



\ 



I RE5CH & CO., Publisher., 

■ alkaMaafs 



W Mat, -^ tari-te «<>!SBBBBBBBBl 

*toMplf*f<-*n •* -fpenor ««*IT : - 
■yir. W^ ™l-k,«r*- t»-. • 
M»«mJI«W, w\i ■ or! 
Mi <H Jmxw*. 

CaARXEt Ta 



48 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 



Gi;i r Snake Fight. — Mr. Daniel Terry man, 
communicates to the Massillon (Ohio) News a 
thrilling encounter he had tfith a rattlesnake. 
On lirst discovery, his snakeship «as preparing 
to appropriate to his use a squirrel by the side of 
the road, but probably fancying larger game, -pr.t 
after" Mr. T.. who gave " leg bail," and ran. On 
finding that the gap between hfm and the snake 
was closing, Mr. T. sought the first weapon in the 
shape of a club, and turning gave the snake a 
blow just as the reptile was pausing and gathering 
for the fatal spring. The blow just came in the 
nick of time, and just in the right spot, severing 
the head from the body. Mr. T. says after the 
head was severed the body continued to run in 
different directions, as is generally the case pre- 
vious to death — but in this case it continued for 
an unusual length of time, owing no doubt, to the 
size of the reptile, and the amount of musular 
strength which it possessed. After it became 
sufficiently quiet, so that it could be straightened 
out, lie measured it closely, and found it to be ex- 
actly six feet eleven inches in length, by nine and 
a half inches in circumference, being the largest 
one of that species that has even been seen in that 
region of country. 



NEW BOOKS. 



Jane O'Fogarty's Description. — The sub- 
joined advertisement is extracted from an lri^h 
newspaper : " Missing from Killarney, Jane 
O'Fogarty, she had in her arms two babies and a 
Guernsey cow. all black, with red hair and tor- 
toiseshell combs behind her ears, and large spots 
all down her back, which squints awfully." 



"Never be critical to the ladies." was the 
maxim of an old Irish peer, remarkable for his 
homage to the sex; "the only way a true gentle- 
man ever will attempt to look at the faults of a 
pretty woman, is to shut his eyes ! " 

To enjoy to-day, stop worrying about to mor- 
row. Next week will be just ascapableof taking 
care of itself as this one. And why shouldn't it ? 
It will have seven days more experience. 




IT IS A V I X ET1 IT ACT 

CONSUMPTION CAN BE CURED.' 

SIR JAMES CLARK, Physician to 
Queen Victoria, and one ot the most 
learned and skilllu) men of the age, in 
hi* " Treatise" on Consumption, Bay*: 
"That Pulmonary Consumption admits 
of a cure, is no longer a matter of doubt ; 
it has been clearly demonstrated by the 
researches of Ltennec and other paatolo- 
exists." Dn. Cabswell, whoinve^ticitted 
such matters probably as thoroughly as 
any man, says : " Pathological anatomy ha.-*, perhaps, never af- 
forded more conclusive evidence in proot of the cut ability of a 
di-ease than it has in that of tubercular phthisis," (pulmonary 
consumption.) 

It Is no Fiction. 
These statements are made by men who have demonstrated 
what they say, time alter time, in the crowded hospital, and in 
the truth' telling directing room. They are from men who 
have no possible motive for publishing what is untrue, or em- 
blazoning falsehoods. 

The Remedy tchieh ve offer 

Dr. Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry, 

has cured hundreds of ca es of 

Consumption of the Lungs, Liver Complaints, Coughs, 

Colds, Asthma, Bronchitis. Whooping Cough, 

InSueiiza, &c. 

Many ol them after every known remedy had failed to reach the 

d^ease. • 

We can present a mass of evidence in proof of our assertion that 
Cannot be Discredited. 
Da. BOTDKN, a Physician in Maine, eaja: "' ham recom* 
d the u*e o! DR. WISTAR'S BALSAM OF W1LH 
CHERRY lor di-ea-e- . f the Inn.'- lor two years | 
many buttles to my knowledge have boon used by my patients, 
ill with beneficial results. In two ca-e>. whei e it was thought 
O mnrmed Consumption had taken place, the Wild Cherry el- 
ected a cure. 

Da. A. H. MaCanaib, of Tarboro, North Carolina, writpc un, 
•.nderriateaf Feb. N, 1854, that he has u-cd DR. WISTAR'S 

;ALSAMOF WILD CHERRY iu hi- practice thelast eighteen 
■louth-, and considers it the best preparation of the kind he 
,cr taw, and knows of none so deservinc the public | mi mi 1 go. 

Da. Wat A. Siiaw. of Washington, D. C.t-ny*: "I wi h 
<earty success to yuur medicine. I consider every case Of ar- 
•i-t of the !atal symptoms of pulmonary disease ne u direct 
■ ibute to suli'eriiiL; humanity. 

Samuel A. Walker, K.-rp. a gentleman well known in (his 
i-jiiiiiy, writes as rulluw : ''Having ext»erit*nced result* of a 
ttisfactory character, from the use ol WISTAK'S 11ALSAM 
IF WILD CUERRY in ca-es of severe cold*, durine the past 

o yeans ' iilu induced tu express the gratification 1 feel from 

e lavortiiiio effects thai I'll wed, and use the loll leiifa I have 
. the renovating power ol Winter's Balsam ol Wild Cherry. 

Hon. Samuel S. Perkins says: "For several days I 1 ml 

ien eiinering from the efleete ol asevere coIcL accompanied 

» a very sore throat and rick headache, which completely in- 

■ citiited me from bnsineas. I hud taken but a very Email 

irtii n ot a single botne of this BuLam, when 1 experienced 
•nnediate rebel. My COOgfa Was broken up at once, and my 

ags entirety relieved from [he pressure which hud become to 

infill 

[From the Boston Journal.) 
Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cberry. 

"This medicine, coming trom a respectable r-<mrce,aud enre- 
illy prepared by an espericuced nnd tkilllul physician, is 

cJnved by the public with confidence. Its efficacy has been 
■oved in many obdurate cases of diseate, and its fame has 
pidly extended." 

I' id a powerlul remedy for Asthma, as will be seen by the 
lowing cure: "Sir — Having been afflicted lor more than 
■rty years with the A-thina, at times so soienly a- EOinoa- 
.it.iio mo from attendance to business, and having adopted 
. my nialicined without any hut temporary relie', I purchased 
fern] bottle- of WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY, 
-m the effects of which 1 obtained morercliej than from all 
■ medicine I had ever taken lor that ditto* ing di.-otder. 1 
vf, by the repeated u-e ol your valuable Balaam, been more 
•e ol pressure for breath, and oppression on the lump, than 1 
cicipated, and, indeed, conceive myncli cured ol t!i< moat dis- 
irtening malady. C. D. MAYNARD. 

lrgu±> Ollico, Portland, March 26, 1850." 

Fifty Thousand Per?0CS die nnnually in England of Con- 
ipnen I In the New England States the proportion is one 
uiurorfiva In Boutof, probably, one in lour, In the city 
Now Yi/rk 'ixty—cven dad in two weekB, in December, of 

u disease. T.o mare feci thai such « dleease i- ever curable, 
i; ted by suuh uuimpeaolniblc authority, should inspire hope 
1 reanimate tailing courage in the heart of Sufferer from thb 

Beware of Count* i f< Its and Imitations— Syrunf, 
d all other preparations ol Wild Cherry. Remember, they 
dure i» name, without possessing the virtues. Boy none hut 
-j getrarae 

Ox. Wistar's Balsam of "Wild Cherry. 

Bigued L BUTTd on the wrapper. 
8EIH W. FOWLE, 

Proprietor, Boston, Mass. 

Agents for San Francisco, 

B. B. T1IAYRR &. CO., 

U juI.uui. i v ■ ii ■■•"•(. 



c. ^r. saxton & co., 

AGRICULTUKAL BOOK PUBLISHERS. 

CM. SAXTON & CO., 152 Fulton street, New York, offer 
* for sale tin- fallowing late and valuable publications ; 

Downino's (A. J.) Landscape Gakdemng. Atrtatifeon 
the theory and practice ot laacUcape Lindeuing. Adtipred tn 
North America, with a view to the improvement ol count ly 
residences, corripriptng historical notice- and General principles 
of the art. Diiecrions lor laying out grounds and arranging 
plantations, the de ciiption aud cultivation of hardy frees dec- 
oration accomimnimenrs to the house and ground, the forma- 
tion of pieces ol arrificitil water, flower enrdoti?, etc, with re- 
remarks on rural architechiie. Elegantly illustrated with a 
portrait of the author. By A. J. D iwniug. Price, $■). 

The Pbactical Fruit", Fluwed ani> Kitciil-n Cardi-n- 
eh's Companion, with a Calendar. By Patrick Neilf, LL.D. 
Adapted to tlie Uuiied States, from ibe fourth edition, revised 
and improved -by the author. Edited by <J. Erderson, Mil 
With notes tmd additions by R. G. Pardi e, author of '' Manual 
of the Strawberry Culture. With illustrations. Price, $1 25. 

Munn's (B.) Fh^cTicAi. Land-Dhaini:^ ; being a freatue "n 
draining laud, iu which the most approved - ym>'ui- ol drainage 
are explained; with fall directions lor the cutting^nd making 
ofdrains.and with many illustrations. By B. MunnV'andscape 
Gardener. Price CO cents. 

Elliot'6 (F. R.) Amebican Fruit-GriWEr's Gcide in 
Orehaid and Guidon ; being a compeud ul tlio history, modes 
of propagation*, oulture, &c., of rruit, trees and shrubs, with 
descriptions ol nearly all ihe varieties oflruitd cultivated m this 
country; and noti^s of their adaptation t i t ■caliDes, -oil-, and « 
complete lUt of tiuit- worthy ut cultivation. By F. B. Elliot, 
PomologisL Price, $1 50. 

Dadd's (Geo. II ) Amebican Cattle Doctor: containing 
the necessary information tor preserving I bealth ard curing 
the diseases of oxen, cows, cheep -mi .-u me, with a great va- 
riety of original receipts nnd valuable inlurmation in i eference 
to larm and diiiry managemenr, whereby everv man can bo his 

own cattle doctor. By' G. H. Dudd, M.I', Vi iury Piac- 

ticioner. Price $1 25. 

Norton's (John P.) Elements vf SCIENTIFIC Agricul- 
ture; or, The Connection between Sci and the Ait of 

Practical Panning. (Prise E - n v ol tin N iw York State AJari* 
cultural Society.) By John I J . Norton, M.A., PrOlessor oi Sci- 
entific Agriculture in Yale College. Adapted to the use of 
Schools. Price, 75 cents. 

Johnston's (James F. W.) Catechism of Agricultural 
Chemistry and GeoliCv. Adapted to the use ol Schools. 
Prico, 05 ceute. 

Johnston's (James F. W.) Elements of Agricultural 
Chemistry and Geoli gy. With ;> compf< te annlytical und 
alphabetical index, and an American pcefaCft By lion. Simon 
Browu. Price, $1 25. 

Johnston's (James F. W.) Agricultural Chemistry. 
Lectures on application of cbemistrj nnd geology to agricul- 
ture. New edition, with an appendix, containing the author's 
experiments in practical agriculture, Prii ■■. |l 50. 

Smith's (C. H. J.) 1 andscape Gardening, Parksi and 
Pleasure Grounds. Witn practical aute^ on cuuutrj resi- 
dences, villas, )iuhlic parkii and gardena. By Charles H. J. 
Smith, Land cape Gardener and Garden Architect, ic. With 
notes and additions by Lewi-- F. Allen, author ol " Rural Archi- 
tecture," Slc. Price, $) 50. 

13P* The above books will he sent to C.dfornia/r« of posi- 
agc. \4S 3f. 



. MEDICAL. 



HENRY WARD BEECHER'S NEW BOOK!— 20,000 
copies sold iu four weeks. 

STAE PAPERS; 
oa, 
EXPERIENCES OF NATURE AND ART, 
Is rtnv i 
One elegant 12mo. Price, $1 25. 
CONTENTS. 
I. Lettebs from Europe. II. Experiences op Nature. 
A Diso nrsfl of Flowers. The Death i l our AJmanae. 

Death n the Country. Foe. in the Haibor. 

Inland v«. Seashore. Tin* Morals ol Fishing. 

New Enland Graveyards. The Wandering ol a Star. 

Towns and Trees. Bookstore — Books. 

TheFirM Breath in theCountry. Gone to th< V. uhtry, 
Tmuting. Dream-I 

A Ride. A Walk >■>•> , g Trees. 

The Mountain Stream. Building ^ 1 1 

A Country Bide. The L' o <<i th BeautiJuL 

Farewell to the Country. Mld-Oetobcr I> ijs. 

School Reminiscence. A Moid Li tti r. 

Tuc Value ol Birds. Prod In the Window. 

A Rough Picture from Life, Snow Storm Ti nvelin?. 
A Ride to Fort Hamilton. Nuturo a Minister "i Uappiness. 

Sights from my Wind iw. Sfritu'- and Solitudi 

J. C. DERBY, Pabhaber, Men York, 
v4-3 And lor (-ale by all Booksellers, 



VALUABLE AGRICTTLTTJRAL BOOKS, 

PUBLISHED by 

JOHN P. JErVKTT & CO., Boston, 
And for sale by all t'.c Bot 

Dadd'e Modern Horse Doctor, 

By (Ieo. II. Dadd. 

Tuo celebrated Veterinary Surgeon. 

Schcnck'e Kitchen Gardener's Text Books, 
A complete guide for the cultivation of the Kitchen Garden. 

Cole on the Diseases of Animals, 

By T. W. Clle. 

Editor or the Now England Farmer. 

Cole's American Fruit Book. 

Tiir besl bo» k out lor the Fruit Grower. 

Breck's Book of Flowers. 

A complete Guide for the Florist. 

Lenchard on the Hot House. 

Tuoir Heating, Construction and Ventilation. vi-'. 



TOBACCO. 
Virginia Manufactured Tobacco Agency. 

GREENE, HEATH A. ALLEN have removed in m Calnor- 
uui -iiri't to the cor. 01 Waahington and Batter 
where they offer for sale the largest and best asaortment ol 
Manufactnred Tobacco ever brought to thi- Stare. Ti a 
lion was made by Mr. Heath Irom the best tartoricd in Vir- 
ginia j and the trade generally an- respectfully invited to culi. 
Amongst the brands olered are tlie foil iwiug : 
300 boxes Ci umptou'p Four Ace^ ; « 
15 hall boxea do Medal j 
50 packages do Sovereign of the Seas 
Gil do do Bride ot the Pacific ; 

loo boxes HalsrVe FourA's: 

100 do Sauuder^' Harry of the West; 
50 do J.;iir- BoydV Gold Leal ; 
50 do do Aiiiiti Bi.-lioji ; 

25 do A Thomas* Club House ; 

50 do Ferguson's Star oi the West : 

50 do Miller & Cterabaw's Blutl City ; 

20 do Roystcr'e May** Own; 

40 do do Iiivincihlo; 

100 do Thomton'p Cautekip' ; 
50 do Dickinson's Witch's Eva ; 
50 do Crosby &. Wool ten V Metropolitan. 
Iu ndduion to the above, we have 2,000 packages of ordinary 
brand* ; and a* We tell exclutively on Commistion for the M.tu- 
ufacturers ol Vlrgmla, we can lurnith tlic trade wfch tiny quan- 
tity or quality required, at U e lowest rate-. *3-l6 



I.cw Invention ' 
Now, (uui.t \i.ui Chlcltenall 

THE undersigned bega leave to w.cr to the public a now nnd 
unproved machine for hatching the eggs oi it> meetic fowls. 

Aiioi ii eei let ol cottly experimenta the pn prietor hat suc- 
ceeded in perfecting u P'*" J ''J' whichat a vet y timing cost Irom 
four to Jitt hftndrcd egga ci.n tic couveiti <i daily luto young 
Chickens, Duck . G islings or Turkeye. After the tir.-t brOud, 
r. e^ niuctoi-u or tweuiydays,-thia U the certain re-ult; audit 
requires biil little BUenliOt; — ouca evory twenty-lour hour*— 
the cost ol i n* -t ami preparation being only some $3 50 to $1 
nary t« enty day it. 

This invi iitmu will be in full operaliun at the Stale Fair at 
the city oi Si.crauicuio, iu September aext, when nil Iniunna- 
tiou will be pie<eutod. They will cuou he otlciod lur i-ulc. lo 
the on nut nor intot matlou can be obtained at Uie Ulice of the 
Calikubma Karmii ;ur letters can bo addreaepd romeal S.u 
Piamifco. JOHN J. FULTON, 

V ':C Tuirj ttroct, South Beach, near Sjnth Yah. 



SANDS' SAESAPARILLA. 

IN QUART BOTTLES. 
For FarlfylHg the Blood, and for the Cure of 

Scrofula, i:hnn::a!i.~TP, Stvbbom I'trcr.*, Du^piptia, Salt- 
Jt/nutOy Fever Sort?, Erysipelas, Pimples, BiUs, Mercu- 
rial Disease*, Cutaneous Eruption*, Liver Com- 
plain', I'.riwchit.i- , Consun\ptioto, Female Com- 
plaint?, Loss of Appetite, General Dtbiluj, 
.Y<\, V., tfC 

IN this preparation all the restorative properties of the root 
are concentrated jit their utmost strength and efficacy; but 
while Barsaparilla Root forma an impoitttnt part of its com- 
bination, it is, at the enme time, compounded with other vege- 
table remedies of great power, and it ia iu the peculiar com- 
bination and Ecientihc manner ot its preparation, that its 
remarkable success 1* the cure of dUea^e depends. It acta 
£imultniieuu*!y upon the stomach, the circuiniiun and the 
bowels ; and lhu. ; three prcce^ee.-, which are ordinarily the re- 
eult of the three tliilcrcnt kind.^ ol medicine, are earned on at 
the same time, through the instrumentality of (At* one remedial 
agent which gently stimulates while it disinfects aud expela 
from the etoumch and bowels all that is irritating, and at the 
same time restores their vigor and tone. Many other prepar- 
ations imitate it iu bearing the name of Sarsaparilla,ehd in that 
their reseublunce end*, being often prepared from worthless 
and inert roots, And ol course posaesB no healing or curative 
properties, and patients in Facing choice of which they will 
use should take no other, but thai one entitled to their couli- 
dence, from thofirai Listol cured it has eU'ected on living wit- 
nesses, whose tc tiinonutla and reelii ace have boon published, 
and who ure t-till bearing daily testimony to its worth. 
Astonishing Cure 

Patterson, N. Y., July 20, 1851. 

Heasrs, A B. & D. Sands: Gentlemen, — Having witnessed 
the mort beneficial enters (rum the <i-o of your Sureap&rilla, it 
give* me plcneure to send j ju thctollowlngntatementm regard 
t., my son. Io the spring ot 18-18 he took' u severe cold, and 
alter eight weeks' ol severe buW ■ >e fettled In bU 

leg and foot,' which soon swelled to the ntmost The swelliug 
w-hs Innced by bit physician, and discharged most profnselj j 
after that no !•■-- tiian eh veH ulci n formed on the teg and foot 
at one time. We had five differenj physicians, but none re* 
liered him much; aiftl tlio bun winter found him so emaciated 
and low tlmi he was unable to leave hii bed, suftering the most 
excruciHung pain. Daring this time the bone had become so 

much atlectca thai j ■■■ Biter piece came out, ol which he imp 

now mure lhan twenty -live preserved En i b ittle, varying from 
one-half to oin- and a-hulf inched in length. We had given up 
all hopes of in- recovery, but at this rune we wore mducrd to 
try your Boreaparilhi, nod with it* u±e hie bealth and appetite 
began immediately to improve, and t^o rapid was the change 
that less than b dozen bottles eSected u perfect cure. 
Vt'itb gratitude, I remain tiuly voura, 

DARIUS BALLARD. 

AVe the nnder^hjned, Deighbore of Mr. Ballard, cheeriully 
eubotribe lo the ■ ive statement; 

H. & !L S. Havt, A. M. Trowbridge, 

Geo. T. Dean, C. Eastwood. 

Prepared and sold, wholesale and retail, by A. B. & D. 
SAIiDS, Drugejsta nod Chemists, lOOFblton htroi.-r, corner ot 
William. New York Sold also by Druggi t- generally throuirh- 
out tile United States aud*CanHdas. Price $1 per bottle; tix 
bottlec tor (3. 

For eale by Henry Johnson i Co., 146 Waahineton Street, 
Sun French CO j S. T. Watts, Mury . ville; and HOWARD & 
CO., Sacrtimente. v4-5 ifm 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



PERUVIAN FEBRIFUGE, 

rORTHE PREVENTION AND CUBE OK 

FK\Klt AND AGt/E, 

Intermittent and RcmiUeii I , Zitttr Complaint*, Jaundice, 

Dumb .Agar, I Enlargement of 

tin. $}>!■ • n, and all the difft rent farm* of Bilioui 1/istast ». 

THIS preparation is intended especially as a remedy fur the 
prevention and cure of ('ever and Ague, but it is equally 
adapted io other forms of disease, euqh as bilious, intermittent 
and remittent fevers, dumb ague, dec. It* combination being 
entirely new, it differs widely in its therapeutic effects and op- 
eration on the (-j -too j, from other preparati d de* igned no re- 
move the tl.-ri'-o; and such has boon the uniform Euccess in it« 
admini i knofrn where it has failed to cure 

when fin nful wIU often prevent an 

attack of i iperating so effectually as 

u palliative, its permanency is equally reliable, end no fears 
need be entertained < i any injury resulting from it.; us< 
component pa I i have been thoroughly 

te.-i d by im.nj eminent phyoichtn with the most signal euc- 
ceaa. In all climate where biliou and remittent fevers prevail, 
this remedy will be found invalunblo, and no person ti 
through, or residing in infedted Id be without it. 

Read the following Testimony. 

Bsoi klyn. N. V,. Aug, 25, 1853. 
Messrs. A. R. & D. Sa nos — (i.'niinn n: Havinti en the 
paft Joar it verelv attiicted wuh Fever and Ague, ami living In 
adhitrici wheie I have breu con tantly exposed to r< 
attackr, Itriedi red remedies lor tha cure 

complaiut, aud among them took lour bottles ol Indis i 
gogui*, wiihoui producing tiny thing bul a pan ml relief; By the 
advice ol n frii ad, I was luduced to try the Peruvian Febrifuge 
and am happy to tay the verj lirsi dosedid mi much good, i i d 

less !■ ■ b tile entij i '■- ! " 4 up the i ■ 

appetite, regulRted my bowels, nnd erlected an entire cure. It 
una cured i i I my children, Btfbcted tne tame as my .-oh, ami 

I have on. Ugh leit tO*CUi e IWO n lloif tn no. A do-- ire Io re- 
lieve tbi is 1 have done, alone induces me to muke 
the above Btatement. Yours, very truly, 

EDWAltD MERER. 

Trice SI SO per bnt 1p. Prepared ami sold, wholesale and 
retail, by A. B. St D. SANDS, D o^ i ts and CI emisl . No. imi 
Fulton Btrvet, comer oi William, Kew Fork. Sold nh>o hy 
Dnhjgista geuendly. 

For sale by Henry Johnson A Co., 146 Washington etreet, 
San Fianci-co; S. T. Walts, Mary, ville; and HOWARD & 

CO., Sacra meu to. v4-"> Um. 



Dl'Ojrs ! Di'iij;» I Dni;,s I 
JUST received and for gale cheap for caahi by 

J. L L'OLHSMUd, DVuggist, 

comer J und Seveulfa atedCta. 
10 barrels Alcohol ; 
150 lb- Balsam Conavta, (original package ;) 
i . Bath Brick: 5 groaa'CapsDjea j 

2 1 ' do/ Cungram Wutoi ; 
1000 thj Cream TiMar, (warranted pure;) 

so lb- Curruaive Sublimate j 

50 n . .■■ ( '.i i Lie Soap ; 
100 tbs (mm Camphor; 
li ti lb.-* SpanUi Indigo; 

20 '•/. Sulphate Morphine; 
300 lbs Irirh MunB; 
■j jim.- Lubin'a Excraccs, assorted; 

50 lb- i). I l.'iio ii, i warranted pure;) 

iM il 7.eii Olive Oil; 

10 lb.. Ii d. Pots ; 
]iNl lb- Spirits Nitie, concentrated; • 

BOO i lt»- Sal Soda ; looi) lbs EpsOU SaltB; 
5<li tb- Sup. Call). Soda; 

24 1 1 izen P. P. SyiiugOS, glutta; 
3no h*>. Tapioca; 

iitlO L"Of- a-eoiiod Vials; 
2iO0 lb- White Lead; 
500 lb- a^aortcd Paints, ground in oil; 
•J u-itf Putty; L0 packs (fold Loaf; 

25 gruri- Hills, a-oriod: 

S gross Sanraparillas, aasortedi 
Sim boxes Window Blttvs; 
200 <l izen Bmall rlxed Castor Oiln ; 
And otnei Dru^'r and Modicum** too numerous to mention, all 
ot which will be cold low, by 
\S-24 3. L. POLUEMUS. 




ST0R2 



COLLINS & CO., 
PRACTICAL HATTERS, 

(PBEMIUM HAT SToBK,) 

157 Commercial street, San Francisco. 

THE undersigned would take this opportunity to leturn their 
thanks to their friends nnd the public generally lor the very 
liberal -hnre ol patronage which they have received. They take 
pleasure in now announcing that they an- dotei mined that no 
.uie .-Imll surpass them in the beauty, or finish, or quality of a 
Hat ; that no L'otit shall wear a finer Hat than can lie found at 
Collins & Co.'s Warehou/e. 

The proprietors of this establishment esert themselves to 
manufacture to order the Inte-t styles and moal approved pat- 
terns. The ctock of HATS and CAPS, nl every kind, now 
on hand, cannot he surpassed in this city. 
-v4-l COLLINS & CO. 




CORNER UF FIRST STftBST AMU MAIDEN LANE, 

MAEYSVILLE. 

Corner of California and Battery tit l , San FranctiCO, 

\ . 56 Federal ttrett, B»»tnn 

Importers of Hardware, iron, Steel, Cordiute, Paints, Oil 

Varnish and Window Glass, direct from ii»- Atlantic Sjateaan 

Europe, with a complkte assortment of tools and implx 

ments for Farmers, Winers, Carpenters, Cooptrs, Oipttten ant 

Gravers, Saddler's, Turners, Masons, Smiths, Paint rs, (Hazier* 

Skip Carpenters, Jfheeltcrighu, Mtuwrightv, Cabinet Makers'. 

v3-fl 

1JTAIN WRIGHT, RANDALL & CO., ' 

Real Estate and Stock Auctioneers, 
No. 100 Merchant street, San Francixm, California. 

Wectfully iuform our friend- and the public tor.er- 
ally, that we have ci ai ur other bu«inoas 

that Ol HOOSB Bn KBBAQE AND (Jt:NKRAL I>IHECTOIlT ( 

and have made exteooivc arrangement* .1 •■. ( looting thciu 
o ..li who maj favoi u with ti eh patronage. 
As these now branched possess BOtnen vel lb - uri ■ , mal not 
having been heretofore introduced in thi chy, wed tern it jiro- 
per t'> make mantle t their advantages, not only to our own 
'IN, ent 1 bul t" all n ho may vi-it our city, 
Houav Brokcrn^e, 
Thu di , artm ml 1 on agency for lea in DwelUna 

-' >n . Sh i]. . it minx and Buildiu^r if every ihverip 
...,i receire the attention which its ipipcrtanoa de 

iii.itiiI.. . ,,-u ti;.- ml. :;,:■■• It Directory 

h< pa •in-'ni," and having made arnrngi-muut- fur tecetviiiB 

inormition Emmodlatcly when premise* are vacated, nfjlull 

■uperior liiciliiies for uronjlng, at tbcfhortct notice, 

■ R 1- and Places of Bu ine»H ol ail kind*, In any part 

ol the citj where requited. All 1 amnu who may have vacant 
uremit - desirable mi & urn u ... -i.-.n, j tenanti 

tortheaame, and their li« ine 1 i- respectfiUly solicited 
General Ulrettui j . 
ant will include a registry, (nlrendy prepared,) 
< ' the city, 
by rtlerence to wi Ich w one and 

residence of all M rcliHnts, Mechanic, An-, IVoessional 
Men, Laboierc, nnd the c "..1 ol bu ii ■. which will bo cou- 
tinu li; c ey changetheu residence, and will re- 

ceive aadli to time, as new comer* arrira 

1 >\''- cou-idej ihamformati n which our re^ietni will afford 

ul importance, aa well 1 "o« u community as 

the laci ol change! occurrms so I equeadv 

■■< ■ and ii li-'. .- been demomttinted thai published 

. ■ tn-ly ii 1 !"-- 10 a month or two titer being is- 

Phis with other inlonnation in our poftfesMon, eoahles 

m to present a cnmpli a 1 pi tmeol the outire city, whicn wo 

■ hall keep " p *ted up," to keep pace with tiie movements of im 

■ 

Thi di*iiartmcntwi>lbouQdoT thesupervi ion ol an n^ent 

hud a brge experience in this branch, here nod else 

■ 

To give an idea of tie extent of our Red-tiy, wo may men* 
tion timt up tu the ]mv nil linn- i ctititait.- tLr iioineM and nd- 
dress ol forty-three thousand person*, with the place ol their 
nativity, occupations, etc., which has reqi months 

ol labor to compile, 
\\ ■ Invite the attention of (ho public to our e«taMii unont. 
v3-18 WAINWKI ,HT, RANDALL &. CO. 



PKINGJE'ti PROTEAN FOUNTAIN 1'KN. 

[patented jan. 20, 18! 5 ] 

T. G. Stearns, General Agent ^71 Broadway, 

■ .. r "■■ ' iambi ■ ■ r, \, y, 

VI) VANTAGES— An incorTodibla ond .i:r .-,:.: i..i ( reser 
via., in-iiii: in Protean. uLde P.iieut, itliod 

'i ■:>''. in- the u -r: 1 hour*, 

and taviup Hb ail une-thiid ol the time, A(J Id IVnot lh< 
11 !n>, with a holder «>t the ui ir-t beau iiui, li ■ 
elu tic mnnerial, It.- structure is simple, and not Itnblei 
.111 ul oider. 

Direc ions.— To fill tho reservoir wi b the i 1 - ton, remove 
the cup by taming it like a screw, in en the pea in the ink 
hall an inch or more, draw up the | I i u, then wi h tho thumb 
and finger on tha lowei part ol'the phOtui, d aw it up tiubtintd 
tho head ol the tube that h may neirher ov»vc nor auowans 

I uri of the air. Wipn the pen with a Mill cloth nr paper 

alter filling and '.v : ever the can 1- rcn 1 I .' [ilston i» 
iiMi to be pushed down until the Ink i entire!) exhi »ni. To 
pu-h it down place tho thumb mid the Kuuei in 1 above the 
tulto, UrM the pi ton may not bo broken, I'm rhe cap on light 
ly when tin* pen in n jt iu use, to pro c.-vo iiio ink iron diving ; 
and screw it home to it* thouldor when carried in the pocket. 

To till the ream voir by euction, (thu mttde udopted ti> pocket 
poos,) looton ihe smalfscre**'. at the uppei end, bul do not 
take it out; insert the pun in ink, m- nhovo ; applj the lips to 
the Email ticruw, axhauat the air bj euctl n, and while the pen 
remuins in the ink, turn the screw until 11 1 tiuht. 1 1 , lut an 
tliei-ctew, in. en the tube in a bo ' Mo ol Ink, lo ii lemuin until 
the ink baa found it" level in the tube, Ehou turn the 01 aw uutU 
h 1- tight, aud the. pen U re idy loi u <■_ 

Tho huction poos thould be carried In thepuckei wiihthccap 
upwards, I ho plftoii pena « iili the cap A< was ■ d-. • 

U a ood Ink, free Irom edimeut: lloudhi & KioldV Amori- 
ean Fluid, alao Bryan & WilcoxV, and Aru«.ld'a Fluid Ink, re- 
commonded to in' 1 public, a* tfaej «in c ipy. v4-3 



i-.nj (koili e. 

AjoTK.'K is hereby given to oil persuni latere ted, that the 
±y uudoi Igned will n..plv to the II ad ol H,i urvlaoi of 
Sacramento county, on the 13 fa day nl June, 185.1. li aid b >ard 
shall then ba In ■ a 1 id \ II Di t, theu ou tho fii 1 -in; tin 1 

that they : hall ha in .0 -ion, for n n n 1 

two (e vie asroai ihoAmerloan rlverj otioc inuwuly known 
t| u H»yt*< Perry," noai whore S8J1 strmi 

int ■< ,1-Ih fit <l iivoi ; and tl o other CQltim il\ hin » u 
"AliddluorMutdr w Ferry," about twoai ' -1 010 

I aaid aaonuneoto Oiw. BAUU h NURR13. 

buoruiueulo, M.iy lOtii, 18i.'t VtVSi 



VOL. IV. 



SACRAMENTO,. CALIFORNIA, FRIDAY MORNING, AUGUST 17, 1855. 



NO. 7. 



€\}t California fanner 

AMI JOURNAL OP USEFUL SCIENCES 



By WARBEN & SON. 



,f I'll i isr.KD t:\ i: r v iiim a v 



TaaaM.— Six dollim per annum, in advance. For a ch 
of 6*6 now subscribers, wo will seno 1 a sixth copy l? inri^. 
A limited number of Advertisementa inserted n t lair rates. 



AGENTS. 
1. Q. A. Warren, Boston. — For all the Eastern States. 

Wells, Faroo & Co. — At their Offices throughout the 

Pacific Express Company. — At all thfir Office* in the State. 
E. P. Fisher, Netoapaper Agent, San FrancUto. 

Haven it Baker, — Napa City and County. 
Gardner & Kirk, Newspaper and Booksellers, Sacramento. 
ftfeaers. Lanoton St Ca.for DovmieviUe, Foster's Bar, Good- 

year's Hue, Mincsota. 
Messrs. Leland &. McCoombe — Crescent City, Port Orford, 

Unipntotrn, Eureka, nntl Buehsport. 
ScLLivAN'snewopaper stand, No. 5 Post Office Building ; Kim- 
ball's, Noisy Carriers Hall, Lonir wharf — San Fran. 



A. Hiirmevvell, P. M., Columbia. 
I Collin, MoMnmnt Hill. 
Gen. M. M. McCarver. Mount 

Farm, O. T. 
Dudley &. Co., Napa City. 
Baker & Hamilton, Sacramento. 
Taney & Roberta, Snnora. 
A. H. Murdoch, P. M., Union, 

Humboldt Bay. 
Worth & Sturgia, Martinet. 
Benj. Dodd, Benicia. . 
J. M. Thorhurn & Co. New York 
City, N. Y. 

%* Postmasters throughout the Slate arc kindly invited to act 

for tie, • 

We desire our Agents to report to us on the 1st of every 

month, the increase of names and the prospects, together with 

the amount due the office. 



P. F. v, mdvxll's, Butte Co. 

D G.Waldron& Co. Coloma, 
Treadwell &■ Co., MarusrHte. 
W.S. Force & Co., do 
James & Co., Napa, 
A. W. Potter, Nevada. 
Nash &. Davis, Placcrville. 
C. O. Burton, Stockton. 
Dr.Thomas J. Harvey, P.M., 

San f.uis Obispo. 
Cram, Rogers &. Co., Yrcka. 
Howard& Chamberlain, Un'n 

City, and Mission San Jose. 



more nearly its own resemble those of the plant, 
so much the more capable it is of supplying them. 
In Animal Physiology the ease is exactly parallel. 
We have first to ascertain what the animal is 
- anil (lien to supply the necessary ma- 

terials in its food. In stall-feeding we have got 
the animal, we shall suppose, already full grown; 
consequently we have principally to furnish food, 
capable of yielding fat, with the exception of a 
little to maintain what is daily undergoing change, 
from old, effete, and worn out matter, to newly 
formed flesh and blood, assimilated from the food 
of the animal, for that purpose. Potatoes, as 
everybody knows, contain a large quantity of 
starch; and it is principally owing to the simi- 
larity of the elements of starch and fat that they 
possess their fattening qualities. ' l Starch con- 
sists of 12 Carbon and 10 Water, represented by 
C12 Hio Oio. Fat again, Margarine for example, 
the solid fat of the human body, is represented 
by C37 H36 O5 . Compare this with 4 of Starch 
and we have : 

4 of starch= C48 H40 O40 

1 of Margarine=C3i II36 O5 



AGRICOLA'S LETTERS.— NO. 11. 
On Stall-feeding of Animals. 

[continued.] 
Editors Parmer: In fattening of animals, wc 
have already seen that the carbonaceous portion 
of their food, which goes to supply fat, is the 
same material that is necessary in producing ani- 
mal heat ; hence the propriety of having them in 
sheltered places, where they arc nut neresaiily 
exposed to cold. We also know that their bodies 
are constantly undergoing change ; the flesh and 
blood of which they are composed to-day grad- 
ually yielding its place to that which is being 
formed, like the wator in a running stream ; and 
that like it, the more they are at rest, the more 
limited the supply necessary to furnish the same 
quantity of transient matter in any given time; 
hence the advantage of having them tied up. We 
have also seen that the action of a brilliant light 
is capable of partially decomposing the Incipient 
elements of fat, and vaporizing them before it is 
possible for them to become so; hence the pro- 
priety of shutting them up in twilight gloom. 
where the greater portion of daylight may lie e\ 
eluded. Let us now proceed to investigate the 
philosophy of proper aliments for accomplishing 
our purpose, and, principally, how far potatoes are 
soiled lor that purpose. 

In its ordinary state 100 parts of the potato 
contain the following substances: 
W:iler, ..... 

Carbon, 10.C04 "i 
Hydrogen, 1.3978 | Solid matter 
Oxygen 1" 7727 J-drud at 
Niii' !."> I Fahrenheit in 

Ashes, 0.9640 J pacta, - 



75.9 



24.1 



100.0 
we propose it as » 



92 5 

7.5 



whereas turnips, for which 
substitute, contain 

Waur. 

Solid matter, .----- 

100.0 

according to the experiment of Boussingault — 
the solid matter in turnips being almost identi- 
cally the same as in potatoes. It w ill thus be seen, 
that 1 .lain more than three times the 

amount of nutritive matter that turnips A 
far they have the advantage. But let us examine 
in what manner the comparative value of differ- 
erenl species of food nu lined, so that 

we may have some surer guide to direct us than 



DifTerencc= C11 II 4 O35 
which may be represented by 
11 of Carbonic Acid, 4 of Water, 9 of Oxygen 
11 COa plus 4 HO plus 9 O 

so that by a separation of Carbonic Acid, which 
may be given off from the lungs, of water which 
may or may not remain in the system, and a por- 
tion of oxygen, which may be used in various 
ways in tho blood, the starch or sugar of the 
blood (for their elements are nearly identical) 
may be converted into fat."* 

this reasoning is beautiful and appears con- 
clusive. When wc take it into account, as we 
saw in last Letter, that the chyle from the 
ach meets with the venous blood, containing the 
partially oxidized remains of the animal n 
the same in composition as diastase or ferment, 
the vena cava, is thenco taken to the heart. 
and afterwards sent to the lungs to be churned 
and exposed to tho atmosphere, wc need not be 
surprised though they assist in transforming each 
other, and that heat, carbonic acid, and incipient 
fat are produced by their combination with o.\v- 
gcn. llut we must not imagine that all the starch 
in the food, or even in the chyle, can be home 
diatelv, on its lirst contact with atmospheric air. 
transformed into fat ; and neither starch nor sugar 
is found in arterial blood. The process which 
Nature adopts, is. doubtless, to coniert the great- 
er poition of chyle into blood, (to furnish which 
nitrogenous i -ary.) and afterwards into 

the different constituents of the animal frame ; 
and. although some foods, from their containing 
so much more carbon in their composition, are so 
much better qualified for furnishing the clement* 

.or fai, we must not imagine that 
which contain the elements of nutrition can be dis- 

: with. 'In a correct plan of diet: 1 

has been remarked by Dr. Thomson, who made 

some valuable experimental researches on the 

food of animals, at the instance of the 1. 

ment. "the proper equilibrium m 

retain) tho animal ora-miism and tho 

constitution of the food, otherwise, either the nu- 
tritive or the calonlient system must be dete- 
riorated. It is well known to feeders of cattle, 
that an animal fed on large quantities of potatoes 
is liable to complaints, such as atfectiona of the 
skin, and 1!- f weight. These conse- 

quences, it may be readily inferred, are derived 
from the want of the proper balance between 
ments of food." 
Th - t with our experience of N'a 

■rill submit to 



supply them with food containing the nutritive 
elements of the blood, not only to escape disease, 
but also to advance the object which we have prin- 
cipally in view. Of all the vegetables generally cul- 
tivated, none are more valuable for this purpose 
than the English horse bean, as it contains fully 
one per cent, more nitrogen than the common 
kidney bean of this country, besides having the 
advantage of being a more hardy plant, and one 
which is admirably adapted to the stronger soils 
of California. According to Boussingault, while 
potatoes contain little more than 1-3 per cent, of 
nitrogen English horse beans contain 5 1-2 per 
cent,; from which it has been calculated, that, to 
supply the ordinary waste in a fullgrown animal, 
only 5 pounds per day of bean meal would be 
requisite, while 67 pounds of potatoes per day 
would be necessary to accomplish the same ob- 
ject. 

In conclusion, I would recommend, 

1. That great caution should be used in stall- 
feeding animals with potatoes, especially at the 
commencement. 

2. That the quantity of potatoes given to them 
every day should be divided into four parts, of 
which one part should be steamed or boiled, and 
mixed with 3 or 4 pounds of bean meal and a 
little salt, and given over night; and the other 
three-fourths at three separate times during the 
day. 

3. That as much good hay as the animal will 
eat, which will supply any additional nitrogen 
that may bo wanted, should be given imme- 
diately after feeding with potatoes. 

4. That itoo attention bo paid to ha-riiiE, tlicm 

watered in the house, at least twice a day. 

5. That regularity in feeding and watering be 
duly observed. 

6. That they be kept clean, and have plenty of 
litter, and be otherwise housed and cared for as I 
have previously recommended. 

7. That, for ascertaining the proper quantity 
of potatoes to supply them with, attention ought 
to be paid to the consistency of their dung, which 
should resemble that of cattle plentifully supplied 
with grass, when they are not purged by it. 

Now litors, except we renew our ar- 

rangement. I presume the quota of Letters origin- 
ally contemplated have been completed ; and. as 
it is possible, that, except as an occasional cor- 
respondent, my contributions to your periodical 
may cease, allow me to remark to that portion of 
your readers, who have done me the honor to pe- 
ruse them, that, when 1 first commenced. I meant 
to have entered more into the discussion of prac 
tical Agriculture; and am still of opinion, that 
there arc many subjects connected with it, which, 
though of great interest, and worthy of being in- 
ated by philosophical inquiry, ought to be 
familiarly illustrated by special reference to their 
connection with ordinary field operations, and 
the utility of such investigations rendered evident 
to those, who are perhaps not so conversant with 
books u with knowledge derived from expe- 
rience. Agbicola. 

Errata — In Letter Xo. 9 I inadvertantly, in 
the fourth bn*» after tho Table, put KO. 1 
mula of Potash, instead of CO* . the formula of 
Carbonic Acid ; and in the following line CO3 for 
KO. A. 



no attention is paid to agriculture. They buy 
almost entirely all they consume, and flour never 
sells here for less than $10 per 100 lbs., on ac- 
count of, the heavy expense •»( getting it here. 
Tens of thousands of dollars leave our county 
every year for this article alone, which could be 
retained, by having producers, to whom a hand- 
some profit would be allowed. 

We have three grist mills in the county, which 
is more than in any county south of Santa Clara, 
and tho farmer is certain of selling every pound 
of grain he can raise, at very remunerative prices. 
All of this valley can be irrigated, and tobacco 
will grow beautifully upon it. S. A. P. 

San Luis Obiapo, Cal, June 15, 185S. 

The above letter was received but recently, 
owing to the excellent mail facilities — (it was 
only a month in coming.) We commend it to the 
cultivators of California, who may be in search of 
a home. 

If our correspondent will give us his real name 
and the names of some of the principal citizens in 
that neighborhood, we would present the matter 
more fully and speak of it in a stronger sense ; 
but strangers and settlers will not rely upon mere 
newspaper assertions, neither could we recom- 
mend them to do so. — Ed. 



Hope for all Things. 
We have great faith in the reformatory spirit 
which now pervades all ranks of men ;— strong 
faith in the better influence which systematic, 
successful husbandry exerts — ; hope a" J l~li«vc, 
that by and by. bas-« •'"" barns-yards, hog-pens 
and the ''animals" which arc monarchs within 
them, hen-roosts, bee-hives, etc., etc., will all get 
ashamed of their filth, and ask to be removed out 
of the highway, back, behind the house, to which 
position they aro entitled past dispute ; that, in 
tine, the superior utility and beauty and prospcr- 
ty of good farming — of doing every thing just 
as it should be done and just when it should be 
done, will draw all farmers, pretending or real, 
into the rightful channel, after a while. Sprouts 
often go upright when the parent trunk is a 
gnarled, twisted old body ; so the boys, with plas- 
uds. whose fathers are your hap-hazard, 
whiffling sort of farmers, often take a Straight- 
forward course and turn out to make sterling, 
> men, 
The world with all its beauty, order and regu- 
larity, was never compiled for mere pastime. And 
ihe farmer who does not learn from its wonderful 
older to be orderly —from its unswerving regular- 
ity, to t« regular and systematic and seasonable 
in all his operations, and from its beauty to adorn 

Ins gravity 

and fly off in a la- .infest 

destiny" here, and farmers— not politicians— 

I mount the car. We all want to get into 

the channel of thrifty farmers; this should be the 

and aim. We have faith that most farmers 

An unthrifty farmer should 

;'. ? Simply, 



the quantity of the solid matter which | '» re in » !1 her opera: 

be aided, not to be altered. She u 

■ .stances which are not at variance 
with her usual course, but she will not 
1 r mean 



intain. 

The rules, which mod, ■ has p< 

; . . 



the plant n 



refore. 



A Chance for Settlers. 
Messrs. Editors. — In an editorial in the San 
Francisco Herald, advocating the establish.!: 
an immigration society, I notice one reassn 
of our population not increasing, is the want of 
land to supply the farmer. This being the case, 
me to call the attention of those seeking 
firms to our valley adjoining this place. There 
is here a very large tract of goTersneat land, 
equal to any in the State, as has been proved by 
raised by the two or three squatters 
are located upon it. B 
ii- 1 meat we can ofler to the settler is the c - 

their grain at th- 
toe doors, and at hi: 

I population is exclusively s stack raising one, tod ' 



i 
by g>"-< 

grandly and *e alio 

incTMMd BsaMof . ■■ -* ,:i 1 
cial in 
unpara — what an ui 

!' talent and energy are r 
upon its toe 
men in both 

- ; colleges and s. 

icals ol 
the mill 
l*earin.- 
important q 

a-th be increases! 



what 

rated 

rne-1 

> one 

rage- 

uwr- 



.' hrmer. 



The I 
red for trial, is th- 

,no<II. i 

- -;y that Ihey sotr: 



OB to C- 






THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



Cjfc California Jarmn". 



WABREN * SON, EDITOH8 AKD PROPHIETOS8. 



kindly spirit, meet each other ; and all these diffi- 
culties will disappear as mist before the sun,^ 

In speaking of "land owners" in No. 5 of our 
paper, and in mentioning the names of parties, we 
had then met but a few ; since that time we have 
met Wm. H. Sampson, Esq. j Messrs. Gillespie & 

Tkc California Stale Agricultural Sacicti/'.* Exhibition Booms j?.,„y n ^ n -vt O »„ ft _j rt *V,„-„ „„J „.„ 

ar ( <n t/n Halt o„ Fount, ttreet, b<twun j and K, City of *owler ; G. N. Sweezey, Esq., and others, and u e 



SACRftWTKTO, FKIDAY, AUGUST 17, 1855. 



Sacramento, where all art invited, free. 

The C ALIFORM A FARMER OFFICE is at the State 
•Si-ciiiu's Rooms, ickcre subscriptions and advertisements 
are received. 



The California Farmer in Boston, Mass.— Copies of the 
California Former may always be found at Redding &. Co.'s, 
State street, Boston. 



Ufr* Manufacturers of every branch, Nurserymen, Seeds' 
men, Floris s, Booksellers and Publishers, and every branch of 
business connected with Calfiornia interests, should advertise 
n the California Fafmeb, if they wi^h to have their business 
known over the country. 



A Word for. the California Fakmcr. — 

Who amoDg our many readers will bear us' in so kindly a re- 
membrance as to induce one, two, three or ftcc of their neighbors 
to become, like tbem, subscribers. We wish to enlarge our 
Hat, so as to make our paper better. What subscriber will 
speak to us first ? 



Agricultural Meeting — The Next State Fair 
A meeting of the Yuba and Sutter County 
Agricultural Society, was held on Monday even- 
ing, at the City Hall. The two counties were 
well represented by the farmers present. After 
the transaction of the business, the Society was 
addressed by Rev. Mr. Briggs, of this city, and by 
Col. Warren, of the Farmer. Their remarks 
were listened to by an appreciative audience and 
heartily applauded. Among the resolutions pass- 
ed at the meeting was one which we respond to 
cordially. It asked that Marysville be chosen as 
the place for holding the next State Agricultural 
Fair. It will be recollected that the first State 
Fair was held, as was proper, at the city of San 
Francisco. The Bay City is the centre of trade, 
of intelligence, and of wealth, in our State. In its 
vicinity are many fine valleys, which contain 
someof the best farming lands in California. San 
Francisco being the metropolis, and the agricul- 
tural resources of its neighboring valleys being 
earlier, and perhaps better developed than the 
lands of other parts of the State, its claim to the 
first State Fair was acknowledged by the farmers 
and artisans of the Slate. There it was held. 
This year. Sacramento has been chosen as the 
location of the Fair. The Levee City nmks next 
in importance to the Bay City. The industry ol 
it>; citizens h untiring, their enterprise unbound- 
ed. It. Corjj h, BovsounrJed bv a fine farming coun- 
try, which, by the toil ahrr >u;ii ,,f the tillers oi 
the soil, is being rapidly developed, and muue to 
contribute of its resources to the wealth and 
growth of Sacramento. It is right that there the 
second Slate Fair should be held. Our claim 
comes next. Marysville is- conceded to be the 
third city jn population and wealth in our State 
Our ability to entertain the hundreds and tbous: 
ands of .strangers whom this Annual Fair brings 
together, from all sections of the State, is un- 
questioned. Our citizens have a lively interest 
in the development of the agriculture of tbe State. 
They are ready to further, with their means and 
their influence, all enterprise-; which tend to this 
result. They know thai these Fairs serve this 
excellent purposo. and as mu./li to slmw fc&eir in- 
terest in the prosperity of the State Agricultural 
Society, which is the patron of the Agriculture of 
the State at !arge : as to manifest their sympathy 
fur and readiness to co-operate with the farmers 
of Yuba and Sutter, do they earnestly and cordi- 
ally urge that this invitation to hold the next 
Stale Fair be heeded by those having authority 
to determine this matter, and for the farmers of 
Tuba and Sutler we can speak conlidently. Tiny 
are in earnest, when they ask that the next Fail- 
be held in their vicinity — in the metropolisof the 
North. The farmers of Southern California were 
accommodated and benefited by the location of 
the first Fair in San Francisco. Those of the 
centre of the State, in like manner, are favored 
this year, by its location at Saciamento. Next 
year, say our farmers, it is right and proper that 
tbe Fair should be held in the North, and among 
us. We are ready to lend our best endeavors 
towards the success of the Fair, say they, and we 
need the reciprocal influences for good upon the 
agriculturists of our vicinity, which sucli a gather- 
ing of farmers and such a display of the agricul- 
tural ami mechanical products of the State must 
necessarily occasion. We earnestly hope for and 
bespeak a favorable response to their request. 

We copy the above from the Marysville Herald, 
and can most cheerfully say that having spent 
some time in Yuba, Sutter and Butte counties, we 
have found an awakening interest for agriculture 
that is most gratifying. Were it not for the great 
hindrance to progress that exists by reason of 
unsettled titles^ the improvement that would be 
made in Yuba and Sutter upon farms, gardens 
and ranches wouUl amount to millions of dollars. 
There arc hundreds of substantial fanners and 
ttock raisers that arc now laying, as it were, idle ; 
not knowing whether to buy or sell out. There 
has been so much litigation, so much bad advice, 
I has engendered bad feeling in many cases. 
i DOW wanted is the "olive branch." We 
land owners are kindly disposed, and that 
are desirous to act honorably, and there 
..ue way to do— forget the past, come to- 
iler, be frieuds, and in an honorable, frank and 



are more and more convinced that friendly inter 
course and mutual concessions will speedily re- 
move this great evil, and a new and brighter face 
be put upon the agriculture of this section of the 
country. 

In this connection we would speak in terms of 
strong commendation of those Presses that hold 
out the " olive branch," and do what they can to 
unite men in the bonds of peace and friendship. 
We like the earnest enthusiasm of both the edi- 
tors of the Marysville press in the cause of agri- 
culture, and were gratified to see them both pre- 
sent at all the meetings of the new Society, The 
whole tone of the above editorial is highly hon- 
orable. It is clear and explicit, conceding to each 
of the three first cities in the State their relative 
positions and claims to public notice, and after 
\cry handsomely complimenting San Francisco 
and Sacramento and paying them deserved meeds 
of praise, it claims for Marysville only what isjust 
and right; and we fully endorse what is said re- 
specting the interest which the farmers feel in the 
matter. 

The decision of the question — where shall the 
Fair be held in '5G ? — remains for the determin- 
ation of the State Society. We shall labor to 
have it where the greatest amount of good can be 
accomplished. 

To the Press of Marysville the farmers are 
greatly indebted ; they devote a large space freely, 
and for this they deserve all praise. Personally 
we return many thanks to them for courtesy and 
kindness. If the Press throughout tho State 
would all unite to advance the cause of agiicul- 
ture, they would find their account in it. 

Weekly Accounts of Fruits Exhibited 

AT THE SOCIETY'S ROOMS. 

August 15 — Two Uartlett Pears? — largest, 
long diameter 11 inches, short diameter 8 1-2 
inches; smallest, long diameter 10 1-2 inches. 
short diameter 8 1-2 inches. This fruit is unex- 
ampled in this market, up to this time. Weight 

of ilic t"T> po w r a rtmo j""iv.<i. 

Fruit of the Cactus — largest, long diameter 
8 1-4 inches, short diameter G inches; weight. 
three ounces; 

One bunch of matured Purple Crapes, weigh- 
ing fourteen ounces. 

The above magnifioent fruit is from the exten- 
sive gardens of that pioneer in North California 
Il'jrlieulture, J. U. Wolfskill, Esq., at the head 
of Puto.* Send your tine specimens, friend 
U'ollVkill, to the Rooms of the Agricultural So- 
ciety ; it is, thra only legitimate place in the State 
to exhibit them, and where everything exhibited 
passes under the inspection of appropriate com- 
mittees, whose duty it is to report them for pub- 
lication. — 

* The Puto is a small river, which is given off 
from the Coast Hange, and passes down through 
the estate of Mr. Wolfskill. and finally, wiih Cash 
Creek, forms the extensive marsh in Yolo county, 
and ultimately discharges into the Sacramento 
river. The name is derived from a tribe "of In- 
dians who formerly inhabited both banks of the 
stream. They were known as the Putos; a rem- 
nant of them still remain, but they are fast p iss- 
ing away ; hence, to perpetuate something of the 
history of this aboriginal tribe, the correct name 
is Pcto, and should be so written, instead 
of the vulgarism, Puta/i, which bail taste has 
somewhat sanctioned. L. B B. 



Special Notices — Alice. — A heatry welcome 

do wc give to our new correspondent and graceful writer. 
War tiii= •' Acrostic," our B&cere thanks • ti.o baudsome com- 
pliment paid uj and our journal we duly appreciate. For tlie 
" Sumrrcr's Furcw ill " we know all our renders will thanb 
" Alicp ; " (hralth. ugh the season itself may have pweed, fte we 
rend these glorious thoughts and trace in this glowing imagery 
the departed Summer itself, there is so much brightness that 
we heed not the " shades of Aut.imn," or dream of "lolling 
leaves." " Alice" will be ever welcome. 

" Ctiliiorniu," by "'49," is exceedingly interesting. 

Received. — To "Betty Martin," by "Squatter." "Agri- 
cola." No, 12. " Roving Jack,'' No. 8. " A Dream," The 
" Birthday Cuke," with other valuable MSS, which will nil duty 
appear. 

To Our Readers. — To stock raisers wc com- 
mend " AgricolaV letter on " Stall Foedius of Animals," com- 
menced in the last und finished in this number. It is informa- 
tion of the moft valuable kind, 

"Official Notices of tbe Fair." — Please examine each, and 
think what you can do to aid tbe great work. Resolve, and 
put the re ulve into execution. 



Omission. — In our reports of the Exhibition 

hM woe k, we omitted to name a fine " Heath Pcnch," from Dr. 
Brown, measuring 9V,, inches in circumference, and weighing 
ti l -i 02B . Thin U pretty well for a city garden. 



FESTIVAL TOUKNAMENT. 
"We publish to-day, the additional premiums 
of the State Society, or rather those offered under 
the sanction of the Society, and call the particu- 
lar attention T>f all parties to them. 

The utmost order and decorum will be pre- 
served, and we hope all who feel interested will 
immediately address the Corresponding Secre- 
tary and inform him if they please to take part, 
so that arrangements can be pcifected : 
SPECIAL PREMIUMS. 
A Grand Festival Tournament. 

The funds for tbe^e premiums are from private sources. No 
competitor will be alluwcd to enter the list without a card 
from a committee competent* to secure ludies from improper 
Association. 

LAOIES IN SADDLE. 
To the mist Accomplished Lady Rider, a Gold Watch 

and Chain $100 

Second best, a Saddle 50 

Third do a Silver Cup 95 

Fourth do a Riding Whip 10 

GENTLEMEN IN SADDLE. 

The most skillful Gentleman Rider, Silver Plate $50 

Second beat do do do 95 

SKILL WITH THE LA3S0. 
The moet accomplished feata ol Horsemanship with the 

Lasso, a Sliver Cup $50 

Second best, a Cup L'5 

INDIAN 6 PORTS, 
The most expert and ekilllu] Bportaofihe Indian, with 

i\ Prize $"20 

Second Prize lu 



Fruits — Water Melon Trade of Yuba. 

California i.s beginning to be celebrated for 
her various kinds of fruits, und the several sec- 
tions of the State will be celebrated for the diff- 
erent varieties, according to their soil and climate 
Los Angeles has been and will he celebrated for 
her Vineyards. The Grape is peculiarly adapted 
to that climate and soil, and while it will thrive 
and do well in man}' other sections, that province 
will always be famous for the Vine. Santa Clara 
and San Jose produce magnificent Pears. Their 
soil and atmosphere —their humid soil made 
more so by their success in Artesian wells, will 
surelv give them great advantage in the science 
Pomology. Sonoma and .Xapa will both produce 
Peaches, Apples, Pears and Figs; more particu 
larly Peaches — there is a sure tiling in the soil 
that will give them success. Sacramento can 
boast of success in the Peach and Strawberry, 
and a short time will bring the spirit of emula- 
tion into an active state, that will result in good. 

But we have not yet said what we intended. 
Yuba county can boast in Watermelons. We 
give it op) and we beliexfl all others would agree 
with us. if they could see what we have seen 
within the last three weeks. In a circuit of per- 
haps fifteen miles nround the city of Marysville 
there are more "melon patches" 'than in any 
other seetionn of the &l\iU:—j>alchcs, did we 
say ? — well they are patches, true, varying 
from four acres to thirty, and they gather from 
50 to 500 melons from each per day. The trade 
in melons in Yuba county is immense. Von can- 
not travel any road to the mines, even high Up 
the Sierra Nevada s, that you do not either 
pass teams loaded with melons or meet team- 
on their way down for them. There is no trading 
post. DO mining ground however distant, that is 
not now regularly supplied with delicious melons. 
And they pay well ; about !$i'.i per ton is paid ;il 
the gardens on the Yuba ; from theneo they are 
carried into the mountains. The melons average 
about 100 to a ton, they sell in the mountains 
for 75 cents to .*►! each, and the teamsters after 
Belling out^ either load up with mountain lumber; 
or mountain snow, ami thus make a handsome 
profit both ways. Briggs 1 Ranch, on the Yuba, 
about four miles out, wc think has the largest 
and best melon ground in the county, and so con- 
ceded. C. Covillaud, Esq., has splendid melon 
grounds; the Quintay Ranch, also. W. W.AVirk- 
ershain, Esq., on the Feather river, is also cele- 
brated for melons. Benjamin Latldis, Esq., the 
Cunningham Ranch, Zabriskie Ranch, and many 
others we might name have wonderful crops. 
The abound in the mining region is immense, 
and it requires nearly all the crop to supply it. 
This trade is a source of considerable wealth to 
the county. The markets are daily supplied in 
great quantities, and also with fair specimens of 
Musk, and Green Flesh melons of superior qual- 
ity. Some of the finest White, Green, and Yel- 
low Fleshed melons ever grown in tiie State were 
from seed introduced into California by J. M. 
Ramirez, Esq., and grown at the Quintay Ranch, 
by Capt. Pinnex. The first premium for melons 
in California wc had the pleasure to award to 
Capt. Pinnex, of this ranch, and from our own 
observations wo do not think Yuba county will 
yield the title to l - Best Melons" very easily. 

Preparations fok the State Fair. — The 

fall account of the iluiugs of Yuba County will appear lu our 
next. We ore glnd to know thut a tfelegaliOD of thirty-five gen* 

demon tare appointed to attend the Spits Fair ami take active 
port in tho efimc. 



A Visit to the Mines. 

"While we were in the upper section of Yuba, 
and near the Gold Diggings, we were induced to 
examine some of the great works going on at 
Parks' Bar, Long's Bar, and Ousley's Bar. At 
the latter place, large tracts of land, of many 
acres wide and some 12. 15 and 20 feet deep, were 
being sluiced off into the Yuba river, The ex- 
tent of earth can be but little conceived of, unless 
it be examined personally. These diggings are 
very prosperous. Hundreds of acres of valuable 
farming land, are being swept into the river every 
season. 

At Long's Bar it is river washing, but great 
preparations are being made to wash down the 
hills. 

A Parks' Bar, the immense fluming works of 
the Gold Channel Company, and others adjoining, 
are of the most wonderful character. The entire 
flow of the Yuba river, that floats steamers at 
Marysville. is compressed into a flume of twenty- 
one feet wide by three and one-half feet deep, 
and by this means the entire bed of the river 
will be cleared of its rich treasures the present 
season. In some places the flume is raised so 
you can pass under it — it seems a river on stilts. 
These great operations of fluming will be com- 
pleted in a few weeks, when the washings will 
begin, and it is expected they will prove the 
richest yet found. 



M 



Important to '• Betty Martin." — The fol- 
lowing note, in a handsome hand, came lo us bjr 
mail, via San Francisco : 

" ~~ County, Autrust 6, 1855. 

' ; Messrs. Editors Farmer: Sirs— Please 
send me by private note, the proper address of 
Miss 'Betty Martin,' if you have the authority 
to do so; and oblige, 

' ; One of your subscribers, * * *." 

Wc have authority in all such ca»es, and we 
desire to act in good faith in all such matters. 
We have recently received several uotes of this 
kind, and some from parties of both sexes; but 
in some instances, like "Rural Tom," we have 
not their real signatures, and if they should have 
a private note addressed them, we should not 
know where to send it. If our correspondents 
will all favor us with their real signatures, we 
will, in all good confidence, forward primate notes 
both ways, and our lady correspondents can con- 
fide truly. If our correspondent whose name 
inn] place <irc purposely left blank will address 
Martin, we will sec it forwarded promptly; 
ui'l it' Iil' fails then, we have n i doubt there may 
be other 'Betty Martins" he can Snd, and the 
columns of the Farmer are ever open to his 
wants. Ladies, shall our young friend go through 
the world desolate and lomdy 1 



Parisian Exhibition. — This world's wonder 
does not seem to give the glory it was supposed 
would accrue from it. Prince Albert has won a 
second prize for a contribution of '■ Dorking 
Hens." The Emperor Napoleon has bought a 
cow for $500 that gave thirty quarts of milk per 
day, four months after calving. The stock show 
is not esteemed very extraordinary. 

We annex verbatim from our French papers 
the following : 

The English are much superior to us in pigs ! 

The pride of breeders led them to bring to the 
Exhibition, specimens of males so very fat that 
their essential breeding forms and qualities were 
absorbed or concealed byadipo.se riehesnjiite use- 
less, to say the least I 

It is amusing to visit the Fine Art Exhibition 
on a five franc day. The managers having made 
up their minds that on these occasions the public 
frill remain aloof, oblige their absence by doing 
up the various chorea that have accumulated dur- 
ing the week. Pictures are re hung, and cases of 
new ones just arrived are unpacked and .strewed 
about the floors. Men get in your way with lad- 
ders and ropes and hammers. The guardians, 
the police ana firemen tike the catalogue and look 
at the paintings. They give their opinions in 
quite a loud and authoritative way. Everybody 
seems to be off duty, and all tho regulations would 
appear to bo suspended. You are reminded of 
Monday at the Louvre, the cleansing ami dusting 
day, n hen the public is not admitted. You may 
witness these operations at the Fine Arts for the 
reasonable sum of live francs. 



Thanks! Thanks!— Our nolo book is so full 

and M33.'eoaiQ piling in apoo us «j fitft, wo must nsk eomo 
Indulgence from our friend. oceasIoneJlf. Bouu nvw ulweut 
iver tlio fields ho much, we are undoroliligtuionw ol more Umn 

n ordulBry chnraoter. \\v me Dnuerespocuu obligation* to 

SVello, Fur^o Ai Co., while in the oppar ounliea lor 
nnmy nnd repeated oourtastn; their very obliging geutleuion 
ut M irvsville wtll please accept our thank*. 

To Geo. B. Briggs, E q., in me Uarjnule rond, r,.r may «t- 

ntione while traveling and tor lei.u of melon! and ponebe*, 

. ;]l .nily say we know hia geoorosity and uppr. H 
To the proprietors ol ' /. ihriskie'a Hotel, and to U,e proprie- 
tors ni Orove Hull, we express our Hndast ihauk> I wun 

them prosperity; And to our many li lends at IhrySTUlo «ud 
■icinity, though wo name litem not, we •'ditiini forget," thatl 
name, upon our Subscription tttt WIB weekly remind us , 
klndoan and otherwtso. 

To the Pueiiie Express Company for prompt delivery of lei 
t>'i ut nj pacluusj, 






THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



51 



A Subject for Immigration Societies. 

Union Citt, 

Editor? Farmer: hi your paper of July 27, 
n article headed •• I iking," 

ami the object "f the writer is. if I nndei 

it, tu get up mi Iniinii:' v for Califor- 

nia, somewhat simitar, I suppose, to the "K:ni>.i>" 
and " Nebraska Emigration Societies." All right. 
I von can l' an em- 

igration to this country, it will be the making of it. 
Time arc many hard- ll'uiers in this 

Valley (San .lose) that have come here to make 
a fortune, ami then go home to enjoy it; hut fail- 
ing in Hi ii ami being so taken up 
with the Ilea I the climate and pro- 
ductiveness of the soil, they would gladly move , ; , l0] jf r ,g 
their families here if they were able; and if the} , lcvo len| wot kg be 

look for aid loan Immigration Society, and 
get i', they would be willing, alter gelling stalled 
here, to join the society and aid others. 

I traveled through* Nebraska in '52, when 
coining to this country in search of gold. Not 
timing gold very plenty w here I located (Clinton, 
near \ oleano) I came to Sacramento, after the 
big lire, to recruit my pockets by working at the 
■ hut's trade. I worked two weeks for Ayres 
(I believe is the name), on J .street, and was Chen 
taken down w ith the diarrhoea, the first sickness 
1 had after leaving home. Two Sabbath morn- 
ings I met a .Mr. Ileitis, a master builder, at Rev, 
Sir. Benton's (1 think is the name) Church, and 
under the circumstances he advised me to go to 
San Jose Valley, to regain my health among the 
farmers, and recommended me to apply to John 
M. Horner. I did go, and immediately found 
employment, sorting potatoes, that then were 
worth ten cents a pound. This was the first of 
January, 1853. Of course it brought up all my 
old farming propensities, and I was bound to go 
to fanning, instead of mining which I came to 
the country for. 

Well Messrs. Editors, you know the result. 
Mv out-lay was big. and but little capital. The 
fall in price of wheat and potatoes left me 
in debt alter a hard season's work. I have 
tried it again this season, hoping to re- 
' cover, but the drought, rust, smut, and horse 
thieves have almost discouraged me, having had 
three out of my four horses stolen, on the 2d of 
May last. But still. I am not discouraged yet ; 
California is not to blame for one man's bad luck. 
I have worked too much land. (300 acres.) 

Now 1 waut'to get mv family here and settle 
down for the remainder of my life, and work no 
more land than can be done scientifically. My 
family consists of a wife and ten children; the i 
two oldest (boys) arc herewith me, one of whom 
is going home this fall to get married and come 
back in the spring; the other one, (who invented 
the potato-digging machine I told you of, and 
which will be brought into notice next season,) 
will go home next fall on the same errand — to 
make a visit, get a wife and come back. Now 1 

am going h e with the next steamer, (middle 

of August.) after the family — wife and eight 
children, live girls and three boys, whose 
range from lour lo nineteen years. Now afiei 
paying my debts all up here, 1 can hardly save 
enough to pay my fare. 1 have a Jirst rate span 
of horses, and all the farming utensils necessary. 
in the hands of my sun Henry — for me to go to 
work with when I come back. I want to be hack 
in time to commence plowing for wheat, if possible. 

Now, Messrs. Editors, my property in Michi- 
gan is worth about fifteen hundred dollars, and 
if I can sell it for that, I think I can bring mv 
big family through, cither by steamer or 'clipper 
■ — if they were all hoys I could bring them in the 
steerage; but if I have lo sell at a sacrifice, I 
will not be able to bring my family lure. Now 
if an Immigration Society can come in to my 
assistance in New York, either by steamer or 
clipper, and help me through. 1 will bind myself. 
,Vc. to re-iiuborse all expenses, for the benefit v\' 
Others. I don't know that 1 will want any help : 
but if I should, what shall do, as 1 am bound to 
get my family here if possible? Yon will say 
sell that team ami tools oil'; then I have nothing 
but hope to depend en. One can find friends as 
long as he has plenty of money. 

1 will just add, that there arc many others in 
San Jose Valley, good and honest farmers, that 
would he glad lo gel their families here if they 
Could, but have given up all hopes of doil 

1 happened accidentally to see the article "Light 
is Breaking," which called forth this letter. 
Respectfully, yours, Abraham Clare. 

K. Ii. — 1 refer yOU, for my character, to Able 



but if the resolutions are not carried out, of what 
avail are they ? 

The country is suffering for the want of an in- 
creased population, and many a husband and 
father is suffering for means to bring loved ones 
hither. Tires, floods, blight, rust, smut, and 
grasshoppers have each in turn blighted hopes 
and consumed the means which would have done 
this, and shall homes remain desolate because 
there is no public sympathy • God forbid. There 
is, there must be. a public heart, which can be 
reached, and it will be found boundless in its 
ghtly addressed. Separate be- 
otu political chicanery; and po- 
litical jugglery, and they must thrive and prosper. 

The case of friend Clarke is worthy of notice, 
hut as we -aid, there arc hundreds it not thous- 
ands more; and we say, help them, help them, 
and the whole country will be the gainer— the 
individual giver will always find ''it is more 
blessed to give than to receive," We commend 
this letter of Mr, Clark to all who are interested 
in the great question of immigration. — Ed. 



Agricultural Statistics. 

Sometime ago (says the State Journal) we 
were enabled, through the politeness of II. J 
Biddleman, Esq., County Assessor, to lay before 
our readers the agricultural statistics of this 
county. By the kindness of Hon. S. II. Marlette, 
Surveyor General, we give our readers a con- 
densed statement of the reports from three other 
counties, two of which, San Luis Obispo and 
Yolo, are strictly agricultural, the other, Plumas, 
almost entirely mining. 

San Luis Obispo. — F. A. Pollard, Esq., Dep- 
uty Assessor of this county, reports 30,000 acres 
of agricultural, and 150,000 acres of grazing lands. 
The only limber is a small quantity of oak, pine 
and redwood. 

The stock consists of 40,000 beef cattle, 1,000 
milch cows, 200 work oxen, 3,000 horses, 200 
mules, 50 asses, and 2,500 sheep. 

Twenty-five acres are planted with fruit trees, 
and on three hundred wheat was grown. There 
are no vineyards. The produce the present year 
was 6,000 bushels of wheat ; 2 000 (maize) corn ; 
:;, 111)1) barley ; 2, ",110 beans; 5 01111 potatoes; 4.000 
lbs. wool ; 2000 lbs. butter; and 2.000 lbs. cheese. 
No hay is cut — the stock being grazed the year 
round. A large number of the sheep, it is report- 
ed, are never sheared. 

The value of animals slaughtered during the 
year is set down at $15,000. 

Thero are no internal improvements in the 
county, and no manufactories, except two flour, 
and one saw mill. 

Plumas County. — Martin R. Strceter. Esq.. 
Deputy .v.„><--,m, upoi og tV,- 
surface of tins county n I as mineral 

lauds, 'flu: " Lialhei Kiver Meadows." and other 
smaller tracts, id a similar character — making a 
total of from four to live thousand acres — are 
classed as swamp lands. In regard to agricul- 
tural lands, Mr. Strectcr says, that by far the 
greater proportion of the land in Plumas county 
is unsuiied to tillage. The face of the county 
being extremely mountainous, and the summits 
nf manj of the lull- covered w ith perpetual 
Still, there are to be found many beautiful valleys, 
interspersed here and there, protected from the 
of ihe climate and the violence of the storms 
In the wall of hills surrounding them. These 
vallevs arc covered wilh a luxurious growth of 
grass, and are available for tillage, and will un- 
it, mhicdly hi conic of great value. 

The principal tunher is pine, spruce and such 
other trees as arc usually found un the higher 
mountains. flu tc is a -mill prop ten of 

lhe live stock of the county cei 
oxen and SOWS; 111 horasB and mules; 

The ci ops were, 5,765 bushels of « heat ; 1,015 
oals; 854 barley ; 5(m*iBe)corn; 2530 potatoes; 

■ nr. 

lhe manufacloi ill saw n 

quartz mill-, and 1 Hour mill running two pair of 

-lv P, D _'-■-, 1' i . A- 

of this county, estimates its a,. , 

Of lb,- .tc for 

fertility — the - kind* 



12.000 bushels ; corn, (maize ) 300 acres, produc- 
ing 0.000 bushels. 

Six thousand tons of hay were cut, and 2,000 
lbs. of wool sheared. 

The stock consists of fi.000 horses ; 23,000 
cattle; 2,000 sheep; 85,000 hogs; and 14.000 
poultry. The dairies produced 50,0110 lbs, of 
butter and 10,000 lbs. of cheese. The poultry 
200.000 dozen eggs. 

There are two Hour mills in the county, each of 
which turns out 3.000 barrels of flour per annum. 

The statistics of these three counties, and those 
of Sacramento already published, show that dur- 

: ihe Mar 1S55, tiie aggregate production of 
grains in the counties of Plumas, Sacramento, San 
Luis Obispo, and Yolo, were 741.540 bushels of 
wheat, equal' to 149,000 barrels of flour j 0G7.2G4 
bushels of barley; 59.425 bushels of oats; and 
17.205 bushels of maize, or Indian corn. 

Success of the Public Artesian Well 
in San Jose. — The supply of water obtained in 
this well, at the depth of 235 feet, not being as 
great as the contract with the city required, the 
boring operations were continued. The Telegraph 
says: The pipeputdown is seven inches in diam- 
eter, and for the purpose of securing the water 
already obtained, a six-inch diameter pipe was 
procured and letdown to the depth of the stream 
first reached, the water from it flowing up within 
the space between the two pipes. This arranged, 
the operators proceeded to bore deeper with a 
six-inch auger, and on Monday morning, fifteen 
feet below the stream first reached, or 250 feet 
below the surface of the ground, struck a bold 
current of water, which sends up with tremen- 
dous velocity one of the largest, if not the very 
largest stream of water yet obtained in this valley 
from Artesian wells. The quantity discharged is 
ample, and more than ample for the supply of the 
population of a large city, and all the wants of 
the lire department. Already plans are talked of, 
and being formed, for carrying the water in aque- 
ducts through the most populous parts of the 
city. The Council will doubtless take early ac- 
tion on the subject. 



Later from Oregon.— The Fori! 
of the 4th Inst., says: From presenl 
it would seem that the Indians will noi a (ho 

Americans to work the newly discovered gold 
mines. Humor has it that the Indians have 
plenty of arms and ammunition, and under pre- 
sent circumstances, it would seem unwise and im- 
prudent for any one to go thero without a stock 
of provisions, and armed to lhe teeth. Present 
indications arc that a light will come o!T as soon 
as the miners are strong enough, in case ihey are 
resisted. The only alternative, which at present 
seems left, is for the miners to light their way 
into the mines, or return home without washing 
a pan of dirt. We have an idea, however, that 
wherever there is gold the Orcgonians are bound 
to go and dig it. whoever may oppose them. 

A correspondent of the Times, writing from 
"the Dalles," gives the following intelligence: 
Horses can be bought at this place, suitable for 
the trip, at prices ranging fiom ,$30 to $65. 

Geo. Meeks, formerly mail carrier to Salt Lake, 
arrived here yesterday in fifteen days from Soda 
Springs. He reports only seven emigrant wagons 
on the row] for Oregon, and about one hundred 
for California. 

Bust has made its appearance and been very 
destructive to the wheat crop in Oregon, although 
in many places the crop is represented to be more 
than an average. 

The weather has been unusually fine for (ho 
last week, and has given the'farmers a good op- 
portunity to gather in their crops of wheat. 



Mining Enterprise.— A company has recently 
been formed with the view of supplying water in 
certain mining localities by means of artesian 
wells. The machinery for boring is now being 
constructed, and the theory upon which the com- 
pany propose to work will be speedily tested. It 
is believed that by this new method water may 
be furnished in many localities at a trifling ex- 
pense, compared with the enormous expense of 
digging canals. The machinery to be employed 
will be of sufficient power to bore through rock 
at any distance. This method will also furnish 
excellent facilities for prospecting the various 
strata of earth, and discovering the situation of 
that which will pay. If the experiment proves 
-till, it will establish an entirely new sys- 
tem of cold niiuinc: — Glosm I'nLUu TcU-arnjih 

Mixing i.n Yuba County.— The Independent 
and Columbia com] Mar. got into 

the river last week, 'lhe former, with two torus. 

, took out one hundred and forty-seven ounce 
the latter, with one torn, look out thirty-six 

jounces. 'Ibis week they will do better. Some 
.I ihe Parks' P.ar companies will be in their 
claims during the presenl week, when we may 
expect to see a revival of old times. 

Mining in El Dorado — Big •Strike. — The 
Nevada Tunnel Company, of Cement Hill, did a 
■'sma-hmg business' 1 last week in the way of de- 
veloping the richness of Ihcir almost inexhausti- 
ble claims. 'Ihey realized from the labor of eight 
hands some • f the precious oro. This 

company consists of seventeen stockholders, mak- 
ing a dividend of about §100 to the share over 
and above all U petit 



Removing Snags. — The little steamer Gazelb , 
of the California Steam Navigation Company's 
line, says the Marysville Herald, has been fitted 
up expressly for snagging, wilh derricks, spars 
and rigging, which have proved adequate to re- 
move large trees, that have for years been imbed- 
ded in the sand. The work on the Yuba river 
has occupied about two days, during which time 
the river has been cleared of two immense snags, 
which could probably have been removed in no 
other way. One of the snags, a sycamore, six 
feet in diameter, was taken out, root and branch, 
and carried to the banks of Feather river. The 
Yuba is now clear of snags ; two more wing dams 
arc wanted, which can be constructed at a slight 
expense, and the steamers can reach our landing 
without difficulty. It affords us pleasure lo com- 
mend the interest taken by the steamboat com- 
panies and city authorities in the improvement of 
our navigation ; this is a concert of action in tho 
right direction, and argues well for the future. 



Affairs of Adams & Co. — Several letters 
have been published, written immediately after 
the failure of Adams & Co., to Alviu Adams, the 
head of the house, by I, C. Woods, A. A. Cohen, 
and the attorneys employed by them. Mr. Co- 
hen, in his letter, says the cash on hand was about 

Sl 000,000. After he had III II I II II ii'" ' "-•!■•', 

Mi. i Inli n n 1 ' •"* "' c "" r '- tn * c ** n only •mount" 
-12t.iioo. Here appears a discrepancy of 
1 i. Cohen left lor New York on the 
1st insU, and Woods is reported to have sailed, on 
the 11th, for Australia. The Chronicle asks: 
•■ lias there ever been a greater swindle in San 
Francisco, than that practiced in this affair of 
Adams & Co.T 

Arrival of Immigrants. — We are informed 
that several immigrant wagons arrived at Oain- 
eertield's Ferry during the early part ol this week, 
he Plains, via Yreka. The party intended 
to come through by the Noble Pass, but got off 
the road and look the Yreka route. Not satisfied, 
we presume, wilh the looks of the country up in 
that direction, they turned lhe heads of their oxen 
southward, and have safely arrived in lhe volley 
f the Sacramento. Their arrival demonstrates 
the pi acticabilityof the proposed wagon road Irom 
lhe head of the Sacramento to Yreka ; but 
whether the route is of such a nature as to render 
the transportation of goods ovei II profitable, is 
still a matter of doubt. — Shatla Cnurier. 



Crops. — A correspondent in Monterey writes: 
The return of wheat crops in this county for the 

- in Tuolumne. — An extra 

occasioned by drought and unseasonable I log. 18, 6 p. M. gives 



Chapin. coii.i, ; chant, near Clay - , There 

wharf. San Francisco; also to J. M. and Win. arc about Su.OiHI acres" of tulc or swam| 
Y. Horner. Capt. Beard, Rev. Mr. Brien, and I ihat are very fertile, ami which can be reclaimed 
others, Union City. AC. u • small expense. On the wis 

— _-e. there are . 

Having received the above letter, we publish it | and mounl 

entire. There is something in it to the point, adapted lor grazing, lhe olhcr 2UUUU acres aie 
needed in lhe question of Immigration. It is a '''^evidences of the existence of minerals have 
plain case; such arc occurring all around nsjand been discovered. Improvements and agricultural 
if we have erred in laving it before our reader- arded by the 

Tfilh all the red names, the good we hope it may 
do must lie our apol 

Hundreds and th iur hard woi 

Unfortunate i I aid. They are w 

of it and should receive it. and that pr- 
too. lliindi dd be here, il 

was If, 

ration ; but i who talk of 

immunity h i 

well as .«h 
as may loo, 'J bushels; oat*, 



grants, and the con- 
about, and insecurity of lilies 



lire county. :. 

rlesand over 

' acres o; Und fence 1 



il deal of the wheat is injured by shrivel- 
1 some by rust ; but a very good proportion 

w ill be good seed. Potatoes have dune will — not 

much planted. Barley dsne well, general 

ch planted. The grasshoppers have not 

injured lhe crops to any great extent, but the 

pastures have suffered considerably. 

California Stage Company. — The amonnt 

M *L*^r trnrel to and from Marr»*iue la bc t ond n Vcouf Cptieni 
of loo** not *.—**»" with a. It la ho — ■■ ■ nai—ni udag to ass 
- • 19coacbea Wre the Wasters. Haas) ha the nmmin e 
karh, far the diflerent rootea vp ar.-d dewn t 
Tt-r axe nA VudiS four and 1 .la bone Concord Cuoehea, and 
t'*ey do Dot go eraprr , either. We mw two eoachea Unocal a 
groan, all ran, and on these two were 56 p noj n 1 4i.1 1 : 31 in a 
C bor»e coach, nod 45 la a 4 bora", learlaa lor Saeranaenlo awf 
Wednesday. In the afternoon nai un loanac npwtth K, 18, Mad 
•on, withal 



ng particular irsait of the 

ire, and the ■ 
i inty: 
At 1.1 - jliout a mile bom 

eeick 

1 to appro.. 



menc 

ka co 







■si 






- r» 






:jed 






ran* 






■ TO- 






loro 



m. in Mil ynttir;' 

lis dV-<aiUnt. 



t the 



The Supreme Court has rendered an unai 

of a lover grade than I) -tn. 
right lo issue papers of naturalization. 

' Mail Steamship Coa 
[any and lhe Nicaragua Company have male at 
which tbe week 



be second on 

,i,i p .--•_ d be a,' ',■«>, 

I was 



. m arc 



52 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER 



&tate ^jjricitltiiral Storirtj, 

OFFICIAL NOTICES. 

Circular. 

The Executive Committee of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, beg leave to say to the Agricul- 
turists of the State that as the time for holding 
the Annual Fair approaches the necessity (or in- 
creased and energetic action throughout the State 
becomes, daily, more apparent. 

The officers of the Society are giving their 
time, attention and money to the furtherance of 
the work, but this will not suffice. Unless the 
Farmers, Merchants, Lawyers, Hotel Keepers and 
all others interested (and who is not?) come up 
to our aid, subscribe and pay their memberships 
and give countenance to the work, our approach- 
ing Fair cannot be made what it should be — 
cannot be what the resources of our State call 
for, what the honor of this most prominent in- 
terest demands. 

The State has made commendable appropria- 
tions for premiums, and the Executive Committee 
has published a schedule for the approaching Ex- 
hibition, and it is hoped that we may be placed 
in circumstances to show full statistics of Farms, 
Orchards, Nurseries, Gardens, Vineyards, &c. 

A competent and reliable Committee may be 
expected to visit and report upon every case in 



fortiraltural fjprtment 



Curl of the Leaves of Peach Trees. 

This affection, to which the tree is subject 
during the month of May, and by which it often 
loses all its first leaves, has been commonly at- 
tributed to the puncture of insects, such as 
aphides and the thrips. It is, however, very 
doubtful whether these insects are the real cause 
of that diseased change in the texture and form 
of the leaf which is called the curl, because the 
insects in question are rarely seen on the affected 
leaves and never in such numbers as to sufficient- 
ly account for the extensive injury sustained. 
The surface of the leaves is swollen into irregular 
and crisp tumors, often of a reddish and of a 
spongy texture, formed of thickened and enccu 
lent cellular tissue. These tumefactions present 
some analogy to the warts of the plum tree, and 
may have a similar origin. The affection has 
has often been observed to follow a cold storm in 
May, whether connected therewith or not. Tf 
sudden cold and moisture have a tendency to 
check evaporation from the leaves, fluids will 
collect therein, and may thus bring about the 
changes by which they become blasted. It is 
confidently stated that soaping the limbs of the 
trees early in the spring, or washing them with 
a solution of sulphur and potash, will prevent 



this department. Kend in your propositions, that thcm from su fr er ing from the curl.' Peach trees 



the Committee may know the amount of its work 
The statute under which we are organized 
limits the terms of membership to ten dollars. 
Any Gentleman or Lady sending us this small 
sum will have subject to his or her order a cer- 
tificate of membership for one year. 

The question of the utility of the Fair depends 
very much upon the manner it is gotten up, and 
it caunot be what it should be without personal 
interest of a general character. 

Persons holding certificates of membership are, 
with their families, admitted to all the exhibi- 
tions of the Society free of charge.' 

By order of the Executive Committee, 

C. I. Hutchinson, President. 
0. C. Wheeler. Rec. Sec. 

Sucramento, June 23d. 1855. 

Agricultural Visiting Committee. 
At a meeting of the Executive Committee of 
the State Agricultural Society, held this dav. 
Gen. C. 1. Hutchinson of Sacramento. Rev. A. II 
Myers of Alameda, Hon. Sherman Day of Santa 
Clara, Hon. W. W, Stow of Santa Cruz, and Gen 
Allen of Yuba, were elected a Committee for the 
examination of Farms. Orchards. Vineyards, 
Nurseries, rfce., which may be entered for premi- 
ums at the ensuing lair. Although the time for 
such entry has expired, yet the Committee is in- 
structed to receive propositions for such entry 
until the 15th August, being bound, of course, to 
jiu.iu-.Aj, a..-,.. ...|,;,i, llm . be within their ran<re. 
Special pains, however, win ,.. ,.,-„„ , n :mM ; er 
all special requests. 0. C. Wbeeleh, R. Sec. 

State Agricultural Society's Rooms, July 27, 1855. 

A Call 
To every organized County Agricultural Society. 
I am instructed by the Executive Committee 
of the State Agricultural Society, to ask the ear- 
nest co-operation of every County organization, 
and to ask of the Corresponding Secretary of each 
such inhumation of their several Societies as will 
make known to the Executive how much their 
Counties will do to further the interests of the 
Exhibition — what products, n hat stock and what 
manufactures may be expected fiom their several 
counties; and to solicit an active co-operation in 
this peat work. It is also very desirable that 
special delegations should be appointed to attend 
the Fair and to act in convention, and thus aid in 
promoting and advancing all the great and im- 
portant interests involved. 

The Secretaries or other officers of each County 
are particularly desired to reply to the call at the 
earliest moment. 

Per order of Executive Committee. 

James L. L. F, Warren, 
Corrcs. Sec. State Agricultural Society. 

FREE TRANSPORTATION TO THE STATE FAIR. 

The Executive Committee of the California 
State Agricultural Society, take pleasure in an- 
nouncing to those < interested, throughout the 
State, that the California Steam Navigation Co., 
Citizens' Lir.o of Steamers, California Stage Co.. 
Wells. Fargo & Co.. and the Pacific Express Co. 
have liberally and gratuitously tendered the ser- 
vices of their respective conveyances for the trans- 
portation, to and from the approaching Fair, of 
such articles as may be designed for exhibition, 
including stock and persons necessarily accompa- 
nying the same. 

Every thing of like liberality from our citizens 
in any portion of the State, will tend to render 
the coining State Fair of greater interest, and 
make it worthy of the State and her people. 
By order of the Executive Committee. 

C. I. Hutchinson, President. 
Sacramento, July 5th., 1855. 



on plum stocks seem to be nearly exempt from 
this affection, perhaps because the supply of nour- 
ishment from the roots and the exhalations from 
the leaves are more nearly balanced in them ; for 
the plum stock makes fewer or smaller roots 
than the peach on its own stock. — T. If. Harris. 



Members to the State Society. — One of 
the plans to promote the usefulness of the State 
Society, is to aid them by the value of member- 
ship, and this is one of the sure ways to prove 
your interest and your wish for its success. Gen- 
tlemen who desire to give this evidence of their 
wishes, can call at the Rooms of the Society on 
Fourth street, between J and K, or address us, 
enclosing $10 by mail. This amount entitles 
'' he privileges of a member, and they 

mediate families to an admittance to 
Exhibitions. We hope many will 

1, voluntarily, and enroll themselves. 



Fruit Culture near 'Washington. 

Henry F. French, in one of his late letters to 
the New England Farmer, gives the following in- 
teresting account of the successful commencement 
in the culture of fruit by Darius Claggett, (five 
miles from Washington city,) who has been thirty 
years a merchant, and who never saw a plow ruu 
until on his own farm. He employs mostly Irish 
laborers: 

I have rarely seen a place which gave so de- 
cided evidence of good taste and good judgment 
and withal, of such persevering faith in our good 
mother aarth, as this. Six years ago Mr. Claggett 
purchased three hundred acres of land, mostly 
covered with a small growth of yellow pine, en- 
tirely unimproved. In this short period of time 
he has cleared and put under the plow one hun- 
dred and lifty acres, a large part of which is cov 
ered with a choice variety of fruit trees of all de- 
scriptions that the climate will produce. His 
trees appear to be judiciously selected, carefully 
pruned and protected, and making a growth far 
hevond what I have ever seen at the north. He 
mra atranlj BOOT apple trees, 4STJ pears. 1600 
peaches, 150 apricots aad as many plums. 

The apple trees are set forty feet apart, and the 
land among them planted with wheat in drills. 
with bare strips a fesv feet in width along the 
rows. They are making generally a better growth 
than we get in New Hampshire. I saw upon 
them marks of our old enemy, the borer, and far 
worse marks of the seventeen-year locusts of 
1*52. According to the theory, they will not be 
here again until 1800, by which time our friend 
will, it is hoped, have been paid by the fruit of 
his trees lor all his labors. He said that when 
the locusts had possession of his trees, he could 
scrape from the body of a newly-set apple tree a 
pint of the insects at once ! His pear trees, how 
over, far excel his apples. Indeed, I have never 
seen so large a number of pears together, that 
appeared so healthy, and, as we say at home, so 
l/u ijlij as these. I saw no sign of the sap-blight 
or winter-killing, but the trees seemed full of life, 
and many of (hem were full of fruit already set 
The peach orchard is already set for a large crop. 
In 1853 Mr. C. sent to the market 700 baskets 
of peaches, and his crop this year will probabl 
far exceed that quantity. He has this year in 
grass about 20 acres, in wheat about the same, in 
corn about forty acres, and in potatoes about 12 
acres, besides large tracts of vegetables ami small 
fruits, among the rest two acres of strawberries. 
He manures all his crops with Peruvian guano, 
300 pounds to the acre, plowed in, and thinks 
this will insure him abundant crops, 

Grapes and Wine. 

In your paper of last Jury, I observed a valu- 
able piece on the use of the grape as a food or 
medicine, which was too good to pass unnoticed. 

The most eminent physicians, and men who 
have traveled in grape countries, agree with you. 
It is a common saying, that in wine countries 
there are but few drunkards. The writer in the 
Observer finds an exception in Paris. What 
less could be expected in a city like Paris? There 
is a wonderful difference between a man sitting 
under his own vine, eating the fruit and drinking 
the juice, and going to grog shops and other do- 
testable places, and taking their wines and other 
detestable poisons. 

Alcohol, whether or clear adulterated, tends to. 
create unnatural thirst, till, like a poisoned rat, 
he drinks himself to death. The pure juice of 
the grape, or the fruit, tends directly the other 
way, and also to give strength and health and 
vigor to the system. 

The grape is of the easiest culture, by slips 
cuttings, grafting, or transplanting from the' 
swamps. There are in this region the best of 
table grapes, and the best of wine grapes of na- 
tive growth ; the former ripening in August, and 
being sweet, productive, and free from pulp. I 



suppose they may be found elsewhere. There 
are families in this place who have made and 
kept for years excellent wine for medical pur- 
poses, of fine flavor and color, and without add- 
ing alcohol, spirit, or coloring matter to the wine. 
There are two skilful physicians near by, who 
use this wine, and no other for medicine. 

One of the greatest pleas for using intoxicating 
liquor is. the idea that our Savior used, directed 
it. &c. A very great mistake and absurdity. The 
wine he made was that which he distinguished 
by calling it the fruit of the vine. Pliny, who 
lived at the time of our Savior, says good wine 
was that which was destitute of spirit. Plutarch 
calls that wine best which is harmless, and that 
the most harmless which has the least strength, 
and that the most wholesome in which nothing 
has been added to the grape. 

The Commissioner of Patents has had a bottle 
of excellent wine presented to him. which, he 
says, has no intoxicating power. 1 apprehend 
no difficulty in making such wine, and having it 
improve by keeping. The grape can be kept the 
year round, and the juice pressed out when want- 
ed. Every family, or physician, or church officer 
can make what is needful, and keep it in small 
quantities easier than in large, and know what 
they are using. — Phineas Pratt, in Am. Agricul. 

The 'Weeping Willow. 

The following account of the introduction of 
the weeping willow (Sali.T Babylonica) into 
England, is communicated to the New England 
Farmer by R. II. Howard : 

I presume that it is known to few that, for the 
weeping willows that hang their pensive boughs 
beautifully over the hallowed graves of the dead, 
England and America are indebted to, the distin- 
guished Lady Mary Montague. It is said that 
while at Constantinople, whose husband at that 
time occupied the embassy, she sent, in a basket 
of figs, home to her intimate friend, the poet 
Pope, a 6prig of the Asiatic willow. He set it 
out in his garden, and from that twig has come 
all the weeping willows in Englaud and America. 

Lady Mary -Montague was born about the year 
1090, in Nottinghamshire. England; she "was 
one of the finest and most accomplished scholars 
of her age; was cotemporary and on terms of in- 
timacy with Hannah More, Addison, Pope, Steele, 
Ac; was the wife of the accomplished Charles 
Montague for nearly fifty years ; at the court of 
George 1. for some lour years ; resided upwards 
of twenty years in Italy and its neighborhood ; 
lived to the advanced age of seventy-three, and 
died August 21. 1702. 

To Lady Mary, also, it is said, belongs the 
honor of introducing inoculation for the small 
pox, a practice which has annually saved many 

lives. 



Keep Fruit Trees Straight.— Trees in an 
open exposure often acquire a leaning position 

floni the prevailing win. Is. Thi.s should not be 

Buffered beyond a certain stage of the tree. When 
as large as one's wrist, they should be set up 
erect, and, indeed, thrown into the wind at an 
angle of ten or fifteen degrees ; in order to bring 
them ultimately into a straight position. This is 
best done by obtaining crotched limbs from the 
woods, eight to twelve feet long, and placing the 
butt end, which should be sharpened, on the 
ground, and the crotch end either against the 
trunk, immediately beneath the branching point, 
or against a large outer limb, if more convenient, 
securing it from charing in the crotch, by a pad- 
ding of straw, or litter, and setting the' tree at 
once up to the desired angle of elevation. Loosen, 
also, the ground on the windward side of the root 
so that it will not bind, and the work is accom- 
plished. Let this be done when the trce'begins 
to make its summer growth, or soon after leafing 
out. One season, if the tree is thrifty, will be all 
that is required. If, however, it he obstinate, re- 
peat the trial another year. The remedy is sure. 
Even large trees, which have acquired a perma- 
dent lean, may be thrown into an erect posture, 
by loosening the earth at the root, and occasion- 
ally cutting off an obstinate large root, without 
injury to its growth, and thus be made sightly. 
An erect tree will be longer lived and more fruit- 
ful than a leaning one, and not half so subject to 
casualty as if left to its own guidance. — Ex. 

The Cochineal. 

The Cochineal of commerce has the appearance 
of a seed or grain ; and few persons who are un- 
acquainted with the natural history of the article 
which is the principle ingredient in all our most 
brilliant dyes, would, on inspection, believe it to 
be a member of the animal, instead of the vegeta- 
ble kingdom. But so it is, and millions of pounds 
of these minute insects are reared and sacrificed, 
made an important article of commerce, and sold 
in the various marts of the whole cilized world, 
in order to gratify the eye of man. 
• Two members of the lower animal creation 
play important parts in ministering to human 
luxury and pride, viz; the silkworm and the 
cochineal fly ; the former in spinning the thread 
of all our most costly textile fabrics, and the 
latter in giving them their brilliancy of hues, 
from the flaming scarlet, the brilliant orange, and 
the blushing crimson, to the delicate pink and 
the pale-tinted rose. All these colors, in their 
infinite variety of shade, as well as all others 
where a tinge of red enters as a component, are 
made from Cochineal. 

The insect is obtained from Mexico, and the 
neighboring countries, and is raised on a tree of 
the Cactus family, on the juico of which it feeds. 
When the insects are properly matured, they are 
killed by pouring over them boiling water, or by ' 



roasting them on plates of iron. After being 
thoroughly dried, the insect is packed for the 
trade. Immense quantities of tiys dye-stuff are 
used, both in Eurepe and the United States, in 
silk and carpet manufactories. 

The belle who, in a five hundred dollar shawl 
of Canton crape, promenades our streets, capti- 
vating the hearts, and turning the heads of fools 
and coxcombs by the magnificence of the display, 
does not. perhaps, know enough of natural history 
and the mechanic arts, to understand that all the 
costly paraphernalia is manufactured out of the 
shroud of a crawling worm, and died with the 
life of an immolated being. 



Duties of Farmers as Citizens. 

Ertractfrom Dr. Reynold Lrrture brfurc the Concord Lyceum 

To sustain the laws of the land and to preserve 
order and good government is obviously the duty 
of every citizen. But this is peculiarly the duty 
of the farmer. For the yeomanry of this country 
constitutes the main pillar upon which the fabric 
of our government rests. Without the sustaining 
hand of the sober, staid, enlightened and strong- 
minded yeomanry of our land, our government, 
left to the conflicting elements, that meet and 
struggle and battle in our cities and political 
arenas, would scarcely sustain itself a single year. 
It is the" mighty voice of the yeomanry ofjthe 
country that speaks with power and is heard 
above the raging billows of political strife. It is 
said that Paris is France and that the voice of 
France is but the echo of the voice of Paris. But, 
thank God, we have no Paris in America, and we 
have other voices than the voices of our great 
cities. 

Now I do not counsel farmers to be politicians. 
They arc better employed. But they should keep 
themselves informed, upon the topics of the day 
and upon the characters and opinions of the men 
who are in office and who are seeking it. that 
they may act understanding! y and independently. 
Farmers should be public spirited. They should 
not consider their own little farms as all the 
world but remember that others have interests 
at stake as well as themselves, They should ever 
be ready to contribute their part to support good 
government and to carry forward every laudable 
enterprise. There are often measures demanded 
by the public good that do not immediately put 
dollars in your purse, and yet they are important 
and necessary measures. They conduce to your 
comfort; they contribute to the dispatch of busi- 
ness; they facilitate intercourse; they tend to or- 
nament the village in which you reside, and ren- 
der it more respectable ; they regard perhaps the 
preservation of good order and good morals in the 
community. You caunot afford to dispense with 
such measures and you should ever be ready to 
encourage and aid them, within reasonable limits. 
The proper way to accomplish such works is to 
take hold of them with you own hands and assist 
in planning and executing them. Farmers are 
apt to leave such matters to gentlemen of leisure, 
who are apt to be liberal and sometimes extrava- 
gant ill their expenditures, and tltvn complain, 
after the work is done, of the burden of taxation. 
'fhe proper way is to give so much time as is 
necessary to all such mailers, and let your voice 
be heard while the arrangements are being made. 

This will generally icniuvc all cause of com- 
plaint after they are finished. Farmers are apt 
to be too modest in the transaction of public af- 
frairs, and to allow others, whose judgment is no 
better, and who have no more at stake than them- 
selves, to assume the control of municipal busi- 
ness, merely because they can talk glibly and 
have boldness enough to put, themselves forward. 
In this way farmers arc often crowded out of 
those stations of respectability and honor, which 
they ought to occupy, and which they are better 
qualified to occupy than many who succeed in 
leaching them. Notwithstanding fanners consti- 
tute by far the most numerous class of citizens, 
yet most of the offices of honor and emolument 
are occupied by men from other classes. How 
rarely do you find the title of honorable prefixed 
to the name of the fanner 1 But you sav this is 
because we are not office-seekers. Is it not rather 
because other men are office-seekers and you do 
not choose to compete with them ? 

Then do not complain that \our position is not 
an honorable one and that your sons will not fol- 
low their father's business beqause it does not 
lead to honor and distinction. What is wanting 
at the present time is that the farmer should cul- 
tivate the soil in a more scientific manner ; that 
his intellect should be as assidiously employed as 
his hands. And this intellectual activity will 
prepare him to comprehend and master the duties 
pertaining to any position in society in which ho 
may be placed. Then when farmers are found 
filling many of the important and'iniluential of- 
fices in the community, their business will appear 
more reputable in the eyes of their sons, and in- 
stead of seeking gold in the sierras of California, 
that they may enjoy the uncertain honor which 
results from wealth, they will be content to cul- 
tivate their paternal acres that they may in their 
turn till the position of trust and dignity which, 
in the course of events, will devolve upon them. 
In this way the farmer's calling will be rendered 
honorable and he will occupy that position, as a 
citizen, to which he is entitled, and his interests 
will receive that attention, from the governments 
of the State and nation, which they merit. 

They will not be laid on the table because no 
political capital can be made of them. But his 
voice, when it is heard in the public councils, will 
be regarded. His influence will be felt and will 
be felt fur good, for he has no private interests to 
advance. His interests are identified with tho 
public good, and he is ever ready to bear his share 
of the public burdens. In the public prosperity 
he prospers, and in the public joy he rejoice*. 






THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 



isrclLuuj. 



[Fur tlic California Firmer.] 
CAUFOUM.t. 

On the confines of Columbia's unmeasured waste. 
By the mighty Fncific and Birrrn* enoaaedi 
In a limii which for ages was eull'oml to lay 
As it wa* at creation's first opening day ; 
When tiie star? with delight all in harmony sang. 
And legions of heaven to has parajtets sprang, 
As the ends of the earth here in union did meet • 
And the Maker of all saw his labors complete : 
While, perhaps it was here that lie lingering stood, 
To pronounce of his works — "they are all very good." 
Here the Sabbath that followed was long undisturbed, 
In which naught but the voices of Nature wens beard : 
While the quick salmon's plunge 'ueafu the cataracts roar, 
Aud the high swelling tide, as it beat on the shore, 
Formed on encircling choir, together to raise, 
To their God and c jntrollcr loud anthems of proise. 
In this spot, hid from view aud unknown to the world, 
No pcaceiul arts entered, no war fangs were hurled ; 
But robed in the richness oi Nature's bestowing, 
Resplendent in beauty the country was glowing. 

But in hulf n decade, see what changes arise I 
For "Eureka" has filled all the world with surprise; 
It comes from a Switzer, as he holds in his hand, 
Fresh drawn from the river, California's sand. 
" I have wandered," he Bays, "from the land of my birth, 
Far trorn home, from my friends — all I loved upon earth ; 
On the deserts been parched, o'er the billows been tossed ; 
Thanked the savage for food, as the mountains I crossed j 
Been exposed to wild beasts, to the storms aud the dew — 
All that chequered the track of the Wandering Jew; 
Till a land I have found that is richer in gold, 
Than the mines of Peru, or the Ophir oi old." 
The etiect of that word puzzles mortals to tell ; 
But I think more of good than of evil befell, 
For the Saxons flood in, on the surf from the west, 
And in torrents rush down, from the high mountain crest: 
Like locusts to Egypt, from the east they come in, 
All active and greedy, full of bustle and din. 
Splendid cities they rear where the chaparral grew, 
Unsurpassed by many, unequalled by few. 
The farms of the country with its prolific soil, 
Yield abundance to all, through the husbandman's toil. 
It would tire me to tell all the blessings that flow 
From opening the placers, but will say as I go, 
That but five years have passed since the grizzlys did roam, 
Where we hear "Betty" singing "There's noplace like home. 1 

'49 



Death of a Son of the Author of Anastasius. 

Taris, May 3, 1855. 

A few weeks ago, Mr. William W. Hope, one 
of the sons of "Anastasius" Hope, died in his 
hotel of the Rue Saint Dominique Saint Germain, 
leaving the whole immense fortune, above $2,- 
000.000, to a poor Englishman, a distant relation 
vegetating at Dover on some hundred pounds a 
year. The will contained a few legacies, among 
them one to his mistress. He bequeathed her 
$100 000. This legacy was too intimately linked 
with the other provisions of the will for the heir 
to think of disturbing it, for, as you know, this, 
mortuary commands are like Prince Rupert's 
drop in their intimate interdependence. But the 
woman bad a pair of horses and a carriage in Mr, 
Hope's stable, (they lived maritally together,) 
alledged to have been given her by him, and 
which were shown to have been used by her con- 
stantly, by none but her, aud to have been con- 
stantly at her orders. The heir brought suit to 
recover them, and they were worth one thousand 
dollars, at the outside. 

Mr. Hope was one of the martyrs of the Midas 
martyrology. He fortunately was damned to 
none of those '-rich men's disease*," th* gout and 
apoplexy, but hccould not escape ennui, the 
of wealth. His only resources to kill time (and 
he had not much to kill— In' died only 5S) years 
old) was cards; he spent every season at Ham- 
burg, sitting at its tapis vert, and leaving never 
less" than flO.000, ami in 1850 I to the 

bank. His stable was sold recently, and all his 
other personal effects are advertised as on sale. 
His hotel, with the exception of Hie hotels of the 
do Rothschilds, Lehon. I.auriston. M'lle Ilotlin- 
guor's, (it is just completed, the building hi 
a million of dollars) is the linos! in Pans, and is 
most expensively decorated. He greatly enlarged 
it when he purchased it fifteen years ago from the 
Spanish government, who used it as their em- 
bassy. Be lived their alone with his mistress. 
waited on by thirty servants, anil having i 
itors besides a well known card player, nick- 
named le r.ancal. who has the repuUI 
the best card-player, not to be a Ureek, possessed 
by Paris. 

"lie made his fortune in Mexico at monte and 
the cockpit, and it is said Mr. Hope contributed 
875.000 to his estate etil menced 

studying the 

he lives in is worth t has an im- 

mense garden, tilled with an avenue of line old 
lindens, as many fountains and statues as \ er- 
salles, and a splendid cascade. The runtime is 
in keeping' with the hotel and grounds ; it cost 

The salons arc an premier (our second 
floor) ami can contain 3 are la- 

vishinglr, too lavishing!), adorned ; the ceiling is 
moel i 

by twenty candelabras of jet bronae, each of 
which cost - i arc nlled with the rarest 

Japan and Chinese porcelain i having 

the pair ; the staircase is not siirjumerl 
\s; one of the buffets coi 

re* china, gold and blue, 
which cost % 

. ng room are hung with old and superb 
leather, with gilt In a word, go 

ain, and cervuig met;!. 
where. The rarer ■■» the master 

had not seen sin, 

hi all this princely mansion the, 
one chamber ; it was on the ground floor, aoai 



decorated with western art and oriental luxury. 
It looked on the garden and into two green- 
houses. Who is there in Paris that can afford to 
indulge himself with a house costing a rent of 
800,000 aunually 1— N. O. Picayune. 



Greatness of Little Things. 

In Lieut. Maury's recent work on the Physical 
Geography of the Sea, he gives the result of mi- 
croscopic examinations of some shells, drawn up 
from the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, where it 
is more than two miles in depth. These shells 
are so minute that to the naked eye they appear 
like common dust or clay, although notagiain 
of sand is among them ; and yet are so preserved 
that their most delicate edges are perfect. It 
would require a larger grave to hold all the coral 
insects of the world than all the elephants. The 
smallest tenants of the ocean, not the largest, are 
its most important occupants, and the microscopic 
shell fish create more important changes than the 
whales. 

It has been the great error of historians, states- 
men and politicians, to lose sight of this truth. 
They look only at the whales, the big fish, and 
seem to consider these as the monarchs of the 
deep sea of politics, and they alone have the right 
to swim there. If the French Emperor flounders, 
or the Russian Autocrat turns over on his side 
and dies, each contortion is duly chronicled. But, 
in the meantime, what do we hear of the progress 
of the people, the industrious classes, the small 
fish? They are the true monarchs of this great 
and wide sea of politics, after all. They form the 
strata by which the geologists of history will 
hereafter mark the progress of this age, and class- 
ify all its products ; and upon the basis of which 
all future society will develop itself. Take care 
of the poor, and the rich will take care of them- 
selves. Educate the masses, and there will arise 
from the number a sufficiently large class to gen- 
eralize their ideas, and carry out their principles. 
Reform the people, and make them temperate, 
truthful amd virtuous, for they give tone and 
temper to the age, and to the country, determin- 
ing the character of its leaders far more than the 
leaders of the masses. 

And so in individual life and character. It is 
little things that make and unmake us all. There 
are thousands of young men of genius and enter- 
prise, who dream of fame and distinction, and 
who. if it only required some one great act of dar- 
ing or sacrifice within the scope of possibility, to 
become distinguished, would be heroes; but, be- 
cause true eminence is only to be attained by a 
persevering application in a number of daily vir- 
tues, are constantly at war with the whole system 
of things, and esteem it a very badly governed 
world, in which they find no higher place. 

It is a man's little habits of dress, demeanor 
and conversation, that make or unmake the friends 
on which his success and happiness in lifedepend. 
It is on a man's little habits of eating and drink- 
ing, of loitering over trilles. of knowing how to 
i, rush them aside, thai his character tor Iff 
or industry, and the Occupation of the largest part 
of his time depend. It is the way in which a 
man takes care of his pennies that determines 
whether be will ever take care of pounds. 

Little habits drive nails into our coffins. They 
more than make up by their number what they 
seem to lack in individual importance. Theyare 
the true seeds of character. We might as well 
pliant acorns, ami not expect them tO grow, as 
cherish small vires, and not calculate on their in- 
crease; or as reasonably hope to see the firm and 
noble oak where no acorns we ever planted, as 
true greatness ami vmvess in life, where the 

1 little habits of industry and 
virtue had not been lirst carefully cherished. 

In a word, character is I he sum of little things, 
rather than great ones, The true estimate of au 
individual is not a' ntal or 

occasional achievements, bot by his every day 
habits. A nation's character is not determined 
by its (amous men. but by the habits of its mass- 
es, and the character of the age by the vices or 
virtues that were so inherent as to be unnoticed. 



seized by the forelock," and the motto be, now or 
never. The fanner may, through indolence neg- 
lect to provido fuel for the winter, or to provide 
proper shelter and food for his cattle, or to repair 
in summer his fences and his houses; the conse- 
quences of course will be disastrous to himself. 
He must experience the ills resulting from his 
negligence and procrastination. If his house or 
barn needs repairing, the proper time to do it is 
in the summer. But as he is a procrastinator in 
everything, so he defers this work to tho time of 
the autumnal rains, which beat into his chambers 
to the great injury of his furniture, or into his 
barn to the great detriment of his hay and grain, 
Frequently, also, in traveling you will notice the 
houses of some people with many panes of glass 
broken out; the consequence is, that much cold 
and discomfort are experienced within. But all 
this is the result of the absurd doctrine, that 
another time will do as well now. From this 
absurd principle there often arises a great want 
of proper economy, and good management in the 
affairs of a family. Some families are always be- 
hindhand in all their domestic matters. They 
are late to rise in the morning ; the bright sun. 
as he looms up from the eastern horizon they 
never see, Long after he has shed his benign 
rays on hills and over valleys, they are still 
locked in slumbers. The breakfast is belated, 
the morning is wasted, the day is gone before its 
proper work is accomplished. Nothing of course 
is done in its proper season. Disorder reigns 
throughout the domestic concerns ; and tardiness 
and negligence are visible in the management of 
the farm. There is no economy practiced within 
doors or without. The children are unprovided 
with shoes till after the snows of winter have 
come. The horses are not stabled till after they 
have suffered from the cold autumnal rains and 
frosts. A want of thrift is everywhere visible. 
Now all this arises from the fact that this family 
have got into the habit of not improving present 
time and opportunity, but deferring everything 
to the uncertainties of a future time. Many of 
the above remarks will apply with equal propriety 
to persons in other occupations of life. — Senea; 
in Northern Parmer. 



fiuMcs' $*prtiii 



[For tho California Fai mer, 
ACROSTIC. 

C omb, a messenger meets ua eo blythe and so glee, 
A 11 freighted with gema from the land and the sea 
L oudly hia preaence how many do greet, 
I n the rich gilded mansion and lonely retreat ; 
F or each weekly issue, as others before, 

nly increaeea her beauty, her richness, and lore. 
Roll on ye proud billows, her treasurfe convey, 
N ever till her proud sails with political ewiiy ; 

1 ncrease her reception on each happy shore, 
Asa mandate of mercy, a guide to the poor ; 

F or her treasures, ye authors and poets profound, 
A re greatly increased by the farmerB around : 
Richly laden, like hives with the sweet honeyed store, 
May success ever crown you on Pacific wide ehoit, 
E ver one who would know who bears this rich mine, 
Remember to read it ftl ike first of each line. 



The Desert of Sahara. — The Sahara is by 
no means the monotonous sea of sand which we 
commonly figure to ourselves. Its surface is 
varied by many natural features, but none of suf- 
ficient magnitude to constitute distinct districts, 
•■ The desert is habitable, Jiafi, or uninhabitable, 
kheta; bushy, hailia, or wooded, gfiaba; stony, 
serir, or covered with enormous rocks, warr. If 
it (onus an elevated plateau, it is called djebel, in 
opposition to the maritime plain, sahet," But 
every where it has the samo climate, the same 
absence of rain, the same fierce vicissitudes of heat 
and cold, the same fearful simoom, or khamsin, 
rendering life scarcely supportable in spring, until 
the violent etessans from the Mediterranean drive 

it l.a»*»U • •» <■»■■», — ■» anJ o»«» ™ »w«.». T ,.... ■»»*.;■ 

desert with their OOld, but powerless to bring 
with then their m th remains precip- 

itated on the summits of the Atlas. 

The imputation is, of course, grouped in the 
oases," around thoriitity spring- of water which 
here and there mine tfl the surfiee. What reser- 
jpply these slender, and ye< never-failing 
sources, in I ■ >e, on a surface nearly as 

an Kurope. do morature whatever falls in or- 
dinary scant i is ? l lis a curious one. 
Richardson is the only traveler (so far as we re- 
member) who refers it to the extraordinary del- 
i rain which falls in particular spots, at 
intern line and ten - men-, 
ll ft phenomenon followed 
tiftv T:- - and a hich 

-tcrranean receptee] 
the wan 

The toils ira traveling, and 

the .-'.< are familiar 

known narrative 
French author affects greatly to depreciate them, 
and to attri the popular notions on 

ject to the imagination of travelers. 



Another Time Will Do as Well 
It is a common say ins, that all the operations 
of nature go on regularly without delay. If we 
hear a farmer or mechanic repeating this saying, 
"that to-morrow will answer the purpose 
well as to-day." we may rely on it that >uch per- 
sons will never prosper in their business. The 
farmer that never thoroughly repairs his fences, 
till after his cattle have repeatedly trespassed 
upon his croj 

ready for use. till after the proper time has passed, 
practically adopts the principle that 
is as good as the present. The patient that i* 
coo fin I neglects to 

II after the disease has become 
matured and threa Lhcr procras- 

tinator. and advoe.. .,-. that future 

time will be available to a present purpose and 
benefit. The 

from day to day, and passes his time in indolence. 
; 



in that neither plants his ground nor plows 
and sows in the proper season, beeaux 

:tle too wet 
that another day. or week will answer as well. 
e a bounteous harvest. In all 
the departments of business — in the 

.) the mechanic arts, in the successful 

prosecution of stud/, there is a jroper timt in 

which these employments are to be carried on ; 

-;s time being neglected.no rut 

nswer as well. Ihere is, :n almost ereTT 

kiud of business, a misi* in w 1 .. 



IlEES AND Til I.IK HaBI 

wonder : 

in strategy — learnt,. 

cmplan 


rs.— 
in a 
dm 

he 1 




er are a 

e f»o| ( ] 

on !..■*. 
»t home 
cask of 


tioo of lak 


■* aic i 
in any a bee who has led 1 
• a philosor 1 


lh-i'.e % 


beck, at the foot of a boners 
be in a town, hopelessly 4 
molasses N"»v»rth..U«««lk 




oblivion of 
is ready when the proper 

melkallrseal op«: 








of bsjM 


in the annual massacre of 
■ ■■■m. event ^ » i*ii,..w' 







and who fiecomes t^ue- 

rashiomng. — T taint b. A. 

Bl v —A gentleman who baa 

is taken of their caws, botb id winter and id iuo- 
mer. and in a lowery wet day -e th* 

cowa in the field cov er ed with blankets 
even more commonly than a barer is blanketed 
here in the winur. This can is trail repaid bj 
a greater flow of milk and a baa i iiinavii|iina of 
forage. 

Tb-e nun who ii a. ways fortunate cannot easily 
bare a great reverence far virtue — Ctcere. 



[For the California Farmer.] 
Summer's Farewell. 

It seems but yesterday, when taken in a retro- 
spective view, that I heard the solemn knell of 
the parting year '54, with its many hopes, disap- 
pointments and fears. It was then winter : how 
quickly that passed. And then came those balmy 
days of opening Spring, with laughing looks and 
meandering streams, happily escaping their ice- 
bound fetters to gush down the mountain side and 
once more gain freedom in their serpentine course 
in the sleeping valley below. And then came, in 
rapid succession, Summer; and thou too art going. 
The music of thy departing sigh is upon the 
winds; the dark-leafed branches are waving a sad 
requiem, and the last bright-hued flowers are 
heavy and drooping with tears from sympathy fbi 
those delicate little flowers springing from the 
same stock where their predecessors for so mini . 
years " wasted their sweetness on the desert air.'' 
Earth's joyous ones are mourning that thy swell 
flowers, fraught with golden hours, are so swiftly 
passing. And thou, oh glorious Summer! why 
shouldst thou joy to go when tho bright majestic 
things of earth are fading ! The world will soon 
mourn thy departure, with all thy sunny days : 
thy fragrant ones ; with white-robed clouds i 
ling with gold, and azure ; and holy stars, and 
gentle moonlight, shedding such peaceful calm BBSf 
on weary hearts below ; thy nights of soft re 
pose and glorious dreams ; th/ mornings liftirip 
the dusky veil and pouring heaven's radiant light 
o'er the awakening world ; and thy gentle hj 
and sweeping storm* - ' 
and flashing lightning, and rushing win 
in their swell : all these, with tli 
are swiftly passing. Oh, how many are beard t 
exclaim : would that, like thee, I too could 
thou hast taken all ray brightest things, an: 
left alone. 

It seems but a few years rince I lived aUth 
foot of tho Allcghanies and hoard th 
tho old watch dog. Those low. mournful hi 
are still ringing in my car. as in days gone by 
though that faithful friend of fidelity is dead, an 
the stone wall is torn down, and naught lefl 
tortured Memory, who, with breeze-like ■ 
sadly low, whispers of the past. It Mil 
pale moonlight nights, when I have 
gentle tones of cherished ones, and 1 
gazed on mine; when Hope's glad lire v 
in my youngand guileless heart. And tells of ilea 
mornings, when with my sweet little sister wii 
happy bounding hearts and merry feet, wauderii. 
among old dim woods and flowing etreao 
'twas then that we listened to the bird's son- 
envied not their joyousn' I ha, 
pier ? How we gathered the dewy roses, ai 
with dark-leafed laurel wove shining wreaths 
deck the brows of our sweet little mates. And 
know, dear reader, that you too can see, wht 
the veil of memory is drawn aside, the sum. 
brow of your playmate*, and hear the same swe- 
voices which even yet rings in your ear 

" A aoawa aa wl a* fcArjr*a awe, t utn a ' a a oa aUrer Mad.' 

Can wa forget them J No ! for with moi 
than human skill are they daguerreotyped 
our hearts. But hopes that had birth •* • 
sweet Summer, nave perished, aad cold and I 
erad now they lie upon thy bosom, 1 
upon the boaom of its mother dead ! ' 
mere will return, dear reader, and abed an 
beauty over earth, and other forsas will Ireqoe 
oor old haunts, and other feet will tread the », 
known paths; but the friends and joys tl . 
usiiiaj, with the Summer of ~*i. shall never 
again ; for many a heart's Summer is oir - 
Aal—a, the sweetest sad saddest of the - 
comma; on apace, dot the treat of o 
forests are ever green, sad foil not u 
aad yellow leaf 

RaiaaaCatc. — Oa*aadeae-6a '^^V 
doogn. the same of anew, ooe-ha 

Tnl of awaa.atataa^aaataag a 



e i 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



FROM THE EAST. 

The Nicaragua steamship Uncle Sam, which 
arrived at San Francisco on Saturday afternoon 
last, made we believe the quickest passage yet. 
the time from New York being only 21 days and 
a few hours. 

The harvest was progressing favorably, in some 
States the grain being nearly all secured. The 
crops are represented to be very abundant, and 
the price of flour had declined more than two 
dollars per barrel in New York. 

The retail liquor trade in the city of New York 
is said to continue as brisk as ever. The country 
to-vns are closing up the liquor shops generally. 

The United States officers who were some time 
ago dispatched to visit Sebastopol. have been re- 
ceived with great honors by Paschovitch, at 
Warsaw. 

The Know Nothings of Louisiana have nomin 
atcd Dr. Aubignay, a Catholic, for Governor. 

Mill No. 1, of the corporation of Manchester, 
N. II., was partially burned on July 14lh, by 
which 500 persons were thrown out of employ- 
ment; loss $250,000 dollars. Another tire on 
same day destroyed 30 buildings ; loss 5$100.000. 
The opening of the Illinois Central Railroad 
to Dubuque was celebrated on Jul}' 18th. Sev- 
eral thousand people were present. Senators 
Douglass and Jones, and Mr. Dodge were the 
principal speakers. 

Foreign.— Dates from London are to July 
and from the Crimea to July 5. Lord Raglan 
died on June 29th. after a few days illness, from 
dysentery. Gen. Simpson, an old India officer, 
takes the command of the British forces in the 
Crimea, till Raglan's successor is appointed. The 
loss of the allies in the action of the 10th of June 
is said to have been heavier than at lirst report 
ed. It is stated that the French had upwards of 
5.000 men put hors du combat. The Mamelon. 
which was recaptured by the Russians, was again 
taken by the French. It is said that Gen. Pel lis- 
sicr's great haste to begin the assault before the 
projected bombardment of the 18th. was the 
main cause of the defeat. Nothing had been 
done on cither side since the 18th June. 

The English and French papers consider the 
Austrian alliance at an end, and a campaign on 
the Rhine, by Louis Napoleon, is anticipated. 

Parliament has granted an annuity of £1.000 
per annum to the widow of Lord Raglan, ami 
£2,000 per annum to the successor of his title. 

In consequence of a bill introducsd into Par- 
liament to prevent Sunday trading, a tremendous 
demonstration had been gotten up in Hyde Park 
on twoconsecutive Sundays, while the aristocracy 
were driving out. They were saluted by shouts 
of *" Go to church." and the ladies were much 
frightened. 150,000 persons were assembled. 
One little lady was so much frightened that she 
held up her pr 0;r « h no k to show the mob she 
had been to church. The ODnoxiuua vm „„. 
withdrawn. 

A grand banquet was given by George Pea 
body, the American banker in London, to Mil 
lard Fillmore. 



MARRIED. 



On the 8th Auzust. in Culomn. Muhp. E. Dc La Marre and 
Mdlle. Alexandrine F. B&illiuux, both ol Colorha. 

On the 7th Au-uit, in Columbia, Alex. M, Dobbie and MisB 
D 'icil* N'H-thup. 

On the 7th AuiniPt, in Martinez, Win. H. Buckley and Miss 
M-iiy Tiiere-a Wilkinson. 

On the 9 ill AiiLpiit, in Sun Fiancifco, by Rev. Father Ingols- 
by, John Dawson and Mise Rosann McCarey, both of Valhjo. 

"On the 12th Au<.ii-r, in Sun Francisco, by Rev. N. Thureton, 
Thos. F. Steereand Mrs. Julia E. Leonard. 



DIED. 



On the 11th AueUBt, 
arpeuter, aged 38 yea 



1 San FVancisco, John Caldwell, ship 
, a native ui Port Glasgow, Scotland 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 



J^ 3 California State Agricultural Society's Rooms. — 
The Rooms of the State Agricultural Society arc located on 
Fourth street, between J and K, where all who are inter- 
ested in Agriculture and kindred Sciences are invited to cull. 

Several hundred specimens in all departments ure on exhi- 
bition oii.-hiuiiy, foul ii. i.- tin 1 object of the Society to make 
theee rooms a place of resort for our citizens. The rooms arc 
open daily, (Sundays excepted,) and are free to all. They aro 
under the charge of the Editor of the California Farmee, 
who will be pleaded to render any information or assiatance to 
further any interest connected with f giiculture. 
By order of the Executive Committee. 

T3-26 C. I. HUTCHINSON, President, 



EP* Sands' Sarsaparilla. — This preparation Iirb now 
borne the te^t for over fouitcen years' experience, since its hret 
introduction to the public, and each succeeding year brings 
forward renewed testimony to its great value as a medicinal 
remedy. The unfortunate victim of hereditary di.-cu. e, with 
swollen glands, contracted sinews, nud bones halt carious, has 
been restored to health ad vigor. The scrofulous patient, cov- 
ered with ulcers, loathsome to himself and to his attendants, 
has been made whole. Hundreds of persons, who hnd groaued 
hopelessly tor years under cutaneous and glandular disorders, 
chronic rheumatism, and many other complaints springing 
from a derangement of the tecrctive organo and the circulation, 
have been raised as it were from the rack of disease, ai.d now, 
with regenerated constitutions, gladly teetily to the efficacy oi 
this inestimable preparation. 

Agents— HENRY JOHNSON <fc CO., 

v4-5 1m 146 Washington street, San Francisco. 

EIP WISTAR'3 BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY not only 
cures every species of lung complaiulB but it exerts n very 
powerful influence on a Diseased Liver. In this complaint 
it hae, undoubtedly, proved moie efficacious- than any remedy 
hitherto employed, and in uumerjua instances when patients 
had endured long and severe suffering from the disease, with- 
out receiving the least benefit from various remedies, and when 
mercury has been resorted to in vain, the use of this Balsam 
has restored the Liver to a heulthy action, nnd in many 
instances effected Permanent Cubes! after every known 
remedy had lulled lo produce this tie-in d eft) Ct, 

V "'- Hire it Is signed I. BUTTS on the wrapper. 

Agent* lor San FiaucUco, B. B. THAYER &. CO. 

Sold by nil Druggists, v4-2 



ISP* Doeaticks, the Great American Humorist.— Hi* 
new book is publl-ihcd, elegantly illustrated; 12mo„ bound in 
Olotb, extra gilt; mid nulling in every city, town and village in 
the United State*. 10,0X0 copies sold the first week oi publica- 
tion. Buy it Road and laugh I 

EDWARD LIVF.RMORE, Publisher, 

t452w 2'j Bcekmap Btreer. Now York. 



RcllgiouH Noiico.-Ti,,. "PaciHc Baptist Church" 
Wheeler, Pastor) win held Divine Si twcc every 
a. b. ( nod 7^ r . M __ [ n i«Tempertnae Hall, 

aid J atrcew. Tne public is rospuctfully invited 



On the 9. b August, at Batter's Ranch, Placer county, Mrn. 
Abby T., wife oi Mr. Horace Man.-ur, aged 57 year?. 

On the 10h August, in this city, Letter Stuart Holmes, aged 
4 yearn and 5 month-. 



BUSINESS CARDS. 



W. C. JEVVETT, 

(OP THE FIRM OF JEWETT k MELHADO, IN 1849,) 

Auction and Commission Merchant, 

Fire. Proof Building', corner Sansomt and California, streets. 
Real Estnte Sales— MONDAYS, at 12 M. 

Furniture. Horsen and r„,n. ,..■-. Ac— TUESDAYS, at 10 a.m. 
Jewelry, Flower.-, &C—WEDNE8DAYS, at 10 a. m. 
Groceries and Sundrie —THURSDAYS, at 10 a. m. 
General Merchandise, Fancy Gi»i ds, etc— FRIDAYS, at 10 a.m. 
fcsp* Liberal advances made on consignments. v4-5 



BOUND FOR THE STATES! 

Merchant-*, Mi. ora and others, bound home, are advised to visit 

OAK HALL, Boston, Mass., 

where they can replenish their Wardrobes with complete 

outfits tr >m one ul the largest and best imsorte I etocks 

of Clothing, Furnishing Goods, &c, &c, m 

the United Stutes. Abo, erery variety of 

Boy's Clotlilng. 

£^~* One Price, Cu>h System, giving all an equal chance. 

G. W. SIMMONS. 
Oak Hall, North street, Boston, Maes. . v3-16. 



JAMES FRENQH & CO., 

Publishers, Booksellers, 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

STATIONERY, 

No. 78 Waeldngton street, Boston, Mann. 

J^p* Country Traders, Booksellers, Teachers, Clergymen, 

I! ink-, Rail road i>, Insurance, and other Companies, 

furnished on the fie t term*. 

*,* Orders solicited for our new publications. 

v3-25 See prospectus. 



J. HOWELL & CO., 
46M; J street, between Second and Third, Sacramento, 
fV^fv TAKE this opportunity of informing their friends and 
VrV'iljAthe publie, that they have just received n new and 
Nf!^/ choice select on of Watches and J c w e 1 r y . 
Among which will he round Watches of every description, 
from the best makers — English and French. 

Ah»o — Diain jikI ItiiiL", Chains, Ear-Rings, Pins, Bracelets, 
Quartz, Jewelry, &c, &c. 

{^"'Particular attention paid to DIAMOND SETTING. 
Watches ctirehilly repaired and Warranted. v3-S0 



WHEELER & BROOKS, 

KXCELSIOR N U R S E R Y , 
\Q:h street, between F and G, 

Sacramento City. 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Vines and Shrubbery 

of all kinds. v4-6 



C. L. NORTH, 
MACHINE SEWING, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 
Flour, Grain nnd all other de.-ci iptioiu of Bags, constantly on 
hand and made to order. Mattreatea, Ceibnge, Tents, and all 
kinds OF PLAIN SEWING, done with neatnp>P and dispatch. 



E. B. MASTICK, 
Attorney and Counsellor, 

OJJirr, corner of A/ontgt/tnrry and Commercial strtclf, 

(over Drexe), Suthcr St, Church'* Banking {loojtte,) 
▼3-19 Ban Francisco. 



BOOTH, CARROLL &. CO.. 

Wholesale Grocers and Provision Dealers, 

No, C2 J street, corner of Third, 



KEYES & CO., 
GOLDEN GATE CLOTHING WAKEH0TTSE, 

Corner <•/ J and Second street*, Sacramento, 
Having the largest and tinest assortment of 

FASHIONABLE CLOTHING 

AND 
FURNISHING GOODS 

Ever Offered in California, 
and which we are belling at the lowest cash price*, we cheerfully 
invite our friends and the public to call una examine our exten- 
sive stock for themselves. 

Single garments or full suite, made to order at the shortest 
notice, and warranted to fit 

New and Fashionable Goods 

recei-ed by eveiy steamer. 

Call at Brauch of KEYES & CO., 

v4-l corner J and Second streets, Sacxtrmento, 



RIVETT & GO. 

HAVR OPENED A BRANCH OF THEIR 

WELL KNOWN HOUSE, 

A T 

111 J STREET, 

where they intend to keep a large and varied assortment of 
Upholstery Goods, Paper Hangings, 

OilCloths. HattiHg, 

Mat* and Rugs, Damasks, 

Sdade-, Cornices, 

Cuitnin Bands, Taecels, 

Ftinges, Gimpp, 

Lace and Muslin Curtain*, &c, &c. 

At their Old Store, 28 K street, 

may be had all tho above articlen, together with one of the 
largest a&sortincuts to be lound in me Stale, of 

Window Glass, 
White Lewd, 
Oile, 
Turpentirae, 
Varnishes, 
Dry and Ground Paints, 
and all other Painter's supplies. 

Also, Sign Pointing, as formerly; Gilt Mouldings nnd Mirror 
Platen ; Picture and Mirror Frame* made and re-gilt 

Work in all the above branches executed with our usual 
promptness. V3-23 



International Hotel. 

MTHE extensive addition to thin Hotel is now finUhed 
and re»dy for occupation, making altogether one hundred 
,.„u jifty room*. Suites ul rooms iiir li.inilies, furnished or un- 
lurni(-h'_'d ; nlso, single rooms to let on reasonable terms. 
Day Bufird — Ten Dollars per week. 

ThB spacious Hall— 85 by 35 leet— is elegautly furnished and 
lighted with pi . with Sujiperltonm that wtUaeiit two hnqdred 
and niiy, will be let on joasouablc terms lor Balls, Concerts, 



Dinner Parties, See. 

Sun Francisco, Jan. 9, 1855. 



PECK &. FISHER. 
v4-7 



Grnln Bugx. 

^O C\(\Ci n,lAIN BAGd l " 1 ; " 1 " v °ry cheap for Cash, 
•JU.UWU iiiN mli** Hewing Factory, U5 San*omt) street, 

between Washington and Jucltsuu . u, Sun KruucUco. v42. 



BANKERS. 



Notice. 

DR.EXEL, SATHER & CHURCH have removed to the 
nevr Banking Huuse, southwest corner of Battery and 
Clay streets, ■ 

DKEXEL. SATHER & CHURCH. 

BANEE RS , 

Battery street, comer of Clay. 

Draw Bill* OfEschnn?e, at sight or nn time, in imm? to Buit, on 

Van Vieok, Rejid & Drexel, 27 Wall st New York. 

Bank oi Noitli America Boston. 

Meehhnics* nud Farmers' Bunk Albany 

prexel & Co Philadelphia. 

JohUBloo Bro. i Co Baltimore. 

J. B. Morton, Esq Richmond. Va, 

A. D. .1 ones, cbasbier. Pittsburc. Pa. 

A. .1. Wheeler, Esq Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A. D. ihmr. Esq Louisville, k>. 

.1 R. Macmurdo &■ Co New Orleans. 

Also, Exchange on London: 
Frankfort on the Maine, and Struttgart, Germany, 
Purahase Certificates ot Deposit and other Exchange at cur- 
rent rati. 1 .-, and transact « general Banking business 

F.M. DRfiXEX, Philadelphia. 

P. PATHKK, ( a „ 

E. W. CHURCH, S Frnnc «co. 



v4 5 



WELLS, FARGO & CO., 

BANKERS.— Bills of Exchange for eale on New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia and St. Lonia. 

Also, do the foil iwing Eastern Oities : 
Adrian, Mich,, Galena, III , Pott-ville, Pa., 

Albany, N. V., Geneve, N. Y., Providence, R. I., 

Alton, 1 1L, Hamilton. Ct, Racine, Wie., 

Ann Aihor, Mich., Jackson, Mich., Reading, Pa., 

Ashtabula, o , Kalamazoo, Mich., Bochesier, N. Y., 

Auburn, N V.. Ko»Qf?ha, Wis.. Sundnsky, O., 

Battle Creek, N. Y., Liu=allc, 111., Shebuycan, Wis, 

BiURbaMtfm, N. Y., Lodtporr, N. Y., Siiv.-rCreok, N. Y„ 
Buftulo, N. Y„ Louisville, Ky., South Bond, fad., 

Cunandakun, N. Y., Moncfield, O., Springfield, O., 

Chicago, III.. Mich. City, Ind., Surin^lield, 111., 

Cincinnati, O n Vilwaukie. Wis,, Stonington, Conn., 

Cleveland, u., Monroe, Mich., Byraouse, N. Y., 

Columbus, O.. Mount Vernon, O., Tittin, O., 

Corning, N. Y., Newark, O., Tolcdn. O., 

Dayton, O., Niles, Mich., Troy, N. Y., 

Detroit, Mich., Oswegq, N. Y., Urica, N. Y., 

Dunkirk, N. Y. t OwegO. N. Y., Wc-tticld, N. Y., 

Elmirn, N. Y., Paineeville, O., Xenia, O., 

Erie, Pa., Peoria, III., Siauesville, O., 

Drafts on Canada drawn on 
Montreal, Quebec, Hamilton and Toronto. 
Drafts on Europe drawn on 

Union Bank oi London London. 

National Bank of Scotland Edinburgh 

Royal Bank of Ireland / ublin. 

Livingston, WeQa & Co., (our house) Parte. 

v3-24 WELLS, FARGO & CO. 



JOSEPH C. PALMEK, 
Cll.UtI.E3 W. COOK, 



CEtfiCE W. WRIGHT, 
EDWARD JONES. 



PALMER, COOK & CO., 

BANKERS, corner of Washington and Kearny streets, front- 
ing the Plaza, Sim Francisco, California, buy and sell Ex- 
change on ail the principal Eastern cities. Bullion, Certificates 
of Deposit, etc., bought at the highest market rates, 

Collections made and M hut Truii.-iiiillcd, uud all business 
co nnec ted with bankinc transacted. 
53?" Agent in New York — 
vaS5 JOHN COOK, Jr., 31 Broadway. 



California IJ rooms. 

"Encourage Hume Manufactures." 

THE undersigned are hapj.y to an lounoti to the community 
thut they will offer to them about the lOJi of August, 
Three Tlmiuand Dozen California Brooms. 
These brooms are made from stock grown is California. The 
broom brush vlia raised in Sacramento county, (tho queen of 

prairie land ;) the handles from timber from our Own moun- 
tains; and tlic work by our own citizen". We have, *ris true, 

imported mnchinety lor the manufacture oi brooms ; but hoj e 
ere loiif; that the genius of Culiiyrnia will ]>roduce machinery 
for all the departments of labor. 

we shall DaVe eamples oi our Brooms at the srnte society > 
Rooms on Fourth street, nnd u our own store, when we trust 

our citizens will he happy to give prelerenco to the home in- 
dustry of California. 

We shall commence immediately the work of manufaeturini', 
find those who wi-h our brooms should send in their orders, 
Tli cy will bo answered according to their date, as wc expect 
Baloas hist as we can manufacture them. We Intend they shall 
bo ns good, if not tho best brooms ever offered lor Bale in this 
Siete, LUSK & CO., 

v4-6 Corner of Fifteenth and o streets. 

Benlela Iron A\'»>rka., 

STEAM ENGINE, BOILER AND MACHINE SHOP.— This 
establishment i- now m but ceaaful oj eratl a, and oilers to 

the public lacilitii.-s ecpial to unv in the Uoi <;] State.', for manu- 
facturing or repaii ing Bteam Eogtoed o) the largest size, Boiler 
Wares, Brau Casiinga, Mill Geanog ol the most approved pat- 
terna, Bloom Iron, Ca?t Iron Columns, Window.Caps or entire 
fronts. 

Contractors and other? will do well by patronizing this estab' 
lifll mt, ii" their work will be executed with gro iter dtspatefa 

and at lower prices than any other manuhicfoiy in the Siatc 

The company have extended their Pier, and erected a large 
erone tor the accommodation ol their customers, 
For lurther pardeulnm ap"ply to 

FORBES &, BABCOCK, 
Agent P. M. 8. Company, 
corner Leidesdorfl and Bneramante enneo>, San Francisco - 

or to CHARLES FRENCH, 
v3-c8 Resident Engineer, Benicla Wi.rks 

Oi'fiit lini-^iiins! Seliltig nil'! I 

SAMUEL JELLY'S* 

48 J atrtrt, hetteeen Second and Third, Sacramento. 

A LARGE assortment of line English and Swiss Watches, 
wuii adjusted chronometer balances, selected by me from 
the best manufheturers, and warranted perfect time keepers, 

together with a well *elected btock of 

Diamonds and Rich Jewelry, 

purcbaprd by me lor cash, nnd for cale lower than the same 

goods have been offered in this city. 

Diamonds sei in any style. Quartz-work mado to order. 
Cloche, Watches and Jewelry repaired 10 order. 

v4-l SAMUEL JELLY, 48 J street. 



Pottery! Pottery!! 

"'VJ'OW ready nnd lor sale at the SACRAMENTO POTTERY, 
Xl on J street, near Sutter's Fort, a large assortment oj Plain 
and Fancy Flower Pots; Butter, Preserve, Bread and Cak 
Jars, with covers; Cream Pot*, Churn-, Milk Puns Jugs and 
Stovepipe Safea, of superior quality; with everything eke in 
the line. Wares made to order. DasJers are particularly sol- 
ictted W call and purchase, Orders to bo lclt at the Pottery, or 
No. 3C4 J direct. 
vS-i CHARLES TAYLOR, Agflnt. 

Klrst Prt-iulnin Dn{,jm-n-eotypes. 

EH. VANCE just awarded the FIRST PREMIUM for the 
* best piiguerreotypes exhibited at the Culilornia State 
Fair. Mr. V. would he ttrt jipv to wait upon any one wishing a 
PERFECT LIKENESS. Tlie arrangement of his Roonw and 
Lights tin' superioi to any in the Srate. 

flQum — New Building uoimrrof Sacramento and Montgom- 
ery BtreetB, ■.nliancc on Montgomery 6trcet, next door tu 

Austin's. v4-l 



AGRICULTURAL, &c. 



Sntltllcrs, Attenlloii ! 

C1BAS. R. SCHEUNEK respecttully informs the mmmfac- 
j turers of Saddles ihathoisnpw prepared to dr all kiuda 

Of Stampings on California!! nnd Mexican Styles ofsaddles, ninl 
he Is ci.iilidcot that hfa style ot workmanship cannot be sur- 
passed in thii Slate. 

Pleas e cull and examine specimens, 

t^W Orders from the country promptly attended to. 
vlMiS I7il K meet, Sncruinonto. 



Cbrtdlea* 

GUM-DROPS, Jujuho, Rock Cftodtoa and Loaengafr-lAvge 
assortment. BUiowu to I"'' upni lor in quality, and to keep, 

for Culilorum muikct, better iliao auv oilier. 

BTEWART & BUSSING; 

v4 5 3m XiC IVui Ulat., New York. 



Harvcatlng Implt-meiita. 

WE invite the attention of the public to the following selec 
tion of superior Harvesting Implements: 
Huesey's (Baltimore) Reapers; 
McCormiek's " 

Manny's " 

Hall's 8 horse Threshers ; 
Pitt's 
Emery's 2 horse " 

Ki'tchum's Mnwers; 
Grant's 5 linger Wire Bruce Grain Cradles; 
Grape Vme " 

Barley Rnkee; 
Ilav Rakes and Forks; 
Scythes and Snaatha; 
Grunt's Fan Mills, &c, &c. 

Received ami lor pale hy 

TREADVVELL & CO., 
v3-13 corner California and Battery streets. 



Important to Millers mid Farmer*). 

THE uiider-^isned having discovered a remedy for t'ue injury 
to wheat arising Irom Snmt, and n plMn til renovating the 
same, has secured by a " Patent Right," liie title to the sme. 

From the experiments made by experienced miller-, tin- most 
Bathdnctory rWults have been achieved, From well attested 
trials and repeated proofs ot tho capabilities of its powop to 
clean the smul from the wheat, it has been ascertained that the 
most perfect purification take- place in the wheat, while at the 
Mime tune a large wiving of rime, bibor nnd cost accrues to il.n 
miller, uud the llour U as pore and white as Iroui the finest 
wheat. 

Farmers who have crops of wheat, now anharvested, may 
pel save them. For they can aaslly be assured thai then- grain 
can be restored and the value BJivea to them. 

Licences, with all partieulura for th suseol this Patent Riebt, 
can be obtained at the -criber, on Clay 

b) reet, betw< en Drum and East, Han FrancUco. 

v4-S CHARLES CAMPBELL. 




Agile lUturnl ToolH mill SeCtUi 

PARKER, WHITE &. GANNETT, 
■17, 59 and G:i BlackMone streel . B - 
ton, M:i--., manufacturers of Plows, 
_-Ox Yoke.-, Stoic Trucks, Fan Mills, 
3?Horee Powen, Mowing Machines, 
Reaping Machines, Horse Powers, 
Churns and other farm maclnneiy nnd tools: Sluice Forka, 
Grain Cradles, &c, Aic. Also, growers and importers of all 
kinds of Garden and Field Seeds and Trees. 

These seeds are ot the very beat quulity, such as have always 
given satisfaction to our customers, and are put up for ship- 
ment in air tight cases. \3-18 

Agricultural Warehouse, 

193 Front street, JVrw York. 

THE subscriber otfdrs for eale an assortment nf Asricnlrurnl 
Implements of the latest sod most approved kinds, among 
which ure the celebrated premium Plow-, which were awarded 
the highest premium ol the American Institute in 1846, L848, 
1649, 1850, 1851, 1852 and 1H53. Also, Eagle, Centre Draught, 

Peoria, and nil other plows in general use. 

Pitt'.-, Halt's and Smiths lloxw Powers and Threshers. 
Burraliv, McCormiek's, Hussey' . Seymoui ^Morgan's, and 
Ketcuura't Mowing and Reapimi'Mochfnes. Yankee telf-eharp- 
cning Straw Cutteit — the beai article in use: Corn Sliciiers, 
Fanntng Mills, Picks mid Pick Handle)', &■■. Sec, 

^•15 JOHN MOORE, iti:( Front Btreeb 

Ali-Tfighi Pii-acrve .Jars. 

[mveh's patent, 1355 ] 

An entire new arttcie fur }>r< »i rving VrutU , Vt getablt*, ffc. 

rpUISjar is the only one among toe many presented ed and 

J_ approved "i bv the Oommitleeol the Amcneaa Imttfuteoi 

New Vnik. For further inmrmution apply to WAURKN 4; 

SON, Califounia Farmer Ofmce, where iiiuy be been draw- 
ings and samples >>\ il"-- article. 

Made and sold exclusively by the North American Gutta 
Perchn C iDopany, 109 Broadway, rjew York. vl-5 3m. 



A 1,1 It iiiliuiil and Iloi ti< tillin ul lmplciuciite. 
Field and Gnrilcn Seeds* 

UPWARD? ot one hundred different kind- ol Plows, nnd all 
other Implements in use On the Farm and the Garden. 
Field Seeds ol all kinds. Garden Seed* <■ all kinds. 
R. L. ALL1.N, 
v4 3 3m. lH9and 191 Water street, New Yoife 



<...*.. WaffOMi, Truct.). liny Prices, &v. 

CALIFORNIA OX, IIOTse, Mole and Hand Cartaj 
do d<> do do Wagons. 

Trucks of all 'izes for wnrehoufOP. 

Hay, rHemi), Tobacc i and Wool Pros 6fl. These will press 
bales irom 100 to 400 poundd weight, either by hand or horse 
power. R. L. AL1.KN,- 

P4-3 3tn 189 and 191 Water etreflt, New York. 



To Farmers, Hotel Keepers, Kuntiuios iC Otiuix. 

BUADSIIAW &, Co, having removed into their New and 
Siiacnuw Sture, and beint,' reznlaily eupnlicil from tho 

Statwoy everr clipper, enables them to have the la t uud 

best itoekol GROCERIES AND PROVISIONS m the State, 
and at Low Prices, 

Persons living at a distance can always have their goods 
I mil shipped, tree oi expensa Remittances can ho 
iiunh' through all the expresses or hy mail. Our btock con- 
cists of 

Powdered and Crushed I.."nf Sugar ; 

Bxtra Greop and Blflok Tea ; 
Mess and Clear Pork, in quarter nnd imli barrels'; 
Nn. l mal ■_' Mackerel, In kit.-, qr. and hair barrels; 
Sperm, Was and Adamantine Caudle?; 
Sperm Oil, in 5 gallon tins ; 
Btuart's Bi Bton and Nf-w Orleans Syrup-", in 5 nnd 10 gallon 

kegs ; Spices of all kind ; A isorted Herbs and Extracts; Java, 
Blucha, Manilla and Rio Coffee; Cheese in tin: Chocolate, 
prepared and cranked Cocoa, and Shells; Tubs, Palls, Brooms, 
Ground ftock Salt, Pickles, assorted Preserve^ Jellies, Jams 
and Pie Pnilt 

N. B, Highest price paid for California Butter and Cheese, 
corner Caliloi nia and Battery streets, Shii Francisco. v3-d6 



Jioolocllcr'a nnd Stationer's 
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL WAREHOUSE. 

WE beg to call attention to the following catalogue, which 
complices in part our ftock of boudu nod etatTonexy. 
Bv the recent arrival ol Clippers, our assortment ol goods in 

ilii- line 1'"^ i a made very complete, nnd we feel sure tint 

the public will find ii to their Interest to call and examma our 
Btock before unking purchases elsewhere, 

Blank Bo. ks — Ledgers, Journal-, Cash, Invoice, Day mid 
Record B lokf, in Ru eia, Sheep and Hu-lin Binding. Copying 
Books, lialoM'dnnd Plain Memorandum-', Bank mid Pass Bjoks, 

Diaries, dec, Sic, 

Papmi.— -Brief, Letter, Cap, Note^Envelope, Ti-hue, Blotting 
and Fiheiin- Papers. 

HTATioNKitY.— A complete assortment of Law, Countiug 
Houi e and Funci Stutioiiery, 

BoUND Books. — A large and splendid assortment ol Law, 
Standard, Sell ml and Miscellaneuui Books, including many in 
rich luncy binding, Euitable for ura DUI 

Blanks. — Law, Shipping and Cu torn House Blanks. 

Misobllansous.— Gold Pons, Bazors and Rnzoi . : 
Poekei Cutlery, T iil< I Brushes; Cosh, Deed, Date, Post o.iica 
and Envelope Him: ; Portable Divk>, Qento' D.edting Coses, 
Lodlea's Toilol and Work t.' i°ei and Redcule.*, Port M msiee, 
Perfumery, Opera Glosses, Fancy Articles, *v <■,', &-c 

On the ai'iivol of each steamer we rrooiVH a full supply of all 
the leading Nuwdpopers, Pictorials, Reviews and Magazines 
published lb. America rfnd England, which wc cau lurnUli to all 

in quautitir-< to nuit. 

GEOi W. MURRAY A- CO., Monjomory Block. 
N. B. — Partlcularattent}on paid to JHUug cniere, v4-l 



it. ■ i- In Female Ncmlnnxy* 

rpiin Fomth year of this Institution opens July S3, 1835. 

X Thin l- one ul The oldcal Pemnle >■ oi. i> ii !-■- in Hi. 1 Stale, 

and theroJbre well fcnown. Tbeic Is now a full uorps "f 
, nud tiio e who mo well quallfiod to All their respective 

drpaitmeiiUj. A Uerinnu Ii" v, ai.d mi arti i in l sr pj 

in teacher <<i Music; and a Frunefa lady, as tikill.il to Drawing, 
ih tenohor of Fioui h m d D a« Lug, 
Tho School and Boordmc Department are entirely under tho 

i uuei 1 1 ol th* r luclpiil, 

Twn — (Payable quarterly, Invariably 
For Board and Tuition tu EintUah bronchos, pet week.. $T TO 
Wiishlng, pordu in 150 

Extra Charge*. 

French, Spanish nnd Drawing, pei mono) • 3 tX) 

Mu ic, with i c "i Piano, pei month.. 10 00 

Fur furtl o articulars, ad 

v3« MARY ATKINS, l'rmci.wL 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



HORTICULTURAL, &o. 



Fruit aim] <>i nnm< iititl Trrr*. 

THE ,| .., liter* In 

ck of Fruit ninl Oruamental 
Tree , i, -i\iivn 

of land. 

. . ■■ .: ■: ■ 

i ml can be supplied to denier? or uumteura ul 
lint low 

ird and Dwarf Apples, of various thee; 
do do do Peart, do do 

do do do Cherries, do do 
■In tl> da Pli i do do 

Apricots, ooaeberrlee, Straw- 

.'■■■ 

Stocks end Seeds of all kinds for Nurserymen will be sup- 
plied in large or fowl] quantities, U Bpplication be mode pre- 
vious i" the 1 r i>: Snptt ■ 

Ornamental Deciduous Tree*, ornamental Evergreen Trees, 
Eloweriog Shi atn , Rosea, Dahlias, Greenhouse Plants, &c. 

■ ./ mid s/j/ifui manner, so 
that pure] in i easonably guarantee of receiving their 

ar icfes in good order. 

The following catalogues, will bo Bent grails, prepaid, to all 
who appls and enclose one stamp for each: 
No. 1. Descriptive Catalogue ot Fruita. 
No. '-'. do Ornamental Trees, &c. 

No. a. do do Dahlias 4k Green-houee Plants. 

No. 4. A Wholesale or Trad** li*t for Nnrserytnen and Dealers. 
Address, ELLWAUGER & BARKY, 

t3-25 Mount Hope Nurseries, Rochester, N. Y. 



HOTELS. 



Klowcr* t Flowers : : 

GOLPEiM GATE NURSERY, 

Comer Fourth and FoXsom streets. 

I I '■■■ 170 Washington street, San Francisco. 

PERSONS desirous ol embellishing their gardens or conser- 
vatories, will find at this establishment the largest Btock 
and greatest variety of plants to be found on the Pacific const. 
Among Vi liich are : 

Cornelia Japonicas, in 70 varieties! Perpetual Roses of all the 
ui.T-'i ■- ; fin- mm n nd fancy Geraniums ; Passifloras, 
Heliotropes, verbenna. HbneysucJcleB, Abutilona, 
Myrtles, Oleanders, das&amines, Fuschiap, Da- 
phnes, Dahlias, Itulbous Root*, Orna- 
mental Shrubbery ; and a general 
assortment "I Green House and 
Hardy Plants. 
Orders for shipment to any part of the State will be carefully 
executed by add rCf-siiif" 1>. Nelson, 170 Washington street, or 
the prop'ietor, Box 1,957 Pust-olhce. 

vlUKlm , W. C. WALKER. 



NEW BOOKS; 

ANNA CLAYTON; or The Mother's Trial. 12mo., 
cluih. Piice SI. (Two editions in one week.) 

A welt-conceived mid finely written tale, of high moral ex 
cellence. — [Boston Courier, 

It is one of rlie most efl'ectivo works issued during the post 
few years. — [Transcript. 

It is decidedly the best popular .tale of the season. — (Bee. 

Second edition of liurnhanLS History of the Ilea Fever. 
12mo„ cloth. $1 25. 

The Boston Traveller says, " The eale of this book has al- 
ready been immense — amounting in two weeks, to 20,000. 

Burnhara's new volume, the "History of the Hen Favor," 
is destined tn have n great run. It ie capitally written and Il- 
lustrated, imii is brim lh II of fun and gpice. It will eurely 
create a eeii.^tition. — [Ballou's Pictorial. 

Turkey and (As Turks, By Dr. J. V. C. Smith, Mayor of 
Boston. 320 pages. 12mo., cloth. 75a 

It is n most excellent work. It will have a large sale, for it 
embraces more real information about real Turks and their 
strange peculiarities, than anything we have yet re^d. — [Poet 

The Massachusetts Hate Rscora. One of the most valuable 
American Statistical Works. 5 vols. 12mo., cloth. $5. 

37*o A( w Hampshire Festival. A graphic account Of the Ae- 
Bemblaao ol the "Sonuof New Hfflnpsfairei" at Boston, Hon, 
Daniel Webster presiding. Illustrated. 8vo., cloth, frilt. SI50. 

St ao nd i \ etu at " of the Sons of Nets Hampshirt ." Illustrated 
with portraits ol Webster, Wilder, Appleton, and Chickerinc 
8vo., cloth, gilt. SI 50. 

!■'< " at, -J vole, in one. Bvo., cloth, gilt S2. 

•Eleanor; or, Lifo Without Love, 12mo„ cloth. 75 cents. 

Mngla ■ lea. Illustrated, 12mo., cloth. 7.". coots. 

Sunn/i 
37'.„. cents. 

The Dream Fulfilled. I8mo.,cIoth. 12 

Talmttdir, Ma tints. Translated [rum the Hebrew. 18mo,, 
cloth. 50 cents. 

Consumption Forestalled and Prevented. L8mo., cloth. 37 eta, 

Passi '" and oth* r Tales. 16olo.| cloth. 88 oenl ■. 

Tin- Art of Conversing. Fourteenth edition. 32mo., cloth, 
pili edged. 37 cants, 

Wlora)\ Qsmsi or, the Song.'! of the Floibars. 32mo., cloth, 
gilt edces. 

i'hr .1: isthyst -■ or, Poetical Gem*. 32mo., gilt, 37oei 

Zton, With Illustrative title, 32>no. 37 cent! 

Sown ■-. Bj Edwai d Ma icon, 32mo. 31 ceni . 

\ 'I'., I.- ol Now n imp- pii 

Popular School Books* 
Fo*t. i 't Booh'Kcepinjr. Twelltb edition, 8vo., cloth, extra. 

Price SL 

implificd in two 
sets "i books. Boards. 36 cauls. 

Jjlrem .'.'- Si/num oj V Twenty-seventh 

... 

Thi.- lltUu treatise seems weTl fitted to toaeh ererytlun 
can be caugnl ol the theory ol ' 

The be I iind tuosi u a a) | i 
h ■ . — [Tranuci ipt 

■ ■ 

: 

37 cent?. 
. 

l'i; r- ' ■ I copy un 

■ ■. in lour iv. ! 

No i iplea 10 eta 

i l" " 

iu " 

lutflul tSpittolei s '■■■ 
A ni'i 
(ail to D [Bee 

I: i ol — [Fitchhurg 

- 

r to any 
. ■ 

kit Prrit*. 

THI UOR 

; KWU AND P' 

■ 

TUK COOPER'S SON ; o\i. n; v .RTL'E, 

V AND HER 
Cllllf 

DRY TELLER 
I t > :.je upon the receipt of 

: 



JAMES FRENCH & C0. f Publishers, 

No. 78 Washington street, Bsoton, 
Dealers in all '>ery. 



American Hotel, Benicia. 
V THIS HOUSE has been e*tabliehed Five Years, with 
i! out interruption or change ol proprietorship, mid is be- 
lieved by the traveling public to be one of the beut conducted 
Hotels in the State, 

Larpe and well ventilated, and. hand-omcly furnished rooms, 
for tn mi lies travelling or for peniuviieut boarders, can always 

be obtained. 

a i./fj:/;v sT.in/.i: ia connected with the Hotel, so that 
travelers can hove their choice, either to take the BteamerB and 

ti,j.-, ur a private carriage, to nny ol the beautifn] valleys 
orouna Stages leave this IJ itul every morning for the different 
valleys. 

■|'n.' dally piipi.ru from various sections of the Srnte are on 
SIo at tills Hotel. Everything will be done hy the proprietor 
that the putrona of this House may Bod their ttny ple«.-nnt and 

sati 'tactory, 
3vl0isti C. M. DAVIS, Proprietor. 



Now is your Time to Buy Cieap (ioods! 

11' : «n ortaNHtKi 



. MURRAY'S WESTERN HOUSE, 

AND 
Onrrnl Office or tlie (. iillloinln fStnire Company. 

and and D streets, Makvsville. 

t^F Open all Night. ^J 
JpH| THIS supberb Drst-olaM Hotel Ib by far the most capa- 
fljjjL clou* and el e j. ■un mil' in t'liiirm ni.i, mil of San Francisco, 
anorui excelled by none In that city. It Is of hriok, perfectly 
">i. four Btories high, and Ironts 103 feel on See.mll 
street, and 80 feet on D street Two hundred persons can be 
accommodated with entire eaf e, and in the moat mintbrtable 
rtyle, Particular at tent inn is paid to the wants and comforts of 
Families, 

Its location isnentraT, and is the General Depot of Staging 

Mini Steamboating, 

Travelers can rely upon being caTted in time for any boat or 
Btage leaving the eitv. 

Those who desire, can entrust their TREASURE and BAG- 
n-n;/''. to the proprietor i" /» rsov, aha is the solo manager of the 
sstablisfatient) "»</ toho leili be nsponsiblefor the same. 
Rates of Charges. 

Board without lodging, per week $12 00 

do with lodging, per week $15 to $20 00 

do without lodging, per day $2 50 

do with lodging, per day $3 25 to $4 00 

Lodging, 75 cte., $1 and $2 per night. 
\4-6 R. J. MURRAY, Sole Proprietor. 



Orleans Hotel, 

Sfcond, betwet n ,1 and A" streets, Sacramento, 

MSr THE above Hotel, oiScupying a space of 85 by 150 feet, 
II. in the most central part of the city, built ol brick and 
three Btories Sigh, otters inaucements to travelers not eurpassed 
by any establishment in the State. 

The ground lloor is set apnrt for Dining Room, Reading 
Room, Billiard Room and Bar lloom, 

■ The Table will be found at all tiinea supplied with the choice 
ol the market. 

At the Reading Room can always be found the daily papers 
ol the State nntl the latest dates from the Atlantic and Europe. 

The Billiard Saloon u furnished with five excellent tables, 
superintended by a competent keeper. 

The Bar will be supplied with the beet Liquors and Wines. 

The second and third Btories of the buSldkag are eet apart for 
Parlor, Family Rooms and Chambers, comfbrtabry furnished. 

We have also leased the large brick building corner of and K 
and Front eCreetfl (formerly known ae Sacketts Hotel) set apart 
for fcod'ging Apailment-', which are iurniahed in a superior 
manner, which, added to the Hotel, will atl'ord ample accommo- 
dations. 

The "Orleans" is also the Depot and Office of the California 
Stage Co., from which place Stages leave daily for all parts 
of the State. 

:i-2 HARDENBURGH &, pORSE, Proprietors. 



Wilson's Exchange, 

E .i I " I' r o n lc \ ,7 n fr, 



H i/ K .x | a b r o n lc .y .' " m rt, 

I THIS popular and extensively know n Hotel, which for 

I the lost lew ivneks hai be in undi i th* 
w. W. Estabroott, im- been pnii ■ Fumi- 

■ inl- been added, and the house is now tn complete order 
lor the recaption "t the public. 

Mr. E •!! in business with Mr. 

P. T, James, ■■■■i'" be -^ irn iu the above 

ll it.l, mid i Intei national. 

' ~ ].!•■■ j..,i |.r-- 

pular in 
the State. 



K osteite House. 

Caih 

tTHIfl Hi nil 
Ban Pi ini I 
ii. iiiiin ■■ rooai,av fami- 

TIih Iini ' i ei rely i brick; ell the rooms are 

!ui nit awl ■■ Hotels 

tive bund red H-l 

" American Hotel 

napa cm-. CAumun v 

L. A & W. \v. CHAPMAN i 

- 

kepi 'in ' 



FKCENIX SIALLs, 

- In Siiiimin ut« .Mnikd 






. . 



I thru parofti smt 






JDOT renetn . 

150 IT« 



■ 



90 do. 

50 »- 

sou m. 

10 &. 

Mi K< 



. (w»rrant«l pure;) 
> :niAtr. 



nrraktfd pure . i 



■>J«; 



900 fTOM w mri Vials ; 

■ 
• Pwm; » tweka UoU Lcs* ; 
S5 . 

- 

300 dezeo anmH -ir 
id otber l>ru.' and Medadacatoo ■ 



J. L POLHE3CT3. 



li 






45 'd~:vf 



l* j * f Mrm> iooiv. r^cm d l. 
*«i m i.v Mir ot taje jnadei ■ of the amrr f r 
■*r* :m Su frwmctsco* wwH edwtWa 
wmtmrm fea» tkaaka m nboae «bo 1.* i - 
Ma, asrf iwptrtMl; eotidBs a custwwiw a( 
smentmnu ir m aery wtof Uw 8mt- 

i wax** or — »— », aimed wwswa»wt 
.ad ptvemeshof m^« to i w i ri n^ 

i.i *e« 

! jtter and Ostn wtnell ar« vsm-rd 



STEAMERS. 



California Steam Navigation Company. 

l &t il^ft MAY, 1855. «EhSS!e22 

lit l o eti. it fi MA I'ttlhjo stlWt irhorf, lit 4 o'clock, J'. M. 

For Sacramento. 

VIA BENICIA. 
Steamer SENATOR, Capfc E, A. Poole, Mastpr. 

Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. 
Steamer ANTELOPE, D. Van Pelt, mister; 

Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. 

For Marvsville. 

VIA BENICIA. 

Daily, of 4 o'e/oeh /'. M. 

By the Sneramento Steamers! connecting with t]ie™Company's 

LIGHT DRAUGHT STEAMERS at Sacramento, 

I3p* Through Tickets Issued 

For Stockton. 

VIA MARTINEZ. 
Daily, oA 4 o'clock I'. M, 
Steamer CORNELIA, E. Concklin, Master. 

Mondnvs, Wednesdays and Fridays. 
Steamer UR1LDA, Clark, Master. 

Tueidnys, Thursdays and Saturdays. 

For Colusi, Red Bluffs and Intermediate Landings. 

Daily, M 4 o'clock P. M. 
By the Sncramento Steamers, connectinc with the Company's 
LIGHT DRAUGHT STEAMERS, which leave Sacramento— 
Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, at lii o'clock, M. 

J3p Freiauc by the above boats must be paid for on delivery 
For particulars apply at the office of the Company, Jackson 
street, between Battery and Front, to 

SAM. J. HENSLEY, President. 
Office of the California Steam Navigation Co., \ 

5 v4 1 



MISCELLANEOl 



San Francisco, May, 1855. 



California Steam Navigation Company. 

p ^ir^ls Thesplendid low pressure steamers Senatob 

^SSLiii^slZ "nd Antelope will leave on alternale days for 

San Francuco, at two o'clock, p. m,, irom the foot o\ K street 

Tlie Bteamer Sbnatob, E. A. Poole, master, wil leave on 

Monday, Wednesday, eiid Friday. 
The steamer Anteli -pe, D. Van Pelt, maBter, will leave on 

Tuesday, Thureday and Saturday. 
The steamer Helen Hensley, E* C. M. Chad wick, muter, 
every Sunday at o'clock, p. m. 
For Marysville and Intermediate Landings, daily, at 7 o'clock, 
A. M., from Imrk Orb. 

Steamer Gov Dana, W. H. Taylor, master, on Tuesday, 
Thuivdiiy and Saturday. 
I.! I .ini, Red Blurt', and intermediate Landings. 

Steamer Belle, W. H. Oilman, master, and -i ■ 
Gem, M. Littleton, master, will leave lor the aboi e named 
p'piri ! Thureday and Saturday, at 8 o'clock, 

a, m,. ii'.mi stoi '■ blp Antelope, 

—The steamer Gem, m 1 me ter, will 

. \. M. 

[*JP For i ,<■ hy nny oT the Above boats apply 

on board, or a) < 
Company, on hoard brig Globe. 



A. REDINGTON. 



Contra CoMtn F< 1 1 y NotlOCi 
it Furtker ffoties. 
~T^S ON l ""' n, " ir WBDNKSDAY, Nov. 29, the 

#"lifr^'fiiT7 i ( '"' r - v Wl| l run n? I : 

SAN TRANCISCO. 

■ . A.M. 

1SW F. M. 

4^j P. M. 

v3 16 3m 



Oakland. UM anto.vio. 

At 8 a. M. At 7Vl a K 

11V«[ am, II a. m. 

3 P. m. lUt p. M, 

CHARLES MINTURN 



if I >In 



111. 



-jlunl .y 



r^?^ 






v3.94 



■ \ turthor 

sam L J hi;n-i.i.v, i- 



New Patent 

Force and Lifting Pump and Fire Engine Combined. 
THE undersigned is nowmanu* 

fiictiirinc find has for ,-nIe B new 
PATENT PUMP, which, lor utility 
and power, surpasses anything of 

the kind ever ntfered t" the public. 

For Ship?, Railroad Stations, Pa- 
per Mill-, Factories, and all other 

places where e large quantity of 
Water is required to be raised, they 
are peculiarly adapted. 

Itc construction is double acfing, 
throwing a continuous stream of 

water, at the rate of from 200 to 400 
gallons per minute, (according to 
size) and can he used ns a Lifting 
or Force Pump, and by the appli- 
cation of Hose can be operated as a 
FireEngineotthemostemcientkind. 
It is simple, not liable to get out of order, can be operated by 
hand, steam or water power, and need only he ?een to be ap- 
preciated. N. HUNT, 

26 Devonshire street. New York. 
Also for Bale— Best quality Of Leater Belting and euperior 
Shuttle Sewing Machines. 

I^ 3 Orders for the above received at this office. v4-3 3m. 




TREADWELL 



CO., 




CORNER OF CALIFORNIA AND BATTKRY STRRETS. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

IMPORTERS, JOBBERS AND RKTAtLKSS OF 

Hardware and Mining Tools; also, Ajjricultural Implements, 

Field and Garden s.-rd- | nil descriptions, from the eel 

brated House of Mi-hmv. Elaggleai Noureo, Mason ft Co., 

Boston. 

Fiel.t and Harden Seeds of all varieties \ 

;he, Barrows, Cultivatora, Seed Sowers, ol <>U kh I 
to, Reaper*, Mowers, Fan Mills, Straw Cutters, Corn 
Shelters, Vegetable Cutters, Con and Flout Mill , San 
, Horse Powers, Sraul Mills, 
Wiie;n Drills, Chunta, Oi Yokes, B.w-, n 
Rakes— togethei nrlsballtbe imall toolt and 
implements ■ a cultivation, 

N. B. — Branch House at MoryaviUe. All orden prompdj 
bed to. 



San Francisco ahead of the World ! 



Ever on, on apace with the Age and Times ' .' 



Ifurrntt for Vnnrc'i nrw Di^iimithm Gollcry I 

Largest Light in the World, (over 500 feet G Iass.> 



M 



.V/v Building, cor. Satr aritjflti a- ■* 



i which 










< :iH(ornln Stn^r t oinpany. 



k A M. 



E3. 



o'clock P. M ' 
w, »nd the I 



stages arm e ta oeae v^err «"j u-r tb« Baa FraacWo ttoili 
J. P. Drtanuiv. F*crK*ry 

I ^i I • *t I tn |>ar1 Jtllwti. 

U ■ b«y»r". wboleM> and 

M rt"t«*i, to : 

■ 
.t*« becej reevt««4 dtort frtm tfc* MM a W tww i and 
■ 
• r**mi. ■ nleh, la wUtt> 

■USk, mnk«w « by *r T«« La»>. 

•on I And for qj— lily •*■* eoa n a w , w* e-rr 

i* tear at coBtr*riMl*sa, we keav 

the gr«as«»l vandr to t^ tarns*: 



■ 



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fy Pncttteraam 

Won't rorRfl thr plnrf. 



' 



R. B. Col.K M. !»., 



I Two Lj«t St*. 
, rtcta sod beaatLeJ 



• Uaaatl*! 

'. aamrted col«rv, I 



30 }«.a 

p.". , .t "tn* a«acy lar^.- 

. .-.:. •addm. 
#0 pa, y •-* • i. W Jip sd i 
»-'. j .1- W«*h Lawai 
Hens', Toutha' u 



Sl« 
F««nk at Jaly ill! I ll * 

MIJi 




.»/ am i*T •/ l> 
fi A 







I >I M E *« I 

TIIERX u no «*•■ ia tbi 
DDMS, WBCB *va Cmtt MOSt I 



HI: 
wdl t>.wi i*wr*m w-,.1 cii.wi.ii $rOm 
•-u.»orne«.na. 



lo Wtrl». 

A. New Tort c -t W« t» « ■■ ! t- - pUK ta. : itar> • •• 
.. mi ^r a. :h», uj w ur taiwwl 19 duw mmt M 
I— mi Swck « Com, 
■•» p»»Sc H an u4 «n> tar ttaMn.. t*Jh 
,<ijU M .*m r fbnkm W« mm M«, toy mi imt .. re*-.: mmz 
.:. the dwe. . txl .: m mtommrj dMt »-. rariacf mm Mac*. 
■i ii—i ur r y t Mras. mmr c*> on-: 



Svrcical Diicm* 

[fapfiaaj mtm u mi m m. •«■> umt ka. faranr mawvnn. wm\ 

! MrAca] Sebool. mm\ Hmmmmm. tagmmm wtah mm i ni.il 

•-a lor Ike put uaj y a. u a. up . ■lai rl . 

' ...u". aia> far !»» raraMral kkik at . . .~, l> ir~ .' 

i — -, r « baa ■■ i —I mac* of bm ajjajiaia, 

jaaTWajHaiuM: Tmnrnwn .mi w u raa l ,l mm lm ..m'€ m tm^ 

im,an)t>Wi.Ii««.J »>a »aa»«, Oiu ai i fUcara- 

-.. t ; «. Ca iwj ti w aj. AAvoum, Draprie*. tt , —aaiof ia* mmm 

.nd Immv. Dmm 4 ft*. Car m* .-. ». A itun iiiai oT ato 

afaiaW, Cratkn. gLI laa. aao Taan. <or a. alkar ~«4: all 

•mia DM qnamj-Orta.i-a A | iaa.ala ;) aa4 IMa.aa>M>, 

a -r.-- t am.u . -~» t t ..•.-.- »i..c* 

■arte fi iiif Ki,»*l l..i,-.,C» 

• <a» I a»Hi aaal ta» af «aT a»»aC ax la»«, aW 

at * a. I or ' - <■" aa»y aaara. 




I » U I 



Thai I rll|iiliii, I rfilj 

n ■•».>Ua»WL«.»„<«UI _ 
'-•'»»«l«. C .till. Ac a»4 .l.-- ;*■ 




T> •» ball »rrr mxk, mm I J i l l 4«. 

ramm. 




'*° mmmd 'i]l!£mmT 

t 



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THEoev 

Lmr4. »-. . faat ... 

ET-i T M-rKrt: ■ 



kna> fVaa i 



,"Vj. l<i 



THE CALIF0EJN1A FARMER. 



DlXXXttUB 



■■ What plan." said one actor to another, "shall 
! adopjt to fill the house at my benefit 1 ?" '■ In- 
vile your creditors," was the surly reply. 

A little girl of four years had been brought up 
very properly with regard to correct speech, 
when one day looking at her doll's feet, she said, 
■' Papa, I know that feets is proper, but I do love 
to say little tooties." 

A scheme is in agitation in London, for the 
formation of a road through that city, eight miles 
1 nig. roofed in with glass, with houses and shops 
on each side, and beyond these, also on each side, 
two lines of rails, one above the other, the lower 
for trains stopping at every mile, the upper for 
expresses. 

To Bemove Ink Stains. — Tallow will re- 
move most kinds of black ink from cotton or 
linen ; it must be melted and thoroughly rubbed 
through, and heated into the ink spot, and then 
snap and hot water will usually remove all traces 
of ink with the grease; some kinds of ink, how- 
eve, cannot be decomposed by tallow. 

It is stated in a London paper that the British 
ship Bruiser has been converted into a complete 
Hoar, mill, capable of grinding from 700 to 800 
bushels of wheat per day. The machinery is 
both ingeuious and compact, and in moderate 
weather may be worked without suspending the 
progress of the vessel, notwithstanding it is 
all driven by the marine engine. The Abundance 
has been fitted up as a large bakery, is capable 
of turning out 20,000 pounds of bread per day, 
with the aid of some very simple machinery. 
These vessels will be dispatched to the Black Sea 
with all haste. 

Two Yankees took lodgings for about ten days 
at a tavern in Lancaster county, and fared sump- 
tuously. drinking two or three bottles of wine 
daily. The last day, and before they had paid 
their bill, a dispute arose about the speed of their 
horses — they at last agreed to enter on the "prof- 
itable contest." . The landlord was appointed 
judge, each being the rider of his own horse. 
When they were mounted, the judge, like those 
of the Olympic games, gave the word — one, two, 
'hree, and go. Ofl" they went, and have neither 
been seen or heard of since ; leaving the landlord 
fully compensated by having had the honor to 
■ je their judge. 

Credit, says Horace Greely, is one of the best 
things man has devised, and about the worst 
abused. Thousands live on credit who have no 
right to any such thing. None but an honest 
man ought to be able to pass his word instead of 
coin — a rogue's word is not worth its face, no 
matter how rich he may be. No one should 
have facility to run In a v>t r n >- the means of os- 
tentatious display, of sensual gratification, or of 
hazardous adventure. {l Earn before you spend," 
should be the general rule, the credit should be 
extended mainly to those who use it to fit them- 
selves with the means and implements of useful, 
productive labor. 



SANDS' SAESAPARILLA. 

IN QUART BOTTLES. 
^or Purifying tuc Blood, and for the Cure of 

Scrofula, Itheuviatism, Stubborn Ulcers, Dyspepsia, Salt- 
Rluum, Fever Sore?, Erysipelas, Pimples, Bile*, Mercu- 
rial Diseases, Cutaneous Eruption*, Liter Com- 
plaint, Bronchitis, Consumption, Female Com- 
plaint.", Loss of Appetite, General Dcbiltu, 
Ai-., ftc, ttc 
TN thia preparation all the restorative properties of the root 
-*- are concentrated iu their utmost strength ami efficacy ; but 
■.voile Sarsaparilla Root forme on important part of its com- 
liiuation, it is, at the came time, compounded with other vege- 
table remedies of great power, and it is in the peculiar com- 
bination and scientific ninnner ot it? preparation, that its 
emarkable success in the cure of disease depends. It acts 
■imultaneously upon the stomach, the circulation and the 
yioela ; mid thus three processes, which are ordinarily the re- 
sult of the three different kinds ot medicine, are carried on at 
i he same time, through the instrumentality of this one remedial 
tgent which gently stimulates while it disinfects and expels 
L'Om the stomach and bowels all that is irritating, and at the 
nme time restores their vigor and tone. Many other prepar- 

■ tions imitute it in bearing the name of Sarsaparilla, und in that 
heir resemblance ends, being often prepnred from worthless 
ind inert roots, and of course possess no healing or curative 
iropcrties, and patients in making choice of which they will 
use should take no other, but that one entitled to their couri- 
lence, from the fir^t list of cures it has effected on living wit- 
nesses, whose testimonials and residence have been published, 
ind who are still bearing daily testimony to its worth. 

Astonishing Care. 

Patterson, N. Y., July 20, 1851. 
Meesrs. A. B. & D. Sands: Gentlemen, — Having witnessed 
the most beneficial ett'eets from the use of your Saraapa) ilia, it 
*i«ea me pleasure tosendyju the following statement m regard 
to my son. In the spring of 1848 he took a severe cold, and 
■titer eight weeks of severe suffering, the disease settled iii hb 
leg and foot, which soon swelled to the utmost. The swelling 
,vaa lauced by bis physician, and discharged mo^t profusely; 
<tfter that no less than eleven ulcere formed on the leg und foot 
it one time. We had five different physicians, but none re- 
lieved him much; and the last winter found him so emaciated 
ind low that he was until tie to leave his bed, suffering the most 
excruciating pain. Daring this time the bone had become so 
much utfectcil that piece alter piece came out, of which he has 

now more than twenty-five preserved in s bottle, varying from 

■me-half to one find a-hali' inches in length. Wo had" given up 
m11 hones of bin recovery, hut at this tunc we were induced to 

■ ryyour aarsaparilln, end with its use his health and appetite 
began immediately to improve, and so rapid was ihe change 
that less than a dozen bottles effected a perfect cure. 

With gratitude, I remain truly mum-, 
_ . DAKIUri BALLARD. 

We the undersigned, neighbors of Mr. Ballard, cheerfully 
flubuenbe to the mete ol the above statement 

H. &, R. B, Hayt, A. If. Trowbridge, 

Geo. T. Dean, C. Eastwood. 

aid, wholesale and retail, by A B & D 

'■"' ChArd rs, 100 Pulton « t, conn r i I 

rork M-Mul.~i.hy Dru . v, through- 

- ana Canada* Price $1 per bottli ; la 

. .1 .hnson & Co., 146 W„ hind ■ 

T, Watts, t/tnff vllle; and JiuWAi.it a. 



NEW BOOKS. 



C. M. SAXTON & CO.. 

AGRICULTURAL BOOK PUBLISHERS. 

CM. SAXTON & CO., 152 Fulton street New York, offer 
• (or sale the following late and valuable publications : 

Downing's (A. J.) Landscape Gardening. Atrtatiseon 
the theor;- and practice of landscape gardening. Adapted to 
North Aoiericti, with a view to the improvement of country 
residences, comprising historical notice^ and general principled 
of the art. Directions for laying out grounds and anai^in- 
plantations, the description and cultivation of hardy trees, dec- 
oration accompaniments to the bouse and ground, the forma- 
tion of pieces ol artificial water, flower gardeni?, etc. with re- 
remarks oh rural arcbitecturd. Elegantly illustrated with a 
portrait of the author. By A. J. Downing. Price, $4. 

Thb Practical Fruit, Flower and Kitchen Garden- 
er's Companion, with a Calendar. By Patrick Neill, LL.D. 
Adapted to the Uniied States, from the lourth edition, revised 
and improved by the author. Edited by G. Emerson, M.D. 
With notes and additions by R. G. Pardee, author of '> Manual 
of the Strawberry Culture.'' With illustrations. Price, $1 25. 

Munn's (B.) Practical Land-Drainer; being a treatise on 
draining land, iu which the most approved systems of drainage 
are explained; with full directions for the cutting and making 
of drains, and with many illustrations. By B. Munu, Landscape 
Gardener. Price 60 cents. 

Elliot's (F. R.) American Fhdit-G rower's Guide in 
Orchard and Gaiden ; being u compend of the history, m ill.- 
of propagation, culture, &c„ of tmit, trees and shrubs, with 
descriptions of nearly all the varieties of fruits cultivated in this 
country ; and notes of their adaptation to localities, soils, Rnd a 
complete list of fruits worthy of cultivation. By F. R. Elliot, 
Pomologist. Price, $1 50. 

Dadd's (Geo. H.) American Cattle Doctod; containing 
the necessary information for pre-erviug the health ard curing 
the diseases of oxen, cows, sheep und swine, with a great va- 
riety of original receipt* and valuable information in reference 
to farm and dairy management, whereby every man can he his 
own cattle doctor. By G. II. Dudd, M.D., Veterinary Prac- 
titioner. Price $1 25. 

Norton's (John P.) Elements of Scientific Agricul- 
ture; or. The Connection between Science und the Art of 
Practical Farming. (Prize Eseaj ol the New York State Agri- 
cultural Society.) By John P. Norton, M.A., Professor ol Sci- 
entific Agriculture in Yule College. Adapted to the use of 
Schools. Price, ~5 cents. 

Johnston's (James F. W.) Catechism of Agricultural 
Chemistbv and Geology. Adapted to the use of Schools. 
Price, 25 cents. 

Johnston's (James F. W.) Elements of Agricultural 
Chemistry and Geology. With a complete analytical and 
alphabetical index, and an American preface. By Hon. Simon 
Brown. Price, gl 25. 

Johnston's (James F. W.) Agricultural Chemistry. 
Lectures on application of chemistry and geology to agricul- 
ture. New edition, with on appendix, containing the author's 
experiments in practical agriculture. Price, SI 50. 

Smith's (C. H. J.) Landscape Gardening, Parks and 
Pleasure Grounds. With practical notes on country resi- 
dences, villas, public parks and gardens. By Charles H. J. 
Smith, Landscape Gardener and Garden Architect, &.c. With 
notes and additions by Lewis F. Allen, author ol " Rural Archi- 
tecture," &c. Price,' $1 50. 

jjjp' The above books will be sent to California free of post- 
age. v4-3 3t, 



MEDICAL. 



HENRY WARD BEECHER'S NEW BOOK!— 20,000 
copies sold in four weeks. 

STAR PAPERS; 

OR, 
EXPERIENCES OF NATDRE AND ART, 
Is now Ready. 
One elegant 12mo. Price, $1 25. 
CONTENTS. 
I. Letters from Europe. II. Experiences of Natube. 
A Discourse ol Flowers. The Death of our Almanac. 

Death in the Country. Fog in the Harbor. 

Inland vs. Seashore. The Morals of Fishing. 

NewEnlnnd Graveyards. The Wanderings of a Star. 

Towns and Trees. Bookstores — Books. , 

TheFirstBreathiutheCountry. Gone to the Country. 
Trouting. Dream-Culture. 

The Mountain Stream, Building a House. 

A Country Bide. The Use of the Beautiful. 

Farewell to the Country. Mid-October Daye. 

School Reminiscence. A Moist Letter. 

The Value of Birds. Frost in the Window. 

A Rough Picture from Life. Snow Storm Traveling. 

A Ride to Fort Hamilton. Nature a Minister ol Happiness. 

Sights from my Windjw. Springs and Solitudes. 

J. C. DERBY, Publisher, New York, 

v4-3 And for sale by all Booksellers. 



VALUABLE AGKI0TJLTUEAL BOOKS, 

PUBLISHED BY 

JOHN P. JJ3WETT & CO.. Boston, 
And for sale by nil the Booksellers, 

Dadd's Modern Horse Doctor, 

By Geo. H. Dadd, 

The celebrated Veterinary Surgeon. 

Schenck's Kitchen Gardener's Text Books. 

A complete guide for the cultivation of the Kitchen Garden. 

Cole on the Diseases of Animals, 
By T. W. Cole, 
Editor nf the New En gland Farmer. 

Cole's American Fruit Book. 

The best book out for the Fruit Grower. 



Breck's Book of Flowers. 

A complete Guide for the Florist. 

Leucliard on the Hot House. 

Their Heating, Construction and Ventilation. 



v4-l 



TOBACCO. 
Virginia Manufactured Tobacco Agency. 

G1 REENE, HEATH & ALLEN have removed from Calilor- 
T ni a street to the cor. of VVashiugton and Battery streets 
where they offer tor sale the largest and i"'-t assortment ol 

Manufactured Tobacco ever brought to thiflfitate. The selec- 
tion was mmle by Mr. Heath from the best factories in Vir- 
ginia ; und the trade generally are respectfully invited to call. 
Amon^'-t the brands ottered are the following ; 
20Q boxes Cnuupton's: Four Aces ; 
75 half boxes do Medal; 
50 packages do Sovereign of the Si (U 
60 do do Bride of the Pacific; 

10U boxes Hidsey's Four A'b : 
100 do Saunders' Harry of the West ; 
50 do James Boyd'.- Gold Leaf; 
50 do do Anna Bishop ; 

25 do A Thomas' Club House j 

50 do Ferguson's Star ol the West ; 
50 do Miller &. Crenshaw's Bluff City ; 
20 do Royster's Mary's Own; 

40 do do Invincible ; 

100 do Thornton'.-. Caotelop"; 
50 do Dickinson's Witch's Eye; 
50 do Crosby & Woolten's Metropolitan. 
In addition to the above, we have 2,000 packages of ordinary 
brands ; and as we sell exclusively on Cuimnission for the Kan- 
Utacturers oi Virginia, we can furnish the trade with any quan- 
tity or quality required, at it e lowest ratal *3-16 



New Invention ! 
Now, Cuunt Your lliliktns:! 

THE undersigned begs leave to offisi to the public a new and 
improved machine tor hatching the egga ol domestic fowls. 

AJier a series of costly • ixj erimeute the proprietor bos suc- 
ceeded Id perfecting 8 plan by which at a verytritlingco.-t from 
four to five hundred rgg» can be converted daily into young 
Chicken.-, DttCfcs, Goslings or Turkeys. Alter the Bret brooih, 
r, '., nineteen or twenty days, tin*- h the certain result; and it 
requires bul little attention — once every twenty-four noun — 
the cost ol luel and preparation being only some $2 SO to $8 
every twenty days. 

This Invention Will be in full operation at the State Fair at 
the en; erf Sacramento, to September next, when all inlorma- 

II be pre anted, Ttfey will soon be offered for hale. In 
em >i me j:; 1 ■ mi I Ion i an to obtaiw 6 ai the office of the 
( 'alikohma Ruhsb ; or letters can be addressed to me '■! S.ij, 
Pratt i JOHN J. FULTON, 

v3 3C Tiiird street, South bench, near tfouth Park. 




IT IS A FIXED FACT, 
CONSUMPTION CAN BE CURED! 

SIR JAMES CLARK, Physician to 
Queen Victoria, and one of the most 
learned and skillful men of the age, in 
hi" " Treatise" on Consumption, says : 
"That Pulmonary Consumption admits 
of a cure, is no longer a matter of doubt ; 
it hoe been clearly demonstrated by tl e 
researches of Lsennec and other patholo- 
gists." Dn. CABSWSLL, whuinve-ti'jated 
such matters probably »- thoroughly as 
any man, sayn : " Pathological anatomy has, perhaps, never af- 
forded more conclusive evidence iu proof of the curability of a. 
di-ease than it has in that of tubercular phthisis," (pulmonary 
consumption.) 

It Is no Fiction. 
These statements are made by men who have demonstrated 
what they say, time after time, in the crowded hospital, and in 
the truth telling dissecting room. They arc from men who 
have nn possible motive for publishing what is untrue, or em- 
blazoning falsehoods. 

The Remedy which we offer 

Dr; Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry, 

Imj cured hundreds of ca es of 

Consumption of the Lungs, Liver Complaints, Coughs, 

Colds, Astnma, Bronchitis. Whooping Cough, 

Influenza, &c. 

Many ol them after every known remedy had failed to reach the 

disease. 

We can present n mass of evideneoin proof of our assertion that 
Cnitnot be Di>cr< tlllnl. 

Db. Boyden, a Physician in Maine, says: "I have recom- 
mcuded the use ol DH. WISTAR'S BALSAM OF. WILD 
CHERRY lor diseases of the lungs for two years past, and 
many bottles to my knowledge have been used by my patients, 
all with beneficial results. In two coses, where it was thought 
Coniirmed Consumption had taken pluce, the Wild Cherry ef- 
fected a cure. 

Da. A. H. Macanaib, of Tarboro, North Carolina, writes us, 
under date of Feb. 14, 1654, that he hns used DR. WISTAR'S 
BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY in hw practice the last eighteen 
months, and considers it the best preparation of the kind he 
ever saw, and knows of none so deserving the public patronage. 

Da. Wm. A. Shaw, of Washington, D. C, says; "I wish 
hearty success to your medicine. I consider every case of ar- 
rest of the lalal symptoms of pulmonary disease as a direct 
tribute to suffering humanity. 

Samuel A. W albeit; Esq.. a gentleman well known in this 
vicinity, writes as follows : " Having experienced resultH of a 
satisfactory character, from the use of WISTAR'S BALSAM 
OF WILD CHERRY in cases of severe colds during the past 
two years, I urn induced to express the gratitlcatiou I feel from 
the favorable effects that followed, and also the full faith I have 
in the renovating power of Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry. 

Hon. Samuel S. Perkins says: "For several days I had 
been suffering from the effects of a severe cold, accompanied 
by a very sore throat and sick headache, which completely in- 
capacitated me from business. I had taken but a very small 
portion of a single bottle of this Balsam, when 1 experienced 
immediate relief. My cough was brokeu up at once, and my 
lungs entirely relieved from the pressure winch had become 
painful. 

[From the Boston Journal.] 

Wistar's Balsam of Wild Cherry. 
" This medicine, coming from a respectable source, and care- 
fully prepared by au experienced and skillful physician, 
received by the public with confidence. Its elHcacy has been 
', proved in many obdurate cases of disease, and its fame has 
rapidly extended." 

It is a powerful remedy for Asthma*, as will be seen by the 
following cure : " Sir — Having been atnicted for more than 
(thirty years with the Asthma, at times so severely as to iuea- 
i pacitate mn from attendance to business, and having adopted 
muny medicine- without any but temporary reliet, I purchased 
Bevera] bottle, of WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD CHERRY, 
from the effects of which [obi u from all 

the medicine I had ever taken lor thut distressing disorder. 1 
have, by the repeated u*e of your valuable Balsam, been more 
free ot pressure for breath, and op pre- -ion on the lungs, than I 
anticipated, and, indeed, conceive myeell cured of the most dis- 
heariening malady. C. D. MAYNARD. 

Argue Office, Portland, March 26, 1850." 

Fifty Thousand Persons die annually in England of Con- 
sumption ! In the New England tftatec the propoirtion is one 
to lour or five. In Boston, probably, one in four. In the city 
of New York sixty-seven died in two weeks, in December, of 
tin* disease. The mere liict thHt suofa a disease is ever curable, 
attested by such unimpeachable authority, ehould inspire hope 
and reanimate tailing courage in the heart ol.sufferer from this 

disease. 

JUt-ware of Counterfeit* nn<l Imitations— Syrups, 
ami all oilier preparations of Wild Cherry. Remember, thflj 

imitate in name, without poe.-esr-ni^ the virtues. Buy none but 
the genuine 

Dr Wistar's Balsam of "Wild Cherry. 

Signed I. BUTTS on the wrapper. 
SETH W. FOWXE, 

Proprietor, Boston, Mass. 

f3F* Agents for San Francisco, 

B. B. THAYER &, CO., 
v3-l6 Montgomery street 



PERUVIAN FEBRIFUGE, 

FOB THE PUEVENTION AND CUHE OF 

FBI KK AKD AGUE, 

InterviitUnt and Remittent fevers, liver Complaint*, Jaundice, 

Dumb Ague, Ihj.'pepsia, Xtrcous- Jiiadadtr, Enlargement of 
On Sjpki n, and all the diffirrtit forms of Bilioun Diseases. 
rr^IJIS preparation i.« intended especially ns a remedy for the 
-*- prevention und cure of t ever and Ague, but it is equally 
adapted to other forms of disease, such as biliouf, intermittent 
and remittent fevers, dumb ague, &c. Its combination being 
entirely new, it differs widely in its therapeutic effects and op- 
eration on the system, from other preparations designed to re- 
move the disease ; and such has been the uuiloroi success in its 
administration, that no cost Is known where it has failed to cure 
when timely taken. A single teaspoonhdfrvill often prevent nu 
attack of chills and fever ; and while Operating so effectually il-j 
a palliative, its permanency is equally reliable, and no fears 
need be entertained of any injury resulting from its use, as its 
component parts are all vegetable, mid have been thoroughly 

te-t.d by many eminent physicians with the most signal suc- 

cess. In all climates where bilious and remittent levers prevail, 

this remedy will be found invaluable, and no person traveling 

through, or residing in infected districts, should be without it 

Read the following Testimony. 

Bkooklvn, N. V., Aug. 25, 1853. 

Messrs. A. [■.:. L t 1">. SANDS — Gentlemen : Having been the 

past year severely afHictcd with Fever and Ague, and living in 

a district where I have been constantly exposed to repeated 

attacks, I tried the most approved remedies tor the cure of the 

complaint, and among them took (our bottles of India Chola- 
goguc, without producing anything but a partial relief By the 
advice of a friend, I was induced to try the Peruvian Fein ifuge 
and am happy to say the very Hist dose did me much good, and 
less than one bottle entirely broke up the chill*, restored my 
appetite, regulated my bowels", and ehcCted an entire cure. It 
also cured one of my children, affected the same as myselt, and 
1 have enough left lo cure two or three more. A desire to re- 
lieve those suffering, a« I have done, alone induces me to make 
the above statement. Youis, very truly, 

EDWARD MEHER. 
Price $1 50 per bottle. Prepared and sold, wholesale and 
retail, by A. B, & I). SANDS, Druggists and Chemists. No. 10U 
Pultun street, corner ol William, New York* Sola also by 
Druggists generally. 

For sale by Henry Johnson & Co., MB Washington street, 

Sun Francisco; S. T. Wnt«, MaryBvillQ; and HOWARD &. 

CO., Sucrameuto. v-1-5 3m. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



TREADWELL 




CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND MAIDEN LANE, 

MAB.YSVILLE. 

Corner of California and Battery Strestt, San Francisco. 

X<: 56 Federal street, Boston. 

Iwpobtebs of Hardware, iron, Steel, Cordage, Paints, Oil 

Varmsh and Window Gins*, direct from the Atlantic States an 

Europe, with a complete assortment optools and i.tiPLB 

■nwrre for Farmers, -Mintrt, Carpenter*, Coopers, Caulkers fine. 

Gravers, Saddlers, Turn,,--, Mason*, Smiths, Painters, Glaziers, 

Slop Carpenters, H7ieclu:rights, Millwrig/Us, Cabinet Makers, 

and others, v 3-5 




OLLINS & CO., 

PKAOTICALHATTERS, 

(FHBWrUAI HAT STOttB,) 
157 Commercial street, San Francisco. 

THE undersigned would take this opportunity to return their 
thanks to their friends and the public generally for the very 
liberal ehure ot patronagewhich they have received. They take 
pleasure in now announcing that they are determined that no 
one snail surpass them in the beauty, or finish, or quality of a 
Hat ; that no eent shall wear a finer Hat than can be found at 
Collins & Co.'s Warehouse. 

The proprietors of this establishment exert themselves to 
manufacture to order the late.-t styles and most approved pat- 
terns. The stock of HATS and CAPS, of every kind, now 
on hand, cannot be surpassed in this city. 

v4-l COLLINS &, CO. 



WAINWRIGHT, RANDALL & CO., 

Real Estate and Stock Auctioneers, 

No. 100 Merchant street, San Fraarisro, California. 

WE respectfully inform our friends and the public uencr- 
olly, that we have connected with our other blUuneOfl 
that of House BRoKEaAGE and General Directory:, 
and have made extensive arrangements' for conducting them 
satisfactorily to all who may favor Ufe with their patronage. 

As these new branches possess some novel features, and not 
having been heretofore introduced in this city, we deem it pro- 
per to make manifest their advantages, not only to our own 
citizens, but to all who may visit our city. 
House lirokern^c. 

This department is an i agency Jbr leasing and letting Dwelling 
Houses, Moi-e-, shops, Rooms nod Buiiduige or every descrlp 
tion, and will receive the attention which its Importance de 
mancU r rom the advantages derived from the "Directory 
Department," and having made arrangements for receiving 
information immediately when premises are vacated, we shall 

S assess miperiur fecilittes for providing, at the shortest notice, 
buses, Rooms and Places of Business of oil kinds, in any pnrt 
ol the City Where required. All persons, who may have vacant 
premises will find this a desirable medium of obtaining tenants 
lor the same, and their bu.-ine.-s i- respectfully solicited. 
General Directory, 
This department will -nclndea registry, (already prepared,) 
of all persons, (except Chinese,) within the Umiteof the city, 
by reference to which we will be enabled to give the name and 
residence of all Merchants, Mechanics, Artists, Professional 
Men, Laborers, and those out of business, which will be con- 
tinually correct* d, as they change their residence, und will re- 
ceive additions From time to time, at- new comers arrive. 
We consider the infarmatiun. which out register wip* afford 

to he ot'e >eiitial import auee, as well to our own Community as 

to strangers, from the fact or changes occurring eg frequently 
among us, and it faavifag been demonstrated that published 
directories are marly oselese in a month or two after being Is- 
sued. This with other Information in our possession, enables 

in to present a complete epitome ot the entire city, which wo 
shall keep '■ posted up," to keep pace with the movements of its 
inhabitants. 

This department will bounder the supervi-ion nf an agent 
who has had a large experience in this branch, hero and else 
where. 

To give an idea of the extent of our Registry, we may men- 
tion that up to the pre-ent time i 1 contains the names and mi- 
dress of forty-three thousand t>crsons t with the place ol their 
nativity, occupations, etc., which, has required several mouths 

ol labor to compile. 

We invite ihe attention of the public to our eutriblishment 
v3-18 WAINWRRiHT, RANDALL &. CO. 



PRINCE'S PROTEAN FOUNTAIN PEN. 

[patented jan. 23, 1855] 

T. G-. Stearns, General Agent 271 Broadway, 

I orner of C/utmbcru street, X. Y. 

ADVANTAGES. — An incorrodible and durable ink reser 
voir, mode ot Protean, under GoodyearV Patent, (died 
with ease and rapidity, supplying the pen for six Or eight hours, 
und saving about one-third ol the time. A Gold Pen ol the very 
best quality, with a holder of the most beautiful, light, und 
elastic muterial. If- structure is simple, und not liable to get 
out ot order. 

Direchons.— To till the reservoir with the Piston, remove 
the cap by turning it like a screw, insert the pen in tho ink 
half an inch or more, draw up the piston, then with the thumb 
and finger on the lower part of the piston, draw it up tight into 
the head of the tube that it may neither move nor allow any 
pressure of the air. Wipe the pen with a soft cloth or paper 
alter tilling and whenever the cap is removed. Too piston i-* 
not to be pushed down until the ink is entirely exhausted. To 
push it dowu place the thumb and the finger just above tho 
tube, that the piston may not be broken. Put the cap on light 
ly when the pen is not in use, m preserve the ink from drying; 
and screw it home to its shoulder when carried in the pocket. 

To till the reservoir by suction, (the mode adapted to puekot 

pens,) loosen the small scrm--, at the upper end, hut do not 
take it out ; insert the pen in ink, as above; apply tho lips to 

the email screw, exhaust the idr by suction, and while the pen 

remains in the ink, turn the .-erew until it is tight. Or, loosen 
the screw, insert the tube in a bottle of ink, let it remain until 
the ink litis found Its level "i the tube, then turn the screw irtitil 

it is tiL'Lit, and the pen is ready for uso. 
Tin- -notion pens should be carried ■ >. ■ ■' . ■■ , r ■, 



upward , ibe piston pen.- wiih the 

U=<e good ink, free from sedll 
can Fluid, also Bryan ifc Wile 

commended to the public > 



NOTlcrc Is berebj 
under .. 

Sacramento count; 
hall then be in 
that they sboU li 



..... i ft Field 1 ! Ameri- 
. Arnold's Fluid Ink, re- 

■ H Copy. . v4-5 

..otlcot 

h to all persons Interested, that tho 
I to the Board ol Bunoi i 

1'2 ii .lav ol Juno. I: 
not, then ou the Si i o.u Iheiealter 

n, for n renewal ol bis licen o to keep 



twolerne a< . Ainei [can river j pominonl) km wq 

u "Hoyt"i near, whore 3Btb atre uto City 

nlorseott < '•:; and the other commonly known u the 
■ Middle or . v Fqj : v," about two and 

aid Burn •'.(.. SAMOEL NORBIS, 

.Suctiij •> .;„-, lOib, 1H55 tf-SM 



Shi.u Dojftgtniall 0H 



SI sail a* ft &Hm$%$< 



VOL. IV. 



SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, FRIDAY MORNING, AUGUST 24, 1855. 



NO. 8. 



<T I) r California y'arnur 

AKD JOIKVW. OP VSKFl I. SCIENCES. 

By WARREM & SON. 



PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY MORNING. 
■-■ ■'/> $treetf between J ami h\ Sacramento, 

Terms — s '"> dollars per uunutn, in advance. Fur a club 
# i : . .,■ siibere, we will scud n.eisth copj gratis. 

A limiuil numl ti omen ■■! air rates. 

AGENTS. 
J. a. M, Wabbiis, Ration.— Far nil the Eastern Stales. 
Ml---i>, Wklls, FarGO & Co. — At their Offices throughout the 

try. 
Pacific Express Cowpans*.— At all their Offices in the State, 
I,. P. Pisher, A' !'-•"•',." '■ Agtuii San Francisco, 
Messrs. N ivkn & Bakkr.— JVapn Cfty and Cott-«ff. 
Gardnbr & Kirk, Newspaper and Booksellers^ Sacramento, 
Keasre. LaWGTQN & Co. for DoWttievUle, Foster'.* Bar, Good- 



year 



s Bar, fl/»i 



Messrs. Leland Si. McCoombe— Crescent City, Tort Orford, 

TJniontauYn, Eureka, and B'tcksport. 
Butt ivaVs newspaper stand, No. 5 Po.=t Office Building ; Kim- 
ball's, N>)iey Carriers Hnll, I;Ong wharf— San F 



A. Himnewell, P. M., Columbia, 
I Coffin, Vo'-.himiu- Hill. 
Gen. M. M. McCarver. Mount 

Farm, O. T. 
Dudley & Co., Napa City, 
Bilker & Hamilton, Sacramento, 
Taney & Rolieite, Sonar a. 
A. H. Murdoch, P. M., Union, 

Humboldt. Ban. 
Worth & Sturgis, Martinet. 
Renj. Dodd; Benicia, 
J. M. Thorhurn &. Co. New York 
City, N. Y. 
".,* Postmasters throughout tlit State are kindly in riled to act 
for us. 

We desire our Agents to report to us on the let of evrry 
month, the increase of names and the prospects, together with 
the amount due the offc-e. 



p.preer, TtidweWs, Butte Co. 
D G.Waldron«fc Co. Colonta* 
Treadwell <fe C >., Marysville. 
W. 3. Force & Co., do 
Jamee & Co., Napa. 
A. W. Potter, Nevada. 
Hash & fiavifl, Placerville. 
C. O. Burton, Storkton. 
Dt.Thoma? J. Harvey, P. RI., 

San luie Obispo. 
Cram. Rosrers & Co., Yreha. 
Howard&Chnmberlain, Un'n 

Gity,and Mission San Josd 



AGRICOLA'S LETTERS.— NO. 12. 
On Rearing Young Calves. 

Editors Farmer : The food taken into the 
animal system has got two principal duties to 
perform: to supply heat, (and fat, which, as we 
have seen, is formed from a superabundance of 
the material provided for that purpose.) and to 
furnish the constituents of Mesh and blood, which 
in young animals are daily increasing, and in 
those of any age constantly undergoing change : 
and consequently require additional supplies to 
make up (or the constant waste. On making an 
analysis of fat we find that it does not contain 
nitrogen, and. consequently, in stall-feeding for 
the butcher, food containing but a limited supply- 
is wanted. But our principal object, in raising 
young Stock, is the production of muscle, and no 
more prudent course can bo taken than to follow 
the rule already suggested : " First to ascertain 
what it is made of. and then to supply the Betes 
6ary materials in the animals' food." 

Flesh and blood, according to Thomson, are 
composed of — . 

Water. Dry Annual Mutter. 

Muscular fibre, - 77 - 23 
Blood, - - - 79 - 21 
the constituents of the animal matter in both 
being tile same, and in the same proportions; ex- 
cept that there is a little more asbos in blood 
which e\ idently goes to supply the bones. Nos . 
if we take the muscular or lean part of the flesh 
and wash it in a current of water, for a length 
of time, the blood, to which the red coloring is 
owing, will gradually disappv, and the muscle 
become perfect.] whitej in which state, with the 
exception of a little fat. it forms what is known 
to chemists under the name ot fibrin or jSorine. 
When dried beef is burned it leaves about 4 1-8 
per cent, of a-lus. being equal to about 1 percent 
of beet in its natural slate— about two-thirds of 
which are phosphate of lime. Thus, to add 100 
puts Of the tm.scid.tr part of a half grown ani 
mat, there must be incorporated with 
Stance 

Water J 

Pibi ine - 
Phosphate of lime 
Other saline matters 



'■ Hew beautifully and admirably simple," says 
Liebig, " appears the process of nutrition in ani- 
mals, the formation of their organs in which vi- 
tality t hicily resides ! These vegetable principles. 
which. in animals, arc used to form blood, contain 
the chief constituents of blood (fibrinc and albu- 
men) ready formed, as far as regards their com- 
leinents doubtless exist in all 
vegetables eaten by cattle, but not always in such 
proportions; and it is this occasional defect — if 
we may so call it — which solicits the aid of chem- 
istry, in ministering proper aliments, for animals 
under dilfeient circumstances, and assisting na- 
ture to carry out her intentions, when she is beset 
with difficulties otherwise too hard for her to 
contend with. If grass and grain contain all the 
requisites for feeding of animals, we must re- 
member that for a long period of the year, we do 
not have grass in sufficient quantities to admin- 
ister; and, when farmers live in the neighbor- 
hood of good markets, they generally find it more 
profitable to sell their grain than to give it largely 
to cattle. But, after all, it would frequently be 
the wisest thing they could do. especially during 
that portion of the year when grass is deficient; 
and, 1 have no doubt, such would be done to a 
considerable extent, if farmers were more gener- 
ally aware that the cost of feeding growing ani- 
mals properly, at that particular season, need nut 
be so much, if prudently managed, as they may- 
be inclined to suppose. 

Let us take the following list, from Boi 
gault, of some of the more generally cultivated 
crops, showing the proportions of each containing 
the same amount of nitrogen, and sec whether 
they may not, in proper conjunction, be procura- 
ble, at such a moderate cost, as would render them 
as cheap as any other food that eouM pa used : 



\V beaten Flour 


Hid 


- 


1(17 


Barley Meal - 


119 


Barley 




Kidnev Beans 56 


—57 


White Cabbage - 


Slit 


Oats 


117 



Indian torn - 138 
li.o ap It. J 1 

I'easc - - f»7 

Potatoes 

Ditto (old) - 894 
t tarrots - - 76 

I Turnips - - 1836 
Now, supposing that portion of their food, which 
consists of hay or Straw, would have contained 
the elements ol nutrition, nearly in the propor- 
tion in which they ought to be. if it had not been 
deprived of some 61 Its must nourishing 

by the process necessarj to secure it In a tit stale 
for preservation, in consequence it Is 
aery to supply, along with it. other food has 
woody in its character, if ire would have our ani- 
mals in a thriving condition. Let us see. there- 
fore, ho a era can best make a selection from the 
list I have just quoted: .ready 

more than ones recommended as a food for cattle. 

ally in California, wheie they attain a 
size, and gro v. when ; 
greater abundance than in am other country that 
we arc acquainted ■ ith. But, as we have ■ 
seen, potatoes do not contain a sufficient quantity 
of nitrogen to sepplj 'he e re fl — r aj ir. .-./.• of ani- 
mal tissue without the addition ol bean meal, or 
some such I 
and ho 1 must the. lie as a food 



•_' :'• 
1 9 






supplying them with food yielding the elements 
of nutrition, nor. which is worse, try to make 
them grow bigger, without providing them with 
food capable of preserving them in a moderate 
degree of obesity. 

The evil effects of this latter attempt I have 
frequently 7 witnessed in Scotland, in the feeding 
I cs. There, especially in spring, good fresh