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Full text of "The California Farmer (1856)"

**, 






The 


California Farmer 


Vol.5 No. 21 


May 30, 1856 



CALIFORNIA 

STATE LIBRARY 



D EDO? 12b531fl 

California State Library 




SUiu DafosmM ®i! 



ij'huJ ®${U$fi$8 4 



VOL. V. 



SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, FRIDAY MOKNING, MAY 30, 1856. 



f|t California Jitrnur 



' USKKl I. HIBM'KS 






a the Weather.— No. 3, 



with the surface, of tho same specific gravity as 
the vapor which they form ; so that, after tho 
■=iri o.i i interstices between tho atoms of air hate 
been tilled, the escaping vnpor is necessarily de- 
jfc ili'l along llio surface. 

It is now generally staled in Meteorological 
Works, that dew doc* not (nil ; which it certainly 
does not, in the way it was formerly supposed lo 
do. But, thai it does fall, (o a certain extent, in 
the after part of tho night, a little consideration 
will enable anyone lo perceive. Immediately 
after tliv sun has descended below the horizon, 
the earth does not, all at once, get cooled down to 
the temperature of the air it the surface; anil, 
consequently, llio evaporated water rises some 
distance in the atmosphere ; though, we may pre- 
sume, from llie nearly balanced state of the tem- 
perature of the earth anil air on such occasions, 
only a short distance. Hy and by, however, the 
t " earth yets colder ; when liie particles of heat in 

* . the atmosphere, thus recently evaporated, 

for aught ■ ,- j 

° scam dim ■■-. i to return i.. 



Speculations I 

EuiTOlts Fahueii: The vapor, which, in last 
Letter, we left suspended in Ihe atmosphere, (is 
it rises up to find a medium of tho same specific 
gravity as itself, pets necessarily cooled. This 
takes place from the air being less dense in tbc 
higher regions than in the inferior; nnd from 
other concomitant causes which I would now ex- 
plain. When the particles of heat arc launched 
forth by the sun, with the amazing velocity wh 

doubtless go into I 

lie know (if they art anything more than more 

undulations), be lost forever ; but when they come 

in contact with such a world ok ours, surrounded 

by an atmosphere of considerable density, they 

accumulate in great quantities, and in the great- 
est quantities where they meet with the greatest 

iulerruplion. Hut, as I have staled, the atmos- 
phere in the higher regions is much rarer than 
below ; consequently tho particles of heat pass 
readily through it; and it is only when they strike 
the earth that they meet with any serious oppo- 
sition. There, from their extreme minuteness, 
they enter everything; water, earth,-., 
metals olTvring but a feeble resistance lo their 
penetrating search, as they thread their way into 
1 discernible by the n.'cioscope; 

,. : 

,. :. . ,.'■ ■: ... 

.. 

■I' b mil. i ■ 

' become perfectly invisible I 

, if the Earth, as 



disposed lo return to it; and, in dump; so 
they bring the alums of water with which they 
arc connected along wilh them. This is most 
perceptible in the fill of the year, when Ihe 
nights arc getting long, and suflieienl lime is thus 
alTorded, for tho full development of this ojiera- 
tion of Nature. On such occasions, how often 
have we found, on a bright autumnal morning, 
tho grass perfectly drenched with moisture ; and 
seen tho laly mist Stretched along the low val- 
leys, and sleeping on their little la!:.- . ' llut no 
sooner did the rising sun look over tho mountain 
tups, Banding heal, as well as light, abroad upon 
the world, than those accumulated vapors of the 
night, gelling sooner heated than tho surra and fag 
atmosphere, from their offering mor r 
'" bis beams, hate coiled op their 1 'nr 



When 1 lits.t came to this Stale (in tho full of 
'52) hay wns very high, and of tho great nbnn- 
dolico of groin grown, not one lead of straw 
was to ho fouud fit for use. From that limn I 
have adopted the- praelieo of putting up a Inrgo 
quantity of straw fur the purpose of feeding my 
stock, cows nnd steers, in cold stormy weather, 
and fnr stiiblo litter, whioh adds much to tho 
comfort "f these noble animnb,; that portion of 
tho itrnw which is fed lo stock nnd tmmplod 
under foot, being benefitted by the juices of tho 
yard; uflor tho winter is post, and tha .1 r, 
seos<!i commrmccB, .1 ga to work nnd carefully 
gnlhir up all my barnyard innnuro and put it 
on DP,' fallow ground; my stable manure T clean 
up aid draw out, threo or four times In n year, ) 
and y so doing lees of it is wasted. Whore it i 

lid - J months, exposed In the burning sun, | 

much i-f its productive qunlitioi arc lost, and ', 
tho *oikt it eon bo plowed wider, nftor being 
placid mi the fallow, the better. 1 rdso OSO my 
chip manures, whiohnro of great value, ns well 
as ii it a pleasure In have eleuu ind cunifurtnblo 
ynrJi". The ]ioullry lioun- nnd pi:: nty urn also 
I.. ' . cleaned, ns other yards, which is condu- 
■ i . in health und comfort, nnd of great vuluo 
tho land. Where I have made, a thorough 
.■plication of manures to my wheat and barley 

t. Ids, I nni of tho opinion that one- quarter to 
one. third is. added to the crop. 

i have been in several of the Atlantic States, 
.V ■- York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Uli- 

,,. I .,'. i,, WiTi'insiu mid Indiana, and none 

,,i ii n .ii-.' io rioti as not to need manure on 



Current Reports of Crops. 
KEPOUT speaks well for lone valley. That 
beautiful spot, it poems, has entirely escaped the 
drouth, and never have the crops looked better. 
Tin: Hay Crop is Solano. — In Sobmo 
county the cutting of hay e..itimenoed on the 
1.5th May, and considerable progress had boon 
made whon the recent ruins commenced falling. 
Much damage bus been done. On the Suscol 
Ituneh. alone, between VoUrjo ami Beniela, it is 
oslimuted by the correspondent of tho Solano 
Hernhl.thnt fifteen hundred Ions bos been in- 
ured. The correspondent adds: 

It is generally conceded that the hay crop is 
try till .rt, r.Ve raging only from half i ton to n 
on tu tho acre. Owing to this fuel, the general 
pinion baa obtained that hay will ho scarce 
nd high ; consequently almost every body 
corns to bo interested in -cine wi.y in tho hay- 
nttine; luuiiia. wliii.'b prevail;! vi-iv ^-n, rally in 

Hs f.eighborl d. Grass lands are nil rented 

nd sub-routed, and everv spot will bo out over 



■ ., 
they effect their escape) and oonwqu nllj 
greater amount of Intent heat, after Ihe direct solo 
influence it withdrawn. In tho upper regions, as 
they encounter no opposition, except what takes 
place from thesparse atoms of oir, which, at an ele- 
vation or three and a-hall. miles, is only one-half 
as dense as at the general surface oflho earth, bot 
little talent heat is accumulated, and the 
phero there is necessarily colder. 

When tho vapor of water has reached this cold 
region, it soon gives out a portion or its heat, and 
in doing so gels specifically heavier ; and conse- 
quently seeks to descend to an atmosphere, in 
which it would he in perfect equilibrium. But 
the moment it altemptn lo get into lower and 
heavier air, it gels into warmer quarters, where 
the increasing heat opposes ila down ward pro- 
gress. 

Now, it is a property of all gases, the atmos- 
phere included, that the inlersliccs of their com- 
ponent atoms may be tilled with some other gas, 
without tho space occupied by tho original gas 
being increased. This is one reason why evapor- 
ation takes place nt all. llut, in 
cause which assists in producing, also limits the 
action. The atmosphere can only hold so much 
water; aud, consequently, one of two things must 
prevail: either ovpo rat ion must stop altogether, 
or the vapor already formed mutt bo condensed 
into clouds, and a portion of lha atmosphere he 
thus left comparatively unfilled, before it can 
possibly continue. 

Tho first of these circumstances lakes place, to 
a certain extent, when dew is formed. 

The air, being possessed of o considerably 
greater power of retaining heal than land or 
water, does not pari with it so quickly as they 
do ; especially in clear nights, when but little in- 
terruption is offered to the parliclesof latent heat 
escaping from their pores; and when the forming 
tapor and tho air soon come, almost, into 
eqoalily ef temperature. Consequently, the par- 
ticles ol beat, which, under other cirau instances, 
would inne carried the atoms of water, with 
which the] had got connected, high up in the 
atmosphere, find the air, in immediate contact 



supposed, wore 
flat like a table; and had, besides, an unvaried 
surface ef land or water; and had no satellite re- 
volving around it, capable of causing ebbs and 
flows, and interfering with its atmospheric ar- 
rangements; and the ecliptic were parallel with 
'" the equator; Ihe laws which I have stated would 
afford data, by means or which, after a little ex- 
perimenting, and collecling of meteorological ob- 
servations, ihe weather might be predicted with 



thoir 



' 



V the 



Tin: Trinity Journal reports Ihe crops in the 
northern part nf that county, ••*■ being very for- 
ward and very heavy. 

Wo here annex letters we have- received Troiii 
prominent citizens, whoso names carry weight 
id influence, and wo have many of them which 
ml to show that our crops are generally equal 
lust year — all that speculators may sny to the 
contrary not wilh. stun ding. 



Cmeex FlU, 1 -li»nb, ,-. jr.iv, ( 
-.,!(., I llliTr.l. H., ill. lHSi ) 

Dear Sir: Knowing yon take 
the Agricultural prosperity 
being an Agrionl|urIsl my- 

'■■ i ■■ if | ' "..■-mol- you. 
■ ■ ■ 



Col. W.v 



. ! . . ,..- ,..,- , ,.vil lo 

i! i former if ho should save n goad lot of strai 
,' ' fn-il. nnd give his stock the benefit, during 
tl u coming winter; mid ol the opening of spring 
ii-,. tin- residue fur dressing crops. lam of tin 
i, pinion this will provo profitable. Will the 
formers give it a fair trial ? Dodge. 

1', S.— Will tho Faiimbr please publish the 
Hog Law, as passed tho Inst Legislature. 









But as the. 



play, i 



etly the reverse, the case is uece-.-arily ;il'..;r.-.|; 
I a now agent— the wind— now comes into 
fickle in character,and more powerful 
rhioh deranges, alike, the placid econo- 
my of a quiescent atmosphere, such as wo have 
been contemplating, and the calculations directly 
deduclblc from tho laws, which I have been at- 
tempting to explain; rendering it necessary to? 
take them only in connection with the results of 
other phenomena, equally established in nature, 
and no less to bo taken Into account. 

Wm. Tiiohpsc 
Hanaro*, War IW>, IMS- 



(For 



Bavins Manuxaa—Food for Stook. 
L. rumor I'. 0., vtini.hu- county. W.y ID, 16M. 
Km [nits IjjUtUEIt: Having u moment of lei- 
sure, I now tuko this opportunity to apeak a 
word on tho subject of manures, na very little 
has boon said on that subject in tho FADUBn. 
Sirs, I deem it a matter of groat importance to 
nil (igrioullurists in this, us well ns in other 
Blntei, It is not reasonable to suppose that 
our lauds, howovor rich tboy may be at tho 
present lime, can producu for n number of years 
In succession. uulesH aided by manures of somo 
kind. In passing nround over various counties 
in this port of tho State, I nm satisfied that very 
fow farmer* maku any account of their manures; 
many of thorn, yes, I think it would bo safe to 
say thnt uino-tentha of them, nro in tho hnbit of 
burning their straw in the fall season, ao as tc 
avail themselves of the ground for another crop. 



Hugs on Vegetables— How to destroy the: 

Eoitors Farmer: I do believe 1 have found 
out something that may benefit somebody, 
seem to bo tho common enemy of all gardeners 
in this State, but as I nm not sufficiently ac- 
quainted wilh bugology lo give you tho proper 
mmo or pedigree of tho class to which I allude, 
I will give a brief description of them : They 
arc very small, dark green (nearly black) bugs, 
that make their appearance in millions in Ihi 
gardens or this section, and aro particularly de- 
structive, to young cabbages, and many other veg- 
etables. I have tried ashes, lime, tobacco juice, 
etc., without success, and have finally found out 
how to get rid of them easily, quickly, and cheap- 
ly. Take a broom or brush (I uso a common 
corn broom, and to encourage Homo Industry, I 
would recommend one of California growth and 
manufacture), in tho heat of the day, brush light- 
ly over tho plant on which they aro located ; Ihoy 
will immediately fall to tho ground, and If left 
otone, rise immediately and fly off; but OS Soon 

they fall, pass your broom lightly and quickly 

ar then;, which will cover them with Ihe hot 

dust, and It is astonishing lo see how easily they 

killed. Tboy had made great havoc among 

my cabbages and oilier vegetables, were iu mill- 

and seemed to he increasing daily, and In 

three days after I adopted the above plan thoy 

:ouip1ele1y destroyed. 

s method may be new, only lo me ; but If 
you think it worth a place In the l-'.n . ,. s(, 

your disposal. Very respectfully, 

Your ob't servant, Jaueb litjiinev. 



1 " ■ ':■■■■ ■■ I 

- ■ ..II! , io. ! !.■■■!■ I. ill 

l-r.' I all : '.I. 1 

idition, and having so far eianpcd th" En- 
ol the oriu-hupi'ors, i,-,. .,, „i.-.|, mm. 
cipato their advent this summer. Tho fruit 
trees bear appeiimuce.H of healtlifulnoss, und we 
will undoubtedly have a. largo yield. 

I receive your paper regularly, anil in thank- 
ing you for the information I rceeivo from its 
perusal, subscribe myself, dear sir, 

Yours truly, J. C. Bradixv. 

The seed- you wore kind enough to forward 
me from the Patent Office, have eomo up 
tely, mid hove far oseoedoil tnv imiitiputiiuui. 
hen they muturo, 1 will address you. J.C.B. 

Dim EiKB ,H,p. Vdlrrl, Mir «*, IBM 
Col. Waiuikn — Dear Sir : Your favor under 
date 21st Mny, did not reach me till to-day, and 
I hasten to reply. 
Tho grain crops iu our valley look vory well, 
far; perhaps, as a general thing, bettor than 
thoy did tins lime Inst year, which I think may 
ho in- nJ .."I for from being ear- 
lier scedod. Tho fruit far surpasses anything 
have over had, and promises nu abundant 
Id. Onr grass on lands (hatwero iiuinotosod 
t year, is much shorter than I over snw it in 
May, sinCO I have been in this vnlley. On the 
tuelosed tields kept up for mowing or posture, 
the crop will he belter, but 1 think not up to the 
irngo of last vear Yours, Iruly, 

J. M. Hamilton. 



PnoiTivi. Soil.— In gold regions the soil is 
gcueralh barren. A splendid exception, how- 
ever. Is presented hy the California mines. The 
contiii.incicKol farming en the plainsdonot scri- 
on.iy disturb llio certainty of a crop in these fool 
hilis. Everything planted here promises lha 
nost extraordinary returns. Wheat, barley and 
■ego tab I cs ore all of luxurious growth, ullording 
ihccring indications of a superabundant supply, 
or ourselves, of Die oeee.^ries of lire. Tho hills 
.re fertile to tho very tops, and are susceptible, 
.vithout irrigation, of proihu-in^ every year one 
luxuriant crop, llut the rieh valleys intervening, 
kept constantly moist by their position, teem wilh 
perennial fruits. A region like this, producing 
everything that ministers te the wants anil pleas- 
ures of man, may bo said truly to "flow wilh 
milk and hooey."— [So no ra Herald. 



Tl 



,RNIA FAKMEK 



California— Her Present and hoi Patwo. 

We must begin ni the fountain head, where 
else Mil we hope to purify the stream? The 
primitive simplicity of the family circle, must be 
restored, when lost. This can bodooo in no way 
bul by drawing the line of demarkalion so plain' 
ly that he that rnns may sec— the pure must be 
separated from the impure. By lh?8*eda ool 
mean that there shoi-ld he no iulorcourse will: 
those who arc trampling human and divine lam 
under their feet- Let those wishing lo elevate 
the tone o( moral sentiment, give the vicious lo 
underhand that until they give good evidence ol 
a thorough reform, they cannot be adn.i'.led i 1 
Ihcir social gatherings, or share in their me r 
makings; treat them kindly, persuade them 
choose the good and flee from the evil: w! 
they know 



Kill r. 






od, their 



they will 



devise and 
,o population 
shores. One 
erlo proposed 



and themselves. For we surely hope those who 
were really exemplary ciliwns in the- East, if 
fallen, may be reclaimed. The thousands of 
loafers lounging all about oor land should be 
compelled to engage in some honorable employ- 
ment, or be arrested ai vagrant* and sent to the 
workhouse. The/ree funcflw should be shut up 
by law; they arc the recruiting stations of i 
crdoni. Here they lounge, ond drink, and 
and wipe off their mustache with a borrowed 
"kerchief." Rid society of these dfon 
way, and a good beginning uill be made; and 
wo repeat, make them earn Ihcir bread, or they 
will be sure to cheat somebody out of it, I 
sick, they shoold be properly cared for, unli 
they are able to (am their living. Let the wfaok 
community set their faces against the whols 
swarm of loafers, and send them all to the work- 
house aud keep thcra there unless the y reform 
We have enough of the-* drums in L'alifomii 
to curse the whole Union; thoy add nothing tc 
the common stock of wealth, reputation or hap 
piness of the State; but ore eating up its sub 
srance. corrupting it* murals, and tarnishing ib 
fair name. As a general rule, these men will no 1 
be persuaded to reform -, the voice of the wboh 
community mui.t euforce tie wishes or We jntn 
anil the good. 

Citizens or California! Hove not these 
persons aided much in producing the state of 
things under which we arc groaning? They 
number thousands; from thtiii go furtb robbers, 
murderers, Ibievcjonu incendiaries. The presence 
of these men is like a contagion* ili-ease ; liI 
are afiaid U gg I :.r. fur fear .1 tin- (Irmiled 

laglbn. Ow M Eds from the Kast raedt them at I city ' 
i the whart.ever) before Uiey L,d. I0 W « frerolalso 

now in a p osptro-iis rntliliot'. s- • ■ rnijiit not feci (htir 
cubes very heavily, llul ntfw wu need all wislii 



ir midst, with a CO. 
it lose anything by lh 
Then shall we bo roll, 
carry out some p Ian by > 
may be induced to com. 
thing is certain, all the pi. 
bin proved abortive. Some .rfWely dincrent 
schema must be devised, by which our friends 
homo may and will bo ablo cheerfully lo ca- 
nto with us. 

Before presenting our plan we will briefly sl.te 
me questions sure lo be asked by persons pro- 
posing to come here to Beck new homes. 

What am 1 to gain in breaking up here, at a 
great sacrifice, and spending from twelve lo flf- 
hundred dollars in getting there— I am a 
farmer, where can I get land, and how ^ T have 
family used to society, can we have it there-? 
My family may ho sick, are there any pbysiciai 
n be procured 1 Can wo send our chi 
school? Will there bo churches who 
■ worship tho God of our fathers? A 
there roads hy which we may carry our surplus 
produce to market? 
These are serious questions, to bo satisfactorily 
iswercd, before we can hope to have our Easl- 
■u friends break up and come to our shores ; no 
matter whether there be a railroad or not, they 
omo unless they are satisfied on these 
points, and we must not mince the matter 
hut be frank and candid. Tbest questions are 
equally applicable lo the mechanieand merchant, 
indeed to all classes of our fellow citizens. 

Since wo wrote the last senlenje, the fearful 
tragdy at San Francisco has occurred. Does 
not add a terrible confirm mien II the riews e 



send two or threc.or mora children to a boarding 
school is ont of tho question, enough could not 
be made on the farm to pay their board and tur- 
many cases. Wo speak now of ihe mid- 
dling class, those who in a few years will by their 
en industry and enterprise become the thriving 
d wealthy farmers of the Slate- 
Furthermore, when tiie Sabbath comes, fam- 
es would like lo go up lo the house of God rand 
ere bend tho knee before the Son of the whole 
earth. They bavo been accustomed to Liu S..I- 
bath influences, and privileges and joys. They' 
tfreshing to the soul. Thereby! 
prepared tor the duties of the 1 



lot right ia saying 
that society must get rid of Ibis loafing, shoulder 
striking crew? The people are now doing ju- 
what wo have said they would bu coui|.e!lcil t 
do. If tho laws are not respected, it enfureed In 
tho proper officers, the people tkmsolves, the 
true source of power, must do tho itork. Calm- 
ly, wisely ami faithfully should it be perfonmd 
In some cases it may be necessary to apply tbi 
kniTc to the quivering muscles, lo save a limb, oi 
life. So in some desperate cases it may be neces 
sary to use harsh specifics in a community, ant 
remedies that will Ik sure and effective in ihei 

Every good citi7.cn in Hi 
ested in the work ofpurilk 



tho immigrants will add Ion fold more by their 
productive industry. Vour lands now are of no 
real value to you, unless you improve theta. You. 
surely must offer an great inducements lo the 
settler as they do in Minnesota, Kansas, Nebras- 
ka, and other territories east of tho mountains ; 
thoy should be much greater, because lb 
of coming here is much greater. 



e expense 



Letter bom the Mines. 



r. M. r 30 



e sweet ni 



they ai 



Dear Coloncl: I again embrace tho oppor- 
inity of .-.lying a few words in behalf ofoiir new. 
winning locality. The above place possesses 
■many advantages over other sections of the coun- 
Toobvialeall these difficulties, this proposition try, from the fact of gold being distributed 
is presented to the large landholders of our State, throughout the enlire hills, paying from the sur- 
Ofler at a low rate, five or ten thousand acres of face down a distance of one hundred feet, lo the 
laud, non- unproductive; inthe centre or this, bed rock. There are but fow claims that are 
donate five hundred or one thousand acres to thoroughly opened. Tho most prominent are 
those who purchase tho land offered for sale; give those of McKibbe .t McCoy, Palmer & Co., and 
each one purchasing a quarter section leu or ( two or three others. The former, perhaps, are 
i in the village that is lo be ; let this | pajing better than any, averaging from fifteen to 
accessible point, from which surplus I twenty -live hundred dollars per nock, with every 
iav be transported without any great .prospect of its paying better as they clear the hill 
■0 heavy expense. If there is no water away. Their chief expense ia the purchase of 
from springs or brooks, sink an Artesian well, at, water, which they use in largo qunnli ties. There 
a central point; lay out a town and plaui trees. j sn o doubt many of the hills will pay in like prc- 
Suppose it doea cost you a few thousand dollars, j portion, as they become opened. These claim; 



elayo 



tv dollar you thus expend will bo belter than 
it would on good security tit fi' 
mouth— if you are unwilling to Jo anything lo 
mako your lands attractive, you cannot expect 
purchasers will throng around you. Something 
else besides line land and beautiful prairies, is 
nt-ees.<irr for the comfort of men, women and 
children. You must throw out attractions, and 
inducements sufficient to draw to our shores, the 
men we need, or they will not come. Other 
Stales and other men do ( prescnt these 
and towns, cities and villages- spring up in every 
direction: Publish to the world what 



willing to do; employ 
of New York who is w 



u Krai 
They K 



It in 



hole Jtate 
- now commencing 
'pead all over 
these foul, 



hands lo lake hold and help; something 
done, and that quickly. Tho wheels of 
commerce are cither rolliog back, or breaking 
down ; our ships to a great cstent are rotting a 
our wharves; our markets are glutted with foi 
eigii good-; nearly all the money our inen-lkinl 
on raisv goes lo the East lo pay for goods tba 
Gil our storehouses, for which there is no sale 
high rates of storage must be paid; ouormoc 
rents are eating out the life-blood of the mci 
cbaoi. More goods are now in market than ca 
bo sold in years; we have overtraded, and ai 
doing it now. Every week some of our heavici 
merchants are going hy the board, every day w 
liave the old complaint of the scarcity of mono' 
every hour we see around us many sad evidences 



1,1st; .., rill*! 
.r will endure 



many si 
a general stagnation of business. Tho chan- 
nels of trade and commerce are open, but few 
outer them. Then we havoa/ia</iiaw. qbroatf 
our moral character is in had odor, in tho At- 
lantic States and in Europe — are not the causej 
r di(8oBllics traceable lo the foels aliovi 



rated 1 «Ve belie 



1 that n 






mid all 



that there is much reason lo fear, tliat these and 
other evil influences arc sapping the very founds- 

If this be the case, bare we not enough peoph 
here . I llnrcwenol more than conlribuu 
lo our permainni uml progressive well-being 
ft may he said that If those now hci 
lake bold and try lo huild up tho hi 
of the counlry, we might autl should be belter 
off. We admit ii ; but we must uke California 
as it is, and nol as it should be. Wv must d< 
the best we can with tho material wo nuw have 
elevate and purify the masses around u*, nud ihcn 
»e may invito all to come who may bo disposed 
» do so. The increase of our population uy ihv. 
steamers and over the Plains will be, of course 
very cousideiablo, without our making any osln 
efforts to bring them here. We must wort bard 
lo get those now heie in tho tight way, then «, 
•nay invite our friends lo tnUe up their .bode j, 



should go forth 

and county through the whole Pacific Sottst, to 
these thieving, ballot-hox-stuDiug, llel-ntious, stab- 
hing,5hootingknaves,lou_uit the Stale and territo- 
ry. If guilt in a tangible form can be fastened upon 
and punish them. FT no speciilt 
charge can be made against them, except la/incs 
and rascally vagrancy, give them one moicchanci 
me good and honest citizens; if they re 
illl a whip of scorpions drive them from 
tho land. Then will ihe bow of promise a-ain 
in our heavens— our golden shores will smilr. 
beauty, and rejoice in the purity of her popu. 
:ion, in the integrity, truthfulness, and perma- 
nency of her institutions. 

Then, and not till then can wo with confidence 
propose the following plan by which 
illy certain, a large population, would, with all 
heir wealth or intellect and labor, bejadded to 
w numbers. Premising, that the breaking up uf 
t family in the Atlantic Stales or in any country 
ocome hero or to emigrate to a now conn I rj, 
wikl I, ..ne of the most important events in its 
whole, history. Fow families can be found, will, 
lug to remove thousands of miles Into a stroma 



suitable man in the city 
II acquainted with Cali- 
id capabilities. To him 
niay Ibose wishing to come here apply, mid 
through him may orragemcnls often be made for 
companies to come oid llul without any one 
being obliged to come here to examine the land. 
Large landholders should adopt this plan, and 
publish it widely through the East. They should 
go further for the first fow years: When agents 
lor companies come and select a location— erect 
PA many houses as there may lie families in the 
■:>' my— in a cheap aud substantial manner, 
'1 il.rm fur the actual cost. We make- this 
.jpit; because now comers are sir) n-ci ■■ , .i 
i ,,, men wVuld elapse 1 beftn-o I y ' "' ' 
comfortable bouses. Besides, if tlie owner 
of the land should build lifleen, twenty, or fifty, 
ise might be. it could be done twenty 
cheaper, and give the Immigrant an in 
mediate home, without tho expense of going to 
hold. We have spoken uf a company. If our 
landholders are in earnest and really wish 
lo induce immigration here, and will pursue the 
if policy mentioned, large emigration com- 
panies will he formed in the Eastern Stales in 
ig in the same vicinity, 
join together some two or three, and agree to go 
California or elsewhere, if'they can get audi a 
mber as may be desirable, to join them. They 
ree to settle in a village or to build one them- 
selves, lo have their farms around them laid out 
thoy may think proper. They 
permit none of exceptionable character into their 
circle; thoy will have none but tho right kind of 
. for they are to be a community 
by themselves. Each lamily. distinct from all 



ipencd hy means or a tunnel being driven ti 
or three hundred foot through the solid rock. A 
deep shaft is then sunk from the lop of the hill lo 
connect with- tho tunnel in which the sluice Boies 
are laid, and through which the golden treasure 
runs. When a claim of tbis description becomes 
thoroughly opened, a man may generally depend 
upon a pretty good annuity for the remainder of 
his days. 

In reading many of the weekly papers pub- 
lished in your city, I find that you editors fall 
inlo a very croneous idea in regard to Ihe facility 
of making money in tiie mines, aud you would let 



loose the thousand- 
viir city, and tell them 
they 



i loafers that infest 
i go lo tho mines. If 
i occupation in a city 

- the livcrj ol 



Ural, to settle down 



with 






:ighbors wilhi 
good neighbors and friends,. 



The 

might be or that stamp, that, the h.-.U,, ''„,, 
agatn and seeking another home would k« «.«b.- 



be prefer- 
io family 



■..-(., 



■.-!i:i-l, (lie; 



m pecuniary i 

tliev rn'iv £.,, 



agree 



<> settle: 



Each family wish.- 
have good society 

to this < 

: above. 



alio lo remaining tli 
would bo willing to place themseivl, „■ „, 
Isolated position that thoy could not enjoy .„„- 
-least of.be comforts and pleasures of social 
c. Wo «««1 beings and as such reuuire 
society; families maybe siok.no physician Zl 
bo ound within ton or twenty miles iL 1Qfly bt 
an when found, the California prices, for vist 
^medicines, would soon devour the subslat^ 
ffraVT' I 'T "»««■«" P»licu!arly 

tf 6r from his reaidence ; thoy have children that 
must go to sohool-lmw can they he educated 
lliero may bo no sck-ool within many miles- lo 



ompact, by 
Thcy will 
«v JUlt to have a physician in their number, a 
teacher, and a minister; also several good me- 
chanics and artisaus-so that they can in a few 
weeks after arrival present all tho grand charac- 
teristics of a hustling and thriving village. 
Schools will bo commenced, a church built, tho 
habbath will be obscrvod,and socielv will 

its accustomed virtue and" dignity. It 
would be like taking a whole village up in lh 
1-st aud planling R upon our plains; their pu. 
its and interests separate, ciocpl so far as tli 
uagea aud eonncsies of good. well. regulated s. 
cioty may blend them. Whenever you are wil 
ing to do this, you may rest assured that in lei 
lhan twelve months you will find a village tbi 
nettled. Adopt Ihis or a similar plan, and you 
will soon bo able lo ,.,n j- our , and8 for ^^ 

SoTh m* ^ """«». «»* fr«n here to the 

"si, bui now returninc to enrich Ihe Stale ; and 



not seek after a 
whore the tastes aud habits 
thoy will not c 

miner and wield the weapon which tabor requires, 
This is nol the class of men that can develop Ihe 
hidden treasures of California. Their pur. nit, 
and desires run completely in another channel. 
Therefore, you hud better advise them lo stay 
where thoy are. These arc not the palmy days 
of 'I'.i or '50, when a man with hi.s pick no 
shovel could, in any place, scrape together two 
or three ounces or gold , and although there is aa 

■ I* ™ ■"*«■ gold than was ever laker , 

.any uiunti.s, aiiiitoinitinna' . 
of severe toil, before ho can reali/.e any hopes at 
making money. But, on the other hand, tho 
great advantage of mining now is the almost per- 
manent yield of his claim; whereas, in Iho 
i it was transient. Money and labor arc (be 
great essentials to the proper development of 
Id mine. If there is a class of mon that wo 
reuuire, send us your capitalists, for if one-half 
of them knew what great resources we possess, 
and what immense pecuniary advantages their 
capital would produce, thoy would not depend s 
meh upon tho rise and foil of city stock, lluctu 
:ion of trade, and many other risks, but oxpcn<t 
their money whore a profitable and porniauent 
m at all limes be made. Thousands 
lying Idle for the want of water; 
thousands of hills yet stand, and the gold slum- 
in their hollows, awaiting patiently theetout 
and Iron ncrveof tho minor; but labor with- 
out capital cannot accomplish much. There are 
many undertakings which v/ouid becomo of vast 
were capital at hand. The Yuba 
ixpeet in, every day. This will, it is 
supposed, yield u largo Interest to those thai own 
slock in It as well as prove an incalculable ad- 
it the golden 
treasures of Sebnstopol would remain untouched, 
and tho hundreds that are employed within 'ts^ 
ild have lo seek occupation in other dis- 
tricts. The town is fast springing up, and will 
rentuolly become an important place in tho 
ining history of California. Bailey A Co.s 
aims are supposed to ho oa rich as ouy in the 
dislrict.ond their owners arc looking forward with 
bright anticipations lo thai future that will re- 
ward them with laurels of patient ir 
[ler.-cvireuce. We hope then 
Francisco, l 



, r friends al 



whom 



iractting tho fair sex, for 

iw most devoted remcro- 

for wo shall be happy 



at all times lo record upon the pago oTei 
honor that Ihei I ine-.r, e uill eunfdr upon in 
miner's homo. Give our kind regards to them, 
and, with your permission. 1 will subscribe m 7 
self. Yours truly, LbB 



THE CAblFOKN 



FARMER. 




Red. Calved Onlobc-r 20th, 185-J. Bred by, | 
and property of, Samuel Tborae, ThornedaleJ 
Washington Hollow. Duchess Count)-, K. Y, ' 

ijotby Grand Duke f 10284); dam Fredericks j 
by UpsUrt (97(10). 



ROY A I. DUKE, 

At ten months old— Short Horn Bull. 

1. Feathers, by Duke of Cornwall (5947). 

2. Lily, bj : Fergus (3782), 

3. Purity, by Dandy (1902). 

4. Resplendent, by Elytho (797). 
5 , by Midas (-135). 



-, by Bongblon (DO). 
-, by Windsor (098). 
-. by R. Collings'.sonc 



uld be accepted 



Worse than Debt. which wu bare quoted" wouta 

Some of our renders (says the Working Fano-I literal fact Ly cent lemon of line broadcloth and 
tr) hate, doubtless, seen Mr. Beccbor's deserip- r ° sl livin E '» 'he citv. But we manage these 
lion of the spell under which the debtor lies, and ■ '^"^ ''""" in lhp counlr y. ,rUL,re Shylocks are 
his eaob'on to farmer, to avoid the fearful diletn- 
:o which so many business men are driven. 



To correct the vory erroneous position, that .._ 
fanner ran nlTord to pay interest on borowed 

capital, to be laid out in l!,o improvement of his I g£ tQe t M othcr 
.':■■- place to the following editorial (know how lo direct hi 



A. debt will prove a curse or a blessing accord- 
ing to the character of the debtor. If he his no 
knowledge of the use of moner, no skill in his 
business, it will prove his ruin.' Such a man has 
ltbing hut his labor to sell, and should there, 
■-ansae tic-n, But if he 
labor wisely, ami to 



best agricultural journals, The <"akc the labor of others profitable to himself, 
there is no good reason why he should not hire 
money to procure that labor, ami employ so much 
of it its ho can make profitable! H he want a 
farm on which to employ his own labor and tlisi 
of others, there is no good reason why b '■ 
rot-Warm upon one .....-' 



Honitsteul, of Hartford, Connecticut : 
From Mr. Bceher's pithy description of 



to he in debt, and every ordinary crop will pay 
the interest upon its cost vri"- - ' 
aniformity than any other 



Tho Beat Cattle. 
The following extracts' are from the corr 
pendente of the Report of the Paten I- Office 
1354: 

Mr. Lane, of Connecticut—'' I have consld 
able Ciptrk-ncc in ruL'.iti^ bnlli [he imported a 
lon.inori breeds ; jinl I think a i;ivoii iiui'nint 
food will produce mure mi al in the I i.irham III 
the common animal, or any other/' 
Mr. Mcndy. of Vermilli. m." Illinois—" We ho 
tho Dorhams in considerable numbers, and pi 



csof the Durhams with our common slock are 
considered heat for beef." 

Mr. Smool. Boone Court-Douse Va. — - 1 am of 
opinion that IheDnrhamscrosscd with the 'scrub 
cattle' are far better Tor this mountainous region 
than the full-blooded." 

Mr. Wharton, Egypt. Texas— : ' A few Durham 
hulls were brought jnlu Ibis vicinity from the 
Western States. I'm'., from the abundance of 
food, they soon became <» large and strong as to 
be dangerous lo our breeds, and were conse-' 
rpiently shot." 

State Reform School 

We take the nuncicd from the Now gugl J 

Farmer, published ut Boston, a most valuable 
laborer in the canee of Agriculture, and ;i paper 
llmt is convorsuhle with the value of snch an 
institution as the one mimed. We publish ii the 
tnoro readily to show how -in'li institutions an' 

estcemod whore their influi'tico is felt, nnd wo 
ask our reader* if thoy do uot believe some of 
tho hint* will apply in tho latitude of California. 
Wo sincerely hope before long to boo eomu al- 
lien paid to the science of Agriculture ill tho 
schools in this State, nt least to know thnt 
among the hooks laid before the mind.'- of youth, 
there shall be one thnt shall tench the elements 
of Agriculture. 

We give the origiind iirBolo and thu remarks 
if the editor of tho N. E. Gunner; nil excellent, 
and wr nay amen to them, and think a State* 
Reform School in our State would nave many a 
bright luil that 



.. til. 'Stole 



Mr. 



•■ blood 



■ i ;iii cliase ll a 



■ ,.,,. ,1,, 
The ti 



might 

' pCcuniari imleblc-d- 

i- ; ru.d the p. .-or wiei.-h nil, i Lai alrc.dy in- 
eun-.d Ibis obli-ilion miirhl a, well e-ive lir, in 
despair. Blisters, leell,. spiders. awl* bav 
tbistlcs, ore the ..line cnildcm:, thai shadow forth' 
U>>-> inception .if interest money. Then; i: 
some truth doubtless in ihi.s conception hot fa 
Wru poetry. Tho sentiment at the head of thj 
article is. no believe, aL variance, with fuels ii 
tic history of husbandry. We know of farmer 
Who have purchased farms upon credit, for the 
■hole or a nir, o! their purchase money, and yet 
a".-- gradually paid up and are now the owners 
of unincumbered property. Their gains have 
k*n slow but sure. They have supported tbi " 
ur.'ilie-siii comfort, base dueled their childr. 
»ad given them ]fl-itioiiso( wealth nnd influom 
Wd now in mature life, with tho prospect of 
twenty years before them, are in a position of pe- 
cuniary independence, that multitudes who have 
"moated lo the city might envy. They hove 
homes of their own, pleasant social relations 
■-"'■■1 religion, privilege.-,, and tho means of cdu- 
'■jiti-ii, lor their children and children's childien 
■Tow independence has heeu achieved by a not 
'tmarkobly skillful use of borrowed capital and 
Melt own industry. We have rarely known a 
'-'Jiirn client farmer of good habits to come to ac- 
tual bankruptcy, while nine out ol every ten who 
"" Jpilal in other pun-nits in our cities fail in 
business. The facts in tho ease are, that all the 
ordinary crops of the farm do pay interest money 
upon the toil they grow on, mid not only that, 
but pay tho principal too. If wo had tho facts 
Ollliocasc before u, we believe it would opp-ai 
that more iban ono-lialf of the owners of thi 
linns in tin, commonwealth have come into thcii 
!•-'.*. s sio n l,j incurring .lel.i. nhieh has beendis- 
•.birj.>-d or Is now in the process of liuuidniim 
Many of these owners are tho heirs of a portion 
"the old homestead, nnd have bought out the 
other heirs, nnd paid up by Ihe yearly prollts of 
(he farm. The ordinary crnps have carried the 
ourdenorsuL-isiinj;, : „,,| , ,li„:ating tho family, 
'lid tlia udditional burden of a large debt. 

The idea that it is not safe to uso borrowed 
M'.tai in husbandry as In other callings i, not 
Mrne out by the facts. W c believe it lo bo far 
'I'T. and .i here H is im-afe. it i-. ,,wiu h - lo .-.me- 
""ng worse Ibati debt. A farmer con generally 
'■"■-': whut capital he needs lor six por cent and 
<"> time to suit his convenience. Do is not put 
'; r ' I" tiles tu meet n payment at the end of thirty 
"•is, and obliged to pay the brokers of Wall 
"leet erehleen per cent for n sum to carry him 
O'er the present crisis. Ho knows nothing ol 
-'«■■■ eon. ulsiona that make men look so horribly 
"".« In our commercial metropolis. We ate in- 
c "ned to think the poetical dessriplion of debt tho farm 



oral ye: 



1 crj-'dit. To such ai 



telligcnt cultivator of the soil, who ki 
What to do with evcrv dollar ol his capital, (lobt 
it a greit ble.ssing. It is an indispensable means 
of his achieving comjieleiicc, and it is to-day one 
of tho great wants of our Connecticut fanners. 
W'c want more capital invested in good tools, ma- 
nures, barn sheds and cellars, stock, and labor. 
We believe it would ho a great blessing lo 



L.'- thiseomii 
juhle wilb c 






dollar 



thoy incurred debt, but that they 

made their investments in the wrong place. They 

sunk their capital in-lead ■_■( using it, Thoy have 

purchased large farms and not used a quarter of 

the land. If thoy have cultivated apart of lb 

firm . it lias not been done iu a thorough mane 

Fifty bushels of corn to tho acre will mnk 

man thrive, where seven ty- live to tho acre V 

make him a bankrupt. .Seventy -five lo the a 

II paj; better than lift v, and a hundred is 

thin the limit* of possibility, as wo shall hi 

casion la show from the records of our h 

balldry during the Inst year. 

man purchases a farm for ten thousand 
and uses but half of it, he has laxcs 
t lo pay upon fivo thousand dollars 
which be gets no equivalent. If be is 
amount in debt, and pursues a slovenly method 
of farming, interest will ml him up. He has un- 
dertaken mi enterprise too largo for his skill and 
capacity. Wo mUEt have more capital to work 
land with nnd skill to direct It. 

We hope then that none of the occupants of 

thu homestead will ho frightened by that big 

bugbear of Mr. Beeehcr, touching debt, Doht 

incurred to make your acres double their crops, 

will not prove a bed or Canada thistles, but or 

i. it will give you refreshing dreams 

thermometer is below noro. It will 

r cribs wilb solid euro, palpablo lo the 

fl your cellar* with roots and fill your 

' grain, coat the ribs of 



blood. In my opinion, it crw of lb 
.j 

tl 11 Lock, n ill 00 

Dairy." 

Mr. Boone, of Lebanon, Iowa— '' Crosse 
Durham with the common cattle have 
advantageous for beef, milk and labor." 

S, D. Martin, 1'ine Grove, Kentucky- 
Sh,.i t-l.nrn.-d cattle are the best forrnilk and be 
of any I have over had. I have owned sever. 
cows, each of which would give over thirty quar 
or milk a day, liningr" 
of cream. 1 always employ oien on my fa 
and have worked those of eve — L " 
arnong us. The Uercfords an 
id pull evenly. But they a 









is than 




prefer the Short-horns Tor 

the following reason. ; llicy ar,- gentle and docih 
e.isily broken in and managed, strong and Irueil 
pulling, are not vicious among othcr stock, and 
when tiii-y have been worked live or six ycai 
are easily lilted for the butcher, who will pay 
good price for them," 

Mr. Fuller, of Winthrop, Maine— " Wo have 
imported Durham, Hereford and Ay require, but 
grade Durhams have been [he must used among 
us, and have given ihe best satisfaction for milk, 
flesh and labor." 

Mr. Weston, of Bloom Held. Maine—" The Here- 
fords, Durhams and Ayresbires have been intro- 
duced, and their crosses upon our common stock 
hove succeeded well. Hereford cows arc Ihe lies' 
lilkcrsof the imported breeds; but our Ordinary 
jws arc as good milkers as any." 
Mr. Potter, of .Manchester, NV.v- UainpsJij re- 
in the valley ol the Menimu.'k pure lievonsore 
,ore generally bred than any other Wooded slock; 
ut I am inclined lo the opinion that they are 
becoming of less repute than formerly, f 
"" " ilninous region their si/c forbids 




■ted by tho best of fannnr.s 
ins— coining together not for t 



ligh Milan 



om 'which muel, i- lo l.,.h,.,.ed,'tlM. is'llie ..'r.e' 

Sl'UKI'TIIE PiOW. 

RomarkB.— Tin' writer of III" niiovi. is not oi.lr 
well acquainted with the institution and the 
farm of which ho spenks, but from an Qxtanfiire 
knowledgo and cmstant obgomtton of other 
forms in tlm State, knows what may bo UOOuili- 
plished ut the Stnto farm, under' a judicious 
manugnmont. 'Vhrtt is an opportunity to im- 
plant a lovo of (rural lit" that shall guide hun- 
dreds of these unfortunate boys through life in 
thu paths of usefulness and poaoo. Wo regard 
tho agricultural louchiugs there, properly di- 
rected, to ho of us much imnnrtance as the 
mural nnd educational in their schools, mill be- 
lieve our opinion would he sustained by the 

•a of all who have 



flli't-, it' the lives,,. id el 

loft the inn 



..,1,1 l.c 



profitable for tho 



l for 



eing 



(bat nsido froi 
their capacity rn milkers, which is a uioolc 
tint, Iheir iiserulio.ss lor labor, and their volu 
r beef, the Herons must fall behind several olht 

Mr. Rouse. Paris Hill, New York -" Crosses 
(ween the Durham and our common Stock 

lo make ll io best milkers; 



wbllo others think a cross with the Devoi 
jirefei-able. Cases by no men 
in which cows of what is usually term 



cilic. n 
o, ask- 






is the Vigilance Commiltee of Snu 

possiblo ol the people. The. toiroor the 
died the Com- 
.an independ- 
r organisation 
raok of life : 






Thoy area. 

I separate body; hutapopui 

i from every profession an- 

thoroughly nuilerstandand 

carry out thu will of the- people, 

iiorylhing, fortuni 






w.lLiill i,- 



turbed subsoil is worse than debt. 

d swamp cropped with alders iimiead ol 
potatoes', is worse ihnn debt. A yard bare of 
muck and manure is worse than debt. And final- 
ly a mind full of Ignorant prejudices against im- 
proved husbandry is a greal deal worse than 
debt. This Ignorance eats worse then interest 
money, lor it blinds its victim lo his peril, When 
freed from this incubus it can afford 



fat." 



i regard 



safety. 

luui' uiiuacuuu me people's 

"' !■' aoisiase. So far from being an irre- 

" ,r ". 1 " 1 ", 1 ; r -7 ;'; - 1 - ,,,k ■ l "" l - v ' "^ "" ; ' , "-' <<^ ' : -i -'»'■ 

;7" V ■'' 1 , , 1 1 "-""- 1 1-o.lj mlbcHorhlj f..r ibei, ,, „n d,,-l.e! of au- 

.rk in.) not be cqtially/rue.iihoHiv under which thev hid. U.eui-elv,- ,, i1„ v 
do wrong." 



r aptness I 



Mr. L'ollins, of Sodus, New York—" Wo prefer 
thellevous toaiiy other l.need; they are hardy and 
easily kept. The oxen are quick, active and do- 
cile, and tho cows are excellent inilkers.averagiiig 
two pounds of bultcraday,cach, with good Led. " 

Mr. Frunklin.ofCuba, Ohio— "The first crosl- 



Wb have huard of a man being too "hal 
htatlttl" to live wilb bis ivifo; but "u divorce 
was recently grnnled by ouo of tho courts of In 
dimm, where the .n.lv ..ll.-.-.iii.o, n-niu.sl the d<- 
fondnnt was f' -- ' ■ 
meet," to be 



THE CAL 



A FARMER. 



t\t California 



aACEiMEKTO, FETDAY, HAY 30, 1858. 



in ]i EICHAKGBB. 

We will foci very lnuch "Uii;i.'l i r l'n-:in 

with whom we exchange, if the-* "ill -lir. > i I 

-j? »( SAi'ii.'.nrvrii- -in-Mid <>l Sun Francisco. 



, AUOIT flUWIlMJ" 



nod [bom tbi- Cu.i "r.M. 

ditto CI" lt.!M:il...lL.i. 
otLniDJCGiEm.mioi;-.:, 



article worthy of publication, no awai- 
made. All communications as such to bo * 
disposal of lh« editor. Tho names « conli 
'tors will bo kept private when desired. 

Hero we have before us the title page or the 
Freedom of tho Press" in San Francisco. Two 
weeks from April 25th was to have been decided 
who was entitled to the prize. At Urn request of 
rrcspondonls. tho day was postponed (tro 
weeks more, and four wetkt from tho very day of 
announcement and on the day for tho decision of 
this monienioiu ouerfion, James King of Wm. t 
tho great expounder of tho Freedom of the Press, 

i borne to his grave. 

Ifo know hucauie— Uw " Freedom of the Fron"— 

Alone Muia aire Lbs ]*oplo f»m dllttUI. 

D« m taemffroanios Wth Ibe nopreiwr'a ml, 

And felt Ibis can" to bo— U» cause tf Gad. 

Hclcd lbs nn-ttw dingers hemmed bis my. 

Hlswoipon, Tbutu, no earthly pomr could stay. 



donor 'nil trouble; nod jr.u Ibu' ;\vc friend* md kladn 
aiyaopnf, neekly.ef Lalif.iniia nnJ her Homo feature 

The Fietdoiu of tho Press. 

Thousands in past years have claimed to be tho 
expounder! of doctioes set forth as tho pre-rcqui- 
sitc necessary to qualify ono to be capable of ad- 
Tocaliog and maintaining the Freedom of the 
Press. Thousands too have claimed to have won 
this noble title— few only have ever attained it, 
and but few indeed have ever maintained so (irm- 
ly and 60 consistently, and with so high a motive 
and so pure a character, this lofty position, as 
Janes King of Wm. 

U is indeed most singular and it will be easily 
remembered, that within tho month previous to 
his martyrdom, bo set forth and repeated in his 
paper those lofty purposes which ho first pro- 
claimed—the Freedom— tho Rights of a Free 
Press. He, in reiterating tho sentiments of his 
noble heart, asserted what he felt 
ipomibilitiei of a journalist, ond in doing this 
he desired to know and learn all [hat constituted 
orcauld add to the Freedom of the Press. 

Bold and fear!'; ■■-. yet riin-d'.-ntiuus in tho high 
purposes of his soul, he utters these words 
editorial of April 23th, as follows : 

'lumnsshouldBpe 



N-twiil,-' 



m with 



ii bra" 



» died re 






. nyrj life »nb martini blood. 
And thus, as it were, Heaven seemed to set its 
seal of approbation upon his labors, and to ac- 
cord to him the prize won by tho sacrifice of bis 
e— and on the very day or the award, the 
became the m'efor, and the voice of every 
true nnd noblo heart bears attestation that James 
King of William has given the best Essay on the 
Freedom of the Press ever prepared by man. 
ho has been called to his reward— hn 
has ceased from his labors and stands in thepres- 
tice— not of erring misguided man, but of the 
Lord of Lords," and tho '■ King of Kings." 
To those who now occupy the position of pub- 
lic journalists in our Stale, be has lelt a legacy 
richer than all the mines of our golden shores. 
To them ho has bequeathed his memory— made 
dear fur the cause he plead — for a cause for 
which he so readily offered up his life ; and well 
id, that upon the action of the pres- 
ent depends the well-being of the future of Call- 

Our lives— our fortunes— our instil o lions— our 
lines, are tu be purified by tho blood of tho 
artyred King. To tho Press of California, now 
ones upon every breeie, echoing frum ru-."j!il-iin 
i mountain, from valley to valley, and from city 
i city, this watchword— the " Freedom of the 
Press!" the " Freedom of the Press!" 



(Tu havo often called the attention of ourroad- 
■ to this wonderful grass. Itsvaluo isbut little 
iderstood, its merits but litllo appreciated. 
;ing of the eloper speciei, cultivators have per- 
illed it to grow too long, until the stalk 
arse and rank ; this is n great error. It should 
i cut often, say every three or four weeks, wbon 
about twelve or fourteen inches high, and cured 
shade; slightly wilted and then stacked 
up, that it mny heat a little, and dry without 
losing its goodness. Wo know of many persona 
who havo cut two, three, and oven a fourth crop 
this season. The Quintoy Ranch, at Marysville, 
crops, of which we hope soon 
very interesting data. F. Forman, 
tho Postmaster of this city, has had some 
tall grass; we noticed it wis four feet and n half 
high. This would make it coarse and uneatable. 
Let tho quality of this crop be belter under- 
stood, and the manner of cultivating and curing 
study, and our barren 
prairies will soon be verdant with living 
green, and our households bo all furnished with 
fresh butter and now cheese every monlh in tho 
year; for there is no species of food for dairy 
itpek that will equal tho Alfalfa, and to the ex- 
tensive cultivation of this most excellent grass 
wo look for tho securing a full supply of dairy 
roducls in coming years, that shall beetruaj, if 
at superior to that from any other part oT tho 



ally supported us to the present time, 
est citizen has ever feared nn attack from us. 
whilst those who were conscious of past miFcon- 
doclTiave ever trembled at each KuecCJLsiTe issue 
of our paper, lest in thai number their own mis- 
deeds might be exposed. We believe we speak 
but Ibe plain truth, when wo assert that the Bul- 
Itiin is the only public journal in this city that 
has over discharged it: duly t.j the public wrlh- 
oot fear of enemies or favor to friends. In our 
course wo have exercised to the fullest extent 
what wo consid'-r tu lj.; ihe rights of an Ameri 
can citizen, and have never shirked what w. 
deemed lo be tin- re if on-ilii lilies of a journnlisl 
No man can say that wealth has had the powc 
lo seduce, or ollicijl iio.vti- tin- terror to deter us 
from our doly. Wc have as editor spoken just 
what wo thought, as a man, and have been as free 
to express in print our viows of mcr 

In doing this, we havt but uttered the 
of all honest citizens. Our columns 
been freely opened to our opponents, a 
pirticolar our courso-bas as widely differed frum 
the other city papers as in some other points. 
For the purpose of arriving at a fair estimate o( 
the propriety of our course, and to define what 
may bo considered as the : ' rights of a 
Press," wc propose offering, for the iiej 
■oeekt. n reward for an essay on this topic, 
lustrntcd in tho course of tho Bulletin," 

Thus we see in the above, all tho proof neces- 
«ary of a high and trothful purpose, and in order 
loEccnrc lo himself nil the aid possible, and the 
light or every gifted *nind, ho proposed for the 
essays upon tho subject ho bad so much at heart, 
Mighty and strong as was his own mind, clear 

earnestly desired lonvail himself of all ond every- 
thing that should aid and strengthen his purposes 

The very tone of thi 
proves his purpose. lie was to judge himself 
the essay— ho must havo tho clear conviction of 
bis own mind and conscience that these cssayi 
were what they professed to be—clear from all 
(Ophlstry and selfish motives, that they 
deed tho result of a careful study of the subject, 
and the issues of a free mind and lofty 

Hero is Iho prize offering of James King of 
Williar 



Death of SIacv. — With deep regret wo an- 
iuuco the death of Cnpt. J. E. Mnoy, of thi 
kinging limisv n|" Mucy, Loir & (Jo., nf Marys- 
■Ulo; ho died May'IBtb, aged forty-four yours 
GspUHoey was r.iooue; tin- early pionDfirtW 
19. Wo knew him well, our first trip up tflc 
■aornmeuto was in tho vessel under his com- 
annd. Wc hnvo been tho recipient of many, 
cry many acts of courtesies and liinuncBi nl 
is hands. UniverHolly esteemed ns a man, of 
.nidi' riml gfiii-rmia im|ii]l~e~, upright in 
nd character, his loss will fall heavily upu 
ajmmuniry; i it will mnke n void thnt cnmi 
tilled. Death takes many from our midst, 
denly they leave us, but wo do not seem i 
their loss; but such men as CnpL Mnoy "mako 
n mnrk upon the nge in which they lire ;" uud 
though they "pass owny," thoy livo after death, 
embalmed in tho memory of tho noble, generous 
nnd good. 



"A Free Prat.— For tho boat article in favor 
of tho Freedom of tho Press, as claimed and used 
by tho Bulletin wc offer the sum of Ono Hun- 
dred Dollars, "and lor the best article against that 
freedom as exercised by us, we will pay Iho sum 
of Fifty Dollars. The award of both priws to 
be mido by Iho editor; and should be deem no* said of 



Physician to the Stockton Aby 
see it staled that Ihe change recently made by 
removing Dr. Reed, Physician to tho Stockton 
Asylum, has been declared illegal and 
is indeed most unfortunale for such in 
when questions arc humanity, no: politics, that 
party spirit should ever he brought lo bear or to 
iffeel the standing of tho guardians of Ihe health 
ind reason of iho distressed of ooi 
have nothing to do with [arty politics; but this 
ice do knoa, that when we visited this institution 
last year, wo felt convinced that our State was 
fortunate lo have for tho post of physician, a gen- 
scholar, a mon of large humanity, as 
io skilled in his appropriate science. 
Tho removal of such mon Is a public loss. 

Iiil'iWYED.— Our renders will notice tho im- 
proved appearance of our paper this week. 
owing to goodprus-uwri, nnd wo take pleasure 
in elating that tho Union steam, proasoa are 
entitled to the oredit. We havo endeavored, 
but not alwnys saeooeafully, to hnvo 
work well oxeouted. As wo havo 
arrangements to havo it done at tho Union 
office, where thoy employ gBO d wrkmen, 
know tbnt for tho future we can depend upon 
ita being well dor" 
"Wndini 



The Prospect of tho Flour Market. 

To every ono conversant with tho stock of 
Flour on hand at this moment — more '■ 
OOO barrels— it is apparent that wo havo enough 
to carry us lo September, nnd wo need not fear 
famine prices, however speculators may 

Wheat and Flour, too, will como from Oregon, 

jond the expectations of any«3ealer. 

If those who try to control tho market arc sc 

rlain of high prices, why do they ship lo Aus- 
tralia— a falling market— and why delay shipping 
if they ship at all? The Australian 
market, before it could reach there, would be 
lower than our own. 

Another fact— Flour can be placed here this 
fall, from Now York, at $6 50 to S7 Iho barrel. 
Seed we fear high prices long 1 

Holders of Flour— look out for next stearaor- 
day! Have you prepared for tho prico then? 

New Morning Paper. — The daily "True 
C;ilift.riiian " has made ils debut, and most cred- 
■■ '■■■■:■:.{ iho Chronicle, of clear 
type and print, it presents a handsome typo- 
graphical appearance. The editorials and selected 
natter prove that tho management of this journal 
ji in i-xcclleiil hands-, Wc rejoice lo nolo 1 
editorial of May 20, lliaf Ibis paper refuses 
:uti-cllii.'iefi'j/ni'(iin[u«/ t ![((/?vr[ii ( meats lhatninko 
i paper unfit lo he found in the family circle. In 
.he same spirit wc hope thoy will also excludt 
police reports and other matter that ponder 
depraved appetitte. Such has been our aim ft 
Ihe first of our journal, and wo mean ever lo 1, 

i men of business ore K. Conner & Co. 
The editors and publishers are Messrs W. H, 
Rhodes, Esq. (known ns "Caxton"), E. Conner, 
Esq., formerly of the Alls, and tho Messrs. Bart- 
lelt, late of the Evening News— thus giving 
this paper a combination of influence and talent 
lhat insures success. Most sincerely d 
an abundant prosperity to our friends of the 
'■ True Californinn." 



Tho B enrols. Seminary. 

most excellent institution, undor tho di- 
rection and proprietorship of Miss Atkins, is 
ionlng its way steadily to that deserved popu- 
rity to which it is entitled for its real merits. 
We Icam that tho Examinations, usual at the 
dose of a term, will take place on tho 13th June. 
Having been present at several examinations or 
this Academy, we only express the opinion of 
hundreds of the friends or Education who hato 
been present in past terms, that it will bo an cs- 
ibitioo of more than ordinary interest. The 
;op interest manifcsled by tho young Indies in 
their studies, their rapid advance in knowledge, 
and tho thorough manner in which they arc 
taughl in ovary department, from Iho plain Eng- 
lish studies to tho higher branches of scientific 
and polite literature, languages and music, render 
this Academy one of more than ordinary interest 
State, and should receive from parents. 
who desire to havo tlioir daughters educated as 
daughters should be, their special attention. 

At the time of theso Examinations, some inter- 
esting exhibitions of taste and genius of the 
School, suoh as recitations, music, tableau, etc., 
ill bo had in public, the proceeds of which will 
to increase the Library and belter furnish tho 
Institution. Wc sincerely hope an appreciating; 
public, the friends of education, will remember 
inn, and give it their countenance and 
support. As some evidence of tho ability of the 
mg ladies, wc copy from the Solnno Herald a 
sketch, taken from Tho Wreath, a manuscript 
newspaper published at the Seminary, and con- 
ducted entirely by the pupils. In this little 
journal wo often find gems of the heart, beautiful 
thoughts, and most excellent comforters, upon 
ous subjects. The following wc copy, that 
readers may judge: 

The Happy Heart." — Amid the jewels of 
nature's casket scarce do wo Bod bo pure and 
bright a gem ns "a happy heart;" onu eser joyful 
the sunshine of youth, and 'mid tho clouds or 
ago, never failing to add to the fount of joyous- 
ncss — one that cheers tho countenance or despair, 
and brightens the cyo of sadness. A heart that 
above tho changing tide of fortune, nnd 
n tho wings of happiness passes o'er life's 
l; a heart free from sin, unblemished, pure 
and happy. Whatgem more precious; what gift 
more worthy of treasure 7 for 'tis Heaven's first 
token bestowed upon us, in tho innocence of early 
childhood. And how many arc there, who, as 
they proceed upon life's journey and mingle in 
its strife, forgol to treasure tlioir happy youthful 
heart, and soon callous it with deeds of sin, and 
o sink beneath ihe ocean of despair, 
i be lost. Why not rather cherish a 
elju.ii.il (pint, ili.il lifdjlans our burden; and 
renders our earthly home ono of happiness. A 
oyous heart attracts lliu Inendihip and esteem 
f those around u>-, gaining fur us fund compau- 
nnsi adding beauty i.j,x[irt:s-iim; lightening the 
downcast eye; lending u winning smile to the 
countenance, anil ihriiugli nil beams the bright- 
n happy heart." Then let us, white in 
ig time ol life, seek for, and treasure a 
boon so precious, so that when age comes to meet 

lown by the heaviness' or iho way," but 
cheerful spirit and ' - a happy heart" wo 
may pass joyfully onward in life's pilgrimage, 
J "" lenglh reach a homo of eternal happiness. 



Kikq's Bulletin.— Tho Bulletin will still 
tain the name that has inado it so esteemed ; 
will still bo '-King's" Bulletin. The mantle of 
the lamented martyr has fallen upon his brother, 
gratifying lo find that ho feels tho 
itlo lies in tho purity and excel- 
of character which his brother possessed, 
mdest yet firm and dignified 
which Iho brother assumes the editorial chair, 
of his first essay to the public, givi 
a sincerity and honesty of purposj 
Most cordially di 



Jaluo of lhat m 



and the It 



forget" those kind words of 
'd and colemporary of tho Spirit of the Ago 
*ltl remember, and try to deserve all that is 
-"--journal. 



Mm. FARKUAHi.-Thls lady, whose efforts .„ 
enlighten have been attended with much good In 
many places, yet whoso labors hi 
varied success, is 
fortune in Sicn 



aucb belloi 



county. The mnui.i ■„„ I,.,, 
-..always gallant, and we are certainly pleased 
to know that there the lad, Is not misropresent- 
eu, as .s too often tho case, by those who doli-hl 
to diaiort and slander. If the cause the lady ad- 
vocates .s based upon reason and sound philoso- 
Phj, opposition and misrepresentation will not 
prevent thespread of her doctrines 



AcKNOWLOEQEiiENTM.— Amid the hurry and 
bustle, the excitement and duties of the past 
week, wc may hnvo omitted to note many acts 

courtesy, and several contributions for which 
havo been indebted. 

Ye received a parcel of Magazines from 

Messrs. E. E. Griggs &■ Co., of Sacramento, for 

which thoy havo our thanks. To J. W.Sullivan 

id M. Ullman, far furnishing us libomlly with 

pors per steomcr, nnd also extras of Letter 
Sheets and Papers relative to tho exciting times, 
for our Boston o flice, for which we lender to both 
gentlemen our grateful acknowledgements. 

A dish of viry handsome cherries was sent lo 

r office by Gen. Hutchinson, of Sacramento. 
This first ripe, we believe, in our valley. 

To our friends East wo are also indebted for 
Books, Magazines, Music, Outs and Plates. All 
shall bo duly noted end reported on. 

To 0. S. Wainwrighl, Esq.. ol " Tho Meadow's 
Parm," Duchess county, N. Y., Tor valuable cat- 
alogues orhis splendid Devon Stock. From this 
ire shall make copious notes. 

Was* 



Boston, remember tho 
Araoricau House" ond the " Parker House." 
These ore homes for our returning friends ; and 
wo learn from our corresponding editor, that the 
Improvements now making are in keeping witu 
this noble oily. It is seven and a-hatf years, 
nearly, since we trod its happy streets. Wo hope 
to call one of those days upon mine host of the 
""- American, and enjoy his """ 



Parker o 






nd good things. Such hotels a 






THE CAL1JF0R 



AKMER. 



California Railroad*. 
The beginning of tho groat lint of mil roads 
ilj.n shall cross, re-cross, divido and 
State hereafter, by links of iron, is tlio- " Sacra; 
mento Valley Railroad," now prosperously win- 
ning its way, >]">■ by ''fv. in public estimation 
and favor, and by the aid of Iho gentlemanly and 
Tcry efficient superintendent, J. P. Robinson, 
Esq., winning also good dividends. 

Wo recently enjoyed a pleasant trip to Folsom, 
and experienced the kind courtesy of our friend 
Mr. Gamble, the conductor, who hns the faculty of 
making every body enjoy the trip. Wo enjoyed 
greatly the beautiful scenery, and saw much that 
was interesting, an account of which we reserve 
for a special occasion. 

Alluding to tho Sacramento Valley Railroad 
wo Qnd the following in tho American Railway 
Guide, published at Now York, by Dinsmore A 
Co., a valuable record of all the railways 
United States, with tha tablo of distances from 
place to place, stoppings, passages, ice.; a valuabli 
traveling companion, and should bo obtained by 
ercry Californinn returning to tho States. Hero 
is the item : 

Sacramento Valley Railhoao— T. D. Ju- 
dab, Chief Engineer. This Road commences at 
tho foot of It. street and the Levee, and runs or 
the southern side of the American river, twenty- 
two miles to Folsom. and tbenco crossing thi 
river above - Negro Bar," by a single sp.in of 
two huDdred feet, and one hundred feet above tht 
stream, is intended to skirt the foot hills tht 
entire length of the valley. The first division il 
completed and in operation, being tho Drat iror 
way opened in California. 

Thus wc see we are now heralded to tho world 
as having begun tho great work — not to be laid 
down or ceased until the old States arc closely 
linked to us by tbo iron bands of the great Pi 
cific Railroad. 



Interesting about Sacbakrkto.— Sacrn- 
Bonds all 0. K. It is with pleasure we learn 
that tho money will go promptly forward, to 
pay tho interest on the Bonds doo July 1st: 
negotiation having boon made with tho House 
of Wells, Fargo & Co., for 11 loan to our oityof 
sixty-four thousand dollars, at 2d per cent, for 
six months. Although a big interest to pay, 
is far bettor than to foil to moot tbo intori 
promptly. 

Tbo Donation Fund for tho Widow and chil- 
dren of tho lamented King, has approximated 
to tbroo thousand dollars. Ono hundred and 
seventy oigbt dollars wore received from tht 
Sooromonto Theater, on a benefit 
week, got up for tho widow. 



rntely determined 
or external 
no sho will continue 
a brief introductory 
ious raooHofCnttlo 



New Hotel on Fourth Street, Sac rami 
to.— The u Queen City or tbo Prairies" will bo 
seen to keep up with tho '.' progress of the: nge.' 
The foundation of a large and splendid hotel i 
being laid on Fourth street, between J and K ; i 
is said that it will be tbo most splendid hotel 01 
the Pacific coast. We hear it is under tho direo 
lion or "mine host" of tbo Dawson— he under 
stands it. II being in tho neighborhood of tht 
Stato Society's rooms, we shall watch its advance 
with intercut and report progress. 

Sacramento is in a healthy state, both in refer- 
ence to business improvements, social lira and 
happiness, flno gardens, clean streets, happy 
hearts, cheerful countenances, and tbo fines 
male in the world ; the people aro contented and 
happy. 



Thidd Street.— Strangers, rise early when 
you aio in the " Lotco City," and take yoor 
morning walk down Third street and in thi 
neighborhood, nnd you wilt not .soon forget ot 
beautiful city, but wish to become a resident > 
it. Sac ramen tons—" Go and do likewise" an 
you will learn to love your city bolter, and 6 
more to advance all her interests. 



A Cap 



—Railroad Hotel ond Restaurant, San 

Francisco, May 25, 1850.— The gross receipts of 
our establishment to-day huso been §4110 48, 
Which ntnount is ..'hecrkili,- donated to the widow 
ond orphan children of James King of Wm. 
Had the weather been more lavorablo tho amount 
would have been largely Increased. 

Haley &. Thompson. 
Tbo above tells well for the liberality of tht 
proprietors of this Hno Hotel. Tho piano is 
worthy n look inside at meal times. 



County Seat or Sutter.— Tho Marysvillo 
Express says that the following is tho voto of 
Sutter county, cast on tho lSlh inst., for tho loca- 
tion of tho county scat of saidcounty: For Yuba 
Oily 408, Nicolouus 103 scattering IB ; majority 
for Yuba Oily 271. Tno Board or Supervisors 
of said county, on tho 21th inst. declared Yuba 
t-ity to bo the County Seat, and ordered that tho 
archives, 4c, bo removed to that place on tho 10th 
of Juno next. I 



Literary Notices. 
Experimental Researches on the Pood .„ 

Animals, and tlir. Fattening of Cattle, irith 
remarks on the Food of Man : By Robert 
Dundos Thompson, M. D. Published by C. 
M. Snxton St, Co., Now York : 
The work is based on an extensive series ol 
oxporimonts which woro mado at tho tnstanoo 
of tho Govornmout. Tho object was to deter- 
mine tho rolutivo influence of barley and tnalt 
in feeding cntllo, but as tbo opportunity seomod 
a favorablo ono for investigating soma scientific 
problems of great importance to physiology, and 
of oxlremo value in the physical management of 
man and animals, advantage was taken of it, by 
permission, to extend tha experiment so as to 
inoludo thoso objects. Tho work is essential to 
■ecy farmer, and should bo atteutively perused, 
for tho subject is a deop ono, and is carefully 
discussed in tho present volume. 
A TitEATiSE ON Mit.cn Cows: By M. Franois 
Guenou, of Libnurno, Franco. With intro- 
ductory remarks and observations on tbo Cow 
and Dairy, by John L. Skinner. Published 
by C. M. Snxton & Co., Now York 
This is a now edition of n valuable treatise, 
whoroby tho quality nnd quantity of milk which 
any cow will give may boaot 
by observing natural marks 
tions alone, tho length of tie 

milk., etc, as wol 
sketches descriptive of \ 

of Dairy munngemont, nnd son 
tbo diseases to which Cows and Calves aro 
Sally liable. This edition has also bean 
ived by tho addition of an intoreirtiiig Kssny 
.Spai/in-; Mii-h Coirs, with tho modo of opo- 

AonicDLTonE Ann Rdsal Economy— from per- 
sonal observations ; by Henry Coleman, honor- 
ary member of the Royal Agricultural Society 
of England, or the National Agric"" 
cfety of France and of tho Nation 
turn! Society of the United .Stales- 
by Philipps Sampson & Co. Boston 
Tbo merits of the above volutr.e,aro well known 
to the whole agricultural world, it having already 
passed through five idilions. Tbo work is 

COlhvncOUB and full OF practical inl alien 

value, embracing evorythiog connected with tho 
cultivation or the firth, the Improvements going 
on in Agriculture, as well as ov^ry branch of 
husbandry, and rural and domestic economy. 
Tho engravings of stock, &c, arc numerous and 
well executed, and add greatly to tho value of 
the work. There is no subject that demands tho 
ultontion of the political economist, the elate-, 
man and the philanthropist, in its social, politi- 
cal, and moral bearings, and in its connection 
with the progress ol civilization, mora ihan the 
improvement or Agriculture; and tho author 
hopes the work will do good by tho information 
which il communicates. *It must do great good 
lling tho attention of the people to this great 
Important subject, which is of such essential 
est to tho whole community. 
The Courtesies cr Weoneo Lipb— by Mrs. 
M-sdeline Leslie ; poblirihe'l by Shopard, Clark 
& Co., Boston: 
This is indeed a book for tht 
aro rejoiced to perceive thot it goes with a rush, 
Jive thousand copies being sold on the week of 
publication. It is a faithful exhibition of iho 
re^oon.-ihilitits jhj.i.1 [irivik-^es, of tho trials and 
wards, of llit reciprocal n flections and duties, 
and of the pure and blissful ends of wedlock. 
Its stylo 'is natural and beautiful, conformed in 
ispocls to tha best standards, its characters 
scenes sketched with distinguished ability, 
rising in interest from the first page to tho last 
d leaving on the minds of its readers 
•ns deep nnd most salutary. It is a p: 
domestic life of surpassing interest, 
cordially commend it to our readers. II should 
incd and ra-oxamined by ovoiy husband 
and wifo, and by all wbo expect I 
and who would multiply tho joys 
of wedded life. The publishers, who have 
tho best style, are particularly fortun 
ag it so early in this leap year. May its 
ion and ministrations be especially success- 
ful among all now living in single blessedness, 
rendering them before the close of tho year, still 
ore blessed in the bauns of holv wedlock ! 

Dn Quihcet. 

LITE It A It V ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

H. Long & Brother, publishers, New York, 
have in press and will soon publish tbo foltuwing 

Tub Wanderer, a Tale of Life's Yioissi- 
tudos : by tho author of tho Wntabman, ota. A 



s style is lively, nnd its 

l J. Tho unbounded popularity of tho 

\Y... ..a will cause Hie Wanderer to have nn 
immc.oo sale — tho first edition having boon sold 
in advance. 

Tim Ship Carpenter's Family : by Wm. 
E. S. Whitman. This is ono of those highly in- 
teresting narratives whioh necessarily toko a 
strong; bold of tbo popular mind. It shows how 
honest, patient and unwearied industry is 
ofsuooossat last, in this country, whore, 
baps, labor holds n nobler position than it 
any other land. Tho work describes thi 
t.-jup trials nnd disappointments to which tbo 
Imuii'k' M.:.Tli,ir,i,- i~ -.liIij.-.i,.,! who has a largo 
tainily dependent upon him for support, 
book will bo road with interest, and wc 
mend it to all. Published by it. Lung .^ 

Important Post Offlco News. 
We publish the annexed article, in full, for the 
public good, for wu feel that every facility that 
to tbo hardy Minor, to tho Ranchoro 



and Farmer f and to every dweller in our widely 
extended State, by which ho can communica 
with ''home and friends," and they with hii 
will result in good to all ; and wo hope tho 
article will bo preserved nnd regarded : 

MAILING LETTERS FOIt CALIFORNIA. 
An Important Auxiliary to the United States 
Mail Service for the Pacific— -By nn net of 
Congress, approved on tin. third day of March, 
lM;t, th(i Fos I master General was authorized tr 
mnko suoh arrangements as bo might deom ad- 
visable to insure, as for as possihle. the dclivery 
of letters sent by mail from tha Atlantic States 
to California and Oregon to tho individuals to 
whom thoy may he directed; and wo aro grati- 
fied to loam from tho subjoined circular, that 
the purpose thus held in view is about to be uc- 

1 [>!i:i|]i-d in what appears to us to bo a safe, 

prompt, judicious and responsible mannor. II 
proper to state, ulso, that this enteqjrisD 
nendod liy tbo Senator now hero from 
California,' by both tho Representatives from 
that Stato, and by tin: delegates ia Congress 
From Oregon and Washington Territories. Tho 
of this enterprise will bo appreciated 
uto that of tho letters sent to Co'" 
forma during tho eutiro year, nearly one-si: 
have Wen returned to the deud-letter niiiee. 
[Nation nl Iutolligcnoor. 



must not bo pasted to tho cards, but simply in- 
closed with them. In Iho ahsonco of postnga 
stamps, three-cent coins may bo substituted. 

It is believed that this oircutar has been 
drawn up so explicitly as lo require no explana- 
tion; but should this prove not to bo tho case, 
postmasters will take notice that all interrogato- 
ries must bo addr.'-vi .1 i., id., r.niiiu MailList, 
New York, and not lo thu Department 

\S" Tho first of this series of lists will ao- 
oompony tho mail of Mny 5 th, and will ho for- 
warded by each suoceoding mail. 

Oliver Evans Woods. 



! 



t OrriCE Sjepa 



Mr. Woods has my authority to put his plan, 
above, in operation, hut no responsibility is 
assumed by tho Department; and all correspon- 
dence in regard to tins arrangement must be ad- 
dressed to the '• Pacific Mail List," Now York. 
That the public may avail Itself of tho advan- 
tages thus offered, Postmasters aro requested to 
give this circular a conspicuous place in their 
respective offices. 

James Cajipiibll, Postmaster General. 

Wu 



To Persons Mailing Letters far California 

Ike Territories of Oregon and Waihingti 

Thousands of lottors sent to the Pacific i_. ._ 

come dead letters. To remedy Ibis evil, tbo 

Post Office Department, under tho authority o" 

Congress, bus ndiiuti'd, ns an auxiliary to it 

openilii.ns, the t'.'ll'.n'iu^ nli.n fur :.iiiiultnne>]U8 

Iv [.iiiili-liing at each and ovorv post officii it 

''lo I'oeific region, in a ]\* lied tbo " Pooifii 

(nil List," the name of persons t... whom h.'lter.- 

avo beon sent bv mail to post offices in L'ali- 

.rniu and the Territories of I rrcg.ni and Wash- 

igton. By this system u lottcr mny bo sent to 

iy |u>*l ..(lice in the I'liciiic region lor u person 

hose locution is unknown, tnvc tlio mere tact 

that ho is somewhere in Culiloriiin or tho Torri- 

of Oregon and Washington ; yet if tho 

letter bo published in the "Pacific Mail List," 

"* ultimate recaption by tho person for ivhom 

it is intended will be rendered highly probable. 

To enable those who may desire to oxtend I 

their I'm ilie corre.|.oniliTil.n tic ioUooi.ii;i» (hi 

offorod, tho following illustration is given : 

Suppose ij is wished to send to the Sm>n 
mento post office, a letter fur George Wilsoi 
who ■■migrnti.'d lo Culiforoin from I'ike county. 
Missouri, but It is feared tlnit ho may have 
changed his location, and hence may not receive 
tha letter. In this easo direct tlio loiter to 
George Wilson (lnl<- of l'ike county, Missouri), 
.Siioremcnto, l.jdi fornin. Then, ia order to pttb- 
lialt tho letter ia tbo '■ Pacific Mail List," copy 
Iho address of tho lottor upon n pieco of paper 
' curd, and inclose thu card, together with r 
reo-oont postage stamp, in uu envelop, and di 
ot tho envclnp to tho 

Deposit thu letter, as usual, in tho mail for 
California, nnd at thu same time drop tbo 
■clop containing the cur.) lo |uihlish tho lotlor 
a the mail for iNew York. From tbo uddr 
in the card thus received at the New York I' 
Office, tbo name (I Jorge Wilson) will be ont 

printo place in Iho " Pacific Mail 
List," which list is prialed and sent by euoli 

eouh ond every postmaster in I .'uhlorni 
nnd tho Territories oI'Driigon mid WilhIuokIoi 
and by them posted in a coiiHj.ii'uoua pluue i 
their respective offices. The list buing thus 
distributed over the entire Pacific region, George 
Wilson may at ouoc leurn from it that a letter 
boon sent to the Sacramento Post Office. 

letter, for the address on it points out that it is 
' .tended for Scorge Wilson, lata of Piko coun- 
ty, Missouri. Thus many lottors will bo re- 
ceived lliut would olio mi, a lie Ifiiliniiulfod lu 
Iho Doad Lotlor Office. 

Tho envelops containing the advertising 



cards BOnt to tho " Pacific Mail List." Now 
York, pay postage liku ordinary mutter, and 
must be pre-paid. Tbo addresses of lottors 
I copied en tho pieces of nnoor ■■: dinU should 
talo of real lib, every moidont having como tin. bo l wriHeo m H ' pkin , ^ Sattt lnttmluc . Th „ 

tho author's observation. Itis crowded with thrcu-oont postage stomps inolosod ia tho ca- 
oirounutanaos of tho most vivid and startling 'rolops defruy tho expenses of publication, and 



a Hat 7 — Protection rs. Comfort. 
Wo always like to avoid personalities, and wo 
think wo stand shielded from them by Iho po- 
,o assumed, that wo prefer peace to 
don't know what would liavo beon 
tho ooDsequcnoo of a personal rencounter wo 
;th a friend, n fow days sinao. Meeting 
Saoramenlo friend tho other day, ho in- 
vited us to call at his placo of business a Tow 
moments; wo did so, wh on tho first salutation 
was, our hat (rather iho worso for wear) was off 
onr head. Now, ordinarily, in these times, 
peoplo resent suoh a matter; but our hat was 
knocked off so goutly, thnt before wo oould ro- 
sont it, it wns replaced by ono of netccr style — 
and always ready to forgive, wo oonoludod it 
was best to lot tho mnttor pass. Simply tolling 
our friends that if thoy wish to resent thifl 
matter, thoy can go to Collins Sc Co.'s famous 
hat store, on J street, in this oity, nnd — and — 
well, in spite of what wo have bad to — to — en- 
joy by our now hat, friend Collins will try to 
pleoso them. However hard me may be to 
please, as ho pleases every body else, it must 
that if wo complain, wo aro bard to ploaso. 

DorPEE and its Substitutbs The Agri- 

tural Bureau at Washington, bos roooivod a 

nmuojcatioii from Maine, with six kernels of 

tho Coffoe, said to have been raised in that 

State. Tho National Inteliigoacor states : 

Tbo six koraoh. sent to the Commission of Pa- 

vitlr tho uho., i. loiiiiicaiioLi, hove beon 

led by competent judges, and pronoutiood 
, lies of vicia, very closely resembling tho 
English Windsor bean, but smaller uud rounder. 
It may bo a, plant of easy culture, prolific, and 
good substitute for ooffeo. Experiments will 
a mado for tho use c r tain men t of tboso facts, 
lit substitutes for ooffeo aro numerous ond 
abundant. By Some (hickory is preferred, by 
many it is regarded us desirable when mixed 
with coffee. It is well kuuwn io bo Yastly 
obonper thun coffee. But wheat, rye, barloy, 
boons, pens, potatoes, pumpkins, carrots, bread 
orusls and ottier substances, buvo in past times 
boon successively well tested, and yot thoy havo 
all boon forsaken, and tbo uso of ooffeo, [hough 
more costly, resumed. Still it is a question 
whether n cheap, pleasant, and healthful substi- 
tute for coffee may not be found among tho ar- 
tioles suggested, or which may bo suggested, as 
suoh, and WO hope ovary oxpuiimont may fnirly 
and persistently be prosecuted to that ond. 



iTiioLtc Orphah Asylum.— Tho Hon Poler 
lurnatt, of Son JoSo. has donated II va hundred 
dollars to the Catholic Orphan Asylum of San 
Francisco. This is a worthy deed, and deserves 
dl honorable mention. May his oxamplo boom- 
dated by thousands. 

Coat 



considerable 

of gold dust l 

Fargo & Co., < 

agency i 

000. It should bee 



. — By tho omission of <mz figure, 
dilk'reii.'u: w»s made in tbo amount 
unsmitted by tho houso of Wolls, 
i tho 13th nnd 14th of May, Tram 
Marysville. Wo reported §27,. 



§275,000 1 qui 



idlflen 



inoely Domain.— Wo learn from a gaatlo- 

vho arrived by thu last steamer, that tho 

n tho corner of Wlllintu and Wall streets, 

Now York, and the large building tberoon, 50 by 

80, four stories, sold for one million two hundred 

thousand dollars. Wo give it as reported to us. 



Stkamer CoLUsiniA. — The steamer Columbia 
bus mado her ono hundredth trip to nnd from 
Oregon, without loss of lifo or accident. She 

commanded by Capt. Doll. This is honor 

>ugh for ono man. 



Wb givo this wook tho engraving of Royal 
L'lL'Kf. again, <*\th. pedigree, as it is important to 
dairymen to preserve the pedigree of luoh stock. 



THE CALIFO IA FARMER. 



fate' itjartmmt. 



people, and you n 



Wh»M oft in childhnxJ'i i 



1 



Not 



ir lt« 



I lore loiilojonlbo hill 

And m tho can decline, 
ToncmhllillininboTtlisedil then 

{huholv nnildivin*. 
I love to «» He itindon strnieb 



it«r=« 



o pdDllo Mphyra 



Hi jo 



ot for 



Blight bopRiliiptlllnj: fear. 
1 love lo think, loo, I jb»h die— 

Toil bodj woo dray ; 
Tun iplril iball r.ilb Ai'.rrl- llTe, 

And he as bright mUwj. 
To bo wilh Ood, bii preunco feel, 

TbMIUeoipe&coMrcil; 
And then Ibieogh nil etenmj, 

Shall dmll forever bl«t. 
I lore (0 know Ibil T .ball rate! 

Thwe fpirili pan ud bright, 
Tboto <Uwn dent, "jcul fono bofim 

Not robed in "Hrae li.-l.i :" 
The Ihoochl, their claw forcu ner 

So ftltl in Doilh'i etnbrott— 
Their fpiriu hill liotr plnioni Bed 

Within thai ),i-.n eclj i h„ ■: 
Irod cr*nt ilbona fali 



sttbtmlher, 



ulh with ih 



Their ■hlili and cnidot 



TALES OP CLELLAWALLA. 



THE Cruelly w ccbvi] by tbr- Spaniards, mill 
(Willi shame I add) American*, towards the In- 
dians of California, can find liut low jiaridMe ii 
tho history of civilbuitinu. Men, and women 
have been murdered without n pretext, and 
children, hove boon earned by violence, far, fur 
from tkoir " home in tlio wild woods, 
as slaves to a superior moo; a race so maoh 
their superior, that thoy are depris-cd of all the 
social ■;iijiiriniiiilswhii'li r.-Tnl'.-r iinnikin-) I > ■ i 1 ■ | ■ y - 
Among these unfortunata captives was Clella- 
wolla, tho fuirosl and best of her raoo. She bad 
boon tnlion by tho Spaniard*, wbon about ton 
years of age, oiiiJ at tiio tirao'of which I write 
sho had been with the wbilen about two yean. 
Daring which b'inu nh« was never known to 
rmiU: but ovary day she would repair to an oak 
a few hundred yards from tho house, from 
whence could be semi the mountains in the Tar 
Northwest. She would sit and gate in that di- 
rection for hours, while tho tears would folh 
each other, in rapid succession, from hot on 
brilliant bat now sunken eyes. I Iiad oft 
spoken to her of thu couso of her griof, but I 
•oold never elicit a reply ; on th.i contrary, sbt 
would only seem to ory tho more. Bnt once, 
when she bad gone as usual, to Iter uak, I deter- 
mined to follow, and try, in some way, to alle- 
viate hor suffering. I npproouhed hor; but so 
intently reus she looting towards the mountain! 
to tho Northwest, that I stood near hor for sumo 
time, and at length hud my hand on hor eltoul- 
dar, bcXoro she beoomo awnro of my prcseuce. 
"ClobV said I, "you seam to suffer il grout 
deal; will you bo n good girl now, imu toll uiu 
why you ory so maoh 



; own kindred and your own- 
happy, and T hope that you 
" I insisted upon her tolling 
her whole history, which she at length con- 
tented to do, and began as follows : 

■Twas aliout dusk one evening, that all the 

children of our iittle village had gathered as 

usual around tho fire of old Tons, to hear hor 

relate ttoriflB of other years. She had just 

commenced ivilli.— well my children, I will now 

Lellyou once more tho story of Celnbin and— 

she would have said Clita, but just then some 

one entered the hut; I looked around, it wo» 

ray oldest brother— liis face was covered witb 

blood. "Tho Spaniards!" he said, "tho Span- 

s )" and ho fell ou tho floor dead ; yes, he 

dead! All was how confusion and tumult. 

Old T«ib said, came my children, we will now 

to onr hiding place in the rocks, and there 

am wlulo tho warriors defend our bouses 

property. As wo wont forth from the hut, 

mother camo and caught me in her arms ; 

just then, too, tho enemy came in from all sides; 

there was no possibility of an escape. Oni 

in! wore soon overpowered, and we were 

mercy of the Spaniards. One of them 

and caught mo tiy tho arm ; my mother 

ma back; ho took Ins saber and pierced 

bar through the heart, nnd in on instant I was 

covered with the blood of my mother. At the 

name moment, 1 saw another man strike the 

white bead of old Toub. Sty head grow 

dizzy, my limbs gave way, and I became 

ible. 

'Twas daylight nest morning, before I became 
H'lirihlt- nf what was going 
opcopd my oyei and paw (hat I was not nlbume. 
I was ill the on nil- '■!' lb" Spiiniiude. To attempt 
describe my feelings is impossible, every- 
thing that 1 bud overheard about the Sprmirinl, 
•mil AinerHMiii, urn,' iln>lieJ ,itr«st my memory 
lib.- lightning; 1 knew that I should never more 
return to the homo of my childhood. Nor did 
wish to return, for I know there was 
noLhin^- itii're lull tin: mini^li'.l rumoins of my 
kin'lr.'l [jinl my fri. iA~. Tli.- .liililreu, amount- 
ing to about twouty, were nil prisoners like my- 
raistd up iiml i ■ ■• - l n 1 1 1. ' 1 1 ■ .■ i . - 1 l.ilkiiiL.- !•> u:\ 
brother, youuger than myself, who was titling 
watching me. He told mo that alter 1 had 
f.iinlii!, tiny kill,...] nil tlif- mi-n iiml irmnuii Lliul 
thoy could find, and alio (Ac children under 
/out yan of age. Hu said thoy had 
brought us four nr five miles, tho night before, 
and then stopped to camp for the night. While 
talking our captors wore engaged i" 
cooking and curing thoit breakfast. After thoy 
hod finished, thoy gave us some food that thoy 

from the villogi — ' 
murehiug orders, some of our captors going 
oliouii, nnd some behind to ahip up; wo 
foot and they wore mounted, yet wo 
forced to keep up— for every time that a 



hero a little longer. "When morning comes, got 

and travel to the South, and you will find tho 

camp of some hunters; thoy on) gowl ™on- nnd 

will tako care of yoa." Sho said this nnd woa 

gone. When morning oamo ! walked off to Iho 

South, and about noon 1 found tho camp of the 

huntcri. I had one itring of bends, and I made 

that I would give thorn for something to 

ono of tho men gnvo mo gome venison and 

bread, but ho refused to take the bonds, and I 

thorn yot; 'tis Iho only romouibranoor that 

I hBve of my happior dny B . There is nothing 

of interest in tho rest of my story, and heriffiM, 

you know it ns well ns I do myself. 

In the course of our talk, after *ho hud ondod 
her story, I oakfld hor if slio could recollect nny 
tales told hor by old Toub. "AH of them," sho 
I could repeal them all," Would it bo 
asking loo much of you, Clello, said I, to tuik 
you to relate come of those stories to mo, some 
Nothing on earth could give me so 
much pleasure," aho replied, "and if yua are 
willing we will como hero to myoai, to-morrow, 
nod I will toll you the Story of Colabim and 
Clita." I agreed to her proposition, and wo 
retomed homo. MARY. 

[The Stories of Celabim nnd Clilu will soon 
appear, " 





Familiar Places. 










Hear M 


. Editor : How material it is for us 


when we ar 


together to tell of this and that old 


familiar pla 


o—'' at home." No matter where 


that place i 


; only it is not in the boundaries of 



of >• 



California, Ijodge; and an incidental 
a friend, to-night, has brought before n 

too pleasant to lie dormant in my chamber 
of memory, 'lis tile old subool-hauso at homo, 
where my young ideas were first " taught to 
shoot ;" and my early school days nro dancing 
before meso brightly now,! will tell you thespot 
where they passed so joyously. Como 
and 1 will take yoa Mr. Editor, away oil', down 
in Memory's Hall, as far as 1 can see or oven re- 
member to havo seen, to the old brown school 
house (for I, Mr. Editor, like many other niis- 
chiovous children, was sent early lo school to bo 
ont of tho way at homo, of the din of household 
cares — lo tease and torment tbu patient school- 
ma'am), situated on a little hill, with noble old 
tree* around it, of pine, maple, bench and chest- 
nut. Never was there a place more appropriate 
for a school, I have oltcn thought, with Its slop- 
ing hill-sidu, and the quiet babbling brook 
foot; with two solemn, old willows closo by, 
where I hive climbed lo the very top, often anc 
often, to swing as the stind blow thein lo and fro 
This may make some of my city readers &\tiy 
and say how shoukingly vulgar, for girls to climl 
trees i but there in the country ivc had a way or 
oar own, to do as wc were pU-anul, independent uf 
the gossiping tongue of Miss "They Say;" 
don't know how strong and healthy wc 



would get behind wc would get a stripol We don't know what the word ■■sick," or "enjoy 
dsb oar backs with a largo horsewhip. Inlpoor health," means; and we arc as brown as Lh'c 
tho forenoon of the first day little Yojis began sun can make us, and as plump as an apple-dump- 
to gel behind often ; but who wns whipped aud ling. But I am wondering what you will say. 
spurred along until ut length sho could nctunlly I Well, I will come bock to my story, 1 was only 






forthoi 



nibadph.pt 



e that r 



okc," 



Aid, 



raising above the 



mouatiun*, many, many mile* fr.,m here 1 Near 
there, somewhere, is the placu nt which I have 
spent tho few phorl hours of happiness allotted 
to mo on earth. Hut now, my parents ure nlain; 
my brothers and titters nro, 1 know not whoro, 
and I am alono— alono." "But why," sho said, 
"why diaturb yuu in dwelling on my torrows! 



thon abandoned, 
a pray to tho boars and wolve* of the mountains 
Before night, two others wore abandoned in the 
same way ; and bB of us longed Tor night, when 
wo hoped that we would he allowed to rest, anc 
perhaps wo might ileep, for 
the night before. Night 
camped, hut it was many hours before I could 
tleop, and when I did sleep it woa so broken 
and disturbed by frightful drcuma that It was 
not refreshing; on tho contrary, when morning 
camo T was in a high fovor; I was novortho- 
low foroed to begin and continue tho march, 
whibi the whip and spur wore applied with a 
hand that know no mercy.* But nbout ten 
o'clock in tho morning I gave out entirely, 
abandoned to my fate, t had two til 
a brother there, but not ono of them 
ved to bid mo a liut fataetll. 

■'■ day I lay there, with not one irop 
cool my parched lips ; hut as night 
1 fell into a tolerably *ound sleep, and 
uoodud not the bowling of t|ie n,,lf. Tom 
morning little Yodis camo to mo— I saw h 
plum as I now see you ; she caino and sat 

"Ueor Clello," aho said, "1 am freed from 
sorrow* of this earth, I : 
1 are no Spaniards, and 1 
e «f the great 



fwnter.l. 



n going whore 



but you H 






"mwttd nwoaai. An IdbUb -I,; 
.Mpum.anuUniuitlKniniqiirof'H 



telling thein how me country girls, looked. 
licve I was by tho brook when I dropped the 
thread"— or wan I tossing up there in the top 
f those great willows? but I will como down on 
level, and inn along with my brooklet, which, 
a Spring-time, when tho snows are melting, is 
swollen almost lo a river, and as it roars along 
s uorraw b»nks,ovor our mod dams.and whirl- 
ig and foaming under tho bridge, wo thought it 
equal in grandeur to the Niagara wo had read of. 
-Wo wo would floatour brush rafu, well loaded 
lib old pieces of long, half-burned stove wood 
old ball clubs, and broken benches we bad token 
from the school-room to ride down hill on in tho 
inter time. And such skating as, that brook 
afforded the big boys, and ut, too, for wo wore 
often bold by their belts, modo of their woolen 
comforters and coat ekirta-up and down, till our 
prudent parents and shoo leather tax forbade us 
that sport. Thon wo resorted to bits of board 
and benches, till these ono day were scornfully 
wbon I enmo tugging up tho hill 
■'. little sled, all painted red 
stripes ol bluo; a gift o I a dear brother. 
"Snow Belle" was the pride of one winto,, „,, 
least. But the crowning glory of all at our 'old 
scbool-bnu^c was the grand old woods just at tho 
north a few rods, where Bach (lowers' bloomed 
never grew in other woods. Thoy were so sweet 
and came so carly-so me times heforo tht 
was all gone. Ont in particular; we always 
found it by tho large hollow stump, and we calk'd 
it the 'Spring Fairy." It craw 0D , mcal6 



green stalk, and thoy hung from il like tiny bells. 
palo pink color, penciled with delicate 
purplo and white, and were so frail wo coald not 
keep them an hour in our bouquet without Ibeir 
drooping and dying. 

Our noontime rambles were Tar in the depth of 
thoso old woods, where we found such delicate, 
delicious evergreens, blue-berries and whortle- 
berries. A cluster of these often saved us our 
wual ohaHlisemcnt, for keeping " late hours," as 
often deaf (?) to the diuging uf the old 
cracked school-bell. 'Twas there we found the . 
honeysuckle in its deep shades, which we would 
bring in by the armful, and make a jenorn] 
dower-grot of the water pail, and place jt on the 
isty box-stove in the center of the room. How 
uch easier wo could get our lessons, breathing 
le sweet fragrance of those dolicalo wood flow- 
's. You who think a school- ho use comfortable 
i the insido is oil that is required, know not the 
happiness those shady woods, mnrmuring stream 
and bright, beautiful flowers added to our cbild- 
lood years. But I will toll you of tho inside by 
.odby, after I tell you of our baby houses and 
jardens j how we made them id tho pannels of 
tho fences, under the shady trees, and covered 
illl bushes brought from the woods ; the 
aprons and baskets ol moss so bright and greau, 
to carpet them, and decorated them wilh shells, 
oken biLi of China and glass. 
Never yet, Mr. Editor, havo I seen tbi- like to 
compare with our mossy dell, wilh its shells and 
, The Crystal Palace could not compare 
as it thon looked in the beautiful works 
childish hands. And gardens! why, it 
makes my mouth water, in these dry, dusty 
imes, to think haw beautiful and fresh they 
.ero; how rank our beans and corn grow. We 
id not raise onions, for they made our oyoe 

But never shall I forget ono morning, when wc 
imo to school an hour earlier than usual, to 
Dmplelc some work our afternoon's verses tho 
day before would not let us finish, to find our 
house and garden turned up-side down, and in- 
side out by a great, spotted, black and white 
beast j- I will not say hog, for that will, or might, 
offend some who may mo this, and may bo partial 
to the race ; but I shall ever remember how hate- 
ful it looked, and t have sworn vengeance on the 
whole race ever since. But, oh ! how wc did 
work lo arrange and re-arrange, to pick op and 
plant over— but wc came " loo late" fur the good 
ol our garden. 

Tim hot morning's sun was too melting for our 
delicate plants, that were reared in tho shade; 
they drooped, withered oud died— and with it 
well-nigh all my happiness ; for at noon-lime— 
tho best part of iho day — wc were obliged tOBlay 
in, learn a half-said grammar lesson— and then I 

hated Mr. Kerkim ns I hated the hog— for 

there our vegolables were, half in the hot sun, 

slowly dying, while wo were learning to conjugate 

tho verb '' lo love," and it Reams to mo that I 

havo never learned lo appreciate the word since. 

The insido of our school house was not so pleas- 

t to me os tho outside; but every inch, could 

talk, would tell ninny a Tunny thing. It had 

'0 long desks, reaching Trem north to south, 

ith high benches. Under these desks were 

shelves, and these were used to deposit on wax 

made of the pitch of pine trees, our apples and 

eatables. Thoso desks and benches have proten 

the lest of many a new knifo. Thoro is not a 

inch hut that haa more or less clippings. 

Tho walls above were perfectly dotted with paper 

balls, where we used to snap at a mark whenonr 

teachers back was towards us. And tho dork 

closet— Oh, I shudder now when 1 think [of the 

terror in which 1 once held it. I was never putin. 

here but once, and thought then if I escaped to 

ioo the light of day with my lifc, ji WO uld bo tbo 

last time I would honor it with my personal pres- 

Zr\ wb£ y v' h -r. y OIpw,od ,n y b »l p »«»» 

-urn whue while 1 was there; hut to ray iov 

ivbenl came out .u.U.li,!,,. ,,,,„, j. w ™ £> 
Handing umaiuill;/ itrni.'ht or one whit «,-), ir« 
And these fancy skKd,,, i„ t|„ ,„[rj ' wer ■' 



!VJu:(.;il. I 



"Jill 



■u.,ii\. 



■'iJin.ih.- 
rulo. 11 it 

Jutl fear 



many other thing, ..^hu'.l-li u'll'ofiliatbnvil. 
beautiful spot of earth, !,„! | ■„,, ' J ' 

-' '-«■» « -tone already. BuThoT delight, 
,„ T? ?°, okfi < "? lv 1 "" i than, when 



my tetter 

[he carder remarksV dear'ftiends of , 
backwards to re-visit and dwell upon tW? early 
01 some or iiiy ti.-ri ■.-Ut- rs. Tin. re |., ., „(„„ ];„) 

Katie Kino. 



ALlFOi. 



Causes of Fomnle Del 
hours in which tho great ui-. 
tbii mothers and housekeepers uio irvu , <- " • 
iro, rind can go forth tn breathe the pure colors 
join in social amusements, ns h so com- 1 timos 
other nations, com.' few and fur between. ' prumi 
i add all tho mischief done by impure air, to uh. 
or food und neglect of th - ' 



■ .tlii-i 



Bu 



mil, I. -1 ;;itr- 



by tight girding, hootod 

mouts, pressed downward by whalebones, u„u 
by heavy skirts resting over tho most delicate 
organs. Into our rural towns, cvon, these por- 
uioioii^ tustoui.-i of drops luivo boon enrrio'1 by 
mantua-matcri- from (ho city, nod still more by 
the miserable fre-hion-plutes in our literature, 
that sot forth (ho distortion.- of doforniity and 
disease as model.'' nf ln-le ami fashion. In 
zing the industrial clns; 



labor ( 



are nij "Hoi life roes" or "Xoii- 
tnoy evor so good looting; tlioy 
.'ouio in, for wo tdl worship tho brighter 
of life, emblemed by Hopo, of "better 
coming:" and wo worship that "bow of 
e" which aot in our heaven, is "all of life 
1 So if Bessie wishes a closer commu- 
nion with each or all this glorious group, lot 

an envelop of ivlnr... ■_!■■■"■ with tl Iniiinie bin. 

ribhim," hulil lu-t [In' (I ;ht- of " Bessie b 

to Ah'ce." Wo will in nil honor nnd duty, a. 
careful jingo, see it convoyed to tho rightfu 
owner, and thus that tnlismnnio word "opoi 
sesame" makes (hem known to each other- 
hearts, that like twin lutes, arc tuned nliko ti 
hnniiuny and beauty. 

Wo hnvo conued over oil tho pretty words of 
Bessie, about our fair corresponded ' 
can only say, there is in the vario 
pluiaei nsometh" 



>e found tha 
i the brain of 



the 



aofoi 



■mbitiui 
plBns of labor and wealth with their 

vhile at (he Minn 1 liini- their iliin^liler.- 
icnt to boarding. school, and all the 
: tastes of city lifo must, " 

mingled with other cares. The great 
if the American women have- their 

nervous system exhausted by too 
tal excitement in their daily dutk 
her class, who livu to be waited 
1, nro as great sufferers for want 
ay object in life, or from excess 
osoment. Next, there noverhns boon 
in- generation of children who hovo 
■.teusivelv deprived of pure, eool air 

■..liuul.r'.M.iHiin.l parlor an Hull, iiov,- 
;e. Tbodr-tightstovosin bed-rooms, 
g stoves in kitchens, the close stoves 
ooms, and the far greater care taken 
ndows and doors tight, havo secured 
Thon tlio funiacos that arc so gon- 
. keep the atmosphere of a house far 
in it over becomes so heated as when 

is to lie gained from tin.' surrounding 
I. And us the upper part of tho 
ways warmest, both sieves and fur- 
, tho head warmer than the feot, and 



,v like 



ndw 



. fall . 



that erusty, envious nnd ji 
is— what did you call him, Bessie .' that "P 
'■en ill.' An i- -['■■■mi mini !'■ — so miserable that 
'l"ii'' like to niuko folks unhappy. So wp i 
irhn-jirr von. Minielime, what wo mean. If 
don't --.pn.k it right „ u t ; so farewell, Uossie, I 
remember, von are no longer pr,-srril,tJ—\ 
great ruler of Europe, Xupolenn, 1ms granl 
an amnesty, forgiven all who hove tinned 

against the Empire, restored them to fhtno 

fortune ; and, like them, shall you be welcomed 
"to tho unarming group of sisters." 

[This wok intended ns the answer for Be; 
introductory, which appeared in No. J8, but 
unfortunately mislaid by tho printoi ' 
bsetieo. — En.] 





d h 


mted 1 


ilt 


r than ever 00 


...- in former do 




At th 






crowded with 






wh 






UI 






initiated with 


ellec-tuB-Wri Us 


and 




<*m 


olives to oxorti 



lofiir,., th,. 

n-reis" .11.11 






bring distorliot 
and disease nro assumed. In England, tin 
higher classes rarely send a daughter to a hoard- 
i ii g- school, hut puri'iil." secure teachers lo edu- 
cate them at home, and take tho greatest paint 
to Bccure a healthy and perfect physical devel- 
opment- But iu thin country, the greater por 
Hon of the wealthy classes semi their daughter 
at the must critical age. to bo close packed, ii 
ill-ventilated (-bomber* and school-rooms, by- 
night and by day, whiln ull physical training is 
neglected, mid the brain and nprves aro stimu- 
lated by inttllooluol activity. Twenty years 
ago, a distinguished medical man gave it r" l "~ 
opinion '.lint t. n ,j .t.iv ■■: -in. . .1 [■iris hurl 
or less of tin- curvature of tlio spine. A still 
more terriSc deformity than this is now added, 
as the result cf our miserable neglect and abut 
of the yojng. 

To Bl . I 

Limb the fregraut aad modest violet that i 
unostentatiously greets us as wo arc roaming 
o'er a flowery field, filled with tho bright, thi 
beautiful and the most trcaaured gems of Flora' 
fair world, so comes tho modest but wolcomi 
greeting of fair nnd gentlo " Bessie," among 
the group of happy and joyous spirits that 
weekly gather around tho nllnr of the Ladies' 
Deportment uf the Calikjhma Farubr. And 
however unasiuiniug Baa*ie may be, wo know 
■lie is as welcomo to tho circle, and to all who 
assemble there, as bur own kind spirit would 
wish. Vos, Bessie, you havo truly named tho 
group as liken "picnic," nnd 'lis a glorious one, 
loo, for those that moot there are congenial 
Spirits; and thus may it nil he iimihine there, 
not a discordant clement * end ns you say of an 
old hoobolor, 6-j-in t u ■.., a spirit led this way, 
why, like tho splendor of a genial sun upon tho 
ioiole, so he molts away and becomes as it "ilow 
drop," wishing be too might ho claimed by sumo 
fair flower, so ho could "nourish it as his own." 
So yon bio right, too, Be*sio, in another guess 



Tender and gentlo as tha dure, 
Mail nhot his tulow, night and day, 
Foreonllkta nitb. tbo birdi or jircy 7 



And whoso bends hli m 



To minirlij pica 
Thai If nitti mi 
With ffomin n 



And n.]ftb.e ttrrewi I bare f 
Hovo by my brutbor man bei 
And alt the ills I biro end in, 
lly inoB iofltcled, woinaa our 
Tbo glovs froto uion to nun, 



>1 Ftiondiblp bcor tho wood ; 
■. ! l..™ J >mi f I eff U.« 



he made parlieular remtenee to the eveot which 
bnd just transpired in San Francisco. A: 
stract of the discourse'is given by tha Maryl 
Herald, tho following portion or which we deem 
well worthy of attention : 

"Chiefly in his rep reseuta live character does 
Mr. King possess thai kind of importance which 
entitles him It. public cji.^k-mlion. Ilewisno" 
learned, Or classical, or profound. or brillMiit; bu 
he was honest, earnest, unliring. lie stood upni 
tho uprising pyramid which n lew men bnd toilei 
to build, and stood there bravely and nobly. Hi 
wns great in the conscientious frankness ol n true 
man. Ho had become tbo point of tho angle ii 
which good eiti/.'ii.'.liip was ueir.jliin- b) eneoiiu 
i'.r ti'i'l i.ili/enship. 
J. P. Cawy has also a representative chnractei 
the innin tal nance of which hopes and fears of 
!ry vilo person are involved. He may havo 
been actuated by malice to act as tho murderous 
tool of Imd men ; hut no degree of personal ani- 
ity could have caused that wretched ennvict 
ndortake the murdci of Mr. Kiug, without 
id official backers. Wben he aimed 
nt the heart or King etery lillian in the land 
helped to steady his hand ; nnd when tho brave 
man reeled and fell, every nUIi-iii believed, not 
thot Casey, the convict, bud assassinated King 
tlio cili/.en. but thai ruffianism had triumphed 
over right, and public sin had slain its boldest 



. C. fai. o6 ». Recognizing tho Importance 

I a leclure in Marys- Cf a central Organ as a medium through which 
he Times," in which 'he Officers of the State .Agricultural Societv 



e fervid ]<ro 



of faithful Ic 



Valuauli: Bible.— At a recentsalo in England 
of the library of a deceased gentleman named 
John Albinson, Ronton, s Bible was sold, which 
cost originally, with the oak cabinet containing 
it, the sum of four thousand guineas. It was 

sold under the liaii r for five hundred and fifty 

pounds sierlini;. L eun.sisted of lorty-Gvo vols., 
elegantly bound, and illustrated by at least six 
thou.Mii'l engravings, eicculed by about sii hun- 
dred or the nio-it 'i:Mir;ik,l engravers:, and from 
orks Of eminent arttsta from tho year 14B0 
o lime of iu, ei>ni[ilelion. Mr. Bowycr, a 
[jubli-ihcr, euuiiueiiced the work of gelling up this 
edition of the Bible in London in the year 180U, 
and spent more 111 an twenty-four year at it. FIc 
produced two folio copies, one or which is in the 
" itish Museum, in seven volumes. It does not 
.tain tho engravings mentioned, but the mag- 
ci'in.-e uf iw priming, illuminating, binding, 
. makes il n euriosity. The oilier i:op_y i- Un- 
sold us above stated. The cost of the co- 
vings was £3,300. It is container! iu a richly 
ved antique oak cabinet which cost £[50, 
This r-plenilid work is known by the name of the 
liowycr Bible. 

A PltlltNli of Cuvier once luiik tbo burns mid 
loofs of uu oi and approaohud tho bedside of 
the great naturalist, and awakening him from n 
— id sleep, announced himself us tho devil who 
.. come to ent him. Cuvier rubbed his eyes, 
and glanced at tlio nuudesoript from horns to 
hoofs, when ho lay down and quietly remarked, 
" Horns, hoofs — graminivorous — oat gTasa — 
ni'l 'Mm.. i| . go away." 



Among the most mortifying facta iueonnci 
ith the deed of blood, is Ihis, that such a > 
ire as Casey had been left under tbo hallm 

on of believing that he had a reputation It 

fend. How happened a graduate of Sing Sing, 

who has made "-invu Icr |irolieu'iii L v in erime siiiri 

is release from durance, tu claim lo possess : 

ipulation capable or defense'; Who gave hiui i 

temporary importance in society ? Let poll 

ticians, whose lool bo was, answer. But for tin 

interested favor which tboy showed him, hi 

would never havo walked tho streets by daylight. 

If the poor, debased lool deserves lo be beaten 

wilh the rods, tbo calculating principals should 

bo flayed with scorpions. 

Tho revolting attempt at extenuating tho r, 

ir, by publishing thai the assassin said, ' D 

and defend yourself,' before shooting down 

victim, reveals a profound depi jvity of both bead 

and heart. Thos* pjientous words would hovo 

changed a black assassination into a chivalrous 

an.] Ii..[i-.r;iblt- act. 

Doubtless, current rumors are esaggo rated ; but 
must strike every mind as Miani;,'. ili.a uili. ,-r . 
m arc ready on the instant lo arrest Casey, did 
t chance lo observe his condoet in time to pre- 
nt the murder ; and strange still that when he 
is arrested and hurried away to tho station- 
house, his weapons were not taken from him; and 
strangest of all that he was suffered to carry a 
revolver in either hand while the Marshal and 
s posse were removing him to tho prison. 
Tho peopla confer authority upon certain re- 
nresentatjvcs. to ■porftwm -^rtoiTr-fmicitons. - "A 
murderer is arrested. The people cannot fail to 
reflect that the uflkers into u lie-..' hands the mur- 
derer will fall ore his friends and bosom com- 
panions. By conferring authority upon agenls, 
the people do not divest themselves or the right 
lo inquire whether ami limv ihe-... agents are exe- 
cuting their will. When it becomes apparent 
that representatives are laboring to defeat tho 
purpose Tor which they were originally employed, 
tho right to execute that purpose reverts to tho 
people. Hence il has generally been conceded 
that if n hereditary monarch, even, violates the 
constitution and taws of his realm, he ought to be 
disobeyed and opposed. In such a case, the ex- 
ercise of popular jin.lke, ivliieh is indiscriiniuati-lv 
stigmotUed os 'mob law,' is jus I i liable, ludeed, 
tho peoplo remain the only solemn court, while 
tho magistracy, by a sorrowful contradiction, con- 
stitute the real mob tribunal. 

A serious practical questiou is like to force it- 
self upon us, growing out of Hie probable ueli 
of the citizens of Han Francisco. To oieci 
L'asey and Corn were only lo leave two less mi 
derers in community. The least thai ought 
L... done is, lo correct tho loathsome politic). 
ivlii.-li feeds anil employs a brood of viimpir 
Tho least that will bo done, it is prulmbli:. is 
io manner to drive out Iho refuse populati 
Jur metropolis, nnd to disco unteuance the 
itched iicwspopcrs which have prostituted 
mselves for the defense of villainy. But where 
shall tborefogees from San Francisco lind a retroaL? 
^o me will embark for the Atlantic States to 
k a more congenial dime ; others will hasten 
the capital, where the blind goddess is sup- 
posed to dispense even handed justice from tho 
supreme bench; and others still will steal into 
Mnrysville, like the pestilence that wolkelh in 
darkness. And what are we to do 7 Doubtless, 
San Francisco has a right to expel tho hungry 
brood which have consumed her prosperity and 
oaten up her very Streets and sidewalks. But 
can we alfon! to take her thieves and ass 
off her hands! Paupers from Europe ar 
— Mgh, but paupers from purlieus of polltii 
ityat homo arc insupportable. Would 
n innocent precaution lo put oursolves 
.udo of self-defense I Who en assure u 
the tragedy of San Francisco shall not bo en no Led 
hero? To be well prepared is the best mode of 
preventing tho excesses of passion mid the eft'u 
uf blood. 



. ith the Agricaf- 
tural population, and regarding llie Oalifobnu. 
F.tHsiEn as best adapted for ihis purpose (it being 
the only well-established agricultural paper in 
the State, having a general rather than a local 
circulation) we heartily commend the same t» ' 
tho support of:ill persons .in; i ij.-il in agricultural 
or industrial pursuits. 



j5S"By vole of tho Executive Committee of 
the California Stale Agricultural Society, Col. 
Warren, of the Cai.ipobnia Pahmeb, is an au- 
thorized Agent for tho salo or Certificates or 
Membership for theyear beginning June 3d, 1856. 
Of him, or from either of the undersigned raem- 
: of tho Executive I'emmiLU'';, Certificates may 
iny time be ulii nin-i. hv (lie piymentof leu 
irs. The treasury being empty, tho Execu- 
Comtnittee appeal to the friends of tho So- 
ciety throughout Iho Stale-Hid especially to those 
who purpose to exhibit articles at tho coming 
Fair, to relieve their embarrassment and to afford 
them the means with which to meet the con- 
in t[y accruing expenses. 
As the State Premium fand is entirely devoler 
to the payment of premiums, aad to no othop 
object whatsoever, we can devise no other method 
by which to meet Iho immediate demands upon 
:, than the one above proposed. 

E. L. Beatio. President. 
EliCohwin, Recording Secretary. 



•;■< 1 1 lorn In AgmiU. 
.-,,■.,-- p.-.l.t.lfie,. San FraneUca. 
...■'^'■'^''l^.V..' " 



it* arc rreared—OJitr, aa WiihingUrr. 



aiian, KltfrrtJirc Svbicrtftlm, far till 



wit™ 






^ ,",:'. 'i -Vi-'i'." !' Ti 



le mill II. rt..' .ml |irnu''"'. 
I l.nn In ■iiL'..:rj|.|iij lor ■■ill 






l-e^'n'un 



S 111. -j- .11^ -^1,1. ll,,y are Li'lJ rr*]>l'll. 
ir t,UJ mill ;t™ no i} M [q OlKuDiJnDs 






N*i ohnraotor is more glorious, nouo mors at- 
lotivo of universal admiration and respoot 

than that of helping tboso who ore in no condi- 

"*" to help thflmBelrea. 



!!,--!■■ ■! -:■■■''. UI..I ;■,',:. II, i! .,. :' in ■:..- ' .ji.'rn 



imS 



laa, < i: .. CALTFOR- 









AW 



-Wo i 



ny kind ihm 



iio are engaged in business or 
.' desire to make known cxtoti- 
tho class or advertiser.-; in our 
inins. Wo believo Tew journals on the Pacific 
it can prcscut so valuable an array or the 
t prominent houses, and in the several most 
orlanl departments or trade and commerce. 
columns speak well (or the mercantile, me- 
ideal, nnd manufacturing iudustry of Califor- 
and the many thousand copies Ibat we scat- 
broadcast over our great State, gives an op- 
uliiiy in line-.' who de.-iie tu have their busi- 
.' known widely, a medium by which this can 
ceomplishcd. 



Leather Hose for Hydraulic Washing. 

nun n.- .„,i si, T..I... n: ■„ ^__.r__ 



F 

d'iuU» r 



Ti. 



CALIFOBNIA FAR* 



. irTU E TELMRAPH C.BLt *CB058 



rm ,".i.i*;..ii--' , * ; ;^;; 

■oboid of t»-,. ,'■"■-' i-'; ,v;l ','".!„ „ 



SOMETHING 



i^lTM^RS. ATTENTION! 

WORTH LOOKING ATM 



BROADCAST GRAIN SOWER 




the fills as measured, is -J<N leu- »" ^ 

TtojLi*. of old Sir link, or ih.M wta Uto 

deriol freaks of '_ 

SusKKSiOMS-Tbo Calaveras Chronicle, for 

while it least; Iho George lorrn Ne", tan 

of support. We always regret ir> hear of II 
our <ttlemporar.es, especially 

those that labor hard and with guceral approval. 

The latter paper we believe nan generally ap- 

prated; the former ran tga1i.it wind and tide, 

i. e. as it appears. 

Wao-om Road.— A convention of the citizens 
of Calaveras, San Joaquin Tuolumne am] Aula- 1 
dor counties, was to b. held at Murphy s, Cala- 
veras county on May Mill, for the purpose of 
maturing plans and devising mean, (■■< -i-.-nir,-.: 
the <ragon route from Carson Valley to the "Big 
Tree." 



Went;' miles ni.rtheast of Shnsto; 
ported of good quality. 



a Warhes: Hero I am Again in 
Francisco, just in season to miss the c« 

t 11tl( _5 ,-,{ lhn past week, although I havo 
them in reality at Vance's Daguerrean Rooms, 
if Montgomery 



,..,„. ....j and Sacramento streets, 
s shown a number of splendid 
of the principal 



them that of thi 
eiccTlioii',and"o »iai of liic church at the time 

of ihc t.r^-e-iiiui.'.- living. 

The .-l.liging proprietor also had the kindness 
to show me Ihrongh his splendid galley, which 
isnovf Qllder E (.iii?in-i.-.iliri.pr.n..irinitsand addi- 
,„.n- p.. paral-rv !■. i nt r- -iii--i n^ < utling » Patent 
\, ',r.,i-.|-, |.-. ti;, |,.>l.!i.-. ivhicli -tllti'l l.icl«K« 
„iH I think entirely auperce-.e Hie old style ur. 
plate, .:,|K.-na!ly in h,& pieturc-i, as : I .Hunk it 
U,o,.nl,l< for tlicm to he destroyed by ago. or 
otherwise. 1 »« sboirn Eomo of the Ambro- 
i V r.e.:. fn-m -null ii» hh -i'A 1 '' ll,tl ' a,c the most 

,■,.]. „.]„i |.„:luf.sl eve. k-.w. ii> Iianev of l(.i.. 

and in the per It. tiK-ss -if ligtia and sliad.-, which 
tar surpass the finest engraving. 

Ihe pictures taken by Mr. Vance I am in 
formed are taken at no other place in ralifornia 
as ho has at pent eii-.n- i,iii..-lis.-ed the j-aleiil 
right fur this State, and docs not intend to sell 
ri%i>. until lie gels them fairly introduced, when 
he will tell riclm lot lonn; or counties. 

When 1 qomiiieii..-;.!, 1 did ii'H Ihiuk of expa- 
tiating so largely on Mr. Vance's Rooms, but the 
many litaotilul things 1 saw have led me on, and 
1 could tirive .'till more in-1 Ihtn not tell half, so 
I will close anil neit time endeavor to givu you 
SODNlflitiE in " different line. 

Send along my last number of the Famieb,!** 
I should he almost lost without it. 

Yours truly, B. 

Sin FrmatlAco, H.v M, IBM. 

Wo are most happy to indorso the description 
our correspondent has given of Vance's Gallery. 
It is indeed a Gallery of Ail, and the new fur- 
nishing it 15 now receiving will make it the most 
beautiful resort in California, and wc can say ir 
truth, Mr. Vance deserves high praise for his 
deration to his art and the beautiful display he 

preparing for the public. 

A Cube ron Asthma.— There arc many well 
attested cases of cures of this distressing com. 
plaint hy the use el the Wild Cherry as com 
Dined hy Ur. Wis tar, in Im famous Lough Bal- 
sam which medicinu has achieved a world-wldi 
reputation. 



75,000 


Plour Bh-, 
Heavy D 


ckSap, 


.liable f* 


ih^irlofi Uriln 


1^-B.i.n 


every dm 


■ipUaaro 


Dtaaujo 


li.n.i . = <! „i.J. 


Sir 


Z\l"Ti 


n tod Miller., nbilns Suit, "U 
ST. kit STEAM BAG HCTOR1. 



iV •&*! 






AORICULTfjaAL STORE. 

FARMING IMFLEMKNTSufa 

tMbiUIIos, in ran, of Iho follomDe («kU, 

Cradlei, (all kiudf) ; 

R:,l:.... Hay U"k«, Harden 11iiIk.ii 1i»«>-'. 
, :eo I,, -,-.(.. i.W-' l.ri.Li), stnt.'l... 
uraio ccoop., KanLii.-: Mill, (fill i-.uil ; 
Wb-'H ■"■..-.'■ ' -t. .1 i- ,1, .i,:,1,-u .r,i lir,-; l;,.ri..«..; 
Hi i'ti..in., Tmtt rti..in>, Broait "' ' 

„.u-OiC»H..r- " 
iv« fc - 



" THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN, 
T>l"ll[,[.^llB|i »i Alt'jr.y, N V, bj Lcinio Teen 
1 iSon.lilbolilloor IhoDtFT AoKlci'LJt'mi. t 
IlOKTicui.TBItAi, JonasAi In Ibe UolladSlairj. In d 
■'■■"■"'. ' ■"" I'";" : "' U'"-»l iiN| r-.v.-u,. i.'.^i_'i := lt 
™of*'a°v eirnilar jCrnTln Lho wantrr-ttiAfKi 
•bat ni oiber papar doat, Inutiattb (■■' 'Ij..- Sm 
Ibo llmiior, Tlio Lloin, Tin- Ht,rtifiiltari.(, Tim 1-1 f r 
Tbo KileOfD li»rdtn. 'fb» Wlr| YarJ. 4c, **, . 
Speclol Conlribnton for Ibo (oseral deiarlmrnlj, am 

tnuDlhewjulijteUiiithi'TJnl'jn. Th« aim orila odt 
hubeontaa.liir.lllioCv, 



11..]- f-r::-, 



.,,, c,.i . M,i' : - .■■■!.. II. .. I h ■ 
, Pour, Sii and Ei«hl Horiu; urajo, 
., . Bow (ISiaod'ifo.), CollW Aim, 

Nailn (...hi CI..I.T brand), llritnllUneB [all 



imm toatb, PI. 
'MhiBijliia ■ 



.to l> (a 

p Urn Hoc, far >•)< 
LI AliTillK, 



CURE YOUR HORSES! 



Dr. BaJd's Muiicrn Horse Doctor, 



11« nclliHj Ibo [•!• 

A uju;b oi-ia tliorlcbl dl 
nncb of loiuiln- Tbilt 
AWful.ttitjhaxiabDodii 
ribo Unlicd Staloi, a ton 

From thaFioibleatof o 
■oeicUei— "Tbo CouaUi I 
Hid of Ibo Arricuilurnl .1 

Tbo Hon. John Wenlwer 



''' "'"''{' 'i{' ui ?.Xl"'u '' i'\]il'-\ r V vs 1| '" 1 ' ,, ■ l,, ■'■. ■' '■■■■'■ 'i ■ 



./ (S.i!«h)- M'l ■-.' 

i! Wujdj, S«i afilop, Saam 

-. HJ1I111..I 'i.n il.y l.ir Uui.in '"J- 
no epifnfl tad Sip Jim City, ap lh- 

,n loae, d-liy, "i i 0'e'«* *: «... "- 
no for ll,- IS «'cli«li boat lor fiau 

mil S mi In Crui Llna 

I.IJI0H7 i^oij d>j nl f>4 n'clnci «. ». 
Uula Cnu, dallj, louacelias uriUi UV 

C. MeOLAUailLlN. Propriaor 



'MuhB-Wiii 






,i Hi 



i M. C„ of Illinoi-, i 
I av.sm aen fane, iaji— "Thii 
Hi but Aerkullaral l'«i»r io 

riiD.iaii— "IvaloalhorjoBolrTfJ 

(h™ itow I™ .■™rBa'lf(?nln'»lli< 

uraban Hill bo loot W allwbo *.„. 

c ,ll,.16|...i,- t -.| U aTU.,^»2p t rToar. 
.at to Ihc PoolUhcn by mall, at Ibtlr 



THE CULTIVATOR. 

Kf Monthlj.J: ]:.,■■■■ ■■I.v, ill:,.-,.:, 

o rtan, ulbe bt<l M. mbli AcncuUur. 
i= .•..inir,-|.rkcHle.oUpcij.ar,iioo« 



! ..1..T (UunWr Athculluml Wuflu., u !ol] u «j : 
Till: l)I^KASt:S Of IHJMKMIi.' AM'IAI.a. 

T BOOK. Price M copu. 
OAIUIKNLIIS' TKXT BOOK. 

WEILS. I'rftclSccm*. 
i.i.S.-TI'.UIiriUH OF QltEEH- 



r A ,':■': 



cam. Fiao Bosk Pap 



Illutsiraleil Annual Begisicr of Rural Affairs. 

TlloTunNumbtu irmt.!. fnr I&S5 and IK-ii c-nUli. 

..„= ll,.., Hi r,.,:,-...i,i, f .. . I IloUdLnc, Aiiu.il.. 'I ,. ,-, 
■■■■■■' ','■ "■'■■■ =-= = " .---=:-=-= :„' 

IForll, 10Btbfni.il, jou ™ r.rl.,. I !,u, -.;... r („r 

■ j.»r, .odil... ir.„ ;,,,,. ,1.,,-, ,.[,!,. i;,.-i,i cr , 
Addreii, LtiUKlt TITKUlt A. SUN. 



:l. I...M.I-. i. , .|. :.i,.| l.:ii t r l'.i|..:r, .,[„! I,i -iul ...| v 

'led Nnu [i.t, i-.^lliir r.iili ,, I:,,,.,, .[,..■!: .,| -J.,,- 

.Ll.'n.i.i, . I J.. 'I I -i-.i-y J- 1 . "1 vi--. I'i-;iii '.-■■in, ■.!,'. S.ii.Fuandirr, 
Auo— Boo and ItBiflo'i FrinUo C and Job Pimoi 



Cidifonnu Steam Hovigatioii Company. 

TIIE fo.1 aod tnlendid lofr pre»ar» 
la.mcraSEW WOftl.H ..i,d AMKI.0['K 
i.lmmaio day. fur Sak ir«AMci3eo, »tj 

r.. r .i i. ■(..fK.lmal. 

M:w IIMIll.H. - .-...frrif.ur, MlAlvr, will 
luy. Jhi.r Ijv ..n.i^:.l.i.Ji. T 

„,r AMl'.l.Di'K. B. A I'oulo, Mailer, olU 

lfiivo.,11 MitlIij, "'■. .I„n....| K.id.iv 

]!,.. .,..,■„ i II l r r..-: Hl.:.-l.l:V I I' M -." I, .. ■( ■-.L-:-. 
— ler, ovciT Sunday, a t 2 o'cl oek r. ■■ 

For Murj'STiUe and Iatarmodiato Landings 
. n.nr . l.l.iil'.VlUA, YY. It. Taylor, Mojier, wi 

,.■].,, I iv. Tbur l'iv Ji.-I S,..i V .|,s ; .mil ( 

.tin,,. WlV llANA. W • -i-j.jii.iiT-, Mailer, »l"H 

lotivo Monday, Welni-luy .in .1 l-'ridny, nl J o'cloek A. S. . 

For Colui.i, Bid Blufft and Intinnedinte Landing). 

'Mil, ,i,..,i„.t. bA.M -Hi l.i:,ii V ll- .In, M. .•!,,-, mi.1 
i;i]M, M l.iiikli.ii, M.i-.t.ir. "ill l.-:i-.i ior Iho oboi; 
mod plocoa en T.i- 1..;. I hur-Jiy ml Saturday, at i 
luck a. 11 , from the itoraihlp Anlilnj™. 

For frol.ht or puinee by any of lho abovo boaU, a|.pU 

l..-,,„i, ,„ ,i. i in, ,.ui.,. ,,[ ii„. r ,n(,,r„i:, -iioau, Kailita- 

V5-™""'' *' ° A*. 'itEDINflTON, A B e»<- 



J", 



To the Ladies! 



Audubon's Birds. 



BETH W. f>WI,t .'. ' ". 
ProcrWw™. f.-.UIj il.-ii ■.. 
Apul lor B»<™ib«iio— C * 



i. FARJfliR, >i Sodaiy 



Great AmehDan Water Lily. 

T^ c ^™'.^i;„ ri ij;s'io J eij°^ l r'' ci 



N. K WILKlMliON, 
CIIA?. IV STOSE 

ill.vll.i.f,.,., ofWIIbln.oi 

>y lbs uad(nl|iiEd, la Id 



Jltoodrj, II Co. 



it in I 



iinaiKuy, i, 



l,AliII>' LfKE.*. 

l -"' 1 '- ■■'■■' '.HI I. UK!. V>' i.'Li'.llllMi, I.AI.H-- 
l.Ull.-.-i TUIMMl.Ml.s, lil.nll^ lt , „ v , r , „.Juc;0 
'— Erory Lady li invlltd locall and o.apiiou ow 
' ■— puichn)eg alunbirD. 

D. HORCIU.^- 5 . 
1M Eacranieota alrect, ubuva MumpunofT- ' 



joodii btforo 



TJ. I